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The effectiveness of the methods of selection for admission to Victoria college Wallace, Robert Thomas 1947

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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE METHODS OF SELECTION FOR ADMISSION TO VICTORIA COLLEGE by ROBERT THOMAS WALLACE A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of The Requirements f o r the Degree of M A S T E R O F A R T S i n the Department of EDUCATION The University of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1947 ACKNOWLEDGMENT The writer wishes to express his appreciation to Col. F. T. Fairey, Superintendent of Education f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r permission to use the records i n the Department of Education a n d t o Miss Dorothy Cruickshank, Registrar, V i c t o r i a College, f o r h e l p f u l c o - o p e r a t i o n i n m a k i n g t h e College records a v a i l a b l e . Thanks are a l s o d u e to Mr. R. Straight f o r advice regard-ing s c a l i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia, to Mrs. F. A. Cook, Department of Education, f o r l o c a t i n g c e r t a i n records i n the Department,and to Dr. C. B. Conway, Director of Tests and.Measurements f o r the Departmentof Education, f o r providing reports regarding B r i t i s h Columbia examinations and also f o r much h e l p f u l advice. TABLE-OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION 1. The Problem ... 1 2. The Purposes of Formal Secondary Education......... 1 CHAPTER I I - A REVIEW OF PREVIOUS RESEARCH ON THE. RELATION  OF HIGH-SCHOOL MARKS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT  IN FIRST .YEAR UNIVERSITY. : ' 1. Introduction 4 (a) The C r i t e r i a of Success i n College 5 (b) The Predictive Elements 6 2. Scholastic Aptitude.... 7 (a) History..... 7 (b) Mental Tests Administered on Entrance to University 8 (c) Mental Tests Administered i n Junior High School 9 (d) Summary 10 3. High-School Marks 10 (a) Non-comparable High-School Marks 12 (b) Comparable High-School Marks 14 (c) Summary 18 (d) Conclusion....................... 19 4. Other Predictive Items. 19 5. Conclusion 20 CHAPTER I I I - EVOLUTION OF SELECTION -TECHNIQUES USED FOR  UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA^ 1. University Entrance Standing........ 21 2. Administration of the B r i t i s h Columbia Departmental Examinations • 22 i i . 3. Recent Developments. 24 (a) Improvement of the Examinations as Measuring Devices.. 25 ( i ) Scaling 25 ( i i ) Change i n the Nature of the Examinations... 44 (b) Accrediting 47 CHAPTER IV - THE EFFECTIVENESS-OF. THE METHODS OF SELECTION — FOR UNIVERSITY. ENTRANCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. 1. Introduction... 56 (a) Subjects 56 (b) Procedure....... 57 (e) Composition of Each Year-group. 60 (d) Method of Selection of Each Group 62 (e) Summary 63 2. Correlations 64 (a) Data. 64 (b) Summary. 67 3. P r o b a b i l i t i e s of Passing F i r s t Year at V i c t o r i a College. . • • 69 (a) Based on University Entrance Written Examinations 69 ( i ) Data ........ . 69 ( i i ) Summary and Conclusions 70 (b) Based on Recommendations from Accredited Schools 71 ( i ) Data 71 ( i i ) Summary and Conclusions.. 72 4. General Evaluation of Accrediting. 73 (a) Data... 73 (b) Summary • • 77 i i i . CHAPTER -V. - SUMMARY AND- CONCLUSIONS • 1. The Present Study 79 2. Results and Conclusions 79 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 83 APPENDIX. 87 LIST OF TABLES Table Page I. Correlations Between Scores on Army Alpha and College Marks 8" I I . C o e f f i c i e n t s of Correlation Between High-School Marks and College Marks of Students Writing Different Entrance Examinations........ 12 I I I . Correlations Obtained i n the Ontario Study with Respect to the Pass Course at the University of Toronto ... 16 IV. Correlation Between "Upper School Best Combination" and Honour Average i n F i r s t Year..... 17 V. Correlations Between High-School Marks and F i r s t Year University Marks When A l l or Nearly A l l of the Students Enter from One System.... 18 VI. The Di s t r i b u t i o n of Raw Scores i n the 1939 Senior Matriculation Chemistry Examination.. 29 VII. The Di s t r i b u t i o n of Raw Scores i n the 1939 . French III Examination 30 VIII. Per Cent Raw Score Equivalent to a Scaled Score of F i f t y f o r University Entrance, 1939 and 1940. 31 IX. Percentile Ranks of Upper Limits of Step-Intervals i n a Sample Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n 35 X. The Score Corresponding to Each Percentile on the Basis of 63 cr 12 . . . . . . . 37 XI. The Probable Scale f o r the Marks of the Sample Given i n Table IX..... 40 XII. Sample D i s t r i b u t i o n 41 XIII. Sample D i s t r i b u t i o n 42 XIV. The Probable Scale f o r the Marks of the Sample Given i n Table XIII 43 XV. The R e l i a b i l i t i e s of University Entrance Examinations i n 1935 and 1 9 3 6 . . . . . . . 45 XVI. The R e l i a b i l i t i e s of the University Entrance Examinations i n 1939, 1940 and 1941 • ••• 46 V . XVII. Number of Accredited Schools f o r the Years 1938 to 1946, i n c l u s i v e 52 XVIII. Percentage of Candidates from Accredited Schools, June, 1938, Who Were Recommended i n Each of the Compulsory University Entrance Subjects........... 53 XIX. Percentage of Candidates from Accredited Schools Who Were Recommended i n Each of the Compulsory University Entrance Subjects 54 XX. Number of Students and Percentage of F a i l u r e i n F i r s t Year V i c t o r i a College, f o r Certain Academic Years ..... 60 XXI. Numbers and Percentages of Freshmen i n Each Year-group Who Entered V i c t o r i a College with Averages Less than 59«0 Per Cent i n Their Written University Entrance Examinations 61 XXII. Proportions of Students i n Certain Year-groups that Wrote Five, or More University Entrance Examinations and Proportions that Were Recommended i n Five or Six Compulsory Subjects 63 XXIII. Correlations Between University Entrance Standing as Granted by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education and Average Marks Made i n F i r s t Year at V i c t o r i a College 66 XXIV. Correlations Between Certain Predictive C r i t e r i a and F i r s t Year College Marks 68 XXV. The Probability Based on University Entrance Average that a Student W i l l Pass F i r s t Year at V i c t o r i a College 69 XXVI. The Pr o b a b i l i t y Based on University Entrance Average that a Student W i l l Pass F i r s t Year at V i c t o r i a College..... 70 XXVII. Percentages of Recommended Students Passing F i r s t Year at V i c t o r i a College 71 XXVIII. Percentage Failu r e i n University Entrance Examinations According to the Type.of School, June 1939 and June, 1940. 74 XXIX. Failures i n University Entrance Examinations, June, 1940, According to the Type of School 74 XXX. P r o b a b i l i t i e s that a Student W i l l Pass F i r s t Year at V i c t o r i a College on the Basis of the Type of Preparatory School 75 ABSTRACT THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE METHODS OF SELECTION  FOR ADMISSION TO VICTORIA COLLEGE Robert Thomas Wallace This study investigated the effectiveness of the methods used to select B r i t i s h Columbia students f o r admission to V i c t o r i a College. During the course of the study the writer recorded and analyzed available data regarding scaling of marks and accrediting of high schools. The subjects used i n the investi g a t i o n were the students who entered V i c t o r i a College during eleven of the years from 1928 to 1945. The thesis includes a survey of many studies dealing with the r e l a t i o n s h i p of high-school success and f i r s t year college success. As a r e s u l t of t h i s survey the writer decided to use the student's u n i v e r s i t y entrance record as the best measure of h i s high-school achievement, and to define f i r s t year college success i n terms of the average mark obtained i n the f u l l course at the end of the college year. In the l i g h t of the data studied the investigator arrivedat a number of conclusions, including: (i) There was a remarkably high c o r r e l a t i o n between the average mark made on the written u n i v e r s i t y entrance examination and the average mark made at the end of the f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College. The correlations of .71, .73 and .74 which were obtained are much higher than those shown i n most other studies. ( i i ) The correlations between average u n i v e r s i t y entrance mark and average f i r s t year college mark remained consistenly high despite the reduction i n the number of u n i v e r s i t y entrance papers written, the gradual, although not complete change from essay-type to new-type examinations, and the adoption of a system of s caling. ( i i i ) A student's chance of passing f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College i s very c l o s e l y related to his u n i v e r s i t y entrance average; f o r instance, i f h i s average i s between f i f t y - t h r e e and f i f t y - s i x per cent he has one chance i n two of passing while ij& h i s average i s above s i x t y - f i v e per cent h i s chances are nine i n ten. (iv) The bases of accrediting c e r t a i n high schools was shown to be s a t i s f a c t o r y i f the purpose of accrediting i s to permit high schools to select, without departmental examinations, students capable of doing college woirk. The writer found that i f a student was recommended by an accredited school i n f i v e or a l l six of the compulsory subjects his chances of passing f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College were ninety-eight i n one hundred. I t was also found that the f a c t that a student was trained by an accredited school gave him a better chance of passing at V i c t o r i a College than i f he came from a non-accredited school; the chances were eighty-seven i n one hundred and 3. and seventy-nine i n one hundred respectively. The writer f e e l s that the data presented i n t h i s study would j u s t i f y the conclusion that the B r i t i s h Columbia system of s e l e c t i o n f o r u n i v e r s i t y entrance i s adequate. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE METHODS OFSELECTION  FOR ADMISSION TO VICTORIA COLLEGE CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. The Problem This study i s an inve s t i g a t i o n of the effectiveness of the methods used to select candidates f o r higher education i n B r i t i s h Columbia, with p a r t i c u l a r reference to V i c t o r i a College, and w i l l determine, i f possible, what influence the scali n g of marks and accrediting of schools may have had on such effectiveness. 2 . The Purposes of Formal Secondary Education One of the generally accepted fundamental obligations and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the secondary school i s the preparation and s e l e c t i o n of students f o r univer s i t y work ( 1 2 ) . When the f i r s t secondary schools were established on t h i s continent they were organized to give t r a i n i n g only to student able to pay t u i t i o n fees and intending to proceed to a univer-s i t y (4 , 19 and 2 2 ) . This s i t u a t i o n was not long acceptable to the people who were building a democratic society on the American continent. As one of t h e i r f i r s t goals'was a w e l l -Numbers i n parenthesis r e f e r to references i n the bibliography. 2. educated c i t i z e n r y , they demanded that e f f o r t s be made toward achieving equality of educational opportunity. The i n i t i a l step toward t h i s objective was the development of a free school system, supported by public taxation rather than by fees, and under state supervision rather than private c o n t r o l . A further step toward the goal of an educated populace was the development of the concept of universal elementary and second-ary education regardless of whether the students intended to enter u n i v e r s i t y or not. As democracy developed on t h i s continent the purposes and organization of secondary education broadened. The change i n the nature of the high-school popula-t i o n has r e f l e c t e d t h i s development. Whereas the high-school population was formerly a pre-university group, i t i s now primarily composed of students whose education w i l l terminate during, or at the end of, the high-school years (2:3-4). This variance i n the high-school population makes i t d i f f i c u l t to define the purposes of secondary education. I t i s , however, possible to state the purposes of education i n general terms (17:5). Such a statement i s found i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Programme of Studies, B u l l e t i n I, 1941: " I t i s the function of the school, through c a r e f u l l y selected experiences, to stimulate, modify and d i r e c t the growth of each pupi l p h y s i c a l l y , mentally, morally and s o c i a l l y so that a continual enrichment of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e and an improved society may r e s u l t " (32). I f t h i s general purpose of education i s accepted, the a b i l i t y , ambition and character of each i n d i v i d u a l must be considered. An important phase i n achieving t h i s purpose w i l l 3. be the p r e p a r a t i o n a n d s e l e c t i o n f o r higher education of those students who canbenefitthemselves and society from such education (2:102-115). This study i s concerned with the effectiveness of the methodsused f o r s u c h s e l e c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia as shown by the records of V i c t o r i a College students. S p e c i f i c a l l y the writer attempts t o o b t a i n answers to such questions as: (a) What i s the c o r r e l a t i o n between un i v e r s i t y entrance marks, scaled and unsealed, and f i r s t year marks at V i c t o r i a College? (b) What are the chances of students with various u n i v e r s i t y entrance averages passing f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College? (c) What are the chances o f s t u d e n t s who have been recommended i n a c e r t a i n number of compulsory subjects passing f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College? (d) What are the chances of students from accredited schools passing f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College and what are the corresponding chances of students from non-accredited schools? (e) Has the accrediting system proved s a t i s f a c t o r y from the point of view of selection f o r u n i v e r s i t y entrance? CHAPTER II A REVIEW OF PREVIOUS RESEARCH ON THE RELATION OF  HIGH-SCHOOL MARKS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT  IN FIRST YEAR UNIVERSITY 1. Introduction A review of some of the e a r l i e r studies dealing with the relati o n s h i p between high-school marks and academic success i n the f i r s t year of uni v e r s i t y i s being presented as a background f o r the problem under consideration. F a i l u r e i n u n i v e r s i t y has engaged the attention of many investigators who have endeav-oured to determine, i n advance of entrance to a un i v e r s i t y , whether a student has the necessary requirements f o r success. The problem of waste i s important; the waste of time and money by students, instructors and administration when freshmen not capable of academic success are admitted to u n i v e r s i t y . The problem stimulates general i n t e r e s t because of i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e at two educational l e v e l s , the secondary school and the univer-s i t y . Accurate methods of predicting u n i v e r s i t y achievement would be of inestimable value. There are two fundamental elements involved i n any d i s -cussion of prediction: (a) The c r i t e r i a of success i n college: average college marks, s p e c i f i c subject marks, grade-point average, s u r v i v a l i n college. (b) The predictive elements: high-school marks, i n t e l -l igence-test scores, reading-test scores, r a t i n g scales. 5. (a) The C r i t e r i a of Success i n College: I t i s almost universal practice to use either the t o t a l or the average mark made by a student at the end of the college year as the best measure of his academic success. Freeman (16:113) i s one of the very few investigators to question the use of college marks as the c r i t e r i o n of academic success i n college. He contends that mere su r v i v a l i n college i s a more important c r i t e r i o n , and that academic success i s not r e l a t e d to marks obtained i n college subjects. His argu-ment i s that there are too many variables involved i n the determination of college marks to j u s t i f y t h e i r use i n estab-l i s h i n g the degree of academic success. He f e e l s that too often students are s a t i s f i e d - t o "get by," and are not working to capacity. He points out, therefore, that correlations between college marks and any predictive material, such as mental-test scores, are not very s i g n i f i c a n t . These arguments of Freeman would appear untenable f o r at l e a s t two reasons: (i) Whether a student continues i n college depends upon many factors other than the a b i l i t y to benefit from the courses undertaken, such as the condition of h i s finances, the l o c a -t i o n of h i s home, personal i l l n e s s or i l l n e s s i n h i s family. ( i i ) Research studies have shown that there i s higher co r r e l a t i o n between mental-test scores and college grades than between mental-test scores and s u r v i v a l . Segel (39:7) reports one study i n which the correlations were .45 and .19 respectively. C r i t i c i s m of college marks also a r i s e s from the f a c t that they are based mainly upon essay-type examinations, which are usually claimed to be l e s s r e l i a b l e than newer-type t e s t s . In other words, i t i s f e l t that college marks do not accurately r e f l e c t r e l a t i v e success i n college work, except possibly at the extremes. I f t h i s i s so, correlations between predictive material and marks i n college subjects would tend to be higher i f objective tests were used i n college. This i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n an experiment by Fr a s i e r and Heilman (15) i n which they determined the correlations between the Thorndike Intelligence Examination and college achievement as measured f i r s t by essay-type examinations and then by new-type t e s t s . The correlations between the i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t scores and the essay-type examinations ranged from .24 to .57 with a mean of .45, while those with the new-type t e s t s ranged from .46 to .69 with a mean of .60. However, i n spite of the weaknesses inherent i n college marks, most authorities i n the f i e l d are agreed that the average of these marks i s the best single c r i t e r i o n of success i n the f i r s t year of college. (b) The Predictive Elements: Some of the predictive elements used are: (i) Scholastic aptitude t e s t s ; ( i i ) Average mark made throughout high school; ( i i i ) Average mark made i n the final.high-school examina-tions; 7. (iv) Reading t e s t s ; (v) High-school marks i n subjects common to u n i v e r s i t y and secondary education; (vi) Various combinations of the above. The predictive elements used i n a p a r t i c u l a r study depend upon the problem, the college, the students, and the data available to the in v e s t i g a t o r . 2. Scholastic Aptitude (a) History: The e a r l i e s t attempts to predict college success employed the psychological tests developed by Wundt, C a t t e l l and others. L i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between the r e s u l t s of these tests and college success, since, i n the main, they were of the motor, sensory and sensory-motor type. This lack of success delayed the development of the t e s t i n g movement f o r a time. Later, however, an impetus was given to a l l forms of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t i n g by the construction and use of the Army Alpha during World War I. Many investigators studied the value of the Army Alpha i n predicting college success. This was a reasonable a p p l i c a t i o n of the t e s t since one of i t s main purposes was to determine " l e a r n a b i l i t y . " Following t h i s , other general mental-ability tests were prepared and used extensively. There was also a marked emphasis on achievement t e s t i n g , beginning i n the elementary school and appearing l a t e r i n the secondary schools. As the new achievement tests were developed they were used both alone and i n conjunction with s. mental tests to predict general college success. (b) Mental Tests Administered on Entrance to University: Table I shows Segel's (39:59) summary of the evidence presented by Anderson and Spencer (3) on the relationships between scores on the Army Alpha and marks made on college examinations by three groups of students. The same students, as f a r as possible, were studied f o r a two-year period and the test was written on admission to u n i v e r s i t y . TABLE I CORRELA TIONS BETWEEN SCORES ON J iRMY ALPHA AND COLLEGE MARKS Group F i r s t year Second year Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t No. of Students Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t No. of Students I II III .41 .33 • 39 366 564 723 • 32 .34 • 32 334 524 696 From Table I i t may be seen that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Army Alpha and the college marks i s closer f o r f i r s t than f o r second year r e s u l t s . In the l a s t twenty years many studies on the predictive value of i n t e l l i g e n c e tests administered on admission to u n i v e r s i t y have been reported. In a summary of a large number of these studies Segel (39), i n 1934, found a median c o r r e l a -t i o n of .44 between i n t e l l i g e n c e test r e s u l t s and f i r s t year college marks. 9-(c) Mental Tests Administered i n Junior High School: In attempts to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between mental-test scores and college marks several investigators have used the r e s u l t s of mental tests which were obtained while the students were s t i l l i n elementary school or junior high school. A summary of the conclusions of some of the investigators, notably Keys (24), Adams (1), Byrns and Henmon (6), shows that i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients obtained at the junior high school l e v e l are only s l i g h t l y l e s s prognostic of u n i v e r s i t y scholarship than i s generally true of i n t e l l i g e n c e - t e s t r e s u l t s obtained on admission to college. Byrns and Henmon (6:878) found a correlation of .45 between the r e s u l t s of the National Intelligence Test given i n Grades III to VIII and marks made at the end of the f i r s t year at the University of Wisconsin-Keys (24:88) obtained a c o r r e l a t i o n of .35 between the Terraan Intelligence Quotient obtained i n junior high school and scholarship i n u n i v e r s i t y . In addition to determining the above c o r r e l a t i o n , Keys calculated the p r o b a b i l i t i e s of s p e c i f i c future educational achievement on the basis of I.Q. l e v e l s . The conclusions were (24:91): "(1) For children of 70 to 84 I.Q., the chances are s i x t y -eight i n one hundred, or more than two to one, that • schooling w i l l not continue beyond high school while the p r o b a b i l i t y of entering degree-granting i n s t i t u -tions appears to be n i l . "(2) For those of I.Q.'s around 100 (95 to 104), the chances are s t i l l f o r t y i n one hundred that schooling w i l l cease with high school, while l e s s than one i n four i s l i k e l y to gain admission to a degree-granting i n s t i t u -t i o n . 10. "(3) Even f o r boys and g i r l s i n the I.Q. group from 105 to 119, which includes the average college entrant, the prospects are s t i l l that three out of ten w i l l not proceed beyond high school, and scarcely one i n three of the Oakland group w i l l enter the University of C a l i f o r n i a . "(4) Among pupils of I.Q. 120 to 139, however, only about one i n f i v e stops short with high school and nearly half of the group observed a c t u a l l y enrolled i n the University of C a l i f o r n i a alone. "(5) The g i f t e d group above 140 shows one hundred per cent applying f o r admission to some degree-granting i n s t i t u -t i o n and forty-four per cent graduating from the University of C a l i f o r n i a with honors." (d) Summary: Intelligence-test r e s u l t s , obtained at various educational l e v e l s , have frequently been used to determine probable college success. Although these correlations average le s s than .50 there would seem to be p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n the procedure adopted by Keys (24:91), who evaluated the chances of academic success on the basis of a student's I.Q. 3. High-School Marks A f a c t o r which i s used as a predictive element more frequently, and with better success, than scholastic aptitude i s high-school marks. In t h i s connection the question arises as to whether to use average marks made during a pupil's high-school career or the f i n a l marks made i n the Grade XII examina-t i o n s . When the f i n a l Grade XII marks are the re s u l t s of a single set of examinations, previous investigators have almost i n v a r i a b l y used these marks. During the continual search f o r the best c r i t e r i a f o r predictive purposes there has been a fe e l i n g that high-school marks were of l e s s value than the 11. r e s u l t s of standardized t e s t s administered at the end of secondary schooling. A study made i n 1937 by Read (36) shows that where there i s uniformity of standards f o r the high schools and. a single set of examinations i s administered at the end of the high-school course, the best single predictive element i s the average mark made on the f i n a l examinations. Read's study was conducted at the University of Wichita where more than two-thirds of the students i n the freshman classes came from the c i t y high schools and had been subjected to a uniform set of examinations. This suggests that the research i n the f i e l d of predic-t i o n of college success should be discussed under two headings: (a) Non-comparable high-school marks (those that are the res u l t s of many di f f e r e n t sets of examinations); (b) Comparable high-school marks (those that are based upon a common external examination). 12. (a) Non-comparable High-School Marks. Table II shows the correlations between high-school marks and f i r s t year college marks reported i n some of the early investigations. TABLE I I * COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION BETWEEN HIGH-SCHOOL MARKS AND COLLEGE MARKS OF STUDENTS WRITING DIFFERENT ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS  Reported by University Date r Beattey, B. Harvard University 1922 .69 Bramwell, P.R. University of Washington 1930 .52 Crawford, A.B. Columbia University Yale University 1930 .61 Carnegie I n s t i t u t e 1922 • 29 Columbia University Columbia University 1922 .45 Columbia University Cornell University 1922 .45 Dempster, R.N. Edgerton, H.A., and Johns Hopkins University 1922 .53 Toops, H.A. Ohio State University 1927 • 55 Goldthorpe, J.H. Northwestern University 1929 .62 Hawkes, L.J. Johns Hopkins University 1929 .66 Lauer, A.R., and Evans, J.C. University of Iowa 1930 .49 Odell, C.W. Over 100 I l l i n o i s Colleges and U n i v e r s i t i e s 1927 .55 Odell, C.W. Over 100 I l l i n o i s Colleges and U n i v e r s i t i e s 1930 .54 Procter, W.M., and Cowdery, Karl Stanford University 1925 .41 Scates, D.E. Seashore, C.C. University of Chicago 1924 .61 Columbia University 1922 .35 Smith, F.O. Symonds, P.M. University of Iowa 1922 .53 University of Hawaii 1926 .52 average median • 53 Terman, L.M. University of Iowa Columbia University Stanford University University of Texas Harvard University 1921 .53 .63 .54 • 54 .69 Thurstone, L.L. Forty-three Colleges of Engineering 1922 .29 ± Adapted from Harl R. Douglas (12). For each of the studies reported i t should be observed 13-that the high-school marksdo not necessarily r a n k t h e students c o r r e c t l y on the basis of t h e i r high-school records- because two students with high-school averagesof s i x t y - f i v e per cent are l e s s l i k e l y to be of equal a c a d e m i c a b i l i t y i f they wrote a d i f f e r e n t set of examinations than i f they wrote the same set. Several comprehensive surveys of the f i e l d of pre d i c t i o n of f i r s t year college successhavebeen made.Thetwo most noteworthy were by Symonds (40) and by Segel (39), and both of these dealt with freshmen classes i n which the students., i n general, did not have comparable high-school marks. Symonds reviewed twenty-eight- studies dealing with correlations between high-school marks and f i r s t year u n i v e r s i t y marks and found the median c o r r e l a t i o n to be .47* He also checked the correlations between other predictive elementsand college success and f i n a l l y concluded: "Of a l l the indices of a b i l i t y to d o c o l l e g e work, marks i n the high school course are the most s i g n i f i c a n t . They are also the easiest f o r the c o l l e g e t o o b t a i n . C o l l e g e s should u s e t h e q u a l i t y of work done i n high school as the f i r s t index of c o l l e g e a b i l i t y . " Segel*s review of the research i n t h e f i e l d was published by the United States Office of Education i n 1934- For f i f t y correlations between high-school marks and collegemarks he found a range from . 2 9 to .77, and a medianof .55• In the same study he examined over one hundred correlations between generalmental-test s c o r e s a n d f i r s t year college marks and found the range to be from .20 to .70 with a medianof .44' 14. This b r i e f review shows that when students enter a u n i v e r s i t y from many high-school systems the correlations between high-school marks and f i r s t year college marks some times reach as high as .77 but, as shown i n Table I I , are more frequently i n the v i c i n i t y of .54. (b) Comparable High-School Marks. A few studies have been made of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between high-school marks and f i r s t year college marks when a l l members of the college class took the same entrance examinations. Since, i n general, t h i s i s the condition which prevails i n B r i t i s h Columbia, a summary of some of these investigations i s presented. In A p r i l , 1939, Laycock and Hutcheon (25) reported an attempt to measure success i n the f i r s t year of engineering at the University of Saskatchewan. These investigators found that the best single predictive element was the average mark made i n the Grade XII examinations conducted by the Department of Education. The co r r e l a t i o n between the marks made on the departmental examination and the marks made i n engineering was .61. I t should be noted that, although Grade XII i n Saskatchewan i s senior matriculation, the Grade XII examina-tions are conducted at the end of the high-school course and are used as u n i v e r s i t y entrance q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The important point here i s that p r a c t i c a l l y a l l members of the freshman engineering class at Saskatchewan had comparable high-school marks and not that the examinations were conducted at the end 15-of senior matriculation. Another Canadian study which was very s i m i l a r i n aim and material to the one being considered i n t h i s thesis was conducted i n Ontario i n 1939• The aim of that study was "to attempt to discover to what extent the achievement of students i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s i s related to the achievement of these students on the matriculation examination conducted by the Ontario Department of Education" (37:1). The investigators followed the students who entered the Ontario u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r the f i r s t time i n 1932 and recorded t h e i r academic achievements, f a i l u r e s and withdrawals. In t h i s way they were able to report not only re l a t i o n s h i p s between high-school marks and college achievement i n the f i r s t year but also s i m i l a r correlations f o r succeeding years. In addition i t was possible f o r them to record the mortality rate of students who entered the Ontario u n i v e r s i t i e s i n 1932. 16. Some of the findings of this study as they relate to the University of Toronto are summarized i n Table III. These results are pertinent to the discussion of the writer's problem, in view of the similarities in the two situations. TABLE III CORRELATIONS OBTAINED IN THE ONTARIO STUDY WITH RESPECT TO THE PASS COURSE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO (37:36) Correlation of * Average Mark Upper School 1st yr. pass 2nd yr. pass 3rd yr. pass Average middle school marks and .696^ .030 .409*.041 .228*.051 .294*.046 Average upper school mark and .557^ .040 .246-.049 .202*.049 Average mark, 1st yr.pass and .529^.040 .480^.039 Average mark, 2nd yr.pass and .695*.026 Upper school best combination and •571±.041 *The following definitions should be noted: 1. Ontario middle school marks correspond to British Columbia university entrance marks. 2. Ontario upper school marks correspond to British Columbia senior matriculation marks. 3. University of Toronto f i r s t year marks correspond to University of British Columbia second year marks, etc. In the f i r s t place, the purposes of the two studies are prac-t i c a l l y the same, and secondly, in both provinces, the freshmen had, in general, been admitted to university on the results of a set of examinations administered by the provincial Depart-ments of Education. 17. Probably the items of most in t e r e s t i n Table I I I are the correlations .557 and .571> which are those between average upper school mark and average f i r s t year mark, and between "upper school best combination"''' and average f i r s t year mark, respectively. " A l l o f these correlations are s i g n i f i c a n t , even the lowest being over four t i m e s i t s probable error. They show again that a positive tendency, sometimesvery strong, i s operative. Note that the c o r r e l a t i o n between the average middle school and the average upper school marks i s about .70. When allowance i s made f o r t h e facts that the marks themselves are not p e r f e c t l y r e l i a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l l y and that the group of students on which the c o r r e l a t i o n i s based i s selected, as i t consists only of thosestudents proceeding to un i v e r s i t y , t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n must be con-s i d e r e d t o be about as high as could be expected."(37:36-37). The correlations shown i n T a b l e I V between "upper school best combination" and honour average i n f i r s t year at the University of Toronto were p a r t i c u l a r l y high. TABLE IV CORRELATION BETWEEN"UPPER SCHOOL BEST COMBINATION" AND HONOUR AVERAGE IN FIRSTYEAR (37:64-65) A l l . honour courses English and History P o l i t i c a l Science and Economics Modern Languages Mathematics and Physics Commerce and Finance Natural Science Household Economics Miscellaneous honour courses .634 ±.018 .662*.050 •562±.064 •735±.062 .728±.040 .675±.049 .739**034 .649*.052 .668±.037 •J-The "upper school best combination" i s the average mark obtained by the student on the combination of subjects which would give him the highest mark and would at the same time meet the requirements of the course i n which he i s enrolled (37:20). 18. The r e s u l t s shown i n Table IV lead the authors of the Ontario study to state: " I t should be remarked f i r s t that these correlations are of respectable proportions. Although a c o r r e l a t i o n of .7 does not hold out hopes of great accuracy i n predic-t i o n , i t does represent a substantial pos i t i v e r e l a t i o n -ship. Thus Segel, i n a comprehensive review of researches i n t h i s f i e l d , reports hundreds of correlations discovered by various investigators and only about half-a-dozen of these are as high as .7* I t may therefore be stated with some assurance that the correspondence between matricula-t i o n marks and marks from the University of Toronto i n honour courses i s unusually high." (37:o5). (c} Summary: Table V summarizes the correlations found i n the Saskatchewan and Ontario studies and includes also the res u l t s of two other investigations i n which a l l , or nearly a l l , of the students wrote the same un i v e r s i t y entrance examinations. TABLE V CORRELATIONS BETWEEN HIGH-SCHOOL MARKS AND FIRST YEAR UNIVERSITY MARKS WHEN ALL OR NEARLY ALL STUDENTS ENTER FROM ONE SYSTEM Reported by University Date r Read, C.B.4 (36) Wichita 1938 .67 Laycock, S.R. and Hutcheon, N.B. (25) Saskatchewan 1939 .61 Kellog, C.E. (23) M c G i l l 1929 .747 Ontario College of Education (37) Toronto 1939 .557 .571 .634 (Table (Table (Table III) III) IV) More than two third s of the students from the same high school system. 19. (d) Conclusion: I t i s obvious from the above discussion that high-school marks bear a strong positive r e l a t i o n s h i p to f i r s t year college marks. A comparison of Tables I I and V shows that the relationship i s higher when the high-school marks are obtained through a uniform set of univ e r s i t y entrance examinations than when such high-school marks are obtained from d i f f e r e n t s e t s of examinations. 4« Other Predictive Items In addition to mental-test scores and high-school marks there are other factors which possess some predictive value. The s k i l l s necessary to read college materials e f f e c t i v e l y , to study e f f i c i e n t l y , to concentrate and to solve problems are important items.. Increasing attention i s being paid to the learning s k i l l s required at the college l e v e l . When these i s k i l l s are analyzed and te s t s are constructed to measure them prognosis may be improved. There i s recent evidence to show that success i n univer-s i t y work i s related to general achievement i n high school although not necessarily to marks i n the conventional subject-matter f i e l d s of the academic high schools. The Eight-Year Study (7) found that students entering college from r a d i c a l l y revised secondary-school t r a i n i n g tended to do as w e l l or better than those of equal aptitude who came from more t r a d i t i o n a l schools (7:24-24, 165, 207). In fa c t the students who came from the schools which had altered t h e i r programmes 20. most tended to do the best work i n the u n i v e r s i t y . "This study shows that the graduates of the schools making the most marked innovations made s t i l l higher grades i n r e l a t i o n to the comparison groups than did the graduates of the schools making the lea s t changes i n t h e i r programs. This indicates that even marked modifications i n the secondary-school program have not hindered the college effectiveness of the graduates" (14:115)• The Eight-Year Study (7) slows that achievement i n college work i s c l o s e l y related to achievement i n the second-ary school, regardless of the subject matter, providing such subject matter i s stimulating and challenging, and demands d i l i g e n t work (2,7,17). 5. Conclusion The preceding account of the research r e l a t e d to the problem under discussion leads to the following conclusions: 1. Most au t h o r i t i e s prefer to use average f i r s t year college marks as the best c r i t e r i o n of academic success i n f i r s t year work. 2. The best single predictive element i s high-school marks. 3- When a freshman class at a un i v e r s i t y or college i s almost e n t i r e l y made up of students from the same high-school system, or i f such students have a l l written the same set of entrance examinations, the r e s u l t s of these examina-tions provide the best predictive element. • 21. CHAPTER III EVOLUTION OF SELECTION TECHNIQUES-USED FOR  UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 1. University Entrance Standing At the present time i n B r i t i s h Columbia a student may obtain complete un i v e r s i t y entrance standing i f he earns a minimumof 112 c r e d i t s , 97 of which are f o r s p e c i f i e d compul-sory subjects. According to the B r i t i s h Columbia Programme of S t u d i e s , B u l l e t i n I, "a c r e d i t i n a subject represents one forty-minuteperiod per week throughoutthe school year" (34:32). In English, f o r example, successful completion of the four-year high-school c o u r s e e n t i t l e s a s t u d e n t to 20 c r e d i t s ; t h i s means that the subject has been studied f o r f i v e forty-minute periods per week f o r each of the high-school years. The s p e c i f i e d compulsory subjects and the cre d i t s assigned to each are: English VI 20 credits Social Studies V 15 tt Health and Physical Education VI 12 o Mathematics VI 20 tt General Science V 15 tt One Foreign LanguageIII 1? tt Total 97 credits In addition to the above f i x e d c r e d i t s , a candidate must obtain at l e a s t 15 credits i n optional subjects; such c r e d i t s may be earned i n commercial subjects, music, a r t , i n d u s t r i a l a r t s , etc., or i n other academic subjects such as physics, chemistry, biology, or a second foreign language. 22. A student may obtain the ncessary cr e d i t s f o r u n i v e r s i t y entrance standing either by recommendation, i f he attends an accredited school, or by passing Departmental examinations. 2. Administration of the B r i t i s h Columbia  Departmental Examinations. The administration of the junior matriculation or univer s i t y entrance examinations i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Board of Examiners of the Department of Education. This board, which consists of the Superintendent of Education f o r the Province, the Chief Inspector of Schools and key repre-sentatives of both the Department of Education and the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, has as i t s chief duty the carrying out of the Department's examination policy, including the s e t t i n g of papers, se l e c t i o n of examination centres, appointment of supervisors, marking of the written papers and f i n a l l y the granting of standing. The Board of Examiners meets early i n January and appoints examiners to prepare the examination papers i n each subject. These examiners are s p e c i a l i s t s i n the subjects which they are to examine and may be University of B r i t i s h Columbia or V i c t o r i a College professors, Department of Education inspectors, Normal School i n s t r u c t o r s , or high-school p r i n c i p a l s or teachers. Each of the examiners i s instructed to prepare two papers, one f o r the June examination and the other f o r use as a supplemental examination i n August, and also to prepare a scoring key f o r each paper. 2 3 . The prepared papers are submitted to the Board of Examiners and each paper i s studied by a separate committee. Suggestions f o r corrections or changes are made at t h i s time. The papers are printed when they have been approved by the Board. In May the Department arranges f o r examination centres and supervisors. Centres are established at a l l high schools i n the province and at such other points as are required. The appointment of supervisors i s the duty of the inspector i n each of the d i s t r i c t s . Such appointments are usually made by an interchange of teachers from adjacent high schools i n order that the work i n the elementary schools may be disrupted as l i t t l e as possible. The examination supplies are sent out by the Department of Education to the supervisors early i n June, on the basis of data supplied by the p r i n c i p a l s of a l l schools presenting candidates. These supplies include the examination papers, record sheets, l i s t s of candidates, examination booklets, the examination numbers assigned to the candidates, and i n s t r u c -tions on the conducting of the examinations. At the close of the examinations the candidates T papers are forwarded to the Department of Education where they are marked. The markers are appointed by the Department of Education and may be high-school teachers, u n i v e r s i t y professors or Departmental inspectors. The papers i n each subject are marked by a committee, under a chairman who i s generally a member of the Board of Examiners and frequently 24. i s the examiner who set the paper. The committee decides i n advance of markingexactly how each item on the tes t i s to be scored and how many points are to be assigned f o r each q u e s t i o n . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , each marker scores three or four papers and further discussion regarding the scoring takes place. This procedure may be repeated i f the chairman considers i t a d v i s a b l e . T h u s a very d e f i n i t e e f f o r t i s made t o obtain complete uniformity of scoring. Some of the committees, notably General Science and English, have, f o r the l a s t few years, employedthe "chain" system i n marking, each marker scoring c e r t a i n questions on each p a p e r . T h u s a s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n i s always scored by the same marker. When the questions on a paper have a l l been scored the t o t a l constitutes the candidate's "raw score." This score, when expressed as a percentage, does not always appear as the candidate's f i n a l mark, since t h e s e s c o r e s may l a t e r be scaled. 3 . Recent Developments The development of the present u n i v e r s i t y entrance examination p o l i c y has been accompanied by many changes. Most of these changes have been of a minor character, such as the \ replacement of two examinations i n a foreign language by one and the introduction of a course i n Health as a required sub-j e c t . Two changes, however, have had a great d e a l o f s i g n i f i -cance. Onehad to do with attempts to improve theexamina-tions- as measuring devices by improving r e l i a b i l i t y and 25. o b j e c t i v i t y , and by introducing s c a l i n g . The other was the se t t i n g up of an accr e d i t i n g committee, charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of granting to those schools meeting c e r t a i n requirements, the r i g h t to recommend students f o r u n i v e r s i t y entrance standing without further examination. (a) Improvement of the Examinations as Measuring Devices. In the attempts to improve the examinations as measuring devices two procedures are noteworthy. F i r s t l y , a complete system f o r the s c a l i n g of marks had been i n s t i t u t e d by 1936 and, secondly, studies were undertaken by members of the Department to determine the r e l i a b i l i t y of the examinations used during certain years. Possibly as a r e s u l t of these l a t t e r studies, the examinations became more objective and consequently, as the records w i l l show, apparently more r e l i a b l e . ( i ) Scaling: Since the process of scaling was one of the major innovations introduced by the Department i t should be con-sidered i n some d e t a i l . The f i r s t reference to sca l i n g i n the minutes of the Board of Examiners i s made i n the records of the meeting of July 23, 1932, when the following resolution was adopted: "that the chairmen of committees i n the Matriculation examinations be empowered to have the papers scaled when the marks i n any set of papers vary too widely from the normal standard of marks" (29). The next reference to s c a l i n g i n the minutes of the Board i s 26. contained i n the report of the meeting four years l a t e r , July 23, 1936, where i t i s stated: "The following report of the Adjudication Committee was presented by the chairman........who. stated that Tsome adjustments had been made i n marks i n those cases where two or three marks would complete f o r the c e r t i f i c a t e desired. In making changes consideration was given to the fa c t that ce r t a i n subjects had been s c a l e d . T " (29)• It i s thus seen that sometime between 1932 and 1936 the process of sc a l i n g became accepted by the Board of Examiners of the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. I t would seem probable that even before 1932 adjustments had been made i n marks when an examination proved too d i f f i c u l t i n the opinion of the members of the marking committee. These f i r s t methods of sca l i n g were l i k e l y of the "bonusing" type, but by 1936 s t a t i s t i c a l l y - s o u n d techniques had been introduced. H i s t o r i c a l l y , then, as. f a r as B r i t i s h Columbia i s con-cerned, scaling was used when marks varied widely from the "normal standard." In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y t h i s meant that too many candidates were being f a i l e d , and that the marks consequently had to be ra i s e d . Be that as i t may, there i s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y - s o u n d reason f o r scaling marks when, as i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the passing mark i s f i f t y per cent. Before discussing a l l of the reasons f o r s c a l i n g , i t i s e s s e n t i a l that some agreement be reached as to the purpose of the university entrance examinations.. Hawkes, Lindquist and Mann (20:20) state that fundamentally an examination w i l l be f o r one of two purposes; either i t s purpose w i l l be to rank the candidates i n accordance with t h e i r achievement i n the 27. subject being examined, or to determine s p e c i f i c weaknesses i n the'work covered by the examination. I f t h i s statement i s accepted, the purpose of the university entrance examinations must be to rank rather than to diagnose. I t should be remembered, of course, that a s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the univer s i t y entrance examinations i s to se l e c t people competent to do unive r s i t y work; t h i s duty of selection i s probably best accomplished by an examination which ranks the candidates. I f a l l the students who have written a set of r e l i a b l e and v a l i d examinations are ranked i n order of achievement the s p e c i f i c aim of s e l e c t i o n f o r u n i v e r s i t y work i s achieved merely by agreeing on a passing mark. Thus, although acceptance of candidates by the u n i v e r s i t y i s not determined by rank and i s based only on whether or not a candidate passed, the d i v i d i n g l i n e between passing and f a i l i n g i s best drawn when a l l students have been accurately ranked. This being the case, the u n i v e r s i t y entrance examinations should attempt to rank the candidates according to t h e i r achievements i n the subjects considered. It should be noted that a test i s most r e l i a b l e , accord-ing to t e s t a u thorities (20:32-33), when the average mark i s f i f t y per cent of the possible and the marks range from approximately zero to nearly one hundred per cent. A t e s t of t h i s type would have maximum discriminating power, since there are, f o r ranking purposes, nearly f i f t y points f o r each of the above- and the below-average groups. At the same time, the r e s u l t s of a t e s t constructed according to these s p e c i f i c a t i o n s 28. would have to be scaled, otherwise h a l f of the candidates would f a i l by B r i t i s h Columbia standards. The a l t e r n a t i v e to th i s would be to set a paper on which the average mark, without s c a l i n g , would be about s i x t y - f i v e ' per cent, leaving the passing mark at f i f t y per cent. The marks from zero to s i x t y - f i v e would be available f o r ranking the candidates below the mean, while the marks from s i x t y - f i v e to one hundred are available f o r ranking above i t . This decreases the discriminatory power and hence the r e l i a b i l i t y of the t e s t , at le a s t as f a r as the best students are con-cerned. Scaling, then, i s a necessary procedure i n the adminis-t r a t i o n of an achievement t e s t i n g programme while i s to have maximum effectiveness. I f the purpose of a test, i s to measure achievement the t e s t should be set so that the average mark w i l l be as nearly equal to h a l f the maximum score as possible. This i s true whether the test i s of the t r a d i t i o n a l essay-type or the newer objective-type (20:33)• As f a r as the sca l i n g of marks i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s concerned, i t i s doubtful whether the p o s i t i v e point of view outlined above has been the guiding force. It i s more l i k e l y that the argument was the same as the one used by the College Entrance Examination Board when i t f i r s t introduced s c a l i n g . The Report of the Secretary of the Board states: "The p r i n c i p l e of r e - s c a l i n g has the endorsement of a l l groups of Readers, and has been well received by colleges and schools. It has e f f e c t i v e l y eliminated the e r r a t i c 29-marks r e s u l t i n g from question papers which proved unexpectedly d i f f i c u l t or unexpectedly easy and has served to s t a b i l i z e the marks i n each subject from year to year. This p r i n c i p l e i s based on the assumption that the question papers vary i n d i f f i c u l t y and the candi-dates' preparation and a b i l i t y are comparatively stable, rather than upon the assumption that the candidates vary and the question papers are constant." (£:2#). The two d i s t r i b u t i o n s which are shown i n Tables VI and VII w i l l i l l u s t r a t e two of the reasons f o r s c a l i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia. TABLE VI THE DISTRIBUTION OF RAW SCORES IN THE 1939 SENIOR MATRICULATION CHEMISTRY EXAMINATION Score Per cent of candidates 90-99 0 80-89 1 70-79 3 60-69 4 50-59 6 40-49 14 30-39 22 20-29 26 10-19 18 0-9 6 I f the raw scores shown i n Table VI had not been scaled, over f o u r - f i f t h s of the candidates would have f a i l e d . On the scale used i n t h i s instance a raw score of twenty-three became a passing mark of f i f t y and even a f t e r the marks were scaled over t h i r t y per cent of the candidates f a i l e d (9:7). This exceptional case i l l u s t r a t e s one of the reasons f o r scaling; namely, an examination, i n spite of c a r e f u l construc-t i o n , may prove too d i f f i c u l t . 30. Table VII gives the d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r the 1939 French III examination. TABLE VII THE DISTRIBUTION OF RAWSCORES IN THE 1939 FRENCHIII EXAMINATION A., Score Per cent of candidates 250-269 2 230-249 6 210-229 12 190-209 17 170-189 22 150-169 15 130-149 13 110-129 7 90-109 6 70-89 1 50-69 0 With reference to the d i s t r i b u t i o n shown i n Table VII, the report of the Director of Tests and Measurements, 1939, points out that the unsealed f i f t y per cent was 150 and then states (9:8): "The French III examination, however, i s obviously not too d i f f i c u l t . But the scores are so well spread out that they must be scaled to reduce the v a r i a b i l i t y and keep a large number from f a i l i n g even though the mean i s well above f i f t y per cent. "Scaling may also be used to increase, the v a r i a b i l i t y of scores, instead of reducing i t . I f an examination has a high-peakeddistribution which r e s u l t s i n few f a i l u r e s but also allows few candidates to obtain over eighty per cent, i t can be scaled to that students have just as much opportunity of getting n i n e t y - f i v e on t h i s examination as on any other. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important where candi-dates taking d i f f e r e n t courses are competing f o r scholar-ships." ' An unpublished report made i n 1940 by the Director of 31. Tests and Measurements f o r the Department states: "Scaling i s very valuable i n eliminating some of the differences i n d i f f i c u l t y which exi s t between examina-tions i n d i f f e r e n t subjects and d i f f e r e n t years. I t also allows the f i x e d pass mark, which hasbeen established i n the minds of the public f o r many years, to be continued, without r e s t r i c t i n g the discriminatory power of the exam-in a t i o n . In no event, however, can i t turn a bad exam-ina t i o n into a good one. w l Table.VIII i s a synopsis of the u n i v e r s i t y entrance sub-jects which: were scaled i n 1939 and i n 1940 and shows the raw score ( i n per cent) which was made the passing mark of f i f t y per cent. TABLE VIII PER CENT RAW SCORE EQUIVALENT TO A SCALED SCORE OF  FIFTY FOR UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE, 1939 and 1940 Subject Per cent raw score equivalent to a mark of 50 per cent Mathematics VI L a t i n French Chemistry General Science V English VI Physics German Geography A raw score of f i f t y per cent scaled to f i f t y per cent means that i n t h i s case the upper end of the d i s t r i b u t i o n has been spreadout. This i s necessary i f marks i n various sub-jects are to be comparable when, say i n one examination there -•-Unpublished report by Director of Tests and Measurements, 1940. On f i l e i n Department of Education, V i c t o r i a , B.C. 32. are very few marks above eigh t y - f i v e , whereas i n another paper four or f i v e per cent of the candidates have above eighty-five per cent. As pointed out above, i t i s just as important to have marks i n various subjects i n any one year comparable as to have marks i n one subject comparable from one year to another. We may summarize t h i s discussion by s t a t i n g that, i f f i f t y per cent i s to mean a pass mark, sc a l i n g of marks should be an i n t e g r a l part of any achievement t e s t i n g programme f o r several reasons: (1) so that t e s t s having maximum discriminating power can be constructed; (2) so that marks i n d i f f e r e n t subjects i n any one year and marks i n the same subject from year to year are more nearly comparable; (3) so that students i n some years w i l l not be unduly penalized by an unpredictably d i f f i c u l t examination; (4) so that the v a r i a b i l i t y of scores i n d i f f e r e n t subjects w i l l be reasonably uniform. Scaling, as i t i s applied i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a committee appointed by the Department of Education and i s administered by Mr. R. Straight, Director of the Bureau of Tests and Measurements f o r the Vancouver City Schools. On assuming i t s duties Mr. Straight's s t a f f i s given the following information with respect to each of the papers written: (1) The number of candidates recommended by accredited 33-schools. (2) The number of candidates recommended by non-accredited schools. (3) The number of candidates writing from a c c r e d i t e d s c h o o l s . (4) The number of candidates w r i t i n g from non-accredited schools. (5) The number of private study candidates w r i t i n g . (6) The t o t a l number of candidates w r i t i n g the examination. (7) The t o t a l number of candidates recommended i n the subject (&) The t o t a l number of candidates recommended and w r i t i n g . With t h i s information at hand the scalers are able to s t a r t work as soon as an "adequate sample" of the papers i n a subject has been marked. The adequacy of the sample w i l l depend primarily on the proportion of papers from accredited schools, non-accredited schools and private study which i t con-t a i n s . The correct proportions are determined from the data supplied to the committee. In general,the scalers l i k e to have a sample of about one t h i r d of the t o t a l papers written. When the sample has been proven adequate, the scores i f not out of one hundred, are changed to percentages by means of a reduction scale. The next step i s to place these percent-ages on a frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n from which cumulative f r e -quencies and percentile ranks of the upper l i m i t s of the step-i n t e r v a l s are determined. Table IX gives the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of an "adequate sample" consisting of 650 papers. . This d i s t r i b u t i o n shows that 200 or 30.8 per cent of the candidatesare f a i l u r e s 34-Suppose that there are 6,000 candidates of which 4,500 are writing (the sample i s not one t h i r d of the papers but the p r i n c i p l e s involved are the same). Since the sample i s assumed to be adequate, i t can be further assumed that approximately thirty-one per cent of the 4,500, or 1,395 candidates, w i l l f a i l the examination. This means that of the 6,000 candidates i n the subject about 1,395 w i l l be expected to f a i l and t h i s i s 23»2 per cent of the t o t a l . I f the scaling committee of the Department of Educa-t i o n has previously agreed, as i t did i n July, 1946, that not more than f i f t e e n per cent f a i l u r e i n a u n i v e r s i t y entrance examination i s acceptable, then the marks i n the above hypothetical case would be scaled. The f i r s t step i n t h i s process i s to determine what the passing mark would have to be.in order to have approximate-l y f i f t e e n per cent f a i l u r e . It i s seen that f i f t e e n per cent of 6,000 i s 900. Therefore 900 or twenty per cent of the 4,500 candidates writing w i l l be allowed to f a i l . Taking twenty per cent of the sample of 650 papers, we see that the passing mark must be such that only 130 of the 650 w i l l f a i l . 35. TABLE IX PERCENTILE RANKS OF UPPER LIMITS OF STEP-INTERVALS I N A SAMPLE FREQUENCY DISTRI BUTION Scores f F Percent 95-100 5 650 100.00 90-94 11 645 99-33 85-89 14 634 97.64 80-84 20 620 95.48 75-79 43 600 92.40 70-74 52 557 85.78 65-69 60 505 77.77 60-64 70 445 68.53 55-59 85 375 57.75 50-54 90 290 43.66 45-49 65 200 30.80 40-44 50 135 20.79 35-39 30 85 13.09 30-34 20 55 8.74 25-29 10 35 1 5-39 20-24 7 25 3.85 15-19 5 18 2.77 10-14 7 13 2.00 5-9 4 6 0.92 0-4 2 2 0.31 An examination of Table IX shows t h a t 135 candidates or 20.79 per cent would f a i l i f the passing mark was set at f o r t y - f i v e . The s c a l e r s now assume that the 7.70 per cent of the cases i n the i n t e r v a l 40-44 are evenly d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h i n the 7.70 i n t e r v a l ; t h a t i s , each of the f i v e marks accounts f o r 5 or 1.54 per cent. We have already seen t h a t up t o twenty per cent of the candidates i n the sample can be f a i l e d and t h a t i f the passing mark i s set at f o r t y - f i v e , 20.79 per cent w i l l f a i l . Since each mark corresponds t o 1.54 per cent a passing mark of f o r t y - f o u r would f a i l 20.79-1.54 or 19*25 per cent of those w r i t i n g (the sample i s assumed t o be adequate). This 36. percentage of f a i l u r e i s w i t h i n the l i m i t set by the committee sin c e the sample i s such t h a t a twenty per cent f a i l u r e f o r the sample means a f i f t e e n per cent f a i l u r e f o r the t o t a l number of candidates. The pre-determined s c a l e f o r u n i v e r s i t y entrance examinations i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s b u i l t on the b a s i s of 63 <T 12^" and allows only f i f t e e n per cent of the candidates t o f a i l . Table X shows the score, from t h i s s c a l e , which c o r r e s -ponds t o c e r t a i n p e r c e n t i l e s . In order t o obta i n these scores i t i s necessary t o use a t a b l e of f r a c t i o n a l parts of the t o t a l area under the normal p r o b a b i l i t y curve. For i n s t a n c e , i n e v a l u a t i n g the score which corresponds t o the f o r t i e t h p e r c e n t i l e (P^ Q) we must f i r s t f i n d the number of cr u n i t s along the base l i n e from the mean which" corresponds t o ten per cent of the area. The t a b l e shows t h i s d i s t a n c e t o be .253 <J" u n i t s . Now i f c r i s twelve, we have .253 x 12 = 3.04. Therefore P40 ~ 63 - 3.04 • 59.96 or 60.0. I f the p e r c e n t i l e i s above the f i f t i e t h then i t i s necessary t o add. Consider the score corresponding t o PgQ« The number of <r* u n i t s along the base l i n e from the mean which i s equivalent t o t h i r t y per cent i s .8418. Therefore P g 0 = 63 + (.8418 x 12) = 63 + 10.10 = 73.1. Notice t h a t a score of 50.5 puts a student at the f i f t e e n t h p e r c e n t i l e . Thus a candidate making l e s s than f i f t y would be This n o t a t i o n r e f e r s to a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n i n which the mean i s 63 and the standard d e v i a t i o n i s 12. 37. below the f i f t e e n t h p e r c e n t i l e . TABLE X THE SCORE CORRESPONDING TO EACH PERCENTILE ON THE BASIS OF 63 <T 12  Percentile Score  0.1 25.9 1 35.0 2 38-4 3 40.45 4 42.0 5 . . . . 4 3 2 10 47.65 15 50.5 20 52.9 25 54-95 30 ..56.75 35 58.3 40 60.0 45 • 61.45 50 63.0 55 64.55 60 66.0 65 67-7 70 69.25 75 71.05 80 73.1 85 75.5 90 78.35 95 82.8 96 84.O 97 85.55 98 87.6 99 90.95 99.9 100.1 The pre-determined scale shown i n Table X may now be plo t t e d as i l l u s t r a t e d i n ink on the graph on page 38. When t h i s has been done the percentiles of the upper l i m i t s of the step-intervals shown f o r the sample of marks given i n Table IX are plotted (see ogive (3) on the graph on page 38. A compar-ison of ogive (l) and the ogive i n ink on page 38 shows that 58. loo to no Ll O o So 3o to , .jf*— ^—** i/ A L 10 2o VO SO PERCENTILE Co Oo go 0O /oo K E U F F E l J & E S S E R Cf i . N. Y 39. a score of f i f t y on the pre-determined scale corresponds to a score of 41.5 f o r the sample, whereas e a r l i e r i t was seen that the correct r e s u l t s would be obtained by r a i s i n g a mark of forty-four to f i f t y . This discrepancy i s due to the f a c t that the sample does not take into account any of the recommended students. I f 41*5 was r a i s e d t o f i f t y , only f i f t e e n per cent of the sample would be f a i l e d but i t was seen previously that, i n this-hypothetical case, up to twenty per cent of the sample may be f a i l e d . It i s agreed then, that a mark of forty-four on the t e s t w i l l be scaled to f i f t y . The scalers now c a l l i n the chairman of the committee which has narked the paper under consideration and the r e s t of the scale i s determined from the ogives. It should be pointed o u t t h a t the ogives are suggest-ive rather than binding, that no recommended students are shown on the graph and that there i s nothing to be gained by assigning marks o f f o r t y - s e v e n , forty-eight and forty-nine. Such marks, i f assigned, only lead to requests f o r re-readings In the case under discussion we r e c a l l that the ogives show that a score of 41.5 would be raised to f i f t y whil a c t u a l l y a score of forty-four i s r a i s e d to f i f t y . Thus we j u s t i f y , on the basis of the recommended students who are not included i n the sample, the difference between 41.5 and f o r t y -four. This means that a v e r t i c a l distance of 2.5 between ogive (T) and the ogive i n ink i s j u s t i f i e d . I f the v e r t i c a l distance i s greater than t h i s then s c a l i n g takes care of the excess. For instance, the graphs show that a score of f i f t y 40. should become 57.5, but 2.5 i s t o be absorbed on the b a s i s of the recommended students and t h e r e f o r e f i f t y i s s c a l e d t o 57•5 minus 2.5 or f i f t y - f i v e . Table XI shows the s c a l e which would probably be adopted by the committee f o r the case under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . TABLE XI THE PROBABLE SCALE FOR THE MARKS OF THE SAMPLE GIVEN IN TABLE IX Raw score Scaled score Raw score Scaled score 33 33 49 55 34 34 50 55 35 36 51 56 36 33 52 57 37 40 53 58 38 42 54 58 39 43 55 59 40 45 56 60 41 46 57 60 42 46 58 61 43 46 59 61 44 50 60 62 45 51 61 62 46 52 62 63 47 53 63 64 4a 54 64 64 Table XI and the ogives show t h a t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case the scores above s i x t y - f o u r should probably not be s c a l e d . 41. As a second example consider the s i t u a t i o n w i t h respect to the sample of 900 cases shown i n Table X I I . TABLE X I I PERCENTILE RANKS OF UPPER LIMITS OF STEP-INTERVALS IN A SAMPLE FREQUENCY DISTRI1 3UTI0N Scores f F Per cent 95-100 90-94 85-89 80-84 1 900 100.00 75-79 0 899 99.79 70-74 2 899 99-79 65-69 5 897 99.58 60-64 10 ' 392 99.01 55-59 12 882 97-92 50-54 85 870 96.57 45-49 100 785 37.14 40-44 140 685 76-04 35-39 200 545 60.50 30-34 160 345 38.30 25-29 100 185 20.54 20-24 55 85 9.44 15-19 20 30 3.33 10-14 10 10 1.11 5-9 0-4 Table X I I shows t h a t 785 of the sample have l e s s than f i f t y per cent and si n c e t h i s i s 87.2 per cent we see tha t approximately 87.2 per cent of the 6,000 who w r i t e w i l l f a i l . That i s 5,232 candidates or 66.85 per cent of the t o t a l candidates. , I f not more than f i f t e e n per cent of a l l candidates i s t o f a i l then twenty per cent of the sample may be assigned marks l e s s than f i f t y . An examination of Table X I I shows t h a t . a mark of 42. twenty-nine must be s c a l e d t o f i f t y . The ogive f o r t h i s sam-pl e i s (g) on the graph on page 38. Since the pre-determined ogive i s a l s o on the,graph, the remaining p a r t of the s c a l e can be evaluated. C e r t a i n t y p i c a l scores, when s c a l e d , w i l l be - 28 t o 46, 29 t o 50, 40 t o 64, 50 t o 75, 60 t o 85, 70 t o 91, 80 t o 96. The d i s t r i b u t i o n shown i n Table X I I I i s given t o i l l u s t r a t e a case where a mark of f i f t y i s s c a l e d t o f i f t y and the upper part of the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s spread out. TABLE X I I I PERCENTILE RANKS OF UPPER LIMITS OF STEP-INTERVALS IN A SAMPLE FREQUENCY DISTRI] 3UTI0N Scores f F Per cent 95-100 90-94 85-89 2 800 100.00 80-84 8 793 99.75 75-79 10 790 98.75 70-74 60 780 97.50 65-69 140 720 90.00 60-64 170 580 72.50 55-59 160 410 51.25 50-54 100 250 31-25 45-49 45 150 18.75 40-44 45 105 13.13 35-39 30 60 7.50 30-34 10 30 3.75 25-29 8 20 2.50 20-24 6 12 1.50 15-19 3 6 0.75 10-14 2 3 O.38 5-9 1 1 0.125 0-4 Assume th a t Table X I I I shows an adequate sample 800 papers from a t o t a l of 2,500 candidates of which 2,000 are w r i t i n g . Since 150 papers of the 800 i n the sample have l e s s 43-than f i f t y marks, the percentage of f a i l u r e f o r the sample i s 18 .75 . Now 18.75 per cent of the 2,000 candidates w r i t i n g i s 375- Hence 375 of the 2,500 may be expected to f a i l and t h i s i s exactly f i f t e e n per cent of the t o t a l candidates. Thus a score of f i f t y remains at f i f t y . When the ogive i s plotted (shown on the graph on page 38 as ^ }, i t i s seen that i t p a r a l l e l s the pre-determined curve up to about the f i f t i e t h percentile before i t star t s to open out. This then i s the point at which s c a l i n g must be introduced. According to the ogives a score of forty-seven would become f i f t y i f we did not have to consider the recommended students. But i t has already been shown that a score of f i f t y i s to remain at f i f t y . Hence the scale must absorb the three point difference between forty-seven and f i f t y . For t h i s * reason the most l i k e l y scale i s the one shown i n Table XIV. TABLE XIV THE PROBABLE SCALE FOR THE MARKS OF THE SAMPLE GIVEN IN TABLE XIII -Raw Scaled Raw Scaled Raw Scaled score score score score score score 61 61 74 79 87 93 62 63 75 81 88 94 -63 64 76- 83 89 94 64 66 77 84 90 95 65 67 78 85 91 95 66 68 79 86 92 96 67 69 80 86 93 96 68 70 81 87 94 97 69 72 82 88 95 97 70 73 83 89 96 98 71 74 84 90 97 98 72 76 85 91 98 98 7? 78 86 92 It i s the writer's opinion that the techniques of sc a l i n g as applied by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education are s a t i s f a c t o r y . The d i f f i c u l t i e s which a r i s e because of recommended students give the s c a l i n g s t a f f an opportunity to allow the techniques to be suggestive rather than r e s t r i c t i v e . U n t i l such time as the candidates are com-pelled to " s a t i s f y the examiner" on an examination rather than obtain a passing mark of f i f t y per cent i t w i l l be necessary to scale marks. ( i t ) Change i n the Nature of the Examinations. On the basis of the re s u l t s of studies by members of the Department of Education, e f f o r t s have been made to improve the r e l i a b i l i t y of the examination papers, c h i e f l y by making cer-t a i n papers more objective, improving the sampling on each paper, eliminating optional questions, and including on each paper only items which seemed to possess some discriminatory value. Tables XV and XVI show f o r the years 1935, 1936, 1939, 1940, 1941, the r e l i a b i l i t i e s of certain B r i t i s h Columbia univer s i t y entrance papers as determined by the " s p l i t - h a l f " technique (38:203-204). This involved "d i v i d i n g the t e s t into two comparable halves and-then applying the Spearman-Brown formula to determine the c o r r e l a t i o n between two comparable tests of the same length as the o r i g i n a l t e s t " (30:8). 45. TABLE XV THE RELIABILITIES OF UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS IN 1935 and 1936* Subject R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s 1935 1936 French Grammar .89 .90 French Translation .85 .91 L a t i n Grammar .92 .92 L a t i n Authors .84 .93 Physics • 75 .79 Chemistry .64 .61 Algebra .89 .91 Geometry .61 .74 English Grammar .91 .91 English Literature .77 .86 English Composition .61 .79 AConway, C.B.(9:13) The r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r the year 1935 which are reported i n Table XV were obtainsd from a random sampling of 700 papers i n each subject. It should be noted that the investigator i n 1935 reported that i t was "impossible to calculate the r e l i a b i l i t y of the examination i n s o c i a l studies as the form of the paper did not lend i t s e l f to the method of self-correlation" ( 3 0 : 1 4 ) • In 1936, the r e l i a b i l i t i e s were obtained from samples of 200 papers i n each subject. The r e l i a b i l i t i e s shown i n Table XVI for the years 1939, 1940 and ,1941 were based on the scores of pupils from non-accredited schools only, since i t was impossible to obtain a representative sample which would include students from schools which were accredited. The reports f o r these years f a i l to show the number of cases 46. i n c l u d e d i n each sample. TABLE XVI THE RELIABILITIES OF UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS IN 1939. 1940 and 1941 (9:13) Subject R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s French I I I L a t i n General Science V Mathematics VI S o c i a l Studies V Physics E n g l i s h VI E n g l i s h (without essay questions) *Some of t h i s m a t e r i a l i s contained i n a r e p o r t by the D i r e c t o r of Tests and Measurements, 1940, w i t h a d d i t i o n s made i n 1941• During the years 1939, 1940 and 1941 a l l the papers tended to show an i n c r e a s i n g degree of o b j e c t i v i t y , whereas i n 1935 and 1936 the only papers which l e n t themselves t o any s i g n i f i c a n t degree of o b j e c t i v e marking were L a t i n Grammar and E n g l i s h Grammar. Algebra, French Grammar and French T r a n s l a -t i o n possessed t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to some extent. The i n v e s t i g a t o r , who determined and reported the 1939-41 r e l i a b i l i t i e s , i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g statement regarding t h e i r apparent improvement i n h i s r e p o r t : " I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s improvement i s not f i c t i t i o u s . U n fortunately, however, the f i g u r e s reported are not s t r i c t -l y comparable, and the improvement might be more apparent than r e a l . Changes have been made i n the m a t e r i a l covered by many of the examinations, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n languages and mathematics and t h i s may i n f l u e n c e t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y . Moreover, the populations on which the s t u d i e s were based have changed. The 1935 and 1936 s t u d i e s a p p l i e d t o a l l 47. candidates, while i n 1939 i t was found necessary to eliminate the candidates from accredited schools. Better pupils from these schools had been recommended and i t was possible to obtain a random sample only from those schools which were not accredited. This may have resulted i n a more heteroge-neous population. I f so t h e - r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t would be r a i s e d " ( 9 ) • The s t r i k i n g feature of the s t a t i s t i c s given i n Tables XV and XVI i s not the s l i g h t apparent improvement i n r e l i a b i l -i t i e s from 1935 and 1936 to 1939, 1940 and 1941, but the f a c t that the r e l i a b i l i t i e s i n 1935 and 1936 were generally high (38:207-208) and were more than maintainsd during the l a t e r years. (b) Accrediting: A p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the recent develop-ment of the u n i v e r s i t y entrance examination p o l i c y i s the accrediting of certain high schools. The phrase "accredited school", as used by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Educa-t i o n , means a high-school (public or private) i n the province which has been granted the p r i v i l e g e of recommending-students for u n i v e r s i t y entrance standing i n compulsory subjects. Probably the f i r s t o f f i c i a l mention of the acc r e d i t i n g of high-schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia was contained i n the report of the survey conducted by Putman and Weir. These commis-sioners made the following recommendation: "That the Department of Education-and the University authorities consult as to the p o s s i b i l i t y and a d v i s a b i l i t y of p a r t i a l l y and gradually substituting a system of 'Accredited 1 High Schools i n place of the present Matriculation examination" (35 :173 ,269) . 4 8 . In October, 1934, the B.C. Teacher published an address prepared f o r the National Conference of Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s by Dr. S. J. W i l l i s , B r i t i s h Columbia Superintendent of Education. The following extract from the address w i l l show that by 1934 the Department had developed a posi t i v e and con-st r u c t i v e attitude toward ac c r e d i t i n g . "For some time there has been a growing f e e l i n g , not only on the part of High School p r i n c i p a l s and teachers but also on that of the Department of Education, that steps should be taken at an early date to reduce the number of students required to write the f i n a l examinations set and conducted by the High School and University Matriculation Board of Examiners as a t e s t of the student's f i t n e s s f o r admission to t h e l o c a l University or to one of the Pro v i n c i a l Normal Schools. It i s now p l a i n l y evident that with suitable.safeguards a considerable reduction i n the numbers writing those examinations can be made without any serious r i s k of lowering e x i s t i n g standards. The e s t a b l i s h -ment of a four-year course has provided a much greater opportunity f o r sounder work to be done i n our High Schools. During the past few years the teachers on the High School s t a f f s have been improving t h e i r academic and professional q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and are thoroughly conversant with a l l modern trends i n education. Each year approximately 50 per cent of a l l the candidates who write the Matriculation or the Normal Entrance examination are successful i n passing the f u l l examination at the f i r s t s i t t i n g . The subjecting of these candidates to the expense and the nervous s t r a i n involved seems to be quite unnecessary and altogether u n j u s t i f i a b l e . "There i s every reason to believe that the adoption of exemption from the f i n a l External Examination of those students who have obtained a reasonably high standing on such examinations should r e s u l t i n r a i s i n g rather than lowering the standard of work done i n our High Schools. The knowledge that work well and. f a i t h f u l l y done throughout the year would earn exemption from the f i n a l t e s t should act as a 'spur to prick the sides of the intent' of the majority of the students. The granting of exemption to the best students should also tend to remove from the minds of p r i n c i p a l s and teachers the cramping fear of a poor 'pass l i s t ' and a l l - that that implies. With the removal of that fear would probably go much of the concomitant v i o l a t i o n of sound pedagogical practice i n connection with the prepara-t i o n f o r a f i n a l t e s t , the r e s u l t s of which are regarded by 49. some School Boards as an unerring gauge of the q u a l i t y and effectiveness of the service rendered by the teachers. " I t now seems possible and desirable that steps be taken as soon as possible to adopt a system of exemption f o r the best students i n the larger High Schools from the Matriculation and Normal Entrance Examinations" (43:8-9). This expressed opinion of the Department of Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia was i n l i n e with the p o l i c y of certain other Canadian Departments of Education. By 1934 both Ontario and Nova Scotia had systems of accredited schools, and i n 1935 Manitoba introduced a scheme f o r a c c r e d i t i n g . Any proposal which has as i t s aim the accrediting of high-schools f o r purposes of granting univ e r s i t y entrance standing must f i n a l l y be acceptable to the u n i v e r s i t y . The University authorities would consider with great care any proposition which might a f f e c t i t s entrance requirements. Probably with t h i s i n mind, Dr. W i l l i s , i n the address to which reference has already been made, offered certain 'safeguards'. With r e f e r -ence to accrediting, he said: "After some such system of promotion has been i n use f o r a few years s u f f i c i e n t information would then be a v a i l -able f o r forming an estimate of i t s e f f i c a c y . Each year the Board of Examiners would have before i t a d e t a i l e d state-ment of the standing assigned by p r i n c i p a l s to recommended and unrecommended candidates. The standing obtained i n the Grade XII examinations held at the end of June, by the l a t t e r candidates, e s p e c i a l l y those close to the l i n e separating them from the former, would fu r n i s h a p a r t i a l t e s t as to the v a l i d i t y of the recommendations made and the f a i r n e s s of the examinations set by the Board of Examiners. The High School Inspectors' reports would show whether or not there had been any decided slackening of e f f o r t on the part of p r i n c i p a l s and s t a f f s and any general lowering of standards. From reports from the University and the Normal Schools i t would be ascertained whether or not there had been a marked deterioration i n the q u a l i t y of the material being admitted on recommendation. Should there be s u f f i c i e n t evidence 50. accumulated to prove unfitness•on the part of the p r i n c i p a l and s t a f f of any school to be entrusted further with the p r i v i l e g e of promotion by recommendation, t h i s p r i v i l e g e might be completely withdrawn or very greatly c u r t a i l e d insofar as that school i s concerned. Unfitness f o r the continuance of the p r i v i l e g e would be shown by f a i l u r e to maintain reasonably high standards; by want of soundness of judgment i n making recommendations; and by lack of the moral stamina necessary to r e s i s t any l o c a l pressure brought to bear, to force recommendations of unworthy students. The high reputation f o r thoroughness of work done i n our High Schools must be maintained, and to t h i s end the greatest precautions must be taken to prevent the insidious growth of a l a i s s e z f a i r attitude on the part of s t a f f s and students r and the deluging of our University and Normal Schools with i n d i f f e r e n t students altogether lacking i n aptitude, t r a i n -ing and scholarship, and quite u n f i t t e d to derive any benefit from attendance at those i n s t i t u t i o n s . Only such High Schools as are found to confine t h e i r recommendations year a f t e r year to a reasonable number of candidates, whose f i t -ness f o r promotion without examination i s beyond question, should be designated i n time as f u l l y 'accredited' and be granted such measure of r e l i e f from e x i s t i n g regulations as i s implied i n that designation" (43:10-11). Early i n 1936 the Board of Examiners took the f i r s t d e f i n i t e step toward accrediting by appointing a committee to study the question. Certain members of t h i s committee, who were also members of the Senate of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, were able to keep the University informed on the progress being made. The minutes of the Board of Examiners as they r e f e r to accrediting are somewhat incomplete. However, s u f f i c i e n t i s reported to warrant the statement that an intensive review of the problem was undertaken and c a r r i e d out during the years 1936 and 1937. As a r e s u l t of these studies the Board of Examiners accepted i n p r i n c i p l e the p o l i c y of accrediting, and set up the "High School Accrediting Board." The f i r s t members of t h i s Board were Dr. S. J. W i l l i s , Superintendent of Educa-51. t i o n , Chairman; Dr. D. Buchanan, Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Science, University of B r i t i s h Columbia; Mr. J . B. DeLong, Inspector of High Schools; Professor I. Dilworth, Department of English, University of B r i t i s h Columbia; Dr. H. B. King, Technical Advisor, Department of Education; Mr. W. R. Pepper, P r i n c i p a l , Junior and Senior High Schools, Vernon; Mr. W. H. Morrow, P r i n c i p a l , Lord Byng High School, Vancouver; Mr. J . L. Watson, Registrar, Department of Education, Secretary. From t h i s time the history of accrediting i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s preserved i n the "Minutes of the Meetings of the High School Accrediting Board" (28), and are on f i l e i n the Registrar's o f f i c e i n the Department of Education at V i c t o r i a . The f i r s t meeting of the Board was held i n Vi c t o r i a - on December 20, 1937, and during the next two months, four other meetings were convened. As a r e s u l t of these meetings certain regulations governing accrediting were adopted and incorporated i n a B u l l e t i n addressed to the P r i n c i p a l s of High Schools, and dated March, 1938. The most important parts of t h i s B u l l e t i n are reproduced i n the Appendix. At the s i x t h meeting of the Accrediting Board, held on A p r i l 22, 1938, the chief item of business was the considera-t i o n of applications f o r accrediting f o r 1937-38. The minutes of t h i s meeting (28) show that f i f t y - s e v e n high schools applied for accrediting f o r June, 1938. After consulting with the inspectors of the schools concerned, the Board accepted f o r t y -seven of these applications. 52. Table XVII shows the t o t a l number of accredited schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r each of the years from 1938 to 1946, i n c l u s i v e . In 1940 one of the f o r t y - s i x accredited schools TABLE XVII NUMBER OF ACCREDITED SCHOOLS FOR THE YEARS 1938 to 1946 INCLUSIVE Year Number 1938 49 1939 42 1940 46 1941 50 1942 55 1943 54 1944 52 1945 52 1946 53 was a private school and since that time two of the accredited schools have been private schools..... In each of the years included i n Table XVII there were between 111 and 118 high schools i n the province. Table XVIII shows the percentage of univer s i t y entrance candidates i n the forty-seven* accredited schools who were recommended i n each subject i n June, 1938• Only the data f o r the compulsory subjects are given. 'Actually there were two other schools, Fairview High School of Commerce and Grandview High School of Commerce, which were permitted to recommend i n the three English courses. 53-TABLE-XVIII PERCENTAGE OF CANDIDATES FROM. ACCREDITED SCHOOLS, JUNE, 1938, WHO WERE RECOMMENDED IN EACH OF THE COMPULSORY UNIVERS] [TY ENTRANCE SUBJECTS Subject Per cent Recommended English Composition 40.0 English Grammar 43-5 English L i t e r a t u r e 42.5 Social Studies 43-0 Algebra 39.0 Geometry 40.0 L a t i n Composition 45.5 L a t i n Authors 47-0 French Translation 42.5 French Grammar 42.5 Ge rman Tran s1ati on 47.0 German Grammar 44-0 The percentage of candidates recommended by accredited schools i n each of the compulsory subjects i n June, 1938, as seen from Table XVIII, ranges from t h i r t y - n i n e to forty-seven. Table XIX reports the percentage of candidates from accredited schools who have been recommended i n compulsory subjects during the years since 1940. These percentages are based on the records of over two thousand candidates f o r each year i n each subject, except i n L a t i n , where the number varied from 617 to 727• 54. TABLE XIX PERCENTAGE OF CANDIDATES FROM ACCREDITED SCHOOLS  WHO WERE RECOMMENDED IN EACH OF THE COMPULSORY UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE SUBJECTS '• Subject Percentage recommended 1941 1942 , 1943 1944 1945 1946 English 49.3 51.6 52.3 50.5 50.8 49.4 Social Studies 53-2 51.2 53-0 54.0 49.5 49.7 Mathematics 46.5 47 -3 47.0 45.5 45.8 46.3 General Science 49-3 46.7 46.4 56.6 43.9 44.5 L a t i n 43-6 41.1 48.9 57-8 46.4 50.2 French 46.9 45-4 45.6 52.2 43.2 44.3 Health 92.2 93 -4 90.9 : 96.7 92.6 93-3 An examination of Table XIX w i l l show that i n the s i x years since 1940 schools have recommended between f o r t y and s i x t y per cent of t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y entrance candidates i n each of the compulsory subjects, not including Health and Physical Education VI, i n which they recommend p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of t h e i r students. The median percentage recommended i n the s i x com-pulsory subjects (excluding Health) i s 4 8 . 1 . I f the accredited schools could recommend only students who earned l e t t e r grades of A, B, or C4, the percentage would be approximately f o r t y , since i t i s recommended by the Department of Education that the top f i v e per cent i n any subject be assigned an A, the next twenty per cent be assigned a B and the next f i f t e e n per cent be assigned a C+. However, accredited schools are permitted to recommend a student i n subjects f o r which he earns a l e t t e r grade of C or C-, provided such grades are compensated f o r by correspondingly higher grades i n other subjects. It should be noted that grades earned i n Health and many of the optional subjects 55. cannot be used to compensate grades below C+ i n the compulsory subjects. Thus i t i s seen that the process of compensation permits an accredited school to recommend more than the top f o r t y per cent of the students i n a required subject. The current regulations governing accrediting are fundamentally the same as those outlined i n March, 1938. The only changes which have been made are i n terminology and i n reference to new courses. 56. CHAPTER IV THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE METHODSOF SELECTION FOR  UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 1. Introduction The writer i s endeavouring to ascertain the effectiveness of the B r i t i s h Columbia system of sele c t i n g students capable of doing academic work at V i c t o r i a College by means of univer-s i t y entrance examinations and recommendations by accredited schools. At the same time an attempt i s being made to deter-mine whether or not such changes as the scaling of marks and the accrediting of certa i n schools have alt e r e d the e f f e c t i v e -ness of the system. (a) Subjects: The subjects involved i n t h i s study are the students i n the freshmen classes at V i c t o r i a College during the academic years. 1928-29 t o 1932-33, i n c l u s i v e , and the years .1939-40 to 1944-45, i n c l u s i v e . These p a r t i c u l a r years were chosen i n order that the groups be as representative as possible. The groups include the students of certain years during the unemployment period following- 1929 and also the students of certain years covering the rather complete employment oppor-t u n i t i e s which developed during World War I I . There were two other situations which helped to determine the choice of the academic years. These were the introduction of sc a l i n g of marks i n 1932 and the accre d i t i n g of schools i n 1938. 57. The following c r i t e r i a were established to determine the students whose records were to be included i n the study: (i) A l l students who had complete B r i t i s h Columbia un i v e r s i t y entrance standing and who were taking at lea s t a f u l l f i r s t year college course were automatically included. ( i i ) I f a student f a i l e d either university entrance or f i r s t year college courses, the marks made on the f i r s t attempt were used. (iii.)No p a r t i a l or conditioned student was included; the former because such a student car r i e d l e s s than the f u l l academic load and the l a t t e r because he had not completed the un i v e r s i t y entrance requirements, (iv) No student with u n i v e r s i t y entrance standing earned outside B r i t i s h Columbia was included. The group, f o r any one academic year, selected i n accord-ance with the above c r i t e r i a , w i l l constitute a "year-group." (b) Procedure: Once the academic years to be used had been selected and before the year-groups were determined, the necessary raw material f o r the study was compiled on master sheets. The following data were required f o r each student who was a fr e s h -man at V i c t o r i a College i n each of the chosen years: (i ) Name. ( i i ) Preparatory School. ( i i i ) whether a f u l l , a conditioned or a p a r t i a l student. 58. (iv) High-school record: the t o t a l and the average mark of the subjects written for univer s i t y entrance c r e d i t , and, i f recommended, the l e t t e r grades earned i n the compulsory subjects. (v) College record: the t o t a l and the average mark made at the end of the college academic year. (vi) Where available, the reading-test score and i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient of each of the students i n the group. A l l of the above information was obtained from the various records on f i l e i n the Registrar's Office at V i c t o r i a College. The name of the preparatory s chool was necessary i n order to distinguish, a f t e r 1938, between students from accredited and non-accredited schools; i t was also necessary i n order to eliminate the students who entered V i c t o r i a College with u n i v e r s i t y entrance standing earned outside the B r i t i s h Columbia examination system. Correlations between average u n i v e r s i t y entrance mark and the average f i r s t year college mark were computed f o r each year-group. After accrediting was introduced, i t was necessary, before computing correlations, to combine three year-groups i n order to obtain a large enough group of students who had written s u f f i c i e n t u n i v e r s i t y entrance examinations. For t h i s combination of three year-groups, two correlations between average f i r s t year college mark and average u n i v e r s i t y entrance mark on the written examinations were obtained; one using at leas t three u n i v e r s i t y entrance subjects written and the other 59. using at l e a s t f i v e university entrance subjects written. In addition, the c o r r e l a t i o n was computed between the l e t t e r grades obtained by students who were recommended i n at l e a s t f i v e of the compulsory subjects and t h e i r average f i r s t year college marks. The data f o r t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n were obtained by assign-ing percentage marks to the l e t t e r grades by assuming a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n and using the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l e t t e r grades recommended by the Department of Education. Following the computation of these corr e l a t i o n s , various other d e t a i l s were obtained from the work sheets, such as: (i ) The t o t a l number of students, di s t r i b u t e d according to u n i v e r s i t y entrance averages, who entered V i c t o r i a College during the years under consideration, and the number who passed at the end of the college year. In t h i s way i t was possible to determine the chances that a student has of passing f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College on the basis of his univ e r s i t y entrance average. ( i i ) The t o t a l number of V i c t o r i a College students who entered on recommendations i n at least f i v e of the required subjects. The chances of t h i s type of stu-dent passing f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College were also obtained. ( i i i ) The records of V i c t o r i a College students who entered from accredited, non-accredited and private schools were compared. 60. (c) Composition of Each Year-Group: Table XX shows the composition, with respect to f a i l u r e at the end of f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College f o r each of the year-groups. In keeping with the finds outlined i n Chapter I I , the term f a i l u r e refers to any student whose average mark, on writing the f u l l college course at the end of h i s f i r s t year, i s less than f i f t y per cent of the t o t a l possible mark. TABLE XX NUMBER OF STUDENTS AND PERCENTAGE OF FAILURE IN FIRST YEAR VICTORIA COLLEGE FOR CERTAIN ACADEMIC YEARS Year Number of students Fa i l u r e s Number Per cent 1928-29 93 14 15.1 1929-30 113 21 18.6 1930-31 109 22 20.2 1931-32 134 31 23.1 1932-33 94 15 16.0 1939-40 119 20 16.8 1940-41 109 19 17.4 1941-42 113 18 15.9 1942-43 114 17 14.9 1943-44 114 13 11.4 1944-45 147 24 16.3 In examining the data given i n Table XX, i t should be noted that: (1) Accrediting was introduced i n June, 1938, so that the year-groups a f t e r that date w i l l include some students who received t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y entrance standing by recommendation. (2) The students entering V i c t o r i a College up to and i n c l u d -ing 1932-33, wrote, i n general, essay-type u n i v e r s i t y entrance examinations. After 1939, however, new-type examinations were 61. Table XXI presents information, t o show c e r t a i n f a c t s about the students who entered V i c t o r i a College w i t h averages of l e s s than 59'0 per cent on the u n i v e r s i t y entrance examinations. TABLE XXI NUMBERS AMD PERCENTAGES OF FRESHMEN IN EACH YEAR-GROUP WHO ENTERED VICTORIA COLLEGE WITH AVERAGES LESS THAN 59.0 PER CENT • X Year w xruixtt T o t a l No. W r t X X X . E , J N U J . M X V J i f i . D X X I ..Jim ttAJMUJV. aAAJXlXlN Less than 59'0 per cent average i n U.E. examinations* A J . X U W D Per cent of T o t a l No. F a i l i n g No. Per cent F a i l i n g 1st y r . College No... Per cent 1928-29 93 16 17.2 6 37.5 1-5.1 1929-30 113 31 27.4 12 38.7 18.6 1930-31 109 34 31.2 20 58.8 20.2 1931-32 134 48 35.8 27 56.2 23.1 1932-33 94 14 14.9 7 50.0 16.0 1939-40 119 10 8.4 8 80.0 16.8 1940-41 109 5 4.6 4 80.0 17-4 1941-42 113 3 2.7 1 3 H 15.9 1942-43 114 7 6.1 2 28.6 14.9 1943-44 114 7 6.1 5 71.4 11.4 1944-45 147 7 4.7 3 42.9 16.3 Since 1938, when a c c r e d i t i n g was introdu c e d , the averages of only those students who wrote f i v e or more u n i v e r s i t y entrance examinations are used, because students w r i t i n g l e s s than f i v e s u b j e c t s would normally be w r i t i n g t h e i r weakest ones and t h e i r averages would tend t o be unduly low. A comparison of the items i n Table XXI f o r the years 1928-29 t o 1932-33, where the numbers of students w i t h u n i v e r -s i t y entrance averages l e s s than 59«0 per cent i s l a r g e enough to have some meaning, r e v e a l s t h a t i n gener a l , the l a r g e r the pr o p o r t i o n of the year-group w i t h averages l e s s than 59.0 per cent the higher i s the percentage of f a i l u r e s at the end of the f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e . 6 2 . It w i l l also be observed from Table XXI that f o r the year-groups 1939-40 to 1944-45, in c l u s i v e , the proportion of stu-dents with unive r s i t y entrance averages- l e s s than 59.0 per cent i s rather small. This may perhaps be explained, to a cer t a i n extent, by the f a c t that youth of college age who were not interested i n academic work and who had low univers i t y entrance averages were able to locate themselves i n employment or i n one of the services. Some of the members of the year-groups since 1939 entered V i c t o r i a College on recommendation from accredited schools. It i s un l i k e l y , however, that many of these would have earned averages of les s than 59«0 per cent had they written the un i v e r s i t y entrance examinations. The findings recorded i n Chapter III substantiate t h i s assumption, since although accredited schools recommend the top f o r t y to s i x t y per cent of t h e i r students i n any one subject, a p a r t i c u l a r candidate must have an average of C+ ( s i x t y - f i v e per cent) or better i n a l l of his recommended subjects. (d) Method of Selection of Each Group. The preceding analysis of the r e l a t i v e composition of each of the year-groups would not be complete without a statement regarding the proportion of each of the groups since 1939-40 that wrote the univer s i t y entrance examinations and the propor-t i o n that was recommended. Table XXII shows that from twenty-two to almost thirty-seven per cent of each of these year-groups was made up of students who were recommended by accredited schools and during the l a s t four years 63. the proportion has remained i n the v i c i n i t y of t h i r t y - s i x per cent. TABLE XXII PROPORTIONS OF STUDENTS IN CERTAIN YEAR-GROUPS THAT WROTE FIVE OR MORE UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS AND PROPORTIONS THAT WERE RECOMMENDED IN FIVE OR SIX. COMPULSORY SUBJECTS Year No. Wrote 5 or more U.E. Examinations No. Per cent Recommended i n 5 or 6 required subjects* Per cent 1939- 40 1940- 41 1941- 42 1942- 43 1943- 44 1944- 45 119 109 113 114 114 147 76 59 44 3f 36 48 63.9 54.1 38.9 33-3 31.6 32.7 31 24 41 41 41 54 26.1 22.0 36.3 36.0 36.0 36.7 Only recommendations from accredited schools are included. During the academic years 1942-43 to 1944-45, i n c l u s i v e , a l l other public high schools were permitted to recommend students maintaining cer t a i n averages f o r uni v e r s i t y entrance standing i f such students were released f o r farming operations before the end of the term. Table XXII further shows that since 1941-42 between thirty-two and th i r t y - n i n e per cent of each year-group was made up of students who wrote, f i v e or more university entrance examinations. (e) Summary: The preceding discussion indicates that the year-groups being considered vary considerably i n composition and methods of s e l e c t i o n . Some of them contain a large proportion of students who have r e l a t i v e l y low univer s i t y entrance averages, others-contain a small proportion of these students; some con-t a i n students who were recommended i n a l l of t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y 64. entrance subjects, others contain only those who had to write a l l of their subjects; some of the year-groups include years during which the university entrance examinations were not scaled, while since 1932, certain examinations have been scaled; some of the year-groups cover years in which the university entrance examinations were a l l essay-type papers while others consider yearsfor which certain papers were largely new-type. Therefore the analysis which i s to follow is based on year-groups which appear to be satisfactorily representative of the whole university entrance population. 2. Correlations {a) Data: As one means of determining the effectiveness with which the university entrance examinations select students for admission to university, several correlations between average university entrance marks and average f i r s t year college marks have been computed. Before presenting these correlations i t is well to emphasize the following points: (1) For the year-groups from 1928-29 to 1932-33, inclu-sive, each student in the group entered Victoria College after writing a set of examinations consist-ing of approximately ten papers, including two papers in each of a Language and Mathematics and either two or three, depending on the year, in English. ( i i ) For the year-groups from 1939-40 to 1944-45, i n c l u -sive, a student may have written one or more examina-tions i f he attended either a non-accredited or an accredited school or he may have been recommended i n one or more subjects i f he attended an accredited school. I f a student came from a non-accredited school he had, i n general, written at l e a s t f i v e examinations, one i n each of f i v e compulsory subjects, English, Social Studies, Mathematics, General Science and a Language. Health i s also a compulsory subject, but since 1942 a l l schools, public and private, have been permitted to recommend f o r c r e d i t i n t h i s course. ( i i i ) For the year-groups since 1931-32 the unive r s i t y entrance marks were scaled when necessary. Table XXIII shows the correlations found between average university entrance grades and average marks made at the end of the f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College. The correlations are high and, with one exception, consistent with one another. It should be noted that the c o r r e l a t i o n of .60 was obtained by using l e t t e r grades assigned to students by accredited schools instead of marks earned on written u n i v e r s i t y entrance examinations. In the case of a l l the other correlations the predictive c r i t e r i a are based on marks obtained on the same set of examinations scored under as i d e a l conditions as possible. 66. This should mean that a l l students who wrote an examination w i l l be ranked as co r r e c t l y as the r e l i a b i l i t y of the paper TABLE XXIII CORRELATIONS BETWEEN UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE STANDING AS GRANTED  BY THE BRITISH. COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF .EDUCATION AND.AVERAGE MARKS MADE IN FIRST YEAR AT VICTORIA COLLEGE, Year-Group No. Correlation P.E. 1928- 29 1929- 30 1930- 31 1931- 32 1932- 3 3 n ) 1942-45 t 1942-45j2 1942-45 93 113 109 134 94 187 122 132 .74 .73 .73 .74 .71 .73 .74 .60 .032 .030 .030 .026 .034 .023 .028 .038 (1) (2) (3) Includes those who wrote at lea s t three univ e r s i t y entrance examinations. Includes those who wrote at le a s t f i v e u n i v e r s i t y entrance examinations. Includes those who were recommended by accredited schools i n at least f i v e compulsory subjects. permits. S i n c e t h e r e l i a b i l i t i e s of many of the B r i t i s h Columbia university entrance papers are better than .90 the candidates should be ranked f a i r l y accurately, regardless of the schools from which they come. With respect to students who have been recommended by accredited schools, no such generalization i s possible; as a matter o f f a c t , such a r e s u l t would be mo s t u n l i k e l y , as a student who earns an A i n one \ school as one of the top f i v e per cent of his class might be only of B or C+ cal i b r e i n some other, say lar g e r , school. In other words, the l e t t e r grades assigned to students from one school w i l l not serve to rank them with respect to students 6 7 . from other schools, (b) Summary: These correlations are es p e c i a l l y noteworthy when com-pared with the correlations obtained i n other studies. They are high, even when compared with the correlations obtained i n the Ontario study i n which the conditions were somewhat p a r a l l e l to those exi s t i n g i n B r i t i s h Golumbia. Probably the most comparable correlations i n the Ontario study would be the ones between average upper school and average f i r s t year university marks, and "upper school best combination" and honour average i n f i r s t year at the University of Toronto which were .557 and «634 respectively. With respect to the marks obtained in" examinations at V i c t o r i a College i t should be noted that, except f o r English, the marking of papers i n any one subject was done by one marker and hence the same r e l a t i v e standards would tend to be used f o r the whole group of papers being marked. This would be l e s s l i k e l y to be true when one subject was marked by more than one marker unless the "chain" system were used. Also since the groups i n each course at the College have been smaller, i n general, than corresponding freshmen groups at large u n i v e r s i t i e s , and instructors can, and probably do test more frequently than i s usual, the f i n a l marks w i l l be a com-posite of scores earned on many tests during the year. For instance, i n French, the students are tested every week during the academic year, and i n Mathematics tests are given approx-68. iinately every one and a h a l f weeks. In both cases a l l the marks obtained on these tests are used to determine the f i n a l standing i n the course. Much of the college t e s t i n g programme would thus tend to meet many of the c r i t e r i a of an adequate evaluative device. For comparative purposes, correlations between V i c t o r i a College marks and reading scores, and between V i c t o r i a College marks and scholastic aptitude are presented i n Table XXIV. TABLE XXIV CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CERTAIN PREDICTIVE CRITERIA  AND FIRST YEAR. COLLEGE MARKS  Predictive C r i t e r i o n Year No. r P.E. Reading-test scores 1944-45 133 .38 .05 Scholastic aptitude 1944-45 139 .33 .05 The correlations given i n Table XXIV are s i m i l a r to those reported i n previous studies, e.g., the .38 obtained by Odell (31) between I.Q. and f i r s t year college average and Segel's (39) median of. .44 f o r over one hundred correlations between scholastic aptitude and f i r s t year college average. The mean I.Q. of the 139 students included i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r year-group, 1944-45, was 114.6. The quite ordinary c o r r e l a t i o n of .33 between schola s t i c aptitude and f i r s t year V i c t o r i a College average throws into sharp r e l i e f the unusually high correlations between univer s i t y entrance average and f i r s t year college average. 69. 3 . P r o b a b i l i t i e s • o f Passing F i r s t Year  at V i c t o r i a College (a) Based on University Entrance Written Examinations: ( i ) Data: An examination w i l l now be made of the chances that stu-dents who obtain certain u n i v e r s i t y entrance averages have of passing 1 f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College. Table XXV i s a summary of the s i t u a t i o n with respect to 8L9 students who wrote at least f i v e university entrance examinations during the eleven years under review. Despite the differences due to scaling and accrediting, nature and number of examinations, and types of students, a l l who wrote f i v e or more examinations during these years have been grouped f o r the data of Table XXV. TABLE XXV THE PROBABILITY BASED ON UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE AVERAGE U.E.Average No. No. passing F i r s t Year Per cent passing under 53 51 18 • 353 5 3 . 0 - 5 5 . 9 60 30 .500 5 6 . 0 - 5 8 . 9 71 39 .556 59 -0 -61 .9 112 75 .670 6 2 . 0 - 6 4 - 9 110 86 .782 6 5 . 0 - 6 7 . 9 107 90 .841 6 8 . 0 - 7 0 . 9 87 83 .954 7 1 . 0 - 7 3 . 9 64 61 •953 7 4 . 0 - 7 6 . 9 50 47 .940 7 7 . 0 - 7 9 . 9 43 42 .977 above 80 .0 94 94 1.000 Total 849 665 • 783 See page 60 f o r d e f i n i t i o n of f a i l i n g . 70. Table XXV shows that i f a student enters V i c t o r i a College with an average of les s than f i f t y - t h r e e per cent on f i v e or more univer s i t y entrance examinations, his chances of passing f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College are 353 out of one thousand; i f his average i s between f i f t y - t h r e e per cent and f i f t y - s i x per cent he has an even chance. The decrease i n numbers i n the higher ranges i s to be expected, since recommended students would l i k e l y have obtained high marks had they written the examination. Table XXII showed that approximately one t h i r d of the students i n each year-group since 1939 had been recommended i n f i v e or more compulsory subjects. Since some of the groups shown i n Table XXV, notably those above s i x t y - f i v e per cent and those under f i f t y - n i n e per cent, contain r e l a t i v e l y few cases i t i s advisable to determine the p r o b a b i l i t i e s of passing f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College on the basis of wider s t e p - i n t e r v a l s . ( i i ) Summary and Conclusions: Table XXVI restates the data of Table XXV by combining certain i n t e r v a l s i n order to have lar g e r numbers of students. TABLE XXVI THE PROBABILITY BASED ON UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE AVERAGE THAT A STUDEiN [T WILL p; LSS FIRST YEAR AT VICTORIA COLLEGE U.E. Average No. No. passing Per cent passing under 53 53-0-58.9 59.0-6/+.9 65.0-73.9 74.0-79.9 above 80.0 _ 51 131 222 258 93 94 18 69 161 234 89 94 .353 • 527 .725 .907 .957 1.000 Total 849 665 .783 71. A survey of Table XXVI reveals that students with higher university entrance marks have a better chance of passing f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College. It can be seen that not once'in the eleven years under review has a student with an average above eighty per cent i n his u n i v e r s i t y entrance examinations, f a i l e d i n his f i r s t year college examinations. A study of the data presented i n Table XXVI suggests that students who obtain high averages on the univers i t y entrance examinations can be expected to do successful work i n f i r s t year college courses. Thus the re s u l t s of university entrance examinations appear to be i n d i c a t i v e of success i n f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College. (b) Based on Recommendations from Accredited Schools: (i ) Data: Consideration i s now.given.to the chances which recom-mended students have of passing f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College. Table XXVII shows the p r o b a b i l i t i e s that students who are recommended i n varying numbers of compulsory subjects have of passing f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College. The data are f o r the year-groups since 1939« TABLE XXVII PERCENTAGES OF RECOMMENDED STUDENTS PASSING FIRST TEAR AT VICTORIA COLLEGE Passing F i r s t Year No. of Recommended Subjects No. Percentage 5 or 6 compulsory subjects At l e a s t 3 compulsory subjects Exactly 3 compulsory subjects Exactly 4 compulsory subjects 246 405 75 ?2 .984 .914 .840 .865 72. In the cases of the f i r s t two items i n Table XXVII, the indicated p r o b a b i l i t i e s are s l i g h t l y l e s s than they should be since the students from accredited schools who wrote f o r univ e r s i t y entrance scholarships are not included i n t h i s analysis. Such"students appear i n the records as having written f i v e examinations, and not as having been recommended in a l l t h e i r subjects, as would be the case i f they had not written f o r scholarships. Table XXVII shows that i f a student enters V i c t o r i a College a f t e r being recommended by an accredited school i n a l l or a l l but one of the compulsory university entrance subjects his chances of passing f i r s t year at the college are better than ninety-eight out of one hundred. Even i f a student i s recommended i n three and has to write the other three com-pulsory subjects his chances of passing f i r s t year college are eighty-four out of one hundred. Again, i f a student from an accredited school i s recommended i n four and has to write the other two compulsory university entrance subjects, his chances of passing f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College are better than eighty-six out of one hundred. ( i i ) Summary and conclusions: The s t a t i s t i c s given i n Table XXVII substantiate the following conclusions: (1) Students who entered V i c t o r i a College by recommendation during the s i x successive years under review proved, by t h e i r college records, that t h e i r recommended status was in d i c a t i v e of a b i l i t y to do college work. 73-(2) The high-school records of students i n accredited schools, i f they average C+ or better, provide adequate basis f o r granting univ e r s i t y entrance standing without the necessity of writing departmental examinations. 4. A General Evaluation of Accrediting (a) Data: Since the bases of accrediting are teacher q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , adequate physical plant and s a t i s f a c t o r y inspectors' reports, i t i s relevant to enquire whether or not students from accredited, schools show any superiority over students from' non-accredited schools (i ) on university entrance examinations; ( i i ) i n passing f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College. Table XXVIII shows the percentages of candidates from accredited and from non-accredited schools who f a i l e d examina-tions i n university entrance subjects f o r June, 1939 and 1940. In making the calculations f o r t h i s table the t o t a l number of candidates i n a l l university entrance subjects ( i . e . candidate-subjects) and the t o t a l number of f a i l u r e s were used. In the case of the accredited schools i t was necessary to include i n the candidate-subjects the students who were recommended. 74-TABLE XXVIII PERCENTAGE FAILURE IN UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS 'nnpnTMO TO T H E T Y P E nv sr.unm. .mm?, I Q ^ Q anH .TFTME TCSI.nl — — - — - ~* ~ — -Type of School Percentage F a i l i n g 1939 1940 Accredited Schools* 9.9 8.3 Non-accredited Public Schools 13.5 13.0 Private Schools 13.6 11.0 Taken from reports on f i l e i n the Registrar's O f f i c e , Department of Education, V i c t o r i a , B.C. *These calculations are based on the t o t a l number of candidates from accredited schools and include those who were recommended. A further analysis of the data i n Table XXVIII i s given i n Table XXIX, where the t o t a l candidate-subjects and the numbers and percentages of students recommended, wri t i n g and f a i l i n g are given. TABLE XXIX FAILURES IN UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS, JUNE, 1940 . ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF SCHOOL-1-Type of School Total Candidate-Subjects Recommended Wril ting Fa3 L i e d No. * No. % No. % Accredited Non-accredit ed public Private 18,130 5,090 2.095 10,534 619 19 58.0* 12.2 0.9 7,596 4,471 2,076 42.0 87.8 99-1 1,511 659 230 8.3 13-0 11.0 "Taken from reports on f i l e i n the Registrar's O f f i c e , Department of Education, V i c t o r i a , B.C. This percentage i s high because i t includes recommendations i n Health. Tables XXVIII and XXIX furnish evidence f o r the following statement which i s contained i n the 1940 report of the Director of Tests and Measurements f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia Department 75. of Education: "Pupils from non-accredited schools have a chance of f a i l u r e which i s approximately f i f t y per cent greater than those from accredited schools." There are two assumptions involved i n the above con-clusion: (i) that the average a b i l i t y of students attending accredited and non-accredited schools i s approximately the same; ( i i ) that a l l recommended students would have passed the university entrance examinations i f they had been required to write. If these assumptions are accepted, a student stands a better chance of passing the u n i v e r s i t y entrance examinations i f he attends an accredited school rather than a non-accredited school. During the course of t h i s study the writer determined the chances of passing f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College on the basis of the type of preparatory school. Table XXX gives a summary of the r e s u l t s obtained from the academic h i s t o r i e s of a l l the f i r s t year V i c t o r i a College students i n the year-groups 1939-40 to 1944-45, i n c l u s i v e . TABLE XXX PROBABILITIES THAT A STUDENT WILL PASS F] :RST YEAR AT VICTORIA COLLEGE ON THE BASIS OF THE TYPE OF PB IEPARAT0RY SCHOOL Type of Preparatory School No. Percentage Passing Accredited school Non-accredited school Private school 510 207 81 .871 .792 .790 76. From Table XXX we see that a student who received h i s preparatory t r a i n i n g at an accredited school has eighty-seven chances out of one hundred of passing f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College, while a student from a non-accredited school has seventy-nine chances out of one hundred. The difference appears to be small but upon investigation, i t i s found that the c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s two and one-half <r units, which means that there are 994 chances out of one thousand that a true difference e x i s t s . Hence, i f the students attending both types of school.can be considered of equal average a b i l i t y over the years under consideration, then students are better prepared fo r f i r s t year college work by accredited schools than by non-accredited schools. Thus the evidence shows that students from accredited schools have a larger proportion of passes i n the univ e r s i t y entrance examinationsand also have a smaller proportion of f a i l u r e s at the end of f i r s t year V i c t o r i a College. In further investigating the r e s u l t s of accrediting, the writer cheeked the records of a l l the V i c t o r i a College students who had been recommended i n at l e a s t f i v e of the compulsory university entrance subjects by non-accredited schools. During the years 1941-42, 1942-43, 1943-44, a l l public high schools i n the province were given special permission to recommend students f o r u n i v e r s i t y entrance standing i f such students were needed f o r farming operations, and i f they had maintained a G+ or better average i n t h e i r high school work. In Table XXVII i t was recorded that i f a student entered 77. V i c t o r i a College with recommendations i n at least f i v e of the compulsory subjects from an accredited school his chances of passing f i r s t year were 984 out of one thousand. In other words, on the basis of the records f o r the s i x academic years under review, only four of the 246 such students f a i l e d at the College. In comparison, the records of the students who were recommended by non-accredited schools are enlightening. For the years s p e c i f i e d there were eighteen students recommended i n at l e a s t f i v e compulsory subjects by non-accredited schools and of t h i s number f i v e f a i l e d f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College. The chances of success at V i c t o r i a College i f recommended by a non-accredited school thus appear to be very low when compared with the chances i f recommended by an accredited school. (b} Summary: (i) Within the l i m i t s of t h i s study and on the assump-t i o n that the students from accredited and non-accredited schools are of equal a b i l i t y , i t i s possible to state that the schools which have been granted the p r i v i l e g e of recommending fo r uni v e r s i t y entrance standing have j u s t i f i e d t h e i r selection on the bases of the success of t h e i r students who wrote university entrance examinations and on the a b i l i t y of t h e i r students to secure passing averages i n examinations at the end of f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College. ( i i ) On the basis of the small number of cases available f o r t h i s study, students recommended by non-accredited schools do not do as well at V i c t o r i a College as students recommended 78. by accredited schools. 79. CHAPTER V  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1. The Present Study This investigation was undertaken to determine the effec-tiveness with which the B r i t i s h Columbia un i v e r s i t y entrance policy selects students capable of succeeding at V i c t o r i a College. At the same time the w r i t e r has attempted to evaluate the effects of scaling of marks and accrediting of schools on the selective a b i l i t y of the B r i t i s h Columbia system. The subjects used were the f i r s t year students i n attend-ance at V i c t o r i a College during certain academic years. 2. Results and Conclusions In the l i g h t of the data studied the w r i t e r has arrived at a number of conclusions: : (a) There i s a remarkably high c o r r e l a t i o n between the average mark made on the written u n i v e r s i t y entrance examina-tions and the average mark made at the end of f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College. The correlations of .71, .73 and .74, obtained i n the investigation are much higher than those shown i n most other studies. In view of such high correlations the B r i t i s h Columbia un i v e r s i t y entrance averages can be used to indicate the probable degree of success i n f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the extremes. Lee (26:73) wrote: "Correlations between .60 and .70 are of considerable value, especially i n the case of extreme scores. Correla-tions between .70 and .80 are of marked value but seldom 80. obtained." (b) The correlations between average university entrance mark and average f i r s t year college mark have remained consist-ently high despite the reduction i n the number of papers written, the gradual, although not complete, change from essay-type to new-type examinations, and the adoption of s c a l i n g . (c) I f a student obtains complete unive r s i t y entrance standing by writing the departmental examinations and earns an average of l e s s than f i f t y - t h r e e per cent, h i s chances of pass-ing f i r s t year college are about one i n three. I f his univer-s i t y entrance average i s between f i f t y - t h r e e and f i f t y - s i x per cent his chances are one i n two. Thus even f o r low uni v e r s i t y entrance averages the chances of success at the end of f i r s t year college are by no means hopeless. There i s no passing university entrance average mark below which i t i s possible to say that students obtaining such averages should not attempt f i r s t year college. At l e a s t one out of three students obtaining even the lowest passing univer-s i t y entrance average can succeed i n f i r s t year college. Very l i k e l y some of the university entrance candidates who f a i l e d could, i f given the opportunity, pass f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College. (d) Students who obtain on written examinations an average university entrance mark above s i x t y - f i v e per cent have better than nine chances out of ten of passing f i r s t year ' college. It would be reasonable to assume that many of the students i n t h i s category who f a i l , do so f o r some reason other 81. than lack of scholastic aptitude. (e) Students with averages above eighty per cent on the written university entrance examinations are p r a c t i c a l l y certain to pass f i r s t year college. In the eleven years covered by t h i s study, not one student i n t h i s group f a i l e d the f i r s t year at V i c t o r i a College. (f) The bases of accrediting certain high-schools i n the province have been shown to be sa t i s f a c t o r y i f the purpose of accrediting i s to permit high-schools to se l e c t , without departmental examinations, students capable of doing college work. (g) I f a student comes from an accredited school, whether he i s recommended i n one or more of the compulsory u n i v e r s i t y entrance subjects or not, his chances of passing f i r s t year college are 8"71 i n one thousand, whereas i f he comes from a non-accredited school, his chances of passing are 792 i n one thou-sand. I f he comes from a private school h i s chances are 790 i n one thousand. (h) I f a student i s recommended by an accredited school i n f i v e or a l l s i x of the compulsory un i v e r s i t y entrance sub-j e c t s , h is chances of passing f i r s t year college are 984 i n one thousand. 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"Predicting Academic Su r v i v a l . " Journal  of Educational Research, XXIII. (February, 1931), pp. 113-123. 17. Giles, H.H., McCutchen,- S.P., Zechiel, A.N. Adventure i n  American Education, Volume I I , Exploring the Curriculum. New York: Harpers, 1942, Pp. 362. 18. Greene, Harry A., Jorgenson, Albert N., Gerberich, J . Raymond. Measurement and Evaluation i n the Secondary School. New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1943• Pp. XXVI + 670. 19. Hanus, Paul H. Opportunity and Accomplishment i n Secondary  Education. Cambridge: Harvard University Press,1926,Pp.60. 20. Hawkes, H.E., Lindquist, E.F. and Mann, CR. The Construc- and-Use of Achievement Examinations. Cambridge: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1936. Pp. V +497-21. Heaton, Kenneth L. "The Contributions of Research to the Redefinition of College Requirements." The Educational  Record, XXII, ( A p r i l , 1941), pp. 149-169. 22. Kandel. Isaac L. The Dilemma of Democracy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1934, Pp. 79. 23. Kellog, Chester E. "Relative Values, of Intelligence Tests and Matriculation Examinations as Means of Estimating Probable Success i n College." School and Society, XXX, (Dec. 28, 1929), pp. 893-896. 24. Keys, Noel. "The Value of Group Tests I Q s f o r Prediction of Progress Beyond High.School." Journal_ of Educational Psychology, XXXI, (February, 1940), pp. 81-93-25. Laycock, S.R. and Hutcheon, N.B. "Preliminary Investiga-t i o n into the Problem of Measuring Engineering Aptitude." Journal of^Educational Psychology. XXX, ( A p r i l , 1939), pp. 280-288. 26. Lee, J. Murray. A Guide to Measurement i n Secondary  Schools. New York! Appleton-Century Company, 1936. Pp. XV +514. 85. 27. Martin, R.R. "Predicting Success i n College." Education LXII, (September, 194D, pp. 52-58. : 28. Minutes of the Meeting, of the High.School Accrediting B o a r d , V i c t o r i a , B.C., unpublished, Registrar's O f f i c e , Department of Education. 29. Minutes of the High School and University Matriculation Board of. Examiners, V i c t o r i a , B.C., unpublished, Registrar's O f f i c e , Department of Education. 30. MacKay, Muriel A. "A Report on the R e l i a b i l i t y of the Junior Matriculation Examinations f o r the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1935," unpublished, V i c t o r i a , B.C., Department of Education. 31. Odell, Charles W. Predicting, the Scholastic Success of College Freshmen. Bureauof Educational Research B u l l e t i n No. 37. Urbana, 111.: University of I l l i n o i s , 1927,Pp.54-32. Portenier, L i l l i a n . "A Twelve Year Study of D i f f e r e n t i a t e d Groups of High School. Pupils." Journal of Educational Psychology. XXIX, (January, 1929), pp. 1-13 • 33» Prescott, A.C. and Garretson, O.R. "Teachers' Estimates and Success i n College." School Review. XLVIII, ( A p r i l , 1940), pp. 278-284. 34« Programme of Studies f o r the Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h  Columbia. B u l l e t i n I. V i c t o r i a . B.C.; King's Printer. 1941. 35* Putman, J.H. and Weir, G.M. Survey of the School System, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1925, V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's Pri n t e r , 1925. Pp. XI 4 556. 36. Read, C e c i l B. "The Prediction of Scholastic Success i n a Municipal University." School and-Society, XLVIII, (August 6, 1938), pp. 187-188. ~~ 37« "The Relation between Matriculation Marks and the Achieve-ment of Students i n the U n i v e r s i t i e s of Ontario." Toronto: Department of Educational Research, Ontario College of Education, University of Toronto, 1939. Pp . 1 2 8 . 38. Remmers, H.H. and Gage. N.L. Educational Measurement and  Evaluation. New York: Harper and Bros., 1943• Pp.1X4 550. 39. Segel,,. David. Prediction of College Success. Washington, D.C: United States Of f i c e of Education B u l l e t i n , 1934, No. 15- Pp. 98. 4 0 . Symonds.P.M. Measurement i n Secondary Education. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1930. Pp. XVII 4 588. 86. 41. Terman, L.M. "Intelligence Tests i n Colleges and U n i v e r s i t i e s . " School and Society, XIII, (A p r i l 23, 1921), pp. 481-494-42. What the High Schools Ought to Teach. The Report of a Special Committee, Washington, D.C: American Council on Education, 1940. 43. W i l l i s , S.J. "Movement Towards the Establishment of Accredited High Schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia." The  B.C. Teacher, XIV, (October, 1934) pp. 7-11. 44« Woody, C l i f f o r d et a l . Quantitative Measurement i n Inst i t u t i o n s of Higher Learning. Year Book No. XVIII, National Society of College Teachers of Education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1930. Pp. IX +253* 45« Zook, George E. "Accrediting Schools and Colleges." Educational Record, XV, (January, 1934), PP« 10-26. 87. APPENDIX REGULATIONS WITH. RESPECT TO ACCREDITING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. I. General Policy which should be_followed i n Accrediting  a High-School f o r the year 1938-39 and thereafter! 1. The School s h a l l be so organized and the work i n i t so planned and conducted as to achieve the aims of education set f o r t h i n the various manuals issued by the Department of Education f o r the guidance of teachers; teaching procedures arid the organization and content of the various subjects of i n s t r u c t i o n s h a l l be i n harmony with the Programme of Studies; and the authorized time allotments s h a l l be observed. The t e s t i n g and promotion of pupils s h a l l be i n accordance with the p r i n c i p l e s l a i d down i n B u l l e t i n I of the Senior High School Programme of Studies (1937). In the school-year 1938-39 the course i n Guidance outlined i n B u l l e t i n I of the Senior High School Programme of Studies (1937) s h a l l be taught regu l a r l y In Grades IX and X. 2. The s o c i a l organization of the school s h a l l be such are to promote desirable s o c i a l attitudes and the a b i l i t y to lead and to co-operate i n the duties and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s Of democratic c i t i z e n s h i p . 3« The school must, i n general, make due provision f o r the varying i n d i v i d u a l needs and a b i l i t i e s of i t s students and-shall provide courses not only i n the t r a d i t i o n a l academic subjects; but also i n the Fine and P r a c t i c a l Arts and i n the Commercial subjects; i n the case of smaller schools, however, these courses may be provided through the High School Correspondence Department. I I . School Buildings and Grounds. The grounds, l i g h t i n g , v e n t i l a t i o n and sanitary condi-tions of the school s h a l l be such as to a f f o r d a h e a l t h f u l environment f o r the pupils. I I I . Physical-Education. The school s h a l l have a room or gymnasium suitable f o r Physical Education and s h a l l have adequate equipment f o r gymnastic work and games; i t s h a l l give a regular course i n Physical Education to a l l pupils enrolled i n Grades IX to XII, except i n the case of pupils who have been 88. exempted from such work upon the advice of a medical p r a c t i t i o n e r . IV. L i b r a r y . There s h a l l be a l i b r a r y of reference and other books adequate to the needs of the school. (See B u l l e t i n I, Senior High School Programme of Studies.) These books s h a l l be properly c l a s s i f i e d and the l i b r a r y s h a l l be conducted upon approved l i b r a r y p r i n c i p l e s . The stu-dents s h a l l be trained i n fundamental l i b r a r y s k i l l s . There must be evidence that the teaching procedures i n the various.school subjects are such that the classroom and the l i b r a r y are brought into functional r e l a t i o n . V. Science Laboratories, Home Economics Laboratories, Shops. Laboratories and shops s h a l l be equipped f o r e f f i c i e n t teacher-demonstration and required pupil-experimentation and a c t i v i t i e s . VI. Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of Teachers and the S t a f f i n g of Schools. 1. In general there s h a l l be at l e a s t four reg u l a r l y q u a l i f i e d teachers i n a High School e n r o l l i n g pupils from Grades IX to XII, and three i n schools enrol-l i n g pupils from Grades X to XII. There must be at. le a s t one more than these ; numbers i f the school has a Grade XIII or Senior Matriculation c l a s s . Notwithstanding these conditions, a highr-school having only three teachers may also be accredited, provided that, by reason of the outstanding merit of the s t a f f i t i s adjudged worthy of t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , and provided further i n respect of other c r i t e r i a set out above, i t s a t i s f y the accrediting Board. 2. In the f i n a l courses i n English, Social Studies, Science, Mathematics and the Foreign Languages, a teacher of these subjects shall have two years of teaching experience i n a secondary school, and i n each such subject.in which he teaches the f i n a l course he s h a l l have the standard q u a l i f i c a t i o n which i s represented by a minor i n the University of, B r i t i s h Columbia, except i n the case of teachers who have had f i v e years s a t i s f a c t o r y experience i n a secondary school or are reported by the Department of Education as being s a t i s f a c t o r y teachers of the subject or subjects. 3. There s h a l l be evidence of growth i n scholarship and professional knowledge and s k i l l on the part of the p r i n c i p a l and s t a f f . 89. VII. Teaching Load. The teaching load s h a l l be i n accordance with the prescriptions of the Department o f Education, and s h a l l not exceed 35 periods a week. VIII. Records. 1. The school s h a l l have available f o r inspection com-plete permanent records of the progress of a l l pupils enrolled i n the school. These records s h a l l include the pupils' Progress Cards and t h e i r Medical Cards. They should show, the pupils' standing as measured by c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t ests given twice a year and t h e i r scores upon Standardized Achievement Tests and Intelligence Tests. Copies of pupils' t e s t papers and samples of t h e i r work co l l e c t e d from time to time should be kept on f i l e f o r inspection. A separate folder f o r each pupil i s desirable f o r t h i s l a t t e r purpose. 2. Interpretation of Grades. "A" means Excellent or Outstanding; "B" means Very Good; i,C+'' means High Average; "C" means Average; "C-" means low Average; "D" means Weak or Poor; "E" means Fai l u r e ; " I " means Incomplete. In a large school "A" may be obtained by from 5 to 10 per cent of the pupils; "B" by approximately 20 per cent; "C+" by the next 15 per cent; "C" by the next 20 per cent; "C-" by the next 15 per cent; "D" by the next 20 per cent; "E" by the lowest 5 per cent; but these percentages, may vary with the numbers of students and with the degree of s e l e c t i v i t y i n the group. When the r i g i d a p p l i c a t i o n of the percentages given above c o n f l i c t s with the r e a l i t i e s of the si t u a t i o n , the percentages should be varied i n accordance with the qu a l i t a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of grades defined above. IX. Standards of Pupil Achievement. University Entrance. When the programme of studies f o r Senior High Schools comes f u l l y into e f f e c t , a student.qualifying f o r High School Graduation may f u l f i l the requirement f o r Univer-s i t y Entrance upon graduating from an accredited high-school with the required standing i n the following subjects: 1 90. A. English I I I , IV, V, VI 20 c r e d i t s B. Social Studies I I I , IV, V 15 credits C. Mathematics I I I , IV, V, VI 20 c r e d i t s D. General Science I I I , IV, V 15 c r e d i t s E. Foreign Language I, I I , III 15 credits (Latin, or French, or German) F. Health and Physical Education I I I , IV, V, VI 12 c r e d i t s G. Free-Electives: 15 credits from any subject or group of subjects authorized by the Department of Education to be taught i n the High-Schools of the Province, provided that no cre d i t s h a l l be granted i n any subject f o r work carrying fewer than 3 cred-i t s . In addition to the e l e c t i v e s already provided i n the Senior High School B u l l e t i n s , Senior Matriculation Courses may also be taken as Free E l e c t i v e s . There w i l l also be available f o r the same purpose courses i n special Sciences (Agricul-ture, Biology, Chemistry and Physics), each carrying 5 c r e d i t s . These courses i n the s p e c i a l sciences are being offered to meet the needs of the students who w i l l s p e c i a l i z e i n science i n the University. The contents of these courses and the number to be required f o r s p e c i a l work i n science at the Univer-s i t y w i l l be decided upon when the content of General Science V has been determined. In the f i n a l courses i n the subjects l i s t e d under "A", "B", "C", "Dn, and "E" above,,and i n the Senior Matriculation courses, the s p e c i a l science courses and the f i n a l courses i n foreign languages l i s t e d under "G", a grade not lower than "04" i n general s h a l l be required f o r University Entrance. Grades of "C" and "G-n, however, w i l l be accepted i f com-pensated f o r by grades higher than "C+n i n others of these f i n a l courses. A student who has not met these requirements w i l l be granted standing i n each such subject i n which he had made a standing not lower than «C+". Compensation i n t h i s case s h a l l be determined as follows: (a) The grades i n the f i n a l courses mentioned i n the preceding paragraph w i l l be assigned the following numerical values: A = 2; B = 1; C+= 0; C = -1; C- = - 2 . (b) The sum of the numerical values of the grades obtained i n the f i n a l courses referred to i n (a) must not be negative. 91. X. Accrediting shall be for a period of one year. A school which considers that i t can meet the requirements for accrediting shall apply for accrediting in time to have i t s claim investigated. For the school year 1938-39 this application shall be made not later than October 31, 1938. Application shall be made to the Secretary of the Accrediting Board, Department of Education, Victoria, B.C. Temporary Arrangements for Accrediting for the year 1937-38: As i t w i l l be impossible for some schools this year to make the necessary adjustments to meet the standards outlined above, and as i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t for the. Department of Education to make the necessary arrangements for the inspec-tion and appraisal of a l l schools which may be involved, i t has been decided to adopt the following policy for the present school year 1937-38: * 1. In the case of high-schools enrolling only Grades IX to XII accrediting shall be accorded in June, 1938, to such of these schools as have a staff of four or more teachers holding the Academic Certificate of this Province, and in the case of schools enrolling only Grades X to XII, accrediting shall be accorded to such of these schools as have a staff of three teachers holding the Academic Certificate. Notwithstanding these conditions, a high school having only three teachers may also be accredited provided that, by reason of-the outstanding merit of the staff, i t i s adjudged worthy of this distinction. 2. Candidates from a high-school referred to in the preceding paragraph (1) who are certified by the principal to have completed the f i n a l course in a subject prescribed for University entrance and to have obtained a f i n a l standing of "A" or "B" or "C+M in such subject shall be given University Entrance standing in that subject. 3. Before a high-school shall be granted accrediting under the terras referred to in paragraphs (1) and (2) hereof, the principal of the high-school shall be required to certify that the regulations concerning time allotments, study periods, health and physical education have been carefully observed. 

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