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Child welfare administration under protection acts in British Columbia : its history and development,… Singleton, Anna Genevieve 1950

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<2- • / CHILD WELFARE ADMINISTRATION UNDKK PROTECTION ACTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Its History and Development 1901 - 1949 by Anna Senevieve Singleton Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Social ¥/orfe in the Department of Social Yfcrk 1 9 5 0 The University of British Columbia Abstract This study traces the development of the Protection of Children Acts i n B r i t i s h Columbia from the f i r s t Act i n 1901. to the present day. The o r i g i n a l l e g i s l a t i o n was modelled on the Ontario Protection Act, but various amendments have been added since, which have been influenced hy B r i t i s h Columbia conditions. The basic purpose of the Act was to give authority t o Children's Aid Societies to commit children as wards of the government; the study traces the increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the provin-c i a l government i n financing these s o c i e t i e s . In order t o give a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the changes that have taken place, Statutes, annual reports of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, annual reports of the Catholic Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, annual reports ; of the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare and other documents and reports have been studied. Information was also secured from interviews with people connected v/ith the administration of t h i s Act. The development i s conveniently divided into periods. The f i r s t , (1901-1920), covers the period from administration under the Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s to the appointment of the Superintendent of Neglected Children f o r the province. The second, (1921-1943), traces the reorganization of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver and the expansion of services to c h i l d r e n by the p r o v i n c i a l government. In the present stage, - (1943-1949), developments are reviewed i n terms of greater expansion of services. Changes i n views on c h i l d care are revealed by the study. At f i r s t , the prevalent doctrine was that orphans and other c h i l d r e n i n need of protection should be placed i n a Home. Later, emphasis was placed on foster-homes instead of i n s t i t u t i o n s . As examples in the t h e s i s show, modern p r a c t i c e recognizes there i s a place f o r i n -s t i t u t i o n s ! care as w e l l as foster-home care f o r wards end non wards. The importance of understanding the needs of the c h i l d and the type of care that i s best f o r a s p e c i f i c c h i l d i s discussed i n some d e t a i l . The r o l e of the s o c i a l worker i s emphasized. Acknowledgments; I would l i k e t o convey my sincere appreciation t o the many people who have been so h e l p f u l i n accumulating the i n f o r -mation necessary to complete t h i s study. In p a r t i c u l a r , I would l i k e t o express my appreciation of the assistance given 5 to my by Miss Laura Holland, former Deputy Superintendent of Neglected Ch i l d r e n and Advisor t o the Mi n i s t e r on matters of S o c i a l Welfare P o l i c y ; Miss Isobel Harvey, Research Consultant i n the So c i a l , Welfare Branch and Miss Harj'orie Holmes, Assistant L i b r a r i a n , Parliament Buildings who so generously gave a great deal of time and information. My sincere thanks also to Miss Marjorie- J.'. Smith, and Dr. Leonard Marsh of the Department of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the valuable help that they gave. Table of Contents' Chapter 1. The F i r s t Protection Act and i t s Administration (1901-1911). Page Adaptation of the Ontario Children's Act of 1883; Purpose 1 of the Act; Development of the Children's Aid Societies; D i f f i c u l t i e s i n administration; R.S.B.C. Inf ant "s Act, Part i t , 1911. Chapter 11. Emphasis on I n s t i t u t i o n a l Care. (1911-1920). Administration of the Act by the Children's: Aid Society of 10 Vancouver; Administration of the C a t h o l i c Children's Aid Society of Vancouver; Administration of the Children's Aid Society of V i c t o r i a ; Appointment of the Superintendent of Neglected Children; Problems confronting the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver. Chapter 111. New Thinking- i n C h i l d Welfare (1921-1927/). A campaign started f o r a new home for the Children's Aid 21 Society of Vancouver; New methods of c h i l d - c a r e i n Ontario and i t s influence on B r i t i s h Columbia; The survey by the Canadian Welfare .' Council on the problem of protection and child-c-are i n B r i t i s h C o l -umbia; The recommendations proposed by the survey committee. '• Chapter IV. The Children's Aid Society Reorganized (1927-1933). Reorganization of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver; 32: Attitude of the C a t h o l i c Children's: Aid Society toward change; Feeble minded and subnormal c h i l d r e n ; Welfare staff i n outlying areas; Caring f o r the Doukhobor c h i l d r e n . Chapter V. Extension of Government Aided Services (.1935-1943). Greater emphasis on preventive work; Closer r e l a t i o n s h i p 39 between C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n and the I n d u s t r i a l Schools; Foster-homes for wards of the Superintendent of Neglected-Children 1, in; s p e c i f i c r u r a l areas; Placing of overseas c h i l d r e n i n foster-homes; Special services-t o minor groups. Chapter VI. Recent Developments (1943-1949). The new P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act of 1943; New 'foster-home 49 d i s t r i c t s ; Placement of Metis c h i l d r e n ; Expansion of services under d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ; S o c i a l workers and the Court; P l a c i n g Jewish overseas children, i n foster-homes; The Children's Aid Society of V i c t o r i a ; I n s t i -t u t i o n a l care and foster-home care. Appendices; A - The P e t i t i o n of the Local Council of Womeni forwarded to the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of B r i t i s h Columbia. B - Bibliography CHILD! WELFARE ADMINISTRATION UNDER PROTECTION ACTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA I t s ; History and Development; 1901 - IM9 Chapter 1 The F i r s t Protection Act and i t s Administration (1901 - 1911). In our culture the family unit i s basic i n the development of mature men and women and a l l c h i l d r e n have the righ t to obtain from t h e i r guardians a high standard of care f o r t h e i r p h y s i c a l and mental needs. In Canadian Law, c h i l d protection i s concerned with providing a. responsible person or body of persons who can undertake the c h i l d ' s t r a i n i n g and education. To-day, c h i l d protection aims toward re-estab-l i s h i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of parents who prove incapable guardians of t h e i r own c h i l d r e n . I f t h i s can not be accomplished, a f t e r a l l e f f o r t s have f a i l e d , i t i s a public r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n the i n t e r e s t s of the c h i l d , to remove him from the home. S u f f i c i e n t evidence must then be given to the judge that the parents are not f i t guardians f o r the c h i l d and that ei t h e r a period of time away from the home, without loss of guardianship, or a breaking of guardianship, i s imperative. The l a t t e r i s commonly known as "commitment of a c h i l d as a ward." Ontario Children's Protection Act of 1893. The f i r s t Protection Act i n Canada was passed i n Ontario i n 1893. This act was an adaptation of an e a r l i e r Children's Act of 1883. After the Children's Act was passed, a Toronto reporter, Mr. J . J . Kelso, began a campaign to help neglected and delinquent c h i l d r e n . He saw and recognized t h e i r need i n the P o l i c e Court; and on the street. He gave many public addresses regarding' these c h i l d r e n and he appealed f o r an organized e f f o r t t o help neglected and dependent c h i l d r e n . The Protection Act of 1893 i n Ontario provided f o r the establishment of Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s . The courts could then commit child r e n , who could not be re-h a b i l i t a t e d i n t h e i r own homes and f o r whom a fo s t e r home must be found, to these s o c i e t i e s . Mr. Kelso was appointed superintendent of Neglected - 2 -and Dependent Children i n Ontario, to administer the new act. It was not without some misgivings that Mr. Kelso gave up h i s newspaper work to accept t h i s new p o s i t i o n at a much lower salary. However he stimulated public i n t e r e s t i n h i s work and many Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s were org-anized throughout Ontario, depending on l o c a l support, receiving t h e i r authority from the Protection Act and guidance from the government. The government was not asked f o r large contributions i n proportion to the r e s u l t s shown from the work of the s o c i e t i e s . Because Ontario i s one of the oldest provinces in Canada, much of her early l e g i s l a t i o n has been copied i n part by the other provinces and the Children's Protection Act of B r i t i s h Columbia, passed i n 1901 i s almost a copy of the Ontario Act. Agitation f o r a Protection Act p r i o r to 1901 I t was during the time that the Protection Act of 1893 was being discussed i n Ontario, that the W.C.T.U. i n Vancouver undertook to care f o r motherless; c h i l d r e n whose fathers; contributed what money they could. Within a short time the number of children increased and the necessity of a "Children's Some'" was. recognized. A short time l a t e r a Home was secured. A p r o v i s i o n a l board was appointed and a c o n s t i t u t i o n and by-laws were adopted. The Board was; composed of a representative of the W.C.T.U. and the d i f f e r e n t churches, one representative from the c i t y and one from the m i n i s t e r i a l association. The number of children i n -creased and a move t o a larger home was made. A short time l a t e r the directors' of Alexandra H o s p i t a l f o r Women and Children donated t h e i r b u i l d i n g and equipment on condition that the i n s t i t u t i o n r e t a i n the name Alexandra. S o c i a l consciousness was also increasing under the influence of the L o c a l Council of Women and greater attention was; being focused on c h i l d r e n . In 1901 the Local Council of Women 'became more aware that in many f a m i l i e s c h i l d r e n were growing up under conditions morally unsound, some even being educated to be criminals and there was no l e g i s l a t i o n to prevent these happenings. Public a g i t a t i o n against the conditions and abuses of c h i l d -ren increased and the matter was brought to the attention of the l e g i s -l a t u r e by Mr. J u s t i c e A.C. MePhillips and Captain Tat low. They requested that the government "'frame the law i n such a manner that the c h i l d r e n of drunken and immoral parents should have protection by law so as to enable them to grow up to l i v e a u s e f u l l i f e and not by force of t h e i r surround-ings become untr u t h f u l , unclean and immoral and addifco the pauper and crim-i n a l c l a s s of the community."1 Protection of Children Act 1901 In response to t h i s public request the Children's. Protection Act became law. Immediately following the passing of the Act, the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, which had been acting as: a volunteer aid society, was incorporated on the 17th of July 1901. Five men were appointed d i r e c t o r s and f i v e women formed the a u x i l i a r y . The application, fo r incorporation was made hu r r i e d l y so that a young g i r l could be pro-tected "from the h o r r i b l e c r u e l t y practised by her mother when mad with 2 drink." Mr. C.J. South, J.P., secretary of the Children's Aid Society before incorporation .became the p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e r to administer the Act. There was; no salary i n connection with t h i s appointment but i t was hoped the p o s i t i o n would become something more important than an1 honorary appointment. Hr. South was also the general secretary of the B r i t i s h 1. Annual Report of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver 1902-3 p..8 2. i b i d , , p. 10 Columbia Society f o r the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and the honorary representative i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the English Royal Humane Society. Mr. South held the p o s i t i o n of superintendent f o r the province f o r several years, u n t i l the work expanded t o such an extent that i t was taking too much of h i s time from h i s regular duties as j u s t i c e of the peace. The purpose of the Act was to protect c h i l d r e n from c r u e l t y and to provide care and co n t r o l of neglected! ch i l d r e n . A neglected c h i l d as referred to i n the Act, meant one "who i s found begging i n any st r e e t , house or place of public r e s o r t : who i s found sleeping at night i n barns, outhouses, or i n the open a i r : who i s found asso c i a t i n g or dwelling with a t h i e f , drunkard or vagrant, or who, by reason of neglect or drunken-ness, or other v i c e s , of the parents or guardians, i s suffered to grow up without salutary parental c o n t r o l and education, or i n circumstances exposing such c h i l d to an i d l e and di s s o l u t e l i f e : who i s found i n any di s o r d e r l y house, or i n company of reputed c r i m i n a l , immoral or d i s o r d e r l y people' v/ho i s a d e s t i t u t e orphan, or who has been deserted by h i s law-f u l parents or guardians;: who i s found g u i l t y of petty crimes, and who i s l i k e l y t o develop c r i m i n a l tendencies i f not removed from h i s or her surroundings." 1 Duties of the Children's Aid Society The Children's Aid Society i s unique i n that i t i s defined under the Protection of Children Act; i t was '"any duly incorporated and organized society, a s s o c i a t i o n , or i n s t i t u t i o n having among i t s objects the protection of chi l d r e n from c r u e l t y , safeguarding of the young, and care and con t r o l of neglected and dependent ch i l d r e n , the education and care of orphans and d e s t i t u t e c h i l d r e n , and the; carrying on of schools, orphanages, and h o s p i t a l s : such society, association or i n s t i t u t i o n 1. Statutes of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia 1901 - 5- -having been approved by the Lieutenant Governor i n Council for the purposes of t h i s Act."' 1 Duties of the Superintendent of the Province The duties of the superintendent were to v i s i t temporary homes, shel t e r s , or f o s t e r homes, and, when s p e c i a l l y d i r e c t e d , to v i s i t any home or place where a c h i l d was boarded out. He was' required t o see that a record was kept by the society of a l l committals and of a l l the chi l d r e n in f o s t e r homes together with the p a r t i c u l a r s of each case. It was not expected by the d i r e c t o r s of the Children's Aid" Society that they would be c a l l e d upon to deal with many cases during a year, but the work proved to be more extensive than was anticipated as twBnty-nine c h i l d r e n came under the care of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver during the f i r s t year. After one year of administering the Protection of Children Act, t'he Board of the Children's Aid Society made the suggestion that the a.ge in which the c h i l d r e n could be committed should be changed from fourteen to sixteen. They also added to t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of neglect one "who i s found wandering about at l a t e hours and not having any home or s e t t l e d place of abode or proper guardianship." 2 These were amended in the Act the same year. Two Children's Aid So c i e t i e s are formed In 1901 the Children's Aid Society of V i c t o r i a was incorporated. This society l i m i t e d i t s work to supplying i n s t i t u t i o n a l care f o r V i c t o r i a c h i l d r e n . Previous to the formation of the Catholic Children's Aid, Society, 1. Statutes of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia 1901 2. Statutes of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia 1901 a l l c h i l d r e n coming under the provisions of the act were committed to the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver. In 1905, a few prominent Roman Ca t h o l i c s c a l l e d a meeting with the object of forming an association t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the.children of t h e i r own church. As a r e -s u l t , the Children's Aid Society of the Holy Rosary Cathedral was incor-porated on August 25, 1905. The following November i t was agreed that the society take steps to secure guardianship of any catholic c h i l d r e n who were i n the custody of the Children's Aid Society. For several years the society operated with various parish p r i e s t s acting i n the capacity of secretary. However, i n 1909 i t was agreed that a secretary should be appointed. Mr. J.S. Foran became the secretary and Agent of the society, a p o s i t i o n he held for many years. F i n a n c i a l D i f f i c u l t i e s Although the p r o v i n c i a l government passed the act t o give l e g a l authority to remove c h i l d r e n from debasing and c r i m i n a l surroundings, i t appeared to be quite o b l i v i o u s to any f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the care of these c h i l d r e n which the courts of j u s t i c e a l l over the province were awarding to the Children's Aid So c i e t i e s . The general public were unfamiliar with the work of the Children's Aid Societies and were t h e r e -fore i n d i f f e r e n t . Public meetings were c a l l e d i n order t o stimulate f u r t h e r interest i n the society and the community was urged t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the neglected c h i l d r e n . It was the opinion of the society that by working i n d i v i d u a l l y , and as a community, pressure could be brought t o bear upon the p r o v i n c i a l government and the l o c a l author-i t i e s t o convince them of t h e i r f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s valuable work. An appeal v/as made to the press to assist- by stimulating i n t e r e s t . Some in t e r e s t was aroused and donations were- received. By 1905 the c i t y c o u n c i l granted a p e t i t i o n previously made by the Vancouver Society f o r - 7/ -f i n a n c i a l assistance. One of the main problems that arose from the passing of the act was that no funds were provided f o r the p r o v i n c i a l superintendent to t r a v e l i n the province and "rescue" c h i l d r e n under the terms of the act. The d i r e c t o r s of the Vancouver Society f e l t i t was necessary.to have some-one in touch with the work throughout the province i n order to do a com-plete and s a t i s f a c t o r y job. The d i r e c t o r s of the Children's Aid Society were of the opinion that some provision should be made by the government f o r t h i s service while others wanted the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to contribute. Their argument was that i n a voluntary scheme many who could contribute would not, but by a s p e c i a l tax a l l would be forced to support the society. When Mr. South resigned because of pressure of h i s regular work, the -government turned over the work of the superintendent to the superintend-ent of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c e . The d i r e c t o r s of the Children's Aid Society were not- s a t i s f i e d with t h i s appointment; they did not consider the p o l i c e suitable people to do the work of the superintendent, and they were more interested in having a person devote h i s whole time to t h i s service. Mr. South l a t e r again accepted h i s former p o s i t i o n as superintendent and resided i n the Home with the children! who c a l l e d him "daddy South." There was also considerable controversy during the early years of the Vancouver Children's Aid Society because, from time t o time, wards were being housed i n the Alexandra Orphanage, a non-sectarian i n s t i t u t i o n "founded to provide f o r the care of orphan and d e s t i t u t e children of either sex between the ages of two and t h i r t e e n . " ^ This was only a temporary measure u n t i l funds could be raised and arrangements made f o r future care and protection of wards. It had been suggested that the 1. McG-ill, Helen Gregory, Story of Vancouver S o c i a l Service, 1943 Vancouver, Monograph prepared for the Silty Archives. - 8 -society and the Alexandra Orphanage amalgamate and t h i s gave r i s e t o a great deal of discussion. The d i r e c t o r s of the society f e l t that the objectives of the orphanage and those of the society were d i s t i n c t . The orphanage cared f o r ch i l d r e n of respectable parents who were unable t o support them or had l e f t t h e i r c h i l d r e n without proper means of support, whereas the society looked a f t e r c h i l d r e n who were neglected or i l l - t r e a t e d , or who were surrounded by immoral associates; for t h i s reason the ch i l d r e n i n the orphanage should not be associated with those cared f o r by the society. E f f o r t s were made from 1901 to t r y t o obtain a maintenance grant from the p r o v i n c i a l government or a land grant f o r a p r o v i n c i a l home. The only r e s u l t was an increase i n the maintenance grant from two hundred and jEi'ftiy--- d o l l a r s to seven hundred and f i f t y d o l l a r s with nothing set apart f o r a permanent home. A b u i l d i n g committee was set up by the people who were convinced that a home owned by the society was imperative and that the existence of the society depended upon i t . A campaign sponsored by the women's a u x i l i a r y was started f o r the purpose of c o l l e c t -ing money f o r the Home. There was also a great deal of resentment on the part of the early d i r e c t o r s because the government was spending large sums of money on gaols rather than helping to prevent the creation of crimin a l s . Some of the tr o u b l e regarding the finances might have been lessened by the society had they followed the plan of the f o s t e r homes as mentioned i n the act, rather than prefering to place dependent and ne-glected c h i l d r e n i n an i n s t i t u t i o n and then l a t e r t r a n s f e r r i n g them to a f o s t e r home. F i n a l l y i n 1910 an amendment was added to the Protection Act whereby the municipality to which the c h i l d belonged was to pay not l e s s than one d o l l a r and f i f t y cents a week f o r the expense of supporting the c h i l d by any society or i n any temporary home u n t i l the c h i l d v/as four-teen years of age. I t was agreed that i n unorganized t e r r i t o r y , the parent or guardian- was to pay the society f o r the c h i l d v s expenses. The gov-ernment agreed to pay t h i s same amount of money towards maintenance of ch i l d r e n i n the Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s ' Homes. No payment's were to be made f o r c h i l d r e n who were not duly committed t o the society by an order of a judge asking f o r payment, nor f o r any c h i l d not r e s i d i n g i n the home of the society asking for the payment. In return, the pro-v i n c i a l secretary was to receive a monthly statement giving the number of commitments f o r that month, the date and place where the order was msde together with the age and r e l i g i o n of the c h i l d . In 1911, the Protection of Children Act_> became Part IV of the Infant's Act. i n order that acts respecting c h i l d r e n could be grouped together. During the f i r s t ten years of administration of the Protection of Children Act, the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, the Children's Aid Society of the Holy Rosary Cathedral, the Children's Aid Society of V i c t o r i a and the Children's Aid Society of Nelson had been formed. Each was composed of small interested groups of people who had the machinery to perform an invaluable duty but no funds to operate e f f i c i e n t l y . They f e l t t h e i r work was; an absolute necessity even i f under great d i f f i c u l t y as i t was impossible to allow c h i l d r e n , l i v i n g under such conditions 1 as revealed by the Society , ;s wards, to be l e f t to t h e i r fate in any community. This meant that the people of Vancouver alone were contributing towards the maintenance of c h i l d r e n who were wards, the greater number of whom came from other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The government on the other hand recog-nized t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by passing the act, but for ten years i t was considered to be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the s o c i e t i e s because the govern-ment made no commitment regarding f i n a n c i a l assistance. - 10 -Chapter I I Emphasis on I n s t i t u t i o n a l Care (1911 - 1920). According to the Infants' Act, a Children's Aid Society has three main functions! c h i l d protection, c h i l d caring and guardianship of p u b l i c wards. The Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, the Children's Aid Society of V i c t o r i a and the Catholic Children's Aid Society of Van-couver l i m i t e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s during t h i s period almost exclusively t o care i n i n s t i t u t i o n s and neglected the primary function of protecting c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes. From 1911 to 1920 the general p o l i c y of the three s o c i e t i e s was to place a l l children, i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . I f how-ever a free home was a v a i l a b l e , the c h i l d r e n were placed i n t h i s home, and no further attention was- paid them'. Several changes were made i n the act: during 1910. One of most importance was the arrangement \yith the government whereby the s o c i e t i e s were to be paid pro r a t a f o r a l l c h i l d r e n taken into homes who were not otherwise provided f o r . Although t h i s sum, which was not to be l e s s than one d o l l a r and f i f t y cents per week, did not cover the maintenance of the c h i l d , i t was agreed that the new arrangement was on a much more equitable basis than the previous plan where the government granted a lump sum towards maintenance. An increase 'was also given by the c i t y , but the s o c i e t i e s i n Vancouver were of the opinion that t h i s was f u l l y earned, due t o the increased number of c h i l d r e n from the c i t y who were becoming wards. Children's Aid Society of Vancouver This society erected a large home in which they could accommo-date approximately one hundred and f i f t y c h ildren and maintain them f o r l e s s than eight d o l l a r s per c h i l d per month. "The object of the home - 11 -was t o prepare every g i r l and boy to be i n a p o s i t i o n to do the work which he or she was intended to do by the Almighty and the c h i e f part of the Society''s ?/ork was to b r i n g out the c h i l d ' s p o s s i b i l i t i e s . " 1 Large gardens v/ere started at the back of the Home t o reduce food ex-penses and the Board decided that the boys should not be i d l e , but should be taught to work. As one of the di r e c t o r s s s t a t e d , "They are going t o be workers, and f i r s t c l a s s Canadian c i t i z e n s and I want the church people here t o understand we are not united together to make them methodists or presbyterians or b a p t i s t s but f i r s t and foremost good 2 Canadian c i t i z e n s . " Generous donations of food as well as c l o t h i n g f o r the c h i l d r e n were given to the Home by i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s . The j a n i t o r of the Home instructed the boys i n the p r i n c i p l e s of gardening and poultry r a i s i n g . It was not uncommon f o r the boys i n the Home to win prizes at the e x h i b i t i o n f o r the best s e l e c t i o n of garden produce. Other duties of the boys were re p a i r i n g beds, painting, looking- after the c a t t l e , making butter and mate r i a l l y helping to earn t h e i r board and room. The c l o t h i n g for the chil d r e n was donated by d i f f e r e n t organiz-ations within the c i t y . Interested women devoted what time they could t o mending and i t was mainly the women d i r e c t o r s who d i d t h i s type of work at the Htome. Later the voluntary sewing 'bees' formed through the church organizations gave important h e l p to the matron. The i n s t i t u t i o n generally housed one-hundred and f i f t y to one hundred and seventy children and as the matron had only four assistants besides the j a n i t o r , any voluntary work of t h i s nature was most appreciated. Sometime l a t e r a seamstress was engaged as a f u l l time worker to make over c a s t - o f f c l o t h i n g and to 1. Annual Report of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver 1912, p. 4 2. ib i d . , p. 6 -• 12 -make new clothes. She was also responsible f o r teaching the older g i r l s to sew and repair the clothes for the c h i l d r e n . The d i r e c t o r s were of the opinion that the type of work done by the society was e s s e n t i a l l y a woman's work and appeals were made to the women f o r a larger share of t h e i r time and more interest in the work. A Ladies' A u x i l i a r y was formed i n 1916 to a s s i s t i n the sewing and mending as w e l l as to knit f o r the boys from the Home who had gone overseas. In 1918, during the epidemic, volunteer help was at a minimum because people were needed i n t h e i r own homes and the teachers i n the Home became the night nurses and generously gave of t h e i r time. Hr. South was anxious to give the c h i l d r e n , committed to the care of the society, every possible advantage so f a r as public school education was concerned. The society was interested in. having' manual t r a i n i n g f o r the boys, domestic t r a i n i n g f or the g i r l s and kindergarten for the l i t t l e c h i l d r e n within the Home because "Don't forget that these boys and g i r l s are c i t i z e n s of our own country, and i t i s our duty nay, i t should be considered our p r i v i l e g e , to give them every opportunity to become i n t e l l i g e n t , honest,.useful men and women."I Mien the kinder-garten was f i n a l l y organized i n the home, contributions for the teacher's salary came from l o c a l organizations. The Board of the Children's Aid Society was concerned about the protection of the young teen-aged g i r l s who were employed where there was l i t t l e supervision. As a precautionary measure, i t was suggested that the lady members of the Board undertake the duty of "advising" these g i r l s and v i s i t i n g them re g u l a r l y and reporting to the secretary so that a more complete system of protection could be adopted. 1. Annual Report of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver 1910, p>. 8 - 13 -As the society became better known f o r work done f o r the children} members -and organizations i n the community wished t o contribute towards the entertainment of the ch5.1dren i n the Home. Many women took the ch i l d r e n f o r drives i n the car, a.s did the Vancouver Automobile Club. Musical s o c i e t i e s put on concerts; i n the Home and young people's groups from churches v i s i t e d p e r i o d i c a l l y . I t was the genera.1 custom of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver to have the c h i l d r e n attend the annual meetings and on occasion they would sing a hymn; and 0 Canada at the end of the meeting. A minister might give a short t a l k to the c h i l d r e n , praise them f o r the work they had done i n the gardens, and t e l l them what the society was t r y i n g to do for them and why they were l i v i n g at the Home. It i s quite evident that they impressed upon the c h i l d r e n that they should be g r a t e f u l . As the c i t y grew, the work grew i n proportion and there was greater need f or the work of the society i n other parts of the province. The d i r e c t o r s were of the opinion that i f the c h i l d r e n were not removed when they were young, a few years l a t e r would be too l a t e "to save them and make good c i t i z e n s out of t h e m . M a n y appeals were made to the public emphasizing that the society was doing good work and that i t was not a s e l f i s h work because i t brought out the best i n men and women and a f e e l i n g of doing something f o r humanity. There were not a great many women and men i d e n t i f i e d with the society but they worked hard to c o l l e c t money. Conditions surrounding the l i v e s of the c h i l d r e n taken into the society ma.de i t necessary f o r the wisest judgment to be exercised by those i n charge. It was not always easy t o conduct the a f f a i r s of the Home s a t i s f a c t o r i l y but the d i r e c t o r s were desirous of meeting a great 1. Annual Report of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver 1910, p-. 10 - 14 -public need which seemed to be the stimulus to continue against great d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t v/as not t h e i r aim to develop an i n s t i t u t i o n that looked large and had a large number of c h i l d r e n but rather, to "rescue the l i v e s of boys and g i r l s who would otherwise tend towards crime." 1 Problems confronting the Society One of the problems that confronted the society was the number of requests made to "rescue o f f s p r i n g of misguided and u n f i t g i r l s . " Some of the g i r l s came from the province and a few from other provinces with the idea of concealing t h e i r pregnancy from those who knew them. Many of these g i r l s made ap p l i c a t i o n to have t h e i r c h i l d committed immed-i a t e l y a f t e r b i r t h . The Board was of the opinion that the Children's Aid Society v/as not established to give t h i s type of service and the g i r l s v/ere turned away. As a r e s u l t , deserted babies became a serious problem t o the society. The society had f o r sometime been accepting c h i l d r e n v/ho were mentally weak and as the numbers increased they became more alarmed. They did not want these c h i l d r e n to be placed with the children i n the Home but were of the opinion that the government, not the c i t y should b u i l d a s u i t a b l e place and educate these unfortunate c h i l d r e n and to " b u i l d them up1.1" As more of these c h i l d r e n entered the Home, i t proved to be an unsuitable place f o r them. A home where there would be trained people t o help these c h i l d r e n seemed e s s e n t i a l f or t h e i r proper care. As the number of c h i l d r e n entering the Home increased, the Board came t o the conclusion that something should be done regarding the parents and that they should have a. common r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 1. Annual Report of the Children's; Aid Society of Vancouver 1910 p. 14 - 15 -Mr. South "by h i s energy, perseverence and influence male an e f f o r t t o reunite f a m i l i e s whose over-indulgence i n strong drink separated them -from t h e i r families.""'" During the l a s t few years of t h i s period some of the c h i l d r e n were being returned t o t h e i r parents, which indicated that the e f f o r t s of the society had not only "tended to improve the welfare of the c h i l d r e n but had also made t h e i r parents' home of s u f f i c i e n t l y good character by the improvement that had taken place." Emphasis appeared to be more on the c h i l d r e n than ever before and the Board were of the opinion that i t would be b e t t e r to give women money to care f o r t h e i r home than to have to work and place her c h i l d i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . A changing a t t i t u d e toward p l a c i n g c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes rather than i n the Home became more apparent when one member suggested to a group of people at an Annua.l Meeting ths.t they "ask one and a l l v/ho have not c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes to f e e l i t part of t h e i r responsib-i l i t y to seek among the c h i l d r e n i n the Home l i t t l e ones who might take the pla.ce of children who might be i n t h e i r own homes."^ The Cat h o l i c Children's Aid "Society of Vancouver During t h i s period the Catholic Children's Aid Society had a p o l i c y of accepting only c h i l d r e n v/ho v/ere wards, committed to i t by the court. They accepted c a t h o l i c c h i l d r e n from any part of the province' as t h i s W8.s the only C a t h o l i c Children's Aid Society i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The general supervision of the c h i l d r e n , the court work, as well as the executive and the stenographic work were performed by Mr. Foran who was d i r e c t l y responsible for the shelter and the boys;'" home. The society owned two homes, one on 15th Avenue, West, known as 1. Annual Report of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver 1912 2. i b i d . , p. 14 2,. Annual Report of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver 1917 - 16 -"the Shelter" where babies and young children were housed. This building was also the o f f i c e and the headquarters. A matron and an assistant with four g i r l wards of the society looked after the children. Another home known as the Catholic Boys' Home in Burnaby was b u i l t by the Catholic Children's Aid Society at a cost of $40,000.00. Funds for the erection of t h i s building came from part of an estate of one of the parish members, while.other funds for maintenance were r e -ceived from the sale of a. year book and from property which brought^.a revenue of §250.00 a month. At the Boys' Home, the boys attended public school i n the d i s t r i c t and after school, hours; did l i g h t farm work and per-formed duties i n and around the home. The staff consisted of a. super-intendent and h i s wife, together with two men who assisted with the farm work and clearing land. Two g i r l wards of the society assisted the super-intendent's wife with the housework. Religious d o c t r i n a l teachings were given by the church. The Board of the Catholic Children's Aid Society was pleased with t h i s home as they f e l t that the boys were well trained and that they developed into good c i t i z e n s with a f a i r knowledge of farm-ing. A number of the older g i r l s were placed i n the; Monastery, which was operated by the Sisters of the Good Shepherj, whose maintenance-was paid by the Catholic Children's Aid Society. Besides the children from the society, a number of other children attended the boarding school, and some g i r l s over sixteen and some quite elderly women were permanent residents. Other children were also placed there at the recommendation of the parish p r i e s t . Children up to sixteen years of age attended classes during the day in the i n s t i t u t i o n and a l l were taught housework and sewing. The chief financial support of the i n s t i t u t i o n , apart from the money con-tributed f o r wards by the society and parents, came from the laundry operated by the Monastery. - 17 -Some chil d r e n were placed i n the Brovidence Orphanage, founded i n 1900 by the Providence S i s t e r s . The s t a f f consisted of t h i r t e e n S i s t e r s and one man who v/as employed f o r outside heavy work. Quite a large number of the c h i l d r e n from the C a t h o l i c Children's Aid Society were placed here; charge f o r t h e i r care was at the rate of t h i r t e e n d o l l a r s per month-. The c h i l d r e n received academic t r a i n i n g to grade eight i n the Orphanage but attended the c i t y high school for f u r t h e r tra i n i n g ' i f they wished. Children's Aid Society of V i c t o r i a This society, though recognized by the government as one of the three s o c i e t i e s functioning as a state agent f o r c h i l d protection work also confined i t s e l f t o supplying i n s t i t u t i o n a l care to ch i l d r e n . The c i t y owned the home which the society used t o house the c h i l d r e n which was the main f i n a n c i a l help provided- by the c i t y . The society alone v/as looked on almost as a c i v i c department whose task was to provide shelter and indoor r e l i e f . The c i t y took no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f or work outside the radius of V i c t o r i a and the tendency v/as t o leave t h i s with the p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s ; as a result some of the problems of c h i l d care on the i s l a n d were handled by the two agencies i n Vancouver for many years. The home accommodated about t h i r t y - f i v e c h i l d r e n , but few v/ere ever committed through the courts. The c i t y of V i c t o r i a used t h i s home f o r i t s indigent c h i l d r e n as well. Children's Aid Society of Vancouver requests a Superintendent The problem of neglected c h i l d r e n became so acute that, i n 1918, the president of the society wrote to the Attorney General s t a t i n g "we (dire c t o r s ) agreed that f o r a more e f f i c i e n t work the time has now arrived when i t i s necessary that a government superintendent should be appointed t o supervise and carry on the duties as outlined i n the Infant's Act and in addition to d i r e c t and supervise the securing of suitable homes for wards of the d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t i e s . This we f e e l as being one of the most important phases of the whole work, and an outside man in the f i e l d would come i n touch with su i t a b l e f o s t e r homes that none of the s o c i e t i e s would ever hear of. It i s unnecessary to say that i f the s o c i e t i e s were f i n a n c i a l l y able to place a man i n the f i e l d as completely as would a government super v i s o r , i t would simply be an over-lapping and d u p l i c a t i n g of the work." Also stated i n t h i s l e t t e r was a request f o r payment of two d o l l a r s per week from the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s or the government f o r each c h i l d en-t r u s t e d to the care of the society because "the n e c e s s i t i e s are so ex-tremely high." By an amendment i n 1919 the request for the two d o l l a r payment was granted. The outcome of t h i s l e t t e r , written by the president of the Children's Aid Society, was that the government amended the section d e f i n i n g the superintendent s.s stated i n 1901 by the following: "The Lieutenant Governor i n Council may appoint an o f f i c e r , t o be c a l l e d the 'Superintendent of Neglected Children', who s h a l l be paid such salary as p the Lieutenant Governor i n Council may f i x . " The Superintendent was given a l l powers as conferred upon a children's aid society and could "from time to time appoint such persons t o act f o r him i n the performance 3 of any of h i s duties under the Act." His duties were also defined, which were: "to encourage and a s s i s t i n the establishment of Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s : t o advise such s o c i e t i e s and instruct them as to the manner in which t h e i r duties are to be performed: to see that a record i s kept by such s o c i e t i e s of a l l committals and of a l l children placed i n f o s t e r 1. Annual Report of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver 1917, p. 2 2. Statutes of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia 1919 3 i b i d . - 19 -homes under t h i s Act and such other p a r t i c u l a r s a.s may be deemed c h a r i t -able: to d i r e c t and supervise the v i s i t i n g of any place where a c h i l d i s placed pursuant t o the provisions of t h i s Act: to prepare and submit an annual report t o the Attorney General: to perform such other duties as may be prescribed by any Act of the l e g i s l a t u r e or by the Lieutenant Governor i n Council."- 1- Mr. Brankin', J.P. was appointed Superintendent of Neglected and Dependent Children f o r the province of B r i t i s h Columbia i n the following year and i t was hoped that the appointment would give greater force to the Act. Mr. Brankin resided at Port Coquitlam and f u l -f i l l e d h i s duties from the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School. In addition to h i s duties i n connection with the Infant's Act, he was responsible f o r the administration of the Mother , :s Pension Act. Two years l a t e r Mr. Brankin was r e l i e v e d of h i s duties i n connection with the Mother , ;s Pension Act. It was agreed, t h a t , although t h i s act was a c h i l d welfare measure, an impart i a l body should administer i t , i n order to remove i t from any suggestion of c h a r i t y . The amendments to the Act in 1918 gave the s o c i e t i e s much more power than they had previously had as the d e f i n i t i o n of neglect was broadened i n order to give greater protection t o a. much larger proup of chi l d r e n . Children found t o be "neglected" could now, by court order, be committed t o the Children's Aids. This also permitted placing c h i l d r e n with r e l a t i v e s or friends without severing e n t i r e l y the parental ties> and allowed temporary placement while e f f o r t s v/ere being made to re-construct the home. where there was a j u v e n i l e court, c h i l d r e n had to be committed from that court instead of being taken to the po l i c e courts, and the superintendent wa.s t o be n o t i f i e d when the commitment was made. Along 1. Statutes of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia 1919 - 20 -t h i s same l i n e of development i s the care of delinquent c h i l d r e n . The Juvenile Gourt Act and the I n d u s t r i a l Schools Act had both been amended so as to deal v/ith a l l cases coming under the Infants' Act and the In-d u s t r i a l Schools Act. C i t i e s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were responsible for investigations and charges of neglect; the superintendent was not concerned u n t i l the c h i l d had a c t u a l l y been proved neglected by the court. If no Children's Aid Society existed i n that municipality, the superintendent was re-sponsible f o r placement of the c h i l d i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . As a r e s u l t of the broadened d e f i n i t i o n s of neglected c h i l d r e n which gave greater protection, the s o c i e t i e s had begun to recognize that more work could be done with the f a m i l i e s , t o improve home conditions so that the c h i l d might be able t o return t o h i s natural parents. Foster homes were considered t o some extent but once a c h i l d was placed there was no supervision of h i s care and i n many cases i t was not thought necessary. Although the s o c i e t i e s were making a notable contribution to c h i l d welfare, they were labouring under great d i f f i c u l t i e s . F i n a n c i a l assistance and shortage of s t a f f were two of t h e i r main problems, while inadequate t e c h n i c a l administration of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver had shaken the confidence of the public.. Some years l a t e r , the c i t i z e n s of Vancouver, through t h e i r interest::.in community services agreed with the s o c i e t i e s to seek outside .advice on better methods of administering the Act. - 21 -Chapter 111 New Thinking- i n C h i l d Welfare (1921-1927.). About. 1920 the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver began a campaign to secure a new home of f i r e - r e s i s t i v e material on a semi-cottage system, at an estimated cost of §200,000. By 1924 the f i r s t unit was completed, and opened f o r c h i l d r e n under six years of age. The women's organizations of Vancouver were responsible f o r the -furnishings and showed much consideration for the comfort of the young c h i l d r e n who were t o occupy t h i s f i r s t u n i t . In the meantime newer methods of child-care were being t r i e d out suc c e s s f u l l y i n eastern Canada, and i t was considered advisable to i n -vestigate these newer methods before proceeding with the erection of an expensive b u i l d i n g . In 1925), the Rotary Club of Vancouver had accumulated a considerable amount of money to be spent on community service. Appeals f o r assistance were made by d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l agencies but the board de-cided that •a c a r e f u l i n q u i r y should be made into the various projects that the money would be spent f o r . A s p e c i a l committee was formed f o r t h i s purpose and to advise on the v a l i d i t y of the d i f f e r e n t agencies seeking support. Although the committee had been appointed f o r a d e f i n i t e purpose } i t agreed that the conditions revealed i n the f i e l d of c h i l d protection i n Vancouver imposed an o b l i g a t i o n of reporting further on t h e i r work. The committee stated that the c h i l d caring i n s t i t u t i o n s were over-crowded, with almost d a i l y requests f o r admissions. They saw that l i t t l e work vrith the c h i l d ' s own family was being done to reduce the necessity of a Society taking care of him, and once taken from h i s family there was no incentive to substitute another family s e t t i n g f o r h i s own home. I n s t i t u t i o n a l care - 22 -was almost the only service given to the c h i l d i n danger of neglect or dependency. Most family homes that were used were homes where a c h i l d worked f o r h i s board, or free adoptive homes. The Rotary club committee were of the opinion that with the growth of the c i t y and i t s s o c i a l problems, c h i l d care would prove to be an even greater problem unless a d e f i n i t e change i n policy-was made by the c h i l d caring agencies. After many discussions with some of these agencies, the committee decided that the undertaking' was: beyond- untrained personnel and that experienced t e c h n i c a l advice was' raecessary. In 1927 the Canadian Council on C h i l d Welfare was consulted and a comprehensive survey of protection and c h i l d care i n B r i t i s h Columbia was recommended. This suggestion met with the approval of the various; service clubs; of the c i t y and representatives of the c h i l d caring agencies, and the Council on C h i l d Welfare was asked t o take charge of the study. The Canadian Council on C h i l d Welfare accepted r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the s e l e c t i o n of a f i e l d staff.'to conduct the survey. Mr. Robert E. M i l l s , M. A., D i r e c t o r of the Children's Aid Society of Toronto became the D i r e c t o r of the Survey, and' Miss; Charlotte Whitton, Executives-Secretary of the Canadian Council on C h i l d Welfare, was i n charge of the general organization. The purpose of the survey was to get r e s u l t s . The fact that the c h i l d welfare problems of B r i t i s h Columbia were to be worked out by B r i t i s h Columbia v/as kept i n mind and the members of the survey endeav-oured to give added stimulus and constructive suggestions as well as; to be informative. Many important people i n re l a t e d f i e l d s of s o c i a l work, as w e l l as i n the c h i l d caring organizations, and municipal and pro-v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s were interviewed. The survey s t a f f made no attempt to o f f e r any new or d r a s t i c - 23 -suggestions. Their purpose was to present t o B r i t i s h Columbia an analysis of the present day s i t u a t i o n and to d i r e c t the way to well organized and accepted methods and standards of modern s o c i a l p r a c t i c e i n c h i l d c a r i n g and c h i l d protection agencies. The survey was concerned with c h i l d caring work and c h i l i pro-t e c t i o n i n the whole province. The s t a f f who ca r r i e d out t h i s survey were of the opinion that a proper understanding and appreciation of the r e a l task of c h i l d protection and caring was the community's greatest need. They stated that the fundamental job of c h i l d protection was to make the •child'1."s natural environment one to which he could adapt himself with reasonable safety. Ultimately, h i s care and t r a i n i n g should help him adjust to a normal community environment. "Tt i s not i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s that he w i l l have t o l i v e and work when he grows up, but i n a neighbor-hood i n which family l i f e i s the centre of innumerable contacts about him.""'' In B r i t i s h Columbia they found a programme of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care and a great lack of organization and e f f o r t to keep ch i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes. It was discovered that the c h i l d caring organizations i n the province employed about t h i r t y workers 1 to care f o r c h i l d r e n inside i n -s t i t u t i o n s but did not make plans to hasten h i s return to normal envir-onment. Matters of conduct and r e l a t i o n s h i p s to adults seemed t o be the chi e f causes f o r p l a c i n g c h i l d r e n i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . The survey s t a f f considered t h i s another form of indoor r e l i e f and the place of s k i l l e d , constructive service was not properly emphasized i n the community. Workers to carry out treatment were sadly lacking. The family ca.se worker could do a great d e a l towards providing t h i s work and they con-sidered i t fundamental to a sound c h i l d caring programme. Report of the B r i t i s h Columbia C h i l d Welfare Survey, Canadian Council on C h i l d Welfare, 1927. p. 13 - 24 -As a background t o protection work the survey s t a f f v/ere of the opinion that the community as a whole would be well advised to develop resources f o r general constructive family case work to supplement the r e l i e f and s p e c i a l i z e d services already available. They emphasized the importance of increased s o c i a l work, as otherwise'the demand for i n s t i -t u t i o n s would grow f a s t e r than the communities would be able to finance them. Adequate f i e l d service would not only improve the service t o c h i l d -ren but would also reduce the expense necessary f o r buildings and equip-ment . They found that the need f o r f i e l d s t a f f was very great in the Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s . There was general c r i t i c i s m because the C h i l d -ren's Aid Society of Vancouver had done l i t t l e more than provide i n s t i -t u t i o n s and placement care for s p e c i f i c c h i l d r e n and the actual "safe-guarding of the young" was almost n e g l i g i b l e . The c h i l d r e n i n i n s t i -t u t i o n s were considered charges' whereas the number i n f a m i l i e s was not known because these c h i l d r e n were no longer considered to be i n t h e i r care. This was a wrong assumption, but was i n agreement with e x i s t i n g conditions, f o r p r a c t i c a l l y a l l placements of children in family homes were i n free or wage homes on the so-called "adoption" or "indenture"' plan, and no supervision v/as given a c h i l d who l e f t an i n s t i t u t i o n . They pointed out that p l a c i n g children- i n f a m i l i e s by c h i l d caring organizations had not been too successful because i t had been practised l a r g e l y as a means of cheap d i s p o s a l of the c h i l d and was con-fined to adoption or wage placements. Many chil d r e n v/ere placed who should never have been in a free home and placement v/as carried out in a most haphazard manner. To the survey s t a f f , the placing of c h i l d r e n had no r e l a t i o n to the "farming out" that had been done i n B r i t i s h C o l -umbia. - 25 -The survey s t a f f stated that, i r r e s p e c t i v e of whether a family placement was i n a free home or a boarding home, i t must be made with the greatest care and s k i l l . Exhaustive i n v e s t i g a t i o n and study must be made of the home offered i n order to determine not only i t s r e s p e c t a b i l i t y and good intentions, but, what i s quite important, i t s q u a l i t i e s and p e c u l i a r i t i e s - the subtle but s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that make i t suitable for a p a r t i c u l a r type of c h i l d , or unsuitable f o r any c h i l d . An equally thorough study of the c h i l d ' s case h i s t o r y and h i s environ-ment must be made i n order t o determine h i s needs and the type of home he would be suited t o . The most painstaking supervision should be given t o a s s i s t i n the adjustment of the home to the c h i l d and the c h i l d to the home and to remove him at the e a r l i e s t possible moment to a more workable placement should h i s adjustment prove unsuccessful. "To do t h i s s u c c e s s f u l l y , the constant attention of the worker must be given whole--heartedly, spasmodic in t e r e s t and a c t i v i t y i s doomed t o disappointment i n so exacting a. job. They suggested workers 1 c a r e f u l l y selected f o r the purpose, of good stock and wholesome s o c i a l background, well educated and g i f t e d with a sound good sense. She must i n addition to a l l t h i s , be at once a diplomat, a psychologist, a teacher and a s o c i o l o g i s t . " l Deta.iled working records were strongly urged i n order that workers could have t h i s material available f o r future reference. They also suggested that community resources for assistance be used and devel-oped more, and a l l methods of cooperation be u t i l i z e d . The survey s t a f f were aware of the fact that t r a i n e d workers were not ava i l a b l e at that time i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1 and were of the opinion that workers to f i l l at 1. i b i d . , p. 18 least the key positions i n s o c i a l case work and c h i l d p l a c i n g should be sought elsewhere u n t i l f a c i l i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g were developed within the province. Children's Aid F a c i l i t i e s Part 111 of the Infant's Act describes the Children's Aid type of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. There were four agencies with the necessary ppowers and status', namely, the Children's Add Society of Vancouver, the Children's Aid Society of V i c t o r i a , the Catholic C h i l d r e n 1 Aid Society and the P r o v i n c i a l Superintendent of Neglected Children. The C a t h o l i c Children's Aid Society had eighty-six wards in the Providenc Orphanage, ten i n the Monastery and f i f t e e n i n private boarding homes' and the Vancouver Society had nine c h i l d r e n in boarding homes. Although the number of c h i l d r e n placed i n free homes was not known, i t was estim-ated that there were at least f i v e hundred between the various organis-ations'. The Vancouver society and the c a t h o l i c society each had a superintendent. In addition to administering the i n s t i t u t i o n s , these two men, together with the p r o v i n c i a l superintendent, had the task of personally conducting the e n t i r e programme of c h i l d protection and guard-ianship of neglected c h i l d r e n in B r i t i s h Columbia. D i v i s i o n of work The Infant's act provided f o r maintenance of c h i l d r e n by the municipality of which they v/ere a l e g a l resident or by the province i f they l i v e d i n an unorganized area; but no arrangement had been made f o r a s i m i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n of the costs of the protective and supervisory f i e l d services that were not included i n the maintenance of c h i l d r e n . Nor had the spheres of operation of the various Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s ever been defined. The important f a c t o r appeared to be how t o c l a r i f y - 27 -the d i v i s i o n of work between the l o c a l s o c i e t i e s and the p r o v i n c i a l sup-erintendent. The f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the p r o v i n c i a l govern-ment, the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and p r i v a t e philanthropy should be defined. The survey committee suggested that the agencies i n B r i t i s h C o l -umbia follow the Ontario pattern by linking' up the work to l o c a l i n t e r e s t and c o n t r o l wherever and as soon as possible. They saw the merit i n a highly c e n t r a l i z e d p r o v i n c i a l system; i t would be easier to administer ajid when everything was favourable, there would be more uniform r e s u l t s ; but they stated that i t must i n v a r i a b l y lose the d i r e c t , i n t e l l i g e n t and informed sympathy and support of interested people. Moreover, in time of stress they d i d not think there would be any coherent body of informed public opinion to support the work. The survey committee urged that the function of the p r o v i n c i a l superintendent should be as stated i n the Acts "to encourage and a s s i s t i n the establishment of Children's Aid Societies'' which should be a ser-i o u s l y undertaken piece of community organization. They were confident that some sections of the province w r e s u f f i c i e n t l y developed to look a f t e r the children's aid r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s themselves and i f the super-intendent c a r r i e d out these duties, that the outcome would be fewer services from other communities and the p r o v i n c i a l government. They suggested that the duties of the p r o v i n c i a l superintendent's department should include r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for a l l Children's -Aid Society work in the province including the actual v i s i t i n g of wards placed out. The department should be able t o work out a mutual arrangement even within the d i s t r i c t s . The society to which the c h i l d had been committed was to be h i s l e g a l guardian and f u l l y responsible for everything connected with h i s care. The committee suggested that c h i l d r e n placed out should be super-vised by the society doing the placement. "The job being such a d e l i c a t e piece of adjustment, i t does not seem reasonable to lease i t to a worker unfamiliar with the study made of e i t h e r the c h i l d or the family unless distance makes such an arrangement imperative." 1 As already pointed out, i t was suggested that the Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s add f i e l d workers to t h e i r s t a f f s to do t h e i r jobs adequately. The f i e l d service would be la r g e l y f o r the handling of cases from d i f f -erent parts of the province outside the municipality from which the society works. Therefore, i t would seem reasonable that the province should, by annual grant i n addition to present subsidies, pay to the society a portion of the cost of such f i e l d work equal to the proportion of a l l admissions that came from outside m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Although t h i s was; recognized by the province with reference to the costs of a c t u a l l y maintaining c h i l d r e n from unorganized areas, i t seemed more p r a c t i c a l t o expect the various m u n i c i p a l i t i e s also to contribute to the f i e l d s e r -v i c e i n proportion to t h e i r admissions. The survey s t a f f thought-'.-ibh&t i n p r a c t i c e the only f e a s i b l e method would be f o r the province to assume t h e i r share of t h i s cost. They proposed that the cost of the non-main-tenance part of the work of the society should be determined. That would be an accounting problem. The next step would be to determine the pro-portion of admissions from outside greater Vancouver. The proposed a d d i t i o n a l expense to the p r o v i n c i a l government would be t h i s same per-centage of the non-maintenance cost already determined. The d e t a i l s of such a plan would have to be worked out by mutual cooperation. The survey s t a f f were of the opinion that the only a l t e r n a t i v e arrangement would be f o r the p r o v i n c i a l government t o take over complete 1. i b i d . , p. 21 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the work, which would cost the province more, and i n the long run would not y i e l d as s o c i a l l y sound r e s u l t s . "In any case, the present almost t o t a l lack of f i e l d service f o r the protection and guardianship of neglected c h i l d r e n cannot continue t o exist without ^ -l being recognized as a grave public scandal." Although the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the province and the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r the maintenance of c h i l d r e n committed to a Children's Aid Society was; f u l l y stated i n the Infant "s Act, i n pr a c t i c e neither the province nor the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s had been meeting t h e i r whole r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the matter. So long as t h i s wa.s the case, the inadequacy i n the administra.-t i o n of t h i s work f e l l very heavily upon the public a u t h o r i t i e s concer-ned. Since the beginning of the Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s , almost a l l f i n a n c i a l help given by c h a r i t a b l y disposed people to children's aid work had been used to r e l i e v e the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s of t h e i r proper l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r public wards, and as a result there had been no money f o r other services such as. developing preventive, protective and supervisory f i e l d work and non ward care. "The l e g a l i t y of d i v e r t i n g funds for charitable purposes to the support of public wards f o r whose statutory provision i s made, i s open to question and the Boards of the s o c i e t i e s acting; as t r u s t e e s should not be subjected t o o t h i s p o s i t i o n . " As a result a maintenance cost i n the neighborhood of one d o l l a r per day was suggested f o r a boarding out system which would cover over-head supervision, c l o t h i n g and board. 1. i b i d . , p. 27 2. i b i d . , p-. 27 - 30 -Care of Babies and Unmarried Mothers;. It appeared that a competent organization was badly needed t o o f f e r service to the unmarried mother. She needed help to r e - e s t a b l i s h h e r s e l f , and to keep the baby i f such a plan were in her best interest and that of the c h i l d . I t • was a surprise to the committee that i n a community the size of greater Vancouver there was' no s p e c i a l organiz-ation, other than the C a t h o l i c Children's' Aid Society, equipped to care f o r and deal v/ith the problems of dependent and neglected babies apart from t h e i r mothers. According to the pr a c t i c e of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, c h i l d r e n v/ere not taken into care under tv/o years of age. This p o l i c y and the absence of s o c i a l organizations had had the following r e s u l t s which are serious from the point of view of the u l t -imate welfare of c h i l d r e n . "Hasty and i l l - c o n s i d e r e d adoptions forced upon harassed parents; and the development of private commercialized boarding homes, licensed or unlicensed, ha.s been fostered and no s o c i a l work i s done with the mother, no one to diagnose her needs, seek out sources of assistance f o r her, and t o help her finance the care of her' baby. In s i t u a t i o n s such as t h i s , no organization has adquired a knowledge of her that would a.ssist i n providing the background of h i s t o r y necessary for the i n t e l l i g e n t handling of the baby. The c h i l d becomes a member i n a community without the community having a f a i r chance to defend i t s e l f or the c h i l d . 1 , 1 Untrained §taff i n I n s t i t u t i o n s . The survey committee c r i t i c i z e d the i n s t i t u t i o n s and emphasized that persons i n charge of c h i l d r e n should have s u f f i c i e n t education and int e r e s t to be f a m i l i a r with development i n standards of care; to under-stand and believe i n modern health r u l e s ; to understand methods used f o r development of personality through c h i l d t r a i n i n g and guidance, the im-1. i b i d . , p. 27 - 31 -portance o f play i n the c h i l d " s l i f e and to understand something of the problems of the mental defective and psychopathic p e r s o n a l i t i e s and how t o secure assistance f o r them. Subordinate s t a f f should also be better q u a l i f i e d as t h e i r contact with ch i l d r e n can hardly be overlooked. The use of older c h i l d r e n who have presented some conduct problem, f o r super-v i s i o n of other c h i l d r e n , was frowned upon. The problems and suggestions as outlined by the Canadian Welfare: Committee were favourably accepted by the c i t i z e n s of Vancouver and some members of the Board of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver. The Vancouver Society immediately began to reorganize t h e i r c h i l d caring programme. The fact that the survey was conducted by Ontario personnel doing welfare work i n the province had i t s impact on B r i t i s h Columbia.. Many of t h e i r recommendations were founded on welfare practices- i n On-t a r i o . Some were r e a d i l y accepted, others; were not. For example, the survey committee strongly urged that the Superintendent of Neglected Children e s t a b l i s h Children's Aid Societies i n d i s t r i c t s of over f i v e thousand population as was' the p o l i c y i n Ontario. This never proved very successful i n B r i t i s h Columbia and since 1936 there have only been the three Children's Aid Soc i e t i e s . Immediately following the survey, t e c h n i c a l l y t r a i n e d s t a f f was. hired by the Vancouver Children's Aid Society to carry out the recommendations and t o es t a b l i s h sound welfare p r a c t i c e s i n the province. Chapter IV The Children's Aid Society Reorganized ('1927/ - 1933) The C h i l d Welfare Survey sponsored hy the service clubs of Van-couver and conducted by the Canadian Welfare Council r e s u l t e d i n f a r reaching reforms; toward better c h i l d caring services throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. Children's Aid Society of Vancouver Reorganized This society was completely reorganized, and i n order to carry out the progressive recommendations made in the survey, t r a i n e d s o c i a l workers were brought from Eastern Canada to take the key positions i n the Children's Aid Society. These advancements also led t o the f i r s t s o c i a l work course at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Miss'Laura Holland became the s t a f f manager of the Children's Aid Society, the f i r s t t r a i n e d worker i n B r i t i s h Columbia.. As 'Miss Holland -states, she was t h i r d choice as the genera.l f e e l i n g was that a man should hold t h i s p o s i t i o n ; but as two men, appointed by the survey committee declined, she was asked to f i l l t h i s p o s i t i o n . With Miss Holland's appointment, two other workers; came with her to take charge of the two departments that were t o be s et up within the Children's Aid Society. Miss C o l l i n s became head of the Preventive or Family Work Department while Miss Whitman took over the duties of the C h i l d Placing Department. Close contact was maintained with the Children's Aid Society i n Toronto for the f i r s t few months u n t i l the reorganization of the work into two d i v i s i o n s under the new manage.--ment was f i r m l y established. O f f i c e forms and other useful, material were' available from Toronto at any time i n order to f a c i l i t a t e ; the work of the three t r a i n e d workers and t h e i r volunteer help. It was during the early period of t h i s new regime that the f o s t e r home programme was begun. It was no easy task to bring order out of chaos, besides t r y i n g to s e l l t o a c r i t i c a l public the idea of f o s t e r home care f o r c h i l d r e n who would someday be the parents and the homemakers i n the community. The new approach to the foster-care of c h i l d r e n was to be i n a supervised family s e t t i n g , rather than "placing them out"' and not considering them again. The new approach to c h i l d care brought with i t an awareness that the c h i l d had emotional needs, that he was an i n d i v i d u a l and could not f i t into any home, and that supervision by t r a i n e d workers was necessary to help the child. a.djust to h i s new home environment. The society endeavoured t o carry out the suggestions of the Ohild Welfare Survey with the r e s u l t that c h i l d r e n were placed in free homes as w e l l as boarding homes. A- large s t a f f was required f o r proper super-v i s i o n of the chil d r e n thus disposed of; the average cost per c a p i t a per diem amounted to approximately eight-eight cents. The c h i l d r e n from unorganized d i s t r i c t s , who were cared f o r by the society were maintained by the p r o v i n c i a l government out of the consolidated revenue of the province; the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s paid f o r the maintenance of t h e i r children who had been committed through the court. As the programme of plac i n g wards of the society i n boarding and free homes under supervision f i n a l l y met with a good deal of success the Hiome came t o be regarded as a c l e a r -ing house, although a few were expected to be there permanently, "on account of t h e i r misfortune i n not being normally up to standard."'l Attitude of the Catholic Children's Aid toward change Immediately following the survey on c h i l d welfare, Miss Whitton submitted to each agency a report g i v i n g suggestions to improve the ser-1. Annual Report of the Superintendent of Neglected and Dependent C h i l d -ren. 1929-30. vices for children. The suggestions made to the Catholic Children's Aid were not c a r r i e d out as r a p i d l y as those of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver? not u n t i l 1940 was a great deal of consideration given to them. Because the Catholic Children's Aid Society was short of t r a i n e d s t a f f as w e l l as finances i t d i d not f e e l i t could place c h i l d r e n in f o s t e r homes rather than committing the c h i l d r e n to an i n s t i t u t i o n and r e -c e i v i n g the f i n a n c i a l assistance from the p r o v i n c i a l government as s t a t e d i n the Act. In 1940, the Superintendent of Neglected and Dependent Ch i l d r e n submitted recommendations t o t h i s society to improve the ser-v i c e s to c h i l d r e n ; at the same time the p r o v i n c i a l government gave add-i t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l assistance i n order that the agency could pay t u i t i o n f o r students who would take formal t r a i n i n g i n s o c i a l work at a univer-s i t y and return to work there. Although t h i s society has always been a comparatively small one, i t was l i m i t e d in the type of services given because of the shortage of s t a f f and finances- and because t h e i r p o l i c y i s to h i r e only c a t h o l i c s.ocial workers. Feeble minded and subnormal c h i l d r e n By 1929.', the Board of the Children's Aid Society were becoming morerglarmed. about the increasing number of feeble minded and subnormal chil d r e n coming into care. They were of the opinion that supervision and education' of these c h i l d r e n should be of a s p e c i a l i z e d type and that the society was i l l equipped to give t h i s type of care. They r e a l i z e d that the care; of these children! handleapped t h e i r work and they took the stand that a l l feeble minded c h i l d r e n who could not be absorbed into the: comm-unity should be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the government. However, they r e -cognized that u n t i l such time as other provisions could be made f o r this; mentally handicapped group the s'ociety was; forced t o place them- i n the home v/ith the normal children', but t o the detriment t o both rather than f o r the benefit of each. This i n v a r i a b l y increased the costs' of the society but did not give the most- desirable r e s u l t s . Children's Aid Society .loins the Vancouver F i n a n c i a l Federation. By j o i n i n g the Vancouver F i n a n c i a l Federation and the Council of S o c i a l Agencies i n 1930, the Board! and the paid executive of the Children's Aid Society were no longer required to give of t h e i r time and energy to r a i s e funds for the society. They were able t o devote more time to con-s i d e r i n g the problems which a r i s e i n the cs.re of s i x hundred c h i l d r e n under the caxe of the society. In addition, the s c c i e t y strengthened i t s Preventive or Family Work Department and the increased s t a f f produced excellent r e s u l t s . Gen-e r a l s t a f f v/ere also increased In order that more adequate supervision could be given t o a l l c h i l d r e n placed!, in f o s t e r homes'. Welfare s t a f f i n outlying areas P r i o r t o 1931, most of the work pertaining t o protection of c h i l d r e n i n the r u r a l areas was; done by the Superintendent of Neglected Children and one stenographer. With the reorganization of the welfare services; which "began i n 1931, a change was ms.de i n the p r o v i n c i a l admin-i s t r a t i o n of a l l s o c i a l welfare statutes. The newly appointed Superin-tendent of Welfare was also made the Superintendent of Neglected Children. The d i r e c t o r of the reorganized Children's' Aid Society of Vancouver was; appointed Deputy Superintendent of Neglected Children*, to be responsible for the d e t a i l involved i n the c h i l d welfare l e g i s l a t i o n , ha.ving as i t s object the protection of c h i l d r e n . A s t a f f of s c c i a l workers 1 was slowly b u i l t up to look a f t e r the increasing number of cases throughout the 1 province. Previous t o the reorganization, the Mothers' Pension v i s i t o r s - 36 -had Tbeem situated i n the two main c i t i e s , Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , a f t e r the reorganization v i s i t o r s were placed i n each of four c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t s throughout the province. As time went on, these v i s i t o r s also gradually assumed some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the neglect work within the d i s t r i c t , as they were on the a l e r t f o r any si t u a t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g neglect. In 1934 a f u l l time s o c i a l worker was added to the Children's Division? l a t e r when the Welfare F i e l d Service was organized i n 1935 she was made assistant Deputy of Neglected Children 1. Further changes were made the same year; the Deputy Superintendent bec:ame the Superintendent of Neglected Children and the assistant became the Deputy Superintendent; the d i v i s i o n of c h i l d care became the Ghildi. Welfare Branch and was r e -cognized as1 a separate unit of the Health and Welfare Services. Throughout t h i s period, records r e l a t i n g to a l l erases: were more c a r e f u l l y compiled, and more pertinent inforaiation' was' recorded. A f i l i n g and c e n t r a l index system to f a c i l i t a t e the work and make i t more ef f i c i e n t -was established. The Mothers' Pension v i s i t o r s i n the four outlying o f f i c e s i n the province were used by the Branch to obtain s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s and to take action when requested by the' Superintendent. Much of the Deputy Superintendent's time during the early t h i r t i e s was taken up in a s s i s t i n g with the problems of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver. Only the Vancouver Society had begun the f o s t e r home care programme as recommended so strongly by the survey committee on c h i l d care i n 1927. The other two s o c i e t i e s slowly developed t h i s programme as i t was quite evident by 1936" that i n s t i t u t i o n a l care was1 becoming obsolete. An important p o l i c y was established which stated, that Children's Aid Soci e t i e s i n the future should not be- incorporated unless an o f f i c i a l , experienced i n children's work could be appointed', to d i r e c t i t . No new s o c i e t i e s have been formed since the c l e a r e r d e f i n i t i o n ' had been made. As a r e s u l t of t h i s the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, the C h i l d -ren's- Aid Society of V i c t o r i a and the Catholic Children's Aid Society were the: only s o c i e t i e s operating under the Act; the Children's Aid Society of Penticton was dissolved a f t e r having been i n operation only four years. Caring f o r the Doukhobor c h i l d r e n . In addition t o the work with neglected, or p o t e n t i a l l y neglected, c h i l d r e n , the Department i n A p r i l 1932 was asked to provide for the care of three hundred, and six t y — f o u r Doukhobor chi l d r e n whose parents had been sentenced to a term i n a penitentiary. After much consideration, it. appeared to be educationally and economically i n the best i n t e r e s t s of the c h i l d and the taxpayer t o place' these c h i l d r e n i n established i n -stitutions' and agencies' rather than' to segregate- them i n a camp or i n -s t i t u t i o n 1 arranged, f o r t h e i r care. The department approached several of the s o c i e t i e s and plans were made for temporary custody of the children to the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, the Boys1' I n d u s t r i a l School, the G i r l s ' I n d u s t r i a l School, the Loyal Protestant Orphanage, Alexandra Orphanage and the Protestant Orphanage Home i n V i c t o r i a . P l a c i n g t h i s large group of children was a challenge t o the agencies as w e l l as t o the Superintendent of Neglected Children and proved t o them that such an undertaking could be done by c a r e f u l planning and cooperation by the pri v a t e and public agencies. During t h i s period the advances made by the government i n the services to c h i l d r e n were extending beyond the radius; of the two c i t i e s and although s t a f f was inadequate, a beginning was; made i n bringing-services to dependent and neglected, c h i l d r e n i n r u r a l areas'. The f o s t e r home placement plan of the reorganized Children's Aid Society v/as proving successful but there was a d e f i n i t e lack of supervision of the chil d r e n placed. The workers were kept busy i n the two departments and the general public was becoming more ay/are of t h e i r work. R e f e r r a l s from other agen-ci e s increased the number of c h i l d r e n i n need of care and requiring assistance. The organization of the f i e l d services i n 1932 was a d e f i n i t e step to extend the c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s throughout the province. The Mothers' Pension v i s i t o r s l a i d the foundation f o r what was t o be1 a more sound and intensive government programme toward accepting r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for dependent and neglected children; i n r u r a l areas. The fact that the Children's D i v i s i o n added a f u l l time s o c i a l worker together with a deputy superintendent' indicated that the government was more eager to assist administering services- to ch i l d r e n . There was greater cooperation between the agencies and the department in the placing of the Doukhobor c h i l d r e n and the success of t h i s undertaking added to the confidence of ,the public i n the s o c i e t i e s ^ a c t i v i t i e s . Greater e f f i c i e n c y i n get t i n g services to a l l ch i l d r e n was accomplished by having workers i n the r u r a l areas "do the odd b i t of c h i l d welfare without overloading themselves. 1 , 1 This was the foundation of more adequate services to a l l children i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 1. Harvey, Isobel, The generalized S o c i a l Worker i n Public Welfare, Ottawa conference-, 1937/. - 39 -Chapter V. Extension of Government Aided Services (1935 - 194-3). During the year 1934-35 a s i g n i f i c a n t advance was made in the help and protection given t o children throughout the province by increased cooperation between the C h i l d Welfare Department and the f i v e v i s i t o r s of the Welfare Department working in areas beyond "Vancouver. Ea.ch d i s -t r i c t v i s i t o r as f a r as she was able, gave services to f a m i l i e s faced with emergencies with which they were unable to cope. In some instances, t h i s help enabled c h i l d r e n to remain i n t h e i r own homes who i n a l l prob-a b i l i t y might have been committed to a children's aid society under the Infants' 1 Act. In other instances v i s i t o r s assisted in providing temporary care f o r c h i l d r e n in l o c a l f o s t e r homes. The expense of t h i s was absorbed by the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n but was considered sound practice as i t saved the cost of transportation to a children's aid society and more important, i t helped t o r e t a i n and strengthen the parents' sense of r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y . Preventive work with the f a m i l i e s xvas proving to be a very valuable part of the work of the s o c i a l workers. Not only were the Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s i n the two c i t i e s being relieved of caring f o r the c h i l d r e n from the r u r a l areas but the children were being maintained within t h e i r l o c a l areas. Workers kept the idea, i n mind that i f possible a c h i l d would be at some l a t e r date returned to h i s own home. This was a f a r removed form of treatment from the early period when the c h i l d was committed and as a rule became a ward u n t i l he was twenty-one years of age. Following the development of the Welfare F i e l d Service and the p l a c i n g of v i s i t o r s into new d i s t r i c t s . , i t was evident that the volume of work would increase. . The volume of work not only increased but services - 40 -to those i n need v/ere extended to a l l areas except the Peace River. At least sometime during the year a l l other areas v/ere t o be v i s i t e d by members of the Welfare F i e l d S t a f f . "During the f i s c a l year of 1934-35'., 33 f a m i l i e s , involving 7/05 c h i l d r e n v/ere referred because of some neglect of t h e i r c h i l d r e n , whereas', during the f i s c a l year of I935-3&, t h i s number had increased to 404 f a m i l i e s and 1067/ children.""' - These figures do not include the number of c h i l d r e n brought to the attention of the Branch because o f i l l e g i t i m a c y , or the homes investigated regarding adoptions. Tt was generally recognized that the lack of services t o the Pea.ce River was a d e f i n i t e weak spot i n the preventive programme;. But i t was hoped that as the older d i s t r i c t s became more adequately st a f f e d , i t would be possible to place a welfare v i s i t o r i n t h i s area. Reports from the school and health o f f i c i a l s gave evidence of a need f o r a v i s i t o r i n that area. In 19)35, a l l s o c i a l welfare administration's 1 within the Provin-c i a l Secretary's Department were drawn together under a D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l Welfare. In a very short time a further expansion of services was im-plemented. One of the f i r s t moves on the part of the new administration was the expansion of f i e l d service t o r u r a l areas. These f i r s t years were i n every "sense pioneer years; but the scope of the v/ork done and the long t r i p s gradually convinced the communities that i t was' a worthwhile and valuable contribution. Greater emphasis on preventive v/ork The C h i l d Welfare Branch, besides administering the Acts for which i t v/as organized, saw the need and value of preventive v/ork. Through-out the province the Welfare F i e l d S t a f f attempted to safeguard against any forces which would shake the s t a b i l i t y of the family. In the event of 1. Annual Report of the Superintendent of Neglected Children* f o r the year 1935-36. - 41 -f a i l u r e i n keeping the family together or when i t was i n the best i n -t e r e s t s of the c h i l d that he be removed, the f i e l d s t a f f endeavoured to place the f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y where i t properly belonged. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that in: 19/36, of the 1067/ c h i l d r e n who were referred t o the Branch, only 96 were committed to a Children's Aid Society under the Infant.'s Act. Although approximately ninety children- from unorganized t e r r i -t ory who had not been committed were being paid for and supervised i n f o s t e r homes, there was every reason to believe that they would be returned to t h e i r f a m i l i e s i f the families- were granted a small amount of f i n a n c i a l assistance. The following i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the type of case for which r e l i e f was being paid. "In A p r i l , 1935i, the f i v e c h i l d r e n of a widower were reported as neglected and neighbors were urging they should be sent to an i n s t i -t u t i o n or a children's aid society. Investigation of the family's past h i s t o r y showed the father, while not mentally the brightest of c i t i z e n s , had always; been a good workman and independent of r e l i e f u n t i l the de-pression, and a kind, i f somewhat too indulgent father. Therefore, i t not only seemed unjust to take the children 1 to Court and declare him an' im-proper guardian but also f o o l i s h to r e l i e v e him of a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y he was i n f a c t , anxious, t o r e t a i n . Accordingly the c h i l d r e n were temp-o r a r i l y placed i n a f o s t e r home at the expense of the C h i l d Welfare Br-anch at a cost of §50.00 a month. The father meanwhile, r e l i e v e d of the d a i l y care of h i s c h i l d r e n , started t o look f o r work and a f t e r a year of many d i f f i c u l t i e s f i n a l l y obtained a regular job, has re-established h i s home and regained the custody of h i s c h i l d r e n . It i s doubtful i f the c h i l d r e n had been made wards by the Court and the father"s guardianship-removed, or i f the C h i l d Welfare Branch had. not made every effort; to sus-t a i n h i s i n t e r e s t i n the children, and h i s sense of parental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i f the same r e s u l t s would have been obtained, " l As a r e s u l t of a great deal of study and d e l i b e r a t i o n on the part of the welfare agencies, a new act was passed i n 1943 to.replace Part 111 of the Infants* Act. I t s t i t l e "Protection of Children" i n -dicated more p o s i t i v e aspects. A further improvement was that the t i t l e of Superintendent of Neglected Children was changed to a more suitable one, Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare. The new t i t l e was more i n keep-1. Annual Report of the C h i l d Welfare Branch of the Health and Welfare Services of the Department of the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, for the year A p r i l J:, 19b5 to March 31, 1936 - 42 -ing with the v/ork the superintendent was doing as h i s duties were not a l l confined to the protection of dependent and neglected c h i l d r e n . The suggestion to change the name came from adopting parents who were of the opinion that t h e i r requests for a c h i l d had nothing to do with "neglect." C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n and the I n d u s t r i a l Schools With the establishment of the f i e l d service, the v/ork increased yearly. Previously the preventive work as done by the Children's Aid Society was not possible i n the other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s or unorganized t e r r i t o r y . Cases of neglect v/ere simply ignored u n t i l they became so bad that public opinion i n s i s t e d on action and generally" suggested that the c h i l d r e n be committed t o a Children's Aid Society. Greater emphasis v/as l a i d on prevention. Gases: of neglect v/ere referred by the p o l i c e or the community i n order that preventive work could be done and greater e f f o r t s v/ere made to maintain the c h i l d i n h i s own home. Children 1 who appeared t o be upsetting the s t a b i l i t y of a home could be placed on a temporary basis: by use of the Children 1 i n Private H'omes Fund. Occasionally a c h i l d was admitted to a Children 1.'s Aid Society as a non-ward, i n order that he could be treated at the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c or i f treatment did not appear to be the answer he was- placed i n a f o s t e r home i n a d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t . While he was away from hiome, the v i s i t o r had an opportunity to interpret the c h i l d , ! s d i f f i c u l t i e s as indicated by a p s y c h i a t r i s t or foster-mother t o h i s parents and in t h i s v/ay the family was prepared f o r h i s home-coming'. There v/as continued cooperation e s p e c i a l l y with the Boys'* I n d u s t r i a l School during t h i s period, which was another step of the gov-ernment t o extend t h e i r services to another group of chil d r e n . There v/as a close t i e between the C h i l d Welfare Branch and the I n d u s t r i a l Schools: as boys and g i r l s were frequently being placed in. foster-homes - 4:3 -a f t e r being discharged from the schools when t h e i r own homes di d not appear suitable for them t o return. It was a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t task to f i n d foster-homes f o r these teen age boys1 e s p e c i a l l y when they had been recommended, f o r placement by a p s y c h i a t r i s t . However such a. case could be a challenge t o a foster-mother who might be w i l l i n g to accept a boy. The following i s an examples "One of the most d i f f i c u l t placements that had to be made was that of" a thirteen-year old boy, who, through no f a u l t of h i s own, had been shifted from one uninvestigated placement to another. Mien he f a i l e d to adjust, and ran away, the blame was l a i d on him, not on the fact that any adolescent boy can: not adjust i n any home. The primary trouble was neglect, but because the boy's resentment expressed i t s e l f in a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour of a not very serious: type, the causeoofI'-the trouble was lost sight of, and eventually he was committed to the In-d u s t r i a l School. As he had been placed several times, i t was f e l t that a very s p e c i a l type of foster-parent would be necessary, as the lad'Ts' behaviour pattern had already been f i x e d so that i n face o f d i f f i c u l t y h i s only reaction was t o run away. At t h i s time a home was offered i n a. r u r a l area f o r a. l i t t l e g i r l . Both foster-parents were of a p a r t i c u l a r l y f i n e type and the f o s t e r father seemed t o us to have much t o o f f e r a boy. They \«/ere approached on the ground that a home with fewer resources could provide adequately f o r a l i t t l e g i r l but that i t took r e a l people to handle a problem boy. They both responded t o the challenge and consented to t r y him. The boy i n the meantime has been prepared by a frank discussion, of h i s previous d i f f i c u l t i e s and an acknowledgment that part of what had happened was not h i s f a u l t . This foster-home was shown him as a place of opportunity and the foster-parents'- people who r e a l l y wanted him as part of t h e i r family. The adjustment t h i s youngster has: made i s remark-able. It i s too soon to say whether the main d i f f i c u l t i e s are over but-c e r t a i n l y the prognosis i s more than h o p e f u l . " l The f i e l d workers began to give after-care services i n an attempt to r e h a b i l i t a t e the boys and g i r l s . The Juvenile Courts became more appreciative of the work of the f i e l d worker1's services and i t became a more frequent pr a c t i c e to n o t i f y workers of delinquency cases to be heard i n Court. Similar erases showed a close r e l a t i o n s h i p betv/een neglect and delinquency and i t was considered a sound p o l i c y to begin preventive work 1. Annual Report of the Superintendent of Neglected Children f o r the year ending 1938. p. 10 - 44 -before the c h i l d would be committed to the I n d u s t r i a l School. Thus a close r e l a t i o n s h i p was being formed during t h i s period i n the C h i l d Welfare Branch between the I n d u s t r i a l Schools Branch1 and the C h i l d 7/elfare D i v i s i o n . U n t i l t h i s time, no record was kept of a c h i l d i n the Industrial. Schools and the signature of the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare had been i n the nature of a "rubber stamp." According to the Act i t had been one of the duties of the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare to sign a l l d i s -charge papers from the Schools and nothing more was done. However by 1936, e f f o r t s were made to have more adequate recording started i n the Schools. Not only would a complete family h i s t o r y be recorded but the h i s t o r y would then be known t o the Superintendent who could i n turn as s i s t i n making plans for the c h i l d s ' future. During-previous years, on occasion, several c h i l d r e n had been sent t o foster-homes of the Children's Aid Societies a f t e r having consent from the Magistrate, P r i n c i p a l of the School and the Superintendent. They were very young boys who i n the opinion of both Branches should have been committed under the Infants' Act i n preference t o the Juvenile Delinquent'^ Act. The Branches r e a d i l y saw the danger i n placing young chi l d r e n with "really"' delinquent boys from whom they could learn more a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour; they f e l t that l e g i s l a t i o n should be introduced whereby boys could go to an observation centre f o r study before, "having the stigma of having served a term i n a penal i n s t i t u t i o n put upon them."^' Foster-homes f o r wards of the Superintendent Previous to 1938 the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver had, generally speaking provided foster-home care f o r wards committed from outside Vancouver. With the increased services given by the Welfare 1. Annual Report of the Superintendent of Neglected Children f o r the year ending 19 37. p. 6 F i e l d Staff.to. areas beyond Vancouver, i t seemed evident that i n v e s t i -gations should be made into the p o s s i b i l i t y of foster-homes under super-v i s i o n of the Welfare F i e l d V i s i t o r s . There was also reason to believe that the care of dependent and neglected c h i l d r e n would be better under-stood i n the outlying d i s t r i c t s if. foster-home placements" were not con-fined to the c i t i e s ; also there were c h i l d r e n i n r u r a l areas who would benefit more from a foster-home placement i n a r u r a l s e t t i n g . The f i r s t d i s t r i c t t o begin foster-homes for c h i l d r e n committed to the Superintend-ent wa.s.the East Kootenays. Many homes were investigated and In a short time eight c h i l d r e n were placed under supervision of the Welfare F i e l d V i s i t o r . "Too much could not be said i n acknowledgment" of the cooperation-received from the c i t i z e n s of Cranbrook i n t h i s v/ork. The doctors, the h o s p i t a l , the schools and private c i t i z e n s ha.ve taken our children to t h e i r hearts and have given our v i s i t o r s help and encouragement at a l l times."-'- Salmon Arm followed i n t h i s undertaking but with le s s success-f u l r e s u l t s ; the v i s i t o r was new t o the d i s t r i c t and had t o become known before she could s e l l t h i s new idea. Once the idea of foster-home pla c e -ments became better known', the v i s i t o r s v/ere faced with the problem of f a m i l i e s i n receipt of public r e l i e f requesting f o s t e r c h i l d r e n as they saw a means to help the family finances. As: a rule c h i l d r e n were not placed i n these homes as i t d i d not seem l i k e l y t h a t the money/ f o r main-tenance would be used to benefit the c h i l d . The superintendent took the view that f a m i l i e s i n receipt of f i n a n c i a l assistance faced enough d i f f i c u l t i e s without the a d d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a; c h i l d separated from h i s parents. Only i n very exceptional cases- were f a m i l i e s in1, isolated, areas accepted as approved foster-homes; under the p o l i c y that the success1-1• Annual Report of the Superintendent of Neglected Children f o r the year ending March 31, 1938 p. 8 - 46 -of foster-hcme placements depended on regular supervision as well as the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the home. Overseas Children Foster home care i n r u r a l areas had been strongly advocated during the l a t e t h i r t i e s . In 1940 when a request came for free homes for c h i l d r e n evacuated from Great B r i t a i n , the problem was: l e s s d i f f i c u l t than was anticipated. The experience with regard to the Doukhobor ch i l d r e n some years before had offered experience i n placing a l a r g e group of c h i l d r e n . .Within a very short period f i f t e e n hundred homes had been approved by the d i s t r i c t workers and the Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s . This entailed more work than the number of approved homes would indi c a t e as many home inve s t i g a t i o n s were made but not approved; the fact that foster-homes for c h i l d r e n had now been accepted by the people made i t ea.sier t o f i n d homes. True, the desire to help- as a p a t r i o t i c duty entered into many requests f o r an evacuated c h i l d but the workers were aware^ of t h i s motive, and homes were well chosen and the c h i l d r e n well supervised. Children from one family were placed together i f at a l l p o s s i b l e . The success of t h i s huge undertaking proved once again the cooperation that existed between the Child. Welfare D i v i s i o n and the p r i v a t e agencies i n handling an emergency s i t u a t i o n . With short notice they could do a job and do i t w e l l . These children f i t t e d so well into ' t h e i r Canadian background that they were scarcely referred to as evacuee c h i l d r e n , but they were thought of as belonging to 'our group- of f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . ' Special services. Previous to 1938, when c h i l d r e n from unorganized t e r r i t o r y were ready to be discharged from the Crippled Children's H o s p i t a l , there was no way of keeping them near the h o s p i t a l for continued care and only a - 47 -few parents could pay boarding-home costs. The c h i l d r e n could not remain i n the h o s p i t a l longer than was necessary due to the shortage of beds, and they were sent home where they could not receive necessary ortho-paedic treatment.. It had been agreed by 1938 that children from unorg-anized t e r r i t o r y who needed after-care upon discharge: from h o s p i t a l , and whose parents were unable to pay for t h e i r board and room, would be admitted to a Children's Aid Society foster-home during t h e i r treatment period and the Branch would pay for t h e i r maintenance. Although the percentage of c h i l d r e n needing t h i s type of care was never'expected t o be large, the Branch recognized the v a l i d i t y of completing the a f t e r -care treatment rather than to have the c h i l d return home before, treatment was completed, only to return again. The Branch was aware of the need of further care f o r incurable or c h r o n i c a l l y handicapped children 1. There was no i n s t i t u t i o n f o r c h i l d -ren who were bedridden yet who did not need h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n or conval-escent care. Children were remaining i n the h o s p i t a l , occupying a bed which should be occupied by some other c h i l d who would benefit more from the kind of care offered. The Branch recognized that some provision would have to be made with increasing demand. The advancement of c h i l d welfare services during 1933 to 1943 was very s i g n i f i c a n t . Preventive family services i n the province proved that every attempt was being made to remedy situa t i o n s which would lead t o neglect. When a c h i l d was committed'to the guardianship of the Super-intendent of C h i l d Welfare a f t e r unsuccessful attempts t o a s s i s t had f a i l e d , the c h i l d r e n were placed i n approved f o s t e r homes rather than given impersonal care i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . Supervision by t r a i n e d workers^ became an e s s e n t i a l part of care. Delinquent c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s were given help to correct problems i n the home and community which - 48 -brought about a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour i n the ch i l d r e n . A l l such problems ?/ere the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the f i e l d s t a f f who i n turn were advised by the C h i l d Welfare Branch. Because of t h e i r large case-load's; and small s t a f f t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n could only lay the ground work f o r treatment of the large number of a d d i t i o n a l problems that the war and i t s aftermath; would bring. - 49 -Chapter V/l Recent Developments1 The passing of the Protection of Children Act vas the out-standing event of the previous year. This act was to replace Section 111 of the Infants' Act which was responsible f o r the committal of neglected and dependent chi l d r e n besides 1 the incorporation and function of the Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s . The new act omitted the term "nefelect"-but broadened t o " i n need of pro t e c t i o n . " Several clauses had been amended or added i n section seven to describe a c h i l d v/ho might l e g a l l y be i n need of protection. For example, an orphan had to be d e s t i t u t e t o come under the old act although i t was w e l l recognized that a c h i l d v/ith some.maintenance could s t i l l e a s i l y be- i n need of protection. Thus the phrase "an orphan without adequate protection f o r his 1 upbringing" gave authority to give safety and security of guardianship to the c h i l d . Adequate foster-home care would also be an a d d i t i o n a l form of. security to the c h i l d who no longer had any parents to provide guardianship and a home. From the early beginning of services t o chi l d r e n , i t had occasion-a l l y happened that parents had neglected to take proper precautions for t h e i r c h i l d r e n or had refused children, s p e c i f i c medical treatment thus hindering normal growth. In 3!943; an amendment was made to include these c h i l d r e n . The clause i n the Infant's Act which stated that a c h i l d v/as neglected "who i s subject t o blindness, deafness^, p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y as i s l i k e l y t o make him a charge upon the public""was amended by adding "or v/ho i s exposed to i n f e c t i o n from t u b e r c u l o s i s or any venereal disease where proper precautions to prevent i n f e c t i o n are not taken, or who i s s u f f e r i n g from such a lack of medical or s u r g i c a l care as i s l i k e l y to i n t e r f e r e with his'normal development." 1 Although the number of c h i l d r e n 1. Statutes of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1943. - 5 0 -t o come under t h i s d e f i n i t i o n was not expected to be large, consideration was being' given to minority groups. It was anticipated that the very existence of t h i s clause would be s u f f i c i e n t incentive f o r parents to carry out appropriate procedure i n any i l l n e s s . To date there has been l i t t l e use made of t h i s provision-. The new Act fur t h e r c l a r i f i e d the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the worker and the.Court. Court procedures were defined so that tlve workers- could carry out the necessary routine c o r r e c t l y i n committal cases and i t was hoped that t h i s would minimize mistakes considerably. Workers were present and. provided family h i s t o r i e s at every case brought t o court under the Juvenile Delinquent Act. In t h i s way they assisted the judge to make hi s d e c i s i o n . The number of c h i l d r e n i n need, of protection was increased as a r e s u l t of the broadened d e f i n i t i o n of "neglect" but workers were en-couraged from time to time with the favourable results -- i n a d i f f i c u l t case. It gave them more incentive i n t h e i r work and a f e e l i n g that t h e i r welfare programme was invaluable. New foster-home d i s t r i c t s . In 1944. the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n began an extensive programme to increase the number of foster-homes i n the Okanagan area because of the acute shortage of foster-homes i n Vancouver. The D i v i s i o n agreed that a l l c h i l d r e n committed by the superintendent would be placed i n the Okanagan with the exception of those ch i l d r e n l i v i n g i n the Fraser Valley. Although the increased number of foster-homes i n t h i s area would mean more work f o r the f i e l d s t a f f there, they hoped s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f would soon be a v a i l a b l e to r e l i e v e the workers. The Annual Report of the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare states "The Okanagan- area foster-homes - 51 -have proved p a r t i c u l a r l y good f o r our c h i l d r e n , and we have found that as a general thing there has "been l i t t l e sickness or actual delinquency." 1 The workers r e a l i z e d that maintaining good foster-homes was an important part of t h e i r c h i l d p l a c i n g programme and made every e f f o r t t o r e t a i n them. They recognized the importance of spending s u f f i c i e n t time i n t e r -preting the c h i l d and h i s problems to the foster-parents and encouraging and helping the c h i l d to adjust to h i s new environment. It had been proven that where t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was not done adequately, f o s t e r parents would probably request the removal of the c h i l d . The following year the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver asked the D i v i s i o n to take over the care of a l l c h i l d r e n committed to the superintendent. Fortunately a home f i n d i n g programme had been started i n the Okanagan. Generally speaking, c h i l d r e n committed to the superin-tendent came from smaller centres' and from rura.1 areas and i t appeared that they would adjust better to a s i m i l a r environment than a large c i t y . As a r e s u l t of t h i s shortage of foster-homes, i t was; suggested that perhaps foster-homes should be a v a i l a b l e i n each d i s t r i c t . C h ildren coming t o Vancouver f o r s p e c i a l medical treatment however were s t i l l to be cared by the Children's Aid Society. The concentration of c h i l d r e n i n the Okanagan pointed up many problems regarding placement and suggestions for improvement were d i s -cussed at the Gihild Welfare D i v i s i o n . -A strong f e e l i n g developed among the workers that there was a need for an observation cottage where d i f f i c u l t c hildren could l i v e and have p s y c h i a t r i c treatment pending placement. Mew foster-homes were being lost by pl a c i n g c h i l d r e n with serious behaviour problems. This could be avoided i f there was an ob-servation centre where these c h i l d r e n could l i v e f o r a period c f time 1. Annual Report of the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare for the year  ended March 31, 1943. p. 8 under treatment. The workers; were more convinced that a study of the c h i l d before placement was an e s s e n t i a l factor i n the success of the foster-homes. They r e a l i z e d that replacement had a di s t u r b i n g influence not only on the c h i l d to be replaced but on other f o s t e r c h i l d r e n who might be i n the home as once a c h i l d f e e l s he may not be wanted, h i s security i n the home i s shaken and other disturbances follow. Placement of Metis c h i l d r e n . It had always been a problem t o place Metis c h i l d r e n as they are Indian i n appearance and do not adjust to a white home. Through exper-ience i t had been determined that these c h i l d r e n did f a i r l y w e l l i n f o s t e r -homes rather than i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . " U n t i l Canadians face the fact that our' planning f o r the Indian i s , i n many respects, a f a i l u r e , and u n t i l they i n s i s t upon having the whole question of the Canadian Indian investigated by an authoritative group of experts, free from r a c i a l prejudice, and ob-j e c t i v e i n t h e i r outlook, we s h a l l continue to have the disheartening s i t u a t i o n we have today, where within our provincial, borders we have large r a c i a l groups, who are not even expected to conform to the minimum s o c i a l standards which we require from the rest of our citizens.""'' Expansion of services. By A p r i l 1S44 the C h i l d Welfare Branch recognized the need f o r a spe c i a l form of supervision f o r the large f i e l d service s t a f f . It was; agreed that t h i s a d d i t i o n a l service was e s s e n t i a l i n order that better d i r e c t i o n of programme could be administered. Previously, the D i v i s i o n had separate; supervisors who were responsible for a certain number of 1. Annual Report of the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare f o r the year ended March 31, 1944. p. 19 - 53 -cases i n the generalized programme. However, as case-loads i n a l l categories Increased the supervision i n the D i v i s i o n o f f i c e v/as not meeting the n>eed. As a r e s u l t c h i l d protection, unmarried mothers, adoption and placement became separate d i v i s i o n s . This d i v i s i o n of v/ork v/as considered to be a more s a t i s f a c t o r y arrangement because i t would give more help to d i s t r i c t workers and through them more adequate services to the c l i e n t s . When the Family D i v i s i o n v/as established within the S o c i a l Allowance Branch, protection was considered to be the area of c h i l d welfare work v/ith f a m i l i e s who were not providing adequate protection f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The protection section became more s e l e c t i v e with regard to intake p o l i c y and the family cases which were previously considered protection v/ere directed to the Family D i v i s i o n . The sel e c t i v e cases . were representative of various degrees of family d i s i n t e g r a t i o n while ^  the majority of ch i l d r e n remained i n the home v/ith continuous help from a worker. Under the new arrangement, the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n had accepted only those f a m i l i e s i n which the children were i n need or l i k e l y to be i n need of protection as defined by the Protection of Children Act. The new 'protection' cases during the year 1945-6 numbered 444 although 4,144 c h i l d r e n from 2582 f a m i l i e s v/ere served. The 4,144 chil d r e n were from f a m i l i e s who were .not providing them with adequate care and protection but services enabled ,the c h i l d to remain v/ith the family. Out of t h i s number the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n had t o admit to care 200 ch i l d r e n . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s D i f f i c u l t i e s arose when ch i l d r e n had to be removed f o r pre-ventative reasons. As non ward care: was1 not arranged by a court order and there was no court order f o r maintenance, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were not - 54 -w i l l i n g t o pay per c a p i t a costs. Their finances were li m i t e d and poor m u n i c i p a l i t i e s did not f e e l equal to these a d d i t i o n a l costs even though they recognized the value of preventive work. It was hoped that a more equal d i s t r i b u t i o n of costs f o r c h i l d care could be worked out between the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s end the p r o v i n c i a l government. In 1946 the p r o v i n c i a l government agreed to pay 80; per cent of the per c a p i t a rate f o r non-ward care f o r c h i l d r e n with municipal r e s i d -ence. This gave the workers much more scope i n t h e i r preventive work with c h i l d r e n . It was hoped that the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s would be more i n -terested i n the worker"s attempts to strengthen family t i e s . Although t h i s assistance a l l e v i a t e d some of the concern of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s about costs, they s t i l l found 100 per cent costs for wards a burden, p a r t i c u l a r l y for the poorer m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The following year the p r o v i n c i a l government agreed to pay the cost of ward care on the same basis as non-wa.rds. Dece n t r a l i z a t i o n The year 194& was an eventful year in the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n as a large part of the administration was given t o d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s . The expansion of services and increased sta.ff i n the f i e l d ma.de i t imperative that supervision be more than a memo from the D i v i s i o n . It was also agreed that i f the workers i n the f i e l d were to maintain and develop s k i l l s that greater sharing of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was necessary. Although the actual ca.se-carrying and supervision of s t a f f were decentralized, c e r t a i n authority and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were retained i n the D i v i s i o n o f f i c e to "safeguard our l e g i s l a t i v e obligations and standards of work." These were "Authority to apprehend a c h i l d under the "Protection of Children Act": Authority to admit a c h i l d to care as a. non-ward: Authority to apply to Court to rescind a. committal order under the "Protection of Children Act": R e s p o n s i b i l i t y for submitting the f i n a l report and recommendation to Supreme Court on adoption applications: R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r disbursing c o l l e c t i o n s under the "Children of Unmarried Parents' Act": R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r obtaining and submitting reports t o Supreme Court on custody of ch i l d r e n a p p l i c a t i o n s : Payment of a l l accounts f o r children in care."^ During 1946, 112 ch i l d r e n were taken into care on a non-ward preventive basis. They were chi l d r e n whose parent or parents were temp-o r a r i l y unable to care f o r them, due to family c r i s i s , i l l n e s s or the c h i l d " s own d i f f i c u l t i e s with h i s family. Although some chil d r e n bene-f i t e d from placement, experience proved that more emphasis should be placed on work with the c h i l d and parents in the home. The following year 198 c h i l d r e n were admitted as non-wardss and i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that they were admitted at the request of t h e i r parent or parents who were unable to make adequate plans f o r them. Children, of unmarried mothers were being placed as non-wards- i n order that the mother could have more time to make a. de c i s i o n regarding her c h i l d , : s future. During the early stages of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n there was a sharp increase i n cases throughout the f i e l d . The D i v i s i o n o f f i c e had to assume some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r these and demands on the D i v i s i o n were-heavy because of the reduced s t a f f . During 1946—7 t h i r e was a general increase i n the number of c h i l d r e n committed under the Protection of Children Act, the Juvenile Delinquents' Act and i n the number of non-wards. This appeared to be because: of f a m i l i e s i n which a. large number of children were involved and alsothere was a d i s t i n c t increase i n the population during the pre-vious year. The D i v i s i o n was concerned about the increase i n the number of children, involved and began to study means whereby the f i e l d and the D i v i s i o n could cooperate more c l o s e l y i n evaluating the work which was 1. Annual Report of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare for the year ended March 31st, 1947. p-. 14 - 56 -being done. They r e a l i z e d t h i s would place more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the f i e l d workers besides g i v i n g a better picture of the standard of work and an uniform p o l i c y throughout the d i s t r i c t s . The success of. d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n depended to a large extent on the supervision and the number of case-workers' i n the f i e l d . More ade-quate services were given to the c l i e n t without a delay while a memo could go t o the D i v i s i o n a l o f f i c e and ba.ck t o the worker. The D i v i s i o n a l o f f i c e continued to give a great deal of help and support on i n d i v i d u a l cases. I t was; expected that at a. l a t e r date the Divisions'would "require a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f members and improved methods of bringing t o ' d i s t r i c t case work supervisors; and s t a f f s material and thinking which w i l l be of help t o them i n t h e i r own' and t h e i r sta.ffs' development."-'- The C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n seemed to be approaching nearer t o the function of consultive services than supervisory. The following yea.r the p o s i t i o n of a f i e l d consultant was created. The new o f f i c e was to provide the means whereby the f i e l d and the D i v i s i o n would be i n close contact with each other. P o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s of the D i v i s i o n were t o be interpreted by the consultant to the supervisors i n the d i s t r i c t s . She would a.ct as a l i n k between the Div-i s i o n and the f i e l d s t a f f . One reason for the creation of t h i s p o s i t i o n appears t o have been the need f o r more uniform standards throughout the d i s t r i c t s . The supervisors in the f i e l d were pleased, with t h i s appoint-ment and now f e e l they have a well trained person to discuss t h e i r pro-blems with instead of having to write to the D i v i s i o n . In February 19491 a c h i l d welfare i n s t i t u t e was held by the 1. Annua.1 Report of. the S o c i a l Welfare Branch of the Department of  Health and Welfare f o r the year ended March 31st, 1947. p. 14. - 57 -D i v i s i o n . The d i s t r i c t supervisors from a l l o f f i c e s were requested to attend. This i n s t i t u t e discussed current cases, changes i n p o l i c y as w e l l as case-work methods. The supervisors found t h i s i n s t i t u t e most valuable and hoped that the D i v i s i o n would consider i t part of t h e i r pro-gramme of s t a f f development. S o c i a l workers and the court. In 1946., the need f o r greater i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to the community was emphasized. This was r e a l i z e d when an a p p l i c a t i o n was dismissed by the court and two c h i l d r e n from one family were ordered to return to t h e i r parents although there appeared to be evidence of c r u e l t y to the c h i l d r e n against the parents:. It was the opinion of the D i v i s i o n that more, i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n should be done i n a l l communities i n order that the Department''s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to c h i l d r e n could be more c l e a r l y understood. The prov-i n c i a l p o l i c e had cooperated to a large extent with the workers by n o t i -f ying d i s t r i c t workers of any hearings. But i t was hoped that confer-ences between workers and the court would be arranged under d e c e n t r a l i z -ation. The D i v i s i o n was confident that more could be done to enable the c h i l d to adjust to h i s family s e t t i n g i f conferences were held p r i o r to the completion of a case. I f removal was indicated both c h i l d and family could be .prepared for separation and placement. In 1948, the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare v/as i n v i t e d to attend the Magistrates' Conference and learned of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the Juvenile Court i n the r u r a l areas. It v/as indicated that the magistrates 1 would be very pleased to receive s p e c i a l help i n cases i n v o l v i n g c h i l d r e n . The r o l e of the s o c i a l worker i n t h i s area, was discussed but i t was f e l t that her lack of p a r t i c i p a t i o n ha.d been because of the heavy case-loads'. For the l a s t several years, the Supreme Court has referred to C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n f o r consultive services when disagreements over custody of c h i l d -ren arose i n divorce proceedings. These r e f e r r a l s have assisted in safe-guarding c h i l d r e n from unhap-pj*' situations :. Experience has now shown that these- parents are anxious t o have t h e i r problems discussed i n the i n -t e r e s t s of the child''s future. There i s no l e g i s l a t i o n covering t h i s type of care but through the courts- information i s being received to draft an amendment to the Act at a l a t e r date. Jewish overseas c h i l d r e n . Late i n 1947, the p r o v i n c i a l government was given another opport-unity t o a s s i s t c h i l d r e n who had suffered because of the war. The-- dominion', government had been asked by the Canadian Jewish Congress to aid i n making future plans for the European: Jewish children' who had1 been orphaned during the war and who were now being housed' i n camps; f o r displaced per-sons i n Europe. As a r e s u l t of t h i s request, the Jewish Organization was permitted to bring 1000 c h i l d r e n t o Canada.; B r i t i s h Columbia would have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r 100 children-. The C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n t r a n s f e r r e d t h i s request for the placing of these c h i l d r e n to the Children's Aid Society. With the cooperation of the l o c a l Jewish community the society had placed, the f i r s t group of twenty-three i n homes on the lower main-land by March 1948. I t was not anticipated that many, of these children would adjust too favourably to t h e i r f o s t e r homes because of the many harmful exper-iences they had had. The fact that so l i t t l e was known about the c h i l d r e n gave reason f o r concern, as successful placement of a. c h i l d apart from h i s family requires c a r e f u l preparation of the c h i l d , h i s family and h i s new family. When there was no way of doing t h i s preliminary work, p l a c e -ment could e a s i l y be an unhappy one. The members of the Jewish community entered into t h i s project whole heartedly and the c h i l d r e n appeared to have made- a good adjustment to t h e i r new homes. The members of the Jewish - 59 -community agreed to pay the p r o v i n c i a l government for a l l expenses1 i n connection with the c h i l d r e n and have given generously of t h e i r time and s k i l l i n planning f o r these children. Children's Aid Society of V i c t o r i a During 1946' the Boards of the Children's Aid Society of Victoria, and the Family Welfare Association discussed the advantages; of amalgamation), Although they r e a l i z e d t h i s would involve a t r a n s f e r of services to the Ch i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n , such a move would he a challenge to the agency as well as the D i v i s i o n . The D i v i s i o n would then he required to carry the services of protection, placement and supervision of wards under the Protection of Children Act and the Juvenile Delinquents' Act as well as some non-ward placements. This: amalgamation has been successful so f a r . It has been considered by some as1 a possible pattern f o r future d i v i s i o n . of work between public and private agencies. Such a plan would give the private agencies more time for other types of services. I n s t i t u t i o n s 1 and foster-homes :. The Annual Report f o r the year ending 1948 indicates a change i n attitude regarding i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r c h i l d placement. Experience had sho\wi that some c h i l d r e n received more benefit from a group l i v i n g ex-perience than from f o s t e r home care where c l o s e r contact with adults was i n e v i t a b l e . An i n s t i t u t i o n offered more routine than a fos t e r home, r e -la t i o n s h i p s with s t a f f were warm but l e s s personal and gave a. c h i l d an opportunity t o become more aware of h i s f e e l i n g s and l a t e r to be a.ble to adjust t o a home environment. As; an example of a c h i l d who would benefit by i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i s "The l i t t l e f i v e year old g i r l whose mother's family decided t o keep her at b i r t h . During her f i v e years, the c h i l d spent her time with neighbors and r e l a t i v e s and belonged nowhere and was described as a "confirmed run-away." Since a l l adults ; in whose care she was, had f a i l e d her i t would have been' asking too much to expect her to s e t t l e down i n a foster-home. After c a r e f u l consideration to her problems1, i t was decided that the c h i l d should be placed i n an i n s t i t u t i o n where she became one of a group of.several c h i l d r e n her own age, received the same care and the same attention as did the others. She ran away less' and when i t was thought that her confidence i n adults was increasing, she was introduced to f o s t e r parents who came as casual v i s i t o r s . Later she requested that she go to l i v e with them as she had learned to t r u s t them and r e a l i z e d that they were deeply interested in her. From t h i s b r i e f i l l u s t r a t i o n the use of the i n s t i t u t i o n had served i t s purpose i n that i t accomplished what had- been hoped for -- an opportunity for the c h i l d t o regain her t r u s t i n adults.""'' True, foster-homes must be c a r e f u l l y chosen i n order that a f o s t e r c h i l d may gradually lose f e e l i n g s of f r u s t r a t i o n s and h o s t i l i t y that are, deep rooted and \«/hich drive many ch i l d r e n to delinquent behaviour. Selective use of i n s t i t u t i o n s has shown they have a place i n the preventive work. After f i v e years' of administering the new Protection Act many improvements had evolved to give better services to. c h i l d r e n . Decentral-i z a t i o n had given the d i s t r i c t s more authority. D i s t r i c t consultants' had been placed i n the f i e l d to a s s i s t supervisors and case workers. An i n s t i t u t e had been held for supervisors where current cases, p o l i c i e s etc. had been discussed and found h e l p f u l . Improved methods of foster-home care had been put into p r a c t i c e . Replacements had been too frequent but i t was hoped that the d i s t r i c t consultant could give the workers more assistance i n t h i s work. New agreements had been made between the govern-ment and the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s with regard to wards and non-wards. The courts and the l o c a l magistrates were beginning to show a noticeable appreciation for the preventive work done by the workers. The Supreme Court on occasion 1. Annual Report of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch of the Department of  of Health and Welfare f o r the year ended March 31st, 1948. p. 82 - 61 -had requested the services of the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n . Workers v/ere beginning to have more recognition In the courts and v/ere proving that they had a valuable contribution to make in. that f i e l d . Thus at the end of 1948 c h i l d welfare had increased i t s services with the hope of reaching a l l c h i l d r e n "In need of protection." 62 -Appendix A 63 -Vancouver, B'. C., March 20th., 1901. To-, the LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY of BRITISH: COLUMBIA In Parliament convened May i t please YOUR HONORABLE BODY'S The P e t i t i o n of the LOCAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN., VANCOUVER, B.C., representing the; Eleven' (.11) a f f i l i a t e d S o c i e t i e s i n the CITY OF VANCOUVER? Humbly. Shev/eth.\: That a l l the e f f o r t s to care for neglected, orphaned or abandoned Children, i s greatly hindered, and i n many cases; wholly pre-vented, owing to the absence of any law i n this; Province r e g u l a t i n g such work. This want has been very much f e l t , not only by the various; Pfrilan--thropic and Charitable S o c i e t i e s , but by the P o l i c e O f f i c i a l s ; as: well. In order therefore, t o carry out t h i s work e f f e c t i v e l y , i t i s absolutely necessary f o r the guidance and regulation of the same, th a t a law be enacted t h e r e f o r . We, therefore, most humbly and r e s p e c t f u l l y request, t h a t you; w i l l , during the present Session, enact a s i m i l a r law t o the "CHILDREN"S PROTECTION ACT", of the PROVINCE of.'ONTARIO. As; i n duty bound we w i l l ever pray. President. ^Iary.K. #Macau'lay Local Council of Women' o f Sec'y M.E. Finch Vancouver, B.C. 'E^'Tatiow 64 -Appendix JB Books and Pamphlets 1. Lundberg, Emma Octavia. , Unto the Least of These, New York and London, D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1947/. 2. Clarke, Helen I., S o c i a l L e g i s l a t i o n , New York and London, D. Appleton-Century Company Inc., 1940. V-3. Abbot, Grace., The C h i l d and the State, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. 1947. Vol. 1 and 11. 4. M a c G i l l , Helen Gregory, The Story of Vancouver's S o c i a l Services, C i t y Archives, Vancouver, 1943. 5. Report of the B r i t i s h Columbia C h i l d Welfare Survey, 1927 Printed by the Canadian Council on C h i l d Welfare. 6. Nelson, L i l l i a n , Vancouver's E a r l y Days, 1938, Faper read before the Annual Meeting of the S o c i a l Service Club. 7. Report of the V i c t o r i a Survey Committee, 1931-32, Printed by the Canadian Council on C h i l d and Family Welfare. 8. Record of work f o r Neglected and Dependent Children, Ontario. Prepared by J.J. Kelso, Parliament Buildings, Toronto. 1906. 9. "The Protection of the C h i l d i n a Free and Democratic Society," An address given to the Association of Children's Aid Societies of Ontario, Toronto, May 1948. 10. Catholic Children's Aid Society, Annual Reports, 1946 - 1948. 11.. Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, Annual Reports, 1902 - 1949. 12. ...Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare, Annual Reports:, 1945 - 1949. 13. Superintendent of Neglected Children, Annual Reports, 1922 - 1944. 14. Gordon, Henrietta L., "Protective Services f o r Children," The B u l l e t i n , May 1946. 15. " H i s t o r i c a l Record 1892 - 1940", Report given at the Annual Meeting-of the Alexandra A c t i v i t i e s , February 1940. 16. Canadian Welfare Publ i c a t i o n s , numbers 118, 118A, 118B. December 1941. - 65 -17. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Statutes, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1910, 1918, 1919, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1926-7, 1928, 1936, 1945, 1947. 18. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Revised Statutes, 1911, 1924, 1943, 1948. ; 19. "Summary of the Laws of Canada and her provinces as a f f e c t i n g c h i l d r e n " , issued by.the Canadian vVelfare Council, 1944. 20. Harvey, Isobel, "The generalized S o c i a l Worker i n Public Welfare", Ottawa Conference, 1937. 

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