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Wife battering Sanders-Krause, Carol 1979

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THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA WIFE BATTERING SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK DR. G. HOUGHAM DR. D. NANN PROF. B. NICHOLLS DR. R. SPLANE BY CAROL SANDERS-KRAUSE OCTOBER, 1979 / ,- /> C, •/ TABLE OF CONTENTS RECORDED FINDINGS ON WIFE ABUSE Incidence Rate Social Class i/" Living Conditions ^ Unemployment ^ Education and Ingome of Husband and Wife u^ Alcohol Abuse Psychological Variables Support Services WIFE BATTERING IN PATRIARCHAL WESTERN INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES The Effect of the Industrial Revolution on the Social Position of Women Division between the Economic and Domestic Spheres The Economic and Domestic Spheres before the Industrial Revolution The Domestic Sphere since the Industrial Revolution Women in the Economic Sphere Sex-Role Socialization Conclusion of Section I SOCIAL POLICY IN RELATION TO THE BATTERED WOMAN The Place of Social Policy in Public Policy The Emphasis on Economic Issues in Public Policy and Consequential Social Effects Social Policy in Relation to the Family Legal Policy in Relation to the Family The Social Service System and the Abused Wife Personal Social Services Conclusion of Section II A CASE STUDY Background Gwen's Story Comparison of Gwen's Story and the Theoreti-cal Propositions Set Forth in Sections I and II of the Paper Hypothesis Derived from Case Study Recommendations to Those Working with Abused Wives ii IV. COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION IN RELATION TO THE BATTERED WIFE 72 Background Community Organizing The Social Problem of Wife Abuse: Developing Recognition Professional Circles Women's Groups The Task Force on Family Violence The Pilot Project The Participants' Assessment Interview with Group Member Interviews with People Involved in Servicing Battered Women Evolution of the United Way Committee Analysis of this Vancouver-Based Community Work on Behalf of Battered Wives V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 91 APPENDIX I Questionnaire 95 APPENDIX II List of Those Interviewed 97 FOOTNOTES 98 BIBLIOGRAPHY 104 iii The term " b a t t e r e d wife" i s ambiguous. B a t t e r i n g can be i n t e r p r e t e d as any a g g r e s s i v e a c t from a l o u d l y spoken i n s u l t to murder. For the purposes of t h i s paper , however, the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n w i l l be used. A b a t t e r e d wife i s a woman who has r e c e i v e d d e l i b e r a t e , severe and repeated demonstrable p h y s i c a l i n j u r y from her husband. Thus, the minimal i n j u r y i s severe b r u i s i n g . Without denying i t s importance, mental c r u e l t y i s not taken i n t o a c c o u n t . Where a man and woman l i v e t o g e t h e r f o r a y e a r as man and wife they are c o n s i d e r e d m a r r i e d i n common l a w . l RECORDED FINDINGS ON WIFE ABUSE I n c i d e n c e Rate I t i s d i f f i c u l t to know the e x a c t i n c i d e n c e r a t e of wife abuse. There i s no r e g u l a r procedure f o r r e c o r d i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and l a c k of w i d e l y used s y s t e m a t i c r e c o r d -ing methods r e s u l t s i n many c a s e s being unrecognized. V a r i o u s attempts have been made a t e s t i m a t i n g the frequency of o c c u r r e n c e , u s u a l l y by a n a l y z i n g p o l i c e , s o c i a l s e r v i c e or court r e c o r d s . While these sources g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n of how widespread wife a s s a u l t i s , due to the l a c k of c o n s i s t e n t r e c o r d i n g procedures these f i g u r e s are most c e r t a i n l y an u n d e r - e s t i m a t e . With a study which goes d i r e c t l y to the p u b l i c i n an attempt to a c c u r a t e l y determine how many couples are v i o l e n t , there i s the d i f f i c u l t y of u n d e r - r e p o r t i n g . Any attempt to gather t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n d i r e c t l y , depends on candid and honest p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and men and women are very r e l u c t a n t to admit to v i o l e n c e i n t h e i r i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . Given these twin d i f f i c u l t i e s i n g a t h e r i n g a c c u r a t e s t a t i s t i c a l e v i d e n c e , a l l w r i t e r s on the s u b j e c t emphasize t h a t numbers mentioned are a low e s t i m a t e and can o n l y i n d i -c a t e the breadth o f the problem. Some f i n d i n g s recorded i n r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e , however, are i n c l u d e d here. - Murray S t r a u s s , a l e a d i n g American r e s e a r c h e r on the s u b j e c t , e s t i m a t e s t h a t 1 . 8 m i l l i o n wives are s e v e r e l y beaten each y e a r i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . H i s study found t h a t 2 8% of those couples q u e s -t i o n e d had e x p e r i e n c e d at l e a s t one v i o l e n t i n c i -dent. S t r a u s s suggests t h a t r e a l f i g u r e s are l i k e l y double h i s f i n d i n g s and a t t r i b u t e s t h i s d i s -crepancy to u n d e r - r e p o r t i n g . He concludes t h a t v i o l e n c e i s a major f e a t u r e of American f a m i l y l i f e . 2 - The r e s e a r c h e r s i n a Vancouver, B. C. U n i t e d Way study e s t i m a t e t h a t each y e a r between four and f i v e thousand women i n the lower mainland alone are beaten to the p o i n t of s e r i o u s i n j u r y . - I n a Hamilton, O n t a r i o s t u d y , i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t i n 95% of the domestic v i o l e n c e c a l l s to the p o l i c e , a woman was the v i c t i m . ^ - A Chicago p o l i c e survey undertaken between September, 1965 and March, 1966, s t a t e d t h a t i n t h a t p e r i o d , 4 6 . 1 % of a l l major cr imes a g a i n s t women, except murder, took p l a c e i n the home. I n the same p e r i o d , p o l i c e responded to more domestic c a l l s than a l l other s e r i o u s cr imes combined. 5 - Of 499 murders recorded i n Canada d u r i n g 19 74, 34% were domest ic . B r i t i s h Columbia f i g u r e s corresponded d i r e c t l y to n a t i o n a l f i g u r e s i n 1 9 7 4 ; and between 1968 and 1 9 7 4 , 3 7 . 3 % of the murders recorded i n B. C. were the r e s u l t of a domestic d i s p u t e . ® - F i n a l l y , i n 19 78, 89% of G r e a t e r Vancouver M i n i s t r y of Human Resources workers r e p o r t e d s e e i n g at l e a s t one b a t t e r e d w i f e . T w e n t y - s i x p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d s e e i n g more than t e n . 7 S o c i a l C l a s s l / The l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t r e v e a l s t h a t w i f e b e a t i n g o c c u r s i n a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s . Wife b e a t i n g i s found throughout the s o c i a l spectrum. (Those who work w i t h b a t t e r e d women r e p o r t wives of p r o f e s s i o n a l s , c o l l e g e p r o f e s s o r s , and lawyers , as w e l l as plumbers and b u r e a u c r a t s among t h e i r ranks?) A study conducted i n Norwalk, C o n n e c t i c u t i n d i c a t e d t h a t p o l i c e i n t h a t c i t y of 85,000 w i t h i t s wide socioeconomic range r e c e i v e d roughly the same number of w i f e abuse c o m p l a i n t s as p o l i c e i n a Harlem p r e c i n c t of the same s i z e — w h i c h was four or f i v e c a s e s a week. . . . the i d e a t h a t domestic v i o l e n c e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a lower c l a s s phenomenon i s an o v e r s i m p l i -f i c a t i o n of the problem and more l i k e l y r e f l e c t s the g r e a t e r v i s i b i l i t y of lower c l a s s v i o l e n c e where ' p r i v a t e 1 modes of v i o l e n c e management through d o c t o r , p r i e s t , and other p r o f e s s i o n a l s are not a v a i l a b l e and where the o p p o r t u n i t i e s and c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r h i d i n g and e x p l a i n i n g away i n j u r i e s are f e w e r . 8 L i v i n g C o n d i t i o n s I t i s o f t e n mentioned t h a t u r b a n i z a t i o n and the r e s u l t a n t overcrowding produce domestic t e n s i o n s which 4 . u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t i n v i o l e n c e . S t a t i s t i c s do not bear t h i s o u t . Most l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t d e s c r i b e s v i o l e n t f a m i l i e s as t y p i c a l l y i s o l a t e d . B a t t e r e d wives o f t e n complain of t h e i r husbands' attempts to keep them from d e v e l o p i n g s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . J . A. B y l e s r e p o r t s t h a t urban d w e l l e r s who l i v e f a r t h e r from t h e i r neighbours are more l i k e l y to exper ience domestic v i o l e n c e than those who l i v e i n more crowded c o n d i t i o n s . I n a s i x - m o n t h p e r i o d i n 19 74, 66% of the domestic v i o l e n c e c a l l s made to tne Hamilton p o l i c e concerned f a m i l i e s who l i v e d i n s e p a r a t e houses as opposed to apartments, duplexes and row h o u s e s . 9 (He does mention t h a t these f i g u r e s c o u l d a l s o r e f l e c t the type of housing i n H a m i l t o n . ) I n an i n f o r m a l way, the Vancouver U n i t e d Way Task Force on F a m i l y V i o l e n c e would concur w i t h these f i n d i n g s . The Task Force r e c e n t l y ran workshops i n s e v e r a l r u r a l a r e a s of B. C. The o b s e r v a t i o n s of those running the workshops were t h a t w i f e b a t t e r i n g i s a marked s o c i a l problem i n i s o l a t e d r u r a l a r e a s . As w e l l , the r u r a l b a t t e r e d w i f e i s i n a worse p o s i t i o n than her urban c o u n t e r p a r t as her < r e s o u r c e s and a l t e r n a t i v e s are fewer. Unemployments-^ The l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t unemployment may i n d i r e c t l y be a f a c t o r . S t r a u s s and Steinmetz i n d i c a t e t h a t men who f e e l inadequate i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y are more l i k e l y to be v i o l e n t and t h a t unemployment may c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s f e e l i n g of i n a d e q u a c y . 1 0 (They h a s t e n to add t h a t dur ing a r e c e s s i o n l i k e the one we are c u r r e n t l y e x p e r i e n c i n g , unemployment i s p r e s e n t i n the middle c l a s s as w e l l as the lower c l a s s . ) E d u c a t i o n I and Income of Husband and Wife , / An e x p l o r a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n and v i o l e n c e has been undertaken by some r e s e a r c h e r s . These s t u d i e s are i n t e r e s t i n g . While t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t more h i g h l y educated men are l e s s l i k e l y to a s s a u l t t h e i r w i v e s , s t a t i s t i c s r e v e a l t h a t the more educated a woman i s , the more l i k e l y she i s to be a v i c t i m of c o n j u g a l violence".) '' I n f a c t , Tidmarsh c l a i m s t h a t the g r e a t e s t tendency f o r w i f e abuse o c c u r s where the w i f e has more e d u c a t i o n and a h i g h e r s t a t u s job than does her h u s b a n d . 1 1 A l c o h o l Abuse t. People "often a s s o c i a t e w i f e b a t t e r i n g w i t h a l c o h o l abuse and s t u d i e s r e v e a l t h a t t h e r e i s , i n f a c t , a r e l a t i o n -s h i p . During an i n c i d e n t of domestic v i o l e n c e e i t h e r the aggressor or the v i c t i m or both are l i k e l y to have been d r i n k i n g . J . A. B y l e s r e p o r t s t h a t d u r i n g a s i x - m o n t h p e r i o d i n 1 9 7 4 , 4 7 . 1 0 % of the domestic v i o l e n c e c a l l s to the 12 Hamilton p o l i c e i n v o l v e d the presence of a l c o h o l . P s y c h o l o g i c a l V a r i a b l e s /Most r e s e a r c h on the psyche of the b a t t e r e d w i f e and the b a t t e r i n g husband comes to s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s . S o c i a l i z a t i o n which encourages women to be q u i e t , d o c i l e and dependent, and men to be dominant and a g g r e s s i v e p r e d i s -poses women to become b a t t e r e d wives and men, b a t t e r i n g 6 . husbands.13 Beverly Nichols claims that battered wives lack drive, aggressiveness and self esteem, 1 4 while Del Martin says that most violent husbands see the male role in relationships as the one that enforces authority.15 In fact, major theorists in the field, Murray Strauss,16 Richard Gelles 1 7 and Del Martin, 1 8 all agree that wife battering is a way of enforcing male dominance in the family .J ( Men and women can be predisposed to becoming battered wives or battering husbands by their experience in their family of origin. Children that encounter or witness violence at home are more likely to experience a violent 19 marriage when they become adults. $Lany f i n d it difficult to understand why a woman would remain in a situation where she is being beaten. The social situation of women is largely responsible and this will be explored later in this paper, (on a psychological level, Del Martin says that women stay because they are immobilized by fear 2 0 and because they are too humiliated to 9 1 tell others about the treatment they have tolerated. Often they stay because they see the violence as an indication that their spouse is emotionally ill and as a good woman they see 22 it as their duty to nurture this disturbed man.} | Support Services It is now a well-documented fact that existing services cannot be counted on to respond to the needs of battered wives, and this will be discussed in greater detail in a subsequent section of the paper. For now it is 7. 2 3 sufficient to mention that Downey and Howell in Canada, Del Martin in the U. S. 2 4 and Pizzey in Britain 2 5 have all concluded that victims of wife abuse are not adequately aided by existing public services. Social welfare systems, police, hospitals, doctors, lawyers, and courts are often found to ignore the issue until a crisis situation has developed. Del Martin remarks that the home is considered too private for outside intervention, that "a man's home is his castle."26 Such documents as Recordings from the Family Violence Symposium, the Report of the Task Force on Family Violence, and Domestic Violence: Issues and Dynamics, also disclose the lack of help offered by established services. Perhaps the words of one woman can best describe the failure of established support systems to assist the abused wife. Early in our marriage I went to a clergyman who, after a few visits, told me that my .husband meant no real harm. . . . I was encouraged to be more tolerant and understanding. . . . Next time, I turned to a doctor. I was given little pills to relax me and told to take things easier. . . . I turned to a professional family guidance agency. . . . I had to defend myself against the suspicion that I wanted to be hit, that I invited the beatings. . . . I called the police one time. They not only did not respond to the call, they called several hours later to ask if things had 'settled down.' I could have been dead by then. . . . I have nowhere to go if it happens again. . . . Everyone I have gone to for help has somehow wanted to blame me and vindicate my husband. . . . I have learned that no one believes me and that I cannot depend upon any outside^ help. 2 7 B. WIFE BATTERING IN PATRIARCHAL WESTERN INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES The intent of this paper is to consider wife battering in a socio-economic context. In reference to wife abuse, Angela 8 . Weir states, It is already possible to distinguish two clear-positions, one which sees battering as a function of women's generally oppressed position in society, and the other which explains battering in terms of the individual pathology of men who batter and women who are battered.28 This paper will consider wife abuse in the former context. While it is interesting to look at personality types of people involved in violent relationships, and at other factors which often accompany this violence, a closer look at the syndrome of wife battering clearly indicates that individual pathology is not all that is involved here, joel Martin's book, Battered Wives, spells out how violence against women is a natural consequence of women's powerless position in patriarchal society. While working with women in this situation, the author of this paper was frustrated due to the fact that services normally available to victims of violence, such as police protection, are often not avail-able to the battered wife. This failure of public agencies to function in a manner which is consistent with the way they operate for other assault victims reveals institutionalized resistance to helping women who are victims of domestic violence. As was mentioned earlier, wife abuse is clearly a frequent cross-class occurrence in our society, yet it is left shrouded in secrecy and silence. A basic hypothesis of this paper is that the patriarchal organization of western industrialized countries both contributes to wife abuse and allows it to continue. This is not to say that wife battering occurs only in 9 . modern-day western industrialized countries. The literature points out that before the industrial revolution men beat 29 their wives and were socially permitted to do so. Tne root cause of wife beating presumably is patriarchal social organization rather than capitalist industrialization. Wife battering is, however, prevalent in western industrial-ized countries and this paper will study its occurrence in that environment. Understanding the situation of the abused wife requires insight into the inferior position of all women in our socio-economic system. While women in viable relation-ships do not necessarily feel the full impact of their secondary status, the case of the battered woman dramatically exemplifies the inherent dangers in this situation. Sex-role socialization perpetuates this status and contributes to battering. Women do not have equal access to the labour market; in fact, they often do not even possess the job skills necessary to enter it in a capacity where they will earn a liveable wage. Public services and personal supports cannot be depended on to assist women in intolerable marriages in developing a viable independent life. The struggle for battered women is not just a struggle for women who are beaten by their husbands or a struggle against the men who beat their wives, it is a struggle against the structure and ideologies which support wife beating and the oppression of women in marriage. These ideologies . . . serve as an implicit support system for wife beating and have become so much a part of the culture that it took hundreds of years before wife beat-ing was uncovered and defined as a social problem about which something should be done.31 10 . I t i s a p o p u l a r c o n c e p t i o n t h a t women are l e s s dependent on men today than they were i n the p a s t . While i n some i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s t h i s i s t r u e , i t i s an i n t e n t i o n of t h i s paper to prove t h a t the m a r r i e d woman today i s o f t e n not i n a more independent s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n than women have been i n time gone by. The E f f e c t of the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n on the S o c i a l P o s i t i o n of Women The paper w i l l now e x p l o r e the p o s i t i o n of women i n our s o c i o - e c o n o m i c system. A major theme i s the h i s t o r y of c a p i t a l i s t i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and how t h i s movement r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l and economic dependence f o r women. Wife b a t t e r i n g i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c o n t e x t f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , dependence on men, and s u b o r d i n a t i o n to them, i s c e n t r a l to the p l i g h t of the b a t t e r e d woman. One of the reasons women f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to l e a v e a v i o l e n t marr iage i s t h a t o f t e n a woman's pr imary source of s o c i a l i d e n t i t y and economic 32 s u r v i v a l i s her m a r r i a g e . The same i s not u s u a l l y t r u e f o r men. Second, the b a t t e r i n g s i t u a t i o n s e r v e s to dramatize the i n h e r e n t s o c i a l problems of a l l women. D i v i s i o n Between the Economic and Domestic Spheres The onset of the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n marked the end of the system of Cottage I n d u s t r y where the f a m i l y was the b a s i c soc io -economic u n i t . When men went to work f o r wages the r e s t of the f a m i l y no longer p l a y e d a major p a r t i n p r o v i d i n g f o r m a t e r i a l s u r v i v a l . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a d i v i s i o n between the economic and domestic s p h e r e s . T h i s system i s s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e today. 11 . With the advent of industrial capitalism, the general labour process was split into two discreet units: a domestic and an industrial unit. The character of the work performed in each was fundamentally different. The domestic unit reproduced labour power for the labour market. The industrial unit produced goods and services for the commodity market. This split in the labour process had produced a split in the labour force roughly along sexual lines—women into the domestic unit, men into industry.33 This division between the domestic and industrial spheres had a profound effect on the social position of women. Social status and economic reward are assigned primarily in the economic realm. As women are for the most part identified with the domestic arena, wives became increasingly subordinate to their husbands whose social status was derived chiefly from their position in the econo-mic sphere. This is not to say that women did not partici-pate in the economic sphere. They did and do. This partici-pation, however, is predominantly in the lower echelons of the labour market, as will be subsequently explained. It is not to suggest either, that prior to the industrial revolu-tion an egalitarian system existed in which women's social status was equal to that of men. Nevertheless, when the primary locus of economic activity moved from the domestic to the industrial setting, women's work changed from pro-ducing essential commodities to providing services for their husbands who now bought these commodities with their wages. Women's household work, "because it is outside the money economy in a society which determines value on the basis of money, is valueless."34 This resulted in wives becoming more economically and socially dependent on their husbands 12 . w h i l e husbands became l e s s dependent on t h e i r w i v e s . The Economic and Domestic Spheres before the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n While the Cottage I n d u s t r y system e x i s t e d , women and the f a m i l y were fundamental ly connected to the s t r u g g l e f o r e x i s t e n c e . I n t r a d i t i o n a l ( n o n - i n d u s t r i a l i z e d ) s o c i e t i e s , work and f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s tend to be l i n k e d as p a r t s of an i n t e g r a t e d c u l t u r a l whole. . . . The u n i t of p r o -d u c t i o n i s the u n i t of k i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and l i f e i s not d i v i d e d i n t o what one does to earn a l i v i n g — c a l l e d work—and what one does the r e s t of the t ime. The l o c a t i o n of work does not e n t a i l s e p a r a t i o n from f a m i l y l i f e , and the v a l u e s r e l a t i n g to performance i n the work r o l e and the f a m i l y r o l e do not p r e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t and c o n f l i c t i n g g o a l s i n each. A l l a d u l t s work, and s t a t u s i n the community, for a d u l t s of both s e x e s , d e r i v e s as much from i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a f a m i l y as from i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of w o r k . Before the advent of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n the f a m i l y was a p r o d u c t i v e u n i t . Most people l i v e d a t a s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l and women's work was n e c e s s a r y to the f a m i l y ' s s u r v i v a l . They made bread, c l o t h , soap, c a n d l e s and m e d i c i n e s , and most other e s s e n t i a l commodities. The home was a manufactur ing c e n t r e . Today's s t y l e of housework; c l e a n i n g , shopping, and t i d y i n g , were not the major p a r t of women's work. The work of men and women was of equal importance to t h e i r f a m i l i e s . They d i d not perform the same t a s k s , but the work of both sexes was n e c e s s a r y . While i t i s t r u e t h a t wives were dependent on the work of t h e i r husbands, husbands were e q u a l l y dependent on t h e i r w i v e s . At t h i s p o i n t i t i s r e l e v a n t to r e i t e r a t e t h a t western c o u n t r i e s are h i s t o r i c a l l y p a t r i a r c h a l . I n p r e -i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y men d i d beat t h e i r wives as a way of 13 . e n f o r c i n g t h e i r a u t h o r i t y . C a p i t a l i s t i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s c l e a r l y not the b a s i c cause of w i f e abuse. I t i s a popular c o n c e p t i o n , however, t h a t women a r e l e s s dependent on men today than they were i n the p a s t . Although t h i s i s t r u e f o r some women, i t i s an i n t e n t i o n of t h i s paper to demonstrate t h a t the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n of the b a t t e r e d w i f e today i s o f t e n as bad as t h a t of her p r e - i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t e r p a r t . The d i s c r e p a n c y between popular myth and the f a c t s of women's l i v e s i s the core of the d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The Domestic Sphere s i n c e the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n With the advent of the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n men went to work i n the f a c t o r i e s f o r wages. The growth of the market economy saw wage labour and b u s i n e s s r e p l a c e a g r i c u l -t u r e as the main o c c u p a t i o n s . The f a m i l y l o s t i t s f u n c t i o n as the b a s i c u n i t of p r o d u c t i o n . people began producing f o r cash i n s t e a d of meeting the f a m i l y ' s immediate needs. Middle c l a s s women remained a t home but the n a t u r e of t h e i r work changed d r a m a t i c a l l y . Most e s s e n t i a l s were bought i n s t e a d o f made. By the end of the c e n t u r y , h a r d l y anyone made t h e i r own s t a r c h or b o i l e d t h e i r laundry i n a k e t t l e . I n the c i t i e s , women bought t h e i r bread and a t l e a s t t h e i r underwear ready-made, sent t h e i r c h i l d r e n out to s c h o o l and probably some c l o t h e s out to be l a u n d e r e d , and were debat ing the m e r i t s of canned f o o d s . 3 6 There began to be a domestic v o i d i n middle c l a s s homes. Working c l a s s women merely moved to the f a c t o r i e s and cont inued making domestic n e c e s s i t i e s t h e r e . Middle c l a s s women were i n a quandary as to what to do w i t h t h e i r t ime. With nothing to make, t h e r e was nothing to do. I t 14 . became c o n c e i v a b l e f o r many women to escape f u l l - t i m e domestic d u t i e s . Many thought, however, t h a t the home was the b a s i s of the s o c i a l order and t h a t removing women from the home would undermine s o c i e t y and c r e a t e s o c i a l i n s t a b i l i t y . For t h i s and other r e a s o n s , which i t i s beyond the scope of o n t h i s paper to e x p l a i n , i t was deemed n e c e s s a r y t h a t the home be saved. Thus, a r e f o r m u l a t i o n of women's domestic work was c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y . I n e s s e n c e , C a p i t a l i s t i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n produced a v i o l e n t upheaval i n s o c i a l l i f e . The f a m i l y ceased to be a p r o d u c t i v e u n i t ; p a t r i a r c h y was s e r i o u s l y under -mined. What o c c u r r e d i n the e a r l y decades of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y was no l e s s than the c r e a t i o n of a new c u l t u r e — t h e c u l t u r e of monopoly c a p i t a l i s m . . . . The r e f o r m a t i o n of women's domestic l a b o r was p a r t of a g e n e r a l e f f o r t to r e c o n s t r u c t the f a m i l y , which had been s e r i o u s l y weakened as an agency of s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c en tu r y . 3 8 E h r e n r e i c h and E n g l i s h , i n The Manufacture of House-work , c l a i m t h a t out of t h i s s i t u a t i o n the domestic s c i e n c e movement developed. The main purpose of t h i s movement was to keep women a t home. I t was based on a c e r t a i n moral code of r i g h t l i v i n g , d e s c r i b e d as "a p a t t e r n of l i f e turned inward on d o m e s t i c i t y , p a s s i o n a t e l y concerned w i t h order and p r i v a c y , and centered on the f u l l - t i m e homemaker. The domestic s c i e n c e movement r e d e f i n e d the t a s k s women were to perform and s e t h i g h e r standards f o r t h i s work. Modern t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances d i d not reduce the amount of time devoted to house-* work; they i n c r e a s e d i t . Standards became much h i g h e r . People owned more c l o t h e s and washed them more o f t e n . Women h a d n ' t washed each of t h e i r n ine c h i l d r e n weekly, but they were now b a t h i n g t h e i r two or three c h i l d r e n every day. 15 . They d i d n ' t w a i t f o r a s p r i n g c l e a n i n g to r e a l l y c l e a n the house, they d i d i t d a i l y . Women were i n d o c t r i n a t e d to b e l i e v e t h a t w i t h f a s t i d i o u s housekeeping would come good h e a l t h f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s , and there was g u i l t a t t a c h e d to not being a good house c l e a n e r . With t h e i r growing d i s t a n c e from p r o d u c t i o n and from s u r v i v a l t a s k s , women became more s u b o r d i n a t e t o , and depend-ent on, men. Men p r o v i d e d f o r the e s s e n t i a l s w i t h t h e i r wages and women's work was now c l e a r l y of a secondary n a t u r e . As most goods and many s e r v i c e s were now bought i n the market p l a c e , women as housewives were dependent on men f o r m a t e r i a l n e c e s s i t i e s . While t h e i r work was u s e f u l to t h e i r f a m i l i e s i t was not as v a l u a b l e as work for wages. I t i s t h i s s e c o n -dary work r o l e which r e s u l t s i n the h o u s e w i f e ' s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n being one of s u b o r d i n a t i o n to her husband. The one e s s e n t i a l f u n c t i o n t h a t i s s t i l l performed by the housewife i s c h i l d - r e a r i n g . The f a m i l y i s the main v e h i c l e through which people are s o c i a l i z e d to p a r t a k e i n s o c i e t y . S e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s a c e n t r a l p a r t of t h i s f u n c t i o n . Before d i s c u s s i n g t h i s s o c i a l i z a t i o n , the paper w i l l look a t women's p o s i t i o n i n the economic realm. Women i n the Economic Sphere S i n c e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , not a l l women have worked only i n the home. Some a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the labour f o r c e . P o s s e s s i n g job s k i l l s t h a t a l low one to earn a l i v e a b l e wage c l e a r l y i s b e n e f i c i a l to a woman whose dependence on her h u s -band i s d e t r i m e n t a l to her p h y s i c a l and emotional w e l l - b e i n g 16 . and t h e r e f o r e a b a t t e r e d woman who i s a b l e to e n t e r the l a b o u r market i s i n a much b e t t e r p o s i t i o n than one who i s not . I f she f i n d s i t n e c e s s a r y to s t r i k e out on her own, i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e f o r a woman today to f i n d an i n t e r e s t i n g , w e l l - p a y i n g j o b . The f a c t i s , however, t h a t t n i s i s p o s -s i b l e f o r o n l y a s m a l l m i n o r i t y of women. Even the woman who i s a b l e to o b t a i n o u t s i d e employment i s not l i k e l y to be a b l e to support her f a m i l y a t a comfortable s t y l e of l i v i n g . Women s t i l l do not have e q u a l a c c e s s to the l a b o u r market nor do they e x p e r i e n c e equal o p p o r t u n i t y once a p a r t of i t . While i n some ways the s o c i a l p o s i t i o n of women has improved i n the l a s t c e n t u r y , a look a t the s i t u a t i o n of most women i n the labour market shows how f a r women have to go to o b t a i n e q u a l i t y w i t h men. I t should be kept i n mind t h a t the f o l l o w i n g r e l a t e s o n l y to women a c t u a l l y i n the labour f o r c e . The o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r independence are f a r worse for many who are not i n c l u d e d h e r e . I n 1978 women made up o n e - t h i r d of the work f o r c e . 4 0 C l o s e examination i n d i c a t e s t h a t The momentous changes i n the sex composit ion of the labour f o r c e have n o t , however, been accompanied by changes i n the k i n d s of work women do f o r pay. They are s t i l l overwhelmingly s l o t t e d i n t o s p e c i f i c i n d u s -t r i e s and o c c u p a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by low pay, low s k i l l r e q u i r e m e n t s , low p r o d u c t i v i t y , and low p r o s -p e c t s f o r advancement. There i s women's work and there i s men's work. And women c o n t i n u e to be d i s -p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y segregated into* many of the l e a s t a t t r a c t i v e j o b s . ' * ! I n the l a s t decade s e v e r a l Canadian s t u d i e s have examined the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of men and women i n the labour f o r c e . The Royal Commission on the S t a t u s of Women 17 . i s probably the most e x h a u s t i v e of t h e s e . Very b r i e f l y , the commissioners found - women i n p a i d work are handicapped by d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n i n p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e ; - equal pay laws are i n a d e q u a t e ; - pay r a t e s f o r women and men are o f t e n d i f f e r e n t ; - pay i s g e n e r a l l y lower f o r t r a d i t i o n a l l y female p r o f e s s i o n s than f o r other p r o f e s s i o n s ; 4 o - compared to men, few women reach s e n i o r l e v e l s . I n "The Canadian Labour F a r c e : Jobs f o r Women", M. Marchak quotes the f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c s i n order to demon-s t r a t e t h a t the working woman f a r e s l e s s w e l l than her male c o u n t e r p a r t i n the l a b o u r market. She r e p o r t s t h a t 85% of a l l working women are employed i n white c o l l a r jobs or i n the s e r v i c e s e c t o r . Yet o n l y 13% of managers are women w h i l e women make up 71% of c l e r i c a l workers. T h i r t y - e i g n t p e r c e n t of s a l e s - p e o p l e are women, but they s e l l c o s m e t i c s w h i l e men s e l l i n d u s t r i a l m a t e r i a l s on commission. She c l a i m s t h a t the average income f o r females i s c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than t h a t of males even wnen they are i n the same j o b s . N a t i o n a l f i g u r e s r e v e a l e d t h a t i n 1970 men were p a i d more than women i n 96% of s i m i l a r l y d e s c r i b e d j o b s . On the average, men's s a l a r i e s were between 10% and 15% h i g h e r , but t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y i s as much as 74% i n some j o b s . For example, i n u n i v e r s i t i e s men's median s a l a r i e s are as much as 3 1 . 5 % h i g h e r than women's i n the same job c a t e g o r y . Male bookkeepers earn between 23% and 3 3% more than female bookkeepers and male t e a c h e r s as much as 25% more than female t e a c h e r s . 18 . Marchak's study on white c o l l a r workers i n B. C. i n 1969 found t h a t women's work was g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by low pay and low c o n t r o l over work, and t h a t t h e r e was u s u a l l y a l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r advancement. Seventy p e r -cent of the women i n her study earned l e s s than $450.00 per month, w h i l e t h i s was t r u e f o r o n l y 21% of the men. She was g iven s e v e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s as to why women f a r e d so b a d l y . For example, one reason o f f e r e d was t h a t women were not i n t e r e s t e d i n advancement. She examined these p r o p o s i t i o n s more c l o s e l y , d i s p e l l i n g most of them. The i n f e r e n c e here i s t h a t the most common reason f o r women's l a c k of occupa-t i o n a l s u c c e s s i s t h a t they do not have equal o p p o r t u n i t y to 43 men. I n t h e i r study of women i n the labour market, Armstrong and Armstrong found t h a t s i n c e 1942 female p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e has doubled. I n 19 7 1 , the average 44 income of women was l e s s than o n e - h a l f t h a t of men. They c l a i m t h a t i n the labour market women a r e a back-up s e r v i c e f o r men. I n a d d i t i o n , when women a r e c a l l e d i n t o the l a b o u r f o r c e , the type of work they do i s c l e a r l y of a secondary n a t u r e . Many women, e s p e c i a l l y marr ied women, have formed a r e s e r v e army of l a b o u r , t a k i n g p a i d j o b s when new i n d u s t r i e s and o c c u p a t i o n s were being c r e a t e d , when men were o f f f i g h t i n g wars, when the b u s i n e s s c y c l e was p e a k i n g , when s e a s o n a l or p a r t - t i m e work was a v a i l a b l e . At other stages of c a p i t a l i s t development, i n peacet ime, and a t other p o i n t s of time i n the decade, the y e a r , or the day, they have melted back i n t o the home.4 5 P a t r i a r c h y i s b e n e f i c i a l to our economy. Among other r e a s o n s , t h i s i s due to the s u p p o r t i v e r o l e women p l a y 19 . i n the l a b o u r market. A subsequent s e c t i o n of the paper w i l l d i s c u s s the p r i o r i t y t h a t economic i s s u e s a r e g i v e n over s o c i a l i s s u e s i n our s o c i o - e c o n o m i c system. Women, a c c o r d i n g to some, have i t made. They can choose to work or s t a y a t home, to marry or n o t , to have c h i l d r e n or c a r e e r s or both. Most work a t home; almost h a l f a l s o work i n the l a b o u r f o r c e . I n both c a s e s , the work they do i s u s u a l l y b o r i n g , r e p e t i t i o u s and, i f r e c o g n i z e d a t a l l i n economic terms, low p a i d . 4 6 S e x - R o l e S o c i a l i z a t i o n / | I n order to ensure s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y men and women are each t r a i n e d i n ways t h a t encourage each of the sexes to c o n t i n u e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s o c i a l r o l e . The f a m i l y i s a main v e h i c l e f o r t h i s s e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . j a n d , as are most of 47 our major s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , the f a m i l y i s p a t r i a r c h a l . ^ S u c c e s s f u l s e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n c l e a r l y c o n t r i b u t e s to s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y , and the s t a b i l i t y of s o c i e t y i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a n e g a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . S e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a -t i o n , however, a l s o u n q u e s t i o n a b l y c o n t r i b u t e s to an i n f e r i o r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n for women, and the b a t t e r e d w i f e i s a good example of the r e s u l t s of t h i s p o s i t i o n ) Sex r o l e s are u s u a l l y thought to be a r e s u l t of s o c i a l l e a r n i n g r a t h e r than b i o l o g y . I n t h e i r comprehensive work, The Psychology of Sex D i f f e r e n c e s , Maccoby and J a c k l i n c h a l l e n g e the i d e a t h a t anatomy i s d e s t i n y . They reviewed the f i n d i n g s of most major r e s e a r c h e r s and came to the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s . Research has c o n c l u s i v e l y proven t h a t the f o l l o w i n g c u l t u r a l s t e r e o t y p e s of i n n a t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and b e h a v i o u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s are based on myths. 20 . - G i r l s are more s u g g e s t i b l e than boys. - G i r l s have lower s e l f - e s t e e m . - G i r l s are b e t t e r a t r o t e l e a r n i n g and s i m p l e , r e p e t i t i v e t a s k s ; boys are b e t t e r a t t a s k s i n v o l v i n g h i g h l e v e l c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g . - Boys are more a n a l y t i c a l . - G i r l s are more a f f e c t e d by h e r e d i t y , boys by environment. - G i r l s l a c k achievement m o t i v a t i o n . - G i r l s are more s e n s i t i v e to a u d i t o r y s t i m u l a , boys to v i s u a l . - G i r l s are more p a s s i v e . - G i r l s are more s o c i a l than boys. Maccoby and J a c k l i n say t h a t the f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r -ences have been shown to have some b i o l o g i c a l base. They comment, however, " t h a t wnere a b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s e x i s t s , i t behooves s o c i e t i e s to s o c i a l i z e c h i l d r e n i n such a way as to emphasize and exaggerate the d i f f e r e n c e . " - G i r l s have g r e a t e r v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s than boys. - Boys have b e t t e r s p a t i a l a b i l i t i e s than g i r l s . - Boys have b e t t e r h i g h l e v e l mathematical a b i l i t i e s . - Boys are more a g g r e s s i v e . They say t h a t there i s s t i l l some q u e s t i o n about the f i r s t t h r e e . S t u d i e s on the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s have been ambiguous or too few i n number to draw f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s . I n r e l a t i o n to t a c t i l e s e n s i t i v i t y most s t u d i e s show no d i f f e r e n c e s , but some show g i r l s to be more s e n s i t i v e . I n r e s e a r c h which c o l l e c t e d data by o b s e r v a t i o n , there was shown to be no d i f f e r e n c e between the sexes i n r e l a t i o n to f e a r , t i m i d i t y 21 . or a n x i e t y . I n q u i r i e s which r e l i e d on s e l f r e p o r t s showed t h a t g i r l s were more l i k e l y to e x h i b i t these t r a i t s . S t u d i e s on a c t i v i t y l e v e l s , c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s , and dominance are c o n t r a d i c t o r y . Some show t h a t boys tend to be more p r e -d i s p o s e d towards these t r a i t s , w h i l e o t h e r s show no d i f f e r -ence. G i r l s are more compl iant w i t h the wishes of a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s , w h i l e boys are more i n f l u e n c e d by peer group p r e s s u r e . S t u d i e s on n u r t u r i n g behaviour i n our c u l t u r e i n d i c a t e l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e . Maccoby and J a c k l i n comment t h a t t h e r e i s a tendency for r e s e a r c h e r s to t r y to completely i s o l a t e l e a r n e d behav-i o u r s from i n n a t e b e h a v i o u r s w h i l e what r e s e a r c h probably shows are i n h e r e n t t e n d e n c i e s f o r the sexes to develop d i f -f e r e n t p e r s o n a l t r a i t s . These d i f f e r e n c e s are then emphasized by s o c i a l l e a r n i n g from the moment of b i r t h . Given t h a t t h e r e may be some d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n n a t e t e n d e n c i e s , they conclude t h a t sex r o l e s are l e a r n e d through three p r o c e s s e s ; p a r e n t a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t , the c h i l d ' s i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n w i t h the parent of the same s e x , and by what they c a l l s e l f - s o c i a l i z a t i o n . At a young age the c h i l d l e a r n s c u l t u r a l l y - d e f i n e d concepts of what i t means to be a boy or A O a g i r l and a c t s a c c o r d i n g l y . ° P e r e t t i and Buchanan c l a i m t h a t " I n the s o c i a l i z a -t i o n p r o c e s s , g i r l s l e a r n to be q u i e t , s u b m i s s i v e , d o c i l e and dependent, whereas boys l e a r n to be dominant, a g g r e s s i v e , 4 9 a s s e r t i v e and tough." Men are taught to b e l i e v e t h a t tney should be dominant and d e f e r r e d to i n the f a m i l y s e t t i n g . Women l e a r n t h a t the wife n u r t u r e s her husband and submits to h i s w i l l . 5 0 T h i s s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i s a fundamental t o p i c i n a d i s c u s s i o n of wife b a t t e r i n g as the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s t h a t i t i s these s e x - d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t r a i t s t h a t 51 c h a r a c t e r i z e the v i o l e n t husband and the abused w i f e . We have seen then t h a t w h i l e t h e r e may be i n h e r e n t t e n d e n c i e s f o r boys and g i r l s to develop d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n -a l i t y t r a i t s , these d i f f e r e n c e s are g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s and by the c u l t u r e . S o c i a l s t a b i l i t y b e n e f i t s by the c o n t i n u a t i o n of s e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n i p r e s e n t form. On an i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l t h i s s o c i a l i z a t i o n process has some c a l a m i t o u s r e s u l t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r women C o n c l u s i o n of S e c t i o n I ( Inquiry i n t o the i n c i d e n c e of w i f e abuse r e v e a l s t h a t i t i s a f r e q u e n t , c r o s s - c l a s s , c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o c c u r -rence. I t i s not r e c o g n i z e d as such, however, and t h i s i s due, i n p a r t , to the p r i v a t e n a t u r e of the n u c l e a r f a m i l y . The i m p l i c a t i o n of the o l d adage, "a man's home i s h i s / c a s t l e " , c o n t r i b u t e s to tne common view t h a t what happens between a husband and wife i s c o n f i d e n t i a l . iThe p r e v e n t i o n of problems such as wife b a t t e r i n g i s c l e a r l y a t l e a s t as important as p r o v i s i o n s f o r c r i s i s intervent ion.^ 1 I t i s t h e r e f o r e important to c o n s i d e r t h i s occurrence i n i t s s o c i a l s e t t i n g ) The f a c t t h a t Canada i s h i s t o r i c a l l y as w e l l as p r e s e n t l y p a t r i a r c h a l s h o u l d be c e n t r a l to any s e r i o u s d i s c u s s i o n of w i f e abuse i n t h i s country . I t i s a major h y p o t h e s i s of the paper t h a t p a t r i -archy i s the s i n g l e most i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n t h i s type of v i o l e n c e . T h i s i s not to overlook the f a c t t h a t i n t i m a t e 23 . r e l a t i o n s h i p s are o f t e n e m o t i o n a l l y charged, and t h a t i n an emotional s t a t e one i s more l i k e l y to r e s o r t to p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n . The a c t u a l f a c t of v i o l e n c e , which p a t r i a r c h y does c o n t r i b u t e t o , i s however o n l y p a r t of the dilemma of the b a t t e r e d woman. Her g e n e r a l s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i s u s u a l l y one of dependency on, and s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o , her v i o l e n t h u s -band. I t i s a popular c o n c e p t i o n t h a t women have l a t e l y been l i b e r a t e d from t h e i r secondary s o c i a l s t a t u s . C e r t a i n important r i g h t s , f o r example, the r i g h t to vote and the r i g h t to own p r o p e r t y , have been gained i n the l a s t c e n t u r y or so. The importance of these new p r i v i l e g e s i s not to be d e n i g r a t e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n other ways many women have a c t u a l l y become more s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y dependent on men. T h i s paper has i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t s i n c e the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n t h i s has been p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r housewives. Women who have job s k i l l s and e x p e r i e n c e are i n a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r s i t u a t i o n i f they f i n d themselves i n a p o s i t i o n where i n c r e a s e d independence from t h e i r husbands i s n e c e s s a r y . N o n e t h e l e s s , a r e a l i s t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n of women's o p p o r t u n i -t i e s i n the labour market r e v e a l s t h a t women u s u a l l y do not a c q u i r e jobs which are as w e l l p a i d , as i n t e r e s t i n g , or of equal s t a t u s as those of men. These f a c t o r s cannot h e l p but i n f l u e n c e the s i t u a t i o n of the b a t t e r e d w i f e . wife abuse. F i r s t , i t c o n t r i b u t e s to the v i o l e n t a c t . | l n a s o c i e t y where men are r a i s e d to be dominant and a g g r e s s i v e , S e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s a l s o d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to 24 . The f a c t t h a t p h y s i c a l abuse happens most o f t e n i n r e l a t i o n -s h i p s where the woman has more e d u c a t i o n and a h i g h e r s t a t u s job than does the man supports t h i s t h e o r y . Major t h e o r i s t s agree t h a t wife b a t t e r i n g i s a way of e n f o r c i n g male supremacy i n the f a m i l y . Second, i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r a woman to cope with a v i o l e n t m a r r i a g e , p a r t i c u l a r l y when she has been r a i s e d to b e l i e v e t h a t a woman's most important accomplishment i s a s u c c e s s f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a man. She o f t e n b e l i e v e s t h a t her main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s n u r t u r i n g her husband and c h i l d r e n . V i o l e n c e i s f r e q u e n t l y seen by b a t t e r e d women as an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r own f a i l u r e as w i v e s . I t i s important to r e a l i z e t h a t p a t r i a r c h y p l a y s an important p a r t i n the s t r u c t u r e of the job market and i n our economy i n g e n e r a l . The d i v i s i o n of labour by sex and the use of women as a r e s e r v e army of labour are b e n e f i c i a l h e r e . To c o n c l u d e , t h e r e are three key elements which con-t r i b u t e to the b a t t e r e d woman's dilemma. These a r e : house-wives ' i n c r e a s e d s u b o r d i n a t i o n to t h e i r husbands s i n c e the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n ; women's l a c k of equal a c c e s s to the labour market; and a s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s which encourages women to be dependent on men. These are a l l a l s o d i r e c t l y l i n k e d to p a t r i a r c h y . ^ ^ Henschel and Henschel d e f i n e a s o c i a l problem as "a c o n d i t i o n a f f e c t i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t number of people i n ways c o n -s i d e r e d u n d e s i r a b l e , about which i t i s f e l t something can be done through c o l l e c t i v e s o c i a l a c t i o n . " S o c i a l problems are " s o c i a l i n o r i g i n , s o c i a l i n d e f i n i t i o n , and s o c i a l i n t r e a t -m e n t . " 5 2 T h i s paper d e s c r i b e s wife b a t t e r i n g as one such problem. 25 . I I . SOCIAL POLICY IN RELATION TO THE BATTERED WOMAN The P l a c e of S o c i a l P o l i c y i n P u b l i c P o l i c y C a l l a t h i n g immoral or u g l y , s o u l d e s t r o y i n g or^a d e g r a d a t i o n of man, a p e r i l to the peace of the world or to the w e l l being of f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s ; as long as you have not shown i t to be 'uneconomic' you have not q u e s t i o n e d i t s r i g h t to e x i s t , grow and p r o s p e r . I n t h i s q u o t a t i o n from Smal l i s B e a u t i f u l , A Study of Economics as i f People Mattered (p. 3 4 ) , Schumacher v i v i d l y p o i n t s out the p r i o r i t y t h a t economic i s s u e s r e c e i v e over s o c i a l concerns i n our s o c i o - e c o n o m i c system. I n To T r a v e l H o p e f u l l y , F . R. McKinnon agrees w i t h Schumacher and c l a i m s t h a t t h i s a t t i t u d e i s r e f l e c t e d i n our p u b l i c p o l i c i e s where economic growth i s the pr imary concern r e g a r d -l e s s of r e s u l t a n t s o c i a l e f f e c t s . Economic p o l i c y i s c e n t r a l to p u b l i c p o l i c y , w h i l e s o c i a l p o l i c y i s u s u a l l y an e x t r a or a f r i l l (pp. 2 1 - 3 0 ) . McKinnon a l s o t a l k s of a f a m i l i a l s o c i e t y , where "the person and the q u a l i t y of h i s immediate r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a t home, a t s t u d y , a t work and a t p l a y are p e r c e i v e d as fundamental to the q u a l i t y of the s o c i e t y and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s . " 5 3 According to t h i s d e f i n i t i o n Canada cannot be c o n s i d e r e d to be a " f a m i l i a l s o c i e t y " as these matters are not fundamental to Canadian p u b l i c p o l i c y . The Emphasis on Economic I s s u e s i n P u b l i c P o l i c y and C o n s e q u e n t i a l S o c i a l E f f e c t s The two f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e t h i s emphasis on economics. The f i r s t i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the p r i n c i p l e of economic growth. I n The Power E l i t e , C. Wright M i l l s c l a i m s 26 . t h a t there i s a r u l i n g c l a s s i n our s o c i e t y and t h a t t h i s c l a s s c o n t r o l s major s o c i e t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g govern-ment. I t i s a f e a t u r e of our C a p i t a l i s t system t h a t l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s , which M i l l s c l a i m s are a l s o c o n t r o l l e d by the r u l i n g c l a s s , 5 4 use the media to c o n v i n c e people t h a t they need to buy commodities such as d i s h w a s h e r s , microwave ovens, newer and b e t t e r r e f r i g e r a t o r s , newer and b i g g e r c a r s , e l e c t r i c f l o o r p o l i s h e r s , i n s t a n t foods, e t c . 5 5 McKinnon comments on t h i s s i t u a t i o n by remarking on a " n e g a t i v e tendency i n our s o c i e t y to regard f a m i l i e s and communities i n terms of t h e i r c a p a c i t y to consume an unquestioned and i n c r e a s i n g volume of goods and s e r v i c e s and to accumulate long term d e b t s . " He goes on to comment t h a t t h i s p r e s s u r e to consume c r e a t e s p r e s s u r e to make more and more money w i t h which to buy these commodities. T h i s quest r e s u l t s i n e x c e s s i v e s t r e s s on f a m i l y members and tends to a f f e c t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h one another. I n e s s e n c e , w h i l e t h i s a t t i t u d e i s b e n e f i c i a l f o r economic growth, i t has n e g a t i v e s o c i a l e f f e c t s . Yet govern-ments a t a l l l e v e l s s t r e s s the need for cont inued economic growth and p e r s i s t i n developing p o l i c i e s which have t h a t as 5 7 t h e i r g o a l . T h i s example i l l u s t r a t e s how our system, m i t s e l f , has economic e x p a n s i o n as i t s primary goal and how t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n government p o l i c y . The second example i s s m a l l e r i n scope. I t concerns r e c e n t B. C. government p o l i c y i n r e l a t i o n to the f a m i l y , and i t s e f f e c t s on b a t t e r e d women. I t should be noted t h a t the f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s paper e x p l a i n e d t h a t r e c e n t 5 0 . s t a t i s t i c a l ev idence shows t h a t the i n c i d e n c e of w i f e abuse i s h i g h , so the paper i s not t a l k i n g here about a rare s o c i a l o c c u r r e n c e but a s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l problem. The c u r r e n t B. C. government d e s i g n s s o c i a l p o l i c y aimed at keeping the f a m i l y t o g e t h e r a t a l l c o s t s . T h i s c o n t r i b u t e s to the d i f f i c u l t c i r c u m s t a n c e s of b a t t e r e d women. I n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from her speech r e c o r d e d i n the Proceedings from Symposium on F a m i l y V i o l e n c e (pp. 1 1 1 - 7 1 ) , Gene E r r i n g t o n i l l u s t r a t e s how government gives p r i o r i t y t o economic c o n c e r n s . On J a n u a r y 1 1 , Mr. Vanaer Zalm, The M i n i s t e r of Human R e s o u r c e s , s t a t e d t o the p r o v i n c e t h a t he was v e r y alarmed t h a t p u b l i c money was being spent h e l p i n g people get d i v o r c e d . He s a i d , and I quote, "We are t r y i n g t o keep the f a m i l y t o g e t h e r . The maintenance of t h e s e s p l i t f a m i l i e s i s our b i g g e s t c o n c e r n . " Now we have t o look a t what he i s s a y i n g . One t h i n g about i t , he i s not b e i n g h y p o c r i t i c a l . He i s s a y i n g r i g h t out he i s not concerned about the moral f a b r i c of the community or the s a c r e d n e s s of the h e a r t h or a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t . He's s a y i n g , 'we do not want t o g i v e t h e s e women and t h e i r c h i l d r e n any money. We want to make i t as h a r d as p o s s i b l e f o r them to l e a v e . ' He i s t r y i n g to make sure t h a t he unloads the w i f e and her c h i l d r e n onto some person whose s a l a r y w i l l cover them both. I t occurs t o me t h a t he does not c a r e how i t i s t h a t t h a t woman must e x i s t w i t h i n t h a t f a m i l y , what i t i s she must put up w i t h , the k i n d s of t h i n g s t h a t she must endure. Both of these examples have an e f f e c t on the b a t t e r -ing s i t u a t i o n . The f i r s t may put f u r t h e r s t r e s s on the v i o l e n t home, and the second a f f e c t s the a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l -able to the b a t t e r e d w i f e . I n r e l a t i o n to the f i r s t example there i s a l a c k of comprehensive s o c i a l p o l i c y t h a t would at b e s t r e v e r s e government p r i o r i t i e s , but would a t l e a s t deal e x p l i c i t l y w i t h the n e g a t i v e s o c i a l e f f e c t s of the p r i n c i p l e o f economic growth. The second i s an example of 5 0 . a government p o l i c y t h a t i n i t s e l f p r i o r i z e s economic c o n -cerns over s o c i a l problems. S o c i a l P o l i c y i n R e l a t i o n t o the F a m i l y The Canadian Census has d e f i n e d the f a m i l y as . . . a husband and w i f e , w i t h or without c h i l d r e n , who have never m a r r i e d r e g a r d l e s s o f age, or a p a r e n t w i t h one or more c h i l d r e n never m a r r i e d l i v i n g i n the same d w e l l i n g . A f a m i l y may a l s o c o n s i s t of a man or woman"l iv ing w i t h a g u a r d i a n c h i l d or ward under 2 1 y e a r s f o r whom no pay was r e c e i v e d . According t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , which i s a narrow one, most Canadians l i v e i n f a m i l i e s . 5 8 The f a m i l y i s p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d by our c o m p e t i -t i v e , f r e e e n t e r p r i s e system. Y e t , measures t h a t c o u l d d e a l with t h e s e e f f e c t s a r e not p a r t of the c e n t r a l t h r u s t of our p u b l i c p o l i c y . Furthermore, t h e r e i s no s i n g l e s t r u c t u r e through wnich to a d m i n i s t e r comprehensive s o c i a l p o l i c y e x -p l i c i t l y d i r e c t e d a t the f a m i l y . I n g e n e r a l , t h i s a f f e c t s women more than men. The economic and domestic spheres have been d i v i d e d w i t h i n our s o c i o - e c o n o m i c system. Men have been p r i m a r i l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the economic s e c t o r and women have been r e l e g a t e d to the domestic one. T h i s s i t u a t i o n was d e s c r i b e d i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n of the p a p e r . P u b l i c p o l i c y not o n l y emphasizes the importance of economic matters over s o c i a l ones, i t c o n s i d e r s the domestic s e c t o r to be too p r i v a t e f o r -overt p u b l i c i n t e r -59 v e n t i o n . I n view of t h i s d i v i s i o n of s p h e r e s , the absence of e x p l i c i t f a m i l y p o l i c y can be seen to p a r t i c u l a r l y a f f e c t women. I n the Summary of the Report on the S t a t u s of Women i n Canada, i t i s agreed t h a t marr iage i s not a p a r t n e r s h i p 5 0 . of e q u a l s and t h a t men have the s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n i n t h i s , fi 0 s t i l l h i e r a r c h i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n . By s e e i n g the f a m i l y as a p r i v a t e s p h e r e , where whatever happens i s c o n f i d e n t i a l , government p o l i c y i s m a i n t a i n i n g the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n , which i s c l e a r l y a p a t r i a r c h a l one. " . . . f a m i l y p o l i c y i s a s o c i a l p o l i c y based on a s e r i o u s r e c o g n i t i o n of the p a t t e r n s of a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t e x i s t between i n d i v i d u a l s a t the household l e v e l . There i s no m i n i s t r y o f the f a m i l y i n Canada and p u b l i c p o l i c i e s which r e l a t e t o the f a m i l y o f t e n d e a l w i t h o n l y one f a c e t of a problem i n s t e a d of d e a l i n g w i t h i t i n a comprehensive manner. T h i s i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n the c a s e of the b a t t e r e d woman. Those working t o improve the p o s i t i o n of t h e s e women have to d e a l s e p a r a t e l y w i t h a l l t a r g e t s of change—welfare p o l i c y , h e a l t h p o l i c y , l e g a l p o l i c y , housing p o l i c y , and p e r s o n a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e p o l i c y . Many i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s have developed e x p l i c i t p o l i c i e s d e a l i n g w i t h f a m i l i e s and have m i n i s t r i e s and s o c i a l programs d e s i g n e d to have a d e l i b e r a t e and coherent impact upon f a m i l i e s and upon the s t r e s s e s faced by f a m i l i e s . I n c o n t r a s t Canada i s one of another group of i n d u s -t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s — a group t h a t l a c k s coherent f a m i l y p o l i c y ; such f a m i l y p o l i c y as e x i s t s i s o f t e n s c a t t e r e d between d i f f e r e n t programs, i s o f t e n i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r a -d i c t o r y , and i s r a r e l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as p a r t of a whole. To say t h a t e x p l i c i t comprehensive f a m i l y p o l i c y does not e x i s t i n Canada i s not to suggest t h a t t h e r e i s no s o c i a l p o l i c y i n r e l a t i o n to the f a m i l y . E x i s t i n g p o l i c y , however, i s n e i t h e r e x p l i c i t nor comprehensive. A l f r e d Kahn d e s c r i b e s the s i t u a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g way. 5 0 . Now the l a c k of an e x p l i c i t p o l i c y does not mean t h a t t h e r e i s no p o l i c y . . . the e t h i c of p r i v a c y i n B r i t a i n makes i t hard to f a c e the e x p l i c i t p o l i c y , but i t does not mean t h a t t h e r e i s no p o l i c y . I f you look c a r e f u l l y a t the r e g u l a t i o n s and the r u l e s and the p r o -cedures and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s i n s u c h domains as s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , t a x a t i o n , h o u s i n g and p e r s o n a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , you see many t h i n g s . You d i s c o v e r , f o r e x -ample, a t t i t u d e s about m a r r i a g e , a t t i t u d e s about p a r e n t -hood, a t t i t u d e s about r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r e n t s , which a r e b u i l t i n t o t h e s e systems and r e i n f o r c e d even though many of them may not n e c e s s a r i l y c o i n c i d e w i t h c u r r e n t i d e o l o g i e s and p o l i t i c a l g o a l s . We b u i l d i n t o these p o l i c i e s a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r between men and women, e x p e c t a t i o n s about c h i l d r e n , supports or l a c k of s u p p o r t s f o r o l d p e o p l e . We even b u i l d i n assumptions about the micro-economy o f the fami ly> what happens to the pay cheque, what happens to the c h i l d r e n ' s a l l o w a n c e cheque, what happens to the t a x r e b a t e , what happens t o the w i f e ' s s a l a r y cheque. And, i n a l l o f t h i s , we r e i n f o r c e s o c i a l norms, we v e r y o f t e n f a i l t o f a c e s o c i a l change i n t e n t i o n s , and we d o n ' t respond t o c u r r e n t n e e d . 6 3 y The l a c k of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , s u c h as a M i n i s t r y of the F a m i l y , r e s u l t s i n a s i t u a t i o n whereby d e t e r -mining what government p o l i c y i s i n r e l a t i o n to the f a m i l y r e q u i r e s examining v a r i o u s r e l a t e d a r e a s where s u c h p o l i c y i s , i n f a c t , h i d d e n . I n o r d e r t o examine more c l o s e l y C a n a d i a n s o c i a l p o l i c y i n r e l a t i o n to the f a m i l y , the paper w i l l now explore the ways t h a t the l e g a l system and the s o c i a l w e l f a r e system d e a l w i t h the b a t t e r e d w i f e . I n Canada, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l e g a l and s o c i a l w e l f a r e m a t t e r s i s d i v i d e d between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments. As t h i s d i v i s i o n i s i n t r i c a t e and c o m p l i c a t e d , and as i t i s not c e n t r a l t o the d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s p a p e r , i t i s not e x p l a i n e d h e r e . L f g a l Policy i n Relation to Battered Wives T h i s e x p l o r a t i o n w i l l b e g i n w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n of the l e g a l system v i s - a - v i s b a t t e r e d women. 5 0 . These women u n q u e s t i o n a b l y need r e l i a b l e l e g a l p r o t e c t i o n , p r o b a b l y even more than do o t h e r v i c t i m s of v i o l e n c e . They are o f t e n i n c l o s e r p r o x i m i t y t o t h e i r a g g r e s s o r s , and w i f e b e a t i n g i s not u s u a l l y a o n e - t i m e 64 o c c u r r e n c e . Once they have moved from t h e i r m a r i t a l r e s i d e n c e they c o n t i n u e t o need such p r o t e c t i o n . I f the w i f e does manage t o e s c a p e , her husband o f t e n s t a l k s her l i k e a hunted a n i m a l . He s c o u r s the neighbourhood, c o n t a c t s f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s , goes t o a l l the l i k e l y p l a c e s where she may have sought r e f u g e , and checks w i t h p u b l i c a g e n c i e s to t r a c k her down. I f she works, the b a t t e r e d w i f e i s a f r a i d her husband w i l l show up on the j o b , make a scene and c a u s e her to be f i r e d . I f she has t a k e n an apartment of h e r own she l i v e s i n c o n s t a n t dread t h a t he w i l l f i n d h e r . With every c a r i d l i n g on the s t r e e t , each f o o t s t e p i n the h a l l , every n o i s e o u t s i d e h e r door, she f r e e z e s i n t e r r o r . . . u n l e s s she can a f f o r d t o l e a v e town and e f f e c t i v e l y d i s a p p e a r . T h i s i s the s i t u a t i o n f o r many women who have l e f t . I t i s o b v i o u s l y worse f o r those who a r e s t i l l i n the home. How, i n f a c t , does the l e g a l system o p e r a t e i n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s ? I t s h o u l d be s t a t e d , f i r s t of a l l , t h a t the l e t t e r of the law makes no d i s t i n c t i o n between h u s b a n d - w i f e a s s a u l t and any o t h e r a s s a u l t . Wife b a t t e r i n g , t h e r e f o r e , i s t e c h n i -c a l l y a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e under s e c t i o n s 244, 2 4 5 , and 246 of the C r i m i n a l Code. The p a p e r ' s e x a m i n a t i o n o f the a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n o f the law w i l l b e g i n by c o n s i d e r i n g t h e a c t i o n (or i n a c t i o n ) of the p o l i c e i n such m a t t e r s . I n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n of the p a p e r , i t was mentioned t h a t c o l l e c t i n g s t a t i s t i c s on the i n c i d e n c e r a t e of domestic v i o l e n c e i s d i f f i c u l t because men and women do not l i k e to admit to v i o l e n c e i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Conse-q u e n t l y , w i f e abuse i s one o f the most u n d e r - r e p o r t e d c r i m e s . 5 0 . Wife a s s a u l t i s p r o b a b l y the e a s i e s t cr ime to commit without g e t t i n g c a u g h t . Many women do not r e p o r t a s s a u l t s a t a l l or they r e p o r t o n l y one or two of the most s e r i o u s of t h e i r a t t a c k s . Most middle c l a s s women would never dream of " c a l l i n g the c o p s . " I n g e n e r a l , b a t t e r e d women o n l y phone the p o l i c e o c c a s i o n a l l y . 6 6 I n f a c t , t h i s h e s i t a t i o n t o c o n t a c t the p o l i c e probably does not make much d i f f e r e n c e to the s i t u a t i o n . V i r t u a l l y a l l of the l i t e r a t u r e on p o l i c e response t o t h i s problem i n d i c a t e s t h a t p o l i c e cannot be counted on to a c t i n a manner which w i l l a s s i s t the woman i n o b t a i n i n g p r o t e c t i o n from her v i o l e n t husband. The f i r s t problem i s t h a t p o l i c e o f t e n d o n ' t come when c a l l e d . I n h i s r e s e a r c h on p o l i c e response to domestic d i s p u t e s , Dutton r e p o r t e d the f o l l o w i n g . We found f i r s t of a l l t h a t the p o l i c e were p r e t t y r e l u c t a n t t o answer f a m i l y c r i s i s c a l l s ; t h a t i n men-women f i g h t s where p o l i c e p r e s e n c e was s p e c i f i c a l l y r e -quested a c a r was d i s p a t c h e d 5 3 . 8 % of the t i m e . But i n the m a j o r i t y of t h e s e d i s p a t c h e s the c a r was s e n t out on a p r i o r i t y two c a l l . The r e s t of the t i m e , about 45% of the t i m e , a d v i c e was g i v e n t o the c a l l e r ; t h a t i s , they were t o l d t h a t the i n c i d e n t was not a p o l i c e m a t t e r , and/or they were informed of the law i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e . Now what t h a t means i s t h a t i n o n l y about 10% of the c a s e s where p o l i c e s e r v i c e was r e q u e s t e d i n a f a m i l y v i o l e n c e s i t u a t i o n was a c a r d i s p a t c h e d on a p r i o r i t y one b a s i s , which i s not v e r y o f t e n compared to c a l l s f o r s e r v i c e on a B&E, or b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g , where a c a r i s d i s p a t c h e d v i r t u a l l y 100% of the t i m e . Now we a l s o found t h a t t h e r e were c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t a c a l l e r c o u l d say t h a t would i n c r e a s e the p r o b -a b i l i t y of t h e i r r e c e i v i n g p o l i c e s e r v i c e . I f they mentioned v i o l e n c e , f o r example, the p r o b a b i l i t y went up to 58%. I f they mentioned v i o l e n c e and weapons the p r o b a b i l i t y went up t o 67%. I f they mentioned v i o l e n c e and a l c o h o l i t a l s o went up to 6 7%. I f they mentioned v i o l e n c e and t h a t c h i l d r e n were i n v o l v e d the p r o b a b i l i t y went up t o 7 3 % . So the mention of any one of these t h i n g s improved t h e i r chances of r e c e i v i n g p o l i c e s e r v i c e . T h i s d i s p a t c h r a t e was not a f f e c t e d by resource a v a i l a b i l i t y ; t h a t i s , i t w a s n ' t t h a t the p o l i c e d i d n ' t have c a r s a v a i l a b l e because the r a t e d i d not f l u c t u a t e depending on the time o f day or the s h i f t . 5 0 . So t h a t even a t t i m e s when t h e r e were c a l l s made i n the e a r l y morning and t h e r e were a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h number of p o l i c e c a r s a v a i l a b l e , t h e d i s p a t c h r a t e remained t h e same.6 7 / Dutton r e p o r t s t h a t once t h e p o l i c e a r r i v e on the scene t h e y do one o f t h r e e t h i n g s . They e i t h e r s e p a r a t e t h e c o u p l e t e m p o r a r i l y , sometimes by a s k i n g the man t o l e a v e the house f o r t h e n i g h t , t h e y t e l l t h e c o u p l e t h a t d o m e s t i c v i o l e n c e i s a c i v i l o f f e n c e and s h o u l d be t r e a t e d a c c o r d i n g l y ( t h i s i s not t r u e ) o r , i f t h e man i s d r u n k , t h e y may t r y t o g e t him o u t s i d e and t h e n p r o c e e d t o a r r e s t him f o r b e i n g drunk i n a p u b l i c p l a c e . They a r e v e r y r e l u c t a n t t o p r e s s c h a r g e s and do so i n o n l y 7% o f c a s e s . I n f a c t , t h e y o f t e n t r y t o d i s s u a d e t h e woman from p r e s s i n g c h a r g e s b e c a u s e women o f t e n do not f o l l o w t h r o u g h w i t h them. S h i r l e y S m a l l d i s c u s s e s t h i s h e s i t a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f abused w i v e s t o f o l l o w t h r o u g h w i t h c o u r t p r o c e d u r e s . She s a y s i t u s u a l l y t a k e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x weeks from t h e t i m e the charge i s l a i d u n t i l i t i s h e a r d i n c o u r t . D u r i n g t h a t t ime the woman o f t e n must l i v e w i t h h e r a t t a c k e r . When t h e c a s e f i n a l l y i s h e a r d , i f i t i s a f i r s t o f f e n c e , i t i s o f t e n a d j o u r n e d and h e a r d months l a t e r . N a t u r a l l y , most husbands a r e enraged t h a t t h e i r w i v e s have l a i d the c o m p l a i n t . As t h e s e men a r e prone t o v i o l e n c e , t h i s u s u a l l y c o n s t i t u t e s fi ft another r e a s o n f o r a b e a t i n g . I f , d e s p i t e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s , t h e woman r e a c h e s a J u s t i c e of the Peace i n o r d e r t o l a y t h e c h a r g e , she i s not l i k e l y to f a r e any b e t t e r h e r e t h a n she d i d w i t h t h e p o l i c e . The Task F o r c e on F a m i l y V i o l e n c e r e p o r t s t h a t J . P . ' s o f t e n 5 0 . r e f u s e to a c c e p t t h e s e charges or they r e f e r the woman to o t h e r s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by F a m i l y C o u r t . R e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h the husband i s o f t e n - t i m e s s u g g e s t e d . 6 9 Even i f the J . P . does a c c e p t the c o m p l a i n t i t i s u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d to F a m i l y C o u r t , even when the a s s a u l t i s s e r i o u s . A l l o t h e r a s s a u l t c a s e s are heard i n C r i m i n a l C o u r t . T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t to emphasize, because i t i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f e r e n c e between being a s s a u l t e d by o n e ' s husband and being a s s a u l t e d by a s t r a n g e r . F a m i l y C o u r t i s concerned w i t h f a m i l y p r o b -lems. Quite n a t u r a l l y , a major f o c u s t h e r e i s d e a l i n g w i t h problems of communication, where r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s o f t e n a g o a l . R e f e r r i n g s e r i o u s a s s a u l t c a s e s t o t h i s c o u r t i n d i -c a t e s t h a t w i f e b a t t e r i n g i s seen by the l e g a l system as a communication problem r a t h e r than a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e . A Vancouver F a m i l y C o u r t j u d g e , when s p e a k i n g a t the U n i t e d Way Fami ly V i o l e n c e Symposium, a d m i t t e d t h a t he had heard c a s e s charged under s e c t i o n 74 5 of the C r i m i n a l Code, the s e c t i o n which p r o v i d e s f o r Peace Bonds, which would undoubtedly 70 q u a l i f y as attempted murder c a s e s . I f the c a s e proceeds p a s t the J u s t i c e of the Peace and i s heard i n c o u r t , the f i n a l outcome i s u s u a l l y a r e s t r a i n i n g o r d e r . T h i s i s a p i e c e of paper which s a y s the husband w i l l not a s s a u l t h i s w i f e a g a i n , and i f he does he w i l l pay a f i n e . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s , of t h i s measure i s d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g . What happens, i n f a c t , i s t h a t l i t t l e d e a l s a r e made, l i t t l e agreements are reached before the c a s e even goes to c o u r t , and t h a t women f a c e the judge w i t h t h i n g s a l r e a d y d e c i d e d , and the d e c i s i o n i s u s u a l l y t h a t i f the man i s found g u i l t y h e ' s g i v e n a suspended 5 0 . sentence or he s i g n s some paper t h a t s a y s he w i l l not do i t a g a i n , and the two of them a r e s e n t home. There was a p a r t i c u l a r l y b r u t a l i n c i d e n c e of t h i s j u s t l a s t month. An immigrant woman by the name of J u m i l l a Dean, w i t h a r e c o r d o f v i o l e n c e t h a t extends back to the l e n g t h of her m a r r i a g e and, from the i n f o r -mation I have, c e r t a i n l y w i t h i n the y e a r t h a t s h e ' s been i n Vancouver, i n c l u d i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n by VGH and Human R e s o u r c e s , f i n a l l y went t o c o u r t , and charged her h u s -band w i t h c r i m i n a l a s s a u l t ( i t was agreed t h a t t h i s would be h e l d , as I s a y , i n F a m i l y C o u r t r a t h e r than i n C r i m i n a l C o u r t ) . She was persuaded the day b e f o r e the c o u r t t o agree t o r e t u r n home w i t h him i f he s i g n e d such a paper t h a t he would not h i t her anymore. I u n d e r s t a n d from the people who t o l d me t h a t she d i d t h i s , t h a t he was g i v e n a suspended s e n t e n c e , • t h e y went home, and f o u r days l a t e r she was dead; and her husband has been charged w i t h the m u r d e r . 7 1 I n summary, l e g a l p o l i c y i n r e l a t i o n to w i f e abuse i s c o n f u s i n g . . . . the law . . . makes i t i l l e g a l f o r a husband to a s s a u l t h i s w i f e and y e t a c t s l e n i e n t l y when he comes before the bench; . . . the p o l i c e who m a i n t a i n t h a t they p r o t e c t the v i c t i m s of c r i m e s . . . do l i t t l e or nothing when the v i c t i m i s a w i f e who has been a s s a u l t e d by her husband.72 The l e t t e r of the law i n d i c a t e s t h a t a s s a u l t i n g o n e ' s w i f e i s i l l e g a l i n e x a c t l y the same way as a s s a u l t i n g o n e ' s neighbour. An a n a l y s i s o f l e g a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p r o -c e d u r e s , however, i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s i s not the c a s e . P o l i c e do not t r e a t domestic a s s a u l t the same way they do o t h e r a s s a u l t c a s e s . They cannot be r e l i e d on to respond to domestic c a l l s and when they do respond they a r e r e l u c t a n t to p r e s s c h a r g e s . I n the i n s t a n c e s when j u s t i c e s , of the peace do a c c e p t c h a r g e s , they u s u a l l y r e f e r them to F a m i l y C o u r t i n s t e a d of C r i m i n a l C o u r t , where a s s a u l t c a s e s are u s u a l l y heard. The f a c t t h a t i n the l e g a l system a s s a u l t c a s e s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o domestic a s s a u l t and o t h e r a s s a u l t s , w i t h the 36 . former b e i n g t r e a t e d l e s s h a r s h l y , amounts t o a s o c i a l s a n c t i o n i n g of w i f e abuse. I t i s t h i s l e g i t i m i z i n g of wife a s s a u l t t h a t i s the most s e r i o u s e f f e c t of the a c t i o n s of the l e g a l system. The f a c t t h a t p o l i c e , j u s t i c e s o f the p e a c e , and judges h e s i t a t e to i n t e r v e n e and to t r e a t t h i s a s s a u l t as they would o t h e r s i n d i c a t e s t h a t they c o n s i d e r t h e home to be too p r i v a t e f o r p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n . T h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r i g n o r i n g the i n c i d e n t l e a d s most r e s e a r c h e r s to b e l i e v e t h a t what a man does to h i s w i f e i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d by the 7 ^ l e g a l system t o be h i s own b u s i n e s s . "Men r e t a i n power and c o n t r o l i n f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s i n two p r i m a r y w a y s — p h y s i c a l l y and f i n a n c i a l l y . The l e g a l system, by a c c e p t i n g the p a t r i -a r c h a l model o f the f a m i l y , r e i n f o r c e s t h i s c o n t r o l . " 7 4 By not i n t e r v e n i n g f i r m l y and f o r c e f u l l y i n c a s e s of w i f e a s s a u l t , the l e g a l system i s u p h o l d i n g p a t r i a r c h y . The S o c i a l S e r v i c e System and the Abused Wife The motive behind the work of a l l f a m i l y case-work o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s the s u p p o r t and s t r e n g t h e n i n g of the f a m i l y . A b a t t e r e d w i f e s t r u g g l i n g t o break away from a d i s a s t r o u s marr iage can expect l i t t l e sympathy from a s o c i a l worker, and i n many c a s e s she e x p e r i e n c e s down-r i g h t h o s t i l i t y . The s o c i a l worker i s t r a i n e d to c o n s i d e r both s i d e s of a m a r i t a l problem, which i s n o r m a l l y a j u s t and f a i r approach, but where the woman i s being s a v a g e l y beaten i t seems h a r d l y r e a s o n a b l e t o pause and weigh the m e r i t s of the c a s e . I n the m a j o r i t y of c a s e s where a b a t t e r e d woman p r e -s e n t s h e r s e l f a t the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s she w i l l be t o l d t h a t t h e r e i s nothing t h a t can be done f o r h e r because (a) she i s t e c h n i c a l l y not homeless , as she has a home to go t o and a husband to m a i n t a i n h e r , and t h e r e f o r e she i s not the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the S t a t e ; and (b) the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s cannot make a moral judgement on a m a r r i a g e : by t h a t they mean t h a t they d o n ' t want to 5 0 . take s i d e s — g i v i n g a w i f e r e f u g e presupposes g u i l t on the p a r t of the husband. However, i t never o c c u r s to them t h a t by r e f u s i n g her r e f u g e they presuppose t h a t the husband i s i n n o c e n t . 7 5 The l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g the s o c i a l s e r v i c e approach to the abused w i f e r e p o r t s t h a t t h e s e s e r v i c e s a r e o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c e r t a i n a m b i g u i t y . Whi le most workers d i s a p p r o v e of the concept o f w i f e b a t t e r i n g , they do not 7 fi f o c u s c l e a r l y on the a c t u a l i n c i d e n t of a b u s e . S o c i a l s e r v i c e p o l i c y i s o f t e n d e t r i m e n t a l to the woman who e x i s t s i n a v i o l e n t m a r r i a g e . As i n the c a s e of the l e g a l system, the s o c i a l s e r v i c e system p o s s e s s e s i n t e r n a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s when i t comes t o the i s s u e of women i n m a r r i a g e . As the s u b j e c t under d i s c u s s i o n here i s government s o c i a l p o l i c y and the b a t t e r e d w i f e , t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l d e a l o n l y w i t h the p u b l i c s o c i a l s e r v i c e system and i t s p o l i c i e s . The d i s c u s s i o n ' w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s — s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and p e r s o n a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . I t i s noted h e r e , however, t h a t the l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t does not u s u a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s o u r c e s of t h e r a p y . I t t h e r e f o r e i n f e r s t h a t p r i v a t e t h e r a p i s t s a r e g u i l t y of the same f a u l t s as p u b l i c s o c i a l w o r k e r s . 7 7 I n a d d i t i o n , mental h e a l t h workers too o f t e n d e a l w i t h the problem by 7 8 merely a d m i n i s t e r i n g m e d i c a t i o n . Common thought has i t t h a t b a t t e r e d wives a r e not trapped s i n c e they can always l e a v e t h e i r husbands. U n f o r -t u n a t e l y , t h i s i s not as easy as i t sounds. As was e x p l a i n e d i n S e c t i o n I of the p a p e r , many women a r e f i n a n c i a l l y depend-ent on t h e i r husbands. C o n t r a r y to p u b l i c o p i n i o n , p u b l i c 5 0 . s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s not always an o p t i o n f o r t h e s e women. For some to l e a v e , i t i s a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l t h a t they o b t a i n l i v i n g expenses f o r themselves and t h e i r c h i l d r e n , a t l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y . I n most p l a c e s w e l f a r e p o l i c y s t i p u -l a t e s t h a t a woman cannot be g r a n t e d w e l f a r e u n t i l she has an address d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of a husband who supported h e r . As she o f t e n cannot r e n t a s e p a r a t e r e s i d e n c e w i t h o u t a c a s h d e p o s i t , she cannot o b t a i n a s e p a r a t e a d d r e s s . I n B. C. the M i n i s t r y of Human Resources p o l i c y goes even f u r t h e r . B e s i d e s e s t a b l i s h i n g a s e p a r a t e a d d r e s s , she i s expected to demand t h a t her husband s u p p o r t her and any dependent c h i l d r e n . The worker i s t o encourage the woman i n t h i s quest as w e l l as i n any attempts a t r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . The P o l i c y and P r o c e d u r e s Manual f o r the G . A . I . N . A c t s t a t e s : Where f a m i l y breakdown has o c c u r r e d , the o b j e c t i v e s of the M i n i s t r y a r e : 1) to a s s i s t the f a m i l y to work towards a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , 2) to ensure t h a t f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t s a r e c o n t i n u e d to the f a m i l y , p r e f e r a b l y by way of v o l u n t a r y support and maintenance payments, or 3) to guide the a p p l i c a n t f o r income a s s i s t a n c e towards l e g a l a c t i o n t o o b t a i n f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t from the spouse. Under "Procedures" the manual s t a t e s : Every e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o c o n t a c t the a p p l i c a n t ' s spouse p r i o r t o any a s s i s t a n c e b e i n g g r a n t e d , and t o e x p l o r e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . Where r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s not p o s s i b l e , the a d m i n i s t e r i n g a u t h o r i t y s h o u l d attempt t o have the a p p l i c a n t ' s spouse v o l u n t a r i l y m a i n t a i n the a p p l i c a n t and any dependent c h i l d r e n . 7 y S o l i c i t i n g t h i s f i n a n c i a l support from the abused w i f e ' s husband would almost c e r t a i n l y i n v o l v e g i v i n g him some i d e a of the w i f e ' s whereabouts. T h i s i s u s u a l l y dangerous f o r the woman who has l e f t . As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , t h e s e men o f t e n s e a r c h f o r t h e i r w i v e s , o n l y to b e a t them a g a i n . 8 0 I n a 1 9 7 8 s t u d y of M i n i s t r y o f Human R e s o u r c e s o f f i c e s , i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t many i n d i v i d u a l o f f i c e s and workers do not f o l l o w t h i s o f f i c i a l p o l i c y . 8 1 T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s s i m i l a r to t h a t i n the l e g a l system. A g a i n , t h e r e i s a d i s c r e p a n c y between o f f i c i a l p o l i c y and i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n the l e g a l system the law i m p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e s t h a t a marr iage l i c e n c e s h o u l d not be used as a way of g i v i n g men and women p e r m i s s i o n t o abuse one a n o t h e r . The law i m p l i e s t h a t husbands and w i v e s , i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to one a n o t h e r , a r e s t i l l s u b j e c t to the laws of the l a n d . I t i s the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the law t h a t does not r e c o g n i z e t h i s . As does l e g a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , B. C. s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e p o l i c y makes d i s t i n c t i v e arrangements f o r m a r r i e d c o u p l e s which a r e not always b e n e f i c i a l to those i n v o l v e d . By r e f u s i n g t o a l l o w husbands and wives f i n a n c i a l independence from one a n o t h e r , even when they no l o n g e r wish t o remain m a r r i e d , s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e p o l i c y i s imposing s p e c i a l arrangements between s p o u s e s . These arrangements a r e to be e n f o r c e d even when the spouses do not want them e n f o r c e d . M i n i s t r y of Human Resources o f f i c e s o f t e n do not f o l l o w t h i s p o l i c y , so a g a i n t h e r e i s a d i s c r e p a n c y between o f f i c i a l p o l i c y and i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . As i t i s the woman who i s u s u a l l y t h e f i n a n -c i a l l y dependent spouse, i t i s she who i s most t r a p p e d i n marr iage by t h i s p o l i c y . The p o l i c y t h e r e f o r e upholds the p a t r i a r c h a l s t a t u s quo i n the f a m i l y . 5 0 . P e r s o n a l S o c i a l S e r v i c e s W h i l e most workers who o f f e r therapy c l a i m t o d i s -approve of w i f e a b u s e , the l i t e r a t u r e documents t h a t they tend to i g n o r e i t . Some of the r e a s o n s g i v e n f o r t h i s a r e the f o l l o w i n g : - Most caseworkers b e l i e v e i n k e e p i n g the f a m i l y t o g e t h e r . T h e r e f o r e , a c t i v e l y p u r s u i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of s e p a r a t i o n (which most a u t h o r s a agree s h o u l d be done i n c a s e s of extreme v i o l e n c e ) i s d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e m . 8 2 - The a s s a u l t i s o f t e n viewed as a symptom of o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p problems, r a t h e r than as a problem i n i t s e l f . - Caseworkers a r e themselves confused and unsure about t h i s i n c i d e n t , and t h e r e f o r e do not d e a l w i t h i t e f f e c t i v e l y . - A V a n c o u v e r , B. C. s t u d y found t h a t workers are not w e l l enough t r a i n e d about what t o do i n such c a s e s . • T h i s i s i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t a lmost a l l workers have c l i e n t s who a r e v i c t i m s of w i f e a s s a u l t . - T h i s same s t u d y found t h a t even workers who were i n i t i a l l y s y m p a t h e t i c tended to drop the c a s e i n f r u s t r a t i o n i f an abused w i f e who had l e f t her husband r e t u r n e d to h i m . 8 ^ B. C . M i n i s t r y of Human Resources P o l i c y Manual and S e r v i c e s t o People Annual Report makes no mention of w i f e abuse. However, keeping the f a m i l y t o g e t h e r i s mentioned i n o 7 r e l a t i o n t o t h e f a m i l y . On the b r i g h t s i d e , the M i n i s t r y of Human Resources does s u p p l y funds f o r T r a n s i t i o n Houses, which are temporary r e f u g e s f o r b a t t e r e d women, i n s p i t e of i t s g e n e r a l p o l i c y . C o n c l u s i o n of S e c t i o n I I Economic i s s u e s a r e the c e n t r a l concern of C a n a d i a n p u b l i c p o l i c y . S o c i a l p o l i c y i s secondary t o economic p o l i c y . The f a m i l y , the b a s i c s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , i s p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d by the economic s y s t e m , which i s based on economic growth. Y e t t h e r e i s no s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e t h a t d e a l s w i t h t h i s s o - c a l l e d " b a s i s of s o c i a l order" a t e i t h e r the f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . There i s a H e a l t h and Welfare M i n i s t r y , a Human Resources M i n i s t r y , a M i n i s t r y of D e r e g u l a t i o n , a M i n i s t r y o f F i n a n c e , a M i n i s t r y of Consumer A f f a i r s , a M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r , a M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , a M i n i s t r y of the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , and on and on. There i s , however, no M i n i s t r y of the F a m i l y . A r e s u l t of t h i s i n a t t e n t i o n i s t h a t the l o c u s of many m a r r i e d women's l i v e s i s , i n e f f e c t , o u t s i d e the o f f i -c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d spheres o f s o c i e t y and s o c i a l p o l i c y . I t i s not expected t h a t such a m i n i s t r y c o u l d remedy a l l of the problems f a c i n g the contemporary f a m i l y . The e x i s t e n c e of such a m i n i s t r y would i n d i c a t e , however, t h a t the f a m i l y i s a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n which i s to be o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d and taken s e r i o u s l y , and t h a t c i t i z e n s ' p e r s o n a l l i v e s a r e as important to the c o u n t r y as t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the economy. Such a m i n i s t r y c o u l d develop f a m i l y p o l i c y t h a t would, i n t u r n , s e r v e as a g u i d e l i n e f o r a l l o t h e r p o l i c y t h a t a f f e c t s the f a m i l y . P r o v i s i o n of such g u i d e l i n e s would help ensure t h a t o t h e r f a m i l y - r e l a t e d p o l i c i e s complement one another and a r e i n t e r n a l l y c o h e s i v e i n r e g a r d t o t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p r o c e d u r e s . H o p e f u l l y , such a m i n i s t r y would take i n t o account t h e sometimes changing n a t u r e of the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of men and women. T h i s c o u l d not be counted on, however, as t h i s M i n i s t r y of t h e F a m i l y would o n l y r e f l e c t the views of the c u r r e n t government and g o v e r n -ment b u r e a u c r a c y . The home i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d to be too p r i v a t e f o r p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s v i e w , a M i n i s t r y of the F a m i l y would i n t e r f e r e w i t h the e t h i c of p r i v a c y i n t h i s sphere. The f a c t i s , t h e r e i s p u b l i c p o l i c y i n r e l a t i o n to the f a m i l y . The l a c k of a s i n g l e u n i f i e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e r e s u l t s i n t h i s p o l i c y being h i d d e n . S i n c e f a m i l y p o l i c y i s not e x p l i c i t , i t i s u n c l e a r , and t h e r e f o r e the p o l i c y and the e x e c u t i o n o f s u c h p o l i c y o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t one another. Another consequence of the l a c k of e x p l i c i t p o l i c y i s t h a t the p a t r i a r c h a l s t a t u s quo i s m a i n t a i n e d . As f a m i l y p o l i c y i s h i d d e n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to c l o s e l y examine p a r t i c u l a r s e c t o r s of p u b l i c p o l i c y i n o r d e r to determine the c e n t r a l themes of Canadian s o c i a l p o l i c y i n r e l a t i o n t o the f a m i l y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , the l e g a l and s o c i a l w e l f a r e systems and t h e i r t reatment of the b a t t e r e d wife have been examined. T h i s e x e r c i s e l e a d s the paper to the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : 1 . P a t r i a r c h y i s m a i n t a i n e d by the l e g a l and s o c i a l w e l f a r e systems. 2. P o l i c y i n r e l a t i o n to b a t t e r e d women by both systems i s i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y . 43. 3. The l e g a l system, i n p a r t i c u l a r , c o n s i d e r s the home t o be too p r i v a t e f o r p u b l i c i n t e r -v e n t i o n . 4. The B. C . s o c i a l w e l f a r e system b e l i e v e s t h a t f a m i l y members s h o u l d be i n t e r d e p e n d e n t f i n a n -c i a l l y even i f they d o n ' t want to be, even i f they no l o n g e r wish to be a f a m i l y . 5 . M a r r i e d c o u p l e s s h o u l d be a l l but f o r c e d to remain m a r r i e d . 5 0 . i l l . A CASE STUDY Background The w o r l d of the b a t t e r e d w i f e has now been d e l i n e -a t e d . U n t i l t h i s p o i n t the paper has emphasized the woman's r e l a t i o n s h i p to her s o c i a l world r a t h e r than the b a t t e r i n g i n c i d e n t . The reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t the v i o l e n c e i t s e l f i s a problem i n an o v e r t obvious way. A more c u r i o u s and c o n -c e a l e d a s p e c t of the i n c i d e n t i s t h a t w h i l e few people openly advocate the p r a c t i c e of w i f e a b u s e , none of the u s u a l support s e r v i c e s can be r e l i e d on to a s s i s t these women. P o l i c e won't respond to c a l l s , J . P . ' s won't a c c e p t c h a r g e s , and s o c i a l workers and mental h e a l t h workers tend to i g n o r e the problem i f they can. T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e the p r a c t i c e i s condemned on the face of i t , the f a c t t h a t p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l not i n t e r v e n e can be i n t e r p r e t e d as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t s o c i e t y t o l e r a t e s w i f e abuse. Due to the d r a m a t i c n a t u r e of the problem, the inadequacy of s o c i a l response i s e s p e c i a l l y s t r i k i n g . The b a t t e r e d w i f e e p i t o m i z e s the o p p r e s s i o n of women i n marr iage. Not o n l y does her husband oppress her w i t h h i s v i o l e n c e but s o c i e t y s a n c t i o n s t h i s v i o l e n c e . T h i s s o c i e t a l response i n d i c a t e s a l a r g e - s c a l e acceptance of the o p p r e s s i o n of women i n m a r r i a g e . I n order to e x p l o r e the i s s u e of w i f e b a t t e r i n g i n more depth, the paper w i l l now t e l l the s t o r y of one b a t t e r e d I) woman. 45 . Gwen's Story T h i s s t o r y was o b t a i n e d i n a s e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s between the woman, who w i l l be c a l l e d Gwen, and the a u t h o r . They met when the author was r e c r u i t i n g f o r a support group f o r b a t t e r e d w i v e s . As the author o n l y r e c r u i t e d f o r the group and d i d not l e a d i t , the f o l l o w i n g h i s t o r y was d e r i v e d through the i n t e r v i e w s . These meetings took p l a c e over a p e r i o d of seven months. They were not r e g u l a r and sometimes a month would p a s s between them. Each s e s s i o n l a s t e d about one and a h a l f h o u r s . At the time of the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w Gwen was no longer l i v i n g w i t h her common-law husband, who w i l l be c a l l e d Mark. She was, however, s t i l l i n v o l v e d w i t h him and was confused and undecided about the r e l a t i o n s h i p . The couple had been t o g e t h e r f o r t h r e e y e a r s and they have a daughter. Gwen i s a l i k e a b l e woman and the author f e l t drawn to h e r . The meetings were t h e r e f o r e p l e a s a n t f o r the a u t h o r , d e s p i t e the s u b j e c t m a t t e r . For Gwen they were sometimes d i f f i c u l t , as they brought back some n i g h t m a r i s h memories. Gwen was young when she f i r s t met Mark; o n l y 19 y e a r s o l d . He was 2 3 , a t t r a c t i v e , v e r y a t t e n t i v e , and i t seemed to Gwen t h a t w i t h him she c o u l d be t o t a l l y h e r s e l f and he would accept her and l i k e h e r . The b e g i n n i n g was an e x c i t i n g time and, i n Gwen's h a p p i n e s s and e n t h u s i a s m f o r the r e l a t i o n -s h i p , she wanted to g i v e Mark e v e r y t h i n g . T o t a l d e v o t i o n to him meant t h a t she n e g l e c t e d everybody e l s e she was c l o s e t o . Her f a m i l y was h u r t by her n e g l e c t . She t r i e d to a m e l i o r a t e 5 0 . t h i s by a r r a n g i n g f o r her and Mark to spend time t o g e t h e r w i t h her p a r e n t s . The s u g g e s t i o n p l e a s e d her f a m i l y but annoyed Mark. He was not i n t e r e s t e d . T h i s s i t u a t i o n was the one source of f r i c t i o n i n Gwen and M a r k ' s o t h e r w i s e e n j o y a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p . She f e l t g u i l t y because her mother and f a t h e r were h u r t and they were i m p o r t a n t to h e r . Gwen had a happy, s e c u r e c h i l d h o o d . The youngest of t h r e e d a u g h t e r s , she had always f e l t l o v e d and p r o t e c t e d . The one p e r i o d of d i s c o n t e n t o c c u r r e d when she was young. There was a time i n her p a r e n t s ' m a r r i a g e when t h e r e was d i s s e n s i o n between them. Her mother was a s t r o n g , c a p a b l e , independent woman who owned and o p e r a t e d a s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s . Her s u c c e s s was seen as a t h r e a t by her f a t h e r who, a t the t i m e , drank too much and d i d not work s t e a d i l y . The time t h a t her f a t h e r b e a t her mother i s a p a i n f u l memory f o r Gwen. A f t e r t h i s i n c i d e n t her p a r e n t s s p l i t up. A r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o c c u r r e d , however, and t h e r e have been no subsequent b e a t i n g s . R e u n i t e d f o r 12 y e a r s , they are now h a p p i l y m a r r i e d . When asked what she thought had produced the changes i n her p a r e n t s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p , Gwen r e p l i e d , "My f a t h e r works s t e a d i l y now and d o e s n ' t d r i n k , and my mother i s l e s s independ-ent and more g i v i n g . " I n her teen y e a r s the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n was good and Gwen was happy a t home. She a t t e n d e d h i g h s c h o o l and i t was t h e r e t h a t she met her one p r e v i o u s b o y f r i e n d . She d e s c r i b e s t h i s b o y f r i e n d as p o s s e s s i v e and t r a d i t i o n a l . When asked i f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was b e t t e r than the one between her and Mark, she s t a t e d , "Anything i s b e t t e r than being beaten up." 5 0 . Three months a f t e r she met Mark she moved i n w i t h him. Her p a r e n t s were u p s e t by t h i s d e c i s i o n and i n s i s t e d t h a t Gwen and Mark spend some time w i t h them so they -could get to know the man t h a t t h e i r youngest daughter had d e c i d e d to l i v e w i t h . Mark s t i l l r e f u s e d to v i s i t them and d i d not want Gwen to see them v e r y o f t e n . I n s p i t e of t h i s , Gwen s t u c k to her d e c i s i o n t o l i v e w i t h Mark. Her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h her mother and f a t h e r had always been good and i t was d i f f i c u l t t o d i s o b e y them on an i s s u e about which they f e l t so s t r o n g l y . About t h i s t ime she began t o l e a r n about Mark's c h i l d -hood, which was not marked by the same warmth and love t h a t h e r s was. H i s f a m i l y r e s i d e s i n O n t a r i o and h i s p a r e n t s d i v o r c e d some time ago a f t e r a p a r t i c u l a r l y bad m a r r i a g e . Mark a t t r i b u t e s most of the problems t o h i s f a t h e r ' s a b u s i v e n e s s . H i s f a t h e r b e a t h i s mother and Mark, and has s e x u a l l y molested h i s s i s t e r s . Mark d e s c r i b e s h i s f a t h e r as a t y r a n n i c a l , v i o l e n t man and c l a i m s not t o l i k e him. He d e s c r i b e s h i s mother as a warm, dependable woman who l o v e d her n i n e c h i l d r e n . Mark does remember h i s mother as being f r u s t r a t e d w i t h her l i f e and i t u p s e t s Mark to know t h a t she had a f f a i r s w i t h o t h e r men w h i l e m a r r i e d to h i s f a t h e r . Once Gwen and Mark moved i n t o g e t h e r , , t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p changed. H i s a t t e n t i v e n e s s t u r n e d to n e g l e c t and h i s acceptance of her changed to a c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . I n the beginning she supported him. She was doing w e l l a t her job and was a b l e to buy a c a r . He was unemployed. At n i g h t he would take her c a r , s a y i n g he was going to v i s i t a f r i e n d and t h a t he would r e t u r n i n an h o u r . I n t h r e e hours he would r e t u r n , always w i t h an e x p l a n a t i o n about why he c o u l d n ' t have r e t u r n e d a t the time promised. Another source of r e p e a t e d c o n f l i c t was h i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o work. He f i n a l l y d i d get a good j o b but l o s t i t soon t h e r e a f t e r . M a r k ' s e m o t i o n a l n e g l e c t and f i n a n c i a l dependency had a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . Gwen's f a m i l y was concerned about h i s r e f u s a l t o v i s i t them and they were p r e s s u r i n g Gwen t o move back home. She d i d not want to do t h i s . She was i n her l a t e teens and f e l t her p r i d e was a t s t a k e . I t was her f i r s t major independent d e c i s i o n and her p a r e n t s had been opposed to i t . She was not ready to admit t h a t i t had been a m i s t a k e . To escape t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s , Gwen and Mark bought a van and moved t o O n t a r i o . They e v e n t u a l l y reached Hamilton and moved i n w i t h Mark's mother and s t e p f a t h e r . A g a i n Mark would go out a lone w i t h h i s f r i e n d s , l e a v i n g Gwen w i t h h i s mother and s t e p f a t h e r , who were not g e t t i n g a l o n g . Now she was even l e s s happy than she had been i n Vancouver. Not o n l y d i d Mark n e g l e c t h e r , but she knew no one o u t s i d e h i s f a m i l y i n Hamilton and she was l o n e l y . One t h i n g had changed. Now Mark was working and Gwen s t a y e d home and d i d housework. One n i g h t Gwen and Mark went to a wedding. At the r e c e p t i o n Gwen made p o l i t e c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a man who was s i t t i n g a t the same t a b l e . Mark m i s i n t e r p r e t e d her p o l i t e n e s s for f l i r t a t i o n and l o u d l y whispered t h r e a t e n i n g words to h e r . T h i n k i n g the man had heard and f e e l i n g embarrassed, Gwen walked o u t s i d e i n t o the p a r k i n g l o t . Mark f o l l o w e d h e r . He 5 0 . s lapped her s e v e r a l t i m e s , p u l l e d her h a i r , and punched her i n the f a c e . He then threw her i n t o the van. He proceeded to push, shove and punch her u n t i l she was b r u i s e d and sore a l l o v e r . Gwen was shocked. She had known he had a temper but had not expected him t o b e a t h e r . L a t e r they drove h i s f r i e n d s somewhere. I t seemed he expected h e r to c a r r y on as i f n o t h i n g had happened. He was p l e a s a n t t o h i s f r i e n d s and i m p o l i t e to h e r . T h i s s u r -p r i s e d her as she had expected him to f e e l g u i l t y . The n e x t day she f e l t h u r t , degraded, and w o r t h l e s s . They t a l k e d about the i n c i d e n t and both of them c r i e d . She f e l t s o r r y f o r him and w o r r i e d t h a t he would l o s e r e s p e c t f o r h e r . She t r i e d to b l o c k out a l l o t h e r f e e l i n g s and was s u c c e s s f u l i n t h a t . A f t e r t h a t Mark b e a t h e r about once a week. He was e m o t i o n a l l y as w e l l as p h y s i c a l l y a b u s i v e . He nagged her about not b e i n g a good housekeeper, l e f t her a l o n e a t n i g h t r e g u l a r l y , t o l d her he d i d n ' t l o v e h e r , and b e a t her or walked out i f she e x p r e s s e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the r e l a t i o n -s h i p . i f she e x e r t e d her w i l l i n any way, i f she t o l d him what she thought or wanted, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f she wanted to go somewhere w i t h anyone e l s e , he would b e a t h e r . At the same time he c r i t i c i z e d her l a c k of a s s e r t i v e n e s s w i t h other people. A f t e r a b e a t i n g he would a s k , "Why do you make me do t h i s to you?" For a w h i l e Gwen was i m m o b i l i z e d by her sense of w o r t h l e s s n e s s , her i n c r e a s e d t i m i d i t y , her f e e l i n g s of hope-l e s s n e s s and her overwhelming f e a r . She kept hoping he would 5 0 . stop h i t t i n g her and i t took her some time t o r e a l i z e t h a t the b e a t i n g s were not going to s t o p . She began t o b e l i e v e t h a t Mark was s i c k . She now knew h i s f a m i l y and p i t i e d him h i s c h i l d h o o d . When she c o n s i d e r e d l e a v i n g him she f e l t g u i l t y and s c a r e d . She b e l i e v e d t h a t her d e p a r t u r e would be another unhappy event i n h i s sad l i f e . She thought t h a t i n s p i t e of the abuse he needed her and t h a t maybe she c o u l d h e l p him. I n s p i t e of h e r s e l f , she began to t h i n k s e r i o u s l y about r e t u r n i n g t o Vancouver. She had no money and she was s c a r e d of what he would do i f he found her a f t e r she had l e f t . Sometimes i n the middle of a f i g h t Mark would a s k , "Why d o n ' t you go back?" She would jump a t the o p p o r t u n i t y and would r e p l y , - " Y e s , I w i l l . " Then he would change h i s mind. She l e a r n e d t h a t t h i s was not the way t o get him t o agree to f i n a n c e her way home. They had been e a s t about four months by t h i s time and she was more and more anxious to r e t u r n to Vancouver . S i n c e the onset of the p h y s i c a l abuse i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p , the l o v e she p r e v i o u s l y f e l t was changing to shock and f e a r . F i n a l l y one n i g h t they s a t down t o g e t h e r and both agreed t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p was not going w e l l . Mark consented t o g i v e her enough money to purchase a plane t i c k e t to V a n c o u v e r . He would f o l l o w her l a t e r i n the van. Gwen r e t u r n e d to Vancouver and to her p a r e n t s ' house. She t o l d them t h a t the reason she had r e t u r n e d w i t h o u t Mark was t h a t he had a l o t of f a m i l y problems. She d i d not t e l l them about the abuse and s a i d t h a t Mark would a l s o be a r r i v i n g soon. S h o r t l y a f t e r her r e t u r n she d i s c o v e r e d she was s e v e r a l months' p r e g n a n t . I t was a l r e a d y too l a t e to have an a b o r t i o n . Her p a r e n t s were e x t r e m e l y upset when she t o l d them and they i n s i s t e d t h a t she marry Mark. I n f a c t , everyone seemed to be p r e s s u r i n g her to marry now t h a t she was p r e g n a n t . Gwen f e l t i n d e c i s i v e . I f she t o l d her p a r e n t s the t r u t h about the r e l a t i o n s h i p she would be owning up to her m i s t a k e , which she s t i l l d i d not want to do. Added to t h i s , she f e l t sure t h a t , w h i l e her p a r e n t s would not want her to marry Mark i f they knew t h a t he b e a t h e r , they would then i n s i s t t h a t she g i v e the baby up f o r a d o p t i o n . She now wanted the baby. Gwen phoned Mark and t o l d him she was p r e g n a n t . He was shocked but was not a v e r s e to the i d e a of h a v i n g a c h i l d . He s a i d he was on h i s way t o Vancouver. When he a r r i v e d she moved i n w i t h him a g a i n . She s t i l l f e l t e m o t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d with him, she was pregnant w i t h h i s c h i l d , and she c o u l d not cope w i t h the p a r e n t a l p r e s s u r e to become o f f i c i a l l y m a r r i e d . She f e l t mixed up but grew more and more a t t a c h e d to the s o o n - t o - b e - b o r n baby. Now t h a t she was back i n Vancouver she was working and so was Mark. As u s u a l , he was not happy w i t h h i s j o b . S i n c e they had been l i v i n g t o g e t h e r a g a i n Mark was r a r e l y home and she f e l t he was u n s u p p o r t i v e . During the pregnancy he h i t her o n l y once and t h a t was i n the f a c e . T h i s o c c u r r e d one evening when she was l a t e g e t t i n g home from work. Even when she was pregnant he was extremely j e a l o u s and was s u s p i c i o u s of other men. Gwen b e l i e v e d t h a t he saw her as 5 0 . h i s p o s s e s s i o n and t h e r e f o r e the thought of her even t a l k -i n g to another man f i l l e d him w i t h r a g e . Gwen had a baby g i r l . As soon as the baby was born Mark began t o s t a y home more o f t e n . He seemed a t t a c h e d t o the baby and w h i l e she was an i n f a n t he was a good f a t h e r . Gwen q u i t her j o b . T h i s c r e a t e d t e n s i o n because Mark then t h r e a t e n e d t o q u i t h i s j o b too as he r e s e n t e d t h a t f a c t t h a t Gwen was not c o n t r i b u t i n g f i n a n c i a l l y . T h i s w o r r i e d her as she wanted to s t a y home w i t h the baby w h i l e i t was young. Yet she was concerned about being a b l e to p r o v i d e f o r her m a t e r i a l l y . S i n c e the b a b y ' s b i r t h her p a r e n t s were a g a i n p r e s s u r i n g Gwen and Mark to go through a m a r r i a g e ceremony. They a l s o wanted t o see more of them. Gwen would beg him t o go w i t h her to v i s i t them. He would agree and then back out a t the l a s t minute. I n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s p e r i o d Gwen remarked, " I c o u l d n ' t s t a n d i t I" S h o r t l y a f t e r the b i r t h of the baby, Gwen and Mark were a g a i n i n v i t e d t o a p a r t y which was b e i n g g i v e n by one of h i s f r i e n d s . When they r e t u r n e d home a f t e r t h i s p a r t y , Gwen r e a l i z e d t h a t a g a i n Mark was f e e l i n g j e a l o u s . He shouted a t her and she became f r i g h t e n e d . She p i c k e d up the baby and walked out the door. He came running a f t e r h e r and dragged them back i n t o the apartment. While d e s c r i b i n g t h i s i n c i d e n t to the author a b l a n k e x p r e s s i o n appeared on Gwen's f a c e . She s a i d , " I c a n ' t remember what happened a f t e r t h a t . I suppose he h i t me. A l l I remember i s b e i n g l e f t c r y i n g and c r y i n g and him r e f u s i n g to l i s t e n . I t h i n k i t went on f o r d a y s . " When she looks back now i t seems as i f she was b l o c k i n g out e v e r y t h i n g . She s i m p l y c o u l d not f a c e the s i t u a t i o n . When Gwen a c c u s e d Mark of being v i o l e n t or of n e g l e c t i n g h e r , he would c l a i m t h a t i t was her f a u l t . He would say t h a t she provoked him and complained t h a t she was not a good housekeeper . Then he would t e l l h e r , "You won't help because you won't u n d e r s t a n d what k i n d of man my f a t h e r i s I" Gwen's response to t h i s remark was t o f e e l g u i l t y . She p i t i e d Mark, b e l i e v e d he was s i c k and f e l t o b l i g e d to h e l p him. Mark's f a t h e r came to v i s i t . Gwen agreed t h a t M a r k ' s f a t h e r was not v e r y l i k e a b l e . Mark was p a r t i c u l a r l y h o s t i l e during t h i s p e r i o d and he and Gwen had s e v e r a l f i g h t s . One evening d u r i n g h i s f a t h e r ' s v i s i t , f r i e n d s of Mark's dropped by t h e i r apartment. Gwen, Mark, and Mark's f a t h e r were p r e p a r i n g to go out f o r a d r i n k . She f e l t they s h o u l d s t i l l go out w i t h Mark's f a t h e r as p lanned and kept u r g i n g Mark to get ready. Mark appeared to be s e t t l i n g i n t o an evening w i t h h i s f r i e n d s . She gave up but was angry w i t h him. She began t a l k i n g to h i s f r i e n d s and then r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s was a mistake as she would now c e r t a i n l y get b e a t e n . When h i s f r i e n d s l e f t Mark came i n t o the bedroom, p u l l e d her h a i r , s lapped her a c r o s s the f a c e , and pushed her down. He then i n s i s t e d t h a t she go out w i t h him and h i s f a t h e r . She was very scared and so she t r i e d to be n i c e to h i s f a t h e r . T h i s made Mark even a n g r i e r as he b e l i e v e d her to be f l i r t i n g . They went to a c o c k t a i l lounge. As soon as they a r r i v e d , Mark took her i n t o the back a l l e y and punched her i n the stomach. She p l e a d e d w i t h him to s t o p . He f o r c e d her back 5 0 . to the lounge. She thought he was l a u g h i n g a t her and t h a t he was t h i n k i n g t o h i m s e l f , " t h a t w i l l keep you i n l i n e . " When they got home she was s i c k to her stomach and - n o t i c e d t h a t her arms and stomach were b a d l y b r u i s e d . She was t h a n k -f u l t h a t the baby was w i t h h e r s i s t e r . I n the morning he pretended n o t h i n g had happened. Wanting to b e l i e v e i t was t r u e , she went a l o n g w i t h the p r e t e n s e . At t h i s t ime she ceased f e e l i n g s o r r y f o r Mark and indeed f e l t numb about e v e r y t h i n g . She f e l t no s e l f c o n f i -dence and stopped t r y i n g t o do a n y t h i n g . M a r k ' s f a t h e r l e f t and h i s mother a r r i v e d . H i s mother r e a l i z e d the r e a l i t y of the s i t u a t i o n and a d v i s e d Gwen to l e a v e Mark. She was s y m p a t h e t i c as she had been through the same t h i n g w i t h M a r k ' s f a t h e r . Mark's r e l a t i o n -s h i p w i t h h i s mother was n o t i c e a b l y b e t t e r than w i t h h i s f a t h e r . H i s mother, however, r e f u s e d to t a l k to Mark about her o b s e r v a t i o n s and l e f t a f t e r two weeks. Gwen r e t u r n e d t o work and t h i s cheered her up. She f e l t more s e c u r e about money. While Mark was the s o l e p r o -v i d e r t h e r e was always an u n e a s i n e s s about f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y as he o f t e n q u i t j o b s or was f i r e d . Gwen was a more r e l i a b l e worker and u s u a l l y d i d w e l l a t work. She now had c o n t a c t s o u t s i d e her home s i t u a t i o n and these were a welcome r e l i e f . She hated coming home as she f i n a l l y r e a l i z e d t h a t whenever Mark was angry he would b e a t h e r . Only once d u r i n g these p e r i o d i c b e a t i n g s d i d she t r y t o f i g h t b a c k . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n an even worse r e t a l i a t i o n . A f t e r t h a t she would merely c u r l up, t r y i n g to p r o t e c t her f a c e and the next day her 5 0 . back would u s u a l l y be b r u i s e d . She r a r e l y l e f t a f t e r a b e a t i n g because i f she d i d he r a n a f t e r her and b e a t her a g a i n . S i n c e she had r e t u r n e d to work her w i l l was r e t u r n -i n g . She s t i l l had not c o n f e s s e d t o anyone t h a t she was being p h y s i c a l l y abused. She was embarrassed t h a t she was p u t t i n g up w i t h i t and a l s o f e l t a c o n f e s s i o n would be a b e t r a y a l of Mark, who was s i c k . One n i g h t they were a t a r e s t a u r a n t w i t h f r i e n d s and Gwen was t a l k i n g to one of the c o u p l e s they were w i t h . Mark again thought she was f l i r t i n g . He was s i t t i n g b e s i d e her and under the t a b l e he punched her i n the stomach. She escaped to the washroom. When she came out he was w a i t i n g f o r her and so she fol lowed him back to the t a b l e . As soon as h i s back was t u r n e d she r a c e d o u t s i d e and t r i e d to h a i l a t a x i . Before she c o u l d do t h i s Mark found h e r . He b e a t her u n t i l she was b l e e d i n g . A man who was w a l k i n g by t r i e d to stop Mark. Mark chased him down the b l o c k . Gwen r e a l i z e d t h a t Mark was v e r y drunk and was w o r r i e d t h a t i t would t h e r e -fore be even worse t h i s t i m e . He pushed her i n t o the c a r and jumped i n h i m s e l f . He drove w i l d l y , punching her as he went, s a y i n g , "How would you l i k e to d i e ? " She was t e r r i f i e d and b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was the end and t h a t she would now d i e . M i r a c u l o u s l y , he stopped a t a l o c a l pub and l e t her out of the c a r . She was stunned and expected him t o push her back i n t o the c a r . He d i d n ' t . She e n t e r e d the pub, c a l l e d a t a x i and went to her p a r e n t s ' p l a c e . 5 0 . T h i s was the f i r s t t ime she had a d m i t t e d to them t h a t she was being p h y s i c a l l y a s s a u l t e d . They t o l d her they had suspected i t and were g e n e r a l l y concerned and s u p p o r t i v e . She asked them to c a l l the p o l i c e who a r r i v e d one and a h a l f hours l a t e r , a f t e r Mark had come and gone! The p o l i c e asked a few q u e s t i o n s and seemed u n i n t e r e s t e d . They l e f t . That n i g h t she s t a y e d w i t h h e r p a r e n t s and the next day she and the baby went to T r a n s i t i o n House, an emergency s h e l t e r f o r abused women, as she b e l i e v e d Mark would not bother her t h e r e . She d i d not f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e a t T r a n s i t i o n House as she was the only r e s i d e n t who had a f u l l - t i m e j o b . She w o r r i e d about l e a v i n g the baby a l l day because a t t h a t time t h e r e was no p r o v i s i o n f o r c h i l d r e n of working mothers. She phoned her f a t h e r the next day and he came to p i c k her up. A few days l a t e r Mark c o n v i n c e d her to r e t u r n , p r o m i s i n g never to h i t h e r a g a i n . Hoping t h a t her l e a v i n g had shocked him enough so t h a t he would keep h i s p r o m i s e , she r e t u r n e d . Gwen went to see h e r d o c t o r and t o l d her about the abuse. Although the d o c t o r t r i e d to be h e l p f u l , and a lthough she had a p a t i e n t , s o f t manner, i n essence her tone seemed condescending: "Wel l , d e a r , i t i s your c h o i c e to s t a y or l e a v e . " To Gwen t h i s seemed a s i m p l i s t i c r e s p o n s e . O b v i o u s l y , the doctor d i d not understand her f e a r . The doctor sent her to a p s y c h i a t r i s t . . I n i t i a l l y Gwen and Mark both went to the p s y c h i a -t r i s t , a lthough s e p a r a t e l y . I t seemed to Gwen t h a t the p s y c h i a t r i s t c l e a r l y b e l i e v e d t h a t Mark was beyond h e l p and h i s response was the same as h e r d o c t o r ' s : " J u s t l e a v e I" 5 0 . He seemed p a t e r n a l i s t i c and j u d g e m e n t a l and not i n t e r e s t e d i n e x p l o r i n g w i t h Gwen what i t was t h a t made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r her to t e r m i n a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p . A f t e r M a r k ' s f i r s t few s e s s i o n s he r e f u s e d t o r e t u r n as he too found the p s y c h i a -t r i s t to be a u t h o r i t a r i a n . At Gwen's next appointment the p s y c h i a t r i s t gave h e r a l l the r i g h t a d v i c e . She s h o u l d l e a v e Mark, o b t a i n a peace bond and c h i l d s u p p o r t and never see Mark a g a i n . Gwen mentioned t h a t she was t h i n k i n g of l e a v i n g . The p s y c h i a t r i s t then looked a t h i s watch and t o l d Gwen t h a t i f she l e f t Mark, she s h o u l d c e r t a i n l y remember t o o b t a i n her own m e d i c a l coverage so he would get p a i d . Gwen d i d not r e t u r n . There were no b e a t i n g s f o r a w h i l e . I n the s p r i n g of t h a t year the baby was one y e a r o l d and Mark seemed fond of h e r . As they c o u l d not r e c e i v e the h o p e d - f o r h e l p from the p s y c h i a t r i s t , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t Mark s h o u l d move out f o r a w h i l e . They s t i l l saw one another and Gwen thought he took advantage of h e r . He would say he was coming f o r supper and when he d i d n ' t a r r i v e a t supper time she would feed h e r s e l f and her daughter. He would then a r r i v e and be extremely angry t h a t she had not w a i t e d f o r him. I n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t she f e l t t h i s was presumptuous of him, as he d i d n ' t l i v e t h e r e , she put up w i t h i t . I n f a c t , she was u s u a l l y v e r y n i c e to him and was too f r i g h t e n e d t o be u n p l e a s a n t . She o f t e n hated h e r s e l f f o r her p o l i t e n e s s . Mark moved b a c k . Gwen f e l t a m b i v a l e n t about t h i s and a g a i n hoped h e ' d changed. They spent t h a t summer i n l imbo. Mark went h i s own way and spent most of h i s spare 5 0 . time v i s i t i n g f r i e n d s . When she w a s n ' t working, Gwen s t a y e d home and took c a r e of t h e i r d a u g h t e r . F o r the most p a r t he seemed to f e e l i n d i f f e r e n t about Gwen. I f she e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e to go out w i t h f r i e n d s , he would b e a t h e r . The b e a t -i n g s were not f r e q u e n t , however, as t h e y spent l i t t l e time t o g e t h e r . O c c a s i o n a l l y they would spend a day t o g e t h e r and have a good t i m e . At such moments Mark would speak of the r e l a t i o n s h i p i n glowing terms. By now t h e s e words had l i t t l e meaning f o r Gwen. She f e l t empty. She r e t u r n e d to her d o c t o r and t o l d her she no l o n g e r wished to see the p s y c h i a t r i s t . Her d o c t o r then s e n t her to a woman p s y c h i a t r i s t i n the hope t h a t a woman would be more understanding and h e l p f u l . Gwen l i k e d the woman even l e s s than the man. T h i s p s y c h i a t r i s t remarked to Gwen, "There are two k i n d s of people t h a t cannot be h e l p e d , s a d i s t s and p s y c h o t i c s . He i s a s a d i s t and you are a m a s o c h i s t . Leave h iml" T h i s s c a r e d Gwen and she was then even more w o r r i e d about Mark. She f e l t g u i l t y because she c o u l d not h e l p him and may have to l e a v e . She regarded t h i s p s y c h i a t r i s t as unsympathetic and judgemental and she d i d not r e t u r n . Gwen now b e l i e v e d t h a t whenever she sought h e l p , people would look down on her because of her s i t u a t i o n and would o n l y g i v e her the obvious a d v i c e — l e a v e . She was l o o k i n g f o r someone who would understand her f e a r and would not p u n i s h her f u r t h e r by j u d g i n g her negat ively—someone who would h e l p her s o r t out why she was i n the s i t u a t i o n she was i n w i t h o u t p l a c i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s on h e r . Says Gwen, " I have l o s t my f a i t h i n p s y c h i a t r i s t s . " 59, I n l a t e summer f r i e n d s of M a r k ' s , Ted and Sharon, came to v i s i t . They s t a y e d a month, p a r k e d o u t s i d e i n t h e i r van. Gwen f e l t more s e c u r e now t h a t t h e r e were o t h e r people around. She began defending h e r s e l f when Mark c r i t i c i z e d her i n f r o n t of them. One e v e n i n g she swore a t him i n f r o n t of them and l a t e r he b e a t her up i n the bedroom. She knew t h a t Ted and S h a r o n ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p a l s o i n v o l v e d p h y s i c a l abuse. Mark t o l d her t h i s . Mark and Ted would o f t e n go out l e a v i n g Gwen and Sharon t o g e t h e r . At f i r s t the two women d i d not d i s c u s s the v i o l e n c e i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Gwen f e l t too p r o t e c t i v e of Mark to c a s u a l l y t a l k about h i s b e h a v i o u r . m t i m e , however, she and Sharon began d i s c u s s i n g the abuse. On l o o k i n g b a c k , Gwen r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e i r way.of speaking of the m a t t e r i m p l i e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h i t was a problem, i t was not s e r i o u s and t h a t men o f t e n behave t h a t way. Gwen j u s t i f i e d Mark's b e h a v i o u r by s a y i n g t h a t he was v e r y mixed up. Although i t was good to t a l k to someone e l s e who had been through the same e x p e r i e n c e , these t a l k s d i d not p r o v i d e any p r o d u c t i v e r e s o l u t i o n s f o r e i t h e r woman. Gwen was b e g i n n i n g to hate Mark. A f t e r Ted and Sharon l e f t she s t a r t e d t h i n k i n g s e r i o u s l y about l e a v i n g him. She would s i t and contemplate a l l s i d e s of the s i t u a t i o n . Was i t f a i r to her daughter to l e a v e her f a t h e r ? what would he do when he r e a l i z e d she had l e f t ? Would he come a f t e r her and s t e a l her daughter , whom she l o v e d , and l e a v e town? Maybe he would beat her so s e v e r e l y she would be i n j u r e d f o r l i f e . The thought of l e a v i n g produced a f e a r t h a t Gwen c l a i m s 5 0 . can o n l y be understood by those who have e x p e r i e n c e d a v i o l e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . She began d i s c u s s i n g her s i t u a t i o n w i t h f r i e n d s . One f r i e n d was v e r y u p s e t when she heard and t r i e d to convince Gwen t o l e a v e Mark, s a y i n g she c o u l d move i n w i t h h e r . When she r e a l i z e d t h a t Gwen was not y e t ready t o do t h i s , she made i t c l e a r t h a t i f a v i o l e n t i n c i -dent o c c u r r e d Gwen was t o phone h e r . She and Gwen arranged f o r Gwen t o come to her p l a c e w i t h her daughter i n the event t h a t Mark abused her a g a i n . He had not done so f o r a couple of months. One day i n l a t e autumn Gwen was a t work. Mark phoned, swore p r o f u s e l y a t h e r , and she knew.she was going to get b e a t e n . She l e f t work e a r l y , went home, packed c l o t h e s f o r her daughter and h e r s e l f , and s e n t t o s t a y w i t h her f r i e n d . She c a l l e d T r a n s i t i o n House and t o l d them her s t o r y over the phone. I t was a long c a l l but the worker l i s t e n e d e m p a t h e t i c a l l y and t r i e d t o h e l p Gwen s o r t out her f e e l i n g s . The worker suggested t h a t Gwen pay a v i s i t to a F a m i l y Court c o u n s e l l o r i n order t o f i n d out about her l e g a l r i g h t s . The o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t she imparted was t h a t a support group f o r b a t t e r e d wives was b e i n g o r g a n i z e d . To f i n d out more about t h i s group Gwen was t o l d to phone the Women's Research C e n t r e . Gwen f e l t encouraged. The next day she went to see a c o u n s e l l o r a t F a m i l y C o u r t . She t o l d t h i s c o u n s e l l o r she wanted to e x p l o r e the p r o v i s i o n s i n the l e g a l system f o r women i n h e r s i t u a t i o n . She i n q u i r e d about peace bonds, r e s t r a i n i n g o r d e r s , c u s t o d y , and 5 0 . l e g a l s e p a r a t i o n . She asked the c o u n s e l l o r t o phone Mark on her b e h a l f , inform him t h a t she was a l l r i g h t and t e l l him t h a t he would be g i v e n v i s i t i n g p r i v i l e g e s w i t h t h e i r daughter . The c o u n s e l l o r agreed t o do t h i s and s a i d he would c a l l Gwen soon about arrangements f o r these p r o v i s i o n s . By the time he c a l l e d Mark, Mark had found Gwen. The c o u n s e l -l o r d i d not phone Gwen back f o r t h r e e months. Gwen a l s o phoned the Women's R e s e a r c h C e n t r e . They a f f i r m e d t h a t r e c r u i t i n g f o r a s u p p o r t group f o r b a t t e r e d wives was p r e s e n t l y underway. Gwen s a i d she would be i n t e r -e s t e d i n j o i n i n g . She l e f t her p a r e n t s ' phone number and was t o l d she would be c a l l e d . S e v e r a l n i g h t s l a t e r Gwen and her f r i e n d heard a knock a t the door. Gwen went to answer and found Mark t h e r e , l o o k i n g f u r i o u s . She was f r i g h t e n e d . She grabbed her k e y s , ran out to her c a r , jumped i n , and drove away. A look i n her r e a r - v i e w m i r r o r r e v e a l e d t h a t Mark was f o l l o w i n g h e r . She was p e t r i f i e d about what he would do t o her t h i s t ime. She r e a l i z e d t h a t she was c l o s e to a p o l i c e s t a t i o n and decided t h a t she would be s a f e t h e r e . Stopping i n f r o n t of i t , she ran t o the door. Mark was c l o s e b e h i n d . She e x p l a i n e d her problem t o a pol iceman who was s t a n d i n g by the e n t r a n c e . She begged him t o l e t her e n t e r the s t a t i o n . The pol iceman s a i d t h e r e was no p o i n t in. going i n s i d e as there was nothing they c o u l d do f o r h e r . He suggested she go to the s o c i a l s e r v i c e agency next door. Mark was r i g h t behind her dur ing t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n and she asked the pol iceman i f he c o u l d d e t a i n Mark w h i l e she walked next door. He s a i d t h a t he c o u l d n ' t do t h a t . She ran next door o n l y to f i n d a s i g n on the door s a y i n g t h a t the agency had moved. She would have to d e a l w i t h Mark. She t u r n e d around and Mark began s h o u t i n g a c c u s a t i o n s . "You took my daughter away from me!" She immediate ly f e l t pangs of g u i l t . I n her mind, at the t i m e , t h i s was one of the main o b s t a c l e s to her l e a v i n g him. He c o n v i n c e d h e r to go home w i t h him. L a t e r he a p o l o g i z e d and agreed t o move o u t . Gwen was now on her own. She was c o n f u s e d , unsure about what t o do n e x t , but she began t o f e e l h o p e f u l . She j o i n e d a s i n g l e p a r e n t ' s group t h a t was o r g a n i z e d by F a m i l y S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n . Here she met o t h e r s who were i n the p r o c e s s of l e a v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n c l u d i n g o t h e r women who had e x p e r i e n c e d p h y s i c a l abuse. T h i s group p r o v i d e d comfort and hope f o r the f u t u r e . The a u t h o r , who was r e c r u i t i n g f o r the support group f o r b a t t e r e d w i v e s , had o b t a i n e d Gwen's phone number. She had c o n t a c t e d Gwen and they had a r r a n g e d to meet. Gwen v i s i t e d her f a m i l y o f t e n . By now they were aware of the abuse. They were v e r y upset and demanded t h a t she never see Mark a g a i n . One of her s i s t e r s remarked t h a t a c o n d i t i o n of t h e i r c o n t i n u e d r e l a t i o n s h i p was t h a t Gwen never see Mark a g a i n . Although Gwen understood t h a t they were g e n u i n e l y concerned about her and meant w e l l , she found t h e i r demands d i f f i c u l t to cope w i t h . Her mother, however, p r o v i d e d u n c o n d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t . I n the middle of a g r u e l l i n g s e s s i o n w i t h her f a m i l y , her mother asked, "Are you a f r a i d of him?" When Gwen answered a f f i r m a t i v e l y , her mother r e p l i e d , 5 0 . Then I u n d e r s t a n d . I t ' s a t e r r i b l e t h i n g t o be a f r a i d of a man." A f t e r l e a v i n g Gwen a l o n e f o r a couple of weeks, Mark began v i s i t i n g and they f e l l i n t o a p a t t e r n of s e e i n g each other r e g u l a r l y . She e x p e r i e n c e d i n n e r t u r m o i l due to confused f e e l i n g s about him. Everyone t o l d her not to see him, t h a t she was c r a z y to do s o . She thought they were r i g h t and h a t e d h e r s e l f f o r c o n t i n u i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p . She t r i e d to s o r t out why she was s t i l l s e e i n g him. She f e l t g u i l t y because he was mixed up and needed someone. How c o u l d she l e a v e him? He had no one. She was a l s o w o r r i e d t h a t he would s e v e r e l y damage h e r i f she l e f t c o m p l e t e l y . Mark p l a y e d on t h i s g u i l t and as u s u a l emphasized t h a t she would be doing a t e r r i b l e t h i n g i f she took h i s daughter from him. By now, the daughter was two y e a r s o l d . I t was a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t Gwen and the author met. They spent the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w , which took p l a c e a t Gwen's p a r e n t s ' house, d i s c u s s i n g Gwen's c o n f u s i o n . I t seemed to the author t h a t Gwen was angry w i t h h e r s e l f f o r b e i n g i n a v i o l e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b u t f e l t t r a p p e d . She was eager to f i n d out about the group and agreed to p a r t a k e i n a case s t u d y . During the seven months the author has known her she has moved g r a d u a l l y away from the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Mark. Gwen j o i n e d the group and found i t to be i n her words, "a l i f e s a v e r . " Here she met o t h e r women who had s i m i l a r problems and they h e l p each o t h e r f i n d s o l u t i o n s . T h i s i s an o n - g o i n g group and she s t i l l a t t e n d s . I n response to Gwen's changes, Mark has made changes t o o . There was one 5 0 . p e r i o d i n t h i s time when r e c o n c i l i a t i o n was a s e r i o u s c o n -s i d e r a t i o n . Mark was b a b y s i t t i n g a t Gwen 1s p l a c e one day d u r i n g t h i s t ime. When she a r r i v e d home, f o r some r e a s o n Mark was very angry. He b e a t h e r , s a y i n g she had t u r n e d h i s daughter a g a i n s t him. The daughter vomited. Mark was then angry a t the daughter and shouted a t h e r . He s t a y e d an h o u r , then l e f t . Gwen knew t h i s was the end. She had now been a t t e n d -ing the support group f o r b a t t e r e d wives f o r s i x months and knew t h a t she c o u l d no l o n g e r t o l e r a t e being b e a t e n . She a l s o f i n a l l y r e a l i z e d t h a t M a r k ' s v i o l e n c e c o u l d be d i r e c t e d towards t h e i r daughter and t h a t the e f f e c t s of t h i s would be f a r more d e t r i m e n t a l t o the daughter than her p a r e n t s ' s e p a r a -t i o n . She phoned -the group l e a d e r and went to s t a y w i t h her f o r s e v e r a l d a y s . She and her daughter then moved i n w i t h Gwen's p a r e n t s . The l a s t t ime the author saw h e r , Gwen looked good. She was more s e l f a s s u r e d and c e r t a i n l y h a p p i e r than she had been seven months p r e v i o u s l y . She has been promoted a t her job and she i s s e e i n g o t h e r men. Court procedures f o r custody of her daughter and a l e g a l s e p a r a t i o n have been completed. I n d i s c u s s i n g Mark, Gwen mentioned t h a t he too has gone through changes. Sometimes when she i s f e e l i n g l o n e l y she h a l f p l a y s w i t h the i d e a of a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . Then she pushes such thoughts from her mind. " I t w o u l d n ' t work", she s a y s . She mentioned t h a t she i s g l a d the case study has been completed. At f i r s t i t was good t o t a l k about her s t o r y . 5 0 . I t helped her to put t h i n g s i n p e r s p e c t i v e . She d o e s n ' t want to t a l k about i t anymore. I t ' s too p a i n f u l and s h e ' s ready to go on. Comparison between Gwen's S t o r y and the T h e o r e t i c a l P r o p o s i t i o n s Set F o r t h i n S e c t i o n s I and I I of the Paper Much of Gwen's s t o r y matches o t h e r r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s p r e v i o u s l y r e l a t e d i n t h i s p a p e r . F o r example, i s o l a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d to be a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i n the b a t t e r i n g O Q s i t u a t i o n . S i n c e the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n the home has been d i s t a n c e d from the c e n t r e of p r o d u c t i o n , which t a k e s p l a c e p r i m a r i l y i n the economic s p h e r e . 8 9 Due to t h i s s o c i e t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n the housewife i s s e c l u d e d . The p r i v a t e nature of the home cannot h e l p b u t a c c e n t u a t e her s e c l u s i o n . 9 0 Mark wanted to keep Gwen i s o l a t e d . I n a d d i t i o n t o r e f u s i n g to have any c o n t a c t w i t h h e r f a m i l y , he d i s c o u r a g e d Gwen's c l o s e n e s s to them. Her d e s i r e f o r o t h e r f r i e n d s h i p s was e v i d e n t l y a t h r e a t to him as he b e a t her i f she d i s c u s s e d t h i s . I n f a c t , i n Gwen's c a s e h e r i s o l a t i o n seems t o have c o n t r i b u t e d to her being i m m o b i l i z e d . While she was a sec luded homemaker she f e l t too d e f e a t e d to take a c t i o n . Once she r e t u r n e d to the workplace and to c o n t a c t s w i t h the o u t s i d e w o r l d , she g a i n e d s t r e n g t h and began t o d e a l w i t h her problems. Men who f e e l i n a d e q u a t e as p r o v i d e r s a r e more l i k e l y to b a t t e r . 9 1 Although Gwen b e l i e v e d Mark was weak i n t h i s r o l e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to say what h i s f e e l i n g s about t h i s were. T h e i r s t o r y does resemble the f i n d i n g s of e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h i n t h a t Gwen was the more r e l i a b l e worker, even 5 0 . though she does not have a h i g h e r s t a t u s j o b or earn a 9 2 l a r g e r s a l a r y than Mark does when he i s w o r k i n g . ( T h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s have not been r e v e a l e d here f o r r e a s o n s -of c o n f i -d e n t i a l i t y . ) Women's a c c e s s t o the economic sphere was a major theme i n S e c t i o n I of the p a p e r . Gwen was l u c k y . When she gained the e m o t i o n a l s t r e n g t h t o b e g i n s e e k i n g independence she p o s s e s s e d job s k i l l s and e x p e r i e n c e t h a t e n a b l e d her to e n t e r the l a b o u r market a t a l e v e l where she i s a b l e to s u p p o r t h e r s e l f and her d a u g h t e r . Even i n h e r c a s e , a l t h o u g h she i s as s k i l l e d i n her f i e l d as Mark i s i n h i s , and a l t h o u g h she i s a more r e l i a b l e worker , she does not e a r n as much as he does. I f she had more than one c h i l d , independence would not be as v i a b l e an o p t i o n f o r h e r . A long absence from the labour f o r c e or l a c k of m a r k e t a b l e s k i l l s would have made f i n d i n g a j o b c o n s i d e r a b l y more d i f f i c u l t . C l e a r l y , women's secondary s o c i a l s t a t u s i s a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r f o r many women i n bad r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n r e l a t i o n t o a l c o h o l , Mark b e a t Gwen both when he 9 3 was d r i n k i n g and when he w a s n ' t . When he was drunk the b e a t i n g s were o f t e n worse. S e c t i o n I of the paper mentioned t h a t the p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which r e s u l t from our c u l t u r e ' s s e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e to the i n c i d e n c e o f w i f e b a t t e r i n g . For both Gwen and Mark t h i s theory appears to be t r u e . Gwen was i n i t i a l l y dependent, l a c k i n g i n a g g r e s s i v e n e s s and s e l f -esteem. I n rev iewing the s t o r y , i t seems t o the author t h a t as Gwen g r a d u a l l y became more a g g r e s s i v e and l e s s s u b m i s s i v e she a l s o became l e s s dependent. Gwen's d e s c r i p t i o n of Mark suggests t h a t he e x h i b i t e d the r e s u l t s of s t e r e o t y p i c male s o c i a l i z a t i o n . He was dominant, a g g r e s s i v e , and e n f o r c e d h i s a u t h o r i t y through the use of p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n . D e l M a r t i n s t a t e s t h a t women s t a y because they a r e i m m o b i l i z e d by f e a r , they are too h u m i l i a t e d to admit to o t h e r s t h a t they have t o l e r a t e d the v i o l e n c e , and because they see t h e i r spouse as e m o t i o n a l l y i l l and, as good women, 94 they c o n s i d e r i t to be t h e i r duty to n u r t u r e the s i c k man. I n Gwen's case t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n f i t s e x a c t l y . Women g a i n t h e i r s o c i a l i d e n t i t y through t h e i r q c r e l a t i o n s h i p to a man. I n keeping w i t h t h i s , Gwen has been r a i s e d to b e l i e v e t h a t her r e l a t i o n s h i p t o her man was to be her p r i o r i t y . I n her p a r e n t s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p she observed t h a t when her mother became l e s s independent and more n u r t u r i n g , t h i n g s improved. T h i s e x p l a i n s her d e s i r e a t the b e g i n n i n g to g i v e Mark e v e r y t h i n g even i f i t meant s a c r i f i c i n g a l l e l s e . ( I n Gwen and Mark's c a s e , when she became more independ-e n t and l e s s n u r t u r i n g , t h i n g s improved.) D e l M a r t i n ' s i d e a s are v a l i d a t e d by Gwen's s t o r y i n another way. She mentions t h a t v i o l e n t men hunt f o r wives who 9 6 have l e f t and t h i s produces f e a r on the p a r t of the w i f e . Mark's immediate r e a c t i o n t o Gwen's d e p a r t u r e was always to hunt her down. I n h i s c a s e , he has f i n a l l y accepted the s e p a r a t i o n . Men and women who come from homes i n which t h e r e was a p a t t e r n of v i o l e n c e by e i t h e r p a r e n t , are p r e d i s p o s e d to v i o l e n c e i n t h e i r i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s was l e s s t r u e 5 0 . f o r Gwen than i t was f o r Mark. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t Mark's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s a b u s i v e f a t h e r seems to have been a f a c t o r t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o h i s own v i o l e n t b e h a v i o u r . T h i s i s i n t e r e s t i n g because women may remain i n v i o l e n t m a r r i a g e s f o r the sake of the c h i l d r e n . T h i s was a c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n Gwen's c a s e . As she h e r s e l f o b s e r v e d , l i v i n g w i t h a v i o l e n t f a t h e r has i t s own n e g a t i v e consequences . The c o n f i d e n t i a l n a t u r e of the n u c l e a r f a m i l y r e s u l t s i n the r e l u c t a n c e of h e l p i n g a g e n c i e s t o i n t e r v e n e i n c a s e s 9 7 of w i f e abuse. Gwen had i n t e r n a l i z e d t h i s a t t i t u d e , as she b e l i e v e d d i s c u s s i n g M a r k ' s b e h a v i o u r would mean she was b e t r a y i n g him. I n r e l a t i o n t o the way t h a t p u b l i c s e r v i c e s d e a l w i t h b a t t e r e d w i v e s , Gwen's s t o r y c o r r o b o r a t e s e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h 9 8 f i n d i n g s on b a t t e r e d women and the l e g a l system. When the author f i r s t met Gwen she was s t r u c k by Gwen's t o t a l l a c k of p r o t e c t i o n from the v i o l e n t a t t a c k s . The e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the p o l i c e speaks f o r i t s e l f . The p o l i c e were c l e a r l y not w i l l i n g to a c t , or to t r e a t the matter s e r i o u s l y . The F a m i l y C o u r t c o u n s e l l o r was a l s o i n e f f e c t i v e . The reasons f o r t h i s are not e v i d e n t h e r e . I t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o s t a t e t h a t when a b a t t e r e d woman seeks h e l p , an immediate response i s n e c e s s a r y . Gwen sought h e l p from a d o c t o r , two p s y c h i a t r i s t s , a F a m i l y S e r v i c e s Agency s i n g l e p a r e n t ' s group, T r a n s i t i o n House, and a support group f o r b a t t e r e d w i v e s . Her p e r s i s t -ence i n seeking h e l p i s noted. I n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s her e x p e r i e n c e d i f f e r s w i t h most r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . " None of these people seemed to b e l i e v e i n keeping the f a m i l y t o g e t h e r a t a l l c o s t s . Nobody encouraged r e c o n c i l i a t i o n or t r e a t e d the v i o l e n c e as a symptom of o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p problems. Her e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the p s y c h i a t r i s t s i s c u r i o u s and b o t h were i n e f f e c t u a l . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to s a y whether t h i s was due to incompetence or to a d i s t a s t e f o r Gwen's s i t u a t i o n . Gwen's r e a c t i o n t o those who t o l d her to l e a v e i s worthy of n o t e . She e x p e r i e n c e d t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s as a f u r t h e r burden. Both T r a n s i t i o n House and the support group f o r b a t t e r e d wives operate from the p e r s p e c t i v e of s e e i n g the i n c i d e n t as a r e s u l t of women's secondary s o c i a l s t a t u s . I t was a t these p l a c e s t h a t Gwen found the most e f f e c t i v e a s s i s t a n c e . Hypotheses D e r i v e d from the Case Study 1) Once a p a t t e r n of v i o l e n c e i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n a domest ic s i t u a t i o n , the p e r p e t r a t o r of the v i o l e n c e i s not l i k e l y to cease b a t t e r i n g w i t h o u t a s i g n i f i c a n t reason t o do so. I n Gwen's p a r e n t s ' c a s e , where the v i o l e n c e had not y e t become a p a t t e r n , a temporary s e p a r a t i o n d i d stop the v i o l e n c e . I n Gwen's c a s e , where v i o l e n c e had become an e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n , s e p a r a t i o n d i d not have t h i s e f f e c t . 2) F o r the i s o l a t e d b a t t e r e d woman who seems e m o t i o n a l l y s t u c k i n her v i o l e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p , her l a c k of o t h e r c l o s e p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s may be a c e n t r a l f a c t o r i n her p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n a b i l i t y or u n w i l l i n g n e s s to move out of the r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n Gwen's c a s e , movement t h a t r e s u l t e d i n more c o n t a c t with those o u t s i d e her v i o l e n t s i t u a t i o n gave her emotional d i s t a n c e from, and s t r e n g t h t o d e a l w i t h , the b a t t e r i n g s i t u a t i o n a t home. For example, her r e t u r n to the l a b o u r market, Ted and S h a r o n ' s v i s i t , her 5 0 . c o n f e s s i o n s to her f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , and her p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n groups, a l l h e l p e d her t o d i s t a n c e h e r s e l f from the r e l a t i o n s h i p . The e f f e c t of such i s o l a t i o n i s proposed as a t o p i c f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 3) L e a v i n g appears to be a g r a d u a l p r o c e s s . The p r o c e s s t h a t women go through i n t e r m i n a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s another proposed t o p i c f o r f u t u r e s t u d y . Recommendations t o Those Working w i t h Abused Wives 1) Workers s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h a t b a t t e r i n g i s a s e r i o u s problem t h a t i s not l i k e l y t o c e a s e on i t s own i f i t has become an e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p . 2) The paper s u g g e s t s t h a t e n c o u r a g i n g a b a t t e r e d woman who seems e m o t i o n a l l y i m m o b i l i z e d i n a v i o l e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to develop o u t s i d e c o n t a c t s may be a b e n e f i c i a l s t r a t e g y f o r the b e g i n n i n g s t a g e s of t h e r a p y . I t s h o u l d be taken i n t o a c c o u n t , however, t h a t f o r some women developing o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l o n l y put them i n f u r t h e r danger. 3) I t sometimes may seem c l e a r t o those working w i t h a b a t t e r e d woman t h a t the woman's o n l y chance f o r a l i f e f r e e from a s s a u l t i s t o l e a v e her v i o l e n t spouse. N e v e r -t h e l e s s , Gwen's s t o r y i n d i c a t e s t h a t workers s h o u l d not expect the woman to l e a v e a t the f i r s t a v a i l a b l e oppor-t u n i t y , u n l e s s the woman seems w i l l i n g and a b l e to do so. Gwen's d o c t o r , both p s y c h i a t r i s t s , and her f a m i l y a l l made t h i s m i s t a k e . L e a v i n g appeared to be a g r a d u a l p r o c e s s , i n v o l v i n g r e c o n c i l i a t i o n s . The most h e l p f u l way to begin work w i t h such women may be f o r m u l a t i n g emergency s t r a t e g i e s to be used i n the event of a f u t u r e 5 0 . a t t a c k , i n f o r m i n g the woman of emergency s h e l t e r s and of her l e g a l r i g h t s , and h e l p i n g her to g r a d u a l l y work towards independence. T h i s c o u l d i n v o l v e t e l l i n g her about w e l f a r e p r o v i s i o n s , j o b t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , day c a r e , and women's s u p p o r t groups. Gwen i m p l i e d t h a t h e l p e r s need t o s u p p o r t women through the l e a v i n g p r o c e s s i n a developmental way. 5 0 . COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION IN RELATION TO THE BATTERED WIFE Background S i n c e the e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s w i f e abuse has been d e f i n e d by growing numbers of f e m i n i s t s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s , r e s e a r c h e r s and j o u r n a l i s t s as a s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l problem. S e c t i o n I I of t h i s paper i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e now e x i s t s r e a s o n a b l e and w e l l - f o u n d e d documentation r e g a r d i n g the i n a b i l i t y of e x i s t -i n g s e r v i c e s to meet the needs of b a t t e r e d w i v e s . Those who r e c o g n i z e the problem are f r u s t r a t e d by the s e r v i c e vacuum c o n f r o n t i n g these women. The paper has d e s c r i b e d w i f e b a t t e r i n g as a problem which must be viewed i n the c o n t e x t of women's secondary s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . Change e f f o r t s which d i r e c t themselves a t a t t a i n i n g s o c i a l e q u i t y f o r a l l women w i l l , i n the long r u n , be most e f f e c t i v e i n a c h i e v i n g a comprehensive s o l u t i o n to the problems of b a t t e r e d women. I t must be r e c o g n i z e d , however, t h a t t h e s e women are o f t e n i n a desperate p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and economic s i t u a t i o n . They cannot w a i t f o r momentous changes, such as the e v o l u t i o n of a more e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c system and the r e a l i z a t i o n of s o c i a l e q u i t y between the s e x e s . There i s an immediate need to develop r e m e d i a l s e r v i c e s . Community o r g a n i z i n g methods and s t r a t e g i e s have been u s e f u l l y employed i n the movement f o r change on b e h a l f of t h e s e women. Braegar and Specht , community work t h e o r i s t s , comment "community work can most e f f e c t i v e l y address problems of l i m i t e d scope (or i t may address l a r g e r problems o n l y i n t h e i r p a r t i a l m a n i f e s t a -5 0 . I t i s the view of t h i s paper t h a t s t e p s towards e n s u r i n g the p h y s i c a l s a f e t y of b a t t e r e d wives must be a p r i o r i t y f o r a c t i o n . I n the movement toward change, however, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t the s o c i a l c o n t e x t i n which w i f e b a t t e r -i n g o c c u r s be k e p t i n mind. Any change e f f o r t which does not take t h i s i n t o account w i l l f a i l t o meet the o b j e c t i v e s of e m o t i o n a l , s o c i a l and economic s u p p o r t of t h e s e women. The s i t u a t i o n f a c i n g the abused w i f e has been d e s c r i b e d as an outgrowth of the u n i v e r s a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s f a c i n g a l l women. E q u a l l y t r u e t h e n , i s the n o t i o n t h a t advances made i n t h i s a r e a w i l l u l t i m a t e l y c o n t r i b u t e to s o c i e t a l change t h a t advances the s t a t u s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s of a l l women. Community O r g a n i z i n g Community o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a method of i n t e r v e n t i o n whereby i n d i v i d u a l s , groups, and o r g a n i z a t i o n s engage i n planned a c t i o n t o i n f l u e n c e s o c i a l problems. I t i s c o n -cerned w i t h the e n r i c h m e n t , development, a n d / o r change of s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , and i n v o l v e s two major r e l a t e d p r o c e s s e s ; p l a n n i n g ( t h a t i s i d e n t i f y i n g problem a r e a s , d i a g n o s i n g c a u s e s , and f o r m u l a t i n g s o l u t i o n s ) and o r g a n i -z i n g ( t h a t i s , d e v e l o p i n g the c o n s t i t u e n c i e s and d e v i s i n g the s t r a t e g i e s n e c e s s a r y to e f f e c t a c t i o n ) . 1 0 1 Community o r g a n i z i n g f o c u s i n g on the needs of b a t t e r e d wives i s underway and the paper w i l l now d e s c r i b e t h e s e a c t i v i -t i e s . The S o c i a l Problem of Wife Abuse: Developing R e c o g n i t i o n Wife abuse and the l a c k of t r a n s i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e to i t s v i c t i m s have been an "issue of the 19 7 0 s . E a r l y i n the decade, women's groups a c r o s s Canada i d e n t i f i e d the i s s u e of v i o l e n c e a g a i n s t women as a p r i o r i t y f o r f e m i n i s t community a c t i v i t y . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r the major c e n t e r s such as Toronto and V a n c o u v e r . 1 0 2 5 0 . The women's movement's c a l l f o r adequate s e r v i c e s to guard a g a i n s t male v i o l e n c e toward women and to p r o t e c t i t s v i c t i m s has g a i n e d momentum i n the l a s t few y e a r s . -The l a c k of a i d a v a i l a b l e t o rape v i c t i m s has s p u r r e d some c o n c r e t e a c t i v i t y , such as the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of Rape C r i s i s C e n t e r s i n many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The f o c u s i s now t u r n i n g t o w i f e b a t t e r i n g . Women's groups are not a l o n e i n t h e i r p r o t e s t of the b a t t e r e d w i f e ' s s i t u a t i o n . I n the l a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s a grow-i n g number of p r o f e s s i o n a l s have advanced t h e i r views on the problem and i n some c a s e s have d e d i c a t e d r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s to the a r e a . Women's groups and p r o f e s s i o n a l s g e n e r a l l y agree t h a t w i f e abuse i s a s o c i a l problem, a l t h o u g h i t i s the a u t h o r ' s e x p e r i e n c e t h a t t h e r e i s d i s s e n s i o n between t h e s e two groups about i t s c a u s e s and about methods of a c h i e v i n g appro-p r i a t e s o l u t i o n s . / The e a r l i e s t p u b l i s h e d work to r e c e i v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l / / a t t e n t i o n was E r i n P i z z e y ' s Scream Q u i e t l y or the Neighbours i W i l l Hear (19 7 4 ) . The book documented the l a c k of a i d a v a i l -\ a b l e to b a t t e r e d women i n B r i t a i n and t r a c e d the development \ of B r i t a i n ' s f i r s t t r a n s i t i o n house. American r e s e a r c h e r , Murray S t r a u s s , can be c r e d i t e d w i t h drawing p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t e n t i o n to the problem i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . H i s s t u d i e s on f a m i l y v i o l e n c e , and the p o s i -t i o n of the abused w i f e i n p a r t i c u l a r , are a major r e f e r e n c e p o i n t f o r r e s e a r c h e r s e x p l o r i n g the e x t e n t to which t r a n s i -t i o n a l s e r v i c e s are needed i n North America. 5 0 . I n o r d e r to d e s c r i b e i n some d e t a i l the community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s on b e h a l f of a s s a u l t e d w i v e s , the paper w i l l now f o c u s on such a c t i v i t y i n the Vancouver a r e a . A c l o s e r look a t l o c a l developments shows t h a t a number of i n i t i a l s t e p s have a l r e a d y been t a k e n . They have come from two d i f f e r e n t , but complementary, a r e n a s — p r o f e s s i o n a l c i r c l e s and the women's movement. P r o f e s s i o n a l C i r c l e s A 19 75 meeting between the P o l i c e Department 's P l a n -n ing ana R e s e a r c h Department and the U n i t e d Way's S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department f i r s t d i s c u s s e d a growing demand on the p o l i c e f o r c e f o r s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n . Domestic v i o l e n c e was c i t e d as a major a r e a where i n c r e a s e d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f , and dependence on, the p o l i c e had emerged. I n the same y e a r the P o l i c e Commission was e s t a b l i s h e d and f a m i l y c r i s i s t r a i n -ing became a p a r t of i t s c u r r i c u l u m . By 19 76, the U n i t e d Way S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department had proposed a study on the impact of t h i s t r a i n i n g program and p o l i c e involvement i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . The U n i t e d Way's r e s e a r c h r e v e a l e d an u n e x p e c t e d l y l a r g e number of c a l l s from b a t t e r e d wives and a c u r i o u s l a c k of p o l i c e r e c o g n i t i o n r e g a r d i n g the apparent h i g h i n c i d e n c e r a t e of w i f e abuse. T h i s d i s c o v e r y was i n p a r t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the U n i t e d Way's 1976 r e p o r t Wife B a t t e r i n g : A Review and P r e l i m i n a r y E n q u i r y i n t o L o c a l I n c i d e n c e , Needs, and R e s o u r c e s . I n the course of completing t h i s work, the U n i t e d Way found the s u b j e c t under study by a growing number of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups throughout North America . I n 19 7 7 , 5 0 . t h i s agency p r o v i d e d a forum where such i n d i v i d u a l s and group r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c o u l d d i s c u s s f a m i l y v i o l e n c e i n a l l i t s d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s . T h i s took the form of a t h r e e - d a y j Symposium on F a m i l y V i o l e n c e , h e l d i n e a r l y March. The j p a r t i c i p a n t s of the Symposium c a l l e d f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t I of a Task Force on F a m i l y V i o l e n c e which was s t r u c k i n May 1 (IT of t h a t y e a r and r a n u n t i l J a n u a r y , 19 79. The a c t i v i t y g e n e r a t e d by t h e s e moves has i n v o l v e d community o r g a n i z i n g e f f o r t s by p r o f e s s i o n a l s who, f o r the most p a r t , worked w i t h a c o n s t i t u e n c y of o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s . There has not been an emphasis on i n c l u d i n g e i t h e r the v i c -t ims or the p e r p e t r a t o r s of the v i o l e n c e i n the p l a n n i n g or o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Women's Groups By the b e g i n n i n g of the 19 70s the C a n a d i a n women's movement had e s t a b l i s h e d an a c t i v e base of support i n V a n c o u v e r . I n 1972 A Woman's P l a c e was opened, which p r o v i d e d , among o t h e r t h i n g s , two beds f o r emergency h o u s i n g . Not s u r p r i s -i n g l y , two beds c o u l d not b e g i n to p r o v i d e the l e v e l of s e r v i c e demanded by women i n t r a n s i t i o n . I n p a r t i c u l a r , A Woman's P l a c e c o u l d not respond t o the needs of b a t t e r e d w i v e s . Vancouver women immediate ly began p l a n n i n g f o r a t r a n s i t i o n house. They i n i t i a t e d a lobby e f f o r t t h a t was to span two y e a r s . I n November 19 7 2 , a p p l i c a t i o n was made to the f e d e r a l L o c a l I n i t i a t i v e s Program f o r the funding of a t r a n s i t i o n house. I t was t u r n e d down. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a long s e a r c h f o r f i n a n c i n g t h a t drew a number of i n t e r e s t e d 5 0 . people from v a r y i n g backgrounds i n t o the f u n d - r a i s i n g e f f o r t . By September 1 9 7 3 the Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l agreed to p r o v i d e funds f o r such a p r o j e c t , but o n l y i f the p r o -v i n c i a l government would p i c k up h a l f the c o s t . I n December 1 9 7 4 , T r a n s i t i o n House opened. I t w a s n ' t long b e f o r e those i n v o l v e d w i t h the s e r v i c e r e c o g n i z e d the i n a b i l i t y of t h i s s i n g l e f a c i l i t y t o meet the needs of the many abused wives i n V a n c o u v e r . 1 0 4 The March 19 77 Symposium on F a m i l y V i o l e n c e p r o v i d e d those women i n v o l v e d i n T r a n s i t i o n House w i t h a welcome oppor -t u n i t y to meet o t h e r s a t t e m p t i n g to s e r v i c e b a t t e r e d women. The r e s u l t a n t t a s k f o r c e on f a m i l y v i o l e n c e a l lowed p r o f e s -s i o n a l s and members of a c t i v e women's groups to j o i n t o g e t h e r and i n i t i a t e n e c e s s a r y changes on b e h a l f of those i n v o l v e d i n f a m i l y v i o l e n c e . The Task Force on F a m i l y V i o l e n c e The U n i t e d Way Task F o r c e on F a m i l y V i o l e n c e was comprised of four working groups. Of the f o u r , t h i s paper i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the working group on w i f e b a t t e r i n g . I t was made up of both p r o f e s s i o n a l s and r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s from Vancouver women's groups. I n response to the Symposium on F a m i l y V i o l e n c e , t h i s group chose to respond t o the f o l l o w i n g : - wife b a t t e r i n g i s not taken s e r i o u s l y by p r o f e s s i o n a l s or the p u b l i c - there are few economic or p e r s o n a l support s e r v i c e s ; a g e n c i e s are not geared to h e l p - income a s s i s t a n c e i s d i f f i c u l t t o get when a woman wants to l e a v e a v i o l e n t s i t u a t i o n - many women have l i t t l e work e x p e r i e n c e - there i s a l a c k of c r i s i s s h e l t e r , f i n a n c i a l support and adequate l o w - c o s t housing 5 0 . - c o u r t p r o c e d u r e s are slow and o f t e n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y - the p o l i c e have few s e r v i c e s t o c a l l o n . l ° 5 Concern over the l a c k of p e r s o n a l s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s r e c e i v e d a c t i v e a t t e n t i o n from the t a s k f o r c e working group. I n December 1 9 7 7 t h i s group i n i t i a t e d a p i l o t p r o j e c t to e s t a b l i s h support groups f o r b a t t e r e d w i v e s . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the p r o j e c t was s e t up on a v o l u n t e e r b a s i s . The l a c k of funds was d i s h e a r t e n i n g t o those w i t h o t h e r f u l l - t i m e j o b commitments and, not s u r p r i s -i n g l y , t h e i r e n t h u s i a s m f o r the p r o j e c t became l i m i t e d . With the support groups f o r b a t t e r i n g husbands, which a l s o came out of the w i f e b a t t e r i n g working committee, t h i s p r o j e c t has sought f u n d i n g through Canada H e a l t h and W e l f a r e . They were t o l d no funds were a v a i l a b l e a t t h a t t i m e . The P i l o t P r o j e c t P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p i l o t p r o j e c t based t h e i r work on the f o l l o w i n g "grounding a s s u m p t i o n s . " 1 . V i o l e n c e i s not an a c c e p t a b l e form of f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n . 2. I t i s men who b e a t women. There appear to be e x c e p t i o n s , but men i n danger or i n a b u s i v e s i t u a -t i o n s u s u a l l y have the economic o p t i o n of l e a v i n g , which i s l e s s a v a i l a b l e to women. 3 . A woman does not deserve to be b e a t e n , no m a t t e r what she does. Nobody d e s e r v e s b e a t i n g , e v e r . 4. There are very r e a l p r e s s u r e s , not o n l y ON the f a m i l y but IN the f a m i l y as a r e s u l t of what "the f a m i l y " has come to mean and i s expected to do i n our c u r r e n t s o c i e t y . These p r e s s u r e s a r e e n f o r c e d by i n s t i t u t i o n s which make up our system i n such a way t h a t "the f a m i l y " can become a t r a p , e s p e c i a l l y f o r women and c h i l d r e n . The dimensions of the t r a p are seldom v i s i b l e when a f a m i l y i s not i n d i f f i c u l t i e s , but become apparent when f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s break down. We need to understand the demands and e x p e c t a t i o n s which s o c i e t y makes on the f a m i l y and how these are s a n c t i o n e d by the law, s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e p o l i c i e s , p o l i c e a c t i o n , employment and housing s i t u a t i o n s , and so on. These a s p e c t s a r e as much a r e a l i t y as the i n t e r n a l i z e d f e e l i n g s and e x p e r i e n c e s of the i n d i v i d u a l s concerned. 5 . Women s t a y i n a b u s i v e s i t u a t i o n s f o r a number of r e a s o n s . So f a r i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t : i ) they do not p e r c e i v e the s i t u a t i o n as a v o i d a b l e or r e m e d i a b l e ; i i ) they do not see any r e a l a l t e r n a t i v e s o u t s i d e the f a m i l y ; i i i ) t h e r e are v e r y few a l t e r n a t i v e s and the i n s t i -t u t i o n s of s o c i e t y a r e not s e t up to p r o v i d e a l t e r n a t i v e s but to r e i n f o r c e the f a m i l y as s u c h . ( T h i s i n c l u d e s many c o u n s e l l i n g and therapy s e r v i c e s . ) 6. There are p r e s e n t l y fewer than 20 p e r c e n t (8% U . S . ) " t r a d i t i o n a l " f a m i l i e s i n Canada, i . e . , f a t h e r , breadwinner; mother, homemaker; and c h i l d r e n . I n o f f e r i n g support and a s s i s t a n c e to women i n or l e a v i n g a b u s i v e s i t u a t i o n s we are not s e e k i n g to break up the f a m i l y but to m a i n t a i n t h a t p a r t of the f a m i l y which i s a v i a b l e u n i t , i . e . , the mother and the c h i l d r e n . A man who b e a t s or b r u t a l i z e s h i s w i f e a n d / o r c h i l d r e n i s not a v i a b l e p a r t of a f a m i l y u n i t u n t i l such time as he s t op s . 1 0 6 Working under these a s s u m p t i o n s , t h r e e support groups f o r b a t t e r e d wives were e s t a b l i s h e d . Two were run out of I s h t a r T r a n s i t i o n House, and the t h i r d was headed by a M i n i s t r y of Human Resources s o c i a l worker. T h i s l a t t e r group i s c u r r e n t l y i n o p e r a t i o n and i t was t h i s group t h a t Gwen attended. When the work of the Task F o r c e on F a m i l y V i o l e n c e was completed e a r l y i n 19 79, s e r v i c e s f o r b a t t e r e d wives and b a t t e r i n g husbands had s t i l l not been c r e a t e d . E s t a b l i s h i n g these s e r v i c e s had been a g o a l of the w i f e b a t t e r i n g s u b -committee of the Task F o r c e . The summer of 19 79 w i t n e s s e d the forming of a committee to pursue the c r e a t i o n of such s e r v i c e s . T h i s committee was s t i l l under the a u s p i c e s of 5 0 . the U n i t e d Way. As a member of the Committee f o r S e r v i c e s to B a t t e r e d Wives and B a t t e r i n g Husbands, the author d e s i g n e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d a s m a l l r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t to a s s e s s the v a l u e and s u c c e s s of the e x i s t i n g women's g r o u p s . The i n t e n t was to ensure t h a t the p i l o t p r o j e c t was on the r i g h t t r a c k . Any assessment of the p i l o t p r o j e c t n e c e s s a r i l y demanded a survey of the women p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h e r e f o r e , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see Appendix I ) was d i s t r i b u t e d among the e i g h t members of the o n - g o i n g s u p p o r t group. One group member was i n t e r v i e w e d to supplement the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and, beyond the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a s s e s s m e n t , people who work e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y w i t h v i c t i m s of w i f e abuse were q u e s -t i o n e d f o r t h e i r o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g s e r v i c e s f o r b a t t e r e d w i v e s . (See Appendix I I f o r l i s t of those i n t e r v i e w e d . ) The P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Assessment Because the survey d e a l s w i t h o n l y e i g h t r e s p o n d e n t s , the r e s u l t s cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d . However, the views of these women are worthwhile when a p p r a i s i n g the v a l u e of the support group mechanism. Group members gave t h e i r unanimous a p p r o v a l to the a s s i s t a n c e a f f o r d e d them by the support group. S i x respond-e n t s mentioned t h a t the group had g i v e n them more s e l f -c o n f i d e n c e and f i v e of these s a i d t h i s renewed s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e had helped them d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n s . Two respondents noted the v a l u e of a 2 4 - h o u r support system, r e f e r r i n g t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' exchange of phone numbers i n case of emergency or unforeseen c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Four group members had undergone t h e r a p y other than the support group. One o f the four c o n t r a s t e d her e x p e r i -ence i n the support group w i t h her o t h e r t h e r a p y : " 1 . The v i o l e n c e i s not seen as my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 2 . The v i o l e n c e i s not i g n o r e d , or seen o n l y as a symptom of o t h e r problems t h a t would d i s a p p e a r as those problems are d e a l t w i t h . 3 . I am d e a l t w i t h i n terms of how the v i o l e n c e has a f f e c t e d me; not him and how or why he i s v i o l e n t . " Another one o f the f o u r respondents who had e x p e r i -enced independent c o u n s e l l i n g thought i t was h e l p f u l to have her own f e e l i n g s f o c u s e d upon. Two of the f o u r found e x p l o r i n g the b a t t e r i n g s i t u a t i o n i n a wider s o c i a l c o n t e x t to be b e n e f i c i a l . ( T h i s group i s run from the p e r s p e c t i v e of view i n g w i f e abuse w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of women's o v e r a l l s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . ) When asked i f they would have used an emergency phone l i n e f o r b a t t e r e d wives i f one had been i n e x i s t e n c e , seven responded i n the a f f i r m a t i v e . Of t h e s e , one respond-ent s a i d t h a t i f a phone l i n e i s s e t up, i t s h o u l d be a d v e r -t i s e d e x t e n s i v e l y so women i n an emergency s i t u a t i o n w i l l t h i n k to use i t . P a r t i c i p a n t s had l e a r n e d about the group from a v a r i e t y of s o u r c e s . The M i n i s t r y of Human R e s o u r c e s , a c r i s i s l i n e , the U n i t e d Way Task F o r c e , T r a n s i t i o n House, and an i n d i v i d u a l a c q u a i n t a n c e of one member had a l l made r e f e r r a l s to the support group. Of the e i g h t group members, f o u r were s t i l l l i v i n g w i t h the man who had abused them when they began the support meet ings. One i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s uz. t h a t f o r seven members, the s t a t u s of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s has remained unchanged. Those women who were l i v i n g w i t h t h e i r v i o l e n t p a r t n e r s s t i l l a r e , and those who had s t r u c k out on t h e i r own have not r e t u r n e d t o the s i t u a t i o n . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s a woman who was r e c e n t l y b e a t e n . She i s s e e k i n g a l e g a l s e p a r a t i o n through F a m i l y C o u r t and p l a n s to make a change i n r e s i d e n c e . Of those women who l e f t t h e i r v i o l e n t homes, o n l y one i s s t i l l i n v o l v e d w i t h her p a r t n e r . She i s c o n s i d e r i n g r e t u r n i n g i f he agrees to seek c o u n s e l l i n g and put an end to h i s v i o l e n t b e h a v i o u r . Three group members have m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r r e l a t i o n -s h i p s and have no p l a n s to l e a v e . I n two of these c a s e s , t h e i r p a r t n e r s are a t t e n d i n g the men's s u p p o r t group. Seven respondents r e p o r t t h a t they are no l o n g e r s u f f e r i n g p h y s i c a l abuse. I n summary, w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , m a r i t a l s t a t u s has remained unchanged s i n c e a t t e n d i n g the group. With the same e x c e p t i o n , b e a t i n g s have not r e c u r r e d t o d a t e . I n about h a l f the c a s e s t h i s i s because they are no l o n g e r s e e i n g t h e i r p a r t n e r s . When asked what o t h e r s e r v i c e s group members would have found h e l p f u l , they s t a t e d : more u n d e r s t a n d i n g from p o l i c e and h o s p i t a l s ; g r e a t e r a c c e s s to r e l e v a n t l e g a l i n f o r -mation; more media coverage of a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g women's c e n t r e s ; and more s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n of the problem. G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e f l e c t e d a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n the support group. To v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , 5 0 . and i n d i f f e r e n t ways, a l l respondents b e l i e v e d the support group had been h e l p f u l t o them and t h e i r a b i l i t i e s to d e a l w i t h t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n s . I n t e r v i e w w i t h Group Member To supplement the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , an i n t e r v i e w was conducted w i t h Gwen. She was asked f o r her o p i n i o n on the u s e f u l n e s s of the group. She c a l l e d the group a " l i f e s a v e r " , s a y i n g t h a t a f t e r a long s e a r c h f o r h e l p , she had f i n a l l y found some-where t o go where people were s y m p a t h e t i c t o her s i t u a t i o n . She s a i d i t was h e l p f u l to r e a d about w i f e b a t t e r i n g and to c o n s i d e r i t i n the c o n t e x t of the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n c o n f r o n t i n g a l l women. As w e l l , she s a i d i t h e l p e d t o meet o t h e r s i n the same s i t u a t i o n as h e r s e l f and r e a l i z e t h a t she was not the o n l y person going through the e x p e r i e n c e . She s a i d t h a t a t the t ime of her f i r s t c o n t a c t she was d e s p e r a t e to t a l k . She a l s o mentioned the v a l u e of h a v i n g her f e e l i n g s of g u i l t p o i n t e d out to h e r . F i n a l l y , she t a l k e d about how good i t f e l t to be a b l e to h e l p o t h e r s i n the same s i t u a t i o n . T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n t e r v i e w were used to o b t a i n feedback from b a t t e r e d women themselves and thereby i n s t i t u t e a c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n component i n the community work a c t i v i t y . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h People I n v o l v e d i n S e r v i c i n g B a t t e r e d Women At the o u t s e t of the a u t h o r ' s r e s e a r c h , a s e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s were conducted to determine i f t h e r e was, i n f a c t , a need f o r support s e r v i c e s f o r b a t t e r e d w i v e s . Both the l a c k 5 0 . of funding a v a i l a b l e f o r such s e r v i c e s and the d i f f i c u l t y e x p e r i e n c e d when r e c r u i t i n g f o r a d d i t i o n a l support groups demanded t h a t t h i s q u e s t i o n be put to those people working w i t h v i c t i m s of w i f e abuse. P r o f e s s i o n a l s and women working f o r women's groups were q u e s t i o n e d . Not a s i n g l e person i n t e r v i e w e d d i s p u t e d the need f o r support g r o u p s . O p i n i o n s advanced on the r e c r u i t m e n t d i f f i c u l t y s u g g e s t t h i s may have been due to the f a c t t h a t the groups are not funded, e s t a b l i s h e d , or w e l l known. Above a l l , the f a c t t h a t t h e r e was not a phone number where the b a t t e r e d woman c o u l d c a l l and t a l k to someone was c o n -s i d e r e d a d e t e r r e n t . (The groups were a d v e r t i s e d through a v a r i e t y of methods. U s u a l l y an i n t e r e s t e d woman had to phone, l e a v e h e r name and number, and w a i t f o r her c a l l t o be r e t u r n e d . . I n any s i t u a t i o n t h i s i s not an i d e a l r e c r u i t -ment method. I n t h i s i n s t a n c e i t i s a l s o dangerous, due to the p h y s i c a l abuse a woman c o u l d r e c e i v e i f the husband were to d i s c o v e r the c a l l . ) Most people i n t e r v i e w e d thought the support groups should be p a r t of a network of s e r v i c e s f o r b a t t e r e d w i v e s . Examples i n c l u d e d emergency phone l i n e s , a d v o c a c y , p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n , and i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g . I t was a l s o suggested t h a t the s e r v i c e be s e t up i n a manner t h a t e n a b l e s i t to apply p r e s s u r e on e x i s t i n g a g e n c i e s and s e r v i c e s , i n order t h a t they become more r e s p o n s i v e to the needs of the b a t t e r e d w i f e . O p i n i o n s advanced by those i n t e r v i e w e d are as f o l l o w s : 5 0 . - I d e a l l y , the s e r v i c e s h o u l d be s e t up on i t s own. T h i s would a l l o w i t t o p u t p r e s s u r e on o t h e r a g e n c i e s , and f o r t h a t r e a s o n i t s t i e s to any o t h e r agency s h o u l d - b e as loose as p o s s i b l e . E x p e r i e n c e shows t h a t the f o c u s of the s e r v i c e can be watered down i n a g e n c i e s t h a t embody d i v e r s e purposes. O f t e n t h i s i s due t o the d i f f e r i n g p o i n t s of view t h a t must be responded t o i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . - P r o v i s i o n s s h o u l d be made so t h a t the s e r v i c e i s a b l e to respond d i r e c t l y t o emergency c a l l s . T h i s can be met by an emergency number where women can c a l l and speak to someone i m m e d i a t e l y . Such a number would a l s o be u s e f u l f o r a g e n c i e s making r e f e r r a l s . - Anyone s t a f f i n g the emergency l i n e s h o u l d be i n a p o s i t i o n to spend as much t ime as n e c e s s a r y w i t h the c a l l e r . - I f o t h e r a g e n c i e s a r e t o make r e f e r r a l s , they need to be a s s u r e d they are d e a l i n g w i t h a c r e d i b l e s e r v i c e of h i g h q u a l i t y . P e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h agency s t a f f members would h e l p f a c i l i t a t e t h i s type of r e l a t i o n s h i p . - The s e r v i c e s h o u l d be a d v e r t i s e d e x t e n s i v e l y through the media. P r e s s r e l e a s e s , open l i n e r a d i o shows and t e l e v i s i o n s p o t s would h e l p to f a m i l i a r i z e the p u b l i c w i t h such a s e r v i c e . - Women who have undergone p h y s i c a l abuse are s t i l l i n need of o t h e r s e r v i c e s such as c h i l d c a r e or a s s i s t a n c e i n f i n d i n g a s u i t a b l e form of employment. Housing i s both an immediate and a l o n g - t e r m need. - Support groups are not new t o B. C. Many T r a n s i -t i o n Houses have run s u c c e s s f u l groups. Methods and group 5 0 . l e a d e r s v a r y . I n one group, o p e r a t i n g out of a B. C. T r a n s i -t i o n House, e x - r e s i d e n t s have taken up c o - o r d i n a t i n g p o s i t i o n s . Both s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and e m o t i o n a l support a r e combined i n some groups. The T r a n s i t i o n House worker i n t e r v i e w e d b e l i e v e d support groups s h o u l d be c l o s e l y connected to T r a n s i t i o n Houses. - I t s h o u l d a l s o be remembered t h a t T r a n s i t i o n Houses are f u l l and cannot meet the demand f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s . J u s t as there i s a need f o r support groups, t h e r e i s a l s o a need f o r more T r a n s i t i o n Houses. - Groups s h o u l d be geared t o the p r o v i s i o n of b a b y -s i t t i n g and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s . When p o s s i b l e t h i s should be o r g a n i z e d b e f o r e the group b e g i n s i t s m e e t i n g s . - G r o u p s ' s h o u l d a l s o be a b l e to d i s s e m i n a t e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n t o members. Welfare and l e g a l a s s i s t a n c e are two a r e a s most women a r e not f a m i l i a r w i t h . - Groups s h o u l d i n c l u d e d i s c u s s i o n s about the s o c i a l p o s i t i o n of a l l women. (As p o i n t e d out by one q u e s t i o n n a i r e respondent, t h i s type of d i s c u s s i o n h e l p e d her to see t h a t b a t t e r i n g was not an i n d i c a t i o n of her own f a i l u r e . ) - One person i n t e r v i e w e d noted t h a t u n t i l now the o n l y avenue open t o a b a t t e r e d woman was t o f i n d people i n e x i s t i n g a g e n c i e s who would be sympathet ic to her needs. T h i s was thought to be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y - . Even women who a r e p e r s i s t e n t have t r o u b l e f i n d i n g someone who knows how t o h e l p or who has the time and the r e s o u r c e s to do so. A s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e , t h e r e f o r e , i s c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y . 5 0 . E v o l u t i o n of the U n i t e d Way Committee At the end of the summer of 19 79, those members of the Committee f o r S e r v i c e s to B a t t e r e d Wives and B a t t e r i n g Husbands, who were r e p r e s e n t i n g the women's movement, d e c i d e d t h a t they no l o n g e r wished to a t t e n d Committee m e e t i n g s . They f e l t t h a t the f e m i n i s t e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the Committee had not been p o s i t i v e . Most meetings had been devoted to d i s -putes about the "Grounding A s s u m p t i o n s . " F u r t h e r e f f o r t s to c o n v i n c e o t h e r Committee members of the v a l i d i t y of these assumptions seemed to them t o be wasted e f f o r t . I t was t h e r f o r e d e c i d e d t h a t those p a r t i c u l a r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s would, on t h e i r own, work to develop s e r v i c e s f o r b a t t e r e d women. At the time t h i s paper was being completed, the f u t u r e of t h a t U n i t e d Way Committee had not y e t been d e c i d e d . A n a l y s i s of t h i s V a n c o u v e r - B a s e d Community Work on B e h a l f of B a t t e r e d Wives The f o l l o w i n g i s not i n t e n d e d to be a comprehensive a n a l y s i s of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the U n i t e d Way's e f f o r t s i n r e l a t i o n t o f a m i l y v i o l e n c e . The t o p i c of t h i s paper i s w i f e b a t t e r i n g and, i n d e e d , b a t t e r e d wives have been o n l y one of the c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n s d e a l t w i t h by the U n i t e d Way. The f o l l o w i n g i s i n t e n d e d t o be a d i s c u s s i o n of the community work p r o c e s s employed i n r e l a t i o n t o b a t t e r e d w i v e s . I t r e l a t e s p r i m a r i l y t o the most r e c e n t committee—the Committee 1 f o r S e r v i c e s t o B a t t e r e d Wives and B a t t e r i n g Husbands. I n t h e i r l i s t of the v a r i o u s t y p e s of c o n s t i t u e n c i e s i t h a t may become the t a r g e t of o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t y , Braegar i n 7 and Specht i n c l u d e groups of p r o f e s s i o n a l s . u C i t i z e n 5 0 . p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a concept o f t e n d i s c u s s e d by community work t h e o r i s t s . 1 0 8 I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r community work endeavour, the community b e i n g o r g a n i z e d was comprised of p r o f e s s i o n a l s and s a l a r i e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of women's groups. Although the l a t t e r group can be s a i d to r e p r e s e n t s e r v i c e r e c i p i e n t s , b a t t e r e d women themselves were not members of the Committee. The women's groups' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s d i d make r e a l e f f o r t s t o o b t a i n feedback from the s e r v i c e consumers. For example, the a u t h o r ' s r e s e a r c h was used f o r t h i s purpose. N e v e r t h e l e s s , b a t t e r e d wives themselves d i d not have d e c i s i o n -making power. The paper i s making t h i s p o i n t as an o b s e r v a -t i o n r a t h e r than as a c r i t i c i s m . I n t h e i r scheme of the p r o c e s s of community work, Braegar and Specht imply t h a t e f f e c t i n g change i s the p r i m a r y focus of community work. The u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e of the U n i t e d Way's e f f o r t s s t i l l cannot be a s s e s s e d . I t i s s t i l l too e a r l y to judge the e x t e n t of a c t u a l change i n s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n s f o r b a t t e r e d w i v e s . The p r o c e s s of the l a t e s t Committee was c e r t a i n l y c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n . P r o f e s s i o n a l s and women's groups' r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s c o u l d not come t o any agreement about the "Ground-ing Assumptions" and i t was d i f f i c u l t to engage i n the p l a n -n i n g p r o c e s s r e q u i r e d by an e f f e c t i v e community group. I n the d e f i n i t i o n of community work t h a t was p r e s e n t e d a t the beginning of t h i s s e c t i o n , p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e d i d e n t i f y i n g problem a r e a s , d i a g n o s i n g c a u s e s , and f o r m u l a t i n g s o l u t i o n s . As t h e r e was no g e n e r a l consensus on the n a t u r e of the problem and i t s c a u s e s , f o r m u l a t i n g s o l u t i o n s was i m p o s s i b l e . 89. The Committee may or may not c o n t i n u e to e x i s t . However, women's groups' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s have d e c i d e d t h a t they w i l l work to c r e a t e s e r v i c e s f o r v i c t i m s of w i f e abuse. I f t h i s endeavour i s s u c c e s s f u l , then the U n i t e d Way's e f f o r t s can be seen as w o r t h w h i l e , as t h i s agency was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the p r o c e s s . F i r s t , a t the F a m i l y V i o l e n c e Symposium they brought t o g e t h e r women from v a r i o u s l o c a l i t i e s who were working toward the same g o a l s . Second, a l t h o u g h women's groups were g e n e r a l l y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the l a c k of immediate and c o n c r e t e a c t i o n by the Task Force on F a m i l y V i o l e n c e , the Task Force d i d b r i n g t o g e t h e r i n t e r e s t e d f e m i n i s t s . T h i r d , the l a s t Committee was a f o c u s f o r o r g a n i -z i n g around t h i s t o p i c , i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t the p r o c e s s was f r u s t r a t i n g . Women's groups' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , i n f a c t , o r g a n i z e d i n r e s i s t a n c e t o the Committee. T h i s r e s i s t a n c e enabled them t o regroup and work even harder f o r change. H o p e f u l l y , t h i s o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t y w i l l , i n the end, b r i n g about the c r e a t i o n of a comprehensive network of s e r v i c e s f o r b a t t e r e d w i v e s . The paper r e c o g n i z e s t h a t the c r e a t i o n of such s e r v i c e s w i l l not s o l v e the problem of w i f e abuse. Women w i l l c o n t i n u e to be b e a t e n , and o t h e r v e r y r e l e v a n t and n e c e s s a r y s e r v i c e s , such as p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n , cannot be o f f e r e d i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r way. As s e c t i o n I I of t h i s paper p o i n t e d o u t , t h e r e i s no m i n i s t r y of the f a m i l y and t h e r e i s no s i n g l e t a r g e t of change. The Task Force on F a m i l y V i o l e n c e , through o t h e r committees, d i d p u t p r e s s u r e on v a r i o u s e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s , a d v i s i n g them to change t h e i r approach. There has 90. been some r e s p o n s e , but i t i s s t i l l too e a r l y to a s s e s s the a c t u a l e f f e c t s of t h i s p r e s s u r e . C l e a r l y , l a r g e - s c a l e changes are i n o r d e r . Any movement f o r r e a l s o c i a l change must operate on both a d i r e c t s e r v i c e and a s o c i a l a c t i o n l e v e l . I n the meantime, emergency measures a r e n e c e s s a r y . 91. V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Although h i s t o r y r e v e a l s t h a t w i f e b a t t e r i n g has been a common o c c u r r e n c e f o r c e n t u r i e s , i t has o n l y r e c e n t l y been r e c o g n i z e d as a s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l problem. The c a s e of the b a t t e r e d w i f e both r e s u l t s from and can be used to e x e m p l i f y the d i s a d v a n t a g e s of a l l women. Women's l i v e s are t y p i c a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f i n a n -c i a l , s o c i a l , and e m o t i o n a l dependency on men. I n s p i t e of c e r t a i n g a i n s t h a t have r e c e n t l y been made i n advancing t h e i r secondary s o c i a l s t a t u s , women today are o f t e n as r e l i a n t on men as t h e i r p r e - i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t e r p a r t s . For many, the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n brought w i t h i t i n c r e a s e d dependency. Women's i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n , on both a micro and macro l e v e l of s o c i e t y , i s the c e n t r a l i s s u e i n t h i s p a p e r ' s d i s c u s s i o n of w i f e b a t t e r i n g . Economic i s s u e s a r e the p r i m a r y f o c u s of our s o c i o -economic system. Women's i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n on the macro l e v e l can be shown t o be of d i r e c t b e n e f i t to the economic realm. For example, women are o f t e n used as a r e s e r v e army of l a b o u r , which i s a v a i l a b l e when t h e r e i s a need f o r l a b o u r power and can be d e m o b i l i z e d when unemployment i s a p e r v a s i v e problem. Even women w i t h marketable s k i l l s o f t e n f i n d them-s e l v e s i n l o w - p a y i n g , low s t a t u s , t y p i c a l l y s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n s . Today, wages t h a t are a t t a c h e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l a b o u r market are n e c e s s a r y f o r the s u r v i v a l of most middle and lower c l a s s p e o p l e . As few women are w e l l p a i d , a b a t t e r e d woman's chances f o r an independent l i f e t h a t i s f r e e from the c o n s t a n t t h r e a t of p o v e r t y a r e l i m i t e d . A l t h o u g h i n some c a s e s d i v o r c e laws r e s u l t i n maintenance and c h i l d support payments f o r the w i f e , t h i s o p t i o n i s l e s s a v a i l a b l e to the b a t t e r e d woman. As v i o l e n t husbands o f t e n s e a r c h f o r wives t h a t have departed and b e a t them a g a i n , a complete s e v e r a n c e of a l l t i e s to the man may be n e c e s s a r y i f the woman i s to be c o m p l e t e l y f r e e from the v i o l e n t a t t a c k s . T h e r e f o r e , e q u a l a c c e s s to the l a b o u r market f o r women i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the abused w i f e ' s f i n a n c i a l independ-e n c e . The I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n marked the d i v i s i o n between the economic and domestic s p h e r e s , w i t h women being p r i m a r i l y a t t a c h e d t o the domestic one. There i s an e t h i c of p r i v a c y i n r e l a t i o n to the home which t h e r e f o r e a f f e c t s women p a r -t i c u l a r l y . The absence of e x p l i c i t comprehensive, s o c i a l p o l i c y i n r e l a t i o n t o the f a m i l y has been a t t r i b u t e d to t h i s p r i n c i p l e of p r i v a c y . A c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t i n many i n s t a n c e s t h i s absence i s more myth than r e a l i t y . The n e t e f f e c t of the l a c k of e x p l i c i t comprehensive f a m i l y p o l i c y i s t h a t r e l e v a n t government p r o c e d u r e s are hidden and i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y . I n r e l a t i o n t o the b a t t e r e d w i f e , e x i s t i n g s o c i a l p o l i c y s e r v e s to m a i n t a i n the p a t r i a r c h a l s t a t u s quo and t o keep the woman w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of her v i o l e n t home. P o l i c e and c o u r t s u s u a l l y h e s i t a t e to i n t e r -vene. The a c t i o n s they do take a r e , f o r the most p a r t , f e e b l e or l a c k i n g i n c l o u t . T h i s i s i n sharp c o n t r a s t to the measures employed i n r e l a t i o n to o t h e r v i c t i m s of v i o l e n c e , 93. which are o f t e n s u b s t a n t i a l . The s o c i a l w e l f a r e system a l s o u s u a l l y f a i l s to employ f o r c e f u l , e f f e c t i v e measures on b e h a l f of these women. C o n s e q u e n t l y , the b a t t e r e d Wife i s f a c e d w i t h the f a c t t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s of our s o c i e t y w i l l not h e l p her t o d e a l w i t h the v i o l e n c e i n her home. On a m i c r o l e v e l , women are a l s o i n t y p i c a l l y s u b o r -d i n a t e p o s i t i o n s . For the most p a r t , women are not i n d i v i d u -a l l y or c o l l e c t i v e l y i n as powerful p o s i t i o n s as men. The f a c t t h a t t h i s i s t r u e on a macro l e v e l i s r e f l e c t e d on a micro l e v e l and p e r p e t u a t e d by s e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n which t a k e s p l a c e i n the f a m i l y . S e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n , which t r a i n s men and women t o p a r t a k e i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n the f a m i l y , i n the l a b o u r market , and i n s o c i e t y , i s a l s o the s i n g l e most i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n the i n c i d e n t of w i f e b a t t e r i n g . C h a r a c t e r t r a i t s which a r e a t t r i b u t e d to a s s a u l t e d w i v e s , s u c h as dependency, p a s s i v i t y , and a tendency to n u r t u r e , a r e a l s o r e l a t e d t o female s e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . To exaggerate the c a s e , boys and g i r l s a r e s o c i a l i z e d to become v i o l e n t husbands and abused w i v e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s paper has p r e s e n t e d a c a s e s t u d y of a b a t t e r e d w i f e . Gwen's s t o r y was p r e s e n t e d to i l l u s t r a t e how the t y p i c a l v a r i a b l e s o p e r a t e i n a s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e . I n most ways, her s t o r y conforms to e x i s t i n g s t u d i e s on w i f e abuse. Wife b a t t e r i n g i s f i n a l l y being r e c o g n i z e d as an i s s u e worthy of a t t e n t i o n and r e m e d i a l a c t i o n . I n Vancouver , a community o r g a n i z i n g approach has been u t i l i z e d by p r o -f e s s i o n a l s and by the women's movement. The p a p e r ' s d e s -c r i p t i o n of t h i s a c t i v i t y i n t i m a t e s t h a t t h i s work has been d i s c o u r a g i n g and marked by d i s s e n t and c o n f l i c t . N e v e r t h e -l e s s , i f i t r e s u l t s i n a t l e a s t emergency s o l u t i o n s f o r b a t t e r e d w i v e s , the d i s c o r d may be c o n s i d e r e d to be merely p a r t of the p r o c e s s . I t i s a p r o p o s i t i o n of t h i s paper t h a t the c r e a t i o n of a s o c i o - e c o n o m i c system based on e q u a l i t y of the sexes would be the b e s t and most comprehensive s o l u t i o n to the problem of w i f e abuse i n Canada^ 95. APPENDIX I Questionnaire The results of the following questionnaire will be used in a study of what kinds of services battered wives need and how to set up these services. Your co-operation in answering the following questions would be greaftly appreciated. 1. Has this group been helpful to you? How? 2. Has this group been different than other counselling you have experienced since you have been physically abused? If so, how? 3. If there was an emergency phone line for battered wives would you have used it? If not, why not? 4. How did you find out about this group? 5. Were you living with the man who abused you when you began this group? Are you still living with him? If not, are you still involved with him? 9 6 . 6. Are you still being beaten? 7. What other kindB of services could have been helpful to you in dealing with the violence in your relationship? 8. Have you any additional comments? 97. APPENDIX II List of those interviewed to gain their opinions on prospective services to battered wives. 1. Colleen Walsh - Vancouver Transition House 2. Starr - Ishtar Transition House 3. A battered woman 4. Carol La Prairie - Department of Policy, Planning and Research, B.C. Attorney General's Department 5. Gene Errington - Chairperson of the wife battering sub-committee of the Task Force on Family Violence 6. Nadine Allen - Chairperson of the Education Committee of the Task Force on Family Violence 7. Tom Thomson - Vancouver Family Services Assoc. 8. Yvette - Rape Relief 9. Rachael Weiss - Women Against Violence Against Women 10. Dorthea Atwater - Police Commission 98. FOOTNOTES iMary Van S t o l k , "Beaten Women, B a t t e r e d C h i l d r e n , " C h i l d r e n Today ( M a r c h - A p r i l , 19 7 6 ) , p. 9. ^Murray S t r a u s , "Wife B e a t i n g : How Common and Why," V i c t i m o l o g y I I ( 1 9 7 7 - 7 8 ) , pp. 4 4 3 - 4 5 8 . ^ I n t e r v i e w w i t h Bruce L e v e n s , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department of G r e a t e r Vancouver U n i t e d Way, August 1 , 1 9 7 9 . 4 J . A. B y l e s , " F a m i l y V i o l e n c e . Some F a c t s and Gaps: A S t a t i s t i c a l O v e r v i e w , " Domestic V i o l e n c e : I s s u e s and Dynamics, ed. V. D ' O y l e y (Toronto: The O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 56. 5 D e l M a r t i n , B a t t e r e d Wives (San F r a n c i s c o : G l i d e P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 1 0 . ^Canada, Homicide i n Canada (Ottawa: S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 19 7 4 ) . 7 C . Hodgson and C. S a n d e r s - K r a u s e , Wife B a t t e r i n g : An A n a l y s i s of the M i n i s t r y of Human Resources P o l i c i e s and S t r a t e g i e s (Vancouver: N o n - M e d i c a l Use of Drugs D i r e c t o r a t e 1 Summer Resources Fund, 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 1 1 . 8 J . Downey and J . Howell , Wife B a - t t e r i n g : A Review and P r e l i m i n a r y E n q u i r y i n t o L o c a l I n c i d e n c e , Needs, and Resources (Vancouver: U n i t e d Way of G r e a t e r Vancouver, 19 76) p. 24. A. B y l e s , " F a m i l y V i o l e n c e . 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N i c h o l s , "The Abused Wife Problem," S o c i a l Casework L V I I ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 3 . 99. 1 5 D e l M a r t i n , B a t t e r e d Wives (San F r a n c i s c o : G l i d e P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 7 1 . 1 6 M u r r a y S t r a u s , "Wife B e a t i n g : How Common and Why," V i c t i m o l o g y : An I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l I I ( 1 9 7 7 - 7 8 ) , p. 447. G e l l e s , " R e s e a r c h F i n d i n g s and I m p l i c a t i o n s from a N a t i o n a l Study on Domestic V i o l e n c e , " Domestic V i o l e n c e : I s s u e s and Dynamics, ed. V . D ' O y l e y (Toronto: The O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 7 8 ) , p . 36. l ^ D e l M a r t i n , B a t t e r e d Wives , p. i x . 1 9 J . Downey and J . 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R i d i n g t o n , "Women i n T r a n s i t i o n : A Study of Vancouver T r a n s i t i o n House as Agent of Change" (unpubl ished M a s t e r ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n , Dept. of S o c i o l o g y , U . B . C . ) , p. 29. 3 1 R . Dobash and R. Dobash, "Love, Honour and Obey: I n s t i t u t i o n a l I d e o l o g i e s and the S t r u g g l e f o r B a t t e r e d Women," Contemporary C r i s i s I ( 1 9 7 7 ) , p . 403. 3 2 C a n a d a , Summary of the Report on the S t a t u s of Women i n Canada (Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, Nov. 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 3 . 3 3 W a l l y Secombe, "The Housewife and Her Labour Under C a p i t a l i s m , " New L e f t Review L X X X I I I ( J a n . - F e b . 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 6. 100. 3 4 P . Armstrong and H. Armstrong, The Double G h e t t o : Canadian Women and T h e i r S e g r e g a t e d Work (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L t d . , 1 9 7 8 ) , p . 1 3 6 . 35Ann O a k l e y , Housewife (London: A l l e n Love Penguin Books L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. I c T 3 6 B . E h r e n r e i c h and D. E n g l i s h , "The Manufacture of Housework," C a p i t a l i s m and the F a m i l y , ed. D. C a u l f i e l d e t a l . (San F r a n c i s c o : Agenda P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 19 7 6 ) , p. 1 2 . 3 7 I b i d . , pp. 1 4 - 1 7 . 3 8 I b i d . , pp. 7 - 8 . 3 9 I b i d . , p . 1 1 . 16 4 0 P . Armstrong and H. Armstrong, The Double Ghetto, 4 1 I b i d . 42 Canada, Summary of the Report on the S t a t u s of Women i n Canada (Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, Nov. 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 6. 4 3 M. P. Marchak, "The C a n a d i a n Labour F o r c e : Jobs f o r Women," Women i n Canada, ed. M. Stephenson (Toronto: New P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 2 0 2 - 2 1 3 . 39 4 4 P . Armstrong and H. 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