UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The search for status in a Salish Indian community Baxter, Kenneth Wayne 1967

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THE SEARCH FOR STATUS IN A SALISH INDIAN COMMUNITY  by KENNETH WAYNE BAXTER B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M.A. in the Department of Anthropology and Sociology  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1967  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of the  requirements  f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y study  available  f o r reference and  I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of  thesis for scholarly  purposes may be granted by the Head of my  Department  representatives.  or by h i s  It  or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l 'without my w r i t t e n  Department  permission  of Anthropology & Sociology  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date  May 1, 1967  i s understood  this  that copying  gain s h a l l not be allowed  ABSTRACT The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the contemporary " w i n t e r dances" of the Coast S a l i s h has been e x p l a i n e d i n terms of the I n d i a n ' s status'.  'search for  I n t h i s paper I attempt to e s t a b l i s h the s i g n i f i c a n c e of  I n d i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the Cowichan's ' s e a r c h f o r s t a t u s ' .  On the  b a s i s of informant i n t e r v i e w s , I e m p i r i c a l l y d e s c r i b e the range of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n which a sample of the members of the Cowichan Band participate.  U s i n g a typology of i n s t i t u t i o n s , I f u r t h e r d e l i n e a t e  type of v i a b l e ' s t a t u s  the  s e t s ' maintained by band members and c h a r a c t e r -  i z e the i n d i v i d u a l s who m a i n t a i n them.  I n a d d i t i o n I t e s t a theory  which I f e e l might p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n manifested i n the Cowichan s t a t u s sets but i s h o p e f u l l y a p p l i c a b l e to the members of any m i n o r i t y e t h n i c group.  B r i e f l y the theory assumes  that: A c t o r s who p a r t i c i p a t e predominantly or e x c l u s i v e l y i n ' e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s ' do so because t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n or d e f i n i t i o n of n o n - e t h n i c s i n terms of ' t h r e a t ' prevents them from attempting to acquire status i n n o n - e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s . A second hypothesis i s a l s o t e s t e d , namely t h a t : A c t o r s who participate predominantly or e x c l u s i v e l y i n e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s do so because they have f a i l e d i n attempts to acquire status i n n o n - e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s . The a v a i l a b l e data suggests that both the theory and the hypothesis are i n v a l i d .  Contrary to expectations based on the t h e o r y , the percep-  t i o n of non-ethnics i n terms of t h r e a t i s g r e a t e s t among those  actors  who n e g a t i v e l y . e v a l u a t e e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s but who have been unable to acquire non-ethnic s t a t u s .  I n order to e x p l a i n t h i s r e s u l t new assump-  t i o n s f o c u s i n g on the concept of ' n e g a t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s ' are i n t r o duced.  With regard to the second hypothesis i t would appear t h a t p r e -  dominant or e x c l u s i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s i s not a r e a c t i o n to an i n i t i a l f a i l u r e to acquire n o n - e t h n i c s t a t u s but more a f u n c t i o n of the f a c t t h a t e t h n i c s t a t u s e s are more h i g h l y valued than non-ethnic s t a t u s e s .  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter  Page  1.  The Problem The Winter Dance Complex The ' E x p l a n a t i o n s ' An E v a l u a t i o n of the E x p l a n a t i o n s The Problem and T h e o r e t i c a l Framework .. The Method An E v a l u a t i o n of the Q u a l i t y of the Data The F i e l d S i t u a t i o n  1 1 3 6 6 8 9 10  2.  S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of the Cowichan Community The Band The Community The P o l i t i c a l S t r u c t u r e Clubs and O r g a n i z a t i o n s Masked Dance B l a c k Dance Other H e r e d i t a r y Statuses Canoe Racing Tzinquaw Dancers Winter Dances Non-Ethnic P a r t i c i p a t i o n  12 12 13 16 17 19 20 21 21 22 23 25  3.  S t a t u s Sets  27  4.  Conclusions  40  C o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research  42  Footnotes  44  Bibliography  46  LIST OF TABLES Page I  Non-ethnic participation  25  II  Type I Status Set  30  III  Type II Status Set  30-A  IV  Type I I I Status Set  31  V  Type IV Status Set  33  VI  Type V Status Set  35  VII  Status Sets:  37  A Summary of Characteristics  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I w i t h to express my s i n c e r e thanks to D r . C.S. Belshaw, D r . W. W i l l m o t t , M r . W. D u f f , and M r . J . M . Kew f o r t h e i r adv i c e and encouragement.  - 1 -  CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM The " w i n t e r dance" complex among the Coast S a l i s h provided 1 the i n i t i a l stimulus f o r t h i s study.  I n other works,  anthropologists  have g i v e n d e s c r i p t i v e analyses and o f f e r e d v a r i o u s ' e x p l a n a t i o n s ' the p e r s i s t e n c e and s i g n i f i c a n c e gious b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s .  of t h i s complex of a b o r i g i n a l  for  reli-  Before proceeding, however, to a c o n s i d -  e r a t i o n of these ' e x p l a n a t i o n s '  a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the complex i s  i n order. The Winter Dance Complex The Coast S a l i s h b e l i e v e i n numerous s p i r i t s which are able to enter i n t o and bestow s p e c i f i c powers upon i n d i v i d u a l s .  A distinc-  t i o n was drawn between those s p i r i t s a b l e to confer powers of and p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e  (e.g.  economic  doctor power, w a r r i o r powers, h u n t i n g 2  powers, e t c . )  and those which simply conferred a song.  The former  powers n e c e s s i t a t e d a r i g o r o u s quest, whereas the l a t t e r d i d n o t . Since quests are no longer pursued i t i s the ' s p i r i t s i n g i n g powers' which form the core of S a l i s h r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f Today there are e s s e n t i a l l y  today.  two ways of a c q u i r i n g ' s p i r i t  s i n g i n g power': 1) " U n s o l i c i t e d s e i z u r e " of a person by a power; r e s u l t i n g i n 'power s i c k n e s s ' ; the symptoms of which are " l a s s i tude which i s u s u a l l y accompanied by l o s s of a p p e t i t e , pains, i n the chest or s i d e , i n v o l u n t a r y s i n g i n g d u r i n g . sleep and unexplained c r y i n g s p e l l s . I t i s b e l i e v e d  - 2 -  that the ' i l l n e s s ' can r e s u l t i n death i f the i n d i v i d u a l i s not i n i t i a t e d as a dancer and the power thus allowed expression. 2)  "Induced s e i z u r e " i n which the i n d i v i d u a l i s l i t e r a l l y "grabbed" and f o r c e d to undergo i n i t i a t i o n as a dancer; d u r i n g which power i s blown i n t o the i n d i v i d u a l by p e r sons a l r e a d y possessing power. Wike observes that " a l t h o u g h s p i r i t s were not of  necessity  acquired through i n h e r i t a n c e , the m a j o r i t y o b t a i n powers which were i n 4 the f a m i l y b e f o r e ,  e i t h e r i n the p a t e r n a l or maternal l i n e . "  Throughout the year powers are thought to r e s i d e i n t h e i r owner's c h e s t .  During the w i n t e r months, however, the power becomes  a c t i v e and seeks e x p r e s s i o n .  The i n s t i t u t i o n which a l l o w s f o r such  expression i s the ' w i n t e r s p i r i t d a n c e ' .  A t these dances the owners  of s p i r i t power are possessed by the s p i r i t , and become a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the power i t s e l f .  I t i s e x p l a i n e d that when the i n d i v i d u a l  dances, i t i s not he but the power who dances, and when the i n d i v i d u a l s i n g s , i t i s not he who sings but the power.  Before being accorded  the r i g h t to dance, however, the i n d i v i d u a l must undergo a c o s t l y and traumatic i n i t i a t i o n . A b o r i g i n a l l y , the c u l t u r a l l y p r e s c r i b e d time f o r 'power a c t i v a t i o n ' was October or November; now, out of deference f o r C h r i s t i a n holidays,  ' a c t i v a t i o n ' does not occur u n t i l a f t e r Xmas and p e r s i s t s  through March or A p r i l . I n a d d i t i o n to the r e l i g i o u s " f u n c t i o n s " of the dances,  they  a l s o provide an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a sponsor or sponsors to "do w o r k " . People come to these " b i g dances"  held on d i f f e r e n t reserves almost  - 3 -  every weekend - - from many d i f f e r e n t r e s e r v e s .  The "work" may c o n s i s t  of the g i v i n g of I n d i a n names or h o n o r i f i c t i t l e s ,  the making of speeches,  p u b l i c repayment of debts or the d i s p l a y of h e r e d i t a r y p r i v i l e g e s . such "work" r e q u i r e s  All  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l a r g e sums of money to v a l i -  date the c l a i m or event.  Thus the present day dance complex  consists  of the welding together of two a b o r i g i n a l l y d i s t i n c t phenomena; namely the ' w i n t e r s p i r i t dances'  and the ' p o t l a t e h '  f e s t a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s  the one an overt mani-  and the other a means f o r v a l i d a t i n g a  c l a i m or change i n s t a t u s as w e l l as a means f o r a c q u i r i n g s t a t u s . The  'Explanations' The most i n t e n s i v e study to date of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of  the  dance complex i n contemporary S a l i s h l i f e i s that done by Robinson. I n her paper M i s s Robinson makes the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s : The r e v i v a l of p o t l a t c h i n g and dancing c o i n c i d e because both are aimed at e s t a b l i s h i n g Indianness.5 . . . r e c e i v i n g an I n d i a n name, d i s p l a y i n g w e a l t h and a sense of o b l i g a t i o n by p o t l a t c h i n g , these b r i n g honor and p r e s t i g e the I n d i a n way w i t h o u t d o i n g v i o l e n c e to new a t t i t u d e s adopted from the w h i t e s . ^ There i s evidence t h a t long before white contact produced a s o c i a l c r i s i s , thtfSalish on Vancouver I s l a n d viewed s p i r i t possession as a means to d i s p l a y an admirable s t a t u s as much as a means to achieve i t . 7 I n a d d i t i o n M i s s Robinson p o i n t s to an a d d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n of the dance; namely s o c i a l c o n t r o l .  I n d i v i d u a l s who are considered unruly by p a r e n t s ,  spouses or other c l o s e k i n are "grabbed" at the request of these persons.  Two common reasons f o r such a c t i o n are t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l  is  - 4 -  d r i n k i n g e x c e s s i v e l y or i s spending too much time away from the r e serve.  F i n a l l y M i s s Robinson I d e n t i f i e s three emotional f a c t o r s under-  l y i n g the dance complex. 1. 2. 3.  8  Defiance of the u n o b t a i n a b l e . Need to overcome f r u s t r a t i o n and demonstrate the possess i o n of s p e c i a l s k i l l s . The t h i r d i n c o r p o r a t e s the f i r s t two i n the need to r e lease a l l manner of pent up emotion, i n c l u d i n g h o s t i l i t y and a g g r e s s i o n , i n a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and s o c i a l l y accept a b l e manner. Wike, i n an e a r l i e r s t u d y , o f f e r s another and seerdngly con-  tradictory explanation.  She argues that " p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s p i r i t  sings d i d not add g r e a t l y to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p o s i t i o n i n the community, although the s i n g e r s are o f t e n the center of a t t e n t i o n d u r i n g the w i n 9 t e r season." Rather " t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the r e l i g i o n has to do 10 w i t h the appeal i t s ecstasy s t a t e has f o r them."  She elsewhere ob-  s e r v e s , however that the i n i t i a t i o n "has become so p u r e l y a v e h i c l e f o r w e a l t h d i s p l a y that an i n d i v i d u a l no longer needs a p e r s o n a l r e l i 11 gious experience to become a d a n c e r . " Lewis ' e x p l a i n s ' the dance complex i n much the same way as Robinson. She s t a t e s t h a t : The w i n t e r dances are s t i l l c a l l e d f o r a v a r i e t y of purposes, and as i n the past there i s s t i l l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i s p l a y of f a m i l y and i n d i v i d u a l p r i v i l e g e s . - ^ Whatever the u n d e r l y i n g dynamics may be today, i t i s obvious t h a t , the o l d status mechanism of g i f t g i v i n g i s very much a l i v e as a v a l u e and as an a c t u a l i t y . . . The i n d i v i d u a l can s t i l l l a y c l a i m to uniqueness and importance at the w i n t e r dances, not only through d i s p l a y of g e n e r o s i t y , but through dance performance . . . Entertainment of course, was always one of the f u n c t i o n s of the w i n t e r dance, d u r i n g the s l a c k w i n t e r season.13  - 5 -  S i m i l a r l y , S u t t l e s argues t h a t : Both the dancing i t s e l f and the p o t l a t c h i n g t h a t forms a p a r t of the b i g dance may thus be seen as attempts by i n d i v i d u a l s and k i n groups to m a i n t a i n p s y c h i c i n t e g r i t y and soc i a l s t a t u s . U n d e r l y i n g both dancing and p o t l a t c h i n g ^ s the theme of r e a f f i r m a t i o n of shared i d e n t i t y as I n d i a n s . D u f f , a f t e r an a p p r a i s a l of the l i t e r a t u r e makes the  fol-  lowing summary statement: The s p i r i t dancer experiences profound sensations which are fundamentally r e l i g i o u s i n n a t u r e ; furthermore he has the s o c i a l s e c u r i t y which comes from belonging to an e x c l u s i v e group, he has an 'emotional s a f e t y v a l v e ' which provides a r e l e a s e of tensions i n a s o c i a l l y approved way, and he has d i s c o v e r e d a method of a s s e r t i n g h i s i d e n t i t y as an I n d i a n . Thus, the ' e x p l a n a t i o n s '  of the w i n t e r dance complex have  thus f a r c o n s i s t e d of a d e l i n e a t i o n of i t s f u n c t i o n s ;  specifically:  1)  The a c q u i s i t i o n of s t a t u s by becoming a dancer.  2)  The a c q u i s i t i o n of p r e s t i g e a)  becoming a "good" dancer  b)  potlatching.  by:  3)  The r e a f f i r m a t i o n of s t a t u s .  4)  The a c q u i s i t i o n and r e a f f i r m a t i o n of an " i d e n t i t y " .  5) 6)  Catharsis. The attainment of an " e c s t a s y s t a t e " or a "profound r e l i gious e x p e r i e n c e " .  7)  Social  control.  8)  Social  security.  9)  Entertainment.  - 6 -  An E v a l u a t i o n of the E x p l a n a t i o n s I f i n d two d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the preceding e x p l a n a t i o n s . First,  the n o n - e m p i r i c a l usage of key terms; f o r example " i d e n t i t y " ,  " p s y c h i c i n t e g r i t y " and " s o c i a l s e c u r i t y " makes i t d i f f i c u l t to make a meaningful e v a l u a t i o n of the statements.  Secondly, the  investigators  have not bothered to present the evidence s u p p o r t i n g t h e i r nor a l t e r n a t i v e l y bothered to t e s t the v a l i d i t y of t h e i r  explanations  explanations  and thus we have no way of a s s i g n i n g a t r u t h v a l u e to the e x p l a n a t i o n s . A more general d i f f i c u l t y I f i n d w i t h the preceding s t u d i e s i s that the question of f u n c t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s  i s l a r g e l y ignored by  the i n v e s t i g a t o r s ; that i s other i n s t i t u t i o n s which could c o n c e i v a b l y f u l f i l the f u n c t i o n s a t t r i b u t e d to the w i n t e r dances are g i v e n l i t t l e attention.  Consequently the reader i s l e f t to speculate as what other  i n s t i t u t i o n s are present i n the s e t t i n g and to what extent I n d i a n s p a r t i c i p a t e i n them. The Problem and T h e o r e t i c a l Framework I n t h i s study I propose to focus on the i n t u i t i v e l y accept a b l e assumption that the dance complex f i g u r e s prominently i n the Indian's 'search for s t a t u s ' .  'Status , 1  denotes membership i n an ' i n s t i t u t i o n ' .  f o r purposes of t h i s paper, An ' i n s t i t u t i o n ' I d e f i n e as  an organized system of p u r p o s e f u l a c t i v i t i e s as conceived by the ac16 t o r s i n a g i v e n system. Thus i n e f f e c t s t a t u s , as B e a t t i e p o i n t s 17 out, denotes "what people a r e " ;  f o r example " a f a t h e r " ,  the E l k s " , " a s p i r i t d a n c e r " , or " a C a t h o l i c " .  " a member of  - 7 -  S p e c i f i c a l l y , I have four o b j e c t i v e s .  F i r s t , i n order to  d e a l w i t h the question of extant f u n c t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s , I propose r a t h e r than concentrate  on the dance complex a l o n e , to determine empir-  i c a l l y the range of s t a t u s e s maintained by the I n d i a n s i n a g i v e n community. Secondly, I w i s h to take i n t o account the f a c t that the cond i t i o n s f o r the " s e a r c h " are complicated i n view of the f a c t that  the  I n d i a n i s confronted by two d i f f e r e n t types of i n s t i t u t i o n s , namely 18 ' e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s ' and ' n o n - e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s ' . An ' e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n ' I d e f i n e as one i n which membership i s predominantly of one e t h n i c group and u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y i s vested i n members of that e t h n i c group. an e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n .  For example, the w i n t e r dances  are  S i m i l a r l y a ' n o n - e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n ' , which I  d e f i n e from the e t h n i c ' s p o i n t of v i e w , i s one i n which membership i s predominantly n o n - e t h n i c a i d u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y i s vested i n members of that group. tion.  For example, the " E l k s C l u b " i s a n o n - e t h n i c i n s t i t u -  Consequently there are two types of s t a t u s — e t h n i c and non-  ethnic . T h i r d l y , u s i n g the f o r e g o i n g d i s t i n c t i o n , I propose e m p i r i c a l l y and a n a l y t i c a l l y to determine types of v i a b l e ' s t a t u s 'Status set'  sets'.  i s d e f i n e d , a f t e r M e r t o n , as the "complement of s o c i a l 19  s t a t u s e s " of a g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l . F o u r t h l y I wish to t e s t a theory which might p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n manifested i h the  types of status  sets.  As i t i s hoped that the theory i s applicant e to the members of any m i n o r i t y e t h n i c group, the p r o p o s i t i o n s are formulated i n general terms.  The theory i s as f o l l o w s :  Given: 1.  A contact s i t u a t i o n .  A c t o r s who predominantly or e x c l u s i v e l y m a i n t a i n e t h n i c s t a t u s e s p e r c e i v e or d e f i n e n o n - e t h n i c s i n terms of 'threat'. Threat:  Any o b j e c t , s i t u a t i o n or event which e l i c i t s f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y i n the a c t o r .  2.  A c t o r s avoid and n e g a t i v e l y evaluate t h r e a t  3.  Avoidance precludes the p o s s i b i l i t y of the actor s t r i v i n g to a c q u i r e n o n - e t h n i c s t a t u s .  Hypothesis 1:  objects.  The greater the number of e t h n i c s t a t u s e s comp r i s i n g a s t a t u s set the greater the n e g a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of n o n - e t h n i c s by the a c t o r who maint a i n s the s t a t u s s e t .  I n a d d i t i o n a second h y p o t h e s i s , u n r e l a t e d to the foregoing 20 theory i s a l s o t e s t e d : Hypothesis 2:  A c t o r s who p a r t i c i p a t e predominantly or e x c l u s i v e l y i n ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n s manifest a h i s t o r y of f a i l u r e i n attempts to a c q u i r e s t a t u s i n non-ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n s .  T h i s second hypothesis was formulated w h i l e the i n v e s t i g a t o r was " i n the f i e l d " ; on the b a s i s of an i n t u i t i v e hunch.  I t was hoped  that i t would serve as a methodological check i n a l e r t i n g the i n v e s t i gator to p o s s i b i l i t i e s c o n t r a r y to that d e r i v e d from the t h e o r y . The Method I n view of the f a c t that the study was, to a l a r g e e x t e n t , i n d u c t i v e search f o r e m p i r i c a l r e g u l a r i t i e s , the technique chosen was  an  - 9 -  an attenuated form of the l i f e h i s t o r y method.  P a r t i c u l a r emphasis  was placed on c o l l e c t i n g data r e l e v a n t to o c c u p a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , v o l untary a s s o c i a t i o n and d r i n k i n g p a t t e r n s , as w e l l as data concerning a t t i t u d e s towards non-Indians as w e l l as other Indians and I n d i a n i n stitutions . I n t e r v i e w s were obtained w i t h 34 i n d i v i d u a l s .  Due to the  f a c t t h a t s e v e r a l of the areas explored were s e n s i t i v e — f o r example questions r e l a t e d to d r i n k i n g h a b i t s , education and a t t i t u d e s towards n o n - e t h n i c s - - much of the data concerning some a c t o r s was c o l l e c t e d from secondary sources; u s u a l l y the spouse or other c l o s e k i n . An E v a l u a t i o n of the Q u a l i t y of the Data S e v e r a l f a c t o r s were o p e r a t i v e i n a f f e c t i n g the q u a l i t y of data c o l l e c t e d : 1.  My own l a c k of knowledge of and experience w i t h fLeldwork techniques.  2.  Informants were s e l e c t e d from among the group of people to whom I had been i n t r o d u c e d .  Consequently the d a t a i s not  based on a random sampling of the p o p u l a t i o n . 3.  The q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of the data was very much a f u n c t i o n of the rapport which obtained between the respondent and myself.  T h i s ranged from c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p , e n t a i l i n g numer-  ous d i s c u s s i o n s , to r e l a t i o n s h i p s that l a s t e d no longer than the l e n g t h of the i n t e r v i e w .  - 10 -  4.  I n t e r v i e w s were conducted under w i d e l y v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n r e s p e c t to the number present d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s .  Usually I  was alone w i t h the respondent but others sometimes  entered  and l e f t and o c c a s i o n a l l y f r i e n d s or k i n sat throughout the interview. 5.  Due to my f a i l u r e to overcome the s u s p i c i o n of the  conser-  v a t i v e a c t o r s I was unable to o b t a i n any s i g n i f i c a n t sampling of t h i s group. The F i e l d S i t u a t i o n The area chosen f o r study was the Cowichan Reserve, at Duncan on Vancouver I s l a n d .  The p r i n c i p a l reason f o r the choice was that w h i l  the Cowichan community i s regarded as h i g h l y ' p r o g r e s s i v e ' a stronghold of S a l i s h c u l t u r a l conservatism.  i t remains  Consequently, I hoped  I would be able to o b t a i n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h respondents i n both e t h n i c a l l y and n o n - e t h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d groups. My immediate i n t r o d u c t i o n to the community was through l e t t e r s of i n t r o d u c t i o n to the c h i e f , i t y development o f f i c e r .  a c o u n c i l l o r , and a n a t i v e commun-  Inasmuch as the Community Development Of-  f i c e r had only r e c e n t l y a r r i v e d , we shared thy,mutual problem of g a i n i n g acceptance i n t o the community.  Consequently, we formed a very agreeabl  working r e l a t i o n s h i p and spent approximately a month " t r a v e l l i n g round the r e s e r v e " t o g e t h e r ;  i n t r o d u c i n g ourselves and being introduced as  w e l l as a t t e n d i n g innumerable meetings.  - 11 -  Due to a very s e r i o u s housing shortage I was unable to obt a i n accommodation w i t h an I n d i a n f a m i l y .  Over a twelve week p e r i o d ,  however, I spent the major p o r t i o n of every day w i t h members of Gowichan Band.  the  - 12 -  CHAPTER 2 SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE COWICHAN COMMUNITY The Band The Cowichan I n d i a n Band i s the l a r g e s t I n d i a n Band i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of over fourteen hundred.  The r e s e r v e ,  s i t u a t e d w i t h i n and beyond the c i t y l i m i t s of Duncan (pop. 3,726), cludes 5,723 a c r e s .  in-  The reserve i s contiguous a l s o w i t h the D i s t r i c t  M u n i c i p a l i t y of North Cowichan (pop. 6,911); w i t h which the reserve enjoys mutual f i r e p r o t e c t i o n  facilities.  Band members are dependent on the a r e a ' s economy f o r livelihood. ployed.  their  S e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s rank highest i n terms of numbers em-  T h i s i n c l u d e s , according to 1961 f i g u r e s ,  the next l a r g e s t i n d u s t r y which i s f o r e s t products. l a t t e r that most Indians depend.  twice as many as I t i s upon the  F i g u r e s f o r nineteen working male i n -  formants i n d i c a t e the f o l l o w i n g : No. 1. Logging 6 2. Millhand 2 3. Boomman 1 4. F o r e s t r y Nursery 1 5. Longshoring 1 6. Farming 2 7. Janitor 2 8. Carving/Casual 1 9. Tradesman 1 10. Clerk 1 Although there are twenty-two p u b l i c schools i n the area, I n d i a n students c o n s t i t u t e l e s s than two per cent of the t o t a l 4,000 s t u dents.  The great m a j o r i t y of I n d i a n students attend two l o c a l C a t h o l i c  - 13 -  p a r o c h i a l s c h o o l s , one of which i s i n t e g r a t e d , or e l s e attend nearby Kuper I s l a n d R e s i d e n t i a l School or Kamloops R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l . The Duncan J u n i o r Chamber of Commerce boasts of limitless recreational f a c i l i t i e s .  seemingly  Those of primary s i g n i f i c a n c e i n  the town to Indians are the two "pubs", the t h e a t e r ,  the weekly bingo  games, and the bowling a l l e y . The Community I t i s d i f f i c u l t to speak of a s i n g l e Cowichan 'community' i f the term i s given meaning beyond the s t r i c t l y l e g a l sense.  L e w i s ' ob-  s e r v a t i o n s of the reserve i n 1953 i n my o p i n i o n hold today;  specifical  . . . the strong impression emerges that a community, or neighborhood, has not been formed, at l e a s t one i n which there i s a d a i l y communication and c o n t a c t ; and t h a t i n s p i t e of the great network of r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t has grown up i n these years of l i f e on the r e s e r v e , i t i s the c l o s e t i e s t h a t have remained the most meaningful.22 S e v e r a l f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e to the d i v i s i v e n e s s of the 'community'. F i r s t , "the Cowichan Band" a c t u a l l y c o n s i s t s of an amalgamat i o n of seven a b o r i g i n a l l y d i s t i n c t l o c a l groups; namely Somenos, Quamichan, Comiaken, Clemclemaluts, K o k s i l a h , K e n i p s e n , and K i l p a u l u s . These separate bands, however, were t r e a t e d as one s i n c e 1881.  It  was not u n t i l 1954 that the amalgamation was approved by the I n d i a n s themselves.  The i n i t i a t i v e f o r t h i s move, as I understand i t , came:  from o f f i c i a l s of the I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch who regarded i t as adminis t r a t i v e l y expedient.  I n a l e t t e r dated October 7, 1954 the agent at  that time e x p l a i n s that the seven bands  - 14 -  have been shown i n our census and membership l i s t s as separate bands d e s p i t e the f a c t that a l l t h e i r i n t e r e s t s are i n common. They have one band t r u s t fund and t h e i r band c o u n c i l i s drawn from a l l the v i l l a g e s comprising the band w i t h o u t d i s t i n c t i o n . . . Erom the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o i n t of view the present arrangements make a great d e a l more work. Our f i l e s are broken down i n t o seven s m a l l groups . . . Since the change i s p u r e l y adm i n i s t r a t i v e I can see no reason f o r c o n s u l t i n g the band members or c o u n c i l l o r s as to t h e i r wishes i n the m a t t e r , but we w i l l take up w i t h them before the next e l e c t i o n becomes due t h e i r wishes w i t h respect to the p r o v i s i o n s of sec. 73(4). A general meeting of band members was h e l d i n which a r e s o l u t i o n p r o posing o f f i c i a l band amalgamation was passed.  I was t o l d , however,  that the meeting was h e l d a t a time when many of the i n f l u e n t i a l men were working elsewhere.  A p p a r e n t l y then, and even now, an undercurrent  of resentment e x i s t e d over the amalgamation i s s u e .  Some members of the  r i c h e r reserve areas f e e l that they u n f a i r l y have to support poorer bands which are now reserve a r e a s .  The resentment f u r t h e r c o l o u r s  a t t i t u d e s toward the f u n c t i o n i n g of the c o u n c i l .  I was repeatedly i n -  formed that c o u n c i l l o r s worked only f o r the good of t h e i r own reserve areas.  What i s more, t h i s undercurrent c o n t i n u a l l y i n t r u d e s i n t o con-  temporary p o l i t i c s .  For example, a l e a d i n g p o l i t i c i a n , i n d i s c u s s i n g  w i t h me the proposed plans f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g reserves ties,  into municipali-  expressed the d e s i r e to exclude the more backward reserve areas  from such a s t r u c t u r e and i n c l u d e only the more p r o g r e s s i v e ; e x p l i c i t l y Somenos and K o k s i l a h . A second f a c t o r contributing to the f a c t i o u s n e s s  of the r e -  serve i s the r e j e c t i o n of some of the most a c c u l t u r a t e d f a m i l i e s because they have "white b l o o d " i n t h e i r ancestry and a r e , t h e r e f o r e ,  regarded  - 15 -  as not being " r e a l I n d i a n s " .  For example, one such woman was greeted  at a g a t h e r i n g by the f o l l o w i n g words:  "Well, here's Mrs. Bigshot.  has to poke her nose i n t o e v e r y t h i n g before s h e ' s s a t i s f i e d . h a l f - b r e e d and yet she t r i e s  to run the r e s e r v e . "  She  She's a  This factor i s  also  p a r t of a t h i r d more general one; which i s a tendency on the p a r t of unacculturated people to r e j e c t those who have become a c c u l t u r a t e d . T h i s might v a r i o u s l y r e f e r to those who have r a i s e d t h e i r standard of l i v i n g or those who have s u c c e s s f u l l y graduated from h i g h school or those who have c o n s i s t e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h whites or even those who express white values and p a r t i c u l a r l y p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s .  Consequently  e f f o r t s of a p o l i t i c a l or even a s o c i a l nature on the p a r t of  'accul-  t u r a t e d ' i n d i v i d u a l s , f r e q u e n t l y meet w i t h r e b u f f s on the p a r t of the 'unacculturated'.  The u n a c c u l t u r a t e d i n d i v i d u a l v e r y o f t e n d i s m i s s e s  these e f f o r t s by saying that the i n i t i a t o r " t h i n k s l i k e a white man" or that he i s " s e t t i n g h i m s e l f u p " .  The i m p l i c a t i o n , of course i s  that  the i n d i v i d u a l i s not to be t r u s t e d or that he i s n ' t a c t i n g l i k e an Indian. T h i s general tendency i s strengthened by the r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among band members.  Roughly 94 per cent are C a t h o l i c s and 6  per cent (approximately 80 people) are P r o t e s t a n t s .  The d i f f i c u l t y  a r i s e s from the f a c t that the P r o t e s t a n t f a m i l i e s a r e , by and l a r g e , the a c c u l t u r a t e d f a m i l i e s .  I n a d d i t i o n t h e i r d e n u n c i a t i o n of the  C a t h o l i c Church's " s t r a n g l e h o l d " on the Cowichan band does l i t t l e to add to t h e i r d i m i n u t i v e p o p u l a r i t y .  - 16 -  F i n a l l y , a legacy of enmity between f a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s appears to be handed down from generation to generation. stems from r i v a l r y over land c l a i m s .  T h i s legacy  I n the past apparently a f a v o r i t e  means of e x p r e s s i n g t h i s type of b i t t e r n e s s was by burning down a r i v a l c l a i m a n t ' s home.  Such d e s t r u c t i o n of p r o p e r t y i s a l s o d i r e c t e d  against ' s u c c e s s f u l ' i n d i v i d u a l s .  For example, one l e a d i n g p o l i t i c i a n  had h i s garage, c o n t a i n i n g h i s new c a r , burned to the ground.  Thus  the p r i c e of success among the Cowichan can mean, i n a d d i t i o n to a l i enation, outright material l o s s . The P o l i t i c a l  Structure  The present c o u n c i l i n c l u d e s p o s i t i o n s f o r a c h i e f and eleven councillors.  I n a d d i t i o n , the band has a f u l l - t i m e s e c r e t a r y who, at  the present moment i s a l s o a c o u n c i l l o r , and by 1967 the band a l s o hopes to have a band manager. E l e c t i o n s f o r c o u n c i l p o s i t i o n s are h e l d every two years .  It  appears that candidates are nominated and e l e c t e d on a p e r s o n a l b a s i s . Diverse c r i t e r i a are used by e l e c t o r s i n e v a l u a t i o n j i n c l u d i n g r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , f a m i l y connections, the reserve area i n which the candidate l i v e s and past performance i f the candidate had p r e v i o u s l y been a counc i l member.  Thus there appears to be l i t t l e consistency i n the p a r t i c u -  l a r i s t i c c r i t e r i a used to evaluate c a n d i d a t e s .  I t might be noted that  Robinson's observations concerning the Nanaimo band holds true f o r the Cowichan as w e l l , namely that  - 17 -  Extended f a m i l i e s tend to become p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n s , and, at the same time, to break down i n t o s o c i a l c l i q u e s which may at times i n c l u d e members from other  families.  For example from 1954 to 1966 members of only three extended have held the p o s i t i o n of band c h i e f and today are s t i l l  families  the most p o l -  i t i c a l l y powerful groups i n the band. If  attendance  at nomination meetings and number of b a l l o t s  cast  can be used as an index of p o l i t i c a l involvement then i t might be s a i d that the Cowichan band e l e c t o r a t e i s a p a t h e t i c .  A t the 1966 nomination  meeting fewer than f i f t y persons attended, w h i l e out of a t o t a l ate of 500 only 238 cast b a l l o t s . elected w i t h as few as 97 v o t e s .  elector-  Consequently c o u n c i l l o r s have been (1962  election).  C o u n c i l meetings are h e l d weekly but due to the volume of work w i t h which the c o u n c i l must d e a l ; much of the work i s handled by committees which make recommendations  to the c o u n c i l .  Each committee  i s chaired by a c o u n c i l l o r and members at l a r g e from the community out the r e s t of the membership.  I n 1965,  fill  there were twleve such commit-  tees . I n a d d i t i o n to the l o c a l c o u n c i l an e t h n i c a l l y unique spectrum of p o l i t i c a l opportunity e x i s t s f o r Cowichan p o l i t i c i a n s i n c l u d i n g the Southern Vancouver I s l a n d T r i b a l F e d e r a t i o n , the B r i t i s h Columbia N a t i v e Brotherhood, the B . C . I n d i a n A d v i s o r y Committee, the F e d e r a l B . C . A d v i s o r y Committee and the Canadian-Indian-Eskimo A s s o c i a t i o n . Clubs and Organizations A.  Cowichan I n d i a n R e c r e a t i o n Commission: The general aim of t h i s club i s to provide reaEational  i l i t i e s and equipment f o r Indians of a l l ages.  fac-  The club mffits i n f r e -  - 18 -  quently and although i t has an e x e c u t i v e , depends c h i e f l y on the i s s u e .  The three executive p o s i t i o n s are c u r -  r e n t l y held by three c o u n c i l l o r s . B.  membership i s i r r e g u l a r and  Membership:  approximately  15.  Homemaker s C1ub: The stimulus f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h i s club came from the  I n d i a n A f f a i r s Department.  I t s espoused general aim i s to improve home  environments on the r e s e r v e .  Specific activities  i n which t h i s club has  been engaged are the sponsoring of a rummage s a l e , p o l i t i c a l r a l l i e s and a p r o v i n c i a l conference  social  evenings,  on I n d i a n Homemakers.  The club had an i n i t i a l membership of twenty but i s now i n imminent danger of " f o l d i n g up". C.  Membership:  approximately  10.  T i n y Tot N u r s e r y : The sole aim of t h i s club i s to see to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l de-  t a i l s essential  to the f u n c t i o n i n g of the "head s t a r t " programme f o r  pre-school c h i l d r e n . D.  Membership:  approximately  10.  Alcoholic Associations: The Cowichan band has i t s own chapter of A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous  and a smaller " P i o n e e r " o r g a n i z a t i o n which d i f f e r s from the A . A . i n r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n and i n the s e v e r i t y sliders". E.  Membership:  "back-  Unknown.  ©hurch Sponsored C l u b s : 1.  elite.  of i t s p e n a l t i e s f o r  Legion of Mary:  Membership:  A r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n of the C a t h o l i c  approximately  10.  - 19 -  2.  C a t h o l i c Women's League:  g a n i z a t i o n f o r the C a t h o l i c Church. 3.  Membership:  approximately 20.  Corpus C h r i s t i t Meets only once each year to d i s c u s s plans  f o r the C a t h o l i c Church's sports day. F.  E s s e n t i a l l y a fund r a i s i n g o r -  Membership:  approximately  15.  Thunderbird Youth C l u b : T h i s club was organized to promote s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l  a c t i v i t i e s f o r young I n d i a n s .  The club i s l a r g e l y i n a c t i v e due to  the d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g an i n t e r e s t e d sponsor.  Membership:  approx-  imately 8. The executive o r g a n i z a t i o n of many clubs i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by what one might c a l l an ' i n t e r l o c k i n g e x e c u t i v e ' .  For example one man,  i n a d d i t i o n to being a c o u n c i l l o r and chairman of the c e n t e n n i a l , f i nance, and community p l a n n i n g committees i s a l s o chairman of Corpus C h r i s t i , the L e g i o n of Mary, A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous, and V i c e - P r e s i d e n t of the R e c r e a t i o n Commission.  S i m i l a r l y the executive of the Home-  makers and the Tiny Tot Nursery c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y of the same p e r s o n n e l . I would l i k e now to t u r n to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of those  institu-  t i o n s which c o n s t i t u t e the uniquely I n d i a n components of contemporary Cowichan s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e .  These i n c l u d e the mask (swaihwe) and b l a c k  dancers, " r a t t l e r s " and basket dancer, canoe r a c e s , Tzinquaw dancers, bone games and I n d i a n (winter)  dances.  Masked Dance The masked or 'swaihwe' dancers* c o n s t i t u t e a loose form of 'society'  i n that members are e x c l u s i v e l y those who have i n h e r i t e d the  - 20 -  p r i v i l e g e of performing the dance.  The only time members come toge-  t h e r , however, i s when they are i n v i t e d to perform at the same event. A b o r i g i n a l l y the dance was performed " a t a l l c r i s e s r i t e s or at any time that guests were i n v i t e d to r e c e i v e g i f t s and a name was bestowed". The p e r i o d of g r e a t e s t a c t i v i t y f o r the dancers today i s d u r i n g the I n d i a n s p i r i t dances when they are c a l l e d to perform at the " b i g dances" throughout the e n t i r e dance a r e a .  During the summer of 1966  there were two occasions at which Cowichan dancers performed i n the Cowi chan a r e a .  Four dancers performed at the u n v e i l i n g of a totem p o l e ,  w h i l e two performed at the d e d i c a t i o n of the Cowichan Band o f f i c e .  Part  of t h i s l a t t e r performance i n v o l v e d the r i t u a l i z e d " b r i n g i n g out" of the guest of honor.  On both occasions the dancers were p a i d a standard  fee of ten d o l l a r s .  There are c u r r e n t l y s i x a c t i v e dancers i n the area.  B l a c k Dance " B l a c k dancers" c o n s t i t u t e a ' s o c i e t y '  s i m i l a r to t h a t of the  masked dance i n that membership i s r e s t r i c t e d to those who have i n h e r i ted the r i g h t to membership. they are c a l l e d to a dance.  A l s o , the only time members meet i s when The i n s t i t u t i o n s d i f f e r however i n one imp-  o r t a n t r e s p e c t ; and that i s the b l a c k dancers c o n s t i t u t e a secret  soci-  ety and perform p u b l i c l y only on r a r e occasions at w i n t e r dances where the sponsor has the r i g h t to membership i n the s o c i e t y .  The dances  are not held i n the Cowichan area and p a r t i c i p a n t s t r a v e l to Chemainus Bay and Saanich where " b l a c k dances" are h e l d .  Consequently, I would  i n f e r that there are few " b l a c k dancers" i n the Cowichan band.  I know  - 21 -  of only two and a t h i r d who, although d e s i r o u s of membership, cannot a f f o r d the cost of i n i t i a t i o n .  I t might be noted t h a t secrecy i s main-  tained to such a degree that not even spouses are t o l d when a member i s going to a dance.  I n the words of one informant whose w i f e i s a b l a c k  dancer, "She j u s t disappears f o r a few days". Other H e r e d i t a r y Statuses I n a d d i t i o n to h e r e d i t a r y p r i v i l e g e s concerning the masked and b l a c k dance, s e v e r a l Cowichan f a m i l i e s take advantage of h e r e d i t a r y r i g h t s to enact two l e s s p r e s t i g i o u s p r i v i l e g e s ; namely, the basket dance and the r i t u a l use of r a t t l e s .  The basket dance i s i n f r e q u e n t l y  performed, and e x c l u s i v e l y at w i n t e r dances.  " R a t t l e r s " perform more  f r e q u e n t l y at c r i s i s r i t e s ; u s u a l l y s p i r i t dancer i n i t i a t i o n s and f u n erals.  A r e l i a b l e informant i d e n t i f i e d seven extended f a m i l i e s who  have r i g h t s to the " r a t t l e performance" and n i n e i n d i v i d u a l s of  seven  a d d i t i o n a l f a m i l i e s who r e g u l a r l y perform. Canoe Racing Canoe r a c i n g i n the Cowichan area i s as popular as i t i s i n Coast S a l i s h communities throughout the Lower Mainland and Southern Vancouver I s l a n d .  A t present four Cowichan men own canoes - - the "May-  f l o w e r " , " M t . P r o v o s t " , "Thundercloud" and " B l a c k Widow" — and a f i f t h i s c u r r e n t l y b u i l d i n g one.  Races are held almost every weekend i n some  community d u r i n g a season which l a s t s from June to J u l y .  Crews of eleven  men t r a i n v i g o u r o u s l y weeks before and throughout the season.  It  is  i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t f o r many of these " p u l l e r s " , the r a c i n g season  - 22 -  i s the one time of the year that they q u i t d r i n k i n g .  There i s  little  p r i z e money i n v o l v e d i n the r a c i n g events and due to the c o s t of t r a v e l l i n g most of the men ' l o s e ' money.  Y e t the races are popular events  and c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s t i g e i s attached to those connected w i t h a winning canoe; p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the c a p t a i n or owner.  Owners, i t might be noted,  r a r e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t u a l r a c i n g but p r e f e r to watch w i t h the crowd, from which they r e c e i v e much good natured k i d d i n g and the occasional  bet.  Tzinquaw Dancers I n 1962 under the combined d i r e c t i o n of a band member and a n o n - I n d i a n , the opera "Tzinquaw" was produced; f e a t u r i n g an a l l I n d i a n cast of approximately t w e n t y - f i v e and a s t o r y based on l o c a l I n d i a n legends.  The p r o d u c t i o n was apparently a great success.  r e c e i v e d two o f f e r s  The troupe  to perform i n England but theywere "turned down"  as some of the o l d e r members of the c a s t feared they might d i e away from home.  Since the i n i t i a l p r o d u c t i o n , however, the I n d i a n d i r e c -  tor and at l e a s t three other male members of the band have been p e r forming at p u b l i c events, w i t h l a r g e numbers of non-Indians present, "Tzinquaw d a n c e r s " . such performances:  as  Between May and August of 1966 there were three at the d e d i c a t i o n of a totem p o l e , the o f f i c i a l  opening of the Cowichan band o f f i c e and a p u b l i c meeting f e a t u r i n g a guest I n d i a n speaker.  The dancers wear costumes of t h e i r own design  and perform a dance w h i c h , I am t o l d , does not have i t s o r i g i n s i n t r a d i t i o n a l Cowichan dances.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that the I n d i a n leader of  the Tzinquaw performers has no t r a d i t i o n a l ceremonial r i g h t s .  - 23 -  Winter Dances The w i n t e r dances i n v o l v e more people than any other e t h n i c institution.  Although i t i s d i f f i c u l t to a s s e s s , i t i s roughly e s t i -  mated t h a t at l e a s t h a l f of the band members are i n v o l v e d i n one way or another; e i t h e r as dancers or as sponsors and s p e c t a t o r s . c o r d i n g to B. Lane there were f i f t y dancers. there are one hundred and twenty dancers.  I n 1953,  ac-  I t i s now estimated that  During the 1965-66 season  ten dancers were i n i t i a t e d w h i l e i n the 1966-67 season there were twelve "new d a n c e r s " . Most of the i n i t i a t e s v o l u n t e e r themselves, i n which case the grabbing i s r i t u a l i s t i c as i t i s w i t h persons s u f f e r i n g " s p i r i t s i c k ness".  I would argue that " s p i r i t s i c k n e s s " i s a form of sub-conscious  and, i n some cases, even of conscious v o l u n t e e r i n g .  However, a few  i n d i v i d u a l s are i n v o l u n t a r i l y f o r c e d to undergo i n i t i a t i o n ;  interest-  i n g l y , almost a l l who do continue to perform as dancers each y e a r . I n a d d i t i o n to d a n c i n g , dancers and spectators perform by b e a t i n g drums and boards w h i l e s i n g i n g the songs of dancers from t h e i r group.  D i f f e r e n t reserve areas have t h e i r " s e c t i o n l e a d e r s " who know  the songs of a l l the dancers w i t h i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e areas and who lead the s i n g i n g w h i l e dancers from t h e i r area perform. Dance i n i t i a t i o n s a l s o a l l o w f o r the enactment of two p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s ; namely those of shaman and r i t u a l i s t .  Shamans are c a l l e d  upon to " d o c t o r " i n i t i a t e s who appear to be i n o r d i n a t e l y s u f f e r i n g from s p i r i t sickness.  R i t u a l i s t s are h i r e d to perform the numerous r i t u a l  tasks associated w i t h the i n i t i a l four day p e r i o d of the i n i t i a t i o n .  - 24 -  I n the Cowichan Band there i s no a c t i v e shaman, although one man i s s e c r e t l y t r a i n i n g to be one which i n p r a c t i c e means that he i s purchasing shamanistic knowledge from an o l d , r e t i r e d shaman.  With r e -  gard to r i t u a l i s t s i t i s u s u a l l y the same couple who are c a l l e d i n to perform a t i n i t i a t i o n s . The p r o p e r t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s contingent to i n i t i a t i o n s and the " b u s i n e s s " of the b i g dances s i m i l a r l y support a p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e , namel y that of " s p e a k e r " . Speakers announce prope±y d i s t r i b u t i o n s and the reasons  for  them, make speeches of welcome and thanks on the p a r t of the sponsor and i n d i v i d u a l s honored through r e c e i p t of w e a l t h , and o c c a s i o n a l l y p o l i t i c a l speeches u s u a l l y l a u d i n g the m e r i t s of the dance.  Speakers  are paid f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s ; r e c e i v i n g up to f o r t y d o l l a r s i n one n i g h t . I n the Cowichan area there are f o u r a c t i v e speakers and a f o u r t h man ' t r a i n i n g ' to become one.  T r a i n i n g apparently e n t a i l s the l e a r n i n g of  I n d i a n names; f a m i l y connections and p r i v i l e g e s , as w e l l as the proper form and phrases f o r speaking.  A t r a i n e e l e a r n s by l i s t e n i n g to other  speakers and from i n s t r u c t i o n from an a c t i v e speaker - - a s e r v i c e f o r which the i n s t r u c t o r i s not p a i d . F i n a l l y i t must be noted that the w i n t e r dance complex i s the e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n which p r e c i p i t a t e s the most c o n f l i c t w i t h n o n - e t h n i c institutions.  Due to the frequency and l e n g t h of the dances working  men and students are f r e q u e n t l y l a t e f o r or miss work or s c h o o l .  In  a d d i t i o n the prolonged i n i t i a t i o n o f t e n costs a person h i s job or a  - 25 -  student h i s year at s c h o o l .  What i s more h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s r e p o r t  that i n many homes on the reserve there i s a s l a c k e n i n g of hygiene standards because f a m i l y members are " t o o busy" w i t h the dances. L a s t l y , the " g r a b b i n g " of persons amounts i n some cases to b o d i l y a s s a u l t and kidnapping which c r e a t e s numerous h o s t i l i t i e s and a v o l a t i l e s t a t e of a f f a i r s which could erupt i n t o an open c o n f l i c t w i t h non-ethnic l e g a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Dancers are a c u t e l y aware of the animosity d i r e c t e d towards the w i n t e r dances by some Indians and most n o n - I n d i a n s .  They are e q u a l -  l y aware and v o c a l about t h e i r r i g h t to perform the dances. Non-Ethnic P a r t i c i p a t i o n I t remains f i n a l l y to consider the type and scope of e t h n i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n non-ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n s .  On the b a s i s of 34 i n t e r -  views and subsequent checking I compiled the f o l l o w i n g  table:  TABLE I Non-Ethnic P a r t i c i p a t i o n U n i t e d Church Womens League United Church AOTS Mens Club F r a t e r n a l Order of Eagles U n i t e d Church Nursery Cowichan G o l f Club Cowichan F i e P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e Cowichan Track and F i e l d Club Duncan Business and P r o f e s s i o n a l Womens Club Sonoptomist Club B . C . A r t s and Welfare C o u n c i l Teen Town Duncan Garden Club F r i e n d s h i p Baazaar Sports Clubs P.T.A. r  Present 1 3 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 ? ?  Past  - 26 -  TABLE I continued Present  Jaycees Canadian L e g i o n Boy Scouts Judo Club O c c u l t Group Maj o r e t t e s Brownies Guides Student C o u n c i l A l t h o u g h the table seemingly I n d i c a t e s  Past 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  extensive I n d i a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n a broad range of n o n - e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h i s i s not so i n view of the f a c t that the t a b l e represents  n e a r l y a l l the members of the Cowi-  chan Band who m a i n t a i n or have maintained non-ethnic s t a t u s e s .  Thus  when the t o t a l membership of the band i s c o n s i d e r e d , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n non-ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n s i s minimal.  - 27 -  CHAPTER 3 STATUS SETS It  i s evident that a twofold c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s  i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to a n a l y t i c a l l y accommodate the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n which the Cowichan m a i n t a i n s t a t u s .  Consequently, I propose the f o l l o w i n g  four-fold classification: 1.  Non-Ethnic Type I :  I n s t i t u t i o n s i n which u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y i s  h e l d by non-ethnics and the general membership i s predominantly nonethnic.  Included i n t h i s category are a l l those i n s t i t u t i o n s l i s t e d  as non-ethnic i n the l a s t chapter,  i . e . U n i t e d Church Womens League  . . . Teen Town. 2.  Non-Ethnic Type I I :  I n s t i t u t i o n s i n which u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y i s  h e l d by n o n - e t h n i c s , yet the general membership i s predominantly e t h n i c . The outstanding example of t h i s type i s the band c o u n c i l over which u l timate a u t h o r i t y i s h e l d by the f e d e r a l government. 3.  E t h n i c Type I :  I n s t i t u t i o n s i n which u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y i s held by  e t h n i c s and the general membership i s predominantly e t h n i c ; y e t the i n s t i t u t i o n i s not a d e r i v a t i v e of the a b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e .  Included i n  t h i s category are most of the clubs f u n c t i o n i n g on the r e s e r v e ; example the Thunderbird Youth C l u b , the Homemakers e t c . Tzinquaw Dancers f a l l i n t o t h i s 4.  E t h n i c Type I I :  by e t h n i c s ,  for  I n a d d i t i o n the  category.  I n s t i t u t i o n s i n which u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y i s held  the general membership i s e t h n i c , and the i n s t i t u t i o n i s a  - 28 -  d e r i v a t i v e of the a b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e .  Included i n t h i s category  the w i n t e r dances, b l a c k and masked dances, bone games,  are  etc.  I t i s p o s s i b l e , u s i n g the f o r e g o i n g typology of  institutions  to i s o l a t e a n a l y t i c a l l y and e m p i r i c a l l y f i v e types of s t a t u s sets maint a i n e d by members of the Cowichan Band.  I t should be noted t h a t work  i n s t i t u t i o n s are not i n c l u d e d i n the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n .  B r i e f l y , the f i v e  types are as f o l l o w s : TYPE I : TYPE I I :  25 c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a complete l a c k of s t a t u s . c h a r a c t e r i z e d by predominant involvement i n n o n - e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s of type 1.  TYPE I I I :  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by predominant involvement i n non-ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n s of type 2 and e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s of type 1. I n a d d i t i o n the a c t o r s represented by t h i s type are or have been members of at l e a s t one non-ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n of type 1.  TYPE I V :  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by predominant and, i n t h i s case, e x c l u s i v e involvement i n non-ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n s of type 2 and e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s of type 1.  TYPE V :  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by predominant involvement i n e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s of type 1 and 2.  I n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s I s h a l l c h a r a c t e r i z e from among those I i n t e r v i e w e d who represent each t y p e .  the i n d i v i d u a l s Before d o i n g  so, however, a few p o i n t s of c l a r i f i c a t i o n concerning the t a b l e s are i n order. F i r s t , "house type" i s evaluated i n terms of two c a t e g o r i e s : 1.  F u r n i t u r e i n good r e p a i r , i n t e r i o r of house t i d y and c l e a n .  2.  F u r n i t u r e i n poor r e p a i r , i n t e r i o r u n t i d y and not c l e a n .  As I was a c u t e l y aware of the s u b j e c t i v e ^ n a t u r e  of the c a t e g o r i e s , only  the extreme i n s t a n c e s of category 2 are c l a s s i f i e d as such.  - 29 -  Secondly, the key to the job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s l i s t e d under " o c c u p a t i o n a l h i s t o r y " i s as f o l l o w s : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Logging I n d u s t r y Millhand Longshoring F i s h i n g Industry Farmwork Tradesman Service I n d u s t r y Other; i n c l u d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n , m i n i n g , s h i p y a r d , b e r r y f i e l d s , deckhand, k n i t t i n g i n d u s t r y , c a r v i n g , army, t r a p p i n g , t r u c k d r i v i n g , h o s p i t a l o r d e r l y , c a r n i v a l hand, c h i c k e n p r o c e s s i n g , Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s , B r i c k y a r d , c l e r k " o d d j o b s " . 26 T h i r d l y , " d r i n k i n g h a b i t s " are r a t e d  g o r i e s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n terms of frequency. 1. 2. 3. 4.  i n terms of four c a t e They a r e :  Non-drinker Infrequent Weekend Heavy I n a d d i t i o n to the t a b l e s , data r e l e v a n t to three other v a r i -  ables i s a l s o presented; s p e c i f i c a l l y that concerning 1.  "Occupational patterns"  2.  " A t t i t u d e s towards n o n - e t h n i c s "  3.  " A t t i t u d e s towards other e t h n i c s and e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s . "  With regard to o c c u p a t i o n a l patterns only those o c c u p a t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s i n d i c a t i n g considerable f l u c t u a t i o n i . e . mented upon.  I n some i n s t a n c e s ,  change of job type are com-  t h i s i s a note to make e x p l i c i t the  f a c t that there i s consflerable f l u c t u a t i o n w h i l e i n others i t i s a note to e x p l a i n f l u c t u a t i o n s f o r which there i s evidence that the cause i s e x t e r n a l to the I n d i v i d u a l .  For i n s t a n c e ,  comment i s made i n cases  where frequent changes i n type of employment i s due to closure of places of employment or to the i l l n e s s of the a c t o r .  TABLE 2 Type I Status No. of Yrs. Married  No. of Children  Set  Religion  House Type  Current Occupation  Occupational 1 2 3 4  Sex  Age  Education  1.  M  20  11  -1  0  P  „  Logger  2.  M  29  12  10  5  C  2  Millhand  3.  M  29  10  10  6  P-  2  Millhand  1  4  4.  M  42  10  21  10  P  2  Logger  3*  1  5.  M  31  13  7  4  P  1  Logger  1*  Actor  History 5 6 7 8  1  Drinking  Habits  Infrequent 1  Heavy Non-Drinker, Heavy before Marriage 1  Hereditary Rights Non-Ethnic I Nil j Nil  5 Heavy  Nil  Heavy  Nil  TYPE I A.  Occupational Patterns: Actor 1 has completed a twenty month v o c a t i o n a l school course i n radio e l e c t r o n i c s and i s currently waiting for employment with the telephone company. Actor 3 states that h i s job changes are due to the f a c t that each i s considered an improvement over the last. Actor 4 has worked for s i x d i f f e r e n t logging companies since 1954. Actor 5 states that he "moves around a l o t " , that i s from company to company and i s frequently unemployed.  B.  A t t i t u d e s towards non-ethnics: Three of the men — actors 3, 4 and 5 -- state that they f e e l uncomfortable i n s i t u a t i o n s dominated by a majority of non-Indians. What i s more, the wives of actors 3 and 5 state that t h e i r husbands avoid i n teraction with non-Indians. One of these also claims that her husband, actor 5, i s "ashamed of being an Indian." Actors 1 and 2 give no i n d i c a t i o n that they f e e l "threatened" by non-Indians.  C.  Attitudes towards other ethnics and ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n s : A l l f i v e men manifest a complete lack of concern about l o c a l Indian events and p o l i t i c s . In addition a l l agree that the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for "progress" l i e s with the i n d i v i d u a l . In the words of one man, "No one can help him u n t i l he i s prepared to help himself." Four of the men; that i s a l l except actor 2 would l i k e to see complete a s s i m i l a t i o n while actor 2 would l i k e to see such things as language and a r t forms preserved. A l l f i v e negatively evaluate the winter dances p r i n c i p a l l y because they "interfere with work" and because some i n i t i a t e s are "kidnapped".  Status Set Non-Ethnic I I  NIL  Ethnic I  Ethnic I I  TABLE 3 Type I I Status Set  Actor  Sex  c  M  o.  M  7.  Age 30  68  8.  M  66  9.  M  19  10.  F  66  F  11.  19  Education  No. of T r s . Married 9  10  4th Reader  9  Student Gr. 10 3  12  48  No. of Children  Religion  1  F  1  P  4  House Type  1  27  1  P  1  —  —  C  -  45  5  P  1  —  -  C  Current Occupation Millhand  Oc cut a t i ons 1 K i s t .or 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1  1  Retired; Some farming  Retired; Some Farming  8  1  1  1  2  1  1  2  Drinking Habits Non-Drinker; Heavily before Mai Infrequently  Infrequent  -  Nil Mil  Nil  1  i Weekend Housewife  Hereditary Rights  Nondrinker  Nondrinker  1  Masked Dance  TYPE I I  '  A  B  C.  *  ° Sr"StI"al^8tories C  of a l l three working men manifest patterns of steady employment. Changes of job type i n the cases of actors 7 and 8 occur because they regard each successive job as an improvement over the l a s t .  A t t i t u d e s towards non-ethnics: , T„J,'O„„ i n None of the actors i n t h i s category admit to any f e e l i n g s of uneasiness i n the presence of non-Indrans. A l l s i x express the desire to see more s o c i a l "mixing" between Indians and non-Indians. I n addition, a l l , except f o r actor 10, claim to have a t l e a s t one close non-Indian f r i e n d .  (P) means past.  Non-Ethnic I 1. Golf Club 2. Fireman 1. Legion(P) 2. United Church 3. Eagles 4. A.O.T.S. 5. Union Exec.(P) 1. United Church 2. Eagles 3. A.O.T.S. 4. United Church Nursery 1. Track and F i e l d Club 2. Sports Clubs 1. United Church 2. U.C. Womens League 1. Majorettes(P) 2. Brownies(P) 3. Guides (P) 4. Student Council(F)  Status Set Non-Ethnic I I  Ethnic I 1. Soccer(P)*  1. Councillor©  1. A l l i e d Tribes  1. C o u n c i l l o r  1. Soccer Team 2. A l l i e d Tribes  1. Catholic Church  1. Soccer Team  Ethnic I I  0?)  Attended Dances?  1. C a t h o l i c Church 2. Lesj-on of Mary(P)  1. Attends Dances  TABLE 4 Type I I I S t a t u s S e t  Actor  Sex  Age  Education  12.  M  42  8  No. o f Y r s . Married  20  No. o f Children  4  Religion  P  House Type  1  Current 1 O c c u p a t i o il  Oc CUf J a t : -Oil i l Il i s t o r y 1 2 3 4 5 6 1  Logger  3  1  2  1  8 Drinking Habits Nondrinker, Heavy u n t i l 3 10 y r s . a g o  Hereditary Rights  Non-Ethnic I 1. L e g i o n ( P )  ?  1. J a y c e e s ( E ) 13.  M  39  8  15  5  C  1  Millhand  1  14.  M  71  4th Reader  45  5  P  1  Plasterer  1  2  1 Infrequent  1  1 Infrequent  Nil  1. A.O.T.S. 1  2  2. 1.  15.  M  33  10  19  7  C  2  Logger  5  1  1  Nondrinker  United Church Jaycees(P)  Rattle  Sta tus S e t Non-Ethnic I I Ethnic I 1. I n d i a n A d v i s o r y 1. A.A. Committee 2. I n d i a n - E s k i m o 2. C o u n c i l l o r Assn. 3. A l l i e d Tribes 1. C a t h o l i c 1. C o r p u s Church Christi 2. L e g i o n o f 2. R e c . Mary Commission 3. C o u n c i l l o r 2. S o c c e r Club(P) 1. C o u n c i l l o r ( P ) Sports(P) 2. W i n t e r Works Chairman (P) 1. C h i e f 1. S p o r t s ( P ) 2. C o u n c i l l o r 2. N a t i v e 3. C a t h o l i c Brotherhood Church 3. A l l i e d 4. Legion o f Tribes Mary 4. C o r p u s C h r i s t i  Ethnic I I  1.  1. 2.  Attends Dances  Canoe Owner Canoe P u l l e r  5. Gr. 9 Student  -  c  -  9  1  p  1  11  10  6  c  2  33  12  —  -  c  27  3  7  4  p  16.  M  17  17.  F  29  10  18.  F  29  19.  F  20.  F  —  Weekend  ?  Housewife  Nondrinker  1  Housewife  Nondrinker  1  1  Secretary-.  Weekend; Heavy w h i l e chief  ?  1  Housewife  Weekend  1  1. T e e n Town  1.  Bowling  1.  P.T.A.(P)  2.  Friendship Baazar Duncan Business Sonojtomist B.C. A r t s & Welfare Duncan Garden Club  1. 2. 3. 1.  1. C a t h o l i c Church  1.  Cafeolic Church  1. C o r p u s C h r i s t i 2. Tekaw.(P) 3. C o u n c i l l o r 4. Chfef(P) 5. C a l h o l i c C h u r c h  Recreation Commi s s i on 1. T h u n d e r b i r d 2. Rec. Comm. 3. S p o r t s Clubs 1. 2. 1. 2.  Homemakers Nursery Homemaker Nursery  1. R e c . Comm. 2 . Homemaker s  1. 2.  1. Homemaker s 2.  Nursery  Attends Dances Attends Bone Games  - 32 -  TYPE I I I A.  Occupational P a t t e r n s : The o c c u p a t i o n a l h i s t o r y of actor 12 i n d i c a t e s t h a t f r e q u e n t - j o b changes ceased when he q u i t d r i n k i n g . Before r e c e n t l y r e t u r n i n g to the l o g g i n g i n d u s t r y , which he d i d because of the " b e t t e r money", actor 12 worked f o r n i n e years as a h o s p i t a l o r d e r l y . A c t o r 15 s t a t e s that job changes i n the l o g g i n g i n d u s t r y were n e c e s s i t a t e d by the c l o s u r e of the s m a l l companies f o r which he worked.  B.  A t t i t u d e s towards n o n - e t h n i c s : W h i l e two male a c t o r s , 12 and 13, s t a t e that they experience f e e l i n g s of " i n f e r i o r i t y " w h i l e i n the presence of n o n - I n d i a n s , ^ none of the other seven admit to any f e e l i n g s of unease i n the presence of n o n - I n d i a n s . A l l n i n e s t a t e that they would l i k e to see greater s o c i a l " m i x i n g " between I n d i a n s and n o n - I n d i a n s .  C.  A t t i t u d e s towards other e t h n i c s and e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s : A c t o r 17 would l i k e to see complete a s s i m i l a t i o n w h i l e the other e i g h t would l i k e to see I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s maintained " w i t h i n l i m i t s " . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s that they should be maintained as long as they do not i n t e r f e r e w i t h " p r o g r e s s " which these people d e f i n e i n n o n - I n d i a n terms. Consequently f i v e a c t o r s , 14, 15, 17, 18 and 20, express s t r o n g n e g a t i v e evaluations of the w i n t e r dances, w h i l e the other f o u r ; namely 12, 13, 16 and 19, suggest that w h i l e they are " a l l r i g h t " f o r the o l d people, there i s no p l a c e f o r them i n the l i v e s of the young. A l l nine agree that " p r o g r e s s " i s to be achieved through the combined e f f o r t s of the f e d e r a l government and the community.  Type IV S t a t u s Set  lector  Sex  Age  21.  Education  39  23  29  23.  25.  26.  27.  28.  11  39  24.  46  52  40  Reader  No. of Children! 12  10  23  8th  39  No. of Y r s . Married  12  23  Housewife  Longshoreman  Retired  17  23  Current Occupation  Housewife  40  26  House Religion  Logger 10  Carver/Farmer  Millhand  Housewife  Occupational H i s t o r y 4 I5 ! Drinking Habits Nondrinker; Heavy u n t i l 2 y r s . ago  Hereditary Rights Masked Dance  Nondrinker  iNondrinker; 5 Heavy u n t i l 2 Y r s . Ago  Masked Dance  |Nondrinker; Heavy u n t i l 2 Y r s . Ago  1. C o u n c i l l o r 2. C a t h o l i c Church 1. C o u n c i l l o r  Nondrinker  Nondrinker; Heavy u n t i l 2% y r s . ago.  Status Set Non-Ethnic IT 1. C a t h o l i c Church 2. L e g i o n of Mary 1. H e a l t h Comm. 2. E d u c a t i o n Comm. 3. LcgLon of Mary (P) 1. C a t h o l i c Church 2. L e g i o n of Mary 1. Chief (P) 2. C o u n c i l l o r ( P ) 3. C a t h o l i c Church  Nondrinker; [Heavy u n t i l 12 Y r s . ago  Nondrinker; Heavy u n t i l 2% Y r s . Ago  Non-Ethnic I  Nil  Masked Dance  1. C o u n c i l l o r 2. C a t h o l i c Church 3. L e g i o n of Mary 4. Pioneers  1. C a t h o l i c Church 2. L e g i o n of Mary 3. Pioneers  Ethnic I 1. A.A. 2. C.W.L.  1. Homemakers 2. Nursery 3. Rec. Comm.  1. Rec. Comm. 2. C o u n c i l l o r 3. A.A. 4. Corpus Christi 1. R e c r e a t i o n Commission 2. Sports Clubs(P) 3. Corpus Christi  1. Tzinquaw 2. Corpus Christi 3. Rec. Comm. 4. A.A. 5. Thunderbird Youth Club(P) 6. Soccer Team(P1 1. C.W.L. 2. A,A.  1. Attended Dances (?) 1. Bone Games (Participant) 2. Dances (Spectator)  1. Bone Game (Participant) 2. Dances (Spectator  -  34-  TYPE IV Occupational P a t t e r n : A c t o r 23 s t a t e s t h a t h i s changing of jobs was l a r g e l y necess i t a t e d by h i s heavy d r i n k i n g , which f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t e d i n h i s being l a t e f o r work and subsequent " f i r i n g " . A c t o r 25 has worked f o r t h i r t e e n companies s i n c e  1949.  A c t o r 23 was " f o r c e d " to change jobs due to a prolonged i l l n e s s . A c t o r 27 worked, between 1954 and 1962, " a l l over the p l a c e " a t l o g g i n g and i n the b e r r y f i e l d s u n t i l he q u i t d r i n k i n g i n 1962. A t t i t u d e s towards n o n - e t h n i c s : A c t o r 25 s t a t e s t h a t he fe&s "uncomfortable" w i t h n o n - I n d i a n s . A c t o r s 21, 22 and 23 s t a t e that they f e e l uneasy i n the presence of strage non-Indians w h i l e one of t h e s e , actor 21 i s h o s t i l e towards non-Indians because she f e e l s that they are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the present "unhappy" c o n d i t i o n s on the r e s e r v e . A n o t h e r , a c t o r 22, expresses h o s t i l e sentiments towards n o n - I n d i a n s , even though she would l i k e to see complete a s s i m i l a t i o n , because of t h e i r " i n d i f f e r e n c e " and " c o l d n e s s " towards I n d i a n s . A l l s i x a c t o r s would l i k e to see greater s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e between I n d i a n s and n o n - I n d i a n s . A t t i t u d e s toward other e t h n i c s and e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s : While a c t o r 22 would l i k e to see complete a s s i m i l a t i o n to the non-Indian c u l t u r e , the other seven a c t o r s would l i k e to see I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s m a i n t a i n e d . L i k e the previous type, however, a l l e i g h t o b j e c t to the w i n t e r dances on the grounds that i t i n t e r f e r e s w i t h too many other endeavours. T h i s a t t i tude i s r e i n f o r c e d f o r s i a c t o r s ; namely 21,22, 23, 24, 27, and 28, who n e g a t i v e l y evaluate the dances because they are expressions of b e l i e f s which contravene C a t h o l i c dogma.  TABLE 6 Type V S t a t u s Set  29.  30.  31.  Sex  Aee  M  70  M  M  37  29  Education 4  4  11 + V  No. of Y r s . Married 50  14  10  Ho. of Children 6  3  6  Religion P  C  C  House Type 1  1  2  Current Occupatior  0 ccup a t i ona 1 Hist or y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  Retired  4  3  3  3  2  1  2  1  Carver  1 4  1  Hereditary Rights  Non-Ethnic  I  Masked Dance  Weekend  1. Basket Dance 2. Masked Dance 3. R a t t l e  Nondrinker During Winter; Heavy During Summer  1. B l a c k Face 2. R a t t l e  2  1  Forestry Nursery  Drinking Habits Nondrinker; Heavy up u n t i l 27 y r s . ago  Status Set Non-Ethnic I I 1. C h i e f (P) 2. C o u n c i l l o r ( P ) 3. M e t h o d i s t Church(P)  1. Judo Club(P) 2. O c c u l t Group(P)  1. 2. 3. 4.  Heavy 32.  M  19  7  -1  33.  M  49  9  —  1  C  2  Logger  1  P  2  Janitor  1  P  1  F  62  nil  (2 marriages)  1  1  1 1 6  Heavy  1. Basket Dance 2. B l a c k Face Nil  1. 1. Boy Scouts (P)  1. 2.  1  34.  1  Nondrinker  1. U n i t e d Church  Ethnic I 1. Shaker Church 2. Soccer team(P) 1. Corpus Christi 2. Rec. Comm.  Catholic Church L e g i o n of Mary (P) A l t a r Boy(P) Knights of Altar(P) Catholic Church Methodist Church Tuxis(P)  Ethnic II 1. Masked Dancer 2. Speaker 1. Dances (Sponsor & Observer) 2. Speaker ( T r a i n i n g ) 3. Shaman ( T r a i n i n g ) 4. Canoe Owner 5. Canoe P u l l e r 1. S p i r i t Dancer 2. Somenos Big House  1. S p i r i t Dancer 1. S p i r i t Dancer  1. Shaker  1. S p i r i t Dancer  - 36 -  TYPE V Occupational P a t t e r n s : A c t o r 29 s t a t e s that h i s frequent job changes are due l a r g e l y to a d e f i n i t e preference f o r seasonal employment. A c t o r 31 claims to carve f o r a l i v i n g . I n view of the f a c t however that he i s a q u a l i f i e d carpenter and i n view of comments made by h i s w i f e , I f e e l that c a r v i n g i s l a r g e l y an excuse f o r not working elsewhere. I n f a c t a c t o r 31 centers h i s l i f e almost exc l u s i v e l y around the w i n t e r dances. As p r e s i d e n t of one of the b i g house committees he enjoys c o n s i d e r a b l e s t a t u s i n the communi t y , but t h i s i s maintained at the cost of c o n s i d e r a b l e work w i t h l i t t l e i n the way of steady monetary remuneration. A c t o r 33 claims t h a t the job changes manifested i n h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l h i s t o r y aredue to the f a c t that he's not married and " l i k e s to t r a v e l around". I n a d d i t i o n a c t o r 33 has been f r e q u e n t l y unemployed due to s e r i o u s i l l n e s s e s . A t t i t u d e s towards n o n - e t h n i c s : None of the a c t o r s admit to any f e e l i n g s of h o s t i l i t y or f e e l i n g s of unease i n the presence of n o n - I n d i a n s . One woman, a c t o r 34, who, i t might be n o t e d , was p r e v i o u s l y married to a n o n - I n d i a n , would l i k e to see greater i n t e g r a t i o n between the I n d i a n and non-Indian communities. The f o u r men, a c t o r s 29, 31, 32, 33, a r e , however, apparently unconcerned w i t h non-Indians and n o n - I n d i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s as long as they do not impinge on I n d i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the w i n t e r dances. A t t i t u d e s towards other e t h n i c s and e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s : The four men are exceedingly s u s p i c i o u s of and h o s t i l e toward Indians who n e g a t i v e l y evaluate I n d i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s and p a r t i c u l a r l y the w i n t e r dances. While a l l f i v e a c t o r s would l i k e to see the standard of l i v i n g on the reserve improve, they are adamant i n t h e i r demand that I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s be maintained.  Status S e t s :  Total  Average Education 11  Poor Housing- "  Unsteady Occupational Patterns^  .75  .40  1  TABLE 7 A Summary of  Characteristics  Dr i n k i n g Habits Non. I n f . Week Heavy 1  1  0  3 IP  Perceived Threat  Positive Assimilation^  .60  .80  4  I  5  Gr.  II  6  Gr. 8  0  0  3  2  1  IP  0  .83  III  9  Gr. 9  .25  .25  4  2  3  2P  .22  .11  IV  8  Gr. 6  .25  .60  8  0  0  6P  .50  .13  V  6  Gr. 6  .50  .60  2  0  1  3 IP  0  0  two.  3  1.  By poor housing I mean housing which f a l l s i n t o category s o l e l y on the t o t a l homeowners i n each type.  Statistics,  of course, are based  2.  N o t a t i o n s are r e s t r i c t e d to cases of unsteady working p a t t e r n s , i s evidence that the cause i s e x t e r n a l to the sample.  3.  P = past.  4.  "Perceived t h r e a t " i n d i c a t e s those Indians who perceive non-Indians i n terms of  5.  " P o s i t i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n " i n d i c a t e s those Indians who would l i k e to see the complete a s s i m i l a t i o n of Indians to non-Indian s o c i e t y .  e x c l u s i v e of cases where  there  threat.  - $8 -  Type I c o n s i s t s status.  of a c t o r s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a complete l a c k of  Type I w h i l e e x h i b i t i n g the h i g h e s t r a t i n g f o r "average educa-  t i o n " i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the h i g h e s t r a t i n g w i t h regard to "poor housing" and " p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t " .  I n a d d i t i o n Type I ranks second w i t h  regard to " p o s i t i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n " and i s f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of heavy d r i n k e r s and "unsteady" workers.  TypeII c o n s i s t s  of a c t o r s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by predominant i n v o l v e -  ment i n non-ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n s of type 1.  I t i s outstanding i n that  i t has the highest r a t i n g — i n t h i s case one hundred per cent - - good h o u s i n g ; the h i g h e s t r a t i n g f o r steady employment, and the rating for "positive assimilation".  Type I I  highest  i s also characterized  a low consumption of a l c o h o l and by a zero r a t i n g f o r " p e r c e i v e d Type I I I  consists  threat".  of a c t o r s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by predominant  involvement i n non-ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n s of type 2 and e t h n i c of type 1.  by  institutions  I n a d d i t i o n the a c t o r s represented by t h i s type are or have  been members of a t l e a s t one non-ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n of type 1.  Type  III  marks the r a d i c a l change i n r a t i n g s f o r " p o s i t i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n " ; from .83 f o r types I and I I r e s p e c t i v e l y to .11 f o r type Type IV c o n s i s t s  III.  of a c t o r s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by predominant and,  i n t h i s case, e x c l u s i v e involvement i n non-ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n s of type 2 and ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n s of type 1.  Type IV shares two d i s t i n c t i o n s  w i t h type V , namely the lowest r a t i n g f o r "average education" and the h i g h e s t r a t i n g f o r "unsteady o c c u p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s " .  In addition,  - 39 -  type IV e x h i b i t s the second h i g h e s t r a t i n g f o r " p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t " and w h i l e a l l the a c t o r s who c o n s t i t u t e t h i s type are now n o n - d r i n k e r s i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that i n the past s i x of these were heavy d r i n kers. Type V c o n s i s t s of a c t o r s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by predominant i n volvement i n e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s of type 1 and 2.  Type V i n a d d i t i o n  to the d i s t i n c t i o n s a l r e a d y noted i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the second highest r a t i n g f o r "poor h o u s i n g " , a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h r a t i n g of heavy d r i n kers and zero r a t i n g s f o r " p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t " and " p o s i t i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n " .  - 40 -  CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS I n e v a l u a t i n g the f o r e g o i n g d a t a i t must be remembered that i t i s based on only t h i r t y - f o u r i n t e r v i e w s and consequently any c o n c l u sions must be regarded, at b e s t , as h i g h l y t e n t a t i v e . . On the b a s i s  of  the a v a i l a b l e d a t a , however, i t i s evident that my theory e x p l a i n i n g differential participation is false.  Contrary to the e x p e c t a t i o n i t  is  type I r a t h e r than V which manifests the h i g h e s t r a t i n g w i t h regard to "perceived t h r e a t " .  Moreover type IV e x h i b i t s a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h  r a t i n g w i t h regard to the same v a r i a b l e .  Consequently, i n order to  e x p l a i n t h i s phenomenon, new assumptions are  necessary.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that w i t h regard to type I  the  m a j o r i t y of actors who c o n s t i t u t e t h i s type would l i k e to see complete a s s i m i l a t i o n to the non-ethnic s o c i e t y .  In fact,  on the b a s i s of the  I n t e r v i e w s , I would say that they are o r i e n t e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y to the non-ethnic c u l t u r e .  Even the i n t e r e s t of the one man i n t h i s type  who would l i k e to see the language and a r t forms preserved i s , I l a r g e l y academic.  feel,  These same a c t o r s , however, have not acquired status  i n the non-ethnic s o c i e t y .  Consequently w h i l e I t h i n k they p o s i t i v e l y  evaluate the non-ethnic c u l t u r e they n e g a t i v e l y evaluate themselves  be-  cause they do not hold status i n the non-ethnic s o c i e t y even though they i n i t i a l l y a s p i r e d to do so.  I would f u r t h e r hypothesize that  these same actors t h i n k that because they n e g a t i v e l y evaluate or d e f i n e themselves as f a i l u r e s they w i l l be s i m i l a r l y evaluated by t h e i r  - 41 -  meaningful peers, namely n o n - e t h n i c s . defined i n terms -of t h r e a t .  Consequently, n o n - e t h n i c s are  Furthermore, I would i n t e r p r e t the  signifi-  c a n t l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n a t e r a t i n g of "poor h o u s i n g " , "unsteady occupat i o n a l p a t t e r n s " and "heavy d r i n k i n g " as a f u n c t i o n of the n e g a t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s of these a c t o r s . With regard to type I V , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that  until  two or three years ago f i v e of the a c t o r s who are now c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s type would have been c l a s s i f i e d as type 1 a c t o r s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l a c k of s t a t u s .  I n a d d i t i o n a l l f i v e of these a c t o r s were u n t i l  that time heavy d r i n k e r s and are now, i n f a c t , a l l members of A l c o h o l i c ' s Anonymous.  I n view of these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s I would e x p l a i n the  .50  r a t i n g f o r " p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t " u s i n g the same assumptions employed to e x p l a i n the .60 r a t i n g f o r type I a c t o r s .  The f a c t , however, that  these a c t o r s have r e c e n t l y acquired s t a t u s i n n o n - e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s of type 2 and e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s of type 1, leads one to hypothesize that these a c t o r s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y cease to n e g a t i v e l y evaluate nonethnics.  There i s an a d d i t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  Type IV a c t o r s a r e ,  on the whole, a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n band p o l i t i c s and c l u b s .  .  They share  w i t h type I I I a c t o r s the same intense d e s i r e to see "the l o t " of the I n d i a n improved.  Two of the type IV a c t o r s a r e , however, unique i n  that they hold the Whiteman - - the n o n - e t h n i c - - r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the I n d i a n ' s p l i g h t and consequently express a g e n e r a l i z e d h o s t i l i t y t o wards n o n - e t h n i c s .  This suggests to me that i n t h i s case the negative  e v a l u a t i o n of non-ethnics w i l l p e r s i s t because the a c t o r s concerned w i l l have found a new r a t i o n a l e to s u s t a i n i t .  - 42 -  The a\aLlable d a t a i n d i c a t e s a l s o that the second hypothesis i s a l s o f e l s e , namely t h a t : A c t o r s who p a r t i c i p a t e predominantly or e x c l u s i v e l y i n e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s manifest a h i s t o r y of f a i l u r e i n attempts to acquire status i n n o n - e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s . None of the actors i n category V gave any i n d i c a t i o n that they f a i l e d to acquire a p o s i t i v e l y evaluated s t a t u s which they attempted to a c q u i r e . I t would appear that a c t o r s who p a r t i c i p a t e predominantly i n I n d i a n e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s do so because they evaluate them more h i g h l y than non-ethnic i n s t i t u t i o n s . The r e s u l t s , however, I f e e l would have been d i f f e r e n t i f a means had been devised to e l i c i t the necessary i n f o r m a t i o n which took i n t o account the f a c t that people are not ready to admit f a i l u r e .  A  p o s s i b l e means of accomplishing t h i s would be to c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n concerning a s p i r a t i o n s h e l d at d i f f e r e n t periods i n the l i f e of a g i v en i n d i v i d u a l and comparing t h i s r e c o r d a g a i n s t the a c t u a l . Considerations f o r F u r t h e r Research With regard to f u r t h e r research concerning the problem of d i f f e r e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of etinics i n n o n - e t h n i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , i t might be u s e f u l to examine the assumptions which u n d e r l i e the concept of 'the search f o r s t a t u s . 1  Three general ones a r e :  1.  A l l a c t o r s s t r i v e to m a i n t a i n a p o s i t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n .  2.  The a c q u i s i t i o n and maintenance of p o s i t i v e l y evaluated statuses e l i c i t s a p o s i t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n .  3.  A c t o r s s t r i v e to acquire and m a i n t a i n p o s i t i v e l y evaluated statuses.  - 43 -  The key concepts are " p o s i t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n " and " p o s i t i v e l y evaluated s t a t u s e s " . I f more s o p h i s t i c a t e d research i s to be done i t i s  essential  to determine what f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e to the " p o s i t i v e " e v a l u a t i o n of a s t a t u s ; f o r example p r e s t i g e , a u t h o r i t y , e t c .  I t i s essential I think  because d i f f e r e n t types of s t a t u s could conceivably d i f f e r e n t i a l l y c o n t r i b u t e to the degree of " p o s i t i v e n e s s " . A t i g h t e r connection between " p o s i t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n " and " s t a t u s " could be p o s t u l a t e d i f the concept of s t a t u s were broadened to i n c l u d e membership i n i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s as w e l l as h i g h l y organi z e d i n s t i t u t i o n s , or the d e f i n i t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n were broadened so as to Include i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s .  Thus, a typology of statuses  might be devised and more of the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the problem of d i f f e r e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n could be accommodated.  For i n s t a n c e ,  conceivable that d i f f e r e n t I n d i v i d u a l s a l l m a i n t a i n " p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s " w h i l e u t i l i z i n g d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s of s t a t u s  it  is  self-  types.  A f i n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t the statement of the  initial  c o n d i t i o n , namely a " c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n " , f o r any theory d e a l i n g w i t h the problem of d i f f e r e n t i a l e t h n i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n In n o n - e t h n i c  society,  w i l l have greater u t i l i t y i n the sense of p r e d i c t i v e power i f i t  is  more r e f i n e d ; i n other words what i s needed i s an e x p l i c i t statement the s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the s i t u a t i o n .  of  - 44 -  Footnotes 1.  Lane, B . S . A Comparative and A n a l y t i c a l Study of Some Aspects of Northwest Coast R e l i g i o n . Unpublished D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1953. Robinson, S . A . S p i r i t Dancing Among the S a l i s h I n d i a n s , Vancouver I s l a n d , B r i t i s h , Columbia. Unpublished D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1963. S u t t l e s , W. S p i r i t Dancing and the P e r s i s t e n c e of N a t i v e C u l t u r e Among the Coast S a l i s h . Unpublished Paper read at the S i x t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and e t h n o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , P a r i s , 1960. Wike, J . A . Modern S p i r i t Dancing of N o r t h e r n Puget Sound. p u b l i s h e d manuscript, U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1941.  2.  A c t u a l l y the song and a dance, costume, painting.  3.  Lane, i b i d . , p.  25.  4.  Wike, i b i d . , p.  137.  5.  Robinson, i b i d . , p.  134.  6.  Robinson, i b i d . , p.  135.  7.  Robinson, i b i d . , p.  135.  8.  Robinson, i b i d . , p.  147.  9.  Wike, i b i d . , p. 5 .  Un-  and a p a t t e r n f o r face  10.  Wike, i b i d . , p.  138.  11.  Wike, i b i d . , p.  141.  12.  L e w i s , C . L . A Study of the Impact of Modern L i f e on a Canadian I n d i a n Band. Unpublished D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1959.  13.  L e w i s , i b i d . , p.  14.  S u t t l e s , W. "The P e r s i s t e n c e of I n t e r v i l l a g e Ties Among the Coast S a l i s h " . Ethnology, I I , No. 4, (1963), 512-525.  203.  - 45 -  16.  M a i i n o w s k i uses the concept of an "organized system of p u r p o s e f u l a c t i v i t i e s " i n M a l i n o w s k i , B. A S c i e n t i f i c Theory of C u l t u r e , Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1960, p. 52.  17.  Beattie, J .  18.  I use the term ' e t h n i c ' r a t h e r than I n d i a n i n the hope t h a t the a n a l y t i c d i s t i n c t i o n made here w i l l be of use i n d i s c u s s i o n s concerning any m i n o r i t y e t h n i c group.  19.  M e r t o n , R . K . S o c i a l Theory and S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , 1947, p. 370.  20.  No r a t i o n a l e was developed f o r t h i s  21.  F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the a b o r i g i n a l Coast S a l i s h see B a r n e t t , H . G . , The Coast S a l i s h of B r i t i s h Columbia. U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, Eugene, 1955. L e w i s , C . L . , A Study of the Impact of Modern L i f e on a Canadian I n d i a n Band. Unpublished D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1959. Robinson, S . A . S p i r i t Dancing Among the S a l i s h I n d i a n s , Vancouver I s l a n d , B r i t i s h Columbia. Unpublished D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C h i cago, 1963.  22.  Lewis, i b i d . , p.  23.  Robinson, i b i d . , p .  81.  24.  Barnett, i b i d . . , p.  156.  Other C u l t u r e s , B u l l and Tanner, London, 1964,  98.  p.  36.  The Free P r e s s ,  hypothesis.  - 46 -  Bibliography B a r n e t t , Homer G. The Coast S a l i s h of B r i t i s h Columbia. of Oregon, Eugene, 1955. B e a t t i e , John.  University  Other C u l t u r e s , B u l l and Tanner, London, 1964.  D u f f , W i l s o n , The Upper S t a l o I n d i a n s . Memoir 1: 1-136, 1952.  Anthropology i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  The Impact of the White Man, Anthropology i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Memoir 5 : 1-111, 1964. Hemple, C a r l G. "The L o g i c of F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s " i n Symposium on Soci o l o g i c a l Theory, ed. L . G r o s s , Row, Peterson and Company. White P l a i n s , New Y o r k , 1959. Lane, Barbara S. A Comparative and A n a l y t i c a l Study of Some Aspects of Northwest Coast R e l i g i o n . Unpublished D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1953. Lewis, Claudia L . I n d i a n Band. s i t y , 1959.  A Study of the Impact of Modern L i f e on a Canadian Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r -  Malinowski, Bronislow. A S c i e n t i f i c s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1960.  Theory of C u l t u r e , Oxford U n i v e r -  Merton, Robert K . S o c i a l Theory and S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , The Free P r e s s , Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , 1949. Robinson, Sarah A . S p i r i t Dancing Among the S a l i s h I n d i a n s , Vancouver I s l a n d , B r i t i s h Columbia. Unpublished D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1963. S u t t l e s , Wayne. " P r i v a t e Knowledge, M o r a l i t y , and S o c i a l Classes Among The Coast S a l i s h " . American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , LX (1958), 497-507. " A f f i n a l T i e s , S u b s i s t e n c e , and P r e s t i g e among the Coast S a l i s h " . American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , L X I I (1960), 296-305. S p i r i t Dancing and the P e r s i s t e n c e of N a t i v e C u l t u r e Among the Coast S a l i s h . Unpublished paper read a t the S i x t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and E t h n o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , P a r i s , 1960. "The P e r s i s t e n c e of I n t e r v i l l a g e T i e s Among the Coast S a l i s h " . Ethnology, I I , No. 4, (1963), 512-525.  - 47 -  Wike, Joyce A . Modern S p i r i t Dancing of Northern Puget Sound. l i s h e d manuscript, U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1941.  Unpub-  

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