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The rhythmic nature of Bill Evans' melodies Gross, A. N. 1991

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THE RHYIHMICNATUREOFBILL EVANS1] 'MELODIES by A. N. GROSS S.M»S,TheL.„iv„s„yo(liritlshCcilBmb.5js87 A THESIS SUBMITTED M PARTIAL FULFILLMENT- OF m THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Music) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1991 © A. N. Gross, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholariy purposes may be granted by -the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. (Signature) Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date b / H l DE-6 (2/88) s-k v-- .v.. t . : - . . ^ ^ . - ^ . ! - : . — — — , - . . . r.-.^— r . ^ — — — -ABSTRACT Jazz composers and scholars have praised Anerican pianist Bill (William John) Evans as a superior improviser. But oddly, considering the renown gained by Evans, his music is only recently being analyzed in any theoretical detail. An essential aspect of Evans' style, in my opinion, is his ability to satisfy the harmonic obligationsof the theme and, at the same time, establish a maximum degree of rhythmic contrast with the metrical pattern of the original harmonic succession. This paper examines the rhythmic relationship of Evans' melodies to the chord changes over various timespans of the theme and its variations. A method of accent analysis is developed to describe this relation and is applied to excerpts firm two of his solos with a distinct bebop character. According to the provided criteria, this analytical method defines the strongest melodic accents ("points of emphasis") in the melodic accent pattern in relation to the different chordal accents generated by the theme's haiiixjuaicprogressions and to a lesser extent by the interpolated snhsiimips thai together constitute the hypermetrical accent pattern. In comparing these accent patterns and the accent processes of "coincidence", "synchronization", "cross-accent", and "rnnvpxppncR" thev artimlate. we determine some of the techniques Evans uses to crea te rhythmic contrast between the theme and its variations. On the grounds of this studyt one may conclude that the rhythmic structures of melody shown to be in "Peri's Scope" and "Beautiful Love" are characteristic of Evans' improvisations, especially in the early stages of his career. Hence, one may use this type of analysis to investigate the improvisational styles of Evans' predecessors: innovators such as Charlie Parker and Bud l'owell. and those ol'same of his contemporaries, such as the pianist Red Garland. Finally, the original concepts, terms, and processes identified by this method of accent analysis may help the jazz student to recognize the possible relations of melodic pitches to underlying chords during the course of performance. It seems likely, then, that this type of analysis can form the basis for a pedagogical method that has a distincdy rhythmic-harmonic aspect, an aspect that deserves more attention in jazz education. Ill LIST OF EXAMPLES 1.1. Blowing Pattern for "Peri's Scope" theme i 1.2. Various levels of pulse in the metrical and hypermetrical structure; "Peri's Scope" theme; ard variations, hypermeasure 1 (measures 1-2) 6 1.3. Various levels of pulse in the metrical and hypermetrical structure; "Beautiful Love" theme and variations, hypermeasure 1 (measures 1-4). . .. 7 1.4. Various levels of pulse in the metrical and hypermetrical structure; "Waltz for Debby" theme and variations, hypermeasure 1 (measures 1 -4) 8 1.5. The hypermetrical accent on hyperbeat 1; standard falling fifth progression............. 9 1.6. The hypermetrical secondary accent on hyperbeat 3: "Peri's Scope" theme, HM 1 10 1.7. The tonic accent (TA); "Peri's Scope" theme, hypermeasures 2-3 12 1.8. The melody in relation to the hypermetrical accents; "Beautiful Love" theme, measures 16-32 13 1.9.Different hypermetrical accent patterns in the corresponding hypermeasures of the theme and its variation; "Peri's Scope" first chorus, hypermeasures 2-3 14 1.10.The tritone substitute; "Peri's Scope" first chorus, hypermeasure 3 16 1.11.The dynamic accent; "Peri's Scope" second chorus, measure 5........................... 18 1.12.The contour accent (a) on a heightened ione;.(b) on a lowered tone; "Peri's Scope" second chorus (with pickup).. .„•..; 19 1.13.The accent of retardation; "Peri's Scope" fifst chorus, hypermeasure l...................„... 20 1.14(a). Coincident melodic and chordal attacks; "Beautiful Love" theme, measures 16-21...... 22 1.14(b). Coincident melodic attacks and chordal accents; "Beautiful Love" theme and variation, hypermeasure 5 24 1.14(c). Contiguous timespans organized by blowing-pattern chords in a two-bar hypermeasure of the variation..... 26 1.15(a). Ranges of transition for the chord-change accent.............................;............... 27 iv 1.15(b). Chord-change tone as a chord tone that breaks with the melodic pattern associated with the previous chord ...;. 28 1.16. Unambiguous type of chord-change tone in a common bebop melodic pattern 29 1.17(a). Chord-change tone in a common bebop melodic pattern . 30 1.17(b). Melodic reduction showing corresponding voice leading.... 30 1.18(a). Chord-change tone in a common bebop melodic pattern 31 1.18(b). Melodic reduction showing corresponding voice leading 31 1.19.Chord-change tone in a suffixed voice leading pattern; "Peri's Scope" second chorus, measures 2-5. 32 1.20. The mouvic chord-change tone; "Beautiful Love" first chorus (measures 24-25) 33 1.21. Chord-change tone as a member of the substituted harmony; "Peri's Scope" first chorus, hypermeasure 1.. 34 1.22(a). Chord-change tones as members of the next extended blowing-pattern harmony; "Peri's Scope" first chorus, hypermeasures 2-3 35 1.22(b). Chord-change tone as a member of the next extended blowing-pattern harmony; "Beautiful Love" first chorus, measures 26-27. 35 1.23(a). Blowing pattern and original melody for "Speak Low" theme, measures 1-16.... 37 1.23(b). Range of transition a chord-change tone in a 4/1 hypermeter 38 1.24(a). The contracteiUrange of transition; "Beautiful Love'"' first chorus, measures 27-29...... 39 1.24(b). Spccial consideration for a chord-change tone in the preceding range of transition. 41 J .25.Assessing the chord-change tone; "Peri's Scope" second chorus, measures 3-5............. 42 1.26(a). Common bebop melodic pattern 43 1.26(b). Melodic reduction showing con'esponding voice leading and melodic-goal tone........ 43 1.27(a). The melodic-goal tone; "Peri's Scope" second chorus, measures 4-7..................... 44 1.27(b). Melodic reduction showing corresponding voice-leading pattern and melodic-goal tone. 45 1.28.Relations of strong melodic accents to hyperbeats; "Peri's Scope" theme, measures M.... 47 1.29.Comparison between accent patterns; "Peri's Scope" theme and second chorus, hypermeasure 1. 49 1.30. Summary of accent relations; "Peri's Scope" theme and second chorus, HM's 1-2... 50 1.31.Accent convergence in the hypermeter; "Peri's Scope" second chorus, measures 1-7 52 1.32(a). Synchronized chord-change tones and hyperbeats; "SpeakLow" A-l section, measures 8-16 53 1.32(b). Synchronized chord-change tones in the hypermeter, Sonny Clark's solo in first variation of "Speak Low", measures 8-16 54 1.32(c). Varied location of chord-change tones in the hypermeter, Bill Evans' solo in first variation of "Speak Low", measures 8-16 55 2.1. Accent analysis; "Peri's Scope" theme, measures 1-8 (including pickup)...... 58 2.2. Weights of points of melodic emphasis, chordal accents, and combined accents (on the hyperbeats); "Peri's Scope" theme, hypermeasure 1.. 60 2.3. Melodic reduction; "Peri's Scope" theme, measures 3-4 61 2.4. Weights of points of melodic emphasis, chordal accents, and combined accents (on the hyperbeats); "Peri's Scope" theme, hypermeasures 1-2.. 62 2.5. Weights of points of melodic emphasis, chordal accents, and combined accents (on the hyperbeats); "Peri's Scope" theme, hypermeasures 2-3 63 2.6. Weights of points of melodic emphasis, chordal accents, and combined accents (on the hyperbeats); "Peri's Scope" theme, hypermeasures 1-4 64 2.7. Accent analysis; "Peri's Scope" first chorus (including pickup), measures 1-9.... 66 2.8(a).Reauction of common bebop melodic pattern 69 2.8(b).Reduction of Evans' melody; "Peri's Scope" first chorus, measure 2.......... 69 2.9. Weights of points of melodic emphasis, chordal accents, and combined accents (on the hyperbeats); "Peri's Scope" first chorus, hypermeasure 1;:..';;. 70 2.10(a). Standard bebop riff (melodic pattern)........ 71 2.10(b). Melodic reduction of Evans' melody; "Peri's Scope" first chorus, measures 3-4........ 71 vi 2.11.Weights of points of melodic emphasis, chordal accents, and combined accents (onthe hyperbeats); "Peri's Scope" first chorus, hypermeasure 2 . . 73 2.12.Melodic reduction; "Peri's Scope" first chorus, measures 1-6 75 2.13.Weights of points of melodic emphasis, chordal accents, and combined accents (on the hyperbeats); "Peri's Scope" first chorus, hypermeasure 3 ..76 2.14.Accented high-points; "Peri's Scope" first chorus, measures 7-9 ..77 2.15.Summary of accent relations between "Peri's Scope" theme and first chorus, hypermeasures 1-4 78 2.16.Accent analysis; "Peri's Scope" second chorus, measures 1-8 (including pickup).... 82 2.17.Weights of points of melodic emphasis, chordal accents, and combined accents (on the hyperbeats); "Peri's Scope" second chorus, hypermeasure 1 ..........84 2.18. Weights of points of melodic emphasis, chordal accents, and combined accents (on the hyperbeats); "Peri's Scope" second chorus, measures 3-5 86 2.19.Weights of points of melodic emphasis, chordal accents, and combined accents (on the hyperbeats); "Peri's Scope" second chorus, hypermeasure 3 88 2.20. Avoidance of accent coincidence in a polyrhythmic series; "Peri's Scope" second chorus, measures 7-9 89 2.21.Summary of accent relations between "Peri's Scope" theme and second chorus, hypermeasures 1-4.. . . . 90 3.1. Blowing pattern for "Beautiful Love" theme, measures 1-32........... .:.„... 94 3.2. Accent analysis; "Beautiful Love" first chorus, measures 23-32.... ...:..96 3.3. Accent analysis; "Beautiful Love" second chorus, measures 24-32..... 104 3.4. Varied location of strong melodic accents with respect to blowing-pattern chords on the ; hyperbeats; "Beautiful Love" second chorus, measures 24-29.............................. 107 PREFACE vu The following chord table is intended for readers unfamiliar with jazz chord symbols. It groups all the primary, extended, and altered chords contained in the thesis according to quality, gives the various types of notation attributed to these chords in the forthcoming examples and states their intervallic structure. (The prefix x represents all chords of the same quality.) Primary chords include the root and the following intervals each calculated from the root or base tone (R for short): major or minor third, perfect, augmented c. diminished fifth, the major or minor sixth., and the major, minor or diminished seventh. Extended chords may include any of the primary tones along with the ninth (major, minor, or augmented), the eleventh (major or augmented), and the thirteenth (major). The label altered chord specifically refers to a dominant seventh chord (dom.7 for short) with a flattened or sharpened fifth or ninth (or both). Please note, however, that an extended or altered chord may contain a variety of extended tones (normally called extension or tension tones) along with the altered fifth and/or ninth in any combination. Also,the term suspended specifically refers to a dominant seventh chord with a superimposed perfect fourth (or eleventh). In a more general sense, suspension indicates that one entity is being suspended over another so that it may also pertain to the suspension of one chord over another, or of one chord over the root of another fifth, root-related chord, ai we shall see below. Additionally, an extended, altered or suspended chord functions as does the primary chord from which it is derived. Lasdy, in providing the chordal accompaniment, the performer >s not obliged to articulate the entire intervallic structure, but may omit certain tones (such as the third). In translating some of the classical harmonic language to jazz chords, the reader should be aware of these abbreviations: major = A or Maj; minor = m; half-diminished(i.e. minor seventh with a flattened fifth = ^ (or m7b5); augmented = + or # or both; diminished = 4 (or dim); suspension = sus (4). In abbreviating the intervals, we shall use the familiar classical terms: major = M, minor. = m, natural = ^ , perfect = P, augmented = x, diminished vm Type Quality Notation Tntervallic Structure Primary Major7 XMaj7, X 4 R, M3rd, P5th, M7th Major6 X6 R, M3rd, P5th, M6th Extended Major6-9 X6-9 R, M3id, (P5th), M6th. M9th MajorP XMaj9, XA ' R, M3rd, P5th, M7th, M9th Majorll XMajll, X 4" R, (M3rd), P5th, M7th, M9th, Mllth Altered Major7-sharp4 (or Major7-flat5) XMaj'7-#4, X* (XMaj7-b5, X" s ) R, (M3rd), P5th, M7th, M9th, x4th Primary minor7 xm7 R, m3rd, P5th, m7th minor6 xm6 R, m3rd, (P5th), M6th minor / major7 xm^7 R, m3rd, P5th, M7th Extended minor6-9 xm6-9 R, m3rd, M6th, M9th minor9 xm9 R, m3rd, P5th, m7th, M9th minor/major 9 xm9*7 R, m3rd, P5th, M7tli, M9th minorll xmll R, m3rd, P5th, m7th, M9th, Mllth Primary half-diminished7 x' (7) R, m3rd, dim5th, m7th Extended half-diminished9 x?9 R, m3rd, dim5th, m7th, M or m9th half-diminshedll xhl R,m3rd, dim5th, m7th,M or m9th, Mllth IX TvDe Oualitv Notation Tntervallic Structure Primary dominant7 x7 R, M3rd, P5th, m7th augmented dom.7 x+7 R, M3rd, x5th, m7th Extended dom.9 x9 R, M3rd, P5th, m7th, M9th augmented dom.9 x+9 R, M3rd, jc5th, m7th, M9th dom.ll x l l R, M3rd, P5th, m7th, M9th augmented dom.l 1 x+11 R, M3rd, x5th, m7th, M9th, Mllth dom.l 3 xl3 R, M3rd, P5th, m7th, M9th, Ml 1th, M13th augmented dom.13 x+13 R, M3rd, x5th, m7th, M9th, Ml 1th, M13th Altered dom.7-flat9 x7(b9) R, M3rd, P5th, m7th, m9th augmented dom.7- x+7(b9) R, M3rd, x5th, m7th, m9th flat9 dom.7-sharp (or x7#9 R, M3rd, P5th, m7th, x9th augmented) 9 augmented dom.7 x+7#9 R, M3rd, x5th, m7th, x9th sharp9 dom.7-flat5 (or x7-flat5 R, M3rd, dim.5th, m7th #4 or #11) dom.9-flat5 (or x9b5 R, M3rd, dim.5th, m7th #4 or #11) Suspension dom.7sus4 .xsus4 ~ R, P5th,m7th,M9th,Mllth chord /chord x / x minor-major9/ xm9^7/ fifth-related root V-root half-diminished/ x*/ fifth-related root V-root * n n ri n j 1 n u i J U U U • ' Q, Q U •( Chapter I (a).Introduction to accent criteria ...,.:. .1 The rhythmic nature of Bill Evans' melodies; metrical and hypermetrical structure of the bebop ensemble; hypermetrical accents; additional hypermetrical accents by substituted chords. (b).The melodic accent pattern 18 Non-pitch-specific accents; pitch-specific accents; the chord-change accent; contiguous !: , timespans organized by the blowing-pattern chords; range of transition for the chord-change accent; the unambiguous chord-change tone; factors contributing to the a-articulation of a chord-change tone; other types of chord-change tones; additional criteria for the range of transition; the melodic-goal accent (c).Accent processes 46 Sample analysis; relations of points of emphasis to hyperbeats; coincidence, synchroni-zation, and cross-accent; relation of theme and variation; convergence; more sample analyses. II. Accent analysis of "Peri's Scope" theme, variations 1 and 2 (m.'s L-8, including pick-up). ..57 Tneme; first chorus (variation); second chorus. • IILAccent analysis of "Beautiful Love" first and second choruses (measures 23-32) 93 Theme; first chorus; chord-change tones; accent processes; summary of Evans' improvisa-tion^ strategy; second chorus; chord-change tones and coincidence; relation of melody and hypermeter; comparison of closure in the theme and choruses. Conclusion. 110 Bibliography and Discography I l l -"> % -v , ' - . " , E • ' - . . « . - - . > . - £ . XI I would like to thank the University of British Columbia School of Music for granting me permission to write this jazz thesis. Particularly, I wish to acknowledge the participation of Dr. John Roeder, who, as chief advisor, worked tirelessly in achieving the foregoing result. I would like to thank the University of British Columbia School of Music for granting me permission to write this jazz thesis. Particularly, I wish to acknowledge the participation of Dr. John Roeder, who, as chief advisor, worked tirelessly in achieving the foregoing result. " " ' . A ; - .-• iGi'-^ r&r The Rhvthmic Nature of Bill Evans' Melodies Chapter 1: Introduction to accent criteria: Definition of chordal and melodic accents: Accent processes: Sample analyses Jazz composers and scholars have praised American pianist Bill (William John) Evans as a superior improviser. The quality of his performances has induced some admirers to compare his solos with premeditated compositions.1 But oddly, considering the renown gained by Evans during his twenty-five year career, his music has not been analyzed in any detail. Although a newsletter currendy exists for Evans buffs, the only theoretical investigations, to my knowledge, are dissertations by G.E. Smith (1984)2 and S.B. Widenhofer (1988)3, and an article by A.B. Beatty (1986)4.1 believe that an essential aspect of Evans' style is his ability to create variations that satisfy the harmonic requirements of the theme and, at the same time, establish a maximum degree of rhythmic contrast with the metrical pattern of the original harmonic succession. The Metrical and Hypermetrical Structure of the Bebop Ensemble The members of a jazz trio in the bebop tradition include a pianist, a bassist, and a drummer. As a group they address three basic elements of a given piece: the "blowing pattern", the "chord changes", and the solo melody. _ ' The blowing pattern (BP for short) is a chord pattern, agreed upon in advance and internalized by the members of the ensemble, that underlies the construction of the theme and its accompaniment by the bass5 . Each measure of the blowing pattern is commonly comprised of 1 David Hicks."9/15/1980". (Perspectives of New Music! 18 C1979-801:2-3. 2 G.E. Smith, "Homer, Gregory, and Bill Evans? The Theory of Formulaic Composition in the Context of Jazz Improvisation." Ph.D diss.. Harvard University, 1983. DISS ABST 44/09A. Smith does not treat the rhythmic relationship between the original and solo melodies, an important aspect of the present study. 3 S. B. Widenhofer, "Bill Evans: An analytical study of his improvisational style through selected transcriptions". D.A. diss., University of Northern Colorado, 1988. DISS ABST 50/05A. 4 A. B. Beatty, "Bill Evans: Portrait of his life as a jazz pianist and a musical analysis of his style", NAJE RES 6 (1986): 3748. 5 The drummer provides essenial metric support and accentual contrast in the ensemble, but will not be treated in n nn n j n o U U O • U, 'f'u L. U o one or two chords. Each chord is generally referred to as a "chord change". The chord changes are normally related in pairs or "sets", so, when the harmony changes twice a measure, a set of chord changes occurs every measure. (When the harmonic pulse is one chord per measure, a set occurs every two measures.) Example 1.1 reproduces a bass chart, written by Evans, for his "Peri's Scope", in which the two-chord-pe'-measure harmonic pulse, among other interesting features, is clearly evident.6 (See the Preface for an explanation of chord symbols.) fit /. I $lou)h73 Puti-tr* jtr "Perl\Stft f-htmi. Cil 'Sr-gge . T. v^l , ^ C--7 W liJfiJ U t f [61c* cP cJ o^ i frJT** ft*"7 ^ (£*") ^ ^ V ^ a J Ctoi h l b 1 > W F A & " U Three interacting pulses characterize the theme (or "head") and also each subsequent "chorus", each of which is one complete varied repetition of the theme. The chords of the blowing pattern typically generate a half-note or a whole-note pulse. Although each blowing pattern chord is not necessarily attacked in its entirety on each half-note, the pulse at each point of chord change is this study of melodic variation. 6 Example 1.1 is reproduced from the collection of Evans' charts belonging to bassist Ron Johnson, who played with Evans from 1977 to 1979. - • - / - • -.-JL- - - - _ i . - • a . - ' • >- . - J . l ,• articulated by the the bass which, in the simplest case, is expected to play the root of each new chord; so if the blowing pattern generates a regular half-note pulse, the bass plays two roots in each measure of the theme and the variations. The bass also attacks pitches on the even-numbered quarter-note-beats of each measure, but these pitches need not be the roots of the chords; they may belong to the current chord change or they may be non-harmonic tones with various functions. Meter thus arises from the grouping of this quarter-note pul se by the half-note or whole-note pulse of the blowing pattem.The presence of chordal roots in the bass on the first and third beats creates, in each measure, two accents, which we will call the " metrical downbeats" (mdb for short). (The pianist's left-hand (LH) may reinforce this meter by articulating a chord on either metrical downbeat.) The third level of pulse is provided by the soloist, who generally plays eighth-notes. This faster pulse is grouped by the bass quarter-notes into pairs. The double-eighth-note notation, commonly found in jazz transcriptions, is only approximate since the second eighth-note is often delayed in performance. (In fact, theoretical texts, in describing the characteristic melodic pulse, commonly notate it as J 1 or even n 7 . ) In each variation the improvisation is governed by the same blowing pattern as the theme, aside from a limited amount of harmonic alteration to be discussed below. Regardless of the blowing-pattern harmony used for the variation, the soloist is not obliged to articulate the chord change at any particular metric location. The blowing pattern may be composed of various chords and may come from a huge variety of sources: pop tunes, show tunes, blues, or original compositions. It is usually articulated into regular "units" or "groups". The larger groups generate the key centres (at the beginning and end) of a given theme and articulate its formal division into sections. These are typically of eight, twelve, or sixteen measures, and some are repeated as parts of the overall structure. Over shorter timespani, .'he chords arc perceived as groups either two or four measures long, depending on the prevailing harmonic rhythm. Like successive large (sectional) groups, successive smaller groups 7 Andrew Jaffe, Jazz Theory (Dubuque, Iowa: W.C. Brown Co., 1983): 113. often harmonize the melody as either sequential or functional progressions. They constitute the basic rhythmic entities with which the soloist constructs an improvisation. Evans' chart in Example 1.1 manifests a two-bar structure in the repeated four-chord pattern dm7, G7, em7, am7. Every time the dm7 chord occurs in measures 1-6, we hear the initiation of a two-bar group. Even when this pattern is not literally repeated, the two-bar organization persists, so we still hear the beginning of every second measure as a point of initiation. Notice that the harmonic rhythm temporarily changes in measures 6-8: single CMajor7 and E+7 chords are notated at measures 6 and 7 respectively, and no chord is indicated at the downbeat of measure 8. Nevertheless, at measures 6 and 7 we still hear a repetition of the Cmajor7 and E+7 chords implied on the second metrical downbeats continuing the half-note harmonic pulse of change that was previously established in measures 1-5. Moreover, because of the precedent set by the repeated four-chord pattern in measures 1-4, we perceive the downbeat of measure 8 as the midpoint of the repeated two-bar group occupied by a half-note E+7 chord. (In measure 8, as in measure 7, a second E+7 chord is implied on the second metrical downbeat) This two-bar organization groups the chords of the blowing pattern into regularly recurring, four-chord metric units we will call "hypermeasures".8 The attack of each chord is a "hyperbeat" within the hypermeasure. In "Peri's Scope", each hypermeasure consists of two measures and the hyperbeats are generated every half-note pulse by the chords of the blowing pattem.The chord on the first hyperbeat (HB1) corresponds to the articulated bass root on the first metrical downbeat. It initiates both a set of chord changes in the blowing pattern, and also the two-bar pattern of repetition. Accordingly, we shall refer to the first hyperbeat as the "hypermetrical downbeat" (HDB). The chord attacked on the third hyperbeat (HB3) in a two-bar hypermeasure is normally the midpoint of the repeated two-bar pattem.The strength of this hyperbeat depends on the way in which the root of the underlying chord functions with respect to the roots of the other chords in the 8 Edward Cone, in Musical Form and Musical Performance (New York, New York: W.W. Norton, 1968), is the originator of this term. blowing pattern progression. This will be discussed below. While the root relations of the chords on the second and fourth hyperbeats help to determine the strength of accent on the third hyperbeat, they normally represent subordinate entities in the blowing pattern progression and will be called "hyperupbeats" (HUB). Among the beats within each measure accentual distinctions also arise. Since the first metrical downbeat (mdbl) always coincides with the attack of the chord that generates the first or third hyperbeat and is reinforced by the presence of the chordal root in the bass, it takes the strongest metric accent. The second metrical downbeat (mdb2) also corresponds to the attack of a chord and the presence of a bass root. Further distinctions between the two metrical downbeats in a measure may arise from the harmonic-function of the specific chords in the blowing pattern, as we shall discuss below. The second and fourth quarters of each measure are called "metrical upbeats" (mub). An upbeat takes a negligible metric accent since it does not coincide with any hyperbeat. Notice how, in measures 13-17 of Example 1.1, the harmonic pulse is halved so that the chords change every whole-note. As in measures 7-8, where, because of the previous two-bar hypermetrical grouping, we heard the single chord as a two-bar metric unit (with repetitions of this chord implied on each half-note), we understand the four chords in measures 13-17 as two hypermeasures, comprising measures 13-14 and 15-16 respectively, with the B+7 and A+7 chords falling on the third hyperbeats of each hypermeasure. That is, because of the precedent set by the two-bar chordal grouping in measures 1-12, this same pattern of metric organization persists, despite the temporary deceleration in the harmonic rhythm. Example 1.2 summarizes the various interacting levels of pulse of the ensemble for the blowing pattern of "Peri's Scope". It is the nature of the ensemble playing in common time that the two-bar organization groups the chord changes quadruply, that the chord changes group the bass duply, and that the bass groups the solo melody duply. Ax I. A : Yi.Ofui teuls of pu-lst /* tki •Metrical t.*A kjfitfmt fried j/r«<iW; 'Pui'lScoft' fktmt Xkt ^iihaiS,H-Ml(M.'s i - l ) . i-. «(, flypi/ixkiu./e: 3 & P ' t j f e y . Bf fJse (of cktfi dtyts): &qct roof: Bah pulse: " fiiloiit puht: flick, -.H Y Hyi/mths: V HijptfbttJs: ~7TTT w ; • t: r r r i ( i f f f f i f f i • 1 Li Li Li U uu uu i I t jnuutfKirtK tun t ! 1 f I sr*r«nrimiuar j Hi m | m m M j (mt) t i l : pa | •H-M MM-A common variant of the scheme of Ex. 1.2 is shown in Example 1.3, which represents the metrical and hypermetrical structure of the Richard Rodgers standard, "Beautiful Love". Here the blowing pattern generates a chord every whole-note, creating a series of four-bar hypermeasures. According to this whole-note blowing-pattern pulse, the four-bar organization groups the chord changes quadruply, the chord changes group the bass quadruply, and the bass groups the solo melody duply. levels of- j>u!u /„ tyfermettiul " Seau-h'ful fat" fan Vt f i t f a f j M ( f a Lit Hyjolfrntfiud : MtAlUft: 1-btf BPtjfiuj}-. Sffttilsetychrdckyu): Bass foot: pKke: / W * j>ukt: Miur. V H i f i j f u u f l e / : H //y • f t f b o d i : 1 A1-H* HH— : — 1 Three-four time is another preferred jazz meter. Example 1.4 illustrates the various levels of interacting pulses that create the metrical and hypermetrical structure of Evans' "Waltz for Debby". Because each chord lasts three beats, the blowing pattern regularly groups the chords into four-chord metric units so that measures 1-4, as in "Beautiful Love", comprise a single four-bar hypermeasure. Despite its three-beat per bar harmonic rhythm, the various pulses interact in similar ways to those that generate the hypermetrical structure of a piece with a four-bar organization in 4/4 time. That is, the blowing pattern groups the chord, changes quadruply, and the bass groups the solo melody duply. However, in contrast to a piece written in duple time with either a two-bar or a four-bar blowing pattern grouping, the harmonic pulse of change in the bass is three times that of the chord changes, so that the hypermeter may be expressed as 12/4 or 4. r 11 w — C;" ? s n t=i | i o o o i o | • ',_.! [ I f f i ! [ f I i ; f f f f : f . I ! 1 I Li u Li U Li LJ Li Lf Li U U Li U L i U L i t-f f ytwWMmt tnrs r i t t A 1 l: 1 . 1 1 I It 5MW1U- ,tmnr ; , tmniim smt nmu* • /ii " a : , • : m : : M • j (to) t | HI 1 1 , -: | 8 rims (cvili oj- puht M tiit "mtMctl A A/ hj^t/i^tefcial sfruifu/t' "k'&ltyfof itibl><i"' tkemt AtJ/cukfa's^rtl (nsi-H). Mtdium tlklh) Hynefrntt-iwe: "If mta.iv.tf. H-bnf B>P yoy : -S/* f>Jst (of MtUrjii): Bf-u Coot: Bass f*. 1st: Me M'e ptA.ht: HiHO. 3 V fiijjXfiMter: ^ ttyfi/hteH: ni rn | U1 13 1 't> ' W o- l 1 r r M„») r • : ft-V Jo J, 1 ,tor cr r r i I f f. f; f f f i f I ; U U LJ u u u u u u Li; Li U y 1 t t t : T \ | HUtiernmt i'un 1 r S v w r i M tn H a m ' Htt - I 1. | Hi! | | -Al-IMHH-The hypermetrical accents The hypermetrical accents are created by the internal harmonic structure of the blowing •.,, pattern. In jazz, the chord changes are conceived and notated in terms of root, quality, and intervallic structure, and not strictly by their harmonic function. For example, a series of chord changes may have a motivic, non-functional, or sequential character as well as a harmonic character. In any case, the root relations may group the chords in various ways that give rise to 1 ' / jr» n n n C ">' ^ c 1 ' >« / x u ' u u u - "r> 1 var ious strengths o f accent on the first and third hyperbeats i n a two-bar hypermeasure.9 Examples 1.5 and 1.6show how root relations may Create accentual distinctions among the f o u r chords in a typical two-bar hypermeasure. These progressions are some of the ones commonly used to harmonize the standard tunes in the "fakebodks" consulted by the jazz performer. Example 1.5 shows a hypermeasure fern a blowing pattern in which the root progression firmevery chord to its successor is adescend ing fifth. Recall that the first beat in each hypermeasure generated by the blowing pattern is strong since the chord attacked there initiates the repeated two-bar pattern. Because the relations between successive roots are completely uniform, the third hyperbeat , d c n g with the second and four th hyperbeats, does not take a discernible metric accent.10 6./.r fht k^fxt^tfriul iMnftoHBlj siinixM jill,^ ffH pnjrcsucH ^jKfmttjure: MetSufc: 8P(thofJ cUwjts): pulses: ^trLtcJs : ^(fticfnca/ Atetnfs: cn i m b v : 1 Gf : 0 p I i f f * . 1pm .i P.sn i i t r T f : us; m m i m j Hifi — • — I — _ i 9 In general, the positing of accents solely on the basis of root-motion patterns may be problematic to theories of rhythm fortonal classical music. But injazz, and in contrast's much classical music, the blowing-pattern chords internalized by the soloist Provide both the pitch source for the sob melodv and the rhythmic reference according to which the soloist f r ds ro o a cho: i That is, the chords are i u ;impl m Dnic entities but have a 1 y t i l l ; teiofliei] iw and establish a sort of rhythmicized v jit e • idii g jr 1 e entire variation. One may advocate the notion, then, a t e ; ii chords, in and of themselves, may generate accents by indicating the ;ii iiij i point, or end of a chordal grouping spanning a minimum of two measures. 1 0 The realization of this pattern would 3emto r ply some degree of accentuation on HB 3, at least in a jazz :on Th i i lijl accent may accrue to the ittack f l F7i:hordI< a i of its location at the midpoint of descendin tli >| re sioi However, our perception of sic a t : 5 only xur in retrospect since, from 1 s i a v cann< ;dete ii r s n i sther or not tl e falling •: if h 1c sc nt ( ni r as beypnd the B-flat7 chord. » m i 1 I m an :c:i at the attack of the F7 to the change of scale in the i isociated melody from F Major to B-flat Major generated by the adj: rent C7 and F7 chords. But this accent \ 'oi depend as much on the melodic realization of the F7 chord and on lie type of melodi ppi :h (e.g. vertical/arpeggiated or linear/scalar, etc.) employed by the soloist as on this chord's distinctive root motion. 10 In Example 1.6, the roots of the first two chords, dm7 and G7, are related by descending fifth. So are the roots of the next two chords, em7 and am7. But there is no descending fifth root relation between the sets, that is, from G7 to em7. This discontinuity in the otherwise uniform root progression creates accent on the third hyperbeat. The accent is set up by the fifth descent spanning the first and second hyperbeats. The descending fifth relation is withheld moving to the third hyperbeat, but restored moving to the subsequent hyperbeat. In such cases, then, we hear two hypermetrical accents per hypermeasure, located on the first and third hyperbeats. h . I.b. Th< h<ff<r*<hnl ucm^ f j t V i -ptr;-s ^ fijtaSkH •. nr • • • • IM •••• "i1 Hf(Mdt^ts): idSfk i»i«3rt i. .  i \ 1 1 1 ft? f><iht%\ r r f 1 1 HwifhuH: net m m nsi 1 j Hwfaifriuhttuh: m Htf l In summary, the accents on the first and third hyperbeats involve repeated patterns over two-bar timespans in a 4/2 hypermeter. The type of chordal accent that begins the pattern of repetition on the first hyperbeat will be called the"hypermetrical downbeat accent", or HDA for short. When an accent accrues to the attack of the third chord in a two-bar progression, as in Example 1.6, its weight is less than that of the HDA because the chord does not initiate the repetition of the entire hypermeasure. We shall call such an accent on the third hyperbeat the "hypermetrical secondary accent", or HSA. The tendency for chords to group around an accented tonic in jazz provides an additional means of distinguishing weights of accent in the hypermeter. In many passages, a series of chords n n n n i i i t u u, u u C' O. i it in the blowing pattern may be heard as functional in that we may describe them as being consistent with a single key. When chord sequences can be interpreted as functional, an accent other than those of root relations may arise because one of the chords is a functional tonic. In other functionally tonal music, accent often does not accrue to the attacks of tonics.11 Presumably, in jazz, as in classical music, the fact that certain local or global tonics sound accented derives from aspects of their melodic realization (including the bass as a "melody") and from other performance aspects, and not from the fact that they are perceived as goals. Furthermore, we must observe that chords can proceed to a goal without that goal becoming or taking an accent. Yet, the persistent occurrence of jazz chords based on the second and fifth degrees of the same underlying scale results in a myriad of II-V chord-change sets in a given blowing pattern. Inevitably, many of these n-V's resolve to the chord on the first degree of the same underlying scale. In some of these n-v- i sequences, the I-chord undergoes local tonicization and functions as the temporary tonic. In other II-V-rs, the I-chord participates, along with the (predominant) H-chord and the (dominant) V-chord, in a typical cadential progression and functions as the tonic of the original key. In any case, because of the limited scope of the harmonic progressions in tonal jazz ~ most of which are reduced by the improviser to II-V sets- we may perceive certain I-chords as providing resolution to a temporary key or to the home key .We shall call such a chord a "tonic chord". Accordingly, the situation often arises where we may hear a tonic chord as taking a specific accent as the functional tonic of a II-V-I chord sequence. The sets of chord changes in measures 5 and 6 of "Peri"s Scope" (Ex. 1.7) define a descending fifth progression. At the same time, the dm7 and G7 chords at measure 5 may be heard as exerting a strong 117- V7 progression toward the C Major6-9 tonic chord. Although the uniform root relations of the three-chord progression generate no accent on the third hyperbeat, this hyperbeat nevertheless takes an accent as the functional tonic of the two-bar progression. Notice that the chords in measures 3 and 5 are the same, but the first chord in measure 6 is G Major6-9 1 1 Carl Schachter, "Rhythm and Linear Analysis: A Preliminary Study", The Music Forum Vol. 4 (New York: Columbia University Press,1976), 304-305. instead of em7 in measure 4. This C Major 6-9 chord is more accented than the em7 chord it replaces because it is the tonic chord (of the original key) which has been withheld in measures 2 and 4 and which now appears in measure 6 as the I-chord that resolves the preceding II-V set. We shall call the hypermetrical accent generated by a I-chord that functions as the tonic in a two-bar or four-bar H-V-I chord sequence a "tonic accent" (TA). The weight of the hypermetrical accent generated by a tonic chord in the predetermined blowing pattern is equivalent to that of the hypermetrical downbeat accent. f\a fyxic *<W ( TA); "/V/'j Zopt " At**, Mi c?-3 k "yftfnmutt: Mikiuft: <Jo/o «( /ojij • J-H ACCOmft* Bf(cMc^es)'-//a/wait fuMh'o* ; HP pukes: Uypttbei-h ••' ftyff/w&ria.! 6tie*tc\ TTT. MX. liL 4*>* : <? r r ,{, '.A, en' C: r r usi mi. m Hsi urn MA d** 6* •a* r r a N c nit.' "S2:.:, m na HM I A . Example 1.8 shows that the tonic chord may also generate an accent on the first hyperbeat.12 (Notice that the different pulse rate does not affect the type of hypermetrical accent produced by the roots of the chords in the blowing pattern progression.) Tonic accents, in addition to the HDA's, occur on the first hyperbeats of the seventh and'eighth hypermeasures at measures 25 and 29. At measure 23 the local tonicization of the F Major? chord (which functions as the temporary tonic of 1 2 The notated chord progression reproduces the Wowing pattern from Evans' chart used by bassist Ron Johnson; J--*--; — --' - ' -'i'-• ^ ^ • --- • ~ -•* -'•-- •• •--"• ---J-" a.Ajl: 13 the H-V-I chord sequence in the key of F major) also results in the tonic accent on the third hyperbeat of the second hypermeasure.13 Ik K(/oJy in ftlabir* Jo Ht iujx/iutici'ca/ (cents j " 3emfifttl lo it " fane, 'fh - V • We.su ft: Mthdy. ftP(dori cii^ttj: t{*/mo7iic function: BP ftu/stt: Myff'bu-ts: tfyfCfmttriul tltenis: h t*st.ft: MthAy. Bfl(UJcU^is): f(in*tMt fuACT/CK : &P prists: t^fftrMHiti •. nupt/neusufc : M ./n Oil 'Hi III I 1 ' 1 US'") IJ»> If 4 il < "z Ir r ' 1 0 j 0 0 to 1 s to 10 0 »t1 -9i i'SJ Ml </3V m, ui Mi »w j »M TA fX ' fA +1 m I IJH rail IW [/*#» flt" ti 1 b | j r an — > ItH </ / W \ i 1 1 o 0 o 0 d i J J 1 o t°l 1 nil Mil HI! »&/ Hi 1 Htl Ht\ USV UU'tA MTA -rtk Tke. chord £v«jis iodiufes is -hot used A AiflWje •fkt orijind•*</<*(<] % it homvef, U oj-HcuIM <Sy fit : fhhit't left h,n/k'Ji Mwy*x<f;*j tks vtotfiens. Additional hypermetrical accents bv substituted chords The normative 2 + 2 grouping of chord', in.the predetermined blowing pattern can be altered to some extent in performance by the bebop practice of spontaneously interpolating substitutions 1 3 All II-V's do not result in an accent on the following tonic chord; the tonic chord must be prolonged long enough for the listener to hear it as a resting place in the meter. Also, bccause of the simplified harmonic structure of the jazz theme - inversion, for example, is not available as a means of varying the root progression in II-V-I chord sequences -- root position to root position motion is frequendy evident. In such cases, the improviser requires some other way of identifying the tonic chord as the point of resolution in the II-V-I sequence or of avoiding closure in the melody. One of the ways the soloist may avoid confirming the tonic chord in the hypermetrical accent pattern is to adjust the rhythm of the solo melody so that a strong melodic accent does not occur at the timcpoint of the tonic's attack. Notice that, in Ex. 1.8, the dm7 chord at measure 29 presents closure. Naturally, the soloist wants to avoid this in approaching this chord. So in the variation, he or she will play the melody so that it docs not imply the V7-I resolution with respect to the dm7 chord on HB1 at measure 29. H H H H 1 for the chords. Chordal substitutions can alter the root relations among the chords in a particular hypermetrical group, and therefore affect the location and strength of the secondary hypermetrical accent. An example of chordal substitution is shown in Ex.1.9. In the third and fourth bars of the theme of "Peri's Scope", Evans uses the blowing pattern dm7-G7-em7-am7.'At the corresponding hypermeasure in the first chorus (variation), he employs two substitutions, C6-9 and A+7-flat-9, for em7 and am7 respectively.14 Both the C6-9 and A+7-flat-9 chords are "diatonic" substitutes since their roots are located in the scale of the original key. These substitutions are articulated by the pianist's left-hand. t%./-1: different huptfmtrickltctt*hpatterns In cormu>*4['n& HWs if ih ihlni!'oU ih "ftWy fopt'^H's fiyptfaltSurt: Mmurt: Jo/ow/orfy: BPCiktm): £f(ist ckMs wtf-inhsiiluiox!) B? pt*lsei\ fftjpefaihktl Mct*{s(ti(*t) H^offriul A ittn-fs[istdtfu^ "51 •n. .. I f ) ' — ' •"••••••• .a" ' * .' — ' • •,'. 'I, < | V ,.. j B -* . 'v^ "LLF •.-•'••: JTV' G' e^r.M' 9-f •M r r ^ ! •mi HS J MSI mi J m HiA .. w i 1 W- TA( local) W: i 1 l b *.Utk if- 6 i ik ii*. TMtcdy (o« Hi i m b a i f f m . i t ) r^ftu^h a• btilt tkml- h*i P< H* hloiHhM CM<Kjer ktrnt^fit C^ d t t i IK -fU u j i kill [on fa uar*f f ) is t s d t f l i k f l fa tU Unfitly^ en* ( M ih fit wjiHA.1 hlMinij p i t f f m . 1 4 Bill Evans, Montreux II. CrT-6004. These new chords alter the root relations in the hypermeasure. Instead of two falling fifths connected by a falling minor third, a root pattern that gave rise to the hypermetrical secondary accent on the em7 attack, the substitutions present two consecutive falling fifths, then a falling third, so no hypermetrical secondary accent is articulated by the repetition of root motion. However, the substituted C Major6-9 chord represents the tonic chord, so it creates a tonic accent on the third hyperbeat. Therefore an accent does appear here on the third hyperbeat, as it did in the theme, but that accent is of a different type. We shall name an accent caused by an interpolated tonic chord a local TA. The weight of such an accent is slightly greater than that of a HSA in a predetermined blowing pattern. Also, the substitution of A+7-flat-9 for am7, at the fourth hyperbeat of hypermeasure two in the first chorus, causes no accent at this metric location since the roots t f the original and substituted chords are the same. This substitution does not tonicize the dm7 chord at the first point of change in measure 5. We still hear the dm7 as the initial chord of the II7-V7 set from the predetermined blowing pattern, so there is no local TA at this hyperbeat (However, as in the case illustrated by Ex.1.8, a secondaiy dominant may cause a TA on the next hyperbeat.) Ex. 1.10 shows a different species of substitution articulated by Evans' left hand on the fifth eighth-note of measure 5 in the first chorus of "Peri's Scope". The sonority appears to be a D-flat7-9 chord since it includes the E-flat which is attacked in the solo melody on the preceding eighth-note. The root of D-flat9-7 is a tritone from that of the G7 chord occupying this hyperbeat in tho original blowing pattern, so it is an example of "tritone substitution" common in jazz harmony. The pitch-classes of this D-flat7-9 chord are the same as those of the .G-augmented seventh chord ; with a flattened ninth which could be considered an "extension" of the underlying G7 chord in the predetermined blowing pattern. 16 U.l-iO: fkt Worn* sub itikh] * P<r,\ Sufi" tf ekofUi, Hfib. HvpifnWw. H (iiu.fi: {oh Titltdij: 111 teemfisii'mtnf; tbPHhem): •fn'/au suhrt/uh: I j y f t dais: fajfifn\ tfftaJ (itttnh: Ml 1 l<-1 h\ jg-5 » j—r *d • ' drf r-f c / y - • • o : /•'£' hU HBI W M 7VCH4 1k • • ' I For two reasons this tritone substitute does not affect the hypermetrical accent, regardless of the note played by the bass at the coincidental attack point. If the bass plays a G, then the root : progression is still by descending fifth; if it plays a D-flat, then the roots of the altered blowing pattern uniformly descend by minor seconds. So there is no change of accent caused by the second chord on either the second or third hyperbeat. Also, the substituted chord does not affect the tonality of the passage, since both the D-flat7-9 and G+7- flat9 chords resolve to G.15 Therefore in 15 This type of substitution is in fact referred to as the "altered" dominant seventh chord or G7-alt. chord. Jazz musicians regard a tritone substitute as functionally equivalent in jazz harmony to the augmented dominant seventh chord with a flattened Fifth (or x+7-flat9, for short), the root of which is related by tritone. According to the theory of jazz harmony, a tritone substitution is also the functional equivalent of the chord it replaces in the predetermined blowing pattern. (See Jaffe's Jazz Theory. Dubuque, Iowa: W.C. Brown Co., 1983:68.) So root relations in the altered blowing pattern produce the same metrical and functional accents as do the original chords. the forthcoming analyses, we shall treat tritone substitutes such as the D-flat7-9 chord at measure 5 of the first chorus in "Peri's Scope" simply as chordal extensions (i.e, G7-flat-9) of the original blowing pattern chord (i.e., G7) that do not affect the underlying hypermetrical accents. While substitutions are quite common in the bebop style of Evans, they are not used to vary the original blowing pattern beyond audible recognition. In fact, their use is limited to affirming the basic harmonic and hypermetric structure of the blowing pattern.- Substitutions only occur when the passage is organized by a II-V-I chord sequence which includes the tonic chord. The tonic and dominant chords that appear at structural divisions function as "frames" or "points of reference" for the substitutes, which consequently do not affect the underlying tonality. The listener is thus aided by formal divisions organized by certain functional chords. Furthermore, the tritone substitutions contain essentially the same pitch classes as the chords they temporarily replace (see Ex. 1.10). Additionally, the bass often plays the root of the original chord. Lastly, although the roots of certain substituted chords (interpolated by the pianist's left hand) may be different than ; those articulated by the bass, the former pitches are consistent with the tonal function defined by the predetermined blowing pattern. The Melodic Accent Pattern 18 The metric and hypermetric accent patterns articulated, respectively, by the bass (at the quarter-note level) and the blowing pattern (at the half-note or whole-note level), which is reinforced by the bass root, provide a "metric frame" against which the solo melody can be heard in the hypermeter. The soloist generates rhythmic contrast to this metric frame by creating accents that do not consistently coincide with the metric and hypermetric accents of the chord changes. In this section we will consider how the soloist creates those melodic accents. First we will define the different types of melodic accent taken by a melodic attack that do not depend on the relationship of the specific melodic pitch to the chord accompanying it w tfte blowing pattern. These species of melodic accent are independent of the harmonic setting of the melody because they arise from the dynamics, contour, and duration patterns of the melody itself. Many of these have been mentioned in the literature, but some are specific to jazz textures.16 Non-Pitch-Specific Accents A sudden increase in loudness relative to the context causes a "dynamic" accent. We will label a dynamic accent with a > on the examples. Example 1.11 shows a dynamic accent on the attack of the second C6 in measure 5 of Evans' second chorus in "Peri's Scope". : £*./.// fk diftitx'n a W ; 'fifi's Sujii'M (v;^ 1 6 See, for example, Joel Lester. The Rhythms of Tonal Music. (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1986:) 13-44. 19 The attack of a tone at the apex of a melodic contour which demonstrates a marked increase in register may receive a "contour" accent. In certain cases we may also hear the attack of a tone at the base of a melodic contour to be accented by virtue of change in direction. We will label such accents with a C on the examples. The attack of the first G5 at measure 1 of the second chorus in "Peri's Scope" (Ex.l.l2(a)) and the attacks of E5, G5, and C5 at measure 6 of the same variation (Ex. 1.12(b)) illustrate this type of non-pitch-specific accent. • Thi confon/ o.um( ; " Pari's tye" And d m i (wtkfx'ck-uf). {&-) Oiti kcitjhftnid f0nt. (b) 0*a. Irtvii bmt. When a series of relatively short durations, typically J J J , J J , or a similar figure interrupts the predominantly eighth-note pulse in the melody, the next timepoint at which a longer duration is initiated takes an accent of "retardation" (labelled with an R).17 Accents of retardation can also accrue to the attacks of longer durations, such as a quarter- note or a dotted quarter-note, that follows a series of shorter durations, such as I . Several examples of this type of accent 1 7 A retardation accent is Dr. Roedei's term for what is commonly called a "durational" or "agogic" accent. occur in Example 1.13. Notice that accents of dynamic and contour also accrue to the attack of B~ flat5 at measure 2. • ^ h.HV. f k 4 W o / a U ^ f m ; '%m V c / m s , t i « t . Huftrmusm: ESC w So/o ntloi • M M H M M M V LH octoiypininnf: Pitch-Specific Accents The chord-change accent Aside from being accented in non-pitch-specifie ways, the solo melody may be accented in various ways that arise from its specific pitches. One such accent arises from the relation of the melodic pitch to the chord with which it is associated in the underlying blowing pattern. The variation form of bebop pieces is perceived to the extent that the soloist and the ensemble preserve, in each variation, some of the essential characteristics of the theme. The most important characteristics of the theme, as we have seen, are its blowing pattern and its melody. Usually the blowing pattern of each variation is the same as the blowing pattern of the theme, except for certain constrained substitutes. The repetition of the blowing pattern endows the timespan between each chord change in the variations with a special rhythmic affect, for after each chord change, the listener anticipates the arrival of the next change.18 The resulting transitional quality of the timespan characterizes the tones the bass plays on the upbeats, between the chordal roots it plays at the points of change. The listener's memory of the melody itself of the theme may engender similar expectations. A typical tune chosen for jazz variation has distinctive features associated with specific timepoints within its total timespan. A good example is "Beautiful Love" which we have already encountered in Ex. 1.8. The most important general characteristic of this tune, and most others, is that each chord change of the blowing pattern is articulated by a distinctive note in the melody. Example 1.14 (a) shows that the attacks of the pitches A4, F4 and F4, respectively, in measures 17,18 and 19 of the consequent period (measures 17-32), are coincident with the attacks of the em 1 lth-flat 5 , A+7 and dm6 chords with which they are respectively associated in the underlying blowing pattern (Ex. 1.14 (a)). So the listener perceives distinctive pitch-chord relations between the melody and harmony in the theme and expects these particular relations to recur during the corresponding timespan of each variation. Also, along with remembering these distinctive relations, the listener can easily conceptualize the melody in "Beautiful Love" as a series of certain characteristic gestures associated with particular linear motions. For example, as shown in Example 1.8, the consequent period begins with a 4-bar melodic pattern that is sequenced up a minor third in the next four measures. 18 This affect is particularly palpable in jazz, since every improvised performance is different - we never hear the same variation twice 22 /fx. /• IHN: Co;«tU<n+ Tnt/odk anJ dofdil nihcki; %*uf;ful U ^ ^ e , rn. s lit -SiI. UypirtnttLsufe: nz&surt: Mdoiy. Baa rooh: BP(dcrd cityei): BP pUses: Hypefktxfs •. Ub\ ti = f = f = -)""f'l 1 lit) Hal _r.,,if ul-L fi/ij y ' 1 i> ry—e "" 1 i ~ " "'—i • ' 1 I f 7 j—J—J— i J AI-^'X/ r ° • : O V.. o 0 . • J i 1 : 1-HV j As each successive variation unfolds, the listener tends to interpret the improvised solo in terms of these patterns established by the theme. The listener's expectation is governed, first and foremost, by the general expectation that each chord change will be articulated by a distinctive note of the melody. In the theme, each blowing-pattern pulse corresponds to a specific chordal root on a particular hyperbeat. In the subsequent variation, both the soloist (pianist) and the bassist internalize the root of each blowing pattern chord at the same metric location. In most cases the bass articulates the root of the original blowing pattern chord. And even when the soloist composes out a chordal substitute, the listener still expects the root of the next blowing-pattern chord to be articulated since he or she has also internalized the same blowing pattern for the theme and each of its variations. That is, after each timepoint at which a recognizable melodic tone articulates a chord change in the blowing pattern of the variation, there is a span of time that has a transitional quality, during which the listener waits in expectation for the next distinctive chord-tone. The soloist, however, is entirely free 10 articulate the chord change--or not--during this "timespan of expectation". During any transitional timespan, the soloist may create uncertainty in the listener about whether the chord will actually be articulated. In the theme, we hear a distinctive chord-tone in the melody for each change of chord in the blowing pattern, so we expect this same pitch-chord relation in the variation and at the same location. Since these distinctive chord-tones appear in the original melody as the chords change, the occurrence of a similarly distinctive chord-tone in the solo melody at the same hyperoeat in the corresponding hypermeasure of the variation encourages us to listen for the next one.The soloist, however, may articulate the change of chord before or after the point of change generated by the blowing pattern chord. Therefore, in the variation, this same chord-tone-type may indicate the change to the next blowing pattern chord from a different timepoint with respect to the chord on the same hyperbeat in the corresponding hypermeasure of the theme and may be attacked at a timepoint that does not coincide with this next hyperbeat. Also, if we wait for a while, and the next chord comes in, it is possible not to hear a distinctive chord-tone for the chord at this next point of change; this kind of situation may occur if, for example, the soloist does not play such a chord-tone-type within the timespan of expectation set up by the pitch-chord relation at or around the corresponding hyperbeat of the theme. The interplay of this created uncertainty with the listener's expectation gives rise to an accent at the timepoint at which the soloist unambiguously articulates each chord. We shall refer to such a melodic articulation of a chord as a "chord-change tone" (cct for short), and its associated stress as a "chord-change accent" (or cc). We shall define a chord-change accent as strong by virtue of the fact that it unequivocally expresses chord change. Accordingly, we shall regard the attack of a chord-change tone as taking a chord change accent of the same weight irregardless of where it falls within the range of transition organized by its underlying chord or its specific pitch-class relation to its associated chord. Because the soloist is not obliged to articulate the underlying chord right on the hyperbeat (that is, on every half-note or whole -note, depending on the prevailing harmonic rhythm), a chord-change tone may articulate the change of chord before or after the bass gets there. However, the listener's memory of the theme restricts the timespan within which such chord-change accents can be articulated. If the chord-change tone arrives before the listener expects it, its attack will not receive an accent. And if the chord-change tone arrives much later than the point of change articulated by the root of the original blowing pattern chord (usually played by the bass), the listener will have already given up expecting a clear idendfication of the chord. Ex. 1.14 (b) plots the melodic attacks that coincide with the attacks of the underlying blowing pattern chords in measures 17-19 of the" Beautiful Love" theme. We know that in the variation, as in the theme, the listener expects the root of each blowing-pattern chord, to be articulated by a distinctive note of the melody. If the soloist, as in the theme, articulates a distinctive note at a timepoint that coincides with each (underlying) chord change, the timespan during which the listener expects the change to the next chord will be three quarter-notes in length. This timespan represents the listener's timespan of expectation for the change of chord in L'lis blowing pattern. fa. /./1(h) : Coincide w/odic •ecttukittd cfar&l Aaey\Js y'kc^Kji/ Lost" fktfrl An/ VXfifi,Hfflll H f / f . Hfitrmeasnre : Mtxsuf. fltloitit fjsis : Ot+cttui'fittlaltt ifo^s (UeiM nuficLhfh)', !hs> xtftikt: Ptinis ej- tLl.r.'ji in SP(cMeU^d): Bt ft*./set-. /lr*lSjta*{lnir>imuiu) htf-wet*.pten/iif ciaufe.: .... -i» i i i u n v i j r 1 J J i l l J l n n n n i tt:f: • i. . ••;.T,.V:'-"i | J j 1 • T i l i l D J j M S m f B o . - o; •.*:' - - I'V- :'t"t-v! ' ^ " j ''' * F f f f f I ' f f 1 3 J's n-I 3J'I • | Contiguous Timespans (organized hv the blowing-pattern chnrriO Recall that the bass is expected to play chordal roots on the first and third beats of each measure (i.e., on the mdb's) in a blowing pattern generating a half-note pulse. During the variation, then, the listener anticipates the chords in the blowing pattern to change regularly on the metrical downbeats. Here the bass may not initiate the process of change to the next chord on its own since it is expected to play the root of the next blowing-pattern chord on the next half-note bldwing pattern pulse. On the second and fourth quarters (i.e., oh the mub's), the bass may do one of three things: it may prolong the preceding change by playing a note that is associated more with that preceding change than with the next change; it may play a harmonic tone that relates to the preceding blowing-pattern chord or to the next blowing-pattern chord or to both the preceding and the next blowing-pattern chord; or it may play a non-harmonic tone that does not clearly relate either to the preceding or to the next change. According, then, to the rhythmic norm of tonal jazz as I perceive it, the first metrical upbeat is the metric location at which the bass may initiate the process of change to the next blowing-pattern chord. At the same time, the soloist's melody may precede the attack of the bass in identifying the next point of change. So, in formulating a method to describe the timespan during which the soloist may articulate each chord in a particular metric group, we must consider the following factors: a coincidental timepoint for the articulation of the nextpoint of change by a distinctive tone in the solo melody regularly occurs at the first and second metrical downbeats in a 4/2 hypermeter, the bass may attack a tone belonging to the next chord change as early as the first metrical upbeat of the measure; the solo melody may arrive before the bass at either metrical upbeat and indicate the point of change to the next chord with a chord-change tone. With these points in mind, we may understand the music in a two-bar hypermeasure to be segmented into a series of contiguous timespans, each organized by a specific blowing-pattern chord. Each such timespan, as shown in Ex.i.14(c), extends (1) from the first metrical upbeat up to the last metrical downbeat of 1 each measure or (2) from the last metrical upbeat up to th t first metrical upbeat of the next 26 measure.19 Therefore, a soloist who wants to create a chord-change accent for a particular chord must place a distinctive chord-change tone within the corresponding timespan organized by that blowing pattern chord. This chord will be the next one to occur in the underlying blowing pattern. £*.. 1.11(e). Conhjuw iiMijitot cnj/cnijul iy i>Pdoris. ih a Z-htf HH oF fht Ytt'uh'e*. "WII'MWI : rn .. I• • riuSuc. u \ : (i) i Mt/oiU pu/st : II iiiiii r m j t h j Aui pu/st \ 'WJJM trjarll^ully i f f f i i . l ^ r f t / h : (0 m fdsti: f f J ' " Ranee of Transition for the chord-change accent Example 1.15(a) shows this timespan during which the attack of a chord-change tone in the solo melody must be located to receive a chord-change accent in a 4/2 hypermeter. For the purpose of the forthcoming accent analyses, we shall define the span of time from one metrical upbeat to the next as the "range of transition". Notice the process of articulating the next blowing-pattern chord with a chord-change tone on the second metrical upbeat of each measure, when the bass may initiate the transition to the first chord of the next set; that is, to the chord at the first point of change in the next measure. The notion of the range of transition allows us to examine the various pitch-chord and rhythmic relations at or between the points of change without the impediment of the bar 19 Presumably, these timespans could group upbeats with preceding downbeats. But this procedure fails to take into account both the rhythmic and pitch-chord relations between, successive points of change. It is essential to undei'stand •Jiut the soloist must perform two tasks simultaneously in addressing the blowing-pattern chords; he or she must ' acknowledge the underlying change while proceeding lo the next change. n n n n > ~i i n n U"U U U ^r 0, c, o J line but within a consistent and manageable time frame that represents the listener's timespan of expectation for the change of chord. 27 IK[4) ^ ta*s)ii<n f t / t t t duti- clitiji nu(n-t(c Hft'nttiiuff. rltawi: Btajs: Mild pulse: 6ms pnht: Sf/iu/st: tffrjii if HuiWm: W — . m • ^  >..<£>' i I ( &L mib' pub': wit,1 tut?-i ' I I "i •.,.• f i i r i !M-WHH-w . M. 'irJi' JiKi' As the melody unfolds within a given range of transition, the listener's anticipation of a chord-change tone progressively heightens. So the first tone that is metrically located close enough to the upcoming chord and that can be construed as discontinuing the melody's association with the previous chord will be heard as the chord-change tone. Let us emphasize this point: a chord-change tone derives its chord-change quality by clearly breaking with the melodic pattern that composes out the previous blowing-pattern chord. For example, as the given melody proceeds in Ex.1.15(b), we associate the tones of the melodic pattern that occupies the third and fourth eighth-notes of the measure as associating with the previous underlying change; let us suppose this change has been articulated by a chord-change tone on the first metrical downbeat. Then we have a chord-change tone on the fifth eighth-note of this same measure that initiates another melodic pattern associated ; with the composing out of the next chord. In the simplest case, then, the chord-change tone is the . -••• -J-'- - 1 - - • ----• - -•• a. v — V - .J . . . . "•••-- L -.••• •••.«.*.;.•- v . . r j . .. . --„..,•.. _i.-.<j.,zi •!-• 28 • • first tone in the range of transition to the upcoming chord that distinguishes itself as belonging more to the next chord than to the previous chord in the blowing pattern. In many cases it may do so simply by stating a member of the next chord in the blowing pattern. However, an appropriately situated chord-tone may take a chord-change accent by satisfying other criteria to be defined and discussed below. l . / f ( l ) . CUl-tk^l /«« M * aW fat -fktJ- brinks Witt ikt %tMu f>n.4cr>i (.siothftA Uifo fki did.. MtUlc pulse :. ^ Ai-nijt of frinSititn: t f fuhv ^eMtdal h > 6 cM-hnti cii^ I Ifttki« J totjo/ic pjfet* patient mnt chrt The unambiguous chord-change tone ~ In many cases the chord-change tone is simply the first tone in the range of transition that unambiguously identifies the change of chord in die blowing pattern. Ex. 1.16 demonstrates this type of chord-change tone in a common bebop melody composing out a dm7 to G7 set. The tone B4 is the chord-change tone for the G7 chord because it effects a change in the melodic pattern: as the major third of G7, it clearly discontinues the preceding melodic arpeggiation of the dm7 chord. More fundamentally, B4 has a stronger affinity to the G7, and a weaker affinity to the previous dm7, than have the preceding melodic tones in the G7's range of transition. Specifically, A4 is closely related to dm7 as the perfect fifth of the chord, but more weakly related to G7 as a major ninth; similarly, C5 is the minor seventh of dm7 but the major eleventh of G7 ; however, B4 is the minor sixth of dm7 but the major third of the G7. Thus B4 is clearly the first tone in the range of transition that is more stably related to the upcoming chord than to the previous chord. Jzt./.fa: (/(flfalijkitf -fjjie of ckd-elvu^t -ft!M (at)in t conuen Uhtp ' ftefod'n pkfttfn. Silo •wt/Wy; AMyi of fats'/fia,: Hi Si ftofi: 3?{tkird dtoijtfy. M f J i t i l Factors Contributing to the articulation of a chord-change tone: Another factor that may help to distinguish a chord-tone's unambiguous association with the next blowing pattern chord is its participation in a voice leading pattern connecting the two chords of a set That is, the voice leading of the melodic pattern in which a specific chord-tone participates may help to articulate it as the chord-change tone in the original or solo melody. A common 7-10 voice leading pattern is shown in Ex.l.l7(a).Tn the range of transition to the G7 chord, we observe the tones A5, C6, and B5. Since A5 and C6 are part of an arpeggiation : of dm7, we understand the B5 as the resolution of the C6; that is, the seventh over the bass D resolves to a tenth over the bass G, illustrated in Ex.l.l7(b). So B5 is both the first tone in the range of transition that clearly belongs more to the next chord than to the previous chord and clearly is associated with the melodic pattern that composes out the underlying G7 chord. foil in p- cannon hti^J miotic yfla//fOi. iolo ruiltAu'. iaMjt hfalihiM: &asii'sohr SKdirdcU^ti)-. fit .1.11 (I): Mlltiit rtiucfit* staui^ w/itpmJ'm^ Mi'n/uJiy. Solo intla{<j\ Vo/'a leading litss foh: i i ~ t i . at | • T f r • r J _ 1 ' 1 1 F H 1 i Ex. 1.18 demonstrates that simply being a member of the upcoming chord is not sufficient to identify a pitch as a chord-change tone. In the range of transition to the G7 chord, the pitches F5 and D5 could both be construed as members of G7. However we do not hear them as such because they continue the melodic pattern (the descending arpeggiation) composing out the preceding dm7.When we hear the B5, however, we recognize that the dm7 melodic pattern has ended, and that the 7th of that chord has been resolved to the 10th over G. 31 tn././fo): Chari-chit^i -tout, in «. rwntmon Itbop *it/<xf,'c pifftr*.. Solo i^thiy: Atxjitj- {v&tSiHm: lias (onh: 3P Ctheri diNjuy. Etl.ltlt): MMt /trfuifi'ilh skoHi'*^ Cottt^ffndinj wits tgadfM. Solo Mtlc&b: Void Ui4: im rwh: , h - r - 1 f % — — IC j n -j Suffixed voice leading patterns can also help to articulate chord-change tones. Ex.1.19 shows measures 2-5, an excerpt transcribed from Evans' solo in the second chorus of "Peri's Scope". In measure 3 the chord-change accent occurs on the attack of F5 at the fourth eighth-note dmepoint in the range of transition organized by the dm7 chord. The coincident attack of the dm9 chordal extension that articulates the blowing-pattern harmony in the left hand helps us to distinguish F5 as the chord-change tone. But the following melodic tones, A5 and C6, which fall outside the range of transition, also help us to understand F5 as the initial tone of an arpeggiated figure, occupying the following two eighth-notes, which composes out the dm7 choid.That is, we hear the chord-chanj £ quality of F5 defined importantly by its association with the tones in the succeeding melodic pattern which fall in the range of transition organized by the G7,the next 32 blowing-pattern chord. (In this case, then, as in the previous examples, the first metrical upbeat of the measure - here, the second beat of measure 3 ~ is part of the range of transition for the next chord (G7).) : . /•/?.' ll\o(d-cka.r\^L font in a Sujfhii </oiie faA^ pitfer-n ; 'Perl's ikoru.i; •m.'j j.j; / / v j K C K i f t l u c e : So/o yyilojij: tanji of fan! if ion: i n dec tn*pAit 'imtn j/«c/uitiHj CkorJt I e x-kusiots, SukHfuhlm. (iypi/Mih: Other types of chord-change tones: While a chord-change tone is always the first tone in the range of transition that signals the new blowing-pattern chord, its association with that chord may be articulated in various ways. The types of chord-change tones to be discussed and illustrated in Examples 1.20 to 1.22, drawn from Evans'improvisations, illustrate the most common of these ways. In some cases, we hear a pitch to be a chord-change tone simply because it is the same pitch class that was associated with that chord in the original theme, that is, because it recalls a motive in the theme at or around the same hyperbeat in the corresponding hypermeasure of the variation. For instance, in measure 25 of the consequent period of the "Beautiful Love" theme, shown in Ex. 1.8, the melody presents the pitches E-D on the first and third quarters forming the interval succession 9-8 over the bass (it sounds like an appoggiatura in classical music but jazz musicians regard the 9 as a chord-tone.) In the range of transition to the corresponding hyperbeat 33 of the variation, shown in Ex. 1.20, Evans plays a contour-accented E, then D on the next quarter beat. The succession E6- D6, at the fourth and first quarters of measures 24 and 25 respectively, represents the same pitch-class succession as the one articulated at the point of change to the dm6 chord in the theme. The chord-change accent on the attack of E6 is supported by the attack of the left-hand dm6-9 chordal extension and by the contour accent. Although E6 is actually more stable as the perfect fifth of the previous underlying chord (A+7) than it is as the major ninth of the next blowing-pattern chord (dm6), it is motivic and therefore takes the chord-change accent with respect to the dm6 chord despite its tonal relation to both the A+7 and dm6 chords at hyperbeat 4 and hyperbeat l.That is, motivic repetition can compensate for weak chordal affinity in the articulation of a chord-change tone.20 l-^o: The mim chord- J^nijt font; Beau-fijulL&* ht (m-'s HlfcfaWu/e: M'asurt Solo wt '• {ii\<jt offriMitfi*: /rfleajnyJjM'fiita/ , Alitk cktrdbj UfuttCHt: Sp(eM ckiyti): &Pf>«/sts: Hfffkials: - ru3 I>1 Li u i i=y= i ,>f-^ L i l J i — f - H --l-f-H 1 1 1 1 r M 1 o o HM Ml In special cases, a tone that is neither a member of the next blowing-pattern chord nor motivic can nevertheless be a chord-change tone. This situation occurs when the tone is the first tone in the range of transition that is an unambiguous member of the substituted harmony at the next point of change. In Example 1.21 the C-shaip5, at the the sccond metrical downbeat of 2 0 If the left-hand chord on beat 4 were a rearticulation of A7, we would hear E6 as continuing its relation to the, px'/ious A7 chord and not as the chord-change tone for the dm6 on the downbeat of measure 25. measure 2, does not belong to the underlying blowing-pattern chord. But the attack of C-sharp5 takes the chord-change accent for several reasons.The first half of the range of transition in which it is located is occupied by a triplet eighth-note arpeggiation of the previous C Major 7 chord. The1 C-sharp5 does not participate in this melodic pattern because it cannot be construed as belonging to C Major7. Rather, we must interpret it as the beginning of the melodic pattern that composes out the chord at the next point of change. We can tell at the moment of attack that C-sharp5 is the chord-tone of this substituted chord and not just a passing or neighbor tone because its attack coincides with the attack by the underlying am7 chord in the blowing pattern and because it is consonant with the bass. p i . / -A / : fyorf-cUnjt -font o.im mink/ tf f k miiHfufi^ Ufrhtnuj -"Ptfi'i Slept' f i t (horns, HyptffruStin: Mttiuft: Solo ftfibiLi: Kwtjt tf+mltiHi*: LK AUeytaiiurf n ^fd&lutMis»Si Suitfr/ufo: SP(doficb^ti): 6P {>u/stS; d^t/ieafi: At other times, a tone that does not belong to the next blowing-pattern chord is perceived as a chord-change tone because it is the first tone in the range of transition that signals an extended harmony at the next point of change as an extension tone or "tension tone" (as it is more commonly called) of this upcoming chord. Such a chord-change tone may distinguish itself by contradicting a tension tone of the preceding chord (as in Ex. 1.22(a)) or by resolving a dissonance on the previous chord (as in Exx. 1.22(a) and (b)). 35 £}>• 1-2 fa) • Chord-chnjt Mu ai m<fli!>tfs if IL ml uhrdJ HP/urnpn/; "Ptns$up<"is1-dtoi'uflHM's&-i. fiyptf/nt/ijurt: f^idiu-tt: Sob hi ladti: 'frmifm: f-H AttonySvii/nttf m(/utll*j dtofdal edtAiitAT, inhsHiufev. BP(dtri ehyts): 8? pJstV. If^hetdi: r.ii rn /Wl If. I ftCU — f: ' " > • — i ? J* t, c •friM tri art? fr> / J J J • J' :,;-: .. . ••": ! i ; m mi : mi m : \ m m !•&[!>): (koft- thyi-fau ti n mtiiiiit'efM*.Wt^M/fflk/mmi " Hetntijul l<Ht" nf- chrui, m.'.f U-tl: tf&surc: Soh jntfaiu : zlxn/jet of frtuisifien : 8P (ilifd diiyei) : 8f fJs's-//ypwWj: I.JMJ fo m M i U l u / «« r i •j V . 3 8U"\ V i • o . • . 1 In Ex. 1. .22(a), the tones E5 and E-flat5, attacked at the first and second metrical downbeats in measure 5, are not members of the blowing-pattern chords at these locations. E5 is preceded in its range of transition by a triplet-eighth-note arpeggiation - C-sharp5, B-flat4, and G4 - of the A+7 chord substituted at the preceding hyperbeat. As shown by the left-hand chord, an essential tone in this substituted chord is the augmented fifth, E-sharp, which in this transcription is notated enharmonically as F-natural. E5 is the only remaining tone in its range of transition that may indicate the change to dm7. If we had not heard the augmented fifth over the A chord, we would construe this E5 as the perfect fifth of the previous A-rooted-chord. But because it contradicts the augmented 5th already established by the tension tone F5, it must be understood as articulating the next chord, dm7, as an extension. Unlike E5, E-flat 5 is hot a chord-tone of the previous blowing-pattem chord, dm7. However, as the augmented 5th of the chord at hyperbeat 2, it is clearly a tension tone of this underlying chord which is articulated by the G+7(flat9) chordal extension in the left hand. Moreover, the tone F5, which immediately precedes E-flat5 in the same range of transition, is the minor seventh of G+7 but also belongs, as the minor third, to the FT! arpeggiation composing out the previous dm7. Additionally, the fact that the extension tone E-flat 5 is the chord-change tone for G+7 is affirmed by the suffixed voice-leading pattern that continues to compose out this chord as aTTl arpi; giation. Using similar reasoning as we did with respect to E5, we accept D5 as the extended chd •l-change tone for the C Major7 chord at hyperbeat 3. Lasdy, the attack of a putative tension tone may take a chord-change accent if the pitch class resolves a dissonance on the previous chord. For example, in measure 26 of Ex. 1.22(b) on the preceding page, E5, which can be construed as the augmented eleventh of the underlying B-flat-+ll chord, resolves the F5,7th over the preceding G - rooted chord. Similarly, the tone D5, at the downbeat of measure 6 in Ex.i.22(a), resolves the E-flat5 which may be heard as dissonant to the root of its underlying chord. . Additional criteria with respect to the ranpe-of transition It is important now to refine our understanding of the principles that govern the range of transition. Firstly, the slower harmonic pulse generated by the blowing pattern for the Weill-Nash standard,"Speak Low" (Ex.l.23(a)), or a temporary change from a 4/2 to a 4/1 hypermeter, as demonstrated by the chords of the "Peri's Scope" theme (Ex. 1.1, measures 13-17), results in an extended range of transition. That is, the range of transition changes when the harmonic rhythm does. 37 fct.LlW)'. 8/owy f g f f t f r a n d ^ w l m/ody fr "SpukJUj" w.'j l-lk. S priv I * yJe.wu- Was Mr. LO GO • r-a -U f • -J. 'J. 1 CH aL' U i] G P.. Ex. 1.23(b) shows an excerpt transcribed from Evans' solo in the first chorus of "Speak Low". Although the solo melody proceeds in eighth notes, the harmonic rhythm of the blowing-pattern chords creates a point of change only every whole note. In such cases, we shall assert that the timespan of the range of transition is from the second half-note of one measure to the second half-note of the next measure, so that the chord-change accent may occur at any one of eight intermediary timepoints (or even more as will be discussed below). In Ex. 1.23(b), the range of transition to the b-flatm7 chord in the blowing pattern at measure 11 extends from the attacks of G4, on the second metrical downbeat of measure 10, to the quarter-note rest after the attack of D-flat4 on the second eighth-note of measure 11. So the attack of F4, on the downbeat of measure: 11, which takes the chord-change accent with respect to the b-flatm7 at the point of change in this measure, occurs in the timespan organized by this blowing-pattern chord. n n n n i n n u u u ia u _> c O ~t i li- l-MCii): /tfin<ji of fritsih'ifli jv< a. thrl~ckkn<>i t W /i, A 1 hy/HfmtUf. ttyjic/n asuft: m w . Soh rnt/odij A&ye of f r M i f m p J i i : • flyftf huts : tx* <f#0l in) i cd 1 Li| ^ 11 11 ] | -ahn |-i j—! X— ' 1 1 1 m | Secondly, when the harmonic rhythm accelerates, there is a contraction in the size of the range of transition . Ex. 1.24(a) shows a transcribed excerpt from Evan's solo in the first chorus of "Beautiful Love". In measure 28, the range of transition to the A+7-flat 9 chord ends on the fourth eighth-note, that is, on the attack of b-flat 5. Since the e-half-diminished 11 chord and the A+7-flat 9 chord at the previous points of change in measures 27-28 generate a whole-note pulse, we expect this harmonic rhythm to continue with the attack of the dm7 chord at the point of change in measure 29. Accordingly, the expected range of transition organized by this dm7 chord would extend from the third quarter of measure 28 to the third quarter of measure 29. But because the harmonic rhythm accelerates in nrauure 29, the dm7 chord generates a half-note and not a whole-note pulse, so its range of transition theoretically begins at the fourth quarter of measure 28, and not at the third quarter of measure 28. Following suit, the range of transition for the following F9 chord (at the second point of change in measure 29) begins at the second quarter of measure 29. So the end of the dm7's theoretical range would have to occur at the second quarter on measure 29 and not at the third quarter of this measure as the 4/1 hypermeter had led us to believe. Under these conditions, we regard the actual size of the range of transition to the dm7 chord as contracted, beginning at the third quarter of measure 28 and extending to the end of the first quarter in measure 39 29. Ex. 1.24(a) demonstrates graphically how the size of the range of transition to the dm7 chord* at the first point of change in measure 29 contracts from four quarters to three quarters in accordance with the accelerated harmonic rhythm there. h . f t l t e ) : C o n f f u h i rtMft of fTttftmy'iemti-fu/' 1m"/if- chm t*Sufi: §o/o mi t Wi : of -friuii'itio*. rttjyec.'fUj .„ C tfux-lticAtt sa< >f ram if tonsifit*: BP pulses: - f ? j • — • ••• • • . . . • • fill i r r n ~ r ~ f f t •», ,;ttpecfeili Lj | V 1 1 1 1 ; I'l) ,1 ,, i , [ [ H'eflt i. f lL. . i r i | i ii 4 J's • [ A- P.'] &» ] : r fW„»] 7h .r J JV [ A f ] jV»3»] 1 •••• yjrtlM) • 1 o o ' ... I f 1 1 ; i Finally, the size of the range of transition depends somewhat upon the relation of the melodic rhythm to the harmonic rhythm and somewhat upon where the preceding chord-change tone is placed. By establishing the size of the range of transition as four eighth-notes in a 4/2 hypermeter, we may compare the relations between melodic and chordal accents in a more or less straight-forward maimer. But in applying this theoretical length to the analysis of real music, it behooves us, at times, to be more flexible with respect to the timespan of the range of transition organized by each blowing-pattern chord. Certainly, we can hear where the end of a range of transition occurs in the meter since this timepoint also represents the metric location at which or v'.'.;' around which a chord-change tone may initiate the new melodic pattern that composes out the next blowing-pattern chord. However we have no such means to mark the beginning of a range of transition, for it is possible that the chord-change tone for the next chord may occur as soon as the preceding chord-change tone has articulated its underlying chord in its range of transition. Ex. 1.24(b) shows an excerpt transcribed from Evans' solo in the first chorus of "Speak Low" (measures 12-13). On the first eighth-note of measure 13 Evans articulates a chord-change accent on the attack of A4 at the third eighth-note timepoint (of the four eighth-note timepoints) in the range of transition organized by the previous half-note blowing-pattern chord, A+7, notated as the first point of change in this measure. The range of transition to the next half-note blowing-pattern chord, dm7, according to cited criteria, does not begin until the second quarter of this same measure (measure 13). But before that point, on the fourth sixteenth-note of measure 13, Evans plays the tone D4. We hear this as the first tone associated with the next blowing-pattern chord, dm7, because it does not belong to the previous A+7 chord and the A+7 has already been articulated. That is, we entertain D4 as the chord-change tone associated with the next chord, dm7, despite its location in the range of transition to the previous chord, A+7. According to this example, then, under certain circumstances we may consider the range of trans"tion in a 4/2 hypermeter organized by a previous blowing pattern chord as encompassing three and not four eighth-notes while the size of the range of transition to the next blowing-pattern chord expands to five eighth-notes. For these same reasons, the range of transition to the next blowing-pattern chord in a prevailing 4/1 hypermeter "may, on occasion, begin on the second quarter and not on the third quarter of the measure, three quarters before the chord change (see the chord-change tone, A5, in measure 25 of Ex.3.2). 41 fa-l-Mb)'- Sptcitl emii&ufm fa"A chrd-ckm bw tit paet4;n. fan^x. if friuif-i'm. 1 ' / / fimsust: U witMu: /&n*tS offi'tos'th'tM :Vts faiftjy as it's) tk*<jts): Sf f*>Sti-. _ _ _ - — urilL.* O •, ' In most cases the relationship of a chord-change tone to its associated chord must be confirmed by other accentual factors. Consider Ex. 1.25, an excerpt transcribed from Evans' second chorus in "Peri's Scope". D6, on the fourth quarter O'f measure 4, is the root tone of the dm7 chord at the next point of change, but it is located at the first timepoint in its range of transition. Since there is only a little expectation of a dm7 chord-tone here, we may en tertain this tone as the major ninth of the C 6-9 chord substituted for the em7 chord at the previous point of change. So, even though D6 is the root tone of the next chord and occupies the range of transition organized by the dm7 chord, its early location in its range of transition and its membership in die previous C6-9 chord hinders us from hearing it as unambiguously identifying the chord at the next point of change. What makes us realjze that it is indeed the chord-change tone for the dm7 is the change in the melodic pattern it initiates, a change corresponding to a slight contour accent, and the simultaneous attack of the left-hand chord, which prepares the listener for the change i n harmony generated by the upcoming dm7 chord in the blowing pattern. Atws^ He dod-cU^t fyw- " J W " X r J i dms ih.'S l - f . ti'tfefnttina: £(»/e Ult/ei/yi /• H titeonpamm/yrf ii>c/uiliitij (liorfal tikntmtiubcHhjif. &P Crttrd chnju): BP I>u/sts: _£2.3 -.. m Ml-, A ?." /ci>.... . r f * e f= K _ Ctt : | _ i ; ijfj " f . & • •• p e > a w 1 The melodic-goal accent Another kind of pitch-specific accent, which we will call the "melodic-goal accent", arises in the polyphonic (compound) melodic lines typical of Evans. This type of accent is revealed by reductive analysis, which is particularly suited to the analysis of compound melody. The melodic reduction isolates those tones-that constitute the voice leading (middleground progression) at the attack of each chord change in the blowing-pattem progression. Example 1.26(a) shows a common bebop melody that composes out an underlying functional chord progression; the C Major7 is heard as the tonic of the progression. The reduction in Ex. 1.26(b) provides a simple illustration of melodic goals in the compound melody. Both E4, in the lower voice, and C5, in the upper voice of the polyphonic melody are goals of middleground step progressions because each tone continues a middleground voice, and is a member of the tonic of the underlying harmonic progression. 43 •lAbcp.): Comjhou lebop mtlt>t!tt puijef-n: &lo ** elc£u'. faHjttftfaittim: $4ss fdo/j : HfUwtl tL^a): . f.ii(h) : H(Mii rttlu.eb'on sAok)irj cornipjrJm vtice lu/it^ • • - . • . flifi. • •• •fotf (njt) Now, according to our definition, the attack of E4, in measure 2 of Ex. 1.26(a), takes the chord-change accent with respect to the organizing C Major7 chord because it is _<e first tone in the range of transition that unambiguously belongs more to the next chord than it does to the previous G7 chord. Since the attack of E4 already takes the chord-change accent with respect to the C Major7 chord that generates the one point of change in measure 2 , the attacks of the other tones in the melodic pattern composing out this C Maj7 chord cannot take such an accent, although, in this case, both G4 and C5 occupy the same range of transition as C5. However, we understand C5 to take an accent as well: not a chord-change accent, but a melodic-goal accent, because it articulates the arrival on the tonic of a middleground voice. In contrast, the G4 in measure 2 of Examples 1.26(a) and (b) does not take a melodic-goal accent with respect to the C Major7 chord because it does not represent an arrival and because it is already present in the previous measure as part of the V7 chord, G7. To summarize, the attack of a tone takes a melodic-goal accent if it continues a step progression in a middleground voice, if it is associated with the tonic chord, and if it does not belong to the previous V7 chord. Example 1.27(a) shows the occurrence of a melodic-goal accent in a two-bar timespan of Evans' second chorus in "Peri's Scope". As in the previous example, the dm7, G7, and C Major7 chords generate a H7-V7-I Major7 functional progression. In keeping with the practice introduced in Ex. 1.15(b), the circles around the tones D6 (on the upbeat of measure 5), B5 (on the second metrical downbeat of measure 5), and E5 (on the first metrical downbeat of measure 6) designate them as chord-change tones with respect to these underlying chords. In particular, the attack of E5 takes the chord-change accent associated with the functional tonic. fa. t The mJcJif Cjod ftnt [m^] ; "fbi's St^e' tkons, flyferOU(Ju./t : jjl&SiM't : Svfo wh4<j: int/ndintj CfoMct-ftrSm pji tubtffaki: SP[ t h r i f t s ) : BP pulses: M Cb3 w HT ' f51 M Ctt " cei; .vT-r "7s,' g „Q>. . , • ' 11 1 1 f^eaL • 3 . 3 ti - • • c* 4J ftTn' The.reduction in Ex.l.27(b) shows the tone C5 as the goal of the lower voice in the compound melody. According to these analyses, E5, on the first quarter of measure 6, resolves the 7-10 voice leading connecting the G7 and C Maj7 chords, is prolonged through the second quarter •'•..' 45 of the measure, and then descends through the passing-tone D5 to C6, the root tone of the tonic chord.The attack of this C5 does not take the chord-change accent with respect to the underlying CMajor7 chord since the chord-change accent has already occurred on the attack of E5. But we consider the attack of C5 as taking the melodic-goal accent associated'with the functional tonic generated at the first and only point of change in measure 6.21 Notice that, in this case, the attack of C5 lies beyond the range of transition to the tonic chord. So, as demonstrated in Examples 1.27 (a) + (b), a melodic-goal tone may or may not occur in the range of transition to the functional tonic as a middleground voice. h . / . i f ) '• tttloh /iducfw •CoittsAmj™ veic, IiU'm Mat iniloiic qtd-hu (nif)-: : V:' ••••") rfutuas: •&h rwbiy: Ihtu ; &UI ftofl: [li PJ 21 Because of the complicated harmonies used by Evans in this passage and in many others, it is often difficult to determine whether a certain middleground voice is being prolonged or, in fact, is part of another middleground voice. For example, we may describe D5, which introduces the melodic-goal tone, C5, as a passing-tone moving from an upper voice E5 (prolonged from the downbeat of measure 6) or we hear it as the local neighbour of C5 in the same' middleground voice. •  -i • — - w 46 Accent Processes. Our aim is to study rhythmic contrast between the soloist's (Evans') melodic accents and the hypermetrical accents generated by the chords of the blowing pattern. The accent pattern in the. melody is the combined result of all the various types of melodic accents, both non-pitch-specific (accents of dynamic, contour, and retardation) and pitch-specific (accents of chord-change and melodic goal). While the soloist's melodic accents are ordinarily irregular, the chords in the hypermetrical accent pattern regularly articulate the points of change in the blowing pattern (although the functional tonic chord may take additional emphasis in the predetermined or altered blowing-pattern progression). Hence, the metrical accent patterns defined by the points of change and the hypermetrical accent patterns generated by the root relations of the blowing pattern chords provide the regularly accented reference against which the soloist's melodic accent pattern contrasts. Sample analysis The sample analysis in Example 1.28 shows the melody and left-hand chords in measures 1-S of the "Peri's Scope" theme, including the two-bar "pick-up" (the introduction). This diagram plots the various types of accents taken by each melodic attack, and also shows the half-note blowing-pattern pulses generated by the chords of the original harmonic progression and articulated by the bass. One symbol, indicating, by its respective vertical location, the type of melodic accent, is placed over the attack of each tone which takes at least one melodic accent. Many accents may occur within a given timespan and even at a particular timepoint, but within each range of transition only one attack can take a chord-change accent 4 _ 1 / 1 « ' t> , ,n n rf rr . D^o'r ^ . . , ~ ' . - - u u u ii • o o J J • . . 47 ^•/•A.? : fa kirns of jfmtj ntlodle iu&*is h kufx/Ms; "j>tf;\ jupe" tkiM, m.'i /-V. ••••.•••• / , Milodit. fiuM^S: Uttesctiti** ; XifAAlhic : CMeu-f. elari-'htufe: MeMitfcul'-fafCftoMHr*'. flit'luti: Moty. AH Mcimyin'itotiii: &f(tAcs/ chutes) -^ pulsti: I f f / f b e t J s • Hyifi/MfacnUMrfl: s — — - p — n — f 1 , W c r. - t. ,, r n , LSI a i n) m) , . flrtfif i r t t% f-. Uti U. i !• . \ l - - 4 i l ' J • n n 0 • n • o ' ' n a n Hi! Ml HS1 M/' Ml MV - m usa ust Let us presume that the more kinds of accent that obtain at a given timepoint, the greater the overall weight of accent the timepoint takes. It is then evident that certain timepoints receive greater emphasis than others. We will refer to the most accented points in the melodic accent pattern within each hypermeasure as the "points of emphasis". If the attack; of a melodic tone takes three accents, • it is an "unequivocal" point of melodic emphasis in the hypermeter. In Ex. 1.28, the two attacks of G5, on the first metrical downbeats of measures 1-and 2, take the strongest melodic accent in the first hypermeasure, and hence represent the points of emphasis in the melodic accent pattern in the . first hypermeasure of the theme. Relations of points of emphasis to hyperbeats: coincidence, synchronization and cross-accent When a point of emphasis in the melody coincides with a hyperbeat, that is, when we hear accents simultaneously in the melodic and accompanimental streams, we will refer to that timepoint •n rrkn n u u u'u as a "point of coincidence" in the hypermeasure. In Example 1.28, the first, secondhand third hyperbeats are all points of coincidence in the first hypermeasure of the theme. When a strong melodic accent coincides with a strong hypermetrical accent (HDA.TA, or HSA), and the subsequent strong melodic accents coincide with subsequent strong (first or third) hyperbeats, we consider the accent patterns to be "synchronized" in the hypermeter (Ex.1.28) We perceive synchronization only if the melodic emphasis, which coincides with the successive strong hypermetrical accents, is sufficiendy strong and is projected by melodic accents that are comparable in weight. Synchronization, then, is a series of coincidences: coincidence relates a single melodic attack to a single hyperbeat, but synchronization relates successive strong melodic accents to a succession of hyperbeats. In Ex.1.28, the strong melodic accents on the two attacks of G5 in measures 1 and 2 are projected on the strong chordal accents (HDA and HSA) generated by the dm7 and em7 chords of the successive sets, so we consider the melody to be synchronized with respect to the hypermeter in the first hypermeasure of the theme. Often a strongly accented melodic attack does not coincide with the attack of the underlying chord. In Ex.1.28, the melodic accent on the attack of G5, on the upbeat of measure 4 in the "Peri's Scope" theme, precedes the attack by the em7 chord from the blowing pattern. In such cases, we shall consider the point of melodic emphasis as projecting a "cross-accent" to the underlying hyperbeat. Relation of theme and variation An important source of variation between theme and chorus (variation) in bebop improvisation is the differing location and weights of accents. In the chorus, the points at which the strongest melodic accents are projected need not and typically do not correspond to the points that are emphasized by strong melodic accents in the theme. Example 1.29 compares the accent patterns in the first hypermeasures of the theme and of the second chorus in"Peri's Scope". In the second chorus there is a coincidence of accent on the fourth hyperbeat, a point at which no melodic ; emphasis is projected in the theme. 49 /a?: Co thfmon Jilfuan t cant p^em;; "Jtfii " tkiiM 2.i\d tUofu.t. flint: did chops'-Ndoiit ttetflh: Refa fd&fiin'. Con+ov/: Ctwi-fat/edit fhjpt/itmlufi: M*.Jurt: MiMy. kU nlmixt'. 8P mc/n/iiv) ittbsf-ihifiM: $t prists-. fltipt/mdrfal ieunfs : -LlL. JEtl. 25E ?» i } tiiL—^a-L. A. -W-U/il Ml ••• Ht\ MM-J O L . .'J,..;.. If! i. J . JSL mi • •Mi • nn m ; J3A. Tt Sometimes a point of coincidence in the variation is articulated at the same location as a point of coincidence in the corresponding section of the theme, but the weights of the respective melodic accents differ. Therefore, in comparing the accent patterns of corresponding hypermeasures, we must differentiate the various weights of accent projected by the points of melodic emphasis at or around the hyperbeats. Also, when substituted chords are used in the blowing pattern of a variation, different weights of hypermetrical accents may be generated. To assess differences in accent between theme and variation, it is necessary to compare the weight of the total or ; "combined" accent, comprising the sum of melodic accent and the chordal accent on the hyperbeats in the corresponding hypermeasures. Example 1.30 recasts Ex. 1.29 in a formatwe will use frequently to compare accent patterns and identify accentual processes. It represents graphically the different weights of accents in th? V*- • I \ ' - , .... • • 'j . . - . ...,. 1. ... „,. .1 -V ... -ii!', .J. • -u -J • -y " * tt n- | - i J h "i ^  t , A . ^ 4 r<- .u-n w w » -'H' r - .Ju l jn.t-.m n-.4<ru - >.-J" . .uvi l. n --uimmix L. j., .. j 50 first two hypermeasures of the the ne and in the second chorus. Bars of different heights are used to indicate the different amounts of melodic emphasis. In the lower part of the example, the heights of the bars similarly distinguish between the relative strength of the chordal accents on the hyperbeats in the first hypermeasures. Notice, in the theme, hyperbeat 1 takes a HDA; hyperbeat 3 takes the lesser weighted HSA. In the second chorus, the first hyperbeat also takes a HDA but the third hyperbeat takes a local TA (because of the substituted functional tonic). At the bottom of the example, the height of each bar shows the relative strength of the combined accent formed by the point of emphasis projected at the chordal accents on hyperbeats one and three in the first hypermeasures under consideration. (There are no combined accents in the second hypermeasures of the theme and second chorus because the melodic accents there do not fall on the hyperbeats.) fa'i i - 1 . tf> SmtASurt: mPifaus ftkwi: lA/tijkh/f Wed* t>*fktil: h/d'rffi t f .ffthrfit tMfksU: flyfxrhk-ft: tJttjh-H ef CfofM &tttKf[: Ntijkh //-Ciji'J/L I fitttufs: keijldiof-(h*\l>wi4 Math; fatty m • • ••••  i h) r-.v • f3,i «<s ...•••:••••—iy rmc 1/ A 3>i$ ck/tus j I .1 ... 1,-' J t e ^ l 1 _ Hii Ml I Ml mi 1 1-.-.1 • 1 . \ L -!i ~ rumc m ., V , mm- u<» t„.„„f , i I -And CHmofS 1 . jffl/L. hti • TATL^] • 1 \ i f f 1 1 1 ; j 'ipvKus ' ||||;|iIi/ : 51 This diagram tells us a number of things about the relations of accent patterns in the first two hypermeasures of the "Peri's Scope" theme and second chorus. It shows that the passages are similar in these respects: in both first hypermeasures, successive points of coincidence occur on hyperbeats 1 and 3; in both second hypermeasures, there is no melodic emphasis of die first hyperbeat and a strong cross-accent to hyperbeat 3. And it shows they differ in thiise respects: in hypermeasure 1 of the theme, the melodic accent projected on the first hyperbeat is stronger than the point of emphasis on this hyperbeat in the second chorus. Furthermore, in the first hypermeasure of both the theme and second chorus, the third hyperbeat is emphasized though slighdy more in the variation because of the interpolated TA. Thus, although the melodic accents synchronize with the hypermeter in hypermeasure 1 of the theme and second chorus, contrast is achieved by the differently weighted combined acccnts. Convergence (among accent patterns'!: • The graphical display of accent helps us to identify another process characteristic of Evans' improvisations. Ex. 1.31 shows ths first liiiec ?nd a half hypermeasures of the second chorus in "Peri's Scope". In the first hypermeasure, we observe that the melodic accent i,V synchronized with the hypermeter. In the second hypermeasure and at the beginning of the Uiird hypermeasure, the melodic accents do not coincide with the hyperbeats; in particular a cross-accent is created at hyperbeat 3 in hypermeasure 2 and there is no melodic accent on the first hyperbeat. In the third hypermeasure, there again is no melodic accent on hyperbeat 1. However, melodic emphasis is restored.to hyperbeat 3, the hyperbeat that is also emphasized by a TA in the blowing pattern. In such cases, where the melodic accent falls on a hyperbeat (HB1 or HB3) that takes a strong accent (HDA.TA , or HSA) after falling on other locations in the preceding hypermeasures, we consider the melodic accent to "converge" on that hyperbeat, and regard that metrical location as a "point of convergence" in the hypermeter. 52 ft. IV : fitted ,V, fk Verity*'M thru,^ f{<i(t/toiA}nrt: Mi.su/* : l^Utjhh f t . Me lot it ityji*li! fa Ijijpsbttrfi: ClvxiM uit&i: HE « us Um jm mm'tm. XlintUu.1- \t0WlAS | UllWj) YAi] M S I — £ £ L V More sample analysis The processes we have observed and defined - of "coincidence",'"synchronization", "cross-accent", "combined accentuation", and "convergence" — again affirm that an important source of rhythmic variety in jazz improvisation arises from the location and strength of the melodic accents. While the theme and variations are all based on the same blowing pattern, the accent pattern of each variation can vary considerably from that of the theme, and so provide an essential source of variation and contrast. Such accentual variation usually appears at points of melodic emphasis which: create a point of coincidence on a hyperbeat different from that in the corresponding hypermeasure in the theme; create a stronger combined accent at the same or at a different hyperbeat in the corresponding hypermeasure of the theme; project greater or weaker cross-accents to the corresponding hyperbeats of the theme; or are synchronized with" different hyperbeats than in the theme. Evans uses all these techniques. As a specific example, let us consider the location of the chord-change accents as a source of rhythmic contrast between the theme and variation. This example will also illustrate some essential characteristics of Evans1 style. In the well-known tune, "Speak Low", illustrated in Ex.l.32(a), the accented attacks of the chord-change tones occur regularly in each measure on the hyperbeats 53 generated by the attacks of the underlying chords, so the chord-cb-Dge accents are synchronized with the hypermeter. ^ijnthfo'niitd d o f c l - - h n t s ant h^uhwfc ; lew" A'stcfip*, lu.'t Hypttmtuufc. /hu^oj- frmiti*: bP(tUitki»n\ Spftobe 1 1 fatumuiw. fltttun: MtMy: hujtt of hirtihc*: BPfekorj tU^ti): Af f>»/se: W (it) r ~ t — M i l J W 3—. < — • ' f f ' r r f o r ? r : .i US/ HR3. Ml net If, within a particular hypermeasure in the variation, the soloist articulates the chord-change tones on the hyperbeat, so that the chord-change accents are synchronized to the hypermeter, then the variation will sound rhythmically like the theme.22 Synchronized chord-change accents are typical of many bebop pianists' improvisations. In Ex, 1.32(b), a excerpt transcribed from the first chorus of Sonny Clark's solo in "Speak Low", all the chord-change accents (circled tonss) fall on the hyperbeats.23 Since the chord-change accents are located in the same place as in the theme, there is no variation in the chord-change accent pattern between Clark's improvisation and the theme. 2 2 Of course, there may be variation of pitch-class whereby the soloist may articulate a different chord-i with the underlying chord at the coincidental timepoints. •tone associated 23 Sonny Clark, Sonny's Crib. Blue Note CDP7-468192. 54 : $ynch(0->thtfd-chnnjt Aim <** /<« kytr-itftr] s»Q/irk't Solo ,'n h+ vtfUh'm cf " SfxtJr , %.H. fklparytUuft: tyMiLti: Sab ntthiy: AiMji ef pinjiffen; /.f/ tMs: h([ckori eU xjii)\ if fiu.Ua: Hypttbto-h'. MtcJktt: •Solo •• ^ tvi-ntihc*'-LH chads: i f (ckofd cMiyti): 6f f f - k l i : H^jU'be^i: H) m 01 W) m (in) "'I r r M flJ lie, I Mi J82_ Cf a £ fatfrf/c ckor^-chAAjt is He dord-cUytfvHe jtf tU iJuHkM A*1 huto^ at b&l in W 3 . In contrast, as we have seen, Evatss tends to place the chord-change accent at the different timepoints in the range of transition, projecting an absence of synchronization of chord-change accent and hypermeter that is an important source of rhythmic variation in his improvisation.To demonstrate this, Ex.l«32(c) shows Evans' improvisation on the same segment of "Speak Low."24 While Clark uses chord-change accents on every hyperbeat in measures 9-13, Evans articulates them on the hyperbeat only every two measures.25 Also, when the harmonic rhythm accelerates at 24 Bill Evans. New Jazz Conceptions. Riverside Records RLP12-223. 25 While Claric's blowing pattern is essentially the same as that of the standard harmonic progression cited in Ex. 1.34(a), Evans' differs with respect to the interpolated substitutes, am7 and D7, at measure 8, and the notated gm7 subsutute at measures 9-10. Evans substitutes do not, however, affect the designation of the chord-change lone: on the basis of previously established criteria, we define a chord-change tone's location according to the chords in the articulated blowing pattern, regardless of whether they mimic the ones utilized in the harmonization of the original meiody; we define its pitch-class relation according to the substituted tons present in the sclo melody or according to the harmonic structure of the substituted chord if it is located such that the listener is informed of the subsequent chord-change tone. Notice Evans avoids the use of chord-change tones associated with the previous E-flat7 chord at measure 55 measures 13-14, Evans articulates only one chord-change accent with respect to the first chord in measure 13, whereas Clark uses a chord-change accent with respect to each chord. Ct-./'lS-Lc): Vtfxd o/.c%4-cU*.ct /inufl th ksper^tfer• /S/7/£*c*i' . Sob /* Ht Vtftti'On 4 "Sft^hvJ' w.'s f-li J' ' Hu/e/ieitfkff. [x] a] rl ti/ihe  Mat-Sure: Sola Mi/tdf: ^AHjt cf- plrs'tftoh: LA cUtis itiMinf CubStiMhxf ' bPCcM^u): BP futsti: Hifptfluis-. Hy/ef* mm: MtJure: Xj/p Jrtf/tfffy: ^ hxtSih'on: Ul iAtnf{I'Kc/^itj Svib/HMii}*!-' l-hjpeskt-h: fe » f t m w m H61 JtzL H61 ffc Vi) £bf H i H6* f _ p ) 1 . v rr (» i,,.— ' 1 1 . Y 1 - i- -*.k "1 i , • 1 ' \ 1 y | V 1 /) V \ fm* L+ i»<>i y f f r r 0 0 Ml m m H6f The contrasting treatment of the "turn-around" by these two pianists is also of particular interest. (The tum-around is the term used by jazz musicians to describe the last two measures of the blowing pattern whereby the harmonic progression, on one hand, closes the previous section, and, on the other hand, prepares the subsequent section.) Since the turn-around represents the close of the section, the soloist's natural inclination is to make a clear reference to each chord of the harmonic progression, by articulating each chord with a chord-change accent that coincides with the attack of the chord on the hyperbeat In such a tum-around, then, we might expect a 12 and the next gm7 chord at measure 17. In the first instance, the attack of C5 on the second metrical downbeat in measure 12 arrives too late to identify the E-flat7 chord unambiguously as the first point of change in the measure; while, the attack of F5, on the second metrical downbeat of measure 16, continues its relationship as the augmented ninth of the previous D7 chord and hence is ambiguous with respect to the gm7 chord. 56 strong melodic confirmation of the close by regular chord-change accents on the hyperbeats. In-deed, that is what Clark does — he acknowledges the TA on the first hyperbeat at measure 15 with a chord-change accent on the attack of A3 (Ex.l.32(b)), and then articulates the first chord (am7) of the descending fifth progression at measure 16 with a chord-change accent on the attack of the dyad G5-E5 on the first quarter of this measure. Evans' pattern of chord-change accents is entirely different: the accents never coincide with the hyperbeats. Consequently, the listener has no way of anticipating where the change of chord in the articulated blowing pattern will appear in the melody. Closure is not provided by the accent pattern of the chord-change tones, and the boundary between this chorus and the next is blurred. On the basis of Examples 1.32(a), (b), and (c), we may conclude that the closer the chord-change accent is to the hyperbeat, the more it reminds the listener of the theme and the less the rhythmic contrast to be perceived. Moreover, when chord-change tones appear regularly on strong hyperbeats in the variation, they set up an expectation that the synchronization will continue. On the other hand, the greater the timespan the chord-change accent is from the hyperbeat, the greater the rhythmic contrast and the less we expect the chord-change accent to occur. In dealing with longer sections of music where chord-change accents are consistently far away from the hyperbeats, the listener will perceive the chord-change accent as unsynchionized with the theme and thus not expect it to occur with respect to the next chord. When chord-change tones are so localod in the range of transition that they consistently precede the arrival of the attack by their associated chords at the next points of change, we understand them as "displaced" in the meter.26 Displacement is an essential means of providing rhythmic contrast over longer timespans of the variation. 26 Although the soloist may frequently place the chord-change tone at a late timepoint in its range of transition, it is difficult to do so on a regular basis since the underlying chord occurs at the third timepoint. That is, by the time that the blowing-pattern chord appears, the soloist is likely to have identified it or be in the process of identifying it so that he or she can begin the transiuon to the next change, or, in some cases, accomplish this transition by articulating a chord change accent on the next melodic attack. i n n n' o 0 l *> -U U L'-- ' £ &-0,-' 57 Chapter 2: Accent Analysis of "Peri's Scope" theme, variations 1 and 2 Our objective is to show how the accent structure of Evans' improvisations articulates rhythmic contrast to the accent patterns generated by the melody and chords of the theme (as played in Evans' head). The first music we will analyze is the first and second choruses of Evans' own composition "Peri's Scope". Though relatively straightforward, these variations serve as good examples of his mature style, and exemplify a variety of rhythmic techniques. In this piece, as usual, the blowing pattern of the theme provides the essential metrical and hypermetrical structure for the variation. To analyze the theme, we will list the various types of melodic accent taken by the attack of each melodic tone, focusing especially on each chord-change tone, in order to determine the weight of each proj ected melodic accent. By comparing the weights of accents, we will observe where coujcidenc£,. synchronization or convergence occur between the melodic accent pattern and the hypermeter; these processes articulate the rhythmic contrast between accent patterns over shorter and longer timespans. We shall use this same procedure to characterize the accent patterns and processes in the first and second choruses of "Peri's Scope", but we shall also compare them to the patterns and processes in corresponding hypermeasures of the theme. Theme Example 2.1 (see page 58) compares the melodic accent pattern to the hypermetrical accent pattern in measures 1-8 of the "Peri's Scope" theme. Defining the 4/2 hypermeter, the chords in the blowing pattern are grouped mosdy into two sets of chord changes, with each chord of a set generating a point of change on every half-note pulse of the two-bar hypermeasure. As the first chords of each group in measures 1-6, the dm7 chords take a HDA by initiating a two-bar progression in the first hypermeasure, by repeating this same chord sequence in the second hypermeasure, and by initiating a two-bar functional progression in the third hypermeasure. The em7 chords, at the first points of change in measures 2 and 4, take HS A's by initiating a second descending-fifth progression in the two-bar group,while the C Major6-9 chord, at the first point of 59 change in measure 6, takes a TA as the functional tonic. In the fourth hypermeasure, the E+7 chord articulates the two-bar blowing pattern grouping with a change of scale and hence also takes a HDA. Although there is no change of chord on the fourth hyperbeat of hypermeasure 3, or on the second, third, andfourth hyperbeats in hypermeasure 4,because of the precedent set in measures 1 -6 and normally maintained throughout the theme, we still hear hyperbeats on each half-note pulse articulated by respective rqpetitims of the CMajor7 and E+7 chords. In the melody of the first hypermeasure. the attack of the first half-note, G5, has a contour accent and a retardation accent due to the ascending c! figure it terminates. The octave doubling provides a textural reinforcement closely akin to a dynamic accent. Since G5 appears within the range of transition to the initiating dm7, and since it acts as an extension tone (the perfect 11th) of the chord,27 its attack also takes the chord-changeaccent forthis timespan. 28 The combined weight of accents make the attack of G5 the point of melodic emphasis in measure 1. Moreover, since G5's attack coincides with that of its associated chord, it establishes a point of coincidenceoK hyperbeat 1. The melodic accentuationof the next G5's attack, on the first metrical downbeat of measure 3, is similar to that of the G5 in measure 1. The attack of this second G5 takes the same types of melodic accent, and appears at the same timepoint in the range of transition as that of the initial G5. Therefore the two G5's in the first hypermeasure represent similar points of emphasis in the melodic accent pattern and form points of coincidence with the attacks of their respective 27 It is possible to hear IhisGS as prolonged through the octave transHrin the pick-up and (hen suspended over the underlying D-rooted chord. However, in jazz theory and practice, suspensions are cited strictly with respect tc dominant seventh chords ('seethePreface).SincetneG5 does not belong to a D7 chord, we do not regard it as a suspended tone but as atension toneof the underlying dm7. 28 Although <35 as part of tilt previous C/G chord (similar to a C6/4 in classical harmony), we still regard it as the next chord-change tone Tor the above reasons. According to our theory, each chord ir; the blowing pattern may be identified by a distinct chord-tone (chord-change tone) regardless of whether or not this chord-tone-type is part of the preceding cnord. It is up to the improviser to choose a variety of chord-change tone pitch-classes to identify the approaching chords. For example and for obvious reasons, a professional soloist would refrain from playing tonic cnord-change tones on a regular basis despite the fact that use of the root-tone is the most economical way of unequivocally expressing chord change while continuing to define the underlying tonality. At the pickup and the first measure of the theme, Evans, to the contrary, shows great imagination by employing the same pitch-class of chord-change tone for the labelling of the successive C/G and Dm7 chords and thereby unifying the opening melodic span; at the same time he achieves variety in the pitch-chord relations in this passage oy having the G4 (on the second metrical downbeat of the first pickup measure) and the G5 (on the downbeat of measure 1) represent the perfect fifth and the major eleventh of their respective, associated chords. 60 underlying chords. Of the two G5's, however,the first realizes the strongest combined accent with the attack of its associatedchord because ofthe hypermetrical accent (HDA) on the first hyperbent. 29 Nevertheless, since these two points of emphasis coincide with the first andthird hyperbeats, the melodic accent pattern is synchronized with the chordal accent pattern in this hypenneasure. Example 2.2 represents the relative weights of the melodic and hypermetrical accents generated by the attacks of the two G5's with respect to their underlying chords, together with the relative weights of the combined accents on the hyperbeats. Bk 1.JL-. tizijkis °f fpo>nk o f ) -HthJit e-tofhuih, t^td*! accWf, CWhti'-ud 0-cWS OK fit ''dri's Sccpt" , M / . HsKftneAinrtS: hjti^h of . MiMt tMphsn IM ttypubeAh'. Wti^hep Ckorfai Accents: k/tijh-fs <ff Ce*ililnt<t Kinds Hi't. In the first half of the second hypenneasure (Ex.2.1), the melodic accent pattern alters significandy. Since the attack of A4 occupies the last_timepoint in the range of transition organized by the chord at the first point of change in measure 3, it takes a chord-change accent, and A4 groups with the following neighbor figure, C5-D5-C5, as a melodic pattern that composes out the dm7 chord. As revealed by the melodic reduction in Ex.2.3, A4, as a consonance, embellishes C5, which sets up the 7-10 voice leading connecting the falling fifth progression articulated by the bass 2 9 Although G5 (on the downbeat of measure 2) is in the preceding chord as root, it is not the chord-change tone for the preceding chord since it does not fall in G7's range of sanation; ako this G7 has already been articulated by the. appropriately, situated chord-change tone, F5. Furthermore, this G5 is clearly the fust tone in the range of transition to the em7 that informs the listener of the change of chord in the blowing pattern by coinciding with the attack of the next underlying chord. Hence, we may regard the second G5 as unequivocally expressing chord change. 61 roots D-G. After C5 is prolonged by the D5 upper neighbor, it then resolves by step to B4. This 7-10 voice leading pattern is very compelling - and the pitch-class gesture C-B is modvic in this piece — but Evans deemphasises the C by placing it beyond the range of transition and by structuring the surrounding pitch and duration patterns to withhold from it any contour or retardation accent In contrast, the attack of B4, on the second metrical downbeat of measure 3, takes a chord-change accent together with a retardation accent at a timepoint that coincides with the attack of its associated G7 chord. Notice that the accent taken by B4's attack is considerably weaker than that projected on the accented hyperbeats in the first hypermeasure; there is only a weak coincidence of accent on the second hyperbeat. . The attack of G5, on the upbeat to measure 4, takes three distinct types of accent, so it is the point of melodic emphasis in the second hypermeasure. But since the attack of G5 precedes that of its associated chord in the range of transition, it articulates a cross-accent to the HS A generated by its underlying chord and denies the third hyperbeat as a point of coincidence. Example 2.4 compares the location and weights of accent around the strong hyperbeats in both the first and second hypermeasures of the "Peri's Scope" theme. We see that the second hypermeasure is characterized by no melodic emphasis of the first hyperbeat, a weak coincidence of accent on the second hyperbeat, and no coincidence on the third hyperbeat. Whereas in the first hypermeasure the two points of melodic emphasis synchronize with the successive strong chordal accents, there is no coincidence at all in the second hypermeasure. 5.y; titfth t \ (f>0,«h o f ) At Ida trjUiS, (hordai iiutett UKhthil MyMfmitiurts: fi'usuftf. WtijkHef . mtwfe infktuse*. flyfubtt-H : H u ^ f Cfo<4*l AKt'h: titfiif 6nnbi'n(JI Atunf H6's) : K 42- I I hii. l I UMfi The first part of the third hypermeasure (refer to measure 5 in Ex.2.1) is the same as the first part of the second hypermeasure (measure 3). Therefore, the attacks of B4 and G5 in measure 5 take the same weight of melodic accent as the corresponding points of emphasis in the previous hypermeasure. As in the second hypermeasure, there is a weak coincidence of accent on the second hyperbeat, and the attack of G5, at the last eighth note of measure 5, articulates a cross-accent to the chordal accent at the first point of change in measure 6 (Ex.2.5). " •-- > V. I * - I-/jlr .1 » Safe 63 Oinlf- of j linh/ht i n j t , d\ofJl{ ktttnil^ Ar.o! Imbinal uttsh ; " ftfVt S u ^ " f W , Wtf'* J-3. t-lwfikttlun: ftUtSurl; ikiMic ttykln an tfypv hujt: kMifJUs iif ChrftJ xtetuft; WnjA^/f (itobintJ tiuuh CK H&'i. il 151 e.1 m i m -•-• II4I >! Klil i un Ml I "Ii i I i i i ! | s>t HfA USA « At the downbeat of measure 6, however, the underlying chord generates a TA as pait of the two-bar functional progression, so the weight of the hypermetrical accent there is greater than that of the HSAs' generated on the previous third hyperbeats. By articulating the strongest me.odic ; e accent (on the attack of the chord-change tone G5) "before" the arrival of the tonic chord, Evans projects a cross-accent to hyperbeat 3 underlying the point of cadence. In the fourth hypermeasure (see measure 7 in Ex.2.1), the attack of the chord-diange tone G-sharp5 takes the strongest accent in the melodic accent pattern. Breaking the established pattern, this melodic accent now coincides with the strong hypermetrical accent (generated by the E+7 chord) on the first hyperbeat - the first melodic emphasis we have heard on hyperbeat 1 since ; measure 1. Because coincidental accents are withheld from the mid-point of hypermeasure 1 until the end of hypermeasure 3, we consider the melodic and hypermetric accent patterns as converging there. Notice that the two accents on the attack of the root-tone, E5, in the upper voice of the right-hand melody, do not articulate the hyperbeat Likewise, the attacks of the inner-voice line C-sharp5-C5-B4-B-flat4, which act as the source for later invention (especially in the first chorus), take the remaining melodic accents, but likewise do not coincide with a hyperbeat. Additionally, the combined weight of the melodic and chordal accents at this point of coincidence is the same as ;. that of the combined accent at hyperbeat 1 in hypermeasure 1. n n n'n / j ' n n n u u u u i c, Q. LI u 64 Certain consistencies are observable in these eight measures of the theme. The strongest melodic accents occur on the attacks of the chord-change tones. Either they coincide with the strong HDA's on hyperbeat 1 or the relatively strong HS A on hyperbeat 3, or they project emphasis around the HDA or equally strong TA or lesser weighted HSA. These consistencies give the theme a distinctive rhythmic character that is both interesting in itself and a source for later variation. The graph in Ex.2.6 shows the points of melodic emphasis in relation to the differently weighted chordal accents on the strong hyperbeats (one and three) as well as the combined weights of accent at the most emphasized hyperbeats in each hypeimeasure. !•(;: bit I\hh if (pOmhof) rhtloJ'u tuyktii, thttiiS i t t u h , W i<jt*b,'ntA'tnuMi) 'Pt(,\Sup ''Htin, ffrii /-Y HvPt/toWurc. mosu/t: be tfhit <f Mtbilt tyhsis» ^pt/buis: A/S. '^ / j i^ CbrdtJ <Ktt»fi-. Height of (o**l>i%<d ietu<h o* HB>'i: As we begin to listen to this theme, we expect melodic accent andchordal accent to synchronize. Indeed, in the first hypermeasure, the points of melodic emphasis do synchronize with the HDA and HSA accents on the first and third hyperbeats. Still, rhythmic contrast arises from the juxtaposition of the similarly strong melodic accent at hyperbeat 3 in hypermeasure 1 and the strongest melodic accent at hyperbeat 3 in hypermeasure 2 with the weaker of the two chordal accents (HSA) on the third hyperbeats. Also, in hypermeasure 2 as in hypermeasure 1, a strong melodic accent occurs with respect to hyperbeat 3. But since the former melodic accent is not simultaneous with the attack of the underlying chord, the second hypermeasure has no coincidence. The repeated stress of hyperbeat 3 in hypermeasures 1 and 2 leads us to expect a 65 strong melodic accentuation of the third hyperbeat in hypermeasure 3. This hyperbeat 3 is reinforced by the TA, but it is not emphasized the way we expect because of the projected cross-accent. Nevertheless, the strong weight of this melodic accent attests to the strong melodic emphasis of the third hyperbeat initiated in the first hypermeasure. Given this pattern of accenting hyperbeat 3, the coincidental attacks by G-sharp5 and the underlying E+7 chord on hyperbeat 1 in hypermeasure 4 are surprising. This point of convergence is the only time in this eight-measure period at which the strongest melodic accent within a hypermeasure coincides with the strongest chordal accent. Ironically, our surprise and interest arises from the rhythmic pattern of melody and harmony returning to the state of synchronization we expected at the start. "Peri's Scope": First Chorus In analyzing the parallel section of the first chorus of "Peri's Scope", measures 1-8 (shown in Ex.2.7 on the following page), we will locate and weigh the melodic accents in each hypermeasure to determine the points of melodic emphasis. We shall then compare the melodic and hypermetric accent patterns of the theme and its first variation over various timespans. The designation of the chord-change accent on the attack of C6, on the first metrical downbeat of measure 1, requires explanation, for the pitch relation of C6 to its underlying dm7 chord is ambiguous. While C6 is the 7th of the dm7 chord, it is the root of the pick-up chord, C Major7. So it is not surprising that we hear C6 as still related to the previous chord in the blowing pattern.30 If we listen closely to the melodic patterns, however, it is evident that this C6 distinctly signals the change to dm7. The first six beats of the pick-up hypeimeasure are occupied by an ascending gesture cleariv arpeggiating the tones of C Majoi9-7. Going into the seventh beat, 3 0 According to the criteria displayed by EJt.1.17(a), the timepoint of C6 is in the range of transition to the dm7 chord at the first point i f chang*.: in measure 1 of the first chorus. 67 however, this gesture is broken -- the chromatic tone D-flat6 is introduced as pan of a descending D-D-flat-C (which recalls the inner voice at measure 8 of the theme); then A5 - - a tone foreign to the C Major9-7 - - is introduced with its own prefixed chromatic lower neighbour. This A5 must be a chord-change tone for another chord; it is easiest to hear it as the root tone of an A7 chord that temporarily substitutes for the C Major7 chord on the founh quarter of measure 24. (In fact Evans e.xplicidy provides a A7 here in the pick-up jf the second chorus.) The C6 in measure 1 of the first chorus is not part of the substituted A7-9, so it signals the change to dm7. So to the extent that we understand the melodic pattern at the end of the pick-up as composing out a substitute for C Major7-9, we can hear this C6 as the chord-change tone for dm7. The attack of C6 coincides with the first hyperbeat at the third timepoint in the range of transition organized by the dm7 chord. It takes the only chord-change accent in measure 1 and also takes two non-pitch-specific accents.So we consider it as a point of melodic emphasis in the first part of the hypermeasure. The combined accent generated by the attack of C6 and its associated dm7 chord is therefore quite strong as marking the point of departure for the solo melody in the first chorus. Recall that in measure 2 of the theme the standard sequential set is comprised of adjacent minor seventh and major-minor seventh chords with the same underlying scale, the roots of which descend by fifth. In measure 2 of the first chorus, the substitution of the C Major7 harmony for the em7 chord yields a modified version of this set. Because the C Major7 substitute is the functional tonic of the descending fifth progression in the previous measure, it produces a local TA on the third hyperbeat instead of the HS A generated by the original blowing pattern. Although Evans substitutes the A+7-flat-9 chord for the original am7 chord on the second metrical downbeat of measure 2, there is no change with respect to the chordal accent on the fourth hyperbeat since the root relations and the harmonic relations are similar to those generated by the em7 and am7 chords of the original sequential set The three melodic accents taken on the attack of B5, on the first metrical downbeat of measure 2, define it as a strong point in the melodic accent pattern. (It accrues the chord-change ••'• 68 accent both as the major 7th of the substituted tonic chord — articulated by the left hand immediately following it in the range of transition - and as the perfect fifth of the underlying em7 chord in the blowing pattern.) Because the attack of B5 is simultaneous with that of its underlying chord, it establishes a point of coincidence on the third hyperbeat of the first hypermeasure and presents the first point of melodic emphasis in measure 2. In the same measure, both the attacks of C-sharp5 andB-flat5 take strong melodic accents. They are both chord-tones of the A7 harmony substituted for am7 on this hyperbeat, so the first one, C-sharp5, is the chord-change tone. Because the attack of C-sharp5 takes the chord-change accent, in addition to the contour and retardation accents, we consider it as the second point of melodic emphasis in measure 2. And since it coincides with the attack of its underlying chord, this accented attack forms a point of coincidence on the fourth hyperbeat. The melodic pattern and chordal substitution at the beginning of measure 2 affect the weight cf this chord-change tone C-sharp5. Ex.2.8(a) represents a standard way of composing out the blowing pattern chord changes, em7 - am7 in a downwards arpeggiation from B5. The final note of the arpeggiation, D, forms a 7th over the bass E, and the next note C in the melody resolves the 7th as the 10th over the bass note A. That is, the chord-change accent on the attack of C is made obvious by the participation of that tone in a formulaic 7-10 pattern presented as the foreground. ; Evans' pattern, analyzed in Ex.2.8(b), refers to this common riff, since it also involves downwards arpeggiation from B5, and a 7 over the first bass root followed by a 10 over the next root But his chordal substitutions of C for em7 and A7-flat9 for am7 involve a different sequence of melodic pitches. Right at the point of change to the a-rooted chord, where the standard bebop riff presents the 7-10 voice-leading explicidy, Evans substitutes C5 for D5, and C-sharp5 for C5,. so the chord-change tone C-shaip is not the standard one, and it is not approached in the standard way. . n n n n r t n y ~u u u f C C 7 5 69 U.2M*): fan*™ of U u t l ) : fodtuhh of fa ' Pari 'j Supt" l i t dofus^. X. So/i tntleitj: Viict /<*•<{ in j : £A<S totts: Cowo* libuji mthdit po.it em: Example 2.9 summarizes the accent processes in the first hypermeasure arising from the various placement and weighting of the points of melodic emphasis with respect to the chordal; accents. The chord-change accents on the attacks of C6 and B5 in measures 1 and 2 form points of coincidence on the first and third hyperbeats in hypermeasure 1 and are synchronized with the hypermeter. Hyperbeat 3 has a strong combined accent because of the simultaneous placement of the strongly accented B5 attack and the local TA. Although hyperbeats 3 and 1 are similarly emphasized by coincident melodic accents, the weight of the interpolated TA on hyperbeat 3 is less than the HDA on hyperbeat 1, so the combined accent on hyperbeat 1 is greater. Hyperbeat 4 also takes a fairly substantial melodic accent, as mentioned above, but the substitution of the A+7 chord for the am7 chord does not affect the weight of the chordal accent there. 70 fa.i.l: Mcitjiii tf e^k'.h^Lor^Utu^i,^ a < W j ; " f t u \ Scope"of c W HMl-H wffrttiMt: Husufe: Uetikts lotfi'tiyljilit & HyptfiuJf: k t t y h y ChorJ&l ktt-iti.it: •yjtykh if timbrel tiit*tl «. MA'S-. At the fust hyperbeat in hypermeasure 2 Evans provides no attack at all -- the left-hand has already articulated the dm9 on the last eighth-note of measure 2, and a melodic attack on beat 1, which the preceding measures have led us to expect, is conspicuously lacking. Indeed, the first half of the second hypermeasure is distinguished by the negligible accent on the attacks of the solo melody. A5 is the initial tone in the melodic arpeggiation that composes out the underlying dm7 chord, and qualifies as the only chord-change tone because of its appropriate location in the range . of transition. The weight of the melodic accent on this attack is insufficient to make it a point of melodic emphasis. There is no other chord-change accent in measure 3, and only a few weak contour accents. So there is no point of coincidence in the measure; this lack is especially pronounced because of the accent synchronization in the preceding hypermeasure. In measure 4 of the first chorus, as in measure 2, Evans substitutes the C Major7 and A+7-flat9 chords for the em7 and am7 chords of the original set, again yielding a local TA on the third hyperbeat. So the attack of a B, on the metrical downbeat of measure 4, again takes its chord change accent as a pitch-class of the tonic substitute. The C5 on beat 4 in measure 3, although it : falls within the range of transition to the upcoming chord, does not sound like a chord-change tone • •• •• 71 because it does not belong to the expected em7 and it coincides with the attack of the left-hand chord articulating the G7-13 chordal extension. Example 2.10, which includes a melodic reduction of measures 3 and 4, shows how we can understand the melodic pattern motivically, and as another subde variation of a standard bebop riff. Ex.2.10(a) presents a standard bebop riff used in moving from dm7 to G7 by descending arpeggiation; in fact it sequences the riff (Ex.2.8(a)) that underlies the first hypermeasure. The chord-change tone, B4, for G7 is articulated and accented at the foreground as the resolution (10) of the seventh, C5, of the preceding chord. Evans' melody, shown in Ex.2.10(b), presents the same arpeggiation, but elaborates the ending in a way that has important accentual affects. The tone D5, at the fourth quarter of measure 3, initiates a (motivic) inner-voice line D-C-sharp-C that continues to compose out the dm7 chord at the first point of change. Both D5 and C5 (with C-sharp5 as its prefixed upper neighbor) clearly belong to the dm7 chord as the root and 7th respectively. The resolution, B4, eventually arrives, but when it does we must interpret it as the fifth of em7 - then immediately again as the 7th of the C Major7 substituted in the left-hand ~ and not as the 10 of G. A . &J0(&): wJud-Ubtpriff. \foiie keujtnj •' ft- to] The chord-change accent on the attack of B4 articulates both the underlying em7 and the subsctuted C Major7 chords. But because its attack receives no other melodic accent and because the arrival of B4, as part of the motive, D-C-sharp-C-B, in the middle voice (recalled from measures 6 and 7 in the theme), is delavrd in the voice leading, we do not consider it a point of emphasis in the melodic accent pattern. Nevertheless, B4's attack forms a point of coincidence with the attack of the underlying chord on the third hyperbeat, although its projected accent does not substantially increase the weight of the local TA at this metrical location. This hyperbeat, then, takes a weak combined accent. The attack of B-flat4 at the fourth hyperbeat is more accented than that of B4 at the third hyperbeat. Also, it is interesting to note the different ways in which B-flat4 and F4, the following tone in the same range of transition, are accented. B-flat4 takes the chord-change accent with respect to the substituted A+7-flat9 chord at hyperbeat 4, while F5 takes a contour and dynamic accent These different accents help us to distinguish them as parts of different voices in the polyphonic melody. B-flat4, like B4, forms a point of coincidence with the attack of its underlying chord. Although the attack of B-flat 4 takes the stronger melodic accent in measure 4, there is no • perceivable combined accent on this second hyperupbeat because of the lack of chordal accent there. Example 2.11 plots the points of emphasis in the second hypermeasure against the hypermetrical accents and displays the combined weight of the accents on the strong hyperbeats. It shows that the strongest melodic accent is located at the fourth hyperbeat and that the only combined accent is at hyperbeat 3. 73 m L4J. h - 2 . / / : M / ^ ,j- [f>tmts empUsU, tkofJctl Atu*hi A*4 cotxbiMd accents; "Pul's Sup* "lit cktwi.HMVi. HvHfnti'SM*' -t Uasuft: • f o l M t f . lUtlidit tmphs'is in k y f t t i t x f s : IrJe iifk-ts t j Chorda I atctnh: Weijlh Jj-J1L. rtt> m JUL Moving on to the third hypermeasure (see measure 5 in Ex.2.7), the attack of E5 on the first metrical downbeat of measure 5, takes die most strongly weighted melodic accent heard thus far. As an extension tone, E5 articulates an unambiguous association with respect to its underlying chord and takes the chord-change accent for the dm7. At the same timepoint as that of its underlying chord, the attack of E5 represents the first point of melodic emphasis in the third hypermeasure. Moreover, it establishes a point of coincidence on hyperbeat 1 for the first time since hypermeasure 1, and therefore represents a point of convergence in "the hypermeter. The attack of E-flat 5, on the second metrical downbeat oi measure 5, is not accented dynamically, but otherwise takes a melodic accent comparable to that of E5's attack. Therefore, the attack of the extension tone E-flat5, like that of E5, is a point of melodic emphasis in the first part of hypermeasure 3. Since it occurs simultaneously with the attack of its underlying chord, it results in a point of coincidence on the second hyperbeat In measure 5, then, hyperbeats 1 and 2 are "; 7 4 ' > similarly emphasized by the attacks of E5 and E-fial 5 respectively, resulting in successive points of coincidence. The attack of D5, at the third hyperbeat in measure 6, is accented in various ways melodically. Like E5 and E-flat5, its attack occurs at the third timepoint in its range of transition and takes a chord-change accent as an extension tone of the underlying chord; in this case, it belongs to the functional tonic. The attack of D5, in addition, takes a retardation and a dynamic accent. The strong melodic accent on the attack of D5 defines it as a point of emphasis in the melodic accent pattern. D5 coincides with hyperbeat 3, and since a similarly weighted point of emphasis coincides with the first hyperbeat, there is synchronization in hypermeasure 3. That is, these three successive chord-change tones are synchronized with the hypermeter. Also, as shown by Ex.2.12, D5 coincides with the conclusion of the middleground voice-leading in the prolonged descent by the upper voice of the compound melody initiated by C6 at the downbeat of measure 1. So we hear the melodic accent on the attack of the chord-change tone D5 both as defining the point of change to the next chord in the blowing pattern and as participating in the resolution by the tonic chord at the coincident hyperbeat (Ex.2.12).31 Hyperbeat 3 is strong because of the underlying TA, but since the combined weight of accent at this point of coincidence is not the strongest - the four melodic accents projected on hyperbeat 1 and the HDA accent there make it a stronger point of coincidence - the listener's expectation is not fulfilled for a greater melodic emphasis of the underlying functional tonic. . 31 Evans, as already whiteness, prefers extension tones over basic chord-tones when composing out the chords during improvisation. It seems logical, then, to regard a tension tone (D) and not a root-tone (C) as the final middleground voice in this particular passage, and not to near 0 as implying a further continuation toC. ri'n' n n " i "n "n "i\ u u u u . • o C a, i << 75 ft. $..I3l - Af< Ufa Jedubtr* • "Pci'* ichX " /st ilufus, Example 2.13 illustrates the similar weights of accent projected by the points of melodic emphasis on the hyperbeats of the third hypermeasure, and the slightly greater weight of the combined melodic and chordal accents on the first hyperbeat. •••r- v •••\r---s-,^ ----- --v^. 76 fa. i• lb: W t f f l f e aj- (f>0;„h of J m,*/.^, ^ ^ ( a Af««Wi; V f c / i Supt'm-chofui, HH3. Hytermusufc: Mikiurf. hliM >f fttMie-empltiU ph tfyjwbarfs: MeijLtt of CiurJtrf Attach: h/> rjAh rf • ConHntJ At-ttnis OK Hi'ii The melody in the next hypermeasure, beginning at measure 7, has relatively few accented attacks (Ex.2.7). As in the pickup to the first chorus, the melodies which compose out the blowing pattern are mainly comprised of rising arpeggiations. Because the fourth hypermeasure is organized by a single chord, E+7, there is only one chord-change accent on the attack of the enharmonic A-flat4. But because this attack takes only a single accent, we do not consider it to be a point of melodic emphasis. Notice that the chord-change accent is once again withheld on the attack of the root tone of the underlying chord, although E5 is the only accented melodic tone to articulate the attack of the implied half-note pulses in measure 7 and through the first half of measure 8. (Although the attack of C6 is a strong point of accent in the melody, it occurs in the range of transition to the dm7 chord at the next point of change.) Consequently, the melodic accent pattern does not single out any particular hyperbeat as a point of coincidence in hypermeasure 4.32 32 Although the hypermeter and the melodic accent patterns are not synchronized here, the contour and dynamic accents in the melody set up the expectation of accent on the downbeat of measure 9. Please refer to Ex.2.14 on the following m • ID lli) • J 1 R M I F I R I > w mi utv Vm ?4-S — | n n n n f D n r "* I ' t.. <A. . < "i - u u u u •-L L L K 0 77 Ex.2.15 compares the accent patterns in measures 1-8 of the theme and of the first chorus. In both first hypermeasures the strong melodic accents synchronize with the first and third hyperbeats. In both cases, the weight of the melodic emphasis is similar on hyperbeats! and 3, although the stronger melodic accent is projected in the theme. Consequendy, the points of coincidence in the theme are of greater weight than in the first chorus. Also, in both first hypermeasures, the weight of the combined accent is greater on hyperbeat 1 than it is on hyperbeat 3, although the difference in weight between these points of coincidence is not as great in the'first'! chorus as it is in the theme because of the interpolated TA on hyperbeat 3 there. Furthermore, in the first chorus, the strong melodic accent on hyperbeat 3 and the additional stress at hyperbeat 4 echoes the gradual shift by the accent pattern of the original melody froria ihe stronger accentuation of the first hyperbeat in hypermeasure 1 to the stronger accentuation of the third hyperbeat in hypeimeasure 3. if . J- I (mspi* htimtt* 78 &-1-IZ: Sunt-Hxq oj tucij- rikh'tm luf-wufl. 'Pri's Stops''iktnt isf- ehs/us Hfi'i i - f . IfuMfiritASnri: AffAfurt : rw f i • • IM -fi >«!• - 'in k) -Iki 17) UJlUhti aj Ytttlod'iC trtfUt'n: AHi Ah 4 ntlxltt e*tfte.iis: tfyfefbeafi : '/ieijhis tf chttdeJ Autnfs: if c&ofit-l tutnji: Idlijhh t!j a»d,iei Accents*/* f/A's : lie f^H <sf tatritnti aetenft a * : en "» - - »" n m — ' 8 g : I n<» I 1 '"dim "-"i "" "ii • Unui n, Ml m - -"Mi 1 I g g I L l I ,B § I rAl/tni] "V rtto.il « ra — i'J' oU/ n' n n n \ i "•u/u w Li" yJC' \ ? S 5 1r 79 The first halves of hypermeasure 2 in both 'die theme and first chorus are characterized by a lack of emphasis of hyperbeat 1. In the themt', there is also no coincidence on hyperbeat 3. Unlike the theme, the two points of melodic emphasis in hypermeasure 2 of the first chorus coincide with the third and fourth hyperbeats. Although these melodic accents are relatively weak, the local chordal accent (TA) generated by the tonic substitute on this third hyperbeat combines with the melodic accent there to form a combined accent that is not present at the corresponding hyperbeat of the theme. Despite the fact that in the theme the third hyperbeat takes only a HSA and a cross-accent, it, nevertheless, presents the strongest point of accent in hypermeasure 2. So, in hypermeasure 2 of both the theme and the first chorus hyperbeat 3 is the more strongly accented hyperbeat, but the accent in the variation is stronger and presents the only coincidence. While the accent patterns of the first two hypermeasures in the theme and first chorus are similar, the last two hypermeasures are more rhythmically different. In both eases, the third hyperbeat of the tliird hypermeasure is accented. But there is a different approach to the third hyperbeat in the first chorus. According to Ex.2.15, in hypermeasures 1 and 2 of the first chorus, some of the points of melodic emphasis fall on the third hyperbeat. In the first hypermeasure, the weight of the projected melodic accent on hyperbeat 3 is less than that on hyperbeat 1, while in hypermeasure 2, there is no melodic accent on hyperbeat 1, followed by a weak combined accent on hyperbeat 3, followed by another melodic accent on hyperbeat 4, which is marginally stronger than that on the preceding hyperbeat. Then, in the third hypermeasureT a melodic accent, stronger than that articulated on any hyperbeat in the previous two hypermeasures, coincides with the first hyperbeat, creating a point of convergence there and redirecting the location of a point of melodic emphasis to the hyperdownbeat While, at the corresponding hyperbeat in the theme, the melodic and hypermetric accents do not coincide, in the first chorus the points of melodic emphasis on hyperbeats 1 and 3 establish synchronization with the hypermeter. The combined accents on hyperbeat 1 and hyperbeat 3 are similar because hyperbeat 1 takes a HDA which is similar in weight to the predetermined TA on hyperbeat 3, and because the weights of the melodic accents on hyperbeats 1 and 3 are similar. Hence the accent pattern of the solo melody does not emphasize the •••' 80. ••• tonic chord more than it does the first two chords of the two-bar functional progression initiated at measure 5. Evans thus avoids the common improviser's pitfall of placing the strongest melodic accent on the resolution by the functional tonic. There is also contrast evident between accent patterns in the fourth hypermeasure of the theme and first chorus. In the theme, the strong melodic accent on the attack of G-sharp5 creates a point of convergence on the first hyperbeat. In the first chorus there is no convergence at all since there is no melodic accent on hyperbeat 1. In some important ways, Evans has structured the first chorus melody so that convergence in not necessary and would even be detrimental at the first hyperbe? * of hypermeasure 4. We see that the first eight bars of the theme have a cadential rhythm\c character of providing strong melodic and chordal accents (coincident and non-coincident) with respect to successive hyperdownbeats. In the first chorus, Evans does provide such a pattern but places it two hyperbeats earlier than in the theme, so that the two strcng combined accents occur on hyperbeat 1 and hyperbeat 3 of hypermeasure 3, rather than the cross-accent to hyperbeat 3 of hypermeasure 3 and the strong combined accent on hyperbeat 1 of hypermeasure 4. Another strong combined accent on hyperbeat 1 of hypermeasure 4 in the first chorus would deny the rhythmic character of the cadence. Omitting an accent here also gives the entire fourth hypermeasure a transitional quality that leads well into the next period of the variation. In summary, we see that Evans projects accentual similarity between the corresponding first two hypermeasures in the theme and variation by synchronizing the melody with the hypermeter, and 'oy articulating equally strong melodic accents to those on hyperbeat 1 either on or around the third hyperbeats. In both first hypermeasures, the weight of the combined accent on hyperbeat 3 is quite similar, although it results from different accentual means. He achieves variety in the second half of hypenneasure 2 of the first chorus by establishing a combined, albeit relatively weak accent, on the third hyperbeat. There is also some accentual contrast in the second halves of both corresponding hypermeasures due to the substituted tonic chords and the additional melodic emphasis of the fourth hyperbeat in the first chorus. At the same time, Evans creates rhythmic contrast by articulating weaker melodic accents on the same hyperbeats and by noticeably 81 displacing the additional strong accents in the hypermeter. So, in the first chorus, the contrast between accent patterns arises from the varied location, weight and pacing of accents. Second Chorus Let us now analyze the accent patterns in the second chorus of "Peri's Scope" and then compare them with the theme. The chart in Ex.2.16 (page 82) begins with measures 23 and 24 of the first variation. They, of course, represent the turn-around to the second chorus and like the theme, are occupied by a single C Major chord in the underlying blowing pattern. (The substituted A7 harmony, which we understood to be implied in the previous turn-around, is articulated by the left-hand chordal extension, A+7-flat9, at the fifth eighth-note of measure 24.) While A4 associates as the root tone with this substituted A7 chord, G5, the other tone in the range of transition to dm7, is clearly a chordal extension of the blowing pattern chord on the first . hyperbeat in hypermeasure 1. Hence the attack of G5 takes the chord-change accent with respect to the underlying chord at the first point of change just as it did in measure 1 of the theme; that is, G5 takes a chord-change accent because it recalls the chord-change tone at the same timepoint in the corresponding hypermeas;ire of the theme. Furthermore, while the contour, chord-change, and slight retardation accents taken by G5's attack help us to distinguish it as a strong point in the melodic accent pattern, they also recall these same accents on the initial attack of the original melody. Therefore, we consider G5 as emphasizing hyperbeat 1 and as forming the first point of coincidence in hypermeasure 1. • The attack of the second G5, on the second metrical downbeat of measure 1, takes the chord-change accent as the root tone of the underlying G7 chord at this point of change.Thus the chord-change accents on the attacks of the two G5's are synchronized with the hypermeter, but since the chord-change accent on the second G5, though strong in itself, is not corroborated by other factors, it is not a point of emphasis in the melodic accent pattern. Hence, this G5 presents a weak point of coincidence with its underlying chord on the second hyperbeat &.. 3.-/lr :' fc<-£Kt iH.<dysii • "Peri'i Soft " RyJ cko^i, tm.'s /- g pick-up)• He Iodic aeeertH: fL e tafda 11on: Jynflrtic : Co*+t>uf: Chord-ckkrttt: Ma Iodic aval: Hypt/jn'tJu'l-Nt&surt : Jo to Iti AtCPjipdrtiKiint Ix&ludiH^ cjilfdid etkfiSlM drf suhHfufionr: jutsv. _ 1 pt'mitricixl tute«fs--Hth.fiia.fnrn: Cintouf. Ckifd-ch&*y: Mcladtt t^octi : Uyptf/HtAJufC: mlfiSiiff. dClu/h/tAfiUtmj' /nUuJ.,^ cko(M et/tnlienr. AP (do/it ckgMit): /if /M/sti-. / ' Hy ft f l u f f s : MypeAr.lfrica./aCM.nft: Shi. EE TpF HBt jUitld. tffli; fee) LH. i m fjiHt') v ihm, i: Z2L j>x (M 1E3—M. mST MM-*sz U-ax. U2. OL cs A""1') Jei, fa-TAf/niAl) cc u 6 mn e-> H. •r: r. to £ii_ F f f F T f P i "8x4 JJi.Ue.uL Sourc* \ Tfifi Audio*) Mits'tc (ni Aickr<0*4 6 : / / ( M u fork,Mew YirM-. Atom H^iic co'p.t ms)-. f d 83 As in the first chorus, Evans substitutes the C Major7 and A+7-£lat9 chords for the original em7 and am7 chords in the second part of hypermeasure 1, yielding the local TA on the third hyperbeat. Both D6 and A5 are stably associated, respectively, with the C Major7 and A+7-flat9 substitutes and take chord-change accents at timepoints which are identical to the attacks of their underlying chords. Both D6 and A5 present points of emphasis that coincide with hyperbeats 3 and 4, with the fourth hyperbeat taking the stronger melodic accent. (Also, the synchronization of melodic accent with hypermeter is supported by the attacks of the accompanying (substituted) chords at the same timepoints.) Example 2.17 compares the weight of accent at the points of melodic emphasis in relation to the weight of the hypermetrical accents in the first hypermeasure of the second chorus. This graph shows that the accented attacks of the chord-change tones G5 and D6 are synchronized with the successive strong hyperbeats. The substituted C Major7 chord generates a local TA on the third hyperbeat, and makes the hypermetrical accent stronger than in the theme ~ the weight of a local TA is slightly more than that of a HS A in the predetermined blowing pattern. Although both the : first and third hyperbeats are emphasized by similarly weighted melodic accents, because the HDA on hyperbeat 1 is stronger than the local TA on hyperbeat 3 the first hyperbeat takes the stronger combined accent and presents the strongest point of coincidence in this hypermeasure. Because of • the local TA generated by the tonic substitute on hyperbeat 3, and the weak chordal accent on hyperbeat 4, the combined weight of accent on hyperbeat 3 is stronger than on hyperbeat 4. So we consider the third hyperbeat as the stronger of these two points of coincidence. 84 ••Wtiykh of (jWi'ni: o f ) rkebji'c { y l i j i s , t h f i d ««*»iA,a.M<f firnhiytd kittnh • "rtfi's Supi "2nd ckitui, HML fope/MaJKfi: flflctiu/t: 'Weijkftf Me. I die (I^hsis 0*. Hjj>uMi\ Wti^kii of CkoM *t(tKfi: k)iijktstrf (to H&'i: Evans varies the melodic accent pattern somewhat in the first part of hypermeasure 2. There is a chord-change accent on the attack of F5 but this attack takes no other melodic accent. The attack of B5, on the second metrical downbeat of measure 3, takes a chord-change accent at the third timepoint in its range of transition which coincides with the attack of its associated blowing-pattern chord, G7. Its function as the resolution tone in the 7-10 voice leading connecting the dm7 and G7 chords at the two points of change helps to articulate it as the chord-change tone. Here, the simultaneous attack of the left-hand chordal extension, G13, supports B5 as the chord-change tone. (In this case, B5 is also articulated as a voice in the left-hand accompaniment.) Since B5's attack takes only one melodic accent, we do not consider it as emphasizing the second hyperbeat although it coincides with the attack of its underlying chord. The three accents on the attack of A6 at the last eighth-note of measure 3 define this attack as the strongest point of melodic accent in this measure. As in the first hypermeasure, Evans again substitutes the C Major7 harmony for the em7 blowing-pattern chord on the third hyperbeat of hypermeasure 2.We hear the attack of A6 as taking the chord-change accent with respect to the : 85 substituted C Maj or harmony at the next point of change because A6 is more stable as the major 6th (13th) of that substituted tonic chord than as the major 9th extension tone of the preceding blowing-pattern chord, G7, and because the left-hand C Major6-9 chord, which articulates the substituted C Major harmony, is attacked at the same moment as A6. The left-hand chord attack cuts A6 away from the melodic pattern B5-D6-F6 associated with the G7 chord at the previous point of change.Without it we would understand A6 as pan of the arpeggiated previous G7 chord, and as a prefix to the G6 which would be the chord-change tone for em7.33 Since the attack of A6 takes the chord-change accent associated with the substituted harmony but precedes the point of change, it causes a cross-accent with respect to the third hyperbeat. So while the attack of A6 is a sating point in the melodic accent pattern, it does not establish a point of coincidence with the third hyperbeat. Its accent does not satisfy the listener's expectation for a strong melodic emphasis of the hyperdownbeat, an expectation set up by the earlier avoidance of the first hyperbeat as a point of coincidence and by the weak coincidence on the second hyperbeat. Example 2.16 shows that the am7 chord, appearing at the fourth hyperbeat in the blowing pattern, is not articulated; rather, the substituted C Major7 harmony is prolonged to the last beat of measure 4. Since the attack of only one tone can take the chord-change accent in the range of transition organized by this substituted C Major7 harmony, and since the attack of A6 has already taken the chord-change accent for the local tonic chord at the upbeat of measure 4, we do not consider another chord-change accent to occur before the fourth quarter of this measure. So there is no melodic emphasis of hyperbeat 4. Because the attack of D6 on the fourth quarter of measure 4 lies in the range of transition to the dm7 chord at the first point of change in measure 5, we shall undertake its analysis below. 33 Although A6 unequivocally expresses the change to the substituted Cr;,ajor7 chord, Evans, as in measure 4 of the first chorus, is able to avoid a predictable identification of the next predetermined blowing-pattern chord. An alternate reading of this passage could present G6, on the downbeat of measure 4, as the chord-change tone (at this point of change) which is delayed by tne quasi-appoggiatura (A6), which, ir, turn, is accompanied by the substituted left-hand chord. Of course, Evans' ability to articulate the next chord change with a chord-change tone but to avoid a predictable acknowledgment of the upcoming blowing-pattern chord demon',trates one of his remarkable abilities as an improviser. In this case he presents a tension tone of the substituted harmony as the chord-change tone and articulates it prior to the arrival of the underlying chord which it identifies. As a result v:e are only aware ofthe change of chord in retrospect. ••:•• 86 As Ex.2.18 shows, in hypermeasure 2 there is: no melodic emphasis of the first hyperbeat; no coincidence of accent on the second hyperbeat (because of insufficient melodic accentuation); a cross-accent to the third hyperbeat, but still no coincidence; and again, no discemable coincidence between melodic and chordal accent patterns on hyperbeat 4. The strongest point in the melodic accent pattern in hypermeasure 2 occurs around hyperbeat 3 as a result of the cross-accent articulated by the attack of A6 to the substituted tonic chord. l/tilitjhh tf (jvMs of J rntloiit ir*fkaik(ckudti atcarfj, W Cty*lint/ aceotff ; " feu\ Se^x" fai tkt/us.n's i - f . Hs[t<i*tas»tt: M'usuff. l/st ijkh rf iHtMt tvyku'Spn tfj/H'bt&n: Uti<jk1S tf Cktrfal AUti4s-. Vln'jMi tf drtnhint/ Att<*fo 0% Hb's: The three melodic accents on the attack of D6 on the last quarter of measure 4 continue to create rhythmic contrast with the attack of the chord on tae next hyperbeat and thus D6 operates similarly to A6 at the upbeat to measure 4 (Ex.2.16). D6's attack takes similar contour and dynamic accents and coincides with the accompanying left-hand chordal extension. The attacks of D6 and A6 take similarly weighted melodic accents and hence represent similar strong points in their respective melodic accent patterns. From its early location in the range of transition to the dm7 chord, D6's stability as the root tone of the next chord (dm7) is somewhat undermined by its lingering association as the major 9th of the prolonged substituted C Major harmony at the previous point of change. Notice also that D6,like A6, is attacked simultaneously with the left-hand chordal extension which articulates the upcoming harmony but does not fall on a hyperbeat. " " • ' ' ' ' 1 IM • • RFL IK-) • | •• • 1 . - 1 ! Ml mi' i i i m 1 M' ' • ! ! i 1 1 1 I ! I 1 I ' l 1 1 1 -•-•.•• 87 ••'•.'•• So while D6 differs from A6 in coinciding with a metrical upbeat (the fourth quarter of measure 4), it, like A6, fails to establish a point of coincidence with the attack of its underlying chord. Although the attacks of both A6 and D6 project the same cross-accents to their respective next hyperbeats, the accent on the latter attack, together with the HDA on the its hyperbeat, creates non-coincident accents around hyperbeat 1 in hypermeasure 3 that are stronger than those around hyperbeat 3 in hypermeasure 2 (see Ex.2.18). While coincidence is denied on the first hyperbeat of hypermeasure 3, the chord-change and contour accents on the attack of B5, on the second metrical downbeat in measure 5, coincide with the second hyperbeat and with the attack of the left-hand chordal extension (G13).The fact that B5 resolves the 7-10 voice leading (set up by C6, on the downbeat of measure 5) that connects the dm7 and G7 chords at the two points of change helps to articulate its chord-change accent (Ex. 1.27(b)). So we consider B5 as the point of melodic emphasis in measure 5 and as forming a point of coincidence with the attack of its associated chord at hyperbeat 2. However, because the blowing pattern generates only a weak chordal accent there and because the attack of B5 takes only two melodic accents (three being the acceptable number for an unequivocal point of melodic -emphasis), hyperbeat 2 does not present a strong point of coincidence. (The lack of a retardation accent on the attack of B5 contributes to our hearing a weak coincidence of accent at hyperbeat 2.) The attack of E5, on the downbeat of measure 6, like that of the preceding B5, takes the next chord-change accent and similarly occupies the third timepoint in its range of transition where it resolves the 7-10 voice leading connecting the underlying chords (G7 and C Major7) in the blowing pattern (Ex.1,27(b). E5's attack, like that of B5, also takes a contour accent. Hence we may define E5 as a point of melodic emphasis and as forming a point of coincidence with the attack of its underlying chord. In this case, the weight of the melodic and chordal accents at the accented hyperbeat is stronger than at hyperbeat 2 due to the underlying TA. However, the contour accent on the attack of E5 is weak, and it lacks an accent of retardation. Considering that the underlying chord is, in fact, the tonic of the two-bar functional progression, the paucity of melodic accents on the attack of E5 is striking. That is, the melodic accent on E5's attack avoids the expected strong emphasis at the point of cadence. At the same time; it denies the restoration of a strong melodic emphasis to the hyperdownbeat, emphasis that has not occurred since the third hyperbeat in hypermeasure 1. In actuality, a strong melodic accent does not occur in the third hypermeasure until the last beat of measure 6, where the attack of C5, the root tone of the functional tonic chord on hyperbeat three, takes the melodic-goal accent and together with its retardation and contour accents, confirms the resolution to the tonic chord by the chord-change tone E5. The attack of C5 is the strongest point of melodic emphasis in hypermeasure 3, although the point of coincidence formed at hyperbeat 4 is not significantly weighted since it falls on a hyperupbeat. Ex.2.19 shows that, after the cross-accent to the first hyperbeat, the third hypermeasure receives only a weak melodic accent on the remaining strong hyperbeat (hyperbeat 3). Most striking is the surprisingly weak combined accent at the tonic chord on hyperbeat 3. h . m - . Wei fit j (fo{*h j j *tlodU (yl?t;s> etorhl»tu.fi,U W W follAtS J " yfo-1, faff dofKS, Mi. A) l&Sutt; Vl^l-Hof $cfodit eltf/iMifai kjfuknH: VtiCfkh of Chfd^ o,ut«k: Irlijfis «f attach o* H&'s: Polyrhythmic figures constitute an essential aspect of Evans' improvisationai style. The series of triplet arpeggiations in the solo melody at measures 7-8 of the second chorus exemplifies one of Evans' rhythmic formulas. In hypermeasure 4, the attack of A-flat5 presents the first accented high tone, and takes the chord-change accent with respect to the E+7 chord on the first hyperbeat. Because of its additional contour and retardation accents, A-flat5 is a point of melodic 89 emphasis and its attack articulates a cross-accent to the preceding chord. As illustrated by Ex.2.20, the rhythm of the sequence prevents any successive accented high tones from coinciding with a hyperbeat. fa.Z.Ao: An'idtitit of iecmj- coltiiithnu « w^/^ yflU,,',. stoic 'ttA \£upt"7\*d (Ufus , rn.i , Hypefittusurt: O'iu nunxlts a ft cttn-itdhyU-fonts: Ht(od'u AM* CetifijuOus Uypubtnh'. of tttedf: E I I S JiU r J J j i , [ J j 1 <P„ IS ST ; : W V (J) $ — j V Sir c » /' r i l r"|iL"Ji ' A r n A l l r n V n ' 'il U ffU//[l\til/IWii[ ( i r f ^ V ^ . ' i ni m w,- .,•:. w... --M '.•.. I m Notice that the accented high points, beginning with the attack of B-flat5, occur at regular intervals of , so the displacement between the melodic accents and the underlying hyperbeats persists through the remainder of hypermeasure 4. This pulse counters the hypermeter, an opposition that ends only in measure 9 at the attack of G6, which is the chord-change tone for the dm7 chord at the first hyperbeat of hypermeasure 5 (Ex.2.16). (The coincidental attack of the left-hand chordal extension (dm9) helps to articulate G6 as the chord-change tone.) As illustrated in Ex.2.21, the second chorus is, at least at the outset, accentually similar to the theme. We may observe that, as in the theme, the strong melodic accents are similarly weighted on the first and third hyperbeats. But because of the stronger chordal accent (HDA) on hyperbeat 1 than on hyperbeat 3, the former hyperbeat takes the stronger combined accent as a point of coincidence. Also, as in the the theme, hyperbeat 3 is emphasized quite strongly by the melodic accent pattern although the weight of the combined accent is augmented by 'he local TA. So, n n n n ~t n n i u u u- u ' 0 Q.. r< o 90 although in both the theme and second chorus, the points of melodic emphasis on hyperbeat 1 and hyperbeat 3 synchronize with the hypermeter, in the second chorus, the difference between the weights of the combined accents at the first and third hyperbeats is not as great as it is in the theme. At the same time, contrast is achieved between the first and second choruses by the decreased weight of the points of emphasis in the second chorus and the solo melody's accentuation of hyperbeat 4. Mi.Rr- i\••tuifif Yekh'sxi btfrm §c<f "Hfnt t-J JcW chotus, KH'i i - f . ffu*e(ih.tuufe: ••• H th.Suft • ye i'ejk-ii ej tnildlc e*f>Utts • Irftljtti lflrnlodi( tthfUtH : ffijfe/bt^h: fr/etjJ-.h ef cbi'dd J.titi<.fs: HtitjLh f Utijhii af- (ArJb,\ti tttU& e» ris'i: klcijl-k <*f afohini nutots ok H6's : fll In) EL ;> IWI ji|1 iTM~ JiHi-JU 4Mae-J 1 i P H g 1 i in UM aty .'f  tig m m fan m usi • f .'.l-,v •  I . i . i L — i - L y , ! L 4 ma- «« iw m rST^i fhtMl I ( 1 § , l _ u I 1 sa tot .-mpufim- • it f "• fa <V«/ fA ml f" JLlsad | TM&v The accent processes in the second hypermeasures of the theme and second chorus are even more similar. (Indeed, the almost identical melodies o.i the second hyperbeats of these second hypermeasures suggest a strong relation of theme and second chorus.) There is virtually no emphasis of the first hyperbeat. Also, as in the theme, the strongest melodic accent related to a n n n* n ".TVi Ti' l U U UJJ-* C C $ ~l I ; 91 hyperbeat in hypermeasure 2 is projected at the third hyperbeat and causes a cross-accent to the underlying chord attacked there. While there is no coincidence, we consider the strongest point of accent in the conflicting streams as occurring, in both cases,around hyperbeat 3. So, the shift in accentual focus away from hyperbeat 1 to hyperbeat 3, that is initiated on the third hyperbeats in both first hypermeasures, is maintained by the cross-accents to similarly located hyperbeats in the corresponding second hypermeasures, but by very different accentual means. In the theme, the stronger melodic accentuation of hyperbeat 3 opposes the weaker HSA, while in the second chorus, the same result is achieved by the slightly weaker melodic accent on the attack of A6 bolstered by the somewhat stronger local TA. That is, the cross-accent to hyperbeat 3 in the second chorus is weighted similarly to the one in the theme, while the chordal accent is marginally stronger in the variation. Still, it reminds the listener of the way that accent was originally paced in this hypermeasure. Contrast increases among the accent patterns in the third and fourth hypermeasures of the v theme and the second chorus although similarities are still manifest. In hypermeasure 3 of the theme, there is no melodic emphasis of hyperbeat 1 and a cross-accent is articulated with respect to the tonic chord on hyperbeat 3. Evans achieves contrast in the second chorus by articulating a cross-accent to hyperbeat 1 and a surprisingly weak emphasis of hyperbeat 3, although we get an "after the fact" recognition of the tonic chord by the strong melodic accent on the attack of C5 (on the fourth beat of measure 6). In the third hypermeasures of both the theme and the second chorus, the third hyperbeats are deemphasized by the accent relations. In the third hypermeasure of the theme a strong melodic accent arrives before the attack of the tonic chord, while in the third ; hypermeasure of the second chorus, a weaker melodic accent than in the theme coincides with the tonic chord on hyperbeat 3 and is echoed by a stronger melodic accent off the next hyperbeat on the last quarter of the same measure. In the second chorus, we expect a stronger melodic confirmation of hyperbeat 3 because of the lack of coincidence on hyperbeat 3 in hypermeasure 2 and because of the omission of the melodic accent on hyperbeat 1 in hypermeasure 3. So when Evans articulates a chord-change 92. accent on the attack of E5 at hyperbeat 3, he satisfies the harmonic obligations generated by the underlying tonic chord but does not accentuate the change to the functional tonic to the degree we , might expect at the point of cadence, especially considering the melodic emphasis of the third hyperbeat in hypermeasure 1 and the cross-accents to the third hyperbeat in hypermeasure 2 and the first hyperbeat in hypermeasure 3. In a sense, this passage recalls Evans' handling of the underlying TA in the theme (measure 6) where he articulates only a cross-accent to the third hyperbeat following the melodic emphasis of hyperbeat 3 in hypermeasure 1 and the cross-accent to this hyperbeat in hypermeasure 2. So the third hypermeasure of the second chorus gives weak melodic accentuation to the tonic chord, and the lack of strong coincidence on hyperbeat 3, like the cross-accent in the theme, runs contrary to the expectation engendered by the preceding music. In contrast to the theme, there is no strong coincidence of melody and blowing pattern on hyperbeat 1 of hypermeasure 4 in the second choms although the lack of melodic emphasis on the remaining hyperbeats resembles the original melodic accent pattern. As the second chorus begins, then, the accent patterns suggest the rhythmic form of the theme creating a sense of return from the rhythmic digressions of the first chorus. However, in the third hypermeasure, Evans again achieves accentual contrast with the corresponding segment of the theme so that by hypermeasure 4, we no longer hear a sense of return. Here the crucial thing about the theme is the strong and long awaited combined accent on the hyperdownbeat of hypermeasure 4. That this is so obviously missing in the second chorus prevents us from hearing any continuation of .a returning pattern. Chapter 3: Accent Analysis of "Beautiful Love" 93 Let us examine another piece in Evans' repertoire, a set of variations on Richard Rodgers' "Beautiful Love". Again we shall study how the melodic accent patterns in the first and second choruses interact with the hypermetrical accent pattern in the theme. However, instead of concentrating exclusively on how they vary the melodic accent pattern of the theme, we will also focus on the specific improvisational problem set up by the last two measures of the theme. Recall that, in jazz, the theme's blowing pattern is carried through the variation except for certain substitutions. Therefore, in the following analyses we shall assume the same underlying hypermetrical accent pattern for the corresponding sections of the theme and its variations under study. The melody will be interpreted with respect to the theme's blowing pattern even if the variation's harmonic rhythms are different at times from those generated by the blowing pattern of the theme.34 Also, since we have already presented the theme in Ex.1.3 and Ex.1.8, we shall omit the theme from the examples and refer the reader instead to those diagrams cited in Chapter 1. Theme The blowing pattern, then, in "Beautiful Love", as shown in Evans' bass chart (and reproduced in Ex.3.1) consists of an antecedent and a consequent period, each of which is sixteen measures in length. These periods will be referred to below as A and A-1 respectively. The strong close generated by the functional tonic chord at the end of each repetition of the blowing pattern (measure 31) confronts the soloist with some formal problems. If the improvised melody also stops rhythmically at the end of each chorus, the set of variations may sound too sectional and too predictable. Stopping at the end of each chorus also makes it difficult to close more convincingly at the end of a piece. Evans solves this problem by consistently "avoiding" the strong melodic accentuation of the accented hyperbeats, especially those hypermetrical accents generated by the tonic chords at measures 25,29 and 31. 3 4 In taking this approach, we shall avoid the necessity of a two-stage comparison of the two blowing patterns and of the two patterns or melodic accent, each in relation to its blowing pattern. 94 £•3./: b h ^ hHtmfor As we saw in connection with Example 1.3 and Example 1.8, the grouping of chord changes into fours by the blowing pattern of the theme's A-l section is induced by the alternation of four-bar functional progressions (measures 17-20, measures 25-28) and sequences thereof (measures 21-24, measures 29-32). Therefore, as in "Peri's Scope", the chords group into four-beat hypermeasures, although in this case the pulse of harmonic change is a whole-note and not a half note. Although the harmonic rhythm accelerates in measures 29 and 30, the established whole-note pulse persists. And when the harmonic rhythm accelerates, as at measure 29, the range of transition contracts, so that the size of the range of transition organized by the dm7 chord consists of three quarter-notes in contrast to the four quarter-notes organized by the previous A+7-flat9 chord from the blowing pattern (see Ex. 1.24(a)). First Chorus E x a m p l e 3 . 2 (on p a g e 9 5 ) j u x t a p o s e s the m e l o d i c a c c e n t p a t t e m in t h e f i r s t c h o r u s of ! " B e a u t i f u l L o v e " ( m e a s u r e s 2 3 - 3 2 ) w i t h t h e h y p e r m e a i c a l a c c e n t s g e n e r a t e d by t h e therqe 's ' ; • . 1 t b l o w i n g p a t t e r n , 3 5 E v a n s ' p e r f o r r r f a n c e begins with a ballad-like rendition of the entire piece in i which he improvises on the theme's melody in rubato. With the first repetition of the A section, j " • • • • ! E v a n s in i t i a t e s t h e t e m p o a t J = 9 6 . Through measures 1 -8 , he stays closer to the original melody bu t at m e a s u r e 9 h e begins t o i m p r o v i s e f r e e l y s o t h a t w e c o n s i d e r t h e entire first repetition as the,.' f i r s t c h o r u s of E v a n s ' t h e m e a n d variations. In analyzing the last eight measures of the first chorus, w e sha l l b r i e f ly i d e n t i f y t h e chord-change accents for the whole passage, give an overview of the r e l a t i o n of t h e p o i n t s o f m e l o d i c efinphasis to the hypermeasures, and then provide some c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t the i m p r o v i s a t i o n a l strategy and certain aspects of melodic continuity between t h e v a r i a t i o n s . Chord-Change Tones A t m e a s u r e 23, C 6 i s t h e c h o r d - c h a n g e t o n e for the F Major7 chord on the third hyperbeat of its h y p e r m e a s u r e . In t h i s s a m e m e a s u r e , B - f l a t 5 acts locally as the root-tone of the substituted B-flat7 harmony, articulated by the left-hand chordal extension (B-flatl3) and sounded at the same timepoint as B-flat5. But because we have heard the chord-change tone for FMajor7 already, we expect the next chord-change tone to belong to the A+7-flat9 chord that underlies the next point of 35 Bill Evans, 0 l Elektra/Asylum Records P+C-1983. According to this tranxuniptiiii^ wliich is my own, Evans seems to be playing everything a half-note too early, so the question arises whether the transcription is correct. For example, the accented attacks of the chord-change tones in measures 23-27, beginning with the attack of B-flatS, at the fifth eighth note of measure 23, arrive well before their associated chords at the next points of change. (This type of event is indicated by a diagonal arrow.) In the recording, such a displacement of the melodic rhythm with respect to the underlying metric ana hypermetric accents actually occurs earlier in the variation when Evans initiates a polyrhythmic series at measure 17 of the A-l section. (This consistent counter pulse articulated by the successive accented melodic attacks is similar to the one encountered at measures 7-8 of the firstchorus in "Peri's Scope" as demonstrated in Ex.2.14.) In measures 17-22 of "Beautiful Love", then, the unsynchronized melodic and hypermetric accent patterns lead us to expect a strong melodic accent on the downbeat of measure 23, the point of change generated by the tonic chord, FMaiory. As demonstrated in Ex.3.2, Evans satisfies this expectation by articulating a chord-change accent on the attack of C6 that coincides with the TA on the next hyperbeat In addition to a strong chord-change accent, the attack of C6 also receives a contour accent and its melodic accent is reinforced by the simultaneous attack of the left-hand chordal extension, F6-9, articulating the underlying harmony at this hyperbeat For these reasons, the transcription is really correct (Notice, however, that following this coincidence of accent on hyperbeat 3, the attack of the next acccntcd melodic tone, B-flat5, immediately resumes the cross-accenting of the next hyperbeat, hypcrbeat4.) i ' n n n n ""-n i h 1 I ' U LI LI U (.» £? J LI € , - . 1 . 1 ^ . tr« . „ . . , , —l... [ • • . - -I. • - - >•-•..• - • . . /f ... ... - J.. i. + -..' 97 ....•; change. So we also hear B-flat5 as the minor 9th of the next blowing-pattern chord, that is, as the chord-change tone for the A+7-flat9 chord in measure 24. Although each measure in measures 23-28 is different and presents a fascinating variation of the original melody, all the chord-change tones are presented in a similar way. Following . coincidence of chord-change tone and hyperbeat in measure 23, each chord-change tone precedes the attack of its associated chord. The anticipations are by three eight-notes (B-flat5 in measure 23), by two eighth-notes (E6 in measure 24), by four eighth-notes (E5 in measure 26, and A5 in measure 28), or by as much as six eighth-notes (A5 in measure 25, and C-sharp5 in measure 27). Although these chord-change tones do not coincide with the hyperbeats, they usually coincide with left-hand chords (except for C-sharp5 in measure 27). And often they demonstrate pitch-chord relations similar to the corresponding tones of the original melody. For example, E6 in measure 24 and A5 in measure 28 are the same chord-change tones articulated at this metric location in the theme and hence represent motivic chord-change tones in the first chorus (see Ex. 1.20). The analysis asserts that for the blowing-pattern chords belonging to the first hypermeasure (measures 25-28), the chord-change tones are E6, A5, E5, and C-shaip5 respectively. In the cases of the A and C-shaip, the range of transition organized by the respective blowing pattern chord in the harmonic progression begins right after the articulation of the preceding chord-change tone (that is, the one associated with the previous blowing-pattern chord) and not in the exact middle of the ,; hyperbeat (recall Exl.24(b)). Notice that at measure 27, we consider C-sharp5 as the chord-change tone for the chord on the fourth hyperbeat even though the left-hand chord, on the second metrical downbeat, makes B-flat4 appear to be the chord-change tone. These chord-change tones in the first hypermeasure under study (hypermeasure 7) fall around the third beat of each measure and consistently before the chord changes they articulate, leading us to expect a continuation of this accentual displacement. At measure 28, A5 is the chord-change tone for the first chord in the next hypermeasure (hypermeasure 8) because its attack falls on the beat at which the preceding measures have led us to 98 ' : expect a chord-change tone, and because its attack coincides with the attack of the left-hand chorda! extension that articulates the underlying dm7 harmony. At the beginning of the second hypermeasure under study, the F7 and B-flat7 substituted -harmonies, interpolated on the metrical downbeats of measure 29, present a descending-fifth progression. The latter (augmented sixth) chord prepares the early arrival of the blowing-pattern V chord on the first metrical downbeat of measure 30. F5, on the downbeat of measure 29, is the third of the dm7 change that has been articulated already in the preceding measure, but its coincidence with the left-hand substitution makes it, too, sound like a chord-change tone. So we consider the attack of F5 as taking a chord-change accent associated with the extra, substituted harmony. -Because the original blowing pattern in measures 29 and 30 changed harmony every half-note, we expect a chord-change tone to identify each point of change in these measures. So we hear the attack of D5 as taking the chord-change accent for the substituted B-flat7 harmony which replaces the original F9 chord generating the second half-note pulse in measure 29. At the downbeat of measure 30, the attack of C-sharp5 coincides with the left-hand chovdal extension, A+7-flat9. At this metrical location, we would expect the underlying blowing-pattern chord, B-flat9-7, to be articulated by a chord-change tone. However, that change has already been indicated by the chord-change accent on the attack of D5 for the substituted B-flatl3 in measure 29, so we are expecting the next blowing-pattern chord. As the retardation accent calls our attention to this tone, we realize that it indeed articulates the A+7-flat9, and our perception is confirmed by the simultaneous attack of the A+7 compatible chord in the left hand. Therefore, according to the criteria demonstrated in Ex. 1.24(b) - the preceding B-flat9 blowing-pattern chord has already been articulated by the chord-change tone (D5) for the earlier substituted harmony in measure 29 -the attack of C-shiup5 takes its chord-change accent as a member of the next early-arrived blowing pattern chord, A+7-flat9 (generated on the second haif-note pulse in measure 30 but articulated by the left-hand chord on the first half-note pulse of this same measure). A metric analogy is thus drawn between this chord-change tone, C-sharp5, and the chord-change tones in measures 26 and ' 99 28, which also precede the arrival of their associated blowing-pattern chords by four eighth-notes. Continuing on into measure 30, the attack of the next chord-change tone, A4, similarly precedes the arrival of its associated blowing-pattern chord (on the first metrical downbeat of measure 31) and is supported at its timepoint by the simultaneous attack of the left-hand chordal extension that articulates the corresponding harmony. Because of the earlier identification of this tonic chord by the chord-change tone A4, the attack of F4 right on hyperbeat 3 takes no chord-change accent. In the second half of measure 31, Evans initiates a polyrhythmic sequence. Starting at the attack of the extension-tone B-flat5, which takes the chord-change accent for the substituted fm9-natural7 harmony, the high points of the melody create a o pulse that counters the underlying hypermeter. Accent Processes The melodic accent patterns in hypermeasures 1 and 2 of the first chorus display some interesting rhythmic relations with the underlying hypermetrical accent pattern. At the first metrical downbeat of measure 23, the two accents on the attack of the chord-change tone C6 establish a point of coincidence on hyperbeat 3 of the previous hypermeasure 3. In this same measure, the; attack of B -flat5 projects no emphasis on the fourth hyperbeat because it precedes the attack of its associated chord by three eighth-notes, and because the location of the previous chord-change tone leads us to expect the next chord-change tone to arrive later, at the downbeat ofmeasure 24. The attack of A5, at the second eighth-note of measure 24, receives no chord-change accent, so hyperbeat 4 takes no additional cross-accent and is not a point of coincidence. The melodic accent pattern is not synchronized with the hypermeter and the lack of melodic accent continues well into the second half of measure 24. Although the attack of D6, at the downbeat of measure 25, coincides with that of its underlying chord, it takes only a melodic-goal accent. The attack of the preceding E6 takes the chord-change accent, as well as a contour accent, so it is the most accented attack in the range of transition to the dm6 chord while projecting a cross-accent to the next hyperbeat. Therefore in the 100 • melodic pattern associated with the dm6 chord we do not hear any particular tone distinguishing itself as a point of melodic emphasis or emphasizing hyperbeat 1 as a strong point of coincidence. The melodic accent pattern in the second half of measure 25 articulates no strong point of accent either. The attack of A5 takes only a chord-change accent (see Ex.l.24(b)), and, like the preceding chord-change tones, projects a cross-accent to its associated chord on the next hyperbeat. Nor is there a strong reference to the chord on hyperbeat 2 by any of the remaining accented melodic attacks in measure 26. So hyperbeat 2, like hyperbeat 1, receives no melodic emphasis and does not present a point of coincidence in this first hypermeasure. The attack of the next chord-change tone E5 (on the second metrical downbeat of measure 26) is reinforced by the simultaneous attack of the left-hand chordal extension, B-flatl3, and, receiving no additional accent, projects a cross-accent to hyperbeat 3. There are no additional strong accents in the melodic accent pattern associated with the underlying B-flat+11 chord, so there is no melodic emphasis of hyperbeat 3 and no coincidence there. In measure 27, the attack of C-sharp5, at the third eighth-note, is displaced by six eighth-notes with respect to the attack of its underlying chord, and is not supported by the attack of a left-hand chord which is delayed by a quarter-beat It projects no emphasis on hyperbeat 4. The attacks of the remaining tones in the range of transition organized by the A+7-flat9 chord project no additional melodic accentuation on the fourth hyperbeat which, consequently, is not a point of coincidence. Also the next chord-change tone A5, on the third quarter of measure 28, cross-accents the next hyperbeat In the entire first hypermaasure-under study, then, there is no emphasis, coincidence, or synchronization. The second hypermeasure (measures 29-32) is similarly characterized by weak and sparse melodic accentuation of the hyperbeats. While the displaced location of the chord-change tones deemphasises the- wnierlying hypermetrical accents, as in the first hypermeasure, other factors contribute to the persistent contrast between melody and hypermeter and to the unique melodic rhythm at and around the point of cadence at measure 31. 101 We do not consider the first hyperbeat in the second hypermeasure to be strongly emphasized because the attack of F5 takes only a chord-change accent and t ecause the chord-change accent for the underlying dm7 harmony has already been articulated earlier resulting in the cross-accent to hyperbeat 1. The coincidental attack of the substituted chordal extension, F9, does add some emphasis to the HDA + TA, but the total weight of the melodic: accents projected by the attacks of A5 and F5 and the accentual support provided by the left-hand chord are not strong enough to project this hyperbeat as a strong point of coincidence. The attack of D5, on the second eighth-note of measure 29, has two melodic accents that precede the second half-note pulse in this measure giving no emphasis to the previous hyperbeat. The next chord-change tone, C-sharp5, in measure 30, does coincide with the underlying hyperbeat 2, where it sounds with the substituted A+7-flat9 left-hand chord. This coincidence, however, is disorienting because the chord is early; actually we expect the C-sharp5, as chord-change tone for A+7-flat9, to occur on the second half-note pulse of measure 30 and not on the first half-note pulse of this measure. Disorientation is increased by the attack of A4 - the chord-change tone for dm7 which should appear on hyperbeat 3, but which occurs in the middle of measure 30 where it is supported by the left-hand chordal extension, dm6-9. Instead of the expected confirmation of the TA at hyperbeat 3 (measure 31) by a simultaneous chord-change accent we hear no accent at all! That is, the early change to the tonic, which is reinforced by the coincident dm6-9 chord in the left hand, deemphasises the very hyperbeat at the end of the theme that takes a strong accent. The F4 on the first metrical downbeat of measure 31 does not take a melodictgoal accent because it is the augmented fifth of the previous A+7-flat9 chord, and although the attack of D4, on the second beat of measure 31, takes a melodic-goal accent with respect to the tonic chord, it is too late to coincide with the previous TA. In measure 31, because the accented high tones, beginning with the attack of B-flat 5, occur with their accompanying chordal substitutes every eight f j , Evans continues to avoid emphasizing melodically the repeated dm7 chords that the blowing pattern generates on the remaining half-note pulses of measures 31 and 32. As a result, we perceive no coincidence of accent on hyperbeat 4. So, by the avoidance of synchronization at the turn-around from the close 102 of one variation to the start of the next variation, melodic continuity is maintained across harmonic closure. Summary of Evans' imorovisational strategy fin the first chorus) As we demonstrated in Examples 1.14(a) and 1.32(a), the accented chord-change tones in a jazz theme are usually the main points of emphasis in the melodic accent pattern, and are regularly synchronized with the strong hyperbeats. In the "Beautiful Love" variations under consideration, Evans' principal means for achieving rhythmic contrast with measures 24-28 of the theme is to displace the chord-change tones and their accompanying chords with respect to the underlying chords at the points of change. Certainly, beginning with the attack of B-flat5 at measure 23 and ending with the attack of A5 at measure 28, Evans indicates the changes in a regular way - he articulates a chord-change accent together with the corresponding left-hand chord near or on the third quarter-note of each measure ~ so that the accents are separated consistently by a whole-note. But because the accented chord-change tones occur so early in their respective ranges of transition, and because the attacks of the chord-change tones do not otherwise take strong melodic accents, there is no coincidence of accent on the strong or weak hyperbeats. As a result, the two "streams" formed, respectively, by the accented chord-change tones and by the underlying hypermetrical accents are in conflict. Nowhere in Ex.3.2 do they synchronize. Not only are the strongest melodic accents off the hyperbeats, but the hyperbeats themselves take almost no accent We might expect a solo melody proceeding in eighth-notes, as does this one, to confirm the downbeat by a weighted melodic accent, at least occasionally. In this chorus, however, (with the exception of D6's attack at measure 25, which takes the melodic-goal accent) the obvious chord-tones - the root G5 at measure 26, the third D5 at measure 27, and the third C-sharpS at measure 28 - are played on every downbeat, but none of these is accented. Evans' avoidance of synchronization in these measures ha? an important rhythmic effect on the composing out of the V-l chords at the downbeats of measures 29 and 31. In both cases, he is able to skirt an obvious melodic reference to the underlying tonic resolutions while, at the same time, he identifies the changes with chord-change tones. . . : • • • • : • • . . • . • . • 103' .•••. •••••• i s , ) Second Chorus . j In analyzing measures 24-32 of Evans'second chorus in "Beautiful Love", transcribed in Ex.3.3 (on the following page), we shall locate the chord-change tones and briefly discuss the relation of the points of melodic emphasis to the hypermetrical accents. We shall then examine some of the rhythmic relations of the accent patterns of the solo melody and the accompanying left-hand chords with respect to the underlying blowing pattern. Finally, we shall compare certain accent relations in the seventh and eighth hypermeasures of the first and second chorus to determine how Evans achieves rhythmic contrast with the theme but by different means. Chord-change tones and Coincidence. At the end of measure 24 of the second chorus, all the tones of the m arpeggiation relate [ to the underlying A+7-flat9 chord at hyperbeat 4. The attack of A5, at the second eighth-note of measure 25 is reinforced by the dm6-9 chordal extension in the left-hand and takes the chord-changc accent with respect to the dm6 chord at the first point of change in hypeimeasure 7, the fust of the two hypermeasures under study. In taking the strongest melodic accent in the entire measure, this attack projects a cross-accent to its underlying chord from its delayed location in the organizing range of transition, so there is no coincidence at hyperbeat 1. The attack of F6, on the second metrical downbeat of measure 25, has the initial timepoint in the range of transition to the gm6 chord at the next point of change and is the minor seventh of g. It, however, does not take the chord-change accent because it may still be heard as part of the melodic pattern composing out the previous dm6 chord, and because Evans does not confirm the change with a left-hand chord. Rather, the attack of the gm6-9 chordal extension in die left hand at the last sixteenth-note of measure 25, and the sustaining of the accompanying chord through the third eighth-note of measure 26, supports either C6 (on the first metrical downbeat) or B-flat5 (on the first metrical upbeat) as the chord-change tone. Although C6 is motivic (see Exl.20), I prefer to hear B-flat5, which momentarily halts the chromatic descent of the compound melody, because it is more stable with respect to the gm6 chord. Because of the cross-accent projected by B-flat5's <v r i -f.,1 n n n n • ? ' > / n u 'U u u >1 CO 'i u UMgXSEKOt&U* St o . £>(.?>.V- /[tc&t\f /znoJyj'iS] Qie^h^] km 'St^A ckofus^.'s Hf -IA. tfalcdit xue*ts: rfefz/dn-ffoK: Coniou-f-. 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In contrast, the attack of F5, on the first metrical downbeat of measure 27, receives accents of contour and retardation in addition to a chord-change accent, so the third hyperbeat takes a strong melodic accent and is a point of coincidence. But the coincidence is weakened by the left-hand chordal extension, B-flatl3, which attacks the blowing-pattern change a quarter-note later (that is, on the first metrical upbeat of measure 27). The late articulation of the left-hand chord leaves us somewhat uncertain whether F5 belongs to the preceding gm6 chord or to the B-flat+11. So despite the emphasis of the point of change at measure 27, continuity is maintained through hyperbeat3. • -The three accents on the attack of C-sharp5 project a second point of melodic emphasis in measure 27. In this instance, the accented attack again articulates a cross-accent with respect to its associated chord (A+7-flat9). chord at the next point of change. Thus Evans again avoids a coincidence between a hyperbeat and a melodic accent and continues the sense of progression through the next change, The attack of G5, on the last beat of measure 28, is accompanied by a dm9 chordal extension but it is neither a chord-tone of the underlying chord nor a motivic pitch-class for this hyperbeat in the theme.36 F5, on the downbeat of measure 29, is clearly the chord-change tone for the dm7 chord at the first point of change in the second hypermeasure under study (hypermeasure 8). At the same time, the early arrival of the left-hand chordal extension diffuses the melodic accent on the hyperbeat. So, despite the chord-change and retardation accents on the attack of F5, we do not consider this tonic chord to be emphasized by the melody, nor hyperbeat 1 to be a strong point of ; coincidence. 3 6 That is, G5 docs not represent the pitch-class of the chord-change tone for the underlying chord at the same hyperbeat in the corresponding hypermeasure of the theme. n n n r' 3 D v 1 u u. LI u 5 C - , r . s y 1 h' i / K . <!••< .!,: ."••106 . At the downbeat of measure 30, the attack of F5 takes a chord-change accent at a timepoint that is coincidental with that of its associated blowing-pattern chord, B-flat7-9. Because of its additional contour accent, it is a point of melodic emphasis (though not unequivocal), and establishes a point of coincidence at hyperbeat 2. Again, however, the strength of this coincidence is diminished by the early articulation of the left-hand chordal extension, B-flatl3, at the upbeat of measure 30. Nevertheless, the articulation of successive melodic points of emphasis (on the attacks of the two F5's on the first quarters of measures 29 and 30) on successive hyperbeats means that the melody is synchronized with the hypermeter. The synchronization is thrown into sudden disarray by the subsequent attacks in the melody. The attack of C-sharp5, on the second quarter-note of measure 30, is the chord-change tone for the chcrd that generates the second point of change, and occurs simultaneously with the left-hand chord that articulates the blowing-pattern harmony. Because C-sharp5 occupies the first timepoint in the range of transition organized by next blowing-pattern chord, A+7-flat9, the chord-change and slight contour accents on its attack, which are reinforced by the accompanying left-hand chord, project a cross-accent to the second half-note pulse in measure 30, and a point of coincidence is avoided at this metric location. The melodic pattern of descending thirds, initiated on the attack of C-sharp 5 in measure 30, continues through the tonic close at the downbeat of measure 31. So despite the articulation of the dm6-9 chord in the left-hand on the downbeat of measure 31, we can entertain no chord-change accent for the functional tonic chord on hyperbeat 3 and no accent until the melodic-goal, retardation, and. contour accents on the attack of the final D4 at the fourth" quarter-note of this same • measure. Hence there is no melodic emphasis of the third hyperbeat and no accent coincidence there. Relation of melody and hypermeter Let us place these accents in relation to the hypermetrical accents in this part of the second chorus. In the first hypermeasure (measures 25-28) Evans varies the points of melodic emphasis 107 with respect to those in the theme. Ex.3.4 locates the attacked chord-change tones which constitute the points of emphasis in hypermeasure 7 of the second chorus. It shows that, in most cases, they do not appear on or around consistent metrical locations. So, in contrast to the theme (Ex. 1.8), the strong melodic accents do not synchronize with the strong hypermetrical accents. £x.?>.y.' \hftt( Ifftufw df ifm^tneMa- itMrfsuitkruptthh •fk HS's ) " BtwtifuJ U<t" And cho/iis^m.'s ZV-M-tylblHfi '• ttwd -tkwt bwi: Mi/atx icujtt Jj- frWiha*: firwtpowh(^'s): i j tUrnjc: 4P(cU4 d y j j m m * bi-'tw 03 OS-kf iirnnin m) f f • t«< i n n i, Ml ••*nrm Cii— iiij— F* h —A n ^ i n n 1 Hi i tu it. 1 P 1 QH'tt.tQH-i r u t 1 A"M I Another important feature of Evans' style is evident in measures 24-28 of the second chorus where die left-hand chords function in some cases to reinforce, in other cases to deemphasize, the accented attacks of the chord-change tones. At times, as in measures 25-26, the left-hand chordal extensions (dm6-9 and gm7-9) support the late arrival of the attacked chord-change tones, A5 and B-flat5 respectively. At other times, as in measure 27; the late arrival of the left-hand chordal extension (B-flatl3) makes it difficult to hear the weight of the combined accent at the point of < coincidence (on hyperbeat 3). In all cases, the left-hand chords help to create and to maintain the rhythmic contrast articulated by the strong points of melodic accent with respect to the points of change, and hence to project rhythmic continuity from measure to measure Comparison of closure in the theme and choruses In hypermeasure 2 of the second chorus, as in hypermeasure 2 of the first chorus, Evans circumvents the strong close of the theme at measure 31 by avoiding melodic emphasis of the 108 functional tonic. However, he avoids it in a different way. Rather than arriving early at the tonic chord-change accent, as he did in the first chorus, he articulates no tonic chord-change accent at all. Rather he continues to improvise on the melodic pattern of the dominant A-7-flat9 until after the arrival of the tonic chord, and then withholds a chord-change tone in the melody during the remainder of the timespan organized by the tonic chord at hyperbeat 3.3 7 In both cases, Evans uses C-sharp5 to identify the underlying dominant, but places its attack at a different timepoint in the range of transition. Consequently, in the first chorus, the early timepoint location of the subsequent tonic chord-change tone A4 avoids coincidence with the dm6 chord on hyperbeat 3, while in the second chorus the absence of a subsequent tonic chord-change tone denies emphasis of the closure. Another similarity between choruses is that the left-hand chord that articulates the V7 harmony of the blowing pattern, on the second half-note pulse of measure 30, occurs simultaneously with the attack of the chord-change tone C-sharp5. In the first chorus, the coincidence between the chord-change tone and its left-hand chord is at the first point of change in measure 30 (that is, at hyperbeat 2), and precedes the attack of the underlying V7 by a half-note pulse. In this first variation, then, the chord-change tones and respective left-hand chords are synchronized with hyperbeats 1 and 2. But because the attack of F5, on the downbeat of measure 29, is not a point of melodic emphasis, we do not perceive this attack as initiating a series of strong melodic accents on the successive hyperbeats to the degree that this same attack does in the second chorus. Nevertheless, an expectation is set up for a strong coincidence on hyperbeat 3, which is then denied by the simultaneous attacks of the tonic chord-change tone, A5, and the left-hand chordal extension on the second half-note pulse of measure 30. In the second chorus, however, the coincidental attacks of C-sharp5 and the left-hand chord (A+7-flat9) "precede" the attack of the 37 One may argue, and with good cause, that F4, on the third quarter of measure 31, is the chord-change tone for the tonic chora at hyperbeat 3 - F4 is clearly the minor third of the dm7 chord which is sustained in the harmony through measures 31-32. On the other hand, by the time we get F4, we no longer expect to hear an unambiguous chord-tone (i.e., chord-change tone) for the change of chord to the dm7. Notice that both A4 and F4, on the seventh and eighth eighth-notes of measure 30 belong to the approaching dm7 as the perfect fifth and minor third respectively. But these ' • -•— -- "• * " -•—• --•»• ctive root and augmented fifth. Additionally, btxause some of „ at measure 30, continue to descend chromaucally through the the second metrical downbeat, as participating in this continued descent as a :ar F4, on the second metrical downbeat, as participating in this continued descent as a passing-tone as much as a chord-change tone: that is, not necessarily as the tone that breaks with the previous melodic pattern associated with the preceding chord and initiates a new melodic pattern composing out the next chord. •••: .109.: underlying V7 by a quarter note.38 Here, the stronger melodic accentuation of hyperbeat 1 and the similarly synchronized chord-change accents on hyperbeats 1 and 2 and their coincidental left-hand chords sets up an even greater expectation for a strong melodic accentuation of hyperbeat 3 (and its reinforcement by the left-hand tonic chord) in measure 31. But the melodic composing out of the underlying A+7-flat9 chord continues through the remainder of measure 30 and into measure 31. Consequently, a strong melodic confirmation of the functional tonic chord is again denied on the third hyperbeat of hypermeasure 8 and, in this case, is delayed until the fourth quarter of measure 31. To summarize, we see that Evans achieves rhythmic contrast with respect to the blowing pattern of the theme around and through hyperbeat 3 in the eighth hypermeasures of the first and second choruses. Although he uses similar melodic patterns, the strong attacks of the two C-sharp5's are displaced differently with respect to the second point of change in each measure 30, so the tonic chord at measure 31 is deemphasized in a different manner. 38 In the second chorus the source of variation is the melody alone, and Evans does not restructure the underlying harmony by interpolated substitutes as in the first chorus. 110 Conclusion We proposed, at the beginning of this paper, to study the rhythmic relationship of Evans' solos to the underlying blowing pattern. We developed a method of accent analysis to describe this relation, and according to the provided criteria, determined some of the techniques Evans uses to create rhythmic contrast between the theme and its variations. Of obvious further interest is the application of this method to other works by Evans and to the music of other bebop improvisers. The rhythmic structures of the melody we have shown to be in "Peri's Scope'' and "Beautiful Love" are characteristic of Evans' improvisations especially in the early stages of his ' artistic development. In his later period (in the 1970's), Evans became interested in modal and non-diatonic pitch structures, and the tonality is much harder to perceive. The analytical method would be harder to apply to those later works. On the other hand, because chord-change tones are crucial factors in tonal bebop, we may use this type of analysis to examine the improvisational styles of Evans' predecessors;" innovators such as Charlie Parker and Bud Powell, and those of some of his contemporaries, such as the pianist Red Garland. Finally, the original concepts, terms, and processes identified by this method of accent: analysis may be employed in the teaching of bebop improvisation. Specifically, they may help the . student to recognize the possible relations of melodic pitches to underlying chords during the course of performance. It seems likely, then, that this type of analysis can foim the basis for a pedagogical method that has a distinctly rhythmic-harmonic aspect, an aspect that deserves more: attention.in jazz education. — Selected Bibliography 111 Beatty, A.B. "Bill Evans: Portrait of his life as a jazz pianist and a musical analysis of his style.'' : NAJE RES 6 (1986): 37-48. Cone. Edward T. Musical Form and Musical Performance. New York: W.W.Nortnn, IQffl Hicks, David. "9/15/80". Perspectives of New Music 18 (1979-80): 2-3. Jaffe, Andrew. Jazz Theory. Dubuque, Iowa: W.C. Brown Co., 1983. Lester, Joel. The Rhythms of Tonal Music. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press; 1986: Schachter, Carl."Rhythm and Linear Analysis: A Preliminary Study." The Music Forum. Vol. 4. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976. Pp. 281-334. Smith, G.E. "Homer, Gregory, and Bill Evans? The Theory of Formulaic Composition in the Context of Jazz Improvisation." Ph.D. diss., Harvard University, 1983. TRO Ludlow Music (The Richmond Organization), eds. Bill Evans 3. New York: Acorn Music Corp., 1975. Widenhofer. S.B. "Bill Evans: An analytical study of his improvisational style through, selected transcriptions." D. A. diss., University of Northern Colorado, 1988. Selected Discc'tnaphy Clark, Sonny. Sonny's Crib. Blue Note CD P7 - 468192. Evans, Bill. Montreux II. CI ^  - 6004. Evans, Bill. New Jazz Conceptions. Riverside Records RLP12 - 22;>. Evans, Bill. The Paris Concert. Elektra/Asylum Records P+C-1983. 

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