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Text-music relations in Richard Strauss's Im Abendrot Parson, Laurel Jeanne 1991

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TEXT-MUSIC RELATIONS IN RICHARD STRAUSS'S IM ABENDROT . By , LAUREL JEANNE PARSONS B.Mus., Wilfrid Laurier University, 1980 M.A., The University of Waterloo, 1987 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Music, Music Theory)  W^r accept this thea-fsTas conforming tyjfol requjL££d standar^  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1991 © Laurel Jeanne Parsons, 1991  In  presenting  degree  at  this  the  freely available copying  of  department publication  of  in  partial  fulfilment  of  British  Columbia,  for reference and study.  this or  thesis  University  thesis by  this  for scholarly  his  or  thesis  her  of  MflSlf/  The University of British Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  &  A ^  Columbia  (QQI.  that  the  permission  granted  It  is  understood  gain shall  not  be  for  allowed  an  advanced  Library shall  be  (Signature)  of  that  may  permission.  Department  requirements  I further agree  purposes  representatives.  for financial  the  I agree  by  for  the that  without  make  iT  extensive  head  of  my  copying  or  my  written  Abstract  This text  thesis  relate  Abendrot  to  and  the  text  of  itself, of  Eichendorff's  i m a g e r y and Strauss  in and  poem  other  three  tone:  suggested  conceptual Strauss's  as  in the  last  line  Subsequent  in t h e  with  in thi  tone  poem,  chapters  setting as they relate  deal  reading  relation  with  the  narrator  emotions  the  b y the  study.'  is  of  the  connections,  V i e r letzte  Iieder  and  Verklarung. aspects  of  Strauss1s.musical  to, t h e t e x t , s p e c i f i c a l l y  in t h e a r e a s  of  structure.  m a t e r i a l raises some q u e s t i o n s , arising as a  r e s u l t of t h i s s p e c i f i c a n a l y s i s , a b o u t t h e relations  at  profound  of t h e p o e m  formal/motivic, harmonic, melodic, and metric/rhythmic The concluding  in  stands  to the texts  cycle, and also  Tod u n d  of  from a distance;  mixed  This  im A b e n d r o t ' s  songs  of  Eichpniiorffnnem—Tat  etva der T o d ? - - t h e  is i m m i n e n t .  by  context  on i n t e r n a l d e t a i l s  of  is c o n t e m p l a t e d  well- as m u s i c a l , b e t w e e n  early  interpretation  von,Eichendorff.  its p l a c e  as well a s  anticipating  which  remaining  on  Im  Iieder.  of a n a n a l y s i s a n d by Joseph  Strauss's  t h e poem p r o d u c e s a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e  its v e r y t h r e s h o l d ,  further  in R i c h a r d  and  An o s t e n s i b l y s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n w h i c h :  version—1stdies  metamorphosis  in which music  t h e V i e r letzte  is based  poetry,  d a s etvi d e r T o d ? - - d e a t h Strauss's  of  a poem w r i t t e n  the  t h e ways  each other  consists  structure.  made  perspective  first  chapter  Interpretation  in d e t a i l  condition  (1948), t h e  The f i r s t of  examines  nature  of  in g e n e r a l , a n d p o i n t s t o p o t e n t i a l a r e a s of •  text-music, further. •  i ii  Table  abstract  . . . . . .  o£ T a b l e s  List  of F i g u r e s . . .  List  of M u s i c a l E x a m p l e s  Introduction  Contents  . . . . .  List  . . . . . .  Acknowledgements  of  ....  . . ' .  .  . . . . . . .  . .  1: E i c h e n d o r f f ' s  Text  Chapter  2 : F o r m ar.d M o t i v e  Chapter  3: H a r m o n i c  ...  Chapter  4: M e l o d i c  Chapter  5: M e t r i c a n d R h y t h m i c  . . . .  Structure Structure  .  . . . . . .  . . .  . . . ...  . . .  . . . .  . . . . . .  . . . . . . .3  Bibliography  Appendix  A: S c o r e , Im Aberidrot.  Appendix  B: Texts  .44  . . . . . . . .  .77  Organization  of t h e  Voice .98:  . . . . . . . . .  . . .  of r e m a i n i n g  .16  . .. . . .  . . . . . .  Selected  v .ix  . . . . .. . .: . . . : .  . . . .. . . . . . . . . .  .  . . . . . . . . .. . . 1  . . . .  . . . . .  . . / . . . . iv  . . . .  . . . . .  Chapter  Conclusion.  . . . . .  . . . . ii  . . ., ,. . . i v  . . . . . . . ...  . . . . .  Melody.  . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . .  .124 ."'.130'  . . . . . . . . . . . . songs  of c y c l e  . . .  . .  .132 .138  L i s t o£  Table  I. Occurrences  of b - f l a t '  Table  I I . R a n g e s of s t a n z a s  Table  III. Notated  Table  IV. Relative durations  3/2 meter  Tables  in v o c a l  1 to 4 . . . . . . in Im Abendrot of s t a n z a s  L i c t of Figure  1. Reduction  Figure  2. Vocal line.  Figure  3. Motive as S y m b o l .  line  of v o c a l l i n e  . . . . . . 80 . . . . . .85  :  . . . . . . .106  . . . . . . . . .117  Figures . . .  .  . . . . . . . . . 78 . . . . . . . .  . . . . .  . • •; • . . . .  79  . . . 93  List of  Musical Examples  1.  T o d u n d Verklarung  2.  Recapitulative  3.  C o n c l u d i n g m e a s u r e s of v o c a l  4.  C o m p a r a t i v e v i e w of m u s i c a l delineations. . . . . . . .  5.  Piccolo  6.  Half-close  7.  Motive a.  8.  Motive  a, m e a s u r e s  6 1 to 64  . . . . .  9.  M o t i v e a, m e a s u r e s  68 to 7 1  . .  ... . 15  motive in Im Abendzot.  cadence, measure  trills, measures  61  18  section  19  and textual formal . . . . . . . . . . 20  89 t o 9 6  cadences, stanzas  . . . . . . . 21  2 and  3 . . . . . . 24  . . . . . .  . .  28 29  1 0 . Motive a, measures 8 1 to 8 5  . . .  11. Further  a  r e d u c t i o n of m o t i v e  . . . . .  .27  . . . . . .  .30  . . 31  1 2 . M o t i v e a, . . . . . . . . . .  . . 31  13. Motive a,, measures  20 t o 2 2 .  . . .  14. M o t i v e  a,, m e a s u r e s  34 t o 3 5 .  . . . . . . . .  .32  15. Motive a,, measures  61 to 6 2 .  . . . . . . . .  .33  16. Motive a 2 1 7 . M o t i v e b, 18. Motive 19.  . . . . . . 32  • • • • • . • • 35 (Tod  und VerklHrung).  . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  b. ....  "Lark" motive  ....  (c)  .36 . 37 "  . . . . . . . .  3 a :  2 0 . M o t i v e c, m e a s u r e s  41 to 42  . . . . . .  21. Motive  44 t o 47  . . . . . . .: . .; . 39  c, m e a s u r e s  22. Inversion 23. Motive  of m o t i v e  c, m e a s u r e s  24. "Weariness"  motive  2 5 . M o t i v e d, m e a s u r e s  c, measure 59 t o 60 (d).  27  . ... .  . . . . .  47 to 49  . . .  . . . 39  . . .  .39  • • • • • '40  . . . . . .  . . 41  . . . . 42  26. Motive d, measures 65 to 68  42  2 7 . Motivic c o n t e n t , measures 7 6 to 8 3  42  28.  Middleground  29.  c-flat major as chromatic elaboration the E-flat major tonic •  structure, measures  1 to 20,  . . .  45  of 46  3 0 . Quasi-Subdominant Function o f the Flatted Submediant  47  31. A-flat minor as chromatic elaboration of C minor, measures 7 to 8  . . . .  49  3 2 . Harmonic structure of stanza 1  51  3 3 . Not  52  und Freude, measures 24 to 2 6  3 4 . Voice-leading, G-minor to C-flat m a j o r . ' . . . .  53  35. Melodic structure, Not und F r e u d e , . ' ' . . . ' . ' . . . 54 36. Linear relation between G-flat major . . . , . . 55  and E-flat major  3 7 . G-flat as surrogate tonic, measures 35 to 3 6 . 38.  Harmonic structure of stanza 2.  3 9 . Es dunkelt  . . . . . . . .  schon die Luft, measures 38 t o 4 0 .  .' 56 57 . 58  40. Tonal progression, measures 2 1 to 41.' . . ., . ',. 60 . 41. End of stanza 2 and violin s o l o . - . " . ' , ., . . . 6 1 4 2 . Voice-leading continnity r e l a t i n g d o m i n a n t sevenths on C-sharp and B-flat,. measures 4 5 to 46 . . . . . . . . . . 62  "  4 3 . Harmonic structure, stanza 3.'''. . . . . . . . . 63''' 44. E-flat minor, Schlafenszei t and vandezmtlde. 45. Dass vir uns nicht measures  50 to 5 3  . .63  verirren, . . . .• . ..,.'. ;.' . -''.• . .',•;.'  46. Harmonic structure, stanza  4.  . . . . . .  . . .  4 7 . Cb yh r oG m- af tl ia ct me al ja bo or r, a tm ie oa sn u rof e s ;B -5 f7 l at to 5m 8a .j o r 48. Voice-leading, measures  68 t o  80.:.,.'.  64 66 . 67  . . .  .68  49. Motive a, measures 70 to 71 and 82 to 83. . . . 70 50. Voice-leading, measures 87 to 89  .71  51. Parallel progressions, measures 74 to 75 and 88 to 89. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 52. Parallel progressions, measures 87 to 89 and 9 3 to 95. . . .  73  53. Harmonic structure, Im Abendrot . . . . . . . . 7 4 54. Measures 89 to 97 . ..' . . . . . . . . .  . . . .  55. Melodic contour of stanza 1 . . . . . . . . . .  75 81  56. Contrary motion between voice and bass. . . . . 82 57. Melodic contour of stanza 2 . . . . . .  . . . 83  58. Imitation between voice and bass. . . ... . . . 3 4 59. Score, .measures 37 to 40.  84  60. Melodic contour of stanza 3 . . . . . .  . . . .  61. Score, measures 50 to 53. . . . . . . . .  86  . . . . 86  62. Melodic contour of stanza 4 .; . . . . . . . . . 63. Upper voice G-natural descent . .  . .....  87  . . 88  64. Final phrase of text, measures 68 to 75 . . . . 9 0 65. Flute trills, stanza 2. . . . . . 66. Flute trills,. postlude.  . . . . ...  94  . . . .  . . . . .  . . . 94  67. Score, measures 37 to 4 0 . . . .  . . . . .  ...  68. Score, measures 36 to 40. . . . .  . . . . . . .  69. Score, measures 65 to 68. . 70. Score, measures 22 to 28. . . . . .  95" 96  . . 97 ... . . . . . 99  71. Score, measures 56 to 59. . . . . . . 72. Score, measures 30 to 33. . . . . . . .  . . . .  .101  . . . .103  73. Compound triple meter \ • in orchestral bridge passages . . . . . . . .  .107  74. Score, Measures 27 to 23, 41 to 42 and  45  to  4 7.: ... .  . . .  . . .  . . . .  75. Score, measures 39 to 40. . . . . .  . . .  . . . . .  . .  .  76. Comparative composite collated rhythms of voice and orchestra. . . .  . . . . . . . .  77. Score, measures 61 to 64. . , . . . . 78. Final broadening of metric units. . .  . . .  79. Setting of the poem's concluding line . . . . . 80. Etva, measures 72 to 73 . . . . . . . . 81. Score, measures 22 to 28. . . . .  . . . .  . . . .  82. Score, measures 29 to 34. . . . . .  . . . .  83. Vocal Score, setting measuresof 41 to 44. . .Schlafenszelt. . . . . . . . . 84. Bald ist es 85. Score, measures 50 to 55. . . . . . .  . . . ;. .  Thanks are due to many people without whose advice and assistance this thesis could not have been completed. In particular, I would like to express my gratitude to my peerless supervisor, Dr. Wallace Berry, as well as my second reader, Dr.. William Benjamin; also Dr.: Neil Minturn, who supervised the work in its embryonic stages. The excerpts from the score,.are reproduced by kind permission of the Publisher, Boosey and Hawkes. For his thoughts on Eichendorff' s poetry, I am indebted to Dr. Edward Mornin of UBC's German department, and.for valuable assistance with the German translation, to Mr. Orval Parsons. Finally, I thank my family for their support and infinite —* forbearance (not to mention ironing, vacuuming and babysitting). through yet another Master's degree, with an honourable mention going to my son Andrew, who was himself in the embryonic stages of existence when this whole endeavour began. .  Introduction Richard Strauss composed the Four Last Songs in 19 48, a year before his death in September, 1949.  Three of the songs  were settings of texts by Hermann Hesse, but Im Abendrot,  the  subject of this thesis, was based on a poem by Joseph von Eichendorff  (1788-1857).  All four poems deal one way or  another with the approach of death; this is not to say that they are pessimistic in tone, however, and certainly this iS not the case with Strauss's musical settings of the texts. Although the songs sometimes express nostalgia for youth, sometimes utter weariness, these sentiments are acknowledgements that the body has outlived its usefulness: ac a certain point in each song, the narrator turns from looking backward to the past or inward to the soul's imprisonment in the body, and begins to look forward to the freedom of the soul following death and its continuing journey through a more beautiful, spiritual world.  That which unifies the four  texts, then, is this essential concern with spiritual transfiguration, a process in which the nature of the soul's relationship with its environment—body, natural world, spiritual world—undergoes a profound  1  metamorphosis.  The interrelations between text and music in the Four Last Songs, i.e., how the structure and content of the poems  condition the musical structure of the songs, is an issue which has not as yet been fully addressed in the body of analytical literature concerning the cycle.  In such works as  Barbara Petersen's Ton und Sort: The Lieder of Richard Stzauss1  and the doctoral dissertations of W. W. Colson 2 and  j. E. Strickert, 3  Strauss's treatment of text is a subsidiary  issue, discussion of which is largely limited to references to madrigalisms such as the use of trills in the flute to denote birdsong.  These analyses deal with musical settings of  "foreground" features of the texts—individual words or i m a g e s — b u t stop short of considering the underlying, "background" processes of which these features are symptomatic; it is my intention in this thesis to endeavour to redress the balance, with respect to Im Abendrot, the songs to be composed.  the first of  An analysis of text-music relations  in this song is followed by a discussion, in the final  :  chapter, of the question of music as metaphor and the nature of text-music  relations - in general.  ' Ann Arbor: UMI, 1980. 7  .William W. Colson, Richard Strauss's Four Last diss., U of Illinois, 1975 (Ann Arbor: UMI, 1975).. 3  Songs,  Jane E. Strickert, Richard Strauss's Vier letzte Lieder: an Analytical Study, diss., Washington U, 1975 (Ann Arbor: UMI, 1975). .".•'••  Chapter 1: E i c h e n d o r £ £ 1 s Te::~  An analysis o f text-music relations in a given musical work necessitates a preliminary analysis of the structural features and thematic content of the text itself.  In the case of im •  Abendrot, since Strauss made alterations in Eichendorff's text, a comparison between the two versions provides an important insight into the composer's concept of the poem.  The original text' is  presented below, side by side with an English translation by the author. Im Abendrot  At Sunset  ffir sind duzch Not und Freude We have through need and joy Gegangen Hand in Hand, gone hand in hand, Vom Wandzrn ruhn vir beide from wandering together over the Nun ilberm s t i l i e n Land. . . quiet land, now we rest. Rings sich die TSler neigen, Es dunkelt schon die Luft, Zvei Lerchen nur noch steigen NachtrSumend in den Duft.  Bending about the valleys, the air already darkens, two larks alone still rise dreaming into the haze.  Tritt her und lass sie schwirren, Draw Bald _ist es Schlafenszeit, soon it Dass vir uns nicht verirren that we In dieser Einsamkeit. in this 0 waiter, stiller Fxiede! So tief im Abendzot Wie sind v i r vandermiJde-Jsi das et.va dar Tod.?  near3 und let them whirr, is time to sleep, not lose ourselves loneliness.  0 distant, quiet peace! So deep in the sunset how wandering-weary we are-is that perhaps death?  1  Joseph von Eichendorff, Werke, Bd. I (Mtinchen: WinklerVerlag, 1970), 234. 2  Tritt her can also be translated as "Step here."  The structural details of Eichendorff's poem contribute to the strength of its imagery, which will be discussed in detail later  in t h i s  chapter.  The r h y m e s c h e m e of the four-line stanzas  is ABAB, with alternation between weak (Freude/belde), and strong (Hand/Land)  endings.  The A lines of the outer (first and fourth)  stanzas rhyme words with the ending "-de", creating associations especially n o t a b l e b e t w e e n the words Freude and Friede, each of which occurs at the end of the first line of its respective  stanza.  A l l of these words—Freude  ("joy"), beide ("i.:oth"),  Friede ("freedom") and vandermade ("wandering-weary") are nouns or adjectives, in keeping with the lack of movement in the poem's framing stanzas.  In contrast, the rhyme-words of the A lines of  the inner stanzas have the ending "-en", and all of these w o r d s — neigen ("to bend"), steigen ("to rise"), schvirren ("to whirr") and verirren ("to lose one's w a y " ) — a r e verbs, describing the motion of the larks and the journeying of the "we" of the poem. The rhyme-words of the B lines display more subtle relationships.  In the first stanza, the internal rhyme in the  second line Hand In Hand and its rhyme with Land in the fourth line suggests a physical connection not only between two bodies but i ) e t w e e i ' i this pair and the earth.  In the second stanza, the  B-rhyme is between Luft ("air") and Duft ("haze"). Schlafenszeit  The words  ("time to sleep") and Elnsamkeit,- ("loneliness".') in  the third stanza describe states of being rather than physical objects and thus remove the poem into a more metaphysical realm.  Finally, in the fourth stanza, the association between the words Abendrot  and Tod unite physical and spiritual terms by using the  ancient natural image of the sunset to describe the end of earthly life. The rhyme structure of the poem reflects the movement of its narrative: the overall pattern of the A-rhymes over the four stanzas is cyclical, like the cycles of nature; the pattern of the B-rhymes suggests a gr-idual "linear" movement rising away from the earth to the air, from physical to ethereal existence, that is followed by the individual.  In other words, the  individual human life follows a linear pattern, with a discernible beginning and end; but that life is lived within a larger context governed by cycles of death and renewal—the rising and setting of the sun, the cycle of the seasons, the coming and going of generations.  The emotional tension inherent  in this contrast, in the knowledge of one's own ephemerality against the eternal, inexorable cycles of nature, pervades Im Abendrot, as a close look at the imagery of the poem will demonstrate.  Many of the images and phrases of this poem occur throughout Eichendorff's other works, 3 especially those which pertain to the . natural world, typically portrayed by the poet as potentially threatening despite, or in'some cases because of, i.ts beauty.  3 See Oskar Seidlin, Versuche Uber' Eichendorff Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1965).  (GOttingen: .  For example, in poems such as Der stille Grund,4  the narrator  travels alone through the forest and is both enthralled and frightened by the dangerous spirit of the Lorelei.  Der stille Grund  The Quiet Ground  Der Mondenschein vervlrret Die TSlez veit und breit, Die BSchlein, vie verirret, Gehn durch die Etnsamkeit.  The moonlight entangles The valleys far and wide, The brooks, as if lost, Pass through the loneliness.  Da Drtiben sah ich stchen Den Wald auf steller Hflh, Die finstern Tannen sehen In einen tiefen See.  Over yonder I saw the woods Standing on a steep height, The dark fir trees look Into a deep lake.  Eln Kahn wohl sah Ich ragen, I saw a boat looming there, Doch niemand, der es l<..~.kt, But no one steering it, Das Ruder war zerschlagen, The rudder was shattered, Das schifflein halb versenkt. The boat half submerged. Eine Nixe auf dem Steine A water nymph on a rock Flocht dort ihr goldnes Haar, Braided there her golden hair, Sie meint' sie wilr alleine, She thought she was alone, Und sang so vunderbar. And sang so wonderfully. SIe Und t/nd Die  sang und sang, in den Baumen She sang and sang, in the trees Quellen rauscht' es sacht And springs it rustled gently fltisterte vie in Traumen And whispered as in a dream mondbeglSnzte Nacht. The moon-sparkled night.  Ich aber stand erschrocken, Denn Uber Wald und Kluft Klarigen die Morgenglocken Schon feme durch die Luft.  But I stood startled, For over wood and rocky cleft Rang the morning bells " Far out through the air.  Und Den WSr Aus  And had I not heard The sound at a good hour, I would nevermore have come Out of this silent ground;. J.  hatt icb nicht vernommen Klang zu guter Stund, nimmermehr gekommen diesem Stlllen Grund.  4  Eichendorff, Werke, 1:311.  I n D e r stilie Grund, the narrator's spellbound captivation with the L o r e l e i ' s bells;  p a g a n s o n g is b r o k e n by t h e  s o u n d of: church  he is s a v e d by a voice from the civilized Christian world.  The first s t a n z a description  i n particular recalls Im Abendrot,  in its  of t h e valleys, the brook which has "lost its way"  (verirren), a n d t h e surrounding loneliness (Elnsamkeit). Abendrot,  Der stille G r u n d t a k e s  place in the evening, a  h a z a r d o u s time of d a y i n t h e p o e t ' s view. because,  especially  traveller's time  path.  for s l e e p  (a  Like Im  This is partly  in the wilderness, darkness obscures the Danger also lies in the fact that night is the little death) and dreams, for in the dream  state one loses contact with the concrete world, and loses control over one's perceptions of that world.  The awake, alert,  conscious mind, in Eichendorff's poems, functions like the force of gravity, holding its world together; any impairment of its operation is therefore to be feared.5  Read in the light of  Eichendorff's overall poetic vision, Im Abendrot becomes suffused with anxiety. The first stanza is neutral in tone, serving to introduce the poem's characters, plot, and setting.  Significantly, Im  Abendrot differs from the typical Eichendorff journey poem in that the narrator travels with a companion.  Though this second  person is unidentified, it is clear that the relationship between  5  This fear of the dream state stands in sharp,contrast to that of contemporary poets such as the English Romantic (and opium addict) Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834), who claimed to have composed his Kubla Khan in a drug-induced trance. .  the travellers is long-standing; Eichendorff h e r e pays homage to t h e power of human Love t o t e m p e r  the e s s e n t i a l  loneliness  the  individual's journey through life. In stanza 2 of Im Abendrot, darkness approaches, and they watch two larks rise dreaming into the hazy air.  The bird has  long been used in poetry as an image of the soul; in this poem the correspondence between the numbers of birds and travellers reinforces the traditional metaphor.  In Eichendorff's poetic  world, however, the image is somewhat ominous: the larks have lost contact with the earth, and furthermore are in a dream state, thus symbolizing both physical and psychic detachment from real life.  The narrator's glimpse of this detachment initiates  in his mind a train of thought leading ultimately to the question oi death and what lies beyond: the dream state of the larks (as he perceives it) reminds him of sleep (Bald  istes  Schlafenszeit), which in turn reminds him of death (1st das etva der Tod?) These metaphysical thoughts give rise;to mixed emotions, in the narrator's heart.  At the beginning of stanza 3, he reminds  his companion that the time for sleep is near and suggests they draw close to one another; of the larks, he says lass sie schwirren,  as if attraction to their song must be resisted, and  its distraction would cause them to lose their way, to lose  6 Throughout this thesis I refer to the narrator as "he" because of Eichendorff's own gender. There is nothing in the text, itself which precludes a female narrator, and in fact Strauss's setting of the poem is written for soprano.  themselves in dieser Binsamkeit.  The hazardous combination of  beauty and danger in the natural image of the larks is thus clearly related to the pagan, mythical image of the siren which Eichendorff uses in other poems. In the final stanza, then, the weiter, stiller Friede which beckons is, like the song of the Lorelei, both beautiful and fearsome: before death, however expected or even longed-for, the individual is rendered utterly and finally powerless. line of this stanza (So tief im Abendrot)  The second  is crucial, as it was  this image of the sunset which Eichendorff chose as the poem's title.  Like the metaphoric association of the human soul and a  bird, the image of the sunset has been used since ancient times to represent death; the setting of the sun in the west and its rising in the east have long symbolized death and resurrection. In life, the human body sleeps and wakes, is resurrected, more or less according to the setting and rising of the sun..  But in  death,, inevitable as the setting of the sun, that physical resurrection fails: we can only hope for a resurrection of the soul, in a world we-can only imagine. This final resurrection is a matter only of faith, and: inherent in any article of faith is at least some measure of doubt.  As a devout Catholic, Eichendorff presumably would have  believed in the continued existence of the soul following death, but he presumably also contemplated the possibility, well within the bounds of Catholic doctrine, that the afterlife was not inevitably paradisal.  Faced with, such perplexing, unanswerable  TrllTnlf??W;?uti U, U U U L.u  •/  I  ;  10 - ' —-J".  existential questions, human beings, poets included, often exhibit a preference for the security of the known, however imperfect, over the unknown.  This is the basis of Eichendorff 1 s  ambiguous view of the natural world and the root of Im Abendrot's Angst. In this poem, forms of the adjective still are used twice, to describe Land and Friede; as in English, in German this adjective connotes an absence of sound and/or motion.  In the  context of this poem, the word implies a landscape devoid of life, and this interpretation is reinforced by Eichendorff's use of the word EInsamkeit in stanza 3.  Further emphasizing the vast  emptiness of the wilderness is the adjective veit ("wide" or "distant") in the first line of stanza 4 (0 veiter, stiller Friede!).7  At this point the narrator is contemplating not land  but sky, as suggested by the immediately following phrase So tief im Abendrot;  he is also thinking of the larks and their free  flight across an unlimited expanse of air.  Although they have  arisen from the earth, the larks now move in a different plane of existence, apparently unconstrained by earthly ii^it'dtions. The limitless spatial dimensions of the skyscape in this passage are also implied by the word tief ("deep") in the second, climactic line of stanza 4 (So tief im Abendrot).  But the .  dimension of depth has a downward connotation, calling forth  7 We it is another adjective frequently used in Eichendorff 1 s poetry: in the first stanza of Der stille Grund (note the adjective still), veit rhymes with Einsamkeit.  i ii  images of pits or tunnels in the earth (or perhaps graves) rather than the sky and suggesting the action of falling or being pulled: indeed the glorious sunset exerts an attraction on the narrator almost gravitational in strength (but away from the earth), an almost irresistible force which can be likened to that exerted earlier in Im Abendrot  by the whirring larks, and in Der  stille Grund by the song of the Lorelei. But is this vast freedom from human limitations desirable? Implicit in Im Abendrot  is the sharp contrast of the potentially  engulfing power and magnitude of Eichendorff's countryside with the relative safety of civilization.  This dichotomy between  civilization and wilderness is amplified in the dichotomy, explicit in la Abendrot, between land and sky: completely devoid of the solidity, let alone the stability of identifiable physical features, the sky is a kind of ethereal, spiritual wilderness which, like its terrestrial counterpart, forces us to face the discomfiting truths of human solitude, powerlessness, and mortality.  The existential anxiety which pervades Im Abendrot  is also  discernible in Strauss's musical setting, but also discernible is the composer's distinct personal interpretation of the poem. This is most evident in a particular alteration which he made in the text: 8 the final line of the poem, instead of 1st das etva  . 8 Strauss also made three: minor alterations, replacing the comma at the end of the second line with a semi-colon, adding th.e  i ii  der Tod? ("Is that perhaps death?") becomes 1st dies etwa der Tod? ("Is this perhaps death?").  This ostensibly minor  replacement produces a significant change in perspective: in the original version, the word das puts death at a distance—the poet muses philosophically on what the experience of death might be like, but the event remains in the future.  In contrast, the word  dies in Strauss's version puts death immediately at hand: the speaker and his companion hover at the very moment of metamorphosis. This new version of the final stanza offers Strauss the opportunity and the challenge of translating that metamorphosis into music, a challenge which he had first set himself some sixty years earlier with his composition of the tone poem Tod und Verklflrung—"Death and Transfiguration".  In a letter of 1894,  Strauss wrote about the composition of Tod und  VezklUzung,  completed when he was twenty-five years old, in words that cannot fail to bring to the reader's mind his setting, in his eightyfourth year, of Im Abendzot: Es waz voz sechs Jahzen, als miz der Gedankeauftauchte, die Todesstunde eines Menschen, deznach den hOchsten idealen Zielen gestzebt hatte, also vohl eines KOnstlezs, in einez Tondichtung darzustellen. Dez Kzanke liegt im Schlummez schwez und unzegelmSssig atmend zu Bette; freundliche Trflume zaubern ein LUcheln auf das Antlitz des schwez Leidenden; dez Schlaf vizd leichtez; er ezwacht; gzSssliche Schmezzen beginnen ihn wiedez zu foltern, das Fiebez schtittelt seine Gliedez— als dez Anfall zu Ende geht und die Schmezzen nachlassen, gedenkt ez seines vergangenen Lebens: seine missing "e" in the contraction zuhn and omitting the word beide; these do not affect the sense of the poem. .  Kindheit zieht an ihm vorUbar, seine J U n g l i n g s z e i t seinem Streben, seinen Leidenschaften und dann, vHhzend schon wieder Schmerzen sich einstellen, erscheint ihm die Frucht seines Lebenspfades, die Idee, das Ideal, "• das er zu verwirklichen, ktlnstlerisch darzustellen versncht hat, das er aber nicht vollenden konnte, well es von einem Menschen nicht zu vollenden war. Die Todesstunde naht, die Seals vezlMsst den Kdzpez, um in evigen Weltraum das vollendet in herrlichster Gestalt zu linden, was es hienieden nicht erfttllen konnte.9 It is clear from these words that at this time in his life, Strauss did not suffer any anxiety about the resurrection of the soul following death.  That he still held these beliefs as; an old  man is suggested in some of his last words, spoken to Alice Strauss: "Death is just as I composed it in Tod und Verkiarung." 10  and also by his setting in the same cycle of  Hermann H e s s e ' s  poem Beim Schlafengehn  ("On Going to Sleep"):11  9 " I t was six years ago that it occurred to me to present in t h e f o r m of a t o n s poem t h e d y i n g h o u r s of a man w h o . h a d s t r i v e n towards the highest idealistic aims, maybe indeed those of an artist. Kis thoughts wander through his past life; his childhood passes before him, the time of his youth with its strivings and passions and then, as the pains already begin to return, there appears to him the fruit of his life's path, the conception, the ideal which he has sought to realize, to present artistically, but which he has not been able to complete, since it is not for man to be able to complete such things. The hour of death approaches, the soul leaves the body in order to find-glori.ously achieved in everlasting space those things which could not be fulfilled here below." Richard Strauss to Friedrich von Hausegger, cited by Willi Schuh, Richard Strauss: Juqend und Frtlhe Meisterjahre Lebenschronik 1864-1898 (Ztlrich: Atlantis, 1976), 185-86. English translation from Norman Del Mar, Richard Strauss: A Critical Commentary on His Life and Works, Volume I (London: Barrie & Rockcliff, 1962), 77-78. 10 Michael Kennedy,, Strauss, 1976,. cited by Norman L e b r e c h t in The Book of Musical Anecdotes (1985; London: Sphere., 1 9 8 7 ) , 269,. . 11 Hermann Hesse, Die Gedichte von Hermann He3se (Zurich: Fretz & Wasmuth, 1942), 238. .  Nun der Tag mich mad' gemacht, soil mein sehnliches Verlangen freundlich die gestirnte Nacht vie ein modes Kind empfangen.  Now the day has made me tired, my ardent longings must, like a tired child, gladly receive the starry night.  HSnde lasst von allem Tun, Stirn vergiss du alles Denken, alle meine Slnne nun wollen sich in Schlummer senken.  Hands, leave from all doings, brow, forget all thinking, all my senses now want to sink into slumber.  Und die Seele unbevacht, vi 11 in freien Fltigen schveben, um im ZauberJcreis der Nacht tief und tausendfach zu leben.  And the unguarded soul wants to soar in free flight, in the magic circle of the night deeply and a thousandfold to live.  Although Beiro Schlsfengehn  is ostensibly about sleep, in—the  context of the other three poems which Strauss chose to set for this cycle (particularly Im Abendrot and September), its i m a g e s — the weariness of the body and the flight o£ the s o u l — s u g g e s t in addition the anticipation of death.  Unlike Im Abendrot,  however,  Beim Schlafengehn displays no reluctance to abandon physical existence. The scenario which formed a conceptual framework for Tod und VerklHrung,  then, was one to which Strauss returned in choosing  the texts for the Four Last Songs.  Viewed against this  framew~ork, the Hesse and Eichendorff texts illuminate and complement each other.  /  In Frtihling, the poet nostalgically  remembers the vitality of hie lost youth; September, through the image of the autumn garden, evokes the body's weariness and longing for sleep (see Appenddx for the complete Hesse texts). Beia Schlafengehn  and Im Abendrot, especially in Strauss's  altered version of the latter, go further.and attempt to, describe  i ii  the metamorphic process of death itself; fleim Schiafengehn affirms especially strongly the composer's trust in the resurrection of the soul into a spiritual universe offering freedom and fulfillment unattainable within the confines of physical existence. Finally, the conceptual connection between Tod und Verklarung  and the Vier letzte Lieder is confirmed in the music  itself by the explicit reference to Tod und Verklarung  in the  postlude to Ira Abendrot (Example 1).  © Example 1.  ©  Tod und Verklarung  motive in Ira Abendrot.  In placing this motive in the orchestra, concurrent with the singer's words 1st dies etwa der Tod?, and in keeping with the final question mark, Strauss could no more strongly; have conveyed this belief that after Tod comes Verklarung,  that death is a  spiritual metamorphosis, the point of entry Unto a different V dimension of existence.  The. following chapters will demonstrate  how othe-r elements and processes of Strauss's formal,, raotivic and harmonic structure support and/or expand on images and processes in Eichendorff 's deceptively simple poem.  ;V  i ii  Chapter 2: Form and Motive  A poem is a complete and independent work of art in itself, cast by the poet in a specific form.  In setting a  poem to music, the composer appropriates that complete work and, according to his own interpretation of it,1  recomposes it  into musical form, a process which involves the addition to and/or support of the text by a pitch structure and certain modifications of the poem's rhythmic structure.  The degree to  which this musical recomposition supports or disturbs the structural features of the original poem varies from setting to setting and composer to composer.3  The preceding chapter  of this thesis looked at the imagery and structural  features  of Eichendorff's poem; this chapter will examine how and whether those features are reinforced, first in the formal  _ Although analysis of the musical setting can suggest something of the composer's thoughts about the poem, I do not mean to infer that analysis is a window into the composer's mind; in any case, it is not the content of the composer's ' interpretation that is relevant here. The word 13 i n t e n d e d t 0 o describe a mental process, either deliberate or subconscious, which precedes, motivates K decisions: differences in interpretation account for the differences between settings of the same text by different composers. The scholar can more justifiably . ;  ! ; a t a ^ i c - r o l e , of interpretation than claim a definitive knowledge of its specific content.  .  7 _ The term "structural features" here refers to aspects of sonic organization only and not to conceptual organization involving, for example, recurring ideas or patterns of  i ii  articulation of the song by cadences: and other means of musical segmentation, and secondly through motivic '•.:';• development; in both cases the. song as a whole, including prelude and postlude, will be considered along with the details of Strauss's text-setting in the central, vocal section.  The formal structure of Im Abendrot  is divisible into  three sections, with two different parameters as possible criteria for division.  With instrumentation as the deciding""  factor, the three sections consist of the orchestral prelude (mm. 1-21), the vocal portion of the song (mm. 22-76), and the orchestral postlude  (mm. 76-97).  That the prelude and  postlude should be considered independent formal divisions is in part due to the fact that they are of substantially greater duration than those of the.other three songs of the set: their combined length of over forty measures in relatively constant jempo amounts to almost half the time span of the song as a whole, and the postlude is further extended by incremental decreases in tempo beginning in m. 70 (iromer langsamer), continuing in mm. 74-75 (ritardando, 89 (rItardando, sehr langsam).  sehr langsam)  and mm. 88-  This is not.without textual  significance: the brief .time, span occupied by the vocal • section -of the.song relative"to the orchestral sections enhances the poem's image of the individual human being, small  i ii  and almost completely alone in the vast landscape which surrounds him. In another sense, the articulation of the form by its principal cadences (i.e. authentic cadences in the tonic major, E-flat) establishes somewhat different divisions than those stated above.  The first and third of these cadences  mark the ends of the prelude and postlude, respectively (m. 20 and m. 95).  But the second  (elided) takes place in m. 61  following a five-measure dominant prolongation, the arrival on the tonic major.coinciding with the beginning of the phrase~"so tief im Abendrot  and accompanied by a return in the orchestra  to th.?. opening motive (Example 2); the passage from m. 61 to m. 64 has the effect of an albeit short-lived  recapitulation  and thus at m. 61, there is an emphatic sense of arrival.  Example 2.  Arrival on the tonic major, measure 61.  i ii  At the same time, however, from this point to the end of stanza 4 (ffie sind vir wanderaiOde--/Ist dies etwa der Tod?), the harmonic structure becomes progressively more unstable, the last two, crucial words of text set with a striking progression from a B-flat-minor chord to a second-inversion flatted submediant (Example 3). •The arrival in m. 61, then, is only temporary, as it initiates a passage characterized by a sense of departure, through increasing harmonic distance from the tonic major, which becomes progressively more intense through and beyond the end of the text in m. 75.  The true  arrival at the tonic major, and the resolution of this state of extreme harmonic instability, Is delayed until the final cadence in m. 95. der  Tad?  rit. sehr langsam  Example 3.  Concluding measures of vocal section;  In the words So tief im Abendrot the narrator glimpses eternity and imagines his own/entry into that world; the Eflat-major cadence in m. 61 is a kind of image, a prevision, of the final "arrival" with the cadence.of mm. 93-95.  The  reiteration, in the orchestral accompaniment at m. 61, of the prelude's opening motive signals the imminence of the eternal world and initiates the narrator's transition into that world. This transition is expressed musically in part by the structural overlap resulting from the discrepancy between textual and musical formal divisions, shown as Example 4.  In  other, words, the text ends in m. 75 with;the second-inversion C-flat-major chord, the point of maximum musical instability between the principal structural cadences at m. 61 and m. 95. This instability (within the conventions of tonal music) requires resolution, the task of which remains for the orchestral postlude. -  JZ252 = Orchestral prelude/postlud.e ' i ='Text • | I  = Authentic cadences to the tonic major  (E-flat)  1= Form as delineated by principal cadences  Example 4.  Comparative view of musical and textual.formal delineations  i ii  Strauss's.setting of Im Abendrot extends of course beyond the final words of text: the cessation of language does not signify the end of life./: The composer's belief in the continued existence of the soul following death is represented musically by the return of the larks—signifying the two souls of the travellers—in the final measures of the song, with the texturally conspicuous piccolo trills from m. 89 to m. 96 (Example 5).  Example 5.  : :  v:>.'.•.  Piccolo trills, measures 89 to 96.  Ar> to the setting of the text Itself in the central section of the song, Strauss preserves the original grammatical and stanzaic segmentation of the .poem, (as  ,  indicated by punctuation and/'or spatial arrangement) by the  following means: rests in the voice part, with accompanying : orchestral bridge passages; cadences, of varying degrees of finality; and shifts of tonal centre. ••.. The rests in the voice part between stanzas and the concurrent bridge passages are brief, at most two measures in length; but with the absence of orchestral interludes within stanzas (in contrast with the set's preceding songs, composed later, especially FrUhling  and Beim Schlafengehn) these pauses  in the voice serve at least to acknowledge stanzaic divisions.  Eichendorff"s  With the brevity of the transitions  between stanzas and the lack of Interludes, however, the text portion of the song proceeds virtually without  interruption,  resulting in a sense of continuity enhanced by the fact that Strauss uses neither repetition nor other means of emphasis. To do so would be to interrupt the poem's overt continuity, to impede its progress towards its. goal; (im Abendrot); and one of the poem's underlying themes is the inexorability of the human journey through life towards death. This overt continuity is heightened by Strauss's treatment of the cadence with;which each stanza concludes: in general, where Eichendorff ends each of the first three stanzas with a period, a full close in grammatical terms, • Strauss's cadential treatment moves in the direction of increasing mobility between:'stanzas  The first of the four  cadences in question, at the end of stanza i, is an authentic cadence to the dominant, B-tlat major  (stlllen Land, mm. 33  •'. . 2 3  and 34), and thus is relatively strong, but the remaining cadences become progressively less conclusive and more tentative.  The half-close cadencss at the end .of stanza 2 (in  den Duft, F-sharp minor) and stanza 3 (Einsamkeit, B-flat major), especially in coincidence with the rising, questioning melodic inflection of the vocal line (Example 6), emphasize the ambivalence felt.by the narrator at this point in the text.  .The similarity between the two cadences underscores the  metaphoric association of the larks flitting;through the haze and the travellers finding their way through the lonely wilderness.'  :  ••••'•.•  In contrast with the tentative natures of these cadences is the emphatic progression at the beginning of stanza 4 to B~ flat major in m. 56, resolving the B-£lat:V on which the .;., previous stanza ended:two measures before.  This affirmation V  of the dominant key coincides with the poem's dramatic moment of v i s i o n — 0 weiter, stiller Friede.'—and signals -the :••,'••/•.' impending climactic tonic-major cadence of m. 61.  Theje two.  strong progressions, to B-flat major in m. 56 and E-flat major in m. 61, occur, in close succession at the beginning of stanza 4, and are followed by the apparent dissolution of the E-flat tonality towards the. extremely.open-ended progression to the C-flat-major six-four chord' in m. 75v.'..':  If Strauss favours continuity from one stanza to the next and consequently understates the divisions between them, the beginning of each stanza is marked by a shift of tonal centre, the most emphatic example of this occurring in stanza 2. Stanza 1 begins in E-flat major and modulates temporarily to the dominant, B-flat major, with an authentic cadence (mm. 33 and 34) on the words stlllen  Land; stanza 2, however,  describing the image of the larks, begins' only two measures: later with an abrupt shift to G-flat major, passing through its enharmonic tonic minor (F-sharp) and the latter's relative major (A), to end on a C-sharp-major dominant seventh chord (the enharmonic dominant of G-flat major) in m. 44, as the text describes the larks dreaming in den Duft.  The  tonicization of the flatted mediant G-flat, or its enharmonic", equivalent F-sharp, lasts for the duration of stanza 2; stanza 3 begins with a shift back to the B-flat seventh chord as , abrupt, as that from the same harmony to G-flat major in m. 36. The entirety of-stanza 2, in which the narrator contemplates the surrounding landscape and the movement of the larks across the sky, can be seen to stand in a parenthetical relation to the remainder of the text.  With its focus on the  image of the larks, it represents a change in language from' direct to-- metaphorical description of the relationship, between the narrator and his companion, and thus functions as an elaboration of the main narrative structure. :  Concurrent with ;  the shift back to the B-flat dominant seventh chord in m.; 46 is a redirection of the narrator's attention away from the  /  distracting influence of the. larks and back to his journey. The abrupt shifts of tonal centre on either side of stanza 2, therefore, do not simply reinforce the poem's stanzaic structure; more importantly, they reflect the stylistic change in this stanza from direct to metaphoric description.  As the  image of the larks elaborates on the idea of two travellers journeying together through life, the tonicization of G-flat throughout stanza 2 functions as an extended elaboration of the dominant, B-flat; this is demonstrated in detail in Chapter 3. In treating Hichendorff's:stanzaic divisions, then, Strauss seems to have attached only limited importance to reinforcement of the poem's structural features, except in cases where such features held particular thematic significance.  Certainly this statement applies to his  treatment of the poem's rhyme scheme.  Only occasionally are  melodic and/or rhythmic motives.used to link rhymed words: neigen and steigen,  in stanza 2, are set with the same rhythm .  in a descending inflection, in keeping with the natural metric inflection of these words (m. 38, 42); in the same stanza> dunkelt schon die Luft (mm.. 39 and 40) and in den Duft (mm. 43 and 44) are more closely associated, both set in stepwise ascent (from f-sharp 1  to a' , a' to c-sharp 2 >  respectively);  finally, in stanza 3, each,of the words Schlafenszelt  (m. 49)  27  and Elnsamkelt  (m. 54), marking the halfway and end-points .of  the stanza, begins on b-flat 1  and is set with the rhythm  J J j .  Of particular import here is Strauss'?, use of melodic motive to reinforce associations  in the. text between specific-  poetic images which are less Immediately apprehensible to the listener, yet vital to an understanding of the song.  In the  opening measures of Im Abendrot's orchestral prelude, the first of the song's melodic motives Example 7, is introduced. strings  (a), shown below as  Played by the upper winds and  (flutes, first oboe, first clarinet, violins and  first  viola), it consists of an arpeggiation of the tonic and dominant triads, with the thirds of the tonic triad filled in by stepwise motion.  Andante  Example 7.  Although this motive  Motive a.  is' recalled  frequently throughout  the song, in truncated, transposed and/or inverted form and often recognizable only by it3 characteristic dotted  rhythm,  it never occurs in the vocal line; motive a; is thus an attribute of the orchestral part only.  Thus the key to its  significance lies less in direct associations with specific v/ords of the text than in the transformations which it undergoes throughout the musical structure. The motive in its first manifestation has breadth and, • vitality, indeed a kind of "motive" power: the song is at its strongest dynamic level with the fully scored,: fortepiano Eflat-major chord which opens the song and provides the point of departure for motive,a.  It does not return in its  complete, untransposed form until m. 61, in the orchestral  :  accompaniment to the crucial phrase So tief im Abendrot; its dynamic level,here is piano, and its tessitura an octave lower in first flutes and violins (Example 8).  Example 8.  :  Motive a, measures 61 to 64.  In motive a's next manifestation (from m. 68 to m. 71), its .rate of activity is attenuated: that is, its tempo marking  29  is immer langsaraer; it is transposed into the tonic minor,"the sforzando emphasizing the flatted mediant; its tessitura is again lower (with the addition of second bassoon and first cello, with the lower winds and double bass entering on the final two notes); and it is incomplete, ceasing on the leading tone and thereby lacking its dominant-tonic conclusion (Example 9).  Example 9.  In;its last occurrence  Motive a, measures 68 to 71.  (mm. 81-85), motive a, marked piano  throughout, is even slower, as a result of the decrease in  31'  affinity between the two simultaneous passages.  In fact, it  could be argued that the "call" in the horns and bassoons generates the elaborative, expansive melody.in the upper strings and winds from m. 1 to m. 4.  Be that as it may, for  the purposes of discussion, the horn/bassoon motive is labeled  p  Example 11.  f  Further reduction of motive a.  © Example 12.  Motive a,.  Motive a, is heard in its original form three.more times in the song: in mm. 20-21, played by hor.n3 only, signalling ^  32 ~ —j the imminent entrance of the voice  (Example 13); in the bridge  passage between stanzas 1 and 2, again in the horns,/but outlining the dominant triad  (Example 14); and in mm. 61-62  (So tief im Abendrot}, played as in mm. 1-2 by horns and bassoons, the only point at which this call is heard simultaneously with the voice  (Example 15).  This motive,  although brief, is aurally conspicuous partly because of its relatively high position in the tessitura of the horn, and partly because of the effects of its syncopated rhythm.  fcl--LI— —  1  |' ' *'. IJT  .  • |  (20 Example 13.  Motive a,;  ira i-ittm stu Example 14.  Motive a, t  measures 20 to 22.  tup uu «u measures 34 to 35.  ,  The occurrences of motive al shown as the previous four examples display little if any variation.  The motive's tempo  and tessitura remain the same, and changes in instrumentation are minor  (in its first and final occurrences in the horn it  is doubled in the bassoon, but this doubling does not occur in the intervening occurrences'.  The immutability of motive al  relative to motive a points to a fundamental difference in their roles with respect to the text.  That is, whereas the  transformations of.motive a followed a kind of narrative course, parallel to tendencies implied by the text, the ^v' function of motive al with regard to the text is primarily rhetorical, its repetition marking and associating events- of structural importance.  .  Formal prose is distinguished:from  . •• • informal prose by its  use of specific, structure-articulating devices, chief among which is repetition; the rhetorical design of formal prose  -  34  serves to solemnize the ideas being conveyed.  Motive a,  functions in a similar way not only because of its unaltered reappearances but also as a result of its specific:, characteristics.  It is rhythmically conspicuous:because of  its syncopation and emphatic entry in the middle of the measure, but its relatively slow pace gives it ceremonial : dignity..  More importantly,; with its distinctive horn timbre  supported by bassoons, it arpeggiates the tonic chord in a manner reminiscent of the traditional horn signal  (e.g., a.  fanfare or a hunting call), the original, practical function of which was to rouse the attention of, and prepare listeners for an imminent event of importance, often of a ritual nature. Thus, if the first two tonic major statements of motive; a, signal the beginning of the song (mm. 1-3) and the beginning of the text (mm. 20-21), the coincidence of: the third with the climactic phrase So tief im Abendrot, in mm. 61-62, suggests yet another beginning, as the soul responds to the call from the next world and embarks on its journey.  A rhythmic diminution of motive a, appears in the second violins and violas at the, beginning of jn. :.21,:and this. :; , animated figure  (motive a2  :  becomes an integral part of the  accompanimental texture, played almost continuously by. varying: groups of strings and winds (Example 16). ,  , _  •  0 Example 16.  Motive a 2 .  Momentary pauses in this restless activity occur notably in the orchestral bridge passages, but also occasionally in association with the text, specifically in mm.: 37-40, ceasing" with reference to the darkening of the air and resuming with, that of the flight of the larks; in mm. 50-52 (dass vir uns nlcht verirren); and in mm. 61-64 (So tief im Abendrot).  The  temporary suspension of motion in these places (the text in v. each case referring to the coming darkness) foretells the permanent cessation of motion in death: the final cessation of motive a, occurs in mm.!65-66, just before the word vandermUde.  The significance of this motive with regard to  the text is primarily textural, its animated rhythm suggesting that quickening  (in the archaic sense of the word) the absence  of which def ines death'.  ;  The second motive to be introduced in the prelude  (b),  characterized by an initial' ascent of a fourth followed by the further ascent of a filled-in third, is shown below as Example 17.  These four notes constitute an embryonic version of the  ' 36 ' '—"J" Tod und VerklSzung  motive; which, as noted in Chapter 1, is  quoted more fully and explicitly in the postlude of Ira , A b e n d r o t ; because its occurrence in the prelude is an incipient form of the motive, it is labelled as £>,.  Although,  in the prelude, this motive is somewhat hidden in the sweeping lines of its broader melodic context, its identity is . confirmed by its distinct outlining  (in this case as a C-minor  triad) in the first clarinet in mm. 6-7 as the strings and :  flutes follow through on the. larger melodic line.• -  Example 17 .  Motive h, (Tod .'.und VerklSzung) .  Strauss's use of this;.motive confirms his portrayal of death -as a turning point toward a new form ;of existence•  \  Although the narrator expresses a longing for the rest and peace which death offers, nowhere in the text of Im  Abendrot  is there specific reference to the fulfillment in the next life which Strauss anticipated.  The Tod und Verklarung motive,  serves as an explicit reminder of the transfiguration;which awaits, especially since its first unambiguous statement,  ::  absent from the central section of the song, does not/take place until the last line of text (1st dies etva der Tod?) in mm. 70-71 (Example 18), where it breaks forth in the horns (which function once again as the augurers of change). :  Example 18.  Motive b.  Motive b occurs, like motive a, only in the orchestra and never as part of the vocal line.  But where motive a, whose  .transformations reflect a progressive decline towards death, decreases in strength towards the end of the song, motive b follows the opposite.course, moving,towards a clearer identity in the postlude, thus hinting at the possibility of an ultimate spiritual transfiguration beyond physical existence.  The.third principal motive (c) of im Abendrot, .heard for the first time in m. 9 (Example 19), differs from motives a and b in that it occurs in the vocal line itself and is  38  associated with a specific image, i.e. the larks.  Consisting  of a rising sixth,, approached by semitone from below and followed by a stepwise descent, its contour suggests the swooping of birds in flight.  Example 19.  "Lark" motive (c).  This motive .is heard in the vocal line in mm. 41-42 (stanza 2), in association with the image of the larks (zwei Lerchen  nur noch steigen),  and beginning on g-sharp'  (Example  20), and in mm. 46-47 of the following stanza (und lass sie schvirren, semitone  again.referring to the larks), transposed down a (Example 21)  In addition, it is heard in the violin  solo bridging these .two stanzas  (Example 21), bringing to mind  Strauss 1 s similar use of solo violin in Beim Schlafengehn association with the bird image  :' ;  in  39  '  in'"'i .i'II  |  - C —  ,  '  37)  (41)  Example 20.  Motive c, measures 41 to 42.  . tria • «a«d ia tea Daft,  tempo primo  calando  V,.  Trltt her' aadUaaaJa actnrlt-caa,  —- -  m  ,U}  l-c-J  Example 21.  Motive c, measures 44 to 47.  An inversion of this motive is heard in m. 27 in the vocal line, actually prior to its literal statements in stanza 2, setting the text gegangen Hand.in Hand (Example 22).  1  1tad 1dorci " Not . Ii  Example'.. 22.  and Fr«a-  ; r v ; •• • • do |e (U • '• geaBasdla  Inversion of motive c, measure 27.  40  Although the image of the larks has not yet been introduced in the text, this inverted version of the motive, together with its occurrences in stanza 2 in direct association with the literal textual references to the larks, suggests a metaphoric association between the wanderings of the two travellers and the flight: of the two larks. Motive c occurs only once more following the literal references to larks in the text, in the orchestral bridge passage of mm. 59-60 which sets up the climactic E-flat-major™" cadence at m. 61, So tief im Abendrot  (Example 23); the  contours of this musical image of flight impel the dominant towards its resolution and suggest the passage of the birds "into the sunset".: One only has to think of the remarkably synchronous, aerobatic pas de deux of a pair of birds to appreciate the beauty of Eichendorff's use of the' larks as an image of the.togetherness, of Im Abendrot's human subjects, travelling Hand in Hand over the countryside.  /  r-C-i  3 ere jo. .  jP  1  cre*c. "' •',P " I""" ^  Example 23. Motive c, measures 59 to 60.  .  I  •« -w  . rf*  ;4i.  ***  The fourth.and final melodic motive (d), associated with weariness or sleep, is distinctive chiefl y , i n its rhythm.^ unremarkable melodic contour consists basically descending melodic minor scale, but its syncopated rhythm results in two expressively dissonant appoggiaturas. introduced in the prelude (mm. 10-13, shown as Example 2 4 , its association with the idea of sleep arises from its two recurrences in the vocal : portion of the: so^g: in ^stanza 47-49 [bald  ist  es  Schlafenszeity,  through the upper tetrachord of the  sind wlr  vandezmtide,  t e t r a c h o r d of  the  descending this time B  -flat  raajor  scale  descending again through the upper E  - f i a t melodic minor scale (Example 26)  Example 24.  "Weariness" motive (d)  xts  Example 25.  ©  Motive d, measures 47, to 49.  I l^h '  d  II ) n  Wle..„ iind wlr  Example 26.  1 1  | il .4 | .-•.'••" ; '  wu. der. nii-de-  Motive d, measures 65 to 68.  Finally, this motive is heard in mm. 77-80 of the  'v  postlude, linking the Tod und Verkltliung motive with the mournful, tonic minor version of the song's opening motive (Example 27), •  Examole 27.  Motivic -content, measures 76 to 83.  Example 27 demonstrates the linking of three of the four principal motives 'discussed above (the absent motive that of the larks/held  in reserve for the piccolo trills which closeN  the song) , in the phrase which, directly follows the end of the tex, section of Im Abendrot.  In the tonic minor mode, the  lamenting quality of this melody is at odds with the positive anticipati on of VerklSrung  which might be expected, given  1  Strauss 3 letter of 1894; but, while his belief in an afterlife is hinted at in Ira Ahendrot's  structural and motivic  design, it is in Beim : ScMafengehrr t h a t X t ^ fulfillment in resurrection is to be fully explored. of Im Abendrot  The mood  is permeated by nostalgia for earthly life,  memories of Not und Freude which leave the narrator with mixed emotions as,he contemplates death.  The poignancy of these .  emotions is expressed musically in Strauss's chromatic coloration of the song's harmonic structure, to:be discussed in Chapter Three .'"v;  •  Chapter 3: Harmonic Structure -, As established in previous chapters, an essential quality of Im Abendrot's  mood is the emotional tension between  nostalgia for earthly life and the anticipation of freedom in < a life after death.  This is reflected in the song's harmonic:  structure, in the bimodal dialectic between E-flat major and E-flat minor, which characterizes local harmonic activity;as ,, well as the broader governing structures of the song.  In this  chapter, the interior harmonic structures of each of the three sections will be dealt with, and on the basis of the results of this analysis a background structure determined for the song as a whole'.'','"  The orchestral prelude is expository not only in its introduction of the principal melodic motives of the song and its emphatic establishment of the tonic major key. ,: It also introduces the song's most important harmonic properties, namely, the above-noted dialectic between E-flat major and E- , flat minor, and the elaborative chromatic process linking : , triads, of the same structure  (major or minor) whose roots are  a major third apart. ' '  • •  The establishment of E-flat major would follow a straightforward diatonic cade'ntial formula, as shown in Example 28, were it not for the tonicization of C-flat major from m. 8 to;m. 10.  45  u H .ft K i—LV'  §S  ft  7=Hht  —%  /  •'p  V7  I  J I  vi  Example 28.  VI  vi  ) i7  Middleground structure, measures 1 to  20.  It Is possible to interpret C-flat major in a variety of ways, for example, as an upper neighbour to the dominant, with voice exchange accounting for the tritone C-flat to F movement ;  in the bass.  But this limited interpretation would fail to  account for the significance of C-flat major as it unfolds throughout the song.  A more satisfactory interpretation is  that in Incorporating, with the tonic, the flatted mediant and submediants, C-flat major  (E-flat minor:VIj is a factor in the"1  bimodal dialectic inherent in the song's harmonic structure; its toniclzation is initiated in m. 8 by the A-flat-minor harmony, the subdominant in the tonic minor.  Its pi cemer.t in  the prelude between references to C minor (E-flat major:vi) further emphasizes the bimodal dialectic. ; •  C-flat major can also be seen to result from voiceleading: specifically, semitonal contrary motion between the  t. A  ;  third and fifth of E-flat major, with G-flat acting as lower neighbour to G-natural, and C-fiat as upper neighbour to 3f lat (Example 29).  C-flat major represents, then, a kind of  chromatic Intensification of E-flat major.  J r — y*^ 1  ; Example 29.  —  -1  D '  C-flat major as chromatic elaboration of the E' flat/majoritonic.: A :: .  A third potential function of C-£lat major is as a surrogate subdominant.  Example 30, taking E-flat as tonic,  demonstrates the similarities in voice-leading between the diatonic plagal progression and a chromatic progression with the tonic triad approached from the flatted submediant triad.  7 -2566  1>  ? t> O^  ^K  n  ?  \  r,  n  73 IV X< :  a.  H v  ^ VX->I \ I(-III .•.•'••••  ••:•'••• b'. ; ;  Example 30. Quasi-Subdominant Function of the Flatted Submediant. •  The tonic is held in common between the chords of each progression in Example 30, and the fifth is approached by step from above, but in Example 30b, the chromatic progression, that approach is intensified by the flatted submediant. .The remaining note, i.e., the mediant of the tonic chord, is also approached by semitone, in 30a from above but in 30b from below, a modification,which, by virtue of the semitonal contrary motion created, intensifies the relation. If the progression between two chords with roots a major third apart is reversed, i.e., the roots descend a major third, the resultant harmonic effect is that the first chord functions as a surrogate dominant: for example, if the chord pairs of-Example 30 are reversed, the E-flat-major triads in 30a and 30b each contain a leading note to the root of the ^ ; following chord  (G to A-flat, and B-flat to C-flat,  ' .  The excerpt from Im Abendxot's  '  .49  orchestral prelude,  condensed above,as Example 28, shows thac the point of departure from E-flat major towards the tonicization of C-flat major occurs in mm. 6-8 in the succession from C minor major:VI) to A-flat minor  (E-flat  (E-fiat minor:IV), a progression,  like that between E-flat major and C-flat major, between chords whose roots are a major third apart, related through contrary-motion voice-leading in an expanding direction (Example 31).  WV d  -r Q.—.  vrr "  f — " — „ —  Example 31.  A-flat minor as chromatic elaboration of C minor, measures 7 to 8.  If the voice-leading processes are not identical, there is a parallel result: that is, the chromatic association of triads of the same intervailic structure with roots a major third apart.  ,  ' -  . •••  The prelude,, then, introduces two related.: facets of the song's harmonic structure, the first of which is, in the  :  ^  50  context of E-flat major, the dual significance of the C-flatmajor triad: in its incorporation of. the flatted mediant and submediant, it implies the darker E-flat minor, and thus,the ., bimodal dialectic; and in its quasi-subdominsnt  function  relative to E-flat major, as well as its elaborative neighbour relation, C-flat major represents a chromatic  intensification  of the tonic major.: The second important harmonic principle introduced in the prelude is that of the chromatic voiceleading process linking triads or the same structure (i.e.:' major or minor) with roots a major third apart.  The  ..•:f~"rTl  expressive purpose of these principles with respect to the text will become clear through analysis of the central section of the song, comprised of the setting of the poem itself, in which Strauss uses the chromatic voice-leading procedures ./ described above in lending expressive effect to particularly . ; significant points in the text. /  The first clause of the first stanza is set more chromatically than - the second,, as Example 32 demonstrates. This concentration of chromatic activity in the first phrase relative to the.• second corresponds, with the change in the text from the eventfulness of the past (Pir sind durch Not und• Freude gegangen  Hand in Hand--"'de have through times of need  and joy gone hand in hand")'to the relative eventlessness of the present (Vom yandern  ruhen wir nun (Uierm sbillen  "from wandering over the quiet land, now we rest".):, jy  Land—  51  -  —  £ •^Btr-  Wv  '4-  t  e- i - ^ — H S  5 © rt . 7 i-L VJ  €)  i  Ijt e —  P  ' *  r—nt—  «  i E>:l  :  .  ^Vl  iv  Example 32.  i~l  ©  t  — I  —  f i • • i 6  -th  »  ^  (s > i —e— .  t  •  5—  IV I  Harmonic structure of stanza 1.  The chromatic activity of the first eight measures  reaches a climax with the word Freude  ("joy") in mm. 26-27,  one of only two words in the entire song set to the C-flatma jor triad: the other (to be discussed further on in this chapter) is Tod.  Strauss's setting of the words Not und  Freude (mm. 24-26, shown as Example 33) is therefore deserving of . particular'.attention.- /Vv,  /A^vVfV^V-  52  N a t und- F r e u d e a m  Example 33.  Not und Freude, measures 24 to 26.:  The words Not and Freude signify the universal; extremes of the range of human e x p e r i e n c e — a t one end of the spectrum sorrow, deprivation, the tragedies of life; at the other, its joys.  Strauss:enhances the polarity, in meaning between these  two words in various ways: for example, Not is set to a G -  •  minor triad, as opposed to the C-flat-major triad of Freude; further contrast is provided  in the diatonic-chromatic '•v-:-:'"  contrast between the two chords. Strauss also emphasizes the polarity in meaning between Not and Freude in the relationships between the three chordsto which are sat the three words of the phrase.  It can be  seen from Example 33 that the roots of these chords are a major third apart, E-flat functioning as the centre with G and C - f l a t a t opposite poles.  The E-flat-major triad between the  G-minor and C-flat-major triads sets the word und, functioning both rhythmically and textually as a, conjunction: only a :; .  n n n n ~h rf n ~>7 ~n  *  *  ¥  53  quarter note in duration and occurring on the second quarter of m. 25, it.acts as an anacrusis to the C-flat-major triad (Freude) which follows. Therefore of greater interest is the audible relationship between the G-minor and C-flat-major triads to which Strauss sets the nouns of the phrase, Not and Kreude, the roots of y which are also the enharmonic equivalent of a major third apart; this is shown as Example 34.  v-y-w,  .Example,34.  te—  Voice-leading, G-minor to C-flat Major.  Because of their dissimilar intervallic structure  (i.e.,;minor  and major), the relationship between these two chords i-sKv•••••: unlike those shown as Examples 29, 30 and 31, between chords of similar intervallic structure  (major-major, minor-minor); >  it is also different .from the neighbour-based between G-minor and E-flat major.  relationship  There are no common tones  between the G-minor and c-f lat-aia jor triads, a property which emphasizes the contrast in meaning between the .words which .are:  :  y  54  set to them; however, the semitonai expansion which characterized  the progressions in Examples 29, 30 and 31 still  occurs here, the root of the G-minor triad moving downwards and its third and fifth moving  upwards.  These two chords are dissimilar  in definitive respects:  one is minor, one major; one diatonic,: the other  chromatic;  their roots are found at opposite poles, equidistant from the tonic E-flat; they share no common notes.  However, even as  joy and, sorrow, Not und Freude, are inextricably associated human life, the two chords are closely associated  in  through  contiguous voice-leading, with the E-flat-major ..triad' providing intermediate:common.tones by which the progression can proceed, so to speak, by degrees the two chords  The interdependence of  is made more audible by the .ue Iodic line in the  voice part, the d 2  in the voice on the word Not acting as an  incomplete lower n e i g h b o u r — a  l e a d i n g - t o n e — t o the  on  which the word Freude is sung in the following measure (Example' 35). .  i 0 \) J  i-l-  ——  ;  :  Wir sind durch Not  Example 35.  H-  ., -ty——  —  und  1  1  .Freude  Melodic structure, Not  und Freude.  .  5 5 •/'•  ***  In Chapter,Two it was pointed out that the second stanza of Im Abendrot, comprised of the central metaphor of the larks, was set off from the surrounding, predominantly : narrative stanzas by the abrupt change in tonal centre from Bflat, at the end of stanza 1 in m. 34, to G-flat, in m. 36. This modulation, despite the abruptness with which it is achieved, follows logically from the .voice-leading precedents established in the prelude: G-flat;major is: to B - f l a t m a j o r as C-flat major is to E-fiat major  •JU'-b y  (Example 36).  V  i,. S H K rf — n  rv t m  Example 36.  }  Linear relation between G-flat major and B-flat /major'... • . 7 .;  In m. 35, the B-flat-major triad,; tonicized at the end of stanza 1, becomes what we perceive as a dominant seventh with the addition of A-flat above the triad; unexpectedly, however, although the seventh resolves.downward  in the conventional ;  manner in: the following measure, the chord itself resolve?, not  56  to E-flat major, but to the surrogate tonic chord of G-f.lat major (Example 37).  f-it  n  io  va:  m  :v  7  "I"  . : G^ : X Example 37.  G-flat as surrogate tonic, measures 35 to  The text of Im Abendzot's  36.  second stanza describes, in its  first two lines (mm. 36-40), the darkening of the air as it "bends" through the valleys (Rings sich die TSler dunkelt  schon  neigen,/Es  die Luft), and in the last two lines (mm. 41-  4*1), the fluttering of the larks alone through the haze (Zvei Lezchen  nur noch steigen/Nach-tzSumend  in den Duft).  Similarly, the stanza's harmonic structure, shown as Example 38, divides neatly into two parts according to the same divisions.  ' \  57  i IV Example 38.  I  VI  V  vi  Harmonic structure of stanza 2.  The first half-stanza, in keeping with the darkening of the air which it describes, is comprised of an analogous "darkening" in mode from G-flat major in m. 36 to F-sharp minor in m. 40 with the arrival of the word Luft.  The tonal  change begins with the D-major triad—enharmonically the flatted submediant of the local tonic, G - f l a t — o n the word dunkelt ("darkens"); this chord, although chromatic with respect to G-flat major, is the submediant of F-sharp minor • and thus functions diatonically: towards the tonicization of Fsharp in m. 40 (Example 39).  G^rl6  4ttt6 f VI6 fir VI 6  v§  i  «e»saies 38 to 40. harmonic structure of this  Processes, '  — — «  -  anri and  , demonstrates fh„  klnd0£ £nc:M , u l c r  «»or „  —  a  „ .  ,u,rly  f  a point • '  th/;  n evit  V *  ° nf  -  •  «  ,  „  i  j r " ^ l e onset of night,  a  e g i n s fc  o surface.  Immediately fni i • fhlc '» h o roilovinq „ver a „ V  — -  S 1  M  metaphor for death  a  "ena^ot's harmonic  £onrtiM £  p  c l  — i y  ;h " " the harmonic colour i sudden shift into a „ " t0 A Wlt concurrent . with -n  «-••> . « t i „ / : transformed with th* , zvel the words  ,  Lezchen  nur noch s t e i g e n .  Up  until  t M s  ?oint  in  thfi  ^  the narrator and his companion have been travelling wearily through an empty landscape, devoid of.life.  The sudden  appearance of th, larks draws th, narrator's attention awav from the landscape, distracts him from his journey, and this Poetic turn is enhanced by the abrupt change of mode in m. ,4 The significance of A major, however, is not limited to local harmonic development and text-setting: from m. 21, at the beginning of the text section of the song, the- tonal  :  scheme of Im Abendrot travels along a path of increasing harmonic distance from E-flat major until reaching the "farthest" possible point, A major,3 la::kS  '  fr  °m  VhiCh  (Example 40).  "  V  with the inage of the  ^ a d u a l l y recedes back to E-flat major  As the image of the larks delineates the  "vertical", earth-to-sky dimension of Eichendorff's poetic "space", Strauss 1 s choice of its harmonic setting delineates the musical dimension of tonal "distance*. "  flat major^in^the c V r c L ^ fs s e n t s j h e opposite-of the circle of conventional fifth relationships.  60  ©© ©© Example 40.  Tonal progression,  measures 21 to 41.  The major mode,prevails for only three measures, however, as the stanza ends on the dominant of F-sharp minor (again by way of D major in m. 43), a C-sharp-major triad (Example 41). The lyrical brightness of the violin solo which follows in mm. 43-45, like .that of the l a r k s - a n d that of Eichendorff-s  :  L o r e l e i - i s deceptive, masking a dark and perilous reality. In the third Stanza of i*.Abendrot, awareness of that darker ' reality reaches it, greatest intensity, both in its text and in its "harmonic structure.  V "  '  61  f S: I Example 41.  vi  v  End of stanza 2 and violin solo.  Stanza 3 begins with a shift back to the B-flat dominant seventh chord as abrupt as that from the same chord to G-flat major at the beginning of the previous stanza;, concurrent with this shift is a redirection of the narrator's; attention away from the distracting influence of the larks and back to h<s journey: Tritt her und . lass  Sie  schwirren.  from the c-sharp dominant seventh chord in  The progression a.  45 to the B-flat  dominant seventh chord in m. 46 (shown as Example 42, Results from voice-leading through chromatic adjacencies.  :  62  Example 42.  VoIce-le a d l continuity relating d o m i n a n t s ^eyenths on C-sharp and B-flat, measures 45 to  The harmonic structure of the stanza as a whole is below as Example 43.  shown  Although the passage beginning in m. 46  is diatonically in E-flat major, and the dominant seventh resolves to an E-flat-major triad in m. 47, the tonic triad here is in second inversion; the true resolution-to a rootposition tonic t r i a d - d o e s not occur until the arrival of the E-flat-minor chord in m. 50 at the end of the word Schlafenszeit.  This is '13  one  of  ? n l y tvp explicit statements" of  E-flat minor in the vocal section, the other occurring in 68, with the word v a n dern, a d e ;  both  m.  statements of E-flat minor  are associated with references in the text anticipating sleep, and death (Example 44).  ;  f 8: V 7 Ek:V7 (IS) iv  V* i . iv v7  A  b  4  S 3 Bt:lil7)  Example 43.  Example 44.  y7  Harmonic structure, stanza 3.  E-flat minor, Schlafenszeit  and  wanderiiiOde.  The harmonically most problematic passage in stanza 3, indeed in the entire song, spans the four measures from:the E flat minor chord in m. 50 to the C-minor chord  (B-iiat:ii) in  »• 53, shown as Example 45: as the underlying anxieties  implicit in the poem come to the surface (dass viz uns mus  ic  nicht  reaches the point of maximum dissonance  and ambiguity.  Example 45.  Dass viz uns nicht vezizzen,  measures 50 to 53.  The E-flat-minor of m. 50 is followed in the first half of m. 51 by its subdominant, A-flat minor, which is coloured by the double appoggiatura  (d-flat* and b-flat 1 ), giving .'. :  dissonant emphasis to the word nicht and stressing the narrator's fear of becoming lost in the impending darkness. The subdominant is arpeggiated in the bass line throughout this measure, but on the third beat, Strauss sets the word vezizzen  ("to go astray") with a dissonant simultaneity  consisting of E-flat, G-natural, B-flat and D-flat, the dominant seventh of A-flat minor, over C-flat in the bass. Without that C-£lat, the progression from A-flat minor to its dominant seventh is unproblematic, as is the progression from  65 *  that dominant seventh, enharmonically 'unctioninq as a German sixth, to the G-minor six-four in m. 52. The dissonance on the second syllable of verirre®. exacerbates the sense of disturbance at this point; tut the idea of "going astray" is also illustr ' id musically by the apparent confusion in the harmonic fabriS.  The intricacy of.;  the passage, with dual-fmefeleftlRf .effigomatic chords resulting in quick changes in harmonic direction, metaphorically st»§<§eafta a ^a.th Sill ®f unexpected hazards, twists and turns negotiated with difficulty. A3 quickly as it emerged, however, the dense chromaticism of mm.  50-53 dissolves into the straightforward, conventional  preparation for '  B-flat-major h a l f " c a d e n c e  in  m>  54  With  which Strauss sets the closing wor&S, of this stanza, In dieser Einsamkeit ("In this lonelinss®"): in contrast to the previous measures, the harmonic "landsespe" in mm. 53-55, almost completely diatomic in texture, is as featureless and plain as Sichfenidor££"s empty wilderness.  The tentativeness of the  half-cadence which ends the stanza sustains the expression of unfulfillment in music and text. ,....•'  The central image of Im Abendrot's fourth and final stanza is that of the setting.sun, with its connotations of death and...resurrection; Example 4 6. shows the harmonic . structure of this stanza.  Bb:I  >VI  i  Eb: V  7  I  V  I  vi  et»:iv  v| i  v  Example 46. Harmonic structure, stanza 4.  As the narrator gazes into the sky, struck by its vastness  0 welter, stiller  Friede.'-the tentative half-  cadence which ended the previous stanza is resolved to its'-; 7 tonic, B-flat major.  This chord is prolonged for the next six  measures, the word stiller chromatically and expressively elaborated in mm. 57-58 by th» third-related  G-flat-major  triad, in a foreground .statement of the relationship between B-flat major and G-flat major previously established in the tonal relationships governing the first three stanzas - (Example 47).  Example 47.  Chromatic elaboration of B-flat nnjor by G-flat major, measures 57 to 58.  The slowed harmonic rhythm of the dominant-tonic  :  cadential progression, spread over the eight measures from m. 56 to m. 64, after the rhythmically active, thorny chromaticism and dissonance of  t h e  t h i r d  stanza, reinforces,: '  the textual change between stanzas 3 and 4 from anxiety to peace  (o veiter, stiller  deeper in mm.  6 1 - 6 4  Friede'); this sense of peace is even  (So tief  im  Abendrot), with its  diatonic expression of E-flat major.  p u r e ,  The peacefulness of the  first half of stanza 4 is short-lived, however, as in m. 65 the harmonic structure begins a chromatic phase of bimodal interaction not to be resolved until m. 9 5 . In the last two lines of the poem, the narrator's / ; attention turns from the external landscape, inward to the state of his own body and soul.  The highly chromatic,  68  increasingly unstable progression culminating in the C-flat-' major chord in m. 75 with the final word of the poem, Tod?, in its apparent "dissolution" of the E-flat-major tonality, implies the dissolution of physical existence. The third line ( H e  sind vir vandermdde), as demonstrated  earlier in this chapter (Example , 44), ends in m. 68 with the cadence to the tonic minor, an echo of which occurs in the postlude at m. 80; this twelve-measure passage between E-flat minor cadences is bisected in m. 75 with the second-inversion C-flat-major chord at the end of the text.  The voice-leading*'  governing this passage, including the progression from E-flat minor in m. 68 to the C-flat-major chord of m. 75, is shown in  ...Example 48.  Voice-leading, measures 68 to 80.  The voice-leading  in this passage reflects the bimodal  dialectic between E-flat major and E-flat minor. clearly visible in the bass line  This is most  (Example 48c), which first  descends through the, upper tetrachord  of the major  scale,  reaching the dominant with the B-flat-minor triad in m. 74 (itself a partly linear phenomenon), but skipping down to Gflat in m. 75, from which it ascends t o t h e dominant in m. 79, in preparation for the cadence to E-flat minor in the following measure.  The unstable .interval  o f o u r t h • ;  between the bass G-flat and the soprano c-£lat' S e a t e d  by  this leap holds motivic as well as harmonic significance, as its "linearization" occurs in the following measure in the initial notes of the Tod und VerkUzung second-inversion C-flat-major  motive, outlining the  triad.  Example 48b shows that the G-flat of the E-flat-minor :triad  in m. 68, following its .enharmonic : restatement  in m. 71  as F-sharp, the third of the D-major triad, can be heard to descend through F-natural (mm. 73-74) and the tonic E-flat (mm. 75-78) to the .leading tone D (m. 79), which resolves back to the tonic in m. 80; this descent forms an important part of the melodic texture in the two tonic-minor statements of motive a referred to in Chapter Two  (Example 49).  70  Example 49.  Motive a, measures 70 to 71 and 82 to 83.  Finally, Example 48a shows the elaboration of the dominant,;. B-flat by its lower and upper neighbours, resulting' in the chromatic tones A-natural in m. 71, and c-flat in m. 75; c-flat also functions as the flatted submediant in the implied descent through the upper tetrachord of the E-flatminor scale.  From m. 75, the C-flat-major harmony functions  diatonically as part of the preparation for the cadence to the tonic minor at m. 80: the contrast between its chromatic approach and diatonic resolution intensifies the sense inexorability in the. harmonic processes following the narrator's final; question, 1st dies etva der Tod?  •  The harmonic structure of the postlude following the / < tonic minor cadence in m. 80 moves back towards the tonic  '  major.:. From m. 80 to m. 8G, the harmonic structure parallels that of mm. 68-73: like that from m. 68 to m. 74, the bass line in this passage begins the descent through the upper  tetrachord  of t h e E - f l a t - m a j o r  scale.  The d e s c e n t  is  /  interrupted before; reaching the dominant, however, instead restarting triad  in m . 87 w i t h E - f l a t ; a t t h i s p o i n t t h e  in m m . 8 5 - 8 6  is f o l l o w e d  i n s t e a d of a B - f l a t - m i n o r  by an A-flat-maior  triad, as  in m . 74  interrupted  bass-line  Example  Example result  50.  triad  Voice-leading, measures  50 s h o w s t h a t t h e A - f l a t - m a j o r processes  in w h i c h  of t h e E - f l a t - r a a j o r s i x - f o u r a r e a p p r o a c h e d below:.in:other  words, the  the s i m u l t a n e o u s  ascents  major  three-chord  leads  completed.  87 to  89.  and D-minor the three by step  to t o n i c  !  the  is  progression  from submediant  50).  in turn  in m . 3 9 , w h e r e  d e s c e n t to t h e d o m i n a n t  from v o i c e - l e a d i n g  six-four  (Example  T h e A-flat-major triad moves to D - m i n o r , w h i c h to the t o n i c m a j o r s i x - f o u r  F-major  triads notes  from  '  consists'of in  p-£lat  <c - D - E - f l a t ) , f r o m s u b d o m i n a n t , b y s e m i t o n e ,  to  72 —j« dominant (A-flat - A-natural -:B-flat), and from tonic to mediant  (E-flat - F - G) .  The passage from m. 87 to m. 89 forms a link between the final words of text (der Tod?) in mm. 74-75 and the final cadence to E-flat major in m m , 93-95.  Example 51 shows how  mm. 87-89 and mm. 74-75 are related by transposition by a/V major third; the similarities between these progressions/ extend to their Identical tempo markings.  Example 51. Parallel progressions, measures 74 to 75 : and 88 to ,89..  At the same time, the passage: in mm. 87-89 is linked to the final dominant-tonic cadence to E-flat major in mm. °3-95 by virtue of the fact that both progressions"harmonize the ascents.from submediant to tonic and tonic to mediant.  In mm.  8 7-9 8, however, the subir.edianc-to-tonic ascent forms the upper melodic line where the tonic-to-mediant ascent occurs in an  inner voice and thus is somewhat hidden,  m  mm. 93-95, the:  two voices are reversed, the tonic-to-mediant ascent, significant  from a motivic standpoint as demonstrated  , in  Chapter Two, forming the upper melodic line (Example 52).  &  (P)  Example 52. / ^ / ^ e l  fa  fa  fa  Progressions, measures 07 to 89  although Strauss's;setting of the vords der  Tod?,  reflecting the question which ends the poem, concludes the  :  text section of im Abendrot in a state of extreme chromatic  ^  instability, a logical connection can be made, through the intermediate progression in mm. 87-89, to the final mm. 93-95.  That cadence, then, strengthened  cadence'in  by-its use of r  diatonic, triads in root-position rather than the chromatic six-four triads characteristic of the.:previous  progressions,I  can be understood to form a kind of answer to the question dies etv'a  der Tod?,  it is an affirmative answer,  1st  b u t " •  which implies: through-its final, inconclusive melodic ascent  74  from tonic to mediant that, if this is death, it is not the end.  The beginning of this chapter alluded to the significance of a bimodal dialectic between E-£lat major and E-flat minor as governing Im Abendrot in its broad structural outlines as well as in local harmonic activity.  A sketch of.these  structural outlines, shown below as Example 53, reveals the extent to which that binodal dialectic conditions the structure of the song.-  Example 53.  Harmonic structure, Im  ^  Abendrot.  Briefly stated, the bimodal dialectic is expressed through a middleground arpeggiation of E-flat minor governing  7  -75  tonal areas from stanza to stanza which is framed by thev'.V strong  iterations  of E - f l a t m a j o r  and at the end of the postlude.  in the orchestral  prelude  The harmonic "problem" which  it poses comes into focus in the final phrase of Im abendrot, mm. 89-97.(Example 54): the arrival at E-flat major in m. 89 is tentative because of its unstable  intervallic structure,  and the state of uncertainty it engenders is sustained  over  the next four measures by its elaboration by the C-flat-major six-four  (the flatted mediant G-flat in the bass,,  implying the. tonic minor.  insi,tently  Only with the root-position  C-min^  triad in m. 93, initiating the final cadence, are G-flat and C-flat, the indicators of the tonic m i n o r , finally superseded by G-natural and C-natural, the indicators of the tonic major.  Example 54.  -Measures 89 to 9 7 .  —j»  76_ -  T h i s f i n a l p h r a s e of I l a A b e n d r o t ,, . •• w i , . of t h e „ with its j u x t a p o s i t i o n t h e s u b m e d i a n t t r i a d s of b o t h E - f i ^ • b. f l a t minor and E - f ] * > r e s p e c t i v e mode: it also . i t a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e s Lt h ee • • , ° " expressive : s t r u c t u r a l . s i g n i f i c a n c e of the C - f i s , ,  t S  and  major-minor dialectic acti ^^ t r i a d in the of the mi - " n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y as the s u b m e d i a n t the m i n o r mode a n d . c h r o m a t i c a l l y i„ t h p k y l n t h e ^ broader qovernina 9 s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m a j o r m o d e ; t h u s it 1 , K logical and , x p r e s s i v e l y f i t ^ ^ ; S 1 V 6 l Y £ l t t i n final cli , * Strauss should set f i n a l , c l i m a c t i c w o r d of t h e t e x t ~ T o d > ~ w i t h „  bimodal, • ambivalence  in: lm .ibendrot r e f l e c t ^ ' ^ A e c t s  Pervading Eichendorff's  text  t h e  emotional  the ~ i^y  as t h  M t r a t 0 r n o s t a l g i c a l l y r e f l e c t s o n th • ^ f l S C t S life lo " y s , n d s o r r o w s of e a r t h l y P o k i n g t o w a r d s d e a t h wwith i t h Wboth h " apprehension and desire.  Chapter  4: M e l o d i c  Structure  chapter other th,„ H e  a  "  d  d  1  "  3  1  • r  voice part  ,otlvlc  5  ' ^ *  ^ ' t b . ' -  t  I  line  W  lowest point  P * «  l  n  c h > p t e i  characteristic^of'the  b e g i n s  o n  b  _  f i g t i /  t h f i  ^ ^ ^ ^  of t e x t  ««  occurs  the word n e i g e h V  the h i g h e s t , g J , a m a j o r s i x t h  word  Figure  ^  is a m a j o r s i x t h b e l o w , d - f l a f , w h i c h  in m.: 63,: on the f i r s t s y l l a b l e  Penultimate  j  f o l l o w s t h e s h a p e of a  o n l y o n c e , in m . 3 8 , c o n c u r r e n t w i t h  occurs  e  2 . ^ , F i g u r e ^ r e v e a l s that  in i t s b a r e s t o u t l i n e s  m e l o d y  ("bending");  r  o t the m e l o d y a r e s h o w n a s  in more detail in F i g u r e  T h e  .  t  of  unes  -iodic  :  fabric.  The broadest o u t l i n e s  wave.  i  (mm. 22-75), with appropriate reference to elements  of t h e o r c h e s t r a l m e l o d i c  and  u  above b-ilat'  of A b e n d r o t ;  o.the  ' " ^  the^melodi.lineReturns;  in t h e following, m e a s u r e ; a s c e n d s  b y a sernitcihe tc> c - f l a t ^  . » , .75 on t h e  ^  ^  p a r t is a l m o s t c il rr cc uu ll aa rr ^in n that at the end it : returns, to the Pitch from which it started, but; the/ subsequent Semitoneascent to.c-f lat2 this c i r c u l a r i t y .  undermines •  the sense  of c l o s u r e  implied:by^^ ^ ' •  1  I  Abendrot  Viz sind -  Tod?  . . — — 4 Schlafenszelt  —  St-4-  /  neigen 22  32  Figure 1.  42  52  62  .b-flat-  Table  in t h e v o c a l  l i n e , and  However, fully a third  it r e v e a l s n o  2, b-flat'  of ira A b e n d r o t - s of t h e  pitch  consistent  of t e x t s e t p r i m a r i l y  with  this  of t h e p o e m ' s s e v e n t y - t h r e e  words have at least one syllable sung stanza  in:three  I shows all the occurrences  relationship between segments Pitch.  82  Reduction ui vocal line.  T h e p i t c h b-flat': is p r o m i n e n t four s t a n z a s .  72  is c o n s p i c u o u s  on b - f l a t - ,  b y its r e l a t i v e  although  : ^ in  influence.'  J - highest  point  rests within  OFl3ure 2. Vocal Line  J (E-ilat)  stanzas  80 Stanza  Measure 8 —  28~25  ' • . Text  HandSind  Cot J und  30-34  2 3  nun  scill(-en)  17 46  52  La?}d  her (schvlrr)-en 5cijlafenszeit '  „n c!  56-58  weitr^f .  2  -sa^eit)  (Abend)-rot f w a n ;-der.utide der'. "..•'•••:•  :  Table I . O c c u r r e n c e s of b - rf il aa rt '  mi „ ,v o c a l  :  •  T h e . c e n t r a l i t y of b-flat-V W ' , . ' , ' is demonstrated c o n t o u r of s t a n y s i = ,  '  line.  in t h e  r n  melodic  u  1, a g r a p h l c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of which i s shown as Example 55. The , .The  C M e 5 t  __„,, . ends  m  »  -  stanza  intermediate cl.se  m . 34 a l s o o n b - f l a t '  ri..- < • « » . , b o t h s u n g on  ana  in m  '  ^  28  ,•  in m . 2 2 o n  at th  b-flat'  "  at the same p i t c h , ^^  V  and  -  '  th  b-fiat-t.  '  begins  '  p  t h e  " "  8 t l 2 1 e  t£XtS  b a l a n c e or equilibria..  "  art:  here a r e consonant with i;:-^  the"  Freude —it—-  m.(22)  (2i *  Hand  (30)  v  ruhen  -i  \ stillen  T  2 6  '  a n  , s  "  Land  M l n 9  ^ex, o n l y o n e s e m i t o n e ) ss ee tt ss >t hhe . V b y , ^ ' words und F r e u d e the latter harmonized with the c fi,* ' , ' 6 C f l 3 t - m a j o r :t r i a d u n d e r l i n i n g9 t h e h , bimodal dialectic. Against t h ^ ^ ^ Against this chromatic ascending E - f i a t -  r  5  9  i  a  —  u  o  °  i  n  forms a  s h a t p  „  c  lhe  t e t 0 £ n  ^  io  . <"«.»»<= r?« tog,tllet „It6 the „el041c deBcenti a « » « ! . „ „  r e v e t M 1 <  p  „  d  „  c e 3  a  c o n d i u o n  of  -  -  •^intensification apptootiat. f . n.'  30-31.  -o  c a i  „,  t e  °Ptlite  "  „  l e  ,  _  p  t  ^  the  <-«at.,  b t l e £  btld9e  ^  l„:  «  82  orchestra.  Frequently, soprano instruments double the vocal  line, either  in.unison or in thirds. . Sometimes, however,, focus  shifts,to the orchestra as a result of its conspicuous melodic ..v.  activity. This • flat' bass  first occurs  in m . 2 7 , w h e r e a g a i n s t t h e h e l d  in t h e v o i c e o n t h e a c c e n t e d ; s y l l a b l e instruments  a s c e n d c h r o m a t i c a l l y in q u a r t e r  c o n t r a r y m o t i o n to the d e s c e n d i n g The vocal  line  itself displays  towards a convergence  in t h e b a s s , w i t h the  vocal  line  56).  motion  rhythm,  effect.  Example 56. contrary motion between voice and bass.  The melodic contour g r a p h i c a l l y as Example  to s u q 2 t r t t chapter^  S  yl  S  of s t a n z a  57.  2 is  .As in s t a n z a  represented 1, stanza  /'  phrase,  the contrary  its " w a l k i n g " q u a r t e r - n o t e  0  motion  o n b - f l a t ' a t t h e e n d of t h e in H a n d ; '  the  n o t e s , in  (Example  i n t e r n a l contrary  a p p r o p r i a t e l y with the text Hand  underlines  of gcgangen  d-  2  begins  ^ , 0 3 t l i t e ™ 1 u s e o f ^ l o d i c ;c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . d i s c u s s e d in d e t a i l at/ t h e ; end o f the; ..  and ends on its dominant, but due to the tonicization of Gflat/F-sharp throughout the stanza, tne dominant is d-flat/csharp 2 .  L n*  o a. (: i  ^  neigen  Example 57.  1 1 1 A , i j yr — m ©  ifd£  .  i  9  Melodic contour of stanza 2.  The bass instruments "come,into prominence at the '? beginning of stanza 2 as a result of their imitation of the vocal line's first two measures  (Example 58).  The  imitative  motion itself imitates: the flight of a pair of birds, characteristic of which is the pursuit of one bird by another as they trace intricate patterns against the. sky.  The  quintuplet flourish in the violins in m. 37 is a reminder of the ornamental nature of birdsong; the initiation of the flute trills in m. 40 bring the bird metaphor into the  forefront.'  Example,58. Imitation between voice and bass.  Contrary motion brings the bass orchestral  instruments  into prominence again in m. 39, especially combined with the cross-rhythm between;voice and.instruments  (Example 59).  If  contrary motion in stanza 1 produced a sense of convergence, i:i mm., 3 9 - 4 0 — e s dunkelt  schon die t u f t — t h e widening span  between upper and lower voices,suggests the expanse of the skyscape which has grasped the narrator's attention.  Example 59.  Table II, which indicates the range of each stanza, reveals that stanza 2 displays the widest range, at seventeen  semitones.  The, wideness.' of the melodic range correlates with  the stanza's description of the soaring of the larks across the sky.  Stanza  Lowest Pitch  Highest Pitch  e-flat' d-flat'  g-flat 2 f-sharp 2 f2 ' , a2  - 1 2 3 : 41  Table II.  Range In Semitones : 15 17 10 14  Ranges of stanzas 1 to 4.  By contrast, the melodic contour of stanza 3, represented graphically as Example 60, displays the narrowest range. Since stanzas 2 and 3, the shortest of the four stanzas, are equal in duration at forty-four quarter-note pulses in comparable tempo, the contrast in range between then is heightened.  Following, the sweeping contour of stanza 2, the  limited melodic line of stanza 3, only ten semitones in range, underlines its text, wherein the narrator expresses his fear that they will lose; their way in the darkness.  The idea of  disorientation is underscored in the .rapid .chrbmatlc>'descentr.« of the flutes in parallel thirds in m.. 52 /with the word verizzen  (Example 61).  86  Einsamkeit  verirren  Example  60.  Melodic contour  Example  Example  60 s h o w s t h a t b - f l a t 1  flat1  (m. 45) and c 2  is f r e q u e n t l y  the b a s s .  I n m . 49  is i n s i s t e n t l y s o u n d e d its upper  (m. 54), r e s p e c t i v e l y .  ( S c h l a f e n s z e i t ) a n d m . 54  intense  connection  However,  with;, it  dissonanceappoggiatura  this- s i m i l a r i t y e s t a b l i s h e s a  between the two rhyming  b-  (Binsamkeit),  in m . 54 w i t h b - f l a t ' a c t i n g a s a n  resolving, to a-natural';  in  neighbours,  in a s o m e w h a t d i s s o n a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p  f o r m s a p e r f e c t f o u r t h w i t h t h e b a s s - n o t e F , the more  3.  61.  this stanza, which begins and ends with b-natural1  of s t a n z a  words, emphasizing  a s s o c i a t i o n between sleep/death, and .loneliness and t h e  musical the anxiety  •.  " 87 ... •"•  which, the narrator e x p r e s s e s . 51-52 as an appoggiatura seventh and  on the word  1  is a l s o h e a r d  graphically as Example a r r i v a l of t h e m e l o d i c  of s t a n z a  62.  its a p e x , g ,  is  h a r m o n y w i t h t h e .third  f o r m s p a r t of a g r a d u a l d e s c e n t  naturals  (Example  in t h e  °  Example  62.  tief  <a  Melodic contour  of s t a n z a  G-  s p a n of  Abendrot  4.  on  soprano,  of u p p e r v o i c e the entire  This  ending  whole.  s  the  in m . 5 3 .  beginning'and  and thus  song as a  line..  importance  63) taking place over  major  represented  2  is c o n s o n a n t w i t h I m Abendrot's  the t o n i c E - f l a t - m a j o r  bass  4 is  Of c r u c i a l  line at  in ir.m.  verirren, forming a  then a minor sixth with;the  The melodic contour  pitch  B-flat  j»  the  Example 63. upper v o i c e G - n a t u r a l  Once again b-flat' heard at  pitch  its b e g i n n i n g , mid-point and e n d .  • which structures structures  the melodic line as a whole  the melodic  .stanzas, the exception syllable  is a n i m p o r t a n t  descent.  l i n e s of t h r e e being stanza  is s u n g o n b - f l a t '  m . 56); b-flat'  in t h e  stanza,  Thus the  pattern  (Figure  2: the  first  accented  ( t o , m . 22; h e r , m . 46;  is h e a r d a t t h e e x a c t m i d - p o i n t  last pitch  of  the s t a n z a  Einsamkeit,  m . 5 4 ; d e r , ,„. 7 4 ) .  the a r r i v a l  on b - f l a t '  a reversal  of d i r e c t i o n  fiat" s.upper  weiter,  of t h e  stanza  is  the  (Lan^^mV:^;^:-  In s t a n z a s  approached  also  of  ( H a n d , m . 2 8 ; Schlafenszeifc, m m . 4 9 - 5 0 ) ; a n d b - f l a t ' l a s t or a l m o s t  1)  3 and  4,  however,  f r o m a b o v e , is f o l l o w e d  a n d .the l a s t p i t c h o f t h e s t a n z a  n e i g h b o u r : c ' I n m.,.54 a n d  c-flat2  in m .  by  is b -  75.  The bimodal dialectic  between E-flat major and  E-flat  minor,:the harmonic manifestations  of w h i c h w e r e d i s c u s s e d  t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , is e x p r e s s e d  melodically  several p l a c e s , the first of t h e u n d e r l y i n g earlier;  structure  is t h e . d i s s o n a n t 2  intensifying  t h e e f f e c t of the  between voice and orchestra  juxtaposition  in m m . 6 1 - 6 4  2  flat .to g-flat'.  of t h e d i a t o n i c  ( S o t i e f im Abendrot)  The:E-flat-major  is r e m i n i s c e n t  but the s e n s e and  of r e s t  cross-relation and  The subsequent s c a l e on t h e w o r d s  melodic  with  expression  of; d i m i n i s h i n g  optimistic  s p i r i t of  descent. from  of S o t i e f  in t h e l a t e r  through  eim  in s t a n z a  b y t h e /long n o t e  Wle s i n d wir vandermUde, to g - f l a t '  the  in m m . 6 5 - 6 8  arpeggio  line  melodic descent  appoggiatura  E-flat-major  of the s e t t i n g of r u h e n  is e m p h a s i z e d  "pure", undecorated  "sighing"  The  of the b i m o d a l ; d i a l e c t i c  through the S-flat-rainor melodic scale  Abendrot  from  to the d i s s o n a n t e f f e c t of t h i s , l e a p . '  in t h e  arpeggio  fifth  (clarinets, horns, violas  The second m e l o d i c manifestation occurs  was  harmonic  interval of an a u g m e n t e d  line and.the D - n a t u r a l / D - f l a t  4 in  elaboration  between the words stiller and F r i e d e .  a n g u l a r i t y of t h e  cellos):add  The chromatic  3-flat-raajor h a r m o n y b y G - f l a t m a j o r  discussed  g-flat' to d  in m . 5 8 .  in s t a n z a  in  1,  values  passage.  the E-flat-minor ; completed  with;the  in m . 68; o n mtlde, .is a n  vitality.  the E - f l a t - m a j o r  ;But t h e p o w e r f u l arpeggiation  and  of S o  tief  90  im Abendrot  casts  cannot complete restatement  to  its d e s c e n t  of g - f l a t -  widening  e-flat-  as f-sharp-  final chromatic melodic ascent gradual descent  in t h e b a s s  The  enharmonic  in m m . 7 0 - 7 1 i n i t i a t e s  to c - f l a t » , a c c o m p a n i e d  instruments  of e x p a n s e s i m i l a r  which produces  to that w h i c h m a r k e d  stanza  2 ( e s dunkelt  schon  die L u f t , . E x a m p l e  slower  pace  64).  The sudden reversal  upwards  (Example  from a prevailing  of the c h r o m a t i c i s m  C-flat-major  triad  processes  leading  P h r a s e of  Im A b e n d r o t s e t s  to a r e s t a t e m e n t  p  W  *  1st dies — ^  © Example  64. Final phtase  a  towards  the  traditional cadential final  chromatic the v o c a l  portion  j"I *  :  especiall?  the t o n i c , the  a  et-va d e r Tod?  of  expansion  mobility.  +7J—UtHn f  of  V  direction,  effect,  through  in the s o n g , a n d  in a s t a t e o f  Q'  closure  off to n e g o t i a t e  territory as yet unexplored of t h e s o n g e n d s  of  of the e n s u i n g p a s s a g e  normally seek  by a  59), butVat a  in m . 7 5 : a t a p o i n t w h e n  harmonic structures  the  the middle  d e s c e n t , with the audible  between the outer v o i c e s , has a s i g n i f i c a n t because  ;  its e n e r g y f o r w a r d , and the m i n o r scale  —  © of t e x t , m e a s u r e s  68 to  75.  Previous writings on S t r a u s s ' s statements  on the Four L a s t Sonas have  u s e of t h e  flute trills to suggest  of t h e c o m p o s e r ' s  predilection  in h i s m e l o d i c w r i t i n g a r e b o r n e o u t Abendrot's melodic structure.  identifiable subdivision purpose  feature  "Madrigalism"  "madrigallsms"  is d e f i n e d  in w h i c h a  of  its t e x t u a l r e f e r e n t .  here  given, and  Further  is n e c e s s a r y ;  for  ,  this  I f i n d t h e t e r m i n o l o g y of t h e e a r l y s t r u c t u r a l i s t particularly  which attempted  to d e s c r i b e all the possible  relationships between signifier t r i p a r t i t e distinction,; b e t w e e n lends terms  itself  ,  useful.  Peirce devised a complex classification  Peirce  larks;  seeks to d e p i c t some specific  of t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  Charles Peirce  which  the  in a s t u d y of Ira  as any a s s o c i a t i o n between music and text musical configuration  for  commented  s y s t e m of kinds  signs  of  a n d s i g n i f i e d , b u t . it is "icon,"  to the d i s c u s s i o n  "iconic," t h o s e s i g n s  "index, " and  of m u s i c a l  in w h i c h  his  "symbol"2  text-setting.  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  ,  " A n Icon is a s i g n w h i c h r e f e r s to t h e O b j e c t t h a t it d e n o t e s m e r e l y b y v i r t u e of c h a r a c t e r s of i t s o w n , a n d w h i c h it p o s s e s s e s , j u s t t h e s a m e , w h e t h e r a n y s u c h O b j e c t a c t u a l l y e x i s t s or n o t . . . A n I n d e x is a s i g n w h i c h r e f e r s to t h e O b j e c t t h a t it d e n o t e s b y v i r t u e or b e i n g r e a l l y a f f e c t e d b y t h a t Object,. . . A Symbol i s ' a s i g n w h i c h r e f e r s t o t h e O b j e c t t h a t it d e n o t e s b y v i r t u e o f .a l a w , u s u a l l y a n a s s o c i a t i o n of g e n e r a l i d e a s , w h i c h . o p e r a t e s to c a u s e the S y m b o l to be i n t e r p r e t e d as r e f e r r i n g to that O b j e c t . " C h a r l e s S a n d e r s r P e i r c e , T h e C o l l e c t e d P a p e r s of C h a r l e s S a n d e r s P e i r c e , : e d . C h a r l e s H a r t s h o r n e a n d P a u l W e i s s , 8 vols'. ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : H a r v a r d , U P , 1 9 3 1 ) 2: 1 4 3 . ••./••••'•:•:/:V .: .  between  signifier  "indexical," sequential;  and  those and  co-exist  of  term.  occur  Abendrot, discussed relationship repetition  between  in t h e m o t i v i c  text  important  related  (Figure  distinction  3),  between  of a s i n g l e  latter  relationships, depends  is t h a t  on r e p e t i t i o n :  motive with  on the related  basis  of  text.  through  iconic  the in  or  below), which  is, a symbolic  of r e p e a t e d  segments  motivic  instance, and  of a g i v e n m e l o d i c m o t i v e ; w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r o n l y be m a d e  Im  textual  the;;identification that  as  without  and  be  basis  its  of"""  pattern at points  (to be d i s c u s s e d  on the  of  is e s t a b l i s h e d  of a m e l o d i c  and  melodic  Two, where a given  music and  signifier  of m a d r i g a l i s m s  indexical m e l o d i c ,elements  melodic  may  classification  structure  commonality, between musical configuration  identified  which  configuration  However, symbolic  and development  An  is  mutually  between  in a d i s c u s s i o n  in C h a p t e r  text which are also  referent.  relationship  of r e l a t i o n s h i p  c a s e , the m e l o d i c  is n o t a p p l i c a b l e  do  or  sign.  (in this  relationships  is c a u s a l  the  its a r b i t r a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p  I have defined.the  similarity;  are not  referent, respectively), Peirce's  "symbol"  the  on  in w h i c h  These designations  in a g i v e n  signified  textual  those  categories, but qualities  , Because and  is b a s e d  in w h i c h the r e l a t i o n s h i p  "symbolic,"  purely arbitrary. exclusive  signified  symbolic  of the  :  ^ :V ;  association  textual  pairings  can  idea  between  can  that  motivic/ '• m e l o d i c symbol .  Figure  There  are  two kinds  of  given melodic  segment and  Sonic mimesis  can  Such  is t h e  which  sound  to the their even not  of  larks  in m .  return  imitation  but  with  of t h e  between  and  "spatial."  the textual; referent  Ira A b e n d r o t :  the  a  the  sound.  flute  trills  f i r s t , r e f e r e n c e , in t h e  as melodic  icons  text.  because  of  of birdsong., i n s t a n t l y r e c o g n i z a b l e  ear  40 w h e r e  beyond  "mimetic"  (Example  65).  in c o n s o n a n c e , u s u a l l y they arpeggiate  trilling  protagonists  existence  2 of  can be d e f i n e d  of t h e s o n g , b e c a u s e human  its t e x t :  in s t a n z a  to t h e u n t r a i n e d in u n i s o n  relationship  its p r o p e r t i e s , a d i s t i n c t i v e  concurrently  mimetic  except The  two  case  iconic  only exist where  p o s s e s s e s , as one  3.  two  flutes  in p a r a l l e l  trill  thirds  the F-sharp-minor  triad.  larks  in t h e  final  o f ..the a s s o c i a t i o n  of t h e  larks with  of t h e  death  of t h e  The  poem, suggests  (Example  66).  some  kind  of  \  measures the  '• . •  xwel Lrr • cB«u aur suck ltd - k*b auk • - iria • maad la dsa Dtft.  ©  The also  be  65.  Flute  trills, stanza  Example  66.  Flute  trills,  second, seen  a melodic an  Example  "spatial" type  in s t a n z a  line  shaped  2, where on  octave, descent-ascent  (Example vocal  67);  as  b e n d " ) , -and: t h i s  3  Richard  the  page  word  like  with  the  relationship TSler  d-flat2  lowest verb  is s u r e l y ;no' c o m p o s i t i o n a i  in  arpeggiating and  pitch neigen  d-flat' of  the •  ("to  accident.3.  B a r b a r a P e t e r s e n , in T o n u n d W o r t : ' T h e S t r a u s s (Ann A r b o r : U M I , 1 9 8 0 ) points  can  is e m b e d d e d  a valley,  between  n o t e d , .the  coincides  postlude. ;  iconic  the  pattern  previously  line, d-flat1,  of  2.  I n :•  L l e d e r of o u t t h a t , in  his  95  chis i n s t a n c e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p the  landscape which  physical  between  it d e s c r i b e s  is b a s e d  Ml - (is, et  Spatially configuration  include  with a melodic  the setting  pattern  that is, a main note;d-flat2  n e i g h b o u r s , c - f l a t , and e - f l a t  flat'  occurs  2  1 with  on latter  in  ("around") the  word,  by its lower and  upper  (Example  in s t a n z a  of h a n d s d e s c r i b e d  of t h e  of t h e m e a n i n g : o f  in m . 28 f r o m o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s  the j o i n i n g  a m u s i c a l •/'vvv,  Examples  decorated  2  instance  between  of t h e w o r d R i n g s  suggestive  shape.  IW«! LrT -  textual r e f e r e n t can be b a s e d  c o m m o n a l i t y of s h a p e o r d i r e c t i o n . Im A b e n d r o t  of  67.  iconic relationships and:its  "valley"  dun - keliucboo die Lult,  Example  and  on commonality  c o n t o u r , n a m e l y the d e s c e n t - a s c e n t  lor  subtle  the m e l o d i c line  68).  Another  the convergence which  in t h e t e x t  more o n fa-  is s u g g e s t i v e  (see  of  above,-Example  56) .  copies arrows  of t h e . p o e m s , S t r a u s s m a d e d i r e c t i o n a l o v e r s p e c i f i c p o r t i o n s of t e x t ( 5 5 ) .  indications  with  96 t v  ri'iT-!  L'^'^I Rlra» iteb  «U  T  j  .  1  ,or  W ftel  •'' . gVfl| ta  4ua  "  •  . k«U«Jaudle Loll,  ft  Example  The  I n d e x i c a l q u a l i t y of a g i v e n p a i r i n g b e t w e e n  musical configuration:and and  68.  its t e x t u a l r e f e r e n t  indeed p o i n t s to the p r o l i f e r a t i o n  for d e s i g n a t i n g  relationship  between  a sign as an  because  signifier and signified  logically  d i r e c t l y as an underlying  The the i.e.;  of of h e a t  of a m e l o d i c s e g m e n t a s a  on  direct  arises  from its t e x t , a s t a t e m e n t  descending  if a m e l o d i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n index  cannot  which  is  function  of t e x t , it c a n o p e r a t e a s a n  structural,feature  significative.;  which  index  in  unsustainable.  However,  (Example  is a n  t e x t w o u l d ; i m p l y t h a t t h e .music  n a t u r a l l y and I n e v i t a b l y  complex  is n a t u r a l ,  of the d i r e c t p h y s i c a l e f f e c t  mercury. ; The.designation i n d e x of a g i v e n  text.  i n d e x is t h a t  c a u s a l or s e q u e n t i a l , as a t h e r m o m e t e r temperature  is m o r e  of l a y e r s o f m e a n i n g  a m u s i c a l w o r k , e s p e c i a l l y one which; i n v o l v e s criterion  a  For e x a m p l e ,  from e - f l a t  2  which may  itself be  i n d e x of .an symbolically  in m m . 6 5 - 6 8 , t h e m e l o d i c  through d-flat  2  and c - £ l a t  2  to  6 9 ) f u n c t i o n s a s a n i n d e x of t h e t o n i c m i n o r  in t u r n , in  its d i a l e c t i c with  the tonic  major,  line g-flat' mode,  functions  symbolically  towards  the  express!  ambivalence.  Example  69.  98 -  Chapter  5: M e t r i c a n d R h y t h m i c  :  of  The meter to  3/2  (the  further of  on  the  Voice  of Im A b e n d r o t  locations  is  in t h i s c h a p t e r ) .  syncopation and  of t h e  song's  except  for  Strauss in 3 / 2  has  throughout  The Freude  resulting  particular  will be d i s c u s s e d is t h e m e t r i c  is o f t e n The  norm  opening  is n o t a t e d  in to  phrase  4/4 which  of t e x t c a n b e  heard  through  the  phrase  l e v e l , o n the: w o r d ;  harmonic,; dynamic and  textural  f a c t o r s — C - f lat-ma j o r i t i s ; m e z z o f o r t e  dynamic marking,  the:,  strongest  opening measure;  and  extra  since  the  fortepiano  and  brass  support.  wind  phrase  is c o n f i r m e d  following  measure  reestablish tied  over  violins  by the  This  metric  of  it i s a n  arpeggio which  A 3/2  interpretation  overt  metric  of  4/4;  the  this  from,4/4  to  3/2  beginning  on the  of t h e :  of  the would;  c o n t r a r y , it except the  inconspicuous  began  phrase  recasting  in a n y w a y , w h i c h  in a l l / i n s t r u m e n t s  and. v i o l a s , ; w h e r e  shift  the  fact that  the preeminence  in a d e s c e n d i n g  of  i-s n o t a r t i c u l a t e d  the bar-line  /  modified  but the meter  portion  shifts  70).  downbeat, at  is s u g g e s t e d  example,  measure;  (Example  4/4  occasional  polymeter.  first v e r s e , for  set this  which  structure  implied  its p e n u l t i m a t e  of  Although  the p i e c e , its c o n v e n t i o n a l  through  Melody  4/4, with  and details  Organization  in m . 2 7 .  v.  second  eighth-note  in t h e m i d d l e is c o n s i s t e n t  is  of m . with  25.  the  Example  70.  In t h e Example  3/2 version  70, the  principal  three  importance  Freude—with  of t h e m e t e r  "downbeats"  way that the word Freude  ("joy") are more  shifts  balance  narrator's shared  with  The  his  loved  obscuring  syncopation  respect to the displaced;  of t h i n g s  another  third  w o r d s . in t h i s  part.  example  quarter  of  feature  71) where  last and  given the: p r i m a r y a c c e n t b y , m e a n s c o n t o u r . ..-.  .  the  •••:•'.')..  most  of t h i s  a  the  ("need") Strauss  which  he  beats  by  song,  above are  with often  (veiter,  principal Of  .:  joys.  stresses  accents  the three  important  of d u r a t i o n ;  of  the  strong  in mm.. 5 6 - 3 9  each measure.  phrase-, the  by the  As d i s c u s s e d  occurs  in  the s o r r o w s  ostensible  phrase, expected  stiller Friede.', E x a m p l e on the  past,  or e v a s i o n of  opening  words Wot  that,  one are overridden  in the v o i c e  in s u c h  or l e s s e q u a l l y w e i g h t e d ;  is a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  particularly  combining  p r i m a r y a c c e n t of  somewhat, suggesting  remembrance  as  l i n e — y i r . Wot, and  text, the paired  and Freude the  first  the  shown  on the three words  factors  is g i v e n  In E i c h e n d o r f f 1 s  phrase.  occur  in t h e p o e m ' s  the above-mentioned  o f ram. 2 2 - 2 6  and  occur  principal  (Friede) melodic  is  101  Example  The absence lines  there , are  of a n y m e a s u r e activity arrives the  of d o w n b e a t a r t i c u l a t i o n s  is n o t e x c l u s i v e  orchestra,  no bass  In t h i s c a s e , not  61—So  limited:  on the d o w n b e a t  passage, modified  Strauss  to the voice  until m.  is l i k e w i s e  accent does  notes which tief  suggest  of  a change  s o .that t h e  the  the notated m.  occur  5 6 , in  on the  im A b e n d r o t .  bass  effective in m m .  the m e a s u r e ' s in m e t e r .  bar-lines  barthe  downbeat  Harmonic  the B-flat dominant, bass  by the G-flat  the moving  at  part: after  of m . 56 r e m a i n s  not simply arrange  musical accents  7 1 .•  Y  which  throughout  57-58. principal  Why, then,  to c o i n c i d e  accented.syllables,of  ,  did  with  welter,  the.  stiller  and F r i e d e o c c u r r e d at the b e g i n n i n g  The significance  in t h e s e  measure?  of t h e t e x t a t t h i s p o i n t — 0 veiter,  Friede.' ( " 0 v a s t , s t i l l p e a c e ! " ( - - c a n n o t b e since  of t h e  four words  is d i s t i l l e d  underestimated,  S t r a u s s ' s v i s i o n of  spiritual world which  lies beyond  enhances  i m p a c t of t h e s e w o r d s  the dramatic  stiller  earthly life.  Strauss  (with  their  exclamatory p u n c t u a t i o n ) , and their p e a c e f u l  import,  deliberately avoiding explicit emphasis:  expressive  marking  i n m . 55  Another 31.  word  wir.  ruhiger  ("still more  metric anomaly occurs  By omitting  poem's third  is noch  in t h e s h i f t  The s h i f t to 3/2  in t h e m i d d l e  the d o w n b e a t , which  first syllable.  and more reasonable/to  movement measure  the remainder  of t h e b a s s  leading  seem at  to the c a d e n t i a l  the  ruhen, arrived also,  in t h e m i d d l e  of 3 / 2  m.  of  simpler  meter  and;continue  of thf. s t a n z a , e s p s c i a l l y g i v e n t h e .  the w o r d  is c l e a r l y  on to  first glance  t h e w o r d rujien  in  the  shift  in m m . 3 1 - 3 3 , w h i c h s u g g e s t s a  beginning with  interpretation  3/2  of t h e w o r d  accent  have the-beginning of  back  word; this metric  It w o u l d  with the beginning  throughout  into  in 4 / 4 w o u l d h a v e  puts a b a r - l i n e and thus an o s t e n s i b l e  coincide  tranquil").  throws the emphasis  on w i r , t h u s d e - e m p h a s i z i n g , t h i s  ruhen's  by  the s t r e s s e d w o r d b e i d e a t the e n d of  line, Strauss  however, delays  the  the  wir  implied 6/4  (Example  72).  by the harmonic  in a. 3 3 o n t h e w o r d  :  3/2 This  *  progression stillen.  103  —*j»  Example  A possible  solution  in a c o n s i d e r a t i o n 33 a n d  for this m e t r i c p r o b l e m  of t h e t e x t u a l s i m i l a r i t i e s  56-59: both passages  the earlier  passage uses  use forms  oddly placed syllables  of noch  bar-lines  which  articulations  ruhiger.  :  •  suggested  between mm.  of t h e a d j e c t i v e  30-  still;  occurs  in  t e x t p e r se, i n  Strauss's  The function  those  is n o t t o g i v e e m p h a s i s  of  to the w o r d s  they: p r e c e d e , b u t r a t h e r to p r e v e n t  temporal suspension—which  realization'/  in t h e  which would disturb  convey; they are  is  the v e r b r u h e n , which a l s o  the second,passage, although own tempo marking  72,  the  rhythmic  tranquillity—the  i t is: t h e a i m of t h i s p a s s a g e  i n d i e s t o r s of t h e s u b l e t y of S t r a u s s  s  to' -  or  104  **A The apparent actual metric importance song.  absence  organization  of a n  idea  Structure  it is t o  visible  and  it limits  ourselves.  of t h e  places  points  us but  it d e f i n e s  Two worlds  unknowable, an  other  empty wilderness  toward  c o n c e p t , it  exist  between w h i c h he v a c i l l a t e s — o n e  knowable, the  bar-line  in t h e p o e m a s w e l l a s  is n o t m e r e l y a n a b s t r a c t  lose  consciousness  in c e r t a i n  of s t r u c t u r e  that we know and are; lose  of c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  unstructured, perhaps  to the  the  is a l l  u s , and  in t h e  to  poet's  structured, invisible  beautiful,  and  perhaps  'terrifying'.. analogously, the.song which  coexist.  suggested:in notated meter  stated  in m . 27  is 4 / 4 , t h e  (Example  In m o v i n g  from  4/4  measures  to  4/4 time  as  notated  counterbalanced  The-shifts song  by the  pulse to  in  4/4.  3/2, the  3/2  time and  shift more  as  the  3/2, the  to the  ; .  triple  surface—only  fact t h a t the  occur  only  in t h e  t o .3/2  downbeats individual  than  this effect  tempo  and  the  that.between  with, the  the prelude  If t h e c h a n g e  between  pronounced  2/2, although  does not change  (i.e., mm. 22-76):  entirely  heard  through  is e x t e n d e d the  quarter-note  text can be  is  70).  beats doubled, making were  opposing, meters  such as mm. 22-20, where although  explicitly—breaking  of s u c c e s s i v e  apparent  That they are simultaneously referential  places  meter  projects  of t h e  if  the  is basic  meter.  text section postlude  are  of  the  both  is c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by  •.  longer, less to 4/4  frequently articulated  is c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by a relative  a r t i c u l a t i o n and the r e s u m p t i o n pace.  In o t h e r  of m e t r i c  of t h e s o n g ' s  3/2 m e t e r , the l o c a t i o n s  c a s e s , 3/2  (Duft)  Schlafenszeit  of w h i c h a r e s h o w n  in  into t h r e e g r o u p s .  ("still");  ("dreaming ("time  shown as Example ruhen  words nun  Uberm.).  The second  several  w i t h s l e e p or  in m . 4 3 , t h e p h r a s e  in t h e h a z e " ) ; a n d  to s l e e p " ) .  (The  in  m.  trflumend ;  in m . 4 9 , t h e  implied part  rest,  3/2  of t h i s  word  passage group,  wir and s t i l l e n a l o n g with the c o n n e c t i n g . -  group  includes  the w o r d s  ("loneliness"),;in mm. 54-55; Friede the,climactic Abendrot  after which  In  ( " l e t us r e s t " ) ;  72 c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d  embracing  Einsamkeit  ( " f r e e d o m " ) , in m m . 59- ;  ("twilight"),  in m m . 6 3 - 6 4 , :  the s o n g r e v e r t s p e r m a n e n t l y to 4/4 t i m e ;  three words—the  stretched  manner  to  is u s e d t o s e t w o r d s a s s o c i a t e d  3 3 , the word stillen  these  implies a  (as o p p o s e d  in m . 3 1 w i t h t h e w o r d s r u h e n w i r  60; and  of  forward-moving  in 3/2  of t e x t s e t w i t h n o t a t e d  I I I , can be c l a s s i f i e d  in d e n  back  slowing.  "implied")  as  compression  w o r d s , the l o n g e r u n i t  The portions  Table  time spans, the shift  only places where  over, two measures.--occurs  the r e s u l t a n t , b r o a d e n i n g close draws:attention  Each;of  the triple m e t e r  a t t h e e n d of i t s  line;  of 'these l i n e s a s t h e y c o m e . t o  to their  final w o r d s , images  of  is  a  that  Measure  #'s  Word(s)  22-26  ffir  N u m b e r of  s i n d d u r c h W o t und F r e u d e (implied; see Example 72)  27  (ge)gangen  30-33  r u h e n v i z n u n Uberra stillen (implied  •31.  Hand  •;•;".•..-'5\  in H a n d  1 (Land)  in p a r t ; : s e e E x a m p l e  1'  stillen dun.kelt schon die Luft, z w e i Lezchen n u r noch  43  trSumend •  .  49  her  u n d lass s i e  -1.' 3  1.' -  1  Schlafensze it  54-55  •  Friede  63-64  . Abendrot  Table  "1 2  Einsamkeit]  59-60  III.  N o t a t e d : 3/2 m e t e r  4.  72) ,  ..-,;ruhen v i r /  33 39-41  46  Measures  v'.-/2;1:  in Im  Abendrot.,  wide, empty expanse  to w h i c h  apprehension  and desire.  the  pattern  rhythmic  Enhancing  this  these, three  in w h i c h the h a l f - n o t e  subdivided  is d r a w n w i t h broadening  in the two o r c h e s t r a l b r i d g e  55 and m m . 59-60) linking text,  the poet  into triplet  beats  of  consecutive the  both effect  passages  (m.  segments  of  3/2 m e a s u r e  quarter-notes;-(Example  73).  are  :  73a.  73b; Example  73.  C o m p o u n d t r i p l e m e t e r in passages• • ' ' ^ v ' ' * '  is  orchestral.;bridge /  The ("gone meter  f i n a l g r o u p of w o r d s  hand  includes  in h a n d " ) , m . 2 7 ; t h e l o n g e s t  in t h e s o n g , w h i c h o c c u r s  dunkelt  schon  in s t a n z a  d i e L u f t , z w e i Lezchen  larks alone s t i l l rise, dreaming her  u n d lass sie  w h i r r " ) . . The melodic  Further  travelling  also  reinforcing,the  out  the w o r d F r e u d e  the  motive  associating  (Example in t h e  (mm. 2 5 - 2 6 ) .  occurs  The  them (the  Chapter  companions,  between the t h r e e % 74), similarities Implied  which  3/2 m e t e r  of  can  the  f i n a l s t a t e m e n t of passage  lines  stanza  (mm.  59-60),  triple  meter.  above with respect  to  :.;  the  bridge  last  :  ,.' o n  in t h e o r c h e s t r a l of t h e  ;  the  the r h y t h m i c pattern;  first and second  discussed  two  (Wir. s i n d durcfc N o t u n d F r e u d e , s h o w n a s E x a m p l e  72), particularly  "lark"  : ,\.  1 9 - 2 1 of  of t h e ; l a r k s w i t h t h a t o f t h e h u m a n  of t h e m o t i v e  ; ,  these three places  in E x a m p l e s  metaphor  be s e e n to s o m e e x t e n t  first line  (steigen  V  i n t o t h e h a z e " ) ; a n d m . 46  t h e n , is t h e ;rhythmic s i m i l a r i t i e s statements  nut noch  relating  " l a r k " m o t i v e , c) was; p o i n t e d 2.  2 , m m . 39-43:_  (schwizren) ( " S t e p h e r e a n d l e t  factor  Hand  s e c t i o n of t r i p l e  in d e n . (Duft); ( " a l r e a d y t h e a i r d a r k e n s ,  nach)trauwend  (Tritt)  (ge)gangen //and in  its c o m p o u n d  between  109  Example  Deserving three rhythm  of a d d i t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n  in m . 3 9 , dunkelt  voice melody, where  through a descending 75) .  schon  each hdlf-note  into two q u a r t e r - n o t e s , and  notes" ( E x a m p l e  74.  is t h e  die  beat  ( L u f t ) , b e t w e e n - t h e •••• is s u b d i v i d e d  the o r c h e s t r a l  F-sharp-minor  scale  two-against-  bass, which  in t r i p l e t  normally moves  quarter-  110  Example  The descending  75.  t r i p l e t s c a l e , o c c u r r i n g a t t h e e n d of  line, resembles the triplet quarter-note as Example  73 a n d h a s a s i m i l a r l y b r o a d e n i n g  p o e m s p e a k s of t h e d a r k e n i n g to the  the.ascending  B-flat-major  scale elaborates sharp-minor  points  of t h e a i r .  later p a s s a g e s b y virtue  mediant.  bridge  of  e f f e c t as  It  is a l s o  related  of E - f l a t m a j o r , a n d t h e :  is a n e x p r e s s i v e  of t e x t , h o w e v e r :  the narrator a  feeling  between  Fflatted  the tvo •  w h e r e a s t h e s u n s e t s k y in m . 5 5  of. d e e p p e a c e  Friede'. ), in m . 39 h e s e e s the p o s s i b i l i t y  opposition  (0 w e l t e r ,  o n l y the, d a r k e n i n g  t h a t t h e y m a y lose, . t h e i r ; w a y ;  of  B-flat-major  scale elaborates, enharmonically, E-flat's  There  shown  the  its m e l o d i c m i r r o r i n g  s c a l e , i n m . 59: the  the d o m i n a n t  passages  the  gives  stiller  o f t h e a ir  and  The anxiety  is  conveyed  in the c o m p l e x  the c o n f l i c t i n g  The groups  idea  of  from the  in the  individual  of  image  of t h e  image  to t h e m e a n i n g towards  only by progressively  there and  rate  collated parts) 34  of t h r e e  (stanza  The eighth set  trend  of  the  text  tempo markings  Example  of  the  prelude's text  o f t h e dotted:  is  than  freed  earth  also  wilderness.  musically  not  Abendrot  Im  values, the  orchestral 76a, mm.  in 7 5 c , m m . 8 5  melody moves  a quarter  in  gradually  note  in E x a m p l e  begins  of  the  but by a  voice and  itself, which  rhythm  the  76, which presents  sweeping  shorter  is  indicated  to larger  and  three  represented  beyond  Throughout  song:  61-73;  with  is t h e m o v e m e n t  vastness  from smaller  1 ) ; , i'i 7 6 b , m m .  with no note values  exception  of a v a s t , . e m p t y  rhythms,(including  n o t e s , but the  of e x p a n s e  expansion, a slowing  slower  passages  orchestral  is  life,: a m o v e m e n t conveyed  is i l l u s t r a t e d : i n composite  this  larks, rising above  of m u s i c a l a r t i c u l a t i o n .  is a g e n e r a l  this  in s l e e p , t h e m i n d  that unknown  of e a r t h l y  passage  in e a c h of t h e  c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and  part by the gradual metric  slower  implicit  in 3 / 2 m e t e r :  in E i c h e n d o r f f ' s  limitations  is  of t h e  orchestra.  in the h a z y a i r ; the. i d e a  Essential the  rhythm  of v o i c e a n d  o£ e x p a n s i o n  limitations  and dreaming inherent  rhythms  texts set  in t h e p o e m  composite  ff.  largely  in m . 2 2 , note, with  in m .  22-  36  in  is the  p n n  ©'  jxn jxn  mm  JU]JJU  j n j j j j j JIDJOTkjJJiJJJJ t f l n j j p j f l j j j j f j j u J (27)  s 76a..  UJJ ©  jJ]JJ]pJJ^JJJ3Df^JJ  JJDJJ J J J J J  / J J - J J . . ^ j J^J  J J J | J- A . " * '  76b.  L  L  *  LJ  J  |J  | J  J  |J  O  !J  J  L p  '(Si: 76c.  Example  76. Comparative composite collated rhythms of v o i c e a n d o r c h e s t r a in t h r e e s e g m e n t s .  I  cJie T S l e r ) e i g h t h - n o t e  (Rings sich confined  to the  expansion The  change  occurs at the climactic  in m . 6 1 , w h e r e t h e t e x t  note values  (So t i e f  e q u a l to o r g r e a t e r  l a s t of t h e q u a r t e r  p o i n t c£  im A b e n d r o t )  than a half-note, a  in k e e p i n g w i t h t h e p o e t i c  vocal part's  is v i r t u a l l y , :  accompaniment.  A significant song  activity  context  notes which have  rhythmic texture since  Example  is  given,  rhythmic  (Example  b e e n p a r t of  the beginning  77). the  of s t a n z a  eighth notes  or  quarter  notes;- w i t h r e s p e c t t o h a r m o n i c p a c i n g , t h e m e t e r  c a n be  in t h e s e  temporal  broadening  measures as  whose effect  to the s o n g ' s  opening  tempo markings:(immer  is e n h a n c e d  (Example langsamer,  78).  4/2, a further b y the siow  cempo  m . ,97.  of m o v e m e n t  The progressively  m . 70; ritard., sehr  towards  heard  relative  mm. 75-76; ritard., sehr langsam, m m . 88-89) contribute gradual retardation  i:  77.  F r o m m . 85: o n , t h e r e a r e n o m o r e  last thirteen  the  slower langsam, to  its final c e s s a t i o n /iy;'"-':-'."'-:;^'''-  the in  114 —j*  Example  The  trend  78. Final  towards  expansion  foreground  articulations  lengths  the  shown  of  as  Table  expansive longest of  the  Tod?  is :  IV.  than  middle  (Example  Although 2 and  spanning  of  of  of  the  seen the  stanza  time  units.  spans  between  in a c o m p a r i s o n song's  1  3, stanza  almost  metric  is  four  more  is b y f a r  30 m e a s u r e s  the  stanzas,  somewhat  4's  of  more  t h e ;.  than  those .  stanzas.  longest that  is a l s o  settings  stanzas  setting,  The song  vocal  broadening  of  time the  79 )  span  last •  occupied  line  by a  of s t a n z a  ' ; ••.•/•/  single 4,  line  ist dies  in etwa  the der  immer langsaxncr  Example  The unusual  79.  with the  two-syllable  of t h e w o r d  segments.  between  Aside  stanzas  expressed  by the  v i r wandermUde.  text; i n t o  two-syllable  the n a r r a t o r ' s imminence  of  breathlessness  bridge  the end  in t h e  final  quarter-note  highlights  fragmentation  segments  into  pulses.  the  weariness  of t h e  poem—Wie  final line  of  f u n c t i o n s as an indicator  of  and sense  of t h e  of a w e a t  the  death.  Strauss's Example  The  towards  measure  o n l y t h r e e ; q u a r t e r .rests: "  of t h e s o n g ; r e s t s  of r e s t s  narrator  lasts for a  from the orchestral  the  half-notes, -  up this line  alone, however, total twenty-three  The sudden preponderance  sind  Tod, which  s t a n z a s , there are  line.  f u n c t i o n not o n l y of  of t h e r e s t s w h i c h b r e a k  in the. f i r s t t h r e e stanza  of t h i s l i n e is a  in t h e s e t t i n g o f t h e t e x t - a l l  exception  and a h a l f — b u t  passages  S e t t i n g of t h e p o e m ' s c o n c l u d i n g  length  note values used  rlt. sehr langsam  rhythmic  8 0 ) , the second  segments, highlights fragmentation.  Its  setting  of t h e w o r d  of t h e l i n e ' s  the expressive  three  etva  (mm.  72-73,  two-syllable  e f f e c t of the  :...v^^  iambic rhythmic pattern, accentuated  by  :  116  its s t r i k i n g following its n o r m a l  chromatic  the  whose  The  six-four  other  exhalation  of b r e a t h i n g :  suggestive  of t h r e e d e e p — a n d  with  treatment  is a n a l o g o u s  to the  the rhythm  not correspond  1st dies and  is c o n s i s t e n t  parallel rhythmic  directly  it d o e s c o r r e s p o n d  two s e g m e n t s ,  pronunciation  consecutive;segments  harmony  of m . 7 2 , d o e s  pronunciation,'but  of t h e  natural  pattern.  D-major; chord  German  the s e t t i n g s  F-major  of  the  of the  three  80.  last—breaths.  Etva, measures  72 to  der  Tod?,  iambic  and  f r a g m e n t s ; is/  St - va  Example  with,  three  inhalation  the  with  73.  'v.',. f  '—.'r  '  ;  JLjl&LJ.l^J}mtad  ..  ., - ,ni  i ' ..  .'•  .  .• . • . f . i  v -—" ' . " ."; 1; J-^-Jm...i -v S- 'w,•"f ••  -.  J',:..'!1..  , ..  ..»,.  ••>-  " •  - •.. k . . •. , .-- - ' T „-: i. 1 s  117  Stanza  Line  Measure  Numbers  tfQuarter-Note  22-26 26-28 29-32 32-34 Total Pulses  =  Pulses  17 11 14 il 55.  11  36-38 38-40 41-42 42-44 Total Pulses  =  13 .9 ii 44  45-47 47-50 50-52: 52-55 T o t a l P u l s e s =•'••  10 12 9 13.: 44  56-59 6,1-64. 65-68 70-76 Total.Pulses  17  20  =  14 22 73  N . 3 . O n l y r e s t s w i t h i n a g i v e n l i n e of t e x t a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e n u m b e r of p u l s e s ; t h o s e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o r e n d of t h e line are not included. ( T h i s is i m p o r t a n t o n l y i n . s t a n z a 4 . ) ' T h e n u m b e r of s y l l a b l e s p e r s t a n z a o f t h e p o e m r e m a i n s ' t h e • s a m e , f o l l o w i n g a 7 - 6 - 7 - 6 p a t t e r n ' ; a n y d i f f e r e n c e s in l e n g t h b e t w e e n t h e s t a n z a s c a n t h u s be a t t r i b u t e d s o l e l y t o S t r a u s s ' s m u s i c a l t r e a t m e n t of t h e t e x t . : ; Table  IV. Relative  Durations  of  Stanzas.  T h e e l i m i n a t i o n of t h e w o r d b e i d e m a k e s l i n e 3 of • s t a n z a 1 e x c e p t i o n a l in a n o t h e r w i s e r e g u l a r p a t t e r n ; in t h e s a m e l i n e , • S t r a u s s •.•adds-* / s y l l a b l e ; : b y c h a n g i n g r u h n t o - r u h e n . T h e s y l l a b i c patter.-, of s i a n z a 1 , t h e n , is 7 - 6 - 6 - 6 . V rrV.-  " ,  i S  P O i n t e d  a regular iambic ^ r * m e t e r , Strauss,s  r  out in Table i y th 7-6-7 6 , ' ^ n d o r  v  i  P  a  *  -  t  e  r  n  ;  ^ f f  ,  s  -  poem  i t s m e t e r is^^  ' .  ^^c;;treatment  to the, p o e t i c *Iv™ '  e x t r a e m p h a s1i 3s F  °r  according to and  a t  ^angen,  thr / through  V  duration  Strauss subdivides  E  th,  °rdS'  h  °Wever'  are  „  ichend0.ff ,s ^ ^ ^ - «•»*> not — s -Une d i v i s i n n . V 1 S i 0 n _ ;: ' ' - e . between Freude b u t a f t e r Not, a a £.11 ,  this point.  c  :  °rroborates  the  division  Example 81. Although t e c h n i c a l l y y u scheme, the p i a c e m e n t  a a  stressed ^  Qf  word i n r i ^ . *che„dorff.8  rhych  .,ic  it less prominence than that or the word Freude which occurs at the end.  Strauss, by extending the duration of Not and  placing it at the end of the first segment of text,, draws attention to the; word and its poignant implications of past sorrows,.; This is not to say that the importance of Freude is undermined by this, for its duration  (at. five quarter-note  .7.  pulses longer than that of Not), its chromatic C-flat-major chord, its dynamic marking of mezzoforte, and;its relatively: high pitch work together to especially dramatic effect.  ""  instead of highlighting the. line break between" Freude and Gegangen, Strauss allows;the momentum built up on the word Freude to push the phrase through in a single gesture, appropriate in fact to the text's description of "going .' through"- (durch . . ... gegangen)  In the second half of stanza 1, Strauss lingers on the words ruhen and stillen, making each of them six;quarter-note pulses in length (Example.82) .  Example 82.  v  120  This lingering, a kind of pause, reflects the meaning of the words, both of which refer to an,absence of activity.  Another of. the words given particular.emphasis  through  duration is.the word Luft; in stanza 2 (m. 40), which is sustained through an entire measure. , Whereas in stanza 1, the durational extension of words served an expressive purpose, the extension of Luft serves a structural purpose, that is, to mark the division between the stanza's two halves.  Clarity of  division in this stanza is particularly important, since its second half introduces a new i d e a — t h e crucial image of the larks.. In this second half of the stanza (mm. 41-44, Example 83), Strauss is faithful to the iambic trimeter, until the word nach-trSunend  at, the end of m. 42, the first word of the •„••:•  stanza's last line.  In tying nach- over the bar-line  into,  measure 43, Strauss delays the accented syllable trflum- to the second, quarter of the measure.  The downbeat of m. 43 is •.• • ''-y  marked harmonically by the shift from an A-raajor to an^P- ' sharp-minor harmony, which lasts for the first half-note beat of the 3/2 measure, but the word trflumend arrives in the  '  middle of this beat and is thus not marked by harmonic change;; its pitch being the same as that of nach, it receives no melodic emphasis.  In effect, then, this last line of the  stanza has only one accented word, its l a s t — D u f t , to which it^  moves in a single gesture. The blurring of the iambic structure in this phrase is appropriate to the poetic sense: the text has temporarily broken out of its metric structure, in a way analogous to the escape of the dreaming larks from the structure of consciousness into a less strictly ordered world.  ©  ©  zwrt Lrr • CA« tvr nock  »icl •  c«a sufe •  - iris . ae«4  (a tea Daft.  Example 83.  In stanza 3, there are two details of rhythmic treatment of text deserving of attention.  First, in the same way that  Strauss "paints" the words ruhen and stillen by extending their duration,  in stanza 3 the meaning of the word bald  ("soon") is highlighted with its precipitous entry on the fourth beat of m. 47, which initiates a brief passage of syncopation lasting to the end of the following measure (Example 84).  This can be interpreted in twd ways, either as,  an expression of the narrator's eagerness for "the time for sleep"/-or his anxiety that'it will arrive before he is ready.  122  tempo primo  Example 84.  Vocal setting o£ Bald  ist es Schlafenszeit.  The second notable detail o£ rhythmic treatment in stanzS" 3 is Strauss's durational emphasis on the word dieser in m. 53 (Example 85).  ("this")  Although in the context of the poem's  iambic trimeter, its first syllable is stressed, the word is a full measure in length, unusual emphasis considering its minor grammatical and expressive significance.  J  Example 85.  A possible reason for this durational emphasis can;be adduced if the word dieser is viewed not,by itself buti;V relation to the surrounding text: the three words verirren  (mm. 51-52), dieser and Einsamkeit (mm. 53-54) are set. with a similar rhythmic motive, each stressed syllable three quarternote pulses in length and followed by an unstressed syllable only one quarter-note pulse in length.  The ponderous effect  of the repetition of this pattern and the relatively long duration of the stressed syllables seems to hinder the unfolding of the phrase; it has the effect of a written-out ritardando, suggesting the slowed pace of the increasingly weary travellers.  The most Interesting rhythmic aspects of stanza 4 have already been discussed in this chapter.  All that remains is  to point out the durational emphasis on;two of its most crucial words: Friede (am. 58-59), and Abendrot These two words are Im Abendrot's  (mm. 53-64).  longest, at eight and twelve  quarter-notes in length, respectively.  The trend towards  expansion throughout the song is thus shown not only with respect to meter, but to,the rhythmic treatment of individual words.  That these particular words should be given the  greatest duration is appropriate, since each is an image of the vast unknown towards which the narrator and his companion have been travelling.  •.  Conclusion Whereas the preceding observations have concentrated or. specific aspects of the relations between text and music  .  within a particular song, the remaining remarks will briefly consider some of the more abstract problems and questions of • text-music relations which have arisen in my mind during the • course of this analysis, problems and questions which beg'// future reflection.  Thus, if a conclusion c a n be thought of as  the final cadence of a thesis, this one will be an elided cadence, as I make what is ostensibly an ending into another beginning.  In 1920, the singer David Bispham wrote: At the dinner given for [Richard] Strauss by the Lotos Club at its old home in Fifth Avtinue near Forty-Sixth Street, I sat next him while he wrote some bars of one •£ his own most difficult compositions f o r me in spite of the hum of talk and the blare o£ quasi-popular music about us. During a discussion about making, musical sounds mean anything he said, "I can translate anything into sound. I. can make you understand by music that I pick up my fork and spoon from this side of my plate and lay them down on the other side.'" One can only speculate what the musical outcome might have been had Bispham challenged Strauss actually to,perform this compositional feat.  The composer's assertion, while almost  'David Bispham (1827-1921), A Quaker Sinner's ' Recollections (New York, 1920), cited in Lebrecht, 268.  certainly hyperbolic, suggests if nothing else that Strauss was untroubled by the complex problems of signification in art and language—indeed all communicative structures—which have long been the subject of scholarly debate. In the twentieth century, this debate has been strongly influenced by the work of structuralists such as Ferdinand Saussure, Claude Levi-Strauss and Charles Peirce, who attempted to analyze the dynamics of the relationships between "signifiers" and their "signifieds".  Some of the  contributions of early structuralism to modern thought inclucT? acknowledgement that the relationship between a signifier (e.g., word or picture) and its signified is neither direct nor simple; that a given signifier may be rich in meanings which differ according to factors such as its context and its interpretation by reader, listener, or audience; and that a complete study of communicative structures considers both the "vertical" aspects of the structure in question (i.e., the meanings of individual signifiers), and the "horizontal" structure governinq relationships between signifiers.  Malcolm  Bowie writes that the quest for the. signified in its "pure" form--the quest, that is to say, for the pristine, word-free structures of thought--is frivolous . . . T h e proper object of attention, for the psychoanalyst no less than for the linguist, is the signifying chain • itself: the relationships observable within that.  126 chain are the surest guide to psychical structure and to the structure of the human subject. 2 Bowie's  "signifying chain" aptly describes the nature of  musical structure as well, but music differs from language and representational art in that it normally refers largely to. itself; that is, most extra-musical associations which are made upon hearing a musical work arise from conventions developed and established over centuries, and the degree to . which the audience has absorbed  its cultural  inheritance:  mournfulness does not naturally inhere in the minor mode,.nor cheerfulness  in the major. 3  The study of music thus offers a  unique opportunity for the analyst to explore the nature of communicative meaning, given that it is essentially "pure" structure, clear of the connotative implications and complications of verbal  structures.  The study of musical structure and' its communicative . properties, however, brings with it difficulties1, of its own, for if the signifying power of music lies in its capacity to express through structure alone that which cannot be expressed verbally, the analyst of musical meaning is left with the •• seemingly impossible.1, task of expressing verbally the verbally inexpressible.  In fact, music theorists over the last few  2 Malcolm Bowie, "Jacques Lacan," structuralism and ; ; . Since: From Levi-Strauss to Ddrrida. ed. John Sturrock (Oxford :_OUP, 1979 ), p.128. , , 3 Exceptions to the self-referentiality of music occur in the use of mimetic or onomatopoeic i n t e r p o l a t i o n s s u c h as the use of horn call motives to suggest hunting or Strauss's imitations of birdsong in Im Abendrot. ,  centuries order  have been d e v i s i n g a n a l y t i c a l  in  t o d e s c r i b e the workings of the "signifying chain" which  is m u s i c a l work  languages p r e c i s e l y  structure,  and thus in the analysis of an abstract  s u c h as a fugue or a symphony it is indeed possible to  describe means.  non-verbal  structures using words or other graphic  Complications  arise, however, when a musical structure  is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a program, either a specific text, as in a vocal work or opera, or a scenario which forms the basis of a purely  instrumental  work, as in the tone poems of Strauss and  Tchaikowsky o r t h e programmatic symphonies of Liszt and Berlioz . The m u s i c a l images--a type of  of  a text  of sonic metaphor.  is an image of a set of But a metaphor is a figure  s p e e c h dependent on sov.e commonality between the image and  that  which  it r e p r e s e n t s ;  p o e t r y when t h e the  setting  foreground  forged through  how then can music "represent"  two media are so fundamentally different? level, devices  At  the link between music, and text is s u c h as i m i t a t i o n and repetition,  discussed in Chapter 4 with respect to "iconic" and "symbolic" relations between melody and text. At the background level, however, the analyst is not: dealing with an individual segment of music and its relations with the text, but rather a.temporal musical structure which, concurrently with its text,•unfolds,according to the logic of its own grammar.  Viewed on a broader scale, then, the music 7  functions as a kind , of simultaneous paraphrase, an  128  interpretation which enhances some of the meanings inherent in the poem, perhaps suppressing or altering others. Another problem of text-music relations deserving of study centres on the function of instrumental preludes, interludes and postludes:  if it can be said of the  complementarity between music and pcetry that "each art makes explicit the dimension that the other leaves tacit",4  then  what i s the role played in the signification process by these substantial untexted sections of  a vocal work?  With respect to the Four Last S o n g s , the question i s  *  particularly relevant to Strauss's setting of the Hesse text Seim Schlafengehn.  For example, where in Im Abendrot  the  vocal portion of the song proceeds at a relatively constant pace from beginning to end with only brief interludes, the vocal portion of Beim Schlafengehn  is interrupted by a lengthy  violin solo which forms a sharp contrast in character from the music which has preceded  it, and influences the character of  the music which follows.  The remarkable change in the vocal  line after the interpolated violin solo corresponds to a similar change in the text, but of greater interest is the apparent influence of Beim Schlafengehn's  purely instrumental  4 Lawrence Kramer, Music and Poetry: The Nineteenth Century and After (Berkeley: U of California, P, 1984 ), 6 . Kramer adopts his tacit-explicit terminology ("an-object is known tacitly when we attend from it to something else") from Michael Polanyi's The Tacit Dimension (Garden City,' N.Y. : Doubleday, 1966) and "Sense-giving and Sense-Reading" from Intellect and Hope, ed. W.H. Poteat and T.A. Langford (Durham: U of North Carolina P, 1968).  129  interlude on the second half of the text, as presented in the vocal line: does this interlude indeed exert influence on a reading of the text and if so how does this wordless communication of neaning occur?  In a poem set to music, the music and the text, each with its own constellation of meanings,  function as  interdependently as the melodic strands of a contrapuntal composition and the relations between these two structures constitute the "vertical" element.  As a specific  interval  between the voices of a contrapuntal work can be classified as consonant or dissonant,  the relationship between text and  music "strands" at a given point can be classified as correlative  (where text and music display analogous structural  features) or dissociative  (where no analogous structural  features exist or where elements of text and music are contradictory).  Neither dimension of the "counterpoint"  between text and music in a vocal work can be overlooked in analysis,: for together they produce a whole which is decidedly more than the sum of its parts.  Analysis of. text-music  :  relations in Richard Strauss's Four Last Songs demonstratic-i unequivocally  that music is not merely the "servant of the'  text": the addition of music, to a pre-existing text creates the conditions for a proliferation of meaning-generating activity, the richness of which is dependent only upon the genius of the composer.  130 Selected Berry, Wallace. Structural Dover, 1987. "Text  and Music  in  Bibliography  Functions  Brahms'  in Music.  1976.  A l t o Rhapsody."  New  York:  JMT•  Colson, William W. Richard Strauss's Four Last Songs. Diss. U of Illinois, 1975. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1975. Del Mar, Norman. "Confusion and Error (February 1958), pp. 28-40.  (II)."  The Score, no. 22  . Richard Strauss. A Critical Commentary on His Life and Works. 3 vols. London, 1962-72. E i c h e n d o r f f , J o s e p h von. Werke. Dramen, Autobiograph isches.  Bande I: Gedichte, Versepen, MUnchen: Winkler-Verlag, 19.70.  Guck, Marion A. Metaphors in Musical Discourse: the Contribution of Imagery to Analysis. Diss. U of Michigan, 1981. Ann A r b o r : UMI, 1981. Herrmann, Joachim. "Das letzte Lied von Richard Strauss. Eichendorff's 'Im Abendrot. 1 " Aurora. EichendorffAlmanach, XIX (1959), 79-80.  :  "Mit Eichendorff beschloss Richard Strauss sein Schaffen . . ." Schlesien, IX (1964), 107-08. H e s s e , Hermann. Die Wasmuth, 1942.  Gedichte  von Hermann  Hesse.  Zurich:  Kramer, Lawrence. M u s i c a n d P o e t r y : T'he N i n e t e e n t h After. B e r k e l e y : U of C a l i f o r n i a P , 1 9 8 4 . . .  Fretz &  Century and  Lebrecht, Norman,, ed. The Book of Musical Anecdotes. 1985; London: Sphere, 1987. Peirce, Charles Sanders. The Elements of Logic. Vol. 2 of : The Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce. Ed. Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss. 8 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap-Harvard UP, 1931. Petersen, Barbara A. Ton und Wort: The Lleder of Richard-' Strauss. Ann A r b o r : UMI, 1980. (1st pub. 1977). Radner, Lawrence. Eichendorff: The Spiritual Geometer. Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue Research Foundation, 1970. :  131 Roth, Ernst. The Business of Music. Reflections of a Music ! Publisher. . London, 1969. (Translation of Musik als Kunst und Ware. Betrachtungen und Begegnungen eines MusikverlecAs. Second edition. Zurich, 1969). Schuh, Willi. Richard Strauss: Juqend und FrUhe Meisterjahre Lebenschronik 1864-1898. ZUrich: Atlantis, 1976. Schwartz, Egon.  Joseph von Eichendorff.  Nev York: Twavne. 1972  Seidlin, Oskar. Versuc'Ese tiber Eichendorff. Vandenhoeck and Rupirecht, 1965.  GBttingen:  Stein, Jack M. Poem and Music in the German Lied from Gluck to Hugo Wolf. Cambridge. Mass., 1971. . "Was Goethe Wrong about the Nineteenth-Century Lied? An Examination of the Relation of PoeS-;->nd Music." PMLA, LXXVII (1962), 232-39. ^ Strauss, Richard. "Correspondence with Dr.. Roth and 1) Richard Strauss." Tempo, no. 98 (winter l'S7£'), 9-17. . Recollections and Reflections.,; Translated by J. L. Lawrence from the first edition of Betrachtungen und Erinnerungen ( Zurich, 1949 ) . Load on iv 19 53. . Vier letzte lieder. Hawkes Pocfjet Scores. Boosey and Hawkes, 1950. '  New York:  Strickert, J. E. Richard Strauss''3 Vler letzte lieder: an Analytical Study. Diss. Washington U, 1975. Ann Arbor: ; UMI, 1975. " . • :rv-5 Sturrock, John, ed.. Structuralism and Since: From Levi-Strauss to Derrida. Oxford: OUP, 1979.  Dr. trail  H*th  fwtimtt  IM ABENDROT (Joseph VOD Eichcodorff)  K1CHAK1> STRAUSS  n>•<»<! i>  APPENDIX A  \  ui M  1 I  i  :  ,'>'«t! j>.A.t.>! > iJr  ,•*..«.»..'  '•  u  ... 5  ...... -II-  >  '  i  ;  "  .  .. J  —  ^l^MiSd^-^-^.  138  APPENDIX B1 FrUhiing In dSmmrigen Grilften trSurate ich lang von deinen BSumen und blauen Ltlften, von deinera Duft und Vogelsang. Nun liegst du erschlossen in Gleiss und Zler, von Llcht tlbergossen wie ein Wunder vor mir. Du kennest mich vieder, du lockestmichzart, es zittert duzch all meineGlieder deine selige Gegenwart! : ("In dusky tombs I dreamed at length of your limbs.and blue breezes, your fragrance and birdsong. Now you lie open in glitter and ornament, with light overflowing like a wonder before me. You know me again, you entice me tenderly, there trembles through all my limbs your blessed presence.")  1 The three pcems in this appendix are taken from Die Gedicnte von Hermann-Hesse (Zurich: Fretz & Wasmuth, 1942), 49 (FrUhiing), 358 (September), and 238 (Bein Schlafengehen). . ..  139  September Per Garten trauert, Ktlhl sinkt in die Blumen der Der Sommer schauert still seinem Ende entgegen. Golden nieder Sommer in den  Regen.  tropft Blatt urn B l a t t : vom hohen Akazienbaum. lSchelt erstaunt und matt sterbendsn Gartentraum.  L a n g e n o c h bei den Rosen b l e i b t e r sehnt sich nach Ruh. Langsam tut er die grossen, M t l d g e w o r d e n e n Augen zu. ("The garden mourns, the cool rain sinks into the flowers. summer shivers quietly towards its end.  '  stehn,  The  Golden, leaf upon leaf drops down/from the tall acacia tree. Summer laughs astounded and feeble in the dying garden-dream. Long still by the roses he stays, longing tor rest. closes the wearied eyes.")  Slowly he  140  Beim  Schlafengehen  Nun der Tag mich mild' gemacht, soil mein sehnliches Verlangen freundlich die gestirnte Nacht vie ein mUdes Kind empfangen. HSnde lasst von alien Tun, Stirn vergias du alles Denken, alle meine Sinne nun: voilen slch in Schlummer senken. Und die Seele unbewacht, will in £reien Fldgen schweben, um in Zauberkreis der Nacbt tief und tausendfachzuleben. ("Now the day has made me tired; my ardent; longings must, like a; tired child, gladly receive the starry night. Hands, leave from all doings, brow,, forget all thinking, all my senses now want to sink into slumber. And the unguarded soul wants to soar: in free flight, in order to live, deeply and a thousandfold, in the magic circle of the night.")' "•••'•  


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