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Editorial reactions of ten Canadian dailies to the FLQ crisis of 1970 Holdrinet, Gérard Pierre 1971

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EDITORIAL REACTIONS OF TEN CANADIAN DAILIES TO THE FLQ CRISIS OF 1970 by Gerard P i e r r e Holdrinet B.Sc. Loyola College, 1965 B.A., Loyola College, 1966. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FUIFILLM3NT OF THE REQUIHlMiNTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of P o l i t i c a l Science We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required standard THE UNOTERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date kr~) C ^ i <^  flit Abstract This study measures and compares the e d i t o r i a l reactions of ten Canadian metropolitan d a i l i e s to the FLQ kidnap c r i s i s of 1970, and the s p e c i f i c , important events which occurred w i t h i n the c r i s i s . Besides 'comparing the e d i t o r i a l reactions of i n d i v i d u a l papers, the newspapers are also grouped by language (French and English) and by geographical l o c a t i o n , to determine the e f f e c t of these two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s upon those reactions. The t h e s i s i s divided i n t o four chapters, as f o l l o w s : Methodology, an account of the c r i s i s , the newspapers, and f i n a l l y the presentation and analysis of the f i n d i n g s . The research method used i s content a n a l y s i s . F i v e categories are devised, into which are c l a s s i f i e d the e d i t o r i a l content of the news-papers analyzed. A frequency count method i s used, with the theme as recording unit and the paragraph as context u n i t . Chapter two centers about a short account of the c r i s i s and the s e l e c t i o n of important events w i t h i n the c r i s i s which could be expected to have had some influence upon the e d i t o r i a l reactions of the papers. Chapter three consists of the s e l e c t i o n of newspapers to be analyz-ed, of newspaper c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (language and l o c a t i o n ) which ©ne might expect to have an e f f e c t upon e d i t o r i a l reactions, and f i n a l l y of de-f e r r i n g " e d i t o r i a l content' f o r the purpose of t h i s study. The presentation and a n a l y s i s of fi n d i n g s (Chapter four) Is sub-divided i n t o two parts - e d i t o r i a l reactions to the e n t i r e c r i s i s and e d i t o r i a l reactions to important events w i t h i n the c r i s i s . I t was found that the single greatest determinant of how a newspaper reacted e d i t o r -i a l l y to the c r i s i s was geographical l o c a t i o n . The papers from Ontario and Quebec put considerable emphasis upon the dangers of excessive r e -a c t i o n by the a u t h o r i t i e s and upon the need f o r s o c i a l reform as a s o l u t i o n to the c r i s i s , whereas the papers from other regions were generally more concerned with the need f o r la?/ and order. The French papers devoted more e d i t o r i a l space to the c r i s i s than did the E n g l i s h papers but the nature of t h e i r r e a c t i o n was generally s i m i l a r to that of the E n g l i s h papers of Ontario and Quebec. The French papers g r e a t l y increased t h e i r e d i t o r i a l content about the c r i s i s a f t e r the abduction of P i e r r e Laporte - the E n g l i s h papers only a f t e r the proclamation of the War Measures Act. Before the War Measures Act v/as proclaimed, a l l E n g l i s h papers had put a strong emphasis upon the need f o r law and or-der. A f t e r the proclamation, the E n g l i s h papers of Toronto, Montreal and Ottawa de-emphasized that issue. A summary of the more important f i n d i n g s of the study i s present-ed as a concluding s e c t i o n of Chapter four. TABLE OF CONTENTS PACE CHAPTER Introduction 1 I Methodology > Categories Units of Analysis I I The C r i s i s 19 A Short account of the c r i s i s Salient events and t h e i r possible effect upon e d i t o r i a l reactions III The Newspapers Choice of papers Choice of newspaper characteristics Choice of e d i t o r i a l s 17 Presentation and Analysis of Findings Reactions f o r the entire period analyzed Reactions to salient events Conclusion Selected Bibliography INTRODUCTION The object of t h i s study i s t o compare the e d i t o r i a l reactions of some established Canadian metropolitan d a i l i e s to the c r i s i s engendered by the actions of the Front de L i b e r a t i o n du Quebec i n October of 1970. The research nethod used to determine the nature of these reactions i s content a n a l y s i s . I t i s assumed that d i f f e r e n t newspapers reacted to the c r i s i s i n d i f f e r e n t ways and a l s o that s p e c i f i c , s a l i e n t events i n the c r i s i s had some e f f e c t upon the e d i t o r i a l reactions of the papers analyzed. This analysis may lead to the f o l l o w i n g types of generalizations: "Newspaper X, when analyzing a s i t u a t i o n of type A, can be expected to react i n such a way," and "newspaper c h a r a c t e r i s t i c X can be expected to influence a t -t i t u d e s towards a s i t u a t i o n of type A i n such a way." What follows i s a b r i e f o u t l i n e of the procedures used i n order t o a t t a i n these goals. The technique, as mentioned above, i s content analy-s i s , which i s "any technique f o r making inferences by o b j e c t i v e l y and sy-s t e m a t i c a l l y i d e n t i f y i n g s p e c i f i e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of messages.""'' The basic research o u t l i n e f o r t h i s study i s drawn from Content Analysis f o r o the S o c i a l Sciences and Humanities by Ole R. H o l s t i . The concern of the paper i s with the "what?" question of the communications paradigm.-* Two basic research problems are dealt with: l ) To r e l a t e known c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of sources to messages they pro-duce; more s p e c i f i c a l l y , to determine how various newspapers reacted to the c r i s i s and secondly to see how s p e c i f i c newspaper c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have affected that reaction. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s selected are language and geographical l o c a t i o n . Also included as a possible deterniinant of the nature of an e d i t o r i a l reaction i s the amount of e d i t o r i a l content devoted 2. to the c r i s i s . 2) To determine the effects of salient events during the c r i s i s upon e d i t o r i a l reactions of the papers analyzed. In other words, besides measuring the types of reactions for the entire c r i s i s , i t i s also i n -tended to nEasure the e d i t o r i a l reactions to specific, and what are con-sidered to be important, events which punctuated the c r i s i s . The events selected are the abduction of Pierre Laporte and the events of October 16-19, which included the proclamation of the War Measures Act, the invo-cation of the Public Order Regulations and the death of Pierre Laporte. A series of procedures ± s required for the attainment of those two basic goals. For the purpose of "objectively and systematically id e n t i f y -ing specified characteristics of messages", a set of categories had to be devised which would reflect the objectives of the study. These categories must encompass a l l the major types of reactions to a c r i s i s of this sort. Into these categories are subsequently cl a s s i f i e d the individual "bits" of content gleaned from the ed i t o r i a l s . These "b i t s " or recording units must be selected so as to suit the designated research problems and ob-jectives of the study. Also, the range of text from which these record-ing units w i l l be taken must be specified. I f this procedure i s not f o l -lowed, a frequency count, which i s the basis for inferences to be made i n this study, would be impossible. The assumption underlying a frequency count i s that intensity of belief or extent of bias i s related to the f r e -quency with which that belief or bias (or attitude) i s mentioned within a given message or series of messages. Hence i t i s important that the range of text to be analyzed for the appearance o r non-appearance of a belief or value statement be the same throughout the analysis. A definition of what i s and what i s not e d i t o r i a l content for the 3 purpose of the study must be included. Unless there i s consistency i n the choice of e d i t o r i a l s to be analyzed from paper to paper, a comparison of e d i t o r i a l reactions would be impossible. Also, the i n i t i a l choice of the type of e d i t o r i a l s to be analyzed must be made by a consideration of the objectives of the study. One sec t i o n of the paper consists of a short account of the c r i s i s . This serves the purpose of p u t t i n g s a l i e n t events of the c r i s i s i n t o perspective and consequently of s e l e c t i n g s p e c i f i c time periods to be analyzed. The l a t t e r part of the paper deals with the a n a l y s i s of the e d i t o r -i a l s and a subsequent analysis of the findings f o r the purpose of making inferences about: A) reactions of papers, and types of papers, to t h i s type of c r i s i s , and, B) e f f e c t of s p e c i f i c events upon the various newspapers' reactions to the c r i s i s . Also, i n order to determine whether newspaper character-i s t i c s not included i n the o r i g i n a l l i s t might have affected the e d i t o r i a l reactions, the findings are c l a s s i f i e d by s i m i l a r i t i e s i n percentages per category. In t h i s way d i f f e r e n t 'groups' of newspapers, other than the groups o r i g i n a l l y l i s t e d , might appear. 4. FOOTNOTES - INTRODUCTION Humanities, 2 5 . V e R Holsti , Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and .tSs (Reading; Mass.: Addison-vfesley Publishing Company, 1 * 9 ) , p. 2 H o l s t i , op. c i t . 3 l b i d . , pp. 2 5 - 2 6 . 5 CHAPTER I METHODOLOGY Categories The central assumption underlying this study, as previously mention-ed, i s that different newspapers w i l l have different e d i t o r i a l views re-garding the FLQ kidnap c r i s i s and the subsequent reactions of the Montreal, (Quebec and Ottawa governments to the c r i s i s . An unstated assumption may have been that viewpoints are projections of s e l f - i n t e r e s t as perceived by the individuals as groups presenting these views. Referring s p e c i f i c a l l y to the FLQ c r i s i s , the primary dimensions of analysis w i l l be as follows: the need to protect "democratic processes" ( i . e . non-violent processes) from the dangers presented by acts of violence on the one hand, and concomitant dangers of excessive or inappropriate government reactions to those acts of violence on the other. The leading e d i t o r i a l of the Globe and Mail on the 16th of October, i n a reaction to the possible invoking of the War Measures Act, quotes Claude Ryan i n cau-tioning against such a move l e s t ". . .we w i l l be threatened with anarchy 1 on one side and a police state on the other." B a s i c a l l y the categories used i n measuring the e d i t o r i a l reactions to the c r i s i s are along t h i s dimension. The o r i g i n a l intention had been to have two basic categories, r e f l e c t i n g the two expected possible types of e d i t o r i a l reactions - i . e . need for 'law and order' on the one hand and, on the other, the fear of a loss or suspension of c i v i l l i b e r t i e s which an excessive reaction by the authorities to the kidnappings might en t a i l . However, a sampling of the e d i t o r i a l reactions of various news-2 papers showed that although that basic dichotomy was not unsound 6. t h e o r e t i c a l l y , f o r the purposes of making meaningful inferences from the a n a l y s i s , the number of categories would have to be increased. A l l ed-i t o r i a l s sampled had at l e a s t i n common that they unanimously condemned the methods used by the FLQ to a t t a i n whatever goals they had set f o r themselves. There was much disagreement, however, i n how to best erad-i c a t e that type of violence. Some e d i t o r i a l s advocated a strong govern-ment stand i n face of the FLQ's demands: ". . . c l e a r l y the s e c u r i t y of the province of Quebec and the realm of Canada cannot be bargained away on the kidnappers 1 terms." Others, while generally conceding that bar-gaining with the FLQ was no s o l u t i o n to the problem of sep a r a t i s t violence i n Quebec, saw that type of violence stemming from s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e and consequently saw as the ultimate s o l u t i o n to the problem of vi o l e n c e , the r i g h t i n g of these i n j u s t i c e s . Ce que n i l a p o l i c e , n i l e s appareils de protection, n i l e s me sures compensatoires f a i s a n t suite a des actes destructeurs, ne pourront cependant d i s s i p e r , ce sont l e s s i t u a t i o n s sociales et economicues i n t o l e r a b l e s qui alimentent l ' a c t -i v i t e t e r r o r i s t e a travers l e monde.^ Such a reaction i s not i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n of the advocacy of "law and order" but i s d i s t i n c t enough from i t to warrant being treated as a separate ca-tegory. In sumrcary i t could be s a i d that advocating increased p o l i c e powers or p o l i c i n g a c t i v i t y and/or the advocating of s o c i a l reform are both pre-f e r r e d as possible solutions to the threat of anarchy which the FLQ acts of violence represented to some. Another major theme among the e d i t o r i a l s sampled, and one which could have been expected, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , given the sequence of events i n the c r i s i s , was that of the threat of excessive reaction by the a u t h o r i t i e s to the actions of the FLQ. This f e a r was voiced more frequently as the 7. c r i s i s developed, increasing p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r f i r s t mention was made of the p o s s i b i l i t y of invoking the War Measures Act as a means of combating the apprehended threat of anarchy or insurrection. Two major types of fears were voiced i n the e d i t o r i a l s sampled. One was a fear of the r e -st r i c t i o n s of democratic freedoms, the other, and t h i s i n the English press part i c u l a r l y , a sentiment that the fe d e r a l government had not made i t s re-sons clear enough i n invoking the War Measures Act. As t h i s type of state-ment does not necessarily disagree with the government's reaction, i t w i l l be included as a sub-category of the category just mentioned. A second sub-category measures a type of reaction which might be expected i n the French Quebec press. On the assumption that the focus of p o l i t i c a l a l l e g -iances f o r many Quebecers i s primarily Quebec Ci t y rather than Ottawa, one might expect some negative reaction from these papers to the federal government's i n i t i a t i v e s i n the c r i s i s . This type of reaction i s c l a s s -i f i e d under the "outside intervention" rubric. Another r e l a t i v e l y major area of e d i t o r i a l concern i n the sampling centered around the p o s s i b i l i t y of s o c i a l disruption or polarization as a consequence of the c r i s i s . An analysis of how th i s might come about was occasionally a variant upon the following theme: One of the t a c t i c s of the FLQ i s to discredit established authority or, put d i f f e r e n t l y , to show that these who are i n positions of authority w i l l do anything to re-t a i n t h e i r position. If the authorities were to take drastic action i n an attempt to eradicate the threat to t h e i r power which the FLQ presented, individuals or groups i n the general population would then be forced to take a stand either f o r or against the government action. Thus the process of polarization would have begun. . . .le recours a un etat p o l i c i e r que maintes personnes, 8. parmis l e s q u e l l e s de nombreux j o u r n a l i s t e s , envisagent deja. corame s o l u t i o n globale au terrorisme, s e r a i t une catastrophe.5 Often, however, the reactions vrere somewhat more nebulous and i t became d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n whether the e d i t o r i a l was pu t t i n g the onus of the blame upon the FLQ, the government or simply upon the c r i s i s . For t h i s reason, a l l reactions dealing with p o l a r i z a t i o n or s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n , and pertaining to the c r i s i s , are included under one category, with no subdivisions. To do otherwise, would r e s u l t i n f o r c i n g data i n t o inap-propriate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . One l a s t major theme was apparent i n the e d i t o r i a l s sampled - t h i s centered around a concern f o r the safety of James Gross and P i e r r e Laporte. An attempt was u s u a l l y made to balance the value of one or two human l i v e s against the p r i c e demanded by the FLQ i n exchange f o r t h e i r safe release. Any e d i t o r i a l r e a c t i o n emphasizing the s a f e t y of the kidnap v i c t i m s i s " c l a s s i f i e d under the "humanitarian concern" category. I t i s necessary at t h i s point t o mention that quite often an e d i t o r -i a l would present both the advantages and the disadvantages of a c e r t a i n course of action. Thus Le Devoir at one point saw the pros and cons of bargaining with the FLQ f o r the l i f e of Cross i n these terms: Les autorites agiront plus sagement, nous s e m b l e - t - i l , en pesant soigneusement l e p r i x de l a v i e humaine qui est presentement menacee, a l a lumiere de quelgues concessions qu'elles pourraient etre appelees a f a i r e . " In t h i s case, the e d i t o r i a l i s t i s saying that f o r the purpose of :-gaving a human l i f e , a c e r t a i n amount of bargaining with the FLQ i s not too high a price to pay. In t h i s case, the statement, though not wholeheartedly supporting bargaining, i s s t i l l emphasizing the safety of the kidnap v i c -tim and as such vrould be c l a s s i f i e d under the "humanitarian concern" cat-egory. Dealing with the same t o p i c , the H a l i f a x Chronicle-Herald reacted 9. with t h i s statement: ". . . c l e a r l y the s e c u r i t y of the province of Que-bec and the realm of Canada cannot be bargained away on the kidnappers' terms."''' This statement i s ambiguous i n t h a t i t does not c a t e g o r i c a l l y r e j e c t dealing with the FLQ but yet seems to imply that although the safety of one l i f e Is important, the disadvantages of bargaining with the FLQ outweigh t h i s consideration. Given the context i n which t h i s statement was made, i t would be c l a s s i f i e d under the 'law and order' category. Generally, any statement presenting such ambiguities i s c l a s s -i f i e d i n t o that category which seems to most adequately r e f l e c t the ed-i t o r ' s a t t i t u d e on that subject. To summarize, then, there are f i v e basic categories i n t o which the content data w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d . They are the f o l l o w i n g : 1) The dangers inherent i n the FLQ actions can best be overcome by a f o r c e f u l , 'law and order' r e a c t i o n on the part of the a u t h o r i t i e s . 2) The cause of the c r i s i s l i e s i n s o c i a l i l l s . The ultimate s o l u -t i o n t o t h i s type of c r i s i s l i e s i n the r i g h t i n g of these i l l s . 3) Humanitarian concern ( f o r the l i v e s of James Cross and P i e r r e Laporte). 4) Dangers of excessive reaction by the a u t h o r i t i e s . 4a) "outside i n t e r v e n t i o n " '4b) f e d e r a l government should have been given more j u s t i -f i c a t i o n f o r invoking the Ifer Measures Act. 5) Dangers of p o l a r i z a t i o n or s o c i a l fragmentation. I t should be noted that u n i t s of content f a l l i n g i n t o the f o u r t h category w i l l e i t h e r be c l a s s i f i e d under the general heading or under 4a, or 4b. These sub-categories are included under the 'Dangers of excessive re a c t i o n ' category as they r e f l e c t a measure of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the f e d e r a l government's handling of the c r i s i s i n the d i r e c t i o n s of u n j u s t i f i e d i n i t -i a t i v e s or of autocratic behaviour. 10 The other four categories are not subdivided as t h i s would not greatly either improve the quality or increase the quantity of meaningful inferences to be derived from the data. Units of Analysis Inherent i n the basic assumption underlying t h i s thesis - i . e . that different papers w i l l have different e d i t o r i a l reactions to the c r i s i s -i s the fact that any one paper w i l l probably not r e s t r i c t i t s e l f to one type of reaction, or, i n operational terms, not a l l the content data f o r any one paper w i l l ever be capable of being c l a s s i f i e d into one category. Hence, i t does not suffice to say that paper X mentioned a spe c i f i c as-pect of the c r i s i s on a s p e c i f i c date. I t i s probably safe to assume that each one of the papers to be analyzed w i l l have at one time or another dur-ing the c r i s i s , made the statement that resorting to violence ( i . e . kidnap-ping, possibly murder) i s not an acceptable method of seeking to achieve a goal. Such a finding, because i t i s so obvious, would be next to meaning-less. A finding, to have much value, should be compared to an outside source. As t h i s study i s concerned primarily with comparing e d i t o r i a l r e -actions of certain newspapers to a certain situation, the outside source i n this case w i l l be the other newspapers to be analyzed. For t h i s reason, the simple determination of occurence or non-occurence of a s p e c i f i c re-cording event i n a newspaper's e d i t o r i a l w i l l not s u f f i c e . Some method of determining the relative intensity of views has to be included i n the analy-s i s . A cursory glance at the e d i t o r i a l reactions of two newspapers to a certain situation might lead a reader to make a statement that, obviously, one newspaper i s more prone to take one view of the situation whereas the other takes a different view. Devising a method of determining with some measure of accuracy how much these papers d i f f e r i s a more d i f f i c u l t task, Cperationally, two methods may be use'd, depending p a r t i a l l y upon the messages to be analyzed,to determine intensity of attitudes. One i s f r e -quency count, the other i s evaluative assertion analysis. The j u s t i f i c a t i o n 12 for the f i r s t method, obviously, is that "frequency of mention would cor-g relate with intensity of expressed attitude."-Evaluative assertion analysis, on the other hand, rather than using relative frequency to measure Intensity of attitude, attempts to evaluate intensity directly from the text analyzed. Certain conditions are gener-ally required for an adequate use of the latter approach -1) the texts must be devoid of any identifying contexts, 2) a scaling method is to be devised. ^  It is not obvious, however, that the latter method, (i.e. evaluative asser-tion analysis) through markedly more complex in i t s implementation than most frequency count methods, is much more accurate than a well planned and executed frequency count. ". . .the experience of more than one ana-lyst who has tried experiments in measuring intensity has been that noth-ing much is added by other measures than the frequency one. "^ It is f e l t that for the purposes of this paper, a frequency count should suffice in determining relative attitudes towards the FLQ crisis. Frequency measures are quite varied, and, i f not properly used, a frequency count may lead a researcher to make inaccurate inferences from his findings, "Different procedures for measuring newspaper content give somewhat dissimilar results,"^- The central question to be asked i n deter-mining what sort of frequency Count to be used i s the following: 'What i s 12 the theoretical relevance of the measures I am using?" This study is p r i -marily concerned with analyzing editorial content for the purpose of mak-ing inferences about the source of the editorial, or the newspaper in which a given editorial appears. Hence what is needed i s a frequency count which w i l l most adequately reflect that aspect of the communication paradigm -that i s , allow the making of inferences about (expressed) attitudes of of sources from analysis of content. Two basic methods of frequency analysis are commonly used, one being the "space/time'^measure, the other concerning i t s e l f with the appearance, within a certain specified range of content, of predetermined content a t -tributes."^ Since "the limitations of space/time units derive mostly from a lack of s e n s i t i v i t y to other than the grossest attributes of content", 1? they would probably not lend themselves to a study of the occurence or non-occurence of specified content characteristics. For example, i t i s not apparent how a "space" analysis of e d i t o r i a l s would accurately i n d i -cate how a given newspaper perceived the FLQ c r i s i s i n terms of i t s pos-s i b l e repercussions, though i t might indicate what importance i t ascribed to the c r i s i s as a whole. For a study of spe c i f i c attitudes towards the FLQ c r i s i s , i t would seem that the most apt and most e f f i c i e n t method i s the frequency count of specified content attributes. What remains to be determined i s the recording and context units which most accurately r e f l e c t the expressed values of the authors of the ed i t o r i a l s to be analyzed. The recording unit refers to the s p e c i f i c ' b i t ' of content which i s to be c l a s s i f i e d within a given category. The context unit i s the specified range of text which i s to be analyzed f o r the occur-rence or non-occurrence of the recording unit. The question of which 'unit size' w i l l most s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e f l e c t the intended expressed values or attitudes of the author has s t i l l not been c l a r i f i e d to the sa t i s f a c t i o n of most content analysts. The basic consideration is as follows: The unit counted should be at least as long as the unit i n whatever i s assumed to be the relevant psychological process i n the communicating organism, and not so much longer as to lose sensitivity.^° According to Berelsen, "Within a reasonable range, length of unit . . . 14* may not make too much difference."" L < The more widely used units are sym-bol, paragraph, three sentence theme and item counts.^ In each case the occurrence of the unit within a specified context would be registered once within a predetermined category, with the implication that the most f r e -quently used category would indicate the dominant attitude or values on a given topic. The smallest unit, the symbol, would probably prove too tedious a unit to use f o r the purpose of t h i s paper. The symbol i s never c l a s s i f i e d without e x p l i c i t reference to a context i n which i t occurs. Thus, besides the requirement of making a l i s t of specified symbols which are to be sought out i n the document to be analyzed, each symbol must be evaluated i n r e l a -t i o n to the context i n which i t appears. In a study of four different ways of coding e d i t o r i a l content the authors found that the symbol-sentence ap-proach (symbol as recording unit, sentence as context unit) took substan-19 t i a l l y more time than two of the other approaches. In the past, t h i s unit has usually been avoided i n mass media research involving a large 20 volume of data. Because of the r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f nature of the study, such a choice would be inappropriate f o r this paper. As i t does not l o -g i c a l l y seem to be an accurate r e f l e c t i o n of the author's 'psychological process', the three sentence method seems inappropriate. In other words, one cannot assume that an editor's thought processes are naturally seg-mented into three sentence units. The use of a three sentence unit might result i n forcing widely divergent content attributes within a single ca-tegory and hence give misleading results. The choice i s thus narrowed to a use of the theme, the item or the paragraph as the possible recording unit. The paragraph method can be r e l a t i v e l y quicJ^ 1 but has the disadvantage 15. of not lending i t s e l f to c l a s s i f i c a t i o n into single categories.""*" More than one attitude may be evident within any given paragraph and f o r t h i s reason c l a s s i f i c a t i o n might prove d i f f i c u l t . Also, the paragraph does not seem to r e f l e c t a 'psychological process' as i t may contain more than o'ne attitude, value or b e l i e f or may, conversely, r e f l e c t just a portion of an expressed attitude, value or b e l i e f . In such a case, possibly a larger range of text might be needed f o r the purpose of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The item, or, f o r the purpose of th i s study, the entire e d i t o r i a l , as recording unit, i s probably too large to o f f e r an accurate r e f l e c t i o n of attitudes towards the FLQ c r i s i s . As one might expect some e d i t o r i a l s to express more than a single attitude towards the c r i s i s , the c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n of the item into only one category might give misleading results, ( a l -though over a certain time span the frequency count might p a r t i a l l y com-pensate f o r this anomaly). The theme, that i s , a single assertion about a subject, would seem to be the most appropriate unit f o r the study of attitudes towards the FLQ c r i s i s . I t has the disadvantage of being more d i f f i c u l t to ide n t i f y i n an analysis of text than any of the other units and thus i s more time consum-ing. However, " i t i s almost indispensable i n research on propaganda, Val-ues, attitudes, b e l i e f s and the l i k e . " 2 ^ I t i s the most natural unit i f one Is concerned with finding out about the source of communication from an analysis of text. For th i s study, then, the theme w i l l be the record-ing unit. In the sampling of e d i t o r i a l s p r ior to the actual systematic analy-s i s , i t became evident that many, i f not most ed i t o r i a l s contained a var-i e t y of reactions to the c r i s i s or to sp e c i f i c aspects of the c r i s i s . For thi s reason, the use of the entire e d i t o r i a l as the context unit would not 16. allow one to d i f f e r e n t i a t e adequately between major and minor themes w i t h -i n the e d i t o r i a l , since each theme, major or minor, would be recorded once f o r the e d i t o r i a l . D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between major and minor themes would then involve evaluative a s s e r t i o n a n a l y s i s . On the assumption that f r e -quency of mention i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the importance given to a c e r t a i n theme, one might expect major themes to occupy a l a r g e r proportion of content than minor ones w i t h i n any given e d i t o r i a l . For these reasons, the paragraph w i l l be used as context u n i t . Thus a theme of a given type recurring In two paragraphs would be counted only twice. I t should be mentioned that a theme w i l l not be categorized more than once f o r a para-graph - thus the tabulations of r e s u l t s w i l l show the number of paragraphs i n which themes, corresponding to one of the f i v e categories, have occured i n any given paper. The f o l l o w i n g points provide a summary of t h i s section of the paper. 1) The primary purpose of t h i s study i s to make inferences about the sources (or about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sources) of the messages to be analyzed. 2) A c o r r e l a t i o n between frequency of mention of a content a t t r i b u t e and i n t e n s i t y of b e l i e f i s assumed. 3) The theme i s the most appropriate recording u n i t f o r the purpose of t h i s study. 4) The paragraph w i l l be the u n i t of text analyzed f o r the occurrence or non-occurrence of a theme. In other words, not more than one theme per category per paragraph w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d . 17 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER I ^ E d i t o r i a l , Globe and M a i l , October 16, 1970, p. 6. Categories - The newspapers sampled f o r e d i t o r i a l content were: H a l i f a x Chronicle-Herald, October 14, 20. Le Devoir, October 6, 3, 14, 17. Globe and M a i l , October 7, 12, 16, 19. Winnipeg Free Press, October 8, 20, 24. Vancouver Sun, October 8, 16, 22. ^ E d i t o r i a l , Chronicle-Herald, October 14, 1970, p. 6. ^ E d i t o r i a l , Le Devoir, October 6, 1970, p. 4» 5 E d i t o r i a l , Le Devoir, October 14, 1970, p. 5. E d i t o r i a l , Le Devoir, October 6, 1970, p. 4. ^ E d i t o r i a l , Chronicle-Heraid, October 14, 1970, p. 6. de S. Pool, Trends i n Content Analysis. (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1959T. p. 194. 9 I b i d . 1 0 I b i d . ~^ "A. G e l l e r , D. Kaplan and H.D. Lasswell, "An Experimental Com-parison of Four Ways of Coding E d i t o r i a l Content," Journalism Quarterly, XIX (December, 1942), 362. 12 H o l s t i , op. c i t . , p. 121. 13 "Time" here r e f e r s to the measuring of content i n such things as f i l m , radio and T.V, sources, and i s used i n a manner analogous to space studies f o r w r i t t e n documents. o l s t i , op. c i t . , p. 121. 15 -Tool, op. c i t . , pp. 203-04. % b i d , , p. 203. 1 7 I b i d . 1 S H o l s t i , op. c i t . , pp. 116-17. G e l l e r , Kaplan, l a s s w e l l , "An Experimental Comparison," 363. 19 G e l l e r , Kaplan and Lasswell, "An Experimental Comparison", 370. 20 H o l s t i , op. c i t . , p. 116. I S , 2 1 G e l l e r , Kaplan and l a s s w e l l , "An }&perimental Comparison", 370. 2 2 H o l s t i , op. c i t . , p. 117. 2 ^ I b i d . , p. 116. 19. CHAPTER II THE CRISIS A Short Account of the Crisis What follows is a brief chronological account of the salient events in the FLQ crisis, beginning with the abduction of James Cross and ending with the introduction on November 2 in the Commons of a b i l l to replace the regulations issued under authority of the War Measures Act. This event did not mark the end of the crisis but was the last significant event to occur in the crisis which might be expected to have had much effect upon editorial content. Also, by the first week in November the editors would have had a f u l l month to examine various aspects of the crisis and some of its possible ramifications. The information for this section was obtained from "Canada News Facts".1 which contained the most detailed available account of the crisis. On Monday, October 5 at 8:15 a.m., two men identifying themselves as members of the Front de Liberation du Quebec abducted James Gross, the British Trade Commissioner resiciing in Montreal. later in the day, the police received a ransom note making the following demands: 1) The release of 23 'political prisoners', 2) The payment of 4?500,000 In gold, 3) The broadcast and publication of an "FLQ manifesto", 4) Cessation of police activities, 5) Publication of the name of any FLQ member suspected of being a police informer, 6) Provision of an aircraft to fly the prisoners and money to either Algeria or Cuba, 20. 7) The r e h i r i n g of P o s t a l truck d r i v e r s previously l a i d o f f i n a reorganization of the p o s t a l trucking services i n Montreal. On the 6th of October, E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s M i n i s t e r Sharp, while r e -j e c t i n g these demands, announced that the f e d e r a l government was w i l l i n g to speak with the abductors. In the meantime the abductors set the f i r s t of a series of deadlines f o r the acceptance of these demands, threatening to k i l l Mr. Cross i f the demands were not net. On the 7th of October, Quebec J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r .Jerome Ghoquette offered t o negotiate with the kidnappers. Robert Lemieux, a lawyer who had represented the FLQ i n court since 1968, became a prominent f i g u r e from the onset of the c r i s i s as a possible negotiator between the author-i t i e s and the FLQ. On October 8, the CBC broadcast the"FLQ manifesto" thus s a t i s f y i n g one of the demands of the kidnappers. On the 10th of October, J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r Ghoquette offered the kidnappers safe-conduct "out of Canada i n exchange f o r the release of Mr. Cross. S h o r t l y a f t e r what they termed the " l a s t deadline" f o r the acceptance of t h e i r terms, on the 10th of October at 6 p.m. Quebec Labor M i n i s t e r P i e r r e Laporte was kidnapped from h i s home. P o l i c e a c t i v i t y i n t e n s i f i e d and many homes and o f f i c e s of known FLQ supporters and members were raided. On October 11, Robert Lemieux was charged by the Quebec Justice Department with obstructing j u s t i c e . He was held i n j a i l and had his f i l e s seized. On October 12, Mr. Lemieux, while s t i l l i n j a i l , held t a l k s with Mr. Demers, appointed by the p r o v i n c i a l government, to deal with the FLQ demands. The discussion proved f u t i l e , however, as Mr. Lemieus was u n w i l l i n g to compromise on the terms of the kidnappers explaining that he was only empowered to deal with the modalities of the demands. On the 14th of October, 10 prominent Quebecers, Including Rene Levesque and Claude Ryan, released a statement requesting the government 21. to go through with the freeing of the 23 prisoners which the FLQ had men-tioned. The government did not reply to this statement. On Thursday, October 15, Premier Bourassa announced that he had asked Ottawa to send troops to Quebec to assure "the safety of the people and public buildings of Montreal." Within an hour of this statement, more than 1,000 troops from the Royal 22nd Regiment entered Montreal. Later i n the day, the provincial government announced that i t was ready to recommend the re-lease on parole of f i v e e l i g i b l e convicted t e r r o r i s t s from the 23 prison-ers whose release was being demanded by the FLQ. The government also of-fered safe-conduct out of the country to the FLQ members who had p a r t i c i -pated i n the abductions. That same night, about 3,000 French-Canadian students held a r a l l y i n support of the FLQ t e r r o r i s t s i n the Montreal municipal arena. On October 16 at 4 a.m. the Governor-General-in-Council approved . proclamation of the War Measures Act "concerning a state of apprehended 2 insurrection". Shortly a f t e r 3 a.m. on that day the Montreal and Quebec provi n c i a l authorities had asked the federal government to pass the l e g -i s l a t i o n which would allow them to take the measures necessary to erad-icate what was claimed to be the danger of "apprehended insurrections". The War Measures Act was the federal government's response to that re-quest. "The act i s emergency l e g i s l a t i o n that allows the government to proclaim a r b i t r a r i l y that there i s a state of war, invasion or insur-rection, r e a l or apprehended." Once i t i s proclaimed the government can, without consulting Parliament, make i t s own laws concerning arrests, de-portation and censorship. It can pass any l e g i s l a t i o n i t deems necessary f o r the security of the country or f o r the maintenance of peace and order 22. w i t h i n the country. In t h i s instance the government passed the P u b l i c Order Regulations, which gave the a u t h o r i t i e s extensive powers. I t a l -lowed the p o l i c e to search and ar r e s t without warrant and to detain sus-pects without immediately l a y i n g charges. I t forbade the advocating of the views or p r i n c i p l e s of the FLQ and allowed f o r people advocating such 3 views to be detained i n custody without b a i l pending t r i a l . On that same day (October 16) Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau, addressing the nation on t e l e v i s i o n made a se r i e s of observations about the c r i s i s . He , 4 acknowledged the existence of "deep and important s o c i a l problems" t o which each l e v e l of government was d i r e c t i n g a large amount of energy and resources to eradicate and rejected the demands f o r the release of the ' p o l i t i c a l prisoners' and f o r money. He acknowledged the sweeping powers which accrued to the government with the proclamation of the War Measures Act and said that i t had not been proclaimed u n t i l a f t e r i t be-came " c r y s t a l c l e a r that the s i t u a t i o n could not be co n t r o l l e d unless some extraordinary assistance was made a v a i l a b l e on an urgent basis."^ He s a i d that the government was aware that a process of s o c i a l p o l a r i z a t i o n could r e s u l t i f the a u t h o r i t i e s were goaded i n t o ' i n f l e x i b l e a t t i t u d e s ' , and stated that Canada was not a country where violence had to be used to ac-complish s o c i a l change. F i n a l l y , he r e i t e r a t e d the government's and the nation's intent to stand f i r m i n the face of the c r i s i s . On October IS, the body of Mr. Laporte was found near St. Hubert a i r base and a note was subsequently found saying Mr. laporte had been "exec-uted" at 6:18 p.m. on the 17th of October. A f t e r the death of Laporte, no s i g n i f i c a n t events happened i n the c r i s i s u n t i l October 27 when I t became known that Premier Bourassa and the mayor of Montreal, Jean Drapeau, had received information that a group of 2 3 . prominent Quebecers was prepared to step i n and set up an emergency pro-v i s i o n a l government. A f t e r a f l u r r y of concern by the p r o v i n c i a l and municipal a u t h o r i t i e s , Claude Ryan offered some c l a r i f i c a t i o n on October 2 9 about the nature of t h i s p r o v i s i o n a l government.^1 He acknowledged that he had discussed the p o s s i b i l i t y of a p r o v i s i o n a l government with other prominent Quebecers at the height of the c r i s i s but emphasized that the discussion had. not gone beyond the hypothetical stage. On that same day, Mr. Bourassa revealed a plan by the FLQ to conimit an assassination every 48 hours and proferred t h i s as one of the motives which prompted him to ask f o r the proclamation of the "far Measures Act. By the end of October, 419 persons had been arrested i n Quebec as a con-sequence of the c r i s i s , but 281 were quickly released. On November 2, the f e d e r a l government moved to replace the P u b l i c Order Regulations, 1970 by the Pu b l i c Order(Temporary Measures3Act, 1970.^ "This a c t i o n by the government marked the end of the more intense phase of the c r i s i s . 24. Salient Events and Their Possible Effect Upon E d i t o r i a l Reactions I t might be expected that the e d i t o r i a l reactions would change as the c r i s i s developed and as the i n i t i a l shock of the abduction of Mr. Gross faded. The i n i t i a l kidnapping was bound to produce e d i t o r i a l reac-t i o n i n most, i f not a l l , newspapers. S imi lar ly , the demands made by the kidnappers could be expected to have e l i c i t e d strong feelings among the e d i t o r i a l writers i n the country. These i n i t i a l acts led to a series of other events which i n turn generated considerable debate among people during the development of the c r i s i s . Was i t wise for the government to have any sort of dealings with the FLQ? Was the government's entering i n -to negotiations with Mr. .Lemieux not giving a measure of recognition and possibly legitimacy to the FLQ? With the kidnapping of laporte, what might have appeared as an i s -olated act of terrorism could now be viewed as the f i r s t i n a series of conspiratorial acts by a r e l a t i v e l y large group of people. This second kidnapping could conceivably have had a strong effect upon many e d i t o r i a l writers i n the country. Some might have f e l t that a strong "law and ord-er" reaction was now, more than ever, necessary. Others might have fear-ed that too strong a reaction on the part of the authorities might engend-er exactly what they f e l t the terror is ts wanted - i . e . polarizat ion. S t i l l others might see the second kidnapping as an added impetus to probe more deeply into the causes of this type of violence. There would also be the safety of a second man's l i f e to be considered. The next major event i n the unfolding c r i s i s was the proclamation of the War Measures Act by the federal government. This governmental re-action was bound to e l i c i t a large amount of e d i t o r i a l comment. Was i t too strong a reaction , would i t be acceptable to a l l segments of the 25. population , might i t not unduly endanger the l i v e s of Messrs. Cross and laporte , might i t not portray the federal government as being insensi-tive to the aspirations of a certain segment of the Quebec population? Two days a f t e r the proclamation of the War Measures Act, the body of Pierre Laporte was found near St. Hubert Airbase , i n the v i c i n i t y of Montreal. Like the kidnapping of Mr. Laporte and the invoking of the War Measures Act, t h i s event would probably have considerable effect upon how different editors viewed the c r i s i s . Although the FLQ had many times threat-ened to k i l l Messrs. Gross and Laporte, the actual carrying out of that threat on Mr. Laporte imparted to the c r i s i s an in t e n s i t y which i t did not previously have. This act, compounded by the invocation of the War Mea-sures Act which very closely preceded i t , put the c r i s i s into a new per-spective. The authorities were i n the process of reacting more strongly to the c r i s i s and the FLQ seemed more bent upon demonstrating the serious-ness of i t s intent. A newspaper editor concerned with c i v i l l i b e r t i e s might have found f a u l t with the strong government reaction to the c r i s i s , whereas a 'law and order 1 editor might see i n the death of Mr. Laporte a proof of the need of a strong reaction on the part of the authorities. Similarly one might see i n these two actions an impetus to deepening of s o c i a l cleavage which some writers had feared might develop at the onset of the c r i s i s . On November 2, the federal government moved to replace the Public Order Regulations, 1970 by the Public Order (Temporary Measures) act, 1970. Although the actual c r i s i s continued considerably beyond t h i s point, by that date the intensity of the c r i s i s was waning. I t was now apparent that the FLQ would not be committing further acts of terrorism i n the near f u -ture and that the government, by i t s new proposed l e g i s l a t i o n , was 26. de-escalating, somewhat from i t s e a r l i e r p o s i t i o n . In s\aramary three events may have had a marked e f f e c t upon the e d i -t o r i a l r eaction t o the c r i s i s . The abduction of P i e r r e Laporte on October 10, the invocation of the War Measures Act on October 16 and the discovery of Mr. Laporte*s body on the 18th of October. The analysis of the findings w i l l be broken down according to these stages, i n the c r i s i s . What t h i s should indicate i s the changes i n the r e -actions of the various papers as the c r i s i s develops. To gauge the e f f e c t of the abduction of P i e r r e Laporte upon e d i t o r i a l r e a c t i o n , a comparison of the reactions p r i o r to the abduction,to the reactions of the papers from the 11th t o the 15th of October, (the l a s t date p r i o r t o the proclamation 8 of the War Measures A c t ) , w i l l be c a r r i e d out. As i t w i l l not be possible to i s o l a t e , with any degree of accuracy, the r e l a t i v e impact of the proclamation of the Vfer Measures Act and the death of P i e r r e Laporte upon e d i t o r i a l content, the inferences to be der-ived from t h i s comparison w i l l be more i n the nature of the e f f e c t of a deepening, or a worsening of the c r i s i s , upon e d i t o r i a l content. For t h i s part of the a n a l y s i s , e d i t o r i a l reactions of October 6 to October 15 w i l l be compared to the reactions from October 16 to Saturday, October 24. Beyond the 24th of October, one would no longer expect these two events to galvanize the a t t e n t i o n of the e d i t o r i a l i s t s . 27. FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER I I Canada News Facts, IV, Nos. 18, 19 and 20, (1970). 2I b i d . , No. 18, p. 525. 3I b i d . 4I b i d . 5I b i d . , p. 527. ^An e d i t o r i a l on t h i s subject a l s o appeared in Le Devoir on October 28 and 30. 7 For the text and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the content of the Pub l i c Order (Temporary Measures Act) 1970, see Canada News F a c t s , IV, No. 20, (1970), pp. 537-38. As the morning papers (Le Devoir, the Globe and M a i l , The Vancouver Province) would not carry views of the proclamation of the War Measures Act u n t i l the 17th, the 16th of October w i l l be the l a s t date analyzed f o r that comparison. 28. CHAPTER I I I THE NEWSPAPERS Choice of Papers The c r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c t i o n of the newspapers to be analyzed were the fol l o w i n g : that they be l ) established 2) Canadian 3) metropolitan 4) d a i l i e s . •Established' refers to the length of time a paper has been i n existence and also the q u a l i t y of the newspaper i t s e l f . For example the term ex-cludes underground publications and the more sensational press. The f o l -lowing ten newspapers were included i n the a n a l y s i s : The H a l i f a x Chronicle-Herald, The Montreal Star, La Presse, Ls Devoir, The Toronto Globe and M a i l . The Toronto D a i l y Star, The Ottawa C i t i z e n , The Winnipeg Free Press, The Vancouver Sun, The Vancouver Province. These papers represent a s i z a b l e proportion of a l l the newspapers s a t i s -f y i n g the four requirements mentioned above and can be considered to be representative of papers of that d e s c r i p t i o n . 29. Choice of Newspaper C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The c e n t r a l theme of t h i s study revolves around the idea that d i f -f erent newspapers w i l l have d i f f e r i n g e d i t o r i a l reactions to the FLQ c r i -s i s . A l l the papers analyzed were of one type - established Canadian met-r o p o l i t a n d a i l i e s . The purpose of t h i s s e c t i o n i s to s e l e c t , w i t h i n that group of newspapers, s p e c i f i c source c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which may be expect-ed t o have had some influence upon the nature of e d i t o r i a l reactions t o the c r i s i s . Generally, depending upon the perspective from which the pa-pers viewed the c r i s i s , c e r t a i n types of reactions might be expected. A c e n t r a l point t o be kept i n mind, i n the s e l e c t i o n of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i s that papers do not operate i n a vacuum - they both a f f e c t and are affected by the communities i n which they operate. One obvious f a c t o r which might be expected t o have an influence upon i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c r i s i s i s l o c a t i o n . I t would be reasonable to assume that a Montreal newspaper would view the c r i s i s d i f f e r e n t l y than a paper in,say, Winnipeg or Vancouver. E x a c t l y what that difference would consist of Is hard, i f not impossible, to p r e d i c t . But the greater sense of d i r e c t involvement i n the events which a Montreal e d i t o r i s bound to f e e l could, f o r example, i n c l i n e his attitudes towards those of need f o r law and order or the need f o r s o c i a l reform. On the assumption that e d i t o r i a l s are r e -f l e c t i o n s of (perceived) s e l f - i n t e r e s t , i t also stands to reason that a newspaper printed i n Vancouver would take a d i f f e r e n t stand on the d e s i r -a b i l i t y of the War Measures Act than would a paper printed i n French i n Montreal or a Toronto d a i l y . The l a t t e r papers, because of t h e i r presumed greater sense of involvement i n the c r i s i s , might be more wary of such a measure and hence might voice more opposition to i t . In r e l a t i o n to the 30. question of possible polarization or s o c i a l disruption stemming from the c r i s i s , i t seems plausible that papers printed i n Montreal would be more sensitive to the p o s s i b i l i t y than would papers printed outside of Quebec. As f o r the question of humanitarian concern ( i . e . concern for the l i v e s of Gross and Laporte) i t i s not re a d i l y apparent how distance from the center of the c r i s i s might affect the stand taken. Another perspective which could be expected to have an influence upon the reaction to the c r i s i s i s that of language. One might expect a French paper to be more attuned to the nature of the c r i s i s and to f e e l a certain sense of involvement i n the outcome which an English paper would not f e e l . A cursory glance at Le Devoir and the Globe and Mail, f o r ex-ample, shows that the former, and especially i t s leading e d i t o r i a l i s t , Claude Byan, was more sensitive to the s o c i a l causes of the c r i s i s and tended to underplay the need f o r law and order while the Globe and Mail seemed to be more concerned with the law and order issue and tended to underplay the need for s o c i a l reform. These differences might, of course, be at least p a r t i a l l y accounted f o r by d i f f e r i n g ideologies or p o l i t i c a l biases but language, or the identitive bonds created by language, can also be seen as affecting one's view of such a c r i s i s . Similarly, one could expect language to have some effect upon attitudes towards the War Measures Act and the Public Order Regulations, 1970. These measures v/ere invoked i n order to surpress a group of French speaking dissidents and i t i s r e -sonable to expect a stronger objection to those measures from the French papers than from the English ones. The French papers analyzed, Le Devoir and La Presse, because they are French and because they are produced i n Montreal, might also be expected to perceive the p o s s i b i l i t y of polariza-t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y from English papers, especially those outside of the 31. province of Quebec. Extent of e d i t o r i a l coverage w i l l be considered as a factor which could r e f l e c t the type of reaction to the c r i s i s . I t i s probably not just a statement of bias, f o r example, to assume that the more any e d i t o r i a l writer goes into an analysis of the c r i s i s , the less l i k e l y he i s to dwell upon the simple "law and order" theme as the only possible solution to this type of c r i s i s . Also, more extensive e d i t o r i a l coverage might be seen as an indicator of greater awareness of the various facets of the c r i s i s . This might, i n turn, affect attitudes towards the federal govern-ment's reactions to the c r i s i s (the War Measures Act and Public Order Reg-ulations) or towards s o c i a l reform as a solution to the c r i s i s . Several f a i r l y obvious source characteristics w i l l not be considered i n this study. One of these i s p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n ( i f any) of the pa-pers. Although one might hypothesize, quite j u s t i f i a b l y , about the r e l a -tionship between p o l i t i c a l preferences and any or a l l of the f i v e categor-ies used i n t h i s study, the ascribing of s p e c i f i c p o l i t i c a l labels to most of the newspapers i s bound to be done more impressionistlcally than objec-t i v e l y . On the other hand, an analysis of the findings might warrant a statement about the relative ideological orientations of the newspapers studied. For a different reason, the question of independence versus chain ownership as possible determinants of reaction w i l l not be consider-ed. Such a consideration might conceivably affect the quality of report-ing"'" but i t i s not apparent how i t would affect the type of e d i t o r i a l re-action i n t h i s sort of c r i s i s . 32. Choice of E d i t o r i a l s A l l the papers to be analyzed i n this study have a set e d i t o r i a l page, thus greatly f a c i l i t a t i n g the identifying of e d i t o r i a l content. Occasionally a paper (the Toronto Daily Star, f o r example) may have a front page e d i t o r i a l , but i n such case i t i s designated as e d i t o r i a l con-tent and poses.no problem of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Syndicated columns appearing i n the e d i t o r i a l page or elsewnere w i l l not be included. Although i t i s true that some papers may r e l y f o r t h e i r e d i t o r i a l content about the FLQ c r i s i s upon a syndicated writer, there i s no reason to assume that that column i s a r e f l e c t i o n of a given newspaper's e d i t o r i a l attitude towards the c r i s i s . As such, to make inferences about a paper's reaction towards the c r i s i s from an analysis of syndicated c o l -umns (among others) would be misleading. For the same reasons, a l l e d i t o r i a l s or a r t i c l e s printed i n the ed-i t o r i a l page, but originating from sources other than that given paper's e d i t o r i a l s t a f f , w i l l not be included i n the analysis. In a l l the papers to be analyzed a l l content f a l l i n g within t h i s description would be iden-t i f i e d as such. There i s thus no problem i n determining what i s and what i s not e d i t o r i a l content written (or copied from another source) by a given newspaper's e d i t o r i a l s t a f f . E d i t o r i a l cartoons w i l l not be included. It i s true that a cartoon i s a message i n the same sense that a written e d i t o r i a l i s a message. Therefore one might say that e d i t o r i a l cartoons produced by a member of a given paper's e d i t o r i a l s t a f f i s one re f l e c t i o n of that paper's attitude on a given topic. The problem with the inclusion of the e d i t o r i a l cartoon i n the analysis i s one of method. S p e c i f i c a l l y , how i s one to determine the 33. extent to which a cartoon i s a r e f l e c t i o n of a t t i t u d e , keeping i n mind that the measure must be i n agreement with the frequency count method used i n w r i t t e n editorials'? As i t i s not apparent how these two types of e d i t o r i a l content could be aggregated f o r the purpose of t h i s study, i n -c l u s i o n of e d i t o r i a l cartoons would give misleading r e s u l t s concerning the reactions of papers to the c r i s i s . Cf any given newspaper's own e d i t o r i a l content, a l l e d i t o r i a l s i n which the c r i s i s Is mentioned, e i t h e r as a c e n t r a l or a p e r i p h e r a l theme, w i l l be analyzed f o r b i t s of content f a l l i n g w i t h i n one of the categories. 34. FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER i n ^?or a discussion of the e f f e c t s of chain ownership upon q u a l i t y of newspapers i n Canada, see: Canada, Senate, Report of the Sp e c i a l Senate Committee on Mass Media, (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r f o r Canada, 1970), Vol. I, "The Uncertain M i r r o r , " pp. 63-91. 35. CHAPTER IV" PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS CF FINDINGS Reactions f o r the E n t i r e Period Analyzed The differences i n e d i t o r i a l r e a c t i o n are broken down i n t o two basic types. The f i r s t i s the difference i n the amount of e d i t o r i a l coverage given to the c r i s i s , both f o r the e n t i r e period analyzed, and f o r s p e c i f i c segments of the c r i s i s corresponding to the time periods between s a l i e n t events. The second i s the number of e d i t o r i a l reactions per category, again f o r the e n t i r e period and f o r the s p e c i f i c segments of the c r i s i s . These l a t t e r f i n d i n g s , f o r the sake of comparison, are presented i n per-centage points per category, so as to compensate f o r the differences i n the t o t a l ' b i t s ' of data gathered f o r the d i f f e r e n t newspapers. For the purpose of comparing amount of e d i t o r i a l r e a c t i o n to the c r i s i s , i t had o r i g i n a l l y been intended to simply make a t a l l y of any given paper's e d i t o r i a l s dealing with the c r i s i s and compare these f i n d -ings. However, i n the process of a n a l y s i s , i t became evident that a sim-ple dichotomy between e d i t o r i a l s pertaining to the c r i s i s and others was not the best i n d i c a t o r of a paper's amount of e d i t o r i a l r e a c t i o n to the c r i s i s . I t would be more accurate to say that there were four basic types of e d i t o r i a l s f o r t h i s purpose: these c e n t r a l l y concerned with the c r i s i s , those dealing i n d i r e c t l y with the c r i s i s (e.g. an e d i t o r i a l r e -l a t i n g the Montreal c i v i c e l e c t i o n to the c r i s i s ) and those i n which only a cursory mention of the c r i s i s i s made, (e.g. an e d i t o r i a l dealing with the Vancouver mayor's intended uses of the War Measures Act). The fo u r t h type would be any other e d i t o r i a l appearing i n that paper. Rather than t a k i n g an e d i t o r i a l count i t appeared that a comparison of the t o t a l b i t s of information obtained i n the analysis would be s u i t -able f o r a comparison of amount of e d i t o r i a l reaction. I f t h i s procedure 'Ik i s used, one point should be made c l e a r . What i s being compared with t h i s method, given the nature of the categories i n t h i s study, i s the number of a t t i t u d i n a l statements pertaining to the c r i s i s , rather than the t o t a l a-mount of e d i t o r i a l content i n which the c r i s i s i s mentioned. Such a s t a t e -ment as, "on October 16 the government proclaimed the War Measures Act", though i t may appear i n an e d i t o r i a l , i s not, s t r i c t l y speaking, a s t a t e -ment of a t t i t u d e and hence would not be included In the tabul a t i o n . Keep-ing t h i s f a c t i n mind, one can assume that r e l a t i v e amounts of e d i t o r i a l reactions w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the r e l a t i v e number of b i t s of information gleaned from the papers analyzed. The second type of e d i t o r i a l reaction to be analyzed w i l l be the number of e d i t o r i a l reactions per category per paper. As mentioned above, these reactions w i l l be presented i n percentage points per category. Table I summarizes these two types of reactions f o r the entire period analyzed. The categories used f o r a n a l y s i s are the f o l l o w i n g : 1) Need f o r law and order, 2) Need f o r s o c i a l reform, 3) Concern f o r the safety of the kidnap v i c t i m s , 4) Dangers of excessive reaction by the a u t h o r i t i e s , 4a) Outside intervention i n c r i s i s , (Ottawa), 4b) Ottawa should have given b e t t e r reasons f o r invoking the War Measures Act and the Public Order Regulations, 1970. 5) Dangers of s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n . 37. TABLE I E d i t o r i a l Reactions of I n d i v i d u a l Papers to the C r i s i s Papers T o t a l B i t s * 1 2 Categories 3 4 4a 4b 5 Le Devoir 113 20.2 13.0 20.2 33.3 2.8 0 10.5 La Presse 110 36.0 13.0 6.0 26.0 2.0 i.o : 16.0 Globe and M a i l 83 24.1 7.2 6.0 43.4 0 10.8 8.5 D a i l y Star 73 18.0 16.4 4.9 41 .0 0 18.0 1.6 Montreal Star 70 29.8 26.7 3.1 31.0 0 1.6 7.8 Ottawa C i t i z e n 56 43.0 16.3 4.1 22.3 0 14.3 0 Vancouver Sun 56 51.8 3.7 7.4 25.9 0 11.2 0 Winnipeg Free Press 51 49.0 2.0 2.0 9.8 0 13.7 23.5 Chronicle-Herald 33 65.6 3.2 12.5 12.5 3,1 3.1 0 Vancouver Province 26 57.8 11.5 0 23.0 0 0 7.7 Table I l i s t s the papers i n the order of decreasing e d i t o r i a l r e a c t i o n to the c r i s i s , as gauged by t o t a l number of b i t s of information obtained from each. Keeping i n mind the possible l i m i t a t i o n s of that method of compari-son, i t i s apparent that there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between geographical l o -cation of a paper and the extent of e d i t o r i a l reaction to the c r i s i s . Generally, those papers published i n Ontario and Quebec had more e d i t o r i a l comment about the c r i s i s than those published i n other provinces. Also, the two French d a i l i e s from Montreal had a markedly greater nuirfcer of reactions than did the Montreal Star or any other paper. Judging from the difference i n the amount of reaction between these two French papers 36. and the Montreal Star one could t e n t a t i v e l y say that language a f f e c t s the amount of e d i t o r i a l r e a c t i o n to the c r i s i s . A comparison of the amount of e d i t o r i a l content per category between papers i n d i c a t e s that distance also has an e f f e c t upon how newspapers view the c r i s i s . Those papers s i t u a t e d outside of Ontario and Quebec put an overwhelming emphasis upon 'lav/ and order' as a means of coping with the c r i s i s (category l ) , whereas the papers from these two provinces were more concerned with the dangers inherent i n an excessive 'law and order' reac-t i o n by the a u t h o r i t i e s (category 4). Also, the papers from c e n t r a l Canada would more frequently advocate s o c i a l reform (category 2) as solutions t o the c r i s i s than would papers from other provinces, t h i s being p a r t i c u l a r l y so f o r the E n g l i s h papers of Toronto, Montreal and Ottawa. Save f o r Le Devoir, the papers analyzed seemed to have r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e concern f o r the safety of the kidnap victims (category 3), and the findings would i n d i c a t e that there i s l i t t l e c o r r e l a t i o n between language and/or distance and t h i s consideration. Fears of s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n r e s u l t i n g from the c r i s i s (category 5) were more evident i n the French papers than i n English ones (with the no-table exception of the Wjjonipeg Free Press). Distance does not seem to greatly a f f e c t t h i s type of reaction, except i n s o f a r as language and d i s -tance are correlated. F i n a l l y , most of the E n g l i s h papers were often quite c r i t i c a l of the f e d e r a l government's p u b l i c l y stated reasons f o r the proclamation of the War Measures Act and Public Order Regulations (category 4b) with the Eng-l i s h papers from c e n t r a l Canada being somewhat more concerned about t h i s than the papers from other regions. Table 2 compares the e d i t o r i a l reac-tions of the papers, grouped by geographical l o c a t i o n and by language. 3 9 . TABLE I I E d i t o r i a l Reactions of Papers to the C r i s i s , Grouped by Language and by Geographical Location Types of Papers Average: bits/paper 1 2 Categorie 3 4 s 4a 4b 5 French. Que. 112 28.0 12.9 13 .5 29.8 2.4 0 .5 12.9 English Ont.Que. 72 27.6 16.0 4.7 35 .8 0 10,8 5.1 Eng.(other regions) 42 54.6 4.3 5 . 5 17.8 0.6 8.6 8.6 Figure I depicts the combined e f f e c t s of language and geographical l o c a t i o n upon the amount of e d i t o r i a l reaction and the nature of that r e -action. I t would appear that the sing l e greatest determinant of the type of reaction to the c r i s i s i s geographical l o c a t i o n . This i s indicated by the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n re a c t i o n between French and E n g l i s h papers, of c e n t r a l Canada, and the d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s In reactions between the l a t t e r and E n g l i s h papers from other regions. Those observations are p a r t i c u -l a r l y true of categories 1, 2 and 4 . As mentioned above, a l l the papers analyzed, save f o r Le Devoir, only infrequently showed concern f o r the safety of the kidnap v i c t i m s , (category 3). I t i s not apparent which newspaper c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ( s ) , i f any, would a f f e c t how a paper would react on t h i s subject. There was a c e r t a i n amount of resentment i n the two French papers over the f e d e r a l government's involvement i n the s e t t l i n g of the c r i s i s , although i n both cases the reaction was s l i g h t , (category 4a). The English papers across the country generally seemed to be i n agreement about the inadequacy of the f e d e r a l government's stated reasons CATEGORIES • 1 2 4a 4b Vancouver 10 7 FIGURE I Amount and Types of E d i t o r i a l Reactions to the C r i s i s , with Papers Grouped by Geographical Location Winnipeg 1 Toronto 4 3 r t -Ot ta' £wa" ^~ Montreal 1 2 5 1. Le Devoir 2. l a Presse 3. Globe and M a i l 4. D a i l y Star 5. Montreal Star 6. Ottawa C i t -i zen 7. Vancouver Sun 8. Winnipeg Free Press 9. H a l i f a x Chron-icl e - H e r a l d 10. Vancouver Province HaUf ax 9 f o r the invocation of the War Measures Act and Public Order Regulations (category 4b). I t should be noted that t h i s type of r e a c t i o n does not n e c e s s a r i l y imply a disapproval of the government's a c t i o n , as i t may simp-l y be a demand f o r greater openness on the part of the f e d e r a l government i n t h i s matter. In the same way Category 5, which records reactions touch-ing upon the dangers of s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n as a consequence of the c r i s i s , i s somewhat ambiguous. As was mentioned before, most of the reactions touching upon t h i s t o p i c were quite nebulous i n that they d i d not specify who was p r i m a r i l y to blame f o r t h i s danger - the FLQ, the f e d e r a l govern-ment (because of i t s strong reaction) or some other agent(s). Categories 1, 2 and 4 are a l l i n d i c a t i o n s of views on what should be done, or avoided, i n t r y i n g to solve t h i s type of c r i s i s . In these matters language had l i t t l e e f f e c t upon the nature of the reaction, proximity to the c r i s i s being the determining f a c t o r . Categories 1, 2 and 4 can be viewed from an i d e o l o g i c a l perspective. Law and order versus s o c i a l reform as solutions to the c r i s i s (categories 1 and 2) i s one way of comparing those two categories. Need f o r order versus the dangers to i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t i e s which excessive governmental re a c t i o n might e n t a i l i s one xvay of comparing reactions f a l l i n g w i t h i n categories 1 and 4 respectively. Granting the i d e o l o g i c a l dimension of those three categories, one or both of the f o l l o w i n g observations i s warranted: 1) the press of c e n t r a l Canada i s more l i b e r a l than the press i n other regions. 2) the press of c e n t r a l Canada took a more l i b e r a l view of the c r i s i s than the press i n other regions. One cannot say o f f hand whether i t i s a set l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e on the part of those papers from Ontario and Quebec which conditioned t h e i r reactions 42. t o the c r i s i s or t h e i r proximity to the c r i s i s which imparted to them a more l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e than they might have had, had t h i s type of c r i s i s occurred elsewhere. To do so would e n t a i l a comparative study of the reactions of those papers t o t h i s c r i s i s and to a s i m i l a r c r i s i s elsewhere. Judging from the f i n d i n g s , i t i s not quite c l e a r what r e l a t i o n s h i p , i f any, amount of e d i t o r i a l r e a c t i o n has with the type of r e a c t i o n . What i s apparent i s that proximity to the c r i s i s a f f e c t s the amount of r e a c t i o n . Consequently, i t i s not possible to i s o l a t e the e f f e c t which the amount of reac t i o n may have upon the type of r e a c t i o n . Reactions to Major Events Within the C r i s i s The l a t t e r part of the analysis of the findings i s broken down in t o two sec t i o n s . The f i r s t i s a measure of the e f f e c t of the kidnapping of P i e r r e Laporte upon e d i t o r i a l r e a c t i o n , the second a measure of the e f f e c t of the events of October 16-19 upon that r e a c t i o n . To measure the changes i n e d i t o r i a l reactions as a r e s u l t of the k i d -napping of P i e r r e Laporte, the e d i t o r i a l reactions from October 6 to Oct-ober 10 w i l l be compared to the reactions f o l l o w i n g the kidnapping, up to 2 October 15, beyond which time e d i t o r i a l reactions would be conditioned by the proclamation of the War Measures Act. To measure the e f f e c t of the l a t t e r two events (the f e d e r a l government's reac t i o n and the death of Laporte) upon e d i t o r i a l comment a l l e d i t o r i a l reactions p r i o r to these events (Oct. 6 to Oct. 15, or 16 f o r morning papers) are compared to the e d i t o r i a l reactions i n the week fo l l o w i n g the events, ending on Saturday, October 24. Two types of comparisons are presented i n each case: They are: 1) A comparison of the change i n the amount of e d i t o r i a l reaction per day, before and a f t e r the events, 2) a comparison of the change i n the proportion of e d i t o r i a l reactions per category, before and a f t e r the events. To measure the degree of change i n the amounts of e d i t o r i a l reaction as a consequence of the events, the r a t i o of the average amount of reac-t i o n per day a f t e r the event of to the average amount of reaction per day before the event i s taken. Consequently, any number greater than 1 i n the "BITS, AFTSH/BEF0H3" column i n the tables indicates an increase i n the average amount of reaction per day a f t e r the event, whereas a number small-er than 1 i n d i c a t e s a decrease i n the amount of reaction i n the same period. To measure the e f f e c t of an event upon the type of e d i t o r i a l reaction, the difference i n percentage points per category before and a f t e r the event i s taken with a plus or minus symbol t o in d i c a t e whether the proportion of reactions f a l l i n g w i t h i n any given category increased or decreased as a consequence of the event. Besides measuring the effects of these events upon the e d i t o r i a l reactions of i n d i v i d u a l newspapers, a measure of the e f f e c t of the pre-v i o u s l y mentioned newspaper c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s upon the changes i n reaction i s also taken. (Those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are language and geographical l o -cation. ) Table 3 indicates the changes i n the amount and i n the type of r e -act i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l papers, as a consequence of the kidnapping of Pierre Laporte. I t should be cautioned that except f o r Le Devoir, La Presse and the Globe and M a i l , the amount of e d i t o r i a l reactions e i t h e r before or i n the period immediately fo l l o w i n g the abduction of Laporte was s l i g h t , so that a large s h i f t i n percentage points per category, as indicated i n Table 3, does not necessarily i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t i n a t t i t u d e . To make inferences about a newspaper's views regarding a s p e c i f i c aspect of the c r i s i s from a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of 4-5 b i t s of content"' might be 44. misleading. What i s more s i g n i f i c a n t i n Table 3 i s the change i n the amount of e d i t o r i a l reacting and simply the d i r e c t i o n of change i n the type of r e a c t i o n . A large number i s not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t i v e of very much change i n absolute terms. TABLS I I I Changes i n the Amount and i n the Type of Reaction, Following the Abduction of Pierre Laporte, f o r I n d i v i d u a l Papers. Name of Paper B i t s : Before/ A f t e r 1 2 3 Categories 4 4a 4b 5 Le Devoir 3.4 0.5 -11.9 -16.4 13.6 2.3 0 11.9 La Presse 4.3 -83.3 22.2 22.2 22 • 2 0 0 16.7 Globe and M a i l 2.4 -50.4 0 3.3 29.5 0 0 17.6 D a i l y Star 0.3 75.0 -25.0 -50,0 0 0 0 0 Montreal Star 0.4 -12.5 25.0 -12.5 0 0 0 0 Ottawa C i t i z e n 1.9 50.0 -16.7 -33.3 0 0 0 0 Vancouver Sun 1.9 50.0 0 -50.0 0 0 0 0 Winnipeg Free Press 0.9 62.5 0 -12.5 -12.5 0 0 -37.5 Chronicle-Herald 0-8 -50.0 -16.7 -33.3 0 0 0 0 Vancouver Province 1.3 -66.7 0 0 66.7 0 0 0 The three papers which reacted most to the abduction of Laporte are Le Devoir, La Presse, and the Globe and M a i l . The nature of t h e i r reactions i s also quite s i m i l a r . They tended to de-emphasize the need f o r law and 45. order and to become more preoccupied with the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of excessive reaction by the a u t h o r i t i e s . They al s o more frequently alluded to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n which the c r i s i s might e n t a i l . La Presse showed an increase i n concern f o r the safety of the kidnap v i c -tims whereas Le Devoir de-emphasized that aspect of the c r i s i s . There i s very l i t t l e change on that issue i n the Globe and M a i l . Need f o r s o c i a l reform i s given less importance than I t previously had i n Le Devoir whereas La Presse tended to place more importance upon t h i s . The kidnapping of P i e r r e Laporte did not a f f e c t the Globe and Mail's views on the subject of s o c i a l reform. As mentioned above, the amount of e d i t o r i a l r e a c t i o n shown during t h i s phase of the c r i s i s by the other papers i s marginal. A few observa-t i o n s on the nature of t h e i r reactions i s warranted, however. There vra.s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e change i n the amount of e d i t o r i a l reaction as a con-sequence of the second kidnapping. The change i n the type of re a c t i o n tended towards an increasing emphasis on law and order, with a concomitant decrease i n mention of need f o r s o c i a l reform and of concern f o r the s a f e t y of the kidnap v i c t i m s . Very l i t t l e was made i n these papers of the poss-i b i l i t y of excessive reaction by the a u t h o r i t i e s to the i n i t i a t i v e s of the FLQ, e i t h e r before or a f t e r the kidnapping of Pierre Laporte. In general then, those papers showing the greatest Increase i n the amount of e d i t o r i a l reaction as a consequence of the kidnapping of P i e r r e Laporte tended to de-emphasize need f o r law and order and to show increas-ing concern f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y of excessive reaction by the a u t h o r i t i e s and f o r the danger of s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n , whereas these papers showing the le a s t increase i n the amount of e d i t o r i a l content tended to put more em-phasis than they previously had upon the need f o r law and order with a 46. consequent decrease of emphasis i n every other type of reaction. TABLE IV Changes i n the Amount and i n the Type of Reaction, f o r Papers Grouped by Language and by Geographical Location, Following the Abduction of P i e r r e Laporte. Types of Papers B i t s A f t e r Before i 2 Categories 3 4 4a 4b 5 French:Que. 3.8 -25.1 -1.8 —4.8 16.3 1.6 0 13.4 E n g l i s h : Ont.-Que. 1.3 - 4.5 -11.7 -12.9 18.5 0 0 11.1 E n g l i s h : Other 1« 2 37.3 — 4.4 -26.1 6.2 0 0 -13.1 As t a b l e 4 i n d i c a t e s , there was a nearly f o u r f o l d increase i n the amount of e d i t o r i a l r e a c t i o n on the average per day, i n the French papers, fol l o w i n g the kidnapping, compared with a r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t increase i n the amount of e d i t o r i a l reactions among the English papers of c e n t r a l Canada or of other regions f o r the same period. The French papers noticeably de-emphasized need f o r law and order a f t e r the second kidnapping and showed a marked increase i n apprehension over the p o s s i b i l i t y of excessive reaction by the a u t h o r i t i e s , along with an increasing awareness of the dangers of s o c i a l disruptions. Their other reactions remained r e l a t i v e l y unchanged. The reactions of the English papers from c e n t r a l Canada was s i m i l a r to that of the French papers when dealing with the question of possible excessive reaction by the a u t h o r i t i e s and that of the dangers of s o c i a l d isruption -but showed only a s l i g h t de-crease i n t h e i r emphasis upon need f o r law and order. For these papers the areas of major decrease i n emphasis following the second abduction are those 47. dealing with need f o r s o c i a l reform and humanitarian concern f o r the k i d -nap v i c t i m s . The E n g l i s h papers from other regions increased by more than one t h i r d t h e i r emphasis upon need f o r law and order and showed a s l i g h t increase i n t h e i r awareness of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of an excessive reaction by the a u t h o r i t i e s , f o l l o w i n g the abduction. They consequently tended to de-em-phasize any other type of r e a c t i o n , showing noticeably less concern f o r the safety of the kidnap v i c t i m s and placing l e s s import upon the possib-i l i t i e s of s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n than they had previously. The E n g l i s h papers from c e n t r a l Canada and the French papers chang-ed i n the same d i r e c t i o n (plus or minus) i n every category, but both types d i f f e r e d i n two categories ( l and 5) from those of other regions. Coupled w i t h the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the change i n the amount of e d i t o r i a l reactions f o r both types of Eng l i s h papers, and t h e i r difference from the French papers i n that respect, i t would appear that geographical l o c a t i o n has the greater e f f e c t upon the q u a l i t y of e d i t o r i a l reactions as a consequence of the kidnapping. However, as the degree of change i n reactions 'was quite d i f f e r e n t i n some categories ( e s p e c i a l l y i n the 'law and order' ca-tegory) between the French papers and the English papers of c e n t r a l Canada, language can a l s o be seen to have had some e f f e c t upon the nature of the change i n reactions f o l l o w i n g the abduction. Judging from the much greater increase i n the amount of e d i t o r i a l reaction i n the French papers than i n the English papers, i t would appear that the former placed s i g n i f i c a n t l y more importance upon the kidnapping of Laporte, w i t h i n the context of the c r i s i s - , than d i d the l a t t e r . This of I t s e l f , however, does not seem to be the only determinant of how papers changed t h e i r e d i t o r i a l views fo l l o w i n g that event. 43. Table 5 measures the combined e f f e c t s of the proclamation of the War Measures Act, the Public Order Regulations and the death of Pierre laporte upon change i n e d i t o r i a l reactions to the c r i s i s . I t i s a com-parison of a l l the e d i t o r i a l reactions p r i o r to these events to the e d i -t o r i a l reactions f o r the week fo l l o w i n g the events. TABLE J Changes In the Amount and i n the Type of Reaction, Following the Events of October 16-19, f o r I n d i v i d u a l Papers Name of Paper B i t s : Before/ A f t e r 1 2 Categories 3 4 4a 4b 5 Le Devoir .75 -23.0 -1.4 -23.0 52.8 3.9 0 -9.3 l a Presse 2.9 0.4 -7.2 -12.5 8.6 0 1.7 9.0 Globe and M a i l 3.2 -34.6 11.5 -14.8 25.4 0 17.3 -4.8 'Daily Star 10.9 -23. 0 -1.1 -33.1 43.3 0 17.0 1.9 Montreal Star 4.2 -28.4 -9.0 - 7.4 29.0 0 2»6 13.2 Ottawa C i t i z e n 2.7 -44.6 12.9 -15.3 26.4 0 20.6 0 Vancouver Sun 2.3 -20.3 -4.4 -12.0 30.0 0 6.7 0 Winnipeg Free Press 2.2 -L2.7 3.4 - 7.1 -0.1 0 7.0 9.5 Chronicle-Herald 1.9 3.9 -11.1 -16.3 17.6 5.9 0 0 Vancouver Province 2.7 9.1 0 3.1 0 0 0 The most obvious e f f e c t of these two events upon e d i t o r i a l reaction to the c r i s i s i s the nearly unanimous s h i f t away from a "law and order" r e a c t i o n and the concomitant marked increase i n emphasis upon the dangers 49. of excessive government reaction to the c r i s i s . In the E n g l i s h press, t h i s l a t t e r r e a c t i o n was accompanied by statements to the e f f e c t that the f e d e r a l government's stated reasons f o r the proclamation of the Act and the Regulations were not s u f f i c i e n t , given the magnitude of the powers inherent i n those measures. A l s o , a l l the papers analyzed, save f o r the Vancouver Province, which never mentioned that issue i n the f i r s t p l a c e , put l e s s emphasis upon the humanitarian consideration as a consequence of those two events. There was r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e s h i f t , looking at the papers as one group, i n the other categories. Among i n d i v i d u a l papers, Le Devoir reacted the most s t r o n g l y against the f e d e r a l government's i n i t i a t i v e s and had proportionately fewer reactions f a l l i n g i n t o the other categories than i t d i d before the proclamation of the War Measures Act. The reaction of La Presse seemed to be only s l i g h t l y a ffected by these events. The E n g l i s h papers of Toronto, Montreal and Ottawa a l l tended to react i n the same way. They showed a s u b s t a n t i a l i n -crease i n the amount of e d i t o r i a l r e a c t i o n , with the d i r e c t i o n and extent of the change being quite s i m i l a r , but with the f o l l o w i n g exceptions: 1) The D a i l y Star and the Montreal Star put somewhat l e s s emphasis upon need f o r s o c i a l reform than they had p r e v i o u s l y , whereas the Globe and M a i l and the Ottawa C i t i z e n put increasing emphasis on that t o p i c . 2) There was some variance among these papers over the perception of dangers of s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n as a consequence of the events of October 16-19. Generally, a l l the papers tended to emphasize the dangers of the government's reaction and to de-emphasize the 'law and order' and the 'humanitarian con-cern' r e a c t i o n s . There was a s u b s t a n t i a l increase i n the amount of e d i t o r i a l reaction 50. i n .the E n g l i s h papers outside of Ontario and Quebec. Also, although the s h i f t i n t h e i r e d i t o r i a l reactions tends to be i n the same d i r e c t i o n as that of the papers of these two provinces, the extent of the change i s generally less pronounced. This would indicate that the events of October l6<-19 had le s s e f f e c t upon the e d i t o r i a l reactions of those papers than they d i d upon the papers of Ontario and Quebec. TABLE 71 Changes i n the Amount and i n the Type of .Reaction, f o r Papers grouped by Language and by Geographical Location, Following the Events of October 16-19. Types of X 2 P a P e r s S^fc-re French-Que. 1.8 -5.8 -3.1 Eng.Ont.Que. 5.3 -35.1 7.9 Eng.-Other 2.3 -11.6 1.1 Categories 3 4 4a 4b 5 -21 . 7 27.3 1.0 1.1 1.1 -15.6 28 . 3 0 14.7 -0.1 -12.0 13.6 1 .2 4.6 3.2 Table 6 shows that the d i r e c t i o n of the change i n reactions was generally s i m i l a r f o r a l l three types of papers, with the major difference being, as mentioned above, i n the extent of the change. In comparing the changes i n the amount of reaction pursuant to the laporte kidnapping (Table 4) and l a t e r to the events of October 16-19, i t becomes evident that the French papers s u b s t a n t i a l l y increased t h e i r e d i t -o r i a l content pertaining to the c r i s i s a f t e r the former event, -/fhereas the En g l i s h papers noticeably increased t h e i r s only a f t e r October 16. I f one assumes a r e l a t i o n s h i p between amount of e d i t o r i a l reaction and l e v e l of 51. involvement, i t becomes apparent that the abduction of Laporte was seen as a much more s i g n i f i c a n t event by the French papers analyzed than i t was by the E n g l i s h papers generally. The reactions of the E n g l i s h papers, on the other hand, would i n d i c a t e that the proclamation of the l i a r Measures Act and the death of P i e r r e Laporte were the most s i g n i f i c a n t events of the c r i s i s i n t h e i r eyes. I t could be expected that the dramatic death of a p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e could e l i c i t strong reactions throughout the country. Likewise, the proclamation of the 77ar Measures Act was bound to e l i c i t widespread and strong e d i t o r i a l reaction. VJhat i s perhaps more s u r p r i s i n g i n the e d i t o r i a l reaction of the E n g l i s h press generally, Is the r e l a t i v e dearth of e d i t o r i a l r e a c t i o n f o l l o w i n g the kidnapping of P i e r r e Laporte. I f one accepts the r e l a t i o n s h i p between amount of e d i t o r i a l r e a c t i o n and l e v e l of involvement, then i t would seem that that event was seen by the E n g l i s h press as a p r i m a r i l y French Canadian, Quebec concern and of r e l a -t i v e l y l i t t l e impact f o r the rest of the country. A comparison of Tables 4 and 6 also shows that v/hereas the French papers s i g n i f i c a n t l y s h i f t e d away from the advocacy of law and order a f t e r the kidnapping of lapo r t e , the E n g l i s h papers had a s i m i l a r reaction only a f t e r the War Measures Act and the Public Order Regulations, which affected the entire country, were proclaimed. In other words, i t appears that the papers analyzed advocated law and order to the extent that i t was seen as applying to a region or group other than the one i n which they were opera-t i v e . A f t e r the proclamation of the War Measures Act, which may be seen as e s s e n t i a l l y a law and order reaction to the c r i s i s , but applying to the e n t i r e country, the attitudes of most newspapers towards need f o r lav; and or-der jchanged, sometimes dramatically,^ although the change i n a t t i t u d e may also have been conditioned by the death of Laporte. 52. F i n a l l y j i t would appear that l e v e l of involvement i n the c r i s i s , as gauged by change i n the amount of e d i t o r i a l reaction, had a s l i g h t l y p o s i t i v e e f f e c t upon the papers' advocacy of s o c i a l reform as solutions to t h i s type of c r i s i s . As the e d i t o r i a l r e a c t i o n by the En g l i s h press to the c r i s i s increased ( a f t e r October 16) they placed proportionately more emphasis upon need f o r s o c i a l reform than they had previously. 53. Conclusion The two basic objectives of t h i s paper have been to: 1) measure the e d i t o r i a l reactions of papers and of types of papers td the FLQ c r i s i s , from October 6 to November 2, and, 2) to measure the extent to which the kidnapping of P i e r r e laporte on the one hand and the events of October 16-19 on the other, affected the e d i t o r i a l reactions of the papers analyzed. What follows i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s a presentation, i n summary form, of the s a l i e n t f i n d i n g s pertaining to those two objectives • E d i t o r i a l reactions of papers f o r the e n t i r e period analyzed: 1) The papers from Ontario and Quebec devoted more e d i t o r i a l content to the c r i s i s , generally, than d i d papers from other regions. 2) The French papers had the greater amount of e d i t o r i a l content about the c r i s i s . 3) Geographical l o c a t i o n had a noticeable e f f e c t upon some types of reactions. (a) Papers from outside of Ontario and Quebec put a greater em-phasis upon the need f o r lav; and order. (b) Papers from Ontario and Quebec (English and French) were more concerned with the dangers inherent i n an excessive reaction by the a u t h o r i t i e s to the c r i s i s . (c) Papers from Ontario and Quebec more frequently mentioned s o c i a l problems as causes of the c r i s i s , with a concurrent advocacy of s o c i a l reform i n order to solve t h i s type of c r i s i s . 4) Geographical l o c a t i o n appeared to have l i t t l e e f f e c t upon: (a) Concern f o r the safety of the kidnap v i c t i m s , and 54. (b) Fear of s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n as a consequence of the c r i s i s . 5) Language a f f e c t e d some types of reactions. (a) The French papers from Quebec occasionally showed a s l i g h t resentment towards the f e d e r a l government's involvement i n the c r i s i s , whereas, of course, the E n g l i s h papers d i d not, (b) E n g l i s h papers frequently mentioned that the f e d e r a l govern-ment should give (or should have given) more j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i t s a c t i o n , f o l l o w i n g the proclamation of the War Measures Act. (c) French papers showed more concern f o r the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n than d i d Eng l i s h papers. If one assumes the i d e o l o g i c a l dimension of categories 1, 2 and 4, one or both of the f o l l o w i n g observations i s warranted: 1) The press i n Ontario and Quebec i s generally more l i b e r a l than the press from other regions of Canada, or, 2) the f a c t that the c r i s i s occured i n c e n t r a l Canada imparted to the press of that region a more l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e than i t might otherwise have had, had a c r i s i s of the sort occurred elsewhere. E f f e c t of the kidnapping of Pi e r r e Laporte upon e d i t o r i a l reaction 1) Those papers which most increased t h e i r e d i t o r i a l comment about the c r i s i s a f t e r the second kidnapping (Le Devoir, La Presse and the Globe and Mail) tended to have s i m i l a r changes i n the nature of t h e i r reactions -away from advocacy of 'law and order' and towards apprehension over pos-s i b l e excessive reaction by the a u t h o r i t i e s . 2) Le Devoir put less emphasis upon the safety of the kidnap victims than i t did p r i o r to the second kidnapping. 3) l a Presse put greater emphasis than previously upon concern f o r safety of the kidnap -victims. 4) The Globe and Mail's concern f o r the safety of the victims was proportionately about the same as previously. 5) The other seven papers analyzed reacted l i t t l e to the kidnapping of Laporte, Also, they tended to put more emphasis upon need f o r law and order and to consequently de-emphasize advocacy of s o c i a l reform and con-cern f o r the safety of the hostages. Grouping the papers by types (language, l o c a t i o n ) , the f o l l o w i n g observations are warranted: 1) The French papers g r e a t l y increased the amount of e d i t o r i a l r e -a c t i o n f o l l o w i n g the second abduction, the Eng l i s h papers generally very l i t t l e , i f at a l l . 2) The French papers tended to place less emphasis upon need f o r law and order and more upon the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of excessive reaction by the a u t h o r i t i e s and of s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n than they had previously. The E n g l i s h papers, separated i n t o two groups according to geographical l o c a t i o n , had the f o l l o w i n g reactions: Papers from c e n t r a l Canada: (English) 3) Showed l i t t l e change i n emphasis upon law and order, compared to reactions before the second abduction, 4) Showed a noticable increase (proportionately) i n concern over the p o s s i b i l i t y of excessive reaction by the a u t h o r i t i e s . 5) Showed a r e l a t i v e decrease i n advocacy of s o c i a l reform. 6) Showed a r e l a t i v e decrease i n concern f o r safety of the hostages. Papers from other regions: 7) Strongly increased t h e i r advocacy of law and order, i n comparison 56. to t h e i r r e a c t i o n previously. 8) Occasionally mentioned the p o s s i b i l i t y of excessive reaction by the a u t h o r i t i e s , whereas no mention had been made of t h i s previously. 9) Put l e s s emphasis upon a l l other types of reactions than they d i d before the second kidnapping. E f f e c t of the Events of October 16-19 upon E d i t o r i a l Reactions 1) As might have been expected, a f t e r October 16, most of the papers analyzed devoted proportionately more space to the dangers of excessive reaction to the c r i s i s by the a u t h o r i t i e s than they had previously. The two exceptions are La Presse, which had already made much of the dangers of such a r e a c t i o n a f t e r the abduction of l a p o r t e , and the H a l i f a x Chron-i c l e - H e r a l d , which maintained a strong 'law and order 1 stance throughout the c r i s i s . 2) Le Devoir showed the greatest increase i n the r e l a t i v e amount of e d i t o r i a l coverage devoted to the dangers of an excessive rea c t i o n by the a u t h o r i t i e s . 3) The English press generally f e l t that the government's stated reasons f o r the invocation of the YJar Measures Act and the Public Order Regulations were not adequate, with the papers from outside of Ontario and Quebec adopting t h i s view somewhat l a t e r i n the c r i s i s than the papers from those two provinces. Grouping the English papers by geographical l o c a t i o n , the fo l l o w i n g generalizations can be made: Papers from c e n t r a l Canada: 4) Sharply increased the amount of e d i t o r i a l coverage of the c r i s i s . 5) Had a marked s h i f t away from a 'law and order' stand and towards fears of excessive reaction by the a u t h o r i t i e s . 57. 6) Put proportionately l e s s emphasis upon consideration of the safety of the hostage(s). 7) Varied i n the d i r e c t i o n s and extent of t h e i r change on the ' s o c i a l reform' and ' s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n ' issues. E n g l i s h papers from other regions: 3) Sharply increased the amount of e d i t o r i a l coverage of the c r i s i s . 9) S h i f t e d away from 'law and order' and 'humanitarian concern' and towards 'fear of excessive r e a c t i o n by the a u t h o r i t i e s ' , out not so markedly as E n g l i s h papers from Cent r a l Canada. F i n a l l y i n comparing the changes i n reactions of the French papers and the En g l i s h papers during the d i f f e r e n t phases of the c r i s i s , i t would appear that change i n the amount of reaction has some ef f e c t upon change i n the type of reaction. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the more e d i t o r i a l space a paper would devote to the c r i s i s , the less i t would emphasize 'law and order' and the greater would be i t s concern with the p o s s i b i l i t y of excessive reaction by the a u t h o r i t i e s . I t Is net apparent how amount of react i o n f u r t h e r a f f e c t s type of reaction. 58. FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER IY 1_ Issues not a v a i l a b l e f o r ana l y s i s : Le Devoir. October 12. La Presse, October 12, 20, 26. Toronto D a i l y Star, October 10, 12, 24, 31. Montreal Star, October 12, 20. Ottawa C i t i z e n , October 12, 28, 21. Vancouver Sun, October 12. Chronicle-Herald, October 14. % n r morning papers, the analysis extends t o October 16, as e d i t o r i a l r eaction pursuant to the proclamation of the War Measures Act would not occur u n t i l the 17th. 3The average number of b i t s c l a s s i f i e d per paper i n the period im-mediately f o l l o w i n g or preceding the kidnapping of l a p o r t e , excluding Le Devoir, Ia Presse and the Globe and M a i l . ^The Toronto D a i l y Star, f o r example, increased i t s average e d i t o r i a l r e a c t i o n per day approximately t e n f o l d i n the week f o l l o w i n g the proclama-t i o n of the War Measures Act, i n comparison to i t s rea c t i o n to the c r i s i s p r i o r to that time. There was 23 per cent l e s s emphasis upon need f o r law and order a f t e r October 16 and 43 per cent more emphasis upon the dan-gers of excessive r e a c t i o n by the a u t h o r i t i e s to the c r i s i s . 59. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l p o r t , G.W. and J. Bruner. 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"An Experimental Comparison of Four "«ays of Coding E d i t o r i a l Content." Journalism Quarterly, XIX (December, 1942), 362-70. Hage, G.S. " A n t i - I n t e l l e c t u a l i s m i n Press Comment, 1828 and 1952." Journalism Quarterly, XXXVI ( F a l l , 1959), 439-46. H o l s t i , O.R. Content Analysis f o r the S o c i a l Sciences and Humanities. Reading, Mass:Addison-Vfesley Publishing Company, 1969. I r v i n g , John A., ed. Mass Media i n Canada. Toronto : The Ryerson Press, 1962. K l e i n , M.W. and N. Maccoly. "Newspaper O b j e c t i v i t y i n the 1952 Campaign.11 Journalism Quarterly, XXXI (Summer, 1954), 285-296. Kobre, 3. "How F l o r i d a D a i l i e s Handled the 1952 P r e s i d e n t i a l Campaign." Journalism Quarterly, XXX (Spring, 1953), 163-169. Kolstoe, R.K. Introduction to S t a t i s t i c s f o r the S o c i a l Sciences. Homewood, 111. : The Dorsey Press, 1969. lang, Gladys E. and K. Lang. "The I n f e r e n t i a l Structure of P o l i t i c a l Communications : a Study i n Unwitting Bias." Public Opinion Quarterly, XIX (Summer, 1955), 168-183. Lasswell, Harold, D. World P o l i t i c s and Personal Insecurity. New York : McGraw-Hill, 1935. 60. Lasswell, H.D., D, Lerner and I. de S. Pool. The Comparative Study of Sym-bols. Stanford: Stanford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1952. L e i t e s , N.C. "Inte r a c t i o n : The Response of Communist Propaganda to Fr u s t r a t i o n . " The Language of P o l i t i c s : Studies i n Quantitative Semantics, by Harold D. Lasswell et a l . New York : George Stewart, 1949. Lippmann, W. and C. Merz. "A Test of the News." Special Supplement to The Hew Republic, August 4, 1920, pp. 1-42. Lynch, M.D. and A. E f f e n d i . " E d i t o r i a l Treatment of India i n the New York Times." Journalism Quarterly, (Summer, 1964), 430-32. Osgood, C.E. and Evelyn G. Walker. "Motivation and language Behavior : Content Analysis of Suicide Notes." Journal of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology, LDC (1959), 58-67. Pool, I. de S. Trends i n Content Analysis. Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1959. R u s s e l l , J.T. and Q. Wright. National Attitudes on the Far-Eastern Contro-versy." American P o l i t i c a l Science Review, }QCVII (August, 1933), 555-76. Sheldon, M. and G. Levy. "Multidimensional Content Analysis of E d i t o r i a l s . " Journalism Quarterly, XLV (Winter, 1968), 634-40. Stemple, G.H. I I I . "The Prestige Press Covers the I960 P r e s i d e n t i a l cam-paign." Journalism Quarterly, XXXVTII (Spring, 1961), 157-63, Stemple, G.H. I I I . "The Prestige Press i n Two P r e s i d e n t i a l E l e c t i o n s . " Journalism Quarterly, XLII (Winter, 1965), 15-21. Wolfenstein, Martha and N, L e i t e s . Movies : a Psychological Study. Glencoe : 111. : Free Press, 1950. Wright, Q. and C.J. Nelson. "American Attitudes Towards Japan and China." Public Opinion Quarterly, I I I (January, 1939), 46-62. 

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