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Soil texture of Pinus ponderosa plant communities in British Columbia Ogilvie, Robert Townley 1955

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SOIL TEXTURE OF PINUS POHDEROSA PLANT COMMUHITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  ROBERT TOWHLET CGILVIE  A THESIS SUBMITTED IS PARTIAL FULFUJffiHT OF THE REQUIREMMTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i a tho Department of Biology aad Botany  We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required froa candidates for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS  Members of the Department of  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1955  ABSTRACT  fhe field, work for this investigation was carried out i n the suxaner of 1952, during this time aoil samples and field notes were made. Further s o i l samples were secured in the summer of 1953, The area in which the yellow pine communities were studied was in the Okanagan, Stallkaiaeen, Kieola and South Thompson valleys as well as the southern Cariboo i n the vielnity o f Clinton, The soil samples were a i r - d r i e d , weighed and the gravel fraction ( p a r t i c l e s greater than S ran. in diameter) separated by sieve• The gravel f r a c t i o n was weighed and the percentage determined f o r eaoh sample. Th® meohanieal analysis was done hy mean® o f the Bouyoueos Eudiometer Method, f o l l o w i n g the removal o f organic matter by hydrogen peroxide, and carbonates by treatment with hydrochlorio aeid. The results of the nroohanieal analysis were expressed in terms of percentage®, by weight, of sand, s i l t and c l a y on the basis of the soil sample with the gravel removed. Using the textural ©lasslfleatiom o f the United States Department of Agriculture the results were expressed In terms o f sandy loam, loam, e t c for each plant community. The ranges in soil texture f o r each plant community are: Agropyron association  - sandy loam to c l a y loam with extremes of  sand and  elay.  Stipa subassooiation - sandy l o a a . Artemisia subassooiation - clay loam. Purshia association - generally*sand, occasionally Aristida subassooiation- sand to sandy loam.  sandy  loam.  Rhus association - loamy sand with high percentage of gravel. Arotostapbylos association - sandy loam or loamy saad to sand. Aretostapnylos - Oalamagrostis aasoeiation - saad t© sandy  Calamagrostis assoeiatloa - sssdy elay loam to sandy loam. Sy^horlearpea assoeiatlos - sandy loam and sandy elay  /  loan.  fl» autfeor is tn4«tri«d t o Sr. T . $• c* T a y l o r • Iieed  sad B » t n y , tftdt^eraitr o f British Coiaaitei®t f o r tola p a n d a s Ion to us® th© 4apartaMwfe«X f a t u i t i e s f o r this v e f l u f l » w r i t e r **sld lito* to express his @iipr©@latl©n to.ftp,?» ifirajina, Da^aartaMt o f B i o l o g y and Botany». g b l w r s i t y of ArttUtfe W O M B M * * for Ma «stid«ne# and helpful ad^ieai to rr* f• c . fetyslMNr fair his wovgrnvtixm i a amrrying on this imtr«sf ig~ i t i « t aad to tam assistants i u mt&mt and a. m$M mtm.imlv^ in  of tha a»partBs#nt o f Blolofgr  tha  field  wnrfc*  AaiaoefJsdl^isitt® a r e also in® to the Station*! SMosreh C o o t i e i l f o r fetlplag dnriag t t e * « • * » « f I f ® «aft 1 9 5 4 , t h r o w * a grant i n a i d of ar* ?• a«|lna*s »@e»reh pm$m* *Ba«l04ar ©f w tfea f t o n w t a o f t l * Paoifie Soj?*i«eet ? and t o the arltlsli Oolon* M a Foraat p a r t i e s f o r similar h e l p in 1952. ihe a u t h o r wishes t o aekBowlede* hi® a p p r a « l « t l o s of  Qradnata satoBlaraMp mmtmA ftwlac the r s wMsii was of g r e a t aasistaae® in the preparation  the leon voeraar XM8  «ad i»S4»  of this *orfc*  f e o  Gasman*  X. HfStlMJCTietl II.  wm&L moGsmim w wmm Physiography and Geology . . . . . . . Soil * • . . . . • . . . . • . • • • • • CHmie  . ..  ¥<8g»t&tl0» xxz.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  DiacyssiGi OF SOIL t&Tsm . . . . . . . .  i f . mmm cr ixtauntmt ?.  n w  or S T O W  ...........  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  field Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laboratory Methods . . . . . . . . . . vi.  BXSCISSIQI OF t r a c e s  VII. ISStthfS vxxx. i m n.  OF SOIL  m &» mxtss  . . . . . . .  oxscossxai  X. SUlfiUKT XX. FIGURE I  .  XXX. • BIBLXOCMPiff xxxx. Atrisbn  - LIST  .  o? fuutt smzim  BiTRODUCTIOM  This study of s o i l texture i s part o f a project to investigate the plant couatamities and environmental conditions o f the Pinus ponderosa1 forest i n B r i t i s h Colombia, fhe analysis of the vegetational and climatic factors of these communities i s being carried out by Mr. T. C. Brayshaw. This project i s also part of a larger programme, i n i t i a t e d and directed by Dr. V. Krajina, the aim of which i s an ecological classification of the forests of British Colombia. Apart from the i n t r i n s i c value, knowledge of these forest coimnHnities has considerable value for i t s practical applications. This knowledge ean serve as a sound basis for forest management aad a i l v i c u l t u r a l practices. I t i s of importance also for th© formation o f policies for watershed control. Jm addition, knowledge of forest communities can be applied te the management o f forest ranges. This forest classification i s based on environmental and vegetational characters, and uses as I t s fundamental w i t the plant association. Through the examination of forest stands there becomes apparent certain plant communities which possess uniform f l o r i s t i c composition and which occur under similar environmental conditions. Starting with these observable communities, definite ecological units, which are called plant associations, can be established by means of a detailed analysis of their f l o r i s t i c , climatic, edaphie and topographic features.  1 A l i s t of species with t h e i r authors appears i n the Appendix.  2  Meola, aad Tho*pae« Valleys a 4 u t b t southern Cariboo Is the vtelaity of d i ms  area represent a the geaaral d i a t r i b e ion of Msass pe-aderoaa in B r i t -  »l«abia. Certain ether amlier and ratter valleys adjaeeat to times aeatia&ea  isolated ataxias also occur  is  above, 'iheae outlying stands occur i a  Skagit, eraser, ' orCfe Sbaapeea, ataehwajr, xettle aad Kootettay Hiver M t l e y s .  mewdiy ahes,- eoWder&fcl© variatiosi a w Pious  the M i a body of the  jKffldeross tame* aa Is Msjplajed o/ the pxeseno© of different associate Rie staade to the east oi* Qfca&ajpii valley* Sa the Kettle and Bile? Valleys, have fceri* accldentalla as m associate species, fhe  atanda, aloag the l o r t h aoragaoja Mver, haw a la*g» |»ropcrtlea of Ftoie ccmtpgta, while t i n treatem aatlyiag stasia eoataia  » f i e l d atttty w s initiated sample® mm  collected £svm m sta&her of stand* »fMre«®»:ti^ tea  C*UowiB£ winter the s o i l s a b l e s  itiee. Buriag  far  m* Afttfttiesel  the spring of ISSS, and daring the  s o i l emples ware eoileat®* l a the f m r  ala of the jOaat Cfiresraaiitias *hieh were w t aa w U  «ere ©ensured  of 1955  ref»*•»*•«: fey tbe collect  lag 4mm ia the previous year. Daring the f o l l o w i ^ winces- the aeehmieal anal yais c f the s o i l eewplea mm  Htyelo^ra^ty aad Geel<y,y Bis area ys)4aa* study ecasiata of  southern part of the interior  Plateau of tsa Cordilleras j/atesj. 3*a Interior Plateau has. i a a very general way. a  toward  olspa fran south, to aarth a»id l a greatly dissected hy river©  ahleh l a the r&strlctad aoutbam part f l «w to the opposite oi&ectiea to this slope ( i . e . £ e » north to south), fhe altitude of the plateau la the north  3  wmm@ tgm  txm  mm  90G©  to 3800  fast above m  iSst to SjOO teat assta  a#»& lolls?*torna  aater  lavel  of  san  lsval,  -Aasai.*  whereas tits  £feaata*a* Lata*  1UD M®.% stove am  southern part raa§se tarii of  tha akaa-  level, the water 1®*®1  of Dsoyooe Lake In His samtiMM* CAssa^aa ia » feet mmm mm isveX. Ifee jassest  part tbs Kssidt of  sdapbic ana  plifsiagrjiplslc features of thtm m&i&n mm ia  tha n«U*e«a*« - Aae3rt3a*»  However, ia the Soeeae  gasrteil  tfela region taaa as* of lew salts*» tela® **©fe sax* £aaa4 awa«f •apaaitc sask  a* tfee soal faaaatiaaa at M m l s i . %'oleattie ss*i¥ity ©8tt8»s»« <Suriu« tlm fkjrttsay parioa, slta" *jg»aitleB «r Imm tntlnm  ftol4a  *|tk tk» aa&eaalsa €fe\«iaMa laws  of  atstaa. iMrtag tfes sxtiosasa ssastdaeasls uplift  Plalstoaan* the lead  #«$S«M  earlaa. t&etttsaaaeaktak «ar* gasaJtaglos &M  tfes s$fa*eat  aa4 erswtea #@«t3rr®4* la tba  by tb* eeatftt**** iee stest*  me  gL*8i«tI©»  resulted tm tfee i'omation of 9-akapaa valley tottaaa* tta rocadine of? of tap*  aitpapklasl garsatMsaaes a&A  a gsMKral wwwttl ®a« salartww  *&ie& KM timpmtMi. aa giaeial t i l l *  Sum®  aaia typae of  Tsrraasa saargSaiitg glaalsl late® aaa* faisaed with  of a l l Imm fepwltsj  .ataftMial  «a»a Ssmasd*  »&«4jf sr ^ w e l l y smtmrna  aad uaOarXnin hy aieuty lean aoa sitft a a*&gt*st»st of noa^Laar a3uey* ®§#rasas of aSlt warntosaaat« tba soatfe maapaoa sad okaaagaa. Dallaya. 2a too lasts* aass th® 1»  dsposltiaa osettvzad labile •to®Qkmm^m the mom mamnAf  ©aux Lake, the is*  »#tiri#t®€ hud a  imw&i  as* #e<»g**Ni by  glaeial  past of tk* tyaagk, aoatk of tks pssas&t  ctamimg sffteet* and late a «?s  ?a@-  $wa®4 s«tte8Ba?A bord-  •nog tea  glaslsr. 'Tributary atraana flowi33g iuto ttee@ ^ aK-aa da,>o3ited the  oxtenslTTO  terraces of sm«s stlta* La««s*»*» depesits of elsy w n  a«#flsJa&yla the oortfeem fart ef ttaa attwwgaa M k ? ,  las*  sis®  fsas>  ®oea ©f ttoao ©lay  Aapaalta r»aeki®g * ieptii ®f forty fast. P#«t-#.a®i«4 woaiaa eaaaiatet saisly  of  stress* earviag  tsllaya tiiroe^i tl® gl&eial Iste torr»s@» aad ieeuatrine  ^rpoalta, la f*»s formr  OAS@  £m mm®  mm  Jbs»a A i s *  tunatealaafcariai  4  sorted a«oordl«g to particle • l a * .  mere ar© tiso Mia types of weatherisg proeesaea opwatlng la thla region aows kaollalzatioa and skeletization, ^teoletiaation of parent jsaterlal involves only lasehaaieelteraeJatowa*without any eteileai altsrstloii.- fkis groeeae i a occurring to a leaser extent now but certainly during the early y*«A^*«ial peart©! i t nlmymd a *e*y almtflcmt role. xaoMsAaatio* *» the  eheaieal faasafttloa of alays by tha mmsvm. of eosae cf the cilice froa the parent materiel ami the optfeMtata* of sets j ^ t i r n ^ i l i e a i , © clay®. It l a mm chief weatltering process operatic mm.  of tfes soil laming processes there  are three min ones taking place; ^lanla&tioa, gesfellaatloa end jgteteattaa. HeianSaatSe®  the SftfUlOMrt&om of organic aafttar late the- asassal  bo*laoas c f the soil profile. this la the woe* pr&vaLcnt ps^ae** &i t o l l f»»tttton In th® Interior drytelt. If ^salts in «*©fiss»ati©«of profiiaa having an %  or salanlzad horizon, beneath the surface litter, «Meli is a mixture of  black orpttic Mterial «wl ssiaaml soil aswl wraps gradually into the S horizon, l a many of these soils, especially those with aoady texture aad poor structure, there ia no definite boaniaryfestwaantte xmlmimd layer and the it horiaoa.  The &j*©eea» of goieollzatton i s mmlM&siblf mom  ®«flex* Infiit-  rating water carries the hmmm cud soluble isateriala tram the surf nee  5  layers down into the mineral horizons. The leached surface layer then has an abundance of hydrogen ions and i s a c i d . Bacterial decomposition of organic matter i s inhibited aad a thick humus layer accumulates on the surface, i n f i l t r a t i n g water which passes through the h w s layer i s reinforced with organic acids and carbonic acid froa dissolved carbon dioxide and brings about the reduction of iron and aluminum eesquloxides and their transport to the lower horizons. 3n the lower horizons the sesquloxides are precipitated and an U l u v i a l or B horizon i s formed. In addition to the downward movement of the iron and a l i a a i i » sesquloxides, colloidal materia,! i s also translocated. Under aeid conditions the organic and inorganic colloids o f the upper h o r i sen are dispersed and i n this condition can be easily moved down into the profile where floeculation occurs and the colloids are deposited. In the Interior drybelt the process of podsolization has given r i s e to the Eatermountain Pedsol S o i l s . In the Dark Brown and Black S o i l s , because of lower precipitation, only the f i r s t phase of the podsolization process takes place. Infiltrating water removes some of the soluble ions to produce a degraded or leached condition. Certain soils are influenced by the l a t e r a l movement of groundwater, this process i s called gleissation and the resultant soils are c l a s s i fied as Groundwater Azonal s o i l s . Lateral moving groundwater counteracts the process of podsolization by depositing i n the profile soluble salts and colloids which i t carries. When large amounts of colloidal material are deposited a sticky gley horizon results. In addition the gley layer has a mottled colour of red and bluish grey, from fluctuations i n the groundwater level and alternating conditions of oxidation and reduction.  6  Climate  The climate of the yellow pine region consists of cool winters, hot summers and low precipitation. The average annual precipitation ranges from 9 - 2 4 inches and the seasonal distribution has two peaks, one in winter and the other la summer. The summer peak is of considerable significance as It occurs at an important time during the growing season, in the middle of a dry period. The precipitation pattern is governed by two Influences, the Maritime influence and the Continental influence. In higher or more exposed  locations (e.g. Merritt and Salmon Arm) the Maritime influence is more pronounced, resulting in a winter (December and January) maximum. The Continental influence is present In the lower and more northerly stations (e.g. Kamloops and Pentieton) with a summer (June) maximum resulting. The average frost-free period ranges from 170-198 days, although certain localities have  a shorter period. Merritt, for example, has a frost-free period which is less than 125 days. Chapman (1952) has classified the climates of British Columbia using the Koppen system. The valley bottoms of the Okanagan and South Thompson Rivers are grouped as Middle Latitude Steppe (BSk), with cold-semi-arid conditions and with evaporation exceeding precipitation. The higher elevations above the valley bottoms are grouped into the Mcrothermal Climate, Humid Continental - cool summers (Dfb). Other areas in this region, mainly in the valley bottoms, are classified as Hun&id Continental - hot, dry summers (Dsa) and Humid Continental - cool, dry summers (Dab).  7  Vegetation^ As a result of the present topography and climate, the vegetation i a sonally s t r a t i f i e d .  The altitudinal ranges are sot r i g i d f o r the d i f -  ferent vegetational groups, bat vary from valley to valley and according to direction of exposure and other factors, nevertheless approximate figures can be indicated for these altitudinal ranges. In the valley bottoms grasslands are present, up to approximately 2500 feet above sea l e v e l . this i s tha Horns ponderoaa forest, between 2000 and 3500 feet.  Above Tha  Pseudotaaga aaaaieaii forest occurs at 3000 to 4500 feet. On the heighta, between 4500 and 7000 feet, i s the Picea Engelmannii - Abies lasiocarpa forest, which thins out to alpine meadows at heights above 7000 feet.  Biseassiou OF son  TEXTURE  An investigation of s o i l texture i s a limited aspect of the overall study of yellow pine forest cojarauaities. nevertheless the single factor of s o i l texture has considerable significance. Tha publications of m d e  (1935),  D&ubenmire (1947), lata and ©handler (1946) have dealt thoroughly with tha ecological importance of s o i l texture. S o i l texture influences nutrient content, structure, aeration, water holding capacity, i n f i l t r a t i o n of water, rate of water movement, root penetration and s o i l temperature. The following are features of coarse sandy soils: low nutrient content (cation capacity low) poorly aggregated good porosity for exchange of metabolic gases low water holding capacity rapid i n f i l t r a t i o n of water, hence subject to leaching and poor i n  8  nutrients rapid capillary movement of water, but total distance of movement snorter eaay root penetration more favourable temperatures for plant growth. Heavy elay soils have the following properties: high nutrient content good aggregation unlaaa deflocculated poor aeration high, water holding capacity impervious to water, or slaw infiltration of water slow capillary movement of water, out can move for longer distances resistant to root penetration mere stable temperatures. In general the optimum textural conditions for forest growth is a loam rather than a coarse aand or fine clay, fhe influence of soil texture on moisture availability results in a complex relationship in arid regions. In such regions grasses are favoured on fine soils and forests on coarse textured soils. In dry areas light rains can be totally held aa hygroscopic water in heavy soils. Lata and Chandler state that regeneration of P. ponderosa in the southwestern United States is poor on deep volcanic cinder soils, but when underlain with clay or loam good growth occurs* Wilde has made several applications of texture to forestry and silviculture. Ha has developed a rapid field method for determining the proportion of fine material in a soil. He has classified Wisconsin soils for planting into six classes on the basis of texture. In forest nurseries  he recommends a soil of 15 - 25 percent fine material to assure balanced nutrients and water conditions. In addition he has devised a scale based en the Interaction of organic matter and fine material, the requirements of organic matter being lower when a higher percentage of fine material is present. This scale has been applied In the selection of suitable soils for the planting of four tree species. In forest managementtfUderecommends light cutting aad thinning on heavy soils to aid in the control of weedy species. Soil texture has a direct effect upon the moisture equivalent, and several equations have been formulated for deriving the moisture equivalent from textural values. These equations ©an be applied i f the soils are not too variable and more accuracy can be obtained when correction factors are applied and i f different equations are used for soils having different percentages of fine material.  mwm  OF LITffiiTttlE  Thorough ecological investigations in the Pinus ponderosa region have been rather few and most of the literature concerning such work has been published in relatively resent times. Whitford and Craig <lfl8) described five forest types of the interior drybelt of British Columbia. The following Is a short summary of these five typesi Sage-Brush Type Present in low valleys at elevations from 1000 feet - 3000 feet above sea level. Grass and Semi-Open Forest Types  10  ]* the lower elevations from 1000 - 3000 feet. The grasslands are characteristically eompessd of Agropgroa apjeatua and are bordered on their upper limit by semi-open forests composed of P. ponderosa. Pseudotsuga. Pirns contorta. TeHow Pine Type Present on dry* well-drained soils at elevations of 1500 feet 2500 feet and up to 3500 feet on south slopes . This type was described as occurring on upper bench lands and slopes and in the south on lower benches and ©atoevalley floor. The stands were pur© or mixed with Pseudotsuga. Pinus cqfitorta, I^rix occidentals. Interior Douglas-Fir Type Immediately above the yellow pine type at elevations of 2000 2500 feet up to 4000 - 4500 feet, and occurring at lower altitudes in the southern part of the area. Stands were mixed with Yellow Pine when bordering on the yellow pine type. Douglas-Fir - Western larch Type Occurring under temperature conditions intermediate between the yellow pine type and Douglas-fir type, and converging with the yellow pine type in dry sites. The altitudinal range is 1800 feet up to 3500 - 4000 feet. In 1927 the Finnish forest ecologiet Ilvessalo (1929) made some observations of some of the forest communities of North America. His main interest was in th® stands of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta. However some of the stands which he investigated in the Slcamous, Kamloops and Ashcroft districts contained Pinus ponderosa. He describes the vegetational sanation with Artemisia tridentata near the river (Thompson R.), Pinus ponderosa stands above i t from 2000 to 3000 feet, stands of Pseudotsuga menaiesii and  11  IAHX occldentalls above 3000 feet, and Pieea Engelmannii - Abies lasioearpa stands at the highest elevations. He distinguishes five types i n the Dry Forest Group (Xerophile Forests), three of which are pertinent here. Arctostaphylos type On very dry southern and southwestern slopes and on poor gravelsandy s o i l ©h l e v e l ground. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi i s the characteristic species with abundant lichens (Peltlgera spp. and Oladcnla spp.) and Carex spp. Mention i s made of a type drier than this one which consists mainly of Artemisia trldentata. with Achillea sp. and Antenrisria p a r v l f o l l a . Calamagrostie - Aretostaphyloa type A type r i c h $m Cal&igasroatis rubsseeas, and Arctcstaphjlos u v a - y s i , and with an abundance of Agropyrcn app., Pea spp. and other grasses, Boss acieularls, P e ^ g e r a spp. and mosaes. Calaaagrostis type Mch i n Calamagrostia rubesoens, and other grass species, and a well developed forb layer. A few years following this work Kujala made a more detailed i n v e s t i gation of forest types i n Canada. (Kujala, 1945)  His work i n the interior  drybelt of B r i t i s h Columbia consisted mainly of further amplification and more detailed analysis of the work i n i t i a t e d by ELvessalo. In addition to the forest types established by ELvessalo, Kujala also describes a fellima tenella - Danthonia spjoata community. This i s the only community established by him which contains an abundance of Pjnus ponderosa. Weaver and Clements' book "Plant Ecology", published i n 1929, contains an ecological classification of the vegetation of fforth America. According to these authors the Yellow Pine forests of British Columbia come under the Petran montane forest : Pinus - Paeudotsuga association, which i s  12  one of two associations composing the Montane forest s Finns - Pseudotsuga Formation. Halliday, i n his classification of Canadian forests, used Weaver and Clements' system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , with minor modifications, (Halliday, 1937). He added two more formations (forest regions) and introduced a new ecological unit termed forest section. The forest section i s a category intermediate i n rank between the formation and association of Weaver and Clements. I t i s an area within a formation which i s marked by the presence of certain associations which d i f f e r from the other parts of the formation. A forest section i s the result of variation i n local climate, geological structure, character of surface deposits, topography and drainage. H a l l i day »s classification of the Pinus ponderosa forest i s : Montane Forest Region, XeHew Pine and Douglas F i r Section. Daubenmire i n 1942 has published a preliminary survey of the vegetation of the Columbia plateau east ofteeColumbia River i n Washington and Idaho. Ha distinguished a number of grassland and forest zones which he subdivided into a number of plant associations. The three grassland zones are Artemisia tridentata - Agropyron spicatum sons, Agropyron spicatum Pea seeunda sons, Festuea ldahoensis sons. Four forest zones were l i s t e d : ponoeroaa aone, Pseudotsuga t a x i f o l i a zone, Thuja plicata - Tsuga heterophyUa zone, Picea engelmannii - Abies lasiocarpa zone. This study dealt mainly with the shrub and grassland vegetation but mention was made of a Pinus ponderosa association present i n the northern part of the Artemisia tridentata - Agropyron spicatum aone on the "scablands" (basaltic outcrops) around the Okanagan Highlands. Recently (Daubenmire, 1952) has described i n detail the forest communities, defining four associations i n the Pinna ponderosa zone and two associations i n the Pseudotsuga t a x i f o l i a  13  zone* The following is a brief outline of this classification: Pinus ponderosa  zone  1. P. ponderosa - Agropyroa spicatum - an edaphic climax, on coarse soils with sparse humus, low eation capacity and slightly acid. Mention i s mads of variations within this association where Stipa Columbiana ©r Artemisia tridentata dominate. 2 . P. ponderosa - Pnrshla tridentata association - an edaphic climax, «n alluvial soils which are slightly acid and have somewhat lower cation capacities and water holding capacities. 3. P. ponderosa - Syaphorioarpos rlvularia association - a climatic climax, on loams with lower pH, and undulating topography. 4. P. ponderosa - Physocarpus malvaceus association - a topographic eliaa® ia that i t is topographically protected from Insolation and therefore more moist, leaching is greater but the pH i s higher and there i s a lower degree of hydrogen ions than in the Pinussympericarpos association. Paeudotsuga taxifolfo zone 1. Psecdotsuga taxifolja - Physocarpus malvaceus association - a restricted climatic climax, but a topographic climax when occurring along dry ravines and north slopes i n drier areas and on south exposures in higher altitudes. Surface organic matter is greater and soils ar® mora acid than in the Pinus - Physocarpus stands. 2 . Peeudotsuga taxlfolia - Calamagrostls rubescens association - at altitudes lower than the preceding association and restricted to the northern parts of that region. Spilsbury and Tisdale (1944) have made a study of zonation of vegetation and soil in the Kamloops district. This study was carried out on the  14  Tranquille range which possesses uniform soil texture, parent material and exposure. They determined s i x zones each confined within certain altitudinal ranges and each having distinctive s o i l and plants. Pinus ponderosa i s present i n a seventh, sporadically occurring zone at 2100 to 3000 feet above sea l e v e l , above the lower Grassland Zone and replacing the Middle and Upper Grassland Zones. The soils associated with i t resemble dark brown earth and "on the average s o i l texture was a l i t t l e coarser, stones more p l e n t i f u l and pH a l i t t l e lower than f o r comparable grassland s o i l s " . Basalts o f further study of these grasslands was published i n 1947 by Tisdale. This is mainly an amplification of the f i r s t work and also an investigation of the communities conditioned by grazing and edaphic factors. The region was also studied by Tisdale from the standpoint o f grazing of forest ranges. Of the three forest rang© types (Pinus ponderosa. Pseudotsuga t a x i f o l i a , P|fea Sngelmanqii - AMgs lasiocarpa) the Pseudotsuga t a x i f o l i a ranges are the most important. The P. ponderosa ranges are more restricted i n extent but afford good grazing and are open and readily accessible to livestock. The s o i l survey report for the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys was published i n 1949 (Kelley & Spilsbury, 1949). Four zonal soils were d i s tinguished: the Brown S o i l Zone, Dark Brown S o i l Zone, Black S o i l Zone, and Inter-mountain Pod sol Zone, Of these four zonal s o i l s , a l l except the Black S o i l Zona support Pinus ponderosa stands although these are most abundant on tha Dark Brown and Intermountain Podzol zones. Other s o i l groups on which Pinus ponderosa occurs are the Groundwater Asonal soils and unclassified soils consisting of "eolluvial fan rubble4' and "rough mountainous land".  15  METHODS OF STUDY Field Method* S o i l samples were collected In a number of stands of the ten Yellow Fine plant associations*  The samples were taken from each horizon of  the profile and were a i r dried as soon as possible. Field notes were made of the location, altitude, slope of ground, direction of exposure, and the plants growing adjacent to the s o i l p i t . A description was made of the s o i l profile i n regard to the depth o f the various horizons, structure, apparent texture, colour, moisture, apparent glelzation and podzolization, depth of roots and presence o f carbonates as shown by effervescence with hydrochloric acid. Laboratory Methods Each sample was pulverized i n a mortar to break up a l l lumps, and the s o i l was then passed through a 2 mm. sieve ( i o . 10 A.S.T.M.). The two parts of the sample were placed in separate containers and weighed. By this means the percentage of gravel (particles greater than two millimeters) was determined. The s o i l samples were pre-treated with hydrogen peroxide to remove the organic matter, and with hydrochloric acid to remove the carbonates. Since this mechanical analysis Is based on a definite weight of s o i l , the amount of organic matter and carbonates which w i l l be lost by pre-treatment must be taken into account and the weight of the sample Increased to allow for this l o s s . To determine the amount of organic matter and carbonates which would be l o s t , a 10 gram sample was treated f i r s t and weighed, and the loss in weight was applied as a correction factor when weighing the sample to be analyzed f o r texture. The 10 gram sample was placed i n a 100  16 ml. glass beaker and small amounts o f 6 percent hydrogen peroxide added u n t i l effervescence HO longer occurred. The beaker was then placed i n a warm water bath aad small quantities of hydrogen peroxide again added u n t i l effervescence stopped completely. Five m i l l i l i t r e s of .2 H hydrochloric acid was added to the sample aad after allowing i t te s i t f o r a short time the sample was washed and f i l t e r e d . The sample was oven-dried f o r twelve hours at 105° G., cooled, and the weight determined. For mechanical analysis a 100 gram sample was used f o r sands, and a 50 gram sample for a l l other s o i l s . The samples were based on oven-dry weight and corrected f o r loss of carbonates and organic matter. These samples were pre-treated with hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid, washed and f i l t e r e d i n the same manner as described for the 10 gram sample. The s o i l samples were air-dried and 5 ml. of sodium hexa-metaphosphate added and allowed to slake i n d i s t i l l e d water over night. After slaking, the sample was stirred by the dispersing machine, six minutes for the sands, ten minutes for l i g h t sandy loams, 15 minutes for a l l other soils except those which were recognised as being d i f f i c u l t to disperse, i n which ease they were stirred for twenty to twenty-five minutes. The sample was washed into a graduated s o i l cylinder, the hydrometer placed i n the cylinder and d i s t i l l e d water added to increase the t o t a l volume to 1205 s i . for 100 gram samples and 1130 ml. for 50 gram samples. The contents of the cylinder were mixed by turning i t upside down and back several times, the cylinder then placed on a level table and the time noted. Hydrometer readings were made at the end of four minutes and two hours and the temperature of the suspension recorded after both readings. To correct for variation i n the temperature of the suspension, for every degree above 67° F. 0.2 grams was added to the hydrometer reading, and 0.2 grams was subtracted for every degree below 67° F. The percentages of sand, s i l t and clay were calculated  17 i a the following  % Sand - 100 -  <g®nreeted reading at 4. mias.) . 100 (Weight of sample)  % Clay -  % S i l t • 100 - {% Sand • % Clay) A mechanical analysis, for percentages of gravel, sand, s i l t and clay, of a number of profiles each represented by several samples, yields a large quantity of data. This data can be presented by using a textural classification, such as that published by Davis and Bennett (192?), and the United States Department of Agriculture, (1951). Average values of sand, s i l t and clay are calculated by horizon for each p r o f i l e . A triangular graph i s used, each side of which i s marked off i n units of percentage.  0ns  aide of the triangle represents tha percent of sand, another side the percent of s i l t and the third the percent of clay. The area within the triangle i s divided into a number o f textural classes, i n this work eleven classes were used. By plotting the average values for the three fractions the textural class can be determined for each horizon.  DISCUSSI0B OF METHODS Stokes* Law (1851) l a the basis for a l l mechanical analyses which separate the s o i l fractions by means of their settling velocities. This law states that the settling velocity of a solid particle i n a liquid varies with the radius of the p a r t i c l e . The formula derived from t h i s law 1st  18  V -  2/9  . (p -  4)  «. r  2  II  where V g r a D d  • • -  velocity of sedimentation acceleration due to gravity radius of spherical particles coefficient of viscosity of the liquid density of the spherical particles density of the liquid  In applying Stokes' law to soil particles certain assumptions must he made. It must be assumed that the particles are spherical and smooth. As this i s not the case the equivalent radius i s used* i.e., th® radius of a sphere of the same material which would f a l l with tee same velocity as the particle i a question. The particles must be larger than the molecules of the liquid. It is assumed teat the settling velocity of th® larger sand particles follow Stokes' law.  Sine® the density and viscosity of tee liquid will vary with  temperature, this factor must be kept constant. The temperature used for making mechanical analysis i s 67° P. (20® C ) .  With small variations from  this temperature, measurements can be corrected by applying a correction factor. However wide variations in the temperature of the suspension during measurement will give inaccurate results due to the convection currents interfering with the settling. Ifeny methods of mechanical analysis have been developed using the sedimentation principle. The following i s a summary of the methods most commonly used: KLutriation Methods These methods separate the soil fractions by allowing thm to settle out in moving water. In slow moving water only the finest particles are kept in suspension, in fast moving water some of the larger particles will remain suspended as well. The Sehdne apparatus (1867) consists of a  19  cone-shaped vessel with an outlet and Inlet tube. The s o i l suspension i s placed In the cone and water i s run through from the bottom tube at such a rate that only the finest partieles w i l l be washed out through the upper outlet, the stream of water i s continued u n t i l no more of the finer particles come out.  The speed o f the water i s then increased so th® next siaed p a r t i -  cles w i l l be washed out. In t h i s manner each s o i l fraction i s washed out, caught and weighed. The Kopecky apparatus (1930) consists of three vessels of different diameter connected to one another. Mater i s run through tha apparatus at an exaet velocity, entering the small tube f i r s t . Since this tube has a smaller diameter, the speed of the water w i l l be most rapid and a l l particles except the coarsest w i l l be washed through into the second tube* A gradual decrease i n upward velocity of tee water continues through each o f the three tubes of different diameters and the various fractions w i l l settle out i n each of the three tubes. Whan the water leaving the last vessel i s completely clear, the settling out has been completed. Beaker Method (Osborne, 1886) The coarse sands are removed by washing through a sieve, and after drying this portion i s weighed and i t s percentage determined. The fine material i s placed i n a beaker, dispersed and allowed to sediment for a given time at a certain temperature. After sedimenting f o r the specified time, the suspension (containing the clay) i s decanted. This process of dispersing, sedimentlng and decanting Is repeated u n t i l a l l the elay has been collected. Hie elay I s then evaporated, weighed and the percentage determined. The portion remaining i n the beaker contains the s i l t and fine sand, this i s d i s persed and allowed to settle f o r a given time at a certain temperature. The suspension containing the s i l t i s decanted and the process repeated u n t i l a l l the s i l t has been collected. The two fractions, containing the s i l t and fine  20  saad, are evaporated, weighed and t h e i r respective percentages determined, Atterberg Sedimentation Method (1912) This method makes use of a graduated cylinder having a side outlet near the base, A dispersed s o i l i s placed i a the cylinder and when the sand aad s i l t have settled to the bottom the suspension of clay i s drawn o f f through the side o u t l e t . The percentage of elay i s determined by weight. The material i n the cylinder i s dispersed again and when the sand has settled out the suspension containing the s i l t i s removed and the weight and percentage of s i l t determined. The material remaining i n the cylinder corresponds to the sand fraction, Wiegner Sedimentation Method (1918) The apparatus used consists of a glass cylinder to which i s attached a parallel tube of equal length but smaller diameter, the two tubes are separated from one another by a stopcock at the juncture. Water i s placed i a the small tube and the s o i l suspension i n the large cylinder, the suspension i s shaken and the stopcock opened. The difference between the levels of the minisci i n the two tubes corresponds to the amount of s o i l i n suspension at that time. This method i s based on the fact that when two liquids of different densities are placed i n the two arms of an U-tube the liquids w i l l assume different levels according to their densities. The less dense liquid w i l l rise to a higher level than the denser l i q u i d . Pipotte Method (1922-23) The sample i s washed through a sieve to separate the coarse sand fraction. This portion i s weighed and the percentage determined. The percentage of fine sand i s determined by the deeantation method. The remainder of the sample, containing the s i l t and clay, i s completely dispersed, placed  21  1B a graduate cylinder and water added to a certain volume. By means of a pinette. samples of certain volume are withdrawn from definite depths at certain times, fhe depths and times of sampling used should correspond to the l i m i t i n g velocities of the s i l t and clay p a r t i c l e s . By evaporating and weighing the samples one can determine the percentage of material i n suspension at a given time. Hydrometer Method (Bouyoueos, (1927  & 1951)  This makes use of a hydrometer calibrated i n grams per l i t r e .  The  s o i l samples are dispersed and placed i n a graduated s o i l cylinder and dist i l l e d water i s added to bring the t o t a l volume up to 1130 or 1205 ml.  At  the end of four minutes a l l particles greater than .02 mm. (the sands) have settled out and when the hydrometer i s placed i n the suspension the reading w i l l indicate the number o f grams per l i t r e of s i l t and clay i n suspension. At the end of two hours a l l particles greater than .002 mm. ( s i l t and sands) have settled out and a hydrometer reading w i l l indicate the number of grams per l i t r e of clay In suspension. In addition to these laboratory methods of mechanical analysis there are a number of less accurate f i e l d methods i n use. modification of Bouyoucos' method by Wilde  (1935). The  One of these l a a  s o i l i s passed through  a 20-mesh sieve and a sample of approximately 40 grams of the finer material i s placed i n a 125 ce. flask with 1 gram of dispersing agent. Mater i s added to the 100 ee. mark, the flask covered and the contents shaken w e l l . After one minute 60 cc. of the suspension i s placed In a cylinder, a small, spec i a l l y calibrated Cenco-Wilde hydrometer i s floated i n the suspension and the reading made immediately. This reading gives the approximate percentage of fine material ( s i l t and clay) i n the s o i l . For those soils containing  22  more than 35 percent fine material, 30 cc. of the suspension are used and i t i s diluted with water to 60 cc,  fhe hydrometer reading i s multiplied by  two to give the approximate percentage of fine material. One of the most cornmom f i e l d methods I s the textural classification by hand* A handful of s o i l i s moistened and worked i n the palm of the hand u n t i l i t has a paste-like consistency* By feeling the particles of the s o i l the percentages of sand, s i l t and clay are estimated and the s o i l i s classified Into one of the textural groups. With experience a high degree of accuracy can be attained. However, t h i s method has the disadvantage of being qualitative rather than quantitative,  /  the laboratory methods outlined above give quite uniform results. Although the Bouyoueos method shows the most variation from the others, i t has the advantage of being the most rapid method and f o r a mechanical analys i s of a large number of samples I t i s the most p r a c t i c a l . In a l l methods of mechanical analysis the main source of error rests i n the method of d i s pe raion. The sample must have a l l aggregates broken up and the s o i l reduced to a state where a l l particles are broken down to their ultimate size and are acting independently of one another. To obtain this condition the organic matter should be removed. This can best be done by treatment with hydrogen peroxide. A l l soils containing lime should be treated to remove the carbonates, treatment with hydrochloric a d d i s most effective for t h i s . For mechanical dispersion a milk-shake machine i s very e f f i c i e n t . Before the s o i l i s stirred a dispersing agent should be added. Sodium hexametaphosphate i s recommended for t h i s .  23  RESULTS  Of the ten plant eommanities defined, 1 s i x of them have only Finns ponderosa as the dominant trees  Pinna ponderosa - Purahia tridentata asso-  elation and i t s Finns ponderosa - Aristida jLongiseta subassociation; Finns ponderosa - Agropyroa splcatum association and i t s films ponderosa - Stlpa eema|a sabassoclatioo and Pinus ponderosa - Artemisia tridentata subassociation} Plans ponderosa - Ihma glabra association. Th® other four eomwnlties have Psendotsuga Menzieaii as a codominant or dominant species. These are: Pseudotabes f t o i e s i i - Flaws ponderosa - Arctostaphylos uva-ursl association, Fseudotsuga Msnziesii (Mm* ponqerosa) - Arctostaphylos uva-ursl - Calamagrpstis rubeseens association, ^ssudotsuga lisnzieail - Salamagrostis rubeseens association, Pseudotsuea Menziesii - (Pinus ponderosa) - Symphoricarpos albus association. Pinus ponderosa - Afiropyron sg|eato§, association The common associate species of t h i s association are: Festuoa occidentalls ( i n e l . F . ldahoensis), F . scabrella, Poa Cusickli, P. secunda, *M-»g*a c r i s t a t e , Stlpa spp., Carex R o s s i l , Artead.sli| tridentata, Artemisia t r i f i d a . Eriogoaum heracleoides, Jftiajrea pumjlus, Balsamorhiza sagittate, laPin^a aerlceus. geranium viscoslssimum.  This association occurs from low  to middle elevations but i s variable i n i t s habitat features, tree growth and s o i l . The texture varies from sandy loam to clay loam with extremes of loamy sand and clay. The pH values of the B horizon range usually from 5.8 to 8.7. However, two profiles with the highest clay content i n the B horizon were exceptionally acid, i n one case pH 5.48 and i n the other, pH 4.2.  (Tables I and I I )  1 The f l o r i s t i c data of these associations has been supplied by Mr. T. C. Brayshaw.  24 Piatt* ponderosa - Stipa comata subassociation This eojasualty i s similar to the preeeding associatioa but eoatains a higher abundance o f Stipa coaata. S. Columbiana, and other Stipa species. I t i s considered that i t results from overgrazing of stands of tha Agropyron association  which are present on the coarser textured soils*  Consequently  t h i s coffifflunity i s placed as a subassociation of tha Agropyron associatioa* Tha s o i l s are of medium to coarse texture, typically sandy loams, which are generally alkaline or neutral. The pH values of B horizon range from 6,4 to 8.7.  (Table I I I ) Finns ponderosa - Artemisia trideatata subassoeiatloa This eomflMnity i s confined to heavy textured s o i l s ( d a y loam) at  low elevations. I t i s classed as a subassociation o f the Agropyron associatioa and i s considered to result from overgrazing of those stands which occur on fine soils at low altitudes. Comminities of Artemisia tridentata occur mare frequently without the presence of Pinus ponderosa. Tha s o i l profiles are usually  undifferentiated into horizons and are strongly alkaline. Two  of tea s o i l s were extremely uniform throughout tee p r o f i l e , tha t o t a l range of pH being only 7.95 - 8.2.  One profile showed the effects of a small amount  of hunts i n f i l t r a t i o n , the surface having a pB of 6,4 and the lower horizon having a maximum of 8.69.  (Table 1?)  ESaua ponderosa - Parshla tridentata association The common associate speeies of this association are: Aristlds loagiseta. Boa secunda, P. Cusiekii. Phlox l o n g l f o l i a , Opuntia f r a g i l i s . This association Is confined toteesouthern part of the Okanagan f a l l e y , from Kelowna southward. I t occurs at low elevations with low precipitation and high temperatures. The parent material from which the soils have developed i s coarse river terraee deposits and the resultant soils are usually  25  sands and occasionally sandy loams, fhe surfaee layer i s serai-decomposed U t t e r intermixed with sand and has a pH range from 4*9 to 5.8. i s a mel&nized % which ranges from pH 6.2 - 7.4.  Below this  In the heavier textured  s o i l s (sandy loams) the pH values of B horizon are higher, varying from 7.0 3.6.  The pH values of this horizon i n the sandy s o i l s range from 6.8 - 7.6.  (Table f ) Pinus ponderosa - Arlstlda longjseta subassociation This community i s considered to result from the burning of stands of the Parshia association, and i s therefore placed as a subassociation of that association. The common associate species are: Stjpa oomata. Chaenactis Seuglasii, G i l l a pungaas, Eriogonum njveua, Fhaoelia l i n e a r i s . The s o i l s are sands or sandy loams and are similar to those of the Purshia association. (Table VI.) Haga ponderosa - Bhus glabra association The common associate species arst Lewisil,  S&HIPUGUS  Bhus radlcaas, Philadelphus  ulauca. Amelanchiei* a l B i f o l i a , Panicum Soribnaerianum,  Steatoaaoaeria t e n u l f o l l a . This association i s found at the foot of talus slopes and consequently the s o i l i s extremely rocky. The s o i l texture i s coarse, typically loamy sands, with a high percentage of gravel. Lateral moving groundwater i s sometimes psesent In the lower horizons. The pH i s slightly aeid or cireumneutral, the values for the B horizon ranging from 6.3 - 7.3.  (Table V I I )  Psendotsuga MenzJeaii - Finns ponderosa - Arctostaphylos uva-ursi association Mixed stands of Pseudotsuga MenzJesll and Pinus ponderosa occur, or these species may compose pure stands. The common associate species are  26 Cladonia g r a o i l i a , Fragarla virginiana, Allium cernuum, Anemone multiflda. Junlperus communis, foniperaa seopulorum, Penstemon fruticosus. Sedum stenppetalum, Sojidage a&saeuriensla, Apoeynum aadrosaesjfoliuta. Antennarla HowalUt, Carex eonainaoidas, Shepherdia canadensis, Ceanothus yelutl^ms. This association occurs at medium elevations on level to sloping ground. The soils are coarse with a large amount of gravel, and are generally sandy loam or loamy sand, with extremes of sand. pH values vary from slightly acid to alkaline. The B horizonteaa range of 6.4 - 8.8. (Table VIII.) *mw»%*m  M w i — U - GalaaaRrostls rubssceas association  file commoa associate speeies are: Polytriehua ^unipeyiaum, Aataa£ £ E a £  aaaphajoidas. A. rosea, Lilium oolusibianum, Pea ampla, Arnica cordi—  f o l i a . j ^ ^ t ^ l l a ^ a ^ Jjan-Seojata, ^^thyrus Mja^t^llit, Spiraea lucida. Stands of this association occur at higher elevations, usually on sloping ground. Soils are sandy clay loam to sandy loam which are slightly acid or neutral i n reaction. The humus layer (Ao) i s duff mull which i s underlain by a well developed melanized A^, There i s no conspicuous Ag horlmn present, a l though leaching i s obvious. (Tables IX and X.) m i s s o i l corresponds to the German Braunerde or Russian brunozem s o i l s . Pseudotsuga Msnzieail - (Pinus ponderosa) - Syaphorlearpoa albas association The common associate species are: Spiraea lucida, Salix Bebbiana, Agar glabrum. Pruaas virginiana. Mahonia aquifolium, Crataegus Poatfaaii, Clematis eolumbianum. Pinus ponderosa i s considered as a serai dominant speeies i a this associatioa since i t i s unable to regenerate under a well developed canopy. p H values range from slightly acid to alkaline, the B layer varying from p H 6.0 - 8.65. Lateral moving groundwater i s frequently present i n the lower horizons. The s o i l texture i s sandy loam and  27  aaraaionaUr  aaaay  .gMMWaift  clar lea., (feu*  Ml.)  l*Mg*# - < M s . s g t i i t « } * M s f e ^ i ^ ^ f a s s a i l -  This w o d & H e afe&gf<aat»raa which are a*a£Ur to both the ^k^S^fM* a*»i  ^ N ^ g m ^ f aaacaiaiiaaa. fhe eassaoe *««oai«t* apeeies  Cwaam caBMftMMd4att SI»wlMM*la carriona.i3, F r a ^ l i t atottjatajaa* U l i m  csrouisi. i^eJHK- jtiUaaaiHftafoa. astotea lu-aid^, C'Uuonla. gmsll&M* Satatarliiaai jMflt&^lmsa. Tha ao&a are mmtm with a large assoaat of g?«?®l» a»d range  fsm  imm  (TaMa XI.)  ta<aftfft»a* 1*»a pi values wry from sMgfetljf acid to seutr&i. '  fays t , TVKfcBiv awl f#? « f Tlirae **Wj«i<»n <^«*frsm. { t n f t l w *  tmtz.Oaffto  *  $ If.  (on.)  si*  5.90 43.4 so.a  A.  i  pa  ca.  Si?.  %  4*.  6.00 3S.1  10.4  « % s i , .a . »  6.75 30.7 7*.9 11.5 13.6  7.6  6.55 48.6  *  C«.)  25-30  6.30 43.1 79.4 12.0 8.6  40-50 6.70 45.3  B  50-40  6.69  49.0  6.9  30.9  300-UO 7.15 45.4  ?.o  •.5* 59.4 71,0  8.6 10.1 55*44 6.70 77.6 72.§ 6.5 i t . s  m.Q  #.o 10.0 52-51 4,65 ff.5 75.5 2.6 10.0 §5-#©  «  91.4  «. 2.8  6.36  a i . ca. »  at  6.00 '30.9  2-9  6,44'If .4 53.6  41.0  7.1© 50.6 61.0  1.5.4 23.6  «H»  4.0 21.0 3$*40  »,§  54.1  65-75  C  9.6 ao«3© 6,411 734 ?2.0 10.©. 18.0  4.|0 40.9 81.4  *  0.1  ao»*> 4.#5 544 70.1 13.2 16,7 10-19 it-a©  * P«  5.4  6,73 19.0 49.4 16.6 ,33.1  6.48 21.6  40-50 6.30 a . i  •  40.8  19.0 45.a  7.0 17.5  50-6© 6.15 23.7 40.2  18.6 41.3  §4.1 43.0 14.0 83.0  64-74 9.4ft 56.a 30,0  ao.o 5e.o  90-100 5.4S 53.9  34.6  20,6 44.6  5.6  The following abbreviations are used i n the t a b l e s : H o r i z . - H o r i z o n , G r . - G r a v e l , S a . - Sand, S i . -• S i l t , C I . - C l a y , L - L i t t e r , F - Fermentation l a y e r , M e l . - Melanized l a y e r .  29  4  :  •  *s •  ^—  a  a * n. -i. i • *  g  i  —  *o  ***  #  a  4  m  ~  I a 5 3 5 S ^* i ^ -? i 5  ,  ,  2  p ft ft a  R  ^iZ  £  a  a  S S *. H 8 S %  ^ 8  < «M  9  -11111 1 ii * 2 • •I 3 3 £ 5 3 3 • mi  •1 • 'Junes' • •  ••aSaSSSl''' • » ^ 3 i a a s " ' 1  H m  18  «**  ^9  «4l  S 1 8 8 "#  1  H  p.  «\  -»  **  «*  E 3 H 11 U \ U11 •  A  « •<*  g  -j-  a' ft ^ft  S  j 3«  30  fASu  m.  fm^mm &OG pfi of «• firefll* of ^*4g» subassociation  Laptfc («.) A  0-5  B  15-25 25-35  35-45  65-75  pi  Gravel  I  "• r silt  67.6 1?.2 Ift.S 0.48 7.n 24.® 72.8 16.9 «.22 16,70 18.4 24.5® ?2.3 16.7 a.5f «.4© 9.4 6.95 7.29 7.90  tms  Clay 13.2 11.2 10.3  8.8  11.0 6.6  w.  fMtWT* MS* fll Of a fmtQ* of M%a%i#l» subassociation  apajNie UU«r pl*% srsssby  &J-7.6  silt  %  4.4© 23.6  i f .6 2S.4  .24.®  1.1  36*4 30,0 34.6 44.6 40.6 22.6  33.6  33.0 34.©  33.0  6.1©  7.6-12.? •7.0© 15 .# 14-24 36.6-44.5 6.W 34.© §3.3-63.5 8.50 12.4  ate®  «  f fewsl  loi-ia©® («•»>  6®.6-?#.S S.6#  ma  •I4.f  fl.4-101.6 f . f l  14.3  34.2 38.6  20.S 35.4 16.6  32..0 53.2 27.2  31  ^  4  *i -  m  ^  o*  a  «A  «SH  -  1  a  to•  «  •  q•  4 <i•  4  a * * 80 3 « « • • Q • • 8 • 8• 5  i  :  %  :  -• I I I  *  t  ««V «  *-*  4  -*  <3£  #«  «  o  4- 4- 4 4  e\  * 8 9 t**- t**  I X  -*  *o  o  HJ  e*- e»  I**  «t  o  *  *  <8 «  a s *• a n 3 15 » • ^ si ^ ^ ^^ 2* J 3^ 5a 5* <? «i , "a *. < * 5 «t s 3 5 • as it si » * » R , 2 2 3 2 £ 23 3  * -a  «\ «\  «a  is *s\  ©  l i M ii2 **  '  S « 9,  I 11 l l l f  • * *  i  r*  -f < g • p * * £ * * * $ 8 g 8 ^ ss  «n -  ii  1  *0 4 m « m  **  4 4  8 8  1  *. 1 *; •  n  a ^ 1.  &  *  «t  «n  «t «  &  «  Ct  *  a  f  <s  '  *  ****  *-  f» Q  g Q  3 3*  ®  fi  S  »  «  f  S11111 09  1  32  mm  «  texture aatt f8 of tM» 'ftmfSl#» of .4ri»t4# s u b a s s o c i a t i o n  0-2  *  $  its.) 4.57 «.4Q 6.53 0.10  m.o 91.6  -Cit,  16.4 0-5 7.35 45.3 64.4 17.2 14.8 5-10 7.7043.f S33.6 76.7 62.4 20.0 17.6 3.4 10-20 19.2  4.6  6.780.0? ft.ft 3.i 7.115 2.6 t4.2 6. se®*mf6.7 3.0 2.8 25-35 #.11 6§.f 35-45 7. W .5 2*2 45-55 6.0i 31.0 .CH # . 6 0 55-4* 7.30 0 1 .1 .0160-70 i.05 $2.6 70-80 ?.4f 0.0© f7.4 OJ* 2 2.0 fG-100 7.4* 0.00 9S.4 0.0  10-15  *  56  Or. Sa. a i .  72.6 16.4 10.f 60.0 23.6 16.4 65.0 18.2 16.S  a.oo  tftHtft f l l  Horls.  % fill*  J*  4 *  0-1.0 S.5t  at.«  20-35 45-55  6.4a  36.6  fit. •si.  5.20 5.75 9.6 6.3S 6.8 10-20 6.30 6.4 25-30' 6.40 7.6 35-506.30 «,  mm  5 . » 14.0 §e.o 6.51 i 7 . a 6.49 42.S #5.2  1-5  6  *  10*4 12.7 S.4  0-4  Or. is*. S i . 12.4 10.6 87.2  6.7 24.6 83.0 9.0 52.8 86.4 6.4 57.2 67.4 6.4 49.5 64.4  «I. 6.1 8.0 5.2 6.2  6.8  • •  33  mm fexture  |4I ft »  1  ii  pH o f f e w I  *  Or.  4*. a .  vm  M E Q M  m£ -.rctc.&ta.torlos?  % fiesta a. C )  m  $ f fir. §».  &MMUfcUB  m.  * a.  6.90 19.0 §5*# 6.6 7.6 0*4 6.40 14.6 70.5 13.1 16*4 4-47 4,90 473 64*4 3.7 U . 9 4V» 7.U 3.1 6H.4 21*2 17.0 WW 5.6 10-50 7.01 40.3 73.2 f*s 19.0 4.49 43.6 0T.4 » 1*»59 6.44 14*6 « 15.0 21-55 7.62 27.3 75*1' 39-30 6.69 ..41*6 96.0 1.9 2.1 50-60 : « * S43.9 6J.0 44.9 13.1 0-6  /  leptfe <*•.}  s  s Or.  %  *  *  «i.  a.  Bo  0*. 2  % at.  CI.  0-5 ,6-60 5.6 #.6 us.o .ia.*6 6.4? 31.1 93*7 a*7 5,6 5-13 6.75 15.4 7&.s 16.0 13.2 3-10 6.60 45*9 64.0B J 17,2 13-26 §,7§.34.4 79.0 11.7 9.3 10-24 6*62 43.7 i s u i -5«* 22.2 3040 %ms i a 66.6 .15.6 f.6 .34-35 6.61 '45.4 64.215.6 -20*2 f.6 a.7 S©~60 7.04 57.0 7JUJ SS-6S i*33 31*4 47-9  34  'si  4  *.  a5  a a  ^ i i  *j •• s a  * i  «  XB  j4  g  S P  »  w  5  *  £  *  •  S s  i  s  _  tt  *  *  «  * * a 5s a  aw  m  »  «"#  m  *  % 3  o o 8 - <t *  ?»  ft •$ a «  o .  5  i *£ii •5 1 1 a n a * * f ^t ts 1  «a  ii  O  •5 -t  i  O  «v a\  ©. «a'  O  O  s ss "4 A,A *. <x *. -f a a s 4 •* a s  - 4  «#  s *  ON  •  r-l  •  «@  s  •*«\ •t*- »  « *  £  «*  i s  3  > > • .c*»* * »  « * s a * s  a  t. 8c\ 3<a Sc 3"-SJ »\o S•« 3 o S «e  In ^  #  l i <* * 4 £ * I a £ in  •  1 *  2**  35  4B  {  •  ^ m  -SI *  ^ O • • •  *f <fl3$ ~* «<*«•  * $ ft swift a a a Mi [ s* a at 8M •  •S\  * » • » «\. -43 ^ tft,  h  saw  •avaafcaaaaarit *  1  •  i saa&sisaaa *  s  »*  *  li » I  |  »|  tft\0  « • « • • • • •  * «V*<& »<9  m,*®f*s&*  « f l  M> •4» *® sS  • • • • • • • • 5* f»» . . « . H «ftr»-»ft o *\ «v «?  36  w• f  ***  i v  •»©« *#» » *©•• i v -4 sn «  i  ?|  £3  a£  n  4 4  «*  °i  nl »  !?> #4 «.  S s  lv *ft *  n  *4  S* o» ®* «t « «r» « V • »• »•  «ft  «r»  m  1  «o  m  i  * 8  3 mi  .3  w  5 j  * 8 g © 8 » a 3 ^» *©  n i l t  -f»- <* «•*. -f. -? ~s *t » •< •• » • » • q. * « » © « -f ^ ' -H8 t f i »O O *\  •  Ok  »  *  1 8« 9•  |1 S  2  ®»  e  *  •  •  C*  «  »  •  •*  •  •  a a a a & $ a a  »  •  1  »  «  »  «  »  5 1 I 11 I  «| © q  n  +  ^  •  1  o  q  a ft a s * * a «5 © «® ^ -f © *f * q  •  m•  a  1 a•  i  fl; J i  1  •  m• m ••<&•®>-•  • o • &• ®»•  •  asaas-saasi $ 3 $ e a & » 8 & •  »  »  mull  «  •  m  »  •  •  •  11  o  37  mm • •  «• «.  mil  s §  *i  4  *a  mm » •  m•  a A <i 8  q  .* q  « q  a ©  *  & a  s*  ft  ii  ©•  *a• ©«  q flo  O q 9 «w o  • *\• O•  • «^•  a*a«»38sr  «  m  *  l  *  » * * •  * 8 R  •  «  1  ,  ,  .  , g  «  •  q  8  n  ^  «  m  «•  m •  it a a a  ^ * «s  a*  • •**  *  o  -  ««:§  -f  M  a a  «  J  3  55 « si  * a a a a a s  t J I i  I  *t * *: °.  x] i HI1 i «« ^ «t * J J * 8 a a a a a -a a  t  M  £  8  « ©© m ^ »o * S *q o q s s* i i i  a s s R |  £  ^  ! 1 1 1 11 I I  DISCUSSION I t cannot b© said that s o i l texture i s the determining factor i n tha yellow pins eomicunities. Neverthel ess, textural ranges, typifying each coaoaiBity can be shown. The aretogtaghylsa association i s found at the lowest  a l t l t u d i n a l range of Pseudotsuga HenglssH on th© driest s i t e s . The s o i l texture i s coarse with a high percentage of gravel and sand. The Calamagros-  t i s association i s found at higher altitudes on brum gem soils which are well melanlzed and are often s l i g h t l y leached. The s o i l texture o f these soils I s f i n e r . The Arctostaphylos - Galayagrostls association i s a eoromalty intemedlate to the Arctoataphylos and ealaffla^rostis associations and I s a result ©f overlapping of the vegetation and habitat conditions o f these two associations. Hressal© (1929) briefly described these associations i n his ecological survey i n the Sieamous, Kaadoops and Ashcroft d i s t r i c t s . JDaubena i r e discusses this i n his vegetational study of northern Idaho and Washington. The l a t t e r has established a pseudc^sufia t a ^ f o l l a / C a l a i ^ r o s t i s rubescens association, containing Calaaagrostis rubescena and usually accompanied by Arctostaphylos uva-ursl.  TMs coaimunity of Daubenmire's i s very  restricted and present only i n the northernmost parts of eastern Washington and northern Idaho, at Kiddle elevations. The extensiveness of these three associations i n British Columbia seems to j u s t i f y defining the® as three distinct associations. The distinctive features of the awwahorlearpos association are the higher summer precipitation and lower evaporation, frequent seepage water, and soils of sandy loams and sandy clay loams. This association seams to correspond closely to Daubenaire's Pinus ponderosa/Sywptoricarpos r i v a l a r i s association, although there i s considerable difference i n the s o i l pH,  39  states that this association has the highest percent saturation with hydrogen loss and the lowest pH, the range ia the values of thrc film  betel 5-5 - * . l * .  th« pft values #1 the British Columbia soils  seid-tiecoaposed Utter -5.4 - §.f» % 5.95 - 6.95, B 6.6® ^ 1.65. H» «*>rity of i,he pH values Xer the B horizon were alkalis* ©r aemtral, although one profile has: H§ 4,1 .ia ttie u?«a?.B:9 ?.! ia the lowsr B, sod 8.0 ia the C.  m e features which are sharast^lstlc of the qm§ its oesawease em ©alluvial nfctft* mtk the stoainess of the soil, frequent serfage* and high gravel content with loamy sand texture. Stands of the ParshU aseoci*tiori are distinctive for tkeir high ami dir dtete, sad soils of sandy texture sith law age* of gravel, the fact that this c«mtlty occurs only .in the part of the Gkaaagan faHey &&d in the iosteaay '/alley as far north as ESmberley is probably set related ts ecological factors as th® valleys to the north ( e g . , Thompson and Meola) have sSailar habitat conditions which could conceivably support Purshia stands. Possibly a temporal barrier is the restricting factor ia its distribution, this association 1© eUaiiar to the Pinus p^dero-sVPurshla trMs#»ta *eeoci*tioa of iaubenmire's, although hie soU pH values are l»v«r. Stands ©f the Aristida ssteassoclaUoa have bean observed by Erayshaw which have a large number of dead Parshla shrubs, this seems to indicate that the Aristid& subassociation is a result of fire to the Parshla association. Other than the floristic dlff« two communities are vary similar i n their features. Afiroavroa asaodatioa is very extensive in Its shows considerable varlabilits'. this association is similar to apieatma asi>oe.iation in that it occurs ©a  40  s o i l s aad stony loams. However two of th© profiles analysed showed high slay content and are classed as clay loams and clays. These soils are ale© mare alkaline than those described by Daubenmire. The two subassociations o f t h i s association, the Artemisia subassociation and the Stipa sabasseciation are restricted t o fine soils and coarse soils respectively and observations of enclosed areas within the stands of the subassociations see® to indicate that they have resulted from overgrazing •* Agmpyrom stands.  S©Hs from the stands of the tea Unas ponderosa communities were collected and analysed f o r texture. The mechanical analysis was done by Bouyoueos' hydrometer method after the soils had been treated to remove organic matter and carbonates. The ranges i n s o i l texture were shown f o r each coaaainity. (Fig.I) The ranges ares Agropyron association - sandy loam to clay loam with extremes of sand and clay. Stipa subassociation — sandy loam. Artemisia subassociation - clay loam. Paranja association - generally sand, occasionally sandy loam. Aristida snbassociation - sand to sandy loam. Arctostaphylos association - sandy loam or loamy sand to sand. Aretostaphrlos - Calamagrostis association - sand to sandy loam. Calamagrostis association - sandy clay loam to sandy loam. Sjiaphorlcarpos association - Sandy loam and sandy clay loam. Other significant habitat features were pointed out for the different communities.  41  AG.  m 5-81  j  .—  HI  83.3 81.2 91.4  in  36.8  ART.  .4.3  34.2  ST. CA. ARC.  A-C  PU.  i y  m 3.9, A i $3 A , ,  BJA  A  92.0 94.8  '  ,2.7 i  1 i  96.8  CLAY SILT SAND L GRAVEL  ARI.  SY. RH. Percentages of cloy, silt, sand and grovel of soil profiles representing the ten Pinus ponderosa communities.  42  BIBLIOGRAPHY Baver, L.D., 1948* Soil Physics. 2a ed. Sew York, John Wiley and Sons. , G.B., 1928, «The hydrogen peroxids-hydroshlorie acid treatment ©f soils as a method of dispersion ia mechanical analysis*, Soil Scienea, 24*459-470. , G.J., 1927* "The hydrometer as a new method for the mechanical analysis of soils", goil Selene*, 23:343-353. 1951, "A reeaUhration of the hydrometer method f@r analysis of soils*, Agronomy Journal, 43, no.9. , J., 1932, Plant Socfolo|y, transl. G.D.Pmller and H.S. Conard, *nr York, leSraw-mil Book Go. Pa^g«soslcio#e, 2d. ed., Vienna, Springsrferlag. Brisk, V.C. and Faratad, L., 1949, "The physiography of the agricultural areas of British Columbia", Scientific Agriculturs, 29:273301. Chapman, J.D., 1952,"Climate of British Columbia", Transactions of the fifth British Columbia Hatural lesourees Conference, Victoria. Daubenmire, R.F., 1942, "An ecological study of the vegetation of southwestern ti/ashington and adjacent Idaho", Ecological fcnographs, 12*53-79. 1943, "Vegetational donation in the Rocky Mountains", Botanical Beview. 9:325-393.  1947, Plants and environment. lew lark, John WLley and •  1952, "Forest vegetation of northern Idaho and adjacent Washington and its bearing on concepts of vegetation classification", Ecological Monographs. 22:301-330.  Davis, S.O.I., and Bennett, H.H., 1927, "Grouping of soils on the basis of mechanical analysis", U.S.D.A. circular 419. 14 pp. Halliday, W.E.D., 1937, "A forest classification for Canada", Canadian Dominion Forest Sendee Bulletin. 89. 50 pp.  43  rhressal©, X., 1929, "Notes on sosae forest (site)fcjpei n North America" Acta Forestalia Fermica, 34:1-111. Jenny, H., 1941, Factors of s o i l formation, lew York, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc. Joseph, A.F., and Martin, F.J., 1923* "The Moisture equivalent ©f heavy s o i l s " , Journal of Agricultural Science, 13145-49. Kelley, C.C, 1940, "The nature of s o i l parent materials i n southern B r i t i s h Columbia", S c i e n t i f i c Agriculture. 20:301-307. Kelley., C.C, and Spilsbary, E.H., 1949, "Soil survey of the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys British Columbia", Report No.3 of l ^ ^ i ^ f ^ * ft"^*, tt« ?£^j% Xm^ Departoent of Agrieiatwe i n co-operation *&th laperiffieBtal Farias Service Dominion Departaent of Agriculture, Ottawa. Kilmer, V.J., and Alexander, L.F., 1949, "Methods ©f making mechanical analysis of s o i l s " , S o i l Seienee. 68:15-24. Kujala, V., 1945, "Waldvegetationsontersuchungen i n Kaaada", Acad. S c i . Fezm. Sec. A, I.V. Biologica #7, 434 pp. Larsen, J.A., 1923, "Associations of trees, shrubs and other vegetation i a northern Idaho forests", JBcolpjnr* 4:63-67. 1930, ^Forest types of the northern Rocky Mountains and their climatic controls", Ecology. 11:631-672. Luts, H.J. and Chandler, R.F., 1946, Forest S o i l s . Mew York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Middleton, H.E., 1920, "The aoisture equivalent i n relation to the analysis of s o i l s " , S o i l Science. 9:159-167. Otttsa, E.P., 1953, Fmdamentals of Ecology. Philadelphia, W.B.Saunders Co. Province of British Columbia, 1951, "Climate of British Columbia", Report f o r 1950, Department of Agriculture. Victoria, B.C. P a r i , A.N. and Sarup, A., 1937, "The destruction of organic matter i n the preliminary treatment of soils for mechanical analysis", S o i l Science, 44*«7-89. Vinson,  1949, Soils - their o r i g i n , constitution ana c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . London, George Allen and Unwin, L t d .  Bowles, C.A., 1949, "Soils of B r i t i s h Columbia", Proceedings of the Second B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, Victoria.  44  Russell, Sir E.J., 1950, Soil Conditions and Plant Growth. 8th ed., New York, Longmans, Green and Co. Smith, A,, 1917, "Relation of the Mechanical analysis to the moisture equivalent of soil.", Soil Science, 4>471-4?6. Soil Survey Staff U.S. Department ©f Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils and Agricultural fagineeriag, 1951, Soil Survey Manual, U.S.D.A. Handbook No.18. SpUsbary, B.H. and tisdale, £•¥., 1944, "Soil-plant relationship and vertical zonation i n the southern interior of British CelirtbiaS Scientific A g r i e u l t ^ , 24*395-436. Tisdale, B.M., 1947, "The grasslands ©f the soathern interior ©f British Columbia", leoloiar. 28*346-382. 195©* "Grazing of forest lands in interior British Gel«bla«, Journal of Forestry, 4ti8S6-i6G. Toogood, J.A. and Peters, T.W., 1953, "Comparison of methods of mechanical analysis of soils*, C^nadiaa Journal of Agdejltaral 33*159-171. » G.T., 1954,to»trodugtton to Climate, 3rd ed., Hew lork, MeGraw-mil Book Co. £ » •  Tyner, E.H., 1939, "The ase of sodium aexametapsosphate for dispersion of soils for mechanical analysis", Soil Science. 4*106-113. Veihaeyer, F.J. et. al., 1928, "Some factors affecting the moisture equivalent of soils", International Congress of Soil Science, First Proc. and Papers I, pp. 512-534. leaver, J.E. and Clesseata, F.S., 1938* Plant Beolggy. lork, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc.  2nd ed.,  Mew  Iffoitford, H.N. and Craig, R.D., 1918, "Forests of British Columbia", Gostodssion of Conservation Canada, Cow&ttee on Forests. Wilde, S.A., 1935, "The significance of texture in forestry and its determination by a rapid field method", Journal of Fo 33*503-508. 1944, Forest soils and forestfflrowtl,Waltham, Chronica Botanies Co.  45  APFSffiH List of Plant Species and their Authors Abies |saioearpa (Hook.) Nutt. Acer &*mm  Torr.  Agropyroa -fjjcaJa  .MMm mmm  (Pursh) Seribn. & Smith  -  aoth  Ajtelanehier mlmjftlU ***»9m  (Mutt.) Mutt.  ^l^#g„ Poir. (-A. globosa Mutt.)  AnteBaarla snaphaloldes, Rytib. ' Aa^snnarla HoweUli Or sens Aatssnsrla rosea (D.e.Baton) Greene Apoeynum anirosaemlfoliam 1. Arctostaphylos aya-ural (1.) Sprang. Arlstlda Mm?*** Steud. var.  robuata  Amea eordifolia Hook. Artemisia trJfida Nutt. Balaamorhlsa sagittate (Parsh) Mutt. Calamagrostls rubeaeens Buckl. Carex conoinnoides Mask. Carex ftossii Boot. Ceanothus relutinus Dougl. Chaenactfta Douglaail Hook. & Am. Cladonia gracilis (L.) WiUd. Clematis  Columbiana  (Nutt.) T.& G.  Mir,  46  )  Crataegus Eouglaaii  Srlgeron pjad^ts  Lirail.  Nutt.  BrJogonaB heraeleoidea Mutt. Briogonua niveua  Dougl.  Festoca Idahoeasig  Urn.  Fostnea pcei^entalis Hook. Festuea seabr#na  Torr.  Fragaria vlrfanlana Duehesna w . F r i t m a r i a laaeeoXata  glauca Wats.  Pursh.  Geranium viscosissiama F.& M. G l l i a pnafioas Benth. Junlperus coffliBHnls L. Jsninermg seoplorup '  Koelerla oristata  Sarg.  (L.) Pers.  Lartx occidental!*  Butt.  Uttaro H u t t a l l i l  Wats.  Lilium e o l ^ a n i w  Hans.  Lttpjaas ffrf,eems Pursh.  IMMflte ^ ° M » a  Qpmtia f r a z i l s  (Parefe) lfcfct. (- Berberis agulfollua Pareh) (Kutt.)  Haw.  Pant Witt Serl.ba&eriafiH& Btaeh.  Pmsteaoa frotioosms (Pursh) Greene Phafelia Maearls (Par*) Hols. Phi 1fldolphis LstQ-sii Pursh PhXox lonulfolia  Mutt.  Picea Engelaannii (Pariy) Qagelm.  47  tel IM«^f9A». l>ougl. HMW  pondwo» Laws.  go* wjL* Marr. fo» Cuslokll V«a. £2* IffMl*. «r««l. Bg&rt»ri«teM A m i p w l m i  Ctfflflg^BMtt MMflffJA  fWfffM*  totofiltoto  Mm imim  Hedw.  (Hlrb.) Franco  (- £. fa^ifolla (Lamb.) Britt.)  (Pursh) DC.  (*••) s«rg.  M i t e  giliBtofiP&i* t««»fl«p»i»  (L.) Nutt.  SpLnm iuolda  Dougl.  a^Pftffffff^ft  ^CT4l9^»,  3tlpa oomata  Trin. & ftupr.  (Torr.) H.M.Hall  Syaphdrle»rpo« rjyulai-f 3uk«d. (- 3. albuf v»r. X*«ytg*tu« Blak.)  (F«m.)  

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