UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Community Arts Council of Vancouver : its place in the organization of balanced leisure-time activities Sweeny, Dorothea Moira 1951

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1951_A5 S8 C6.pdf [ 8.1MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0107034.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0107034-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0107034-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0107034-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0107034-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0107034-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0107034-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0107034-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0107034.ris

Full Text

if ft ft C 5 THE COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL Off VANCOUVER Its Place in the organization of Balanced leisure-Time Act iv i t ie s by DOROTHEA MOIRA SWEENY Thesis submitted in Part ia l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK In the School of Social Work June, 1951 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ABSTRACT Creative a r t experience has "been widely recognized, i n recent years, as an important f a c e t of the r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y of human beings. In an age where l e i s u r e - t i m e has become the r i g h t of most people, p r o v i s i o n of f a c i l -i t i e s f o r i t s c o n s t r u c t i v e use has assumed i n c r e a s i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e . As a r e s u l t , many new developments i n r e -c r e a t i o n have emerged, i n c l u d i n g growth of group work s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l work. Another r e l a t e d supplementation has come i n the i n i t i a t i o n of a new e o o r d i n a t i v e movement i n the a r t s , one phase of which i s described i n the f o l l o w i n g study of the Community A r t s Council of Vancouver. Embodied i n the t h e s i s i s i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from w i t h i n the A r t s Council i t s e l f : from i t s f i l e s ; from the people d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h i t s i n c e p t i o n and develop-ment; and from the w r i t e r ' s personal experience as a s t a f f member. Other m a t e r i a l i s taken from the p u b l i c a t i o n s of the two e o o r d i n a t i v e movements from which the A r t s Council's t h i n k i n g borrows: those of American Welfare, and the A r t s Council of Great B r i t a i n ; and i s t i e d i n w i t h current Can-adian trends as shown by the work of the recent Royal Com-mis s i o n on A r t s L e t t e r s and Sciences. In a d d i t i o n , inform-ation "both quantitative and qualitative was obtained from a sampling of Arts Council affiliate-groups, through ques-tionnaire and interview methods. The experiences of the war years, both on this contin-ent and in Great Britain, underlined the values of supple-menting the sporadic, unrelated activities of spontaneous i and autonomous art groups with some organized means of co-ordinating these activities and providing essential joint services beyond the financial capacities of individual groups. Yanoouver: was the f i r s t city on the continent to attempt such provision on a looal level, and did so in direct recognition that arts, the symboiization of man's basic drives, were essential to the oommon good, thus in-tegral to welfare. In the light of this basic assumption of the movement, i t was f e l t that a study of the growth and development of the prototype of other looal Arts Councils on this contin-ent would have reference value within the f i e l d of social work. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The making of this study has in i t s e l f been a lesson in ^process" not easily forgotten by a social group worker. Any measure of success i t may achieve in painting accurat-ely (though necessarily in summary) the growth and develop^-ment of an Arts Council, must, therefore, be shared by the numerous individuals and groups who have contributed to i t . It i s fu t i le to attempt to acknowledge a l l the help that has been given throughout i t s preparation. Certain individuals and groups, however, deserve special mention. The writer 's thanks must therefore go to Miss Jean Russell, Mrs. R. R. Arke l l , and Mr. Aleo Walton (Past Presidents and current President respectively); to the members of Board and Executive of the Arts Council, who have passed on their intensive knowledge of the organiz-ation and i t s forerunners; to a l l the groups who took part in the present survey and have otherwise contributed; and to the School of Social Work Faculty, part icularly Miss Marjorie J . Smith; Dr. Leonard C. Marsh (whose guidance on content, form, and procedures has contributed the research approach); and Miss Elizabeth V. Thomas, (who has, through-out ' led me to the threshold of my own mind'). PAST 1 "They were ordinary c i t i z e n s interested - i n these things because they attached importanoe to them.... "Any account of our e f f o r t s , therefore, . i s not the report of an academic pro-ject but a human interest story." The Rt. Hon. Vincent Massey, speech to the Canadian Club, June 11th, 1951. THE COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL OF VANCOUVER: Its Place in the Organization of Balanced Leisure-Time Act iv i t i e s . Table of Contents Acknowledgements. Page Chapter 1: Part 1 Forerunners of the Community Arts council: The Survey and the Plan • Preface: Background of Arts Survey. The Findings of the Report: Summary of Opportun-i t i e s to Participate in Cultural Arts in Vancouver; Groups with Primary Art Interest; Organizations with Secondary or Incidental Art Interests. Analysis of the Arts and Our Town. Presentation of the Report ,32 Part 11 Chapter 11: The Purpose of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . The functions of the Council Chapter 111: Administrative Functions: Planning 42 The Board of Directors: Size of the Board. The Executive. Functions of Board and Exec-utive. Staff. Relationship Between Staff Situation and Board and Executive Trends. Manner of Election: Board and Exeoutive. Summary of Findings re Planning function. Chapter IV: Administrative Functions: Financing Trends in Financial Planning. Summary of Findings i n Regard to Financial Planning Functions. ,71 PART III Chapter V: Program Development and Trends 87 Development of Sections. Other Projected Sections. Additional Non-Sections Projects in Recent Months (Spring, 1951). Group Referral. Other Projects in Preparation: Community Arts for Children; Community Arts Council Children's Concerts. Day to Day Program Services. Direction of Council Program Trends. PART IV Chapter VI: The Af f i l i a te Groups 119 The Present Study. Distribution of Member Groups by Age, Total Member-ship and Arts Program Membership. Classi f ication of Interests in Arts; Professional, Amateur, Other. Parties ipant or Spectator: Professional or Amateur. Resources: Groups Contri-bution to the Arts Council: Arts Council Contribution to the Individ-ual Group. Group Self-Determination within the Arts. Group Views Regard-ing the Council. Comments Regarding Group Views of the Council. Summary of Findings of the Present Survey. Char t . . . . . . 129 i'igure 1: Distribution of Member Groups Classified by Size of: a) Total Member-ship b) Arts Membership. Figure 2: Effects of Democratization on Standards In the Arts (Views of Member Groups) Chapter VII: Conclusion . ...150 APPENDICES Bibliography. Appendix "A" Sample of Questionnaire (with ResponsesJ...Appendix "B" Covering Letter to Questionnaire Appendix "C" Sample of Interview Schedule. . . . . Appendix n D " Sample of Arts Council News Calendar Appendix " E * CHAPTER 1 FORERUNNERS OF THE COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL: The Survey and the Plan Preface: Background of Arts Survey This study i s i n part the outgrowth of the B. G. Com-munity Centres Conference held i n the spring of 1950. At that time a discussion was held on "The Organization of Cultural Art Activities.™ This session was chaired "by a professional s o c i a l group worker, whose knowledge of pro-gram media i n the s o c i a l agency setting led to emphasis on cu l t u r a l arts as one of the " t o o l s " used i n the group work method. The two panel members were a hoard member of the Community Arts Council and another s o c i a l worker active i n program development i n a l o c a l agency. The writer's interest i n the Community Arts Council was stimulated by the seeming lack of integration, of the thinking of participants i n this meeting. By the end of the session, i t seemed clear that no two people i n the room had the same impression of the subjeot under discussion. The impression the writer had throughout, was that the group workers were interested but did not know enough about the 3 Arts Council to understand i t s function, while the speaker on arts organization did not understand the basic p r i n c i p l e s on which the s o c i a l workers', questions were based. Any c l a r i f i c a t i o n of either point which the present thesis may provide w i l l make the study worthwhile. From the writer's point of view, however, i t Is worthwhile i f only because of the fascination of the subject which f i v e months within the Council as executive s t a f f has produced. During the early days of Vancouver, the growth of groups interested i n c u l t u r a l art a c t i v i t i e s was as haphazard and uncoordinated as i n any other young community. People gath-ered to form art groups primarily on a s o c i a l basis, common interests serving as an entree to s o c i a l intercourse, assoc-i a t i o n s i n the i r turn leading to development of common inter e s t s . The early s e t t l e r s expressed t h e i r feelings about l i f e i n thi s new part of the world, through painting i t s scenery, by occassional writing, and through taking an interest i n the Indian culture of i t s surroundings. In addition,, they expressed their feelings about t h e i r "home-lands" by interpretation of the music, art, dances, and l i t e r a t u r e of other countries. Many art groups grew up, and flourished as autonomous units. Seldom, however, did they a l l get together. Indeed, it-might s t i l l be said that p r o l i f e r a t i o n of diverse groups i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Van-couver today. 4 When the depression came, there was l i t t l e money to spare for the operation of art groups, and many of them de-clined or ceased to exist. Eventually, however, the de^ -pression led to development of another program which was to have considerable hearing on the d i r e c t i o n of arts i n B r i t -i s h Columbia. This was the f i r s t P r o v i n c i a l Recreation pro-gram, inaugurated i n 1934 as a plan f o r those "not g a i n f u l l y employed". From 1934 u n t i l 1937 (when, under the Dominion-P r o v i n c i a l Youth Training Plan, i t received support from the Departments of labour, both Federal and P r o v i n c i a l ) , i t was 1 financed e n t i r e l y by the B r i t i s h Columbia government. While th i s program was organized primarily around concern with unemployed youth, i t s subsequent development had point-ed up some of the needs for varied expressional opportunities for a l l the people. Although reaching large numbers of people, Pro Reo i t s e l f has not yet implemented the plan i n i t s broadest sense. Soon after 1939, production f o r war cur t a i l e d both the money available and the interest i n arts groups. Before long, i t had, i n many respects, however, the opposite e f f e c t . Money from war industries started to pour into Vancouver, and with i t came not only a vast increase of population (service personnel, i n d u s t r i a l workers and th e i r f a m i l i e s ) , but also 1. Lee Ernest, Physical Fitness i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n Saskachewan Recreation, D i v i s i o n of Physical Fitness and Recreation, Regina, 1948, p. 1. 5 an increased need f o r "morale buil d i n g " entertainment. Much government money went into the production of shows for the armed forces, and many of the e a r l i e r art groups were resus-citated i n order to present concerts and exhibits f o r both service personnel and workers i n war industry. Many of the f a c t o r i e s followed the lead of other countries i n introducing music into their work day to l i g h t e n the work burden and to speed up production. Art appreciation opportunities were also increased. During t h i s period when a " p a t r i o t i c premium" was plac-ed on giving entertainment to the armed forces and to war workers, a high degree of cooperation was displayed by var-ious art groups i n working out joint programs. It i s not surprising that once having experienced the benefits of c o l -laborating i n t h i s area, people should have shown strong desire to maintain and promote further cooperation after the war. By the end of h o s t i l i t i e s i t was evident that increased opportunities provided during the period of h o s t i l i t i e s had heightened appreciation of arts and had offered many t h e i r f i r s t chance of creative p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Action was needed i f t h i s new c u l t u r a l l i f e were to be kept ali v e and expanded in pace with the tremendous population growth. In addition, population growth meant overcrowding without corresponding housing development. Many l i v e d i n cramped and inadequate 6 quarters and families which had previously centered t h e i r l i v e s i n the home had to seek expressional outlets "beyond i t s confines. This meant an added demand on already over-burdened group work and recreation personnel and f a c i l i t i e s . It was no longer possible to r a t i o n a l i z e that "such services were needed by limited groups only." l o r was i t possible to separate the physical welfare needs from th e i r emotional components. Recreation and informal education services grew by leaps and bounds i n an e f f o r t to meet the demands placed upon them. They could not hope to f i l l a l l the c i t i z e n s ' needs f o r recreational outlets, and specialized art groups were among the numerous additional outward expressions of these needs. A l e r t c i t i z e n s f e l t the pressures i n this area, and resolved that something must be done-about better organ-i z a t i o n of Vancouver's c u l t u r a l l i f e , i f f a c i l i t i e s were to be expanded and coordinated and duplication eliminated. Among the many organizations which were aware of the problem the Junior League i s outstanding. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that they saw the need f o r coordination of c u l t u r a l oppor-t u n i t i e s as only one of a number of in t e r - r e l a t e d concerns centering around use of "spare" time. The most important of the projects they undertook i n t h i s connection was sponsor-ship of the f i r s t group work s p e c i a l i z a t i o n course i n the Department (now School) of Social Work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Another successful e f f o r t was the organ-7 i z a t i o n of the Volunteer Bureau. In 1945, they took active int e r e s t i n the Welfare 2 Council's survey of group work and recreation i n Vancouver. At the time t h i s study was being prepared, Miss V i r g i n i a Lee Comer, Consultant on Community Arts to the Association of Junior leagues of America, Inc., happened to be i n Vancouver. 3 Miss Comer's plan for community cu l t u r a l study appealed to the l o c a l chapter of the Junior League and also to the Dir-ector of the Welfare Council. The Vancouver Junior League, therefore, decided that a study of art a c t i v i t i e s was i n order, and possible of successful completion i f the services of the director of the group work and recreation survey could be secured. This was accomplished, and Mr. L. S. Norrie, secretary of the P a c i f i c South Area Council of the Young Men's Chri s t i a n Association, was employed as di r e c t o r and compiler of both studies - - one sponsored by Welfare Coun-c i l and Rotary and Kiwanis Service clubs, the other by the Junior League. Both studies were conducted simultaneously. In inaugurating the survey of c u l t u r a l art a c t i v i t i e s and interests, the Junior League requested that a committee of interested c i t i z e n s be formed. This group became the 2. The Welfare Council of Greater Vancouver, Group Work  and Recreation, Vancouver, 1945. 3. Association of Junior leagues of America, Inc., The  Arts and Our Town; A Plan f o r Community Cultural~ s T u d y , New York, 1944. ' 8 Community Arts Survey Committee, and started i t s work i n July 1945. Nearly a year l a t e r , (May 1946), the committee 4 presented i t s report, The Arts and Our Town. The report was a compilation of data received i n reply to questionnair-es sent to every known organization which might have di r e c t or i n d i r e c t concern with c u l t u r a l art a c t i v i t i e s . It covers not only groups with s p e c i f i c art focus, hut also a large number of organizations operating i n related f i e l d s . The Findings of the Report Summary of "Opportunities to Par t i c i p a t e i n Cultural Arts i n Vancouver". Early i n the report., an alphabetical index of arts groups and organizations i n related f i e l d s with art a c t i v i t -i e s or Interests i s given. There i s also an index of groups by art forms. Together, these indices provide a codified version of the art p a r t i c i p a t i o n and enjoyment opportunities available to a l l age groups i n Vancouver i n 1945. Keeping i n mind that (from a purely a r t i s t i c point of view) groups concentrating on one or two art forms may have had higher standards than those whose interests ranged widely, It i s interesting to note that certain groups sponsored four or more art forms. These included the Vancouver School Board (night classes), the Vocational School and the City Art 4. The Junior League of Vancouver, Arts and Our Town, Keystone Press, Vancouver, 1945. !  9 School as well as four private schools. Three recreation and informal education agencies (two Neighbourhood Houses and one Y.W.C.A.), the labour Arts Guild, some l i t t l e theatre groups and the C. B. C. regional broadcasting station were also included i n t h i s l i s t . Thus i t i s clear that those organizations whose main purpose i s either formal or inform-5 al education are ahead i n providing wide coverage of arts. The two Neighbourhood Houses and the Y.W.C.A., the University and the labour Arts Guild had participant and spectator opportunities f o r two or more age groups i n nearly a l l phases of arts. The remainder of the report covers i n b r i e f the organ-i z a t i o n , program, and f a c i l i t i e s of art and c u l t u r a l groups and organizations i n related f i e l d s whose art i n t e r e s t s were secondary. Between 180 and SOO organizations are covered. Exact count i s d i f f i c u l t beeause many were sub-divisions of larger organizations. It Is evident, however, that a large majority of the groups had a secondary rather than a primary interest i n art a c t i v i t i e s as such, and to some the interest was almost i n c i d e n t a l . Footnote: 5. The l i s t of possible art forms on which t h i s c l a s s i f i -cation was based includes art, c r a f t s and hobbies, dance, drama, l i t e r a t u r e , music, v i s u a l education, public a f f a i r s and "miscellaneous". 10 Groups with Primary Art Interest. Most of the f o r t y - s i x "Art Associations and Clubs" had one p a r t i c u l a r form i n which they specialized, although there were a few with broad i n t e r e s t i n developing a l l forms. Of the t o t a l number of groups so l i s t e d , ten were devoted prim-a r i l y to arts and c r a f t s , eight to drama, eight to l i t e r a t u r e , and twenty to music. As many of these organizations are now members of the Community Arts Council, they w i l l be referred to i n a sub-sequent chapter. In the overall picture of the si t u a t i o n as i t was i n 1945, however, i t i s interesting to note that the majority of arts clubs or organizations at that time had open and unlimited membership and were financed mainly by membership fees. It i s true, with regard to the membership, that some s p e c i a l i s t groups, (such as choral s o c i e t i e s and orchestras), required proof of musicianship as a q u a l i f i -cation for joining, but most of the groups asked only a gen-uine interest i n the subject. & o s t Most of the art and music clubs had exhibitions or con-certs which were open to the public, and small fees were charged f o r some of these. Several groups gave scholarships f o r promising students; but few, however, indicated a f f i l -i a t i o n or cooperation with other groups. I t . i s d i f f i c u l t to gauge how representative the various boards or executives of these groups were, as their methods of appointment or 11 ele c t i o n were not described i n comparable fashion. Within the overall picture of Vancouver's art groups, as developed i n the report, a few deserve special mention because of their emphasis on community c r e a t i v i t y , and t h e i r broad views about arts i n general. These included such large organizations as the Federation of Canadian A r t i s t s , and the Labour Arts Guild (now ex t i n c t ) . The Labour Arts Guild sponsored numerous free classes, exhibitions, and concerts for i t s members and gave considerable opportunity for both p a r t i c i p a t i o n and public enjoyment of art activ-i t i e s i n an e f f o r t to develop a v i t a l "grass roots" culture. A l l of the drama and arts and cr a f t s groups gave oppor-tunity f o r actual creative p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the art form concerned, while four of the eight l i t e r a r y groups and the majority, of the music groups did likewise. The "arts and c r a f t s " groups included clubs f o r sketch-ing and painting, photography, films, weaving, and stamp c o l l e c t i n g . Various aspects of drama organization were i n -dicated by in c l u s i o n of the Dominion Drama F e s t i v a l ; the School and Community Drama o f f i c e ; (Provincial Dept. of Education); Community Self-Help Drama groups; the drama program offered i n connection with the Park Board's play-grounds; the Council of Canadian Drama Award (concerned with standards); and the Army Service Shows. L i t e r a r y groups were concerned with creating or recreating prose and poetry, 12 and the groups not primarily interested i n writing either of these forms were engaged mainly i n studying Shakespeare, Dickens and Burns. Of the,many music groups discussed, the main categories were "straight" music clubs, choral and part-singing groups, music teaohers 1 groups, oratorio and operatic groups, three bands, two symphony orchestras, i n addition to the B. C. Music F e s t i v a l organization, and four concert series of v i s i t i n g a r t i s t s . Of considerable importance i n Vancouver's c u l t u r a l l i f e , was (and s t i l l i s ) the Vancouver L i t t l e Theatre. At the date of the survey, i t was run by a board of eleven members, and-financed by worker and audience memberships and t i c k e t sales. This group i s the oldest L i t t l e Theatre i n Canada, has always been strongly participant, and has developed many side l i n e s i n the arts i n cooperation with other community groups. I t s purpose, according to the findings of the survey, was to help drama groups of a l l kinds within the community. Its location was not central, however, and i t s f a c i l i t i e s , though f a i r , needed improvement. The other community-centred aspect of Vancouver's theatre l i f e was Theatre Under the Stars, operated by the Vancouver Park Board under a c i v i c grant. This theatre had i t s own training school, the B. C. In s t i t u t e of Music and Drama (now the B. C. Conservatory of Music, Drama, and A l l i e d A r t s ) . Few fees were charged for classes i n this school from which 13 graduates went d i r e c t l y into the theatre company. The tra i n i n g school had considerable f a c i l i t i e s and gave a f a i r l y comprehensive course i n a variety of theatre arts, but the Theatre Under the Stars i t s e l f had poor f a c i l i t i e s . (Also operated by the Park Board were a number of play-grounds where p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n dance and drama groups was available to the public. ) On a community basis also was the Vancouver School of Art, which was run i n conjunction with the c i t y school system to give professional t r a i n i n g i n fin e art, as well as i n commercial and i n d u s t r i a l art. It was found to b" e financed both by public funds and by t u i t i o n fees, to have a large s t a f f of fu l l - t i m e and part-time instructors, and an enrollment of 894 ranging i n age from 16 to 70 years. Although i t s space was unsuitable f o r rental to other groups, i t s exhibitions were open to the public, and some volunteer service was given to the two Neighbourhood Houses and the Y.M.C.A.. The location, f a c i l i t i e s , and opportunities presented by the Vancouver Art Gallery, the Museum and the Public Library were noted, and some strong needs for improvements i n t h i s area were indicated by implication. In addition there was a recommendation that support be mustered f o r the Museum Board toward erection of a modern museum with suf-f i c i e n t operating funds....for better l o c a t i o n and c i r c u l a -14 ti o n of material. Organizations with Secondary or Incidental Art Interests That both labour and management were concerned with art a c t i v i t i e s i s evident i n the discussion of business, i n d u s 9 t r i a l and commercial organizations and labour unions. Many of these had th e i r own art interests, p a r t i c u l a r l y musical and v i s u a l education programs. War industry, department stores, and large food producers were among those i n the f i r s t category, while trade unions representing.transport-ation workers, ship-builders', plumbers and steamfitters had concerts and other programs of the i r own. Many of these were a f f i l i a t e d with the labour Arts Guild or the Workers' Educational Association. Three women's clubs, a P.T.A., four service clubs and a cooperative council were l i s t e d among the c i v i c and f r a t -ernal clubs covered by the study as having p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r -est i n the arts. Outstanding among the groups mentioned -under the head-ing "Nationality Groups" was the Canadian Folk Society which sought to preserve and present to the public the music, dances, and customs of the various ethnic groups i n the pop-ulati o n . Separate Bavarian, Polish, Croation and Welsh Societies had special i n t e r e s t s i n p a r t i c u l a r forms of art. Most of these were interested i n more than one form, and provided opportunities for p a r t i c i p a t i o n as well as enjoyment. 1 5 Six churches were described as having groups i n at least three main art areas. A l l were active i n music and fi v e i n c r a f t s programs. Most of the rest of the churches had choral groups and twelve of these gave p a r t i c i p a t i o n opportunities to two or more age groups. Many of them had lim i t e d f a c i l i t i e s , however, and were fin. most cases) unable to open what f a c i l i t i e s they had for the use of other groups, because of tax regulations. Report on the private leisure-time agencies included the Vancouver Boys' Club Association, Boy Scouts, G i r l Guides, the i.M.O.A. and the I.W.C.A., the Alexandra Community Activ-i t i e s (two neighbourhood houses, a play school and a camp) and the three seamen's agencies, (Vancouver S a i l o r s ' Home, the Seamen's In s t i t u t e and the Missions to Seamen). Of these, a l l except Boy Scouts and G i r l Guides receive large portions of t h e i r finances from the Community Chest and Council. As mentioned e a r l i e r , the agencies of Alexandra Community Activ-i t i e s and the Y.W.C.A. carried on a wide var i e t y of arts pro-grams. These, however, were the exceptions rather than the rule. Treatment of the formal educational f a c i l i t i e s of the community broke down into three sections: art, music, drama and dance schools (previously mentioned i n t h i s chapter); private grade and high schools; and public elementary and high schools. (As a l l these f a c i l i t i e s are being dealt with 16 out of the a l p h a b e t i c a l order of the report, i t would seem obvious that the U n i v e r s i t y should a l s o come w i t h i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n ) . Questionnaires sent to the schools requested inform-a t i o n covering l o c a t i o n , s t a f f , and enrollment; school f a c i l i t i e s such as a u d i t o r i a , stage and l i g h t i n g , l i b r a r y and l i b r a r y s t a f f , musical instruments, and a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s . Questions on curriculum v/ere geared to i n d i c a t e a r t c l a s s e s given, and the grades to which these were given; what o p p o r t u n i t i e s there were f o r music; what f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s , i f any, were i n c u r r e d by students taking these courses; and the degree of i n t e g r a t i o n of a r t s i n t o the t o t a l school l i f e . Questions on e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s d e a l t w i t h the numbers and kinds of clubs; the degree of teacher s u p e r v i s i o n ; the number of programs open to the pub-l i c or brought i n from the community; the p r o d u c t i v i t y of c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n these groups; and the amount of i n t e r -change of cooperation or assistance w i t h i n the community. F o r t y - s i x p u b l i c elementary schools answered the ques-t i o n n a i r e . Of these, about fourteen i n d i c a t e d considerable d i f f e r e n c e s i n e t h n i c background among the students. Twenty-nine i n d i c a t e d that they had a u d i t o r i a , of v a r y i n g s i z e s and stage f a c i l i t i e s . Almost a l l the schools had l i b r a r i e s , and most had t r a i n e d l i b r a r i a n s , but the s i z e and q u a l i t y of the l i b r a r i e s v a r i e d enormously. Most of them had some musical 17 instruments, and at least a s l i d e projector, but i t was surprising to f i n d how limited these f a c i l i t i e s were i n some of the smaller or older schools. The majority had some indi c a t i o n of art classes, vocal music, and a l i m i t e d amount of drama and dancing, either i n the curriculum or i n extra-c i r r i e u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . Many had l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of con-tacts with the community at large, even through open school concerts. The twelve junior and senior high schools surveyed showed a very different picture from the elementary schools. Only two had no auditoria or stage, and a l l ran considerable programs i n arts both within the curriculum and outside i t . Their supplies of musical instruments and audio-visual aids were well i n advance of anything found i n the majority of elementary schools. The Vancouver Technical School had a very good arts program, and one high school showed consider-able community cooperation and interchange of services. Of the four private schools answering the questionnaire, York House was the only one which contributed i t s creative a c t i v i t i e s to the community. The community contribution of the University could hard-ly be questioned, but the survey l i s t e d i t s theatre and exhi-b i t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , i t s l i b r a r y , i t s museum c o l l e c t i o n and i t s educational and adult educational f a c i l i t i e s , and men-tioned the large number of concerts and other programs open 18 to the public. Before leaving discussion of the formal and informal educational f a c i l i t i e s of the schools, s o c i a l agencies, and churches, l e t us look b r i e f l y at the recommendations of the survey committee which pertain d i r e c t l y to t h i s section. The recommendations themselves summarize the findings i n a sense, when they c a l l for a c t i v i t y on the part of schools, s o c i a l agencies, and churches to enlarge opportunities for a r t i s t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n drama, dance, drawing, painting, modelling, pottery, record c o l l e c t i n g , play reading, music appreciation--toward increasing art appreciation, and to give opportunities f o r learning the art of discussion tech-niques. The committee also recommended use of concern f o r family l i f e .education as • a means of r a i s i n g c u l t u r a l stand-ards, and suggested there was need f o r concern with Com-munity Centres development as the f o c a l point of c u l t u r a l as well as recreational and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . It saw a need to bring the practice of taxing non-profit educational organizations to public notice through cooperative e f f o r t s of the Welfare Council, the Council of Churches, and others. In dir e c t r e l a t i o n to educational f a c i l i t i e s , i t saw a need for special study of art teaching methods i n the schools, and for advisory committees or s p e c i a l i s t s on c u l t u r a l arts toward upgrading and increasing work i n t h i s program f i e l d . This recommendation t i e s i n closely with the need fo r a 19 University department or conservatory of music for high standards of t r a i n i n g and' appreciation. F i n a l l y i n the survey, bringing together e a r l i e r men-tions of inadequate f a c i l i t i e s f o r L i t t l e Theatre and Thea-tre Under the Stars, the committee investigated the pro-fessional theatre a c t i v i t i e s of Vancouver. Although at the time of the survey they found three reasonably large movie theatres available for stage performance (ranging i n seating capacity from 2870 to 1246 and having raked f l o o r s and sat-i s f a c t o r y acoustics) r e n t a l rates necessitated high admission charges and elimination of student rates. The committee, therefore, strongly recommended action toward securing large public auditoria to spread a c t i v i t y community wide. From the point of view of subsequent developments the recommendations suggesting formation of a c u l t u r a l arts council to coordinate the e f f o r t s of spontaneous, unrelated groups; for increase i n the number of c u l t u r a l publications; and as a medium for evaluation of arts programs, are perhaps the most important f o r the purposes of this study. The committee suggested that: " * . . . i f a c u l t u r a l arts council i s organized i t might set up advisory services to promote f o r -ward steps i n the f i e l d of arts education among /; schools, group work agencies, Provincial Rec-reation, churches, etc... It may be that an adult education council would cover the s i t u a t i o n more adequately, with a c u l t u r a l arts section devot-ing i t s time to the arts. One thing i s certain, that culture and the appreciation of i t s various SO elements moves forward only as fast as the educational l e v e l of the general community develops. Therefore, i f we would push f o r -ward In the cultural arts, we must push fo r -ward i n the other elements that make up a well-rounded community, fo r the culture of • a c i t y i s more than i t s art. The art of l i v -ing i s the all-encompassing quality that makes for the appreciation of the various elements that go into the art of l i v i n g . n b The purpose of the study was to make possible concerted community action arid planning by showing a fa c t u a l picture of existent services i n this area, and the overlappings and gaps i n service. Miss Comer contributed her experience and insight i n t h i s f i e l d , and her understanding of the i n t e r -relationships of welfare and c u l t u r a l needs. Mr fforrle con-tributed technical knowledge of how to compile a survey. Analysis of The. Arts and,Our Town From the published results of the study i t i s amply evident that the questionnaires used i n obtaining material from individuals and groups were formulated with much atten-tion to d e t a i l , and geared toward obtaining comprehensive and comparable data on the essential features of each organ-i z a t i o n . It was emphasized that the findings of the study could not be s t a t i c , as the groups were constantly changing, with old ones dying off and others springing up. Advertise-ments were run i n the d a i l y papers asking any i n d i v i d u a l or group interested i n the study to get i n touch with the com-mittee, i f they had been overlooked. 6. The Junior League of Vancouver, Op. C i t . , Preface. 21 The preface to the study made clear that the groups discussed were enumerated rather than endorsed, and no attempt was made to evaluate the standards of p a r t i c i p a t i o n or enjoyment i n any a c t i v i t y within any group. Although mandatory under the circumstances, this was perhaps a short-coming of the report. In addition, lack of analysis shows consistently i n the absence of tabulation of results, within each grouping and i n the f a i l u r e of the charts and maps to show relationships between s o c i a l factors and art opportunities. The tables and charts which should be an integral part of the study, give the impression, rather, of being i s o l a t e d from the text. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of material i s alphabetical rather than analy-t i c a l . The facts about the c i t y ' s growth, s o c i a l organizat-ion, population c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and ethnic groupings, leisure-time agency, school and park services would ( i f related to cu l t u r a l art patterns) have added considerably to the study, and taken i t immediately out of the "art for art's sake" bracket into the f i e l d of general concern with the s o c i a l and emotional needs of the people. For those who are sceptical of the relationship between s o c i a l problems and c u l t u r a l art a c t i v i t i e s , however, the report i t s e l f gives l i t t l e concrete proof of t h i s relationship. Although the study f a i l s a n a l y t i c a l l y i n t h i s respect, i t s value as a background f o r future planning cannot be qu.es-22 tioned i n the l i g h t of subsequent developments. It has been used both l o c a l l y and i n many centres i n the U.S. as a guide i n formation of cultural planning bodies. Moreover, i t must be remembered that t h i s was the f i r s t survey of i t s kind, and that the odds were against the committee i n many ways. I t was a d i f f i c u l t undertaking i n a l l respects but i t s r e sults, though short of the mark, have proved of value. Further, although the twenty-one committee members (including the chairman) gave unstintingly of t h e i r thought,time, and energy i n preparation of the report. The director's leader-ship was available only intermittently. I t i s unfortunate that there i s no report on the pro-cess of organization and conduct of the study, the number and type of meetings held during i t s compilation, and the contributions i n thinking made by the heterogeneous group of interested i n d i v i d u a l s who gathered around the common concern of investigating art organization i n the c i t y . How much of the material was gathered on a group p a r t i c i p a t i o n basis and how much as i n d i v i d u a l assignment, cannot be ad-equately gauged. Although they do not indicate the process to c l e a r l y , the following excerpts from a l e t t e r written to an enquirer i n Wichita, Kansas, about the conduct of the survey may serve to throw some l i g h t on the committee's work: 23 "We formed a representative c iv ic committee of twenty people, without asking people to repre-sent specific cultural organizations. We in-vited people from the f ie lds of radio, labour, Board of Trade, advertising, a few branches of the arts - for example music, architecture, museums, l ibrar ie s , art schools and the Univer-s i ty; also the volunteer Bureau. These people were invited because they were known to be c iv ic -minded and because we fe l t we could depent upon their personal support in putting this over. "You ask whether we invited educational as well as cultural groups. The answer is we did not consciously invite educational groups, we i n -vited the University because of their many cult-ural courses in the Extension Department. "This committee worked with a Junior League chairman (which we thought essential) under the professional direction of L. E. Uorrie, who now heads up the American recreational program in the American zone in Germany. We strongly re-commend a professional to be in charge of the survey. The work of col lecting the information i s enormous, and we found that, since we were forced to do this in the summertime, we had to rely upon the Volunteer Bureau, which cooperated magnificently. However, i t would be more educa-tional for the Junior League to use i t s own vol-unteers to go out personally and collect the in-formation, as a personal c a l l i s far more effec-tive than a questionnaire sent i n the mail . " . . .We found that in getting this c iv ic committee to do the survey, the angle which appealed to them most was the fact that such a survey could lead to the formation of a co-ordinating council of the arts. "We called the civio committee together in July of 1945; we presented the Survey Report to the City on May 31st, 1946; and at another large public meeting i n October, 1946, the Arts Council was formed". 7 7. Letter from the President, Community Arts Council of Vancouver, to the President, Junior League of Wichita, Kansas, November 3, 1948. 24 Because the organizations l i s t e d i n the study were dealt with i n the report according to alphabetical l i s t i n g under major sub-headings of types of groups, and without i n -ternal summary material, i t i s hard to b u i l d a descriptive picture from the contents of the report. Had the study group prepared to gather i t s material under such headings as pro-gram, f a c i l i t i e s , administrative plan (including community coordination and f i n a n c i a l aspects], and leadership, with a d i s t i n c t committee investigating each of these major as-pects i n such a way as to show the needs, resources, gaps, and recommendations i n r e l a t i o n to each section, the f i n a l recommendations could hardly have missed showing th e i r nat-u r a l growth from the material collected. This would prob-ably have increased the work involved, but would have made the f i n a l compilation easier.' The results would have, been more i n t e l l i g i b l e to the average reader, and more useable as a source of reference f o r the future. This type of study plan would, however, have necessitated strong professional leadership, not only of the overall study, but also of the work of each sub-committee. The l i n e s of d i s t i n c t i o n between each committee's work would have had to be c l e a r l y defined so that the interview-ing might proceed i n accordance with a d e f i n i t e pattern of re s u l t s to be obtained. In discussion of f a c i l i t i e s , f o r example, auditoria of various types would have been l i s t e d 25 together, sub-divided according to t h e i r various assets and l i m i t a t i o n s , instead of being mentioned i n connection with the group which used them most. This would have added enor-mously to.the power of the recommendation fo r enlarged and improved auditorium space. More b a s i c a l l y , a d i v i s i o n of the scope of the material i n the text to distinguish (a) groups with primary art i n -terest, (b) groups with secondary art interest, and (c) groups with related interests would have been more valuable. With-i n each of these sections, the aims and objectives of each program, i t s needs, resources, gaps, and obvious recommend-ations could have been gathered together more e f f e c t i v e l y . S i m i l a r l y , within each of the other sections the needs, re-sources, gaps, and recommendations with regard to f a c i l i t i e s , administrative plan, and leadership might also have been set forth, i n such a way that the summary of recommendations re-garding each of these headings would have constituted a re-sume of the findings of each section. Examples w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the problem i n the present coverage of the report. Theatre Under the Stars turns up i n four d i f f e r e n t places i n connection with i t s school, with the B. C. I n s t i t u t e (now Conservatory), with the Park Board, and with "Theatre i n Vancouver". Although schools for var-ious forms of arts are dealt with i n the section on educa-t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , closely t i e d i n with the general educa-26 t i o n a l system rather than with discussion of the art forms they teach, the University (which i s obviously part of the educational system) i s l i s t e d by i t s e l f , quite unrelated to other educational f a c i l i t i e s . Although prerequisites for entrance are obviously d i f f e r e n t , i t i s reasonable to sup-pose that the University Theatre School should come under Theatre and the University auditorium under f a c i l i t i e s f o r performance? Had i t been possible to foresee the ultimate use of the report, the material might have been gathered and pre-sented i n a more meaningful way. Presentation of the Report When the survey was completed and published, a public meeting was arranged f o r i t s presentation. The following extract from a second l e t t e r to the enquirer i n Wichita, Kansas, describes the process: "We held our meeting i n a downtown hotel; repres-entatives from a l l l o c a l art and welfare groups were invited, as well as every i n d i v i d u a l who we f e l t might be even remotely interested....A t e l e -phone committee was appointed to telephone friends to explain the reasons for thi s meeting and to encourage them to come. Approximately f i v e hun-dred attended, which pleased us very much. (Con-stant interpretation i s needed i n t h i s f a i r l y ne-bulous project). " A l l of the newspapers gave us e d i t o r i a l s the day following this meeting. We found that our printed survey immediately sold the idea f o r us and i n this regard has been most helpful ever since. At this meeting a copy of the survey was presented 27 "by the president of the Junior league to the Mayor for the use of the c i t i z e n s of Vancouver. The Mayor then asked us (previously arranged) to appoint an interim committee to look into the f e a s i b i l i t y of setting up a coordinating council for the arts i n Vancouver. The chair-man of t h i s committee was appointed at the meeting (also previously arranged) and a short speech of acceptance made. The p r i n c i p a l speakers of the evening were V i r g i n i a lee Comer whose subject was "the Arts and our Town", and one of our leading i n d u s t r i a l i s t s whose subject was "the Arts and Industry". In addition, we had on the platform the president of the Com-munity Chest and Council and representatives from labour and our p r o v i n c i a l university. Each spoke f o r two or three minutes and we f e l t that the balance was good. (Miss Comer) spoke beaut-i f u l l y and added great stature and dignity to the occasion, and I do not hesitate to suggest that you too i n v i t e her f o r your presentation. Her address i s : 45 East 9th Street, E'ew York City. "I t was our experience that d e t a i l and finesse played a major part i n the success of t h i s pro-j e c t . . . . " . 8 Among the newspaper comments at the time of the pres-entation of the survey i n 1946, the following excerpts are interesting: "This was the f i r s t such report ever presented to any c i t y i n North America. True, there have been other surveys elsewhere of the problem of foster-ing the arts, but this was the f i r s t of such a wide scope and professional prestige...The Arts Council idea merits the f u l l e s t support from every agency interested i n c u l t u r a l progress. Of course, such a movement, to be e f f e c t i v e , must remain a popular movement. O f f i c i a l help may require and deserve but o f f i c i a l d i r e c t i o n would render i t 8. l e t t e r from the Past President, Community Arts Council of Vancouver, to the President, Junior league of Wichita, Kansas, October 20, 1950. 28 s t e r i l e . What the survey r e p o r t seems t o i n d i -cate i s a wholly popular movement to organize and d i r e c t the e n t h u s i a s t i c spontaneity of Vancouver's c u l t u r a l ambitions'. The survey was presented on May 31st, 1946, a l i t t l e l e s s than one y e a r a f t e r establishment of the survey com-mitte e ("July, 1945), and the I n t e r i m Committee went i n t o a c t i o n p r e p a r i n g a s k e l e t o n c o n s t i t u t i o n , and drawing up a s l a t e of o f f i c e r s and d i r e c t o r s f o r the proposed A r t s Coun-c i l . During the f o u r months of i t s e x i s t e n c e t h i s I n t e r i m Committee h e l d ten meetings, an average o f three a month. The hard work, a c u i t y of a n a l y s i s , and v i s i o n of t h i s group can h a r d l y be over-estimated. Composition i n c l u d e d a l e a d -in g i n d u s t r i a l i s t , a s o l i c i t o r , a l a b o u r e d u c a t i o n a l i s t , an a d v e r t i s e r , a drama s p e c i a l i s t who was a l s o a program d i r -e c t o r of the C.B.C., the d i r e c t o r of music f o r the schools, and the s e c r e t a r y of the Group Work D i v i s i o n o f the Com-munity Chest and C o u n c i l . Two members o f the J u n i o r League was also i n v i t e d to attend an Informal meeting about h a l f -way through the I n t e r i m Committee 1s l i f e span. T h i s meet-i n g was f o r the purpose of d i s c u s s i n g with Miss Comer (of New York) her p r o p o s a l s as t o composition of Board and A d v i s o r y Committees of the A r t s C o u n c i l . 9. Vancouver Sun, Saturday, June 1st, 1946. 29 (The thinking of the Interim Committee w i l l be d i s -cussed i n the next chapter, during comparative analysis of the Council's present functions with those proposed by the o r i g i n a l committee. I t i s evident that such comparison w i l l c l a r i f y the trends of development i n thinking and action of the Arts Council as a whole). At the end of i t s four months of work, a l e t t e r of i n v i t a t i o n to the second open meeting, planned f o r pres-entation of the report on the work of the Interim Committee, was sent to the heads of organizations throughout the c i t y . Those who were unable to attend i n person were asked to send representatives. This second open meeting was held on October 29th, 1946, at which time the Chairman of the Interim committee read h i s report of i t s work. The capacity audience adopted the report with considerable enthusiasm. Three hundred and f i f t y people attended t h i s meeting, thereby representing 71 groups. Thus, i n October 1946, just over a year after the be-ginning of the survey, the Community Arts Council of Van-couver was o f f i c i a l l y established. The f i r s t meeting of the Board was calle d on November 7th, 1946, at which time ehairmeii were appointed for finance, membership, publica-tions, and public relations committees. These committees went into action immediately, but i t was six.months before the next board meeting was called, at which time the real 30 business of the Arts Council began with two requests. These were for formation of a Vancouver handicrafts group, and for delivery of information on the survey to the National Rec-reation Association, New York. Since then requests have grown consistently i n number and kind, and the d i f f i c u l t i e s involved i n attempting to f i l l the need have been enormous. Early development was slow and searching, but gradually a "snow-ball" effect was produced. Now, i n 1951, the Arts Council has innumerable functions and serves a large number of groups and i n d i v i d -uals i n Vancouver, i n various parts of B r i t i s h Columbia, and quite often (by correspondence) i n other sections of Canada and abroad. PART 11 "No great thing i s created suddenly, any more than a hunch of grapes or a f i g . I f you t e l l me that you desire a f i g , I answer you that there must he time. Let i t f i r s t blossom, then "bear f r u i t then ripen". Bpictetus, Discourses, Chapter X V . 32 CHAPTER- II THE PURPOSE OF ADMINISTRATION Any study of the Community A r t s Council i s , necessar-i l y , a study of a p a r t i c u l a r phase of community organization, fo r no such council could ever come into existence without the interest and hard work of numerous people i n groups. It s very name implies t h i s , for a community, whether defined on a regional "basis or on an i n t e r e s t l e v e l , presupposes a common bond between people. The word "Community" as applied to the t i t l e of an Arts Council may, however, involve both the idea of an interest, grouping centered around the arts, and the broader idea of an organization of and for a l l the c i t i z e n s within a given geographical area. Community organization may be described as involving "relationships between and among groups; for the individual finds need of the group relationship i n expressing his own feelings...and the group, i n turn, usually proceeds i n terms of attempting to stimulate other groups. Because these r e l a t -ionships among groups are so conspicuous and so important i n community organization, i t has been suggested that the process i t s e l f should be called "inter-group work".1 1. McMillan, Wayne, Community Organization f o r Social Wel-fare University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1949, p.2. 33 This process may he defined further a s . . . . " A n educational process which aims: (I) to promote mutually satisfactory relations between groups through formal or informal means; and i i i ) to use these relations to further goals selected by the groups involved" . 2 It i s a prooess which i s used in many f ie lds of human activ-i t y , either consciously or unconsciously whenever groups seek to improve their group l i f e by pooling their resources and efforts. As this i s a study of the Community Arts Council of Vancouver, i t may also be viewed in relation to other Coun-c i l s . The basic assumption of any Council i s that i t i s : "fundamentally a citizens movement...a voluntary coming together of the citizens of a community for their mutual benefit. Regardless of whether . . . . servioes are supported and administered as voluntary projects or as departments of govern-ment, (behind them) are the citizens of the com-munity- who were original ly responsible for start-ing the work, upon whose behalf a l l act ivity i s undertaken, and with whom the ultimate respons-i b i l i t y and authority res t s " . 3 Thus the establishment of councils i s the cit izens' way of providing themselves with an organized means of accepting and exercising ultimate responsibil i ty. Although the i n i t i a l 2... Newstetter, Wilbur I . , Teaching Community Organization  in Schools of Social Work, paper to the National Confer-ence on Social Work, 1941, p. 31. 3. Community Chests and Councils, Inc., Health^and Welfare  PIannlng. New York, 1945, p. 6. 34 suggestion may come from any number of sources, i t should be clear, therefore, that i t i s not the "pet idea" of any 4 group or section of the community. It i s hoped that t h i s study w i l l show not only what has already been accomplished i n community organization ( i n t e r -group work) within t h i s f i e l d , i n the process of discovering needs, coordinating a c t i v i t i e s and d i r e c t i n g resources, but also point the way to what may yet be done towardd.improving both the quality of Arts Council Service. The Functions of the Council In order to appreciate the growth and development of the Community Arts Council toward f u l f i l l m e n t of Its object-ives, i t i s necessary f i r s t to look at the thinking behind i t and the trends t h i s thinking has taken over the past four years. Some mention of the work of the Interim. Committee has already been made, but analysis of i t s thinking provides a sound basis on which to discuss developments since that time. To begin with, the Interim Committee saw i t s own func-t i o n i n drawing up plans f o r establishment of the Arts Coun-c i l primarily as those of a group set up to investigate, c l a r i f y , and propose action on the basis of knowledge. It therefore spent considerable time on investigation of other similar councils, c o l l e c t i o n of material on s p e c i f i c problem 4 . Ibid, p. 9 . 35 of organization on which planning could he "based. As Miss Comer, the originator of the Arts and our Town survey plan stated, two years l a t e r "The Council started as an experiment based on the idea that through co-operative e f f o r t , the various arts, a r t i s t s , and.cultural agencies could be brought together, strengthened, and publicized, so that the arts may be brought into the d a i l y l i v e s of the people of t h i s com-munity. The Council believes that the arts are a v i t a l source of individual enrichment, mental health, and community strength". I t was the Interim Committee's job to formulate be-ginning p o l i c y and structure on which an organization for the carrying out of t h i s idea might be based. Origi n a l thinking of one member of the interim committee suggested that the main functioning bodies of such a Council would be finance, l i a i s o n and action (the l a t t e r to be sub-divided according to various forms of art which could inaug-urate active program. Another thought that publication of a b u l l e t i n r e f l e c t i n g art needs would be the Council's main function. . Thus coordination, stimulation and p u b l i c i t y emerged as kernel ideas around, which other aims and object-ives revolved. F i n a n c i a l planning!to be dealt with i n the next chapter) was also seen as necessary to enable the pro-posed Council to carry out Its purposes. 5. Comer, V i r g i n i a lee, Heport of Consultation V i s i t to the Community Arts Council of Vancouver, May 19, 1949. 36 l e t us now look at the description of the Council as set forth i n the f i r s t p u b l i c i t y b u l l e t i n and as i n the Constitution. These state that the Community Arts Council of Vancouver i s "a coordinating body established to increase and broaden the opportunities f o r Vancouver c i t i z e n s to participate i n c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s " 6 and "a clearing house and a centre of reference for groups working i n s o c i a l , recreational and art-i s t i c f i e l d s of endeavour'"'' (It Is) made up of groups and individuals interested i n the arts. It does not overlap the a c t i v i t i e s of any ex i s t -ing organization (but) exists merely to assist", stimulate and coordinate". ' As stated i n the Constitution, the objects of the Arts Council are: 1. To help coordinate the work and programs of c u l t u r a l groups i n the c i t y . 2. To stimulate and encourage the development of c u l t -ural projects and a c t i v i t i e s . 3. To render service to a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g groups. 4. To act as. a clearing house for information on c u l t -Ural projects and a c t i v i t i e s . 5. To foster interest and pride i n the c u l t u r a l h e r i -tage of Vancouver. 6. To interpret the work of c u l t u r a l groups to the community, e n l i s t public interest and promote public understanding. 7. To bring to the attention of c i v i c and p r o v i n c i a l authorities the c u l t u r a l needs of t h i s community". 6. Community Arts Council f l i e r 7. Ibid. 37 Although the wording of these functions must he altered s l i g h t l y to f i t the pattern of a Welfare Council's purposes, as set fo r t h i n sample constitutions, the functions l i s t e d are actually i d e n t i o a l i n intent. Comparison i s not out of the way, as much of the early thinking of the Arts Council borrowed heavily from the best thinking of the welfare council movement. The basic purposes of a welfare council revolve around the central function of continuous and systematic fact gath-ering as to community needs and resources. A well-function-ing welfare council i s therefore: 1. "a means of bringing together a l l parties involved or interested i n a s p e c i f i c problem so that a joint study can be made. 2. a means f o r representatives of...(organizations) to come together, develop mutual understanding and arrive at effe c t i v e working relationships. 3. a means of operating common services f o r the benefit of a l l or a group of agencies. 4. a means whereby c i t i z e n s and organizations.... can take joint action to improve community programs. 5. a means of developing relationships with appropriat-ing bodies (Community Chests and l o c a l government) Whereby the i r knowledge and influence have a bearing on decisions regarding.... expenditures. 6. a means of quickening public awareness and under-standing of —problems and (how they are being dealt with). 7. an attempt to increase e f f i c i e n c y and effectiveness of operating agencies. 38 8. a clearing house for a l l plans for major changes i n programs or establishment of new services". As previously stated, the Council has f i r s t responsi-b i l i t y to the people i t represents, ( i . e . i t s membership, whether group or i n d i v i d u a l ) . In serving t h e i r interests, however, i t must also broaden i t s scope to include certain services (which come under stimulation, community pride, and interpretation objectives) to other wider groups i n the com-munity* It must be remembered, however, that the wider ser-vices are also of direct or i n d i r e c t concern to the member-ship. H i s t o r i c a l l y , the Council's intent was to provide con-tinuous, on-going services to i t s membership, which could be more economically and e f f i c i e n t l y operated by a central-i z a t i o n of functions than by the individual member-groups and members at large. This o r i g i n a l plan c l o s e l y followed the America n thinking (developed p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n to the welfare movement) that a council had, b a s i c a l l y , no program of i t s own. Its functions, therefore, could be cat-egorized under planning or financing, and any d i r e c t services were only those which economy and e f f i c i e n c y of the member-agencies dictate. (Generally these include research, and public r e l a t i o n s ) . In the United States this thinking has 8. Community Chests and Councils, Inc., Op. Git. pp. 6-9. 39 developed out of the idea that a Council, i n order to he the impartial servant of i t s member-organizations should have no "vested i n t e r e s t s " i n a program of i t s own which might-de-tract from i t s effectiveness as a coordinating body. In the case of the Arts Council, however, t h i s think-ing has been modified considerably. It w i l l be remembered that 71 groups were represented at the Council's organization meeting, and by voting into existence a coordinating body gave t h e i r mandate f o r i t s operation i n the i r behalf. At th i s time, one leading a r t i s t reminded the group represent-atives that by voting into existence such a Council they assumed responsibility- for i t and committed themselves to support i t . Thus they were not merely "e l e c t i n g a board to 9 run i t for them". This suggestion implied r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r joining and act i v e l y Cooperating i n the work of their new Council. For some reason, howevery t h i s close t i e did. not immediately re s u l t . The groups did not take i n i t i a t i v e i n supporting the Council, and seemed to need proof of i t s effectiveness... Perhaps t h i s reaction may have been p a r t i a l l y conditioned by mis-understanding of group representatives (whose vote es-tablished the Council) as to what their groups r e a l l y wanted. It i s questionable how much the groups actually knew about 9. Minutes of Organization Meeting, October 29, 1946. 40 the proposed Council before i t was voted into operation. Lack of permanent qu a l i f i e d s t a f f i n the new Council must also have placed an enormous part of the burden for i t s de-velopment on the o f f i c e r s , executive committee and board. It i s not surprising that early development of the Council should have been slow and painstaking. At the end of a year l a t e r , only 16 of the 71 groups represented at the open meeting had actually taken out membership. Without membership i t was unlikely that the Council could muster wide f i n a n c i a l support with which to operate e f f e c t i v e l y i n service of either the member-groups or the community at large. It i s natural, therefore, that the advice of Dr. B. I f or EVans, the Yice-Chairman of the Arts Council of Great B r i t a i n (given almost a year after the Council's founding) should have immediately been taken up. Doctor Evans advocated that the Council board stop worrying about structure and take on active demonstration projects which would widen interest i n i t s purpose. Structure, he f e l t , would grow naturally out of the developing services. Doctor Evans' views naturally r e f l e c t e d the thinking of the B r i t i s h Arts Council pattern, which, operated under large treasurey grants, was permitted to include a wide range of d i r e c t service projects as well as a reasonable 10. Minutes of Meeting, Board of DirectorsNovember 9, 1947. 41 degree of coordinating function. Thus i t was that the o r i g i n a l assumption that the l o c a l Council could have no program of i t s own (which i s actually stated i n the f i r s t p u b l i c i t y f l i e r ) was eliminated as a matter of expediency. In t h i s way thinking turned from the American pattern to the B r i t i s h pattern with regard to the legitimate functions of a council. Now that the need for large-scale demonstration has abated somewhat, the Council's pattern i s reaching an "even keel" half way between the American and the B r i t i s h patterns,-and,incorporating the strengths of both. In t h i s way i t i s becoming t r u l y adapted to i t s environment. The recognition that neither B r i t i s h nor American patterns can be transposed and duplicated i n the Canadian setting without adjustments, i s i n i t s e l f one of the Counoil's strengths. Although i t must be remembered that both the Arts Coun-c i l of Great B r i t a i n and the Canada Council recommended by 11 the Massey Commission are examples of arts"coordinating bodies on a national rather than l o c a l l e v e l , there i s con-siderable p a r a l l e l of thought i n both the existent and the proposed organizations. The "Massey Report", s i g n i f i c a n t l y , 11. Dominion of Canada, Royal Commission on Arts Letters  and Sciences, King's Printer, Ottawa, 1951. 42 stresses the fact that although looal organizations which submitted briefs seemed to favour borrowing heavily from the experience of the Br i t i sh Venture, they regarded with consternation any suggestion that the Canada Council should be merely a duplicate. They realized that a country as different as Canada must evolve a pattern a l l i t s own, adapted to meet the differing needs of i t s people, i t s thinking, i t s geography and i t s economic position. This i s merely one more reflection of what the Right Honourable Vincent Massey, Chairman of the Commission called "Canadian-ism I can best describe as a growing desire for self-12 reliance". 12. fit. Hon. Vincent Massey, speech to Canadian Club, Montreal, June 11, 1951. 43 CHAPTER 111 ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS: Planning The administration of any organization i s the means of accomplishing i t s purpose rather than an end i n i t s e l f , l i k e community organization (the "inter-group work" mention-ed e a r l i e r ) i t i s a dynamic process rather than a s t a t i c structure or technique. As community organization i s the process of r e l a t i n g groups to each otherj t e t t e r to meet thei r corporate needs, so administration i s the process through which aims are determined and plans made and execut-ed. Administration c a l l s for a group (and often many sub-groups) working together, individuals s i g n i f i c a n t i n them-selves hut only as others are also. Thus i t i s a matter of widely distributed rather than highly centralized respons-i b i l i t i e s . In order to evaluate the administration of any organ-i z a t i o n i t i s necessary to examine the functions, composition and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and method of i n t e r a c t i o n of the board, committees, and s t a f f (both paid and voluntary). In the case of a Council i t would also seem necessary to include examin-ation of the administrative pattern of each member-group and 44 cooperating organization. The l a t t e r task i s c l e a r l y "beyond the scope of this study, but should nevertheless be kept i n mind. The need to coordinate the e f f o r t s of the m u l t i p l i c i t y of groups and individuals within the administrative pattern may be stressed further i n the following quotation: "It takes the best thinking and p a r t i c u l a r i z e d e f f o r t of many ind i v i d u a l s and groups to o f f e r a program or service that meets community needs ....None of these individuals or groups can have more than a p a r t i a l view of the agency unless e f f o r t s are made to relate t h e i r experience and functions to one another. Coordination of e f f o r t which re s u l t s i n integration i s one of the prime r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of administration". In addition, administration must be f l e x i b l e to meet p. £; the changing demands of the s i t u a t i o n , and must be i n harm-ony with the objectives of the organization both i n thought and method of action. Polioy-making and operation should be so integrated as to r e f l e c t and stimulate one another. Although structure i s important, i t i s merely a means of ensuring e f f e c t i v e operation, and of no account i n and for i t s e l f . The old quotation "whate'er i s best adminis-14 tered i s best" s t i l l holds, i n that a poorly structured organization may do good work while a well structured one may be of l i t t l e service i f the s p i r i t behind administration 13. Trecker, Harleigh E, Group Process i n Administration, The Women's Press, New York, 1946, p. 18. 14. Pope, Alexander, The Bssay:'-on Man, E p i s t l e 111, l i n e 244. 45 (the method of administration) i s poor. The dangers of over-centralized, s t r a t i f i e d , s t a t i c structuring can he as serious as o v e r - f l u i d i t y of structure which may result i n complete confusion and i n e r t i a . With these points i n mind, l e t us examine the admin-i s t r a t i v e structure and method of operation of the Arts Council as i t was f i r s t conceived and as i t has since de-veloped. The Board of Directors The hoard of directors of an organization i s the representative body which acts as trustee f o r the i n t e r e s t s of the members and member-groups within i t . I f the organ-i z a t i o n i s incorporated Under the Societies Act, the board i s also trustee i n behalf of the Larger community the organ-i z a t i o n aims to serve ( i . e . the general p u b l i c ) . As such i t i s responsible for determining the broad general p o l i c i e s of the organization i n keeping with the wishes of the com-munity. As such i t should be broadly representative of the community as a whole. Thus i t i s natural that much of the time and energy of the Interim Committee (the work of which has previously been mentioned) should have been directed toward determining the best possible composition of the board, and i t s manner of election. 46 15 At the time of i t s second meeting,. the Interim Com--mittee decided that the board should be composed of both lay and professional persons, and should include represent-atives of major art groups. The l a t t e r would serve as en-lightened individuals rather than as representatives, i n addition the board should include members-at-large. l a t e r , at an informal meeting between some of the members of the 16 committee and Miss Comer (of New York), It was suggested that the board should consist of non-professional i n d i v i d -uals who had a wide interest i n arts and considerable time to devote to the Council I the thinkers and doers) and pro-fessionals not representating t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r jobs, (the thinkers). Thus i t was decided that the Board, i n order to be widely representative of community int e r e s t s must be composed of people who could see beyond the immediate needs of the ind i v i d u a l groups -to which they belonged. This was dictated partly by the Committee's reluctance to see the board representative of only a few groups i n the community. The time factor was also taken into account, as i t was f e l t that a body d i r e c t l y representative of separate organizations would have to report back to them before 15. 16. Minutes of Interim Committee, July 25, 1946. Minutes of Interim Committee, August 12, 1946. 47 committing i t s e l f to any p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n . This would make decision-reaching d i f f i c u l t , and slow. It i s in t e r e s t i n g that although t h i s p o s i t i o n i s s t i l l , maintained "by the Council i t s e l f , i t s b r i e f to the Royal Commission suggests that a National Council should be com-posed of representatives of important national bodies i n t e r -ested i n each of the major sub-divisions of the arts f i e l d . It i s also s i g n i f i c a n t , that the Royal Commission i n i t s discussion of the point mirrors the practice of the Arts Council of Great B r i t a i n and of the l o c a l Arts Council, rather than the l a t t e r ' s p o s i t i o n as stated i n i t s b r i e f . The following quotation c l a r i f i e s t h i s thinking: "We have given great oare, i n our deliberations, to the many submissions made to us concerning the appropriate composition of such a Council, notable from.... a r t i s t s and writers who have urged that a Council be established which would be representative of the i r progressional organ-iz a t i o n s . With .this view we are unable to agree. We judge that the members of (such) a polioy making body.. .should be free to consider a l l problems before them without the r e s t r a i n t s which ....would bind them too closely to the...groups . they represent". 1 7. To date, the Arts Council makes only four exceptions to t h i s rule. Direct i n t e r n a l representation i s provided for the three established sections of the council (Music, 18 drama, and l i t e r a t u r e ) , and external representation for 17. Dominion of Canada, op. c i t . , p.376 18. Footnote: See Chapter VI. 48 the City Council. The l a t t e r i s a departure from o r i g i n a l thinking, while the former was always established policy, as i t i s only through section development and voting at ele c t -ions that the tota 1 membership w i l l gain additional d i r e c t representation. In following through on the idea of the board's being representative of the whole community rather than of separ-ate organizations, l e t us look at the actual composition of the board as i t was after the f i r s t e l ection i n 1946 and as i t stands now. As would be substantiated by a detailed des-c r i p t i o n of a l l the additional i n t e r e s t s and s k i l l s the board members bring i n excess of the i r nominal roles, the suggestion that t h i s board represents strong community leader-ship i s not without foundation. At the time of organization, the following community interests were represented i n the board composition: education (both higher and lower), films, painting, music, dance, architecture, drama, cr a f t s , workers' education and labour arts, n a t i o n a l i t y groups, s o c i a l work, press, radio, advertising, business administration, contracting, catering, industry, the Junior League. In order to obtain t h i s cross-cut, with a good i n t e r -mixture of professional and amateur s k i l l s and interests, much thought had to be given to preparing the nomination slat e . In addition much time was spent i n making a direct 49 personal contact with each nominee, i n order to accomplish a thorough i n t e r p r e t a t i o n job on the underlying ideas and philosophy of Council planning. A look at the present representation on the board w i l l show that i n 1951 i t i s s t i l l widely representative of com-munity int e r e s t s . Again, the unstated information gives a f a r clearer picture of the range and i n t e n s i t y of interests and s k i l l s , but the following i i s t w i l l have to s u f f i c e for the reader's information. The board as of May 1951 includes: education (again both higher and lower), the ministry, psychiatry, s o c i a l work, architecture, l i b r a r y , c r a f t s , films, art, drama, dance, music, l i t e r a t u r e , banking, advertising, press, radio, catering,- importing, c i v i c government, boys' clubs, Junior league, n a t i o n a l i t y groups, and housewives. Although the people f i l l i n g these positions have changed considerably (as w i l l be shown l a t e r ) , most of the e s s e n t i a l sub-divisions of Interest remain the same. Psychiatry and the ministry have been added, and labour organization has slipped out (the l a t t e r to the consternation of the leaders). Another s i g n i f i c a n t trend, which wi 11 be commented upon l a t e r i n the discussion of group membership, i s that professional a r t i s t s of various types are no longer i n evidence. This too, has happened unintentionally, because the professional a r t i s t s have, i n the main, found that people confused t h e i r motives i n s i t t i n g on the board and f e l t they were represent-50 ing their own professional interests rather than those of the whole f i e ld of art in which they specialized. This may have serious implications, i f the trend continues too long, as i t may tend to make professional artists and groups feel "outsiders" in the Arts Council picture. Size of the Board F i r s t brought up by Miss Comer, the size of the Arts Council board i s another matter discussed in detai l during the early work of the Interim Committee. Miss Comer sug-gested that the board should consist of 15 members. A month later at the time the f i r s t draft of the constitution was prepared, i t was decided that the Board of Directors should consist-of "at least 25 members", inclusive of the officers, the executive, and members-at-large. This i s also the present phrasing of the Constitution under which the society was incorporated in 1951, except that the officers and past president are in addition to 25 members-at-large. A month after the original Constitution was drafted, the board size was brought up to 30, while at the organizational meeting 31 were elected. During the ensuing year, when two members dropped out, i t was decided that replacement of only one was necessary to bring the board size back to the 30 on which the Interim Committee had agreed. 51 This thinking was followed through at the time, but has since been temporarily lost . The board in 1950-51 numbered 47, since raised to 50 for the 1S51-52 board. ( This i s inclusive of a l l officers and the past president). There are several reasons for this increase in board size. It has been found necessary to enlarge the board to a seemingly disproportionate number in order to widen the range of community knowledge of the Arts Oouncil, to retain the thinkers while encouraging membership of those who are both "thinkers'" and"doers", and to permit of board turn-over while retaining continuity. This last point i s prob-ably the most important, lacking staff continuity, i t has fal len to the board and executive committee to carry the load of general and developmental services. This has meant that "the pioneers" have been.essential to the Council's continuation, let alone expansion. The early members, with their conviction of the Council's value, have been the ones who have given their " l i f e blood" to the organization, and kept i t on i t s feet through the struggles of i t s early years. Expansion of the board, therefore, has made possible considerable turn-over(2/3 of the members are new since 1949, and l /3 entirely new in 1951-52)while at the same time retaining the strength and continuity contributed by the well-indoctrinated members. Mow that the Council is 52 becoming recognized and s o l i d l y e s t a b l i s h e d i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d that a r o t a t i n g board may soon be p o s s i b l e . This, however, i s sound only as there are enough community-minded people w i t h keen i n t e r e s t and knowledge i n the a f f a i r s of the organ-i z a t i o n , and as c o n t i n u i t y of s t a f f lessens the load c a r r i e d by the board. I t must be remembered, however, that i t should always be the board which c a r r i e s the r e a l c o n t i n u i t y of any or g a n i z a t i o n . In view of c r i t i c i s m which has been heard and suggested that the board i s " s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g " , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that only four of the o r i g i n a l Interim Committee members now remain. I n c l u s i v e of these f o u r , only nine present members were a c t i v e i n 1947, while some of these have been o f f the board in. the i n t e r i m . The 1951-52 President and three of the other o f f i c e r s are r e l a t i v e l y new members of the organ-i z a t i o n . The Executive Another phase of Council a d m i n i s t r a t i v e set-up which can be traced through from the work of the Interim Comiuittee i s the f u n c t i o n and composition of the Executive Committee. As o r i g i n a l l y proposed, t h i s committee was to c o n s i s t of the o f f i c e r s ( p r e s i d e n t , three v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s , a secretary-treasurer) and the heads of four standing committees (pub-l i c a t i o n s , p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , f i n a n c e , and membership). Thus the Executive Committee, as o r i g i n a l l y proposed, had nine 53 members. Since that time, many more committees have been formed. "Treasurer" and "Secretary" are now separate appointments, Three section chairmen, a cr a f t s representative, chairman of the Ci v i c Art Committee (concerned with town planning) and a number of chairmen of "ad hoc" committees have been added, as well as a Junior League representative. The pres-ent executive i s of 18 members. Constitutionally, the Executive i s stated to include the following: seven o f f i c e r s , the past president, the chair-men of standing committees and sections, and the chairmen of the special committees. Functions of the Board and Executive. The Constitution states that the "board of directors s h a l l be responsible f o r carrying on the business and act-i v i t i e s of the society" and that the "executive committee s h a l l have such powers as the board of directors s h a l l del-egate to i t " . Lack of c l a r i t y i n defining powers delegated, has, however, caused considerable confusion and involved some duplication of e f f o r t . In view of the board's size, i t i s only natural that the executive has been forced to carry a good deal of the weight of decision-making. I t s purpose i s to carry on the business of the Council between board meetings, which has often necessitated action which the board might consider i t s prerogative. 54 Let us look f o r a moment at the general theory governing d i v i s i o n of powers between a policy making hoard and i t s executive committee: "In theory, the hoard should make broad general decisions of policy, and the executive, with the aid of the s t a f f , should make s p e c i f i c de-cisions within the framework of policy outlined by the board" 1 9 Again, the functions of the board may be stated ( i n summary) thus: 1. "interpreting the work to the public 2. -giving sponsorship and prestige 3. r a i s i n g money or influencing appropriations 4. interpreting the community to the s t a f f 5. choosing, supervising or removing the executive 6. making po l i c y decisions 7. st a r t i n g new movements 2 Q 8. giving continuity to the work". The executive committees function, on the other hand, should "to work out i n d e t a i l general instructions given - i t by the board, and to take temporary action, subject i n every instance, to reporting to the board for l a t e r approval". * 1 19. McMillan, Wayne, Op. G i t . , p.159 20. King, Clarence, Social Agency Boards and How to Make  Them Effective, Harper Bros., New York, 1936, p.6. 2 1 * ^ i d . , p. 41. 55 S t a f f From the early work of the Interim Committee, i t i s clear that adequate provision f o r q u a l i f i e d s t a f f was always considered e s s e n t i a l . In the t h i r d meeting, t h i s committee, i n making a budget estimate set f o r t h Its desire i n t h i s connection by providing f o r a secretary whose q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were to be t r a i n i n g plus experience, and an assistant to the secretary who would not necessarily have t r a i n i n g but must be well educated and interested in arts. Budget provision f i n estimate only) was #3,600 for the secretary and'$1800 for the assistant. This i n Vancouver would suggest a clear view of highly q u a l i f i e d s t a f f requirements. Although the f i n a n c i a l picture has changed considerably i n the past four years, and both sal a r i e s are now out of l i n e with possible expenditures by the council and with the cost of l i v i n g , the emphasis on the need fo r q u a l i f i e d personnel has remained unchanged. It i s l i k e l y that the o r i g i n a l thinking and sub-sequent developments have been based on the premise that what the Council wanted i n a secretary (executive) was the nearest possible duplication of Miss Comer of Mew York. Fi n a n c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s have probably been the Council's largest single draw-back i n obtaining and retaining the staff required. The Council has, however, preserved i t s o r i g i n a l intentions i n t h i s regard throughout. Although the Council has had f i v e secretaries i n four years, i t i s understandable 56 that this turnover should have occurred. The Council has heen consistently unsatisfied with anything short of pro-fessi o n a l performance on the job, hut has had much d i f f i -culty i n retaining t h i s position. In the f i r s t place early f i n a n c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s forbade employment of a professionally q u a l i f i e d person, lacking the necessary tr a i n i n g for the complex job, the f i r s t secretary was unable to cope with the volume and i n t e n s i t y of work demanded. F i n a l l y the Council decided to "go a l l out" and spend what l i t t l e money they had available i n h i r i n g a more q u a l i f i e d person, whose background and experience were of much importance i n deter-mining s u i t a b i l i t y . Although professionally untrained, th i s person had had intensive experience i n the New York o f f i c e of the A.J.l.A.. Payment of the salary necessary to procure t h i s person's services, however, precluded h i r i n g of an assistant secretary. As t h i s was at the time of major demonstration projects (to be discussed l a t e r ) the burden of d e t a i l and of necessary community organization involved i n the o f f i c e job, and the lack of adequate f a c i l i t i e s (since corrected) made t h i s position untenable. . As an i n -terim measure, the Council next had to hire a person, who lacking training or experience i n art organization, was naturally unable to -succeed in f i l l i n g the position. Res-ignation of t h i s secretary i n December, 1950, therefore precipitated a c r i s i s s i tuation, out of which came the 57 arrangement to hire a f u l l - t i m e o f f i c e secretary and engage a s o c i a l work student-in-training on a part-time oasis, as executive secretary. Choice of t h i s student was based on la) technical t r a i n i n g f o r the job, and (b) knowledge and understanding of the arts. As o r i g i n a l l y stated by the In-terim Committee, t h i s combination of q u a l i f i c a t i o n s was con-sidered essential by those making the negotiations and by the Arts Council as a whole. It was anticipated, and since worked out, that i f t h i s student should prove adequate i n on-the-job performance, the internship arranged through the School of Social Work should be extended into f u l l - t i m e employment at the close of the t r a i n i n g period. A discussion held by the executive committee on the salary to be offered the executive secretary at the time of employment, further stressed the importance the Council l a i d on professional q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r the job, and on on-the-job performance. The minutes of t h i s meeting (during the salary discussion part of which the writer absented herself) showed a keen appreciation of the values of professional t r a i n i n g i n carrying on day to day operations and i n expanding pro-gram. They also set the seal of Council approval on a polioy (adopted by the board) of encouraging and maintaining the highest f e a s i b l e standards i n r e l a t i o n to professional performance and commensurate remuneration. 58 Relationship between staff situation and "board and executive  trends. The position of the executive person in any voluntary society is that of liaison between policy making and operat-ing groups. This demands that the person be qualified to carry out the policies the board and executive lay down in day to day operation ;>f services to members and member-groups. In democratic administration, however, this necessitates ability to further delegate both responsibility and its essential concommitant, authority, wherever this is possible. Only so can a wide range of services be given. More import-ant s t i l l , only so can the vital spirit of the enterprise be stimulated and the best thinking of a wide variation of per-sonalities be contributed to the l i fe stream of the organ-ization. Thus where the job may be delegated without sac-rifice of the essential quality of service, this is highly desirable. It should be remembered however, that this is not so where the job requires a high degree of professional s k i l l . (An example of this point will be made during dis-cussion of program). What, then, is the job of the executive person, and how does its quality of performance effect the functioning of the governing body of the Council? First, the executive must carry on the day to day office business of the organization, in close cooperation 5 9 with o f f i c e s t a f f , ("both volunteer and paid) and with work-ing committees. This necessitates o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for correspondence, keeping of hooks and records of oper-ation, (from membership and information f i l e s to minutes of meetings), handling of membership and service enquiries and contacts with other organizations. (This i s not to suggest that these functions are performed by the executive person, but rather that supervision of a l l these facets i s an ex-ecutive r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) . R e a l i s t i c a l l y , certain of these functions I such as correspondence and contacts with other organizations) are executive jobs. Responsibility f o r supervision of s t a f f and o f f i c e procedures i s also i n the hands of the executive person. In addition, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r other s t a f f includes supervision of the secretary, and f o r organizing and carry-ing forward a volunteer program suitable i n size and calibre to the organizations needs. Much of the l a t t e r can be a delegated r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i f a key volunteer person i s a v a i l -able, or where volunteers can be recruited and oriented by committee chairmen with whom- they are working. The executive person i s also responsible f o r program development i n l i n e with policy approved by the board or executive. This necessitates a thorough knowledge .of com-munity organization methodsj and an a b i l i t y to investigate needs and resources and to mobilize the one to meet the 60 other. It means that every external contact made must of i t s e l f be a public relations job. In addition, the executive person must be able to work with board, executive and other committees i n working with chairmen on preparation for meetings, i n making facts a v a i l -able on which sound decisions may be based, and i n r e l a t i n g the work of one committee to another (through the chairmen) i n such a way as to harmonize the t o t a l operation of the organization. The writer i s only two aware of the inten-sive learning necessary to accomplish the required r e s u l t s i n a l l these areas. Thus i t may be seen that the executive of the Council has a position demanding high, s k i l l i n group, inter-group, and inter-personal relationships which must permeate every phase of Council operation. In addition, the p o s i t i o n c a l l s f o r knowledge of techniques of administration, of community organization and of research, as well as knowledge of arts and community problems and resources. How, then, has the personnel situation, effected the operation of the Council, and thus,, i n d i r e c t l y , the funct-ioning of board and executive'. As previously suggested, inadequacy of s t a f f has had a direct effect on trends In size and composition of the board. During the large demonstration projects undertaken to mobilize support of the Council, s t a f f shortage has 61 been, a constant and serious problem. The demonstration pro-jects not only l a i d a heavy burden on existent s t a f f , but also necessitated the u n t i r i n g work of many board members. This i n i t s e l f would be good, i f the burden had been spread more widely. In the early stages, however,'there were only a small .nucleus of people whose active p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n or-ganizing these projects could be counted upon. To date t h i s i s s t i l l e s s e n t i a l l y true, although to a l e s s e r degree than heretof'or. Only a r e l a t i v e l y small group could afford the time or had the concern f o r the organization's well-being to "plunge i n up to the neck" i n carrying forward plans made at board l e v e l . Thus the few became "saddled" recur-rently with an unequal share of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the success of the projects. The Council, from time to time, lacking s t a f f either adequately trained or s u f f i c i e n t i n number to carry on a meaningful program of day to day oper-ations, l o s t prestige and came close to d i s s o l u t i o n . At one such period, two of the leaders, r e a l i z i n g the p e r i l of early collapse, divided between them r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the two essential functions they considered could keep the organization a l i v e . One of these functions was program, the other finance. It was clear, therefore, that the retention of early members (whose conviction of the Council's value had become i t s l i f e blood) was mandatory. It i s probable that the 62 underlying factors i n the hoard expansion trend (mentioned e a r l i e r ) have been larg e l y the product of this need for "cause people" coupled with a sincere desire to maintain "freshness" and f l e x i b i l i t y of approach. The one necessi-tated retention of early board members, the other a good proportion of new membership i n each succeeding board, u n t i l such time as s u f f i c i e n t strength should be evident within the organization and s t a f f to allow f o r slackening of acti v -i t y on the part of the early members. Another factor which enters this picture has been the increase i n numbers of committees, essential to the devel-opment of the Council's program. Chairmen of committees usually s i t on the board, partly perhaps, because t h i s has i n the past been one of the only ways i n which chairmen could gain an overall picture of the Council's program, into which to f i t t h e i r own portion of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Thus the board has increased i t s proportion of people who could take active p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the actual work of the Council. S t i l l another factor has been the i n a b i l i t y of staff,-inadequately trained and operating i n cramped quarters, to do the job of r e c r u i t i n g , orienting, and supervising the large numbers of volunteers required not only during the stress of demonstration projects but also for e f f e c t i v e day to day service. As the writer has had good cause to learn, the job of r e c r u i t i n g and working with volunteers 63 (whether d i r e c t l y staff-handled or not) i s one requiring a high degree of knowledge and s k i l l . It requires time, patience, insight, and f l e x i b i l i t y of the highest order. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true where those working i n a volun-teer capacity are also board members. The d i f f i c u l t y of creating and maintaining of harmonious working r e l a t i o n -ships between the parts of the whole i s also accentuated where the organization las i n the present Council) i s en-deavouring to work out a volunteer-professional partnership f o r the f i r s t time. The understanding and patience required on both sides cannot be l i g h t l y dismissed. This point has been well borne out i n a recent contro-versy over whether or not professional s t a f f and volunteers should work through p a r a l l e l and separate channels to the board. After considerable discussion i t was f i n a l l y decid-ed by the executive committee that such p a r a l l e l structure would indeed create a "two headed monster" and the suggest-ion was therefore dropped as untenable. The fact that decentralization of authority has had to be so marked during the period of the major demonstration projects has further increased the "emotional unreadiness" of many volunteers and board members to accept the necessity of keeping i n close contact with the professional person. In the days of inadequate f a c i l i t i e s t h i s decentralization had to be not only i n terms of persons, but also i n terms 64 of physical separation. Much of the Council "business was carried on outside the Council o f f i c e . A certain amount of t h i s i s "both necessary and good, even at the present time, hut complications set i n when the central o f f i c e does not even "know "who i s working on what or why". In the interest of smooth functioning of the organization, the r e s p o n s i b i l -i t y f o r "cheeking i n " on the overall a c t i v i t i e s and person-nel of each committee must be accepted by the chairman of eaoh. This should be seen as r e s p o n s i b i l i t y through, though not _to, the executive person, for the executive person i s d i r e c t l y responsible to the board of directors f o r a l l the operations of the Council except those undertaken by the board i t s e l f , or i t s executive committee. This, ultimately, i s the difference between "working with" (the democratic ideal) and "working f o r " i n a volunteer-professional part-nership. In terms of the overall operating structure of the Council, therefore, the working committees should be con-sidered as " s t a f f unit" services rather than i n the direct l i n e of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between board and membership services. They are there to serve the organization rather than the executive person. Manner of E l e c t i o n : Board and Executive. The Constitution under which the Council operates spec-i f i e s that "at least four weeks p r i o r to the Annual General Meeting (to be held i n A p r i l or May) the exec-utive committee s h a l l appoint a nominating com-65 mittee which shall consist of at least five mem-bers of the society. "The nominating committee shall prepare a slate of officers and directors for the ensuing year and shall report the same at the Annual Meeting: Provided that nominations may he made from the floor at the Annual Meeting, and when properly seconded, such names shall he added to those recommended "by the nominating Committee. "Consent of a nominee for election as a Director of office of the society must be obtained before his nomination". 2 2 Fi r s t of a l l , in considering the trend toward enlarge-ment of the board, i t i s significant that the original think-ing of the Interim Committee i s s t i l l followed through in that the total combined slate of nominees both selected by the nominating committee and from the floor i s s t i l l c o l l -ectively elected. This means that i f nominations exceed the number required for board membership there i s no provision for seleotion of a suitable number from the total slate. Secondly, officers are also elected during election of the board, and no provision i s made, as in most Constitutions for a minimum of two nominees for each office. The practice of electing officers as part of the combined slate makes questioning of choice from the f loor extremely d i f f i c u l t , especially as there is no stated provision for election by secret bal lot . (In practice, provision i s made for b-allott-ing i f the members so request). In this connection, sound thinking might be borrowed from the welfare council movement to the effeot that "The members of the Board shall meet 32. Community Arts Council, Constitution and By-Laws. 66 immediately upon adjournment of the annual meeting to elect the officers and executive of the Council". 2 3 It i s also interesting that- the quotation from the Con-st i tution which covers member-ship of the nominating committee merely states "five members of the society". Sample consti-tutions for welfare councils have an addition to make here also, when they state that this committee should include not more than two members of the hoard or executive committee. Although this procedure might prove helpful, i t has, in the past, proved impossible for the Arts Council to function in this manner, as there has been marked d i f f i cu l ty in getting anyone to accept responsibility for heading up such a com-mittee, and anyone who volunteered to serve.on i t has been gratefully pressed into service. The nominating committeeh is , therefore, "nominal" in some cases, being at times a com-mittee of one, at times a loosely-knit col lection of indiv-iduals working more or less on their own rather than in close collaboration. Lateness of appointment of the nominating committee (though not necessarily later than the specified 30 days prior to the meeting) has probably been a factor in the resistance of members to undertake this particular com-mittee work. It i s naturally a heavy responsibility to carry out satisfactori ly in'the brief duration of four weeks. 23. Canadian Welfare Council, Op. C i t . , p.6. 67 This and looseness of composition, on the other hand, had made' the nominating committee's job i n regard to interview-ing the pre-board-service orientation of prospective board members d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible of adequate coverage. The l a s t nominating committee chairman made some useful comments on how th i s could be more e f f e c t i v e l y handled i n future, and with her committee performed a most useful ser-vice to board members, both new and old, i n making b r i e f biographies of each member, which were distributed to a l l during the f i r s t board meeting of the 1951-52 term. Following through on th i s general thought about the nominating committee, a quotation may be h e l p f u l : "The growth of the organization and the prevention of "dry rot" Is so dependent on th i s process of rejuvenating the board that some agencies have a • committee at work at this problem throughout the entire year, instead of a temporary nominating committee which functions only just before the annual meeting. Just as a personnel department i n a large, business or governmental organization i s at work constantly on the lookout to r e c r u i t new and better personnel into the s t a f f , so such a committee i s constantly on the lookout f o r new and better material f o r membership on the board".* 2 4 In discussing further the work of the nominating com-mittee as i t relates to size, composition and powers of the board and executive committee, another series of quotations may serve to c l a r i f y thinking i n t h i s respect: 24. King, Clarence, op. c i t . , pp. 39-40. 68 "Thus the size of the hoard grew u n t i l . . . f i n a l l y ...a small executive committee was formed which took over the leadership of the organization. 2 g The hoard, as a whole, became an advisory body". "...such an executive committee tends to become the re a l board. One of two courses should then be followed. The executive committee may be given f i n a l authority and be relieved from having "•• to get approval from the larger body. The large committee may be retained, c l e a r l y recognized as an honorary or advisory body. Less w i l l be ex-pected of i t and special e f f o r t s w i l l be neces-sary to stimulate i t enough so that i t w i l l i n t e r -pret the work to the various groups i t s represents." "The other course i s to reduce the size of the large board to maximum workable size (about t h i r t y ) and place upon it ?eomplete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l . major decisions". Another specific, function of the nominating committee i s to r e t i r e members gracefully but firmly where t h i s i s neces-sary, This i s a d i f f i c u l t and unpleasant task, and nominat-ing committees naturally tend to be over-courteous. This task i s lightened, however, i f the by-laws provide for term tenure. Members are then elected for three year terms, with one-third r e t i r i n g each year. He-election i s prohibited u n t i l after a lapse of one year. Thus there may be adequate board turn-over and adequate continuity, with no stigma attached to retirement from board membership. 25. King, Clarence, op. c i t . , p. 36. 26. Ibid, p. 41 69 Summary of Findings re Planning Function. In conclusion of this section, l e t us look at the over-a l l picture of the decision-making process i n the Arts Coun-c i l s i t u a t i o n . It may be seen that the board i s represent-ative of wide community interests rather than of s p e c i f i c organizations within the membership; that i t s gradual en-largement, necessitated by the changing si t u a t i o n , has now reached unwieldy proportions, but has allowed for consider-able turnover while retaining the "pioneers" essential to development of a new type of organization; that d i v i s i o n of function between i t and i t s executive committee are not yet c r y s t a l i z e d . Within the structure, the procedures i t lays down for the organization are dynamic rather than static, f l e x i b l e to meet changing needs and conditions. The execu-tive committee has also doubled i t s size since inception of the Council, but serves e f f e c t i v e l y to carry on the business of the organization between meetings of the board. The executive committee i s a closely-knit group, though repre-senting a wide cross-cut of thought, and because of this cohesion operates at a high l e v e l of e f f i c i e n c y and integ-gration. Both groups have a high degree of acceptance of the need for professional s t a f f , q u a l i f i e d i n regard both to technical training and art appreciation, and have a sincere desire to adhere to the best p r i n c i p l e s of professional standards and s a l a r y standards f o r p e r s o n n e l . 71 CHAPTER IV ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS; Financing Although the ultimate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y rests with the board of directors, the duties of f i n a n c i a l canvassing and of making recommendations on budgets rests with the Finance Committee. This i s a standing committee of the board, com-posed of a chairman and approximately six committee members. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of this committee i s extremely heavy, f o r without i t s adequate functioning the Council i t s e l f could not exist, l e t alone develop. In addition, i t s duties and re-s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are becoming consistently increased as the Council enlarges. As i s suggested i n a l a t e r chapter, member-ship fees are too small to have any s i g n i f i c a n t effect on the Council budget, and demonstration grants previously-given by the Junior League are now beginning to diminish i n size. The cost of l i v i n g has noticeably decreased the average per-son's (or organization's) readiness to give, and the necess-i t y of wider and wider canvassing.to contact new donors be-comes increasingly apparent. Within this picture, the Finance Committee, through sheer hard work and unquestioning l o y a l t y to the p r i n c i p l e s 72 of the organization, have managed to carry the increasingly onerous "burden of financing the Council's a c t i v i t i e s i n a remarkable fashion. Because th e i r a c t i v i t i e s are an i n t e g r a l part of program, and are viewed as such, the interpretation given to the community through th i s committee i s s i g n i f i c a n t indeed, It i s v i t a l to the strength of the whole organiz-ation, however, that a burden so disproportionate to the size of the committee should not long remain on the shoulders of so few. In discussing the necessity for enlargement and strength-ening of the finance committee, i t i s wise to keep i n view the p o s s i b i l i t y that some day t h i s committee may have to expand i t s function to act as a centralized fund r a i s i n g unit f o r a l l c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . I f the Board of Trade's proposal for "United Appeals." i s put into operation, i t i s certain that the Arts Council's f i n a n c i a l planning pattern w i l l have to conform to the overall pattern of Community canvassing. In this case there would be several p o s s i b i l i t i e s , any one of which may come about regardless of whether or not the United Appeals idea is made operative. F i r s t , as suggested above, the Council might engage i n centralized canvas and planning on behalf of a l l c u l t u r a l organizations. In this event, not only would the Finance Committee need considerable expansion and strengthening 73 (which i t well deserves i n any case), hut i t s function i n r e l a t i o n to the Council as a whole and to the member organ-iza t i o n s i t would serve would have to he car e f u l l y defined. The member-organizations would become related to i t i n much the same way as s o c i a l agencies do to a community chest. Although i t would c l e a r l y be necessary to have a large and well-organized unit operating i n such a f i e l d , i t might be wise for the Arts Council to Investigate c a r e f u l l y the poss-i b i l i t y of - the fund*-raising function dominating the program-a c t i v i t i e s area, before inaugurating a d i v i s i o n of function similar to that of some chests and councils. At present, within reason, the fund-raising function i s subservient to the planning functions, and care should be taken to r e t a i n t h i s position, despite the necessity f o r careful budgetting and expenditure. A second p o s s i b i l i t y , which might materialize as Coun-c i l program grows i n a b i l i t y to meet needs of the t o t a l community, i s that the Council might seek a f f i l i a t i o n with the Community Chest and Council of Vancouver as a p a r t i c i -pating member. (It i s at present a non-participating member, receiving no income from th i s source, but contributing to welfare planning through i t s children's program a c t i v i t i e s and having membership i n the Group Work D i v i s i o n on thi s account). The p o s s i b i l i t y of the Arts Council applying for p a r t i c i p a t i n g membership i n t h i s other p a r a l l e l coordinating 74 body, needs serious consideration. In the f i r s t place, de-spite the fact that i t s leisure-time a c t i v i t y organization pattern f i t s well i n the Welfare Council structure, a l l of i t s a c t i v i t i e s are not always conceived of as coming within this category. The Arts Council membership, would have to view a l l the Council's a c t i v i t i e s as coming within the broad d e f i n i t i o n of welfare. In this connection, i t i s necessary to look at sample drafts of agency agreements with a community chest, and of chest constitutions. Both types of documents contain clauses to the following eff e c t : "not during the term of i t s membership i n the chest ( s h a l l an agency) engage i n any fund-raising act-i v i t y f o r i t s development, support, maintenance, or c a p i t a l account, unless such campaign s h a l l have f i r s t been approved by the Chest and then only i n accordance with such rules as the d i r -ectors may p r e s c r i b e " . 2 " Following on, such an agreement might hamper developmental and experimental or g a p - f i l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s other than those s p e c i f i c a l l y welfare-focussed, unless there were a mutual understanding of the s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences of function of these two community coordinating bodies. This point i s further c l a r i f i e d i n the following quotation: 27. Canadian Welfare Council, Draft Constitution and By- Laws f o r a Community Chest, (publication f 19), Council House, Ottawa, 1941, p. 8. 75 "^member agencies shall) r e f r a i n from i n i t i a t i n g any new project or type of work without p r i o r report theron to the.... Council of Social "Agenc-ies, and approval of such change of program by the board of directors of the Community Chest, afte r the report of the Council of Social Agencies to them thereon". ° Thus, i t would seem that careful consideration by both sides would be necessary before a mutually s a t i s f y i n g agreement could be reached, should the Arts Council contemplate request-ing participant membership i n such a body. It i s i n the freshness of approach, f l e x i b i l i t y and spontaneity of the Arts Council movement that much of i t s inherent strength l i e s . In this i s i t s a b i l i t y to work with i t s heterogeneous and dynamic membership group. Much care should therefore be taken to avoid entering any agreement without f i r s t safe-guarding the e s s e n t i a l l y free s p i r i t of the movement. A t h i r d possible alternative or supplementation to the Arts Council's f i n a n c i a l plan i s a grant of public funds, from c i v i c or p r o v i n c i a l le v e l s , or both. Another p o s s i b i l -i t y , seemingly remote"for the near future, i s that when (and i f ) the Massey Commission's recommendation for a Canada Council i s implemented, Dominion funds may become available through i t to valuable voluntary art bodies i n the provinces. This might seem "wishful thinking" at present, as organiz-ations operating at the national l e v e l would undoubtedly have 28. Canadian Welfare Council, Ibid., p. 8. f i r s t c a l l on any such funds. On a l l three l e v e l s , however, similar questions would probably emerge. These might i n -clude: (1) how much control of program and expenditures would remain with the Arts Council ( i . e . how much autonomy would i t re t a i n to carry out i t s program as i t sees the need, to experiment when desired, to control employment of the s t a f f i t deems necessary, etc.)? (2) Under what department would i t come? (3) What kind of work arrangement could be - made with the government body administering the funds, and how could these channels be kept clear and relationships harmonious? The Report of the Massey Commission goes into d e t a i l on the importance of th i s point. In discussion of the re l a t i o n s between voluntary e f f o r t and governmental a c t i v i t y , which the Commission considered the f o c a l point of i t s work, the report states: "There i s general agreement on the need to maintain individual i n i t i a t i v e and at the same time to take advantage of the economy of e f f o r t made possible by the services of certain governmental agencies i n the modern state. Many f e l t that 'good volun-tary e f f o r t . . . i s i n the long run cheaper and more e f f i c i e n t than direct action by the government', On the other hand one person protested against the...assumption that voluntary e f f o r t i s govern-ment action i s , i f not bad, at least dangerous". 2^ The communication of one private c i t i z e n to the Commiss-ion stated that "'voluntary s o c i e t i e s are not always good. They often have very narrow goals, are the machinery 29. Dominion of Canada, Op. C i t . , Ch. IT, paras. 23,26, pp, 73-74. 1 77 for the expression of personal advancement, per-s i s t long after t h e i r usefulness because the o f f i c e r s need them to maintain status i n the community, have d i f f i c u l t y developing and chang-ing as the needs of th e i r members change. It i s customary to describe government workers as bur-eaucrats, but nothing i s more bureaucratic than a society that hasn't changed i t s o f f i c e r s i n ten or twenty years'". The commission also mentions the trend toward " i n t e r -meshing" of voluntary and governmental a c t i v i t i e s u n t i l very often i t becomes "impossible to think of the one with-out the other...There i s no question here of aid given or 31 received but of mutual e f f o r t " . In pointing out both the strengths and possible l i m i t -ations i n arrangements between private and public bodies, the Commission points out the interest of Canadian voluntary associations i n the B r i t i s h system, worked out i n connection with the National Arts Council of Great B r i t a i n , whereby government finance without government control i s made poss-i b l e . Commenting on this f a c t the Commission mentions: "In studying the work and the a c t i v i t i e s of the Arts Council of Great B r i t a i n , we have noticed with p a r t i c u l a r interest the Council's aware-ness of the dangers inherent i n any system of subvention by the central government to the arts and l e t t e r s and to the culture of the country generally. At the time when the Arts Council was ( r founded...the l a t e l o r d Keynes...spoke as f o l l o w s : ^ "At l a s t the public exchequer has recognized the support and encouragement of the c i v i l -i z i n g arts of l i f e as part of t h e i r duty. 30. 31. 32. Ibid, P. 74. Dominion of Canada, Op. C i t . para 6, p. 74. Ibid, para. 9, p. 374. 78 But we do not intend to s o c i a l i z e t h i s side of s o c i a l endeavour.... the task of an o f f i c i a l body i s not to teach or censor, but tg give courage, confidence and opportunity". 3 3 Further, quoting S i r Ernest Pooley, Chairman of the Arts Council (of Great B r i t a i n ) the Commission continues: "We administer a Treasury grant; but we act independently. This i s a very Important ex-periment—State support for the Arts without state control". 3 4 Here, again, we see a clearcut d i s t i n c t i o n between subsidy and direct government operation of a'service. Despite the fact that the Commission1 s thinking borrows heavily from the experience of the B r i t i s h venture, the re-port quotes a submission from the Canada Council which c l a r -i f i e s the need f o r Canadian self-determination i n respect of any body i t may set up to coordinate art needs and resources. Any such body, i t i s suggested, should be tru l y Canadian, and should work out Its own individual pattern i n r e l a t i o n to i t s own p a r t i c u l a r environment, borrowing the best thinking from any other source or sources i t may deem useful. In whichever d i r e c t i o n or combination of directions Arts Council f i n a n c i a l planning may eventually turn, i t seems safe to assume that the present f i n a n c i a l committee w i l l con-tinue to function, either expanded into a budget committee or strengthened i n more or less existent form. Whichever TheaArts:-,eouacil of Great Br i ta in , F i r s t Annual Report, 1945 Appendix ?A5. pp. 20-21. The Arts Council of Great Br i ta in , Fourth Annual Report, 1948-9, Appendix " A " , p. 24. : 3 3 . 34 . 79 way i t develops, strengthening is clearly necessary i n view of the expansion of Council program and objectives. Trends in Financial Planning From the earliest days of the Arts Council i t was evident that wide f inancial support must be mustered. As the organization was nebulous and represented the i n i t i a l developmental stage of a new type of coordinative effort, the idea was d i f f icu l t to s e l l . As with a l l other such movements, i t s values had to be proved through demonstration. Dr. Ifor Evans, Vice-Chairman of the Arts Council of Great Br i ta in , brought out this point when he suggested that the Council consider projects. When the board had a good project idea he maintained, i t could set up a budget. With a budget on paper, for a specific and worthwhile pro-ject, the board could then decide what individuals or or-ganizations could be canvassed to donate toward i t . This is pretty much what happened, and has remained the pattern since. In the f i r s t place there had to be an idea, and this idea, had to be put across by people who understood the sp i r i t behind i t as well as i t s concrete plan. Throughout the development of the demonstration projects, however, the Finance Committee members had one view. They were canvass-ing for the Council as a whole rather than for any of i t s many sub-divisions. They appealed, therefore, on the basis 80 of the Council's potential contribution to the community rather than on the value of any single aspect of i t s work. Thus requests for,funds have been made for support of co-ordinated a c t i v i t y i n a l l phases of art rather than from those interested i n any single art form. Now that canvas has been s o l i d l y on the appeal of the Council idea i t s e l f f o r some years, i t i s anticipated that i t s base may be broadened to include more indiv i d u a l i z e d i n t e r e s t s . As this area of canvassing develops the readiness of organiz-ation members to contribute more may be brought into the picture (as suggested i n a l a t e r chapter) and through the Sections both suggestions and additional members f o r the Finance Committee may come i n from member-groups. Because, In mustering support for the Arts Council, i t was necessary to s e l l a new concept, the f i r s t contacts had to be made on a personal basis. In thi s way an entree was obtained f o r interviews -with.key representatives of large firms, who were known to have a posit i v e approach toward support of community services. It was the conviction of key members that each canvasser must, before a l l else, have thorough knowledge of the Council's aims, purposes, and s p i r i t , i t s membership and i t s structure. The committee chairman f o r some time has been among the most active and clear thinking program people i n the organization. This further explains the suggestion made e a r l i e r that Arts 81 Council Fund-raising i s seen always i n the l i g h t of program . needs? For t h i s reason, too, the Finance Committee's work i s one of the main inte r p r e t a t i o n media of the Council. A care-f u l selection of members of the committee has therefore been necessary. Each contact suggested i s also c a r e f u l l y scrutin-ized, and after a personally directed l e t t e r o u t l i n i n g Coun-c i l purpose, aims, and values has been received by the pros-pective donor, an appointment for follow-up interview i s made. Each contact with a prospective donor i s also care-f u l l y planned, and the "right person" i s sent from the com-mittee for each i n d i v i d u a l canvas. Thus fa r the donations have been mainly from big bus-iness and industry. These firms give annually to the Com-munity Chest and t h e i r donations (averaging $100 per annum) to the Arts Council are an i n f i n i t e s i m a l portion of t h e i r t o t a l community contributions. Other groups representing labour eduoation and other community interests contribute to the Council, and i t i s hoped that a more d i r e c t appeal to them may be possible as program develops further. In addition, there i s the beginning of a trend toward more small donations ($>35f50) which come from smaller firms. This trend i s f e l t sound as i t widens the base, but i s slow of development because of l i m i t a t i o n i n numbers of well-orient-ed canvassers. Certain p r i v a t e l y known individuals who are 82 known to support worthwhile community e f f o r t s are also approached. Gearing of the children's program welfare-wise should also increase readiness of many to give. The Arts Council's f i n a n c i a l campaign i s a continuous year round operation except f o r the period of the Community Chest drive, when i t suspends a c t i v i t i e s e n t i r e l y . In the past few months considerable analysis of finance drive records has been made, and the r e s u l t s tabulated sys-tematically as a permanent record. Intensive analysis of the reason why people give to the Arts Council, of the spread of t h i s part of Council a c t i v i t y , and of new areas where de-velopment i s needed i s forseen as one of the prime needs i n t h i s connection. Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t counterpart to analysis of f i n a n c i a l drive records should come i n r e c r u i t i n g of new and v i t a l committee members. Miss Comer's suggestion i n r e l a t i o n to unequal d i v i s i o n of burdens, reflected i n the following quotation, i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n r e l a t i o n to the • work and personnel of the Finance Committee. "A persistent problem i n every community i s the meagerness of the leadership group and a multi-p l i c i t y of demands upon the same few people. The Council must oontinue to wage a constant and v i g -orous campaigning to develop leadership i n i t s own ranks and, by the v i t a l i t y of i t s program, continue to attract the more venturesome among seasoned community leaders". 5 35. Comer, V i r g i n i a Lee, Report of Consultation v i s i t , op. c i t . , conclusion. 83 Naturally, campaigning i s the hardest part of any pro-gram to s e l l to an organization's members. Along with the need for the Finance Committee to he intensively indoctrin-ated Council-wise, this has posed a serious problem. As the knowledgeable group of board and ex-board members and of Section members increases i n number, thi s problem should de-crease. This w i l l happen, however, only when members view  a c t i v i t y i n fund-raising as of equal importance to any other  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y they have toward the Council and i t s t o t a l  membership. Under d i f f i c u l t i e s , the present finance committee i s having a high degree of success. Although the canvas i s s t i l l narrowly based, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that within one month (June, 1951) a t o t a l of $1,500 has been received without need of personal interviews. l e t t e r s have been sent to 50 organ-izations during the month. Of these, 38 have replied and only two have refused to donate. Many have increased the amount of donations over previous years. Thus i t appears that the Council's prestige i s increasing also. P a r t i c u l a r credit should be given to the Junior league whose large grants have sustained the Council during i t s development thus, f a r , and which, though diminishing, con-tinue as the major single source of funds. Actual budget of the Arts Council has remained r e l a t i v -ely constant over the past three years. The Council's f i r s t 84 audited financial statement covers the period from June 1947 to February, 1949, during which period the budget was $9,217 of which $2,667.44 was unused. The next budget covered from February, 1949, to March, 1950, thus bringing the audit up to the end of the f i sca l year. Budget for this period (con-siderably shorter than the previous one) was $10,127.41 of which $694.31 remained at the end of the year. Budget for 1950-51 f i s ca l year was $10,127.31 of which a balance re-mained of $3,651.90. Estimated budget for the current f i sca l year i s $10,740 of which $4,320 is set aside for administrative costs, while $6,120 i s budgeted for program development. This would appear to be a heavy allowance for administrative costs, but a l l the items within i t are v i t a l to the operation of ser-vices, and are, indeed, part and parcel of program. For instance, rental of adequate f a c i l i t i e s i s essential as i t provides meeting space for the sections and for other a f f i l ia ted groups, as. well as permitting use of a large number of Volunteers, and giving of secretarial services to sections and (on special consideration) to groups. Such services are clearly part of program development. In add-i t ion , Council expenditures on both administration and pro-gram are direct ly effective in stimulating expenditures from other sources. Thus, by the manner in which the Council's budget is used (especially in community organization activ-85 i t i e s ) i t m u l t i p l i e s i t s e l f . A true picture of the Council's budget would therefore include a description of donations i n kind and i n service, i n voluntary and professional assistance, free use of space, programs given, and organized gratuitously on behalf of the Arts Council. Summary of Findings i n Regard to Financial Planning Functions The Council's f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y sound, but s t i l l i n need of much attention. Both canvassing and budgeting need careful analysis, and the Finance Committee needs additional w e l l - q u a l i f i e d members. As Council ser-vices and prestige increase further support should be f o r t h -coming, either through the .enlargement of present channels, or from other sources such as government or coordinating bodies. In any f i n a n c i a l a l l i a n c e , however, care should be taken to preserve the autonomous s p i r i t of Council function-ing. PART III "And when the singers and dancers and flute players come, buy of their gi f ts also". Z a h l i l Gribran, The Prophet. 87 CHAPTER Y PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT. AND TRENDS In any service organization, program i s the end toward which a l l administrative e f f o r t i s bent. It consists i n a l l e f f o r t s to s a t i s f y the needs of the organization's membership and of the community i n which i t functions. As administration i s the planning function (decision-making and fund-raising), program i s the carrying out of plans i n terms of actual service given. Both administration and program involve the t o t a l membership, either d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , and should mirror both i t s thinking and i t s action. As the success of the program i s in di r e c t proportion to i t s a b i l i t y to serve the organization's constituency, part of i t s e f f o r t must nec-e s s a r i l y be aimed toward e n l i s t i n g the support of the whole community. It therefore involves both dir e c t services and interpretation, aimed toward f u l f i l l m e n t of objectives. What then, are the objectives of the Arts Council which i t s program seeks to implement? In summary fashion they may be re-stated as follows: 1. coordination of community c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s 2. stimulation of community c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s 3. rendering service to a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g groups 88 4. clearing of dates and information 5. developing community pride 6. interpreting community cultural matters 7. making o f f i c ia l contacts. Many of the early attempts at coordination (which also involved stimulation, interpretation, clearing house funct-ions, community pride and o f f i c i a l contacts, and which d i r -ectly or indirectly served participating groups) were on a demonstration basis, as specific projects of short duration rather than continuous. As suggested previously, much of the emphasis on these projects was dictated by the necessity of mobilizing original support. In any organization of this nature, however, well-timed and carefully thought out special projects are essential, every so often, to widen the base of interest in the organization and enthusiasm for i t s purposes. They should, however, be carefully spaced so as to ensure strength and continuity in the on-going pro-gram which is the organization's prime purpose. In the early days of the Council, however, the necess-ity for demonstration was great, and the major emphasis had, therefore, to be placed on imposing projects, where much activity was concentrated into a short time-span. The one real ly significant exception to this was the publication of a monthly news calendar through which information about the act iv i t ies and interests of arts gr.oups was made available to the members and to the public. The Calendar, therefore, was the earliest on-going program of coordination, stimu-89 la t ion, and interpretation, involving also clearing house, community pride and o f f i c i a l contact functions, and render-ing a direct and meaning-full service to a l l member groups who were ready to cooperate. Of the special projects undertaken on a demonstration and gap-f i l l ing basis, "the Arts and Our Town, October ' 4 8 \ "Design for Living" (November ' 4 9 ) , and "Symposium of Can-adian Music", (May '50), may be grouped together by size and significance. The f i r s t two were "Council projects", the other "Council sponsored" according to def init ion. As stated by Miss Comer and adopted by the Board of the Arts Council, a Council project i s "An undertaking for which the Council assumes f u l l responsibility for organization and presentation. It i s presented to the public as a "project of the Community. Arts Council of Vancouver" " . The f i r s t of these Council Projects was "Arts and Our Town, October, '48". which consisted of a month-long exhi-b i t ion of graphic arts and crafts, and a series of plays, concerts, and public meetings organized by the Council and presented by i t , although incorporating the work of many of i t s member groups and individuals. A special newspaper supplement covered in detai l a l l the arts groups in the c i ty , and other special publicity was arranged for a l l events on . 1. Comer, Virg in ia lee, Report of Consultation V i s i t to  the Community Arts Council of Vancouver, (Definition of Terms), June, 1949. 90 the program. Thus the Council stimulated, coordinated and publicized the work of many of i t s groups and i n d i v i d u a l members within the s p e c i f i c focus and duration of the pro-ject. O f f i c i a l contacts and community pride developed dur-ing the project were also s i g n i f i c a n t . "Design for L i v i n g " , held, l i k e the f i r s t project, i n . the Vancouver Art Gallery, was intended to appeal to the widest possible audience, i . e . the general public, as well as producing an opportunity f o r a r t i s t s and craftsmen to gain recognition. I t s success i n the former undertaking was evident i n i t s setting of a new record of g a l l e r y • attendance (14,000 people i n three weeks). This project emphasized household arts from architecture of house and garden to furniture, ceramics.-and-textiles. A l l ' designs, materials and workmanship were B r i t i s h Columbian. In this project, the Council reached out to the community at large, rather than working within the confines of the major int e r e s t s of i t s member groups. "The Symposium of Canadian Music" (which, contrary to reports recently published i n the press, originated as an Arts Council rather than a Vancouver Symphony Society pro-ject) merited p a r t i c u l a r mention i n the Report of the Royal Commission on Arts, Letters and Sciences, as being the only venture of i t s kind on record i n this country. It succeeded i n stimulating interest i n Canadian music across the contin-91 ent, and l e d to commissioning of o r i g i n a l music "by Canadian composers by such national organizations as the C. B. C . The symposium consisted of a four-day presentation of the works of Canadian musicians, i n chamber music, choral, or symphonic form, and ended with a panel discussion "Canadian Music". I t s appeal, however, was considerably more lim i t e d l o c a l l y than either of the other projects, and i t s success, though f a r reaching, came at the expense of a d e f i c i t of funds. The l a s t two "one-facel? projects mentioned, however, were actually preceded by two important "Council sponsored projects". By d e f i n i t i o n , again, a "Council sponsored project" i s "An undertaking, the idea f o r which may o r i g i n -ate within the Council or be presented to the Council, but which i s carried out under the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of another group. The Council may give f i n a n c i a l and/or other forms of aid i n accordance with an agreement between the Council and the other responsible body. The project i s presented to the public i n the name of the responsible body and as "Sponsored by the Community Arts Council of Vancouver"". The f i r s t of these projects were the formation of the Vancouver Children's Theatre (now Community Children's Theatre) and sponsorship of an introductory chamber music concert which led to formation of the group known as "Friends of Chamber Music". The f i r s t of these was aimed to enlarge 2. Comer, V i r g i n i a Lee, Op. C i t . Report of Consultation V i s i t . 92 opportunities for groups of children to receive elementary dramatic training. Both these were gap-f i l l ing projects, providing stimulation to the community i n direct response to need and Interest, but carried out by autonomous groups af f i l ia ted with the Council. The Community Children's Theatre was organized with an advisory board and intended to give increased leisure-time training i n centres established in each neighbourhood. It appears to have become commercialized, however, at whioh time the advisory board, disturbed by this trend, divorced i t s e l f from the original plan and started again. Vancouver Children's Theatre (and i t s outgrowth Community Children's Theatre) are projects which the Council assisted in launch-ing, but which, as intended, soon became autonomous. The original advisory board has had much d i f f i cu l ty since sep-aration of i t s function from that of Vancouver Children's Theatre, but has consistently pressed for non-commercial creative dramatics for ohildren in the schools. There i s evidence that the Community Children's Theatre, under a technically reconstituted board of directors, w i l l take on new l i f e during the winter of 1951-52. i t has cooperated with the Drama Section of the Arts Council In putting pres-sure on the city to open School Board f a c i l i t i e s for Satur-day children's act iv i t ies , and i s expected to be an integ-ra l part of the program of community arts for children 93 now in i t s early stages. The Friends of Chamber Music started as a group which aimed to promote understanding and participation in chamber and small orchestral music on a local l eve l . Its emphasis was on bringing more small orchestra music to the people while simultaneously providing opportunities for local mus-icians, both amateur and professional, to take part in con-certs. Since i t s organization, however, i t s focus has changed, and many of the original members have ceased to be active because they feel i t no longer serves the purposes for which i t was established. Instead of stressing member-participation and the use of local talent, the group i s now engaged in a program of importing famous chamber musie art-i s t s . While this is a legitimate function, i t i s obviously far from the original intent, and, from a community angle, f a i l s to f u l f i l l the group's early promise. Development of Sections. Coordination of the act iv i t ies of the Council's a f f i l -iate groups has been of slow and painful growth. Many art-i s t s and groups of artists have been essentially indiv id-ua l i s t i c in their approach, and resisted the idea that inter-group cooperation i s either possible or desirable. The values of working together have had to be proved. As sug-gested above, special projects have had to be devised, where-in the major responsibility was carried by a few. These 94 projects may well be regarded as the f i r s t "attention-get-ting" devices of an infant organization. As Miss Comer stated during her consultation v i s i t : "The Council's function as a coordinating agent i s probably the most d i f f i cu l t aspect of the program to interpret and establish. It permeates almost a l l ac t iv i t ies of the Council from publie action to clearing of dates. Where sections can be organized coordination i s demonstrable and w i l l greatly f ac i l i t a te the performance of this duty of the Counoi l " . 3 As this quotation suggests, the coordinating function was l i t t l e accepted unt i l formation of the sections (music, drama, and l i terature) . A br ief history of their organiz-ation and act iv i t ies w i l l serve to i l lus trate the movement since their inception. The sections were formed when i t was fe l t that the indiv-idual groups interested in each form of art were ready to in i t i a te joint planning. They represent the counterpart of Divisions within the welfare council structure, and were seen as a means of helping the groups to pool their thinking on common interests and problems, and to share mutually owned resources. Each section was formed as a result of an open meeting of a l l known groups i n the particular f i e l d , and therefore symbolized the joint wish of these groups to get together. Each has a chairman who sits on the board of directors and 3. Comer, Virg in ia Lee, Op. C i t . , Report of Consultation  V i s i t , program p.6. • 95 executive committees of the Council. Discussion i n the follow-ing chapter w i l l show the extent of group use of this channel of representation, which may he anticipated by mention of the fact that election procedures in the three sections vary d ir-ectly in quality with the length of existence of each. The Drama Section, organized in May, 1949, now has 28 member-groups, most of them in active and cooperative play, production. This section originated the idea of the Vancouver and Lower Mainland One Act Play Fest ival , organized annually by the members. This i s a week-long fest ival planned and executed in cooperation with the School and Community Drama Office, Provincial Department of Education, and oo-sponsored by the Arts Council and the above named department. The Arts Council donates three shields for this competition, for the best drama, the best comedy, and the best all-round production. The Drama Section member-groups are well ahead in i n i t i a t i n g and carrying forward cooperative plans, and are beginning to show real cohesiveness in supporting each other ac t iv i t ie s . f'Wiitiiess..the beginning of a trend toward contributing toward expenses of member-groups chosen to represent the Province in Dominion Drama Festival f ina l s ) . The Drama Section was also the in i t i a to r of inter-section act ivi ty , in suggesting to the Council a plan for a Play-writing competition, which has since been undertaken jointly by the Drama and Literary Sections under general 96 Council auspices. This competition, open to writers through-out Br i t i sh Columbia, i s an experiment In "commissioning*1 an original piece of. play-writing which l i f of sufficient merit) w i l l not only gain an award for the winning contestant but also permit of an opportunity for the playwright to see his play produced by one of the groups of the Drama Section. The Music Section was organized in February, 1950, and now has 26 member-groups. It has been compiling a resource catalogue of a l l the music owned by i t s a f f i l ia tes for de-posit in the central office. This device i s intended to f ac i l i t a te loan or rental of music manuscripts where groups need this service. There have already been a number of cal l s on the music l ibrary, both from Vancouver groups and from other parts of the Province. The Music Section has already discussed formation of a composers' club, and i t i s ant ic i -pated that this or some other section project similar to the Drama and Literary Section projects w i l l soon be inaugurated. Organized in October, 1950, the Literary Section i s the Council's youngest established section. Already i t has four-teen member-groups, and i s actively cooperating in organizing, publicizing, and executing the Drama Sections plan for a play-writing competition. Future project proposals include tentative plans for a short-story competition, and for poss-ible in i t i a t ion of a national Poetry Day. The three existant sections are, l ike their member-groups, 97 autonomous to a large degree, although every attempt i s being made to coordinate their operation within the over-all Council program. The need clearly seen here i s for clar-i f i ca t ion of representation channels, and further interpre-tation to the individual members within the a f f i l i a te groups of the Council's overall program. (This point i s brought out by the groups themselves, as w i l l be shown in the follow-ehapter). Also Increasingly evident i s the need for further study of means for bringing back the professional art is ts ' inter-ests into the Council's planning (further developed in the next chapter), and for establishing group performance stand-ards in relation to the specific purposes of each group. This, the writer submits, i s the only way in which f a i r and constructive eriticsm of group act iv i t ies w i l l become uni-formly possible. Clearly i t i s unjust to evaluate the "musical and sooial club" type of act ivi t ies against high professional standards, for the emphasis here i s on partic-ipant enjoyment and group relationships. Equally unjust and fut i le would be evaluation of the highly ski l led groups against the standards of those who practice "art for fun". There can be no learning experience in either of these cases. Recognition of this fact was the reason for refusal of the original survey committee to take on a standard-setting function. As the Chairman of that committee has stated, 96 'we couldn't do i t . . .we didn't have anything to evaluate againsti'v. Standards-conscious Council members recognize, however, that i t w i l l eventually "become the Council's function to accredit i t s groups according to mutually-determined stand-ards. This may "be precipitated, moreover, by in i t i a t i on of the proposed public relations scheme to be disoussed later in this chapter. In the l ight of these facts, i t i s neces=-sary to anticipate such poss ib i l i ty by careful preparation of evaluation c r i t e r i a . The writer submits that this might be done completely through inter-group process. Tentative c r i t e r i a for professional, and semi-professional, amateur and hobby levels of art standards might be worked out by the Section chairmen in oooperation with the total board or a subdivision of i t . These would have to be based on the interests of the groups as well as their stated rating, after which they might he submitted to the groups, after f u l l section consideration, for further addition and amend-ent. Once such c r i t e r i a were established, i t would become possible for the groups-as-wholes to evaluate themselves. If the standards were cooperatively set, the writer suggests, the poss ib i l i ty of dissatisfaction with them would be re-duced to a minimum. OTHER Projected Sections This w i l l not be possible in a l l art forms, however, 99 u n t i l further section development takes place, i t i s hoped that as interest in Section cooperative developments increa-se, other groups such as crafts, dance visual arts groups, may request formation of sections to coordinate their spe-c i f i c forms of act ivity . Evidence of forerunners of such a movement i s becoming increasingly frequent and significant. Already there is the nucleus of what may become a Civic Art Section, bringing together and integrating the opinions and actions of groups interested In various aspects of arch-itecture and town-planning. The aim is to improve the aesth-etic as well as the functional relationships between new buildings and adjacent open spaces. The premise.on which this group's act iv i t ies hinge i s that town-planning i s an art as well as a science, and that funetionalism alone robs c i t -izens of f u l l enjoyment of their community. Concern of the committee i s with bringing pressure to bear on loca l govern-ment to zone certain areas for eventual use for harmoniously-planned civic buildings. Particular concern has been over spatial relationships between sites for essentially cultural f a c i l i t i e s . Another phase of previewed section development has been seen in movement of dance teachers toward cooperation rather than competition. Before the writer came in close contaet with this movement several persons had verbalized despair over the poss ib i l i ty of reaching common ground amongst 100 teaehers and artists in this f i e l d . There was, however, one group established whose aim was to accomplish this seemingly "impossible" task. During subsequent discussions, resource information on a national body attempting the same thing was made available to this group, which, at the time was so dis-couraged that i t questioned whether i t s function was va l id . The outcome was that the group requested the Arts council, as an impartial body, to sponsor an open meeting of a l l dance teaehers i n the province "to discuss the advisability of ex-panding (the group) into an association of dance teachers of Br i t i sh Columbia, which could later become af f i l ia ted with 4 the Canadian Dance Teacher's Association". The Arts Council Board accepted this responsibil ity, and appointed i t s dance representative (subject to approval of the group on whose behalf the meeting was to be called) to serve as chairman. This representative was president of the other group (Faculty of Dance Arts) and also of another large dance organization, The Vancouver Civic Ballet Sooiety. Some time elapsed, however, before the "Faculty" sig-nif ied i t s readiness to proceed. In the interim, the rep-resentative of the national body vis i ted the city and further stimulated interest in the lat ter organization, . stressing i t s cooperative attitude, i t s standard-raising function, and i t s belief that i t oould speak on behalf of the dance interests of the whole country only i f i t truly 4. Minutes of February Meeting, Faculty of Dance Arts, 1S51. 101 represented them within i t s own planning. Thus a l i s t of a l l known dance schools and teachers was compiled, and invitations dispatched under Arts Council aus-pices. Between 35 and 40 dance teachers from a l l over the province attended the meeting or signified in writing their desire to join a local chapter of the national organization. The "Faculty 1 1 voted to a f f i l i a te and requested non-members to join them in adopting the constitution of the national body. The Arts council gave slight additional help in program planning for the f i r s t meeting, made press reports request-ing a l l those not contacted to write in to the Council, and f i n a l l y stencilled copies of the organization's new consti-tution. This may appear to, have been a disproportionate amount of service to any one group. It must be remembered, however, that i t s purpose was in the essence of Arts Council s p i r i t . It was also foreseen as the f i r s t step toward development of a new section, for when the teachers could get together their groups could also. It i s a good example of the way in which an Arts Council, as an impartial body, can bring together Individuals and groups operating in the same f i e l d , coordin-ate, stimulate, publicize, and serve. It i s also an example of a job where resource and enabling s k i l l s of the profess-ional group worker complemented those of the natural leaders. v. . 103 In each case of possible" section development, however, an individualized approach must be used. For in no two oases are the groups interested in different art forms of identical composition. One section may have production groups, another teacher's groups, another hobby groups, another coordinating bodies, or again a whole section might conceivably be formed of individuals unt i l such time as groups within that f i e ld emerged. Additional Non-Section Projects of Kecent Months. " (Spring 1951T Significantly Gouncil-foeussed ( in l ine with Board de-cision that the 1950-51 program year should be devoted to Council consolidation) was the Architectural Competition held during January, 1951. This project was designed on an inter-organization basis, between the School of Architecture, U . B . C , and the Arts Council. Its aim was to give fourth year arch-itectural students a project, at onoe educational and function-a l , by offering a prize for the best plan for re-designing and re-furnishing newly acquired Arts Council premises. The ultimate aim was two-fold: f i r s t , to stimulate an interest in other forms of arts (and their inter-relationships) among the graduating class of this professional school (which, i t was hoped would carry over into their professional l i f e ) ; and second, to turn the Arts council offices into a f i t t ing dis-play case for the "arts in our town", i . e. the work of 103 Council a f f i l i a tes . In addition, through direet l i a i son with the Vancouver vocational Institute, arrangements were made for the implementation of the design approved. Both facets of the project were undertaken without cost by the respective training schools as integral parts of their course requirements. The making of the furniture by the vocational Institute i s not yet completed. In addition, however, size-able donations-in-kind have been made of materials required for completion of the project. The whole project represents a combination of the functional and the aesthetio, and is another example of Council coordination and stimulation. Another Council project in the architectural and town-planning area was a dinner given in A p r i l , at which an inter-nationally known lecturer and consultant on c iv ic design addressed an audience of 100 Council members and interested cit izens. This was another definite stimulation project. In the same braeket came co-sponsorship with other architectural, housing, and planning bodies of another lecture on the relationship between housing and defence planning. group Referral Pathfinding again, the Arts Gouneil {more by necessity than design) undertook an experiment in "group referra l " , the f i r s t of i t s kind known to the writer or her profession-al associates. In March, two teen-aged youngsters, inter-104 ested In a variety of arts and in forming a performing group In this area, were directed to the Arts .Council through one of i t s close press contacts. The request was for f a c i l i t i e s in which to form and operate their club, the nuoleus of which was already gathered. Realizing from discussion both with the press representative and with the youngsters themselves that here was a spontaneous community development worthwhile but badly in need of adult guidance, the writer accepted re-sponsibility in behalf of the Arts Council to assist the group to find the most suitable "home™ possible. In the writer 's opinion, a factor of equal i f not greater importance was the need to find not only f a c i l i t i e s but qualified leader-ship. It was mandatory, however, that choice of a home be based on group decision. In the f i r s t instance, therefore, f a c i l i t i e s for an open meeting were made available through Arts Council con-tact with the director of one of the neighbourhood houses. Because of a house rule, professional supervision was re-quired during the meeting. Unable to provide same, the dir-ector requested the writer 's presence at the meeting. At this and subsequent meetings i t became increasingly clear that a high degree of s k i l l would be required of anyone working with this group, and much more time involvement than the writer could offer in the interests of over-all Council program. 105 Through the School of Social work, arrangements were therefore made for f ie ld work placement of another student with considerable experience to work with this group with-out remuneration. As the detailed and accurate (hut s t r ic t -ly confidential) permanent Arts Council records of this group's organization period would show, only ski l led leader-ship could have done the job ef f ic ient ly , and with satis-faction to the group. Perhaps the average group seeking a base for operations would be equipped to organize i t s e l f without help, and in most cases such a group, in the arts f i e l d , would require nothing more than ski l led arts leadership. This was not true i n this particular case* Much intensive resource help was necessary before the group could begin to function at a l l , yet the enthusiasm they brought with their idea showed clear-ly i t s importance to them. After the constitution had been tentatively drawn up, analyzed and amended step by step by the group, and declared sound by them, negotiations were started with the executives of community centres, neighbourhood houses, Y.M.C.A. and i .W.G.A. Group members then went to speak with these execu-tives and reported baek to their group on "What they would get, and what they would have to give in exchange". F ina l ly , the group made i t s choice from among the pos s ib i l i t i e s . Arts Council contact was made with the leader who would work 106 with the group, and the reeords of i t s growth to that time were made available to this leader. Having completed i t s responsibil ity, the Arts Council then withdrew. It i s important, because of time restrict ions, that suoh intensive concentration cannot at present be given to groups, unless additional outside leadership can be mustered. As i t was, practical ly a l l help given had to be during "spare' time" rather than office hours. The project i s interesting, however, as an example of the type of help which might one day be available (to groups so requesting) as an Arts Council service. For the time being, i t must be considered only as a unique demonstration. Other Projects in Preparation The Council considers that one of i t s most important functions is that of keeping in touch with and stimulating i t s members and member-groups. In addition to representation through the Sections, i t s two main media for this contact are the News Calendar and open meetings. It has therefore con-centrated much attention on the calendar, and has, (under an expert chairman and committee) streamlined this medium of Council, group and inter-group communication. More contact with group members has been fe l t necessary, however, and the Council i s presently planning a large open meeting for the purpose. It i s also planned that the meeting should consider the recommendations of the "Massey Heport" in preparation for 107 Council action toward implementation of certain of i t s find-ings. As an additional service to i t s members and to the com^ munity, the Public Relations Committee i s presently invest-igating means of increasing quantity and quality or press coverage of art act ivi t ies * It has been pointed out, signif-icantly, that the art gallery draws as large attendance as major sports and that, In view of this fact, the unequal distribution of newspaper coverage between arts and sports i s no measure of public interest. Tentative arrangements are therefore in process to correct the situation. Details are not yet publishable, but cooperation of the daily papers has been sought and w i l l be forthcoming i f the plan can be put into operation. Community Arts for Children During the spring, the Arts Council board redefined i t s objective of widening opportunities in arts for a l l the c h i l -dren of the community. Beginning of this idea had been ev-ident, i t w i l l be remembered, in the days of original spon-sorship of the Community Children's Theatre, low, however, the plan i s widened in scope to include a l l forms of arts. The intention of the Arts Council Board in inaugurating an on-going children's program was to work with and through  existing organizations now serving children. The proposal was to supply concerts, plays, art classes, dance rec i ta l s , 108 etc . , and volunteer or paid specialist leaders in the arts f i e l d where the youth-serving organizations requested such help. Nothing was to he imposed. It was to he an offer of assistance i f such was wanted. Approach was f i r s t made through the secretary of the Group Work Divis ion, Community Chest and Council, who gave f u l l support. Then a meeting of the directors of a l l the member-agencies was arranged by the Arts Council. This meet-ing was attended by 24 representatives of these agencies. The meeting was remarkably successful, and provided an opportunity for community leaders in recreation and informal education and Arts Council representatives to diseuss prob-lems and needs in the arts f i e l d . The agency representatives endorsed the idea, contributed their thinking on what was needed and how i t could be supplied. Particular attention was paid to the approach necessary to make such an on-going program a success. The Arts Council members made i t clear that their wish was to hear from the group the ways in which the Council could contribute to expansion of certain parts of agency programs in l ine with the needs of each area. As basis for such a program, two i n i t i a l Arts Council moves were decided necessary. One was the undertaking of a complete survey of present agency art ac t iv i t ie s , f a c i l i t i e s , leadership, areas needing expansion, e t c . The other was to make a pi lot study as a factual basis for further planning. 109 The survey i s s t i l l i n the planning stage, hut w i l l he completed "by the end of August. The p i l o t study, however, i s successfully accomplished. Because of time shortage and the approach of summer, i t was decided to make a p i l o t study i n only one form of art. Because of lack of f a c i l i t i e s or administrative complications, only two centres could undertake to have large scale demon-st r a t i o n events at the p a r t i c u l a r time of year. Choice of the centres was therefore s e t t l e d . The following reprint of a c i r c u l a r to cooperating organizations w i l l indicate the results of the f i r s t : Community Arts Council Children's Concerts "OVer 500 children from the Marpole Area and guest groups from other youth-serving agencies responded enthus-i a s t i c a l l y to the f i r s t of two Community Arts Council dem-onstration concerts i n Marpole Community Centre at 10:00 a.m. Saturday, May 19. The concert was given as a community service through the courtesy of A. F. of M. l o c a l 145 from t h e i r Music Per-formance Trust Fund of the Recording Industry. It was the f i r s t of two concerts designed to test the responsiveness of children 5-15 years of age to this type of exposure. Twenty-three musicians formed the excellent orchestra. We f e e l that the children's enthusiasm was ample proof of t h e i r eagerness to have more such opportunities during our winter 110 '51-52 children's program in a l l forms of the arts. The program started with Roger Quilter's Children's Overture i n which the children joined in singing some of the familiar nursery rhymes. They also had a "hang" out of the movement of the Surprise Symphony of Haydn. Despite Mr. Albert Stein-berg* s amusing introduction the "surprise" made a l l the children jump and laugh. Although this was not too pleasing to the musicians, the short burr of eager conversation which followed indicated they were normal children responding normally to something new and pretty exciting. Other indications of enthusiasm could be seen in the fact that the Commissioner of the Boy Scouts came with many cubs and their leaders. Alexandra and Gordon House leaders, turned out with large groups of children, and Miss Barbara Green, Executive Director of Heywood Community Centre brought 20 ohildren a l l the way from North Vancouver for this event. One Marpole music teacher cancelled her Saturday morning classes so the children could attend the concert. The children were told how the musicians, because they liked playing for children, kept part of every niekel the children put in the juke boxes, so that they could have l ive music l ike this . Mr. Steinberg showed them the different instruments and made each player show how his instrument sounded by i t s e l f . At the end the children were invited to come with parents or leaders to the next concert at Sunset i i i Memorial Community Centre on May 30th at 7:30 p. in.. The children showed by loud applause that they wanted to attend the next one. They were also told that i f they wanted to hear more music, see people acting in plays, puppet shows and dancing that the Arts Council would be arranging these opportunities for them, and also lots more chances for them to sing, play, dance, act and paint and make things them-selves. Marpole Community Centre arranged almost a l l the admin-istrat ive details and gave their f a c i l i t i e s for this free concert. They had 30 smart looking members of the Marpole Teen Town on deck as ushers, had arranged local publ ic i ty , and had set up the stage, with members of the Marpole Towns-men helping. Mr. S. I. Harrison, F i r s t Vice-President attended the concert representing the President, Mr. Lome C. Aggett, of the Marpole Community Association, and thanked the Arts Council, Mr. Steinberg, the musicians and their Union for arranging the concert. Mr. John Pollock, Executive Director of the Centre was thanked for the enormous amount of work he had put Into organizing the Centres part in the success of the project. This concert was only the "opening gun" of a f u l l , well-rounded program of children's ac t iv i t ies , planned to begin next f a l l , in every form of art. This program i s being de-112 signed In response to need indicated by the Executive Dir-ectors of the Leisure-Time Agencies at a meeting calle d by Community Arts Council, March 12. Almost a l l the member-organizations of the Group Work Divisi o n , Community Chest and Council were represented at t h i s meeting, and applauded the Arts Council plan to help them widen the art a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r own winter programs. They said they very much needed t h i s help to get art a c t i v i t i e s within the centres onto an equal footing with sports a c t i v i t i e s , and f e l t that further opportunities f o r creative expression were essential to the development of mature happy c i t i z e n s which i t i s t h e i r primary purpose to foster. Several smaller centres were as enthusiastic ajsout actually having the concerts as were Sunset and Marpole but l i m i t a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s made t h i s im-possible at present. They w i l l a l l be working closely with Community Arts Council i n the f a l l , however, and we plan to f i l l t h e i r requests with smaller concerts, plays, etc., and by helping them f i n d additional arts and cr a f t s leaders as soon as possible. Because much community backing i s needed f o r t h i s type of program, representatives of a l l the Service dubs were asked to attend both demonstration concerts. We hope we may be able to prove to them that t h i s i s a program worthy of the i r f u l l e s t support. Naturally the Arts Council's small operating budget cannot cover a l l the essential costs i n 113 such an undertaking, p a r t i c u l a r l y as i n a d d i t i o n to vo l u n t a r y s e r v i c e s of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups which we are now eagerly seeking, there w i l l he many e s s e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r which p a r t i a l or t o t a l fees must he pa i d . We hope that as the pro-gram get r o l l i n g , proof of i t s value w i l l b r i n g w i t h i t the necessary community backing. I f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of your o r g a n i z a t i o n were able to attend the f i r s t concert we f e e l they w i l l welcome an i n v i t -a t i o n to the second. In any case, please do pla n to send one or more persons from your group to the next concert at Sunset Memorial Community Centre, Wednesday May 30th at 7:30 p. m. May we look forward to seeing you, or your delegates, then?". (Signed by the present w r i t e r ) Lightness of touch i n such a venture i s c l e a r l y essent-i a l i f the c h i l d r e n are to be stimulated r a t h e r than propa-gandized. The success of the venture w i l l depend on how q u i c k l y t h i s touch may be developed i n working w i t h groups, who, because of d i f f e r i n g emphases i n t h e i r approach, have he r e t o f o r found working together d i f f i c u l t . M o b i l i z a t i o n of performers, leaders and sponsors, as w e l l as o r g a n i z a t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e aspects w i l l r e q u i r e much concentrated e f f o r t , and the utmost cooperation from a l l the agencies and the community at l a r g e . 114 The second concert of the demonstration project gave increased understanding of how to operate i n t h i s area, however. Although the audience was smaller than f o r the f i r s t concert iabout 250) i t was, from the musicians' and others'points of view a "better audience". This may be considered, ( i n part at least) d i r e c t result of the learning experience of the f i r s t concert. Mot only was there more careful preparation of supervisors, more care i n planning exits, entrances,etc., but the children were better prepared f o r what they were to hear, the musio was more direct i n appeal to them, and the conductor-commentator's p a r t i c i p a t i o n had been consciously refined. Many suggestions have been received from professional leaders who attended with t h e i r groups, and i t i s hoped to soon to have an active oommittee of these leaders working on the plans as they are prepared, contributing t h e i r knowledge and Insight as to methods of procedure i n developing the program. These people are ready to support the venture i n any way possible. Day to day Program services. From the following l i s t i n g , i t w i l l be clear that day to day program i n and through the Council o f f i c e i s an im-portant factor i n the o v e r a l l program. Examples given are an indication, only, of the importance of t h i s phase of servioe, f o r only a small proportion are mentioned. / 115 (a) Services to individuals Include: 1. information on current events in a l l forms of art e.g. dates, times, places, program details and ticket information 2. publicity for concerts by new artists 3. information about Council and group membership and introduction to groups 4. provision of pianists, instruments, scores and advice on original musical compositions, etc. (the latter provided through Music Section) 5. information on organization of a May Day Fest-ival 6. help to a town-planner in deciding on art groups which might use a new Community Centre (for early planning of f a c i l i t i e s ) 7. Contacts with crafts outlets and addresses of furniture designers 8. provision of a fine l i b r e t t i s t ' s services needed by a musical comedy composer (through lite r a r y Section) (b) Services to member-groups 1. f a c i l i t i e s for meetings 2. use of typewriters and addressograph, other secretarial services 3. costumes, scores, films, auditoriums and rehears-al space 4. help in publicizing events thro.ugh lews Calendar, press and radio releases 5. skilled arts leaders and teachers 6. entertainment parties (provided to the best of present ability) 7. speakers on various subjects in the arts fiel d s 8. loan or rental of fine pictures 116 9. printers to make posters f o r various events 10. resource material on which constitutions of new groups can he based Among the many organizations served are the G.N.I.B. (for which b r a i l l e music and entertainments are provided), neighbourhood houses and community Centres, Central C i t y Mission, the Boys' Industrial School and various out-of-town groups. Direotion of Council Program trends I t may be seen from the foregoing pages that the Council has developed a wide variety of program a c t i v i t i e s over the past four years. These may be subdivided into: (a) On-going program: the Calendar, and public re-l a t i o n s services f o r member-groups; general clearing house information and d i r e c t services; Children's program (considered the essential community-wide development of the coming year) ih) Special events: Council projects, projects sponsored i n cooperation with other groups, and Section-run projects. I t may be seen, also, that the Council's in t e r e s t s are wide-spread, covering many facets of arts and c u l t u r a l ac-t i v i t i e s i n related f i e l d s * There has been a tendency, be-cause of the large number of gaps In Vancouver's c u l t u r a l l i f e , to cover more ground than the available board and s t a f f leadership can handle without over-burdening the same few people consistently. In view of t h i s , i t has. been found neoessary to set up a program committee to study pro-117 gram trends and make recommendations on the directions future program might take. In other organization's the function of such a committee may he said to cover the following: 1. "To clari fy the specific functions of the agency in the l ight of i t s general purpose. 2. To examine the existing program in the l ight of the interests and needs of the membership and the pur-pose of the agency. 3. To study the unmet needs of the community i n the l ight of the function of the (organization) and the services of other agencies in i t . 4. To formulate the program for the agency in the l ight of these findings. 5. To evaluate the program continuously and make g interim adjustments throughout the program year". The emphasis of such a committee i s on planning a well-round-ed program, reflecting as nearly as possible the interests of the members ( in the Arts Council case individual members and member-groups). Its function i s to prepare a program which keeps continuity and makes allowance for well-timed special events which can be accomplished without sapping the " l i f e -blood" of continuous services. In the past this function has been undertaken mainly by the Executive committee. In order to make clearer analysis of program plans, however, a smaller group has now been form-ed to study and make recommendations as to future program 5. Wilson and Hyland, Sooial Group Work Practice, River-side Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1949. 118 development. There i s a deep awareness i n the Arts Council that program must not over-emphasize any one phase of art at the expense of the others, and another clear-cut function of the program committee i s therefore to evaluate amounts of ser-vice given i n each area, i n order to keep d i s t r i b u t i o n of services even. 119 CHAPTER V I THE AFFILIATE GROUPS Genuine interest i s the only c r i t e r i o n f o r membership i n the Arts Council. Uo attempt at standard setting i s made i n t h i s connection. Membership f a l l s i n three main cate-gories: (a) in d i v i d u a l membership (fee of #1.00 per year); (b) organization membership (fee of $2.50 per year); and (c) sustaining individual or organization membership (fee over $10.00). Membership fees are kept to a minimum, as approximately sixty cents out of every d o l l a r membership i s actually paid out i n one p a r t i c u l a r service, i . e., the monthly News Cal-endar of events, whioh i s automatically delivered to every Individual member and member-group. I t has been the basic thinking of the Arts Council since 6 the o r i g i n a l work of the Interim Committee that membership fees should be small enough f o r a l l groups, yet large enough to make them seem worthwhile. Fees have remained exactly as 7 o r i g i n a l l y suggested by the Interim Committee, except that sustaining membership, which o r i g i n a l l y had no minimum, has 6~7 Minutes of Interim Committee, July 25, 1946. 7. Ibid. 120 been altered s l i g h t l y into two sub-divisions, those under $10. which are merely tokens of good-will v a l i d f o r the year, and those over $10, o f f i c i a l l y known as "sustaining c o n t r i -butions" which are income tax exempt and which, at present, give membership p r i v i l e g e s f o r an i n d e f i n i t e period. The fourth oategory, "Complimentary" i s also sub-divided into those which are purely complimentary (given to groups or individu a l s whose understanding of the organization i s con-sidered essential to i t s s u r v i v a l ) , and "complimentary sus-taini n g " (given to groups or individ u a l s who, though making no monetary contribution, have given valuable donations i n services or i n kind). F i r s t group membership application received eame from the Vancouver Women's Art Association, which formally re-quested membership on November 4th, 1947, about s i x months after the Art Council's Organization meeting at which rep-8 resentatives of 71 groups had been present. At the end of a year of operation there were 99 indi v i d u a l members (four of whom were sustaining) and 16 group members (three of whom were sustaining). At that time s i x of the memberships were the result of 41 membership l e t t e r s sent out by the Council's 9 membership committee. As there was only one Board meeting 8. Minutes of Organization Meeting, October 29, 1946. 9. Minutes of Board Meeting, November 6, 1947. 121 in the f i r s t six months, and as no demonstration projects had yet been undertaken at the end of the f i r s t year, i t is not surprising that membership grew extremely slowly at f i r s t . By February 1959, however, 39 groups sent represent-atives to a large meeting of member-groups, at which there 19 were 111 people, present. By March 1951, there were a total of 625 members, including 525 Individuals (108 of whom were 11 sustaining) and 109 groups. The Present Study As suggested earl ier in this thesis analysis of the groups enumerated (Arts and Our Town) had not been too in -tensive. For the purpose of the present study the writer has conducted a second study mainly by the use of question-naires and interviews. As might be expected, the information gathered earl ier was out of date and therefore inval id . Many of the Arts Council member-groups were not included in the original study which further removed the usefulness of this information as a source of timely research material. The writer also had in mind gathering information which could yie ld qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of the groups themselves and of their relationship with the Arts Council. 10. Minutes of Group Meeting, February 9, 1950. 11. Annual Meeting 1951. Report of Membership Chairman. 122 At that time, however, the writer was a complete out-sider in the Arts Council situation and did not, therefore, gear the questions with the insight which experience would have given. In addition, the previous survey had not been analyzed intensively enough for the writer's enquiry to have been based on procedure recommended in the last chapter. It was clear that only a few of the many questions which came to mind could be answered adequately i n an enquiry of this kind. These questions included: "Who are they?" "What do they do?" "Where and when do they do i t ? " H^ow do they do i t and to what end?" "Why did they join the Arts Council?" "What does i t do for them?" "Who are the groups and individ-uals?" "Who do not belong, yet who have interests in this f i e l d , and how can services be offered to meet their needs?" There is wide scope for intensive study of these quest-ions which would yield far more accurate answers than this present study i s attempting. In discrimination as to the most important aspects which might be covered with reasonable accuracy and suceess, the writer has confined the scope to investigation of the member-groups whose existence is the prime reason for being for an Arts Council. A small portion of the potential scope of the enquiry was thus separated out for concentrated attention within the thesis. In order to gather information from which to answer some of the questions previously stated the questionnaire 123 "Organization of Member-Groups of the Community Arts Council of Vancouver" (see Appendix A) was sent to a l l groups on tne Arts Council mailing l i s t in November, 1950. These groups numbered 100 of whom 44 responded. A second and more searching enquiry was made during December and January, 1950 in which 27 groups were covered, mainly by personal interviews. Of these 24 were groups who had answered the f i r s t questionnaire (mailed), while three additional groups whose f i r s t questionnaires were never re-turned were also covered. The results of the interview were tabulated on a second schedule (see Appendix C) which was geared to obtain considerably more evaluative material than the f i r s t . It i s important to note that the responses to these questions were given during December and January of 1950-51 and are, therefore, a measure of group thinking at that time. Having had considerably more opportunity to " fee l " the re-actions of groups since that time together with more know-ledge of the remarkable progress the Council has made in the last six months, the writer i s convinced that a similar questionnaire now might e l i c i t far more positive and know-ledge-based response, if or example, questions and suggest-ions made regarding publicity (to be dealt with later) would undoubtedly show marked change in the l ight of im-proved Calendar service. 124 The mailed questionnaire asked for information on the length of time each group had "been i n existence and on length of a f f i l i a t ion with the Arts Council, and on their total and specif ical ly "art-focussed" membership figures. The second sub-division asked each organization to check whether i t s main interest was in i l ) participation i n arts, or (2) devel-opment of arts. If their primary interests were in related areas rather than in the arts f i e ld as such, they were asked to check which of the following was their major emphasis: { a) leisure-time act iv i t ies (sub-divided into socials and picnics, sports, group work, recreation, other) lb) business, industry, or commerce (c) labour organization I'd) money-raising (e) publio relations (f) education (g) re l ig ion in) other The groups were asked to specify only their primary i n -terest. The writer anticipated that interests thus cate-gorized might not prove mutually exclusive in every case, but fe l t i t was necessary to make some separation as a base for understanding the replies of each group to other questions. Results proved, however, that the sub-divisions were even more a r t i f i c i a l than anticipated, and i n tabulating the f ind-ings, the writer was almost unable to obtain an unduplicated 125 count. The t h i r d s e c t i o n of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e requested e r o s s -c l a s s i f i e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the a c t i v i t i e s of each group i n v a r i o u s a r t forms as r e l a t e d to p r o f e s s i o n a l , amateur, and "other" r a t i n g . As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d the second and more i n t e n s i v e p a r t of the enquiry was conducted i n the main "by i n t e r v i e w method and recorded on a schedule geared to o b t a i n comparable an-swers from each group. I t s q u e s t i o n s were intended to b r i n g out p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s p e c t a t o r s h i p as r e l a t e d to p r o f e s s -i o n a l , s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l , and amateur a c t i v i t i e s ; s e c t i o n membership; use of or c o n t r i b u t i o n to A r t s C o u n c i l r e s o u r c e s . The groups were asked to evaluate t h e i r use of democratic procedure and the above as r e l a t e d to standards and to "number and order of importance", a l i s t of p o s s i b l e uses of art forms. F i n a l l y , groups were asked to evaluate the C o u n c i l ' s f u n c t i o n i n g i n c o o r d i n a t i o n , s t i m u l a t i o n , and p u b l i c i t y ; to comment on i t s f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n , and on the adequacy of t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the C o u n c i l . I t was an-t i c i p a t e d t h a t these q u e s t i o n s would get some i n d i c a t i o n o f the stage of development of both the groups as such and the C o u n c i l of which they were members. Shortcomings of both the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the i n t e r -view schedule became i n c r e a s i n g l y evident as the survey pro-ceeded. I t became apparent that c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l inform-a t i o n had not been asked f o r while ambiguity of some of the 126 other questions made comparative answers extremely d i f f i c u l t . Many of the recorded comments show this flaw only too well . Another dist inct disadvantage to some of the questions was that the interviewee found d i f f i cu l ty in deciding wheth-er to answer as an Individual or as a group representative. Most of them signified a desire to answer on behalf of their groups, but remarked that this was impossible unless each group as a whole eould discuss each question. The evaluative questions of the second page of the interview schedule, there-fore, represent a cross-eut of the individual opinions of representatives of the various groups rather than considered and integrated group opinion. As previously stated, the d i f f i cu l ty of making an unduplicated count was considerable. Although the writer might now eliminate some of the over-lapping ( in the l ight of further knowledge), such tampering with the results could not be considered sc ient i f i c . For this reason results Will be given as stated, even when the totals do not appear to be correct. Distribution of Member Groups: By Age, Total Membership and Arts frogram-membership. A wide variation in length of existence of Individual groups appeared. The range was from 2§- to 80 years. Twenty-seven of the groups answering (61^) were 15 years of age or over, while seventeen (34$fc) were under 15 years of age, and two i,5%) did not state the length of their existence. In 127 regard to i n i t i a l a f f i l i a t ion i t came out generally that groups did not know for sure and there were no accurate re-cords in the Arts Council office to furnish this informa-tion. When asked regarding this point, 15 of the 44 groups said "three years", 14 said "two years", nine said "one year", and seven were uncertain. Eleven of the 27 groups, 15 years of age or over, had belonged to the Arts Council for three years, while only four of the 17 organized sinoe 1935 had belonged for the same period. One conclusion might be drawn from this : that there was not too much feeling of belongingness to the Arts Coun-c i l . The lack of accurate information from the Arts Coun-c i l somewhat substantiates the nebulous nature previously referred to with reference to the Arts Council organization. This i s one measure of where the Arts Council happened to he at the time of this study. With regard to the overall view of a f f i l i a t ion with the Arts Council and a possible relationship between this and the length of existence as autonomous groups, i t would seem that there was a stronger tendency for the more es-tablished groups to become af f i l ia ted than for the newer ones. There were four exceptions in the instance that groups established under five years had belonged to the Arts council for two or three years eaoh. The majority of groups were found to be of relat ively 128 small size. Just over half the groups had a total member-ship smaller thanl50, while 34 (out of 44) had less than this number active in their arts program. This divis ion of membership may seem a r t i f i c i a l unt i l a large organization (membership over 500) are taken into account. The writer was aware when phrasing this question that some large a f f i l -iate groups within the Arts Council belonged in toto a l -though only a portion of their own membership was direct ly concerned with art act iv i t ies . Figure 1 w i l l give some indication of the relative sizes of both total group memberships and specif ical ly art-focussed membership. (The difference in shading of the f i r s t bar in the diagram shows that more groups had arts membership in the under-^25 bracket than had total membership within this range, while in the 25-and-over brackets groups 12 had total memberships exceeding art focussed memberships). Classi f ication of Interests in Arts: Professional, Amateur, Other If there is a popular notion that groups organized for art expression clearly distinguish in their own minds be-tween professional, amateur, and otherwise, the replies to the questionnaire showed that such a generalization i s in-val id for these particular groups. Seven groups signified 12. See page 129 - Chart. 1 2 9 FIGURE 1. J iis (rrib ittion gj- tfcmber- Croups C l * J S t j U d L Site of : r l l » f » t w S » f C - i - » n p - M t m v i r i k'iB 14 • » . i f <1 i t CL. IS J 1* 0 'J ir <i 4. IS 0 » 7 J 4 £ 5 4-r 3 X 1 0 ROUGE Z. Cff*cts of Dcntocto.tia.atien « n Sto-wda* oLs ,„ Arts (Views » f Mrrnbei- C r a u » ( j Performance flpprteio.Ci»n Cajii|>ntiiC Interest 130 purely professional interests in art forms, and 25 said they had amateur act iv i t ies , while ten indicated combined inter-ests in both professional and amateur aspects of arts. Bight of the 25 in the amateur group also said they had other in-terests. These included sponsorship, appreciation, prepar-ation of exhibitions, oritieism, and personality development of the members taking part. Of the complete total of the 100-group membership, 21 are known to have professional interests, 84 to have amateur interests, and eight state interests which come in neither bracket (exclusive of those whose main interest i s in another f ield} . Obviously there are 13 who have combined amateur and professional, or com-bined amateur and other interests, to reduce the total to the actual figure of 100 groups. Further comment regarding these replies i s that perhaps the average person is too prone to departmentalize Interest, and in a l l , has too narrow a View in seeing the scope and ramification of art expression. Too much activity seemed to f a l l outside the categories of professional and amateur. The "otherwise" interests need to gain more attention; the whole subject could be refined much further. A more serious matter, in viewing the interests of the total number of groups participating in the questionnaire, i s the possible trend of emphasis within the Arts Council on amateur act iv i t ie s . 131 The total number of reported interests or act ivi t ies i n music, drama, l i terature, graphic arts, danee, crafts, speech, films and photography eame to 83. It i s clear, therefore, that the individual group i s prone to be of multiple-interest in art expression, rather than being de-dicated to one aspect of i t . No one aspect, therefore, should be over-emphasized. The main coverage of the second part of the enquiry was of section member-groups. Although i t i s not an ad-equate sampling of the total membership of the Arts Coun-c i l , i t may be considered adequate reporting from each of the three sections. For music, the sampling was nine groups out of 17, for l i terature, five out of nine, and for drama, ten out of 18. Actually 58 out of the total 100 groups are represented in these sections. Twenty-six are in the music seotion, 28 in the drama section, and 14 in the l i terary seetion. Participant or Spectator: Professional or Amateur Of the 27 groups interviewed six indicated that their art act iv i t ies were "professional participant", two'^semi-professional participant',' and 19"amateur participant" Three said they- engaged in professional spectator ship, two i n semi-professional spectatorship, and 13 i n amateur spec-tatorship. Four in the last mentioned category were spec-tator groups only, but i t i s evident that most of the others 131b had spectator and participant ac t iv i t ie s , some of them in both professional and amateur categories* To summarize, out of the 27 groups, 19 were weighted toward participant act ivi ty . In regard to this section the writer can only say that examination of responses showed considerable confusion. Hot only i s there an inter-mixture of professional, amateur, and "otherwise," but also i t would seem that a l l groups wish to incorporate every aspeet of participation. This would seem to mean, again, that more refinement should take place in regard to the nature of par-t ic ipat ion. If one i s concerned about passivity within these par-t icular groups, as they represent the composition of the Arts Council, there i s l i t t l e need to be concerned about the v i t a l i t y of these groups as a whole. Further, drawing from the Massey Commission Report and what i s generally known about tendency toward reception and lack of active partic-ipation, one might see that the Vancouver Arts couneil i s one small movement to combat this development. Resources: Group Contribution to the Arts council; Arts  Council Contribution to Individual Group The information derived from the questionnaire i s not too clear with reference to resources. Perhaps some of the following gleanings wi l l be of Value nonetheless. As a preliminary, some of the factors involved confused the pie-132 ture. F i r s t of a l l , the Arts Council i s only at a certain stage in serving as a resource to the individual groups. Rea l i s t ica l ly , therefore, groups have "been limited to c a l l -ing on what resources the Council had. To l i s t potential resources, along with existing ones, created confusion on the part of some of the. groups replying. Then too, the var-ious groups at their own stages of organization obviously were not aware of the existing resources. Again, the Arts Council, through i t s leadership, had not done an effective job of acquainting groups regarding the ava i labi l i ty of re-sources. Tied closely into this i s an almost total lack on the part of individual groups of responsibility in contri-buting their resources to the Arts Council. In conclusion, one might say that this discussion regarding resources and the interplay between groups and the Arts Council merely points to the fact that the inter-group work process i s now at the incipient stage. It i s believed that the above comments w i l l be more or less substantiated by the following specific replies given by the groups. When asked whether or not they used Community Arts Coun-c i l resources, 19 said they did so often. Fourteen Indicated they did sometimes, while one stated that they never used any services, and another made no mention of such use. This might be misleading because, on the fact of i t , i t appears 133 that there i s a good d e a l of use of re s o u r c e s of the A r t s C o u n c i l . As the group r e p l i e s i n d i c a t e , however, p u b l i c i t y , was the only resource f r e q u e n t l y used. The reasons f o r t h i s might be s e v e r a l . One of the e a r l y and primary f u n c t i o n s of the A r t s C o u n c i l , as a c o o r d i n a t i n g body, was that of being a " c l e a r i n g - h o u s e " . The news Calendar s e r v i c e was e a r l y i n s t i t u t e d as a means of implementing t h i s f u n c t i o n . P a r e n t h e t i c a l l y , the b a s i c need of any group, p a r t i c -u l a r l y i f i t i s a new, s t r u g g l i n g one, i s to become known to the p u b l i c i n order to m o b i l i z e support. In t h i s sense, any other o r g a n i z a t i o n which proposed to help i n t h i s way would be acceptable to a group. With r e f e r e n c e to the A r t s Coun-c i l , however, the matter went f u r t h e r , as an i n d i v i d u a l group sometimes wished to " s t r e t c h " the clear i n g - h o u s e func^ t i o n to i n c l u d e b l a n k e t a c c r e d i t a t i o n and p u b l i c i z e d approval of every phase of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , t h i s amounted to pro-motion without i n v e s t i g a t i o n of standards. Again, p u b l i c i t y i s seen to be of equal importance to a c t u a l content of program. l o o k i n g to the f u t u r e , the r e -p l i e s of the groups would seem to I n d i c a t e that p u b l i c i t y i s an important s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n the b u i l d i n g of a str o n g i n t e r p l a y between the groups and the A r t s C o u n c i l . At the same time, p u b l i c i t y i s j u s t a s h e l l i f the b a s i c component of program does not e x i s t . With regard to p o t e n t i a l resources which the A r t s Coun-134 might offer in future, together with what the Arts Council presently sees as i t s function i n this respect, again one sees the need for further study and greater refinement* Representatives of 14 of the 27 groups made suggestions about resources not presently available, which further i l -lustrates this point. The suggestions included: 1. information about other groups 2 . theatrical equipment--a l i s t of props, especially small lighting equipment (2 groupsJ 3. a dance library 4. speakers, actors, and specialists in various fields 5. membership recruiting service 6 . program advice (2 groups) In addition two groups indicated that they used Arts Council resources i n recruiting members sometimes, and one said the Counoil helped them in advertising. One addition-al group said they would use the music library often when i t was ready, and two indicated that their l i s t s were being prepared for this, in addition to the two who indicated they had already contributed. Other contributions made which did not come under the general headings, included: 1. a brief to the Royal Commission on Arts, Letters, and Sciences, the purpose of which was incorpor-ated into the Community Arts Council brief 2 . advice to other groups 3. donation to Army Veterans shows, Old Age Pension-ers entertainment, etc* 4. films 5. recruiting of members for Community Arts Council 6. an annual scholarship 7 . leaders for a group at the Canadian National Institute for the Blind With reference to contribution to the Arts Council o$ 135 resources h e l d by i n d i v i d u a l groups, the i n t e r v i e w s showed a low degree of awareness of the f a c t that there were r e -sources or of group r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r making these a v a i l -a b le. Member-groups of one s e c t i o n , however, which were i n f a c t making resources a v a i l a b l e were not conscious of t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n . I t i s the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y good a t t i t u d e e x i s t s on the p a r t of the i n d i v i d u a l groups toward developing t h i s phase of the o v e r - a l l A r t s C o u n c i l program. Of course, the true f a c t t h a t the A r t s C o u n c i l i s merely a c o o r d i n a t i n g body, and that r e s o u r c e s , i f they come, w i l l more or l e s s have t o emanate from the i n d i v i d u a l groups, remains to take r o o t i n the minds of the e n t i r e membership. The i n d i v i d u a l groups w i l l a r r i v e at the p o i n t of see-i n g the matter of g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g resources as a f l u i d c o n d i t i o n , r a t h e r than as a s t a t i e concept of the A r t s Coun-c i l " p h y s i c a l l y s i t t i n g and h o l d i n g r e s o u r c e s ready to d i s -pense". I t a l s o goes that with the development of t h i s s h a r i n g between groups w i l l come the b u i l d i n g i n of the i n t e r - g r o u p work proc e s s . group S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n W i t h i n the A r t s Many questioned whether oonoern with h i g h l y standard-i z e d a r t techniques might not p r e - d i s p o s e a r t s groups to a c e n t r a l i z e d a u t h o r i t a r i a n c o n t r o l . In p h r a s i n g her questions, the w r i t e r ' s conscious,aim was to t r y to c r o s s -136 cut any stereotype in this connection. In the interviews, both representatives of arts groups and others effectively over-rode any such suggestion. Both questioned the va l id i ty of this part of the enquiry on the basis of an a r t i f i c i a l separation. The feeling from arts people was that direction was needed but that this could be entirely within group con-=-t r o l , while those with related interests substantiated the same point by saying that group control without stimulating leadership was unsatisfying to the group. As a result of this experience, the writer would in future establish facts i n reference to leadership and self-government in arts groups as she would in regard to any other group entity. In the second instance, she would re-word the question to promote further integration rather than running the risk of creating unnecessary cleavage. Another basic factor became evident during the inter-views. This was a marked lack of c lar i ty on the part of group representatives as to what the expressions of "a dem^ ocratic setting" and "democratization" involved. This might lead one to question how familiar these representatives were, with the experience of the group as a whole, conscious? ly planning, controlling, and executing i t s program and affairs. At the same time i t must be recognized that del-egation of oontrol and leadership depends a good deal on the function of the group at a given time, i . e., the director 137 of a play in production must be given the right to harmonize the parts with a view to satisfying the ultimate aim of the group to produce something of which they are proud. This use of authority, when delegated and ultimately controlled by the group, oan represent a high expression of the working of the democratic process. On the other hand, control may rest with one or a small number of persons whose thinking and action in no way reflect the true wishes of the group as a whole, and are seeking their own satisfactions rather than those of the group. This i s a complex subject, and, therefore, not surprising that the groups indicated that they fe l t the questions ambiguous, had taken some time con-sidering them, and probed the interviewer. (It was extreme-ly d i f f i cu l t to remain the impartial research worker.) After much thought however, 21 groups indicated that they fe l t a democratic setting with group control superior, seven fe l t control of the leader or teacher was necessary, and six indicated that they fe l t there was a need to combine group control with definite direction, while two did not answer the question at a l l . One said, "A group can have autocratic oontrol in art which doesn't follow through in organization". When asked to state opinions on the effect of "demo-cratization" on standards of art, as related to performance, appreciation, enjoyment, and organization interest, the 138 groups indicated again that the question was ambiguous and in many instances treated "democratization" as equivalent to r-< "popularization". The graph in Figure 2 shows that well over half those answering considered a democratic setting conducive to high standards, almost a l l considered i t raised interest in organization. The majority also thought apprec-iat ion and enjoyment standards were at peak i n a democratic setting. It is also interesting to note that of the seven groups with professional or combined professional and amateur interests, only one fe l t a democratic setting lowered stand-ards in any respect, though two other groups were non-com-mitta l . In order to discover whether or not there was a relat-ionship between group-views on use of democratic procedure and the purposes for which they developed art forms, a l i s t of possible purposes was drawn up and the groups were asked to rate in order of importance. On the basis of five points for f i r s t place, four points for second place, three for third, two for fourth, one for f i f t h , the following results obtain: 13 self-expression or expression of l i f e giving pleasure to others art for art 's sakej gaining status ] other as means of making a l iv ing as means of Indirect c o n t r o l . . . . . . . . . 96 72 42 42 20 18 14 One group wished to give personality development and 13. See page 129 - Ghart. 139 self expression f i r s t and third places as separate items, another commented that an interest in art was, from the be-ginning, "an urge from within", one mentioned that gaining status was "very important, although most people wouldn't admit i t " , while others mentioned that gaining status was in terms of group rather than individual status. One rep-resentative said they developed art "to "bring good drama to our community", another"for the pleasure of putting on plays", another "to foster community interest in adult ed-ucation", "creating national atmosphere". One member who l i s ted "art for art 's sake" commented as most important that "too many regulations k i l l art" . A group representative mentioned "money raising for charitable organizations as a means of curbing delinquency", another said that i f people practicing arts were not competitive they became aggressive, and that this group developed arts partly to show their inter-relationships. F ina l ly , one group fe l t that there were sev-eral important aspeots to art development not included in the l i s t given. These were enumerated as follows: (1) to provide wider interest; 2) to give opportunity for release of feelings; 3) to develop latent creativity; and 4) to foster appreciation and acceptance of cultural differences between groups and individuals. 140 Group Views Regarding the Council Several questions occurred to the writer in asking for the opinion of the groups regarding the adequacy of the Council's functioning, of i t s f inancial status, and of their representation within i t . Although group representatives were assured from the beginning that the information was confidential in the sense that no names would be attached, and were urged to say exactly what they thought, the questions may well have been answered with deliberate care. The writer, however, was merely interested in finding out i f any correlation existed between a group's views on the adequacy of the Council's functioning and the amount i t used or con-tributed to the Council. Apparently there was for, three of the five who considered the Council's functioning inadequate in respect to stimulation, coordination, or publici ty never used or contributed to i t in any way. One which fe l t the Council inadequate in a l l three respects, and one who was "unsure1', were not members of any section. (These were the only three non-section members who answered the questionnaire). It is most unfortunate that more non-section members were not interviewed as i t would be interesting to know how their views of the Council would compare with those of section members. The following table shows the over-all picture of group response to these questions. 141 GROUP VIEWS OP COUNCIL FUNCTIONING Function adequate f a i r ly adequate inadequate unsure Coordination 13 7 2 ' 4 Stimulation 8 8 4 7 Publicity 12 9 1 3 It i s significant, however, that eight groups had some question as to the exact nature of the functions the Council was intended to perform. Nineteen made comments of one kind or another. Seven indicated that the Council was performing i t s function within limitations and that time would improve i t s adequaoy. Three thought that i t "was doing a l l r ight" , but that i t certainly needed more money, i n order to perform more adequately. Eleven thought the Council needed more publ ic i ty , and nine of these indicated that they fe l t the lack was in the publicity on the Council i t s e l f , although they thought that the Calendar was good or even "excellent". Groups fe l t that there must be greater publici ty and inter-pretation for realization of the Council's importance, and one said "Publicity from the bul le t in i s adequate, but how many has i t reached?" Another said that the groups were getting good publici ty, "but the Council i s not . " . As a means of counteracting the publicity lacks, the 142 following interpretation media were suggested: 1) speakers for each group'l groups need to he excited, not lectured to at the beginning of each season".) 2) wider circulat ion of Calendar and Bul let in ; 3) efforts to overcome the impression that " C . A . C . i s up in the clouds, impractical ;" 4) increased membership ("every drama group should belong to the Drama Section, and the school drama groups might come i n " ) . Only two groups fe l t that the Council's functioning was inadequate in regard to coordination and stimulation. Both speci f ical ly mentioned "personnel" as the main d i f f i cu l ty . "Time and permanence of the secretary? "they fe l t would im -^prove this condition. Enthusiastic oomments about the Council included: "real ly making strides and doing good work", "developing a l l the t ime. . • .hasn't reached objeotive yet", "C .A .C . a wonder-fu l t h i n g . . . w i l l do great things for Vancouver", but "stim-ulation not yet fu l ly f e l t " . In answer to the question, "Do you think Community Arts Council's financial position could be strengthened i f so how?", the following responses were given. Eighteen groups fe l t that the financial position could be improved, four were unsure, and five fa i led to answer. Three thought the financial position should be improved by grant of publie funds (two thought this should be c i v i c ) . Three thought publicity would assist in increasing finances, while five 143 fe l t that larger membership was the answer. One said that there should be coordination of "cultural money-raising". Among the comments, the following contained pertinent suggestions: 1) that a percentage of festivals sponsored by the Arts Council should revert to i t ; 2) that i f groups could be stimulated they might pay a small levy on enter-tainments they produced; 3) that Vancouver Civic Theatre should pay a fee; 4) that member organizations as such should be invited to make a yearly contribution; and 5) that there might be more individual members among the member groups and that the organizations themselves might pay high-er fees. One interviewee mentioned that "out-of-town speak-ers of interest to several groups in the Literary Section could make money for the Council. Asked whether they fe l t their representation in the Council was adequate, 14 groups said yes, seven said no, and four were unsure. Two fa i led to answer. Three of the four who said they were unsure, were spoken for by their section representatives or by members who belonged to the Board of Directors. They f e l t , therefore, that they were not in a position to answer for their groups. Of those who fe l t that . representation was inadequate four stated that i t was the "group's fault for not sending members to section meetings". Five member-groups of the Drama Section, one member of the Music Section, and two non-section members fe l t represent-144 ation was inadequate, while two members of the l i terary Section and two of the Drama Section were unsure. Of the 27 approximately one-half f e l t representation was adequate, while the other half were dissatisfied or unsure. Oomments Regarding group views On The Council In summarizing the opinions of section member-groups on the adequacy of the Council's functioning, i t s f inancial position, and i t s ab i l i ty to reflect group opinion, one seems to f ind several salient points. Perhaps the one whioh pervades a l l three questions most thoroughly is the necess-i ty for further interpretation and added publicity about the Council and i t s potential value to member-groups. The other, which goes hand-in-hand with this, i s the concern of groups that membership (particularly individual membership in the Council of those within each group and of groups as such in the appropriate sections) should be enlarged. In analysis of the meaning of these replies one might find a close connection between membership and publ ic i ty . Not only would increased membership add weight to Council publioity, but i t would also bring the internal membership of each group in closer contact with the aims and objectives of the Council. Thus i t would increase the feeling of "be-longingness" of the groups as wholes. This would probably have the effect of further stimulating their interest in the Council as such, and of strengthening their w i l l and ab i l i ty 145 to p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n C o u n c i l government. Added i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would thus be p o s s i b l e through the medium of i n c r e a s e d lews Calendar c i r c u l a t i o n . Sinoe the time of the i n t e r v i e w s the News Calendar has been e f f e c t i v e l y s t r e a m l i n e d . I t s value i n p u b l i c i z i n g both the C o u n c i l I t s e l f and i t s member-groups has been r e -v i t a l i z e d . Through-out the i n t e r v i e w s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s had r e i t e r a t e d the need f o r added C o u n o i l p u b l i c i t y . I n the l i g h t of t h i s the News Calendar, p r e s s , and r a d i o r e l e a s e s have s i n c e aimed to improve i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of o v e r - a l l C o u n c i l a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , however, that many group r e p r e s e n t -a t i v e s have i n d i c a t e d concern that one copy of the Calendar i s inadequate f o r c i r c u l a t i o n to the groups. As many groups are without head-quarters of t h e i r own, the News Calendar does not even get posted where a l l members oan read i t . At the present time the Calendar i s i n many cases sent to the s e c r e t a r y or some other r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and i s o f t e n unseen by the p r e s i d e n t of the group. I t cannot, t h e r e f o r e , be g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n p r i o r to group meetings. T h i s e l i m i n a t -es p l a n n i n g to i n c l u d e important Calendar i n f o r m a t i o n on the agenda. One s o l u t i o n i s suggested i n the groups' recommend-a t i o n that i n d i v i d u a l membership be Increased. Another s o l u t i o n might be a "blanket membership" f o r groups. At present t h i s would demand i n c r e a s e d group f i n a n c i a l support 146 to cover p r i n t i n g c o s t s , t u t at the same time i t would per-mit the C o u n c i l o f f i c e to d i s t r i h u t e a numher of c o p i e s of the Calendar to each group. Two p a r t i c u l a r suggestions may he made r e g a r d i n g seem-in g apathy of i n d i v i d u a l memhers w i t h i n groups toward t a k i n g out membership. These are i n a d d i t i o n to the f a c t that many cannot a f f o r d to pay dues both to t h e i r own groups and to the C o u n c i l . One i s that u n t i l speakers o r other C o u n c i l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s can "get to the groups" i n t h e i r own meet-i n g s and f i n d out d i r e c t l y from them t h e i r group o p i n i o n on the C o u n c i l and what they want of i t , l i t t l e more a c t i v i t y can be expected. Likew i s e , u n t i l such C o u n c i l r e p r e s e n t -a t i v e s oan work wit h the groups to f u r t h e r t h e i r understand-i n g of the use of s e c t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , l i t t l e w i l l be accomplished i n t h i s area. I t has come to l i g h t d u r i n g the past few months that group r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n s e c t i o n meetings i s s p o r a d i c and haphazard. Mazaycof. the groups n e i t h e r e l e c t nor appoint o f f i c i a l " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s whose duty i t i s to speak f o r them and to r e p o r t back to them i n d e t a i l . A f t e r one meeting a s e c t i o n chairman was hear to remark, "What c o u l d we ex-pect? None of the people had ever been there before I" Only when r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s are chosen by the group and r e -s p o n s i b l e to i t , both f o r a t t e n d i n g meetings and f o r rep-r e s e n t i n g the t o t a l group's p o i n t of view, r a t h e r than t h e i r 147 own, can i t be expected that the sections w i l l mirror the thinking of the group's they serve. Only so can the members of sections function adequately in electing the right people to speak as section representatives at board l eve l . As publicity lacks meaning without program, so democratic pro-cedure without knowledge of the situation is equally without value. The fact that eight groups (six of whom were nominally section members) questioned the Council's function further underlines this need for interpretation of the Council i t -self . There i s a need for "drawing i n " groups through use of speakers, Calendar editorials and other public relations media. Above a l l , there i s a need for c lar i f i ca t ion of rep-resentation channels so that knowledge may flow back and forth between group members and the Counoil Board. Both membership and publicity also have a close con-nection with the necessary strengthening of the Council's f inancial position. Membership fees are too small at present to have much direct impact on the Council 's budget. (It w i l l he remembered that 60 cents of eaoh dollar-membership must be used to cover Calendar costs). The importance of member-ship and publicity In increasing finances should not be under -^estimated however. There i s always a direct connection be-tween these factors and the ab i l i ty of any organization to muster intel l igently-given f inancial support. 148 Ho- group of contributors, whether public or private, i s l ike ly to underwrite the act iv i t ies of any organization unless they know enough about the services and scope to feel that the effort i s beneficial to a large community of individuals and groups. Comments about functions, finances, and representation indicate on the whole, however, that those who real ly belong and take active interest in the Council have fa i th in i t s purpose and potential value. They also understand i t s l imitations as being those of an organization young but nevertheless aiming in the right direction. It i s s igni-f icant that in commenting on representation no group made any verbal cr i t ic ism of the Council 1s governing body. Considerable indication was also given of group readi-ness to take a more active and responsible part in Council affairs . Witness the suggestions that the groups could contribute more than they do in a variety of ways. Also witness the recent trend amongst many of the groups to pub-l i c i z e their own efforts as those of"an a f f i l i a te of the Community Arts Council". In the over-all picture i t must be remembered, however, that only 58 of the 100 affiliate-groups are section members. If section members indicate only a modicum of "we-feeling", what may be expected of those who have no direct contact with the Council except through the information they receive or submit to the Calendar. 149 Summary of Findings of"the Present Survey The results of the (foregoing analysis show that the group members of the Community Arts Council have a wide variation in age, interests, and emphases. A large propor-tion of them have activities or interests in a number of art forms and in related fields, and although amateur in standing, do not make a clear separation between amateur and professional activities. The majority also show a high degree of participant-activity which may be seen as closely related to their emphasis on development of art forms for "self-expression or expression of l i f e " . Closely tied in with this comes their over-all f e e l -ing that groups should be self-determining and that in a democratic setting, standards of performance, appreciation, enjoyment, and organization interest are generally raised rather than lowered* This belief serves effectively to dispel any pre-conceived notions that arts groups might be removed from other groups i n the community in terms of what group members as individuals want out of their associations. 150 CHAPTER VII CONCLUSION In the foregoing chapters, the writer has attempted to give some picture of the growth and development of the Community Arts Couneil of Vancouver, the f i r s t looal co-ordinating body in the arts f i e ld ever established on this continent* It has been seen that the Arts Council borrows heavily from the thinking of the welfare movement and the National Arts Council of Great Br i ta in , and i s one of the voluntary bodies operating at community level which has put pressure toward development of the Canada Council proposed by the Royal Commission on Arts letters and Sciences in i t s report to the Dominion government. The Arts Council i s incorporated under the Br i t i sh Columbia "societies Act" as a non-profit organization, and operates under a registered constitution and by-laws. Its objectives are to increase opportunities for Vancouver citizens to enjoy and participate in cultural arts through i t s functions as a stimulator, coordinator, eliminator of over-lapping, f i l l e r of gaps, and interpreter of the aotiv-151 i t i e s of i t s member-groups and individual members through i t s own lews Calendar, by making press and radio contaots, and negotiating with other large coordinating bodies and government offices. The Council was established as the result of a Survey The Arts and Our Town, which showed the over-lappings and gaps in Vancouver*s a r t i s t i c and cultural l i f e . As a re-sult of the report of the study, the Mayor of Vanoouver established an Interim Committee, to investigate and report on the poss ib i l i ty of establishing a oouncil for coordin-ation of the Arts. This Committee was established i n May, 1946, and reported i t s findings in October of the same year, at which time a large public meeting voted the Arts Council into existence. The Board of Directors of the Council represents wide community interests rather than specific phases of arts. It has grown in size, as a direct result of the d i f f i cu l ty of establishing a new and scarcely understood movement, from the original 31 to 50 in number. It has a smaller, more cohesive executive committee, which meets monthly be-tween board meetings, and carries a large portion of the Council's on-going business. Represented on both board and executive committee are the three section, music, drama, and l i terature, through whom direct representation of member-groups i s made possible. Other sections are to be formed 152 whenever interest in such development i s shown by the mem-bers of groups operating in other areas of the art f i e l d . Financial canvassing and budgeting are s t i l l the re-sponsibil ity of a disproportionately small group, which i s , nevertheless extremely active and successful. The basis of canvas i s narrow at present but i s growing wider a l l the time. The question of future, direction of financing i s un-decided. The Gouneil may obtain funds from government, through other coordinating bodies or through becoming i t s own "chest for cultural ac t iv i t ie s " . It may combine these sources of funds. The emphasis is., however, on retaining the independent sp i r i t of the movement. The program of the Gouneil has shown certain trends during the four years of operation. F i r s t there were sev-eral large "attention-getting" projects, necessary to must- ; er support, but concentrating on one or a few phases of arts, low the program i s turning more toward continuous day-to-day services to members and member-groups, and to in i t i a t ion by the sections of projects in which their groups have combined interest. The one well-developed phase of continuous pro-gram i s the News Calendar, which has been the Council's main-stay since i t s inception. Proposed program for the coming year, the Council w i l l make community arts available to the children of Vancouver, through (and in cooperation with) the existing youth-serving organizations of the c i ty . The group-membership of the Council is largely of 153 amateur standing, having a wide variety of art interests and a high degree of participant act iv i ty . The groups are autonomous in essence, and make their voice heard in the Council through their section membership. Those groups not belonging to sections have no such representation channel and are clearly in need of assistance in learning about the act iv i t ies of the Council and in saying what they would l ike i t to do for them. The majority of groups closely connected with the Council believe in this coordinated body but want to know more about i t themselves and to have others know about i t . On the whole, the Council i s progressive, v i t a l , and f lexible , and has a high regard for democratic procedure. It has always maintained that professional staff was nec-essary, and has a positive attitude toward standards in a l l f ie lds of professional act iv i ty . 154 Appendix "A" BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Lee, Er n e s t , P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n Saskatchewan R e c r e a t i o n , D i v i s i o n of P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s and R e c r e a t i o n : Regina, 1948. 2. The Welfare C o u n c i l of Greater Vancouver, Group  Work and R e c r e a t i o n , Vancouver, 1945. 3. A s s o c i a t i o n of J u n i o r Leagues of America, Inc., The A r t s and Our Town: A Plan f o r Community C u l t u r a l Study, New York, 1944. 4. The J u n i o r League of Vancouver, A r t s and Our Town, "; Keystone Press, Vancouver, 1945. 5. L. E . N o r r i e , P r e f a c e t o A r t s and Our Town, Vancouver, 1945. 6. McMillan, Wayne, Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r S o c i a l  Welfare, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1949. 7. Newstetter, Wilbur I., Teaching Community  O r g a n i z a t i o n i n Schools of S o c i a l Work, a paper to the N a t i o n a l Conference on S o c i a l Work, 1941. 8. Community Chests and C o u n c i l s , Inc., H e a l t h and  Welfare P l a n n i n g , flew York, 1945. 9. Comer, V i r g i n i a Lee, Report of C o n s u l t a t i o n V i s i t to the Community A r t s Coun.oil o f Vancouver, May 1949. 10. Community A r t s C o u n c i l f l i e r . 11. Trecker, H a r l e i g h B., Group Process i n Adminis- t r a t i o n , The Women's Pre s s , New York, 1946. 12. Dominion of Canada, Report of the Royal Commission  on A r t s , L e t t e r s and Sciences, King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1951. 13. ''King, Clarence, S o c i a l Agency Boards and .How to  Make Them E f f e c t i v e , Harper B r o t h e r s , New York, 1936. 155 14. Canadian Welfare Council, Draft Constitution  and By-Laws for a Community Chest, (publication f 1 9 ) , Council House, Ottawa, 1941. 15 . Constitution of Community Arts Council of Vancouver. 16. Minutes of Meetings, Interim committee, Board, Executive and other. 17. Minutes of Group Meeting. 18 . Correspondence f i l e s of Community Arts Council. APPENDIX "B* 156 ORGANIZATION OF MEMBER GROUPS OF TEE COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL OF VANCOUVER Group's Name , Branch ( i f neoessaryi How many years has your organization "been in existence? 0-80 How many years has i t been af f i l iated with Community Arts Council? One year 9 Two years 14 Three years 15 Four years 0 (7 unsure) Average membership this year a) total membership 14-3,500  b) in arts program 14 - 600  Is your organization's main eoncern a) the development of cultural arts? Yes 24 No b) participation in cultural arts? Yes 24 No If not, which of the following are i t s principal interests? Leisure-time act iv i t ies (16) b) Business 1 Industry socials and picnics 2 Commerce group work 9 o) Labour Organization recreation 9 d) Money Raising 3 public affairs 3 e) Public Relations 1 sports 1 f) Education 8 Other (specify) g) Religion 4 In which of the following act iv i t ies i s your organization interested?] | Art i Form Professional Amateur Other j Music 24 9 19 1 Graphic Art 7 1 7 2 Drama 19 2 18 1 Dance 7 1 8 Literature 16 6 14 2 Other (spec-ify) 10 2 2 1 Name of Person Reporting (or best person to contact) Telephone Appendix "C" November 25th, 1950. Dear S i r or Madam: I am making a study of the organization and function of the Community Arts Council of Vancouver. For t h i s purpose, I am anxious to obtain as much inform-ation as possible about the present set-up and h i s t o r i c a l background of similar councils i n Great B r i t a i n and the United States; and I am p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n the ways in which member groups a f f i l i a t e and coordinate t h e i r ac-t i v i t i e s through the l o c a l Council. This material i s to be compiled as a Master of Social Work thesis i n the School of Social Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. I am approaching the task, therefore, as a study of community organization, with em-phasis on the welfare aspects of Arts Council a c t i v i t y . My immediate concern i s i n securing essential background information about member organizations of Community Arts Council. I f you have one or two years' reports available, i t would be extremely h e l p f u l for me to see these. I am hoping, however, that I s h a l l be able to get d e t a i l i n standard form from a number of constituent groups so as to complete a comprehensive study. As I can achieve t h i s objective only with the cooperation of a l l active member groups of the Council, I have worked out some basic questions. Would you be good enough to answer them on the attached form. Knowing your time i s precious, I hesitate to ask you to f i l l out a more detailed enquiry, but I should be obliged i f you could f i n d time for an interview to discuss t h i s further. May I telephone you about this i n the near future? Thank you i n anticipation. Yours t r u l y , (Miss) D. M. Sweeny. APPENDIX "D" 156 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR MEMBER ORGANIZATIONS OF COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL Name of Organization Branch. Are your organization's cultural art act iv i t ies primarily a) Professional - - Participant 6 Spectator 3 ? b} Semi- " — Participant 2 Spectator 8 ? o) Amateur — Participant 19 Spectator 13 ? Is your organization a member of Community Arts Counoils a) Musio Section? Yes 9 No b) Drama Section? Yes 10 No o) Literary Section? Yes 5 No Does your organization make use of or contribute to Community Arts Council Resources? (Check where applicable) Resource Use of Contribution to often some times seldom never often some times seldom never Publici ty Recruiting Specialists Program Financial A i d . . 17 1 4 1 3 6 1 2 8 2 1 Music ( l ibrary ' sheet music Instruments records) 1 1 Drama I non-royalty plays, other) 1 1 Theatrical Equipment (decor, l ight ing costumes, make-up, other) 1 1 Other (specify) > Total groups: 27. APPENDIX "D" (cont'd) 169 Do you think arts develop "best in a) a democratic setting (group control) 22 b) an autocratic setting (leader/teacher' control 7' c) an uncontrolled setting 0_ What effect do you think "democratization" of art has on standards of a) performance raises 10 lowers 5 no effect 3 b) appreciation .raises~16 lowers 4 no effect 1 c) enjoyment raises 18 lowers 2 no effect 0 dj organizational interest raises 20 lowers 1 no effeot 0 For what purposes do you use or develop art forms?-(lumber in order of importance where applicable) Bating a) for themselves ("art for art 's sake") ; b) for self-expression or expression of l i f e (therapeutic or personality development value to individuals or groups) 1 o) to give pleasure to others. d) to gain status 5,4 e) as means of making a l iv ing_ fj as means of indirect control of groups or individuals g) other (specify) 6 Do you feel Community Arts Council i s performing i t s function in the following respects (Please mark as follows: a—adequately fa—fairly adequately 1—inadequately Coordination a-T3 Stimulation a-8 ~ Publicity a-12 Suggestions: 19 Do you think Community Arts Council's f inancial position could be strengthened? Yes 18 No .0 Unsure 4 (If so, how?)__ Suggestions: 14 Do you feel your group is adequately represented in Community Arts Council? Yes 14 No 7 Unsure 4 By whom are your organization's interests voiced? Board Member? Yes No Name Telephone APPENDIX r T E ; r ||~S i ANNUAL MEETING 1950-51 A " f u l l House" i n c l u d i n g such hon-oured guests as Alderman Anna E. Sprott, 3. C, Trade Commissioner,- R. S. O'Meara, a large number of Arts Council Members and many other i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s attended the Arts Council's 3rd Annual Meeting held May 16th, 1951 i n the Vancouver Art G a l l e r y . Pre s i dent's Me s sage Miss Jean R u s s e l l , r e t i r i n g President,-stressed the trend from large demonstration i projects to l e s s spectacular but v i t a l ser-vice to i n d i v i d u a l s and member groups. Larger quarters now provide meeting space f o r member groups, and the o f f i c e w i l l soon become a display case of "Arts i n our Town". Close cooperation with government depart-ments, c i v i c organizations and the Univ-e r s i t y has enabled the Council to expand i t s service" considerably. Reports of the Secretary, Mrs. J . F. C a r r o l l ; the Treasurer Mrs.- J . H. Lamprey; the F i n a n c i a l Chairman Mrs. R. R. A r k e l l , and the Membership Chairman, Mrs. R. A. C, Douglas - showed the increase i n f i n a n c i a l support and i n t e r e s t i n the Council during the past year but stressed the continuing need f o r even wider support and p a r t i c i p a -t i o n to insure the success of i t s r a p i d l y developing program-. The three e x i s t i n g Sections,- Drama, Music and L i t e r a t u r e (reported on by t h e i r Chairmen, Mrs, K. D'Arcy Goldrick, Mr. David Spencer and Dr. R. E. Watters), have proved without question, the value of such inter-group representative bodies i n i n -augurating- and carrying through important [cooperative plans. Although growing need f o r other Sec-tions i n V i s u a l A r t s , Dance,- Photography, Cr a f t s , etc. was evident during the year, these would be formed only when groups Jactive i n these forms of Art so requested. [The need to include C i v i c Art (Town Plan-ning) as one of the basic art forms f o s -tered by the Council was dynamically pre-sented by Professor Peter Oberlander, Chairman of t h i s new Committee. 260 COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL OF VANCOUVER • MA 4358 Miss Hilda Browne and Professor Hunter Lewis discussed the work of the Public- Relations Committee and the need to make av a i l a b l e more comprehensive reports on a l l l o c a l art events. Mrs. A l l a n Gregory spoke of the increased c i r -c u l ation and coverage of events provided by the News Calendar. Discussing the recent reorganization of the office-, the. Executive Secretary spoke of service to individuals,-member groups, sec-tions and cooperating organizations -enormous-l y broadened by streamlining procedures.and by the work of 95 volunteers. Stenographic assistance", costumes, scores, teachers, lead-ers and organizational help were among the many services provided. Redecoration and r e f u r n i s h i n g of the Arts Council made possible through the co-operation of the School of A r c h i t e c t u r e , U.B.C, and the Vancouver Vocational I n s t i -tute were well under way, reported Mrs. E. J . Palmer, Chairman of t h i s Committee. Speaking of "Program Futures" Mr. Alex Walton, incoming President, said the Council's Children's Program f o r the coming year.was the organization's most important project to date'. In giving many chi l d r e n t h e i r f i r s t opportunities to see, hear and take part i n a l l forms of a r t , Mr. Walton f e l t the Council; would be f i l l i n g a v i t a l need i n the c i t y . Professor Geoffrey Andrew, Vice-President of the Council,- and Chairman of our b r i e f to the Royal Commission on Arts,. Letters and Sciences, emphasized the need f o r the renewed a c t i v i t y of every A r t s Council member and every c i t i z e n of Vancouver to press f o r im-plementation of the Commission's recommenda-tio n s soon to be published. A f i n e t r i b u t e was paid the Council by Mr. Stanley B l i g h , i n the Vancouver Sun on May 19th. We are pleased to quote the f o l l o w -i n g excerpt: "Now i n the fourth year of i t s a c t i v i t i e s , - the Community Arts Council of Vancouver has j u s t i -f i e d the optimism of those enthusiastic JUNE, 1951 people who f i r s t promoted the p r o j e c t . Reports given at the recent annual meeting revealed t h a t the organization has passed the stage of infancy and i s now a robust, healthy child,. , I f a l l organizations...concerned i n providing relaxation and recreation...would l i n k up.with the Arts Council, the l i f e of. Vancouver people would be greatly enriched."* The following Directors were elected to serve f o r 1951-52: O f f i c e r s _ . • Mr. Alex Walton - President Mrs. A l l a n Gregory - Vice-President Professor G.C. Andrew - Vice-President Mr. Howard Goodwin - Vice-President Mrs. Jean F. C a r r o l l - Secretary Mr, John Rose Treasurer* Board of Directors Miss Marjorie Agnew Mr. Frederick Amess* Mrs. R. R. A r k e l l Miss Hilda Browne Mrs. Donald Campbell Mrs. C. E. Dolman Mrs. R, C. Douglas Mrs. Gordon Draeseke Miss Isabel E l l i o t t Mrs. E l i n o r Evans Mrs. Yvonne F i rkins Mrs. K. Darcy Goldrick Mr. John Helders Dr. Gordon Hutton Miss Lorraine B i r c h * Mrs.- Cotsworth Clarke* Mrs. J . V. Clyne* The Rev. Dudley Kemp* Mrs. Otto Korner Miss Eura Leeson Professor Hunter Lewis Mrs. Max Low-Beer . Miss Barbara Mather* Mrs. Holly Maxwell* . Mr. Ledley McMaster* Mr. Marcus Nairn* Mr. John Douglas Nixon* Professor Peter Oberlander Mr. Michael O'Brien* Mrs. E. J , Palmer Miss Dorothy Prat Mrs.- H. A. Richardson Mr. W. G. H. Roaf Miss Jean Ru s s e l l Mr. Robert N. Smith* Mr. David Spencer Board, of Directors (continued) Mrs.: Lloyd Spencer* -." Alderman Anna' Sprott* Mrs. E l z a Stewart Mrs. Austin Taylor*- ' -Miss E l i z a b e t h Thomas Rev. (Major) Geo. Turpin Dr. R. E. Watters * denotes new members ONE ACT PLAY FESTIVAL Congratulations to the Vancouver Reper-tory Theatre who won the award f o r the best ' play i n the F e s t i v a l l a s t month with t h e i r production of "The Courtship of Marie Jenvrin." This group also c a r r i e d ' o f f top honours i n the B. C. Regional of'the Dominion Drama F e s t i v a l ' and has just returned from presenting t h e i r three-act play "Therese" i n the f i n a l s i n London,- Ontario where they received much prai&e from the adjudicator. Best drama i n the One-Act F e s t i v a l was "Outward Bound", Act 3,' Sc. 1, presented by the White Rock Players, and best comedy was "Suppressed Desires" by Sea Island Players. Franklin Johnson of White Rock Players was judged the best actor and Molly Ballany of West End Players was chosen best a c t r e s s . •Mr. James McGrath, the adjudicator, f e l t that the standard of plays was higher than i n the F e s t i v a l l a s t year. He urged the groups to continue to present plays to the public as: j often as possible during the year, i n t h i s way b u i l d i n g up an audience for next year's Festival.. THEATRE UNDER THE STARS T Since 1940,- when Theatre Under the Stars made i t s bow to Vancouver audiences, i t s aim has been to bring to Vancouver the f i n e s t entertainment p o s s i b l e . I t has provided a t r a i n i n g ground and outlet f o r our l o c a l actors and musicians and each year has seen fewer importations of talent f o r i t s produc-t i o n s . Last year the management of TUTS was assumed by the Vancouver C i v i c Theatre Society. This season s i x musical comedy produc-. ti o n s w i l l be presented i n Malkin Bowl from June 25 to August 18. The opening production w i l l be "The Chocolate S o l d i e r " , to be f o l - -lowed by "Hit the Deck", "The Count of Luxem-bourg", "The Maid of the Mountains"/Maytime" and "Brigadoon." - 3 -Season t i c k e t s and t i c k e t s f o r single shows may be obtained at the C i t y Ticket Bur-eau at the Hudson's Bay Co., Georgia and Gra n v i l l e (West Mezzanine Floor) d a i l y from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. except on Wednesday, when they w i l l be on sale at the .Georgia Street Entrance. Tickets may be ordered by' mail addressed to the Vancouver C i v i c Theatre Society, 2024 Beach Avenue, Vancouver. TOTEM SUMMER THEATRE Good news f o r theatre goers '. Vancouver i s t o have a summer stock company, present-i n g eight three-act plays i n an outdoor s e t t i n g from July 2 to August 25. The Totem Summer Theatre i s being managed by Thor Arngrim and Stuart Baker. Plays to be presented i n the open-air bowl at Ambleside Park, West Vancouver include such recent h i t s as "Light Up the Sky", "Harvey",- "Junior Miss" and "Born Yester-day". The d i r e c t o r s are well-known i n Vancouver theatre; Phoebe Smith, Juan Root., Dorothy Davies, Ed McNamara and Frank Vyvyan. Season t i c k e t s are a v a i l a b l e at Modern Music. U. Bo C. EXTENSION SUMMER COURSES . . Again t h i s year the Extension Depart-ment at the Un i v e r s i t y i s o f f e r i n g an out-standing summer f i n e a r t s program with courses i n Opera, Theatre, Art,-- Pottery and Weaving. Opera ' . A p r a c t i c a l study of opera and con-cert l i t e r a t u r e i s a 'course from May 28 to July 5. Nicholas Goldschmidt w i l l be guest d i r e c t o r . Theatre Courses i n ac t i n g , speech, d i r e c t i n g and stagecrafts at the Summer School of the Theatre with Theodore Vielman back as guest d i r e c t o r f o r a fourth season, ably a s s i s t e d by Dorothy Somerset, Sydney Risk, Joy C o g h i l l and Jessie Richardson, July 3 - August 11. Art Painting f o r pleasure under C l i f f Robinson from July 3 - August 2 or, Design and Composition i n Painting under the d i r e c t i o n of Albert Marrapese from July 4 - August 6. JUNE, 1951 Handicrafts Advanced pottery workshop from July 9 -July 20, Ed i t h Heath. Elementary p o t t e r y - i n s t r u c t i o n by Moll i e Carter, July 4 '- August 6. Weaving, a course f o r beginners and ad-vanced weavers from Mary Meigs At water,- July 9 - 2 7 . Further information on a l l these courses can be obtained from the Director,- Department of University Extension,- U.B.C. •SUMMER PIANO COURSES Of i n t e r e s t to piano teachers and senior students i s the announcement of the Royal Conservatory of Music of Toronto of courses to be held i n Vancouver from August 22 to August 2'8. The le c t u r e r s w i l l be the w e l l -known p i a n i s t s , Boris .Berlin and Boris Roubakine. Apply to Mrs. Kenneth Thomson, 5588 Crown Street, Kerrisdale 5940-R f o r more detail's. NEIGHBOURHOOD HOUSES Gordon House summer day camp-starts again July 3rd-. The camp mainly f o r 8-10 •year olds w i l l have a North Vancouver s i t e where the ch i l d r e n w i l l b u i l d t h e i r own sh e l t e r s , campfires and f o r t s . Program w i l l include 1, i n addition to wood l o r e , out-door dancing, naturecraft, swimming and hi k i n g . Any c h i l d r e n who would l i k e to attend should phone Junior House at MA 5281. The midgets (6-8 years old) w i l l have a morning summer play program during J u l y , i n -formation from Junior House. Volunteer leaders are needed f o r both programs. Anyone interes t e d i n a s s i s t i n g please contact Mrs. Emmott at MA 2554. Alexandra House also has a summer fun program c a l l e d the "Nabe Summer Club" f o r children 6-12 who l i v e i n the Neighbourhood House area.' Children w i l l meet i n small groups with an adult leader. A c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r choice such as ha n d i c r a f t s , games, dancing, singing,' woodcraft w i l l be enjoyed Monday,- Wednesday and Friday,- with "out t r i p s " to parks, beaches, camp s i t e s e t c . , on Tues-days and Thursdays. Playschool f o r 3-5 year olds w i l l con-tinue on Monday to Friday mornings i n July. JUNE, 1951 - 4 -For information c a l l Miss S h e i l a C a r l i s l e MEETINGS or Mrs. R. B. Ruffe11 (Playschool) at CE 1636. June 1 -Note: Both Alexandra House and Gordon House are in. search of a d d i t i o n a l lead-ers f o r t h e i r summer programs. Anyone June 3 int e r e s t e d please phone. Mrs, Emmott (Gordon House) or Miss C a r l i s l e (Alex-andra House)'. ART GALLERY RENTALS Federation of Canadian A r t i s t s . Dinner at Alcazar Hotel.• Speaker: Mr. Jack Shadbolt. Vancouver (Canada Centre) of The Poetry Society of London, England, Annual garden party at the home of the D i r e c t o r , Irene H. Moody (Lewis), Glan y mor, 4371 Erwin Drive, West Vancouver, 2 p.m. The Art Gallery hopes to open the new wing by the middle of August. The following i s the space which w i l l be ava i l a b l e f o r r e n t a l to groups: Space Max. Seat- Rental Including i n g Capacity .Charge Kitchen F a c i l i t i e s Concert Gallery South or North Gal-l e r y 513 $90 225 Emily Carr 210 Studio "A" (with Projec-t i o n Room" 150 Lecture H a l l 100 Studio "Cr 85 45 40 25 15 10 55 50 20 A piano i s a v a i l a b l e i n ground f l o o r h a l l s without extra charge. A 10% reduction i n fees w i l l be made f o r a series of bookings (not le s s than f i v e i n number) provided a contract i s signed. VANCOUVER REPERTORY THEATRE w i l l be hold-i n g play readings during the summer at t h e i r headquarters, 2606 West 34th Ave. De f i n i t e dates are not yet s e t , but should be decided by the end of June. Anyone interested, i s i n v i t e d to attend.. Phone Mrs. Dorothy Goldrick, Ke. 0991 L. DISPLAY SPACE NEEDED? June 14 -June 5 - Vancouver Musical and S o c i a l Club, General Meeting and party, 984 West 20th Avenue, 8 p.m. June 10 -, S i r Ernest MacMillan Fine Arts Club, Annual R a l l y , Malkin Bowl, .Stanley Park,- 2:30 p.m. Vancouver C i v i c B a l l e t , Annual Meeting, Edith Adams Cottage, 8:15 p.m. B. C. P h i l a t e l i c Society-Regular monthly meetings, Blue Triangle Residence', 595 Hornby Street, 8 p.m. Speaker on August 2,. Mr. Lemon of the Postal Dept. Vancouver Active Writers Club, Regular meetings, Aldine House, 1300 Robson Street, 8 p.m. Prospective members welcome.' June July Aug., & 21 & 19 & 16 June 7 & 14 July 5 & 19 Aug'. 2 & 16 June 18 & 22- Vancouver Photographic Society,, July, 16 & 27 Regular Meetings, McGavin's Aug. 20 &•24 Auditorium, 2091 W. Broadway, 7:30 p.m. • Aug-. 18 & 19- A.O.T.S. Annual Round-up, Ocean Park, begins at 9:30 a.m.1' A new fine a r t s shop i s now open i n West Vancouver near Park Royal which has display space f o r paintings and handi-c r a f t s . For d e t a i l s c a l l the Ar t s Council, - 5 - i f •.JUNE.,1951'. CALENDAR OF EVENTS J U N E A R T D R A M A -FRIDAY VANCOUVER ART GALLERY MONDAY 1st Canadian E x h i b i t i o n from 25th to Washington to 15th Gallery Hours: 29th Tuesday: 10 a.m.-5 -p.m. Wed.,Thurs.,Fri.: 10 am-9 pm. Sat.: 10 - 5 WEDNESDAY Sun.: 2 - 5 27th The Gallery w i l l be c l o s i n g soon f o r construction of the new wing. Watch f o r the opening i n August with s p e c i a l e x h i b i t -ions at that time. THURSDAY FEDERATION OF CANADIAN ARTISTS May 31st, (New West. BranchJ June 1st Opening of Annual E x h i b i t i o n and 2nd Y.M.C.A.,' 514 Royal Ave., New Westminster. WEDNESDAY VANCOUVER ART GALLERY 27th A r c h i t e c t u r a l Tour 1:30 to 5:30 p.m. Tickets at Art Galler y , or i f closed, phone Mrs. Oscar WEDNESDAY Erickson,- CH 9820. 27th D R A M A SATURDAY 2nd SATURDAY 16th WHITE ROCK PLAYERS ' '-"The Man Who Came to-Dinner" by George Kaufman- & Moss Hart White Rock L i t t l e Theatre 8:30."p.m. ETHEL FERGUSON. PLAYERS Studio Students' R e c i t a l Studio H a l l , Roomx'213, 615 W. Pender St.' " " 8:30 p.m. GARDEN PARTIES 1 VANCOUVER WOMEN'S MUSICAL CLUB Annual Garden Party '• Home of Mrs. Frank Ross, 4899 Belmont, 2:30 to 5:30 p.m. PHILHARMONIC MUSIC CLUB Garden Party at the home of Mrs. J.S. Eckman, 3789 Pine Cres, 2:30 to 5:30 p.m. Tickets at Modern Music, BACH CHOIR Garden Party at the home of Mr. & Mrs. H.M. Drost, '1488 W. 32nd 3:00 to 7:00 p.m. FRIDAY VANCOUVER.LITTLE THEATRE 1st "Three Men on a Horse" by John Holm and George Abbott York Theatre 8:20 p.m. Ticket s at Modern Music, MONDAY U.J.P.O. DRAMA WORKSHOP 4th "The Biggest Thief i n Town" to by Dalton Trumbo 9th Everyman Theatre, 2237 Main Street 8:45 p.m.. T i c k e t s : Phone Mrs. Chud, CE 4376. TUESDAY SCH0.0L OF THE SPOKEN WORD 19th Dramatic R e c i t a l by children's group Peter Pan Ballroom, 1636 W, Broadway 8:00 p.m. Tickets at 2744 W. 10th, CH 2026. M U S I C FRIDAY. ' LE CANTORE D'OPERA 1st "Rigoletto" by Guiseppe V e r d i . Sutherland Junior H.S., North Vancouver 8:15 p.m. Tickets at Cunningham Drugs, 15th & Lonsdale, North Vancr. WEDNESDAY VANCOUVER JUNIOR SYMPHONY 6th "A Night of Music" Junior Symphony and John Ol i v e r H.S. Orchestra' conducted by Albert Steinberg, John O l i v e r Choir conducted by Sherwood Robson. John O l i v e r High School 8 p.m. Tickets from Mr. Robson CH 8413 or Miss Agnew PA 2793. JUNE-JULT, 1951 - 6 -JUNE M U S I C JULY D R A M A WEDNESDAY ST. ANDREWS-WESLEY CHOIR MONDAY 6th Organ R e c i t a l by L.J. Cluderay .2nd to a s s i s t e d by Miss Margaret 7th Davies' Aeolian Choir.' 9th to 13th Organ R e c i t a l by L . J . Cluderay 14th S t . Andrews-Wesley Church,- 16th to Burrard at Nelson 8:30 p.m. 21st 23rd to THURSDAY VANCOUVER CITY OPERA 28th 7th "Orpheus" by Gluck." 30th & and Music conducted by Richard K i t - 31st 8th son,- Choreography by Jean Jepsonj Manhattan, 1727 W. Broadway 8:30 p.m. Tickets at Modern Music. TOTEM SUMMER THEATRE "Light Up the Sky" by Moss Hart. "Hay Fever" by-.Noel Coward. "Personal Appearance" by Lawrence R i l e y . "Harvey" by Mary Chase, "Charley's Aunt" by Brandon Thomas. Ambleside Park, West Vancouver 8:30 p'.m. Tickets at Modern Music. MONDAY 25th to 30th FRIDAY 1st THEATRE UNDER THE STARS "The Chocolate So l d i e r " by Oscar Strauss Malkin Bowl, Stanley Park 8:30 p.m. Tickets at Hudson's Bay Co. (West Mezzanine ):. S P E E C H B. C. TEACHERS SPEECH ARTS  FEDERATION Speech Arts F e s t i v a l Cambrian H a l l , 17th at Main JULY A.R T WEDNESDAY VANCOUVER ART GALLERY • 25th A r c h i t e c t u r a l Tour ' 1:30 to 5:30 p.m. Tickets from Mrs.- Oscar Erickson, CH 9820 M U S I C SUNDAY • CANADIAN BROAD CASTING CORP. 1st, 8th, Concert 15th,22nd, Malkin Bowl, Stanley Park 29th 9:00 to .10:00 p.m. SUNDAY B. C, ELECTRIC 1st, 15th, Symphony Concert & 29th Malkin Bowl, Stanley Park MONDAY THEATRE UNDER THE STARS 2nd to "Hit the Deck" by Vincent Youmans 7th 9th to "The Count of Luxembourg" by 14th Franz Lehar 16th to "The. Maid of the Mountains" by 21st Franz Lehar 23rd to "Maytime" by Frederick Lonsdale 28th 30th & "Brigadoon" by Alan Jay Lerner 31st and Frederick .Loewe Malkin Bowl, Stanley Park 8:30 p.m. Tickets at Hudson's Bay Co. (West Mezzanine) D. R A M .A MONDAY ' WHITE ROCK PLAYERS 2nd "The. Man Who Came to Dinner" to by George Kaufman & Moss Hart 6th White Rock L i t t l e Theatre 8:30 p.m.' SPECIAL EVENT VANCOUVER SYMPHONY'WOMEN'S  AUXILIARY Symphony Day at the races. Watch f o r announcement of date probably i n the f i r s t week of Ju l y . Lansdowne Park 2:30 p.m. - 7 - AUGUST, 1951 AUGUST A R T AUGUST M U S "I.C WEDNESDAY VANCOUVER ART GALLERY 22nd A r c h i t e c t u r a l Tour 1:30 to 5:30 p.m. Tickets from Mrs. Oscar Erickson, CH 9820. D R A M A WEDNESDAY TOTEM. SUMMER THEATRE 1st to "Charley's' Aunt" by Brandon 4th Thomas 6th to "Junior Miss" by Edward 11th Chodorov 13th to "Room Service" by John Murray 18th and A. Boretz 20th to "Born Yesterday" by Garson 25th Kanin Ambleside Park, West Vancouver ' 8:30 p.m. Tickets at Modern Music FRIDAY U.B.C. SUMMER SCHOOL OF THE ' 3rd & 4th THEATRE Children's Production U.B.C. Auditorium 2:30 p.m. TUESDAY Production 7th, 8th U.B.C. Auditorium 8:30 p.m. & 9th Tickets at Modern Music SUNDAY • • CANADIAN BROADCASTING CORP. 5th, 12th, Concert 19th-and - Malkin Bowl, Stanley ..Park .26th 9:00 to 10:00 p.m. SUNDAY . B . C. ELECTRIC 12th and Symphony Concert 26th Malkin Bowl, Stanley Park WEDNESDAY . THEATRE UNDER THE STARS 1st to "Brigadoon" by Frederick Loewe 18th and Alan Jay Lerner Malkin Bowl,. Stanley Park 8:30 p.m. Tickets at Hudson's. Bay Co. (West Mezzanine). SPECIAL EVENT SATURDAY ST. ANDREWS & CALEDONIAN 4th SOCIETY Vancouver Highland Games Capilano Stadium, L i t t l e Mountain. NAME COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL OF VANCOUVER MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION ADDRESS MEMBERSHIP: In d i v i d u a l ( ) (11.00) PHONE Organization ( ) ($2.50) Sustaining ( ) ($10.00 or over) N.B. Sustaining contributions of $10.00 or over are allowable f o r Income Tax purposes, JUNE - 1951 1 - FRIDAY Federation of Canadian Artists-New West. Branch Le Cantore d'Opera Speech Arts Festival Vancouver Little Theatn 2 - SATURDAY Vancouver Women's Musical Club-Garden Party - 2:30-5:30 p.m. Federation of Canadian Artists-New West. Branch 3 - SUNDAY 4 - MONDAY j U. J. P. O. Drama Workshop 5 - TUESDAY U.J. P. 6. Drama Workshop 6 - WEDNESDAY Junior Symphony St. Andrews-Wesley Organ Recital 7 - THURSDAY U.J. P.O. Drama Workshop Vancouver City Opera 8 - FRIDAY U.J. P.O. Drama Workshop Vancouver City Opera 9 - SATURDAY U. J. P. O. Drama Workshop 10 - SUNDAY 11 - MONDAY 12 - TUESDAY 13-WEDNESDAY St. Andrews-Wesley Organ Recital 14 - THURSDAY 15 - FRIDAY 16 - SATURDAY Philharmonic Music Club - Garden Party -2:30 - 5:30 p.m. 17 - SUNDAY 18 - MONDAY 19 - TUESDAY School of Spoken word - Recital 20-WEDNESDAY 21 - THURSDAY 22 - FRIDAY 23 - SATURDAY 24 - SUNDAY 25 - MONDAY TUTS - "Chocolate Soldier" White Rock Players 26 - TUESDAY TUTS - "Chocolate Soldier" White Rock Players 27-WEDNESDAY Bach Choir - Garden Party 3 - 7 p. m. Vancouver Art Gallery Tour 1:30-5:30 p.m. Ethel Ferguson Players TUTS - "Chocolate Soldier" White Rock Players 28 - THURSDAY TUTS - "Chocolate Soldier" White Rock Players 29 - FRIDAY TUTS - "Chocolate Soldier" White Rock Players 30 - SATURDAY TUTS - "Chocolate Soldier" FOR DETAILS SEE INSIDE JULY - 1951 1 - SUNDAY B.C. Electric Symphony 3 - 5 p.m. CBC Concert - 9-10 pm. 2 - MONDAY Totem Summer Theatre-" Light Up the Sky" TUTS - "Hit the Deck" White Rock Players 3 - TUESDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Light Up the Sky" TUTS - "Hit the Deck" White Rock Players 4 - WEDNESDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Light Up the Sky" TUTS - "Hit the Deck" White Rock Players 5 - THURSDAY Totem Summer Theatre-" Light Up the Sky" TUTS - "Hit the Deck" White Rock Players 6 - FRIDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Light Up the Sky" TUTS - "Hit the Deck" White Rock Players 7 - SATURDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Light Up the Sky" TUTS - "Hit the Deck" 8 - SUNDAY CBC Concert - 9-10 pm. 9 - MONDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Hay Fever" TUTS - ''Count of Luxembourg" 10 - TUESDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Hay Fever" TUTS - "Count of Luxembourg" 11-WEDNESDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Hay Fever" TUTS - "Count of Luxembourg" 12 - THURSDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Hay Fever" TUTS - "Count of Luxembourg" 13 - FRIDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Hay Fever" TUTS - "Count of Luxembourg" 14 - SATURDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Hay Fever" TUTS - "Count of . Luxembourg" 15 - SUNDAY B.C. Electric Symphony 3 - 5 p. m. CBC Concert - 9-10 pm. 16 - MONDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Personal Appearance" TUTS - "Maid of the Mountains" 17 - TUESDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Personal Appearance" TUTS - "Maid of the Mountains" 18-WEDNESDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Personal Appearance" TUTS - "Maid of the Mountains" 19 - THURSDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Personal Appearance" TUTS - "Maid of the Mountains" 20 - FRIDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Personal Appearance" TUTS - "Maid of the Mountains" 21 - SATURDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Personal Appearance" TUTS - "Maid of the Mountains" 22 - SUNDAY CBC Concert - 9-10 pm. 23 - MONDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Harvey" TUTS - "Maytime" 24 - TUESDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Harvey" TUTS - "Maytime" 25-WEDNESDAY Vancouver Art Gallery Tour - 2:30 - 5:30 p.m. Totem Summer Theatre-"Harvey" TUTS - "Maytime" 26 - THURSDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Harvey" TUTS - "Maytime" 27 - FRIDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Harvey" TUTS - "Maytime" 28 - SATURDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Harvey" TUTS - "Maytime" 29 - SUNDAY B.C. Electric Symphony 3 - 5 p. m. CBC Concert - 9-10 pm. ( 30 - MONDAY Caledonian Week Totem Summer Theatre-"Charley's Aunt" TUTS - "Brigadoon" 31 - TUESDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Charley's Aunt" TUTS - "Brigadoon" FOR DETAILS SEE INSID E AUGUST - 1951 1 - WEDNESDAY . Totem Summe r Theatre-"Charley's Aunt" TUTS - "Brigadoon" 2 - THURSDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Charley's Aunt" T U T S - "Brigadoon" 3 - FRIDAY U . B . C . Summer School of the Theatre - 2:30 pm Totem Summer Theatre-"Charley's Aunt" T U T S - "Brigadoon" 4 - SATURDAY Vancouver Highland Games U . B . C . Summer School of the Theatre - 2:30 pm Totem Summer Theatre-"Charley's Aunt" TUTS - "Brigadoon" 5 - SUNDAY C B C Concert - 9-10 pm. 6 - MONDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Junior Miss" T U T S - "Brigadoon" 7 - TUESDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Junior Miss" TUTS - "Brigadoon" U. B. C . Summer School of the Theatre 8 - WEDNESDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Junior Miss" T U T S - "Brigadoon" U . B . C Summer School of the Theatre 9 - THURSDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Junior Miss" T U T S - "Brigadoon" U . B . C . Summer School of the Theatre 10 - FRIDAY Totem Summer Theatre-, ( Junior Miss" T U T S - "Brigadoon" 11 - SATURDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Junior Miss" TUTS - "Brigadoon" 12 - SUNDAY B . C . Electric Symphony 3 - 5 p . m . C B C Concert - 9-10 pm. 13 - MONDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Room Service" T U T S - "Brigadoon" 14 - TUESDAY Totem Summer Theatre-" Room Service" TUTS - "Brigadoon" 15 - WEDNESDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Room Service" T U T S - "Brigadoon" 16 - THURSDAY Totem Summe-r Theatre-"Room Service" TUTS - "Brigadoon" 17 - FRIDAY Totem Summer Theatre-" Room Service" T U T S - "Brigadoon" 18 - SATURDAY Totem Summer'Theatre-"Room.Se rvice" TUTS - "Brigadoon" .19 - SUNDAY • C B C Concert - 9-10 pm. 20 - MONDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Born Yesterday" 21 - TUESDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Born Yesterday" 22 - WEDNESDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Born Yesterday" Vancouver Art Gallery Tour - 1::30— 5:30 p. m. 23 - THURSDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Born Yesterday" 24 - FRIDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Born Yesterday" 25 - SATURDAY Totem Summer Theatre-"Born Yesterday" 26 - SUNDAY B . C . Electric Symphony 3 - 5 p .m. C B C Concert - 9-10 pm. 27 - MONDAY FOR 28 - TUESDAY DETAILS SEE INSIDE 29 - WEDNESDAY 30 - THURSDAY 31 - FRIDAY -

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0107034/manifest

Comment

Related Items