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Text-music relations in Richard Strauss's Im Abendrot Parson, Laurel Jeanne 1991

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TEXT-MUSIC RELATIONS IN RICHARD STRAUSS'S IM ABENDROT . By , LAUREL JEANNE PARSONS B.Mus., Wilfrid Laurier University, 1980 M.A., The University of Waterloo, 1987 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Music, Music Theory) W^ r accept this thea-fsTas conforming tyjfol requjL££d standar^ THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1991 © Laurel Jeanne Parsons, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make iT freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. (Signature) ij Department of M f l S l f / The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada D a t e & A ^ (QQI. DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t T h i s t h e s i s e x a m i n e s i n d e t a i l t h e w a y s i n w h i c h m u s i c and t e x t r e l a t e t o a n d c o n d i t i o n each o t h e r in R i c h a r d S t r a u s s ' s Im A b e n d r o t ( 1 9 4 8 ) , t h e first o f the Vier letzte Iieder. The f i r s t c h a p t e r consists of a n a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e t e x t i t s e l f , a poem w r i t t e n b y J o s e p h v o n , E i c h e n d o r f f . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e poem is based on its place in the c o n t e x t of E i c h e n d o r f f ' s o t h e r p o e t r y , a s w e l l a s on i n t e r n a l d e t a i l s of i m a g e r y a n d s t r u c t u r e . An o s t e n s i b l y s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n w h i c h : S t r a u s s made i n t h e poem p r o d u c e s a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e of p e r s p e c t i v e a n d t o n e : i n t h e l a s t l i n e o f E i c h p n i i o r f f n n e m — T a t d a s etvi d e r T o d ? - - d e a t h is c o n t e m p l a t e d from a d i s t a n c e ; in S t r a u s s ' s v e r s i o n — 1 s t d i e s etva der T o d ? - - t h e n a r r a t o r s t a n d s at its v e r y t h r e s h o l d , a n t i c i p a t i n g w i t h m i x e d e m o t i o n s the p r o f o u n d m e t a m o r p h o s i s w h i c h is i m m i n e n t . T h i s r e a d i n g of the poem is f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d by im A b e n d r o t ' s r e l a t i o n to the texts of the t h r e e r e m a i n i n g s o n g s in thi c y c l e , a n d a l s o b y the c o n n e c t i o n s , c o n c e p t u a l a s well - as m u s i c a l , b e t w e e n the Vier letzte I i e d e r and S t r a u s s ' s e a r l y t o n e p o e m , Tod und Verklarung. S u b s e q u e n t c h a p t e r s d e a l w i t h a s p e c t s of S t r a u s s 1 s . m u s i c a l s e t t i n g as t h e y r e l a t e to, the t e x t , s p e c i f i c a l l y in the a r e a s of f o r m a l / m o t i v i c , h a r m o n i c , m e l o d i c , and m e t r i c / r h y t h m i c s t r u c t u r e . The c o n c l u d i n g m a t e r i a l r a i s e s some q u e s t i o n s , a r i s i n g as a r e s u l t of this s p e c i f i c a n a l y s i s , a b o u t t h e n a t u r e of text-music, r e l a t i o n s in g e n e r a l , and p o i n t s to p o t e n t i a l a r e a s of f u r t h e r . study.' • • i ii T a b l e of C o n t e n t s a b s t r a c t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii L i s t o£ T a b l e s . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . ., ,. . . iv L i s t of F i g u r e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . / . . . . iv L i s t of M u s i c a l E x a m p l e s . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . v A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ix I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 1 C h a p t e r 1: E i c h e n d o r f f ' s T e x t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 C h a p t e r 2: F o r m ar.d M o t i v e . . . . . . . . .. . .: . . . : . .16 C h a p t e r 3: H a r m o n i c S t r u c t u r e . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .44 C h a p t e r 4: M e l o d i c S t r u c t u r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 C h a p t e r 5: M e t r i c a n d R h y t h m i c O r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e V o i c e M e l o d y . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 8 : C o n c l u s i o n . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y . . . . . . ."'.130' A p p e n d i x A: S c o r e , Im Aberidrot. . . . . . . . . . . . . .132 A p p e n d i x B: T e x t s of r e m a i n i n g s o n g s of c y c l e . . . . . .138 L i s t o£ T a b l e s T a b l e I . O c c u r r e n c e s of b - f l a t ' in v o c a l line . . . . . . 80 T a b l e I I . R a n g e s of s t a n z a s 1 to 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5 : T a b l e I I I . N o t a t e d 3/2 m e t e r in Im Abendrot . . . . . . .106 T a b l e I V . R e l a t i v e d u r a t i o n s of s t a n z a s . . . . . . . . .117 L i c t of F i g u r e s F i g u r e 1 . R e d u c t i o n of v o c a l line . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 F i g u r e 2 . V o c a l l i n e . . . . . . . . . . 79 F i g u r e 3 . M o t i v e as S y m b o l . . . . . . . • •; • . . . . . . . 93 List of Musical Examples 1 . Tod und Verklarung motive in Im Abendzot. ... . 15 2. R e c a p i t u l a t i v e cadence, m e a s u r e 61 18 3. C o n c l u d i n g m e a s u r e s of v o c a l s e c t i o n 19 4. C o m p a r a t i v e view of m u s i c a l a n d t e x t u a l f o r m a l d e l i n e a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5 . P i c c o l o t r i l l s , m e a s u r e s 89 to 96 . . . . . . . 21 6 . H a l f - c l o s e c a d e n c e s , s t a n z a s 2 a n d 3 . . . . . . 24 7 . M o t i v e a . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 8 . M o t i v e a, m e a s u r e s 61 to 64 . . . . . . . . . . 28 9 . M o t i v e a, m e a s u r e s 68 to 71 . . 29 1 0 . Motive a, measures 81 to 85 . . . . . . . . . . 3 0 1 1 . F u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n of m o t i v e a . . 31 1 2 . M o t i v e a, . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 1 3 . M o t i v e a , , m e a s u r e s 20 to 2 2 . . . . . . . . . . 32 14. M o t i v e a,, m e a s u r e s 34 to 35. . . . . . . . . . 3 2 1 5 . M o t i v e a , , m e a s u r e s 61 to 6 2 . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 16. M o t i v e a 2 • • • • • . • • 35 17. M o t i v e b, (Tod und VerklHrung). .... . . . . 3 6 1 8 . M o t i v e b. .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 " 19. "Lark" m o t i v e (c) . . . . . . . . 3 a 2 0 . M o t i v e c, m e a s u r e s 41 to 42 . . . . . . : . . . 39 2 1 . M o t i v e c, m e a s u r e s 44 to 47 . . . . . . .: . .; . 39 2 2 . I n v e r s i o n of m o t i v e c , m e a s u r e 27 . . . . . . . 3 9 23. M o t i v e c, m e a s u r e s 59 to 60 . . . . . • • • • • '40 2 4 . " W e a r i n e s s " m o t i v e (d). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2 5 . M o t i v e d, m e a s u r e s 47 to 49 . . . . 42 26. Motive d, measures 65 to 68 42 27. Motivic c o n t e n t , measures 76 to 83 42 28. Middleground structure, measures 1 to 20, . . . 45 29. c-flat major as chromatic elaboration of the E-flat major tonic • 46 30. Quasi-Subdominant Function of the Flatted Submediant 47 31. A-flat minor as chromatic elaboration of C minor, measures 7 to 8 . . . . 49 32. Harmonic structure of stanza 1 51 33. Not und Freude, measures 24 to 26 52 34. Voice-leading, G-minor to C-flat m a j o r . ' . . . . 53 35. Melodic structure, Not und Freude,.''...'.' . . . 54 36. Linear relation between G-flat major and E-flat major . . . , . . 55 37. G-flat as surrogate tonic, measures 35 to 3 6 . .' 56 38. Harmonic structure of stanza 2. . . . . . . . . 57 39. Es dunkelt schon die Luft, measures 38 to 40. . 58 40. Tonal progression, measures 2 1 to 41.' . . ., . ',. 60 . 41. End of stanza 2 and violin s o l o . - . " . ' , ., . . . 61 42. Voice-leading continnity r e l a t i n g d o m i n a n t sevenths on C-sharp and B-flat,. measures 45 to 46 . . . . . . . . . . 62 " 43. Harmonic structure, stanza 3.'''. . . . . . . . . 63''' 44. E-flat minor, Schlafenszei t and vandezmtlde. . . 6 3 45. Dass vir uns nicht verirren, measures 50 to 53 . . . .• . ..,.'. ;.' . -''.• . .',•;.' 64 4 6 . H a r m o n i c s t r u c t u r e , s t a n z a 4. . . . . . . . . . 66 4 7 . C h r o m a t i c e l a b o r a t i o n of B - f l a t m a j o r by G - f l a t m a j o r , measures; 57 to 5 8 . . 67 4 8 . V o i c e - l e a d i n g , m e a s u r e s 68 to 8 0 . : . , . ' . . . . . 6 8 49. Motive a, measures 70 to 71 and 82 to 83. . . . 70 50. Voice-leading, measures 87 to 89 . 7 1 51. Parallel progressions, measures 74 to 75 and 88 to 89. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 52. Parallel progressions, measures 87 to 89 and 9 3 to 95. . . . 73 53. Harmonic structure, Im Abendrot . . . . . . . . 7 4 54. Measures 89 to 97 . ..' . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 55. Melodic contour of stanza 1 . . . . . . . . . . 81 56. Contrary motion between voice and bass. . . . . 82 57. Melodic contour of stanza 2 . . . . . . . . . 83 58. Imitation between voice and bass. . . ... . . . 3 4 59. Score, .measures 37 to 40. 84 60. Melodic contour of stanza 3 . . . . . . . . . . 86 61. Score, measures 50 to 53. . . . . . . . . .... 86 62. Melodic contour of stanza 4 .; . . . . . . . . . 87 63. Upper voice G-natural descent . . . . . . . . . . 88 64. Final phrase of text, measures 68 to 75 . . . . 9 0 65. Flute trills, stanza 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 66. Flute trills,. postlude. . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 67. Score, measures 37 to 4 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 95" 68. Score, measures 36 to 40. . . . . . . . . . . . 96 69. Score, measures 65 to 68. . . . 97 70. Score, measures 22 to 28. . . . . . ... . . . . . 99 71. Score, measures 56 to 59. . . . . . . . . . . .101 72. Score, measures 30 to 33. . . . . . . . . . . .103 73. Compound triple meter \ • in orchestral bridge passages . . . . . . . . .107 74. Score, Measures 27 to 23, 41 to 42 and 4 5 to 4 7.: ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75. Score, measures 39 to 40. . . . . . . . . . . . 76. Comparative composite collated rhythms of voice and orchestra. . . . . . . . . . . . 77. Score, measures 61 to 64. . , . . . . 78. Final broadening of metric units. . . . . . 79. Setting of the poem's concluding line . . . . . 80. Etva, measures 72 to 73 . . . . . . . . . . . . 81. Score, measures 22 to 28. . . . . . . . . 82. Score, measures 29 to 34. . . . . . . . . . 83. Score, measures 41 to 44. . . . . . . . . 84. Vocal setting of Bald ist es Schlafenszelt. . . 85. Score, measures 50 to 55. . . . . . . . . . ;. . Thanks are due to many people without whose advice and assistance this thesis could not have been completed. In particular, I would like to express my gratitude to my peerless supervisor, Dr. Wallace Berry, as well as my second reader, Dr.. William Benjamin; also Dr.: Neil Minturn, who supervised the work in its embryonic stages. The excerpts from the score,.are reproduced by kind permission of the Publisher, Boosey and Hawkes. For his thoughts on Eichendorff' s poetry, I am indebted to Dr. Edward Mornin of UBC's German department, and.for valuable assistance with the German translation, to Mr. Orval Parsons. Finally, I thank my family for their support and infinite —* forbearance (not to mention ironing, vacuuming and babysitting). through yet another Master's degree, with an honourable mention going to my son Andrew, who was himself in the embryonic stages of existence when this whole endeavour began. . Introduction Richard Strauss composed the Four Last Songs in 19 48, a year before his death in September, 1949. Three of the songs were settings of texts by Hermann Hesse, but Im Abendrot, the subject of this thesis, was based on a poem by Joseph von Eichendorff (1788-1857). All four poems deal one way or another with the approach of death; this is not to say that they are pessimistic in tone, however, and certainly this iS not the case with Strauss's musical settings of the texts. Although the songs sometimes express nostalgia for youth, sometimes utter weariness, these sentiments are acknowledgements that the body has outlived its usefulness: ac a certain point in each song, the narrator turns from looking backward to the past or inward to the soul's imprisonment in the body, and begins to look forward to the freedom of the soul following death and its continuing journey through a more beautiful, spiritual world. That which unifies the four texts, then, is this essential concern with spiritual transfiguration, a process in which the nature of the soul's relationship with its environment—body, natural world, 1 spiritual world—undergoes a profound metamorphosis. The interrelations between text and music in the Four Last Songs, i.e., how the structure and content of the poems condition the musical structure of the songs, is an issue which has not as yet been fully addressed in the body of analytical literature concerning the cycle. In such works as Barbara Petersen's Ton und Sort: The Lieder of Richard Stzauss1 and the doctoral dissertations of W. W. Colson2 and j. E. Strickert,3 Strauss's treatment of text is a subsidiary issue, discussion of which is largely limited to references to madrigalisms such as the use of trills in the flute to denote birdsong. These analyses deal with musical settings of "foreground" features of the texts—individual words or images—but stop short of considering the underlying, "background" processes of which these features are symptomatic; it is my intention in this thesis to endeavour to redress the balance, with respect to Im Abendrot, the first of the songs to be composed. An analysis of text-music relations in this song is followed by a discussion, in the final : chapter, of the question of music as metaphor and the nature of text-music relations - in general. ' Ann Arbor: UMI, 1980. 7.William W. Colson, Richard Strauss's Four Last Songs, diss., U of Illinois, 1975 (Ann Arbor: UMI, 1975).. -3 Jane E. Strickert, Richard Strauss's Vier letzte Lieder: an Analytical Study, diss., Washington U, 1975 (Ann Arbor: UMI, 1975). .".•'•• Chapter 1: E ichendor £ £ 1 s Te::~ An analysis of text-music relations in a given musical work necessitates a preliminary analysis of the structural features and thematic content of the text itself. In the case of im • Abendrot, since Strauss made alterations in Eichendorff's text, a comparison between the two versions provides an important insight into the composer's concept of the poem. The original text' is presented below, side by side with an English translation by the author. Im Abendrot At Sunset ffir sind duzch Not und Freude We have through need and joy Gegangen Hand in Hand, gone hand in hand, Vom Wandzrn ruhn vir beide from wandering together over the Nun ilberm s t i l i e n Land. . . quiet land, now we rest. Rings sich die TSler neigen, Bending about the valleys, Es dunkelt schon die Luft, the air already darkens, Zvei Lerchen nur noch steigen two larks alone still rise NachtrSumend in den Duft. dreaming into the haze. Tritt her und lass sie schwirren, Draw near3 und let them whirr, Bald _ist es Schlafenszeit, soon it is time to sleep, Dass vir uns nicht verirren that we not lose ourselves In dieser Einsamkeit. in this loneliness. 0 waiter, stiller Fxiede! 0 distant, quiet peace! So tief im Abendzot So deep in the sunset Wie sind v i r vandermiJde-- how wandering-weary we are--Jsi das et.va dar Tod.? is that perhaps death? 1 Joseph von Eichendorff, Werke, Bd. I (Mtinchen: Winkler-Verlag, 1970), 234. 2 Tritt her can also be translated as "Step here." The structural details of Eichendorff's poem contribute to the strength of its imagery, which will be discussed in detail l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The rhyme scheme of the four-line stanzas is ABAB, with alternation between weak (Freude/belde), and strong (Hand/Land) endings. The A lines of the outer (first and fourth) stanzas rhyme words with the ending "-de", creating associations especially n o t a b l e b e t w e e n the words Freude and Friede, each of which occurs at the end of the first line of its respective stanza. A l l of these words—Freude ("joy"), beide ("i.:oth"), Friede ("freedom") and vandermade ("wandering-weary") are nouns or adjectives, in keeping with the lack of movement in the poem's framing stanzas. In contrast, the rhyme-words of the A lines of the inner stanzas have the ending "-en", and all of these words— neigen ("to bend"), steigen ("to rise"), schvirren ("to whirr") and verirren ("to lose one's way")—are verbs, describing the motion of the larks and the journeying of the "we" of the poem. The rhyme-words of the B lines display more subtle relationships. In the first stanza, the internal rhyme in the second line Hand In Hand and its rhyme with Land in the fourth line suggests a physical connection not only between two bodies but i ) e t w e e i ' i this pair and the earth. In the second stanza, the B-rhyme is between Luft ("air") and Duft ("haze"). The words Schlafenszeit ("time to sleep") and Elnsamkeit,- ("loneliness".') in the third stanza describe states of being rather than physical objects and thus remove the poem into a more metaphysical realm. Finally, in the fourth stanza, the association between the words Abendrot and Tod unite physical and spiritual terms by using the ancient natural image of the sunset to describe the end of earthly life. The rhyme structure of the poem reflects the movement of its narrative: the overall pattern of the A-rhymes over the four stanzas is cyclical, like the cycles of nature; the pattern of the B-rhymes suggests a gr-idual "linear" movement rising away from the earth to the air, from physical to ethereal existence, that is followed by the individual. In other words, the individual human life follows a linear pattern, with a discernible beginning and end; but that life is lived within a larger context governed by cycles of death and renewal—the rising and setting of the sun, the cycle of the seasons, the coming and going of generations. The emotional tension inherent in this contrast, in the knowledge of one's own ephemerality against the eternal, inexorable cycles of nature, pervades Im Abendrot, as a close look at the imagery of the poem will demonstrate. Many of the images and phrases of this poem occur throughout Eichendorff's other works,3 especially those which pertain to the . natural world, typically portrayed by the poet as potentially threatening despite, or in'some cases because of, i.ts beauty. 3 See Oskar Seidlin, Versuche Uber' Eichendorff (GOttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1965). . For example, in poems such as Der stille Grund,4 the narrator travels alone through the forest and is both enthralled and frightened by the dangerous spirit of the Lorelei. Der stille Grund The Quiet Ground Der Mondenschein vervlrret Die TSlez veit und breit, Die BSchlein, vie verirret, Gehn durch die Etnsamkeit. Da Drtiben sah ich stchen Den Wald auf steller Hflh, Die finstern Tannen sehen In einen tiefen See. Eln Kahn wohl sah Ich ragen, Doch niemand, der es l<..~.kt, Das Ruder war zerschlagen, Das schifflein halb versenkt. The moonlight entangles The valleys far and wide, The brooks, as if lost, Pass through the loneliness. Over yonder I saw the woods Standing on a steep height, The dark fir trees look Into a deep lake. I saw a boat looming there, But no one steering it, The rudder was shattered, The boat half submerged. Eine Nixe auf dem Steine A water nymph on a rock Flocht dort ihr goldnes Haar, Braided there her golden hair, Sie meint' sie wilr alleine, She thought she was alone, Und sang so vunderbar. And sang so wonderfully. SIe sang und sang, in den Baumen She sang and sang, in the trees Und Quellen rauscht' es sacht And springs it rustled gently t/nd fltisterte vie in Traumen Die mondbeglSnzte Nacht. Ich aber stand erschrocken, Denn Uber Wald und Kluft Klarigen die Morgenglocken Schon feme durch die Luft. Und hatt icb nicht vernommen Den Klang zu guter Stund, WSr nimmermehr gekommen Aus diesem Stlllen Grund. And whispered as in a dream The moon-sparkled night. But I stood startled, For over wood and rocky cleft Rang the morning bells " Far out through the air. And had I not heard The sound at a good hour, I would nevermore have come Out of this silent ground;. J. 4 Eichendorff, Werke, 1:311. I n Der stilie Grund, the narrator's spellbound captivation w i t h t h e L o r e l e i ' s p a g a n s o n g is b r o k e n by t h e s o u n d of: church b e l l s ; he is s a v e d by a voice from the civilized Christian world. The first s t a n z a i n particular recalls Im Abendrot, in its d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e valleys, the brook which has "lost its way" (verirren), and t h e surrounding loneliness (Elnsamkeit). Like Im A b e n d r o t , Der stille Grund t a k e s place in the evening, a h a z a r d o u s time of d a y i n t h e p o e t's view. This is partly b e c a u s e , e s p e c i a l l y in the wilderness, darkness obscures the t r a v e l l e r ' s p a t h . Danger also lies in the fact that night is the t i m e for s l e e p (a little death) and dreams, for in the dream state one loses contact with the concrete world, and loses control over one's perceptions of that world. The awake, alert, conscious mind, in Eichendorff's poems, functions like the force of gravity, holding its world together; any impairment of its operation is therefore to be feared.5 Read in the light of Eichendorff's overall poetic vision, Im Abendrot becomes suffused with anxiety. The first stanza is neutral in tone, serving to introduce the poem's characters, plot, and setting. Significantly, Im Abendrot differs from the typical Eichendorff journey poem in that the narrator travels with a companion. Though this second person is unidentified, it is clear that the relationship between 5 This fear of the dream state stands in sharp,contrast to that of contemporary poets such as the English Romantic (and opium addict) Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834), who claimed to have composed his Kubla Khan in a drug-induced trance. . the travellers is long-standing; Eichendorff h e r e pays homage to t h e power of human Love t o t e m p e r t h e e s s e n t i a l l o n e l i n e s s the individual's journey through life. In stanza 2 of Im Abendrot, darkness approaches, and they watch two larks rise dreaming into the hazy air. The bird has long been used in poetry as an image of the soul; in this poem the correspondence between the numbers of birds and travellers reinforces the traditional metaphor. In Eichendorff's poetic world, however, the image is somewhat ominous: the larks have lost contact with the earth, and furthermore are in a dream state, thus symbolizing both physical and psychic detachment from real life. The narrator's glimpse of this detachment initiates in his mind a train of thought leading ultimately to the question oi death and what lies beyond: the dream state of the larks (as he perceives it) reminds him of sleep (Bald istes Schlafenszeit), which in turn reminds him of death (1st das etva der Tod?) These metaphysical thoughts give rise;to mixed emotions, in the narrator's heart. At the beginning of stanza 3, he reminds his companion that the time for sleep is near and suggests they draw close to one another; of the larks, he says lass sie schwirren, as if attraction to their song must be resisted, and its distraction would cause them to lose their way, to lose 6 Throughout this thesis I refer to the narrator as "he" because of Eichendorff's own gender. There is nothing in the text, itself which precludes a female narrator, and in fact Strauss's setting of the poem is written for soprano. themselves in dieser Binsamkeit. The hazardous combination of beauty and danger in the natural image of the larks is thus clearly related to the pagan, mythical image of the siren which Eichendorff uses in other poems. In the final stanza, then, the weiter, stiller Friede which beckons is, like the song of the Lorelei, both beautiful and fearsome: before death, however expected or even longed-for, the individual is rendered utterly and finally powerless. The second line of this stanza (So tief im Abendrot) is crucial, as it was this image of the sunset which Eichendorff chose as the poem's title. Like the metaphoric association of the human soul and a bird, the image of the sunset has been used since ancient times to represent death; the setting of the sun in the west and its rising in the east have long symbolized death and resurrection. In life, the human body sleeps and wakes, is resurrected, more or less according to the setting and rising of the sun.. But in death,, inevitable as the setting of the sun, that physical resurrection fails: we can only hope for a resurrection of the soul, in a world we-can only imagine. This final resurrection is a matter only of faith, and: ; inherent in any article of faith is at least some measure of doubt. As a devout Catholic, Eichendorff presumably would have believed in the continued existence of the soul following death, but he presumably also contemplated the possibility, well within the bounds of Catholic doctrine, that the afterlife was not inevitably paradisal. Faced with, such perplexing, unanswerable TrllTnlf??W;?uti U, U U U L.u •/ I 10 - ' —-J" . existential questions, human beings, poets included, often exhibit a preference for the security of the known, however imperfect, over the unknown. This is the basis of Eichendorff1s ambiguous view of the natural world and the root of Im Abendrot's Angst. In this poem, forms of the adjective still are used twice, to describe Land and Friede; as in English, in German this adjective connotes an absence of sound and/or motion. In the context of this poem, the word implies a landscape devoid of life, and this interpretation is reinforced by Eichendorff's use of the word EInsamkeit in stanza 3. Further emphasizing the vast emptiness of the wilderness is the adjective veit ("wide" or "distant") in the first line of stanza 4 (0 veiter, stiller Friede!).7 At this point the narrator is contemplating not land but sky, as suggested by the immediately following phrase So tief im Abendrot; he is also thinking of the larks and their free flight across an unlimited expanse of air. Although they have arisen from the earth, the larks now move in a different plane of existence, apparently unconstrained by earthly ii^it'dtions. The limitless spatial dimensions of the skyscape in this passage are also implied by the word tief ("deep") in the second, climactic line of stanza 4 (So tief im Abendrot). But the . dimension of depth has a downward connotation, calling forth 7 We it is another adjective frequently used in Eichendorff1 s poetry: in the first stanza of Der stille Grund (note the adjective still), veit rhymes with Einsamkeit. i ii images of pits or tunnels in the earth (or perhaps graves) rather than the sky and suggesting the action of falling or being pulled: indeed the glorious sunset exerts an attraction on the narrator almost gravitational in strength (but away from the earth), an almost irresistible force which can be likened to that exerted earlier in Im Abendrot by the whirring larks, and in Der stille Grund by the song of the Lorelei. But is this vast freedom from human limitations desirable? Implicit in Im Abendrot is the sharp contrast of the potentially engulfing power and magnitude of Eichendorff's countryside with the relative safety of civilization. This dichotomy between civilization and wilderness is amplified in the dichotomy, explicit in la Abendrot, between land and sky: completely devoid of the solidity, let alone the stability of identifiable physical features, the sky is a kind of ethereal, spiritual wilderness which, like its terrestrial counterpart, forces us to face the discomfiting truths of human solitude, powerlessness, and mortality. The existential anxiety which pervades Im Abendrot is also discernible in Strauss's musical setting, but also discernible is the composer's distinct personal interpretation of the poem. This is most evident in a particular alteration which he made in the text:8 the final line of the poem, instead of 1st das etva .8Strauss also made three: minor alterations, replacing the comma at the end of the second line with a semi-colon, adding th.e i ii der Tod? ("Is that perhaps death?") becomes 1st dies etwa der Tod? ("Is this perhaps death?"). This ostensibly minor replacement produces a significant change in perspective: in the original version, the word das puts death at a distance—the poet muses philosophically on what the experience of death might be like, but the event remains in the future. In contrast, the word dies in Strauss's version puts death immediately at hand: the speaker and his companion hover at the very moment of metamorphosis. This new version of the final stanza offers Strauss the opportunity and the challenge of translating that metamorphosis into music, a challenge which he had first set himself some sixty years earlier with his composition of the tone poem Tod und Verklflrung—"Death and Transfiguration". In a letter of 1894, Strauss wrote about the composition of Tod und VezklUzung, completed when he was twenty-five years old, in words that cannot fail to bring to the reader's mind his setting, in his eighty-fourth year, of Im Abendzot: Es waz voz sechs Jahzen, als miz der Gedanke-auftauchte, die Todesstunde eines Menschen, deznach den hOchsten idealen Zielen gestzebt hatte, also vohl eines KOnstlezs, in einez Tondichtung darzustellen. Dez Kzanke liegt im Schlummez schwez und unzegelmSssig atmend zu Bette; freundliche Trflume zaubern ein LUcheln auf das Antlitz des schwez Leidenden; dez Schlaf vizd leichtez; er ezwacht; gzSssliche Schmezzen beginnen ihn wiedez zu foltern, das Fiebez schtittelt seine Gliedez— als dez Anfall zu Ende geht und die Schmezzen nachlassen, gedenkt ez seines vergangenen Lebens: seine missing "e" in the contraction zuhn and omitting the word beide; these do not affect the sense of the poem. . Kindheit zieht an ihm vorUbar, seine J U n g l i n g s z e i t seinem Streben, seinen Leidenschaften und dann, vHhzend schon wieder Schmerzen sich einstellen, erscheint ihm die Frucht seines Lebenspfades, die Idee, das Ideal, "• das er zu verwirklichen, ktlnstlerisch darzustellen versncht hat, das er aber nicht vollenden konnte, well es von einem Menschen nicht zu vollenden war. Die Todesstunde naht, die Seals vezlMsst den Kdzpez, um in evigen Weltraum das vollendet in herrlichster Gestalt zu linden, was es hienieden nicht erfttllen konnte.9 It is clear from these words that at this time in his life, Strauss did not suffer any anxiety about the resurrection of the soul following death. That he still held these beliefs as; an old man is suggested in some of his last words, spoken to Alice Strauss: "Death is just as I composed it in Tod und Verkiarung."10 and also by his setting in the same cycle of Hermann H e s s e ' s poem Beim Schlafengehn ("On Going to Sleep"):11 9"It was six years ago that it occurred to me to present in t h e f o r m of a t o n s poem t h e d y i n g h o u r s of a man w h o . h a d s t r i v e n towards the highest idealistic aims, maybe indeed those of an artist. Kis thoughts wander through his past life; his childhood passes before him, the time of his youth with its strivings and passions and then, as the pains already begin to return, there appears to him the fruit of his life's path, the conception, the ideal which he has sought to realize, to present artistically, but which he has not been able to complete, since it is not for man to be able to complete such things. The hour of death approaches, the soul leaves the body in order to find-glori.ously achieved in everlasting space those things which could not be fulfilled here below." Richard Strauss to Friedrich von Hausegger, cited by Willi Schuh, Richard Strauss: Juqend und Frtlhe Meisterjahre Lebenschronik 1864-1898 (Ztlrich: Atlantis, 1976), 185-86. English translation from Norman Del Mar, Richard Strauss: A Critical Commentary on His Life and Works, Volume I (London: Barrie & Rockcliff, 1962), 77-78. 10 Michael Kennedy,, Strauss, 1976,. cited by Norman L e b r e c h t in The Book of Musical Anecdotes (1985; London: Sphere. , 1987) , 269,. . 11 Hermann Hesse, Die Gedichte von Hermann He3se (Zurich: Fretz & Wasmuth, 1942), 238. . Nun der Tag mich mad' gemacht, soil mein sehnliches Verlangen freundlich die gestirnte Nacht vie ein modes Kind empfangen. HSnde lasst von allem Tun, Stirn vergiss du alles Denken, alle meine Slnne nun wollen sich in Schlummer senken. Und die Seele unbevacht, vi 11 in freien Fltigen schveben, um im ZauberJcreis der Nacht tief und tausendfach zu leben. Now the day has made me tired, my ardent longings must, like a tired child, gladly receive the starry night. Hands, leave from all doings, brow, forget all thinking, all my senses now want to sink into slumber. And the unguarded soul wants to soar in free flight, in the magic circle of the night deeply and a thousandfold to live. Although Beiro Schlsfengehn is ostensibly about sleep, in—the context of the other three poems which Strauss chose to set for this cycle (particularly Im Abendrot and September), its images— the weariness of the body and the flight o£ the soul—suggest in addition the anticipation of death. Unlike Im Abendrot, however, Beim Schlafengehn displays no reluctance to abandon physical existence. The scenario which formed a conceptual framework for Tod und VerklHrung, then, was one to which Strauss returned in choosing the texts for the Four Last Songs. Viewed against this framew~ork, the Hesse and Eichendorff texts illuminate and / complement each other. In Frtihling, the poet nostalgically remembers the vitality of hie lost youth; September, through the image of the autumn garden, evokes the body's weariness and longing for sleep (see Appenddx for the complete Hesse texts). Beia Schlafengehn and Im Abendrot, especially in Strauss's altered version of the latter, go further.and attempt to, describe i ii the metamorphic process of death itself; fleim Schiafengehn affirms especially strongly the composer's trust in the resurrection of the soul into a spiritual universe offering freedom and fulfillment unattainable within the confines of physical existence. Finally, the conceptual connection between Tod und Verklarung and the Vier letzte Lieder is confirmed in the music itself by the explicit reference to Tod und Verklarung in the postlude to Ira Abendrot (Example 1). © © Example 1. Tod und Verklarung motive in Ira Abendrot. In placing this motive in the orchestra, concurrent with the singer's words 1st dies etwa der Tod?, and in keeping with the final question mark, Strauss could no more strongly; have conveyed this belief that after Tod comes Verklarung, that death is a spiritual metamorphosis, the point of entry Unto a different V dimension of existence. The. following chapters will demonstrate how othe-r elements and processes of Strauss's formal,, raotivic and harmonic structure support and/or expand on images and processes in Eichendorff 's deceptively simple poem. ;V i ii Chapter 2: Form and Motive A poem is a complete and independent work of art in itself, cast by the poet in a specific form. In setting a poem to music, the composer appropriates that complete work and, according to his own interpretation of it,1 recomposes it into musical form, a process which involves the addition to and/or support of the text by a pitch structure and certain modifications of the poem's rhythmic structure. The degree to which this musical recomposition supports or disturbs the structural features of the original poem varies from setting to setting and composer to composer.3 The preceding chapter of this thesis looked at the imagery and structural features of Eichendorff's poem; this chapter will examine how and whether those features are reinforced, first in the formal _ Although analysis of the musical setting can suggest something of the composer's thoughts about the poem, I do not mean to infer that analysis is a window into the composer's mind; in any case, it is not the content of the composer's ' interpretation that is relevant here. The word o 1 3 i n t e n d e d t 0 describe a mental process, either deliberate or subconscious, which precedes, motivates K decisions: differences in interpretation account for the differences between settings of the same text by different composers. The scholar can more justifiably . ; !; a t a^ i c-role, of interpretation than claim a . definitive knowledge of its specific content. _ 7 The term "structural features" here refers to aspects of sonic organization only and not to conceptual organization involving, for example, recurring ideas or patterns of i ii articulation of the song by cadences: and other means of musical segmentation, and secondly through motivic '•.:';• development; in both cases the. song as a whole, including prelude and postlude, will be considered along with the details of Strauss's text-setting in the central, vocal section. The formal structure of Im Abendrot is divisible into three sections, with two different parameters as possible criteria for division. With instrumentation as the deciding"" factor, the three sections consist of the orchestral prelude (mm. 1-21), the vocal portion of the song (mm. 22-76), and the orchestral postlude (mm. 76-97). That the prelude and postlude should be considered independent formal divisions is in part due to the fact that they are of substantially greater duration than those of the.other three songs of the set: their combined length of over forty measures in relatively constant jempo amounts to almost half the time span of the song as a whole, and the postlude is further extended by incremental decreases in tempo beginning in m. 70 (iromer langsamer), continuing in mm. 74-75 (ritardando, sehr langsam) and mm. 88-89 (rItardando, sehr langsam). This is not.without textual significance: the brief .time, span occupied by the vocal • section -of the.song relative"to the orchestral sections enhances the poem's image of the individual human being, small i ii and almost completely alone in the vast landscape which surrounds him. In another sense, the articulation of the form by its principal cadences (i.e. authentic cadences in the tonic major, E-flat) establishes somewhat different divisions than those stated above. The first and third of these cadences mark the ends of the prelude and postlude, respectively (m. 20 and m. 95). But the second (elided) takes place in m. 61 following a five-measure dominant prolongation, the arrival on the tonic major.coinciding with the beginning of the phrase~"so tief im Abendrot and accompanied by a return in the orchestra to th.?. opening motive (Example 2); the passage from m. 61 to m. 64 has the effect of an albeit short-lived recapitulation and thus at m. 61, there is an emphatic sense of arrival. Example 2. Arrival on the tonic major, measure 61. i ii At the same time, however, from this point to the end of stanza 4 (ffie sind vir wanderaiOde--/Ist dies etwa der Tod?), the harmonic structure becomes progressively more unstable, the last two, crucial words of text set with a striking progression from a B-flat-minor chord to a second-inversion flatted submediant (Example 3). •The arrival in m. 61, then, is only temporary, as it initiates a passage characterized by a sense of departure, through increasing harmonic distance from the tonic major, which becomes progressively more intense through and beyond the end of the text in m. 75. The true arrival at the tonic major, and the resolution of this state of extreme harmonic instability, Is delayed until the final cadence in m. 95. der Tad? rit. sehr langsam Example 3. Concluding measures of vocal section; In the words So tief im Abendrot the narrator glimpses eternity and imagines his own/entry into that world; the E-flat-major cadence in m. 61 is a kind of image, a prevision, of the final "arrival" with the cadence.of mm. 93-95. The reiteration, in the orchestral accompaniment at m. 61, of the prelude's opening motive signals the imminence of the eternal world and initiates the narrator's transition into that world. This transition is expressed musically in part by the structural overlap resulting from the discrepancy between textual and musical formal divisions, shown as Example 4. In other, words, the text ends in m. 75 with;the second-inversion C-flat-major chord, the point of maximum musical instability between the principal structural cadences at m. 61 and m. 95. This instability (within the conventions of tonal music) requires resolution, the task of which remains for the orchestral postlude. -JZ252 = Orchestral prelude/postlud.e ' i ='Text • | = Authentic cadences to the tonic major (E-flat) I 1= Form as delineated by principal cadences Example 4. Comparative view of musical and textual.formal delineations i ii Strauss's.setting of Im Abendrot extends of course beyond the final words of text: the cessation of language does not signify the end of life./: The composer's belief in the continued existence of the soul following death is represented musically by the return of the larks—signifying the two souls of the travellers—in the final measures of the song, with the texturally conspicuous piccolo trills from m. 89 to m. 96 : : (Example 5). v:>.'.•. Example 5. Piccolo trills, measures 89 to 96. Ar> to the setting of the text Itself in the central section of the song, Strauss preserves the original grammatical and stanzaic segmentation of the .poem, (as , indicated by punctuation and/'or spatial arrangement) by the following means: rests in the voice part, with accompanying : orchestral bridge passages; cadences, of varying degrees of finality; and shifts of tonal centre. •.  The rests in the voice part between stanzas and the concurrent bridge passages are brief, at most two measures in length; but with the absence of orchestral interludes within stanzas (in contrast with the set's preceding songs, composed later, especially FrUhling and Beim Schlafengehn) these pauses in the voice serve at least to acknowledge Eichendorff"s stanzaic divisions. With the brevity of the transitions between stanzas and the lack of Interludes, however, the text portion of the song proceeds virtually without interruption, resulting in a sense of continuity enhanced by the fact that Strauss uses neither repetition nor other means of emphasis. To do so would be to interrupt the poem's overt continuity, to impede its progress towards its. goal; (im Abendrot); and one of the poem's underlying themes is the inexorability of the human journey through life towards death. This overt continuity is heightened by Strauss's treatment of the cadence with;which each stanza concludes: in general, where Eichendorff ends each of the first three stanzas with a period, a full close in grammatical terms, • Strauss's cadential treatment moves in the direction of increasing mobility between:'stanzas The first of the four cadences in question, at the end of stanza i, is an authentic cadence to the dominant, B-tlat major (stlllen Land, mm. 33 •'. . 23 and 34), and thus is relatively strong, but the remaining cadences become progressively less conclusive and more tentative. The half-close cadencss at the end .of stanza 2 (in den Duft, F-sharp minor) and stanza 3 (Einsamkeit, B-flat major), especially in coincidence with the rising, questioning melodic inflection of the vocal line (Example 6), emphasize the ambivalence felt.by the narrator at this point in the text. .The similarity between the two cadences underscores the metaphoric association of the larks flitting;through the haze and the travellers finding their way through the lonely : wilderness.' ••••'•.• In contrast with the tentative natures of these cadences is the emphatic progression at the beginning of stanza 4 to B~ flat major in m. 56, resolving the B-£lat:V on which the .;., previous stanza ended:two measures before. This affirmation V of the dominant key coincides with the poem's dramatic moment of vision—0 weiter, stiller Friede.'—and signals -the :••,'••/•.' impending climactic tonic-major cadence of m. 61. Theje two. strong progressions, to B-flat major in m. 56 and E-flat major in m. 61, occur, in close succession at the beginning of stanza 4, and are followed by the apparent dissolution of the E-flat tonality towards the. extremely.open-ended progression to the C-flat-major six-four chord' in m. 75v.'..': If Strauss favours continuity from one stanza to the next and consequently understates the divisions between them, the beginning of each stanza is marked by a shift of tonal centre, the most emphatic example of this occurring in stanza 2. Stanza 1 begins in E-flat major and modulates temporarily to the dominant, B-flat major, with an authentic cadence (mm. 33 and 34) on the words stlllen Land; stanza 2, however, describing the image of the larks, begins' only two measures: later with an abrupt shift to G-flat major, passing through its enharmonic tonic minor (F-sharp) and the latter's relative major (A), to end on a C-sharp-major dominant seventh chord (the enharmonic dominant of G-flat major) in m. 44, as the text describes the larks dreaming in den Duft. The tonicization of the flatted mediant G-flat, or its enharmonic", equivalent F-sharp, lasts for the duration of stanza 2; stanza 3 begins with a shift back to the B-flat seventh chord as , abrupt, as that from the same harmony to G-flat major in m. 36. The entirety of-stanza 2, in which the narrator contemplates the surrounding landscape and the movement of the larks across the sky, can be seen to stand in a parenthetical relation to the remainder of the text. With its focus on the image of the larks, it represents a change in language from' direct to-- metaphorical description of the relationship, between the narrator and his companion, and thus functions as an elaboration of the main narrative structure.: Concurrent with ; the shift back to the B-flat dominant seventh chord in m.; 46 is a redirection of the narrator's attention away from the / distracting influence of the. larks and back to his journey. The abrupt shifts of tonal centre on either side of stanza 2, therefore, do not simply reinforce the poem's stanzaic structure; more importantly, they reflect the stylistic change in this stanza from direct to metaphoric description. As the image of the larks elaborates on the idea of two travellers journeying together through life, the tonicization of G-flat throughout stanza 2 functions as an extended elaboration of the dominant, B-flat; this is demonstrated in detail in Chapter 3. In treating Hichendorff's:stanzaic divisions, then, Strauss seems to have attached only limited importance to reinforcement of the poem's structural features, except in cases where such features held particular thematic significance. Certainly this statement applies to his treatment of the poem's rhyme scheme. Only occasionally are melodic and/or rhythmic motives.used to link rhymed words: neigen and steigen, in stanza 2, are set with the same rhythm . in a descending inflection, in keeping with the natural metric inflection of these words (m. 38, 42); in the same stanza> dunkelt schon die Luft (mm.. 39 and 40) and in den Duft (mm. 43 and 44) are more closely associated, both set in stepwise ascent (from f-sharp1 to a' , a' to c-sharp2> respectively); finally, in stanza 3, each,of the words Schlafenszelt (m. 49) 27 and Elnsamkelt (m. 54), marking the halfway and end-points .of the stanza, begins on b-flat1 and is set with the rhythm J J j . Of particular import here is Strauss'?, use of melodic motive to reinforce associations in the. text between specific-poetic images which are less Immediately apprehensible to the listener, yet vital to an understanding of the song. In the opening measures of Im Abendrot's orchestral prelude, the first of the song's melodic motives (a), shown below as Example 7, is introduced. Played by the upper winds and strings (flutes, first oboe, first clarinet, violins and first viola), it consists of an arpeggiation of the tonic and dominant triads, with the thirds of the tonic triad filled in by stepwise motion. Andante Example 7. Motive a. Although this motive is' recalled frequently throughout the song, in truncated, transposed and/or inverted form and often recognizable only by it3 characteristic dotted rhythm, it never occurs in the vocal line; motive a; is thus an attribute of the orchestral part only. Thus the key to its significance lies less in direct associations with specific v/ords of the text than in the transformations which it undergoes throughout the musical structure. The motive in its first manifestation has breadth and, • vitality, indeed a kind of "motive" power: the song is at its strongest dynamic level with the fully scored,: fortepiano E-flat-major chord which opens the song and provides the point of departure for motive,a. It does not return in its complete, untransposed form until m. 61, in the orchestral : accompaniment to the crucial phrase So tief im Abendrot; its dynamic level,here is piano, and its tessitura an octave lower in first flutes and violins (Example 8). : Example 8. Motive a, measures 61 to 64. In motive a's next manifestation (from m. 68 to m. 71), its .rate of activity is attenuated: that is, its tempo marking 29 is immer langsaraer; it is transposed into the tonic minor,"the sforzando emphasizing the flatted mediant; its tessitura is again lower (with the addition of second bassoon and first cello, with the lower winds and double bass entering on the final two notes); and it is incomplete, ceasing on the leading tone and thereby lacking its dominant-tonic conclusion (Example 9). Example 9. Motive a, measures 68 to 71. In;its last occurrence (mm. 81-85), motive a, marked piano throughout, is even slower, as a result of the decrease in 31' affinity between the two simultaneous passages. In fact, it could be argued that the "call" in the horns and bassoons generates the elaborative, expansive melody.in the upper strings and winds from m. 1 to m. 4. Be that as it may, for the purposes of discussion, the horn/bassoon motive is labeled p f Example 11. Further reduction of motive a. © Example 12. Motive a,. Motive a, is heard in its original form three.more times in the song: in mm. 20-21, played by hor.n3 only, signalling ^ 32 ~ — j the imminent entrance of the voice (Example 13); in the bridge passage between stanzas 1 and 2, again in the horns,/but outlining the dominant triad (Example 14); and in mm. 61-62 (So tief im Abendrot}, played as in mm. 1-2 by horns and bassoons, the only point at which this call is heard simultaneously with the voice (Example 15). This motive, although brief, is aurally conspicuous partly because of its relatively high position in the tessitura of the horn, and partly because of the effects of its syncopated rhythm. , fcl--LI— — 1 |' ' *'. IJT . • | (20 Example 13. Motive a,; measures 20 to 22. ira i-ittm stu tup uu «u Example 14. Motive a,t measures 34 to 35. The occurrences of motive al shown as the previous four examples display little if any variation. The motive's tempo and tessitura remain the same, and changes in instrumentation are minor (in its first and final occurrences in the horn it is doubled in the bassoon, but this doubling does not occur in the intervening occurrences'. The immutability of motive al relative to motive a points to a fundamental difference in their roles with respect to the text. That is, whereas the -transformations of.motive a followed a kind of narrative course, parallel to tendencies implied by the text, the v^' function of motive al with regard to the text is primarily rhetorical, its repetition marking and associating events- of structural importance. . . •• • Formal prose is distinguished:from informal prose by its use of specific, structure-articulating devices, chief among which is repetition; the rhetorical design of formal prose 34 serves to solemnize the ideas being conveyed. Motive a, functions in a similar way not only because of its unaltered reappearances but also as a result of its specific:, characteristics. It is rhythmically conspicuous:because of its syncopation and emphatic entry in the middle of the measure, but its relatively slow pace gives it ceremonial : dignity.. More importantly,; with its distinctive horn timbre supported by bassoons, it arpeggiates the tonic chord in a manner reminiscent of the traditional horn signal (e.g., a. fanfare or a hunting call), the original, practical function of which was to rouse the attention of, and prepare listeners for an imminent event of importance, often of a ritual nature. Thus, if the first two tonic major statements of motive; a, signal the beginning of the song (mm. 1-3) and the beginning of the text (mm. 20-21), the coincidence of: the third with the climactic phrase So tief im Abendrot, in mm. 61-62, suggests yet another beginning, as the soul responds to the call from the next world and embarks on its journey. A rhythmic diminution of motive a, appears in the second violins and violas at the, beginning of jn. :.21,:and this. :; , : animated figure (motive a2 becomes an integral part of the accompanimental texture, played almost continuously by. varying: groups of strings and winds (Example 16). , , _ • 0 Example 16. Motive a2. Momentary pauses in this restless activity occur notably in the orchestral bridge passages, but also occasionally in association with the text, specifically in mm.: 37-40, ceasing" with reference to the darkening of the air and resuming with, that of the flight of the larks; in mm. 50-52 (dass vir uns nlcht verirren); and in mm. 61-64 (So tief im Abendrot). The temporary suspension of motion in these places (the text in v. each case referring to the coming darkness) foretells the permanent cessation of motion in death: the final cessation of motive a, occurs in mm.!65-66, just before the word vandermUde. The significance of this motive with regard to the text is primarily textural, its animated rhythm suggesting that quickening (in the archaic sense of the word) the absence of which def ines death'. ; The second motive to be introduced in the prelude (b), characterized by an initial' ascent of a fourth followed by the further ascent of a filled-in third, is shown below as Example 17. These four notes constitute an embryonic version of the ' 3 6 ' '—"J" Tod und VerklSzung motive; which, as noted in Chapter 1, is quoted more fully and explicitly in the postlude of Ira , A b e n d r o t ; because its occurrence in the prelude is an incipient form of the motive, it is labelled as £>,. Although, in the prelude, this motive is somewhat hidden in the sweeping lines of its broader melodic context, its identity is . confirmed by its distinct outlining (in this case as a C-minor triad) in the first clarinet in mm. 6-7 as the strings and flutes follow through on the. larger melodic line.• - : Example 17 . Motive h, (Tod .'.und VerklSzung) . Strauss's use of this;.motive confirms his portrayal of death -as a turning point toward a new form ;of existence• \ Although the narrator expresses a longing for the rest and peace which death offers, nowhere in the text of Im A b e n d r o t is there specific reference to the fulfillment in the next life which Strauss anticipated. The Tod und Verklarung motive, serves as an explicit reminder of the transfiguration;which awaits, especially since its first unambiguous statement, :: absent from the central section of the song, does not/take place until the last line of text (1st dies etva der Tod?) in mm. 70-71 (Example 18), where it breaks forth in the horns (which function once again as the augurers of change). : Example 18. Motive b. Motive b occurs, like motive a, only in the orchestra and never as part of the vocal line. But where motive a, whose .transformations reflect a progressive decline towards death, decreases in strength towards the end of the song, motive b follows the opposite.course, moving,towards a clearer identity in the postlude, thus hinting at the possibility of an ultimate spiritual transfiguration beyond physical existence. The.third principal motive (c) of im Abendrot, .heard for the first time in m. 9 (Example 19), differs from motives a and b in that it occurs in the vocal line itself and is 38 associated with a specific image, i.e. the larks. Consisting of a rising sixth,, approached by semitone from below and followed by a stepwise descent, its contour suggests the swooping of birds in flight. Example 19. "Lark" motive (c). This motive .is heard in the vocal line in mm. 41-42 (stanza 2), in association with the image of the larks (zwei Lerchen nur noch steigen), and beginning on g-sharp' (Example 20), and in mm. 46-47 of the following stanza (und lass sie schvirren, again.referring to the larks), transposed down a semitone (Example 21) In addition, it is heard in the violin solo bridging these .two stanzas (Example 21), bringing to mind Strauss1s similar use of solo violin in Beim Schlafengehn in association with the bird image :' ; 39 ' | - C — , in'"'i .i'II ' 37) (41) Example 20. Motive c, measures 41 to 42. . tria • «a«d ia tea Daft, calando Trltt her' aadUaaaJa actnrlt-caa, tempo primo —- -V,. ,U} m l-c-J Example 21. Motive c, measures 44 to 47. An inversion of this motive is heard in m. 27 in the vocal line, actually prior to its literal statements in stanza 2, setting the text gegangen Hand.in Hand (Example 22). ; r v ; • • I 1 1 1" . itad dorci Not and Fr«a- • do |e • (U ' • geaBasdla Example'.. 22. Inversion of motive c, measure 27. 40 Although the image of the larks has not yet been introduced in the text, this inverted version of the motive, together with its occurrences in stanza 2 in direct association with the literal textual references to the larks, suggests a metaphoric association between the wanderings of the two travellers and the flight: of the two larks. Motive c occurs only once more following the literal references to larks in the text, in the orchestral bridge passage of mm. 59-60 which sets up the climactic E-flat-major™" cadence at m. 61, So tief im Abendrot (Example 23); the contours of this musical image of flight impel the dominant towards its resolution and suggest the passage of the birds "into the sunset".: One only has to think of the remarkably synchronous, aerobatic pas de deux of a pair of birds to appreciate the beauty of Eichendorff's use of the' larks as an image of the.togetherness, of Im Abendrot's human subjects, travelling Hand in Hand over the countryside. / r-C-i 3 ere jo. . j P 1cre*c. "' •', " I P """ ^ Example 23. Motive c, measures 59 to 60. . I •« -w . rf* ;4i. * * * The fourth.and final melodic motive (d), associated with weariness or sleep, is distinctive chiefly,in its rhythm.^ xts unremarkable melodic contour consists basically descending melodic minor scale, but its syncopated rhythm results in two expressively dissonant appoggiaturas. introduced in the prelude (mm. 10-13, shown as Example 2 4 , its association with the idea of sleep arises from its two recurrences in the vocal : portion of the: so^g: in ^ stanza 47-49 [bald ist es Schlafenszeity, descending this time through the upper tetrachord of the B - f l a t raajor scale sind wlr vandezmtide, descending again through the upper t e t r a c h o r d of t h e E - f i a t melodic minor scale (Example 26) Example 24. "Weariness" motive (d) Example 25. Motive d, measures 47, to 49. © I d 1 l^h ' I I ) n 1 | il .4 | .-•.'••" ; ' Wle..„ iind wlr wu. der. nii-de-Example 26. Motive d, measures 65 to 68. Finally, this motive is heard in mm. 77-80 of the 'v postlude, linking the Tod und Verkltliung motive with the mournful, tonic minor version of the song's opening motive (Example 27), • Examole 27. Motivic -content, measures 76 to 83. Example 27 demonstrates the linking of three of the four principal motives 'discussed above (the absent motive that of the larks/held in reserve for the piccolo trills which closeN the song) , in the phrase which, directly follows the end of the tex, section of Im Abendrot. In the tonic minor mode, the lamenting quality of this melody is at odds with the positive anticipati on of VerklSrung which might be expected, given Strauss13 letter of 1894; but, while his belief in an afterlife is hinted at in Ira Ahendrot's structural and motivic design, it is in Beim :ScMafengehrr t h a t X t ^ fulfillment in resurrection is to be fully explored. The mood of Im Abendrot is permeated by nostalgia for earthly life, memories of Not und Freude which leave the narrator with mixed emotions as,he contemplates death. The poignancy of these . emotions is expressed musically in Strauss's chromatic coloration of the song's harmonic structure, to:be discussed in Chapter Three .'"v; • Chapter 3: Harmonic Structure -, As established in previous chapters, an essential quality of Im Abendrot's mood is the emotional tension between nostalgia for earthly life and the anticipation of freedom in < a life after death. This is reflected in the song's harmonic: structure, in the bimodal dialectic between E-flat major and E-flat minor, which characterizes local harmonic activity;as ,, well as the broader governing structures of the song. In this chapter, the interior harmonic structures of each of the three sections will be dealt with, and on the basis of the results of this analysis a background structure determined for the song as a whole'.'','" The orchestral prelude is expository not only in its introduction of the principal melodic motives of the song and its emphatic establishment of the tonic major key. ,: It also introduces the song's most important harmonic properties, namely, the above-noted dialectic between E-flat major and E- , flat minor, and the elaborative chromatic process linking: , triads, of the same structure (major or minor) whose roots are a major third apart. ' ' • • The establishment of E-flat major would follow a straightforward diatonic cade'ntial formula, as shown in Example 28, were it not for the tonicization of C-flat major from m. 8 to;m. 10. 45 u H .ft K i—LV' ft —% § S 7=Hht / •'p J I vi V I vi ) i7 V7 I Example 28. Middleground structure, measures 1 to 2 0 . It Is possible to interpret C-flat major in a variety of ways, for example, as an upper neighbour to the dominant, with voice exchange accounting for the tritone C-flat to F movement ; in the bass. But this limited interpretation would fail to account for the significance of C-flat major as it unfolds throughout the song. A more satisfactory interpretation is that in Incorporating, with the tonic, the flatted mediant and submediants, C-flat major (E-flat minor:VIj is a factor in the"1 bimodal dialectic inherent in the song's harmonic structure; its toniclzation is initiated in m. 8 by the A-flat-minor harmony, the subdominant in the tonic minor. Its pi cemer.t in the prelude between references to C minor (E-flat major:vi) further emphasizes the bimodal dialectic. ; • ; C-flat major can also be seen to result from voice-leading: specifically, semitonal contrary motion between the t . A third and fifth of E-flat major, with G-flat acting as lower neighbour to G-natural, and C-fiat as upper neighbour to 3-f lat (Example 29). C-flat major represents, then, a kind of chromatic Intensification of E-flat major. J r — y*^  1 — -1 D ' ; Example 29. C-flat major as chromatic elaboration of the E-' flat/majoritonic.:A :: . A third potential function of C-£lat major is as a surrogate subdominant. Example 30, taking E-flat as tonic, demonstrates the similarities in voice-leading between the diatonic plagal progression and a chromatic progression with the tonic triad approached from the flatted submediant triad. 7 -2566 1 > ? t> O^ ^K ? n r, n \ 73 IV H ^ VX->I X < v \ I ( - I I I : a . .•.•'•••• ••:•'••• b'. ; ; Example 30. Quasi-Subdominant Function of the Flatted Submediant. • The tonic is held in common between the chords of each progression in Example 30, and the fifth is approached by step from above, but in Example 30b, the chromatic progression, that approach is intensified by the flatted submediant. .The remaining note, i.e., the mediant of the tonic chord, is also approached by semitone, in 30a from above but in 30b from below, a modification,which, by virtue of the semitonal contrary motion created, intensifies the relation. If the progression between two chords with roots a major third apart is reversed, i.e., the roots descend a major third, the resultant harmonic effect is that the first chord functions as a surrogate dominant: for example, if the chord pairs of-Example 30 are reversed, the E-flat-major triads in 30a and 30b each contain a leading note to the root of the ^ ; following chord (G to A-flat, and B-flat to C-flat, ' . ' .49 The excerpt from Im Abendxot's orchestral prelude, condensed above,as Example 28, shows thac the point of departure from E-flat major towards the tonicization of C-flat major occurs in mm. 6-8 in the succession from C minor (E-flat major:VI) to A-flat minor (E-fiat minor:IV), a progression, like that between E-flat major and C-flat major, between chords whose roots are a major third apart, related through contrary-motion voice-leading in an expanding direction (Example 31). -r vrr WV Q.—. " d f — " — „ — Example 31. A-flat minor as chromatic elaboration of C minor, measures 7 to 8. If the voice-leading processes are not identical, there is a parallel result: that is, the chromatic association of triads of the same intervailic structure with roots a major third apart. , ' - . •• : ^  The prelude,, then, introduces two related.: facets of the song's harmonic structure, the first of which is, in the 50 context of E-flat major, the dual significance of the C-flat-major triad: in its incorporation of. the flatted mediant and submediant, it implies the darker E-flat minor, and thus,the ., bimodal dialectic; and in its quasi-subdominsnt function relative to E-flat major, as well as its elaborative neighbour relation, C-flat major represents a chromatic intensification of the tonic major.: The second important harmonic principle introduced in the prelude is that of the chromatic voice-leading process linking triads or the same structure (i.e.:' major or minor) with roots a major third apart. The ..•:f~"rTl expressive purpose of these principles with respect to the text will become clear through analysis of the central section of the song, comprised of the setting of the poem itself, in which Strauss uses the chromatic voice-leading procedures ./ described above in lending expressive effect to particularly . ; significant points in the text. / The first clause of the first stanza is set more chromatically than - the second,, as Example 32 demonstrates. This concentration of chromatic activity in the first phrase relative to the.• second corresponds, with the change in the text from the eventfulness of the past (Pir sind durch Not und• Freude gegangen Hand in Hand--"'de have through times of need and joy gone hand in hand")'to the relative eventlessness of the present (Vom yandern ruhen wir nun (Uierm sbillen Land— "from wandering over the quiet land, now we rest".):, jy 51 - — '4-Wv ' * ^ » -th £ 5 rt 7 . i-L e-- i - ^ — H S © € ) t t r—nt— © - ( — e — . s > i -•^Btr- V J i Ijt e — P i « — f i • • i — t • 5 — E>:l ^Vl iv i~l I 6 IV I : Example 32. Harmonic structure of stanza 1. . The chromatic activity of the first eight measures reaches a climax with the word Freude ("joy") in mm. 26-27, one of only two words in the entire song set to the C-flat-ma jor triad: the other (to be discussed further on in this chapter) is Tod. Strauss's setting of the words Not und Freude (mm. 24-26, shown as Example 33) is therefore deserving of . particular'.attention.- /Vv, /A^vVfV^V-52 m N a t und- F r e u d e a Example 33. Not und Freude, measures 24 to 26.: The words Not and Freude signify the universal; extremes of the range of human experience—at one end of the spectrum sorrow, deprivation, the tragedies of life; at the other, its joys. Strauss:enhances the polarity, in meaning between these two words in various ways: for example, Not is set to a G- • minor triad, as opposed to the C-flat-major triad of Freude; further contrast is provided in the diatonic-chromatic '•v-:-:'" contrast between the two chords. Strauss also emphasizes the polarity in meaning between Not and Freude in the relationships between the three chords-to which are sat the three words of the phrase. It can be seen from Example 33 that the roots of these chords are a major third apart, E-flat functioning as the centre with G and C-flatat opposite poles. The E-flat-major triad between the G-minor and C-flat-major triads sets the word und, functioning both rhythmically and textually as a, conjunction: only a :; . n n n n ~h rf n ~>7 ~n * * ¥ 53 quarter note in duration and occurring on the second quarter of m. 25, it.acts as an anacrusis to the C-flat-major triad (Freude) which follows. Therefore of greater interest is the audible relationship between the G-minor and C-flat-major triads to which Strauss sets the nouns of the phrase, Not and Kreude, the roots of y which are also the enharmonic equivalent of a major third apart; this is shown as Example 34. v - y - w , te— .Example,34. Voice-leading, G-minor to C-flat Major. Because of their dissimilar intervallic structure (i.e.,;minor and major), the relationship between these two chords i-sKv•••••: unlike those shown as Examples 29, 30 and 31, between chords of similar intervallic structure (major-major, minor-minor); > it is also different .from the neighbour-based relationship between G-minor and E-flat major. There are no common tones between the G-minor and c-f lat-aia jor triads, a property which emphasizes the contrast in meaning between the .words which .are: : y 54 set to them; however, the semitonai expansion which characterized the progressions in Examples 29, 30 and 31 still occurs here, the root of the G-minor triad moving downwards and its third and fifth moving upwards. These two chords are dissimilar in definitive respects: one is minor, one major; one diatonic,: the other chromatic; their roots are found at opposite poles, equidistant from the tonic E-flat; they share no common notes. However, even as joy and, sorrow, Not und Freude, are inextricably associated in human life, the two chords are closely associated through contiguous voice-leading, with the E-flat-major ..triad' providing intermediate:common.tones by which the progression can proceed, so to speak, by degrees The interdependence of the two chords is made more audible by the .ue Iodic line in the voice part, the d 2 in the voice on the word Not acting as an incomplete lower neighbour—a leading-tone—to the on which the word Freude is sung in the following measure (Example' 35). . i 0 \) H -J i-l- — — ; : ., -ty—— — 1 1 Wir sind durch Not und .Freude Example 35. Melodic structure, Not und Freude. . 55 •/'• * * * In Chapter,Two it was pointed out that the second stanza of Im Abendrot, comprised of the central metaphor of the larks, was set off from the surrounding, predominantly : narrative stanzas by the abrupt change in tonal centre from B-flat, at the end of stanza 1 in m. 34, to G-flat, in m. 36. This modulation, despite the abruptness with which it is achieved, follows logically from the .voice-leading precedents established in the prelude: G-flat;major is: to B-flatmajor as C-flat major is to E-fiat major (Example 36). V •JU'-b i,. y S H K r f — n rv t m } Example 36. Linear relation between G-flat major and B-flat /major'... • . 7 .; In m. 35, the B-flat-major triad,; tonicized at the end of stanza 1, becomes what we perceive as a dominant seventh with the addition of A-flat above the triad; unexpectedly, however, although the seventh resolves.downward in the conventional ; manner in: the following measure, the chord itself resolve?, not 56 to E-flat major, but to the surrogate tonic chord of G-f.lat major (Example 37). f-it m n i o va: : v 7 " I " . : G^  : X Example 37. G-flat as surrogate tonic, measures 35 to 36. The text of Im Abendzot's second stanza describes, in its first two lines (mm. 36-40), the darkening of the air as it "bends" through the valleys (Rings sich die TSler neigen,/Es dunkelt schon die Luft), and in the last two lines (mm. 41-4*1), the fluttering of the larks alone through the haze (Zvei Lezchen nur noch steigen/Nach-tzSumend in den Duft). Similarly, the stanza's harmonic structure, shown as Example 38, divides neatly into two parts according to the same ' \ divisions. 57 i VI V IV I v i Example 38. Harmonic structure of stanza 2. The first half-stanza, in keeping with the darkening of the air which it describes, is comprised of an analogous "darkening" in mode from G-flat major in m. 36 to F-sharp minor in m. 40 with the arrival of the word Luft. The tonal change begins with the D-major triad—enharmonically the flatted submediant of the local tonic, G-flat—on the word dunkelt ("darkens"); this chord, although chromatic with respect to G-flat major, is the submediant of F-sharp minor • and thus functions diatonically: towards the tonicization of F-sharp in m. 40 (Example 39). G^rl6 4ttt6 f VI6 fir VI6 v§ i «e»saies 38 to 40. harmonic structure of this Processes, anri , "ena^ot's harmonic ' a n d demonstrates fh„ f — — klnd0£ £nc:£onrtiM °£ -u l c r M , a point nf i « «»or „ a „ . S 1 , u , r l y • ' - — M th/; n j r " metaphor for death V e v i t ^ l e onset of night, a * e g i n s fco surface. Immediately fni i • roilovinq fhlc — ' » - h o „ v e r a „ V — - - • « , „ ; h p " c l " i y «-••> . « t i „ -the harmonic colour i / : a sudden shift into a „ " transformed with , t 0 A concurrent with th* , . Wl -n the words zvel Lezchen nur noch stei g e n. U p u n t i l t M s ? o i n t i n thfi ^ the narrator and his companion have been travelling wearily through an empty landscape, devoid of.life. The sudden appearance of th, larks draws th, narrator's attention awav from the landscape, distracts him from his journey, and this Poetic turn is enhanced by the abrupt change of mode in m. ,4 The significance of A major, however, is not limited to local harmonic development and text-setting: from m. 21, at the beginning of the text section of the song, the- tonal : scheme of Im Abendrot travels along a path of increasing harmonic distance from E-flat major until reaching the V "farthest" possible point, A major,3 with the inage of the l a : : k S' f r ° m V h i C h " ^adually recedes back to E-flat major (Example 40). As the image of the larks delineates the "vertical", earth-to-sky dimension of Eichendorff's poetic "space", Strauss1s choice of its harmonic setting delineates the musical dimension of tonal "distance*. " flat major^in^the c V r c L ^ f s s e n t s j h e opposite-of the circle of conventional fifth relationships. 60 © © © © Example 40. Tonal progression, measures 21 to 41. The major mode,prevails for only three measures, however, as the stanza ends on the dominant of F-sharp minor (again by way of D major in m. 43), a C-sharp-major triad (Example 41). The lyrical brightness of the violin solo which follows in mm. 43-45, like .that of the larks-and that of Eichendorff-s : Lorelei-is deceptive, masking a dark and perilous reality. In the third Stanza of i*.Abendrot, awareness of that darker ' reality reaches it, greatest intensity, both in its text and in its "harmonic structure. V " ' 61 f S: I vi v Example 41. End of stanza 2 and violin solo. Stanza 3 begins with a shift back to the B-flat dominant seventh chord as abrupt as that from the same chord to G-flat major at the beginning of the previous stanza;, concurrent with this shift is a redirection of the narrator's; attention away from the distracting influence of the larks and back to h<s journey: Tritt her und . lass Sie schwirren. The progression : from the c-sharp dominant seventh chord in a. 45 to the B-flat dominant seventh chord in m. 46 (shown as Example 42, Results from voice-leading through chromatic adjacencies. 62 Example 42. VoIce-leadl continuity relating dominants ^eyenths on C-sharp and B-flat, measures 45 to The harmonic structure of the stanza as a whole is s hown below as Example 43. Although the passage beginning in m. 46 is diatonically in E-flat major, and the dominant seventh resolves to an E-flat-major triad in m. 47, the tonic triad here is in second inversion; the true resolution-to a root-position tonic triad-does not occur until the arrival of the E-flat-minor chord in m. 50 at the end of the word Schlafenszeit. This is ' 1 3 o n e o f ? nly tvp explicit statements" of E-flat minor in the vocal section, the other occurring in m. 68, with the word vandern,ade; b o t h statements of E-flat minor are associated with references in the text anticipating sleep, and death (Example 44). ; f 8: V 7 Ek:V7 (IS) iv V* i . iv v 7 b S A 4 3 Bt:lil7) y7 Example 43. Harmonic structure, stanza 3. Example 44. E-flat minor, Schlafenszeit and wanderiiiOde. The harmonically most problematic passage in stanza 3, indeed in the entire song, spans the four measures from:the E flat minor chord in m. 50 to the C-minor chord (B-iiat:ii) in »• 53, shown as Example 45: as the underlying anxieties implicit in the poem come to the surface (dass viz uns nicht m u s i c reaches the point of maximum dissonance and ambiguity. Example 45. Dass viz uns nicht vezizzen, measures 50 to 53. The E-flat-minor of m. 50 is followed in the first half of m. 51 by its subdominant, A-flat minor, which is coloured by the double appoggiatura (d-flat* and b-flat1), giving .'. : dissonant emphasis to the word nicht and stressing the narrator's fear of becoming lost in the impending darkness. The subdominant is arpeggiated in the bass line throughout this measure, but on the third beat, Strauss sets the word vezizzen ("to go astray") with a dissonant simultaneity consisting of E-flat, G-natural, B-flat and D-flat, the dominant seventh of A-flat minor, over C-flat in the bass. Without that C-£lat, the progression from A-flat minor to its dominant seventh is unproblematic, as is the progression from 6 5 * that dominant seventh, enharmonically 'unctioninq as a German sixth, to the G-minor six-four in m. 52. The dissonance on the second syllable of verirre®. exacerbates the sense of disturbance at this point; tut the idea of "going astray" is also illustr ' id musically by the apparent confusion in the harmonic fabriS. The intricacy of.; the passage, with dual-fmefeleftlRf .effigomatic chords resulting in quick changes in harmonic direction, metaphorically st»§<§eafta a ^a.th Sill ®f unexpected hazards, twists and turns negotiated with difficulty. A3 quickly as it emerged, however, the dense chromaticism of mm. 50-53 dissolves into the straightforward, conventional preparation for ' B-flat-major hal f" c a d e n c e i n m > 5 4 W i t h which Strauss sets the closing wor&S, of this stanza, In dieser Einsamkeit ("In this lonelinss®"): in contrast to the previous measures, the harmonic "landsespe" in mm. 53-55, almost completely diatomic in texture, is as featureless and plain as Sichfenidor££"s empty wilderness. The tentativeness of the half-cadence which ends the stanza sustains the expression of unfulfillment in music and text. ,....•' The central image of Im Abendrot's fourth and final stanza is that of the setting.sun, with its connotations of death and...resurrection; Example 4 6. shows the harmonic . structure of this stanza. Bb : I >VI i Eb: V 7 I V I vi et»:iv v | i v Example 46. Harmonic structure, stanza 4. As the narrator gazes into the sky, struck by its vastness 0 welter, stiller Friede.'-the tentative half-cadence which ended the previous stanza is resolved to its'-; 7 tonic, B-flat major. This chord is prolonged for the next six measures, the word stiller chromatically and expressively elaborated in mm. 57-58 by th» third-related G-flat-major triad, in a foreground .statement of the relationship between B-flat major and G-flat major previously established in the tonal relationships governing the first three stanzas - (Example 47). Example 47. Chromatic elaboration of B-flat nnjor by G-flat major, measures 57 to 58. The slowed harmonic rhythm of the dominant-tonic : cadential progression, spread over the eight measures from m. 56 to m. 64, after the rhythmically active, thorny chromaticism and dissonance of t h e t h i r d stanza, reinforces,: ' the textual change between stanzas 3 and 4 from anxiety to peace (o veiter, stiller Friede'); this sense of peace is even deeper in mm. 6 1 - 6 4 (So tief i m Abendrot), with its p u r e , diatonic expression of E-flat major. The peacefulness of the first half of stanza 4 is short-lived, however, as in m. 65 the harmonic structure begins a chromatic phase of bimodal interaction not to be resolved until m. 95. In the last two lines of the poem, the narrator's / ; attention turns from the external landscape, inward to the state of his own body and soul. The highly chromatic, 68 increasingly unstable progression culminating in the C-flat-' major chord in m. 75 with the final word of the poem, Tod?, in its apparent "dissolution" of the E-flat-major tonality, implies the dissolution of physical existence. The third line ( H e sind vir vandermdde), as demonstrated earlier in this chapter (Example , 44), ends in m. 68 with the cadence to the tonic minor, an echo of which occurs in the postlude at m. 80; this twelve-measure passage between E-flat minor cadences is bisected in m. 75 with the second-inversion C-flat-major chord at the end of the text. The voice-leading*' governing this passage, including the progression from E-flat minor in m. 68 to the C-flat-major chord of m. 75, is shown in ...Example 48. Voice-leading, measures 68 to 80. The voice-leading in this passage reflects the bimodal dialectic between E-flat major and E-flat minor. This is most clearly visible in the bass line (Example 48c), which first descends through the, upper tetrachord of the major scale, reaching the dominant with the B-flat-minor triad in m. 74 (itself a partly linear phenomenon), but skipping down to G-flat in m. 75, from which it ascends to the dominant in m. 79, in preparation for the cadence to E-flat minor in the following measure. The unstable .interval o f o u r t h • ; between the bass G-flat and the soprano c-£lat' Seated by this leap holds motivic as well as harmonic significance, as its "linearization" occurs in the following measure in the initial notes of the Tod und VerkUzung motive, outlining the second-inversion C-flat-major triad. Example 48b shows that the G-flat of the E-flat-minor :triad in m. 68, following its .enharmonic:restatement in m. 71 as F-sharp, the third of the D-major triad, can be heard to descend through F-natural (mm. 73-74) and the tonic E-flat (mm. 75-78) to the .leading tone D (m. 79), which resolves back to the tonic in m. 80; this descent forms an important part of the melodic texture in the two tonic-minor statements of motive a referred to in Chapter Two (Example 49). 70 Example 49. Motive a, measures 70 to 71 and 82 to 83. Finally, Example 48a shows the elaboration of the dominant,;. B-flat by its lower and upper neighbours, resulting' in the chromatic tones A-natural in m. 71, and c-flat in m. 75; c-flat also functions as the flatted submediant in the implied descent through the upper tetrachord of the E-flat-minor scale. From m. 75, the C-flat-major harmony functions diatonically as part of the preparation for the cadence to the tonic minor at m. 80: the contrast between its chromatic approach and diatonic resolution intensifies the sense inexorability in the. harmonic processes following the narrator's final; question, 1st dies etva der Tod? • The harmonic structure of the postlude following the / < tonic minor cadence in m. 80 moves back towards the tonic ' major.:. From m. 80 to m. 8G, the harmonic structure parallels that of mm. 68-73: like that from m. 68 to m. 74, the bass line in this passage begins the descent through the upper t e t r a c h o r d of t h e E - f l a t - m a j o r s c a l e . The d e s c e n t is / interrupted before; reaching the dominant, however, instead r e s t a r t i n g in m . 87 w i t h E - f l a t ; a t this p o i n t the F - m a j o r triad in m m . 85-86 is f o l l o w e d b y an A - f l a t - m a i o r s i x - f o u r instead of a B - f l a t - m i n o r t r i a d , as in m . 74 ( E x a m p l e 5 0 ) . ! The A-flat-major triad moves to D - m i n o r , w h i c h in turn leads to the t o n i c m a j o r s i x - f o u r triad in m . 3 9 , w h e r e t h e i n t e r r u p t e d b a s s - l i n e d e s c e n t to the d o m i n a n t is c o m p l e t e d . E x a m p l e 5 0 . V o i c e - l e a d i n g , m e a s u r e s 87 to 8 9 . E x a m p l e 50 s h o w s t h a t the A - f l a t - m a j o r a n d D - m i n o r triads r e s u l t from v o i c e - l e a d i n g p r o c e s s e s in w h i c h the t h r e e n o t e s of the E-flat-raajor s i x - f o u r are a p p r o a c h e d b y s t e p from ' b e l o w : . i n : o t h e r w o r d s , t h e t h r e e - c h o r d p r o g r e s s i o n c o n s i s t s ' o f the s i m u l t a n e o u s a s c e n t s from s u b m e d i a n t to t o n i c in p - £ l a t m a j o r <c - D - E - f l a t ) , from s u b d o m i n a n t , by s e m i t o n e , to 72 —j« dominant (A-flat - A-natural -:B-flat), and from tonic to mediant (E-flat - F - G) . The passage from m. 87 to m. 89 forms a link between the final words of text (der Tod?) in mm. 74-75 and the final cadence to E-flat major in mm, 93-95. Example 51 shows how mm. 87-89 and mm. 74-75 are related by transposition by a/V major third; the similarities between these progressions/ extend to their Identical tempo markings. Example 51. Parallel progressions, measures 74 to 75 and 88 to ,89.. : At the same time, the passage: in mm. 87-89 is linked to the final dominant-tonic cadence to E-flat major in mm. °3-95 by virtue of the fact that both progressions"harmonize the ascents.from submediant to tonic and tonic to mediant. In mm. 8 7-9 8, however, the subir.edianc-to-tonic ascent forms the upper melodic line where the tonic-to-mediant ascent occurs in an inner voice and thus is somewhat hidden, m mm. 93-95, the: two voices are reversed, the tonic-to-mediant ascent, , significant from a motivic standpoint as demonstrated in Chapter Two, forming the upper melodic line (Example 52). & ( P ) fa fa fa Example 52. / ^ / ^ e l Progressions, measures 07 to 89 although Strauss's;setting of the vords der T o d ? , reflecting the question which ends the poem, concludes the : text section of im Abendrot in a state of extreme chromatic ^ instability, a logical connection can be made, through the intermediate progression in mm. 87-89, to the final cadence'in mm. 93-95. That cadence, then, strengthened by-its use of r diatonic, triads in root-position rather than the chromatic six-four triads characteristic of the.:previous progressions,I can be understood to form a kind of answer to the question 1st dies etv'a der Tod?, it is an affirmative answer, b u t " • which implies: through-its final, inconclusive melodic ascent 74 from tonic to mediant that, if this is death, it is not the end. The beginning of this chapter alluded to the significance of a bimodal dialectic between E-£lat major and E-flat minor as governing Im Abendrot in its broad structural outlines as well as in local harmonic activity. A sketch of.these structural outlines, shown below as Example 53, reveals the extent to which that binodal dialectic conditions the structure of the song.- ^ Example 53. Harmonic structure, Im Abendrot. Briefly stated, the bimodal dialectic is expressed through a middleground arpeggiation of E-flat minor governing 7 - 7 5 tonal areas from stanza to stanza which is framed by thev'.V s t r o n g i t e r a t i o n s of E - f l a t m a j o r in the o r c h e s t r a l prelude and at the end of the postlude. The harmonic "problem" which it poses comes into focus in the final phrase of Im abendrot, mm. 89-97.(Example 54): the arrival at E-flat major in m. 89 is tentative because of its unstable intervallic structure, and the state of uncertainty it engenders is sustained over the next four measures by its elaboration by the C-flat-major six-four (the flatted mediant G-flat in the bass,, insi,tently implying the. tonic minor. Only with the root-position C - m i n ^ triad in m. 93, initiating the final cadence, are G-flat and C-flat, the indicators of the tonic minor, finally superseded by G-natural and C-natural, the indicators of the tonic major. Example 54. -Measures 89 to 9 7 . 76_ —j» -T h i s final p h r a s e of I l a A b e n d r o t w i , . ,, . •• of the „ with its j u x t a p o s i t i o n the s u b m e d i a n t triads of b o t h E - f i ^ • b. flat minor and E - f ] * > r e s p e c t i v e m o d e : it a l s o . - t S it a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e s the • • , ° L " e e x p r e s s i v e and s t r u c t u r a l . s i g n i f i c a n c e of the C - f i s , , : m a j o r - m i n o r d i a l e c t i c acti ^ ^  t riad in the of the mi - " n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y as the s u b m e d i a n t the m i n o r mode a n d . c h r o m a t i c a l l y i„ t h p k ^ y l n t h e b r o a d e r q o v e r n i n a s t r u c t u r e of the m a j o r m o d e ; thus it 1 , K 9 l o g i c a l and , x p r e s s i v e l y f i t ^ ^ ; f i n a l cli , S 1 V 6 l Y £ l t t i n * S t r a u s s s h o u l d set the f i n a l , c l i m a c t i c word of the t e x t ~ T o d > ~ w i t h „ ~ bimodal, in: lm .ibendrot reflect^' ^ i^y • A e c t s t h e e m o t i o n a l a m b i v a l e n c e P e r v a d i n g E i c h e n d o r f f ' s t e x t as th n o s t a l g i c a l l y r e f l e c t s on th • ^ M t r a t 0 r life lo f l S C t S " y s , n d s o r r o w s of e a r t h l y P o k i n g t o w a r d s d e a t h w i t h W h " with both apprehension and desire. C h a p t e r 4: M e l o d i c S t r u c t u r e chapter other th,„ H e , o t l v l c 5 t I u i : t . r e j l n c h > p t e i a " d d " 1 3 • r 1 ' ^ * ^ ' t b . ' - W c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ^ o f ' t h e voice part (mm. 22-75), with appropriate reference to elements of the o r c h e s t r a l m e l o d i c f a b r i c . The broadest o u t l i n e s of u n e s ot the m e l o d y are s h o w n as F i g u r e and in more detail in F i g u r e 2 . ^ ,Figure ^reveals that « « - i o d i c line in its b a r e s t o u t l i n e s f o l l o w s t h e shape of a w a v e . T h e m e l o d y b e g i n s o n b _ f i g t i / t h f i ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ l o w e s t p o i n t is a m a j o r s i x t h b e l o w , d - f l a f , w h i c h o c c u r s o n l y o n c e , in m . 3 8 , c o n c u r r e n t w i t h the word n e i g e h V ( " b e n d i n g " ) ; the h i g h e s t , g J , a m a j o r s i x t h a b o v e b - i l a t ' ' o c c u r s in m.: 63,: on the first s y l l a b l e of A b e n d r o t ; o . t h e " ^ P e n u l t i m a t e word of t e x t t h e ^ m e l o d i . l i n e R e t u r n s ; P * in the following, measure; a s c e n d s b y a sernitcihe tc> c-flat^ « . » , .75 on the ^ ^ part is a l m o s t c i r c u l a r in l  ^ n that at the end it : returns, to the Pitch from which it started, but; the/ subsequent Semitone-a s c e n t t o . c - f l a t 2 u n d e r m i n e s the s e n s e of c l o s u r e implied :by^^ ^ ' • this c i r c u l a r i t y . • 1 I A b e n d r o t Viz sind . . - — — 4 — Schlafenszelt / neigen 22 32 42 52 62 T o d ? S t - 4 -72 82 Figure 1. Reduction ui vocal line. The p i t c h b-flat': is p r o m i n e n t i n : t h r e e of i r a A b e n d r o t - s four s t a n z a s . T a b l e I s h o w s a l l the o c c u r r e n c e s of the p i t c h .b-flat- in the v o c a l l i n e , and it r e v e a l s no c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e g m e n t s of text s e t p r i m a r i l y with this P i t c h . H o w e v e r , f u l l y a third of the p o e m ' s s e v e n t y - t h r e e : ^ w o r d s have at l e a s t one s y l l a b l e s u n g on b-flat-, a l t h o u g h in stanza 2 , b - f l a t ' is c o n s p i c u o u s b y its r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e . ' J - highest point rests within stanzas O - J (E- i la t ) Fl3ure 2. Vocal Line 80 Stanza 2 3 Measure 8 — ' • . Text 2 8 ~ 2 5 HandSind Cot J und 30-34 nun 17 scill(-en) La?}d 3,l Tai(-er) 4 6 her „n (schvlrr)-en 52 c ! 5cijlafenszeit ' 56-58 w e i t r ^ f 2 - s a ^ e i t ) . (Abend)-rot : ' f wan ;-der.utide : • der'. "..•'•••:• Table I . Occur rences of b - f l a t ' i„ , riar m v o c a l l i n e . The. c e n t r a l i t y of b-flat-V W ' , r n . ' , ' i s d e m o n s t r a t e d in the m e l o d i c c o n t o u r of s t a n y s i = , u 1, a g r a p h l c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of which i s shown as Example 55. The , . T h e stanza b e g i n s in m . 22 on b - f l a t ' C M e 5 t » - i n t e r m e d i a t e c l . s e in m 2 8 a t t h " __„,, . ' at the s a m e p i t c h , a n d ends m m . 34 a l s o on b - f l a t ' ^ ,• ^ ^  V -ri..- < • « » . , a n a t h ' p " " 8 t l 2 1 e " art: both s u n g on b-fiat-t. ' ' t h e t £ X t S he re a r e consonan t wi th the" b a l a n c e or equilibria.. i ; : - ^ F r e u d e —it—-m.(22) (2i * Hand (30) v -i r u h e n \ stillen Land T 2 6 ' a n , s " M l n 9 ^ e x , b y o n l y one s e m i t o n e ) s e t s > h . V , ^ ' s e t s t h e w o r d s und F r e u d e the l a t t e r h a r m o n i z e d w i t h the c fi,* ' , ' -h , 6 C f l 3 t - m a j o r triad u n d e r l i n i n g t h e b i m o d a l d i a l e c t i c . A g a i n s t t h ^ ^ : ^ 9 A g a i n s t this c h r o m a t i c a s c e n d i n g E - f i a t -r 5 9 i a u o ° i n — forms a s h a t p c „ l h e t e t 0 £ n i o ^ . <"«.»»<= r?« tog,tllet „It6 the „el041c deBcenti a « » « ! . „ „ r e v e t M 1 < p „ d „ c e 3 a c o n d i u o n o f - -•^intensification apptootiat. f. n.' 30-31. " ° P t l i t e ^ <-«at., l„: - o c a i „ , t e „ l e , _ p t t h e b t l e £ b t l d 9 e ^ « 82 orchestra. Frequently, soprano instruments double the vocal line, either in.unison or in thirds. . Sometimes, however,, focus shifts,to the orchestra as a result of its conspicuous melodic activity. ..v. T h i s f i r s t occurs in m . 2 7 , w h e r e a g a i n s t the held d -• flat' in the v o i c e on the accented; s y l l a b l e of gcgangen the b a s s i n s t r u m e n t s a s c e n d c h r o m a t i c a l l y in q u a r t e r n o t e s , in 0 c o n t r a r y m o t i o n to the d e s c e n d i n g v o c a l line (Example 5 6 ) . /' The v o c a l line itself d i s p l a y s i n t e r n a l contrary m o t i o n t o w a r d s a c o n v e r g e n c e on b - f l a t ' at t h e end of the p h r a s e , a p p r o p r i a t e l y with the text Hand in H a n d ; ' the c o n t r a r y m o t i o n in the b a s s , w i t h its " w a l k i n g " q u a r t e r - n o t e r h y t h m , u n d e r l i n e s the e f f e c t . Example 56. contrary motion between voice and bass. T h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r of stanza 2 is r e p r e s e n t e d g r a p h i c a l l y as E x a m p l e 5 7 . .As in s t a n z a 1 , s t a n z a 2 b e g i n s to s u q 2 t r t tS y l S ^ , 0 3 t l i t e ™ 1 u s e o f ^ l o d i c c o n f i g u r a t i c h a p t e r ^ d i s c u s s e d in d e t a i l at/ the ;;end of the; .. ons . and ends on its dominant, but due to the tonicization of G-flat/F-sharp throughout the stanza, tne dominant is d-flat/c-sharp2. 1 1 L 1 A , i f d £ o a. (: i ^ . ne igen n* i j y © r — m i 9 Example 57. Melodic contour of stanza 2. The bass instruments "come,into prominence at the '? beginning of stanza 2 as a result of their imitation of the vocal line's first two measures (Example 58). The imitative motion itself imitates: the flight of a pair of birds, characteristic of which is the pursuit of one bird by another as they trace intricate patterns against the. sky. The quintuplet flourish in the violins in m. 37 is a reminder of the ornamental nature of birdsong; the initiation of the flute trills in m. 40 bring the bird metaphor into the forefront.' Example,58. Imitation between voice and bass. Contrary motion brings the bass orchestral instruments into prominence again in m. 39, especially combined with the cross-rhythm between;voice and.instruments (Example 59). If contrary motion in stanza 1 produced a sense of convergence, i:i mm., 39-40—es dunkelt schon die tuft—the widening span between upper and lower voices,suggests the expanse of the skyscape which has grasped the narrator's attention. Example 59. Table II, which indicates the range of each stanza, reveals that stanza 2 displays the widest range, at seventeen semitones. The, wideness.' of the melodic range correlates with the stanza's description of the soaring of the larks across the sky. Stanza - 1 2 3 : 4 1 Lowest Pitch Highest Pitch Range In Semitones e-flat' d-flat' g-flat2 f-sharp2 f2 ' , a2 : 15 17 10 14 Table II. Ranges of stanzas 1 to 4. By contrast, the melodic contour of stanza 3, represented graphically as Example 60, displays the narrowest range. Since stanzas 2 and 3, the shortest of the four stanzas, are equal in duration at forty-four quarter-note pulses in comparable tempo, the contrast in range between then is heightened. Following, the sweeping contour of stanza 2, the limited melodic line of stanza 3, only ten semitones in range, underlines its text, wherein the narrator expresses his fear that they will lose; their way in the darkness. The idea of disorientation is underscored in the .rapid .chrbmatlc>'descentr.« of the flutes in parallel thirds in m.. 52 /with the word verizzen (Example 61). 86 Einsamkeit verirren E x a m p l e 6 0 . M e l o d i c c o n t o u r of s t a n z a 3 . E x a m p l e 6 1 . E x a m p l e 60 s h o w s that b - f l a t 1 is i n s i s t e n t l y s o u n d e d in t h i s s t a n z a , w h i c h b e g i n s and e n d s w i t h its u p p e r n e i g h b o u r s , b - n a t u r a l 1 (m. 45) and c 2 (m. 5 4 ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y . H o w e v e r , b-flat 1 is f r e q u e n t l y in a s o m e w h a t d i s s o n a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p with;, the b a s s . In m . 49 ( S c h l a f e n s z e i t ) a n d m . 54 (Binsamkeit), it f o r m s a p e r f e c t f o u r t h w i t h the b a s s - n o t e F , the dissonance-m o r e i n t e n s e in m . 54 with b - f l a t ' a c t i n g as an a p p o g g i a t u r a r e s o l v i n g , to a - n a t u r a l ' ; this- s i m i l a r i t y e s t a b l i s h e s a m u s i c a l c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the two r h y m i n g w o r d s , e m p h a s i z i n g the a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n s l e e p / d e a t h , a n d .loneliness and t h e a n x i e t y • . " 87 .. •"• j» which, t h e n a r r a t o r e x p r e s s e s . B - f l a t 1 is a l s o heard in ir.m. 51-52 a s an a p p o g g i a t u r a on the word v e r i r r e n , f o r m i n g a m a j o r s e v e n t h a n d then a m i n o r sixth w i t h ; t h e bass l i n e . . T h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r of s t a n z a 4 is r e p r e s e n t e d g r a p h i c a l l y as E x a m p l e 6 2 . Of c r u c i a l i m p o r t a n c e is the a r r i v a l of t h e m e l o d i c line at its a p e x , g 2 , in m . 53. This pitch is c o n s o n a n t w i t h Im Abendrot's b e g i n n i n g ' a n d e n d i n g on the t o n i c E - f l a t - m a j o r h a r m o n y w i t h t h e .third in the s o p r a n o , and t h u s forms p a r t of a g r a d u a l d e s c e n t of upper v o i c e G -n a t u r a l s (Example 63) t a k i n g p l a c e o v e r the e n t i r e s p a n of t h e song a s a w h o l e . s° tief <a Abendrot E x a m p l e 6 2 . M e l o d i c c o n t o u r of s t a n z a 4 . Example 63. upper voiceG-natural descent. Once a g a i n b - f l a t ' is an i m p o r t a n t p i t c h in the s t a n z a , heard at its b e g i n n i n g , m i d - p o i n t a n d e n d . T h u s the p a t t e r n • w h i c h s t r u c t u r e s the m e l o d i c line as a w h o l e (Figure 1) a l s o s t r u c t u r e s the m e l o d i c lines of t h r e e of . s t a n z a s , t h e e x c e p t i o n being stanza 2: the first a c c e n t e d s y l l a b l e is s u n g on b - f l a t ' ( t o , m . 22; h e r , m . 46; w e i t e r , m . 56); b - f l a t ' is h e a r d at the e x a c t m i d - p o i n t of the s t a n z a (Hand, m . 28; Schlafenszeifc, m m . 4 9 - 5 0 ) ; and b - f l a t ' is the last or a l m o s t last p i t c h of the s t a n z a ( L a n ^ ^ m V : ^ ; ^ : -Einsamkeit, m . 54; d e r , ,„. 7 4 ) . In s t a n z a s 3 and 4 , h o w e v e r , the a r r i v a l on b - f l a t ' a p p r o a c h e d from a b o v e , is f o l l o w e d b y a r e v e r s a l of d i r e c t i o n and .the last p i t c h of the stanza is b-f i a t " s . u p p e r n e i g h b o u r : c ' In m.,.54 a n d c - f l a t 2 in m . 7 5 . The b i m o d a l d i a l e c t i c b e t w e e n E - f l a t m a j o r a n d E - f l a t m i n o r , : t h e h a r m o n i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of w h i c h w e r e d i s c u s s e d in the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , is e x p r e s s e d m e l o d i c a l l y in s t a n z a 4 in s e v e r a l p l a c e s , the f i r s t in m . 5 8 . The c h r o m a t i c e l a b o r a t i o n of the u n d e r l y i n g 3-flat-raajor h a r m o n y b y G - f l a t m a j o r w a s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r ; i n t e n s i f y i n g the e f f e c t of the h a r m o n i c s t r u c t u r e is the. d i s s o n a n t interval of an a u g m e n t e d fifth from g - f l a t ' to d 2 b e t w e e n t h e w o r d s s t i l l e r and F r i e d e . The a n g u l a r i t y of the line a n d . t h e D - n a t u r a l / D - f l a t c r o s s - r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n v o i c e a n d o r c h e s t r a ( c l a r i n e t s , h o r n s , v i o l a s and c e l l o s ) : a d d to the d i s s o n a n t e f f e c t of t h i s , l e a p . ' The s e c o n d m e l o d i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the bimodal; d i a l e c t i c occurs in t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n of the d i a t o n i c E - f l a t - m a j o r a r p e g g i o in m m . 61-64 (So tief im Abendrot) w i t h the d e s c e n t . t h r o u g h the S-flat-rainor m e l o d i c s c a l e in m m . 65-68 from e-f l a t 2 . t o g - f l a t ' . T h e : E - f l a t - m a j o r a r p e g g i o of So tief im Abendrot is r e m i n i s c e n t of the s e t t i n g of r u h e n in stanza 1 , but the s e n s e of r e s t is e m p h a s i z e d b y the /long n o t e v a l u e s and " p u r e " , u n d e c o r a t e d m e l o d i c line in the later p a s s a g e . The s u b s e q u e n t m e l o d i c d e s c e n t t h r o u g h the E - f l a t - m i n o r ; scale on the w o r d s Wle s i n d wir vandermUde, c o m p l e t e d w i t h ; t h e "sighing" a p p o g g i a t u r a to g - f l a t ' in m . 68; on mtlde, .is an e x p r e s s i o n of; d i m i n i s h i n g v i t a l i t y . ;But the p o w e r f u l and o p t i m i s t i c s p i r i t of the E - f l a t - m a j o r a r p e g g i a t i o n of So tief 90 im Abendrot c a s t s its e n e r g y f o r w a r d , and the m i n o r scale ; c a n n o t c o m p l e t e its d e s c e n t t o e-flat- The e n h a r m o n i c r e s t a t e m e n t of g-flat- as f-sharp- in m m . 7 0 - 7 1 i n i t i a t e s the f i n a l c h r o m a t i c m e l o d i c a s c e n t to c - f l a t » , a c c o m p a n i e d b y a V g r a d u a l d e s c e n t in the bass i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h p r o d u c e s a w i d e n i n g of e x p a n s e s i m i l a r to that w h i c h m a r k e d the m i d d l e of stanza 2 (es dunkelt schon die L u f t , . E x a m p l e 5 9 ) , b u t V a t a : slower pace (Example 6 4 ) . The s u d d e n r e v e r s a l of d i r e c t i o n , u p w a r d s from a p r e v a i l i n g d e s c e n t , w i t h the a u d i b l e e x p a n s i o n b e t w e e n the outer v o i c e s , has a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t , e s p e c i a l l ? b e c a u s e of the c h r o m a t i c i s m of the e n s u i n g p a s s a g e t o w a r d s the C - f l a t - m a j o r triad in m . 75: a t a p o i n t w h e n t r a d i t i o n a l h a r m o n i c s t r u c t u r e s n o r m a l l y seek c l o s u r e t h r o u g h c a d e n t i a l p r o c e s s e s l e a d i n g to a r e s t a t e m e n t of the t o n i c , the final P h r a s e of Im A b e n d r o t sets off to n e g o t i a t e c h r o m a t i c t e r r i t o r y as yet u n e x p l o r e d in the s o n g , and the v o c a l p o r t i o n of the s o n g ends in a s t a t e of m o b i l i t y . Q' +7J—UtHn j"I p f W * * a 1st dies et-va der Tod? — ^ — © © E x a m p l e 6 4 . F i n a l p h t a s e of t e x t , m e a s u r e s 68 to 7 5 . P r e v i o u s w r i t i n g s on the Four L a s t Sonas have c o m m e n t e d on S t r a u s s ' s use of t h e flute t r i l l s to s u g g e s t the l a r k s ; s t a t e m e n t s of the c o m p o s e r ' s p r e d i l e c t i o n for " m a d r i g a l l s m s " in his m e l o d i c w r i t i n g are b o r n e out in a s t u d y of Ira A b e n d r o t ' s m e l o d i c s t r u c t u r e . " M a d r i g a l i s m " is d e f i n e d here as a n y a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n m u s i c and t e x t in w h i c h a g i v e n , m u s i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s e e k s to d e p i c t s o m e s p e c i f i c a n d i d e n t i f i a b l e f e a t u r e of its t e x t u a l r e f e r e n t . F u r t h e r , s u b d i v i s i o n of this c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is n e c e s s a r y ; for t h i s p u r p o s e I find the t e r m i n o l o g y of the e a r l y s t r u c t u r a l i s t , C h a r l e s P e i r c e p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l . P e i r c e d e v i s e d a c o m p l e x c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m of s i g n s w h i c h a t t e m p t e d to d e s c r i b e a l l the p o s s i b l e kinds of r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n s i g n i f i e r and s i g n i f i e d , but. it is his t r i p a r t i t e distinction,; b e t w e e n " i c o n , " " i n d e x , " and " s y m b o l " 2 w h i c h l e n d s itself to the d i s c u s s i o n of m u s i c a l t e x t - s e t t i n g . P e i r c e t e r m s "iconic," t h o s e s i g n s in w h i c h the r e l a t i o n s h i p , "An Icon is a s i g n w h i c h r e f e r s to the O b j e c t that it d e n o t e s m e r e l y b y v i r t u e of c h a r a c t e r s of its o w n , and w h i c h it p o s s e s s e s , just the s a m e , w h e t h e r a n y such O b j e c t a c t u a l l y e x i s t s or n o t . . . An I n d e x is a s i g n w h i c h r e f e r s to the O b j e c t that it d e n o t e s b y v i r t u e or b e i n g r e a l l y a f f e c t e d by that Object,. . . A Symbol is' a sign w h i c h r e f e r s to the O b j e c t that it d e n o t e s b y v i r t u e of .a l a w , u s u a l l y an a s s o c i a t i o n of g e n e r a l i d e a s , w h i c h . o p e r a t e s to c a u s e the S y m b o l to be i n t e r p r e t e d as r e f e r r i n g to that O b j e c t . " C h a r l e s S a n d e r s r P e i r c e , The C o l l e c t e d P a p e r s of C h a r l e s S a n d e r s Peirce,: e d . C h a r l e s H a r t s h o r n e and P a u l W e i s s , 8 vols'. ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : H a r v a r d , U P , 1 9 3 1 ) 2: 1 4 3 . ••./••••'•:•:/:V .: . b e t w e e n s i g n i f i e r a n d s i g n i f i e d is b a s e d on s i m i l a r i t y ; " i n d e x i c a l , " t h o s e in w h i c h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p is c a u s a l or s e q u e n t i a l ; a n d " s y m b o l i c , " t h o s e in w h i c h the r e l a t i o n s h i p is p u r e l y a r b i t r a r y . T h e s e d e s i g n a t i o n s a r e n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s , b u t q u a l i t i e s of r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h m a y c o - e x i s t in a g i v e n s i g n . , B e c a u s e of its a r b i t r a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s i g n i f i e r and s i g n i f i e d (in t h i s c a s e , the m e l o d i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n a n d its t e x t u a l r e f e r e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , P e i r c e ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f " " " " s y m b o l " is n o t a p p l i c a b l e in a d i s c u s s i o n of m a d r i g a l i s m s as I h a v e d e f i n e d . t h e t e r m . H o w e v e r , s y m b o l i c m e l o d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s d o o c c u r in the m o t i v i c s t r u c t u r e of Im A b e n d r o t , d i s c u s s e d in C h a p t e r T w o , w h e r e a g i v e n m o t i v i c r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m u s i c and t e x t is e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h the r e p e t i t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t of a m e l o d i c p a t t e r n a t p o i n t s in t h e t e x t w h i c h a r e a l s o r e l a t e d ( F i g u r e 3 ) , w i t h o u t c o m m o n a l i t y , b e t w e e n m u s i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n a n d t e x t u a l r e f e r e n t . A n i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n i c o n i c or i n d e x i c a l m e l o d i c ,elements (to be d i s c u s s e d b e l o w ) , w h i c h c a n be i d e n t i f i e d on the b a s i s of a s i n g l e i n s t a n c e , a n d s y m b o l i c m e l o d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , is t h a t t h e ; ; i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the : ^ :V ; l a t t e r d e p e n d s on r e p e t i t i o n : t h a t i s , a s y m b o l i c a s s o c i a t i o n of a g i v e n m e l o d i c m o t i v e ; w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r t e x t u a l idea c a n o n l y be m a d e on t h e b a s i s of r e p e a t e d p a i r i n g s b e t w e e n t h a t m o t i v e w i t h r e l a t e d s e g m e n t s of t e x t . m o t i v i c / '• m e l o d i c s y m b o l . F i g u r e 3 . T h e r e a r e two k i n d s of i c o n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a g i v e n m e l o d i c s e g m e n t a n d its t e x t : " m i m e t i c " a n d " s p a t i a l . " S o n i c m i m e s i s c a n o n l y e x i s t w h e r e t h e t e x t u a l ; r e f e r e n t p o s s e s s e s , as one of its p r o p e r t i e s , a d i s t i n c t i v e s o u n d . S u c h is t h e c a s e in s t a n z a 2 of Ira A b e n d r o t : the f l u t e t r i l l s w h i c h s o u n d c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h the f i r s t , r e f e r e n c e , in the text. to the t w o l a r k s c a n be d e f i n e d as m e l o d i c icons b e c a u s e of t h e i r m i m e t i c i m i t a t i o n of birdsong., i n s t a n t l y r e c o g n i z a b l e \ e v e n to t h e u n t r a i n e d e a r ( E x a m p l e 6 5 ) . The t w o f l u t e s t r i l l n o t in u n i s o n b u t in c o n s o n a n c e , u s u a l l y in p a r a l l e l t h i r d s e x c e p t in m . 40 w h e r e t h e y a r p e g g i a t e t h e F - s h a r p - m i n o r t r i a d . The r e t u r n of t h e t r i l l i n g of the l a r k s in the f i n a l m e a s u r e s of the s o n g , b e c a u s e of ..the a s s o c i a t i o n of the l a r k s w i t h the h u m a n p r o t a g o n i s t s of t h e p o e m , s u g g e s t s s o m e k i n d of ' • . • e x i s t e n c e b e y o n d d e a t h ( E x a m p l e 6 6 ) . © xwel Lrr • cB«u aur suck ltd - k*b auk • - iria • maad la dsa Dtft. E x a m p l e 6 5 . F l u t e t r i l l s , s t a n z a 2 . E x a m p l e 6 6 . F l u t e t r i l l s , p o s t l u d e . ; T h e s e c o n d , " s p a t i a l " t y p e of i c o n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p c a n a l s o b e s e e n in s t a n z a 2 , w h e r e t h e w o r d T S l e r is e m b e d d e d in a m e l o d i c l i n e s h a p e d o n t h e p a g e l i k e a v a l l e y , a r p e g g i a t i n g a n o c t a v e , d e s c e n t - a s c e n t p a t t e r n b e t w e e n d - f l a t 2 a n d d - f l a t ' ( E x a m p l e 6 7 ) ; a s p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , .the l o w e s t p i t c h of t h e • v o c a l l i n e , d - f l a t 1 , c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e v e r b n e i g e n ( " t o b e n d " ) , -and: t h i s is s u r e l y ;no' c o m p o s i t i o n a i a c c i d e n t .3 . In :• 3 B a r b a r a P e t e r s e n , in T o n u n d W o r t : ' T h e L l e d e r of R i c h a r d S t r a u s s (Ann A r b o r : U M I , 1 9 8 0 ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t , in h i s 95 chis i n s t a n c e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the m e l o d i c line and the l a n d s c a p e w h i c h it d e s c r i b e s is b a s e d on c o m m o n a l i t y of p h y s i c a l c o n t o u r , n a m e l y the d e s c e n t - a s c e n t " v a l l e y " s h a p e . S p a t i a l l y iconic r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n a m u s i c a l •/'vvv, c o n f i g u r a t i o n a n d : i t s t e x t u a l r e f e r e n t c a n be b a s e d on c o m m o n a l i t y of s h a p e or d i r e c t i o n . E x a m p l e s of the latter in Im A b e n d r o t i n c l u d e the s e t t i n g of t h e w o r d R i n g s ("around") w i t h a m e l o d i c p a t t e r n s u g g e s t i v e of the m e a n i n g : o f the w o r d , that i s , a m a i n n o t e ; d - f l a t 2 d e c o r a t e d b y its lower and upper n e i g h b o u r s , c - f l a t 2 , and e - f l a t 2 ( E x a m p l e 6 8 ) . A n o t h e r more subtle i n s t a n c e o c c u r s in stanza 1 w i t h the c o n v e r g e n c e on fa-flat' in m . 28 from o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s w h i c h is s u g g e s t i v e of the j o i n i n g of h a n d s d e s c r i b e d in t h e t e x t (see a b o v e , - E x a m p l e lor Ml - (is, et dun - keliucboo die Lult, IW«! LrT -E x a m p l e 6 7 . 56) . c o p i e s of the .poems, Strauss m a d e d i r e c t i o n a l i n d i c a t i o n s w i t h a r r o w s over s p e c i f i c p o r t i o n s of t e x t ( 5 5 ) . 96 t v L ' ^ ' ^ I ri'iT-! 1 W •'' " • Rlra» iteb «U T j . , o r ftel . gVfl| ta 4 u a . k«U«Jaudle Loll, ft E x a m p l e 6 8 . The I n d e x i c a l q u a l i t y of a g i v e n p a i r i n g b e t w e e n a m u s i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n : a n d its t e x t u a l r e f e r e n t is m o r e c o m p l e x and indeed p o i n t s to the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of l a y e r s of m e a n i n g in a m u s i c a l w o r k , e s p e c i a l l y one which; i n v o l v e s t e x t . The c r i t e r i o n for d e s i g n a t i n g a s i g n as a n index is t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s i g n i f i e r and s i g n i f i e d is n a t u r a l , i.e.; c a u s a l or s e q u e n t i a l , as a t h e r m o m e t e r is a n index of t e m p e r a t u r e b e c a u s e of the d i r e c t p h y s i c a l e f f e c t of heat on m e r c u r y . ; T h e . d e s i g n a t i o n of a m e l o d i c s e g m e n t as a d i r e c t index of a g i v e n t e x t w o u l d ; imply t h a t the .music a r i s e s n a t u r a l l y and I n e v i t a b l y from its t e x t , a s t a t e m e n t which is l o g i c a l l y u n s u s t a i n a b l e . H o w e v e r , if a m e l o d i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n c a n n o t f u n c t i o n d i r e c t l y as an i n d e x of t e x t , it can o p e r a t e as an index of .an u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r a l , f e a t u r e w h i c h m a y itself be s y m b o l i c a l l y significative.; For e x a m p l e , in m m . 6 5 - 6 8 , the m e l o d i c line d e s c e n d i n g from e - f l a t 2 t h r o u g h d - f l a t 2 and c - £ l a t 2 to g - f l a t ' (Example 69) f u n c t i o n s as an index of the t o n i c m i n o r m o d e , which in t u r n , in its d i a l e c t i c with the t o n i c m a j o r , f u n c t i o n s s y m b o l i c a l l y t o w a r d s the e x p r e s s ! a m b i v a l e n c e . E x a m p l e 6 9 . 98 -C h a p t e r 5: M e t r i c a n d R h y t h m i c O r g a n i z a t i o n : of the V o i c e M e l o d y T h e m e t e r of Im A b e n d r o t is 4 / 4 , w i t h o c c a s i o n a l s h i f t s to 3/2 (the l o c a t i o n s a n d d e t a i l s of w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d / f u r t h e r o n in t h i s c h a p t e r ) . A l t h o u g h 4/4 is the m e t r i c n o r m of t h e p i e c e , its c o n v e n t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e is o f t e n m o d i f i e d t h r o u g h s y n c o p a t i o n a n d i m p l i e d p o l y m e t e r . The o p e n i n g p h r a s e of t h e s o n g ' s f i r s t v e r s e , for e x a m p l e , is n o t a t e d in 4/4 e x c e p t for its p e n u l t i m a t e m e a s u r e ; b u t the m e t e r to w h i c h S t r a u s s h a s s e t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o r t i o n of t e x t c a n b e h e a r d in 3/2 t h r o u g h o u t ( E x a m p l e 7 0 ) . The r e s u l t i n g d o w n b e a t , a t the p h r a s e l e v e l , on the: w o r d ; F r e u d e is s u g g e s t e d t h r o u g h h a r m o n i c , ; d y n a m i c and t e x t u r a l f a c t o r s— C - f l a t - m a j o r i t i s ; m e z z o f o r t e d y n a m i c m a r k i n g , the:, s t r o n g e s t s i n c e the f o r t e p i a n o of t h e o p e n i n g m e a s u r e ; a n d e x t r a w i n d and b r a s s s u p p o r t . T h i s m e t r i c r e c a s t i n g of t h e : p h r a s e is c o n f i r m e d b y the f a c t t h a t the b e g i n n i n g of t h e f o l l o w i n g m e a s u r e i-s n o t a r t i c u l a t e d in a n y w a y , w h i c h would; r e e s t a b l i s h the p r e e m i n e n c e of 4 / 4 ; o n the c o n t r a r y , it is t i e d o v e r the b a r - l i n e in a l l / i n s t r u m e n t s e x c e p t t h e s e c o n d v i o l i n s and. v i o l a s , ; w h e r e it is a n i n c o n s p i c u o u s e i g h t h - n o t e in a d e s c e n d i n g a r p e g g i o w h i c h b e g a n in the m i d d l e of m . 2 5 . A 3/2 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of this p h r a s e is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the o v e r t m e t r i c s h i f t f r o m , 4 / 4 to 3/2 in m . 2 7 . v. E x a m p l e 7 0 . In t h e 3/2 v e r s i o n of the m e t e r of ram. 2 2 - 2 6 s h o w n as E x a m p l e 7 0 , t h e t h r e e " d o w n b e a t s " o c c u r on the t h r e e w o r d s of p r i n c i p a l i m p o r t a n c e in the p o e m ' s f i r s t l i n e— y i r . W o t , and .: F r e u d e— w i t h t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d f a c t o r s c o m b i n i n g in s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e w o r d F r e u d e is g i v e n the p r i m a r y a c c e n t of the p h r a s e . In E i c h e n d o r f f 1 s t e x t , the p a i r e d w o r d s W o t ( " n e e d " ) and F r e u d e ( " j o y " ) a r e m o r e or l e s s e q u a l l y w e i g h t e d ; S t r a u s s s h i f t s t h e b a l a n c e s o m e w h a t , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t , in the n a r r a t o r ' s r e m e m b r a n c e of t h i n g s p a s t , the s o r r o w s w h i c h he s h a r e d w i t h h i s l o v e d one a r e o v e r r i d d e n b y t h e j o y s . The o b s c u r i n g or e v a s i o n of o s t e n s i b l e s t r o n g b e a t s b y s y n c o p a t i o n is a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of t h i s s o n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y in t h e v o i c e p a r t . As d i s c u s s e d a b o v e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e o p e n i n g p h r a s e , e x p e c t e d s t r e s s e s a r e o f t e n d i s p l a c e d ; a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o c c u r s in mm.. 5 6 - 3 9 ( v e i t e r , s t i l l e r Friede.', E x a m p l e 71) w h e r e t h e p r i n c i p a l a c c e n t s o c c u r on the t h i r d q u a r t e r of e a c h m e a s u r e . Of the t h r e e p r i n c i p a l w o r d s . in t h i s phrase-, the l a s t and m o s t i m p o r t a n t ( F r i e d e ) is g i v e n the: p r i m a r y a c c e n t b y , m e a n s of d u r a t i o n and m e l o d i c c o n t o u r . ..-. . •••:•'.').. ; 101 E x a m p l e 71 .• The a b s e n c e of d o w n b e a t a r t i c u l a t i o n s a t the n o t a t e d b a r -lines is n o t e x c l u s i v e to the v o i c e p a r t : a f t e r m . 5 6 , in t h e o r c h e s t r a , t h e r e , a r e no b a s s n o t e s w h i c h o c c u r on t h e d o w n b e a t of a n y m e a s u r e u n t i l m . 6 1— S o tief im A b e n d r o t . H a r m o n i c Y a c t i v i t y is l i k e w i s e l i m i t e d : t h e B - f l a t d o m i n a n t , b a s s w h i c h a r r i v e s on the d o w n b e a t of m . 56 r e m a i n s e f f e c t i v e t h r o u g h o u t the p a s s a g e , m o d i f i e d b y the G - f l a t b a s s in m m . 5 7 - 5 8 . In t h i s c a s e , the m o v i n g of the m e a s u r e ' s p r i n c i p a l , a c c e n t d o e s n o t s u g g e s t a c h a n g e in m e t e r . W h y , t h e n , d i d S t r a u s s n o t s i m p l y a r r a n g e the b a r - l i n e s to c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e . m u s i c a l a c c e n t s so .that t h e a c c e n t e d . s y l l a b l e s , o f w e l t e r , stiller a n d F r i e d e o c c u r r e d at the b e g i n n i n g of the m e a s u r e ? The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e t e x t at this p o i n t—0 veiter, stiller Friede.' ("0 v a s t , s t i l l p e a c e ! " ( - - c a n n o t be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d , since in these four w o r d s is d i s t i l l e d S t r a u s s ' s v i s i o n of the s p i r i t u a l w o r l d w h i c h lies beyond e a r t h l y l i f e . S t r a u s s e n h a n c e s the d r a m a t i c i m p a c t of t h e s e w o r d s (with their e x c l a m a t o r y p u n c t u a t i o n ) , and their p e a c e f u l i m p o r t , by d e l i b e r a t e l y a v o i d i n g e x p l i c i t e m p h a s i s : the e x p r e s s i v e m a r k i n g in m . 55 is noch r u h i g e r ("still more t r a n q u i l " ) . A n o t h e r m e t r i c a n o m a l y o c c u r s in the s h i f t into 3/2 in m . 3 1 . B y o m i t t i n g the s t r e s s e d word b e i d e at the end of the p o e m ' s third l i n e , S t r a u s s t h r o w s t h e e m p h a s i s back on to the word w i r . The s h i f t to 3/2 in the m i d d l e of the w o r d r u h e n , h o w e v e r , d e l a y s the d o w n b e a t , w h i c h in 4/4 w o u l d have a r r i v e d on w i r , thus d e - e m p h a s i z i n g , t h i s w o r d ; this m e t r i c s h i f t a l s o , puts a b a r - l i n e and t h u s an o s t e n s i b l e a c c e n t in the m i d d l e of r u h e n ' s f i r s t s y l l a b l e . It would seem a t first g l a n c e s i m p l e r and more r e a s o n a b l e / t o have t h e - b e g i n n i n g of 3/2 m e t e r c o i n c i d e w i t h the b e g i n n i n g of the w o r d rujien a n d ; c o n t i n u e t h r o u g h o u t the r e m a i n d e r of thf. s t a n z a , e s p s c i a l l y g i v e n the . m o v e m e n t of the bass in m m . 3 1 - 3 3 , w h i c h s u g g e s t s a 3/2 m e a s u r e b e g i n n i n g w i t h the word wir (Example 7 2 ) . : This * i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is c l e a r l y implied b y the h a r m o n i c p r o g r e s s i o n leading to the c a d e n t i a l 6/4 in a. 33 on the word stillen. 103 —*j» E x a m p l e 7 2 , A p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n for this m e t r i c p r o b l e m is s u g g e s t e d in a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the t e x t u a l s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n m m . 30-33 and 5 6 - 5 9 : b o t h p a s s a g e s use forms of the a d j e c t i v e s t i l l ; the e a r l i e r p a s s a g e u s e s the v e r b r u h e n , w h i c h a l s o o c c u r s in the s e c o n d , p a s s a g e , a l t h o u g h in the text per se, in S t r a u s s ' s own t e m p o m a r k i n g of noch r u h i g e r . T h e f u n c t i o n of t h o s e o d d l y p l a c e d b a r - l i n e s is not to give e m p h a s i s to the w o r d s or s y l l a b l e s w h i c h they: p r e c e d e , but r a t h e r to p r e v e n t r h y t h m i c a r t i c u l a t i o n s w h i c h w o u l d d i s t u r b the t r a n q u i l l i t y—t h e t e m p o r a l s u s p e n s i o n—w h i c h it is: the a i m of t h i s p a s s a g e t o ' c o n v e y ; t h e y a r e indies tors of t h e s u b l e t y of S t r a u s s s -realization'/ : • 104 * * A T h e a p p a r e n t a b s e n c e of c o r r e s p o n d e n c e of the b a r - l i n e to a c t u a l m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n in c e r t a i n p l a c e s p o i n t s t o w a r d the i m p o r t a n c e of a n idea of s t r u c t u r e in the p o e m as w e l l as the s o n g . S t r u c t u r e is n o t m e r e l y an a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t , it is a l l •. t h a t w e k n o w a n d a r e ; it l i m i t s us b u t it d e f i n e s u s , a n d to l o s e it is to l o s e o u r s e l v e s . T w o w o r l d s e x i s t in t h e p o e t ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s b e t w e e n w h i c h he v a c i l l a t e s— o n e s t r u c t u r e d , v i s i b l e a n d k n o w a b l e , t h e other u n s t r u c t u r e d , i n v i s i b l e and u n k n o w a b l e , a n e m p t y w i l d e r n e s s p e r h a p s b e a u t i f u l , p e r h a p s 'terrifying'.. a n a l o g o u s l y , t h e . s o n g p r o j e c t s a p p a r e n t o p p o s i n g , m e t e r s w h i c h c o e x i s t . T h a t t h e y a r e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e f e r e n t i a l is s u g g e s t e d : i n p l a c e s s u c h a s m m . 2 2 - 2 0 , w h e r e a l t h o u g h the ; . n o t a t e d m e t e r is 4 / 4 , the t e x t c a n be h e a r d as 3 / 2 , t h e t r i p l e m e t e r s t a t e d e x p l i c i t l y— b r e a k i n g t h r o u g h to the s u r f a c e— o n l y in m . 27 ( E x a m p l e 7 0 ) . In m o v i n g from 4/4 to 3 / 2 , the t i m e b e t w e e n the d o w n b e a t s of s u c c e s s i v e m e a s u r e s is e x t e n d e d a n d t h a t . b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l b e a t s d o u b l e d , m a k i n g t h e s h i f t m o r e p r o n o u n c e d t h a n if t h e 4/4 t i m e w e r e n o t a t e d a s 2 / 2 , a l t h o u g h t h i s e f f e c t is c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d b y the f a c t t h a t t h e t e m p o of the b a s i c q u a r t e r - n o t e p u l s e d o e s n o t c h a n g e w i t h , the m e t e r . T h e - s h i f t s to 3/2 o c c u r o n l y in the t e x t s e c t i o n of the s o n g ( i . e . , m m . 2 2 - 7 6 ) : t h e p r e l u d e a n d p o s t l u d e a r e b o t h e n t i r e l y in 4 / 4 . If t h e c h a n g e to .3/2 is c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y l o n g e r , less f r e q u e n t l y a r t i c u l a t e d time s p a n s , the s h i f t back to 4/4 is c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a r e l a t i v e c o m p r e s s i o n of a r t i c u l a t i o n and the r e s u m p t i o n of t h e s o n g ' s f o r w a r d - m o v i n g p a c e . In other w o r d s , the longer u n i t in 3/2 implies a m a n n e r of m e t r i c s l o w i n g . The p o r t i o n s of t e x t s e t w i t h n o t a t e d (as o p p o s e d to " i m p l i e d " ) 3/2 m e t e r , the l o c a t i o n s of w h i c h are s h o w n in T a b l e I I I , can be c l a s s i f i e d into t h r e e g r o u p s . In s e v e r a l c a s e s , 3/2 is used to s e t w o r d s a s s o c i a t e d with s l e e p or r e s t , as in m . 31 w i t h the w o r d s r u h e n wir ("let us r e s t " ) ; in m . 3 3 , the w o r d s t i l l e n ( " s t i l l " ) ; in m . 4 3 , the p h r a s e trflumend ; in den (Duft) ( " d r e a m i n g in the h a z e " ) ; and in m . 4 9 , the word Schlafenszeit ("time to s l e e p " ) . (The implied 3/2 p a s s a g e shown as E x a m p l e 72 can be c o n s i d e r e d p a r t of this g r o u p , e m b r a c i n g r u h e n wir a n d s t i l l e n a l o n g w i t h the c o n n e c t i n g . -w o r d s nun Uberm.). The s e c o n d g r o u p i n c l u d e s the w o r d s Einsamkeit ( " l o n e l i n e s s " ) , ; i n m m . 5 4 - 5 5 ; F r i e d e ( " f r e e d o m " ) , in m m . 59- ; 60; and t h e , c l i m a c t i c A b e n d r o t ( " t w i l i g h t " ) , in m m . 6 3 - 6 4 , : a f t e r w h i c h the song r e v e r t s p e r m a n e n t l y to 4/4 t i m e ; E a c h ; o f these three w o r d s—t h e o n l y p l a c e s w h e r e the t r i p l e m e t e r is s t r e t c h e d over, two measures.--occurs a t the end of its line; the r e s u l t a n t , b r o a d e n i n g of 'these l i n e s as t h e y c o m e . t o a c l o s e d r a w s : a t t e n t i o n to their final w o r d s , images of t h a t Measure # ' s W o r d ( s ) N u m b e r of M e a s u r e s 22-26 ffir s i n d d u r c h W o t und F r e u d e •;•;".•..-'5\ ( i m p l i e d ; see E x a m p l e 72) 27 (ge)gangen Hand in Hand 1 30-33 r u h e n viz nun Uberra stillen (Land) 4. (implied in part;: see E x a m p l e 72) , •31. ..-,;ruhen vir / 1' 33 s t i l l e n -1.' 3 9 - 4 1 dun.kelt schon die Luft, 3 zwei Lezchen nur noch 43 t r S u m e n d 1.' 46 • . her und lass sie - 1 49 Schlafensze it "1 54-55 • Einsamkeit] 2 59-60 F r i e d e v'.-/2;1: 63-64 . A b e n d r o t T a b l e I I I . Notated: 3/2 m e t e r in Im Abendrot., w i d e , e m p t y e x p a n s e to w h i c h the p o e t is d r a w n w i t h b o t h a p p r e h e n s i o n a n d d e s i r e . E n h a n c i n g t h i s b r o a d e n i n g e f f e c t is t h e r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n in the t w o o r c h e s t r a l b r i d g e p a s s a g e s (m. 55 a n d m m . 5 9 - 6 0 ) l i n k i n g these, t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e s e g m e n t s of t e x t , in w h i c h the h a l f - n o t e b e a t s o f t h e 3/2 m e a s u r e a r e s u b d i v i d e d into t r i p l e t q u a r t e r - n o t e s ; - ( E x a m p l e 7 3 ) . : 7 3 a . 7 3 b ; E x a m p l e 7 3 . C o m p o u n d t r i p l e m e t e r in orchestral.;bridge p a s s a g e s • • ' ' ^ v ' ' * ' / T h e final group of words i n c l u d e s (ge)gangen //and in H a n d ("gone h a n d in h a n d " ) , m . 27; the l o n g e s t s e c t i o n of t r i p l e V m e t e r in the s o n g , which o c c u r s in s t a n z a 2 , m m . 39-43:_ ; , dunkelt schon die L u f t , zwei Lezchen nut noch (steigen : ,\. nach)trauwend in den . (Duft); ( " a l r e a d y the air d a r k e n s , two l a r k s a l o n e s t i l l r i s e , d r e a m i n g into the h a z e " ) ; and m . 46 ; (Tritt) h e r und lass sie (schwizren) ("Step here and let them w h i r r " ) . . The m e l o d i c factor r e l a t i n g t h e s e three p l a c e s (the "lark" m o t i v e , c) was; p o i n t e d out in E x a m p l e s 1 9 - 2 1 of C h a p t e r 2 . F u r t h e r r e i n f o r c i n g , t h e m e t a p h o r a s s o c i a t i n g the t r a v e l l i n g of the; larks with t h a t of the h u m a n c o m p a n i o n s , t h e n , is t h e ;rhythmic s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n the t h r e e % s t a t e m e n t s of the m o t i v e (Example 7 4 ) , s i m i l a r i t i e s w h i c h can a l s o be s e e n to some e x t e n t in the I m p l i e d 3/2 m e t e r of the f i r s t l i n e (Wir. sind durcfc N o t und F r e u d e , shown as E x a m p l e : :.; 7 2 ) , p a r t i c u l a r l y the r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n ; ,.' on the w o r d F r e u d e (mm. 2 5 - 2 6 ) . The f i n a l s t a t e m e n t of the " l a r k " m o t i v e occurs in the o r c h e s t r a l bridge p a s s a g e b e t w e e n the f i r s t and second lines of the last s t a n z a (mm. 5 9 - 6 0 ) , d i s c u s s e d a b o v e with r e s p e c t to its c o m p o u n d triple m e t e r . 109 E x a m p l e 7 4 . D e s e r v i n g of a d d i t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n is the t w o - a g a i n s t -three r h y t h m in m . 3 9 , dunkelt schon d i e (Luft), between- the •••• voice m e l o d y , w h e r e e a c h h d l f - n o t e b e a t is s u b d i v i d e d n o r m a l l y into two q u a r t e r - n o t e s , and the o r c h e s t r a l b a s s , w h i c h m o v e s t h r o u g h a d e s c e n d i n g F - s h a r p - m i n o r s c a l e in t r i p l e t q u a r t e r -notes" (Example 75) . 110 E x a m p l e 7 5 . The d e s c e n d i n g t r i p l e t s c a l e , o c c u r r i n g at the end of the l i n e , r e s e m b l e s the t r i p l e t q u a r t e r - n o t e b r i d g e p a s s a g e s shown as E x a m p l e 73 and h a s a s i m i l a r l y b r o a d e n i n g e f f e c t as the p o e m s p e a k s of the d a r k e n i n g of the a i r . It is a l s o r e l a t e d to the later p a s s a g e s b y v i r t u e of its m e l o d i c m i r r o r i n g of t h e . a s c e n d i n g B - f l a t - m a j o r s c a l e , i n m . 59: the B - f l a t - m a j o r scale e l a b o r a t e s the d o m i n a n t of E - f l a t m a j o r , a n d the F -s h a r p - m i n o r s c a l e e l a b o r a t e s , e n h a r m o n i c a l l y , : E - f l a t ' s flatted m e d i a n t . There is an e x p r e s s i v e o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n the tvo • p o i n t s of t e x t , h o w e v e r : w h e r e a s the s u n s e t s k y in m . 55 gives the n a r r a t o r a f e e l i n g of. d e e p peace (0 w e l t e r , stiller Friede'. ), in m . 39 he s e e s only the, d a r k e n i n g of t h e a ir and the p o s s i b i l i t y that t h e y m a y lose, .their;way; The a n x i e t y is c o n v e y e d in t h e c o m p l e x c o m p o s i t e r h y t h m of the p a s s a g e w i t h the c o n f l i c t i n g r h y t h m s of v o i c e a n d o r c h e s t r a . T h e idea o£ e x p a n s i o n is i m p l i c i t in e a c h of t h e t h r e e g r o u p s of t e x t s s e t in 3 / 2 m e t e r : in s l e e p , the m i n d is f r e e d f r o m the l i m i t a t i o n s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and this is r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e p o e m in the i m a g e of t h e l a r k s , r i s i n g a b o v e t h e e a r t h a n d d r e a m i n g in the h a z y a i r ; the. idea of e x p a n s e is a l s o i n h e r e n t in E i c h e n d o r f f ' s i m a g e of a v a s t , . e m p t y w i l d e r n e s s . E s s e n t i a l to the m e a n i n g of the t e x t is the m o v e m e n t of the i n d i v i d u a l t o w a r d s t h a t u n k n o w n v a s t n e s s b e y o n d t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of e a r t h l y life,: a m o v e m e n t c o n v e y e d m u s i c a l l y in p a r t b y t h e g r a d u a l m e t r i c e x p a n s i o n , a s l o w i n g i n d i c a t e d n o t o n l y b y p r o g r e s s i v e l y s l o w e r t e m p o m a r k i n g s b u t b y a g r a d u a l l y s l o w e r r a t e of m u s i c a l a r t i c u l a t i o n . T h r o u g h o u t Im A b e n d r o t t h e r e is a g e n e r a l t r e n d f r o m s m a l l e r to larger n o t e v a l u e s , a n d t h i s is i l l u s t r a t e d : i n E x a m p l e 7 6 , w h i c h p r e s e n t s t h e c o l l a t e d c o m p o s i t e r h y t h m s , ( i n c l u d i n g v o i c e and o r c h e s t r a l p a r t s ) of t h r e e p a s s a g e s of the s o n g : in E x a m p l e 7 6 a , m m . 22-34 ( s t a n z a 1);, i'i 7 6 b , m m . 6 1 - 7 3 ; and in 7 5 c , m m . 85 f f . T h e o r c h e s t r a l p r e l u d e ' s s w e e p i n g m e l o d y m o v e s l a r g e l y in e i g h t h n o t e s , b u t the t e x t i t s e l f , w h i c h b e g i n s in m . 2 2 , is s e t w i t h no n o t e v a l u e s s h o r t e r t h a n a q u a r t e r n o t e , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the dotted: r h y t h m in m . 36 p n n jxn jxn mm JU]JJU j n j j j j j JIDJOTkjJJiJJJJ © ' (27) s t f l n j j p j f l j j j j f j j u J 76a.. U J J © j J ] J J ] p J J ^ J J J 3 D f ^ J J JJDJJ J J J J J /JJ-JJ. .^ j J^ J J J J | J- A . " * ' 7 6 b . L L * LJ J |J | J J |J O J !J '(Si: L p 7 6 c . E x a m p l e 7 6 . C o m p a r a t i v e c o m p o s i t e c o l l a t e d r h y t h m s of v o i c e a n d o r c h e s t r a in t h r e e s e g m e n t s . I (Rings sich cJie T S l e r ) e i g h t h - n o t e a c t i v i t y is virtually, : c o n f i n e d to the a c c o m p a n i m e n t . A s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e occurs at the c l i m a c t i c p o i n t c£ the song in m . 6 1 , where the text (So t i e f im A b e n d r o t ) is given, note v a l u e s e q u a l to or g r e a t e r t h a n a h a l f - n o t e , a r h y t h m i c e x p a n s i o n in k e e p i n g w i t h the p o e t i c c o n t e x t (Example 7 7 ) . The last of the q u a r t e r n o t e s w h i c h h a v e been part of the v o c a l p a r t ' s r h y t h m i c t e x t u r e s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g of stanza i: E x a m p l e 7 7 . F r o m m . 85: o n , there are no m o r e e i g h t h notes or q u a r t e r notes;- w i t h r e s p e c t to h a r m o n i c p a c i n g , the meter can be heard in t h e s e last t h i r t e e n m e a s u r e s as 4 / 2 , a further t e m p o r a l b r o a d e n i n g w h o s e e f f e c t is e n h a n c e d b y the siow cempo r e l a t i v e to the s o n g ' s o p e n i n g (Example 7 8 ) . The p r o g r e s s i v e l y s l o w e r t e m p o markings:(immer langsamer, m . 7 0 ; r i t a r d . , s e h r langsam, m m . 7 5 - 7 6 ; r i t a r d . , s e h r l a n g s a m , m m . 8 8 - 8 9 ) c o n t r i b u t e to the g r a d u a l r e t a r d a t i o n of m o v e m e n t t o w a r d s its final c e s s a t i o n in m . ,97. /iy;'"-':-'."'-:;^'''-1 1 4 —j* E x a m p l e 7 8 . F i n a l b r o a d e n i n g of m e t r i c u n i t s . T h e t r e n d t o w a r d s e x p a n s i o n o f t h e t i m e s p a n s b e t w e e n f o r e g r o u n d a r t i c u l a t i o n s is a l s o s e e n in a c o m p a r i s o n of t h e l e n g t h s of t h e v o c a l s e t t i n g s of t h e s o n g ' s f o u r s t a n z a s , s h o w n a s T a b l e I V . A l t h o u g h s t a n z a 1 is s o m e w h a t m o r e e x p a n s i v e t h a n s t a n z a s 2 a n d 3 , s t a n z a 4 ' s is b y f a r t h e ;. l o n g e s t s e t t i n g , s p a n n i n g a l m o s t 30 m e a s u r e s m o r e t h a n t h o s e . of t h e m i d d l e s t a n z a s . T h e l o n g e s t t i m e s p a n o c c u p i e d b y a s i n g l e l i n e in the s o n g is t h a t of t h e l a s t l i n e of s t a n z a 4 , i s t d i e s e t w a d e r Tod? : ( E x a m p l e 79 ) • ' ; ••.•/•/ immer langsaxncr rlt. sehr langsam E x a m p l e 7 9 . S e t t i n g of the p o e m ' s c o n c l u d i n g l i n e . The u n u s u a l l e n g t h of this line is a f u n c t i o n not o n l y of the note v a l u e s used in the s e t t i n g of t h e t e x t - a l l h a l f - n o t e s , -w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the word T o d , w h i c h l a s t s for a m e a s u r e and a h a l f— b u t of the r e s t s w h i c h b r e a k up this line into t w o - s y l l a b l e s e g m e n t s . A s i d e from t h e o r c h e s t r a l b r i d g e p a s s a g e s b e t w e e n s t a n z a s , there are o n l y t h r e e ; q u a r t e r .rests: " in the. f i r s t t h r e e s t a n z a s of the s o n g ; r e s t s in the final stanza a l o n e , h o w e v e r , total t w e n t y - t h r e e q u a r t e r - n o t e p u l s e s . The s u d d e n p r e p o n d e r a n c e of r e s t s h i g h l i g h t s the w e a r i n e s s e x p r e s s e d b y the n a r r a t o r t o w a r d s the end of the p o e m— W i e sind vir wandermUde. The f r a g m e n t a t i o n of the final line of text; into t w o - s y l l a b l e s e g m e n t s f u n c t i o n s as an i n d i c a t o r o f : the n a r r a t o r ' s b r e a t h l e s s n e s s and s e n s e of awe at the i m m i n e n c e of d e a t h . S t r a u s s ' s r h y t h m i c s e t t i n g of the word etva ( m m . 7 2 - 7 3 , E x a m p l e 8 0 ) , the s e c o n d of the l i n e ' s t h r e e t w o - s y l l a b l e s e g m e n t s , h i g h l i g h t s the e x p r e s s i v e e f f e c t of the :...v^^ f r a g m e n t a t i o n . Its i a m b i c r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n , a c c e n t u a t e d by 116 its s t r i k i n g c h r o m a t i c F - m a j o r s i x - f o u r h a r m o n y d i r e c t l y f o l l o w i n g the D-major; c h o r d of m . 7 2 , d o e s n o t c o r r e s p o n d w i t h its n o r m a l G e r m a n p r o n u n c i a t i o n , ' b u t it d o e s c o r r e s p o n d w i t h , the s e t t i n g s of the o t h e r t w o s e g m e n t s , 1 s t d i e s a n d d e r T o d ? , w h o s e n a t u r a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the i a m b i c p a t t e r n . T h e p a r a l l e l r h y t h m i c t r e a t m e n t of the t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e ; s e g m e n t s is a n a l o g o u s to t h e i n h a l a t i o n and e x h a l a t i o n of b r e a t h i n g : the r h y t h m of the t h r e e f r a g m e n t s ; is/ s u g g e s t i v e of t h r e e d e e p— a n d l a s t— b r e a t h s . St - va E x a m p l e 8 0 . E t v a , m e a s u r e s 72 to 7 3 . ' v . ' , . f ' — . ' r ' ; . . i ' . . . ' • . .• . • . f . i - . , .. J ' , : . . ' ! 1 . . ..»,. ••>- " • JLjl&LJ.l^J}- ., - - v-'.".;; -v S- • - •.. k . . •. , - T „-:s mtad ,ni —" " 1 J-^-Jm...i 'w, "f •• i . .-- ' 1 117 Stanza L i n e M e a s u r e N u m b e r s tfQuarter-Note P u l s e s 22-26 26-28 29-32 32-34 T o t a l P u l s e s = 36-38 38-40 41-42 42-44 T o t a l P u l s e s = 45-47 47-50 50-52: 52-55 T o t a l P u l s e s =•'•• 56-59 6,1-64. 65-68 70-76 T o t a l . P u l s e s = 17 11 14 il 55. 11 13 .9 i i 44 10 12 9 13.: 44 17 20 14 22 73 N . 3 . O n l y r e s t s w i t h i n a g i v e n line of text are i n c l u d e d in the n u m b e r of p u l s e s ; those at the b e g i n n i n g or end of the line are not i n c l u d e d . (This is i m p o r t a n t o n l y i n . s t a n z a 4.) ' The n u m b e r of s y l l a b l e s per s t a n z a of the p o e m r e m a i n s ' the • s a m e , f o l l o w i n g a 7 - 6 - 7 - 6 pattern'; a n y d i f f e r e n c e s in length b e t w e e n the s t a n z a s can thus be a t t r i b u t e d s o l e l y to S t r a u s s ' s m u s i c a l t r e a t m e n t of the t e x t . : ; T a b l e I V . R e l a t i v e D u r a t i o n s of S t a n z a s . T h e e l i m i n a t i o n of the w o r d b e i d e m a k e s line 3 of • stanza 1 e x c e p t i o n a l in an o t h e r w i s e r e g u l a r p a t t e r n ; in the same l i n e , • S t r a u s s •.•adds-* /syllable;: b y c h a n g i n g r u h n to -ruhen. The s y l l a b i c patter.-, of s i a n z a 1 , t h e n , is 7 - 6 - 6 - 6 . V rrV.-" i S P O i n t e d out in Table i y th - ^ -, a r e g u l a r 7-6-7 6 , ' ^ n d o r f f , s p o e m i ambic ^ r * m e t e r , v i P a * - t e r n ; i t s meter is^ ^ ' . S t r a u s s , s r ^ ^ c ; ; t r e a t m e n t t o t h e , p o e t i c * I v ™ e x t r a emphas i s t h r / V ° r d S ' h ° W e v e r ' a r e 1 3 through d u r a t i o n ' F ° r S t r a u s s s u b d i v i d e s t h , „ a c c o r d i n g t o E i c h e n d 0 . f f , s ^ ^ ^ - «•»*> n o t — s -Une d i v i s i n n . a n d ^ a n g e n , b u t a f t e r _ ; : V 1 S i 0 n ' ' - e . be tween F r e u d e Not, a a £.11 , a t t h i s p o i n t . : c ° r r o b o r a t e s t h e d i v i s i o n Example 81. Although t e c h n i c a l l y a u y a s t r e s s e d word i n r i ^ . s cheme, the p i a c e m e n t Q f ^ * c h e „ d o r f f . 8 r h y c h . , i c it less prominence than that or the word Freude which occurs at the end. Strauss, by extending the duration of Not and placing it at the end of the first segment of text,, draws attention to the; word and its poignant implications of past sorrows,.; This is not to say that the importance of Freude is undermined by this, for its duration (at. five quarter-note .7. pulses longer than that of Not), its chromatic C-flat-major chord, its dynamic marking of mezzoforte, and;its relatively: high pitch work together to especially dramatic effect. "" instead of highlighting the. line break between" Freude and Gegangen, Strauss allows;the momentum built up on the word Freude to push the phrase through in a single gesture, appropriate in fact to the text's description of "going .' through"- (durch . . ... gegangen) In the second half of stanza 1, Strauss lingers on the words ruhen and stillen, making each of them six;quarter-note pulses in length (Example.82) . v Example 82. 120 This lingering, a kind of pause, reflects the meaning of the words, both of which refer to an,absence of activity. Another of. the words given particular.emphasis through duration is.the word Luft; in stanza 2 (m. 40), which is sustained through an entire measure. , Whereas in stanza 1, the durational extension of words served an expressive purpose, the extension of Luft serves a structural purpose, that is, to mark the division between the stanza's two halves. Clarity of division in this stanza is particularly important, since its second half introduces a new idea—the crucial image of the larks.. In this second half of the stanza (mm. 41-44, Example 83), Strauss is faithful to the iambic trimeter, until the word nach-trSunend at, the end of m. 42, the first word of the •„••:• stanza's last line. In tying nach- over the bar-line into, measure 43, Strauss delays the accented syllable trflum- to the second, quarter of the measure. The downbeat of m. 43 is •.• • ''-y marked harmonically by the shift from an A-raajor to an^P- ' sharp-minor harmony, which lasts for the first half-note beat of the 3/2 measure, but the word trflumend arrives in the ' middle of this beat and is thus not marked by harmonic change;; its pitch being the same as that of nach, it receives no melodic emphasis. In effect, then, this last line of the stanza has only one accented word, its last—Duft, to which it^ moves in a single gesture. The blurring of the iambic structure in this phrase is appropriate to the poetic sense: the text has temporarily broken out of its metric structure, in a way analogous to the escape of the dreaming larks from the structure of consciousness into a less strictly ordered world. © © zwrt Lrr • CA« tvr nock »icl • c«a sufe • - iris . ae«4 (a tea Daft. Example 83. In stanza 3, there are two details of rhythmic treatment of text deserving of attention. First, in the same way that Strauss "paints" the words ruhen and stillen by extending their duration, in stanza 3 the meaning of the word bald ("soon") is highlighted with its precipitous entry on the fourth beat of m. 47, which initiates a brief passage of syncopation lasting to the end of the following measure (Example 84). This can be interpreted in twd ways, either as, an expression of the narrator's eagerness for "the time for sleep"/-or his anxiety that'it will arrive before he is ready. 122 tempo primo Example 84. Vocal setting o£ Bald ist es Schlafenszeit. The second notable detail o£ rhythmic treatment in stanzS" 3 is Strauss's durational emphasis on the word dieser ("this") in m. 53 (Example 85). Although in the context of the poem's iambic trimeter, its first syllable is stressed, the word is a full measure in length, unusual emphasis considering its minor grammatical and expressive significance. J Example 85. A possible reason for this durational emphasis can;be adduced if the word dieser is viewed not,by itself buti;V relation to the surrounding text: the three words verirren (mm. 51-52), dieser and Einsamkeit (mm. 53-54) are set. with a similar rhythmic motive, each stressed syllable three quarter-note pulses in length and followed by an unstressed syllable only one quarter-note pulse in length. The ponderous effect of the repetition of this pattern and the relatively long duration of the stressed syllables seems to hinder the unfolding of the phrase; it has the effect of a written-out ritardando, suggesting the slowed pace of the increasingly weary travellers. The most Interesting rhythmic aspects of stanza 4 have already been discussed in this chapter. All that remains is to point out the durational emphasis on;two of its most crucial words: Friede (am. 58-59), and Abendrot (mm. 53-64). These two words are Im Abendrot's longest, at eight and twelve quarter-notes in length, respectively. The trend towards expansion throughout the song is thus shown not only with respect to meter, but to,the rhythmic treatment of individual words. That these particular words should be given the greatest duration is appropriate, since each is an image of the vast unknown towards which the narrator and his companion have been travelling. •. Conclusion Whereas the preceding observations have concentrated or. specific aspects of the relations between text and music . within a particular song, the remaining remarks will briefly consider some of the more abstract problems and questions of • text-music relations which have arisen in my mind during the • course of this analysis, problems and questions which beg'// future reflection. Thus, if a conclusion can be thought of as the final cadence of a thesis, this one will be an elided cadence, as I make what is ostensibly an ending into another beginning. In 1920, the singer David Bispham wrote: At the dinner given for [Richard] Strauss by the Lotos Club at its old home in Fifth Avtinue near Forty-Sixth Street, I sat next him while he wrote some bars of one •£ his own most difficult compositions f o r me in spite of the hum of talk and the blare o£ quasi-popular music about us. During a discussion about making, musical sounds mean anything he said, "I can translate anything into sound. I. can make you understand by music that I pick up my fork and spoon from this side of my plate and lay them down on the other side.'" One can only speculate what the musical outcome might have been had Bispham challenged Strauss actually to,perform this compositional feat. The composer's assertion, while almost 'David Bispham (1827-1921), A Quaker Sinner's ' Recollections (New York, 1920), cited in Lebrecht, 268. certainly hyperbolic, suggests if nothing else that Strauss was untroubled by the complex problems of signification in art and language—indeed all communicative structures—which have long been the subject of scholarly debate. In the twentieth century, this debate has been strongly influenced by the work of structuralists such as Ferdinand Saussure, Claude Levi-Strauss and Charles Peirce, who attempted to analyze the dynamics of the relationships between "signifiers" and their "signifieds". Some of the contributions of early structuralism to modern thought inclucT? acknowledgement that the relationship between a signifier (e.g., word or picture) and its signified is neither direct nor simple; that a given signifier may be rich in meanings which differ according to factors such as its context and its interpretation by reader, listener, or audience; and that a complete study of communicative structures considers both the "vertical" aspects of the structure in question (i.e., the meanings of individual signifiers), and the "horizontal" structure governinq relationships between signifiers. Malcolm Bowie writes that the quest for the. signified in its "pure" form--the quest, that is to say, for the pristine, word-free structures of thought--is frivolous . . .The proper object of attention, for the psychoanalyst no less than for the linguist, is the signifying chain • itself: the relationships observable within that. 126 chain are the surest guide to psychical structure and to the structure of the human subject.2 Bowie's "signifying chain" aptly describes the nature of musical structure as well, but music differs from language and representational art in that it normally refers largely to. itself; that is, most extra-musical associations which are made upon hearing a musical work arise from conventions developed and established over centuries, and the degree to . which the audience has absorbed its cultural inheritance: mournfulness does not naturally inhere in the minor mode,.nor cheerfulness in the major.3 The study of music thus offers a unique opportunity for the analyst to explore the nature of communicative meaning, given that it is essentially "pure" structure, clear of the connotative implications and complications of verbal structures. The study of musical structure and' its communicative . properties, however, brings with it difficulties1, of its own, for if the signifying power of music lies in its capacity to express through structure alone that which cannot be expressed verbally, the analyst of musical meaning is left with the • seemingly impossible.1, task of expressing verbally the verbally inexpressible. In fact, music theorists over the last few 2 Malcolm Bowie, "Jacques Lacan," structuralism and ; ; . Since: From Levi-Strauss to Ddrrida. ed. John Sturrock (Oxford :_OUP, 1979 ), p.128. , , 3 Exceptions to the self-referentiality of music occur in the use of mimetic or onomatopoeic interpolationssuch as the use of horn call motives to suggest hunting or Strauss's imitations of birdsong in Im Abendrot. , c e n t u r i e s have b e e n d e v i s i n g a n a l y t i c a l l a n g u a g e s p r e c i s e l y in o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e the workings of the "signifying chain" which is m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e , and thus in the analysis of an abstract work s u c h as a fugue or a symphony it is indeed possible to d e s c r i b e n o n - v e r b a l structures using words or other graphic means . C o m p l i c a t i o n s arise, however, when a musical structure is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a program, either a specific text, as in a vocal work or opera, or a scenario which forms the basis of a p u r e l y i n s t r u m e n t a l work, as in the tone poems of Strauss and Tchaikowsky o r t h e programmatic symphonies of Liszt and Berlioz . The m u s i c a l s e t t i n g of a t e x t is an image of a set of i m a g e s - - a t y p e of sonic metaphor. But a metaphor is a figure of s p e e c h dependent on sov.e commonality between the image and t h a t wh ich it r e p r e s e n t s ; how then can music "represent" p o e t r y when t h e two media are so fundamentally different? At t h e f o r e g r o u n d l e v e l , the link between music, and text is f o r g e d t h r o u g h d e v i c e s s u c h as i m i t a t i o n and repetition, discussed in Chapter 4 with respect to "iconic" and "symbolic" relations between melody and text. At the background level, however, the analyst is not: dealing with an individual segment of music and its relations with the text, but rather a.temporal musical structure which, concurrently with its text,•unfolds,according to the logic of its own grammar. Viewed on a broader scale, then, the music 7 functions as a kind , of simultaneous paraphrase, an 128 interpretation which enhances some of the meanings inherent in the poem, perhaps suppressing or altering others. Another problem of text-music relations deserving of study centres on the function of instrumental preludes, interludes and postludes: if it can be said of the complementarity between music and pcetry that "each art makes explicit the dimension that the other leaves tacit",4 then what i s the role played in the signification process by these substantial untexted sections of a vocal work? With respect to the Four Last Songs, the question i s * particularly relevant to Strauss's setting of the Hesse text Seim Schlafengehn. For example, where in Im Abendrot the vocal portion of the song proceeds at a relatively constant pace from beginning to end with only brief interludes, the vocal portion of Beim Schlafengehn is interrupted by a lengthy violin solo which forms a sharp contrast in character from the music which has preceded it, and influences the character of the music which follows. The remarkable change in the vocal line after the interpolated violin solo corresponds to a similar change in the text, but of greater interest is the apparent influence of Beim Schlafengehn's purely instrumental 4Lawrence Kramer, Music and Poetry: The Nineteenth Century and After (Berkeley: U of California, P, 1984 ), 6 . Kramer adopts his tacit-explicit terminology ("an-object is known tacitly when we attend from it to something else") from Michael Polanyi's The Tacit Dimension (Garden City,' N.Y. : Doubleday, 1966) and "Sense-giving and Sense-Reading" from Intellect and Hope, ed. W.H. Poteat and T.A. Langford (Durham: U of North Carolina P, 1968). 129 interlude on the second half of the text, as presented in the vocal line: does this interlude indeed exert influence on a reading of the text and if so how does this wordless communication of neaning occur? In a poem set to music, the music and the text, each with its own constellation of meanings, function as interdependently as the melodic strands of a contrapuntal composition and the relations between these two structures constitute the "vertical" element. As a specific interval between the voices of a contrapuntal work can be classified as consonant or dissonant, the relationship between text and music "strands" at a given point can be classified as correlative (where text and music display analogous structural features) or dissociative (where no analogous structural features exist or where elements of text and music are contradictory). Neither dimension of the "counterpoint" between text and music in a vocal work can be overlooked in analysis,: for together they produce a whole which is decidedly more than the sum of its parts. Analysis of. text-music : relations in Richard Strauss's Four Last Songs demonstratic-i unequivocally that music is not merely the "servant of the' text": the addition of music, to a pre-existing text creates the conditions for a proliferation of meaning-generating activity, the richness of which is dependent only upon the genius of the composer. 130 S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y B e r r y , W a l l a c e . S t r u c t u r a l F u n c t i o n s i n M u s i c . 1 9 7 6 . New York : D o v e r , 1 9 8 7 . " T e x t a n d M u s i c i n B r a h m s ' A l t o Rhapsody." JMT• Colson, William W. Richard Strauss's Four Last Songs. Diss. U of Illinois, 1975. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1975. Del Mar, Norman. "Confusion and Error (II)." The Score, no. 22 (February 1958), pp. 28-40. . Richard Strauss. A Critical Commentary on His Life and Works. 3 vols. London, 1962-72. E i c h e n d o r f f , J o s e p h von. Werke. Bande I: Gedichte, Versepen, Dramen, Autobiograph isches. MUnchen: Winkler-Verlag, 19.70. Guck, Marion A. Metaphors in Musical Discourse: the Contribution of Imagery to Analysis. Diss. U of Michigan, 1981. Ann A r b o r : UMI, 1 9 8 1 . Herrmann, Joachim. "Das letzte Lied von Richard Strauss. Eichendorff's 'Im Abendrot.1" Aurora. Eichendorff- : Almanach, XIX (1959), 79-80. "Mit Eichendorff beschloss Richard Strauss sein Schaffen . . ." Schlesien, IX (1964), 107-08. H e s s e , H e r m a n n . D i e G e d i c h t e v o n H e r m a n n H e s s e . Z u r i c h : F r e t z & Wasmuth , 1 9 4 2 . K r a m e r , L a w r e n c e . M u s i c a n d P o e t r y : T'he N i n e t e e n t h Century and A f t e r . B e r k e l e y : U of C a l i f o r n i a P , 1 9 8 4 . . . Lebrecht, Norman,, ed. The Book of Musical Anecdotes. 1985; London: Sphere, 1987. Peirce, Charles Sanders. The Elements of Logic. Vol. 2 of : The Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce. Ed. Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss. 8 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap-Harvard UP, 1931. Petersen, Barbara A. Ton und Wort: The Lleder of Richard-' Strauss. Ann A r b o r : UMI, 1980. (1st pub. 1977). Radner, Lawrence. Eichendorff: The Spiritual Geometer. Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue Research Foundation, 1970. : 131 Roth, Ernst. The Business of Music. Reflections of a Music ! Publisher. . London, 1969. (Translation of Musik als Kunst und Ware. Betrachtungen und Begegnungen eines MusikverlecAs. Second edition. Zurich, 1969). Schuh, Willi. Richard Strauss: Juqend und FrUhe Meisterjahre Lebenschronik 1864-1898. ZUrich: Atlantis, 1976. Schwartz, Egon. Joseph von Eichendorff. Nev York: Twavne. 1972 Seidlin, Oskar. Versuc'Ese tiber Eichendorff. GBttingen: Vandenhoeck and Rupirecht, 1965. Stein, Jack M. Poem and Music in the German Lied from Gluck to Hugo Wolf. Cambridge. Mass., 1971. . "Was Goethe Wrong about the Nineteenth-Century Lied? An Examination of the Relation of PoeS-;->nd Music." PMLA, LXXVII (1962), 232-39. ^ Strauss, Richard. "Correspondence with Dr.. Roth and 1) Richard Strauss." Tempo, no. 98 (winter l'S7£'), 9-17. . Recollections and Reflections.,; Translated by J. L. Lawrence from the first edition of Betrachtungen und Erinnerungen ( Zurich, 1949 ) . Load on iv 19 53. . Vier letzte lieder. Hawkes Pocfjet Scores. New York: Boosey and Hawkes, 1950. ' Strickert, J. E. Richard Strauss''3 Vler letzte lieder: an Analytical Study. Diss. Washington U, 1975. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1975. ; " . • :rv-5 Sturrock, John, ed.. Structuralism and Since: From Levi-Strauss to Derrida. Oxford: OUP, 1979. Dr. trail H*th fwtimtt IM ABENDROT (Joseph VOD Eichcodorff) K1CHAK1> STRAUSS n>•<»<! i> APPENDIX A \ ui M 1 I : i u ... 5 > i ; ,'>'«t! j>.A.t.>! > iJr ,•*..«.»..' '• ...... -II- ' " . .. J — ^l^MiSd^-^-^. 138 APPENDIX B1 FrUhiing In dSmmrigen Grilften trSurate ich lang von deinen BSumen und blauen Ltlften, von deinera Duft und Vogelsang. Nun liegst du erschlossen in Gleiss und Zler, von Llcht tlbergossen wie ein Wunder vor mir. Du kennest mich vieder, du lockestmichzart, es zittert duzch all meineGlieder deine selige Gegenwart! : ("In dusky tombs I dreamed at length of your limbs.and blue breezes, your fragrance and birdsong. Now you lie open in glitter and ornament, with light overflowing like a wonder before me. You know me again, you entice me tenderly, there trembles through all my limbs your blessed presence.") 1 The three pcems in this appendix are taken from Die Gedicnte von Hermann-Hesse (Zurich: Fretz & Wasmuth, 1942), 49 (FrUhiing), 358 (September), and 238 (Bein Schlafengehen). . .. 139 September Per Garten trauert, Ktlhl sinkt in die Blumen der Regen. Der Sommer schauert still seinem Ende entgegen. Golden tropft Blatt urn B l a t t : ' nieder vom hohen Akazienbaum. Sommer lSchelt erstaunt und matt in den sterbendsn Gartentraum. L a n g e n o c h b e i den R o s e n b l e i b t e r s t e h n , sehnt sich nach Ruh. Langsam tut er die grossen, Mtldgewordenen Augen zu. ("The garden mourns, the cool rain sinks into the flowers. The summer shivers quietly towards its end. Golden, leaf upon leaf drops down/from the tall acacia tree. Summer laughs astounded and feeble in the dying garden-dream. Long still by the roses he stays, longing tor rest. Slowly he closes the wearied eyes.") 140 Beim Schlafengehen Nun der Tag mich mild' gemacht, soil mein sehnliches Verlangen freundlich die gestirnte Nacht vie ein mUdes Kind empfangen. HSnde lasst von alien Tun, Stirn vergias du alles Denken, alle meine Sinne nun: voilen slch in Schlummer senken. Und die Seele unbewacht, will in £reien Fldgen schweben, um in Zauberkreis der Nacbt tief und tausendfachzuleben. ("Now the day has made me tired; my ardent; longings must, like a; tired child, gladly receive the starry night. Hands, leave from all doings, brow,, forget all thinking, all my senses now want to sink into slumber. And the unguarded soul wants to soar: in free flight, in order to live, deeply and a thousandfold, in the magic circle of the night.")' "•••'• 

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