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Vernacular form in an urban context; a preliminary ivestigation of facade elements in Vancouver housing Holdsworth, Derek William 1971

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VEMA.CULAE. POEM I N AN URBAN CONTEXT A Preliminary Investigation of Facade Elements i n Vancouver Housing *>y  DERYCK WILLIAM HOLDSWORTH' .A., University of Newcastle upon Tyne, England 1968  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OP THE REQUIREMENTS POE THE DEGREE OP MASTER OP ARTS i n the Department of G-eography  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming t o the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1971  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this thesis  advanced degree at  the  Library  I further  the  agree that  by  his  of  this thesis  of  British  be  g r a n t e d by  the  f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8 , Canada  C  requirements  Columbia,  Columbia  1*1-1/  be  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  Head o f my  It i s understood that  permission.  ( Q&t  for  the  permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of  representatives.  Department  Date  University  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  written  in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  that  Study.  this  thesis  Department  c o p y i n g or  for  or  publication  allowed without  my  (ii) ABSTRACT V i s i b l e facade elements are important i n the assessment residential structures.  of the age o f  I n t h i s study a c l a s s i f i c a t o r y procedure i s  developed i n which r e f e r e n c e t o combinations o f c r i t i c a l facade elements enable a house t o be c a t e g o r i s e d a c c o r d i n g t o i t s p e r i o d o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and a l s o t o be a s s i g n e d a v e r n a c u l a r l a b e l .  The case study i s p l a c e d i n  the K i t s i l a n o area o f Vancouver, Canada. The housing forms o f a community ( o t h e r than a r u r a l o r p r i m i t i v e l e v e l ) have o f t e n not been g i v e n the a t t e n t i o n they deserve i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r numbers o r t h e i r p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the e v o l u t i o n o f the N o r t h American urban landscape.  Examination of a r c h i t e c t u r a l  h i s t o r i e s i n d i c a t e d a p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h p r e s t i g i o u s and monumental a r c h i t e c t u r e r a t h e r than the v e r n a c u l a r . I n a d d i t i o n , the few g e n e r a l s t y l e s embrace too wide a p e r i o d f o r use i n areas o f r e c e n t growth, and are not Immediately t r a n s f e r a b l e t o Vancouver which has o n l y e i g h t y - f i v e y e a r s o f b u i l d i n g and a d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y .  Geographers who have  attempted s i m i l a r taxonomic e x e r c i s e s found t h a t s t y l e alone was  an  i n s u f f i c i e n t b a s i s f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ! i t was necessary t o i d e n t i f y the v a r i a t i o n s o f the s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the s t y l e s .  Therefore, a  d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f o u r elements - window s t y l e , r o o f l i n e s , porch and entrance appearance, and e x t e r n a l cover m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e d the b a s i s f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of v e r n a c u l a r s t y l e s and t h e i r construction periods, A r e g r e s s i o n of a c t u a l year of c o n s t r u c t i o n a g a i n s t the f o u r facade elements i n d i c a t e d t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance but d i d not y i e l d w e i g h t i n g s by which the i n d i v i d u a l year of c o n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t l y recognised.  However, p a r t i c u l a r element sub-types appeared to be a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h g e n e r a l time p e r i o d s , and time p e r i o d boundaries based on b u i l d i n g c y c l e s i n Vancouver were imposed on the data t o examine the a s s o c i a t i o n o f  (iii) each, sub-type w i t h p a r t i c u l a r y e a r s .  S i g n i f i c a n t o v e r l a p s across the time  boundaries prevented the a l l o c a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l facade element  sub-types  t o d i s c r e t e time p e r i o d s ; however, examination of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of combinations o f t h r e e elements - window, r o o f , and entrance - i n d i c a t e d the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f the m a j o r i t y o f houses i n r e l a t i v e l y few combinations o f element sub-types.  A t w o - t i e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n emerged, i n which p r e c i s e  c l u s t e r s o f combinations based upon a r o o f sub-type core accounted f o r the m a j o r i t y o f occurrences i n s p e c i f i c time p e r i o d s . By  amalgamating  adjacent c l u s t e r s , the o v e r l a p o f element sub-types from one s m a l l time p e r i o d t o another disappeared i n a more g e n e r a l grouping,. Using the a r c h i t e c t u r a l l a b e l s , the v a r i o u s three-element combinations c o u l d be c o n v e n i e n t l y d e s c r i b e d , and t h e i r t i m e - p o p u l a r i t y assessed f o r the Vancouver case.  The s t y l e s were:  Swiss C h a l e t (1910-1918) and Bungalow  Proper (1912-1925) equal B u n g a l o i d (1912-1925); and C o t t a g e - l i k e (1926-1938) and Boxes (1938-1945) equal B i j o u (1926-1945)°  Other a r c h i t e c t u r a l l a b e l s  were then added t o t h i s b a s i c grouping, w i t h the p l a c e o f Queen Anne, S a s t l a k e , and Cubic S t y l e s suggested f o r e a r l i e r Vancouver h o u s i n g , t o g e t h e r w i t h the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f modern developments  I n s p l i t - l e v e l , ranch s t y l e  and apartment d e s i g n <> Overlaps found i n the examination of s p e c i f i c  sub-type  time spans c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d through s t y l i s t i c t r a n s i t i o n s from one s t y l e t o another, s i n c e i t was r e c o g n i s e d t h a t v e r y few s t y l e s command a p e r i o d I n a b s o l u t e terms.  A summary d e s c r i p t i o n of the s t y l e s was p r e s e n t e d , and a l s o  suggestions f o r i n c r e a s i n g the r e s o l u t i o n of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . F i n a l l y , p o t e n t i a l uses o f the key were suggested, f o c u s s i n g on t h r e e main t o p i c s where models of urban s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e might be t e s t e d :  the  impact of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n technology on i n f i l l p a t t e r n s and p r o c e s s ; the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of d i f f e r e n t h o u s i n g q u a l i t i e s t o i n d i c a t e d i f f e r e n t i a l m o b i l i t y and status i n v a r i o u s time p e r i o d s ; and s t r u c t u r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s as a measure of changing l a n d use and as an outward m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the  (iv) c u l t u r a l mix o f occupants.  Mention i s made o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ' s p o s s i b l e  r o l e i n c r e a t i n g awareness o f the everyday urban environment, and a l s o i t s important v a l u e as a more o b j e c t i v e  approach t o a theme i n c u l t u r a l  geography where the use o f a r t i f a c t s as a data source has been vanerable to c r i t i c i s m s t h a t t h e y were based on s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  0  -V-  Table of Contents o  Abstract . . . .  .  XX  List of Tables , . . vii  List of Figures List of Plates ,  o  o  o o  o o viii  Acknowledgements  x  Frontispiece • •  xii  Chapter I  Vernacular Building Types . . . . . . . < > . . . . . . 1.1 Introduction 1.2 General position within cultural geography 1.3 Absence of useful architectural taxonomies 1.4 G-uidelines from previous work  II  Description of facade elements i n Vancouver housing < 2.1 Plan 2.2 Window styles 2.3 Roof lines 2.4 Entrance form 2.5 External cover material 2.6 Consideration of other external facade elements  III  IV  24  Time-period and Facade-element Associations . o . o . . . . . . 55 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Accuracy of subtypes for predicting actual year of construction 3.3 Meed for independest time-periods 3.4 Classification of period groups 3.5 Resolution of element sub-types for dating purposes 3.6 Combinations of element sub-types 3.7 Applicability to non-random sample Classification of Vernacular Styles applicable to Vancouver Housing o . . « . . . . . . . . . o . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 What type of classification? 4.2 Ressurection of architectural labels 4.3 Extension outside the central time-periods 4.4 Areas of Improvement Possible Utility of the Classification i n Testing Various Urban Modelso . o . o . . . . . . . . ...0....0.. Residential pattern amd transportation technology 5.1 5.2 Housing quality and socia; distance 5.3 Structural modifications and urban cultural ecology 5.4 Awareness of environment 5.5 Methodological Value  Bibliography .  . 84  .114  .148  Appendix A FACADE ELEMENT DETAILS OF HOUSES SELECTED BY RANDOM SAMPLE . .154 B DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CORRECT YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION AND VALUES EXPECTED FROM MULTIPLE REGRESSION WEIGHTINGS OF ELEMENT SUBTYPES . C DATA ON HOUSING COMPLETIONS IN KITSILANO STUDY AREA AND ANNUAL VALUES OF BUILDINGS IN CITY OF VANCOUVER . ,jJ5fi_.  (vi)  List of Tables Page I. II.  House characteristics by era (after Eickert, -\967) Correlation matrices from original (ila) and modified (lib) f i e l d data regression  III.  . 17  O  . o . . o o . o . o o . . . » . . o . . 6 0  Incidence of facade elements by time periods . .  0  . . . . . . .67  IV. Proportion of element sub-types i n specific time periods . . . . 6 9 V.  Proportion of specific element sub-types through time o o . . . 71  VI. Most frequent sub-type (grouped by non-error error rule) in specific time periods . * • • • • • . . . » < > o . o . . . . 7 3 VIIo VIII.  Incidence of three element combinations, by time period ,  ; 0  . . 74  Incidence of facade elements by time period (non-random sample).77  IX. Proportion of facade element sub-types i n specific time periods (non-random sample) , 1 . 77 X. Proportion of specific element sub-types through time (noa-random sample) . . . . . . . . 0 0 0 0 0 . . . 0 0 . . . 7 7 XI. Test of most frequent sub-types/ time period categories (non-random sample) . . . . . . ..<>. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 8 0  XII.  Incidence of three element combinations, by time period (non-random sample) . . . . . 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 . . . 8 1 o  XIIIo  0  Comparison of sample sets, by element sub-type/time period combinations . . . . . . o 0..0..82 0  vii List of Figures 1.  Windows: sub-type characteristics  .  .  .  .  .  3  35  2 . Roof-line: sub-type characteristics . . . . . 3 . Entrance area: sub-type characteristics  ..<>•. . 3 9  4 . Suggested chronological sequence for cover materials  47 o.  5 . G-uide for field work coding 5a.Example of field recording format  „  ,  o  .  .  .  6.  Vancouver housing cycles: Annual Figures,  7.  Vancouver housing cycles: 3-year moving means  o  o  »  .  o  .  .  56  o  .  o  .  o  o  5  7  . . . 0 . . 0 . . . 6 4  1900-1969  .  8. Scalogram-type presentation of random sample data 9.  0  .  .  ,  Scalogram-type presentation of aon-random sample data  . »  • o  . .  . .  .  . .  .  . .  o  .  .  6  4  0  .  6  6  .  o  7  6  .  1 0 . Association between random and non-random sample sets, by occurrence of expected' time^eriod/ element sub-type categories 00..8O 1 1 . Schematic linkage tree, showing increasing error with progressive grouping. . . . . . o o . . . .  < . .  .  .  »  o  .  8  6  1 2 . Grouping of Type 2 and Type 3 element characteristics into Bungaloid style  O  .  .  .  .  .  o  o  o  .  .  o  o  .  .  13.  Possible extension of grouping to incorporate  14.  Linkage of bungaloid and bijou housing  .  .  .  .  o  1926-36  o  o  .  .  o  .  8  housing . . « . .  ,  « « < • • « «  o  9 95  95  1 5 o Grouping division into two- and single-storeyed structures, acknowledging stylistic connection with earlier housing  0  .  o  .  o  .  .  .  9  5  1 6 0 Suggested linkage tree for the spectrum of Vancouver vernacular forms , 1 0 7 1 7 . Kitsilano Study area: patter*, of residential accretion and l o t - i n f i l l 1 1 6 18. Kitsilano Study area: Mean construction year - perspective surface. . 1 1 8 1 9 . Kitsilano Study area: Standard deviations by block level perspective surface o o . o . o o o . . • 000 . o © . . . o 1 1 8 2 0 . Model of residential accretion and i n f i l l based on transportation constraints through time. . . » 124 0  0  0  0 0  0  2 1 . Hypothetical neighbourhood occupatxaffl/time-period matrix. . . . o . o . 1 2 7 2 2 . Approximate location of "threshold" in three cultures (after Rapoport) 1 3 4 z$o Elements of historical enquiry (after Berkhofer). .  °.. .142  viii List of Plates Page 1.  Wilson aungalow Book, page.113, Design No.708  2.  Wilson Bungalow Book, page  16,  • • • < > • • .  Design No. 1 9 5  •  .  •  .  .  •  •  •  •  •  <  >  <>11  •  •. o  3 . Wilson Bungalow Book, page 62, Design No.492  •  12  ©13  4 . Field diagrams for coded descriptions of buildings (Brunskill,1970) . . 1 9 5 . " 1 9 0 3 - It Was A Very Good Year" 6. 'Pioneer' Cottages  . . . © . © . . . . © . < > . 25 ©  .,<,•<,...  Example o f typical window of 1912 housing  7.  O  0  o  o  o  .  » o . . 28  o  .  .  32  • • < > . • .  8 . sketches of thatched cottages showing truncated hip roof (Woodforde). « 3 7 Stone pier remains:  9.  Extensive stone trim:  10o 11  block west  2700  171i  Dunbar Street  Lonely stone pier: West 3 r d Avenue  o  Avenue  8 t h  c  0  e  . o  0  .  . .  .  ©  o  o  O  .  .  o  .  o  o  o  »  .  .  o  o .  . .  ©  .  .  4  l  4  . • • . < > *  Detail to show irregular brick courses as pier material:2900 block  12.  .  1 41  ¥.5th43  13©'Examples of pairs of houses built i n same year, with one house i n each case having undergone modification to the veranda  .  0  .  o  »  .  ©  «  4  5  14O Floor Plan of Wilson Design No.492,(illustrated i n Plate 3 ) o © . . . © 4 8 1912 house on corner of 2 n d Avenue and Alma St., showing side bay window48  15©  1 6 . Example of house incorporating a continuation of cross-gable line to suggest larger front perspective « . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 4 9 1 7 . 2689 West 6 t h Avenue: Dummy extension to front wall, assisting triangular front perspective • . . . o o o . . o « . « o . » . o e © 4 9 0  0  O  18c Different set-backs between  1908  and  z houses:  191  block "West 2 n d .  3200  1 9 o 6 t h Avenue and Alma Street apartment ukder construction,1969 20  o  3696 Point G-rey Koad  block west  21o  2900  22  A-frame  0  1912  5 t h  house  o  Avenue; a l l .  O  .  .  .  .  ©  .  ©  o  .  1920-21 o  .  <  >  .  o  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  o  ©  o  ©  .  .  .  o  .  © o  . . . . o 51 .  .  51  o .  o  o  .  o  .  o  5  8  0  ©  o  o  9  1  ,  93  2 3 . A-frame 1 9 i 2 house and forerunner(1912J Bungalow Proper 0 0 0 0 . 0 . . 9 3 24.  Transition from Bungalow Proper to ? : examples from 3 3 0 0 block W.2nd »  94  2 5 o Illustrations showing overlap o f facade element categories to unite time IV and time V housing ..'© . . . © . . © © . . © ©97 0  2 6 . Styles of earlier cultural age found i n 1912 Kitsilano housing  0  . o.98  -ixL i s t o f P l a t e s Con't. 2 7 o S-ood examples o f Queene A n n e - s t y l e h o u s i n g i n Vancouver . . „ . < > . . 1 0 1 28. 1 3 0 1 West 7 t h Avenue: E a s t l a k e s t y l e 29o  Low form o f  1950'  s  housing  O  .  0  0  ..... o . . .1 0 2  o o . . . . . . . . 0 . 0 0 . . . . 1 0 4  3 0 . Second g e n e r a t i o n housing: 2822 West 11th Avenue  . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 4  3 1 . Marine Apartments: P o i n t G-rey Road 32. Apartment b l o c k : 1 9 0 6 Stephens S t r e e t 33.  CMHC Apartments:  2900  b l o c k West  4 t h  o . 105 0 . . . I O 5  0  Avenue  »  o  <  3 4 . Examples o f v e r n a c u l a r s t y l e s as i n F i g u r e 16  ,  »  .  . .  0  .  .  .  .  0  105  108  3 5 . 3 5 8 1 West 1 1 t h Ave&ue: 1 9 4 0 two-storey house 3 6 . Different q u a l i t i e s of 1 9 1 2 housing . . .  0  0  111 . . .  ....<>.. ..121  3 7 . Examples o f delayed i n f i l l o f vacaj&t l o t s 38. P r i v a t e r e s t homes .  129  . o . o o . . . . . « « . . o o o o . o o . o o 1 3 1  39. Type 4 window i n basement o f 1912 house:  3348  West 1st Ave.  133  40.  S t r u c t u r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o houses:  41  Sketches o f v e r n a c u l a r h o u s i n g i n Vancouver ( a f t e r K u t h a n , 1 9 6 2 ) . . «, 1 3 6  2100  and 2 2 0 0 b l o c k Stephens S t .  132  4 2 o Another source f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f v e r n a c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r e ; suggestion o f h o u s i n g / l i f e - s t y l e / s o c i a l s t a t u s c o r r e l a t i o n s i n Vancouver's B r i t i s h P r o p e r t i e s ( N o r r i s , Vancouver S u n ) , , , , , » ,, 1 3 8 0  4 3 . New h i g h - r i s e s and o l d houses i a West End o f Vancouver  . . . . . . . 140  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The  e i g h t e e n months o f study a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  which culminated i n t h i s t h e s i s would not have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t generous a s s i s t a n c e o f the Canadian Commonwealth S c h o l a r s h i p and Committee, Ottawa, who  are thanked a t the  Hardwick, who  Fellowship  outset.  , Of s p e c i f i c persons, mention must f i r s t be made o f my P r o f e s s o r W.G-.  the  supervisor,  gave c o n t i n u e d encouragement f o r a c t i v e  r e s e a r c h i n t o c o n f i r m i n g some o f h i s own  i n t u i t i v e notions  concerning  housing s t y l e s and the p a t t e r n of r e s i d e n t i a l a c c r e t i o n i n Vancouver. H i s advice and c o n t i n u a l a s s i s t a n c e , based on a v a s t knowledge of the l o c a l scene, i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged,, I n a s s i s t i n g P r o f e s s o r K.&„  Denike i n t e a c h i n g an undergraduate  course, the w r i t e r ' s knowledge was broadened, and an o p p o r t u n i t y appeared t o t e s t some o f the a p p l i c a t i o n s suggested i n the f i n a l chapter o f t h i s thesis;  P r o f e s s o r Denike a l s o gave c o n s i d e r a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n the  stages of the study, and i n t h i s r e s p e c t ,  P r o f e s s o r G-. Gates was  formative also  very h e l p f u l i n h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o d i s c u s s r e s e a r c h problems. Mention must a l s o be made o f P r o f e s s o r £.. L e i g h , f o r h i s  critical  comments and i n t e r e s t ; P r o f e s s o r s Copley, Sandhu and Siemens, whose C u l t u r a l Geography seminar p r o v i d e d an i n v a l u a b l e e a r l y forum; and P r o f e s s o r J.L„ thesiso  Robinson f o r h i s h e l p f u l comments on e a r l i e r d r a f t s o f the  A l s o P r o f e s s o r M.R.G. Conzen, U n i v e r s i t y o f Newcastle upon Tyne,  England, who was  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n s t i l l i n g the v i t a l i n i t i a l i n t e r e s t  i n urban b u i l d i n g types d u r i n g the w r i t e r ' s undergraduate t r a i n i n g . I n f o r m a t i o n on a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n dates i n the study area was from records i n t h e Assessment Department, Vancouver C i t y H a l l .  gathered  The  a s s i s t a n c e given to the w r i t e r by Mr. P. George of the P l a n n i n g Department i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. Reproduction o f a l l the i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n t h e i r present format p o s s i b l e only w i t h the k i n d a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n by the C e n t r a l  was  Photographic  (xi) U n i t , U n i v e r s i t y o f - L e i c e s t e r , England, i n a l l o w i n g access to f a c i l i t i e s . Thanks are due p a r t i c u l a r l y t o Henryk K a w a l s k i , I a n P a t e r s o n and J e f f Baynes, f o r t h e i r t e c h n i c a l a i d and a d v i c e . No l i s t of acknowledgements  i s complete w i t h o u t r e c o g n i t i o n of the  r o l e o f f e l l o w r e s e a r c h s t u d e n t s , who h e l p p r o v i d e a r e l a x e d and s t i m u l a t i n g environment; thanks are due p a r t i c u l a r l y t o J e r r y Turk, A r t h u r N o w e l l , M a r i l y n Gates, Ken Rhenby and Steve Evans.  I n a d d i t i o n , Marion Cooper and  E i l e e n G i l l gave v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n p r p a r a t o r y f i e l d w o r k and t e s t i n g the k e y L a s t but not l e a s t , thanks are due t o my w i f e , Meg, f o r h e r v a l u a b l e moral and c l e r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , w i t h o u t which t h i s t h e s i s would never have been f i n i s h e d . .  D.W.Holdsworth L e i c e s t e r , England September,  1971.  0  (xii)  When Z a r a t h u s t r a was  again on f i r m l a n d he d i d not go o f f s t r a i g h t '  away to h i s mountains and h i s cave, but made many journeys and asked many questions and enquired o f t h i s and t h a t ; so t h a t he s a i d j o k i n g l y of h i m s e l f :  'Behold a r i v e r t h a t flows back t o i t s source through  many meanderingsJ* to men  For he wanted to l e a r n what had been happening  while he had been away:  smaller.  And once ha saw a row  whether they had become b i g g e r or of houses, and he marvelled and s a i d :  What do these houses mean?  T r u l y , no great soul put them up  as  i t s imageI D i d a s i l l y c h i l d perhaps take them out of i t s toy-box?  If  only another c h i l d would put them back i n i t s boxl And these sitting-rooms and bedrooms: out of them? n i b b l e r s who  are men  able t o go i n and  They seem to have been made f o r d o l l s ; or f o r d a i n t y perhaps l e t others n i b b l e with them.  And Zarathustra stopped and  considered..  K i e t z c h e , Thus Spoke Zarathustra,  1885.  -1-  CHAPTER L.  VERNACULAR BUILDING- TYPES,  1.1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n I n the search f o r a s i n g l e index which can be used as an i n d i c a t o r o f c u l t u r e , the housing u n i t and the settlement landscape, r e f l e c t i n g so many f a c e t s of Man's l i f e s t y l e , appears very a t t r a c t i v e t o the c u l t u r a l geographer. Problems a r i s e i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t h i s b a s i c u n i t , s i n c e some e f f o r t must be made t o p r o v i d e a c o n s i s t e n t schema which can be used f o r comparative both a r e a l l y and t e m p o r a l l y .  purposes  The b a s i s f o r c a l i b r a t i o n can v a r y i n d e t a i l  and s c a l e from s t r u c t u r a l components and p l a n l a y o u t to the i n t r i c a t e d e c o r a t i o n of doorways and windows.  I n v a r i a b l y , a common 'vocabulary*  i s d e s i r a b l e f o r such comparative purposes, and f o r t h i s , the works of a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s are c o n s u l t e d .  Yet i t i s the b e l i e f o f the w r i t e r  t h a t such sources are o v e r l y concerned w i t h the r e l a t i v e l y few p r e s t i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e s o f an area o r h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , a t the expense of the v a s t majority of unpretentious u n i t s  0  T h i s view i s supported by Rapoport, whose work i s p o s s i b l y the o n l y s u b s t a n t i a l attempt i n c u l t u r a l geography t o attempt a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the house as a concrete e x p r e s s i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n of c u l t u r a l  skills,  c l i m a t e and c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s ; he begins by s t a t i n g A r c h i t e c t u r a l theory and h i s t o r y have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been concerned w i t h the study of monuments. They have emphasised the work of the genius, the unusual, the r a r e . (Rapoport, 19&9»  P«l)  He goes on t o c l a i m t h a t these (the monuments) are not the t o t a l volume of b u i l d i n g i n an a r e a , and h i g h - s t y l e b u i l d i n g s s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be seen as p a r t of a v e r n a c u l a r m a t r i x  -  v e r n a c u l a r can be s i m p l y d e f i n e d as f o l k ,  p o p u l a r , or unpretentious architecture.^"*  Rapoport sees the d e f i n i t i o n and  a n a l y s i s of v e r n a c u l a r form not so. much i n terms o f type but r a t h e r o f process how 'a house i s "designed" and b u i l t , w i t h the very f a c t t h a t i t i s not an a r c h i t e c t u r a l monument r e s u l t i n g i n " i n v i s i b l e " design from the o u t s i d e r s '  -2viewpoint. • One  of the most meaningful i l l u s t r a t i o n s of what i s understood by  term "vernacular" i s provided by Gowan?(l966)x who  *  the  writes  Anyone who has ever t r a v e l l e d remarks on the change i n what i s l o o s e l y c a l l e d 'scenery' going from one p a r t of the country to another. You need no boundary markers to t e l l when you pass from Ontario i n t o Quebec, or from New Brunswick i n t o Maine; i n some mysterious manner the countryside simply looks ' d i f f e r e n t ' . But how, e x a c t l y ? I n geographical features there i s no great change; g e o l o g i c a l l y , a l l t h i s area i s a l i k e . A g r i c u l t u r a l patterns vary a l i t t l e more - d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f t r e e s and crops appear, and new shapes i n f i e l d and fences - but not d r a m a t i c a l l y . Where the r e a l l y d e c i s i v e d i f f e r e n c e s come i s i n the change of a r c h i t e c t u r a l landscape. B u i l d i n g s , f a r more than r i v e r s or trees or c l i m a t e , give the countryside i t s d i s t i n c t i v e 'flavour'» By b u i l d i n g s , I mean not the o c c a s i o n a l outstanding work of a r c h i t e c t u r e you might see but the v e r n a c u l a r - common, average, r u n - o f - t h e - m i l l work: farmhouses, barns, s t o r e s , sheds, garages. A r c h i t e c t u r a l masterpieces, besides being r a r e anywhere, are always u n t y p i c a l ; by t h e i r very nature they represent something exceptional i n the way of t a s t e , education, s k i l l or e c c e n t r i c i t y . By d e f i n i t i o n they are never 'part of the scenery'; the 'scenery' t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s one r e g i o n from another i s created by everyday a r c h i t e c t u r e - the simplest s o r t o f b u i l d i n g that has gone on f o r generations, with no great pretentions to A r t , and i s hence u n s e l f c o n s c i o u s l y s c a l e d at the lowest common denominator of t a s t e . (Gowan'j 1966, p. 1+6-1+1)  One  can understand why  geographical  Gowans d i d not i n c l u d e b u i l d i n g s a r p a r t of the  landscape, as u n t i l r e c e n t l y these have not been regarded as  a c e n t r a l theme i n geographical  a n a l y s i s . Where they have been examined,  then the b u i l t environments under a t t e n t i o n has  o f t e n been r u r a l s t r u c t u r e s ,  or those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s - consequently a q u a s i 2 a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approach was  used* *  I n many r e s p e c t s , Rapoport follows t h i s route too, although i t i s no doubt the e a s i e s t and most s e n s i b l e place to begin to attempt to r e l a t e vernacular forms and c u l t u r e ; i n p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , the r o l e of environmental forees are stronger, and some comment on the  relative  -3-  c o n t r i b u t i o n of c u l t u r a l s k i l l s and environmental Consequently,  determinants  can be  i n such a p r e l i m i n a r y examination of w o r l d housing  there i s o n l y spasmodic treatment  attempted.  types,  o f the a r t i f i a c t s of urban- i n d u s t r i a l  s o c i e t y , e x p e c i a l l y i n a t a n t a l i s i n g l y b r i e f c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n , (p.130-57) On the other hand, the  work of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s ,  although  e x p r e s s i n g the sentiment o f l o o k i n g a t the f o l k a r c h i t e c t u r e o f an a r e a , r a r e l y manages t o go beyond t h e i r u s u a l p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the p r e s t i g i o u s 3  and the p r e t e n t i o u s .  A r e c e n t t e x t on how  v e r n a c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r e ( B r u n s k i l l , 1970)  t o study, r e c o r d and  classify  would i n i t i a l l y seem to answer  the above c r i t i c i s m , but t h i s too f a i l s t o be aware o f the t r u e dimensions of the v e r n a c u l a r m a t r i x ; t h i s i s e m p h a t i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n B r u n s k i l l ' s p a s s i o n f o r r e c o r d i n g (almost f o r p o s t e r i t y , one f e e l s ) the d e t a i l o f p r e - l 8 t h century r u r a l s t r u c t u r e s . L i k e Eapoport,  the urban v e r n a c u l a r i s  l e f t u n t i l the end, t o g e t h e r w i t h s e v e r a l pages on V e r n a c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r e i n North America, which turns out to be an a n a l y s i s of the impact of E n g l i s h ideas on c e r t a i n areas and times; consequently, t h e r e i s an i n e v i t a b l e focus on the more elegant and r i c h e r b u i l d i n g s . Anyone i n t e r e s t e d i n urban c u l t u r a l geography i s thus f r u s t r a t e d by most o f the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e , and there appears t o be a need f o r more work on v e r n a c u l a r forms i n an urban c o n t e x t .  T h i s w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d i n  the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , i n which the p l a c e of v e r n a c u l a r forms i n c u l t u r a l geography i s examined, and i n the s e c t i o n (p.7-20) d i s c u s s i n g the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e , both a r c h i t e c t u r a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l .  -41.2  General P o s i t i o n w i t h i n C u l t u r a l Geography Any assessment of the r o l e o f a t e c h n i q u e , data source, i d e a , e t c .  w i t h i n a s u b s e c t i o n o f the d i s c i p l i n e must f i r s t be d e f i n e d w i t h i n a more general frame of r e f e r e n c e , namely the paradigm of geography as a whole. 4 As a r e s u l t o f the c u r r e n t s h i f t s i n the methodological base o f geography, w i t h a g r e a t e r emphasis on o b j e c t i v e measurement and a n a l y s i s as a p r e l u d e to f o r m u l a t i o n o f laws, theory c o n s t r u c t i o n and model b u i l d i n g , p r e v i o u s appoach.es are i n e v i t a b l y seen i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t .  I n some cases, these  predecessors might be d e c l a r e d redundant, o r a l t e r n a t i v e l y r e c a s t i n s i m p l i f y i n g o r u n i f y i n g concepts.  The more t r a d i t i o n a l approach t o c u l -  t u r a l / h i s t o r i c a l geography^, which saw landscape as a p a l i m p s e s t o f p r e v i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , each l a y e r capable of b e i n g p e e l e d away t o r e v e a l the d i v e r s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s of s u c c e s s i v e groups and c a p a b i l i t i e s , has d i m i n i s h e d i n a t t r a c t i o n and r e p u t a t i o n under t h i s paradigm s h i f t .  However, such an ap-  proach, e s p e c i a l l y attempts to use a r t i f a c t s as the key to the p a l i m p s e s t , should be capable of meeting the c u r r e n t concern f o r p r e c i s i o n i n both measurement and a n a l y s i s ; c u l t u r a l geography by t r a d i t i o n has f o c u s s e d on complex, interwoven values and phenomena which do not l e n d themselves  easily  to p r e c i s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; and although a surrogate measure or index i s o f t e n the nearest approximation p o s s i b l e , t h i s can be e l e g a n t l y d e f i n e d and 7 constructed. C e r t a i n l y , t h i s approach has a l o n g h i s t o r y ; p o s s i b l y the most impressive s e c t i o n of c u l t u r a l geography as a whole has been i t s strong m o r p h o l o g i c a l  -5-  and m a t e r i a l b i a s , o f which the German taxonomies on s e t t l e m e n t types  Q p r o v i d e the b e s t example .  S t u d i e s o f the r u r a l landscape, s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s  and b u i l d i n g methods, by American geographers  such as K n i f f e n ( 1 9 3 6 , 1 9 6 5 ) ,  Mather ( 1 9 6 3 ) , Jackson (1953,1959,1961), Z e l i n s k y ( 1 9 5 9 ) , and G l a s s i e s ( 1 9 7 0 ) ? have served t o e s t a b l i s h a s i m i l a r b i a s i n t o p a r t o f American geography. I n urban geography, however, the m o r p h o l o g i c a l and taxonomic  tradition  has not h»d s i m i l a r c u r r e n c t , a t l e a s t i n t a c k l i n g the American urban landscape i n any d e t a i l .  K n i f f e n ( 1 9 6 5 ) has p r o v i d e d the probable e x p l a n a t i o n  o f why s e t t l e m e n t geography, which has o c c u p i e d an a c t i v e and r e s p e c t e d p l a c e i n European geography, has not found e q u a l l y widespread acceptance i n America.  He f e e l s t h a t the major reason i s the b r e v i t y o f the h i s t o r i c a l  time-span, which makes the methods o f h i s t o r i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n l e s s a p p l i c a b l e , the common excuse b e i n g our settelement elements and p a t t e r n s are so y o u t h f u l as t o be masked by ferment, mixture and makeshift t o the extent t h a t they are amorphous, t h a t t h e i r study can l e a d t o no s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s ( K n i f f e n , 1965, p.549) Such an a t t i t u d e has l e a d t o two types o f study<>  One,  i n which m a t u r i t y  has r e p l a c e d the ' y o u t h f u l ' as the focus o f a t t e n t i o n .  Thus p a t t e r n s of  11  i n i t i a l occupance i n the seaboard c o l o n i e s  and the d i f f u s i o n o f p a t t e r n s  and s t y l e s westwards w i t h the f r o n t i e r have r e c e i v e d a t t e n t i o n w i t h some 12  success  .  On the o t h e r end o f the s c a l e there i s the atemporal scene, i n  which f u n c t i o n i s of prime importance.  I t i s i n t h i s area - e f f e c i e n t s p a c i n g  o f c i t i e s i n systems, f u n c t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f urban a r e a s , e t c . - t h a t American urban geographers have made g r e a t e s t impact; the opposing p h i l o s o p h i e s are w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by the Conzen/Garris on debate i n the Lund I.G.U. Urban 13 Symposium, 1 961. And y e t between the two extremes - the a n t i q u a r i a n ' ' and the " s p i t - h o t 4  a r t i f a c t " (Lowenthal, 1962,  p . 2 l ) t h e r e l i e s the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f housing  stock o f the c o n t i n e n t . A r g u i n g the case f o r the examination of the urban landscape, Nelson (1963) speaks o f c i t i e s as c l e a r r e f l e c t i o n s o f  -6-  of  the c u l t u r e , o f the people who b u i l t them, the v i s i b l e and dynamic e x p r e s s i o n o f l e n g t h o f occupance, t e c h n o l o g i c a l achievement, economic i n t e r e s t , s o c i a l value, p o l i t i c a l organisation, r e l i g i o u s i d e a l s , a r t i s t i c t a s t e s and way o f l i f e o f a p e o p l e . ( N e l s o n , 1 9 6 3 , p. 7 )  He advances the c r i t i c i s m t h a t most American c i t i e s have been i n v e s t i g a t e d as i n d i v i d u a l c e n t r e s and from an economic o r f u n c t i o n a l v i e w p o i n t which sheds l i t t l e l i g h t on more g e n e r a l , r e p e t i t i v e m o r p h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s t h a t might be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , o f those c i t i e s .  He concludes  t h a t the a n a l y s i s of these c i t i e s , r e f l e c t i n g many f a c e t s o f the complex l i f e o f the people who b u i l t and i n h a b i t them, "would seem t o deserve a prominent p l a c e among t h e 'elements* o f c u l t u r a l geography"  (p.74)  And y e t what does N e l s o n study, a f t e r p r e s e n t i n g such an i m p r e s s i v e case? - t h e townscapes o f Mexico, which o f f e r s u f f i c i e n t numbers o f Mayan and Spanish c o l o n i a l s t r u c t u r e s t o reduce the modern p e r i o d t o minor p r o p o r t i o n s . Reviewing the ' s t a t e o f the a r t ' i n Canadian h i s t o r i c a l  geography,  H a r r i s ( 1 9 6 7 ) i s c l e a r l y aware o f the l a c k o f focus on the c o m p l e x i t y of  the immediate urban s u r r o u n d i n g s , p o i n t i n g out t h a t t v e r n a c u l a r s t y l e s o f the o r d i n a r y farm house, the b a r n s , or the main s t r e e t s warrant g e o g r a p h i c a l a t t e n t i o n as important c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the landscape and as r e f l e c t i o n s of time p a s t . ( H a r r i s , 1 9 6 7 , p. 238)  But t h a t : s t u d i e s o f the appearance o f s t r e e t s and d i s t r i c t s , so r e v e a l i n g about a t t i t u d e s and ways o f l i f e i n e a r l y Canadian c i t i e s , have r e c e i v e d almost no s c h o l a r l y attention,, ( H a r r i s , 1 9 6 7 , p . 2 4 0 )  -7P o s s i b l y t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s due t o the absence of r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on methods f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the v e r n a c u l a r s t y l e s which H a r r i s mentions. 1.3  Absence o f u s e f u l a r c h i t e c t u r a l taxonomies  Examination o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i e s c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the ' g r e a t s ' such as R i c h a r d s o n , S u l l i v a n , and W r i g h t , would seem t o bear out the above noted c r i t i c i s m s .  Mumford, ( 1 9 5 9 ) , i & "t^e p r e f a c e t o the Second  E d i t i o n of Roots of Contemporary American A r c h i t e c t u r e , began by w r i t i n g "When t h i s book was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 5 2 ,  i t f i l l e d a gap t h a t  was a d i s g r a c e t o American s c h o l a r s h i p i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r y "  (p.vii).  I t was, i n p a r t , a r e v o l t a g a i n s t "academicism and h i s t o r i c i s m " which had u n t i l then e x p l a i n e d American s t y l e s s i m p l y i n terms o f European c u l t u r a l f o r c e s , but more i m p o r t a n t l y i t was an attempt to t r a c e the i n t e l l e c t u a l germination t h a t preceeded the emergence of i n d i g i n o u s modern forms; the purpose b e i n g t o understand and i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r y the  i d e a s o f those who, had something t o say about t h e i r b a s i c b e l i e f s and purposes t h a t p o w e r f u l l y supplemented, i f i t d i d not go beyond, what they had c o n c r e t e l y expressed i n t h e i r b u i l d i n g s . (Mumford, 1 9 5 9 ,  Yet  p.vii)  although t h i s may have been a great improvement f o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l  h i s t o r i a n s , by examining the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of more persons and a l s o r e ducing the importance of imported v a l u e s , there i s s t i l l an emphasis on a r c h i t e c t s r a t h e r than on a r c h i t e c t u r e ; Mumford t e l l s the s t o r y o f the concepts t h a t c r e a t e d a new language of s t r u c t u r a l form through the w r i t i n g s of the men who most i n f l u e n c e d American a r c h i t e c t u r e . a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o an understanding of the r o o t s  Yet as  of American a r c h i t e c t u r e  i n the sense of t r u l y v e r n a c u l a r s t y l e s , as d e f i n e d i n t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , the work i s of l e s s i n t e r e s t , although he does remind one t h a t modern  -8a r c h i t e c t u r e i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n of a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a d i t i o n , not a break w i t h or r e j e c t i o n of them merely because they do not i m i t a t e the a n c i e n t modes:When modern a r c h i t e c t u r e departs from the p a s t , i t does so f o r good reasons, e i t h e r because the c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e g e n e r a l l y have changed, or because f r e s h t e c h n o l o g i c a l f a c i l i t i e s o f f e r f r e s h i n c e n t i v e s f o r t h e i r i m a g i n a t i v e use, or because new f e e l i n g s and values demand a f r e s h form and e s t h e t i c e x p r e s s i o n , or f o r a l l o f these reasons t o g e t h e r . (Mumford, 1959, p x ) 0  As such, Mumford's words are an appeal or p o i n t e r to the need f o r an understanding of f o l k culture©  I t i s almost i m p o s s i b l e t o i s o l a t e any of  the t h r e e f a c t o r s mentioned above - c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e , t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t y , and new values - as each a f f e c t s and causes the o t h e r ;  new  ' f e e l i n g s ' devalued the important s o c i a l p o s i t i o n o f European-based s t y l e s , which i n p a r t had been perpetuated by the l i m i t a t i o n s o f o l d c o n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , themselves now r e p l a c e d by the i n d u s t r i a l techniques o f the new  America.  From the viewpoint of the c u l t u r a l geographer,  s e a r c h i n g f o r an  understanding of the e v o l u t i o n o f the c u l t u r a l landscape, i n f o r m a t i o n on m a t e r i a l a r t i f a c t s i s an important step towards h i s knowledge o f the c o m p l e x i t i e s of t h a t s o c i e t y .  So, f o r him, a s u i t a b l e b e g i n n i n g might  be an examination of the ' t e c h n o l o g i c a l f a c i l i t i e s ' which c o n t r i b u t e s t r u c t u r a l l y t o the consequent v e r n a c u l a r s t y l e s ; the other two  factors-  c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e and new values - are i m p l i c i t l y r e f l e c t e d i n and by these new s t y l e s , and are i n e v i t a b l y i n c l u d e d i n the examination,, "' 1  They w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n the c o n c l u d i n g chapter,, As a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the general e v o l u t i o n o f North American v e r n a c u l a r forms, i n housing, i n d u s t r y , r a i l r o a d s , e t c . - Kouwenhoeven (1948) i s an i n v a l u a b l e source, p a r t i c u l a r l y \n h i s t r a c i n g of the  critical  developments i n c o n s t r u c t i o n technology (e.g. mortice and tenon j o i n t s =  -9-  heavy ponderous frames, then the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f machine-manufactured n a i l s leads to' development o f l i g h t e r and f a s t e r balloon-frame  construction)  U n f o r t u n a t e l y he does not g i v e many i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n s of p a r t i c u l a r v e r n a c u l a r forms, but these can o f t e n be found i n v a r i o u s 17  regional architectural studies.  One'of the few 'low' s t y l e s c o n s i s t e n t l y mentioned i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l 18 h i s t o r i e s i s t h a t o f t h e bungalow,  which gained n a t i o n a l p o p u l a r i t y  w i t h i t s d i f f u s i o n through the magazine a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s  century.  R e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d s u b t l e v a r i a t i o n s t o the s t y l e i n i t s adaption t o s e t t i n g , c l i m a t e o r l i f e s t y l e , a a a i i f e s t as the l o w - l y i n g p r a i r i e house o f the Mid^West, s h i n g l e d cottages w i t h steep p i t c h e d r o o f s i n New England, and the white stucco houses w i t h f l a t r o o f s i n Southern California.  Can one recognise a d i s t i n c t i v e s u b - s t y l e o f the bungalow  i n Vancouver housing?  Some knowledge o f the o r i g i n a l s t y l e and i t s mode  of t r a n s m i s s i o n would seem a necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e o f any statement concerning i t s presence o r m o d i f i c a t i o n as a d i s t i n c t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o Vancouver housing One  stock.  o f t h e few d e t a i l e d sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n on the bungalow  i s p r o v i d e d by Lynes (1954) i n h i s account o f the people and pressures t h a t have shaped American t a s t e over the l a s t 100 y e a r s , and h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the r i s e o f the bunga.low s t y l e house p r o v i d e s i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e : The bungalow... and M i s s i o n f u r n i t u r e were, as Lewis Mumford has s a i d , "the f i r s t designs t h a t put C a l i f o r n i a e s t h e t i c a l l y on the modern map", and l i k e the C a l i f o r n i a n ranch houses o f today bungalows cropped up i n great numbers i n the country and suburbs, i n s m a l l towns and l a r g e , a l l over America. One o f the most s u c c e s s f u l promoters and p o p u l i s e r s was not a C a l i f o r n i a n but a Chicagoan named Henry L. W i l s o n , who c a l l e d h i m s e l f "The Bungalow Man"., i n 1910 he produced a book c a l l e d The Bungalow Book, A Short Sketch o f the E v o l u t i o n o f the Bungalow from i t s P r i m i t i v e Crudeness t o i t s Present S t a t e o f A r t i s t i c Beauty and Cozy Convenience, I l l u s t r a t e d w i t h Drawings o f E x t e r i o r s , F l o o r P l a n s , I n t e r i o r s , and Cosy Corners o f Bungalows which have Been B u i l t from O r i g i n a l Designs. I t cost a d o l l a r and i n  16  .  -10tw® aad a k a l f years i t had g®ae iato five editioas. ... Ike bungalow , . shows few traces ©f anytkiag tkat Bight be called a a architectural iaflueace except the Swiss Chaleto Its two constaat features are wide overhanging eaves aad a porch usually supported by piers oade of beulders. The buagalow was o r i g i n a l l y a one stery building, square, with a® eatraace h a l l aad w i t h exposed beaas i a the c e i l i n g of the l i v i n g reea. But i a the Bungalow Maa s beek there are dormers i a the shallow roofs aad the rooms they served were erampedo A two-storey buagalow twentyeight feet by forty-five e©st about #2000. (Lymes, 1954, p l 8 8 - 9 ) 0  1  3  Wilsea's beok i s stroagly reeemaeaded f@r i t s eloqueat detailed descriptioas ©f the various types of buagalews.  Plates 1 , 2 & 3 a r e included as  examples ©f his designs, plans aad texts,,  I t skould be poiated eut  that the majority of h i s designs are of one-storey housing, but the strong similarity betweea tke desigas i l l u s t r a t e d i a Plates 2 aad 3 &*d housiag presaat i a Vaaeouver lead t© t h e i r i a c l u s i o a . Wilsoa's modificatioa ©f tke Orieatal iaflueaees and Spaaish celoaial style produces a style which feuad ready acceptaace i a tke aew feeliags aad values ©f these who were providiag t k e demaad f@r housiag i a tke consolidation of settleaeat i n the Westo  Lynes  describes, i a the context ©f the "Age of Good Taste", the relative social status ©f Wiis®a*s Buagalow Book t© tkat @f G-ustav Stiekley's The Craftsmaa aagaziae, aad Mumford(l959, p.14-18) emphasises the importaace aad iaflueace ©f current aagaziaes, whether architectural ®r popular - Architectural Ee@®rd. Western Arehiteet. The Craftsmaa. Ladies Heme Jouraal. eta. - f o r t k e i r role i n c r i t i e i s i a g and foraulatiag accepted 'vernacular taste'  0  The Canadian Homes and Gardens  publicatiea Book of Houses 1930 performed the same fuactioa f o r a l a t e r penied, f o r example, through the normative tone of the texts aeeoapaayiag the sketches and plans: Umtil receat years the suburban type o f house kas met our needs i a nearly a l l Canadian c i t i e s Conditions are rapidly ckaagiag, keweverj i n many eases i t i s a vuestioa 0  No. 708 A " five-room bungalow 2 8 x 4 7 feet exclusive of screen porch, w i t h attic space for storage, or t w o bed-rooms may be finished off in the front and rear, leaving the central part for storage. T h e attic is accessible f r o m the screen porch by a rather steep run of stairs. T h e l i v i n g - r o o m and dining-room are en-suite, being separated o n l y b y a pillar and buttress opening, and have handsome fireplaces, a buffet, and a china closet w i t h leaded glass doors, drawers, etc. T h e front bedroom can also be thrown into the same suite b y r u n n i n g the sliding doors into their pockets, g i v i n g about GOO square feet of floor area i n practically one room for social emergencies. T h i s bungalow can be built for $1,650' to $1,800—possibly somewhat less if built w i t h a strict regard to economy of construction and finish. Complete plans and of this house, w i t h all tails, either as shown or reversed, w i l l be $10.00.  specifications necessary deon this page furnished for  1 13  PLATE 1: W i l s o n Bungalow Book, Design N o . 7 0 8 , p . H } .  -12  S0  0  /  J  ^  ^  ^  ^  ^  W  % \ V -  i" "  la - -i  N o . 195. N o t h i n g is more offensive to good taste in architecture than too much "gingerbread" t r i m m i n g , but the artistic introduction of heavy roof brackets, flower boxes and overhanging shed-roofs greatly enhance the attractiveness of this beautiful and very popular home. A pleasing effect is produced by the irregular boulders in the exposed brick chimney. Note the convenient, r o o m y interior, the abundance of closets, the open fireplace, with book shelves on each side, etc. Instead of a conventional buffet, the dining room has a china closet each side- of window ledge. T h i s house is 24 feet front by 41 feet deep, and with h a r d w o o d floors and beam ceilings in hall, dining and l i v i n g rooms, has been  built for $2,500.00.  First floor plan.  No.  195.  Plans and speciSecond floor plan. fications. $10.00. 16  No. 195.  PLATE 2: W i l s o n Bungalow Book, Design No. 195,p.l6.  -13-  No. 492. A careful i n s p e c t i o n of these plans w i l l s h o w m a n y desirable a n d u n usual features. E n t e r i n g the r e c e p t i o n h a l l f r o m the c e m e n t - f l o o r e d p o r c h , t h r o u g h a h a n d s o m e f o u r - f o o t oak door, y o u are i m p r e s s e d at once w i t h the p l e a s i n g and s o m e w h a t spacious ensemble that meets y o u r eyes. The stairs lead to a q u a r t e r - l a n d i n g about f o u r feet above the floor, w i t h a s l i g h t l y p r o j e c t i n g b a y w i n d o w a n d w i n d o w - s e a t u p o n the r i g h t h a n d side, and a l o w chest-seat u p o n the left of the s h o r t r u n . T u r n i n g y o u r eyes t o w a r d s the l i v i n g - r o o m , w i t h its gas fireplace a n d c o z y - c o r n e r seat, its plaster-paneled dado and b e a m e d c e i l i n g is before y o u . seen t h r o u g h the buttressed and square p i l l a r e d o p e n i n g s e p a r a t i n g it f r o m the r o o m y o u are i n : — t h e t w o r o o m s e x t e n d i n g e n t i r e l y across the f r o n t of the house, w i t h a fire-place at one end and a b a y w i n d o w at the other. T h e s l i d i n g d o o r s of the d i n i n g - r o o m are r u n back i n t o t h e i r pockets, and t h r o u g h the b r o a d o p e n i n g , — e i g h t feet i n w i d t h . — y o u get a fine v i e w of end of the d i n i n g room; e n t i r e l y open to the l i g h t t h r o u g h five w i n d o w s a r r a n g e d i n a p l e a s i n g c u r v e ; and t h r o u g h a f o u r - f o o t s l i d i n g d o o r w a y at the end of the h a n d s o m e buffet, y o u l o o k i n t o the den, and see t w o b u i l t - i n bookcases w i t h leaded glass doors, f l a n k i n g a w r i t i n g d e s k ; a n d three s m a l l c a s e m e n t w i n d o w s above t h e m . Y o u are s t r u c k at once w i t h the t h o u g h t — " W h a t a b e a u t i f u l a r r a n g e ment of r o o m s ; — e s p e c i a l l y for the e n t e r t a i n m e n t of a l a r g e c o m p a n y ! " T h e k i t c h e n is a m p l y p r o v i d e d w i t h c u p b o a r d s , a n d a c o o l i n g closet. T h e b a c k - s t a i r s lead up f r o m the k i t c h e n to the l a n d i n g , l e a v i n g a passage to the upstairs or f r o n t h a l l ; the c e l l a r stairs also lead f r o m the k i t c h e n to the cellar, the outside c e l l a r door opens off the l a n d i n g o n the side of the house. T h i s house is 28x48, and w i l l cost a b o u t $3,500". See floor p l a n on next page.  PLATE 3: W i l s o n Bungalow Book, Design No.492,p.62.  -14as t o whether o r nor a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and f o r m a l type w i l l not he b e t t e r s u i t e d t o our needs. I n the c i t y one does not have neighbours, even though they l i v e over, under or besides you» I t i s a case o f each man f o r h i m s e l f o D e p l o r a b l e , no doubt, but u n l e s s one i s q u i t e b l i n d , a c o n d i t i o n v e r y apparent and t h e r e f o r e t o be r e c o g n i s e d and coped w i t h when p l a n n i n g a house, (p.?) By i t s p a r t i c u l a r type o f s o c i a l language and example, such magazines seem t o perpetuate a p a r t i c u l a r type o f s o c i a l d i s t a n c e , "accepted" tasteful  l i f e s t y l e and r e s i d e n t i a l a r c h i t e c t u r e .  Examination o f s o c i a l  magazines, e t c . has been used t o c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t by those s t u d y i n g e l i t e groupings, p o s s i b l e the best example b e i n g the M e t r o p o l i t a n 400 ( M i l l s , 1956)o An examination o f the c u r r e n t "Vancouver s o c i a l magazine Western Homes and i t s predecessor Vancouver L i f e would p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a deeper understanding o f the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i a l p o s i t i o n o f Vancouver's 19  Shaughnessy and B r i t i s h P r o p e r t i e s e l i t e  e  C e r t a i n l y , examination o f the  vogue a r c h i t e c t u r e i n these magazines c o u l d be one way i n which t o develop a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n on s t y l e s o f e l i t e Vancouver a r c h i t e c t u r e . Of o t h e r l i t e r a t u r e , s p e c i f i c a l l y Canadian i n s u b j e c t matter, but r e g a r d l e s s o f s o c i a l c l a s s , t h e r e appears t o be a s p a r c i t y o f u s e f u l t e x t s .  A b e l l (1947)  attempted a taxonomy o f e a r l y rude d w e l l i n g s and more recent expensive housing and b u i l d i n g s i n Canada.  A s i m i l a r e x e r c i s e was conducted b y  Gowan (1966) w i t h more o f an a r c h i t e c t s p e r s p e c t i v e , but neigher r e a l l y c o n s i d e r the type o f housing t h a t H a r r i s d i s c u s s e s above ( p . 6 )  0  For  E a s t e r n Canada, Macrae (1963) has w r i t t e n a d e t a i l e d w e l l - i l l u s t r a t e d account of the domestic a r c h i t e c t u r e o f Upper Canada, but t h i s i s o f l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e t o post-1886 Vancouver. One o f the few works t o examine domestic Vancouver housing  i s by  Weinreich (1968), but as an a r c h i t e c t he i s more concerned, w i t h symbolism and c r i t i q u e than d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s , as i s i l l u s t r a t e d by:-  -15The bay windows and f o r m a l facade were r e m i n i s c e n t of the'houses of the c i t y o f San F r a n c i s c o . They showed a concern f o r o r d e r , d e l i g h t and p r o p o r t i o n which was o v e r l o o k e d i n l a t e r t r a c t housing (p.48). The a v a i l a b i l i t y and abundance o f wood have prompted i t s extravagant use i n l a v i s h s t r u c t u r a l s o l u t i o n s and f a n c i f u l d e t a i l s . Two columns appeared when one was n e c e s s a r y , and gable overhangs were cut t o a v a r i e t y o f shapes, (p.52) There i s something o f the sea i n many o f the houses and b u i l d i n g s s t i l l s t a n d i n g downtwon - i n the s t r e n g t h o f t h e i r t i m b e r s , t h e i r r o o f supports l i k e b o w s p r i t s , t u r r e t s and b a l c o n i e s r e l a t i n g somehow t o the s h i p ' s b r i d g e and the v i s t a beyond. (p»53) The c o n c l u s i o n so f a r would be t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e  of immediate  20 use i n the a r c h i t e c t u r a l t e x t s .  One t e x t not mentioned so f a r i s a  recent work by W h i f f e n (1969) on v e r n a c u l a r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f American housing.  I t might be c o n f u s i n g t o i n t r o d u c e h i s ' l a b e l s ' a t t h i s p o i n t ,  as even a c a s u a l i n s p e c t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s i t s d i s t r a c t i n g r o l e i n terms of any understanding of the Vancouver example.  S t y l e s are d e s c r i b e d  and l a b e l l e d , w i t h i n reasonably t i g h t time p e r i o d s , but these are s u f f i c i e n t l y out of phase w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n of Vancouver t h a t one would conclude t h a t W h i f f e n ' s t e x t does not negate the need f o r a study of the Vancouver s i t u a t i o n per s e . Other than adopting the r a t h e r general l a b e l s o f S h i n g l e S t y l e , B u n g a l o i d , Modern e t c . , the d e s c r i p t i o n s are too general f o r the amount of d e t a i l needed i n t h i s s t u d y . I n a d d i t i o n , the d e s c r i p t i o n s 21 are too c l a s s i f i c a t o r y , not a l l o w i n g f o r s t y l i s t i c t r a n s i t i o n s , modif22 i c a t i o n s due to r e g i o n a l i s o l a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l demands. Consequently i t i s proposed t o work i n d u c t i v e l y a t f i r s t , a t t e m p t i n g t o i s o l a t e the c r i t i c a l facade elements i n the Vancouver housing s t o c k , describe and group these elements, s y n t h e s i s i n g the r e s u l t s i n t o s t y l e s ; s t y l e s which a t the same time r e f l e c t the Vancouver h i s t o r y  -16-  and a l s o take due n o t i c e o f the important c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f W h i f f e n , Mumford, e t a l * Therefore t h e i r l a b e l s w i l l not be d i s c u s s e d u n t i l  facade  element f l u c t u a t i o n s have been i d e n t i f i e d f o r Vancouver housing; they w i l l be r e i n t r o d u c e d a f t e r a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of facade element sub-types has been developed. * 1 « 4 Guide l i n e s from p r e v i o u s work T h i s i s the a d v i c e o f f e r e d by Solomon ( 1 9 6 6 ) , i n h i s e x c e l l e n t a r t i c l e on p r o c e d u r a l m a t t e r s , t h u s : ... we must l e a r n t o r e c o g n i s e the a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements and c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s which i n combination comprise an a u t h e n t i c f a b r i c of p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e and p e r i o d . They become, t h e n , d i a g n o s t i c agents i n the process of a n a l y s i s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (Solomon, 1 9 6 6 , p . 2 5 5 ; 0  and he emphasises the p o i n t t h a t one must l o o k a t the s u b j e c t matter, the house, i n more d e t a i l t h a n j u s t the o v e r a l l s t y l e and c o n c e n t r a t e i n s t e a d on i t s component p a r t s ; s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n s i n the b a s i c charact e r i s t i c s of these components w i l l be r e a d i l y apparent i n the s t r u c t u r a l e n t i t y , l e a d i n g to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the d e s i r e d major groupings. P o s s i b l y the most e l a b o r a t e example of t h i s procedure i s t h a t p r o v i d e d by M c k e r t  ( 1 9 6 7 ) , who found the f o l l o w i n g nine p r i m a r y p a r t s  of a house to be important i n the d i a g n o s i s o f the f a c a d e : foundation structure exterior covering roof chimney windows entrance g e r n e r a l appearance auxiliary buildings 1  Each of these nine e x t e r i o r f e a t u r e s of a house has a number o f v a r i a t i o n s , which are shown to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c e r t a i n b u i l d i n g p e r i o d s ; s e l e c t e d examples are presented i n t a b u l a r form i n Table 1 .  An e x p l a n a t i o n o f the  t y p i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n each of the b u i l d i n g eras i s g i v e n , thus d e s c r i b i n g the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s of the C l a s s i c a l R e v i v a l (183O-5O),  -17-  TABLE 1.—HOUSE CHARACTERISTICS BY ERAS 1830-50  Type  1850-65  1865-80  1880-1900  1900-20  1920-30  Panel Size  Double Hung  Round  Arched-Topsash  Small. s  Design  1940-60  Casement. Slide .......  Casement . Slide  Mullion Shape  1930—10  Large  Louvered Picture  Paladian,  Horizontal  Medium  12/8 6/6  4/4  2/2 6/1 4/1 1/1.  2/2 Hori" zontal Door Type  Paneled Glazed French Flush  Trim  Glass Around . Pediment  Porch  Stoop  Glass Around Pediment  Stoop with Roof Veranda  Stoop \  Piazza .  S-S  Ca z °  Jo  Porch with Solid Rail _ Sunroom.. Screened-Porch Rear-Patio  Style  Low  Cubic  Cubic  Tall Victorian  SplitLevel Greek Copies  0 Villa Copies  Functional Modern . Copies  Detail  Flat  Brackets  Split- ., Level  Bungalow  —  Colonial Copies  Ranch  . Fancy  Plain  (after E i c k e r t , 1 9 6 ? )  -18ClaSsic-Gothic Transition (1850-65), Gothic Balloon (1865-80), Victo.riaa Giagerbread Castles (1880-1900), tke Eclectic Cubes (1900-20), Boxes aad Bungalows (1920-30), N e e - C o l o a i a l (1930-40), aad t k e 5 s t y l e period (1940-60)  0  Note tkat oae single ckaracteristia  of any eoapoaeat i a Table 1 rarely coaaaads tke t i a e - p e r i o d i n questioa eoapletelyj inevitably, there i s overlap ©f styles aad variations frea one time period into tke aext before the aew faskioa completely takes over. Another classifieatory study of value to this work i s that by Solomon aad Goodkaad (1965), who discovered tkat i n a study of Tasmaniaa urbaa housing, nearly a l l buildings could be plaeed i n five main architectural categories - Georgiaa, Gothic Revival, Queen Anne, Bungalow, aad Contemporary,  Confirming tke observation above conceraiag  overlapping eompoaeats, Solomon aad Goodkaad found tkat:Tke aaia problem of c l a s s i f i c a t i o a concerned decisions of placement as between two adjacent categories of the f i v e above, rather that the appearance of fresh style characteristics indicative ©f categories previously unrepresented* (Soloaoa & Goodkaad, 1965, p<>ll6) aad as the p r i a c i p a l components of their taxonomy they found tkat tke majority of buildings portrayed:..« a sufficieat combination of distinctive features suck as plan, roof design aad structural materials to be uncompromisingly i d e a t i f i e d witk a particular period. (Soloaoa & Goedhaad, 1965, p<>ll6) (my eapkasis DWH) Brunskill (1970) used 10 dimensions f o r k i s predominantly r u r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n Eaglaad although these express measuremeats ©a five major elemeats, - wall, roof, window, height aad plaa* - as ©aa be seea examination of Plate 4.  by  Also iaa England, Coazea (1958) used similar  groupings i a presenting tke results of a detailed building type inventory for Whitby, aad s t i l l maintained nine years l a t e r ^ tkat tke subject 2  -2@awaits exhaustive treatment f o r the geographic viewpoint. However, recent work (e.g. Ferster, 1 9 6 8 ; Openshaw, 1 9 6 9 , 1 9 7 1 ) involving the ealleetion ©f data on a large number of detailed facade elements, and the sophisticated grouping procedures which computer access allows, have begun to reduce the complexities ©f the B r i t i s h towmscape to more manageable proportions ' are  0  The use of a p r i o r i groupings based on derivative architectural styles diminishing i n importance as workers recognise the important influence  ©f regional architectural history, diffusion and acceptance rates of  pi certain styles, variations i n building materials and methods, etc. So there i s a move away from a p r i o r i groupings towards the approaches outlined by Solomon, Eickert and others working i n areas of more recent housing with considerable success. This approach i s to isolate facade elements, and identify fluctuations of these over time, recognise c r i t i c a l combinations of these element subtypes, and then apply labels which incorporate the conclusions of architectural historians.  I t i s this l a t t e r  strategy which w i l l be adopted here and, as a f i r s t stage, the salient characteristics of Vancouver housing are described i n the following Chapter© Footnotes Architecturally, 'vernacular' has often been taken to mean contemporary designs related t© spontaneous indigenous demands, rather than a slavish perpetuation of accepted styles ©f the past© This interpretation of the word i s traced p a r t i c u l a r l y well by COLLINS, P., Changing Ideals i n Modem Architecture. 1750-1950. Montreal: McGill University Press, 1 9 6 7 , pp.122-3, 173-82© Also, this view of style reflecting and meeting the demands of the contemporary situatien rather than a h i s t o r i c a l inheritance ( i n both design and status terms) i s central to the definition which KOUWENHOEVEN,7. A., used i n Made i n America. The Arts i n Modem C i v i l i s a t i o n . Garden City: Doubleday, 1948; 'vernacular forms' are the product of a unique kind of folk art, created under conditions which, had never before existed© They represent the unselfconeious efforts of common people to ereate satisfactory patterns of their environment. In their purest form the patterns comprise the folk arts of the f i r s t people i n history who,, disinherited ©f a great cultural tradition, found themselves l i v i n g under democratic institutions i n an expanding machine eeonomyo (p.15)  Rapoport's sentiments do not c o n f l i c t -with, those expressed above, as they are a l l essentially concerned to distinguish prestigious and status laden from the .latest expression of contemporary needs and feelings,, Neither i s the Rapoport view to be interpreted as being fundamentally different from a l l architectural historians. While there are a majority group of architectural historians p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned with the aesthetic appreciation ©f buildings "worthy of interest", possibly best exemplified by Hitchcock i n America and Pevsner i n B r i t a i n , there i s an appreciable group of writers who are anxious to depart from such an approach, and state their ease accordingly, e„ g. Old fashioned history books concentrated on kings and presidents, a f f a i r s of court and state; they were b r i e f on the everyday l i f e of the ordinary c i t i z e n . In the same way, conventional a r c h i tectural history i s top-heavy with descriptions of ceremonial buildings - churches, palaces, state capitols. Their design was judged against the standard of Old World prototypes, '©orreetaess of detail* was demaaded. U t i l i t a r i a n buildings were hardly considered t© be "architecture" at a l i o S© i n the tens of thousands of non-re sidential buildings by anonymous carpenter-builders are the least known examples of American Victorian design. They are also the best (MAASS,J.C., The Giagerbread Age. A. View of Victorian America. New York: Rhiaehart aad Go, I a c , 1957, p. 141) 0  2 By "quasi-anthropological", the approach adopted by such as Go Daryil FORDE, Habitat. Eeonomy and Society. Loadoa: Methuea, 1934, i s inferredo 3 This i s aot to overlook the important contribution of other archi t e c t u r a l f o c i , particularly those currently researching i a ecological aad eavironmeatal psychology oa the relationship between behavior and the b u i l t environment. See, f o r example, COATES, C. J . & MOFFETT, K.M., Response to Environment. Studeat Publications of the School of Design, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N C , V o l . 18 1969j SOMMER, £. Personal Space: the Behavioral Basis of Design. Eagleweod C l i f f s , N. J.: Prentice H a l l . 1969; MICHBLSON. W. H.. Man and His Urban Environment: k SociftLogieal Approach. Boa M i l l s , Ontario: Addison Wesley, 1970; EERIN, C , With Man i a Miad; An Interdisciplinary Prospectus f o r Environmental Desiga. Cambridge, Mass.; M.I.T. Press, 1970j Research aad Development Group, Miaisty of Housing, "Housiag: The Home i a i t s setting (progress report)", i a Architectural Journal. 11 Sept. 1968, pp.493-554j HALL,E., The Hidden Dimension. New York: Doubleday, 1967<> 4 This s h i f t i s traced aad also advocated i a aumerous a r t i c l e s , of which the following are good examples:HAGGETT, P. & CHORLEY, R.J., "Models, Paradigas and the New Geography", p.19-41 i s CHORLEY, R.J. AND HAGGETT,P., Models i a Geography. Loadoai Methuea, 1967; CHORLEY, R.J. & HAGGETT,P., Froatiers i a Geographical Teaching. Loadoa: Methuea, 1965j BURTON, I., "The Quantitative Revolution and Theoretical Geography", Canadian Geographer. T 7 I I , 4 ( 1 9 6 3 ) p , 1 5 1 - 6 2 ; CHAPMAN, J.D., "The status of geography", Canadian Geographer.X.3.(l966) p 133-144; HARVEY,D. Explaaation i n Geography. London: Araold, 1969; &rKESELL,M.W., "%e Borderlands of Geography as a Social Science", pp 227-248 i a M SHERIF & C.W. SHERIF, (ed.) Iaterdiscipliaary Relationships i a the Social Soieaces. Chicago: Aldiae, 1969; TAAFFE. E. JJ. (ed„). GeographyBnglewoad C l i f f s . N.J.: Preatice-flall, 1970„ 0  0  f  0  0  e  5  For example, Hagerstrand's recasting of 'frontier' and'sequent ;. occupance' studies into the idea of diffusioa waves 0  -22-  T h i s approach i s l a b e l l e d as the 'Berkeley' s c h o o l , i n r e c o g n i t i o n of the important impact o f C a r l Sauer i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s theme o f landscape change i n h u m a n geography. See, e.g. SAUER, CO., "The Morphology o f Landscape',' U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , P u b l i c a t i o n s i n G-eography. iCXX,2,1925, p.19-33; SAUER, CO., "Foreword to H i s t o r i c a l G-eography', A.A.A.G., V o l . 3 1 , 1941, p.1-24; J.LETGHLY (ed.) Land and L i f e : S e l e c t i o n s from the w r i t i n g s o f C a r l O r t w i n Sauer, B e r k e l e y and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1963. Examples o f h i s i n f l u e n c e i n c l u d e BfiOEK, J.O.M., The Santa C l a r a V a l l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : a study i n landscape change, U t r e c h t : A . 0 o s t h o e c h , 1 9 3 2 ; THOMAS, W.L. (ed.) Man's Role i n Changing the Face o f the E a r t h , C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 . I n the l o c a l a r e a , SIEMENS, A.H.,(ed.) Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y : E v o l u t i o n o f a C u l t u r a l Landscape, B.C. G e o g r a p h i c a l Research S e r i e s , No.9, Vancouver:Tantalus, 1 9 6 8 , i s an example o f t h i s approach. b  1  7 F o r example, ZELINSKY, W., " C u l t u r a l V a r i a t i o n s i n P e r s o n a l Name P a t t e r n s i n the E a s t e r n U n i t e d States',' A.A.A.G., 60,1970,743-769; as a prelude t o h i s p e r s o n a l names a n a l y s i s , Z e l i n s k y d i s c u s s e s s i x important f a c t o r s t o be taken i n t o account i n the search f o r a s i n g l e c u l t u r a l m e t r i c . B r i e f l y , they are summarised as s e n s i t i v i t y , u b i q u i t y , d u r a b i l i t y , s i m p l i c i t l y , p u r i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . He a l s o d i s c u s s e s the c l a i m s o f r e l i g i o n , language, d i e t , s e t t l e m e n t s , costume, r e c r e a t i o n , t o p r o v i d e t h i s i d e a l m e t r i c , and r e j e c t s them a l l on a t l e a s t one o f the s i x grounds; however, he sees each o f these as h a v i n g an important r o l e as s u r r o g a t e measures i n understanding the N o r t h American c u l t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y . g A view expressed by M i k e s e l l , M.W. i n a Graduate Colloquium, Department of Geography, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, October 8, 1969» Such works would i n c l u d e : LUTGENS, R., ( e d . ) , Erde und W e l t w i r t s c h a f t , 5 v o l s , S t u t t g a r t , 1950-7, e s p e c i a l l y v o l . 5 , FELS,E., Der w i r s c h a f t e n d e Mensch a l s G e s t a l t e r der Erde, 1954: B0BEK,H. & SCHHTHUSEN, J . , "Die Landschaft im l o g i s c e n System der Geographie',' Erdkunde .3.2/3. (Aug. 1 949). 11 2-20: CREUTZBURG,N.,"Wirtschaft und LandschaftVPet. M i t t . Erg.,209,1930,275-86. 9  F o r an e x t e n s i v e b i b l i o g r a p h y , see RICKERT, J.E., "House Facades of the N o r t h e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s : a t o o l f o r g e o g r a p h i c a l analysis ,' A.A.A.G., 1  1  Vol.57,1967,211-38. 10  A r e l a t e d c r i t i c i s m i s p r o v i d e d by Z e l i n s k y , op. c i t . , p.746: The p e r i s h a b i l i t y o f evidence o r i t s wholesale r e v i s i o n by l a t e r a r t i s a n s , the impact o f topography, s o i l and c l i m a t e , some t r u l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y advances i n technology, the extreme drudgery and r a r e s k i l l s c a l l e d f o r i n f i e l d c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a , morphological c o m p l e x i t y , a r a t h e r lumpy s p a t i a l and temporal d i s t r i b u t i o n , and many i n t e r p r e t i v e p e r p l e x i t i e s aJJ. c o n j o i n to render the settlememt landscape as something l e s s than i d e a l as an e f f i c i e n t key to the c e n t r a l nature of American c u l t u r e . See, f o r example, TREWARTHA, G.T.,"Types o f R u r a l Settlement i n C o l o n i a l America? Geographical Revievf. XiXVT, 1946,568-960 1 1  12  See, f o r example, KNIFFEN, F., "Folk Housing: Key to D i f f u s i o n ; ' A.A.A.G.,55.1965.5L9-77: GLASSIE, H., P a t t e r n i n the M a t e r i a l F o l k C u l t u r e of the E a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s . P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f Pennsylvannia Press,1969. 13 See the 'Symposium D i s c u s s i o n on Urban Morphology', pp.462-469, i n NORBURG, L. (ed.) I.G.U. Urban Geography Symposium, Lund S t u d i e s i n Geography S e r i e s B, No.24, i 9 6 0 .  -23-  C r i t i c i s m o f approach i s not implied*, A n t i q u a r i a n i s m here r e f e r s s o l e l y t o the s u b j e c t matter. 1 2 f  ^ P o s s i b l y the best r e g i o n a l example o f a s t u d y o f these interwoven f a c t o r s i s p r o v i d e d by BANHAK, R., Los A n g e l e s . The A r c h i t e c t u r e o f Pour E c o l o g i e s , London:Allen Lane Penguin P r e s s , 1971. Bariham t r a c e s the impact o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n means and modes, r e t a i l p a t t e r n s , l i f e s t y l e s and f a n t a s i e s i n the a r c h i t e c t u r e and human ecology o f the Los Angeles a r e a * A more c u t t i n g c r i t i c i s m o f American technology and a t t i t u d e s to landscape i s found i n BLAKE, P., God's Own Junkyard:the planned d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f America's Landscape, New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1 964. 16  A l s o documented i n GEIDON, S., M e c h a n i s a t i o n Takes Command, New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 8 0 17 See, f o r example, LEWIS, 0., Here L i v e d the C a l i f o r n i a n s , New York: Rinehart,1957: BANHAK, R., op. c i t . ; STEINBRUECK, U., S e a t t l e A r c h i t e c t u r e , 1850-1953, New York:Reinhold,1955° ^ A c c o r d i n g t o WHIPEEN, M., American A r c h i t e c t u r e Since 1780, Mass.: M.I.T. P r e s s , 1969, the word 'bungalow' i s  Cambridge,  a c o r r u p t i o n o f the H i n d u s t a n i a d j e c t i v e 'bangla', which means "belonging to Bengal". By the end of the f i r s t quarter o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i t was b e i n g used by the B r i t i s h i n I n d i a t o s i g n i f y a low house surrounded by a veranda (p.218) 19  See, f o r example, GIBSON, E., "The Impact o f S o e i a l B e l i e f on Landscape Change: A Geographical Study of Vancouver", u n p u b l i s h e d Ph D d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1971; COOPER, M., " R e s i d e n t i a l S e g r e g a t i o n of E l i t e Groups i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia", u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. thesis,- U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver,1971. 0  SCULLEY, V . J . , The S h i n g l e S t y l e , Y a l e : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955, would be o f r e l e v a n c e f o r an understanding o f the form and nature o f the more p r e s t i g i o u s o f Vancouver's e a r l i e s t housing,, 2 0  21  See GEEIG-SMITH, P., Q u a n t i t a t i v e P l a n t E c o l o g y , London:Butterworth (2nd E d i t i o n ) 1964, and a l s o the d i s c u s s i o n l a t e r i n t h i s t e x t , p.85-87. 22 Vancouver seems p a r t i c u l a r l y prone to t h i s ; see LASSERE, "Canada", i n J.RICHARDS, (ed.) New B u i l d i n g s i n the Commonwealth, London: A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r e s s , 1 9 6 l , pp.65-7 «> 23 CONZEN, M.R.G., " H i s t o r i c a l Townscapes i n B r i t a i n : A Problem i n A p p l i e d Geography",pp 56-78 i n HOUSE, J.W.,Northern Geographical E s s a y s , Newcastle upon T y n e : 0 r i e l , 1 9 6 6 , f o o t n o t e 5o 0  EENNELL, R.I. & OPENSHAW, S., "Fleldwork P e r c e p t i o n i n the P e r i o d D a t i n g o f Urban M l d i n g s " , U n i v e r s i t y o f Newcastle upon Tyne, Geographical S o c i e t y J o u r n a l , V o l . 1 9 , 1971,pp.19-23» 2 2 f  -24CHAPTBR 2  DESCRIPTION OF VANCOUVER HOUSING- FACADE-ELEMENTS.  . T h i s chapter concentrates on a d e s c r i p t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of the facade elements to "be used i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  I n t u i t i v e s t y l e / a g e groupings are  i m p l i c i t l y suggested d u r i n g these d e s c r i p t i o n s , but a t e s t o f t h e i r accuracy w i l l be l e f t u n t i l the p r e s e n t a t i o n of f i e l d w o r k data i n the next chapter, ' F i e l d w o r k i n and around the s t r e e t s of Vancouver r e s u l t e d i n the a c cumulation and f o r m u l a t i o n o f impressions of a wide v a r i e t y o f h o u s i n g s t y l e s , recorded i n photographs and f i e l d sketches.  Approximate 1  c o n s t r u c t i o n dates  were summarised from l o c a l h i s t o r y t e x t s and photos , photographic records i n the Vancouver C i t y L i b r a r y a r c h i v e s , and back i s s u e s o f Vancouver and Seattle  newspapers (e.g. P l a t e 5 ) .  O l d a r c h i t e c t u r a l and house-pattern  books h e l p e d to e s t a b l i s h s t y l e s , m a t e r i a l s and c o n s t r u c t i o n methods, p a r t i c u l a r l y Wilson's Bungalow Book (1910).  F i n a l l y , a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n dates  f o r i n d i v i d u a l houses were c o l l e c t e d i n the Assessment Department r e c o r d s , Vancouver C i t y H a l l , and these were e x t e n s i v e l y used to v e r i f y the impressions gained from more i n f o r m a l a n a l y s i s .  Thus, dates mentioned below i n a s s o c i a -  t i o n w i t h changes i n s t y l e s o f the components are d e r i v e d from the a c t u a l construction data. 2.1  Plan  Before d i s c u s s i n g d e t a i l e d facade f e a t u r e s , i t may be advantageous t o l o o k at the house as a u n i t , s i n c e there have been a p p r e c i a b l e changes i n s i z e and i n t e r n a l p l a n over a p e r i o d of time, r e g a r d l e s s of the s o c i a l q u a l i t y o f the housing.  S t r u c t u r a l changes can provide a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o an under-  standing of v e r n a c u l a r or f o l k a r t , housing designs b e i n g responses to a new s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , i n new ways of t r e a t i n g the i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l spaces of a house Carver goes on to d e s c r i b e the way i n which changing l i f e s t y l e s ,  (Carver,1962 p 102 ?  changing  f a m i l y composition and changing consumer preferences have a l l had important  o  -25-  1903—It W a s a Very G o o d Year T H E S E A T T L E S U N D A Y T I M E S . FEa  & 1901  »*#**#****#************  1 THE KIND OF HOMES SEATTLE PEOPLE HAVE? I. BEEN BUILDING DURING THE PAST YEAR About Three Thousand Residences Have Been Built Since T h e Sunday Times M a d Are  Examples Taken  Its First Appearance—Mere  at Random.  and JtSemm S m i  W. D. Ho*nt, Spring »oJ Borrn  Ridurd S. Ertri*%«, Cspitol Hi!l  This page, token from The Seattle Sunday Times dated Feb. 3. I 903; showed a number of new homes on Capitol Hill. Progress apparently has not flattened everything, for most of these nine homes are still in evidence, many of them maintained or restored to their original beauty.  A. H. 5«>txrg. C.piol II.  A n d , it Still is-See Page 29 THE SEATTLE TIMES  PLATE 5  Sunday, Oclobor  12. 1969  -2firoles i n moulding the appearance and dimensions of Canadian housing i n the i post-war period. These three factors have, of course, had this importance over a considerably longer period, and have individually been the subject of a substantial amount of research. Since the work i n this thesis i s primarily concerned with v i s i b l e , thus external, features of the residential unit, only b r i e f discussion of factors influencing internal layout i s 3  attempted here. The average size of a dwelling has declined and yet at the same time i t has become f a r more compact© Turning f i r s t to changing l i f e s t y l e s , a succinct description by Ford and Ford  describes some of the factors  (1940)  responsible f o r the changing mode of family l i f e which have im turn affected dwelling s i z e : Within the century, the home whieh had once been the seat of abundant arts and crafts lost these functions one by one. F i r s t sloughing o f f weaving, shoe and candlemaking, the urban family more recently has given up laundering, preserving and much of dressmaking and cooking f o r the purchase of massproduced goods and services. Man's space needs within the home have thus been reduced to a fraction of their former proportions, with the resultant elimination of a t t i c s , sheds, storage c e l l a r s , work rooms, sewing rooms and laundry. Public provision of l i b r a r i e s , schools, music and recreation causes s t i l l further reductions of space needs f o r many homees;Easy access t© shops reduce the size of storage space - closets, pantries and kitchens. Outside entertainments and the restlessness induced by the pressures of an industrial c i v i l i s a t i o n reduced the space needs f o r domestic social l i f e . The family also has declined i n size. There are fewer children and i t i s becoming less common f o r three generations to l i v e under one roof (Ford and F o r t , 1 9 4 0 , p . 1 0 )  The Ta^t:*pMmtementi©he^ ^  the quote above, declining family size, i s the  second of the three faetors under review, and i s discussed at length by G-rebler, Blank and Winniek  (1956,pp.76-89),  based upon an analysis of United  States population census and housing figures.  They see a h i s t o r i c a l r i s e i n  real income and change i n social attitudes towards the composition of the family occupying a dwelling unit as the most important reason f o r declining -household size, and thus a declining space need. Reasons connected with this  -27include: the lowering of the birthrate and the attendant drop i n the number of people living at home; the decline i n people's age at marriage and the increase i n the proportion of the adult population that i s married; the decline i n death rates, with more and more persons surviving past the time when children leave home; and an increase i n the proportion of older single persons who maintain households of their own rather than live with realatives<> In addition, changing lifestyles have resulted i n the decline of resident domesti© servants, which would mean the disappearance of servants quarters in addition t© the disappearance of sewing rooms,pantries etc., as indicated by Ford and Ford above. Turning to housing costs, what are now considered to b e large and expensive units were bulit during earlier periods when both labour and materials were cheaper than today. Also, the demands of living have changed, so that the domestic function of the house of today are hardly comparable wiifch those of f i f t y years ago, as poited out by Beyer  (1965):-  Almost one third of the cost of today's house i s attributable to "necessities" i n the form of mechanical eguijiiffieat^Jiueb ©f which was unheard of 5 0 years ago. This equipment includes such commonly accepted items as central heating, indoor plumbing, sewage disposal, automatic laundry facilities, dishwashers, electric wiring for lighting and appliances, and^ in some instances, air conditioning. It is small wonder then that the average house of today is smaller and more expensive than its predecessor, which, judged by today's standards, was merely an unequipped shell.(ay emphasis -DWH) ( B e y e r . 1 9 6 5 . P . 1 2 7 ) These changes i n the size and volume of the dwelling unit are evident even with a cursory glance at the housing stock of Vancouver,, Apart from a few structures dating from the f i r s t decade of this century, which are virtually 'pioneer' cottages i n the then-forest'(e.g. Plate 6 ) , the housing stock shows a decline i n size from the two-and-a-half storeyed large structures of the  1890's  and the early years of this century to the  one-storey, two bedroom boxes of the early  1940's.  The study area was  -28-  -29-  v i r t u a l l y c o m p l e t e l y i n f i l l e d by t h a t t i m e , so t h e r e are v e r y few examples i  of h o u s i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the 1950's ( e . g . the s p l i t - l e v e l form o f the t r a c t h o u s i n g i n South Vancouver), o r the two-storey house i n c o r p o r a t i n g the c a r p o r t found, f o r example, i n the Richmond developments o f the 1960's  o  I n summary, we c o u l d say t h a t t h e r e i s an a s s o c i a t i o n between s i z e ( o r volume) o f the house and i t s p e r i o d o f c o n s t r u c t i o n ; the more r e c e n t the house i s , the s m a l l e r I t i s l i k e l y t o be ( a t l e a s t u n t i l the end o f the 1940's) as a r e s u l t o f changing consumer p r e f e r e n c e s and f u n c t i o n a l demands w i t h i n the house* Examination o f s i z e and p l a n , t h e r e f o r e , g i v e s o n l y extremely g e n e r a l i s e d c l a s s i f i c a t o r y powers i n any e x t e r n a l examination, and i n order t o narrow the p e r i o d s more p r e c i s e l y , i t i s necessary to t u r n t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the s t y l i s t i c changes o f s p e c i f i c facade 2.2  elements.  Windows As a l r e a d y mentioned, the time span i n Vancouver's K i t s i l a n o i s  r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t , and so r a t h e r than t r a c i n g the e v o l u t i o n of window s t y l e s by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h improvements i n glass-pane technology and c a r p e n t r y e x p e r t i s e from the e a r l y 19th c e n t u r y , as M c k e r t was a b l e t o do, the d i v i s i o n s noted here are more s u b t l e changes w i t h i n r o u g h l y the same t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t i e s . E x p l a n a t i o n s f o r s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n s would seem t o be i n change of f a s h i o n r a t h e r than a l e s s e n i n g of t e c h n i c a l r e s t r a i n t s . T h i s view i s r e i n f o r c e d by the f a c t t h a t the type o f window found I n Vancouver's (Fig. l j l a ) .  e a r l i e s t housing i s predominantly one-over-one pane sash There was a move away from t h i s towards d e c o r a t i v e a s t r i g a l s  i n the upper pane i n some window s t y l e s o f the f i r s t t e n years o f t h i s century ( F i g . l ; T b , l C j , l d ) .  A movement from multi-pane t o single-pane sash windows,  however, c o u l d have been i n t e r p r e t e d as i l l u s t r a t i n g an improvement i n glassmaking a b i l i t y  0  -30-  Fig.l WINDOW STYLES Type 2  Type 3  fype 4  Type 5  e  -31The f i r s t major v a r i a t i o n other than these d e c o r a t i v e d e t a i l s  is  to be seen i n the windows of the housing c o n s t r u c t e d d u r i n g the 1912 r e a l - e s t a t e boom. The main features side,  then were three panes of g l a s s s i d e - b y -  'crowned* by a small pane, approximately one f o o t deep, running  continuously along the top ( P i g » 1 ; 2 a ) .  It  i s t h i s top o n e - f o o t pane, i n  many cases decorative due to s t a i n e d g l a s s , leaded d i v i d e s , e t c . , ( e . g . P l a t e  7),  which i s a major i d e n t i f y i n g f e a t u r e o f the m a j o r i t y o f 1 9 1 2 - 1 5 houses, r e g a r d l e s s o f s i z e or s t y l e .  I n some i n s t a n c e s ,  one l a r g e pane r a t h e r than t h r e e , two p a r t s on occasions,,  the bottom s e c t i o n may be  and a l s o the top pane was d i v i d e d i n t o  The window d e s c r i b e d above was t h a t found i n the  main f r o n t room, consequently the most o s t e n t a t i o u s  o f the house, and t h i s  L  s t y l e of window would not be found throughout the house; r a t h e r one would f i n d the simpler and no doubt cheaper sash window - a twelve-over-one was common ( P i g . 1 ; 2 b ) . Type 3 window s t y l e presents problems, not so much i n d e s c r i p t i o n as i n i t s i n h e r e n t weakness as a c l a s s i f i c a t o r y t o o l .  I n e v i t a b l y , the purpose  of the d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h i s chapter are an attempt to i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c s t y l e s which c o u l d h o p e f u l l y be a p p l i e d to d i s c r e t e t i m e - p e r i o d s ; however, n e i t h e r the s t y l e mentioned above ( as i n P i g . 1 ; 2 b ) or t h i s new one,Type 3 , have complete " a u t h o r i t y * over one s p e c i f i c p e r i o d , and f u r t h e r , n e i t h e r confined to a s i n g l e p e r i o d . triple-,  are  Type 3 would be a sash window, e i t h e r d o u b l e - ,  or quadruple-hung, with one c l e a r pane i n the lower h a l f and  s y m e t r i c a l i r r e g u l a r i t y i n i t s upper pane s u b d i v i s i o n s ( K . g . 1 ; 3 a , b , c ) . I t i s impossible to describe one set o f upper pane s u b d i v i s i o n s as b e i n g Type 2 windows because they are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of housing of an e a r l i e r p e r i o d ,  and another set as Type 3 because of t h e i r known time-span, when i n f a c t these patterns  are a l l the same tyge of window s t y l e . ^  I n terms  of  c l a s s i f i c a t o r y power, Type 3 windows consequently would appear r a t h e r weak i n d i c a t o r s , and t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s discussed i n the wider context of a l l  -32-  PLATE 7 : Example o f t y p i c a l window o f 1 9 1 2 housing,,  -33-  facade elemnts l a t e r i n t h i s chapter ( p . 5 2 - 5 4 ) .  Type 3 i s seen as h a v i n g s e v e r a l  a c t u a l p a t t e r n s , a l l which might be subsumed under the arkward l a b e l o f "upper-pane s y m e t r i c a l i r r e g u l a r i t y " .  I t i s predominantly  associated with  the housing o f the e a r l y 1920*s, although as mentioned, t h i s statement i s l e s s c o n f i d e n t than others due t o the s t y l e ' s occurence i n e a r l i e r  housing.  , Towards the end of the 1 9 2 0 ' s , there i s a new element, t h a t o f a wider, non-opening, c e n t r a l s e c t i o n o f the window ( a p o s s i b l e embryo o f the modern p i c t u r e window?) w i t h two s m a l l e r s i d e windows p r o v i d i n g the v e n t i l a t i o n ; these two side windows continue t o have a single-pane lower h a l f and a m u l t i pane upper sash ( P i g . l ; 4 a ) .  A f u r t h e r f e a t u r e o f Type 4 windows i s t h a t o f a  shallow arch a t the top o f the window, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n P i g . l ; 4 , and seems e s p e c i a l l y p r e v e l a n t around 1928-30.  I n the e a r l y 1930 s, more decorated 1  housing might i n d u l g e i n leaded windows, as i n P i g . l ; 4 b , t o accompany other elements o f a 'Mock Tudor* facade. Type 5 windows continue the t r e n d towards l a r g e r panes o f glass f r e e from d i v i s i o n i n t o s m a l l e r areas by wooden a s t r i g a l s .  One f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g  towards t h i s i l l u s i o n i s the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f metal frames f o r windows, g i v i n g a f a rlighter effect.  The p a t t e r n i s s t i l l predominantly  a non-opening  c e n t r a l pane, w i t h two s m a l l e r casement windows a t the s i d e s , as I n P i g . l ; 5 a , although w i t h i n t h i s general type, s t y l e s as i l l u s t r a t e d i n P i g . l ; 5 b , 5 c , are t o be found.  A window f e a t u r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s s t y l e / p e r i o d i s a  hexagonal-shaped entrance h a l l window, some 18" - 2 ' i n diameter; i t i s not u n i v e r s a l l y found i n housing o f the e a r l y 1 9 4 0 ' s , but i f i t i s p r e s e n t ,  then-  there i s a very h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the house was b u i l t between 1940-42, and as such the hexagonal window i s a u s e f u l c o n f i r m a t i o n of t i m e - p e r i o d . ^ The f i n a l and most recent category, Type 6, i s simply a complete single-pane p i c t u r e window, ( P i g . l ; 6 ) ; i n many cases, t h i s occupies a f a r g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f the f r o n t a l area of the house, i n l e n g t h and i n h e i g h t , than previous window types.  As a r e s u l t o f renewal, a s i n g l e pane  -34window may  o f t e n be found i n housing o f an e a r l i e r p e r i o d ; t h i s  can,  however, be recognised as renewal, the s i n g l e pane and aluminium frame going hand i n hand with other r e f u r b i s h i n g s while r e t a i n i n g the s i z e o f the o r i g i n a l window space. window i s e a s i l y  Consequently, the f a c t that i t i s not an  'in situ'  recognisable,  ' The r e s e r v a t i o n s about the absolute  c l a s s i f i c a t o r y powers o f window  types mentioned throughout the above d e s c r i p t i o n leads to c o n s i d e r a t i o n  of  other facade elements, 2.3  Roof S t y l e s Type 1 i s an amalgam of s e v e r a l s t y l e s o f r o o f l i n e , i . e . of d i f f e r e n t  contours,  but o f s i m i l a r s t y l e i n that they are a l l members of a r a t h e r  e c l e c t i c p e r i o d i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l f a s h i o n , e.g. V i c t o r i a n Gothic, Cubic, Greek R e v i v a l .  'Queen Anne*, Gingerbread,  The most extreme type would be  that a s s o c i a t e d with the wealthy mansion-type house, with i t s long, r o o f i n t e r r u p t e d by a row the multi-gabled  of neat dormers ( P i g 2 ; l a ) . e  and/or t u r r e t e d  o f the Queen Anne s t y l e .  More common would be  r o o f , as i n P i g . 2 ; l b , which i s i n d i c a t i v e  A t h i r d component of t h i s f i r s t group would be  the r o o f design a s s o c i a t e d with the s t y l e which R i c k e r t l a b e l s as t h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a hipped r o o f , Pig.2;lc).  low-pitched  'Cubic';  i n t e r r u p t e d by a hipped dormer window (see  F o u r t h l y , there i s the simple p l a i n gable ( F i g . 2 ; l d ) a s s o c i a t e d with  the r a t h e r p l a i n two-storey frame houses, and by time-period a s s o c i a t i o n , the s i n g l e - s t o r e y equivalent found as the f o o f s t y l e of the pioneer r e f e r r e d to ( i l l u s t r a t e d i n P l a t e 6 ) .  cottages  already  Each of these r o o f designs could  be a l l o c a t e d i n d i v i d u a l 'Type' numbers, but t h e i r l i m i t e d frequency i n the study area allows them to be subsumed under Type 1 f o r the purpose of t h i s study. Typ  e  2  , however, i s a f a r stronger r o o f s t y l e , having as i t s major  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c well-pronounced eaves, overhanging some two i n v a r i a b l y supported by l a r g e wooden brackets,  f e e t or so,  and  of v a r y i n g p a t t e r n and number,  -36( 3 u g . 2 ; 2 a ) . Also, the roof surface i s interrupted by dormer windows of considerable proportion, their purpose being to give added volume to the upstairs rooms, rather th n merely to give a l i t t l e extra light to a room, as a  is the case with smaller dormer widows. The size and proporti©n of these dormers is illustrated i n Iag.2;2b,c,d  0  This style of roof i s strongly  associated with the two-storey housing of the 1912 real-estate boom. Type 3 is a simple plain-gable roof (Fig.2;3) with no dormer window interrupting the shallow pitch, but i t retains the overhanging eaves and brackets from the earlier Type 2 style i n this predominantly single-storey housing. The roof styles of type 4 can easily be divided up into several distinct and discrete styles, but again pre-grouping has been carried out, and they are subsumed under a label of •Romanticism*. Roofs associated with g  housing of the begining of the period could be described as ^snub-nosed", as in F i g . 2 j 4 a .  Similar half-hipped gables are known to the writer from  observing late Victorian and Edwardian housing i n England. The precedents for this whimsy seem to be i n the cult of the 'Picturesque', exemplified i n the "cottage omee" with i t s genesis in a poetic idealisation of Mature... of the Middle Ages... and of Low Life...three well recognised aspects of Romanticism (Jordan,1967,p.55) This fashion was itself based on an originally very functional design, namely the slanting hole i n the roof of thatched cottages having the fireplace located at the end wall (see Plate 8 ) .  This would appear to be the precedents  for this design, which was particularly fashionable around 1 9 2 8 - 3 0 . It also seems to be the f i r s t of a number of generally rustic-romantic styles of the 1930 sj another roof style of the early 1930's has a high-peaked gable, r  perpendicular to the main roof line, which sweeps down on either side and i s incorporated through dummy walls to suggest a triangular front perspective for the house (Pig.2;4b)..The label "Real-Estate Tudor" might be appropriate  -37-  PLATE 8 Sketches of thatched cottages showing truncated h i p r o o f ( a f t e r Woodforde,19&9)  -38especially with, the addition of false 'timber + wattle and daub' trimming to these gables i n some of the more pretentious housing (together with the leaded Type 4b window mentioned previously). A third type of roof has steep thin cross gables (as i n ]?ig.2;4e), or pixie-type turrets, which make it'fairy go&hiek'. Types 4b and 4c often have their roofing material shaped a t the verges i n an attempt to imitate a thatched roof, i n keeping with the rustic-romantic image. Although these three styles are predominantly identifiable with their 'own' time-period - 1926-30;1931-35;1936-40 respectively - they can each be found in the other two sections of the period; consequently, they have been grouped simply under'Type 4, embracing the influence of frivolity and romanticism in the architecture of the period 1926-40. With the majority of houses built, the remaining roof style, Type 5, extending up to current construction on many cases, i s predominantly a 9  hip-ped-roof style ; in a small square building, the silhouette i s that of a shallow pyramid, Pig.2;5a, or i n a more rectangular struetmre, hipped gables as i n Pig.2;5b Over time, pronounced overhanging eaves have diminished, until 0  they are relatively small i n Type 5 roofs© 2.4 Entrance Perms Although concentrating on the actual door-surrounds and shelter, this . section includes reference to features whieh affect the appearance of the entire front perspective. In part, the distinctions may appear arbitrary, since one could subsume the f i r s t three types under a 'front-long porch and veranda' heading; differences i n the strength and complexity of the structural members are the basis of the distinction made. Type 1 i s a porch-veranda of a simple nature, of l i t t l e apparent strength i n structure or design, which almost gives i t the appearance of an aftertho-agat, added without intergration to the structure of the house as a whole  e  A shallow, plain roof is supported by thin uprights,(Pig.3;1) and i s  associated maialy with the simple frame house of the earliest periods. On more  -4-0-  substantial hous'e, this simple veranda might extend around to the sides of the house. Of f a r greater impact, however, i s the Type 2 entrance, whieh has a substantial appearance due mainly to the incorporation of the extended roof-line i s the porch cover ( F i g . 3 ; 2 a ) .  A stronger support i s consequently needed, and  wooden p i l l a r s on a stone base provide t h i s .  The stoae p i e r s , which have a  slight taper, are often the only non-wood construction material i n the entire  '  structure (see Plate 9 ) . In more expensive housing the stonework may extend aeross the entire front,(Plate 1 0 ) , but i n lesser housing only the piers are stone, or alternatively a thin veneer of stone-facing, or narrow weatherboard over concrete. I f the d e f i n i t i o n of a Type 2 entrance were extended to include  •:'  those entrances which incorporate any overhang into a veranda, i t i s possible to include overhanging upper floors, as i n F i g . 3 J 2 b . Ia terms of time-period association rather than s t y l i s t i c unity, a problem similar to that of Type 2 and Type 3 windows i s present with entrance forms of this period. The form i n question i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g . 3 ; 2 c j essentially i t i s a portico, with i t s own minature gable roof and the characteristics: of stone piers and wooden p i l l a r s already mentioned.  In style and appearance,  they would seem to f i t into the Type 2 category except for'the d e f i n i t i o n of overhanging structure and f u l l - f r o n t veranda  6  As an arbitrary r u l i n g , this  'portico* w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d as Type 2(c) i n two-storey housing, and as a Type 3(b) when found i n single-storey housingo  There may i n fact be some ground <.>  for legitimately including the portico-type entrance with the larger f u l l front as Type 2 entrances, since the portico could be an incomplete or p a r t i a l version of that i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g . 3 ; 2 a . where a Type 2(a) veraada  This i s suggested by Plate 1 1 ,  a situation  was planned, due to the presence of the lonely  p i l l a r on the l e f t which has not been linked up with the other two.  The  presence of a two-pier thin portico(Type 2(c)) rather than the three-pier f u l l fron$ might have been due to budgetting problems, a change i n roof style,  PLATE 9 : S t o n e . p i e r remains - 2900 blook West 8 t h A v e  0  Other than concrete f o u n d a t i o n s , the o n l y non-wood m a t e r i a l i n the facade, d r a m a t i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d by s i t e a f t e r d e m o l i t i o n o f houses i n p r e p e r a t i o n f o r new Safeway supermarket a t Broadway & Macdonald.  PLATE 11:Lonely stone p i e r - West 3rd Ave.  PLATE 10: E x t e n s i v e stone t r i m : 1711 Dunbar S t r e e t  -42-  or not exercising the veranda option of the pattern book i n order to allow more direct sunlight into the main front room. Type 3 i s a porehway-veranda along the f u l l - f r o n t of a single-storey house; rather than the sweeping lines of a large roof or the dimensions of an overhanging second f l o o r , this veranda has less imposing l i n e s , but the impression i s s t i l l that of a s o l i d deliberate porch due again to the gable roof being supported by piers and wooden p i l l a r s ( F i g . 3 ; 3 a ) . Stone piers are not as universal as they were i n the Type 2 porch, and i a many cases, a d i s t i a c t i v e appearance i s given by the use of red clinker briek l a i d with irregular courses t© present a varied surface rather than a p l a i n one Plate 1 2 ) .  (see  Adopting the same c l a s s i f i c a t i o n rules as i n Entrance 2(c), a  portico-type entrance i a a single-storey house, i l l u s t r a t e d i a 5 i g . 3 ; 3 h , would be included as a Type 3 entrance. Type 4 i a eatrance styles i s a significant departure from the previous ones, marking the end of the entrance/shelter as a considerable element i n tii house appearances, Instead, the doorway has a minimum of protection i a terms of cover above or a sizeable approach(Pig,3}4a)j i n many cases i t takes the form of a slight cantilever from the ground up to a small hood ( F i g . 3 ; 4 b ) , a minimal projection above the door ( F i g , 3 ; 4 e ) , or no shelter at a l l .  In s©me  cases, especially i a very small houses, the eatrance h a l l may be external to the main l i n e of the front wall, i a the positioa previously used for an open s i t t i n g porch area, as i n F i g . 3 , 4 d . The f i n a l type i s a continuation of this 'retreat' from  conspicuous  porehways, and with no material extension out i a front of the l i n e of the front wall, iastead one finds a recess, as i n F i g . 3 ; 5 - an indented porehway. Before moving on to a consideration of other possible aids to the identification of a house's construction period, mention should be made of the problems of renewal or rennovation, as entrance forms are among the easiest featef^&to change.  The space provided by the porch-veranda was used f o r s i t t i n g  PLATE 12  '  D e t a i l t o show i r r e g u l a r b r i c k courses used as p i e r material:2900 b l o c k W.5th Ave.  -44-  and v i e w i n g to a f a r g r e a t e r extent i n ~che past than today (because of and other p a s t i m e s ) ; l i v i n g space.  T.V.  t h i s space can now be more e f f i c i e n t l y used f o r i n d o o r  I t i s a r e l a t i v e l y simple matter t o take out the o l d f r o n t room  w a l l , board up the f r o n t s i d e of the porch and put a new b i g window i n i t , i n c o r p o r a t e the former r o o f e x t e n s i o n as p a r t of the c e i l i n g .  then  The end product  might look r a t h e r incongruous i n the company of the other o l d e r f e a t u r e s of the facade, but t h i s i s o b v i o u s l y of minor importance t o an owner or l a n d l o r d who  r e q u i r e s the e x t r a space.  The former porch i s o f t e n d i s c e r n a b l e through  the a l t e r a t i o n s , as i n the example o f P l a t e 13, would have t o r e c o r d the entrances as Type 5»  although  o b j e c t i v e l y one  I n t u i t i v e l y , one can see  by  comparison with.the adjacent house t h a t the o v e r a l l s t y l e i s s t i l l unchanged, and a n a l y s i s i n the next chapter p o i n t s t o ways i n which these a l t e r a t i o n s need not a f f e c t any o b j e c t i v e assignment ofa, p e r i o d t y p e . 2.5  E x t e r i o r Cover M a t e r i a l The p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r cover m a t e r i a l a r e : -  shake, s h i n g l e s ,  h o r i z o n t a l weatherboard ( t h i n i n width or about one f o o t broad), rough s t u c c o , smooth s t u c c o , asbestos or l i n o l e u m t i l e s ( l o o k i n g l i k e shakes from a d i s t a n c e ) , and v e r t i c a l cedar p l a n k s .  D i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e c o r d i n g these m a t e r i a l s i n a  f i e l d notebook a r i s e because there are many p o s s i b l e combinations of m a t e r i a l s , or d i f f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n s of two, on the same house e x t e r i o r ; e.g.  the lower  h a l f or t h i r d might be covered by t h i n h o r i z o n t a l boards,' and the upper h a l f or two t h i r d s dressed w i t h s h i n g l e s . F u r t h e r , stucco cover might be the o r i g i n a l cover of a b u i l d i n g or a new  cover put on to r e p l a c e s h i n g l e s during some p e r i o d of r e p a i r s ( l i k e w i s e  with*asbestos  tiles).  However, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h two d i f f e r e n t  v a r i e t i e s - of stucco; one has a rough stucco, d a t i n g back to the mid-1920's, which contains s m a l l pebbles, p i e c e s of g l a s s , e t c . , and the other i s a smooth surfaced stucco, f a r l i g h t e r i n c o l o u r , which has had a p o p u l a r i t y s i n c e the  I  PLATE 13: Examples o f p a i r s o f houses b u i l t i n t h e same y e a r , w i t h one house i n each case h a v i n g undergone m o d i f i c a t i o n t o veranda„(upp^r p l a t e s i l l u s t r a t e 1912 h o u s i n g , the lower two p l a t e s 1922)  -461950's when about 1938  i t was i n t r o d u c e d from C a l i f o r n i a n vogues (although f i r s t  appearing  i n Vancouver).  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o put p r e c i s e boundaries on the spread of these  cover  m a t e r i a l s without conducting d e t a i l e d r e s e a r c h i n t o the problem, but as a general guide from o b s e r v a t i o n , the c h r o n o l o g i c a l s u c c e s s i o n as o u t l i n e d i n Figo' 4 i s presented f o r use i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . The ease o f replacement or r e - c o v e r i n g would seem t o preclude  cover  m a t e r i a l s b e i n g used as other than a c o n f i r m a t o r y device i n p a r t i c u l a r 2.6  cases.  C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f other e x t e r n a l facade elements Other facade elements which have not been examined, such as chimney  appearance, the a c t u a l f r o n t door and a u x i l i a r y b u i l d i n g s , might a l s o be looked a t , to add t o the l i s t o f f e a t u r e s a l r e a d y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r periods of housing c o n s t r u c t i o n .  I n these cases, there i s one great weakness  i n t h a t they are a l l very e a s i l y changed or modernised; i n a d d i t i o n , such f e a t u r e s cannot be put i n t o any s p e c i f i c s e t of c a t e g o r i e s f o r use i n e x p l i c i t f i e l d measurement, except on a b i n a r y s c a l e (present or a b s e n t )  0  There a r e , however,  s e v e r a l other f e a t u r e s which would o n l y be r e f e r r e d to a f t e r the f o u r main elements d e s c r i b e d above have been weighted, but which c o u l d be as confirmatory One  evidence.  o f the f e a t u r e s would be the s i d e bay-window of the 1912  some extent e a r l y (e.g.  incorporated  see P l a t e 14,  1920's housing,  and t o  which was b u i l t t o g i v e v a l u a b l e e x t r a room  the f l o o r p l a n of the house i l l u s t r a t e d i n P l a t e 3,  a l s o P l a t e 15 f o r a Vancouver example of the s t y l e ) .  and  A bench seat i n the window  bay would provide s e a t i n g at the edge o f the room, f r e e i n g other areas of the room from a s u p e r f l u i t y of f u r n i t u r e . Secondly, as p a r t of the Romanticism of the  1930's housing  mentioned  i n terms of r o o f s t y l e above,(p.36), the e x t e n s i o n o f the cross-gable to the ground, w i t h arches to a l l o w access to the r e a r o f the house ( P l a t e 16) f a i r l y common; or i n a l e s s conspicuous way,  is  the dummy extensions of the s i d e  FIGURE 4: Suggested c h r o n o l o g i c a l s u c c e s s i o n o f facade cover m a t e r i a l s o 1890 1  1900  1  1 910  1  1 920  •  1 930  1  1940  «  1950  1  1 960  1  1 970 t  SHAKE SHINGLE THIN WEATHERBOARD ROUGH STUCCO BROAD WEATHERBOARD SMOOTH STUCCO ASBESTOS LINOLEUM CEDAR PALNKS (Vertical)  i 1  PLATE 15: 1912 house, on corner o f 2nd Ave. & Alma S t . , showing s i d e bay-window.  PLATE 14  Second Floor Plan.  No. 492.  Floor Plan of Wilson Design No.492, i l l u s t r a t e d i n Plate J ,  PLATE 17: Dummy extension o f f r o n t w a l l , a s s i s t i n g t r i a n g u l a r f r o n t p e r s p e c t i v e (2689 West 6th Avenue) 0  -50edges of the f r o n t w a l l s to g i v e a t r i a n g u l a r l o o k to the f r o n t as i l l u s t r a t e d i n P l a t e  perspective,  17.  A t h i r d f e a t u r e would i n v o l v e i n f o r m a t i o n concerning minimum and maximum set-hack r e s t r i c t i o n s through t i m e .  Such f a c t s can be e a s i l y  recorded i n f i e l d w o r k s i n c e set-backs are c l e a r l y v i s i b l e , ( e . g . P l a t e 10 and would be v a l u a b l e f o r g e n e r a l d a t i n g ,  18),  as the f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t i n d i c a t e s : -  H i s t o r i c a l l y , zoning and b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e d the e c o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f Vancouver. P r i o r to 1929, Point G-rey and South Vancouver e x i s t e d as seperate m u n i c i p a l i t i e s I n s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t t o the c o n t r o l l e d development of P o i n t Grey i s the development of the South Vancouver a r e a , where " i n the s o - c a l l e d •boom' days, l a n d s p e c u l a t i o n was r i f e and there i s p r o b a b l y no more s t r i k i n g example of the i l l s of u n c o n t r o l l e d and haphazard s u b - d i v i s i o n of l a n d on the continent t h a n there i s here"(1950 P l a n ) . (Bell,1965,p.5). 0  No mention has been made of apartment 'buildings, mainly due t o t h e i r minimal c o n t r i b u t i o n to the chosen study a r e a .  However, i n r o o f l i n e ,  window and facade cover, these b u i l d i n g s can be accomodated l a r g e l y w i ^ a i n the c a t e g o r i e s described above; the obvious d i f f e r e n c e s i n s i z e and i d e n t i f y the types of s t r u c t u r e .  Very r e c e n t c o n s t r u c t i o n s  plan  can be dated  p a r t i c u l a r l y by the l a r g e areas of p l a t e g l a s s , the f l a t r o o f , and  indeed  by the a c t u a l techniques used i n apartment b u i l d i n g (see P l a t e 19). q u e s t i o n o f apartment c o n s t r u c t i o n as a d i s t i n c t i v e s t y l e element w i l l discussed i n the summary of chapter  The be  4.  Before ending t h i s chapter, i t i s important to ask what i s the r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d e s c r i p t i o n of facade elements.  Simply i n terms o f a  c l a s s i f i c a t o r y e x e r c i s e , the procedure conformed to t h a t advocated i n Chapter  1,  'that-'of i s o l a t i n g component f l u c t u a t i o n s r a t h e r than t h i n k i n g i n terms of o v e r a l l s t y l e s . And yet i t i s o v e r a l l s t y l e which i s o f t e n equated w i t h vernacular a r c h i t e c t u r e , not  'Type 4c  of element X ' , e t c . .  This p o i n t i s  emphasised by the i n c l u s i o n , immediately above, o f the c o n t r i b u t i o n of apartment b u i l d i n g s to the r e s i d e n t i a l landscape.  U s u a l l y , apartments e x p l i c i t l y represent  ( u n t i l conaominiums r e c e n t l y became another element of the housing maricet) the  PLATE 18: D i f f e r e n t setbacks between 1908 ( l e f t ) and 1912 houses (3200 b l o c k West 2nd Aveenue).  PLATE 19: Apartment a t 6th Ave. & Alma S t . under c o n s t r u c t i o n (1969) ( E i g h t - s t o r e y h i g h - r i s e on f a r s i d e o f Alma S t . b u i l t 1967)  -52-  product o f a p r o f i t - m o t i v a t e d process - o f f u n d i n g , b u i l d i n g and then r e n t i n g a space i n a s t r u c t u r e t o other i n d i v i d u a l s o r f a m i l i e s ; , on t h e other hand, detached s i n g l e - f a m i l y houses, r e g a r d l e s s o f s i z e , a r e o f t e n symbolic  o f p r i v a t e ownership and p r i v a t e c h o i c e , (and s i n c e i t i s s i n g l e -  f a m i l y h o u s i n g which i s most o f t e n equated w i t h v e r n a c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r e , t h i s i n t u r n i s seen as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l * s r o l e w i t h i n t h a t society)  0  Yet a r e these two - apartments and s i n g l e - f a m i l y houses - a l l t h a t d i f f e r e n t i n terms o f t h e i r design processes?  Although i t i s o f t e n s t a t e d t h a t  the home i s a man's c a s t l e , how many f i l t e r s does t h e house, a e s t h e t i c a l l y and f u n c t i o n a l l y , pass through before t h e i n d i v i d u a l occupies i t ? These f i l t e r s are suggested by p o s i n g s e v e r a l questions:  t o what extent do we choose o r  are we s o l d a s t y l e ? ; t o what extent does t h i s s t y l e r e f l e c t on t h e i n d i v i d u a l who bought i t o r the person who b u i l t i t ? ; and f o r t h a t matter, what a r e t h e r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o s t y l e o f the carpenter who b u i l t the house o r the a r c h i t e c t who designed i t ? I t has a l r e a d y been shown t h a t a s t y l e can be a Chicagoan design eminating from Los Angeles„  Thus should v e r n a c u l a r s t y l e be  regarded as b e i n g a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , o r i s i t s value s o l e l y as; a surrogate index o f s o c i e t y ? I n terms o f i n s i g h t s about t h e i n d i v i d u a l occupying a house, i t would appear i n i t i a l l y t h a t the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h i s chapter, f o c u s s i n g p u r e l y on e x t e r n a l appearance, a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t ; there appears t o be a need f o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t r i m , d e c o r a t i o n , s i z e , e t c . , i . e . s t a t u s - r e l a t e d f e a t u r e s , which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 5»  I s vernacular architecture  t h e r e f o r e only r e l e v a n t t o a n a l y s i s a t the m a c r o - s p a t i a l s c a l e , o f how t o t a l s t y l e r e f l e c t s on s o c i e t y ?  The answer must be no, f o r i t has a l r e a d y been  shown (see the reviews o f Mumford and Kouwenhoeven i n Chapter l ) t h a t t h e techniques  and the d e t a i l are important p o i n t e r s i n attempts t o i d e n t i f y  s o c i e t y and i t s l e v e l .  Thus the d e t a i l , o f s t y l e s and a l s o o f elements, c a n be  -53u s e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n examination o f the c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o v e r n a c u l a r by the c a r p e n t e r and the a r c h i t e c t  12  13 who e i t h e r perpetuate o r innovate s t y l e s . Often  the o n l y a r c h i t e c t u r e ( i . e . d e s i g n ) which i s p r o g r e s s i v e i s t h a t r e l a t e d t o t h e wealthy, where t h e r e a r e few c o s t c o n s t r a i n t s h i n d e r i n g e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h methods o r m a t e r i a l s .  The end product o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n might f i l t e r  down t o cheaper h o u s i n g , b u t o n l y over a p e r i o d o f time; and thus b u i l d e r s w i l l tend t o persevere w i t h w e l l - t r i e d , proven and s u c c e s s f u l methods.  The housing  considered i n t h i s study i s n o t f r e e from the above c o n s t r a i n t s , and was b u i l t i n a p e r i o d when c o n s t r u c t i o n was c a r r i e d out by i n d i v i d u a l , s m a l l - s c a l e c o n t r a c t o r s ; how much more c o n s e r v a t i v e they  are l i k e l y t o be, w i t h a l i m i t e d  range o f p l a n a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r a s p e c i f i c amount o f money a v a l a b l e o r a r e q u i r e d s i z e o f house.  Consequently, t h i s would p o s s i b l y tend t o perpetuate  a s t y l e o r a facade element.  T h i s has been seen i n t h i s chapter, w i t h l o n g  time-spreads f o r c e r t a i n facade elements, and w i l l be c o n t i n u a l l y o f concern i n the a n a l y s i s o f f i e l d data i n the next c h a p t e r  0  Carpentry e x p e r t i s e w i t h i n  economic c o n s t r a i n t s s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be kept i n mind as one p o s s i b l e reason f o r extended usage o f a s t y l e o r element. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between c a r p e n t r y and s t y l e suggests o t h e r q u e s t i o n s , e.g.: why does someone choose a p a r t i c u l a r house o r a p a r t i c u l a r design? because i t has been seen b e f o r e ? , o r i t r e f l e c t s n o s t a l g i a f o r a house l i v e d i n elsewhere?, o r a g a i n i s i t t h e d e s i g n and b u i l d i n g process r a t h e r than the eventual r e s i d e n t which i s r e s p o n s i b l e ? Banham (1971,p.57-73) d i s c u s s e s the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f I r v i n g G i l l and Charles and Henry G-reene t o modern a r c h i t e c t u r e and t o t h e l o c a l Los Angeles v e r n a c u l a r s t y l e o f C a l i f o m i a n Bungalow; he considers the wealthy antecedents o f the C a l i f o r n i a n Bingalow, which i n c l u d e the G-reene's G-amble house i n Pasedena.  Here a r e found some p o s s i b l e answers t o  the questions j u s t r a i s e d concerning c a r p e n t r y and s t y l e : D i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the p h y s i c a l f a c t s o f the house i s more l i k e l y t o remind v i s i t o r s o f European wooden a r c h i t e c t u r e o f a s o p h i s t i c a t e d peasant type - A l p i n e i n the forms o f the r o o f s and e x t e r i o r porches, Scandinavian i n much o f the v i s i b l e s t u c t u r e ,  -54or even R u s s i a n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the s p l e n d i d b u t r a r e l y i l l u s t r a t e d play-room i n the upper p a r t o f the r o o f , w i t h i t s low exposed t r u s s e s and i t s p a n n e l l e a w a l l s . I n o t h e r words, and i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e background and t r a i n i n g o f the a r c h i t e c t s , what t h e y and t h e i r craftsmen were r e a l l y assembling h e r e was a p o e t i c and romantic summary o f the k i n d o f wood-building t r a d i t i o n s t h a t Europeans had bx-ought to the U.S. from t h e i r home l a n d s and had then d i v e r s i f i e d and r e f i n e d on the l o n g t r e k West. (Banham,'i 971 ,p.72)  Thus i t would seem t h a t -&he c u l t u r a l background, o f the decision-maker,and fehe c u l t u r a l background o f the o t h e r c o n t r i b u t o r s t o h o u s i n g appearance, i s an important s e c t i o n o f any c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f v e r n a c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r e  0  This  study i s -primarily concerned w i t h c l a s s i f y i n g and d a t i n g the s t r u c t u r e s , and has i n e v i t a b l y been concerned w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r .  Based upon  the d e f i n i t i o n s and d e l i n e a t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r , f i e l d w o r k was c a r r i e d out i n ffest K i t s i l a n o , and the a n a l y s i s o f the data i n the next chapter w i l l attempt t o p r o v i d e the necessary o b j e c t i v e weightings o f each o f the v a r i a b l e s , e s s e n t i a l i f they a r e t o be used as a r a p i d assessment o f h o u s i n g age and • s t y l e as p a r t o f l a t e r fieldwork,, The more b a s i c questions o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these v a r i a t i o n s w i l l be taken up a g a i n i n the f i n a l c h a p t e r . Footnotes F o r an e x t e n s i v e b i b l i o g r a p h y , see GREER., K.M., "Vancouver:a b i b l i o g r a p h y " , u n p u b l i s h e d Master o f L i b r a r i a n s h i p d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver <> A somewhat unacademic d e s c r i p t i o n o f Vancouver's growth i s p r o v i d e d by MORLET, A.* Vancouverifrom M i l l t o w n t o M e t r o p o l i s < V a n c o u v e r : M i t c h e l l P r e s s , 1 9 6 l 2 S e a t t l e shares w i t h Vancouver the same r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n v i s - a - v i s the r e s t o f the c o n t i n e n t , and i t would seem reasonable t o seek these a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s j s e e p a r t i c u l a r l y STEINBRUECK,V. S e a t t l e A r c h i t e c t u r e , 1 8 5 0 - 1 9 5 3 . New York: R e i n h o l d , 1953> ( e s p e c i a l l y p . 1 0 ) . F o r a f u l l e r a n a l y s i s , see:- GREBLER,L., BLANK, D.H. & WINNICK,L., C a p i t a l Formation i n R e s i d e n t i a l R e a l E s t a t e , P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 , ( e s p e c i a l l y Chapter V " P o p u l a t i o n Growth - A\basic f a c t o r , p . 7 6 - 8 9 , and a l s o i n Chapter VII"Changes i n the P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e D w e l l i n g U n i t y p . 1 1 3 - 2 3 ) ; BEYER, G, Housing and S o c i e t y .'New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n , 1 9 6 5 , ( e s p e c i a l l y Chapter 1 , " H i s t o r y o f American Housing", and Chapter 8 "Housing Design",p.880-312, which concentrates on c u r r e n t spacepeeds and how these are met i n the i n t e r n a l p l a n o f a house); BEMIS, A.B. & BURCHARD, J . The E v o l v i n g House. V o l . 1 , The H i s t o r y o f the Home. Cambridge,Mass.: M.I.T. P r e s s , 1 9 3 3 » 3  h  See, a l s o , BLANK. D.M., The Volume o f R e s i d e n t i a l , C o n s t r u c t i o n . N a t i o n a l Bureau o f Economic Research, T e c h n i c a l Paper 9, 1 9 5 4 o  1889-1950.  -54b~* F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f these postwar s t y l e s and p l a n s i n terms of changing f a m i l y Composition and consequent d e s i g n needs, see CARVER, H., C i t i e s i n the Suburbs, T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press,1962, p.101-4« c  The o n l y p o s s i b l e d i s t i n c t i o n might be i n the t h i c k n e s s or t h i n n e s s of the a s t r i g a l s i n the upper sashes, the t h i c k e r ones o f c e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the e a r l i e r (1912) housing. T h i s may be a f u n c t i o n o f e i t h e r the q u a l i t y and c a p a b i l i t i e s o f c a r p e n t r y , o r the f a c t t h a t the o l d e r housing may have been p a i n t e d more times d u r i n g the p e r i o d between then and now, the t h i c k n e s s being'due t o the s e v e r a l l a y e r s o f p a i n t o r p a i n t on p a r t o f the g l a s s 0  ^ I am g r a t e f u l t o P r o f e s s o r W.G-. Hardwick f o r i n i t i a l l y s u g g e s t i n g the value o f t h i s hall-window i n t h i s c o n f i r m a t o r y r o l e .  Q  More c o r r e c t l y , ' h a l f - h i p p e d ' - see P l a t e 4 , p . 1 9 , c e l l C4. However, s i n c e the houses o f t h i s r o o f type predominantly f a c e a t r i g h t - a n g l e s t o the road, t h i s f e a t u r e p r e s e n t s an appearance which lends i t s e l f somewhat to the*snub-nised' l a b e l . g  Although f a r s h a l l o w e r than the hipped-roof o f Type 1 c . F o r example, i n 1928, the f i r s t zoning by-law (2516) t o s p e c i f y a t h i r t y - f i v e f o o t set-back from the s t r e e t 1 0  0  11 F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on the impact o f zoning plans i n Vancouver, see HARDWICK, W.G-., "The Changing S t r u c t u r e o f Downtown: A P u b l i c P o l i c y Context',' C.A.G-. paper, Winnipeg,1970; HARDWICK, W.G.,"Regional P o l i t i c a l and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Developments i n the Vancouver Region',' C.A.G.. paper, S t . Catherine s,1971• 12 A t h i r d important ' a c t o r ' , the r e a l t o r , w i l l be mentioned i n Chapter 5, p.146. 13 Whether or not they perpetuate o r innovate i s o f t e n a f u n c t i o n o f the income s t a t u s o f the c l i e n t . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the d e s i g n process i n terms o f income c a p a b i l i t i e s o f the c l i e n t has been c a r r i e d out by KENNEDY, R.W., The House and the A r t of i t s Design, New York: Reinhold,1966, who asked which s o c i a l c l a s s , which k i n d of b u i l d e r and which . k i n d of d w e l l i n g i s most prone t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l expression? B r i e f l y , he i d e n t i f i e d three main groups: ( l ) D w e l l i n g U n i t s b u i l t by P u b l i c Housers under government sponsership and subsidy, v e r y much c o n s t r a i n e d by minimum and maximum 'standards' and c o s t s , (2) Homes,built by Home B u i l d e r s , are mass-produced f o r the m i d d l e - c l a s s , d e s i g n e d , b u i l t and s o l d by s p e c u l a t i v e b u i l d e r s , Here the c o n s t r a i n t s are economic, i n terms of c o s t i n g , and c u l t u r a l , i n the deep conservatism o f what the 'Home'means and r e p r e s e n t s ; (3) Houses, b u i l t by an income group which can a f f o r d them, through an a r c h i t e c t , to i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and a c c o r d i n g to i n d i v i d u a l t a s t e s .  _55CHAPTER. 3.  TIME PERIOD AND  FACADE-ELEMENT ASSOCIATIONS  3.1 .Introduction I n t u i t i v e l y , i t was  thought that the variations i n window subtype  would account for the differences i n period of construction, and that as confirmation, a similar variation i n the roof style and entrance form would be found i n the majority of cases.  Closer examination showed  that this did not always hold true; a particular type of roof or porch style may contradict the date suggested by window style alonej and vice-versa a window style or entrance would oppose a certain roof style which had u n t i l then been confidently associated with a discrete time period. I t became obviou3, therefore, that i t was impossible to distinguish discrete time periods with singular combinations of the three facade elements, e.g. window 2 , roof 2 and entrance 2 ; 3,3,3  etc, (which  necessarily assume that each element subtype occur only over a very limited uniform time span)  0  Consequently, i t was necessary to work out  the percentage occurrence of particular combinations of features with respect to certain time periods, and also the strength of the subtypes' resolution by examining their occurrence over time. For this purpose, detailed information was needed, rather than an accumulated 'eyeball* assessment obtained by walking around the streets. The eharacteristics of the facade elements described i n the previous chapter were translated into sketches and each assigned a specific l a b e l , so that the master f i e l d sheet ( F i g . 5) gave the four facade elements by which a house was to be categorised; accordingly, there were six subdivisions of Window ( X I ) , f i v e f o r Roof ( X 2 ) and Entrance (X3)  and six f o r Facade material (X4J. Having collected information on the actual construction year of  every house within am area bounded by Alma Street on the west, English  -56-  -57-  Bay on the north, Trafalgar Street on the egst and. 12th Avenue on the south, the houses were arranged i n chronological order, and assigned a code number from 1 to 2 3 2 2 ; from a s t r a t i f i c a t i o n which reflected the relative frequency of occurrence i n the study area, 1 0 0 houses were selected by using random number tables. * These houses were then observed by the author, using F i g . 5 as the master guide, and recordings were made on a f i e l d data sheet as followstF i g . 5 a E x a m p l e of f i e l d recording format: House M©,1  Window(Xl) R©of(X2) J Intranee(X3)  Street  ( 1 ) 3696 j Point Grey Road  !  1  j  Cover(X4)  2  1  3  4  1 6 4 0 j Alma Road  2  i  2  !  2  6  2604 ! West 1 0 t h Ave.  5  j  2  |  2  6  In observation 1 of Mg.  5 a , i l l u s t r a t e d i n Plate 2 0 , the window styles  are p l a i n sash ( l ) , the roof has a dormer interruption and brackets supporting an overhang (thus type 2 ) , the porch, although now  filled  i n to provide a larger entrance h a l l , i s d i s t i n c t l y Type 3 (as i n F i g . 3 : 3 * 0 , and the facade, with narrow weatherboard at the bottom, i s smooth stucco (done 1953 over shingle).  The fact that the house i s  recorded as being b u i l t i n 1915 i l l u s t r a t e s and introduces the focus of this chapter; namely how does one predict a date from the various features of facade?  The descriptions i n the previous chapter hinted at a close time-  association of window, roof and entrance characteristics i n their subtype number; but i n the case (No.l above) every one i s different. questions to ask aret  The  which of the facade elements i s most reliable as  a classificatory device, and what sort of combinations of facade subelements would appear to be the best mix f o r our purposes?  Working  i n t u i t i v e l y , window styles were thought to be of major importance, the other features being merely confirmatory i n nature, and that i f there was not  —58-  PLATE 20: 3696 P o i n t G-rey Roado  -59u n i f o r m i t y i n mix, then windows would be the s t r o n g e s t o f the f e a t u r e s . 3.2  Accuracy o f sub-types f o r p r e d i c t i n g the a c t u a l y e a r o f c o n s t r u c t i o n The f e e l i n g s expressed above ( t h a t windows would be s u f f i c i e n t  evidence) were t e s t e d by running the data (see Appendix A) through a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n program, which would o b j e c t i v e l y i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e vreightings o f the 4 v a r i a b l e s ; the r e s u l t i n g equation would thus be one which c o u l d be used w i t h data from other area - and by s u b s t i t u t i n g the r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e - v a l u e s i n the e q u a t i o n , the c o r r e c t date o f c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h a t house would be i n d i c a t e d .  However, the r e s u l t s  y i e l d e d the f o l l o w i n g : -  Y= -10.825 + 1.1973^ + 5.9882X + 2.58921^ + 1 .1226X 2  ...(l)  (Standard e r r o r Y = 6.0125) •Where Y - y e a r o f c o n s t r u c t i o n X  1  x X  /  2  3  \  = window = roof = entrance = facade  T h i s was a r a t h e r s u p r i s i n g r e s u l t as the w e i g h t i n g o f the window s t y l e was low, but t h i s can p o s s i b l y be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t the subs t y l e s o f each v a r i a b l e were f a i t h f u l l y recorded d e s p i t e the presence of v i s i b l e renewal.  Thus i n a house which i n the other two c a t e g o r i e s  p o i n t e d c o r r e c t l y to a 1912 house, the presence o f a large-paned, aluminium-framed  window (Type 6 ) , t y p i c a l o f the l a s t f i v e y e a r s , i s  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a lower importance t o windows over the whole 100 houses than would be otherwise expected.  The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x , Table H a ,  however, does i n d i c a t e the stong l i n k s between the t h r e e major classificatory variables.  I n order to see what the r e s u l t s would be i f the  1912 housing had not been renovated i n terms o f t h e i r window s t y l e s , t h e r e g r e s s i o n was repeated, but w i t h the seven houses which show a new  -60-  TABLE Ua CORRELATION MATRIX FROM ACTUAL FIELD DATA REGRESSION Y  X1  X2  X3  Y  1.0000  XI  0.6606  1.0000  X2  0.8624  0.6437  1.0000  X3  0.7715  0.5692  0.7736  1.0000  X4  0.4117  0.2335  0.3509  0.2864  X4  1.0000  TABLE lib CORRELATION MATRIX FROM MODIFIED FIELD DATA REGRESSION Y  XI  X2  X3  Y  1.0000  XI  0.9135  1.0000  X2  0.8624  0.8589  1.0000  X3  0.7715  0.7627  0.7736  1.0000  X4  0.4117  0.3133  0.3509  0.2864  X4  -61-  window (Type 6) recently inserted recorded as having the window style associated i n a l l the other 1912 instances (Type 2) the matrix, Table 2b, confirms the i n t u i t i v e b e l i e f that change i n window style i s the highest correlate with changing construction period, and also that X^ , Xg , and X^ are highly intercorrelated.  X^ i s associated with year of construction  to a lesser but s t i l l significant extent.  The findings confinm the  caution advised i n the previous chapter, since the cover material would be the f i r s t feature on a house exterior, before window or porch, to be altered;  the observer i s not always observing the original cover materialo  The equation of the original regression (1) i s a very useful indicator for c l a s s i f i c a t o r y purposes, however, as the roof style i s obviously the most resistant to alteration; even i f a house has an extensive "Type 2" porch f i l l e d i n to provide extra room with modern windows and an external cover of cedar boards or smooth stucco, the roof style w i l l remain the same, and this could s t i l l point to the correct construction period, Returning to the example of Plate 20, which was recorded 1,  as:-  2, 3» 4 , i f we now substitute into equation 1, the following values  would result:Y = -10.825 + (1.1973 x 1) + (5.9882 x 2) + (2.5892 x 3) + (1.1226 x 4) = -10.825 + 1.1973 + 11.9764 + 7.7676 + 4.4904 = -10.825 + 25.4317 = 14.6  which i n nearest whole numbers i s 15, the actual year of construction of the house i n question being 1915  . As a further example, the 'ideal* 1912  house (as i n Wilson's Bungalow look) - 2 , 2 , 2 , 2 , - would give:Y = -10.825 + 2.3946 + 11.9764 + 5.1784 + 2.2452 = -10.825 + 21.7946 = 10.9696  =c.ll  -62-  The high degree of accuracy i a these two instances does not provide a convincing case f a r the use of the results of a multiple regression program alone, as there are a m u l t i p l i c i t y of combinations of variables, other that the combinations of the desired i d e a l styles.  These variations  have had to be incorporated into the analysis^: and with a S . E . = only a moderate f i t i s achieved,,  6 0125, o  Examination of the calculations  l i s t e d i n Appendix B w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the wide divergences of some expected values from the actual age. Thus, a spread of  12  years out of a t o t a l  70, (.1900-70),  suggests  that i s ineffective jjhjea?eft5re) to attempt to predict actual age by such an approach as that described above.  In fact, one could ask whether  the measurement of building age i n years i s the most meaningful approach i n relation to attributes which themselves are discrete (can a continuous dependent variable j u s t i f i a b l y be predicted from discrete independent variables.) I t would appear to be more l o g i c a l , and indeed acceptable, to be able to predict a house's building age to a particular class ( or period group ) rather than the exact date, and this should also be more e f f i c i e n t i n terms of i t s potential f o r research work. 3.3  Meed f o r independent time^periods Which time elasses are to be used?  The construction of specific  groups would be very d i f f i c u l t i f an inductive approach was  adopted  which related to the particular frequency of variables i n this data set of one hundred contiguous blocks over a particular period of time,, Apart from being unable to generalise outside these ©ne hundred blocks, problems would arise due to the different amounts of overlap of each of the sub-styles i n each of the different facade elements; there are no discrete groupings possible except on a l e v e l of generality which would be of l i t t l e use.  Consequently, some objective period-grouping needs to be  imposed on the data, and f o r the periods to have any u t i l i t y f o r research  -63-  i n t o s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s o f former times t h e r e would have t o be a reasonable correspondence between a r c h i t e c t u r a l time groupings and those o f economic conditions, building a c t i v i t y , e t o  0  I f , f o r example, a s t y l e was i n vogue  from 1 8 8 2 - 1 9 0 0 , but a t r a d e o r b u i l d i n g c y c l e r a n from I875-I892 and 1 8 9 2 1908,  t h e n t h e r e would be no r e a d i l y v i s i b l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f these b u i l d i n g  cycles.  So the data should be examined i n the l i g h t o f such a s e r i e s o f  c y c l e s , and i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o these p e r i o d s judged a c c o r d i n g l y . Blank  among o t h e r s , has d e s c r i b e d and a n a l y s e d the b u i l d i n g  (1954),  c y c l e s o f the U.S , but i t would seem b e t t e r t o use f i g u r e s which r e l a t e d 0  c l o s e r t o events i n the r e g i o n i n q u e s t i o n , and so the r e c o r d s o f t h e C i t y o f Vancouver h o u s i n g were used.  The r e l a t i v e frequency o f h o u s i n g  s t a r t s f o r each y e a r i n the K i t s i l a n o study area (see Appendix C, and 6 ) suggests the f o l l o w i n g ; -  Mg,  - a n i n t e r m i t t e n t c y c l e up t o 1 9 1 1 -  1911-1917,  -  1917-1924  -  1924-1933,  w i t h the r e a l boom i n  1912  Due t o the s m a l l volume o f h o u s i n g - s t a r t s a f t e r t h i s t i m e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e f u r t h e r b u i l d i n g c y c l e s w i t h any c o n f i d e n c e . Consequently, o t h e r v a l u e s were superimposed on the same graph t o see i f they r e f l e c t e d the c y c l e s suspected from the K i t s i l a n o f i g u r e s alone.  The eloseness o f the C i t y o f Vancouver "Value o f B u i l d i n g P e r m i t s "  slope from  1929-1933  confirms the l a s t K i t s i l a n o p e r i o d noted above, and  f u r t h e r i t would seem t h a t t h e r e are r e c o g n i s a b l e b u i l d i n g c y c l e s from 1933-44,  1944-51,  1951-61,  196l-70o  C o n f i r m a t i o n o f these trends was sought b y c l a c u l a t i o n o f 3-year moving means Q ? i g . 7 ) , which supports the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n above except for  the e a r l i e s t p e r i o d s . The moving-mean graph suggests a p r e - 1 9 0 8  p e r i o d , and then the f i r s t major b u i l d i n g p e r i o d extending from 1917.  1909-  T h i s w i l l be accepted f o r the purposes o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , but a t  -65a f u t u r e date, i f the study were extended t o the whole c i t y , i t would he important t o e s t a b l i s h the nature and magnitude o f the b u i l d i n g c y c l e s o f the e a r l y years o f Vancouver's h i s t o r y , and c o n f i r m o r r e j e c t t h e upto-1908 grouping used h e r e . The p e r i o d s mentioned would appear t o be acceptable i n the absence of any hard-and-fast 'Pevsner-type' a r c h i t e c t u r a l p e r i o d l i m i t s , and even i f f u t u r e work suggests time l a b e l s f o r d i s t i n c t North American v e r n a c u l a r b u i l d i n g s t y l e s , t h e n the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n o f Vancouver, w i t h i t s own c u l t u r a l f l a v o u r , and the d i f f e r e n t r a t e s o f d i f f u s i o n o f s t y l e s , means t h a t an indigenous taxonomy i s a c c e p t a b l e , a t l e a s t as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t . 3.4  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n by period-groups The p e r i o d groupings t o be used a r e : I  pre-1908  II  1909-1917  III  1918-1923  IV  1924-1933  v  1934-1944  VI  1945-1951  VII  1952-1970  ( r a t h e r than 52-60, 61-70, s i n c e t h e r e are very few i n t h i s p e r i o d f o r the present s t u d y ) 0  The f i e l d w o r k data can now be presented i n the l i g h t o f these l i m i t s , as i n F i g . 8. Immediately, i t i s evident t h a t every s u b - s t y l e o f each facade element  'trespasses' over the borders a t both ends o f t h e p e r i o d  grouping l i m i t s , and the i n c i d e n c e o f each sub-type i n d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d groups i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table I I I .  C a l c u l a t i o n o f chi-square v a l u e s , t o  t e s t the a s s o c i a t i o n between sub-type frequency and time p e r i o d s , y i e l d e d the f o l l o w i n g values  x 149.4 159.3 94.0 59.0 2  Window Roof Entrance Cover M a t e r i a l  df  30 24 24 30  P <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0ol  -66Figure  8:  'Sos-lo^aia-type' p r e s e n t a t i o n  -mum  HOUSE  ROOF 5 6"  EHTitANCE 5  6  02  2o42iV1  X  03  2941*711  X  04  19403Y  X  05  2781FG-  X  06  2622H1  X  X  X  10  X  X  X  X  10  X  X  X  X  X  X  09 10  2735^3 19023T  11  3 0 3 67T8  12  355&PG-  5  3 4  1 2 X  2745"-V3  3 4  1 2 X  3 6 8 1 CL  08  1 2 X  1 2 3 4 5 X  01  07  3 4  o f randon sample  X  X X  X  X  X X  X  X X  X  10  10  314^1 3011.73 299772  X  X  X  X  X  X  16  2915BT  X  X  X  17  2829".'/6  18  3522W3  19 20  3 6 4 ^ 5 2043CO  21  2132BL  22  3317^3  X  X  10 10  10  X  10 12  X X X  X  12 12  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  10  X  X  X  X X  X  13  X  10 X  X  14 15  X  08  X  X X  X  05 08  X  X X  X  X X  X  X  00  X  12 12 12  X  X  12  X  X  X  •12  X  X  X  12  X  X  X  X  12  X  23 24  3337-3 1641DU  X  25 26  363?<V2 1724DU  X  X  X  12  X  X  X  X  12  27  3256^1  X  X  X  X  12  X  28  3542W1  X  X  X  X  29  3517-72  X  X  X  X  30  313OWI  X  X  31  2740W1O  X  X  X  32 33  3556*77 266772  X  X X X  12 12 12  X X  X  X  12  X X  X  12 X  12 12  X  X  X  345 3  2831PG 2940.76  X  X  X  36  1640J.L  X  X  X  37 38  3121W6 3125.76  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X  X  12 X X  12 13 13  39 40  3449*0 3436*^2  X  X  X  X  X  X  41  3663^2  \  X  X  X  X  14  42  2S6&73  ;  X  X  X  X  14  43 44  3347^6 3696PG  X  X  X  14  45 46  3642W11 3203ST3  X X  47  1803MC  X  X X  X  X  X  X X  X X X  48  X X  329J»T4 3655.-5  X  X  X  X  51  325575  X  52  3311.0  X X  X  53  297^5  X  X  X  54 55  2 9 6 ^ 5 340&72  X  x-  X  56  3126176  57  3009-.78  58  3574172  X  X  X  X  3195711  X  X  X  61 62  5605*11 2181WA  X  X  X X  63  2120DU 368OPG3672WI  66 67  2435TU 274*72  68 69  3591'710 348178  70  3491TO  71  3279^8  72  222V.7A  73  337572  74 75  3270.:5 365^11  76  3625-711  77  2334W11  78 79  X  X X  X X  21 21 X  22  X  22 X  22 22  X X  24 X  25  X  25  X  25  X  X  25 X  X  X X  X X  22  X  26  X  X  27  X  X  X  27  X  X  X  27  X  X  X  27  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  2326.711  X X  X X  X  3643'73  X  X  8 0 356>')i78 81 3 0 9 5 K T  X  X >-  X  X  X  y  82  2M5P&  X  83  3310-78  X  84 85  3065F& 2994PG  X  86  350971  X  X  87 88  364^3 3341  X  X  89  3446PG-  X  90  305772  x  91  3621.72  X  X  3443-'3 3467710  94  2724PG-  95  ?7l6»3  X  96 97 98  3649-1 3548W7 35617/11  X X  99  3 0 0 5 0  X  30 31  T5~  v  35  X  X X  X  X  X  30  X X  X  X  X  X  40  X  40  X  X  40  X  41  X  X X  X  X  41 41 X  'l1 X  X  41 42  X  X  43  X  X  44  X  X  X  X  92 93  28 28 X  X  X  X  28  X  X  X X  27 28  X  X X  10-.'3?51P&  21  x  X  X  X X  21  X  X  X X  20 X  X X  X  20  X  3137711  60  64 65  20  X  X  59  X  20  X  X X  20  X  X X  X  20  X  Jt  X X  18  X  X  X X  15 15  X X  X  14  X X  X  49 50  X  13 X  i.e  X X  46  X X X X  X  X X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  47 ;.P  53  X X  55 X  63  I  data  TABLE III  BY TIME PERIODS  INCIDENCE OF FACADE ELEMENT SUBTYPES  V  1  2 !  r—  5  3  I  4  n  6 29 ', 1  6  i  3  2  3  t  5  1  in IV  •  4  2  6  1  2  5  1  8  6  1  2  4  8  1  V  5  VI j  vn  i  10 32 15  1 5 32 3 2 11 3 2 5 11  3  6  k  5  —[  —  2 10  4  1  13  4  1  4  4  8 31 19 24 12  !  j  —  I 7 'j  i  6  4 ; 5 i 41  —  1  32 18 3? 8  2  •i 1  3 7  !  ! 5 | 1 _1 16 1 _ 18j 1 ! 1 ; 10 5 I  9 4  11 18 U  !  6 ;3  3 !24  2  29  i. T 5 —____——.  2  4  4  3  i  3  9  2  1  2  1  1 :  1  <4) COVER M/tfERIALC  ENTRANCE(X3)  R00F(X2)  WINDOW (X1)  L 4  —J— I8 ;  31  3  1  1  2  1  J9 100  36| 13 j 29 j 9  5  j-...  -68i n d i c a t i n g a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between sub-type occurrences i 2 i n a l l f o u r facade elements and the t i m e - p e r i o d s imposed on the d a t a 0  What t h i s shows i s t h a t the data i n Table I I I v i r t u a l l y speaks f o r itself.  I t does not p o i n t out c r i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n s t e a d merely  c o n f i r m i n g the u s e f u l n e s s of the time-periods borrowed from examination o f ' b u i l d i n g c y c l e s ; a l s o , t h e r e i s c o n f i r m a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s of the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n program, namely t h a t the r o o f - t y p e v a r i a t i o n s are  the s t r o n g e s t c l u e s t o approximate age, and that cover m a t e r i a l i s  f a r more u n r e l i a b l e t h a n the o t h e r two elements examined. 3.5  R e s o l u t i o n of element sub-types f o r d a t i n g purposes. I n an attempt to g a i n g r e a t e r c l a r i t y as to the r e l a t i v e importance  of p a r t i c u l a r sub-types i n s p e c i f i c p e r i o d s , the i n c i d e n c e o f sub-types was c a l c u l a t e d i n two ways.  F i r s t , as a p r o p o r t i o n of a l l other element  sub-types found w i t h i n t h a t p e r i o d band (Table TV), which i n d i c a t e s whether X^(a) was more important t h a n X^(b) , ( c ) , ( d ) , ( e ) , i n t i m e - p e r i o d t ( i . e . ' h o r i z o n t a l * spread i n Table I I I ) .  The shaded c e l l denotes the  strongest c h a r a c t e r w i t h i n t h a t facade-element f o r each t i m e - p e r i o d , and a t t e n t i o n i s drawn t o the occurrence of Type 6 windows i n p e r i o d s I I & I I I  0  From the d e s c r i p t i o n s i n the p r e v i o u s chapter and a l s o the f i e l d - w o r k o b s e r v a t i o n s , these occurrences are d e f i n i t e evidence of renewal.  I t seems  l e g i t i m a t e t h e r e f o r e t o a l l o c a t e these observations t o t h e i r 'expected* time-periods ( f o r the purpose o f the o v e r a l l study) and the r e v i s e d t a b l e s f o r Window would then read as i n Table IVa<, Examination of Table I V confirms the view t h a t the element are  sub-types  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r t i m e - p e r i o d s , hence the s t r e n g t h of d i a g o n a l  f o r each element t a b l e .  There are s e v e r a l d e v i a t i o n s away from the d i a g o n a l  however, p a r t i c u l a r l y Window sub-type 3 and 4 i n time I V , Entrance type 4 i n time I ( p o s s i b l y r e f l e c t i n g the observations of the "pioneer c o t t a g e s " mentioned a l r e a d y , whose entrance i s minimal or n o n - e x i s t a n t ) , and the  TABLE IV PROPORTION OF ELEMENT SUBTYPES IN SPECIFIC TIME PERIODS WINDOW (XI) 1  2  R00F|X2) 5  3  6  I 1.0 I  2  3  4  ENTRANCE (X3) 5  .75 .25  .15 .71  in  1  .12 .38 .07 .12 .31 .06 .44 .33 .06 .13  2  3  u  COVER M A T E R I A L S ) 5  .15 .71  .12 .63 .25  .11 .28 •6,1  .06 22 11  .08  .69 31  .69 .31  2T  1.0  .20 .80  .80 .20  1.0  1.0  2  3  5  6  I to n .15 .81 .02 .02 .12 .69 I .07 .12 DE .44 .33 .06 .13 IV V .31 .62 .07 1.0 ! vi vn .34 £6  TABLE t a AS  ABOVE,BUT "REPLACING"  RENEWAL W I N D O W S  i.  5  6  .15 .09 .09  .59  .05 .05 .56 .28  .31 .62 .07  W3 N00W  3  .44 .13 .31 .06 .06  i  1  2  1.0  .10 .04  .12 .69 .19  .33 .66  i  .75  .25  .02 10 .12 .78 .07  .02 i  1  M  .06  .62 .24 .07 .60 .20 .20 .66 .34  -70importance o f Entrance type 1+ f o r times I V , V, & V I .  T h i s shows up the  need f o r the f r e q u e n c i e s t o he c a l c u l a t e d i n another form as w e l l , t o e s t a b l i s h which p e r i o d o r p e r i o d s t h e sub-types represent b e s t . Consequently, the i n c i d e n c e o f sub-types was c a l c u l a t e d  'vertically',  i . e . sub-type occurrence over t i m e , Table V, i n which the p r o p o r t i o n o f element X> (a) i n t i s c a l c u l a t e d r e l a t i v e t o X, (a) i n t t t j>T n r) n + 1, n + 2, n + 3, T  T  n  v  etc.  T h i s t a b l e i s t h e r e f o r e the c l o s e s t i n d i c a t i o n o f the t i m e - c l a s s -  i f i c a t o r y s t r e n g t h o f element sub-types.  (The r e - a l l o c a t i o n o f Type 6  windows t o the e a r l i e r time p e r i o d has a g a i n been c a r r i e d out, and the c a l c u l a t i o n s are presented i n Table Va; c a l c u l a t i o n s based on f i e l d r e c o r d i n g , o f the Type 6 occurrences a c t u a l l y i n time I I & I I I , have been i n c l u d e d i n the main t a b l e ) . A g a i n the d i a g o n a l i s e v i d e n t , although i n v a r y i n g s t r e n g t h s ; time I l / T y p e 2 i s v e r y s t r o n g f o r a l l f o u r elements, but f o r many o f the other time/sub-type c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h e r e i s l e s s s t r e n g t h o f conc e n t r a t i o n than Table I V i l l u s t r a t e d . ,  What should be the c u t - o f f  p o i n t i n d e c i d i n g the use o f a sub-type as a c l a s s i f i c a t o r y u n i t ? The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the data i n F i g . 8 does suggest an approach analogous t o scalogram a n a l y s i s , presented i n i t i a l l y by G-uttman (1945), and taken up a t l e n g t h by Edwards (1957, p.172-200).  However, t h e  purpose here i s not t o miniTni.se e r r o r by most e f f e c t i v e l o c a t i o n o f the c u t t i n g p o i n t s ; the s t r a t e g y has been t o impose c u t t i n g p o i n t s a l r e a d y , u s i n g b u i l d i n g cycle l i m i t s o  On the other hand, the second r u l e used i n the l o c a t i o n o f  c u t t i n g p o i n t s c o u l d be used, namely t h a t "no category should have more e r r o r i n i t than non-error"  (G-uttman, 1947, p . 2 6 l )  0  Under t h i s r u l e , then the expected a s s o c i a t i o n between time I and sub-type 1 i s no longer true f o r any o f the facade elements; t h i s may w e l l r e f l e c t the r e s e r v a t i o n s noted on Page 65 concerning the accuracy  TABLE V PROPORTION OF SPECIFIC ELEMENT SUBTYPES THROUGH TIME i  Wl NDO 2  K1)  3  I  .40  n  .60 .91 .08  5  6  i  2  ROOF(X2] 3  i  38 .01  t j  iI  14  1 :NTRANCI:(X3) i  L  i  k  COVER MATERIAL (X4) 5  .09 .09 .87 31 .22 .06  .05 .29 .62 .87 11  .75 .67  .06 .58 .13  IV  D6 56 .11  .03 .52 .55 .05 .14  V  .06 .31 .46  .36 A5 .08  .03 .22 37  .38 .33  VI  .28  .26 .50  w  .03 33  .11 .12  .05 14  .25  .38  1  ,i  4  5  I .40 I .60 .91 .05 .05 IE .07 .55 .09 .11 17 .03 .40 55 .05 .40' Y .36 .45 .20 H  .28  KL  .05 .40  TABLE 5a AS ABOVE,BIT REPLACING" RENEWAL WINDOWS  i  3  4  5  6  .11  .07 .40 .09 .11 .36  -WINDOW  1  .21 .33 .56  .19 .15 .17 .11 .11 .25 .03 .77 .17  .11  .08 .27 .33 .11 .11 .11 .11 .07 .11  -72-  of the f i r s t time p e r i o d i e . 0  up t o 1908,  1908-17  More p r o b a b l e ,  o  the housing of 1910 v i n t a g e c o u l d r e p r e s e n t the l a t t e r end of an e a r l i e r s t y l e r a t h e r than be the f o r e r u n n e r o f the s t y l e s o f 1912 boom h o u s i n g . A l s o , an amalgamation between time V & VI f o r Window Type 5, and time I V & V f o r Type 4 rtoof and Type 4 entrance has t o be c a r r i e d out b e f o r e the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c o u l d be accepted on these grounds.  With these m o d i f i c a -  t i o n s , chi-square t e s t s o f a s s o c i a t i o n between the t i m e - p e r i o d s and the most frequent sub-types, as i n Table V I , show s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s at the ifo p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l . 3.6  Combinations o f facade element  sub-types  The p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n showing t o what extent any sub-type i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f one time p e r i o d , and consequently how c o n f i d e n t l y i t can be used as a c l a s s i f i c a t o r y d e v i c e .  However,  the q u e s t i o n of which of the v a r i o u s facade elements s h o u l d be taken ( s i n c e a l l have s i g n i f i c a n t accuracy) needs c l a r i f i c a t i o n i n order to a v o i d d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a b e i n g used a t whim  0  One aspect of the data which has not y e t been examined i s the t i m e - p e r i o d a l l e g i a n c e s of s p e c i f i c combinations of element I n Table V, values of 0.91  f o r c e l l ( I I , 2 ) i n facade elements X^  X^ should not be taken t o i m p l y t h a t every time X j ( 2 ) occurs.  sub-types. and  (2) o c c u r s , then  Such a s i t u a t i o n over the t h r e e main elements would be  very d e s i r a b l e , i . e . a p e r f e c t scalogram, but i n p r a c t i c e t h i s r a r e l y happens; i n s p e c t i o n of the a s s o c i a t i o n s i n F i g u r e 8 suggests a s t r o n g r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n , although the frequency f i g u r e s o f Tables I I I , I V , & V have shown t h i s not e n t i r e l y the case. Table V I I i n d i c a t e s the frequency of the- combinations found w i t h i n the sample, and a g a i n the c l e a r e s t case i s t h a t of the t 2,2,2  members: -  the ' i d e a l ' p i c t u r e i n terms of the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the p r e v i o u s  chapter, comprise 56^ of the occurrences of t h a t time p e r i o d ; 2,2,2, together w i t h the window renewals 6,2,2, account f o r 63^ and the  com-  -73-  TABLE VI MOST FREQUENT SUBTYPES (GROUPED BY  NON-ERROR>ERROR RULE)  IN SPECIFIC TIME PERIODS  WINEOW  TIME \ MOST FREQUENTOCCURRENCES OCCURRENCES TrjULI PERIOD \ SUBTYPE IN TIME PERIODIN OTHER PERIODSOCCURRENCES J  M  L  6  10  1:2  33  3  36  111:3  11  9  20  df=  IV: Z,  6  5  11  •p = <0.5>0.1  V. VI: 5  13  5  18  2  3  5  69  31  100  TOTAL  j = 19.35  X  5  ROOF M  3  5  8  1:2  32  5  37  11  8  19  k  20  k  2k  VI.W :5  7  5  12  TOTAL  78  22  100  IV,V :  X- 17.68 1  ffl:3  df=  4  P = <0.5>0.1  ENTRAhCE M  1  6  7  n :2  29  3  32  Eh 3  10  8  18  22  13  35  VI,W:5  1*  k  TOTAL  71  29  * 8 100  X  = 21.74  df =  i.  p = <0.1  TABLE VD INCIDENCE OF THREE-ELEMENT COMBINATIONS BY TIME PERIODS 111 211 214 114 121 221 122 222 322 622 522 223 324 624 232 233 333 633 434 634 234 533 334 244 343 444 544 644 543 545 554 454 254 555 655  I  3 1  E 3 1 1  1 1 2 23  IE  3 1 1  1 1 1  1  IV  1 1 1  V  1  5 3 1 1 1 1  1 1  1  16!  2 3 1 6 1  18  2  1 1  1 3  VI 3  1  1 3 2  41  1 3 3 1  «  VI  KEY  1  7  2  —•  1 1 2 31  1  2 24 1 3 1  C o m b i n a t i o n s are in order x y z  1  1 1 1 1 7 5 1 1 1 1 2 4 1 9 4 1 1 3 4 1 1 4 2 100  where x= window s t y l e y= roo f z= entrance -  -75-  b i n a t i o n - any window, 2,2 - accounts f o r type 3,3, accounts f o r % %  o f the  S i m i l a r i l y , any window  c e l l s , w i t h the remainder b e i n g  s i n g l e occurrences; and i n Time I V , 35% of the o b s e r v a t i o n s are any window, 4,4.  T h i s l a s t category a l s o accounts f o r 53fo o f Time V,  to be expected s i n c e the two time p e r i o d s had to be combined t a g i v e a m a j o r i t y of n o n - e r r o r s . 3.7  A p p l i c a b i l i t y t o non-sample housing Before a summary o f the v a r i o u s aspects o f the key i s attempted,  the "non-error" sub-type groups and three-element combinations i s o l a t e d above are a p p l i e d t o a d i f f e r e n t data s e t . Not randomly s e l e c t e d , these o b s e r v a t i o n s were made o f 4 e n t i r e b l o c k s w i t h i n the study a r e a . data i s p r e s e n t e d i n s c a l o g r a m ,  f r e q u e n c i e s i n Table V I I I .  ,  The  form i n P i g . 9, and expressed as c e l l  As b e f o r e , the f r e q u e n c i e s c a l c u l a t e d h o r i z o n t a l l y ,  Table I X , show t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e - p e r i o d i s not u n i q u e l y r e p r e s e n t e d by a s i n g l e sub-type o f an element; e.g. Windows 3 & 4 i n time I V , entrance 3 & 4 in- time I I I .  I f the f r e q u e n c i e s are c a l c u l a t e d v e r t i c a l l y , Table X,  immediately i t can be seen t h a t Window Type 3 extends a p p r e c i a b l y over periods I I I and IV; s i m i l a r i l y Roof type 3 and Entrance type 3 between times I I to I V . More i m p o r t a n t l y , i n t r o d u c i n g the time-period/sub-type c a t e g o r i e s decided upon i n the p r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s , the e r r o r term f o r t h i s data s e t can be measured.  The r e l e v a n t s t a t i s t i c s are i t e m i s e d i n Table X I ,  where i n e v i t a b l y e r r o r f r e q u e n c i e s exceed those 'expected' i n : Window 111,3  ( I V b e i n g the most 'popular') Roof 111,3  ( w i t h the spread  e i t h e r s i d e , i n time I I and I V c o l l e c t i v e l y a c c o u n t i n g f o r more t h a n the expected p e r i o d ) ; and Entrance 111,3  ( a g a i n time I V b e i n g i n the  majority.) So whereas i n the random sample, these period/element sub-type X (3) c a t e g o r i e s were i n the s l i g h t m a j o r i t y , w i t h the non-random sample they  < CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCvJCMCM04^CMCV'CMCMC^  -  |S|  -J-rf-vo vo vo vo M> vo \o vo vo vo vo w r^Cs]CJCMCMCMOJCV!CMCvlCv!OJC^  _I3  r~- r— i— r^- r^-  r~ co OA OA to G\G\O\  r-  v-  X X  X  X X XXXXKXXX  X  I  ixxxx  X X X X  XXX  X  XX X  XXX  XX  XXX  X  KXXMX  XXX X  XX  x x x x  X X X X X X Ml  X  XX  x  X  x  XX  X XH  x  XXX  NX  X  X  X  X X X X X X X X X K  X  K  XMXHXM  x!  X  X  XXX  M  K  X XXX  X  X X X M M M X  XXX  XXXX X  X  X  M XN X ' X  XXXXXX  jxxxx  XXX  X XXX X X X X X x|  XXXXXXXX  X  XX X X  xxxx  x  x x i XXM  KXX X XXX  X X MXXX  XXX  X  XX  X  X  XXX X  XX  XX  t v O V O V O V O V O O C M C M C M C M C M_ C_ M_C M  4 CM. 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NA T- co CM O mCc co 4 0 0 4 4 5^^CMVO -d"O CM O^ ^OI >OI ^O Co SO VO CM CM CM CM f A f A i A r A r A t A t A ' ^ i ^ f ^ i ' A W CM CM CM vO O VO O ON 0\ ON OA O O Ol A ^ f n ^ t A C V I CM MA S - M A f A eg CM CM CM MA CM J - 0> Q r <M 4 UAVO r - C O OA Q v CM ro, -d" ITvVO CO OA O - i - CM MA -d" UAVD r - C O OA Q -r- CM HA - ± I S *- CO OA G T - CM f-A -d; IAVO r -  tr\  L  y  _d- JSITMOI in m m m m m tf\vo vo vo vo vo vovovovovo r ^ r " - ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^  cococcco  C vo VO vo vo vo vo  ^ r ^ , ao  3- \D  \D  3-  O N v - ± VD CM CO 0 vo v o vO o M CM CM N-\ CM N% l A  -77-  TABLE vm INCIDENCE OF FACADE ELEMENT SUBTYPES BY TIME PERIODS (NON RANDOM SAMPLE)  0(1)  WINOO W  R DOF( •X2) k  1  9  3  4  1  19  5  5  3  6  8  5  i  2  3  t  5  6  i  2  3  n i  2  18  3  1  2  4  2  21  7  2  1  7  3  4  4  11  1  1  17  1  4  16  10  1  4  8  27  1  11  25  I  1  3  3  2  4  1  4  2  VI.VO  1  4  2  3  4  28 14  13  14  45  6  23  5  TABLE K  1  26  26  2  PROPORTION OF  n in u  .06  .03  .11  Y  TABLE X  1  5 | 61  .44  28 .03 11  .14  .43 .43  2  2  .24  1  14  L  | 2 | 3  t  6  i  2  3  .16 .29 1.0 .80 .27  .40 .04 25  .23 .29  LY  .20 .18 .57 71  .08 .29  .30  .16  .04  .04 .22 .23 .04  6  19  1  4  2  1  30  6  4  3  4  17  5  23  4  1  36  2  3  2  4  1  18  5  |l |  2  7 7 6  97  COVER M A T E R I A L S ) 5  1  13  | 2 | 3  .10  18 .35 .47  | l |5  .07 .03  .35 .23 19  .23 .05 .03  .31 .69  .03  .14 .64 .11  .29 .57  .14  .29  .29 .42  .57 .29  i.  .30 .57  .43 .57  i  2  3  1.0 .86 .22  i  13  (NON RANDOM SAMPLE) COVER M A T E R I A L S )  ENTRANCED) 5  | 6  .64 .03 .13  .75 .03  (R00F(X2) 5  5  30 32  6  PROPORTION OF SPECIFIC ELEMENT SUBTYPES THROUGH TIME  3  i  2  .04 .64 .16 .16  10  .40 .78 .10 .07  w  I  .66 .22  n i Y  3  .65 .06 .05 .22  WINDOW (X1) i  3  1  ENTRANCED) | 5 1  .07 .70 .23  .18 .24  .12  3  2  ELEMENT SUBTYPES IN SPECIFIC TIME PERIODS (NON RANDOM SAMPLE)  .60 .10 .04 .06 .14  .12 .05 .41  22 23  1  12  30  R00F(X2)  I3 I tI  2  z  7  WINDOW (XI)  I  1  I  3  AL( <4)  COVE * tot  E NTR ANCE-(X3]  c  2  5  3  L  11  .50 .63 .03 .22 .20 .13  .42  .03  .08  .14 .26  .18  .31  .90  .08  .48  55  .07 .30  .04 .09 .33  .54  .07 .64  5  e  .40 .17  .17  .56  .17  .17 .72 .22  .40 .17  .33  .06 .17 .06 .22  20  -78-  TABLE XI TEST OF MOST FREQUENT SUBTYPES/TIME PERIOD CATEGORIES FOR NON RANDOM SAMPLE DATA WINDOW TIME \MOST FREQIOTJOCCURRENCES OCCURRENCES TOTAL PERIOD \ SUBTYPES IN I .ME PER10BIN OTHER PE|RI_ODS OCCURREI CES .. ...T jI 1 =1 0 ! 5 5  I  1:2 I:  3 IV: 4  1  I  22  5  i 27 I  11  21  32  df = 5  p =<0.1  10  |  4  14  V.YI: 5  7  I  6  13  VD= 6  1  5  6  TOTAL  51  46  97  ROOF  1  .0 1  2  II 2  21  5  26  3  11  15  26  IV. V 4  29  1  30  VI,W • 5  7  6  13  68  29  97  1  I  I  1  TOTAL  j  2  20.82  1 X  27.43  s  d< = I* p=  <0.1  ENTRANCE r :1  0  1  I :2  19  3  6  17  23  IV.V : 4  29  16  45  vi.vn : 5  4  2  6  TOTAL  58  39  -97  • 1= 3  I  22 6.1 df P  = 4  =<10  -79are  i n the m i n o r i t y - p a r t i c u l a r i l y Windown and Entrance Type 3, which have  a g r e a t e r r e l a t i o n t o time IV h o u s i n g than i n t u i t i v e l y expected.  This  suggests t h a t e i t h e r the Type 3 sub-types f o r a l l elements a r e ones which a r e c e l e b r a t e d over a l o n g time span, or t h a t the non-random b l o c k s are  a t y p i c a l o f the o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n . As a v i s u a l measure o f the s i m i -  l a r i t y o r otherwise o f the sub-type/time p e r i o d occurrences i n both sample s e t s , the p r o p o r t i o n s o f each sub-type o c c u r r i n g i n t h e expected time p e r i o d were c a l c u l a t e d and p l o t t e d , as i n P i g . 10. M a i n t a i n i n g i t s d e p e n d a b i l t i y i s the 11,2 c e l l i n a l l t h r e e elements, which a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d c l o s e t o the d i a g o n a l and very c l o s e t o the upper end. A t the other end o f the s c a l e , 1,1 i s i n e v i t a b l y d i s t r i b u t e d v e r t i c a l l y up the y a x i s due t o the absence of houses i n t h i s time p e r i o d w i t h i n t h e 4 - t l o c k non-random o b s e r v a t i o n s . I l l , 3 o f a l l elements a r e c l o s e t o g e t h e r , although lower down the s l o p e than hoped f o r ,  and b i a s e d i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the random sample a x i s .  The spread o f the Type k sub-types i s l e s s c o n c e n t r a t e d than the others:, but the h i g h ' r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y * o f the Roof component i s t h e redeeming feature;  Window Types 5 & 6 were almalgamated i n o r d e r t o r e p r e s e n t  the youngest elements u n i f o r m l y  0  To complete t h e same examination stages as were c a r r i e d out on the f i r s t data s e t , the r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s o f combinations o f element sub-types i n any p e r i o d were summed, and p r e s e n t e d i n Table XIIo  The major  d i s c r e p a n c i e s are i n the time IV occurrence o f t h e 3>3,3 combination ( h i t h e r t o c o n f i d e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h time I I I ) . A l s o f o r comparison between data s e t s , the a s s o c i a t i o n of s p e c i f i c element permutations w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r time p e r i o d have been c a l c u l a t e d , and areshown i n Table XIII. What c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from these s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t forms of data d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s ?  The i n t e n t i o n has been.- to attempt t o  i s o l a t e c r i t i c a l elements, sub-types and combinations o f sub-types which w i l l i n d i c a t e a p a r t i c u l a r house's p e r i o d of c o n s t r u c t i o n i n a r e l a t i v e l y  -80-  FIGURE 10  ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RANDOM & NON RANDOM SAMPLE SETS IY OCCURRENCE OF EXPECTED TIME PERIOD/ ELEMENT SUBTYPE CATEGORIES  0.2  0.4  0.6  NON-RANDOM SAMPLE  • WINDOW • ROOF  • ENTRANCE  0.6  1.0  TABLE 501 INCIDENCE OF THREE ELEMENT COMBINATIONS BY TIME PERIOD (NONRANDOM SAMPLE) 214 122 222 622 522 223 324 322 624 424 233 333 633 533  r  1 1 1 14 3 1 1 1 1  N  1  2 1 1 t  IV V  1  433 634 534 334  434 344 444 644 244 143 4 (.3 545 154 454 354 554 555 454 555J  1 1 1 1  |29l  1 3 1 1  2 1 2  1  2 3  1  9  1  1 3  8 3 2 1 1  1 1 1 1 5  1  1 1  ' 1  7  1 2 1  4 2 4  -4— — I 1—7  1  1 1 1 2 14 3 2  !  !36  1 1 1 1 1 2 2  3  8 3 2 1  2  17  2J7  1 1 1 2 3 3 1 2  (97  -82-  TABLE XIII COMPARISON OF SAMPLE SETS BY ELEMENT COMBINATIONS IN SPECIFIC TIME PERIODS r  |  tj i  T~OF  ELEMENT SUBTYPE COMBINATIONS  n;  _  I  2,2,2  56  6or2,2,2  63  rv  1  a,2,a  4  55  j  61_  _«|  76  70  l  31  18  _  1 4  50  2u  1  56  35  j  a,3,a  61  65  j  a,3,3  11  17  33  22  55  61  !  69  75  |  55  I  6or3 3^ 3 J  a,k,L  r  aAa  V KEY  .  •  3,3,3  in  * NON RANDOM SAMPLE J  71  a.2,2 _ i JL  ACCOUNTED FOR j  PERIOD OBSERVATIONS  RANDOM SAMPLE  Combinations  aro in order  x )2  I  0  *  whore x= window stylo )= roof z = entrance •• a(x)= any. window subtype a(2) = any_ entranco subtype  -83accurate form  0  The analysis now turns to consideration of particular  groupings of elements into styles based upon the results of the analysis above. Footnotes Since every house i n the study area was post-1900, the Y values could conveniently be two figures, the 1 9 . . being understood. D i f f i c u l t i e s w i l l arise i n a f u l l e r study which includes observations of pre-1900 housing. By using age of house (to retain two numbers), care would have to be taken to warn readers to add 'n* years on to the actual year the research was donej although an 1890 house would be 82 years old i n 1972, a reader of the work i n say 1975 would have to take this passage of time into account. ^It i s widely held that a l l the expected frequencies should be greater than 5 f o r a chi-square test to be r e l i a b l e . The relaxed assumptionsg suggested by C0SHMN,W.&., "Some methods of strengthening the common X tests', Biometrioa. Vol.10,(1934),417-51, (allowing a minimum expectation of 1, i f one c e l l out of f i v e , two c e l l s out of ten,etc. are below the rule of 5) are not f u l f i l l e d however. Therefore, with a small sample size and small marginal frequencies, the method f o r dealing with such contingency tables described by MAXV7ELL,A.E., Analysing Qualitative Data.London:Methuen.1961.p.38-44 were adopted to doublecheck the results reported above. The relevant c r i t i c a l r a t i o , C E . = tf ~(y?$ , (where E(X ) i s the exact mean and V(X ) i s the exact variance) was calculated and treated as a normal deviate with mean of zero and standard deviation of unity. Values of 16.47, 20.63, and 11.36 f o r window, roof and entrance respectively are therefore extremely significant (p<0.0l), and cover material (C.R. =2.13) i s significant at the 5% l e v e l . 1  c  ^This figure would have undoubtably been higher were i t not f o r the inclusion of combination 1,1,1 and variations of this - these would i d e a l l y be i n the f i r s t group, but f o r reasons discussed i n the next chapter are i n time I I o  -84CHAPIKR. 4 . 4.1  CLASSIFICATION Off VEBHA.CULAB. STYLES APPLICABLE TO VANCOUVER HOUSING-  What type of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ? One c r i t i c i s m of the a n a l y s i s above c o u l d be t h a t examination  of the two 'scalogram-type  1  data p r e s e n t a t i o n s might suggest c e r t a i n  c a t e g o r i e s o r c u t t i n g p o i n t s which minimise the e r r o r term more e f f e c t i v e l y than the c u t t i n g p o i n t s a l r e a d y imposed.  However, some degree of con-  s i s t e n c y i s e s s e n t i a l , f o r although one might see groupings, e.g., f o r X(A)l  = 1910-20 t h e r e might a l s o be, f o r X ( B ) l = 1910-15  2 = 1921-24 3 = 1925-31  2 = 1916-22 3 = 1923-28 4 = 1929-36  i n which case, where i s the c r o s s - c h e c k i n g (which _is p r o v i d e d by the approach adopted i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r ) ?  The use o f c u t t i n g p o i n t s  e x t e r n a l t o the data i t s e l f , l e a d i n g t o d e u c t i v e g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s , w i t h measurable confidence l e v e l s , would seem more d e s i r a b l e t h a n an i n d u c t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which has l i t t l e across-the-board d u p l i c i t y and c o n f i r m a t o r y power. Another p o i n t needing d i s c u s s i o n i s t h a t although the s t y l e books and a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i e s might i n d i c a t e a c e r t a i n 2,2,2j 3,3,3  e t c . schema which might r e p r e s e n t the " c l a s s i c " examples o f  p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e s , there i s a need f o r awareness of the divergences from these i d e a l s .  Table X I I I was one way of showing t h i s , w i t h  r e s o l u t i o n i n c r e a s i n g as the i d e a l combinations T/ere m o d i f i e d f i r s t by a s l a c k e n i n g of the window type s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , and then o f both the window and entrance s t y l e s - thus a r r i v i n g a t the measure of accuracy r e f e r r e d to i n Tables VI and I X  0  The i n t e n t i o n of the a n a l y s i s , f o l l o w i n g Solomon, e t c , has been to y i e l d general s t y l e s from the more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s . the data c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were observations of a p o s s i b l e 22 of 4 elements, over 70 years which  were  classified  into  Initially,  sub-types  -857 periods.  One could point to the position reached hy the end of the l a s t  chapter - 3 element sub-type combinations over 4 time periods - and conclude that the progressive 'concessions* made i n order to isolate v a l i d c l a s s i f i c a t o r y rules have removed any value of the exercise. In that case, i t might be appropriate to refer back to the study conducted by Riekert on the housing of the H E 0  0  United States, who was  pleased to find that h i s key could be used successfully to allocate the construction period, within one period type error, i n 95fo of the cases. The scale of focus i n the Vancouver study i s by intention more detailed, and i t seemed useful to begin at least at a complex l e v e l with a multitude of sub-elements„  Hopefully these appear as changes  on a uni-dimensional scale, and through a simple grouping  procedure,  an attempt i s made te reach a c l a s s i f i c a t o r y strength of useful and workable proportions.  I t i s essential to admit and acknowledge that overlap  does occur, that errors are inevitable, and then ask what l e v e l of error i s acceptable. In traditional grouping procedures  , proceeding from many to few  regions or classes, there i s a progressive gain i n generality and a progressive loss i n definitions  ( F i g . 11) The underlying intention  i s summarised as attempting to minimise within-group variance and to maximise between group variance, working inductively towards the best set of groups to describe effectively the universe.  I f , however, the groups had  been isolated at the outset (through the building cycle data), then the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n exercise i s working i n the opposite direction; the process seems to one of amalgamation to increase the resolution of the key, by decreasing the error term i n order to improve the classificatory power. A small error term achieved at the expense of too broad class boundaries and deliminators may be of minimal value, with a much f i n e r (narrower) distinction required, but i t may be well to state and  Complete d e t a i l H  i  CD  o (0  cr  H O »  CO  H-  P  p, CD cf{0  F-  o S<5  Complete g e n e r a l i t y  -98-  -87-  i l l u s t r a t e ike different levels of grouping possible.  I f i t emerges  that the four facade elements and a l l their sub-types cannot usefully describe reasonable discrete groupings along the time-dimension because of wide fluctuations, haziness, and overlap of styles, then this should be accepted as v a l i d conclusion, despite the low immediate payoff involved i n upholding a n u l l hypothesis»  Alternatively, the  presentation of specific descriptions, with attached probability labels, provides at least an informed base f o r future work and cues of increasing the resolution of the key, rather than i n t u i t i v e notions to which are attached greater c r e d i b i l i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y than objective analysis would suggest, Greig-Smith ( 1 9 6 4 , p , 1 5 8 - 2 0 9 ) , i n discussing techniques of summarising and ordering information i n plant ecology, distinguishes two different approaches.  F i r s t l y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , involving arranging  information into classes whose members have a number of common charact e r i s t i c s which set them apart from members of other classes.  There  i s an implication of discontinuity i n composition, not only between concrete units i n the f i e l d , but also between abstract classes into which a l l vegetation may be place. Ordination.on the other hand, stems from the concept of vegetation as a continumj consequently i t implies continuous variation i n composition and any discontinuity i n the f i e l d corresponds to discontinuity i n the determining factors.  So i n  the case of the housing, along a continuum of year-by-year housing stock, the determining factors of element categorisation would be responsible for the discontinuities i n the observations. The danger of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s that the, techniques involved may result i n an overemphasis of discontinuities, ignoring the r e a l i t y of s t y l i s t i c transitions and thus diminishing the c r e d i b i l i t y and u t i l i t y of the exercise.  Ordination, however, w i l l expose any discontinuities  -88-  i n composition as an integral part of the exercise while at the same time maintaining the concept of continuum^, 4.2  Resurrection of architectural labels Consequently, reiterating the statement made e a r l i e r i n this  chapter, i t i s essential to acknowledge that combinations other than 2 , 2 , 2 ; 3 , 3 , 3 @tc. exist, and not i n s i s t on a c l a s s i f i c a t o r y (rigid) approach--.  These ideal combinations can act as the firm foundation,  however, and i f one progresses from these i t i s possible to build towards vernacular labels i n several ways  0  Already, following F i g . 1 2 a , we have several amalgamations, i n which as a f i r s t step, renewal windows ( 6 ) are added to 2 , 2 , 2 ; then any windows, 2 , 2 roofo  - and f i n a l l y any window or any porch with a Type 2  S i m i l a r i l y , we have grouped various combinations of Type 3 /  time I I I characteristics, as i n P i g . 1 2 b .  In both cases, there i s  less error but equally less specification as one moves to the larger groupings  I t can be seen that some of the a,2,a could be 3 , 2 , 3 and  that some of the a,3,a could well be 2 , 3 , 2 ; thus there i s the problem of how to distinguish or incorporate the two overall groupings which i n fact are part of one larger uniform unite Whiffen ( 1 9 6 9 ) i n describing the characteristics of the bungalowstyle house, noted that Wilson used nine different types of bungalow i n his book and so he suggests the overall label BUNGALOID to describe these variations.  Thus i t would be possible to combine the groups i n F i g  0  12a,  which could best be described under the label SWISS CHALET, and Fig,. 12b possibly aa BUNGALOW PB.0FER, to give a grouping of houses called Bungaloid, F i g . 1 2 c , most frequent i n the Kitsilano d i s t r i c t of Vancouver i n the period 1 9 0 8 - 2 4 . Whiffen saw the zenith of the Bungalow-style as being between  -89-  3,3,3-  2,2,2  6,3,3"  6,2,2  a,3,3"  a,2,2  a, 3, a -  a,2,a  FIG-. 1 2b  FIG-. 1 2a  2,2,2  3n  6,2,2  SWISS CHALET  a,2,2-  a,2,a-  BUNGALOID  3,3,3 ,3,3—1  ,3,3—H—,  BUNGALOW PB.OPERI  a,3,3a,3,aFIG-. 1 2e  FIGURE 12: Grouping o f Type 2 and Type 3 element c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s under BUNGALOID l a b e l  -90-  1900 and 1920 but i t s presence i n Vancouver r e f l e c t s a somewhat different popularity; this may well be due to diffusion rates across the p o l i t i c a l and/or cultural boundary, j u s t i f y i n g the sentiment stated at the end of the f i r s t chapter of not being able to accept dates and styles f o r the Vancouver case by using American architectural h i s t o r i e s  0  The two d i s t i n c t styles occupy r e l a t i v e l y unique time periods; the sizable two to two-and-a-half storey Swiss Ghalet house i s i d e n t i f i e d 2  largely with the 1912 boom$  whereas the smaller, single-storey  "Bungalow Proper" did not reach general Vancouver popularity u n t i l the period 1 9 2 0 - 2 4 , as i s well i l l u s t r a t e d by Plate 2 1 . This style does occur i n the 1912 boom however, as observations No. 9 - 1 3 , 2 2 , 2 6 i n Pigo  9 i l l u s t r a t e , and by this general l a b e l bungaloid i t i s now  possible to circumvent the problems caused by the overlap of element sub-types into different time periods, which has hindered preceding classification* This overlap i s schematically i l l u s t r a t e d i n P i g . 1 2 d , which accords the bulk of each of the two building peaks to one of the two styles individually, but at the same time acknowledges the presence of both i n the other time, especially i n the case of the Bungalow Proper.  These can now be seen as the forerunners of the general change  to smaller houses i n the early 1 9 2 0 ' s , with the larger house not being b u i l t after 1918 to 1 9 2 0 .  The ways i n which these two styles merge and  transform leads to the question of how to incorporate these s t y l i s t i c transitions within the general c l a s s i f i c a t i o n :  by defined intermediate  classes or by regarding them as unavoidable random fluctuations?  The  easiest way of describing these i s to use Wilson's own expression for these houses - "the house that i t i s not a bungalow though b u i l t along bungalow l i n e s " (Whiffen, 1970, p.221).  Thus the house i l l u s t r a t e d  PLATE 21: 2?0Q b l o c k West 5 t h Avenue ( a l l  1920-1)  92i n Plate 22, basieally an A-frame with dormer windows on the sides, can be seen as an intermediate case, found i n 1912  alongside forerunner  bungalow^proper,, (Plate 23), and also i n smaller versions of the Swiss Chalet at the 1920 end of i t s popularity. Returning to the linkage tree, focussing on the Type 4 and time IV combinations, the procedure can be repeated, this time working from a less sound base. Again, the a,4,a could well be 3,4,3  and the dilemna  of how to group i s well i l l u s t r a t e d by the houses shown i n Plate 24. Here there Is a perceptible transition from one style to the other, even though the roof shape of the l e f t hand house belies i t s true age, and the middle of the three, although of a l a t e r date i n a l l four elements has essentially the same plan as the 1922 Bungalow Proper on the r i g h t . As a result of this and other cases of gradual change, should one group the Type 4 with the houses already embraced by the Bungaloid ideal as i n Pig. 13?  Aa alternative argument could point to the frequencies of  particular sub-types i n the various tables and descriptions of the l a s t section and suggest that the data characteristics, rather than " i n s i t u " inspection, show a greater complimentarity with the Type 5/time V groupings ( i . e . the fact that time periods IV & V had to be grouped to provide a greater number of non-errors than errors i n each element and that the a,4,4, combination accounted for 56$ of the observed combinations i n time V.) This would therefore suggest that another generalised grouping should be made which combines the Type 4 and 5 element sub-type styles. There i s a certain reticence by the writer to attach labels to both of these 'styles' i n the abscence of respectable architectural history labels.  However, the descriptions of roof styles i n Type 4,  distinguishing snub-nosed, tudor-triamgle cross gables, and gothick did suggest a "picturesque" influence, and so could be labelled as showing COTTA&E-LIKE characteristics.  I f , i n addition, the rather small houses  PLATE 2 3 : A-Erame 1 9 1 2 ( l e f t ) and f o r e r u n n e r 1 9 1 2 Bungalow Proper ( r i g h t )  -94-  PLATE 24:  T r a n s i t i o n from Bungalow Proper t o ? : examples from 3300 b l o c k West 2nd Avenue  -95-  SWISS CHALET BUNGALOW PROPER TYPE 4 ELEMENTS  FIGURE 13o P o s s i b l e e x t e n s i o n t o i n c o r p o r a t e housing o f l a t e 1920's?  SWISS CHALET BUNGALOID BUNGALOW PROPER COTTAGE-LIKE BIJOU BOXES FIGURE 14.  Main c a t e g o r i e s o f study area h o u s i n g .  Shingle s t y l e G-reek R e v i v a l Cubic e t c .  TWO STOREY  SWISS CHALET BUNGALOW PROPER• COTTAGE  SINGLE STOREY  BOXES FIGURE 15. P o s s i b l e ' d i v i s i o n i n t o two and s i n g l e s t o r i e d s t r u c t u r e s , acknowledging connections w i t h e a r l i e r housing,,  -96characterised by pyramidal roof, l i t t l e or no entrance ( -the 4,5*5; 5,5,4 etc. combinations) could be labelled rather uncomplimentarily as BOXES, then i t i s possible to group the two under a larger t i t l e , whieh might effectively be called BIJOU.  This l a t t e r label allows the inclusion  of many houses not e x p l i c i t l y covered by the precise element allegiances of.the previous chapter, but which are definitely of such a genus, as the presence of hipped roofs and dummy side-wall extensions i n the houses of Plate 25 suggests.  Solomon and &©odhand (1965) working i n Tasmania,  found only a single style, 'Contemporary' after the 'Bungalow' period, "Mainly box-like and low roofed, the facade broden only by a small, central oantilevered poroh®. (p.19) Tke enlarged tree branches out as represented i n F i g .  14 which  represents the most effective summary of the data gathered i n the Kitsilano study area, consisting mainly of housing b u i l t within the period 1910-1945• However, i f someone were to apply these conclusxons to areas of the ©ity other than West Kitsilano, would they achieve satisfactory results? 4»3  Extension and modification of the general grouping Considering the descriptions of general architectural styles, both  high and vernacular, i t would appear that some modification would have t© be made i n the linkages of Fig. position of the 1,1,1  14 i f e a r l i e r houses were studied. The  combinations i s rather weak as the analysis ©f  the previous chapter suggested.  Certainly, within the 1912 stock, there  i s evidence ©f styles attributed by Bickert and others to e a r l i e r timeperiods.  Thus ©ne has to explain or at least incorporate the presence of  Cubic, Queen Anne and Greek Revival housing.  Plate 26 both i l l u s t r a t e s  the problem and also provides possible explanation. Cubic housing, with the square dormer i n the hipped roof giving i t a distinctive style, (Plate 26a), and also the plain gable of the 'terraced' housing of the MacDonald Street and Stephens Street area (Plate 26b) are seen  3506 & 3512 West 10th Avenue: 1928  3505 & 3509 West 11th Avenue: 194-1  PLATE 25: I l l u s t r a t i o n s showing overlap" o f facade-element c a t e g o r i e s t o u n i t e time I V and time V housingo  PLATE 26: Examples o f s t y l e s found w i t h i n K i t s i l a n o study area (upper p l a t e s ) , and views o f West End h o u s i n g , which suggests e a r l i e r c u l t u r a l age f o r the s t y l e s .  -99to be part of an e a r l i e r fashion (see Plate 26o,d showing West End housing).  So, despite their 1912 h i s t o r i c a l age, they are of an e a r l i e r  period i n terms of cultural age  0  Consequently, i t would seem reasonable 3  to view the Kitsilano presence of these styles as the r e l i c s  ©f an  e a r l i e r construction period which would be used f o r the cheaper housing of- a l a t e r boom, since i t s 'dated' appearance would only s a t i s f y the demands of a partieular class of people. Returning to I h i f f e n again, the one other rather vernacular style to which he gives reasonable attention i s labelled the Western Stiok Style, whose characteristics include:. o . t a l l proportions with high steep roofs, frequently of complex plan and irregular silhouette; the eaves are of considerable projections and are supported by large brackets; often there i s exposed framing i n the gable-end of a roof• Verandas are extensive, their roofs being carried i n posts with diagonal braces. (Whiffen, 19&9, p 109) 0  This description would help to place the styles mentioned above, by identifying a transitional area between the Shingte Style proper (Sculley, 1955)  and the Swiss Ghalet type bungalow of the 1910's  0  The period i n question i s very much that of the formative years of the c i t y , with rapid fluctuations caused by many inputs from new a r r i v a l s , and so i t seems hardly surprising that several architectural styles should be simultaneously i n vogue, even i f they would be described as quite distinct entities i n more conventional architectural schema. Accordingly, i n addition to Cubic and Greek Revival, mention must be made of §ueen Anne, Eastlake and Gingerbread, not to forget other types of Gothic Revival styles prevalent i n a very eclectic period:-  "Towers, turrets, battlements, gingerbread work, monkey-  puzzle trees, clipped h o l l i e s , and Chinese houseboys sprouted a l l over the West End."  (Morley, 1969, p.  119)  -100Whiffen describes Queen Anne as having ... i r r e g u l a r i t y of plan and massing, and variety of colour and texture ... roofs are high and multiple, their ridges meeting at right angles; the round or polyagonal turret i s a feature of the l a t e r phase. (Whiffen, 1969, p . H 5 ) and Plate 27 i l l u s t r a t e s some good examples i n the Vancouver context. Also, those houses with whieh we are familiar due to their fascinating fretwork detail i n brackets, angles, etc., and usually interpreted as Gingerbread^ are also known as Eastlake. Whiffen provides the description of how the English Victorian architect and i n t e r i o r designer Charles L. Eastlake who inadvertently and unintentionally lent his name to the style using carving, fretwork, et©., as a result of the huge success©f h i s books i n America i n the l880's.  Characteristically,  ... most Eastlake buildings would be c l a s s i f i e d as Stick Style ©r Queen Anne i f they were not transmogrified by a distinctive type of ornament. This ornament i s largely the product of the c h i s e l , the gouge, and the lathe (and thus fundamentally different from the two-dimensional gingerbread of the s c r o l l saw. (Whiffen, 1969, p.123) Both Eastlake and Gingerbread can be seen i n West End housing, and the example shown i n Plate 28 i s located i n Eairview  0  Consideration of a l l these styles, which do find expression i n the 1912  stock, suggest that the Swiss Chalet type - although obviously  connected with the Bungalow Proper through i t s very promotion i n Wilson's book, etc. - i s at the same time a continuation of some of the styles prevelant i n the l a s t quarter of the 19th century.  As such, i t might  be necessary to modify the 'tree' to recognise this; one could identify tw© major groupings, as i n Fig. 15,  i n which there i s a significant break  around 1920 between the two- or more- storey structures of the Shingle and Stick Styles and the smaller Bungalow, Cottage and Bijou plans of a later date. At the other end o f the time-period covered ±n the Kitsilano analysis, the b i j o u - s t y l e housing would merge, i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , w i t h the s p l i t -  -102'  PLATE 28:  1301 West 7 t h Avenue: E a s t l a k e / G i n g e r b r e a d  -103-  l e v e l and ranch houses of South Vancouver i n the l a t e 1950*s, the  low  form of most recent new housing (e.g. P l a t e s 29 and 37c), and the compact nature of the replacement h o u s i n g now ( P l a t e 30).  appearing i n the P o i n t Grey A r e a  I n a d d i t i o n , mention would have to be made of s t r u c t u r e s such  as the l a r g e r s w e l l i n g s ( i n c o r p o r a t i n g c a r p o r t s ) t y p i c a l o f much suburban expansion i n Richmond, and the low s l u n g , a n g u l a r , g l a s s and wood houses  5 of the B r i t x s h - P r o p e r t i e s development. i l t h o u g h i n d i v i d u a l houses continue t o show the t r a d i t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n f i n e r d e t a i l , there appears t o have been a t r e n d towards u n i f o r m i t y  and  s t a n d a r d i s a t i o n o f d e s i g n , which would seem t o r e f l e c t the i n c r e a s i n g amount o f s p e c u l a t i v e b u i l d i n g p r a c t i s e d on a l a r g e r ( a r e a l ) s c a l e by i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y developers.  T h i s would be i n c o n t r a s t t o the f a r s m a l l e r s c a l e  of o p e r a t i o n i n the f i r s t t h i r t y years of the century; there may have been o n l y a few p a t t e r n s used even then, but the f a c t t h a t one r a r e l y sees an e n t i r e s t r e e t b u i l t i n the same s t y l e a t one time ( o t h e r t h a n P l a t e 21) at l e a s t gives the i m p r e s s i o n  of s m a l l s c a l e o p e r a t i o n .  O f t e n the t h i r d and  fourth  house i n a s e r i e s on a s t r e e t would be b u i l t a f t e r the f i r s t two had been s o l d , etc.,  and the s t r e e t would remain u n f i l l e d f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s i f the p l o t  l a s t b u i l t on was changed.  a l o n g time b e i n g s o l d , and a l s o i f the housing market  So, i n a d d i t i o n t o the smallness of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r a c t o r s ' oper-  a t i o n s , accounting f o r the v a r i e d nature of the r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s c a p e , there i s the f a c t o r o f consumer preference and the market mechanism. C u r r e n t l y , w i t h the change of r e s i d e n t i a l consumer p r e f e r e n c e t o rented accomodation r a t h e r than the s i n g l e f a m i l y residence  (at l e a s t i n  the Inner C i t y ) , any c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would have to i n c l u d e the c o n t r i b u t i o n of apartment  buildings-.  H i s t o r i c a l l y , they .seem to have been j u s t l a r g e r  versions of the current designs, e.g„ designed, as suggested i n P l a t e 32<,  as i n P l a t e 31, but a l s o purposeThree-storey walk-up apartments  -104-  PLATE 29: Low form o f 1950's housing: 3561 Y / . 1 1 t h ( l 9 5 3 ) , l e f t , ( a n d a 1912 Swiss Chalet type on r i g h t ) .  PLATE 30: Second g e n e r a t i o n housing: 2855 W.11th Avenue, l e f t , ( a n d a e a r l y 1940's box on r i g h t ) , ,  -106-  appeared r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y i n the West End^ but would not have been i n demand  7 i n the K i t s i l a n o a r e a , then a p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n . housing on F o u r t h Avenue ( P l a t e 33)  The 1946-47 CMC  public  and Broadway, e a s i l y r e c o g n i s e d by the  window types and facade- cover, was overtaken by an i n c r e a s i n g amount o f p r i v a t e apartment b u i l d i n g i n the 1960*s which has transformed c o n s i d e r a b l e Q  areas o f East K i t s i l a n o  0  The t r e e diagram of F i g . 16 now i s extended t o cover the m a j o r i t y o f the main s t y l e s , w i t h s p e c u l a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a t t a c h e d to both ends o f the c e n t r a l groups.  Argument over the stages of grouping - s h o u l d Swiss Chalet be i n  w i t h S h i n g l e a n d . S t i c k , even though i t i s a l s o Bungaloid?; s h o u l d Cottage go w i t h Bungalow r a t h e r than Boxes?; Boxes w i t h S p l i t - l e v e l ? , e t c - are p o s s i b l e , and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d p o s s i b l y focus on which are the most meaningful  groups  From the viewpoint o f f a m i l y s i z e o r volume o f e n c l o s e d space (as a measure o f p o t e n t i a l c o n v e r s i o n c a p a c i t y f o r s u i t e s , r e n t e d rooms, e t c ) then Swiss C h a l e t might be more e f f e c t i v e l y i n c l u d e d w i t h the e a r l i e r housing,,  This i s a point  to be t a k e n up l a t e r , ( p 1 2 6 ) , but a t t h i s s t a g e , a summary t r e e grouping and 0  d e s c r i p t i o n i s p r o v i d e d , as i n P l a t e 34, analysis  which concludes the main p a r t o f the  0  To some e x t e n t , t h i s typology r e q u i r e s a c e r t a i n amount o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l 'eye' on the p a r t of the reader, as the s e v e r i t y o f facade sub-element c e l l s and combinations of these needs m o d i f i c a t i o n by a l a y e r of g e n e r a l i t y and s u b j e c t i v i t y i n order f o r i t t o be o f any widespread use.  R e c a l l i n g the  review of c u r r e n t computer techniques f o r c l a s s i f y i n g facade elements,  (p.20),  the present consensus i s t h a t i t i s d e s i r a b l e to c l a s s i f y a f t e r the data has been c o l l e c t e d , w i t h no on-the-spot c a t e g o r i s a t i o n o r attachment  of l a b e l s  0  Yet there are many i n s t a n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f i e l d e x c u r s i o n s as p a r t of the t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s , when i t i s not r e a l l y u s e f u l t o r e c o r d a,y,z, and then walk on; t o be able to make an on-the-spot d e c i s i o n as to a house's occurrence i n time period t  , or say t h a t the example i s i n d i c a t i v e of s t y l e P, may w e l l be inoee  0  -107Eastlake Gingerbread SHINGLE STYLE Greek Revival Gothic Revival Queen Anne Transition SWISS CHALET Transition  BUNGALOID BUNGALOW PROPER  Transition —I Snub-nosed Gable COTTAGE  "Tudor Triangles"  LIKE BIJOU  BOXES LONG, LOW RANCH SPLIT-LEVEL  1  TWO STOREY CARPORT CMHC PUBLIC HOUSING THREE-STOREY WALK-UP  APARTMENTS  HIGH-RISES  FIGURE 16.  Suggested linkage tree f o r the spectrum of Vancouver vernacular forms  PLATE 34: Examples o f v e r n a c u l a r s t y l e s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g . 1 6 a) Swiss Chalet: complex dormer; overhanging porch supported w i t h stone p i e r s ; type 2 windows; s i d e bay-window. b) Bungalow Proper: p o r t i c o - t y p e p o r c h ; p l a i n gable; s i d e bay-w, N.B.not a photo v e r s i o n o f F i g , l 6 $ previous photos showed Queen Anne, Cubic, and v a r i a n t s of Swiss Chalet and Bungalow Proper. Readers should a l s o r e f e r to F i g s . 1 - 3 , which p l a c e d the element sketches i n a s t y l e c o n t e x t .  c) "Snub-nosed": very good examples o f 1928-30 s t y l e . d) r . Late ' c o t t a g e : steeper r o o f j c r o s s gable;curved a r c h e s ; s m a l l porch; c.1938. 1  window  1. Box: h i p p e d r o o f ; Type 5 windows; indented porch.  -109-  important.  So i f the e x e r c i s e does need some s u b j e c t i v e f e e l f o r the  observation',, at l e a s t one has a l r e a d y acknowledged the l e v e l o f accuracy  attached  t o the category, and t h a t there i s the knowledge t h a t behind the general p i c t u r e there i s a s e r i e s of amalgamations which account f o r the e s s e n t i a l s t y l e  and  i t s modifications. 4 ' . 4 Areas f o r improvement F u r t h e r work w i l l h o p e f u l l y i s o l a t e f i n e r d i v i s i o n s .  R e t u r n i n g t o the  example of the p o s s i b l e need t o d i s t i n g u i s h 1912-boom housing from the l a t e r 1 9 2 0 ' s a c c r e t i o n s , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n at present i s unable t o d i s t i n g u i s h a 1 9 1 2 Bungalow Proper from the core o f i t s c l a s s somewhere i n the e a r l y 1 9 2 0 ' s ; even i f a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f element sub-types had c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d a Type 2 1 9 1 2 window, then the r u l e s o f the c l a s i f c a t i o n would have to i n c l u d e i t i n time I I I due to the other two element c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  (2,3,3).  There i s no  advantage t o be gained by s l a c k e n i n g the r u l e , s t a t i n g t h a t a Type 2 window o v e r r u l e s a Type 3 r o o f , as the reverse o b s e r v a t i o n can be f6und i n 1 9 2 2 housing, i . e . a Type 2 window amd Type 3 r o o f and entrance.  Obviously  other  d e l i n e a t o r s would be welcome. One p o s s i b l e source c o u l d come through d e t a i l e d examination  o f by-law  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; e.g. there appears t o be evidence t h a t the water f a l l - p i p e was ••. e x t e r n a l u n t i l a 1 9 1 7 by-law, a f t e r which time i t was i n t o the w a l l or was  external.  either incorporated  Recording of d e t a i l s such as t h i s ,  and  measurement of other f e a t u r e s such as chimney, door, e x t e r n a l b u i l d i n g s , (mentioned i n p a s s i n g , p . 4 6 ) c o u l d provide f a r t h e r grounds f o r d e l i n e a t i o n .  " . :  A f t e r t h i s , non-external elements might be the o n l y way t o i n c r e a s e r e s o l u t i o n , but t h i s would depend on the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n needed and the purpose of the work.  A l r e a d y there appears t o be a redundancy o f i n f o r m a t i o n , and there are  enough problems i n t r y i n g to weight each o f the f o u r elements used here by the .-• a p p r o p r i a t e amount. I t can be seen t h a t the renewal f e a t u r e s shown e a r l i e r i n P l a t e 1 3 would not  -110h i n d e r a c o r r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , due e s p e c i a l l y t o the way i n which the r o o f s t y l e remains constant,* and even i n cases l i k e P l a t e 35,  the two s t o r e y s do  not d e t r a c t from the h i p p e d r o o f , hexagonal hall-window and metal-frame Type 5 window, and the stucco cover, a l l which would date the house c o r r e c t l y as being e a r l y 1940's v i n t a g e . As a f i n a l note, mention s h o u l d be made o f the c l a r i t y o f the d e s c r i p t i o n of Chapter 2 and o f the master f i e l d guide. of sub-types i n Chapter 2,  W i t h i n the a c t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n s  there were s e v e r a l a r b i t r a r y a l l o c a t i o n s o f  sub-types i n t o d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s ; e.g. the entrance Type 2 and 3 w i t h p o r t i c o b e i n g a f u n c t i o n of the number o f f l o o r s i n the house, and the s i m i l a r i t y of Type 3 window s t y l e s w i t h some o f those found i n 1912  housing.  Are the  a r b i t r a r y statements too c o n f u s i n g f o r the key t o be used by f i e l d w o r k e r s ? Obviously, i t depends i n p a r t on the extent to which the study has t o be accurate - a g a i n , i s i t an on-the-spot d e c i s i o n as p a r t o f another purpose, or i s the d e t a i l e d r e c o r d necessary?  I f i t i s the former;^ then one can r e s o r t  to a s s o c i a t i o n a l o n g the l i n e s of " i s n ' t e x a c t l y one, but b u i l t a l o n g s i m i l a r lines".  I n the l a t t e r case, i t i s important to know which s e c t i o n s o f the  key are somewhat ambiguous. 9  The key was p i l o t e d by f i v e persons ;  agreement was encouragingly  h i g h , and o n l y seven m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s out o f one hundred o b s e r v a t i o n s were recorded,, These were, as expected, i n the t r a n s i t i o n from a s h a l l o w p l a i n gable of the Bungalow Proper t o a f a r steeper gable of some of the Type 4 r o o f i n g , and t h e r e , one c o u l d o n l y r e s o r t to the general ' v e r n a c u l a r ' s t y l e - Bungalow Proper or Cottage?  c S i m i l a r i l y , the t r a n s i t i o n from an e x p l i c i t ,  d e f i n i t e and s t r o n g entrance to a more p a r t i a l cover (e.g. the house i n the foreground of the f r o n t i s p i e c e photograph, p . x i i ) i s d i f f i c u l t to judge, e s p e c i a l l y i f the supports are s l i g h t ; c o n s i d e r a b l e time was spent i n debate over t h i s p o i n t More widespread use of the key would p o s s i b l y suggest ways i n which the 0  -111-  PLATE 35: 3581 West 1 1 t h Avenue 1940 two-storey house.  -112-  c a t e g o r i e s c o u l d be made more e x p l i c i t .  The a n a l y s i s next c o n s i d e r s some of  the ways i n which t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , developed t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l , can be used i n g e o g r a p h i c a l r e s e a r c h . Footnotes. See, f o r example, HAGGETT, P . . L o c a t i o n A n a l y s i s i n Human Geography, London:Arnold,1965,p.254-58; GRIG&, D.B.,"Regions, models and c l a s s e s " , i n CHORLEY, R.J. & HAGGETT, P.,(op. i t . ) , 1 9 6 7 ; HARVEY, D.,1$6$,op. c i t . , p . 3 2 6 - 4 9 1  c  I n a d d i t i o n t o the f a c t t h a t f a m i l y s i z e was l a r g e r then than now, and there was a g r e a t e r number of r e s i d e n t domestic s e r v a n t s , a f u r t h e r reason f o r the great p o p u l a r i t y of the l a r g e s t p l a n s i n the W i l s o n (and o t h e r ) p a t t e r n books c o u l d have been the r e l a t i v e shortage of a v a i l a b l e housing o r c l e a r e d s u b d i v i s i o n s , which might have encouraged the continuance of f a m i l y k i n s h i p s among new s e t t l e r s , e.g. the m a r r i e d c h i l d r e n l i v i n g under the same r o o f . The same c o n d i t i o n s might not have been p r e v e l a n t by the e a r l y 1920's, thus a s h i f t to smaller designs. 2  ^ I t i s important t o see t h a t s t y l e s are not a b s o l u t e . L i k e a l l f a s h i o n , be i t h a i r s t y l e , c l o t h e s , f u r n i t u r e or house d e s i g n , the s t y l e continues t o be s u b s c r i b e d t o l o n g a f t e r the p a s s i n g o f the main p o p u l a r i t y , o f t e n s u p p l y i n g the needs of a lower s e c t i o n o f the community. S i m i l a r i t y , there are f o r e r u n n e r s to s t y l e s ; the appearance of the Bungalow Proper i n 1912 c o u l d be seen as the vanguard o f i t s l a t e r p o p u l a r i t y i n the 1920's (N.B. although t h i s i s not i m p l y t h a t the houses a c t u a l l y b u i l t i n K i t s i l a n o i n 1912 were ~ i n n o v a t o r s , and i t s l a t e r p o p u l a r i t y t h e r e and other p a r t s of the c i t y was a r e s u l t of people mimicking these f o r e r u n n e r s ) . ^ oee, f o r example, MAASS,J., ( 1 9 5 7 ) , op. c i t . , f o r a good d e s c r i p t i o n , , 5  CARVER, H., C i t i e s i n the Suburbs, T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1962, c o n t a i n s f i v e photos of the changing f a m i l y house s i n c e 1946; these can be found between pages 96 and 97• Mention has a l r e a d y been made,(p.55), o f the way these houses, and t h e i r i n t e r n a l p l a n s , express the changing s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n of the f a m i l y u n i t and t h e i r housing demands. ^ F o r a f u l l e r account o f the h i s t o r y o f the West End i n terms o f changing r e s i d e n t i a l p r e f e r e n c e s and types of d w e l l i n g , see McAFEE, R.A., "Residence on the Margin of the C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t " , unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vaneouver,1967. Apartment development here i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n GAYLER, H . J . , " P r i v a t e r e s i d e n t i a l development i n the i n n e r c i t y . The West End o f Vancouver,Canada", J o u r n a l o f the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e , V o l . 5 7 , 1 , 1 9 7 1 , p.15-20. ^ O r i g i n a l l y f i n a n c e d and operated by Housing E n t e r p r i s e s , a consortium o f L i f e Insurance companies, and l a t e r taken over by the F e d e r a l Government C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . I am g r a t e f u l to Mr.&.R.Glover, Regional Mortgage Manager, London L i f e Insurance Co. f o r p o i n t i n g t h i s f a c t out.  g  The study of apartment appearance i s o f course worthy of seperate study, there now b e i n g so many d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s present i n the Vancouver landscape. I n a d d i t i o n t o the ones a l r e a d y mentioned above, i n t h e r e c a p a c i t y as members of the study a r e a , there are numerous other d i v i s i o n s , r a n g i n g from the n e o - C l a s s i c a l of the Tatlow Park and U n i v e r s i t y Boulevard v a r i e t y ,  -113-  through the t h r e e - s t o r e y walk ups t o the m u l t i - s t o r i e d h i g h - r i s e s . C o n s t r u c t i o n .techniques ( c l i m b i n g crane, p r e f a b r i c a t e d p a r t s , e t c . ) are one dimension f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; by-laws p r o v i d e another, e.g. through the v a r y i n g r e g u l a t i o n s on b a l c o n y s i z e ; t h i r d l y the d e t a i l such as b a l c o n i e s , windows, p a t i o s , entrance h a l l s and or ornamental f o u n t a i n s w i l l l e n d themselves to c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the coming y e a r s . 9 These i n c l u d e d t h r e e graduate students i n the G-eography Department, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia; one person w i t h a B.A. Honours Geography degree; and one non-geographer, who had completed two y e a r s o f undergraduate co'urses a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  -114CHAPTER 5. POSSIBLE UTILITY OF THE CLASSIFICATION FOB. TESTING- VARIOUS URBAN MODELS Having i d e n t i f i e d v e r n a c u l a r s t y l e s which themselves c a n he e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d i n the urban landscape, i t remains t o be suggested how t h e y can have u t i l i t y f o r b o t h r e s e a r c h and t e a c h i n g i n urban geography.  It is  proposed t h a t three types o f urban s t r u c t u r e models a r e examined h e r e ; i n a d d i t i o n , a more i n t a n g i b l e but e q u a l l y important  c o n t r i b u t i o n i n terms o f  broader e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l value i s suggested. 5.1  R e s i d e n t i a l P a t t e r n and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Technology I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o s t a r t by r e f e r r i n g back t o t h e most r e c e n t major  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t h a t by R i c k e r t , who j u s t i f i e d h i s approach by c l a i m i n g t h a t d a t i n g and mapping by period, o f c o n s t r u c t i o n was e s s e n t i a l f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s o f occupancy p a t t e r n s o f s p e c i f i c time p e r i o d s , o r a s u c c e s s i o n o f time p e r i o d s i n one p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e .  He contended t h a t f i e l d w o r k c o u l d  q u i c k l y b l o c k i n s e c t o r s b e l o n g i n g t o one p a t i c u l a r time p e r i o d , sinoe t h e r e would be a degree o f a r c h i t e c t u a l u n i f o r m i t y w i t h i n such s e c t o r s .  He d i d  not exemplify m s p o i n t s xn vne a r t i c l e , but tiiese i n t e n t x o n s were conv i n c i n g l y supprted when Adams (1970) used R i c k e r t ' s k e y t o h e l p s u b s t a n t i a t e the v a l i d i t y o f h i s model o f r e s i d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e i n midwestern c i t i e s  0  Adams proposed a model which i d e n t i f i e d the i n f l u e n c e o f f o u r s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t t r a n s p o r t eras - the walking/horsecar  e r a , the e l e c t r i c s t r e e t -  c a r e r a , the r e c r e a t i o n a l auto e r a , and the freeway auto e r a - and t h i s was v e r i f i e d by reference t o the Minneapolis  landscape, where regions o f  d i f f e r e n t a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s r e f l e c t e d the d i s t a n c e c o n s t r a i n t s p l a c e d upon l o c a t i o n due t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  technology.  T h i s s o r t o f model i s not s t r i c t l y t r a n s f e r a b l e t o the Vancouver s i t u a t i o n , where the growth was f a r more s p o r a d i c .  I n s t e a d o f c l e a r l y dem-  a r c a t e d b e l t s which r e f l e c t the maximum u t i l i s a t i o n o f space w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c distance from the centre i n any time p e r i o d , there i s o n l y p a r t i a l i n f i l l o The r a t e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n was slower, and before s a t u r a t i o n o r climax, i s  -Unreached, a lessening of the distance constraint  due to the addition of new  transportation mode enabled housing to be b u i l t further out from the centre than would have otherwise been possible*  The lots not b u i l t on i n one  time-period (with one dominant transportation mode) were obviously b u i l t upon i n time, but with these sites offering a different relative location vis-a-vis downtown, and would therefore be occupied as a result of meeting a different type of consumer demand. Consequently, an examination of the i n f i l l  process  should take into account not only of the differing transportation technologies but also  the different social status connotations implied by a specific  location with respect to downtown i n several time-periods. However, i f i t i s possible to disregard social status temporarily to concentrate on just one aspect, that of the pattern of residential i n f i l l from a virgin area to one almost entirely built-up, then there are several interesting findings  0  Using the actual construction data from the c l a s s i -  f i c a t i o n exercise, the series of maps which comprise P i g . 17 were assembled, showing the pattern before and after the 1912 boom, the coverage at the end of the Bungaloid style and f i n a l l y the areal pattern during the  depression.  To attempt to make some order out of a rather chaotic pattern, i t i s necessary to see the study area within the context of the whole c i t y . U n t i l 1907 the Pourth Avenue streetline terminated at Trafalgar St, and consequently the earliest housing i n the area i s on the high ground of Stephens and Trafalgar Streets, P i r s t and Second Avenues, contiguous to the incorporated area of the c i t y at that time.  With the extension of  the streetcar l i n e to Alma i n 1909 the (study; area was opened up.  The  zone between Pourth Avenue and English Bay was settled f i r s t , although seemingly keeping away from Pourth A nue and the actual sea-frontage. ye  This i s rather surprising, as currently, the sites on the seaward side of Point Grey Eoad are possibly the most desirable locations for single family dwelling i n Point Grey, because of their unrivalled view of the c i t y , the North  KITSILANO  1900-1912  1900-1911  FIGURE 17  STUDY AREA  PATTERN OF RESDENTIAL ACCRETION & LOT 1NFIIL  r - it i i in J  • ran • i n•  us L i r a  •!<•• mil •r  •III  II I S J  n n E D S i  -II -II II  31  B B F i  ••III  ir  I  i  g l O  LXIMLT] - L _ U LJJJ i  ILJ  I  ir r  l  •TI  MR  l  I JL i 1 II I i i II . i i . , \ i i II in:  •  i  1  j  . _ I L J _ 1 L 1 : "  -  x  _l_  ' ~-  i  :  1900-1932  1900-1923  IB IB!  >.&ja«  Ul  LI3LL1IVJ  r x n nt~i n r n  ULBU IHu^ M « C t - U M B ^ "  l  ^  •H11BI 1  I  i  1  I'LL-1'  II  '  . £ B Uft B B US H I B f S VBB IS!  1  fin u. i s, pa] a '.a i-'. . es.. ss m  1114.—  c :  r"St!lH!  mora a"_'] T i r I N r m r ^ n r ^ n crri r — i i I U l 11  S E  ri  11 • T11- I L J U LfcLJ  [fit " J LLU  I TII  sffi i s B E s SB ITS m aa as f £ ! ! 5 & ! I S B B B S B ^ S  -117Shore mountains and the maritime a c t i v i t i e s o f the Bay and I n l e t  Yet  0  l o t s were not b u i l t on e x t e n s i v e l y u n t i l the 1930's, as the l a s t map  these  o f Pig.17  2 showso  I t has been suggested  t h a t t h i s c o u l d have been due t o the g r e a t e r  number o f fogs p r e v e l a n t i n e a r l i e r days, and perhaps the rumoured a s s o c i a t i o n of f o g and damp w i t h consumption a c t e d as a c o n s t r a i n t t o s e t t l e m e n t . Another p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t these w a t e r f r o n t l o t s were owned and h e l d f o r s p e c u l a t i v e purposes; examination interesting. in  o f a c t u a l l o t ownership p a t t e r n s would be  Thus the r e l a t i v e l y few houses marked as b e i n g b u i l t may have been  f a c t the s t r u c t u r e s i n the middle of f a r l a r g e r ' t e r r i t o r y ' on e i t h e r s i d e ,  and at one l e v e l o f occupance, the area would thus be a l r e a d y w e l l developed 3 at  an e a r l i e r date, the housing coming l a t e r . The maps a l s o show t h a t the b l o c k s adjacent t o the two s t r e e t c a r t r a n s p o r t  r o u t e s are f r e e from r e s i d e n t i a l i n f i l l , p a r t l y due t o zoning i n f l u e n c e s , but a l s o r e f l e c t i n g a d e s i r e to l i v e a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e away from the s t r e e t c a r line^"  The p e r s p e c t i v e drawing, F i g  a  18,  based on f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the  mean age o f housing on each b l o c k (low ' a l t i t u d e ' r e p r e s e n t i n g o l d e r housing) emphasises the l a t e i n f i l l of the two routeways, amd a l s o the r e l a t i v e l y l a t e development of the s i t e s adjacent t o P o i n t Grey Road. d e v i a t i o n s from the mean-age was  S i m i l a r i t y , the  c a l c u l a t e d f o r each b l o c k (low d e v i a t i o n  shown by low a l t i t u d e ) and the s u r f a c e i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n P i g . 19. them, F i g u r e s 18 and 19 give a u s e f u l summary o f the data of the Fig.  17.  standard  Between maps i n  S e v e r a l zones can be i d e n t i f i e d : areas of both h i g h mean age  low d e v i a t i o n from t h a t mean would i n d i c a t e t h a t n e a r l y a l l b l o c k s were b u i l t w i t h i n a few years o f each o t h e r ;  and  the houses on  those  low age and low d e v i a t i o n  show areas b u i l t q u i t e r e c e n t l y ; and i n t e r m e d i a t e areas which have a h i g h d e v i a t i o n are consequently  i d e n t i f i a b l e as those e x p e r i e n c i n g i n f i l l over a  c o n s i d e r a b l e number of y e a r s .  With these l a s t mentioned a r e a , one  interesting  q u e s t i o n to pose would be whether or not there i s c o n s i s t e n c y i n type o f house, or do the 1912  Swiss Chalet houses of reasonable appearance now have p l a i n e r  and poorer next-door neighbours?  Obviously i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to d e s c r i b e  -118-  FIGURE 1 8 : K i t s i l a n o Study Area: Mean C o n s t r u c t i o n Year by b l o c k l e v e l - p e r s p e c t i v e s u r f a c e 0  i  ^PR-  EFIGURE 1 9 : K i t s i l a n o Study Area: Standard D e v i a t i o n by block l e v e l - p e r s p e c t i v e s u r f a c e .  -119-  simply by r e s o r t t o age and s t y l e l a b e l a l o n e .  Another v a r i a b l e has t o be  i n t r o d u c e d - t h a t o f the r e l a t i v e q u a l i t y and s t a t u s o f the house. 5.2. Housing Q u a l i t y and S o c i a l Distance I n t e r p r e t e r s have always been ready t o a t t a c h symbolic meaning t o a p a r t i c u l a r a r t i f a c t , and a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y good examples.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y they tend t o work a t the macro-scale,  entwining  a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s w i t h a s o c i a l and economic h i s t o r y o f the n a t i o n , as the f o l l o w i n g quote from Tunnard and Reed suggests:How c l o s e l y the development o f our c i t i e s and towns r e f l e c t our people and h i s t o r y ! The snug houses and s m a l l , neat town plans o f the C o l o n i e s were a d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n o f the P r o t e s t a n t m e r c a n t i l e s o c i e t y before 1720, when a change i n t a s t e and newmade wealth brought a g r e a t e r l u x u r y and extravagance t o t h e scene. The white Greek R e v i v a l v i l l a s and Romantic gardens o f a l a t e r p e r i o d r e f l e c t the i n d i v i d u a l i s m and l a i s s e z f a i r e p o l i t i c s o f t h e i r g e n e r a t i o n , w h i l e the post C i v i l War mansard houses and r e s i d e n t i a l avenues were born o f an age seeking f a s h i o n and c l o s e r connection w i t h European c u l t u r e , (Tunnard and Reed, 1955, p.4) Although these d e t e r m i n i s t i c o p i n i o n s may have h e l d a t one time, the extremely  s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s approach, t h a t o f c o l l i g a t i o n  (Walsh,1953) i n which an a r t i f a c t i s e x p l a i n e d by context w i t h a c l u s t e r of events o f t h a t time, i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y now.  N e i t h e r do these types o f  g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s have any a p p l i c a b i l i t y a t the s c a l e o f t h e sub-urban a r e a , or even block-by-block f l u c t u a t i o n s .  However, t h e r e i s tremendous  p o t e n t i a l i n the use o f housing s t y l e s as an i n d i c a t o r o f c u l t u r a l achievement o r c u l t u r a l p o s i t i o n .  Jordan (1966) i n h i s e x c e l l e n t book on  V i c t o r i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e , recognises t h a t s t r u c t u r e s other than  churches,  r a i l w a y s t a t i o n s , e t c . need d e t a i l e d a t t e n t i o n . The Story o f the house i s the s t o r y o f i n d i v i d u a l men: not i n i s o l a t i o n from the main theme o f l i f e , but e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r p r i v a t e r e a c t i o n s t o t h a t same theme i n terms o f a r c h i t e c t u r e . The house, l i k e the books on the shelves and the p i c t u r e s on the w a l l , i s an outward and v i s i b l e statement about i t s owner - but t h a t owner, i n some sense o r o t h e r ,  -120i s a l s o a c h i l d o f h i s t i m e . The house, t h e r e f o r e , though p r i v a t e i s , no l e s s t h a n other b u i l d i n g s , a s o c i a l phenomena ... perhaps more than any. (Jordan, 1966,p.206) I n a s i t u a t i o n where the o r i g i n a l owner i s no l o n g e r p r e s e n t , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o attempt a d i r e c t c h a r a c t e r p r o f i l e through  questionaire  techniques, nor are h i s books, p i c t u r e s e t c . a v a i l a b l e , . A l l we have t o go om i s the house i t s e l f , and so we ... must depend on p h y s i c a l remains o f p a s t b e h a v i o r a l n a m i f e s t a t i o n s as the evidence o f t h a t b e h a v i o r , and what these i n d i c a t e d about the i d e a t i o n a l s t a t e i n g e n e r a l o f t h e a c t o r s producing the b e h a v i o r . ( B e r k h o f e r , 19^9, p. 12) Consequently,  t h e r e seems a need f o r a c o r r e l a t i o n between a) housing  s t y l e s p e r se and l i f e s t y l e , and b)  quality of trim, f i n i s h , size within  a s i n g l e s t y l e and s o c i a l l i f e s t y l e o r p o s i t i o n , .  There may be a d i f f e r -  ence i n i n i t i a l occupants* p l a c e i n s o c i e t y i n the examples o f housing i l l u s t r a t e d i n P l a t e 36»  How  can these d i f f e r e n c e s be recorded.  and measured, t o r e p l a c e the dangerous g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s made by interpretations?  1912  symbolic  One p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n c o u l d be t o r e f e r t o the annual  d i r e c t o r i e s f o r the y e a r i n which the house was b u i l t and r e c o r d the occupation o f the f i r s t occupant,  A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f occupations  a l o n g the l i n e s o f t h a t used by W o l f o r t h (1967)  c o u l d be used, and  then  these groupings c o r r e l a t e d w i t h some i n d i c e s of q u a l i t y e i t h e r i n the house as an e n t i t y , o r d e t a i l e d facade t r i m e.g. stone, b r i c k o r wood  a p i e r s f o r p i l l a r s , i n t r i e a c y o f bracket d e s i g n s , e t c .  I f such a c o r r e -  l a t i o n ( o c c u p a t i o n / q u a l i t y o f housed y i e l d e d d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e c l a s s e s , then measures of s t a t u s o f the area a t d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s o f time c o u l d be assessed and mapped. Opinion d i f f e r s as t o whether housing alone  can be used as a  surrogate measure o f s o c i a l s t a t u s , and c e r t a i n l y i t i s daaagerous to attempt s o c i a l area a n a l y s i s o f c u r r e n t occupance by r e f e r e n c e t o  8 j u s t outward appearance.  I f , however, the o b j e c t i v e i s h i s t o r i c a l  -122-  s o c i d l , area a n a l y s i s , then t h e r e i s c e r t a i n l y a case f o r h o u s i n g types to he used.  23iis d i s t i n c t i o n , t h a t "the v a l i d i t y o f house types as a  v a r i a b l e depends on whether an area i s b e i n g s t u d i e d as i t i s o r as i t was when b u i l t " , i s brought out by Johnstone ( 1 9 6 9 , p . 2 l ) i n h i s study o f Melbourne townscape.  He b u i l d s h i s a n a l y s i s upon t h e assumption  "that  Housing types r e f l e c t t h e s t a t u s o f the r e s i d e n t s f o r whom t h e y were cons t r u c t e d " (,p.2l), and uses an a r c h i t e c t u a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g 4 0 v a r i a b l e s o f p l a n and b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s  t o e x p l o r e the v a l i d i t y o f a model  of urban morphology i n whieh townscape elements r e f l e c t s o c i a l zones andsectors. I t can be l e g i t i m a t e l y expected t h a t t h e p a t t e r n s suggested i n t h e o r i e s o f s e c t o r a l (Hoyt, 1 9 3 9 ) and c o n c e n t r i c - r i n g (Burgess, 1924) growth w i l l be manifest i n the urban landscape; t h a t the e l i t e h o u s i n g o f t h a t p e r i o d w i l l be on the p e r i p h e r y o f d i s t a l t o t h e b u i l t - u p a r e a , and the l o w e r s t a t u s mousing w i l l be n e a r e r the c e n t r e .  Johnston attempts t o examine Melbourne i n  t h i s l i g h t , adding a f u r t h e r dimension i n which t h e r e i s a 'mimiek* o f both s t y l e s and b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s by t h e lower c l a s s , which w i l l be seen i n h o u s i n g b u i l t 2 o r 3 years a f t e r the appearance o f a p a r t i c u l a r form i n t h e b e t t e r housing.  He uses i n d i c e s o f townscape homogeneity, based upon t h e degree t o  which s i n g l e b u i l d i n g types dominate the f a b r i c o f d i s t r i c t s , t o t e s t a model of townscape development based upon a process o f d i f f u s i o n , both s p a t i a l l y and s o c i a l l y .  I n t h e Vancouver case, s o c i a l d i f f u s i o n i s d i f f i c u l t t o t r a c e ,  although as mentioned on page 99 t h e r e i s evidence o f e a r l i e r s t y l e s used f o r some K i t s i l a n o housing i n t h e 1 9 1 2 - 1 4 p e r i o d ; t o what extent t h i s i s d e l i b e r a t e mimicking i s h a r d t o t e l l - t h e reasons a l r e a d y c o n j e c t u r e d a r e more l i k e l y ( l i m i t e d c a r p e n t r y e x p e r t i s e and c o n t r u c t i o n c o s t s ) .  Otherwise, t h e r e  appears t o be simultaneous use o f t h e same s t y l e , e x p e c i a l l y t h e 1912 Swiss Chalet t y p e , w i t h s t a t u s and w e a l t h i n f l u e n c i n g t h e  -123-  amount o f i c i n g on b a s i c a l l y the same cake (as i n P l a t e 36)0 As f o r the p a t t e r n o f a c c r e t i o n and i n f i l l , r e f l e c t i n g the v a r i o u s optimum l o c a t i o n s i n the c i t y a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s , the diagramatie r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n F i g . 20 might be o f v a l u e .  I n each  subsequent time p e r i o d , the tendency was t o b u i l d outward from the c e n t r e , maximising the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f f e r e d by the dominant mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f t h a t t i m e , w h i l e a t t h e same time t h e r e would be a c e r t a i n amount o f i n f i l l i n g i n t h e i n n e r vacant l o t s by persons p o s s i b l y not a b l e t o a f f o r d a more p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n  0  Thus the model would  have C l a s s B h o u s i n g o f p e r i o d t+1 a l o n g s i d e h o u s i n g o f Class A b u i l t i n time t when the l o c a t i o n was p e r i p h e r a l , and a t a l a t e r d a t e , t + 2 , t h e r e c o u l d be f i n a l i n f i l l by the a r r i v a l o f C l a s s 6 h o u s i n g i n what would be by t h e n an i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n , , A l s o , i t would be p o s s i b l e t o focus on a s i n g l e s o c i a l s t a t u s w i t h i n t h i s mix, and attempt t o i s o l a t e those areas o f the c i t y which c o u l d be used t o examine the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the major t h e o r i e s of urban s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e i n the Vancouver c o n t e x t s P o s s i b l y the b e s t known study i n t h i s area o f r e s e a r c h i s t h a t c a r r i e d out on the Boston suburbs o f Roxbury, West Eoxbury and Dorchester  by Warner ( 1 9 6 2 ) i n which the moulding o f  d i s t i n c t s o c i a l areas i s d e s c r i b e d by r e f e r e n c e t o the s t r u c t u r a l pa-ttteims which were determined by the s t r e e t c a r s as t h e y advanced out from the city,.  Successive waves of upper, middle and l o w e r c l a s s migrants  s e t t l e d i n homogeneous neighbourhoods which were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d l a r g e l y by economic f a c t o r s , and there was a l s o a v e r y s t r o n g degree of c o n f o r m i t y o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e d e s p i t e the absence o f any zoning l a w s .  Warner  e x p l a i n s t h i s ' n a t u r a l ' grouping as a consequence of a u n i f o r m i t y o f behavior among i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n makers; a consensus o f a t t i t u d e caused each man t o b u i l d houses much l i k e those o f h i s neighbours and t o l o c a t e i n a neighbourhood or s t r e e t popular w i t h f a m i l i e s of income s i m i l a r t o  FIG-USE 20 ODEt OE RESIDENTIAL ACCRETION AND INFILL BASED ON TRANSPORTATION CONSTRAINTS THROUGH TIME  Distance from c i t y centre  A ^  A  A  -I  |  B :-«  A  t^  -T+-  H  A  Relative proportion o f new and i n f i l l housing i n s o c i a l c l a s s e s A, B & C, at v a r i o u s d i s t a n c e s from c i t y c e n t r e  C 1  -ft  t  k-  A A  0  L i m i t o f "built-up area and t r a n s p o r t c a p a b i l i t y •  C i t y Centre  -1 25t o h i s own.  Earner's hook i s a model approach t o the study o f the h i s t o r i c  p a t t e r n o f the h o u s e - b u i l d i n g process i n suburbs: h i s p o i n t s are w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by photographs  of the d i f f e r e n t h o u s i n g types which g i v e a good  i n d i c a t i o n of the s o c i a l connotations a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a r c h i t e c t u r a l style.  Both the p a t t e r n i n g of the a c t u a l p r o c e s s , and the i n s i g h t s i n t o  the c u l t u r a l landscape g i v e n by the s t y l e s , make t h i s approach one  which  i s l e g i t i m a t e l y the i n t e r e s t of the c u l t u r a l geographer as much as the economic h i s t o r i a n . R e t u r n i n g to Vancouver, the p e r c e p t i o n s of those who were o f s i m i l a r •class',and who were n o t , a r e r e f l e c t e d i n the s p l i t l o c a t i o n of the e l i t e between the West End and Shaughnessy, as Morley i n d i c a t e s : The new swing-span h i g h - l e v e l G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t Bridge was open, automobiles were common, and the 'nobs' were b u i l d i n g immense houses on Shaughnessy H e i g h t s , r e c e n t l y opened by the CPR under r e s t r i c t i o n s embodied i n an a c t of L e g i s l a t u r e , which were expected to render i t e x c l u s i v e f o r a l l time t o come. The new ^ M i l l i o n a i r e s Row" was the c r e a t i o n of the automobile and the p l e n t i f u l , cheap domestic l a b o u r which i n 25 y e a r s ' time had vanished. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the f i v e - y e a r or s i x - y e a r "old-timers"' o f the West End, a l r e a d y b e i n g elbowed by encroaching apartment houses, t u r n e d up t h e i r noses a t the "new r i c h " on the GPR Heaven". (Morley, 1961, p.127-8) This process was t o c o n t i n u e , a t h i r d area appearing i n the 1930's w i t h the a d d i t i o n of B r i t i s h P r o p e r t i e s as a d e s i r a b l e area f o r the 'elites'.  N o t i c e t h a t Morley mentions the opening o f the G r a n v i l l e  9 Bridge and the apparent u b i q u i t y o f automobiles f o r one T h i s i s not the p l a c e to summarise the e v o l u t i o n o f  group.  Vancouver's  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network from the days of the F a i r v i e w B e l t s t r e e t c a r l i n e to i t s present s t r e e t p a t t e r n , but i t can be seen t h a t the d i f f e r e n t i a l ownership of automobiles would a l l o w c e r t a i n s o c i a l groups freedom from s t r e e t c a r s and consequently present them w i t h a wider l o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The p a t t e r n i n g of s o c i a l areas as i n F i g  e  20 c o u l d be l a r g e l y e x p l a i n e d  i n terms of t h i s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i f f e r e n t i a l , and examination of r e a l  -126e s t a t e advertisements through time would be an i n v a l u a b l e e x e r c i s e i n ' 1$ t r a c i n g the c r i t e r i a used t o s e l l p a r t i c u l a r housing t o p a r t i c u l a r groups. 5.3  S t r u c t u r a l M o d i f i c a t i o n s and Urban C u l t u r a l E c o l o g y A c o n s i s t e n t theme i n the l a s t two s e c t i o n s  has been t h a t of the  r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e as a f u n c t i o n of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s I n terms of p r o x i m i t y to the downtown c o r e .  Over time i t has  been seen t h a t a marginal s i t e a t the t u r n of the century can be an i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n today.  I n some r e s p e c t s , p r o x i m i t y to downtown can have  p o s i t i v e u t i l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y c o n s i d e r i n g congestion and journey-to-work. i n many cases however, such l o c a t i o n s are no l o n g e r seen d e s i r a b l e f o r s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e s , e i t h e r by the owner who  sees r i s i n g l a n d c o s t s and i s  a t t r a c t e d by the o f f e r s o f apartment b u i l d e r s , or by the p l a n n i n g and bodies, who  political  value the i n n e r c i t y areas f o r c o n v e r s i o n t o h i g h - d e n s i t y  accomodation t o r e l i e v e some of the problems of housing shortage. problem (p 106j of where t o d i v i d e the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o  two-storey housing a t c.1920? -  Thus the  - a f t e r the end  of  has relevance i n terms of a p o s s i b l e  attempt to d e l i n e a t e the ' r e s e r v o i r * f o r conversions.  M c k e r t saw h i s house  type a n a l y s i s c o n t r i b u t i n g s i m i l a r l y i n being able t o p r e d i c t s t r u c t u r a l and p h y s i c a l obsolescence according t o b u i l d i n g e r a s , and a l s o p r e d i c t i n g f u n c t i o n a l obsolescence p a t t e r n s where the l a n d use i s l i k e l y t o change.  12 The a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e f o r s p e c u l a t i v e purposes  might  w e l l i n c l u d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the q u a l i t y (both s t y l i s t i c a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y ) of the  property. S t y l i s t i c q u a l i t y c e r t a i n l y seems to have been a f a c t o r i n the r e v i v a l  o f c e r t a i n areas of K i t s i l a n o d u r i n g the l a a t t e n y e a r s .  Examination of  s t r e e t d i r e c t o r i e s over a p e r i o d o f years makes i t p o s s i b l e t o c h a r t the s o c i a l h i s t o r y of a p a r t i c u l a r house, b l o c k , or sub-area (see Fig.21), t h i s c o u l d be used to answer the question r a i s e d on p.117.  and  I f Class B housing  j o i n s Class A housing of a previous time-period, i s the r e s i d e n t of the Class A  FIGURE 22 HYPOTHETICAL NEIGHBOURHOOD OCCUPATION/TIME-PERIOD MATRIX  1900-1908  1909-1917  1918-1923  1934-1944  1924-1933  « • * «  A  *  * * 3 i < v * -.  ++++++++++++++++++++++T + + - T + + + + +  •H-+++++++++  ++  s,..Vs;< • • • « • • «  B  • • • • ••  • • * O  ~ "  X X X X X X X X ^ V-^ « « 0 « 0  e •  maintains 'position'  • • • • • • • • • •  mm #•„- ^ v  C  1945-1970  xxxxxxxxxx  ft 3,s V ^ 0 e * • * » X X X X X X X X X X X  ;acx  D  This example suggests a r e v i t a l i s a t i o n and r e v e r s i o n t o o r i g i n a l  status,  , e.g. P o i n t Grey Road;others c o u l d be a g r a d u a l d e c l i n e ,  •  Summary t a b l e s would g i v e percentages f o r groupd o f s t r e e t - b l o c k s , b u t here the i n t e n t i o n i s t o show how t h e s o c i a l c l a s s o f occupants o f i n d i v i d u a l houses, '<,' o r •*' o r '+* o r '©' o r ' time.  o r ' x , can v a r y over 1  -128housing s t i l l l i k e l y t o be of the o r i g i n a l s o c i a l group, or would he be a ' r e s i d e n t of a type comparable t o t h a t of the new  Class B, t + 27  13 •  Only an  examination of the d i r e c t o r i e s c o u l d give the answer t o t h i s , but i n g e n e r a l , one might expect an area t o have a d e c l i n e i n f o r t u n e s w i t h the passage of time and the expansion o f the c i t y .  T a k i n g t h i s g e n e r a l i s a t i o n to be the case  f o r the purposes of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , one would then expect the occupants of the e x i s t i n g housing t o be sympathetic to the nev? a r r i v a l s i n terms of s o c i a l c l a s s , but mere v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n i s not adequate p r o o f ,  unless  the s t a t u s / h o u s i n g q u a l i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p had a l r e a d y been i d e n t i f i e d by recourse to the d i r e c t o r i e s .  P l a t e 37 i l l u s t r a t e s s e v e r a l examples of l a t e  i n f i l l i n g , and such occurrences would be the focus of t h i s l i n e of r e s e a r c h . C e r t a i n l y the downward t r e n d can be r e v e r s e d , and the example i n P l a t e 37c  d i f f e r s from the other two i n t h a t i t i s a h i g h s t a t u s house, and  a l s o complements the appearance of the adjacent house.  Factors  responsible  f o r the r e v e r s a l of a neighbourhood's f o r t u n e s would i n c l u d e a r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . of the area's advantages, a change i n the c i t y ' s major occupation groups, or a r e v i v a l of i n t e r e s t i n a p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e .  I n the K i t s i l a n o case, the  changing a t t i t u d e towards environment l e a d i n g t o an i n c r e a s e d w e i g h t i n g  of  r e c r e a t i o n and scenic value as a v a r i a b l e i n r e s i d e n t i a l c h o i c e , the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the p r e s t i g i o u s E r i k s o n towhhouses, and the p r o x i m i t y to downtown have a l l helped t o r e - e s t a b l i s h the p o s i t i o n of P o i n t G-rey Road.  The  persistence  and even r e c u p e r a t i v e powers of c e r t a i n areas i n the face of adverse trends are examined by F i r e y (1945) i n h i s study of the c o n t r i b u t i o n of sentiment and symbolism i n c r e a t i n g the p a r t i c u l a r mix of s t y l e s and groups i n the Boston urban landscape, and the p e r s i s t a n c e of Shaughnessy, despite i t s c o n t i g u i t y t o the low-status areas of F a i r v i e w , provide a ready example i n Vancouver  0  A r e v a l u i n g of l o c a t i o n i s seen i n many areas of the i n n e r c i t y , but s t r u c t u r a l obsolescence or m e d i o c r i t y of design means t h a t the p a r t i c u l a r house o f t e n f a l l s v i c t i m to the s p e c u l a t i v e apartment b u i l d e r * houses which  -1  2<>-  PLATE 37: Examples of delayed i n f i l l i n g o f vacant l o t s  -139-  are both l a r g e and s t r u c t u r a l l y sound are o f t e n the o n l y ones t o be  retained,  t h e i r i n t e r n a l p l a n making them a t t r a c t i v e f o r c o n v e r s i o n t o p r i v a t e h o s p i t a l s , r e s t homes, e t c . , as the examples i n P l a t e 38 suggest. I n another sense, a?ra.reness o f s t y l e , or sub-elements o f the facade c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o a p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e , can l e a d t o some i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s , one  being t h a t of s t r u c t u r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n . I t might be p o s s i b l e t o  gain  some i n s i g h t s i n t o the e v o l u t i o n of an a r e a , from s i n g l e - f a m i l y t o m u l t i p l e f a m i l y occupance, by examining the outward i n d i c a t i o n s of c o n v e r s i o n . example i l l u s t r a t e d i n P l a t e 3 9 , ( p . 1 3 2 ) shows a window of 1 9 2 8 - 3 2 i n the basement o f a 1912 upper f l o o r o f the 1912  The  vintage  house; n o t i c e a l s o the Type 5 window i n the  A-frame house i l l u s t r a t e d i n P l a t e 23  (p.93)«  Awareness of the p o p u l a r i t y o f p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n techniques  and  r e f u r b i s h i n g s t y l e s of p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d s would enable such a t r a n s i t i o n t o be  charted. i n a s i m i l a r v e i n , s t r u c t u r a l c o n v e r s i o n can o f t e n r e p r e s e n t the  outward m o d i f i c a t i o n of a house ( d e l i b e r a t l e y or s u b c o n c i o u s l y ) the p e r s o n a l i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l community.  The  most n o t i c e a b l e examples are  the  b u i l d i n g s a l o n g Pender S t r e e t i n Chinatown; w i t h i n the a r e a s t u d i e d f o r t h i s work, the presence of a Greek immigrant community, a l r e a d y manifest i n the s p e c i a l i t y s t o r e s a l o n g Broadway, can a l s o be i d e n t i f i e d i n the h o u s i n g stock« The u l t i m a t e e x p r e s s i o n  o f t h i s i s the s t r u c t u r a l a l t e r a t i o n s b e i n g c a r r i e d  out on a house i n Stephens S t r e e t , P l a t e 4 0 a , removed (see adjacent houses i n P l a t e 40b)  where the porch-veranda has  been  and i s b e i n g r e p l a c e d by f l u t e d  columns and a Grecian-type doorway i n an attempt to r e - c r e a t e the C l a s s i c a l l i n e s of a Greek temple. see P l a t e  T h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n i s repeated i n the next b l o c k ,  40c.  Eapoport ^196"9,p.80) t o t e r r i t o r y , see F i g . 2 2 ,  discusses  the c u l t u r a l importance of a t t i t u d e s  and the general l a c k of fences i n the n o r t h American  suburb o f t e n means t h a t those areas of the c i t y which have been decorated >  -132-  PLAl'E 39 Type 4 window i n basement of 1912 bouse 3348 West 1 s t Avenue.  PRvVATE  1  THHA»KJ  '  PRWATC  ! SEMI-PO&UC boHAiM  I  -  0Wite>  -  -  -  J  STATES  FIGURE 22: Approximate L o c a t i o n o f " t h r e s h o l d s " i n three c u l t u r e s (Rapoport,1969,p.80)  -135-  f o r example P l a t e 2 1 , p.91J o r neat  o r demarcated w i t h wooden rences {see,  p r i v e t hedges s u r r o u n d i n g the l o t are l i k e l y t o he those o f s t r o n g e t h n i c concentration.  Consequently, we can r e c o r d m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o the l o t and .  lawn i n a d d i t i o n t o those o f the a c t u a l house, and come up w i t h some 15  statements on the type o f occupant.  A focus on these l o t - r e l a t e d elements  i n , t h e suburban landscape""^ can be used xo some success as a t e a c h i n g d e v i c e , i n which the product of Census i n f o r m a t i o n , e i t h e r by v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n o f t a b l e s o r by f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , suggest sub-areas o f s o c i a l type which can then be confirmed by f i e l d examinationo. a s s o c i a t i o n between h i g h f a c t o r scores  Students  i  found a c o m f o r t i n g  on v a r i a b l e s such as E a s t e r n Orthodox  and Roman C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n , low number o f y e a r s i n Canada, low l e v e l o f s c h o o l i n g , e t c . , and the type o f suburban landscape d e s c r i b e d above; s i m i l s r i l y areas w i t h h i g h scores on u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , upper income b r a c x e t , e t c . found some outward m a n i f e s t a t i o n of these t r a i t s i n the nature o f renewal o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s to p r o p e r t y ( e , g. the P o i n t U-rey Road h o u s i n g ) .  Focus on  the v i s u a l aspects o f the landscape, both the o r i g i n a l s t r u c t u r e and l o t , can be used i n . c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h more a b s t r a c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the nature o f a p a r t i c u l a r area which s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s might y i e l d . 5*4 Awareness of Environment T h i s l a s t p o i n t l e a d s t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the housing key as h a v i n g a g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e . Through such comparisons o f f a c t and landscape, i t might be p o s s i b l e t o awaken a g r e a t e r degree o f awareness i n students o f t h e i r everyday urban environment.  I n a s o c i a l c l i m a t e c u r r e n t l y v e r y eoneerned  w i t h the q u a l i t y o f the environment, the p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p e r s o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h an area s h o u l d not be overlooked, and the u n p r e t e n t i o u s mass of the c i t y ' s housing i s an important element i n t h i s . I n a book o f sketches and notes by Kuthan and S t a i n s b y ( 1 9 6 2 ) , the most t e l l i n g s k e t c h e s , i n the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , were not those of E n g l i s h Bay, S t a n l e y Park,  Chinatown  or any o f the o t h e r 'famous-the-world-over' views, but drawings such as those i n P l a t e A 1 - the mediocre, everyday housing o f the c i t y .  The  classification  -137-  presented i n t h i s work has c o n c e n t r a t e d more on s p e c i f i c elements than the o v e r a l l outward appearance, which might have t o he expressed w i t h more a r t i s t i c f e e l i n g , such as Kuthan's sketches, but h o p e f u l l y t h e y can l e a d t o a s i t u a t i o n i n which people can become  more aware o f t h e i r own neighbourhood.  Whitehand ( 1 9 6 7 ) , a l t h o u g h c r i t i c i z e d e a r l i e r f o r h i s r a t h e r unsound use o f b u i l d i n g appearances t o i n f e r c u r r e n t s o c i a l s t a t u s , used v e r n a c u l a r s t y l e s o f s i m i l a r dimensions t o the Kuthan examples, namely those drawn up by Osbert L a n c a s t e r ( 1 9 6 3 ) , who v e r y p e r c e p t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e s houses such as 'By-pass V a r i a g a t e d ' , 'Wimbeldon T r a n s i t i o n a l ' , 'Pseudish', ' P u b l i c House C l a s s i c ' e t c . - which a l l have t h e i r own c l a s s / l i f e s t y l e c o n n o t a t i o n s  0  The Vancouver e q u i v a l e n t would be B r i t i s h P r o p e r t i e s / c r o q u e t - l a w n 'types' p o r t r a y e d by the c a r t o o n i s t K o r r i s o f the Vancouver Sun (-see P l a t e 4 2 ) Conzen,(1966),  o f f e r s a more f o r m a l case f o r the need t o view the  urban landscape i n terms o t h e r t h a n those o f mere economic e f f i c i e n c y . He argues the l o n g term b e n e f i t t o s o c i e t y o f the c u l t u r a l l a n d s c a p e , even though i t i s almost i m p o s s i b l e t o assess i n monetary terms.  R e c o g n i s i n g t h a t the  pressures o f f u n c t i o n a l obsolescence i n e v i t a b l y l e a d t o d e m o l i t i o n and renewal, he focusses on the problems o f townscape management, i n which he b e l i e v e s m o r p h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s on the p a r t o f the geographer would appear t o be one o f the p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r any i n f o r m e d a c t i o n (Conzen,1966,p.57) The same i n e v i t a b l e march o f time has been used t o j u s t i f y i n t e n s i t y o f i n t e r e s t i n areas o f imminent obsolescence, one e x c e l l e n t example b e i n g the  study o f V i c t o r i a n Camberwell( a London suburb) by Dyos ( 1 9 6 1 ) , who  concluded:To be w e l l informed about t h i s whole changeable landscape the topographer has t o have an eye both f o r what i s now and f o r what w i l l s h o r t l y cease t o be, and be a l e r t f o r the f i r s t signs o f the d e m o l i t i o n squad. P e n c i l l e d j o t t i n g s about the b u i l d i n g s o f the d i s a p p e a r i n g suburb sometimes become i n v a l u a b l e as the o n l y t a n g i b l e evidence one has t o r e c a l l the l o o k and the f e e l o f an a r c h i t e c t u r e now gon®. I n some ways i t i s almost reasonable t o speak o f i t i n a r c h e o l o g i c a l terms. ..... What remains i s n e v e r t h e l e s s enough t o assess  -138-  N O F t R I S  RODNEY  MAY  NOT  AGREE HIS  WITH  ANYTHING  D E M A N D THAT THEY  THEY SAY  SAY IT  IN  BUT  HE  WILL  ENGLISH  .  DEFEND .  TO  V A N C O U V E R  THE  S U N  DEATH  ."  PLATE 42 Another source f o r / v e r n a c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r e ; s u g g e s t i o n o f h o u s i n g / l i f e - s t y l e / s o c i a l status c o r r e l a t i o n s xn Vancouver's B r i t i s h P r o p e r t i e s .  -139-  noit o n l y the f o r c e of the diverse i n f l u e n c e s which governed the pace and the c h a r a c t e r of the p h y s i c a l development of V i c t o r i a n Camberwell and to throw some l i g h t on the means by which t h i s occurred, but to h i n t at i t s changing s o c i a l structure. And more than t h i s , i t throws some l i g h t at the same time on the o r i g i n s and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the genus itself - the V i c t o r i a n s u b u r b _ 9 ( D y o S j 1 9 6 l j  p  >  1  %  5  )  How a p p l i c a b l e t h i s i s to Vancouver, with the V i c t o r i a n c i t y almost e n t i r e l y North of F a l s e Creek being c o n t i n u a l l y eroded, the simple frame houses on the e a s t e r n f r i n g e and the imposing mansions o f the once  elite  West End being r e p l a c e d at an alarming r a t e by what appear, by a e s t h e t i c comparison, to be s t e r i l e and c o l d h i g h - r i s e  apartments:-  . . . some o f these are mere chromium^plated r a b b i t - h u t c h e s , others are impressive s i z e i n the c l e a n , almost a n t i s c e p t i c modern g l a s s - w a l l e d a r c h i t e c t u r e , s p e c t a c u l a r i n the mass r a t h e r than i n the i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g . (Morley, 1961, p.230) See P l a t e 4 3 . A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n can be seen i n the r e s i d e n t i a l suburbs of the i n n e r cijjy F a i r v i e w and K i t s i l a n o - which are undergoing l a r g e s c a l e r e n e w a l s „  The area  used i n the study, West K i t s i l a n o , i s r e l a t i v e l y f r e e from renewal except foi? the apartment blocks on Alma S t r e e t ; but f u r t h e r east, whole areas are now block a f t e r b l o c k of t h r e e - s t o r e y walk-ups.  I n about f i v e years time,  what w i l l remain of the area to give i n s i g h t i n t o the development process? What r e c o r d w i l l be kept of the s i n g l e f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s which onee stood there? Few records w i l l remain o f the s i z e and s t y l e o f the house, and so only t h e ©let lot-maps which i n d i c a t e 25,33 or 5 0 - f o o t l o t width w i l l h i n t 18  at what went b e f o r e . of these  So now i s the time to record the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  areas and incorporate them i n t o any general model of suburban  e v o l u t i o n - to wait f i v e or ten years would mean that i t i s impossible to v e r i f y the model because of a gap i n the i n f o r m a t i o n , of an area p e r i p h e r a l to the c e n t r a l core during the s t r e e t c a r e r a , and as such important i n any c o n s i d e r a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l f r i c t i o n of  distance  0  -140-  PLATE 43 New  high r i s e s and o l d houses i n West End.  -141Researchers should not be put o f f by the f a c t t h a t the area o f study i s the present and the immediate p a s t , and thus somehow not a 19 Summerson expresses t h i s p o i n t w e l l :  h i s t o r i c e n t i t y and not worthy o f study.  The a c t u a l i t y of t h i n g s f o r g o t t e n i n the r e c e n t p a s t , the t r u t h under the surface of l a t e assumptions, the s e e i n g f o r the f i r s t time as h i s t o r i c what has o n l y l a t e l y been f o r g o t t e n as contemporary, l i e s very near to the r o o t s o f c r e a t i v e thought and the f o r m a t i o n o f new a t t i t u d e s (Summerson, 196l,p.lO) 0  5.5  Methodological  Value  I f the elements o f h i s t o r i c a l enquiry can be shown i n t h e i r s i m p l e s t form as the stages o f P i g . 23, then i t i s p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y weaknesses i n two c r i t i c a l areas r e l a t e d to the approach o f h i s t o r i c a l / c u l t u r a l geographers. The  f i r s t of these i s t h a t d i s c u s s e d i n the f i r s t chapter, s e c t i o n 1.2,  (p.4),  which focussed on the method of s y n t h e s i s and the type o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which comes between s y n t h e s i s and p r e s e n t a t i o n - i n t h i s case the p r e s e n t a t i o n s t y l e being i d e n t i f i e d as the 'Berkeley  1  landscape s c h o o l  0  I t was  stated  then t h a t an approach based on the use of a r t i f a c t s should be able to be " r e c o n c i l e d w i t h the themes now  advocated w i t h the g e n e r a l paradigm s h i f t of  the d i s c i p l i n e ; t h i s s h i f t does not mean a necessary  dependence on q u a n t i t a t i v e  method, i t b e i n g more i m p o r t a n t l y concerned w i t h p r e c i s i o n and methodo  scientific  Some o f the model c o n s t r u c t s o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter would  come under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s  context.  However, such model c o n s t r u c t s are i n v a l i d unless one can overcome the second area of c r i t i c i s m , t h a t found i n the l i n k between evidence and a g a i n t h i s can be c h a r a c t e r i s e d by s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , as was out i n the examination of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l l i t e r a t u r e .  facts; pointed  I n dealing with  past p e r i o d s , the researcher must r e l y on remains as evidence f o r v a l i d a t i n g his  hypotheses.  N a t u r a l l y , i f c o n c l u s i o n s r e s u l t i n g from a s u c c e s s f u l t e s t i n g  of hypotheses are to have any v a l u e , one should f i r s t e s t a b l i s h the of the i n f o r m a t i o n used as the b a s i c data.  validity  I t i s i n t h i s area t h a t the body  -142-  H i s t o r y as w r i t t e n  Synthesis  Pacts  4  -^.Evidence  r i i s t o r y as a c t u a l i t y  (after  Berkhofer,1969)  FIGURE 2 3 : Elements of H i s t o r i c a l E n q u i r y  0  -14.3-  of .the thesis' has attempted to provide a contribution, by seeking objective weightings for particular variables important in the dating of residential structures  0  The 'excuse' of complexity offered by Kniffen Is no longer  really valid, since geographers are now able to attack the problem with a multivariate approach. Simmons (1967) summarises the previous difficulty:G-eographers have always wanted to examine the whole range of relevant variables. The problem, until now, has been how to generalise and organise this material without becoming hopelessly subjective. (t>immons,1967,p.34-8) and goes on to discuss the various examples of curent solutions to this problem.  Certainly, the multivariate approach to analysis of the spatial  character of the internal social -structure or cities is now commonplace, 20  not only in dealing with the contemporary  but also beginning to move 21  into an examination of historical urban pattern and process, Similarily, this approach i s used in examination of urban landscape; so far, this has been to see landscape as a variable to be correlated with 22  contemporary social statistics,  but i t also has potential for the examination  of the evolution of the urban landscape. One necessary step i n such an analysis would be to begin to decode the contributions of the immediate past, as indicated by Summerson above  0  Classification of styles and their  historical social correlates certainly are a necessary prerequisite to work on residential patterns and the processes which underlie them. Cultural/ historical geography has too long been vunerable to criticisms of subjective interpretation; an objective base to statements on vernacular forms i n Vancouver is better than either macro-scale generalisations or the unquestioned use of existing architectural histories without re-calibration for the Vancouver context. Objective measurement and classification in themselves are of limited use, however, and so in conclusion, i t is necessary to indicate the contribution  -144of such an e x e r c i s e t o c u l t u r a l / h i s t o r i c a l geography i n g e n e r a l , over and above the s p e c i f i c model c o n s t r u c t s suggested i n t h i s c h a p t e r . Through the d e s c r i p t i o n o f facade elements, the a n a l y s i s o f f i e l d data and then the assignment o f s t y l e l a b e l s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o see the emergence o f t h r e e i m p l i c i t themes, v a r y i n g i n importance over time, which have had major impact on the n a t u r e o f the urban r e s i d e n t i a l landscape. One theme i s d e s i g n - r e l a t e d , i n which the v a r i o u s c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f the a r c h i t e c t , the c a r p e n t e r - b u i l d e r , and the a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n c a p a b i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o s o c i e t y a t t h a t time c o u l d be seen; these c o n t r i b u t i o n s r e p r e s e n t f e e l i n g s , i d e a s and standards which r e f l e c t on s o c i e t y as a whole, and are i m p o r t a n t to the c u l t u r a l geographer i n h i s examination o f the c u l t u r a l manifestations  o f a p a r t i c u l a r group through t h e i r a r t i f a c t s .  A t the same  t i m e , the impact o f these d e s i g n - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s were as much c o n s t r a i n e d by economic f o r c e s as the aggregate l e v e l o f c u l t u r a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , and t h i s was i n d i c a t e d i n the numerous v a r i a t i o n s of facade element  appearances  which d i d not conform t o p a r t i c u l a r time b o u n d a r i e s . A second theme i s consumer-related, f o c u s s i n g on the house-occupant; his  c o n t r i b u t i o n , both p a s s i v e l y as an unconscious a c t o r of s o c i e t a l norms,  and p o s i t i v e l y as an i n d i v i d u a l decision-maker, can be l a b e l l e d i n two ways: f i r s t l y , the p r e v i o u s c u l t u r a l experience o f the occupant, which i n v o l v e s both h i s t r a n s - C a n a d i a n o r European h e r i t a g e and a l s o a p r e v i o u s r u r a l o r urban l i f e s t y l e ;  s e c o n d l y , and t h i s would be l a t e r when the p i o n e e r i n g  settler  s p i r i t i n the e a r l y town had been r e p l a c e d a more mature urban m i l i e u , t h e r e would be d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n on the b a s i s of income-groupings, which were r e f l e c t e d i n h o u s i n g q u a l i t y and a l s o the d i v e r s e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s of housing q u a l i t i e s r e l a t i v e t o the c i t y  centre.  A t h i r d theme i s one which i s more c o r p o r a t e , i n e i t h e r c o n s t r a i n t s o r encouragements - e.g. the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e such as the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c R a i l w a y Company, or r e a l e s t a t e i n t e r e s t s and  -145-  s p e c u l a t i v e f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s ; then l a t e r , i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s i n the form o f u t i l i t y p r o v i s i o n and zoning by C i t y H a l l . These t h r e e themes, i n a m u l t i - s t a g e d p r o c e s s , a l l c o n t r i b u t e i n v a r y i n g q u a n t i t i e s t o the f a b r i c a t i o n o f the urban landscape.  With t h e  passage o f t i m e , i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and i n t e r f e r e n c e s would be l i k e l y to e x e r t more and more i n f l u e n c e as the i n i t i a l l y n a t u r a l , almost spontaneous growth and expansion became more a r t i c u l a t e d and c o n t r o l l e d .  Thus,defined  urban f u n c t i o n s would take over the dominant r o l e , a f t e r two major c u l t u r a l themes, a t a s o c i e t a l and i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , have fused i n a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e at a p a r t i c u l a r "time. I t c o u l d be argued, consequently, t h a t the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e x e r c i s e has suggested t h r e e l a r g e r themes worthy o f d e t a i l e d examination; f o r t h i s wider conceptual paradigm o r model c o n s t r u c t , t h e a c t u a l l a b e l l i n g and d a t i n g o f . b u i l t - f o r m p r o v i d e s an i n v a l u a b l e data source.  I t also provides valuable  c l u e s f o r the a n a l y s i s o f the complexity o f f o r c e s i n v o l v e d i n the urban • p r o c e s s , i n t e r a c t i n g over a p e r i o d o f e i g h t y years i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f the Vancouver urban landscape. Footnotes  -j A s l a c k e n i n g o f demand f o r new housing, due t o a l u l l i n the g e n e r a l economic c y c l e , i s an obvious a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r j the sequence may w e l l be a l u l l , c a u s i n g a h a l t t o b u i l d i n g , and then by the time demand i n c r e a s e s a g a i n and a new c o n s t r u c t i o n boom i s under way, then the d i s t a n c e c o n s t r a i n t s would have l e s s e n e d w i t h the a d d i t i o n o f new t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes o r c a p a b i l i t i e s .  p  Conversations w i t h D r Hardwick ^ O f t e n the presence o f q u i t e l a r g e view windows on t h e s i d e o f a house suggests t h a t there might w e l l have been a garden view i n i t i a l l y , i n s t e a d o f j u s t the stucco w a l l o f the now adjacent h o u s i n g . u desired Hardwick has suggested that three b l o c k s was the/optimum d i s t a n c e which s t i l l reaped the advantage o f r e l a t i v e - p r o x i m i t y t o the a c t u a l s t r e e t c a r l i n e . F o r an example o f the examination o f the impact o f t r a n s i t l i n e s on settlement d e n s i t y , i n f i l l r a t e s , and l a n d values i n s u c c e s s i v e b l o c k s away from t r a n s i t l i n e s and s t a t i o n s i n Chicago, see EAViS, J.L. ( 1 9 6 5 ) " The E l e v a t e d System and the Growth o f iNorthera Chicago',' Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y . S t u d i e s i n Geography.No. 1 0 . 0  -1465  Not e n t i r e l y i s o l a t e d from the c u r r e n t debate on female e q u a l i t y , i t i s perhaps a p p r o p r i a t e t o recognise a t t h i s p o i n t , and a l s o i n r e l a t i o n to the J o r d a n quote (p.119-120), t h a t wives would have a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e i n t h i s matter o f housing choice and appearance. Recording the man's o c c u p a t i o n i s s t i l l v a l i d , however, as the w i f e ' s choice and d e c o r a t i o n a r e h o p e f u l l y commensurate w i t h h e r husband's income c a p a c i t y . 6 The c a t e g o r i e s used by W o l f o r t h were:1. P r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l 2. Managers, o f f i c i a l s and p r o p r i e t o r s 3o C l e r i c a l 4. S a l e s workers 5 . Craftsmen and foremen 6. I n d u s t r i a l o p e r a t i v e s lo S e r v i c e workers 8. P r i m a r y workers 9. Labourers i n WOLFORTH, J.R., " R e s i d e n t i a l L o c a t i o n and the P l a c e o f Work," B.C. Geographical S e r i e s , No.4, Vancouver: T a n t a l u s , 1965, p.78. F o r the purposes suggested here, care would have t o be taken t o a l l o w f o r h i s t o r i c a l changes i n the r e l a t i v e s t a t u s o f p a r t i c u l a r occupations. 7 DYOS, J . I i . , V i c t o r i a n Suburb: A Study o f the Growth o f Camberwell, L e i c e s t e r : L e i c e s t e r U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961, provide:., a good example o f a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the d i s t i n c t i v e embellishments which c h a r a c t e r i s e d b e t t e r housing i n V i c t o r i a n Caniberwell - v a r i e g a t e d courses, r i d g e t i l e s , bay windows, p l a s t e r mouldings, e t c . A s i m i l a r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n should be p o s s i b l e f o r Vancouver h o u s i n g . 8 Although t h i s has been attempted; see, f o r example, WHITEHAND, J.W.R., "The Settlement Morphology o f London's C o c k t a i l B e l t , " T i j d s . voor econ. e n Soc. Geo,?:.. V o l . 5 8 , 1967,20-27. 9 I n Morley's quote, there i s an exaggerated c a u s a l connection between t h e opening o f the G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t Bridge and the growth o f Shaughnessy. The quote i s i n c l u d e d more t o i n d i c a t e the West End/Shaughnessy dichotomy and the changing l o c a t i o n o f the 'best' place t o l i v e . 10 Among t h e a u x i l i a r y b u i l d i n g s mentioned on p.46, examination o f garages might p r o v i d e some i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s i n t h i s context; e.g. was t h e garage b u i l t onto t h e house a t t h e same time the house was c o n s t r u c t e d ? ; i s t h e r e f r o n t - r o a d access t o the garage r a t h e r than back-lane access? A l s o , a r e c o r d o f l a t e r garages w i t h t i g h t , r e a r access, o r conversions o f p a r t o f t h e house i n t o a garage (see, f o r example, P l a t e 13, p.45, house t h i r d from l e f t , lower row) would i n d i c a t e some attempt t o a d j u s t t o the changing situation. 11 A p a r t i c u l a r l y good example i s p r o v i d e d by a l a r g e and d e t a i l e d advertisement f o r the T a l t o n P l a c e development i n the Vancouver D a i l y Province.Saturday J u l y 2 0 t h , 1911, which emphasises the most d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e s of the p r o p e r t y , not only i n the appearance o f the house, but a l s o the s t r e e t scenery ( t r e e s ) , p r o x i m i t y t o s t r e e t c a r l i n e s , e t c . As mentioned elsewhere i n t h i s study, ( r e a l e s t a t e tudor, p.36; the f o r c e s i n v o l v e d i n an i n d i v i d u a l choosing o r being s o l d a house, p.52), r e a l e s t a t e f o r c e s have an important c o n t r i b u t i o n t o both f o r m u l a t i n g and r e f l e c t i n g t a s t e , and as such are an important source of the v e r n a c u l a r . 12 See, f o r example, HAWARD, D., unpublished term paper, Geography 572,1971 0  -147-  1 3 A g a i n , as i n f o o t n o t e 6, there i s a great need f o r s t a n d a r d i s a t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i f such a study were c a r r i e d out. S i m i l a r i l y , a r e - r c a l i b r a t i o n o f income-standards would be necessary: what i s t h e r e l a t i v e importance o f a #1000 income i n 1912 and #2500 i n 1928? T h i s i n e v i t a b l y l e a d s t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the v a s t q u a n t i t y o f l i t e r a t u r e i n urban s o c i o l o g y on t o p i c s such as e c o l o g i c a l change, f i l t e r i n g , i n v a s i o n and s u c c e s s i o n , e t c . ; see, f o r example, BESHERS, J.M., Urban S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , New York: G-lencoe Free Press,1962: DUNCAN, O.D. & DUNCAN, B., " R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n and Occupation S t r a t i f i c a t i o n ' , American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , Vol.60,1955,493-505; HOYT, H., The S t r u c t u r e and Growth o f R e s i d e n t i a l Neighborhoods i n American C i t i e s , Washington:Federal Housing Administration,1939; HOOVER, E. & VERNON, R., Anatomy o f a M e t r o p o l i s , Cambridge L a s s . : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y Press,1959; BEYER, G.¥77(1965),op. "cit.,313"86 1  0  15 . A g a i n there i s the problem o f previous occupants, who may have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r such m o d i f i c a t i o n s , r a t h e r than the c u r r e n t o c c u p i e r . S i m i l a r i l y , m o d i f i c a t i o n s may r e f l e c t a l a n d l o r d ' s p e c u n i a r y nature more than the d e s i r e s o f the tenant,  16  See WALHOUSE, F., " M i n o r i t y E t h n i c Groups i n Vancouver',' u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver,1961, f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f Vancouver's e t h n i c communities t o t h e urban landscape.  17  Students i n Urban Geography 350, S p r i n g Term, 1970.  18 One r e c o r d , o f course, i s photographic, and this i s v e r y r e l a t e d t o the v i s u a l emphasis advocated i n t h i s study. One weakness i n r e l y i n g on a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n s i s t h a t they tend t o be r a t h e r s p a r o d i c , both i n t h e i r time coverage and the areas o f t h e c i t y which are photographed; consequently they l a c k the value o f a. s y s t e m a t i c a l l y recorded v i s u a l h i s t o r y . "Given such photographic evidnce, however, one does not r e j e c t i t on the b a s i s o f incomplete cover. S e v e r a l e x c e l l e n t c o l l e c t i o n s have been used t o •considerable e f f e c t , p o s s i b l y the best being MAYER, H.M. & WADE, C.W., Chicago: Growth o f a M e t r o p o l i s , C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago.Press,1969. See a l s o WARNER, S.B., S t r e e t c a r Suburbs:The Process o f Growth i n Boston, 1 870-1900« Cambridge,Mass".: K.I.fTTress, 1962;~J0NES, F.M., "The A e s t h e t i c o f t h e Nineteenth Century I n d u s t r i a l Town', pp.171-182 i n DYOS, J.H. (ed.) The Study of Urban H i s t o r y , London:Arnaol,1968. 1  1 9  I n DYOS, J.H.,1961, op. c i t ,  20 See, f o r example, MURDIE, R. " F a c t o r i a l Ecology o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto, 1 951 -1961',' U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago, Department o f Geography. Research P a p e r . I i o . i l 6 , 1969; ROBSON, B.T..Urban A n a l y s i s : A Study o f C i t y S t r u c t u r e with S p e c i a l Reference t o Sunderland, Cambridge:Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press,1969, 21  See, f o r example,WARD,D.,"The I n t e r n a t i o n a l S p a t i a l S t r u c t u r e o f Immigrant R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i c t s i n the Late Nineteenth Century',' Geographical A n a l y s i s , V o l . 1,1 969,337~53;GOHEEN, P.','Victorian Toronto, 1 850-1 900',' U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago, Department o f Geography, Research Paper, No.127, 1970. See, f o r example, PARKES, D.N.,"The Guttman Scalogram: An E m p i r i c a l A p p r a i s a l I n Urban Geography',' A u s t r a l i a n Geographical S t u d i e s . Vol.7,1969,109-36OPENSHAW, S., "Can-onical C o r r e l a t e s o f S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e and Urban B u i l d i n g ^ ' F a b r i c - an e x p l o r a t o r y study',' U n i v e r s i t y o f Newcastle, P rtr^^ Seminar Paper, No.11 ,1969. " " ~ ~™~~ ~ ' D e  a  -148-' BIBLIOGRAPHY ABELL, W. ( 1 9 4 7 ) "Aa Introduction to Canadian Architecture".Canadian Geographical Journal. Vol.XXXIV,p.250-77. ADAMS, J.S. ( 1 9 7 0 ) "Residential Housing i n Midwestern C i t i e s " .A.A.A.G-. Vol.60, 57-62.  t  B£8HAM,R. (1971) Los Angeles: the Architecture of Four Ecologies. London: A l l e n Lane Penguin Press. BELL,L.(1965) Metropolitan Vancouver: an overview for social planners. Research Dept., Community Area Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver. BEMIS, A.B. & BURCHARD,J.U(1933) The Evolving House. 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( 1 9 7 0 ) " C u l t u r a l V a r i a t i o n s i n P e r s o n a l Name P a t t e r n s i n the Eastern United States," A.A.A.G., V o l . 6 0 , 7 4 3 - 6 9 -  (1959)  1  APPENDU A  m- 1 5 4 -  ^^o^o_^m^l£Ji2^i^  Facade E l e m e n t D e t a i l s o f Houses S e l e c t e d  LOCATION  Y  X1  X2  X3  1 . 3681CA 2. 2 6 4 2 W I  00 05  1 1  3.  08  1 1 1 1  4 4 1 4 1  294111  4 . 1940EY 0 8 5 . 2781PG- 1 0 60 2 6 2 2 W 1  10  7 . 1842ST 8.2 7 ^ 3  10 10  9 * 2733W3 10 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15= l6 17. 0  1902ST 3036m 3556PG3148W1 3011W3 2997W2 1915BY 2896W6  18. 3522IC3 1 9 . 3643^5 20 . 2 0 4 3 CO  10 10 10 10 10 12 12 10  3517W2  3  12 12  2 2 1  12  30. 31307a 12 31.  274010  12  3 2 . 3556W7 1 2 33.2667W2 34= 3 8 3 I P G 3 5 . 2940W6  36. 37. 38. 39. 40.  1640A1 3121VT6 3125W6 3449W3 3486W2  12 12 12  12 13 13 13 14  41. 3663W2 42. 2868533  14 14'  43.  14  3347W8  2 2 2 2 6 2 1 6 1 2 2 2 1  12  21, 2132BL 12 22. 3317W3 1 2 23 o 353W3 1 2 24o 1641DU 1 2 25» 12 26. 1724DU 1 2 27. " 3562W1 1 2 28„ 351+ZRl 1 2 29.  2  44. 3936FG 1 5 4 5 . 364211 1 5 4 6 . 320&W3 1 8 20 4 7 » IS 1  |S. 3Q51W8 2 0  *9* 3293W4 2 0 ) . 3655W5 2 0  5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2  1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 6 6 2 2 2 6 3 3  5  1 cO 2 2 2  2 2 2 2  2 3 2 3 2 3  l 2 2 2 4 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 3  2 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 1  r. d.  2 2 2 O  c 2 2 2 2 3 2 2  AL = Alma S t r e e t CA BL - Blenheim S t r e e t CO BY - Bayswater S t r e e t JJTJ  3  20 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22  :971W5  iSb3Wi> 55- 3406W2 560 3126W6 3009W8  57 o 58« 59.  4 6  3574W2 318711 319511 360311  61 62  4 2  6  2181WA  6 4 o 368QP& 65 o 3 6 7 2 \ f l 66.2435TU 6 7 , 2742W2 68„  359110  71  3279W8  72o  2  2  2  I  75. 365811 76 362511 77 o 2 8 3 4 1 1 78. 2 8 2 8 1 1 0  2 2  80.3566W8  5 2 2  81 o 3095PC 82 2 6 1 5 P & 83. 331OW8 84. 3065P& 85« 2994P& 86.350901 8 7 o 364^3 88.3341PC  5  0  1  4  6  4 2 2  89<  3448P&  5  90. 3Q57W2 9I-0 3621W2  2 2  9 2 , 3443W3 93o 346710 94. 2724P& 9 5 0 2716W3 96 3649WI 97 354&W7  4 2  0  a  356III 99o3005W3 100. 3 6 5 1 P &  Cameron Avenue Collingwood St, Dunbar Street  2  3 4 9 W 8  73 o 3375W2 74. 3270W5  2 2  3 2 2  25 25 25 26 27  6 9 . 3481W8 70 „  X1  12  X3  3 J  4 4  4 3 3  3  3  3 3  3 3  2  4  o  3  6  4 3 3  J  4 c 3 6  63o2120DU  2 4 6 1 2 2 2 6 2 2  2 3  3 3  51--3255W5 52. 33HW3  2 2 2 1 2 2 2  3 2  LOCATION  X4  W  3  2 3  28 28 28 30 30 31 35 35 38 40 40 40 441 41 41 41 41 42 43 44 46 46 47 48 53 55 63  4 6 4 3 4 4  4 4 >,  5 5 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 5  5  5 5 5 5 6 6  5  4 4 4 4 1 6 3  4 4  4 4 4  3 3  L  4  3 2  7  27 27 A27  3 3 3  4 2 2 4 4 5  3 3 4 4 2 4 4  4  2  3 3 3  4  X4  ~>  4 4 4 4  4 4 4 4 4  4  4  2;. 4 5 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 5  4 4  A 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4  4 5  4  3 ;,  -r  3 3 3 2  2 3 3 5 5 4 4  4 4 4 4 5  6  4 4 4 5 4  6  4 5 5  4 4 5  MC = MacDonald S t . TU = Trutch S t . PC- = Point Grrey Road WA = Waterloo- S t . ST = Stephens S t r e e t 1 1 = West 1 1 t h Avenue, (otherwise W3 to mea.n West 3 r d .  APPBiDIX B Differences  Betrreen  Correct  0  -> .  s .  3.  H  4  .  5 . 6 . 7 .  P . 9 . 1 0 .  1 1 . 12 . 13. 14. 1 5 . 16. 17. 13. 1 0 .  2 0. 21 . 22, 23 . 24 . 25 . 26. 27. 2B . 29. 3 1 .  ">1 . 32. 33. \9 4 . 3 « .  36 . 3 7 .  38 . 3 °  .  40. 41. 42 . 4 3 .  4 4  .  45. 46. 4 7 . 4 3 .  49 . 50 .  Calculated" Values  ."> 0 0  .r  C C O  3  .c . i < . 0. 1 9  0  0  ^.  .  1 o ."•CO I T . roo 19 c 9 0 1- . 0 o c 1 0 . o o o 1 0 .C O O I C .  0  " "  n .  r  -.  r  12 . 0 ~' 1? r r r 1 2 0 0 ''' 12. ror 12 r . i 1 2 .nr 12. 0 C C 12 i •' 0 12 . ^ -o t  12. C 0 j 1 2 oc. 1 2 .C 0 0 1 2C C O 2 r, r 1 2 C. 0 r  1  r  1 ?  12. 1 2 . •"0 0 2 3 0 1 3 .o-oc 13. " r : 1 3 0. oo 1 4 . c. c 1 4. 14. 14.09  1  r  r  14. "00  1 5 . C O O  15. C " 0 •13 .' '•. ,~ 20 . " • : 2 : . Oi 0 23 . 0 " 0 2 3 •0 " 0  values  L  ]'6 - 0  .  7 5  G  equation  33 .  4 5  O  5 5  5 6  : -  T  =  3  -10.825  3 .  Q  .  6*" . 6 1 . 62. 63 . 64. 65. 66 . 67. 63 . 69 . 7". 71 . 72 . 7 5 .  7 4  Repression  .  7 3 .  75 .  u r, ,  31. 3? .  d '• . 96 . 36 . 56. 9 7 .  53 . 89. 9 9  .  1 . 92. 9 3 .  9  5 5 .  36 . 5 7 . O9 , '•• 5  .  1 00.  +  1.197Z,  and the  numbers  ;• ;  Tfeidrtine;  + 5.9882X,, + correspond.  2 " j;... 2 ] ; 'v 2 1 j •... i O A 2 2 1 ->jC 2? C J O 22 J j 0 2 2 • J I.4 2 2 30 0 22 v J 4 24 0-0 2 5 .Ji, 2 6 J JO 2 5 ". - . 4 2 5 9^4 26 J A 2 7 o 3 4 27 0 J 0 3 7 . 0 .• 4 27. 0 J L 2 7. 3 • 0 2 . ^ C 2 5 j J.. 2 5 . ., j ^ 2 =. 0 j 0 2 0 1  1  1  3 0.u  .1 , 3 I . oo o 33 . J O u 3 6 .:j 4 4 "53. 4 J .i J 4 0 . ... J 0 6 0 . oo c 41 . 4 1 ..V.0 4 1 J. J O 4 1•J .J i. 4 1 .J 0 0 4 2 . J .1 J 4 3. c o o 4 4 .0 0 0 4 6 .u JU 4ft.0, J o 4 7 . a J0 4 3 .3 0 0 5 3. J O O 6 5 . 00 j 6"-. J J O  2.5892X-  of  .127 i ? . 7 44 9 5 2.5 6-. > 2. O F . 9 20 .->37 9 7 , s )q 2 6 9f>4 2 5 4 69 2 6 531 3 5 . 1 5 " 9 1 96 7 3 6 61 1 2 i 5 73 2 4 531 2 2 21 1 16 6 5 7 1 34 <„r  + 1.1226X,  ?  .444  •1 2 3 .5 3 3 0 444 3 1 64 i ? 764 2 ^ t. 5 3 3 1 64 1 30 4 4 4 30 6 1 5  1  1  = "  6 <-l 1 .0 4 1 i 1 64 1 3 3 337 3 5 . 034 9 5 ..' i° 36. 1 5 9 42. 6 Q 3 6 .3 6 0 42. 5 3 5 35 . 0 3 4 3 5 . OO 9 36. 6 50 3 3 . 752 3 i . 51 3 9 . 9 5 0 • 2 .5 3 9 6. O H 4 195 1 9 9. 5 0 -f i. 7 3 6 4 - .7 3 6 4 6 . 250 3  J  0  J  Bleaeirt  0I 6 Tt  r  9;  (  , J  7 5. 76. 77 .  r  i n APPENDIX A ,  .  -7.  66  C  4.  6  -3 . 7 4 4 2 1. 03C 5 1 . 03C 5 0 . i 266 5 - 2 . 6613 1 . 0 3C 5 1 .0 3 0 6 - 1 . 5637 1 . 0 30 5 1 .03C 5 1 0. 3 C 6 1 .0 3 0 5 - 1 . 135C -25 . A PO 11 . 6 2 3 - 1 . 2146 - 3 . 4 5 93 1 .0 3 C 5 . - 7. 546 9 -0 .21464 2 . C33 6 2 . 03C 5 -1.33722 3. 0 30 6 -j r 3 n 5 -1 . 7 5 » 6 - 1 .16 e l 4 . 3" 5 -1. 2C2" -<1. 7 4 4 1 7 -0.74417 i. 3 C 5 — 5.4 5 3 5  5  are as  Q  7 .  5  4.  -6 . r 0 3 3 - 1 . 2146 _  K i i l t i ^ l e  61 .  3  2? 3  C  Krom  _  Q ." ? 7 9 £ ,3 149 - 2 . 0 174 3 . 7 3C5 1. 6 1 9 7 - 0 . =-6 6 4 9 - 0 . 9694 9 -C.96949 - 4 , 6 4 r<!  r  variables  Sxpeeted  = ' ? i  c  Q  a r e - d e r i v e d frorn  f o r independent  and Values  tsIr i u  46 2  C  c  0o0 12. o r I >  .  3  3 "  Construction  623 62 3 3.' 7. 1a 8.9623 0.72224E-01 5,6851 1 2 0. 1 7 1.2695 . 2 80 3 1 0 . 9 6'J I C . =>69 1 0 .9 69 1 4 . 65 0 1 . 759 I 3 .00 4 1 3 . 215 1 5 . 46C 20. 744 1 C .9 6 9 10. 969 1 1 .6 7 3 1 4 .561 1 0 . 959 1 0 . 96 9 1 3.559 1 0 . 9 69 I C . 96 5 1 C 9. 6 9 10 . 9 6 9 1 3 .1 4 0 3 7 . 430 i . 722240-01 1 3.2 1 5 1^. 46 1 C. 965 1 9 . 54 7 1 .2 1 5 1 0 5. 6 9 10 . 9 6 9 1 4 .3 3 7 1 0 . &69 1 0 9. 6 15. 755 2 6 .63 1 1 C .9 6 5 1 9.2"3 2 •;. 7 4 4 2 0 . 744 1-0. 9 6 5 2 5. 456 3  . 9  of  3L o n « r >: o  C  1.  Year  Suhtynes  "1  -'  C  [ -HML  5  . 1 .3 ? 0 -9.3210 •" . 6 3 5 ? -'9  n  - 4 . 2 34 5 - 1.9H5 3 . 63 0 6 4 r-J 1 -6.39f 3 - 3. 3 9 3 9 - 3 . 4 3 rtt -4.5312 -13.139' 2.1333  1.  - 1. 5 3 2 - 9 . 9 776 . 61 0 7 q 2. 73 9 2 ".3429 9 . 5 32 3 - "'.444 1 0  -5.331-7  -3.4441 -4.6414 -4 . 7 4 4 . j 3.64 14 - 9 . 6414 -2.444 1 - 0 . 5 1 J 4 5 -0 . 5 1 J ; 3 - 0 . 6 4 1 4 3  3 . 3 5 Li 5 1.113 4 2,9161 ;. 6 04 7 41 •1.34 1 4 - 2 . 5 337 4 .4495 -1.6337 6.916 1 5 . 9 903 4.4493 3. 2473. . 0 38 7 4.0505  9  3.4613 1 0 . 91 0 4.8063 3 .9504 . 2 64 11.204 16.750 5  "•  -  0  1  -156APPETOIX  0  Data o nHousing Completions i n K i t s i l a n o Study Area and Values o f B u i l d i n g s i n C i t y o f Vancouver ACTUAL YEAR 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946  Kitsilano: Annual Completion 3 0 0 0 12 1 0 25 6 136 34 574 33 97 35 10 4 30 15 118 34 80 33 78 151 135 138 111 62 39 30 13 3 3 6 8 23 11 7 18 23 11 5 13 12 19  VALUES C i t y A n n u a l Bld£ Permits $ Value  21,572,727 14,645,206 10,066,425 2,854,206 1,564,541 1,418,822 3,892,655 4,641,545 6,760,880 8,274,300 6,253,796 8,053,725 9,216,520 5,996,015' 4,663,734 12,601,818 16,843,897 28,136,963  Annual  3 Year Moving Kitsilano  1 1 4 4.3 4.6 8.6 10.3 55.6 58.6 248.0 214.0 234.6 53.0 47.3 16.3 14.6 16.3 54.3 55.6 77.3 39.0 63.6 87.3 121.3 140.0 128.0 103.6 70.6 43.0 27.3 15.1 6.0 3.6 5.1 12.3 14.0 13.6 12.0 16.0 17.3 13.0 9.6 10.0 14.6 20.3  Means  $ Millions  15.43 9.19 4.83 1.95 2.29 3.32 5.59 6.54 7.08 7.51 7.84 7.76 6.63 7.84 11.37 19.19 22.29  -157APEENDIX 0 - CQgTimJEI) YEAR  1947 1948 1949 195,0 1951 1952 1955 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 I960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969  ACTUAL VALUES Kitsilano: City Annual Bldg. Annual Completion Permits $ Value  30 19 14 6 4 3 4 8 2 5 6 4 1 2 0 2 1 2 5 0 3  2.-.  1  21,877,675 37,262,817 33,041,252 34,999,669 23,942,309 28,387,737 50,748,757 45,258,767 55,446,193 64,679,148 56,499,913 56,433,775 56,869,832 36,847,190 38,848,447 44,852,461 52,544,443 79,037,630 84,351,749 68,801,850 100,154,600 109,658,419 114,423,702  3 Y e a r M o v i n g Means Kitsilano $ Millions  22.6 21.0 13.0 8.0 4.3 3.6 5.0 4.6 5.0 4.3 5.0 3.6 2.3 1.0 1.3 1.0 1.6 2.6 3.1 2.6 1.6 2.0 1.0  29.09 30.72 35.09 30.06 29.11 34.36 41.47 50.49 55.14 58.88 59.11 56.50 49*95 44.19 40.18 45.42 58.81 71.98 77.40 84.44 92.87 108.08 112.04  

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