UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An analytical survey of participants in non-credit liberal arts extension classes 1969

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AN ANALYTICAL SURVEY OF PARTICIPANTS IN NON-CREDIT LIBERAL ARTS EXTENSION CLASSES by LOTHAR BENNO GANZ B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1957 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n ( A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree th the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Adult Education The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 19^9 ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y , an a n a l y s i s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n l i b e r a l a r t s n o n - c r e d i t c o u r s e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i s b a s e d on 1005 i n t e r v i e w s w h i c h were g i v e n d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g o f 196 8. The c l i e n t e l e has been d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f s o c i o - economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , m o t i v a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , r e a c t i o n s about t h e s c h e d u l i n g o f c l a s s e s , and methods o f o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o u r s e s . The d a t a were f u r t h e r m o r e u t i l i z e d i n t e s t i n g t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t t h e one p e r c e n t l e v e l e x i s t e d between males and f e m a l e s , between v e t e r a n s and n o v i c e s , o r between non-committed and committed l e a r n e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o s e l e c t e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c - t e r i s t i c s and s p e c i f i e d ways o f o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s d i f f e r e d from t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n t h a t t h e y had a h i g h e r r a t i o o f women t o men, c o n s t i t u t e d g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e s o f p e o p l e i n each o f t h e age c a t e g o r i e s from 25 t o 54 y e a r s , p o s s e s s e d h i g h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and were more a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d l i f e o f t h e i r community. L e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n — t h e d e s i r e t o seek knowledge f o r i t s own s a k e — e m e r g e d as t h e prime m o t i v a t o r f o r most p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f them r e p o r t e d p r e v i o u s i n - volvement i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and a s i m i l a r p r o p o r t i o n i n d i - c a t e d s t r o n g i n t e n t i o n s t o e n r o l i n f u t u r e e x t e n s i o n c l a s s e s . O n e - h a l f o f t h e c l i e n t e l e were n o v i c e s i n u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n c l a s s e s . V i r t u a l l y a l l r e s p o n d e n t s r e s i d e d i n t h e g r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a , and s p e n t l e s s t h a n t h i r t y m i n u t e s t r a v e l l i n g t o c l a s s . D i r e c t m a i l i n g t e c h n i q u e s o f p r o m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l i n - f l u e n c e d more p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a n d i d newspaper a d v e r t i s i n g . L e s s t h a n o n e - t h i r d o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y had l e a r n e d about c l a s s e s t h r o u g h o t h e r p e o p l e . T e s t i n g o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s r e v e a l e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g - n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between male and female p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , g o a l - o r i e n t a t i o n , l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n , i n t e r e s t i n s u b j e c t s , a t t e n d a n c e d u r i n g s p e c i f i e d t i m e s o f t h e day, p r e f e r e n c e s f o r s t a r t i n g t i m e s o f c l a s s e s , a t t e n d a n c e on s p e c i f i e d days o f the week, i n t e r e s t i n weekend s e m i n a r s , and the t y p e o f announcement r e c e i v e d f o r t h e c o u r s e . P a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from n o v i c e s i n t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o age, o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n k i n g , income, s o c i a l p a r t i - c i p a t i o n , t y p e o f announcement r e c e i v e d f o r t h e c o u r s e , and i v t he e x t e n t o f t h e i r use o f t h e two s t e p i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w . Committed and non-committed l e a r n e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o m a r i t a l s t a t u s , income, l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n , p r e v i o u s p a r t i - c i p a t i o n i n u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r e s t i n weekend s e m i n a r s , and i n t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e two s t e p i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w . V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v i i i Acknowledgements x i i CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION 1 Statement o f t h e Problem 1 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 3 H y p o t h e s i s 4 I I . REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 5 The M a r g i n a l i t y o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n 5 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P a r t i c i p a n t s 6 Sex 6 M a r i t a l S t a t u s 6 Age 7 S o c i o - E c o n o m i c S t a t u s 7 S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n 11 Re s i d e n c e 11 M o t i v a t i o n 12 Program P r o m o t i o n 14 I I I . DESIGN OF THE STUDY 16 S e t t i n g 16 P o p u l a t i o n S t u d i e d 16 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s S t u d i e s 17 P r o c e d u r e 19 v i CHAPTER P a9~e I I I . (Continued) C o l l e c t i o n o f Da t a 19 S t a t i s t i c a l P r o c e d u r e s 19 IV. DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 24 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P a r t i c i p a n t s 24 Sex 24 M a r i t a l S t a t u s 24 Age 26 S o c i o - E c o n o m i c S t a t u s 26 S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n 37 M o t i v a t i o n 37 P r e v i o u s P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . 44 I n t e n t i o n s about F u t u r e E n r o l m e n t i n E x t e n s i o n C o u r s e s 44 P r e v i o u s S u b j e c t A r e a s o f Study 48 P r e s e n t S u b j e c t A r e a s o f Study 51 S u b j e c t A r e a s o f I n t e n d e d Study 53 R e s i d e n c e 55 T r a v e l Time 57 L o c a t i o n s o f C l a s s e s 57 R e a c t i o n s t o S c h e d u l i n g 60 Sources o f I n f o r m a t i o n 73 V e t e r a n s and N o v i c e s 77 Age 77 O c c u p a t i o n 80 Income 80 S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n 83 M o t i v a t i o n 83 P r e v i o u s P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n E x t e n s i o n A c t i v i t i e s 85 I n t e n t i o n s about F u t u r e E n r o l m e n t i n E x t e n s i o n C l a s s e s 88 Sources o f " I n f o r m a t i o n 88 Non-Committed and Committed L e a r n e r s 91 M a r i t a l S t a t u s 91 Income 94 M o t i v a t i o n 94 P r e v i o u s P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n E x t e n s i o n A c t i v i t i e s 97 v i i CHAPTER Page IV. (Continued) I n t e r e s t i n Weekend Seminars 99 P r o c e s s L e a d i n g t o Awareness o f Co u r s e s . . 99 V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 102 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P a r t i c i p a n t s 102 Sex 102 M a r i t a l S t a t u s 103 Age 103 So c i o - E c o n o m i c S t a t u s 104 S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n 105 M o t i v a t i o n 105 P a r t i c i p a t i o n and I n t e r e s t 106 R e s i d e n c e 10 8 S c h e d u l i n g 10 8 Sources o f I n f o r m a t i o n 109 H y p o t h e s i s T e s t i n g 109 Male and Female P a r t i c i p a n t s 110 V e t e r a n s and N o v i c e s . 110 Non-Committed and Committed L e a r n e r s . . . . 115 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f S t a t i s t i c a l R e s u l t s . . . 115 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 116 BIBLIOGRAPHY 118 APPENDIX 124 A. Enrolment and I n t e r v i e w s grouped A c c o r d i n g t o S u b j e c t M a t t e r A r e a s 125 B. T a b l e s o f E x p r e s s e d P r e f e r e n c e s f o r S c h e d u l i n g o f C l a s s e s 131 C. The I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e 135 V1XX LIST OP TABLES TABLE NO. Page I . B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by- M a r i t a l S t a t u s and Sex 25 I I . B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and Age 27 I I I . B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and L e v e l o f F o r m a l E d u c a t i o n 28 IV. P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents w i t h S u p p l e m e n t a l F u l l Time E d u c a t i o n by Type o f E d u c a t i o n 31 V. B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and Y e a r s o f S u p p l e m e n t a l F u l l Time E d u c a t i o n 33 V I . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents A c c o r d i n g t o B l i s h e n O c c u p a t i o n a l S c a l e D e c i l e s 35 V I I . B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and G r o s s A n n u a l F a m i l y Income 36 V I I I . B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c o r e (Chapin S c a l e ) and Sex 3 8 IX. B i v a r i a t e T a b l e o f G o a l - O r i e n t a t i o n v s . Sex o f Respondent 40 X. B i v a r i a t e T a b l e o f A c t i v i t y - O r i e n t a t i o n v s . Sex o f Respondent 41 XI . B i v a r i a t e T a b l e o f L e a r n i n g - O r i e n t a t i o n v s . Sex o f Respondent 42 X I I . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f a l l Respondents by Type o f O r i e n t a t i o n and S c o r e C a t e g o r y (Kolmogorov- Smirnov T w o - T a i l e d T e s t ) . 45 X I I I . B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and P r e v i o u s P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n (Any Type) 46 i x TABLE NO. Page XIV. B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by- Sex and P r e v i o u s P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. E x t e n s i o n C l a s s e s . . . . 47 XV. B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and S t a t e d I n t e n t i o n s about F u t u r e E n r o l l m e n t i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n 49 XVI. B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and P r e v i o u s S u b j e c t A r e a s o f Study . . 50 X V I I . B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and P r e s e n t S u b j e c t A r e a s o f Study. . . 52 X V I I I . B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and S u b j e c t A r e a s o f I n t e n d e d Study . . 54 XIX. B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and A r e a o f R e s i d e n c e 56 XX. B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and T r a v e l Time t o C l a s s 58 XXI. B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and L o c a t i o n o f C l a s s 59 X X I I . B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h L o c a t i o n f o r T h e i r C o u r s e s 61 X X I I I . F a c t o r s w hich I n f l u e n c e d Respondents' C h o i c e o f L o c a t i o n f o r C l a s s e s 62 XXIV. Ranking o f F a c t o r s w hich I n f l u e n c e d P r e f e r - ences f o r C l a s s L o c a t i o n s (Kolmogorov- Smirnov T e s t ) 63 XXV. B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n f o r Respondents by Sex and Time o f Day f o r C l a s s 65 XXVI. B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and P r e f e r r e d S c h e d u l i n g Time f o r C l a s s e s 67 XXVII. B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and Day o f Week f o r C l a s s . . . . 69 X TABLE NO. X X V I I I . XXIX. XXX. XXXI. XXXII. XXXIII, XXXIV. XXXV. XXXVI, XXXVII, XXXVIII. XXXIX. XL. XLI, Page B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and V o t e s f o r P r e f e r r e d Days o f the Week 70 B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and I n c l i n a t i o n Toward Weekend Seminars 72 B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and Type o f Announcement R e c e i v e d f o r t h e Course 74 B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex and P r o c e s s L e a d i n g t o Awareness o f C o u r s e s 78 B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f V e t e r a n s and N o v i c e s by Age Groups 79 B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f V e t e r a n s and N o v i c e s by B l i s h e n O c c u p a t i o n a l Ranks . . . 81 B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f V e t e r a n s and N o v i c e s by Income C a t e g o r i e s 82 B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f V e t e r a n s and N o v i c e s by S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c o r e s . . . 84 B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f V e t e r a n s and N o v i c e s A c c o r d i n g t o L e a r n i n g - O r i e n t a t i o n . 86 B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f V e t e r a n s and N o v i c e s by P r e v i o u s P a r i t i c p a t i o n i n U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n A c t i v i t i e s 87 B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f V e t e r a n s and N o v i c e s by I n t e n t i o n t o R e t u r n t o F u t u r e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s 89 B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f V e t e r a n s and N o v i c e s by Type o f Announcement R e c e i v e d f o r Course 90 B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f V e t e r a n s and N o v i c e s by P r o c e s s e s L e a d i n g t o Awareness o f Courses.- 92 B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Non-Committed and Committed L e a r n e r s by M a r i t a l S t a t u s . . 93 x i TABLE NO. Page X L I I . B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Non-Committed and Committed L e a r n e r s by Income C a t e g o r i e s 95 X L I I I . B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Non-Committed and Committed L e a r n e r s A c c o r d i n g t o L e a r n i n g O r i e n t a t i o n 96 XLIV. B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Non-Committed and Committed L e a r n e r s by P r e v i o u s P a r t i - c i p a t i o n i n U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n A c t i v i t i e s 9 8 XLV. B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Non-Committed and Committed L e a r n e r s by I n t e r e s t i n Weekend Seminars 100 XLVI. B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Non-Committed and Committed L e a r n e r s by P r o c e s s e s L e a d i n g t o Awareness o f Courses 101 X L V I I . (a) C h i - S q u a r e V a l u e s and C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r P a r t i c i p a n t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by Sex, V e t e r a n S t a t u s , and Commitment C a t e g o r y . . I l l (b) H y p o t h e s i s R e j e c t i o n s 114 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The w r i t e r g r a t e f u l l y acknowledges t h e e x p e r t g u i d a n c e g i v e n t o him by P r o f e s s o r C. V e r n e r a t t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . The e n t i r e p r o j e c t would n o t have been f e a s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e g r a n t o f fun d s from t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Edu- c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l and t h e s u b s t a n t i a l a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n by Mr. G. Selman, d i r e c t o r o f t h e Department o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n , and h i s s t a f f . L a s t l y , t h e w r i t e r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h i s s i n c e r e thanks t o Dr. J . N i e m i , chairman o f t h e t h e s i s committee f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e and u n t i r i n g h e l p t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e t h e s i s . D e d i c a t i o n To V i o l a and our c h i l d r e n , Rhonda, R o b e r t and L o n g a r d Benno. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM D u r i n g t h e p a s t t h i r t y y e a r s , no o t h e r f a c e t o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n has e x p e r i e n c e d a growth and development comparable t o t h a t o f the " l i b e r a l a r t s " a r e a (14:129). F u r t h e r ex- p a n s i o n i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e i s b e i n g a n t i c i p a t e d by t h e e x p e r t s (34:76). The r e c e n t r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n con- s t i t u t e s an e s s e n t i a l element even i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f s p e c i a l i s t s enhances i t s v a l u e even f u r t h e r . F o r i n s t a n c e , C l a r k w r o t e : As a s o c i e t y v e e r s toward e x p e r t i s e , t h e c u l t u r a l s t r a i n s h i g h l i g h t e d by t h e o l d d i s t i n c t i o n s between the c u l t i v a t e d man and t h e e x p e r t , t h e pure and a p p l i e d , a r e made s e v e r e . The e f f o r t s t o b r i n g l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n t o t h e e x p e r t c o n s t i t u t e a s o c i a l r e s p o n s e t o the s t r a i n , an attempt t o a v o i d a b a r - b a r i s m o f men a c u t e i n t e c h n i c a l judgement b u t myopic i n s o c i a l a f f a i r s , p o l i t i c s and c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d - i n g . The f u t u r e o f t h e e x p e r t s o c i e t y c h a l l e n g e s e d u c a t i o n t o c l o s e a gap t h a t i n the n a t u r a l c o u r s e o f a f f a i r s w i l l e v e r widen (13:290). A l t h o u g h v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s a r e i n v o l v e d i n l i b e r a l a d u l t edu- c a t i o n , Knowles (37:509) s t a t e s t h a t e x p e r i m e n t a l e v i d e n c e p o i n t s t o i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g as the p o t e n t i a l l y most e f f e c t i v e a g e n c i e s f o r t h e p r o m o t i o n o f permanent growth i n t h i s f i e l d . 2 Y e t v e r y l i t t l e i s known about t h e C a n a d i a n a d u l t s who a r e e n r o l l i n g i n l i b e r a l a r t s n o n - c r e d i t u n i v e r s i t y ex- t e n s i o n c o u r s e s . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s from r e s e a r c h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s do n o t l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o u n q u a l i f i e d a p p l i c a t i o n t o the C a n a d i a n s c e n e , s i n c e B u t t e d a h l (6:72) and B e r t r a m (2:61) showed t h a t t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and e s p e c i a l l y t h e l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n , o f Ca n a d i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s d i f f e r from t h o s e o f t h e i r A merican c o u n t e r p a r t s . N e v e r t h e - l e s s , i t i s i m p e r a t i v e f o r an a d u l t e d u c a t o r t o make a r e a l i s t i c a p p r a i s a l o f h i s s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , i f he i s g o i n g t o meet t h e i r needs by p r o v i d i n g an e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g s i t u - a t i o n , and thus enhance t h e u t i l i t y o f h i s i n s t i t u t i o n . The p r e s e n t s t u d y w i l l a t tempt t o e s t a b l i s h a p r o f i l e o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n n o n - c r e d i t a r t s u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s g i v e n by the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g o f 196 8, by i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s as w e l l as some o f t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a i t s and t h e i r ways o f o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e c o u r s e s . Three d i c h o t o m i e s w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . The e n t i r e c l i e n t e l e w i l l be d i v i d e d i n each one a c c o r d i n g t o sex, p r e v i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and i n t e n t i o n s f o r f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T e s t s w i l l t h e n be a p p l i e d t o dete r m i n e whether o r n o t any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i - f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e e s t a b l i s h e d c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s e x i s t w i t h i n each o f the d i c h o t o m i e s . 3 I I . DEFINITION OF TERMS C e r t a i n terms which have a p a r t i c u l a r meaning t h r o u g h - ou t t h i s s t u d y a r e d e f i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g l i s t . L i b e r a l a r t s n o n - c r e d i t c o u r s e . E v e r y c o u r s e l i s t e d under t h e h e a d i n g s " S p e c i a l Programs," "Daytime Programs," "H u m a n i t i e s , A r t s and S c i e n c e , " i n t h e E x t e n s i o n Department B r o c h u r e (48) , and o f f e r e d t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , w i t h o u t c r e d i t , by t h e E x t e n s i o n Department o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g o f 1968. A d u l t . A p e r s o n f o r whom the e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i s s u p p l e m e n t a l t o h i s p r i m a r y r o l e i n s o c i e t y (50:3). P a r t i c i p a n t . An a d u l t who had e n r o l l e d i n a t l e a s t one l i b e r a l a r t s n o n - c r e d i t c o u r s e d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g o f 196 8. V e t e r a n . A p a r t i c i p a n t who i n d i c a t e d on t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e t h a t he had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a t l e a s t one a d u l t edu- c a t i o n a c t i v i t y , i n v o l v i n g t h r e e o r more m e e t i n g s , p r i o r t o the s p r i n g o f 196 8. N o v i c e . A p a r t i c i p a n t who i n d i c a t e d on t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e t h a t he had n e v e r b e f o r e t a k e n p a r t i n an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n v o l v i n g t h r e e o r more m e e t i n g s . Committed l e a r n e r . A p a r t i c i p a n t who p o s i t i v e l y i n d i - c a t e d d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w t h a t he i n t e n d e d t o e n r o l l a g a i n i n u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s . Non-committed l e a r n e r . A p a r t i c i p a n t who, d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w , answered "no" o r "perhaps" t o t h e q u e s t i o n whether 4 he i n t e n d e d t o e n r o l a g a i n i n u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s . I I I . HYPOTHESIS The h y p o t h e s i s t o be t e s t e d i s t h i s one: t h e r e a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t t h e .01 l e v e l be- tween males and f e m a l e s , between v e t e r a n s and n o v i c e s , o r between committed and non-committed l e a r n e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o s e l e c t e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s p e c i f i e d communication p a t t e r n s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d : 1. A d u l t r o l e s — s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , 2. Age, 3. S o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , 4. S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , 5. R e s i d e n c e , 6. M o t i v a t i o n , 7. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n — p a s t and f u t u r e , 8. I n t e r e s t i n s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t a r e a s , 9. R e a c t i o n t o s c h e d u l i n g , 10. The s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE S i n c e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g C a n a d i a n p a r t i - c i p a n t s i n l i b e r a l a r t s n o n - c r e d i t u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s i s l a c k i n g , c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n t o l i t e r a t u r e from t h e b r o a d a r e a s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n — u n i v e r s i t y - s p o n s o r e d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and even u n i v e r s i t y - s p o n s o r e d l i b e r a l a r t s e d u c a t i o n — a n d from t h e narrower f i e l d s w i t h i n t h e l i b e r a l a r t s a r e a , such as s t u d y - d i s c u s s i o n groups and t h e G r e a t Books Programs. R e s u l t s from t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i l l p r o - v i d e some c r i t e r i a f o r comparisons w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . I . THE MARGINALITY OF PARTICIPATION Recent e s t i m a t e s show a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e l v e t o f i f t e e n p e r c e n t o f the C a n a d i a n a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n engaged i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s (8:11; 7:15). These f i g u r e s agree w i t h r e c e n t f i n d i n g s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , where J o h n s t o n e i n 1965 r e p o r t e d f i f t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i n g . London, Wenkert and Hagstrom i n 1963, as w e l l as Knox and V i d e b e c k i n t h e same y e a r , r e p o r t e d t w e l v e p e r c e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n (30:234). Among the v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s which o f f e r e d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s s p o n s o r e d from f o u r t e e n t o t w e n t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f a l l c o u r s e s (8:37; 30:235). A t C a n a d i a n u n i v e r s i t i e s , o n l y o n e - t h i r d o f a l l e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s were l i b e r a l a r t s non- c r e d i t o f f e r i n g s (8:25; 7:17). On the b a s i s o f t h e s e s t a t i s - t i c s , even a v e r y generous e s t i m a t e w i l l y i e l d o n l y one a d u l t p e r hundred o f p o p u l a t i o n as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n l i b e r a l a r t s n o n - c r e d i t u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s . " * " I I . CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS Sex P a r t i c i p a t i o n s t u d i e s i n t h e l i b e r a l a r t s d i f f e r f r o m s u r v e y s o f a l l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n (46:7; 8:17) by c o n s i s t e n t l y i n d i c a t i n g a m a j o r i t y o f women w i t h i n t h e c l i e n t e l e . R e p o r t - 2 ed p e r c e n t a g e s range from f i f t y - s i x t o s e v e n t y - f o u r . M a r i t a l S t a t u s I n t h e f i e l d o f g e n e r a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n d i d n o t appear t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a r i t a l s t a t u s (46:7). However, Knox (31:8) f o u n d t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f m a r r i e d p e r s o n s i n l i b e r a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was h i g h e r t h a n i n t h e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n . The C a nadian 1961 Census w i l l be used as "*"A. 20% o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . B. 15% o f a l l c o u r s e s a r e o f f e r e d by u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s . C. 33% o f (B) a r e l i b e r a l a r t s , n o n - c r e d i t c o u r s e s . A x B x C = 0.0096. 2 (22:22) H i l l , (15:14) D a v i s , (28:10) K a p l a n , (6:48) B u t t e d a h l , (27:18) J o n e s , (33:2) L i v i n g s t o n e , (39:53) M o n t r o s s . 7 a r e f e r e n c e . I t r e p o r t e d 63 p e r c e n t o f a l l p e r s o n s o v e r 19 y e a r s o f age as m a r r i e d ( 9 a : 2 8 - l ) . Age J o h n s t o n e (25:104) m e n t i o n e d age as one o f t h r e e f a c t o r s which p e r s i s t e n t l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d p a r t i c i p a n t s from n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . He showed t h e average age o f p a r t i c i p a n t s t o be s i x y e a r s l e s s t h a n t h e average age o f h i s e n t i r e sample. Knot (31:6) found t h e median age o f a d u l t s i n l i b e r a l edu- c a t i o n programs t o be n e a r t h e n a t i o n a l average o f 40 y e a r s , and w i t h l e s s v a r i a n c e t h a n was t h e c a s e i n t h e t o t a l a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n , b u t w i t h g r e a t e r v a r i a n c e t h a n was t h e case f o r a d u l t p a r t i c i p a n t s g e n e r a l l y . T w o - t h i r d s o f t h e l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n t h e 35-55 y e a r c a t e g o r y w h i l e an e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l U n i t e d S t a t e s ' p o p u l a t i o n was d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r t h e 25-59 y e a r r a n g e . Morton g i v e s t h e median age o f e x t e n s i o n e n r o l l e e s as 38 y e a r s (40:88). P a r t i c i p a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o V e r n e r (50:28), tends t o be f a i r l y h i g h from the l a t e t w e n t i e s o r e a r l y t h i r t i e s t o t h e e a r l y f i f t i e s . However, a d u l t s o v e r s i x t y a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l l y u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. Socio-Economic S t a t u s Brunner (4:38) e x p l a i n s t h a t u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n appears t o s e r v e m i d d l e c l a s s s t a t u s groups more e f f e c t i v e l y 8 t h a n t h o s e o f lower s t a t u s . O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s agree t h a t l i b e r a l a r t s e x t e n s i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s have h i g h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c 3 s t a t u s t h a n most o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o V e r n e r (50:28) t h r e e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s a r e r e - l a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n : e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , o c c u p a t i o n , and income; o f t h e s e , t h e l e v e l o f p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n has been found t o be t h e most i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e which i n f l u e n c e s a t t e n d a n c e i n l i b e r a l a r t s e d u c a t i o n (40:29; 30:233). E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . I n e d u c a t i o n a l achievement th e c l i e n t e l e f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s s u p e r i o r t o t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . The 1957 U n i t e d S t a t e s s u r v e y showed t h a t 5.6 p e r c e n t o f n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s and 20.3 p e r c e n t o f p a r t i c i - p a n t s had completed o v e r s i x t e e n y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g (16:10). Knox (31:8) f o u n d t h a t a l m o s t a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n had some c o l l e g e e x p e r i e n c e , and about h a l f o f them had completed a t l e a s t a b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e . Morton's e a r l i e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t 37 p e r c e n t o f p a r t i c i - p a n t s had completed h i g h s c h o o l and o v e r t e n p e r c e n t were engaged i n g r a d u a t e s t u d y (40:89). A t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , B u t t e d a h l (6:26) r e p o r t e d i n 1963 t h a t 32 p e r c e n t o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n 3 (15:25) D a v i s , (27:26) J o n e s , (28:128) K a p l a n , (31:18) Knox, (38:141) M i z r u c h i and V a n a r i a , (40:91) Morton, (50:31) V e r n e r and Booth. 9 l i b e r a l a r t s c l a s s e s had some c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n , w h i l e L i v i n g s t o n e ' s r e p o r t o f 1966 l i s t e d 64 p e r c e n t o f p a r t i c i - p a n t s i n t h e same c a t e g o r y (33:4). I n c o n t r a s t , o n l y 8 p e r c e n t o f a l l C a n a d i a n h o u s e h o l d heads have e v e r a t t e n d e d c o l l e g e (17:128). C a u t i o n must be e x e r c i s e d i n any attempt t o compare a c t u a l y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g between C a n a d i a n and Ame r i c a n p a r t i c i p a n t s , because r e c e n t e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s o f C a n a d i a n and American p o p u l a t i o n s d i f f e r n o t i c e a b l y . B e r t r a m (2:61) wrote t h a t d u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1960's, t h e median y e a r o f s c h o o l i n g o f t h e C a n a d i a n male l a b o u r f o r c e was about two y e a r s below t h a t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . R e p o r t s on t h e L i v i n g Room L e a r n i n g p a r t i c i - p a n t s t e n d t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s c l a i m . I n B r i t i s h Columbia 57 p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s , and 30 p e r c e n t were u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s (49) , whereas American c e n t r e s r e p o r t e d t h a t 13 p e r c e n t had h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n and a l l o t h e r s had h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n (6:72). I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e , however, t h a t p r o m o t i o n , l o c a t i o n , and sub- j e c t c o n t e n t o f t h e s e c l a s s e s , among o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , c o u l d so i n f l u e n c e t h e n a t u r e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n as t o e i t h e r a c c e n t u a t e o r d i m i n i s h e x i s t i n g n a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . O c c u p a t i o n . A n a l y z i n g t h e f i n d i n g s o f n i n e r e c e n t s t u d i e s i n l i b e r a l a d u l t education*, Knox (31:7) showed t h a t 10 t h e s e programs were most f r e q u e n t l y a t t e n d e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s whose o c c u p a t i o n s were c l a s s i f i e d as p r o f e s s i o n a l o r manager- i a l . S i m i l a r l y , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p o p u l a t i o n s u r v e y (46:8) showed 40.5 p e r c e n t o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t o be from the p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l and m a n a g e r i a l r a n k s , w h i l e o n l y 23.9 p e r c e n t o f t h e n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n t h o s e c a t e g o r i e s . F o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, B u t t e d a h l (52:24) and L i v i n g s t o n e (33:8) r e p o r t e d about f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e l i b e r a l a r t s p a r t i c i p a n t s t o be i n p r o f e s s i o n a l o r m a n a g e r i a l o c c u p a t i o n s , w h i l e o n l y twenty p e r c e n t o f t h e C a n a d i a n l a b o u r f o r c e were i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s i n 1965 (17:73). G o u l d (20:21) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t e a c h e r s were t h i r t y - f i v e times as l i k e l y t o y i e l d a d u l t s t u d e n t s from t h e i r r a n k s as were manual w o r k e r s , w h i l e p r o f e s s i o n a l workers and non- manual workers were r e p o r t e d t o be groups f o u r times as " f e r t i l e " as manual w o r k e r s . Income. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n k i n g and income seems o b v i o u s , and one would e x p e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s t o come from t h e h i g h e r income groups among the p o p u l a t i o n . Morton (40:91), Knox (31:18), and Jones (27:57) have shown t h i s f i n d i n g t o be t r u e f o r l i b e r a l a r t s e x t e n s i o n p a r t i c i - p a n t s . A c t u a l income f i g u r e s however ar e s u b j e c t t o t h e 11 most f r e q u e n t r e v i s i o n s . F o r 1961, t h e h i g h e s t income group i n B r i t i s h C olumbia, p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , r e c e i v e d an average o f $6,973 p e r annum, w h i l e t h e a v e r a g e income f o r a l l o c c u p a t i o n s combined was $4,473 (9b:65). C o n s i d e r i n g t h e t h r e e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , J o h n s t o n e (25:105) c o n c l u d e d i n 1963 t h a t a p e r s o n who had been t o c o l l e g e , h e l d a w h i t e - c o l l a r j o b , and had an income o f o v e r $7,000 p e r y e a r was about s i x times more l i k e l y t o be i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t h a n a b l u e c o l l a r worker, who had n o t gone beyond grade s c h o o l and who had an income o f l e s s t h a n $4,000 a n n u a l l y . S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n One c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e assessment o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s community i s t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t s f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i f e . O n l y an e s t i m a t e d 40 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n have any c o n t a c t w i t h t h i s f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d l i f e i n a community (53:209). In t h e l i g h t o f t h i s e s t i m a t e , B u t t e d a h l ' s f i n d i n g t h a t about 75 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n h i s s t u d y were i n v o l v e d i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n s (51:71) seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t p a r - t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t e n d t o be more i n v o l v e d w i t h community o r g a n i z a t i o n s than t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . R e s i d e n c e The s t u d i e s o f J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a (26:78), o f Knox and V i d e b e c k (30:232), and o f G o u l d (20:33) show a p o s i t i v e 12 r e l a t i o n s h i p between community s i z e and r a t e o f a d u l t p a r t i - c i p a t i o n . Morton (40:90) r e p o r t e d 75 p e r c e n t o f a l l e x t e n s i o n u s e r s t o be urban r e s i d e n t s . The a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f c l a s s e s i s no doubt a f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n , though i t s e f f e c t s a r e e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o i s o l a t e be- cause o f i t s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e e f f e c t o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . V e r n e r (50:29), M e l t o n (36:62), and McKinnon (35:76) c o r r o b o r a t e t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t w i t h i n an urb a n s e t t i n g d i s - t a n c e i s no b a r r i e r t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and Ulmer (45:156) fou n d t h a t t h e d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d b o r e no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a - t i o n t o d r o p o u t s from e v e n i n g c l a s s e s i n a community c o l l e g e . M o t i v a t i o n The m o t i v a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , c e n t r a l though i t i s t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , has had l i t t l e p r e v i o u s s t u d y (23:75). Houle has p r o p o s e d t h a t a d u l t c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n e r s have t h r e e o r i e n t a t i o n s . These a r e the g o a l , t h e a c t i v i t y , and t h e l e a r n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s as d e f i n e d below: The g o a l - o r i e n t e d a r e t h o s e who use e d u c a t i o n as a means o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g f a i r l y c l e a r - c u t o b j e c t i v e s . The. . . a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t e d a r e t h o s e who t a k e p a r t because t h e y f i n d i n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f the l e a r n - i n g a meaning which has no n e c e s s a r y c o n n e c t i o n , and o f t e n no c o n n e c t i o n a t a l l , w i t h t h e c o n t e n t o r the announced purpo s e s o f the a c t i v i t y . The l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t e d seek knowledge f o r i t s own sake (24:15). Solomon (43) has c o m p i l e d the pap e r s o f S h e f f i e l d , Ingham and Brown, and has p r e s e n t e d them as p i o n e e r i n g attempts a l o n g the l i n e s o f Houle's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . 13 S h e f f i e l d f o u n d b a s i c s u b s t a n t i a t i o n f o r t h o s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s b u t had t o expand the " g o a l - o r i e n t a t i o n " i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : " p e r s o n a l g o a l " and " s o c i e t a l g o a l . " F u r t h e r m o r e , he sub- d i v i d e d " a c t i v i t y o r i e n t a t i o n " i n t o " d e s i r e f o r s o c i a b i l i t y " and "need f u l f i l l m e n t . " Ingham i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e p o r t e d " l e i s u r e s a t i s f a c t i o n " o f h i s r e s p o n d e n t s and f o u n d f o u r l e i s u r e s a t i s f a c t i o n p a t t e r n t y p e s , t h r e e o f w hich appeared t o be c o m p a t i b l e w i t h th e t h r e e " o r i e n t a t i o n s " o f H o u l e . Brown, i n an attempt t o a s s e s s the i n f l u e n c e o f c o l l e g e e x p e r i e n c e on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , f o u n d t h a t alumni o f h i g h l y - r a t e d c o l l e g e s p a r t i c i p a t e d t o a g r e a t e r degree i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n t h a n d i d a l u m n i o f "average" c o l l e g e s , and s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e was something about the atmosphere o f a s c h o o l w hich would o r would n o t promote an a t t i t u d e about c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . A v e r i l l (1:196) d e t e c t e d v a r i a t i o n s i n a t t i t u d e s towards c e r t a i n key e lements a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f o r m a l educa- t i o n i n p a i r s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s who were c l o s e l y matched f o r age, e d u c a t i o n and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two c a t e g o r i e s and r e s p o n s e s , u s i n g t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l , t o the key words: " c l a s s r o o m , " " t e a c h e r , " and " e x a m i n a t i o n . " 14 Dow's s t u d y o f u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n s t u d e n t s (18) c o u l d f i n d no g o a l - o r i e n t e d l e a r n e r s i n n o n - c r e d i t c o u r s e s , though t h e s e same r e s p o n d e n t s had been g o a l - o r i e n t e d i n o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . She r e p o r t e d a s m a l l m i n o r i t y o f l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t e d a d u l t s , and remarked t h a t t h e r e m a i n d e r d i d n o t f i t Houle's a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Chapman (12:40), on t h e o t h e r hand, by r e p o r t i n g t h a t 72 p e r c e n t o f e x t e n s i o n s t u d e n t s were a t t e n d i n g i n c l u s t e r s w i t h f r i e n d s , p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t f o r t h e t h e o r y t h a t s o c i a l r e a s o n s have an e f f e c t on p a r t i c i p a t i o n . C a r t e r , K e r r , and York (10:223) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t more n o n - c r e d i t t h a n o t h e r e x t r a - m u r a l s t u d e n t s had e n r o l l e d t o o b t a i n p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and t o improve p e r f o r m a n c e , and Knox, summarizing a g a i n n i n e s t u d i e s i n l i b e r a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , w r o t e : S t u d e n t s a t t e n d f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s , w i t h two mentioned most o f t e n . . . c o n t e n t i n t e r e s t and i n t e l - l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n from group e x p e r i e n c e (31:9). I I I . PROGRAM PROMOTION T r a d i t i o n a l l y , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a g e n c i e s have r e l i e d on d i r e c t m a i l , newspaper and t r a d e magazine p u b l i c i t y , some r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n c o v e r a g e , and even p e r s o n a l communica- t i o n s f o r t h e p r o m o t i o n o f t h e i r programs (19:8; 44:30; 41:25). No s i n g l e method has emerged as t h e b e s t f o r a l l s i t u a t i o n s , and some degree o f u n c e r t a i n t y about the most s u c c e s s f u l way t o r e a c h the au d i e n c e p e r s i s t s (44:29). G e n e r a l l y , t h e p r o - 15 m o t i o n o f any one program i n v o l v e s u t i l i z a t i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f media. K i d d (29:104) and B u r c h (5:13) r e p o r t e d t h a t word o f mouth c o n s t i t u t e d t h e most i m p o r t a n t p r i m a r y s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s , thus s u p p o r t i n g t h e t h e o r y o f t h e two-step f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n (32:151), which i n v o l v e s a l e a d e r who r e c e i v e s t h e communication i n i t i a l l y and t h e n p a s s e s i t t o o t h e r s . CHAPTER I I I DESIGN OF THE STUDY I . SETTING The s p r i n g program o f t h e Department o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r 196 8 o f f e r e d f i f t y c o u r s e s and two workshops i n t h e l i b e r a l a r t s n o n - c r e d i t a r e a . W h i l e a c o r e o f t h e u s u a l l i b e r a l a r t s c o u r s e s was m a i n t a i n e d , t h e L e c t u r e - D i s c u s s i o n and S t u d y - D i s c u s s i o n groups o f t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r s were d i s c o n t i n u e d , and e l e v e n d ay-time c l a s s e s were o f f e r e d f o r t h e f i r s t time I I . POPULATION STUDIED A t t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y , p l a n s were made t o i n t e r v i e w a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a l l l i b e r a l a r t s n o n - c r e d i t c o u r s e s . T h i s g o a l was n o t a t t a i n e d . Seven c o u r s e s were c a n c e l l e d f o r l a c k o f s u f f i c i e n t s t u d e n t s . One c o u r s e , "Choice and C h a l l e n g e , " p e r m i t t e d r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r each sep- a r a t e s e s s i o n and was n o t i n c l u d e d because each m e e t i n g con- t a i n e d a d i f f e r e n t a u d i e n c e . P e r m i s s i o n t o i n t e r v i e w p a r t i - c i p a n t s i n " A r c h a e o l o g y " c o u l d n o t be o b t a i n e d from t h e chairman. I n a l l , 1005 p e r s o n s , s e v e n t y p e r c e n t o f t h o s e e n r o l l e d i n the r e m a i n i n g f o r t y c o u r s e s were i n t e r v i e w e d . ^ Attendance records were not kept f o r evening non- c r e d i t c l a s s e s , and i t i s l i k e l y that some p a r t i c i p a n t s had dropped out before the time of the interview. 17 Appendix A c o n t a i n s a summary o f the o f f e r i n g s and i n v e s t i - g a t i o n s f o r t h e s p r i n g term o f 196 8. D u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s , i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t t h i r t y a d u l t s were e n r o l l e d i n more t h a n one l i b e r a l a r t s n o n - c r e d i t c o u r s e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , and so t h e y were asked t o f i l l o u t o n l y one i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . S i n c e a l l r e s p o n s e s were anony- mous, a v a l i d a n a l y s i s o f t h e m u l t i p l e e n r o l l m e n t phenomenon was i m p o s s i b l e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t became e v i d e n t from 45 e n c o u n t e r s w i t h " m u l t i p l e p a r t i c i p a n t s " t h a t 24 p e r s o n s were s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e n r o l l e d i n two c o u r s e s , w h i l e 3 a t t e n d e d t h r e e c o u r s e s , 2 a t t e n d e d f o u r c o u r s e s , and one a m b i t i o u s gentleman p e r s i s t e d i n s i x c o u r s e s . I I I . CHARACTERISTICS STUDIED I n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d from the p a r t i c i p a n t s about n i n e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , sex, age, income, o c c u p a t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t o r spouse, s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , and t r a v e l time t o c l a s s . P a r t i c i p a n t s were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o age i n c a t e g o r i e s which o f f e r e d easy comparison w i t h t h o s e used by t h e c e n s u s . B l i s h e n ' s (3:41) S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Index f o r O c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada was used t o c a t e g o r i z e o c c u p a t i o n s . 2 B l i s h e n ' s i n d e x f o r o c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada ranks t h e o c c u p a t i o n s which a r e l i s t e d i n census p u b l i c a t i o n s i n terms o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . Data on e d u c a t i o n and income c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f incumbents were used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h 18 S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e 3 C h a p i n S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e (11:277). In a d d i t i o n t o i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t w e l v e q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o Houle's t h r e e t y p e s o f m o t i v a t i o n : g o a l - o r i e n t a t i o n , a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t a t i o n , and l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n , as d e f i n e d 4 i n c h a p t e r 2. F u r t h e r m o r e , an attempt was made t o d e t e r - mine p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e s c h e d u l i n g o f c l a s s e s as w e l l as w i t h t h e i r l o c a t i o n and d u r a t i o n . Data was a l s o c o l l e c t e d on p r e v i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n and on f u t u r e i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . S e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s , o f s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e E x t e n s i o n Department, and c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o j e c t e d p r e f e r e n c e s about the s c h e d u l i n g o f c l a s s e s , were i n c l u d e d a t t h e i r r e q u e s t . T a b u l a t i o n s o f t h e s e answers, i n s o f a r as t h e y were n o t i n - c l u d e d i n the s t u d y are g i v e n i n Appendix B. o c c u p a t i o n s from th e P i n e o - P o r t e r s c a l e . The 320 male o c c u - p a t i o n s were d i v i d e d i n t o d e c i l e s , w i t h the h i g h e s t d e c i l e d e n o t i n g h i g h e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l rank. 3 . . . . C h a p i n S c a l e : The e x t e n t o f p a r t x c i p a t x o n xs measured by the number o f memberships h e l d d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r , and each membership counts as one p o i n t toward th e t o t a l s c a l e s c o r e . I n t e n s i t y , o r degree o f i n v o l v e m e n t , i s measured by a t t e n d a n c e a t m e e t i n g s , f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , committee memberships, and the h o l d i n g o f o f f i c e s . A h i g h s c a l e s c o r e r e f l e c t s a h i g h r a t e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 4 Supra, p. 12. O r i e n t a t i o n s c o r e s were d e r x v e d from the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : G o a l - o r i e n t a t i o n q u e s t i o n s — 5 4 , 5 5 , 56,58; A c t i v i t y - o r i e n t a t i o n - - 5 3 , 5 7 , 5 9 , 6 2 ; L e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n — 52,60,61,63. 19 IV. PROCEDURE C o l l e c t i o n o f D a t a The group i n t e r v i e w was g i v e n t o each c l a s s d u r i n g i t s f o u r t h s e s s i o n , u n l e s s , as happened i n seven c a s e s , t h e i n s t r u c t o r r e q u e s t e d postponement f o r one s e s s i o n . A l l p e r - sons p r e s e n t on t h e day o f t h e i n t e r v i e w completed t h e i n t e r - view s c h e d u l e , u s u a l l y w i t h i n t e n t o twenty m i n u t e s . I t was th e n c o l l e c t e d and removed. The p a r t i c i p a n t s had n o t r e - c e i v e d any advance n o t i c e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w . Comments d u r i n g i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n were h e l d r e a s o n a b l y c o n s t a n t by the i n t e r - v i e w e r s , and, i n ca s e o f d i f f i c u l t y , r e s p o n d e n t s were encouraged t o r e q u e s t a s s i s t a n c e i n c o m p l e t i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s . S t a t i s t i c a l P r o c e d u r e s Responses t o t h e i n t e r v i e w s were coded and keypunched on t o computer c a r d s . U n i v a r i a t e and b i v a r i a t e f r e q u e n c y t a b l e s were p r o d u c e d by the U n i v e r s i t y ' s IBM 70 44 Computer, which a l s o computed c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e s f o r the b i v a r i a t e con- t i n g e n c y t a b l e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o r m u l a g i v e n i n t h e M u l t i - v a r i a t e C o n t i n g e n c y T a b u l a t i o n s Manual (16:29): X 2 i = l n j = l Cj 20 where n i s the number o f s u b j e c t s u i s t h e number o f rows v i s t h e number o f columns r . i s the sum o f the i ^ * 1 row x t h c. i s t h e sum o f t h e i column, and 0 t h t h f ^ j i s t h e e n t r y i n t h e i row and j column. Ze r o r e s p o n s e s were i g n o r e d i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f c h i - s q u a r e . Of t h e 9 23 a d u l t s who were i n t e r v i e w e d , 28 d i d n o t i n d i c a t e t h e i r sex, thus r e d u c i n g t h e t o t a l i n t h e male-female d i c h o - tomy t o 895. S i m i l a r l y , 23 a d u l t s d i d n o t r e s p o n d t o t h e q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s f o r f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and t h e t o t a l i n t h e dichotomy o f non- committed and committed l e a r n e r s was c o n s e q u e n t l y r e d u c e d t o 900. F o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n s on m o t i v a t i o n , and i n some cases where c o m b i n a t i o n s o f c a t e g o r i e s were n e c e s s i t a t e d by s m a l l f r e q u e n c i e s o r by t h e need t o e s t a b l i s h more m e a n i n g f u l g r o u p i n g s , the c h i - s q u a r e was c a l c u l a t e d on a desk c a l c u l a t o r a c c o r d i n g t o the f o r m u l a f o r t h e P e a r s o n S t a t i s t i c (21:582). A s p e c i a l F o r t r a n program was w r i t t e n t o co m p i l e t h e v o t e s f o r p r e f e r r e d days, s i n c e many r e s p o n d e n t s marked more th a n one day as s u i t a b l e f o r c l a s s e s . A maximum o f t h r e e r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n 4 4 — " W h i c h day o f the week do you most p r e f e r f o r a t t e n d i n g U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n C l a s s e s ? " — w e r e 21 a c c e p t e d , and each r e s p o n d e n t was g i v e n 12 v o t i n g u n i t s w h ich were a l l o t t e d e v e n l y t o h i s r e s p o n s e s . Thus, i f a r e s - pondent i n d i c a t e d two days as s u i t a b l e , each r e c e i v e d s i x p o i n t s . F o r q u e s t i o n s 48 t o 51, w hich i n q u i r e d about t h e f a c - t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d p a r t i c i p a n t s * c h o i c e s o f l o c a t i o n s f o r c l a s s e s , a l l n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s a s s i g n e d t o one f a c t o r were added, and t h e r e s u l t i n g sum was d i v i d e d by t h e number o f r e s p o n s e s t o t h a t q u e s t i o n . The Kolmogorov-Smirnov one- sample t e s t , c o n s i d e r e d t o be more p o w e r f u l t h a n the c h i - square t e s t (42:51), was t h e n a p p l i e d i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h whether t h e c a l c u l a t e d r a n k i n g s o f t h e f o u r f a c t o r s d i f f e r e d i n a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t manner. The d a t a on m o t i v a t i o n l e n t themselves t o t h e a p p l i c a - t i o n o f t h e Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample t e s t ; i n t h i s c a s e the t w o - t a i l e d t e s t f o r l a r g e samples was used (42:131). S i n c e t h e t e s t i s c o n s i d e r e d more p o w e r f u l t h a n e i t h e r t h e c h i - s q u a r e t e s t o r the median t e s t , the r e s u l t s s h o u l d be more d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . W h i l e the c h i - s q u a r e t e s t was u s e f u l t o probe f o r dependence o f independence between two a t t r i b u t e s , v i r t u a l l y any degree o f t r u e s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p was e x p e c t e d t o show up as a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t because o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n s i z e (21:613). Three c o e f f i c i e n t s , C, p h i (4)), and lambda (A)were t h e r e f o r e c a l c u l a t e d . The f i r s t two p r o v i d e measures 22 o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f a s s o c i a t i o n between a t t r i b u t e s , w h i l e th e t h i r d i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f p r e d i c t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n . The C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t : C. C a l c u l a t e d by use o f t h e f o r m u l a 2 X N + X 2 t h e C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t i s a measure o f t h e e x t e n t o f a s s o c i a t i o n o r r e l a t i o n between two s e t s o f a t t r i b u t e s (42:196). T h i s c o e f f i c i e n t w i l l e q u a l z e r o when t h e r e i s complete l a c k o f any a s s o c i a t i o n , b u t i t w i l l n o t e q u a l u n i t y when the v a r i a b l e s show complete dependence. The maxi- mum v a l u e which C can a t t a i n f o r a 2x2 t a b l e i s 0.707. F u r t h e r m o r e , two c o n t i n g e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e n o t comparable u n l e s s t h e y a r e y i e l d e d by c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e s o f t h e same s i z e (42:201). The P h i - C o e f f i c i e n t . Cramer's s t a t i s t i c , i s d e f i n e d a s : N(L-l) where L i s t h e s m a l l e r o f t h e number o f rows o r the number o f columns, and N i s the number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s . T h i s c o e f f i - c i e n t w i l l always l i e between 0, r e f l e c t i n g complete i n d e p e n - dence, and 1, showing complete dependence, o f the a t t r i b u t e s (21:606). In t h e case o f dichotomous d i s t r i b u t i o n s , which were used e x c l u s i v e l y i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e denominator becomes N. The Index o f P r e d i c t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s i n d e x , ^AB' w a s c a - ' - c u l a ' t e < ^ a c c o r d i n g t o the p r o c e d u r e o u t l i n e d i n Hays (21:610), as a symmetric measure o f t h e power t o p r e - d i c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n A by knowing B, o r v i c e v e r s a . The a c t u a l v a l u e o f t h e i n d e x i n d i c a t e s t h e r e d u c t i o n o f t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f e r r o r i n one's attempt t o p r e d i c t one c a t e - g o r y w h i l e knowing the o t h e r . I t i s p o s s i b l e f o r some s t a t i s t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n t o e x i s t even though lambda i s z e r o . On t h e o t h e r hand, s t a t e s Hays (21:608), i f t h e r e i s com- p l e t e p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y t h r o u g h o u t a c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e , so t h a t Cramer's P h i i s z e r o , t h e n lambda must be z e r o . F u r t h e r more, i n a c a s e o f complete a s s o c i a t i o n , where p e r f e c t p r e - d i c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e , b o t h P h i and lambda must be 1.00. CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS I. CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS As i n d i c a t e d i n the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r , t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s were examined: sex, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , age, e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , o c c u p a t i o n , income, s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , m o t i v a t i o n , p r e v i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , i n t e n t i o n s about f u t u r e e n r o l l m e n t i n e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s , r e s i d e n c e , t r a v e l t i m e , p l a c e o f a t t e n d a n c e , s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l o c a t i o n o f t h e c l a s s , time o f a t t e n d a n c e , p r e f e r r e d s c h e d u l i n g time f o r c l a s s e s , i n t e r e s t i n weekend s e m i n a r s , and s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g c l a s s e s . Sex Of t h e 923 a d u l t s i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 29 p e r c e n t were male and 68 p e r c e n t were femal e , t h e r a t i o o f female t o male b e i n g 2.3 t o 1. Three p e r c e n t o f a l l a d u l t r e s p o n d e n t s d i d n o t i n d i c a t e t h e i r sex. M a r i t a l S t a t u s T a b l e I r e v e a l s t h a t 26.4 p e r c e n t o f p a r t i c i p a n t s were s i n g l e , w h i l e 62.6 p e r c e n t were m a r r i e d and 10.4 p e r c e n t e i t h e r widowed, d i v o r c e d o r s e p a r a t e d . The e x i s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n m a r i t a l s t a t u s between male and female p a r t i - c i p a n t s were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , and t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t o t h i s e f f e c t was t h e r e f o r e a c c e p t e d . 25 TABLE I BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MARITAL STATUS AND SEX M a r i t a l S t a t u s T o t a l Males Females N. R. N Q. "O N o, o N o, "O N Q , O S i n g l e 244 26 .4 69 25 .7 171 27. 3 4 14. 3 M a r r i e d 578 62 .6 179 66 .5 379 60. 5 20 71. 4 Widowed D i v o r c e d 96 10 .4 20 7 .4 74 11. 8 2 7. 1 S e p a r a t e d No r e s p o n s e 5 0 .5 1 0 .3 2 0. 3 2 7. 1 T o t a l 923 100 .0 269 100 .0 626 100. 0 28 100. 0 d . f . = 2 p < .20 n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l Age The median age c a t e g o r y f o r a l l r e s p o n d e n t s t o g e t h e r , as w e l l as f o r males and' f e m a l e s s e p a r a t e l y , was 35 t o 44 y e a r s . The l a r g e s t group, c o m p r i s i n g 27.9 p e r c e n t o f t h e sample, was i n t h e 25-to 34-year c a t e g o r y . The 25-to 54-year range c o n t a i n e d 72.7 p e r c e n t o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . Only 15.6 p e r c e n t were o v e r 54 y e a r s o l d , and 10.9 p e r c e n t were younger t h a n 25 y e a r s . Comparisons w i t h i n age c a t e g o r i e s r e v e a l e d , as shown i n T a b l e I I , t h a t more males t h a n c o u l d be e x p e c t e d were i n t h e 25-to 44-year r a n g e , w h i l e females were o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e 45-to 64-year range and a g a i n i n t h e group o v e r 70 y e a r s o l d . A c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 11.4 was o b t a i n e d , which i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0.05 l e v e l . The s m a l l c o n t i n g e n c y c o - e f f i c i e n t o f 0.11 i n d i c a t e d a v e r y weak a s s o c i a t i o n between age c a t e g o r y and sex. Hence, the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t male and female p a r t i c i p a n t s do n o t d i f f e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o age was a c c e p t e d . S o c i o - E c o n o m i c S t a t u s E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . T a b l e I I I shows the l e v e l s o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n as r e p o r t e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t s . F o r t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s have g r a d u a t e d from u n i v e r s i t y , and 11.3 p e r c e n t h o l d p o s t - g r a d u a t e d e g r e e s . S i n c e a f u r t h e r 27 TABLE I I BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND AGE T o t a l Males Females Aqe C a t e g o r i e s N % N % N % 19 y e a r s o r under 6 0.7 1 0.4 5 0.8 20 - 24 y e a r s 91 10.2 24 8.9 67 10.7 25 - 34 y e a r s 250 27.9 90 33.5 160 25.6 35 - 44 y e a r s 213 23.8 71 26.4 142 22.7 45 - 54 y e a r s 188 21.0 45 16.7 143 22.8 55 - 64 y e a r s 80 8.9 19 7.1 61 9.7 65 - 69 y e a r s 41 4.6 13 4.8 28 4.5 70 y e a r s o r ov e r 20 2.2 3 1.1 17 2.7 No r e s p o n s e 6 0.7 3 1.1 3 0.5 T o t a l s 895 100.0 269 100.0 626 100.0 x2 = 11.4 d . f . = 5 p < 0.05 n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l 28 TABLE I I I BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND LEVEL OF FORMAL EDUCATION L e v e l o f T o t a l Males E d u c a t i o n N % N E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l o r l e s s 7 0.8 5 1.9 2 0.3 Some h i g h s c h o o l 71 7.9 21 7.8 50 8.0 Hi g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n 210 23.5 51 19.0 159 25.4 1 y e a r c o l l e g e 116 13.0 21 7.8 95 15.2 2 y e a r s c o l l e g e 69 7.7 13 4.8 56 9.0 3 y e a r s c o l l e g e 48 5.4 14 5.2 34 5.4 B a c c a l a u r e a t e degree 260 29.5 87 32.3 173 27.6 P o s t - g r a d u a t e degree 101 11.3 53 19.7 48 7.7 No r e s p o n s e 13 1.5 4 1.5 9 I - 4 T o t a l s 895 100.0 269 100.0 626 100.0 37.01 d . f . = 3 p < .001 A C = AB 20 ,20 .0-1 29 26 p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e d some u n i v e r s i t y e x p e r i e n c e , a t o t a l o f 65 p e r c e n t have been i n v o l v e d i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . An a d d i t i o n a l i n d i c a t i o n o f the h i g h l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n among p a r t i c i p a n t s i s t h e f a c t t h a t l e s s t h a n 10 p e r c e n t had n o t compl e t e d h i g h s c h o o l . The p e r c e n t a g e s o f males and fe m a l e s i n t h e two l o w e s t e d u c a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s were a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l . Women were p r o p o r t i o n a l l y more numerous among t h e h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s — 2 5 . 4 p e r c e n t compared w i t h o n l y 19 p e r c e n t o f th e m ales. W h i l e 15.2 p e r c e n t o f a l l females r e p o r t e d one y e a r o f c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n , and 9 p e r c e n t o f them two y e a r s o f c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n , t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r c e n t a g e s f o r males were 7.8 and 4.8. About 5 p e r c e n t o f each sex r e - p o r t e d 3 y e a r s o f c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n . Only 27.6 p e r c e n t o f a l l women r e s p o n d e n t s h e l d b a c c a l a u r e a t e d e g r e e s , compared t o 32.3 p e r c e n t o f a l l men. L i k e w i s e , o n l y 7.7 p e r c e n t o f the women h e l d p o s t - g r a d u a t e d e g r e e s , i n comparison w i t h 19.7 p e r c e n t o f t h e men. The median l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n f o r women was one y e a r o f c o l l e g e , and f o r men 3 y e a r s o f c o l l e g e . A c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 37.01 was o b t a i n e d , which i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l . The C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t was .20. Hence, the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t no d i f f e r e n c e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l e x i s t between male and female p a r t i c i p a n t s was r e j e c t e d . 30 U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia A l u m n i . Among t h e re s p o n d e n t s were 187 g r a d u a t e s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia. F o r t y p e r c e n t were male, and 60 p e r c e n t were f e m a l e . Based on t h e r a t i o o f 626 women t o 269 men, fewer f e m a l e s t h a n e x p e c t e d were a l u m n i o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. A c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 8.25 i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e c o u l d be a c c e p t e d a t the .01 l e v e l o f s i g - n i f i c a n c e . I t would be unwise, however, t o c o n c l u d e t h a t female g r a d u a t e s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia a r e u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d among p a r t i c i p a n t s , e x c e p t i n t h e sense o f the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . The g r a d u a t i n g c l a s s e s o f 196 8 a t t h i s u n i v e r s i t y c o n t a i n e d 2.4 times as many men as women."'" I n f a c t , i t appears t h a t more women g r a d u a t e s o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia a t t e n d e d e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s t h a n c o u l d be e x p e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e e s t i m a t e d t o t a l number o f g r a d u a t e s . S u p p l e m e n t a l f u l l time e d u c a t i o n . A t o t a l o f 296 c o u r s e s was r e p o r t e d by the 281 r e s p o n d e n t s who i n d i c a t e d t h e y had t a k e n s u p p l e m e n t a l f u l l t ime e d u c a t i o n . T a b l e IV shows t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n r e p o r t e d . N u r s e s ' t r a i n i n g a c c o u n t e d f o r 26.7 p e r c e n t o f a l l a c t i v i t i e s , normal s c h o o l f o r 19.3 p e r c e n t , b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n f o r 14.2 p e r c e n t , s e c r e t a r i a l ^-Telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Mr. K. G. Young, a s s i s t a n t r e g i s t r a r , on August 14, 196 8. 31 TABLE IV PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS WITH SUPPLEMENTAL FULL TIME EDUCATION BY TYPE OF EDUCATION 1 N o, "o N u r s i n g 79 26.7 Normal S c h o o l 57 19.3 P o s t - U n i v e r s i t y 17 5.7 S e c r e t a r i a l 29 9.8 B u s i n e s s 42 14.2 A r t 15 5.1 T e c h n i c a l - V o c a t i o n a l 25 8.4 O t h e r 32 10.8 T o t a l s 296 100.0 1 N i n e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e r e p o r t e d i n two c a t e g o r i e s 32 t r a i n i n g f o r 9.8 p e r c e n t , t e c h n i c a l - v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n f o r 8.4 p e r c e n t , p o s t - u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n f o r 5.7 p e r c e n t , a r t s c h o o l f o r 5.1 p e r c e n t , and o t h e r t y p e s o f s c h o o l i n g f o r 10.8 p e r c e n t . T a b l e V f a c i l i t a t e s t h e d e d u c t i o n t h a t 54.8 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e r e p o r t i n g a d d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n had a t t e n d e d f o r one y e a r o r l e s s , and t h a t under 10 p e r c e n t had more t h a n t h r e e y e a r s o f f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n . S i x t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d no a d d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n o f any k i n d . The same t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t 36.7 p e r c e n t o f a l l women r e s p o n d e n t s , b u t o n l y 19 p e r c e n t o f a l l men, had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s u p p l e m e n t a l f u l l time e d u c a t i o n . Twenty- one p e r c e n t o f females and 8.6 p e r c e n t o f males had ex- p e r i e n c e d a maximum o f one y e a r , and 4.6 p e r c e n t o f fe m a l e s and 6.7 p e r c e n t o f males r e p o r t e d 2 y e a r s o f a d d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . A l l b u t t h r e e o f t h e 53 women i n t h e t h r e e - y e a r c a t e g o r y were n u r s e s . Numbers i n the r e m a i n i n g c a t e g o r i e s were t o o s m a l l f o r v a l i d i n f e r e n c e s . A c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 38.6 and a C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t o f .20 were o b t a i n e d . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f - f e r e n c e s i n t h e amounts o f f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n between male and female p a r t i c i p a n t s was r e j e c t e d a t t h e .001 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . 33 TABLE V BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND YEARS OF SUPPLEMENTAL FULL TIME EDUCATION No. o f Y e a r s T o t a l Males Females N Q. "O N Q, "5 N O, X> None 614 68. 6 218 81. 0 396 63. 3 0.1-1 154 17. 2 23 8. 6 131 20. 9 2 47 5. 3 18 6. 7 29 4 .6 3 53 5 9 0 0 0 53 8 .5 4 16 1 8 3 1 1 13 2 .1 5 5 0 6 3 1 1 2 0 .3 6 1 0 .1 0 0 .0 1 0 .2 7 2 0 .2 2 0 .7 0 0 .0 8 3 0 .3 2 0 .7 1 0 .2 T o t a l s 895 100 .0 269 100 .0 626 100 .0 d . f . P < = 38.6 3 001 C = .20 A 1 = .24 A AB ,03 34 O c c u p a t i o n . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e B l i s h e n S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Index f o r O c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada (3:41) i s shown i n T a b l e VI where t h e uppermost d e c i l e r e p r e s e n t s t h e h i g h e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n k . The 30 2 house- wives n o t o t h e r w i s e employed were ra n k e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r husbands' o c c u p a t i o n s , and 324 employed women a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own, even though t h e B l i s h e n s c a l e does n o t rank womens' o c c u p a t i o n s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e , w h i l e p r o v i d i n g t h e r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n about r e s p o n d e n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n s , p r e - c l u d e d any m ale-female c o n t r a s t s . Hence, the c h i - s q u a r e t e s t was o m i t t e d . The upper f o u r d e c i l e s which c o n t a i n o n l y 46 p e r c e n t o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia l a b o u r f o r c e (3:53), i n c l u d e d 84.9 p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n s h a r p c o n t r a s t , o n l y 5.8 p e r c e n t o f p a r t i c i p a n t s r a n k e d i n t h e lower f i v e d e c i l e s which c o n t a i n 40 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e i n B r i t i s h C olumbia. Income. Gross f a m i l y income c a t e g o r i e s f o r p a r t i c i - p a n t s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e V I I . The median a n n u a l income c a t e g o r y , $6,000 t o $8,999, c o n t a i n e d t h e l a r g e s t number o f r e s p o n d e n t s , 26.6 p e r c e n t . I n most i n s t a n c e s , the p e r c e n t a g e s o f males and females i n each income c a t e g o r y were v e r y c l o s e t o t h e e x p e c t e d v a l u e s . A c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 6.1 was c a l c u l a t e d , which i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .5 l e v e l . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t male and female p a r t i - 35 TABLE VI DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO BLISHEN OCCUPATIONAL SCALE DECILES ( T o t a l p e r c e n t a g e compared t o 1961 B r i t i s h Columbia Census) B l i s h e n D e c i l e ' N T o t a l a "O B.C. Census Q, "© 1 & 2 13 1.5 10.0 3 7 .8 9.0 4 10 1.1 14.0 5 21 2.4 7.0 6 15 1.7 13.0 7 176 19.6 9.0 8 140 15.6 11.0 9 111 12.4 14.0 10 333 37.2 12.0 0 69 7.7 T o t a l s 895 100.0 100.0 36 TABLE V I I BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND GROSS ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME Income C a t e g o r y T o t a l N % Males N *o Females N % Under $3,000 37 4.1 11 4.1 26 4. 2 $3,000 - 5,999 184 20.6 46 17.1 138 22. 4 $6,000 - 8,999 238 26.6 85 31.6 153 24. 4 $9,000 - 11,999 154 17.2 49 18.2 105 16. 8 $12,000 - 14,999 90 10.1 26 9.7 64 10. 2 $15,000 - 17,999 59 6.6 17 6.3 42 6. 7 $18,000 and o v e r 107 12.0 31 11.5 76 12. 1 T o t a l s 895 100.0 269 100.0 626 100. 0 X 2 = 6.1 d . f . = 6 p < .5 n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l 37 c i p a n t s do n o t d i f f e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o g r o s s a n n u a l f a m i l y income was a c c e p t e d . S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c o r e s on t h e C h a p i n S c a l e f o r s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n d e n t s h e l d membership i n a t l e a s t one o r g a n i z a t i o n d u r i n g t h e y e a r 1967. The median s c o r e c a t e g o r y f o r s o c i a l l y a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s was 11-15, w i t h o n e - q u a r t e r s c o r i n g above 16, as T a b l e V I I I shows. Under two d e g r e e s o f freedom, a c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 7.2 was o b t a i n e d , which was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l and w hich j u s t i f i e d t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t male and female p a r t i c i p a n t s do n o t d i f f e r i n t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e community. M o t i v a t i o n R e s u l t s o f t h e i n q u i r y i n t o t h e m o t i v a t i o n o f p a r t i - c i p a n t s a r e shown i n T a b l e s IX, X, and X I . Not a l l r e s p o n - dents answered each q u e s t i o n , and many o f them f e l t t h a t t h e y had a s s i g n e d t h e l o w e s t p o s s i b l e v a l u e f o r m o t i v a t i o n t o a q u e s t i o n by n o t r e s p o n d i n g t o i t a t a l l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , 72 t o 78 p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s responded t o t h e t h r e e s e t s o f f o u r q u e s t i o n s i n an e x p l i c i t manner. 38 TABLE V I I I BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCORE (CHAPIN SCALE) AND SEX Scores on Over 35 T o t a l Males Females Chapin S c a l e N N % N 0 360 40.2 105 39.0 255 40.7 1 - 5 107 12.0 27 10.0 80 12.8 6 - 1 0 138 15.4 36 13.4 102 16.3 11 - 15 107 12.0 33 12.3 74 11.8 61 6.8 20 7.4 41 6.6 37 4.1 12 4.5 25 4.0 16 - 20 21 - 25 26 - 30 28 3.1 13 4.8 15 2.4 31 - 35 13 1.5 7 2.6 6 1.0 44 4.9 16 6.0 28 4.5 T o t a l s 895 100.0 269 100.0 626 100.0 X 2 = 7.2 d.f. = 4 p < .05 not s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l 39 G o a l - o r i e n t a t i o n . With 76 p e r c e n t o f p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s p o n d i n g , and s c o r e s r a n g i n g from 1 t o 5, t h e mean s c o r e f o r t h i s c a t e g o r y was 2.4 and t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f t h e mean 1.28. More females and fewer males t h a n e x p e c t e d s c o r e d "1" on t h e s c a l e , i n d i c a t i n g low g o a l - o r i e n t a t i o n . A l t h o u g h a l m o s t e q u a l p e r c e n t a g e s o f b o t h sexes s c o r e d "5", fewer f e m a l e s t h a n e x p e c t e d s c o r e d i n t h e c a t e g o r i e s between "1" and "5". A c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 30.8 was c a l c u l a t e d w hich i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t male and female p a r t i c i p a n t s p o s s e s s e q u a l degrees o f g o a l - o r i e n t a t i o n was r e j e c t e d . A c t i v i t y - o r i e n t a t i o n . Q u e s t i o n s on a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t a - t i o n e l i c i t e d t h e l o w e s t r e s p o n s e r a t e , 72 p e r c e n t . A l m o s t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s were i n the two l o w e s t s c o r e c a t e g o r i e s . The mean s c o r e was 1.7, w i t h a s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f 0.62. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f males and fe m a l e s o v e r t h e f i v e c a t e g o r i e s , and t h e c a l c u l a t e d c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 1.3 l e d t o t h e a c c e p - t a n c e o f the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s w i t h r e s p e c t t o a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t a t i o n . L e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n . The re s p o n s e r a t e t o q u e s t i o n s on l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n was 78 p e r c e n t , t h e mean s c o r e 3.1 and t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r 0.46. More females and fewer males than e x p e c t e d i n d i c a t e d h i g h l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n , and t h e o p p o s i t e was found f o r the t h r e e l o w e s t s c o r e c a t e g o r i e s . TABLE IX BIVARIATE TABLE OF GOAL-ORIENTATION VS. SEX OF RESPONDENT S c o r e T o t a l N % Males N 9-"O Females N % 1 1430 51 .0 419 45.3 1011 53.7 2 181 6 .5 85 9.2 96 5.1 3 353 12 .6 135 14.6 218 11.6 4 257 9 .2 95 10.3 162 8.6 5 585 20 .8 190 20.6 395 21.0 T o t a l s 2860 100 .0 924 100.0 1882 100.0 Response r a t e : 76% Mean s c o r e : 2.4 X 2 = 3 0 . 8 C = .10 d . f . = 4 t1 XAB = .11 = 0.0 p < .001 41 TABLE X BIVARIATE TABLE OF ACTIVITY-ORIENTATION VS. SEX OF RESPONDENT Score 3 4 5 T o t a l Males Females N % N % N <- 1 1562 57.0 519 57.7 1043 56.8 2 370 13.5 133 14.8 237 12.9 412 15.0 136 15.1 276 15.0 145 5.3 47 5.2 98 5.3 249 9.1 65 7.2 184 10.0 Totals 2738 100.0 900 100.0 1838 100.0 Response r a t e : 76% Mean score: 1.9 X 2 = 7.6 d.f. = 4 p < .10 not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l TABLE XI BIVARIATE TABLE OF LEARNING-ORIENTATION VS. SEX OF RESPONDENT Score T o t a l s Males Females N % N % N % 1 734 25.6 269 29.2 465 23.3 2 256 8.8 200 10.9 156 7.8 3 626 21.5 208 22.6 418 21.0 4 493 16.9 149 16.2 344 17.2 5 805 27.6 194 21.1 611 30.6 T o t a l s 2914 100.0 920 100.0 1994 100.0 Response r a t e : 7 8% Mean sc o r e : 3.1 X 2 = 37 C .11 d.f. = 4 (J)1 0.11 p < .001 A„_, = 0.0 AB 43 The c a l c u l a t e d c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 37 was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l , w a r r a n t i n g t h e r e j e c t i o n o f the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e between men and women i n t h e degree o f t h e i r l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n . A n a l y s i s o f m o t i v a t i o n d a t a . A l t h o u g h t h e mean s c o r e s ranged from 1.7 t o 3.1, t - t e s t s a p p l i e d t o each p o s s i b l e p a i r o f means r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e v a r i a t i o n s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . S i m i l a r l y , t - t e s t s on the mean s c o r e s f o r men and women w i t h i n each c a t e g o r y f a i l e d t o r e v e a l any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . T - t e s t s , however, a r e p a r a m e t r i c t e s t s , and the d i s t r i b u t i o n s under d i s c u s s i o n a r e n o t normal i n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l s e n s e . The Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample t w o - t a i l e d t e s t , c o n s i d e r e d more p o w e r f u l than e i t h e r the c h i - s q u a r e o r median t e s t s (42:131), s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h e r e s u l t s o f the c h i - s q u a r e t e s t f o r m a le-female d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n the a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t e d c a t e g o r i e s , showing no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . The Kolmogorov-Smirnov t e s t a l s o c o n f i r m e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f males and f e m a les i n b o t h t h e l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t e d and g o a l - o r i e n t e d s c o r e c a t e g o r i e s a t t h e .001 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . The same t e s t , a p p l i e d t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s o v e r any two o r i e n t a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s , showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s — a t the .001 l e v e l — b e t w e e n a l l p o s s i b l e c o m b i n a t i o n s . The l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e was o b s e r v e d 44 between l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n and a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t a t i o n , f o l l o w e d by t h e d i f f e r e n c e between g o a l - o r i e n t a t i o n and l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n , w h i l e t h e d i f f e r e n c e between g o a l - o r i e n t a t i o n and a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t a t i o n was s m a l l e s t , as shown i n T a b l e X I I . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s t a b l e , the l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n d e n t s was found i n t h e c a t e g o r i e s which i n d i c a t e d low l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n . P r e v i o u s P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n T a b l e X I I I r e v e a l s t h a t 74 p e r c e n t o f a l l respondent; have a t some time p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s The r a t i o o f v e t e r a n s t o n o v i c e s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3:1. However, i f r e s p o n d e n t s a r e d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p r e - v i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s , as shown i n T a b l e XIV, t h e r a t i o o f e x t e n s i o n v e t e r a n s t o ex- t e n s i o n n o v i c e s drops t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1:1. C h i - s q u a r e d v a l u e s o f 1.89 and 2.74 f o r T a b l e s X I I I and XIV, r e s p e c t i v e l ; w a r r a n t e d a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between male and female p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o p r e v i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . I n t e n t i o n s About F u t u r e E n r o l m e n t i n E x t e n s i o n Courses Only 1.6 p e r c e n t o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s s t a t e d d e f i n i t e i n t e n t i o n s o f n o t r e t u r n i n g t o e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s i n t h e f u t u r e , w h i l e 25.7 p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y would perhap 45 TABLE X I I DISTRIBUTION OF ALL RESPONDENTS BY TYPE OF ORIENTATION AND SCORE CATEGORY (KOLMOGOROV-SMIRNOV TWO-TAILED TEST) Type o f O r i e n t a t i o n S c o r e C a t e g o r i e s 2 3 4 5 C u m u l a t i v e F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n G o a l - O r i e n t a t i o n A c t i v i t y - O r i e n t a t i o n L e a r n i n g - O r i e n t a t i o n ,511 .574 251 .381 701 .791 1.00 569 .704 .855 .908 1.00 .553 .722 1.00 Maximum D G-A Maximum D G-L Maximum D A-L .154 .260 .366 S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l 46 TABLE X I I I BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND PREVIOUS PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION (ANY TYPE) T o t a l Males Females N % N % N % 191 71.0 472 75.4 78 29.0 154 24.6 T o t a l s 895 100.0 269 100.0 626 100.0 X z = 1.89 d . f . = 1 p < .30 n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l " V e t e r a n s " 663 74.1 " N o v i c e s " 232 25.9 47 TABLE XIV BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND PREVIOUS PARTICIPATION IN UNIVERSITY OF B.C. EXTENSION CLASSES T o t a l Males Females N % N % N % 427 47.7 117 43.5 310 49.5 468 52.3 152 56.5 316 50.5 " E x t e n t i o n V e t e r a n s " "Novices i n E x t e n s i o n " T o t a l s 895 100.0 269 100.0 626 100.0 X 2 = 2.74 d . f . - 1 p < .10 n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l 48 r e t u r n and 70.4 p e r c e n t seemed p o s i t i v e l y c o m m i t t e d t o f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , as shown i n T a b l e XV. V a l i d p r e d i c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e e n r o l l m e n t s c a n n o t be made, b e c a u s e no commitments as t o t h e t i m e f o r f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n were g i v e n . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t men and women do n o t d i f f e r i n t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s f o r f u t u r e e n r o l m e n t i n e x t e n s i o n c l a s s e s was a c c e p t e d on t h e b a s i s o f a c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 3.19 w h i c h i s n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . P r e v i o u s S u b j e c t A r e a s o f S t u d y The t o t a l number o f c o u r s e s p r e v i o u s l y t a k e n b y p a r - t i c i p a n t s a r e c a t e g o r i z e d by s u b j e c t a r e a i n T a b l e X V I . The l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f r e p o r t e d c o u r s e s , 29.6 p e r c e n t , was i n t h e l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n a r e a , w h i l e 22.8 p e r c e n t had been c o n c e r n e d w i t h c u r r e n t e v e n t s and r e l a t e d a r e a s . S t u d i e s o f l e i s u r e t i m e a c t i v i t i e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 16.7 p e r c e n t , t h o s e r e l a t i n g t o p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t f o r 12.3 p e r c e n t , p r o - f e s s i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s f o r 11.7 p e r c e n t , and 6.7 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e p o r t e d c o u r s e s had d e a l t w i t h s u b j e c t r e - 2 l a t e d t o home and f a m i l y l i f e . More males and f e w e r f e m a l e s t h a n e x p e c t e d u n d e r t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s had a t t e n d e d t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l D e t a i l e d d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e s u b j e c t a r e a s m e n t i o n e d appear i n A p p e n d i x C. 49 TABLE XV BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND STATED INTENTIONS ABOUT FUTURE ENROLLMENT IN ADULT EDUCATION T o t a l Males Females N % N % N .% "Yes" No Response 244 27.3 84 31.2 160 25.6 630 70.4 178 66.2 452 72.2 21 2.4 7 2.6 14 2.2 X 2 = 3.19 d . f . = 1 p < .10 n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l 50 TABLE XVI BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND PREVIOUS SUBJECT AREAS OF STUDY S u b j e c t A r e a T o t a l Males Females N % N % N % L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n S u b j e c t s 217 29.7 56 29.3 161 29.8 P r o f e s s i o n a l V o c a t i o n a l and 86 11.8 39 20.4 47 8.7 T e c h n i c a l C o u rses L e i s u r e - t i m e A c t i v i t i e s 122 16.7 24 12.6 98 18.2 Home and F a m i l y L i f e P e r s o n a l Development C u r r e n t E v e n t s , P u b l i c A f f a i r s , C i t i z e n s h i p T o t a l s 49 6.7 9 4.7 40 7.4 90 12.3 21 11.0 69 12.8 167 22.8 42. 22.0 125 23.1 731 100 191 100 540 100 X 2 = 24.9 c = - 1 8 d . f . = 5 O1 = - 1 9 P < .ooi X A B = - 0 0 51 c o u r s e s , w h i l e more females and fewer males t h a n e x p e c t e d r e p o r t e d s t u d i e s o f l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s and home and f a m i l y l i f e s u b j e c t s . I n t h e o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s , the d i s t r i - b u t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o sex were a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l . A c h i - square v a l u e o f 24.9 was o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h a d d i t i o n o f v a l u e s from i n d i v i d u a l c e l l s and t h i s was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e between male and female p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o p r e v i o u s i n t e r - e s t i n s p e c i f i e d s u b j e c t a r e a s was, t h e r e f o r e , r e j e c t e d . P r e s e n t S u b j e c t A r e a s o f Study The t a b u l a t i o n s shown i n T a b l e XVII r e v e a l t h a t c u r - r e n t e v e n t s , p u b l i c a f f a i r s and c i t i z e n s h i p c o u r s e s drew the l a r g e s t group o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , 41 p e r c e n t . L i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s were sec o n d , w i t h 33.3 p e r c e n t i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , f o l l o w e d by p e r s o n a l development c o u r s e s which drew 11.5 p e r c e n t . C l a s s e s on home and f a m i l y l i f e sub- j e c t s c o n t a i n e d 9.8 p e r c e n t o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , and t h o s e on l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s 3.5 p e r c e n t . Only one c o u r s e , i n v o l v i n g 1 p e r c e n t o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , was c l a s s i f i e d as p r o f e s s i o n a l o r v o c a t i o n a l . The f o r e g o i n g f i g u r e s once a g a i n r e f l e c t n o t o n l y the p o p u l a r i t y o f c e r t a i n s u b j e c t a r e a s , b u t a l s o the i n f l u e n c e which c o u r s e o f f e r i n g s have on enrolment. The numbers w i t h i n p a r e n t h e s e s i n each s u b j e c t a r e a c a t e g o r y o f T a b l e XVII 52 TABLE XVII BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND PRESENT SUBJECT AREAS OF STUDY S u b j e c t A r e a T o t a l Males Females N % N % N % L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n S u b j e c t s (12) 298 33.3 104 38.7 194 31.0 P r o f e s s i o n a l , V o c a t i o n a l and T e c h n i c a l C o u rses (1) * 8 1.0 5 1.9 3 0.5 L e i s u r e - t i m e A c t i v i t i e s (3) 31 3.5 16 6.0 15 2.4 Home and F a m i l y L i f e (4) 88 9.8 9 3.3 79 12.6 P e r s o n a l Development (5) 103 11.5 35 13.0 68 10.9 C u r r e n t E v e n t s , P u b l i c A f f a i r s , C i t i z e n s h i p (15) 367 41.9 100 37.2 267 42.7 T o t a l s 895 100.0 269 100.0 626 100.0 X 2 = 32.9 C 0.19 d . f . = 4 * 0.19 p < .001 AAB = 0.01 * The second c a t e g o r y was not i n c l u d e d i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f c h i - s q u a r e . 53 i n d i c a t e t h e c o u r s e s o f f e r e d w h i l e Appendix A c o n t a i n s t h e names o f c o u r s e s and enr o l m e n t s t a t i s t i c s f o r e a c h . More women and fewer men th a n e x p e c t e d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n home and f a m i l y l i f e c o u r s e s , and i n c u r r e n t e v e n t s , p u b l i c a f f a i r s and c i t i z e n s h i p s u b j e c t s , w h i l e l i b e r a l edu- c a t i o n , p r o f e s s i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l , l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s , and p e r s o n a l development a t t r a c t e d p r o p o r t i o n a l l y more men. A c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 32.9, s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l , was o b t a i n e d , The C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t and Cramer's s t a t i s t i c were b o t h .19. Thus, t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t males and f e m a l e s a r e a l i k e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t i n t e r e s t i n s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t a r e a s was r e j e c t e d . S u b j e c t A r e a s o f I n t e n d e d Study T a b l e X V I I I d e p i c t s t h e i n t e n t i o n s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h r e g a r d t o f u t u r e s t u d y i n s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t a r e a s . Many r e s p o n d e n t s have i n d i c a t e d more than one c h o i c e . Of the t o t a l p r e f e r e n c e s s t a t e d , 24 p e r c e n t were f o r l i b e r a l edu- c a t i o n , 21.6 p e r c e n t f o r l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s , 17.9 p e r c e n t f o r c u r r e n t e v e n t s , p u b l i c a f f a i r s and c i t i z e n s h i p , 15.9 p e r c e n t f o r p e r s o n a l development, 13.7 p e r c e n t f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l , v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l , and 6.7 p e r c e n t f o r home and f a m i l y l i f e . More men and fewer women th a n e x p e c t e d r e p o r t e d p r e f e r e n c e s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l , v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h - n i c a l c o u r s e s , and f o r p e r s o n a l development, whereas more 54 TABLE X V I I I BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND SUBJECT AREAS OF INTENDED STUDY S u b j e c t A r e a T o t a l N Males N Females N %. L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n S u b j e c t s P r o f e s s i o n a l , V o c a t i o n a l and T e c h n i c a l C o urses L e i s u r e - t i m e A c t i v i t i e s Home and F a m i l y L i f e P e r s o n a l D e v e l o p - ment E v e n t s C u r r e n t E v e n t s , P u b l i c A f f a i r s , C i t i z e n s h i p 274 24.2 85 24.0 189 24.3 155 13.7 244 21.6 76 67.2 71 20.1 70 19. 16 4.5 84 10.8 174 22.4 60 7.7 180 15.9 58 16.4 122 15.7 202 17.9 54 15.3 148 19.1 T o t a l s 1131 100 354 100 777 100 X z = 22.4 d . f . = 5 p. '< .001 C = 0.14 cb1 = 0.14 A A B  = . 0.00 55 women and fewer men th a n e x p e c t e d i n d i c a t e d i n t e r e s t i n l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s , home and f a m i l y l i f e , and c u r r e n t e v e n t s , p u b l i c a f f a i r s and c i t i z e n s h i p . A c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 22.4 was c a l c u l a t e d , and i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0.001 l e v e l . The C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t was .14. The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t men do n o t d i f f e r from women i n t h e i r s t a t e d i n t e n t i o n s f o r t h e s t u d y o f s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t a r e a s i n t h e f u t u r e was, t h e r e f o r e , r e j e c t e d . R e s i d e n c e As shown i n T a b l e XIX, about 70 p e r c e n t o f the r e s - pondents r e s i d e d i n t h e c i t y o f Vancouver and o v e r 17 p e r c e n t l i v e d on the N o r t h Shore. The r e m a i n i n g 12 p e r c e n t were d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o th e e a s t and s o u t h o f Vancouver w i t h a few coming from as f a r as 50 m i l e s away. S i n c e the e x t e n s i o n c l a s s e s were h e l d 3 i n v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s o n l y e x t e n s i v e c r o s s - t a b u l a t x o n s w i l l r e v e a l t h e a r e a s from which r e s p o n d e n t s were drawn f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t c o u r s e s and show whether p r o x i m i t y o f the c e n t e r was as i n f l u e n t i a l a f a c t o r as t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f a c o u r s e . C a l c u l a t i o n s f o r the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s mentioned above gave a c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 1.17 which was n o t s i g n i f i - c a n t . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t male and female r e s p o n d e n t s do n o t d i f f e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o a r e a s o f r e s i d e n c e was a c c e p t e d . ! c f . p o s t , Appendix A. 56 TABLE XIX BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND AREA OF RESIDENCE A r e a o f T o t a l M a l e s Females R e s i d e n c e N % N % N % VANCOUVER, West o f Alma/Dunbar 134 15.0 38 14.3 95 15.3 VANCOUVER, between Alma/Dunbar and G r a n v i l l e 213 23.8 49 18.2 164 26.2 VANCOUVER, West End 114 12.7 40 14.9 74 11.8 VANCOUVER, between G r a n v i l l e & M a i n 115 12.9 35 13.0 80 12.8 VANCOUVER, E a s t o f M a i n 54 6.0 24 8.9 30 4.8 NORTH VANCOUVER 82 9.2 29 10.8 53 8.5 WEST VANCOUVER 75 8.4 17 6.3 58 9.3 BURNABY 28 3.1 12 4.5 16 2.6 NEW WESTMINSTER 7 0.8 1 0.4 6 1.0 COQUITLAM 17 1.9 5 1.9 12 1.9 FRASER MILLS 1 .1 1 .4 0 0.0 PORT MOODY 6 .7 4 1.5 2 .3 RICHMOND 21 2.4 6 2.2 15 2.4 SURREY 8 .9 5 1.9 3 .5 OTHER 19 2.1 3 1.1 16 2.6 T o t a l s 895 100.0 269 100.0 626 100.0 X 2 = 1.17; d . f . = 2; p < .70 n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l 57 T r a v e l Time T a b l e XX i n d i c a t e s t h e time s p e n t by r e s p o n d e n t s t r a v e l l i n g t o c l a s s . The median t r a v e l time c a t e g o r y i s 11-20 m i n u t e s , w i t h 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t - i n g t r a v e l times below 30 m i n u t e s . V e r y l i t t l e d e v i a t i o n from t h e e x p e c t e d number o f males and females i n each c a t e - g o r y was o b s e r v e d . A c h i - s q u a r e o f 2.9 was c a l c u l a t e d w hich i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .5 l e v e l . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t male and female p a r t i c i p a n t s do n o t d i f f e r i n the amount o f time s p e n t i n t r a v e l l i n g t o c l a s s was a c c e p t e d . L o c a t i o n s o f C l a s s e s E x t e n s i o n c l a s s e s were h e l d i n seven d i f f e r e n t l o c a - t i o n s , as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e XXI. The downtown d e s i g n a t i o n i n c l u d e d t h e Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y , t h e Aquarium, t h e I n t e r m e d i a C e n t e r on B e a t t y S t r e e t and one p r i v a t e r e s i - dence. The m a j o r i t y o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , 41.5 p e r c e n t , a t t e n d e d c o u r s e s i n t h o s e l o c a t i o n s , 29.5 p e r c e n t came t o t h e campus, about 10 p e r c e n t a t t e n d e d each o f the K i t s i l a n o l i b r a r y and t h e J e w i s h Community C e n t e r , w h i l e 5 p e r c e n t went t o c l a s s e s a t t h e U n i t a r i a n Church. Two c o u r s e s , i n v o l v i n g 2.8 p e r c e n t o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s , were g i v e n a t the D e l b r o o k High S c h o o l i n N o r t h Vancouver, and one c o u r s e , i n v o l v i n g 1.6 p e r c e n t , was h e l d i n C o q u i t l a m . 58 TABLE XX BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND TRAVEL TIME TO CLASS T r a v e l Time T o t a l M a les Females N Q, "6 N Q, "6 N a. "5 Under 1C minutes 165 18.4 54 20.1 111 17.7 11 - 20 minutes 329 36.8 97 36.1 232 37.1 21 - 30 minutes 227 25.4 74 27.5 153 24.4 31 - 40 minutes 83 9.3 25 9.3 58 9.3 41 - 50 minutes 45 5.0 11 4.1 34 5.4 51 - 60 minutes 19 2.1 3 1.1 16 2.6 61 - 70 minutes 5 0.6 2 0.7 3 0.5 71 - 80 minutes 5 0.6 2 0.7 3 0.5 Over 80 minutes 11 1.2 0 0.0 11 1.8 T o t a l s 895 100.0 269 100.0 626 100.0 X 2 = 2 . 8 9 d . f . = 3 p < .50 n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l 59 TABLE XXI BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND LOCATION OF CLASS L o c a t i o n T o t a l N Males N Females N Campus Downtown Vancouver U n i t a r i a n Church K i t s i l a n o L i b r a r y J e w i s h Community C e n t e r C o q u i t l a m N o r t h Vancouver 264 29.5 371 41.5 47 5.3 85 9.5 91 33.8 173 27.6 89 14 25 9.9 1.6 2.8 114 42.3 0.4 25 9.3 27 3 10.4 1.1 3.0 257 41.1 46 7.4 60 9.6 62 11 17 9.9 1.8 2.7 T o t a l s 895 100.0 269 100.0 626 100.0 X 2 = 9 . 8 d . f . = 4 p < .05 n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l 60 Over 70 p e r c e n t o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s a t t e n d e d c l a s s e s o f f campus, a t t e s t i n g t o t h e l i t e r a l e x t e n s i o n o f l i b e r a l a r t s c o u r s e s beyond campus b o u n d a r i e s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e numbers o f men and women a t t e n d i n g a t t h e v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , e x c e p t a t t h e U n i t a r i a n C h urch, where one man and 46 women were e n r o l l e d i n daytime c l a s s e s . C h i - s q u a r e c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r t h i s one c e l l p r o - duced a v a l u e o f 15.7, which i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l . R e a c t i o n s t o S c h e d u l i n g S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l o c a t i o n o f t h e c l a s s . E i g h t y p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s d e c l a r e d t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e l o c a t i o n s o f t h e c l a s s e s t h e y a t t e n d e d , as T a b l e XXII i n d i c a t e s . Of t h e d i s s a t i s f i e d 168, a p p r o x i m a t e l y one- q u a r t e r p r e f e r r e d each o f t h e downtown, campus, N o r t h Shore, and o t h e r l o c a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h 21 p e r c e n t o f t h e fe m a l e s and o n l y 13.8 p e r c e n t o f the men v o i c e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e l o c a t i o n s , t h e c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 6 . 3 - - s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .02 l e v e l - - j u s t i f i e d a c c e p t a n c e o f the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t men and women p a r t i c i p a n t s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e l o c a t i o n f o r t h e i r c l a s s e s . Ranking o f f a c t o r s i n o r d e r o f t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' c h o i c e o f l o c a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n T a b l e X X I I I , which a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h e w e i g h t i n g s f o r each f a c t o r . 61 TABLE XXII BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND SATISFACTION WITH LOCATION FOR THEIR COURSES T o t a l M ales Females N % N % N % S a t i s f i e d 718 80.2 229 85.1 489 78.1 D i s s a t i s f i e d 168 18.8 37 13.8 131 21.0 No Response 9 1.0 3 1.1 6 1.0 T o t a l s 895 100.0 269 100.0 626 100.0 X 2 = 6 . 3 d . f . = 1 p < .02 n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l 62 TABLE X X I I I FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCED RESPONDENTS' CHOICE OF LOCATION FOR CLASSES F a c t o r Weight 1. T r a v e l time and d i s t a n c e 3.51 2. I n s t r u c t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s 2.93 3. P a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s 2.87 4. L i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s 2.56 The Kolmogorov-Smirnov one-sample t e s t - - T a b l e X X I V — r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f r e s p o n d e n t s who r a n k e d t r a v e l time and d i s t a n c e as t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l . I n f a c t , even under t h e assumption t h a t t r a v e l time and d i s t a n c e was t h r e e t i m e s as l i k e l y t o be chosen as t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r o v e r t h e o t h e r t h r e e f a c t o r s assumed t o be o f e q u a l i n f l u e n c e , t h e d i f f e r e n c e between o b s e r v e d and e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s was s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . 63 TABLE XXIV RANKING OF FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCED PREFERENCES FOR CLASS LOCATIONS (KOLMOGOROV-SMIRNOV TEST) L i b r a r y I n s t r u c t . P a r k i n c r T r a v e l : F a c i l i t i e s F a c i l i t i e s y Time & D i s t . No. of s u b j e c t s choosing t h i s f a c t o r as most important 60 120 84 456 F Q (X) = T h e o r e t i c a l cumulative d i s - t r i b u t i o n (Assuming equivalence) 25 50 75 1.0 S_2Q(X) = Cumulative d i s t r i b u t i o n of observed choices .08 25 38 1.0 F Q(X) s 7 2 0 (x) 17 25 37 00 Maximum d e v i a t i o n = .37 p < .001 64 A summary o f t h e f i n d i n g s about r e s i d e n c e , about s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l o c a t i o n and t r a v e l t i m e , and about t h e r a n k i n g o f f a c t o r s w hich c o n t r i b u t e t o the p r e f e r e n c e s o f l o c a t i o n s seems t o j u s t i f y t h e i n f e r e n c e t h a t a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f a l i b e r a l a r t s n o n - c r e d i t u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n c l a s s p l a y s a c r u c i a l p a r t i n a p e r s o n ' s d e c i s i o n t o a t t e n d . O n l y 12 p e r c e n t o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s i d e d o u t s i d e t h e c i t y l i m i t s o f V ancouver, N o r t h Vancouver and West Vancouver. E i g h t y p e r c e n t o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s s p e n t l e s s t h a n 30 min- u t e s t r a v e l l i n g t o c l a s s , a f a c t which would i n d i c a t e a maximum j o u r n e y o f 10 m i l e s on c i t y s t r e e t s . The a d d i t i o n a l emergence o f t r a v e l time and d i s t a n c e as the most i m p o r t a n t o f f o u r f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g a r e s p o n d e n t ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h a c l a s s l o c a t i o n seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c l i e n t e l e f o r any one l i b e r a l a r t s c o u r s e was l a r g e l y drawn from t h e v i c - i n i t y o f t h a t l o c a t i o n . S t a r t i n g times f o r c l a s s e s . S i n c e t h e g r e a t e s t number o f c l a s s e s were s c h e d u l e d f o r e v e n i n g s , t h e y a t t r a c t e d 73.4 p e r c e n t o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , as shown i n T a b l e XXV. Twenty-one p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n d e n t s a t t e n d e d a f t e r n o o n c l a s s e s and a n o t h e r 5.8 p e r c e n t came t o morning s e s s i o n s . W h i l e the 66.7 p e r c e n t o f women a t t e n d i n g e v e n i n g c l a s s e s came w i t h i n one p e r c e n t o f the p r o p o r t i o n o f females among a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , 94 p e r c e n t o f the morning c l i e n t e l e and 65 TABLE XXV BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION FOR RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND TIME OF DAY FOR CLASS Time o f Day T o t a l N Males N Females N % Mor n i n g 52 5.8 3 1.1 49 7.8 A f t e r n o o n 186 20.8 26 9.7 160 25.6 E v e n i n g 657 73.4 240 89.2 417 66.6 T o t a l s 895 100.0 269 100.0 626 100.0 X 2 = 50.56 d . f . = 2 p < .001 C = 0.23 (J)1 = .24 66 84 p e r c e n t o f t h e a f t e r n o o n a t t e n d a n t s were women, a t t e n d - i n g the c l a s s e s w h i c h , i n many c a s e s , were i n t e n d e d f o r a female a u d i e n c e . The v a l u e f o r c h i - s q u a r e , 50.56, was s i g - n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l . The C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t was .23. The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t women do n o t d i f f e r from men i n t h e i r a t t e n d a n c e a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s o f t h e day was, t h e r e f o r e , r e j e c t e d . P r e f e r r e d s t a r t i n g t i m e s f o r c l a s s e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s 1 p r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h e s t a r t i n g times o f c l a s s e s a r e t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e XXVI. S i x t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s con- s i d e r e d the e v e n i n g hours most s u i t a b l e f o r e x t e n s i o n c l a s s e s , 16 p e r c e n t p r e f e r r e d a f t e r n o o n h o u r s , and 8 p e r c e n t f o u n d mornings most c o n v e n i e n t . W h i l e 11 p e r c e n t o f a l l female r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r morning c l a s s e s , o n l y 1.5 p e r c e n t o f a l l males had s i m i l a r o p t i o n s . A f t e r n o o n c l a s s e s were c o n s i d e r e d most c o n v e n i e n t by 20.5 p e r c e n t o f t h e women and by o n l y 6.3 p e r c e n t o f the men. Whereas 84.4 p e r c e n t o f t h e men p r e f e r r e d e v e n i n g c l a s s e s , a mere 5 8.3 p e r c e n t o f the women found t h a t time o f day most c o n v e n i e n t . The " o t h e r " c a t e g o r y c o n t a i n s 7.7 p e r c e n t o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s , namely th o s e who i n d i c a t e d more than one c o n v e n i e n t t i m e , and so c r e a t e d s u b - c a t e g o r i e s which c o n t a i n e d l e s s t han 1 p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n d e n t s each. The c h i - s q u a r e c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n was 65.1, which was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 67 TABLE XXVI BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND PREFERRED SCHEDULING TIME FOR CLASSES Time T o t a l N % Males N Q, "O Females N % Morning 73 8.2 4 1.5 69 11.2 A f t e r n o o n 145 16.2 17 6.3 128 20.5 E v e n i n g 592 66.2 227 84.4 365 58.3 Other 69 7.7 16 6.0 53 8.5 No Response 16 1.8 5 1.9 11 1.8 T o t a l s 895 100.0 269 100.0 626 100.0 X1 = 65.1 d . f . =• 3 p < .001 .26 .27 A A B = 0.00 68 l e v e l , and t h e C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t was .26. Hence t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t male and female r e s p o n d e n t s a r e s i m i l a r i n t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s f o r s t a r t i n g t i m e s o f c o u r s e s was r e j e c t e d . A t t e n d a n c e on d i f f e r e n t days o f the week. T a b l e XXVII shows t h a t 24.8 p e r c e n t o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s a t t e n d e d Monday c l a s s e s , w h i l e 19 p e r c e n t a t t e n d e d on Tuesdays, 32 p e r c e n t on Wednesdays, and 24 p e r c e n t on T h u r s d a y s . Fewer f e m a l e s and more males t h a n e x p e c t e d a t t e n d e d on Mondays, and more f e m a l e s , b u t fewer males than e x p e c t e d came t o T h u r s d a y c l a s s e s , w h i l e a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e e x p e c t e d numbers o f each sex a t t e n d e d on Tuesdays and Wednesdays. The d i f f e r e n c e s l e d t o a c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 12.7, which was s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l , and t h e C o n t i n g e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t o f .12 i n - d i c a t e d a weak a s s o c i a t i o n between sex o f p a r t i c i p a n t and day o f the week f o r a t t e n d a n c e . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p e r se seems o f l i t t l e v a l u e , s i n c e no e v i d e n c e was c o l l e c t e d t o i n d i c a t e how t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f any one c o u r s e i n f l u e n c e d a t t e n d a n c e . However, when t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n d i c a t e which day o f t h e week s u i t e d them b e s t f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s , a s i m i l a r p a t - t e r n emerged. T a b l e XXVIII shows t h a t Wednesday r e c e i v e d 30 p e r c e n t o f t h e v o t e s , f o l l o w e d by Monday w i t h 24 p e r c e n t , Tuesday w i t h 23.6 p e r c e n t , and Thursday w i t h 19.6 p e r c e n t . The o t h e r days r e c e i v e d a t o t a l o f 2.2 p e r c e n t o f v o t e s . Ten p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n d e n t s e x p r e s s e d no p r e f e r - 69 TABLE XXVII BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND DAY OF WEEK FOR CLASS Day o f Week f o r C l a s s T o t a l N Males N Females N % Monday 222 24.8 83 30.9 139 22.2 Tuesday 171 19.1 56 20.8 115 18.4 Wednesday 287 32.1 82 30.5 205 32.8 Thursday 215 24.0 48 17. 8 167 26.7 T o t a l s 895 100.0 269 100.0 626 100.0 X 2 = 12.7 d . f . = 3 p < .01 C = .12 § l = .12 XAB = - ° 0 70 TABLE XXVIII BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND VOTES FOR PREFERRED DAYS OF THE WEEK P r e f e r r e d Day N T o t a l O. "o Q. "O Males N % "O Females N % Monday 194 21.7 24. 2 72 26.8 29 .5 122 19.5 21. 9 Tuesday 189 21.1 23. 6 57 21.2 23 .4 132 23.1 23. 4 Wednesday 244 27.3 30. 4 73 27.1 29 .9 171 27.3 30. 6 Thursday 157 17.5 19. 6 32 11.9 13 .1 125 20.0 22. 4 O t h e r days 18 2.0 2. 2 10 3.7 4 .1 8 1.3 1. 4 100. 0 100 .0 100. 0 No Response 93 10. 4 25 9.3 68 10.9 T o t a l s 895 100.0 269 100.0 626 100.0 X2 = 15.9 d . f . = 4 p < .01 = - 1 3 = .13 XAB = - 0 ° 71 en c e s . Thus, Wednesday, which had 32 p e r c e n t o f a l l a t t e n - dance, was a c t u a l l y chosen by 30 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e 802 p a r t i c i p a n t s who e x p r e s s e d any p r e f e r e n c e s . Monday r a n k e d s e c o n d i n a c t u a l a t t e n d a n c e and i n s t a t e d p r e f e r e n c e . Tuesday and Thursday had 19 and 23.4 p e r c e n t o f a l l a t t e n - dance, and i n r e v e r s e o r d e r , were p r e f e r r e d by 24 and 19.6 p e r c e n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , fewer f e m a l e s b u t more males t h a n ex- p e c t e d v o t e d f o r Mondays, and more males b u t fewer f e m a l e s t h a n e x p e c t e d v o t e d f o r Thursday; a d i s t r i b u t i o n which i s s i m i l a r t o t h e a c t u a l a t t e n d a n c e p a t t e r n . The c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 15.9 c a l c u l a t e d f o r T a b l e XXVIII was s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l , and l e a d t o the r e j e c t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t males and females have l i k e p r e f e r e n c e s f o r a t t e n d i n g e x t e n s i o n c l a s s e s on s p e c i f i c days o f the week. I n t e r e s t i n weekend s e m i n a r s . Three hundred f i f t y o f the r e s p o n d e n t s , o r 39.1 p e r c e n t , i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n a t t e n d i n g weekend s e m i n a r s , as shown i n T a b l e XXIX. Of t h e s e , 19.7 p e r c e n t p r e f e r r e d s e m i n a r s i n t h e s p r i n g term, 12.5 p e r c e n t i n t h e summer, and 26 p e r c e n t i n t h e autumn term. A n o t h e r one p e r c e n t showed i n t e r e s t i n weekend a c t i v i t i e s i n b o t h s p r i n g and summer, and a l m o s t 25 p e r c e n t i n s p r i n g and autumn terms, where a f u r t h e r 15 p e r c e n t f a v o u r e d weekend seminars i n a l l t h r e e terms. S i n c e c o n f e r - ences, s h o r t c o u r s e s and seminars on campus a l o n e a t t r a c t e d 72 T 7 A B L E XXIX BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND INCLINATION TOWARD WEEKEND SEMINARS T o t a l Males Females N % N % N % I n f a v o u r o f weekend seminars 350 39.11 139 51.7 211 33.7 Not i n f a v o u r o f weekend 462 51.6 113 42.0 349 42.0 seminars No Response 83 9.3 17 6.3 66 10.5 T o t a l s 895 100.0 269 100.0 626 100.0 X 2 = 21.65 d . f . = 1 p < .001 C = .15 (J)1 = .16 *AB = - ° 4 73 about 4,400 p a r t i c i p a n t s d u r i n g 1966-67 (47:26), i t i s l i k e l y t h a t ample p r o v i s i o n f o r the accomodation o f t h e s e 350 p a r t i - c i p a n t s has been made i n c u r r e n t programs. C o n s i d e r a b l y more men than women e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n weekend s e m i n a r s . The c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e , c a l c u l a t e d as 21.65, i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l , and t h e C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t was .15. The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t men and women do n o t d i f f e r i n t h e i r i n t e r - e s t i n weekend seminars was r e j e c t e d . S o u r c e s o f I n f o r m a t i o n In o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p u b l i c i t y used by t h e e x t e n s i o n department, r e s - pondents were asked t o i n d i c a t e the t y p e o f announcement-- about t h e c o u r s e t h e y were a t t e n d i n g a t the time o f t h e i n t e r v i e w — w h i c h came t o t h e i r a t t e n t i o n f i r s t . A second q u e s t i o n attempted t o e s t a b l i s h t o what e x t e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s had l e a r n e d about the c o u r s e s t h r o u g h s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s , namely p e o p l e o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s n o t d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h the e x t e n s i o n department. As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e XXX, al m o s t 34 p e r c e n t o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d the f l y e r - - a t w o - c o l o u r r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t — a s t h e i r f i r s t s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n about the c o u r s e i n which t h e y e v e n t u a l l y en- r o l l e d . About 26 p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n d e n t s were i n i t i a l l y 74 TABLE XXX BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND TYPE OF ANNOUNCEMENT RECEIVED FOR THE COURSE Type o f T o t a l Males Females Announcement N g. N o. "o N "O Newspaper 133 21.3 A d v e r t i s e m e n t 215 24 .0 82 30.5 S p e c i a l F l y e r 303 33 .9 71 26.4 232 37.1 B r o c h u r e 230 25 .7 68 25.3 162 25.9 O t h e r s 39 4 .4 8 3.0 31 5.0 None 48 5 .4 21 7.8 27 4.3 No Response 60 6 .7 19 7.1 41 6.6 T o t a l s 895 100 .0 269 100.0 626 100.0 X 2 = 19.0 C = .14 d . f . = 4 O1 = .15 p < .001 XAB = .01 75 i n f o r m e d by a m a i l e d b r o c h u r e about a p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e o r group o f c o u r s e s , and 24 p e r c e n t r e a d t h e two-page news- paper a d v e r t i s e m e n t which appeared i n one i s s u e o f each o f Vancouver's two d a i l y p a p e r s . F i v e p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y had n o t r e c e i v e d any announcements, and a s i m i l a r p r o - p o r t i o n i n d i c a t e d " o t h e r " s o u r c e s . I t i s a l s o a p p a r e n t from T a b l e XXX t h a t s e l e c t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r o m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l b r o u g h t g r e a t e r r e t u r n s t h a n newspaper a d v e r t i s i n g . The f l y e r s and b r o c h u r e s , m a i l e d a c c o r d i n g t o m a i l i n g l i s t s o r upon r e q u e s t , a t t r a c t e d 59 p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , w h i l e t h e newspapers were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r drawing 24 p e r c e n t . The newspapers c a r r y i n g t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t had a com- b i n e d c i r c u l a t i o n o f about 360,000, whereas 38,000 f l y e r s and 20,000 b r o c h u r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d . W h i l e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a t e t h a t each f l y e r c o s t about f i v e t imes as much t o produce and d e l i v e r as one newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t , and t h a t each b r o c h u r e c o s t t h r e e t o f o u r times as much, f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s o f c o s t and e f f e c t i v e n e s s are impeded by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t and the f l y e r c a r r i e d p u b l i - c i t y f o r b u s i n e s s and p r o f e s s i o n a l programs as w e l l . However, i n terms o f t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on t h e l i b e r a l a r t s n o n - c r e d i t program, one f l y e r was t w e l v e times more e f f e c t i v e i n p r o - d u c i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s t h an one newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t , and one i n d i v i d u a l b r o c h u r e about n i n e t e e n times more e f f e c t i v e . 76 The r o l e o f m a i l i n g l i s t s i n t h e p r o m o t i o n a l approach w i l l become more a p p a r e n t i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n , where v e t e r a n s and n o v i c e s a r e d i s c u s s e d . T h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s be- tween t h e number o f men and women who r e c e i v e d t h e v a r i o u s announcements. T h i r t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f a l l male r e s p o n d e n t s and 21 p e r c e n t o f a l l f e m a l e s r e p o r t e d t h e newspaper a d v e r - t i s e m e n t as t h e i r p r i m a r y s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The f l y e r was m e ntioned as an e f f e c t i v e s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n by 26 p e r c e n t o f t h e men and 37 p e r c e n t o f t h e women. O n e - q u a r t e r o f a l l male and a l l female r e s p o n d e n t s l e a r n e d about t h e i r c o u r s e from a b r o c h u r e . About 8 p e r c e n t o f a l l men and 4 p e r c e n t o f a l l women had n o t r e c e i v e d any p r o m o t i o n a l mater- i a l . The c a l c u l a t e d c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 19.0 was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l , and t h e C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t was fou n d t o be .15. The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t no d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between males and fe m a l e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e c o u r s e had t o be r e j e c t e d . When asked whether any p e r s o n s o r a g e n c i e s had been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n drawing t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e i n which t h e y were e n r o l l e d a t the time o f t h e i n t e r - view, 29 p e r c e n t o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s mentioned f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s o r employers, w h i l e 56 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y had f o u n d o u t i n d e p e n d e n t l y , and 15 p e r c e n t d i d n o t r e s p o n d 77 t o t h e q u e s t i o n a t a l l , as T a b l e XXXI shows. The c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e was c a l c u l a t e d as 3.1, which i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t men and women do n o t d i f f e r i n t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e y use t h e two-step f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n was a c c e p t e d . I I . VETERANS AND NOVICES A n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a p e r t a i n i n g t o v e t e r a n s and n o v i c e s r e v e a l e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between them w i t h r e s p e c t t o n i n e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s under s t u d y . These f i n d i n g s a r e summarized i n T a b l e XLVII on page 111 and a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f each d i s t r i b u t i o n f o l l o w s . Age T a b l e XXXII shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v e t e r a n s and n o v i c e s a c c o r d i n g t o age. The median age c a t e g o r y f o r n o v i c e s 25 t o 34 y e a r s , was t e n y e a r s below t h a t f o r v e t e r a n s . More n o v i c e s t h a n e x p e c t e d under th e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s were under 35 y e a r s o l d , and more v e t e r a n s than e x p e c t e d appeared i n e v e r y age c a t e g o r y o v e r 35 y e a r s . F o r t y p e r c e n t o f a l l v e t e r a n s and 20 p e r c e n t o f a l l n o v i c e s were o v e r 45 y e a r s o l d . W h i l e 6 8 p e r c e n t o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s under 45 y e a r s h e l d v e t e r a n ' s t a t u s , i t a l s o became a p p a r e n t t h a t 20 p e r c e n t o f a l l n o v i c e s were o l d e r than 45 y e a r s . The c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e was c a l c u l a t e d as 84.6, which was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l . 78 TABLE XXXI BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND PROCESS LEADING TO AWARENESS OF COURSE T o t a l Males Females N Q, "6 N Q. N % Found out independently 505 56 .4 164 61. 0 341 54.5 Foud out through F r i e n d , Employer, e t c . 256 28 .6 71 26. 4 185 29.5 No Response 134 14 .9 34 12. 6 100 16.0 T o t a l s 895 100 .0 269 100. 0 626 100.0 X 2 = 3 . 1 d.f. = 2 p < .30 not s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l 79 T/ABLE XXXII BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF VETERANS AND NOVICES BY AGE GROUPS Age Group T o t a l N % V e t e r a n s N % N o v i c e s N % Under 24 y e a r s 99 10. 7 39 5. 7 60 25. 0 25 - 34 y e a r s 257 27. 8 179 26. 2 78 32. 6 35 - 44 y e a r s 219 23. 7 173 25. 3 46 19. 3 45 - 54 y e a r s 194 21. 0 159 23. 3 35 14. 6 55 - 64 y e a r s 84 9. 1 72 10. 5 12 5. 0 Over 65 62 6. 7 54 7. 9 8 3. 4 No Response 8 0. 9 8 1. 2 0 0. 0 T o t a l s 923 100. 0 684 100. 0 239 100. 0 X 2 = 84.64 C = .29 d . f . = . 5 A 1 = .30 p. < .001 XAB - .02 80 The C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t o f .29 and Cramer's s t a t i s t i c o f .30 b o t h i n d i c a t e d one o f the h i g h e r degrees o f a s s o c i a t i o n f ound i n t h i s s t u d y . O c c u p a t i o n I n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v e t e r a n s and n o v i c e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e B l i s h e n O c c u p a t i o n a l Ranks, as t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e X X X I I I , more n o v i c e s than e x p e c t e d were found i n each o f t h e lower e i g h t d e c i l e s and more v e t e r a n s than e x p e c t e d i n t h e two h i g h e s t d e c i l e s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t p r o p o r t i o n a l l y more v e t - e r a n s t h a n n o v i c e s h e l d h i g h e r r a n k i n g j o b s . The g r e a t e s t d i v e r g e n c e o c c u r r e d i n t h e h i g h e s t d e c i l e which c o n t a i n e d 40.2 p e r c e n t o f a l l v e t e r a n s , b u t m e r e l y 29.7 p e r c e n t o f a l l n o v i c e s . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i s t r i b u t i o n l e d t o a c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 14.5, which i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . The C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t o f .12 and Cramer's s t a t i s t i c o f .13 i n d i c a t e d a weak a s s o c i a t i o n between the two v a r i a b l e s under d i s c u s s i o n . Income Gross f a m i l y incomes f o r v e t e r a n s and n o v i c e s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , as shown i n T a b l e XXXIV. The median income c a t e g o r y f o r v e t e r a n s was $9,000 t o $11,999, w h i l e t h a t f o r n o v i c e s was $6,000 t o $8,999. More n o v i c e s than e x p e c t e d under the h y p o t h e s i s were found i n the t h r e e l o w e s t income 81 TABLE XXXIII BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF VETERANS AND NOVICES BY BLISHEN OCCUPATIONAL RANKS B l i s h e n T o t a l V e t e r a n s N o v i c e s D e c i l e s N "o N Q, "O N 0 73 7.9 52 7.6 21 8.8 1 - 6 69 7.5 46 6.7 23 9.6 7 178 19.3 121 17.7 57 23.9 8 143 15.5 99 14.4 44 18.4 9 114 12.4 91 13.3 23 9.6 10 346 37.5 275 40.2 71 29.7 T o t a l s 923 100.0 684 100.0 239 100.0 X 2 = . 14.5 C .12 d . f . = . 4 (j)1 = .13 p < .01 XAB = .00 82 TABLE XXXIV BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF VETERANS AND NOVICES BY INCOME CATEGORIES Income T o t a l V e t e r a n s N o v i c e s C a t e g o r y N g, "5 N a "o N . Q. "O Under $3,000 37 4. 0 21 3.1 16 6 .7 $ 3,000 - 5,999 190 20. 6 132 19.3 58 24 .3 $ 6,000 - 8,999 243 26. 3 173 25.3 70 29 .3 $ 9,000 -11,999 157 17. 0 119 14.4 38 15 .9 $12,000 -14,999 94 10. 2 72 10.5 22 9 .2 $15,000 -17,999 62 6. 7 54 7.9 8 3 .4 $18,000 and o v e r 110 11. 9 93 13.6 17 7 .1 No Response 30 3. 3 20 2.9 10 4 .2 T o t a l s 923 100. 0 684 100.0 239 100 .0 X 2 = 21.35 C .15 d . f . = 6 4 1 • = .15 p. < .01 XAB = .00 83 c a t e g o r i e s , whereas more v e t e r a n s than a n t i c i p a t e d were found i n each o f the f o u r h i g h e r income c a t e g o r i e s . The maxi- mum d i s p a r i t i e s o c c u r r e d i n t h e l o w e s t income group, where 3.1 p e r c e n t o f a l l v e t e r a n s and 6.7 p e r c e n t o f a l l n o v i c e s were fo u n d , and a g a i n i n t h e two h i g h e s t income c a t e g o r i e s , w hich c o n t a i n e d 7.9 and 13.6 p e r c e n t o f a l l v e t e r a n s , b u t o n l y 3.4 and 7.1 p e r c e n t o f a l l n o v i c e s . S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n A l t h o u g h t h e C h a p i n S c o r e c a t e g o r i e s i n T a b l e XXXV had t o be combined t o e n s u r e minimum numbers o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n each c e l l , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t v e t e r a n s were more s o c i a l l y a c t i v e t h a n n o v i c e s . S e v e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f a l l n o v i c e s b u t o n l y 59 p e r c e n t o f a l l v e t e r a n s had o b t a i n e d low C h a p i n s c o r e s r a n g i n g from 0 t o 10, l e a v i n g 37 p e r c e n t o f v e t e r a n s and a mere 21 p e r c e n t o f n o v i c e s i n t h e upper s c o r e c a t e - g o r i e s which i n d i c a t e d g r e a t e r s o c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t . The c h i - square v a l u e c a l c u l a t e d was 19.6, which i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l . The C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t o f .14 and Cramer's s t a t i s t i c o f .15 i n d i c a t e d a weak a s s o c i a t i o n be- tween r e s p o n d e n t s ' v e t e r a n s t a t u s and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e s . M o t i v a t i o n The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between v e t e r a n s and n o v i c e s r e g a r d i n g m o t i v a t i o n was found w i t h r e s p e c t t o 84 TABLE XXXV BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF VETERANS AND NOVICES BY SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCORES Ch a p i n S c o r e T o t a l V e t e r a n s N o v i c e s C a t e g o r y N o N g. N "O 0 - 1 0 576 62.4 401 58.6 175 73.2 11 - 25 208 22.5 167 24.4 41 17.2 Over 26 87 9.4 77 11.3 10 4.2 No Response 52 5.6 39 5.7 13 5.4 T o t a l s 923 100.0 684 100.0 239 100.0 = 19.6 d . f . = 2 p < .001 C = .14 d>1 = .15 X AB .00 85 l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n - - t h e d e s i r e t o s t u d y f o r t h e sake o f l e a r n i n g . T a b l e XXXVI shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n s w hich do n o t f o l l o w any c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n . More v e t e r a n s t h a n e x p e c t e d and c o n c u r r e n t l y fewer n o v i c e s t h a n a n t i c i p a t e d , were i n b o t h t h e h i g h e s t and l o w e s t s c o r e c a t e g o r i e s , and t h e oppo- s i t e was f o u n d f o r t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h s c o r e c a t e g o r i e s . E i g h t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f a l l p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e s was made, and the mean s c o r e was 2.9. C h i - s q u a r e was c a l c u l a t e d a t 26.6 w hich i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l . The C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t o f .17 and Cramer's s t a t i s t i c o f the same v a l u e a t t e s t e d t o a weak a s s o c i a t i o n between the two v a r i a b l e s . P r e v i o u s P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n E x t e n s i o n A c t i v i t i e s The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v e t e r a n s and n o v i c e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p r e v i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, as shown i n T a b l e XXXVII, r e v e a l e d t h a t a l m o s t 48 p e r c e n t o f a l l v e t e r a n s had p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s a t t h i s u n i v e r s i t y . A p e r s i s t e n c e o f t h e e n r o l l m e n t p a t t e r n o f 1967 (33:16) was thus e s t a b l i s h e d , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t almost o n e - h a l f o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n l i b e r a l a r t s n o n - c r e d i t c o u r s e s were new- comers t o t h e E x t e n s i o n Department o f f e r i n g s . TABLE XXXVI BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF VETERANS AND NOVICES ACCORDING TO LEARNING-ORIENTATION Sc o r e T o t a l V e t e r a n s N o v i c e s C a t e g o r y N Q. -Q N % N o, "o 1 756 25 .1 580 26.0 172 22 .6 2 260 8 .7 194 8.7 66 8 .7 3 642 21 .5 461 20.7 181 23 .8 4 505 16 .9 352 15.8 153 20 .1 5 833 27 .8 644 28.9 189 24 .8 T o t a l s 2992 100 .0 2231 100.0 761 100 .0 Response r a t e : 81% Mean s c o r e : 2.9 X 2 = 26.6 C .17 d . f . = 4 D 1 = .17 p. < .001 XAB = .00 87 TABLE XXXVII BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF VETERANS AND NOVICES BY PREVIOUS PARTICIPATION IN UNIVERSITY EXTENSION ACTIVITIES T o t a l N % V e t e r a n s N % N o v i c e s N % Have p a r t i c i p a t e d 441 47.8 441 64.5 0 0.00 Have n o t p a r t i c i p a t e d 482 52.2 243 35.5 239 100.0 T o t a l s 923 100.0 684 100.0 239 100.0 x 2 = 295 C = .49 d . f . = 1 cf)1 = .57 p < .001 88 I n t e n t i o n s about F u t u r e E n r o l m e n t i n E x t e n s i o n C l a s s e s S i g n i f i c a n t l y more v e t e r a n s than n o v i c e s were d e f i n - i t e l y committed t o f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , as can be seen from T a b l e XXXVIII. W h i l e 53 p e r c e n t o f a l l n o v i c e s i n d i c a t e d i n t e n t i o n s o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g a i n , o v e r 76 p e r c e n t o f a l l v e t e r a n s were s i m i l a r l y i n c l i n e d . T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n y i e l d e d a c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 46.1, s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l , and a C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t as w e l l as Cramer's s t a t i s t i c o f .22. Some degree o f a s s o c i a t i o n be- tween v e t e r a n s t a t u s and commitment f o r f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s thus i n d i c a t e d . S o u r c es o f I n f o r m a t i o n There were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s be- tween the numbers o f v e t e r a n s and n o v i c e s who r e c e i v e d t h e v a r i o u s announcements. As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e XXXIX the newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t r e a c h e d 21.8 p e r c e n t o f a l l v e t e r a n s and 30.1 p e r c e n t o f a l l n o v i c e s . The f l y e r and t h e b r o - chure r e s p e c t i v e l y came t o the a t t e n t i o n o f 35.4 and 28.4 p e r c e n t o f a l l v e t e r a n s , b u t r e a c h e d a mere 28.5 and 18.8 p e r c e n t o f a l l n o v i c e s . Thus, th e newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t was n o t i c e d by the l a r g e s t group o f n o v i c e s , w h i l e the f l y e r drew the a t t e n t i o n o f the l a r g e s t group o f v e t e r a n s . The p e r c e n t a g e o f n o v i c e s who r e c e i v e d - n o p r o m o t i o n m a t e r i a l s was 8.3, t w i c e as g r e a t as the p e r c e n t a g e o f v e t e r a n s . The 89 TABLE XXXVIII BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF VETERANS AND NOVICES BY INTENTION TO RETURN TO FUTURE ADULT EDUCATION ACTIVITIES I n t e n t i o n T o t a l V e t e r a n s Novxces t o R e t u r n N % N % * "No" and "perhaps" 249 27.0 15 2.2 8 3.3 "Yes" 651 70.5 524 76.6 127 53.1 No Response 23 2.5 15 2.2 8 3.3 T o t a l s 923 100.0 684 100.0 239 100.0 X z = 46.1 d . f . = 1 p < .001 22 .22 AAB = ' 0 0 90 TABLE XXXIX BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF VETERANS AND NOVICES BY TYPE OF ANNOUNCEMENT RECEIVED FOR COURSE T o t a l V e t e r a n s N o v i c e s N % N % N .%. Newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t 221 23.9 149 21.8 72 30.1 F l y e r 310 33.6 242 35.4 68 28.5 B r o c h u r e 239 25.9 194 28.4 45 18.8 O t h e r 41 4.4 29 4.4 12 5.0 None 49 5.3 29 4.2 20 8.3 No Response 63 6.8 41 6.0 22 9.2 T o t a l s 923 100.0 684 100.0 239 100.0 X 2 = 19.9 C = .15 d . f . = 4 4 1 = .15 p < .001 A A B = -00 91 c h i - s q u a r e o f 19.9 i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l . Both the C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t and Cramer's s t a t i s t i c were c a l c u l a t e d a t .15. S i g n i f i c a n t l y more v e t e r a n s , 57.6 p e r c e n t , t h a n n o v i c e s , 52.3 p e r c e n t , p r o v e d t o be i n d e p e n d e n t i n l e a r n i n g about e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s as shown i n T a b l e XL. On the o t h e r hand, 39.8 p e r c e n t o f n o v i c e s , b u t o n l y 24.7 p e r c e n t o f v e t e r a n s , r e c e i v e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n from o t h e r p e r s o n s o r a g e n c i e s . A c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 12.3 was o b t a i n e d , which i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . The C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t and Cramer's s t a t i s t i c , each amounting t o .12, i n d i c a t e d a weak a s s o c i a t i o n between the two v a r i a b l e s . I I I . NON-COMMITTED AND COMMITTED LEARNERS P a r t i c i p a n t s who i n d i c a t e d d e f i n i t e i n t e n t i o n s o f r e t u r n i n g f o r f u t u r e e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h e o t h e r s i n t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o s i x o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s under s t u d y . M a r i t a l S t a t u s O n e - t h i r d o f a l l non-committed l e a r n e r s , b u t o n l y 23.5 p e r c e n t o f committed l e a r n e r s were s i n g l e , as T a b l e XLI shows. T h e r e was a p r o p o r t i o n a l o v e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f com- m i t t e d l e a r n e r s i n t h e m a r r i e d group, as w e l l as i n t h e widowed, d i v o r c e d o r s e p a r a t e d group. The d i f f e r e n c e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t 92 TABLE XL BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF VETERANS AND NOVICES BY PROCESSES LEADING TO AWARENESS OF COURSES T o t a l N % V e t e r a n s N % N o v i c e s N % Found o u t i n d e p e n d e n t l y 519 56 .2 394 57 .6 125 52 .3 Found o u t t h r o u g h F r i e n d , Employer, e t c . 264 28 .6 169 24 .7 95 39 .8 No Response 140 15 .2 121 17 .7 19 8 .0 T o t a l s 923 100 .0 684 100 .0 239 100 .0 X 2 = 12.27 C .12 d . f . = 1 + 1 = .12 p < .01 AAB = 0.2 93 TABLE XLI BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF NON-COMMITTED AND COMMITTED LEARNERS BY MARITAL STATUS S i n g l e M a r r i e d No Response d . f . = 2 p < . 0 1 A A B = .00 T o t a l Non-Committed Committed M a r i t a l S t a t u s N % N % . N % 236 26.2 83 33.3 153 23.5 567 63.0 145 58.2 422 64.8 Widowed, D i v o r c e d , ,, „ S e p a r a t e d 92 10.2 19 7.6 73 11.2 5 0.6 2 0.8 3 0.5 T o t a l s 900 100.0 249 100.0 651 100.0 X 2 = 10.16 C = .11 cb1 = .11 94 o n l y a t t h e .01 l e v e l , and t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e v a r i - a b l e s i s r e l a t i v e l y weak, w i t h b o t h the C o n t i n g e n c y Co- e f f i c i e n t and Cramer's s t a t i s t i c a t .11. N e i t h e r o f t h e p r e c e d i n g d i c h o t o m i e s , however, showed any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f - f e r e n c e s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o m a r i t a l s t a t u s . Income The d i s t r i b u t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o income a r e t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e X L I I . O n l y 21.5 p e r c e n t o f committed l e a r n e r s , b u t 29.7 p e r c e n t o f non-committed l e a r n e r s , r e p o r t e d g r o s s a n n u a l f a m i l y incomes below $6,000. More o f t h e committed l e a r n e r s t h a n e x p e c t e d were found i n t h e $6,000 to 8,999 group and i n t h e c a t e g o r i e s o v e r $12,000. With f o u r degrees o f freedom, th e c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 20.45 i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .001 l e v e l . The C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t and Cramer's s t a t i s t i c were c a l c u l a t e d as .15. M o t i v a t i o n 3 Among t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f o r i e n t a t i o n under s t u d y , o n l y i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n was t h e r e any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between non-committed and committed l e a r n e r s . T a b l e X L I I I c o n t a i n s t h e s e d a t a and shows t h a t more committed l e a r n e r s than e x p e c t e d had Supra, C h a p t e r I I , p. 12. 95 TABLE X L I I BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF NON-COMMITTED LEARNERS AND COMMITTED LEARNERS BY INCOME CATEGORIES Income T o t a l Non-Committed Committed C a t e g o r y N % N % N % Under $6,000 214 23.8 74 29.7 140 21.5 $ 6,000 - 8,000 241 26.7 56 22.5 185 28.4 $ 9,000 - 11,999 152 16.9 48 19.3 104 16.0 $12,000 - 17,999 156 17.3 36 14.5 120 18.4 $18,000 and Over 110 12.2 24 9.6 86 13.2 No Response 27 3.0 11 4.4 16 2.5 96 TABLE X L I I I BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF NON-COMMITTED. AND COMMITTED LEARNERS ACCORDING TO LEARNING-ORIENTATION Sc o r e T o t a l Non-Committed Committed C a t e g o r y N Q, ~o N Q, "O N Q. "O 1 746 25 .3 230 29.5 516 23.8 2 258 8 .8 68 8.7 190 8.8 3 623 21 .1 187 24.0 436 20.1 4 497 16 .9 131 16.8 366 16.9 5 825 28 .0 164 21.0 661 30.5 T o t a l s 2949 100 .0 780 100.0 2169 100.0 Response r a t e : 82% Mean s c o r e : 3.2 X 2 = 29.7 C = .10 d . f . = 4 = .10 P- < .001 1 A B = -02 97 h i g h l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n , and more non-committed l e a r n e r s t h a n e x p e c t e d i n d i c a t e d low l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n . The d i f - f e r e n c e s i n d i s t r i b u t i o n were most pr o n o u n c e d i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f l o w e s t l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n , w i t h 29.5 p e r c e n t o f non- committed l e a r n e r s and o n l y 23.8 p e r c e n t o f committed l e a r n e r s , and a g a i n i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f h i g h e s t l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n , w hich by c o n t r a s t h e l d 21.0 p e r c e n t o f non- committed l e a r n e r s and 30.5 p e r c e n t o f committed ones. A c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 29.7 was c a l c u l a t e d w h i c h i s s i g n i f i - c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l . Cramer's s t a t i s t i c and the C o n t i n - gency C o e f f i c i e n t were .10. P r e v i o u s P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n E x t e n s i o n A c t i v i t i e s P r e v i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n a c t i - v i t i e s appears t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' i n t e n t i o n s t o r e - e n r o l . W h i l e 55.2 p e r c e n t o f t h e committed l e a r n e r s r e p o r t e d such p a r t i c i p a t i o n , o n l y 30.1 p e r c e n t o f non-committed l e a r n e r s d i d , as t h e d a t a on T a b l e XLIV i n d i - c a t e . The d i s t r i b u t i o n r e s u l t e d i n a c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 45.2, which i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l . The C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t and Cramer's s t a t i s t i c , b o t h a t .22, attested t o some a s s o c i a t i o n between the v a r i a b l e s . The i n d e x o f p r e d i c - t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n , though o n l y .10, was h i g h e r f o r t h i s d i s - t r i b u t i o n t h an f o r any o t h e r i n t h e s t u d y . 98 TABLE XLIV BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF NON-COMMITTED AND COMMITTED LEARNERS BY PREVIOUS PARTICIPATION IN UNIVERSITY EXTENSION ACTIVITIES T o t a l Non-Committed Committed N N % N Have p a r t i c i p a t e d 434 48.2 Have n o t p a r t i c i p a t e d 466 51.7 75 30.1 359 55.2 174 69.9 292 44.8 T o t a l s 900 100.0 249 100.0 651 100.0 X 2 = 45.2 c - - 2 2 d . f . = 1 = .22 p < .001 XAB ~ - 1 0 99 I n t e r e s t i n Weekend Seminars More committed l e a r n e r s t h a n e x p e c t e d under t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s showed an i n t e r e s t i n weekend sem i n a r s - As T a b l e XLV shows, 44.4 p e r c e n t o f them were i n t e r e s t e d , compared w i t h 28.9 p e r c e n t o f non-committed l e a r n e r s . T h i s d i f f e r - ence, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e e n s u i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n o f u n i n t e r e s t e d r e s p o n d e n t s , r e s u l t e d i n a c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 16.3, s i g n i f i - c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l . The C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t was .13, and Cramer's s t a t i s t i c .14. P r o c e s s L e a d i n g t o Awareness o f Courses The r e s u l t s as shown i n T a b l e XLVI i n d i c a t e t h a t more committed t h a n non-committed l e a r n e r s d i s c o v e r e d t h e i r c o u r s e i n d e p e n d e n t l y , t h e p e r c e n t a g e s f o r the groups b e i n g 59.0 and 51.8. On t h e o t h e r hand, 35.8 p e r c e n t o f non-committed l e a r n e r s f o u n d o u t about the c o u r s e t h r o u g h f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s o r e m p l o y e r s , w h i l e o n l y 25.5 p e r c e n t o f t h e committed l e a r n e r s showed a s i m i l a r dependence. The c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e f o r t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n was found t o be 7.9, s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l , and t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e two v a r i a b l e s was weak. Both th e C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t and Cramer's s t a t i s t i c were .09. 100 TABLE XLV BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF NON-COMMITTED AND COMMITTED LEARNERS BY INTEREST IN WEEKEND SEMINARS T o t a l Non-Committed Committed N % N % N % I n t e r e s t e d 361 40.1 72 28.9 289 44.4 Not I n t e r e s t e d 471 52.3 153 61.4 318 48.9 No Response 68 7.5 24 9.6 44 6.8 T o t a l s 900 100.0 249 100.0 651 100.0 X z = 1 6 . 3 d . f . = 1 p < .001 C = .13 <$>l = .14 0.0 X AB 101 TABLE XLVI BIVARIATE DISTRIBUTION OF NON-COMMITTED AND COMMITTED LEARNERS BY PROCESSES LEADING TO AWARENESS OF COURSES T o t a l Non-Committed Committed N % N % N % Found o u t i n d e p e n d e n t l y 513 57.0 129 51.8 384 59.0 Found o u t t h r o u g h F r i e n d , Employer, e t c . 255 28.3 89 35.8 166 25.5 No Response 132 14.6 31 12.4 101 15.5 T o t a l s 900 100.0 249 100.0 651 100.0 X z = 7.98 d . f . = 1 p. < .01 C = .09 A 1 = .09 XAB = - 0 ° CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS T h i s s t u d y has e s t a b l i s h e d some d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c l i e n t e l e f o r l i b e r a l a r t s n o n - c r e d i t u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y Columbia d u r - i n g t h e 1968 s p r i n g term. The p a r t i c i p a n t s d i s c u s s e d h e r e i n , l i k e t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n s e v e r a l N o r t h American l o c a t i o n s , v a r i e d from t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n norm i n many r e s p e c t s , s u p p o r t i n g t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y a r e l a r g e l y members o f s e l e c t s t r a t a i n s o c i e t y . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e same d a t a p o i n t e d t o some degrees o f d i v e r g e n c e w i t h i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r g roup, as i n d i c a t e d by t h e c h i - s q u a r e and s i m i l a r t e s t s d u r i n g t h e t e s t i n g o f the h y p o t h e s i s . An enumer a t i o n o f t h e i n s t a n c e s i n which t h e h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d f o l l o w s t h e summary o f d e s c r i p t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h i s c h a p t e r . I . CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS Sex Women c o n s t i t u t e d 6 8 p e r c e n t o f the c l i e n t e l e . T h e i r p r e p o n d e r a n c e , i n c l o s e agreement w i t h the r e s u l t s o f r e l a t e d studies,''" c l e a r l y demonstrates the s e l e c t i v e a t t r a c t i o n o f 1 C f . a n t e , p. 6. 103 non - v o c a t i o n a l l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s on f e m a l e s . M a r i t a l S t a t u s The p e r c e n t a g e o f m a r r i e d , s e p a r a t e d o r widowed p a r t i - c i p a n t s was 73, which i s i n v e r y c l o s e agreement w i t h t h e 2 f i n d i n g s o f a l l o t h e r s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d . S i x t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s were a c t u a l l y m a r r i e d a t t h e t i m e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w , a p e r c e n t a g e i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o f Canadians who were o v e r 19 y e a r s o l d and m a r r i e d a t the time o f t h e 1961 Census. I n terms o f p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h e r e seems t o be no j u s t i f i c a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i n c o n c l u d i n g t h a t m a r r i e d a d u l t s a r e more l i k e l y t o p a r t i c i p a t e t h a n s i n g l e ones. Age Any attempt t o r e l a t e f i n d i n g s about t h e age o f p a r t i - c i p a n t s t o any o f t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s i s s e r i o u s l y impeded by t h e l a c k o f s t a n d a r d i z e d schemes f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f age d a t a . T h i s s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h e median age c a t e g o r y o f p a r t i c i p a n t s t o be 35 t o 44 y e a r s . About 73 p e r c e n t o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s were between 25 and 55 y e a r s o l d . Even when census p e r c e n t a g e s are a d j u s t e d so as t o omit a l l p e r s o n s under 19 y e a r s o f age, t h u s c r e a t i n g an age range c o m p a t i b l e 2 C f . a n t e , pp.6-7, 104 t o t h a t o f p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p a r t i - c i p a n t s i n each o f t h e age c a t e g o r i e s from 25 t o 54 y e a r s i s 3 h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . S o c i o - E c o n o m i c S t a t u s E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . About 65 p e r c e n t o f a l l p a r t i c i - p a n t s r e p o r t e d h a v i n g had some c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n o r more. Thus r e s p o n d e n t s were f a r above t h e Canadian p o p u l a t i o n norm, which shows 8 p e r c e n t o f a l l h o u s e h o l d heads t o be s i m i l a r l y q u a l i f i e d . W h i l e i n agreement w i t h o t h e r Canadian d e s c r i p - t i o n s o f l i b e r a l a r t s e x t e n s i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h i s f i n d i n g g i v e s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f d i s p a r i t y between th e e d u c a t i o n a l 4 achievements o f American and C a n a d i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s . Between 84 and 88 p e r c e n t o f t h e American p a r t i c i p a n t s d e s c r i b e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e had been exposed t o some c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n . O c c u p a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a n t s were drawn a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y from h o u s e h o l d s where a t l e a s t one member h e l d an o c c u p a t i o n which was r a t e d i n t h e upper f o u r d e c i l e s o f t h e B l i s h e n S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Index f o r O c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada. S i n c e l e s s t h a n o n e - h a l f o f B r i t i s h Columbia's l a b o u r f o r c e i s found w i t h i n t h o s e f o u r d e c i l e s , i t became o b v i o u s t h a t f a m i l i e s 3 T h e Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample t e s t showed the d i f f e r e n c e s t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l . 4 C f . a n t e , p. 105 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h r a n k i n g o c c u p a t i o n s were t h e major c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e x t e n s i o n c l i e n t e l e . Income. Comparisons w i t h v a l u e s f o r t h e C a n a d i a n popu- l a t i o n , as r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e median income c a t e g o r y d e t e r m i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y , $6,000 t o $9,000, was above t h e median income f o r t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . I n s h o r t , p a r t i c i p a n t s were above t h e C a n a d i a n average f o r each o f t h e t h r e e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s : e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , o c c u p a t i o n , and income. S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n The p r o p o r t i o n o f p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d i n t h e f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d l i f e o f t h e community was g r e a t e r f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a n f o r t h e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . Even w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g c h u r c h membership, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 p e r c e n t o f p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d membership i n a t l e a s t one community o r g a n i z a t i o n . M o t i v a t i o n H i g h l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n was i n d i c a t e d by t h e l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s a d d i c t i o n t o l e a r n i n g f o r the sake o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n was e x p e c t e d t o e x i s t among p a r t i c i p a n t s i n l i b e r a l a r t s n o n - c r e d i t c o u r s e s . I t seems a p p a r e n t , however, t h a t a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t a t i o n , t h e m o t i v a t i o n t o a t t e n d f o r s o c i a l r e a s o n s , was u n u s u a l l y low among t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h i s s t u d y , whereas g o a l - o r i e n t a t i o n 106 was uncommonly h i g h . The upper t h r e e o f f i v e s c o r e c a t e g o r - i e s , where t h e uppermost i n d i c a t e d t h e h i g h e s t degree o f m o t i v a t i o n , c o n t a i n e d 6 4 p e r c e n t o f a l l t h o s e who re s p o n d e d t o t h e l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n q u e s t i o n s , 42 p e r c e n t who r e s - ponded t o t h e g o a l - o r i e n t a t i o n q u e s t i o n s , and 26 p e r c e n t who res p o n d e d t o t h e a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t a t i o n q u e s t i o n s . The s u b j e c - t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e t e s t and t h e d i v e r s i t y o f i n s t r u m e n t s employed by d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h e r s p r e c l u d e any d i r e c t com- p a r i s o n s w i t h f i n d i n g s o f o t h e r s t u d i e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n and I n t e r e s t R e l a t i v e l y few p a r t i c i p a n t s were newcomers t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . About 74 p e r c e n t had a t some p r e v i o u s time en- gaged i n such a c t i v i t i e s , and 50 p e r c e n t o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s had a t t e n d e d u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n c l a s s e s . The g r e a t e s t number o f e n c o u n t e r s had been w i t h l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s . C u r r e n t e v e n t s , p u b l i c a f f a i r s and c i t i z e n s h i p c o n s t i t u t e d t h e second most p o p u l a r c a t e g o r y , f o l l o w e d by l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s , p e r s o n a l development, p r o f e s s i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s , and c o u r s e s on home and f a m i l y l i f e . D u r i n g the s p r i n g o f 1968, t h e l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , 41.9 p e r cent,was engaged i n s t u d y i n g c u r r e n t e v e n t s , p u b l i c a f f a i r s and c i t i z e n s h i p , w h i l e 33 p e r c e n t p u r s u e d l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 p e r 107 c e n t c o n c e n t r a t e d on home and f a m i l y l i f e , and 10 p e r c e n t on p e r s o n a l development. Over 70 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d s t r o n g i n t e n t i o n s t o e n r o l i n u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n c l a s s e s a t some f u t u r e t i m e , whereas a n o t h e r 26 p e r c e n t s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e i r r e t u r n i n g . There were i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t some p a r t i c i p a n t s i n l i b e r a l a r t s would change t o p r o - f e s s i o n a l , v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l c o u r s e s , w h i l e 22 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e s t a t i n g f u t u r e p r e f e r e n c e s would s t u d y l e i s u r e - t ime a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s y e a r ' s e n r o l m e n t f o r the l a t t e r sub- j e c t was 4 p e r c e n t o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . A n o t h e r n o t i c e a b l e f u t u r e s h i f t appeared t o i n v o l v e a d e c l i n e o f i n t e r e s t i n c u r r e n t e v e n t s , p u b l i c a f f a i r s and c i t i z e n s h i p s u b j e c t s , b u t th e v a l i d i t y o f such a p r e d i c t i o n i s u n c e r t a i n . I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n t h e w o r l d d u r i n g and p r i o r t o 196 8 l e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f numerous c u r r e n t e v e n t s c o u r s e s and t h e s e , i n t u r n , a t t r a c t e d many o f t h e a v a i l a b l e p a r t i c i p a n t s . An analogous s i t u a t i o n i n the f u t u r e c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y r e p l i c a t e t h i s i n t e r e s t i n c u r r e n t e v e n t s . I n f a c t , any comparisons and p r e d i c t i o n s b a s e d on p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p a s t , p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e i n t e r e s t i n s u b j e c t a r e a s i s r e n d e r e d h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e by the d i f f e r e n t time spans i n v o l v e d i n each p e r i o d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , some b a s i s f o r p l a n n i n g o f f u t u r e c o u r s e s may be fo u n d i n t h e d a t a . 108 R e s i d e n c e A l m o s t 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s i d e d i n Vancouver, N o r t h Vancouver and West Vancouver. E i g h t y p e r c e n t o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s s p e n t l e s s t h a n 30 minutes i n coming t o c l a s s . D i s t a n c e and t r a v e l time were r e p o r t e d t o be t h e two f a c t o r s most i n f l u e n t i a l on a r e s p o n d e n t ' s c h o i c e o f l o c a t i o n f o r c l a s s e s . These f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n o f a c l a s s w i l l have c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t i n d e t e r - m i n i n g i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s , and one i s l e f t t o s p e c u l a t e as t o how many p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e t o be found beyond th e p r e s e n t b a r r i e r s o f d i s t a n c e and t r a v e l t i m e . S c h e d u l i n g E v e n i n g c l a s s e s i n v o l v e d a l m o s t 75 p e r c e n t o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s . Twenty-one p e r c e n t a t t e n d e d a f t e r n o o n s e s s i o n s , and 6 p e r c e n t a t t e n d e d morning c l a s s e s . The a u d i e n c e f o r t h e s e daytime s e s s i o n s was a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y f e m a l e , and t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l a u d i e n c e f o r daytime c l a s s e s was p r e d o m i n a n t l y female as w e l l . Wednesday emerged as the most p o p u l a r day f o r e x t e n - s i o n c l a s s e s , and Thursday as the l e a s t f a v o u r e d . The r a t h e r s u p e r f i c i a l probe i n t o i n t e r e s t s i n weekend seminars r e v e a l e d about 40 p e r c e n t o f the r e s p o n d e n t s t o be f a v o u r a b l y i n c l i n e d . 109 S o u r c e s o f I n f o r m a t i o n The r e s u l t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n on s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f l y e r had r e a c h e d t h e l a r g e s t group, 34 p e r c e n t o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . The b r o c h u r e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 26 p e r c e n t , and newspaper a d v e r t i s i n g f o r a n o t h e r 25 p e r c e n t . Thus, d i r e c t m a i l i n g t e c h n i q u e s r e a c h e d 59 p e r c e n t o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , whereas newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t s r e a c h e d o n l y 25 p e r c e n t . Over h a l f o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d r e c e i v - i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e c o u r s e s w i t h o u t any i n t e r m e d i a r y , w h i l e 29 p e r c e n t were i n i t i a l l y i n f o r m e d t h r o u g h o t h e r p e r - sons o r a g e n c i e s . The p r o p o r t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s who r e c e i v e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e two-step manner i s lower h e r e t h a n r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . One must be m i n d f u l , however, o f t h e f a c t t h a t a l l U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia a l u m n i , who c o n s t i t u t e d 21 p e r c e n t o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s , appear on t h e m a i l i n g l i s t o f t h e E x t e n s i o n Department, as do p a r t i c i p a n t s from p r e v i o u s e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s who make up 48 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r e s e n t c l i e n t e l e . I I . HYPOTHESIS TESTING One o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y i n v o l v e d t h e t e s t i n g o f a t h r e e - p a r t h y p o t h e s i s t h a t no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between males and f e m a l e s , between v e t e r - ans and n o v i c e s , o r between committed and non-committed 110 l e a r n e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o s e l e c t e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and p s y c h o - l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s p e c i f i e d communication p a t t e r n s . The r e s u l t s o f t e s t i n g t h i s s t a t e m e n t a g a i n s t 2 8 s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s f o r t h e mal e - f e m a l e dichotomy, and a g a i n s t 23 v a r i a b l e s f o r t h e o t h e r two r e f e r e n c e d i c h o t o m i e s , a r e com- p i l e d i n T a b l e X L V I I . T h i s t a b l e enumerates t h e s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s i n which t h e h y p o t h e s i s was fo u n d u n a c c e p t a b l e a t the .01 c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l , and d i s t i n g u i s h e s c e r t a i n o t h e r c a s e s w h i c h l e d t o t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s a t t h e s u p e r i o r .001 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . Male and Female P a r t i c i p a n t s S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found t o e x i s t between male and female p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n k i n g , g o a l - o r i e n t a t i o n , l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n , i n t e r e s t i n s u b j e c t s — p a s t , p r e s e n t , and p r o j e c t e d — a t t e n d a n c e d u r i n g s p e c i f i e d times o f t h e day, p r e f e r e n c e s f o r s p e c i f i e d s t a r t i n g t i m e s o f c l a s s e s , a t t e n - dance on s p e c i f i e d days o f t h e week, i n t e r e s t i n weekend s e m i n a r s , and the t y p e o f announcement r e c e i v e d f o r t h e c o u r s e . V e t e r a n s and N o v i c e s V e t e r a n s were found t o d i f f e r from n o v i c e s i n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l sense w i t h r e s p e c t t o age, o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n k i n g , TABLE X L V I I ( a ) CHI SQUARE VALUES AND COEFFICIENTS FOR PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICS BY SEX, VETERAN STATUS, AND COMMITMENT CATEGORY Males v s . Females V e t e r a n s v s . N o v i c e s Non-Committed vs .Committed x 2 P< C + 1 XAB X 2 p< C ^ A A B X 2 p< c * X AAB ADULT ROLES: Sex M a r i t a l S t a t u s 4.7 .20 N.S. N.S. N.S. 10.2 .01 .11 .11 .00 AGE 11.4 .05 84.6 .001 .29 .30 .02 N.S. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS: Formal E d u c a t i o n 37.0 A d d i t . E d u c a t i o n 3 8.6 O c c u p a t i o n Income 6.1 Alumni o f UBC 8.3 SOCIAL PARTICI- PATION 7.2 001 .20 .20 .01 ,001 .20 .21 .03 .01 .10 .10 .05 N.S. N.S. 14.5 21.4 N.S. .01 .01 12 ,15 .13 .00 ,15 .00 N.S. N.S. N.S. 20.4 N.S. 001 .15 19.6 .001 .14 .15 .00 N.S. .15 02 H H TABLE XLV I I ( a ) (Continued) Males v s . Females V e t e r a n s v s . N o v i c e s Non-Committed vs.Committed X 2 P< C cf)1 A A B X 2 P< C * X *AB X 2 P< C ^ AAB MOTIVATION: G o a l - O r i e n t a t i o n 30. 8 .001 .10 .11 .00 N.S. N.S. A C t i V l t y " - - 7.6 .10 o r i e n t a t i o n LeorSSratio„ 37.0 .001 .11 .11 .00 26.6 .00! .17 .17 .00 29.7 .001 .10 .10 .02 PREVIOUS PARTICIPATION: A l l A d u l t Educ. 1.9 .30 46.1 .001 .22 .22 .00 UBC E x t e n s i o n INTENTIONS FOR RETURNING 2.7 ] i o 29.5 .001 .49 .57 .29 45.2 .001 .22 .22 .10 3 # 2 .10 46.1 .001 .22 .22 .00 SUBJECT AREAS OF INTEREST: P a s t 24.9 .001 .18 .19 .00 N.S. N.S. 32.9 .001 .19 .19 .01 N.S. N.S, 22.4 .001 .14 .14 .00 N.S. N.S, P r e s e n t F u t u r e RESIDENCE 1.2 .30 N.S. N.S, H H to TABLE X L V I I ( a ) (Continued) Males v s . Females V e t e r a n s v s . N o v i c e s Non-Committed vs.Committed x 2 p< C cj)1 X A B X 2 P< C ** A A B X 2 P< C * X X A B TRAVEL TIME 2.9 .10 N.S. N.S. SATISFACTION WITH LOCATION 6.3 .02 N.S. N.b. ATTENDANCE AT q LOCATIONS 9.8 .05 N.S. SCHEDULING: N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. 16.3 .001 .13 .14 .00 SOURCES OF INFORMATION: P r i m a r y Sources 19.0 .001 .14 .15 .01 19.9 .001 .15 .15 .00 N.S. TaUonVlSw"" 3.1 .10 12.3 .01 .12 .12 .02 7.9 .01 .09 .09 .00 S t a r t i n g Times 50. 6 .001 .23 .24 .00 N .S. P r e f , S t a r t i n g Times 65. 1 .001 .26 .27 .00 N • S. Day o f Week f o r C l a s s 12. 7 .01 .12 .12 .00 N • S. Pref.Da y o f Week 15. 9 .01 .13 ,13 .00 N . s . I n t e r e s t i n Seminars 21. 7 .001 .15 .16 .04 N . s . t—1 LO TABLE XLVII(b) HYPOTHESIS REJECTIONS Dichotomy ,01 L e v e l .001 L e v e l T o t a l Males v s . Females 12 15 V e t e r a n s v s . N o v i c e s Non-Committed v s . Committed L e a r n e r s 115 income, s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n , i n t e n - t i o n t o e n r o l i n f u t u r e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , t h e t y p e o f announcement r e c e i v e d f o r t h e c o u r s e , and t h e i r u t i l i z a - t i o n o f the two-step i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w . Non-Committed and Committed L e a r n e r s These two groups were f o u n d t o have s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between them i n r e f e r e n c e t o m a r i t a l s t a t u s , income, l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t a t i o n , p r e v i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r e s t i n weekend s e m i n a r s , and i n t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e two-step i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f S t a t i s t i c a l R e s u l t s G i v e n a p o p u l a t i o n as l a r g e as the one s t u d i e d , one may e x p e c t v i r t u a l l y any degree o f t r u e s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i o n - s h i p between two a t t r i b u t e s t o show up as a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t i n a c h i - s q u a r e t e s t . A t t e n t i o n was t h e r e f o r e g i v e n t o t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s which p r o v i d e some measure o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f a s s o c i a t i o n between a t t r i b u t e s . These c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e X L V I I . The Index o f P r e d i c t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y low, b e i n g 0.00 i n most c a s e s , and l e s s t h an .05 i n a l l b u t one. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e C o e f f i c i e n t o f Con- t i n g e n c y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the c o e f f i c i e n t o f mean square c o n t i n g e n c y — p h i — w h e n a p p l i e d w i t h i n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r n a t u r e , a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f the s t r e n g t h s o f v a r i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s and c o u l d s e r v e as g u i d e s t o s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r 116 more i n t e n s i v e and d i s c r i m i n a t o r y f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h The need f o r a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n s e v e r a l a r e a s o f c l i e n t e l e a n a l y s i s has become o b v i o u s . A more c o n c i s e d e f i - n i t i o n o f " v e t e r a n s , " b a s e d on t h e e x t e n t o f p r e v i o u s p a r t i - c i p a t i o n , seems d e s i r a b l e . L o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s b a s e d on i n f o r m a t i o n from e n r o l m e n t r e c o r d s a r e needed i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e whether i n t e r e s t s i n s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t a r e a s v a r y w i t h a p a r t i c i p a n t ' s age, p o s s i b l y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e v e l o p - m e n t a l t a s k s o f a d u l t h o o d . T h i s approach s h o u l d a l s o r e v e a l t h e e x t e n t t o which p a r t i c i p a n t s p u r s u e a s i n g l e t o p i c i n de p t h o r move from b r e a d t h t o d e p t h — e s p e c i a l l y from a p o s s i b l y i n d i s c r i m i n a t e and a r b i t r a r y s e l e c t i o n o f u n r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s toward c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n a s p e c i f i c f i e l d o f s t u d y — o r from narrow t o b r o d e r i n t e r e s t s , as from l e a r n i n g a f o r e i g n language t o l i t e r a t u r e and c o m p a r a t i v e r e a d i n g . C o n s i s t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s o f one s u i t a b l e i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e measurement o f m o t i v e s a r e r e q u i r e d i f one w i s h e s t o e s t a b l i s h whether c o n s e c u t i v e groups o f p a r t i c i p a n t s p o s s e s s s i m i l a r o r i e n t a t i o n s . More i n t e n s i v e e x p l o r a t i o n s o f m o t i v e s might a l s o r e v e a l the e x t e n t o f i n f l u e n c e which t h e s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r s o c i a l m o b i l i t y o f some f a m i l y members has on t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f o t h e r s . 117 S t u d i e s i n t h e a r e a o f p u b l i c i t y m i ght e x p l o r e t h e re a s o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e f i n d i n g s t h a t c e r t a i n p r o m o t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s were more e f f e c t i v e f o r men and f o r n o v i c e s , w h i l e o t h e r s r e a c h e d more women and v e t e r a n s . P l a n n e r s o f e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s would c e r t a i n l y be a i d e d by i n c r e a s e d knowledge about t h e supposed a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e p r e s - t i g e v a l u e o f a m e e t i n g p l a c e and a t t e n d a n c e a t t h a t l o c a t i o n . To what e x t e n t does t h e e t h n i c o r r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r a s s o - c i a t e d w i t h a c e n t e r a f f e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? The d i f f e r e n c e s between v e t e r a n s and n o v i c e s , as r e v e a l e d i n t h i s s t u d y , were p r i m a r i l y o f a s o c i o - e c o n o m i c n a t u r e . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s m ight e s t a b l i s h o t h e r d i s c r i m i n a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and r a n k i n g o r d e r s f o r them, t h r o u g h t h e use o f d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u m e n t s . L a s t l y , t h e r e i s a need f o r s i m i l a r s t u d i e s a t o t h e r C a n adian l o c a t i o n s t o t e s t t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the r e s u l t s f ound i n t h i s s t u d y , and t o a i d i n i d e n t i f y i n g the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r subgroup o f a d u l t p a r t i - c i p a n t s on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . A c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r e a s o n s why t h i s c l i e n t e l e i s so s e l e c t might h e l p t o e x p l a i n why o t h e r a d u l t s do n o t engage i n l i b e r a l a r t s edu- c a t i o n , and c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y l e a d t o the removal o f some e x i s t i n g b a r r i e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I 1 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 119 1. A v e r i l l , T.B. " C e r t a i n F a c t o r s A s s o c i a t e d w i t h P a r t i c i p a t i o n and N o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . " I n "Research and I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , v o l . X I I , no. 4 (Summer 1962). 2. B e r t r a m , Gordon W. "The C o n t r i b u t i o n o f E d u c a t i o n t o Economic Growth." S t a f f Study No. 12, Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , J une, 1966. 3. B l i s h e n , B.R. "A S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Index f o r O c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada. "' The C a n a d i a n Review o f S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y , 4:41-53 ( F e b r u a r y 1967). 4. B r u n n e r , Edmund de S. e t a l . An Overview o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h . C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U.S.A., 1959. 5. B u r c h , G. A c c e n t on L e a r n i n g . Pasadena, C a l i f . : The Fund f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1960. 6. B u t t e d a h l , K.B. "A Comparative Study o f P a r t i c i p a n t s i n L e c t u r e C l a s s e s and P a r t i c i p a n t s i n Study D i s c u s s i o n Groups." U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , The U n i v e r - s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963. 7. Canada. Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s . "Survey o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . " C a t . No. 81-207. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , June 1967. 8. Canada. Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s . " P a r t i c i p a n t s i n F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n i n Canada." C a t . No. 81-522. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , O c t o b e r 1963. 9. Canada. Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s . Census o f Canada, 1961. a) C a t . No. 81-207; b) C a t . No. 98-519. Ottawa: The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1962. 10. C a r t e r , G.C., W.D. K e r r , and S.B. York. " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f E x t r a m u r a l S t u d e n t s . " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , v o l . X I I , no. 4 (Summer 1962). 11. C h a p i n , F.S. E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n s i n S o c i o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h . New York: Harper B r o t h e r s , 1955. 12. Chapman, C.E. "Some C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f A d u l t P a r t - T i m e S t u d e n t s . " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , v o l . X, no. 1 (Autumn 1959). 120 13. C l a r k , B.R. E d u c a t i n g t h e E x p e r t S o c i e t y . San F r a n c i s c o : C h a n d l e r P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1962. 14. C o t t o n , Thomas L. " P u b l i c U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . " Handbook o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Knowles, M.S. (ed.T^ C h i c a g o : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U.S.A., 1960, pp. 129-137. 15. D a v i s , J.A. A Study o f P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e G r e a t Books Program. N a t i o n a l O p i n i o n R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , 1957. 16. D e t t w e i l e r , W. and Andrew S o k o l . M u l t i v a r i a t e C o n t i n g e n c y T a b u l a t i o n s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia Computing C e n t e r , 1966. 17. D h a l l a , N.K. These C a n a d i a n s . T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1966. 18. Dow, J.B. " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f N o n - C r e d i t U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n S t u d e n t s . " U n p u b l i s h e d Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U.C.L.A., 1965. D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 26-3734. 19. Gordon, M. Daytime S c h o o l s f o r A d u l t s . C h i c a g o : C e n t e r f o r t h e Study o f L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , 1967. 20. G o u l d , J.D. "The R e c r u i t m e n t o f A d u l t S t u d e n t s . " Vaughan C o l l e g e P a p e r s , No. 5, 1959. 21. Hays, W.L. S t a t i s t i c s f o r P s y c h o l o g i s t s . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1965. 22. H i l l , R.J. A Comparative Study o f L e c t u r e and D i s c u s s i o n Methods. The Fund f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1960. 23. H o u l e , C O . " P o s t s c r i p t . " The C o n t i n u i n g L e a r n e r . D. Solomon ( e d . ) . C h i c a g o : C e n t e r f o r t h e Study o f L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , 1964. 24. H o u l e , C O . The I n q u i r i n g Mind. Madison, Wis.: U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1961. 25. J o h n s t o n e , J.W.C. " A d u l t Uses o f E d u c a t i o n : F a c t and F o r e c a s t . " S o c i o l o g i c a l Backgrounds o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . H.W. Burns ( e d . ) . C h i c a g o : C e n t e r f o r t h e Study o f L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , 1964. 26. J o h n s t o n e , J.W.C. and R.J. R i v e r a . V o l u n t e e r s f o r L e a r n i n g . C h i c a g o : A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1965. 121 J o n e s , H.G. "A T e s t o f V a l i d i t y o f P l a c e R e s i d e n c e as an I n d i c a t o r o f S o c i o - E c o n o m i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P a r t i c i p a n t s i n U n i v e r s i t y N o n - C r e d i t E v e n i n g C l a s s e s . " U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1962. K a p l a n , A b b o t t . S t u d y - D i s c u s s i o n i n t h e L i b e r a l A r t s . Fund f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1960. K i d d , J.R. 18 t o 80_. C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n i n M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o . B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e C i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1961. Knox, A.B. " C l i e n t e l e A n a l y s i s . " Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , v o l . XXXV, no. 3 (June 1965), pp.231-239. . The A u d i e n c e f o r L i b e r a l A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . C h i c a g o : C e n t e r f o r t h e Study o f L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , 1962. L a z a r s f e l d , P.F., B. B e r e l s o n and H. Gaudet. The P e o p l e ' s C h o i c e . New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1948. L i v i n g s t o n e , D.W. "Report o f P r e l i m i n a r y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Survey o f S e l e c t e d N o n - C r e d i t E v e n i n g C l a s s e s . _ P r e p a r e d f o r t h e Department o f E x t e n s i o n , The U n i v e r - t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, June 1966 ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) . S 1 1 London, J a c k . "Program Development i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . " Handbook o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U.S.A. Knowles, M.S. ( e d . ) . C h i c a g o : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U.S.A., 1960, pp. 65-81. McKinnon, Do n a l d . "A Comparison o f D i s t a n c e s T r a v e l l e d t o Urban N i g h S c h o o l C e n t e r s . " U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1966. M e l t o n , James A. "The I n f l u e n c e o f A l t e r n a t e Course L o c a - t i o n s on D i s t a n c e s T r a v e l l e d by P a r t i c i p a n t s i n Urban E v e n i n g C l a s s e s . " U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966. M i l l e r , H a r r y L. " L i b e r a l A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . " Handbook o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Knowles, M.S. ( e d . ) . C h i c a g o : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U.S.A., 1960, pp. 497-512. 122 M i z r u c h i , E.H. and L o u i s M. V a n a r i a . "Who P a r t i c i p a t e s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ? " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , v o l . X, no. 3 ( S p r i n g 1960), pp. 141-143. M o n t r o s s , H.W. " U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n S t u d e n t s . " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , v o l . X, no. 1 (Augumn 1959), pp.53-56. Morton, J.R. U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Birmingham, Alabama: U n i v e r s i t y o f Alabama P r e s s , 1953. P a r k e r , E.B. " P a t t e r n s o f A d u l t I n f o r m a t i o n S e e k i n g . " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h A b s t r a c t s . S y r a c u s e , New Y o rk: ERIC C l e a r i n g House, 1966. S i e g e l , S. N o n p a r a m e t r i c S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s . M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company I n c . , 1956. Solomon, D. The C o n t i n u i n g L e a r n e r . C h i c a g o : C e n t e r f o r t h e Study o f L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , 196 4. S t e r n , M.R. P e o p l e , Programs and P e r s u a s i o n s . C h i c a g o : C e n t e r f o r t h e Study o f L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , 1960. Ulmer, R.C. and C. V e r n e r . " F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g A t t e n d a n c e i n a J u n i o r C o l l e g e A d u l t Program." A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , v o l . X I I , no. 3 ( S p r i n g 1963), pp. 153-158. U.S. Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e . " P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . " (Based on t h e O c t o b e r 1957 C u r r e n t P o p u l a t i o n S u r v e y , Bureau o f t h e C e n s u s ) , C i r c u l a r No. 539, 1959. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n . C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1966-1967. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, Department o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n . C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Programs - S p r i n g 196 8. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Study D i s c u s s i o n . . . The F i r s t Three Y e a r s 1957-1960. 123 50. V e r n e r , C. and A. B ooth. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . The L i b r a r y o f E d u c a t i o n . Washington, D.C.: The C e n t e r f o r A p p l i e d R e s e a r c h i n E d u c a t i o n I n c . , 1964. 51. V e r n e r , C. and K. B u t t e d a h l , " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P a r t i c i - p a n t s i n Two Methods o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , v o l . 15:67-73 (Winter 1965). 52. V e r n e r , C. and K. B u t t e d a h l . "Socio-Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P a r t i c i p a n t s i n E x t e n s i o n C l a s s e s . " C o n t i n u o u s L e a r n i n g , v o l . 3:21-27 (Jan.-Feb. 1964). 53. V e r n e r , C. and J . Newberry, "The N a t u r e o f A d u l t P a r t i c i p a t i o n . " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , v o l . V I I I , no. 4, (Summer 1958). A P P E N D I X i i APPENDIX A. E n r o l m e n t and I n t e r v i e w s grouped A c c o r d i n g t o S u b j e c t M a t t e r A r e a s 126 E n r o l m e n t and I n t e r v i e w s i n L i b e r a l A r t s C o urses E n r o l l e d P er c e n t (Inverviewed) I n t e r v i e w e d I n d i a n s o f t h e B.C. I n t e r i o r Campus 13 (8) 61 .5 The A r t o f P r i m i t i v e C u l t u r e s Campus 15 (12) 80 .0 E l e m e n t a r y F r e n c h Campus 13 (11) 84 .6 * E l e m e n t a r y F r e n c h (D) U n i t a r i a n Church 8 (6) 75 .0 I n t e r m e d i a t e F r e n c h Campus 12 (10) 83 .3 V o i x e t Images de F r a n c e Campus 13 (13) 100 .00 J o u r n e y s t o t h e E a s t Campus 120 (102) 85 .0 S p a n i s h I n t r o d u c t o r y C o n v e r s a t i o n (D) 1483 W. 15 t h 2 (2) 100 .0 Seminars i n L i t e r a t u r e (D) V a n . L i b r . 13 (11) 84 .6 L i t e r a t u r e Campus 28 (23) 82 .1 R e b e l l i o u s D i s c o n t e n t K i t s i l a n o L i b r a r y 39 (31) 79 .5 The Ocean Aquarium 183 (135) 73 . 8 T o t a l s : 12 c o u r s e s 459 (364) 79 .3 * (D) denotes a daytime c o u r s e 127 E n r o l m e n t and I n t e r v i e w s i n P r o f e s s i o n a l , V o c a t i o n a l and T e c h n i c a l C o u r s e s _ E n r o l l e d P e r c e n t C o u r s e L o c a t i o n ( I n t e r v i e w e d ) i n t e r v i e w e d Radio B r o a d c a s t i n g Campus 15 (11) 73.3 T o t a l : 1 c o u r s e 15 (11) 73.3 E n r o l m e n t and I n t e r v i e w s i n L e i s u r e - T i m e A c t i v i t i e s E n r o l l e d P e r c e n t C ourse L o c a t i o n ( I n t e r v i e w e d ) i n t e r v i e w e d F i l m P r o d u c t i o n Campus 15 (10) 66.7 A e s t h e t i c Response Campus 21 (16) 76.2 I n t e r m e d i a 575 B e a t t y 25 (12) 48.0 T o t a l s : 3 c o u r s e s 61 (38) 62.0 128 E n r o l m e n t and I n t e r v i e w s i n Home and F a m i l y L i f e C o u r ses Course E n r o l l e d P er c e n t L o c a t x o n ( I n t e r v i e w e d ) I n t e r v i e w e d Language and Thought Dimensions o f t h e Home C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y (D) Home Landscape (D) K i t s i l a n o L i b r a r y Vancouver L i b r a r y K i t s i l a n o L i b r a r y U n i t a r i a n Church 22 (16) 94 (38) 18 (12) 32 (26) 72.7 43.6 66.7 81.3 T o t a l s : 4 c o u r s e s 166 (92) 55.4 E n r o l m e n t and I n t e r v i e w s i n P e r s o n a l Development C o u r s e s Course E n r o l l e d P e r c e n t L o c a t i o n (xnverviewed) I n t e r v i e w e d R e a d i n g Improvement Punishment and t h e C o n t r o l o f B e h a v i o u r The I n d i v i d u a l and S o c i e t y The I n d i v i d u a l and S o c i e t y Contemporary P s y c h i a t r y T o t a l s : 5 c o u r s e s Campus 26 (23) 88.5 Campus 28 (18) 64.3 N.Van. 15 (11) 73.3 Campus 18 (12) 66.7 Campus 76 (47) 64.5 163 (111) 68.1 129 E n r o l m e h t and I n t e r v i e w s i n C u r r e n t E v e n t s , P u b l i c A f f a i r s and C i t i z e n s h i p C o u r s e s C ourse E n r o l l e d P e r c e n t L o c a t i o n ( I n t e r v i e w e d ) I n v e r v i e w e d Contemporary Thought V a n . L i b r . 112 (70) 66 1 M e d i c i n e and Drugs Campus 39 (13) 33 .3 Day i n C o u r t (D) K i t s . L i b r . 19 (13) 68 .4 C u r r e n t I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s (D) V a n . L i b r . 42 (38) 92 .7 G a l b r a i t h ' s New World V a n . L i b r . 46 (45) 97 .8 Money Management (D) V a n . L i b r . 96 (68) 70 .8 I s s u e s Today (D) U n i t a r i a n C hurch 20 (15) 75 .0 C r i m i n a l Law K i t s . L i b r . 22 (17) 77 .3 Law i n E v e r y d a y L i f e Campus 20 (15) 75 .0 C o n s c i e n c e and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Campus 27 (13) 48 .2 Background t o t h e M i d d l e E a s t Campus 17 (14) 82 .4 World A f f a i r s C o q u i t l a m 14 (14) 100 .0 C u r r e n t I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s Campus 50 (29) 58 .0 C u r r e n t I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s N. Van. 21 (14) 66 .7 The V e r t i c a l M o s a i c V a n . L i b r . 26 (11) 42 .3 T o t a l s : 15 c o u r s e s 570 (389) 68.2 130 Summary o f E n r o l m e n t and I n t e r v i e w s C l a s s e s i n t e r v i e w e d 40 E n r o l m e n t 1434 P e r s o n s I n t e r v i e w e d 1005 ( t h i s number i n c l u d e s 82 f u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t s ) P e r c e n t o f e n r o l l e e s i n t e r v i e w e d 70.1 APPENDIX B. T a b l e s o f E x p r e s s e d P r e f e r e n c e s f o r S c h e d u l i n g o f C l a s s e s . 132 B i v a r i a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by L e n g t h o f P r e s e n t C ourse and By D e s i r e d Number o f S e s s i o n s Number o f S e s s i o n s D u r i n g t h e S p r i n g Term H o r i z o n t a l T o t . and % D e s i r e d No. Under 10 11 - 15 16 o r more o f S e s s i o n s N Q, "O N Q. "O N Q. "O N Q, "5 Under 10 491 58.5 21 36.2 3 11.5 515 55.8 11 - 15 164 19.6 22 37.9 8 30.8 194 21.0 16 o r more 42 5.0 7 21.1 9 34.6 58 6.3 No P r e f e r e n c e 94 11.2 6 10.3 5 19.2 105 11.4 None 9 1.1 1 1.7 1 3.8 11 1.2 No Response 39 4.7 1 1.7 0 0.0 40 4.3 T o t a l s 839 91.0 58 6.3 26 2.8 9.23 100.0 133 P a r t i c i p a n t s ' P r e f e r e n c e s C o n c e r n i n g t h e D e s i r e d Number o f S e s s i o n s f o r S p r i n g , Summer and F a l l Terms T e r m D e s i r e d No. S p r i n g Summer F a l l o f S e s s i o n s N % N % N % 10 o r fewer 515 55.8 152 16.5 479 51.9 11 - 15 194 21.0 39 4.2 195 21.1 16 o r more None No Response 6.3 12 1.3 61 6 No P r e f e r e n c e 105 11.4 100 10.8 113 12.2 11 1.2 550 59.6 23 2.5 40 4.3 70 7.6 52 5.6 T o t a l s 923 100.0 923 100.0 923 100.0 134 B i v a r i a t e T a b l e I n d i c a t i n g P a r t i c i p a n t s ' S a t i s f a c t i o n W i t h S t a r t i n g Times f o r Courses, v s . P a r t i c i p a n t s ' P r e s e n t S c h e d u l e Most C o n v e n i e n t Time o f Day f o r Course M o r n i n g A f t e r n o o n E v e n i n g I n v a l i d Responses A c t u a l Time o f Day f o r Course Morning A f t e r n o o n E v e n i n g N 31 59.6 11.5 9.6 10 19.2 N 12 30 15, N 23 12.1 22 3.2 125 65.8 16 2.3 6.3 595 87.4 48 7.1 T o t a l s 52 100.0 190 100.0 681 100.0 APPENDIX C. The I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e 136 D epartment o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA YOUR NAME I S NOT REQUIRED, AND ANONYMITY IS ASSURED. Y o u r answers t o t h i s i n t e r v i e w w i l l a i d t h e Depa r t m e n t o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n i n p l a n n i n g f o r f u t u r e c o u r s e s . U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n s t r u c t e d , W r i t e "X" i n t h e s q u a r e n e x t t o y o u r p r o p e r r e s p o n s e . R. No. . . . . (1,3) C o u r s e . . . . (4,5) Co u r s e L o c . . (6) S e s s . F r e q u . . . (7) Time . . . . . (8) Day. . . . . . (9) Do N o t W r i t e i n T h i s Column 1 2 3 4 5 START HERE I . ( a ) I n d i c a t e y o u r a r e a o f r e s i d e n c e : VANCOUVER, WEST OF ALMA/DUNBAR VANCOUVER, BETWEEN ALMA/DUNBAR & GRANVILLE VANCOUVER, WEST END VANCOUVER, BETWEEN GRANVILLE & MAIN_ VANCOUVER, EAST OF MAIN NORTH VANCOUVER WEST VANCOUVER BURNABY NEW WESTMINSTER COQUITLAM FRASER MILLS 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B 10 137 PORT MOODY RICHMOND SURREY OTHER (SPECIFY) (b) M a r i t a l S t a t u s : S i n g l e 1 M a r r i e d 2 Widowed, D i v o r c e d , 2 S e p a r a t e d (c) Sex: Male ; 1 12 Female 2 (d) Age group: 19 Y e a r s o r Under 1 20 - 24 Y e a r s 2 25 - 34 Y e a r s __ 3 35 - 44 Y e a r s 4 45 - 54 Y e a r s 5 55 _ 64 Y e a r s 6 65 - 69 Years 7 70 Y e a r s o r Over 8 (e) I n d i c a t e y o u r approximate g r o s s a n n u a l f a m i l y income: 1 $ 3,000 - $ 5,000 . 2 $ 6 ,000 - $ 8,999 3 13 $ 9,000 - $11,999 4 $12,000 - $14,999 5 $15,000 - $17,999 6 $18,000 and over 7 138 Do Not W r i t e i n T h i s Column O c c u p a t i o n : I f you a r e p e r m a n e n t l y r e t i r e d , g i v e y o u r p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n . I f you a r e a h o u s e w i f e , and n o t o t h e r w i s e employed, CHECK HEPJi! and s t a t e y o u r husband's o c c u p a t i o n below. What k i n d o f b u s i n e s s o r i n d u s t r y a r e you u s u a l l y employed i n (e.g. s h i p b u i l d i n g , d r u g r e t a i l , d a i r y f a r m i n g etc.)- What i s y o u r u s u a l o c c u p a t i o n , o r what k i n d 1 o f work do you u s u a l l y do i n t h i s i n d u s t r y 2 (e.g. o f f i c e c l e r k , s a l e s c l e r k , s t o r e 3 manager, auto mechanic, g r a d u a t e n u r s e e t c . ) 4 5 15 6 7 I n Column 1 w r i t e the t y p e s o r names o f a l l t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o which you have b e l o n g e d i n t h e p a s t y e a r . In Columns 2 - 5 p l e a s e check f o r each o r g a n i z a - t i o n , whether you a t t e n d e d , c o n t r i b u t e d , e t c . Do n o t i n c l u d e c h u r c h membership under o r g a n i z a - t i o n s , b u t DO INCLUDE membership i n an o r g a n i z e d c h u r c h group. A l s o i n c l u d e l a b o r u n i o n member- s h i p . 139 Do Not Write i n This Column Organization Atten- dance 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. F i n . C o n t r i - bution Mem. of O f f i c e s Committee Held 10. T o t a l (XI) (X2) P a r t i c i p a t i o n Score: (X3) (X4) (X5) 0 1 1 - 5 2 6 - 1 0 3 11 - 15 4 16 - 20 5 21 - 25 6 26 - 30 7 31 - 35 8 Over 35 9 (h) Indicate the highest l e v e l of formal education you a t t a i n e d . Elementary School or le s s Some High School__ High School Graduation 1 2 3 Some U n i v e r s i t y or College, Mark l a s t year completed: 1 y r _ 4 2 Yr_ 5 3 Yr 6 Un i v e r s i t y Baccalaureate Degree (B.A. or equivalent)_ U n i v e r s i t y Post-Grad.Degree_ 7 8 16 17 140 Do Not W r i t e i n T h i s Column ( i ) I f you r e c e i v e d any o t h e r f u l l - t i m e e d u c a t i o n , s p e c i f y t h e k i n d , and l e n g t h : (j) I f you a r e a u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e , d i d you r e c e i v e any d e g r e e ( s ) from U.B.C.? NO 1 19 YES 2 I I . ( a ) Have you e v e r , anywhere, t a k e n p a r t i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s (3 meetings o r more) b e f o r e , N 0 1 20 YES 2 (b) I f you have p r e v i o u s l y t a k e n E x t e n t i o n c o u r s e s a t UBC, i n d i c a t e t h e s u b j e c t a r e a ( s ) i n column I o f the l i s t below (c) I f you a r e p r e s e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n any o t h e r E x t e n s i o n Course (s) a t UBC, t h e s u b j e c t a r e a s (s) i n column I I i n d i c a t e (d) I f you i n t e n d t o c o n t i n u e y o u r e d u c a t i o n anywhere i n the f u t u r e , i n d i c a t e the s u b j e c t a r e a ( s ) o f y o u r c h o i c e i n Column I I I 1. L i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s : I I I I I I A l l c o l l e g e and g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s , (Geography, Math.etc.) i n c l u d i n g economics, c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g , p u b l i c s p e a k i n g , language, l i t e r a t u r e , l o c a l h i s t o r y , s t u d y d i s c u s s i o n , t r a v e l e t c . b u t e x c l u d i n g a l l t h o s e l i s t e d under "2" 141 Do Not W r i t e i n T h i s Column I I I I I I P r o f e s s i o n a l , v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l c o u r s e s : S u b j e c t s and s k i l l s u s e d i n t h e p r o f e s s - i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l and b u s i n e s s s p h e r e s . 22 29 36 L e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s : C l a s s e s d e a l i n g w i t h the c r e a t i v e a r t s ( i . e . p a i n t i n g , m u s i c , s c u l p t u r e , drama e t c . ) c r a f t s , s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s f o r l e i s u r e - t i m e enjoyment. Home and F a m i l y L i f e : T o p i c s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , maintenance o r improvement o f a home, and t o c a r r y i n g o u t h o u s e h o l d d u t i e s and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; t h e s o c i a l and p s y c h o - l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f p a r e n t h o o d , f a m i l y l i f e , c h i l d c a r e and development, e t c . 2 P e r s o n a l development: S u b j e c t s and s k i l l s aimed a t h e l p i n g p e o p l e expand t h e m s e l v e s i n the a r e a s o f h e a l t h , p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , p e r s o n a l i t y development, i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . A l s o t h o s e s u b j e c t s c o n c e r n e d w i t h th e a r e a s o f s p i r i t u a l , m o r a l and e t h i c a l development. C u r r e n t e v e n t s , p u b l i c a f f a i r s and c i t i z e n s h i p : T o p i c s d e a l i n g w i t h c u r r e n t s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic a f f a i r s . C o u r s e s f o r c i t i z e n s h i p , i n c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , i n g e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l education-, law f o r laymen, e t c . O t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) 26 33 40 27 34 41 1 4 2 I I I . ( a ) Which t y p e o f announcement f o r t h i s c o u r s e came t o y o u r a t t e n t i o n f i r s t , NONE NEWSPAPER ADVERTISEMENT, LISTING ALL COURSES NEWSPAPER ADVERTISEMENT FOR THIS COURSE ONLY SPECIAL FLYER (ALL COURSES) BROCHURE OR LEAFLET ABOUT THIS COURSE RADIO ANNOUNCEMENT TELEVISION ANNOUNCEMENT NEWSPAPER ARTICLE OTHER (SPECIFY) 5 6 7 Do Not W r i t e i n T h i s Column 42 (b) How d i d you l e a r n t h a t t h i s c o u r s e was b e i n g o f f e r e d ? FOUND OUT ON MY OWN THROUGH EMPLOYER, COMPANY OR PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION THROUGH A FRIEND OR ACQUAINTANCE _ (c) Which day o f t h e week do you most p r e f e r f o r a t t e n d i n g U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n C l a s s e s ? MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY _ FRIDAY 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 4 4 SATURDAY SUNDAY 7 143 Do Not W r i t e I n T h i s Column (d.) What time o f day i s most c o n v e n i e n t f o r y o u r a t t e n d i n g U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n C l a s s e s ? (mark one o n l y ) MORNING 10 :00 - 12:00 1 NOON HOUR 12 :00 - 1:00 2 EARLY AFTERNOON 1 :00 - 3:00 3 LATE AFTERNOON 3 :00 - 5:00 4 EARLY EVENING 5 :00 - 7:00 5 EVENING 7 :30 - 10 :00 6 45 IV.(a) How many minute s do you spend coming t o t h i s c l a s s ? (one way) 10 MIN. OR LESS 1 11 - 20 MIN. 2 21 - 30 MIN. 3 31 - 40 MIN. 4 41 - 50 MIN. 5 51 - 60 MIN. 6 61 - 70 MIN. 7 71 - 80 MIN. 8 OVER 80 MIN. 9 144 (b) A r e you s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h i s c l a s s ? YES NO, I would r a t h e r a t t e n d : ON CAMPUS DOWNTOWN VANCOUVER ON THE NORTH SHORE ELSEWHERE IN VANCOUVER ( s p e c i f y ) IN BURNABY IN NEW WESTMINSTER ELSEWHERE ( s p e c i f y ) Do Not W r i t e i n T h i s Column 2 3 4 5 6 7 (c) What f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e y o u r above p r e f e r e n c e ? A s s i g n number "4" t o the f a c t o r which i s most i m p o r t a n t , number "3" t o t h e n e x t most i m p o r t a n t e t c . , t o as many as you f e e l a p p l y . LIBRARY FACILITIES INSTRUCTIONAL FACILITIES ( l a b . , equipment, e t c . ) PARKING FACILITIES ' TRAVEL TIME, DISTANCE OTHER ( s p e c i f y ) 47 9 A B C D E F G 48 49 50 51 145 V. P e o p l e a t t e n d U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n Courses f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s . P l e a s e i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t t o wh i c h each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s has i n f l u - e nced you. Mark one square p e r l i n e . 4 . u - TT • INFLUENCE I am a t t e n d i n g t h i s U n i v e r s i t y g r e a t , m u c h , s o m e , l i t t l e , n o n e E x t e n s i o n C o u r s e 3 1. because t h e f i e l d o f s t u d y was new t o me 5 4 3 2 1 Do Not W r i t e I n T h i s Column 2. t o meet new o r d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e 3. t o i n c r e a s e my knowledge o r s k i l l i n a hobby, v o c a t i o n , o r i n t e r e s t w h i c h 1 a l r e a d y have 4. t o p r e p a r e f o r a c a r e e r ad- vancement i n my p r e s e n t f i e l d w i t h my employer's encouragement 5. t o p r e p a r e f o r a c a r e e r advancement i n my p r e s e n t f i e l d , on my own i n i t i a t i v e 6. t o a i d me i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g and d e a l i n g more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h p e o p l e i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s 7. t o i n c r e a s e my e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n my p r e s e n t f i e l d o f work 9. t o i n c r e a s e my u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l i f e and l i v i n g i n today's w o r l d 5 4 3 2 1 53 5 4 3 2 1 54 5 4 3 2 1 55 5 4 3 2 1 56 5 4 3 2 1 57 5 4 3 2 1 58 4 3 2 1 59 5 4 3 2 1 60 8. t o be w i t h a c l o s e f r i e n d o r r e l a t i v e who i s a l s o a t t e n d i n g 5 10. t o d e v e l o p a g r e a t e r appre- c i a t i o n o f t h e A r t s (such as M u s i c , L i t e r a t u r e , F i n e A r t s , e t c . ) 146 Do Not W r i t e i n T h i s I n f l u e n c e Column g r e a t , m u c h , s o m e , l i t t l e , n o n e 11. because t h e typ e o f s o c i a l c o n t a c t s which I p r e f e r r e q u i r e s more e d u c a t i o n t h a n I have 62 12. t o f i n d o r d e v e l o p a new i n t e r e s t o r v o c a t i o n 63 13. o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) 64 V I . ( a ) A r e you l i k e l y t o e n r o l i n o t h e r U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s i n t h e f u t u r e ? NO 1 I f y ou answered "YES" o r "PERHAPS" t o ( a ) , t h e n answer t h e q u e s t i o n s under (b) p l e a s e . ( b ) ( i ) How many meetings do you p r e f e r t o a t t e n d f o r any one c o u r s e d u r i n g the SPRING TERM ( J a n . - A p r i l ) PERHAPS 2 65 YES 3 NONE ( i i ) How many meetings do you p r e f e r t o a t t e n d d u r i n g t h e SUMMER TERM? (June-Aug) 1 NO PREFERENCE 2 6 - 1 0 MEETINGS 3 66 11 - 15 MEETINGS 4 16 OR MORE MEETINGS 5 NONE" NO PREFERENCE 2 67 6 - 1 0 MEETINGS 11 - 15 MEETINGS 16 OR MORE MEETINGS ( i i i ) How many m e e t i n g s do y o u p r e f e r t o a t t e n d d u r i n g t h e AUTUMN TERM? (Sept.-Dec.) NONE NO PREFERENCE 6 - 1 0 MEETINGS 11 - 15 MEETINGS 16 OR MORE MEETINGS ( i v ) Would y o u be i n t e r e s t e d i n a t t e n d i n g weekend s e m i n a r s ? (1 t o 3 days) Mark as many as y o u w i s h NO YES, IN THE SPRING YES, IN THE SUMMER YES, IN AUTUMN V I I . Use t h e f o l l o w i n g s p a c e t o make any a d d i t i o n a l comments w h i c h y o u m i g h t have r e g a r d i n g U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s THANK YOU

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