Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A history of the extension and adult education services of the University of British Columbia, 1915-… Selman, Gordon R. 1963

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata


831-UBC_1963_A8 S3 H4.pdf [ 26.54MB ]
JSON: 831-1.0107137.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0107137-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0107137-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0107137-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0107137-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0107137-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0107137-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

HISTORY OF THE EXTENSION AND ADULT EDUCATION SERVICES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1915  TO 1955  by  GORDON R. SEIMM B.A. , The University of British Columbia, 19^9  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFIIMENT 0FTHE REQUIREMENTS FOB THE DEGREE OF Master of Arts in the Department of History  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1963  ABSTRACT :The object of this study is to trace the development of the extension services offered by the. University of British Columbia from its founding in 1915 until the end of the program year 195^-55* The first chapter summarizes some of the outstanding feat-ares of the history of adult education and more particularly of university extension as it has' developed in the United Kingdom, the United States of America and Canada. Chapter II describes the experience with extension activities at U.B.C. up to 1933, the year in which the Carnegie Corporation offered a grant "which made It possible to expand these activities significantly. The important formative years between the offer of the grant and the appointment of a, full-time director of extension activities in 1936 are dealt with in Chapter III. Chapters IV to VIII describe the various extension services offered by the University between 1936 and 1955*  Chapter TV deals  with Vocational Education; Chapter V with Evening Classes, Lectures and Credit Courses; Chapter VI with Social Education; Chapter VII with Pine Arts and Bummer School; and Chapter VIII with Audio-Visual, Library and Radio Services. The final chapter summarizes the general development of the Extension Department and examines some of the factors influencing that development. There were two main problems involved in writing this study. .The first of these was to acquire the factual information concerning the development of Extension services. This proved to be a difficult task because of the gaps in the records available. Correspondence and interviews with persons involved over the years and other means were used in order to gather this information. Some questions remain unanswered. The other problem was to identify and evaluate the relative importance of the various factors which have influenced the growth  iii of the Extension program. An attempt; has been made to do this especially in the second, third and last chapters. Some of these factors include: the desire for better public relations on the part of the University; the attitude of the University Presidents and others concerning, the relative importance of extension work; the abilities, understanding and degree of commitment of the three directors of the Extension Department; the resources which were available at different times to develop aspects of the work (such as the Carnegie grant and the federal government funds for certain activities); economic and social Conditions in the province; and "'the characteristics of the staff employed by the Department since its creation in 1936. The attempt to trace and to understand the development of extension services at the University of British Columbia is felt to be of particular significance because the Extension program of this University became during this period one of the most outstanding in Canada.  :  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of  the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Cpiumhiaj I, agreV that the 'Eihrary .shall make it; freely available.for referehc^ and study.  I further agree that per-  mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly - purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. understood. that copying, or publi-  cation of . this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission...  Department of The University of.British Columbia. Vancouver 8, Canada. •. Date  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page .ABSTRACT •  3.3.  LIST O? TABIiES *»«««»*»*«»9*i««««*t**»«t««*t««**«««»«»«*«««««**t»«««t  vi  MTRODUCTIOltf »«»**«*««*«O0«0#»«*»»«*e««»«»*«««» «•«••»««  3. s/  CHAPTER I II  III  BRIEF HISTORY OF ADULT EDUCATION AMD UNIVERSITY EXTENSION..  li-  EXTENSION ACTIVITIES 1915 - 1933 21 1. Creation of isjfa.© U213.vsx*s3.1sy 21 2. Administrative Policy and Extension 23 3. Public Opinion, Government Policy and the University... 2k b. Vocational Short Courses fOIT VS"fcS2T£lIlS « » » « < e « « * » « » « » * • « 5. Agricultural Extension 31 6. The University Extension. Committee 39 STEPS IE/®BIG TO THE CREATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 1933 - 1936 57 Til© CoxHSgi© GrlTcJirfc • *e«»«***»0*.i« ^Y 2. The Falk Letter and Committees on Extra-University 3. Working Out a Policy for Adult Education Activity 66 k. Survey of the Needs for Adult Education in British Columbia •  yo  5. The Adult Education Program 193if to 1936 .............. 73 6. Creation of the Department of University Extension.,.,. 77 IV  VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SERVICES 1936 - 1955 83 1. Agriculture 33 2. Farm Forum 89 3• Dominion-Provincial Youth Training Schools ............ 91 Fisheries •.. • 102 5- Home Economics Il4 6. Other Vocational, Business and Professional Courses.... 117  V  EVENING CLASSES, LECTURES AND CREDIT COURSES 1936 - 1955... 128 1. Evening Classes 128 ' 2. Lecture Service. . ..v........................... 13I+ 3. Extension Credit Courses iko A. Extra-Sessional Courses i4o B. Directed Reading and Correspondence Credit Courses. 1^7  VI  SOCIAL EDUCATION 1936 - 1955 157 1. Study Groups 157 2. Citizenship and Public Affairs 161 3- Citizens' Forum .. 163 Community Welfare and Recreation .... 166 5. Family Life, Parent and Pre-School Education .......... 167 6. Leadership Training and Group Development 172  CHAPTER VII  Page FINE ARTS AND SUMMER SCHOOL 1936 - 1955 ................... 179 "1 9 FlIIS •••«••••.«••••••••*•*••••••*••«•«•»•••••••*••• JlY^ -• .A.« Dit* suns* ••••««•»  ••••••*« •«••••••* * • •••••• • • •••••• • • •  B» !Music »» • • • • •*•»• •* «• ® « •»© •»»••,*•'••» « •«®'•* •»> ® * «o•• • 185 0• --AzcijiB sixicL s •••••••••»••••••»<>•••••«•••••«•••••• 18^ D« 0*fcii©3T •«•«* • • • • *»«•»•««• • • • * • •«•• •»• • • • •«»«.«««•••»•» 190 2. Ion-Credit Summer - School Courses *............ .......» 191 VIII  IX APPENDIX I II  III IV V •  VI  AUDIO-VISUAL, , LIBRARY AND RADIO SERVICES 1936 - 1955....... 205 1. Radio-Broadcasting. 1936 - 19^0 ... 205 2« AndlO™VlSTJ.&1 S8!FV1 C6S .« » • • • « » • • • • t • • a • •• • • « • • <» • • • « • 3 * EXTfoSIlSXOjO. *• • * • • » « • « » • « • • • » • • • » * « • • « • • • • Tl©c0x*cl Losx! S6s3rvic©ft'ft^-ftft• •<••« • •*••*•.••••••••*••••«•»«• •.• 221 THE EXTENSION PROGRM IN RETROSPECT 1936 - 1955  ... . , ... . > "RETURNED SOLDIERS1 VOCATIONAL WORK" ...................... 278 REPORT OF SECOND CONFERENCE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF TEE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, OF THE, DEPARTMENT OF. AGRICULTURE: AND THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OH DELIMITATION AM) CORRELATION" OF WORK 280 MINUTES: OF THE FIRST MEETING OF COMMITTEE ON UNIVERSITY EXTENSION: '3 OCTOBER, 1918  A PROPOSAL TO IMPROVE HIE RELATION OF THE UNIVERSITY TO. THE PROVINCE BY THE ESTABLISIMENT OF A UNIVERSITY EXTENSION SEKVTCEft« « • « « • » •ft,ft* » • ««*ft« »«»«* «ft• 4 ti * «•«•*«« « « « e* •»«««» « ADULT EDUCATION - A memorandum prepared by: Mors. Evlya F. Farris and submitted to the .President on 19 February, 1935. 291 RECOMMENDATIONS OF SENATE COMMITTEE ON EXTRA-UNIVERSITY TEACHING (l935)  VIII  ' SENIOR STAFF MEMBERS OF THE EXTENSION DEPARTMENT ~ 1955 o ® ® « • •ftftft• « • «ft• •fte • ® ® « • • •« ®  X  282  IETTERS FROM EXTENSION COMMITTEE INFORMING COMMUNITIES OF HIE LECTURE SERVICE AVAILABLE FROM THE UNIVERSITY.......... 284  VII  IX  .... 230  AGREEMENT CONCERNING DOMINION-EROVTNCIAL YOUTH TRAINING PROGRAM I938 -.39  295  • • ®»  a  »  29T  300  NEWS SHEET FROM THE EXTENSION DEPARTMENT Vol. 1, No. .1, . 15 November, 1943 ........... ................... ... 301  BIBLIOGRAPHY.  ...............  ^  1 I  vi LIST OF TABLES  TABLE I  Page Years in Which. Extension Departments Were Established at Canadian Universities .  15  II  Geographical Distribution of Lectures During "Emergency'  III  Enrollment In Dominion-Provincial Youth Training Program Courses 1937 to 1955  IV  Attendance at Greater Vancouver and.Fraser Valley Evening Classes 1^3^ to  V VI VII VIII IX X XI  95  •••••««*«*»*«*«»«*«*itt«»««»*»t**««**» 131  Statistics on Extension Lectures 1936 Enrollment in Extra-Sessional, Reading and . . Correspondence Courses 1919 to Directed 1955  1^2  Credit Correspondence Courses: Number of Students Enrolled Per Year 19^9 Enrollments in Non-Credit Summer School Courses Statistical Summary - Audio-Visual Services 1937 to 1955... 209 Extension Library Service 1935 to 1955 Extension Record Loan Service 19^1 to 1955  ................ 219 .. ' 22k-  -1MR0DUCTI0N The object of this study is to trace the development of the extension services offered by the University of British Columbia from the time of its founding in 1915 until the end of the program year 195^55«  (This terminal  date was chosen because it was the year in which work on this study was begun and because beyond that point the author, as Assistant Director of the Department of University Extension, was influential in many departmental decisions, making judgement about them by him rather difficult.) Prior to 193^, extension services were made available through the President's office, the Extension Committee, the faculties and by private arrangement with members of faculty and staff. In 193& the Department of University Extension was created to serve as the channel through which the University could Increase its usefulness to the people of the province by means of a program of adult education. Since that time the educational opportunities made available to the public have increased in kind and volume. A major portion of the task involved in this study was to gather the required factual information. The annual reports of the President and of the Extension Department did not by any means provide all that was needed. The records of the Extension Department were far from complete. For many years, little besides the annual report was available. What back files had been preserved were uneven and in a state of disarray.  A portion of them was ruined  from water .damage in the basement of Brock Hall at the time of the fire in that building. With the permission of the President of the University and of the Deans concerned, the author made a study of the minutes of official University bodies, especially the Board of Governors, the Senate and the Faculty of Arts  and Science, and also examined relevant files in the President's office, the Faculty of Agriculture, the Library, as ' other documents. Useful materials in the Provincial Archives in Victoria, expecially the newspaper files, were consulted as well. Much information had to be gathered by means of interviews and correspondence with persons at the University and elsewhere who were connected in various ways with developments during the forty year period. . A list of the most significant of these contacts' Is provided in the bibliography. Information gathered in that way was, of-course, fragmentary and in some cases, conflicting.  It is felt that part of the value of this study lies in the fact  that only as a result of considerable effort has it. been possible to present such a comprehensive account of the development of these activities, information which has not been available in one place before and may be of use to future historians of the University and of adult education in Canada. The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance he has received from a number of persons. Dr. Uorman A.M. MacKenzie, while still President of the University, made possible access to the minutes of the Senate and the Board of Governors and to other files. Mr. J..E.A. Parnall and Miss Margaret Fredrickson assisted in the use of these records. Both Dr.. MacKenzie and his predecessor, Dr. Leonard S. Klinek assisted the author by granting interviews with him. A number of other persons were helpful to the author by means of interviews and providing significant documentation.  These are listed in the bibli-  ography. Special mention, however, should be made of Dean Blythe Eagles of the Faculty of Agriculture and the two previous Directors of the Extension Department, Mr.. Bobert England and Dr. Gordon Shrum. The author is particularly grateful to Dean F.H. Soward, who is the author of an unpublished history of the early years of the University, and  3 •under whose supervision this thesis was written. His advice about the organization and presentation of all aspects of this study .was most valuable. Finally, and most of all, the author wishes to express his thanks to the present Director of the Extension Department, Dr. John K. Friesen, for his assistance, forbearance, understanding and generosity in connection with the writing of this study.  CHAPTER II : BRIEF HISTORIC OF ADULT EDUCATION AND UNIVERSITY EXTENSION The history of extension services offered by the University of British Columbia is part of a much, larger history, that of the adult education movement and, more specifically, th.e university extension movement. A resume of the pertinent developments in the broader field m i l be useful in placing activities at this university in their historical perspective.  It is impossi-  ble to 'understand, the modern adult education movement without knowing something of its history. In fact, it is not one movement, but many, the product of a variety of-social purposes which emerged against the background of the economic and social history of the last two hundred years. The adult education movement as we know it today was born during the early stages of the industrial revolution and has taken on many different characteristics as industrial and political change has taken place. With tbe rise of the new industrial centers in England in the latter part of the eighteenth century came a severe dislocation of population and widespread poverty. One result of this period of confusion was a new wave of philanthropy which was inspired "partly by pity for the sufferings of masses of 1 people, partly by fear of the consequences of social disorder."  If the poor  were, to learn to live contented, moral lives, they needed moral instruction. Typical of the type of program instituted to provide this instruction was that of the Mult Sunday School of Nottingham, which was formed in 1798 "for . 2 Bible reading and instruction in the secular arts of' writing'and arithmetic. " A; further significant step was taken in 1812 at Bristol, when an "Institution for Instructing Adult Persons to Read the Holy Scriptures" was established. The movement spread quickly and carried on until the middle of the century.  5 The second phase of the adult education movement in England -was that of the Mechanics' Institute. The Institutes spread rapidly after the first projects were initiated in London in 182^. Although the founders of the Institutes held lofty motives which involved the elevation of men's minds as a result of the study of the principles of science, the professional training of tradesmen soon became the primary aim. After the first enthusiasm the attendance of working men fell off. Most of the Institutes which remained became social clubs for the members of the lower middle class. A few, however, developed into important technical institutes or colleges. Neither the philanthropic movement of the early part of the century nor the utilitarian teaching of the Mechanics' Institutes was able to satisfy the thirst for knowledge which grew out of the period of increased political activity following the Napoleonic Wars. Working men all over the country sought opportunities to meet to discuss their political rights. The teachings of Robert Owen stirred the Imagination of enlightened leaders of working class movements. He insisted upon education as a necessary means of social regeneration. The Chartist and other movements popularized this line of thought. It is from this tradition of discontent with existing social arrangements, and the recognition of the importance of education as an essential means of improvement that the modern adult education movement chiefly derives. It had been a common objection to the Mechanics' Institutes that they excluded controversy. A demand grew rapidly for political education and discussion of other issues affecting the citizen. In lQk-2 an Independent minister opened the first "People's College." It was established at Sheffield and in its statement of aims a direct reference was made to the deficiencies of the Institutes. The College set out to encourage humane studies as distinct  O from vocational and utilitarian ones. The courses were useful "only in V making adults better citizens and better men."  A notable successor to  the Sheffield college was one established in London in 185^. Among its teachers were Charles Kingsley, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and John Ruskin. The London Working Men's College has had a continuous history down to the present day. Other People's Colleges were founded in various cities but most had a short history. The middle of the nineteenth century was a turning point for adult education. The explanation of the greater success of the movement after that time can be found in a rising standard of living after 1850, in the growth of political consciousness after the further extension of the franchise in 1867, . and in the system of universal primary education, the foundations of which 5 ... ..  were laid in 1870.  Among the new developments in adult education which  appeared in the latter half of the century was the university extension movement. The term "university extension" was first used in 1850 with special reference to a proposal to establish permanent teaching centers in the larger  6  towns as one method of utilizing university endowments.  In that year William  Sewell of Oxford University recommended that the universities of England, with the aid of town and local societies, offer instruction to all classes of society. A system of examinations had been instituted by the Society of Arts in London to encourage more general adult education through the Mechanics' Institutes, three hundred of which had formed a national -onion. Out of this experiment in local examinations came, in 1857, a plan for such examinations throughout England for the improvement of schools and teachers. Oxford agreed to administer these local examinations and a year later Cambridge too, decided to take part.  7 A young Scotsman, James Stuart, Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, gave the first inspiration to university extension in the modern sense. He was impressed by the paucity of opportunities for university education and 7 set out to establish, as he put it, "a peripatetic university."  In 1867  Stuart had been invited to give lectures to ladies in Manchester, Liverpool, Sheffield, and Leeds and to railwaymen at Crewe. These were followed by other series. In November, 1871, he persuaded various bodies for whom he had lectured to address a memorial to the Senate of Cambridge University, asking the institution to undertake the provision of lectures as a regular activity. An investigating committee or syndicate was set up by the University to look into the matter. Early in 1873 the powers of the syndicate were extended to enable it to embark upon the experiment of providing courses. The first courses were held at Derby, Leicester, and Nottingham in that. same year. In 1878 Oxford University began providing the same type of service. The movement grew rapidly. By 1890 extension centres had been established in 250 communities and more than 40,000 people were in attendance at local lectures. The two universities were then employing twenty-four extension lecturers, and the London Society had a staff of thirty lecturers, some of whom were also on the Cambridge and Oxford lists. In the early nineties as many as 60,000 people were attending extension lectures conducted by the several universities; 15,000 were writing reports and 5,000 stood for examinations.® Between 1885 and 1905 Oxford alone had arranged for 32,lk6 extension lectures in 577 centres for if-2^,000 students.9 The same author gives a useful appraisal of both the opportunities provided by university extension in. this early period and the limitations of the system. Ih- its beginnings University Extension was as simple as that. By this modest means [extension lectures], with the least possible interruption of the traditional peace of the Universities, themselves, university study was made available to people who previously had had no direct access to the  Universities; of course, to people of the middle class, and also to a gifted, intellectually ambitious minority of the working class people of England for whom, until then, the Universities had been in a world removed. Credit toward university degrees was to be had. The extension student who. could show that he had attended six units of lectures in one field - natural science, literature, or history - and two units in another, might come up for examinations, in mathematics, Latin, and a foreign language, and be admitted to the university with advanced standing. He could th.en qualify for the B.A. in two years of resident, university study.10 Ah important subsequent development in connection with British extension activity was the foundation, in 1903, of the Workers' Educational Association. The primary aim of this organization was,to bring together the co-operative societies, the trade unions, and -university Extension authorities. .The Association (at first known as. the Association to Promote the Higher Education of Working Men) met a real need. By 1906 there were thirteen branches and by 1907, forty-seven. A student of the movement has pointed, out that the greatest contribution made by the W.E.A. to the development of adult education was the establishment of classes, as distinct from lecture courses, and in particular the inauguration of intensive courses of study In partnership with the Univer•  .11  sities.  These tutorial classes are of 'significance to this study in that  while early American experiments in university extension borrowed heavily from the British experience with lecture courses, they did not to any significant extent adopt the tutorial class. Some Canadian institutions, however, did so. The history of imiversity extension in the United States.of America is even more significant for this study than is that of Great Britain. The extension services developed at the University of British Columbia have been patterned much more after the American experience than that of the British, In terms of both services offered and administrative intent.  The first important attempts in American 'universities to set up an 12 :.' extension program took place in the late l880's.  There had been earlier  experiments at Queen's College (now Rutgers University) and Columbia College (now Columbia University)"as well as a few. other institutions but most of • ;"'  . "' '  13  these" were : short-lived. University extension in the United States took its inspiration from ' ' ' 'ik- ' . England. ' As Rosentreter points out in his study, however: . Basically, university extension was not alien to (the United States); it is significant that no new machinery had to be.created to administer jit. If the actual organizations were not already present, there were ample precedents for their creation. Lyceum and Chautauqua formed a vanguard which was quickly reinforced by branches of the American Library Association, the American Society for the Extension of University Teaching at Philadelphia and other large cities, and finally, the universities, and colleges. The English movement was first fully presented to American audiences by H.B. Adams of Johns Hopkins University, who spoke on this subject to a meeting of the American Library Association in1887. An immediate result was extension activities undertaken by public libraries in Buffalo, Chicago, and St. Louis. The librarian of Columbia University, Melvll Dewey, recommended such an. extension plan to the Regents of the University of the State of Hew York, whose secretary he shortly became.: He induced the Regents to establish an extension office as one of the five divisions of the state system under their direction and to obtain from the legislature an appropriation of $10,000 for the support of the new work. Writing in July of 1891, H.B* Adams termed this grant "the most significant sign of the times with regard to university 16 extension in America."  In the meantime regular courses of lectures, which  had been offered sporadically by several institutions previously, were set up by both Columbia University and the University of Wisconsin. Another significant  10 development was the creation in Philadelphia (1890) and Chicago (1891) of short-lived societies for the Extension of University Teaching. The effort to transplant to the United States a form of university extension which had thrived in England was temporarily successful.  Support  for the movement was particularly strong in the institutions of the large cities of the middle Atlantic, states and as far west as St. Louis.  In 1892  there was "a national congress of those interested in the movement and according to reports presented to the group,>during the preceding four years , • C| " . ' • • . 17 . twenty-eight states had organized programs of this kind. This flurry of activity was also- short-lived, however.  By the end of  the century the lecture type of extension work had declined almost to the vanishing point.  Writing In 1899 Adams explained that  University extension has been tried and found wanting in many parts of this country and Canada. The state universities of the west and south, for public reasons, early entered their state fields and some-still hold their own with varying degrees of honour and success; but as an educational movement,, university extension in America cannot be said to have accomplished all that its friends at first hoped. It will probably not die, but causes of its diminished zeal are not far to,seek; (l) Lack of suitable extension lecturers; (2) lack of financial support; (3) the vast distances to be traversed by. university men already overworked; (k) the necessity and greater Importance of academic service on college and university premises; and (5) the recognition of better and less expensive instrumentalities for popular education.1" Other authorities have added further reasons for this decline.  Probably the  most iniportant of these is the contention that there was a fundamental lack  '  of understanding of the real needs of adults.  19  Alfred Hall-Quest, in his  important study, attributes the decline to the universities' insistence that  20 adult students "adapt themselves to university standards." It is generally agreed that the end of the period of decline for' university extension in the United States came about with the revival, in 1906,  11 of extension -work at the University of Wisconsin. Except in the case of teachers, the studies encouraged by university extension in the l890's were not of direct professional or vocational value. When extension was revived at Wisconsin there was a distinct change of emphasis. In the words of the Director of the Department, L.E. Reber, Right or wrong you find here a type of university extension that does • not disdain the simplest form of service. Literally carrying the University to the homes of the people, it attempts to give them what they need - be it the last word in expert advice; courses of study carrying University credit; or easy-lessons in cooking or sewing. . University extension in Wisconsin endeavours to interpret the phraseology of the expert and offers the benefits of research to the household and the workshop, as well as to municipalities and State.21 The President of the University, Charles Van Hise, put it this way: It seems to me that a state university should not be above meeting the needs of the people, however elementary the Instruction necessary to accomplish this. A recent study, in reviewing the history of university extension, states simply that University extension, as we know it today in the United States, dates back to 1906, when President Charles Van Hise and Extension Director Louis Reber ... began their now classic effort to make the boundaries of the university campus coterminous with the boundaries of the State of Wisconsin. ^ University extension expanded rapidly in the period following these events at Wisconsin. Between 1906 and 1913, twenty-eight universities organized extension divisions and twenty-one reorganized departments which had 2k  been abandoned or neglected.  Between 1915 and 1919 the total amount of  appropriations In the United States for the support of extension work aore 25 than doubled. The types of extension activity which were carried out by the new kind of department which appeared after 1906 are basically the ones found in  12 ' • departments today. Included in tliese services are correspondence teaching, lecture services, summer school programs, extension classes, press and publication services, evening school and resident center activities, library Tending services, film and visual aid services, conference, institute, and short- course activities, and educational broadcasting. To these could now be added educational television, group dynamics and community development. In many cases in Canada and the United States, however, the main concern of Extension departments is the offering of- regular university degree - credit programs Iii the evening to part-time students. The history of adult education and of university extension in Canada is a badly neglected one in terms of research and writing. It is possible to • • 26 follow only in general outline what the main developments have been. As early as 1831 a Mechanics' Institute was organized in Canada. The first one was formed in Halifax and had Joseph Howe as one of Its most vigorous supporters. By 1837 there were Institutes in all the large cities in Nova Scotia. Although as late as 1880 there were over one hundred Institutes in Ontario,.by 19OO the movement had almost disappeared. In 1891 an abortive attempt was made in Toronto to set up a national association for the Extension of University Teaching. The organizational meeting was'addressed by William Clark, of the University of .iToronto, who warned against- the danger of making education for adults a fashionable movement. "The real point to be aimed at is to teach men and women how glorious . ,' n27 a thing literature is." This narrowness of view concerning the function of university extension was typical of a large body of opinion in both Canada and the United States at that time. The meeting established The Canadian Association for the Extension of University Teaching, but it appears to have died within a year.  13  Hie development of university extension in Canada in a lasting form did not begin until the present century. Four years after the revitalization of extension at the. University of Wisconsin, a Director of Extension was '  appointed at the University of Saskatchewan, 2  in Canada.  9  28  the first position of its kind  Early in this century too Frontier College was established to  bring education to work camps in isolated areas. Over 2k,000 students had 30  served as teachers in this unique program by 1952.  Voluntary organizations  of varying kinds became increasingly involved in adult education. School boards in most of the larger centers set up evening class programs.for adults. In 1921 the Workers' Educational Association was established in Canada, the •.'•,.-• ' 31  first activities being centered in the Toronto area. Community councils interested in the fine arts were created in several cities.  In 1934, W.J. Dunlop of the University of Toronto suggested a national conference on adult education in Canada. It had become evident that there was need of some central, co-ordinating and referral agency in the field. Thus Dr. Dunlop was instrumental in founding the Canadian Association for Adult Education, which named E.A. Corbett, who had been Director of Extension at the University of Alberta, as its first director, and which has played a leading role in the field since that time. World War II brought several significant events in the field of. adult education. The Canadian Legion Educational Service was established to serve members of the armed forces. The National FiLti Board was created for wartime purposes and has continued since that time to serve in the educational field. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation was created partly for educational purposes. In 1950 one of the outstanding authorities on Canadian adult education  lb  described what he felt to be the four most important developments since the end of the War. The first is the entry of provincial government into adult education. ... Second, has been the development of community centres for recreation and informal education. Along with these has come a great number of municipally sponsored recreational projects. Lastly, there has been an upspringing of Canadian creative effort in art, crafts, music, drama., film, radio, ballet, literature.32 The progress of the university extension movement in Canada has been ' 33 slow, compared to that of Its counterpart in the United States.  However,  t>y 1935 much significant work had been accomplished. In that year the first survey of adult education in Canada.was published. The editor, Dr. Peter Sandiford, reported that university extension lectures and courses were the most wide-spread form of adult education in Canada. He added: In the universities themselves, the very success of the university extension movements [sic] is sometimes a cause of misgiving. The more conservative members look upon it as something that inevitably, tends to lower the standard of scholarship, either directly by admitting extension courses to university credit for a-degree, or indirectly by dissipating the energies of those teachers who are called upon to give the popular lectures ... Whatever be our stand on the question, the fact remains that university extension is alive and in active operation from one end of the Dominion to the other. A review of the extension programs of Canadian universities in the mid-1950's reveals a great disparity between the activities of a typical eastern institution and a typical western one. Two articles describing ^ 36 extension activities at the time stated very much the same conclusions. E.A. Corbett stated that the times and conditions under which extension departments had been established and the nature and demands of the communities they served had largely determined the type of program offered. There are two main types of. university extension programs in Canada. The first derives directly from the "course-giving function of the university", i.e., correspondence courses, night classes, extension classes for extra-mural students, etc*,. In some cases academic credits  TABLE I Years In Which. Extension Departments Were Established At Canadian Universities J-  \  5  INSTITUTION  YEAR  ..;.. • 2; .. . University of Saskatchewan  1910  University of Alberta  1912  University of Toronto •5 j> Queen's University  1920 1921  University of Western Ontario  1921  Mount Allison University  1925  McGill University MacDonald College  "  .  St. Francis Xavier University University of British Columbia i. McMaster University  1938  1926 1928  .  1936 1941  University of Manitoba  19^9  St. Joseph's University  1951  University of Montreal  1952  1. Most of these Institutions were doing extension work before the establishment of their department. 2. Except where otherwise indicated this information found in Corbett, University Extension in Canada. 3- letter (l~Sept., 1955) H.W. Curran (Director) to author. Letter (30 Aug., 1955) C.H. Stearn (Director) to author. 5. Letter (25 Aug., 1955) Leon Lortie (Director) to author.  16  leading to degrees are offered in connection with the courses "but the subject matter of the courses offered is likely to extend beyond the . limits of subjects considered desirable or necessary in the pursuit of a degree. The second kind of. extension program is built less on the basis of traditional university work, and more on the existing activities and interests of people outside the university and its immediate community. This is true" of all the universities of western Canada, of Laval, St. Francis Xavier, MacDonald College (of McGill) and most of those colleges not properly called universities but which have strongly developed extension services. Dr. Corbett added: There was a time not so long/ago when the administration and staff of many of our Canadian universities regarded extension work as an entirely unnecessary activity and not. properly the function of an institution whose first responsibility lies in teaching and research. Fortunately that time has passed. It is always recognized that a university's major emphasis must be upon academic standards and high Intellectual achievement, but it is also apparent that the closer the bond between . the university and thg_community it serves, the stronger and 1 its position becomes.-3' ' ~ ~ '  The foregoing pages have described the main outlines of the development of university extension in the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Canada, along with some of the pertinent phases of the adult education movement in general. It has been seen that extension in Great Britain has been on the whole of the lecture and class type. The former was imported into the United States in the latter part of the nineteenth century. For a variety of reasons a program built almost exclusively on lectures, after an initial success, reached a low point by the turn of the century. By 1910, however, several American universities had launched a new type of extension program, one determined more by the needs of the people and less by the traditional activities of the university. Characteristically, extension in  If  Canada provided examples of both the "British" and the "American" types. Within the latter category fell the program of the University of British Columbia.  CHAPTER II FOOTNOTES 1. Peers, Robert, ed., Adult Education in Practice, London, MacMillan and Co. Ltd., 193^, p. l57~™For a stimulating discussion of the social background to the development of adult education in one English county, Yorkshire, see Harrison, J.F.C., Learning and Living 1790-1960, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1961. 2. Rountree, J.W., The History of the Adult School Movement, quoted in Yeaxlee, B.A., Spiritual Values in, Adult Education, London, Oxford University Press, 1925 , 2 vols. vol. I, p. 15^ Since this:section was written a new book has provided useful background on this and other features of the early phases of adult education in Great Britain. See Kelly, T., The History of Adult Education in Great Britain, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, 3. Peers, Adult Education in Practice, p. 26. See also Kelly, The History of Adult Education in Great Britain, pp. 134-146. 4. A.E. Dobbs in Parry, R. St. J., ed., Cambridge Essays on Adult Education, Cambridge, University Press, 1920, p.~42. ' 5. Peers, Adult Education in Practice, p. 28. 6. A.E. Dobbs in Cambridge Essays on Adult Education, p. Vf. ?. Stuart's Reminiscences, quoted in Draper, W.H., University Extension 18731923^ Cambridge, University Press, 1923, p. 10. 8. Creese, James, The Extension of University Teaching, Hew York, American Association for Adult Education,\i9ffl", p'. 34. 9': Ibid., p. 36. 10. Ibid., p. 35. 11. Peers, Adult Education in Practice, p. 33. 12. For a more exhaustive treatment of the early history of adult education and university extension in the U.S.A. see Hiett, I.A., Some Aspects of Adult Education Programs of State Universities of the Southwest, Ph.D. Thesis, 1952, Univ. of Texas,. Chapter II; and Rosentreter, F.M., A Ii story of the Extension Division of the University of Wisconsin, Ph.D. "Thesis,. Univ. of Wisconsin,-1954.' See also Knowles, M.S., The Mult Education Movement in the United States, New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 19S27 PP. 30-33 and 46-48.  19 FOOTNOTES  (continued)  13.  See .Miller, N.C., and Lilien, D.,, .An Early Experiment in Adult Education: The Rutgers University Department of Extension~lB91-I903, New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, 1951, Burrell, J.A., A History of Adult Education at Columbia University, New York, Columbia University Press,~~195i?, and Morton, J.R., University Extension in the United States, Birmingham, University ofAlabamaPress, 1953, p. 10-11.  14.  Cartwright, M.A., and Ely, Mary, Adult Education in the United States, Concord, American Council, Institute of Pacific Relations, 1929, p. 9.  15.  Rosentreter, A History of- Extension at Wisconsin, p. 13-1^+.  16.  Adams, H.B., "University Extension in America," The Forum, vol. II,  17.  Morton, University Extension in the U.S., p. 5.  (July,1891):, p .  519.  18.  Adams,. H.B., "Summer School and University Extension" in Butler, N.M., ed.., Monographs on Education in the United States, New York, J.B. Lyon Co., 1899, . 2 vols. II, p. 29. It should be pointed out that M a m s had a bias in favour of the summer institute, especially Chautauqua.  19.  Reeves, F.W., Fansler, T., and Houle, C.O., Adult.Education, New York, M. Graw-Hill Book Co., 1938, p.- kO.  20.  Hall-Quest, A.L'..,, The University Afield,; New York> The MacMillan Co., 1926, p. 16. For a detailed treatment of the. decline as experienced in one institution and the reasons for same, see Rosentreter, History of Extension at the University of Wisconsin, Chapter III.  21.  Curti, Merle, and Carstensen, Vernon, The University of Wisconsin: A History 18^-1925, Madison, Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 19^9, 2 Vols. II, p. 563-^.  22.  Rosentreter, History of Extension at the University of Wisconsin, p. 110.  23.  Sheats, P.H., Jayne, C.D., Spence, R.B., Adult Education, New York, The Diyden Press, 1953, p. 176.  24.  Creese, The Extension of University Teaching, p. 55.  25.  Bittner, W.S., "The University Extension Movement,w Bureau of Education, U.S.. Department of the Interior, Bulletin,'1919, fQk, p. 5.  20 (FOOTNOTES  (continued)  26. In tlie following account the author has had of necessity to follow the brief history of adult education in Canada written by E.A. Corbett which is included in Kidd, J.R., ed., Adult Education in Canada, Toronto, the Canadian Association for Adult Education, 195C- The same material also appeared in three parts in the February, March, and April (19^7) issues of Food for Thought, the Association's journal. Some additional information appears in Kidd, J.R., Adult Education in the Canadian University, Toronto, Canadian Association for Adult Education, 195627. E.A. Corbett in Kidd, Adult Education in Canada, p. 5. 28. Letter, (25 August, 1955), Rupert D. Ramsay to author. 29. It should be noted that certain traditional kinds of Extension activity had been offered since the l850's by certain Eastern Canadian Universities. See Kidd,, J.R., Adult Education in the Canadian University, Chapter III. 30. See article on E.A. Bradwin in Rouillard, Harriet, ed., Pioneers in Adult. Education in Canada, Toronto, Canadian Association for Adult Education, •" 1952., . ' 31. For brief sketch of the history of workers' education In Canada see article by Andras, "Trends in.Workers' Education in Canada," Food for Thought, vol. 9, #3,: (Dec. 19^8), p. 11-1J+.. 32. E.A. Corbett in.Kidd, Adult Education in Canada, p. 9. 33- See Table I for the dates on which other Canadian institutions created departments. 3^. Sandiford, Peter, ed., Adult Education in Canada: A Survey, Toronto, University of Toronto. Press, 1935, (mimeo), Chapter III, p. I. 35»  Ibid. The section of the Sandiford survey on B.C. was written by E.A. Corbett, then Director of Extension of the University of Alberta.  36. Peers, Frank, in Kidd, Adult Education in Canada, and Corbett, E.A. in the introduction of University Extension in Canada, Toronto, Canadian Association for Adult Education, 1952. 37»  Corbett, University Extension in Canada, p. 7. Italics added by the author.  CHAPTER II EXTEUSIOI ACTIVITIES 1915 TO;1933  1.  .  Creation of the University  The University of British Columbia opened its doors on 30 September, 1915. This date marked the end of a long and stormy struggle- over the nature 1 and site of the institution. The story of the founding of McGill University College of British Columbia at Vancouver has now been told in E.A. Corbett's biography of Henry Marshall Tory and in H.T. Logan's history of the University of British Columbia. A biographer of Br. Tory has pointed out that in coming to British Columbia on behalf of McGill University Dr. Tory had. acted as "a '2 special kind of extension director."  It may be possible to think of McGill  University College as an extramural center of the parent institution but it does not seem advisable to carry this line of reasoning so far as to consider its activities to faH -within the purview of this study. Nothing is known of the extension activities of the staff of McGill University College. Institutional reports for the period reveal nothing In 3  this respect.  •  •  . "  . .  It seems certain that there was no faculty committee co-  ordinating what extension activity may have taken place. One of .the faculty members of that institution can remember no organized program of extension lectures. He feels that the staff was too small and therefore too busy to have time for extramural work. While McGill University College was serving the immediate need for higher education in British Columbia, the ultimate objective, that of a University of British Columbia, had not been lost sight of. The false start which .had been made in 1890 in the form of "The British Columbia University  22 Act" (and its amendment of 1891) was followed in 1908 by further legislation. This "University Act" was designed to win a wide measure of popular support •  5-  for the University.  By this Act faculty's control over .the affairs of the  University was lessened in favour of public control. A Board of Governors was created with administrative powers and control of finances. Hie number of elective members to the Senate was increased. Another provision designed to encourage public support was contained in paragraph nine of the Act. This' paragraph began: The University shall, so far as and to the full extent which its resources from time to. time permit, provide for: Subsections b. and e. read. (b) Such instruction especially, whether theoretical, technical, artistic, . or otherwise, as may be of service to persons engaged or about to engage in the manufactures, or the mining, engineering, agricultural, and industrial pursuits of the Province: .... (e) Such extra-collegiate and extra-university instruction and teaching as .maybe recommended by the Senate. ... • " In April, 1910, the Government appointed a Site Commission headed by Dean E.G. Weldon of Dalhousie University to make recommendations concerning the location of the University. The report of the Site Commission was published  6  on 25 September, 1910.  It expressed views on subjects other than the site  of the institution. In referring to the agricultural work of the University it recommended a College of Agriculture at the University (on the West Point Grey site) and Schools of Agriculture at other points in the Province. The College should supervise "the extension work and the schools of Agriculture." These schools ... should provide short courses extending over the winter months of two or three years for the sons of farmers. Each school might specialize in one or more branches, such as horticulture, dairying, etc. Similarly, technical evening schools might be opened in the different coal-mining centres for the preparation of candidates for mining certificates, and in the metal-miming districts for the assistance of prospectors and others.7  On k April, 19$'$* "the Government appointed the first Board of Governors for the University and in the fall of 1915 the first classes were held. 2. Administrative! Policy and Extension/ Perhaps the most outstanding fact about the relationship between this University and its extension work has been the whole-hearted support which the latter enjoyed from U.B.C.'s Presidents. In the period under review in this chapter the Presidents, were F.F. Wesbrook and L.S. Klinck. Dr. Wesbrook, the University's first president, planned the institution "on a cathedral 8 scale."  He was, according to one faculty member, most insistent that the  University be of service in.a variety of ways to the whole province. He is said to have expressed his convictions in this regard so consistently that he was criticized, on occasion for overemphasizing this phase of the University's obligations.  President Wesbrook's convictions were directly stated in an  article entitled "The Provincial University in Canadian Development," which he wrote in IJlk. He said: The people's university must meet all the needs of all the people. We must therefore proceed with care to the erection of those workshops where we may-design and fashion the tools needed in the building of a nation and from which-we can survey and lay out paths of enlightenment.10 In the words of his successor, Dr. Wesbrook sought to have the University serve all classes of people in its constituency. With him, the University was more than a repository for truth, it was a discoverer and disseminator of truth exrtra-murally as well as intra-murally. It was he who was the first to see the part which the University might play in helping the veterans of World War I better their qualifications and fit themselves to return to peace-time Vocations.  12  3276  In the University's second President, Dr. KLinck, extension work had, if anything, an even more enthusiastic supporter. Appointed President by the Board on 26 May, 1919, Dr. Klinck had throughout his association with Dr. Wesbrook had impressed upon him the importance of the "public service" function 13. of the University.  The fact that Dr. Klinck had for several years been Dean  of the Faculty of Agriculture, which had been actively engaged in extension since the founding of the University, would also help to explain why the new President was a staunch supporter of this work. Dr. Klinck was a most active extension lecturer. It was often he who made the most extended tour of the interior, according to the Extension Committee's annual reports. For several years he listed "Adult Education" as . one of his lecture subjects. The view has been expressed that it was his influence from the President's office which contributed very largely to the fact that such a large amount of the Carnegie grant of was devoted to .. lU ' 1933 ' extension activities. 3» Public Opinion, Government Policy, and the University During the 1920's.and the1930's, the attitude towards the University on the part of the .people of the Province, and more particularly of some members of the legislative Assembly, was not what University authorities would have desired it to be. In view of the fact that the nature and extent of extension activity was to be influenced by a desire to improve the relationship between the people of the Province and the University, there is reason t© consider this problem briefly. McGill University College had been, looked upon with disfavour by some alumni of other Eastern Canadian Universities. The University of British Columbia unavoidably Inherited - some of this ill-mil in 1915.  3:t acquired  25 other critics who were not happy with the choice of site which the government made. On 3 October, 1918, the Ministers of Finance and of Education visited the University. They inspected the equipment and discussed financial problems. The visit had been in part inspired by a request from the Board [of Governors] that the Government would co-operate in a campaign to interest the people of the Province in the University. The Government had to consider the criticisms of'their followers, some of whom remained dubious as to the value of the University and the wisdom of its p o l i c y . ^ Two weeks after this visit the Minister of Education sent a letter to the acting President which revealed the nature of public criticism. Many of the questions asked of the University administration indicated that the Government was looking for ways in which the University was making Itself of direct use to the public. Among the requests in the le:tter were the following: . 9. I would like to have a description of your mode of making public for ? the benefit of the agricultural population of the Province the results of your experimental and demonstration work. 10. Is It the policy and intention of the University to give our boys and girls practical vocational training, regardless of whether they are undergraduates or not? 11. What are your facilities, for such educational process? 12. Roughly speaking, what would be the necessary expenditure in order to be able to take up such vocational work there? The letter also asked for certain statistics. Among them were: f. The number of returned soldiers taking a short course at the University. g. The number of other short courses or partial students. h. List of short courses given and the duration of each course. Dean Sowaxd, in his history of the early years of the University, summed up the incident by commenting simply that these were depressing days. "The financial worry was still acute and the hold of the University upon public opinion seemed 16 precarious."  26 In the year 1921 the first clash -with the public over policy occurred. It concerned the practice of expelling from the. University students whose 17 efforts on the Christmas examinations were completely unsatisfactory.  m  the same year President Klinck appeared at a special meeting of the Liberal caucus to defend the University against attacks on its policy. [Ghat criticism of U.B.C. had been put forward on other grounds was revealed by a faculty memorandum to the Senate later in the -same year. Faculty was protesting the raising of student fees. It stated that higher fees would reduce the number of students from outside the city who would attend and pointed out that "the charge is constantly made that this University Is, to all intents and purposes, a local institution." The financial crisis at the University which had brought about the higher fees became a lively political issue during 1921. The government grant, which the University did not consider adequate, was being branded as extravagant in certain other quarters. E.C. Henniger, M.L.A. for Grand Forks, stated that ... the big university grant was being used mostly to edueate the sons and daughters of the rich.^ M.B. Jackson, Member for the Islands, expressed another form of criticism which was being levelled at the University. He stated that ... the University, as it Is now, is nothing more than advanced high school for Vancouver centre. 19 Canon Joshua Hinchliffe, M.L.A. for Victoria, announced that judging by the content.of the student newspaper and by a certain history text book, communists 20  were not only active, but were being tolerated at the University.  The  University's critics were found in influential positions, and the criticism took various forms.  27 The Faculty of Agriculture nas frequently the recipient of criticism " 21 from legislators. One member advocated Its being done away frith, entirely. It was pointed out in .1927 that almost one million dollars had been devoted 22  to that faculty and yet only fifty-two students had graduated from it. When the government, in 1925, overspent a loan which had been secured to construct University buildings, 'the Opposition made a considerable issue of it. The headline of the Vancouver Sun of k November read, "U.B.C. Costs " ' 23.'. . . Called Gross and Unconstitutional." A stormy'debate in the Legislature about this issue produced further harmful results as far as the public relations of the University were concerned. The University's problems were far from over. In 1929, the government carried out an inquiry into the University's administrative and financial 2k , ' practices. In December of that year, much more serious news was received in the form of an announcement to the Board of Governors from Canon Hinchliffe, who had just become Minister of Education, that he intended to check the rising cost of financing the University. The Minister, in the succeeding years not only checked rising costs; he cut the University's budget by almost two-thirds 25 between 1930 and 1932. He made no secret of the fact that his particular  26  target, within the University, was the Faculty of Agriculture.  These years were extremely difficult ones for the University. It was subjected to drastic budget cuts and to constant criticism from various parts of the Province. Within the University itself there were serious divisions over the use of the limited funds available. The President became the center of a violent controversy and was faced with an investigation of his administra27 tive policies.  28 An article in the Graduate Chronicle for 1932 reflected the spirit abroad on the campus: Today, when progress Cat the University] has apparently ceased, when discussion and striff reign in place of fellowship . Perhaps more important than campus morale, for the purposes of this study, is the criticism which continued to be directed at the University from the community. The Faculty of Agriculture was the target of repeated attacks. In July of 1931 the Vancouver Star used these words. The University of British Columbia ranks high and commands widespread respect. But it has been lop-sided. It has been driving a RollsRoyce agricultural faculty on an Austin income, and the inevitable result has been straitened circumstances.^ An article in the Vancouver Province put it more bluntly. The question now is, should a University be maintained at public expense, in the face of acute distress and unbalanced budgets, when the institution apparently does little more than graduate students who can not get jobs?30 The University had its supporters. The editorial policy of the Vancouver Sun consistently supported it in its battles with its critics, including the government. Quotations from three editorials reveal the bitterness of the dispute and the feelings aroused. In December, 1929, the Sun commented that Education and agriculture seem to have fallen into evil hands in British Columbia.31 • , • events unfolded: There Is certainly something sinister in Mr. Hinchliffe's attitude towards the University that will not be tolerated by the people of this province ... 32 In March, 1931, even stronger words were used in an editorial titled. "Crucifying the University." The new University cut of approximately $150,000 In the present budget will practically squeeze out the University's life.  29 Until tlie University is reduced, it Till be tormented, bedevilled and-crucified upon the ambition of this stubborn old man to become the educational czar of British Columbia. And this gentleman who, tired of being a churchman and a lawyer, now yearns to be an educational Mussolini, proposes to assault and degrade the University until he breaks it to his will.33 The foregoing has been: included with the intention of revealing the state of the public relations of the University throughout the 1920's and early 1930's.  It is easy to understand, therefore, why among the motives for carry-  ing on extension work would be the intent to educate the people of the. Province about the usefulness of the University and the activity which was going on there. Professor Soward-'s statement with which he ended his history in 1930, was certainly, still more than justified in 1933. The University has still to secure from the people of the province the same faith and loyalty which older -universities have won and which, dispose Governments to be: generous ... in furthering educational policies. It is not surprising, in view of this situation, that at least certain faculty members- should feel that anything, that could be done to increase the prestige and value of the University in the minds of the people of the Province should be encouraged. ' Some professors felt that there was a certain amount of pressure on them to do as much extension lecturing as possible in order to help  '  .35 '  with the process of strengthening the University's position. 'b. Vocational Short Courses for Veterans  The University of British Columbia was founded during the First World War.  The rehabilitation of veterans ;of that war was an adult education task  which was thrust upon the young institution in its infancy and one to which it responded with a will.  30 It has already been pointed ont that Dr. Wesbrook "was the first to see the part which the University might play" in helping the returned men better their qualifications and fit themselves to return to peace-time 36.'; ' ' ' vocations. "While he was- in eastern Canada during May of 1916, President 37 Wesbrook conferred with several government officials about the matter. Arrangements were also made with the Provincial government and by the spring of 1917, short courses in agriculture and mining were in operation. Sixtyfive students attended short courses during that year and 258 in 1917-18. In the academic year 1918-19, the number of students increased to 379. Provision for this number of students by no means met the demand. There was a serious problem of space in which to house and train the men. The Dominion Government was appealed to for the means with which to expand facilities. Their response was not what had been hoped for, but a.grant of $60,000 was made for salaries and equipment and .'.••• Grey including a dormitory to house During the year 1919-2O, the  $11,500 for "special buildings at Point • - ' ' 38 • 75 students." number of short course students rose to  61+0, of whom more than 500 were veterans. A pamphlet published by the Extension 39 Committee in 1919 provided a detailed list of what was being offered.  It  described courses in assaying and special features of"mining, engine operation and maintenance, machine shop techniques, genera.1 electrical work, steam engineering, motion picture projection, mechanical draughting, ship draughting, commercial telegraphy, forestry and several branches of agriculture. Instruction was given mainly by special lecturers paid out of the government grants but also by regular University faculty*. Prom the fall of 1920 the number of students in these courses declined to  until, in the spring of 1921, regular courses ceased.  In all, more than 1300  v  "  '  31  -, •, hi men were helped- in this way to equip themselves for civilian life. The . University played an extremely useful role in providing these courses and benefited by so doing. By bringing together the resources of the University, the Provincial Government, the Soldiers' Civil Re-establishment officials in Vancouver, and the Dominion, authorities, it provided needed training for returned men and at the same time won itself friends throughout the province, friends whose support it was to have occasion to need. Certain buildings., including the cafeteria, which were built to serve the veterans' courses, were later taken over by the University on the Point Grey site. The veterans' program, also brought the University into close contact with the industries of the province. Finally, the program was important in that it brought to the University a number of able, highly trained instructors, some of whom were later to become members of the Faculty of Agriculture. 5» Agricultural Extension During the early years of the University's existence, most of the extension work that was carried on was offered by the members of the Faculty of Agriculture. It was assumed from the beginning that agricultural extension would be an important part of the work of the new institution. The Site, Commission's report of 1910 made proposals about such activities. The first appointment made by President Wesbrook was Dr. Klinck, who was to head the .Faculty of Agriculture. The two of them made several long trips through the " province to survey its nature and needs, and Dr. Klinck, on the President's suggestion, spent part of 1915, 1916, and 1917, "in a study of different . h2 branches of agriculture in the province."  This policy of allowing new staff  and faculty members to become familiar with agriculture in British Columbia before attempting to teach at the University was followed by Dean Klinck and h-3 his successor, Dean F.M. Clement. They wished to make the results of research  32 and teaching at the University of practical value to the farmers of the kk Province.. , '  Although the first degree students in agriculture "were not admitted until the fall of 1917, extension short courses at the University for veterans and others were offered before that time. The first course was announced by an undated form letter which stated, in part,- that This course is especially designed to meet the needs of those, both amateur and professional, who are interested in Horticulture and Horticultural work . . . The aim. is to stimulate interest in the various branches of Horticulture by offering practical instructions based on the Science of Agriculture. . The regulation fee will not be required of returned soldiers.. Forty-four students attended this first course. A pattern soon developed whereby three-month general vocational courses for veterans began in July, October, and April each year. January,. February, and March were reserved for special short courses. Funds from the Military Hospitals Commission and from the Soldiers' Civil Re-establishment financed the work for the veterans. The exact amounts spent are not known but the records indicate that an expenditure of ^,750-00 for this purpose was authorized by the Military Hospitals Commission on k6 December, 1917* Expenditures from the Soldiers' Civil Re-establishment for k'J the year 1919-20, the peak year for enrollment in the program, was $^5,025.00. To these annual amounts for operating expenses were added $81,6^9.23 from Provincial funds and $50,000.00 from Federal for buildings at the Point Grey site to be used in connection with the veterans' courses.1<8 Dean Clement's report to the President on 7 October, 1919, revealed the type of activity included in the veteran's three-month courses. The class was divided into three groups of equal size. Group "A" was taking work in animal husbandry and dairying. Their work began at six in the morning and included  .33  caring for the stables, milking tlie cows, processing the milk, and attending to the animals, in addition to the classroom-work. Group "B" was working on agronomy and poultry husbandry. They too combined day-to-day care of crops and birds with classroom work. Group "C" combined work in horticulture with instruction in blacksmithing and carpentry. The groups rotated each month •'-I-9 and covered all phases of the course during the three-month period. Ten special instructors were employed for these courses throughout the most active years. Ih addition, several regular faculty members gave lectures to the group. The program was a most popular one and the facilities were taxed to capacity. By December, 1919, there was no space in the Point Grey buildings •  . .50  that was not being used by the three-month vocational course.  Funds also became available to the Faculty of Agriculture for carrying on extension activities over and above the courses for veterans. The Agricultural Instruction Act, a federal statute, provided funds to the provinces to assist with special educational work in agriculture. These funds were commonly referred to as the Burrell Grant. With this financial assistance the Faculty of Agriculture was able to develop an impressive extension program very early in its career. Tlie fact that it had arrived so recently on the educational scene handicapped it to some extent in Its attempt to get what it considered to be its fair share of the Burrell Grant. In some quarters there tended to 51  be resentment of these new demands on the funds available.  In an attempt  to clear the air and to reach an agreement on what various agencies should be doing in the field of extension work, the University authorities met several times with officials of the Provincial Departments of Agriculture and Education. Following the meeting of 13 November, 1919, a statement of what had been agreed 52  upon was issued.  Two general principles were established.  The first was that all agri-  cultural research would be conducted by the University.  The other was that  all courses of agricultural instruction exceeding three days' duration, in which particular emphasis is placed on the science underlying the principles taught, be Conducted in future by the University rather than by the/Department o£ Agriculture. Other provisions of the agreement called upon the University to hold field meetings to discuss results of investigations and research, to co-operate with. the Departments of Education and Agriculture (including interchange of instructors for courses), and to confer with the Department of Agriculture before undertaking any new work "in which the application of the two guiding  53 "  •  principles adopted is not perfectly clear." . The Burrell Grant made it possible for the Faculty of Agriculture to maintain an "Extension Service" within the Faculty with a full time extension "assistant" in each of the five departments. ! These men travelled extensively,, organized courses, and carried out survey work. At times it proved difficult to keep the extension program under way because the grant funds were late in reaching the University from the Provincial Government.  In a letter of 20 May, 1920, Dean Clement pointed out to the  Deputy Minister of Education that although the University should have received $24,000 of grant funds during the previous two years ($8,000 in 1918-19 and $16,000 in 1919-20), it had actually received only $4,000 of that amount.  He  explained that the matter was urgent because the account was already overdrawn and there was "no money to meet salaries or expenses at the end of this month." Not until a year later did the University receive all the funds it had been promised.  On 10 May, 1921, Dean Clement informed the President that he had  just received a cheque for $8,000 which had been the balance due.  He had  learned from the Minister of Agriculture that the University would receive  51  • 35 55 $23*000 from the grant during the fiscal year 192:1-22. This level of  56  support was maintained for the next two years.  Two kinds of courses were  offered by the faculty during this period under the Burrell Grant. "Short courses" on the campus were offered in the fields of agronomy, animal husbandry, fruit growing and poultry husbandry. Between 1916 and 1923, 507 57 persons took courses in these fields at the Point Grey site.  "Extension  courses" or rural courses were offered in various other parts of the Province, the content , 58 of - the course being adapted to the. requirements of the particular district.  In the Fraser Valley the emphasis was on dairying, while at  places like Gordon Head it was. on soils, fertilizers, and small fruits. The local district was asked to nominate a committee, which was responsible for the organization of the course and the attendance. The object was to make the district fully 59 responsible for the success of the course, aside from the instruction. The courses were four or five days In length. Some idea of 60 the extent of this program can be obtained from the following. Year  No. of Schools  1918-19  Attendance 196  1919-20  9  570  1920-21  . 5  175  1921-22  . 8  732  1922-23  7  582  33  2255  Total  36 6i In 1921-22, the peak year, schools were held as follows: Barriere Nakusp Invermere Pitt Meadows Pemberton Meadows Vanderhoof Telkwa Terrace  50 131 89 40 36 172 100 ll4  Total  732  There was a wide range of other activities carried on under the Burrell Grant which may more accurately he classified as research, rather than extension, hut which nevertheless resulted in the improvement of farming practices. Perhaps the most prominent of these were the farm surveys of small fruit, dairy and poultry farms conducted in various parts of the Province by the Extension Service. In 1919-20, fifty-eight farms; were included in the survey. By 1923-24, there were 536. Every farmer taking part in the survey was sent a statement showing how he stood in capital investment, income, expenditure, profit or loss, compared to other men on similar farms. Reporting to the Acting-President on the work in late 1924, Dean Clement pointed out that ... all men do not prof it equally from the financial statement sent th.em; some do not profit at all. The great majority are, however, gaining a great deal, as can be seen by a study of the reports sent out, and from the statements made to the field men relative to the work.62 Other research and experimental work carried on at the University that was valuable to the farmers of the Province included: the production of improved strains of wheat, and of various grades of cheese of consistent quality; testing and breeding work with, clovers, grasses, forage'crops and root crops; testing of various fruit tree sprays; and experiments with the bacterial control of milk. In 1923, Vancouver passed a new milk by-law which,  37 for the first time in the history of the city, regulated the bacterial control of milk offered for consumption. According to Dean Clement, this regulation "resulted from advice which had been sought from the Department of Bacteriology  63  and the Department of Dairying of the University." It was learned in 1923 that the Burrell Grant was to be discontinued. The whole Extension Service had been maintained from these funds. The Provincial Government was approached with a request that the work be continued from Provincial funds. I11 his letter to the Minister of Agriculture, Dean Clement stated his belief concerning the value and relative importance of the Extension Service. I hold that the three branches of work in the Faculty, Research, Teach-, ing and Extension, supplement and complement each other; that they are integral parts of a whole, and any re-organization that seems to be necessary because of shortage of funds must give an equal and due consideration to all three branches. The instruction within the University is based on the studies, investigation and researches conducted by and within the various departments. Without this original work, teaching becomes a text book proposition .... The vitality of the internal teaching is dependent on the connection with"the people through the extension service. It is through the extension service that the findings and teachings of the faculty are carried to the people in general. It is not desired in the above to overemphasize any one branch of the organization, but rather to.put all on an equal basis, and if possible to show their interdependence. The Provincial Government declared itself unable to replace the grant out of Provincial sources. The question became, therefore, whether to do away with the extension service entirely or to adjust the faculty's existing budget so as to carry on with as much extension work as possible. Dean Clement's answer was expressed in a letter to the President: I am firmly convinced that the lopping off of certain units of instructional work, and the discontinuance of certain phases of experimental work, even though of marked importance, are to be preferred to the entire abandonment of the extension s e r v i c e . 5  '  •  .  ....  3  8  He forwarded to the President a plan whereby the extension service would be provided with $17,600 in 1924-25. This amount was to be found by reducing expenses In all departments of the Faculty and by utilizing the surplus of 66 Dominion funds which still remained. During the seven years following 1923-24, the Faculty of Agriculture continued to do a great amount of extension work. The number of short course students instructed each year varied between 120 and 175, except for 1929-30,  67 wnen it rose to 279. The extension schools were discontinued.  The farm  surveys were continued and enjoyed the co-operation of more than 500 farmers . each year during the period. lectures, judging, demonstrations, and. other out68 side meetings averaged 150 per year.  Correspondence with farmers in the  province was becoming increasingly technical. The Dean's report to the President for 1927-28 also made mention of a series of fifteen weekly lectures on poultry which had been offered at Haney -under the auspices of the Maple Ridge School District. :  Another type of extension course, the Occupational Course in agriculture,  was authorized in the fall of 1925 and first offered in the fall of 1927. This program was designed for those who desired some grounding in the science of agriculture but who did not, (or could not because of lack of proper qualifications), wish to take a degree. The course included work in all departments of the Faculty. The students attended selected courses along with the degree students and at the end of a year were given a diploma. In the years following 1930, the Faculty of Agriculture, like other Faculties, suffered severe reductions In its budget. Its financial situation vis a vis that of the other Faculties was a key factor In the investigation and in the shaping of public opinion during this period. In the two years  39 1930-31 and 1931-32, the Faculty's appropriation was cut by more than twothirds  Six of the fifteen members of the Faculty were released from the  staff; In the following year the short courses in agriculture were cancelled. In a letter sent to the President in late 1932, the Dean explained that the funds were not available to advertise the courses, the reduced faculty did not have time to teach them, and as a result of leasing of farm lands at the University, the necessary equipment for practical instruction was not available It was not until the year 1934-35 that the tone of the Dean's annual report became more cheerful and hopeful. He reported to the President that the "spirit and morale" of the Faculty had improved during the year as a result of several factors, not the least of which was the prospect, which was by then 70 apparent, of a University extension program. 6. The University Extension Committee The University Extension Committee, often referred to as the Extension Lectures Committee, was formed in 1918. It was the forerunner of the Extension Department and during the years between 1918 and the establishment of the Department, arranged lectures by University faculty in all parts, of the province. The Extension Committee was set up in an effort to improve the public relations of the University. E.H. Clark of the Chemistry Department felt that the situation could be improved if the people of the province knew more about what was going on at the institution. He therefore suggested to the President that an effort be made to send the ablest men available on the campus to lecture throughout the province pointing out the "practical" contributions that the University was making to the province, to science, and to the war effort.71  ko An opportunity to implement this suggestion soon presented itself. At the faculty meeting of 23 September, 1918, a letter was read from the secretary of the Young Men's Christian Association at Hastings Park asking the University to provide a series of lectures for the soldiers In that Camp during the following winter. Dr. Clark suggested the formation of a committee on Ext en- ; sion work and moved that such a committee, to consist of five members, be appointed by the chair. This motion was carried and the letter referred to 72 the copnittee. 73 Hie first meeting of the Committee was held on 3 October, 1918. The members were Dr. Clark (chairman), H. Ashton, J.M.' Turnbull, T.H. Boggs, and P.M. .Clement (secretary). They undertook an ambitious program designed to improve communication between the University and the communities of the province. At the request of the Board of Governors, it was decided to prepare a letter to be sent to the members of the Provincial Legislature informing them about the work being done at the University. Secondly, it was decided to arrange lectures by faculty members in as many communities as possible in co-operation with local organizations. The Committee also recommended the preparation of a pamphlet for distribution to the schools and elsewhere, which would describe life at the University. An appropriation for the.;publication of the pamphlet was to be sought from the Board of Governors. It was decided to comply with the request from the Y.M.C.A. for a series of lectures and members of faculty were to;be asked to volunteer their services and to offer lecture subjects appropriate to the occasion. Finally, the Committee resolved that all faculty members who made public addresses would be asked to report them to the Committee's secretary. The next faculty meeting approved these decisions, referred the lectures service back to the Committee for further study and forwarded the recommendation concerning the pamphlet to the Board  'In lb  ::  '  of Governors. In the end, two pamphlets were published by the University Extension Committee in the following months. One was entitled The University of British Columbia; General Statement of Its Scope and Activities and the other, The University of British Columbia: Descriptive Outline of Courses Offered. Both were datedJanuary, 1919, and were profusely Illustrated. These were followed in the fall of 1925 by three more publications under the auspices of the Committee, Buildings and Equipment of the University of British Columbia, The University of' British Columbia: Research, and The University of British Columbia: Alumai. Meanwhile, the Extension Committee continued to serve as co-ordinator of extra-mural lectures. The Chairman reported to faculty on b December, 1918, that difficulty was being encountered in financing the lecture series for soldiers. On his motion faculty took up a collection among themselves to meet 75 the expenses. U.B.C.'s fifth Calendar (1919-20) was the first one to make mention of extension activities. It described the services available in the following terms:  University Extension Committee  The University Extension Committee is arranging to send lecturers in popular subjects to all parts of the Province. These lecturers will o-o out during the winter under the auspices of organizations applying for them. The Committee m i l defray the cost of travelling and""hotel expenses, ' all local expenses (hall, publicity, etc.) being borne by the local organization. to The Committee reserves the right to arrange dates so as to permit a lecturer to visit several places in the same district on succeeding days and thus to save time and travelling expenses. The number of lecturers sent to any one place will depend entirely upon the interest shown in that locality and upon the funds at the disposal of the Committee. A list of subjects and lecturers can be obtained on application to the Secretary of the Extension Committee. • j  42 Illustrated pamphlets on the general work of the University are at the disposal of persons interested in educational progress in the Province. Applications for copies of these should be made to the Registrar.76 Dean Soward, in his history, points out that this insertion was undertaken as a result of the desire of the University "to make itself better known to all parts of the Province and to meet a real demand for serious popular lectures."  77  The fact that this demand was a real one was demonstrated in subsequent years. The Committee reports available reveal the following numbers of lectures and total audiences between 1918 and 1934. .Number of Lectures  1918-19 1919-20 1920-21 1921-22 1922-23  ,1923-24  1924-25 1925-26 . 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 . 1930-31 1931-32  1932-33  1933-34  Total Audience  24 -  104  88  .. 135 174 _  162 209 183 2kS  19,382 ,22,035  15,454  l6,i48 15,841  207 257 242 331 311  26,635 34,358  The Committee had five different secretaries during this period, P.M. Clement (1918-19), J. Ridington (1919-20), E, K. Angus (1920-21 to 1922-23), W.L. MacDonald (1923-24 to 1925-26 and 1929-30) and'O.J, Todd (1926-27, 1927-28 and 1929-30" to 1934-35). Beginning in the fall of 1919, the Committee made an effort to inform appropriate organizations in the Province that the lectures service;, was available. In November of that year a list of ninety-six lectures which could be given by thirty-seven faculty members was sent out to such groups as schools,  43 Y.M.C.A.'s, Women's Institutes and Boards of Trade. A covering letter, which was signed by Dr. Clark, explained that: ... the University Extension Committee is prepared to send out a limited number of lecturers to those parts of the Province where sufficient public interest: exists, or can be aroused, to warrant the expenditure of time, effort and money involved.' The letter also provided details with respect to costs and requested that the local group indicate their first: six choices among the attached list of lecture topics and return their request to-the University. An indication of how anxious the.-Committee was to promote this service Is provided by the fact that in cases where no reply was forthcoming from the community, a second letter • ' 79 • ' • • was sent requesting a response. Thereafter, a similar list of speakers and 80 . topics was sent out each year. The extent of the lecture service over the years was of course influenced by financial considerations. At the outset, as has been pointed out, the local sponsor was responsible for local expenses related to the meeting and the University for the transportation and hotel costs. By early 1922, however, those conditions had changed. In mid-February Kir. Angus informed a correspondent in Victoria that In previous years the University was able to provide funds to pay the transportation expenses and hotel expenses of lecturers, but in the curr-nt year the most that we have been able to do has been to grant some assistance m special cases.OJBy 1931 the financial crisis which the University was facing began to have a limiting effect on extension activities. Lectures offered outside the Vancouver area became much less numerous owing to the. abolition of the grant for travelling expenses.  A few years later, speaking before the Vancouver Institute, Presi-  dent Klinck reviewed the history of extension work. He recalled that it had begun in 1918 and gradually expanded  hk  .  until 1932 -when the scope of its operations was severely restricted as the result of its being placed on a self-supporting b a s i s . 3 Other policies affecting the lecture service were clarified as the need arose. In February of 1921 Mr. /Angus informed a Vancouver clergyman that ... lectures are arranged especially with a view of meeting the requirements of people outside Vancouver, that is to say/ of people who cannot under any circumstances attend lectures given at the University. A few lectures have been arranged for particular organizations in Vancouver, but in almost every case these arrangements have been made with the lecturers direct.. I am to say that the Extension Committee do not feel that they could.undertake the arrangement of a series to be delivered in any one church.®^ fflae attitude of some members of faculty to giving lectures in Vancouver and to extension work in general was revealed by an incident in early 1922. S.M. Eastman of the History Department wrote Mr. Angus, suggesting that it would be . more beneficial if instead of giving lectures "at haphazard all over Vancouver", the Committee offered a course of "say six or eight lectures in some special field." He suggested that he might do such a series on the French Revolution  •  .  . •.. . • '85 .  or the Italian Renaissance.  ' ^  Ihe reaction;, of several persons to this  suggestion was sought by the Committee.. Dean Brock's opinion was that : It would not do to establish [this policy] in Vancouver. Our Extension work is designed to introduce the Staff and the University to the Province and to give outside points some of the advantages of the University that Vancouver enjoys. At: present we are not in a position to do this in an adequate way and therefore should not contemplate night classes in Vancouver. 86 Dean Clement and Dean H.JE.J. Coleman expressed similar opinions. One of the most colourful incidents in the history of extension activity 87 at this University began during the fall of 1920.  Mr. R.G. Drost of the  Central City Mission approached Dr. Boggs at that time and asked if he would offer a series of lectures at the Mission. He explained that the coming winter could be a tempestuous one in labour circles in Vancouver and that there were a large number of loggers and longshoremen temporarily out of work in the city  •who could profit by a series of lectures on economics. He warned that there were a great number of radicals among them. Dr.- Boggs and Mr. Angus decided to undertake the series. They took turns speaking on the main topics in a general survey course,in Economics. Mr. Drost had suggested that perhaps between forty and one hundred men would attend. On the first night six hundred people were in the hall, and throughout the series-the audiences were between four hundred and six hundred each week. The procedure was that the speaker introduced the subject by speaking for thirty to forty-five minutes, after which thirty minutes was allowed for questions. For the next  thirty  minutes members of the audience were allowed three minutes each to make a statement on, the subject. This unusual procedure allowed an opportunity for members of the audience, some of whom were eloquent, educated, and witty, to have their say. For the first few weeks, every participant from the audience poured scorn on the speaker, ridiculing his "thinly veiled attempt to disguise the fact that the: Board of Trade was behind it all." Dr. Boggs remembers the taunt, "We know why you're here." After, a few weeks had passed, there was a change in the tone of the audience's comments. They began to thank the speakers for their remarks. The speaker's views were wrong - and they proceeded to explain why - but they recognized them as independently held views, ones which were just as unpalatable in Board of Trade circles as they were in. the Central City Mission.' Ihe Extension Committee experienced some difficulty in persuading community organizations and faculty alike to avail themselves of the Committee's co-ordinating function. Mr. Angus pointed out to an organization which had booked.two faculty members for the.same night in early 1921 that  46 It has been suggested that any lectures to be given by members of the University staff should be arranged for through the Extension Lecture Committee (sic) of the University .... This would avoid all confusion as to dates ... A few days later a letter from Mr. Angus was read to a faculty meeting  ••''' .  ••  ' 89  requesting that all lectures which were arranged be reported to the Committee. The Committee's annual report ended with the sentence: The rule that all lectures should be reported to this Committee has not been strictly observed. Some Indication of the difficulty encountered in retaining the cordial co-operation of faculty members was given by the Committee's correspondence for the year 1924-25. One Department head, when asked to submit a list of addresses his staff were prepared to offer, answered that he would lecture only if he were paid $25-00 and expenses for each lecture and that the Com-  91  mittee would have to contact his staff members individually.  Another faculty  member announced that owing to the nature of his previous year's tour to the Okanagan he had decided not "to have anything more to do with University Extension work." There were several indications over the years that the Committee was interested in extension activities other than lectures. In late 1920 the secretary wrote the registrar of the University of Wisconsin asking for information as. to what that Institution was doing in the way of supplying material for debates or short bibliographies to interested organizations. Mr. Angus e x p l a i n e d ^ the Committee had been asked to undertake "work of this sort" atU.B.C.  The Committee's report for the year 1923-24 concluded m t h this  sentence: With a view to^ extending the scope of Extension; work, and to organizing it on a more regular basis than at present maintained, L attempt K b e w m d e £ £ £ £ £ ^ ^ ^ literature bearing on t h e ^ e c ^ ? ^  47 In the report of the following year, the secretary pointed out that a request - for a tutorial class has been received from Victoria, Indicating that "the public was coming to expect more than lectures, in the way of extension services." He added that several .requests had-been received for library service such, as were supplied by the University of Alberta and suggested that it might be  94 advisable to set up such a service in British Columbia.  In spite of these  Various indications of interest in other forms of extension work, no other kinds of service were inaugurated during the period. The Committee played a role in arranging radio talks beginning in , 1924-25. The first mention of such activities appeared in its report for that year, which stated that a series of lectures had been given on the radio by members of the Faculty of Agriculture, In the report Dr. MacDonald quoted Dean Clement's comments on the radio series to the effect that it had been "a huge success" and that-letters of appreciation had been received from as far  95  south as Oregon.  Dr. MacDonald commented that the success of the radio  series had "opened up a whole new area for extension activities." lo systematic record of the number of radio taOks given by faculty members in the subsequent years appears to have been kept but the Committee's report for 1926-27 stated that forty-four lectures had been given that year. Two organizations were established during this period which were closely associated with the University Extension Committee. Their purpose was to provide serious lectures by faculty members and others for interested members of the'general public. These were the Vancouver Institute and the University Extension Association of Victoria. The Vancouver Institute was organized as a result of a suggestion made to President Wesbrook in l9l6 by L.F. Robertson of the Classics Department.96  48 A series of organizational meetings, the first of which was held on 25 February of that year, created the organization and President Wesbrook became its first president., The first public meeting was held on 12 October. The purpose of, the Institute was stated in its first program. The Vancouver Institute has been formed to bring under one organization the various Courses of Lectures of public interest which have hitherto been delivered independently by a number of Vancouver Societies and Associations: and also to provide additional lectures of public educational value. The meetings were held at the University (Pairview) for the first nine years. The lectures were relatively well attended. A high point was reached during 1924-25, when the average-attendance was 175. When the University moved to its permanent home on Point Grey the following fall, the Council of the Institute decided that the meetings should continue to be held in the city. The next four years, which have been called the "vagrant years" by the Institute1 s historian, were difficult ones for the organization. Membership and attendance decreased greatly and fewer University faculty were lecturing than had previously been the case. In June of 1929 the Institute accepted President ICLinck's invitation to meet at the University the following season, a practice which was continued thereafter. The connection between the organization and the University was further strengthened in. 1933 by a constitutional revision which entitled the President to appoint two members of the Council of 97 the Institute. Dr. Williams has commented: This change in constitution was based upon experience and was in accord m t h the more intimate relationship between thelxstitute and^he Sniversity. The University Extension^Association of Victoria was less directly connected with the University.  Mr. J.T. Stott of Victoria, who was an  admirer of the tutorial f o m of extra-mural studies in Great Britain, was  1+9 interested in launching a similar venture in Victoria as an, extension program of the University of British Columbia. He began corresponding with the ' 99 Extension Committee in the summer of 1923- • The end result was not a tutorial class but the formation of the University Extension Association of Victoria. The objects of the Association were stated as "the arrangement of courses of University extension lectures" and100 "co-operation with other organizations in any form of educational activity."  Although the University did not accede  to Mr. Stott's repeated requests that the lectures be put on a tutorial basis, (including the opportunity for students to submit papers to the lecturers) his efforts did result in the decision to organize the season's lectures Into brief series on related topics. The organization of the Association was completed by the end of October, 1923, and the first lecture was delivered on 16 November by Dean Coleman. The University agreed to pay-all the costs of providing the first speaker each year plus half the cost of the reminder.  The Association had 141 members the  first year and the number fluctuated between that figure and 93 (1930-31) in the balance of the period. ..Jn the fall of 1932, the University announced that it was no longer able to pay its share of the expenses and the Association responded by taking the whole burden Itself* '^  correspondence on file at the University and the recollections of  those who took part in the organization's activities attest to the great amount of time and energy Mr. Stott gave to the Association. On the tenth anniversary of its founding'Mr. Stott presented a review of the past years' activities. There had been 107 lectures given over the ten year period, all but four bv 101  University faculty members.  *  50 la the summer of 1934, when Dr. Peter Sandiford directed the first national survey of adult education in Canada, the study of British Columbia was conducted by E.A. Corbett, then Director of the Extension Department of the University of Alberta. His findings serve as a summary of the University's activities in the field on the eve of events leading to the creation of the Department of University Extension. Professor Corbett reviewed extension activities at U.B.C. under four main headings: lectures for community organizations; radio talks; Saturday and evening credit lecture courses (see Chapter V); and Summer School. He also pointed, out that the Vancouver Institute and the University Extension Association of Victoria were operating "in co-operation with" the University. Although Professor Corbett found little extension activity at the University on which to report in 1934, the foregoing pages have given some indication of what had been accomplished in the previous nineteen years. The vocational rehabilitation of veterans of the First World War had been the first task. As long as funds were available, an agricultural extension service had been maintained. The faculty of the University had provided a lecture service of considerable scope beginning in 1918. The University was soon to have the opportunity to give further evidence of the importance it 102 attached to extension work.  CHAPTER III FOOTNOTES  1, - For details on the earlier history of McGill University College of British Columbia and the steps leading up to the founding of U.B.C- see: Soward, F.H., The Early History of the University of British Columbia, Mss,, typed on one side of page, 1930; Logan, H.T., Tuum Est, Vancouver, The University of British Columbia, 1958; Corbett, E.A., Henry Marshall Tory, Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1954; Kidd, J.R., A Study of the Influence Tory: on Educational Policy in Canada, M. A, Thesis, McGill, 19447 Robinson, Alexander, "History of Education" in Canada and its Provinces, vol. 22, pp. 401-444. : 2, Kidd, The Influence of H.M. .Tory, p. 35. 3. letter, (5 Oct., 1955), T.H. Matthews (Registrar of McGill University) to ' author. ; j 4. H.T., Logan, In interview frith the author. 5.. Soward, Early History of U.B.C., 74, and Logan, Tuum Est, pp. 31~4l. For background on pertinent legislation of 1907 and 1908 see Gibson, W.C., "Makers of the University - Henry Esson Young," U.B.C. Alumni Chronicle, vol. 9, no. .2, (Summer I.955), pp. 16-17. ——6. It was actually dated 28 June. 7. Anonymous pamphlet, University Location in British Columbia, U.B.C. Library, p. 60. ~~ 8. Vancouver Mews Herald, 4 August/1944. 9. H.T. Logan in an interview with the author. 10. Wesbrook, F.F., "The Provincial University in Canadian Development," Science, U.S., vol. 39, (March 20, 1914), p. 4l8, 11. Notes prepared by Dr. Klinck for Interview with author, 27 January, 1956. 12. Notes prepared by Dr. Klinck for the author. 13. Notes prepared by Dr. Klinck for the author, 14. H.T. Logan in an Interview with the author. Dr. Klinck confirmed in an interview that he approved of the funds being put to that use. 15. Soward, Hie Early History of U.B.C., p. 200, ^  Ibid., pp. 200-03.  52 FOOTNOTES'  (continued)  17. See The Victoria Colonist, 11 February, 1921. 18. The Victoria Times, 19 'November., 1921. 19. The Victoria . Times, 25 November, 1922. 20. The Victoria Times, 2. December, 1922. 21. A.D. Paterson. See Victoria Colonist, 11 December, 1924. . 22. Vancouver Sun, 4 March, 1927. . 23. See also Vancouver Sun, 12 Noveiober, 1925, p. 1 and Victoria Colonist, 8 December, 1925. • 24. See Soward, The_ Early History of U.B.C,, p. 263-4 and Logan, Tuum Est, pp. 109-12. ~~ ' 25. $587,000 /bo $250,000. See Logan, Tuum Est, pp. 110-13, 1 1 5 . 26. See Vancouver Province, 12 December. 1Q2Q. 27. For,a brief account of the internal, trouble see Lett, Sherwood, "Events Leading Up to the University Investigation," Graduate Chronicle, May, 1932. . Also Vancouver Sun, 26 March, ,1932 and Victoria Colonist, 6 April, 1932. 28. Harvey, Isobel, "Frank Fairchild Wesfrrook," Graduate Chronicle, May, 1932. 29. Vancouver Star, 28 July, 1931. 30. Vancouver Province, 22 September, 1933, p. 3 of magazine section.. 31.; Vancouver Sun, 26 December, 1929. 32. Vancouver Sun, 8 January, 1930. 33. Vancouver Sun, 11 March, 1931. 34. Somrd, The Early History of U.B.C., p. 368. 35- This "pressure" reported to the author by G.G. Moe and T.H. Bosgs in separate interviews. 36. Notes prepared by. Dr. ItLinck for author. 37. See Soward, Earl^ History of O A , meet  ngS b e t T C e n J a a  Appendix 22, p. 570 ff. Most Board  H XTf^f J - 1916 and Dec. 1920 dealt with some phase or this matter. See especially minutes of 17 April, 1916.  53 FOOTNOTES' 38.  (continued)  Soward, Early History of U.B.C., p. 227.  39« The University of British Columbia; Descriptive Outline of Courses Offered. It is noteworthy that of 36 pages of pictures and text, 9 were devoted to extension work. Hie full statement on "Returned Soldiers' Vocational Work" will be found in Appendix I. 40. Totals for the subsequent years were 1920-21/550, 1921-22/83. Klinck, L.S., in Record of Service in the Second World War, Vancouver, U.B.C., p. l6. 42.  Notes prepared by Dr. Klinck for the author.  43* Separate conversations with both men. See letter, (31 Oct., 1918), L.S. Klinck to Hon. J.D. McLean, Minister of Education. 45. This letter is preserved in the files of the Faculty of Agriculture, hereafter referred to as Agrie. Files. 46. Memo, (8 May, 1918), in Agric. Files. 47. Budget itemized in Agric. Files. Amount for the following year, the last year of regular classes, was $24,177.00. 48.  This amount itemized in Agric. Files, 1 9 2 1 .  49. Letter, (7 October, 1919), F.M. Clement to L.S. Klinck. 50. Letter, (9 Dec., 1919), F.M. Clement to Miss G.A. Coley, Agric. Files. 51. Dean F.M. Clement in interview with author. 52. See Appendix II for full text. 53- For most important discussions of Burrell Grant at Board of Governors, see minutes of meetings on March, April, May and June of 1921, May, June and December, 1923 and May, 192^. 5h. letter, (20 May, 1920), F.M. Clement to J.W. Gibson. Grant funds came to the University via the Provincial Department of Agriculture. 55- Letter, (ll May, 1921), F.M. Clement to Pres. Klinck. 56. Memo, (3 April, 1924), F.M. Clement to Pres. Klinck.  FOOTNOTES  (continued)  57. Memorandum (l2 Oct., 1921) F.M. Clement to President Klinck. 58. Detailed course outlines of several courses in Agrlc. Piles. 59. Letter (9.December,'. 1919) E-M. Clement to Miss G.A. Coley. 60. Compiled from reports to President. 61. Letter (7 April, 1922) P.M. Clement to President .Klinck. Most students did not attend all the lectures. These figures were, average attendances and represent approximately half the actual total attendance. 62. Report (18 Oct., 1924) F.M. Clement to R .F. • Brock. 63. Ibid.  •  :• -  64. Quoted in memo (3 April, 1924) F.M.. Clement to President Klinck. . 65. Letter (7 February, 1924) F.M. Clement to President Klinck. 66. This budget and other related material are in the Agrie. Files for the years concerned. 67:. Courses were"held in Invermere and Nakusp in' 1929-30, the only ones in the .period. . 68. • Figure given in Dean's statement to Senate. 69. Letter (22 Dec., 1932) FiM. Clement to President Klinck. 70. President's Report, 1934-35, p. 25-6.71. R.H. Clark in an interview with the author. 72. Minutes of Faculty lo. 348: 23 Sept., 1918. 73. See minutes in Appendix III.  74. Minutes of Faculty lo. 358: 8 Oct., 1918. 75.. Minutes of Faculty Ho. 384: 4 Dec., 1918. 76. U.B.C. Calendar, 1919-20. 77. Soward,.The Early History of U.B.0^. P. 2^0. 78. Letter in Extension Committee Correspondence 1919-20. 79. See Appendix IV for text of both letters.  '  55 FOOTNOTES  (continued)  80. Hie Annual Report of the Committee for 1925-26 stated that the secretary's , failure to take, the ^ initiative , during the year in arranging lecture tours had resulted in fewer of them. .81. Letter (ll Feb., 1922) H.F. Angus to ¥.E. Harper, Victoria. .82., Report of the Senate Committee, 13 Dec., 1933. 83. Address delivered on 16 Noy.:, 1935. "A Plan for Adult Education in British Columbia." In 1931-32, the Committee's total expenditure had been #553,.42. 84. Letter (15 Feb., 1921) H.F. Angus to Rev. H.J. Gardiner. 85. Original letter not. available. Copies made by the Committee do not show its: date. 86. These replies among Committee correspondence 1921-22. 87.' The following based largely on recollections of Dr. T.F. Boggs as told to author in interview. 88. Letter (31 Jan., 1921) Mr. Angus to Mr. Glenesk. 89. Minutes of Faculty No. 824: 9 .Feb., 1921. 90. Annual Report 1920-21 in Correspondence. 91. letter (l Oct., 1924) G. G. Sedgewick to W.L. MacDonald. 92. Letter (27 Sept., 1924) C. McLean Fraser to W.L. MacDonald.,. 93. Letter (20 Dec., 1920) H.F. Angus to The Registrar, University of Wisconsin. 94., Annual Report of the Committee for 1924-25. 954 Ibid. ^  ^ ? 3 l i o w i n s account is based on minute books, scrap books, and programs of the Institute which are deposited with the U.B.C. Library, on conversa: " a t h 2 r e s e n t and former officers, and on a history of the organization wh!ch has been written by Dr. M.Y. Williams. His history is at the time ..,- of iwxting still in manuscript form.  97?  G.M.^Shrum was the key figure in the revival of the Institute and in the constitutional changes"made at this time.  56 FOOTNOTES'  (continued)  98.  Tlie following account is based on the correspondence of the Extension Lectures Committee, minutes and scrap books in the Provincial Archives, Victoria, and correspondence and conversations with and present executive members of the Association.  99.  The first letter was dated 17 June, 1923, J.T. Stott to H.F. Angus.  100. Formally approved at meeting of 18 Oct.,. 1923. See Minute Book No. 1, University Extension Association of Victoria (u.E.A.V.). 101. Minute Book No. 1, U.E.A.V. 102. Certain other types of extension activity began in the period covered by this chapter but discussion of them has been reserved to the appropriate chapters below. This is true of evening classes, extra-sessional credit courses, and professional short courses.  CHAPTER III  STEPS IEADINGTO THE CREATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF UNIVERSITY EXTENSION: 1933 - 1936 In the latter half of 1933, President Klinck received two letters, the contents of which were to have great significance for the future of extension work. One was from the Carnegie Corporation of New York and announced that a grant of $50,000 was "being made available to the University for projects of its own choosing. The other was from the Vancouver Council of Social Agencies. It reminded the University of its responsibility for adult education and enclosed a tentative course outline for a series on "Social Problems, Methods and Agencies." Each of these letters touched off a series of events within the University which converged in October of 1934, and led to the creation of the Department of University Extension in April, 1936. 1. The Carnegie Grant In late November, 1933, President Klinck received the following letter • 1 from the President of the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Dear President Klinck, Our Trustees have set aside $200,000 at a recent meeting to enable the Corporation to support some worthy undertaking which would cost not more than $50,000, at each of the four Western provincial Universities of Canada. We want the Universities to propose the enterprises to us. What we have in mind is that in these periods of general depression to say nothing of the peculiar difficulties which Western Canada has had to face, there may be a real opportunity for us to be of service beyond the sums involved, since the very fact of starting some new and significant work is likely to have a stimulating effect on the morale of the institution In question. While I do not wish to do your thinking for you, I venture to say that one worth while job would be more likely to have the effect desired than a division of the funds available among a number of smaller enterprises.  58 Would you be kind enough to discuss this matter with your associates and let me hear from you at your convenience? With best wishes, Sincerely yours, "F.P. Keppel"  2  The President acknowledged Dr. Keppel's letter a week later and on 28 November asked the Secretary of the Senate to place the matter on the •  •  3  agenda for. the next meeting of that body. At the next meeting of the Faculty of Arts and Science, which was held on 5 January, 1934, Dr. Keppel' s letter was read. The minutes reveal that several possible projects had already been suggested. A letter was received from the Faculty of Applied Science which suggested a Joint Faculty Committee to consist of the President, the Deans, and representatives of each faculty to consider the offer and to receive proposals for the use of the funds. Appointed to the committee were: for Arts 4' and Science - Dean Buchanan, H.F. Angus,. W.N. Sage, and A.H. Hutchinson; for. Applied Science - Dean Brock, 5  J.M. Turribull, H. Vickers, and M.Y. Williams; for Agriculture - Dean Clement, 6 H.M. King, and G.G. Moe. By the end of the month-the Joint Committee had 7  gathered the suggestions of faculty, narrowed the twenty-five proposals down to three major and five minor ones, and taken a vote among all faculty members to determine their preferences. The three major proposals were: 1. a project to raise educational standards of the Province by providing opportunities for advanced study and research for members of the staff and giving employment and teaching experience to graduate students, 2. a .proposal to improve the relations of the University to the people of the Province by increasing Its usefulness to and its contact with them by extra-University activities, more particularly by organizing and supervising adult education under University auspices, with,.at the moment, special attention to educational work in Unemployment Camps.  59 3® Side by side with the project for an Investigation of the economic crisis in B.C. is mentioned the project for an Historical Study of Settlement in B.C./ since,the field work necessary for the former may facilitate the execution of the latter, 8 Using a preferential ballot, faculty members gave 16k points to the project to raise educational standards, 117 to the extension proposal, 86 to one of the "minor" projects (providing Master's degree work), and 59 to the inves9' tigation of the economic crisis. Of these suggestions the one which is of greatest interest for the purpose of . this study and the one to which the majority of the $50,000 grant was eventually devoted, is the "proposal to improve the relations of the University to the people of the Province."  It was suggested for consideration  by A.F. Barss of the Faculty of Agriculture. Dr. Barss had been at the University since 1918 and had taken an active part in the veterans' rehabilitation, program and in the extension program carried on by his facility. He had been greatly disappointed when the termination of the Burrell Grant and the subsequent reduction of his faculty's budget resulted in the elimination of 10 extension work. . When, therefore, an opportunity presented itself to launch a "new and significant" project which would haye a "stimulating effect on the morale of the institution," he naturally thought of the revival of extension activities,  -  '  1 1  Dr. Barss's submission contained some strong words.  •  The first para-  graph, headed "The Present Situation," was a vivid commentary on the situation in which the /University then found itself,. This University is suffering severely from lack, of contact with its constituency - the people of this Province. The present condition of relative Isolation Is having a serious effect on the University as a whole, as well as upon its faculties and the individual staff members. The blame for the shrinkage in the number of students, for the criticisms of the public, for the indifference or hostility of the Press, cannot all  3312  be placed on the present depression, but rather may in large measure be credited to the enforced lack of touch with the "outside." He went on to point-out that for reasons of self-preservation or out of duty to the tax-paying public, there was a need to provide a variety of services which elsewhere had come to be included within the work of an extension or adult education department. He suggested the creation of such a department, which would include among its services: 1. A "Field" Secretary who would meet interested groups or individuals and discuss the University with them. . 2. The University news service and bulletin service. 3. A radio broadcasting station with a program arranged by the University. Lecture series, Short Courses, Extension Schools at various points In the-Province. 5. Conferences or annual meetings of various organizations sponsored by the University and held at the University. 6. University "Open House" or inspection tours arranged for interested bodies, clubs, institutes, school classes, high school teachers, etc. When, at a later date, Dr. Barss expanded his submission for presentation to the Senate and Board of Governors, he added to the list of services which might be offered. He suggested a conference or series of conferences in the Province to determine the needs of the public. He also added a general heading, "Adult Education," and included under it such things as evening classes, reading courses, short courses, study groups, vocational refresher courses, and "Unemployed Camp Schools." He also suggested a library loan service for the rural areas. The faculty forwarded their recommendations to the Senate and Board of 12  Governors in late January, 1934.  Qn. receipt of this communication, both bodies  appointed members to a joint committee and referred the matter to them. Three, meetings of the joint committee were held during February. At the last of these,  the projects still under consideration, including Dr. Barss1s, were referred hack to their sponsors for further elaboration. In late March President Klinck met the Presidents of the other three Western Universities at Winnipeg to discuss matters related to the grant. The President found, that most of the Universities were giving some consideration to extending adult education services and that all present agreed that it would be a worthy project for the Carnegie funds.  The President reported  on' the, Winnipeg meeting to the joint committee, on 27 April. A decision was made at that time to recommend the Barss proposal as one of the proiects to be 15 financed.  At the next meeting of the committee, on 9 August, it was decided  to recommend that $30,000 be used for extension and adult education, $10,000 for subsidizing travel expenses to learned societies for those who were to present papers, and $10,000 for scholarships and equipment for graduate work. Expenditure of these sums in each case might be extended over a period of three 16 or four years.  This recommendation was accepted by the Senate on k September,  and by the Board of Governors six days later. Why did the University decide to devote the majority of the Carnegie funds to the extension proposal? Dr. Barss had submitted it in the first place in the belief that it would "improve the relation of the University to the province." He and several other faculty members who took an active part in the deliberations at that time, agree that it was the desire to improve the public relations of the University that was the main reason why the proposal was adopted.  A strong factor in the situation too was the whole-hearted support 18  of the President for the project.  President Klinck sums up the reasons for  the decision as follows: 1. Thirteen years of practical experience with this type of education.  62 2. The eager response on the part of practically all classes. 3. The increasing public interest and insistent appeal for a wider range of subjects and courses. Willingness of the extension classes to assume a larger measure of responsibility and to defray an increasing proportion of the cost. 5. An aid to enabling a.larger number of the professorial staff to keep in touch with the people. . 6. The possibility of obtaining increased financial support from governments, corporations and individuals. 7. The conviction that Adult Education-was one of the most significant educational movements not only for the day but for the future. 8. And finally, to comply with the terms of the Carnegie Corporation's grant, namely, "to enable the University to initiate some new and significant work which would have a stimulating effect on the morale of the 9 Once it had been decided to spend $30,000 on extension and adult education, the next step was to ensure that the money was spent in the best possible way. The Senate decided at its meeting in October to place super-  20 vision of this work in the hands of its Committee on Extra-University Teaching. This committee had been set up to deal with the other letter President Klinck received in the fall of 1933. 2.- The Falk Letter and Committees on Extra-University Teaching In July of 1933, .President Klinck received a letter from J.H.T. Falk of the Vancouver Council of Social Agencies which set out (at the President's request) the former's views with respect to extension lectures. The letter called upon the University to live up to its responsibility in the field of adult education. The author pointed out that since boyhood days he had "been accustomed to think of a university as a powerful factor in shaping adult public opinion within the community in which the university Is established." He cited  63 Liverpool, Oxford, and McG-ill Universities as institutions that were attesting to do their duty in this respect and pointed out that the need was particularly urgent "at this time of flux in our social and economic thinking." With that in mind he attached a tentative outline for a course of fourteen lectures on "Social Problems, Methods and Agencies" which he hoped would be offered by the University of British Columbia. The President sent a copy of the letter to the Senate, where it was discussed at their first meeting in the fall terra. It was referred to a committee to be named by the Chair. The Committee was also directed "to consider the wider question" of responsibility for adult education and to  22  report back to the next meeting of Senate.  The committee which was named  was made up of H.E. Angus (chairman)', J.N. Harvey, P.A. Boving, W.H. Vance, Dean Brock, and the President, ex officio. The first meeting of the committee was taken up largely with discussion of objections certain members had to a memorandum circulated in advance by the chairman. It was, however, agreed that the chairman should "ascertain ... the status of ''Adult Education' in different parts of Canada and the United States." After prolonged discussion a motion was carried to the effect that The Committee is prepared to approve of the principle of external instruction - provided that such work does not interfere with the interests of the regular student body.23 The minutes of the four subsequent meetings of this committee have not been found. Its report, which was made available in December, was prefaced by  24  two statements of principle.  The first was that no extra-university instruc-  tion should prejudice the interests of the regular students; specifically that all work should be self-supporting financially, that no university instructor should be overloaded, and that no instructor should be absent from lectures for  ;  6k an unreasonable length of time. The second principle was that all instructors should "be appointed by the University and that the content of every course should be approved by the head of the department concerned. The following specific recommendations were made: (a) That the Senate assume direct responsibility for extra-university instruction. (b) That extension lecture work of the type hitherto in operation be approved. (c) That organizations inviting lecturers be allowed to charge an admission fee to defray the expenses incurred - but not to raise money for other purposes. (d) That organized extra-university instruction (i.e. courses of lectures designed as teaching courses) be also approved on the following principles: ,1. That the classes shall not carry university credit, ii. That, as already provided, they shall be self-supporting, iii. That as many departments of the university as possible shall offer courses, though not necessarily in the same year. (e) That these policies, In their purely academic aspects, shall be elaborated and carried out by a Senate committee of five to be appointed by the Chair. •(f).- That this Committee shall make an annual report to Senate on Its , detailed policy - the first report to be made as early as p o s s i b l e . The report also suggested that the committee to be appointed consider the '  -26  desirability of offering a course along the lines of Mr. Falk's suggestion. : These recommendations were approved by Senate and forwarded . 27. : 7 to the Board of  Governors.  The committee named by the President in compliance with the terms  of the recommendations, was called the Senate Committee on Extra-University Teaching and was made up of Dean Brock (chairman), Dean Buchanan, Dean Clement, Dr. Evlyn F. Farris, and Mr. Angus. At their first meeting they named Dr. O. J. Todd of the Classics Department as of the committee and referred the ..•'secretary 20 Falk letter to the Board of Governors.  65 When the Board met on 29 January it had before it the recommendations forwarded from Senate as well as the letter from the Senate committee referring the Falk proposal for its consideration. The President submitted a further memorandum to the meeting stating that his general attitude toward the proposals was favourable "but that recommendations having to do with finances required  29 . •  careful study."  ,  ,He also spoke in support of the idea that the University  should "look forward" to establishing a Department of Extension. In accordance with his suggestion, these matters were referred to a Board of Governors' Committee on Extra-University Teaching. The committee of the Board met in mid-February and at that time decided to arrange a joint meeting with the Senate committee of the same name. The President presented a detailed memorandum pointing out the implications of several of the Senate's recommendations, particularly the one stipulating that extra-university activity was "to be financially self-supporting. He also raised the question as to who was to be in charge of extension work, the President, as had been the case up until30 that time, or the chairman of the Senate Committee on Extra-University Teaching.  A memorandum on this meeting written by the.  President explained that the committee felt it did not have sufficient information to enable It to deal with the matters at hand. It also wished to defer further  consideration until the President had returned from a national sym-  posium on adult education for which invitations had been issued by W.J. Dunlop of the University of Toronto. The Board of Governors endorsed this view later in the month and so did. the first joint meeting of the two Committees onExtraUniversity Teaching which was held shortly thereafter. At the Toronto meetings, which were held in late May, President Klinck was named as British Columbia's representative on a continuing committee charged  66 with, the task of planning a national organization in the field of adult • ' 31 education.  Back in British Columbia, the: President met with a former  University colleague, the Hon. G.M. Weir, who had become Minister of Education in the new Liberal Government, to discuss adult education. The latter expressed great interest in the field and pointed out that the Provincial Government had voted funds in 32the current fiscal year with which to enlarge its activities ih the field. It was in the following September that the Senate and Board of Governors decided that $30,000 of the Carnegie grant would be spent on extension and adult education. When, therefore, the Senate Committee on Extra-University Teaching reported to that body the following month, consideration of the items in the report was postponed until after "the proposed re-organization of Extra33 University Teaching."  In this way, the two matters which had been under  consideration separately for almost a year, the Carnegie grant and extension activity, had officially been brought together. Senate referred.the further consideration of both matters to its Committee on' Extra-University Teaching. 3. Working Out a Policy for Adult Education Activity In the next few days the newspapers in Vancouver and Victoria carried full stories on both the division of the Carnegie grant and the type of adult • •• 35. adult education contemplated. In the Victoria Colonist it was stated that The University of British Columbia is reaching out into the province to put its facilities at the service Of constructive men and women in the fieids of both industry and thought. Its aim is not only the education of youth, but to place its technical and cultural knowledge at the disposal of those who are building up the province industrially, and those anxious to study current trends of opinion or to broaden their,educational background. Technical knowledge is brought to the miner, farmer, fisherman, lumberman, etc.; academic learning on scores of subjects to any who are. Interested. 3°  67 Within the University, the task remained of working out a detailed program for the use of the $30,000, a policy to govern such activities, and the administrative machinery for carrying them out. She Board of Governors, like the Senate, decided to leave these matters for the time being with its 37 Committee on Extra-University Teaching.  At the Board meeting of 26 November,  action on the Senate's recommendation that a Director of Extra-University Teaching be appointed was deferred until the joint committee had brought in  - 38-  its findings. The President prepared a series of questions concerning the policy to govern extension work which he presented to the Senate Committee in early December. Those for immediate consideration by the Senate Committee were: 1. The object and scope of Extra-University Teaching should be defined. 2. Should a department of Extra-University Teaching be established, or should a purely temporary organization be set up? 3-  If a department is established, what name should it bear?  k. If a department is not constituted, should the organization and  administration of whatever work is undertaken come under this Committee, or should a special committee be appointed for this purpose?  For consideration in joint session: 1. Should Extra-University Teaching be made self-supporting?"^ 2. Should the entire cost of administering Extra-University Teaching be charged.against the $30,000.00 obtained from the Carnegie Corporation Grant, or should the University include an Item, either regular or special, in its estimates for this purpose?  3. Should a Director be appointed or an Executive Secretary? 4. Should a special staff of lecturers be appointed ... or should the regular staff be increased sufficiently to carry the additional load? Should lecturers receive remuneration? 6. Should fees be charged?  68 7-  If fees are imposed, should they be kept on a self-supporting basis, or should the aim be to make Extra-University Teaching a profitproducing service?  8. Will the correlating of all existing work in adult education in the province be a part of the duties of the Director or of the Executive Secretary as the case may be? 9. Is it probable that the University can secure an experienced Director without having some very concrete proposal to make with respect to academic policy, rank, salary, tenure of office, and a reasonable assurance that there will be funds to continue the work for at least five years? Further consideration of these and other matters was deferred until after the > ho President had consulted with the Minister of Education. Apparently the University was desirous of obtaining an additional grant from the government which would help to finance extension work after the Carnegie grant was spent. The President advised the Chancellor and Board by letter, however, that while the Minister was strongly in favour of adult education, he had nevertheless stated that financing such work "was a matter for internal arrangement within il-1 the University." The President's files for this period indicate that there were strong differences of opinion within the Senate committee about the future of extension and adult education work. This fact is confirmed by the recollections of committee members and by a submission on the whole matter written by a committee '  ^  member, Mrs. Evlyn Farris.  2  She pointed out (her paper is dated 19 February,  1935) that it was known in certain circles in Victoria "that someone on the committee is blocking the whole scheme." Her valuable paper made several suggestions that were in the end adopted.  On 20 February the President sent  a statement to members of the Senate and Board Committees outlining the significant events over the previous two years in connection with the matter they were studying, and taking note of the confusion in some -minds over the lines  69 of authority which had been established.  Mr. Angus, who became chairman  of the Senate committee on the death of Dean Brock, circulated a further memorandum to the committee which described the situation as he understood it. The minutes of a, meeting of the Senate committee which was held on 15 March have not been found. A memorandum in the President's files indicates that the appointment of a secretary, "up-country" work, and the possibility of a survey of adult education in the province were discussed. Apparently the committee recommended a survey because the Board of Governors named a three-man team to conduct one at their meeting later in the month. : The Senate committee made an interim report in early May to the effect that in view of the fact that the Board had appointed a survey committee, detailed plans for the next year could be made only after the findings of the survey were complete. the following weeks.  A lively debate on these matters continued in  Both the President and the Minister of Education were  in favour of the University making provision for adult education in its budget for the year 1936-37 and thereafter. This, however, was contrary to the policy approved by Senate in late 1933 to > the effect that extra-university teaching should be self-supporting. The long delay in establishing a policy for adult education, especially after the activity of the survey team in the spring of 1935 had stirred up renewed interest in the province, worried the President. He informed the Senate on 23 August that unless something is done promptly to meet the reasonable expectations of those individuals and organizations who are looking to the University for lecturers, study courses, etc., ... the general interest of the University as well as the cause of adult education mil be seriously affected.^  70 Within a month the Senate committee had reported and both governing bodies had approved its recommendations. The committee made six recommendations. They were: that the Board, of Governors make provision in the budget for 1936-37 for adult education activities (provided that teaching and research did not suffer); that a Department of University Extension be created when funds were available; that an Executive Secretary of University Extension be appointed until the Department was established; that senior men from all academic departments be made available during 1935-36 for lecturing throughout the province; that the President be given direction of the program for the year 1935-36; and that Senate ask for a progress report on the program at its February meeting. Where these recommendations conflicted with those approved at the meeting of Senate on 20 December, 1933, the latter were to be waived. Senate passed these recommendations on 13 September, 1935, and the Board did so three days later. By these acts a policy for adult education services was established which was to be, in effect until the Department of University Extension was created.  Survey of the. Heeds for Mult Education in British Columbia In late March, 1935, the Board of Governors appointed a three-man team whose responsibility it was to determine the kinds of extension and adult 50  education activities which were most needed by the people of the Province. Dr. Barss, in his original proposal, had suggested a conference or series of conferences for this purpose. Both Mrs. Farrls, in her submission to the President, and Mr. Angus, in his memorandum circulated to the Senate committee,  71 had recommended a survey. This view was supported by the Senate as a whole. On 29 March President Klinck wrote to each of the men, Dr. Todd, Dean Clement, and H.V. Warren (of the Department of Geology and Geography) to tell them of the Board's decision. He stated that their task was "to make a preliminary survey of adult education in the province," that they were asked • • • 51. to complete it in two months, and to report back to the Senate committee. In carrying out the survey, Dr. Todd, who was chairman of the group, concentrated on the larger, manufacturing communities and paid special attention to the liberal arts and cultural interests. Dean Clement gave particular attention to agricultural communities and organizations. Dr. Warren covered the industrial and mining centers. It was felt that people would be more frank with faculty members who "talked their own language," and that the team members would ' be more sensitive 'to the ' needs of communities • , 52whose main economic and other interests were within their field of competence. ' 53- ' The Survey Committee held its first meetings in early April. The next few days were spent in making office arrangements, drafting a circular letter to be sent to. individuals and organizations, assigning territory to the three members, and determining the procedures to be followed. On 12 April, in order to ensure "harmonious co-operation with other agencies engaged in  54.  adult education,"  Dean Clement and Dr. Todd met with senior members of both  the Department of Education and the Department of Agriculture. Dr. Warren later saw the Minister of Mines and the Provincial Mineralogist.  55  In the -next few weeks the survey team visited ninety-one communities. Care was taken in every center to point out that the present effort was being financed out of the Carnegie grant and that whatever program was decided upon should not be regarded as one that would necessarily continue beyond the period  J2 covered by the grant. An effort was made to have the University's efforts supported locally by as wide a cross-section of the community as possible. To this end, committees were established in thirty-two centers to deal with local problems connected with the project. Newspaper reports on two of Dr. Todd's visits indicate that strong local interest was aroused by his meetings with local citizens. If the articles are accurate, it seems clear that communities were given a fairly strong indication by Dr. Todd that lectures, and possibly travelling book collections, were the services that the University could best provide. The results of the survey revealed that there was great interest in anything the University had to offer. ... There is a general eagerness for instruction and guidance in particular subjects or in something, no matter what the University chooses to present.57 ... The general desire was for supplemented by discussion and fields of Agriculture, Current subjects, Psychology, Science,  personal visits of University lecturers, guidance in reading, particularly in the History, Economics, Literature, technical and Parent Training.  Interest was also expressed in correspondence courses, radio programs, credit courses, and visits by the University debating teams. The Survey Committee was also approached by certain organizations for outright financial assistance. Requests from the Community Self-Help committee of the Vancouver Council of Women and from a representative of the National Folk Festival survive in the President's files. Letters from the ParentTeacher Federation and the Public Library Commission promised full co-operation in the proposed adult education program. On 25 June, having completed almost all of the survey, the committee submitted a preliminary report which summed up their findings, recommended an ambitious lecture service for all major centers in the Province and made these  73 further comments: The Survey Committee would emphasize three needs. . The first is that for an active central executive to give time for the consideration of the various problems that are bound to arise. The second is that of selecting only first men for the lecturing. The Committee feels it imperative that if the work is to be done at all, it must be of a high grade. The third Is that of ensuring that lecturers are not overburdened, but shall be In a position to- give their best at every point. If the funds at the disposal of the University are not adequate to cover the whole Province, the Survey Committee feels that Vancouver should be -sacrificed for the benefit of more remote districts, which are inclined to feel at present that they are cut off from University influence, and in some places to look upon the University as a Vancouver institution. - Hie Survey Committee has received a very strong impression that a worthy program of adult education will have an excellent effect throughout the Province and that ultimately it will prove a means of strengthening the University i t s e l f . 5 9 The survey was an expensive undertaking. Of a total expenditure of $4,176.62, $2,314.20 was used for salaries, $332.26 for supplies and equip.60.  ment and $1,430.16 for travel.  There is no doubt thatthe carrying out of  the investigation, which involved meetings with leading citizens in almost 100 communities in British Columbia, served a useful purpose for the University. The findings were not in the least surprising. It has been pointed out that in view of the fact that lectures were the only form of University extension with which most of the communities were familiar, it was not surprising that 6l their expressed wishes were for more of these. 5. The Adult Education Program 1934-1936 : During 1934-35, while a policy was being established for the future of adult education, the lecture program had proceeded on the same basis as in previous years. The University Lectures Committee reported that 304 lectures had been delivered during the year to a total audience estimated at 32,377*  The following year was a very different story. During 1935-36, the University conducted the "emergency program," as it was, frequently referred to in the reports at the time. This program was administered along the lines recommended by the survey team and was financed-out of the grant funds. The Board of Governors, at its meeting in September, 1935, took the steps necessary to. launch the program. The "active central executive," which had been called for by the survey team, was provided in the person of Dr. Todd,  62  who was named Executive Secretary of University Extension.  He was relieved 63 of approximately one-half of his teaching load for the year and was provided  with an office, stenographer and an appropriation of $1,000 "for the purchase of reference books for adult education study groups."  6k , '.  The survey team also insisted that "first class men".be made available. The Board granted leave of absence with pay to members of faculty who were to lecture in the adult education program. Substitutes who took over the work of the men on leave were to be paid out of the grant funds. At its next meeting the Board decided that in addition to granting. leave with pay and travelling expenses to the lecturers, it would pay an honorarium of ten dollars per lecture. In early October, Dr. Todd released to the press the plans for the  65  lecture tours.  It was intended not only to increase greatly the number of  lectures offered, but also to present series of lectures in as many centers as possible. A typical schedule would involve a lecturer in travelling around a circuit and speaking In five communities in the course, of a week. He would repeat this several times during the year in the same area, thus providing the locality-with a series of lectures by the same m m * might offer series in the same community.  Two or three other lecturers  75 During the year a total of 893 lectures were given, 573 of -which had 66 been arranged as part of the emergency program. The figures in Table II indicate the efforts which had been made to send lecturers to all parts of the province. There was an attempt to arrange series of lectures in as many communities as possible. There were ll4 series offered, ranging from two to six lectures in length. A total of 457 books were circulated to 33 different centers. The cost of the emergency program, including the survey and the books, was $25,103.38. In October of 1936, Dr. Todd wrote a report to be sent to the Carnegie Corporation 67 in which he summed up what he saw to be the achievements of the program. This program appears to have served its purpose; it found wide favour, and there has followed it a great deal of interest and a demand for continuation of adult education -under University direction. It is well understood both within the University and among the local-communities that future efforts cannot involve as many lecturers or as great an expenditure of money as this year; that the tendency will be rather toward the formation of study groups assisted by a certain amount of lecturing and guidance from the University. But with the initial effort of the past year and this change in method it would seem that adult education in the province has been put on a sound basis for future growth. ° Apparently at some stage in the development of the program it became necessary to establish a firm policy with regard to what could be charged against the grant and what could not. One of the effects of this policy is the following verse which was sent anonymously to the President. Since Adult Education Hath the U.B.C. in thrall, Re your extension lectures, If you would be paid at all For mileage in the future, (How this may seem quite odd) Arrange them each and every>one _ Through. Dr. O.J. T o d d . 9 It is to be hoped that this was by far the worst product of the emergency program.  76 TABLE II Geographical Distribution Of Lectures During "Emergency Program": I935-3&E  Area  Arranged By Committee  Not Arranged  Radio 33  Metropolitan Area  kQ  205  Eraser Valley  75  17  Vancouver Island  85  22  Rest'Of Coast  29  9  Main Line C.P.R.  58  7  Okanagan  76  11  Merritt to Grand Forks  27  10  Kootenay  91  20  Cariboo (& McBride)  4o  5  Nechako  25  4  Peace River  19 10  United States  Totals Estimated Attendance  573  320  37,870  32,550  1. Figures from Dr. O.J. Todd's report dated 15 September, 1936, in President's files.  34  77 6. Creation of the Department.of University Extension The Senate Committee on Extra-University Teaching and the Survey Committee set up hy the Board of Governors had recommended that a Department of University Extension he created and a Director named when the funds became available. At its meeting of 27 April, 1936, the Board of Governors created 70 the Department and named as its first Director, Mr. Robert England. Although those involved in the emergency program of 1935-36 had been most careful to explain repeatedly that the program was a temporary one made possible by the Carnegie grant, there can be no doubt that the University felt it could not, indeed, did not want to fail to follow up on what it had begun. There had also, apparently, been some criticism of the manner in which the money had been spent. It was felt by some that too much money had gone too quickly into travel allowances and lecturers' fees instead of being spent on 71 facilities of a more lasting nature. The Department's first director felt that to some extent the creation of the Department was meant to be an indication that although the bulk of the grant had been spent in a short period of time, the University was prepared to 72 follow it up with a continuing program.  With the appointment of Mr. England  and the creation of the Extension Department, the University entered into a new phase of its relationship with the adult population of the Province.  78 Between December, 1933, and April, 1936, the faculty and governing bodies of the University spent a great deal, of time and effort exploring the future of University extension and. adult education as it would affect both the institution and the adult population it served. Having decided to devote $30, 000 of the Carnegie Grant to adult education and having surveyed the needs of the province to determine the most suitable type of program, the University embarked on an ambitious and unique emergency program of extension lectures. At the conclusion of this program the University created the Department of University Extension and for the first time employed a full-time director of this work.  CHAPTER III FOOTNOTES 1. Letter in President's files dated 20 Nov., 1933. 2. Copy in President's files. 3«  Letter in President's files. Minutes of Faculty of Arts and Science for 5 Jan., 1934.  5. Minutes of Faculty of Applied Science for 4 Jan., 1934. 6. Minutes of the Faculty of Agriculture for 4 Jan., 1934. 7. For complete list see President's files. 8. First choice - 4 points, 2nd choice - 3, 3rd choice - 2, 4th choice - 1. 9. Details of the voting in President's files. 10. This and following information acquired during author's interviews with Dr. Barss. 11. See Appendix V for the submission as subsequently expanded. 12. See undated letter from S.W. Mathews to Senate and Board of Governors in President's files. 13. B. of G. at meeting of 18 Dec., 1933, postponed further consideration of the matter until Dr. Klinck returned from this meeting. 14.  Memorandum on meeting in President's files.  15. This was moved by President Klinck and seconded by Miss A.B. Jamieson. 16.  Minutes in President's files.  17. Dr. Barss, Dean Clement, Dean B.A. Eagles, H.F. Angus, H.T. Logan. 18. This stressed by Dr. Barss and Dr. Shrum. 19. Notes prepared by President Klinck for the author. 20. Senate Minutes 17 Oct., 1934. 21. Letter (dated 10 July, 1933) in President's files. 22. Minutes of Senate 18 Oct., 1933.  80 FOOTNOTES'  (continued)  23. Minutes in President's files. 24. It -was dated 13 Dec., 1933. 25. Minutes of Senate 20 Dec., 1933. 26. Hie report also made recommendations concerning extension credit Courses. See Chapter V. 27i Forwarded on 21 Dec., 1933. 28. Minutes in President's files. 29. See minutes of B. of G. 29 Jan., 1934, and memorandum in President' s files. 30. Minutes of meeting and memorandum in President's files. 31. For a discussion of the significance of the Toronto meeting see Corbett, E.A., in Kidd, Adult Education in Canada, pp. 7-9« 32. Memorandum on meeting (2k July) in the President's files. G.M. Weir had been a professor of Education at U.B.C. before entering politics. 33. Minutes of Senate 17 Oct., 1934. 34. Ibid.  -  35* Vancouver Province and leys Herald on 19 October and Victoria Colonist on 21 October. 36. Victoria Colonist, 21 Oct., 1934. 37- Minutes of B. of G. 29 Oct., 1934. 38. Minutes of B. of G. 26 Nov., 1934. 39' Senate had ruled 20 Dec., 1933, that it should. 40. Minutes of B.. of G. 17 Dec., 1934. 41. Copies of letters (28 Jan., 1935) in President's files. 42. See Appendix VI.; 43. From.Dr. Klinck's memoranda it is clear that he placed high value on the views submitted by Dr. Farris. 44. See also letter to President from Mr. Angus (21 Feb., 1935) stating his point of view.  I  81 FOOTNOTES  (continued)  45. Minutes of B. of G. 25 March, 1935. 46. Report in President's files. 47. See especially memoranda for: 1. comment on Angus memo - 26 June. 2. meeting with Minister of Education - 30 July. 3. meeting with Minister of Education - 21 August. Senate committee meeting - 6 September. 48. Memorandum for Senate 23 Aug., 1935. In President's files. 49. Minutes of Senate 13 Sept., 1935/ and of B. of G. 16 Sept.. 50. There had been a suggestion that E.A. Corbett be brought in to do the survey. See minutes of B. of G. 17 Dec., 1934. 51. Each to receive $250.00 per month plus expenses. Stenographic help also available. 52. Dr. Todd, in interview with author. 53. The following account is based on the reports of the committee and on interviews with each of the members. 54. Preliminary report of 25 June, 1935. 55» More than one team member visited several communities. 56.  The Princeton Star 20 June and the Merritt Herald l4 June, 1935.  57- Preliminary report 25 June. 58.  Extension Committee report 20 Feb., 1937.  59° Copies of this report in President's files. 60.  Report of Extension Committee 15 Sept., 1936.  61. Dr. Shrum's comments to author. 62. Minutes of B. of G. 16 Sept., 1935. 63.  Interview with Dr. Todd.  64. Letter (23 Sept., 1935) President Klinck to O.J. Todd. 65.  See Vancouver Province 9 Oct., and Vancouver Sun l4 Oct.  66. Report in President's files dated 15 Sept., 1937.  82 EOOTHOTES 67.  (continued)  Mention should be made too of an address Dr. Klinck gave to the Vancouver Institute on 16 Nov., 1935, in which he set out in some detail the significance of the program which the University had undertaken.  68. This draft in President's files. 69.  In President's files.  70. Minutes of B. of G. 27 April, 1936. 71. Knowledge of this criticism gained in interviews with Mr. Robert England and Senator Donald Cameron (formerly Director of Extension, University of Alberta). 72. Interview with Mr. Robert England.  CHAPTER III VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SERVICES 1936 - 1955 • :  ,  1  During its first nineteen years the Department of University Extension devoted more time and effort to vocational education of various types than it did to any other field. This was the case partly because the vocational needs of adults are ones which they feel particularly strongly (and which were undoubtedly accentuated during the depression years) and because it was in this field that both government and employers were willing to provide funds which made the development of programs possible. The Department's programs in vocational education fell into six categories: agriculture; Farm Forum; Dominion-Provincial Youth Training Schools; fisheries; home economics; and other vocational, business and professional courses. The evening class program conducted by the Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration has been included in the last category. Other chapters include a description of some courses such as the group development workshops, evening classes and the Summer School of Theatre which have also been taken for vocational purposes. 1. Agriculture Two members of the Faculty of Agriculture played an important part in the re-establishment of extension work and the creation of the Department. A.F. Barss had drafted the proposal to devote part of the Carnegie grant to extension activities and Dean Clement had been one of the members of the three-man team which surveyed the needs of the province in the field of adult education prior to the emergency program of 1935-36. Before the Extension Department had. established its evening class program, poultry and horticulture classes were given by faculty members within the evening program of the  84 Vancouver School Board. Soon after taking up his duties as Director of the Extension Department in the fall of 1936, Mr. Robert England consulted with other agencies in the province to determine what role Extension should play In the field of agriculture. Relations with the Department of Agriculture, which maintained its own extension service, had been delicate ever since the University came into . 2  the field.  •  •  In November Mr. England informed President Klinck that negotiations  with the Minister of Agriculture and members of his department had been carried on by Dean Clement and himself in connection with proposed courses for Kelowna and Prince George. He stated that "the situation has to be explored very 3 carefully and it will be necessary to move with tact."  Aa appraisal of the  progress that had been made during the year and of the problem which remained were provided by Mr. England in his annual report. Agricultural Extension. This constitutes a very serious problem and as already suggested, either the Director or the Assistant Director should be a technical agriculturist of sound scholarship, tactful and adaptable. During the past summer an effbrt has been made to bring members of the Faculty of Agriculture in touch with the various Farmers' Institutes in co-operation with the Provincial Department of Agriculture. Professor Lloyd visited the West Kootenay Central Farmers' Institute at Grand Forks and also at Nelson. Professor Barss attended the Farmers' Institute meetings, District G. at Revelstoke and District E. at Quesnel. Professor Moe visited the District Farmers' Institute meetings at Vanderhoof and Telkwa. Professor Boving is engaged in an extensive tour of Institute meetings in the Peace River Block. In every case this co-operation with the Provincial Department of Agriculture has been productive of good , results. There is an old understanding with the Department of Agriculture4 that the University short courses in Agriculture should be concerned with principles and should be over three days. Too rigid an application of this understanding might stultify the development of excellent projects. There are signs, however, that co-operation can be arranged with mutual benefit to all concerned.5 In the meantime, the members of the Faculty of Agriculture carried on various other kinds of extension work. In the fall of 1936, in response to a request from President Klinck, Department Heads in Agriculture summarized the  85 work of their Departments. The replies mentioned several forms of extension, including corresponding and meeting with Individual operators ahout their problems, analyzing and reporting on soil samples which were- sent in for testing, giving lectures and demonstrations (sometimes in connection with judging at exhibitions), and taking part in radio broadcasts, including a  6  weekly series sponsored by the B.C. Electric Company.  Similar activities  were carried on each year thereafter over and above the courses which are described below. After Dr. Gordon Shrum became Director of the Extension Department in the fall of 1937, he took a keen interest in this field and over the years spent considerable time attending meetings having to do with agricultural matters. During the eight years from 1937 to 19^5, before a specialist in agriculture was added to the staff of the Department, evening classes and short courses were the main activities arranged by Extension. Evening classes on horticulture and poultry were given every year, often both in Vancouver and at centers in the Lower Eraser Valley. In 19^4-45, a course on soils and pastures was added. The first short course was a one-day "Irrigation Conference" which was held on the campus in August of 1938. It was designed to acquaint farmers in the Lower Fraser Valley with modern developments in crop irrigation and was described by Dr. Shrum in his monthly report to the President as follows: On August 17 a conference on irrigation was held at the University .... , Approximately forty farmers attended this conference. They were most enthusiastic about the possibilities of using overhead irrigation on the pasture lands and field crops in the Fraser Valley. The week following the conference a group of twenty-nine farmers visited Lyndon, Washington, to inspect successful installation of this type of irrigation.7 The course was co-sponsored with the B.C. Electric Company and included  86 speakers from that company, the Faculty, the Oregon Agricultural College and the Puget Sound Power and Light Company. The following year two animal breeding demonstrations were given in the Okanagan. In 1944-45, new courses for seed growers, fruit and vegetable canners, Provincial Dairy Inspectors and poultrymen were offered. In his annual reports for 1943-44 and the following year, Dr. Shram recommended the addition of an "agricultural assistant" to his staff. This came about in September of 1945 when Ifc. Arthur Renney, who had some years  '  8  previously worked on the Youth Training program, was appointed.  The effect  of haying a full-time person in this field from that point on was a considerable expansion of the program in three main areas, evening classes, short courses and other informational and miscellaneous activities. • Evening class offerings were greatly expanded in the next few years. The number of courses offered both in Vancouver and at other points in the Lower Fraser Valley was increased each year until a peak was reached in 1950-51. A list of the courses given that year indicates the general nature of the program.9 Vancouver area: Amateur Gardening and Horticulture Professional Gardening Poultry Husbandry Rabbit Raising  Registration 38 20 20 26  Cloverdale Area: Agricultural Engineering Beekeeping and Rabbit Raising Natural Resources Poultry Husbandry Soils  8 13 30 29 Iio  Langley Area: Agricultural Engineering  20  Perhaps the most outstanding thing about the agricultural short courses, apart from the increase in their member, was. the. fact that in several fields annual series were offered. The courses for canners and seedgrowers were repeated for three years. A three-week (later five-week) course on dairying was offered in the . .fall of 1947 and each year thereafter. Many students who took it were subsequently licensed as inspectors by the provincial government. Courses for florists, mink breeders and turkey producers were also given for several years. In January of 1946, a Refresher Course for Veterans' Land Act Supervisors was held. Short courses were offered out in the province each year. Poultry husbandry and pasture management were the topics in most demand. In some respects the most ambitious development was the. inauguration in the summer of 1948 of a series of "farm machinery field days." With the assistance of the newly-established Department of Agricultural Engineering, field days were held in eighteen different communities in all sections of the province, in twenty-nine communities the following year and six the next. Farmers brought their equipment to the center where instruction was given about its operation, adjustment and maintenance. In the final year under 1 0  review, the following courses were given on the campus:  ...  Registration Dairy Short Course Ice-Cream Making Florist Short Course Hatchery School Beekeeping Course Poultry Fieldman's Course Dairy Herd Improvement Tree Fruit Prroning Vocational Agricultural Workshop  22 5 12 JO 26 45 8 66 17  In addition to evening classes and short courses, the Extension supervisor provided an information service on agricultural subjects. A large  88 pamphlet library was built up for distribution in response to inquiries on a wide range of subjects. Questions which could not be answered in this way were referred to the Faculty or to the Dominion or Provincial Departments of Agriculture. In 1948-49, Mr. Renney arranged interviews with a different faculty member each month on a topic of current interest and issued press releases on the subject. Beginning in 1951, the supervisor conducted tours of the University farm and took part in 4-H Club field days. In that wayhundreds of young people each year were brought into contact with the work of the Extension Department and of the Faculty. A directory of leading personalities in agriculture in British Columbia, Who1s Who in Agriculture, was produced by the Department and revised from time to time* During 1954-55 experiments were carried out with the use of tape-recorded talks by members of the faculty at meetings outside Vancouver. The supervisor took part in an experiment involving the use of radio in 1945-46. One of the new developments was the Poultry School of the Air. This was an experiment in agricultural education by radio, arranged in co-operation with the Dominion and Provincial Departments of Agriculture - and the C.B.C. Farm Broadcast. Talks given over the air by various authorities were . " supplemented with written materials and questions sent from the Extension Department. Many favourable comments were received about this course.-1-1 There were 163 persons registered for this service. In view of the fact that Agriculture has never been as important in the economy of British Columbia as it is in that of many other provinces of Canada, the accomplishments of the University and of the Extension Department in the field of agricultural extension, while not large quantitatively, weie reasonably comprehensive. The effect of the fresh impetus given to it by Dr. John Friesen, who became Director of the Department in September of 1953 and who had been Director of Field Staff for the Manitoba Wheat Pool, was being felt by the summer of 1955.  2. Farm Forum As a result of the efforts of UNESCO and other agencies to make the Farm Forum idea widely known internationally, the story of its origins and 12  techniques has been told many times.  It is looked upon as one of the out-  standing original Canadian contributions to the field of adult education. Basically, it is an attempt to use radio to span the vast distances separating the fanning homes and communities of the country and to provide a forum for discussion of issues and problems facing the farmers of Canada. Farm Forum first went on the air with nationwide coverage in the fall of 1941. It was sponsored by the Canadian Association for Adult Education, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, and the Canadian Federation of Agriculture. There were four main techniques involved. The first was the broadcast. On the basis of information gathered by the sponsoring bodies, problems facing the farmers of the country were identified and discussed on weekly half-hour broadcasts. Secondly, study material was prepared on the same topics and circulated in a special publication, Farm Forum Guide, In advance of the broadcast as background information. Neighbourhood listening groups or "forums" were encouraged to gather on the night of the broadcast (having read the Guide), listen to the broadcast, and then turn off the radio and go on to discuss the subject among themselves, using the "discussion questions" in the Guide as points of departure. The fourth step was reporting the opinions of the group to a provincial headquarters, which would In turn report to the national office. The latter then made the opinions known to departments of government or other agencies which were interested. National Farm Radio Forum was extremely successful nationally. By the 1948-49 season, the number of forums had risen to 1,588 Involving more than  90 13 27,000 persons. Comparable success was not achieved in British Columbia, however. There are a nuaiber of reasons why this was so. An early national report on the project summed them up as "the scattered rural population, patchy radio coverage and lack of adequate provision for field-work."  It  should also be pointed out that the problems of agriculture in British Columbia were in many respects different from those in the other regions (and therefore the broadcast topics less relevant to B.C.) and that the farmers' organizations which elsewhere were relied upon heavily as a means of promoting the program, were in many respects not as strong and effective here as in other regions. Involvement in Farm Forum in British Columbia Is indicated by the  ; 15 • •  following figures:1941-42 1942-4-3 1943-44 1944-45 1945-46 1946-47 1947-48 , 191^8-24.9 1949-50 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 1953-54 1954-55  184 groups • 184 . " 122 " 55 " 50 " 21 groups 21 groups 16 " 15 M 13 " 9 " 11 " 11 " 10 "  and individuals 11 11 11 11 n 11 11 t> involving 257 individuals and 189 sets of materials circulated " 160 " " " " it 20 4 " " " " 11 191 " " " " it ti 11 11 ti 11 255 " " " " 11 n o " " " it " 105 " " " "  The promotion of Farm Forum in British Coltmibia was from the beginning a responsibility assumed by the Extension Department. Although Dr. Shrum was' officially the B.C. Farm Radio Forum Secretary, he delegated the responsibility to others, usually the agricultural supervisor. A provincial Farm Forum Committee representative of a variety of organizations interested in agriculture was organized and in the early years an annual provincial conference of this group and other interested persons was held. Steps were taken from time to  91  time to encourage a fresh start in building up interest in the program. The annual report for 1952-53 describes one of these: The Farm Forum Planning Committee founded last year, is an informal group of Farm Forum members which gives direction to this Office. It does not" appear likely that Farm Forum will expand in this Province without' additional field work. It would therefore be to the advantage of all Extension services to have this committee established on a formal basis .... The limitation mentioned in this quotation, the lack of adequate, fieldwork in the interests of Farm Forum, was probably the most important reason why the program had such.a small following in British Columbia. 3* Dominion-Provincial Youth Training Schools Throughout the period under review, with the exception of a few years during World War II, the Extension Department offered Youth Training Schools, which were financed out of funds made available by the Federal Department of lo Labour and the Provincial Department of Education.  These courses were  basically vocational training courses, although in the early years there was considerable emphasis on what the reports referred to as the "rural arts" or "the art of rural living." It is indicative of this change in emphasis that the courses were at one time popularly referred to as "Rural Leadership Schools." The conception of this program in its early years had much in common with the Danish Folk Schools and several references are made to the latter in the.early reports on this work. In his final report to President Klinck before leaving the University, Mr. England stated that In view of the lack of agricultural schools after the pattern of Alberta and of institutions of higher learning other, than high schools, I have come to the conclusion that an effort should be made to group all the various services of the University into short course efforts in outlying communities. These courses should bear direct relationship, not only to the vocational needs of the district concerned, but should be cultural in character.1''  ;  "92  The opportunity soon presented itself for implementing this suggestion. In 1937 the Dominion Government made available $1,000,000 on a matching basis to the provinces to be used for youth training, urban, industrial and agricultural., In 1938 this amount was increased to $1,500,000. When he became Director of the Department, Dr. Shrum found that the, Carnegie grant funds were depleted and: that there was a very limited budget available for extension work. He therefore was exploring all possible sources of funds which would make it possible to carry out useful activities. Knowing about the funds which the Federal Government had made available for youth training purposes, he approached the Provincial authorities about the possibility of utilizing some of them under the Extension Department's direction. :  On 15 February, 1938, the Extension Department was authorized to under-  take a program during the month of March, (presumably so as to use the-funds within the current fiscal year). The first courses began only thirteen days later. It was decided to offer two courses, beekeeping and poultry husbandry, in ten different centers, all in the Lower Fraser Valley. Each course consisted of four lectures, given in the afternoon or the evening, depending on local preference. The total cost was only $1,508. Dr. Shrum reported to the President that provincial and federal authorities were "particularly well pleased" with the results of the courses, as was the Provincial Advisory Committee, a body set up by the provincial government to guide its work in this field. The Committee unanimously recommended "a very much larger program"  18  for the subsequent fiscal year."  During the next few months, Dr. Shrum discussed with provincial and federal authorities the arrangements under which this work might be expanded. In July an agreement was reached by which the two levels of government would  >  93  each provide up to $10,000 per year for "a project to train unemployed young people residing in the rural areas, in agriculture and other suitable subjects" 19  at centers in various parts of the province.  The regulations stipulated  that the courses could be either residential or non-residential, of two or three weeks duration, and should provide instruction in agricultural subjects for the men, "rural homecraft, handicrafts and suitable agricultural subjects" for the women, and could include "instruction in citizenship and in general educational or cultural activities." With this agreement as a basis, the Extension Department conducted a Youth Training program each year thereafter, with the exception of a four year period during and immediately after the war. In the pre-war period, the program consisted of the rural short courses and an annual eight-week course which was held at the University. After the war, only the eight-week courses were offered. The original staff of the Youth Training program consisted of five persons who travelled as a team from one community to another putting on the rural courses. There was such a great demand for these courses that in March of 1939 a second team was employed for a brief period. During the early part of 19^0 and 1941, when the eight-week course was offered, several members of the travelling teams were brought back to the University to offer instruction along with the faculty members who took part as well. Dr. Shrum, in recruiting persons for this work, insisted upon high qualifications. Almost all of the staff had university degrees in agriculture, home economics or fine arts. Many had considerable previous experience teaching young people. The regulations for the program referred to "short courses of approximately two or three weeks duration." As this was developed in practice during  the subsequent years, twelve days came to be the usual length. Up until the time when the courses were discontinued in January of 19^2, sixty-five of these short courses had been conducted in thirty-eight different centers "as far apart as Rose Prairie in the Peace River Block and Cedar, near Nanaimo; 20  Terrace, ninety miles inland from Prince Rupert, and Roosville near Pernie." The total attendance was 3,114. Many thousands more attended portions of the courses and took part21in the evening social events conducted under the supervision of the staff. The Rural Occupational Schools, as these short courses were officially designated, were designed to serve young people (l6 to 35 years of age) in their own communities "where the customs and surroundings with which they were familiar could be utilized to increase their understanding of the possibilities and advantages 22of rural life and their appreciation of their responsibilities as citizens." Decisions as to where the courses would be held were made on the basis of the amount of local interest displayed. At the beginning of each season, announcements about the schools were sent to a large number of organizations and individuals throughout the province. It was then left to local committees to-: canvags the need in their own community, register the students (minimum of twenty-five, ordinarily), and arrange for accommodation and supplies for the course. The local committees also assisted by arranging field trips for the groups to local farms or industries. The students varied greatly in their interests and abilities from one center to another. There were usually more students in their late teens than in any other age group, and typically they had gone as far as grade eight or nine in school. Most of those attending came from farm homes, although some  TABLE III Enrollment in Dominion-Provincial Youth Training Program Courses  r937 - 195 5-1  Year  .  Short Courses Number  1937-38 1938-39 1939-^0  Eight Week Course  Registration  1940-4-1  10 16 23  19  309 1,059 1,023  1941-42 1942-43 1943-44  4  111  Registration  91  612  107 '  1944-45 1945-46  1946-47  2  • 58  1947-48 1948-49 1949-50 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 1953-54 1954-55  l  21  93 98 81 '59 56 57 57 62  68  75  37193  829  1. Figures taken from Annual Reports of the Extension Department and separate reports on the courses themselves. The courses given in February and March 1938, under the grant funds were briefer, fourlecture courses.  96 were town youths who did seasonal farm work. There were exceptions. In Revelstoke, for instance, there was a large proportion of the students who were not interested in agriculture but attended largely for the work in handicrafts and home making; , The courses were adjusted according to the interests of the students and the economy of the area. The agriculture courses were built around the application of new developments in such areas as soils, field crops, vegetables, livestock, .dairying, plant and animal breeding,. and home gardens. Blacksmithing and carpentry were given where equipment and an instructor were available. Instruction in home making included nutrition and diet,-foods and.cookery, health, sewing and dressmaking, home decoration and handicrafts. The stress constantly was upon the present needs and the practical. Other subjects offered at the courses were music appreciation, practical psychology, guidance, citizenship training, co-operatives and credit unions. The evening periods were used for educational film showings, dances, and other social events to which other members of the community were often invited. Students were also . allowed time to use the library of books and pamphlets which was set up at each center. The outstanding features of these courses would seem to be the quality of the instruction, the flexibility in the planning which made it possible to respond to local conditions and needs and to take advantage of local resources, and the practical, down-to-earth approach of the entire staff. Two excerpts from the first two annual reports of the program provide a clue to the times in which they were operating and to the basic attitude of the instructors. The first annual report stated: The idea stressed throughout the work was the immediate problem of making rural life satisfying here and now for those who are living in it rather than at some distant day under some other economic or class s y s t e m . ^  3349  The second spoke of The two-fold purpose of building citizenship and morale, and providing a practical training which will make farm life more worthwhile and attractive.2^" The response to this program was gratifying whether judged in terms of the very great demand for courses or in terms of the evaluation of the course by the students and others. However, demand diminished by late 1941 as a result of the need for manpower in industry and the armed forces. The number of short courses fell to four in 1941-4-2 .and in early 1942 the program was discontinued. The annual reports on the program for this period often contained letters of appreciation which had been addressed to the Extension Department by students and interested individuals and organizations. Farmers' Institutes passed resolutions expressing thanks for the service; former students wrote of the "tremendous success" of the course they had attended and the great contribution it had made to their lives; newspaper editorials praised those who had the vision to launch the program; Women's Institutes wrote thanking Dr. Shrum for his. untiring efforts and those of his staff on behalf of Canadian youth. Dr. Shrum included in the Department's annual report for 1940-4l an excerpt of a letter from Mr. Glen Braden, M.L.A. for Peace River, which stated that "The Dominion-Provincial Youth Training Program ... is the greatest benefit our young people of the Peace River have received since the formation of this  25  constituency."  The eight-week courses which were held in early 1940 and 1941 were referred to as Rural Leadership Schools. Their purpose was to give those students who had shown promise of leadership while attending the two and three weeks' schools further training so that they might be better able to help carry on the work in their own communities.  98 Of the ninety-one students who attended the first eight-week school, fiftysix had attended previous short courses and the remainder were selected on the basis of recommendations from centers where courses had not yet been held. Forty-seven .of the students were men. The . average age was slightly over twenty and the average amount of formal education was approximately ten years. The first school was held in an unused forestry camp which was loaned by the Provincial Department of Lands. It was later to become part of Acadia Carttp. The Provincial Department of Labour loaned practically everything that was needed in the way of equipment. The camp was in very poor condition and much time was spent at the first school working on the buildings to make them more adequate. Many of those writing in the school annual referred to the value, in terms of creating a good spirit among the group, of the cooperative efforts to overcome some of the initial drawbacks of the school facilities. The editor of the school annual described their eight-week  27  experience as a "huge success." There was no fixed fee for the course. Students were asked to make a cash contribution to the cost of the school if they were able to do so and sixty-six made contributions amounting to $788.50. The Employment Service of Canada made special arrangements for a reduced railway rate. The curriculum was along the same general-lines as that of the short courses. The main differences were the greater length of time available for instruction, the availability of good equipment for such subjects as blacksmithing, carpentry and motor mechanics, and the availability of University faculty to teach in several of the specialized areas. From a review of the various reports on these early years of the Youth Training program, it is evident that after the rural schools had been underway  99 for some time, the program began to generate great enthusiasm among the participants. It began to take oh some of the characteristics of a movement, rather than just a series of courses. In explaining the reasons for the initiation of the eight-week course, the first annual report stated: after the first year's work with Rural Occupational Schools, it was clearly shown-that the work would not have permanent value unless there was local continuation of the work after the short-course school had left the district. It stressed the role of the longer school in training key leaders who would spearhead activity In their home communities. The report concluded: A remarkable awakening Of interest in self-improvement and improvement of rural life was to be noted. The formation of Youth'Training clubs and study groups reflected, these new interests. Every effort has been made to keep in touch with the groups which have been formed and plans, are being formulated for a more regular system of maintaining contact with them by a regular radio:program, news bulletin, or periodic v i s i t s . By means of a news bulletin for Youth Training students entitled The Rural Leader (which was edited by the Assistant Director of the Extension Department, Mr. Robert McKenzie) and a weekly program on the C.B.C. Farm Broadcast, an attempt was made to keep former students and Youth Training Clubs in touch with the program and with each other. The last issue of The Rural Leader appeared in July of 19^1 and explained that the camp was occupied by air force personnel and that it was doubtful that the eight-week course would be: held the following year. During the war, the Extension Department did not lose sight of the possibility of reviving the Youth Training program. As early as the spring of 1942, a memorandum was prepared In the Department pointing out the usefulness of the Youth Training schools in rehabilitating veterans who would be 30 returning to the farms.  During the spring and summer of 1946, Dr. Shrum  was in active correspondence with the Provincial Deputy-Ministers of Agriculture  100 and Education and with the head of the Training Division of the Federal. Department of Labour seeking a renewal of the program and exploring the 31 "basis on which the work might proceed. •The necessary funds were apparently made available in the early fall, because in late November letters went out from the Extension Department to prospective sponsoring,organizations announcing that an eight-week course would commence, in January of 19^7»  The program continued to operate through-  out- the period under review in this study. Although the rural two-week courses had been the original kind of activity in the prewar years, they did not ever assume the same importance in the program after the war. Three were held in 19^8, but in spite of considerable effort to stir up interest in them during that year and the next, there was little, demand for them. Dr. Shrum attributed the situation to "the scarcity of labour and the high wages in industrial 32 plants." In 19^9 and succeeding years the eight-week course was the only one offered. In 1950, the budget for the program, which had' been $19,000 per year since 19^-6, was. reduced to $14,000. No further efforts were made, to 33 organize rural courses. After the war, because all the courses were held at the University (and as the staff of the Extension Department expanded) much of the instruction at the school was given by regular members of the Extension staff. Others who were not otherwise connected with, the University were employed on a full or part time basis for the eight-week period. In addition there were a number of faculty who lectured on their field of specialty. The Faculty of Agriculture made by far the largest contribution, of course, and some members of other faculties took part as well.  101 The eight-week course was held in new quarters after the war. The Acadia Eoad camp which had been .used previously was taken over for the housing of undergraduate veterans. The University constructed a new camp to be used for both Youth Training and other short course students. The buildings were still under construction when the school began in 1947, but by the time the course was over, the basic facilities were completed: two "U" shaped dormitory units each of which housed fifty-six persons, an office, lecture hall, recreation hall and dining hall with kitchen, and four other huts which were used for handicraft and vocational classes. The course continued to be a combination of vocational and leadership trainings  There was a minor shift in emphasis beginning with the 1949 school.  This came about as a result of correspondence with the Deputy-Minister of Education, who stated in a letter in late March, 1948, that the course might be a little more heavily vocational in nature and put less stress on the 34 "leadership aspects."  A major addition to the program was made in 1955 with  the introduction of a fisheries option in the vocational training for men. Such an addition had been recommended to the Federal Department of Fisheries •"'•'• 35 as early as 1947 by Dr. Shrum. It was not until 1954-55, however, that the 36 Department could be persuaded to provide funds to make this possible. In the opinion of Dr. Shrum the Youth Training program was perhaps the most important single activity the Extension Department conducted. In his correspondence in 1949, Dr. Shrum referred to37 the schools as "the most valuable adult education work" his Department offered.  In 1952 he wrote to Dr. John  Friesen (who a little more, than a year later was to replace him as Director of the Department), that in his opinion the' school was "the most signifleant . 38" part of our adult education program." Hie imagination and resourcefulness  102 •with •which Dr. Shrum directed this work is regarded by some as his major 39 contribution to the field of adult education in Canada. 4. Fisheries Beginning in 1939, the Extension Department conducted an educational program for fishermen in the field of co-operatives. It was financed out of a grant from the Federal Department of Fisheries. The pioneer in Canada with respect to co-operative education for fishermen was St. Francis Xavier University. In the early 1930's they had begun a study-group program for farmers, miners and fishermen who had been hard hit by the depression. The record of St. Francis Xavier in this field was well known to those who were interested in adult education. When in 1938 the Extension Department at U.B.C. was approached by the Prince Rupert Co-operative Association with a request for a course on co-operatives, it was natural that Dr. Shrum should turn to Nova Scotia for advice and assistance. The course was held in late January, 1939 and was led by Father J.D. Kelson MacDonald, who had served for six years with St. Francis Xavier and was well acquainted with all aspects of co-operatives. Father MacDonald's expenses in connection with the course were met by a special grant from the Department of Fisheries, Ottawa.The course was described by Dr. Shrum in his report to the Hon. J.E.  40  Michaud, Minister of Fisheries, as an "unqualified success."  It was held  in downtown Vancouver and was attended by eighty-eight persons, including the presidents of the three largest fishing co-operatives in the province. Students attended from nine different communities all the way from Steveston to Prince Rupert.  103 At the final session of the course, a resolution was adopted which, in addition to expressing appreciation to the University and to the Department of Fisheries, requested favourable consideration of the following points: (a) That similar courses in Co-operation be held each year, and that , they cover a longer period and a wider range of subjects. (b) That at least one full-time worker with experience in Co-operative methods be appointed to work under the direction of the Extension Department of the University, and that adequate provision be made for the supply and distribution of suitable literature. (c) That the Extension Department be stock book-keeping supplies ; , to assist the setting up of Credit Unions. 1 Dr. Shrum stressed in his report to Ottawa on the course that although it was a success, "the maximum benefit from a short course of this type could only be fully realized if it was followed by actual field work among the fishermen." Dr. Shrum had received several inquiries, even before this course was held, concerning the possibility of the Department providing continuing educational work in the field of co-operatives. When he was in Ottawa attending the annual meeting of the Canadian Association for Adult Education in November . of 1938, he discussed with Mr. Michaud the possibility of the University of British 'Columbia, receiving the same kind of a grant as that being given to St. Francis Xavier. On his return, Dr. Shrum sent the Minister a suggested program for the educational work which could be carried on in B.C. In May of 1939 the Minister wrote Dr. Shrum stating that the funds required had been passed by; Parliament and that he was setting aside for this work in B.C. "a. sum not to k-2 exceed $5,000." Having secured the 'grant from Ottawa, Dr. Shrum.wanted to launch the "Educational Program for British Columbia Fishermen," as it was called, under experienced direction. Once again he turned for assistance to the Extension Department of St. Francis Xavier University. From their staff he secured the  104 services of the first two fieldmen, Mr. Norman H. MacKenzie, who came as a permanent appointment, and Mr. Alexander Mclntyre, who came for three months on loan. During July and August, Dr. Shrum met with many key people in the fisheries industry, including government officials, co-operative association leaders, and representatives of the labour unions. Mr. MacKenzie, who arrived in September met with many of the same people and arranged a tour of coastal points in order to gather information on which to base policy for the first year's operations. Some of his conclusions about the situation in the industry at that time were significant in that they indicated the atmosphere within which the Extension program was to develop during its formative years, as well as something of the conditions under, which the fieldmen had to work.. They were summarized in the first report on the fisheries program. 1. Migratory Nature of the Fishing Population The report pointed out that a fairly large proportion of the fishermen did not live in settled communities for more than two or three months in the year. This made it necessary for Extension personnel to travel with the fishing fleets, organizing study groups among the men while they were out on the grounds. 2. The Vast Extent of the Area Under the Program Because the fishing population was scattered over a large coastal area, it was extremely difficult to reach them all frequently and therefore difficult to give the kind of continuing guidance which study groups and new co-operative enterprises required.  105 3. Baclal Questions The report referred to "the tension which exists between first generation Japanese and occidental fishermen" and which had "long been a problem in the fishing industry." Reference was made also to the Indian villages on the coast and the fact that the Department of Indian Affairs was interested in extending co-operative education In these areas as well. Suspicions on the Part of Labour Unions The fieldmen: found a considerable amount of confusion concerning the relationship between labour unions and co-operatives. Many union members feared that co-operatives would attempt to perform the same function as the unions did. 5' Political Effects of the Depression Mr. MacKenzie reported finding evidence of "the same tendency towards dissention and fatalism" with which he had become familiar in his work with fishermen in Nova Scotia. There were "frequent expressions of hostility and cynicism toward all suggestions for social betterment, short of violent  43  overthrow of existing institutions" in many districts. The first year of operations was concentrated in the Prince Rupert area, certain centers on the Queen Charlotte Islands and Greater Vancouver. It was decided to concentrate in this way so that significant results could be demonstrated before attempting to move into other districts as well. The report on the first year's activities stated that there was keen interest in the Department's work In every fishing community in which some activity had been carried 44 on. It contained impressive statistics for the first few months of operation.  10 6 Number of communities visited 30 Number of public meetings l68 Attendance at public meetings 9,000 Number of study clubs organized 125 Number of associated study clubs 21 Number of meetings with directors and committees 150 Number of fishermen's credit unions organized 7 The following fifteen years were a period of rapid growth for fisheries co-operatives and credit unions and the efforts of the Extension Department were a significant factor in that growth. The annual reports of the program frequently mentioned the fact that resolutions had been passed by the various co-operative organizations expressing their appreciation of the service that was being provided. The war had a considerable effect on the early years, requiring expanded production on the one hand, but after its extension to the Pacific, producing unstable conditions on the other. By the mid-1940's the Extension program had proven itself to be of value and had won the admiration of many people in the fishing industry. Dr. Shrum saw opportunities for an expansion of the program by 19^5 but in May of that year the Department of Fisheries turned down his request for an increase from $5,000 to $7,000 in  45 the annual grant.  The annual reports of the fisheries program for the two  subsequent years each pointed out the need for an expanded program and a larger grant. Dr. Shrum was informed in 'July of 19^7 that the grant had been increased to $10,000. This made it possible to increase the size of the staff and to expand the services which could be offered. The terms of reference of the grant, however, continued to restrict the work to education about the co-operative production and marketing of fish. Dr. Shrum's attempt during the year 19^7-48 to provide instruction in home economics, child care and community organization out of grant funds was rejected by the Department of Fisheries as not coming within the terms of the grant.  107 In the early 1950's, however, expansion into the field of education about conservation was allowed. The annual report on the program for 1952-53 mentioned the need for more funds. The outline of proposed work for 1953-5^ which was submitted to the Department of Fisheries during the previous year, included a suggested budget of $15,000 and provided for two full-time fieldworkers.  This was in some respects a trying period for the fisheries  program because of the recession which-struck the fishing industry and the complaints which .were being received-about the work of the staff. When Dr. John Friesen became Director of the Extension Department in the fall of 1953? he endorsed the policy of seeking an'enlargement in the grant. He was particularly anxious to expand the work beyond , education about cooperatives into the technical field. He discovered on. the basis of interviews with officials of the Department of Fisheries.that it would be difficult to bring about a broadening of the terms, of reference of the'existing grants. A request was therefore made for separate grants, which were received in 1954 and which made possible a further extension of the fisheries program. The number of staff members working on the fisheries program at any one time varied from one to three. There were three men on staff for seven months in ISkO-kl and for the entire year 19^, but aside from those periods, there was just one person most of the time. The fluctuation in the size of the staff influenced the kind of service which could be given. During 192+0-41, for instance, the activities of the program were expanded quickly and Much of the work was based on personal contact. During the following two years only one man was employed and the change in the program was noticeable. There was much more reliance on publications, mailings and regional conferences and less on  V7  the study groups and personal visits.  108 The most noticeable fact about the staff situation, however, was the rapid turnover. From the beginning of the program, until the summer of 19155, seventeen different persons served on the staff, only three of them for more, than two years, at a time (Mr. Arthur Wirick, Miss Lin Brown and Mr. Harold Daykin). This was bound to have its effects on the services provided. There was some criticism from the industry. In February, 1951, one of the fieldmen reported to Dr. Shrum that he had heard some harsh criticism of the fisheries program from the Chief Inspector for Credit Unions of the Province, who had referred to the Department's efforts in his field as "the blind leading the •2+8 " , blind."  More than a year later further criticism was received, from an  officer of the Fishermen's Co-operative Federation. In October, 1951, Mr. D.G. Macdonald, the Secretary-Treasurer of the Federation, wrote Dr. Shrum. "One very obvious difficulty," he wrote, "is the apparent lack of future opportunity for advancement by any aggressive young men of suitable calibre." He went on: There has been growing criticism regarding the ineffectiveness of the program for at least two years. It would be most unfortunate if this were allowed to become general. Hot only would it reflect on the Extension Department but it might result in the cancelling of the grant. There is so much need for a real program of education on many phases of, the fishing industry that it would be more than a pity to have it stopped. 9 Two years later the Managing Director of the B.C. Credit Union League, Mr. E.A. Monrufet, wrote to the President of the University pointing out that the rapid turnover of staff had "considerably handicapped" a successful educational program. Each time that a new person has been appointed to the Fisheries Branch, we have spent considerable time and effort in helping to familiarize him with various details of credit union organization and operation ... Then just at the point when his experience is proving of value, he leaves and we start all over again.5°  109 It is not possible to determine precisely why there was such' rapid turnover in. staff in this section of the Department.  Mr. Macdonald's  suggestion.that there was a lack of opportunity for advancement was probably a valid point.  For a brief period, the unsettled wartime conditions had their  effect, at least one person having left to join the armed forces.  Dr. Shrum  tended to employ for this work young men who had recently graduated from the University and. who had little or/no prior connection with or interest In the fishing industry.  They probably therefore found that the contribution which  •they could make to the field and the satisfaction they derived from it *«are very limited.  The conditions of work were undoubtedly another factor.  remuneration was not high.  The  The fieldmen spent a great deal of time travelling  to fishing communities, much of it by means of small boats and aircraft. and accommodation were often uncomfortable.  Travel  Most of the fieldmen were under-  standably unwilling to put in the length of service under those conditions which would have brought them to the point where they would feel they- were making a valuable contribution to the welfare of the fishermen and the fishing communities.  It was not until August of 1953, when Mr. A. Victor Hill was  appointed to the staff, that a person with long experience and useful contacts in the industry was in charge of the University's program. Rapid turnover was not the only kind of staff problem which Dr. Shrum had.  Early in 19^9 he was advised by the office of the Minister of Fisheries,  Ottawa, that there was concern over reports "made by Fisheries officials and other people" concerning charges that the fisheries program was "being used  51  for Communist propaganda purposes."  The concern had arisen over an article  published by one of the fieldmen; in The Fisherman.  Dr. Shrum answered the  letter, stating that the man in question had made certain statements which had  110 been reacted to "very violently" by "the communist element in the fishermen" and had been a matter of concern to some Co-operative people, but he stated emphatically that although the man in question had made some unwise state-  52  ments, he was "not a communist sympathizer The,methods and techniques "used by the staff of the fisheries program were many.  At the outset they were borrowed from St. Francis Xavier University.  The basic pattern of setting up small groups to study both co-operative principles and the operation of co-operatives and credit unions was introduced at the outset by Messrs.  MacKenzie and Mclntyre.  Although such groups were  used throughout this period, less stress was put on them by the fall of 1942. The first reason for this was that by that time, the staff of the service was reduced to one man, Mr. Wirick, and it was impossible for him to keep in active liaison with a large number of groups.  The other reason was explained in his  report for that year: The increased responsibilities which everyone has been called upon to assume during the present war have been particularly apparent in the fishing industry. In order to obtain maximum production, fishermen have been urged to greater effort, involving longer hours and longer periods on the fishing grounds. The effect of .these working conditions has made it increasingly difficult .to assemble groups regularly for purpose of study. Consequently the study group method has ceased to hold its dominant position among the various techniques employed.53 There were 125 study groups operating during the first year of the program. The figure fell to; 111, and 43 in the next two years. was given at all.  In 1942-43, no figure  Study group activity was revived in the early 1950' s.  The  reports for 1951-52 and the following year each state that more than 100 groups  54  were operating, but there Is some doubt as to how many were actually active. A number of pamphlets and study courses were produced in these years. The first two were general courses on co-operatives and credit unions.  During  Ill 19^-1, courses entitled "Co-operative Buying Clubs" and "Credit Union Bookkeeping" -were popular.  Later, pamphlets, charts and bibliographies on such:  subjects as "How the Credit Union Works," "People in Business" and "Money for-Community Development" were widely distributed.  Some of these publications  55  were of excellent quality and were used in most other provinces.  The annual  report for 1944-45 stated that during the year, 245 sets of study bulletins and 2,000 pamphlets had been sent, out to points within British Columbia alone. In the early 1950's a "Study Guide on Consumer Co-operatives," three "Manuals for Credit Union Officers" and "Credit Union Facts" were also prepared. Another way in which the service reached individual fishermen was by means of regular columns in The Fisherman, the Co-op Pilot and the B.C. Credit Unionist, as well as through a news letter for co-operatives which was published by the Extension Department it self.  The Co-op Pilot, which had been published by the  Fishermen's Co-operative Association up until 1952, was taken over by the Extension Department a year later when Mr. Hill moved from the one organization to the other.  Mr. Hill also expanded the use of the motion picture by organi-  zing regular film circuits for the distribution of new films. A variety of evening classes, conferences and short courses were also used.  Evening classes on such subjects as navigation, fish handling, and book-  keeping were offered for fishermen and credit union officers. conferences were held in Vancouver in the fall of 1943.  Two significant  One of them led to  the formation of the British Columbia section of the Co-operative Union of Canada.  The second .developed plans for the formation of a Fisherman's Co-  operative Federation of B.C.  Other activities of this kind included a two-day  conference held in Prince Rupert in March of 19^9 which was intended to foster an understanding of the "philosophy" and operational problems of co-operative  112 organization.  56'  The short course was used extensively in the later years  particularly. In the late l$kO's and early 1950' s, four or five courses on navigation were given each year at various places on the coast.  (A home-study  course in navigation was made available for men who could not attend the short courses.) In the fiscal year.195^-55, the Department received two additional grants from Ottawa for technical education in the fisheries field. One of the grants was to be used for a two-week residential short course for fishermen at the University ($3,000) and the other to provide a fisheries option in the Youth Training School ($1,500). The first of what was to become, an annual series of Technical Fisheries Short Courses was held at the University in March of 1955-  The purposes of  the course were: 1. to extend the knowledge of the fishing industry to practicing fishermen beyond their specialized branch with applicants willing and able to convey some of the information gained from the course to other fisher-: men in their areas; 2. to provide a means through which the latest fisheries information and fishing methods may be introduced to British Columbia fishermen; 3. to: make fishermen aware of the biological, economic and legal problems of fisheries and fish conservation.57 A committee representative of the University, government services, and all sections of the fishing industry helped decide on the curriculum for the course, which was the first of its kind in Canada. More than a hundred applications were received. From these, thirty-four were selected on the basis of gepgraphical areas, types of fishing done, and type of responsibility on the boats. The students lived at the Youth Training Camp at the University and all their expenses were paid out of the grant, including transportation to and  113 from the course.  A wide -variety of subjects related to the industry, such as  oceanography, conservation, engines, international agreements, markets and distribution, and boat design were included in the program. The possibility of adding a fisheries option to the vocational courses in the Youth Training School had been suggested by Br. Shrum as early as 1947  • • •. 58 : • . to the Deputy Minister of Fisheries.  Twelve young fishermen took advantage  of this provision during Its first year of operation.  In addition to atten-  ding all the general leadership classes as well as some vocational subjects which were for both farmers and fishermen (such as motor mechanics, carpentry, welding and record keeping), these students had lectures on navigation, oceanography, fish biology, fish conservation, fishing gear, boat care and maintenance, fishing machinery and handling fish for quality. Providing direct assistance to co-operative organizations in the fishing industry was a major responsibility of the fisheries program staff.  This took  the form of assistance with the organization of co-operatives and credit unions and guidance with promotional and organizational problems.  The amount of time  and money spent on field trips, much of it in the interests of the co-operative organizations, was impressive.  The Department played a key role in the forma-  tion of the Prince Rupert Fishermen's Co-operative Association, later to become the most successful venture of its kind in Canada.  Every annual report in the  early years listed co-operatives and credit unions which had been set up during the year with the help and guidance of the fieldmen.  In addition to helping  with the establishment of new organizations, the staff worked closely with many of the existing ones.  The annual report for 1946-47 referred to continuing  and substantial liaison with, and assistance to such organizations as the B.C. Credit Union League, the B.C. Co-operative Union, the United Fishermen's  114 Co-operative Federation, the- Kyuoquot Trollers Co-operative, the United  .  59  Fishermen and Allied Workers Union and the Native Brotherhood of B.C. The subsequent period fas on the whole one of continued growth for co-operatives and credit unions, the Prince Rupert organization making particularly rapid strides. There were two notable exceptions to this trend, however, one of them being the recession which was experienced ih the industry in the late 1940's, and. the other being the almost total collapse of the Fisherman's Co-operative Federation, which followed"upon the "strike year" of 1952,. The fieldworkers assisted with an arrangement whereby the Prince Rupert organization took over the management of the F.C.A. for a two year period and then later absorbed it entirely. Although the fisheries program had,difficulties arising out of the rapid turnover In its staff, much useful educational work was accomplished during these sixteen years and with the acquisition of a mature and experienced man in 1953 and the enlargement of the grant the following year, the foundation was laid for a further period of expansion and effective service. 5. Home Economics  .  The Home Economics service was staffed on a full-time basis from May, 1946, to August, 1955* Previous to that, considerable Instruction in this field had been included In the rural occupational schools and the eight-week Youth Training School. During the summers of 1939, 1940 and 1941 the occupational school staff specialists In crafts and home economics gave a series of short courses to Women's Institutes in a number of centers throughout the province.  (This arrangement was made by Dr. Shrum with the Provincial  Government, which covered the expenses including the salary of the instructors.  115 In. this way, employment was provided for staff which was not needed during the summer for the Youth Training program.) In 1941, the high point for this activity, thirty-six courses were given. Wartime conditions prevented continuing, this program in 194-2 as they had the Youth Training Schools. For the. next few years there was no regular home economics and handicrafts service in the Department, although pamphlets and manuals which had been produced in connection with the occupational schools and the summer courses were distributed on request. Avreference library on a wide range of subjects was also maintained. In May of 1946, the budget of the Department having been substantially increased, Dr. Shrum appointed a full-time "Assistant in Home Economics" in the person of Miss Eileen Cross. Miss Cross was to remain with the Department until August of 1955 and was in charge of this section of the work for the entire period. After graduating in home economics from the University of Manitoba, she had done some post-graduate work at the University of California and had worked in the field as a teacher and a dietician. An indication of the fields in which it was' expected Miss Cross would work was given in the press release Issued at the time of her appointment. Under,Miss Cross's direction, study and discussion courses will be sponsored in Home-decoration, home-making,, household equipment and furnishing; Clothing - textile work, dress-designing and appreciation, sewing, fabric studies; and Dietetics - quantity cookery, canning, refrigeration; Handicrafts; Child Development and Family Relations. In addition to the advice and suggestions which she will be able to provide through the facilities of the Extension Department office, Miss Cross will also be available to give personal direction to local groups and to conduct group leader courses in different communities. 0 Miss Cross taught both home economics and handicrafts courses until October of 1946, when Miss Jean Travis, a handicrafts specialist, also joined  116 the staff.. She remained with the Department for more than four years. In July of 1949, a second home economist was appointed and this position was continued until the spring of 1952.. Prom that time on, Miss Cross was the only staff person in the field once more.Miss Cross and the other members of her section spent most of the year travelling around the province putting on short courses and demonstrations at the request of local groups. In most years Miss Cross and sometimes one of the others would return to the University for January and February to take part in the Youth Training School. On a number of occasions they also offered courses at the Summer School of the Arts on the campus. Lecturing, radio broadcasting, judging at fairs, home visiting, regular columns for co-operative; publications, consultation with commercial enterprises and answering large quantities of mail inquiries were all part of the work. Some indication of the variety and volume of the work Is provided by this report on activities during 1951-52, the last year there were two home economists on the staff. 52 towns visited in all parts of B.C. ltoO women participated in Home Economics services 38 short courses 21 combined courses in Sewing and Home Rejuvenating l6 in Sewing 1 in Budgeting for an American firm Ik demonstrations in sewing, home decoration, foods, etc. 114 home visits of consultative nature These consisted of planning additions, planning colour schemes, fixing sewing machines, demonstrating use of freezers, rearranging kitchens, planning cupboards, etc. 10. fall fairs judged 4 hobby shows supervised or judged 1 teachers' convention as guest speaker 1 'field -day in co-operation with Alberta Illustration Stations Arranged for Home Economics professor to travel Northern Illustration Stations (B.C.) Contacted judges for 6 local fairs 1 staff member participated in Youth Training School Co-operated in judging 4H Sewing Clubs 56 requests still to be filled  The last item on the list reflected a chronic situation with respect to the home economics section. Although the staff was out in the province putting on courses most of the time, they could not keep up with the demand. In late 19^9, when there were three ladies on the staff, Dr. Shrum stated in responding to a letter expressing appreciation for the service, that judging by the number of requests, four or five people could be kept busy teaching  62  courses.  After 1952, Miss Cross repeatedly asked for more staff to assist her to meet the demand for courses. When Dr. Friesen became Director in the fall of 1953, however, the issue soon became not whether the staff would be increased, but whether the Extension Department would continue in the home economics field at all, or leave it in favour of the Provincial Department of Agriculture, which was at that time seeking a supervisor for a proposed home economics field staff. "When Miss Cross resigned in the summer of 1955 to return to school teaching, the decision was made not to replace her. Although there were some doubts in the latter months about the policy of carrying on home economics work in the Extension Department,, there was never any doubt about the competence and quality of work which Miss Cross and her colleagues had done. Miss Cross initiated the service in 19^6 and directed it throughout,the course of its existence. The amount, she accomplished and the calibre of her work together constitute one of the most outstanding features of the story of the Extension Department's activities. 6. Other Vocational, Business and Professional Courses Although many vocational courses have already been described or will be included in the chapters on evening classes and social education, there are a  118 number of others which., because of their subject matter, location or manner of organization deserve separate treatments  The first Of these was a series  of lectures on public administration given for civil servants in early 1939 by the distinguished Visiting professor from Great Britain, W. Ivor Jennings. The course was given in the Parliament Buildings in Victoria and was attended by forty-five persons. The Extension Department's earliest work with organized labour took the form of courses arranged with the Workers' Educational Association in early 1939 and again the following year. Dr. Shrum's description of the first courses indicated something of the financial arrangements and of the'enthusiastic response. The response to this program has exceeded our expectations and facilities. Approximately 150 have registered for the classes and many are being turned away because of lack of accommodation. The Honourable the Minister of Education has forwarded a cheque for $200.00 to cover the instruction for two courses and has indicated that he will make a further grant of $100.00 for a third course. Professor Crumb is giving one course in General Economics oh Wednesday nights and Professor Topping is giving courses in Trade Unionism on Wednesday and Thursday n i g h t s . 3 At the annual meeting of the Vancouver Workers' Educational Association, held later in the year, there were "many expressions of appreciation" for the 6k courses and requests were made for a continuation and expansion of the work. Pour courses were planned for the following year, but the response was less enthusiastic than previously. Courses in economics and psychology were offered to small groups and a proposed third class was cancelled. One course was given in Victoria.( There was no further mention of W.E.A. courses given by the Department. It is assumed they were a casualty of wartime conditions. Two ' lecture courses on "Practical Economics" were given at the Labour Temple in 1947 and 19^8, but registration was disappointingly small*  119 The war effort brought new demands and opportunities to the Extension Department. One of the most ambitious programs undertaken was a series on Persormel Administration which was offered four times between 194-1-42 and 1946-47^ and which was sponsored by the Department of Labour, Ottawa. The first course was held in four sessions of one week's duration in July, August, September and October of 1942. The courses were designed "to meet the requirements of executives, particularly those in the . rapidly expanding war industries, who have found it increasingly necessary to delegate the responsibility  65  for the selection, placing, training and direction of employees."  There  were no fees for the course and the travel expenses of students were refunded if they, completed the course successfully. The maximum registration was ,set at forty, which was Instruction was eastern Canada. also invited to  easily reached the first year. given by trained personnel men from the United States and Local business executives and Government officials were take part in the discussions."" '••.,""  Three further courses were given in subsequent years, although the pattern of instruction was changed somewhat. The last course differed from the others also in that the degree of support from the government was less and modest fees were charged. The Department rendered further service to the war effort in the form of technical courses for servicemen. In his report for 1941-42, Dr. Shrum described the first year of operation. At the request of the Department of National Defence for Air and in co~ - operation with -the Departments of Electrical Engineering and Physics, the Department of University Extension has been conducting classes in Radio Mechanics for enlisted personnel of the R.C.A.F. The course, which is of seventeen weeks' duration, provides the fundamental training required for men engaged in operational and maintenance work with the Radio Locator. Approximately ninety men are posted to each course. From June, 1941, to August 1942, four courses have been held. :  120 In the following year, one further course of this kind was given. In February, a different series of two to five-week courses in Pre-Aircrew Training for the R.C.A.F. was launched. By August, 19^3, fifteen courses had  6?  been given ^involving kkO men. In April of 19^7 the Department organized a three-day Conference on School Buildings, Grounds and Equipment in order to provide useful information at a time when many districts were becoming involved in substantial post-war school building. A year later, a Conference on School Maintenance was held. Short courses of direct benefit to business and industry in the province were offered with increasing frequency in the post-war years. These included such topics as motor fleet management (five courses given), photogrammetry, "Elementary Statistics and Sampling Methods," life insurance marketing, labour management and industrial relations. Two programs for the further education of supervisory and middle management personnel were offered outside Vancouver, one at Nanoose Bay and the other at Ocean Falls. The former was arranged at' the request of MacMillan and Bloedel Limited and consisted of a series of four lengthy papers prepared by as many members of faculty. These were sent to the students in advance and then later on the four men went to Hanoose Bay and lectured to the group. The Ocean Falls program was a series of courses put on at the request of Pacific Mils Limited. In this case a series of bulletins were prepared by faculty on each of three topics (economics, labour law and psychology). The bulletins were used as the basis for individual and group study in Ocean Falls and then at the conclusion of each series the author went 68 to the community to discuss the material and any problems which had arisen. The Extension Department had for many years offered evening classes in various aspects of business activity in co-operation with occupational groups.  121 Typically, tlie associations approached the Department -with proposals for courses. The Department helped establish the curriculum, arranged for instructors, rooms and administrative services; and usually registration was limited to members of the co-operating association. In this way courses had been given for the Society of Industrial and Cost Accountants of B.C., the Canadian Industrial Traffic League, the Vancouver Junior Chamber of Commerce and the Canadian Institute of Sanitary Inspectors. A new departure was taken in 1951-52j however, when for the first time, courses of this kind were offered under the direct supervision of the School of Commerce. In August of 1950 the status of Commerce within'/the University was changed from that of a Department to a School and E.D. MacPhee became its first Director. The announcement of the formation of the School precipitated a new series of requests from business groups for long-term (three to five years) diploma programs in business subjects. The question arose as to whether the School of Commerce should offer these courses in its own name (which Professor MacPhee preferred), or through the Extension Department. It was decided by the President's Committee on University Extension in July of 1951 that the 69 former course of action would be followed. In the meantime, the School of Commerce had made rapid progress with the organization of a number of extension courses. Between March and May of 1951. courses were prepared on Balance Sheet Analysis, retail credit, and the first three years of a program for the Certified General Accountants. By I955, nine diploma courses were in operation with a total registration in the 70 fall of that year of 1,082 students. The School of Commerce took part in another significant extension activity during this period. Consequent upon correspondence which was  122 originated in January of 1952 by Mr. Donald Cameron, Director of the Banff School of Fine Arts, the University of British Colombia joined with the Provincial Universities of the other three western provinces in forming a society to operate a School of Advanced Management at Banff to serve the \ 71 educational needs of middle management and senior executives.  The School  of Commerce was named by the Board of Governors as its agency for co-operation in the program. The growth of .evening class activity in the field of business was such that in both of the final years of the period under review in this study, the courses for business formed the largest single unit within the overall evening class program. The Extension Department and, in later years, the School of Commerce had developed a large and active program, for business groups by 1955. The short course and conference activity was not fully developed, but significant beginnings had been made. Some interesting experiments had been conducted with programs for industry in other parts of the province. Little progress had been made with courses operated in association with labour groups.  The Extension Department's accomplishments in the field of vocational education between 1936 and 1955 were considerable. The two programs for which separate government grants became available, the fisheries program and the Youth Training Schools, were developed to the fullest extent possible from the early years. The other work, in home economics, agriculture, business and other miscellaneous fields, was expanded as the .demand was articulated and the  123 means were available. A noteworthy feature of the activities which have been reviewed in this chapter was the extent to which they brought the members of the Extension staff in direct contact with large numbers of people in all parts of the province. This was especially true in the case of the Youth Training Schools, home economics and handicrafts, and during certain periods, the fisheries service.  CHAPTER 17 FOOTNOTES 1. Hereafter frequently referred to as the Extension Department or Extension. 2. See Chapter II. 3* Extension Department Monthly Report, • November, 1936. 4. See Appendix II. 5« Annual Report of the Extension Department for the year 1936-37. Hereafter referred to as "A.R." 6. ; See letters from E.A. Lloyd (7 Oct., 1936), A.F. Barss (23 Oct.),: H.M. King (24 Oct.), G.G. Moe (26 Oct.) and B.A. Eagles (26 Oct.). letters in Faculty of Agriculture files. 7. Extension Department Monthly1 Report No. 8 (July-Aug: 1938). 8. For a list, of staff of this and other sections of the Department 1936-55 see Appendix VIII. 9. A.R. 1950-51. 10. A.R., 1954-55.' 11. A.R. 1945-46.  ,  12. For Canadian accounts see Corbett, E.A. , We Have With Us Tonight,. Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1957, pp. 139-150; McKenzie, Ruth, "National Farm Radio Forum" in pamphlet Education in Public Affairs by Radio, Canadian Association for Adult Education 1954; this substantially a reprint of her article "Farm Forum - Voice of Rural Canada" in .Kidd, J.R., ed. , Adult Education in Canada, Toronto, Canadian Association for Adult Education, 1950, pp. I69-178. 13. McKenzie, Ruth, in Adult Education in Canada, p. 171. 14. National Farm Radio Forum Report for Year Ending April 30, 1945. 15. Annual Reports of the Extension Department for the period. 16. In the early years it was the Department of Labour which administered the provincial funds. 17. A.R. 1936-3718. Extension Department Monthly Report No. 5 (Jan. to March, 1938).  '  r  125 FOOTNOTES  : (continued)  19. The full text of the agreement, which was quoted in Extension Department Monthly Report No. 8 (July-Aug., 1938), is reproduced in Appendix IX. 20. Undated summary of this work in the Extension Department files. 21. See Table III for annual enrollment figures. 22. Report on Dominion-Provincial Youth' Training Program - British Columbia, Sept., 1938 to May, 1939. 23. Report on Dominion-Provincial Youth;Training Program - British Columbia, Sept., 1938 to May, 1939, ' ' 24. Report on Dominion-Provincial Youth Training Program - British Columbia, 1939-kO. "", x' 25. These various items, with the exception of the last, are Included In the appendices of the Annual Reports on the Youth Training Program for 1938-39 and 1939-40. 26. Annual Report of Youth Training Program 1939-40. 27. Mr. Nick Holyck in The Rural Leader Annual, 1940. 28. Report on Dominion-Provincial Youth Training Program^- British Columbia, 1939-40. 29. Ibid.  "  30. "Memorandum for Post-War Rehabilitation Council" and "Folk Schools in a Rehabilitation Program." in Extension Department .files. 31. See letters to Dr. Shrum from F.T. Falrey (ll March, 22 May, 8 June and 15 Aug.) and R.F, Thompson (l4 March) and from Dr. Shrum to Col. Fairey (20 Aug.) and Mr, Thompson (9.March and 11 May). The last had attached to it a "Memorandum on the Re-Establishment of the Dominion-Provincial Youth Training Program (Schedule E) in British Columbia.fI 32. Letter (27 Sept., 1947) Dr. Shrum to.'Mr;. C.J. Frederickson, Cranbrook. 33. See letter (10 Feb., 1950) Dr. Shrum to R.G. Sprinkling, Dawson Creek. 34. Letter,; (21 May, 1948) Col. F.T, Fairey to Dr. Shrum.  '  35. letter, (25 July, 1947) Dr. Shrum to Mr. S, Bates, Deputy-Minister of Fisheries. 36. $1500 was appropriated for this purpose.  126 FOOTNOTES  (continued)  37. Letter (23 .March, 1949) Dr. Shrum to Mrs-... A. McLeod, President, North . . Cedar P. T. A. 38. Letter (l4 May, 1952) Dr. Shrum to-Dr. J.K. Frieseh. 39. This .information was gained in interviews with Dr. E.A. Corbett, who was Director of the Canadian Association for Adult Education throughout this period.• . 40. Report quoted in full in Extension Department Monthly Report No. 11, ; . (Jan., Feb,., I939). '• \ v':"' 41. Quoted In Extension Department Monthly Report No. 11 (Jan., Feb., 1939). Hie Provincial Legislature of B.C. had passed a bill in 1938. 42. Quoted in Extension Department Interim Report No. 13 (May, June, 1939). 4-3. Report: on Education Programme for B.C. Fishermen, I Sept. , 1939 to 31 March, 194©. 44. Ibid. 45. Letter (l May, 1945) D.B. Finn, Deputy-Minister of Fisheries, to Dr. Shrum. 46. "Plan for fiscal year 1953-54" in Extension files. ~ 47. The annual reports give this Impression. It is confirmed by a letter from Mr. Arthur Firiek (the fieldman in question) to the author (l Feb., 1957). 48. Interdepartmental Memorandum,(2 Feb., 1951) R.J. MaTOr to Dr. Shrum. 49. Letter (12 Oct., 1951) D.G. Macdonald to Dr. Shrum. 50. Letter (21 Aug., 1953) R.A. Monrufet to Dr. Shrum. 51. Letter (15 Feb., 1949) A.H. Sager to Dr. Shrum. 52. Letter (9 March, 1949) Dr. Shrum to A.H. Sager. 53. Annual Report on the Fisheries Program for the period 15 June, 1942 to 31 March,, 1-943. 54. See Annual Reports of the Fisheries Program for 1951-52 and 1952-53, Mr. A.V. Hill, who was at this time working elsewhere in the co-operative ' movement , and who later joined the Extension staff is of the opinion that there were not nearly that number of groups actually functioning. 55- Stated in letter (19 May, 1953) G.M. Shrum to V.E. Graham (Dean of Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan).  127 . FOOTNOTES  (continued)  56. A similar conference m s held: in Vancouver, the previous December, 57• Fisheries Annual Report 195^-55* 58. Letter (25 July, 1947) Dr. Shrum to Mr. Stewart Bates. 59' Annual Report of the Fisheries Program for 1 April, 1946 to 31 March, 19^7• 60. Press release in Extension Department files. 61. Report in Extension Department files. 62* latter '(10- Nov., 1949) Dr. Shrum to Mrs.. J. Shore at Chapman Camp. 63.. Extension Department Interim Reports No. 11 and 12 (Jan. to April, 1939).  64. Extension Department Interim Report No. 13-(May-June, 1939)* ' 65. A.R. 1941-42. 66. Ibid* ' 67. A.R.-1942-43. Dr. . Shrum's connection with the Department of National Defence through the C.O.T.G. was presumably a factor in his organizing - these courses. 68. An: additional course in accounting was prepared but was never used by the company. 69. For further details and a discussion of the implications of this decision, see Chapter IX. Also see pamphlet "The Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration" published by the University in October, 1957, as part of the celebration of the establishment of the Faculty. See minutes of meeting of President's Committee 11 July, 1951. 70.. Memorandum attached to minutes of President's Committee on University Extension for 24 Nov., 1955. 71. See especially letter (8 Jan., 1952) Mr. Donald Cameron to President • MacKenzie.  CHAPTER 17  EVENING CLASSES, LECTURES AND CREDIT COURSES 1936 - 1955 • In the case of many, if not most of the Extension Departments in Canada, the three headings, evening classes, lectures and credit courses, would include almost all the universities' extension work. Although these three. activities have not "been the main preoccupation of the Extension Department at U.B.C., a sizeable service has been rendered in all three areas. 1. Evening Classes The extension activity which is. perhaps most commonly carried on by universities on this continent and which was often the first extension service an institution offered, is the evening class program. This is particularly true of institutions which are located in, or close to large centers of population. The non-credit evening class series is a means of providing a systematic treatment of a subject for those who wish to learn more than could be conveyed by a single lecture but who are not eligible, or do not wish to take a credit course. Compared to the credit course offerings of Canadian universities, the non-credit evening classes "are much more diversified and involve 1 many more people."  The typical evening class at the University of British  Columbia meets for an hour and a half, once a week, for sixteen weeks. No attempt is made to check attendance and no examination is given. The evening class program at U.B.C.-began during the first year of the 2  Extension Department's existence.. There had been many Cases before that time of University speakers conducting series of lectures sponsored by other organizations. Mention was made in Chapter II of the suggestion made in I922 by Dr.. Eastman that the University should offer courses of "6 or 8 lectures in  129 some special field" in Vancouver. The suggestion was rejected by some on the grounds that the rural communities should receive preferred treatment by the Extension Committee and that Vancouver was already well served. In a "detailed 3 draft of the Extension Committee's activities for 1922-23 the advantages and disadvantages of entering the evening class field were discussed and it was recommended that the proposal be "carefully considered." Lecture series had been a prominent feature of the "emergency program" of 1935-36. Shortly after assuming his position as Director of the Extension Department, Mr. England turned to the matter of launching an evening class program. Three courses were offered during the year. The first of these was not, strictly speaking, an Extension Department course. It was a course on General Botany given by J. Davidson. This course had been offered regularly since 1919 and differed from the usual, evening class in that if the student wished to write an examination at the end of the course (and if he had the prerequisites) he could obtain credit for the lecture part of the regular credit course Botany I. Non-credit students who wished to write the examination could do so. Applications were made not to the Extension Department, but to the Registrar's office. The other two courses conformed more closely to the usual evening class pattern. They were a twenty-week series on electronics and a fourteen-week course on "The Modern Approach to Community Welfare." Mr. England wished to incorporate within the .new University program the courses which members of the Faculty of Agriculture were giving under the auspices of the School Board. He had a series of meetings with representatives of the Board and of the public library (which offered lecture series) in order to work out a division of responsibility for classes offered to the citizens of Vancouver. In May, 1937, Mr. England reported to the President that it was  130 agreed that "evening classes in Vancouver •will concern themselves chiefly with vocational, technical and commercial work, leaving the University field ' . ' 5 to be covered by evening classes at the University." The School Board officials agreed to refrain from using University lecturers in their program. Close liaison with the School Board was maintained by the Extension Department in subsequent years. Total enrollment in the three courses offered by the University was 273, to which Mr. England added the registration of the two classes given by faculty, members for the School Board.  He reported a total enrollment of 38l  6 for the first year's program  and in May of 1937 secured the Board of Governors'  7  approval for the continuation of the evening classes.  That he was encouraged  by this showing was revealed in the recommendations which he made to President Klinck as he was leaving the University in August of 1937.  He listed sixteen  courses which he felt should he offered during the following year. The first five years of the evening class program laid the foundation for future development.  The number of courses remained small, ranging from  five to twelve during the period. lished.  Several important precedents were estab-  One of these was the decision in 1937 to offer courses away from the  campus at the Vancouver Normal School,"in order to serve the East End of the  8 city,"  By 1 9 ^ 4 0 - a l m o s t all the classes were offered there, a practice  =•  9  which continued throughout the period under review in this study.  The  University paid a nominal rent to the Provincial Government for the use of rooms in the building. In the fall of 1937 Dr. Shrum published the first of what was to be an annual series of "evening class bulletins" in which all of the regular evening classes for the year were listed.  (Mr. England had published a separate  131 TABLE IV Attendance at Greater Vancouver and Fraser Valley Evening" Classes 193% - 1955 ~~  Average Number of Courses  Total Attendance  Size of Class  1936-37  5  381  76  1937-38  7  199  26  1938-39  12  381  32  1939-40  7  332  47  1940-41  8  365  46  1941-42  13  786  60  1942-43  12  662  55  1943-44  11  874 ,  79  1944-45  16  938  59  1945-46  26  1,709  65  1946-47  31  1,705  55  1947-48  39  1,787  48  1948-49  38  1,865  49  1949-50  42  1,797  43  1950-51  52  1,878  36  1951-52  46  2,028.  44  1952-53  56  1,961  35  1953-54  78  2,623  31  1954-55  72  2,289  32  24,560  announcement for each, course.)  Another new feature which appeared in 1937-  38 was the inclusion of the humanities in the program, in addition to scientific studies. in length.  Most courses during this early period were fifteen lectures  An early.record book discloses that the lecturers were paid  $100.00 for the series.  The standard course fee for students was $5.00.  Uncertainty about the program when war broke out early in the fall of 1939 'was revealed in Dr. Shrum's report to the President at the time. With the. outbreak of war there was some question regarding the advisability of continuing the Evening Class program. The courses offered by the Vancouver Library and. the School Board both suffered a: serious falling off in,attendance. However by 0.5. October, when the Department's courses opened, much of the war hysteria, had " abated and instead of a decree attendance there was such a marked increase that some difficulty was arranging the necessary accommodation.10 During the war, the number of evening courses increased to an average of fourteen"per year and the average annual attendance rose to almost 1000, compared to approximately 350 for the earlier period.  Current international  problems were reflected in course titles such as "The War and After," "The U.S.S.R. - Hie Land, The Peoples, and their Culture," "The Coming Peace Conference and After, " and "Gardening in War-Time."  Two. new sub ject matter  fields were represented as-courses on foreign languages and several designed to improve students' qualifications in business were added to the program. Courses were offered in North Vancouver and in New Westminster on two occasions. During the next eight years, until 1952-53, the evening class program, like the Extension Department and the University as; a whole, expanded greatly. In the last year of the war, registration had been 938 .in sixteen courses. The following year, more than 1,700 persons attended and by 1951-52, the total had risen to over 2,000 (in 46 courses).  There was, apparently, some difficul-  ty in persuading enough faculty to teach extension courses.  Dr. Shrum  133 commented in the fall of 1946 that "unfortunately, the very great increase in enrollment in the undergraduate courses has made it increasingly difficult  11  for members of the staff to participate in the evening class programme."  An increasing proportion of the evening class teachers were drawn from outside the University during this period. The increase in the number of courses in the fields of business and industry andfthe, arts was particularly noticeable at this time. In 1944-4-5 there were two business courses offered. Eight years later there were sixteen. Of special interest were the three-year program in Freight Traffic Management and the five-year series for Registered Industrial and Cost Accountants. In the fall of 1951 the School of Commerce began offering its evening diploma courses, in this field as well. The only courses in the arts which had been offered prior to the end of the war were lecture courses on art and music  12  appreciation. The acquisition of studio facilities in 191+8  made it possible  to branch out into pottery and painting classes as well. The Vancouver Normal School was not large enough to accommodate all of the classes. Attempts to schedule two sets per evening, beginning at 6:30 and 8:00 p.m., were not satisfactory in that the earlier classes were not well attended. There was not enough variety in the size of classroom either. There was a tendency, therefore, to hold more and more classes at the University and at other centers such as the X.M.C.A. and the Art Gallery. Courses were also made available at several centers in the Lower Fraser Valley and on occasion, in Victoria. In 1953-54 both the number of courses (78) and the total enrollment (2,623) in the evening class program reached the highest point in the period under review. The field of business was by far the largest in terns of the  number of registrations, •with, the arts, home economics, the social sciences, the humanities (exclusive of languages and the arts) and foreign languages following in that order. The report of the supervisor of the program stressed the inadequacy of the Normal School quarters and the growing demand for recog, 13 mtion Cm the form of certificates) for evening class study. In the final year under review, instructors were paid $12.50 per class and student fees were $9.00 for a standard course sixteen weeks in length.Over the years, certain .instructors made particularly outstanding contributions. Professor Davidson taught the course in botany for thirty-one years from .1919 to 1^9. E.A. Lloyd and J. Biely gave an evening class on poultry husbandry every year during the period, often in some other center as Ih • well as Vancouver. Professor and Mrs. H. Adaskin gave a concert-lecture •  ,  series every year beginning in 19kl-k8 and it was consistently one of the largest classes in the program. The non-credit evening class program attracted 24,660 students between 1936 and I955. It was an increasingly significant part of the extension program, especially in the later years, although it was throughout the period  15  supervised on a part-time basis.  '  2. Lecture Service By the time Mr. Robert England took up his post as Director of Extension, most of the Carnegie fund had been spent. In late September, 1936, Mr. England sent President Klinck a draft policy statement for the lectures program. It pointed out that there were limited funds available and that the "needs of the University internally owing to increased registration of students" had grown.  135 It has therefore been decided that for this session, 1936-37, applications from districts will be received and the University will be prepared to contribute as heretofore to the travelling expenses, but districts and organizations requesting lectures will be asked to contribute towards the cost. The fee for a single lecture will be $5.00, and for any course of three lectures the fee will be $7*50, districts and organizations to be responsible for rent of a hall .... Preference will be given to those requests assuring an audience of at least 50• A general policy statement along these lines was distributed to faculty members a month later.  An unusual feature' of this policy was the fact that  the charge for one lecture was $5.00, .whereas the charge for three was only $7.50.  This came about as a result of Mr. England's wish to persuade organi-  zations to sponsor series of lectures on a single or related subjects rather than Isolated, one-meeting arrangements.  During the year a number of series  ranging from three to eleven lectures in length were offered.  An effort was  made in some centers to work through the local committees which had been established in connection with the "emergency program," but many of them were  19 found to be inactive or ineffective.  The balance of the Carnegie grant was  depleted during the year. Dr. Shrum raised the fee for a single lecture to $10.00.  He continued  the practice of sending out a list each fall of the lectures which were available.  This was discontinued during the war and not revived thereafter.  Table  V indicates that there was a steady demand for lectures by faculty throughout the period.  There was a decrease in number of lectures during the war but  immediately after it there was a pronounced increase and the figures continued a general upward trend from that time on. At the request of the President's office, the Extension Department began in the late 19^01 s to send forms to faculty each month on which they were asked to report the lectures they had given the previous month.  An  analysis of the forms returned during the year 1951-52 reveals that, of the  TABLE V Statistics on Extension Lectures 1936 to 19551  Year  Ho. of Lectures  1936 - 1937 1937 - 1938 1938.- 1939 1939 _ 19U0 1940-1941 1941 - 1942 1942 - 1943 1943 - 1944 1944 - 1945 1945 - 1 9 ^ 1946 - 1947 1947 - 1948 1948 - 1949 1949 - 1950 1950-1951 1951 - 1952 1952 - 1953 1953 - 195^ 1954 - 1955  201 460  1. 2. 3. 4.  269 351 344 316 278 320 330 520 547 628 8o4 748 820 988 * t  . •  Attendance  -  12,350 42,539 6o,4oi 38,221 46,670 33,942 28,069 26,388 , 47,068 39,518 45,314 59,102 52,081 85,220 72,471 89,700 78,417 ?  k 50,000+^  Taken from Annual Reports for the period. Until the end of April, 1937. A.R. 1953-54 did not supply figures for this service. A.R. 1954-55 stated "well in excess of 50,000."  almost 90,000 people who attended extension lectures that year, approximately twenty-three per cent were outside the province. to professional conferences.  Most of these were delegates  An analysis of lecture attendance according to  the type of audiences indicates the following distribution: Professional and business groups and learned societies Voluntary organizations (of the PrT.A., United Nations 1 Association type) , Service Clubs (including Canadian Clubs, Board of Trade) Cultural organizations (Art Gallery, etc.) Student groups (university and high school) Regular lecture series (Victoria etc.) Agricultural groups. Church groups Armed services Other  21 9.2 6.4 5 4.2 3.1 3 •3 1.1  100 Thirty-six radiobroadcasts were reported, but the questionnaire did not provide a specific question about this, so there may well have been more. There were two groups to which the University consistently gave considerable service through extension lectures. teachers of the province.  One of these was the school  Special efforts were made to provide speakers for  their regional and provincial conferences and for the many specialists' or subject-matter sub-groups of the British Columbia Teachers' Federation. second group were high school students.  A  The Extension Department made an  effort to fill every request to the University for speakers at high school graduation ceremonies.. It has provided many speakers in connection with vocational counselling programs in the schools.  In May of 1952 President  MacEenzie wrote Dr., Shrum, asking him to give some further, thought to the possibilities of having a suitable representative of the University visit most or all of the high schools in British Columbia with a view to informing the students in grades eleven and twelve and, where possible, the staff and teachers about the opportunities available at the University.20  138  In December Dr. Shrum sent out a circular letter to all secondary schools in the province asking for the principals' reaction to receiving visitors in the school who could tell the students about the University. Almost all the answers enthusiastically• welcomed the suggestion. Efforts were made by the Department to send speakers to a large number of schools during the ensuing months. In the spring of each of the following two years, a team of faculty representing different aspects of the University visited the Kelowna (1953) and Prince George (195^) areas speaking to community organizations and high school students. In 1955, instead of organizing these "Capsule Colleges," the Department arranged teams of two faculty members which covered all the main regions of the province, visited forty-two schools and spoke to 2,575 21  students.  After the war, the standard charge for a faculty lecturer was eliminated. 22  The Extension Department was given a small annual appropriation  earmarked  for this purpose in its grant from the administration and it attempted to make the funds go as "far" as possible, providing free service to groups with little or no financial resources, and asking other organizations to pay the full Cost, including an honorarium. It is not possible to evaluate the educational value of the many extension lectures provided over the years by the University. A growing number of University faculty members gave generously of their time and effort in the hope and belief that they were making a contribution to the University and to the education of adults in the province. In addition to arranging individual lectures throughout the province the Department co-operated with certain groups and organizations to provide continuing series at various points in Vancouver and nearby centers. The  139 Vancouver Institute continued its regular lecture program unbroken throughout the period under review. Depression and wartime presented problems of various kinds, from financial deficits to gasoline rationing. The most successful season in terms of attendance was 1939-to, when approximately 9,000 persons attended the twenty-two meetings, an average of more than 400 per meeting. The Institute became increasingly closely associated with the "University. The University provided "atmosphere and accommodation, and in reality management  -  ,  '  -23  - and most of the lecturers."  :  '  ... '  •  The Extension . Department maintained a close  liaison with the Institute over.the years. Dr. Shrum had been President for two years in the 1930's and Dr. Friesen for the year 1954-55.: For the last four years prior to 1955, the secretary of the Institute was a member of the staff of the Department. The University Extension Association of Victoria continued to provide lecture series each year throughout this period. Financial problems became serious at various times, resulting in a brief period during which a small charge for admission was made and a number of years' in which the length of the series was reduced to as few as eight lectures. Attendance and membership were a ..problem for several years, especially in the late 1930's. The Extension Department maintained a close link with the Association, providing suggestions about the program, contributing every year in varying degrees to the cost of the series and arranging for the participation of the faculty members, involved. The overwhelming majority of the speakers continued to be drawn from the faculty of the University. Beginning in the fall of 1938, the Department provided a program of lectures each year (with the exception of the period 1942 to 1946) for the inmates of the B.C. Penitentiary at New Westminster. In the ten years the  • iho  series was offered, seventy-six lectures were given to a total of almost  ' 2k 15,000 persons (who attended on a voluntary basis).  Each year, beginning  in 1950-51, a lecture series on current affairs topics was arranged for the United Services Institute situated at Camp Chilliwack near Sardis.  ' . . - '  '  The  ' 25  Department of National Defence provided the funds for the program. Annual series were also arranged in co-operation with the night school director in Abbotsford, beginning in 1952, and Hanaimo beginning In 1954. 3.  Extension Credit Courses Within the Extension program of most Eastern Canadian universities,  extension courses for credit towards a university degree have been the main, and in some cases the only activity.  While this has not been true of the  University of British Columbia, nevertheless, since the end of the Second World War, increasing attention has been paid to such courses. A.  Extra-Sessional Courses Extension lecture courses for credit towards a university degree were  made available for the first time during the academic year 1929-30, long  26  before the establishment of the Extension Department.  The decision to offer  such courses was preceded by long and involved discussion in faculty, Senate and Board meetings extending over many years. As early as 1921 the University was being -urged to offer evening and Saturday morning credit courses for part-time students.  At the conclusion of  the Summer School of 1921 (the second which had been offered) the Director, Dean H.T. J. Coleman, included in his report the recommendations of a special committee which had been established by the students to look into the matter. The students recommended offering such extension courses, linking them with  3393  the proposal that the University make it possible to obtain a degree by taking summer and extra-sessional courses only. This proposal was one which the students reiterated frequently in subsequent years. In his report on Summer School the following' year, Dean Coleman strongly supported the students' recommendations. The Faculty of Arts and Science took action in the spring of 1923. At a meeting in early March it received a request from the B.C. Teachers' Federation for changes in the regulations governing Slimmer School and provision for extra-mural courses. At the next meeting in early May, it 27 referred the matter to a committee made up of the, Department Heads in Arts. This Committee on Extra-Mural Work submitted an interim report to the Faculty meeting in mid-November of that year, but it was not until October of 1924 that it made its final report. Their conclusion, which was approved by the meeting, was that the following be recommended to the Senate for its approval: That teachers in service and others -whom Faculty may formally approve, who have full Junior Matriculation standing, may proceed to the degree of 6.A. under the following conditions: 1. They may be granted, upon the work of any Summer Session of the University, a maximum of % units of credit. 2. They may obtain during the period of any Winter Session of the University (October 1st. to May 1st.) a maximum of 3 units of credit in extramural, courses approved by Senate. 3. As candidates for the B.A. degree, they may offer a maximum of 27 -units of credit from Summer Session study and attendance and 18 units of credit in extra-mural courses. In all such cases the final year, involving at least 15 units of work, must be spent in attendance at the Winter Session of the University. Deliberations on extra-mural and evening credit offerings over the subsequent several years were rather involved. Recommendations of Faculty, Senate, the  142 TABLE IV Enrollment in Extra-Sessional, Directed Beading and,Correspondence Courses 1919 ~ 1955 Botany  1918-19 1919-20 1920-21 .1921-22 1922-23 1923-24  1924-25 1925-26 , 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35 1935-36 1936-37 1937-38 1938-39 1939-to 1940-4i 1941-42  1942-43 1943-44 1944-45 1945-46  1946-47 1947-48 1948-49  1949-50 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 1953-54  1954-55  Extra-Sessional  -  71 27 64  63  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  105 105 108 90  .61 83  105  25  7^ 77 67 65  21 44 30 35 50  22 _  27 29 29 63  -  48 34 12 21  60 21  -  -  -  20 29 28  -  Coi-re spondence  -  .85 57 34 51 37 24 4o 48 48 55  -  D.R.C.  -  •  134 48 59 79 200  -  266  -  242  _  >  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  90 113 ' 112 157 136 130 126 85 149 101 100 234 175 136  -  -  •  , _ _  _ _  _ _  257 371 339  „ _  378 471  166  President and the Board of Governors were in turn referred to the other bodies for reconsideration, approval or implementation. The Senate established a "Committee to Study the: Question of Suimer Session and Extra-Mural Courses in all its Bearings," which played a key role. After consideration of the recommendations of the Faculty of Arts and Science it referred the question of whether a student should be allowed to earn his entire degree by Summer- School work back to the Faculty for further study. In the meantime the provision for extra-mural courses appeared to .be moving..ahead when the Faculty of Arts and Science in December of 1925 authorized the Dean to provide the Senate^ with a list of the Departments which were prepared to offer extra- 29" . . /. mural work the following year. In the summer of 1926 the Summer Session students' Committee on Recommendations and Organization, whose report was adopted by a general meeting of the students, expressed disappointment that more progress had not been made on these matters, submitted a . lengthy "Preliminary Report" and endorsed the following resolutions: 1. During the coming winter session extra-mural courses (be given} in such subjects as it is deemed possible to give satisfactory extramural instruction in .... 2. That a certain number of Fourth Year courses be available for extramural study during the coming Winter Session ....3° Dean Coleman, in commenting on the recommendations, pointed out that these questions had been under review for a long time and expressed the wish that the University should "do everything for, [the studentwhich is consistent With  31  the maintenance of proper University standards."  The matter of extra-mural courses was attracting the attention of the public. In mid-October, the Vancouver Province published an editorial in  iw  support of this kind of offering. It urged the Senate to approve the measure and added: There is no question of turning the University into a correspondence college. But there is a very great opportunity for the University to widen its influence and the scope of its activities by encouraging the work of students who have the industry, the will-power and the faith in the value of education to pursue extra-mural courses* 32: This point of view was not endorsed by the Faculty of Arts and Science. In early February, 1927, it adopted a further report submitted to it by the committee of Department Heads which stated that evening and Saturday morning courses should be limited to courses in Education without credit towards a 33 degree, and/made no mention of extra-mural courses,  The Senate subsequent-  ly approved the recommendations about Summer Session but asked the-Faculty to consider and report to Senate on: a. Extra-mural courses in all years with credit. b. Beading courses in the Third and Fourth Years. c. Saturday and evening classes in Arts Departments with credit.3^ In early March the Faculty referred these questions back to the Committee of Department Heads. Their report was received and discussed at a Faculty meeting on 23 April,: 1927. The report traced the history of deliberations on these matters and explained why the Faculty was opposed to offering credits towards a degree by extra-mural, reading, or evening and Saturday courses. The Senate, upon receipt of these recommendations, referred them to its committee on the subject, which continued intensive deliberations during the summer and early autumn. Conversations with the President and the Board of Governors were held. They revealed some differences of opinion vis-a-vis the Senate's position and led to extended discussions. President Klinck presented a long memorandum to the committee In mid-August and a supplementary statement on extra-mural courses the following month. In these statements he  145 made it clear that he supported offering Saturday morning and evening courses on the campus. With regard to the other kinds of courses under discussion, the President held a different opinion. ..... I have opposed from the out set,r and -with increasing conviction, the adoption of any of the following forms of instruction when considered, either by themselves or in conjunction with Summer Session courses, as a means for obtaining credits towards the B.A. degree: a. Correspondence Courses b. Reading Courses c. Extra-Mural Courses^ On the recommendation of its committee, the Senate, on 8 November, 1927, made some far-reaching changes with respect to the regulations governing Summer School and approved in principle offering Saturday morning and evening credit courses on the campus. These decisions were confirmed in principle by 36 the Board of Governors at its December meeting. The next step was to work out the detailed administrative arrangements for the courses. In mid-October, 1928, G.M. Weir, who had become Director of. the Summer School and extra-sessional classes (as the evening and Saturday morning classes were to be known) reported on the regulations governing the 37 courses for the information of the Faculty. Further details in connection '38 with the courses were worked out in the subsequent months* After deliberations spread over seven years, extra-sessional courses for credit towards the B.A. degree.were offered for the first time during the academic year 1929-30. Total registration in the three courses offered in that first year was 105, a figure which was not exceeded, except in 1932-33, (108) between that time and when these courses were terminated at the beginning of the Second World War.  (See Table VT, above.)  When the Extension Department was created, It had no direct relationship with the credit courses then being offered on either an extra-sessional or directed reading basis.  Even when in 1947-48 the first credit course  IK)  in Education was offered away from the campus,  41  the Department did not take  part in the arrangements. In the autumn of 1948 the Extension Department prepared a brief for President Mackenzie on the possibility of giving credit courses through the Department by correspondence or evening lecture classes. In the memorandum, Dr. Shrum stated: ... it would appear that the time is now appropriate for the University to extend its work in this field beyond the present late afternoon and directed reading courses. 'With regard to the lecture courses he added: The possibility of offering evening classes for credit presents few problems. Already more than thirty non-credit courses are being given by the Extension Department in Vancouver and nearby centers. It would not be difficult to arrange a few credit classes. These would have to conform to university standards as to content, , length and /pre-afequisites. There is no doubt at all that such classes would be greatly appreciated by a considerable number of persons who are at present unable to attend regular intra-mural classes. These recommendations were examined by the newly-established Committee on Correspondence and Evening Classes for Credit which was appointed by President MacKenzie and which met for the first time in April of 194-9. It worked out the details of the conditions which would govern the offering of the courses and made recommendations to Senate in that regard. The Senate approved the courses in principle in May, as did the Board of Governors later in the same month. The latter ruled that within the limits suggested, the Department of University Extension handle the administration of the courses on a trial basis, and that any changes . in academic regulations be submitted to Senate and from Senate to the Faculties, for consideration.^3  147 The extra-sessional courses, each of which had to be approved in turn by the academic department concerned, the Faculty of Arts and Science, and the Senate, were to be given under conditions approximating as closely as possible the conditions governing daytime work.  (From the beginning the  concession was made that the evening courses would meet twice a week for an hour and a half rather than the three one-hour sessions which-was the common pattern in the daytime.) In order to be eligible to take the courses, students were to have a'full first-year university or Senior Matriculation standing. Those registered for the regular session of the University were not permitted to enroll. Students could take only three units at one time, including any correspondence courses they might be taking. The normal miles about prerequisites, course fees, registration and supplemental examinations applied. Although the minimum number for which a course; would be offered was stated as twenty, this was not strictly adhered to in even the first year of operations. Two courses, Geography 2G1 and English 4ll, were offered during 1949-50. The program expanded gradually in the subsequent years. The largest enrollment ih any single year during the period under review was . 266 in 1953-54, when nine courses were offered. Although courses were given regularly at the Vancouver Hormal School, it was not until 1953-54 that for the first time since 1947, they were given outside of Vancouver. Education courses were given at Hew Westminster and Nanaimo that year and at Victoria the next. B. Directed Reading and Correspondence Credit Courses Correspondence and directed reading courses were not looked upon favourably by the committees of Faculty and Senate which studied the various forms of extension credit courses. The reasons for their disapproval were much the same as those stated by President Klinck in his memorandum of 17  August, 1927, which was referred to above. In Correspondence Courses, as the term is generally understood, the object sought is to qualify students to obtain credits towards a degree, in subjects which are taken extra-morally, and without reference to any intra-mural instruction whatever. As a means to this end, close and continuous supervision is exercised over the work of the student. The writing of frequent texts and examinations, based on assigned readings and detailed outlines of courses, constitutes an essential feature of this kind .of work. Another feature of this form of teaching is that the instructor, after marking, correcting and commenting on each paper returns it to the student for future reference. In the educational policy of the University of British Columbia I see no place for this form of instruction.^ During the deliberations on these matters in 1926 and I927, there was some discussion of increasing the educational value of Summer School courses by requiring the student to engage in correspondence study from April to  45  July.  In March of 1927, a Faculty Committee recommended against offering  directed reading courses.46There was some further discussion of them at Faculty meetings in 1932.  Although in September of 1934,"Faculty passed a  motion in favour of offering a "special correspondence course" (History 12)  47 •  .  the following year, the Board of Governors ruled later in the year that the proposed course was not acceptable "until the question of extra-mural work had been reconsidered."  48  In February of 1935, Faculty gave Its approval to "Directed Beading Courses," which was designated as the official name. They were to be second year or above in level and the same /-prerequisites were to be insisted upon as was the case for regular daytime students. A minimum registration of  49  twenty students was required.  These recommendations, as approved by Senate,  were implemented by the Board of Governors in September, although the latter 50 stipulated that fifty students was to be the minimum.  Appropriations for  honoraria, stationery, general administration and for text books to be placed  IA-9  in the library were authorized. The first course to be; offered under these arrangements was History 11 (a), ..The" British Entire, which was given by A.C. Cooke and Mss M.A. Ormsby. The Directed Reading Course guided the student over the material to be covered by assigning certain text and reference book readings and requiring periodic assignments to be submitted to the.instructor. The student then wrote; a University examination at the end of the allotted time. Bulletins were mailed out to the students from time to time giving them assistance where, judging from the assignments, it was required. Generally speaking, these courses provided less contact with the student than was the case with the correspondence courses which were instituted in 19^9. They did, however, insist that the students begin the course at a certain time in the year, proceed at a uniform pace and write the examination at the same time in July. The correspondence courses left the student free to proceed at his own speed. Hinety people took the Directed Reading Courses during the first year of operation. Table VI indicates the number of registrations each year until 51  194-9, when they were discontinued.  During 19k3-kk, to-assist the Canadian  Legion in its efforts to provide material for instruction for men and women in the armed services and for Canadian prisoners of war, twenty-eight courses were made available from U.B.C. They were also used as Directed Reading Courses. Dean Buchanan described the year's experience as "not a uniform 53 ,  success." ^  5k  There were other objections to the Directed Reading program.  After  the courses had been operating for a few years, there was a tendency for students to approach instructors privately and make arrangements to start the courses. Lack of centralized administration led to confusion and  150 misunderstanding in some cases. The fact that regulations had been rather casually- applied and were not centrally .administered, created a situation in which it was possible for students to play one faculty member, off against another. It made it difficult to hold students to the letter of the regulations in cases where this was desired. Dr. Shrum came to the conclusion that the solution to this problem was the establishment of regular correspondence courses as they were offered in many other institutions and which would be administered in the Extension Department. The Department's files contain a number of letters written at this time seeking advice from other institutions about correspondence instruction. In December, the memorandum on extension credit courses which has already been mentioned was sent to the President. It described the activities of other Canadian institutions which offered correspondence"courses, pointed out that the Extension Department was constantly referring inquiries to them and stated that there was considerable demand for such instruction in B.C. It proposed that the University of British Columbia institute its own courses and offered the services of the Extension Department for their administration. The Committee on Correspondence Courses and Evening Classes recommended that they be offered and the Board of Governors endorsed this decision at its meeting in.May, 19^9. The Extension Department organized the correspondence courses over the next few.months with the guidance of the newly-established President's Committee on University Extension. The main points established were: that the choice of which courses were to be offered and the content of the courses were the responsibility of the dean and department head concerned; that the Extension  151  Department was responsible for administering tbe courses and would assist •with, their preparation; that the fees charged would be the same as for regular courses and would be payable in three equal installments; that the Registrar would rule on all registrations and that only one course could be taken at a time; that of the last forty-five units in a B.A. program, at least thirty must be taken at the regular sessions and credits earned by correspondence could not be used in honors or graduate program?; and that a student could take two years to complete the course and could write the examinations as provided by the Registrar in December, April-or August. Supplementary readings for the courses were to be provided In the Extension Library, which students registered in these courses were entitled to use. By early August it was decided that three courses, English 200, Psychology 301 and History 304, would be offered. The Extension Department produced a leaflet entitled "Suggestions for Preparing Correspondence Courses" to assist the faculty members concerned. The three courses were made available for registration in October. A list of courses, and enrollments in subsequent years is provided in Table VII* The remuneration for writing the courses, marking the assignments (of which there were twenty-seven) and setting examinations was adjusted on several occasions during the next few years. The rate for marking the assignments was raised in December of 1949. In 1954 the payment for writing a course was raised, the "supervision" fee which the marker received for each student who registered was eliminated, and the payment for marking papers and setting examinations was again increased. Except in the early period of the program, the credit correspondence courses paid their way in that revenue more than offset the cost of course authorship, markers' fees, supplies and postage, and  152 TABLE ¥11 Credit Correspondence Courses: ifumber of Students Enrolled Per Year - 1949 to 19551  Course  1/9A9 " 1/9/50  T5i£i~of 31/8/50 Introduction)  31/8/51  1/9/51  1/9/52  1/9/53  1/9/54  31/8/52  31/8/53  31/8/54  31/8/55  19^9-55  Total  English 200 (8 Oct./49)  6l  50  4-0  53  77  112  393  History 304  85  29  25  32  44  40  255  Psychology 301 106 (18 Oct./49)  40  31  _28  21  35  Education 520 (5 Jan./50)  42  25  13  37  39  203  Economics 325  11  l6  l6  9  13  65  Geography 409 (13 0ct./50)  22  23  23  35  30  133  Philosophy 100 (7 0ct./50)  25  15  15  11  26  92  Psychology 100 (6 0ct./5l)  1  18  32  46  67  l64  220  193  212  280  362  1566  (8 0ct./49)  47  (22 Sept ./50)  Total  299  .  •  26l  1. The figures given for each year are the number of new registrations during that period. Because students were allowed two years in which to complete the course, the number of active students in any year would be greater than the number which enrolled in that year. The yearly totals do not agree with those in Table VI because the latter figure was the number of "active" students enrolled at a particular time.  153  the salaries of the necessary secretarial assistance in the Extension Department. As can be seen from Table VII, registration in the correspondence courses grew steadily during the period, although there was a slight decline after the flurry surrounding the introduction of the program. A total of 362 students enrolled in the eight courses during 195^-55, bringing the total enrollment since the beginning of the program to 1,566. Enrollments over the years justified the opinion which Dr. Shrum had, expressed at the outset of the program as to the demand for this kind of Extension service in British Columbia.  ,  .  In the case of both the non-credit evening class program and the lectures service, the general trend was steady expansion to meet the needs of the city and of the province. Considering the fact that during this period neither of these services was supervised on a full-time basis, the expansion was impressive. -The growth of the Extension credit course offerings came later and was not nearly so rapid. Whereas, with respect to its Extension work generally, the University ,of British Columbia has been as progressive as any institution in the country, in the ease of Extension credit courses it was more conservative than most.  CHAPTER 17 .FOOTNOTES 1. Kidd, Adult Education in the Canadian University, p. 75. 2- Mention should also be made of the course on "Social Problems, Methods and Agencies" which was offered by the Department of Economics as a result of the Falk correspondence: See Chapter III. 3. In Extension Department files. The announcement for the course Is attached to A.R. 1936-37. 5. Monthly report to the President for May, 1937. 6. A.R. 1936-37. See Table III for annual evening class registrations. 7. Minutes of Board of Governors, 13 May, 1937, Mr. England referred to these classes as the "Evening Institute," a term which was not used thereafter. 8. A.R. 1937-38. 9. It was terminated in the spring of 1956. 10. Interim Report to the President,No. 15 for the period 1 Sent, to 31 Dec.. 1939»  ,  "  11. A.R. 194-5-46. 12. See Chapter VII. 13. Report on evening classes 1953-54, Mr. Philip Keatley to Dr. Friesen. 14. They had given it since 1927-28 with the Vancouver School Board. 15.  In the fall of 1955 it became a full-time responsibility for the first time. Previous to that it had been supervised by one of the assistant directors or some other staff member.  16. Letter (28 Sept., 1936) Mr. England to President Klinck. 17.  Dated 29 Oct., 1936.  18. Interview with Mr. England and also stated in a letter (10 May, 1956) to the author, 19.  A.R. 1936-37.  155 . FOOTNOTES  (continued)  20. Letter (28 May, 1952) Dr. MacKenzie to Dr. Shrum. 21.  A.R.. 195^-55• '  22.  In 1955 the amount was $2,600,  23. M.X. Williams' history of the Vancouver Institute.. 24. This account is based on letter (8 Dec., 1955) W.J. Fleck (SchoolmasterLibrarian) to author. \ 25.  This Information provided by. C.H. Carpenter, who for some years worked with the Extension Department in arranging the' series.  26. An exception to the account which follows is the Botany course given by J. Davidson beginning in 1919-20. The Calendar carried notice of this course as early as 1921-22. See especially Minutes of Faculty of Arts "and Science for 25 Aug., 1933, for conditions governing-this.course. 27. Minutes of the Faculty of Arts and Science for 7 March and 8 May, 1923. 2.8. Minutes of the Faculty of Arts and Science for 15 Oct., 1924. 29. Minutes of the Faculty of Arts and Science for 15 Dec., 1925. 30. Report to Dean Coleman dated 9 Aug., 1926, and signed by J.R. Pollock and G.P. Young. . . 31. Report of the Director of Summer Session, 1926. 32. Vancouver Province, 17 Oct., 1926. 33. Minutes, of the Faculty of Arts and Science for 9 Feb.:, 1927. Extra-mural courses were not included because they were so obviously unacceptable. See minutes of meeting of 23 April. 34. Minutes of Faculty of Arts and Science for 23 Feb., 1927. 35. Memorandum re The Summer Session and Related Courses dated 17 Aug., 1927. 36. Minutes of Board of Governors for 29 Dec., 1927. See also press reports xn The Vancouver Province (31 Dec.) and. the Victoria, Colonist (l Jan., 1928). 37. Minutes of the Faculty of Arts and Science for 10 Oct., 1928. 38. See especially minutes of Faculty of Arts: and Science for 6 May, 1929. 39*  See section below on directed reading courses.  156 . FOOTNOTES  (continued)  to." Education 521, which, was given in langley by K.F. Argue. 41. See University News Release dated 3 Oct., 19*4-7, and also the Trail Times for 4 Oct. 42. Dated.28 Dec., I928. Cbpy in Extension files. 43. Minutes of the Board of Governors for 30 May, 1949. Memorandum (17 Aug., 1927) President Klinck to Mr. Sherwood Lett. 45. See Minutes of Faculty of Arts-and Science for 9 Feb., 1927. 46. See especially Minutes of Faculty of Arts and Science 3 Aug., 1932. 47. "Minutes of the Faculty of Arts and Science 18 Sept., 1934* 48. Minutes, of Faculty of Arts and Science 4, June, 1935..  -  J ;  49. Minutes of Faculty of Arts and Science 13 Feb., 1935. 50. Minutes of Board of Governors 16 Sept., 1935. 51. The regulations were subsequently changed to. permit D.R.C. examinations to be written at other centers. See Minutes of the Facility of Arts and SciBnce 24 March, 1937. v ,, 52. See Minutes of Faculty of Arts and Science 25 Aug., 1944. 53v President's Annual Report 1943-44. 54. Hie fbllowing material has been gathered in conversation with several: :: people connected with the instruction and administration of, D.R.C.  CHAPTER 17  SOCIAL EDUCATION 1936 - 1955 The Extension Department conducted many activities during this period which were of particular relevance to the non-vocational roles which adults play in society such as that of the voting citizen, the member of voluntary organizations, the parent and generally -the participant in the ongoing affairs of the community. Social education, in the sense the term is used here, was a strong element in the program of the Department, as indeed it has been in the adult education movement as a.whole. The Department shared the view expressed In the well known British; report on adult education in 1919. The adult education movement Is inextricably interwoven with the whole of the organized life of the community; Whilst on the one hand it originates in a desire among individuals for adequate opportunities for self-expression and the cultivation of their personal powers and interests, it is, on the other hand, rooted in the social aspirations of the twin principles of personal development and social service. It aims at satisfying the needs of the individual and at the attainment of new standards of citizenship and a better social order. In some cases the personal motive predominates. In perhaps the greater majority of cases the dynamic character of adult education is due to its social motive.1 One reason, why social education became an important element in the Extension program was the fact that, the Department had been created during the Depression. It was a time when people were looking for answers as to why such a calamity had come upon society and for solutions to the great problems of the day. Both Mr. England and Dr. Shrum were particularly conscious of this situation when formulating policy and programs in the early years.2 1. Study Groups When Dr. Todd made his interim report on the "emergency program" to the Senate in February of 1935, be also made reference to study group activity.  158  A few study groups have been formed on local initiative and this highly important phase of adult education might well be emphasized and supported by the University another year.3 In what was probably the earliest summary Mr. England wrote about adult education in British Columbia, he made particular reference to study group activity of which he said there was already a considerable amount in the province. He commented: I may add that I am great believer In the study group with a regular attendance, a definite course, and an objective approach to the subject in hand.^" He was in correspondence with several study groups which had been organized during the previous year. During November of 1936, when attending the meeting of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, he drafted the following resolution, which was adopted by the Western group: That the Western Canada group of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, after discussion, have noted with satisfaction the various experiments that are being carried on in connection with Adult Education but would suggest an emphasis for the immediate future upon the: Study Group Movement. This would involve a more careful -co-ordination of library service, thoughtful selection of directed reading, preparation of printed outlines for use by the Study Clubs and the making available of carefully selected texts to these Clubs. In order that Clubs should be formed and understand how to approach their work a carefully prepared bulletin would serve a useful purpose, distinguishing the Study Club from the propaganda unit, emphasizing the objective approach to the subject in hand and welcoming in the Club diversity of opinion and experience.5' In April, Mr. England sent President Klinck a special memorandum On the subject of study groups. In it he pointed out that considerable assistance had already been given to such groups and that Mr. Morgan of the University Book Store had organized a number of groups of working men. With regard to other informal study groups, there are usually a number to be found in conjunction with some organizations such as the League of Nations Society, the Parent-Teacher Association, etc. I feel that the best service we can render to such organizations is the training of leaders ....  159 With regard to physical equipment such as lantern slide loan library, extension library, etc., I hope we shall be able to maintain the principle of loan to groups and individuals When Dr. Shrum took charge of the Department, he lost no time in providing direct and practical assistance to study .groups. Mr. Walter Harwood 7 was employed in late October to assist with this work.  Within a month the  first study course, "Economics and Public Affairs" was available. Eighteen groups took the course during the year and in his annual report, Dr.' Shrum referred to further activity of this kind. In addition to these eighteen groups ..., many other organizations carrying on educational work were assisted with outlines, pamphlets, books and lantern slides. In some cases arrangements were made for University lecturers to attend the meetings of the study groups.8 During the following year, the study group program was greatly expanded. The eighteen groups grew to 179, divided among several new courses, including "History of the Theatre," "Practical Psychology," "The History of British 9 ' Columbia" and "Modern Literature."  In addition, assistance was being given  to other groups studying current events, public speaking, credit unions (in connection with the fisheries program), and forestry. In his annual report for that year Dr. Shrum singled out the high level of study group activity for special mention in his introduction.: The rapid expansion of this work in 1938-39 seems to have been reversed the following year. In January Dr. Shrum reported that only two of the study courses - drama and co-operatives - were "really being used extensively." He went on: It is becoming more and more obvious that a successful study group program requires at least one field worker for each subject. This has been demonstrated by the .success of Miss Somerset and Mr. MacKenzie in stimulating and maintaining the interest of their groups. When study group courses are offered by correspondence without periodical visits from an instructor, the enthusiasm of the members dies out very quickly.10  .3412 Hie fisheries program came into being during the summer and fall of 1939 and it relied heavily; on the use of the study group. Two new courses "An Introduction to Co-operation" and "Credit Unions," were added to the list. The number of groups fluctuated during the war years between 185 (1942-43) and 259 (1941-42). Nine new courses were prepared by 1942. In 1944-45, there was a further rapid expansion. The number of registered groups rose to 325, due largely to the increase of interest in parent education work. "Child Psychology for Parents" and a new course on "Marriage and Family Life" were the most popular topics and courses on literature, public speaking, credit unions and co-operatives were most used of the others. The next year, during which there were 271 groups, was the last for which departmental reports state the actual number of registered groups. In subsequent years it was described as the "number of copies of courses distributed" and it is impossible to tell from the reports how many of the courses were being used by study groups and how many in other ways.  1946-47  1947-48  1948-49  1949-50 1950-51 ,. 1951-52 1952-53  44i -  993  772  519 590 401 402  During this period several courses were added or revised. By the mid-1950*s, there was less study group activity than there had been earlier. Other kinds of adult education activities, especially the short  •  i  1  ,•'<•••••••:.•'  12  course, institute, workshop and seminar had gained in popularity.  In the  early years of the Department's activities, however, and down to 1950 or 1951, the Department maintained a study group program of considerable proportions, in terms of both number of groups participating and the ^breadth of offerings.  The success of the program was dependent partly on the excellence of the course materials and in large measure on the way in which they were promoted and integrated into the total program of the Department. Several of the study courses were used widely in other parts of Canada. St. Francis Xavier University borrowed several of the fisheries outlines for 13 its own use. "Acting for Juniors" was used in the schools in Saskatchewan. In his report for ±9k3-k-h, Dr. Shrum stated that during the year, Macdonald College had used six of the courses, the University of Saskatchewan, three and the University of Manitoba, one. Several hundred copies of the courses were sent to agencies in other provinces in each of the subsequent seven years. 2. Citizenship and Public Affairs Most of the educational activities about public affairs which were conducted by the Department during the period under review were offered by means of evening classes and lectures. Evening classes presented under such titles as "The Far.East in Ferment," "The Rise and Development of Labor and Management," "Canada for Newcomers," "Today's International Problems" and "Economics in Practice" provided information on a wide range of subjects. Several of the study group Courses also dealt with public policy in various fields. • The wartime conditons focussed attention on current affairs. Within the study group program and the visual instruction service particularly, emphasis was given to this field. The fact that Mr. Robert . McKenzie had joined the staff of the Department made it possible to develop this work more fully. He did much speaking on the progress of the war and perhaps even more on post-war reconstruction and problems. He began a pamphlet collection in  the Department -which specialized on current affairs and was maintained, at various levels of thoroughness, from that time on. The Extension Library also found that there was an increasing demand for books on " contemporary affairs" at this time and thereafter it was consistently one of the most used parts of the collection." Beginning in the summer of 194-3 the Department co-operated with the Vancouver Y.M.C.A. on the Annual Summer Conference of the Public Affairs  -  .  15  Institute.  v• For-,-a number of years thereafter the Department assisted With  the planning and promotion of these programs. Several University faculty members lectured at the Institute and on a number of occasions members of the Department's staff took part either as speakers or as leaders of the recreational activities. In the summers of 19^5/ 19^6 and 19V7 ~fche Department offered a Workshop in International Relations which provided Intensive, instruction on international affairs. That the Department continued them for three years in spite of the fact that registrations were so low was evidence of Dr. Shrum's willingness to underwrite a program which did not pay its way '  .  16  but which was felt, to be important.  In the first few years after the war, programs in the field of public affairs were generally confined to these workshops, evening classes, study groups/ lectures and Citizens' Forum, which will be described below. A pamphlet and study kit on "Know Your Government" appeared in 19^9 and a study course on Canadian Foreign Policy was made available in the spring of 1955. The annual lecture series at Camp Chilliwack began in the fall of 1950. Members of the Department lectured on public affairs topics and served as consultants to a number of organizations and groups studying in this field.  163 Beginning in 1951, the Department co-operated "with the'Bureau on Current Affairs, of the Department of National Defence in arranging an annual "Tri-Services Institute." This -was designed to provide background and current information on world affairs for the senior officers of the three armed forces in the British Columbia "region. In early 195^, for the first time, the Institute was held on the campus. It lasted three days and was attended by approximately ten of the top officers, from each service. Almost all of the speakers were drawn from the faculty. The idea.of such institutes was developed in British Columbia by the regional representative of the Bureau on Current Affairs in close association with the University, and was then adopted by the Department of National Defence for use with the armed forces in everv  17  region of the country. 3-  ; -  Citizens' Forum A significant portion of the effort that the Department put into public  affairs programs went into Citizens' Forum. This program was co-sponsored by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, and the Canadian Association for Adult Education (C.A.A.E.), and had much in common in terms of techniques with Farm Radio Forum. Citizens' FOrum relied on a combination of radio broadcasts, pamphlets providing background information, listening groups and reports to provincial and national offices, but the topics it dealt with were ones of interest to all citizens, not just to a particular segment of the population. Like Farm Forum, the program has gained International attention and its origins  18  and techniques have been described in several publications."  lii September of I9I1-3 a "Conference on Post-War Reconstruction" jointly financed by the C.A.A.E. and the Canadian Council on Education for Citizenship  3416  (which later became the Canadian Citizenship Council) was held at Macdonald College for the-purposes of promoting the Citizens' Forum idea and examining 19 the techniques and first pamphlets, to be used in the series.  One of those  who attended the conference"was Mrs. K.G. Kern, President of the B.C. ParentTeacher Federation, who"subsequently did considerable promotional work on behalf of the program among the Parent-Teacher Associationsin the province. Dr.. Shrum had; been in touch with the project from the beginning. He and Mrs. Kern worked together in calling the first meetings to plan the use of the new program in-British Columbia. As a result of the organizational meetings held in November, 1943, which included "delegates from more than sixty, organizations 20 ...representing an aggregate membership of more than 200,000 people,"  a  "B.C. Provincial Committee of the C.B.C. Citizens'1 Forum" was established with Dr. Shrum as Chairman and Miss Marjorie Smith as Secretary. In some respects the Extension Department gave strong Citizens' Forum. Because the program dealt consistently with controversial subject matter, It was perhaps unavoidable that the C.A.A.E. would be criticized from time to time over such things as the choice of speakers on the broadcasts (which was actually the C.B.C.'s responsibility) or the character of the weekly pamphlets. Dr. Shrum on several occasions was most helpful to the / 21 ' national organization by defending it against its critics.  In addition, the  Department devoted considerable staff time to its responsibility for promoting the use of the program in British Columbia. The number of listening groups 22 across the country did not live up to original hopes and expectations. Following the war, the figure levelled off at approximately 400 groups per year. The British Columbia situation was as follows:  165  1943-44 1944-45 1945-116 1946-47  1947-48  1948-49 1949-50 1950-51 1951-52  1952-53 1953-54 195^-55  128 groups and individuals (more than 9° groups) 104 " " " 38 groups and a total of 216 people 11 11 « 275 41 i t 1 1 " 291 39 t t t i " 185 25 11  18  17 22 22  26  20  it 11 11 11 it  11 it 238 it " 145 it " 96 it " 108 it " 129 it " 129  A senior member of the Department' s staff "was in charge of Citizens' Forum at all times. Two of the U.B.C. staff, Mr. Robert -McKenzie and Mr. Douglas Clarke, later worked for the C.A.A.E. and were responsible for the administration of the program at the national level. In the early years of the program the Department conducted a number of special meetings and conferences designed to enlarge participation in British Columbia. Meetings of forum members were also organized on several occasions when the broadcasts originated in Vancouver. From 1948 on, when promotional efforts shifted somewhat from concentration on groups to building up individual and family subscribers, the Department did what it could to assist with this 23 new emphasis. It could not, however, devote as much time to the program as was required to increase the membership. By the fall of 1954 the number of 24 reports from forums reaching the office was decreasing rapidly. Citizens' Forum made an original and important contribution to public affairs education In Canada. The Department carried out its responsibilities as provincial office with energy and resourcefulness, but towards the end of this period began to experience frustration (in common with other areas of the 25 country; as group participation declined.  Community Welfare and Recreation Aside from an evening class series on "The Modern Approach to Community Welfare" in early 1937 and a two-week training course for social workers in the. summer of Ijkh, the Department did not develop programs in this field until after the war. Its work thereafter was mainly In the fields of community centers and recreation on the one hand and intercultural and human relations on the other.  .  The Department received a number of requests during 19^5 for information and guidance on community centers and recreational services. After consultation with the recently established Department of.Social Work, it was decided to offer programs in this field. During the next four years the Department helped to organize five major conferences (one in Victoria) on community center programs and. facilities. The first established an Interim Committee (of which Miss Smith was the secretary) to plan further activities. The second conference established the B.C. Community Centres Association, which played an increasingly active part in the meetings thereafter, as did the .Provincial Department of Education. During this period and for the next several years the Extension Department served as consultant and source of program materials for a great range of community center activity. It maintained an excellent pamphlet library and mounted displays of various kinds. It played a less prominent role as the Department of Education assumed more responsibility over the years. In the broader field of recreation, several staff members played an active part. 3h the fall of 19^7, Miss Travis and Mr. Large took part in a Recreation leaders' Travelling Clinic which was organized by the Department of Education and the following year thirty meetings were held in various parts  167 of the province in answer to requests for assistance on the planning and organization of/recreational activities. Financial assistance from the Federal government, made it possible to expand activity in the field in the fall of 1952, when the National Council on Physical Fitness asked the University to undertake a diploma program In recreation. The Council provided a grant which made it possible to employ Mr. Barry Lowes as a joint appointment for the 'year 1952-53 in the Extension Department and the School of Physical Education. One result of this was a Recreation Workshop held in Trail in association with community organizations there. During 1954-55, three evening courses in the field of recreation-were offered including one on "Camping Administration" which was the first of its kind in . the province. A series of well attended Workshops on Intercultural Relations were conducted during the summers of 1 9 I 1 9 4 8 , 1949:and 1950 in cO-operatlon with the United Nations Association. They played a useful role in crystallizing community thinking about problems of discrimination and led to the 26  creation of a separate organization which specialized in this field. Further workshops in the summers of,1954 and 1955 put more, emphasis on community structure and. less on. the problems of ethnic groups. Other significant courses were offered in the fields of public welfare, gerontology and community planning. 5. Family Life, Parent and Pre-School Education The program in this area was directed over the years, and was given much of its substance and continuity by Miss Mar jorie Smith. Some impressions of the thinking behind the parent education and pre-school programs, and the relationship between the two, was provided by a memorandum prepared by her in the fall of 1954:  168 The concern of this service for parents is based on the conviction that since a child's home experiences have enormous influence on his mental health and future development, family life education is of primary importance. Today, experimental work in this field has been very limited. Projects designed to develop new approaches both as to "clientele" and methods are essential. We hope to explore some of these in the near future.' The co-operative play group, with its coneera for the development of both parents and children has shown the value of parent involvement at a period when interest in their children is at a peak .... This service is intensifying its efforts to assist play groups to make full use of the rich opportunities offered for parents to learn through a combination program including observation, study, discussion, and participation both in the pre-school program and in the adult group. 27 Parent education activities were first offered by the Department in the fall of 19^0 in the form of a study course on child psychology and other study outlines. After several years of that work a further step was taken in June of 19kb, when in response to a.request, from the. B.C. Parent-Teacher Federation, a two-day "Parents' Institute" was held. Such conferences were held each year thereafter until 195k (wlth.the exception of two years in"the: late i^to's). They were attended by a total of approximately 1, 500 parents and'were devoted mainly to a study of child-development, pre-school education and family life. - Beginning in the late l^kO's, Miss Smith developed a further group of study materials for parent education. One technique was "Kits for P-T.A. (Parent-Teacher Association) Meetings," which were,small packets of printed materials suitable for use within a regular P-rT.A. meeting and which were widely used from 19^6 to 19^9 particularly. Study group courses in the field Of parent education such as "Marriage and Family Life," "Understanding Adolescents" and "Pre-School Education" were written during the period and for several years more than 500 sets of these materials were mailed out annually On request.  These courses were also used as the basis of local workshops  in different parts of the province.  IBs The range of this program had broadened so much by 1952 that the title of the section of the annual report -which dealt with it was changed from; "Parent Education", to "Human Relations."  In commenting on this more inclusive  term the writer of the report stated: The service included the provision of discussion materials to groups interested in child development, parent-child relationships, mental health and group development; leadership for. workshops on discussion methods and group development, and for institutes on parent education and youth-adult conferences; and advisory services on program planning.2? This statement gives some hint , of the range of methods utilized by Miss Smith in her section of the. Department 's program. They included correspondence and'personal visits to groups, discussion leadership, institutes in many centers, home study courses, films, books, pamphlets, evening classes, short courses  and conferences at local and provincial levels. Miss Smith, placed emphasis in her programs on sustained contact with a few stable organizations interested in her field and capable of assisting •with the program. This policy was described in one of the reports. It is felt that an important part of the Supervisor's work has..been, and will continue to be, her participation with representatives of other groups • xn efforts to -further a sound development in [the parent education field.] Particularly fruitful during the past year's activities has been the continued work of.the B.C. Parent-Teacher Federation, Parent-Teacher Councils, the Vancouver Association of Co-operative Playgroups and the Greater Vancouver Health League.^1 " Another, and in some respects the most important characteristic of Miss Smith's work in parent education was her development of and reliance on the discussion method as a major part of the educational process. Her social work training no doubt contributed to her interest in this method and her understanding of it. I*om the very beginning of Miss Smith's work with the Department, she was particularly interested in pre-school education. The pamphlet literature  ITO available from her office for parent groups was particularly complete in that area. Study group courses and the study kits provided much material on the field as well. The Parents' Institutes gave considerable attention to it. Beginning in -1S&5, close liaison was established with the "Association of Cooperative Play Groups and Co-operative Church Play Groups" which was founded in that year. In'the spring of  Mrs. Evangeline Winn, a specialist in pre-school  education, joined the staff of the Department. She remained until July.of 19^-9 and during those two years greatly accelerated the development of the pre-school education work. Mrs. Winn published bibliographies .of materials on the subject available in both the Department and in the Extension Library. She prepared a discussion group course on "Co-operative Play Groups for 31  Children Under Six" for which thirty groups had registered by August of 19^7. In the spring of 19^8, she organized the first of what was to be an annual series of demonstration courses in methods of pre-school education. In subsequent years this course became part of the training program for women wishing to become qualified to teach pre-school groups in the province. On the first occasion only it was a course for mothers of pre-school children. After she left the Department, Mrs. Winn returned on several occasions to instruct this course. In December of 19k8, a new publication, "Pre-School News," was launched by the Department, an indication of the volume of work being done in this field and of the fact that a large number of persons looked to the Department for assistance and Information,32 After Mrs. Winn left the Department, Miss Smith continued to expand this work. Starting in late 1952, a series of "Area Conferences" were held at which the various aspects of the formation and operation of co-operative  171 pre-school groups were discussed and displays of useful literature in the field-were arranged. During the year 1952-53, a significant series of meetings of leaders in the pre-school field was organized. This "Helpers' Discussion Group," as it was called, was a particularly able and experienced group and their deliberations contributed much to the determination of priorities for 33 the Extension program and the trends in group movement itself. The course also represented an early step in the process of training a, group of lay leaders who would be able to act as consultants to play groups which needed assistance. The development of such a group of lay leaders was a distinctive feature of Miss Smith's work in:all aspects- of her program. Early in 1954, at a meeting held at the University at whieh several interested voluntary organizations, departments of the University and the Vancouver School Board were represented, some significant decisions were made. Provincial legislation which regulated pre-school centers set forth certain requirements for the certification of pre-school teachers or supervisors. It was felt that there was danger of duplication of services in the Vancouver area by the School Board and the University. At that meeting it was agreed that the evening class instruction in the Vancouver area would be provided by the School Board. The University would prepare a correspondence course for teachers who were located outside Vancouver and Victoria and could therefore not take the evening classes, (it became available in the summer of 1954.) The University would also continue to provide the summer demonstration course in pre-school methods. A further advance in the pre-school education field was made in the spring of 1955 with the appointment to the staff on a part-time basis of a specialist in that field, Mrs. Mary Hicks. She worked closely with the three  . 1 7 2 British. Columbia organizations in the pre-school field and-was instrumental xn bringing about-increased co-operation among them. By 195^-55> the Department had established a wide range of services for both the teachers and the parents of pre-school children. With the appointment of a. part-time specialist who could devote her time to the further development of this work, a foundation had been laid for an even more extensive program. . 35 o. Leadership Training and Group Development In his annual report for 1936-37, Mr. England pointed out that it was extremely; difficult for the University to keep in touch Mth the many study groups throughout the province. He. stated that '"it would seem the course of wisdom ta centre the University's activities on the training of study-group leaders."  A four-day course entitled "Education - Modern Men, Methods and  Curricula" was conducted on the campus in June, 1937, -and;... was designed in part to teach skills in discussion leadership. A course held a year later on "Social and Cultural Problems" also stressed discussion leadership and included 37 a panel discussion on "The Process of Group Thinking."  Mr. Walter Harwood,  who was employed in the fall of 1937 to assist with the study courses, also was responsible for visiting the groups and "instructing ... them in methods of group discussion."38 A second stage of work in. this field began in the fall of 1947, when the Parents' Institute was followed by a three-day "Workshop in Discussion Group Techniques" which was co-sponsored with the Parent-Teacher Federation. The brochure for the course described its purpose and nature:  173 Our aim in this Workshop is to present basic leadership techniques, to demonstrate their ^application, and to provide opportunities for actual practice in leading small groups in discussion periods. These "practice" sessions will he followed by evaluation periods, in which Workshop leaders and group members will analyze the practice discussion - the techniques of the student leaders and the participation of the members, with suggestions for improvement. Lectures on the principles of:leadership will cover the,following topics: Procedure in Group Thinking, the Chairmanship of Group Thinking, Methods of Securing Group Discussion, the Place of Emotion in Group Thinking, What the Discussion leader Expects from her Group.39 Those attending the course passed a resolution urging the Extension Department  40  to continue its activities in this field.  .  Although Miss Smith was the staff member primarily responsible for this work, she was assisted at.times by others who were particularly interested, especially Mrs. Winn and Mr. Boroughs, both of whom taught discussion leadership courses in several centers. Miss Smith and Mr. Boroughs attended an advanced course in this Seattle in the fall of 1949. lew ideas and techniques acquired there were to have far-reaching effects on the work in 4l British Columbia. The basic pattern of services offered by the Department in, this field was established during the following year. The workshops on group leadership were held each year, often with a guest director brought in from outside the province. This program grew to the point that in 1954-55 the advance registration was so heavy that a second workshop was held in order to accommodate all who wished to take part. Over the years the workshops, which at the outset concentrated on dealing with "back-home" problems of organizational life as suggested by the registrants, gradually shifted to more and more basic principles of group life and human relations. Each year, short courses on discussion leadership and group development were also offered in other  174 communities. For instance in 1950-51, ten such workshops were, held in  42  various parts of the province,.  In September of 1951 Hiss Smith was invited by the University of Alberta to lead a Workshop in Discussion Techniques at Banff. ,In the fall Of 1953 she was one of three Canadians invited to Chicago by the Fund for Adult Education for a special leadership training course in connection with a discussion program, "Parenthood in a Free Nation," which the Fund was preparing. These events were indications Of the national leadership Miss Smith  43 was giving in the parent education and group development fields. Although it is difficult to describe:clearly the full details of the discussion leadership and group development programs provided by the Department, because of both the nature of the work and the degree to which it was integrated with other activities, it was nevertheless true that the Department's program in this field, was recognized by many as the best in the country*  The Department's contributions in the field of were among its most outstanding ones. They were designed to assist interested adults to increase their effectiveness as citizens, parents and leaders of group activities. Much of this work was done in close association with voluntary organizations in the province, a method which was to the advantage of both parties, the Extension Department being able to recruit students from the membership of the organizations and the latter receiving the benefits of continuing assistance from Extension with program planning and leadership training. By the end of the period, the emphasis of the Department's program In these fields had shifted from the promotion of local study groups to the  175 organization of local, regional and provincial workshops and short courses. Offerings in the field of public affairs, which, were to be an outstanding feature of the Department's program in later years, were expanding by the end of the period.  CHAPTER VIII  FOOTNOTES 1. A Design for Democracy, London, Max Parrish, 1956, p. lk-9. 2. This stressed by both men in separate interviews with tlie author. 3. Report in Extension files, dated 17 Feb., 1935. 4. Memorandum dated 28 Sept., 1936, in Extension files. 5. This was the regular Annual Meeting and Conference of the organization held 23 and 24 Nov." See letter (12 Jan., 1961) D.J, Ironside (information Officer of the C.A.A.E.)to the author. Resolution quoted in memorandum attached to Report for Nov., 1936. 6. Letter (15 April, 1937) Mr. England, to President Klinck.  '  7. Extension Department Monthly Report No. 2 (Oct., 1937). 8. A.R. 1937-38, 9. Copies of these courses and of the brochures describing them which were published dated 15 Nov., 1938, are in the Extension files. 10. Extension Department Interim Report No. 15 (Sept. to Dec., 1939). 11. This is circulation in B.C. only. The reports for 1953-54 and; the next . year gave no figure. 12. The rising standard of living may have encouraged a more individualistic approach to recreational and educational/activities. 13. A.R. 1942-43. 14. See especially A.R. for 1945-46, 1950-51 and 1951-52. 15. These Institutes began in 1941. 16. Of a total attendance of 43 for the three years, 15 were Americans. 17. Information about this program obtained from Mr. Robb Wilson, former representative of the Bureau of Current Affairs for British Columbia. 18. For historical material and details on the organization of Citizens' Forum, see E.A. Corbett, We Have With Us Tonight, Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1957, pp. 166-174; "Citizens' Forum" by Isabel Wilson in Kidd, J.R., Adult Education in Canada, pp. 179-187; "Citizens' Forum" by Isabel Wilson in Education in Public Affairs by Radio, (an expanded version of the previous reference).  177 FOOTNOTES  (continued)  19- Dr. Shrum sent letter of regret and U.B.C. was the only Western University not represented. See letter (31 Jan., 1956) Mrs. Isabel Wilson to author. 20. "Report of Provincial.Committee" dated 25 Nov., 1943, in Extension files. 21. mis confirmed by letter (21 Feb., 1956) to author from Mr. George P. Grant and in interviews with Mr. E.A. Corbett . and Mrs. Isabel Wilson. See also C.A.A.E. memorandum dated 26 June, 1950, which summarizes the nature of attacks on the program. , 22. Isabel Wilson, "Citizens' Forum," in Education in Public Affairs by Radio., -  P*.  .  • ••  23. See letters (25,Feb.,,1948) Douglas Clarke (then National Secretary) to Dr. Shrum and return (3 Max.). 24. See especially letters to Mrs. Isabel Wilson from Mr. Gordon Selmian' dated 11 Nov., 14 Dec., 1954.and 14 April, 1955. 25. Beginning with the 1958-59 season, Provincial Secretaries were eliminated and all service to members was provided by the national office. 26. The Yancouver Civic Unity Association. 27. Undated memorandum prepared in connection with the preparation of the twenty-first annual report of the Department. 28. See details in papers accompanying A.R. 1950-51 in Extension files.  29. A.R. 1952-53. 30. Ibid. .31. First announced in the Extension News Sheet, vol. V, No. 8 (April, 1948). 32. See^Extension News Sheet, vol. VI, No. 4 (Dec., 1948) for an announcement of the inauguration of this service. 33*r Miss Smith in interview .with the author. 34. The B.C. Co-operative Playgroup Association, the B.C. Kindergarten Teachers' Association and the B.C. Pre-School Education Association. 35-  It could be argued persuasively that almost all of the Extension Department's program was In the broad sense, "leadership training." The term as it is refers to a narrower concept, that of training in the skills and insights of the human relations of leading group or organizational activities.  36. A.R. 1936-37. 37- Brochure in Extension files.  178 FOOTNOTES  (continued)  38.  A.R. 1937-38.  39.  Brochure in Extension files.  40.  This and other recommendations listed in a full report of the Workshop entitled "Group Discussion," in Extension files.  41.  Miss Smith in interview.  42.  See especially A.R. 1952-53, 1953-54 and 1954-55.  43.  When the author was preparing to join the Extension Department staff in the summer of 1954 he was told by several people in Central Canada that Miss Smith was the undoubted leader in discussion leadership and parent education work in Canada. Memorandum prepared in the fall of 1957,  In Extension files.  CHAPTER 711 F M E ARTS AND SUMMER SCHOOL 1936 - 1955 One of the most outstanding features of the Extension Department's activities between 1936 and 1955 was its work in the field of the fine arts. During .his year as Director. of the Department Mr. England took a prominent part in organizations devoted to fostering the arts. The first short course offered by the Department was one on drama offered in Invermere In June of 1936. The first permanent employee of the Department aside from the Director and his secretary was Miss Dorothy Somerset. She supervised the theatre work over the years and was responsible for initiating and developing services in several other fields of the arts. The Summer School of the Arts became one of the most outstanding and best known of its kind in Canada. 1. Fine Arts A. Drama Mr. England was particularly interested in the arts. On one occasion he commented that a neglect of this field on the part of the University Would 2  be "a sin against the light."  In his annual report he described the relevance  of work in the field of drama to his aims for the Department as a whole. The Drama is an extremely, useful stimulant towards the formation of local groups. The encouragement of play-reading and poetry-reading groups and perhaps the employment of verse-speaking choirs suggests the importance of the drama in adult education. Speech training, appreciation of literature, discriminating taste, craftsmanship in creating scenery and costumes acting with its probable influence of refining of manners, the cultivation ' of imaginative sympathy, are a few of the by-products of life sharpened by personal co-operation with other members of a small group in dramatic production.-3 During the year, with the assistance of Miss Dorothy Somerset, who was at that time the professional director of the students' Players' Club, Mr. England took  l8o several significant steps in this field. He established liaison -with the drama specialist in the Department of Education, Major Bullock-Webster, and arranged a -weekend course on drama in Invermere, the first short course offered by the Department, which, was instructed by Miss Somerset and Major Bullock-Webster. He encouraged the formation of play - reading groups and discussed the possibility of a play - lending service for their use. He also assisted with arrangements and promotion for the Players' Club tour of outlying points in the spring. Dr. Shrum soon turned his attention to drama. His report .for. November of 1937 revealed that he was looking into the possibility of a repertory theatre as part of the Department's activities. It was soon decided, however, k : that this plan was an over-ambitious one.' Miss Somerset discussed with Dr. Shrum at this time the possibility of a series of radio programs on play production. This was launched in January of 1938 and was carried for three years by the C.B.C. on its regional network. 3h the first year of its operation "The University Drama School" was singularly successful. There, were -122 registered listening groups following the series, an impressive figure considering the youth of the Department and the size of the population of the province. The listening groups were sent copies of the one-act plays being included in the series. Authorities then discussed on the air the acting and directing problems contained in the plays. Then the C.B.C. produced the plays using professional actors. The groups served were distributed as follows:  5  l8l 2 Alb erni Ashcroft 1 Bella Coola 1 Blue River 1 Cloverdale "2 Courtenay 3 Cranbrook 2 ' Creston 1 Cumberland 1 Dawson Creek 1 Duncan b Esquimalt l Fertile 1 Golden 2 Grand Forks 3 Hazelton 1 Invermere 1 Kamloops 2  8 Kelowna Ladysmith 1. Langford 1 Lantzville l Lochiel 1 Merritt 2 Nelson 1 Parksville 1 Ocean Falls 1 Pender Island 1 Penticton 1 Port Alb erni 1 Premier 1 Prince George . 1 Progress 1 Qualicum 2 Quesnel 3 Revelstoke 1  Robson 1 Rolla 1 Rossland 1 Salmon Arm 1 Shearer Dale 1 Smithers 1 Squamish 1 Santula 1 Summerland 1 Vernon b White Rock 2 Williams Lake l Winf ieid^ 1 Whonnock 1 Woodfibre l New Westminster 7 Vancouver 23 Victoria : 8  In tlie ensuing fifteen months the drama service expanded in a number of ways. Miss Somerset, who had at first :worked on an ad hoc and part-time basis, became a full-time member of the staff. As the work of the Extension Department in the field began to grow, there was some misunderstanding with the Department of Education as to the intentions and proper roles of the two organizations, especially with respect to contacts with drama specialists in the school. Dr. Shrum's report that in April, 1938, a conference had been held with Department of Education officials about this matter was but a pale reflection of the high feelings which had been aroused by the problem.  Hie  first Summer School of the Theatre was held in 1938. It In many respects became the focal point of the whole drama program. During the summer some of the most outstanding actors from the local theatre groups in the province took part in the course. Through these students Miss Somerset gained increased contact with the local groups. In the spring of 1938 Miss Somerset began the preparation of an annotated list of all books about, the theatre and of all plays which were in the main university library or the Extension Library.  This was a tremendous task, one which occupied much of Hiss Somerset's time for almost two years. The purpose of it was to provide a useful play lending service for local drama groups which require, in addition to:instruction in the arts of theatre, information on plays and particularly the plays which are within their ability to produce < By August of .1939, 1,500 plays were.available, 50 groups were registered for  • " -•  .••"  , ' «'  the service and 851 plays had already been loaned.  8  During the winter term  1938-39, three-day were: offered in nine communities outside the lower Mainland.  '  During the next year Miss Somerset prepared a reading course' on "The History of the Theatre," which was designed for group study and consisted of readings on the: historical development of the art plus selected plays illustrative of the main stages of development. E.G.C. Wood of the English Department, who had founded the Players' Glub, prepared a correspondence course on playwriting. This had been an outgrowth-;of a most successful evening class on -• 9 playwriting which he had given the previous year. By the fall of 1939, a comprehensive drama service,had been established. The Extension Bulletin on Theatre Services which was published in September of that year, listed the Play lending -Library (which included also recorded radio plays and dialect records), Short Drama Courses, Correspondence Course in Playwriting, Evening Class in Playwriting, the U.B.C. Drama Workshop of the Air, and the Summer,School of Theatre. With variations from time to time and some changes in emphasis, these were the main services offered in future years. The play lending library continued to be active throughout the remainder 10 of the period under review in this study.  183  Report Year  Circulation - Play Lending Library  Registered Drama Groups  4410 5442  88  1939-40 1940-41 194I-42 1942-43  5606  1943-44 1944.45 1945-46 : 1946-47 1947-48 -  1948-49 1949-50  1950-51 1951-52. 1952-53 1953-5^1954-55  :  4530 4173 4747 4364 4016 3444 4946  98  118  116  133 130 134  121  173 . 233 202 205 206 230  5609 5610 . 5649  6054  6684 5923  138  .  : 28  '  5 •'•••••  Hie drama groups listed in this table were not necessarily active ones. They were listed because they registered with the Extension Department for use of the Play lending Library. By 1944 the stock of plays and books on allied subjects had risen to 4,000.  -x  It is difficult to determine exactly how many rural short courses in this field were conducted over the years. She annual reports for most of the period do not list the off-campus courses separately according to subject matter. There were eight given in 1939-^ and judging from Indications in the occasional report, an average of approximately three or four each year there-  11  after.  Miss Somerset was involved in teaching credit courses in theatre on  the campus beginning in 1945 and found it difficult to get away to give short  12  courses elsewhere. This situation was remedied in the fall of 1954, when Mr. 13 Sydney Risk was employed by the Department as a field instructor in drama. In this capacity he travelled throughout the province putting on short courses of varying lengths at the request of local drama groups. In his first year of this work he conducted courses in twenty-four communities.  184 !  For several years during the I940's, the home study courses in play-  writing and acting were widely used in the province. In addition, a review of Miss Somerset's correspondence with persons outside the province reveals the great interest there was in these services among many theatre people in the rest of Canada. The courses in acting were designed for use with groups, preferably groups who had the guidance of someone with experience in producing plays. The first of these courses, "Acting for Beginners" was made available in 1940.  ;  ." ...  Miss Somerset organized a number of other special programs in the field of drama from time to time. In 1942, at the time of the visit of, Mr. Barclay Leatham, Executive Secretary of the National Theater Conference, a two day "Vancouver Theater Conference" for drama groups in the Lower Mainland was sponsored by the Department. In the spring of 1949, the Department co-operated with the Vancouver Community Arts, Council in arranging a "Drama Conference" for the Greater Vancouver area. As a~result of the conference, a Drama Section of the Community Arts Council was established.  Other special programs which  were organized included assistance to the "Labour Theatre" in 1944, and the "Theatre Festival" sponsored by the University Fine Arts Committee in 1951. Miss Somerset was an active participant and leader in a number of organizations in the field of theatre including the Western Canada Theater Conference (of which she became President in 1946), the Western Canada and Dominion Drama Festival, the B.C. Drama Association and the National Theater Conference. Miss Somerset's accomplishments in this field on behalf of the Department and of the province won recognition in the form of travelling grants from foundations which made it possible for her to study for a few months in the spring  of 1946 ana for the year-1954-55- She gave a large number of lectures each year for community groups. Her correspondence contains a great number of letters which she wrote on behalf of former pupils who were seeking scholarships, grants or teaching positions. She; conducted a great deal of correspondence with authors : who wished to have their plays produced and with young people seeking advice about careers in the theatre. One of the most outstanding projects Miss Somerset undertook was the creation of the Frederic Wood Theatre on the campus in 1952. It was Miss Somerset's vision which transformed this former canteen into a small theatre and largely her efforts which raised the necessary funds. The story of this  X  15  project has been told elsewhere  but it is mentioned here as an illustration  of the variety and vigor of Miss Somerset's efforts on behalf of the theatre In British Columbia. To an extent which is perhaps not paralleled in any Other aspect of the Extension program, a whole division of the work came to be Identified with the personality of a single person. This was due partly to the length of her service as supervisor of this work and partly to the skill, and understanding with which she did so. It should be remembered that in addition to her work in theatre, Miss Somerset also supervised, particularly at the early stages, the Department's activities In other areas of the fine arts. B. Music Although Mr. .England was very much Interested in music and took an active part in the Vancouver Symphony Society, during his year as Director of the Department there were no courses in music offered. A demonstration/ lecture on the use of recorded music was included in the study group leaders'  186 course held at the University In June, 1937, and a few lectures on music were included-in the Extension lectures during the year, but aside from these, the development of a music program remained for Dr. Shrum's attention. In his annual report for 1936-37, Mr- England did, however, point out both the need for programs in this field and the opportunities for the use of the Carnegie  16  Music Set which the University owned.  During the next: two years, more than 300 broadcasts of music from the Carnegie Set were given from either the campus studio (see: Chapter YIIl) or private stations in.the city. An evening class on music was offered'in 1937-38 and two evening recitals of records from the collection were held on the campus. The record loan service was inaugurated in January of 1941. During the summer of 1942, Dr. Ida Halpern prepared a group study course on "Music Appreciation" which consisted of twelve lessons and was designed to convey an understanding of the fundamentals of music. It consisted of texts to be read aloud, questions for discussion and recordings to be played. It was in use until 1954.. Many groups, after completing this course, went on to further study in the field under Miss Somerset's supervision by making use of the Extension Library and record loan service. There were thirty-seven groups registered for this service during 1942-43 and 115 by 1945-46.  The number did not fall below sixty at any  "time until 1952-53, the last year for which a figure is available. There were a number of music courses available at Summer School and in the evening class program through the years. Dr. Halpern gave an evening class every year from 1941 to 1955 on various aspects of music. The lecture concert series which the Adaskins gave each year beginning in the fall of 1947 has already been mentioned.  187 Throughout this period the •.Department was aware that there was a demand, for much more work in the field of music than the limited staff, time and resources could make possible. As early as 19V4-, Dr. Shrum stated in his annual report that there was need for a full time extension supervisor in music. In October of:that year, the Extension Department News Sheet, made this unusual statement. Music: We never say very much about our music services because the demand is almost more than we can keep up with.. But if there are any music-hungry groups in Isolated communities we hope they'll get in touch with the Department. We'd like to be of service to them.1? C. Arts and Grafts The first course offered by the Department in this field was a series on art appreciation which was given on the campus in early 1938 by C.H. Scott, the Director of the Vancouver School of Art. A short time later, J.L. Shadbolt taught a short course in Kamloops for the local art study club. When the Youth Training program began later in the year, a specialist in handicrafts was employed for that work and. considerable instruction was offered both within those courses and in the summer programs which were conducted for the Women's Institutes. In the spring of 19I+3 a study course In Art Appreciation, written by W.P. Weston was added to the growing number of study courses available. There is no indication of the number of persons or groups who took this course but it was not among the several often listed In the annual reports as being the most used. The course was described in a Department circular as covering "the principles of art and the relations of art to the lives of men down through the ages. The course provides material for ten meetings and is accompanied • 18 by film strips, colour prints and illustrated books." In his report for  1943-44, Dr. Shrum mentioned handicrafts as one area of the work which had great potential and for which a full', .time person was required. The Department's report for 1945-46 described that year as "the busiest year in its history" as far as work in the field of art was concerned. An evening class entitled "low to Look at Pictures" was given in both Vancouver and Victoria with a total attendance of 286. The "Painting for Pleasure" course which was inaugurated at the Summer School in 1946 enrolled so many students that it had to be divided into two sections. Travelling art exhibitions were organized and circulated to various centers in the province that year and the next two. They provided the focus for a number of other activities-. In the same year Miss Eileen Cross was appointed to conduct work in the general field of Home Economics. She was an expert teacher in certain fields of handicrafts and she, and later her assistants 19 in this work, conducted a great number of courses. During the next three years there was a steady enlargement of activities in this field.. Evening classes In painting, children's art and photography were well attended (as were similar courses at Summer School). Short courses were offered each year at several other centers in painting and one in clay modelling and pottery. The University Fine Arts Committee was formed in the fall of 1947 and Miss Jean Travis was named chairman of the sub-committee on handicrafts. In May of 1948, Mrs. Rupert Neill of the University Chapter of the I.O.D.E. (and one of the most active members of the Fine Arts Committee) announced that her organization would provide funds with which to establish 20  workshop facilities for the arts at the University.  These facilities were  ready for use by the summer of 1949 and made possible a considerable expansion 21  of the Extension Department's program in the arts in the subsequent period.  The painting courses offered out in the province during this period by Mr, Weston and B.C. Binning had stimulated a number of requests for more 22  of the same.  Dr. Shrum's correspondence for early 19^9 contained several  such requests. In early July, F.T. Fairey, the Deputy-Minister of Education, wrote to say that his Department had also been receiving requests from local 23  art groups.  Dr. Shrum's reply revealed that he was actively searching for 24 an additional staff-person to teach in that field. In September he appointed  Mr. Cliff Robinson, who was described in the Extension News Sheet as "the  25  well-known Canadian artist and scene designer."  The following twelve month period, during which the staff members in the home economics section and Mr. Robinson all conducted activities in the arts and crafts field, was undoubtedly the most active period in the history of this aspect of the Department's work. The evening, classes and summer school expanded to include drawing, several ceramics classes and puppetry, in addition to painting. Mr. Robinson gave five-day short courses in nineteen communities outside Vancouver. A large number, of letters were received by the Department over the next few years, letters of praise and thanks for the short courses conducted by Mr. Robihson. His work was highly regarded by all the local groups with idiom he worked, it appears. This was a typical paragraph from these letters: As to Mr. Robinson's success with his students It is phenomenal. We are extremely fortunate to have not only a talented and well-trained artist, but a teacher who can convey his knowledge to a class so divergent and awaken a, keen ambition in each one, and who is tireless with his help to each individual.2° In the remaining four years under review the services provided were much the same. Miss Travis left the Department in 1950 and from then on the art supervisor was in charge of all activities in this field. The supervisor  190  (there were two changes in personnel before 1955) organized the evening classes and summer school courses. He spent considerable time out in the province teaching short courses, a total of thirty-seven being offered during the four years. Other activities included instructing at the Youth Training school, building up a collection of books and slides, organizing the travelling art exhibitions and assisting local art groups and individuals with problems in his field. Beginning in the fall of 1952, and each year thereafter, a ceramics instructor was appointed for a seven-month period to teach the courses in that field and supervise the studio. A new ceramics studio was opened in 1953 in the Youth Training Camp area and the equipment was moved there from X its former location in the basement of the Library. The evening class enrollments in the arts and crafts during the period were as follows: (The numbers in brackets indicate the number of classes or 27 sections.) Year  Art Appreciation  1938-39 1944-43 1945-46 1946-47 1947-48 1948-49 . 1949-50 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 1953-54  -  46 286 (2) 86 50 -  Photography -  -  _  125 (2) 42 50 53 66 (3)  -  -  -  -  -  82  Painting  -  -  _  49 (2) 54 (2) 39 (2) 64 (3) 4-7 38 80 (3)  Ceramics  Design  -  -  _ _ _  _  Children's Art  -  _  „  -  _  _  -  _  -  -  89 (5) 64 (4) 69 (?) 43 (?) 65 (2)  -  21 -  53 (2)  ?  75 (2) 72 (3) 82 (3) 69 3)  D. Other A correspondence course in creative writing entitled "Writing for You" was first made available in the summer of 1949 and was offered until the fall of 1955. It was prepared in response to a large number of requests and provided  191  instruction and criticism of -written assignments in the fields of article (magazine), short story and radio .-writing.. There were nine evening classes in creative writing given between 1947 and 1954 which were attended by a 29 • total of 478 persons. Evening classes in Interior design were offered on several occasions and were well attended. 2. Ion-Credit Summer School Courses • Hon-credlt Summer School courses were offered by the Extension Department for the first time in the summer of 1938. By 1955,, this program had grown to the point where the Summer School of the Arts at this institution ;.'. 30 ' was one of the two outstanding programs of their kind in Canada. One of the factors which contributed to this accomplishment was undoubtedly the leadership given by Miss Somerset, Dr. Shrum and Dr. Erie sen. Their sound administration combined with willingness to branch out into new fields and to experiment made it possible to build up an ambitious and imaginative program. Another factor contributing to the success of this program was the combination of climate and setting which the University of British Columbia provided during the summer. The presence on the campus of the regular Summer Session students also contributed. Another helpful factor was the favourable attitude of the University administration, the "most outstanding and practical. demonstration of which was the decision taken by the Board of Governors in early 1955 to underwrite a deficit of up to $10,000 for that year and the two following. . The budget of the Summer School of the Arts throughout this period was a part of the regular budget of the Extension Department and any deficits which were incurred had to, be made up from other sources available to that  192  Department. Because good instructors in the field of the arts are highly paid, are in great demand, and therefore have to be appointed many months in advance, the Department consistently put itself in the position of being committed to a large, salary expenditure -with no guarantee that students would be forthcoming. . That this system worked successfully and Involved no major crises, financial or otherwise, is a tribute to the judgement of those who administered the summer school over the years. The Banff School of the University of Alberta had been operating a Summer School of the Theatre for several years prior to 1938, and when Miss Somerset, who had at that time just joined the Extension staff, suggested such a summer program for U.B.C., there were some doubts as to whether a ' • '. . • 31 second school in the West was needed.  The decision was made to proceed on  an experimental basis, however, and a bulletin was published announcing the school for the following summer. The theatre school was held every year thereafter with the exception of three: wartime years, 1942 to 1944. Over the years, other kinds of courses were added until a broad range of offerings, in theatre, music and the arts and crafts were presented each summer. It was not until 1953 that the summer programs were officially named the Summer School of Pine Arts, a title which was modified in 1955 to simply the Summer School of the Arts, The five years between the start of the summer program and its suspension in 1942 because of wartime conditions were ones of experimentation during which the Department demonstrated that there was a demand in British Columbia for such courses. The Summer School of Theatre was the core of the program, but courses on a number of other subjects were offered as well.  193 The first Summer School of Theatre was unexpectedly successful. A brochure was issued in early April announcing the school and listing a staff of six persons headed by Miss Ellen Van Volkenburg of Hew York. Dr. Shrum's report to the President on the summer's activities described the result: The registration ..." exceeded all expectations. When the course was first planned the possible^registration was estimated at twenty. It was considered that thirty would be the maximum that could be expected. When Miss Van Volkehburg arrived she stated that it would be necessary to limit the registration to forty .... However, more than one hundred applications were actually received and many others would have applied if they had not been notified that the- registration had been l i m i t e d . 3 2 Of the applications that were received, eighty were registered. Of these, forty-five were permitted to. take the full course and the remaining thirtyfive a partial one. This registration was particularly gratifying in view of the fact that there were three other attempts to hold drama schools in the province during the same period, two of which were unsuccessful and the third  33. .. - • produced an unsatisfactorily small group.  This first theatre school was  remarkable for more than its unexpectedly large registration. The maturity and competence of the students were outstanding. Their production of "The Trojan Women" at the end of the program was an artistic (and financial) success.  Registration in the School fdr the three subsequent years was not  so high.  (See Table VIII for registrations at all summer non-credit courses).  On each occasion a,guest director was brought in to lead the staff and was supported by local instructors. By 19^2 conditions were making it more and more difficult to attract a sufficient number of students for the Summer School. In 194-3, the course was advertised l5ut enrollments did not reach a satisfactory level. Anticipation of this possibility had prompted Miss Somerset not to engage outside instructors. With this unsuccessful attempt, the Summer School of the Theatre was discontinued until 1945.  TABLE VIII Enrollments in Non-Credit Summer School Courses 1938 to 1955 Total: Pine Art Courses Total: Other Courses Grand Total Theatre  1938 1939 1940 19^1 1942 19^3 1944 1945 1946 19^7 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 65  67  93  28  37 206 229 158 241 246 199 225 250 354  70 50 150 115  29 96  93  28  29 129 38 11 50 27 19 128 66 335 267 169 291 246 199 252 269 482  44  40  80  80  39  37  Music Opera Concert & Opera Literature Choral Singing German Lieder Opera Appreciation Accompanying Music Appreciation Arts and Crafts Painting for Pleasure Painters' Workshop Painting for Beginners Drawing and Painting Design and Composition History of Art Art in Education (credit) Children's Art Courses Weaving (elementary) 26 23 Weaving (advanced) Pottery (elementary) Pottery (advanced) Ceramic Workshop Batik Sculpture Metalcraft  65  83  54  58  66  36 4i  15  16  19  59  68  80  47  ?  28  29 3 44  21 28  25  80  30  40  17  5°  43  50  64  11 49  32  24  21  17  1  17  19  16  25 (24 33 ( 19 11 13  16  24  19  24  29  20  35  29  5  14  10 11  21  13  12  17  23  10 17  11  15  11  TABLE VIII (continued)  1938 1939 19^0 1941 19^2 19^3 1944 1945 1946 19^7 19^8 19^9 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 I955  Creative Writing Creative Writing  36  Radio and/or T.V. Writing Audio-Visual Photography A-V Techniques Cinematography International Relations Others French Physical Education  36  50  29  28  4l  10  19  32 11  10  27  49  19  l4 12  70  Psychology  Pre-School Education Human Relations Home Economics Family Camping  27  39 24  9  37  40  110  37 23  51 38 37  196  'There were eight other courses given during this period. On three different occasions a course in hand weaving was conducted by Miss Mary Atwater, who was described in the brochure for the first one as "the outstanding authority on this field in .America." For two years intensive fiveweek courses on radio script writing were offered. The availability of radio studio facilities on the campus added to the effectiveness of the instruction. In 1939 and: the following year courses on motion picture production and use were offered. The only course outside the field of the arts was a "Summer School in Athletics" which was conducted most successfully in 1938. A glance at Table VIII will reveal that during the nine years, 1945 to 1953, the Summer School of the Arts expanded greatly in attendance and range of offerings. What had barely become established before and during the war, was developed into a -significant feature in the cultural life of Vancouver and of the province as a whole by 1953. Enrollments in the. various courses varied widely.from one year to the next, depending on the number of courses offered and-the reputation of the instructors. Enrollments in the Summer School of Theatre fluctuated during the period, the average being approximately fifty-eight. The Department was cautious in 1945, as it had been in 194-2, Miss Somerset acting as director of the school. Every year thereafter, however, a guest was invited to teach directing and to direct the major production at the end of the school. At first these productions consisted of workshop performances of brief plays or scenes from longer works, but beginning in 1946, full productions of standard length works were staged. By 1952, three full length productions, one a play for children, were offered. In the summer of 1946 it became possible for the first time to earn credits in the English Department towards a degree by  197 successfully completing certain courses in tlie summer theatre program.  In  19^7 a full time instructor in scenery and stagecrafts was added to the staff. In 1952, following an appeal by Miss Somerset to President MacKenzie, the honoraria for instructors was raised by $200. eight in 1953.  Registration rose to sixty-  The report ,on the summer's activities pointed out - that the  school was operating at "the, maximum of Its potential."  It warned that  expansion was necessary if the school was to fill the increasing demand for knowledge of all phases ,,of the theatre.  36  '  .  One of the major developments during this period was the introduction of a program in music and opera,  This began with courses on musical appre-  ciation in 19^6 and the following two years.  In 1950 the Department first  offered courses in vocal training and opera.  In that year Mr. Nicholas  Goldschmidt of the Royal Conservatory of Music in Toronto, made his first of many appearances as director of the Summer School of Music.  Three courses  were .given,. Opera Appreciation, Opera Chorus Training and German Lieder Interpretation.  Although at this stage, no operas were performed by the  summer students, some of the better singers were invited to sing in operas which Mr. Goldschmidt produced for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation while he was in the city. Courses in the arts and crafts were expanded in number and kind in this period.  Painting, drawing, design and composition, pottery, batik,  weaving, sculpture and a Children's Art Course were given at various times. The program grew from one course in 19^6 to six courses in 1953, including a wide range of the various arts and crafts. Courses in creative writing were given on six occasions.  Three of  these were on writing for broadcasting and the others concentrated on the  198  short story and the play. Courses in the field of photography were given each year except ,1950 and 1951 and a course in the "Techniques of AudioVisual Education" -was offered in the summer of I9I+5. "What was to become a series of three annual summer Workshops in International Relations began in 1945. Both it and a highly successful "Workshop in Intercultural Eelations" were described in Chapter VI.  •  In addition to these courses, there were a number of special events .arranged which, when added to the various'productions and exhibitions of students' work,enriched the "festival" aspect of the summer school. In 19^7 the festival idea was first developed when an exhibition of student art work, -was open for viewing on the evenings of the major drama production. During the following summer, three special features, an exhibition of paintings from the Montreal Art Association, a concert by Professor and Mrs. Harry Adaskin ' and a chamber music concert by the Steinberg Quartet were "arranged. In 1950 and 1953 the Adaskins offered a series of five, concert-lectures at noon hours. The Julliard String Quartet of New York gave a series of five performances in 1953 under the, sponsorship of the Extension:Department and the Pine Arts Committee.. In 1954 and 1955 the Summer School received fresh impetus because of the enthusiasm of the new Director of the Department for this work, and because financial assistance from the Board of Governors made a more ambitious program possible. Total enrollment in the non-credit Summer School in 1953 and 269. The next year it rose to 1+82. The Summer School of the Theatre was the largest it had been since the record year of I9V7. There was a large enrollment in courses in the arts and crafts, and a particularly large increase in non-credit courses in fields other than the arts.  199  Hie report on the 1954 Summer School of the Arts had a strong editorial flavour. It recommended the addition to the opera program of instruction in acting and the creation of a more ambitious series of courses in that field. Concerning theatre, the report pointed out that the large enrollment had put a severe strain on staff and facilities. The need for a larger staff was stressed, as were the benefits which could result from cooperation between the theatre staff and the proposed additions to the opera staff in the acting field.  "  In September, 1954, the Board of Governors recognized the problems facing the Summer School and at the.suggestion of one of its members, K.P. 37 ' . Caple, provided the hasis for considerable expansion. As has been mentioned, the Summer School of the Arts had up until this time been financed as a part of the Extension Department1s operating budget. This situation naturally resulted In a comparatively cautious policy on the part of the Department with respect to expansion of staff or program. The Board of Governors agreed to meet, if necessary, net expenditures of the Summer School up to $10,000. It also set up a committee chaired by Mr. Caple to advise the Department on 38 the enlargement and enrichment of the program. ' This assistance affected the Summer Sehool of the Arts in two main ways. First, it made it possible to expand the teaching program and to improve the student - teacher ratio, particularly in the theatre program. Secondly, It made it possible to appoint more prominent and widely known instructors as well as a publicity assistant in the hope that this would result in comparable increases in the income from student fees and attendance at festival performances. These hopes were justified. A much more-ambitious program was conducted, involving a considerably higher level of expenditure.  200 Receipts from fees and ticket sales also increased, however, and only a portion of the $10,000 subsidy was required.  The overall attendance at  classes increased by seventeen per cent and the attendance at festival events 40 reached a record high of 10,709, Two notable additions to the theatre staff were Miss Iris Warren, who taught the advanced speech classes and who was described in Miss Somerset's report as "probably the most outstanding teacher of speech in England" and Dr. Tyrone Guthrie, the famous director, who visited for a few days, gave lectures to the public and the theatre students and advised on the general program. Comparable expansion took place in the field of Music and' Opera. For the first time a Stage Director was appointed to the Opera School. Mr. Goldschmidt was also able to appoint an assistant Conductor and Coach. For the first time the school staged a full opera, Menotti's "The Consul." A concert of sacred music was given in St. John's Church, Vancouver, accompanied by an orchestra made available through the Trust Fund of the American Federation of Musicians. There was also expansion in the aits and crafts program, new courses in sculpture and metalcraf t:;being offered. In reporting on the Summer School of 1955, Dr. Friesen referred to it 39 as being "in many ways outstanding and unique."  Certainly ih terms of the  size and quality of the teaching staff, the breadth of its offerings, and the artistic merit of the festival events, the school has been the most outstanding in the. history of the Summer School of the Arts. The summer arts program appeared to be on the threshold of a further period of major growth.  201 One of tlie most noticeable areas of special emphasis in the University of British Columbia's extension program was undoubtedly the fine arts. This accomplishment was all the more striking, In that this field is such a difficult one in which to operate from the point of view of both the expense and the competition for instructors and students. The need to provide programs which would at the same time be Useful to the beginning amateur, the more experienced adult and the gifted near-professional was a challenge which was consistently encountered and was met with considerable success. The record of the Department's development of this work provides evidence of resourcefulness and skillful planning on the part of Extension as well as firm support from the administration of the University.  CHAPTER VIII FOOTNOTES 1. When the author, in 1954, consulted several people In Eastern Canada about the quality and character of the Department's work, almost all the people interviewed made special reference to Its role in the arts. 2. England, Robert, The Threat to Disinterested Education: A Challenge, Toronto, The MacMillan Co. of Canada Ltd., 1937, p. 26. 3- A.R. 1936-37. 4. Extension Monthly Reports Ho. 3 and 4 (Nov. and Dec., 1937). 5. Extension Monthly Report Ho. 5 (Jan. to March, 1938). 6. Monthly Report Ho. 6 (April, 1938). Also Miss Somerset to author. 7. Extension Monthly Report Ho. 8 (July-Aug., 1938). The Department purchased a large number of plays at this time to fill out the collection.  8. A.R. 1938-39. 9. Three of the best plays written in the evening class were performed in the fall of 1939 before large audiences. See Extension Interim Report No. 15 (Sept.-Dec., 1939).' 10. These figures were assembled from Extension Department Annual Reports, consultation with the library staff and the Annual Reports of the Librarian. 11. They were discontinued for most of the war years and revived after 1945, 12. See A.R. 1952-53. 13. Mr. Risk was a U.B.C. graduate and. had been the professional director of the Players' Club and a fieldman for the Extension Department of the University of Alberta. 14. A.R. 1948-49. 15. See U.B.C. Alumni Chronicle, Winter 1956, p. 14-15. 16. Recordings, books and equipment donated by the Carnegie Corporation and housed initially in the Library. See Chapter IX. 17. Extension Department News Sheet, vol. II, No. 2 (Oct., 1944). 18. Undated Extension Department folder entitled "Art Services." 19. See Chapter IV.  203 FOOTNOTES  (continued)  20. Minutes of the meeting of Fine Arts Committee for May, 1948, in Extension files, 21. In the fall of 1949 au agreement was drawn up which gave Extension wider powers in the use of those facilities. Copy in Extension files,  22. A.E. 1947-48. 23. letter (llr July, 1949) F,T. Fairey to Dr. Shrum. 24. letter (14 July, 1949) Dr. Shrum to F.T. Fairey. 25. Extension Department News Sheet, vol. VII, No. 2 (Oct., 1949). 2 6.'. Letter (12 Dec., -1949) Mrs,.C.R, Joy (Alberni Valley Art Group) to Dr. Shrum. 27. Figures taken from annual reports. Children's Art was given in 1947-48, but enrollment Is not known. A total of 258 attended classes in 1954-55 but distribution not known. Drawing class given in 1951-52 was taken by 39 persons. 28. Extension Department News Sheet, vol, VI, No. 11 (July, 1949). 29. Figures taken from annual reports, A course was also given in 1954-55, but the registration is not known. Journalism courses were also offered in 1944-45 and 1945-46. 30. The other was the Banff School of Fine Arts, 31. Miss Somerset recalls that she had some difficulty in convincing Dr. Shrum of the wisdom of launching a Summer School of the Theatre. 32. Extension Department Monthly Report No. 8, (July & Aug., 1938), 33. Ibid. Two were sponsored by the Department of Education. The one planned for Victoria was cancelled and one in Qualicum was carried on with only twenty in attendance. 34. Revenue from the course and the play totalled $2,024.35, expenditures . $1,728.50. Miss Somerset recalls that due to the large enrollment, the type of student enrolled and the excellence of the production, the school 1 created a considerable stir in University and artistic circles in Vancouver. 35-  letter (30 Sept., 1952) Miss Somerset to President MacKenzie.  36. Report on Extra-Curricular Summer Session Courses 1953•  3456 FOOTNOTES  (continued)  37.  Mr. Caple liad been the director of the original team of instructors in the Youth Training program in the late 1930's.  33.  The Board had provided a $1,000 guarantee for the Summer School of the Theatre alone the previous year. See Minutes of Board of Governors, 30 Hov., 1953»  39.  Report on Extra-Curricular Summer Session Courses 1955: Department.  Extension  CHAPTER VIII AUDIO-VISUAL, LIBRARY AID RADIO SERVICES 1936 - 1955  References have been made In previous chapters to the ways in which such aids as films, film strips, books, recordings and radio broadcasts were used over the years, both as the central feature of educational programs and as supporting services. The drama service depended greatly upon the efficient management of the Extension Library, as did the correspondence courses. Many of the parent education and fisheries programs were built around the use of films sent out from the film library. The record library provided the Illustrative material for the course in "Music Appreciation." There was not a major section of the Extension program which did not to some extent depend on these services. 1.  Radio Broadcasting 1936 - 19IK) By the time Mr. England took over his post as Director of the Extension  Department, individual members of the faculty had been involved in broadcasting for some time.  The Faculty of Agriculture had been particularly active.  In  the fall of 1936, the weekly "B.C. Electric Farm Broadcasts" were advertized as sponsored by the Agricultural Division of the Company, "by arrangement with  1 the Department of Extension, University of British Columbia."  During the  year Mr. England established close liaison with the Canadian Broadcasting  Corporation and in March of 1937 was 2 named chairman of its newly established regional Radio Advisory Committee.  During June, arrangements were made to  broadcast concerts from the Carnegie Music Set over the local C.B.C. station (CRCV). More important, conversations had been held .about the possibility of connecting the campus by line to CRCV "in order to broadcast addresses from  206 members of the staff and other items of interest from the University."  In  his annual report Mr. England commented on the possible future significance of such a step. This hook-up, which can. be made without cost to the University, will give the University access to the radio without the cost of establishing a station and in the end, through judicious use of the Council's advisory powers, may make the University as potent an influence over the air as if it had its own radio station. Dr. Shrum continued the negotiations with the C.B.C. about equipping a radio studio on the campus and having reached'an agreement in early October, 1937} sought and received the approval of the President and of the Board of :  5  Governors for the proposal later in the same month.  Room "Gn of the Agri-  culture Building, which had been the Extension Department's office, was set  '  6  up as a radxo studio and Extension moved to quarters in the Science Building. The technical arrangements which were established were not completely satisfactory. late the following May, Dr. Shrum conferred in Ottawa with top C.B.C. officials about some of the problems which had been encountered during the year. Major Gladstone Murray, the President of the Corporation, visited the campus a month later, along with personnel of CBR (the new letters of the C.B.C. station in Vancouver), and the following points of agreement were reached: a. The C.B.C. will install, on indefinite loan, complete equipment for the studio - cost $700.00. ,b. The C.B.C. will arrange with the B.C. Telephone Co. to supply special telephone lines between the studio and the local station. These lines will have large guage cables suitable for carrying the best musical programs. The cost will be borne by the C.B.C. c. The C.B.C. will train men (e.g. Mr. Chatwin) to operate the control and other equipment at the University Studio. d. If it is deemed necessary, the local station will send a man to the University to supervise the programs. e. When programs are of sufficiently high calibre for transmission on the networks of the C.B.C., the University or the artist or speaker will be paid the usual remuneration.  207 f. The C.B.C. m i l permit the use of the equipment and line facilities by other local stations to a "reasonable" extent.7 That there had been considerable radio activity during the year -was amply demonstrated by Dr. Shrum's first annual report. He stressed the usefulness of radio in a province like British Columbia in reaching the many isolated communities. The first broadcast from the campus studio had been given on 26 October, 1937; and at times during the year as many as eleven broadcasts a week originated there. The regular programs were listed as: 1. Farm Market Reports, given daily over CBR from 12.45'to 12.50 p.m. 2. Farm Talks, given every Tuesday over CBR from 12.45 to 1.00 p.m. by members of the" Faculty of Agriculture. 3. "Melodic Adventures" a series of talks on Music Appreciation, given by Professor Ira Dilworth over CBR on Tuesdays at 3.00 p.m. These talks were illustrated by recordings from, the Carnegie Music Set. 4. "An Approach to Poetry",, a series of talks by Professor Thorlief Larsen over CJ0R on Wednesdays from 1.00 to 1.15 p.m. 5. "Vocal Music Through the Ages", a series of talks by Professor W.L. MacDonald over CJ0R every Thursday from 4.30 to 5.00 p.m. 6. "Talks from the University", a series on topics of current interest by various members of the staff, over CJQR on Fridays from 1.00 to j 1.15 p.m. : 7. "Varsity Time", a program produced by the students every Wednesday from 1.00 to 1.30 p.m. There had been 206 broadcasts making up a total time of more than forty-one  8  hours on the air.  This list did not include the extremely successful  "University Drama School" which was described in the previous chapter. During the following year, the improved line service and equipment for the campus studio were installed. Reports on further radio activity were fragmentary, but it was stated that a total of 356 broadcasts of music from the Carnegie Set were given in the next two years. There was no mention of radio broadcasts from the campus after the annual report for 1939.40. The main reason for their curtailment was continued technical difficulties which limited the quality of production from the campus studio. University faculty  208 continued to broadcast from time to-"time from other locations as the need and opportunity arose, but this brief experiment with broadcasting from the canpus did not for long live up to expectations. 2. Audio-Visual Services Mr. England seems to have assumed from the beginning that the Extension 9 ' Department should provide visual instruction services.  He undertook a survey  . of what materials were available on the campus and in March of 1937 arranged a visit to the already well-established and well-known Visual Instruction section of the Extension Department of the University of Alberta.10 There he made Inquiries about the administration of the service and purchased several •'•••• 11- ' pieces of equipment and a large quantity of slides and "Picturols."  Mr.  England reported that it was his intention to Issue a catalogue of available materials and to inaugurate a loan service the followingyear. In the meantime, letters were sent: out to various companies and consulates pointing out that a library of such materials was being set up and inviting the recipients to donate or loan slides. In July a "film clerk" was appointed on a temporary basis.  Dr. Shrum continued the preparation of a library of these-materials.  12  The first loans were made in November of 1937.  but the use was minimal until  the first catalogue of holdings appeared in February of the next year. The collection Of slides and projection equipment was substantially augmented at the same time from Youth Training program funds. Circulation by the end of August totalled ninety-three sets of lantern slides, forty-three sets of  13  film slides (later known as filmstrips) and forty-seven pieces of equipment. (See Table IX for circulation 1937-19550 During the year darkroom facilities had been established and the Department was making slides for its own use and  209  TABLE IX Statistical Summary - Audio-Visual Services 1937 - 1955  Number of Communities Using Service  1937-38 1938-39  -  -  1941-42  105 223 254  192+3  360  1939-40  1940-4l  191+2-43  191+11-1+5 1945-46 I946r47 1947-48 1948-49  1949-50 1950-51 1951-52  1952-53  1953-54 1954-55  425  348 300  300 216 218 -  -  Number of Organizations & Individuals Using Service  Attendance at Showings  _ 43  118  -  10,000+ 103,156  172 396  204,430  750 602 727  614,676  825  800 791  888  1,204 1,221 1,219 1,293 1,242 1,193  465,154 546,847 463,777  460,170 500,000 550,000 475,000 -  -  Circulation Lantern Slides Film (sets) Strips  93 l4o 99 75  101  122 101 69 84 74 65  43  568  Movies (reels)  296  1,107  2,000  2,438.  5,929 13,450 15,500  1,821 1,722 2,150 2,222  2,305  2,212  99  2,356 2,062  38  2,208  1,981  2, 115 2, 100  These figures obtained from various Departmental reports.  5,337  10,500 9,204  10,528 11,281 11,587  16,284 16,288  15,984  15,900 15,900 17,281  '210 for other University departments. Daring the next seven-years, up until the end of the war, the audiovisual section of the Department became fully established as an operating unit and both the library of materials and their circulation grew rapidly. For most of this period the. service was under the direct supervision of Mr. l4 Leonard Chatwin.  The most significant change in the collection of materials,  apart from their increase in number> was the addition of motion pictures. The first of these was acquired in 1938 and by 1945 there were 550 titles in stock. The total audience for audio-visual materials grew tremendously from slightly over 10,000 in 1938-39 to almost 464,000 in the last year of the war. The rapid development of these services made necessary frequent publication of new .catalogues. The main reasons for the rapid growth of the section were the arrangements made with the National Film Board and National Film Society and the extraordinary conditions brought about by the war.. The. military establishments in various parts of the province created a great demand for audio-visual services, as did the Civil Defence organization. Programs of films were 15 ' • selected on a regular basis and sent to stations of all three services.  The  connection with the Film Board was particularly significant for the future development of the section. In April of 1939 Dr. Shrum informed the President that the Department had been made a "regional repository" for the distribution in British Columbia of all Dominion Government Motion Picture Bureau films.^ In his annual report Dr. Shrum stated that the new arrangement with the Bureau "made it possible to establish a film library to serve both school and adult groups.1"  (At this time-also, the Department began to assist the National  Film Society in the distribution of their films, which were on deposit with  211 the Vancouver School Board.) The Department, under this new arrangement with the Bureau, (•which was absorbed by the National Film Board in 19^2) received all the new releases from the federal agency. In the winter of 19^2, a further development in the relationship with the Film Board took place which provided the basis for future growth. Dr. Shrum reported to the President on this matter as follows: The Department has co-operated with the National Film Board and the Canadian Council of Education for Citizenship in arranging monthly showings of educational films in rural communities which are not served by commercial theaters. Monthly visits have been made to the communities selected and films of an educational and topical nature, many dealing with Canada's role in the war, have been shown in the afternoon to the schools and ih the evening to the general publie. In co-operation with the Film Board, the Department arranged a circuit of twenty-five communities in the Okanagan area in January, 19*1-2. Each month in the period, February to June, some 7500 to 8000 people attended the showings. •, .Olh-July, the Film Board asked the Department of University Extension to organize and supervise three additional film circuits in British Columbia. Circuits were subsequently organized as follows: Circuit No. 1 - Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island Circuit No. 2 - Okanagan Valley Circuit No. 4 - Kootenay District. Plans were also laid for the organization of Circuit No. 3 in the Prince George area. The film showings have been found to be a very useful medium for interesting rural communities in the Department's adult education services.1" This last point was an iu^ortant one. In addition to making possible a greatly enlarged film service, the new circuits provided a means for the Department to bring its total services to the attention of the people of the province. The following year the Department reported that five circuits were operating and that approximately 18,000 persons per month were viewing films on the 19 circuits alone.  212 Under the Agreement signed by the University with the National Film Board in connection with this work, the Department's responsibilities were as follows: 1.  To assist in the organization and ^supervision of the Board's roral circuits in British Columbia.  2.  To provide office space and facilities, library space and facilities, stenographic and clerical assistance and telephone service necessary in the administration of the rural circuits in British Columbia. • ,  3.  To co-ordinate circulation of the Board's films between N.F.B. field staff, supplementary circuits, self-operating circuits and film depots throughout British Columbia. 0  In return, the Board agreed to pay the Department $30.00 per month and to pay the travelling expenses incurred in the supervision of the circuits. In l^kb-k'y, the number of circuits was increased to six and .it was found that' wajj information films were receiving less attention and there was increased 21 use of subjects "which could be related to specific community interests." Two other substantial demands which had been made on the service during the period in addition to circulation to the general public in Greater Vancouver were the shipment of films for use at the Youth Training rural schools (until they were discontinued) and the provision of service to faculty in connection with the increasing use of films in the classroom. During the first six years after the war, the most important new development was the creation of local Film Councils In many centers in the province and of the B.C. Co-operative Film Library Exchange which served them and for which the Department acted as the co-ordinating agent.  It was a plan  whereby approximately fifteen films at a time were placed on deposit with a local "Council," which retained and managed their use for two months. films were then exchanged'with the deposit at another center.  The  In that way  213 any one council would have the use of approximately ninety films per year. The plan began in October of 1945 and was actively promoted by the fieldmen of the National Film Board (N.F.B.). In the next five years the membership grew to thirty-five councils which in the year 1950-51 presented 5,753 22  showings to total audiences of "more than 374,000." Two main methods were developed to provide stimulation and assistance to the councils over and above what was provided by the Film Board fieldmen. The first of these was a monthly Newsletter which was co-sponsored by Extension and the N.F.B. and which appeared,for the first time in December, 1946. The other technique was the regional conference or workshop for officers :of local film councils. These were begun in 1946-47 and each year thereafter approximately five were held. A leading part in these conferences and in the whole development of the service was played by Mr. Norman Barton, who had become head of the audio-visual services in, 1944 and remained in that position throughout the balance of the period under review in this study. There was a elose relationship between the film council activity and the rural film circuits for which the Department continued to serve as regional agent. In both cases the Department and the N.F.B. fieldmen, whom ' it supervised, worked closely together. During 1945-46, means were found to assist the fieldmen in their work. Owing to the increasing emphasis on adult education in the Film Board program, the field representatives were called in periodically to attend conferences at the University. Infeforma.1sessions, they learned something of the techniques of community organization, acquired practice in public speaking, became more fully aware of the facilities available to the people in their territory through the University Extension Department, and met with government officials and others whose interest and experience had a bearing on their work. 3  3466 The film circuit activity expanded beyond the six main circuits described above.  In 1946-47, four "auxiliary circuits" were established  and in succeeding years others were; added.  They were dividedr.into "supple-  mentary" circuits and "self-operating" ones, depending upon the amount of outside supervision they required.  By 1950-51, there were thirty-two of these  additional circuits. The Extension Department gave strong leadership to the community film council movement.  In.August of 194?, Mr. Boroughs was invited to Banff to ,  take- part as a.leader .in. a regional N.F.B. field conference held there.  On  subsequent occasions, Mr. Boroughs devoted a great deal of time to film council activities.  It was Mr. Barton, of course, who had the closest contact  of anyone in the Department with this work and who administered the day-to-day activities related to it.  An examination of the files for the period reveals  not only a tremendous b o d y of administrative detail for which fie was responsible, but also his initiative in promoting local conferences and educational opportunities for the fieldmen.  One recognition of his role in this development  came when he represented the B.C. Federation of Film Councils (which he helped to form)  at the founding conference of the Canadian Federation of Film Councils  in the spring of 1950 and was named one of Its directors.  Dr. Shrum was  assured by the National Film Board that U.B.C. had "consistently contributed  -  "  •  ' 2 4  more to the training of our field staff1 thah any other institution in Canada."' The general activities of the audio-visual section, over and above those associated with the N.F.B., increased in variety and volume during this period too.  The use of films by faculty for teaching purposes Increased  greatly and much time was spent in securing film for this purpose from  215 .elsewhere and in arranging previews of such material prior to use or purchase. Film circulation continued to rise but lantern slide circulation dropped off to 12ie point that in 1950-51, for the.first time, it was not shown as a separate figure in the annual report." The photography shop continued to grow during this period,  1,000  slides,  3,200 photostats, 1,100 photographs  and  6,700  prints  having been produced In 1950-51. The Department was interested in more than merely increasing the circulation of audio-visual materials.  It was active in efforts to promote  the better use of these materials and, especially in the case of the moving picture, to promote its acceptance as an art form.  The Newsletter to film  councils, the provincial and regional conferences of N.F.B. field staff and film council representatives, local visits and many other means were used to promote the better use of films.  The annual reports of the Department repeat-  edly stressed this side of the section's activities.  A noteworthy aspect of  this: effort was the creation,, beginning in 19kj, of discussion kits to accompany certain films.  To promote better use of filta, special courses on film  utilization were given during 1949-50 in Victoria and Mission. The last four years of the period, 1951-52 to 1954-55, were ones largely of consolidation and development of activities already established. There was further development of film utilization courses, further specialization in the industrial field and the beginnings of concern about the use of television.  •  The Department continued its association with the N.F.B. along the same lines, as before with the major exception that the direct supervision of the fieldmen in B.C. was taken over by the N.F.B. regional office in Vancouver.  216 Extension provided service for the rural film circuits as well as the local Film Councils, of which, there were still thirty-six during 1954-55.  Film  and films trip circulation remained at approximately the same level throughout the period, with a slight increase in the last year.  The Department  became the provincial center for both civil defence and United Nations films during this period also.  Mr. Barton served as secretary of the committee on  Audio-Visual Aids to Education which was created by the University in 1952. Mr. Barton continued to put great emphasis on local and regional film council conferences. zation*  He also developed specialized courses on film utlli-  In 1952-53 he conducted two audio-visual aids training courses on  "Films and Sales Training" and "Film Supervisory Training."  He was largely  responsible for the re-organization in .1952 of the Industrial Film Council, an organization which brought together representatives of businesses and industrial .concerns which were particularly Interested in the "use of films. The Extension Department became the headquarters of the organization and was responsible for both arranging its conferences and procuring business and industrial films for the member organizations. The audio-visual section took steps during these years to keep pace with the changing technology in the field. material were discussed.  Plans for a library of tape recorded .  Early in 1954, a brief survey was conducted of the  use of television by universities.  Mr. Barton helped to organize, a Television  Workshop held in September of 1954 and became a member of the."Committee for Community Television" which was set up at that time.  The committee met fre-  quently and acted as a resource center for information about television. the request of the Canadian Universities' Film Council (of the National Conference.of Canadian Universities), the Extension Department prepared a  At  217 comprehensive directory of film;, sources from which films could be obtained for: classroom use, which appeared in 1952. The audio-visual section of the Department handled a very substantial body of administrative detail with great efficiency and was also creative in the development of new services and program. Its association with the national Film Board involved a large burden of work but also made it possible to build up the largest and most comprehensive library of materials in British Columbia and to reach a large number of groups, and individuals throughout the province. No doubt more British Columbians were served by this section than by any other in the Department. Mr, Chatwin, Mr. Barton and their colleagues provided a service for both community and campus which was of a high order. 3. Extension Library The Extension Library was one of the few extension services which existed before the Department was created.- A number of books were purchased in connection with the "emergency program" and distributed to local study 25 groups during that year.  Mr. England re-classified the collection and  during his year in the Department was in active liaison with other organizations providing service, such as the Provincial Library, the Vancouver Public Library and the Fraser Valley Regional Library as well as with'Mr. Ridington, the University Librarian. In his annual report he stated that there were "upwards of 1,000 volumes" in the library and that arrangements for beginning general service had been agreed upon with Mr. Ridington. "As a general policy," he stated, "It is felt that the Extension Library should not be made to serve ••  individuals but should confine itself to study groups."  26  ] ••  :  ••  '  '  .  .  ••  .  .  .. - .  218 Dr. Shrum did not restrict the use of the service to members of study groups hut nevertheless during the first few years of his time as Director, circulation was predominantly to members of the Play-Lending Library and other group activities. In 1939-40, three quarters of the total circulation was to the play-lending groups which Miss Somerset had fostered so energetically.  (See Table X for circulation figures.) It was not until  1944-45 that for the first time circulation to individuals exceeded that to the drama groups. By that year too, fiction became the most .used part of the collection. During this period borrowers who were not already registered in other Extension courses paid one dollar annually for the use of the service, could keep the books for two weeks (changed to three weeks during the war) and were required to pay postage on the packages one way. They had call on books in the main library collection for special purposes. The service was provided jointly by the University Library and the Extension Department.'The former paid the staff (which was full-time beginning in 194-1-42) housed the collection and bought most of the books. The Extension Department published the catalogues and paid the postage charges out of the membership fees it collected. In the ten years after the war, the circulation in the library almost trebled. The fee for the service was raised to two dollars but the Department paid the postage both ways. A new service was inaugurated in 1948. Up until that time, the titles of some of the books which had been added to the collection were listed in the monthly Extension lews Sheet. Beginning with the May issue of 1948 a separate "Extension Library Supplement" was mailed with the Mews Sheet, making it possible to provide much more Information about the service than had previously been the case. Periodically, lists on special  219  TABLE X Extension Library Service 1935 to 1955  Registered Borrowers Drama  1935-36 1936-37  1937-38 1938-39 1939-to 191+0-41 1941-42 1942-43 1943-44  19kk~b5  1945-46 1946-47 1947-48  1948-49 1949-50 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 1953-54 195^-55  -  82 82 190 270  4oo  450  50+ 98 88 138 118 138 173  130  7^3 7 ^ 912  224 121 173 233 300 300 206  640 550  285  378  629 640  230  Circulated to: Individuals  -  1,718 1,775  1,833 1,861 2,956  4,782 5,689 6,382 7,177  10,670 14,165 13,935 14,572 13,986 15,073  14,679  Play Library  Credit Courses  -  -  —  -  4,410 5,442  5,606 4,53° 4,173 4,747 4,364 4,016 3,444 4,946  5,609  5,610 5,649  6,054  6,684 5,923  -  -  -  -  745 701 326 590 827 1,177  Total  829  l,li-35 6,128 7,217 7,439 6,391 7,129 9,529 10,053 10,398 10,621 15,616  20,519 20,246  20,547  20,648  22,603 21,794  220 subjects ("basic lists") were prepared for readers interested in particular fields.  ^  By the early 1950's, there was a change in the reading habits of the borrowers. Fiction was replaced by current affairs, travel and biography as the most popular categories. There was also an Increasing tendency for many of the readers to leave the choice of books to the librarian, who for most of this period was Miss Edith. Stewart. They would let her know the fields in which they were most interested and leave the selection to her. This development took place largely because of the skill and understanding with which Miss Stewart performed her duties as well, as the knowledge of the collection which she built up over the years to an unusual degree. Hundreds of letters praising the service were received and gifts to the library of books and cash 27  were further evidence of the high regard for her services. There were two .significant changes in the service in the postwar period. The first was brought about by the decision in the spring of 19^9 to offer correspondence credit courses under the supervision of the Extension Department. Supplementary readings for each course were placed in the Extension Library and students who registered were entitled to make use of them. By 1954-55, more than 1,100 books per year were mailed out to these students alone. The most important change which took place, however., was the exclusion of residents of "Vancouver, University area, lew Westminster and Victoria" 28 from the use of the Extension Library in late 1952.  in early May of that  year, Mr. Heal Harlow, the University Librarian,wrote President MacKenzie describing the Extension Library service fully and suggesting that because citizens of Greater Vancouver and Victoria were served by excellent public libraries, the University's resources would be used to better advantage if  221 persons within those areas, who then made up a considerable percentage of the  29 individual borrowers, were excluded from the Extension Library service. (Mr. Harlow did not propose to exclude persons living in those areas who were registered for an extension course or who were prevented by physical.handicap from using the public library.)  After due consultation with the Board and  Senate, Mr. Harlow prepared a formal statement of the change of policy, which  30  was approved by the Board in late July. Dr. Shrum did not agree with the principal changes which had been made' and complained to Mr. Harlow that the  .  31 Extension Department had not been consulted.  Further discussions on the  matter made minor adjustments to the policy but left the major change intact. In spite of this restriction, however, the total circulation of books remained 32 approximately the same the following year. The Extension Library continued on the new basis throughout the rest of the period under review.  This service made a contribution "over the years  both as a support to other extension programs and also as a regular library service for many British Columbians whose needs were not fully met by local libraries.  . -  Becord Loan Service •Before the creation of the Extension Department, the University received a; gift from the Carnegie Corporation of lew York a "Music Teaching Set for Colleges."  In the program for the inaugural recital of recordings from the  set, it was described as follows: The Set contains nearly 1,000 recordings, some, like the songs of the British Columbia Indians, specially ordered - and spans the wide arc from the aboriginal chant to the most complex of modern orchestrations. In the field of religious music, the records Illustrate the development from the Plain Song, the Gregorian Chant, and the Chorale, to the great Masses and Oratorios. The secular music available ranges from the Folk  222 Song to the -Symphony. Solo instruments are well represented by reproductions of great artists, while many selections of Chamber "Music, and ' of medieval and modern orchestral works, are included. In vocal music there are solos and madrigals, glees, part songs, and choruses, and extensive excerpts from the great operas. 33 Mr. England was the secretary of the-University committee which administered the use. of these recordings and after he left Dr. Shrum assumed the same responsibility.  Up until January of 1941, the use of the set was  restricted to bro