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A study of the principal spawning grounds and of the spawning of the lemon sole, Parophrys vetulus (Girard),… Taylor, Frederick Henry Carlyle 1947

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A STUDY OP THE PRINCIPAL SPAWNING- GROUNDS AND OF THE SPAWNING OF THE LEMON SOLE, PAROPHRYS VETULUS (GIRARD), IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA IN RELATION TO THE COMMERCIAL FISHERY  by  F r e d e r i c k Henry C a r l y l e T a y l o r  A T h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of ZOOLOGY  The  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia April, 194?  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Introduction  i  C o n d i t i o n of the F i s h e r y  1  Regions S t u d i e d Major Lemon S o l e Spawning Grounds  i i i  L o c a t i o n o f the Spawning Grounds  iv  Methods  1  ,  Coverage o f the Regions Types o f I n f o r m a t i o n Sought  1 5  A n a l y s i s o f Data T o t a l Catch and A v a i l a b i l i t y  Studies  9  T o t a l Catch  10  Availability  11  Spawning Areas  18  Baynes Sound RegionO b s e r v a t i o n s on the State- o f Sexual Maturity Evidence from Tag R e c o v e r i e s  19 25  Boat Harbour Region Observations on t h e State o f Sexual Maturity Evidence from Tag R e c o v e r i e s D u r a t i o n of Spawning P e r i o d  26 30 33  Baynes Sound .Region  36  Boat Harbour Region  37  Fishing Intensity  38  Growth Rates  49  Discussion  52  of F i s h i n g I n t e n s i t i e s  P o p u l a t i o n Changes Dispersal  57  '  of Lemon Sole from the Spawning Grounds  70  Population Differences  74  Stomach A n a l y s i s  76 83  Summary Acknowledgements Literature  Cited  Appendix  i  ABSTRACT; The w i n t e r f i s h e r y f o r lemon s o l e i n the g u l f o f G e o r g i a depends on p o p u l a t i o n s spawning i n Baynes sound and Boat harbour from January t o March.  The peak p e r i o d i n 1946 was  from January. 24 t o February 23 in- Baynes sound and 10 days e a r l i e r In Boat harbour.  A l t h o u g h some spawning took p l a c e  throughout the whole o f b o t h r e g i o n s , w i t h the exception of P o r l i e r pass, spawning' was more i n t e n s e i n c e r t a i n areas o f each r e g i o n .  Minimum e s t i m a t e s ' o f f i s h i n g i n t e n s i t i e s o f  42$ and 26.3$ f o r the Baynes sound and Boat harbour r e g i o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y appear too heavy to m a i n t a i n the f i s h e r y a t i t s present l e v e l .  During the 1947 f i s h i n g season Baynes sound  was l a r g e l y c l o s e d t o t r a w l i n g ; i n Boat harbour the percentage t a g r e c o v e r y was 6.3$ as compared t o 18.8$ f o r the same p e r i o d l n 1946v  These r e c o v e r i e s . I n d i c a t e d an average annual i n c r e a s e  i n l e n g t h o f 7.3$ or i n weight o f 21.9$.  Lemon s o l e spawning  i n Baynes sound d i s p e r s e d t o parts: o f the g u l f , n o r t h o f Nanoose bay, w h i l e those spawning' i n Boat harbour, d i s p e r s e d "southward as f a r as the American boundary.  A l t h o u g h these two  p o p u l a t i o n s do not mix" t o an~ a p p r e c i a b l e extent., t h e i r comp o s i t i o n i s very s i m i l a r except, f o r a l a r g e r number, of immat u r e and s m a l l mature f i s h In Baynes sound. p o p u l a t i o n , c o n s i s t i n g of t w o - t h i r d s immature markedly.  The P o r l i e r . pass fish.,, d i f f e r e d  An estimate o f the amount of p o p u l a t i o n change on  the spawning grounds was made by comparing the v a r i a t i o n s i n tag r e t u r n s p e r p e r i o d c a l c u l a t e d on the b a s i s of a constant number of tagged f i s h a v a i l a b l e and a constant weight o f f i s h  caught each p e r i o d .  Stomach a n a l y s i s  showed that  lemon  sole  do not' f e e d a c t i v e l y d u r i n g the w i n t e r and""that f u l l y matured f i s h feed l e s s a c t i v e l y than immature or spent -  Worms, clams, and  individuals.  b r l t t l e s t a r s formed the p r i n c i p a l f o o d s .  A STUDY OF THE  PRINCIPAL SPAWNING GROUNDS AND THE  IN THE  OF THE  SPAWNING OF  LEMON SOLE. PAROPHRYS VETULUS (GIRARD).  GULF OF GEORGIA IN RELATION TO THE  COMMERCIAL FISHERY  INTRODUCTION In 19^3  an I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the o t t e r t r a w l f i s h e r y  was  Hart (19-^6)  undertaken by the P a c i f i c B i o l o g i c a l S t a t i o n .  i n h i s "Memorandum on the O t t e r Trawl F i s h e r y " , i n g i v i n g the reasons f o r u n d e r t a k i n g  this investigation, states,  "An  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the o t t e r t r a w l f i s h e r y has been set up i n order to determine the nature  and  extent of the  competition  of o t t e r t r a w l s w i t h o t h e r types, of f i s h i n g gear and s i b i l i t i e s of a continued  the p o s -  successful otter trawl fishery.  C o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the l a t t e r p o i n t depend upon s t u d i e s of the s p e c i e s of f i s h caught, t h e i r g e n e r a l l i f e h i s t o r y and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the e f f e c t s of c a t c h i n g and r e l e a s i n g I l l e g a l , under-sized  or otherwise  unwanted f i s h , and  the  e f f e c t s of dragging heavy nets over the bottom." The  study of the lemon s o l e spawning grounds i n Baynes  sound and Boat harbour, c a r r i e d out d u r i n g January, February, and March, 19-^6, forms one phase o f the g e n e r a l l i f e h i s t o r y s t u d i e s of t r a w l caught CONDITION OF THE  fish.  FISHERY AND  REASONS FOR  THE  SPAWNING GROUND  SURVEYS Hart  (19^6) a l s o makes the f o l l o w i n g statements about  the c o n d i t i o n of the o t t e r t r a w l f i s h e r y i n the s t r a i t s o f  Georgia?  "In g e n e r a l the f i s h e r y f o r o t t e r t r a w l In the  s t r a i t s of Georgia i s i n a depleted condition. r e s u l t of the a c t i v i t y  T h i s i s the  i n enclosed waters over a l o n g p e r i o d  of years o f a s u b s t a n t i a l f i s h i n g f l e e t which has been a b l e to operate f a i r l y w e l l throughout the year." The lemon s o l e spawning grounds i n t h i s a r e a , were made the o b j e c t o f study b o t h because the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f spawning lemon s o l e c o n s t i t u t e s one o f the main, w i n t e r fisheries-, o f t h i s r e g i o n and because of the b i o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t i n spawning populations.  These r e g i o n s form two of the few " f l a t f i s h "  spawning grounds w e l l enough known to permit  study.  In t h i s survey i n f o r m a t i o n was sought on a number o f problems which are- s t a t e d b r i e f l y below. upon i n l a t e r s e c t i o n s of t h i s - r e p o r t . 1.  Does the a v a i l a b i l i t y  These a r e e n l a r g e d They a r e :  (abundance) o f the lemon  sole  vary d u r i n g the spawning season? 2.  What i s the v a r i a t i o n In the sexual development o f  the f i s h on or near the spawning grounds? 3.  Does a c t i v e spawning take p l a c e g e n e r a l l y throughout  the whole o f a r e g i o n or i s there more a c t i v e spawning i n c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s o f a r e g i o n than i n others? 4.  What i s the d u r a t i o n o f the spawning season?  5»  What i s the i n t e n s i t y o f f i s h i n g on these spawning  grounds? 6.  What i n d i c a t i o n s are t h e r e o f mass movements o f f i s h  about o r away from the spawning grounds?  -iii7.  To what r e g i o n s of the g u l f do the lemon s o l e from  each spawning ground d i s p e r s e a f t e r spawning? 8.  Does a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t between the f e e d i n g of  lemon; s o l e and the degree of sexual m a t u r i t y ? ;  REGIONS STUDIED Major Lemon Sole Spawning Grounds As the g u l f of G e o r g i a has been I n t e n s i v e l y p r o s p e c t e d and f i s h e d by the t r a w l e r f l e e t - f o r many years now,  there i s  every reason t o suppose t h a t a l l the areas i n which lemon s o l e concentrate i n the wintertime by the fishermen fishermen,  to spawn.would be  or at l e a s t known to them.  and examination  utilized!  Interviews  with  of cannery r e c o r d s and p i l o t house  l o g books i n d i c a t e t h a t there are o n l y three areas i n the g u l f of G e o r g i a i n which lemon s o l e are found i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s to p r o v i d e a p r o f i t a b l e f i s h e r y . Baynes sound, Boat harbour, areas.  These are the  and P o i n t A t k i n s o n - F r a s e r  These r e g i o n s y i e l d e d 5*$,  20$,  river  and 7% r e s p e c t i v e l y  of the t o t a l lemon s o l e l a n d i n g s from the g u l f o f G e o r g i a f o r the f i r s t t h r e e months of 19^6.  For t h i s reason, t h e r e f o r e ,  the Baynes sound and Boat harbour r e g i o n s have been assumed to be two gulf.  of the major spawning areas f o r lemon s o l e i n the  Although  some spawning i s known to take p l a c e o f f  P o i n t A t k i n s o n , t h i s a r e a i s not c o n s i d e r e d to be a major spawning a r e a as the number of lemon s o l e taken there i s small;  as f a r as i s known, no spawning takes p l a c e o f f the  F r a s e r r i v e r mouth.  r  -ivL o o a t i o n o f the Spawning Grounds The Baynes sound and Boat harbour r e g i o n s have, f o r convenience, "been c a l l e d a f t e r the most widely known areas i n each r e g i o n , a l t h o u g h such areas may a c t u a l l y form o n l y §, s m a l l p a r t of the whole r e g i o n .  The l o c a t i o n s , o f these  r e g i o n s a r e shown on Map 1, and a r e d e s c r i b e d belowj The Baynes sound r e g i o n ' comprises that a r e a between Denman and Vancouver i s l a n d s , from Y e l l o w r o c k l i g h t and Deep bay on the south t o Comox and cape Lazo on the n o r t h . The area o u t s i d e the Comox bar, south o f cape Lazo, i s a l s o included i n t h i s region.  Baynes sound i t s e l f  constitutes  that s t r e t c h of water between Vancouver and Denman i s l a n d s . The Boat harbour r e g i o n i s bounded on the n o r t h by Dodd narrows and on the south roughly by a l i n e from Yellow p o i n t on Vancouver i s l a n d to B l a c k b e r r y p o i n t on V a l d e s i s l a n d . T h i s r e g i o n i n c l u d e s the top end o f S t u a r t channel between Vancouver i s l a n d and De Courcy I s l a n d and that p a r t o f Pylades channel between De Courcy and Valdes i s l a n d s from Ruxton passage  south t o Whaleboat channel.  F o r convenience  that p a r t o f T r i n c o m a l i channel i n the v i c i n i t y o f P o r l i e r pass has been i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a r e a .  Boat harbour  Itself  i s on the Vancouver i s l a n d shore two and o n e - h a l f m i l e s south o f Dodd  narrows.  Map.l. G u l f of G e o r g i a : P o r l i e r Pass t o Cape Lazo Scale: 1 649,000  METHODS In making t h i s study o f the lemon' s o l e spawning grounds ( and o f the spawning of the lemon s o l e , the methods employed i n v o l v e d t h r e e l i n e s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n : 1.  S t u d i e s of the s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n  and s e x u a l c o n d i t i o n  of the f i s h ; : 2.  Tagging- s t u d i e s , t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on f i s h i n g  intensities 3.  and movements of the f i s h ;  Availability  studies.  Coverage o f the RegionsThe i n v e s t i g a t i o n was forwarded d u r i n g January, through the use o f the c h a r t e r e d v e s s e l , " P h y l l i s C a r l y l e " .  This  v e s s e l made f i v e t r i p s to both the Baynes sound and the Boat harbour r e g i o n s .  Her c a p t a i n ' s knowledge of the f i s h i n g  grounds i n each a r e a p r o v e d i n v a l u a b l e i n o b t a i n i n g samples from the l o c a l i t i e s most used by t h e fishermen. In February two t r i p s were made t o the Baynes sound r e g i o n and one to the Boat harbour r e g i o n and i n March one t r i p was made t o the Baynes sound r e g i o n . In each of the major r e g i o n s f i v e  "drags" were made over  d e f i n a b l e c o u r s e s . I n the Baynes sound r e g i o n these drags 4  have been c a l l e d the "Deep bay", "Fanny bay", "Union bay", "Comox bay", and "cape Lazo" drags.  The courses over which  they were made a r e d e s c r i b e d below and are shown on Map 2. 1.  Deep bay?  from a p o i n t o f f the l i g h t a t the entrance  to Deep bay, down the c e n t r e of the sound t o the southern t i p of Ship p e n i n s u l a .  coriox COMOX\H/\RBOUR GOOSE  UNION  GOV'T  SPIT  B-  Wl  FANNY BAY SHIP PENINSI  1  DEEP  2  FANNY  BAY  DRAG  3  UNION  BAY  DRAG  COMOX 5  CAPE  BAY  DRAG  BAY L A Z O  DRAG DRAG  Map.2. Baynes Sound R e g i o n . Scale : 263,000  2.  Fanny bay?  from a p o i n t o f f the n o r t h e r n t i p o f  Ship p e n i n s u l a , down the centre o f t h e channel t o a p o i n t o f f the f e r r y dock on Denman i s l a n d . 3.  Union bay:  s l i g h t l y westward of the c e n t r e o f t h e  sound from a p o i n t approximately o p p o s i t e the government  dock  at Union bay, southward f o r a d i s t a n c e o f about two m i l e s . 4.  Comox bay:  s l i g h t l y to the east of t h e c e n t r e o f  the sound from the most w e s t e r l y t i p o f Sandy o r S e a l i s l a n d , northward f o r a d i s t a n c e o f about two m i l e s . 5.  Cape Lazo:  from a p o i n t about h a l f a m i l e to the  east o f t h e l i g h t o f f Comox b a r southward f o r a d i s t a n c e o f • about two m i l e s . The drags o f f Deep and Fanny bays were made i n 35 fathoms; of water, those o f f Union and Comox bays i n 23 fathoms, and that o f f cape Lazo i n kZ fathoms o f water. In the Boat harbour r e g i o n the f i v e drags have been c a l l e d " Boat harbour", "centre d r a g " , "De Courcy i s l a n d " , "Pylades channel", and " P o r l i e r p a s s " .  The courses over  which they were made are d e s c r i b e d below and a r e shown on Map 3. •The t h r e e drags^ o f "Boat harbour", "centre drag", and "De Courcy i s l a n d " a r e s i t u a t e d a c r o s s the t o p o f S t u a r t channel, and r u n p a r a l l e l t o each o t h e r . 1.  Boat harbour::  on the west  s i d e o f S t u a r t channel,  c l o s e to the Vancouver i s l a n d shore, r u n n i n g from a p o i n t o f f Boat harbour i n a s o u t h - e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n f o r a d i s t a n c e o f about two m i l e s .  GABRIOLA DODD NARROWS  JFALSE  ISLAND  NARROWS  Map.3. Boat Harbour Region Scale:  89,000  1  BOAT  2  CENTRE  3  DE C O U R C Y  4  PYLADES  CHANNEL  5  POILIER  PASS  HARBOUR  DRAG  DRAG ISLAND  DRAG DRAG  DRAG  -32. " Centre drag:  i n the c e n t r e of t h i s p a r t o f S t u a r t  channel, r u n n i n g between the same two p o i n t s as above. 3.  De Courcy i s l a n d :  on the east s i d e o f S t u a r t c h a n n e l ,  o f f the west shore o f De Courcy i s l a n d , r u n n i n g from a p o i n t opposite Boat harbour, i n a s o u t h - e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n p o i n t o p p o s i t e the northwestern t i p of Ruxton 4.  P y l a d e s channels  to a  island.  down the e a s t e r n s i d e of T r i n e o m a l i  channel from a p o i n t j u s t n o r t h o f C a r d a l e p o i n t t o a p o i n t opposite P o r l i e r p a s s . These f i v e drags were made i n approximately 35 fathoms of  water. In T a b l e s I and I I , the dates on which drags were made  i n the v a r i o u s areas a r e shown f o r the Baynes sound and Boat harbour r e g i o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  On those t r i p s made d u r i n g  February and March samples c o u l d o n l y be o b t a i n e d from those areas i n which commercial  t r a w l e r s were found f i s h i n g .  The  February 24th Union bay drag was made i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t area than t h e other Union bay d r a g s .  This; drag, i n c o n t r a s t  to the o t h e r s , extended t o the edge o f the Fanny bay a r e a . A l l other drags made from commercial  t r a w l e r s were i n the  same areas as those made from the c h a r t e r e d v e s s e l . was made o f f cape Lazo on the second t r i p , as the  11  No h a u l Phyllis  C a r l y l e " had to make an emergency r u n to Vancouver on the n i g h t of January 12.  TABLE I BAYNES SOUND Deep bay Fanny bay Union bay  Comox bay  Gape Lazo  Jan.  Trip 1  Jan. Jan.  k 5  Jan.  k  Jan.  k  Jan.  5  Trip 2  Jan.  12  Jan.  12  Jan.  12  Jan.  12  Trip 3  Jan.  18  Jan.  18  Jan.  18  Jan.  1 8  Trip k  Jan.  2k  Jan.  2k  Jan.  25  Jan.  Trip 5  Jan.  28  Jan.  28  Jan.  29  Jan.  Trip 6  Feb. 13  Trip 7  Feb. 23  Trip 8  Mar.,.16  5 —  ,  Jan.  19  25  Jan.  25  29  Jan.  29  Feb. 24 —  >  Mar. 17  •a mtmmm  TABLE I I BOAT HARBOUR  Boat harbour  Oentre drag  De Couroy island  Py ladeschannel  Porlier pass:  Dec.28,19^5 Dec.29,W5  Dec.29, 19^5  Dec.30, 19^5  Trip A  Dec.28,19^5 Dec.29,19^5  Trip 1  Jan. 7  Jan. 8  Jan. 1  Jan. 8  Jan. 9  Trip 2  J a n . 15  J a n . 15  J a n . 15  J a n . 15  J a n . Ik  Trip 3  J a n . 20  J a n . 20  J a n . 20  J a n . 21  J a n . 20  Trip k  J a n . 26  J a n . 26  . J a n . 26  J a n . 26  J a n . 27  Trip 5  J a n . 31  J a n . 31  Trip 6  —  J a n . 30 Feb. 16  J a n . 30  A t r i p was made t o the Boat harbour r e g i o n on February 2 7 , but as no t r a w l e r s were f i s h i n g t h e r e a t that time, no samples i  were o b t a i n e d . two  One drag was a l s o made o f f Qualicum  beach,  i n s i d e Nanoose harbour, and one on the east s i d e o f Kuper  island. A l l drags were of approximately an hour's the e x c e p t i o n o f those made by commercial  duration, with  trawlers.  Here t h e  d u r a t i o n o f the drag v a r i e d from one hour t o two and o n e - h a l f hours.  F o r each drag t h e t o t a l weight  weight o f s a l e a b l e f i s h ,  and the weight  of the " l i f t " , the of each s p e c i e s o f  f i s h were r e c o r d e d . Types o f I n f o r m a t i o n Sought In  t h i s study work was c o n c e n t r a t e d on the f o l l o w i n g  three types of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s 1.  S t u d i e s o f the spawning c o n d i t i o n o f t h e f i s h .  p a r t o f the work was undertaken  This;  t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about  the d u r a t i o n of the spawning season and the i n t e n s i t y o f spawning i n each a r e a .  A random sample of approximately 40  f i s h was taken from each drag and f o r each sample the f o l l o w i n g ? d a t a were recorded::  of the gonads.  1.  The f o r k l e n g t h o f each  fish.  2.  The stomach c o n t e n t s .  3.  The sex'- determined by a c t u a l  examination  The sexes can a l s o be separated by an e x t e r n a l  examination o n l y .  I n t h e female lemon s o l e the o v a r i e s a r e  c o n t a i n e d i n pockets; formed by p o s t e r i o r e x t e n s i o n s of the  -6pody c a v i t y .  These pockets l i e beneath the v e r t e b r a l column,  one on each s i d e , and i n f u l l y mature f i s h can be t r a c e d as f a r back as the r e g i o n o f the c a u d a l peduncle.  As the o v a r i e s  mature they extend f a r t h e r and f a r t h e r backward i n t o these pockets.  T h i s e x t e n s i o n of the ovary i n v i s i b l e ,  from an  e x t e r n a l examination , even i n immature females: and l s unmis1  takeable i n mature f i s h . or  In male lemon s o l e no such pockets  e x t e n s i o n of the t e s t e s are 4.  visible.  The spawning c o n d i t i o n .  The  spawning  c o n d i t i o n s of the female f i s h were r a t e d i n s i x numbered c a t e g o r i e s w i t h the f o l l o w i n g b r i e f i.  Immature - the ovary i s ; s m a l l and undeveloped,  p o s t e r i o r l y only ii.  definitions:: extending  slightly.  Maturing - the ovary i s d e v e l o p i n g , i t s p o s t e r i o r  exten-  s i o n was more marked. ill.  R i p e n i n g - the ovary i s w e l l developed, d i s t e n d i n g the  body w a l l s ; the p o s t e r i o r e x t e n s i o n was  very marked;: no c l e a r '  eggs are p r e s e n t . iv.  Ripe - the ovary was w e l l developed w i t h c l e a r , mature  eggs p r e s e n t , s c a t t e r e d throughout toward the a n t e r i o r v.  the ovary or c o n c e n t r a t e d  end.  Running - eggs were extruded upon g e n t l e p r e s s u r e on  the ovary. v?i.  Spent - the f i s h had completed  t a i n e d no eggs and was  spawning;- the ovary  often streaked with blood.  Males were r e c o g n i z e d only l n c a t e g o r i e s i . and v.  con-  2.  Tagging studies-.  The reasons  f o r undertaking  this  type o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n were t h r e e f o l d : ;  intensities.  1,  To p r o v i d e a means o f e s t i m a t i n g the  fishing  2.  To p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about the movements-  of the f i s h over the spawning grounds. 3.  To obtain N  i n f o r m a t i o n about, the  migration  and d i s p e r s a l o f the lemon s o l e a f t e r spawning. From each h a u l a second random sample of 30 to 50 y&ice taken  and  tagged.  The  tags were of the standard  fish button  type used by the P a c i f i c B i o l o g i c a l S t a t i o n ' s o t t e r t r a w l investigation. tag  They c o n s i s t of a w h i t e , d i s c b e a r i n g  number and a y e l l o w d i s c b e a r i n g the address  Biological Station.  The  the  of the P a c i f i c  y e l l o w d i s c i s p l a c e d on the e y e l e s s ,  white s i d e of the f i s h and the white d i s c on the eyed, c o l o u r e d s i d e , the d i s c s , being h e l d i n p l a c e by a n i c k e l p i n passed! through the f i s h below the d o r s a l f i n a t a p o i n t above slightly  behind  the p e c t o r a l f i n s .  A reward of f i f t y  and cents,  was; o f f e r e d by the P a c i f i c B i o l o g i c a l S t a t i o n f o r the r e t u r n of these tags together w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n on the p l a c e and  date  of r e c a p t u r e , the l e n g t h of the f i s h and the c o n d i t i o n of the f i s h and of the wound. For each f i s h tagged the f o l l o w i n g d a t a were recorded::  examination  1.  The  t a g number.  2.  The  fork length. ~  3.  The  sex - determined from an e x t e r n a l  i n the manner d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n .  4.  An  estimate  of the spawning c o n d i t i o n -  such estimates were found t o be a c c u r a t e only i n the case o f those f i s h f a l l i n g i n t o category  (v);; i t was  not found p o s -  s i b l e to a s s i g n f i s h a c c u r a t e l y to those c a t e g o r i e s dependent on the degree of ripeness; of the eggs without  an examination  o f the gonads. 5. ounces was  recorded;  too d i f f i c u l t 3.  The weight - i n some cases  the weight: i n  a s p r i n g balance which, however, proved  to read a c c u r a t e l y i n rough-weather, was  ("Availability studies. : A v a i l a b i l i t y  used.  s t u d i e s were  undertaken to p r o v i d e a background a g a i n s t which i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the f i s h i n g i n t e n s i t i e s and  the movements o f  fish  about the spawning grounds; c o u l d be made. The  catches  of lemon s o l e ' f o r Baynes sound and Boat  harbour were c a l c u l a t e d f o r f o r t n i g h t l y p e r i o d s d u r i n g January, February, and March, 1 9 4 6 . .  The  f o r the g u l f of G e o r g i a was  obtained/from  t o t a l c a t c h of lemon s o l e an examination of  the r e c o r d s of the v a r i o u s wholesale f i s h d e a l e r s i n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a .  With the a i d of i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d  from  p i l o t house l o g books, and from i n t e r v i e w s w i t h and  letters  from those  total  c a t c h was  c a p t a i n s who proportioned  d i d not keep l o g books, the  i n t o the c a t c h per p e r i o d f o r each  region. The expressed  a v a i l a b i l i t y of the lemon s o l e In b o t h region's, i n pounds of f i s h per hour's dragging was. c a l c u l a t e d  f o r each p e r i o d .  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was  p r o v i d e d by an a n a l y s i s ;  of the p i l o t house l o g books.  These books were issued to a l l  trawlers i n 19-V? and 19^6 by the Pacific. B i o l o g i c a l Station. In these books the captains recorded the number of hours fished each day, the area fished, the amount of each species caught, and information about the t o t a l weight of the l i f t and the weight of commercial species contained i n i t . The layout of the pages contained i n these books i s shown i n Table XXVII  of the appendix.  Every second sheet  i s perforated and removable, so that, by making a carbon copy of each entry, the captain could r e t a i n a record of h i s f i s h i n g and at the same time provide the P a c i f i c B i o l o g i c a l Station with a duplicate copy.  As- no compulsion was applied to make  captains keep these l o g books, satisfactory d e t a i l e d records were obtained from only approximately 30% of the trawler f l e e t .  ANALYSIS OF DATA TOTAL CATCH AND AVAILABILITY  STUDIES  The survey of the Baynes sound and Boat harbour lemon sole spawning grounds was conducted during January, February, and March, 19^6.  Each of these months was divided into f o r t -  nightly periods and the catch and a v a i l a b i l i t y (average catch per hour as calculated from p i l o t house log book records) were determined) f o r each period.  Variations i n the t o t a l  catch and a v a i l a b i l i t y per period w i l l r e f l e c t major changes, i n the abundance of lemon sole on the spawning grounds.  These  variations i n abundance w i l l also a f f e c t the'pattern of tag  r e c o v e r i e s and must be c o n s i d e r e d when these r e c o v e r i e s are used i n a q u a n t i t a t i v e manner, such as i n e s t i m a t i n g the f i s h i n g i n t e n s i t i e s or i n i n t e r p r e t i n g mass movements of  fish  to and from the spawning grounds. T h i s s e c t i o n d e a l s p r i m a r i l y w i t h the c a l c u l a t i o n  and  r e l i a b i l i t y of the f i g u r e s o b t a i n e d f o r the t o t a l c a t c h and f o r a v a i l a b i l i t y of lemon s o l e f o r each p e r i o d .  The  effects;  of these f a c t o r s on the f i s h i n g i n t e n s i t i e s and on any  con-  s i d e r a t i o n of mass movements of f i s h to and from the spawning grounds are d i s c u s s e d i n the a p p r o p r i a t e s e c t i o n s . T o t a l Patch The t o t a l l a n d i n g s of lemon s o l e f o r January, and March, 1946,  were o b t a i n e d from  the r e c o r d s of wholesale  f i s h d e a l e r s i n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a . d e a l e r s was only two  v i r t u a l l y complete;  s m a l l w h o l e s a l e r s who  February,  The  coverage  of these  i n each c i t y the r e c o r d s of would handle  o n l y a compara-  t i v e l y s m a l l q u a n t i t y o f lemon s o l e were not examined. f i g u r e s o b t a i n e d w i l l r e p r e s e n t approximately  The  the t o t a l  amount of s o l e landed d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , and a r e probably the best estimate of the c a t c h , t h a t c o u l d be made. In every case the r e c o r d s examined showed the number of pounds of lemon s o l e landed, the date, and the. name of the boat making the l a n d i n g ,  A boat's c a t c h would o f t e n be.  d i v i d e d l among s e v e r a l w h o l e s a l e r s .  T h e r e f o r e the data p r o -  cured from the w h o l e s a l e r s were r e a r r a n g e d and  t a b u l a t e d to  show the t o t a l c a t c h f o r each boat f o r each t r i p .  From  _ _ -11-  _  i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from p i l o t house l o g books, from views w i t h and l e t t e r s  inter-  from the s k i p p e r s , and sometimes from  the composition of the c a t c h alone, the areas i n which each boat had f i s h e d were  determined.  The t h r e e months, January, February, and March, were d i v i -  ded i n t o s i x p e r i o d s of two weeks each, and t h e t o t a l made i n each r e g i o n f o r each p e r i o d was found.  catch  A fortnight,  was found t o be t h e most s u i t a b l e p e r i o d t o use as i t f i t t e d most n e a r l y t h e average time between l a n d i n g s f o r a l l b o a t s , thereby  l a r g e l y e l i m i n a t i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y of s p l i t t i n g a  l a n d i n g between two a d j a c e n t p e r i o d s , y e t s t i l l b e i n g s h o r t enough t o show trends- i n c a t c h and a v a i l a b i l i t y . The c a t c h i n each r e g i o n f o r each p e r i o d i s shown i n T a b l e I I I below: TABLE I I I PERIODS I  II  BAYEE SOUID  30,731  39,766  BOAT HARBOUR  12,448  21,775  IV  V  VI  33,384  48,117  35,698  26,669  38,494  15,568  715  1,302  III  Availability As was s t a t e d e a r l i e r ,  i n order t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p a t t e r n  of t a g r e c o v e r i e s , an a n a l y s i s o f t o t a l c a t c h r e c o r d s and abundance ( a v a i l a b i l i t y necessary. for  ) of lemon s o l e f o r each p e r i o d was  The methods used i n o b t a i n i n g t o t a l c a t c h  each p e r i o d were d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g  records  section.  This  -12s e c t i o n deals w i t h the c a l c u l a t i o n s  of a v a i l a b i l i t y .  The a v a i l a b i l i t y (abundance) of lemon s o l e f o r each p e r i o d i s e x p r e s s e d as t h e average w e i g h t of lemon s o l e t a k e n p e r hour's f i s h i n g , a f t e r t h e data, have been weighted to compensate f o r d i s t o r t i o n s  i n t r o d u c e d by b o a t s f i s h i n g -•  f o r p a r t s of a season and by t h e v a r y i n g f i s h i n g  efficiencies  of t h e b o a t s . The computations of a v a i l a b i l i t y a r e based on p i l o t house l o g book r e c o r d s . hours f i s h e d  These r e c o r d s show t h e number of  and t h e e s t i m a t e d weight of each s p e c i e s t a k e n  i n each l o c a t i o n v i s i t e d d u r i n g t h e day.  Unfortunately,  such  r e c o r d s were k e p t c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y and c o n t i n u o u s l y by o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of t h e t r a w l e r s f i s h i n g t h e s e r e g i o n s . However, p a r t i a l r e c o r d s k e p t by " c e r t a i n b o a t s were found t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y a c c u r a t e t o w a r r a n t t h e i r i n c l u s i o n .  Records  from t h e remainder of t h e f l e e t were r e j e c t e d because o f apparent i n a c c u r a c i e s or o m i s s i o n s ,  such as t h e f a i l u r e t o  r e c o r d t h e number of hours f i s h e d .  The c a l c u l a t i o n s  f o r the-  Baynes sound r e g i o n were t h e r e f o r e based on t h e r e c o r d s o f two b o a t s f i s h i n g f o r f i v e p e r i o d s , t h r e e b o a t s f i s h i n g f o r two p e r i o d s , and f o u r boats f i s h i n g f o r one p e r i o d ; and t h e calculations  f o r Boat h a r b o u r were based on t h e r e c o r d s o f  t h r e e b o a t s f i s h i n g f o r f i v e or s i x p e r i o d s , t h r e e b o a t s f o r •four p e r i o d s , two b o a t s f o r two p e r i o d s , and f o u r b o a t s f o r one p e r i o d .  -13The a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r a p e r i o d cannot be c a l c u l a t e d d i r e c t l y as the_average c a t c h p e r hour's f i s h i n g due t o d i s t o r t i o n i n t r o d u c e d b o t h by b o a t s f i s h i n g f o r o n l y p a r t s o f a season d u r i n g which t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y was not c o n s t a n t , and a l s o by the v a r y i n g apparent f i s h i n g e f f i c i e n c i e s o f t h e b o a t s . These v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e apparent f i s h i n g e f f i c i e n c i e s o f t h e b o a t s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o two causes; f i r s t , t o t h e use by c e r t a i n b o a t s of b e t t e r , more e f f i c i e n t gear h a n d l e d by e x p e r i enced crews, t h e r e b y p r o d u c i n g a r e a l d i f f e r e n c e i n f i s h i n g e f f i c i e n c y ; and second, t o t h e method o f r e c o r d i n g t h e hours f i s h e d each day, some b o a t s r e c o r d i n g o n l y t h e a c t u a l time t h e net was i n t h e water and.others t h e t o t a l time spent on t h e grounds each day, t h e r e b y p r o d u c i n g an apparent d i f f e r e n c e in fishing  efficiency.  There i s , however, no r e a s o n why t h e c a t c h o f b o a t s f i s h i n g o n l y a t the s t a r t o f t h e s e a s o n , when t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y was h i g h , s h o u l d i n f l u e n c e t h e r e s u l t s more t h a n the c a t c h e s of b o a t s f i s h i n g o n l y towards t h e end of t h e s e a s o n when t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y was o b v i o u s l y low, o r why t h e c a t c h e s o f t h e a p p a r e n t l y more e f f i c i e n t b o a t s s h o u l d i n f l u e n c e t h e c o n c l u s i o n s more t h a n t h e c a t c h e s o f t h e l e s s e f f i c i e n t b o a t s , r e g a r d l e s s o f the cause o f t h i s v a r i a t i o n i n e f f i c i e n c y . These d i s t o r t i o n s were p a r t l y compensated f o r by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f two c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s i n w e i g h t i n g t h e d a t a . These c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s have been c a l l e d t h e p e r i o d f a c t o r , which makes a compensation f o r b o a t s f i s h i n g f o r o n l y p a r t s o f  ~14« a season, and the boat f a c t o r , which makes compensation f o r the d i f f e r e n t f i s h i n g e f f i c i e n c i e s of the b o a t s . factors are calculated  and a p p l i e d  f a c t o r s are, c a l c u l a t e d  from d a t a weighted to e l i m i n a t e  ;  ations  first  so t h a t  The  period  the boat fluctu-  i n a v a i l a b i l i t y . The boat f a c t o r s are then a p p l i e d  o r i g i n a l da,ta so that  to  the f i n a l averages w i l l r e f l e c t v a r i -  ations  i n a v a i l a b i l i t y but not v a r i a t i o n s produced by  ferent  fishing efficiencies.  These  dif-  causes o f d i s t o r t i o n are  very s i m i l a r to those f o r which Hart (1933) wished to compensate i n c a l c u l a t i n g the c a t c h f o r u n i t of f i s h i n g e f f o r t i n the p i l c h a r d f i s h e r y .  He  compensated f o r d i s t o r t i o n s  produced  by boats f i s h i n g f o r p a r t s of a season by a method s i m i l a r t o the  a p p l i c a t i o n of the p e r i o d  f a c t o r , but c o r r e c t e d  for dis-  t o r t i o n s produced by companies u s i n g equipment of d i f f e r e n t f i s h i n g e f f i c i e n c i e s by c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n of companies r e p r e sentative  o f the d i f f e r e n t f i s h i n g p o l i c i e s .  As; the r e c o r d s  of only a s m a l l number of boats were a v a i l a b l e , no such  selec-  t i o n of b o a t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of d i f f e r e n t f i s h i n g e f f i c i e n c i e s could be made; t h e r e f o r e the method of w e i g h t i n g by the boat f a c t o r was These  used i n compensating  f o r d i s t o r t i o n s of t h i s t y p e .  c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s are c a l c u l a t e d  the folloxiring manner.  an'd a p p l i e d i n  The t o t a l c a t c h and the t o t a l number o f  hours f i s h e d by a l l boats i n a l l p e r i o d s were determined. From these the seasonal average c a t c h per hour's f i s h i n g determined.  The average catch per hour f o r each p e r i o d  found by d i v i d i n g the sum  was was  of the catches of a l l boats l n each  p e r i o d by the number of hours f i s h e d i n that p e r i o d .  The  p e r i o d f a c t o r , f o r each p e r i o d , was determined by d i v i d i n g the s e a s o n a l average c a t c h p e r hour by the average catch p e r hour f o r t h a t p e r i o d .  The d a i l y catches of a l l boats i n a  p e r i o d were then m u l t i p l i e d by the f a c t o r f o r t h a t p e r i o d . By w e i g h t i n g the data i n t h i s manner compensation was made f o r boats f i s h i n g f o r o n l y p a r t s o f a season. Next, the weighted d a i l y c a t c h e s of• a l l b o a t s i n a l l p e r i o d s were summed and the sum d i v i d e d by the t o t a l number of hours f i s h e d d u r i n g the season.  T h i s g i v e s a weighted  seasonal average c a t c h . p e r hour's f i s h i n g which i s a p p r o x i mately equal to the unweighted s e a s o n a l average c a t c h p e r ' hour.  The weighted d a i l y catches o f each boat i n a l l  periods  were summed and the sum d i v i d e d by the t o t a l number o f hours f i s h e d by t h a t boat d u r i n g the season, to g i v e a weighted seasonal average c a t c h p e r hour f o r each boat.  The boat f a c -  t o r i s then found f o r each boat by d i v i d i n g the weighted seasonal average c a t c h p e r hour by the weighted seasonal average c a t c h p e r hour f o r that b o a t .  In the case o f those  boats which f i s h e d f o r only a few days d u r i n g the season, a c o l l e c t i v e c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r was used.  T h i s was o b t a i n e d  by p o o l i n g the d a i l y e n t r i e s of these boats and t r e a t i n g them as a u n i t .  The average value so o b t a i n e d would probably a l l o w  a b e t t e r c o r r e c t i o n to be made f o r the v a r y i n g  efficiencies  of these boats than would i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s based on the s m a l l catches and the few f i s h i n g hours of each boat.  The  -16unweighted d a i l y catches o f each boat were then m u l t i p l i e d by the f a c t o r f o r that boat.  The d a i l y catches thus weighted,  i n each p e r i o d , were summed and d i v i d e d by the t o t a l number of hours f i s h e d i n t h a t p e r i o d .  T h i s gave an average  catch  per hour's f i s h i n g f o r each p e r i o d weighted so t h a t v a r i a t i o n s ; due to the d i f f e r e n t f i s h i n g e f f i c i e n c i e s of the boats a r e l a r g e l y compensated  f o r but v a r i a t i o n s due to p e r i o d i c f l u c -  t u a t i o n s i n the abundance o f lemon s o l e remain. are taken as r e p r e s e n t i n g  These f i g u r e s ;  the a v a i l a b i l i t y (abundance) of  lemon s o l e i n each p e r i o d .  They a r e shown i n T a b l e IV f o r t h e  Baynes sound and Boat harbour r e g i o n s . TABLE IV  PERIODS I  II  IV  III  V  IV  BAYNES SOUND •  144.2  142.9  164.3  148.7  127.0  76.9  BOAT HARBOUR  150.5  140.4 •  137.3  114.6  61.3  13.4  It 1.  w i l l be n o t i c e d i n the above t a b l e t h a t s I n Baynes sound there was an apparent i n c r e a s e i n  a v a i l a b i l i t y during period I I I .  The c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r t h i s  p e r i o d were based on t h e r e c o r d s  o f only one boat whose catches  per hour appeared c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h throughout the e n t i r e season.  To determine whether  t h i s increase i n a v a i l a b i l i t y  r e p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e o r whether i t was due to only p a r t i a l c o r r e c t i o n of the c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h  catches  per hour r e c o r d e d by t h i s boat, the mean d a i l y catches p e r hour of t h i s boat f o r p e r i o d I I I were compared t o i t s mean d a i l y catches per hour i n adjacent p e r i o d s . was to estimate  The method used  the standard e r r o r of the d i f f e r e n c e s between  d a i l y catches o f , f i r s t , p e r i o d I I I and p e r i o d I I , then, p e r i o d I I I and p e r i o d IV, on the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the means of  the corresponding p o p u l a t i o n s were e q u a l .  In both  cases  the a p p l i c a t i o n of " t " t e s t s showed t h a t , were the means o f the p o p u l a t i o n s equal, the d i f f e r e n c e s observed a r i s e n by chance alone approximately  c o u l d have  60 times out of 100.  Therefore the c o n c l u s i o n i s that the i n c r e a s e i n a v a i l a b i l i t y i n p e r i o d I I I was not due t o an i n c r e a s e i n the abundance o f lemon s o l e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , but r a t h e r t o the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h a d j u s t e d catches which would o b t a i n i n such a case as this. 2.  In Baynes sound there i s l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n the  a v a i l a b i l i t y u n t i l the end of p e r i o d IV, a f t e r which i t drops rapidly. 3.  In Boat harbour the a v a i l a b i l i t y drops  d u r i n g the f i r s t the l a s t 4.  slightly  three p e r i o d s and then drops s h a r p l y d u r i n g  three, The marked d e c l i n e i n a v a i l a b i l i t y s t a r t e d i n Boat  harbour about two weeks b e f o r e i t d i d i n Baynes sound. 5.  The l a r g e s t catches i n both areas were made l n t h a t  -18p e r i o d immediately p r e c e d i n g the s t a r t o f the marked d e c l i n e in  availability. The f a c t that t h e marked d e c l i n e i n a v a i l a b i l i t y i n Boat  harbour s t a r t e d two weeks before i t d i d i n Baynes sound might i n d i c a t e t h a t the spawning i n Boat harbour was about two weeks ahead o f that i n Baynes sound.  This fact  i s also  borne  out by a c t u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s of the spawning c o n d i t i o n s of the f i s h i n these r e g i o n s . T h i s marked d e c l i n e i n a v a i l a b i l i t y i s a t t r i b u t e d to f i s h l e a v i n g the spawning grounds r a t h e r than to the l a r g e catches made i n the p e r i o d s immediately p r e c e d i n g these d e c l i n e s . That such i s the case i s shown by the a n a l y s i s o f t a g r e t u r n s and i s d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n that  section.  SPAWNING AREAS Evidence has been p r e s e n t e d i n other s e c t i o n s of t h i s r e p o r t to show that the Baynes sound and Boat harbour r e g i o n s form two o f the major, and probably the two major, lemon s o l e spawning grounds i n the g u l f o f ' G e o r g i a .  The evidence f o r  t h i s was d e r i v e d from: 1.  Information o b t a i n e d from  2.  The t o t a l catches o f lemon sole f o r the g u l f of  G e o r g i a made d u r i n g the spawning  commercial  fishermen.  season.  In t h i s s e c t i o n evidence w i l l be p r e s e n t e d t o show t h a t spawning does not take p l a c e g e n e r a l l y throughout a l l areas i n these r e g i o n s , but i s more i n t e n s e i n c e r t a i n areas than  i n others. The data p r e s e n t e d comes from tx«> sources: 1.  O b s e r v a t i o n of the stage of m a t u r i t y of the  lemon s o l e .  female  Here sampled f i s h o n l y were used as the e s t i m a -  t i o n s of sexual m a t u r i t y f o r tagged f i s h were not found to be s u f f i c i e n t l y a c c u r a t e f o r i n c l u s i o n . 2.  An a n a l y s i s of the r e t u r n s of tagged f i s h r e c a p t u r e d  on the spawning  grounds.  Each of the two major spawning grounds i s considered separately. 1. I.  The Baynes sound r e g i o n  Observations on the State of Sexual M a t u r i t y As was  forty fish,  s t a t e d i n the s e c t i o n on Methods, approximately s e l e c t e d at random, were examined from each a r e a  on every t r i p .  The  spawning c o n d i t i o n s were observed  noted i n the f o l l o w i n g s i x c a t e g o r i e s : I I . Maturing, i i i . v i . Spent. and v.  and  1. Immature,  R i p e n i n g , i v . R i p e , v. Running, and  Males were r e c o g n i z e d o n l y i n c a t e g o r i e s i , i i ,  F u l l d e f i n i t i o n s of these c a t e g o r i e s were given i n  the s e c t i o n on Methods. In T a b l e V are shown the number of lemon s o l e at each of  the above stages of sexual m a t u r i t y , found i n  taken i n the Baynes sound r e g i o n . a trip, insufficient  thevsamples  Where no e n t r y appears f o r  f i s h were a v a i l a b l e f o r p r e c i s e examina-  t i o n of the spawning c o n d i t i o n s .  TABLE V Area  Date  Pounds o f Fish per Hour s agging  I  II  9 10 11 11 6 37 15  5 5 6 1 1 1 0 0  150 100 200 125 100  9 5 4 12 4  1 2 52 0 2  1  Deep bay  - 4/1  12/1  18/1 24/1 28/1  13/2 23/2 15-16/3 Fanny bay  4/1 12/1 18/1 24/1 28/1  13/2  Union bay  Comox bay  Cape Lazo  BAYNES SOUND Spawning C o n d i t i o n - Female  200 100 150 . 200 100 50 30  12/1  18  18  I I I IV  20  14  15 16 20 5 8 3 13 12 23 7  14 14  Total Female  I  II  V  Total Male  44  36 29 37 33 34 50 42 68  1 1 0 1 0 0 1 4  0 3 2 1 0 0 0 0  2 7 2 5 6 0 7 21  3 11 4 7 6 0 8 25  4 2 2 . 1 4 2 4 5 6 6 4 5  1 1 0 0 1 8  30 23 38 30 31 51  1 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 3 1 0  13 17 2 7 8 3  14  0 0 1 2 2 2 0 2  V  VI  1 0 2 1 0 1 1 1  1 0 2 2 5 4  Spawning C o n d i t i o n - Male  18  17 2 10 9 3  20  18/1 24/2  —  2 7 4  1 0 0  5 2 2  0 4 9  2 2 12  0 0 3  10 15 30  1 0 1  0 1 0  1 3 19  2 4 20  12/1 17/3  100 ,60 85  8 13  3 17 0  1 0 0  ,0 0 0  1 3 39  14  14  1 6 1  6 0 2  0 •0 0 1 0 2  6 1 4  19/1 25/1 29/1  100 300 125 150  1 0 0 1  4 0 0 0  2 6 5 3  0 5 7 5  1 7 3 10  0 0 1 1  8  0 0 0 0  3 2 4 0  31 20 19 20  34 22 23 20  39 54  18  16 20  1  o  The p o i n t s which a r e shown "by t h i s t a b u l a t i o n of the d a t a a r e : 1.  The y i e l d o f f i s h per hoiar o f dragging was g r e a t e s t  at cape Lazo, a l i t t l e  l e s s i n Deep and Fanny bays, and l e a s t  i n Comox and Union bays.  I f lemon s o l e concentrate i n c e r t a i n  areas to spawn the y i e l d of f i s h p e r hour's dragging w i l l be g r e a t e r i n those areas than i n areas i n which spawning i s less intense. 2.  Ripe and r u n n i n g females were taken i n a l l a r e a s .  3.  G i v i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the f a c t that the Union bay  February 24th sample, i n c o n t r a s t to the o t h e r s , was taken on the edge o f the Fanny bay area, r i p e and running females can be s a i d t o be l e a s t abundant i n Comox and Union bays and most abundant a t cape Lazo and Fanny.bay.  Deep bay was i n t e r -  mediate. 4.  The p r o p o r t i o n s of spent females a r e h i g h e s t a t  Comox bay and a t Deep bay. A t the l a t t e r p l a c e the excess i s great enough t o be s i g n i f i c a n t . 5»  Chi-squared t e s t s were a p p l i e d to the data shown i n  t h i s Table to determine whether observed v a r i a t i o n s i n the p r o p o r t i o n s o f f i s h at each stage o f sexual m a t u r i t y i n the v a r i o u s areas were s i g n i f i c a n t , o r whether such v a r i a t i o n s could have a r i s e n by chance.  I f such v a r i a t i o n s , are  signifi-  cant, they would i n d i c a t e that spawning i s more i n t e n s e i n c e r t a i n areas than i n o t h e r s .  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s set up  was that the p r o p o r t i o n s o f f i s h a t each stage o f sexual maturity i n each area were independent  of the a r e a .  Assuming  -22-  that t h e r e i s ho a s s o c i a t i o n between the a r e a and the number of f i s h a t each stage o f sexual m a t u r i t y , the numbers of f i s h that would be expected  t o occur i n each c e l l o f the t a b l e can  be c a l c u l a t e d from the marginal t o t a l s by simple p r o p o r t i o n s . Of the c o r r e c t n e s s o f t h i s procedure,  Simpson and Roe (1939)  s t a t e , "The numbers o f o b s e r v a t i o n s i n the two samples have nothing t o do w i t h a s s o c i a t i o n , nor have the. t o t a l numbers of o b s e r v a t i o n s f a l l i n g i n t o any one category'.  The marginal  t o t a l s , i n other words, have no d i r e c t b e a r i n g on a s s o c i a t i o n , and i n any s p e c i f i c problem they a r e to be taken as g i v e n and Immutable.  M  The c h i - s q u a r e d t e s t i s used, then, to determine  what the p r o b a b i l i t y i s that d e v i a t i o n s from t h e c a l c u l a t e d cr--> expected d i s t r i b u t i o n equal to those observed  c o u l d have r i s e n  by chance i n samples o r p o p u l a t i o n s i n which the t r u e p r o p o r t i o n s were those i n d i c a t e d by the t h e o r e t i c a l f r e q u e n c i e s  (Simpson and Roe, 1939). The  formula f o r c h i - s q u a r e d was:  chi-squared  s  where x i s the observed v a l u e and m i s the expected  S(x-m)^. m value.  The number o f degrees o f freedom can be found by the formula n s ( r - l ) ( c - l ) , where r i s the number of rows, and c i s the number o f columns i n the contingency  table.  For the  number o f degrees o f freedom o f the experiment a h i g h v a l u e of c h i - s q u a r e d would r e f u t e the n u l l  hypothesis.  In t h e Baynes sound area t e s t s were made on samples  taken  on comparable, dates l n Deep bay and Fanny bay, Deep bay and cape Lazo, and Fanny bay and cape Lazo.  I n T a b l e VI are shown  -23tlie v a l u e s of c h i - s q u a r e d and of P obtained f o r tidese t e s t s . I n the l a s t ' column of t h i s t a b l e are shown the spawning c o n d i t i o n c l a s s e s which c o n t r i b u t e d most t o the v a l u e of chi-squared. TABLE VI Value of chi-squared  Areas  BAYNES SOUND Value Spawning c o n d i t i o n c a t e D.SV of P. gory c o n t r i b u t i n g most to c h i - s a u a r e d v a l u e  Deep bays' anny bay  22.4912  5  L .01  IV, V, VI  Deep baycape Lazo  75.6834  5  L .01  1, IV, V  Fanny baycape Lazo  29.4626  5  L .01  1, V  t i n column 4, "L" i n d i c a t e s " l e s s than") As i n some cases the observed  f r e q u e n c i e s i n some c e l l s  were s m a l l (below 5 ) , c o n t i n u i t y c o r r e c t i o n s were a p p l i e d to o b t a i n a b e t t e r estimate of P from the c h i - s q u a r e d tion.  distribu-  T h i s adjustment may tend somewhat to underestimate  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e , however i n no case where a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was i n d i c a t e d by the unadjusted  data, d i d the a p p l i c a t i o n of  t h i s adjustment reduce the l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y below .01. Simpson and Roe g i v e the f o l l o w i n g reason f o r making t h i s adjustment, "...the d i s t r i b u t i o n of chi-squared i s continuous, w h i l e t h a t of the f r e q u e n c i e s i n a contingency necessarily discontinuous.  table i s  The c h i - s q u a r e d d i s t r i b u t i o n i s  approached as a l i m i t by these d i s c o n t i n u o u s data, and i f the  -24f r e q u e n c i e s are not uiiduly low the approach i s s u f f i c i e n t l y c l o s e to g i v e a v a l i d estimate of P from c h i - s q u a r e d , but t h i s i s not r e l i a b l e i f the v a l u e s of the t a b l e are  determined  l a r g e l y by the v e r y low f r e q u e n c i e s i n i t . " The observed  adjustment i s made by s u b t r a c t i n g 0.5  frequency t h a t i s h i g h e r than the t h e o r e t i c a l  quency, and by adding 0.5 lower  from each  to each observed.frequency  than the t h e o r e t i c a l frequency.  the unadjusted  that i s  The c a l c u l a t i o n s of  and a d j u s t e d c h l - s q u a r e s are g i v e n i n Table  of the appendix. obtained was  fre-  In a l l cases the value of c h i - s q u a r e d  l a r g e enough, at the number of degrees, of freedom  of the t e s t , to i n d i c a t e that the chances of the  observed  f r e q u e n c i e s b e i n g drawn from the same p o p u l a t i o n s as the c u l a t e d frequency was  l e s s than one  i n one hundred.  the g r e a t e r numbers of r i p e and r u n n i n g females and Fanny bay and of immature females  cal-  Further,  a t cape Lazo  at Deep bay c o n t r i b u t e d  very l a r g e l y to the v a l u e s of c h i - s q u a r e d o b t a i n e d .  Therefore  the p r o p o r t i o n s o f f i s h to each stage of sexual maturity l n an a r e a i s dependent upon the a r e a . The  c o n c l u s i o n i s that:, though: some, spawning takes p l a c e  throughout  the whole reglon:,_ i t tends to be concentrated i n  the areas o f f cape Lazo and Fanny bay.  T h i s i s shown both  by the g r e a t e r number o f r i p e and r u n n i n g females, and the g r e a t e r y i e l d s of f i s h per hour•s dragging areas.  The  h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of spent females  by  taken i n these  i n the areas a t  e i t h e r end of Baynes sound, namely, Deep and Comox bays,  -25l n d i c a t e s t h a t f i s h captured t h e r e are moving o f f the spawning grounds. 2.  Evidence  from Tag  Recoveries  In T a b l e V I I are shown the^ r e c o v e r i e s - whose exact p o i n t s of r e c a p t u r e are c o n s i d e r e d r e l i a b l e . are l i s t e d v e r t i c a l l y  Th.e- areas of t a g g i n g  and the areas of r e c o v e r y  horizontally.  TABLE VII AREA OF  .  TAGGING  .  .  AREA OF RECOVERY  .  Deep bay  Fanny bay  Union bay  Comox bay  Cape Lazo  22  23  7  0  1  Fanny bay  8  12  3  0  2  Union bay  1  1  0  2  Comox bay  5  8  5  2  2  Cape Lazo  1  0  3  1  15  Deep bay  I t w i l l be observed 1.  i n this table that:  Most tags were recovered i n Fanny bay  and that the  number r e c o v e r e d t h e r e i s g r e a t e r i n each case than the number recovered from the a r e a of t a g g i n g .  T h i s shows t h a t t h e r e i s  a movement of lemon s o l e from both ends of Baynes sound towards Fanny bay,  the area of most a c t i v e spawning w i t h i n Baynes  sound p r o p e r .  2.  There  is a slight  movement ocf f i s h i n both d i r e c t i o n s  between cape Lazo and the areas w i t h i n Baynes sound p r o p e r . As i t seems f a i r t o say that most of these f i s h would be moving toward  spawning areas, these r e c o v e r i e s of tags  put out d u r i n g J a n u a r y support the b e l i e f t h a t Fanny bay i s the main spawning a r e a i n Baynes sound. From the data d e r i v e d from the s t a t e of s e x u a l m a t u r i t y of lemon s o l e i n v a r i o u s areas of Baynes sound and from the r e c o v e r i e s of tags put out d u r i n g January, the c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t the 1946 cape Lazo.  spawning was  most p l e n t i f u l  o f f Fanny bay  and  However, c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from one year only  cannot be a p p l i e d too g e n e r a l l y .  F o r i n s t a n c e , one t r a w l e r  c a p t a i n o f l o n g experience expresses the o p i n i o n that the g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of spawning f i s h i n some years a t l e a s t was  i n the southern p a r t of Union bay adjacent to Fanny  bay. 2. 1.  The Boat Harbour Region  Observations on the S t a t e o f Sexual M a t u r i t y The numbers of f i s h . f o u n d a t each stage of s e x u a l m a t u r i t y  have been t a b u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g to t r i p and a r e a and are shown i n Table V I I I . shown i n t h i s  The pounds of f i s h p e r h o u r e drag are a l s o 1  table.  Area  Date  Pounds o f Fish per Hour s Dragging 300 400 113  TABLE V I I I BOAT HARBOUR Spawning C o n d i t i o n - Female  1  Boat harbour  28/12/45 29/12 ~ 7/1/4615/1 20/1 26/1  Centre drag  8/1/46 15/1 20/1 26/1 31/1 De Gourcy 28/12/45 Island 29/12 7/1/46 15/1 20/1 26/1 30/1 '16/2 Pylades 29/12/45 channel 8/1/46 15/1 21/1 26/1 30/1 Porlier 30/12/45 pass 9/1/46 14/1 20/1 27/1 t  —  -  150 150 150 266 150 150 150 60 360 133 200 200 200 200 150 47 40 80 50 75 200 100 50 20 5  I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 1 6 6 5 7 26 22 7 19  II I I I 0 0 1 0 0 7 0 4 0 1 0 5 8 0 0 9 0 12 0 9 0 14 0 17 0 4 8 0 0 6 0 7 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 9 0 0 0 20 0 . 17 7 3 0 4 8 0 0 13 0 10 2 6 4 0 1 0  IV 2 1 5 12 12 6 8; 5 12 7 13 5 4 1 12 11 13 15 5 7 0 3 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0  V VI 0 0 0 0 2 0 6 0 0 7 1 3 10 1 1 0 1 5 8 1 8 0 14 5 0 0 0 1 2 2 6 0 8 2 0 13 2 15 4 19 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 2 0 0 3 10 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0  2  Total Female 2 2 14 22 20 15 27 15 30 27 35 41 8 10 22 24 30 34 28 40 0 31. 23 18 10 28 20 39 30 12 25  Spawning C o n d i t i o n I .11 0 1 0 0 0 6 0 1 0 0 0 1. 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1. 0 3 1 5 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1  Total V Male 22 23 11 11 26 26 18 17 20 20 24 25 13 13 25 25 11 12 12 13 5 5 15 15 10 12 8. 7 17 17 16 16 9 9 6 6 12 12 10 10 6 3 1 4 10 16 6 10 0 0 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1  i I  -28I t w i l l be n o t i c e d from t h i s t a b l e that? 1. In  The  y i e l d of f i s h p e r hour's  dragging was g r e a t e s t  the De Courcy i s l a n d , centre drag,, and Boat harbour  areas  and least" i n the P o r l i e r pass: and Pylades channel a r e a s . Here a g a i n , i f the f i s h are c o n c e n t r a t i n g i n c e r t a i n areas to  spawn the y i e l d per hour's d r a g g i n g w i l l be g r e a t e s t i n  those areas l n which spawning i s most i n t e n s e . 2.  Ripe and r u n n i n g females were taken a l l over the  a r e a except a t P o r l i e r p a s s . at Pylades 3.  They were next l e a s t abundant  channel.  Immature and maturing females were most abundant  at P o r l i e r pass and next most abundant i n P y l a d e s channel. 4.  The p r o p o r t i o n o f spent females i s g r e a t e s t i n  Pylades c h a n n e l .  T h i s may  be the r e s u l t of an  of f i s h on grounds which are l e s s , i n t e n s i v e l y 5.  accumulation fished.  Chi-squared t e s t s were a p p l i e d to the d a t a shown i n  the t a b l e t o determine whether the p r o p o r t i o n s of f i s h a t each stage of sexual m a t u r i t y was.dependent upon the a r e a . These t e s t s were a p p l i e d i n the same manner as they were t o the Baynes sound d a t a .  I n comparing any two a r e a s , only  samples taken on comparable dates were used. The c a l c u l a t i o n s of c h i - s q u a r e d are g i v e n i n Table of  the  appendix.  In T a b l e IX on the f o l l o w i n g page are shown the v a l u e s of  c h i - s q u a r e d and of P o b t a i n e d f o r comparisons, of areas  i n the Boat harbour r e g i o n .  TABLE IX Value o f chl-aquared .  BOAT HARBOUR Value D.F. o f P  Spawning c o n d i t i o n cateAreas gory c o n t r i b u t i n g most • '" to c h i - s q u a r e d v a l u e Boat harbour1.5370 .95 - .90 De Gourcy Island Boat harbourI I I , IV 11.1730 .05 5 centre dr? De^ourcy I I I , IV island13.9332 .01 centre. drag Boat harbourIV, V, I 94.4268 L .01 Pylades channel Oentre dragIV, V 72.9966 1 .01 Pylades channel Boat harbourIV, V, I L .01 147.5715 Porlier pass Pylades channel44.4657 5 I, I I I , IV L .01 Porlier pass (In column 4. "L" i n d i c a t e s " l e s s than") These 1.  chi-squared t e s t s i n d i c a t e  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e x u a l c o n d i t i o n s w e r e about t h e  same a t Boat harbour and De Courcy 2.  that:  island.  The above two areas d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from  centre drag i n t h e i r s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n o f r i p e n i n g females and the l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f r i p e females. 3.  Running females appeared to be f a i r l y  buted i n these t h r e e a r e a s .  evenly  distri-  -304.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n s of s e x u a l c o n d i t i o n s i n Pylades  channel d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from.the d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n other a r e a s .  The s m a l l e r number o f r i p e and' r u n n i n g females  found i n t h i s a r e a , as compared to Boat harbour or centre drag, caused most of these d i f f e r e n c e s .  The  s m a l l e r number  of immature females and the r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r number of r i p e n i n g and r i p e females found here caused most o f the d i f f e r e n c e i n Pylades c h a n n e l - P o r l l e r pass t e s t . . 5. areas.  P o r l i e r pass d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from a l l o t h e r The l a r g e number o f immature females and the s m a l l  number o f maturing and mature f i s h produced the.major  portions  of the d i f f e r e n c e s observed. The c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t , though  some spawning takes  p l a c e throughout the whole of t h i s , r e g i o n w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of P o r l i e r pass, i t tends to be most c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the areas of De Courcy i s l a n d , Boat harbour, and c e n t r e drag. T h i s i s shown by the greater' numbers of r i p e and running females found i n these a r e a s .  The l a c k of r i p e and r u n n i n g  females i n P o r l i e r pass i n d i c a t e s t h a t no spawning takes place there. 2.  E v i d e n c e from Tag R e c o v e r i e s In T a b l e X are shown the r e c o v e r i e s of t a g s from the  Boat harbour r e g i o n .  -31TABLE X AREA. OF RECOVERY  AREA OF TAGGING  Boat  Boat harbour  Centre drag  De Courcy island  Pylades channel  Porlier pass  22  0  6  »0  0  31  1  3  0  0  34  1  7  0  20  0  4  0  1  14  0  0  0  7  harbour  Centre  drag  De Courcy Pylades  Island channel  P o r l i e r pass  -  Only t h o s e t a g s r e t u r n e d by f i s h e r m e n who were c o n s c i e n t i o u s l n g i v i n g complete  and r e l i a b l e t a g r e c o v e r y d a t a have  been I n c l u d e d i n t h i s t a b l e .  These fishermen., however, do  not d i s c r i m i n a t e between t h e t h r e e a r e a s l y i n g * a c r o s s t h e t o p o f S t u a r t c h a n n e l , w h i c h have f o r convenience been c a l l e d Boat h a r b o u r , c e n t r e drag,, and De Courcy i s l a n d . , b u t r e f e r t o them a l l as Boat h a r b o u r .  T h i s e x p l a i n s why most t a g s  were r e c o v e r e d a p p a r e n t l y i n the B o a t harbour a r e a .  For  those t a g s l i s t e d as b e i n g r e c o v e r e d i n c e n t r e , d r a g o r De Courcy I s l a n d , t h e a c t u a l p o i n t s of. r e c o v e r y , have..been d e f i ^ nitely established. From t h i s t a b l e i t w i l l be o b s e r v e d 1.  that:  The l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f r e c o v e r i e s o f f i s h tagged  -32-  i n Pylades channel were r e c o v e r e d In the t h r e e areas a c r o s s the t o p of S t u a r t channel.  lying  T h i s would i n d i c a t e a  d e f i n i t e movement o f f i s h from P y l a d e s channel i n t o the top of S t u a r t channel.  There i s no evidence to show whether o r  not a r e v e r s e movement took p l a c e , f o r there was l i t t l e , i f any, f i s h i n g done i n t h i s a r e a . 2.  There i s some evidence from t a g r e c o v e r i e s t o show  that the f i s h i n the t h r e e areas a c r o s s . t h e t o p of S t u a r t channel mix q u i t e f r e e l y . 3.  The number of r e c o v e r i e s o f P o r l l e r pass tags i n  the t h r e e S t u a r t channel areas and o f tags from these areas i n P o r l i e r pass I n d i c a t e a d e f i n i t e movement o f lemon s o l e beti^een these a r e a s . As i n t h i s case i t a g a i n seems f a i r t o say that most o f the f i s h would be moving towards o r away. from, ( i n the case of tags r e c o v e r e d i n P o r l i e r pass;) the spawning grounds, t h e evidence from these t a g r e t u r n s supports.the c o n c l u s i o n s reached on the b a s i s o f the evidence d e r i v e d from.the  exami-  n a t i o n of the s t a t e o f sexual, m a t u r i t y of f i s h _in the v a r i o u s areas. T h e r e f o r e , the c o n c l u s i o n i s . that., i n the Boat  harbour  r e g i o n , the most i n t e n s e spawning occurs i n t h e three areas l y i n g a c r o s s the top o f S t u a r t channel.  Some spawning takes  p l a c e i n Pylades channel, but i t i s l e s s i n t e n s e than t h a t i n the above t h r e e r e g i o n s . P o r l i e r pass a r e a .  No spawning takes, p l a c e i n the  - -33DURATION OF SPAWNING- PERIOD In determining;the d u r a t i o n o f the spawning season,  and  i n f o l l o w i n g the I n t e n s i t y of the spawning, d u r i n g January frequent samples were taken from a l l areas, i n b o t h r e g i o n s . However, d u r i n g February and March u n f o r t u n a t e l y only a few samples were taken a t i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s and from  certain  areas o n l y .  fish  The examination of the o v a r i e s . o f the  taken i n these samples  gave some I n d i c a t i o n of the d u r a t i o n  o f the spawning season and of the p e r i o d o f peak' spawning. Although not a l l the mature females on the grounds were found to be a c t i v e l y spawning f i s h , the p r o p o r t i o n s .of r i p e running f i s h i n c r e a s e d as the season p r o g r e s s e d .  and  The number  of r i p e and running females, and o f r u n n i n g females o n l y , expressed as a percentage o f the t o t a l , number, o f females i n a sample, were the c r i t e r i a used l n e s t i m a t i n g the p e r i o d o f peak spawning.  These d a t a are shown i n T a b l e XI f o r the  Baynes sound r e g i o n , and i n Table X I I f o r the Boat region.  In the f i r s t  harbour  t h r e e columns.of these t a b l e s the  percentage of r i p e and r u n n i n g females and the percentage of r u n n i n g females o n l y , are shown f o r the t h r e e areas i n which spawning was most i n t e n s e , l n the f o u r t h column the percentage o f r i p e and r u n n i n g females and of. r u n n i n g females only, taken on each t r i p are shown.  TABLE XI BAYNES SOUND T r i p No.  Deep bay. Date (1946) Sexual O o n d i t i o n IV & V V T & S-  ,  Fanny bay  Total for Trip  Sexual C o n d i t i o n IV & V V T & S  1.3$  20.0$  4.0$  12.5$  —  13.0$  3.8$ 5.5$  66.6$  1  4/1  2  12/1  3  18/1  8.1$  5.4$  15.9$  4  24/1  9.1$  8.8$  30.0$  13.0$  5  28/1  5.9$  1.4$  38.7$  15.6$  2.8$  Cape Lazo  ; Sexual C o n d i t i o n IV & V V T & S  .  _  6  13/2  6.0$  7  23/2  2.4$  ' 3.4$  8  15/3  4.4$  1.5$  ;  :  10.2$  3.9$  5.0$  2.1$  26.6$  25.0$  10.6$  62.5$  21.9$  27.0$  12.1$  75.0$  40.0$  34.0$  16.4$  12.0$  8.1$  30.6$  16.5$  2.5$  0.8$  16.6$  8.1$  17.6$ .  -  —  Sexual C o n d i t i o n IV & V V T & S  — i ,  _  Columns marked V T & S r e f e r . t o the r u n n i n g females found among the f i s h tagged and the f i s h sampled c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r f o r each t r i p . Columns marked IV & V r e f e r t o r i p e and running females among sampled f i s h o n l y .  f  TABLE X I I ;  T r i p No.  Date  BOAT HARBOUR  Boat Harbour Centre drag . Sexual C o n d i t i o n Sexual C o n d i t i o n I V & V V T & S IV & V V T & S  . De Courcy I s l a n d Sexual C o n d i t i o n I V & V V T & S  A  1945 28/12  1  1946 ?7/l  50.0$  22.7$  40.0$  20.0$  63.6$  2  15/1  81.8$  66.6$  56.7$  31.8$  3  20/1  95-0$  69.2$  55.6$  4  26/1  60.0$  23.0$  5  31/1  66.6$  22.2$  6  16/2  —  Total  f o r Trip  Sexual C o n d i t i o n I V & V V T & S 36.0$  6.0$  34.4$  36.6$  26.8$  70.8$  10.0$  55.5$  25.0$  33.3$  70.0$  33.3$  57.8$  31.5$  60.0$  32.0$  79.0$  56.5$  54.3$  31.3$  46.0$  36.0$  75.0$  61.1$  56.8$  31.8$  65.0$  70.5$  65.0$  70.5$  22.2$  —  Columns marked V T & S r e f e r t o the running females found among the f i s h tagged and the  f i s h sampled  c o n s i d e r e d together f o r each t r i p .  Columns marked IV & V r e f e r to r i p e and running females among sampled f i s h o n l y .  F u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n s concerning the d u r a t i o n of the spawni n g season i n each r e g i o n can be o b t a i n e d from the f i g u r e s for a v a i l a b i l i t y  (average c a t c h p e r hour) f o r each p e r i o d .  Baynes sound r e g i o n  '  From T a b l e XI i t w i l l be n o t i c e d that I 1.  Some r i p e and r u n n i n g females were found a t the  s t a r t of the p e r i o d o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 2.  The percentage o f r i p e and r u n n i n g females i n c r e a s e d  s t e a d i l y up t o the end o f January. 3. samples  The percentage o f r i p e and r u n n i n g females i n the taken on February 13 and 23 a r e of the same order  as those f o r samples 4.  taken at the end o f January.  The percentages of r i p e and r u n n i n g females i n the  samples taken on March 15 and 16 a r e s m a l l . 5.  The percentage o f spent females i n the samples  s t e a d i l y d u r i n g the whole p e r i o d under  increased  consideration.  From t h e above d a t a the c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t the p e r i o d of peak spawning i n Baynes sound i n 1946 was r o u g h l y from about January 24 t o February 23, though some spawning took p l a c e i n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f January and i n March.  Spawning  probably reached a peak s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r i n the cape Lazo area.  In t h i s area c o n s i d e r a b l y fewer immature and maturing  females were found and hence the percentages.shown are h i g h e r than f o r o t h e r areas i n Baynes The d e c l i n e i n a v a i l a b i l i t y  i n Table XI  sound.  (see T a b l e IV, page 16) from  p e r i o d V (March 1 - 15) t o p e r i o d VI (March 16 - 31) i n d i c a t e s that the f i s h a r e l e a v i n g the spawning grounds  a t t h i s time  and lends f u r t h e r " weight  to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t most o f the  spawning i s completed by March. Boat harbour r e g i o n From T a b l e X I I i t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t I 1.  The percentages of r i p e and running females and  of r i p e females only In the samples  from t h i s r e g i o n were  c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r than i n the Baynes sound r e g i o n . i s because,  This  i n the Boat harbour r e g i o n , few immature or  maturing female lemon s o l e were found as compared to the numbers found i n Baynes 2.  sound.  Some r i p e and r u n n i n g females were found at the  s t a r t o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 3.  The percentage o f r i p e and r u n n i n g females i n c r e a s e d  s t e a d i l y throughout January, p o s s i b l y r e a c h i n g a peak about the end of January. 4.  Not enough samples were taken a f t e r the end o f  January to f o l l o w the course of the spawning beyond,this d a t e . On the b a s i s of these data the c o n c l u s i o n I s that peak p e r i o d of spawning i n Boat harbour s t a r t s about January  15  and c o n t i n u e s u n t i l the end of January, and p r o b a b l y i n t o the f i r s t p a r t of F e b r u a r y . There l s a marked d e c l i n e i n a v a i l a b i l i t y page 16)  (Table IV,  i n the Boat harbour r e g i o n from p e r i o d IV (February  16 - 28) onwards.  T h i s would i n d i c a t e that the f i s h  to l e a v e the grounds about the middle of F e b r u a r y .  start This  supports the b e l i e f t h a t most spawning i s completed i n t h i s  region  at i e a s t by- the  middle of t h a t month.  end  of" February and p r o b a b l y by  Spawning i s completed a l i t t l e  i n the Boat harbour r e g i o n than i n the Baynes sound  the earlier  region.  FISHING INTENSITY In T a b l e s X I I I and XIV  are shown the r e t u r n s  f o r each  p e r i o d of f i s h tagged on each t r i p made to the Baynes sound and Boat harbour r e g i o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  At the  f o o t of each  t a b l e i s shown the u n a d j u s t e d f i s h i n g I n t e n s i t y region,  as i n d i c a t e d by  these  f o r that  returns.  TABLE X I I I BAYNES SOUND T r i p Date No. (1946)  TAGS RECOVERED  Tags Used  V Mar.  VI Mar.  Tags _Re covered After  Periods I Jan.  II Jan.  I I I IV Feb. Feb.  1  Jan.  7  160  11  17  14  13  2  1 .  3 .  2  Jan.12  110  4  13  9  14  3  1  3  Jan.18  137  -  5  14  11  9  7  1  2  4  Jan.24  144  7  18  21  9  1  4  5  Jan.28  130  5  8  19  5  2  6  6  Feb.13  39  -  0'  4  0  2  7  Feb.23  94  -  9 5  9  0  5  60  90  3?  6  Total T o t a l no.  -  -  814 I? of tags out  Fishing intensity  -  1  s  814.  Total  266 BT4" = 32.7#  no. of r e c o v e r i e s  27  = 266  .  TABLE XIV BOAT HARBOUR Trip No.  Date  TAGS RECOVERED '  Tags Used  Periods I II I I I IV V VI Jan. J a n . Feb. Feb. Mar. Mar. 1-15 16-31 1-15 16-28 1-15 16-31  1945  Tags Recovered After Mar. 31  425  5  26  12  7  4  4  17  Jan. 7  203  0  20  13  2  3  1  13  2  Jan.15  160  0  17  11  0  0  12  3  Jan.20  150  12  13  6  0  1  14  4  Jan.26  120  8  9  2  2?  1  10  -5  Jan.30  120  0  24  6  4  1  9  6  Feb.16  49  -  3  -  -  2  2  3  1,227  5  83  82  28  15  11  A  Dec.28  1  - 31  1946  Total  No data on 7 r e c o v e r i e s :  5 from t r i p A, 1 from t r i p 1 from t r i p 3  E f f e c t i v e number of t a g s out - 1,220. T o t a l no. o f r e c o v e r i e s  = 301  T o t a l no. o f r e c o v e r i e s  t o end of March s 224.  Fishing  intensity:  T r i p A included:'  224  „ 18.3$  1,220 T r i p A excluded:  166 800  _ 20.8$  2  77 1,  -40The  sum of t a g r e t u r n s , from every t a g g i n g o p e r a t i o n ,  expressed  as a percentage o f the number o f f i s h tagged, has  been termed the f i s h i n g i n t e n s i t y . approximately  This w i l l represent  only  the t r u e f i s h i n g m o r t a l i t y , t h a t is., the r a t e  at which f i s h are b e i n g removed from the grounds by the f i s h e r y , because o f the e f f e c t s o f : 1.  Natural mortality.  2.  Tagging m o r t a l i t y .  3.  Loss o f tags from l i v e f i s h on the grounds.  4.  Loss o f tags' a f t e r r e c a p t u r e and b e f o r e r e t u r n .  5.  E m i g r a t i o n of tagged f i s h .  6.  Immigration of untagged  These  fish.  s i x f a c t o r s a l l tend t o reduce the numerator of  t h i s e x p r e s s i o n , l e a v i n g the denominator unchanged; the f i r s t t h r e e and the l a s t two by r e d u c i n g the number o f l i v e f i s h on the grounds a v a i l a b l e to the fishermen,  tagged  and the f o u r t h  by r e d u c i n g the a c t u a l number of t a g r e t u r n s r e c e i v e d . these reasons  For  the f i s h i n g i n t e n s i t y , as i n d i c a t e d , w i l l be  l e s s than the f i s h i n g m o r t a l i t y r a t e . As no data a r e a v a i l a b l e on which to e v a l u a t e the extent of ing  the e f f e c t s of any o f these f a c t o r s i n the estimated  fish-  i n t e n s i t y , only the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l assumptions o f t h e i r  p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s can be made: 1.  F o r the comparatively  s h o r t p e r i o d under c o n s i d e r a t i o n  the e f f e c t s o f n a t u r a l m o r t a l i t y and the l o s s o f tags from f i s h on the grounds w i l l probably •ignored.  be s m a l l and c o u l d s a f e l y be  -ia2.  Tagging m o r t a l i t y may  p o s s i b l y have reduced  f i s h i n g intensity considerably. t h i s heading  The m o r t a l i t y i n c l u d e d under  c o u l d a r i s e from two 1.  the t r u e  sources:  I n j u r i e s r e c e i v e d when the f i s h  are  caught, produced by the p r e s s u r e of the f i s h i n the net or by abrasions from the  web. 2.  I n j u r i e s and i n f e c t i o n s produced by  the t a g g i n g o p e r a t i o n . I f tags are e i t h e r too t i g h t or too l o o s e they are l i a b l e  to  chafe and cause open s o r e s which c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y cause the death of the f i s h .  In t a g g i n g every e f f o r t was  made to m i n i -  mize as f a r as p o s s i b l e the e f f e c t s of i n j u r i e s from these sources; o n l y a p p a r e n t l y u n i n j u r e d f i s h were tagged, tags themselves were c a r e f u l l y put 3.  and  the  on.  The l o s s of tags a f t e r r e c a p t u r e and b e f o r e r e t u r n  remains a source of e r r o r t h a t cannot be i g n o r e d and whose possible effect  can o n l y be approximately  assessed.  Some t a g s  might have been l o s t through the i n d i f f e r e n c e o r c a r e l e s s n e s s of fishermen or cannery employees, but t h i s n u m b e r i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y i s small as every e f f o r t was  made t o impress  on  those h a n d l i n g lemon s o l e , the. d e s i r a b i l i t y of r e t u r n i n g t a g s promptly  t o g e t h e r w i t h the p e r t i n e n t r e c o v e r y  data.  The method of e x p r e s s i n g the r e t u r n s as a o f the t o t a l number of f i s h tagged  percentage  i n t r o d u c e s another  source  of e r r o r which would a l s o make the i n d i c a t e d I n t e n s i t y somewhat lower than the t r u e f i s h i n g i n t e n s i t y .  The  calculation:  -42o f t h e f i s h i n g i n t e n s i t y i s based on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a l l the t a g s were o u t a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e season and henoe a l l were a f f e c t e d e q u a l l y by t h e f i s h e r y .  I n r e a l i t y , the tags  were p u t o u t d u r i n g t h e course, o f t h e f i s h i n g season so t h a t t h o s e f i s h tagged towards t h e c l o s e o f t h e season d i d n o t have as much chance o f b e i n g caught as t h o s e t a g g e d a t the s t a r t . T h i s e r r o r can be c o r r e c t e d by w e i g h t i n g t h e d a t a so t h a t a l l t a g s appear t o have an e q u a l chance o f r e c o v e r y . The method u s e d was s u g g e s t e d by Dr. J . L. H a r t and i s d e s c r i b e d below. T a b l e XV shows how t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s were made f o r t h e Baynes sound r e g i o n . TABLE XV  Period  Column 1 Tags used  BAYNES SOUND Column 2 Column 3 Tags r e c o v e r e d F i s h s t i l l t o be  Column 4 Column 1 x Column 3  I  270  102  242,681  65,523,870  II  411  137  199,696  82,075,056  III  .39  13  155,093  6,048,627  IV  94  14  105,398  9,907,412  814  266  702,868  163,55^,965  Totals  T o t a l Column _4 _ 163.554.965 « 814 - * T o t a l Column 1 -  o n Q 0 0  « (Recovery s u s c e p t i b i l i t y *w ) 9  f a o t o r  T o t a l Column 2 x T o t a l C a t c h 266 x 261.420 Recovery s u s c e p t i b i l i t y f a c t o r 200,927 =  A d j u s t e d F i s h i n g I n t e n s i t y -»  =  42.5$  *  -43Fi8h were tagged i n the f i r s t  four periods only.  The  t o t a l number tagged i n each p e r i o d i s shown i n Column 1.  In  Column 2 a r e shown the number of r e c o v e r i e s made d u r i n g the whole season from each p e r i o d ' s t a g g i n g . of  ,The number of pounds  f i s h caught from the mid p o i n t o f each p e r i o d u n t i l the  end of the season was c a l c u l a t e d -and t a b u l a t e d i n Column 3 . Column 4 shows the product  o f Column 1 and Column 3 .  Each  column was summed and the sum o f Column 4 d i v i d e d by the sum of  Column 1.  tibility  T h i s g i v e s a f a c t o r which r e p r e s e n t s the suscep-  of a tag to recovery.  The sum of Column 2 m u l t i p l i e d  by the t o t a l c a t c h f o r the season and d i v i d e d by the above f a c t o r g i v e s the t o t a l , number of tags which would have been r e c o v e r e d had a l l f i s h "been tagged a t the s t a r t of the season. T h i s number expressed of The  as a percentage of the t o t a l number  f i s h tagged r e p r e s e n t s the a d j u s t e d f i s h i n g c a t c h p e r p e r i o d i s expressed  intensity.  as o c c u r r i n g a t the mid  p o i n t o f each p e r i o d and the tags as i f they were a l l out at the s t a r t o f a p e r i o d .  The e r r o r i n t r o d u c e d by. t h i s procedure  w i l l be s m a l l . Before b e i n g used, the f i g u r e s f o r the t o t a l c a t c h f o r each p e r i o d were a d j u s t e d so as t o r e p r e s e n t more n e a r l y the tagged p o p u l a t i o n .  F i s h . o f l e s s than 11-12  inches i n length  are not accepted by the c a n n e r i e s , so any s m a l l e r f i s h caught are u s u a l l y r e t u r n e d t o the water by the fishermen.  However,  as random samples of the c a t c h were taken f o r t a g g i n g some f i s h of l e s s than 290 mm.  ( l l i n c h e s ) were tagged.  -44Pigure 1 shows the l e n g t h f r e q u e n c i e s o f f i s h I n the Baynes sound r e g i o n ; 290 mm. was taken as r e p r e s e n t i n g the d i v i d i n g l i n e "between those f i s h which would be accepted by the canneries and those which would n o t . i t was estimated The  From t h i s f i g u r e  t h a t 82$ of the f i s h were l o n g e r than 290 mm.  catch f o r each p e r i o d was m u l t i p l i e d by 10.0/82 = 1.22. F i g u r e 2 shows the l e n g t h f r e q u e n c i e s .for t h e Boat  harbour r e g i o n .  Here 84$ of the f i s h were l o n g e r than 290 mm.  and t h e r e f o r e the catches  from t h i s r e g i o n were m u l t i p l i e d by  1.19. Table XVI shows t h e weighting  o f the t a g r e t u r n s f o r t h e  Boat harbour r e g i o n . TABLE XVI  Period  Column 1 Tags used  A I II III  -  BOAT HARBOUR Column 2 Column 3 Tags recovered Fish s t i l l to be caught  Column 4 Column 1 x Column 3  425  58  107,502  45,688,350  363  70  100,092  36,333,396  390  89  79,722  39,091,580  —  —  7  11,670  571,830  224  298,986  113,685,156  166  191,484  67,996,806  IV 49 Totals (Period A i n c l u d e d ) 1227 Totals (Period A excluded) 802  Boat Harbour  P e r i o d A included? T o t a l Column 4 T o t a l Column 1  =  113.685.156 _ 1,227 ~  •  Q  (Recovery s u s c e p t i b i l i t y factor)  P e r i o d A excluded: T o t a l Column 4 '. 67.996.806 _ T o t a l Column 1 802 "  ft  .  ftk  =  Period A  (Recovery s u s c e p t i b i l i t y factor)  included:  T o t a l Column 2 x T o t a l Catch " ^ 224 x 107.502 _ Recovery s u s c e p t i b i l i t y f a c t o r — 92,683  2  g  Q  =  P e r i o d A excluded: T o t a l Column 2 x T o t a l . C a t c h Recovery s u s c e p t i b i l i t y f a c t o r Period A  — = :  1<S6 x 107.502 _ 84,784 —  2  1  Q  included: 260  Adjusted F i s h i n g I n t e n s i t y :  _  21.2$  1,227 ~ P e r i o d A excluded: 210 _ 26.2$  Adjusted F i s h i n g I n t e n s i t y :  8"02  -  In t h i s a r e a a t a g g i n g was c a r r i e d out d u r i n g three days of December,<1945; In w e i g h t i n g the r e c o v e r i e s  the l a s t  t h i s i s r e f e r r e d t o as P e r i o d  from t h i s , t a g g i n g , the t o t a l  catch  f o r the season has been used, as no c a t c h s t a t i s t i c s were a v a i l a b l e f o r December, 1945.  This introduced  5% i n the a d j u s t e d f i s h i n g i n t e n s i t y . and  excluding  an e r r o r o f  The r e s u l t s i n c l u d i n g  t h i s sample a r e given i n the t a b l e .  From T a b l e XV and T a b l e XVI i t w i l l be seen that the a d j u s t e d f i s h i n g i n t e n s i t y f o r the Baynes sound and Boat  A.  -46harbour r e g i o n s are 42.5$ and 26.2$ ( t r i p A excluded) respectively.  The  corresponding unadjusted percentages  32.2$ and 20.8$ ( t r i p A  are  excluded).  The f o r e g o i n g has been an a n a l y s i s o f the r e c o v e r i e s made' d u r i n g the 1946  spawning season.  For comparison w i t h  these are the r e c o v e r i e s made d u r i n g the 1947 i n the Boat harbour r e g i o n . of January  and February  spawning season  These r e t u r n s cover the months  o n l y , as on March 1 the o t t e r t r a w l e r  fishermen went on s t r i k e .  1947  U n f o r t u n a t e l y no complete  r e t u r n s are a v a i l a b l e f o r the Baynes sound r e g i o n as p a r t s of  t h i s r e g i o n were c l o s e d to t r a w l e r s i n May,  1946.  All  the major f i s h i n g areas w i t h the e x c e p t i o n . o f cape Lazo were a f f e c t e d by t h i s r u l i n g . In T a b l e XVII and Table XVIII January,  1946,  to January,  the t a g r e t u r n s ..from  1947,.are shown f o r the Baynes  sound and Boat harbour r e g i o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y . F i s h  tagged  i n the Boat harbour r e g i o n were not a l l r e c a p t u r e d i n t h a t area; those r e t u r n s marked w i t h an a s t e r i s k were captured i n other p a r t s o f the  gulf. TABLE XVII  BAYNES SOUND Trip 1946* 1947 No. Jan.Feb.Mar.Apr.May June J u l y Aug.Sep.Oct.Nov.Dec.Jan.Feb. H  1  2 3  4  5 6 7  :  28  17  14  7 5  —  27 23 20 39 27 9 5  :  3  4 8 10  7  4  9  3 3 1 4  3 2  4  1 1  2 1 1  TABLE XVIII BOAT HARBOUR Area 1955 194? and T r i p Jan.Feb.Mar.Apr.May June J u l y Aug.Sep.Oct.Nov.Dec.Jan.Feb. No. Boat 30 hbr. Porlier  IA  15 IA  3  3p  1 2A IA  Boat 16 11 hlar. IA Por2p lier lb  3  Boat 13 hbr. Porlier  11  Boat hbr.  11  5 Boat hbr.  6 Boat hbr. KEY:  8  1*  lp  IA  lp  2A  lp  2p  lp  1  6  2A  2 IA  2p IA  lp  IA. IA. 1  3  5  2A  1  lp IA  2A  3b  Boat 16 12 hbr. lp Por2b 3p Her lb  lp  3P  3b  2p IA  2A  1 IA  2A  2p  •  lp IA  1  30  2A  IA  i  IA  lp 2A  3 2A 1 lp  3A  IA  IA  1  lp  2A  2p. l p  IA  lp IA  lp  IA  lp IA  1  2 lp IA 2b  2A  2p  lp  8 4A  lp  5P  1  lp  2p  IA  1  lp  2A IA lb  IA  IA  3  2  2 2A  1  lp IA lp  Numbers w i t h no symbol a f t e r them are f i s h tagged and r e c o v e r e d i n the Boat harbour a r e a s . p - recovered i n P o r l i e r pass. pasa A - r e c o v e r e d i n an a r e a other than Boat hbr. o r P o r l i e r / b - r e c o v e r e d i n Boat hbr., a p p l i c a b l e t o f i s h tagged at P o r l i e r pass o n l y .  -48During January and February, 1947, 58 tags were r e c o v e r e d i n the Boat harbour r e g i o n . remaining unaccounted  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s 6.3$ o f the t a g s  f o r a t that time.  D u r i n g the same  p e r i o d l n 1946, 198 a c t u a l r e c o v e r i e s were made. these r e t u r n s so that a l l tags appeared of  the f i s h i n g season,  By w e i g h t i n g  to be out a t the s t a r t  the e f f e c t i v e number- o f r e c o v e r i e s  becomes 230._ T h i s r e p r e s e n t s 18.8$ o f the tags out a t the s t a r t of the season.  Thus t h e r e i s a very marked drop i n t h e  1947 r e c o v e r i e s as compared to the 1946 ones. f a c t o r s account f o r t h i s 1.  The f o l l o w i n g  drop:  Tagging m o r t a l i t y .  T h i s f a c t o r w i l l reduce t h e 1946  and 1947 r e t u r n s by approximately the same amount p r o v i d e d the m o r t a l i t y o c c u r r e d s h o r t l y a f t e r t a g g i n g .  However, i f  some m o r t a l i t y caused by t a g g i n g o c c u r r e d a f t e r March, 1946, then the 1947 r e t u r n s w i l l be reduced i n comparison 1946 r e t u r n s .  w i t h the  A number o f tagged f i s h r e c a p t u r e d about  time showed sores produced by the t a g c h a f i n g .  this  I f these  sores l e a d t o the death o f many f i s h , then t a g g i n g m o r t a l i t y would reduce the 1947 r e t u r n s as compared t o the 1946 r e t u r n s . 2.  Natural mortality.  During the s h o r t p e r i o d under  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n 1946, the e f f e c t o f n a t u r a l m o r t a l i t y  will  probably be n e g l i g i b l e .  o f the  However, d u r i n g the remainder  year t h i s f a c t o r w i l l not be n e g l i g i b l e and w i l l reduce the percentage  o f 1947 r e t u r n s l n comparison  T h i s i s p r o b a b l y the most important 3.  Fishing intensity.  to the 1946 r e t u r n s .  factor.  P r o v i d e d the f i s h i n g  intensity  -49remains unchanged, t h i s factor w i l l not a f f e c t t h e percentage returns.  However, i f the f i s h i n g intensity was less during  1947, then i t w i l l reduce the percentage returns i n 1947 as compared to 1946. 4.  F a i l u r e of f i s h to return to the spawning grounds.  If not a l l the f i s h tagged i n 1946 returned to the spawning grounds i n 1947, the percentage returns i n 1947 will.be l e s s than i n 1946. This f a c t o r should be considered, though at the present time no data i s available on i t . As no adequate estimate can be made, on the basis of the data available, of any of the probable effects of any of these four f a c t o r s , no attempt has been made to determine the t o t a l mortality rate or the f i s h i n g mortality rates on the basis of returns f o r these two years.  A very rough determination  could be made by p l o t t i n g the logarithms, of the number of returns made i n January and February of each year against the year of return and extrapolating, the l i n e to zero time; however, such an estimate would be too inaccurate to be of any p r a c t i c a l value. Growth Rates The data from the 1947 tag returns form a basis, on which an estimate can be made of average annual growth increment of f i s h i n the Boat harbour region.  Tagged f i s h are measured  on tagging and on recovery, and, provided both these are accurate, an estimate of the amount of growth can be made. In determining the accuracy of the recovery measurements  -50the c r i t e r i o n used was that, i f a fisherman recorded some of his measurements to an eighth of an inch, then a l l the measurements made by him were considered accurate.  The recovery  lengths i n inches were converted to millimeters. The lengths of the lemon sole at time of tagging were p l o t t e d against the corresponding lengths at time of recovery, and a straight l i n e f i t t e d to the points by the method of least (Figure 3 ) .  squares.  From t h i s l i n e the average growth i n a year of  f i s h between 250 mm.  and 425 mm.  can be obtained.. This l i n e  shows the average amount f i s h between 250 and 425 mnr. increase i n length a year.  The average of these length increments  represent the average annual length increment Boat harbour region. i s from 27 mm.  of f i s h i n the  This was found to be,23.5 mm.;  f o r f i s h of 250 mm.  If t h i s yearly increment  to 19 mm.  will  the range  f o r f i s h , of 400  mm.  i s expressed as a percentage of the  length of the f i s h i n 1946,  the r e s u l t i s the average annual  percentage  growth rate for f i s h of that length.  from 10.8$  f o r f i s h of 250 mm.  This varies  to 4.5$ for f i s h of 425  mm.  It should be pointed out that the sampling here i s not random i n that among the smaller fish, taken for tagging, there i s probably d e f i n i t e selection of individuals which have h i t h e r t o grown more rapidly and hence have entered the fishery younger than others i n their age classes.  How  t h i s more rapid early  growth a f f e c t s their subsequent growth history i s not known. Assuming, then, that the mean of the lengths p l o t t e d represents the mean length of the f i s h i n the population, then the  F i g . 3 . Growth of Lemon S o l e . Boat Harbour  -51average annual percentage growth r a t e at t h i s mean l e n g t h w i l l be the c l o s e s t estimate, under the circumstances,  of the  average annual percentage growth r a t e of the p o p u l a t i o n . value i s 7.3$. be converted  The  This  annual percentage i n c r e a s e l n l e n g t h  to the annual percentage Increase  can  i n weight i n  the f o l l o w i n g manner: The  approximate r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e n g t h of a  f i s h and i t s weight i s g i v e n by the formula:  W » kL ,  where  W Is the weight, L l s the l e n g t h , and k i s a constant,  often  3  r e f e r r e d to as the c o e f f i c i e n t of c o n d i t i o n or the  Ponderal  Index. W_ s k L n n Now  3  the l e n g t h i n year n «• 1 w i l l be: L j ^ = L  n  r  aL , n  where a i s the average annual r a t e o f i n c r e a s e i n l e n g t h . T h e r e f o r e , weight i n year n .*• 1 w i l l be  W  n . 1 = *< n * l ' L  3  = K *3 n V k  Now  v  L  (a  * 3I. taL ) n  n  2  *  <aL ) j 3  n  the terms c o n t a i n i n g powers of aLn g r e a t e r than  one  are s u f f i c i e n t l y small...to be i g n o r e d i n a rough c a l c u l a t i o n . Therefore:,  Wn _ t- 1 - k ( Ln - 3al>h n 3  Now:  kLn - W_n • '  '  3  Therefore:  w n  + 1  =  W  n  *"  3 a  ^n  -52Now, the weight i n the year n * 1 w i l l he the weight i n y e a r n p l u s annual weight increment. T h e r e f o r e , _ a r e p r e s e n t s the annual r a t e o f i n c r e a s e i n weight, and so the annual r a t e o f i n c r e a s e i n weight i s r o u g h l y t h r e e times annual r a t e o f i n c r e a s e i n l e n g t h . T h e r e f o r e , t h e average annual r a t e o f i n c r e a s e i n weight o f the lemon s o l e i n Boat harbour i s 21.9$. Discussion of Fishing  Intensities  When the i n t e n s i t y of a f i s h e r y has been determined t h e problem a r i s e s as to whether  t h i s I n t e n s i t y i s too great t o  m a i n t a i n t h e f i s h e r y a t i t s p r e s e n t l e v e l o f abundance. the annual removal o f f i s h by a l l recruitment?  Is  causes b a l a n c e d by t h e annual  Or, p u t t i n g t h i s i n another way, l s the i n t e n s i t y  of the f i s h i n g such t h a t the number o f mature f i s h l e f t on the grounds a n n u a l l y l a r g e enough to produce a s u f f i c i e n t number o f young f i s h to balance the annual removal o f f i s h at the time when these young f i s h e n t e r the f i s h e r y ?  A  secondhand  a s s o c i a t e d problem, a l s o a r i s e s , namely, i s t h i s  intensity  one which w i l l m a i n t a i n the f i s h e r y a t i t s most p r o d u c t i v e level? I t has been shown by many workers (Baranov 1918,  Russell  1931, Thompson and B e l l 1934, Thompson 1937) t h a t a f i s h e r y may be s t a b i l i z e d at many d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f y i e l d , but t h a t there i s an optimum y i e l d which t a k e s f u l l advantage o f the maximum growth of the p o p u l a t i o n . No r e a l attempt can be made t o answer e i t h e r o f these  .  -53-  q u e s t i o n s o n the b a s i s of the data p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s r e p o r t . To solve these problems,  the t o t a l annual m o r t a l i t y  rates,  the annual r e c r u i t m e n t , and the annual growth r a t e must be known.  The  e s t i m a t i o n of* the annual r e c r u i t m e n t and a l s o  of the growth r a t e are b e s t determined from s t u d i e s of the age d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the p o p u l a t i o n .  Such age d e t e r m i n a t i o n s  are o u t s i d e the scope o f t h i s study.  Growth r a t e s can, however,  be determined from t a g r e t u r n s p r o v i d e d a c c u r a t e measurements are taken o f the l e n g t h s of a l l tagged f i s h a t the time of r e c a p t u r e , and p r o v i d e d these f i s h were r e c a p t u r e d a f t e r a long enough p e r i o d to p e r m i t an estimate to be made o f the annual amount o f growth as f i s h do not grow at a constant r a t e throughout the y e a r .  Any estimate of the annual growth  r a t e based on the i n c r e a s e i n l e n g t h s shown by f i s h a t f o r l e s s than a f u l l year i s l i a b l e to be  freedom  inaccurate.  T h i r t y - f i v e tags r e c o v e r e d i n Boat harbour i n January and February, 1947,  s a t i s f i e d the above c o n d i t i o n s , and on  t h i s b a s i s the average annual i n c r e a s e i n weight was to be 21.9$  f o r lemon s o l e i n t h a t  found  region.  The annual s e a s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n of death (which i n c l u d e s both f i s h i n g and n a t u r a l m o r t a l i t y r a t e s ) can be  determined  from e i t h e r the age composition of the p o p u l a t i o n , by the methods used by Baranov  (1918), Jackson (1939), o r R i c k e r (1944),  or from the r e t u r n s of tagged f i s h .  Methods based on the  composition of the s t o c k are not d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r  age  because,  as has been s t a t e d , age d e t e r m i n a t i o n s are o u t s i d e the scope of t h i s work.  S e v e r a l methods u s i n g t a g r e t u r n s have been evolved: R i c k e r (1945) g i v e s two methods, the f i r s t based on the t a g g i n g of f i s h i n two s u c c e s s i v e years p r i o r t o the s t a r t o f the f i s h i n g season, and the .comparison o f the r e t u r n s i n the second year from each y e a r ' s t a g g i n g .  The s u r v i v a l r a t e  (complement o f the m o r t a l i t y r a t e ) equals (year 1 recaptures)(number marked year 2) (year 2 recaptures)(number marked year l ) H i s second method makes use o f f i s h tagged throughout the season i n s t e a d of j u s t p r i o r to the season.  To use t h i s  i n f o r m a t i o n c e r t a i n assumptions were made: 1.  That the s e a s o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of marking was the  same throughout both seasons. 2.  That the t o t a l m o r t a l i t y r a t e s were the same i n b o t h  years and t h e same f o r t h e whole o f the ranges o f s i z e s 3.  studied.  That a l l the y e a r ' s m o r t a l i t y ( n a t u r a l and f i s h i n g )  takes p l a c e d u r i n g the time marking goes on and that the seasonal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m o r t a l i t y o f both sorts, parallels'that of the marking.  -  Thompson and H e r r i n g t b n (1930) and Hart (1943) use a method based on the t a g g i n g d f f i s h d u r i n g a season and the a n a l y s i s o f the r e c o v e r i e s made i n s u c c e s s i v e seasons.  They  assume that the t o t a l annual m o r t a l i t y r a t e i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the d e c l i n e i n a c t u a l numbers o f returns, each year., p r o v i d e d that the m o r t a l i t y r a t e s and f i s h i n g e f f o r t s a r e constant from year t o year, and that tagged f i s h , a f t e r  recovering  -55from the  initial  shock of h a n d l i n g ,  the untagged f i s h .  Thompson and  of the f i s h i n g m o r t a l i t y r a t e by  d i e at the  Herrlngton  the  (expressed  o b t a i n an  as  estimate  e x t r a p o l a t i n g to zero  the l i n e formed by p l o t t i n g the l o g a r i t h m s returns  same r a t e  time  of the y e a r l y  as a percentage of the tags a v a i l a b l e at  s t a r t of the year) a g a i n s t  the years of r e c o v e r y .  Then,  by assuming that t h e i r t a g g i n g m o r t a l i t y i s n e g l i g i b l e , they c a l c u l a t e d the n a t u r a l m o r t a l i t y from the t o t a l annual m o r t a l i t y and the f i s h i n g m o r t a l i t y . r a t e from the  Hart f i n d s the annual m o r t a l i t y  slope of the l i n e formed by p l o t t i n g the  r i t h m of the tags r e c o v e r e d  against  the year of  loga-  recovery.  None of the methods o u t l i n e d above i s s u i t a b l e f o r c a l c u l a t i n g the m o r t a l i t y r a t e s o f lemon s o l e i n the Baynes sound and  Boat harbour r e g i o n s  f o r only one one  year and  year o n l y .  as t a g g i n g was  c a r r i e d out  as complete r e t u r n s are a v a i l a b l e f o r  These methods a l s o cannot be  a p p l i e d to  determine m o r t a l i t y r a t e s from the t a g r e t u r n s f o r two  weekly p e r i o d s 1.  The  because:  m o r t a l i t y r a t e s and  assumed to be  successive  constant  fishing effort  from p e r i o d to p e r i o d ;  by the v a r i a t i o n i n the t o t a l , c a t c h and  cannot be  t h i s i s shown  availability  per  period. 2.  No  information  i s a v a i l a b l e on t a g g i n g m o r t a l i t y  the l e n g t h of time r e q u i r e d by lemon s o l e to r e c o v e r shock of h a n d l i n g . very  As  s h o r t l y a f t e r the  from  the p e r i o d s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n time of t a g g i n g ,  the tagged  fish  or the  occur  -56-  cannot be assumed to d i e at the same r a t e as the untagged 3.  The  number of r e c o v e r i e s per -period are small  i n some cases so n e a r l y equal t h a t the e r r o r s through the chance recovery t o r t the r e s u l t s 4.  and  introduced  of t a g s i n any p e r i o d would d i s -  considerably.  As n e i t h e r t a g g i n g  population  fish.  nor  the resampling of  t o o b t a i n r e c o v e r i e s was  the  done at d e f i n i t e r e g u l a r  i n t e r v a l s , Jackson's (1939) method cannot be  a p p l i e d to  this  data. U n l e s s the f i s h i n g m o r t a l i t y r a t e , the n a t u r a l m o r t a l i t y r a t e , the amount of annual r e c r u i t m e n t and  to the  the annual growth r a t e are a l l known no  population,  statement  p r o p e r l y be made about the s t a b i l i t y of a f i s h e r y .  can  As  was  shown l n the f o r e g o i n g paragraphs., n e i t h e r the m o r t a l i t y nor the amount of annual r e c r u i t m e n t the b a s i s of the. data p r e s e n t e d . about the  can be determined  Therefore  on  no v a l i d statement  s t a b i l i t y of the f i s h e r y can be made.  However,  on the b a s i s of the e s t i m a t e d f i s h i n g i n t e n s i t i e s and annual r a t e of i n c r e a s e i n weight c a l c u l a t e d , an of the probable s t a t e of the f i s h e r y may  rates  the  estimation  be made.  A f i s h i n g i n t e n s i t y of 26.2$ d u r i n g the  spawning season  i s p r o b a b l y too h i g h f o r the Boat harbour f i s h e r y to support and  s t i l l m a i n t a i n an annual r e c r u i t m e n t  t h a t , together  a growth r a t e of about 22$, w i l l balance the h i g h  total  m o r t a l i t y r a t e that l s suggested by the comparison of percentage tag r e t u r n s  (6.3$) obtained  with  i n 1 9 4 7 with  the  the  -57percent age t a g r e t u r n s  (18.6$) o b t a i n e d i n 1946.  Assuming  that the growth r a t e i s the same f o r Baynes sound and Boat harbour lemon s o l e , a f i s h i n g i n t e n s i t y  of 42$ d u r i n g the  spawning season appears too h i g h f o r the Baynes sound to support  fishery  and s t i l l be i n e q u i l i b r i u m .  Therefore,  the c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t f i s h i n g  d u r i n g t h e spawning  intensities  seasons, o f 26.2$! and 42.5$, f o r the  Boat harbour and Baynes sound r e g i o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y , are t o o high.  POPULATION CHANGES r  I n t h i s s e c t i o n an attempt I s made to determine the amount o f p o p u l a t i o n  change on the lemon s o l e  spawning  grounds of Baynes sound and Boat harbour, t h a t i s , t o show whether  the spawning p o p u l a t i o n i s s t a t i o n a r y o r i s c o n t i n u -  o u s l y changing w i t h f i s h a r r i v i n g t o spawn and l e a v i n g throughout the season.  T h i s i s done by r e l a t i n g , f o r each t r i p  made i n January and February, t h e number o f tags, out at. the s t a r t o f each two weekly p e r i o d w i t h the number of r e c o v e r i e s and the t o t a l weight o f f i s h . c a u g h t d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d .  The  method used was to express the t a g r e c o v e r i e s . f r o m e a c h , t a g g i n g f o r each p e r i o d as i f a f i x e d number.of t a g s , one hundred, were out a t the s t a r t o f each p e r i o d , and a f i x e d weight, of f i s h , one hundred thousand pounds.,, were caught i n each p e r i o d .  By e x p r e s s i n g the number o f r e c o v e r i e s i n t h i s  manner, the e f f e c t o f the v a r y i n g numbers o f tags out and o f  -58the d i f f e r i n g catches  o f f i s h made each p e r i o d , on the  number of tags r e c o v e r e d The  w i l l be e l i m i n a t e d .  t a g r e c o v e r i e s , adjusted  I n this.manner are shown  i n Table XIX and g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 4 f o r the Baynes sound r e g i o n , and i n Table XX and g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 5 for  the Boat harbour r e g i o n . TABLE XIX  No. & Date o f I Period Jan. 4 I Jan. 1-15 23.I  BAYNES SOUND Number and Date of T r i p V III IV II Jan.12 Jan.18 Jan.24 Jan.28  36.0  (  —  VI Feb.13  VII Feb.23  —  II Jan.16-28  23.5  25.4  25.5  21.5  33.3  III Feb. 1-15  26.0  24.1  21.9  32.2  15.7  IV Feb.16-28  18.7  28.5  13.6  30.0  27.6  39.4  25,3  V Mar. 1-15  4.4  9.9  15.6  21.1  11.7  30.6  23.2  VI Mar.16-31  3-  4.6  3.1  3.9  1  6.8  _  '  BAKNES  SOUND  X  PERIODS  g.4. Baynes"Sound. E f f e c t i v e Tag Recoveries from each A v a i l a b i l i t y . Total  Catch.  Trip  -59TABLE XX No. & Date of A Period Dec.28 I 8.1 Jan. 1-15  BOAT HARBOUR Number and Date of T r i p IV II III I Jan.26 Jan.20 Jan.15 Jan.7  V Jan.30  VI Feb.16  II Jan.16-31  23.9  38.2  40.9  41.1  68.9  III Feb. 1-15  6.5  15.5  16.8  20.5  17.5  43.6  - — -  IV Feb.16-28  9.7  • 6.5  12.4  25.9  10.3  34.0  22.1  V Mar. 1-15 117.5  212.5  235.0  517.0  505.3  64.5  77.4  432.3  VI Mar.16-31  71.0  —  51.6  38.7  In i n t e r p r e t i n g  these r e s u l t s the f o l l o w i n g  assumptions  are made: 1. equally 2.  The tagged f i s h do not s c h o o l , and a r e d i s t r i b u t e d amongst the untagged p o p u l a t i o n . Tagging m o r t a l i t y  i s n e g l i g i b l e or a f f e c t s the f i s h  tagged on each t r i p i n p r e c i s e l y the same manner. -  -3«  Natural mortality,  d u r i n g the p e r i o d  under c o n s i d e r a -  tion i s n i l . 4.  The l o s s o f tags a f t e r r e c a p t u r e and b e f o r e  e i t h e r a f f e c t s the r e c o v e r i e s  from each t r i p f o r each  return period  i n the same manner o r i s n i l . B e f o r e the r e s u l t s given i n the t a b l e s certain theoretical interpretations considered:  are discussed,  o f such r e s u l t s are  -6o-  1.  I f no immigration  or emigration  -  takes p l a c e , t h a t I s ,  i f the p o p u l a t i o n i s a b s o l u t e l y s t a t i o n a r y , then the e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s p e r p e r i o d (that, i s to say, the a c t u a l r e t u r n s ted  adjus-  as i f one hundred tags had been out at the s t a r t of the  p e r i o d and one hundred thousand pounds o f f i s h had been caught d u r i n g the p e r i o d ) would remain 2.  Again,  constant.  i f e m i g r a t i o n alone  took p l a c e , and, p r o v i d i n g  the tagged f i s h were e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the p o p u l a t i o n , then the e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n p e r p e r i o d w i l l be constant,  again  f o r tagged and untagged f i s h s h o u l d leave the  grounds a t the same r a t e .  In such a c a s e . f i s h are becoming  l e s s abundant on the grounds and t h i s w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the lower average c a t c h per hour f o r t h a t p e r i o d . 3.  I f immigration  alone occurs d u r i n g any p e r i o d , then  the e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s f o r that p e r i o d w i l l show a d e c l i n e . T h i s i s because the immigrants have lowered the r a t i o o f tagged to untagged f i s h present has been d i l u t e d .  on the ground, t h a t i s , the p o p u l a t i o n  In t h i s case more f i s h , w i l l be present  on the grounds and the average c a t c h p e r hour f o r t h a t p e r i o d should show an i n c r e a s e . 4.  I f Immigration and e m i g r a t i o n take p l a c e at, the. same  time the e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s per p e r i o d w i l l drop. three p o s s i b l e ways i n which e m i g r a t i o n occur t o g e t h e r : /  1.  I f emigration  There are  and immigration  exceeds immigration.  could In  t h i s case the e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s i n a p e r i o d would show a decrease as there would be some d i l u t i o n o f tags remaining  on  -61-  •  the grounds, and the average c a t c h p e r p e r i o d would a l s o show a decrease,  as t h e r e would be l e s s f i s h on the grounds. 2.  When e m i g r a t i o n equals,  immigration.  Here the e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s i n a p e r i o d would a g a i n show a decrease, f o r d i l u t i o n o f the stock i s t a k i n g p l a c e ; the average catch p e r p e r i o d should remain 3»  constant..  I f Immigration exceeds, e m i g r a t i o n .  e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s in. a perio.d would s t i l l  The  show a decrease, but  the average c a t c h p e r p e r i o d would showman i n c r e a s e . Thus these  three p o s s i b l e combinatlonsuof  immigration  and e m i g r a t i o n c a n be separated by t h e i r e f f e c t on the average catch p e r hour f o r a p e r i o d .  ...  I t w i l l be n o t i c e d , however, t h a t type same e f f e c t as immigration  alone.  (3) produces the  These two may prove  dif-  f i c u l t t o separate, but some c l u e t o which i t i s may be g i v e n by the a c t u a l number o f . r e t u r n s f o r t h a t p e r i o d , f o r i f any emigration  took p l a c e the a c t u a l number of r e t u r n s might be  l e s s than had no e m i g r a t i o n 5.  taken p l a c e .  The above f o u r s i t u a t i o n s have been c o n s i d e r e d on  the assumption that t h e r e was no r e s i d e n t o r temporary nonmigratory  population present.  a resident population present.  Assume now t h a t t h e r e i s such Now, i f the p r o p o r t i o n o f t a g -  ged to untagged f i s h i n t h i s r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n was the same as that i n the m i g r a t o r y  p o p u l a t i o n , the changes produced by  emigration,  o r v a r i o u s combinations of them,  immigration,  would be s i m i l a r t o those d i s c u s s e d i n p o i n t s 1 - 4 .  But,  «62-  if  i t so happened t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n o f tagged f i s h i n the  r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n was l e s s than t h a t l n the m i g r a t o r y popul a t i o n , then any change i n the p o p u l a t i o n due e i t h e r t o immig r a t i o n or emigration, would, cause a drop i n the e f f e c t i v e number o f tags r e c o v e r e d . to  In t h i s case i t would be d i f f i c u l t  separate a case where emigration alone o c c u r r e d from a case  where e m i g r a t i o n and immigration both o c c u r r e d , w i t h emigra- . t l o h exceeding immigration, and a l s o a case where immigration alone o c c u r r e d from a case where e m i g r a t i o n and immigration tpok p l a c e w i t h immigration exceeding e m i g r a t i o n . 6.  Movement o f f i s h about the spawning grounds.  Consi-  d e r a t i o n should a l s o be g i v e n t o a case l n which the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d produce  an i n c r e a s e i n t h e e f f e c t i v e number o f r e t u r n s  i n a p e r i o d . , Assume that the r e g i o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s made up o f a number o f a r e a s , and. t h a t the fish., f o r some reason, tend t o c o n c e n t r a t e more i n c e r t a i n areas, than i n o t h e r s , but t h a t i n the t a g g i n g o p e r a t i o n , the same number of tags were put out i n each a r e a .  The r e s u l t o f such t a g g i n g  o p e r a t i o n s w i l l be t h a t the r a t i o o f tagged t o untagged  fish  w i l l be g r e a t e r i n those areas i n which the f i s h are l e s s centrated.  con-  I f such a r e g i o n i s f i s h e d commercially., the f i s h -  i n g w i l l tend t o be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n those areas where f i s h a r e most abundant, t h e r e f o r e more f i s h w i l l be caught  i n those  areas i n which tags are r e l a t i v e l y l e s s c o n c e n t r a t e d .  Now,  l f f i s h migrate from those areas In which tags are more conc e n t r a t e d , to those areas i n which the tagged f i s h a r e r e l a t i v e l y l e s s concentrated, then the r e l a t i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  tagged f i s h i n these l a t t e r areas w i l l be i n c r e a s e d ,  and,  t h e r e f o r e , on the assumption that the g r e a t e r p a r t of the catch i n any p e r i o d w i l l be made i n these areas, number of r e t u r n s f o r a p e r i o d w i l l prove that such an e f f e c t was "type, c a t c h s t a t i s t i c s  effective  show an i n c r e a s e .  produced by m i g r a t i o n  To  of t h i s  f o r each a r e a as w e l l as f o r the whole  r e g i o n , would have t o be a v a i l a b l e . of such m i g r a t i o n s  the  To i l l u s t r a t e  the  effects  a h y p o t h e t i c a l example i s g i v e n belowj  Assume t h a t 40 f i s h were tagged i n each of f o u r areas A, B, D,  and that the f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n of tag r e t u r n s was  Irea of Pageing  A r e a of Recovery D B A 0  k  2  2  0  0  A  =  10,000 l b s .  3  2  6  0  0  B  -  25,000 l b s .  J  1  1  2  0  C  )  0  2  1  2  D  i  Now,  m i g r a t i o n has  obtained:  Let the catches i n each a r e a i n the same period- be:  2,000 l b s .  s  1,000  m  lbs.  taken p l a c e between the v a r i o u s  areas,  and hence the c a t c h i n an area w i l l be made up of f i s h from that area and proportions  of f i s h which have migrated i n t o i t , i n the  i n d i c a t e d by the tag r e t u r n s .  Therefore: For area A:  Catch = 10,000 = 2a 4- 2b » c 40  For area B:  Catch • 25,000 = 2a » 6b » c » 2d  4"o For area C:  Catch -  2,000 = 2c » d 40  C,  -64-  For area DJ  Catch =  1,000  s 2d 40*  where a, b, c,*and d, r e p r e s e n t the p o p u l a t i o n of each a r e a respectively. S o l v i n g the above equations, the p o p u l a t i o n s i n each area ares Area As- 45,000;; Now,  Bs- 140,000;  Cs- 30,000;:  Ds- 20,000.  i f no m i g r a t i o n takes p l a c e , r a t i o  Tags r e t u r n e d Catch  =  F i s h tagged, but, i f there has been m i g r a t i o n Population  from areas where tagged  f i s h are r e l a t i v e l y more concentrated  i n t o an a r e a where tagged f i s h were r e l a t i v e l y l e s s t r a t e d , then the r a t i o of Tags r e t u r n e d Catch the r a t i o F i s h tagged Population migrated.  These two  concen-  w i l l be g r e a t e r than  l n those areas i n t o which the  fish  s e t s of r a t i o s f o r t h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l  p o p u l a t i o n are shown i n the t a b l e Tags Returned x 10^ Catch  below: F i s h Tagged x 10^ Population  A  50  9  B  44  29  C  60  133  D  200  200  Thus, t h i s example i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t the m i g r a t i o n of f i s h from an area where tagged  f i s h are more concentrated t o an  area  where they are l e s s concentrated and where more f i s h i n g i s done, r a i s e s the e f f e c t i v e number of r e t u r n s . The f o r e g o i n g t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s form a background a g a i n s t which the v a r i a t i o n s ; i n the e f f e c t i v e t a g  -65r e t u r n s f o r each p e r i o d i n the Baynes sound and Boat harbour regions can be p a r t i a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d .  The v a r i a t i o n s . i n  t i v e r e t u r n s per p e r i o d f o r each t a g g i n g should g i v e an  effecindi-  c a t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n changes o c c u r r i n g on each of the spawning grounds. Each r e g i o n w i l l now 1.  be  considered  separately:  The Baynes sound r e g i o n .  For t h i s r e g i o n the e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s f o r each t r i p ' s tagging, o b t a i n e d by the method d e s c r i b e d , are g i v e n i n Table X I X ,  page 58,  1.  t r i p , the e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s f o r the p e r i o d d u r i n g  For any  which the t r i p was the tagging was  and F i g u r e 4,  f o l l o w i n g page  made are not r e l i a b l e .  58.  T h i s i s because  done, not at the s t a r t of the p e r i o d , but  some, time d u r i n g i t ,  and  at  t h e r e f o r e , i n a d j u s t i n g f o r the  amount of f i s h caught, a p r o p o r t i o n of the c a t c h f o r the p e r i o d corresponding  to the f r a c t i o n of the p e r i o d from the time o f  tagging to the end of the p e r i o d had p o r t i o n may  not correspond  to be used.  a c c u r a t e l y to the r e a l weight of  f i s h taken d u r i n g t h a t time and so w i l l d i s t o r t 2.  Such a p r o -  the results:.  In the f i r s t f o u r p e r i o d s t h e r e appears to be  v a r i a t i o n i n the trends  considerable  shown by the e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s from  the v a r i o u s tagging o p e r a t i o n s .  However, i n the l a s t  p e r i o d s , a l l the r e t u r n s show a sharp d e c l i n e .  two  During  these  same txfo p e r i o d s the a v a i l a b i l i t y a l s o decreases s h a r p l y . In the d i s c u s s i o n of the t h e o r e t i c a l aspects i t was  of t h i s problem  shown t h a t three types of p o p u l a t i o n change w i l l  -66produce a d e c l i n e In e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d e c l i n e in availability. a.  These a r e ;  a greater emigration  than immigration  p o p u l a t i o n i n which o n l y the migratory  t a k i n g p l a c e from a  or spawning f i s h were  tagged, and b.  e i t h e r emigration  alone, or  c.  a greater emigration  than immigration  t a k i n g p l a c e from  a p o p u l a t i o n i n which a r e s i d e n t or t e m p o r a r i l y  non-migratory  population received a small proportion of tags.  The changes  i n the Baynes sound p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g p e r i o d s V and VI can probably  best be d e s c r i b e d by e i t h e r o f the l a s t  two assump-  t i o n s , the second b e i n g  the more l i k e l y one.  3.  that i n c r e a s e s i n the e f f e c t i v e numbers  In view o f the f a c t  of r e t u r n s f o r a p e r i o d are produced by m i g r a t i o n of f i s h fro'm areas w i t h a h i g h e r  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f tagged f i s h to areas  a lower c o n c e n t r a t i o n , or (as the approximately  with  same number  of tags were put out i n each area) from an area w i t h fewer f i s h t o an area where more f i s h are p r e s e n t ;  relatively  the i n c r e a s e s  noted i n the e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s f o r t r i p I d u r i n g p e r i o d I I I , for  t r i p s I I and V d u r i n g p e r i o d IV, and f o r t r i p I I I d u r i n g  p e r i o d V, are o f i n t e r e s t , e s p e c i a l l y as these occurred i n p e r i o d s immediately p r e c e d i n g sharp d e c l i n e i n r e t u r n s .  increases  the s t a r t o f the  I t has been shown (Table V, page 20)  that the y i e l d s o f f i s h per hour's dragging  are g r e a t e s t i n  the Deep and Fanny bay areas and f u r t h e r t h a t there was a d e f i n i t e movement o f f i s h from both ends o f Baynes sound  -67towards the Fanny bay a r e a (Table VII, page 25). the Increase  Therefore  l n e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s noted f o r these t r i p s i s  p o s s i b l y the r e s u l t of a m i g r a t i o n to and accumulation  of  f i s h i n , the Fanny and Deep bay areas p r i o r t o t h e i r l e a v i n g the spawning grounds. 4.  The f a c t that the e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s f o r t r i p I s t a r t e d to  d e c l i n e s h a r p l y a p e r i o d before the r e t u r n s f o r other  trips  would i n d i c a t e that some of the lemon s o l e tagged e a r l i e r i n the season are l e a v i n g the grounds b e f o r e those  tagged l a t e r  i n the season. The present  c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n o f lemon s o l e i n Baynes sound d u r i n g January, February, and March  c o n s i s t e d o f a small r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n as w e l l as a much l a r g e r migratory  spawning p o p u l a t i o n .  general e m i g r a t i o n  The evidence  of lemon s o l e from t h i s r e g i o n  about the end of February.  There i s some evidence  points to starting t h a t emi-  g r a t i o n may have s t a r t e d about the middle of February and that these  e a r l y emigrants are f i s h that were present  grounds e a r l i e r i n the season.  on the  There was a l s o some i n d i c a t i o n  of a m i g r a t i o n t o and accumulation  o f f i s h i n the Deep and  Fanny bays p r i o r to l e a v i n g the spawning grounds. 2.  The Boat harbour r e g i o n .  For t h i s r e g i o n the e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s f o r each t r i p " s tagging, c a l c u l a t e d i n the same manner d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r a r e shown i n Table XX, page 59, and F i g u r e 5, f o l l o w i n g page 58. 1.  The same r e s e r v a t i o n s as. were made f o r the Baynes sound  -68r e g l o n must be made here concerning  the e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s from  a t r i p f o r the p e r i o d d u r i n g which the t a g g i n g was.done.  The  r e t u r n s f o r t r i p A f o r p e r i o d I , f o r t r i p s I and I I f o r p e r i o d I I , and f o r t r i p V i n p e r i o d I I I can be c o n s i d e r e d  reliable,  as i n each case t h e t a g g i n g was done before t h e commencement o f the p e r i o d i n q u e s t i o n . 2,  Large i n c r e a s e s w i l l be n o t i c e d i n t h e e f f e c t i v e  f o r t r i p s A, I , IV, V, and VI d u r i n g p e r i o d V.  returns  In p e r i o d  VI the e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s f o r t r i p s A, I , I I I , IV, V, and VI were s t i l l  comparatively  l a r g e but showed a c o n s i d e r a b l e de-  crease over those f o r p e r i o d V.  I n p e r i o d s V and VI the t o t a l  catches made were s m a l l , being l e s s than l/20 and l / l O r e s p e c t i v e l y o f t h e c a t c h made i n p e r i o d IV, T h e r e f o r e  i n weighting  the t a g r e t u r n s f o r these two p e r i o d s the a d j u s t e d or e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s w i l l be d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e when compared w i t h those of other p e r i o d s .  I n t h e Baynes sound r e g i o n  i n c r e a s e s i n e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s were e x p l a i n e d on the b a s i s of a m i g r a t i o n  o f f i s h between areas;  such an e x p l a n a t i o n  cannot be a p p l i e d i n t h i s case as the a c t u a l r e t u r n s of tags are too s m a l l t o i n d i c a t e a m i g r a t i o n o f the s i z e necessary to produce such l a r g e Increases f o r e the w e i g h t i n g  In effective returns.  o f the r e t u r n s by the d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y  small catches made i n these p e r i o d s increase i n e f f e c t i v e 3.  alone  caused t h i s marked  returns.  The v a r i a t i o n i n e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s . f r o m  gings  There-  i n d i c a t e that a p a r t o f the p o p u l a t i o n  the v a r i o u s t a g emigrated from  the r e g i o n d u r i n g p e r i o d I I I and t h a t i n the succeeding  periods  more of the p o p u l a t i o n emigrated so t h a t by p e r i o d VI mostof the migratory grounds.  spawning p o p u l a t i o n had probably  l e f t the  I t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s f o r  t r i p s I and I I decreased  from approximately  40 l n p e r i o d I I  to 20 i n p e r i o d I I I , w h i l e the e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s f o r t r i p V i n p e r i o d I I I were s t i l l above 40.  That i s t o say, t h a t ,  d u r i n g p e r i o d I I from February 1 t o 15,  the number of e f f e c t i v e  r e t u r n s from f i s h tagged up u n t i l January 15 decreased, as compared t o the number of e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s of f i s h tagged on January 30.  During p e r i o d s I I and I I I the average c a t c h  per hour d e c l i n e d .  Now,  the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of t h e o r e t i c a l  p o s s i b i l i t i e s of v a r i a t i o n l n e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s showed t h a t , f o r a d e c l i n e i n e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s t o be a s s o c i a t e d with a d e c l i n e l n average c a t c h per hour, the assumptions had to be made e i t h e r t h a t e m i g r a t i o n emigration  exceeded immigration  or t h a t , i f  alone was o c c u r r i n g , a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of f i s h  tagged were from a r e s i d e n t or t e m p o r a r i l y non-migratory population.  I f the f i r s t  assumption were a p p l i c a b l e , the 0  expected number o f e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s from f i s h tagged on January 30 would be l e s s than the number of e f f e c t i v e f o r f i s h tagged p r i o r t o January 15 and r e c a p t u r e d  returns  during  p e r i o d I I , due t o the d i l u t i o n of tagged f i s h r e s u l t i n g from the assumed e m i g r a t i o n .  However, as t h i s was not so, the  second assumption would appear t o f i t the case more n e a r l y , that i s , t h a t some of the f i s h tagged p r i o r t o January 15  -70remained on the spawning grounds d u r i n g the p e r i o d from February 1 t o 15, w h i l s t others emigrated.  The e f f e c t i v e  r e t u r n s f o r t r i p s I , I I , IV, and V d e c l i n e d a g a i n  during  p e r i o d IV, t h a t i s , from February 16 t o 28, and the average c a t c h p e r hour d e c l i n e d s h a r p l y d u r i n g t h i s same time.  This  would again I n d i c a t e t h a t only a'part o f the p o p u l a t i o n  emi-  grated at t h i s time.  The e f f e c t i v e r e t u r n s d u r i n g  periods  V and VI do not l e n d themselves t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n because of the d i s t o r t i o n i n weighting catches made i n these The  i n t r o d u c e d by t h e very  small  periods.  c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t , i n t h e Boat harbour r e g i o n , the  lemon s o l e d i d not l e a v e the spawning ground en masse a t one time but f i s h were c o n t i n u o u s l y during February and March.  emigrating from the grounds  The v e r y low average c a t c h p e r  hour i n p e r i o d s V and VI would i n d i c a t e that the emigration of the spawning p o p u l a t i o n was probably  concluded  by March.  DISPERSAL OF LEMON SOLE FROM THE SPAWNING GROUNDS The p o p u l a t i o n s  o f lemon s o l e found on the spawning  grounds i n Baynes sound and Boat harbour r e g i o n s are l a r g e l y non-resident  spawning p o p u l a t i o n s .  commercial fishermen  Reports r e c e i v e d from the  i n d i c a t e that the f i s h s t a r t t o a r r i v e  on these grounds i n numbers about December and t o leave i n February and March; and t h a t i t i s o n l y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d that good catches  are made.  These r e p o r t s a r e borne out by the v a r i a t i o n s i n the  -71abundance (average c a t c h per hour f o r each p e r i o d ) of lemon sole as c a l c u l a t e d from p i l o t house l o g book r e c o r d s .  In b o t h  the Baynes sound and Boat harbour r e g i o n s the average c a t c h per hour drops sharply towards the end of February. Therefore  one  reason f o r t a g g i n g lemon s o l e on these  spawning grounds was  to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n as to the  of d i s p e r s a l of the f i s h f o l l o w i n g spawning. recovery  extent  The p o i n t s of  of tagged f i s h would i n d i c a t e t h i s , and would a l s o  show i f t h e r e was  an a p p r e c i a b l e I n t e r m i n g l i n g of the  t i o n s spawning on the two  popula-  grounds.  In the Baynes sound r e g i o n 814  f i s h were tagged.  To  no tags have d e f i n i t e l y been r e c o v e r e d from areas o u t s i d e region.  two  Two  tags have been r e p o r t e d as probably  caught i n Nanoose bay,  having  date, this  been  however, c o n s i d e r a b l e doubt e x i s t s as  to the r e a l p o i n t of r e c a p t u r e of these t a g s .  The  n o n e o f the f i s h tagged l n Baynes sound have been 1  from p o i n t s o u t s i d e t h i s area cannot be taken as  fact that recovered  indicating  that the p o p u l a t i o n i s non-migratory, f o r the marked d e c l i n e i n average catch per hour observed d u r i n g March d e f i n i t e l y I n d i c a t e s t h a t the f i s h are l e a v i n g the grounds.  Further,  the absence of a d e f i n i t e summer f i s h e r y i n Baynes sound i n d i c a t e s t h a t there must be,  at the b e s t , only a small  resident population i n t h i s region. probably  Therefore,  these  fish  d i s p e r s e to those p a r t s of the g u l f of Georgia  the Nanoose bay r e g i o n northward, t h a t i s , to areas not f i s h e d by the o t t e r t r a w l e r s .  from often  -72In the Boat harbour r e g i o n 106 of 359  r e c o v e r i e s out of a t o t a l  were made i n areas o u t s i d e the r e g i o n of  These r e c o v e r i e s are shown i n T a b l e  tagging.  XXI.  From t h i s t a b l e i t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t : 1.  There i s a d e f i n i t e m i g r a t i o n  d i r e c t i o n s between P o r l i e r pass and The  comparatively  during August and  of lemon s o l e i n b o t h  the Boat harbour r e g i o n .  l a r g e number of r e t u r n s f r o m . P o r l i e r pass September, 1947,  might i n d i c a t e that the l e -  mon  s o l e were moving through the P o r l i e r . p a s s r e g i o n on  way  back to spawning grounds.  Mr.  G. B.  Shannon, an  the  experi-  enced t r a w l fisherman, r e p o r t s t h a t lemon s o l e appear i n numbers i n the P o r l i e r pass area i n September, and that a month l a t e r they are to be found about s i x m i l e s northward. He has a l s o found a s i m i l a r  southward m i g r a t i o n  taking place  i n February and March. 2. general  From the B a t harbour spawning ground, there i s a 0  southward d i s p e r s i o n of lemon s o l e , extending  as the mouth of the F r a s e r r i v e r and  the B e l l i n g h a m  as f a r bey-point  Roberts a r e a . The  f a c t t h a t no f i s h tagged i n the Baynes sound r e g i o n  were recovered  to the  south i n the Boat harbour r e g i o n  that no f i s h tagged i n Boat harbour were r e c o v e r e d  to the  n o r t h i n the Baynes sound r e g i o n would i n d i c a t e that p o p u l a t i o n u s i n g these two do not i n t e r m i n g l e to any  the  spawning grounds are separate extent.  and  and  Area of Recovery  TABLE XXI • ; BOAT' HARBOUR Area o f 1946 Number o f R e c o v e r i e s per Month 1947 JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepO otNovDe cJan T o t a l Tagging  P o r l i e r pass Yellow  2  1 4  1  6  9  1  1  5  Thetis island (west s i d e ) pass  1  3  1  l l '  1  2  1  5  Ghemalnus  1  Swanson c h . point  Pender  island  33  Boat harbour  1 10  15  Boat h b r , P o r l i e r p a s s Dec/45-Feb/46  12  Boat h b r , P o r l i e r p a s s Dec/45-Jan/46  1  10  Boat h b r , P o r l i e r p a s s Dec/45-Jan/46  1  5  Boat harbour  2  Boat h b r , P o r l i e r p a s s Dec/45-Jan/46  1  Boat harbour  Jan/46  3  Boat harbour  Dec/45-Jan/46  2  Boat harbour  J an-Feb/46  1  Boat harbour  Jan/46  1  Boat harbour  Jan/46  3  Boat harbour  Dec/45  2  Boat h b r , P o r l i e r p a s s Dec/45-Jan/46  1  1 1  1  1  1 2 1 1  Captains p a s s . Fraser  3  2  S a t e l l i t e ch.  Beaver  2  2  point  Ladysmith  Active  1  3  1  river  1  2  Date o f Tagging Jan-Feb/46  Dec/45-Jan/46  P t . Roberts r e e f  1  Be11Ingham bay  1  1  Boat harbour  Jan/46  6  7  Boat harbour  Dec/45-Jan/46  1  G-abriola pass Boat harbour  4  4  •  "... 8 . P o r l i e r ' p a s s  Jan/46  I f the f i s h e r y f o r the spawning lemon s o l e i n the Baynes sound and B a t harbour r e g i o n s l s too i n t e n s e and i s producing 0  a d e c l i n e i n the abundance of lemon s o l e i n these areas, d e c l i n e w i l l be r e f l e c t e d - i n a l l areas to which the d i s p e r s e a f t e r spawning.  However, l f the f i s h  fish  frequenting  the Baynes sound and Boat harbour spawning grounds are p o p u l a t i o n s which do not i n t e n s e f i s h e r y on one  this  separate  i n t e r m i n g l e e x t e n s i v e l y , then a too  of these grounds w i l l b r i n g about a  r e d u c t i o n of f i s h only i n those p a r t s of the g u l f normally s u p p l i e d by  t h i s spawning ground.  For i n s t a n c e , the f i s h i n g i n t e n s i t y i n the Baynes sound r e g i o n appears to be r a t h e r too h i g h to m a i n t a i n  the stock at  i t s present  cause a  l e v e l of abundance.  T h i s should not  general d e p l e t i o n of lemon s o l e throughout the g u l f but  only  i n that p a r t of i t from Nanoose bay  the  northward, p r o v i d e d  assumption i s c o r r e c t t h a t t h i s i s the area over which the Baynes sound f i s h d i s p e r s e a f t e r spawning.  POPULATION DIFFERENCES As was tagged f i s h 1.  mentioned i n the p r e v i o u s  s e c t i o n the r e t u r n s of  Indicated:  That the lemon s o l e found on the Baynes sound  Boat harbour spawning grounds came from two which d i d not i n t e r m i n g l e 2.  separate  and  populations  appreciably.  That the f i s h i n g i n t e n s i t y was  considerably  higher  in. the Baynes sound r e g i o n than i n the Boat harbour r e g i o n .  -75To see whether these two f a c t o r s  had produced any major  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the composition of the p o p u l a t i o n s i n these r e g i o n s , the l e n g t h frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n , the sex r a t i o , and the r a t i o of immature to mature f i s h , were determined f o r each r e g i o n .  P o r l i e r pass was  treated separately.  The  t o t a l numbers of mature and immature males and females and the percentage each r e p r e s e n t s of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of F i g u r e 6 shows the  the r e g i o n are shown i n Table X X I I .  l e n g t h frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r immature males and females f o r the Baynes sound r e g i o n , F i g u r e 1 f o r the Boat harbour r e g i o n , and F i g u r e 8 f o r the P o r l i e r pass r e g i o n . TABLE XXII Immature Males No. f>  Immature Females No. %  Mature Males No. %  Mature Females No. %  44  2.4  396 21.9  411 22.7  959 53.0  30^  70%  Boat harbour  31  2.2  42  2.9  476 33.1  889 61.8  35%  65£  Porlier pass  6  2.7  151  67.4  67 29.9  0%  100$  Baynes sound  0  0  Sex R a t i o Mature F i s h Males Females  From an examination of Table XXII and F i g u r e s 6, 7,  and 8,  i t appears t h a t ; 1.  The l e n g t h frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s  males and females are v e r y s i m i l a r Boat harbour r e g i o n s . (of 300 mm. 2.  of the mature  i n the Baynes sound and  There are more s m a l l mature females  or l e s s i n l e n g t h ) i n the Baynes sound r e g i o n .  In the Baynes sound r e g i o n a d e f i n i t e p o p u l a t i o n of  125 B A Y N E S  S O U N D  I M M A T U R E — — •  200  250  M A T U R E  300 350 400 LENGTH IN MILLIMETERS  F E M A L E M A L E  450  500  Fig.6.Length F r e q u e n c i e s : Immature & Mature Males. & Females Baynes Sound.  125  BOAT HARBOUR MATURE FEMALE  ^  200  1  250  1  1  300  • 350  L L M C T H  IN  1  1  400  1  450  500  M I L L I M E T E R S  I .'  F i g . 7 . Length F r e q u e n c i e s : Immature & Mature F i s h . (Males and Females) Boat Harbour,  PORLIER  PASS  .—IMMATURE  —  o  /  o>  FREQUENCY  100-  FEMALES  MATURE FEMALES IMMATURE MALES  /  \  \  /  /  t  /  U—; H—  200  ;  1 1  250  \  » % \ \  U — . H—•  300  L E N G T H IN  ,1  » » 400 MILLIMETERS  350  1 450  ' 500  F i g . 8 . Length F r e q u e n c i e s . Immature & Mature Females Immature Males. No Mature Males F&ural. P o r l i e r Pass*  -76immature females was found.  I t comprised 22$ o f the t o t a l  p o p u l a t i o n of t h i s a r e a . 3.  Immature  males formed 2$ 0f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n  both areas. 4.  The sex r a t i o , based on the number of mature f i s h ,  was'approximately the same i n both r e g i o n s .  32$ of the  mature f i s h i n Baynes sound were males and 35$ In Boat harbour. 5.  I n P o r l i e r pass immature females formed 67$ of the  t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n and mature females 32$.  No mature males  were found. In summary, the Baynes sound and Boat harbour p o p u l a t i o n s have important f e a t u r e s of resemblance e s p e c i a l l y among the mature f i s h . Immature  They d i f f e r i n the l a r g e (22$). p r o p o r t i o n o f  females p r e s e n t i n Baynes. sound and the g r e a t e r  number of s m a l l mature f i s h t h e r e .  P o r l i e r pass d i f f e r s  markedly from the other areas, c o n s i s t i n g of t w o - t h i r d s Immature  females.  STOMACH ANALYSIS A q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the stomach contents of lemon sole was made i n the course of the study of the spawning of these f i s h i n the Baynes sound and Boat h a r b o u r - P o r l i e r pass regions. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s show the r e s u l t s of t h e stomach analyses f o r these r e g i o n s :  Table XXIII f o r the Baynes sound  r e g i o n , Table XXIV f o r the Boat harbour areas, and Table XXV f o r the P o r l i e r pass a r e a .  STOMACH CONTENTS  Immature  164 Empty Worms 30 8 Clams Worms,clams 13 Worms,clams, brlttlestar 1 Worms, brlttlestar 1 Clams, brlttlestar Brlttlestar Unidentifiable 1 Miscellaneous 1 arnpty: Observed No.(x) 164 Expected No.(m) 164.03 Full: Observed No. (x). 5 5 Expected No.(m) 54.97 Total 219 d (x-m) -.03 *.03 d .0009 0 dVm: Empty Full 0 0 Total 2  Females:  Matur- Eggs not ing clear 28 173 24 6 2 4 18 2  TABLE XXIII BAYNES SOUND FEMALE Eggs Running clear 6  7 4 1 3  60  Spent 63 18 11 23  555 ^82 26 59  1  3  1 1  1  28 173 . 29.21 170.03 11 9.79 39 -1.21 ••1.21 1.4641 0.0501 0.1476 0.1997  ...  1  .. 5  1 60 45.69  2 63 88.38  MALE Running Total 190 13 4 2  29 4 2 ,4  1  219 17 78$ 6 46$ 6 •  1  1 0 8 4 555  1 1 2 29 34.62  0 1 1 2  190 219 184.38  186 11 1 34 23 .55 29.62 5.38 15.31 19.33 28.62 118 61 741 40 213 253 77 1-14.31 -25-38 -5.62 1-5.62 •1-9.33 +•25.38 -14.31 -9.33 +•5.62 -5.62 31.5844 31.5844 87.0489 204.7761 644.1444 1.5094 4.4819 7.2884 0.9123 0.1713 5.8707 1.1036 4.5633 13.3753 21.7469 6.7830 17.8572 29.0353 1.2749 6.0127 Males:  8.0579 = 1 P i s l e s s than .01 chi-squared  d  f  $  0  5* ...10  56.98 227 • 1-2.98 -2.98 8.8804 0.0522 0.1559 0.2081  c h i - s q u a r e d = 53.3130 df - 5 P i s l e s s than .01  67. 57.67  Immature  3  1 1  Total  s  4$  STOMACH CONTENTS Empty Worms Clams Worms,clams Worms,clams, brlttlestar Worms, brlttlestar Clams, brlttlestar Brlttlestar Unidentifiable Miscellaneous Empty; Observed Expected Full: Observed Expected Total d (x-m) dvm;  No,(x) No.(m) No.(x) No.(m)  Empty Full  Total Females:  Immature Maturing 57 14' 2 5  4 4  10  1  Eggs not clear 170 26 1 5  TABLE XXIV BOAT HARBOUR FEMALE Running Eggs clear 159 1  124 1  Spent  Total  31 5 5  5^5 53 3 15  12  2  2  27  14  17  1  4  36  5 l l 2  1 3  57 87.29 54 23.71 111 -30.29 +•30.29 917.4841 10.5107 38.6961 49.2068  6 4 1 5  3 4. 7.08 5 1.92 9 -3.08  4-3.08  9.4864 1.3399 4.9408 6.2807  c h i - s q u a r e d = 133.4929 df r 5 P i s l e s s than .01  170 187.17  159 128.19  4 68 34.81 50.83 238 163 -17.17 ••30.81 4-30.81 4-17.17 294.8089 949.2561 7.4051 1.5751 5.7999 27.2696 7.3750 34.6747  124 96.30  31 36.96  545  Immature 33 2 2 1  MALE Running Total 293 ^9 3 3  326 11 58$ 5 20$ 4 0  1  1  3  2  2  1  33 40.41  293 285.59  0 5 32$ 0 3 326  1 16 18 148 11 29 25.41 10.04 3.59 26.70 125 47 693 kk 355 311 , -5.96 H-7.41 +•25.70 -7.41 -25.70 ••5.96 +7.41 -7.41 54.9081 • 54.9081 660.4900 35.5216 6.7191 0.9611 «i;3588 0.1923 2.1609 24.7375 3.5380 15.2947 2.3532 31.4566 4.4991 16.6535 Males:  %  chl-squared - 19.1067 df . . a 1 P i s l e s s than .01  STOMACH CONTENTS Empty Worms Clams Worms, clams Worms, clams, brlttlestar Worms, Brlttlestar Clams, brlttlestar Brlttlestar Unidentifiable Miscellaneous Empty: Observed No.(x) Expected No.(m) Full: Observed No.(x) Expected No.(m) Total d Ix-m) d d^/m: Empty Full Total 2  Females:  Immature  Maturing  Eggs not clear 11 5  TABLE XXV PORLIER PASS FEMALE Eggs Runclear ning  Spent  Total  MALE Imma- Runture ning  Total  4  "6T 20 1 11  0 0 0 0  8  6  15  0  10  1  12  0  3 1 1 2  0 0 0  43 11 1 5  4 2  3 2  3 1 2 4 3.36  11 13.45  0  0  3 3.84  61  0  0  0  41 43.65 84 ••2.65 -2.65 7.0225 0.1740 0.1609 0.3349  3 3.64 7 +•0.64 -0.64 0.4096 0.1219 0.1125 0.2344  17 14.55 28 -2.45 +•2.45 6.0025 0.4463 0.4125 0.8588  0  0  66  0  0  0  0  0  5 4.16 8 -0.84 ••0.84 0.7056 0.1836 0.1696 0.3532  127  0  0  0  c h i - s q u a r e d = 1.7813 df . = 5 P i s between .70 and .50  Males: n i l  45$  47$ , VO I  43 40.35  0.9258 0.8555 1.78F?  $  -80In  these t a b l e s , columns 1 - 6 ,  8, and 9,  show the  numbers of empty stomachs and the types of f o o d found i n full  stomachs of f i s h a t the v a r i o u s stages of sexual m a t u r i t y ;  columns 7 and 10 g i v e the t o t a l s f o r females and males r e s p e c tively;  and column 11  the percentage of f u l l  stomachs con-  t a i n i n g each of the t h r e e main types of f o o d . From these t a b l e s i t w i l l be observed t h a t ! 1.  In the Baynes sound and Boat harbour r e g i o n s a p p r o x i -  mately 75$  of the stomachs examined were empty, w h i l e i n the  P o r l i e r pass area o n l y 51$ out that i n t h i s l a s t  were empty.  I t should be p o i n t e d  a r e a the f i s h found were l a r g e l y  immature and spent females. 2.  During the w i n t e r months, at l e a s t , the food of  the lemon s o l e c o n s i s t s mainly of worms, clams., and b r i t t l e s t a r s . . The worms were a s p e c i e s o f Polychaete, but were not identified further.  These worms formed the predominant  i n a l l three regions.  Small whole clams were found i n the  stomachs of many f i s h , w h i l e i n o t h e r s only clam occurred. of  food  siphons  B r i t t l e s t a r s were found i n many of the stomachs  those f i s h from the more southern p a r t s of the g u l f i n  which area they were found more f r e q u e n t l y than 3.  As f u l l  sexual m a t u r i t y was  clams.  reached these f i s h ,  e s p e c i a l l y the females ceased to f e e d and c o n t i n u e d to f a s t till  spawning was  and 173  completed.  Of the stomachs of 414  spent females examined 150  f u l l , w h i l e only 2 out of 185  immature  and 76 r e s p e c t i v e l y were  stomachs of f u l l y matured or  running females c o n t a i n e d any f o o d .  -81To determine whether the d i f f e r e n c e s observed i n the numbers of f u l l  and  empty stomachs found between f i s h at  the  v a r i o u s stages of sexual maturity were s i g n i f i c a n t , c h i squared t e s t s were a p p l i e d to the d a t a f o r females shown i n these t a b l e s . than .01  In each case the P v a l u e o b t a i n e d was  less  ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of f i s h l n P o r l i e r p a s s ) .  order to be  sure that any  d i s t o r t i o n s produced by  In  having  only small numbers of f i s h r e p r e s e n t e d a t c e r t a i n stages  of  maturity were not unduly i n f l u e n c i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e s u l t s , the females were d i v i d e d i n t o three groups, Immature, mature, and applied.  spent  females,  and  the chi-squared  (Tables XXVI and XXVII).  t e s t s again  F i s h i n sexual  I - I I I were c l a s s e d as "immature, those  categories  i n c a t e g o r i e s IV  V as mature, those l n category VI as spent.  The P  obtained were again c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s than .01.  values  T h i s would  i n d i c a t e t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the numbers of f u l l empty stomachs found as m a t u r i t y was and not due was  and  and  reached were s i g n i f i c a n t  to chance s e l e c t i o n of the f i s h .  This l a s t  test  a p p l i e d to f i s h from the Baynes sound and Boat harbour  regions only. pass as no  I t could not be a p p l i e d to f i s h from P o r l i e r  f u l l y matured females were found t h e r e .  Similar  t e s t s were a p p l i e d to the data f o r males i n the Baynes sound and Boat harbour r e g i o n s .  I t was  again demonstrated that  the f u l l y matured f i s h f e e d l e s s a c t i v e l y than the immature fish.  However, food was  found i n o n l y 13$  males i n the Baynes sound r e g i o n and the Boat harbour r e g i o n .  of the stomachs of  i n only 8$ of those  In  Empty: Observed Expected Full: Observed Expected Total d  TABLE XXVI BAYNES SOUND Mature Immature  Spent  No.(x) No.(m)  365 363.26  127 103.36  63 88.38  No.(x) No.(m)  120 121.74 485 4-1.74 -1.74 3.0276 0.0083 0.0249 0.0332  11 34.64 138 4.23.64 -23.64 558.8496 5.4068 16.1331 21.5399  ddVm: Empty Full Total  chi-squared = 50.6034;  Empty: Observed Expected Full: Observed Expected Total d  Spent  No.(x) No', (m)  173 204.37  283 246.28  28 33.35  No.(x) No.(m)  66 34.63 239 -31.37 4-31.37 984.0769 4.8152 28.4169 33.2321  5 41.72 288 r36.72  11 5.65. 39 -5.35 4-5.35 28.6225 0.8582 5.0659 5.9241  chi-squared « 76.9503;  13^8.3584 5.4749 32.3192 37.7941 df = 2;  555 186 741  12.7035 37.9049 50.6084  P i s l e s s than .01  TABLE XXVII BOAT HARBOUR Mature Immature  d d*/m: Empty Full Total 2  df - 2;  55 29.62 118 -25.38 4-25.38 644.1444 7.2884 21.7469 29.0353  Total  Total 484 82 566  11.1483 65.8020 76.9503  P i s l e s s than .01  -83Frora the f o r e g o i n g i t appears t h a t : 1. winter.  Lemon s o l e do not f e e d v e r y a c t i v e l y d u r i n g the T h i s i s shown by the l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of empty  stomachs found. 2.  F u l l y matured f i s h f e e d 'less a c t i v e l y than immature  or spent I n d i v i d u a l s . 3.  The main f o o d of the iemon s o l e on or near the  spawning grounds were worms, clams, and b r i t t l e s t a r s . were the predominant f o o d i n both r e g i o n s , clams  Worms  ranked  second i n the more n o r t h e r n area, and b r i t t l e s t a r s i n the more'southern.  SUMMARY 1. important 2.  The  f i s h e r y f o r lemon s o l e i s one of the most  w i n t e r f i s h e r i e s i n the g u l f of G e o r g i a . T h i s f i s h e r y i s dependent upon p o p u l a t i o n s of lemon  sole spawning i n the Baynes sound and Boat harbour r e g i o n s . The f a c t t h a t 80$ of the t o t a l l a n d i n g s of lemon s o l e . f o r the f i r s t  t h r e e months of 1946  came from these two  regions  shows t h i s . 3.  The Baynes sound and Boat harbour regions, are shown  to be the two major lemon s o l e spawning grounds i n the g u l f of Georgia.  A t h i r d s m a l l spawning ground l i e s o f f p o i n t  Atkinson. 4.  In both r e g i o n s spawning took p l a c e from  through to March; the peak p e r i o d was  from  January  approximately  -84January 24 t o February 23 In the Baynes sound r e g i o n and January 15  from  to the middle of February i n the o a t harbour r e g i o n . B  The number of samples taken i n February and March was  not  l a r g e enough t o permit v e r y a c c u r a t e l i m i t s to be set to the end of the spawning p e r i o d i n e i t h e r r e g i o n . 5.  A c t i v e spawning was  found t o be more i n t e n s e i n  c e r t a i n areas of each r e g i o n than i n o t h e r s , although some spawning took p l a c e g e n e r a l l y throughout regions.  the whole of both  The areas of Fanny bay and cape Lazo were found to  be the areas of most a c t i v e spawning i n the Baynes sound r e g i o n , while the areas of Boat harbour, c e n t r e drag, and De  Courcy  i s l a n d formed the areas of most a c t i v e spawning i n the Boat harbour r e g i o n .  No evidence that spawning took p l a c e was  found f o r P o r l i e r p a s s . 6.  The f i s h i n g I n t e n s i t i e s i n the Baynes sound and  Boat harbour r e g i o n s were found to be 42$ and 26.3$ r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r January, February, and March, 1946.  These were  c a l c u l a t e d from the t a g r e t u r n s which were weighted  so as t o  compensate f o r the f a c t that the tags were put out w h i l e the f i s h e r y was  i n progress.  Fishing mortality, natural mortality,  and the amount of annual r e c r u i t m e n t cannot be from the present data.  calculated  However, minimum estimates can be  obtained which suggest that the f i s h i n g i n t e n s i t i e s are p r o bably too heavy t o m a i n t a i n the f i s h e r y at i t s present l e v e l of p r o d u c t i o n . 7.  F i f t y - e i g h t of the tags put out i n the Boat  harbour  r e g i o n were r e c o v e r e d from that r e g i o n i n January and February,  -851947.  recovery o f - 6 . 3 $ as com-  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a percentage  pared to 1 8 . 8 $  f o r the same p e r i o d i n the p r e v i o u s y e a r . . No  tags were r e c o v e r e d from the Baynes sound r e g i o n i n t h i s same p e r i o d .  T h i s was  no doubt l a r g e l y accounted  f o r by  the  c l o s u r e to t r a w l i n g of a l l areas w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f cape Lazo and Comox bay. 8.  From the 1947 Boat harbour t a g r e c o v e r i e s the average  annual l e n g t h increment  of lemon s o l e was  found  to be 23.9  r e p r e s e n t i n g an average annual i n c r e a s e i n l e n g t h of 7.3$  mm. or  i n weight o f 21.9$. 9.  No  f i s h tagged  i n the Baynes.sound r e g i o n were  recovered o u t s i d e t h a t a r e a .  T h e . c o n c l u s i o n was  t h a t the lemon  s o l e from t h i s area p r o b a b l y d i s p e r s e d over t h a t p a r t of the g u l f of G e o r g i a n o r t h of Nanoose bay,  a p a r t of the g u l f  which i s not h e a v i l y f i s h e d by t r a w l e r s .  F i s h tagged i n the  Boat harbour r e g i o n d i s p e r s e d southward.  On the e a s t e r n s i d e  of the g u l f tags were r e c o v e r e d as f a r south as bay, p o i n t Roberts,  Bellingham  and the mouth of the Fras.er. r i v e r ,  and  on the western s i d e as f a r south as A c t i v e pass and Swanson channel. 10.  The  l a c k of r e t u r n s of f i s h tagged on one  spawning  ground from the other grounds i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n s of f i s h spawning on these grounds do not mix  to any a p p r e c i a b l e  extent. 11.  The  composition  of the p o p u l a t i o n s spawning i n Baynes  sound and Boat harbour were very s i m i l a r , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n  V  -86that there were present" i n Baynes sound a l a r g e r number of immature f i s h and of mature f i s h o f l e s s than 3 0 0 mm. length.  The  in  p o p u l a t i o n at P o r l i e r pass d i f f e r e d from the  others i n c o n s i s t i n g l a r g e l y of immature f i s h . 12.  An attempt was  r i n g i n the p o p u l a t i o n s  made to determine the changes o c c u r of lemon s o l e on each spawning ground.  The r e t u r n s per p e r i o d were expressed of f i s h were tagged each time and caught each p e r i o d . for  as i f a constant  a constant  number  weight of  fish  V a r i a t i o n s i n the r e t u r n s per p e r i o d  the Baynes sound r e g i o n expressed  i n t h i s manner l e a d  to the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : 1.  The p o p u l a t i o n p r e s e n t  on the ground c o n s i s t e d of a  small r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n and a much l a r g e r migratory population. 2.  A g e n e r a l emigration  of lemon s o l e began about the  of February, however, some of the f i s h present at  the s t a r t of the season had  end  on the ground  s t a r t e d to leave by the middle  of February. 3.  There was  apparently  a m i g r a t i o n to and accumulation  f i s h i n Deep and Fanny bays p r i o r to  of  emigration.  In the Boat harbour r e g i o n v a r i a t i o n s , i n r e t u r n s per p e r i o d i n d i c a t e t h a t the lemon s o l e d i d not emigrate en masse at one time but were c o n t i n u o u s l y l e a v i n g the grounds d u r i n g February and March.  The  c o n c l u s i o n s based on t h i s method  of tag a n a l y s i s should be t r e a t e d w i t h a c e r t a i n amount of c a u t i o n , as they are l a r g e l y based on t h e o r e t i c a l  conditions  and r e q u i r e more e x t e n s i v e data to s u b s t a n t i a t e them.  13.  The analyses of the stomach contents of lemon s o l e  on the spawning grounds showed t h a t : 1.  The main food of the lemon s o l e on the spawning grounds  c o n s i s t s of worms, clams, and b r i t t l e s t a r s . 2.  The lemon s o l e do not f e e d v e r y a c t i v e l y d u r i n g the  winter.  Approximately  75$ of the stomachs examined were  empty. 3.  F u l l y matured f i s h f e e d l e s s a c t i v e l y than immature or  spent  individuals.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish t o express my thanks t o Dr. R. E . F o e r s t e r , D i r e c t o r o f the P a c i f i c B i o l o g i c a l S t a t i o n , f o r p l a c i n g at my d i s p o s a l d u r i n g January,  1946, the c h a r t e r e d o t t e r  t r a w l e r , " P h y l l i s C a r l y l e " , and f o r p e r m i t t i n g me to use. the CCG-MV "A. P. Knight" and " S i l i q u a " when the c h a r t e r e d v e s s e l was not a v a i l a b l e .  I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o Dr. F o e r s t e r f o r  making a v a i l a b l e the necessary d a t a f o r t h i s r e p o r t . I should l i k e t o extend my s i n c e r e thanks  t o Dr. J . L.  Hart of the P a c i f i c B i o l o g i c a l S t a t i o n f o r h i s many v a l u a b l e suggestions and c r i t i c i s m s which have g r e a t l y a i d e d i n the preparation of t h i s r e p o r t . I s h o u l d a l s o l i k e t o extend my thanks to Dr. W. A. Clemens and Dr. W. S. Hoar of .the Department o f Zoology f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l suggestions and c r i t i c a l r e a d i n g o f the manuscript. I am indebted t o C a p t a i n J . Wingate and t h e crew o f the " P h y l l i s C a r l y l e " f o r t h e i r h e l p d u r i n g t h e course o f the investigation. My s i n c e r e thanks  a r e due" t o my w i f e f o r h e r h e l p i n the  p r e p a r a t i o n and t y p i n g o f t h i s r e p o r t .  LITERATURE CITED Baranov, F. I,  "On the q u e s t i o n of the b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s of f i s h e r i e s . " U. S.. S. R., B u l l . Dept. F i s h and S c i e n t i f i c I n d u s t r i a l I n v e s t . , 1,  Hart, J . L.  (1),  81-128, 1918.  Catch s t a t i s t i c s of the B r i t i s h Columbia pilchard. B u l l . B i o l . B d . C a n . , No. XXXVIII,  1-12,  1933. Hart,, J . L.  Tagging experiments on B r i t i s h Columbia pilchards. J . F i s h . Res. Bd. Can., 6,  (2), 164-182,  1943. Hart, J . L.  Memorandum on, the o t t e r t r a w l  fishery.  F i s h . Res. Bd. Can., 1944. Jackson, C. H. N,  The  analysis  of an animal p o p u l a t i o n .  J . Animal E c o l . , 8, 238-246, 1939. RIcker, W. E .  F u r t h e r notes on f i s h i n g m o r t a l i t y and effort. Copeia, 1944,  Ricker,' W. E .  ( l ) , 23-44,  1944.  Abundance, e x p l o i t a t i o n and m o r t a l i t y o f the  f i s h e s i n two  lakes.  I n v e s t . Ind. Lakes and Streams, 2, 345-448, R u s s e l l , E. S.  (17),  1945.  Some t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s "overfishing" J. Consell.,  problem. 6, p. 22,  1931.  on the  Thompson, W. F.  Theory of the e f f e c t  of fishing  on.the  stock of h a l i b u t . Rept. I n t . F i s h .  Comm., 12, 1-22, 1937.  Thompson, W. F. and W. C. H e r r i n g t o n .  L i f e H i s t o r y o f the  P a c i f i c H a l i b u t : ( l ) Marking Rept. I n t . F i s h . Thompson, W. F. and F. H. B e l l .  experiment.  Comm., 2, 1-137, 1930.  Biological  S t a t i s t i c s o f the  P a c i f i c H a l i b u t F i s h e r y : (2) E f f e c t o f changes i n i n t e n s i t y  on t o t a l y i e l d and  y i e l d per u n i t o f gear. Rept. I n t . F i s h . Simpson, G. G. and A. Roe.  Comm., 8, 1-49, 1934.  Q u a n t i t a t i v e Zoology.  McGraw-Hill Book Co. I n c . , New York, 1939.  APPENDIX.  BOAT Welcome Pass  Emma K.  Phyllis Carlyle  TABLE PERl"c7FT~ "JANUARY 1 - 1 5 , 1946 HOURS CATCH CATCH CORRECTED FISHED BY PERIOD FACTOR J a n . 6 Fanny bay 9.00 1,400 1,427 900 10:00 Jan. 7 Fanny bay 918 2,100 Jan. 8 Y e l l o w riocks 11:66 2,140 1,500 10 00 Jan. 9 Union bay 1,530 700 6 00 Jan.10 cape Lazo 714 6 00 700 J a n . 3 Union bay 714 700 00 Jan. 4 Ship pen. 714 3 150 00 Jan. 5 Comox bay 2 153 400 408 Jan. 5 cape Lazo 4 00 350 2 00 357 Jan. 5 Union bay Fanny bay 650 4 00 663 Jan. o 2 00 350 357 Jan. 6 Union bay 900 6 00 918 Jan. 7 Union bay 300 2 00 306 Jan. 7 Comox bay 400 4 00 408 Jan. 8 cape Lazo 200 204 2 00 Jan. 8 Union bay 700 714 Jan. 9 Fanny bay 4 00 200 204 Jan. 9 Union bay 2 00 Tagging 485 2 Jan. 4 45 495 210 2 40 Jan. 5 Tagging 214 280 4 00 Jan.12 Tagging 286 BAYNES SOUND DATE AREA  Total Period factor: Boat f a c t o r : Welcome Pass Emma K. Phyllis Carlyle  ?8:3Q 1.02 1.05 0.99 I.36  13,575  13.844  CATCH CORRECTED BY BOAT FACTOR  1,470  946  2,205  1,575 735 693 693 148 396 347 644 3^7 891 297 396 198 693 198  660 286 381  1^.1??  BOAT Welcome Pass  Endvour  Optu  Phyllis  Carlyle  TABLE I I PERIOD I I JANUARY 16 - 31. 1946 HOURS CATCH CATCH CORRECTED FISHED BY PERIOD FACTOR 1,200 Jan.18 Y e l l o w rocks 8:00 1,209 1,400 1,410 10:00 Jan.19 Fanny bay Jan.21 Henry bay 10:00 750 755 Jan.22 Y e l l o w rocks 8:00 900 906 1,000 Jan.25 Union bay • 1,006 4:30 - 504 Jan.26 Union' bay 500 3; 30 Jan.2? Union bay 3:30 500 504 Jan.27 Union bay t o Denman 2:00 504 500 Jan.28 Deep bay t o Denman 5:00 1,500 1,510 Deep bay t o Jan.29 Denman 3:30 750 755 — Comox bar Jan.27 1:30 Jan.27 Goose s p i t 225 227 3:45 212 1:45 Jan.27 Comox b a r 213 100 Jan.28 Ship pen. 100 1:45 J a n . l 6 Tagging 0:45 30 30 Jan.18 Tagging 2:00 350 353 1:00 Jan.19 Tagging 300 302 Tagging 200 Jan.25 2:15 201 Jan. 2.4 Tagging 1:45 300 302 200 Jan.28. Tagging 2:00 201 Tagging 2:30 166 Jan.29 165 BAYNES SOUND DATE AREA  79:00  Total Period factor: Boat f a c t o r : : Endvour Phyllis Carlyle Welcome Pass Optu (Pooled)  1.006 0.88 I.36 1.05 1.02  11.082  ^  1,470  788 946 880 440 440 440  1,320  660  — —  230  216 102 41  476  408 272 408 272 224  11,293  11,158  Availability  CATCH CORRECTED BY BOAT FACTOR 1,260  142.9  .  . BOAT Endvour  BAYNES SOUND . PATE AREA Feb, 7 Feb. 8 Feb. 9  r  Feb.10 Feb.13 Feb.14 Feb.15  Deep bay t o Denman wharf Deep bay t o Denman wharf Deep bay to Denman wharf Deep bay to Denman wharf Deep bay t o Denman wharf Deep bay t o Denman wharf Deep bay t o Denman wharf  Total Period factor: Boat f a c t o r : Endvour Availability  TABLE I I I PERIOD I I I FEBRUARY 1 - 1 5 . 1946 HOURS CATCH CATCH CORRECTED FISHED BY PERIOD FACTOR  O.76 0.88 164.3  CATCH CORRECTED BY BOAT FACTOR  .-  6:00  1,500  1,140  1,320  6:00  750  570  660  6:oo  1,000  760  880  5:30  750  570  660  1,500  1,140  1,320  2:00  500  380  440  . 7;oo  1,000  , 760  880  37:30  7.000  5,320  6.160  5:00  BOAT  Feb.16  Endvour  Feb. 1-7 Feb.26 Feb.27 Feb.28 Mary R i t a Phyllis  Carlyle  Good Hope I I Izumi I I  TABLE IV PERIOD' IV FEBRUARY l6_ - 2 8 . 1946 "HOURS CATCH CATCH CORRECTED FISHED BY PERIOD FACTOR Deep bay t o 1,000 970 Denman wharf 8.00 Deep bay t o 300 291 Denman wharf 4:00 Deep bay to 1,000 970 Denman wharf 7:00 Deep bay to 1,500 M55 Denman wharf 6:00 Deep bay t o 1,000 970 Denman wharf 5:00 4:00 509 525 dape Lazo 97 1:00 100 Baynes sound 3:00 267 275 cape Lazo 200 194 3:30 Deep bay 582 600 5:30 Fanny bay 400 4:00 388 Fanny bay 4:00 . 500 485 cape Lazo 4:00 291 300 cape Lazo 800 776 4:00 cape Lazo 7:00 300 291 Fanny bay 48 50 1:45 Fanny bay 100 1:45 Deep bay 97 100 97 Deep bay 1:15 6:00 900 873 cape Lazo 800 7J30 776 cape Lazo 3:00 I50 145 cape Lazo 700 2:00 679 Deep bay 2:00 200 194 Deep bay Deep bay t o 582 600 1:00 Union bay Deep bay t o 970 1,000 2:00 Union bay  BAYNES SOUND DATE AREA  Feb .18 Feb .23 Feb . 2 4 Feb .17 Feb .17 Feb .18 Feb .18 Feb . 1 9 Feb .19 Feb .20 Feb .21 Feb .26 Feb .27 Feb .27 Feb . 2 8 Feb .18 Feb Feb .26 Feb .27 Feb.28  CATCH CORRECTED BY BOAT FACTOR 880  264 880  1,320 880  •  536 102 281  272 816 544  680 408  1,088 408  68 136 136  1,225  1,088  153 378 108  324 540  BOAT Ray Roberts  Feb.16 Feb.17  Reubina  TABLE IV (Continued) . PERIOD IV FEBRUARY 16 - 28. 1946 HOURS CATCH CATCH CORRECTED CATCH CORRECTED FISHED BY PERIOD FACTOR BY BOAT FACTOR Deep bay and Union bay 308 730 745 Union bay and 4:00 cape Lazo 600 582-612 cape Lazo 7:00 1,700 1,650 1,735 cape Lazo 4:00 800 816 776  BAYNES SOUND DATE AREA  Feb.18 Feb.19 Feb.25 - 28  Total Period factor: Boat f a c t o r : Endvour Phyllis Carlyle Reubina Izumi I I Mary R i t a ) Good Hope) I I )pooled Ray ) Roberts ) Availability  0.97 0.88 I.36 1.19 0.54 1.02  148.7  7?45  912  124:30  18.142  884  1,085 18.508  BOAT  Mar. 1 Mar. 2  Endvour  Phyllis  BAYNES SOUND DATE . . . . . AREA  Carlyle  Izumi I I  Reubina  Mar. 2 Mar. 3 Mar. 1 Mar. 2 Mar. 5 Mar. 6 Mar. 7 Mar. 7 Mar. 8 Mar. 9 Mar.10 Mar. 1 - 14  TABLE V PERIOD V MARCH 1 - 1 5 . 1946 HOURS CATCH CATCH CORRECTED FISHED BY PERIOD FACTOR 206 1:00 200  Denman Deep bay t o Denman wharf cape Lazo cape Lazo Fanny bay Deep bay Deep bay Deep bay Deep bay Deep bay Deep bay Deep bay Deep bay  34:15  Total Period factor: Boat f a c t o r : Endvour Phyllis Carlyle Izumi I I , Reubina Availability  3:30 3:30 4:30 2:00 1:30 2:00 1:00 2:00 2:00 2:00 2:00 2:00  1.03 0.88 1.36 0.54 1.19 127.0  200 1,000  206 1,030  100 100 1,000  103 103 1,030  400  400  500  412  412 .  CATCH CORRECTED BY BOAT FACTOR .  176  176 880  352 136 136 540 216  :  _ —  412 412  270 216 216  3,965  4,085  4,720  8,665  8.926  8,034  400 . 400  515  _—_  BOAT Endvour  Phyllis  TABLE VI BAYNES SOUND PERIOD VI MARCH 16 - 31. 1946 " HOURS DATE CATCH CATCH CORRECTED AREA FISHED BY PERIOD FACTOR Mar.16 Deep bay t o Denman wharf 3:00 100 184 - 184 3:00 100 cape Lazo Mar.17 Mar.18. Union bay and cape Lazo 6:00 200 368 1,000 1,840 6:00 Mar.19 cape Lazo Mar.19 Comox b a r 3:30 300 552 100 184 2:00 Mar.19 Comox b a r 80 1:00 147 Mar.19 Y e l l o w rocks  CATCH CORRECTED BY BOAT FACTOR  -  Carlyle  24:30  Total Period factor: Boat f a c t o r : ~ Endvour P h y l l i s Carlyle  1.84 0.88 I.36  Availability  76.9  1.880  88 88 176 880 408  136 109  1,88-5  BOAT Phyllis  Carlyle  TABLE V I I PERIOD A DECEMBER 1 5 - 3 1 . 1945 CATCH CATCH CORRECTED HOURS FISHED BY.PERIOD FACTOR Boat harbour 400 1:20 176 Boat harbour 200 88 :45 De Courcy Island 400 176 1:15 Boat harbour 200 88 :30 Pylades Channel !35 75 33  BOAT HARBOUR DATE.,." . AREA Dec.28 Dec.28 Dec.28 Dec.29 Dec.29  Total Period factor: Boat f a c t o r : Phyllis Carlyle Availability  4:25 0.44 1.12 323.1  1,275  iii  CATCH CORRECTED BY BOAT FACTOR 448 224 448 224 84 1.428  BOAT Curlew M.  B. C. G i r l Chasam  Phyllis Carlyle  TABLE V I I I PERIOD I JANUARY 1 - 1 5 . 1946 HOURS CATCH CATCH CORRECTED FISHED BY PERIOD FACTOR Jan . -4 Boat harbour 2 00 450 382.5 Jan . 5 Boat harbour 8 00 850 1,000 Jan . 6 Boat harbour 7 30 1,062.5 1,250 Jan . 7 Boat harbour 4 30 484.5 570 Jan .14 Boat harbour 10 00 850 1,000 Jan .15 Boat harbour 5 00 425 500 Jan . 4 Boat harbour 8 00 1,700 2,000 Jan . 5 Boat harbour 8 00 1,190 1,400 Jan . 6 Boat harbour ! 4 00 595 700 Jan . 7 Boat harbour 4 00 600 510 Jan . 8 8 00 Boat harbour 850 1,000 Jan . 9 Boat harbour 5 00 510 600 Jan .10 Boat harbour 00 2 255 300 Jan .14 Boat harbour 4 00 510 600 Jan .15 Boat harbour 8 00 1,020 1,200 Jan . 7 De Courcy i s l a n d 45 85 100 Jan . 7 Boat harbour 40 63.8 75 Jan . 8 Pylades ©Jbannel 45 29.8 35 Jan . 8 Centre drag 45 170 200 Jan .15 Centre drag 00 127.5 150 Jan .15 De Courcy i s l a n d 00 170 Jan .15 200 Pylades 'channel 00 34 40 BOAT HARBOUR DATE AREA  93;55  Total Period factor: Boat f a c t o r : Curlew M. B. C. G i r l Chasam P h y l l i s Carlyle Availability  0.85 1.08 1.04 0.97 1.12  13,970  11.874.6  CATCH CORRECTED BY BOAT FACTOR 486" 1,080  1,350 615.6 1,040  520  1,940  1,358 679 582 970 582 291 582 1,164 112 84,  39.2 224  •. 168 224  44.8  BOAT Curlew M. B. C. G i r l  Chas«ni  -  Phyllis  Total  Carlyle  TABLE IX PERIOD I I JANUARY 1 6 - 3 1 . 1946 HOURS CATGH CATCH CORRECTED . CATCH CORRECTED FISHED BY PERIOD FACTOR BY BOAT FACTOR Boat harbour 749.8 880.2 7 :30 815 Boat harbour 825 7 too 759 891 Boat harbour 1,000 920 1,040 5 !00 Boat harbour 6 soo 800 832 736* Boat harbour 2 soo 300 276 312 Boat harbour 10.;00 1,200 1,104 1,248 Boat harbour 10,soo 1,200 1,104 1,248 Boat harbour 1,000 8:,00 920 1,040 Boat harbour 10.soo 1,200 1,104 1,248 Boat harbour 1,200 8;,00 1,104 1,164 Boat harbour 1,200 1,104 1,164 8;,00 Boat harbour 300 2!,00 291 276 B6at harbour 1,200 8.,00 1,104 1,164 Boat harbour 1,200 8. 00 1,104 1,164 Boat harbour 1,200 8: 00 1,104 1,164 Boat harbour 1,200 8; 00 1,104 1,164 Boat harbour 1,200 8.,00 1,104 1,164 Boat harbour 4. 00 600 582 552 Boat harbour 1.,00 138 ' 150 168 Centre drag 1 •00 138 150 168 De Courcy I s l a n d 200 1.00 184 224 Pylades dhannel 60 55.2 67.2 45 Boat harbour 1 00 150 138 168 Centre drag 168 1 ,00 150 138 De Courcy i s l a n d 200 184 1. 00 224 Pylades channel 1 '00 46 50 56 De Courcy i s l a n d 1, 00 200 184 224 Pylades channel 1, 00 84 69 75 Boat harbour 1 00 . 138 168 150 Centre drag 1. 00 60 55.2 67.2  BOAT HARBOUR DATE AREA Jan.17 Jan.18 Jan.19 Jan.20 Jan.23 Jan.24 Jan.25 Jan.27 Jan.28 Jan.18 Jan.19 Jan.23 Jan.24 Jan.27 Jan.28 Jan.29 Jan.30 Jan.31 Jan.20 Jan.20 Jan.20 Jan.21 Jan.26 Jan.26 Jan.26 Jan.26 Jan.30 Jan.30 Jan.31 Jan.31  7  139:15  19,235  17.696.2  19.546.6  BOAT HARBOUR Period factor: Boat f a c t o r :  Availability  TABLE IX (Continued) PERIOD I I JANUARY 16 - 31. 1946  0.92 Curlew M. B. C. G i r l Chasam P h y l l i s Carlyle  1.08 1.04 0.97 1.12 140.4  BOAT Norpack Phyllis  Feb.10  - ?  Carlyle  Feb. ? Feb. 8 Feb. 9  B. C. G i r l  Chasam  Norma N. Good Hope I Ray Roberts  TABLE X PERIOD I I I . FEBRUARY 1 - 1 5 . 1946 HOURS CATCH CATCH CORRECTED FISHED BY PERIOD FACTOR Boat harbour 14:00 2,500 2,400  BOAT HARBOUR DATE AREA  Feb.14 Feb.15 Feb. 3 Feb, 4 Feb. 5 Feb. 6 Feb. 4 Feb. 5 Feb. 6 • Feb. 7 . Feb. 8 Feb. 9 Feb.10 Feb. 8 Feb.14 Feb. 4 Feb. 6 Feb. 7  De Couroy i s l a n d & Centre drag De Courcy i s l a n d & Centre drag De Courcy i s l a n d & Centre drag De Courcy i s l a n d Boat harbour Boat harbour Boat harbour Boat harbour Boat harbour Boat harbour Boat harbour Boat harbour Boat harbour Boat harbour Boat harbour Boat harbour Boat harbour G a b r i o l a channel Boat harbour Boat harbour Boat harbour  Total Period f a Boat f a c t o r :  4:30  1,200  1,152  4:30 2:30 2:00 5:00 5:00 8:00 8:00 4:00 2:00 9:00 9:00 9:00 9:00 9:00 7:00 2:15 1:15 2:00 '4:00  400  384  300 200  8 00 900  1,000 1,200 600 300 1,300 1,200 1,600 1,100 1,200 325 • 100  • 448  336  192 768  224  832 936  864  960 1,152 576 283  1,040 1,248  1,248  — _  400  200  96 384 192  17,125  16.440  Boat f a c t o r : Chasam (Norma N. ) pooled (Good Hope I ) (Ray Roberts)  1,344  288  1,152 1,536 1,056 1,152 312  0.97 2.45  1,850  336  288  8:30  129:30 c t o r : 0 . 9 6 Norpack 0.74 P h y l l i s C a r l y l e 1.12 B. C. G i r l 1.04  300  CATCH CORRECTED BY BOAT FACTOR  ,  582 291 1,261 1,164 1,152 1,067 1,164 796.3 ' 245 980 490  17.786.3 A v a i l a b i l i t y 137.3  BOAT  BOAT HARBOUR DATE. AREA  (Jhasam  Good Hope I I Norma N. Good Hope I Endvour  Feb.21 Feb.22 Feb.23 Feb.19 Feb.21 Feb.19 Feb.25  TABLE XI PERIOD IV FEBRUARY 1 6 - 2 8 . 1946 HOURS CATCH CATCH CORRECTED CATCH CORRECTED FISHED . BY PERIOD FACTOR. BY BOAT FACTOR  Boat harbour Boat harbour Boat harbour Boat harbour . Boat harbour Boat. harbour Boat harbour Boat harbour  Totai  300 1,200 1,200  2:45 4:30 2:00 2:00  75 85 50 50  •1,638 87.8 . 99.5 58.5 58.5  4,360  5,101.3  9500  40:15  Period factor: Boat f a c t o r : ChasamNorma N. ) Good Hope I ) p o o l e d Good'Hope I I ) Endvour )  BOAT Island  1,400,  291 1,164 1,164 1,358 183.8  ,351 ... . 1,404 1,404  208.3  122.5 122.5  4.614.1  1.17 0.97 2.45  114.6  Availability  Pearse  2:00 9:00 9:00  TABLE X I I PERIOD V MARCH 1 - 15. 1946 HOURS CATCH CATCH CORRECTED BY PERIOD FACTOR FISHED De Oourcy i s l a n d 2:00 50 254.0  BOAT HARBOUR DATE AREA Mar. 5  2:00  Total Period factor: Boat f a c t o r : Pearse I s l a n d  . 5.08 (pooled) 2.45  50 Availability  254.0  CATCH CORRECTED BY BOAT FACTOR 122.5: 122.5  6-1.3  )  TABLE X I I I PERIOD VI MARCH 16 - 31. 1946 HOURS CATCH CATCH CORRECTED CATCH CORRECTED FISHED BY PERIOD FACTOR BY BOAT FACTOR Gabriola 6:00 400 224 2,132 Gabriola 3::00 . 28 • 50 . 266.5 Boat harbour 10:00 . 400 2,132 224 Boat harbour 80 426.4 3:00 44.8 outside P o r l i e r & G-abriola passesi 9:00 Yellow point 8:00  BOAT HARBOUR DATE AREA  BOAT Aloo  Mar.22 Mar.23 Mar.. 28 Mar ,.29 Mar.24  Chasam  —  Mar. 26  39:00  Total Period factor:  5.33  Boat f a c t o r :  O.56  Availability  — — —  Alco  13.4  120  —  «  —  520.8  TABLE XIV COMPARISON OF "ENDVOUR S" CATCHES IN PERIOD I I AND PERIOD I I I PERIOD I I I PERIO]3 I I DAILY CATCH 1  DAILY CATCH x  l  . 222.22 142.86 142.86 250.00 300.00 214.29  x  l - %  x  +•10.18 -69.18 -69.18 ••37.96 +•87.96 •• 2.25  S(x - -Sc^) 18,858.35  5  s  =  — i  x  :js( -x,.)  (N^-lM^-lM  Xl  1  2  4- S ( x - 5 c ) i  1  N = 5  t- 6 = 11  s  =  65.9  t  -  212.04 - 195.84ir b x 6V9 |f 5T6"4.2  P  =  between .6 and .7  2  ?  d  2  9  5  x  •• 54.16 - 70.84 . - 29.17 - 59.48 4-104.16+• 54.16 - 52.98  =  2  2  1 "(18,858.35 + 28.929.88) =  5 +- 6(  lHFZ  1/15  ) 2 2  28,929.88  2  2  = 1.370.89 = 195.84  J  16.20 V3.2307 65.9  16.20 65.9  47,788.23  n =  16.20  x  2,933.3056 5,018.3056 850.8889 3,537.8704 10,849.3056 2,933.3056 2.806.8804 S(x - - x )  2  =1,272.23 = 212.04 6 2  < 2-  2  S(x ) 1,370.89  2  1  1  2  250.00 125.00 166.67 136.36 300.00 250.00 142.86  103.6324 4,785.8724 . 4,785.8724 1,440.9616 • 7,736.9616 5.0625  S:(x ) 1,272.23  x -x  2  x  1.79  4,344.38  28.9980 -.44 65.9  TABLE XV COMPARISON OF "ENDVOUR S" CATCHES IN PERIOD I I I AND PERIOD IV PERIOD IV PERIOD I I I DAILY CATCH DAILY CATCH x -x ( - ) l ' i"*i • 200.00 v 31.43 250.00 •• .54.16 2,933.3056 300.00 ••131.43 5,018.3056 125.00 - 70.84 142.86 - 25.71 166.67 - 29.17 850.8889 75.00 - 93.57 136.36 3,537.8704 - 59.48 125.00 - 43.57 10,849.3056 300.00 •0L04.16 2,933.3056 25O.OO *• 5^.16 2,806.8804 142.86 - 52.98 sU -x f S(x ) 842.86 ^x-j-x ) 28,929.88 1,370.89 1  2  X  X l  x  2  X l  2  2  z  2  x\, '  195.84  s  842.86 5  (x -x ) 2  2  2  987.8449 17,273.8449 661.0041 8,755.3W 1,898.3449  29,576.36  2  = 168.57  58.506.24 10 N  r  f  s  =  76.4  N  2  s  4 +• 6 a 10  195.84 - 168.57 / 7 x 5  t  5,850.62  =  27.27  m  „  27.2?  /2.9166  _  27.27  x  7  1  _  46.63 =  P  =  between .5 and .6  _  .6063  Area DB FB  TABLE XVI CHI-SQ.UARED CALCULATIONS DEEP' BAY - FANNY BAYSpawning C o n d i t i o n 'I II III IV V VI Total 37  13  29  8  66  DB F3 DB FB DB FB  21  Expected  71 57  .5  .-•4  10  19  14  "2  128  24  18  12  V a l u e s : •m'' - •  -  34; 52  10;92  66; 56  12;  31.68  10.08  61.44  Table o f X  i  t2.7  •2;  -2.7  -2.1  Table o f  9; 5 6  '6;24-  8.64  5.76  . . . .  .  ,.  -7.5  -5; 4  • 3; 8  -4.4  •7.5  •5.4  •3.8  " - - - „  -  • •  -.  269  -  •4.4  -  140 129  *  " - ,.'  48 11.52  .  -,. - ,.  .  7.29  4.41  19.36  56.25  29.16  14; 44  7.29  4.41  19.36  . 56.25  29.16  14.44  Table o f x £ DB FB  '"  m* '  0.2124  0.4038  0.2909  4.4072  3.1154  2.5141  0.2501  0.4575  0.5151  4;8828  5.5750  2.5069  11.7474  6.4904  4.8210  22.4912  VI  Total  0.4425  0.8415  ,0.6060  chi-squared' = " 2 2 . 4 9 1 2 P i s l e s s than . 0 1  9.2900  10.7438  degrees o f freedom  Continuity Correction Area Spawning C o n d i t i o n ' ' I"' "II III • IV y_ Table o f x l c o r r e c t e d ( x - . 5 ) "' ~~~ ~-4.9 •3.9 -7.0 DB *2;2 •!;6 •4.9 -5.9 •7.0 FB -2.2 -1.6 r  Table o f ( x ) 1  2  " -  •3.3 -3.5  •- -  DB  4;84  2.56  15.21  49;00  24.01  10; 89  FB  4.84  2.56  15.21  49.00  24.01  10,89  /  1x2  (x ) .. Table'of • m ' "  '"  " " : ""  DB  0.1410  0.2544  0.2285  FB  0;i528  0.2559  0.2958  0.4883  chi-squared = 1 8 i 4 1 7 9 P i s l e s s than . 0 1  5.9265  2.5652  0.2476  4.2555  2.7789  0.4761  8.1798  5.5441  degrees  i;7452 1.8906 5.6558  of freedom a 5  •'8.8406 9.5775 18.4179  TABLE XVII CALCULATIONS " DEEP" BAY - CAPE LAZO Spawning C o n d i t i o n III IV V VI 71 .10 "4 •','5 16 2 17 21 87 22 12 25  CHI-SQUARED Area DB CL  I 37 •2 39  II "-13 4 17  DB CL  Expected 27;03 11.97  Values: 11.78 5.22  LB CL  Table o f x " •10:0 4-1.2 -10.0 -1.2  DB CL  Table of x •. 100:00 1.44 100.00 1.44  114:49 114.49  106;09 106.09  176.89 176.89  DB CL -  Table o f 3.6996 8;5542 12.0538  1.8989 4.2864 6.1853  6.9567 15:7170 22.6737  10.2072 23.0326 35.2598  60; 29 26.71  1^:25 6.75  17; 53 7.68  •10.7 -10.7  -10.3 •10.3  -i3;3 • 13.3  x /m 0.1222 0.2759 0.3981  8;52 3.68 •1.7 -1.7 •  2  Total . 140 62 202  V  2:89 2.89  2  c h i - s q u a r e d v=" 75; 6834 P i s l e s s than .01  degrees  0.3474 0.7853 1.1327  23:2320 52:4514 75.6834  •VI-  Total  of freedom = 5  Continuity Correction Spawning C o n d i t i o n Area HI'. IV V TI" Table o f ' x c o r r e c t e d (xr;5) -12; 8 -9;8 DB *9.5 >0i7 •10,2 •12.8 • 9.8 CL -9.5 -0.7 -10.2  •-1:2 •1.2  Table of ( x ) ' * ' •DB 90; 25 0:49 CL 90.25 0.49  1  1  2  1  104;04 104.04  Table 6f" ( x ) / ' DB 3.3389 0.0416 l;7259 5.8952 CL 7.5397 0.0939 10.8786 0.1355,, 5.6209 1  2  96; 04 96.04  163:84 165.84  i;44 1.44  6.2977 14.2281 20.5258  9:4541 21.5553 30.7874  0;i731 0.5915 0.5654  1 1 1  chi-squared V 68;5126 P i s l e s s than .01  degrees  of freedom = 5  2i:0311 47.4815 68.5126  Area FB CL  TABLE XVIII CHI-SQUARED CALCULATIONS FANNY BAY - GAPE LAZO Spawning C o n d i t i o n V III IV VI I II Total 5 14 2 29 8 19 129 l 16. 2 2 4 21 : 62 21 12 i IS 21 I 191  FB CL  Expected Values? m 20.93 8.10 49.28 10.08 3.90 23.73  24.30 11.70  •EB CL  Table o f x +•8.1 -.1 -8.1 >.i  +7.7 -7.7  -5.3 +•5.3  FB CL  Table of x 65.61 0.01 65.61 0.01  59.29 59.29 1.2031 2.4985 3.7016  23.63 11.38  2.70 1.30  -9.6 +•9.6  -.7 *.7 .  28.09 28.09  92.16 92.16  0.49 0.49  1.1559 2.4008  3.9001 , 8.0984 11.9985  0.1815 O.376? 0.5584  2  Table of x /m 3.1347 0.0012 6.5089 0.0026 9.6436 01.0038 2  FB CL  c h i - s q u a r e d « 29.4626 P i s l e s s than .01  9.5765 19.8861 29.4626  degrees of freedom - 5  Continuity Correction Area I _ II III Table o f x c o r r e c t e d FB +-7.6 +•7.2 CL -7.6 -7.2,  IV  V  VI  Total  x  Table o f ( x ) FB 57.76 CL 57.76 1  -9.1 1-9.1  -.2 ' r. 2  82.81 82.31  .04 .04  3.5044 7.2768 10.7812  0.0148 0.0308 0.0456  2  Table of ( x ) ^ FB 2.7597 CL 5.7302 8.4899 1  ' -4.8 *4.8  51.84 51.84  23.04 23.04  1.0519 2.1846 3.2365  0.9481 1.9692 2.9173  2  chi-squared - 25.4705 P i s l e s s than .01  degrees of freedom  =  4  8.2789 17.1916 25.4705  Area BH CD Bl  CHI-SQUARED II 0 0 0 0  0 2 0 2  TABLE XIX BOAT HARBOUR - CENTRE DRAG - DE COURCY ISLAND Spawning C o n d i t i o n Female Male IV VI I Total V 28 2 98 43 2 100 36 7 148 2 68 42 44 __6 126 0 60 108 228 ill 282 14*0  CALCULATIONS III 25 61  -2i U7  BH CD DI  Expected V a l u e s : m 0 30.02 ' .51 .77 0 45.33 .71 0 41.65  BH CD DI  Table of - .51 +•1.23 - .71  35.91 54.24 49.84  27.71 41.84 38.45  3.85 5.81 5.3^  - 5.02 •15.67 -IO.65  *• 7.09 -12.24 •• 5.16  ¥ .29 -5.84 ••5.55  BH CD DI  Table of x .2601 0 0 1.5129 .5041 0  25.2004 245.5489 113.4225  50.2681 14918176 26.6256  BH CD DI  Table of x /m .5100 0 0 1.9635 .7100 0 0 2.1835  .8395 5.4169 2.7232 8.9796  1.3998 2.7621 .5242 4.6961  1.76 1.21 1.03  100.24 68.79 58.97  -1.85 •1.19 1- .66  .24 +•.79 -1.03  - .24 - .79 •1.03  .0841 34.1056 30.8025  2.3225 1.4161 .4356  .0576 .6241 1.0609  .0576 .6241 1.0609  .0030 .8151 .8011 1.6192  .6032 .2437 .0816 .9285  .0327 .0516 1.0300 1-llfr?  .0006 .0091  X  0 0 0 2  2  Female: c h l - squared - 19.4069 df 10 P i s between .05 and .01 —  Male: chi-squared df P  1.3039 2 • 50  .179g  .1896  Total 102 70 60 2^2  TABLE XX CALCULATIONS PYLADES CHANNEL - PORLIER PASS Spawning C o n d i t i o n Female Male IV III V VI I Total V 48 6 0 82 16 20 7 0 0 126 22 0 J2 Z 0 208 20 21 12  CHI-SQUARED Area PC pp  I 18 81  r i 3  _2_  21  io  PC PP  Expected V a l u e s : 39.03 3.94 59.97 6.06  PC PP  M  30.36 46.64  2.37 3.63  0 0  6.31 9.69  17.54 1.46  18.46 1.54  Table of x -21.03 -.94 +•21.03 4-.94  4-17.64 -17.64  4.3.63 -3.63  0 0  4-.69 -.69  -1.54 4-1.54  4-1.54 -1.54  PC pp  Table of x 422.2609 422.2609  .8836 .8836  311.1696 311.1696  13.1769 13.1769  0 0  .4761 .4761  2.3716 2.3716  2.3716 2.3716  PC pp  T a b l e of x /m 10.8189 .2243 7.0412 .1458 17.8601 .3701  10.2493 6.6717 16.9210  5.5599 3.6300 9.1899-  0 0 0  .0755 .0491 .1246  .1352 1.6244 1.7596  .1285 1.5400 1.6635  2  2  Female: c h i - s q u a r e d = 44.4657 df 5 P i s - . l e s s than .01 =  • Male • chi3.4281 squared = 1 df Pls .10 and .05 between  Total 36  -1 21  CHI-SQUARED Area. .. . I CD 2 PC 22 21  TABLE XXI CALCULATIONS CENTRE DRAG - PYLADES CHANNEL Spawning C o n d i t i o n IV VI - V III I~ I Total 0 61 42 148 36 7 110 8 17 •1 -2 24 258 117 1 52.  21  CD PC  Expected Values: 14.35 1772 10.65 1.28  m 6"7.l6 49.84  28.70 21.3  22.39 16.61  13-78 10.22  CD PC  Table o f x -12.6 -1.7 +.12.6 +.1.7  -6.2 +-6.2  +-13.3 -13.3  +-13.6 -13.6  -6.8 +-6.8  CD PC  Table o f x 158.76 2.89 158.76 2.89  38.44 38.44  176.89 176.89  184.96 184.96  46.24 46.24  Table o f x /m H.O634 1.6802- 0.5724 14.9070 2.2578 0.7713 25.9704 3.9380 1.3437  6.1634 8.3047 14.4681  8.2608 11.1355 19.3963  3.3556 4.5245 7.8801  2  2  CD PC  chi-squared = 72.9966 P i s l e s s than .01 • CHI-SQUARED Area I BH 0 DI 0 0 BH DI  Expected 0 <)  BH DI BH DI  ' 72.9966  degrees of freedom = 5  TABLE XXII CALCULATIONS BOAT HARBOUR - DE COURCY ISLAND Spawning C o n d i t i o n III IV V VI II . Total 0 28 2 43 25 0 6 1 6 - 44 0 8 Values: 0 0  I 'S  9  21  m 23.46 32.54  41.06 56.94  30.17 41.83  3.35 4.65  Table o f x 0 0 0 0  +1.5 -1.5  fl.9 -1.9  -2.2 +2.2  -1.4 4-1.4  Table o f x 0 0 0 , 0  2.25 2.25  3.61 3.61  4.84 4.84  1.96 1.96  Table o f x /m 0 0 0 0 0 0  0.0959 0.0691 0.1650  0.0879. 0.0634 0.1513  0.1604 0.1157 0.2761  2  r  •  2  BH DI  c h i - s q u a r e d - 1.5990 P i s between .95 and.90  0.5851 0.4215 1.0066  degrees of freedom » 5  0.9293 0.6697 1.5990  TABLE XXIII CHI-SQ.UARED CALCULATIONS " GEHTEE DRAG' - DE COURCY ISLAND •^eaSpawning Condition I II III V VI iv Total CD t 2 0 61 42 36 148 DI 6 0 31 55 44 "6 136  2  CD DI CD DI  CD DI  0  97  Expected Values : ' m" • •  1.04 .958  0 0  Table of X  •1.0 -1.0  Table of X  284  • - .  50; 54 46.46  4i; 68 38.32  e; 77 6.23  .  0 0  •*13;I -13.1  -8.5 +8.5  -s:7 •5.7  •;2 -.2  0 0  171.61 171.61  72.25 72.25  32.49 32.49  0.04 0.04  Table of x /m  0.9615 1.0417 2.0032  0 0 0  8  47;93 44.07  13  *  *  .•  . • «  2  1.00 1.00  ch'i- squared  •  80  . •••„ . -•  2  CD DI  92  .  -'.  '  . ...  .  3.5804 1.4296 3.8940 1.5551 7.4744 2.9847  i " 14.1020' •'• and .01  P i s between .OS  _ •  " "  • - .....  0;7795 0.0059 6.7569 0.8479 0.0064 ' 7.3451 1.6274 0.0123 14.1020  degrees of freedom a 5 _  —  Continuity Correction Spawning Condition Area IV I _ IT """ I I I .V Table of x corrected -5.2 -8;o CD *0.5 0 +12;6 *5.2 DI -0.5 . 0 -12.6 •8.0  _  Total  VI  x  Table of' ( x ) ' CD o;25. 0 DI 0,25 . 0 1  Table"of  CD DI  0.2404 0.2604 0.5008  2  (x ) /^ 1  64; 00 64.00  27; 04 27.04  3.3123 1.2663 3.6075 i;3775 6.9198 2.6438  0.6487 0.7056 1.3543  158;76 158.76  ::::  2  0 0 0  chi-squared s 11.4387- -' - - .degrees of freedom P i s s l i g h t l y less than .05  5U677 5.9510 11.4387 m  5  TABLE XXIV Area BH CD  I 0 2 2  ,. Spawning C o n d i t i o n III V iv 25 43 28 61 42 36 86 85 64  II 0 0 0  BH CD  Expected 0.81.20  V a l u e s : ' m" " 0 34123 0 51.77  BH CD  Table o f x ' -;8 0 • .8 0  BH CD  Table of x 0.64 0 0.64 0  VI 2 7 9  Total '.98 148 246  i  33; 83 51.17  25;'47 38.53  3;58 5.42  -9; 2 •9.2  •9; 2 -9.2  *2;'5 -2.5  -i;6 *1.6  84.64 84.64  84.64 84.64  e; 25 6.25  2.56 2.56  2.'4 1.5549 4.0076  2.5019 1.6541 4.1560  0.2154 0.1622 0.4076  0.7151 0.4725 1.1874  2  Table of x /m BH. 0.8000 0 CD 0:5553 0 1.3355 0 2  chi-squared P a .05  11.0919  B  degrees of freedom - 5  Continuity Correction Area Spawning C o n d i t i o n i - 11 " -.- I l l IV _V Table o f x c o r r e c t e d ~ • " ' .'. •+2;2 0 BH -0.5 •-8i 7 +8:7 -2.2 0 CD +0.5 •8.7 -8.7 1  6.7551 ' 4.5568 11.0919  Total  VI  r  v  Table o f . ' ( x ) BH 0;09 CD 0.09  ' 0 0  75:69 75.69  75:69 75.69  Table' of i ^ ) / r c L BH 0 : i l 2 5 0 CD 0.0750 0 0.1875 0  2.2112 i;4620 5.6752  2:2574 1.4792 3.7166  1  2  ;  -i;i  •1.1  4184 4.84  1:21 1.21  0;i900 0;i256 0.5156  0.3579 0;2252 0.5611  2  c h i - s q u a r e d - * 8.4540 P i s between .20 and .10  degrees of freedom  =  5  5.0890 5.5650 8.4540  Area BH PP  TABLE XXV CHI-SQUARED CALCULATIONS BOAT HARBOUR - PORLIER PASS Spawning C o n d i t i o n Female II III IV V VI Total I. 1 " 38 18 1 17 .9 75 0 0 126 _2 _1 i 18 18 201 12 10  I 0 81 81  Male V 120 0 120  BH PP  Expected V a l u e s ; 30.22 2.99 5.01 50.77  m 17.16 28.84  14.18 23.82  6.72 11.28  3.73 6.27  11.73 .27  117.27 2.73  BH PP  Table of x -30.22 -1.99 •.30.22 4-1.99  -.16 M..16  4-23.82 -23.82  4-11.28 -11.28  -2.73 ±•2.73  -2.73 ±•2.73  4-2.73 -2.73  BH PP  Table of x' 913.2484 "3.9601 913.2484 3.9601  .0256 .0256  567.3924 567.3924  127.2384 127.2384  7.4529 7.4529  7.4529 7.4529  7.4529 7.4529  BH PP  Table of x /m 30.2200 1.3244 f7>???8 .7904 48.2198 2.1148  .0015 .0009 .0024  40.0135 23.8200 63.8335  18.9342 11.2800 30.2142  1.9981 1.1887 3.1868  .6354 .0636 27.6033 2.7300 28.2387 2.7936  z  Female: c h i - s q u a r e d = 147.5715 df _ 5 . P i s l e s s than .01  Male; chi-squared S 31.0323 df = 1 ' P i s l e s s than .01  Total 129 —21  112  ~r  Area I BH PC  n  TABLE XXVI CALCULATIONS BOAT HARBOUR - PYLADES CHANNEL Spawning C o n d i t i o n Female Male " III IV V VI I ToV tal 46 28 102 25 2 3 133 8 110 16 24 IZ -1 81 14 212 21 i i 131 2d  CHI-SQUARED II  0  1 i a  2i  BH PG  Expected V a l u e s : 11.07 1.92 11.93 2.08  BH PC  Table o f x -11.07 t-11.07  BH PC  Table o f x 122.5 449 .8464 122.$449 .8464  -.92 +-.92  m  25.98 28.02  14.92 16.08  -13.97 +•13.97  +20.02 -20.02  1-13.08 -13.08  195.1609 195.16&9  400.8004 400.8004  171.0864 171.0864  5.0079 4.6434 9.6513  15.4273 14.3041 29.7314  38.97 42.03  9.14 . 9.86  14.68 4.32  121.32 35.63  -7.14 +•7.14  -11.68 4,11.68  ••11.68 -11.68  50.9796 50.9796  136.4224 136.4224  136.4224 136.4224  11.4669 5.5776 9.2931 10.6397 5.1703 31.5792 22.1066 10.7479 40.8723 Male: c h i - s q u a r e d =. 245.8203 df = 1 P i s l e s s than .01  1.1245 .8235 75480  2  Table o f x /m BH 11.0700 T"4"408 PC 10.2719 .4069 21.3419 .8477 Female: chi-squared 94.4250 df - 5 P i s l e s s than .01 2  s  Total 136 40  TABLE XXVII LAYOUT OF PILOT HOUSE LOG BOOK PAGE  PURSE SEINE AREA  DATE  •  -  -  WHERE FISHING  -  TIME OF DEPTH DRAGGING IN F. HR. MIN.  TOTAL POUNDS OF CATCH PRINCIPAL FISH LBS. CAUGHT  NOTES SIZE OF SPECIES ETC. t  

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