UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An analytical survey of participants in non-credit liberal arts extension classes Ganz, Lothar Benno 1969

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AN A N A L Y T I C A L  SURVEY OF P A R T I C I P A N T S  L I B E R A L ARTS E X T E N S I O N  I N NON-CREDIT  CLASSES  by LOTHAR BENNO GANZ B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  of British  Columbia,  1957  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T THE  REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER in  We  accept  required  OF ARTS  the Faculty (Adult  this  of Education  Education)  thesis  as c o n f o r m i n g  to the  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y  OF  OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  April,  1969  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the  i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  the  requirements  Columbia, I agree  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  be  g r a n t e d by  the  t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not  written  permission.  Adult Education  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Date  April  19^9  Columbia  be  Study.  this  thesis  Department  It i s understood that copying or  of t h i s  Department o f  Head o f my  th  o  publicatio  allowed without  my  ABSTRACT  This extension of  liberal  British  given  study,  The  the  a n a l y s i s of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n  arts non-credit  Columbia,  during  economic  an  i s based  spring of  clientele  has  education,  r e a c t i o n s about  methods  obtaining  data no  were  level  respect  to  significant  they  had  life  to  54  were more of  i n terms o f  participation of  concerning  in testing  and  females,  ways o f  and and  socioin  classes, the  the  differences at  their  differed  a higher  greater percentages 25  were  adult and  courses.  The  hypothesis  that  the  one  per  cent  between v e t e r a n s  committed  learners  psychological  obtaining information  and with  characabout  courses.  Participants  and  utilized  specified  the U n i v e r s i t y  interviews which  scheduling  s e l e c t e d socio-economic and  extension  from  the  or between non-committed  teristics  that  motivation,  e x i s t e d between males  novices,  at  196 8.  information  furthermore  statistically  1005  been d e s c r i b e d  characteristics,  of  on  courses  university  years,  ratio  from  possessed  i n each of higher  i n v o l v e d i n the  community.  general  o f women t o men,  of people  actively  the  the  population  in  constituted age  categories  socio-economic formally  status  organized  Learning-orientation—the for  i t s own  sake—emerged  participants. volvement cated  the  Three-quarters  i n adult  of the  and  a similar  were n o v i c e s  a l l respondents  resided  Vancouver  area,  spent  thirty  to  f o r most  proportion  than  i n the  indi-  classes.  i n university  Virtually  less  knowledge  i n future extension  classes.  and  seek  them r e p o r t e d p r e v i o u s i n -  to enrol  clientele  to  prime m o t i v a t o r  of  education,  strong intentions  One-half  as  desire  extension  greater  minutes  travelling  class. Direct  mailing techniques  f l u e n c e d more p a r t i c i p a n t s Less had  than  one-third of  l e a r n e d about Testing  nificant with  of  differences  d i d newspaper  a l l respondents  classes the  than  of promotional  through  hypothesis  and  respect to educational l e v e l , interest  times  day,  of the  attendance seminars,  on and  the  type  Participants differed  to  age,  cipation,  type  of  of  with  significantly  according  female  of  during  times  of  t h e week, i n t e r e s t  learningspecified classes,  i n weekend  announcement r e c e i v e d f o r the prior  from  experience  novices  i n adult  i n their  sig-  participants  goal-orientation,  preferences f o r starting days  they  people.  i n s u b j e c t s , attendance  specified  that  revealed s t a t i s t i c a l l y  between male  orientation,  advertising.  indicated  other  material i n -  course.  education  distributions  o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n k i n g , income,  social  announcement r e c e i v e d f o r t h e  course,  partiand  iv  the  extent  of their  Committed different marital cipation weekend  u s e o f t h e two s t e p  and non-committed  from each  other  s t a t u s , income, i n university seminars,  information  flow.  information  l e a r n e r s were  i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s  learning-orientation, extension  and i n t h e i r  activities,  utilization  flow.  significantly  according previous  to parti-  interest i n  o f t h e two  step  V  T A B L E OF  CONTENTS Page  Abstract  i i  List  viii  of Tables  Acknowledgements  x i i  CHAPTER I.  INTRODUCTION  1  Statement o f the Problem  1  Definition  3  o f Terms  Hypothesis II.  4  REVIEW OF RELATED L I T E R A T U R E The  Marginality  Characteristics  of Participation  5  of Participants  6  Sex  6  M a r i t a l Status Age Socio-Economic Status Social Participation Residence Motivation  III.  5  6 7 7 11 11 12  Program Promotion  14  DESIGN OF THE STUDY  16  Setting Population  16 Studied  Characteristics Procedure  Studies  16 17 19  vi CHAPTER III.  Pa  (Continued) C o l l e c t i o n o f Data S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures  IV.  9~e  DATA A N A L Y S I S  AND  Characteristics  19 19  RESULTS  24  of Participants  24  Sex M a r i t a l Status Age Socio-Economic Status Social Participation Motivation Previous Participation i n Adult Education I n t e n t i o n s about Future Enrolment i n Extension Courses Previous Subject Areas o f Study Present Subject Areas o f Study Subject Areas o f Intended Study Residence T r a v e l Time Locations of Classes Reactions to Scheduling Sources o f Information Veterans  and N o v i c e s  and Committed L e a r n e r s  M a r i t a l Status Income Motivation Previous P a r t i c i p a t i o n Activities  44 48 51 53 55 57 57 60 73 77  Age Occupation Income Social Participation Motivation Previous P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Extension Activities I n t e n t i o n s about Future Enrolment i n Extension Classes Sources of "Information Non-Committed  .  24 24 26 26 37 37 44  77 80 80 83 83 85 88 88 91 91 94 94  i n Extension 97  vii CHAPTER IV.  Page (Continued) I n t e r e s t i n Weekend S e m i n a r s Process L e a d i n g t o Awareness  V.  SUMMARY AND  o f Courses  . .  CONCLUSIONS  Characteristics  99 99  102  of Participants  102  Sex  102  Marital Status Age Socio-Economic Status Social Participation Motivation P a r t i c i p a t i o n and I n t e r e s t Residence Scheduling Sources o f Information  103 103 104 105 105 106 10 8 10 8 109  Hypothesis  Testing  109  Male and Female P a r t i c i p a n t s V e t e r a n s and N o v i c e s . Non-Committed and Committed L e a r n e r s . . . . Interpretation of S t a t i s t i c a l Results . . . Suggestions f o r Further Research  110 110 115 115 116  BIBLIOGRAPHY  118  APPENDIX  124  A.  Enrolment  and I n t e r v i e w s  According B.  Tables  t o Subject Matter  of Expressed  Scheduling C.  grouped  The I n t e r v i e w  Areas  125  Preferences f o r  of Classes  131  Schedule  135  V1XX  L I S T OP  TABLES  T A B L E NO.  I.  II.  III.  IV.  V.  VI.  VII.  VIII.  IX.  X.  XI.  XII.  XIII.  Page  Bivariate Marital  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n d e n t s byS t a t u s and Sex  Bivariate Distribution Sex and Age  o f Respondents  25  by 27  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents Sex and L e v e l o f F o r m a l E d u c a t i o n  by 28  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents w i t h S u p p l e m e n t a l F u l l Time E d u c a t i o n by Type of Education  31  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and Y e a r s o f S u p p l e m e n t a l F u l l Time Education  33  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents A c c o r d i n g Blishen Occupational Scale Deciles  to 35  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents Sex and G r o s s A n n u a l F a m i l y Income  by  Bivariate Distribution Social Participation S c a l e ) and Sex  by  of Respondents Score (Chapin  Bivariate Table of Goal-Orientation Sex o f R e s p o n d e n t  36  38 vs. 40  Bivariate Table of A c t i v i t y - O r i e n t a t i o n v s . Sex o f R e s p o n d e n t  41  Bivariate v s . Sex  42  Table of Learning-Orientation o f Respondent  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f a l l Respondents by Type o f O r i e n t a t i o n and S c o r e C a t e g o r y (KolmogorovSmirnov Two-Tailed T e s t ) .  45  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n d e n t s by Sex and P r e v i o u s P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n (Any T y p e )  46  ix  T A B L E NO. XIV.  XV.  XVI.  XVII.  XVIII.  XIX.  XX.  XXI.  XXII.  XXIII.  XXIV.  XXV.  XXVI.  XXVII.  Page B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n d e n t s bySex and P r e v i o u s P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. E x t e n s i o n C l a s s e s . . . .  47  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and S t a t e d I n t e n t i o n s a b o u t F u t u r e Enrollment i n Adult Education  49  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and P r e v i o u s S u b j e c t A r e a s o f S t u d y  . .  50  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and P r e s e n t S u b j e c t A r e a s o f S t u d y .  . .  52  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and S u b j e c t A r e a s o f I n t e n d e d S t u d y  . .  54  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents Sex and A r e a o f R e s i d e n c e  by  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents Sex and T r a v e l Time t o C l a s s  by  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents Sex and L o c a t i o n o f C l a s s  by  56  58  59  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h L o c a t i o n f o r Their Courses  61  Factors which of Location  62  Influenced Respondents' Choice f o r Classes  Ranking of Factors which Influenced P r e f e r ences f o r C l a s s L o c a t i o n s (KolmogorovSmirnov Test)  63  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n f o r Respondents S e x a n d T i m e o f Day f o r C l a s s  65  by  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and P r e f e r r e d S c h e d u l i n g Time f o r Classes  67  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by S e x a n d Day o f Week f o r C l a s s . . . .  69  X TABLE  Page  NO.  XXVIII.  XXIX.  XXX.  XXXI.  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents Sex a n d V o t e s f o r P r e f e r r e d D a y s o f t h e Week  by  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents Sex and I n c l i n a t i o n Toward Weekend Seminars  by  70  72  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and T y p e o f Announcement R e c e i v e d f o r the Course  74  Bivariate D i s t r i b u t i o n of Sex and P r o c e s s L e a d i n g of Courses  78  Respondents by t o Awareness  XXXII.  Bivariate Novices  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Veterans by Age G r o u p s  XXXIII,  Bivariate Novices  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f V e t e r a n s and by B l i s h e n O c c u p a t i o n a l Ranks  XXXIV.  Bivariate Novices  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Veterans by Income C a t e g o r i e s  XXXV.  Bivariate Novices  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f V e t e r a n s and by S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c o r e s .  XXXVI,  Bivariate Novices  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f V e t e r a n s and According to Learning-Orientation  XXXVII,  XXXVIII.  XXXIX.  XL.  XLI,  and 79  . . .  81  and 82  . .  .  84  86  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f V e t e r a n s and N o v i c e s by P r e v i o u s P a r i t i c p a t i o n i n University Extension Activities  87  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f V e t e r a n s and N o v i c e s by I n t e n t i o n t o R e t u r n t o F u t u r e Adult Education A c t i v i t i e s  89  Bivariate D i s t r i b u t i o n of Veterans N o v i c e s by Type o f Announcement Received f o r Course  and 90  Bivariate D i s t r i b u t i o n of Veterans Novices by P r o c e s s e s L e a d i n g t o Awareness o f Courses.-  and  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Non-Committed and Committed L e a r n e r s by M a r i t a l S t a t u s .  92  .  93  xi TABLE  Page  NO.  XLII.  XLIII.  XLIV.  XLV.  XLVI.  XLVII.  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Non-Committed and C o m m i t t e d L e a r n e r s by Income Categories  95  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Non-Committed and C o m m i t t e d L e a r n e r s A c c o r d i n g t o L e a r n i n g Orientation  96  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Non-Committed and Committed L e a r n e r s by P r e v i o u s P a r t i cipation i n University Extension Activities  98  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Non-Committed and C o m m i t t e d L e a r n e r s b y I n t e r e s t i n Weekend S e m i n a r s  100  B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Non-Committed and Committed L e a r n e r s by P r o c e s s e s Leading t o Awareness o f Courses  101  (a) C h i - S q u a r e V a l u e s and C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r P a r t i c i p a n t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by Sex, V e t e r a n S t a t u s , and Commitment C a t e g o r y . . I l l (b)  Hypothesis  Rejections  114  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The guidance  writer  given  inception  without  entire  the grant  cational  acknowledges  t o him by P r o f e s s o r  of this  The  gratefully  Research  project  would  o f funds Council  Extension,  Lastly, thanks for  from  t o Dr. J . Niemi,  progress  a tthe  the British  feasible  Columbia  Edu-  assistance  o f t h e Department o f  staff.  wishes  chairman  and u n t i r i n g  of the thesis.  n o t have been  and t h e s u b s t a n t i a l  and h i s  the writer  h i s invaluable  C. V e r n e r  study.  g i v e n b y M r . G. S e l m a n , d i r e c t o r University  the expert  t o express  h i s sincere  o f the thesis help  committee  throughout the  Dedication  To V i o l a Robert  and o u r c h i l d r e n ,  and L o n g a r d  Benno.  Rhonda,  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  I. During education to  STATEMENT  the past  thirty  has e x p e r i e n c e d  that of the " l i b e r a l  pansion  i n the near The r e c e n t  stitutes  an e s s e n t i a l  Clark  enhances  PROBLEM  years,  no o t h e r  a growth  arts"  area  future i s being  (34:76).  specialists  OF THE  realization element i t s value  and development (14:129).  even  liberal  comparable  by t h e experts  education  i n the education further.  of adult  F u r t h e r ex-  anticipated  that  even  facet  con-  of  For instance,  wrote:  As a s o c i e t y v e e r s t o w a r d e x p e r t i s e , t h e c u l t u r a l s t r a i n s h i g h l i g h t e d by t h e o l d d i s t i n c t i o n s between t h e c u l t i v a t e d man a n d t h e e x p e r t , t h e p u r e a n d a p p l i e d , a r e made s e v e r e . The e f f o r t s t o b r i n g l i b e r a l education to the expert constitute a s o c i a l r e s p o n s e t o t h e s t r a i n , an a t t e m p t t o a v o i d a b a r b a r i s m o f men a c u t e i n t e c h n i c a l j u d g e m e n t b u t m y o p i c i n s o c i a l a f f a i r s , p o l i t i c s and c u l t u r a l understanding. The f u t u r e o f t h e e x p e r t s o c i e t y c h a l l e n g e s e d u c a t i o n t o c l o s e a gap t h a t i n t h e n a t u r a l c o u r s e o f a f f a i r s w i l l ever widen (13:290). Although cation, points  various Knowles  this  (37:509)  to institutions  most e f f e c t i v e in  agencies  field.  agencies  are involved i n l i b e r a l states that experimental  of higher  adult  edu-  evidence  l e a r n i n g as t h e p o t e n t i a l l y  f o r the promotion  o f permanent  growth  2  Yet who  little  i s known a b o u t  are e n r o l l i n g i n l i b e r a l  tension States the  very  courses.  (2:61)  especially differ less,  themselves  scene,  showed  that  since  from  Buttedahl  those  the socio-economic  appraisal  t o meet t h e i r needs by p r o v i d i n g ation,  and thus The  of  present  given  spring  characteristics psychological about  Neverthe-  t o make  population,  a  i f he i s g o i n g situ-  of h i s institution. to establish a  arts  university  of British  profile  extension  Columbia  during  by i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s  traits  as w e l l  a s some o f t h e i r  a n d t h e i r ways o f o b t a i n i n g  information  the courses. Three dichotomies w i l l  analysis. according and  participants  an e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g  i n non-credit  o f 196 8,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and  attempt  by t h e U n i v e r s i t y  and B e r t r a m  educator  the u t i l i t y  study w i l l  the participants  courses the  enhance  United  application to  counterparts.  f o r an a d u l t  of h i s student  i n the  of Canadian  of t h e i r American  i t i s imperative  research  (6:72)  adults  u n i v e r s i t y ex-  to unqualified  the levels of education,  from  realistic  non-credit  Generalizations  do n o t l e n d  Canadian  arts  the Canadian  The e n t i r e  applied  clientele  t o sex, previous  intentions  f o r future  differences  istics  exist within  with each  will  f o r further  be d i v i d e d  i n e a c h one  participation i n adult participation.  t o determine whether  ficant  be e s t a b l i s h e d  Tests  education,  will  t h e n be  o r n o t any s t a t i s t i c a l l y  respect  to the established  of the dichotomies.  signi-  character-  3  II. Certain out  this  terms which have  study  are defined  Liberal  arts  under the headings "Humanities, Arts Brochure  D E F I N I T I O N OF  "Special  British  Columbia  supplemental  during  A person  arts  Veteran. schedule cation the  that  that  education  in  "Daytime  role  An a d u l t  of  during  activity i s  (50:3).  had e n r o l l e d  who  three  without  o f 1968.  course  A participant  involving  Department  of the University  i n society  who  listed  Programs,"  f o r whom t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  non-credit  i n at least  the spring  indicated  o f 196 8.  on t h e  i n at least  interview  one a d u l t  edu-  o r more m e e t i n g s , p r i o r t o  university  who  he had n e v e r b e f o r e  activity  during  involving  learner.  extension  answered  three  indicated  that  on t h e  taken part o r more  A participant  the interview  Non-committed interview,  the spring  A participant  Committed cated  course  o f 196 8.  Novice. schedule  Every  t o the general public,  Department  through-  list.  i n the Extension  he h a d p a r t i c i p a t e d  activity,  spring  Programs,"  t o h i s primary  Participant. liberal  course.  and S c i e n c e , "  by t h e E x t e n s i o n  one  i n the following  (48) , a n d o f f e r e d  Adult.  a p a r t i c u l a r meaning  non-credit  credit,  TERMS  i n an  interview adult  meetings.  who  he i n t e n d e d  positively to enroll  indi-  again  courses.  learner.  A participant  "no" o r " p e r h a p s "  who,  during the  to the question  whether  4 he  intended  The  to enrol again  hypothesis  statistically tween males between selected  HYPOTHESIS  t o be  tested i s this  females,  committed  and  non-committed and  communication  characteristics  will  there  are  level  be-  novices,  learners with  Specifically,  or  respect  the  no  to and  following  be i n v e s t i g a t e d :  Adult  2.  Age,  3.  Socio-economic  4.  Social  roles—sex, marital status,  status,  participation,  5.  Residence,  6.  Motivation,  7.  Participation  8.  Interest i n specific  9.  Reaction The  and  .01  courses.  psychological characteristics  patterns.  1.  10.  one:  d i f f e r e n c e s a t the between v e t e r a n s  socio-economic  specified  extension  III.  significant  and  i n university  to  source  courses.  i n adult education—past subject  and  future,  areas,  scheduling, of  information concerning  extension  CHAPTER  REVIEW OF  Since  specific  II  RELATED  LITERATURE  information  concerning  cipants  in liberal  courses  i s l a c k i n g , c o n s i d e r a t i o n m u s t be  from  the  adult  broad  areas  education  and  education—and arts  area,  of  such  as  adult  university  given  fields  some c r i t e r i a  literature  these  liberal  within  s t u d y - d i s c u s s i o n groups from  to  education—university-sponsored  narrower  Results  parti-  extension  even u n i v e r s i t y - s p o n s o r e d  from the  Books Programs. vide  arts non-credit  Canadian  and  arts  the  liberal  the  Great  investigations will  f o r comparisons with  the  pro-  findings of  this  study.  I. Recent per  cent  of  education with in  the  per  to  fifteen  adult population  engaged  in  adult  figures  agree  f i n d i n g s i n the  United  fifteen  per  cent  These  S t a t e s , where of  L o n d o n , W e n k e r t and Videbeck  participation  Among t h e education  twelve  7:15).  Knox a n d  cent  PARTICIPATION  (8:11;  reported  as  OF  show a p p r o x i m a t e l y  Canadian  participating. well  MARGINALITY  estimates  activities  recent  1965  THE  adult  Hagstrom  same y e a r ,  population  i n 1963, reported  as twelve  (30:234).  various  i n C a n a d a and  i n the  the  Johnstone  institutions the  United  which  offered adult  States, universities  and  colleges all  sponsored  courses  one-third credit tics, per  (8:37;  of  even  30:235).  (8:25;  a very  hundred  fourteen to twenty-six  a l l extension  offerings  non-credit  from  At  courses  7:17).  generous  II.  were  On  the  estimate  o f p o p u l a t i o n as university  Canadian  cent  universities, liberal  arts  basis of  will  yield  a participant  extension  per  only non-  these only  of  statis-  one  in liberal  adult  arts  activities."*"  CHARACTERISTICS  OF  PARTICIPANTS  Sex Participation surveys  of  indicating  s t u d i e s i n the  a l l adult education  liberal  (46:7;  8:17)  a m a j o r i t y o f women w i t h i n t h e  arts by  differ  from  consistently  clientele.  Report-  2 ed  percentages  Marital  not  the  appear  However, Knox persons adult  from  f i f t y - s i x to  seventy-four.  Status In  did  range  field t o be (31:8)  in liberal  population.  "*"A. B. C.  of general  adult education,  participation  associated with marital status found  t h a t the  proportion of  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was The  Canadian  1961  higher  married  than  Census w i l l  (46:7).  be  in  the  used  as  20% o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e s i n adult education. 15% o f a l l c o u r s e s a r e o f f e r e d b y u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s . 33% o f (B) a r e l i b e r a l a r t s , n o n - c r e d i t c o u r s e s . A x B x C = 0.0096.  (22:22) H i l l , (15:14) D a v i s , (28:10) K a p l a n , (6:48) B u t t e d a h l , (27:18) J o n e s , (33:2) L i v i n g s t o n e , (39:53) M o n t r o s s . 2  7  a reference. 19  years  I t r e p o r t e d 63  o f age  as m a r r i e d  per  cent of  a l l persons  over  (9a:28-l).  Age Johnstone factors  which  (25:104) m e n t i o n e d  persistently  non-participants. t o be Knot  s i x years (31:6)  cation  less  found  programs  and w i t h  He  less  as  distinguished  showed t h e than  the  the median  t o be  age  near  age  the  of  v a r i a n c e t h a n was  age  age  the  of  participants  education an was  generally.  participants  equal proportion distributed  median  age  early  the  total  fifties.  the  under-represented  Socio-Economic Brunner  as  i n adult  38  the  adult  case  for  liberal  category while  (50:28),  over  Morton  years  twenties or early  However, a d u l t s  years,  United States' population  25-59 y e a r r a n g e .  late  40  sample.  edu-  total  o f the  35-55 y e a r  according to Verner  h i g h from  appears  the  of extension enrollees  Participation, fairly  over  of  of  i n the  Two-thirds  were i n t h e  participants  average  case  from  in liberal  p o p u l a t i o n , b u t w i t h g r e a t e r v a r i a n c e t h a n was adult  three  of h i s e n t i r e  adults  national  of  participants  average  average  one  sixty  gives  (40:88).  tends  to  be  thirties  to  are  the  the  proportionally  e d u c a t i o n programs.  Status (4:38) e x p l a i n s  to serve middle  class  that status  university groups  extension  more  effectively  8  than  those  liberal  of  arts  lower  status.  Other  researchers  extension participants  agree  have h i g h e r  that  socio-economic  3  status  than  most o f  (50:28) t h r e e lated  of  determinants  these,  t o be  the  the most  attendance  clientele  cent  Knox  educational  important arts  level.  1957  had  completed  education  United  (31:8)  them had  found  had  earlier  investigation  had  States  engaged i n graduate At  the  survey  20.3  that and  i n 1963  has  been  30:233).  per of  37  that  of  in  (16:10).  liberal  about h a l f  degree.  per  cent  ten per  5.6  partici-  schooling  and  over  general  showed cent  the  of  Morton's of  partici-  cent  were  (40:89).  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  (6:26) r e p o r t e d  and  education  a bachelor's  school  study  occupation,  a l l participants  revealed  completed high  re-  i s s u p e r i o r t o the  sixteen years  least  status are  (40:29;  some c o l l e g e e x p e r i e n c e , at  Verner  e d u c a t i o n a l achievement  t h a t almost  completed  to  v a r i a b l e which i n f l u e n c e s  In  over  level,  of previous  o f n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s and  education  pants  The  According  socio-economic  for adult education  population.  pants  of  level  in liberal  Educational  per  population.  to participation:  income; found  the  that  32  per  Columbia, cent  Buttedahl  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  in  (15:25) D a v i s , (27:26) J o n e s , (28:128) K a p l a n , (31:18) K n o x , (38:141) M i z r u c h i a n d V a n a r i a , (40:91) M o r t o n , (50:31) V e r n e r a n d B o o t h . 3  9  liberal  arts  c l a s s e s h a d some c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n ,  Livingstone's pants  r e p o r t o f 1966 l i s t e d  i n t h e same c a t e g o r y  cent  of a l l Canadian household  college  actual  years  educational  male  recent  evidence  o f Canadian Bertram  f o r c e was  States. tend  ever  8 per  attended  about  Reports  t o compare  and American  indicates that the  and American  (2:61) w r o t e  populations  that during the  o f schooling o f the Canadian  two y e a r s  below  on t h e L i v i n g  to substantiate this  per cent  Room  claim.  that of the Learning  In British  particiColumbia  of the participants  were h i g h  school  30 p e r c e n t w e r e u n i v e r s i t y  graduates  (49) , w h e r e a s  American  centres  graduation  reported  and a l l o t h e r s  that  13 p e r c e n t  had higher  content  o f these  tuate  of participation  or diminish existing Occupation.  studies  i n liberal  school  (6:72).  location,  c l a s s e s , among o t h e r  influence the nature  graduates,  had high  education  c o n c e i v a b l e , however, t h a t promotion,  ject so  levels  labour  pants  is  because  1960's, t h e median y e a r  United  and  heads have  must be e x e r c i s e d i n any attempt  noticeably.  early  partici-  In contrast, only  o f s c h o o l i n g between Canadian  participants,  differ  of  (17:128). Caution  57  (33:4).  64 p e r c e n t  while  I t  and sub-  variables,  could  as t o e i t h e r  accen  national differences.  Analyzing  the findings o f nine  a d u l t education*,  Knox  recent  (31:7) s h o w e d  that  10  these  programs were most  whose o c c u p a t i o n s ial.  Similarly,  showed to  were  40.5  per  the  from  the  while  only  23.9  those  categories. For  (52:24) of  the  Canadian 1965  per  cent  Livingstone arts  technical  of the  manager-  i n adult  and  (46:8)  education  managerial  ranks,  Columbia,  (33:8) r e p o r t e d  participants  t o be  only  f o r c e were i n t h e  about  in  Buttedahl fifty  per  in professional  twenty per  cent  professional  of  cent or  the  occupations  in  (17:73). Gould  times  as  (20:21)  likely  concluded  to y i e l d  t h a t t e a c h e r s were  adult students  were manual w o r k e r s , w h i l e  "fertile"  as m a n u a l  Income. and  Morton this  (40:91),  finding  pants.  the  The  relationship  higher Knox  t o be  their  groups  thirty-five ranks  and  as  non-  f o u r times  as  workers.  i n c o m e seems o b v i o u s , come f r o m  from  p r o f e s s i o n a l workers  m a n u a l w o r k e r s were r e p o r t e d t o be  to  or  n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s were  of B r i t i s h  occupations, while  labour  participants  professional  a l l participants  University  liberal  managerial  of  as  by  States population survey  professional,  the  and  classified  United  cent  be  frequently attended  and  income  (31:18),  one  between o c c u p a t i o n a l would  groups and  A c t u a l income  figures  expect  participants  among t h e  population.  Jones  true for l i b e r a l  ranking  (27:57) h a v e  arts  however are  extension  shown  partici-  subject to  the  11  most f r e q u e n t r e v i s i o n s . in  British  received income  an  average  of  simultaneously,  that  a person  job,  and  times  had  who an  had  income o f  Social  had  less  the  $4,473  average  (9b:65).  Johnstone  concluded  of  (25:105)  college,  over  year  i n adult education  $4,000  in  1963  held a white-collar  $7,000 p e r  grade  socio-economic  was  than  about  a blue  s c h o o l and  who  six  collar  had  an  annually.  Participation One  criterion  relationship  estimated this  f o r the  assessment  t o h i s community  participation  with  annum, w h i l e  group  occupations,  of  gone beyond  than  technical  three determinants  t o be  not  h i g h e s t income  c o m b i n e d was  been t o  income  more l i k e l y  w o r k e r , who  an  the  the  and  $6,973 p e r  f o r a l l occupations  status  1961,  Columbia, p r o f e s s i o n a l  Considering  his  For  40  i n i t s formal  per  cent  of  the  light  75  per  cent  of of  this the  respondents  individual's  and  p o p u l a t i o n have  life  estimate,  extent  an  nature  organizational life.  the  formally organized  In  i s the  of  Buttedahl's i n h i s study  community  organizations  (51:71)  ticipants  i n adult education  tend  community  o r g a n i z a t i o n s than  the  finding were  contact  (53:209). that  about  involved i n  seems t o i n d i c a t e t o be  Only  any  i n a community  of  that  par-  more i n v o l v e d w i t h  general population.  Residence The and  s t u d i e s of Johnstone  Videbeck  (30:232),  and  and  of Gould  Rivera  (26:78),  (20:33) show a  of  Knox  positive  12  relationship cipation.  Morton  extension classes though cause  between community  users  (40:90) r e p o r t e d  t o be urban  i s no doubt i t s effects  Verner  corroborate  with  (50:29), M e l t o n  difficult  to isolate of  t h a t w i t h i n an u r b a n  found  that the distance travelled evening  be-  (35:76)  setting  and Ulmer  bore  of  socio-economic  (36:62), a n d M c K i n n o n  to participation,  from  of a l l  participation,  the effect  i s no b a r r i e r  t o dropouts  parti-  The a c c e s s i b i l i t y  determining  tance  tion  75 p e r c e n t  are exceedingly  the assertion  and r a t e o f a d u l t  residents.  a factor  of i t s interrelations  status.  size  dis-  (45:156)  no s i g n i f i c a n t  c l a s s e s i n a community  relacollege.  Motivation The to  motivation  adult education,  Houle has proposed orientations. learning  of participants,  has had l i t t l e  central  previous  though  study  i t is  (23:75).  t h a t a d u l t c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n e r s have  These  orientations  are the goal, the a c t i v i t y , as d e f i n e d  three  and t h e  below:  The g o a l - o r i e n t e d a r e t h o s e who u s e e d u c a t i o n a s a means o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g f a i r l y c l e a r - c u t o b j e c t i v e s . The. . . a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t e d a r e t h o s e who t a k e p a r t because they f i n d i n the circumstances of the l e a r n i n g a m e a n i n g w h i c h h a s no n e c e s s a r y c o n n e c t i o n , a n d o f t e n no c o n n e c t i o n a t a l l , w i t h t h e c o n t e n t o r t h e announced purposes o f t h e a c t i v i t y . The l e a r n i n g o r i e n t e d s e e k k n o w l e d g e f o r i t s own s a k e (24:15). Solomon  (43) h a s c o m p i l e d  the papers  Ingham a n d B r o w n , a n d h a s p r e s e n t e d attempts  along  the lines  o f Houle's  of Sheffield,  them as p i o n e e r i n g classifications.  13  Sheffield but  had  found b a s i c  to  "personal divided and  goal"  "leisure  t o be  orientation"  attempt  on  alumni  of  about  atmosphere attitude  Averill towards  An  of  matched  analysis  between the  assess  of  three  the  "examination."  a  about  detected  age,  variance  to  key  found  and  words:  of  of  four appeared  Houle.  college found  did  there  a  alumni  was  of  something  or would  not  education.  associated  showed  reported  education,  than  variations  and  sociability"  of which  which would  in  with  attitudes formal  non-participants  education  categories the  that  continuing  elements  and  sub-  p a r t i c i p a t e d to  education  school  categories:  the  influence  suggested  of  two  "orientations"  colleges  participants for  two  differential,  and  (1:196)  c e r t a i n key  in pairs  closely  to  three  classifications  for  investigated  respondents  i n continuing  colleges,  an  the  "desire  types,  highly-rated  "average"  promote  his  into  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n continuing  degree  the  those  F u r t h e r m o r e , he  into  Ingham  satisfaction pattern  compatible with  greater  tion  "societal goal."  s a t i s f a c t i o n " of  experience  for  "goal-orientation"  fulfillment."  Brown, i n an  that  the  and  "activity  "need  leisure  expand  substantiation  and  educawho  socio-economic  were status.  significant differences responses,  using  "classroom,"  the  semantic  "teacher,"  and  14 Dow's s t u d y could  find  though other of  of university  extension  no g o a l - o r i e n t e d l e a r n e r s i n n o n - c r e d i t  these  same r e s p o n d e n t s  educational activities.  n o t f i t Houle's  Chapman cent  (12:40),  She r e p o r t e d  friends, have  provided  an e f f e c t Carter,  non-credit obtain and  students support  Kerr,  a small  minority  that the remainder  classification.  hand, by r e p o r t i n g t h a t  were a t t e n d i n g i n c l u s t e r s f o rthe theory  than  and York  other  that  social  (10:223) d i s c o v e r e d  extra-mural  satisfaction  summarizing  education,  courses,  72 p e r with reasons  on p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  personal  Knox,  activity-oriented  on t h e o t h e r  of extension  (18)  had been g o a l - o r i e n t e d i n  l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t e d a d u l t s , and remarked  did  students  again  students  had e n r o l l e d t o  and t o improve nine  t h a t more  performance,  studies i n liberal  adult  wrote:  S t u d e n t s a t t e n d f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s , w i t h two mentioned most o f t e n . . . c o n t e n t i n t e r e s t and i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n from group experience (31:9).  III. Traditionally, direct  PROGRAM  adult education  m a i l , newspaper and t e l e v i s i o n  tions  f o r the promotion  and to  coverage,  of their  programs  o f u n c e r t a i n t y about  the audience  have  and even p e r s o n a l  method h a s emerged as t h e b e s t  some d e g r e e reach  agencies  and t r a d e magazine p u b l i c i t y ,  radio  No s i n g l e  PROMOTION  persists  (19:8;  on  some  communica44:30;  41:25).  f o ra l l situations,  t h e most  (44:29).  relied  s u c c e s s f u l way  Generally, the pro-  15  motion  of  any  of media. o f mouth  Kidd  (29:104)  l e a d e r who  involves and most  Burch  flow  of  receives  i t to  others.  information the  utilization (5:13)  important  f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s , thus  two-step  passes  program  c o n s t i t u t e d the  information the  one  of  reported  primary  supporting  initially  that  source  the  (32:151), which  communication  a variety word of  theory involves  and  then  of a  CHAPTER I I I  DESIGN OF THE  I. The Extension offered  s p r i n g program  SETTING o f t h e Department  a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  fifty  non-credit courses  courses  area.  was  maintained, groups  and  day-time  eleven  At  a core  POPULATION  the i n c e p t i o n of this a l l participants  courses.  This  cancelled  f o r lack of s u f f i c i e n t  tained  g o a l was  and C h a l l e n g e , "  a different  cipants  enrolled  In a l l ,  liberal  were  study,  plans  Seven  students.  permitted  non-credit  courses One  forty  seventy courses  were  course, f o r each  sep-  each meeting  con-  to interview  c o u l d n o t be o b t a i n e d  i n the remaining  time  w e r e made t o  registration  Permission  persons,  Study-  discontinued,  arts  not i n c l u d e d because  1005  arts  STUDIED  in a l l liberal  audience.  arts  offered f o r the f i r s t  not attained.  i n "Archaeology"  chairman.  years  c l a s s e s were  s e s s i o n a n d was  f o r 196 8  t h e L e c t u r e - D i s c u s s i o n and  interview  arate  Columbia  of the usual  of the previous  II.  of University  a n d two w o r k s h o p s i n t h e l i b e r a l  While  Discussion  "Choice  STUDY  from the  per cent were  parti-  of  those  interviewed.^  A t t e n d a n c e r e c o r d s were n o t k e p t f o r e v e n i n g nonc r e d i t c l a s s e s , and i t i s l i k e l y t h a t some p a r t i c i p a n t s had dropped o u t b e f o r e t h e time o f t h e i n t e r v i e w .  17  Appendix gations  A  contains  f o r the During  s p r i n g term  the  only  and  analysis  impossible.  encounters  with  of  three  2 attended  gentleman p e r s i s t e d  socio-economic  social  age,  to  i n c a t e g o r i e s which  for  by  the  class.  census.  Occupations  investi-  that  arts  asked  to  a l l responses  i t became e v i d e n t t h a t 24  courses, while  four courses,  and  thirty  non-credit f i l l  out  were  multiple enrollment  anony-  phenomenon from  45  persons  3  were  attended  one  ambitious  courses.  STUDIED  from  the  participants  place  income, o c c u p a t i o n  participation,  time  used  Since  collected  travel age  to  were  characteristics:  s t a t u s , sex,  spouse,  liberal  CHARACTERISTICS  I n f o r m a t i o n was  or  one  they  i n two  in six  III.  marital  the  and  apparent  "multiple participants" enrolled  courses,  offerings  196 8.  Nevertheless,  simultaneously  nine  so  interview schedule.  mous, a v a l i d was  of  the  i n more t h a n  simultaneously,  one  of  i n t e r v i e w s , i t became  adults were e n r o l l e d course  a summary  level  Participants offered  Blishen's  i n C a n a d a was  residence,  of  respondent  of education,  were easy  of  classified  and according  comparison with  (3:41) S o c i o - E c o n o m i c used  about  to categorize  those  Index  occupations.  2 B l i s h e n ' s index f o r o c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada ranks the o c c u p a t i o n s which are l i s t e d i n census p u b l i c a t i o n s i n terms of socio-economic s t a t u s . D a t a on e d u c a t i o n and income c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f incumbents were used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h  18  Social  participation  Chapin S o c i a l In  addition to  Houle's  to  were  Participation  characteristics, designed  scores  Scale  information  (11:277). about  types  their  and  the  socio-economic  twelve  questions  categorizations according  of motivation:  activity-orientation,  to  3  their  p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked  facilitate  three  calculated according  to  goal-orientation,  l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n , as  defined  4 in  chapter  2.  Furthermore,  an  mine p a r t i c i p a n t s '  satisfaction  classes  with  was  as  specific  of  the  scheduling  Tabulations cluded  on  of  i n the  their  previous  to  the  study  given  deterof  duration. and  on  Data future  additional questions,  administration of  answers, are  scheduling  and  Several  the  Extension  projected preferences  c l a s s e s , were  these  the  made t o  participation  concerned with of  with  location  respondents.  interest  Department, and the  as  also collected  intentions of  well  a t t e m p t was  included at  i n s o f a r as i n Appendix  their  they  about  request.  were n o t  in-  B.  occupations from the P i n e o - P o r t e r s c a l e . T h e 320 m a l e o c c u p a t i o n s were d i v i d e d i n t o d e c i l e s , w i t h the h i g h e s t d e c i l e denoting h i g h e s t occupational rank. 3  . . . . Chapin Scale: The e x t e n t o f p a r t x c i p a t x o n x s m e a s u r e d b y t h e number o f m e m b e r s h i p s h e l d d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r , a n d e a c h m e m b e r s h i p c o u n t s as one p o i n t t o w a r d t h e t o t a l s c a l e score. I n t e n s i t y , or degree of involvement, i s m e a s u r e d by attendance a t m e e t i n g s , f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , committee m e m b e r s h i p s , and t h e h o l d i n g o f o f f i c e s . A high scale score r e f l e c t s a high rate of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 4 S u p r a , p . 12. O r i e n t a t i o n s c o r e s were d e r x v e d from the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : Goal-orientation questions—54,55, 56,58; A c t i v i t y - o r i e n t a t i o n - - 5 3 , 5 7 , 5 9 , 6 2 ; L e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n — 52,60,61,63.  19  PROCEDURE  IV. Collection  of Data  The fourth  group  i n t e r v i e w was g i v e n  session, unless,  instructor  requested  sons p r e s e n t  as happened  postponement  t o each i n seven  class  during i t s  cases, the  f o r one s e s s i o n .  on t h e day o f t h e i n t e r v i e w completed  A l l perthe inter-  view  schedule,  u s u a l l y w i t h i n t e n t o twenty minutes.  then  collected  and removed.  ceived its  The p a r t i c i p a n t s  any advance n o t i c e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w .  i n t r o d u c t i o n were h e l d  viewers,  and, i n case  encouraged  reasonably  of d i f f i c u l t y ,  to request  I t was  had n o t r e Comments  constant  during  by t h e i n t e r -  respondents  assistance i n completing  were  the interview  schedules.  Statistical  Procedures  Responses onto computer  t o t h e i n t e r v i e w s were  cards.  t a b l e s were p r o d u c e d which  a l s o computed  tingency variate  values  f o r the b i v a r i a t e  t o the formula  T a b u l a t i o n s Manual  2 n  frequency  b y t h e U n i v e r s i t y ' s IBM 70 44 C o m p u t e r ,  tables according  X  and keypunched  U n i v a r i a t e and b i v a r i a t e  chi-square  Contingency  coded  j = l Cj  i=l  given (16:29):  con-  i n the Multi-  20  w h e r e n i s t h e number  of  subjects  u  i s t h e number  o f rows  v  i s t h e number  o f columns  r.  i s t h e sum  x  of the i ^ * o f the i  c . i s t h e sum 0 f^j  i s the entry  th column,  i n the i  Zero r e s p o n s e s were i g n o r e d Of  t h e 9 23 a d u l t s who  their  sex, thus  tomy t o 8 9 5 . questions in  th  and  th and j  row  column.  i n the calculation interviewed,  of  chi-square.  28 d i d n o t i n d i c a t e  reducing  the t o t a l  i n the male-female  Similarly,  23 a d u l t s  d i d not respond  concerning  adult education,  committed  were  row  1  their  intentions f o r future  and t h e t o t a l  and committed  to the  participation  i n the dichotomy  l e a r n e r s was  dicho-  consequently  o f nonreduced  to  900. For  the d i s t r i b u t i o n s  cases  where  small  frequencies  groupings, according  combinations  to the formula  votes than  was  t o e s t a b l i s h more  meaningful  c a l c u l a t e d on a desk  calculator  f o r the Pearson  (21:582).  s i n c e many r e s p o n d e n t s m a r k e d  one day as s u i t a b l e f o r c l a s s e s .  prefer  Statistic  F o r t r a n p r o g r a m was w r i t t e n t o c o m p i l e  f o r p r e f e r r e d days,  responses  a n d i n some  o f c a t e g o r i e s were n e c e s s i t a t e d by  o r by the need  the chi-square  A special  on m o t i v a t i o n ,  to question  f o r attending  A maximum o f  the more  three  4 4 — " W h i c h d a y o f t h e week do y o u m o s t University Extension  Classes?"—were  21  accepted,  and  which were pondent  each  r e s p o n d e n t was  a l l o t t e d evenly  indicated  two  days  given  to  his  as  suitable,  12  voting  responses.  units  Thus,  each  i f a  received  res-  six  points. For tors  that  questions influenced  classes,  responses  the to  test,  square  test  a  tion the  of  considered  data  the  the  chi-square  to  calculated  which  inquired  assigned  on  factor  was  divided  The  Kolmogorov-Smirnov  be  then  by  the  more p o w e r f u l applied  rankings  of  four  of  one-  the  to  for  were  number  than  i n order  the  fac-  locations  one  motivation  lent  chi-  establish  factors  themselves  for  large  or  the  median  s a m p l e s was  test,  the  to  test; used  i s c o n s i d e r e d more p o w e r f u l  test  differed  the  applica-  in this (42:131).  than e i t h e r  results  case  should  the be  discriminatory. While  the  chi-square  t e s t was  useful  dependence of  i n d e p e n d e n c e b e t w e e n two  any  true  degree of  show up size  to  the  s i g n i f i c a n t manner.  test  test  about  of  Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample  two-tailed  Since  more  question.  statistically The  values  ( 4 2 : 5 1 ) , was  whether the  51,  r e s u l t i n g sum  that  sample  to  participants * choices  a l l numerical  a d d e d , and  in  48  as  a  statistical  Three  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  (A)were t h e r e f o r e  c o e f f i c i e n t s , C,  calculated.  The  probe  attributes,  s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t because  (21:613).  to  of  the  phi  first  two  for  virtually  expected  to  population  (4)), a n d provide  lambda measures  22  of  the  third  strength i s an The  the  of  association  i n d i c a t i o n of Contingency  between  predictive  attributes, while  the  association.  C o e f f i c i e n t : C.  Calculated  by  use  of  formula  2  X N + the  Contingency  association (42:196). complete unity mum  or  size  r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n two  lack  coefficient will  of  when t h e  any  two  they  are  can  but  show c o m p l e t e  attain for  contingency yielded  sets  equal  association,  variables  value which C  unless  2  C o e f f i c i e n t i s a measure of  This  Furthermore,  X  by  a  of  the  extent  of  attributes  z e r o when t h e r e i t will  not  equal  dependence.  2x2  table  is  c o e f f i c i e n t s are  contingency  tables  is  The  maxi-  0.707.  not of  comparable the  same  (42:201). The  Phi-Coefficient.  Cramer's  statistic,  is  defined  as:  N(L-l) where L  i s the  columns,  and  N  smaller i s the  cient w i l l  always  dence,  1,  showing  In  the  and  (21:606).  of  the  number o f  l i e between  case  number o f  complete of  rows o r  observations.  0,  the This  r e f l e c t i n g complete  dependence, of  the  number  of  coeffiindepen-  attributes  dichotomous d i s t r i b u t i o n s , which  were u s e d  exclusively  i n this  study,  the denominator  becomes  N. The ^AB'  w  a  s  c  a  Index o f P r e d i c t i v e -'-  c  u  l ' a  t  e  <  ^  Hays  (21:610),  dict  classification  actual  value  probability gory while  knowing  On t h e o t h e r  that  i n one's  proportionality  Hays  more, i n a c a s e diction  then  o f complete  i s possible,  both  to predict  even  though  (21:608),  throughout  Cramer's P h i i s zero,  versa.  I t i s possible  to exist  states  outlined i n  the reduction  attempt  the other.  association hand,  indicates  index,  o f t h e power t o p r e -  A b y k n o w i n g B, o r v i c e  of the index  This  t o the procedure  as a symmetric measure  of error  statistical  plete  according  Association.  The of the  one  cate-  f o r some lambda i s z e r o .  i f there  a contingency  i s com-  table,  so  lambda must be z e r o .  association,  where p e r f e c t  P h i a n d l a m b d a m u s t b e 1.00.  Further pre-  CHAPTER I V  DATA A N A L Y S I S  I.  CHARACTERISTICS  As i n d i c a t e d characteristics status,  AND  OF  education, courses,  of participants  were  about  residence, travel with  preferred  s c h e d u l i n g time  seminars,  and s o u r c e s  the f o l l o w i n g  examined:  sex, m a r i t a l  income,  participation  future enrollment time,  location  chapter,  occupation,  motivation, previous  intentions  satisfaction  PARTICIPANTS  i n the preceding  age, e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l ,  participation,  RESULTS  place  of  of the c l a s s , for classes,  social  i n adult  i n extension  attendance, time  of  interest  attendance, i n weekend  of information concerning  classes.  Sex Of  t h e 923  approximately female, per  participants,  29 p e r c e n t w e r e m a l e a n d 68 p e r c e n t  the r a t i o  cent  Marital  adults i n the population of  o f female  t o male b e i n g  of a l l a d u l t respondents  2.3  were  t o 1.  d i d not indicate  Three their  sex.  Status Table  I r e v e a l s t h a t 26.4 p e r c e n t  were  single,  cent  e i t h e r widowed,  differences  while  participants  62.6 p e r c e n t w e r e m a r r i e d divorced or separated.  a n d 10.4 p e r The  existing  i n m a r i t a l s t a t u s between male and f e m a l e  c i p a n t s were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y hypothesis  of  to this  effect  was  significant, therefore  and t h e  accepted.  partinull  25  TABLE I BIVARIATE  D I S T R I B U T I O N OF RESPONDENTS MARITAL  Marital  STATUS AND  N  o, o  N  Q. "O  SEX  N. R.  Females  Males  Total  Status  BY  N  o, "O  Q, O  N  Single  244  26 .4  69  25 .7  171  27. 3  4  14. 3  Married  578  62 .6  179  66 .5  379  60. 5  20  71. 4  96  10 .4  20  7 .4  74  11. 8  2  7. 1  5  0 .5  1  0 .3  2  0. 3  2  7. 1  923  100 .0  269  100 .0  100. 0  28  100. 0  Widowed Divorced Separated No r e s p o n s e  Total  d.f. p  =  626  2  < .20 n o t s i g n i f i c a n t  a t t h e .01  level  Age The  median  as w e l l as years.  per  category  f o r males  The  largest  s a m p l e , was range  age  i n the  contained  c e n t were  younger than  and' f e m a l e s group,  25-to  72.7  over 25  per  54  Table  the in  the  years  44  cent  of  the  cent  a l l participants.  of  o l d , and  10.9  The  per  25-to  54-year  Only  cent  15.6  were  years.  64-year  c a t e g o r i e s r e v e a l e d , as than  while  range  and  c o u l d be  females again  expected  were  shown were  in  over-represented  i n the  group  over  70  old. A  chi-square value  significant efficient age  per  to  category.  years  44-year range,  45-to  27.9  together,  35  34-year  I I , t h a t more m a l e s  25-to  s e p a r a t e l y , was  comprising  C o m p a r i s o n s w i t h i n age in  f o r a l l respondents  a t the  of  category  female  0.11 and  0.05  of  level.  indicated sex.  participants  do  11.4  was  The  obtained, which  small contingency  a v e r y weak a s s o c i a t i o n  Hence, the  hypothesis  not  with  differ  is co-  between  t h a t male  respect to  age  and was  accepted. Socio-Economic  Status  Educational formal  education  per  cent  of  and  11.3  per  as  level.  Table  r e p o r t e d by  a l l respondents  I I I shows t h e the  participants.  have g r a d u a t e d  cent hold post-graduate  levels  from  degrees.  of  Forty-one  university, Since  a  further  27  TABLE I I BIVARIATE  Aqe  Categories  DISTRIBUTION  OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND  Total  N  Males  %  AGE  Females  N  %  N  %  6  0.7  1  0.4  5  0.8  20 - 24 y e a r s  91  10.2  24  8.9  67  10.7  25 - 34 y e a r s  250  27.9  90  33.5  160  25.6  35 - 44 y e a r s  213  23.8  71  26.4  142  22.7  45 - 54  years  188  21.0  45  16.7  143  22.8  55 - 64  years  80  8.9  19  7.1  61  9.7  65 - 69  years  41  4.6  13  4.8  28  4.5  70 y e a r s o r over  20  2.2  3  1.1  17  2.7  No r e s p o n s e  6  0.7  3  1.1  3  0.5  895  100.0  269  100.0  626  100.0  19 y e a r s o r under  Totals  x  2  =  d.f.  =  p < 0.05  11.4 5 not significant  a t t h e .01  level  28  TABLE I I I BIVARIATE AND  Level of Education  DISTRIBUTION  OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX  L E V E L OF FORMAL  Total N %  Elementary or less  school  EDUCATION  Males N  7  0.8  5  1.9  2  0.3  71  7.9  21  7.8  50  8.0  High school graduation  210  23.5  51  19.0  159  25.4  1 year  116  13.0  21  7.8  95  15.2  Some h i g h  school  college  2 years  college  69  7.7  13  4.8  56  9.0  3 years  college  48  5.4  14  5.2  34  5.4  Baccalaureate degree  260  29.5  87  32.3  173  27.6  Post-graduate degree  101  11.3  53  19.7  48  7.7  13  1.5  4  1.5  9  895  100.0  269  100.0  626  No  response  Totals  37.01 d.f. p  =  < .001  C  =  20 ,20  3  A  AB  .0-1  I-  4  100.0  29  26  p e r cent  of  65 p e r c e n t  additional  indicated  of the high that less  o f males  graduates—25.4  of  males were ported all to  per cent  While  of college  college  value .001  p e r cent  About  of college  school  19 p e r c e n t o f r e p o r t e d one  o f t h e m two y e a r s  percentages f o r o f each  Only  held baccalaureate Likewise, degrees,  equal.  sex r e -  27.6 p e r c e n t o f  degrees, only  compared  7.7 p e r c e n t o f  i n comparison  with  o f t h e men.  median  level  o f education  a n d f o r men 3 y e a r s  The Contingency  the hypothesis exist  only  5 p e r cent  education.  o f a l l men.  i n t h e two  o f a l l females  and female  A  chi-square  i s significant  Coefficient  t h a t no d i f f e r e n c e s  between male  f o r women was o n e y e a r  of college.  o f 3 7 . 0 1 was o b t a i n e d , w h i c h level.  among  among t h e h i g h  the corresponding  7.8 a n d 4.8.  32.3 p e r c e n t  college,  An  10 p e r c e n t h a d n o t  and 9 p e r cent  t h e women h e l d p o s t - g r a d u a t e  of  education.  approximately  compared w i t h  education,  education,  3 years  The  than  more numerous  15.2 p e r c e n t  women r e s p o n d e n t s  19.7  total  of education  and females  e d u c a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s were  Women w e r e p r o p o r t i o n a l l y  year  level  a  school.  percentages  the males.  experience,  involved i n higher  i s the fact  high  The lowest  have been  indication  participants completed  some u n i v e r s i t y  was .20.  i n educational  participants  was  at the Hence, level  rejected.  30  University respondents Columbia. female.  were Forty  Based than  e x p e c t e d were  British  Columbia.  nificance. female  could  a n d 60 p e r c e n t w e r e  o f 626 women t o 269 men, alumni  fewer  of the University of  b e a c c e p t e d a t t h e .01 l e v e l  of the University  of sig-  of  British  i n t h e sense o f  The g r a d u a t i n g c l a s s e s  o f 196 8 a t t h i s  be  expected  a s many men a s women."'"  t h a t m o r e women g r a d u a t e s  Columbia  that  except  c o n t a i n e d 2.4 t i m e s  i t appears  that  o f B r i t i s h Columbia a r e  among p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  hypothesis.  university fact,  of B r i t i s h  I t would be unwise, however, t o c o n c l u d e  graduates  null  Among t h e  A c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 8.25 i n d i c a t e d  under-represented the  Alumni.  of the University  p e r c e n t were male,  on t h e r a t i o  difference  Columbia  187 g r a d u a t e s  females  this  of British  o f the University  attended extension courses  on t h e b a s i s  In  of the estimated t o t a l  than  could  number o f  graduates. Supplemental  full  time  education.  A total  c o u r s e s was r e p o r t e d b y t h e 281 r e s p o n d e n t s had  taken  supplemental  full  time  education.  o f 296  who i n d i c a t e d  T a b l e I V shows t h e  different  types o f further  accounted  f o r 26.7 p e r c e n t o f a l l a c t i v i t i e s , n o r m a l  education reported.  Nurses'  19.3 p e r c e n t , b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n f o r 14.2 p e r c e n t ,  ^-Telephone registrar,  c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h M r . K. G. Y o u n g ,  on August  14, 196 8.  they  training  schoolf o r secretarial  assistant  31  TABLE I V PERCENTAGE D I S T R I B U T I O N OF RESPONDENTS F U L L TIME EDUCATION  BY T Y P E OF  WITH  SUPPLEMENTAL  EDUCATION  N  Nursing Normal  School  o, "o  79  26.7  57  19.3  Post-University  17  5.7  Secretarial  29  9.8  Business  42  Art  15  5.1  Technical-Vocational  25  8.4  Other  32  296  Totals  1  1  Nine  respondents  are reported  i n two  categories  14.2  10.8  100.0  32  training  f o r 9.8 p e r c e n t ,  for  8.4 p e r c e n t ,  art  school  for  10.8 p e r c e n t .  those  one y e a r three all  post-university education  f o r 5.1 p e r c e n t ,  Table of  technical-vocational education  V facilitates  years  The  but only  i n supplemental  one p e r c e n t  o f females  6.7 p e r c e n t  education. category  were  were  too small  38.6  and a Contingency  hypothesis ferences and  full  that there  education.  Twenty-  o f males had ex-  2 years  of  females  of additional  i n the remaining  inferences.  categories  A chi-square  o f .20 w e r e  a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  female p a r t i c i p a n t s  significance.  o f a l l men, h a d  a n d 4.6 p e r c e n t  Coefficient  i n t h e amounts  of a l l  o f t h e 53 women i n t h e t h r e e - y e a r  Numbers  for valid  than  o f any k i n d .  36.7 p e r c e n t  time  o f males r e p o r t e d  nurses.  h a d more  education  a n d 8.6 p e r c e n t  A l lbut three  54.8 p e r c e n t  had attended f o r  19 p e r c e n t  a maximum o f o n e y e a r ,  of schooling  Sixty-nine p e r cent of  same t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t  participated  and  that  a n d t h a t u n d e r 10 p e r c e n t  r e p o r t e d no a d d i t i o n a l  women r e s p o n d e n t s ,  perienced  education  o f further education.  respondents  types  the deduction  reporting additional or less,  and o t h e r  f o r 5.7 p e r c e n t ,  value of  obtained.  significant  of further education  between  The  dif-  male  was r e j e c t e d a t t h e .001 l e v e l o f  33  TABLE BIVARIATE  V  D I S T R I B U T I O N OF RESPONDENTS  BY SEX AND  YEARS  OF SUPPLEMENTAL F U L L TIME EDUCATION  Total  No. o f Y e a r s N  Females  Males Q. "O  N  Q, "5  N  O, X>  None  614  68. 6  218  81. 0  396  63. 3  0.1-1  154  17. 2  23  8. 6  131  20. 9  2  47  5. 3  18  6. 7  29  4 .6  3  53  5 9  0  0 0  53  8 .5  4  16  1  8  3  1 1  13  2 .1  5  5  0 6  3  1 1  2  0 .3  6  1  0 .1  0  0 .0  1  0 .2  7  2  0 .2  2  0 .7  0  0 .0  8  3  0 .3  2  0 .7  1  0 .2  100 .0  626  100 .0  895  Totals  =  38.6 3  d.f.  P  <  001  269  100 .0  C  A  A  =  .20  =  .24  1  AB  ,03  34  Occupation. to  the  (3:41)  represents not  the  was  respondents  where  and  324  even though  the  Blishen scale  any  the  employed were ranked  male-female  in  uppermost  The  30 2  decile  house-  according  to  their  e m p l o y e d women a c c o r d i n g  This procedure,  i n f o r m a t i o n about  according  f o r Occupations  h i g h e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l rank.  womens' o c c u p a t i o n s .  cluded  VI  of  occupations,  own,  required  Index  i s shown i n T a b l e  otherwise  husbands' their  distribution  B l i s h e n Socio-Economic  Canada  wives  The  while  respondents'  contrasts.  does not  rank  providing  occupations,  Hence,  the  to  the pre-  chi-square  test  omitted. The  of  the  upper  British  four deciles  Columbia  per  cent  of  per  cent  of participants  which  the  which  labour  force  participants.  c o n t a i n 40  per  In  ranked  cent  of  contain only (3:53),  sharp  i n the  the  per  included  cent 84.9  contrast, only lower  labour  46  five  force i n  5.8  deciles British  Columbia. Income. pants  are  category,  Gross  given  i n Table  $6,000 t o  respondents,  f a m i l y income  26.6  VII.  A at  each  income  chi-square  per  the  .5  level.  of The  the  partici-  income  largest  number  of  cent.  category  value  median annual  $8,999, c o n t a i n e d  In most i n s t a n c e s , the in  The  categories for  percentages  were v e r y  6.1  was  c l o s e to the  calculated,  hypothesis  of males  t h a t male  which and  and  females  expected is  values.  significant  female  parti-  35  TABLE V I D I S T R I B U T I O N OF RESPONDENTS ACCORDING BLISHEN  OCCUPATIONAL S C A L E  TO  DECILES  ( T o t a l p e r c e n t a g e compared t o 1961 B r i t i s h Columbia Census)  Blishen Decile '  Total N  B.C.  Census Q, "©  a  "O  13  1.5  10.0  3  7  .8  9.0  4  10  1.1  14.0  5  21  2.4  7.0  6  15  1.7  13.0  7  176  19.6  9.0  8  140  15.6  11.0  9  111  12.4  14.0  10  333  37.2  12.0  0  69  7.7  895  100.0  1 & 2  Totals  100.0  36  TABLE V I I BIVARIATE AND  Income  Category  Under  $3,000  D I S T R I B U T I O N OF RESPONDENTS BY GROSS ANNUAL FAMILY  INCOME  Females  Males  Total  SEX  N  %  N  *o  N  %  37  4.1  11  4.1  26  4. 2  $3,000  -  5,999  184  20.6  46  17.1  138  22. 4  $6,000  -  8,999  238  26.6  85  31.6  153  24. 4  $9,000  - 11,999  154  17.2  49  18.2  105  16. 8  $12,000  - 14,999  90  10.1  26  9.7  64  10. 2  $15,000  - 17,999  59  6.6  17  6.3  42  6. 7  $18,000  and  107  12.0  31  11.5  76  12. 1  895  100.0  269  100.0  626  100. 0  Totals  X  2  d.f. p  <  =  6.1  =  6  .5  over  not significant  a t t h e .01  level  37  cipants  do  not  i n c o m e was  Social  differ  with  respect to gross  annual  family  accepted.  Participation Scores  revealed  on  the  Chapin  Scale  that approximately  membership  i n at  least  one  The  median  score  category  was  11-15, w i t h  60  for social  per  cent  of  participation  respondents  o r g a n i z a t i o n d u r i n g the for socially  one-quarter  active  s c o r i n g above  held  year  1967.  participants  16,  as  Table  VIII  shows. U n d e r two 7.2  was  which and  degrees  of  o b t a i n e d , w h i c h was  justified  female  the  i n formal  do  a  chi-square  significant  acceptance  participants  participation  freedom,  of  not  a t the  .05  the hypothesis  differ  i n the  value level  and  t h a t male  extent  o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n the  of  of  their  community.  Motivation Results cipants dents had  are  question  by  cent  the  inquiry  shown i n T a b l e s  answered  assigned  of  of  IX,  X,  e a c h q u e s t i o n , and  the not  into  lowest  per  of  four questions  XI.  many o f  explicit  Not  parti-  a l l respon-  them f e l t  that  for motivation  to i t at a l l .  the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n an  and  possible value  responding  78  the m o t i v a t i o n of  responded manner.  to  Nevertheless, to the  three  they a 72  sets  to  38 TABLE V I I I BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCORE (CHAPIN SCALE) AND SEX  S c o r e s on Chapin Scale  Total N  Males N %  Females N  0  360  40.2  105  39.0  255  40.7  1 - 5  107  12.0  27  10.0  80  12.8  6-10  138  15.4  36  13.4  102  16.3  11 - 15  107  12.0  33  12.3  74  11.8  16 - 20  61  6.8  20  7.4  41  6.6  21 - 25  37  4.1  12  4.5  25  4.0  26 - 30  28  3.1  13  4.8  15  2.4  31 - 35  13  1.5  7  2.6  6  1.0  Over 35  44  4.9  16  6.0  28  4.5  895  100.0  269  626  100.0  Totals  X  2  =  d.f. = p < .05  100.0  7.2 4 n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l  39  Goal-orientation. responding, for  this  mean  category  1.28.  "1"  was  More  equal  females and  than  "5".  76 p e r c e n t  ranging  from  1 t o 5, t h e mean  and fewer males  female  percentages expected  o f both  scored  A chi-square value  participants  o r i e n t a t i o n was  elicited  sexes  categories.  error  o f 0.62.  and  "5", fewer  The h y p o t h e s i s  equal  degrees  Questions  response  which  that  of  male  goal-  on a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t a -  rate,  72 p e r c e n t .  w e r e i n t h e two  T h e mean s c o r e was  1.7, w i t h  a  o f males  of the n u l l  and females  over  chi-square value hypothesis  with  the f i v e  Almost  lowest standard  T h e r e was n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  the calculated  tance  scored  scored  Although  o f 30.8 was c a l c u l a t e d  of a l l respondents  score  distribution  expected  rejected.  the lowest  three-quarters  than  of the  i n t h e c a t e g o r i e s between "1"  possess  Activity-orientation. tion  error  score  i n d i c a t i n g low g o a l - o r i e n t a t i o n .  s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l .  and  of participants  2.4 a n d t h e s t a n d a r d  females  on t h e s c a l e ,  almost  is  and s c o r e s  With  i n the  categories,  o f 1.3 l e d t o t h e a c c e p -  respect to activity-  orientation. Learning-orientation. on  learning-orientation  and than  the standard expected  o p p o s i t e was  error  indicated found  was 0.46. high  The r e s p o n s e 78 p e r c e n t ,  rate  to questions  t h e mean s c o r e  More f e m a l e s  and fewer  learning-orientation,  f o r the three  lowest  score  3.1  males  and t h e  categories.  TABLE IX BIVARIATE  T A B L E OF GOAL-ORIENTATION  V S . SEX OF  Total  Score N  Males N  %  1430  51 .0  419  45.3  1011  53.7  2  181  6 .5  85  9.2  96  5.1  3  353  12 .6  135  14.6  218  11.6  4  257  9 .2  95  10.3  162  8.6  5  585  20 .8  190  20.6  395  21.0  2860  100 .0  924  100.0  1882  100.0  Response Mean  rate:  score:  =30.8  2  76% 2.4  C  t  1  d.f.  =  4  X  p  Females N %  9"O  1  Totals  X  RESPONDENT  < .001  AB  =  .10  =  .11  =  0.0  41  TABLE X BIVARIATE TABLE OF ACTIVITY-ORIENTATION VS. SEX OF RESPONDENT  Total N %  Score  Females N < -  1  1562  57.0  519  57.7  1043  56.8  2  370  13.5  133  14.8  237  12.9  3  412  15.0  136  15.1  276  15.0  4  145  5.3  47  5.2  98  5.3  5  249  9.1  65  7.2  184  10.0  Totals  2738  100.0  900  100.0  1838  100.0  Response r a t e : Mean s c o r e :  X  Males N %  2  d.f.  =  7.6  =  4  p < .10  76% 1.9  not s i g n i f i c a n t  a t t h e .01 l e v e l  TABLE X I BIVARIATE TABLE OF LEARNING-ORIENTATION VS. SEX OF RESPONDENT  Score  Totals N %  734  25.6  269  29.2  465  23.3  2  256  8.8  200  10.9  156  7.8  3  626  21.5  208  22.6  418  21.0  4  493  16.9  149  16.2  344  17.2  5  805  27.6  194  21.1  611  30.6  2914  100.0  920  100.0  1994  100.0  Response r a t e : Mean s c o r e : 2  Females N %  1  Totals  X  Males N %  =  d.f. =  7 8% 3.1  37  C  4  (J)  p < .001  .11 1  0.11  A„_, = 0.0 AB  43  The  calculated  .001  level,  there of  chi-square  warranting  ranged  possible  b e t w e e n men a n d women i n t h e d e g r e e  of motivation  from  pair  data.  o f means  revealed  that  s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l .  the  mean  scores  tests,  a r e n o t normal  two-sample  more p o w e r f u l  either  for  substantiated  male-female  categories, The  than  the chi-square  test  differences  and  i n both  The  T-tests,  sense.  test,  under The  considered  o r median  tests  o f the chi-square  test  also  significant differences.  confirmed  the learning-oriented  a t t h e .001 l e v e l  same t e s t ,  applied  over  significant  differences—at  and  goal-oriented  of significance.  to the distributions of a l l  a n y two o r i e n t a t i o n  combinations.  statistically  between t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f males  respondents  possible  two-tailed  showing no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  categories  category  distributions i n the a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t e d  significant  score  each  and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s  the results  Kolmogorov-Smirnov  females  were  S i m i l a r l y , t - t e s t s on  i n the s t a t i s t i c a l  Kolmogorov-Smirnov  t o each  the variations  any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s .  however, a r e p a r a m e t r i c  (42:131),  t h e mean  applied  f o r men a n d women w i t h i n  to reveal  discussion  Although  1.7 t o 3.1, t - t e s t s  not  failed  that  learning-orientation.  Analysis scores  o f 37 was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e  the rejection of the hypothesis  i s no d i f f e r e n c e  their  value  categories,  showed  t h e .001 l e v e l — b e t w e e n a l l  The l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e  was o b s e r v e d  44  between  l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n and  followed  by t h e d i f f e r e n c e between g o a l - o r i e n t a t i o n and  learning-orientation, orientation  percentage indicated  Previous  XII.  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  According  of respondents  was  was  to this found  s m a l l e s t , as  table,  the  Participation  i n Adult  74 p e r c e n t  a t some t i m e  participated  i n adult education  ratio  of veterans  to novices  However, i f r e s p o n d e n t s participation  shown i n T a b l e  values  which  Education  reveals that  tension  lowest  i n the categories  XIII  vious  goal-  low l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n .  Table  The  while  and a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t a t i o n  shown i n T a b l e  have  activity-orientation,  novices o f 1.89  warranted  significant  are divided according  XIV, t h e r a t i o  of extension  f o r Tables  activities 3:1.  to their  veterans  pre-  as t o ex-  Chi-squared  and XIV, t h a t no  between male  respect to previous  respondent;  courses,  1:1.  XIII  of the hypothesis  differences exist  cipants with  extension  to approximately  a n d 2.74  acceptance  i s approximately  i n university  drops  of a l l  respectivel;  statistically  and female  participation  parti  i n adult  education.  Intentions Only intentions  About Future 1.6 p e r c e n t  Enrolment  i n Extension  of a l l participants  of not returning to extension  future, while  25.7 p e r c e n t  indicated  Courses  stated  courses  t h a t they  definite  i n the would  perhap  45  TABLE X I I D I S T R I B U T I O N OF A L L RESPONDENTS BY TYPE OF O R I E N T A T I O N AND SCORE CATEGORY  (KOLMOGOROV-SMIRNOV  TWO-TAILED TEST)  Score  Type o f O r i e n t a t i o n 2  Cumulative  Categories 3  Frequency  4  5  Distribution  GoalOrientation  ,511  .574  701  .791  1.00  ActivityOrientation  569  .704  .855  .908  1.00  LearningOrientation  251  .381  .553  .722  1.00  Maximum D  G-A  Maximum D Maximum D  G-L A-L  .154  Significant  a t t h e .001 l e v e l  .260  Significant  a t t h e .001 l e v e l  .366  Significant  a t t h e .001 l e v e l  46  TABLE BIVARIATE  DISTRIBUTION  PARTICIPATION  OF  XIII  RESPONDENTS BY  I N ADULT EDUCATION  Total N  SEX AND  (ANY  Males %  N  PREVIOUS  TYPE)  Females %  N  %  "Veterans"  663  74.1  191  71.0  472  75.4  "Novices"  232  25.9  78  29.0  154  24.6  Totals  895  100.0  269  100.0  626  100.0  X  =  1.89  d.f.  =  1  z  p  <  .30  not s i g n i f i c a n t  a t t h e .01  level  47  TABLE  BIVARIATE  DISTRIBUTION  PARTICIPATION  OF  XIV  RESPONDENTS BY  IN U N I V E R S I T Y  OF B.C.  Total N  EXTENSION  Males N  %  SEX AND  %  PREVIOUS CLASSES  Females N %  "Extention Veterans"  "Novices i n Extension"  Totals  X  2  d.f. p  <  =  2.74  -  1  .10  427  47.7  117  43.5  310  49.5  468  52.3  152  56.5  316  50.5  895  100.0  269  100.0  626  100.0  not s i g n i f i c a n t  a t t h e .01  level  48 return  a n d 70.4 p e r c e n t  participation,  a s shown i n T a b l e  future enrollments to  t h e time The  their was is  Valid  predictions f o r  c a n n o t b e made, b e c a u s e no c o m m i t m e n t s a s  f o rfuture p a r t i c i p a t i o n hypothesis  accepted  were  given.  t h a t men a n d women d o n o t d i f f e r i n  on t h e b a s i s o f a c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e  not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  ticipants  significant.  t o t a l number o f c o u r s e s  o f reported courses,  the l i b e r a l education  concerned  fessional  XVI.  The  29.6 p e r c e n t , w a s  a r e a , w h i l e 22.8 p e r c e n t h a d b e e n  w i t h c u r r e n t events  time  relating  p r e v i o u s l y taken by par-  a r e c a t e g o r i z e d by s u b j e c t area i n Table  l a r g e s t percentage  leisure  o f 3.19 w h i c h  Subject Areas o f Study  The  per  XV.  committed t o f u t u r e  i n t e n t i o n s f o rf u t u r e enrolment i n extension c l a s s e s  Previous  in  seemed p o s i t i v e l y  and r e l a t e d  a c t i v i t i e s accounted  areas.  Studies of  f o r 16.7 p e r c e n t ,  t o p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t f o r 12.3 p e r c e n t , and v o c a t i o n a l courses  cent o f t h e reported courses  those pro-  f o r 11.7 p e r c e n t , a n d 6.7 had d e a l t w i t h s u b j e c t r e -  2  lated  t o home a n d f a m i l y  life.  More males and f e w e r f e m a l e s n u l l hypothesis  had attended  Detailed definitions a p p e a r i n A p p e n d i x C.  than  expected  under t h e  t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l  o f t h e s u b j e c t areas  mentioned  49  T A B L E XV BIVARIATE  D I S T R I B U T I O N OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND STATED  INTENTIONS ABOUT  FUTURE ENROLLMENT  Total  "Yes" No  X  Response  2  d.f. p  =  3.19  =  1  < .10  Males  N  %  244  27.3  630  70.4  21  not significant  I N ADULT EDUCATION  2.4  a t t h e .01  N  Females  %  N  84  31.2  160  25.6  178  66.2  452  72.2  7  level  2.6  14  .%  2.2  50  TABLE XVI  BIVARIATE  DISTRIBUTION  PREVIOUS  Subject  Area  Liberal Education Subjects  OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND  S U B J E C T AREAS OF STUDY  Total N  Males N  %  Females N %  %  217  29.7  56  29.3  161  29.8  86  11.8  39  20.4  47  8.7  122  16.7  24  12.6  98  18.2  Home a n d F a m i l y Life  49  6.7  9  4.7  40  7.4  Personal Development  90  12.3  21  11.0  69  12.8  Current Events, Public Affairs, Citizenship  167  22.8  42.  22.0  125  23.1  Totals  731  Professional V o c a t i o n a l and T e c h n i c a l Courses Leisure-time Activities  X  =  2  d.f. P  <  24.9  = 5  .ooi  100  191  100  =  c  O X  =  1  A B  =  -  1  -  -  540  8  1 9  0 0  100  51  courses,  while  reported  studies of leisure-time activities  family  life  butions  value  male est  and female  Subject The  the  t o s e x were  cells  largest  Areas  public affairs  category,  f o l l o w e d by p e r s o n a l  leisure-time involving  professional The popularity which  respect to previous  9.8 p e r c e n t  activities  parentheses  XVII  reveal that courses  41 p e r c e n t .  development  courses  drew  i n this which  o n home a n d f a m i l y l i f e of participants, Only  of a l l participants,  cur-  Liberal  33.3 p e r c e n t  3.5 p e r c e n t .  sub-  and t h o s e  one  on  course,  was c l a s s i f i e d  as  or vocational.  foregoing figures of certain  course  inter-  was, t h e r e f o r e , r e j e c t e d .  second, with  Classes  1 p e r cent  a t t h e .001  i s no d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n  of participants,  d r e w 11.5 p e r c e n t .  A chi-  addition of values  and c i t i z e n s h i p  s u b j e c t s were  contained  equal.  o f Study  education  jects  through  with  s u b j e c t areas  group  a n d home a n d  approximately  that there  expected  categories, the d i s t r i -  t a b u l a t i o n s shown i n T a b l e  events,  than  a n d t h i s was s i g n i f i c a n t  participants  i n specified  rent  In the other  The h y p o t h e s i s  Present  and fewer males  o f 24.9 was o b t a i n e d  individual  level.  females  subjects.  according  square from  more  offerings i n each  once  again  subject areas,  reflect  but also the influence  have on e n r o l m e n t .  subject area  not only the  category  The numbers o f Table  XVII  within  52 TABLE BIVARIATE  DISTRIBUTION  PRESENT  Subject  Area  OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND  S U B J E C T AREAS OF STUDY  Total N  Liberal Education S u b j e c t s (12)  XVII  Males N  %  %  Females N %  298  33.3  104  38.7  194  31.0  8  1.0  5  1.9  3  0.5  Leisure-time A c t i v i t i e s (3)  31  3.5  16  6.0  15  2.4  Home a n d F a m i l y L i f e (4)  88  9.8  9  3.3  79  12.6  103  11.5  35  13.0  68  10.9  367  41.9  100  37.2  267  42.7  895  100.0  269  100.0  626  100.0  Professional, V o c a t i o n a l and T e c h n i c a l Courses (1) *  Personal Development  (5)  Current Events, Public Affairs, C i t i z e n s h i p (15)  Totals  X  2  d.f. p  =  32.9  =  4 *  0.19  < .001  * The s e c o n d c a t e g o r y of c h i - s q u a r e .  0.19  C  A  was n o t  AB  =  included  0.01 in the calculation  53  indicate  the courses  names o f c o u r s e s  offered  while Appendix A contains t h e  and enrolment  statistics  M o r e women a n d f e w e r men t h a n in  home a n d f a m i l y l i f e  public  affairs  cation, and  courses,  and c i t i z e n s h i p  professional  was  obtained,  statistic and  value  subject  The C o n t i n g e n c y  are alike  areas  was  Subject Areas Table with  regard  respondents total  cent  i n their  XVIII  events, liberal  time  proportionally  activities, m o r e men.  and Cramer's  the hypothesis present  edu-  a t t h e .001 l e v e l ,  Coefficient  Thus,  t h a t males  interest  i n specific  rejected.  o f Intended  Study  depicts the intentions  t o future study have i n d i c a t e d  preferences  cation,  subjects, while  attracted  .19.  participated  and i n c u r r e n t  o f 32.9, s i g n i f i c a n t  were b o t h  females  expected  and v o c a t i o n a l , l e i s u r e  p e r s o n a l development  A chi-square  f o r each.  i n specific more  than  subject areas.  one c h o i c e .  s t a t e d , 24 p e r c e n t w e r e  21.6 p e r c e n t  for leisure  f o r current events,  public  of participants  time  affairs  Of t h e  f o rl i b e r a l  activities,  Many  edu-  17.9 p e r  and c i t i z e n s h i p ,  15.9 p e r c e n t  f o r p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , 13.7 p e r c e n t f o r  professional,  v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l ,  home a n d f a m i l y l i f e . reported preferences nical  courses,  a n d 6.7 p e r c e n t f o r  M o r e men a n d f e w e r women t h a n for professional,  expected  v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h -  and f o r p e r s o n a l development, whereas  more  54  TABLE BIVARIATE  DISTRIBUTION  XVIII  OF RESPONDENTS  BY SEX  AND  S U B J E C T AREAS OF INTENDED STUDY  Subject  Area  Females N %.  Males N  Total N  Liberal Education Subjects  274  24.2  85  24.0  189  24.3  Professional, V o c a t i o n a l and T e c h n i c a l Courses  155  13.7  71  20.1  84  10.8  244  21.6  70  19.  174  22.4  76  67.2  16  4.5  60  7.7  Personal Development E v e n t s  180  15.9  58  16.4  122  15.7  Current Events, Public Affairs, Citizenship  202  17.9  54  15.3  148  19.1  Leisure-time Activities Home a n d F a m i l y Life  1131  Totals  X  z  =  d.f. p.  '<  = .001  22.4 5  354  100  =  0.14  cb  =  0.14  AAB  = . 0.00  100  C 1  777  100  55  women a n d f e w e r men t h a n  expected  leisure-time  home a n d f a m i l y l i f e ,  events,  activities,  public affairs A  chi-square  significant was in  .14.  areas  interest i n and c u r r e n t  and c i t i z e n s h i p .  value  o f 22.4 was c a l c u l a t e d , a n d i s  a t t h e 0.001 l e v e l .  The h y p o t h e s i s  their  indicated  The Contingency  t h a t men d o n o t d i f f e r  s t a t e d i n t e n t i o n s f o r the study  Coefficient f r o m women  of specific  subject  i n t h e f u t u r e was, t h e r e f o r e , r e j e c t e d .  Residence As  shown i n T a b l e  pondents cent  XIX, about  resided i n the city  lived  on t h e North  were d i s t r i b u t e d the  east  far  a s 50 m i l e s  70 p e r c e n t  o f Vancouver and over  Shore.  The r e m a i n i n g  among t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g  and south  o f Vancouver with  away.  of the res-  Since  17 p e r  12 p e r c e n t  municipalities to  a few coming from as  the extension  c l a s s e s were  held  3 in  various  reveal  the areas  different was  locations  from which  courses  as i n f l u e n t i a l  course.  only  not  respondents  a factor  The h y p o t h e s i s  !  cf.  with  value  of the center of a  c a t e g o r i e s mentioned  o f 1.17 w h i c h was n o t s i g n i f i -  t h a t male  r e s p e c t t o areas  p o s t , A p p e n d i x A.  will  were drawn f o r t h e  as t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r  Calculations f o r the three  differ  cross-tabulatxons  a n d show w h e t h e r p r o x i m i t y  above gave a c h i - s q u a r e cant.  extensive  and female respondents o f r e s i d e n c e was  do  accepted.  56 TABLE X I X B I V A R I A T E D I S T R I B U T I O N OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND AREA OF RESIDENCE  Area of Residence  Total N %  Males N  Females N %  %  VANCOUVER, W e s t o f 134 Alma/Dunbar  15.0  38  14.3  95  15.3  VANCOUVER, b e t w e e n Alma/Dunbar and 213 Granville  23.8  49  18.2  164  26.2  VANCOUVER, W e s t End  114  12.7  40  14.9  74  11.8  VANCOUVER, b e t w e e n 115 G r a n v i l l e & Main  12.9  35  13.0  80  12.8  VANCOUVER, E a s t of Main  54  6.0  24  8.9  30  4.8  NORTH VANCOUVER  82  9.2  29  10.8  53  8.5  WEST VANCOUVER  75  8.4  17  6.3  58  9.3  BURNABY  28  3.1  12  4.5  16  2.6  7  0.8  1  0.4  6  1.0  17  1.9  5  1.9  12  1.9  FRASER M I L L S  1  .1  1  .4  0  0.0  PORT MOODY  6  .7  4  1.5  2  .3  21  2.4  6  2.2  15  2.4  8  .9  5  1.9  3  .5  19  2.1  3  1.1  16  2.6  NEW WESTMINSTER COQUITLAM  RICHMOND SURREY OTHER Totals X  2  =  895 100.0  1.17; d . f . =  2; p < .70  269  100.0  626  100.0  not s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l  57  Travel  Time Table  travelling 11-20 ing  minutes,  the  with  times  female spent  minutes.  .5  do  included  classes  indicated  category i s  little  females  2.9  The  was  report-  deviation  i n each  cate-  calculated  which  h y p o t h e s i s t h a t male  i n the  was  amount o f  and  time  accepted.  were h e l d  i n T a b l e XXI.  the Vancouver P u b l i c  Intermedia  Center  dence.  The  courses  i n those  10  on  Beatty  The  Library,  Street  locations,  29.5  and  per  c e n t a t t e n d e d each  Community  Church.  cent of a l l respondents, i n North held  Vancouver, in  downtown d e s i g n a t i o n the Aquarium, one 41.5  private per  the  resi-  cent,  c e n t came t o t h e  5 per Two  loca-  attended campus,  library  c e n t went  one  and  to  courses, involving  were g i v e n a t the D e l b r o o k  and  Coquitlam.  different  of the K i t s i l a n o  Center, while  at the U n i t a r i a n  c e n t , was  i n seven  majority of participants,  per  the Jewish  School  Very  not d i f f e r  to class  time  participants  and  level.  respondents  of Classes  as  classes  cent of the  chi-square of  a t the  Extension  about  s p e n t by  median t r a v e l  per  A  in travelling  tions,  time  number o f m a l e s  participants  Locations  per  80  observed.  significant  the  The  b e l o w 30  expected  g o r y was is  indicates  to class.  travel  from  XX  course, involving  1.6  2.8 High per  58  TABLE BIVARIATE  D I S T R I B U T I O N OF RESPONDENTS  SEX AND  Travel  Time  XX  TRAVEL  Total N  Q, "6  TIME  TO  BY  CLASS  Males N  Q, "6  Females a. "5 N  165  18.4  54  20.1  111  17.7  11 - 20 m i n u t e s  329  36.8  97  36.1  232  37.1  21 - 30 m i n u t e s  227  25.4  74  27.5  153  24.4  31 - 40 m i n u t e s  83  9.3  25  9.3  58  9.3  41 - 50 m i n u t e s  45  5.0  11  4.1  34  5.4  51 - 60 m i n u t e s  19  2.1  3  1.1  16  2.6  61 - 70 m i n u t e s  5  0.6  2  0.7  3  0.5  71 - 80 m i n u t e s  5  0.6  2  0.7  3  0.5  80 m i n u t e s  11  1.2  0  0.0  11  1.8  895  100.0  269  100.0  626  100.0  Under  Over  1C m i n u t e s  Totals  X  =2.89  2  d.f. p  = 3  < .50  not significant  a t t h e .01  level  59  TABLE XXI BIVARIATE  D I S T R I B U T I O N OF RESPONDENTS SEX AND  LOCATION  CLASS  Females N  Males N  Total N  Location  OF  BY  Campus  264  29.5  91  33.8  173  27.6  Downtown Vancouver  371  41.5  114  42.3  257  41.1  Unitarian Church  47  5.3  0.4  46  7.4  Kitsilano Library  85  9.5  25  9.3  60  9.6  Jewish Center  89  9.9  27  10.4  62  9.9  Coquitlam  14  1.6  3  1.1  11  1.8  North  25  2.8  3.0  17  2.7  895  100.0  100.0  626  100.0  Community  Vancouver  Totals  X  =9.8  2  d.f. p  269  =  < .05  4 not significant  a t t h e .01 l e v e l  60  Over off  70 p e r c e n t  campus,  arts  attesting  courses  numbers  beyond  to the l i t e r a l  campus  attended  extension  boundaries.  C h u r c h , where classes.  Differences  a value  s i g n i f i c a n t , except  calculations  o f 15.7, which  i n the locations  at the Unitarian  o n e man a n d 46 women w e r e e n r o l l e d  Chi-square  classes  of liberal  o f men a n d women a t t e n d i n g a t t h e v a r i o u s  were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y  duced  o f a l l respondents  f o r this  i n daytime  one c e l l  pro-  i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001  level.  Reactions  t o Scheduling  Satisfaction cent the  o f the respondents locations  indicates. quarter  other  and  only  with  locations.  also  of factors  campus,  21 p e r c e n t  value  acceptance  XXII  North  Shore,  o f t h e females  of  6.3--significant  of the hypothesis  do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the location i n order  choice of location  indicates  as T a b l e  168, a p p r o x i m a t e l y one-  the chi-square  s a t i s f a c t i o n with  respondents'  attended,  o f t h e men v o i c e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  men a n d women p a r t i c i p a n t s  Ranking  Eighty per  s a t i s f a c t i o n with  o f t h e downtown, Although  13.8 p e r c e n t  the locations,  their  which  they  Of t h e d i s s a t i s f i e d each  of the class.  declared their  t h e .02 l e v e l - - j u s t i f i e d  that in  location  of the classes  preferred  and  at  with  classes.  of their influence  resulted  the weightings  for their  i n Table  f o r each  on t h e  XXIII,  factor.  61  TABLE BIVARIATE  DISTRIBUTION  XXII OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND  S A T I S F A C T I O N WITH LOCATION FOR T H E I R  Total N  Males %  N  COURSES  Females %  N  %  Satisfied  718  80.2  229  85.1  489  78.1  Dissatisfied  168  18.8  37  13.8  131  21.0  9  1.0  3  1.1  6  1.0  895  100.0  269  100.0  626  100.0  No R e s p o n s e  Totals  X  2  = 6 . 3  d.f. p  =  < .02  1 not significant  a t t h e .01  level  62  TABLE  XXIII  FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCED RESPONDENTS' CHOICE LOCATION FOR  OF  CLASSES  Weight  Factor  time  distance  3.51  facilities  2.93  1.  Travel  2.  Instructional  3.  Parking  facilities  2.87  4.  Library  facilities  2.56  The revealed travel  Kolmogorov-Smirnov one-sample  that  time  determining level. and  In  the preponderance  and  distance  their fact,  d i s t a n c e was  most i m p o r t a n t to  and  be  of respondents  even  under  over  f r e q u e n c i e s was  significant  the assumption  three times  factor  who  the most i n f l u e n t i a l  p r e f e r e n c e was  of equal influence,  expected  as  test--Table  as  likely  factor  chosen  still  in  .001  travel  the other three factors the d i f f e r e n c e  ranked  a t the  that  t o be  XXIV—  as  time the  assumed  between o b s e r v e d  significant  at the  .01  and  level.  63 TABLE XXIV RANKING OF FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCED PREFERENCES FOR CLASS LOCATIONS  (KOLMOGOROV-SMIRNOV TEST)  Library Facilities  No. o f s u b j e c t s choosing t h i s f a c t o r as most important F  60  Instruct. Facilities  120  P a r k i n c r y  84  Travel: Time & Dist.  456  = Theoretical cumulative d i s tribution (Assuming e q u i v a l e n c e )  25  50  75  1.0  S_2Q(X) = C u m u l a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n of observed choices  .08  25  38  1.0  25  37  00  Q  (X)  F (X) Q  s  7 2 0  (x)  Maximum d e v i a t i o n = .37 p < .001  17  64  A  summary  satisfaction ranking  of  locations of  a  with  a 12  city  limits  utes  arts  crucial per  per  of  10  travel  that  another  the  66.7  within  one  indicate was  class  attend.  West  less  the  Vancouver.  than  30  indicate The  mina  additional  the most  important  satisfaction  t h a t the  largely  for classes.  scheduled  cent per  cent  per  participants,  and  a respondent's  course  times  5.8  per  to  streets.  d i s t a n c e as  clientele  drawn from  as  the  with  for vic-  they  per  of  attended  came t o m o r n i n g  the  cent  proportion of of  g r e a t e s t number attracted  shown i n T a b l e  respondents  cent  the  the morning  73.4  XXV.  afternoon  sessions.  o f women a t t e n d i n g e v e n i n g  cent 94  of  Since  f o r evenings,  a l l participants,  Twenty-one p e r and  city  of  accessibility  resided outside  spent  the  location.  c l a s s e s were of  seems t o arts  Starting  cent  and  determining  location  of  time  on  about  preferences  f a c t which would  miles  about  extension  Vancouver  of  a  and  decision  a l l participants  class,  liberal  the  non-credit university  to  one  time,  inference that  travelling  inity  per  the  a l l participants  class  of  justify  of  journey  residence,  contribute to  of Vancouver, North  four factors  any  travel  p a r t i n a person's  cent  emergence o f  a  and  about  cent  maximum  of  findings  which  seems t o  Only  Eighty  the  location  factors  liberal  plays  of  classes  While  c l a s s e s came  females  among a l l  clientele  and  65  TABLE BIVARIATE  D I S T R I B U T I O N FOR RESPONDENTS  SEX AND  T i m e o f Day  XXV  TIME OF DAY FOR  CLASS  Females N %  Males N  Total N  BY  52  5.8  3  1.1  49  7.8  Afternoon  186  20.8  26  9.7  160  25.6  Evening  657  73.4  240  89.2  417  66.6  895  100.0  269 100.0  626  100.0  Morning  Totals  X  =  2  d.f. p  50.56  =  < .001  2  C  = 0.23  (J)  1  =  .24  66  84 ing  per cent  the classes  female  was  which,  audience.  nificant  in  of the afternoon  .23.  The v a l u e  The h y p o t h e s i s  their  attendance  preferences Table  cent  were i n t e n d e d  f o r chi-square,  that  o f t h e day was,  S i x t y - s i x p e r cent hours most  16 p e r c e n t  found  for classes.  f o r t h e s t a r t i n g times  the evening  preferred  mornings most  Participants  of classes  o f a l l respondents  suitable  for  afternoon  hours,  and 8 p e r  convenient. respondents  a preference  f o r morning  classes,  1.5 p e r c e n t  males had s i m i l a r o p t i o n s .  per cent  women f o u n d category those  that  contains  classes, time  distribution  each.  classes  o f day most  which  indicated  were  ofa l l considered  o f t h e women a n d b y o n l y 84.4 p e r c e n t  a m e r e 5 8.3  more t h a n  sub-categories  respondents  Whereas  7.7 p e r c e n t  who i n d i c a t e d  created of  o f t h e men.  only  Afternoon  b y 20.5 p e r c e n t  evening  con-  extension  o f a l l female  most convenient  1  are tabulated  11 p e r c e n t  preferred  sig-  f r o m men  While  6.3  for a  Coefficient  women d o n o t d i f f e r  a t d i f f e r e n t times  attend-  5 0 . 5 6 , was  The Contingency  s t a r t i n g times  XXVI.  classes,  w e r e women,  rejected.  Preferred  sidered  i n many c a s e s ,  a t t h e .001 l e v e l .  therefore,  in  attendants  o f t h e men  p e r cent  convenient.  ofthe The " o t h e r "  o f a l l respondents, one c o n v e n i e n t  contained  The c h i - s q u a r e  less  time, than  calculated  namely and so  1 p e r cent for this  was 6 5 . 1 , w h i c h was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001  67  TABLE BIVARIATE AND  DISTRIBUTION  XXVI OF RESPONDENTS BY  PREFERRED SCHEDULING  TIME FOR  Males N  SEX  CLASSES  Females N %  Time  Total N  %  Morning  73  8.2  4  1.5  69  11.2  Afternoon  145  16.2  17  6.3  128  20.5  Evening  592  66.2  227  84.4  365  58.3  Other  69  7.7  16  6.0  53  8.5  No R e s p o n s e  16  1.8  5  1.9  11  1.8  895  100.0  269  100.0  626  100.0  Totals  X  =  d.f.  =•  1  p  <  .001  Q, "O  .26  65.1  .27  3 A  A B  =  0.00  68 level,  and t h e C o n t i n g e n c y  hypothesis their  Coefficient  t h a t male and female  preferences f o r starting Attendance  shows  that  classes,  24.8  while  on d i f f e r e n t  per cent  more  times days  attended  females,  b u t fewer  classes,  while  expected  approximately  sex  attended  led  to a chi-square value  the  .01 l e v e l ,  dicated day  on Tuesdays  indicate  how  attendance. opportunity  for participation  tern  emerged.  30 p e r c e n t cent,  cent.  of votes.  was  each  of  at  .12 i n and  collected  d a y o f t h e week s u i t e d  shows  23.6 p e r c e n t ,  with  and T h u r s d a y  received a total  Ten p e r cent o f respondents  an them  a similar  t h a t Wednesday  f o l l o w e d b y Monday  to  influenced  were g i v e n  i n extension courses,  The o t h e r days  of  significant  o f any one c o u r s e  which  Table XXVIII  Tuesday w i t h  more  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p e r se  s i n c e no e v i d e n c e  of the votes,  and  differences  coefficient  H o w e v e r , when t h e r e s p o n d e n t s to indicate  females  between sex o f p a r t i c i p a n t  the popularity  best  per  o f 1 2 . 7 , w h i c h was  Monday  Thursday  numbers The  XXVII  32 p e r c e n t  Fewer  came t o  the expected  and t h e C o n t i n g e n c y  value,  attended  on Mondays,  expected  rejected.  Table  on Tuesdays,  and Wednesdays.  a weak a s s o c i a t i o n  of l i t t l e  o f t h e week.  on T h u r s d a y s .  o f t h e week f o r a t t e n d a n c e .  seems  o f c o u r s e s was  attended  males than  Hence t h e  are similar i n  of a l l respondents  19 p e r c e n t  males than  .26.  respondents  on W e d n e s d a y s , a n d 24 p e r c e n t and  was  received 24 p e r  with  o f 2.2  expressed  pat-  19.6  per cent no  prefer-  69  TABLE X X V I I BIVARIATE  D I S T R I B U T I O N OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND  Day o f Week for Class  DAY OF WEEK FOR  CLASS  Females N %  Males N  Total N  Monday  222  24.8  83  30.9  139  22.2  Tuesday  171  19.1  56  20.8  115  18.4  Wednesday  287  32.1  82  30.5  205  32.8  Thursday  215  24.0  48  17. 8  167  26.7  Totals  895  100.0  269  100.0  626  100.0  X  2  =  d.f. p  =  < .01  12.7 3  C § X  l  AB  =  =  .12  =  .12 - °  0  70  TABLE BIVARIATE AND  D I S T R I B U T I O N OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX  VOTES FOR PREFERRED DAYS OF THE WEEK  Total  Preferred Day  XXVIII  N  O. "o  Q. "O  Males N %  Females %  N  "O  Monday  194  21.7  24. 2  72  26.8  29 .5  122  19.5  21. 9  Tuesday  189  21.1  23. 6  57  21.2  23 .4  132  23.1  23. 4  Wednesday  244  27.3  30. 4  73  27.1 29 .9  171  27.3  30. 6  Thursday  157  17.5  19. 6  32  11.9  13 .1  125  20.0  22. 4  18  2.0  2. 2  10  3.7  4 .1  8  1.3  1. 4  Other  days  93  10. 4  895  100.0  No R e s p o n s e  Totals  X2  =  15.9  d.f.  =  4  p  < .01  100. 0  100 .0  100. 0 9.3  68  10.9  269 100.0  626  100.0  25  X  AB  =  -  =  .13  1  3  = - ° 0  71  ences.  T h u s , Wednesday, w h i c h  d a n c e , was  actually  participants second  c h o s e n b y 30 p e r c e n t  expressed  dance,  and i n s t a t e d  802  Monday  ranked  preference.  a n d T h u r s d a y h a d 19 a n d 23.4 p e r c e n t and i n r e v e r s e  of a l l atten-  of those  any p r e f e r e n c e s .  i n a c t u a l attendance  Tuesday  per  who  h a d 32 p e r c e n t  of a l l atten-  o r d e r , w e r e p r e f e r r e d b y 24 a n d  19.6  cent. Furthermore,  pected than  voted  value the  voted  o f 15.9  extension  and females  like  19.7 p e r c e n t  days  ences,  weekend  which i s  significant  f o r attending  indicated  XXIX.  and s e m i n a r s  term,  i n t h e autumn i n weekend  s p r i n g a n d summer, a n d a l m o s t  s h o r t courses  of  Of  i n the spring  showed i n t e r e s t  i n a l l three  fifty  an i n t e r e s t i n  i n Table  p r e f e r r e d seminars  seminars  at  hypothesis  Three hundred  i n s p r i n g a n d autumn t e r m s , w h e r e  favoured  females  chi-square  of the  i n t h e summer, a n d 26 p e r c e n t  i n both  ex-  o f t h e week.  a s shown  A n o t h e r one p e r c e n t  activities  X X V I I I was  seminars.  seminars,  The  preferences  o r 39.1 p e r c e n t ,  a t t e n d i n g weekend  cent  have  i n weekend  respondents,  term.  pattern.  f o r Table  c l a s s e s on s p e c i f i c  12.5 p e r c e n t  a distribution  and l e a d t o t h e r e j e c t i o n  Interest  these,  f o r Thursday;  calculated  .01 l e v e l ,  b u t more m a l e s t h a n  and more m a l e s b u t f e w e r  t o the a c t u a l attendance  t h a t males  the  females  f o r Mondays,  expected  similar  fewer  25 p e r  a f u r t h e r 15 p e r c e n t terms.  on campus  Since  alone  confer-  attracted  72  T7ABLE BIVARIATE AND  DISTRIBUTION  INCLINATION  Total N  In favour o f weekend s e m i n a r s  Not i n f a v o u r o f weekend seminars No  Response  Totals  X  2  d.f. p  XXIX OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX  TOWARD WEEKEND SEMINARS  Males N  %  %  350  39.11  139  51.7  211  33.7  462  51.6  113  42.0  349  42.0  83  9.3  17  6.3  66  10.5  895  100.0  269  100.0  626  100.0  = 21.65  C  =  (J)  = .16  *AB  = - °  < .001  1  Females N %  = .15 1  4  73  about  4,400 p a r t i c i p a n t s  that  ample p r o v i s i o n  cipants men  h a s b e e n made i n c u r r e n t  chi-square  est  Sources  seminars  were  Coefficient  was  The at the  .15. T h e  i n their  inter-  rejected.  learned  about  to indicate  information  first.  t o what e x t e n t  through  secondary  not directly  o ft h e A  second  participants sources,  connected  with  department. i n T a b l e XXX, a l m o s t  reported the f l y e r - - a  t h e newspaper  rolled.  the courses  res-  t h e t y p e o f announcement--  attention  to establish  indicated  participants  of different  a t t e n d i n g a t the time  or organizations  extension As  the effectiveness  came t o t h e i r  attempted  namely p e o p l e  of  seminars.  by t h e e x t e n s i o n department,  t h e c o u r s e t h e y were  question  the  used  asked  interview—which  had  was  order t o determine  of publicity  pondents about  i n weekend  of Information In  types  C o n s i d e r a b l y more  t h a t men a n d women d o n o t d i f f e r  i n weekend  350 p a r t i -  as 21.65, i s s i g n i f i c a n t  and t h e C o n t i n g e n c y  hypothesis  i t i s likely  of these  programs.  interest  value, calculated  level,  (47:26),  f o r the accomodation  t h a n women e x p r e s s e d  .001  d u r i n g 1966-67  about  About  advertisement—as  34 p e r c e n t o f a l l  two-colour reproduction their  t h e course i n which  first  source o f  they eventually en-  26 p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n d e n t s  were  initially  74  T A B L E XXX BIVARIATE  DISTRIBUTION  TYPE OF ANNOUNCEMENT  Type o f Announcement  Total N  OF RESPONDENTS BY S E X AND RECEIVED  FOR THE COURSE  Males N  g.  o. "o  Females "O N  Newspaper Advertisement  215  24 .0  82  30.5  133  21.3  Special  303  33 .9  71  26.4  232  37.1  230  25 .7  68  25.3  162  25.9  Others  39  4 .4  8  3.0  31  5.0  None  48  5 .4  21  7.8  27  4.3  No R e s p o n s e  60  6 .7  19  7.1  41  6.6  100 .0  269  100.0  626  100.0  Flyer  Brochure  895  Totals  X  2  d.f. p  = 19.0  C  =  O  4  < .001  X  = 1  AB  .14  = .15 = .01  75  informed  by  a mailed  group  of  courses,  paper  advertisement  Vancouver's they  had  portion  two  not  than  24  per  which  cent  papers.  "other" apparent  from  The  cent  The bined and  newspapers  circulation  calculate  to  produce  that  each  that  and  of  that  the  newspaper  city  for business  terms  program, ducing  of one  individual  one  brochure  that  and  while  the  the  pro-  one about  selective  greater returns brochures, attracted  newspapers  advertisement  to  five  were  and  the times  possible as  as much,  impeded  the  flyer  programs liberal  by  fact publiHowever,  non-credit i n pro-  newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t , times  and  further  carried  more e f f e c t i v e  nineteen  much  the  as w e l l . arts  com-  flyers  i t is times  a  advertisement,  f o u r times are  had  38,000  While  newspaper  on  twelve  than  of  that  a similar  o r upon r e q u e s t ,  professional  influence  participants  flyers  effectiveness  was  of each  cent.  advertisement  flyer  XXX  c o s t about  cost three  and  and  360,000, whereas  flyer as  issue  or  news-  cent reported  were d i s t r i b u t e d .  c o s t and  their  per  about  each  brochure  24  carrying  deliver  analyses  one  of  20,000 b r o c h u r e s  to  in  participants,  f o r drawing  per  Table  59  responsible  i n one  two-page  m a t e r i a l brought  advertising.  the  the  course  sources.  according to mailing l i s t s of  read  Five  mailed per  a particular  announcements,  of promotional  newspaper  about  appeared  r e c e i v e d any  i s also  distribution  and  daily  indicated It  brochure  more  and  effective.  76  The  role  of mailing lists  become more a p p a r e n t novices  i n the promotional  i n the next  section,  approach  will  where v e t e r a n s and  are discussed. There  were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  differences be-  t w e e n t h e number o f men a n d women who r e c e i v e d t h e v a r i o u s announcements.  T h i r t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f a l l male  and  o f a l l females  21 p e r c e n t  tisement was  mentioned  cent of  a l l male  per  primary  r e p o r t e d t h e newspaper  source  as an e f f e c t i v e  from  cent  ial.  and a l l female a brochure.  t h e .001 l e v e l ,  t o b e .15.  respondents  One-quarter  l e a r n e d about  their  8 p e r c e n t o f a l l men a n d 4  chi-square value  and females  about  the course  with  any p e r s o n s  their  source  significant was  existed  found between  of information  o r employers,  while  had  out independently,  had been  to the extension  a t t h e time  o f a l l respondents  relatives  or agencies  attention  t h e y were e n r o l l e d  29 p e r c e n t  found  no d i f f e r e n c e  respect to their  whether  i n drawing  i n which  that  Coefficient  mater-  had t o be r e j e c t e d .  When a s k e d instrumental  o f 19.0 was  and t h e Contingency  The h y p o t h e s i s  males  view,  The f l y e r  o f i n f o r m a t i o n b y 26 p e r  o f t h e women.  About  adver-  o f a l l women h a d n o t r e c e i v e d a n y p r o m o t i o n a l  The c a l c u l a t e d  course  of information.  source  o f t h e men a n d 37 p e r c e n t  course  at  as t h e i r  respondents  mentioned  of the interfriends,  56 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t  they  a n d 15 p e r c e n t d i d n o t r e s p o n d  77  to  the  question  v a l u e was  at a l l ,  calculated  Therefore,  the  the  to which  extent  was  as  as  Table  3.1,  hypothesis they  XXXI shows.  which  t h a t men use  the  i s not and  The  chi-square  significant.  women do  two-step  flow  not of  differ  in  information  accepted.  II.  Analysis revealed with  of  VETERANS AND  the  statistically  respect to nine  These  data  findings  a brief  are  pertaining  significant  of  NOVICES  the  to veterans  differences  characteristics  summarized  i n Table  on  novices  between  under  XLVII  d i s c u s s i o n o f each d i s t r i b u t i o n  and  them  study.  p a g e 111  and  follows.  Age Table novices 25  to  years  y e a r s , was than  category  and  20  per cent  The  under  cent  35  of  median  years.  as  category  hypothesis  expected  Forty per  a l l participants  84.6,  null  than  s t a t u s , i t a l s o became a p p a r e n t  calculated  age  45  under  The  45  45  t h a t 20  years.  w h i c h was  and  for novices  of  per  in  every  old.  held  cent  While  veteran  of a l l  chi-square value  significant  35  a l l veterans  years  years  More  were under  appeared  cent  a l l n o v i c e s were o v e r  n o v i c e s were o l d e r than  of veterans  below t h a t f o r v e t e r a n s .  the  more v e t e r a n s  over  of  distribution  ten years  expected  o l d , and  age  6 8 per '  a c c o r d i n g t o age.  34  novices  X X X I I shows t h e  at the  .001  was  level.  78 TABLE XXXI BIVARIATE  DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX  AND PROCESS LEADING TO AWARENESS OF COURSE  Total Q, N "6  Males Q. N  Females N %  Found o u t i n d e p e n d e n t l y  505  56 .4  164  61. 0  341  54.5  Foud o u t t h r o u g h F r i e n d , Employer, e t c .  256  28 .6  71  26. 4  185  29.5  No Response  134  14 .9  34  12. 6  100  16.0  895 100 .0  Totals  X  2  269 100. 0  =3.1  d.f. =  2  p < .30 n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l  626 100.0  79  T/ABLE BIVARIATE AND  Age  Under  24  DISTRIBUTION  NOVICES  Total N  Group  years  XXXII  %  BY AGE  OF  VETERANS  GROUPS  Novices N %  Veterans N %  99  10. 7  39  5. 7  60  25. 0  25 - 34  years  257  27. 8  179  26. 2  78  32. 6  35 - 44  years  219  23. 7  173  25. 3  46  19. 3  45 - 54  years  194  21. 0  159  23. 3  35  14. 6  55 - 64  years  84  9. 1  72  10. 5  12  5. 0  62  6. 7  54  7. 9  8  3. 4  8  0. 9  8  1. 2  0  0. 0  923  100. 0  684  100. 0  239  100. 0  Over No  65  Response  Totals  X  2  =  d.f.  = .  p. <  .001  84.64 5  C A X  1  AB  =  .29  =  .30  -  .02  80  The  Contingency  .30  both  found  Coefficient  indicated  i n this  one  of  of  the  .29  and  higher  Cramer's  degrees  statistic  of  of  association  study.  Occupation In to  the  two  more n o v i c e s  eight deciles  than  novices  divergence  all  than and  highest deciles,  erans  40.2  distribution  of veterans  Blishen Occupational  XXXIII, lower  the  per  novices.  square  value  expected  indicating  i n the  a l l veterans,  The  differences  of  The  Contingency  .13  indicated  14.5,  found  than  which  Coefficient  ranking  but  Table  i n each  expected  jobs.  The  which  merely  29.7  in distribution  is significant of  according  .12  and  the  the  more  vet-  greatest  contained per  cent  led to  a t the  Cramer's  a weak a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e  of  in  that proportionally  highest decile  of  novices  tabulated i n  were  more v e t e r a n s  held higher  occurred  cent  Ranks, as  and  two  of  a chi-  .01  level.  statistic  of  variables  under d i s c u s s i o n .  Income Gross  f a m i l y incomes  significantly, category  the  shown i n T a b l e  f o r veterans  n o v i c e s was under  as  for veterans  $6,000 t o  hypothesis  was  $9,000 t o  $8,999. were  XXXIV.  found  and  novices  The  median  $11,999, w h i l e  More n o v i c e s i n the  three  than  differed income  that for  expected  lowest  income  81  TABLE BIVARIATE  DISTRIBUTION  NOVICES BY B L I S H E N  Total N  Blishen Deciles  XXXIII OF VETERANS  OCCUPATIONAL  Veterans Q, "O N  "o  AND  RANKS  Novices N  73  7.9  52  7.6  21  8.8  69  7.5  46  6.7  23  9.6  7  178  19.3  121  17.7  57  23.9  8  143  15.5  99  14.4  44  18.4  9  114  12.4  91  13.3  23  9.6  10  346  37.5  275  40.2  71  29.7  923  100.0  684  100.0  239  100.0  0 1 - 6  Totals  X  2  d.f. p  <  = . 14.5  C  = .  (j)  .01  4  X  .12 1  AB  =  .13  =  .00  82  TABLE BIVARIATE AND  Under  D I S T R I B U T I O N OF  NOVICES  Total N  Income Category  $3,000  XXXIV  BY  INCOME  VETERANS  CATEGORIES  Veterans a "o N  g,  "5  Novices Q. "O N .  37  4. 0  21  3.1  16  6 .7  -  5,999  190  20. 6  132  19.3  58  24 .3  $ 6,000 -  8,999  243  26. 3  173  25.3  70  29 .3  $ 9,000  -11,999  157  17. 0  119  14.4  38  15 .9  $12,000  -14,999  94  10. 2  72  10.5  22  9 .2  $15,000  -17,999  62  6. 7  54  7.9  8  3 .4  $18,000  and  110  11. 9  93  13.6  17  7 .1  30  3. 3  20  2.9  10  4 .2  923  100. 0  684  100.0  239  100 .0  $ 3,000  No  over  Response  Totals  X  2  d.f.  = =  p. < .01  21.35 6  .15  C 4  X  1  AB  • =  =  .15 .00  83  categories, found  w h e r e a s more v e t e r a n s  i n each  of  the  four higher  anticipated  income  categories.  The  occurred  3.1  per  a l l veterans  and  6.7  again  two  h i g h e s t income c a t e g o r i e s ,  per  cent  were  found,  which only  and  contained 3.4  and  Social  7.1  in  t o be each  active but  per  the  combined  cell, than  only  scores and  and  13.6  cent  cent  of  of  a l l novices  a l l veterans,  but  a l l novices.  ranging  cent from  per  of  cent  Cramer's  level.  The  statistic  tween r e s p o n d e n t s '  of  10,  37  i n the  greater social was  19.6,  Contingency .15  veteran  upper  of  score  Chapin  veterans cateThe  is significant  Coefficient  indicated  cent  low  involvement.  which  socially  of a l l novices  obtained per  XXXV  respondents  were more  cent  had  leaving  of novices  calculated  per  a l l veterans  0 to  square  .001  minimum n u m b e r s o f  Seventy-three  indicated  value  categories i n Table  i t i s evident that veterans  per  21  Score  to ensure  novices.  59  a mere  Chapin  g o r i e s which  the  of  per  where  Participation Although  had  7.9  i n the  income group,  maxi-  disparities of  lowest  were  mum  cent  i n the  than  of  .14  social  at  and  a weak a s s o c i a t i o n  s t a t u s and  chi-  be-  participation  scores. Motivation The novices  only  significant  d i f f e r e n c e between veterans  r e g a r d i n g m o t i v a t i o n was  found  with  respect  to  and  84  TABLE  XXXV  BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION NOVICES BY  Chapin Score Category  0-10  OF VETERANS  SOCIAL PARTICIPATION  Total N  Veterans g. N  o  AND  SCORES  Novices "O N  576  62.4  401  58.6  175  73.2  11 -  25  208  22.5  167  24.4  41  17.2  Over  26  87  9.4  77  11.3  10  4.2  52  5.6  39  5.7  13  5.4  923  100.0  684  100.0  239  100.0  No  Response  Totals  = d.f. p  <  19.6  = .001  2  C d>  1  XAB  =  .14  =  .15 .00  85  learning-orientation--the  d e s i r e to study  learning.  Table  follow  consistent pattern.  and  any  X X X V I shows t h e  the  highest  site  was  found  Eighty-one  per  and  than  score  cent  a l l p o s s i b l e responses  2.9.  is significant of  attested  to  a weak a s s o c i a t i o n  Previous  Participation  The their  revealed  and  of B r i t i s h  with  persistence  48  per  comers  to the  in liberal  as  cent  arts  the  in oppo-  of  the  at  and  26.6  Contingency the  two  same  value  variables.  Activities and  novices  according  courses  a l l veterans  at this  pattern of t h a t almost  at  1967  had  (33:16)  one-half  offerings.  the  XXXVII,  university.  non-credit courses  E x t e n s i o n Department  made,  shown i n T a b l e  of  courses  established, indicating  participants  between  i n extension  enrollment  were  was  The  statistic  Columbia,  expected  calculated  level.  of veterans  extension  of the  was  i n Extension  participation  t h a t almost  experience  Cramer's  distribution  previous  University  thus  .17  .001  Coefficient  than  not  fourth score categories.  Chi-square  at the  of  w h i c h do  c a t e g o r i e s , and  third  of  and  sake  anticipated,  f o r the  t h e mean s c o r e was which  lowest  distributions More v e t e r a n s  c o n c u r r e n t l y fewer n o v i c e s  both  f o r the  of  were  prior A was the new-  to  TABLE  XXXVI  B I V A R I A T E D I S T R I B U T I O N OF VETERANS  AND  NOVICES  ACCORDING TO LEARNING-ORIENTATION  Total N  Score Category  756  25 .1  580  26.0  172  22 .6  2  260  8 .7  194  8.7  66  8 .7  3  642  21 .5  461  20.7  181  23 .8  4  505  16 .9  352  15.8  153  20 .1  5  833  27 .8  644  28.9  189  24 .8  100 .0  2231  100.0  761  100 .0  Response  rate:  Mean  score:  X  =  d.f.  Novices o, "o N  Veterans N %  1  Totals  2  Q.  -Q  =  p. < .001  26.6 4  2992  81% 2.9  .17  C D X  1  AB  = =  .17 .00  87  TABLE BIVARIATE  DISTRIBUTION  PARTICIPATION  XXXVII  OF VETERANS AND  IN UNIVERSITY  Total N  %  NOVICES BY  EXTENSION  PREVIOUS  ACTIVITIES  Novices N %  Veterans N %  Have participated  441  47.8  441  64.5  0  Have n o t participated  482  52.2  243  35.5  239  100.0  923  100.0  684  100.0  239  100.0  Totals  x  =  295  d.f.  =  1  2  p  <  .001  C cf)  1  =  .49  =  .57  0.00  88  Intentions  about Future  Significantly itely as  committed  can  be  novices 76  per  seen  cent  of  the  Cramer's  in  statistic  of  various  and of  .22.  30.1  chure  numbers  per  of veterans As  again,  of a l l over  of  This  significant  Coefficient  as w e l l  association  for future  cent  of  reached  came t o t h e  as  be-  participation  per  cent  of  a l l novices.  Thus,  was  n o t i c e d by  largest of  the  o f n o v i c e s who  twice  as  great  as  the  group largest  per  of  cent  flyer of  the  and  the  bro-  35.4  and  28.4  and  the  of veterans.  promotion  18.8  advertisement  of novices, while  percentage  the  a l l veterans  a m e r e 28.5  group  be-  received  newspaper  received-no the  who  XXXIX  The  reached  differences  i n Table  attention  but  attention  21.8  a l l novices.  a l l veterans,  the  novices  indicated  of  8.3,  cent  46.1,  significant  and  cent  was  per  indicated.  per  percentage  education,  inclined.  of  Some d e g r e e  statistically  announcements.  respectively  drew t h e  value  defin-  Information  newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t and  53  were s i m i l a r l y  commitment  i s thus  i n adult  While  a Contingency  Classes  n o v i c e s were  of p a r t i c i p a t i n g  a chi-square  s t a t u s and  T h e r e were tween the  XXXVIII.  a l l veterans  adult education  Sources  Table  intentions  level,  tween v e t e r a n  than  future participation  yielded  .001  i n Extension  more v e t e r a n s  from  indicated  distribution at  to  Enrolment  flyer The  materials  of veterans.  The  89  TABLE BIVARIATE  XXXVIII  D I S T R I B U T I O N OF VETERANS AND  TO RETURN  TO FUTURE ADULT EDUCATION  Intention  Total  to  N  Return  NOVICES BY I N T E N T I O N  Veterans %  N  %  ACTIVITIES  Novxces *  "No" a n d " p e r h a p s "  249  27.0  15  2.2  8  3.3  "Yes"  651  70.5  524  76.6  127  53.1  23  2.5  15  2.2  8  3.3  923  100.0  684  100.0  239  100.0  No R e s p o n s e  Totals  X  =  z  d.f. p  =  < .001  22  46.1  .22  1 A  AB  =  '  0  0  90  TABLE X X X I X B I V A R I A T E D I S T R I B U T I O N OF VETERANS  AND  BY TYPE OF ANNOUNCEMENT R E C E I V E D FOR  Total N  Veterans N %  %  NOVICES COURSE  Novices N .%.  Newspaper advertisement  221  23.9  149  21.8  72  30.1  Flyer  310  33.6  242  35.4  68  28.5  Brochure  239  25.9  194  28.4  45  18.8  Other  41  4.4  29  4.4  12  5.0  None  49  5.3  29  4.2  20  8.3  No R e s p o n s e  63  6.8  41  6.0  22  9.2  923  100.0  684  100.0  239  100.0  Totals  X  2  d.f.  = 19.9  C  = 4  4  p < .001  A  1  A B  =  .15  =  .15  =  -00  91  chi-square  of  Contingency at  .15.  19.9  Coefficient  Significantly  novices,  52.3  per  about e x t e n s i o n hand,  39.8  veterans,  per  cent,  A  significant  and  cent  of  Cramer's  .01  as  returning from the  the  value  others  level. each  who  from  per  two  XL.  On  24.7  per  other  was  to  than  in learning the  other  cent  persons  obtained,  .12,  the  calculated  cent,  Contingency  amounting  of or  which  is  Coefficient indicated  a  variables.  COMMITTED  indicated  under  only  Both  were  independent  12.3  The  level.  definite  courses  distributions  LEARNERS  i n t e n t i o n s of  differed  significantly  according  to  six  of  study.  Status  cent  shows. mitted  the  in their  One-third per  of  for future extension  characteristics  Marital  but  NON-COMMITTED AND  Participants  57.6  shown i n T a b l e  information  weak a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n  .001  statistic  t o be  novices,  statistic,  III.  Cramer's  proved  chi-square a t the  a t the  more v e t e r a n s ,  courses  r e c e i v e d the  agencies.  and  is significant  of  of  a l l non-committed  committed  T h e r e was  or  l e a r n e r s were s i n g l e ,  as  only  Table  separated  married group.  group, The  as w e l l a s  d i f f e r e n c e s are  23.5  XLI  a proportional over-representation of  l e a r n e r s i n the  divorced  l e a r n e r s , but  i n the  comwidowed,  significant  92  TABLE  XL  B I V A R I A T E D I S T R I B U T I O N OF VETERANS BY PROCESSES L E A D I N G TO AWARENESS  Total N  AND OF  Veterans N %  %  NOVICES COURSES  Novices N %  Found o u t independently  519  56 .2  394  57 .6  125  52 .3  Found o u t through F r i e n d , Employer, e t c .  264  28 .6  169  24 .7  95  39 .8  No  Response  140  15 .2  121  17 .7  19  8 .0  Totals  923  100 .0  684  100 .0  239  100 .0  X  2  d.f. p  = 12.27  C  =  +  < .01  1  1  A  AB  .12 = =  .12 0.2  93  TABLE X L I BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION  OF NON-COMMITTED  COMMITTED LEARNERS BY MARITAL  Total Marital  Status  N  STATUS  Non-Committed %  AND  N  %  Committed . N  %  Single  236  26.2  83  33.3  153  23.5  Married  567  63.0  145  58.2  422  64.8  92  10.2  19  7.6  73  ,, „ 11.2  5  0.6  2  0.8  3  0.5  900  100.0  249  100.0  651  100.0  Widowed, Divorced, Separated No  Response  T  X  o  t  a  l  s  = 10.16  C  d.f.  =  cb  p <  .01  2  2  1  A  A B  =  .11  =  .11  =  .00  94  only  at the  ables  .01  level,  is relatively and  Cramer's  preceding  dichotomies, i n the  the  weak, w i t h  efficient  ferences  and  association both  statistic  the  at  distributions  Contingency  .11.  h o w e v e r , showed  between the  Neither  any  according  vari-  Co-  of  the  significant  dif-  to m a r i t a l status.  Income The in  Table  but  XLII.  29.7  annual  per  of  cent  than  and  21.5  per  .001  the  were  were found  c a t e g o r i e s over  The  income  of  committed  learners,  as  More o f  i n the  of  are  tabulated learners,  reported the  gross  committed  $6,000 t o 8,999  $12,000.  Contingency  calculated  to  $6,000.  chi-square value  level.  statistic  cent  o f non-committed  expected  i n the  freedom,  the  Only  according  f a m i l y incomes below  learners group  distributions  With  four  degrees  20.45 i s s i g n i f i c a n t  Coefficient  and  at  Cramer's  .15.  Motivation 3 Among t h e only  i n the  three  types  distribution  was  there  any  and  committed  and  shows t h a t more  Supra,  significant learners.  orientation  according to difference Table  committed  Chapter  of  I I , p.  XLIII  study,  learning-orientation between  non-committed  contains these  l e a r n e r s than  12.  under  expected  data had  95  TABLE BIVARIATE  DISTRIBUTION  XLII  OF NON-COMMITTED LEARNERS  COMMITTED LEARNERS BY  Income Category  Under  Total N  $6,000  %  INCOME  AND  CATEGORIES  Non-Committed N %  Committed N %  214  23.8  74  29.7  140  21.5  $ 6,000 -  8,000  241  26.7  56  22.5  185  28.4  $ 9,000 -  11,999  152  16.9  48  19.3  104  16.0  $12,000  -  17,999  156  17.3  36  14.5  120  18.4  $18,000  and Over  110  12.2  24  9.6  86  13.2  27  3.0  11  4.4  16  2.5  No R e s p o n s e  96  TABLE  XLIII  B I V A R I A T E D I S T R I B U T I O N OF NON-COMMITTED. AND  COMMITTED  LEARNERS ACCORDING TO LEARNING-ORIENTATION  Total N  Score Category  25 .3  230  29.5  516  23.8  2  258  8 .8  68  8.7  190  8.8  3  623  21 .1  187  24.0  436  20.1  4  497  16 .9  131  16.8  366  16.9  5  825  28 .0  164  21.0  661  30.5  2949  100 .0  780  100.0  2169  100.0  rate:  Mean s c o r e :  d.f.  Committed Q. N "O  746  Response  2  Non-Committed Q, "O N  1  Totals  X  Q, ~o  = 29.7 =  82% 3.2  C  4  P- < .001  1  A B  =  .10  =  .10  =  -02  97 high  learning-orientation,  than  expected  ferences of  indicated  lowest  learners,  and  and  again  only  i n the  o r i e n t a t i o n , which by committed  learners  chi-square a t the  value .001  of  level.  gency C o e f f i c i e n t were  Previous  appears  intentions learners  was  The  45.2,  which  t o be  While  non-  learning-  cent  of  committed which  ones.  is  and  non-  the  signifiContin-  Activities  with 55.2  the  acti-  respondents' committed  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , only  30.1  per  cent  d i d , as  Table  though  per  extension  the  the  only  other  cent  data  on  XLIV  i n a chi-square value .001  statistic,  between the  f o r any  of  of  Cramer's  association, than  per  of  category  committed  statistic  i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the and  cent  dif-  .10.  associated  learners  some a s s o c i a t i o n  tribution  of  calculated  distribution resulted  Coefficient  cent  participation i n university  r e p o r t e d such  cate.  per  21.0  cent  Cramer's  to re-enrol.  non-committed  tive  held  per  29.5  The  i n the  of highest  Participation i n Extension  Previous vities  per  category  30.5 29.7  with  23.8  contrast  and  learners  learning-orientation.  learning-orientation, learners  cant  low  more n o n - c o m m i t t e d  i n d i s t r i b u t i o n were most p r o n o u n c e d  committed  A  and  both  variables. .10, i n the  level.  was  at  .22,  The higher  study.  The  indiof  Contingency  attested  index  of  of  for this  to  predicdis-  98  TABLE BIVARIATE  DISTRIBUTION  XLIV  OF NON-COMMITTED AND COMMITTED  LEARNERS BY PREVIOUS P A R T I C I P A T I O N I N UNIVERSITY  EXTENSION  Total  ACTIVITIES  Non-Committed N %  N  Committed N  Have participated  434  48.2  75  30.1  359  55.2  Have n o t participated  466  51.7  174  69.9  292  44.8  249  100.0  651  100.0  Totals  X  2  =  d.f. p  900 100.0  45.2  =  < .001  - -  c  1 X  B  A  2  2  =  .22  ~  -  1  0  99  Interest  i n Weekend  More hypothesis XLV  committed showed  s h o w s , 44.4  with  28.9  ence,  per  and  per  .001  Cramer's  The committed  On  learners or  the  learners  The  as  the  while  showed  about only  .01  level,  were  Both .09.  the  value  Contingency  of  As  Table  compared  This  differ-  of  16.3,  signifi-  C o e f f i c i e n t was  .13,  Courses XLVI  learners  percentages  t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n was  weak.  null  d i s t r i b u t i o n of uninterested  35.8 the  per  25.5  per  found  association  Contingency  of  t o be  of  more course  59.0  and  non-committed  through  cent  that  groups being  cent  course  indicate  discovered their  f o r the  a s i m i l a r dependence.  the  seminars-  learners.  shown i n T a b l e  for  and  the  .14.  o t h e r hand, out  under  interested,  i n a chi-square  non-committed  found  employers,  them were  ensuing  level.  results than  of  t o Awareness  independently, 51.8.  the  statistic  Leading  expected  o f non-committed  resulted  a t the  than  i n t e r e s t i n weekend cent  together with  Process  learners  an  cent  respondents, cant  Seminars  friends,  the  The 7.9,  between the  C o e f f i c i e n t and  relatives  committed  chi-square  value  s i g n i f i c a n t at two  variables  Cramer's  the was  statistic  100  TABLE XLV BIVARIATE  DISTRIBUTION  OF NON-COMMITTED AND COMMITTED  LEARNERS BY I N T E R E S T  Total N  %  I N WEEKEND  SEMINARS  Non-Committed N %  Committed N %  Interested  361  40.1  72  28.9  289  44.4  Not  471  52.3  153  61.4  318  48.9  68  7.5  24  9.6  44  6.8  900  100.0  249  100.0  651  100.0  =16.3  C  = .13  =  <$>  = .14  XAB  0.0  Interested  No R e s p o n s e  Totals  X  z  d.f. p  1  < .001  l  101  TABLE BIVARIATE  XLVI  D I S T R I B U T I O N OF NON-COMMITTED AND COMMITTED  LEARNERS BY PROCESSES LEADING TO AWARENESS OF COURSES  Total N  Found o u t independently  %  Non-Committed N %  Committed N %  513  57.0  129  51.8  384  59.0  255  28.3  89  35.8  166  25.5  132  14.6  31  12.4  101  15.5  900  100.0  249  100.0  651  100.0  Found o u t through Friend, Employer,  No  etc.  Response Totals  X  z  d.f.  = 7.98  C  = 1  A  p. < .01  X  = .09 1  AB  = .09 = - ° 0  CHAPTER V  SUMMARY AND  This  study  characteristics university ing like  has established  t h e 1968 s p r i n g  varied  select pointed  courses term.  a t the University  The p a r t i c i p a n t s  discussed  North American  the general  population  n o r m i n many  the impression i n society.  t o some d e g r e e s  group,  as i n d i c a t e d  during  the testing i n which  they  Interestingly,  herein,  locations, respects,  t h e same  of divergence within  this  and s i m i l a r  of the hypothesis. the hypothesis  dur-  a r e l a r g e l y members o f  by the chi-square  summary o f d e s c r i p t i v e  I.  that  non-credit  Columbia  i n several  strata  instances  arts  counterparts  from  supporting  some d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  of the clientele f o r liberal  extension  their  CONCLUSIONS  particular tests  An enumeration  was r e j e c t e d  observations  data  i n this  of the  follows the  chapter.  C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S OF P A R T I C I P A N T S  Sex Women c o n s t i t u t e d preponderance, studies,''"  1  i n close  6 8 per cent  agreement w i t h  c l e a r l y demonstrates  Cf.  a n t e , p . 6.  of the c l i e n t e l e . the results  the selective  Their  of related  attraction of  103  non  -vocational  Marital  c l a s s e s on  cipants  percentage  was  findings  73,  of  of  of married,  which  a l l other  i s i n very  separated  s t u d i e s reviewed.  a l l respondents  were  actually  i n t e r v i e w , a percentage  who  were o v e r  19  years  o l d and  Census.  In  terms  of potential  to  be  no  adults  justification,  a r e more l i k e l y  o r widowed  c l o s e agreement w i t h 2  the  1961  females.  Status The  cent  l i b e r a l education  to  married  the  S i x t y - t h r e e per  married  identical  at the  that of  a t the  time  time  of  single  the  there  therefore, i n concluding that than  of  Canadians  participants,  to participate  parti-  seems  married  ones.  Age Any cipants  attempt  to  any  of  to relate the  findings  previous  the  l a c k o f s t a n d a r d i z e d schemes  of  age  data.  This  participants  t o be  19  2  f o r the  of  parti-  impeded  classification  r e v e a l e d the median  age  category  35  to  44  years.  per  cent  were between  25  and  55  years  adjusted  so  as  years  Cf.  age  study  census percentages under  the  studies i s seriously  by  respondents  about  of  ante,  are age,  thus  pp.6-7,  About  creating  73 old.  t o omit an  age  of  of a l l  E v e n when a l l persons  range  compatible  104  to  that  of p o t e n t i a l  cipants  i n each  higher  than  of the  age  the percentage of  categories  from  25  those of the general population.  Socio-Economic  reported  shows  qualified.  level.  h a v i n g had  About  65  per  some c o l l e g e  cent of a l l p a r t i c i education or  c e n t o f a l l h o u s e h o l d heads  While  i n agreement w i t h o t h e r Canadian  of  liberal  gives  further  arts  t o be  extension participants,  evidence of d i s p a r i t y  more.  population  8 per  tions  years i s  3  Thus r e s p o n d e n t s were f a r above t h e C a n a d i a n which  t o 54  parti-  Status  Educational pants  participants,  similarly descrip-  this  between the  norm,  finding  educational 4  achievements  of American  84  and  88  per  in  the  literature  and  Canadian  cent of the American had  Occupation. from households  where a t l e a s t  which  i n the upper  was  rated  Socio-Economic than  Index  those four  The differences 3  4  Cf.  member h e l d deciles  Columbia's  deciles,  p.  of the  labour force  i t became o b v i o u s  exclusively  an o c c u p a t i o n  i n Canada.  Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 ante,  described  were drawn a l m o s t  one  four  Between  t o some c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n .  f o r Occupations  one-half of B r i t i s h  within  participants  been exposed  Participants  participants.  that  Blishen Since  less  i s found families  t e s t showed level.  the  105  associated  with  constituents  median  In  was  short,  each  of the three  determined  t h e median  above  the major  clientele.  f o r t h e C a n a d i a n popuindicated  i n this  income  determinants  level,  values  i n the literature,  category  above  were  p a r t i c u l a r extension  p a r t i c i p a n t s were  educational  occupations  Comparisons w i t h  as r e p o r t e d income  $9,000,  ranking  of this  Income. lation,  high  study,  that the $6,000 t o  f o r the t o t a l  population.  the Canadian average f o r  of socio-economic  occupation,  status:  and income.  Social Participation The p r o p o r t i o n organized than  life  of persons  o f t h e community  involved  was g r e a t e r  f o r the Canadian population.  c h u r c h membership, reported  forparticipants  Even without  approximately  membership  i n the formally  60 p e r c e n t  considering  of participants  i n a t l e a s t one community  organization.  Motivation High proportion the  l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n was i n d i c a t e d b y t h e l a r g e s t of participants.  sake o f i n t e l l e c t u a l  This  addiction  to learning f o r  s t i m u l a t i o n was e x p e c t e d  to exist  among p a r t i c i p a n t s i n l i b e r a l  arts non-credit  seems a p p a r e n t , h o w e v e r ,  activity-orientation, the  motivation  to attend  among t h e s u b j e c t s  that  for social  of this  courses.  r e a s o n s , was u n u s u a l l y  s t u d y , whereas  It  low  goal-orientation  106  was u n c o m m o n l y h i g h . i e s , where  the uppermost  motivation, to  The upper  contained  three  indicated  6 4 per cent  of five  of a l l those  tive  to the a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t a t i o n  nature  employed  of the test  by d i f f e r e n t  parisons with  findings of other  Participation  and I n t e r e s t  Relatively education. gaged had  i n such  attended  74 p e r c e n t  activities, university  number o f e n c o u n t e r s Current the  events,  activities, courses,  personal  and courses  During participants,  of  The  reswho  subjec-  instruments  any d i r e c t  com-  were newcomers t o a d u l t  h a d a t some p r e v i o u s  a n d 50 p e r c e n t  extension  public affairs  who  studies.  had been w i t h  second most p o p u l a r  questions.  preclude  few p a r t i c i p a n t s  About  responded  a n d 26 p e r c e n t  and t h e d i v e r s i t y  researchers  who  42 p e r c e n t  to the goal-orientation questions,  responded  categor-  the h i g h e s t degree o f  the l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n questions,  ponded  score  time en-  of a l l participants  classes. liberal  The g r e a t e s t education  courses.  and c i t i z e n s h i p c o n s t i t u t e d  category,  f o l l o w e d by l e i s u r e - t i m e  d e v e l o p m e n t , p r o f e s s i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l o n home a n d f a m i l y  life.  t h e s p r i n g o f 1968, t h e l a r g e s t 41.9 p e r c e n t , w a s  events,  public affairs  pursued  liberal  engaged  and c i t i z e n s h i p ,  education  subjects.  proportion of  i n studying while  current  33 p e r c e n t  Approximately  10 p e r  107  cent on  concentrated  personal  future  70 p e r c e n t to enrol  another  of their  vocational  cent  of those  time  activities.  ject  was  future  26 p e r c e n t  returning.  validity  reasonable world  enrolment  to involve affairs  based  time for  there  while  22 p e r  study  leisure-  f o r the l a t t e r Another  a decline  events  could  events.  sub-  noticeable  of interest i n  and c i t i z e n s h i p s u b j e c t s , b u t  the p o l i t i c a l  courses  conceivably  In fact,  areas  i s rendered  involved  planning  I t seems  situation i nthe  and these,  present,  of  attracted  An analogous s i t u a t i o n  any comparisons  highly  i n turn,  replicate this  interest i n  and p r e d i c t i o n s  and f u t u r e  speculative  i n each p e r i o d .  of future  was  change t o p r o -  a n d p r i o r t o 196 8 l e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  current  spans  that  a prediction i s uncertain.  on p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p a s t ,  subject  a t some  indications  would  of a l l participants.  t o assume t h a t  the future  current  stated  a r t s would  many o f t h e a v a i l a b l e p a r t i c i p a n t s . in  cent  strong  classes  T h e r e were  preferences  year's  public  o f such  during  numerous  This  appeared  events,  indicated  and t e c h n i c a l c o u r s e s ,  stating future  4 per cent  shift  current the  of the respondents  some p a r t i c i p a n t s i n l i b e r a l  fessional,  a n d 10 p e r  i n university extension  time, whereas  a possibility that  life,  development.  Over intentions  o n home a n d f a m i l y  interest i n  by t h e d i f f e r e n t  Nevertheless,  c o u r s e s may b e f o u n d  some  i n the data.  basis  108  Residence Almost Vancouver, cent to two  90  North  per  cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s  Vancouver  of a l l respondents  class.  most  for classes.  location  of  how  a class  present  barriers  less  will  than  and  minutes  per  i n coming  suggest  participants  is left are  and  that  the i n deter-  t o s p e c u l a t e as  t o be  travel  the  choice of  considerable effect one  of distance  Eighty  a respondent's  findings  have  30  in  t i m e were r e p o r t e d t o be  on  These  i t s participants,  many p o t e n t i a l  West V a n c o u v e r .  travel  influential  location  mining  spent  D i s t a n c e and  factors  and  resided  found  beyond  to  the  time.  Scheduling Evening respondents. and  6 per  these  involved  Twenty-one p e r  preferences  s e s s i o n s was  sion  classes,  superficial about  40  per  and  probe  as  Thursday into  per  was  The  exclusively  indicated  classes  Wednesday emerged  75  classes.  almost  of participants  f o r daytime  almost  cent of a l l  cent attended afternoon  cent attended morning  daytime  audience  classes  that  the  predominantly  audience female,  the  interests  least  cent of the respondents  t o be  and  female  favoured.  i n weekend  for the  potential  t h e most p o p u l a r day as  sessions,  as  well.  f o r extenThe  seminars  rather  revealed  favourably inclined.  109  Sources  of  Information  The indicate per 26  results  that  the  of  the  flyer  had  reached  cent of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . per  c e n t , and  cent.  Thus,  newspaper  direct  whereas  25  Over h a l f  per  ing  cent.  sons the  29  per  or  the  who  fact  that  constituted  mailing from  i n the  The  list  two-step  a l l University per  One three-part differences and  through  cent  of  only  receiv-  other who  per-  received  here  than  m i n d f u l , however,  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  cent of a l l respondents,  of the E x t e n s i o n Department,  as  make up  do 48  alumni,  a p p e a r on  the  participants per  cent  of  testing  of  clientele.  II.  ans  must be  per  intermediary,  manner i s l o w e r  One  per  reached  p r o p o r t i o n of respondents  p r e v i o u s e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s who  the p r e s e n t  59  for  25  reported any  informed  34  accounted  reached  courses without  literature.  21  group,  f o r another  of a l l respondents  the  i n f o r m a t i o n i n the  reported  largest  brochures  techniques  c e n t were i n i t i a l l y  agencies.  the  of information  newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t s  i n f o r m a t i o n about  while  The  sources  advertising  mailing  participants,  of  q u e s t i o n on  objective  HYPOTHESIS of  this  hypothesis that existed  no  study  TESTING involved  statistically  between males  and  n o v i c e s , o r between committed  the  significant  f e m a l e s , between and  a  non-committed  veter-  110  learners  with  logical The  respect to selected  characteristics  results  socio-economic  and s p e c i f i e d  of testing  this  statement  communication against 28  variables  f o r the male-female dichotomy,  variables  f o r the other  piled  i n Table  instances the  XLVII.  i n which  .01 c o n f i d e n c e  cases  which  superior  Male  level,  level,  and female  was  found  the several unacceptable  of the hypothesis  differences  participants  occupational ranking, interest  for specified  dance on s p e c i f i e d seminars,  enumerates  a r e com-  and d i s t i n g u i s h e s c e r t a i n  projected—attendance  preferences  table  significant  learning-orientation, and  a n d a g a i n s t 23  at  other at the  Participants  between male  educational  selected  of confidence.  Statistically exist  This  l e d to the rejection  and Female  patterns.  two r e f e r e n c e d i c h o t o m i e s ,  the hypothesis  .001 l e v e l  and p s y c h o -  with  during specified times  to  respect to  i n subjects—past,  starting  found  goal-orientation,  times  present, o f the day,  of classes,  d a y s o f t h e week, i n t e r e s t  and t h e type  were  atten-  i n weekend  o f announcement r e c e i v e d f o r t h e  course.  Veterans  and  Novices  Veterans statistical  were  sense  found  with  to differ  from  novices  i n the  r e s p e c t t o age, o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n k i n g ,  TABLE CHI SQUARE VALUES BY  AND  C O E F F I C I E N T S FOR  SEX, VETERAN  S T A T U S , AND  ADULT  2  P<  C  +  1  PARTICIPANT  X  AB  X  2  CHARACTERISTICS  COMMITMENT CATEGORY  Veterans  Males v s . Females  x  XLVII(a)  p<  Non-Committed  vs.Novices C  ^  A  A B  X  2  v s .Committed  p<  c  *  .01  .11  .11  .00  .15  .15  02  X  A  AB  ROLES:  Sex Marital  Status  AGE SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS: Formal Education Addit.Education Occupation Income A l u m n i o f UBC SOCIAL P A R T I C I PATION  N.S.  4.7  .20  N.S. N.S.  11.4  .05  84.6 .001 .29 .30 .02  N.S.  N.S. N.S.  N.S. N.S. N.S.  37.0 3 8.6  001 .20 .20 .01 ,001 .20 .21 .03  6.1 8.3  .01  7.2  .05  .10 .10  14.5 21.4  10.2  .01 .01  12 .13 .00 ,15 ,15 .00  20.4  N.S.  N.S.  19.6 .001 .14 .15 .00  N.S.  001  H H  TABLE  XLVII(a) (Continued)  Males v s . Females X  P<  2  C  cf) A  Veterans vs.Novices  1  A B  X  2  P<  C  *  X  *AB  Non-Committed X  2  P<  vs.Committed ^  C  A  AB  MOTIVATION: Goal-Orientation A  C  Le  t  o r i e n"t -a t-i o n i  V  l  t  y  orSSr tio„ a  30. 8 7.6  .001 .10  .11 .00  N.S.  N.S.  .10  37.0 .001 .11 .11 .00  26.6 .00! .17 .17 .00 29.7 .001 .10 .10  .02  PREVIOUS PARTICIPATION: A l l A d u l t Educ. UBC E x t e n s i o n INTENTIONS RETURNING  1.9  2.7  FOR 3  #  2  46.1  .001  .22  .22  .00  45.2  .001  .22  .22  .10  .30 ]io  29.5  .001 .49  .57  .29  .10  46.1  .001 .22  .22  .00  .001 .18 .19 .00 .001 .19 .19 .01 .001 .14 .14 .00  N.S. N.S. N.S.  N.S. N.S, N.S,  .30  N.S.  N.S,  SUBJECT AREAS OF INTEREST: Past Present Future  24.9 32.9 22.4  RESIDENCE  1.2  H H to  TABLE X L V I I ( a )  Males v s . Females x  2  p  <  C  cj) X  (Continued)  Veterans  1  A B  X  2  P<  vs.Novices C  ** A  A B  Non-Committed X  2  N.S.  N.S.  .02  N.S.  N.b.  9.8  .05  N.S.  50. 6  .001  .23  .24  .00  N .S.  N.S.  65. 1  .001  .26  .27  .00  N • S.  N.S.  12. 7 15. 9  .01 .01  .12 .12 .13 ,13  .00 .00  N • S. N .s.  N.S. N.S.  21. 7  .001  .15  .16  .04  N  16.3  19.0  .001 .14 .15 .01  TRAVEL TIME  2.9  .10  S A T I S F A C T I O N WITH LOCATION  6.3  ATTENDANCE LOCATIONS  AT  vs.Committed  P<  C  *  .001  .13  .14  X  X  A B  q  SCHEDULING: S t a r t i n g Times Pref,Starting Times Day o f Week f o r Class P r e f . D a y o f Week Interest i n Seminars  .s.  .00  SOURCES OF INFORMATION: Primary  Sources  TaUonVlSw""  3.1 .10  19.9 .001 .15 .15 .00  12.3 .01 .12 .12 .02  N.S.  7.9 .01 .09 .09  .00 tLO— 1  TABLE  XLVII(b)  HYPOTHESIS  ,01 L e v e l  Dichotomy  Males  vs.  Veterans  Females  vs.  Non-Committed Committed  REJECTIONS  Novices  vs. Learners  .001  Level  12  Total 15  115  income, tion of  social  to enrol  participation, learning-orientation, i n future  announcement r e c e i v e d  tion  o f the two-step  Non-Committed These significant status, in  education  information  utiliza-  flow.  found  between  t o have  statistically  them i n r e f e r e n c e  learning-orientation,  u n i v e r s i t y extension  and t h e i r  the type  Learners  two g r o u p s w e r e differences  activities,  f o r the course,  and Committed  income,  seminars,  adult  inten-  activities,  and i n t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n  to marital  previous p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n t e r e s t i n weekend o f the two-step  information  flow. Interpretation Given may e x p e c t ship  a population  virtually  between  result  of Statistical  Results  as l a r g e  any degree  two a t t r i b u t e s  i n a chi-square  of true  test.  Attention  the c o e f f i c i e n t s which provide  of  a s s o c i a t i o n between i n Table  XLVII.  attributes.  .05  i n a l l b u t one.  tingency,  was t h e r e f o r e  These  t h e i r nature,  associations  Association and l e s s  serve  than  t h e C o e f f i c i e n t o f Con-  within  as g u i d e s  square  the limitations  are i n d i c a t i v e of the strengths  and c o u l d  strength  c o e f f i c i e n t s are  a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f mean applied  given  some m e a s u r e o f t h e  0.00 i n m o s t c a s e s ,  Nevertheless,  contingency—phi—when in  statistical relation-  The Index o f P r e d i c t i v e  was p a r t i c u l a r l y l o w , b e i n g  one  t o show up a s a s i g n i f i c a n t  to  listed  as t h e one s t u d i e d ,  of  inherent  various  to starting points f o r  116  intensive  more  Suggestions The  f o r Further need  clientele nition  and d i s c r i m i n a t o r y  h a s become  of "veterans,"  cipation,  based  seems d e s i r a b l e .  information  the  tasks  extent  depth  of adulthood.  o r move f r o m b r e a d t h  subjects  toward  or  from narrow  language  similar might  whether  also  reveal  participation on  approach pursue  based  on  areas  should  groups  reveal  topic i n from  field  a unrelated  of  learning  study— a  foreign  reading. instrument  i f one w i s h e s t o  of participants explorations  of influence o f some  participation of  vary  also  a single  are required  More i n t e n s i v e  the extent  parti-  to the develop-  o f one s u i t a b l e  or social mobility  the educational  according  and c o m p a r a t i v e  consecutive  orientations.  subject  i n t e r e s t s , as f r o m  t h e measurement o f m o t i v e s  establish  studies  i n a specific  applications  defi-  of previous  and a r b i t r a r y s e l e c t i o n o f  to broder  to literature  concise  to depth—especially  concentration  Consistent for  This  areas o f  a r e needed i n o r d e r t o  i n specific  t o which p a r t i c i p a n t s  indiscriminate  A more  on t h e e x t e n t  age, p o s s i b l y  possibly  i n several  obvious.  from enrolment records  a participant's  mental  research  Longitudinal  determine whether i n t e r e s t s with  investigations.  Research  for additional  analysis  future  possess  of motives  which the s o c i a l family  others.  members  has  117  Studies reasons  underlying  procedures while  others  knowledge  To  t h e supposed  does  and a t t e n d a n c e  affect  study,  nature.  Further  s t u d i e s might e s t a b l i s h  Lastly, Canadian found  the  and r a n k i n g  orders  i s a need  character  of a  other discriminating  f o r them, t h r o u g h t h e  study,  studies a t other o f the results  and t o a i d i n i d e n t i f y i n g  of this  why t h i s  f o rs i m i l a r  particular  clientele  t h e common  subgroup o f a d u l t  A clearer  cation,  conceivably  barriers  of  i s so s e l e c t might h e l p t o  a d u l t s do n o t engage i n l i b e r a l  and c o u l d  parti-  understanding  e x p l a i n why o t h e r  existing  asso-  socio-economic  the a p p l i c a b i l i t y  on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e .  reasons  location.  instruments.  there  characteristics cipants  were p r i m a r i l y  locations to test  i n this  at that  and n o v i c e s , as  i n this  of different  the pres-  participation?  revealed  use  Planners o f  a s s o c i a t i o n between  d i f f e r e n c e s between v e t e r a n s  characteristics,  novices,  be a i d e d by i n c r e a s e d  the ethnic or religious  a center  promotional  and v e t e r a n s .  certainly  o f a meeting place  with The  would  explore the  f o r men a n d f o r  m o r e women  activities  what e x t e n t  might  the findings that certain  reached  about  value  ciated  of publicity  were more e f f e c t i v e  educational  tige  i n the area  arts  edu-  l e a d t o t h e r e m o v a l o f some  to participation.  I 1  B I B L I O G R A P H Y  119  1.  A v e r i l l , T.B. "Certain Factors Associated with P a r t i c i p a t i o n and N o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . " In " R e s e a r c h and I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , v o l . X I I , n o . 4 (Summer 1 9 6 2 ) .  2.  B e r t r a m , G o r d o n W. "The C o n t r i b u t i o n o f E d u c a t i o n t o Economic Growth." S t a f f S t u d y No. 12, E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l o f Canada, O t t a w a , Queen's P r i n t e r , J u n e , 1966.  3.  B l i s h e n , B.R. "A S o c i o - E c o n o m i c I n d e x C a n a d a . "' T h e C a n a d i a n R e v i e w o f Anthropology, 4:41-53 ( F e b r u a r y  4.  B r u n n e r , Edmund de S. e t a l . A n O v e r v i e w o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Research. Chicago, I l l i n o i s : Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U.S.A., 1959.  5.  B u r c h , G. for  6.  B u t t e d a h l , K.B. "A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f P a r t i c i p a n t s i n L e c t u r e C l a s s e s and P a r t i c i p a n t s i n S t u d y D i s c u s s i o n Groups." U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , The Univers i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963.  7.  Canada.  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . "Survey of A d u l t Education." C a t . No. 8 1 - 2 0 7 . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , June 1967.  8.  Canada.  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . "Participants in F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n i n Canada." C a t . No. 81-522. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , O c t o b e r 1963.  9.  Canada.  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Census o f Canada, 1961. a) C a t . No. 8 1 - 2 0 7 ; b) C a t . No. 98-519. Ottawa: The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1962.  f o r Occupations S o c i o l o g y and 1967).  A c c e n t on L e a r n i n g . Pasadena, C a l i f . : Adult Education, 1960.  The  in  Fund  10.  C a r t e r , G.C., W.D. K e r r , a n d S.B. Y o r k . " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Extramural Students." Adult Education, v o l . X I I , n o . 4 (Summer 1 9 6 2 ) .  11.  C h a p i n , F.S. Experimental Designs New Y o r k : Harper Brothers,  12.  Chapman, C . E . "Some C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f A d u l t P a r t - T i m e Students." A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , v o l . X, n o . 1 (Autumn 1 9 5 9 ) .  in Sociological 1955.  Research.  120 13. C l a r k ,  B.R. E d u c a t i n g t h e E x p e r t S o c i e t y . C h a n d l e r P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 6 2 .  14. C o t t o n ,  Thomas L . "Public Understanding of Adult Education." Handbook o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . K n o w l e s , M.S. (ed.T^ Chicago: Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U.S.A., 1 9 6 0 , p p . 1 2 9 - 1 3 7 .  15. D a v i s ,  J.A. A Study o f P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e G r e a t Books Program. N a t i o n a l O p i n i o n R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , 1957.  16. D e t t w e i l e r ,  W.  and Andrew S o k o l .  Tabulations.  San F r a n c i s c o :  M u l t i v a r i a t e Contingency  University of British  Columbia  Computing  C e n t e r , 1966. 17. D h a l l a , N.K.  These Canadians.  Toronto:  M c G r a w - H i l l , 1966.  18. Dow, J . B . " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f N o n - C r e d i t U n i v e r s i t y Extension Students." U n p u b l i s h e d Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U.C.L.A., 1 9 6 5 . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 2 6 - 3 7 3 4 . 19. G o r d o n , M. Daytime Schools the Study o f L i b e r a l  for Adults. Chicago: Center E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , 1967.  20. G o u l d , J . D . "The R e c r u i t m e n t o f A d u l t C o l l e g e P a p e r s , No. 5, 1 9 5 9 .  Students."  2 1 . H a y s , W.L. Statistics for Psychologists. R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1965.  for  Vaughan  New Y o r k :  Holt,  22.  Hill,  R . J . A Comparative Study o f L e c t u r e and D i s c u s s i o n Methods. The Fund f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1960.  23.  Houle, C O . " P o s t s c r i p t . " The C o n t i n u i n g Learner. D. Solomon ( e d . ) . Chicago: Center f o r t h e Study o f L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , 1964.  24.  Houle,  25.  J o h n s t o n e , J.W.C. " A d u l t Uses o f E d u c a t i o n : F a c t and Forecast." S o c i o l o g i c a l Backgrounds o f A d u l t Education. H.W. B u r n s ( e d . ) . Chicago: Center f o r t h e Study o f L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , 1964.  26.  J o h n s t o n e , J.W.C. a n d R . J . R i v e r a . Volunteers for Chicago: A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 6 5 .  CO. The I n q u i r i n g Mind. of W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1961.  Madison, Wis.:  University  Learning.  121  Jones,  H.G. "A T e s t o f V a l i d i t y o f P l a c e R e s i d e n c e a s a n I n d i c a t o r o f Socio-Economic Characteristics of P a r t i c i p a n t s i n U n i v e r s i t y Non-Credit Evening Classes." U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1962.  Kaplan,  Abbott. Study-Discussion i n the L i b e r a l f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1960.  Kidd,  J.R. 18 t o 80_. Toronto. Board 1961.  Arts.  Fund  Continuing Education i n Metropolitan o f Education f o r the C i t y of Toronto,  Knox, A.B. " C l i e n t e l e A n a l y s i s . " Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research, v o l . XXXV, n o . 3 ( J u n e 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 2 3 1 - 2 3 9 . .  The A u d i e n c e  Center  f o rLiberal Adult Education.  f o r t h e Study  of Liberal  Education  Chicago:  f o rAdults,  1962. L a z a r s f e l d , P . F . , B. B e r e l s o n a n d H. G a u d e t . The P e o p l e ' s Choice. New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1948. L i v i n g s t o n e , D.W. "Report o f P r e l i m i n a r y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Survey o f S e l e c t e d Non-Credit Evening C l a s s e s . _ P r e p a r e d f o r t h e Department o f E x t e n s i o n , The Univert y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , J u n e 1966 ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) . S11  London, Jack. "Program Development i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . " H a n d b o o k o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U.S.A. Knowles, M.S. ( e d . ) . Chicago: Adult Education Association o f t h e U.S.A., 1 9 6 0 , p p . 6 5 - 8 1 . McKinnon, Donald. "A C o m p a r i s o n o f D i s t a n c e s T r a v e l l e d t o Urban Nigh School C e n t e r s . " Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966. Melton,  James A. "The I n f l u e n c e o f A l t e r n a t e C o u r s e L o c a t i o n s on D i s t a n c e s T r a v e l l e d by P a r t i c i p a n t s i n Urban Evening C l a s s e s . " Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966.  Miller,  Harry L. "Liberal Adult Education." Handbook o f Adult Education i n the United States. K n o w l e s , M.S. (ed.). Chicago: Adult Education Association of t h e U.S.A., 1 9 6 0 , p p . 4 9 7 - 5 1 2 .  122  M i z r u c h i , E.H. a n d L o u i s M. V a n a r i a . "Who Adult Education?" Adult Education, ( S p r i n g 1 9 6 0 ) , pp. 141-143.  Participates in v o l . X, n o . 3  M o n t r o s s , H.W. "University Extension Students." Adult E d u c a t i o n , v o l . X, n o . 1 (Augumn 1 9 5 9 ) , p p . 5 3 - 5 6 . M o r t o n , J.R.  University Extension  Birmingham, Alabama:  i n the  United  States.  U n i v e r s i t y o f Alabama  Press,  1953. Parker,  E.B. "Patterns of Adult Information Seeking." Adult Education Research A b s t r a c t s . Syracuse, New York: ERIC C l e a r i n g House, 1966.  Siegel,  S. Nonparametric S t a t i s t i c s f o r the B e h a v i o r a l Sciences. M c G r a w - H i l l B o o k Company I n c . , 1956.  S o l o m o n , D. The C o n t i n u i n g the Study of L i b e r a l Stern,  M.R. Center  People, f o r the  Learner. Education  Programs Study  and  Chicago: Center f o r f o r A d u l t s , 196 4.  Persuasions.  of L i b e r a l  Education  Chicago: for Adults,  1960. U l m e r , R.C. a n d C. V e r n e r . "Factors A f f e c t i n g Attendance i n a J u n i o r C o l l e g e A d u l t Program." Adult Education, v o l . X I I , no. 3 ( S p r i n g 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 153-158. U.S.  D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and Welfare. "Participation i n Adult Education." (Based on t h e O c t o b e r 1957 C u r r e n t P o p u l a t i o n S u r v e y , B u r e a u o f t h e C e n s u s ) , C i r c u l a r No. 539, 1959.  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f U n i v e r s i t y Extension. Continuing Education, Annual Report, 1966-1967. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of U n i v e r s i t y Extension. C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Programs - S p r i n g 196 8. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Study D i s c u s s i o n . . . F i r s t T h r e e Y e a r s 1957-1960.  The  123  50.  Verner,  C. a n d A . B o o t h . Adult Education. The L i b r a r y o f Education. W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: The C e n t e r f o r A p p l i e d Research i n Education Inc., 1964.  51.  Verner,  C. a n d K. B u t t e d a h l , " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a n t s i n Two M e t h o d s o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . " E d u c a t i o n , v o l . 15:67-73 ( W i n t e r 1 9 6 5 ) .  52.  Verner,  C. and K. B u t t e d a h l . "Socio-Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of P a r t i c i p a n t s i n Extension C l a s s e s . " Continuous L e a r n i n g , v o l . 3:21-27 ( J a n . - F e b . 1964).  53.  Verner,  C. a n d J . N e w b e r r y , "The N a t u r e o f A d u l t P a r t i c i p a t i o n . " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , v o l . V I I I , n o . 4, (Summer 1 9 5 8 ) .  ParticiAdult  A P P E N D I X  i  i  A P P E N D I X A.  Enrolment  and  Interviews grouped  According  to Subject Matter  Areas  126  Enrolment  and I n t e r v i e w s i n L i b e r a l A r t s  Courses Enrolled (Inverviewed)  Indians  o f t h e B.C.  Interior  The A r t o f P r i m i t i v e Elementary  French  Elementary  French  Cultures  *  Intermediate Voix  French  e t Images  Journeys  de  France  to the East  i n Literature  (D)  Literature Rebellious  The  *  Discontent  (D)  (8)  61 .5  Campus  15  (12)  80 .0  Campus  13  (11)  84 .6  (6)  75 .0  12  12  (10)  83 .3  Campus  13  (13)  100 .00  Campus  120  W.  a daytime  2  (102) (2)  85 .0 100 .0  Van.Libr.  13  (11)  84 .6  Campus  28  (23)  82 .1  Kitsilano Library  39  (31)  79 .5  183  (135)  73 . 8  459  (364)  79 .3  courses  denotes  8  Campus  Aquarium  Ocean  Totals:  13  1483 15 t h  Spanish Introductory C o n v e r s a t i o n (D) Seminars  Campus  Unitarian Church  (D)  Per cent Interviewed  course  127  Enrolment  and I n t e r v i e w s  and T e c h n i c a l  C  o  u  r  s  i n Professional,  Courses _ Location  e  Radio  Broadcasting  Total:  Enrolled (  I  n  Campus  1 course  Enrolment  Vocational  and I n t e r v i e w s  t  e  r  v  i  e  w  e  d  Per cent interviewed  )  15  (11)  73.3  15  (11)  73.3  i n Leisure-Time  Activities Enrolled  Per cent interviewed  Course  Location  Film  Campus  15  (10)  66.7  Campus  21  (16)  76.2  575 B e a t t y  25  (12)  48.0  61  (38)  62.0  Production  Aesthetic  Response  Intermedia  Totals:  3  courses  (  I  n  t  e  r  v  i  e  w  e  d  )  128  Enrolment  a n d I n t e r v i e w s i n Home a n d F a m i l y L i f e  Locatxon  Course  Language  and Thought  Dimensions  Child  o f t h e Home  P s y c h o l o g y (D)  Home L a n d s c a p e  (D)  Enrolled ( rviewed) I n t e  Per cent Interviewed  Kitsilano Library Vancouver Library  22 (16)  72.7  94 (38)  43.6  Kitsilano Library  18 (12)  66.7  Unitarian Church  32 (26)  81.3  166 (92)  55.4  Totals:  4 courses  Enrolment  and I n t e r v i e w s i n P e r s o n a l Development  Location  Course  Courses  Courses  Enrolled (xnverviewed)  Per cent Interviewed  Campus  26  (23)  88.5  Punishment and t h e C o n t r o l of Behaviour  Campus  28  (18)  64.3  The  Individual  and S o c i e t y  N.Van.  15  (11)  73.3  The  Individual  and S o c i e t y  Campus  18  (12)  66.7  Campus  76  (47)  64.5  (111)  68.1  Reading  Improvement  Contemporary  Totals:  Psychiatry  5 courses  163  129  Enrolmeht Affairs  and I n t e r v i e w s  and C i t i z e n s h i p  i n Current Events, Courses  Location  Course  Day  66  Campus  39  (13)  33 .3  (D)  Kits.Libr.  19  (13)  68 .4  International (D)  Van.Libr.  42  (38)  92 .7  World  Van.Libr.  46  (45)  97 .8  (D)  Van.Libr.  96  (68)  70 .8  Unitarian Church  20  (15)  75 .0  Kits.Libr.  22  (17)  77 .3  Campus  20  (15)  75 .0  and Drugs  Galbraith's  New  Money M a n a g e m e n t Issues  Today  Criminal  Per cent Inverviewed  (70)  Van.Libr.  Thought  i n Court  Current Affairs  Enrolled (Interviewed)  112  Contemporary Medicine  Public  (D)  Law  Law i n E v e r y d a y  Life  1  Conscience  and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y  Campus  27  (13)  48 .2  Background  to the Middle  Campus  17  (14)  82 .4  Coquitlam  14  (14)  100 .0  World  East  Affairs  Current  International  Affairs  Campus  50  (29)  58 .0  Current  International  Affairs  N. V a n .  21  (14)  66 .7  Van.Libr.  26  (11)  42 .3  (389)  68.2  The  Vertical  Totals:  15  Mosaic  courses  570  130  Summary  of Enrolment  Classes  interviewed  and  Interviews  40  Enrolment  Persons  Per  cent  1434  Interviewed  of  enrollees  1005  interviewed  ( t h i s number i n c l u d e s 82 f u l l - t i m e students)  70.1  APPENDIX B.  Tables  of Expressed  Scheduling  of  Preferences  Classes.  for  132  Bivariate Present  Distribution  o f Respondents by L e n g t h o f  C o u r s e a n d By D e s i r e d Number  Number o f S e s s i o n s t h e S p r i n g Term D e s i r e d No. of Sessions  Under  10 Q, "O  N  11 -  15  N  Q. "O  of  Sessions  Horizontal T o t . and %  During 16 o r N  more Q. "O  N  Q,  "5  491  58.5  21  36.2  3  11.5  515  55.8  164  19.6  22  37.9  8  30.8  194  21.0  16 o r more  42  5.0  7  21.1  9  34.6  58  6.3  No Preference  94  11.2  6  10.3  5  19.2  105  11.4  9  1.1  1  1.7  1  3.8  11  1.2  39  4.7  1  1.7  0  0.0  40  4.3  839  91.0  58  6.3  26  2.8  Under 11  10  - 15  None No  Response  Totals  9.23 100.0  133  Participants' of  Sessions  Preferences  Concerning  f o r S p r i n g , Summer  t h e D e s i r e d Number  and F a l l  Terms  T e r m Desired of  No.  Sessions  Spring N  %  Summer N  Fall %  N  %  10 o r f e w e r  515  55.8  152  16.5  479  51.9  11  194  21.0  39  4.2  195  21.1  6.3  12  1.3  61  105  11.4  100  10.8  113  12.2  None  11  1.2  550  59.6  23  2.5  No  40  4.3  70  7.6  52  5.6  923  100.0  923  100.0  - 15  16 o r m o r e No P r e f e r e n c e  Response  Totals  6  923 100.0  134  Bivariate With  Table  Starting  Present  Indicating  Times  Participants'  f o r Courses, v s .  Most Convenient T i m e o f Day f o r Course  Morning  Morning  31  o f Day  f o r Course Evening N  N  59.6  23  12.1  22  3.2  11.5  125  65.8  16  2.3  9.6  12  6.3  595  87.4  10  19.2  30  48  7.1  52  100.0  190  681  100.0  Evening  Responses  Time  Afternoon  N  Afternoon  Totals  Participants'  Schedule  Actual  Invalid  Satisfaction  15,  100.0  APPENDIX  C.  The  Interview  Schedule  136  Department o f U n i v e r s i t y  Do N o t Write i n This Column  Extension  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA YOUR NAME I S NOT REQUIRED, AND ANONYMITY I S ASSURED. Your answers t o t h i s i n t e r v i e w w i l l a i d t h e Department o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n i n p l a n n i n g for future courses. Unless square  o t h e r w i s e i n s t r u c t e d , W r i t e "X" i n t h e next t o your proper response. R. N o . . . . . ( 1 , 3 )  1 2  . . . . (4,5)  4  Course  3 5  C o u r s e L o c . . (6) Sess.Frequ..  . (7)  Time  . . . . . (8)  Day.  . . . . . (9)  START HERE I.(a)  I n d i c a t e your  area o f residence:  VANCOUVER, WEST OF ALMA/DUNBAR VANCOUVER, BETWEEN ALMA/DUNBAR & GRANVILLE  2  VANCOUVER, WEST END  3  VANCOUVER, BETWEEN G R A N V I L L E & MAIN_  4  VANCOUVER, E A S T OF M A I N  5  NORTH VANCOUVER  6  WEST VANCOUVER  7  BURNABY  8  NEW WESTMINSTER  9  COQUITLAM  A  FRASER M I L L S  B  10  137  PORT MOODY RICHMOND SURREY OTHER  (b)  (c)  (d)  Marital  (SPECIFY)  Status: Single  1  Married  2  Widowed, D i v o r c e d , Separated  2  Sex:  Age g r o u p :  Male  19 Y e a r s  ;  Female  2  o r Under  1  20 - 24 Y e a r s 25 - 34 Y e a r s  Indicate your annual family  __  3  4  45 - 54 Y e a r s  5  _ 64 Y e a r s  6  65 - 69 Y e a r s  7  70 Y e a r s  8  approximate income:  12  2  35 - 44 Y e a r s  55  (e)  1  o r Over  gross  $ 3,000  1 - $ 5,000  .  2  $ 6 ,000 - $ 8,999  3  $ 9,000 - $11,999  4  $12,000 - $14,999  5  $15,000 - $17,999  6  $18,000 a n d o v e r  7  13  138 Do N o t Write in This Column Occupation: I f you are permanently previous occupation. I f you are employed, and  state  retired,  a housewife,  your  husband's  and  not  give  your  otherwise  occupation  CHECK HEPJi! below.  What k i n d o f b u s i n e s s o r i n d u s t r y a r e y o u u s u a l l y employed i n (e.g. s h i p b u i l d i n g , drug r e t a i l , d a i r y f a r m i n g etc.)-  What i s y o u r u s u a l o c c u p a t i o n , o r w h a t k i n d o f w o r k d o y o u u s u a l l y do i n t h i s i n d u s t r y (e.g. o f f i c e c l e r k , s a l e s c l e r k , s t o r e manager, auto mechanic, graduate nurse e t c . )  1 2 3 4 5  6 7  I n C o l u m n 1 w r i t e t h e t y p e s o r names o f a l l t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o which you have belonged i n the past year. I n Columns 2 - 5 p l e a s e check f o r each o r g a n i z a t i o n , whether you attended, c o n t r i b u t e d , e t c . Do n o t tions, church ship.  i n c l u d e c h u r c h membership under o r g a n i z a b u t DO INCLUDE m e m b e r s h i p i n an o r g a n i z e d group. A l s o i n c l u d e l a b o r u n i o n member-  15  139 Do Not Write i n This Column  Organization  Attendance  Mem. o f Offices Committee H e l d  Fin.Contribution  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 10. (X3) Total  (XI)  Participation  (h)  (X4)  (X5)  0 1 - 5 6-10 11 - 15 16 - 20 21 - 25 26 - 30 31 - 35 Over 35  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  (X2) Score:  Indicate the highest you a t t a i n e d .  level  o f formal  Elementary School  16  education 1  or less  Some H i g h School__  2  High S c h o o l  3  Graduation  Some U n i v e r s i t y o r C o l l e g e , Mark l a s t y e a r completed: 1 y r _ 4 2 Yr_5 3 Yr  6  U n i v e r s i t y Baccalaureate Degree (B.A. o r e q u i v a l e n t ) _  7  University  8  Post-Grad.Degree_  17  140 Do Not Write in This Column  (i)  I f y o u r e c e i v e d any o t h e r f u l l - t i m e s p e c i f y t h e k i n d , and length:  (j)  I f you are a u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e , d i d r e c e i v e any d e g r e e ( s ) f r o m U.B.C.?  II.(a)  Have y o u e v e r , anywhere, t a k e n p a r t E d u c a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s (3 m e e t i n g s o r before,  education,  you NO  1  YES  2  19  i n Adult more) N  1  0  20 YES  1.  (b)  I f you have p r e v i o u s l y taken E x t e n t i o n c o u r s e s a t UBC, i n d i c a t e the s u b j e c t a r e a ( s ) i n column I o f the l i s t below  (c)  I f y o u a r e p r e s e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n any other E x t e n s i o n C o u r s e (s) a t UBC, the subject a r e a s (s) i n c o l u m n I I i n d i c a t e  (d)  I f you i n t e n d t o continue your education anywhere i n the f u t u r e , i n d i c a t e the s u b j e c t a r e a ( s ) o f y o u r c h o i c e i n Column I I I  Liberal  education  subjects:  A l l c o l l e g e and g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n subjects, (Geography, Math.etc.) i n c l u d i n g economics, c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g , p u b l i c speaking, language, l i t e r a t u r e , l o c a l h i s t o r y , study d i s c u s s i o n , t r a v e l e t c . but excluding a l l those l i s t e d under "2"  2  I  II  III  141 Do Not Write i n This Column  I Professional, courses:  vocational  and  III  technical  S u b j e c t s and s k i l l s u s e d i n t h e professi o n a l , t e c h n i c a l and b u s i n e s s s p h e r e s .  Leisure-time  II  22  29  36  activities:  C l a s s e s d e a l i n g w i t h the c r e a t i v e a r t s ( i . e . p a i n t i n g , m u s i c , s c u l p t u r e , drama e t c . ) c r a f t s , s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s f o r l e i s u r e - t i m e enjoyment.  Home a n d  Family  Life:  T o p i c s p e r t a i n i n g to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t , m a i n t e n a n c e o r i m p r o v e m e n t o f a home, and t o c a r r y i n g o u t h o u s e h o l d d u t i e s and family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; t h e s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects of parenthood, family l i f e , c h i l d c a r e and d e v e l o p m e n t , e t c . 2  Personal  development:  S u b j e c t s and s k i l l s aimed a t h e l p i n g p e o p l e expand themselves i n the areas of h e a l t h , p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , p e r s o n a l i t y development, i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , r e a d i n g and writing. A l s o those s u b j e c t s concerned w i t h the a r e a s o f s p i r i t u a l , m o r a l and ethical development. Current events, public citizenship:  affairs  and  Topics dealing with current s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c a f f a i r s . C o u r s e s for citizenship, in civic responsibilities, i n g e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n - , law f o r laymen, e t c . Other(specify)  26  33  40  27  34  41  142  Do N o t Write i n This Column III.(a)  Which t y p e o f announcement f o r t h i s came t o y o u r a t t e n t i o n f i r s t ,  course  NONE NEWSPAPER ADVERTISEMENT, L I S T I N G A L L COURSES NEWSPAPER ADVERTISEMENT T H I S COURSE ONLY SPECIAL  FLYER  FOR  42  ( A L L COURSES)  BROCHURE OR L E A F L E T ABOUT T H I S COURSE  5  RADIO ANNOUNCEMENT  6  TELEVISION  7  ANNOUNCEMENT  NEWSPAPER A R T I C L E OTHER (b)  (SPECIFY)  How d i d y o u l e a r n being offered?  that  FOUND OUT  this  ON MY  course  was  OWN  THROUGH EMPLOYER, COMPANY PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION  OR  THROUGH A FRIEND OR ACQUAINTANCE (c)  2  _  43  3  W h i c h d a y o f t h e week d o y o u m o s t p r e f e r f o r attending University Extension Classes? MONDAY  1  TUESDAY  2  WEDNESDAY  3  THURSDAY _  4  FRIDAY  5 44  SATURDAY SUNDAY  7  143 Do N o t Write In T h i s Column (d.)  What t i m e o f d a y i s m o s t c o n v e n i e n t f o r your attending U n i v e r s i t y Extension Classes? (mark o n e o n l y ) MORNING  10 :00 - 12:00  1  NOON HOUR  12 :00 -  1:00  2  1 :00 -  3:00  3  AFTERNOON  3 :00 -  5:00  4  EVENING  5 :00 -  7:00  5  7 :30 - 10 :00  6  EARLY LATE EARLY  AFTERNOON  EVENING  IV.(a)  How many m i n u t e s d o y o u s p e n d c o m i n g t o t h i s c l a s s ? ( o n e way) 10 MIN. OR L E S S  1  11 - 20 MIN.  2  21 - 30 MIN.  3  31 - 40 MIN.  4  41 - 50 MIN.  5  51 - 60 MIN.  6  61 - 70 MIN.  7  71 - 80 MIN.  8  OVER 80 MIN.  9  45  144 Do N o t Write i n This Column (b)  Are you s a t i s f i e d class?  with  the location  of this  YES NO,  I would  rather  attend: 2  ON CAMPUS DOWNTOWN  3  VANCOUVER  ON THE NORTH ELSEWHERE  I N VANCOUVER  (specify) 5  IN IN  What f a c t o r s  7  WESTMINSTER  ELSEWHERE (c)  6  BURNABY NEW  9 A B C D E F G  (specify)  influence  your  above  preference?  A s s i g n number "4" t o t h e f a c t o r w h i c h i s m o s t i m p o r t a n t , number " 3 " t o t h e n e x t m o s t i m p o r t a n t e t c . , t o a s many a s y o u f e e l a p p l y . LIBRARY  47  4  SHORE  48  FACILITIES  INSTRUCTIONAL F A C I L I T I E S ( l a b . , equipment, e t c . )  49  PARKING F A C I L I T I E S  50  '  TRAVEL T I M E , DISTANCE OTHER  (specify)  51  145  V.  Do N o t Write In T h i s Column  People a t t e n d U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n Courses f o r various reasons. Please indicate the extent to which each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g reasons has i n f l u e n c e d y o u . Mark one s q u a r e p e r l i n e .  4.uI am a t t e n d i n g t h i s Extension Course 1. b e c a u s e was new  the f i e l d t o me  TT • University  g r e a 3  INFLUENCE t,much,some,little,none  o f study 5  4  3  2  1  5  4  3  2  1  53  3. t o i n c r e a s e my k n o w l e d g e o r s k i l l i n a hobby, v o c a t i o n , or i n t e r e s t which 1 a l r e a d y have  5  4  3  2  1  54  4. t o p r e p a r e f o r a c a r e e r a d v a n c e m e n t i n my p r e s e n t f i e l d w i t h my employer's encouragement  5  4  3  2  1  55  5  4  3  2  1  56  5  4  3  2  1  57  7. t o i n c r e a s e my e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n my p r e s e n t f i e l d o f w o r k  5  4  3  2  1  58  8. t o b e w i t h a c l o s e f r i e n d o r r e l a t i v e who i s a l s o a t t e n d i n g  5  4  3  2  1  59  5  4  3  1  60  2. t o m e e t new people  or  different  5. t o p r e p a r e f o r a c a r e e r a d v a n c e m e n t i n my p r e s e n t f i e l d , o n my own initiative 6. t o a i d me i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g and d e a l i n g more e f f e c t i v e l y with people i n s o c i a l situations  9. t o i n c r e a s e my u n d e r s t a n d i n g of l i f e and l i v i n g i n t o d a y ' s world 10.  t o develop a g r e a t e r apprec i a t i o n o f t h e A r t s (such as Music, L i t e r a t u r e , Fine Arts, etc.)  2  146 Do N o t Write i n This Influence Column great,much,some,little,none 11. b e c a u s e t h e t y p e o f s o c i a l contacts which I p r e f e r r e q u i r e s more e d u c a t i o n than I have 12.  t o f i n d o r d e v e l o p a new interest or vocation  13.  other  62  63  (specify) 64  VI.(a)  Are you l i k e l y t o e n r o l i n other U n i v e r s i t y Extension courses i n the future? NO  1  PERHAPS  2  YES  3  65  I f y o u a n s w e r e d " Y E S " o r "PERHAPS" t o ( a ) , t h e n answer t h e q u e s t i o n s u n d e r (b) p l e a s e . (b)(i) How many m e e t i n g s d o y o u p r e f e r t o a t t e n d f o r any one c o u r s e d u r i n g t h e SPRING TERM ( J a n . - A p r i l ) NONE  1  NO PREFERENCE  2  6-10  3  11  MEETINGS  - 15 MEETINGS  4  16 OR MORE MEETINGS  5  66  (ii) How many m e e t i n g s d o y o u p r e f e r t o a t t e n d d u r i n g t h e SUMMER TERM? (June-Aug) NONE" NO PREFERENCE  2  67  6-10  MEETINGS  11 - 15 MEETINGS 16 OR MORE MEETINGS (iii) How many m e e t i n g s d o y o u p r e f e r t o a t t e n d d u r i n g t h e AUTUMN TERM? ( S e p t . - D e c . ) NONE NO PREFERENCE 6-10  MEETINGS  11 - 15 MEETINGS 16 OR MORE MEETINGS (iv) Would y o u be i n t e r e s t e d i n a t t e n d i n g w e e k e n d s e m i n a r s ? (1 t o 3 d a y s ) M a r k a s many a s y o u w i s h NO Y E S , I N THE SPRING Y E S , I N THE SUMMER Y E S , I N AUTUMN VII.  U s e t h e f o l l o w i n g s p a c e t o make a n y a d d i t i o n a l comments w h i c h y o u m i g h t h a v e r e g a r d i n g University Extension services  THANK YOU  

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