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An Ahousat elder's songs : transcription and analysis Bowles, Kathleen E. 1991

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A N A H O U S A T E L D E R S SONGS T R A N S C R I P T I O N A N D A N A L Y S I S by ' K A T H L E E N E. B O W L E S B . M u s . T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1 9 7 9 A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT O F T H E REQUIREMENTSFOR T H E D E G R E E O F MASTER O F A R T S in T H E ' F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E STUDIES E t h n o m u s i c o l o g y We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1991 ©Kathleen E. Bowles In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements lor an advanced degree at the University cf British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it fieely available for reference "and"study. I further agree that permission for. extensive copying cf this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by 'the head cf my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication cf this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of _ M u S l c . The University cf British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT This study examines the development of a comprehensive transcription method for Northwest Coast Native music. In tho past, ethnomusicologistshave presented methodologies which sometimes lacked data useful for present comparative studies. For this reason, research for this study waa conducted in the field to gain a more complete understanding of both musical and cultural characteristics. Eighteen songs were recorded for this study between November 1990 and February 1991. They were sung by Mr. Peter Webster, an Ahousat elder of the Central Nuu-chah-nulth people located en Flores Island near Tofino on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Melodies, drum rhythms and song texts were discussed in depth with Mr, Webster, thus providing many musical and cultural insights from an 'emie' (inside) point of view. Much of i,his information is included r-dth the song transcriptions and analyses. Song texts are presented in the T'aat'aaqsapa dialect of the Nuu-chah-nulth language, together'with English translations, Comparisons are also made with Ida Halpern's 1974 recording, Nootka: Indian Music of the Pnrificr?-Northwestf to determine the extent of musical continuity and variation over this brief period. One of the limitations of my work has been the lack of opportunity to record songs during the ceremonies in which they are usually performed, such as potlafcches or tlukwanas. Another limitation has been the Western notation system, which, as received, is not sufficiently flexible for the transcription of Native music. For this study, additional descriptive signs ii have beau created to ada^ vt the Native musical daaracteristkis to the Western notation system. While the method developed in this study -facilitated the transcription of Nuu-chah-nulth. music, there is still a need for further development of an independent notation system. A clear, comprehensive transcription method, flexible enough to accommodate this music, has been the primary ami of this study. Ifthis transcription method is useful for transcribing other Native musics, then future comparative music studies will benefit from it. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract ai Table of Contents iv List of Figures vi List of Examples Chapter III vii Chapter V......' vi£ List" of "Songs:.:.:.:.:.:.: ix Acknowledgements x Chapter I. INTRODUCTION 1 H. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9 Chronological Overview 9 Conclusion 31 ffl. TRANSCRIPTION AND ANAL YS190 F PETER WEBSTER'S songs. ....:..:.33r Ceremonial Background....; i„„ ...-.-...t.T!33 Transcription Signa 36 Form ......37 Drum Accompaniment 40 Melodic Aspects 44 Song Transcriptions and Analyses..... '. 47 iv . . . . IV. SONG TEXTS AND VOCABLES Songs Grouped by Textual Content 92 Song Texts and Translations i. 99 V. CONTINUITY AND VARIATION 105 Comparison of Song Recordings: 1974 and 1991 106 Comparison of Three Renditions of K'imtlk'im?tla Song-#2 113 Conclusion 114 References Cited 115 Appendix A. Melodic Contour Graphs B.Modes 126 C. Text Phonetics 129 D. Index of Songs on Tape 131 E. Map of Vancouver Island 132 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page IA. Stumpf1886,413 10 IB. Stumpf 1886,413 - 414 ....11 2A. Boas 1896,1 15 2B. Boas 1897, 687.. 15 3A. Hornbostel and Abraham 1906,461 17 3B. Hornbostel and Abraham 1906,460 18 3C. Hornbostel ami Abraham 1906 , 467 ......19 4A. Roberts and Swadfish 1955,256. 21 4B. Roberts and Swadesh. 1955,257... 22 5. Densmore 1943,281 24 6. Halpern 1974,9 26 7. Halpern 1981,43 28 8. Stuart 1972,56 .29 9. Kolstee -988, 298 30 vi LIST OF EXAMPLES CHAPTER 111 Examples Page. la. Boys'Lullaby #2 39 lb. K'imtlk'imftla Song #2 39 lc. fNamasatl (Welcome) Song ; 39 Id. TlukwanaWarSong #2 30 le. Tlukwana War song #3 240 2a. K'imtlk'imftla Song #2 41 2b. K'imtlk'imftla Song #2 41 3a. Weather Song 42 3b. Seal Hunters'Song 42 4. Drum rhythms .43 5. K'imtlk'imftla Song #2 45 vn LIST OF EXAMPLES CHAPTER V Example Page la. Paddle Song (Bowles trans. 1931,Halperarec. 1974) 107 lh. Puddle Song (Bowlestram. 1991,Halperarec. 1974) 107 lc. Paddle Song (Bowlestrans. 1991,Halperarec. 1974) 108 2. Puddle Song (Bowles 1991) 108 3a. Entrance Song (Bowlestrans. 1991,Halperarec. 1974) .1B9 3b. Entrance Song (Bowlestrans. 1991,Halperarec. 1974) 109 3c. Enirance Song (Bowles trans. 1991,Halperarec. 1974) 109 3d. Entrance Song (Bowleel991) 109 4a. Entrance Song (Bowles trans. 1991, Halperarec. 1974) 110 4b. Entrance Song (Bowles 1991) 110 5a. K'imtlk'imltla ScagM (Bowles trans. 1991,Halperarec. 1974).... 110 fib. K'imtlk'imftla Scrg#l (Bowlestrans. 1991,Halperarec. 1974) ....110 6a. K'imtlk'im?tla Saog#1 (Bowleetrans. 1991,Halpemrec. 19~74):..;m - -6b. K'imtlk'im?tla Song #1 (Bowlestrans. 1991,Halpernrec. 1 9 7 4 ) ^ 1 1 vrn n n n n tutu u u u u ' I I b I LIST OF SONGS Song Page 1. Seal Hunters'Song 48 2. Paddle Song ® 3. Entrance Song 52 4. Kimtlk'imftla Song #1 ,55 5. K'imtlk'imttla Song #2 59 6. Marriage Song 6? 7. Boys' Lullaby #1 64 8. Boys' Lullaby #2 g3 9. Girls' Lullaby #1 68 10. Girls' Lullaby #2 70 11. Weather Song 72 12. Bone Game (Lahal) Song 74 13. Tlukwana War Song #1 77 14. ZNamasatl (Welcome) Sbng, 7..8CT 15. Mask Dance Song, ; .7 353 16. Dinner Song §5 17. Tlukwana War Song #2 87 18. Tlukwana War Song #3 ,90 ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would especially like to thank Mr, Peter Webster for allowing me to study his songs and for warmly welcoming me irto his family's home. I would also like to thank Mrs, Jessie Webster and the Webster family for makingme feel at home. Tleko, Locally, thanks must be given to my thesis committee who have been very supportive of my work ana always encouraging. Dr. Alan Thrasher, my thesis supervisor, guided and assisted me in innumerable ways for which great thanks are due. Thanks are due also to Dr, Robin Ridington for his cultural insights, and, though net on my committee,to Dr. Jay Powell for his assistance with linguistics and the Ahousat language. To the following people, I extend my sincere appreciation for their helping hands: Verna Kirkness (Director of Native Indian Teachers Education Program UBC), Susan Moogk (PhD candidate UBC), and finally, Jessica Williamson (B.Mus, UBC) and Mary Bowles, bofii of whom gave tremendous support and encouragement, and also editorial help. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The main focus of this thesis is upon the development of a comprehensive transcription methodology applicable to music of Northwest Coast Native cultures. Kroeber (1939) has defined eleven different culture areas on the North American continent, such as Southwest, Southeast, Plains, Great Basin, and Northwest Coast. Each culture area contains * many different sub-groups. Far example, the various Northwest Coast cultures fish and hunt, small game. The Plains peoples, cn the other hand, mainly hunt big game oii. the prairie, with fishing limited to streams and rivers. In the same manner that life styles vary, music also varies from area to area, that of the Northwest Coast being among the most complex. The Nuu-chah-nulth people (nuu-ca-nu£ previously known as Nootka) are situated on the west coast cf Vancouver Island (see map in Appendix E). This culture is comprised of three main groups: Northern,""" Central and Southem-Nuu-chah-nulth.jrhe music ofthe Central Nuu-^' &ah-nulth culture is the focus of this study. Particular attention is given to a representational sampling of songs of Peter Webster, an Ahousat (?aahuus?aht) elder of this culture. Ahousat music, transmitted in the oral tradition, is continually changing, and this creates difficulties for transcription in Western notation. To illustrate problems in this area of research, a discussion of past and present methods of transcription is given in Chapter H: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. ~ Ethnomusicology is a continually evolving field of research. In the past one hundred years, it bas been influenced by other disciplines, such as Linguistics and Anthropology. Northwest Coast Native music studies were popular in the late 19£hand early 20th centuries,with a revival of interest in this area occurring in recent decades. Music of this region varies from culture to culture, but contains some similar characteristics found only cn the Northwest Coast. For example, melodies, generally undulating within a narrow range, me-composed of small intervals; drum rhythms are veiy complex, often with dramatic beat changes; drumming is sometimes performed by many people beating enlarge planks; singing is sometimes unaccompanied for dramatic effect and also during song leader/group alternation. The above characteristics require innovative,lucid transcription techniques in order to represent the musical language of another culture. Although this discussianis restricted to the Northwest Coast musical area, many-of transcription techniques can be_applied"td other indigenous musics of North America. For extensive comparative studies, large collections of data are required, in-addition to the musical data . presented with i n a general transcription format. I believe that many early researchers did not transcribe Native music comprehensively, and I have attempted to illustrate these points by reviewing their methodologies in CHAPTER 11. ' In Chapter III: TRANSCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS DP PETER WEBSTERS SONGS,problems with the transcription of£ jr^v/est Coast Native music are identified in order t o elucidate my own methodology. This particular methodology is presented through the song transcriptions and analyses. WHle studying recordings of Northwest Coast music (Halpern 1974; 1981; 1986;), I found that visual representation of the music in recordjacket notes seldom corresponded clearly to the actual recording. In addition, sate transcriptions were incomplete due to omission of text, thus resulting in confusion for following (ho songs. The result was a searchfor improved methods with which to represent the music of this culture. Comprehensive transcription methods are highly beneficial to the following groups of people: (1) ethnomusicologists utilizing this material for comparative research , (2) non-musical researchers requiring musical interpretations to complete their ethnology of a culture, (3) non-Native persona wishing to understand niore about a Native culture through its music, and (4) Native people wishing visual representation of their songs, To accommodate the needs of such diverse groups, transcriptions need to be written as descriptively and clearly as possible, accompanied by the recordings, and analysed with some addition of cultural, context.,1 - . . — Bruno Mettl suggests that "much of this function [transcription] is-^ taken aver by good commercial recordings, The layman can satisfy his . interests through such recordings much mate easily than by laboriously reading notations which do not , after all, reproduce some of the most obvious features of the sound such as tone color (though these can •'•Since this thesis primarily concerns transcription methodology,the reader should refer to the following cultural or musical ethnologies for a deeper understanding of the cultural contexts of the Nuu-chah-nulth music; Densmore (1939). Sapir and Swadesh (1939), Drucker (j.951), Clutesi (1969), Sapir and Swadesh U978), Arjma (1983), Webster (1983), and iCirk (1986). sometimes be described in words)" (1964,127). Recordings are generally considered good musical representations, but visual presentations provide many clues to understanding the music which the ear may miss. Nettl does realize this fact however, and comments on the necessity of transcription for careful analysis and song reproduction (1964,128). In addition, the inclusion cf text can facilitate reproduction of a language, Many Native people have not learned their own language and both Native and non-Native people today wioh to learn an indigenous language for personal interest or research. During the course of my own research, it became necessary to obtain some knowledge of the Ahousat ™ language in order to facilitate transcription of song texts for translations. The Native words in this study are presented in a modified form of the International Phonetic Alphabet. This particular form was developed by Dr. Jay Powell from the University of British Columbia Department of Anthropology, Mr. Andrew Callicum, Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council Chairman, and members of the Taat'aaqsapa Language Committee (Powell 1989). The initial step in beginning my field work, was locating a Northwest Coast singer who would be willing lo share his/her songs. A discussion, with Verna Kirkness, Director of the Native Indian Teacher Education--Program (NlTEP) at the University of British Columbia, resulted in my introduction to Mr, Peter Webster. Mr, Webster livea cn Florcs Island, which is to the north of Tofino on Vancouver Island. Well known as a "singerof songs", Mr. Webster is also known in hie Native language as "0 wo-me-yiB", meaning "Leader on the Baach". Recently, at his diamond wedding anniversary, he was given a name which belonged to his great, great grandfather - "Kleslakik", meaning "something good come out of the mouth. During his lifetime, he has sung at many important functions. These functions include local potlatches, a 1968 Centennial Workshop cn Ethnomusicology(Proceedingspub. inHalpern 1968), and a 1969meetingof Native chiefs with Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, Mr. Webster agreed to work with me, and subsequent recording sessions were arranged at his home in Ahousat in October and November 1990, and again in February 1991. For the purpose of this study, Mr. Webster sang his songs in the privacy of his home, with background noises, such as people talking, dishes clattering and a clock chiming. To illustrate^ his family's wealth perhaps, I was shown a video tape of a recent memorial potlatch which included the songs and dances belonging to the Webster family. I was asked not to use the information in this study, and out of respect for the family, I have not included the film data. Songs recorded for this research are primarily social songs, with the exception of four Tlukwana ceremonial songs, and their contexts are discussed in Chapter IE. Due to the expense of making these fieldtrips, I was limited as to the number of visits I could make. However, .three trips to Ahousat provided me with a wide variety of songs, as well as several renditions of particular^ songs for comparative purposes. - --At this point, I should comment cn a particularly troublesome aspect which is sometimes encountered in comparative studies of Native musics. Comparisons of songs within a genre, within one singer's collection, within a culture, or even between cultures, are perfectly acceptable. However, because of the characteristic of song ownership among'Northwest Coast Native cultures, a restriction is imposed on the singing of another composer's songs. N<}t every indigenous culture in North America regard\ songs as owned property. Other cultures have songs belonging to a societal group, or to the entire tribe, In other cultures, songs are often borrowed from other people and adapted to fit the borrower's musical style. On the Northwest Coast, however, the study cf songtrensferral is very limited due to restrictions an singing another composer's songs. Mr, Webster was, understandably, quite adamant that another singer would not be allowed to sing his songs (for comparative purposes). Mr. Webster's grandsons, however, are learning his songs from taped recordings at his home in Ahousat. This is the modern method of passing on songs. , , ~ Ahousat, also called Marktosis (maaqtusiis), originally belonged to the O-tsus-aht band of the Nuu-chah-nulth, but the Ahousahts declared war against them, and thus claimed it for themselves (Webster 1983,60-62). At present, approximately 800 people reside at Ahousat. This village is quite remote and can be reached only by a thirty minute ride in the Band's sea bus from Tofino, or by renting a seat on a sea plane from either Vancouver or Tofino. An elementary school, high school and commercial fishing industry provide employment for the people residing there, alpng_ with traditional crafts, such as drum construction and basket weaving.^ Je'ssie Webster weaves the famous 'Maquina hats' (large hats for wearing cn the head, and tiny hats for wearing as earrings)2. During the course cf o/v meetings, eighteen different songs were recorded, including some songs which had been sung for Ida Halpern approximately twenty years earlier (Halpern 1974), and several renditions cf certain songs. Although confined to a wheel chair and suffering from 2john Jewitt described these hats in his 1815 account of the "Nootka" people (Jewitt 1816,49). poor health, Mr, Webster sang these songs quite heartily, thus upholding his reputation as "Leader on the Beach". Mrs. Jessie Webster, despr.te poor health at the time, joined her husband to sing the Weather Song. . Ten years ago, Mr. Webster studied linguistics at the University of Victoria. At the age of 82, he has only recently retired from teaching language and traditions at the Ahousat schools. He was of inestimable assistance w i t h the texts of his songs, working many hours wi th pronunciation, translation and transcription of the Ahousat language. In our discussions, many concerns were raised by Mr. Webster regarding the youth of Ahousat. He felt that too much of their time was consumed by Nintendo games, television, and rock music, and that aa a result, not many young people have learned enough of their traditional ways. In his family, however, some of his grandchildren have studied their songs, dances and language. Two of his grandsons have learned many cf the family songs, one of whom memorized them at first hearing according to Mr. Webster. However, he did note some problems with regards to their performance of traditional dance steps, rhythmic accompaniment and pronunciation of text. Mr, Webster-stated that television interfered with the teaching by the elders, as the children werg^ not" listening the way they would have in Hie past (Webster 1990b)r H e also attributed the problems of pronunciation in the traditional texts to the influence of the more widely spoken English language. However, in spite of these problems, the younger generation arc learning many aspects of their cultural traditions. Language is a very important cultural aspect and this is especially significanlin the song texts which convey complex beliefs, biases and assumptions about the culture. For methodological and linguistic purposes, a discussion of texts and vocables is presented in Chapter IV: SONG TEXTS AND VOCABLES. Structural similarities and variations in the music are examined in Chapter V: CONTINUITY AND VARIATION. These two concepts are discussed in a comparison of four songs recorded for this study with Halpern's 1974 recording of the same four songs, and a comparison of three different renditions of one song. CHAPTER 11 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Chrono log ica l R e v i e w In this study, it is not possible, nor is it necessary, to mention a 11 the early scholars who have transcribed and analysed Northwest Coast native music. I have selected a broad'chronological representation cf scholars from which to illustrate both methodological difficulties and innovations* observed in their transcriptions. Carl Stumpf, a late 19th-century "philosopher, psychologist and musicologist" (Herzog 1949,931, recorded and transcribed songs of many "exotic" visitors to Germany. The Bella Coola Indians from British Columbia, who were visiting Germany, allowed Stumpf to record their songs (Stumpf 1886). His analysis was concentrated mainly upon the melodies in these songs. Franz Boas contributed two of the nine songs (Nbs.VTH and IX) for comparative purposes; he had heard the samegroap of singers at a separate performance (Stumpf 1886.408). Stumpf du&mjL __ analyse these songs, nor the dances with them, contextually. He" commented only upon the "cannibal dancc with masks" which thiey wore, and their method of dancing,, "at times cn both Icct" (Stumor 1880,406). In pHrlitirm Sfcnmnf transcribed tha songs using only two descriptive signs for pitch,.as indicated b\ his statements: •n n n n u u u u "In den folgendenNotirungen sind die etwas erhoht zu singenden Tfine durch ein x,-die, etwas zu vertiefenden durch ein o oberhalb der Ntebezeichnet", (1886,408) ~ --The "raised tones" were marked with an "x", and the "lowered tones" with an "o"; but, as shown in Fig. 1A, these marks did not indicate how high or how low each pitch was actually performed, Stumpf s inclusion of text with the melody is noteworthy, but, as Fig. 1A illustrates, only part of the text is transcribed, and the reader must assume that the remaining words follow the same pattern (which the abbreviation "etc." implies). Fig. 1A V. Traucreesane. VE. Doktorgesang. o o o n o iiLijii._i r..rif r f r—I A • jai - jnu a - jai - jau etc. ^ • 5 ' • { . r ( % t r 5 - 5 r t * . . . . (Stumpf 1886,413) . The contributions by Boas, cn the-other hand (songs VIII andTX), " include texts with greater attention given to detail (sccFig. IB), Unlike Boaa, many 19th-and early 20th- century studies of native music with song texts were often incomplete. A more comprehensive transcription of the songtexts by Stumpf and other musicologists would have been useful to both cthnomusicologistsand linguists for comparative studies today. 11 . „ Elg. IB VIII. Lied beini Stubchenspiel To " qoi\ - Us - ki toqn-laaki to - r|a - \aj - k i Un-teja • Ins - ki natjalanki ua-tja - Irs - ki A " k - Ins - ki a-la-laski n " Ins " las - ki IX. Schenkfestgesang. fc. i r . r . r fr.r ^ . r . r t r . r ^ r= Uai - - tai - au u«» " Its " tsi - au uai - ka - tsi - nu ja-V i r i i w ^ ho - o o uai - ka - tsi ~ au sau - vait-ja - ka-ni-i " tr ja-m m Jlui-kui-ai"la" ni - a sa - a " tl - choi-ach-ntut' aith t ik 'eth-su m f . | f i f i ! | f f i r c i r f smai-o - sta t'aid ta ja a a a sm-ja u - ai (Stumpf 1886,413- 414) Both Boas and Stumpf used bar lines, time signatures and key signatures denoting a purely Western approach to analysis of a non-Western irusic. Hornbostel and Abraham, in their Vorechlape fur die Transkription exotincher Melodien (1909), offer the Mowing suggestions regarcfingthe use of bar lines: 12 Keinesfalls darf dieses Prinzip pedantisch gehandhabt werden: ein Mofciv erscheint eft vergrossert oder verkleinert wieder, und das Bil'd der melodischen Grupps wiirde durch die __ strenge Durdifuhrung der Einteilung in gleichmassige ISIcte zerrissen werden...Die einzelnen Gruppen werden durch Taktstriche getrennt.... Takstriche(vgl,^8), Lasst sich nach keinem der genannten Gesichtspuokte eme vernunftige Gruppierung durchfuhren, so sind Taktstriche nur an die Teilschlusse zu setzen (1909, 9). The opinion expressed by these echolarsis that the music must indicate the need for bar lines. For example, some "exotic" music has an irregular melodic rhythm, which means that it does not have regular accents for metric measurement; therefore, bar lines would distort the actual melodic flow. In addition, Hombostel and Abraham suggest that the transcriber should not be too "pedantic", or the true picture cf the melodic motives may-be altered. However, they do recommend solid bar lines for single melodic phrases, and dotted bar lines for larger groups of melodic phrases. Through their suggestions, Hornbostel and Abraham offer transcribers a slightly more flexible transcription system. Further transcription flexibility, albeit small, is found in their consideration of time signatures. Stumpfs transcriptions, which were restricted to one time signature only, would have benefitted firm Hornbostel and Abraham's suggestion of alternating time signatures: Die Vorzeichnung der Taktart kann bei durcftgehendeuT --Rhythmus an den Anfang des Stucka gesetz werden; ebenso bei konstantem Wechselvon zwei taktarten 3/4 +2/4 (1909,9). Although consistently using Western notation, Hornbostel and Abraham proposed a more adaptable syr tem, allowing for different numbers of beats in alternate measures. For example, if the transcriber felt that there were different numbers cf beats in the measures, they could be indicated with different time signatures at the beginning of the song. i.e. 3/4 + 2/4 (Hornbostel and Abraham 1909,9). Hornbostel and Abraham's proposal also includes microtonal signs inserted in the key signatures. In other words, a tone found to be consistently high or low, would be notatedwith a '+' o r a b o v e the' b ' or '#' in the key signature (1909, 6). Hornbostel and Abraham's innovative developments in transcription were an improvement over earlier methods. Franz Boas, physicist, geographer, linguist, and later, anthropologist and ethnologist, collaborated with Stumpf, Hornbostel and Abraham, and meny other scholars in his research. As an anthropologist, Boas studied all aspects'of a culture. During his research trips cntho a Northwest Coast, he collected many songs with his ethnographic data. In his article, "Songs of the Kwakiutl Indians" (1896), Boas collaborated with John C. Fillmore to transcribe the Kwakiutl songs. Fillmore viewed native music as being evolutionary in nature. He stated that: "The first harmonies to be displayed are naturally the simplest ~ those cf the tonic and its chord. The more complex relations are gradually evolved as a result of the growth of experience" (Fillmore 1899, 319). Native music.was considered by Fillmore to be in the early, or simple, stages of its evolution toward the more complex European music. Asa result, Fillmore actually added harmonic3 to the melodic,line of native , songs to illustrate the relationship of native music to harmony. Boas completed a thorough ethnography of the Kwakiutl people, including both songs and dances in th eir context (1896; 1897). Working in the field, Boas transcribed songs by ear while the Native people were singing them, Fillmore, working in his home or office, transcribed songs from a phonograph cylinder. He had recorded these songs fro111 Kwakiutl Indians who were visiting the World's Columbian Exhibition in Chicago in 1693(Fillmore 1899,304). V ~ ~ Boas' greater appreciation cf context is perceived in Fig. 2A, in which he referred to the fact that Fillmore did not hear some of the weaker tones (Boas 1896,1); thus, their individual transcriptions resulted in several differences. Boas endeavored to transcribe the songs as comprehensively as possible, whereas Fillmore did not realize the full importance cf some aspects, such as text and translation. In a letter to his wife while an a field trip (November17,1894), Boas stated "Today I corrected a few of the songs Fillmore wrote down in Chicago. Either the Indians sang very differently-into the phonograph, or he could not hear them well" (Rohner R. and E. 1969,179). Boas either heard different variations firm those of Fillmore, or he was correct in criticizing Fillmore's hearing, Boas did have the advantage of being able to request a repetition of songs he found troublesome to transcribe, whereas Fillmore may have inadvertently erased the weaker tones through repetitive playing of the wax cylinders. In his extensive transcriptions of Kwakiutl songs, Boas includes complete song texts: Fig. 2A, Kwakiutl Boy's Song, provides ai-examplejjf Boas' text transcription (1896,1). Boas' Kwakiutl ethnography (Boas 18H7, 706) includes both exact and free translations of the song texts, which • contribute significant information regarding the ceremonies in which they were heard. Fillmore's transcriptions (Boas 1897), on the other hand, omit text in these songs (see Fig. 2B), n„n n n i u 0 n u u uau -> I i b u . 15 Fig. 2A 1. A BOY'S SOJ6 sung while the child is being rocked on the knee. n^.i.". .i | | | T t | f | f t'J | f J. i" WT-so icl• sa to;-sa-te la • so Sticks . J\ <y J\ 1 etc. — ict g~a' sa g-in g-in - non- max g in tili • tclqa yig-'a _ m i*" • m m -^ i**- J | J | ' J nil.- i n solon mi • sal . nr. yaa lie. 2. .4nffO(trln(.«i irciiinla rill - lehja yaxtmli Is ill /shut nam-3. j, i. '» ' nti-Melya yaxoa Is'a - Mblruiavi xu. H'f • sale in • S'"il • nl. Wi • sa • len trt- «il • til yan xii. „ g n « » In the seventh and tenth tars of (ho 2'«> lino etc. Mr. FILLMORE lias Evidently the related c sharp which is sumj on ii weak syllable disappeared on the phonograph. His tune closes with a repe-tition of tho lirst line while 1 Hoard lines 2-5 sung in the same manner. I.ino G is spokon. l.ine t of the following text was dictated to ine after I had recorded tho song in which it had been omitted. (Boas 1896, l) Rg.2B TONE, RECORDED BY J . C. FILLMORE. 80NG OF THE MASK OF BAIBAKUALANUXSI'WAE. x a r | f - f r - . t e t y - p u \ 1 1 T A * 1 ' ' 1 I I r j r (Boas 1897, 687) Boas, Fillmora^and Stumpf all used Western notationfor time signaturee, and key signatures. Being primarily interested in continuing his research work in the field, Boas sent cylinders of his recorded songs back to scholars in Berlin for transcription and analysis. Erich M. von Hornbostel and Otto Abraham, students of CSeL Stumpf, studied and transcribed the forty-three Thompson River Indian songs recorded by Boas (Hornbostel and Abraham 1906). Their method involved the use of Alexander Ellis' cent system for interval calculations (Hornbostel and Abraham 1906,451)'. Stumpfs initial idea, that the tonal expression of native people was based upon principles different from those cf European " musics, was enlarged upon by Hornbostel and Abraham. The following statement is an example of their conclusions stated in "Tabelle I" regarding the types of intervals which they perceived in these songs: Der Zusammenfassung der Einzelworte haben wir eine Leiter von temperirten Vierteltonen (erste Columne zugrundegelegt; als Maximum der Abweichungen nach oben und unten wurde also ein Achtel des temperirten Ganztones (25 Cents) zugelassen (Hornbostel and Abraham 1906,451). Thus, Hornbostel and Abraham's analysis considered 3/4 tones, 5/4 tones, and tones situated between major and 'minor thirds and major and minoi' sixths, which were stated as "neutral thirds" and "neutral sixths" respectively. The basic transcriptions of the ThompsonTtiver songs are in Western staff notation, but with the following exceptions: 'Mexandat J Ellis, and English mathematician, devised the cents system of intervals in which a semi-tone equals 100 cents, and an octave equals 1200 cents (1885). » n n n n >i t u Q i ^ / . • u u u u , i i a°£ a. accidental? are notated at the actual pitch level rather than the standard key signature method used in Western notation, i.e. ~ the flatfor'Eb1 placed cnthe bottom line of the staff, rather than the usual top space b. both flats and sharps are notated together in the key signatures if pitches are consistently altered by a semi-tone up or down c. one of the key signatures contains a "+" over a" b " for a tone raised microtonally in the entire song d. numbers over the bars indicate the number cf eighth ^ notes in each measure (See Fig, 3A) Eig. 3A 22 (163). LYRIC SONG. (3A. Hornbostel and Abraham 1906,46l) Hornbostel and Abraham notated the percussion accompaniment under the melodies, but omitted the text (see Fig. 3B). The two scholars could have transcribed the song texts from the wax cylinders which Boas 2083 had sent them, if BoasJiadjieglected to send the text transcriptions which he had transcribed himself? Eg .3B 18 (158). DANCING-SONfl. J-"160. J j [J , L X J j W j J I Troirmcl. , ' p p p p { ( f c B» C> B» A' B-1 C2 j J .1 N J .1 « I i .1 .i tie. (Hornbostel andAbraham 1906,460) The drum beats were heard as being either syncopated or unsyncopated, in addition to being quite complicated and difficult for them to transcribe (Hornbostel and Abraham 1906,453). Rhythmic problems encountered were partially a result of contrasting rhythms between the melodic line and the drum accompaniment. The drum was also hit either ahead of, or following, the melodic beat.- In addition one song was- _ __ composed of a difficult free-rhythm, and others required alternating measures cf beat counts (Hornbostel and" Abraham 1906,-452£E). An ' example of one cf these rhythmic complexities is shown in Fig. 3C, where the melodic meter is marked as 4/4 time while the drum meter is shown as 3/4 time, Another song which was transcribed by Hornbostel and Abraham gives sixbeats of the drum against four beats in the melody (1906,469). '(which appears to have been the case, as there was no mention in his letters of texts being sent with the cylinders [Rohner.R, and E. 1969]). n n n n , ' i u 70 u\ u u u u _ ' L n o 'i \ Fig, 3G 34 (174). DANCIN0-S0NC1. Trommd J = 164. to i_ J ) I j j > I J | J N l i g Trommel. | T f f f f f f f f f f f J J _ J J 1 M i l l ( ) li? » = & = * | <g -4—«>—J— r r r r r r r r r r r r v (Hornbostel and Abraham 1906,46?) While it was evidentthat these two scholars were struggling with the creation of a transcription method appropriate for non-Western musics, it was not u±il 1909that their Vorschlage fur die Transkription exotischer Melodien was presented to the music world. Hornbostel and Abraham's proposal was presented at a time when transcription methods were of primary interest to musicologists. The resulting proposal for the transcription of non-Western musics involved a musical system of signs_ which would be applicable to, and flexible enough to accomodate, the tt? majority of non-Western musics. ~ Suggestions for bar lines, key signatures and time signatures, were only a sial lpart of Hornbostel and Abraham's proposal. Also presented were new concepts for the transcription of clefs, indeterminate pitches, aspects of performance practice, phrasing, tone color, raelismas, and dynamics, in addition to rhythm, tempo, structure, variations, and song texts (Hornbostel and Abraham 1909,4-15). 2 0 Shortly after the .publication cf Hornbostel and Abraham's proposal, Edward Sapir travelled to Vancouver Island (between 1910 -1914) and recorded many songs of the Nootka (nuutka) band cf the Nuu-chah-nulth Indians? A student cf Franz Boas, Sapir transcribed the song texts (Roberts and Swadesh 1955,3101,but the cylinders cf music were stored in Ottawa at the National Museum cf Canada for many years before Helen H. Roberts worked with them.4 During the early 1920's, Roberts transcribed the songs from these cylinders. The completed study cf these songs was carried out by her in conjunction with text analysis and translation by Mrris Swadesh between 1934-36; this study was finally published in 1955 (Koberts and Swadesh 1955). This is an excellent example of collaboration between disciplines ~ linguistics, ethnology and comparative musicology ~ for a comprehensive study of language, culture and music. Roberts and Swadesh were also fortunate to be able to consult with a native person firm the Nootka (nuutka) band, Alex Thomas, about song classification and cultural context (1955, 2022). In Roberts' transcriptions, song texts written in Sapir's 'field phonetic symbols', are included under the melody line. These texts ar^ . transcribed in the revised Nootka orthography by Swadesh in E£o± II of "Songs of the Nootka Indians of Vancouver Island (1955, -3100), In addition, Roberts includes small indications of drum or rattle accompaniments, slashes through note heads for microtonal indications ("/" or"//" for raised tones and or"\ \" for lowered tones) and upper 3 As a linguist and ethnologist, two trips were made by Sapir tor the Geological Survey of Canada in 1910 and 1913-14(Roberta and Swadesh 1955,199), ^The National Museum of Canada is now known as The Canadian IVliseum of Civilization located in Hull, Quebec. n n n n > i u O L • , u u u u " m n a a 2086 case letters above the staff for phrase markings, with lower case letters • r J below for melodic motives,(i.e., A A', and a b etc.; see Fig. 4A). Bar lines, time signatures, and terminology, such as Fine, Coda and Dal Segno are used as in Western practice. Key ."'"natures are omitted because, as Roberta states: "...their presence might be thoughtto lend prejudice to a certain melodic setting" (Roberts and Swadesh 1955,206). Variations within each song are extensively examined in her "Analyses of Form" (1955,2771, with different phrase renditions discussed, in additionto rhythm, text and pitch. This is useful material for farther comparative studies with other Nuii-chah-nulth cultures. Fig. 4A ya 't 'i we . q^c'e . 't pL' XL. • •'i. tvi .rfe. • PC - lCx ' 1 • c* (Roberts and Swadesh 1955, 256j Figure 4JS shows Roberts' transcription of drum accompaniment, which indicates only the beginning of the pattern. n n n n • .i n n n U U LI U • '11 a w 2 2 Fig. 4B S u n g byTom.clk^Ktribe J»12b rYrnrYfrrWrrF Sesitl • • mi.- • iiu-rrffate. PrumV'll r f r i f f r n - ^ r r f (Roberta and Swadesh 1955,257) Roberts' primary concern was with the melodies of these songs. The drum beats were of secondary importance, as shown in Roberts' analysis of "song groups" which includes only one or two phrases of percussion accompaniment in each song grouping (Roberts and Swadesh 1955, 223-229), However, she did mention the fact that the phonograph did not record the drum or rattle accompaniment at times. Frances Densmore also - — described recording problema, in which the phonograph would not recon& the drums or rattles en the cylinders (Denemore 1943). With her many books cn various North American Indian cultures and their musics, Frances Densmore made a lasting impression on the field of ethnomusicology! Her song transcriptions of Northwest Coast Native-music were included in Nootka arid Quileute songs (1939) and The 5These include: Chippewa Music (Washington: Bull. 45,Bureau American Ethnology, 1910); Mendan and Hijiatsa Music Washington: Bull. 80. Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1923); Pawnee Music Washington: Bull. 93, Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1929), and many others. n n n n > i u o a u u u u -/ i n b b Indians of British Colombia (1943).6 One cf her principal analytic techniques, used to gain understanding cf structural differences, was the formulation cf tabulated statistics (Densmore 1918; 1939). These statistics, based on numbers cf intervals, pitch repetitions, and particular beginning and ending notes, were tabulated and compared with statistics of other native musics (see Densmore 1939, 1-20). Although Densmore's method was exceedingly detailed, her conclusions were otated in Western analytical terms, rather than in those from within the culture. Densmore has left behind a legacy of statistical data, which will need re-examining to establish the some of the 'emic' context in her analyses. ^ T.feirg only a "few special signs", Densmore chose to transcribe native music using the guidelines cf Western notation: The presentation of anything as strange as Indian singing must be in familiar terms if it is to be intelligible. Therefore I have used ordinary musical notation with a few special signs and entrusted the differences from that notation, as well as the mannerisms, to descriptive analyses (Densmore 1968,109-110). A description of the "special signs" used by Densmore, is given in Nootka and Quileute Music (1939. xxiv). For pitch raising or lowering,- a"+" or "-" are used, a "glissando-diminuendo" on a note is indicated as and pitches held longer than their written note value are shown with a "e"~ above them, while tones given less than their written note value are indicated with a V above them. In Fig. 5, Densmore illustrates the importance of the melodic line and song structure simply by the exclusion of percussion accompaniment and text. ^Densmore recorded these song collections in the field between 1923-1926. 24 Please be still, you have treated us so badly. (Densmore 1943,281) Of course, Densmore's discussion of major and minor tonalities applies more accurately to Western music than to Native music. Many Native songs can be considered as having a major or minor soundto them, but I believe that they should be analysed with the Native context in mind. Musical instruments with standard- pitches are. not used in this music. Therefore, Native siagers are not restricted to certain pitches, as compared to-the European musicians with tempered scales. Native singers may . begin a song on arty microtonal pitch and the ensuing intervals may often be microtonally formed. For the above reasons, this author is of the opinion that the terms major and minor do not apply to native tonality. Densmore's employment of key signatures, time signatures, bar lines, and Western tonality are indicative of her reliance on the Western notation system. Exclusion of text and instrumental accompaniment n r i ? n u"n n uuu-u I l . i U. 25 reveals the same musicological focus cn the melodic line as that of previous ^  19th- and early 20th-century musicologists. A result of this style cf transcription is a loss of Native musical data and stylistic characteristics; however, Densmore does include a broad study of each culture, singer and song with her transcriptions. In Nootka and Quileute Music (Densmore 1939), the analysis included with each transcription describes number and size cf intervals, tonal range, keynotes and some of the variations in different song renditions. Textual variations, and their relation to melodic variations, ware given secondary importance. Densmore states: "Four renditions were ^ recorded and are uniform except for unimportant note values due to differences in words" (1939,174) .The "differences in words" would have contributedimportant information about text and small melodic variation. Roberts and Swadesh illustrated, in Songs of the Nootka Indians of Vancouver Island (1955), the importance cf song texts. Ida Halpera, an the other hand, came to realize their importance only during the later period of her research. Ida Halpern stated that she recorded over.five hundred songs on the^ Northwest Coast (1981,2ff). This large collection cf data encompassed oyer forty years of research. In her first major study of Nootka music-(Halpern 1974), a fundamentally Western'approach was used in her methodology, i.e., identification of scales, separate melodic motifs and major/minor tonalities. The small melodic motifs, which sometimes form the whole of Halpern's transcriptions, make it difficult for an untrained Western ear to follow the recorded song (the entire transcription would be more useful). In addition, lack of text and instrumental accompaniment with the n rrn n ,, inn i U U U U " 'J I i I 26 transcriptions (see Fig.„6) i s problematic for both researchers and laypersons requiring this information. ELg. 6 V«-rt«nta of th> d«jc«ndln(t fourth a o t l v In th» aaoond a»otlon (tunic oat»T« lawcr) 31d« 2, Song 3 . i Wirrlor 3onn, fang by Georg» CXut..l »»i lili Port Albtrnl group (W 7) P f Introduetorr n o t i T « (sung octavo loi»r)i 7,. ' ^ X + P jt % f 3e.I. - dlitonla f fc^Kf f f [ f ^ j j (Halpern 1974,9) Two innovative factors have emerged from Halpern's work the replacement of bar lines with phrase markings [ ' ], andthe use of 13th-century rhythmic mode notation for percussion accompaniment (see examplebelow) (Halpern 1974,4; Halpern 1981,29-30). " Rhythmic mode notation:-1. Iambus vy— or J J 2. Dactyl or M l 3. Trochee — ^ or J J 4. Anapaest — or J J J Halpern's earlier work (1967) vocables were thought to have little meaning; her later research, however, reveals deeper insights into their meaning (1974; 1976). For example, as George Clutesi informed Halpern, n n n o u u u u 2092 the meaning of the syllable "Ho" or "0" is "Lord' in Nuu-chah-nulth, and this syllable is found in both Adam Shewish's and Peter Webster's Farewell Songs,in addition to many others (Halpern 1976,263). Halpern's recent recordings of Kwakiutl music include extensive electronic analysis, utilizing a stroboscopic tuner for measuring pitch frequencies and a Sonograph for measuring timbre, pulsations and percussion accompanimentpatterns (1981)7. With these electronic devices, she plotted microtonen, drum patterns and intervals with greater accuracy. Many transcriptions in the Kwakiutl record notes show cent differentiation above the notes (Halpern 1981;see also Fig. 1). Compared to Roberts' mor^ simplified transcription method of writing microtones with '+' or above the notes, and 7 or'Y though the note heads (Roberts 1955,257), Halpern's method is slightly more accurate, but Roberts' method is also equally important. Few comparisons of successive song renditions have been undertaken, and, as a result, it is not clear whether a note will continually be sung at +20 cents in consecutive song renditions; however, pitch variations abound in oral traditions and the note would quite possibly be altered in numerous performances of the same scng,. Therefore, _ Roberts' method of indicating microtones is equally useful. In Fig. 7, Kwakiutl Chief Billy Assu's Whale Song, cents are' indicated over the pitches, and letters mark the larger phrase structures. While the majority of Halpern's transcriptions utilize breath marks for smaller phrase structure. Fig. 7 employs seldom-used bar lines. Halpern's transcription method includes time signatures, but omits key signatures, using accidentals where necessary. 7Halpern 1981,7-11. n n n rt i u a i u u u u 'i n i j (Halpern 1981,43) In the record notes enclosed with the Haida album (Halpern 1986), the concept of "scale" was changed to "foundation tones", which allows greater freedom for tonal analysis with i n the Native context. As Halpern states: On this recording of Haida songs I have tried to refine these concepts further, and thus prefer not to present scales but rather foundation tones These'are, bv definition, the core tones -of a Haida song translated into Western notation. Rather than scales in the Western- European meaning of the term, they _ provide an aid to OUT understanding of tie given .composition . and nothing more (1986, 2). In other words, Halpern perceives the notes of the Native songs within their own tonal form and not in the Western scale form. Through this technique, Native music can be analysed and presented in a f orA which includes a more Native musical characteristic.; therefore, only the notes used in a particular song are examined: rather than the notes assumed to be included in the Western 'scalc', n n ri n i u 0 u u u u u »i f I 'I I 29 Halpern continues to. use electronic devices for her analysis of Haida music (1986), but her "personal observations" are included; and transcriptions sometimes consist only of "foundationtoned'. Texts.are often excluded in the record note transcriptions, thus omitting important data. The addition cf conversations with the Haida singers, however, gives the Native people an opportunity to hear relevant backgrounds to the songs. Wendy Stuart's study of Coast Salish Gambling Music contains a short introduction to the ethnological background of this music, followed by a large collection of song transcriptions (1972). The majority of the songs use vorables. Stuart's analysis of form, melody and scale conform to the — Western analytic style, while the descriptive symbols used for fifty cent intonation deviations arc employed when necessary. Fig. 8 illustrates Stuart's transcription techniques, showing percussion accompaniment and melodic variations. Additions of arrows indicate microtones above or below the equivalent Western pitches; bar lines are utilized and analysis included after each song. Fig. 8 >116 nnn n ' i u n r '•< * u u u u ii n n j < Other recent native .music studies contain song texts, contextual sensitivity, and highly descriptive music transcriptions. Anton Kolstee's M.A thesis (1977) of Bella Coola music, and his PhD dissertation (1988) of Bella Bella/Heiltsuk music and ceremony, are slightly 'Boasian' with their extensive inclusion of cultural data. Kolstee has contextualized the music, and given it important structural and functional analysis within that context. This is illustrated by His commentthat, "...hierarchy of the music's structural characteristics strongly reflects the hierarchy of the functional setting in which the songs were used."(1982,109). Kolstee's "Transcriptional Diacritics", or transcription signs, arg" slightly augmented from previous ethnomuficologists' descriptive markings (1988,143ff). In Fig, 9 below, Kolstee illustrates his particular transcriptional methodology. For example, structural divisions are indicatedby " 11 ", whereas melodic phrases are separated by broken bar lines" I", similar to Hornbostel and Abraham's dotted bar lines (1909,11). Fig. 9 C7 Cry Song of Chief Vfiujaja ^ ..: sur..' , He o . s . p . = 8 . - . ... 3'00" - _ _ __ f/ T J 1 -J c i r i p f f f~~f~f~ J = ca.66 Tu-glis qas Jci he „ rJ w „ ,•} "J 1 rjc'-f f (Kolstee 1988, 298) Percussion accompaniment is not given a clef sign, but rather a double slash (//), and the beat pattern is transcribed with direct relation to the melodic rhythm. In other words, i f a beat is played slightly ahead cf the vocal rhythm, it is transcribed slightly ahead cf the vocal rhythm. In addition, Kolstee has transposed the songs irto the key of C and used cipher (number) notation to simplify analysis and comparison! This method eliminates awkward accidentals or key signatures, and the "original starting pitch", or "o.s.p.", is indicated at the beginning cf the transcription for tonal range identification. Microtonal pitches are marked with the familiar"+/-" signs, signifying a quarter tone or less, while „ pitches marked with arrows pointing upward or downward indicate vocal pulsations of less than a halftone. Although the complete song is not included here, the percussion accompaniment has been fully transcribed, which occurs in the majority of Kolstee's transcriptions. However, while the above example includes the song text, not all transcriptions in Kolstee's studies do. When the texts are included, however, the English translation appears after the song. These two major studies by Kolstee (1982,1988)could be said to represent a culmination to __ date cf evolving ethnomusicological transcription methods. He has provided a good working model from which many scholars can benefit. • Conclusion Upon reviewing the transcription methods for Northwest Coast native music, I have perceived a general trend towards better adaptation of Western notation for the transcription of non-Western native music. The 8 Kolstee calls this "('-centered transcription" (1982) 24. late 19th- and early 20th-century scholars were limited by their lack of accurate recording equipment. Comments on the inadequacy of the phonograph for recording and replaying songs are noted in Densmore (1927,110) and Roberts (1955,206). Halpern was aided by more modern and accurate equipment, i.e. a record-cutting and playback machine, a Sonogram, and a stroboscopic tuner; however, she still found it necessary to use her own listening capabilities in conjunction with the electronic equipment for comprehensive transcription and analysis. Ethnomusicologistsin the past few decades have been using sensitive technological recording and analysis equipment, which provides durable ^" recordings and more accurate analysis. Prom Stumpfs era (for the purpose of this study) through to the present era, scholars have chosen to work within the boundaries of Western notation, adding new ideas out of necessity. Throughout this research period, many problems with transcription of music of an oral tradition have arisen and many innovative solutions have been proposed, thus contributing to the continuous evolution of the methodology employed in comprehensive transcriptions of Native music.. 3 CHAPTER 111 TRANSCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF PETER WEBSTER'S SONGS Ceremonial Background The particular method described in this chapter has been devised for transcription'and analysis of songs perfomied by Peter Webster. Although this transcription method is applied to Ahousat music, it is also applicable to other Native musics in North America. I have attempted to maintain * clarity (while including comprehensive information) by employing the Western notation system in an adapted form, using the fewestnumber cf descriptive signs. In the Nuu-chah-nulth culture, there me three socially significant ceremonies - tlukwanas, potlatches, and feasts. Tlukwanas, the most important winter ceremonials of this culture, are usually staged by the chief to mark important events in the lives of his family members CDrucker 1951,386). They are-dramaticperfdrmances in which the children (novices" to be initiated) are kidnapped by 'supernatural' wolves who teach them_ ~ some of their individual family's hereditary rights. The children's relatives 'rescue' the novices after a certain amount of time, and they are then ceremonially purified. Thus, through this ceremony, hereditary rights are passed on. Different versions of the ceremony are performed between each band of the Nuu-chah-nulth people (Drucker 1951), and a potlatch usually follows the tlukwana. n n n n j it.no it u u u u ' 11 j i i i 34 Potlatches are held to show the wealth cf the host through a distribution of gifts and. a- display cfthe family songs, dances, masks, and hunting and fishing rights. They are also held to transfer hereditary rights to a chiefs children (Drucker 1951,377). Many different occasions arise in which a potlatch is given, such as birth, puberty, marriage, death or merely a child's first tooth (Drucker 1951,377). Chiefs could host a potlatch in their own community, or inform another chief that they would be hosting one in his community. Both chiefs, and commonera who save enough money and goods, may host potlatches. Feasts, cn the other hand, are given in place of expensive potlatches, and/or during potlatches or tlukwanas, Reasons for giving feasts are * similar to potlatches. In addition, chiefs sometimes hold feasts to share their fishing wealth if they have had a prosperous catch. Gifts are not distributed to the guests, but large quantities cf food are prepared and consumed. Certain parts of these ceremonies are owned by the various chiefs, such as imitating a wolf in a Tlukwana, or giving a speech during a potlatch. In addition, songs and dances, which are part cf.a chiefs property, are performed during these ceremonies. -Although the songs sung by Peter Webster have been recorded in Sis home for the purpose of this study, they are usually performed for various ceremonial and non-ceremonial functions. For example, the songs sung during a tlukwana ceremony are: 13. Tlukwana War Song #1, 14. ?Namasatl (Welcome) Song, 17. Tlukwana War Song #2, and 18. Tlukwana War Song #3. Peter's potlatch songs are: 2. Paddle Song, 3. Entrance Song, 4. K'imtlk'imUla Song #2, 5. K'imtlk'imttla Song #2, 6. Marriage Song, 15. Mask Dance Song, and 16. Dinner Song. The only n n n ri u u u u. game songin this study, which is sung at a Lahal gathering, is: 12, Bone Game (Lahal) Song' -The remaining six songs, which are performed^ any time, are part of the basic Nuu-chah-nulth daily life: 1. Seal Hunters' Song, 7.Boys' Lullaby #1, 8. Boys' Lullaby #2, 9. Girls' Lullaby #1, and 10. Girls' Lullaby #%. I have presented only a short summary of some of the ceremonies in Nuu-chah-nulth culture because the main focus of this study iB upon a transcription method which would best represent the musical language of this traditionally oral culture. In the following sections of this chapter, my transcription methodology is discussed, followed by songs and their analyses. * Transcription Signs -7 = marking for short melodic phrasee, or breatho A B C = capital letters indicate separate song sections b c = stall letters indicate melodic phrases w ithin sections To A = indicate that song returns to 'A'section + = pitch raised approximately 1/4 tone ~ = pitch lowered approximately 1/4 tone J = vocal pulsations on same pitch, same word sound as. p- = actual starting pitch recorded on tape u = pitch drop by end of song "" I1 = uncertain pitch ^ = voice or drum silent = pitch drop , and/or slide to lower pitch = shouts, no specific pitch j = drum notation / = pause, less than eighth note time value Form Traditional analysis cf musical form involves the use cf terms such .* as strophic, binary, ternary, sonata, toccata, and many others (Apel: Harvard Dictionary nf Music (1975). S.v. "Fonnsimusical"). The first three forms, strophic,binary and ternary, are applicable in a general sense to Peter Webster's songs. While some Western music depends on harmony for a large part cfits structural format,Native musics does not utilize harmony in any way. The forms cf the eighteen songs in this study have been analysed according to phrases and repetitions, cadential patterns, and d r u m patterns. For the purpose cf this study, strophic is defined as one verse of t ex t (orvocables)repeated many tim.es with the same music. Binary form is defined as a song containingtwo sections, with the second section sometimes repeated (A B, or A B B), and ternary form consists of three sections, such as A B A. A strophic format was found in the majority cf these songs. Two exceptions, 4, K'imtlk'imltla Song #1, and 12,Bone Game(Lahal) Song, have strophic form, but with slight variations. The former has a form of A A A' B A, in which A' lacks three small melodic motives found in A. This factor could be due to the fact that B contains words; therefore the" A' - — sections before and after B are not meant to be the.completeA section, _bxEfr rather the two phrases cf A with B separating them. Song 12, on the other hand, has only one or two words added to the song texts in the fourth and fifth strophes;therefore, I do not believe this constitutes a new section letter (i.e. B), and I have marked its form as A A A A' A; or strophic. . One song found to be in ternary form (A B A) is 5, K'imtlk'imltla Song #2. The remaining songs with forms similar to the ternary form are: 14, ?Namasatl (Welcome Song) (AII:B:IIA), 17, Tlukwana War Song #2 2103 (ll:A:ll:BA:ll) and 18,Tlukwana War Song #3 (Ii:A:ll:B:IIA). In Native music the above applied forms are useful for general structural outlines only. Since this method of transcription stresses clarity and simplicity, form letters are used at the beginning of each new section and for directive • purposes, as opposed to Western directive terms, such as Da Capo (D.C,) or Dal Segno (D.S.). Ear example, in song4, "To A" is placed at the end of the B section. By using basic English directives, unnecessary foreign musical terms are eliminated, thus providing more easily understood transcriptions. Measurementof meter with bar lines is inappropriate for Native "*" music, with its metrically-free melodic lines; therefore, bar lines are omitted. Breath marks replacebar lines to indicate breath pauses and motivic phrases, thus enabling the eye to perceive the rhythmic freedom of the melody. The section divisions (A, B, or C) are marked with one line through both staves, while long phrases are marked with dotted lines through both staves. Repeats are indicated with the common repeat sign (: I I), with the number of repeats indicated under the drum stave. This format gives a clear picture of the main melodic phrases and sections" without unnecessarily transcribing the entire song. .. Cadential rhythmic patterns clearly indicate the ends of phrases within sections. Each song has a distinct cadential pattern and final cadences generally contain the 'finalis'. These cadences may have been used as mnemonic devices for memorizing songs. For example, 8, Boy's Lullaby #2 contains four distinct cadences on C, E, C, and G (Ex. la). n n n n ' / r n u u u u u •> i j u l. 39 g. Boys' Luu.Aoy*JZ Ex. la Song 5,K'imtlk'imHla Song #2, contains two distinct patterns, one which indicates forward motion and two which indicate finality (Ex.lty. Ex. lb on J 5. KIHTLKIM?TI.A * I t> vis Song 14,?Namasatl (Welcome) Song,is similar to 5 with marked semi-cadences and a distinct final cadence on 'F' (Ex. lc). Song 17, Tlukwana War Seng #2 , also has clearly marked cadences (Ex. Id). . Ex. lc -f— r~ H -0 f t V f •• 1 — t 4 H i -4-Ex. Id 17-flu*ANA Sous, n n n U JU u i C n c 1 J LI J 40 Song 18, Tlukwana War Seng #3 on the other hand, uses one particular cadence throughout the entire song (Ex, le), Cadences are also emphasized with certain drum patterns (see Chapter HI: Drum Accompaniment) and textual phrases (see Chapter 111 Songs and Analyses). The complex drum rhythms of Northwest Coast Native music are often difficult to transcribe. Melodic rhythms do not always correspond to the drum rhythms as singers appear to be trained to make their vocal entrance either before or after the drumbeat. Therefore, the reader w i 11 notice that in the majority of the transcriptions (see Chapter III: Songs and Analyses),the drumbeat is not transcribed to correspond exactly_with the melody. Rather than transcribe complex sixteenth- or thirty-second-note" rhythmic configurations, I have maintained the simpler rhythmic patten?" for legibility. The descriptive analyses included with the songs discuss voice and drum interaction. To illustrate complex and simple rhythmic transcriptions, the example below shows a drum rhythm from song 5, K'imtlk'im?tla Song #2, which eould be written as shown in Ex. 2b, but which is perfectly acceptable Ex. le I f . "TLukuam* UA< Drum 2106 as written in Ex. 2a. Both rhythms are the same. A note in the accompanying analysis 'cf each song explains the drum rhythm. Ek. 2a F . K L R T T U K I M T T L A ** Z J 4 J j ?0 ?0 — 70 J] X XX X-' XX X' JH > > > E\. 2b Further complexity is encountered in the duple subdivisions of tire drum beat against the triple subdiv i s ionsJnthe voicc.and vice versa. .In_tES following example (3a), 11. Weather Song, the melodic rhythm contains triplet subdivisions, with the drum beat in steady duple subdivisions. Song 1, Seal Hunter's Song, (Ex. 3b) illustrates duple subdivisions in the melody against triple subdivisions of thfc drum. 4 2 I . We ATM £ A 5on«, Ex. 3a M 1 V T Hi( sja. can — \ja caa wYi aa A X' J * > ^ -K-x-Ex. 3b I. - S e a l H u w t e e s ' Sows h irj^upni Wai 5©- ?'»- CoMpusyu-na f i rt . r t . f r f r r X X X x )< d ){ A X—X-X-The primary drum rhythm heard in Peter Webster's songs is a steady beat (eighth notes or quarter notes). The other, rhythms heard are "ciiccii?caa" which is generally a form of triplet rhythm with variants; and -"ciikaa" a tremolo, or rapidly repeated beat. "6iii$ii?&aa" comprises several different beat patterns and is used for various types of songs, such as social, dance, potlatch, lullaby, and weather songs. The following example (Ex. 4) gives an illustration of the beat patterns which are found in the songs sung by Peter Webster. ciicciW^aa Ex.4 x * * • * — A — r z ^ r r i E * — x X x' teat' n / ] . . n n 1 C.ii 1 W Although the majority of these songs use one beat pattern throughout, alternate patterns are included in several songs. For example, in song 17,* Tlukwana War Song #2, a "&ic&i?caa" beat is played in section A, but a "ciikaa" beat is played in the beginning of section B. The change of beat pattern indicates new text. In addition, a duple subdivision in the drum rhythm emphasizes the cadence in the first melodic phrase (a) of section A. Song 15, Mask Dance Song, contains the same "ciikaa" beat but at the conclusion of the song only. In song 2, Paddle Song, duple subdivisions of the drum beats are heard against triple subdivision vocal pulsations on longer note values, in general the pattern changes are usually at cadefice "" points or beginnings of new phrases. The transcription method employed^ for these patterns is clear and easy to follow because the rhythmic patterns are simplified and also transcribed to correspond directly with the melodic rhythm. The question of a particular pitch notation applicable to Native music is a difficult one. While many researchers, including myeelf, wish to transcend the common Western notation system (with regards to microtonal pitch transcription)there does not appear to be a complete solution at this time. In this study, the Western notation has been found useful, but because of its limitations (e.g., diatonic pitch representation, staves, time and key signatures) additional descriptive signs were needed to adapt it to the Native music (see Chapter 111 Transcription Signs). _ A major pitch problem in this study was Peter's lack of strength to— hold the pitch level through every song strophe* . Ife commented en this and stated: "I don't have lungs like I used to". However, although the pitch varied up or down in the songs, in our discussions Peter stressed that as long as the actual song shape (intervallic structure) was maintained, the song was still the same. Therefore, the pitch at which the song begins is not important; it could depend on how the singer was feeling at that particular moment (the voice reflects emotion and health status). Microtonal pitch changes were difficult to establish as a result of these problems; thereforeT '+/-' signs were applied only where it-was felt that there were consistent^' microtonal changes. For comparative purposes, these songs have been transposed to eliminate as many accidentals as possible. The actual starting pitch (a.s.p.) 1 In these songs, it has been necessary sometimes containing many accidentals, to eliminate the accidentals. to choose the most pitch-stable strophe and then transpose it higher or lower and the pitch of the final strophe are indicated at the beginning of each song for absolute pitch assessment (Ex. 5). — Ex.5 1. SEAL Uuwr»««' S<w« J) A In ethuomusicology today, the term "Mode in Weighted Format" is often preferred to "Scale". The latter applies primarily to styles of Western music which are composed with the use of diatonic scale tones, whereas the former is applied to various musics to identify the particular tones used in a composition and their order of decreasing importance or emphasis. In other words, each tone heard in' a song is judged according to the number of times it appears and its placement at important points in the song, such as cadences or opening phrases. Weighting the tones consists of applying' """ rhythmic values in order of-modal importance. In Chapter III: Songs and Analyses, each song transcription includes the Mode in Weighted Format. The modes from the song transcriptions are also included in Appendix B: Modes. This data will ar ist researchers in comparative studies of songs within a genre, other types of songs, and songs of other Native cultures. A descriptive visual presentation of the melodic contours is included in Appendix A: Melodic Contour Graphs. Melodic aspects not easily perceived in the transcriptions, such as tonal range, intervallic 46 structure and tonal emphasis, become more evident in these graphs. The graphs also show the relationship of mode to form. Only the noteB heard in* ^ J the songs are shown in these graphs, thus illustrating the form of the melodic phrases. Melodic contour graph and mode charts are essential data for comparative study, in addition to clear, comprehensive transcriptions. Sone Transcrintinnn and Annlvnnn 1. Seal Hunters' S o n g » Fonn: strophic; a a' a" Range: perfect fifth Mode: Do (la do re mi) Contour: undnisrtmg Drum Beat: ciic&i?£!aa • ^ Text: text and vocables This song was sung by the seal hunters during the early 190C's, which, Peter stated, was approximately when his father would have been seal hunting. The text is translated by Peter as follows: "You people haft better go and ask who your Captain is; and it is always the Captain who holds the compass". The mixture of Ahousat and English words in this song reflect the influence of the European culture oil the Ahousat people. The song consists of one verse containing three main phrases plus an ending phrase. Within the melodic structure, the a, a', and ending phrases finish on the finalis (P). The mode contains a do-re-mi pattern in the three upper notes which is found in the majority of these songs. This song contains minor third and major second intervals." A triplet rhythnfln the drum accompaniment underlies both duple and triplet, rhythms mlfiin the melodic line. ~ - : v • .1". 1. S E A L H UWTESS'' SoW'Q-M m . * "7fc 48 CorsACos«d bu seaA a' 1 5 — ' — R 1 ! - ^ M I ft r r r -W a.J.p. Vla-a- a- ay fu-as -tuu- Wa.-i ya£o Kwi S o - Cap-•x # — - A - Si -X—x- X X it X a jj-gj -FH < « 9 ± m < / A j C Z E Wqi - 0-lwai aa-ll Cap'tain. Wai so- ? Ii - Com--tain iva-i - na ^ » » -J-H-X— r ft -* * — it H yt-I E t i r m -pass ya-1 - ma. - 3 J 2E a * — — A — x — f {j?epe«T H Tinea] Mode in We-i'ghffcd Forniat B 2. Paddle Song Form: strophic; a a a''(coda) —. Range: perfect fifth Mode: Do (la ti do re mi) Contour: undulating Drum Beat: ciicai?^aa Text: vocables only, no text "hePaddle Song, also known as Canoe Paddle Song in Ida Halpern's recording (1974), functions as a canoe paddling accompaniment song and is also sung to announce a group's own arrival at another band's _ beach. The text consis ts of vocables which are phrased in two-beat * groupings corresponding with small two-beat melodic rhythms. These rhythmic groupings are sung in a rhythm corresponding approximately (at the recorded tempo) to the beat w ith which the canoe might be paddled. The three main phrases are similar to each other, but with slight rhythmic variations. The Coda repeats the opening phrase of the song, a characteristic noted in the majority of Peter's songs. The drum and melodic rhythms correspond closely to each other. The mode of.this song contains conjunct tones similar to a Western scale, but in this song 'do' is"" the middle note. Intervals ilsed in thisjjong are major and minor seconds and minor thirds. 50 TORN. J = SZ r 2. P a d h l e SoNq composed BV Pe.te.rs l^ randMwrJltircHiE Biv)' r-T—. r m 5 = p I ± t z v? a.a.p Yc? h o - ya Uuu- u>aa- he.ye yeye^e. ?£. Wuu hu [DRUM TflCET iJrTlM£] - CCAA / £ waa - hetjeyeye. yo haii Vit- heye\jt]fcyaliA.ti hfl ii \/a j ±tt Modi in W^ightad Formal 1 la 4-i f^i. **• ("»>••) [(?6CE«T 3TI«M] End n n ri n u u u u 3. Entrance Seng Form: strophic; a a' a' b b' , • .1-Range: major sixth Mode: Do (sol do re mi) Contour: undulating Drum Beat: steady beat Text: vocables only, no text Peter composed the Entrance Song for dancers to come out and line up in preparation for the following two K'imtlk'imUla dances. I asked Peter if the vocables have meaning, but he stated, "No, they just go with the— rhythm". The song consists of five melodic phrases. The first three phrases . are very similar, with each phrase employing the same cadential p ittern; the last two phrases consist of different melodic variations in both the. melodic phrases and the following cadential patterns. This song d o n o t end with a Coda. Tho fundamental range of the Entrance Song is a major third with a downward leap of a fourth occurring only.J wice. The weighted format of the mode indicates the primary tones of the song whii'h are in a do-re-mi pattern. Major thirds and major seconds are the'primary. intervals used. A comparison with Ida-Halpern's recording (i9?4; is given ; in Chapter V: CONTINUITY AND VARIATION. 52 3. E N T R A N C E So'Nq caiweosed Petfcr Webster -L p ^ & U — r t i h . . i - r . - f - . ^ r Tfa.s.p. \]o - — - — o - wid ?o- wia Wo-uia,-na. (Xwrno.1 „ , • , • ,'. * — — * 1— — 4 — — i -ft X X. * X. •* — - X — >t K K X TftCET lSrTlHe • S-BEAT INTRODUCT>»N» Z TirtE' ? r ^ y * » lit-ya-?ii-ha he-wia,- na h<&-ya- ?ii Wo - o wia he," -wia- na -a— x x—X- -X—X- B i a - = = — ' . " . . " / £ V ) | > j" J. I I L J ' J - > . J _ . J J J> ' f t i A 1 '— « < l I'M- f-c-yet-?ii 0 . • ~ wia ?e.-o>u/Ta-na. — 1 | | — 1 1 1 | I'.-. I • "'  fi x -X »: r* i — x x -x— :—x x x—J——x—*—A-—-m r — n n n n u y u u IS I 0 ' SJ fcorit.) l l ±=1 i ¥ ± £ * ? } i 7~ J. ?e--ya- ?ii-lia. ?g-o • wia - r\a ? e-\|aa-?ili - ho -r £ X X X H) r r 9 ? : — — ffi—^ J J—s-H — ; , > . f t • M- » .. . • . I r 0 - ?£-o-wia - na ?e-ya-?ii Vio . - . — - M -Hf * X —X *—X— -Xr—WH k • . : ( R e p e a t 3x's) Hod a in VJaighftd Format" so I do 3=£ re. rwi 4. K'imtlk'imMa Song #1 Form: A (a a' a a'VB (a a") . • Range: minor sixth Mode: Do (la do re fa) Contour: undulating Drum Beat: cii^cii?2aa Text: text and vocables The name o f this song means "to go up and down". It is one cf a pair of dance songs which are preceded by the Entrance Song. Peter stated that at a potlatch money is given out after these dances are performed. The translationof the text by Peter is as follows: "I am the first one to dance * along the coast here; I am a song composer". This song is comprised of two sections - A and B. Section A consists offourphrases which contain vocables only. SectionB consists of two phrases, with vocables in the first phraBe and text in the second phrase. A drum solo separates the two sections. The rhythmic pattern of the drum accompaniment (known as "cu8cii?caa") consists of three beats on the drum within two metric beats. The slash after the second eighth beat in the pattern signifies a hesitation; this accommodates the dancers jumping" up"" at that time and landing on the third drum beat. .. .. The mode of this song is slightly disjunct, with two minor third intervals separated by a major second. A comparison with Ida Halpem's recording (1974) is given in Chapter V. IVIMTLKIM?TLA SONG, mm-J= i«>2- £ Coin posed \»w PzU'r Webster 55 n r A — * — * — / # — ^ IT' a.s.f. O - w e o - we. o - we -H J J f J' J J J B ? a ?aa o -£ * n a _ 4 I 4 — > — e — ~r-/ * 1 0 - we 0- M t> ?aa - - ?a ?a ?aa g ft n f q m ^ j i a »f-!— 1. y* KT*-fA 3 E 3 X' * X T — J _ 1) -1 - .•/ -- -- ^ } ^ — J J . — » -.we - - - - ?a ?aa 0 -_we ?a —i' r' r —l/ 1—1 ' i— — -a - " ' i i— - f — ^ — > - 4 1 — ' H 1 )—F — r~ -ft— n x x* * - * — * — — x ' x x x ' x. x X > > > > > > i (a. ccnt.) 56 L r—-p p t s -we. - - i i i j j J*— - a a , ' K -j' J 1 J . o- we. - - » - aa 0 - we. - i 'J J j? J . L_1 i -—a^ - aa J J) J 1 » * — » « K A Jl11-*' —« t—Se > > > - > • > . > - ) : — - — . , • . . . — * - p Wii yc •o a- r ^ la hii - / h r f f. r / s r f h . Hwi! 1 I —^s ^ ^ x; ^ X i W : j t^—x' x x!'—j A M ' — £ — — x ? x — ^ — j > ^ > ( f c - p e a t l x ) £ , / ( 3 • > FT-} 5 - 3 — J *>—J—J— J J—i % * * — 1 6' _ - O - w e o - w e o - w e - - ~ - ?a-e _ o-we-/ [, - ^ h — ^ - f i — ^ — — £ — — ?(-x1 x1 x1 A ' — — x -M ; ; > ? . > > > > > n n n n i r i -> u u u u .11 3. c c (l.corrt) +— ?OQ -* ^ 1 j T J J — <5-w& rstaim-s - 0. \xlb s& mi W s - K ? y a ,i> n ^ n 7 J> D ^ . n ' = £ = a ^ W x ss—* x A — k — j e — 2 = X Ld-To A. ft J J - J — 7)a% 1al / _ / , — , / T r 5. Kimtlk'imltla Song #2 Form: A (a a') B (a a" a') ~ ' Range: perfect fourth Mode: Do (la ti do re) Contour: undulating Drum Beat: aic&i?caa Text: text and vocables This song is the second song of the danoe song pair mentioned in the previous analysis (song4). The text translated by Peter is as follows: "I am the one who composes songs for anyone; I am the one who composes songs w.'.d sings all along the coastline". Melodic contours, drumbeats and melodic phrasings are similar in both K'imtlk'im?tla songs. This song is also comprised of two sections •• A rind B. Section A contains vocables in the two phrases (a and a'), while section B contains both text and vocables in phrases a and a", with vocables only in the third phrase (a'), The melodic range is smaller than that of song 4, and consists of major and minor seconds only. In the mode of song 5, the notes are conjunct. Both 4 and 5 contain the same "&iccii?caa" drum rhythm and the two sections of song 5 are separated by the same drum pattern as that found iir 4. Peter's recording of this song in 1991 is. compared with Ida Halpern's recording (1974) in Chapter V. J -S. KlMTUOM?n.A S o M S ^ Z 59 <?b Composed Uu P e t k r VOebs-tSrr A . d .. b 3 = # a.s.f. ? 0 ?o i=tl - ?0 ? o Kwai UH- kVi . n ' j ? . n ' j ) n ' . t . n 1 X x — x x x* x^  >< x' * - x — x yre E ± *r | J Y J ; J — I - J - J hwai Irwi - Vii'i 1 ?0 ?0 -/ liwai li'i U i I / — / 3 n ' Is n ' 1 i ^ r f l * n r f l> ft x1 < x' x x | X' nx x' * x x' a y x ' r OH >T l,rT>ne 1, -BJ Viwai Vu kit - -J \ „ / VIM Viuo J-, J"- ffl- m *-*-f X It — * £ > £MO > > n n n n u u u u (2.c a t.) B. 5 ?0 ?o - 7 0 70 ~ Sii l y a a faa v 1 /?* * yoa K if — X ' tiix- A-J J- — # x *f if' K p p ' } , j j J J 4 : j i -e *- — 7 T \jaa nuu w^ity- sii J fO ID - sii ?aa f r—,/ f_ —>i . _/ / •-./ K - U wi. ji n i > n ' j > i f ; , u i i > j a 1 j j ' j t s To A. } J J J J . j . ' J - ^ * — t r - ? •*—*—o r~0 * * , ?<jaa ejus \jaa miu^siim-. >jis " -h ?o - • hwa'i hi Wii Kwarhi'Wu-—if' „/ > ? > > Moda in WafgMfcd format I t w 4 J * J |a K re. 6. Marriage Song Form; strophic; a a',a!,-b a' a' b (coda) ^ Range: major sixth Mode: Do (sol la do re mi) Contour: undulating Drum Beat: steadybeat Text: vocables, no text The Marriage Song was initially dreamed by Peter when he was ill with tonsillitis. At a recent family marriage, he decided to sing it in order to give it a name. Since songs are generally classified according to their function in this culture, such as Mask Dance Song or Dinner Song, this song is now known as a Marriage Song. Peter stated that he would like to create a dance for it and add some text. Further discussion of this song's development is included in Chapter rV: SONG TEXTS AND VOCABLES. There are two melodic motifs which are repeated and varied slightly in each phrase (J1 i and J73 J). Beat subdivisions in the melody vary from duple to triple, while the drum rhythm maintains a steady duple eighth note pattern. The melodic phrases are in twc/ groups (a'a'b), with a short introductory phras'e preceding them; The Coila'is a rotat ion of the - — !i * N opening melodic phrase. 'Do'is the middle arte iof th'-ft.song's modal _ format, and forms part of the do-re-mi pattern in the upper range. Intervals used in the song are major seconds, major and minor thirds and perfect fourths. m m . ) ' 72 (>• Marriage SONG a u 6 2 imposed b u rt+fei- VJebs+e*-. E i / * vJ? Q.s.p. I i" - yii lit ytni no a - ya Iii ya w ?ya -m a n J J M M J J J J J J b ^ .a' i v ? ? > * (L hi \ja ni na hi y£*y«ni na ya -4 y« hiya ni n a - ya .! ' I N ,U I n . I J I J ,I I J T C T Coda t f & M hi ^a ni na hi ^flyanirw Hii ya n r i A >>• » / • A A * * x * * * Mode, in Vki<]hte.d Forrnaf r z t hii -yihi >ja m na. hii -X XR •J J J -N i (ReqtaX 3x's) £ Sol Ifl do r« mi 7. Boys' Lullaby #1 Form: strophic;ab c d — Range: minor seventh Mode: Do (la do re mi sol) Centaur: undulating, smalljumps Drum Beat: steadybeat Text: text only Peter heard this lullaby sung by Noah Thomas and his wife, whom he knew when he was a little boy. He translates the text as follows: "Little bullhead (baby cod), mosquito larva, little flounder, very small flounder, (grass coloured) little bird, little sparrow (immature cedar waxwing), what is it?, what is it?". The complete song is comprised of four different melodic phrases (a b c d). Each melodic phrase contains two tedxal phrases, such as "cii ?in waa (little bullhead), haa£ tin waa (mosquitolarval" which are found in phrase a. The drumpattern is in a steady quarter note rhythm underlying the syncopationheard in parte of the melody. Intervals used in this song are major and minor seconds and major and minor thirds.- Several motivic variations (notedabovc the stave) are found in each repetition of the song. The pitch drops a miner third from the first note to the final repetition;- The mode format contains the three primary tones (do re mi) in the middle with two less important tones found a minor third above and below this pattern. 7 . B o y s ' LULUBY 64 Comp. unknown -Cii ?m waa I l a a t t in loandtca iis puu I J i J J m A m ± —4-4- * <r hu ?is faa caas ha« Kwin moa ac^ iis tiK is ?i £±=E ±=± ! I-A A Ar-A—A Zd aq iis t i tf is ?i J ,! J , (Repeat ax's) Mode in Wai^hte-d format la do re mi So n n n n U U U U'' i C 'D n I j J u 0. Boys' Lullaby %2 Fonn: strophic; a a . . ~ ' Range: perfect fifth Mode: Do (do m i sol and le) Contour: undulating Drum Beat: steady beat Text: text, with two vocables This song is a very short, comic lullaby which has an affectionately teasing quality. The text, translated by Peter, states; "He has hair between his legs, at the back". There are two melodic phrases in this song which both contain the same text. The melodic rhythm cf the second phrase varies slightly from the firstphrase. Each song repetition utilizes a different cadence based on the three triadic notes found in the Do mode of this song. Minor and major thirds comprise the intervals used. The drum accompaniment rhythm consists of a steady eighth note pattern. 2. BOYs LULLABY *Z 66 oseA iu flctejc. WW.'R I SI composed i  VCUjc. Kjlbs+tr'P L^clt 6E o.s.p. ttaa pirj-K stasis ?is Hqq piqK staK Xis ?is hi r J~x I * — x — x — x — * x—*—*—>t—x. I J •' N i ?is hi ya x * x #r Eric ?is . ± 5 Mode, in Wfciqhtfcd Formal 67 9. Girls' Lullaby #1 Fcam: strophic;aaa'b b (coda) . . ' Range: perfect fifth Mode: Do (dore mi sol) Contour: undulating Drum Beat: aiccii?caa Text: text, few vocables Peter remembers hearing this lullaby sung by his distant uncle from Nuutka when he was a s m a 11 boy. The text is translated by Peter aa follows: "Younglittle girl, young little girl, young little girl, small little girl, small pretty girl, little one, little girL". There are five melodic phrases in this song followed by a coda. "he first three phrases are rhythmically similar and contain the same text. In the last two melodic phrases, the rhythm varies and there is new text. In general, the melodic contour descends in an undulating style from the highest note of the mode to the two lower notes. The melody consists of major second and minor third intervals only. Both the melodic and drum accompaniment rhythms utilize triplet beat subdivisions. However, in this song the drum is struck cnthe second note of the triplet causing the drum beat to soundjust after, the melodic beat.-Do' is the low est note.of the mode, thus forming the do-re-mi pattern in the three lower notes. m m .J- ?0 Qirls' Lullaby *1. 68 cornp. Pettr's Uriels, "" Wuut^a. H Jj P.s.p. KwVi?8fl^ isi KwVi7Qfl/lis?0 ho baa Kwi 7ao/{i.s ?0 ho W U t r •u' ^ U ' t r f CocJo LI 2 # * * t i n ~ T T T » ' i t i T % * * i i haaKwaa/lisO ho ?aa IO. Kua^ &iriVii 51 cu Juaftja8Kwir\?iis it P M ^ /JV'J* V J ' V J YJVJ ' FFL I vlt Vl ^ wVi7aaKis 0 R Y'F ^ FL £nd Mode in Weighted ForMflt \W do ve mi sol 2134 10. Girls'Lullaby #2 Form: strophic; a a'.-a'^  a' a" (coda) .a. Range: perfect fiflh Mode: Do (la do re mi) Centaur: undulating Drum Beat: steady beat Text: text only This lullaby was composed by Peter's mother; he stated that he heard her singing it to his fouryounger sisters. The text,translated by Peter, states: "I have a cute little girl". This is a repetitive sons which consists of five melodic phrases. Each melodic phrase contains the same text and the same rhythm. The coda concludes the song with a repeat of the opening melodic phrase. The do-re-mi pattern is found in the three upper notes of the mode although the modal emphasis is triadic. Intervals used in this song are major seconds, minor thirds and perfect fourths. A steady quarter note beat pattern is heard in the drum accompaniment. J - . m m J = UU 10. CJlRLS1 LuLtftBY *2. 70 C.omp. Pe.-te.rs Monver a .« I I i y J > — — / — * — Haajmq sqtjs ha Kwa < ha at mo satjs Via Km -ja'/1# . I i I t—f-i i_ _t "3 3 3 J — * — X - "7* 7T Jl /I =2 a a I I J J J . R I J w ^ • Vv , Viaal ma saijs ka Kwaya/G,\naatrrta.7a^ sop han't ma sa<js ha Vdjn yc$ ? J I I L iT A ' J •K Codq -3-- J - J ha Kwa = F = F F hadtw7^ -&Ja -X X-~[&>*<vt lx) Mode in Waightad Format D - — End. la .co re. wi n n r> n u, u u u 31. Weather Stag Form: strophic: a a a a' a" (coda) _ Range: perfect fifth Mode: Do (la do re mi) Contour: undulating Drum Beat: steadybeat Text: text only The Weather Song is sung to bring good weather. Dogfish apparently swim close to the shore when the sea is calm. Thus, the text is translated by Peter as follows: 'We dogfishwant to come in the good •weather; I wish they would come to the shore and bring good weather. * '(Weather) become calm and nice". There are five melodic phrases in this song, the last four being variations of the first phrase, "he coda is unusual with its spoken pitches descending on one syllable "Oq". Peter explained that "Oq" is short for "Oqma" which means "become calm and nice", "he steady eighth note drum beats underly the triplet rhythmic subdivisions in the melody. Minor thirds, major thirds and major seconds are the intervals used in this song. The mode consists' of four notes -within the range of a perfect fifth and-the-do-re-mi pattern is shown as the three upper notes. » ^ 11. W e a t h e r S o n s 72 Itlrvi. J - It. a Sunn t»uL ftfair's He^ Vu.wVtjmvtJiSn.wcjk+isrs g i^j—i vlj ~ ' m: Z H 1 J ' * — / ^ a-sf-Hii ya Eaa - yo caa wii aa cpaa'Aa- na - o wi 7,!J J 1J J ' J N - J - M - I m w < J H J * ' O J Ut » / # » yi %aa na o wi ? 0 ^yi ya faa na o ua jp'it ya u - ^ ya T J 7 - R R - M R N ~ N R J J J J J J J , N N [*3",TIH£ To ct>£I • Coda r—rrrr — * * * of cqawu aa -?e -j j ,1,1 ,1.1 3 (Repeat fix's) Mode iri Weighted Formaf • ( - V -ui |a do re 2138 12. Bone Game (Lahal) Song Form: strophic; a a a' b (coda) ' — - -Range: perfect fifth Mode: Do (do re fa sol) Contour: undulating Drum Beat: steadybeat Text: vocables, text Bone game songs are sung during Lahal, or gambling, gatherings. They are usually exciting songs often sung to distract the opposing team. The drum rhythm of this song is maintained at a fast steady tempo while -v the melody consists of major seconds with perfect fourth and minor third leaps. The song is sung with vocables only the first three times and has text added in the final two repetitions. Peter translated the text as follows: "It is similar to little breastilike rounded sand hills under the water." The phrases, a a a' b, cmtain similar cedentialpattern with slight variations in the b phrase. The coda of this songutilizes a variation of the cadential pattern as opposed to the openingphrase found in the codas of the previous songs. The mode consists of .two major secced intervals separated by a minor third and'do'is the lowest note. n n n n , i r n n u b u u JI j 3 V 74 12. Bone Game (Uhal) Sons c»»f>. feterWebster i.a.3. Xi haa tS.07US - - - K h a a - y - wa ba ya ya y w« ha ? ii boa 0?US ? J J J J J . J U J ) .FFFFIR H rr x .x .X I P B T — & vj? ~ — 7 -aa - -K Viaq- - y wa ha ! ? i i i y b a a ya - yo- y wa ba , ^ut'uc Kii -ft * * X .•» ^ M X-X-* J; J 1 J 1 J ha - s 3 3 m 4 ; 3 : ^ P I yawttti! I S * — t e e 7 * ?aa - y waa ya ha ha aa bii?ii ?ii aa aa y w a h e - y a . -ya ya y waa -ya b«bft ha h'ii yi ( h u W ) aa^y wa.-he.-ya. • y .1,1 j j •) J J J J J . M . ' J J J I . 1 - ' . ' - 1 J i (Repeat 4*'5) jt A j x ; • - / 5 "V Z7 75 *I2. ft " I ' l l . yaa- ^a- y wa ha ha. \ a he g n 1 JT 4 - 4 - H -4 - -|-J M [X A -X-X End Mode in Weighted Format ) : j i j l . L - z : : V o d — ^ — — : — do re fa St>l V 13. Tlukwana War Song #1 Form: strophic; a bh' b c (coda) ~ ~ " Raj <ge: perfect fifth Mode: Do (la do re mi) Contour: undulating DrumBeat: steadybeat Text: text and vocables This song was taken from one cf Peter's tapes which he had recorded many years ago. As he was in better health his voice was much stronger then, and the pitch dropped only one half step by the end of the song. PctW— translated the text as follows: "I make a thundernoise (roar) in the mountains-in-a-line,because I am (made) of the killer .whale which becomes (turns into, by supernatural means) wolf'. This song belongs to the entire Ahousat band and is known as a "BigSong" because all the people can participate in it by singing and dancing. There are three primary melodic phrases (a b c) in addition to two variations of the b phrase. A coda, repeating the small opening phrase, ends the song. The. steady duple eighth nobs dram rhythm underlies the extensive use cf syncopation in the melodic line. The final song repeat contains a call in the third phrase (b')r- "taci?il", meaning "cut", is"called by. the song lender to warn the singers and dancers that the end of the song is approaching. The modal format is similar to some of the previous songs with the do-re-mi pattern in the upper range. m m J = ?? a 13.TLukuawa Sowc,*!. b d o n a s -tku flhouatt ptcpk' 77 J = t = -»—t-J? aAP- \if Wqq hii ho - waa - hii ya ha o ho. ii ye , I , U J J J J J J. J J J J. J J J J J l — ^ 0 » f^jf ^ j i t Wax- hii ha Uaau-aa waa- t-WKaa Kaaii-aa- cim-aps iw £ T a A A-d lir-f-J—^ -^^j"J >1 .i — k -»—t- t r - 4 = * — O >—>—*• 4—4—t-t J miu ca^nutwci. aa-.y-.a' -uaa.- 1a-r\a kaay haa-M j J j j J , J •) ,-i J J J J J J J O J - d n n n ri iu u p u i C>u D i j i J 78 # 1 3 . (a. cont.) •*—* f 4- — * — * — Q r suti?tao yan, Kaa - Kaa wma£ ?i cya y a coyiK.Waa- h a y a . ft d K xl A-[fi£«AT 3 Tihbj coda - * — / '2 Wcm hii ho A — * -End in Weiijkt&d Format 1 a-lo i o mi n n n n i c 11 u u u .u. u 11 j . S I 2144 1 4 . ?Namasatl (Welcome) Song • Form: A (ab) B: (a'-a'Lb) C: (a' a" b) (coda) Range: perfect fifth Mode: Re (do re fa fi sol) Contour: undulating Drum Beat: steadybeat Text, text and vocables This song which also belongs to the Ahousatband, is sung during the tlukwana ceremony as a Welcome Song, or after the tlukwana as a Brave People Seng-. The text, translated by Peter, states: "I am rot ashamed that I am a tlukwana chief. I have a thundering noise because tf my tribe, and also because I belong to a big strongtribe". The three shouts in the opening mean "Jump!" and are used as an indication for the dancers to begin dancing. Other calls during the song are: "Hu?aas" meaning "repeat", "amaciB' meaning "go on" and "aaw ?namasatl" which means "welcome". There are three irain sections cf this song • A, B, and C. Section A consists cf two phrases (a,h), while sections B and C each consist cf three phrases (a', a", b). .The drum accompaniment'heard through sectione -and B is omitted in section C, The steady eighth nqta beat pattern underlies melodic syncopation similarly found in song 13. The coda repeats the opening phrase, which has been noted in many cf the previous songs. Two unusual factors noted in the mode are the finalis which is 're', and the upper three notes which are chromatic. Major seconds, minor thirds, and perfect fourth intervals are used in this song wi ih a minor second found in both the opening phrase and the coda. > n n n n i r u r u u u LI < • i b 1 j mi»iJ='Hi lH.?NAMft5ftTL(WeLCOME)S0NQ be longs 4.0-ftuu Ahousat feeble. A. a 80 n n n 5 i t t \ 4——t-—k-*—W W-El a a B-B a g. Tux sil 4wsiX t'uxsiX Hui! / l a - i J hi yaa-W hi ya aa-u hi j ,i - I , ! v x — * — * > * J h -hu>aas a"'"' Tn B /r» c J ^ ^  J~1 ^ J J 7 J~3 / /—4- t t * ya ya ya-a hi hi hi ya a a — w aa. yi - hi y» ? J J , ! J ,U. ,U n a J J J J J B . - r m r ^ 6- J! J . h 1 w i j J * t • i ^ _± WiK s a a - his-waa. - foK-a-nisjjn sim-afl , haa;wayii£ _.hi_yan J J J J . I J J I J J,j,',rj M 7 ~ N ± x > ' n n n n , i c ~u L u u u u i j l b 81 b v . v- aawNtuxaja^  ! "Tffh ] n / To ft yd ^RA' hi Vi 1 hi lii yja aa — u aa yii hi yaa-n n n n - n n n X X ^ — — K X x —.v. x. ,i; M G 1 1 H 1 — + ZJ-TuiX'-kua 7aK54?ims mo-ma. ?i ?a nisrm?a yii-s hi yaa ya yw "To A. Coda hi V\ hi ^  aa.- w ha^i Hi yaa Moje ih W^i'ghted Format do « fa f/ sol -e> a M ^ Aaw hayaW aya~1naw)iayi. A .N ,N End. 16. Musk Dance Seng Form: strophic; a a' - — Range: perfect fifth Mode: Do (do re mi sol) , . Contour: undulating with disjunct motion Drum Beat: ciiccii?2aa and ciikaa Text: vocables, no text ;; : The Mas k Dance Song functions as a preliminary song for dancers; to don their masks for the actual Mask Dance. Northwest Coast masks are often quite large with moving parts (such as raven beaks) and must be tied on to the dancer. Masks are also owned property and are usually worn fox ceremonial functions to display a person's wealth. This song consists of two phrases (a, a') and uses vocables only. The triplet drum rhythm known as "&i£&i?£aa" is heard throughout the song; however, a "£iikaa" (tremolo) beat is included at the end of the song. "iaci?i" is called out by the song leader during the final repeat to inform the singers and dancers to stop at the end of that repeat. The Do mode of this song consists primarily of three triadic notes with a less emphasized do-re-mi pattern, and two passing tones each heard twice. Intervals such as major and minor seconds,, and" major and-minor thirds are used in this" song. Mm. J = 7 <o I S Mask D a n c e Sows ^ 83. j. P f I N N I -I ' * * * J-£i \U a sf Yii ?ki yo ho U y o he. o hii - hi o hii - hi ^ >1 >1 i J j J i i ,J i , . ) j , i ,fi M. I>K;>M~IAC£T lJrT)M£ TO * — E ^ ^ Q Zaliii -p—* * — i - J J^• *—if y»i?hi y° ho he yo he yii o ko he yo he yo he. * — * V * J< * A- A X X -A A A' ••»: A AH &( fo f ta i 4x's> Mode. in We-iglrtecl Format 'i. Ji>) f- r a . ffc rm sol 16.Dinner Sang 'Formistrophic; a a' a" (coda) Range: minor third Mode:Do (tidore) Contour: undulating Drum Beat: steady beat Text: vocables, text Peter sang this Dinner Song at an Alert Bay dinner on northern Vancouver Island. Although the first three repetitions contain vocables primarily, the few words used in the last two repetitions are in the Kwakiutl language. The text is translated by Peter as follows: "Come and cat". This song consists of three phrases employing little variation. The opening phrase is repeated in the coda. The melody undulates within a minor third range, with the mode consisting of three notes - ti do re. A steady eighth note drum pattern accompanies the triplet and quarter note melodic rhythm. The pitch drops a minor third by the last repetition of the song. m m J= 70 it. DINNER SONS 85 Cony. Pcitr U&bster a a t * — * \Jf a.s. p. i-z.».Hii ya-o liQfl na ya-0 haa na , hii ya-ohq la- haaWj?ya-o haa na .haa'W- h'u" nau ?ii iTx = "I j. J i -X-> ^  > rJ iE AaciO Coda ( -o haa na (Viii ya-o haa nail \ja-o liaa na, ya-c Hflf na , HVi ya-o Iioa nan ya-° Hii •yo-o haa na ,i J .J 'J „ n n , n J 3 jH«. « X .< * ^ W W p W r T i w ? I I T f - 0 hi 3 J ~ f j - 8 — d — > — * -End. Moda in Weighfed format F 3 ^ 5 i i do r t n rr n n i i r r i u-u u a •'•» ii j "i 2151 17. Tlukwana War Song #2 Fonri: A (a a') B (a" a')" -Range: major sixth Mode: Do (sol do re mi) Contour: undulating Drum Beat: ai£cii?caa, ciikaa Text: text, a few vocables According to Peter, this song was sung during a tlukwana sometime prior to the Ahousat-Ootsusat war. Wiinaaxanis/the head chiefs younger brother, and HaayuupinuJ the second chief, apparently wanted to initiate a_ coup against the head chief because he was not interested in preparing for" war. Peter translates the text as follows: "I am thinking differently from the other chiefs, who are thinking only about good things". The two sections with i n this song, A and B, are each comprised of two phrases (a and a'). The s ame phrase cf text is used in both phrases of section A, while section B contains new text which is also used in both phrases. Both song sections employ the same cadential phrase. The drum rhythms vary during the song, perhaps for dramatic effect.. In section A, the "ciic£ii?caa" triplet rhythm is used, with a duple beat subdivision Hear? in the cadence of the first phrase. Section B uses the "ciikaa" rhythm in'the firstmelodic phrase, but the drum is silent during the second phrase of the melody, The starting pitch has gradually dropped a major th ird by the final repetition of this song. Intervals used are major seconds with perfect fourth leaps found in the cadences. The mode shows the primary tones (do re mi)-as the upper notes, with a downward leap of a fourth to sol. n n n n . u u ut u * I C C 3 'i J J £ 87 mm. J= 10 Jt A. 17. X u KUflWfl WfiR Sons *2.. Wnnaaxanis/ljaayuupmuifc cr-£ 3 3: £ k/o xaa-c-i's uKs wa'w<ui?is i'i's wa ?aa fe yaa- ya , i ~x ?—< ;~>1 J E X X X — — * X X—ft X X fr [DRUKTBCET |"TI«E] Xaa-c- is ufe unwoafis )isua?aaiu - ~ - ?ii ya ye ha yo Vice i , .•»,•.•»'. , ' , . > . . * i , I ' J x ^ — 2 ) ? . v — X "j J X i jj J • "J > -3-i— B. a I T * J * ~r hi ya hi v \wav. I (hoi fyot). — * — ? » f 3 3 0 t/u-Kwi? riqajmfl-CM ? a - P i i h'a- wii-ft-fiii rii m m (-trample) ffl7- m i f m a J—J- « * * yaa ynn ( uu-Kwi£ naasma-cu?a-ha-wiifiwa?<3 ii - — ft . Hp-JLa 3 ¥ t H » o » < ?ii yaa yaa ha yo ha hii ya ^hii yaa Mode in Uei^Vited Forirurl" i Sol ie rt mi 55 18. Tlukwana War Song #3 Form: A: (a a')B:-(a a") (coda) Range: minor seventh Mode: Do (re fa la te do) Contour: undulating Drum Beat: steady beat Text: text and vocables This song was also sung by Wiinaaxanis and Haayuupinu£ during a tlukwana. Peter translated the text as follows: "I can't turn to war (for some reason). I can stop the rivers flowing if I turn to war", "he two _ sections, A and B, each contain two phrases. The first phrase of each section contains vocables, while the second phrase of each section contains text and is a variation cf the first phrase. The coda repeats the first four notes of the opening phrase. The melodic contour of each phrase begins on the highest note of the mode, descends to the lowest note, and finally ascends (in the cadential pattern) to the highest note. This presents a different modal format than the other songs, with 'do' as the highest note of the mode (as defined by the Weighted Format). Intervals found in this song are; major and minor" seconds, minor thirds and perfect fourths. The primary drum - -accompaniment rhythm is a steady quarter note pattern. In the second phrase of section B, however, the drum is silent. The drum rhythm in the final repeat o? section A changes to a fast eighth note beat pattern to conclude the song. 90 fVlrvi. J = 104 18. TLuku/RWA WAR. SoM^ * 3. l-/n i H P -3 ; — - 5 — — — ... . . . • >1 fi J • i kr^gj-^ \ H "•*•?• J, ~ ^ 4 Aa - w ha yaa ya.aa-w ha yaa ya .aa- w ha yaa ya -1—i 1 1 , J -j—1—i -4—4 - 5 — j ^ J jt-f-X X -X- K X X- * X P * U M : l * t T i n * - T f l e e r LAIT Tin ( - BC«T eie»TH N M t i A 5 » ' » * 4 — * » < aa- w hfl \jaa y«i?i sit aas umap!>i/(-iK sa ?aanr ?aa-w ha J U J ,! J J J J J J [Last+i^-O**^ P t F T = F » • *• ' 0 . —* 0—tf——* yaa ya I ? J , J . u , * ' Aa- w ha -yaa ya^aa-u yaA y x J J J J — x - — x — n n ft n 1 c c 1 U U U U , , 1 I J J B U I 8 . (i.COnt) 91 7 . H (t i i ji ^ J. i j j )ja , aa - w ha yaa ya : J 1 — 9 ?Wii wi hat sa. nap cms caa caaK u-map 4—1—1 J—l—i *—*—* x—x— M . - - --J ^ [ZN0lmtTo f\fCo<ia--9 4 i H | j . i I h v* si/I <jus cp SO ?aarvi Qfi - W ha \jaa. ya Aa - u ha 5 A X X X * E n d Moda in Weighted Format R J -fa la \e> d° n n ri ft i r r i V u u u u _> j \ i \ 92 CHAPTER IV SONG TEXTS AND VOCABLES Within the Native Canadian culture, songs are composed for specific functions, such as canoe paddling, or dancing. " he songs which Peter recorded for this study are performed at large functions, espeeisHy tlukwana ceremonies, lahal gatherings, potlatches and feasfD r u v""' examples cf specific song functions include calming stormy weather, putting on masks, preparing for dancing, dance accompaniment, dinner prayer, seal hunting preparation, in addition to lullingbabies. The song texts usually describe the function of the songs, and u?ay also reflect the mood cf the composer. The text information reveals r the philosophies and traditions cf the people living within this culture, Therefore, I feel that it is extremely important to have complete text transcription and translation included Stu<^e®'of Native mu8^0, - -So™ s Grouped Bv Textual Content In this chapter, the song texts and translations cf Peter's r e c o r ^ ^ are included as reference material for the textual discussion. The soijgs m i i m M a ite A j f i A b w to rt fee discussed within other classifications. For ex •'- uldbe discussion, they are grouped according to their text and/or vocable content, n'n rin'~. f r r ' n * • itrii.11.11 . ,:,!-. ;-, :-! . . I i.e. vocables only, text and vocables, text only, "his method cf grouping has produced interesting observations which will be discussed below. • — -Songs comprised primarily cf vocables require "emic" (inside) knowledge from a person cf that culture to fully comprehend each song's function and meaning; the vocables alone do not contribute enough information to determine the function cf these songs. Examples of this song type are 2,Paddle Sang, 3,Entrance Song, 6,Marriage Sang, and 15, Mask Dance Song, Of these four songs, 3 and 15 function as preliminary songs for another specific function. For instance, 3 is performed as an entrance song to allow the dancers time to put en their costumes and line * up for dancing. Similarly, song 15 is performed for the dancers who are putting en their masks in preparation for the actual Mask Dance which follows. Song 2, en the other hand, is sung by people arriving in a canoe to give a potlatch, or when greeting guests on the beach. This song's function is made clear by the use of melodic and. drum rhythms which correspond with the steady rhythm of the canoe paddlers. Song 6, although now a Marriage Song, was dreamed by Peter when he was very ill with tonsillitis. He sang this song when he was feeling slightlybetter, at which time it functioned as a type of healing song. He stated that "since I sang it I "" haven't had that (illness) again". (Itwould be interesting to conduct-, -further studies cf this type cf healing song.) The songs of this first group thus have a functional classification within their textual classification. The second group cf six songs, comprised cf both text and vocables, tends to express both feelings and philosophies of the singer. The song functions, however, vary from dance accompaniment, dinner prayer, itfl^ war songs, to welcome songs. Songs such as 4, K'imtlk'im?tla Song #1, 5, K'imtlk'im?tla Sen? #2, 13. Tlukwana mrSong #1, 14. ?Namasatl (Welcome) Song, 16. Dinner Song, 17. Tlukwana War Song #2, and 18. Tlukwana War Song #3, are performed in the context if a large gathering, i.e, Tlukwana, potlatch, or feast. Songs 4 and 5 are specifically dance songs which are sung together with the Entrance Song (3 in the transcriptions ~ Chapter IE) preceding them. "K'imtlk'im?tla" means "to go up and down", which signifies that the songs are for dancing. These songs composed by Peter describe his function within his culture, as song composer and song leader. For example, in song 4 he states: "I an the first one to dance along the coast here, as I am a song composer", and in song 5 he statee: "I am the one who makes songs for anybody, I am the one who — makes songs and sings all along the coastline". The fifth song in this second group, 16,Dinner Song, uses little text, but this text serves a direct function informing people that they should "come and eat". The text of this particular song is in the Kwakiutl language from .AlertBay, thus indicating interaction between the two cultures through feasting. There has been much interaction between the various cultures cn the Northwest Coast and songs are often passed cn through marriage -yith a person from another. band or aulture; They can be given as a marriage gift, or as part cf a woman's dowry. Songs, such as 9,- Girls' Lullaby #1, "which was composed by Peter's uncle from Nuutka, are sometimes learned from other cultures also (although this is not usual because of Northwest Coast song ownership). In addition, composers may sometimes be asked to compose a song for a special occasion, such as a potlatch. As a result different languages become enmeshed within another culture's musical repertoire, and often the singers do not understand the text meaning. 95 The remaining songs in this second group, 13, 14,17 and 18,belong to 'the entire Ahousat tribe. 'Peter calls these songs "Big Songs" as everyone — participates in them by singing and/or dancing. Although these particular songs are Tlukwana 'Wfenr Songs, 13 and 14 function as Welcome Songs (?Namasatl), welcoming the guests to the tlukwana ceremony. Song 14 contains a shout by the lead singer which states "Aaw ?namasatll", meaning "Aaw welcome!". The singer cf this song describes himself as a tlukwana chief ("haaw?iilth) and brags about his importance because he belongs to a "'big strong tribe". Through this information, researchers can understand part cf the interrelationship between a chief and his people. Song 13 is a statement by the singer about his supernatural connections with the killer whale (which was thought by the Nuu-uhah-nulth to live in a house beneath the sea) and the wolf (whichwas thought to live in a big cave beneath the mountain). Drucker relates a story about the killer whales actually becoming wolves by supernatural means (Drucker 1951,162). In additon, if a person 'saw' this happen, this supernatural transformation would become part cf his family's property. The supernatural is very important property in Nuu-chah-nulth traditions, and in this song the singer is boasting about his great (supernatural) wealth. These four songs (13,14,17, IS) are more than seventy years old,- " since Peter comments that they were performed during his great grandfather's time (mid-1800s). According to Peter, songs 17 and 18 have not been sung in their proper context since then. During th6 1800's, these songs had been sung by Wiinaaxanis, the chiefs younger brother, and Haayuup?inuulth, a second chief, during a tlukwana ceremony before the war with the Ootsusaht (?ucuus?ath) (Webster 1933-, GO;. The war took place in the region of Flores Island and north to Hesqvual: (Webster 1983, 60). 96 Peter stated that these two men and their supporters were attempting to • stage a coup against the reigning chief, Maquinna (?mukwina). In song the singer states that his thoughts are different from the other chiefs who only wish to do good things (andnotgoto war);song 18 expresses the singers'feelings cf greatness if they turned to war, although they were finding it difficult (for some reason not expressed). The third textual group is comprised of the six remaining songs -1, Seal Hunter's Song, 7,Boys'Lullaby #1, 8, Boys' Lullaby #2, 9, Girls' Lullaby #1, 10, Girls' Lullaby #2 and VLWeather Song. These songs contain mainly text, with one cr two vocables functioning as connectives between the text phrases, or at cadential endings. This group cf songs arS* estimatedto be fifty years or older (Peter stated that he heard them as a small boy), and the text cf each song contributes information about the song's function. For example, 1 Seal Hunter's Song states: "Yoc people better go and ask who your Captain is; and it's always the Captain who holds the compass". In other words, the people would have been using a large boat for seal hunting because a small boat or canoe would not usually require a captain. In addition, a small boat would generally be used closer to the shore line and therefore, would not usually require a compass. " — ~ Songs 7-10 are lullabies which,contain affectionate or. teasing wonfe for little children. Song 7 names "little" animals repetitively, which may be a way of expressing affection for a "little" person in this culture. Songs 9 and lOrepeat affectionate words by aparent, orparents, about a beautiful "little girl". Teasing words which are used in song 8, however, tease a little boy aboutbeing a girl. Songs of this type may be found in the schoolyards of many cultures. The final song is & Weather Song (11) asking the dogfish to come to shore to calm the stormy weather. Jessie Webster commented that „ n n n n < i c 1 i U U U U J M 3 a, c "the dogfish only come in good weather", which explains the inclusion of • dogfishin a song about, weather. Jessie stated further that: -1 u s e d to my grandmother singing away (during stormy weatherY', although not this particular song. Through examination of text and vocable content in the above song groups, it appears that the more recently composed songs contain very little text. The older songs in this study, however, consist primarily of text interspersed with small sections of vocables, or entirely of text without vocables. Therefore, it is possible that songs initially containing only vocables can gradually develop into songs with text to establish the function. One example of this type of compo^tion is the Marriage Song. On -November 2, 1990, during our recording session of this song, Peter stated: "this song, which I dreamed when I was sick, did not have a namebecauee it did not have a dance, and it had not been used yet". He meant that it did not belong to a specific function at that time. This song had been composed many years before, but it would not become a Marriage Song until late February 1991. At t h a t t i m e , P e t e r sang it for his relative's marriage in Ahousat. Prior to this date it was a song without text and a dance had not yet been created for it, but Peter stated: "that's why I want to use it as a -— Marriage Song ~ nothing has been dpne with it yet". • • In conclusion, I believe that words and vocables are a very'important part of transcriptions. E x c l u s i o n of t h i s t y p e of material results in a loss of information useful for extensive studies and comparisons. There are many Native cultures in North America, and they each have their own language with .certain linguistic distinctions. Plains cultures, for example, generally use the following vocables: he, ya, yao. Some typical vocable sounds heard 98 on the Northwest Coast includeya, na,yii, hii, haa, and waa. These ' ~ At sounds cf the various cultures are important for comparative studies. — - -Inclusion of texts provides information useful to other disciplines, such as Linguistics, Psychology, Anthropology and Native Studies. The song texts presented in this study include informatics about their functions and meanings. Examination of text and/or vocable content of these songs sung by Peter provides another method for understanding song composition in Nuu-chah-nulth culture, in addition to understanding song functions. It would appear that some songs may exist for many years before being given a specific function. It is also evident that songs require a _ function in this culture before they are sung for other people. The development process cf Peter's Marriage Song is an interesting discovery of TLUge UUltrg uauiui«liuii»u a lu uw~j, a type of song development in his c ^ . However, it cannot be assumed that this is a always the case in hig Qr o t h e r Nuu-chah-nulth singers-compositions. Peter has stated M many ofhis songs had been composed with text from the moment the song ^ The compositional process within the Nuu-chah-nulth g ^ g ^ j ] t g q u i r e e x t e n £ j i v e s t u d y for greater understanding of this imi^u, t r a d i t i o n . F o r this purpose, songs will need to be collected from a large g ^ r o f s i n g e r s ; i n additibn, largT ' M^ mi\% flillfShers to study cultural philosophic and traditions through the song texts. Because music is a direct expression lire. t.hiR t.vna of study will assist deeper understanding between cultures. n n n n i r i u " - <~ L LI Song Texts and Translations . 1. Seal Hunters' Song, -Waay tuas tuu wai yakokwi so Captain waina, Wai o hwai aais Captain Wai so ?ii compass yaina. "You people better go and ask who your Captain is, and it's always the Captain who holds the compass". 2. Paddle Song (Vocables only) Ya ho...ya huu waa he ye ye ye ye ?e huu hu waa he ye ye ye Ya ha ii he ya he ye ye ye ya ha ii ha ii ya, Ya ho. [Codal 3. Entrance Song (Vocables only) Ho... owia ?owia ho wiana, he ya ?iiha, he wiana he ya ?iiho, he wiana, he ya ?iiha, ?ewiana ?eya ?iio,.wia, ?eowiana. ?cva ?iiha, ?eo wiana ?eyaa ?iiho..o ?co wiana, ?cva ?iiho. 4. K'imtlk'imftla Song #1 A. Owe owe owe... ?a?aa owe. ?aa?a?a?a?aa owe owe owe... ?a?aa owe. ?aa owe ii aa, owe ii aa, . owe iiya hii yaa ii. B. ' ~ • Owe owe owe... ?aeowe. ?aa owe ?staimsa, ulth se mi?isti?yaq ci ?yaqyaqtlistlatla qa-a. A. Vocables B. "I an the first one to dance along the coast here, and I am a Bong composer". 6. K'imtlk'imftla Song #2 0?o ?o?o hwai hii hii hwa hii hii, ?o ?o hwai hi hii, hwai hi hii, hii huu. OLO ?o ?o sii ?yaa ?aa, yaa qis yaa,nuu kwiih sii, ?o ?o sii ?yaa ?aa, ?yaa qiis yaa, nuuq siim yis, ?o ?o hwai hi hii, hwai hi mi... Vocables. "I am the one who makes songs for anybody; I am the one who makes songs and sings all along the coastline". Vocables. 6. Marriage Song' (Vocables only) E yii hi ya ni na, ?ya ya hi ya ni na, ?ya ya hi ya ni na, hi ya ya ni na, yaa ya hi ya ni na, ya ya hi ya ni na, hi ya ya ni na, hii ya. Hii yi hi ya ni na, hii. [Codal 7. Boys' Lullaby Seng#1 Cii ?in waa, haalth tin waa, ?aa nalth ?a iis, puu hu ?is, ?aa?aqmaq£aas, haaxwinmaa, aqiistikis?i, aqiistikis?i. "Little bullhead, mosquito larva, small flounder, really small flounder, grass coloured bird, little sparrow, what is it, what is it?" 8. Boys' Lullaby Sang #2 HaapinkstaktlisTis Haapink stak tlis?i8, hi ya. "He has hair between his legs at the back part". (Repeat) 9. Girls' Lullaby Song #1 Kwii ?aatlisii, kwii?aatlia?o ho, haa kwii?aatlis ?o ho, haa kwaatlis ?o ho, ?aa?a kwaatlkwin ?iiaii cucus kwaatlkwin ?iisii, kwii?aatlisii, kwii?aatlis o. "Young little girl, young little girl, young little girl, small little girl, small pretty girl, little one, little girl, young little girl, young little girl". 10. Girls'Lullaby Song #2 Haalth ma?aq saqs ha kwa yatl, (repeat 4 x's) hsalth ma?aq saqs ha kwa.(coda) "I have a cufcelittle girl". 102 _ 11. Weather Seng (DogfishSong) Hoi, yacaa yaSaa wii aa qwaatlana owi qwaayi, tlaanaowi, oqwiya tlaana o wa; xiit ya utl yaqin yacaa w i i aa, ?e..(repeat) oqoqoq oq oq. (coda) "We dogfish want to come in the good weather; I wish they would come to the shore in good weather. (Weather)become calm and nice ". 1 12.Bone Game (Lahal) Song A. Ii haa, haa y wa ha, ?iihaa, haa y wa ha, ?iihaaha ?aay wa. yahaha aahii ?ii?ii?ii aa^ wa, heya. B. 0?us kook ya ya y wa ha, o?us kook ya ya y wa ha, t'ut'uJkiis, ya ya y waa, Ya ha ha ha hii y i yi ?iiaa aa y wa, he ya A. Vocables B. "It is similar to, it is similar to. little breast-like, rounded sand hills under the water", 13. Tlukwana War Song #1 Waa hii ho waa hii ya ha o ha ii ye, waa hii ha haa ii aa, waa t'ickaa haa ii aa cimaps naa?nuu ia?nulth -wa aa ya waa ?a na haa v haa suh?taayan, -Kaakaa?win cilth?i qwayacayik, Waa ha ya. Waa hii ho. |Codal "I would like to make a thundernoise (roar) in the 'mountains-in-a-line', because I am (made of) the killer whale which becomes wolf (by supernatural means)." n n n n u u u k i C L Q t -i a b 14. ?Namasatl Welcome) Seng ' T'uxsitl, t?u_xaitl, t?uxsifl, hwi! Aaw hi y saw hi ya aaw hi ya ya ya-a, hi hi hi ya aaw aa y i hi ya. B. Wik saa his ?waa ?akanis qii simatl haa-w?yiil, hi yaa ya yaa hi hi hi ya aaw a yii hi yaa. C. Tuutaa?aksa?ims mama ?i ?anis ma?ayiis hi yaaya yaa hi hi hi ya aaw ha yi hi yaa. Aaw ha yaw ay a haw ha yi. [Codal A. "Jump!" (3 x's) Vocables. B. "I am not ashamed that I am a Tlukwana chicf Vocables". C. "I have a thundering noise bccausc of my tribe, and because I belong to abig strong tribe Vocables. 15. Mask Dance Song (Vocables only) Yii ?hiyo ho he yo he, o hii hi o hii hi. Yii ?hiyo ho he yo he, Yii o ho he yo he yo he. 16, Dinner Song Hii yao haa na, yao haa na, hii yao haa naii, yao haa na, hii yao haa naii, yao haa na. - . Qayla haa?map yaao haa?ma hii?ii.(Text not included on tape) Hii yao haa na yao hi. [Codal Vocables. "Come and eat". ^'Thundering noise" is an inherited right which only a few chiefs have. It often made with rocks shaken in a hollow log and is representative of hail which is related to the thunderbird (Webster 1990a). 17. Tlukwana War Song #2 • A. # Wo, xaacisuks wa waa ?isilB wa?aa ?eyaaya, xaacisuks wa waa ?isiis wa?aa ?iiii ya ye, ha yo ha hi ya hi yaa. B. 0 uukwilth ?naas maiu?aqa?ii ha wii w hii ?ii yaa yaa, uukwil ?naas matu?aqa?ii ha wiih wa?a ii ?iiyasyaa, ha yo ha hii ha yii haa (hoi yoi). A "I an thinking differently from the other chiefs, (repeat) B. who are thinking aboutgood things".(repeat) IS. Tlukwana War Song #3 A. -Aawhayaaya. aawhg^jg^g. aaw hayaa ya, aaw h^ vaa ya,' ?i silthaas umap sitlik qiSo?oom m,™ ha yaa ya. B. AAw ha yaa ya. aaw ha yaa ya. aaw ha yaa ya, aaw ha yaa v a. ?Wii wi'liat aa?nap iims, caa Jaak umap sitlqus qisa?aam, aaw lia Aaw ha yi. [Codal A. Vocables. "I can't turn w a r (for some reason)". B. YflSafe "J G311 Stop Ike rivers flowing, if I turn to war". 2170 CHAPTERV CONTINUITY AND VARIATION In oral traditions, information such as history, lineage, myth or music, is passed on hy word of mouth, 1 Narrators ofm/ths or legends are often known to include their own interpretative material to add interest, thus varying the original story. Native music also changes in this manner and can now be compared over a period cf many years due to the presence or recording equipment. As a result, song continuities and variations can be examined and compared intensively over larger time periods. Changes may vary from small, relatively obscure differences, to larger structural variations. However, there arc also constants which are equally important for understanding basic cultural continuity. In this chapter, similarities and variations of lour songs, recorded twenty years apart by the same singer, are examined to determine which musical factors remain constant and which ones change. In addition, three different renditions of-one song are examined to determine the extent of " variations and/or continuities over both ten and twenty year periods. 1 Within the Western (European) cultures, written material is very important. Through the Western documentation method, all materials are "frozen in time" for continuously accurate reiteration. 1 0 6 Comparison of Song Recordings: 1974 and 1991 Ida Halpern recorded approximately three hundred and fifty British Columbia songs an the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island during the periods of 1947-1953and 1965 -1972 (Halpern 1974,2).2 During the second recording period, Halpern collected songs from several Nuu-chah-nulth singers, including Peter Webster, John Jacobson and Joe Titian cf the Ahousaht people. I was fortunate to be able to work with Peter Webster, who inherited the singing tradition of his family. This provided an opportunity for a comparison of four of Peter Webster's songs recorded by Ida Halpern in the early 1970's with the same songs recorded by myself for* this study in 1991. These four songs arc: 2,Paddle Song, 3,Entrance Song, 4,K'imtlk'im?tla Song #1, and 5, K'imtlk'imUla Song #2. It should be noted that Peter had a much stronger singingvoice in his 60's than he does now at 82. HI health during our recordings sessions contributed somewhat to the variations between the two recordings. In general, the differences between Halpern's and my recordings are relatively small. The two sets of recordings are-only twenty years apart, therefore it is possible that larger variations maybe found in the awe- • songs at some future date. Peter's grandchildren, who are.now learnings these songs, wi 11 likely be performing them in future years, After studying and comparing the two recordings. I have found many parts of Halpern's recording which differed from my recording. Halpern's recording contains the following differences: 2Reader note that this chapter discusses Ida Halpern's 1974 recording only (Nootka: Indian Music of the Pacific Northwestl and hereafter will not be documented. * n it n n i c i i - u u u u < i _r i c Pitch • the songs are sung a fourth or fifth higher . . - pitch is unstable, fluctuating on each note (progressively flatter in 1991) • the pitch drop is smaller by the end cf the song Form3 - section repeats alternate between solo leader and group - dance songs are long to accommodate dancers' exit Rhythm • melodic phrases contain fewer breath rests • drumbeats are stronger Specific musical elements which show variation in Halpern's recording, (e.g., phrases, forms, rhythms) vary within each song. For example, in song 2 Paddle Songfi the opening phrase varies in each of the, repetitions (Ex. la, lb, lc)5. Ex. l a > - * r P / i f r f r r (l > r V V * ' 3 -i Url . . . . y Ya bo - \to - - hgwoft- - V ^c ^cye*/' Ex. l p f» Djr '' 9 L_ N i l i i b h b j i. • L Ya be - ho - - bn uaa - b* ^The variations listed under 'form' are noted here for contextual understanding because Haipern recorded a 'live performance. Therefore, many of the formal differences are simply due to the environment. 4These song numbers are taken fern (he order of songs in Chapter III of this study. ; • 5These examples are my transcriptions of the songs recorded by Halpern and they will be footnoted in the rest of the chapter as: Bowles trans., Halpern rec. 2173 Ex, lc ' 0 > 1 1 - ^ lX " L 3 t * Yo ho - ya hu- V»u h t y v j c ^ e "hephrase heard in the 1991 recording (Ex. 2) is structurally altered by Peter through intervallic changes on the fourth and the seventh notes. The phrases of both Ex. lc andEk. 2 are shortened by one full beat; therefore this could be a consistent variation cf this phrase. E k . 2 ) ^ U r - i i ) — 4 V i ? , . . ' Yo ho - yo huu - w a a - - h t ^eyey tye The overall form of the song is the same, although the song is repeated only two times in the 1974 recording compared to three repetitions in the 1991 recording. This could be.a result of different recording environments. -In the Halpern recording of song 3, Entrance Song, the group singing with Peter does not appear to know the song very well. As a result, there are some variations whicJi do noi, require further examination. Two important phrase variations found in Halpcrn's recordings, however, are heard i n the song's opening phrase. In Ex. 3a, the first note is held three beats plus one half; this phrase is heard in two repeats of the song. A variation occurs in the following two song repeats with the first note held 'four beats plus one half (Ex. 3b). . ^ Ex. 3a Ex. 3b 6 ntS: * 0 . - 0 - wia 6 0 - o - wia Tn addition. the rhvthm in Ex. 3c® differs from Peter's recent rendition (1991) of the same phrase (Ex. 3d). Ex. 3c Ex. 3d t i ±± z t t y ^ 0 wio . 0 - wio One final variation ocgurs in the fourth and fifth phrases of this song (§££ transmptiflffl 3 ID Chapter IH: Songs and Analyses). . Phrase structures found in Halpern's recording contain a different rhythmic -structure than those present in the 1991 rendition.. Ex. 4aT contains a.f5ree beat note tied to a fourth beat, whereas Ex. 4b contains a rest after the third beat followed by the beginning of the b' phrase. ®Bowles trans., Halpcrn rec. 7Bowles trans., Halpern ret;. 1 1 0 Ex. 4a Ex, 4b t he - wia The third song,4. K'imtlk'imftla Song #1, contains two significant changes. In Ex. 5a , 8 the fourth note of the phrase i s sung a major third lower in Halpern's recording. Ex. 5a / - f - ' f f - i ^ A z f c ^ S s 0 - wa o - w t . o - w a - _ Similarly, the first note of the phrase in Ex. 5b 9 is also a major third lower in Halpern's recording. _ -Ex. 5b ) — u - f — 4* MM < c ?a 7aa o-we. 8Bowles trans., Halpern rec. 9Bowles trans., Halpern rec. 1 1 Interval alterations such as these constitute an important change in the melody. Another notable difference in this song's 1974 recording, is a small* j interval variation in the final cadence cf section A (Ex.6a)10. The transcription of Halpern's recording gives the pitch moving from Ab up one full tone to Bb and down onehalf tone to Anatural. In contrast,the 1991 recording (Ex,6b), gives Peter's pitch movement going firm D up to a microtonally-flatE and down again to a microtonally-sharp D. Ek. 6s Ek.6b hii yaa hii t j) ^ w *'' ' J J J £ 1 • ? L:: "JJ • , , ±_ hii yaa hii One final variation is found in the form, which contains a large alteration. In Halpern's recording, Peter and his singing group sing section A twice, followed by the first half of section A only. Section B is then sung, followed by the second half cf section A. In the more recent recording, section B is followed by the first half'of section A. There are very few significant differences between the two recordings of 5. K'imtlk 'imftla Song #2._ In the 1974 recording, the overall form is ^r-lengthened to give the dancers time to leave the dance floor. Battles are ' played by one of the singers, and Peter calls out directions for the singers. In addition, he sings each section solo before the entire singing group enters. (Tnthe 1991 recording, Peter smgs solo sections at the beginning of each song only.) 10Bowles trans., Halpern rcc. 1 1 2 Similarities are equally important in these song comparisons. Songs which are passed on through many generations containboth musical" continuity and variation. Musical style and structure can be examined to determine the extent cf continuity and variation occurring within cultural traditions. The continuities over the twenty year period which I found in the above-mentioned songs are: • the overall melodic structure generally remains the same (regardless cf beginning pitch of the song) - the drum patterns are similar, albeit sightly stronger in 1974 - the text remains the same - the tempo is very similar in each although slightly faster in 1974 - the solos remain unaccompanied by instruments * The continuities and variations found in the two separate recordings cf the same songs suggest some interesting observations and conclusions. Rhythmic variations occur within the melodic phrases, some of which are small and seemingly unimportant at the present time, others which signify important melodic changes. Variations in the number of song repetitions are not significant. One important fact with regard to continuity is that the general melodic structure remains the same regardless of which pitch the singers start with..or whether other small alternations arc present. In conclusion, the internal structure of a song may vary and formal sections may he altered slightly. but I have found that the overall melodfb structure remains fundamentally the same. The drop in pitch within the songs is not important. When asked whether the* starting pitch mattered in the general song structure. Peter responded, "No. the song stays the same". An examination of each song's pitch variation has resulted in the conclusion that regardless of which pitch the song begins on, .the general structure does "stay the same". This is only a twenty year comparison however, and further changes could occur over a larger period of time. 2178 One important point which needs to be considered when examining variations in oral traditions, is the transmission si these traditions by the -elders. The elders may become slightly forgetful and also lose some cf their physical strength. This results in pitch changes and possibly some melodic variation. I believe that many of the pitch differences noted in Peter's recordings are due to his lack of strength neede d for producing the higher pitched melodies and for holding the notes steady. Future comparisons with some of the younger, stronger angers may j rovide scholars with some very different conclusions. •",•': Comparison of Three Renditions of K'imtlk'imftla Song #2 Song 5, K'imtlk'imHla Song #2, was recorded by Ida Halpern in 1974, by Peter Webster in the early 1980's, and by myself in 1991. These three recordings provide an opportunity to examine continuity and variation within both ten and twenty year periods. I found only small variation between Peter's own recording and my 1991 recording. One melodic rhythm is heard as J f l d on Peter's recording, but on my recording (and also Halpern's) is heard as J J J . Therefore, I Would suggest that perhaps these few smaller rhythmic variations (as opposed to larger and more frequently used variations) arerv not highly significant within this particular oral tradition. For comparative studies, on the other hand, continuities could be considered as very important for determining the extent of original information passed on through generations. Longer time periods are required for drawing further conclusions. 1 Conclusion The focus of this etudy is upon the developmentcf a transcription . _ A method applicable to Northwest Coast Native music. I have examined methodologies of previous ethnomusicologists in Chapter II,to i dentify problems and/or innovations. Two of the problems associated with previous methods were the lack cf information included in many of the transcriptions, and the predominant use of the Western analytic method ommittingNative viewpoints and/or context. Since the majority of these scholars collected songs in the field, more i n f c m a t i c n should have been included. In addition to data from other relevant sources (see REFERENCES CITED), this study contains as much data as possible i n - -order to produce a clear, comprehensive methodology. HJh. regard ts context and musical characteristics in Peter's songs. I havG adapter the Western notation system to »«"•»—-«»»-<•» •n— iCal characteristics, and includec data in the descriptiv§ analyses to explain song contexts. The modal structure indicates that few notes are uaed, and the songs generally have small ranges ( f irma minor third to a minor seventh). The majority of the modes are similar, with a do-re-mi structure found i n eleven soflgs, and slightly more disjunct structure found in the remaining eeven songs. Vnn'ntinnn npmir in melodic rhythms of the songs, but not usually in -texts or d r u m rhythms. Over a twenty year period, the variations in these songs are not found to be significantly different. However, i t i s important that much has remained constant; this indicates that changes occur slowly in this particular oral tradition. Over a larger period of t ime the changes may be more significant. 2180 REFERENCES CITED Arima, Eugene 1983 The West C.q<^i (Nootka') People. Blitish Columbia Provincial Museum Special Publication 6. Victoria: Brit ish Columbia Provincial Museum. ^ O ^ S H'TflTI 7 1896 "Songs of the IX 1897 t^A Tfrypkintl Indians. Washington: Smithsonian Institute: rpt. New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1970. Clutesi, George. , • 1909 Potlatch. Sidney, B.C.: Gray s Publ ico Densmore, Frances. „ 1918 Tftton Music. Washington: Govt. Print, Office. (Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 61) 1927 "The Study of Indian Music in the Nineteenth Century. American Anthropologist 29: 77-90. ^ . 1939 Qmleute Music. Washmgton: Govt. P a n t . Office, Smithsonian Institute Bulletin 124; rpt. N e w York: Da'Capo Press, 1972 ••; ; ..-.- . , ; -1943 Mimip. of the I n d ^ r ? Columbia. Washington D.C • Bureau of American Ethnology Anthropological^. Paptfr 27 BulL 136; rptrNew York: Da Capo Press, 1972. Drucker, Philip. _ 1951 Nnrt-bflm and fiont-H Nnntknn Tribes. Washington: United States Government Printing Office. v ^ v V Ellis, Alexander J. • . , „ „ T , » 1885 "On tba Musical Scales of Various Nations. dQVimat.QI 2181 Fillmore, John C. 1899 ""he Harmonic Structure of Indian Music." American Anthropologist 1(2): 297-318. Halpern, Ida. , - . _ 1968 "Music of the B.C. Northwest Coast Indians." Proceedings of the Centennial Workshop on Ethnomusicologv. Published bv The Government of British Columbia. 1974 Jacket Notes. Nootka: Indian Music of the Pacific Northwest. Folkways FE4524. 1976 "On The Interpretation of Meaningless Nonsensical Syllables in the Music of the Pacific Northwest Indians." Ethnomusicologv 20: 253-271. 1981 Jacket Notes. Kwakiutl: Indian Music of the Pacific Northwest. Folkways FE4122. 1986 Jacket Notes. Haida: Indian Music of the Pacific Northwest. Folkways FE4119. Herzog, George. » 1949 "Salish Music." Indians of the Urban Northwest. Marion W. Smith, ed. New York: Columbia University Press. •• H o o d , Mantle. 1971 The Ethnomusicologist. New York: McGraw-Hill Boole Co.; rpt. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1982. Hornbostel, E M . von and Otto Abraham. • 1906 Phonographierte Indianmelodieen Aus B r i ! h Columbia. New York: reprint from the Boa? Memorial Volume. 1909 Vorpchlage fur die Transkription exotischer Melodien. [Proposals for the transcription of exotic melodies] Salnmelbande der Iriternat:aniiien Miisikgesellschaft l i t . 1-25. • : .; Jewitt, John R. T ~ _ 1815 White Slaves of the Nootka. MiddletowavSeth Richards. Rpt.; Surrey, B.C.: Heritage Houfco Publlhhing Co., 1987. Kirk, Ruth. 1986 Wisdom of the Elders: Native Traditions on the Northwest Coast. Vancouver: Douglas & Mclntwe. 1 1 7 K o l a t e e , Anton F . 1977 "BeHaCoola Indian Music: A Study of the Interaction between Northwest Coast Indian Structures and their Functional Context". M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia; rpt. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, 1982. 1988 "To Impersonate the Supernatural: Music and Ceremony of the Bella Bella/Heiltsuk Indians of British Columbia." Ph.D. di3S., University of Illinois. Kroeber, A.L. 1939 Cultural and Natural Areas of Native North America. Berkley: University of California Press. Merriam, Alan P. 1964 The Anthropology of Music. Chicago: Northwestern University Press. Nettl, Bruno. 1964 Theory and Method in EthnomuBicology. London: The Free Press of Glencoe. Powell, Jay, ed. 1989 Our World: T'aat'aaqsapa Cultural Dictionary Book 1. Port Alberni, B.C.: Nuuchahnulth Tribal Council. Roberts, Helen and Morris Swadesh. 1955 "Songs of the Nootka Indians of Western Vancouver Island." Transactions of the American Philosophical, SflflStX Vol. 45. Part 6. Rohner, Ronald and Evelyn C., comps. and eds; 1969 The Ethnography of Franz Boas. (Letters and Diaries.ofjr. Boas Written on the Northwest Coast from 1886-1931) Transl. Hedy Parker. Chicago: The University of Chisago . . • • . • • • • • 'Press..." • • Sapir, E. and M. Swadesh 1939 Kaotka Texts. Philadelphia: Linguistic Society of America . . 1955 "Native Accounts of Nootka Ethnography." Indiana University .Research .Center in Anthropology, Folklore and kinematics. Publications l (1955): 1-457; rpt. New York: AMS Prass, 1878. 1 1 8 Stuart, Wendy Bross 1972 Gambling Music of The Coast Snlish Indians. O f W a ; National Museum of Man, National Museums of Canada!,-Mercury Series. Stumpf, CkrL 1886 Webster, Peter 1983 1990a 1990b 1991 "Lieder Der Bellakula Indianer." Vierteliahrschrift fay Musikwissenschaft 2 (1886): 405-426. As Far As I Know: Reminisciences of an Ahousat Elder. Ulust. Kwayatsapalth. Campbell River, B.C.: Campbell River Museum & Archives. October 5; personal communication; recording session. November 2; personal communication, recording session. February 21; personal communication, recording session. DISCOGRAPHY Halpern, Ida. Collected, recorded and annotated by. 1974 Muaic of the Pacific Northwest. New York: Folkways Records & Service Corp. FE4524. Halpern, Ida. Collected, recorded and annotated bv. Kwakiutl: Indi: 1981 Music of the Pacific Northwest. New York: Folkways Records & Service Corp. FE 4122. Halpern , Ida. Collected, recorded and annotated by. Haida: Indian 1986 Music of the Pacific Northwest. New York: Fnlkwayfl Records & Service Corp. FE4119 APPENDIX A MELODIC CONTOUR GRAPHS This appendix includes melodic contour graphs of the eighteen songs i i this study. Oti the vertical axis, each square represents pitches ascending by semi-tones, while on the horizontal axis each square represents the value of one eighth note. The number of sections or song strophes included in each graph is indicated be3ide tha song title, and each_ section is marked in the graph itself. Some graphs contain the complete pong, but several songs are too long to present in the small space. Each graph illustrates the songrange and the tonal emphasis; thuB, the melodic structure is clearly illustrated. 6; Marriage Song, J = 7 i _ 7. Bovs' LULLABY MM. i ' 132 8. BOYS' LULLABY TNM.'=\SZ (TWO SNTOPNTS) 1 s' . . 10 15 123" cfi & f* F £ V C» c GIRLS' LULLABY = iii. 10 1.5 Zf U-,WEATH-ER SONG M M J = 7(. f* f 6 P c* c B 5". - IO so 121. BONE GAME (LAHAL) SONC mmJ<= UZ A*| A 6* F» F E W if 2J- 32 nrn n ri . i r n c u.'u u L.r ;>' <r D o ' I ' I S u> is J •»*'SBm'.P' I- iif *•?•• II *---*.- - -"*'••- - J JC'2 ^  - • ' * * ' • - - r i •• 125 lfc>. D I N N E R SONS ftim. J s 10 0 6 A* A & G (S f E fCoda 10 Is ZD xs 17. TLukWANA WAR SONS. mrnJ=1o (SECTION A'f PA«TCFS) C«L . . . ' : : fc) A of 6 Fff f E W P cff c 10 IS %t> IS 18 . TLUKWANA WAR 5 O N C*3 tor»-J =10M ('SECTIONS A -T FFTRT OFS) f* 126" APPENDIX 3 MODES This appendix includes the modes of each of the eighteen songs in this study. They are presented with part of the opening phrase and are transcribed in both the actual starting pitch (pitch of first strophe) and the transposed pitch (given in the transcriptions - Chapter HI). The modes are in weighted format, thus illustrating the modal emphasis of pitches used in the songs; for example, the following notes are shown in decreasing— emphasis: £ J J J ^ The whole note, 'Do', i s clearly marked for quick reference, and the decreasing note values indicate the decreasing importance of the notes in the songs. • SE«L Hu>JT£CS' SotlS 4-M O P E S 127 TPA IMPOSED. m An Z. CAVVUtSo^C 4 F=h 4—*—*—f-3. En^ rgflAJcc Sohc, Jo ¥ do g KlhTLKwrn-A % ¥ <J dfi-\S do Magfi^ac Sosja 6 ( « J G -W- £ •W do BOMS' LuiLnav t 4-1—* 4—9 io I- Boys' LuuftRV^ S P T o Tfcr Q. &HLS! LMLLBBV - t - E 3" do - W 4-4 ZEE t n n n n ' i r u u U U.l' • * * *. •• " , " ^ "v^ * 7"'-"* JO" " 1 " i i — _ _k V - - - , - i j pi • 1 • - y • " " 1 v k ^ ~ * * " I • " ^ _ 'J " " ^ - " » " j ^ i I 1 i 128 APPENDIX C TEXT PHONETICS The phonetic orthography of the Taat 'aaqsapalanguage (Northern and Central Nuu-chah-nulth) has been included in this appendix as a reference for pronunciation of the song texts. Although other writing systems have been developed by previous scholars, this one has been developed by the Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council in conjunction with Dr. Jay Powell of the University of British Columbia Department of Anthropology (Powell 1989). The phonetic symbols presented in this appendix have been taken from b otli Peter Webster and the T'aat'aaqsapa Cultural Dictionary (Powell 1989). This appendix presents the phonetic symbol followed by a description of its sound, or the symbol description. Symbol Sound ? ? - used for glottal emphasis pH K'fjl - glottalized consonants C - t s _ 1 C - ts, produced by diaphramatic push C - c h . "" -c C - ch produced by diaphramatic push K.i.p.d - k, t, p, d 1 -Uorkl ft -1, breathy sound, not vocalized S / - s ' S - sh X - air pushed from back of throat Symbol Sound X - ch, like German "ich1 ti - air sound b - h, vocalized a - father ae -bat o - bought £ -bgt e - bait I -bit i -beat u -bftflt 0 - beat • m , n i Y 131" APPENDIXD INDEX OF SONG S ON TAPE Song Composer 1. Seal Hunters' Song Seal hunters, early 20th Century 2. Paddle Song ..PeterWebster 3. Entrance Song ..Peter Webster 4. K'imtlk'imUla Song #1 Peter Webster 5. K'imtlk'imltla Song #2 .... .Peter Webster-6. Marriage Song Peter Webster 7. Boys' Lullaby #2.. (sung by) Noah Thorn i s and his wife 0. Boys' Lullaby #2 Peter Webster's uncle 9. Oris'Lullaby #2 ....Peter Webste-'s uncle (Nuutka) 10. Girls' Lullaby #2... .......Peter Webster's mother 11. Weather Song.... (sung by) granddaughters of Peter Webster's nephew 12. Bone Game (Lahal) Song ...Peter Webster 13. Tlukwana War-Song #1..... belongs to Ahousat people 14. ?Namasatl (Welcome) Song.. belongs to Ahousat people 15. Mask Dance Song...............; .7. Peter Webster . 16. Dinner Song Peter Webster 17. Tlukwana War Song #2:. Wiinaaxanis/Haayuupinuufc 18. Tlukwana War Song #3. . . . . . . .....Wiinaaxanis/Haayuupinuufc 132" APPENDIX E MAP OF NUU-CHAH-NULTH BANDS ON VANCOUVER ISI A N D This map has been included as a reference for the reader to illustrate which bands are in the Nuu-chah-nulth culture, and also where they live. WORTH £TIG NUU(H4hnuVU MOWAC+WHT CENTRAL NuilCHUHWUlt'l} SOUTM£*MN A/uUCUAHMUlTiK Map IOK- fkrtft ReptoNrep WITH PEitMusjatf of JtfuucHAuNiiLrH IfCiW-.CoiweiL (POWELL n n n n n r h n uquyu, ' ji-b 'I a . 


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