UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Associative verbal mediation Scott, David John 1972

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C-1 ASSOCIATIVE VERBAL MEDIATION by David J . S c o t t B . E d . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969 © A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d . THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August , 1972 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia, I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r re ference and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copy ing o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s under s tood that copy ing o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l owed w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Spptpmher 11x 1Q72 i ABSTRACT T w e n t y - f i v e grade 11 and 12 s u b j e c t s (S^s) performed 70 t r i a l s by t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n method o f PAL on each o f two 12 p a i r l i s t s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n • c o n s i s t e d o f a s i n g l e 12 p a i r l i s t i n which t h e p a i r s t o be l e a r n e d were m e d i a t e l y as w e l l as immediate ly a s s o c i a t e d . The l i s t compris ing t h e c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n d i f f e r e d only i n t h a t - t h e p a i r s t o be l e a r n e d were not m e d i a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d with one a n o t h e r . Low " a " v a l u e v e r b a l i t ems and a 1 . 6 s e c . p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t e r v a l were used . The purpose o f t h e s e measures was t o de termine whether , as H u l l ' s ( 1 9 3 9 ) model o f secondary g e n e r a l -i z a t i o n would i n d i c a t e , an a s s o c i a t i v e c o n n e c t i o n can be formed between two p r e v i o u s l y u n r e l a t e d v e r b a l i t ems by a s s o c i a t i n g each i n d e p e n d e n t l y with a t h i r d v e r b a l i t e m . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t l e a r n i n g performance on the m e d i a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d i t ems would be s u p e r i o r t o the c o n t r o l i t e m s was supported with a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two o c c u r r i n g a t the f o u r t h b l o c k o f two t r i a l s . In a d d i t i o n , p o s t e x p e r i m e n t a l i n t e r v i e w d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t only t h r e e o f t h e 2 5 Ss i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n became spontaneous ly aware o f the m e d i a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e i tems in t h e i r ii l i s t . The r e s u l t s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a s s o c i a t i v e as w e l l as c o n c e p t u a l p r o c e s s can be i n v o l v e d i n the m e d i a t i o n a l f a c i l i t a t i o n o f v e r b a l l e a r n i n g . Dr. R . F . Conry, T h e s i s Committee Chairman. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES i v LIST OF FIGURES v Chapter I The Problem and R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e 1 I I Hypothes is - 21 I I I Method 22 ( a ) Design 22 (b) Subjects 29 ( c ) Procedure 30 (d) S t i m u l u s M a t e r i a l s 32 IV R e s u l t s 33 V D i s c u s s i o n 40 REFERENCES APPENDICES 46 iv LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 V e r b a l I tems used by R u s s e l l and Storms ( 1 9 5 5 ) 11 2 Comparison o f the Mediat ion Linked (ML) and c o n t r o l (C) L i s t s S t r u c t u r e s 24 3 S t r u c t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n and Media t ion Linked (ML) P a i r s 25 * 4 S t r u c t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n and C o n t r o l (C) P a i r s . . . . 26 5 Mediate A s s o c i a t i o n s by Paradigm Within t h e Media t ion Linked (ML) L i s t 27 6 Mediate A s s o c i a t i o n s by Paradigm Within t h e C o n t r o l (C) L i s t 28 7 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r Mediat ion Linked vs C o n t r o l L i s t s (T) over f i r s t t e n B l o c k s o f Two T r i a l s each 35 8 C e l l Means, Treatment Means and B o n f e r r o n i ' s t - t e s t o f S i g n i f i c a n c e between t h e (ML) and (C) L i s t s by B l o c k s o f Two T r i a l s each 38 9 Numbers and P e r c e n t a g e s o f S_s a b l e t o D e s c r i b e a M e d i a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p among P a i r s o f V e r b a l I tems i n ; ( a ) p r e s e n t s t u d y , ( b ) Horton ( 1 9 6 4 ) and ( c ) Lee ana J e n s e n ( 1 9 6 8 ) 39 V LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 S h i p l e y ' s ( 1 9 3 5 ) s t i m u l u s e q u i v a l e n c e paradigm ( c . f . Horton D.L. and K j e l d e r g a a r d P . M . , 1 9 6 l ) . . . . 6 2 Horton and K j e l d e r g a a r d ' s (1961) a n a l y s i s o f p o s s i b l e m e d i a t o r s i n t h r e e stager; m e d i a t i o n paradigms 7 3 Mean number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s in each o f seven b l o c k s of 10 t r i a l s f o r t h e (ML) and (C) l i s t s 34 4 Mean number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n each o f t h e t e n b l o c k s o f two t r i a l s f o r t h e (ML) and (C) L i s t s 36 1 Chapter I The Problem and R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e Underwood ( 1 9 6 4 ) d e s c r i b e d a new a s s o c i a t i o n as having been formed between two v e r b a l u n i t s when, f o l l o w i n g some t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e , one w i l l e l i c i t the o t h e r with a p r o b a b i l i t y g r e a t e r than the zero p r o b a b i l i t y which o b t a i n e d b e f o r e t r a i n i n g . As Underwood p o i n t e d out however, a l e a r n e r » does not n e c e s s a r i l y develop a s s o c i a t i o n s between v e r b a l u n i t s i n the same manner t h a t they a r e p r e s e n t e d . For example, Jung (1968) s u g g e s t s t h a t a l e a r n e r r e q u i r e d t o a s s o c i a t e t h e v e r b a l i tems MON and SEL may, r a t h e r than a t tempt t o a s s o c i a t e t h e i t ems d i r e c t l y , encode MON as "money" and SEL as " s e l l " and then u t i l i z e t h e a l r e a d y a c q u i r e d a s s o c i a t i o n o f "buy" t o both "money" and " s e l l " t o f a c i l i t a t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e MON-SEL a s s o c i a t i o n . The use o f an i n t e r m e d i a t e v e r b a l i tem which has a common a s s o c i a t i o n with two p r e v i o u s l y u n r e l a t e d v e r b a l i tems t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f an a s s o c i a t i o n between t h o s e i t ems i s an example o f v e r b a l m e d i a t i o n , the i n t e r v e n i n g i tem b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o as t h e m e d i a t o r . The f o r e g o i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t c o n c e p t u a l p r o c e s s e s can be involved in t h e f o r m a t i o n o f m e d i a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . There i s , however, a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s , d e r i v e d 2 from H u l l ' s ( 1 9 3 9 ) model o f secondary g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t a s s o c i a t i v e p r o c e s s e s can be i n v o l v e d a s w e l l . J e n k i n s (19&3) d e s c r i b e s t h e b a s i c paradigm o f m e d i a t e a s s o c i a t i o n as f o l l o w s : I f e lement A i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e lement B and e lement C i s a s s o c i a t e d wi th e lement B t h e n e lement A w i l l a c q u i r e some a s s o c i a t i o n wi th e lement C . . . T h i s ( i s ) c a l l e d a m e d i a t e a s s o c i a t i o n as opposed t o an immediate a s s o c i a t i o n which a r o s e from d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n through c o n t i g u i t y o f t h e ( e l e m e n t s ) i n t ime or s p a c e , ( p . 2 1 3 ) H u l l ' s model o f s e c o n d a r y g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o as t h e b a s i s f o r e x p l a i n i n g m e d i a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n s between v e r b a l i t e m s (Horton and K j e l d e r g a a r dj 1961; J e n k i n s , 1963; Earhard and Mandler , 1 9 6 5 ) • Hul l proposed t h r e e p r i n c i p l e s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t a s t i m u l u s can evoke a r e a c t i o n or r e s p o n s e t o which i t has n e v e r been d i r e c t l y c o n d i t i o n e d . The f i r s t o f t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s i s based on p a r t i a l p h y s i c a l i d e n t i t y o f t h e s t i m u l u s c o m p l e x i t i e s i n v o l v e d and i s not e l a b o r a t e d . The second i s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f pr imary g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . I f a r e s p o n s e has been c o n d i t i o n e d t o a p o i n t on a s t i m u l u s cont inuum, t h e n o t h e r p o i n t s a d j a c e n t t o t h e c o n d i t i o n e d p o i n t on t h e same continuum w i l l t end t o evoke t h e same r e s p o n s e wi th an i n t e n s i t y which d e c r e a s e s as t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s t i m u l i i n c r e a s e s . The t h i r d p r i n c i p l e or theorem as Hul l r e f e r s t o i t i s t h a t o f secondary g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , and t h i s p r o v i d e s t h e b a s i s o f an a s s o c i a t i v e 3 e x p l a n a t i o n o f v e r b a l m e d i a t i o n . The argument whereby Hull a r r i v e d a t the p r i n c i p l e o f secondary g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : 1 . Let us assume t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a s t i m u l u s continuum s e v e r a l t i m e s wider than the range o f any g e n e r a l i z a t i o n g r a d i e n t . 2 . I t i s f u r t h e r assumed t h a t a t very many p l a c e s throughout t h e s t i m u l u s continuum o f ( 1 ) Rx ( e . g . t h e b l i n k i n g o f the e y e l i d ) has been c o n d i t i o n e d . 3 . From ( 2 ) . . . i t f o l l o w s t h a t a l l p o i n t s t h r o u g h -out t h i s s t i m u l u s continuum; whether s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d t o i t or n o t , w i l l evoke Rx t o a high and f a i r l y uniform d e g r e e , i . e . , any two p o i n t s on t h e s t i m u l u s continuum such as Sa and Sn would evoke Rx t o a high and approx imate ly equal degree r e g a r d -l e s s o f t h e number .o f j . n . d . ' s ( d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t h r e s h o l d s ) s e p a r a t i n g them, t h u s : S a ^ S n - - " where Sx i s a p r o p r i o c e p t i v e s t i m u l u s a r i s i n g from r e a c t i o n Rx. 4 . Now, l e t us suppose t h a t a g iven p o i n t , S a , o f t h i s continuum i s l a t e r c o n d i t i o n e d r a t h e r s t r o n g l y t o t h e r e a c t i o n Ry ( e . g . a hand movement). 5 . From ( 3 ) and ( 4 ) t h e p r o c e s s o f c o n d i t i o n i n g would be as f o l l o w s : 4 6 . Suppose, now, t h e organism i s s t i m u l a t e d by Sn, a number o f primary s u p r a l i m i n a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n spans removed from S a . 7 . From ( 3 ) , ( 5 ) , and ( 6 ) we have Sf j 8 . G e n e r a l i z i n g ( 7 ) we may a c c o r d i n g l y say t h a t , Even though Sn has never been c o n d i t i o n e d t o Ry, and even through Sn i s beyond the primary g e n e r a l i z a t i o n range o f S a , n e v e r t h e l e s s Sn i s a b l e t o evoke Ry, i . e . , Sa and Sn a r e e q u i v a l e n t i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o evoke t h e same r e a c t i o n . p . 28 i In e s s e n c e H u l l ' s assumption i s t h a t ( a ) each r e s p o n s e produces d i s t i n c t i v e p r o p r i o c e p t i v e s t i m u l i ( i n t h i s c a s e Sx) which can become a s s o c i a t e d with o t h e r r e s p o n s e s and ( b ) t h a t a r e s p o n s e ( i n t h i s c a s e Rx) can o c c u r i m p l i c i t l y producing an i m p l i c i t s t i m u l u s consequence ( S x ) . Thus, when t h e s t i m u l u s ( S a ) becomes a s s o c i a t e d with a new r e s p o n s e ( R y ) , t h e new r e s p o n s e can become a s s o c i a t e d with the i m p l i c i t s t i m u l u s consequence r e s u l t i n g i n t h e c h a i n o f a s s o c i a t i o n s a t ( 7 ) . An e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e mediated a s s o c i a t i o n proposed i n H u l l ' s p r i n c i p l e o f secondary g e n e r a l i z a t i o n was provided by S h i p l e y ( 1 9 3 5 ) . S h i p l e y ' s study was conducted t o i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t i n g a new r e s p o n s e with one o f two s t i m u l i c o n d i t i o n e d t o a s i n g l e r e s p o n s e , by r e c o n d i t i o n i n g t h e o t h e r s t i m u l i t o t h e new 5 r e s p o n s e . S h i p l e y ' s method was t o f i r s t c o n d i t i o n t h e sound o f a buzzer ( e q u i v a l e n t t o H u l l ' s Sn) and a f l a s h o f l i g h t ( e q u i v a l e n t t o H u l l ' s Sa) t o a winking r e a c t i o n ( e q u i v a l e n t t o H u l l ' s Rx) produced by a tap on t h e s u b j e c t ' s c h e e k , then r e c o n d i t i o n t h e l i g h t f l a s h ( S a ) t o a f i n g e r withdrawing r e a c t i o n ( e q u i v a l e n t t o H u l l ' s Ry) produced by an e l e c t r i c shock . S h i p l e y then found t h a t t h e f i n g e r withdrawing r e a c t i o n was e l i c i t e d by t h e buzzer ( t o which i t had never been c o n d i t i o n e d ) in seven o f h i s t e n s u b j e c t s . S h i p l e y ' s s t i m u l u s e q u i v a l e n c e paradigm as i l l u s t r a t e d by Horton and i K j e l d e r g a a r d ( 1 9 6 1 ) i s shown i n F i g u r e 1 . S h i p l e y provided e a r l y e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e mediated a s s o c i a t i o n s proposed by Hull can be e s t a b l i s h e d u s i n g i n -v o l u n t a r y e y e b l i n k and f i n g e r withdrawal r e s p o n s e s . For r e a s o n s t h a t w i l l be p o i n t e d o u t , t h e same e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p u r e l y a s s o c i a t i v e m e d i a t i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s between v e r b a l i t ems has not been o b t a i n e d . I f H u l l ' s model i s t o provide an a p p r o p r i a t e b a s i s f o r e x p l a i n i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f mediated a s s o c i a t i o n s between v e r b a l i t ems i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n e v i d e n c e t h a t p u r e l y a s s o c i a t i v e p r o c e s s e s can account f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f media te a s s o c i a t i o n s between v e r b a l i t e m s . The p r e s e n t study i s des igned t o provide u n e q u i v o c a l e v i d e n c e f o r the o p e r a t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i v e p r o c e s s e s i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f mediated a s s o c i a t i o n s between v e r b a l i tems by 6 S t a g e i : A ( l i g h t ) (wink) t a p on cheek S t a g e 2 : C ( b u z z e r ) B (wink) tap on cheek S t a g e 3: A ( l i g h t ) ^ - ( i m p l i c i t B) e- D ( f i n g e r wi thdrawal ) shock T e s t S t a g e : C ( b u z z e r ) ^ ( i m p l i c i t B) »-D ( f i n g e r wi thdrawal ) F i g u r e 1 : S h i p l e y ' s ( 1 9 3 5 ) s t i m u l u s e q u i v a l e n c e paradigm, ( c . f . Horton D.L. and K j e l d e r g a a r d P . M . , 1961 ) e l i m i n a t i n g f e a t u r e s o f s t u d i e s done t o d a t e which a r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o an a s s o c i a t i v e model , or which permit a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f apparent m e d i a t i o n a l e f f e c t s . Horton and K j e l d e r g a a r d ( 1 9 6 1 ) ana lyzed and i n v e s t i g a t e d e i g h t paradigms i n which secondary g e n e r a l i z a t i o n should , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r a n a l y s i s , o c c u r . T h e i r study i s c i t e d here f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e paradigms most commonly used in i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f v e r b a l m e d i a t i o n p r o c e s s e s , and second t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t p o s s i b l e ambiguity e x i s t s r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s developed i n t h e s e paradigms. The e i g h t paradigms a r e i l l u s t r a t e d in F i g u r e 2 . S t u d i e s u t i l i z i n g t h e s e paradigms have invo lved e i t h e r two (mixed l i s t d e s i g n ) or t h r e e (unmixed l i s t d e s i g n ) Paradigm Numbers I I I I I IV S t a g e 1 S tage 2 T e s t S tage A B (A) / \ B (B) a O C ^ B A' •(C) B (B) X \ A ^ C B - A ,(A) •B (B) / \ B (C) B A ,(B) A ^ C V. / Paradigm Numbers V VI V I I V I I I S t a g e 1 S tage 2 T e s t S tage A B i C — (B) / \ A C C ^ B „(C) A B .(B) / \ A —r*. C B A (A) X \ B »-C (B) / \ A — ^ C B C .(C) / \ B — A (B) / \ V . v F i g u r e 2 : Horton and K j e l d e r g a a r d ' s ( 1961 ) a n a l y s i s o f p o s s i b l e media tors in t h r e e s t a g e mediat ion paradigms 8 d i s t i n c t p h a s e s . In a mixed l i s t d e s i g n s u b j e c t s l e a r n S t a g e 1 and 2 p a i r s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , whi le in an unmixed l i s t d e s i g n , s t u d e n t s l e a r n S t a g e 1 and 2 p a i r s c o n s e c u t i v e l y . Both d e s i g n s i n v o l v e a d i s t i n c t t e s t p h a s e . Horton and K j e l d e r g a a r d c a r r i e d out t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the p o s s i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n s formed during P a i r e d A s s o c i a t e L e a r n i n g (PAL) in each o f t h e e i g h t paradigms. According t o t h e i r a n a l y s i s , S t a g e 1 o f paradigm I i n v o l v e s the f o r m a t i o n o f an o v e r t A-B a s s o c i a t i o n , S t a g e 2 i n v o l v e s t h e f o r m a t i o n o f both an o v e r t B - C a s s o c i a t i o n and an i m p l i c i t A - C > a s s o c i a t i o n . The i m p l i c i t A - C a s s o c i a t i o n i s thought t o a r i s e due t o (A) b e i n g e l i c i t e d ( i m p l i c i t l y ) i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f B v i a t h e backward a s s o c i a t i o n A-B e s t a b l i s h e d dur ing S t a g e 1 A - B l e a r n i n g . T h i s b e i n g t h e c a s e , f a c i l i t a t i o n o f A - C l e a r n i n g in t h e T e s t Phase would t a k e p l a c e v i a t h e o v e r t A - B - C c h a i n o f a s s o c i a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d i n S t a g e s 1 and 2 and v i a t h e i m p l i c i t A - C a s s o c i a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d i n S t a g e 2 . The r e s u l t s o f a s i m i l a r a n a l y s i s o f t h e o t h e r seven paradigms a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 2 . From F i g u r e 2 i t can be seen t h a t i n Paradigms I , I I , VI and V I I t h e p o t e n t i a l l y f a c i l i t a t i v e i m p l i c i t A - C a s s o c i a t i o n i s a foreward one , whi le in Paradigms I I I , I V , V, V I I I t h e p o t e n t i a l l y f a c i l i t a t i v e i m p l i c i t A - C a s s o c i a t i o n i s a backward one. Assumption 4 o f Horton and K j e l d e r g a a r d ' s model i s t h a t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g an A - B h a b i t , t h e tendency o f 9 A t o e l i c i t B w i l l a t a l l t i m e s be s t r o n g e r than the tendency o f B t o e l i c i t A. That i s , foreward a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e assumed t o be s t r o n g e r than backward a s s o c i a t i o n s . On the b a s i s t h a t the foreward i m p l i c i t A - C a s s o c i a t i o n , w i l l be s t r o n g e r than t h e backward i m p l i c i t A -C and t h a t t h e s e a r e t h e f a c i l i t a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e a u t h o r s p r e d i c t e d t h a t Paradigms I , I I , IV and V I I would j o i n t l y show more f a c i l i -t a t i o n o f T e s t Phase l e a r n i n g than' would paradigms I I I , IV, V and V I I I . Horton and K j e l d e r g a a r d f u r t h e r p r e d i c t e d t h a t Paradigms I , IV , V I I and V I I I would j o i n t l y show more t e s t phase f a c i l i t a t i o n than Paradigms I I , I I I , V and VI t a k e n t o g e t h e r . In Paradigms I , IV , V I I and V I I I t h e S t a g e 2 s t i m u l u s i tem (See F i g u r e 2 ) evokes t h e m e d i a t i o n a l r e s p o n s e which presumably may then be d i r e c t l y connec ted t o t h e r e s p o n s e t e r m s ; whereas i n t h e s t i m u l u s e q u i v a l e n c e models (Paradigms V and V I ) and t h e c h a i n i n g Paradigm's I I and I I I t h e ( S t a g e 2) r e s p o n s e member e l i c i t s the m e d i a t i o n a l r e s p o n s e which must then be connec ted t o t h e s t i m u l u s member r e m o t e l y . On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n c o n t i g u i t y o f t h e S t a g e 2 m e d i a t i o n a l r e s p o n s e between Paradigms I , IV, V I I and V I I I and Paradigms I I , I I I , V and VI t h e a u t h o r s p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e former Paradigms having t h e g r e a t e r degree o f c o n t i g u i t y o f t h e media tor i n S t a g e 2 would j o i n t l y show more f a c i l i t a t i o n o f the t e s t phase l e a r n i n g than the l a t t e r . 10 Horton and K j e l d e r g a a r d found, however, t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r f o r m a n c e between any o f t h e parad igms . The r e s u l t s , t h e r e f o r e , d id not support t h e i r p u r e l y a s s o c i a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e m e d i a t i o n p r o c e s s i n t h e s e t h r e e s t a g e p a r a d i g m s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e s u l t s o f s t u d i e s c a r r i e d out by R u s s e l l and Storms ( 1 9 5 5 ) and Lee and J e n s e n ( 1 9 6 8 ) i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r t h e unmixed l i s t d e s i g n a s used by Horton and K j e l d e r g a a r d , an a s s o c i a t i v e a n a l y s i s does not a c c o u n t f o r a l l t h e m e d i a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d . R u s s e l l and Storms used n o r m a t i v e d a t a t o i n f e r » a s s o c i a t i o n s between B , C and D i t e m s i n a f o u r s t a g e c h a i n i n g paradigm (A-B, B-C-D, A-D) . S u b j e c t s l e a r n e d t e n A-B p a i r s by t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n method o f PAL a t a 2 : 2 p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e . A i t e m s vie r e low " a " v a l u e t r i g r a m s , B i t e m s were s t i m u l u s words from Kent and R o s a n o f f ( 1 9 1 0 ) , B-C and C-D a s s o c i a t i o n s were i n f e r r e d from n o r m a t i v e d a t a o b -t a i n e d by t h e a u t h o r s . M e d i a t i o n a l e f f e c t s were t e s t e d f o r by hav ing Ss l e a r n one o f two t e s t l i s t s , each comprised o f 5 A-D p a i r s and 5 A-X c o n t r o l p a i r s . F a s t e r A-D l e a r n i n g was found and a t t r i b u t e d t o a A-B-C-D c h a i n o f a s s o c i a t i o n s between Aiand D i t e m s . R u s s e l l and Storms conc luded t h a t t h e i r s tudy d e m o n s t r a t e d m e d i a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s e x t e n d i n g o v e r more than one i n t e r v e n i n g t e r m . However, t h e A, B , C, D and X i t e m s used by R u s s e l l and Storms and i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 1 s u g g e s t an a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e i r r e s u l t s . Table 1 V e r b a l I tems used by R u s s e l l and Storms ( 1 9 5 5 ) s t i m u l i impl ied a s s o c i a t i v e c h a i n c o n t r o l words A B C D X CEF STEM t FLOWER SMELL JOY DAX MEMORY MIND MATTER AFRAID ROV SOLDIER ARMY NAVY CHEESE VUX TROUBLE BAD GOOD MUSIC WUB WISH WANT NEED TABLE GEX JUSTICE PEACE WAR HOUSE J I D THIEF STEAL TAKE SLEEP ZIL OCEAN WATER DRINK DOCTOR LA J COMMAND ORDER DISORDER CABBAGE MYV • FRUIT APPLE RED HAND 12 There appears t o be a h i g h e r degree o f c o n c e p t u a l or meaningful s i m i l a r i t y ( a s d e f i n e d by J u n g , 1 9 6 8 , p. 36) between B and D i t ems than t h e r e i s between B and X i t e m s . For example , B - D i tems such as s o l d i e r and navy, wish and need, t h i e f and t a k e , ocean and d r i n k , may be more s i m i l a r than B - X i t ems such as stem and j o y , memory and a f r a i d , s o l d i e r and c h e e s e , and t r o u b l e and m u s i c . S i n c e each £3 f i r s t l e a r n e d the A-B l i s t , then a l i s t o f A-D and A-X p a i r s , t h e t a s k i s a t r a n s f e r one with i n t r a l i s t s t i m u l i i d e n t i c a l and two l e v e l s o f i n t e r l i s t r e s p o n s e s i m i l a r i t y , B - D i t ems b e i n g more s i m i l a r than B - X i t e m s . Underwood ( 1 9 5 1 ) found t h a t where i n t e r l i s t s t i m u l u s i t ems v/ere i d e n t i c a l , t h e amount o f p r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n d e c r e a s e d as i n t e r l i s t r e s p o n s e s i m i l a r i t y i n c r e a s e d . The r e s u l t . i s a t t r i b u t e d t o r e s p o n s e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , t h a t i s , i t i s assumed t h a t when a r e s p o n s e B i s l e a r n e d t o a s p e c i f i c s t i m u l u s A a d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n w i l l develop between A and i tems s i m i l a r t o B . The s t r e n g t h o f t h e g e n e r a l i z e d r e s p o n s e tendency i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the s i m i l a r i t y between t h e g e n e r a l i z e d r e s p o n s e and r e s p o n s e B . I f t h e r e i s a h i g h e r degree o f s i m i l a r i t y between B and D i t ems than t h e r e i s between B and X i t e m s , then R u s s e l l and S t o r m s ' r e s u l t s can be e x p l a i n e d by the mechanism o f r e s p o n s e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n as w e l l as by m e d i a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s 13 a d i f f i c u l t y i n h e r e n t in the u t i l i z a t i o n o f p r e - e x p e r i -m e n t a l l y a c q u i r e d a s s o c i a t i o n s in v e r b a l m e d i a t i o n s t u d i e s . There a r e two a d d i t i o n a l weaknesses i n h e r e n t in the use o f p r e - e x p e r i m e n t a l l y a c q u i r e d a s s o c i a t i o n s . F i r s t , i t i s not always p o s s i b l e t o s p e c i f y f o r a g iven S which i tems may have a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s and second i t i s not always p o s s i b l e t o s p e c i f y whether an a s s o c i a t i o n i s c o n c e p t u a l or a s s o c i a t i v e in n a t u r e . As Mandler (1963) has p o i n t e d o u t , the use o f p o p u l a t i o n norms t o i n f e r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a s s o c i a t i v e l i n k s f o r any one s u b j e c t may not be a v a l i d p r o c e d u r e . A p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t may have as a dominant a s s o c i a t i o n one which i s not a p p r o p r i a t e as a m e d i a t o r but r a t h e r some i n -a p p r o p r i a t e and by p o p u l a t i o n norms lower p r o b a b i l i t y a s s o c i a t e . In o r d e r t o overcome t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , t h e p r e s e n t study i s . des igned so t h a t , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s between v e r b a l i t ems w i l l be a c q u i r e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . By minimiz ing t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p r e - e x p e r i m e n t a l l y a c q u i r e d a s s o c i a t i o n s , i t i s g r e a t e r a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s e n t e r i n g i n t o t h e m e d i a t i o n a l p r o c e s s w i l l be a s s o c i a t i v e r a t h e r than c o n c e p t u a l i n n a t u r e . On t h i s b a s i s , t h e p r e s e n t study should provide a more adequate t e s t o f H u l l ' s a s s o c i a t i v e model than would be p o s s i b l e u t i l i z i n g v e r b a l m a t e r i a l s such as t h o s e o f R u s s e l l and S torms . R e q u i r i n g t h a t a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s between v e r b a l i tems be a c q u i r e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f the exper iment w i l l s e r v e t o 14 minimize the i n f l u e n c e o f a s s o c i a t i o n s which may be con-c e p t u a l or meaningful in n a t u r e . The study by Lee and J e n s e n ( 1 9 6 8 ) however, p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h i s procedure a l o n e i s not adequate t o e l i m i n a t e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f c o n c e p t u a l p r o c e s s e s . Lee and J e n s e n ' s study was con-ducted to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t o f l e a r n e r s ' awareness o f t h e forward c h a i n i n g paradigm on t e s t phase p e r f o r m a n c e . The purpose of the study was t o c l a r i f y whether , as i s impl ied by H u l l ' s mode], m e d i a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s w i l l be evidenced in the a b s e n c e o f awareness o f the A-B, A-C, B-C » r e l a t i o n s h i p . In c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e i r 12 p a i r l i s t , Lee and J e n s e n minimized the i n f l u e n c e o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e a s s o c i a t i o n s by minimizing t h e formal and semant ic s i m i l a r i t y o f v e r b a l i tems both w i t h i n and between l i s t s . I tems were p r e s e n t e d a t two second i n t e r v a l s v i a t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n method o f PAL. A 2x2 f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n was used with two paradigms; e x p e r i -mental (E )A-B , B-C, A-C and c o n t r o l (C) A-B, D-C, A-C, and two i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s ; c o n d i t i o n ( I ) where Ss were i n s t r u c t e d as t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e i tems they were t o l e a r n , and c o n d i t i o n (N) where Ss were not i n s t r u c t e d . Two e x p e r i m e n t s were conducted , t h e second, e s s e n t i a l l y a r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t , i s t h e one d i s c u s s e d h e r e . A t h r e e s t a g e d e s i g n was used with S t a g e s 1 and 2 b e i n g l e a r n e d t o a c r i t e r i o n o f two c o n s e c u t i v e e r r o r l e s s t r i a l s and the T e s t S t a g e t o e i t h e r two e r r o r l e s s t r i a l s or 15 e i g h t t r i a l s , whichever occurred f i r s t . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between performance on t h e two p a r a -digms E vs C : F ( l , 116) = 1 7 . 8 9 P< . 0 0 1 but the e f f e c t due t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l v a r i a b l e I vs N was n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t as were a l l i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . The l a c k o f a d i f f e r e n c e between t h e c o n d i t i o n s EI and EN in i t s e l f i n d i c a t e s t h a t awareness ( a s d e f i n e d by having r e c e i v e d the i n s t r u c t i o n s ) , i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the m e d i a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . P o s t - e x p e r i m e n t a l i n t e r v i e w d a t a r e v e a l e d , however, t h a t o f t h e 30 S_s i n t h e EN c o n d i t i o n , only 16 had no awareness » o f t h e paradigm ( c a t e g o r y E N - 0 ) , t h r e e Ss became aware o f t h e paradigm and were a b l e t o mention s p e c i f i c m e d i a t o r s ( c a t e g o r y E N - s ) . Comparison o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s showed a l i n e a r t r e n d i n t h e order EN-0, E I and EN-2. There was no d i f f e r e n c e i n performance between EN-0 Ss and t h o s e i n the CN and CI c o n d i t i o n s . Lee and J e n s e n a t t r i b u t e d the l a c k o f d i f f e r e n c e between EN and EI c o n d i t i o n s t o the f a c t t h a t 11 Ss i n t h e EN c o n d i t i o n became aware o f t h e paradigm and c o n s e q u e n t l y performed b e t t e r on the T e s t S t a g e than they would have o t h e r w i s e . In view of t h i s , they m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e i r r e s u l t s provide no support f o r t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t o f the m e d i a t i o n paradigm o p e r a t e s i n t h e absence o f a d e s c r i b a b l e awareness o f the paradigm. However, a study by Horton ( 1 9 6 4 ) s u g g e s t s a n o t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Lee and J e n s e n ' s r e s u l t s . Horton used a 16 p o s t - e x p e r i m e n t a l i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f Lee and J e n s e n t o a s s e s s awareness o f a m e d i a t i o n p a r a -digm, (Horton and K j e l d e r g a a r d ' s I or V I I ) . Horton found t h a t l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y as measured by a r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f the Modern Language Apti tude T e s t , P a r t V ( C a r r o l l and Sapon, 1 9 5 8 ) , was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o : ( a ) l e a r n i n g speed on a l l p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e i tems and ( b ) t o awareness o f t h e paradigm. In view o f H o r t o n ' s r e s u l t s , i t may be t h a t t h e s u p e r i o r l e a r n i n g r a t e and awareness o f the EN-2 Ss a r e both t h e r e s u l t o f ' those Ss s u p e r i o r l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y r a t h e r than t h e s u p e r i o r l e a r n i n g r a t e b e i n g a r e s u l t o f t h e i r awareness as p o s t u l a t e d by Lee and J e n s e n . The f i n d i n g t h a t o n e - t h i r d o f Lee and J e n s e n ' s EN Ss became aware o f t h e paradigm i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o n c e p t u a l as w e l l as a s s o c i a t i v e p r o c e s s e s may be c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e observed r e s u l t s . The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t c o n c e p t u a l p r o c e s s e s were o p e r a t i v e and t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f a s c r i b i n g Ss s u p e r i o r l e a r n i n g r a t e t o e i t h e r s u p e r i o r l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y or spontaneous awareness o f t h e paradigm i n d i c a t e s t h a t the t h r e e s t a g e d e s i g n used by Lee and J e n s e n i s not i d e a l as a b a s i s o f a t t r i b u t i n g m e d i a t i o n a l f a c i l i t a t i o n o f v e r b a l l e a r n i n g t o e i t h e r con-c e p t u a l or a s s o c i a t i v e p r o c e s s e s . . S p e c i f i c a l l y , a more a p p r o p r i a t e d e s i g n would be one t h a t minimized t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f Ss becoming spontaneous ly aware o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e i t ems they a r e l e a r n i n g . 17 Ss becoming spontaneous ly aware of a m e d i a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p such as the A-B, B-C, A-C paradigm as happened i n t h e Lee and J e n s e n study c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s the i n c i d e n t a l concept l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . B r u n e r , Goodnow and Aust in ( 1 9 5 6 ) found t h a t v a r i a b l e s such as p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e with s i m i l a r t a s k s , t o t a l t ime a v a i l a b l e and s i m p l i c i t y o f a t a s k e f f e c t e d Ss r a t e o f concept l e a r n i n g . In view of t h i s r e s e m b l a n c e , the p r e s e n t study i s des igned so t h a t r e s u l t s a r e minimal ly e f f e c t e d by t h e v a r i a b l e s i s o l a t e d by B r u n e r ) Goodnow and Aust in„ The s p e c i f i c measures employed a r e : ( a ) t o make the Ss t a s k more complex than i s t y p i c a l o f t h e two or t h r e e s t a g e m e d i a t i o n paradigm and ( b ) t o a l low f o r a n a l y s i s o f m e d i a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s e a r l i e r i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l procedure than i s p o s s i b l e with the c o n -v e n t i o n a l two or t h r e e s t a g e d e s i g n s . These ends a r e ach ieved by i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e f o u r paradigms d e s c r i b e d by Horton and K j e l d e r g a a r d ( s t i m u l u s e q u i v a l e n c e , r e s p o n s e e q u i v a l e n c e , forward c h a i n i n g and backward c h a i n i n g ) i n t o a s i n g l e p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e l i s t . I t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t b e i n g r e q u i r e d t o s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a s s o c i a t e two d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e s with each s t i m u l u s i tem w i l l i n c r e a s e t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f the t a s k and the c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between v e r b a l i t ems so t h a t Ss w i l l not become aware o f the m e d i a t i o n paradigms i n v o l v e d . In a d d i t i o n , the use o f a s i n g l e l i s t o f i t ems a l l o w s t h a t data analyzed f o r media t ion e f f e c t s w i l l 18 not t o be a f f e c t e d by S s 1 s p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e such as o b t a i n e d with S t a g e s 1 and 2 o f t h e unmixed l i s t d e s i g n . The a n a l y s i s o f Earhard and Mandler ( 1 9 6 5 ) i s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e ambigui ty a r i s i n g from use o f t h e t h r e e s t a g e m e d i a t i o n paradigms in an unmixed l i s t d e s i g n . Earhard and Mandler , drawing on i n t e r f e r e n c e t h e o r y and knowledge o f v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g c o n c e p t u a l p r o c e s s e s , have advanced an A l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e a s s o c i a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n o f apparent mediated f a c i l i t a t i o n o f T e s t S t a g e (A-C) p a i r s . S i n c e they have a p p l i e d t h e i r a n a l y s i s t o a l l e i g h t o f t h e paradigms i l l u s t r a t e d by Horton and K j e l d e r g a a r d , t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s c o n f i n e d t o a comparison between Paradigm I , r e f e r r e d t o as t h e m e d i a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s (M) and i t s s tandard c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n (SC) c o n s i s t i n g o f A-B, D-C, A-C p a i r s . Earhard and Mandler argued t h a t m e d i a t i o n - l i k e e f f e c t s ( i . e . c o m p a r a t i v e l y f a s t e r A-C l e a r n i n g in the m e d i a t i o n c o n d i t i o n ) , can b e s t be e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f c o n c e p t u a l p r o c e s s e s ; and where c o n c e p t u a l p r o c e s s e s a r e minimized by•exper imenta l d e s i g n and p r o c e d u r e s , s u p e r i o r t e s t phase performance i n t h e M c o n d i t i o n can be more p a r s i m o n i o u s l y e x p l a i n e d by t h e o p e r a t i o n o f i n t e r - l i s t i n t e r f e r e n c e e f f e c t s than by a s s o c i a t i v e p r o c e s s e s . Earhard and M a n d l e r ' s i n t e r f e r e n c e t h e o r y e x p l a n a t i o n r e q u i r e s the assumption o f symmetric u n l e a r n i n g ; t h a t i s , t h e A-B a s s o c i a t i o n a c q u i r e d in phase one i s un learned 19 during phase two 3-C l e a r n i n g due t o the i n t e r f e r e n c e o f backward a s s o c i a t i o n B-A on B-C. T h i s p r o c e s s o f A-B f o r -g e t t i n g due t o i n t e r f e r e n c e cannot t a k e p l a c e in the SC c o n d i t i o n (A-B; D-C; A-C) because o f t h e l a c k o f i n t e r -f e r e n c e between A-B and D-C. The commonly observed s lower A-C l e a r n i n g in the SC i s a t t r i b u t e d t o the p r e s e n c e o f i n t e r f e r i n g A-B a s s o c i a t i o n s dur ing t e s t phase l e a r n i n g . Earhard and H a n d l e r ' s assumption o f symmetric u n l e a r n i n g has been d i s c o n f i r m e d by t h e s t u d i e s o f Goulet ( 1 9 6 6 ) and S h u l z , L i s t o n and Weaver (1968). Goulet conducted two e x p e r i m e n t s t o a s s e s s t h e a v a i l -a b i l i t y o f t h e m e d i a t o r a f t e r t h e second s t a g e i n t h r e e s t a g e m e d i a t i o n and c o n t r o l paradigms. Using r e c a l l and r e l e a r n -ing m e a s u r e s , i t was found t h a t the p o t e n t i a l media tor was as a v a i l a b l e a f t e r t h e second s t a g e in m e d i a t i o n paradigms A-B, B-C and B - C , A-B as were the phase one p a i r s in t h e c o n -t r o l paradigms A-B, D-C and B-C, A-D. S h u l z , L i s t o n and Weaver found t h a t A-B r e c a l l was s u p e r i o r subsequent t o A-B, B -C, A-C than t o A-B, D-C, A-C. C o n s i s t e n t with t h e s e s t u d i e s , Horton and Wiley (1967) found t h a t A-B r e l e a r n i n g subsequent t o an MF c o n d i t i o n was s u p e r i o r t o A-B r e l e a r n -ing subsequent t o both a mediated i n t e r f e r e n c e (HI) c o n d i t i o n A-B, B - C r , A-C and an SC c o n d i t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , Horton and Wiley found A-C l e a r n i n g in t h e MF c o n d i t i o n t o be s u p e r i o r t o the HI and SC c o n d i t i o n s . In none o f t h e s e 20 s t u d i e s does the i n t e r f e r e n c e e f f e c t p o s t u l a t e d by Earhard and H a n d l e r ' s e x p l a n a t i o n based on t h e assumed u n l e a r n i n g o f p o t e n t i a l l y i n t e r f e r i n g A-B a s s o c i a t i o n s a d e q u a t e l y e x p l a i n why A-C l e a r n i n g in the MF c o n d i t i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y s u p e r i o r t o both the MI and SC c o n d i t i o n s . Although Earhard and H a n d l e r ' s i n t e r f e r e n c e t h e o r y e x p l a n a t i o n l a c k s d i r e c t s u p p o r t , t h e s t u d i e s by R u s s e l l and S torms , Horton and K j e l d e r g a a r d , Lee and J e n s e n and » Horton and Wiley do n o t , f o r t h e r e a s o n s o u t l i n e d , provide an e n t i r e l y adequate b a s i s o f a p u r e l y a s s o c i a t i v e e x p l a n a -t i o n o f m e d i a t i o n a l e f f e c t s . Even where t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p r e - e x p e r i m e n t a l l y a c q u i r e d a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e minimized, t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s a r e such t h a t e x p l a n a t i o n s e x p l o y i n g c o n c e p t u a l p r o c e s s e s a r e p o s s i b l e . The p r e s e n t study i s des igned t o minimize t h e e f f e c t s o f both $ r e - e x p e r i m e n t a l l y a c q u i r e d v e r b a l h a b i t s and c o n c e p t u a l s t r a t e g i e s s p e c i f i c t o the m a t e r i a l t o be l e a r n e d . The purpose o f t h i s i s t o determine whether t h e a s s o c i a t i v e c o n n e c t i o n s p o s t u l a t e d by H u l l ' s model o f secondary g e n e r a l i -z a t i o n w i l l be m a n i f e s t e d i n f a c i l i t a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g m e d i a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d v e r b a l i t e m s . 21 CHAPTER I I Hypothes is The s p e c i f i c hypotheses t h a t a r i s e from t h e f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n a r e : Hypothes is I I t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t p a i r s o f v e r b a l i t ems t h a t a r e m e d i a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n a l i s t t o be l e a r n e d f a s t e r than p a i r s o f v e r b a l i tmes t h a t a r e not m e d i a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d . Hypothes is I I Hypothes is I I , i s in tended as a check o f t h e assumption t h a t t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k used i n t h i s study i s more complex than t h e t a s k s used by Lee and J e n s e n and Horton. I t i s t h e r e f o r e p r e d i c t e d t h a t fewer Ss w i l l s p o n t a n e o u s l y become aware o f t h e m e d i a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e i t e m s t h e y a r e l e a r n i n g in t h i s study than was t h e c a s e with Horton (19 out o f 80) which i s 36.6$ or Lee and J e n s e n ( 1 1 out o f 30 ) which i s 23.7%. 22 CHAPTER I I I Method Design The study has been des igned t o provide i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g m e d i a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s by comparison o f two groups o f Ss l e a r n i n g performance on two independent PAL t a s k s . Each t a s k c o n s i s t s o f twelve p a i r s o f v e r b a l i t e m s : one i s d e s i g n a t e d t h e Mediator Linked L i s t (ML), the o t h e r i s d e s i g n a t e d t h e C o n t r o l L i s t ( C ) . Both t h e ML and C l i s t s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d from the same s i x v e r b a l i t e m s . These s i x i t ems a r e made up o f t h r e e c l a s s e s (A, B , C) o f two members e a c h ; A^ and A '^s B^ and B„; C, and C„. The A c l a s s i t ems a r e CVC , A, i s YEQ, A-2 1 2 s i ' 2 i s QUJ. The B c l a s s i t ems a r e d i s s y l l a b l e s , B^ i s BALAP, i s GOG.EY. The C c l a s s i t ems a r e numbers, C-^  i s 3 1 , C2 i s 5 7 . Thus t h e r e a r e t h r e e c l a s s e s o f i tems A, B , and C each c l a s s with two members d e s i g n a t e d by e i t h e r s u b s c r i p t 1 or 2 . In the ML l i s t , each i tem o f t h e t h r e e . c l a s s e s (A, B and C) with a 1 s u b s c r i p t a c t s both as a s t i m u l u s and as a r e s p o n s e t o each o f the o t h e r i t ems with a s u b s c r i p t o f 1 . T h i s produces the p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e s YEQ-GOGEY, YEQ-31, GOGEY-YEQ, GOGEY-31, 31-YEQ and 31-GOGEY. L i k e w i s e , each i tem of the t h r e e c l a s s e s (A, B and C) with a 2 s u b s c r i p t a c t s both as a s t i m u l u s and as a r e s p o n s e t o each o f t h e 23 o t h e r i t ems with a s u b s c r i p t o f 2 . T h i s produces the p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e s QUJ-BALAP, QUJ-57, BALAP-QUJ, BALAP-57, 57-QUJ and 57-BALAP. These two s e t s o f s i x p a i r s go t o g e t h e r t o make up t h e twelve p a i r s o f t h e ML l i s t i l l u s t r a t e d in T a b l e 3-In the C l i s t , each i tem of the t h r e e c l a s s e s (A, B and C) with a 1 s u b s c r i p t a c t s both as a s t i m u l u s and as a r e s p o n s e t o each o f t h e o t h e r c l a s s e d i tems with a sub-s c r i p t of 2 . In t h i s way, A^ a c t s as a s t i m u l u s and a r e s p o n s e t o B 2 and C2 t o produce t h e p a i r s A1~B2 (YEQ-BALAP) A 1 -C 2 (YEQ-57) , &2~A1 (BALAP-YEQ), and C2~A1 ( 57 -YEQ) ; B 1 a c t s as a s t i m u l u s and a r e s p o n s e t o A2 and C2 t o produce t h e p a i r s B ]L-C2 (GOGEY-57), B]_-A2 (GOGEY-QUJ) A 2~B1 (QUJ-GOGEY) and C^Bj^ (57-GOGEY); and C-L a c t s as a s t i m u l u s and a r e s p o n s e t o A2 and B 2 t o produce the p a i r s C-^-A2 ( 3 1 - Q U J ) , C x - B 2 (31-BALAP) A 2 -C 1 (QUJ-31) and B 2 ~C 1 (BALAP-3 1 ) . These a r e the twelve p a i r s o f the C l i s t i l l u s t r a t e d in Tab le 4 . T a b l e 2 i s p r e s e n t e d as a supplement t o t h e p r e -c e e d i n g t e x t and T a b l e s 3 and 4 as a b a s i s f o r i l l u s t r a -t i n g the make up o f t h e ML and C l i s t s . T a b l e 2 a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the e q u a l i t y o f i n t r a l i s t i n t e r f e r e n c e e f f e c t s between the ML and C l i s t s . Each i tem a c t s t w i c e as a s t i m u l u s and t w i c e as a r e s p o n s e in both the ML and C l i s t s . S i n c e in each l i s t each v e r b a l i tem a c t s as a s t i m u l u s 24 T a b l e 2 Comparison o f t h e M e d i a t o r Linked L i s t (ML) and t h e C o n t r o l L i s t ( C ) - « 25 T a b l e 9 S t r u c t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n and Mediator Linked (ML) P a i r s S t r u c t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n Corresponding P a i r s o f V e r b a l I tems A 1 " B 1 YEQ - GOGEY A 1 " C 1 YEQ - 31 B 1 " C 1 GO GEY - 31 B 1 " A 1 GO GEY - YEQ C 1 - A 1 31 - £EQ C 1 ~ B 1 31 -GOGEY A 2 ~ B 2 QUJ - BALAP A 2 " C 2 QUJ - 57 B 2 ~ C 2 BALAP - 57 B 2 " A 2 BALAP - QUJ C2 - A 2 57 - QUJ C 2 " B 2 57 - BALAP 26 T a b l e 9 S t r u c t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n and C o n t r o l (C) P a i r s S t r u c t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n Corresponding P a i r s of V e r b a l I tems A 1 " B 2 YEQ - BALAP A1 " C2 YEQ - 57 B 1 " C2 GOGEY - 57 B 1 ~ A2 GO GEY - QUJ C 1 " A2 31 - QUJ C 1 ~ B 2 31 - BALAP A 2 " B 1 QUJ - GOGEY A 2 " C 1 QUJ - 31 B 2 - °1 BALAP - 31 B 2 " A 1 BALAP - YEQ C2 ~ A1 57 - YEQ c 2 " B 1 57 - GOGEY T a b l e 5 Mediate A s s o c i a t i o n s by Paradigm Within the Mediator Linked (ML) L i s t S t imulus E q u i v a l e n c e Paradigms M e d i a t e l y A s s o c i a t e d I tems YEQ-31. GOGEY-31 31-GOGEY YEQ-GOGEY GOGEY-YEQ 31-YEQ QUJ-57 BALAP-57 57-BALAP QUJ-BALAP BALAP-QUJ 57-QUJ YEQ-GOGEY 31-YEQ GOGEY-31 QUJ-BALAP 57-QUJ BALAP-57 GOGEY-YEQ YEQ- ^1-GOGF.Y BALAP-QUJ QUJ-57 57-BALAP Response E q u i v a l e n c e Paradigms Media te ly A s s o c i a t e d I tems 31-YEQ 31-GOGEY GOGEY-31 GOGEY-YEQ YEQ-GOGEY YEQ-31 57-QUJ 57-BALAP BALAP-57 BALAP-QUJ QUJ-BALAP QUJ-57 YEQ-GOGEY 31-YEQ GOGEY-31 QUJ-BALAP 57-QUJ BALAP-57 GOGEY-YEQ YEQ-31 31-GOGEY BALAP-QUJ QUJ-57 57-BALAP Forward Chaining Paradigms* Media te ly A s s o c i a t e d I tems YEQ-31 31-GOGEY 31-GOGEY GOGEY-YEQ GOGEY-YEQ YEQ-31 QUJ-57 57-BALAP 57-BALAP BALAP-QUJ BALAP-QUJ QUJ-57 YEQ-GOGEY 31-YEQ GOGEY-31 QUJ-BALAP 57-QUJ BALAP-57 GOGEY-YEQ YEQ-31 31-GOGEY BALAP-QUJ QUJ-57 57-BALAP Backward Chaining Paradigms* M e d i a t e l y A s s o c i a t e d I tems 31-YEQ GOGEY-31 GOGEY-31 YEQ-GOGEY YEQ-GOGEY 31-YEQ 57-QUJ BALAP-57 BALAP-57 QUJ-BALAP QUJ-BALAP 57-QUJ YEQ-GOGEY 31-YEQ GOGEY-31 QUJ-BALAP 57-QUJ BALAP-57 GOGEY-YEQ YEQ-31 31-GOGEY BALAP-QUJ QUJ-57 57-BALAP IV) *The same paradigms can be constructed from items of the other colour. T a b l e 6 M e d i a t e A s s o c i a t i o n s by Paradigm With in t h e C o n t r o l (C) L i s t S t i m u l u s E q u i v a l e n c e Paradigms M e d i a t e l y A s s o c i a t e d I t e m s YEQ-57 GOGEY-57 31-BALAP YEQ-BALAP GOGEY-QUJ 31-QUJ QUJ-31 BALAP-31 57-GOGEY QUJ-GOGEY BALAP-YEQ 57-YEQ YEQ-GOGEY 31-YEQ GOGEY-31 QUJ-BALAP 57-QUJ BALAP-57 GOGEY-YEQ YEQ-31 31-GOGEY BALAP-QUJ QUJ-57 57-BALAP Response E q u i v a l e n c e Paradigms M e d i a t e l y A s s o c i a t e d I t e m s 31-QUJ 31-BALAP GOGEY-57 GOGEY-QUJ YEQ-BALAP YEQ-57 57-YEQ 57-GOGEY BALAP-31 BALAP-YEQ QUJ-GOGEY QUJ-31 QUJ-BALAP 57-QUJ BALAP-57 YEQ-GOGEY 31-YEQ GOGEY-31 BALAP-QUJ QUJ-57 57-BALAP GOGEY-YEQ YEQ-31 31-GOGEY Forward C h a i n i n g Paradigms* M e d i a t e l y A s s o c i a t e d I t e m s YEQ-57 57-GOGEY 31-BALAP BALAP-YEQ GOGEY-QUJ QUJ-31 QUJ-31 31-BALAP 57-GOGEY GOGEY-QUJ BALAP-YEQ YEQ-57 YEQ-GOGEY 31-YEQ GOGEY-31 QUJ-BALAP 57-QUJ BALAP-57 GOGEY-YEQ YEQ-31 31-GOGEY BALAP-QUJ QUJ-57 57-BALAP Backward C h a i n i n g Paradigms M e d i a t e l y A s s o c i a t e d I t e m s 57-YEQ GOGEY-57 GOGEY-57 QUJ-GOGEY YEQ-BALAP 57-YEQ 31-QUJ BALAP-31 BALAP-31 YEQ-BALAP QUJ-GOGEY 31-QUJ YEQ-GOGEY 57-QUJ BALAP-57 QUJ-BALAP 31-YEQ GOGEY-31 GOGEY-YEQ QUJ-57 57-BALAP BALAP-QUJ YEQ-31 31-GOGEY rv> oo *The same paradigms can be constructed from items of the other colour. 29 f o r two d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e i t e m s , d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f p a i r s with the same s t i m u l u s i tem becomes n e c e s s a r y . D i f f e r e n -t i a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d by t y p i n g the p a i r s in red and b lue (IBM r i b b o n No. 1136173 and 1136178). T h i s b a s i s o f d i f f e r -e n t i a t i o n appears j u s t i f i e d i n t h a t v o c a l r e s p o n s e s a r e r e q u i r e d o f Ss and t h e v o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f YEQ f o r example, i s t h e same whether i t i s typed in red or b l u e . T a b l e s 5 and 6 i l l u s t r a t e the mediate a s s o c i a t i o n s by paradigm between t h e i tems o f t h e ML and C l i s t s . Tab le 5 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t i n t h e ML l i s t s , each i tem of each p a i r i s m e d i a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d once v i a each o f t h e s t i m u l u s e q u i v a l e n c e r e s p o n s e e q u i v a l e n c e , forward c h a i n i n g and b a c k -ward c h a i n i n g paradigms. The same number and type o f mediate a s s o c i a t i o n s e x i s t i n t h e C as i n t h e ML l i s t , the only d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g t h a t , a s can be seen by comparing T a b l e s 5 and 6 , t h e m e d i a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d i t ems do not appear as p a i r s t o be l e a r n e d i n the C l i s t . Subj e c t s F i f t y Ss were s e l e c t e d from t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f Grade 11 and 12 s t u d e n t s a t S e n t i n e l Secondary S c h o o l , West Vancouver , B . C . The sample was o b t a i n e d by s e l e c t i n g every f o u r t h name from t h e s c h o o l r o s t e r o f 250 s t u d e n t s . S u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d i n t h i s manner who did not appear a t t h e i r d e s i g n a t e d t ime f o r t h e exper iment were r e p l a c e d by v o l u n t e e r s s o l i c i t e d from a study h a l l . Of the 50 Ss u s e d , 21 were f e m a l e , 29 30 were male . T h e i r ages ranged from 16 to 20 y e a r s . Procedure The e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t t i n g was a 180 x 300 cm. room c o n t a i n i n g a desk and two c h a i r s . The 12 p a i r s o f v e r b a l i tems compr is ing the e x p e r i m e n t a l (ML l i s t ) and c o n t r o l (C l i s t ) c o n d i t i o n s were p r e s e n t e d i n the f i v e o r d e r s i l l u s t r a t e d in Appendix A and B . These o r d e r i n g s were c o n -s t r u c t e d so t h a t p a i r s c o n s t i t u t i n g a m e d i a t i o n paradigm would not occur corytiguously . For example , sequences l i k e YEQ-GOGEY, GOGEY-31, YEQ-31 were a v o i d e d . The a n t i c i p a t i o n method o f p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g was used . A L a f a y e t t e memory drum was used with a p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e o f 1 . 6 seconds f o r a s t i m u l u s i tem a l o n e and 1 . 6 seconds f o r a s t i m u l u s and r e s p o n s e i tem p a i r e d . The i n t e n t i o n was t o use a 2 . 2 p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e and t h e machine was s e t f o r t h i s s p e e d . * * The memory drum was s i t u a t e d on the desk f a c i n g t h e S ' s c h a i r . I t was surrounded by a 90 x 90 cm. wooden s c r e e n so t h a t the S and E were not v i s i b l e t o one a n o t h e r when s e a t e d . Ss were a l t e r n a t i v e l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l (ML l i s t ) and c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n (C l i s t ) i n order o f a p p e a r a n c e . Upon e n t e r i n g t h e exper iment each S was s e a t e d , h i s name and a d d r e s s was r e c o r d e d , and he was asked t o read t h e * * S u b s e a u e n t c a l i b r a t i o n with a s top watch i n d i c a t e d a p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e o f 1 . 6 sec per i n t e r v a l . 31 w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s shown in Appendix C. The S was asked t o i n d i c a t e when he was ready t o p r o c e e d . Ques t ions r e g a r d i n g the purpose o f the exper iment were d e f e r r e d by the E s a y i n g t h a t 'when the exper iment was completed and the r e s u l t s analyzed he would r e c e i v e an e x p l a n a t i o n o f the study by m a i l . Ss 1 performance was scored by t h e number o f c o r r e c t a n t i c i p a t i o n s over 70 t r i a l s , each t r i a l be ing one p r e s e n t a -t i o n o f t h e 12 p a i r l i s t . The i n t e n t was t o have Ss l e a r n t h e l i s t t o a c r i t e r i o n o f two s u c c e s s i v e c o r r e c t t r i a l s and t o s c o r e performance by c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s and t r i a l s t o c r i t e r i o n . As i t was, the t ime a v a i l a b l e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 45 m i n u t e s ) was not s u f f i c i e n t f o r any Ss t o r e a c h the o r i g i -n a l l y s t a t e d c r i t e r i o n . T h e r e f o r e a f t e r t h e s e v e n t i e t h t r i a l , each S was v e r b a l l y asked the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : "Did you n o t i c e any r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e p a i r s o f i tems on t h e l i s t ? " Ss making a n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e t o t h i s q u e s t i o n were c l a s s i f i e d i n Category 1 (CA 1 ) . Any S who made an a f f i r m a t i v e r e s p o n s e t o t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n was asked t o i l l u s t r a t e or e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p they had p e r c e i v e d . Any S whose e x p l a n a t i o n or i l l u s t r a t i o n resembled a media t ion paradigm was c l a s s i f i e d as Category 3 Ss (CA 3 ) . Any S who e x p l a i n e d some o t h e r type o f r e l a t i o n s h i p ( f o r example, t h a t each i tem had two d i f f e r e n t i tems p a i r e d with i t ) were c l a s s i f i e d as Category 2Ss (CA 2 ) . 32 St imulus M a t e r i a l s The v e r b a l i t e m s used in t h i s study were chosen t o be e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e and t o minimize the e f f e c t o f p r e -e x p e r i m e n t a l l y a c q u i r e d v e r b a l h a b i t s . The CVC t r i g r a m s a r e from Archer ( 1 9 6 0 ) . They were chosen t o have low formal s i m i l a r i t y and t o be e q u i v a l e n t in p r o n o u n c a b i l i t y . QUJ has an "m" r a t i n g o f 3% and YEQ 5% on a s c a l e o f 0% t o 1 0 0 $ . The d i s s y l l a b l e s a r e from Noble ( 1 9 5 2 ) . GOGEY has an "m" va lue o f 1 and BALAP 5 on a 100 p o i n t s c a l e . The numbers a r e from B a t t i g and Spera ( 1 9 6 2 ) . The number 31 has an » " a " v a l u e o f .72 and t h e number 57 .84 on a 4 p o i n t s c a l e . 33 CHAPTER IV R e s u l t s Performance on the ML and C l i s t s was scored by t h e number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s in each o f 70 t r i a l s . For the f i r s t a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , t r i a l s were grouped i n t o seven b l o c k s o f 10 t r i a l s e a c h . A two way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was performed on t h e s e d a t a . Hypothes is I was t e s t e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s by i n c l u d i n g t r e a t m e n t (T) as ML on C l i s t . The second f a c t o r i n c o r p o r a t e d was b l o c k s o f t r i a l s (B) and was r e p e a t e d over S s . T h i s d e s i g n a l s o a l lowed a t e s t o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n t e r m , T x B which would r e f l e c t l e a r n i n g curve d i f f e r e n c e s . The mean number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n each of the seven b l o c k s o f t r i a l s f o r t h e ML and C l i s t s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d in F i g u r e 3 . R e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s c o n t a i n e d in Appendix D showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n the ML and C l i s t s , F ( 1 . 4 8 ) = 9 - 9 1 , p . < . 0 0 1 and between b l o c k s o f t r i a l s F ( 6 , 2 2 8 = 1 5 3 - 9 3 , P< . 0 0 1 . The i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t o f T and B was not s i g n i f i c a n t F ( 6 , 2 2 8 ) = . 0 5 3 , p> . 0 5 . A second a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was c a r r i e d out on t h e r e s u l t s from t h e f i r s t t e n b l o c k s o f two t r i a l s e a c h . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e c o n t a i n e d in Tab le 7- The mean number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n each o f the t e n b l o c k s o f two t r i a l s f o r t h e ML and C l i s t s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d in 34 B L O C K S OF 10 T R I A L S E A C H F i g u r e 3 : Mean number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n each o f seven b l o c k s o f 10 t r i a l s f o r t h e ML and C L i s t s Table 657 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r Mediator Linked vs Contro l L i s t s (T) over f i r s t 10 B locks (B) of 2 t r i a l s each SOURCE ERROR TERM P SUM OF SQUARES DEG. OF FREEDOM MEAN SQUARE 1 GRAND MEAN 2 T 3 B 4 I ( T ) 5 TB 6 I (T) B I ( T ) l 4 l . 0 8 l 4 I ( T ) 9 . 1 0 2 2 I ( T ) B 30 .99^3 I ( T ) B 1 . 4 4 1 7 7 0 2 3 . 7 5 0 4 5 3 . 1 5 1 9 1 3 3 8 . 2 0 7 2 3 8 9 . 6 8 4 62 .24730 2 0 7 2 . 4 4 3 1 1 9 48 9 432 7 0 2 3 . 7 5 0 4 5 3 . 1 5 1 9 148 .6897 4 9 . 7 8 5 1 0 6 .916400 4 . 7 9 7 2 9 9 u> VJ1 CO w 7 r 6 -5 0 01 CO LxJ , cr 4 o £ cr 8 3 fc CC ^ 2 UJ ON F i g u r e f o r the ML and C L i s t s 2 3 4 5 "6 7 BLOCKS OF 2 TRIALS EACH Mean number of c o r r e c t responses in each o f t en b l o c k s of two t r i a l s 37 F i g u r e 4. Homogeneity o f Ss w i t h i n t r e a t m e n t s and homo-g e n e i t y o f b l o c k s x Ss was t e s t e d f o r an o u t l i n e d in Winer ( 1 9 6 2 ) . The r e s u l t s , i n d i c a t i n g e q u a l i t y o f v a r i a t i o n in both r e s p e c t s a r e c o n t a i n e d in Appendix E . The purpose o f the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on the r e s u l t s from the f i r s t t e n b l o c k s o f two t r i a l s each was t o prov ide t h e b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g ( v i a a B o n f e r r o n i t - t e s t c . f . Games, 1 9 7 1 ) the e a r l i e s t p o i n t a t which the performance d i f f e r e n c e between the ML and C l i s t s became s i g n i f i c a n t . The r e s u l t s o f t h i £ a n a l y s i s with t h e c e l l and t r e a t m e n t means a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 8 . I t was found t h a t t h e f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p< . 0 5 ) o c c u r r e d i n t h e f o u r t h b l o c k of two t r i a l s . . Tab le 9 i s r e l e v a n t t o Hypothes is I I . I t compares t h e number o f Ss i n each o f t h r e e s t u d i e s ; ( a ) the p r e s e n t one ; ( b ) Horton ( 1 9 6 4 ) and ( c ) Lee and J e n s e n ( 1 9 6 8 ) who were a b l e t o d e s c r i b e a m e d i a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p among p a i r s o f v e r b a l i tems they had been exposed t o . Table 8 C e l l Means, Treatment Means and B o n f e r r o n i ' s t - t e s t of S i g n i f i c a n c e between ML and C L i s t s by B locks of Two- T r i a l s each Es t imated C o n t r a s t Confidence I n t e r v a l ( a = . 0 5 ) 0 . 2 4 .. - 1 . 9 1 < V < 2 . 3 9 A _ _ ^ 2 = X 2 , 2 - X i , 2 = 1 . 3 2 - 0 .83<.^£3 . = ^ 2 , 3 ~Xl , 3 = 2.0 4 - 0 . 1 1 < y < 4 . 1 9 A — — =X2 , it -X i , it = 2 . 4 0 0.25<Y<4,.'55 ' C e l l Means Treatment Means Treatment B l o c k Number 1 2 3 4 1 . Contro l L i s t (C) '0 .360 '1 .360 1 . 8 4 0 '2 .080 2 . 7 9 6 0 2 . Mediator Linked L i s t (ML) 0 . 6 0 0 2 .680 3 . 8 8 0 4 . 6 8 0 4 .700 CO co 39 Table 9 Numbers and P e r c e n t a g e s o f Ss a b l e t o D e s c r i b e a Mediated R e l a t i o n s h i p among P a i r s o f V e r b a l I tems i n ; ( a ) p r e s e n t s t u d y ; (b ) Horton ( 1 9 6 4 ) and ( c ) Lee and J e n s e n (1963). Study ( a ) ( b ) ( c ) Ss a b l e t o d e s c r i b e m e d i a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n -sh ip , 3 19 11 Number o f Ss q u e s -t i o n e d 25 80 30 Approximate p e r c e n t -age 12% 2k% 37% 40 CHAPTER V D i s c u s s i o n The purpose o f t h i s study was t o determine whether , under c o n d i t i o n s which minimize the o p e r a t i o n o f c o n c e p -t u a l p r o c e s s e s , the independent a s s o c i a t i o n o f two p r e -v i o u s l y u n r e l a t e d v e r b a l i t ems with a common v e r b a l i tem w i l l c r e a t e an a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e two p r e v i o u s l y un-r e l a t e d i t e m s . The e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s mediate a s s o c i a t i o n i s impl ied when v e r b a l i t ems which share a common a s s o c i a t e > i a r e e a s i e r t o l e a r n a s p a i r s than i t ems which do n o t . The f i r s t a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i l l u s t r a t e d i n Appendix D showed t h a t l e a r n i n g performance on i tems s h a r i n g a common a s s o c i a t e (ML l i s t ) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r t o l e a r n i n g performance on p a i r s which were not (C l i s t ) . T h i s r e s u l t i s c o n s i s t e n t with v e r b a l m e d i a t i o n s t u d i e s c a r r i e d out by R u s s e l l and S t o r m s , Horton and K j e l d e r g a a r d , and Lee and J e n s e n . The c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h i s f i n d i n g and t h e magnitude o f the d i f f e r e n c e p r o v i d e s s t r o n g support f o r the p o s i t i o n t h a t a s s o c i a t i n g two p r e v i o u s l y u n r e l a t e d v e r b a l i t e m s v i a a t h i r d common i tem r e s u l t s i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f an a s s o c i -a t i o n between the p r e v i o u s l y u n r e l a t e d i t e m s . Earhard and H a n d l e r ' s a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r f e r e n c e t h e o r y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r apparent m e d i a t i o n e f f e c t s can not be used t o e x p l a i n t h e s e r e s u l t s . S i n c e both the ML and C l i s t s c o n s i s t o f f i v e o r d e r i n g s o f s i n g l e 12 p a i r l i s t s , i t i s 4i not p o s s i b l e t o a t t r i b u t e the observed d i f f e r e n c e i n l e a r n i n g performance t o d i f f e r e n t i a l i n t r a l i s t i n t e r -f e r e n c e e f f e c t s as they have done with the t h r e e s t a g e media t ion paradigms. The second s e t o f a n a l y s e s and the p o s t e x p e r i m e n t a l i n t e r v i e w d a t a provide e v i d e n c e t h a t m e d i a t i o n e f f e c t s observed in t h i s study a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s s o c i a t i v e r a t h e r than c o n c e p t u a l p r o c e s s e s . R e f e r r i n g t o Tab le 8 , i t can be seen t h a t the performance d i f f e r e n c e between t h e ML and C l i s t s becomes s t a b l e i n t h e f o u r t h b l o c k o f t r i a l s . The mean number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s a t t h i s p o i n t i s 4 . 6 8 i n a two t r i a l b l o c k f o r an average o f 2 . 3 4 c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s in each o f t r i a l s seven and e i g h t . Thus a s i g n i f i -cant d i f f e r e n c e between l i s t s has o c c u r r e d b e f o r e even one m e d i a t i o n a l c h a i n , i . e . A-B, B-C, A-C, has been produced as o v e r t r e s p o n s e s . S i n c e f a c i l i t a t i o n i s a p p a r e n t l y r e s u l t i n g from m e d i a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t a r e not s t r o n g enough t o permit the r e s p o n s e members t o be produced o v e r t l y , i t seems s a f e t o conc lude t h a t t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s involved in t h e f a c i l i t a t i o n a r e not c o n c e p t u a l i n n a t u r e . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s f u r t h e r supported by the d a t a from t h e p o s t e x p e r i m e n t a l q u e s t i o n i n g of S s . Only t h r e e of t h e 25 Ss i n t h e ML c o n d i -t i o n were a b l e t o d e s c r i b e a m e d i a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e i tems l e a r n e d . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e very f a s t p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t e , the c o m p l e x i t y o f the l i s t , and the f i v e o r d e r i n g s o f 42 the 12 i t e m s , i t appears u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e s e Ss could have become aware o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p as e a r l y as the seventh or e i g h t h t r i a l . The r e s u l t s , t h e r e f o r e , appear t o support t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t m e d i a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s between v e r b a l i t ems can only only be a s s o c i a t i v e in n a t u r e and t h a t t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e a b l e t o f a c i l i -t a t e l e a r n i n g m e d i a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d v e r b a l l i s t s . T h i s r e s u l t suppor ts the use o f H u l l ' s model o f secondary g e n e r a l i z a t i o n a s a ' b a s i s f o r e x p l a i n i n g m e d i a t i o n a l f a c i l i t a t i o n o f v e r b a l l e a r n i n g where c o n c e p t u a l p r o c e s s e s a r e minimized. I f each S ' s r e s p o n s e s had been r e c o r d e d r a t h e r than whether a r e s p o n s e was c o r r e c t or wrong t h e c o n t r o l l i s t o f t h i s study could provide an a d d i t i o n a l b a s i s f o r i n f e r r i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f mediate a s s o c i a t i o n s between v e r b a l i t e m s . T h i s l i s t i s s i m i l a r i n makeup t o t h e c o n -v e n t i o n a l A-B, B-C, A-C r paradigm. P a i r s o f v e r b a l i tems a r e a s s o c i a t e d with a common i tem but t h e m e d i a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d i t ems do not appear as p a i r s t o be l e a r n e d as they do i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l l i s t . For example, GOGEY i s a r e s p o n s e i tem t o Q.UJ and t o 57 but QUJ-57 does not appear as a p a i r t o be l e a r n e d . The arrangement does s u g g e s t , however, t h a t a mediate a s s o c i a t i o n w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d between QUJ and 5 7 . The mediate a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e i t ems 43 should produce a tendency t o g i v e 57 as a r e s p o n s e t o QUJ with the r e s u l t t h a t 57 should appear as an e r r o r t o the s t i m u l u s QUJ more f r e q u e n t l y than would be e x p e c t e d on the b a s i s o f c h a n c e . Thus an e r r o r a n a l y s i s o f r e s p o n s e s t o t h e C l i s t showing t h a t i tems which have been a s s o c i -a t e d v i a a common v e r b a l i tem appear as i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t o one a n o t h e r more f r e q u e n t l y than would be e x p e c t e d by chance would provide a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h -ment o f mediate a s s o c i a t i o n s between p r e v i o u s l y u n r e l a t e d v e r b a l I tems v i a a t h i r d common i t e m . 44 R e f e r e n c e s Archer , E . J . A r e - e v a l u a t i o n of the meaning of a l l p o s s i b l e CVC t r i g r a m s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Monographs, i 9 6 0 , 74_ ( 1 0 , V/hole No. 497) • B a t t i g , W.F. & Spera A . J . Rated " a " v a l u e s of numbers 0 - 1 0 0 J o u r n a l o f Verbal Learning and Verbal B e h a v i o r , 1962, 1, 200-202. Bruner , J . S . , Goodnow, J . J . & A u s t i n , G.A. A study of t h i n k i n g , New York: Wi ley , 1 9 5 6 . C a r r o l l , J . B . and Sapon, S.M. The modern language a p t i t u d e t e s t . New York: P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1958• Earhard , B. & Mandl,er, G. Mediated a s s o c i a t i o n : P a r a -digms i c o n t r o l s and mechanisms. Canadian J o u r n a l of Psychology, 1965, 1 9 , 3 4 6 - 3 7 8 . Games, P. M u l t i p l e comparison of means. American Educa-t i o n a l Research J o u r n a l , 1 9 7 1 , 8 , 550 . G o u l e t , L . R . R e t r o a c t i o n and the " f a t e " of the mediator in t h r e e s t a g e mediat ion paradigms. J o u r n a l of Verba l Learning and Verba l B e h a v i o r , 1966 , 5., 1 7 2 - 1 7 6 . Horton, D.L. The e f f e c t of m e a n i n g f u l n e s s , awareness and type of des ign i n v e r b a l m e d i a t i o n . J o u r n a l of Verba l B e h a v i o r , 1 9 6 4 , 3 , 1 8 7 - 1 9 4 . Horton, D.L. & K j e l d e r g a a r d , P.M. An exper imenta l a n a l y s i s of a s s o c i a t i v e f a c t o r s i n mediated g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Monographs, 1 9 6 1 , 7_5, ( 1 1 , V/hole No. 5157^ Horton, D.L. & Wiley , R . E . Mediate a s s o c i a t i o n : F a c i l i t a -t i o n and i n t e r f e r e n c e . J o u r n a l of Exper imenta l Psychology, 1967, 7 3 , 636-638. H u l l , C .L . The problem of s t imulus e q u i v a l e n c e in behavior t h e o r y . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, 1936 , 4_6, 9 - 3 0 . J e n k i n s , J . J . Mediated a s s o c i a t i o n : Paradigms and s i t u a -t i o n s in C.N. Cofer and B . S . Musgrave ( e d s . ) Verbal behavior and l e a r n i n g . New York: McGraw H i l l , 1963T 45 J u n g , J . V e r b a l l e a r n i n g . New York: Holt R i n e h a r t & Winston, 1 9 6 8 . Kent , G.H. and R o s a n o f f , A . J . A study o f a s s o c i a t i o n in i n s a n i t y . American J o u r n a l o f I n s a n i t y , 1 9 1 0 , 6 7 , 3 7 - 9 1 . Lee , S . S . and J e n s e n , A.R. The e f f e c t o f awareness on t h r e e s t a g e mediated a s s o c i a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l Learning and V e r b a l B e h a v i o r " 1 9 6 8 , 7_, 1 0 0 5 - 1 0 0 9 . Handler , G. Comments on P r o f e s s o r J e n k i n s p a p e r , i n C.N. Cofer and B . S . Musgrave ( e d s . ) V e r b a l b e h a v i o r and l e a r n i n g . New York: McGraw H i l l , I Noble , C .E . An a n a l y s i s o f meaning. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, 1 9 5 ? , 5 9 , 4 2 1 - 4 3 0 . R u s s e l l , W.A. and S torms , L.H. I m p l i c i t v e r b a l c h a i n i n g in p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 5 , 4 9 , 287-"293. S c h u l t z , R .W. , L i s t o n , J . R . and Weaver, G.E . The A-B, B-C, A-C m e d i a t i o n paradigm: R e c a l l o f A-B f o l l o w i n g A-C l e a r n i n g . J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l Learn ing and V e r b a l B e h a v i o r , 1 9 6 b , 7 , 6 0 2 - 6 0 7 . S h i p l e y , W.C. I n d i r e c t c o n d i t i o n i n g . J o u r n a l o f Genera l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 3 5 , 1 2 , 3 3 7 - 3 5 7 -Underwood, B . J . A s s o c i a t i v e t r a n s f e r i n v e r b a l l e a r n i n g as a f u n c t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s i m i l a r i t y and degree o f f i r s t l i s t l e a r n i n g . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 1 , 4 2 , 4 4 - 5 3 -Underwood, B . J . L a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s o f v e r b a l l e a r n i n g , i n E . R . H i l g a r d ( e d . ) T h e o r i e s o f l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n , The s i x t y t h i r d yearbook o f t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e Study o f E d u c a t i o n , C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 . Winer, B . J . S t a t i s t i c a l P r i n c i p l e s in E x p e r i m e n t a l Des ign . New Y o r k : M c G r a w H i l l , 1 9 6 2 . 46 APPENDICES Page A. F i v e P r e s e n t a t i o n Orders o f the Media t ion Linked (ML) L i s t 47 B. F i v e P r e s e n t a t i o n Orders o f the C o n t r o l (C) L i s t 48 C. I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r Ss i n Both E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l C o n d i t i o n s 49 D. A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r Mediator Linked vs C o n t r o l L i s t s (T) over 7 B l o c k s (B) o f 10 T r i a l s each 51 E . T e s t s f o r Homogeneity o f Ss w i t h i n Treatments (T) and Ss by B l o c k s (B) 52 47 Appendix A F i v e P r e s e n t a t i o n Orders o f t h e Mediator Linked (ML) L i s t P r e s e n t a t i o n O r d e r s , F i r s t t o F i f t h 1 2 3 . 4 5 QUJ-BALAP QUJ-57 BALAP-57 57-BALAP BALAP-QUJ GOGEY-31 GOGEY-31 YEQ-31 YEQ-31 YEQ-GOGEY 57-BALAP BALAP-QUJ 57-BALAP BALAP-QUJ QUJ-57 YEQ-GOGEY 31-GOGEY GOGEY-31 31-GOGEY 31-GOGEY QUJ-57 57-BALAP ' BALAP-QUJ BALAP-57 BALAP-57 YEQ-31 .31-YEQ YEQ-GOGEY GOGEY-YEQ 31-YEQ 57-QUJ QUJ-BALAP ' QUJ-57 57-QUJ 57-BALAP GOGEY-YEQ GOGEY-YEQ 31-GOGEY GOGEY-31 YEQ-31 BALAP-57 57-QUJ 57-QUJ QUJ-57 57-QUJ 31-YEQ YEQ-GOGEY 31-YEQ YEQ-GOGEY GOGEY-31 BALAP-QUJ BALAP-57 QUJ-BALAP QUJ-BALAP QUJ-BALAP . 31-GOGEY YEQ-31 GOGEY-YEQ 31-YEQ GOGEY-YEQ 48 Appendix B F i v e P r e s e n t a t i o n Orders o f the C o n t r o l (C) L i s t P r e s e n t a t i o n O r d e r s , F i r s t t o F i f t h 1 2 3 4 5 GOGEY-57 YEQ-BALAP 57-GOGEY BALAP-YEQ 57-YEQ BALAP-YEQ 31-QUJ YEQ-BALAP GOGEY-57 GOGEY-QUJ GOGEY-QUJ 57-GOGEY QUJ-GOGEY 31-QUJ BALAP-YEQ BALAP-31 BALAP-31 57-YEQ YEQ-57 QUJ-GOGEY 57-YEQ GOGEY-57 31-BALAP BALAP-31 BALAP-31 QUJ-GOGEY BALAP-YEQ GOGEY-57 QUJ-GOGEY YEQ-57 31-BALAP GOGEY-QUJ BALAP-31 YEQ-BALAP 31-BALAP YEQ-57 YEQ-57 GOGEY-QUJ QUJ-31 GOGEY-57 QUJ-31 QUJ-GOGEY YEQ-57 57-YEQ QUJ-31 YEQ-BALAP 31-BALAP 31-QUJ GOGEY-QUJ 57-GOGEY 57-GOGEY 57-YEQ BALAP-YEQ 31-BALAP 31-QUJ' 31-QUJ . QUJ-31 QUJ-31 57-GOGEY YEQ-BALAP 49 Appendix C I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r Ss i n Both E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l C o n d i t i o n s I n s t r u c t i o n s The purpose o f t h i s study i s t o g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how people l e a r n a s s o c i a t i o n s between new words. I t i s important t h a t a l l the a s s o c i a t i o n s l e a r n e d i n t h i s study are new to e v e r y o n e . Because i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o f i n d r e a l words t h a t no one has a s s o c i a t e d t o g e t h e r a l r e a d y , numbers and " a r t i f i c i a l " words are used as the i t ems to be l e a r n e d . Each p a i r o f i tems w i l l be shown In the opening i n f r o n t o f you. F i r s t , a s i n g l e i t em such as ZOF -w i l l appear on the l e f t , then two seconds l a t e r the same i tem w i l l appear p a i r e d with a n o t h e r , such as ZOF - 18 . Each p a i r w i l l s t a y i n view f o r two s e c o n d s , then a n o t h e r s i n g l e i t em w i l l come up on t h e l e f t . There are 12 d i f f e r e n t p a i r s t o l e a r n ; they w i l l appear i n a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r each t ime through the l i s t . The same i tem appears on the l e f t t w i c e i n t h e l i s t , once typed i n red as above and once typed i n b l u e . When the i t em on the l e f t i s i n red i t w i l l have a p a r t i c u l a r i tem p a i r e d with i t , such as ZOF - 18 50 when i t appears on the l e f t i n b l u e , f o r example , ZOF -i t w i l l have a d i f f e r e n t i tem p a i r e d with i t such as ZOP - TAROP Your t a s k i s to l e a r n each p a i r so t h a t when a s i n g l e i t e m appears on the l e f t , you can t e l l me t h e i t e m t h a t goes with i t b e f o r e the p a i r a p p e a r s . For example , i f ZOF - came up, you would say " t a r o p " b e f o r e ZOF - TAROP came up, or i f ZOF - appeared , you would say " e i g h t e e n " b e f o r e ZOF - 18 appeared . The o b j e c t i v e i s t o g e t a l l the p a i r s i n the l i s t c o r r e c t t w i c e i n a row. I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t h a t you g e t as many p a i r s as p o s s i b l e c o r r e c t each t ime through the l i s t . T h i s i s not an easy t a s k so d o n ' t be d i s c o u r a g e d when you make m i s t a k e s or c a n ' t remember a p a i r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , p l e a s e t r y and l e a r n the l i s t as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . You may be a s s u r e d t h a t t h i s i s not a t e s t o f your a b i l i t y nor w i l l your performance have a n y t h i n g t o do wi th your s c h o o l work or g r a d e s . I f you have any q u e s t i o n s p l e a s e a s k , i f n o t , l e t me know when you a r e ready t o b e g i n . Appendix D /Analysis of V a r i a n c e f o r Mediator Linked vs Control L i s t s (T) over 7 B locks (B) o f 10 t r i a l s each SOURCE ERROR TERM F SUM OF SQUARES DEG. OF • FREEDOM MEAN SQUARE . 1 GRAND MEAN I ( T ) 4 6 7 . 8 3 9 ^ 488145-8 1 4 8 8 1 4 5 . 8 2 T I ( T ) 9 . 9 1 6 5 1 0 3 4 6 . 8 7 1 1 0 3 4 6 . 8 7 3 B I ( T ) B . 1 5 3 . 9 3 4 8 7 2 3 1 6 . 1 3 6 12052 .69 I ( T ) 5 0 0 8 3 . 4 2 48 1043 .404 5 TB I ( T ) B 0 . 5 3 6 0 2 5 1 . 8 1 2 5 6 4 1 . 9 6 8 8 0 6 I ( T) B 22549-64 228 7 8 . 2 9 7 3 9 Appendix E ''Test f o r Homogeneity of Ss wi th in Treatments (T) and Ss by B locks (B) Source Ss df Ss df B locks (B) Subj e c t s ( S ) (B) x ( S ) 5 2 0 . 2 0 9 1 4 3 5 - 5 0 24 1 0 0 2 . 9 0 216 8 8 0 . 2 6 ' 9 ' 945 .20 24 1 0 7 0 . 0 4 216 T e s t s ( « = . 0 5 ) Homogeneity o f Ss w i t h i n Treatments Homogeneity o f Ss x B locks Fmax. = SS ( C o n t . ) P ( 2 , 2 4 ) S S p ( E x p e r . ) = 1 4 3 5 . 5 0 9 5 4 . 2 0 = 1 . 5 4 Fmax. ( C r i t . ) = 2 . 3 0 * .*. demonstrated homogeneity o f v a r i a n c e Fmax = SSg s ( E x p e r . ) ( 2 ' 2 1 6 > S S B x S < C o n t - > = 1 0 7 0 . 0 4 1 0 0 2 . 0 0 = 1 . 0 6 Fmax ( . C r i t ) . = 1 . 4 5 * * .'. demonstrated homogeneity of v a r i a n c e * Winer, B . J . ( 1 9 6 2 ) * * o b t a i n e d by g r a p h i c a l i n t e r p o l a t i o n from Winer (1962 ) Table B7. 

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