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Dominion government policy on immigration and colonization Piggott, Eleanora 1950

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DOMINION GOVERNMENT POLICY ON IMMIGRATION AND COLONIZATION. 1867-1938.  by ELEANORA PIGGOTT. ' A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of The Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of HISTORY.  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia. September, 1950.  An abstract of the t h e 3 i s DOMINION POLICY on Immigration and Colonization. 1867-1939. This d i s s e r t a t i o n gives a b r i e f background of the development of Canada i n the period preceding  In t h i s i s included a short account of  Confederation.  the plans f o r acquiring]and  the a c q u i s i t i o n of the North-^est T e r r i t o r i e s .  Then follows an account of the development of dominion p o l i c y regarding  the  d i s p o s i t i o n of the Crown lands and the attempts to a t t r a c t s e t t l e r s to farm those lands. The building of the f i r s t transcontinental r a i l r o a d i s also b r i e f l y treated. Some attention i s given to the early settlements, both f o r eign and B r i t i s h , and the reasons f o r the f a i l u r e of much of the government e f f o r t i n that f i e l d . The study of the great priod of development i n the years following 1896,  the work of S i f t o n i n bringing about the expansion of  settlement, increasing immigration, b u i l d i n g additional r a i l r o a d s , stimulating the colonization companies, and the r e s u l t i n g increase i n a l l branches of industry, i s them made, i n more d e t a i l .  The decline of immigration as a  r e s u l t of depression and the disappearance of the free homestead i s then s studied, and f i n a l l y the e f f e c t of World War  I on immigration. The following  section treats of the post-war period and i t s c u r t a i l e d immigration and of the e f f o r t s of the governments to stimulate immigration through the B r i t i s h Empire Settlement Scheme, especially i n the application of t h i s scheme to Canada. This leads to a b r i e f discussion of the gradual ending of immigration as a result of the depression of 1930  and the passing of the r e s t r i c t i v e  acts that were enacted to l i m i t the entry of immigrants to those  considered  "desirable". The growth of industries besides a s the basic one of a g r i c u l t u r e is briefly  studied.  The Oriental section deals b r i e f l y with the coming of the Chinese, the growth of opposition to them, the struggle between,Ottawa and V i c t o r i a on the subject of the control of Chinese immigration. The immigration of the Japanese i s next considered, with comment on the difference of attitude on the part of the Dominion government toward the Chinesee, and the Japanese and the reasons f o r t h i s difference.. A b r i e f study i s made of the Indian problem and i t s special d i f f i c u l t y ;  because of the f a c t that these Sast Indians were B r i t i s h subjects.  Table of Contents. 1. Introduction 2. The Period a f t e r  Confederation  3. The Sifton Period. 4.  The Period between the Wars.  5. Oriental Immigration.  DOMINION POLICY .ON IMMIGRATION AND  SETTLEMENT IN CANADA AFTER 1867.  For some years preceding Confederation there was a growing anxiety i n the B r i t i s h North American provinces regarding t h e i r future p o l i t i c a l status. I t was only too well known that Americans had spoken seriously of  annexing^  the B r i t i s h provinces. I t was partly to avoid such an event that Canadians united i n 1867 with Nova Scotia and New  Brunswick to form the Dominion of  Canada. Within four years the boundaries of the new dominion had been moved westward to include the lands which now make up the provinces of B r i t i s h Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, as well as the Yukon and the present North-West T e r r i t o r i e s . From the point of view of land and other natural resources, Canada's future as a nation was assured i f the Govern-/ ment could adequately develop i t i n the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l f i e l d s . These two events, the formation of the Dominion and the subsequent a c q u i s i t i o n of a huge, f e r t i l e , almost empty,region presented a s i t u a t i o n that was at once a challenge and  [tunity to Canadian statesmen. The  challenge consisted i n the need f o r devising a policy that would supply, t h i s enormous new  t e r r i t o r y with a population that would develop i t s vast ,  a g r i c u l t u r a l resources and s t i l l keep i t Canadian. The opportunity lay i n the chance offered to create by wise statesmanship a great dominion, powerf u l , productive and above a l l , capable of self-government  on established  B r i t i s h p r i n c i p l e s . The response that was made to t h i s challenge and the p r a c t i c a l recognition of the opportunity presented i s the subject of t h i s • study.  The B r i t i s h North America Act of 1867 gave to the new dominion control over most phases of i t s immigration^ Although the p r o v i n c i a l governments had certain concurrent rights i n t h i s regard, the chief and. f i n a l powers were properly placed i n the hands of the Dominion Government, immigration being a matter of national importance. W.P.M.Kennedy says of this s i t u a t i o n : A province can l e g i s l a t e f o r purposes of encouraging immigrat i o n into i t ; but such l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l be i n v a l i d i n s o f a r as :L i t does not conform to the general immigration i a w s b f Canada. There are obvious reasons f o r t h i s . The Dominion alone can superv i s e and grant c i t i z e n s h i p . The right of entry into Canada of ; r ~ ; persons v o l u n t a r i l y seeking such entry i s obviously a purely national matter, a f f e c t i n g as i t does the r e l a t i o n of the Empire with foreign states.* :  e  Under the terms of the B r i t i s h North Ameria Act, the control of the natural resources of the four o r i g i n a l provinces of the Dominion was l e f t i n the hands of t h e i r respective l e g i s l a t u r e s , but when, i n 1869, Canada took over Rupert's Land, the Dominion assumed control of the natural resources there and the administration of t h i s vast t e r r i t o r y became one of the most important functions of the Canadian Government, involving as i t d i d an extensive programme of expansion through settlement and r a i l r o a d building. (1) Sec. VI. c l . 95. "In each Province the Legislature may make Laws i n r e l ation to Agriculture i n the Province and Immigration into the Province; and i t i s hereby declared that the Parliament of Canada may from Time to Time make Laws i n r e l a t i o n to Agriculture i n a l l or any of the Provinces; and any Law of the Legislature of a Province r e l a t i v e to Agriculture or to Immigration s h a l l have'^'effect i n and f o r the Province so long as and as f a r only as i t i s not repugnant to any Act of the Parliament of Canada. 30-31 Vict.0*^3. (2) W.P.M.Kennedy, Constitution of Canada.1555-1957. Toronto, Oxford University Press. p. 677 (3) Sec. VIII. c l . . 109. " A l l lands, Mines, Minerals and Royalties belonging to the several provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick a the Union, and a l l sums then due or payable f o r such Lands, Mines,oMinerals or Royalties, s h a l l belong to the several Provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick i n which-the same are situate or a r i s e , subject to any Trusts existing i n respect thereof, and to any Interest other than that of the Province i n the same." 30^31 V i c t . Ch. 3.  There were two main reasons why the Dominion Government should make a worthy e f f o r t to s e t t l e these lands. I t was early made c l e a r that i t would  i  be d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible, to hold the lands of the west i f they were / not settled, f o r American statesmen had f o r some years shown a desire t ^ ^jy*v absorb them i n t o the growing American empire. The Upper Canadian editor, George Brown, summed up the s i t u a t i o n neatly when he said, " I t i s a question of f i l l _ j j p — Qr^jjjiye^jap^l' A growing, producing population having Canadian allegiance was urgently needed to occupy the old huntingfiand of the f u r traders i f i t s destiny as a part of Canada was to be f u l f i l l e d . Moreover, the economic conditions of the older provinces made expansion necessary i f the Canadas were to hold the people they had. For years there had been a heavy loss of native Canadians and of immigrantsyrtio left; Canada to take advantage of the greater opportunity offered i n the v a r i e d i n d u s t r i e s of' :  the United States. Canadians sere also aware that the new lands being opened for settlement i n the American Middle West were a t t r a c t i n g many too could not make a l i v i n g under the e x i s t i n g economy on the land available f o r settlement i n Canada. The need f o r wider opportunity i n Canada was shown by the s t a t i s t i c s of emigration from Canada at that time. In 1850 i t was estimated that there were about 148,000 Canadian-born i n the United States, a number equal to 6.06 per cent of Canada's population at that time. Twenty years l a t e r , t h i s number had jumped to 493,464- or 13.38 per cent of the population?" These figures were enough to convince thoughtful Canadians that a vigorous p o l i c y of settlement i n the west must be an important part of future Dominion p o l i c y . Although the consequent " -'; concentration of Dominion immigration policy on the development of the west  (4) R.H.Coats and M.C.Maclean, The American-born i n Canada, ferento, Ryerson Press, 1943, p. 24.  4. called f o r t h perennial c r i t i c i s m from the easterners, who complained  that  they paid the b i l l f o r an expensive immigration policy and got no returns f o r t h e i r money, successive governments, whether L i b e r a l or Conservative, made the settlement &f the P r a i r i e Provinces the main consideration of the department which dealt with immigration and colonization. As there was no *real break i n method, i t i s desirable, before beginning the study of the immigration p o l i c y of the Dominion Government, to examine b r i e f l y the foundation on which t h i s policy was b u i l t , namely the early immigration into Canada, the settlements made there, the problems posed, the solutions attempted, up to_the year i n which the new Dominion was formed,. and i n which i t assumed control over.most of i t s i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s and began i t s great progeamme of expansion.  5. Man i s a restless creature and has always shown a tendency to move on toward the world's open spaces. The l a t e s t and probably the l a s t of'the great migrations with which history deals had i t s meagre beginnings i n the seventeenth century, when the western aations of Europe began to establish strategic positions i n the hitherto unknown Americas, and prepared to take possession of t h i s sparsely-populated land. From the small beginnings made at that time developed the greatest mass migration i n history.- In response to some mysterious inner urge, and stimulated by growing economic stress, a great stream of widely diverse humanity began to move westward and southward, spreading out fan-wise,until i t had provided a good part of the population of the Americas and the South P a c i f i c lands of Australia,New  Zealand  and South A f r i c a . I t . i s with the northern edge of that stream, the part which affected the regions which now make up Canada and the northern United States, that t h i s study deals. In the early days when national boundaries were f o r o f f i c i a l s to puzzle t h e i r heads over and f o r s e t t l e r s to ignore, these two regions often exchanged t h e i r residents with a casualness that i s the despair of the s t a t i s t i c i a n who would estimate the extent of t h e i r migrations. The early history of Canadian immigration and settlement, except f o r that of the Red River d i s t r i c t , deals with the growth of the eastern section of what i s now  Canada. The history of t h i s period f a l l s into two parts, the  periods of French and of B r i t i s h domination. The French period began with the settlements made by Champlain at Quebec and by de Monts i n Acadia. These -were r e a l l y establishments f o r trade rather than f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l settlement. Their progress was slow because France, fearing to depopulate the homeland, could spare few people of the kind that would be useful i n a new country. Influences i n New France were hardly more propitious to colonization. The demands of the fur-trade and the wars with the Indians took from the t i n y v i l l a g e s many of t h e i r most vigorous members.  - b. Moreover, two powerful monopolies, the fur-trading companies and the Jesuit missionaries, were opposed to settlement. The fur-traders naturally consider© ered the increase of farming as i n i m i c a l to t h e i r industry, the staple of Canadian economy i n the seventeenth century; the Jesuits feared the bad . moral influence that s e t t l e r s might have on the Indians theypriests were hoping to c h r i s t i a n i z e . Yet, despite these l i m i t i n g forces and the' natural reluctance of most people to leave f a m i l i a r surroundings f o r unknown lands, some eight thousand s e t t l e r s came from France i n the early days of French occupation. As the birth-rate was high, the population of New  France had  grown to about s i s t y - f i v e thousand souls by the time of the Treaty of Paris in  1763. Although.the  Treaty of P a r i s formally introduced the B r i t i s h regime,  about twenty-five years passed  before there was much change i n the colony  of New France. In t h i s period, i t i s true, some two or three thousand .settl e r s entered from the south, a number of them f i l l i n g the places of the leading French merchants who had l e f t Canada a f t e r the cession of New  France  to England. Some of these immigrants established the great commercial houses of Montreal and Quebec, others were mercha/ts or inn-keepers on a more modest scaleJ but whatever t h e i r standing, they, were absorbed into the l i f e of  New  France and d i d l i t t l e to change the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c culture of the land they had entered. Owing to i t s strategic position on the A t l a n t i c seaboard, Nova Scotia  (5) George Bryce, A short history of the Canadian people, London, Sampson, Low and Marston, Ltd., 1914, p. 148. (6) Canada Year Book,1940,p.72, gives 69,810 i n 1765 with 10,000 i n jjhe present day Maritimes. (7) M.L.Hansen and J.B.Brebner, .Mingling of the Canadian and American People. New Haven, IfoJwawi University Press, 1941, p.42  7  gootiia had a more chequered career than that of New France. Founded by the French at about the same time as New France, i t remained i n French hands only u n t i l 1713^when i t was ceded to B r i t a i n . As a B r i t i s h possession, i t r e c e i ved a small but important i n f l u x of New Englanders, who, by bringing-new l i f e to the f i s h i n g and farming industries, contributed much to the advancement of the province. After the expulsion of the. Acadians, the descendants of the o r i g i n a l French s e t t l e r s i n 1753, the English-speaking s e t t l e r s were i n the majority. By 1776, the year of the American Revolution, Nova Scotia had eighteen thousand inhabitants, c h i e f l y New Englanders, with small groups 9  of B r i t i s h , Acadian, Swiss and German s e t t l e r s . The year 1776" was of great importance i n the history of Canada, f o r i n that year there came the L o y a l i s t immigration  which founded the B r i t i s h  system of government i n the new polony, and established English as the national language i n a l l Canada except Quebec. The L o y a l i s t s , f l e e i n g the effects of the American Revolution, followed the natural routes to Canada and Nova Scotia. The larger group, about t h i r t y thousand i n number, took the established l i n e of the coastal vessels from Boston, and New York to f i n d refuge i n Nova Scotia. So great was t h e i r numberththat,  on t h e i r p e t i t i o n ,  the B r i t i s h Government i n 1783 created the province of New Brunswick to afford them the necessary lands . The smaller groups of perhaps s i x thousandfollowed the route overland along the Hudson River and Lake Champlain  into  the Eastern Townships where they hoped to s e t t l e . Governor Haldimand, wishing to reserve these lands f o r the expansion of the French, persuaded the newcomers to move up the St. Lawrence to Frontenac's old outpost, Cataraqui.  (8) W.S.Wallace, United Empire L o y a l i s t s . Toronto, Glasgow, Brook and Co., 1914. p. 63. (9) D.G.Creighton, Dominion of the North. Boston, Houghton, M i f f l i n and Co,, 1944. pp. 171-172.  8. Renamed Kingston, t h i s outpost became the d i s t r i b u t i n g centre f o r the L o y a l i s t s . The land set aside f o r these-people was formed into.the province of Upper Canada i n 1791. With the exception of small groups of Mennonites and other Germans who had come i n with the L o y a l i s t s , t h i s population was British in origin. After the L o y a l i s t s came the"late"  Loyalists and these, i n turn, were  followed by a steady stream of other American s e t t l e r s . These l a t t e r had no love of B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s , but were attracted c h i e f l y by the free grants of land that were obtainable i n Canada u n t i l 1826. Of these groups of immigrants^ Hansen wrote^I"If t h e i r special hardships and unusual fortitude be forgotten, the L o y a l i s t s were just another group of American pioneers, engaged i n the business of i n h e r i t i n g the earth. When t h e i r t e p i c was  finished  every strategic point was i n the possession of the European, and the conquest to  of the Interior could begin'.' Many whoshad entered, to better, t h e i r condition were disappointed and returned to the United States, but the majority stayed to make t h e i r own, c u l t u r a l impress on the new land. In 1812, when war stopped t h i s type of immigration, there were about eighty thousand people.in Upper Canada, many of them Americans, who,  as  Hansen said,"Changed their, allegiance, with apparent unconcernV Later, other Americans were allowed by Haldimand's successors to take up land i n the Eastern Townships, a region which the French-Canadians  hadtregardedxasktheir  heritage. The i l l - f e e l i n g that arose as a r e s u l t of t h i s invasions of t h e i r "rights" produced i n the French-Canadians  an antagonism to immigration and  to a l l that went with i t s . From the American Revolution to the end of the Napoleonic Wars, several -ilaidv'.-a Ststtieisents w^e.  sad  1  (10) M.L.Hansen, The Immigrant, i n Amprican h i s t o r y . New Haven, HarvardYqfa ( University Press. 194 5 p. 179.  (11)  Ibid, p. 1 8 1 . ^  * .9. . planned settlements were made i n Canada. They are worthy of note because, although small i n themselves, they became the n u c l e i of l a t e r colonies, and afforded experience f o r future c o l o n i z e r s .  The chief of these were the  early Scottish settlements established by impoverished clansmen near Pictou, Nova Scotia and at R i v i l r e au R a i s i n i n Lower Canada. About twelve  thousand  ' of these Highlandders, forced and often smuggled out of Scotland, found  new  homes i n Canada during the; years 178>18Q3. Realizing the hopeless d i s t r e s s of some of the Scots i n his d i s t r i c t , Lord Selkirk secured the emigration of about eight hundred- to Prince Edward Island i n 1803. His experiment i n colonization was a f a i l u r e , but i n 1812 he t r i e d again. Buying an interest i n the Hudson's Bay Company, he secured permission to e s t a b l i s h a small colony of Scots i n the Red River Valley. Each year a few more were added to the number of those who  stayed?  and,  a f t e r enduring many hardships, these s e t t l e r s prospered. In 1809, Colonel Thomas Talbot began an.amazing experiment at h i s 'capital", St. Thomas, on Lake E r i e . He sought s e t t l e r s from the B r i t i s h Isles and the A t l a n t i c seaboard, and established them on h i s grant of twenty-eight townships. About f i f t y , thousand were attracted to t h i s enterp r i s e . The net r e s u l t of a l l the<« a c t i v i t i e s gave Canada a population of  n h a l f a m i l l i o n i n 1812. The Napoleonic Wars slowed Canadian progress f o r they interrupted emigration from Europe. After the War of 1812-14 i n America there was some natural hesitation before American immigration into Canada was  encouraged.  These Wars, however, had shown to B r i t a i n the rather unexpected  l o y a l t y of.  the northern colonies, and B r i t i s h interest i n colonies, which had flagged (12) Helen Cowan, B r i t i s h immigration to B r i t i s h North America. Toronto, University of Toronto Press. / W / p. 21. (13) Canada Year Book, 1940, p. 72  10. a f t e r the-American Revolution, was now  revived. Vflien the wars were over, and  i t became evident that there was a surplus population i n B r i a t i n , i t was natural that emigrants should be directed toward Canada, where already many people had f r i e n d s . These new  immigrants f i l l e d up the country behind lake-  shore or r i v e r , and as a r e s u l t the population rose. In 1840,  Upper Canada  had a population of 432,159; Lower Canada had nearly 700,000 i n 1844; Brunswick had 152,162 .in 1840; s  Nova Scotia,, 202,575 i n 1838;  New  and Prince  It Edward Island, 47,040 i n 1841. In numbers t h i s immigration  was g r a t i f y i n g , but i n q u a l i t y there  often much to be desired. The immigration  was  was f o r the most part unorganized,  and too often the newcomers had l i t t l e knowledge of the land they were seeking, and many had l i t t l e a b i l i t y or desire to adapt themselves to the l i f e there. As many were paupers, or at least poor, they took advantage of the cheap transport available on the lumber vessels returning to American ports. "Packed into wretched lumber vessels, miserably f i t t e d up f o r that purpose ^emigration] tending more to spread dtsease and mortality among the passengers than f o r their, comfort", they often arrived i n such a deplorable condition that even the most charitable Canadian could not approve t h e i r entry. Lord Durham reported of them in**1858:"The labourers whom the emigrat i o n introduced contained a number of very ignorant, turbulent or persons, whose conduct and manners a l i k e revolted the well-ordered  demoralized and  n courteous natives, of the same classJL* Their poor moral character was not the only drawback of these newcomers; even more dangerous and unwelcome were the (14) Canada Year Book. 1940, p. 72. (15) H.A.Innis and A.R.M.Lower, Select Documents i n Canadian History.Toronto. University of Toronto Press, 1989-33. p. 114, (16) C.P.Lucas, Lord Durham's Report. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1912, ;  V o l . ^ I. p. 57.  11. epidemics of disease that they introduced into Canada and c a r r i e d to the farthest settlements. These were not the people that Canada Wanted; they had neither the character nor the vigour that pioneer l i f e demanded. Through the coming of such people,Canadians were brought to r e a l i z e the need f o r control over t h e i r own immigration p o l i c y i n order that they might make a careful selection of those who  sought homes i n Canada.  Fortunately, i n general., these paupers, although the most noticeable, were only a small part or" the new comers. The bulk o£ immigration was  self-  s u f f i c i e n t , t r a v e l l i n g on t h e i r own or under the care of some organizer, and were spared some of the sufferings endured by the very poor who  settle in  a strange land. The B r i t i s h Government was very reluctant to give any f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t ance to the emigration of i t s surplus population. It was influenced i n i t s policy by the Benthamite theory that there was no value i n the removal of surplus population because the space would soon be f i l l e d , and that to remove enough to do any good would be too c o s t l y . Moreover, a f t e r the disillusionment suffered through the r e v o l t of the American Colonies, B r i t a i n had shown l i t t l e interest i n colonies, and saw no reason to tax the general public f o r the removal of their countrymen^ who,  once away, would  be l o s t to B r i t i s h influence. There was, however, a s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n on t h i s l a i s s e r - f a i r e p o l i c y . From 1822 for  to 1828, B r i t a i n had as  Under-Secretary  the Colonies an enthusiastic young i m p e r i a l i s t , R.J.Wilmot-Horton, whose  unquenchable ambition was to remove the surplus population of B r i t a i n to Canada under properly, organized schemes. His ideas of settlement were strongly opposed by the members of the Wakefield school of Colonial Reformers and he was unable to accomplish much, but i t was as a r e s u l t of h i s e f f o r t s that two settlements of I r i s h , financed by the B r i t i s h Government and guided by Peter Robinson, were made i n 1821 and 1823 at Rice Lake i n Upper  12. Canada and provided r e l i e f f o r some two thousand of those whom the UnderSecretary had "wished to help. These settlements were successful as f a r as they went, but they d i d not do much to a l l e v i a t e the main trouble. After h i s removal to Ceylon, Wilmot-Horton nad the s a t i s f a c t i o n of seeing some of h i s ideas used i n the Poor Law of 1832, under which many assisted emigrants were sent to the Canadas under various schemes, some of which, notably the Petworth settlement, were wisely planned. Several m i l i t a r y groups were established at t h i s time near the Rideau River, close to the o l d Scottish settlements,and attained a good measure of prosperity. Less successful were the grandiose experiments made i n the same period by Alexander McNab and Donald Cameron. James Buchanan, Canadian consul i n New York, was able to d i r e c t to Canada about four thousancf ^immigrants who had arrived i n New York with no d e f i n i t e destination in. mind. Knowing the requirements of h i s country, he was able to choose well, and h i s s e t t l e r s were suited -to Canadian l i f e . Although these e f f o r t s were i n t e r e s t i n g as experiments, they were neither big enough nor successful enough to provide Canada with the immigrants needed for. her development; nolJ could they e f f e c t i v e l y r e l i e v e the d i s t r e s s i n B r i t a i n . Several land companies, were formed to a s s i s t i n t h i s work of settlement. The most important was the Canada Land Company, i n c o r porated i n 1825 under the vigorous leadership of John G a i t . By means of advertising, t h i s company stimulated immigration to Canada. Although some of the immigrants were assisted, the company appealed c h i e f l y to s e t t l e r s with means. The growth of the towns of Goderich, Gait and Guelph i s a t r i b u t e to the e f f i c i e n c y of t h i s  c o n c e r n .  By 1833 i t had sold 450,000 acres.  (17) Cowan, o p . c i t . p. 125. (18) M.Q.Innis, Economic History of Canada. Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1935, p. 137.  13. The second concern, the B r i t i s h America Land Company, established under A.T.Galt at about the same time, concentrated i t s e f f o r t s on the settlement of the Eastern Townships. I t s success there was l i m i t e d by the  understand-  able antagonism of the French-Canadians and by the a t t r a c t i v e o f f e r s of land extended to s e t t l e r s who would go to the:/United States.. A t h i r d company,the New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Land Company worked with seme success i n New  Brunswick. The Rebellion of 1857 interrupted t h i s work of promoting immigration,  not only by h a l t i n g the coming of.immigrants, but also by causing a considerable emigration of "beaten and angry farmers by the thousand" from Canada to the Middle West of the United States, where a generous land p o l i c y attracted both native and immigrant Canadians. This draining away of her people was a l o s s from which Canada has never f u l l y recovered. The Rebellion of 1837 brought Lord Durham to the Canadas.lt was as a r e s u l t of hie observations which he made i n Canada, and of the teachings of h i s friends , Gibbon Wakefield, Charles Buller,M.P., and other Colonial Reformers,"who alone stood f o r a p o s i t i v e f a i t h i n Empire i n the midst of a general disillusionment',' that a change of attitude could be noticed i n public opinion regarding immigration. The Colonial Reformers urged that a systematic settlement of the Crown lands of the provinces be made under government supervision, and Lord Durham hoped to accomplish such work i n Canada. Unfortunately so much of the Crown lands of the Canadas had been alienated or set aside as Clergy or other reserves, that the plans of the Colonial Reformers could not have f u l l scope i n Canada, but some of t h e i r s p i r i t permeated the government departments, and although, f o r reasons already mentioned, the B r i t i s h Government refused to undertake any l a r g e * scale plan of emigration, i t encouraged the work of others i n pa'ssingthe shipping laws to make the ocean crossing l e s s of a menace to the health of  14. emigrant and Canadian a l i k e . The plans f o r bettering the conditions of t r a v e l came too l a t e to avert the effects of the I r i s h famine. Before the plans proposed by Lord Durham f o r the control of immigration could be adopted, the need f o r such regulation was brought t r a g i c a l l y before the people on both sides of the A t l a n t i c . Canadians had complained about the q u a l i t y of some of the people who were thrown upon her shores^ without the means or the d i s p o s i t i o n to make themselves u s e f u l ; but somehow they had been taken care of, although often with d i f f i c u l t y or with t r a g i c consequences to the residents. In 1847, however, about a hundred thousand persons, many of them victims of.. the I r i s h famine, entered Canada. Diseased and poverty-stricken, these people were a burden too great f o r Canada's welfare services to bear, and Canadians began to demand more control over the quality of those persons allowed- to pass through her gates. The report of the Governor-General, Lord Elgin,to the Colonial Secretary, Lord Grey, i n October of"1847, gives some hint of Canadian reaction to t h i s immigration which,he so aptly terms a " v i s i t a t i o n " . He wrote: I am compelled to make a considerable reduction from the favourable character of t h i s report, on account of the d i s tress and suffering which has been occasioned to the province by the immigration of the present year...The subject has been forced on myaattention at every point i n my progress, that I found a d i s p o s i t i o n , even among the most l o y a l of Her Majesty's subjects, to contrast the v i s i t a t i o n to which Canada as a colony has been subjected with the comparative immunity enjoyed by the neighbouring states, who are able to take measures to defend themselves. 19 Fortunately, subsequent immigrants adopted a f t e r 1848  improved  i n q u a l i t y . S t r i c t e r rules  reduced t h e i r number. Under the new regulations of the  Merchant Shipping Act, the number of passengers c a r r i e d was l i m i t e d to the accommodation of the shipj greater cleanliness was assured; and food and  (19) B r i t i s h Parliamentary Papers, 1847. V o l . 33, p.131. See also the GreyE l g i n Corre spondence.,Public Archives of Canada, V o l i 111. pp. .  15. water -were more s t r i c t l y supervised. The r e s u l t was a great improvement i n the health of the passengers. The improved transportation was rather more c o s t l y , and people of better class were encouraged to emigrate. An agent noted t h i s improvement:"Our s e t t l e r s t h i s year are generally people of c a p i t a l who have emigrated to Canada to j o i n friends'J On the Canadian side improved quarantine stations helped prevent the spread of disease. As time passed the s o c i a l adjustments  attending the I n d u s t r i a l and A g r i c u l t u r a l  Revolutions i n B r i t a i n were made with l e s s d i f f i c u l t y and no more ordeals such as the I r i s h famine came to t&ste the s o c i a l resources of Canada. In general?? the export of c a p i t a l that accompanies mormal emigration was s u f f i c i e n t to provide employment i n various industries u n t i l the new  immig-  rant had established himself. There was then l i t t l e further cause f o r com-? p l a i n t from Canadians about the quality- of s e t t l e r s coming to t h e i r shores. The immigration resulting form the I r i s h famine stimulated Canadians to greater e f f o r t i n obtaining responsible government and consequent control of t h e i r immigration p o l i c y . Some preparations to t h i s end had already been made. In addition to appointing the usual o f f i c i a l s f o r the admittance  of  t r a v e l l e r s at the points of entry, the government of Lower Canada i n 1828 appointed A.C.Buchanan as emigration agent at Quebec. He was an interested student of immigration and did good work. In 1831,  A.B.Hawke was  appointed  to a similar p o s i t i o n i n Upper Canada. The growing organization was  suit-  ably placed under the Department of Agriculture where i t remained u n t i l 1896. Agents were soon sent to positions overseas to d i r e c t emigrants to Canada: Drc,Thomas Rolfe i n 1842, 1863  A.B.Hawke i n 1859 and A.C.Buchanan i n  were sent to Britain.and at about the same time William Wagner,to ?  Germany, and other agents to Norway, France and Switzerland. These agents  (2$ Innis and Lo7»'er, o p . c i t . p. 117.  16. were provided with propaganda l e a f l e t s , such as "Canada? printed i n English, German, French and Norwegian, and Mrs. Traill's"Female Emigrant Guide',' f o r the purpose of attracting-emigrants. Indeed,most of the features of immigration policy which were to.be so important l a t e r had t h e i r beginnings i n t h i s period: the attempt to a t t r a c t s e t t l e r s ; the need f o r a firm control i n selecting desirable immigrants;  the -chartering of land companies;  attempts by the government to make group settlements; a system of placing s e t t l e r s ; and l a s t but not l e a s t , the need f o r defining the word "desirable" as i t was applied to future c i t i z e n s of Canada. After Confederation, when the great lands of the west were added to Canada, the Dominion Government organized i t s plans f o r developing those lands on the fpundationshalready laid. The hope of westward expansion had f i l l e d the minds of thoughtful Canadians f o r some years before i t was r e a l i z e d . This hope was b u i l t on a natural desire f o r t e r r i t o r i a l expansi£ftj-but even more on t h e r e a l i z a t i o n 0  that through lack of available farm lands i n Canada, many Canadians, were _  3 1  leaving f o r the f e r t i l e ; p l a i n s of the American Middle west. Canada had no lands corresponding to these i n v i t i n g stretches of f e r t i l e s o i l . Instead the Canadian Shield extendecL.to the American border. Clothed i n deep f o r e s t s , these rocky lands hid great wealth i n minerals, but they had  little  a t t r a c t i o n f o r the s e t t l e r of that time. Beyond t h i s stretch of wilderness, f i v e hundred miles west of Fort.William, lay another land of immense wealth,  w  >  1851 1861 1871  A l l Canadians 2,124,008 2,796,954 3,591,946  (21) L.E.Truesdell.Canadian-born  In Canada 1,976,297 2,546,984 3,096,682  In the United States. Incr© 147,711 249,970 69.2% 493,464 97.4%  XII  i n the United States.Tofronto, Ryersj?n,1943  17. the almost l i m i t l e s s p r a i r i e s held, along with much of the intervening wilderness, by the Hudson's Bay Company as i t s trapping lands. Like the early French fur-trading companies,. t h i s company had been c a r e f u l not to advertise the merits of i t s r o l l i n g lands. Only the i s o l a t e d Red River settlement had been allowed to attempt farming there. Although f a i r l y prosperous as f a r as i t went, t h i s colony had been stunted through lack of markets and had never offered a challenge to the supremacy of the fur-trade.or served as a stimulus f o r - f u r t h e r growth. Few people had therefore considered the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s of these distant lands. Despite t h e i r remoteness, however, i t was only a matter of time before someone should question the monopoly of the Hudson's Bay Company i n the West. Two  causes hastened  t h i s time of questioning} one was the increasing  dis-  favour i n which monopolies were regarded i n the nineteenth century; the ot other and more urgent cause was the westward advance of American settlement south of the border. I t required only ordinary acumen f o r a Canadian to say* " I f American lands are f e r t i l e , why not those of the north?" In the 1850's Canadians r e a l i z e d uneasily that when the Americans had f i l l e d t h e i r  own  lands, they might overflow, unopposed, into the B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r i e s . With the case of Oregon before them, Canadian statesmen were understandably anxious.about  the future ownership of'the western lands. Theories that the  lands were barren wastes, u n f i t f o r habitation by humans, were- shaken by the reports of Robert Baldwin Su;llivan,ia write'rrintthe^T'OjFOiito Globe, and of Alexander I s b i s t e r , a half-breed teacher and lawyer, a graduate of an English u n i v e r s i t y . I s b i s t e r presented to Lord Grey a p e t i t i o n from h i s people that the land -should be taken over by the B r i t i s h Government. Both he and Sullivan gave evidence that the land was 1847  suitable f o r settlement. In  Sullivan wrote i n the Globe that Americans would occupy and become  masters of the B r i t i s h western t e r r i t o r y and outflank Canada unless steps  • 18. were taken to prevent them. From then on, George Brown, e d i t o r of the Globe. used h i s eloquence to spread the idea that Canada should annex the t e r r i t o r y held by the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1852 he wrote: It i s a remarkable circumstance that so l i t t l e attention has been- paid i n Canada to the immense t r a c t of country l y i n g to the north of our boundary l i n e and known as the Hudson's Bay lands. There can be no question that the injurious and demoralizing sway of that Company over a region of four m i l l i o n square miles w i l l , ere long, be brought to an end and that the d e s t i n i e s of t h i s immense country w i l l be united with our own. I t i s unpardonable that c i v i l i z a t i o n should be excluded from h a l f a continent, on at best but a doubtful right of ownership, f o r the benefit of two hundred and thirty-two shareholders .** In 1856 the Toronto-Board of Trade passed a resolution asking the l e g i s lature t o ascertainjtne r i g h t s of the Hudson's Bay Company over the lands of the west. A few days l a t e r the Globe published a b r i l l i a n t  editorial  which said i n part that the time had come to act, and that henceforth a vigorous campaign would be carried on toward the opening of the t e r r i t o r y to settlement and the establishing of communication with Canada. "This year," said the editorial,"has. only seen the b i r t h of t h i s movement. Let us hope ti that 1857 w i l l see i t crowned with success .' The government of Canada then 1  sent to Downing Street a dispatch i n which i t stated: "Canada looks forward with interest to the day when the Valley of the Saskatchewan w i l l become the back country of Canada, the land of hope f o r the hardy youth of the provinces when they seek new homes i n the forest...when Canada w i l l become the highway of immigration from Europe to those f e r t i l e valleyS.Thus, i n restrained d i p lomatic language was expressed the hope of most thoughtful Canadians. Canadians,however, hopes. John A/Macdonald  were not content with a mere statement of t h e i r and George C a r t i e r went to London to press f o r the  (22) John Lewis, George Brown, Makers of Canada Series, Toronto, Morang and Company, Vol.19, p. 213. >9/D (23) log.^ c i t . (24) D.t.Mackay, The honourable company. Toronto. Musson, 1938,p. 280  C^~" " r~*^—\  N O R T H  \  -  '  -  ^ }" y  \  W- C^  T  O  R  V,  1  - 19. cession of the western lands. They emphasized two f a c t s : the inevitable union of the B r i t i s h North American provinces and the inadequacy of the Hudson's Bay Company t o deal with the spread of Americans from' the western states into the Hudson's Bay lands. Knowing that there had been considerable talk by Americans of t h e i r intentions of annexing the lands, Macdonald used a l l his powers to impress upon the B r i t i s h Government the urgency of allowing Canada to f o r e s t a l l her southern  neighbour.  In response to these representations made by Canada at Downing Street,, the B r i t i s h Government appointed i n 1857 a„Select Committee to enquire the future d i s p o s i t i o n  into  of Rupert's Land, the land that had been held by the  Hudson's Bay Company under i t s charter. Pending the r e s u l t s of the enquiry and the making of a complete survey of the lands, the B r i t i s h Government d i d not renew the licence f o r the fur-trade when i t expired i n 1857.  Instead,  Captain John P a l l i s e r was sent to Canada to make a complete survey of the western lands and report on the s u i t a b i l i t y  of the country f o r settlement.  For about three years, Palliser&and h i s botanist, Dr. Hector, studied the lands l y i n g between  49 and 50 N. and between 100 and 115 W. and  examined the approaches of the Rockies f o r a pass through which a r a i l r o a d could be b u i l t . In h i s report, P a l l i s e r describes three p r a i r i e l e v e l s or steppes, and d i v i d e s the country into two a g r i c u l t u r a l regions, a f e r t i l e b e l t , and a semi-arid plain , P a l l i s e r ' s Triangle, occupying the southwestern corner of what i s now Saskatchewan. This l a t t e r area, because of i t s a r i d i t y and i t s lack of timber, P a l l i s e r regarded as u n f i l f o r settlement. The region northward to the edge of the forest b e l t , he considered as f i t f o r farming and recommended i t f o r c a t t l e - r a i s i n g and f o r the growth of such crops as f l a x , hemp and hsips. Because of the short growing-season and the prevalence of f r o s t , he considered wheat-growing impracticable. He recommended the construction of a railway t o open these lands, but did not  20. advise that the road should necessarily be an all-Canadian  one?*  While P a l l l s e r was surveying f o r the B r i t i s h Government, H.Y.Hind,. the Canadian geologist, and S.J.Dawson, an engineer, were sent out by the Canadian Government to make independent  surveys. Hind's report, though d i f f e r i n g  in"many respects from P a l l i s e r ' s , agreed with i t on the main p r i n c i p l e ; that a vast land of great though varying f e r t i l i t y l a y beyond the Great Lakes. Dawson reported favourably on the Valley of the Souris River and the country beteen the Lakes and the Manitoba escarpment. For immediate transportation into the country he recommended the construction of a route from Upper Canada into the west. This route l a t e r came into being as the Dawson Road and made up of three hundred and sixty-seven miles of navigable water and  was one  hundred and thirty-one miles of road, the f i r s t all-Canadian route into the prairxes. Meanwhile in. London the members of the Select Committee of 1857  heard  many diverse reports. The Hudson's Bay Company officials,.-notably, the governor, Sir. George Simpson, i n , a l l good, f a i t h declared that they believed the settlement <Sf the p r a i r i e s to be impracticable. Within the l i m i t s of t h e i r experience, agriculture had not been r e a l l y successful, as the uncertainty of the crops i n the Red River settlement had often shown. Indeed, one of|bhe great tasks of government l a t e r was to help the farmer to overcome the natu r a l drawbacks of the country so that reasonable'success i n farming could be assured. Before the Select Committee i n London, the Hudson's Bay reports were countered, however, by weighty arguments matters of imperial p o l i c y T  and the conclusion reached was that the monopoly of the Company of Gentle-  (25)Report of Capt.Palliser to the B r i t i s h Houses of Parliament. Loncfin, G.E.Eyre and Spottiswoode, for' Her Majesty's Stationery Office,May 19,18« (26) IftAiI§ekfetosh, P r a i r i e settlement: the geographical s e t t i n g . Toronto, Macmillan Company of Canada,Ltd., 1954, p. 36.  21. men  Adventurers had had i t s day. The Committee therefore recommended that:  "The d i s t r i c t on the Red River and the Saskatchewan should be ceded to Canada on equitable p r i n c i p l e s , and that, within the d i s t r i c t thus annexed X7  to Canada, the authority of the Hudson's Bay Company should e n t i r e l y cease'.' The way was thus opened f o r the annexation actual transfer had to wait u n t i l a f t e r  of the lands by Canada, but the  Confederation.  In considering the progress of this period Canadian statesmen realized that a change was necessary f o r the e f f o r t s of the B r i t i s h North American provinces had largely f a i l e d . Although immigrants by the thousand had thronged the eastern ports, only one out of three had remained, the more enterprising ones having too often crossed to the United State's. The offers of the free land grants and the opportunities i n varied i n d u s t r i e s have been noted as a cause of this emigration from Canada, but there were l o c a l conditions which also contributed to the l o s s of people to the United States. "A l o c a l depression i n 1857 marked the beginning of a period of heavy emigr a t i o n and the rate of population expansion was greatly retarded during four decades,owing to the adverse economic conditions of the American C i v i l  War,  the abrogation of the Reciprocity Treaty and the world-wide depression  foll-  owing 1871'.' In addition there were l o c a l conditions within each province whida added to the economic d i s t r e s s , and encouraged people to emigrate. So great was the s h i f t i n population that i t was  estimated that there were eight  hun-  (27) Chester Martin, Dominion Lands Policy,.Toronto, Macmillan,1938,p.216. (28) "The termination of the Reciprocity Treaty dealt a heavy blow to American-Canadian trade, which f e l l from $60,500,000 i n 1865 to $50,200,000 i n 1867, and then to $48,900,000 i n 1868; and this i n spite of the tremendous expansion then going on throughout the continent'.' H.L.Keenleyside. Canada and the United States, New York, Knopf,1939,pp.300-1. (29) H.F.Angus. Canada and the Doctrine of Peaceful Penetration. Toronto, Canadian I n s t i t u t e of International Ai'fairs, 1937, pp. 57-8.  dred thousand Canadians l i v i n g i n the United States at the end of this period and that about four hundred thousand of these were French-Canadians, about h a l f of whom were employed i n the m i l l s of New England. In passing, i t i s of interest to note that the French-Canadians showed themselves resistant to assimilation i n the great American republic and that l a t e r , astute land agents were able t o make c a p i t a l of the French-Canadians' homesickness to persuade them to return to Canada and help i n the opening of the North-West. The Census figures of the period show how l i t t l e success had attended the e f f o r t s of the various provinces to populate t h e i r landss 1851-1861 1861-1871 1871-1881 1881-1891  Increase from 2,456,297 to 3,229,633 " " 3,229,633 to 3,689,257 " " 3,689,257 to 4,324,810 " " 4,324,810 to 4,846,377  or or or or  32$ 14.2$ 19$ 12%**.+  I t remained f o r the statesmen of the next period to b u i l d on the foundations l a i d i n the years prior to Confederation.  (30) M.L.Hansen and J.B.Brebaer, op. c i t . p. 168. (51) Census of Canada, 1931. p. 121.  (32) (33) (54)  ibid., p.- 109 Canadian S t a t i e t i c a l Record, 1886, p. 40 Canadian S t a t i s t i c a l Record, 1897,p. 398.  ~  i2  AFTER CONFEDERATION.  After the Select Committee of 1857 had. made i t s recommendation that the Hudson's Bay lands should be annexed to Canada, the o f f i c i a l transfer had to be made. An address to Her Majesty the Queen was made by the Senate and the House of Commons of the Dominion of Canada on December 17,1867, A  setting f o r t h the Canadian position regarding the transfer of the lands. The appropriate l e g i s l a t i o n followed. On July 31, 1868, the B r i t i s h parliament passed the Rupert's Land Act which enabled HerlSajesty the Queen to accept a "Surrender upon Terms of the Lands, P r i v i l e g e s , and Rights of the Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay'.' An Orderin-Council of June 23, 1870 admitted these lands into the Dominion of Canada. The B r i t i s h Government at the same time transferred the North-West T e r r i i o r t o r i e s , land which had not been held by the Hudson's Bay Company. Meanwhile, i n March of 1869> the o f f i c i a l s of the Hudson's Bay Company presented th& Deed of Surrender of t h e i r territories^after Her Majesty had ;  approved the terms of admission i n t o the Dominion. These terms ware b r i e f l y as follows: a. The Dominion of Canada would pay to the Company £300,000 f o r  (1) "That i t would promote the prosperity of the Canadian people and conduce to the advantage of the whole Empire i f the Dominion of Canada constituted under the provisions of the British North America Act, 1867, were extended westward to .the P a c i f i c and would materially^enhance the welfare of the sparse and widely scattered population of B r i t i s h subjects of European o r i g i n inhabiting those regions'.' B r i t i s h North America Agt and Selected Statutes. 1867-/945. Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1943. p.-144. (2)  31-32 Vict.,Ch. 105.  24. the surrender of i t s r i g h t s . b. The Company would r e t a i n i t s posts i n the North-West t e r r i t o r i e s and blocks of land adjoining each post In B r i t i s h North America other than Canada or B r i t i s h Columbia to a t o t a l not exceeding f i f t y thousand acres. c. The Company, within f i f t y years a f t e r the surrender,may claim i n any d i s t r i c t within the F e r t i l e Belt i n which land i s set out for settlement, one-twentieth part of the land so set out. d. A l l t i t l e s to land up to the eighth day of March, 1869, conferred by the Company are to be confirmed.s The F e r t i l e Belt was bounded as follows: On the south by the United States boundary; on the west by the Rocky Mountains; on the north by the northern branch of the Saskatchewan r i v e r ; on the east by Lake Winnipeg and the Lake of the Woods, and the waters connecting them. One-twentieth of t h i s land  f amounted to a grant of 6,639,059 acres. The a l i e n a t i o n of such a large acreage from government authority was l a t e r to prove very embarrassing to those interested i n rapid settlement. The guarantee of land t i t l e s , inserted f o r the  protection of the Mentis, was l a t e r confirmed i n the Manitoba Act. By an Order-in-Council of the B r i t i s h Government, the lands to the nortft  were added to the western lands. Thus passed into the hands of the Canadian Government the great t e r r i t o r y which, when joined a year l a t e r with B r i t i s h Columbia, gave Canada a dominion stretching from sea to sea. The transfer was made none too soon. After the outbreak of the American C i v i l War, Canadians had been seriously disturbed by American t a l k of the annexation of Canada to the United States. Confederation e f f e c t i v e l y blocked any such move, but even before anxiety about the destiny of the eastern provinces had been allayed, fears that the west might share the fate of Oregon and f a l l into the hands of the Americans haunted the minds of Canadians.  (3) [ c l . 3and cl.10. B r i t i s h North America Acts and Selected Statutes. 1867-1943 pp.141-2. (4)  loc. cit.  c l . 6.  C  (5) Martin, Chester, op. c i t . p. 243  ' >  25. American railways were carrying to the. Middle Western states thousands of s e t t l e r s , many of whom moved across the boundary into the B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r i e s as the lands to the south were f i l l e d . Even the completion  of negotiations  between the Hudson's Bay Company and the B r i t i s h and Canadian Governments d i d not end the danger. That Canadian statesmen were aware of the desires of t h e i r neighbours'is shown i n the correspondence of the Prime Minister: "Early i n 1870, C.J.Brydges, the general manager of the Grand Trunk Railway, reported to Macdonald a conversation with Governor Smith of",Vermont, then president of the Northern P a c i f i c . 'I am satisfied" from the way Smith t a l k s to me that there i s some p o l i t i c a l action at the bottom of ^ 1 3 ^ . ^ 0 prevent your getting control f o r Canada of the Hudson's Bay T e r r i t o r i e s . • , 'It i s quite evident to me, r e p l i e d Macdonald, not only from t h i s conversation, but from advices from Washington, that the.U.S.Government are resolved to do a l l they can, short of war, to get possession of the western t e r r i t o r i e s , and we must take immediate and vigorous steps to counteract them. One of the f i r s t things i s to show unmistakeably our resolve to b u i l d the P a c i f i c Railway.'"6 From"this i t was evident that mere ownership was not enough; the l_nd must be occupied and f o r that a r a i l r o a d to open the lands was the, crime need. It was t h i s resolve to b u i l d a r a i l r o a d through the west that shaped the policy of the Dominion Government rrggarding the new lands. Macdonald hoped to finance the b u i l d i n g of the r a i l r o a d without taxing the eastern provinces. The a l t e r n a t i v e was to f i n d revenue i n the west. The Dominion Government therefore retained under i t s own Coutrol the natur.al._r;esources of the west,"for the organization and development of B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t s i n North America*,' hoping that by the sale of lands, the most valuable of the natural resources, i t would be able to finance the b u i l d i n g of the r a i l r o a d across the p r a i r i e s to the P a c i f i c . I t was thus that the Dominion Government entered the f i e l d of immigra-  (6) Joseph Pope, Correspondence of S i r John A. Macdonald, New City Press, 1921. p. 125.  York, Garden  26. ration and settlement as a great land-holder. From the beginning i t l a i d down the basic policy that the natural resources of. the p r a i r i e s were to be used for the " h i s t o r i c purposes of the.Dominion", which i n ordinary terms meant the provision of a transcontinental railway, and the settlement of the western lands so that Canada might develop as a' great Bominionlaln p r a c t i c e , the policy provided f o r the building of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway and a net-work of tributary l i n e s , and the introduction of free homestead grants to encourage the rapid settlement) of the p r a i r i e s . It was to be some time,however, before plans for' the west could be carried out. Money was not available from the general treasury f o r the b u i l d ing  of r a i l r o a d s , and land sales were too few to promise much help . Mean^  while the earnest pioneer had the choice of two routes to the west, the •ft  Dawson Road, begun i n 1867,  ••  and'the route v i a St. Paul to ?Jinnipeg. 'Although  the Dawson Road was travelled by some.hundreds of passengers from 1871 to 1876, i t was never popular, being both rough and expensive. The St. Paul route, much more comfortable, had the disadvantage of taking passengers through the r i c h mid-western states, where e f f i c i e n t American land-agents were often successful i n d i v e r t i n g wealthy t r a v e l l e r s to the American lands. The danger to Canadian settlement was increased i n 1878 when a r a i l connection was completed between St. Paul and Winnipeg. I t became increasingly evident that Canada must have a r a i l r o a d to the west, and t h a t , i f i t were to serve the purposes of the Dominion, i t must be an all-Canadian road. When, i n 187$, B r i t i s h Columbia entered Confederation, the Canadian Government had an added incentive to provide a road to the west. After various plans had been considered, the hopes £ o E a railcoad culminated i n the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Act of 1881, but as that act was contingent on the provisions of the Dominion Land Act o f 1872> which must therefore be considered f i r s t .  27. The western lands that passed into the possession of Canada i n 1870 were about 175,000,000 acres i n extent. Whatever, h e s i t a t i o n the Dominion Government may have had about the d e t a i l s of administration of those vast lands, there was no doubt on the basic p r i n c i p l e : they were to be administered f o r the purposes of the Dominion, a Dominion which stretched from sea to sea, and which must be either occupied or l o s t . I t was further believed that settlement could be best achieved i f the lands were held under one central authority, of necessity,, the Dominion Government. No. alternative was considered} no objections were raised. Although the means of achieving settlement varied from time to time, successive governments kept to t h i s plan i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to s e t t l e the west and provide i t with transportation, .and these two objectives were the foundations of Dominion immigration p o l i c y . After Confederation, the aims were interdependent, even though the Government alienated much- of-the land i n extensive grants to railways and to the Hudson's Bay Company. U n t i l 1930, when,, the government had achieved i t s purpose, and the 'remaining lands passed into p r o v i n c i a l control,., the Crown lands of the p r a i r i e s westteicohtrolled from Ottawa. The basic plan having been adopted, the p r a c t i c a l problems of administ r a t i o n were next considered. In general the plan of survey followed that of the United States. The f i r s t system established by Order-in-Council i n 1869 took as the unit a section of eight hundred acres, a v a r i a t i o n from the 640-acre section used i n the scuth. The Canadian system varied also i n providing a road allowance of 5% of the t o t a l acreage. [jThis was changed i n 1871 to one and one-half chains,and i n 1881,to one chain!] As the whole system of survey was planned at one time, and was b u i l t on a single base l i n e , i t was uniform throughout, a great, advantage. In 1871, a t the suggestion of Governor Adams Archibald of Manitoba, the section was made to conform to the 640-acre unit used i n the United States. This u n i t was that on which the Dominion Land  * / e A ait> * a //•  \  .  28. Act of 1872 was based. Only i n the lands of the Metis , where the Government had confirmed the Hudson's Bay Company's grants of land, was there B. v a r i a t i o n . There the r i v e r - l o t system was allowed. A similar concession f o r the Saskatchewan d i s t r i c t was abandoned i n 1884 as too awkward. This general system of survey, made to s u i t the exigencies of a time that required rapid action, took no account of variations i n topography, r a i n f a l l or s o i l conditions, but i t found favour i n the sight of the early s e t t l e r , and no fundamental change has since been made i n the u n i t of survey of the ordinary lands of the P r a i r i e s . Where necessary, the i n d i v i d u a l sett i e r has made his own adjustments __a the purchase 6f additional tracts of x  land. The system of survey having been decided upon, the d i s p o s i t i o n of the land i t s e l f was next considered. The Dominion Government adopted a dual policy of land administration. I t followed i n general the plan of the United States i n setting aside grants and reserves to provide f o r railway building. The remainder of the lands were to be. opened f o r free homesteads which were intended t o a t t r a c t a pioneer population as quickly "as possible, who i n turn would create a demand that would enhance the value of i t h e r lands. This plan varied i n one important p a r t i c u l a r from that of the united States. Whereas each American state provided the land reserves to pay f o r the r a i l r o a d which passed through i t , the Canadian Government took i t s railway reserves from any of the Crown lands, regardless of the l o c a t i o n of the r a i l r o a d , a system which bore p a r t i c u l a r l y heavily on Saskatchewan. The plan of sub-division settled, i t was necessary to set aside the reserve lands. Each township of s i x miles was divided into t h i r t y - s i x sections. To s a t i s f y the claims of the Hudson's Bay Company to one-twentieth of the f e r t i l e lands, sections 8 and three-fourths of section 26 were set aside. In every f i f t h township, the whole of section 26 was reserved to make  29. the required amount. For railway grants, the odd-numbered sections were reserved. Sections 11 and 29 were set aside as "School Lands" and were kept for sale by the Government which intended to provide not only a farm f o r the s e t t l e r , but also an education f o r h i s children. These lands having been set aside, the remaining lands were opened f o r homesteading. The accompanying diagram'shows the method of disposing of land.  • a n a a . i i • B I I B B I I • D - i a a i a  4 In retrospect, i t seems that the policy of alternating land f o r sale y  with land given free as homesteads has proved b e n e f i c i a l ; f o r i t allowed the successful farmer to expand h i s holdings u n t i l he had a farm of a size to be p r o f i t a b l e , a size which varied, of course, with the p o s i t i o n of the farm and the industry of the farmer. (7) Ghester Hartinr op. c i t . P . 233. Manitoba. Saskatchewan (8) 285.1 acres 272.2 acres 1901 295.7 ." 279.2 " 1911 "368.5 " 274.5 " 1921 407.9 " 279.2 " 1931 '432.5 ~'" 1941 ' 291.1  Alberta. 288.6 acres./ /»„ _« 284.6 » \ 353.1 400.1 -far m * 433.9 €ra0  S ( i e  Census of Canada. 1941. Vol.VIII.,Pt.2, p. 1144(Man.) ,p.l269(Sask)p.l441.jUlt_)  30. By Order-in-Council  i n 1871,  a five-year residence q u a l i f i c a t i o n was  required before t i t l e to a homestead was issued. In the Dominion Land Act of 1872, the head of a family or any other s e t t l e r over twenty-one years of age, and who was either B r i t i s h by b i r t h or who wished to acquire B r i t i s h c i t i z e n s h i p , could enter f o r a free homestead upon payment of a ten-dollar  A entry f e e . The patent would be issued when the s e t t l e r had given proof that he had resided f o r at l e a s t s i x months of each year f o r three years<on h i s homestead, had erected a habitable house and had broken a c e r t a i n amount [usually t h i r t y -acresjof h i s holding. That these rules were d i f f i c u l t to check m. was one of the weaknesses of the homestead system. Later, i n order to encourage young men to stay i n the country, the age of entry was lowered to eighteen years, and s e t t l e r s were given the p r i v i l e g e of pre-empting the next quarter-section i f they wished to increase t h e i r acreage. With these inducements, the Government might well hope to a t t r a c t s e t t l e r s ? but they hoped i n v a i n . U n t i l a r a i l r o a d had been provided, and u n t i l the lands to the south had been f i l l e d , the §ffortsnof "the .government to encourage settlement were a l l but f u t i l e . There was, moreover,a second serious drawback to settlement. For some years, o f f i c i a l s i n several d i s t r i c t s were slack i n t h e i r methods of checking homesteaders, and granted.patents to land without demanding the residence q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Many who were not homesteaders took up land, held i t u n t i l the patent was obtained, and then sold i t to land speculators, who held i t f o r advancing p r i c e s . Such land l a y there, uncultivated, f u l l of weeds, i s o l a t i n g r e a l s e t t l e r s , and being,in general, a nuisance to the neighbourhood.This abuse of the homestead defeated i t s purpose. The record of homestead entries and cancellations i s i n large part  a comment on thJj£ittisuse of the free homestead system. The functions of the free homestead, to stimulate immigration  and to  enhance the value of the lands held f o r sale, were re-stated i n each of the Dominion Land Acts, but the wisdom of granting free homesteads has often been questioned. How land, and how  f a r the plan succeeded i n enhancing the value of other  f a r i t paid f o r i t s e l f i n d o l l a r s i s uncertain, but as a spear,  head of pioneering, there i s no doubt of i t s value; f o r i t e f f e c t i v e l y brought Canada's western lands to the attention of the world, although  the  results were not apparent u n t i l a r a i l r o a d had been b u i l t . In Canada, where a homestead could be used i n conjunction with purchased lands to make a p r o f i t a b l e u n i t , thewfree grant was undoubtedly a basis of the permanent economic prosperity of Canada's a g r i c u l t u r a l l i f e ; when i t was abused, the system was d i s c r e d i t e d . As the drawbacks of the system were, however, f a r outweighed by i t s advantages i n bringing to Canada the early s e t t l e r s  who  helped i n the progress of the country, i n the long term view, the free homestead has been approved by both government and p u b l i c . The companies which received land grants adopted d i f f e r e n t methods of disposing.of their land. I t i s s u f f i c i e n t to say at t h i s point that the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company, which earned most of the t o t a l railway 'grant, being primarily interested i n t r a f f i c , sold i t s lands as quickly as possible. The Hudson's.Bay Company, the t h i r d great landholder, having  no  d i r e c t i n t e r e s t i n t r a f f i c , took i t s lands up by n o t i f i c a t i o n [the issue of t i t l e without patent]under  the provisions of a land act of 1874,  as they w  were surveyed, and held them f o r sale at the highest p r i c e obtainable. In a land which the Government was  s t r i v i n g to open to settlement, blocks of  land, t o t a l l i n g 6,639,059 acres i n area and scattered over the whole cent-  (37)) 37 V i c t , c.19.3.5. \f0\ Chester Martin, O P . c i t . p.  243.  32. r a l region, were to remain undeveloped u n t i l such time as the owners found the market r i g h t f o r sale. The e f f e c t of t h i s policy-on the progress of the. , country may  well be imagined. I t i s true that small amounts of land were sold  from time to time, but i n the main the s e t t l e r had a. r e a l grievance when he found himself blocked by Hudson's Bay lands, e s p e c i a l l y as these lands,being held at a higher price than those of the r a i l r o a d , were slower i n s e l l i n g . Although the position of the lands was good, l e s s than 4,000,000 acres had been sold by 1930,  the year of the transfer of the lands to the provinces.  The reason was easy to f i n d , f o r the price of Hudson's Bay lands averaged $12.10 per acre, whereas the average price of Canadian P a c i f i c Railway lands was $8.55 per acre/' There were various h o s t i l e forces at work preventing the early s e t t l e ment' of the west, but a few pioneers, a n t i c i p a t i n g the r a i l r o a d , found way into the west by one of the available routes. In 1875, Winnipeg reported a probable 3635 immigrants;in  1876,  their  the agent i n  an estimated 3000; i n  .1877, about 6,500. Of these,some 3600 were from Ontario, 369 from Quebec, and 186, from the Maritimes. From the United States came about 700 repatriated French-Canadians, about 200 Mennonites and 52 Icelanders? The remainder were Americans. As these proportions remained . T ^ i a t i v e l y constant f o r some years, i t can be seen that Manitoba was to develop a special i n d i v i d u a l i t y as a aolony of Ontario, thus f u l f i l l i n g one of the purposes of Government i n annexing the West-that of o f f e r i n g an outlet f o r over-population i n the older province. While waiting f o r s e t t l e r s , the Government had an opportunity to shape i t s land policy to s u i t the changing plans f o r the building of a r a i l r o a d to  (11) Chester Martin, op. c i t . , p. (12) *2> e^sOmsd 9  -*  1  •  243.  ^rr*S  the west. The o r i g i n a l plan i n the Land Act of 1872 was. that an area of 50,000,000 acres should be set aside as a railway reserve, the land to be taken up by the railway company i n blocks alternating with s i m i l a r blocks to be retained by the government. This plan was cancelled i n 1879 andfawnew oneaeyQlvediiwhichrprovided  f o r a r a i l r o a d reserve of one m i l l i o n acres to  be chosen from a belt of land two hundred and twenty, miles wide, l y i n g equally on either side of the r a i l r o a d . This stretch of land was divided into nine zones as indicated i n the diagram.  e,4ed ft  homttliaJs  It was intended that the lands should be divided between the r a i l r o a d and the government, and that the lands of the l a t t e r would be offered f o r sale at s i x d o l l a r s an acre. When i t was found that immigration was very slow, the government decided to stimulate settlement by opening a l l i t s evennumbered sections f o r homesteading, and by o f f e r i n g f o r sale such oddnumbered sections as remained public lands. The price was to vary from two d o l l a r s to two d o l l a r s and f i f t y cents an acre. I t was not, however, u n t i l the charter with the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company had been signed that a l l these plans culminated i n a workable land p o l i c y . After that, Government and Company worked together.with a common purpose- the settlement of the west.  (13) Chester Martin, op. c i t . p , . 264 (14) i b i d . . p. 398.  34. A contemporary  report on the arrangement was given by A.M.Burgess, then  deputy-minister of the I n t e r i o r , who said: When the system was inaugurated of a s s i s t i n g , by grants of land, the construction of c o l o n i a l railways, with which Manitoba .and the T e r r i t o r i e s are now so well supplied, and the p o l i c y was determined upon of reserving f o r t h i s purpose, the odd-numbered sections, a l l hope of deriving any considerable revenue from the public lands had from that time forward to be abandoned. The a b o l i t i o n of the pre-emption system eventually took away from the department i t s l a s t remaining source of revenue, except f o r the timber and minerals and fees f o r homestead entr i e s , which must be looked to exclusively i n that r e l a t i o n f o r the future. There i s i n t h i s state of a f f a i r s no cause f o r regret...the construction of railways to open up and develop that new country i s of f a r more consequence to Canada than any revenue that could be derived from the sale of land, and the country cannot under any circumstances have both railways and revenue, /f The need f o r building a r a i l r o a d had long been foreseen. When George Brown advocated the annexation by Canada of the Hudson's Bay t e r r i t o r i e s , he noted e s p e c i a l l y the necessity f o r a transportation system. The building of such a railway was i m p l i c i t i n the acceptance of the western lands by the Dominion Government. The Dawson road was recognized as being a makeshift. When B r i t i s h CHlumbia joined the Dominion i n 1871, the completion of a coastto-coast r a i l r o a d was promised i n the terms of union, and members of p a r l i a ment from B r i t i s h Columbia allowed no one i n Ottawa to forget t h i s promise. The R i e l Rebellion of 1869 showed the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the west. From eastern businessmen  there were also optimistic suggestions that the r a i l r o a d  might open p r o f i t a b l e markets to the Orient, then being opened to western influence. The actual building of the road followed years of planning, t r i a l s and disappointments, and years of b i t t e r debate i n parliament. In December of 1880, S i r Charles Tupper moved that the House go i n t o committee of the whole  35. to consider two resolutions c a l l i n g f o r the appropriation' of twenty-five m i l l i o n d o l l a r s and twenty-five m i l l i o n acres of land i n the North-West t e r r i t o r i e s , t h i s money and land to be granted to the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company f o r the construction of a r a i l r o a d through Canadian t e r r i tory to the P a c i f i c Ocean. I t was stated that the land should be chosen along the d i r e c t route of the r a i l r o a d i n alternate blocks, from the western boundary of Manitoba t o Jasper House. To complete -the grants, i t w a 3 agreed /c  that lands might also be selected along projected branch l i n e s . By s e l l i n g the other lands on the p r a i r i e s to provide the subsidy, the Government hoped to f u l f i l Macdonald's promise that the r a i l r o a d would not cost the eastern provinces a f a r t h i n g . I t was not long before the Government saw the f a l l a c y of that hope, but the o f f i c i a l s were able to take comfort from the revenue from the import duties which increased as settlement  expanded.  The statute which grew out of S i r Charles Tupper's resolutions was the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Act of 1881 which authorized the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company to construct a r a i l r o a d across the p r a i r i e s to the P a c i f i c GOcean. The company was headed by Donald A. Smith,-curiously enough a chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company-, and by George Stephen, h i s cousin.Their agreement was to build the r a i l r o a d i n return f o r a payment of $25,000,000 and 25,000,000 acres of land of " f a i r average quality',' to be chosen from the 48-mile b e l t . Land required f o r the road-bed and f o r stations was given as a free grant. Completed l i n e s woitth about $35,000,000 were also transferred to the company. To a i d construction the government also made a loan of $30,000,000 with the land grants as security f o r the mortgage. These enormous grants of land brought the Canadian P a c i f i c iiailway  (16) House of Commons Debates 6CanadaQ. 1880. December 13. p. 84 and p.209.  36. Company into the f i e l d of land settlement, f o r i t s holdings were second only to those of the government. As both were great land-holders i n a common t e r r i t o r y i t was fortunate that they worked c l o s e l y together i n t h e i r p o l i c i e s of settlement. Moreover,, the railway company, being heavily subsidized with public money, and being dependent from the f i r s t on the returns from t r a f f i c , was anxious to promote the settlement of the west. So well d i d i t play i t s part i n the great programme of western expansion that one of i t s agents, Frank Russell,could say without fear of r i d i c u l e ^ " W e b u i l t the West." From the point of view of the west there were several serious f a u l t s i n the Charter to be corrected before i t won popular approval. P r a i r i e lands only, were used to pay f o r a„railKoad-J8iiichjas^o£_national_jml.ae_ . r  the "monopoly".clause,  i  Clause 15,  designed to safeguard the Company's t r a f f i c rights,  gave the Gompanys the sole r i g h t over a period of twenty years to b u i l d l i n e s south-east of i t s main l i n e j that i s , i n the most populated d i s t r i c t . As the early s e t t l e r s had spread out fan-wise, t h e i r settlements required more than the single l i n e that the Company was prepared to b u i l d . When the s e t t l e r s t r i e d to over-rule the "monopoly" clause and b u i l d the Red River l i n e from Winnipeg to Brandon, the Dominion Government was forced by the term3 of the charter to refuse passage over Grown lands, and the project ended there. The.Company was quick to take counsel from the event, and by 1891 had provided the necessary l i n e s . In 1888 the offending clause "was cancelled, the government guaranteeing a bond issue f o r the company i n return f o r the valuable concession. Section 16 of the ch,_rter exempted the Company f o r twenty years ^ , r  o m  taxation on i t s lands and forever from taxation on i t s c a p i t a l stock and railway lands. I t i s easy to understand that t h i s provision was more unpopular than the "monopoly" clause, f o r i t brought great hardship to the  57. early s e t t l e r s who were forced to pay taxes on roads b u i l t past great blocks of unoccupied land, and maintain public services over a widely - scattered area. As the general policy of the Company was to s e l l i t s lands as quickly as possible, t h i s conditionewas not so serious as i t might have been, but even as i t was, delay i n locating lands and taking out patents resulted i n an estimated l o s s of #2,500,000 i n taxes f o r the province of Saskatchewan 19  alone. Section 16, so deservedly unpopular, was cancelled i n response to p r o v i n c i a l pressure. High f r e i g h t rates  r^nst-jftiitnri  n t h i T - r H ^ ^ n r i r p , Rates on the p r a i r i e s  were high p a r t l y because the l i n e s through western Ontario were unproductive and p a r t l y because the Company wished to accumulate funds to construct more branch l i n e s . As these l i n e s were completed and as t r a f f i c increased, rates were gradually lowered, and that grievance was removed. The inconspicuous l i t t l e phrase,"lands f a i r l y f i t f o r settlement" which had been written into the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway charter was of great importance. The o r i g i n a l plan of the Canadian Government i n a l l o c a t i n g lands for  the railway had been changed i n the f i n a l settlement because of the  a l t e r a t i o n i n the route the r a i l r o a d would follow. The CompanyIwasagiven alternate oddniumbered sections extending, back twenty-eight miles from each side of the proposed route of the railway from Winnipeg to Jasper House. The path eventually followed by the railroad,however, was not the northern route, which would have opened the f e r t i l ^ p a r k - l a n d s of the Edmonton  dis-  t r i c t , but a shorter way through.Kicking Horse Pass which opened some of the a r i d lands o f " P a l l i s e r * s Triangle". Much of the land there could hardly be judged as " f a i r l y f i t f o r settlement" and the Company refused to accept i t . Even had a l l the land been suitable, i t would have taken a b e l t of land  (18) Chester Martin, op. c i t . . p. 274.  38. seventy-five mi'les wide to provide the necessary 25,000,000 acres. The Government therefore solved the d i f f i c u l t y by setting aside great reservations containing two or three times the acreage required. From these the Company could select i t s grant. Four such reservations were made: i n 1882, the F i r s t Reserve of 6,800,000 acresj i n 1895,  the Dauphin Reserve i n Mani-  toba; i n 1896, the Second Northern Reserve near Edmonton; i n 1901,  the  I r r i g a t i o n Reserve i n southern Alberta. These reservations locked up nearly one-half of the available a g r i c u l t u r a l lands i n western Canada.' I t was not u n t i l August 22 9 1903 that,by Order-in-rCouncil, the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l way lands were f i n a l l y chosen. As l a t e as 1908  some other companies were  dallying over the choice of their lands. The o r i g i n a l 25,000,000 acre grant f o r the main l i n e was not the whole land grant of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company. Each branch l i n e  "earned"  a further grant of 6,400 acres per mile of construction. When several l i t t l e "colonization" railways became subsidiaries, t h e i r unalienated lands accrued to the Company..Although the Company, returned to the Government 6,800,000 acres of the Northern Reserve to r e t i r e a government loan, i t s control over the remaining 26,055,462 acres l e f t i t second only to the Dominion as a land-holder'^ The chief interest of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway was i n the promotion of t r a f f i c , and,to serve t h i s end, i t followed a wise and aggressive policy i n land sales and settlement. The " f a i r l y f i t f o r settlement" condition used i n the selection of land, worked., to unexpected advantage f o r the nation, because the Company, having chosen some of i t s land i n remote places^was impelled by i t s policy of quick sale to open these areas by building branch l i n e s . The low price at which the Company sold i t s lands recommended them to  (19) Chester Martin, op. c i t . , p.  274.  39. the t h r i f t y homesteader who found h i s quarter-section too small f o r his needs. Many Americans, too, appreciated the value of the Company lands and bought large amounts. In the year 1892 they bought 87,680 acres.  Total land  sales averaged $3,000,000 per year*/ This integration of homestead and sales policy was highly b e n e f i c i a l and the Company compares very favourably with the Government i n the work of developing the west. Professor Martin says of the policy of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company: fVTo a degree approached by no other agency, i t came to integrate i t s e l f with the free homestead system and immigration p o l i c y of the day and to subserve the interests of the nation i n land settlement'.' In the Company's own publications wer read:"The proceeds of these land sales have gone i n t o the development of lands rather than f o r dividends f o r shareholders'.'  The plans f o r colonization followed a  varied pattern and changed as frequently as the conditions demanded. The biggest undertaking was the development of the I r r i g a t i o n Reserve i n southern Alberta. At a cost of $20,000,000, some four thousand miles of canals and ditches were b u i l t opening to c u l t i v a t i o n 3,000,000 acres of a r i d or semi-arid land. To follow the i n t r i c a c i e s of the whole settlement programme w6uld be to make a book-length study. I t i s s u f f i c i e n t here to meni tion that farms of a l l kinds were offered to;, s u i t a variety of s e t t l e r s farms of p r a i r i e land and of wooded or park land, lands f o r cash and land on termsj raw lands and lands with some c u l t i v a t i o n , or farms completely ready f o r occupation with some seeding f i n i s h e d and with hoj^es and barns ready f o r use. The results of t h i s ingenuity were such that i t i s small wonder that the ggents f e l t that they haddhad a major share i n building the west.  (20) Chester Martin, op. c i t . . p . 317 (21) ibid. p. 306 (22) ibid. p. 275. (23) C.P.R.folder"Prairie Provinces of Canada, no date,issued 1939.p. 2.  40. After the provisions of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Act became knownthere was, as previously noted, some opposition to the "monopoly" clause which forbade the building of other railways south-east of the main l i n e . Giving as reason that they wished to break this-monopoly,  several small r a i l -  roads were begun, each company claiming the government land grant. This grant was at f i r s t f i x e d as the right to purchase land, 3,840 acres per mile of construction, at one d o l l a r ah acre} but  ;  to encourage the building of  branch l i n e s , the land was l a t e r given, without any cost to the companies. •Such was the desire f o r more railways, however, that i n 1889,  the grant  was  raised to a g i f t of 6,400 acres per mile of road. "The technique of the *colonization' r a i l r o a d s became the most promising contrivance yet devised  ft*  for  getting lands cheap and i n large q u a n t i t i e s from the government", writes  Professor Martin. Only one, the Alberta Railway and I r r i g a t i o n Company, can be said to have accomplished  the purposes of colonization railways. Since  the interested companies did not choose the greater part of t h e i r land u n t i l the L i b e r a l government brought pressure to bear on them during the Sifton regime, they can hardly have been of much use as colonization companies. On the other hand, t h e i r d i l a t o r y methods i n choosing t h e i r lands added immeasurably to the embarrassment of the Department of the I n t e r i o r . The Department f e l t i t s e l f obliged to r e t a i n immense reserves of land to s a t i s f y the claims of  the railways. U n t i l 1908, when these claims were f i n a l l y l i q u i d a t e d , no  taxes were paid on these reserves and the cost of maintaining public services where they existed was a great drain on the treasuries of the p r a i r i e provinces. Far from breaking"the monopoly, s i x of these r a i l r o a d s f e l l i n t o the hands of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company} three more were amalgamated  (24) Chester Martin, op. cit.« p. 277. (25) "In 1896, 1,823,423 acres had been patented of the 38,657,088 acres earned*.' Chester Martin, op. c i t . . p. 330. v  to form part of the Canadian Northern [ l a t e r National Railwayj, and the tenth, the Qu'Appelle, Long Lake and Saskatchewan Railroad and Steamship Company, sold i t s lands to the Saskatchewan Valley Land Company. Although t h e i r lands were chosen i n most cases without any r e l a t i o n to the d i s t r i c t s served by t h e i r r a i l r o a d s , these colonization railways, l i k e the Canadian P a c i f i c , afforded considerable work f o r the s e t t l e r , and were thus i n d i r e c t l y responsible f o r s e t t l i n g some of the land through which they were b u i l t . The main endeavours of the Dominion Government, the annexation of the western lands, the formulation of a l&nd policy f o r that region, and the i n i t i a t i o n of transportation systems have been briefly, outlined. The house was ready; the guests were to be i n v i t e d . The basis of Dominion immigration policy was the sale of Crown lands i n the west, and the settlement of those lands. The provision of transportation was t i e d i n with plans f o r settlement. As y e t the quality of the newcomer was not a main pre-occupation with the government and the word "desirable" as applied to an immigrant was stillotbebecdefiried. The aim of the government was to a t t r a c t those who mould open the p r a i r i e lands: the farmer, the farm-labourer, and the domestic servant. These were the "classes that Canada c a l l s f o r " . Others were welcome, but they were to make t h e i r own way, and stand on t h e i r own feet when they arrived. This p o l i c y did not i n any way i n t e r f e r e with the general attempt to promote immigration to Canada. As the Dominion Government advertised i t s own lands, i t encouraged the provinces to advertise t h e i r s . When i t was found that too many agencies abroad tended to confuse the prospective s e t t l e r , the Dominion Government allowed a c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l programmes under i t s aegis, but without any relaxation of i t s own e f f o r t s f o r the west. At times the. eastern provinces complained that t h e i r i n t e r e s t s were s a c r i f i c e d to those of the west; but  42. s t a t i s t i c s show that each province received a good proportion of the immigrants. In any event, successive Dominion governments continued .the policy l a i d down at Confederation. I f the o r i g i n a l hope that the railways would be financed by the sale of public lands f a i l e d , and i t became c l e a r that i t was impossible to have both r a i l r o a d s and revenue from lands, t h i s knowledge d i d not a l t e r the basic policy of the Dominion. U n t i l i t turned over the remaining Crown lands to t h e i r appropriate p r o v i n c i a l governments i n 1929, the Dominion Government frankly acknowledged that i t s chief aim i n t h i s f i e l d ofendeavour was the successful settlement of i t s Crown lands. In passing from t h i s consideration of general policy to that of the building of an immigration programme, i t i s worth pausing to consider one far-sighted element of Dominion p o l i c y : the reservation of "school" lands. These lands, intended to provide f o r the education of the s e t t l e r s i$70-  children,  1  ilib  were held f o r sale at a good price.In the period I&7i!-18&5 they brought i n t9^£3»5®08," providing a generous endowment f o r schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s . The Government began to b u i l d i t s immigration programme soon after Confederation had been achieved. In 1869,  £i_r John A. Macdonald c a l l e d the  f i r s t parliamentary committee on immigration. The delegates included the Prime Minister and h i s Minister of Agriculture, J.C.Chapais, and two members of each p r o v i n c i a l government, except that of Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia expressed i n t e r e s t , but pleaded straitened circumstances. The proposals of the Committee of 1869  were as follows:  As the Governor-General receives the emigration tax and i s charged with the administration of the quarantine laws and the establishment and the maintenance of marine hospitals, and must of necessity be the means of communication with Her Majesty's Government i n a l l matters concerning emigration, i t i s agreed: i . The Governor-General s h a l l maintain e f f i c i e n t emigrat i o n service i n London and at such other United Kingdom points as he may think proper. i i . That he s h a l l also e s t a b l i s h at least one agency on the Continent of Europe and as many more as he from time to (26)  Sonniniinl—Da  j in04, No.15, ; . x .  Cheiter  Mai-/in,  OJO.c'll',  ft  •  3*7  43. time may deem expedient. i i i . That he s h a l l defray the expenses of quarantine at Quebec, Halifax and St. John. i v . That he s h a l l e s t a b l i s h immigration o f f i c e s at 'Quebec, Montreal, Kingston, Toronto, Hamilton, Halifax, Ottawa, St. John, Mirimachi, and other points contiguous to- the proposed Interc o l o n i a l Railway. v. That he s h a l l apply f o r annual grants i n a i d of immigration generally. v i . The several provinces on their\part s h a l l e s t a b l i s h e f f i c i e n t systems of emigration agencies within t h e i r respective t e r r i t o r i e s and s h a l l connect these as much as possible with a l i b e r a l p o l i c y f o r the settlement and c o l o n i z a t i o n of the uncultivated lands. v i i . The Provinces may appoint their won agents i n Europe or elsewhere and these s h a l l be duly accredited by the Governor-General. v i i i . The Provinces s h a l l submit d e t a i l s of lands available and the system of colonization and settlement to be followed, as an a i d to Government p o l i c y . i x . Any changes s h a l l be indicated to the Government to notify agents and intending immigrants. These changes should be indicated i n the winter before the opening of the immigrant season. x. . That, i n the i n t e r e s t s of e f f i c i e n c y , there be a & meeting of the delegates every quarter.. x i . That such l e g i s l a t i o n as might be required, be submitted to the various l e g i s l a t u r e s . * 1 Other committees met i n almost every year u n t i l 1874. In that year i t was decided to vest the control of propaganda f o r immigration i n the Dominion Government, as the i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s of the provinces had caused confusion i n the minds of prospective-immigrants. James Trow, who headed the committee, further advised that the provinces arrange f o r settlement and after-care on t h e i r own lands. This arrangement, of course, l e f t the policy f o r the West i n the hands of the Dominion Government, and l e f t the way open f o r c r i t i c i s m from the east that i t was taxed f o r the development of the west. The work of the immigration department was divided i n t o three parts: the provision of f a c i l i t i e s f o r immigrants at the ports of entry and at the  (27) Canadian House of Commons Journals. 1868. Vol. I f . pp.3-4, Report of the Standing Committee on Immigration and Colonization 1868. f  44. various agencies established at strategic points inland; arrangements f o r the care of immigrants, e s p e c i a l l y those s e t t l i n g on lands belonging to.any one of the governments; and the establishing of agencies overseas. The Government now began to expand the immigration services, hoping to d i v e r t the stream of emigration to Canada. The overseas organization was enlarged u n t i l representatives of the Canadian Government were scattereded over the B r i t i s h I s l e s , and i n the "preferred" countries of northern Europe* Sweded, Norway, Denmark, France, Belgium, Holland, and Germany.  A few  agencies were also^established i n the United States. In Canada, agents f o r the reception and d i s t r i b u t i o n of immigrants were placed,-^first at Winnipeg, and l a t e r at points ever farther westward, even to V i c t o r i a . From modest beginnings a large and expensive organization developed, which extended i t s A c t i v i t i e s i n t o much of Europe and over most of the United States.  The  European and American parts of the organization t r i e d to a t t r a c t emigrants, while the Canadian agencies reported the needs of Canada, and made e f f o r t s to s e t t l e new a r r i v a l s to t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n . A l l members of the immigration services f e l t themselves free to comment on the character of the  people  attracted to Canada, and to suggest changes i n the organization. That the agents used t h i s p r i v i l e g e wisely i s shown i n the growing e f f i c i e n c y of t h e i r work. The methods used to a t t r a c t immigrants to Canada were the t r a d i t i o n a l ones, the issuance of pamphlets, the use of exhibits, and the giving of i l l u s t r a t e d lectures. These me*hods had been used by Thomas Talbot, Lord A  Selkirk, the p r o v i n c i a l governments before Confederation, and by the big land companies. In t h i s period, the d i f f e r e n c e lay i n the quantity of  (28) Those countries of which the people had a similar c u l t u r a l and ethnical background and a similar p o l i t i c a l outlook to those of Canadians.  45. material, d i s t r i b u t e d , and i n the ingenuity employed to impress upon the minds of possible emigrants the extent, richness,and variety of Canada's farm lands. I t was to t h i s end that the agents d i s t r i b u t e d hundreds of thousands of  a t l a s e s , maps, pamphlets and newspaper a r t i c l e s . Exhibits were  carried about the country i n democrats; impressive displays appeared at state f a i r s i n the United States, and i n London and P a r i s . Canadian agents were instructed to exert themselves to counteract the "misrepresentations of American agencies," because of the "glowing but deceptial|"sic] accounts  ^ ^ [ ^  so ingeniously c i r c u l a t e d by American agents i n England" to lure the B r i t i s h immigrant to the United States. How a Canadian agent went about t r y i n g to lure Americans to Canada i s related i n L.O.Armstrong's  account of a day's  work : We r i s e at 6.50 a.m. as we need a good deal of time to get the exhibition car ready, to write the name of the h a l l and the place where the car and lecture are to be on a l l the small.1 b i l l s , to look a f t e r the horses, e t c . The car leaves f o r the next place wherever possible i n the morning. The team and adverti s i n g van, of which I send you a photo enclosed, leaves about 8.30 A.M., to drive to the next place of showing. On the way, an envelope, of which I enclose a- sample, i s thrown out at every door after, some occupant of the house has been brought to the window by the blowing of the horn. The team arrives at noon. After dinner, the horses are saddled i n turn; one goes i n one d i r e c t i o n , the other i n the opposite, so that we have reached the farmers i n the four cardinal points. The r e s u l t i s a good attendance at the car and the l e c t u r e . The car advertises the lecture and the lecture, the car. I have given the matter much thought, and I cannot imagine a more thorough or more economical way of makingthe country known. The lecture begins at 8 P.M. and l a s t s about one and oneh a l f hours. At 10.30 we are packed up and about 11 o'clock we begin the sleep of the j u s t . A l l the American railway people who have happened to speak to us about i t , pronounce i t the best advertisement project that they have seen. The s t e e l wagon i s a drawing thing i t s e l f , and the van l e f t i n the roadway before the hotel proves to be a good advertisement with farmers..,-  (m) Sessional Papers, 1867, No. 3, p. U (290 Sessional Papers, 1895 , Ko.13, p. #1. 3  a  46. I t i s disappointing to read i n the same report a statement from Archer Baker of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company that even t h i s ingenuity was not adequately rewarded; He wrote: "So f a r as l a s t year's emigration i s concerned, while the r e s u l t has been confessedly unsatisfactory, i t c e r t a i n l y cannot be attributed to any f a l l i n g o f f i n the e f f o r t s of the various parties interested i n directing emigration to Canada...I do not know that I can suggest anything i n the d i r e c t i o n of augmentation...but I do not think jo  there should be any reduction i n the e f f o r t s  Such men,- working against the  superior attractions of the United States, i n a year of depression, were some of the unsung heroes i n the work of s e t t l i n g the westj t h e i r ingenuity and optimism showed r e s u l t s i n the next period. One of the most satisfactory forms of "propaganda" was the sending to England and to the Continent of farmer delegates and "return men" abroad the gospel of the successful farmer. Letters from those who  who  spread  had  prospered were included i n government pamphlets. Both of these devices p;aae brought excellent r e s u l t s i n a t t r a c t i n g immigrants. The agent at Aberdeen said: "When a bright young man or woman returns home from Canada with the marks of success, those who have not yet decided about emigration have placed before them a concrete f a c t that convinces more surely  than lectures  3/  or pamphlets." In addition to sending out the i n v i t a t i o n s to immigrants,  the govern-  ' ment spent a great amount of money on f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e i r reception. In 1872, a new immigration h a l l was b u i l t at Quebec to afford temporary accommodation f o r hundreds of immigrants.  Smaller h a l l s were b u i l t at Montreal,  Kingston and Toronto, and, a i l i t t l e l a t e r , one at Winnipeg. This western  (.30) Sessional.Papers. ,1895, No. 13. p. 5. (31) Sessional Papers. 1913. No. 13. p. 94.  h a l l was the fore-runner of many others and of the tent-towns provided f o r immigrants across the p r a i r i e s . Quarantine stations , so important i n the days of the I r i s h Famine had f o r many years been an important adjunct of the immigration service. To provide f o r an increased number of immigrants, and to enforce s t r i c t e r regulations, the Government b u i l t additional stations , at important points. From the early days i n Canada persons thrown haphazard l i k e 1849,  assistance was granted to destitute  upon the shores of the B r i t i s h provinces. In years  the s t r a i n on Canadian resources was tremendous. Under these  pressing circumstances, the Imperial Government reluctantly made small grants of money to help care f o r the needy. After Confederation when the type of immigrant needing assistance was comparatively rare, the help given by the Government was usually,of two kinds, the payment of passage from the port of disembarkation to the desired destination, or f o r maintenance on the journey. Sometimes maintenance f o r a short time at the port was necessary, but stays there were not encouraged. The Minister of Agriculture,  J.H.Pope,reported  that i n 1872, a f a i r l y average year, the expenditure by the Dominion Government f o r t h i s purpose was $22,112.31. Additional grants were also made by the provinces: $29,712.56 by Ontario; $18,291.00 by Quebec, and $360.61 by SJt  New Brunswick. In the case of the Dominion Government, these expenditures were covered by the Capitation Tax paid by emigrants to Canada. As the eastern governments paid only f o r t h e i r own s e t t l e r s , there was no complaint about the cost. When the Capitation Tax was taken o f f i n 1872 and the money f o r assistance had to be taken from general revenue, the number of those requiring assistance was not large enough to cause any great d r a i n on the public treasury. (32) Sessional Papers, 1872, No. 2R p.*  48. With a view to encouraging immigration> the Government of the Dominion i n 1872  sent to  William Dixon, the agent i n England, ten thousand warrants  to give a reduced rate of t r a v e l on various steamship l i n e s , to those classes of immigrants most needed. These warrants reduced the usual rate of £6.6 to £4.5 f o r general labourers, and to £2.5 f o r farm-labourers  and female domes-  t i c workers. Children's fares were proportionally reduced. Apart from these concessions, Canada refused to make any d i r e c t grants to s e t t l e r s , althoug/iafter 1883,  the Government d i d make i t possible f o r a  s e t t l e r to take out a mortgage of £100,with h i s homestead as c o l l a t e r a l , i f the money was to be spent on the actual needs of farming. The Government, however, refused to finance settlement schemes or to co-operate B r i t i s h Government i n any such scheme  with the  which would involve the Canadian  Government i n the c o l l e c t i o n of money lent to s e t t l e r s ; the Government recognized "insuperable objections" to becoming d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y the creditor of s e t t l e r s . I t preferred that c o l o n i z a t i o n should be done through a company which noubnenwbuld expected to be paternal i n i t s a t t i t u d e . t o clients. However,' while avoiding money grants as such, the Government entered the f i e l d of planned settlement i n the west. That i t s e f f o r t s were not immediately successful was  due to causes outside i t s e l f , the attractiveness  of the United States, the need f o r more transportation, the resourcefulness of Australian agents and other minor drawbacks to Canadian success.OnShoft the f i r s t attempts at colonization was the s e t t l i n g of a few indigent Norwegians at Gaspe\ This was a f a i l u r e . ByeOrder-in-Council  of 1872-72, the  Government set aside blocks of land i n Manitoba f o r groups of Scots, Swiss, Germans and Icelanders. Of these prospective settlements, only the Icelandic group^nade  a  successful attempt at establishing  tfee««eifves. As t h i s s e t t l e -  ment i s one of the most s a t i s f a c t o r y of Canadian endeavours i n  immigration,  49. i t deserves special study. In 1875, because of volcanic-, eruptions which destroyed most of t h e i r property i n Iceland, a group of about four hundred Icelanders came to Canada under the sponsorship of the Dominion Government, and were settled on a s t r i p of land about eighty miles long on the west shore]pf Lake Winnipeg.The Government made them a loan of #80,000 f o r t h e i r establishments;-. So pleased were they to be delivered from t h e i r d i s t r e s s that they c a l l e d t h e i r :  new  home Gimli or Elysium. Their optimism was rudely checked, f o r misfortune had not f i n i s h e d with them. Their land had been badly chosen; the s e t t l e r s found conditions very d i f f e r e n t  from t h e i r previous experience; the weather  exhibited unpleasant vagaries -heavy rains and f r o s t s out of season. Moreover they had a serious v i s i t a t i o n of small-pox,and unnecessary inhumanity by those who  were quarantined with  should have been anxious to help them.  Kept i n i s o l a t i o n from November to July, they were prevented from trading or getting help from outside. Even seed potatoes were not supplied through the quarantine l i n e s . Lack of proper food brought on scurvy. Death from disease 93  took about one hundred persons, one-seventh of the colony. As i f t h i s were not enough, the waters of Lake Winnipeg rose i n 1880, washing away crops, fences and b u i l d i n g s . But most of the Icelanders were undaunted. Once freed from quarantine, the men  sought work outside the colony, and the g i r l s went  out as housemaids,to the great s a t i s f a c t i o n of those housewives who were lucky enough to get them. In 1877, Lord Dufferin v i s i t e d the colonyaandtthe following year the Minister of Agriculture paid an o f f i c i a l v i s i t ; both commended the.progress made. The Minister reported that the c o l o n i s t s had shown great industry, cutting roads and c u l t i v a t i n g from two to ten acres of ground each. Two hundred "large and Commodious houses had been b u i l t  ( (33)Robert England, Colonization of Western Canada.London. King. 1936,p.251.  50. and crops were doing w e l l . Partly through government grants advocated by the enthusiastic Icelandic agent, John Taylor, smd partly with the help of remittances sent by t h e i r f r i e n d s , more colonists were able to emigrate from Iceland. In 1876, 1156 entered; i n 1877, 52; i n 1880, 1413; and i n 1884, 381.  71; i n 1881, 118; i n 1882, 129; i n 1883,  When,in 1885, about a hundred more entered, it, was  necessary to extend the reserves. Settlements were then made at Thingvalla i n 1886, and at Qu'Appelle and Argyle i n 1891. In the same year a s e t t l e ment was opened at Q u i l l Lake i n Saskatchewan and,a l i t t l e l a t e r , a smaller one at Foam Lake. A few went as f a r west as Alberta at about the same time. , In addition to the moneysthat t h e i r friends i n Canada were able to send them, the Icelanders were assisted by grants from both Dominioh and Provinc i a l treasuries, but so satisfactory were the s e t t l e r s that the governments f e l t that t h e i r money was well spent. While retaining much of t h e i r charact e r i s t i c culture, the Icelanders have beenesome of Canada's most adaptable s e t t l e r s . In 1902, the Commissioner of Immigration reported that: "There h have been t h i s year 1063 entries, from Iceland and 167 from the United States. ...They.acquire the English language with ease, harmonize  at once with our  i n s t i t u t i o n s and already t h e i r leading men take an active part, not only i n  3d public a f f a i r s , but i n the f i e l d of l e t t e r s as well'.' Subsequent events have shown that, because of t h e i r interest i n the welfare of Canada, t h e i r value is" proportionately much greater than t h e i r number. On a much larger scale was Canada's f i r s t planned settlement of Mennoni t e s . In 1872, William Hespeler, the Canadian immigration agent i n Germany, l e f t a d i f f i c u l t task i n Hamburg to embark ofi a more d i f f i c u l t one i n the  (34) Robert England, op. c i t . . p. 252 (55) Sessional Papers, 1902, No. 25, pp. 116-117.  51. oboul~ /Ho' etnlirnt south of Russia. Some years before, a r e l i g i o u s sect, the Mennonites,  foll-  owers of a Dutch leader, MennosSimons, had migrated to East Prussia. There they had l i v e d i n comparative security u n t i l the middle of the eighteenth century, when persecution was imposed on them because, as uncompromising p a c i f i s t s , they would not serve i n the army. Seeking an opportunity to practise t h e i r r e l i g i o n i n peace, i n 1786.  they accepted an i n v i t a t i o n from  Catherine the Great to s e t t l e i n southern Russia and develop it's r i c h lands. After the middle of the nineteenth century, Russia became involved once more i n the a f f a i r s of western Europe. She therefore began to b u i l d up her army and mobilized her man-power. The Mennonites refused to give m i l i t a r y service. In 1872 they were given an ultimatum: they must either change t h e i r minds or leave the country within ten years. Hespeler learned of t h i s turn of events and determined to induce the Mennonites, who were renowned farmers, to migrate to Canada. He narrowly escaped arrest by Russian agents. They seized h i s immigration " l i t e r a t u r e " , but they allowed him to see the Mennoni t e s . He wrote:"I was  successful i n d e l i v e r i n g my mission, by bringing  before them exemption from m i l i t a r y service, the advantages offered by the Canadian Government as regards free grants of land, and i n giving a l l farther information i n my power, respecting the prosperity awaiting them  in  St.  CanadaU The Mennonites then sent a deputation to Canada, Hespeler wrote: " I f they return with a favourable account, there w i l l be hundreds of the most 37  wealthy families ready to leave next summer." He described the Mennonites as hardy, industrious, orderly and i n t e l l i g e n t , t h e i r v i l l a g e s being models of oJ&der and industry. In short, the Mennonites would be a valuable acquisi t i o n to Canada. In 1872,  several Mennonite delegates arrived i n Canada. Some of them  (36) Sessional Papers, 1873, No.3  L p. 155.  (37) Sessional Papers, 1.875, No.30. p. iff..  52. found conditions s a t i s f a c t o r y , and entered into negotiations with the Government. By Order-in-Gouncil of A p r i l 26, 1872, the Dominion Government granted the Mennonites exemption from m i l i t a r y service and from theitaking of ordinary oaths. An Order-in-Council of March 3, 1873>"granted them eight townships at Rat River i n south-east Manitoba, free on condition of s e t t l e ment. They were also accorded the right to establish t h e i r own r e l i g i o u s schools. As t h e i r land was granted i n blocks instead of according to the usual homestead plan, t h e i r desire f o r communal settlement was assured. In addition to land grants, the Mennonites were given passenger warsrants of t h i r t y d o l l a r s f o r each adult,arid f i f t e e n d o l l a r s f o r each c h i l d under eight and three d o l l a r s f o r each i n f a n t * Free  provisions were given  between Liverpool and Collingwood, Ontario. In 1875 the grant was increased by f i v e d o l l a r s a head. Helped by a government loan secured by Mennonites i n Ontario, othersu of the sect were able to emigrate, and a group settled west of the Red River i n the Western Reserve. In 1876 there were 6147 Mennonites i n Manitoba, and they-were described as being i n a f l o u r i s h i n g 39.  condition and were giving evidence of very great and persistent industry^ When the Minister of Agriculture v i s i t e d the settlements i n 1876, he described the oldest colony, Rat River, as consisting of t h i r t y - e i g h t v i l l a g e s , each having from  ten to fourteen houses, substantially b u i l t .  Wheat crops were giving about twenty-five bushels to the acre. A steam-mill and three wind-mills were i n use. The domestic animals were numerous and i n good condition and gardens flourished around the houses. Trees had been planted. This settlement contained about seven hundred persons. Two other settlements, made i n the West Reserve, the Pembina colony on the west side  (38) Sessional Papers, 187f. No. s . f$ti. (39) Sessional Papers,. 1878, No. 9, p.J&J'u\ p  53. of the Red River and the Scratching River colony gave similar evidence ofthe prosperity.always associated with these people. Moreover, their reputation for honesty was soon substantiated by their prompt repayment of the money 4.6  lent to them by the government. . The immigration grant to the Mennonites was raised i n 1878 to f o r t y d o l l a r s , but few entered because wars i n Russia made d i f f i c u l t the sale of t h e i r lands. In 1882, however, although the ten-year permit had expired, others began to come i n small numbers. In 1891,three hundred persons entered, bringing from three hundred to four thousand d o l l a r s per family. After that the immigration was small. The settlement of Mennonites was unique i n Canadian experience, i n that i t was a homogeneous mass movement, the settlements themselves being o r i g i n -  4.% a l l y established on a theocratic communal or co-operative basis. At f i r s t they were arranged l i k e medieval v i l l a g e s but i n the course of time, the t h r e e - f i e l d system and the three-crop cycle have been replaced by the Canadian method of land-holding and crop c u l t i v a t i o n . The v i l l a g e s have continued to prosper. As they have become overcrowded, further settlements have been made notably at Rosthern i n Saskatchewan. i i t e s have moved to B r i t i s h  n  recent years many  Mennon-  Columbia.  The economic value of the Bdennonite has never been questioned; From the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l angle there has been more room f o r debate, f o r the Mennonites carried with them the main elements of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l organi z a t i o n : the communal ownership of land; undemocratic practices; a r e l i g i o n that isolated them from others outside t h e i r sect; a determined opposition to authority imposed from outside t h e i r organization. Time has helped to  (40) Sessional Papers, 1877. No. 8. p.**/*'"' (41) Sessional Papers, 1873,p.155; and? 1874, No. f p.9-;5 nd 1892, No. 18, p.5 (42) C.A.Dawson, Group Settlement i n the P r a i r i e Provinces.Canadian Frontiers of Settlement Series, Toronto, Macmillaris, 1936, p. 99. a  54 assimilate the more moderate groups, and these Mennonites are forming some of  the f i n e s t members of our community. The more conservative group, the Old  Colony, has proved an i n d i g e s t i b l e morsel f o r Canada, and Canadians have seen without too much regret, two emigrations of Old Colonists, one i n  f 3 1922-25 when f i v e thousand Mennonites l e f t f o r Mexico, and one a few years ago when a large party of malcontents made an unhappy venture into Paraguay. Unlike many other immigrants to Canada, the Mennonites have shown a decided preference f o r r u r a l l i f e as the following tables show: ?fest Reserve Rosthern. Rural Urban Rural Urban 1901 13148 2973 5052 475 1911 12011 2487 5070 1472 1921 14217 3080 8067 1575 1931 14262 3418 8992 2203. *v In 1880 the Canadian Government c a l l e d the attention of i t s immigrat i o n o f f i c i a l s i n Europe to the extensive migration of people from A u s t r i a Hungary to the United States. Three years l a t e r , John Dyke, adviser to the Dominion Government on European a f f a i r s , l e f t f o r continental points to study the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of securing immigrants f o r Canada. In Vienna he made arrangements with shipping i n t e r e s t s which informed him that they had a clandestine organization oftaboutpsix hundred agents throughout AustriaHungary to control the Emigration fromiisouth^eas.tern Europe. Dyke proposed that the Government pay theseoagents a bonus of f i v e d o l l a r s for,each emigrant directed to Canada. The scheme had l i t t l e  success and brought Canadian  immigration a c t i v i t i e s into disrepute. Shortly afterwards the Canadian Paci f i c Railway Company interested Count Paul d'Esterhazy, a philanthropic Hungarian noblemean, i n the settlement of h i s countrymen i n the Canadian  (43) C.A.Dawson, o p . c i t . p. 106 (44) C.A.Dawson, i b i d , p. 121.  55. North-Wes.t, and h i s e f f o r t s greatly stimulated the emigration of Hungarians 4i.iT  to Canada' f e r t i l e p r a i r i e s . For some years Hungarians^ had been emigrating to the i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s of the United States.. They were unsuited to work i n mines and f a c t o r ies and were often i n d i s t r e s s . Count d'Esterhazy  therefore resolved to  remove them to more suitable conditions. He spent some days i n examining the lands of the Qu'Appelle Valrley with a view to s e t t l i n g h i s people there. He sought a block of land rather than scattered homesteads, i n order that his colony should not be encroached upon by others. To h i s prospective s e t t l e r s he wrote that: Not very f a r from the centre of continental B r i t i s h North America and west of the Red River l i e s one of the most f e r t i l e and fortunate countries of the world; I t consists of immense p l a i n s , l y i n g at d i f f e r e n t elevations...The s o i l of t h i s country though varied i n character i s everywhere very deep and r i c h ; i t s p r a i r i e s are composed of a l l u v i a l deposits from t h i r t y to forty feet thick, i n places so r i c h i s to bear crops of wheat f o r successive years without manure. Others of nearly equal value are found resting on red sandstone, serpentine, limestone and other strata favourable to agriculture; i t s bottom lands bordering i t s r i v e r s f i n d t h e i r p a r a l l e l s only i n the Hungarian v a l l e y s of our own country. In a land of such f e r t i l i t y and beauty, husbandry i s a ' recreation rather than a t o i l . .v- Of h i s people i n recommending them to the Canadian Government, he said'that: The Magyar's sentiments are of the highest order. He i s too proud to be dishonest or mean. As ajmaster, he i s c a r e f u l , kind and generous. As a subject, he i s f i x e d , resolute, unyielding to what i s wrong. In a l l the r e l a t i o n s of domestic l i f e , he i s unimpeachable i n h i s conduct and follows every aberration with the most d i g n i f i e d regret. His h o s p i t a l i t y i s unbounded. 4£ For some time the Canadian Government worked with Count d'Esterhazy i n helping the Hungarians to come to Canada. The f i r s t groups came from the  (45) Andrew A. Marchbin,''Origin of migration Xrom^south-ea3t,--Eurei5e-.to CU CanadaS^Qa^ University^of Toronto Press. May, 19o?Tueneral reference f o r material, especially pp. 20-22 and p. 110. (46) SesWonal Papers. 1886, No. 7, p, 122. 1  56. United States, where, as has already been said, they were unhappy.- They were aided i n t h e i r settlement hy George Stephen of the Canadian P a c i f i c  Railway  Company. Under the d i r e c t i o n of Geza de Dory, the well-trained agent of Count d'Esterhazy, t h i r t y - e i g h t f a m i l i e s of mixed n a t i o n a l i t i e s were located on homesteads at Whitewood and Hun Valley near Minnedosa. Two groups of twelve and ninety-five families respectively followed, s e t t l i n g on lands where the town of Eaterhazy now  stands. As most of the people were poor,  * they were given food by the Government, and free transportation and c r e d i t s f o r stock by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company. Many of the men  .forked  on the r a i l r o a d u n t i l spring, when they took up homesteads. Some were swindled and l e f t i n disgust, but most were prosperous and happy. In the following} years, Esterhazy and h i s agent,Zboray,directed a steady stream of Hungarians, Bohemians, Slovaks, Ruthenians, Germans and Croatians to the Canadian west, c h i e f l y to the d i s t r i c t s near Esterhazy and Neepawa. The German-Slavic group was estimated at 38,000 i n 1896. Attempts were made by the Government to induce other groups, p a r t i c u ^ l a r l y those from the "preferred" countries of northern Europe. Naturally" the Continental governments were opposed to such e f f o r t s . For reasons of defence as well as f o r t h e i r economic value, men  suitable f o r emigration are agent"  the r e a l l i f e blood of t h e i r country. The Scandinavian^tersely expressed public opinion when he said i n 1875,"Nor does the government or the public look f r i e n d l y on any immigration schemes; In Belgium, agents were given comparative  freedom i f licensed by the Belgian government. The German govern-  ment withdrew the p r i v i l e g e of r e c r u i t i n g immigrants i n Alsace-Lorraine., France,even more anxious than the other European countries to maintain her effective man-power, opposed a l l emigration except that to her own colonies.  (47) Sessional Papers, 1896. No. 13, p. 121.  57.. As early as 1873,  J.E.Klotz, the agent i n Germany said that,"The work  of  recruiting immigrants i s a very onerous one f o r the German agent; he must work very c a r e f u l l y so as not to f a l l i n t o the hands of, the authorities'. ' 1  During the Franco-Prussian War n a t u r a l l y , emigration was arrested. On i t s resumption, e f f o r t s were made to. d i v e r t some of the stream to Canada. The agent i n Germany, Walter S. Abel, strongly favoured such a movement, but reported that the German government preferred that emigrants should go to the South American countries where Germany could maintain a protective control over her nationals. The agent said i n h i s report that: The only- way which would lead to a wholesale German emigration to Canada i s to give Germany some sort of compensation, f o r four. l o s s . Germany wants a market f o r her goods; and i f Canada would take her goods under easy conditions, the German Government w i l l be ready to l e t our emigration go to Canada. This may develop an emigration which Canada has never witnessed before .4? " Canada, however, had a limited population and could provide no great market .for the products of German industry; therefore she was not l i k e l y . t o obtain a heavy immigration of Germans. A few came, making settlemnts at New near Balgonie, and at Hohenlohe. From 1891 to 1894,  Tulscha,  they made several s e t t l e -  ments along the newly-opened Calgary-Edmonton l i n e . Canada's e f f o r t s to get s e t t l e r s from Germany coincided with the period of i n d u s t r i a l expansion which followed the r i s e of Bismarck. The emigration which had been greatest between 1855-1860 declined rapidly as more men were needed for industry or f o r Bismarck's wars, and the German government opposed any large scale emigration, unless i t could,as the agent stated, show signs of producing substantial revenue f o r German i n d u s t r i e s . This situation accounted i n large  (48) Sessional Papers, 1873. No.** p. 161. (49) Sessional Papers. 1886. No./O. p. 133 (50) A.S.Morton, op. c i t . p.98}.. (51) -ffi«M. Carr-Saunders, World migration,London, Oxford University Press,1936.  . . .  58.  part f o r the small emigration of Germans to Canada i n the period under d i s cussion. George Stephen meanwhile, had been aiding the settlement of two groups of Scandinavians, one at New  Scandinavia, near Minnedosa, and the other of  toVhundred and eighty at Whitewood. Others, notably one group at New numbering six, hundred  and  twBnty,  Sweden  and one at Estevan of over two hundred,  were scattered over a large area. In the years 1892-1896, six Scandinavian settlements  were  made near the Calgary-Edmonton Line. These Scandinavians,  being from the "preferred" countries were a l l well received. Two other minor colonies are perhaps wo^h  mentioning: a settlement of  Roumanians, made near the German settlement at Balgonie; and a Jewish colony, named f o r i t s founder, Baron Hirsch. The Jewish people were not s k i l l e d as farmers and t h e i r colony struggled f o r some years before.it::, prospered. Previous Jewish settlements at Moosomin and Wapella had been abandoned. As a forerunner of the greater movement which was to bring to Canada her fourth largest r a c i a l group, the f i r s t Ukrainian settlement was made at Limestone Lake i n 1895. 'Whatever gains Canada might make from her immigrationiwere  o f f s e t by  the drain away of ther people to t h e United States. Try as she, might to hold her people, the Dominion found that the balance of emigration versus emigration was against her. The time was to come when some of the  "borrowings"  were to be paid back. Meanwhile she ws. glad to receive a group of Mormons, who,  to escape the effects-of the Edmund's A c t , l e f t Utah f o r Canada i n 1886,  and made settlements i n t h e a r i d lands of southern Alberta. Their centre was  (52) Arthur Morton, op. c i t . , p . 98. (53) ibc£»cit.  S  59. Cardston, a town named a f t e r t h e i r leader, Charles Ora Card. The Mormons are good s e t t l e r s . Even those who deplored the "peculiar" r e l i g i o n of the Mormons, could not deny them c r e d i t f o r their general good q u a l i t i e s .  The  Begfal North-West Mounted P o l i c e , who kept a kind and watchful eye on the settlement of the west, spoke well of them . In h i s report of Superintendent  1895,  S.B.Steele wrote:"These people possess wonderful t h r i f t with  unceasing perseverance and s k i l l i n a g r i c u l t u r a l pursuits. They are increasing  i n numbers every month...They are law-abiding and put themselves i n  harmony with t h e i r surroundings'.'  Although many had ample means, and d i d not  suffer from poverty, they had to endure the effects of bad weather and of i s o l a t i o n , but showed t h e i r g r i t and determination through several severe set-backs. The land on which they s e t t l e d was a r i d . I t was on the s k i l l and experience gained by the Mormons i n i r r i g a t i n g those barren lands that the engineers of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railwy Company depended when they opened i n southern Alberta the largest i r r i g a t i o n project of Canada. The lands of the Mormons were divided into "stakes", a kind of l a y e c c l e s i a s t i c a l d i v i s i o n of land, and each stake was administered by a president, ivith a lay-bishop to administer each sub-division. There were three stakes i n Alberta: the Alberta Stake with i t s centre at Cardston; the Taylor st. Stake centring on Raymond, and the Lethbridge Stake of Zion. To add to the o r i g i n a l grants, the Church of Latter Day Saints bought an additional 65,000 acres, of which 36,000 acres was put under i r r i g a t i o n . The Church also bought 500,000 acres of the great Cochrane Ranch Company lands at 16.25  an  acre. This land trebled i n value i n the next few years and town a f t e r town  (54) (55) (56) (57)  Robert England, op. c i t . , p. 270 Sessional Papers, 1895. No. £5. p. 44. Robert England, op. c i t . p. 271. Chester Martin, op. c i t . , p.&Bttp.lH  60. grew up, a l l prosperous and progressive.Further extensions were made l a t e r , when, under the auspices of the Alberta Railway and Goal Company, Mormon 3 s e t t l e r s were recruited i n Utah to helpjin the development of the company's lands i n the "Magrath" i r r i g a t i o n project of 1899,  i n the course of which  the company acquired 500,000 acres of land from the government. The Mormons were a group of which the Government could be proud.; Coating l i t t l e or nothing f o r settlement, they brought, on the other hand, a wealth of experience which made them a valuable economic asset. In language .and i n t h e i r attitude toward c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the Mormons have offered no d i f f i c u l t y i n a s s i m i l a t i o n . Although they suffered hardships, there have been no paupers among them, f o r t h e i r migration was accompanied by ample money supplied from either community or private sources. They w i l l i n g l y worked out on c a t t l e ranches near Cochrane to increase their experience and money, and to make the outside contacts necessary f o r success.Their record, both i n d i v i d u a l and communal has shown a high standard of achievement.The progress of t h e i r settlements i s indicated i n the following table:  1901 1911 1921 1931  Rural 2063 3656 5546 7643  Urban. 1412 4181 4369 5121 'S9i  These three groups are the most important of the foreign s e t t l e r s  who  brought to the p l a i n s of Canada such a variety of creeds, cultures and tongues. The Canadian Government also sponsored some B r i t i s h  settlement.Anxious  to obtain more s e t t l e r s from the United Kingdom, the Government i n 1883 amended the Dominion Land Act so as to permit i n d i v i d u a l s to s e t t l e t h e i r  (58) Chester Martalh, OP. c i t . p. 285 (59) A.S.Morton, op. c i t . p. 76.  61. protege's i n groups on Dominion lands, the understanding being that such settlement should not be an expense to the" Government. The amendment permitted each family to -take out a mortgage of £100, with the land as c o l l a t e r a l , the money to be used to meet the expenses of actualasettlement. The patent was to be withheld u n t i l the mortgage was paid. This amendment brought varied r e s u l t s . One venture was Lady Gordon Cathcart's settlement of 188344 of Highland crofters at Benbecula and Wapella i n Manitoba. These people applied t h e i r experience to mixed-farming and were f i n a l l y successful. Less happy was the settlement of East London artisans made on lands south of CO  Moosomin by the Baroness Burdett- Coutts. This enterprise f a i l e d because i t was an attempt to make artisans into farmers without any intermediate t r a i n ing.  Other settlements that f a i l e d were, those o f the Church Colonization  Land Society, sponsored by S i r Francis de Winton-J^and various c r o f t e r colonies. These enterprises f a i l e d partly because of lack of farming experience on the p'art of both organizer and Settler, an over-expenditure of money.for expensive equipment, and the u n s u i t a b i l i t y of the "home-bred" immigrant to the i s o l a t e d and self-dependent l i f e of the p r a i r i e s . Lands 1 l e f t vacant by those moit e a s i l y discouraged were taken up by more pract-. i c a l farmers, and t h e i r knowledge was spread, b e n e f i t t i n g t h e i r neighbours. Canadian experience came to condemn philanthropic schemes of settlement, and to prefer the unaided type,o.where the s e t t l e r knew he must rely, on h i s own resources or suffer the consequences of f a i l u r e . In i t s e f f o r t s to open the western lands, and to pay the railway subsidy, the Dominion Government embarked upon a series of schemes to s e l l i t s Class D lands to companies which would develop them by introducing a specified number of bona f i d e s e t t l e r s . The lands were to be sold f o r a  (60) A.S.Morton, op. c i t . p. 76.  62 price l e s s that the usual d o l l a r an acre. The plan of 1878  offered companies  the r i g h t to acquire a h a l f - s e c t i o n of land i n return f o r placing a s e t t l e r on a quarter-section. The understanding  was that the s e t t l e r would homestead  the f i r s t quarter-section and then buy an additional eighty acres at a d o l l a r an acre. This plan had some success. A considerable settlement  was  made at Minnedosa and at Rapid C i t y . In the period 1881-1885, the sales of land there anounted to $857,455.80. During 1886-1891, over $30,000 more was received i n s c r i p . After 1882,  there were many contracts made with land  companies f o r the sale of p r a i r i e lands, e s p e c i a l l y i n Saskatchewan. Notable among them were the Temperance Colonization Company which founded Saskatoon, the Primitive Methodist Colonization Company which acquired 38,600 acres i n the Qu'Appelle Valley, the Saskatchewan Land and Homestead Company' which placed two hundred and f o r t y - f i v e s e t t l e r s on a reserve of  491,746 acres ,  and the B e l l Farms, known as the Qu'Appelle Valley Farming Company, incorporated i n 1882. This Company bought from the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company , the Government,and the Hudson's Bay Company about a hundred square miles of land near Indian Bead and other points i n southern Saskatchewan. Planned on an elaborate and expensive scale, t h i s enterprise t r i e d to include everything necessary, f o r comfortable  settlement. The expenses were too high  f o r the revenue and the plan f a i l e d . Another great system of farms, nobly planned by S i r John Lister-Kaye was given o f f i c i a l blessing under an Order-in-Council of May  27,1889. S i r  John planned the settlement of fourteen hundred f a m i l i e s throughout the North-West, on farms of 10,000 acres placed at i n t e r v a l s of eighteen to t h i r t y - s i x miles along the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway from Balgonie to Calgary.  (61) A.S.Morton, op. c i t . p. 56. (62) Robert England, op. c i t . p. 59. (63) A.S.Morton, op. c i t . p. 75.  63. The enterprise was hailed with joy by the agents, one of whom-wrote-that{''-It "It  i s hard to estimate the good that t h i s enterprise w i l l do towards the -  • r  IS  settlement of t h i s portion of the North-Westl' Unfortunately the scanty r a i n f a l l brought disappointment to those who t r i e d to use on Canada's a r i d lands methods of c u l t i v a t i o n suited to the damp s o i l s of England. J.W.Hedges says of the result that:"The undertaking was a comparative f a i l u r e and marked the end of large-scale attempts to u t i l i z e the semi-arid region In i t s natural state f o r any form of farming except stock-raising'.'  Yet , from i t s  very f a i l u r e the scheme contributed much valuable experience f o r the guidance of future s e t t l e r s , and during.the time of i t s operation,the introduction of pure-bred stock d i d a great deal to r a i s e the l e v e l of the grades of c a t t l e on the p r a i r i e s . In 1843 a small settlement of French and half-breeds was begun at St. at  Albert, north-west of Edmonton, and i n 1875 a s i m i l a r one was  started  Ste. Rose, a mission s t a t i o n . In the years 1885-1890, these backward  l i t t l e settlements were greatly stimulated by the coming of the r a i l r o a d s . Aided by the government,their p r i e s t s sought new s e t t l e r s from the United States, eastern Canada and France. New blood and the provision of communications helped them progress. In 1951, although new r a c i a l elements had been added, t h e i r r e l i g i o u s unity had been preserved. The population of St.Albert was then 8741 and that of Ste. Rose, 1538. These are interesting as examples of  settlements based on r e l i g i o u s homogeneity rather than on r a c i a l t i e s . " The settlements discussed are only the more conspicuous of many e f f o r t s  on the part of private interests having the support of the Dominion Govern(63) Sessional Papers, 1889. No. 5. p. 58. (64) J.W.Hedges, Building the Canadian West.Toronto, Macmillan and Co., 1939, p. 50.. (65) C.A.Dawson, Group Settlement: Ethnic Communities i n western Canada. (o5) Toronto, Macmillan, 1936 p. 345. ~ ~~' ~~" 1  1  64. ment, to a s s i s t i n the development of the West. It was a source of great s a t i s f a c t i o n to the immigration o f f i c i a l s that many of the most valuable immigrants!, came into the west unsponsored. In the early years, the greatest number of these were Canadians. For example, of an estimated  52,301 who  entered i n 1885, .22,266 were Canadians*' Having a f a i r l y  good understanding of conditions, they adjusted themselves without much difficulty  and gave very l i t t l e trouble to the government o f f i c i a l s . After  a few years, Canada received an i n f l u x of' Americans. As the Canadians migrating from the east had made Manitoba a "colony" of Ontario, so the Americans were to make "colonies" of Saskatchewan and Alberta. The immigr a t i o n of Americans had been taking place f o r many years, but except f o r the mass movement of Mormons, the numbers were small. In 1893,  however, the  Canadian exhibit at the World's F a i r i n Chicago attracted the attention of many American farmers, and the work of the agents, both^Government and Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, was  persistent. Gradually the numbers of those  entering the western lands increased to a size g r a t i f y i n g to the hardworking agents. In 1895  the Tteynl North-Yifest Mounted Police reports note the  entry, of four thousand into the Edmonton d i s t r i c t , and of four thousand f i v e hundred into the Red Deer lands.' Inspector A.H.Griesbach \vrote:"Quite a l o t of s e t t l e r s have gone into the Vermilion D i s t r i c t east of here and such of them as I have talked to are pleased and thankful that they found such a home a f t e r suffering a l l kinds of drawbacks i n the United States."  This remark  indicated the trend that was to be so evident i n the next period. Although t h e i r numbers were comparatively  small, these immigrants arrived with,  s e t t l e r s ' e f f e c t s and suitable sums of money to e s t a b l i s h themselves, and,  (66) '(6?) (68)  Sessional Papers. 1886, Sessional Papers. 1895. ibid.  No. tQ. p. xxxvil/' No. i.5. p. 14. LM. p. 105. tt-H-  Herchmtr Griet  baeh  what was more important, an understanding of the nature of the land upon which they were to s e t t l e . Moreover, as many were the children of Canadian 19  parents, t h e i r entry was more i n the nature of a home-coming than an immigration, ajid they were doubly welcome because t h e i r allegiance was seldom i n doubt. In 1885, immigrants from the United .States brought i n % 4,142,866 as well as t h e i r c a t t l e and other e f f e c t s . This wealth was a t r u l y welcome addition to the advancement of a young country. There were many d i f f i c u l t i e s to be overcome i n the North-West before success could be assured. Agents of the Dominion Government, and others i n t erested i n the process of settlement of the p r a i r i e s , endeavoured to a s s i s t the s e t t l e r s as much as possible i n combating forces d i f f i c u l t f o r the i n d i v i d u a l to control. The nightmares of the pioneer farmer i n Manitoba were l a t e and early f r o s t s , drought, h a i l and grasshoppers, and even the most experienced farmer could do l i t t l e to prevent them. Alexander Kindred, a pioneer of Moffat, wrote of the tragedy that l i e s i n h o s t i l e forces of nature. He said: In 1886 we had eighty acres under crop. Not a drop of r a i n f e l l from seeding to harvest. I sowed 124 bushels and harvested 54. In 1888, we began to think we could grow grain i n t h i s country...We went to work, and ploughed the land again. The next year wheat headed out two inches high...We summer-fallowed • that year Jl889} f o r the f i r s t time, and to show optimism, i n 1890, we put i n every acre.\iwe could. We had wheat standing to the chin, but on the 8th. July, a hailstorm destroyed everything. My h a i r turned grey that n i g h t . ^ In an endeavour to mitigate these e v i l s , which attacked veteran and immigrant a l i k e , the Government inaugurated ihel886 the Dominion Experiment a l Earmesystem, with farms at Ottawa, Nappan,N.S., Brandon, Indian Head and  (69) R.H.Coats amd M.C.Maclean, The American-born i n Canada. Toronto, (69 Ryerson, 1943 p. 20. (70) Sessional Papers, 1886, No. 25. p. xxxyx. (71) A.S.Morton, op. c i t . , p. 86.  66. Agassiz. I t was  only through the unremitting  e f f o r t s of Angus McKay and h i s  co-workers at the Indian Head experimental farm that prpgress was made and that l i f e i n many parts of the p r a i r i e was maintained. McKay, going the rounds of the country, preached the gospel of summer-fallowing, the basis of his e f f o r t s - t o encourage dry-farming. His work and  ^ ^ u ^  the consistent e f f o r t s  of other government workers to perfect suitable v a r i e t i e s of plants f o r p r a i r i e farms saved the day f o r the west. U n t i l they were able to discover the best farming methods and then to educate the newcomers to these methods, the l o s s of physical e f f o r t , of "time, and the waste of tools and land on the part of the pioneer farmer are dreadful to contemplate. The work of the experimental farms was one of the most successful agencies i n building the prosperity of the west. In any discussion of the development of agriculture on the p r a i r i e s , one piece of experimental work requires special attention. Late spring and early f a l l f r o s t s were defeated to a great extent by the introduction of marquis wheat which matured early wihout l o s s of i t s good m i l l i n g q u a l i t i e s . The development of t h i s wheat was begun i n 1888  The following table f o r 1886  by Dr. William Saunders at  shows the wastage of human e f f o r t that  r e s u l t s from ignorance or discouragement: Homesteads  Souris Winnipeg Dufferin Qu'Appelle  Entries 160 87 13 • 149  Pre-emptions Cancellations 265 104 77 255  Entries 56 25^ 17 .'1 £ 60 1.0 p  I In better areas the figures were as follows: Birtle L i t t l e Sask Turtle Mountain  203 137 186  Sessional Papers, 1886,  No.  97 70 110 pp. 28-29  45 24 121  64 57 81  Cancellations 265 28 55 190  the  Dominion Experimental Farm at Brandon and was completed by h i s son,  Charles E. Saunders, i n 1£04. By reducing the growing period without reducing  the y i e l d or impairing the m i l l i n g q u a l i t i e s , the s c i e n t i s t s produced  a wheat which became the standard f o r the west. Later research by Charles Saunders,and h i s brother,A.F.Saunders, produced even more desirable varied t i e s , Garnet and Reward, o f f i c i a l l y tested i n 1923. These wheats not only gave security and prosperity to the farmers i n the south, but also permitted o  the  northward expansion of settlement into regions where the short growing  season had hitherto precluded the production of wheat. The research on wheat-growing was only one phase of the work of the experimental farms. At Brandon, Indian Head and a3t Ottawa, as well as at similar testing state.ions maintained by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company and the p r o v i n c i a l governments, men worked continuously to assure the prosperity of the p r a i r i e farmer. Their a c t i v i t i e s included the production of new v a r i e t i e s of plants and new methods of seeding; the demonstration of the value of manures, crop-rotations and fallows i n preserving the f e r t i l i t y of the  s o i l ; and the encouragement of mixed-farming by the introduction of hardy  breeds of poultry and l i v e s t o c k . The r e s u l t s of these experiments were free to whoever asked f o r them. In co-operation with the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company the Government offered excursions, so that farmers might v i s i t the stations and examine the methods used there. Trained lecturers sought.out farmers i n the more remote d i s t r i c t s . Working with the P r o v i n c i a l Governments, the Dominion Government sought to improve l i v e s t o c k and to e s t a b l i s h creameries. The Government was increasingly conscious of i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the North-West and encouraged the work of i t s agents on the experimental farms. The work of these men saved endless years of disappointment as well as heavy f i n a n c i a l l o s s to farmers both veteran and novice. Emergency conditions, such as extraordinary losses due to f r o s t or  68.  drought were also met by the Government with g i f t s or loans of seed or money. Interest-free extensions of time f o r land payment were also granted i n times of hardship. In the bad year 1886, about $130,000"in cash was spent on seed and other supplies f o r the r e l i e f of farmers i n the west. Despite a l l this encouragement, settlement was s t i l l slow. The agents, however, with c h a r a c t e r i s t i c optimism noted the steady advance of settlement. The agent at VJinnipeg wrote i n h i s report that: It may be ^.imagined by many that our progress i s slow, but to those who have not seen our country since 1881, an amazing change awaits^them. <"In 1881 .the d i f f e r e n t townships were dotted with white canvas tents i n c l u s t e r s l i k e seagulls resting qnTthe bosora of the mighty ocean,and the s e t t l e r s ' l i t t l e tent or sod shack were to, be seen at long distances _ from each other as you rode of drove over the great p r a i r i e "waste. But i n 1890, the scene was changed. Tents have been , replaced by t h r i v i n g v i l l a g e s , towns and c i t i e s , with f i n e stores warehouses, mammoth elevators, m i l l s , shops, schools, churches and comfortable dwellings; substantial houses replace the s e t t l e r s ' shack, and i n close proximity, commodious stables, granaries, e t c - i meet the eye, ..hile the wild and lonely p r a i r i e i s transformed into well-cultivated farms and immense wheat f i e l d s , or i s covered here and there with large herds of f i n e stock. 7* ;;  It was i n Manitoba naturally•that the greatest change took place i n t h i s period. The population increased from 25,228 i n 1871 to 193,423 i n 1896. The North-West showed a nconsistent! growth from 48,000 i n 1871 to 98,967 in 1891 and to 164,301 i n 1901. Many of those s e t t l e r s who entered Manitoba were either from Ontario or were re-patriated French Canadians. Of the many s e t t l e r s who entered the province, some l e f t ; i n the early years because conditions were not favourable to t h e i r prosperity. Professor England wrote that:"In the period of stagnation of the early n i n e t i e s , when p r o f i t s from  (72) Sessional.Papers. 1890. No. 6 . 87 Report of Thomas Bonnctfe. (7$) Sessional Papers. 1890. p. 1M>JL. />-S7 fa/sort *f Fhomas fitnreft • ( 7 4 ) W .A.Mackintosh,Economic problems of the P r a i r i e Provinces. Toronto, ((74) Macmillans. 1935, p. 281. Table 1. Appendix.-A. " (75) Canada Year Book. 1940. p. 94 p  69. production had not successfully replaced work on the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l way as a source of revenue, t h e ' t r a i l 3 from Manitoba to.the United-States were worn bare and barren with the foot-prints of departing settlersL *" The !  land put under c u l t i v a t i o n increased from 17,535,818 acres i n 1871 to 28,. 28,538,242 acres i n 1891; amd the gross value of production grew from $221,617,775 i n 1870 to 469,847,886 i n 1890, r i s i n g to #481,053.-573 i n 1900. Although these are not great increases as compared with modern f i g u r e s , they mark a steady advance which indicated the growing s t a b i l i t y of the west. The changing value of the land i t s e l f was f u r t h e r proof of the sound prosperity slowly being established on the plains of Canada. In 1893, the price oflland averaged $2.95 an acre; i n 1896,$3.34; i n 1906, $6.01 and i n 1914,  i t had reached a value of $14.75 an acre.Although the heavy f r e i g h t  rates and the f l u c t u a t i n g prices of wheat contributed to the d i f f i c u l t i e s of p r a i r i e farmers, the steady increase i n acreage sown to wheat, oats and barley was a further i n d i c a t i o n of the farmers' confidence i n t h e i r grains, p a r t i c u l a r l y No.I. Northern, the excellent m i l l i n g wheat which held an 79  enviable position on world markets. As production increased f r e i g h t rates (76) Robert England ,.op. c i t . . p . 64. (77) H.A.Innis.Problems of staple production i n Canada.Toronto. Byerson 1933,p. 363.(78) W.A.Mackintosh, op. c i t . p. .285. (79) Canadian S t a t i s t i c a l Record. 1896, p. 68. Acreage Wheat Production i n 13,031 1877 260,842 1880 5,686,355 1886 384,441 5,895,480 916,664 .1891 23,191,599 1, 140,276 1895 51,775,058 999,598 1896 14,371,806 Oats 1883 1891 1896  215,431 305,644 442,445  Barley 1883 1896  60,281 127,885  I  9,478,965 14,762,605 12,502,318 1,898,430 3,177,747  70. 9/  9°  were gradually lowered,and although p r i c e s of wheat continued to fluctuate, the d i f f i c u l t y was o f f - s e t by changes i n methods of production ,and the use of co-operative action to control distribution.That a l l was not easy, however, i s shown by Professor England's quotation, and even more by the study of the homestead entries and subsequent cancellations.In the general advance there were many f a i l u r e s , but as the table shows, the proportion of f a i l u r e s decreased rapidly as the problems of the country were solved. The i n d u s t r i a l development was closely integrated with the r i s e of the west. Most industries made steady i f unspectacular progress during t h i s period. The railways shoed a high rate of growth as might be expected,for they were keyed to the government's programme of settlement. In 1867, had 2,270 miles of road; i n 1896,  Canada  there were 16,270 miles. The advance of  trade was l e s s impressive, f o r Canada's trade was i n t r a n s i t i o n . In 1868, the t o t a l imports were valued at $75,459,644 and the exports at$59,567,888j (80) W.A.Mackintosh, op. c i t . p. 284. Freight rates, Regina to L i v e r p o o l . 1886 1891 1893 1896  35.2 cents per bushel of wheat. 31.5 " .27.9 " 26.7 "  Regina to Montreal. 19.8 17.4 13.8 13.8  (81) W.A.Mackintosh, op. c i t . p. 283 Price of wheat per bushel f o r significantyyears. Winnipeg ~ Liverpool 1370 Winnipeg 107 126 1884 1870 100 123 176; 1887 83 1873 103 139 . 1891 1877 93 137 168 1896 65 1880 :  (82) W.A.Mackintosh,op. c i t . p. 282. Homesteads entered Cancelled % 1376 854 62.5 1874 4068 • " 1501 37 1879 6063 1001 18 1883 2657 11 .4 1886 (83) Canada Year Book ,1940. pp. 70-71.  1  cents a bushel ii  II II  Liverpool. 110 98 116 84  Pre-emptions entered 643 1729 4120 1046  Cancelled.% 573 89 1000 58 734 18  71. i n 1896 the imports were valued at $113,011, 508 and the exports at t ?  $121,013,852."The products of the f i s h i n g industry meanwhile rose from t4> $4,376,526 i n 1869  to $20,407,424 i n 1896.  also increasing,: i n the decade from 1886  The exploitation of minerals .was, to 1896. mineral production rose i n  value from $10,221,255 to $22,474,256. The returns from manufacturing Canada i n 1870 was, about $100,000,000; twenty years l a t e r i t was  in  about  91 $220,000,000 .' This steady progress i n industry was accompanied by a certain progress in population, but i t was a disappointingly small increase. For the emigrants leaving B r i t a i n , Canada had to wage an unequal b a t t l e with the United States and with Australia and New  Zealand. The growth of the population of the  United States from 40,000,000 i n 186 7 to 75,000,000 i n 1900 partly explains why  Canadai.fell short i n her wishes f o r s e t t l e r s . A u s t r a l i a and New  offered a great advantage to emigrants i n the way  Zealand  of assisted passage. This 99  help attracted 53,958 s e t t l e r s to A u s t r a l i a i n 1874j whereas Canada received only 25,450.' The eensus figures f o r Canada show the r e s u l t s of these greater attractions,;and the tables from the United States show the e f f e c t of this power of a t t r a c t i o n on Canada's native-born, Because of t h e i r goowing indus(84) Canada Year Book. 1940. (85) ibid. (86) ibid. (87) ibid. (88) Sessional Papers, 1878. (89) Canada Year Book. 1940. Census Records 1871 3,689,257 1881 4,324,810 1891 4,833,239 1901 5,371,315  pp. 530-531 p.290 p. 316 p.397. No.Op. x x i . , and 1875, No. 40. p. v i . pp. 70-71 Percentage Incre/iase. 17.23 11.76 11.13  (90) R.H.Coats and M.C.Maclean, op. c i t . , p . 24. Canadian-born i n the United States. Percentage of Canada's People. 1871 493,464 13.38 1881 717,157 16.58 1891 980,9.39 20.30 <to.  ,72. t r i a l i z a t i o n , and the constant fear of war, European countries were very •  v  reluctant to permit emigration of t h e i r nationals except to t h e i r own col4 onies, or to places where they could s t i l l be controlled i n some measure by the homeland. Many immigrants came to Canada, however, but of those who arrived bcfu before 1891, only one i n four remained u n t i l 1901. Allowing f o r a probable  9,1 death rate of 372,000 over the period, one immigrant  stayed f o r two who  left.  Many of these were general labourers rather than farmers and either d r i f t e d away themselves, or, by undercutting him on the labour market, drove out the Canadian,who then went to j o i n h i s compatriots i n the United States. The entry of unsuitable immigrants i s shown i n the growing urbanization of* Canada. This change from r u r a l to urban pre-dominance i n population was  due  to the steady growth of industry on the one hand, and, on the other,to the growing mechanization of farming which d i d away with the need f o r the "hired" man. Men thrown out of work joined the u n s k i l l e d labourers who had invaded the country i n large numbers, often i n the guise of larm-labourers, and they crowded the poorer part of c i t i e s , having to be content with a meagre •subsistence, and contributing l i t t l e to the advancement of the country. The end of t h i s period saw a s l i g h t change i n the r a c i a l balance i n Canada, although the B r i t i s h and French races remained predominant.  The  entrance of some thousands of Germans put that race i n t h i r d p o s i t i o n i n number. The coming of the Mennonites,  (91) H.A.Innis. op. c i t . , p. 121. (92) Canada Year Book. 1940. p. 94 Rural population 1871 2,966,914 1881 3,215,303 1891 3,296,141 1901 3,357,093  Icelanders, Scandinavians and others  Urban population 722,343 1,109,507 1,537,098 2,014,222  73. brought a proportionally large increase of foreign blood to the p r a i r i e s . The change i n r a c i a l balance i s shown i n the following table: 1871 1881 1901  British 60.6 58.9 57.0  French 31.1 30.0 50.7  German 5.8 5.9 5.8  Cent-Eur. .0 .0 .8  Scand. .0 .1 .6  Russ. .0 .1 .4  Ital. .0 . .1 .2. . 93  As w i l l be seen,in the next period, the change i n ethnic o r i g i n of the people of Canada was very much greater than i n the years before 1896. The progress of Canada i n these formative years r e f l e c t e d the general economic trend of the world. Immigration increased with the good years, anil f e l l o f f i n times of depression. Although there had been a slow but steady advance, the condition of world markets and the high cost of i n t e r n a l expansion i n Canada had adversely affected her e f f o r t s to a t t r a c t  immigrants.  The o f f i c i a l s of the Department of Agriculture were not adequately rewarded f o r the generosity and ingenuity with which they had approached  their task  of s e t t l i n g the west. They had to take what s a t i s f a c t i o n they could from the knowledge that they were building w e l l . I t was. on t h e i r w e l l - l a i d foundaticns that the great structure of national growth was to r i s e i n the next era.  (93) Canada Year Book. 1943-45. p. 123.  <?A«i/  Pi  til  \  £«r-rr>rj, a  ?e«  n r  liV)oir,ao  P.y.  Val.n .  3  C  «  -i1.)  /tills  I S . m«nl>e«| -lifeftl r  J', J J  Jlirxltr  3 . 2 2 , 2 3  II, H.to C. lltiytr »3.  ' " r j ? ,  X*tt**nj  -4  "-*-::,v-f  ^ J  foreign  flnoisf, I I . J t . lem^errtrjet 57.  rt ft  (jj. S h a r i f  I. £0.  "Set. Onkl.tn „.G.I. n  £  e  '<•  &  Ire.,,  Com mtfci« 1 G>©/.  Co  74.  THE SIFTON PERIOD. 1896-1914.  The year 1896 marks a new era i n Canadian h i s t o r y . The accession to o f f i c e of the L i b e r a l party under Wilfred Laurier was coincident with the rtaet<eil HiP" 1  recoyery o i the world from a severe depression which had begun i n 1893.As i n the case of the Conservatives i n 1873, the L i b e r a l s were able to use the economic recovery to t h e i r advantage. The L i b e r a l era i n which Laurier proclaimed that "The Twentieth Century belongs to Canada", i s associated with a wide policy of national development, characterized by expansion rather than by s t a b i l i z a t i o n . This process of building included an immigration p o l i c y , which, i n bringing to Canada some three m i l l i o n new immigrants, i n i t i a t e d many new s o c i a l problems, produced an unstable balance of cultures i n the west, and drove a reluctant government into the expensive f i e l d of railaiay ovmership. Closely associated with t h i s period of expansion was L a u r i e r s Minister 1  of the Interior, C l i f f o r d S i f t o n . He i s credited with doing more than anyone e l s e to j u s t i f y h i s chief's prophecy of the destiny of Canada; so much so that Dominion p o l i c y on Interior a f f a i r s i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h " S i f t o n " p o l i c y . A  Although S i f t o n s e f f o r t s were concentrated to a great extent on the opening 1  of the western lands, h i s chief j u r i s d i c t i o n , the e f f e c t s of h i s work could be recognized i n every branch of Canadian industry and i n the growth of the i n d u s t r i a l towns of the east. To h i s admirers, he "made" the west. His f r i e n d and biographer, J.W.Dafoe, wrote:"The western Canada that we know was largely the product of h i s courage and imagination. Well might i t have been said when he l a i d down the powers and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of o f f i c e ' ' i f  75.  /  jgrou would seek my monument,look around!'" For himself, Sifton said:"I s h a l l be content when the history of t h i s century i s written to have the h i s t o r y of the l a s t eight years, as f a r as western administration i s concerned, entered opposite my name."" Sifton was favoured i n h i s period. I t was at the beginning of h i s term of o f f i c e that the f r o n t i e r of settlement was ready to cross the Canadian border; that p r i c e s were beginning to recover a f t e r the depression of  1893;  that the cost of transport was lowered, allowing economical haulage of grains from the p r a i r i e s to world markets; that Canada was becoming known abroad f o r her high-grade  wheat; and that great quantities of money were  3 being released from B r i t i s h i n d u s t r i e s f o r investment overseas. Sifton able to take advantage of these circumstances  was  and use them f o r Canada's  benefit, to the end of greater production i n a l l her major i n d u s t r i e s , notably that of a g r i c u l t u r e . C l i f f o r d Sifton who  so i d e n t i f i e d himself with western expansion was  himself a westerner, member of parliament f o r Winnipeg. As a b r i l l i a n t young lawyer, he had already drawn attention to himself by coming out strongly i n favour of non-denominational schools f o r Manitoba. In 1891,  he  was appointed attornery-general for^ h i s province. When the L i b e r a l party came into power i n 1896,  he was offered the post of Minister of the I n t e r i o r ,  (1) J.W.Dafoe, C l i f f o r d Sifton i n r e l a t i o n to h i s times. ; Toronto, Macmillan,?. 1931, p. -150. 3 o 3 (.2) House of Commons-Debates•'ICanad^l, 1906, p. 4325. (5) At t h i s time there was a gireat expansion of c r e d i t . Great B r i t a i n lent Canada $2,500,000,000 (1900-1914), adding one-third to Canada's basic c a p i t a l Foreign investments (1900-1915) added $162,715,000; American (1900-1913),' $629,794,000 c h i e f l y invested i n farming, lumbering and mining. M.Q. Innis, Economic History of Canada. Ryerson Press, Toronto. 1935. p. 290. From 1901-1911, a g r i c u l t u r a l production increased 40%; mining, 65$; manufacturing doubled; transportation systems trebled; and the urban population increased from 37$ to 45.5$ of the country's t o t a l . ;  R.H.Coats and M.C.Maclean, op. c i t . p.  76. an honour indeed f o r one who was  only t h i r t y - f i v e years of age. In accepting  the p o r t f o l i o Sifton stipulated, that he be given a free hand i n l t h e  develop-  ment of the west. The request qas granted and he began at once to infuse h i s department with h i s amazing energy. This department, whose enthusiasm had withered as i t s e f f o r t s were frustrated during the trying times of the depression, was given new l i f e , .aided, i t may be noted by an almost unlimited purse. Sifton's p o l i c i e s were sometimes unwisej they were often expensive,  and  as such were frequently assailed by h i s Conservative opponents, and even by his  L i b e r a l friends; but they at no time lacked energy and they were always  inspired by h i s deep f a i t h i n the destiny of the p r a i r i e s . In 1906  Sifton  broke with h i s c h i e f , S i r Wilfred Laurier, who wished the establishment of separate schools i n the North-West |j~just^created Alberta and Saskatchewan| . As Sifton could not agree to t h i s plan, he resigned h i s o f f i c e . His successor, Frank Oliver of Edmonton, carried on Sifton's policy with l i t t l e change, partly because he agreed with the ideas of Sifton, and partly because he was powerless to change the system that had already taken such a large part i n Canada's economic l i f e . By the time Sifton l e f t o f f i c e , western Canada had been changed beyond recognition. From the North-West T e r r i t o r i e s two new provinces had been created. An ever-increasing acreage had been put under the plough, and as a result a g r i c u l t u r a l production had grown enormously. Great i r r i g a t i o n projects had been undertaken i n Alberta; new r a i l r o a d s , elevators, v i l l a g e s and towns, and with them new  s o c i a l anJeconomic organizations, had a l l  become integrated with the prosperity of the west. The pattern of western Canadian l i f e seemed cast i n gold, the ever-widening  wheat-fields, with  t h e i r steady flow of grain, i t s chief motif. I f there were ar reverse side to  the picture, few would have wished to regard i t , f o r there was  nothing  to indicate that by 1930 the stream of wheat would have caused a glut on the market, and have become an embarrassment to the Canadian Government. To summarize the structure on which Sifton b u i l t i t i s necessary only to outline b r i e f l y the accomplishments of the previous period i n the two main departments- railway-building and immigration and settlement, the spheres i n which Sifton achieved h i s greatest success. On coming to o f f i c e , Sifton fcund the south-eastern part of Manitoba well supplied with r a i l r o a d s , the main l i n e to the I ^ i f i c , completed  i n 1885  having been supplemented by several branch l i n e s serving large areas of good farm-land. Enough r a i l r o a d had been b u i l t to permit the economical transportation of wheat to worl/lfmarkets. I t was on this trade that the prosperity of the west was b u i l t . Several group settlements had been made and were proving r e l a t i v e l y prosperous. They had been successful enough to warrant the establishment of others i n the period a f t e r 1896. Of future significance was the fact that the Americans, with t h e i r s k i l l and experience, their c a t t l e and t h e i r other " s e t t l e r s ' e f f e c t s " were already crossing the border i n appreciable numbers. In 1881 there were 1868 of these s e t t l e r s , and i n 1891, there were 5024. In some cases.they took advantage of the free homesteads offered, but more cl often>they bought the better grades of land heldd by the companies, the . ownership of which did.not require that the s e t t l e r s take out n a t u r a l i z a t i o n papers. By 1896, assisted by the Dominion Experimental farms, the p r a i r i e farmers had learned to cope with drought and f r o s t . Although wheat-farming was s t i l l the favourite branch of agriculture, mixed-farming had made useful beginnings. In  the organization f o r immigration,there were many e f f i c i e n t agents  throughout the B r i t i s h I s l e s , i n France, Belgium and i n many states of the  78. United States. There were also agents f o r the .repatriation of French-C-.n-.id Canadians, working i n the New  ..England i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s . An elaborate  system f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of immigrant information had been established f o r many years. The tone of s e t t l e r s ' l e t t e r s had, i n the Last few years, become hopeful. A great bombardment of " l i t e r a t u r e " had taught both American and Continental about Canada's lands. In Canada, agents at the sea-ports and scattered throughout the P r a i r i e s , t r a v e l l i n g with s e t t l e r s on the trains, or working on settlement and the placing of labour i n the eastern provinces, were stationed at strategic points. At the ports of entry and at necessary points on the P r a i r i e s , there were h a l l s f o r the accommodation of s e t t l e r s en route to t h e i r lands. Land guides were also provided. • In 1891,  there were. 8,138,000 acres occupied, an increase of 202%.over  the holdings i n 1881,  and of these 1,429,000 acres were improved. The  Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company had already sold over a quarter of a m i l l i o n acres of land, and the Hudson's Bay Company had made a small s t a r t i n the sale of some twenty thousand acres of theireland grant? This was the foundation on which S i f t o n b u i l t , and which, without real break in. continuity, ofiopolicy/,, whe ;  which was opening before  any  extended i n the great era of progress  him.  When Sifton took over the Department of the Interior, he salid that he found i t i n a state of disorder. He described i t as a "department of delay, and a department of circumlocution'.' He found i t p a r t i c u l a r l y undesirable t that seekers a f t e r land had to wait while land agents i n the west and o f f i c i a l s i n Ottawa "played battledore and shuttlecock" with applications f o r land. He therefore abolished the Winnipeg Land Board as b&ing too bureau-  .  nacmillart}.  , v S  (4) Mackintosh, graiacie• Settlement-The geographical setting. Toronto>1934, (5) w.A.Mackintosh, l o c . c i t . (p.58. (6) Chester Martin, op. c i t . p . 242. /<  A  *  79.  c r a t i c and centralized the work within h i s own office,making i t a practice that "To any man who was w i l l i n g to t r y honestly to s e t t l e on the lands of 7  the West, the resources of the Department of the Interior were open'.' His biographer amplified that remark when he said:"His motto was ' Settle'"? He believed that the f i r s t thing to do was to s e t t l e the empty West with producing farmers. This was the second and t h i r d and fourth thing to do. Solve the question of how to get people of the.right sort into the West and keep them there, and the problem of n a t i o n a l development would be solved. If the West remained empty, every expedient to restore prosperity would be 9  futile*.  1  In the o f f i c i a l records of .the Department of the I n t e r i o r , we read  that:"The policy of the Department has been based on the assumption that i t i s highly desirable that at the e a r l i e s t possible moment" a l l the f e r t i l e lands of the West should be located and the country enriched by the general productivity which w i l l be sure to follow the settlement of a hardy class of s e t t l e r s . " I t was i n l i n e with t h i s established policy of land s e t t l e ment that the Department concentrated it's immigration e f f o r t s on securing farmers, farm-labourers and female domestic  servants.  Following h i s conviction that the Government should, use a l l i t s resources to stimulate the settlement of the west, Sifton decided to concentrate the e f f o r t s of h i s Department of two major a c t i v i t i e s ,  ancextension  of r a i l r o a d services to meet the needs of the expanding f r o n t i e r s , and a costly programme of propaganda which would a t t r a c t to Sanada the immigrants from Europe or the United States to open western farm-lands. The Canadian High Commissioner to London said i n 1896:"If we ever expect to get a large immigration, we must keep Canada continually before the world,  47) House of Commons Debates(Canada),1906.,Vol. 3., p. 4270 (8) J.W.Dafoe, op. c i t . P.151.' "~ (9) House of Commons Journals (Canada) 1900. Appendix I. p. 309.  80.  **-  ro  especially before those sections of the population that we desire to reach'.' Sifton took t h i s advice to heart and l e f t nothing undone that could further the work of bringing Canada's advantages to the eyes of the 'world. Sifton's methods of advertising Canada abroad had l i t t l e that was  new  except t h e i r aggressiveness and t h e i r expense. Every d i v i s i o n of h i 6 department was stimulated to new l i f e , and new agents were engaged to go abroad. Where h i s predecessors had sent abroad about a dozen "return men",  Sifton  sent f i f t y j where immigration pamphlets had been scattered by the Hundred thousand, he scattered them by the m i l l i o n . Under such a l l u r i n g t i l l e s a a s "Canada, the Country of the Twentieth Century "."Canadian Farmlands" of "The —  —  —  —  —  —  i^.!*V->.  —  ,„j  Last,Be3t West", and printed i n the most important European languages,they reached the homes of many thousands of potential immigrants. The most popu l a r of these pamphlets went into several r e p r i n t s . Soon the democrat with i t s cases of exhibits was replaced by a car, and then by a f l e e t of cars. Where a few delegates from the United States or Europe had made the grand tour of Canada as guests of the government, they now came by the t r a i n l o a d . Where small o f f i c e s i n London had sufficed, Sifton now engaged new •andtral larger o f f i c e s near Charing Cross, at the very heart of t r a f f i c ,  and t h e i r  windows became an "ever-changing panorama of Canadian views and products'.' The building i t s e l f , to quote i t s sponsor,"was f i n i s h e d inside with Canadian materials:;, by Canadian workmen and was.'a standing advertisement of t h i s country and the way.we do business". Probably the most spectacular piece of of propaganda that Sifton used was the Coronation Arch, erected i n 1902 f o r the coronation of Edward VII. It was covered with sheaves of Canadian wheat and was so a t t r a c t i v e to v i s i t o r s and Londoners a l i k e , that Lord Strathcona,  (10) Sessional Papers, 1896. No. 15. p. xxx. (11) Sessional Papers. 1897. No. 13, p. A  t,  ^  y»  81. • the Canadian High Commissioner to London, said that i t s attractiveness was second only to"that of the KingI He added that i t had great value i n bringing more c l e a r l y than ever before the vast resources of the Dominion to the  ft minds of the B r i t i s h public. Many lectures were given throughout B r i t a i n , the preferred countries of Europe^and to some extent i n the United States. They were usually  illus-  trated by b e a u t i f u l lahtern-slides-foften too beautiful to be convincing)  v_^*«S«aJS«i  and were attended by large numbers of people i n the country d i s t r i c t s . Thousands of coloured and i l l u s t r a t e d atlases of Canada were d i s t r i b u t e d to do t h e i r s i l e n t work on the p l a s t i c minds of the r i s i n g generation. After a few years of experience, the agents learned that i t . i s often the woman of the family who must be convinced before a family can be persuaded to migrate. Special pamphlets were prepared to appeal to women, and women l e c t u r e r s went about ready to discuss the feminine side of l i f e i n a new land. In many cases t h i s work was very e f f e c t i v e . The agents, under Sifton's i n s t r u c t i o n s , combed the farming d i s t r i c t s . The Minister said of h i s e f f o r t s there:  .  In Great B r i t a i n , we confined our e f f o r t s very l a r g e l y to the north of England and Scotland, f o r the purpose of s i f t i n g the • s e t t l e r s . We doubled, the bonuses to the '[[Steamshipjagents i n those d i s t r i c t s and cut them as much as possible i n the south. The result was that we got a f a i r l y steady stream of people from the North of England and from Scotland- and they were the very best s e t t l e r s i n the world. Probably the most e f f e c t i v e agents were the "return men",  ters of immigrants. The "return men"  and the l e t -  as t h e i r name suggests were immigrants  who had succeeded i n farming In the North-West, and who,  at government  expense, returned to the d i s t r i c t s whence they had come to t e l l t h e i r  (12) Sessional Papers. 1903. No.Z/p. 9. (13) J.W.Dafoe, op. c i t . , p. 140.  fellow-countrymen of the prosperity awaiting them iheCanada's western lands. The l e t t e r s of immigrants were more economical and often very satisfactory methods of attracting s e t t l e r s . In h i s report f o r 1898,  the Scandinavian  agent wrote: One thing an agent ought to do i s to make use of a contented s e t t l e r by c a l l i n g upon him and getting him to write l e t t e r s f o r publication... These l e t t e r s should be sent out while they are fresh...They should be 'short and to the point...I do not believe i n the exhibition of magic lantern views. People who r e a l l y mean business and w i l l emigrate to better themselves want to know something else than to look at views. They think these views are got up on purpose and are hot the r e a l thing... The best thing i s to send these people a l e t t e r from some person of t h e i r own province or town.j Such a l e t t e r as the following proved to be a good immigration agent: Alameda, N.'W.T., Aug.I, 1897. Dear Friends of Saginaw, Those desiring to secuie a good and sure home w i l l do well to take our advice and examine the land i n the neighbourhood of Alameda, as we know that everyone who sees t h i s land w i l l be agreeably surprised. Before seeing t h i s land, we were p a r t l y i n doubt as to moving here, but a f t e r looking i t over, we at once decided to make our home here, and we beg those of our friends who are desirous of securing farms not to l e t t h i s chance s l i p by, as the s o i l i s of the best and the water cannot be excelled. The f i n e s t wheat we ever saw i s raised here. We s h a l l return home i n haste, straighten out our a f f a i r s , and move here at once. Yours t r u l y , William Gattowski, Albert Mai * .William Riedel, of Saginaw. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , perhaps,' the agents i n the United States made most use of advertising. In about seven thousand a g r i c u l t u r a l papers the agents published a small advertisement during the two or three months when a farmer has l e i s u r e to read.,Many agents thought that such advertisements  (14) Sessional Papers, 1898, No. Z3, pp. 62-63. C.O.Swanson. (15) Sessional Papers, 1898, No. p. 73  brought good r e s u l t s . Equally u s e f u l and more spectacular were the elaborate exhibits of Canadian products that appeared at state and county f a i r s . They were so e f f e c t i v e that some states, notably New York and Washington, forbade them, and other states made the rents f o r show space so exorbitant that the exclusion of the e x h i b i t s was assured. The Oklahoma lands were opened i n 1901. Knowing that there,would not be enough lands i n t h i s t e r r i t o r y to s a t i s f y a l l who wanted them, Sifton sent h i s agents to attract those who would be disappointed i n t h i e r hopes. The Canadian agent i n Kansas organized p a r t i e s t o t a l l i n g about a hundred f a m i l i e s Figures showing the entry-of immigrants i n t h i s period show how e f f e c t ive was the work of the agents and the attractiveness of Canadian lands. 1899 British . 10,660 Continental 21,938 . United States 11,945' 44,543  1900(6 months)  1901  1902.  5,141 10,211 8,543  11,810 19,353 17,987  17,259 . 23,732 26,388  23,895  49,149  67,579  / t >  •  In 1902 the agent at Winnipeg reported that 13,205 immigrants had crossed the border from the United States, and that 10,768 from B r i t a i n and 12,530 from the eastern provinces had entered the p r a i r i e s . Of the 19,700 harvest hands, about 3,800 remained. About 1,500 French and French-Canadians had also come west, many of the l a t t e r being repatriates, recalled by the opening of ^ the North-West from the i n d u s t r i a l centres of New England. Of the success of t h i s a c t i v i t y , and of the related a c t i v i t i e s of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company [~ considered by many as the r e a l backbone of the work of a t t r a c t i o n and settlementJT.A.Coghlan, Agent-General f o r New  (16) Sessional Papers^ 1902, N o . 2 ^ p . 5. (17) Sessional Fagers. 1903 f Nte* -25^ p*.hd®&6j-  8f>. South Wales. While endeavouring  to a t t r a c t s e t t l e r s to h i s country, he made  a study of the methods uses by the government of Canada. He believed that, "The greatest of a l l ...influences that help to b u i l d up the great immigration system of Canada i s the vigorous propaganda maintained by the immigration agents employed to canvass f o r e l i g i b l e persons.with or without c a p i t a l . Nor can anyone deny that t h i s work has been crowned with success, an everincreasing success; t h i s great western t e r r i t o r y being f i l l e d up with a  19 f i n e class of settlers!! Canadians did not always look with such approval on the work of t h e i r government. E.N.Rhodes ,, member of parliament f o r Nova Scotia,complained that nothing was done f o r h i s province by the Department of the Interior, but paid an i n d i r e c t compliment to the success  of i t s  e f f o r t s i n reaching i t s objective. He quoted from an address by Beetles Wilson, a contemporary l e c t u r e r : "Go down i n t o Kent or Wiltshire and you w i l l f i n d v i l l a g e r s talking g l i b l y of Saskatchewan or Alberta. The ale-house wiseacre can give you off-hand a l l the s a l i e n t p e c u l i a r i t i e s of the Far West ...to hear him, one would suppose that he had already made h i s entry into those occidental regions of the Empire...but i t was only i n prospect, when he had saved enough money." -Many of these-eager l i s t e n e r s did not f u l f i l t h e i r dreams, and many who did come to Canada did not come to the west; but from her small supply of farm-workers, B r i t a i n i n 1905 spared some t h i r t y thousand to Canada. Of these about eleven thousand declared themselves of the farming c l a s s , and about ten thousand of those hoped to s e t t l e i n Manitoba. The majority were single men.  (18) T.A.Coghlan, lieport on Immigration. B u l l e t i n 5. Intelligence Department. (Ii). New South Wales, 1906, pp. 10-17. (19) House of Commons Debates[Canada7l911-12. p. 2079. ,(20) Sessional Papers, 1906, No. 25. pp. 42-4S.  Two tables are of interest at t h i s point. The f i r s t one shows that, despite the remarks of E.N.Rhodes, the eastern provinces d i d receive a f a i r share of the immigrants to Canada: Intended Destinations of Immigrants to Canada. 1904-1914, B r i t i s h Isles  Destination  Continental Europe  United States,  Maritimes Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia  38,157 145,321 430,630 148,108 68,685 70,957  44,503 177, 785 170,970 118,661 47,594 38,282  27,593 74,246 94,025 54,530 166,453 203,272  93,249  78,257  138,182  Total  995,107  The  676,052  758,301  i  f  other table shows that many entered who were riot sought under the  Sifton plan of encouraging only farmers and domestic servants: Intended,Occupation of Adult Workers entering ' Canada. 1904-1914f Occupation Farmers Labourers Miners Mechanics Clerks Domestics Others  British Isles 182,439 ' 91,478 14,775 138,702 41,956 90,023 28,618  Continental Europe 129,650 258,737 8,311 39,201 50,040 27,650 -.10,458  Canaan United States 221,405 131,561 12,432 62,110 18,543 10,980 16,884  >> o  In the figures given f o r a sample year, 1906, of the 29,077 males entering from the United Kingdom, 11,226 were of the farming c l a s s , 5044 were general labourers, 9086 were of the merchant class and'2135 were classed as traders. These f i g u r e s are interesting f o r at no time was i t part of Canada's immigration policy to give encouragement to any classes except a g r i c u l t u r a l  (21) E.G.Reynolds, The B r i t i s h immigrant. Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1935, Appendix A, Table 5. p. 300. ((22) L.G.Reynolds, i b i d , p. 306.  workers, domestic servants, and  ;  i n times of special need, general labourers.  Although the numbers-of those entering Canada seem large, there were not  nearly enough to s a t i s f y Sifton*s plans f o r the west. As he was unable  to.obtain enough of the farming class from B r i t a i n and the United States, he directed h i s e f f o r t s to the continent of Europe. Here he  met  difficult  t i e s . Foreign governments, f o r reasons previously noted, had a great object i o n to the emigration of t h e i r nationals, and therefore to the a c t i v i t i e s of Canadian immigration agents within t h e i r boundaries. Sifton, to evade the  objections, made an engagement with the North A t l a n t i c Trading Company,  a group of transportation agents with headquarters i n Amsterdam. The company agreed to spend $15,000 a year i n advertising Canada through i t s agencies. In return, the company was to receive f o r each passenger of the approved classes directed to Canada, f i v e d o l l a r s f o r each adult, and half that f o r each c h i l d . Emigrants from the Slavic countries were considered as l e s s desirable than those from the "preferred" countries, and i t was agreed that they must be i n possession of #100 each, with $25 extra f o r each c h i l d i n the family. Under t h i s agreement, Canada obtained many s e t t l e r s from Russia, Germany, Austria, Scandinavia and Switzerland. The contract with_the North A t l a n t i c Trading Company, one of the most controversial agreements made i n the history of Canada, lasted f o r three y. years, during which time the immigration from the Continent to Canada reached i t s peak. For most of this time, the contract was subject to f a i r l y continuous attack from the opposition i n the House of Commons. In h i s usetdf subtle methods to obtain s e t t l e r s , Sifton played into the hands of his opponents who l o s t no time i n attacking him on e t h i c a l grounds. They said: "This government i s condoning the i n f r a c t i o n or v i o l a t i o n by these gentlemen  (23) Sessional Papers,  1S0(T, No.  25. pp. f%-A"5.  87. [the  agents of the North Atlantic Trading Company]of the laws ox their  J  If country" The opposition also contendedthat the contract was unnecessarily costly since i t agreed to pay bonuses on people who would probably have come to Canada without any d i r e c t i o n from the,-...Company; that i t l e f t  itself  open to abuse i n guaranteeing payments when there could be no proof that they had been earned; that i t brought i n the wrong type of s e t t l e r . pressure of these arguments was strong and .often i r r e f u t a b l e . In 1906  The the  contract was cancelled, Sifton holding to the l a s t that i t had been r e a l l y useful i n securing the right kind of s e t t l e r , and that, once the influence of the company was removed, Canada had no means of checking the type of person emigrating to her shores.06$" a flood of immigration had been started i t was soon found necessary to take l e g a l measures to check i t . Having cancelled the charter with the North A t l a n t i c Trading Company, the government decided to substitute a system of paying to booking-agents a bonus of one pound s t e r l i n g f o r each adult and ten s h i l l i n g s f o r each c h i l d directed to Canada. Ten d o l l a r s and f i v e d o l l a r s was also paid as a bonus to those homesteading  within s i x months of entering Canada. At f i r s t given  only to those who settled on the p r a i r i e s , t h i s bonus was l a t e r extended to immigrants homesteading  i n the east or i n B r i t i s h Columbia. These measures  were taken to induce booking-agents to send people to Canada rather than to the other Dominions.  The bonus system also gave Canada a better chance to  control the class of people entering and to encourage t h e i r entry at the most suitable seasons. Cne of the best methods of encouraging settlement was to make homes-. steads readily available. In order to make land more accessible to s e t t l e r s Sifton gave assistance i n the building of additional r a i l r o a d s . He refused,  (24) House of Commons Debates[banadaj,1906,  pp. 1652-3. Robert Borden.  9a. however, to make land grants to railways, because such grants, taken up at the pleasure of the r a i l r o a d companies, had -been a detriment to settlement. Moreover, as the Minister said}|In the case of every land grant, the government set aside a t r a c t of land perhaps two or three times greater than the amount of the grant, and the railway company selects the number of oddnumbered sections they are e n t i t l e d to'.'In order to overcome t h i s land-lock which had been a serious drawback to settlement , Sifton gave help henceforth i n the form of guaranteed bonds. He also brought pressure to bear on the existing railway companies to choose t h e i r lands, so that the government could dispose of the remaining lands i n the reserves. The Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company, the concern most affected, had patented only 1,825,425 ac acres by 1896. On August 22, 1903 the complete choice of lands had been made, and three years l a t e r 22,478,013 a c r e ^ h a d been patented, over h a l f of which had been sold. The Company chose 2,990,000 acres i n the semi-arid lands of Alberta, where i t developed f i r s t a large i r r i g a t i o n project and l a t e r a very extensive programme of settlement, thereby adding two more services to i t s long l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s i n the colonization of the North-West. The Company  r chose the remainder of i t s lands from the reserve which the government had set aside f o r the Manitoba and North-Western Railway. By 1908,the 'other out1  standing railway grants had- f i n a l l y been liquidated A second railway that had delayed the choice of i t s lands, s t r i v i n g f o r the best possible bargain, was the Qu'Appelle,  LongLake and Saskatchewan  Railroad and Steamship Company, which, by building a twenty-mile r a i l r o a d $rom Regina to Long Lakeland l a t e r on to Battleford^ had  stretch of "earned"  a land grant of 1,625,344 acres. The company was not s a t i s f i e d , however, with the quality of the land considered by the government as " f a i r l y f i t f o r (25) House of Commons'Journals, 1904. p. 677. (.26) Chester Martin, op. c i t . p. 330.  89. settlement". A law suit was imminent when the land was purchased by the Saskatchewan Valley Land Company. I t was  i n the course of t h i s dispute' that  Sifton defined the phrase " f a i r l y f i t f o r settlement" which had brought so much controversy  into land grant contracts;^The  f a i r l y , f i t f o r settlement  Minister said that "Land f  s h a l l be held to mean that each quarter-section  s h a l l , .as respects s o i l and climate, be of such a nature that a man  can make  a reasonable l i v i n g f o r himself and h i s family o f f such quarter-section without the use of adjoining lands, by ordinary work and industry'.' Although the d e f i n i t i o n was  as f u l l of possible controversy  as the o r i g i n a l phrase  had been, i t provided a working basis f o r the s e t t l i n g of land grants. Saskatchewan Valley Land Company was  The  able to accept the d e f i n i t i o n i n the  Siftonian sense and i n May,1902 i t purchased Company's grant at |L53 an acre."  845,900 acres of the Qu'Appelle -<  The Saskatchewan Valley Land Company undertook one of the most i n t e r e s t ing  experiments i n colonization i n the history of the west. The scheme has  been referred to as the "flowering of the colonization companies." Headed by Colonel A.D.Davidson, the members of the company were eight real-estate men,,, experienced i n the work of settlement  i n the United States. To  consolidate  t h e i r lands i n Canada, they bought from the government an additional 250,000 acres at one d o l l a r an acre. The conditions of sale included the agreement that the purchasers should place twenty s e t t l e r s on free homesteads i n each township, and twelve s e t t l e r s on lands purchased from the company. When these had been f u l f i l l e d , the company was  e n t i t l e d to the remaining even-numbered  sections. The contract was to extend over f i v e years, but at l e a s t two-thirds of the conditions were to be performed i n two years and o n e - f i f t h i n each  (27) Chester Martin, op. c i t . p. 297. (28) Sessional Papers~, Mb f, (/•' 1950,p.. 27."Reot.of Deputy Minister of I n t e r i o r .  90. year thereafter. When the settlement was complete, the purchasers were to receive the remainder of the lands at one d o l l a r an acre, with interest at four per cent after two years. Payment could'be made i n cash or scrip as the purchasers wished. The rights of any previous holders of land were to be respected. A'deposit of &50,000 was made with the government, to be appl i e d to the purchase price•-which the conditions had been f u l f i l l e d . The government began the survey as soon as the deposit had been made.-" The contract was signed and the company began i t s campaign. I t brought i n land guides and furnished free accommodation at hotels f o r prospective buyers. Public speakers were engaged to advertise the lands. The agents of the company were most active i n tiie United States. A t r a i n brought bankers, editors, and grain men on a complimentary t r i p from Chicago to Prince oAlbert with the result that a great deal of desirable p u b l i c i t y was given throughout  the United States to Canadian lands. Two notable settlements "  were effected by these a c t i v i t i e s , the establishment of about eight hundred German families at Q u i l l Lake and a Mennonite eolony^ofisome  three hundred  families situated north-east of Long Lake i n A s s i n i b o i a v Needless to say thiseenterprise was so much i n the vein of Sifton t h a i i t was sure to win h i s approval. He e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y reported of the undertaking that what had been "despised waste land" was,  i n a few years,beyond  recognition. He said that: The whole t e r r i t o r y became i n a few years completely settled and i s sending out thousands of bushels of wheat...In going through that tract a year ago t h i s month, I saw on that land which i n the spring of the year was an absolute desert, without anyone on i t , without the means of sustenance f o r man or beast,Ilsaw on thatjtract l a s t year.Q.906J v i l l a g e s , elevators, stores, hotels, and the largest wheat f i e l d I ever saw i n my l i f e . That i s the r e s u l t of the operations of t h i s company.  (29) Information on t h i s undertaking may be found i n House of Commons ( Journals, 1902. pp. 679-80.  9$. I venture to say that, presented to the business man, he would say that t h i s i s a pretty f a i r transaction on the part of the .Interior Department. 3° On another occasion, Sifton wrote that, "The coming of t h i s company was the 3/  beginning of the great success of our immigration work i n the West'.' It i s true that by reason of i t s personal contacts i n the United States t h i s company and i t s imitators were able to accomplish more than even the best of government agents, r e s t r i c t e d by departmentalism,.were  able to do.  On* t h e i r own,the government men were able to dispose of about one hundred thousand acres to farmers during 1899-1900,. but the very f a c t that they were responsible to the.^dictates of Standing Committees on  Immigration  limited t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . Colonel Davidson himself admitted the d i f f i c u l t i e s that even a private company encountered when he said i n has report of h i s work that h i s company would not wish to take the contract a second time. His experience, however, d i d not prevent a Davidson-McRae partnership, the Saskatchewan and Manitoba Land Company undertaking the sale of the Sanadian Northern lands u n t i l the r a i l r o a d was absorbed by the government i n 1917. A second interesting experiment was the Barr Colony, established near the present town of Saskatoon. Approximately two thousand persons under the leadership of the Reverend I.M.Barr l e f t England to make a settlement i n the west. The members were inexperienced i n farming and t h e i r leader was e n t i r e l y inadequate to deal with the problems of pioneer l i f e . For the f i r s t year the colonists suffered many hardships. The government supplied land, . hay, tents, food^ horses, even -money where necessary, but these aids were not enoughtto guarantee success. The d i f f i c u l t y was that the s e t t l e r s were organized to work as a unit, under a democratic system, rather than i n ([50) House of Commons Debates [Canada]. 1906, p. 4299. (31) J.W.Dafoe, op. c i t . pp,?;08-9. (32) Chester Martin, op. c i t . p. 527.  9*. response to i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e .  Their leader was soon discredited and I  l e f t the colony. Under the d i r e c t i o n of Archdeacon George E. Lloyd, the s e t t l e r s achieved a greater measure of success, but not before more than half of them had l e f t the d i s t r i c t .  Canadian and American farmers took up  the land l e f t vacant, and supplied a much-needed leaven of experience to the three hundred who  remained. Left to t h e i r own devices, these worked  hard and d i d f a i r l y w e l l . The present c i t i e s of Saskatoon and Lloydminster symbolize the success as farmers of a most "unlikely" group i n a land which 33?  had been considered equally u n l i k e l y . Thi3 colony had cost the government between seven and eight thousand d o l l a r s . The Royal North-West Mounted p o l i c e had d i s t r i b u t e d f i v e thousand dollars'worth of provisions. The expense of the enterprise and the struggles of the colonists revealed only too well the danger of placing large groups of new  s e t t l e r s especially under pioneer conditions, and without  experienced  people to help them. Government agents resolved to avoid future colonies of more than about two hundred persons. Sifton, unlike some of h i s predecessors, early r e a l i z e d that he could not get enough s e t t l e r s from the B r i t i s h Isles or from northern Europe. He therefore undertook the settlement of groups of GentralriEurpoeans. This enterprise was one of the more controversial parts of h i s  work. A gener-  ation afterwards, there i s s t i l l a difference of opinion as to whether ornot he s a c r i f i c e d the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l side of Canadian l i f e to i t s economic side. The most famous of the settlements sponsored by Sifton was that of the Doukhobors. These Doukhobors or Doukhoborski, s p i r i t - w r e s t l e r s , members of  (33) W.A.Carrothers.Emigration from the B r i t i s h I s l e s . London,King,1929,p.247 (34) House of Commons Journals, 1904, p. 655. (35) ibjci., loc,. ext.  95. the Universal Brotherhood, seem to have developed as a separate sect i n a v i l l a g e i n southern Russia i n the middle of the eighteenth century. The "brothers" are mainly peasants. Their r e l i g i o u s doctrines resemble those of the Quakers. For r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l reasons they encountered i n Russia the l i v e l y h o s t i l i t y of both church and state. The former objected to t h e i r unorthodox b e l i e f s ; the l a t t e r , t o ; t h e i r refusal to render m i l i t a r y service and to follow the usual conventions of the country. In Russia, the Doukhobors were organized on a-tract of land near the Sea of Azov, under the leadership of Kapustin, an ex-sergeant of the Russian army. His rule was exceptionally wise. For about f i f t y years the sect was undisturbed i n i t s i s o l a t i o n . Then, because the Doukhobor doctrines were beginning to i n f e c t others, the Orthodox church protested and a persecution set i n . Kapustin was arrested and exiled to S i b e r i a ; the colony was then banished to Trans-Caucasia, and t h e i r homes were broken up. U n t i l 188v?, t h e i r l i v e s as a g r i c u l t u r a l labourers were comparatively secure, but a f t e r that they came into c o n f l i c t with the ftissian government which was compelled to enforce m i l i t a r y regulations, to which, f o r r e l i g i o u s reasons, the sect objected. A persecution, more b i t t e r than before, began; f i n a l l y the Dowager Empress Irene interceded f o r them and obtained permission f o r the Doukhobors ,. to emigrate. The assistance of several i n f l u e n t i a l persons was secured, including Prince Leo T o l s t o i , Vladimar Tchertkoff, Aylmer Maude, ancEnglishman who had been a merchant i n Moscow, Professor James Mavor of the Univers i t y of Toronto, and the Society of Friends i n England. On the. strength of T o l s t o i ' s recommendation that the Doukhobors were the best farmers i n Russia, chaste i n their family l i f e , adaptable to any climate, steady and hard-, working, t h r i f t y and possessed of means, the Canadian government became interested i n these people. Prince D.A.Hilkoff, an exiled Russian and a nephew of the Russian Minister of Railways, together with Aylmer Maude, found  suitable s i t e s f o r t h e i r proteges near Fort P e l l y i n Assiniboia. The government of Canada promised to pay into a central agency one pound s t e r l i n g f o r each s e t t l e r who registered with the Commissioner at Winnipeg. Accommodation f o r the s e t t l e r s was provided f o r several months at the Immigration Halls, and about f i v e thousand Doukhobors applied f o r monetary assistance. Bonuses to the amount of $35,852.78 were also paid, with a further grant i n 1901 of $20,000. The Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company assisted the immigration  by  36  reducing the fare across country from sixteen to s i x d o l l a r s . In January, 1899 four thousand Doukhobors entered Halifax was impressed with t h e i r physical appearance  and"everyone  About three thousand four  hundred more arrived the following year. Five thousand were s e t t l e d i n As sins i b o i a and h a l f that number i n Saskatchewan. The chief settlements were the North Colony of s i x townships, at Thunder H i l l , Swan Lake and Verigin; and  37 the South Colony at Blaine Lake and Devil's Lake covering f i f t e e n townships. The Canadian P a c i f i c .Railway Company exchanged some of i t s land so that the Doukhobors might have a s o l i d block, because the s e t t l e r s wished to form communal v i l l a g e s . Altogether they occupied from 1,500  to 2,000 homesteads.  Some members, to be known as the Independents, l a t e r broke from the group and f i l e d t h e i r own claims.In general, however, they remained communal, refusing to take the oath that was necessary to obtain patent f o r an i n d i v i d u a l l y held homestead.. Further lands were held .in reserve f o r the Doukhobors, but were l a t e r taken up by independent membersors or' by other s e t t l e r s . For some years the Doukhobors were regarded with approval, as, true to t h e i r "advance p u b l i c i t y " , they were good and t h r i f t y farmers. Their s e t t l e ments i n general prcps.ered. Some of the, men went out to work on the r a i l r o a d s , roaming: coti.teatsr witilths (26) Sessional Papers. (37) C.A.Dawson, op. c i t . p. 12.  pp.ix-x.  9f. making contacts outside the group, but i n the main, the community tended to keep to i t s e l f . When the leader, Peter Verigin, was released from S i b e r i s , hey too, came to Canada. His presence had a s t a b i l i z i n g influence on h i s followers, some of whom, demonstrating the f a n a t i c a l side of the Doukhobor r e l i g i o n , had created disturbances i n the various settlements, and, through t h e i r destruction of property, had brought the Doukhobors a considerable amount of adverse c r i t i c i s m . In the course of time changes have taken place within the organization. Some,forced from the colony, either by o v e r p o p u l a t i o n or by t h e i r change i n attitude toward communal ownership, sought land i n other d i s t r i c t s and adapted themselves to conditions there . Whereas Independent Doukhobors have f i t t e d themselves into the general l i f e of Canada, most of the sect have remained Community Doukhobors,.looking to the town of Verigin as t h e i r "cppitall! In 1988., because reserve lands were withdrawn when the Doukhobors refused to qualify f o r the patents on t h e i r homesteads, about s i x thousand of  them migrated to the Grand Forks-Nelson d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia,  where they 'established themselves on good farm lands. There some of them, as Sons of Freedom^ became notorious f o r t h e i r r e l i g i o u s parades, f o r t h e i r f a n a t i c a l opposition to government educational systems, and, despite t h e i r vaunted humanitarianism, f o r t h e i r tendency to destroy property. In 1916, two' new colonies derived from those i n B r i t i s h Columbia were established at Cowley and at Lundbreck i n Alberta. Whatever may be said of the r e l i g i o u s fanaticism of the Doukhobors, no one has questioned t h e i r value as farmers. In the agent's report of t h e i r immigrationrshe wrote: The Thunder H i l l , Good Spirit, Lake and Sand River colonies may be grouped as possessing^ t r a i t s i n common and i d e n t i c a l opinion.  9*.  r  Thunder H i l l , one hundred and f i f t y souls, made marked progress during the.year. The people are earning money i n many ways and i n a short time w i l l be r i c h . They have bought many horses, c a t t l e and implements, having eight hundred acres under crop, and are preparing to double the quantity next year. The health of the colony as a whole i s good... Good S p i r i t Lake people'have a large crop, have gone extensively into the r a i s i n g of c a t t l e and hoBses, and are e n t i r e l y self-supporting. Many of them have already separated from the communal, p r i n c i p l e and are now doing f o r themselves on t h e i r own homesteads. The Sand River colony i s the more advanced of the two, having a large area under c u l t i v a t i o n and owning much machinery.  A further measure of t h e i r industry i s given i n the agents's report i n 1905 t h a t they had at Yorkton, t h e i r f i r s t big centre, 20,000 acres under crop, t e n miles of road graded, a brick-yard, several saw-mills and g r i s t m i l l s . They had purchased 370 head of horses, four portable engines, two t r a c t i o n engines, and a proportionate supply of other modern a g r i c u l t u r a l machinery. To a great extent, t h i s material progress has continued, both i n B r i t i s h Columbia and on the P r a i r i e s . In building t h i s prosperity, the Doukhobors have undoubtedly contributed to the a g r i c u l t u r a l advance of Canada, and t h e i r farms have become models f o r others; but t h e i r r e f u s a l to accept Canadian p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and educational standards, and t h e i r non-conformity  i n such matters as recording  v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s , has made them a thorn i n the f l e s h of the government, and has brought grave doubts to the public mind as to the wisdom of having l e t them enter. The numbers i n the chief settlements on the P r a i r i e s are as follows.  1901 1911 1921 1931  Kam sack-Canora. Rural Urban 6,600 15,520 1136 16,241 5892' 17,758 3912 ~  Blaine Lake. Rural Urban. 553 279 1958 2927 460 from C.A.Dawson, O P . c i t . p. 50.  (38) Sessional Papers. 1902, No. 2S", pp. 120-121. (39) Sessional Papers, 1905, So. 25. p. /<??  SECTION  OP SOOT HERN ALBERTA SUvHlNC THE APPttOXItfUTe B6onoHHiES L i*t£i  . §8.7  In Uttlirn CmaJ*  OA rain ion*  S  '  btfuteari  /ia>m  art  97. It was i n 1894-5 that a small group of Galicians made a colony at Limestone Lake near Edmonton. These people were the forerunners of a very large immigration of Ukrainians, a Slavic group which comprises Bohemians, \ Ruthenians, Galicians, Bukowinians and related groups. Like the Doukhobors and the Mennonites, they suffered a3 minority groups i n Russia, as well as Austria-Hungary and Poland, having few r i g h t s and often enduring,religious persecution. For the most part they were peasants, speaking a language a l l i e d to Russian. By the end of the nineteenth century, l i f e i n t h e i r homeland-had become very d i f f i c u l t as they t r i e d to maintain themselves on tiny farms that offered l i t t l e hope of an improved standard of l i v i n g f o r themselves and no future for. t h e i r children. Poverty, kept them from emigration, and i n most cases i l l i t e r a c y prevented them from considering a possible destination  had they been able to leave G a l i c i a . The adventurous journey  of one of t h e i r countrymen provided the information and the incentive ary  necess  f o r a beginning of what l a t e r turned out to be a very large migration. fo:  The leader was Dr. Osip Oleskow who spent August and September of 1895 i n studying Canada. On h i s recommendation, s i x hundred and t h i r t y persons, under the leadership of Ivan P i l l i p i w and V a s s i l Eleniak, came from the  Carpathian Mountains to Canada. They settled c h i e f l y i n Manitoba and Alberta, some at Dominion City, where they were helped by the Mennonites, and some at points near Edmonton. Others went to the wet,undrained lands near Lake Winnipeg, at Gonor, Tyndall and Beausejour^ to Lake Dauphin and G r e n f e l l . 'They brought very l i t t l e money, the two leaders having only 910 r i n s k i /f362j. The government agent, John Wendelbo, who helped i n making the s e t t l e -  (40) Vera Lysenko, The Men i n the sheep-skin .jackets. Toronto, Ryerson, 1947, p. 2 1-?* (41) s Vera Lysenko, op. c i t . p. 12.  m. reported that, "The land they s e t t l e d on .cannot be considered f i r s t class wheat land, but i t i s well suited to mixed-farming'.' To the Galicians, inured a s they were to poverty, and accustomed to r i g i d economy, a land supplied with wood and water seemed a paradise. They b u i l t t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c small sod houses and stables and s e t t l e d down to seek prosperity from submarginal lands that previous  s e t t l e r s had refused to consider. That the  agents were conscious of taking advantage of these "stalwart s e t t l e r s i n t h e i r sheep-skin jackets" i s indicated i n the report of the general  agBnt,  C.W.Speers who wrote that:"We can put a G a l i c i a n upon a c l a s s of land that the English people would not go on. I f a G a l i c i a n gets a homestead with anywhere from f o r t y t o " f i f t y acres of arable land, he i s perfectly s a t i s f i e d . Take east of Winnipeg, that country which we look upon as useless, they are 43  turning i t i n t o a garden'.' The Galicians were not always as s a t i s f i e d as they appeared. From the writings of one of t h e i r members i t i s clear that the Galicians resented the f ^ p t tfiatathey were given i n f e r i o r land: "On some of these so-called farms, the land vra.s stubborn, rock-bound, overrun by f l o o d and heaving with muskeg, b r i s t l i n g with bush and treacherous with quagmire. The men i n sheep-skin jackets tackled i t with nothing but bare bare hands, and i n a few short decades had accomplished a miracle of transformation of the wilderness  such as has scarcely had i t s p a r a l l e l anywhere  i n the world'.' When the Galicians r e a l i z e d the. discrimination to which they had been subjected, they were i n c l i n e d to f e e l a bitterness against the government agents who had treated them with so l i t t l e kindness. Although the Galicians-got short s h r i f t i n the matter of land,they were given other considerations of value. The railways,•eyes (42) Sessional Papers, No. No. p. (43) House of Commons Journals, 1904. p. 608. (44) Vera Lysenko, op. c i t . p . 35. 1  as always on future  t r a f f i c , provided transportation e i t h e r free, or at a reduced r a t e . The government lent the newcomers about six thousand d o l l a r s and helped them fc.p buy a cow or two. Accommodation was provided f o r families u n t i l they were s e t t l e d , and food was  supplied to the poorer immigrants.  These Galicians, swarthy people, i l l - t r a i n e d , often i l l i t e r a t e , clad in their  .characteristic sheep-skin jackets, and heavy hand-made boots, at  f i r s t appeared strange and unattractive to Canadians. One Royal'North-West Mounted policeman described them i n 1900  as undesirable, ignorant,  several  centuries behind the times. A few yeara l a t e r he gave ungrudging praise of t h e i r willingness and capacity to l e a r n .  An agent of the period wrote that*  "Prejudice e x i s t s i n some minds against the G a l i c i a n s on account of t h e i r peculiar garb and foreign language, but the same objections were raised against the Mennonites when they arrived and now among our most successful and law-abiding that there was  they are considered to be  citizens'.* He further pointed  a s i g n i f i c a n t and desirable d i f f e r e n c e , f o r whereas the  Mennonites wished to remain i n i s o l a t e d communities, untouched by Canadianizing  out  any  influence, the Galicians were anxious to learn, to associate  with others, and to become a part of Canada. Sifton was  severely c r i t i c i z e d f o r allowing the admission of backward  people to Canada, but he stoutly defended "the man  i n the sheep-skin jacket  and his sturdy wife" as good value i n Canada's immigration scheme. There was l i t t l e of altruism i n his attitude,however f o r the Galicians were permitted &o enter to supply the need f o r more farm-labourers,  and f o r more u n s k i l l e d  and docile workers f o r the r a i l r o a d s , where "they formed part of the extra •gangs' walking, with bare feet and shoes t i e d around t h e i r necks, hundreds  K45) Sessional Papers. / 898, Ma. 'f, fi-'t ^(46)Sessional Papers, 1898, No. 13. p. 172.  100. of miles across the west, from Fort William t o the Rockies to get work on the 'gangs '. ,They were s u f f i c i e n t l y pleased with t h e i r prospects, i n the 1  1  early days at l e a s t , to write home of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . The r e s u l t was that a great f l o o d of t h e i r countrymen, many so poor as to be t r a v e l l i n g on borrowed money, came to Canada i n such numbers that the immigration department was severely c r i t i c i z e d f o r permitting t h a i r entry. As time passed and the boundaries of Europe changed, i t became d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h between national allegiances, and the general name of Ukrainian•took the place of the others. I t i s as u^rainians^that these Slavic people are penetrating B r i t i s h Columbia, where..they are farmers, business-men or s k i l l e d mechanics, self-respecting, generally prosperous, anxious to be assimilated, showing t h e i r natural gregariousness i n t h e i r ceremonies, and taking what part they may i n the l i f e of t h e i r d i s t r i c t . As the p r a i r i e s know them, tmany are s t i l l peasants, struggling on sub-marginal lands, or as labour crowding such c i t i e s as Winnipeg, Brandon or Edmonton. Some are making outstanding contributions to Canadian  life.  In 1898 the chief settlements were Stuartburn, Whitewood and Saltcoats, comprising about four hundred f a m i l i e s ; Yorkton with one hundred and eighty; •  •  ' ¥7  -  and Saskatchewan with one hundred and f i v e . The most populous centre today i s V i g r e v i l l e i n Alberta. Beginning i n 1897 the Ukrainians entered Canada i n great, numbers. In 1897, 43S3 entered'; In 1904 at the peak of Canada's immigration, the Ukrainians contributed 10,141. I t i s estimated that i n 1917, there were 160,000 09  i n the P r a i r i e Provinces:' Unfortunately, owing to the poverty of the people,  (49) E«Hi33foung, The Ukrainian-Canadians. Toronto. Nelson, 1931, p. 13. (46) Vera Lysenko, op. c i t . p. 52. 4,(47) Sessional Papers. 1898. No. 13, p. 171  6/(48)  ' loc. c i t .  10*. i t often happened that only the men of the family could emigrate, a condition that fended t o break up f a m i l i e s and create an undesirable s o c i a l problem lending i t s e l f to increase of crime. The Ukrainian immigration has provided Canada with a great r a c i a l group, fourth i n size, made up of people with an ethnical background very d i f f e r e n t from that considered desirable i n Canada. In ootiii'i.  1904*311  agent wrote  •  o p t i m i s t i c a l l y that " I t i 3 g r a t i f y i n g t o know that the machinery at the disposal of the Government f o r c o n t r o l l i n g the movements of immigrants  into  Canada i s such that no heterogeneous elements that may be brought i n can * ever a l t e r the national character which was developed among the people at -  SO  a time when the country was ignored'.' Ten years l a t e r , looking over the growing proportion of t h i s Slavic people, with i t s low standard of l i v i n g and i t s high b i r t h - r a t e , he might well have doubted h i s own words, especi a l l y as no e f f o r t was made to make these people a r e a l part of Canada except by the granting of land. I t was a great r e l i e f to many Canadians when the bars wer^put up to prevent wholesale and indiscriminate immigration of foreign people. . The undesirable condition r e s u l t i n g from the entry of the'Ukrainians was i n part at l e a s t the f a u l t of a government which had regarded the immigrant from the economic rather than the s o c i a l angle and had not provided any follow-up policy which would help the newcomers to adjust themselves to a f u l l c i t i z e n s h i p i n the country they had adopted. One Ukrainian countering the c r i t i c i s m made of h i s people wrote: The Ukrainians get the worst deal of a l l other n a t i o n a l i t i e s inhabiting Manitoba under party government...Parties have never t r i e d to enlighten them i n p o l i t i c a l matters, but rather demoralized them during elections by lavishing money rewards,  (50)Sessional Papers, 1904, No. 25, p. x.  108. by offering strong drink, and by promising to b u i l d roads, etc....They were granted n a t u r a l i z a t i o n papers without being educated to the r e a l value and importance of those papers, g-^ It was with some of the same ideas i n mind that Vera Lysenko wrote Men i n Sheep-skin Jackets, to show some of the long and honourable h i s t o r y , and the present merits of these widely-scattered and numerous people. The need f o r some d i r e c t action toward the r e a l assimilation of these groups whose p o l i t i c a l background d i f f e r s widely from that of most other Canadians was realized some years ago, and an experiment towrd a true Canadianization of some of the members of the foreign"blocs" i s described i n Professor Robert  England's  The Central European i n Canada. Part of the d i f f i c u l t y i n assimilation l i e s i n the schemes of group settlement which formed a f a m i l i a r pattern i n Canadian colonization projects from the e a r l i e s t times. I t has always  been considered only humanitarian  to prevent the nostalgia which i s often death to settlement, by allowing immigrants to form groups of t h e i r own people. This idea i s desirable within l i m i t s , but the settlements should be small and the members mixed with people of other races. Unfortunately, t h i s was not always done, notably i n the case of the Doukhobors and the Mennonites. Often where care was taken to prevent "blocs", the immigrants took i t upon themselves to adjust the matter to t h e i r own s a t i s f a c t i o n by buying out "foreign" s e t t l e r s . .The result has been the creation of d i s t r i c t s i n which the c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s  ;  and methods, the i d e a l s , the hates and suspicions of the o l d world have been maintained Intact i n the new lands. The b a r r i e r of language must be over-  ^a^vV''  come before t h i s can be changed. U n t i l the "bloc"settlements and the b a r r i e r s imposed by language and d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds can be broken down,  (51) House of Commons Debates |JanadaJ ,1922, May 22, p. M.Beaubien from an e d i t o r i a l i n "The Ukrainian.  Quoted by  105. there can be no r e a l assimilation, and "the settlement i s a f a i l u r e except from the purely economic point of view. Recent developments, and the broadening of education have done a great service i n helping to assimilate the various national groups. The other causesfor disquiet, the high-birth-rate and the low standard of l i v i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the' Central Europeans,will almost c e r t a i n l y adjust themselves. It i s the experience of h i s t o r y that as the standard of l i v i n g r i s e s the b i r t h - r a t e f a l l s ; and i t i s equally true that most people eagerly a v a i l themselves of a high standard of l i v i n g when they can. There seems l i t t l e , danger that the next generation w i l l be "swamped " by the numbers of Ukrainians i n Canada. Rather w i l l they be an indistiguishable part of the whole. Thergis one respect i n which the Ukrainians are more assimilable than many other immigrants. Their r e l i g i o n s , the Greek Orthodox and^Uniate , do not prevent them from taking part i n the defence of t h e i r country  or i n i t s  p o l i t i c a l l i f e . That b a r r i e r does not exist to cut them o f f from the other c i t i z e n s of 6anada, and judging from the names that have appeared i n the Canadian Scottish regiments i n recent years, and noting the recurrence of Ukrainian names i n a r t i s t i c and educational c i r c e s , i t seems reasonable  to  suppose that one stage of a s s i m i l a t i o n has already been covered. There weremany other s e t t l e r s who  either came on their own  or formed  part of smaller groups. They usually found their own l e v e l , and d i d not appear i n government records except as part of a t o t a l i n the s t a t i s t i c s . Settlers of t h i s kind, who entered i n small groups were^French-Canadians, many repatriated from New England, who  .vent to make up the colonies of Ste.  Rose and St. Albert,, already discussed. There were also small colonies of Germans, such as those at St. Peter's and St. Joseph's i n Saskatchewan. These were German Catholics previously scattered throughout the United States. They were joined by others d i r e c t from Germany. St. Joseph's, l y i n g  iO#. . west of Tramping Lake, was founded f o r tho3e who  preferred the open p r a i r i e ;  while St. Peter's, established f o r those who l i k e d more sheltered country, occupies s i x townships with Humboldt as the centre. Begun i n 1902  this set  settlement was soon equipped with abbey, convent, college and schools. The great i n f l u x came between 1908 and 1910.  In 1906,  St. Peter's contained  3397 persons and St. Joseph's 1481. As English i s taught i n the schools there i s l i t t l e danger of a "bloc" problem. The settlement of German-r-Americans i s only one small part of a much larger movement, f o r which S i f t o n worked very hard. This was the immigration of Americans. Although t h i s migration d i d not begin i n t h i s period, being a part of a general process of expansion that began i n the early American colonies, i t reached i t s greatest proportions i n the Sifton regime. The various methods by which ingenious Canadian immigration agents . advertised the value of their country throughout the United States, and the obstacles placed i n the way of those agents by American o f f i c i a l s ,  have been  b r i e f l y noted. As, from the beginning of the nineteenth century, American agents had been almost unchallenged i n the f i e l d of immigration, Canadians f e l t that the gaining of American s e t t l e r s f o r the north-West was an achievement to be prized. At the turn of the century, Canadian agents f e l t that the the tide had set i n their favour, f o r many. Americans ware then crossing the border to take up or buy western Canada's farmlands. M.L.Hansen says of the movement of Americans across the border into Canada: At the turn.of the century, the r u r a l homes of the Middle West found'themselves f i l l e d with young people who knew no occupation but farming, and whose chief ambition was to acquire a quarter-section of v i r g i n s o i l . The American West had ho undeveloped area to match the p r a i r i e provinces of Canada, and since the world offered a market f o r every bushel of wheat that could be grown, the l a s t great agrarian trek began. By t r a i n and by p r a i r i e schooner, the Americans moved i n and occupied  (52) C.A.Dawson, .op. c i t . p. 298. .• - t -  iosr. great stretches of Alberta and Saskatchewan. During the f i f t e e n years before the Great War, one m i l l i o n souls p a r t i c i p a t e d . The stock and equipment they carried averaged one thousand d o l l a r s pper family, but no value could be put on the experience and s k i l l which every able-bodied person contributed. ' This statement could be corroborated i n the annual reports of government agents during any year a f t e r the turn of the century, one of whom wrote: "Many Americans bave come i n with large means and have purchased f o r practi c a l purposes farms running from two thousand to four thousand acres. Lands which three years ago were unsaleable now s e l l readily at f a i r prices with an upward tendency." Another agent wrote that:"It i s well known that of the large areas of land sold by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company, and other, colonization, companies, American s e t t l e r s have been the chief purchasers'.' In 1908, the agent reported that 58,312 persons had entered bringing an S6  estimated wealth of $52,000,000. Every agent l i k e d to record with quiet triumph the entry of X cars  of e f f e c t s , y_ head of c a t t l e , and z d o l l a r s i n  cash. Although l a t e r quarantine regulations often prevented the entry of c a t t l e , the money s t i l l came. The agent.was assisted by l e t t e r s of these s a t i s f i e d farmers. Such a l e t t e r as the following showed the appreciation of the American f o r what he found i n Canada, and i t no doubt acted as an excellent stimulus to t h i s desirable immigration, and substantiated the agent's report that, "every s e t t l e r i n the North-West becomes an agent i n the  neighborhood he has left'.'  (53) M.L.Hansen, The Immigrant i n American h i s t o r y. New Haven, Harvard University Press, 1940, p. 185. X-54) Sessional Papers. 1902. No. 25, p. 116. ' (55) i b i d , p. xv. u(56) Sessional Papers. 1909, No. 25. p. x x & i . ' ,.(-57) Sessional. Papers. 1898, No. 15. pp. ift9-71. t  r  108.  Alameda, Canada. Sept. 12, 1897. Friend K e l l e r : We are here and f i n d everything as you said. We w i l l go with Mr. McCarven i n the morning and select our land* I wrote my brother to come and bring h i s tools as we w i l l have our hands f u l l t h i s winter getting up houses. I wrote my wife to l e t you have the double parlour to hold meetings i n , as we are not using it,anyway, and you can save h a l l rent. I also wrote to Beideler; go f o r him and I w i l l help you a l l I can. The whole St. Clemens crowd depends on him; i f you can get him to go, you w i l l get them a l l - they are a l l good farmers and we want them here. T e l l Albert to t a l k to Beideler, f o r he i s coming and h i s wife and Beideler's are great f r i e n d s . , W i l l write you more i n a few days. Best regards from a l l the boys, Your f r i e n d , • Charley Knebush. . Although the agents' reports emphasize the material value of the newcomers, t h i s immigration was p a r t i c u l a r l y valuable f o r i t s ethnic composi t i o n . In o r i g i n i t was about one-third northern European, about one-third Yankee, and the remainder was eastern Canadian. The adaptability of these s e t t l e r s to the c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e of,the country could be taken f o r granted, and they were usually both l o y a l and e f f i c i e n t c i t i z e n s  of  Canada. The following table shows the growth of population r e s u l t i n g from this highly valued movement: The American-born i n Canada-1901 to 1951. 1901 1911 1921 Manitoba 6922 16,328 . 21,644 Saskatchewan 2705 69,628 87,617 Alberta 11,172 ~ 81,357 99,879 Canada 127,899 503,680 374,022  1931. 17,903 73,008 78,959  Most of these came from the neighbouring states of Minnesota, North Dakota, Washington, Iowa, I l l i n o i s and Michigan.  (j^58) Sessional.--Papers. 1898. No. 15. p. 72. (59) J.M.Gibbon.Canadian Mosaic, Toronto ,.;-McLelland and Stewart, 1935, p. 18. (60) RtfH. Coats and M.C.Maclean, op. c i t . p. 56..  10?.  Sifton's immigration p o l i c y was closely correlated with h i s programme of r a i l r o a d b u i l d i n g , and, as i n the previous period, the railroads served the double purpose of opening land to settlement and affording temporary employment to the newcomers. Soon a f t e r coming to o f f i c e , Laurier  approved  the ambitious programme that f i t t e d i n well with Sifton's settlement p o l i c i e s but which did much to wreck the L i b e r a l party. -In the years 1896  to 1915,  the mileage grew from 16,270 miles to 34,882 miles. This expansion seemed j u s t i f i e d by the important p r i c e recovery which accompanied the accession of Laurier's government to power. The r i s i n g market value of farm-products, especially wheat, Canada's p r i n c i p a l a g r i c u l t u r a l export, encouraged the opeming of a wider acreage to farming. The government therefore authorized an enormous expenditure on the building of r a i l r o a d s believed e s s e n t i a l to the development of the west. The Canadian P a c i f i c Railway being considered inadequate, a second transcontinental railway, the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c , a subsidiary of the Grand Trunk Railway, was pushed westward from Winnipeg to Prince Rupert. Sifton avoided the making of land grants, but gave assistance instead i n the form of guaranteed bonds. In the case of the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railway, the government,guaranteed seventy-five per cent of the cost of Construction up to $13,000 a mile across the p r a i r i e s , and $30,000 per mile through the mountains. The actual cost of construction was, however, much greater than that, owing to several unforeseen events, c h i e f l y the sudden r i s e i n the cost of labour and materials. An estimated cost of $61,415,000 became $159,881,197 before the work was f i n i s h e d . The  traffic  on t h i s l i n e was not s u f f i c i e n t to pay the i n t e r e s t and other set charges, and ihel915, the r a i l r o a d was  "surrendered into the hands of the people of  (6Dj) Canada Year Book, 1940, p. 638 (62) i b i d , p. 657. L /( 3),H.A.innis, Problems of s t a p l e production, Eoro'ntom ^yerson' 12^ -p'. 6  t  t  44.  158.  if Canada". Laurier*s f a i t h i n the rapid development of Canada l e d him to believe that three transcontinental railways could be p r o f i t a b l e .  Two shrewd r a i l -  road builders, William Mackenzie and DonaX Mann,who had constructed the Lake  A Manitoba Railway, incorporated three colonization railways as the Canadian NorthernRailroad. With the assistance of Laurier, they then pushed t h e i r r a i l r o a d east to Montreal, v i a Port Arthur and west to Vancouver, v i a Edmonton, following the route o r i g i n a l l y planned f o r the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. I t soon became obvious that Canada had b u i l t too many railways. After 1914, the Canadian Northern Railroad was i n a f i n a n c i a l l y unsound condition and i t asked f o r help i n the form of a Dominion government guarantee of $45,000,000 i n bonds. Finances did not improve  , and as i n the case  of the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railway, the Canadian Northern -Hailroads was taken ove^by the Dominion Government i n 1917. As the Canadian National Railways, these l i n e s are s t i l l an expense to the Canadian tax-payer. While the cost of these r a i l r o a d s was high, i t i s hard to imagine what development could hve taken place without them. As a means of transport and of opening remote areas, the r a i l r o a d was e s s e n t i a l . Less obvious, but often equally important,was  the r a i l r o a d as a source of revenue without which the  pioneer farmer could not have succeeded. I f they are a great expense today, they must be regarded as a public u t i l i t y , c o s t l y , but essential to our type of c i v i l i z a t i o n . S i f t o n s method of subsidizing the railroads by bond issues instead of 1  by making land grants i s i n part responsible f o r the f a i l u r e of the l a s t two transcontinental railways. In times of decreasing revenue, i n t e r e s t on the (64) H.A.Innis. op. c i t . p. 44. (65) i b i d , p. 46.  sal  bonds had to be met. Land grants of the old style would have required no s such current expense, and the land would probably have increased i n value. The government had a means of reimbursing i t s e l f f o r outlays on railroads in the increasing revenue from customs, and from the r i s i n g value of such lands as remained i n i t s c o n t r o l . Moreover, the interest of c a p i t a l i s t s i n the railroads was extended toward the general development of the west, and the f i n a n c i a l c i r c l e was  completed.  It i s hardly necessary to say that a policy as aggressive as Sifton's would meet opposition from many angles. The French-Canadians,  f o r instance,  maintained t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l objection to immigration and a l l connected  with  i t , excepting the r e p a t r i a t i o n of t h e i r compatriots from the United States. The Labour groups, while applauding the immigration of farmers, voiced t h e i r disapproval of the admittance  of labourers. Dr. A.M.Carr-Saunders comments  on t h i s disregard of one worker f o r another's welfare:"Under  the unrestricted  immigration system, the pioneer farmer d i d not appear as a competitor, but rather as a fellow pioneer, taking h i s share of the hard task of the 4  clear-  ance and improvement of the land'.' That one farmer could be admitted to the harm of those already there did not appear to be important or possible. During the Sifton regime, many labourers of a l l kinds entered Canadian i n dustry. Because t h e i r standard of l i v i n g was often very low,  Vcvsj were able  to undercut resident Canadian workers. That this undercutting happened a l l too often i s shown by the extensive emigration of Canadians to the United States, and by the return movement of B r i t i s h workers to the United Kingdom. It was against the immigration of the class of people who prejudiced the security of the Canadian worker that the Labour groups used t h e i r strongest weapons, often to good e f f e c t .  (66) A.M.Carr-Saunders, op. c i t . p. 208.  110. S i f t o S i f t o n replied that the a t t r a c t i o n of labour had never been a part of h i s p o l i c y . "The policy of the Department has been based on the assumption that i t i s highly desirable that at the e a r l i e s t possible moment a l l the f e r t i l e lands of the West should be located and the country enriched by the general production which w i l l be sure to follow the settlement of a hardy class of settlers'j  Government policy,therefore,was to encourage only those  persons desirous of going on the land, and who were equipped by t r a i n i n g and health to do so. From the number of non-farmers who entered, i t i s clear that other forces were at work, or else that the general attractiveness of government propaganda reached f a r beyond farming c i r c l e s , f o r many who came were urban dwellers, having no contact with the land. In the early part of Sifton's administration, there was no accepted d e f i n i t i o n §£. i'desirable" as i t was applied to an immigrant. The Minister was l i k e l y to interpret i t as indicating a s e t t l e r ' s a b i l i t y to produce a g r i c u l t u r a l commoditieSjrather than as showing h i s s o c i a l value. But with the growth of s o c i a l consciousness that increased as the days of the "front i e r " receded, came the r e a l i z a t i o n that the immigrant  i s something more  than an animal capable of so many hours of hsxd work.The problem was not a new one, but l i t assumed greater urgency as the ease of transport and the careless granting of passenger warrants brought i n many who were i n some way undesirable. Marry u n s k i l l e d labourers, brought i n to s a t i s f y the temporary needs of r a i l r o a d builders, remained as unwanted mambers of the labour groups of c i t i e s . One Canadian expressedIhissopposition to such indiscriminate immigration:" The major portion of the huge tide of annual immigration i s crowding into our c i t i e s . . . The c i t i e s are being packed, with human beings who do not know where the next meal i s coming  (67) House of Commons Debates [banadaj. 1800. A p r i l 18.  p. 508.  11*. from, who are giving b i r t h to a degenerate race, who are f i l l i n g the hospitals and asylums with 'brain fidgets' and nervous breakdowns...putting an endless burden on the state. Is i t not time to c a l l a halt? Robert L. Borden, member of the opposition i n the House of Commons , expressed h i s disapproval of the admission  of the^worker who undercut the  Canadian. "As a r e s u l t of c a r e f u l questioning f o r manifest purposes, i n 'many cases the claim i s made that native workers are being replaced by those 69  brought i n t o Canada by the Government's immigration  policy .' Another member 1  of parliament asserted that the government was responsible f o r the draining away of young men to the West, to the detriment of the value of eastern property. There were many other types of opposition, but not a l l of them were well-reasoned. Everyone was convinced that Canada needed more people to helpp her bear the cost of the elaborate transportation and governmental systems. 76  The various optimums of population varied from 25,000,000 to 150,000,000, But everyone who approved a greater population demanded b l i t h e l y that these new c i t i z e n s be above reproach intthe matter of health, morals, p o l i t i c a l attitudes and wealth. Those who made of immigration  a p o l i t i c a l football  affected to believe that i t was only a matter of correct procedure on the (68) W.J.Brown, Immigration end agriculture.Queen's Quarterly, Vol.VIII. July 1900^ p. 130. (69) House of Commons DebatesTCanada?1909-1910. p. 5525. Robert L. Borden. (70) G r i f f i t h Taylor, Canadian Geographical Journal. Vol. XII. March 1936, p. 170. wrote: "Canadian resources are equal to those of Germany and Poland which support 100,000,000'.' He did not define a reasonable standard of l i v i n g . , G.G.McGeer, Vancouver Daily Province. Sept. 18, .1956,' p. 12, said that B r i t i s h Columbia and Alberta have room f o r 100,000,000. Professor Aleis Fischer wrote that Canada could support 150,000,000 He based h i s ideas on Canada's t o t a l area, disregarding the fact that Canada has a great area of waste land. Dr. A.M.Carr-Saunders, World Migration, wrote that Canada i s greatl y under-populated. There have been many other ideas as widely divergent as the i n t e r e s t s of the writers.  114. part of the immigration a u t h o r i t i e s , and Canada could be f i l l e d with the most desirable persons of impeccable character anjethnical extraction. At the  other extreme were those whose i n t e r e s t l a y i n obtaining cheap- labour,  and who were w i l l i n g to waive r e s t r i c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g d e s i r a b i l i t y i f p r o f i t waeeto r e s u l t . Without any p o s i t i v e d e f i n i t i o n of "desirable" the government t r i e d to steer a path through a l l the theories of those who wished t h e i r interests served. Of a l l the foreign immigrants, the Central Europeans received the most c r i t i c i s m . Sifton defended his"men i n the sheep-skin jackets ,' but he had few 1  supporters. The Mennonites, also had f a l l e n from the o r i g i n a l grace i n which they had been held. In 1873, an agent wrote: " I t i s i n the interest of. the whole community that the large immigration...from the Mennonite exodus 7/  should be directed hither'.' Ten years l a t e r  ah agent wrote: "The Mennonites,  though not of the pauper c l a s s , have not proved a great boon to the country. They are a community by themselves...They are not l i k e l y to assimilate with the  rest of the country." The Doukhobors have been frequently assailed f o r  t h e i r lack of the elements of c i t i z e n s h i p . But the Ukrainians came i n f o r a d i f f e r e n t type of c r i t i c i s m ; that directed at their moral character, a f a u l t that the Mennonite and Doukhobors have never exhibited to any extent. J.S.Woodsworth who met the Galicians during h i s work as a minister i n Winnipeg wrote of them:"In so low an estimation are they held that the term Galician i s almost a term of reproach...They figure so frequently i n crimes of violence that they have created anything but a favourable impression'.' Another observer commentsjthatj"By the unfortunate p o l i c y of f i l l i n g up the  (71) Weekly Manitoban, June 7, 1873. (72) Manitoba Free Press,'January, 1883. (73) J.S.Woodsworth, Strangers within our gates. Toronto, Methodist Reading Room, 1909, p. 134.  115. country with a hungry, poverty-stricken,skin-clad population of wild-eyed Asiatics and Eaastern Europeans, we are adopting  the surest method of keeping-  out people of r e a l enterprise. I t i s regrettable that the cream of Ontario 74  youth goes to the United States'.' The Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario wrote that :"Our province i s i n a c r u c i a l stage at present. The i n f l u x of new people who have strange ideas about l i b e r t y and r e l i g i o n i s endangering our state. These people come here believing that l i b e r t y means l i c e n c e , and as such are a menace to o u r . i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t i s a most serious condition... You 7*  must have noticed how crime i s on the increase i n Canada'.' It i s true that crime was increasing i n Canada. I t i s also true that Slavic people often appeared i n police courts and were convicted, but they ranked lowest of foreign groups i n serious crime. The incidence of crime among foreigners was due to a variety of causes apart from the usual ones. In many cases, especially among the Slavs, only the men could afford to emigrate; lack of family l i f e was conducive to crime. In many cases the release from the r e s t r a i n t of t r a d i t i o n was a cause of misbehaviour, especi a l l y among the younger people, who threw o f f the d i s c i p l i n e of family l i f e and the controls of the old land befbretthey had learned those of the new. As no e f f o r t was made . i n most cases to i n s t r u c t the new-comers i n the lav? of the land, many broke laws without i n t e n t i o n . Tribunals, moreover, often tended to be e s p e c i a l l y severe with foreigners. Crime was mo3t common i n the c i t i e s . Rural d i s t r i c t s contributed only 6.6 per cent of the offenders i n 1918 and Ss&eper cent i n 1917.  This f a c t  revealed one of the weaknesses of the immigration p o l i c y . Regardless of the changing farming methods, the government continued to seek out great numbers (74) House of Commons Debates fcanada\ 1907-8,p. 6687,Quoted by F.D.Monk. 7i'i(fbk- Sessional Pagers. 1920. No. 10 a. p. tfiii tMAHHb : p.5, . 18,76,/ 714/100,000: 1914 , 2569/ 100,000.  11$. of farm-labourers long a f t e r the need f o r them was over. The increasing mechanization of the farm i n many cases made the "hired" man unnecessary, or at best gave him only seasonal employment. A natural d r i f t "to the c i t y followed, and a potential farmer was l o s t . Once f a m i l i a r with c i t y l i f e , men were reluctant to return to the farm, and were contented with a day-4to4day occupation that supported only a low standard of l i v i n g i n crowded sections of a town. In these surroundings, crime and disease f l o u r i s h e d . Medical a u t h o r i t i e s complained f o r years that the government was introducing to Canada many people who were soon over-crowding the hospitals, notably the tuberculosis sanatoria and the mental asylums. As many of the t  1  /  patients were poor , the cost of their, maintenance f e l l on the public purse. 1  This s i t u a t i o n drew.so much public c r i t i c i s m that i n 1902 the Immigration Act  was amended to provide that a l l steerage passengers be given medical  examination before landing. Those who passed the f i r s t examination were then given a c i v i l t e s t . Any found to be medically defective were sent to hospi t a l i f not seriously i l l ,  or^deported i f l i k e l y to become a public charge.  Similarly those f a i l i n g the c i v i l test were rejected at the port. The usual causes f o r deportation under medical inspection were tuberculosis and trachoma. Other causes of deportation could be heart disease, hernia, lameness, ear or eye defects, i n f a c t anything that could incapacitate a man f o r physical work. At f i r s t there were many deportations, but as the knowledge of the medical examination spread, the number of defective persons presenting 76  themselves became very small.In 1916, a p s y c h i a t r i s t was added to the examining s t a f f . For some years the patients entering insane asylums had been studied, and i t was found that many persons of i n f e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e had been admitted to Canada simply because the examiners had been unable to (76) G^-ada;Y--e'a^Sook 1943-44, f. 182 gives 138 f o r the years 1932-42.  11*". understand t h e i r language, while English-speaking persons of low mental a b i l i t y had been detected e a s i l y , and rejected at the ports. Dr.Peter Bryce, head of the eastern medical service,anddauvery interested student of immigration, i n noting the r i s i n g number of immigrants being treated f o r physical and mental i l l n e s s e s throughout Canada, pointed out the need f o r greater care i n s e l e c t i o n . I t was r e a l i z e d that the best plan would have been to inspect the emigrant  before he prepared to leave h i s country. Although  England adopted that policy i n 1904, foreign governments f o r many years opposed the plan. Many foreign emigrants therefore had to face the d i s appointment of being refused entrance to Canada. As the table of deportations shows, there were many deported a f t e r having been admitted. Medical inspection was often only perfunctory except i n cases of obvious diseases, and many wwere admitted who were afterwards found to be medically unaesirable and, before they had acquired Canadian domicile, they were deported. In many cases, the deportation of one meant the deportation of a whole family.From the humanitarian point of view, t h i s method of examination was a serious weakness i n immigration p o l i c y . The growing consciousness of the welfare of the community was reflected i n the immigration acts. The meaning of the word "desirable" was beginning to take shapeiintthe public mind, and the government agents were impressed with the need f o r greater care i n the selection of i t s immigrants. The Act of 1910 showed that e f f o r t s were to be made to avoid the mistakes of the past. Before much could be done, the economic depression of 1912 and the Great War. raised effective b a r r i e r s to large-scale immigration. Canada then had four years i n which to study the changing scene and consider her needs f o r the future.  077)  9_io Edw. VII. c. 27.  116. Sifton's policy was open to c r i t i c i s m from many angles, But no one could deny that h i s was an era of accomplishment. Although, on h i s own ad/a admission he worked c h i e f l y f o r the settlement of the wast, the vast changes that took place there of necessity brought corresponding  changes to the east,  especially to Ontario and Quebec. In the years 1891-1911, the population of Canada increased from 4,833,239 to 7,206,643. Immigrants alone had numbered 1,800,000 during the decade 1900-1910, an i n f l u x which gave Canada a greater proportional grouwth 79 than any other country of the world. .It was natural that the western provinces should show the greatest comparative growth i n t h i s period. The figures of population are as follows: 1891 Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta B r i t i s h Columbia.  152,506  98,173  1901  1911  1921  255,211 91,279 73,022 178,657  461,394 44924432 374,295 592,480  610,118 757,510 588,454 524,582 *.0  To the regret of those who continued to regard Canada as e s s e n t i a l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l , there was a great increase i n urbanization, as the tables on page 7X showA .ffiostjbf the western towns made steady growth, but the greatest concentration occurred i n the east i n the i n d u s t r i a l towns of Ontarionand Quebec. The following table of the growing manufacturing c i t i e s of the east shows the e f f e c t of the opening of the west: 1891 Toronto Montreal Fort William Sydney Westmount  181,215 254,278 2,176 2,427 3,076  • 1911 581,853 490,504 16,499 17,723 14,579  (78) Canada Year Book. 1943-44, p. 79. (79) i b i d , yp. 78. (80) ibid. \^ P. 79. (81) ibid. L p. 125. :  1921 521,893 618,506 20,541 22,545 17,593 y  11?. There were reasons beyond those already mentioned f o r the apparently abnormal urbanization. One was the extreme loneliness of f a r m - l i f e on the p r a i r i e s . Because of t h e i r f e e l i n g of i s o l a t i o n many l e f t a good l i v i n g on t h e i r farms f o r a pittance i n a town. A student of s o c i a l problems wrote of t h i s phase of farm l i f e :  "Farming, i n f a c t , was not generally popular, and  many who t r i e d i t spoke of i t with a certain horror. People who came to the West deliberately intending to farm, some of them good hardy country-men,  \  had given up t h e i r land or l e f t i t . Various causes were stated, besides the  j  mere unattractiveness of town l i f e , p r i n c i p a l l y the loneliness of the prairi©j and the impossibility of making farming pay...The loneliness of many parts  J  9% i s extreme'.' I t was this loneliness that f i l l e d mental hospitals with the  j  wives of p r a i r i e farmers, f o r the houses of the homesteaders were too f a r apart to permit of the companionship that most humans require. Another reason why people l e f t t h e i r farms has already been mentioned. This was the coming of the machine age, which at once d i d away with the need f o r "hired" men and attracted the young people away from the farm. The machine age and i t s devices cut into one of the foundations of Government p o l i c y . One of the great "Classes that Canada c a l l s for"  was the farm labourer or "hired" man,  who, although entering to work f o r others was considered as a potential homesteader. In f a r too many cases now he was a day-to-day labourer i n the poor part of a c i t y , and a farmer i n training was l o s t . The land they might have cultivated was taken up by farmers with machines. This i n i t s e l f was often bad , f o r the over-purchase of machinery and land l e d to f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s when prices f e l l . These set-backs to farming , however, while regrettable, d i d not affect the general progress of the west, and the  (83) S.D ..Clark, Social development of Canada. Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 19"42y » PP- 448-449 3f3  consequent progress of the linciugferljes of the Dominion. The growth of the various industries was impressive. In agriculture, the progress was extensive. Sifton's p o l i c y had been to make homesteads readily available, and the response to the o f f e r of land, was very g r a t i f y i n g to the Minister and h i s agents. The accompanying table shows the r i s e and decline of the homestead period of our h i s t o r y : 1896 to Dec.31. 1897 1898 1899 1900 1900} -June 30 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 i  1,857 2,384 4,848 6,689 7,426 8,167 14,673 31,383 26,073 30,819 41,869  1907 to March 31. 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 . 1915 1916 1917  21,647. 30,424 39,081 41,568• 44,479 39,151 33,699 31,829 24,088 17,050 11,199.  S3  In the p r a i r i e provinces the growth i n acreage under production during 1901 and 1911 and the corresponding r u r a l population were as follows: 1901 Saskatchewan popn. per cent r u r a l improved land Manitoba  91,279 84.4 1,122,602 acres  popn. 1891 popn. 152,506 % rural 734 improved land 1,232,111 acres  Alberta popn. % rural improved land  1911 492,432 73.3 11,871,907 acres.  1901 255,211 72.4  1901 753,022 74.6 474,694 acres  1911 461,394 56.6  3,995,305 acres  6,746,169 ac.  1911 374,295 63.2 4,351,698 acres.  Put into another form, i n 1871 the average farm contained 97.9 acres. In  (83) House of Commons Debates Canada , 1919. Mar..24, p.752. Hon. A.Meighen. (84) Census of Canada, f $^/,. h-^)  1921 improved methods of farming, wider markets and better machinery had made possible the c u l t i v a t i o n of 197.97 acres on the average farm./ This was 97  much higher i n the westi In 1871 the value of f i e l d crops averaged $302 per farm, whereas i n 1921 they averaged $1312. In 1920, agriculture contributed 41,3 per cent of the national wealth. 'The production of wheat, the p r i n c i p a l crop, rose from 58,000,000 bushels i n 1896 to 263,000,000 bushels i n 1916". In terms of world production, the increase was from 1.5 per cent i n 1896 to 8 per cent i n 1916. Simii&r gains were made i n other crops. There were also notable advances i n other industries as the following figures show: 1896 1916 1896 1916  B r i t i s h Empire $.35,213,152 $105,229,977 $66,766,139 ' '$482,529,733  1390 1917  Capital Investment $353,213,000 $2,355,991,229  1895 1915  $20,505,917 $137,109,171  1896 1916  $20,199,338 $39,208,378  1896 1916  $34,000,000 83,116,282  Trade Imports Exports Manufacturing.  Foreign. $70,148,009 $402,971,157 $42,941,666 $259,080,905 Net Value. $219,088,594 1,218,131,980 9a  Mining.  Fisheries. Lumbering Customs.  1896 1916  or $4.08 per capita, or $17.18 per c a p i t a . ^  9  g  9  5  $20,219,037 $105,490,101.^  (86) Canada Year Book. 1921. p. (87) i b i d . p. (88) W A.Mackintosh, Economic problems of the p r a i r i e provinces. Macmillans, 1935., p. 14. (89) Canada Year Book. 1945-44 pp. 464-5  (90)  ibid.r  (92)  ibid.")  (91)  ibid.1A  Toronto,  p. 363  p. 291  p. 280  (93) ibid. U P(94) Canada Year Book. 1940, p. 529  and Canada Year Book, 1935,p.xxvii.  120. This was also a period of great increase i n investments. During the years 1900-1913 wealth flowed i n from Great B r i t a i n to the extent of about #1,753,118,000 and from the United States there came about $029,794,000 while from other sources outside Canada there had been investments  totalling,  some $162,715,000/ I t i s not suggested that a l l t h i s growth of industry' resulted e n t i r e l y from the settlement of the west, but i t was geared to that settlement; so much so that the o f f i c i a l s of the Department of the Interior were relcftctant to do anything to arrest the process of immigration and settlement. The Minister of the Interior drew attention to t h i s relationship In 1914 when he said that: I t was that increase of c u l t i v a t i o n i n the West that made Canada, that b u i l t the railroads, that started the f a c t o r i e s and that gave dividends to the banks; that started the great commercial houses; that did whatever has been done that amounts to anything in thse years. I t was the foundation of i t a l l . The homesteader on the p r a i r i e with his yoke of oxen or his team of horses and his plough, who has been held up to obloquy as the "miner of wheat",...this was the man who made Canada.^ Allowing f o r the Minister's natural enthusiasm f o r the work of h i s own department, there was a foundation of truth i n the statement. The manufacturers of the east had prospered from the demand f o r farm implements and furniture and other products required i n a newly-opened country. Protective t a r i f f s had been given t h e i r industries at the expense of the farmer. The urbanization of the east had made necessary the expenditure of large sums of money on public u t i l i t i e s with consequent outlay of huge amoLints of c a p i t a l , an outlay that brought p r o f i t to big f i n a n c i a l concernss.The  commercial ho  houses of the east had. been able to extend t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and resources almost i n d e f i n i t e l y i n the r e a l estate and insurance businesses, and i n the  (95) M.Q.Innis, op. c i t . . p. 290. (96) House of Commons Debatesfaanadaj  , 1914, Vol. 1. pp.84-85. Frank O l i v e r .  wheat trade of the p r a i r i e s . To t h i s extent at l e a t , the Minister's words were true:that increase of c u l t i v a t i o n i n the west had made Canada. There were other f a c t o r s , of course, but i t i s c e r t a i n that the great stimulus to expansion came from the opening of the west. A generation a f t e r the close of the period i t i s possible to look back on Sifton's work and make some estimate of i t s present value.  Sifton worked  f o r the opening of the west, rather than f o r the whole of Canada. To a t t a i n his end he sought a population of the size and q u a l i t y to control the p r a i r i e provinces and, by demanding c i t i z e n s h i p . o f the homesteaders, to guarantee a continuance  of i t s B r i t i s h character. The weakness here l i e s i n  the f a c t that the taking out of n a t u r a l i z a t i o n papers does not necessarily imply an appreciation of " B r i t i s h character". The great mosaic of foreign settlements that make up a good part'of Saskatchewan and,to a considerable extent, of the other western provinces has not shown as much appreciation of B r i t i s h i d e a l s and the t r a d i t i o n s of democracy as Canadians wish. Rather l a t e i n the day, Canada i s x-ealizing the need f o r acquainting these people with t h e i r r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as citizens.The lack of e f f o r t to make h i s s e t t l e r s into c i t i z e n s was one great weakness of the Sifton p o l i c y . If he f a i l e d i n t h i s respect, i n economic matters he was on surer ground In the opening of the western lands, he was able to take the long-range view, and r e a l i z e d that i t was a great advantage to Canada to have the west opened to production as soon as possible'regardless of d i r e c t outlay or of l o s s of revenue from land sales. To a c r i t i c i s m that he had not made revenue from the Crown Lands of the west, Sifton replied "that: The i n t e r e s t of the Dominion i n the lands i s i n the revenue that i t can derive from the s e t t l e r who can make that land productive... This Dominion can make m i l l i o n s out of the North-?vest and never s e l l an acre. I t has made m i l l i o n s ...The increase i n our customs returns, the increase i n our trade and commerce; the increase i n  122. our manufactures i s to a very large extent due to the settlement on the freelilands of the North-West T e r r i t o r i e s . The i n t e r e s t of the Dominion i s to secure the settlement of the lands and whether with a price of without a price makes l i t t l e or no d i f f e r e n c e . •••<?*/ 9/ To the extent that Sifton saw a producing population as essential to the progress of Canada, the Dominion was very fortunate i n i t s Minister of the I n t e r i o r . His enthusiasm  f o r settlement, however, induced him to open lands  to farming which should have been l e f t uncultivated or used f o r stockr a i s i n g . The opening to homesteads of a r i d or semi-arid lands or the submarginal lands to the north made f o r d i f f i c u l t i e s , heavy expense and heartbreaking discouragement i n a l a t e r period. I t i s easy to be wise after the eventhowever; i n general, Sifton's policy was b u i l t on h i s long-range  view  of Canadian expansion and was the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of h i s f a i t h i n the worth of the western lands. When Sifton resigned i n 1906, after, disagreeing with h i s chief on the . question of i n s t i t u t i n g separate schools i n the newly-formed provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, he was succeeded by Frank Oliver, member of p a r l iament f o r Edmonton. Although Oliver at times had c r i t i c i z e d the policy of Sifton, he now followed i t , partly because he saw i t s merits, p a r t l y because the system had become so closely articulated i n the nation's business that i t would have been disastrous to make any r a d i c a l change. Oliver furthered Sifton's ideas by bringing pressure to bear on the railways to choose their land grants, thus allowing the remaining lands to be opened f o r settlement. By introducing the "purchased  homestead", permitting the homeateader to buy  a quarter-section adjoining h i s homestead at a cost of three d o l l a r s an acre, Oliver allowed the farmer to have a u n i t of 320-acres instead of the customary 160-accesstThis was a very desirable change i n a day of mechanized farming, f o r i t had been found that i n many cases"160-acres  made a good farm,  (97) House of Commons Debates (Canada^ 1905. pp.3157-8, C l i f f o r d  Sifton.  123. but 320-acres makes, a better one'.' This was the change i n the basic Sifton policy that indicated the end of an era: the passing of the pioneer  days  and the coming of the machine age; and with that change the very decided s h i f t i n the composition of the "Classes that Canada c a l l s for'.' The d e f i n i t i o n of what constituted a desirable immigrant began to take shap^in the early part of the twentieth century as thousand^of people of many nations, occupations and ideals thronged the ports of Canada and t r i e d to cross her borders. I t was increasingly f e l t that the Sifton policy had allowed immigration to get out of control and that i t was necessary to apply some brakes. The*"Act of 190$ was a p r a c t i c a i recognition of the need f o r more discrimination i n choosing Canada's future c i t i z e n s . This act made provision f o r the medical examination of newcomers who did not meet Canadian standards, and f o r the r e j e c t i o n and deportation of those who were not desired. As thousands of persons crowded into Canada, however, the working of the act was i n e f f e c t i v e . Several amendments were made to t r y to make examinations more valuable, but i n 1910 the whole act was recast i n the interests of . greater e f f i c i e n c y . The Act of 1910 was notable f o r i t s f l e x i b i l i t y , a quality specially designed to allow the Minister of the Interior to act quickly i n emergencies. Oliver said of i t : We want to be i n a position, should occasion a r i s e , when public policy seems to demand i t , we may have the power, on our respons i b i l i t y as a government to exclude people whom we consider undesirable...We cannot t e l l at what time, or under what circumstances, there may be a sudden movement of people from one part of the world or another, and we want to be able to check i t , should public policy demand i t . jg) The quality of f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h i s act was considered by students of immig-. ration a most admirable feature. That such a measure was needed was shown  (.98) 1-6 Edw. VII. 6./? (99) 9-10 Edw.VlI.2e. 27. (100) House of Commons Debates Tcanadal. 1910,p.573, Hon. Frank Oliver.  124. by the large number of persons rejected at the ports and border stations, b but that i t was not adequately carried out i s shown i n the numbers of those deported before they had acquired Canadian domicile. In 1916, Miss Mateer of Vineland was appointed to the s t a f f . She was trained i n psychiatry and her work was to a s s i s t i n the recognition of mental imcompetence on the part of immigrants. By 1916, however, the tide of immigration had passed i t s peak and the problems of dealing with immigrants by the hundreds of  thousands  have not recurred. The Act of 1910, the ancestor of the Act of 1923, was designed to " s i f t the wheat from the chaff", the chaff i n t h i s case including anyone who, by reason of mental or physical i l l n e s s , was l i k e l y to become a public chargejanyone of immoral character; or those wishing to destroy established government i n Canada. The act allowed f o r deportation on cause being shown before a board of immigration o f f i c e r s , within the term of three years after legal entry. The Act of 1923 and i t s successors strengthened the clauses of the act to exclude undesirables and to provide f o r the safety and comfort of immigrants whan t r a v e l l i n g from t h e i r home ports to t h e i r place of settlement i n the new world. The coming of World War I. ended the greatest period of Canadian expansion, a period from which Canada emerged with added prestige and g: material development and with such a sense of nationhood tod f e e l i n g of maturity that she could play an important part i n the war which burst upon her just at the time she was beginning to appreciate the seriousness of her domestic problems. The war solved some of these and complicated others, but Canada emerged from the war with a d i f f e r e n t idea of what makes a c i t i z e n and with plans to choose more c a r e f u l l y i n the future.  (101) Five years' residence a f t e r l e g a l admittance. Previously three years.  >?»•( _ .  U tat Jm  't<>3  /fas  miara hon  /fo7  ht Canada  /9ft  't// ' Imm'igrohon ^Vn Trie  ise  <Tnc/  3)ec  19/j'.  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Zft9r7<. /7"/of 76' (<*</. ifi9</(  '7<?iW/  6 C S'os 28i%39 % 7  83e'0  3 3**79 7  /i'9 +2y 36i'l3i  v5/U'7J  u<t2'2  3/  /9s7t'  tf ( 0,739.  uoiz  V/.U70  /aw  7 3SS-6-  76S'  777M/V  t/s's~  13 7ro3  'O'V 3S~7 3o<>03  i  7s~e 399  v  3/3A~7S~  #$0 0 63 20< -9lt  7/ C 23/  1***9*71 ^'33^90 U.167 t* 7 * * K1&7/9 /7 7 08 / 7 I 91ooof ! /0 3S(V f ' ° ?  /28¥3i'  (3/.t~03  D/,707  <S$23 /6 3?3(  '3 37 3"* //$30 4fs~"(  3037  /29O07  oC  3SO, 377  3SC  lfi73C .  6~96~/i~ f  8  fo9t*e  '31'3 C9 S6^  33*^  Ai/idO  8i~7fi+  ;/7V?7  ?  3" 3  .  /}'3oo-] a'L2/  /039c 79 so/  '/3So3 _ 39 6936 I  36oS8f  727 3^7 37982. 313*90  /t~4>il  3d(,9//  6 0/retO  709 392  V"S'/V3  i'97^9  1*76 96* 29622 30&S~trO* to3</3  /?/0  M 3 (£J9  /d-i9'°7  <gy/of>3 *9/7i*7.  3933/  J  /?/*  9«3C  /0 6*73  86'7,*7<< 8t.$~?os~ 4//*f7  /ft>f  'OS SI  7S7792  ?vsaz./  'te7 '9' f  2 it  2*2 73S'  97 9 9/0.  /ti>6 Hi ,'9/  * * 6<i g  3 fn•»o  f* 99 to*  13 f, 73/  2 / 2i't/  //£,*>/*'  2i'3t/  /902269*'77  ft*f  33<f/  33 v **«*<•  3 5? f t  ti'7  3233o  f 3 / o 96~ & 38 oo  -3 3 30$  7f03 330 O + l  "Oft'  id&-($-/  3 ? v I z )'  l^.n.at.  '/3to  /tot,  6 3/3. yc73  *i-/>  3 3 o3£ 0  **** 6 662y  7  3/Ca8  /71  c'7o~*'9  'i*/cv  * *f 7  3  FX 7900 /9«/  29 * *2»y  • > V t'f //fd  9399  /99J  93/89  C TV- gg • Go .  bullae tit, i.lfSat/. . <2*/. t-ris-i*.  n  Hl*9/  UJUL^Z9o_ 6 26 3  J'77 \6 32  I 707 7*3_  3 06 9&<+-i_ \/607 3e  O ?t</1_  "  _  -  3 2 /OS '  "  /9/t  K•4..  € heir I' Shoaxriq Co)  Papers 19 if  Ho./s-  f>X*dt-  Sates  Lb) -(in  <*f land  red) Sat/; j nt  k> LJ  ~f*<3  fh<> cjrtaf- Com/hanif  puce.  tanj-  /jc/J (T  S  125.  THE PERIOD BETWEEN THE WARS. 1918-1958.  The period between the two great wars was a time of t r a n s i t i o n i n which the government t r i e d to consolidate the immigration of the past by encouring the settlement of those people already here rather than i n v i t i n g more. The Great War had revealed a serious weakness i n Sifton's immigration  policy.  He had allowed, even encouraged, the settlement of thousands of foreigners i n "blocs" which had isolated them from Canadianizing influences and had permitted them to r e t a i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l allegiance instead of developing an attachment f o r Canada, The r e s u l t was that many of these immigrants showed themselves hostile to Canada's war e f f o r t s , while others, such as the Mennon i t e s and the Doukhobors, stood upon the r i g h t s granted them at the time of t h e i r immigration and declined to bear arms f o r Canada. The War Measures Act of 1916, designed to keep out such people i n future, was repealed soon a f t e r the war when passions had cooled, but the f e e l i n g that Canada must be more discriminating i n the coming years was expressed i n the Immigration of 1923,  the f i r s t important measure f o r r e s t r i c t i o n passed a f t e r the  Immigration  Act  war.  was naturally much smaller during the war than i n the  Sifton regime. Whereas i n 1913  some 400,870 persons had entered, about  150,000 of whom- were B r i t i s h , i n 1917 there were 72,910,* the greatest number during war years. Continental Europe, which had provided some 155,000 i n 1914 sent only 5000 i n 1916*  This decline,which had already begun before the war,  was sharply accentuated by the d i f f i c u l t y and danger of t r a v e l l i n g during  (1) Canada Year Book. 1943-44, p. 177. (2) loc. c i t . (5) Canada Year Book. 1935, p. 185.  126. the war,  and to the f a c t that~the usual sources of immigrants were dried up  as men were c a l l e d to service. I t ?ra.s not u n t i l the early 'twenties that the number of immigrants entering Canada was great enough to require government attention. The Immigration  Act of 1923 was then passed to control the stream  of immigrants which threatened to become too great f o r Canada•s power of absorption, and to prevent the admission of those people,now defined a3 "undesirabley whc|were l i k e l y to become a public charge. While the Government was l e g i s l a t i n g f o r r e s t r i c t i o n , other forces were working to the same end. The chief of these was  the disappearance of the  ^-ta^homestead, which f o r a generation had been the b a i t f o r immigrant farmers. Even before the War, homesteads had become scarce - hence Oliver's pressure on the r a i l r o a d s to choose t h e i r land grants and free the other reserve lands. Free lands were now available only i n marginal areas or i n remote settlements. Such farms were p a r t i c u l a r l y unsuitable f o r new  s e t t l e r s with small means.  The price of purchased lands was steadily advancing, putting them beyond the reach of many new  s e t t l e r s . Another factor which deterred immigration was  the  high cost of transportation both by sea and by land, which made t r a v e l and the marketing of goods expensive. The r i s i n g cost of equipment and of interest on loans f o r farms also V e l d back expansion i n a g r i c u l t u r e . On the other hand, the l o s s of markets i n Europe and the consequent, f a l l i n prices tended to bankrupt even established farmers who had r e l i e d on high prices i n expanding t h e i r acreage and bjr/ing more equipment. Depressions, both before and a f t e r thevifer, stemmed the flow of c a p i t a l from abroad and slowed the migration of people across the A t l a n t i c . Because of the wiar, many American residents of Canada had returned to the United States, and immigration had been very much reduced. The combined e f f e c t s of these influences i s shown i n the following table:  127. 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918  400,870 150,484 36,665 55,914 72,910 41,845  1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924  107,698 158,824 91,728 64,224 133,729 124,164.  4  The f a l l i n g o f f i n immigration which, characterized the years a f t e r 1914 gave Canada a chance to plan an immigration programme. L e g i s l a t i o n was d i f f i c u l t to shape even when public opinion had had an opportunity to form and express i t s e l f . Ideas on immigration were as diverse as ever. As usual, f i n a n c i a l concerns such as banks and land companies, wanted the "open door". Railwys,which valued s e t t l e r s at about four hundred d o l l a r s a year each i n t r a f f i c value^as well as possible purchasers of company lands, sought immigrants as sources of revenue. When i n 1917, the Government acquired the c a p i t a l stock of the Canadian Northern Railroads" and l a t e r incorporated i t with that of the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railway, government o f f i c i a l s found themselves i n the d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n of wishing to encourage immigration to help carry the burden of expensive public u t i l i t i e s , and of discouraging any immigration which did not conform to the high standard demanded by the Canadian p u b l i c . Manufacturers had also a l i v e l y interest i n a free flow of'immigration  Yjhich  would bring them eheap and d o c i l e workers  to do the type of work that Canadians were unwilling to perform. The general argument here was that a greater immigration would mean a greater population [hot always true3which would reduce the burden of the national debt and help to keep the r a i l r o a d s solvent. Parliament heard many arguments to support these theories. An eastern member said i n 1922: "The West was not b u i l t on d o l l a r wheat...Toronto, Brantford,Hamilton - a l l the c i t i e s of Eastern Canada, i n f a c t , were stung into l i f e by the immigration p o l i c y of S i r C l i f f o r d Sifton  (4) Canada Year Book, 1940, p. 147.  128.  r following 1896." S i r Edward Beatty was quoted as sayingthat^'Without immigration, prospects f o r the success of the Canadian National l i n e s are hopel e s s j a wise and vigorous p o l i c y would help solve the problem5 He further recommended a f a i r proportion of s k i l l e d mechanics as desirable f o r Canadian industry. Looking to the future, J.J.Denis, member f o r Joliette,considered that:"The door should be open f o r a l l those who are p h y s i c a l l y and morally sound. Unemployment i & a phase. We must not pursue a narrow policy'.'  7  Organized labour had increased greatly i n strength during the War and s spoke with greater assurance. Members of labour groups regarded assisted immigration as a kind of government subsidy helping immigrants to enter, only to jeopardize the security of those who had paid t h e i r own way. Labour also opposed the introduction of contract labour except i n cases of emergency and believed that a l l such workers should be secured through the Empire Service Council of Canada, formed i n 1918 to co-ordinate government employment agencies and to guide immigration. The voice of these groups was powerful enough to bring about the passage of P.C.1418 of August 7, 1919 which provided that "the Minister of Mines and Resources may admit contract labourers i f s a t i s f i e d that h i s labour or service i s required i n Canada'.' While Labour thus protected i t s own p o s i t i o n , i t continued to hold the t r a d i t i o n a l view that i t was good to extend land settlement, even i t i t were necessary f o r the government to expropriate land f o r the purpose. P.C.1418 s p e c i f i e s that i t s provisions s h a l l not apply to the entry of farmers, farmlabourers and household workers. The fact that the country was already producing more farm products than i t could s e l l was ignored i n the cry f o r m  (5) House of Commons Debates Canada ,1922, E.J.MacMurray. p.2480 (6) House, of Commons Debates Canada. 1921, p.3580, Quoted by J.J.Denis. (7) H|feffse"of Commons Debates Canada. 1920, p.2602. J.J.Denis. (8) Canada Year Book,- 1945-44. p. 718.  129 more farmers who would increase the demand f o r factory goods. Only those who knew the conditions at f i r s t hand pleaded f o r the exclusion of more farmers u n t i l a recovery of markets made farming p r o f i t a b l e f o r those who were already here. The Honourable Arthur Meighen presented the case f o r the farmers when he said: The Minister says that the only people the Boards of Trade want are the men who w i l l go on the land. I t i s a funny thing to me that everyone on earth wants to keep out competition except the farmer. We are a l l ready to give him a l l the competition possible at h i s own expense. Now, i f I were a farmer, I would want competition among the people to whom I s e l l my produce. And as I am a farmer, that i s what I want. The b e 3 t way to get immigrants i s to bring about healthful i n d u s t r i a l conditions. We s h a l l get i n that way immigration f o r the land just as well as f o r the town, and a r t i f i c i a l stimulants are not going to conduce to anything l i k e wholesome continuous ^ immigration.^ The member stated what has become recognized as the basic truth when he said that when farming became p r o f i t a b l e , immigration would no longer be a problem. The Minister, J.A.Calder, stated another truth which indicated the change ah the times. He said:"In future, i f we are to have people go on the land,... and I am speaking l a r g e l y of western Canada, i t i s necessary that they should  10 have some capital'.' This warning was  soon to be translated into law.The Min-  i s t e r recognized that farming had i n many ways become a c a p i t a l i s t i c industry, requiring a large outlay of money f o r land and equipment, and that the farmlabourer of o l d , who would be w i l l i n g to earn experience and then take up a homestead was obsolescent. In the depression of 1921, when prices f e l l , i t was realized that,unless there was a good reserve of c a p i t a l to take the s t r a i n of f l u c t u a t i n g prices^and r i s i n g costs, the farmer would loseehis land. (9) House of Commons Penates Canada, 1926, p. 1892, The Hon. Arthur Meighen. (10) House of Commons Debates, Canada. 1919. p. 1987. J.A.Calder. (11) Wheat Prices: 1920-1 $1.62 a bushel 1929 1.05 1923 .67 1930 .49 1924 1.22 1932 .30 (10) 1928 .80 Canada Year Book,1955. p. 230.  The Labour groups who advocated more immigration of farmers did not always r e a l i z e the connection between the dispossessed farmer or farm-labourer and the "cheap" labourer undermining the economic security of the town dwellers. It l a t e r became a pj't of Government p o l i c y to r e - e s t a b l i s h many of these people when times became more prosperous. While certain interested groups approved the immigration of the u n s k i l l e d labourer who has t r a d i t i o n a l l y done the lowly work of farm or factory, those most eoheerneddwifch s o c i a l welfare opposed the admittance of persons from a lower economic l e v e l -the class from which most~immigrants  come-than that of  Canadians. These socially-conscious groups demanded that future immigrants be readily assimilable both p o l i t i c a l l y arid s o c i a l l y . Asssuch people are seldom d o c i l e , i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r the government to frame a p o l i c y to please both employer and s o c i a l worker. I t was therefore announced that Government policy would be an attempt to steer a middle course between the demands of those who wanted an "open door" p o l i c y and those who would have prosperity i n the land before admitting more immigrants. These resolutions resulted i n the Act of 1923 already mentioned. This Act'/ which  riotionlyisdefdines  a"desirable"  immigrant,but also provides the means whereby only such persons s h a l l pass the gates of Canada. Reinforced by the Acts of 1924 and 1927, the Act of 1923 was the forerunner of the Act of 1937 which was the f i n a l word f o r t h i s period,defining what Canadians consider the i d e a l immigrant. The Act of 1923 was. a r e s t r i c t i v e measure, i t s terms being dictated to a great extent by the passage of the American Quota Laws of i922, which, by allowing the entry of Canadians to the United States while excluding many foreigners, complicated  (11) 13-14 Geo.V. c.51. June 30, 1923. (12) 14-15 Geo.V. c. 45. July 19, 1925. (13) 17-18 Geo.V. c.95. (14) I Geo.VI. c.34.  131. Canada's problem enormously. Canadians emigrated to the United States, and t h e i r places were f i l l e d by Central Europeans i n many cages. Many Europeans f  came to Canada and used i t as a stopping-place while they waited f o r their quota number to come up. Canada had to try to prevent.the entry of such people who temporarily flooded the labour market without giving Canada any permanent benefit, and forced her to keep up a costly immigration  service to  deal with t h e i r inspection at the ports of entry. The laws of Canada were repeatedly revised to the end of excluding undesirables. The l a s s of 1902 and 1910 made c l o s e r inspection at the ports A  a part of the routine i n the admission of a l l immigrants, so that those mentally or physically incapable of supporting themselves could be rejected. U n t i l Canadian domicile had been established, any immigrant becoming a public charge was deportable. Under R.S.C. 1927 c.93 already mentioned, the l i s t of deportable classes was extensive. They included persons mentally or physic-  other a l l y defective; those affected by tuberculosis, trachoma,or^any^ i n f e c t i o u s , contagious, or loathesome disease, unless such disease could be cured within a reasonably short time; those dumb, blind or otherwise handicapped unless sure of support; persons of immoral character; beggars or vagrants; persons entering on a s s i s t e d passage unless approved by the Minister; chronic alcoholics; anarchists of any kind; spies and conspiratoss; i l l i t e r a t e s  over  f i f t e e n and under f i f t y - f i v e unless dependent females of acceptable s e t t l e r s ; usually, the families of persons rejected. The tables of persons rejected or deported show that the system of inspection was not very e f f i c i e n t . At f i r s t there was no way of preventing people coming to Canada, but a f t e r the War, the inhumanity of allowing people to break up t h e i r homes i n Europe, proceed to Canada and there be rejected, appealed to the European governments, and they were at l a s t w i l l i n g to allow medical and c i v i l inspection before the immigrants broke up t h e i r way of l i f e . Again, a study of the tables of  cwJ&-  132. deportations show how casual much of this inspection must have been. I t was only a f t e r the passage of the Act of 1937 that the situation was well i n hand. From 1903 to 1938 there were 21,914 deselections, mainly on c i v i l grounds, and 53,967 deportations. The l a t t e r class was made up l a r g e l y of persons who had become public charges. The number rejected and deported f o r '7  medical reasons was s t i l l very high,1360 during 1952-1942. The Acts mentioned l e g i s l a t e d against the admission of undesirables i n general. Canadians also disapproved of certain national groups, c h i e f l y the Galicians who, because of the immigration a c t i v i t i e s of the railways, were entering i n large numbers. These people, ignorant of the languages of Canada and often without money, were i n a very d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n . Many entered as single men, as the Chinese had i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and l i k e them gathered in camps, forming national groups instead of becoming assimilated. Having no family t i e s to steady them, they were often i n trouble with the police on such charges as drunkenness or fighting^and f e l l i n t o general disfavour. They were often needing assistance. When, therefore, during the depression of 1930, there was l i t t l e hope of employment f o r these people, the Government passed an Order-in-Council on August 14, 1930, excluding from Canada a l l immigrants except B r i t i s h e r s coming from the United Kingdom or from the s e l f governing dominions, or Americans from the United States.On humanitarian grounds, exceptions were made i n allowing the admission of wives and minor, unmarried children, and of fiancees of those residents who were i n a posi t i o n to support t h e i r dependents. This applied to European immigrants. A g r i c u l t u r i s t s with s u f f i c i e n t money to begin farming were also admitted.  (15) Canada Year Book, 1933,p.196 and 1943-44,p. 182. (16) ibid. loc. bit. (17) ibid. loc. c i t .  133. The t r a d i t i o n a l idea of Canada as an a g r i c u l t u r a l nation, with lands enough f o r unlimited settlement and a secure market f o r wheat, l e d the Canadian and B r i t i s h Governments to embark on a plan of settlement called the Empire Settlement Scheme. The Canadian experiment was part of a much l a r g e r venture i n systematic settlement intended to r e l i e v e uver-population i n B r i t a i n and to supply the Dominions with needed s e t t l e r s . The B r i t i s h Government had always been unwilling to give f i n a n c i a l help to emigration and the Canadian Government had been equally unwilling to make i t s e l f responsible f o r c o l l e c t i n g money lent to farmers. Governments are always at a disadvantage at such times. I t therefore appeared that the Governments were departing from t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l custom when they became associated i n a plan of assisted settlement. Actually the Empire Settlement Scheme was an e f f o r t at establishing many., who,  but f o r the War^whould have  emigrated at their own expense. The assistance given was r e a l l y a recognition of the increased cost of transport, land and equipment, and the changing economy of the post-War world. The cost was ankinwestment i n the interest of wider commerce. The scheme was planned i n 1919 by the Oversea Settlement Committee of B r i t a i n . I t took shape i n the Empire Settlement Act of 1922 of the Imperial parliamentaas a result of the sanction given the plan by the. Conference of Prime Ministers i n 1921. The plan was endorsed by the Imperial Economic Council of 1923. At f i r s t i t was looked upon i n Canada with suspicion, as a plan subsidized by the Government of Great B r i t a i n ; but when i t was  realized  that some such measure was necessary to maintain a wholesome proportion of AngleSaxons i n Canada, the plan gained favour. B r i e f l y , the scheme was as follows: The Empire Settlement Act gave the B r i t i s h Government power to cooperate with other Dominion Governments or with private; organizations to  154. a s s i s t suitable persons to s e t t l e on land i n the Dominions of the B r i t i s h Commonwealth. The B r i t i s h Government was prepared to contribute one-half of the cost of such settlement to a maximum of £5,000,000 per annum f o r f i v e years. In the case of private organizations, B r i t a i n contributed threequarters of the expense. The repayment of the latm was to be made over a period of twenty-five years, with interest at f i v e per cent, on an amorti z a t i o n b a s i 3 . The money could be spent on actual settlement, on the training for  such settlement, or on the cost of transportation i n immigration. As f a r as Canada was concerned, the most important agreement was the  Three Thousand Family Scheme, under which 3033 f a m i l i e s were s e t t l e d , of whom two-thirds were s t i l l on their-lands when the scheme ended i n 1950.Of the t o t a l of 302,325 persons assisted to emigrate under the Empire S e t t l e 19  ment Act, 99,849 came to Canada.•Some of these were young boys who, i n accordance with the provisions of the Act were given training eh a farm at Vermilion , Alberta, or on farms i n Ontario i n co-operation with the provinc i a l Departments of Agriculture. Approved s o c i e t i e s were assisted in s e t t l i n g t h e i r proteges, who were given free transportation by the Oversea  Settlement  Agreement. Such help was withdrawn i n 1951, when depression made extensive immigration inadvisable. Juvenile immigration had reached a maximum of zo  4281 i n 1950. The success of any scheme of t h i s sort i s hard to estimate. The immigr a t i o n and t r a i n i n g of juveniles was probably the most successful part of the scheme. That two-thirds were s t i l l on their lands a f t e r a period of about eight years i s a tribute to the success of the older s e t t l e r s . The scheme  (18) W.A.Carrothers, Emigration from the B r i t i s h I s l e s . London, P.S.King ( and Son, 1929, p. 510. (19) Report of the Soldier Settlement Board of Canada, 1929, p. 15. ' (20) Canada Year Book. 1933, p. 196.  155. died i n the depression of 1950 which defeated f a r more than the new  settlers  under the Empire Settlement Scheme. The Canadian Government undertook other settlement projects. In order to encourage the sale of i t s land, the Canadian Government i n 1921 associated i t s e l f with the Canadian National.and Canadian P a c i f i c Railways i n the Canada Colonization Association. This venture was not very successful, and f i r s t one and then the other withdrew, the Canadian National lands being administered by the Land Settlement Branch of the Department of Immigration and Colonization., a f t e r the amalgamation of the Canadian Northern and Srand Trunk P a c i f i 2/  Railways. There was then a steady record of land sales. The Government l a t e r embarked on a policy i n co-ordination with the two great railway  companies  to r e h a b i l i t a t e families who had been on farms previously and who were w i l l i n g to return i f given some help. The three interests carried on an active programme of settlement. There was no f i n a n c i a l assistance, but there was dependable and d i s i n t e r e s t e d advice. I t i s estimated that more than 68,000 persons were thus re-established on farms i n the two years from October 1950 to September 1952. At the time of the launching of the Empire Settlement Scheme, the Canadian P a c i f i c and Canadian National Railways both made contracts with the Canadian Government to bring i n families from the Continent, and l a t e r to bring i n single men, four thousand to each company. These schemes were verysuccessful from the point of view of quantity, but Canadians took objection to the q u a l i t y , and the Government imposed i t s r e s t r i c t i o n s to prevent such wholesale immigration of foreigners. Canada also adopted from Australia the idea of nomination, a 3ystem w (21). See p . ' Chor pricedm<i ( 22) Canada Year Book, 1955,p.202.  156. whereby a farmer i n Canada could get a government loan to pay the passage of a farm labourer to a s s i s t him i n farm work. Direct nomination, by which a farmer could choose a man of whom he knew, proved the most successful method. Bulk nominations, to f i l l  the expressed needs of c e r t a i n farmers were also  used, but,-of course, with l e s s success.- These nominations worked well when carried on i n good f a i t h . In 1929 nearly eight thousand men had so entered. For  the rest, the government concerned i t s e l f c h i e f l y with the a f t e r -  care of s e t t l e r s . The period was one of consolidation and the s e t t l e r was now considered rather as an i n d i v i d u a l than as a member of a mass migration. In addition to gaining the right to have the immigrant examined i n his homeland, the Canadian government concerned i t s e l f with laws f o r the protection of the migrant. Members of the Red Cross and Victorian Order of Nurses were emlisted to care f o r women and children i n passage, and matrons on t r a i n s and special conductors v/ere provided to ensure the passengers as smooth a journey as possible. Transportation companies were required to "provide, equip and maintain suitable buildings f o r the examination and detention of passengers f o r any purpose under the Immigration Act at every port of entry" In most respects, the welfare of the immigrant assumed greater importance. This, of course, was i n l i n e with the new conception of the immigrant i n jiis role of c i t i z e n , an asset i n a democratic country. Thus by the expenditure of vast sums of money and much energy and ingenuity, Canada had s t r i v e n to provide h e r s e l f with a population to carryout  the i d e a l s of the Fathers of Confederation, a nation stretching from  sea  to sea with a culture based on the B r i t i s h and French t r a d i t i o n s of the  early s e t t l e r s . To what extent had the plan succeeded?  (22) P.C. 269 of February 1911. The Immigration Act of June 1937, I Geo.VI. _c.. 34 contains about twenty-five clauses intended to provide f o r the protection of the immigrant i n t r a n s i t .  137. Canada i n 1938,  standing on the verge of the greatest war i n history,  had attained a maturity which would have astonished the statesmen who  had  created her. In some ways they would have recognized the Canada of ' dreams: she was a nation stretching from sea to sea and moreover, she had maintained  a personality which, partaking of both B r i t i s h and American i n f l u -  ences, was  s t i l l an i n d i v i d u a l , d i s t i n c t i v e l y Canadian. In other ways the  Changes i n Canada would have amaaed  S i r John and h i s f r i e n d s . Not  one  transcontinental railway,but three, threaded their ways across p r a i r i e and mountain; and towns,unborn i n 1867,held populations of hundreds of thousands. New  industries, new products, new methods, new economic thought would, have  bewildered the man  of the 1860's. In 1938,  a Prime Minister wishing to d i s -  cuss current topics with his supporters might well be an expert l i n g u i s t , f o r the population of the p l a i n s , somewhat mixed, even at Confederation, was a mosaic of many r a c i a l groups, each contributing i n i t s way  now  some threads of  i t s t r a d i t i o n a l culture to be woven into the r i c h pattern of Canada's nationi. f a b r i c . In 1871 B r i t i s h and French constituted about 92$ of the t o t a l population, the remainder being from the preferred countries of northern Europe ^except f o r a Slavic representation of about f i v e hundred, and a few Orientals In 1941,  of the t o t a l population of 11,500,000 only 80$ were of the basic  stocks. Teutonic races contributed 8.4$  and Slavs t o t a l l e d about 5.6$.  The  concentration of these people varied greatly across Canada. The eastern provinces remained predominantly B r i t i s h and French, b i t Saskatchewan had more thn one hal^of i t s population of foreign stock, a h i l e Alberta and Manitoba had respectively 55$ and 57$ of the old r a c i a l stocks. As a result of SiftonH policy, foreign-born population, other than that from the United  (25) Canada Year Book, 1943-44. p. (24) ibid. p.  103. 105.  States,rose  1S8. from 1.5$ i n 1891 to 6.25$ i n 1911 and to 7.5$ i n 1931. when the r e s t r i c t i v e Immigration Acts of 1923 and 1957,. and the Order-in-Council  of'Augustal4y.b  1930 took e f f e c t , the foreign-born population f e l l to 6.1 $ although the number of people i n Canada was steadily increasing. At the end of the period, Germans were the t h i r d i n size i n the r a c i a l groups, and the Ukrainians, because of t h e i r high b i r t h - r a t e , had r i s e n to fourth place. .Population was no longer receiving additions i n the form of streams of immigrants. Canada -.vas not s o l i c i t i n g immigrants e i t h e r from the United States or from Europe. Most of the o f f i c e s overseas were closed, and the r e s t r i c t i v e  act3  had caused  immigration to drop to 16,994 i n 1939 and from that point i t f e l l gradually to 8,504 i n 1943. Because of the Great War I I . and the Order-in-Council of 1950, almost a l l of these immigrants were either from the B r i t i s h I s l e s or from the United States. The introduction of these immigrants of Anglo-Saxon stock tended to restore the B r i t i s h r a c i a l balance, but as the b i r t h - r a t e among Anglo-Saxons i s low there was l e s s gain than was hoped f o r , especially  X7 as the tendency toward emigration was high*. If population gains were slow and not always what statesmen would have chosen f o r Canada's c i t i z e n s , the gains i n industry were more  rewarding.  Where the fur-trapper held sway i n 1867, twenty-five m i l l i o n acres of spring wheat, eight and a half m i l l i o n acres of oats, and about four m i l l i o n acres of barley provided a golden stream of g r a i n worth $252,000,000 i n 1958.The growing i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of Canada was drawing increasing numbers of people to  the c i t i e s . The i d e a l of Canada as an a g r i c u l t u r a l nation was giving place  (25) Canada Year Book. 1943-44. p. 112. (26) Canada Year Book. 1943-44, p. 103. (27) Canada Year Book, 1940, p. 165. gives the exodus as follows: 1951 • 10,844 1933 ~ 14,128 1935 7,537 1937 1932 18,083 1954 9,961 1956 7,826 1958 (28) Canada Year Book, 1945-44,p. 113. ;  6120 5,974  139. to the r e a l i z a t i o n that Canada might well become one of the great i n d u s t r i a l countries of the world. Whereas i n 1871 the population of Canada was 19.58$ urban, i n 1941 i t was 54.34$ urban. The greatest change, as might well be expected was i n the i n d u s t r i a l east. Quebec and Ontario, both about onef i f t h urban i n 1871, were well over the t h r e e - f i f t h s mark i n 1941. The indust r i e s of the east were a t t r a c t i v e to immigrants. After 1905 when the home^t stead period had had i t s day, Ontario received the largest number of immig? rants, and except f o r 1929 and 1950 when Manitoba proved very a t t r a c t i v e , Quebec took the second largest number of immigrants. The i n d u s t r i a l Revolution had arrived i n Canada. I t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g matter i'or speculation to consider the relationship between the immigration from the non-preferred countries of Europe and the growth of Canadian industry. The growth i n any case was hnpressive.Manufacturirig^ith a gooss value of $221,617,773 i n 1871, 3/  '  recorded a gross value of $4,529,175,516 i n 1941. Agriculture worth about 32 $154,1251197 i n 1871,in 1940 showed a gross value of $1,265,112,000. Mines yielded $10,221,255 worth of materials i n 1886{$2.25 per capitajand i n 1958 gave $441,823,237 worth of products (§59.42 per c a p i t a ^ Other growing industr i e s were gradually l u r i n g people away from the farms, and machinery replaced them. Thus a further stimulus was.given to eastern industry. Population gains were not g r a t i f y i n g . Between 1868 and 1935 over $60,000,000 was spent on immigration f o r propaganda and assistance i n transportation and settlement.When S i r Wilfred Laurier said that the"Twentieth Century belongs to Canada" he spoke the .ambitions-of most Canadians who saw i n a great population a great nation. Optimum populations ranged anywhere  (29) (SO) (31) (32) (53$ (34)  Canada Year Book. 1943-44. ibid. ibid. ibid. ibid." ibid. 1936.  p. p. p. p. p. p.  12. 181. 188. 214, and Canada Year Book. 1933,p.xxvii. 291. 199.  140. from 25,000,000 to 150,000,000. The Dominion Statistician-predictediih?1931 a modest t o t a l , he said: "An increase of 200,000 a year would ensure prosperi t y . Projecting the curves shich best f i t the observed growth of the various provinces, from the e a r l i e s t times, the t o t a l population f o r 1950 approaches 16,000,000." Even t h i s modest f i g u r e has not been attained. The s t a t i s t i c i a n had not foreseen the effects of the greatest war and the greatest  depression  i n the history of the country. But the replacement of persons by machines i n most industries has allowed those industries to go forward at an unprecedented rate while the population lags, the demand f o r consumer goods being kept up by the r i s i n g standard of l i v i n g . Nor i s there any active i n t e r e s t to encourage further large scale immigration. Canadains have accustomed themselves to the idea of shouldering  the cost of unprofitable railways as  public u t i l i t i e s as being preferable to the admission of large numbers of immigrants d i f f i c u l t to adjust to the Canadian way of l i f e . Foreign governUft  fo I  ments have meanwhile made plans to keep thexr^nationals at home or to d i r e c t them to countries where the home government may control them and derive benefit from t h e i r work abooad. Whatever plans are made f o r the future, they must be made i n a s p i r i t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l co-operation-if they are to succeed It i s also r e a l i z e d that d e f i n i t e steps must be taken toward assimilation i f the immigrants are to be kept i n Canada. A plan of Canadianization must be a part of any settlement  scheme i f B r i t i s h ideals are to p e r s i s t . After years  of t r i a l s and f a i l u r e s i t i s now recognized  that the immigrant i s a person,  a part of Canada's future, and that Canada's future f o r better or worse w i l l to a great extent be determined by the type of immigrant admitted and the treatment given him a f t e r he has a r r i v e d .  (55) R.H.Coats, International Migration. Vol.11. National Bureau of Economic ( Research, St. Alban's, New Hampshire, 1931. p. 142.  141.  ORIENTAL IMmlQRATIQN.  While the eastern and central portions of Canada were engaged i n t h e i r work of attracting and s e t t l i n g immigrants, B r i t i s h Columbia, cut off from the  rest of Canada by the Rocky Mountains, was struggling with a problem  peculiar to i t s e l f , the immigration of Orientals. These people entered, unasked and unwelcomed, i n numbers too large to be easily absorbed by the scanty white population of the P a c i f i c Coast. Had the Orientals spread throughout Canada there might have been no problem, but as i t was, the concentration of Chinese,'Japanese and East Indians i n B r i t i s h Columbia produced a situation that taxed the patience of the white residents and strained diplomatic r e l a t i o n s between Canada and .friendly nations. As these three groups of Orientals received d i f f e r e n t treatment, they must be considered separately. The e a r l i e s t Chinese'who can be c a l l e d s e t t l e r s arrived on t h i s continent i n 1849, entering C a l i f o r n i a to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the gold rush of that period.•Supplies f o r miners were often conveniently imported from Hongkong, and i t was quite natural that soon some Chinese should form part of the i»a.stbound cargoes. A Chinese student of immigration, Cheng Tien-fang, t e l l s the  story of the Chinese who i s said to have l e d the northward movement of  his countrymen i n 1858. He found work as a cook at good wages and sent news ;  of h i s good fortune to h i s f r i e n d s . Soon a small stream of Chinese entered B r i t i s h Columbia, adding one more race and language to the already polyglot population on the P a c i f i c Coast. In 1864 there were between two and three J.  thousand Chinese i n B r i t i s h Columbia. (1) Cheng Tien-fang.Oriental Immigration.Shanghai.Commercial pp.35-36.  Press.1951,p  142 The e a r l i e s t Chinese were given a welcome i n B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r  —  they were w i l l i n g to do much of the l e s s pleasant pioneering work necessary. i n a new land. They engaged Chiefly i n working over old placer claims abandoned by more ambitious white men,and they undertook domestic work to the great r e l i e f of many a housewife. In the evidence given before the Royal. Commission on the Chinese i n 1885, the Honourable H.P.Crease said of them: When the Chinese f i r s t came to t h i s place, they supplied a f e l t want,one which had become almost i n t o l e r a b l e i n the way of labour and domestic service. The white s e t t l e r s who f i r s t came to the country were very few i n number and had t h e i r own work to attend to...Everybody had a great and natural objection to them £the Chinese^ ;but necessity has no law, i t was Chinese labour or none at. a l l . . . I t i s not too much to say that without Chinese servants, the privations of family l i f e , extreme and of wearying monotony, would have been i n t o l e r a b l e , and a general exodus of f a m i l i e s would have been the r e s u l t . .The high prices the Chinese obtained {fifteen to t h i r t y - f i v e d o l l a r s a month and t h e i r board and lodgingj are a very f a i r test of the necessity f o r t h e i r employment...The r e l i e f given by Chinese a i d to the overworked households created a good f e e l i n g toward them. This f e e l i n g lasted some time. Their number was limited and no serious fears had yet been entertained of t h e i r competition on the labour market. It was when the Chinese l e f t the meagre pickings of placer mines, and entered the more productive f i e l d s of employment that f e e l i n g rose aginst him. As an unskilled worker employed  "to dig a d i t c h , showel earth, cut wood, or wash  clothes which white men who can get anything else to do w i l l not do" he had seldom come into competition with any but the lowest kind of labourer. But that phase of employment came to an end. In h i s evidence given before the Royal Commission of 1885, S i r Matthew Begbie said that although the Chinese were employed only i n the more laborious work of the coal mines, they also formed about three-fourths of the cannery hands, the majority of the goldminers, were model market-gardeners, and were indispensable to the railroads and i n most branches of manufacturing. I t was when they developed actively  (2) Sessional Papers. 1885, No. 54a pp. 140-145. The Hon. H.P.Creased (5) ibid. p. 75. S i r Matthew Begbie.  143.  within tfjese industries that p o l i t i c i a n s , i n trying to control the labour vote, made use of the evident f r i c t i o n which was growing between Chinese  and  white groups of workers. It was not u n t i l a f t e r Confederation, however, that anti-Chinese f e e l i n g was directed into making repeated demands f o r laws to r e s t r i c t t h e i r entry, and then began the struggle between the governments i n V i c t o r i a and Ottawa that was to continue u n t i l the passage of the Chinese Immigration  Act i n 1823.  The growing f e e l i n g against the Chinese was brought to a head by the building of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. The Honourable H.P.Crease s a i d : The good f e e l i n g toward the Chinese continued more or l e s s u n t i l about the time of the commencement of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway works i n the province."Then a very laudable f e e l i n g arose that, i f possible, such vast expenditures of public money should be u t i l i z e d by bringing i n white s e t t l e r s , who should be heads of f a m i l i e s , take root i n the s o i l , and add g r e a t l y to the substantial strength of the Dominion...White labour i n quantity and quality was unobtainable, and nothing i s more certain than that i n the absence of.Chinese labour, the enormous railway works which are now progressing to completion would have been i n d e f i n i t e l y prolonged i f not postponed to the Greek Kalends f o r sheer want of hands.*" The speaker knew whereof he spoke, f o r he had t r i e d at considerable expense to bring white labour by the long and expensive route around Cape Horn, and when that attempt f a i l e d he had made an e f f o r t . t o import Kanakas from the East Indies, an e f f o r t equally unsuccessful. He knew also that the American r a i l r o a d s were competing with Canada f o r whatever white labour was  available  and, having more funds, were attracting most of i t . This recognition of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the position 6f the Canadian Pacific Railw^r Company with regard to labour did nothing to lessen the agitation that was growing against the Chinese. He was accused of a l l kinds of objectionable t r a i t s j - h e was d i r t y ; he l i v e d i n overcrowded conditions; he brought in  disease, e s p e c i a l l y leprosy; he was non-assimilable;he  ^(4) Sessional Papers. 1885. No. 54a. p. / * 3  was  }  144. immoral; he evaded taxation; he showed no i n c l i n a t i o n toward being a good c i t i z e n ; he was a criminal i n mind; he was d i f f i c u l t to c h r i s t i a n i z e ; he was a "single".man and kept out f a m i l i e s . Some of these allegations cound not be sustained, especially those having to do with disease and crime, i n which respects the Chinese was found to be rather better than white people of s i m i l a r status. The r e a l objections were two, s o c i a l and economic. On the economic side the Chinese  jeopardized the standard of l i v i n g of the white man...As a "single" man, he <r< *** could l i v e on a mere pittance and consequently could work f o r muoh l e s s money than would be required f o r a white man with a family, and therefore was more l i k e l y to get. employment. Besides the f a c t that he displaced white families he was also c r i t i c i z e d f o r sending h i s money to'China. Noah Shakespeare, mayor of V i c t o r i a and l a t e r a member of the Dominion parliament, was the most vocal antagonist of the Chinese. He said i n 1878 that of the $1,800,000 earned by the Chinese, $1,440,000 was sent to China, i n addition  s~ to the money spent on r i c e . Chinese returning to China were also said to have drawn d r a f t s of Canadian banks f o r about 45,000 every few years. As many Chinese registered out each year, the drain on the slender resources of the province must have seemed large to those who d i d not consider the productive value of the work done by the O r i e n t a l s . The export of c a p i t a l was necessary, of course, f o r the Chinese had t h e i r families to keep i n China, and the repayments to make to the trading companies which had sent them to Canada. However, t h i s matter of the export of money was a source of grievance to the anti-Chinese f o r many years. The second major obection to the Chinese was on s o c i a l grounds. That he was non-assimilable was generally agreed. The suggestion of intermarriage of the races was everywhere condemned. Many asserted that the Chinese was a (5) Canadian House of Commons Debates. 1879. pp. 1251-3. Noah  Shakespeare.  145. slave. This was a debatable point. That the Chinese were i n many cases sent to Canada through the a c t i v i t i e s of a company 'which paid f o r t h e i r passage and equipment was generally conceded. Laurier even described t h i s immigration as a'brisk trade i n l i v e f l e s h " . But whether t h i s arrangement made the Chinese slaves i s r a moot point. Some Chinese said not. However, the f a c t that the coolie came on a kind of "assisted passagej' made p o l i t i c a l ammunition. The charge that the Chinese were more immoral than white people was not proved by the cases brought into the ordinary courts. Magistrates i n V i c t o r i a found that the Chinese were more l i k e l y than"whitesl' or Indians to respect the law. The chief offences were the breaking of by-laws. That they seldom brought cases between Chinese only to the courts of B r i t i s h Columbia, but s e t t l e d them i n t h e i r own tribunals,wsaems to have been generally true. This use of t h e i r own courts was held against them ty t h e i r opponents. These -objections to the Chinese, and other minor ones, such as d i s l i k e of t h e i r dress, t h e i r t h r i f t , and t h e i r religion,increased a f t e r Confederation r i s i n g to great volume eihen the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway cont r a c t s were l e t . Althoug'*lt~was then shown that Chinese labour was necessary f o r the construction of the r a i l r o a d , the anti-Chinese element i n B r i t i s h Columbia used a l l i t s resources to oppose the entry of more Chinese, urging that contracts financed by public money should be l e t to white people and the work should be done by white |>abour. The clamour f o r preventing more immigration of Orientals was carried to Ottawa. In 1879, Arthur Bunster, member of parliament f o r V i c t o r i a , moved a resolution that: "The Government insert, a clause i n each and every cont r a c t l e t f o r the construction of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway that no man  (6) Canadian House of Commons Debates. 1899.p.4529ii; Cr Q, Maxwell. (7) Sessional Papers. 1885. no. 54a. p. $&. S i r Matthew Begbie.  146 wearing h i s h a i r longer than f i v e and one half inches s h a l l be deemed '  9  e l i g i b l e f o r employment on said worky Naturally i n a parliament of the 137  E  1870s such a motion was treated l i g h t l y , but to more serious representations of public f e e l i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the Government r e p l i e d that i t had no means at i t s disposal to .induce the contractors of the Canadian  Pacific  Railway to employ white lanour i n place of Chinese. S i r John A. Macdonald stated that as soon as labour was available to the railway, a c t i o n would be taken to  r e s t r i c t the immigration of Chinese, but that at  present,enough  helpers could not be obtained otherwise, and that the immigration  was  needed f o r the completion of the railway and the advancement of B r i t i s h Columbiais i n d u s t r i e s . In t h i s view he was supported by J.A.R.Homer, member of parliament f o r New  Westminster, who  said:"To place r e s t r i c t i o n on Chinese  labour before making provision to peplace i t by white labour would her, i n my opinion a serious mistake, f o r i t would cripple.the industries f o r years to come'J Andrew Onderdonk, contractor f o r the P a c i f i c section of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, made use of many Chinese. In evidence given i n 1885,  he  said that he had employed some six thousand, and that before completing his work, wculd need two thousand more. One of h i s sub-contractors, Michael Haney, stated that he had intended to employ only white people, but found that he could not get enough who were suitable. He said that he had, "by himself, through h i s experience of them the Chinese at work, come to employ them because as good patient workers, aa peaceful men,  they were important  to bring to success such an enterprise as building these roads through the  (8) Canadian. House of Commons debates. 1879. p. Arthur Bunster. (9) ibid. 1879 Mar. 18, p. 1207. J.A.Macdonald. (10) ibid. 1883. Apr. 30. p. 905 * J A . Macdonald. (11) i b i d . ... 1883. Apr. 30. p. 904. J.A.R.Homer. •(12) Sessional Papers. 1885, No. 54a. p. 148. Evidence of Andrew Onderdonk.  147  13  wilderness. " In. the-face ,of'such expressions of the need of Chinese f o r labour i t was, not. to beeexpected that I.the Government, at. Ottawa would y i e l d to the demands of the labour groups, of B r i t i s h -Columbia f o r r e s t r i c t i o n or expulsion of the Orientals. There was another side to. the question, that of the influence of.any r e s t r i c t i o n on the possible growth of trade with China. When i n 1880, Amor de Cosmos, member of parliament-for-Victoria, presented a request from . ! B r i t i s h Columbia that an act on the p r i n c i p l e of the Queensland  Act,(an, .  :act passed i n Queensland! to r e s t r i c t the entry of Chinese to that s t a t e ^ should be passed to control Chinese immigration, he was refused on the ground that such an act would.prejudice trade and commerce between Canada. •and the Orient. A report of the. Executive Council,of Victoria;on August 19 1882,  setting f o r t h a l i s t of objections to the Chinese and reinforcing  these objections with records of the experience of other Dominions in, similar matters, was quickly disposed of. Two years l a t e r when the. subject was again brought forward, S i r John A. Macdonald countered i t with the information that the Canadian.Pacific Railway Company -planned t o establish an Orient l i n e of steamers from. Vancouver,, and added that. " I t might ^ seriously impede the success of that l i n e i f we l e g i s l a t e i n a manner to offend-the Chinese government'.'..This, statement was.,.supported by Huang Su Chen, Chinese consul at ^an Franciscoj who,  i n evidence before the Royal  Commission of 1885 said;"I have been t o l d that one of the main inducements offered by. the l o c a l l e g i s l a t u r e to,the Dominion Government' to build.the Canadian Pacific, Railway was the certainty of getting the, Chinese trade from San Francisco to Esquimalt to cross the transcontinental railway to  (13) Canadian-..House of - Commons Debates. .1885.p.33Q7,Haney quoted, by (14) ibid. . • . ,1884. Apr. 2, p. 1287.. J.A.Macdonald.,  148 Canada, I am curious to know how t h i s can be done, i f , by h o s t i l e and r e s t r i c t i v e enactments, and an apparent innocent absence of a l l moral and international,obligations, the people of t h i s province are determined to drive i t away!! Talk of r e s t r i c t i o n or expulsion was also met with objections on a high moral plane. The Honourable Alexander Mackenzie said i n 1879 that he "could not see how i t was•= pos'sible to accede to the Droposal to expel the Chinese without giving up a l l they' The B r i t i s h Columbians held sacred as to the r i g h t s of man i n t h e i r own as i n other countries'.' Samuel MacDonnell, member f o r Inverness, said that, " I t would be an unprecedented a c t on the part of the Dominion and at variance with the p o l i c y of other nations, to pass a }aw to prevent the immigration of people from any portion of the world ...We should rather suppress the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of immigrants by l e g i s l a t i o n than l e g i s l a t e f o r the exclusion of such peoplej! a suggestion that might have been a l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t to follow i n the case i n question. The B r i t i s h Columbians were not convinced of t h e i r error. In reply, F.J.Barnard, member f o r Yale, warned that,"These Chinese w i l l creep across your borders before you are aware. They w i l l take advantage of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway... and when they come to your province of Ontario, you w i l l understand about Chinamen"  something  A voice from the p r a i r i e echoed the anxiety of the people  of B r i t i s h Columbia when the editor of the Manitoba Free. Press wrote on July the second 1885?lasxv'£ollows: ' If something i s not done speedily, i t w i l l be too l a t e to consider whether the P a c i f i c Rrovinces s h a l l be given up to the Chinese or not. They w i l l have solved the question by taking complete possession of i t . Then the C e l e s t i a l wave may be expected to r o l l eastward. The channel f o r i t w i l l have been cut. by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway through the Rockies. Ten times more people  (15) Sessional Papers. 1885. No. 54a, p. 162, Huang Su Chen. (16) House of Commons Debates Canada.- 1879,p.l261, Hon. A. Mackenzie. (17) ibid. p.1262, Samuel MacDonnell. (18)" ibid. p. 1286. F.J.Barnard.  149 than Canada now holds could be poured i n on us from the t teeming s o i l of China without being missed from that land. To a l l these voices which expressed the c o n f l i c t i n g t i n t e r e s t s between east and west, between nation and province, and between c a p i t a l and labour, S i r John A. Macdonald turned a deaf ear u n t i l h i s project, was f i n i s h e d . The Canadian P a c i f i c Railway once completed, the Prime Minister was ready to l i s t e n , with reservations, to the representations from B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1884 he c a l l e d a Royal Commission "to study trade r e l a t i o n s , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and a l l those moral considerations which make Chinese immigration inadvisable." The members of the Royal Commission on Chinese Immigration were  the  Honourable J.A.Chapleau, JgL^P.-, Secretary of State f o r Canada, and the Honourable John H.Gray, D.C.L., Judge of the Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia. These Commissioners interviewed men of almost a l l occupations; every type of objection to the Chinese was therefore aired, and most were contradicted by other witnesses. When the evidence had been gathered, each Commissioner presented an i n d i v i d u a l report. The Honourable J.H.Gray found that there were three bodies of opinion on the Oriental question: There i s a well-meaning but strongly prejudiced minority whom nothing but absolute exclusion w i l l s a t i s f y ; an i n t e l l i g e n t minority who conceive that no l e g i s l a t i o n whatever iS necessary, that, as In a l l business transactions, the r u l e of supply and demand w i l l apply, and the matter regulate i t s e l f i n the ordinary course of events; and a large majority who think there should be moderate r e s t r i c t i o n s based upon p o l i c e , f i n a n c i a l and sanitary p r i n c i p l e s , with s t r i c t l o c a l regulations to enforce them. , He suggested the imposition of a tax of ten d o l l a r s to be c o l l e c t e d as customs duty on each Chinese entering. This tax was to be charged to the ship-owner who would be responsible f o r i t s c o l l e c t i o n . The money so raised should be used to pay a proper health inspector .tp examine newcomers and to  150 prevent the landing of undesirables, the Commissioner also recommended that a Chinese consul be appointed to have j u r i s d i c t i o n on c i v i l s u i t s involving Chinese only. Chapleau stated h i s b e l i e f that the Chinese were a most e f f i c i e n t aid to the country and were a means of bringing i t great wealth, but that they were non-assimilable, and that they lowered the rate of.wages of labourr to an undesirable l e v e l . He found, however, that their, moral character  was  reasonably good, and that they were not a burden on c h a r i t y . He found i t d i f f i c u l t to assess public opinion i n B r i t i s h Columbia on the Chinese question, but he said:"The very best f r i e n d s of.the Chinese think t h e i r immigration  should be regulated'.' The Commissioner saw no i n j u s t i c e i n such  regulation f o r ; " I t i s u n f a i r on the one hand to complain a f t e r they have given value that they take the money out of the country, i t would be equally i l l o g i c a l on the part of the Chinese who  professedly have never come to  stay, to complain i f the door i s shut against newcomers." He believed that no settlements of Chinese were, l i k e l y to be made, but that i f the Chinese retained t h e i r A s i a t i c way Parliament  of l i f e and t h e i r members ocontinued  to increase,  should deal with the s i t u a t i o n by l e g i s l a t i o n , and that , l e s t i t  be a shock to the vested i n t e r e s t s of the province, t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n should be of a regulating rather than excluding  nature.  In making h i s report to Parliament, the Commissioner recommended the imposition of a p o l l - t a x on a l l Chinese of the labouring c l a s s entering Canada. He said:"The conclusions I have come to are those of the Government, and I hope the House w i l l accept the measure which i s thoroughly i n accord with the sentiments of the people, not only i n B r i t i s h Columbia, but i n . a l l B r i t i s h North America." (19) Sessional Papers. 1885, No. 54a. p. and p, l x x x v i i . J.H. Gray $20) ibid. p.cxxxi,i-to p . * x x x i i i . J.A.Chapleau. (21) Canaoian House of Commons debates. 1885. p.3011. r  151 On the basis of these reports the  Dominion. Government enacted a law**-  imposing a head tax of f i f t y d o l l a r s on Chinese of the labouring classes entering B r i t i s h Columbia and limited t h e i r number to one to each f i f t y tons capacity of the vessel bringing them. Members of the consular corps, professional men,  and t h e i r families were exempt from these r u l i n g s .  The  Act of 1885 reduced the number of immigrants to seven hundred a y e a r y i n t i l the shock of the head-tax was over, when they began to come again i n l a r g e r numbers than ever, and once more B r i t i s h Columbians became alarmed about t h e i r future. The entry of Chinese a f t e r 1892 was as follows: 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896  3276 2244 2087 1440 1762  1897 1898 ' 1899 1900  2447 2175 4385 4231„  These numbers are large when wthe resident population of Chinese i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s considered. In 1880-1, the Chinese estimate of t h e i r number was about 4,350. The census of 1891 gave  own  The i n f l u x of two or  three thousand at a time was therefore alarming, even though t h i s increase was an i n d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n of increased trade with the Orient. The i r r i t a t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbians was aggravated by the immigration of Japanese- who  were beginning to enter- at t h i s time. Although t h e i r  numbers were smeill u n t i l a f t e r the Russo-Japanese War, t h e i r natural aggressiveness quickly brought them to the notice of the p u b l i c . The combination of the two immigrations  caused B r i t i s h Columbians to renew t h e i r attacks on  Ottawa-for r e s t r i c t i o n of 'en£ry of Orientals. Meanwhile they took what measures they could i n t h e i r own l e g i s l a t u r e to convey t h e i r objections to t h e i r unwelcome guests. Previous attempts of the Provincial Government at l e g i s l a t i n g against (22) 48-49 Vict.c.71 (23) Canada Year Book. (24) Census of Canada.  P  ni  V»/-l.  152 Orientals had been systematically disallowed by the Dominion Government as unconstitutional or inexpedient. The B r i t i s h Columbians therefore took what other action they could to f u r t h e r their, ends. At Confederation,  British  Columbia had retained control of her Crown lands.She now forbade the sale of thesellands to Orientals. The p o l i t i c a l status of the Chinese was made d i f f i c u l t . Deprived of the franchise he was  thus excluded from  occupations  that use the voters', l i s t as the basis of q u a l i f i c a t i o n . He could not  buy  Crown timber, hold public o f f i c e , enter the trade of hand-logging, engage i n the practice of law or pharmacy. He could be arrested without warrant. A p o l l - t a x was  imposed^for the payment of which property could be d i s t r a i n e d  i f necessay. Asiicence of residence was required, to be produced on demand. Even i n death he could not escape r e s t r i c t i o n s ^ f o r h i s dead body could not be returned to the land of i t s ancestors without government ..sanction. In 1986,  the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t i o n Act withheld municipal r i g h t s from  Orientals. The P r o v i n c i a l Government asked that a ten'years' residence be a q u a l i f i c a t i o n needed f o r n a t u r a l i z a t i o n ; t h i s was refused by the Dominion Government, as contrary to the t r e a t i e s existing between China and Canada. B r i t i s h Columbia then passed-an act on the p r i n c i p l e of the Natal c t which iA  required that an immigrant make a p p l i c a t i o n f o r admission  i n a European  language. This Act was disallowed as being opposed to national i n t e r e s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y because of i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to the Japanese. It was the passage by the B r i t i s h Columbian l e g i s l a t u r e of some amendments to the Coal Mines Regulations Acts to exclude a l l Orientals from the mining industry that again brought the whle matter f o r c i b l y before the Federal Government i n 1899. The Japanese, through t h e i r consuls';..;JCato and Shimizu, appealed to the B r i t i s h Government against the amendments. The Honourable Joseph Chamberlain discussed the matter with the Canadian Government and the offending clauses "were disallowed. Chamberlain wrote: "Her  153  Majesty s Government strongly deprecates the passing of exceptional l e g i s 1  l a t i o n a f f e c t i n g the Japanese already i n t h e Province."As Canada had been t o l d a few years previously that her immigration p o l i c y was her own a f f a i r , i t i s interesting to f i n d out the cause of the change of attitude on the p part of the B r i t i s h Government. After the opening of Japan i n 1864, the  a  Japanese had made a rapid adjustment to western c i v i l i z a t i o n . One phase of t h i s adjustment was the signing i n 1896 of an Anglo-Japanese Treaty of friendship and trade. Although Canada was not apa rty t o the treaty at that ;  time, i t i s easy to see that B r i t a i n , already troubled by Russian unrest, should be anxious f o r the treaty to continue, that she might have a f r i e n d i n the Orient. No s i m i l a r treaty existed i n the case of China, and, as no strong government ruled there, the case of the Chinese had never assumed much importance i n international a f f a i r s . B r i t i s h Columbians were defeated on the Mines i s s u e , but the struggle continued. As  the situation produced d i f f i c u l t i e s l o c a l l y and was a growing  embarrassment i n international r e l a t i o n s , i t became necessary that some serious statesmanship be brought to bear on the O r i e n t a l problem. In 1900 S i r Wilfred Laurier was so f a r influenced by the representations of B r i t i s h Columbians that he moved a resolution that the head-tax on Chinese be increased to one hundred d o l l a r s . A law*to that e f f e c t was enacted i n 1901, but was at once considered inadequate, and at best a stop-gap. Under pressure from B r i t i s h Columbia, Sir. Wilfred then appointed a second Royal Commission on Oriental Immigration. The members of the Commission were the chairman, R.C.Clute, of Ontario, and two B r i t i s h Columbians, Ralph Smith and D.J.Munn. Ralph Smith was l a t e r  s/(25) Sessional Papers, 1900, fcb.87, p.3. Hon. J . Chamberlain. (26) 63-64 Vict.c.32.  154 replaced by. Christopher Foley also a B r i t i s h Columbian. They considered  the  Chinese and the Japanese separately. As i n the commission of 1885,  the Commissioners gathered evidence-from  people i n a l l walks of l i f e . I t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison that i n the second report a stronger a n t i - o r i e n t a l f e e l i n g i s shown among professional classes than was recorded i n the e a r l i e r report. Moreover, many heads of industries, while employing Orientals, often i n considerable numbers, stated that they could do without them or could f i n d a s u f f i c i e n t supply  already  i n B r i t i s h Columbia..[The Chinese c o o l i e s , i n building the railway, had sown the dragon's teeth^J Medical men  interviewed by the Commission said that.they  considered the Chinese as a menace to health. "Their habits, surroundings and food a l l conduce to spread disease, e s p e c i a l l y as Chinese servants l i v e i n d i r t y crowded surroundings and go out to work as domestics." As before, the moral record of the Chinese continued good,except f o r breaches of the by-laws, but i t was  s t i l l held against them that they used  t h e i r own courts f o r cases involving Chinese only. Ministers of the various churches said l i t t l e i n t h e i r favour  and  tended to approve exclusion. The chairman of the Commission reported that "As f a r as we could judge, people generally opposed any further immigration of Japanese or Chinese...Curiously of further immigration,  enough, when a witness was found i n favour  i t was put, not on the ground of equality or of  affording an opportunity f o r the Phinese to r i s e by reason of new  conditions,  but that they were a s e r v i l e race and a s e r v i l e rade i s necessary f o r the development of the Anglo-Saxon race'J In the summary of the evidence, i t was  stated that the entry of the  Chinese should be r e s t r i c t e d by treaty; that they had no i n t e r e s t i n real  (27) Sessional Papers, 1900, No. #fs. p,, 19. (28) Sessional Papers, 190ft, No. 74 o. "p.' 22. R.C.Clute.  155 c i t i z e n s h i p ; that a minimum wage should be established as that would prevent t h e i r employment, and hence discourage immigration; that they took the place of white people and hence of f a m i l i e s with bad results f o r the population of the province;that they were d i f f i c u l t to conyert to C h r i s t i a n i t y ; that they were uhassimilable. For these reasons they should be prevented  from entering with the idea of working.  The Commission heard two voices i n defemce of the Chinese.  T.G.  Shaughnessy of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway pointed to t h e i r value to h i s company because of the revenue t h e i r immigration brought to the^steamship l i n e s , and because of the trade which was the r e s u l t of such immigration. He also found that they were valuable servants, "the best ship-servant i n 'the world., .in the engine-room, only they can stand the  heat'.',j ..He  ^further  stated that"As the largest employer oft.labour i n Canada', t h i s Company most p o s i t i v e l y asserts that there i s nothing i n existing conditions c a l l i n g f o r such unreasonable l e g i s l a t i o n against, the"Chinese as i s demanded i n some quarters and there i s nothing on the horizon to indicate that these conditions are l i k e l y to be changed i n the near future by reason of the undue importation of Chinese labour .' 1  The other voice was that of a Chinese missionary, Tom. Cheu Tom,  who  pointed out that, f o r small pay the Chinese had done much of the spade work f o r the future • prosperity of B r i t i s h Columbia. This was an opinion concurred i n by many-who have been i n a p o s i t i o n to look with an unbiassed eye^on the Chinese. In t h e i r resum/ of the report, the Commissioners drew attention to the e f f o r t s of B r i t i s h Columbia tp r e s t r i c t Oriental immigration, e f f o r t s which included numerous acts of t h e l l p c a l t l e g i s l a t u r e and over seventy petitions  (29) Sessional Papers. 1908. No. ?4»,  p. 201  156  to  the Dominion Government as well as appeals to Ottawa made through the  Lieutenant-Governor. The Commissioners pointed out that desirable  immigrants  are those who bring i n wealth, new industries or superior knowledge and  who  apply t h e i r energies to the gain of society i n general, becoming a s s i m i l ated, and, by reason of t h e i r increase to the population, giving a stimulus to  other industries. They found the Chinese d e f i c i e n t i n these respects.  They also believed that the presence of Chinese excluded white labour from some industries, and that others could e i t h e r dispense with Chinese or make do with those available. Evidence showed that although the Chinese gave very l i t t l e trouble-and seldom asked f o r c h a r i t y , t h e i r habits of l i f e were bad, conducing to tuberculosis. The Commissioners continued: Labour i n e f f e c t says'You guard t h i s country against being made a slaughter market f o r cheap goods...yet you ask me to >..cc .-pi. accept conditions where the supply, i s unlimited and the prices are not f i x e d . You admit t h i s competitor i s not my equal; i s not and never w i l l become a" c i t i z e n . . . . This province situated on the seaboard, should possess a stalwart, homogeneous and united population, capable and w i l l i n g to defend the country i n case.of attack. In t h i s regard, the Chinese are a great source of weakness. Your Commissioners believe that i t i s impossible f o r the province of B r i t i s h Columbia to take i t s place and part in the Dominion as i t ought to do unless i t s population"is free from the t a i n t of s e r v i l e labour and- i s imbued with ca sense of the duties and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s perliining to citizenship. Your Commissioners are of the opinion that the further immigration of Chinese labourers ought to be prohibited. That the most desirable and e f f e c t i v e means of attaining t h i s end i s by treaty supported by suitable l e g i s l a t i o n . That i n the meantime, and u n t i l t h i s can be obtained 1  So  the Capitation tax should be raised to f i v e hundred d o l l a r s . The r e s u l t of the findings of t h i s Commission on Chinese a f f a i r s  was  the Act of 1905, which became e f f e c t i v e on January 1,1904, and which raised the head-tax to f i v e hundred d o l l a r s f o r a l l except the exempted classes. The Act also provided that one-half of the tax money should go to the (50) Sessional Papers, 190*, No. 74b, p. (31) SEdw.VII.c.8.  27%.-279  157  province admitting the immigrants. The act had a serious weakness; the minor children of exempt classes were admitted free of tax. The r e s u l t  was  that "many Chinese were admitted as merchants, or as the children of merchants when they were neither,"and again B r i t i s h Columbians had to protest. The Chinese were not pleased. Their consul,Loh Feng Huh, regarded the act as "an aggravation of the grievances which Chinese to these colonies have long suffered'.' This act had a curious and unexpected r e s u l t . T r a f f i c i n Chinese coolies as such ended but the Chinese i n Canada now became rather rare birds and t h e i r value rose accordingly. W.L.Mackenzie King wrote i n his report of 1907: "Then monopoly began i t s work. The Chinese, discovering h i s protected p o s i t i o n , sought the advance i n wages which comes from an, increasing demand and a diminishing supply. Within a couple of years the wages doubled,and i n some cases, more p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of servants of"a better c l a s s , the wages weremtrebled,  and even beyond that point. The Chinese were soon able  to save enough money to send f o r their, friends to share their-good fortune, and the stream of immigration was larger than ever'.' Between 1901 and 1920 there were about 56,000 Chinese, immigrants.  The  effect of the act i s shown i n the following table: 1901 1902 1903 1904  2518 3525 5245 4719  1906 1907 1908 1909  27 91 (9 mo.) 1482 1411  1905  8  1910  1614  1911 1912 1913 f 1914  4515 6083 7078 5274  1915  1155  The character of the immigration was changed, however. No longer were these immigrants  " s e r f s " of a trading company; they were now free labour,assisted  by their fintends, and t h e i r value rose accordingly. (32) Sessional Papers. 1900, No. 74 b. p.3<> (35)Sessional Papers. 1908. No. 74 f, p. (34) Canada Year Book,1940. p. 161.  158  I t was partly as a r e s u l t of t h i s Chinese immigration and partly as a r e s u l t of the great increase i n the number of Japanese entering, that the a n t i - A s i a t i c r i o t s occurred i n Vancouver .in 1907. Led by the members of an a n t i - A S i a t i c League active on the P a c i f i c Coast [^"galvanized Yankees", as S i r Sam Hughes c a l l e d them], some Vancouver, people attacked the Oriental section of Vancouver  and d i d considerable damage. W.L.Mackenzie King, then  Deputy Minister of Labour, was sent by the Dominion Government, to i n v e s t i gate the claims of the victims. He was so much impressed with the honesty of the Chinese that he agreed without h e s i t a t i o n to the payment of their claim of $25,990, with $1,000 f o r l e g a l expenses, and received the thanks  as of the Chinese consul f o r h i s f a i r n e s s . Although no further fciots occurred, B r i t i s h Columbians s t i l l protested to Ottawa the increasing immigration of Chinese. As i t was f e l t by most people that a f u r t h e r increase of the head-tax was out of the question,the situation was met f o r the time by the enactment on December .8^1913,01 an Order-in-Council prohibiting the landing i n B r i t i s h Columbia of either s k i l l e d or u n s k i l l e d labour or a r t i s a n s . This Order-in-Council was renewed every six months u n t i l replaced by another on June 9,1919. These orders f i l l e d the need u n t i l a f t e r the War of 1914-1918. During the War the question was dropped. The Government extended the period of leave from one to three years f o r the Chinese who had registered out f o r leave. The absence of shipping prevented much t r a f f i c between China and Canada. In Canada there was such a need f o r labour that there was even a suggestion that f i f t y thousand Chinese coolies be imported f o r the duration of the war, a suggestion that B r i t i s h Columbians d i d not approve. When the War was over, the immigration began again and again the  (35) Sessional Papers. 1908. No. 74 f . p..14..  159 problem arose, threatening to become an i n t e r n a t i o n a l issue. Once more the representatives from B r i t i s h Columbia pointed out, l e s s picturesquely than had their predecessors  but not l e s s f o r c e f u l l y , the dangers involved i n  admitting large numbers of Orientals to B r i t i s h Columbia. I t became increasingly evident that the exempted classes were being stretched to include many who,  once safely here, forgot t h e i r professional or mercantile  classifica-  tions and entered the ranks of unskilled.labour. We read that "The alleged Chinese merchants has assumed alarming proportions. The  entry of  'wives'  frequently turn out to be restaurant workers." I t was  t h i s unsatisfactory state of Chinese labour i n Canada that led  to a protest from the Chinese consul that the Canadian Government should be' more c a r e f u l i n the admission o f his people. "Your Government",he s a i d , "should be more r i g i d i n examining these alleged students, and more lenient i n dealing with the exempted.Once admitted, he should be e n t i t l e d to every r i g h t and protection as any subject from other countries, enjoying the most favoured Agreement." For the protection of h i s people, therefore,  Kohliang  Yih asked the Dominion Government that "no more Chinese labourers be allowed to come at present, unless they are returning Chinese or bona f i d e exempted classes, pending a Gentlemen's Agreement between the governments concerned  37 to abolish the head-tax s«nd l i m i t the number of immigrants'.' In h i s opinion, Koliang Yih had the support of W.L.Mackenzie King whose remarks show the changing public opinion on t h i s vexed question: I could never see how Canada, from any self-respecting point of view could impose a p o l l - t a x on working people coming from another country, and at the same time have i t s population subscribe funds f o r missionary purposes to teach the most elementary p r i n c i p l e s of C h r i s t i a n i t y . The Government has shared that view, and has f e l t that any i n d i g n i t y of the character of  (56) Sessional Papers. 1908. No. 74 f , p. 14. (37) Canadian House of Commons Debates, 1923,p. 433 Quoted hy W.G.McQuqrrie  160 the imposition of a p o l l - t a x itupon a-people i n another part of the world was something to which we, as a C h r i s t i a n community, should not lend our approval. So we have decided to abolish the poll-tax f o r that reason, i f f o r no o t h e r , ^ The expression of such opinions and the constant pressure from the B r i t i s h Columbian members of parliament- resulted i n the passage of the Chinese Immigration Act of 1923. This Act r e s t r i c t s the entry.of Chinese to those of the exempt c l a s s e s . I t also gave the Minister of Immigration the power t o define the word"merchant" as applied to Chinese immigrants. Students were also c l a s s i f i e d to include only those who came to Canada ±6 study at any Canadian university authorized to confer degrees. To ensure that such immigrants were bona f i d e , they, were to present passports, issued by the . government of China and endorsed by a Canadian immigration o f f i c i a l . This Act was variously received. Except f o r the cost of i t s operation,, about a thousand d o l l a r s a person, i t had the support of many interested persons. A.W.Neill, member f o r Comox-Alberni, and one of the staunchest f i g h t e r s against Oriental immigration said t h a f ' I t has worked w e l l , cured a long-standing sore and there has been no i l l - w i l l  or dissension or d i s -  content among the Chinese so excluded, with one exception: they resent the fact that we have discriminated against them i n favour-of- the Japanese. The Chinese have t h e i r pride and do not l i k e it'.' Chinese both i n China and i n Canada f e l t the sting of the discrimination. They had the sympathy of students of international a f f a i r s , such as Professor H.F.Angus, who c a l l e d the  Act "a contribution to i n t e r n a t i o n a l i l l - w i l l " and urged that China  should be put on an equality with Japan i n the matter of immigration, and that the change should be made while China was s t i l l weak, f o r "To act now,  (38) Canadian House of Commons Debates. 1923. p. 2313. W.L.M.King. (39) 13-14 Geo. V. c. 38 (40) Canadian House of Commons Debates. 1924, p. 1381. A.W.Neill.  162). without coercion, while China i s s t i l l weak and beset with p e r i l s would be to act g r a c e f u l l y , f o r we should avoid creating an embittered minority of 4-1  Canadians of Chinese race'.' To allow free immigration of Chinese,however, se seemed out of the question and as panada*s trade agreements with Japan were involved, an exclusion b i l l against Japanese would r±s^u<theeldss.'of '.profits, able markets. The Act of 1923 however, reduced the immigration of Chinese to a point where there could be l i t t l e further objection. The table i n the Appendix shows the decline from 1916 to the end of the period under discussid! In absolute numbers Chinese immigration has never been heavy. During the years 1886-1930 some 90,000 entered,82,361 having paid a head-tax, bringing a revenue of $22,960,666 to Canada. Yet the census of 1941 shows only 34,eti Chinese i n Canada. This discrepancy between census figures and immigration returns i s due i n part to the wide difference i n numbers of the sexes, and i n part to the fact that most Chinese wish to return to China to d i e . As only the exempt classes brought t h e i r wives with them, the birth-rate d i d not compensate f o r the death-rate. Had t h i s situation been foreseen i n the early days, there might have been no Chinese problem. After many years of anxiety the question seems to have been solved. Most of the Chinese i n B r i t i s h Columbia are either of the class hoping to return to China or are Canadians by b i r t h . So l i t t l e does the .problem touch the emotions of B r i t i s h Columbians today that the enfranchising acts of the l e g i s l a t u r e went through i n 1946 almost without comment and the entrance of families of Chinese residents attracts very l i t t l e attention.  (41) H.F.Angus, A contribution to international i l l - w i l l (42) Census of Canada, 1941, p. t i,%  162  Objection i n B r i t i s h Columbia to Japanese immigration began l a t e r than opposition to the Chinese, but i t developed more quickly, p a r t l y because of the  number entering, and partly because of the natural aggressiveness of  the  Japanese who soon entered a varied number of occupations, meeting the  white worker i n more' f i e l d s than the Chinese had entered. The f e e l i n g against the Japanese was correspondingly b i t t e r , and the problem of how to deal with him was complicated by the f a c t that imperial r e l a t i o n s were involved as well as the s o c i a l and economic objections heard i n the case of the  Chinese. The Japanese had a beginning as a colonizing power i n the sixteenth  century when they v i s i t e d Mexico and upper North America, but i n 1638 they were prohibited by imperial edict from leaving t h e i r country l e s t they be contaminated by the spread of western customs and r e l i g i o n . U n t i l the "Open Door" treaty of 1858, therefore, they continued their feudal l i f e i n their own remote islands, untouched by outside l i f e . Once the door to the worldde was opened, however, they l o s t no time i n making t h e i r presence f e l t , and soon embarked on a well-planned policy of world-wide expansion. The f i r s t group to leave the country went to the sugar-plantations of the Hawaiian Islands. From 1869 to 1884 they spent their e f f o r t s i n colonizing t h e i r own islands. After 1885 they sent many emigrants to other parts of the globe, to Canada, to the United States, to A u s t r a l i a , to South America, especially to B r a z i l . By the end of the century, Japan's plan of expansion was well under way{ In 1896 Canada had about one thousand Japanese. Five years l a t e r , there were f i v e thousand, most of whom were i n B r i t i s h Columbia. At f i r s t Japanese immigration tended to be seasonal i n nature, but i t  (1) C.H.Young,aHdR.Y.Reid and W.A.Carrothers, The Japanese Canadians. Toronto, University of• Toronto Press, 1938, pp. 5-6. (2) Canada Year Book. 1940. p. 163  soon showed indications of permanence. To' the people of B r i t i s h Columbia, there seemed l i t t l e difference between the two groups of Orientals i n the matter of d e s i r a b i l i t y . In f a c t there was, i f anything, a preference f o r the more f a m i l i a r Chinese. Feeling against the a l e r t , aggressive Japanese grew and B r i t i s h Columbians were soon t r y i n g by legal, or other means to show t h e i r objections to t h i s new menace to t h e i r s o c i a l and economic  security.  In 1898 the l e g i s l a t u r e of B r i t i s h Columbia petitioned the Dominion government f o r the r e s t r i c t i o n of Orientals. This p e t i t i o n having f a i l e d , i n February of 1899 the l e g i s l a t u r e prepared to pass fourteen clauses prohibi t i n g the employment of Chinese or Japanese i n connection with certain industries, notably mining. Immediately there was a reaction from the Japanese. There was a sudden f l u r r y of l e t t e r s and telegrams, beginning witbT'a telegram from the Japanese consul at Vancouver,  Shimizu, to the governor-general, protesting the  r e s t r i c t i o n l a i d upon h i s countrymen. A l e t t e r followed,dealihggwith the same subject. A further l e t t e r from  Kato, a t the Japanese Legation, to the  Marquis of Salisbury on February 18, 1899, asked that "Her Majesty's Government extend to the present instance the same enlightened the  policy££disallowing  l e g i s l a t i o i ^ . . .that such a policy cannot f a i l i n augmenting  the f r i e n d l y  3  r e l a t i o n s existing between Japan and the Dominion of Canada'.' Then followed a b r i s k correspondence among the statesmen involved. F i n a l l y the Minister of Justice was consulted and he recommended that, i n the offending clauses, reference to the Japanese be deleted. In June 1899 S i r Wilfred Laurier wired the  Premier of B r i t i s h Columbia that the clauses must be brought into l i n e  with Dominion policy or they would be disallowed. The Premier replied that he regretted h i s i n a b i l i t y to revise the clauses: they were then disallowed. S i r Wilfred explained h i s action as follows: "opeaKin^ on. b (3) Sessional Papers, 1900. No. 8.7. p. Z  i6<r Speaking on behalf of the Canadian Government...we are not prepared to extend the same treatment to Japanese immigration as to Chinese immigration. We are not prepared to come into c o n f l i c t with the Japanese Government when perhaps there may be complications i n the Orient which might involve England i n a war, and when, possibly the best a l l y she would have i n the Orient might be put i n jeopardy...But I think we owe i t to our f e l l o w - c i t i z e n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia that they should have an opportunity of putting their views on record...so that t h e i r views upon the question may be placed before the Imperial authorities f o r t h e i r consideration. 4The Honourable Joseph Chamberlain,  Colonial Secretary and B r i t a i n ' s  representative i n the dispute, expressed the desire, that the coast of B r i t i s h Columbia should remain B r i t i s h , but also hoped i t would be possible to avoid offending a f r i e n d l y power. He therefore recommended the a p p l i c a t i o n of a "Natal" Act which would require that any immigrant wishing to enter Canada should make application f o r entry i n a European language. Realizing how  easy  i t would be to learn enough English to answer the simple questions on the application form, B r i t i s h Columbians d i d not hesitate to express t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with Chamberlain's  suggestion.  In order that j u s t i c e should be done to a l l interested, S i r Wilfred then appointed the Royal Commission of 1900. The Royal Commission, as has been previously noted, made separate studies of the Chinese and the Japanese problems. Evidence was given by a wide variety of witnesses of many occupations. These witnesses included se several Indian chiefs of the coast and island regions. The objections made were much the same as those offered to the Chinese, but with the difference that, as more occupations were affected i n the case of the Japanese, the range of opposition was wider. The Indian c h i e f s p a r t i c u l a r l y resented the invasion of t h e i r f i s h i n g grounds by large numbers of Japanese.  (4) House of; Commons Debates Canada..1900, June 14, p. 7409. (5) Sessional Papers, 1902. No. 54. pp. 428-50.  165 The Commissioners reported that, since August 1, 1900 the.Japanese Government had stopped issuing passports residents of Canada  to a l l immigrants except previous  and t h e i r f a m i l i e s , and to students and merchants. The  Commissioners believed that, unless the Japanese Government revoked these orders, Canada need not take any action to r e s t r i c t the immigration of Japanese. They  recommended that, i f action should be necessary, i t should  take the form of the passage of a "Natal" Act, by the Dominion Government, as Mr. Chamberlain had recommended. The passage of such an act was, however, beyond the power of the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e . Thea decision given i n 1884 by S i r Alexander Campbell, Minister of J u s t i c e , i n disallowing B r i t i s h Columbia's l e g i s l a t i o n on Chinese a f f a i r s was followed i n 1903 by David M i l l s , the Minister of Justice of Laurier's regime. This decision was that: The authority given by the n i n e t y - f i f t h section of the B r i t i s h North America Act i s an authority to regulate and promote immigration into the province and not an authority to p r o h i b i t immigration. A law which prevents the people of any country from coming into a province cannot be said to be of a l o c a l or private nature. On the contrary,, i t i s involving Dominion and possibly Imperial i n t e r e s t s , jgThe Minister of Justice therefore stated that a "Natal" Agt .could not be passed f o r l o c a l use. To be v a l i d i t would have to apply to the whole Dominion. Therefore, no "Natal" Act was possible f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. S i r Wilfred Laurier was looking to i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s and, as f a r as Canada was concerned, to trade r e l a t i o n s . Eastern industry and transportation companies were behind him i n his p o l i c y f o r i n 1902 Japanese trade  (5) House of Commons Debates(Canada].1905. Mar. 27, p. 605. Hon.C. F i t z Patrick, Minister of J u s t i c e . (6) An opposing voice came from Quebec: " I t seems to me that we have been s a c r i f i c i n g Canadian i n t e r e s t s f o r the Imperial policy of Great B r i t a i n , f o r the sake of an a l l y which may appear f r i the future as a most dangerous enemy, a nation which has i t s eyes upon A u s t r a l i a as well as a great desire to colonize B r i t i s h Columbia." House of Commons Debates [Canada].1907-8. pp,2026-2159, Armand Lavergne.  166  6  had improved greatly? Already the Canadian Pacifc Railway Company had i n d i c ated i t s interest i n Oriental trade by building steamships f o r the North P a c i f i c routes and the Dominion >-*overnment 'was subsidizing these ships. Laurier had sent exhibition commissioners to Japan to promote trade. In the matter of immigration, therefore, he was treading very d e l i c a t e l y . A l l these developments came to a climax i n 1906 when Canada became a signatory to the Anglo-Japanese Treaty f o r Trade and Navigation of 1894. It i s hardly a matter of surprise that t h i s treaty was not pleasing to B r i t i s h Columbians. One part of the agreement was especially i r r i t a t i n g . I t said: The subjects of each of the two high contracting parties s h a l l have f u l l l i b e r t y to enter, travel or reside i n any part of the dominions and possessions of the other contracting party and s h a l l enjoy f u l l and perfect protection f o r t h e i r persons and property.f Although these p r i v i l e g e s were not accorded to B r i t i s h Columbians resident in Japan, the Japanese interpreted the agreement as the B r i t i s h Columbians had expected: an open i n v i t a t i o n to Japanese emigrants to enter Canada. The Russo-Japanese War had given pause to Japanese immigration, but, the War once over, these enterprising Orientals began to make use of the terms of the treaty with the confidence, even aggressiveness, born of t h e i r new prestige as a world power. Whereas i n 1905 about 800 had entered, i n 1906 there were 2,996, and i n 1907, 8,196. These large numbers considered i n connection -with  (8) ' 1895 1900 1905 1910  Sxnorts to Japan |1,572,937 1,751,415 1,928,886 1,673,542  '  Imports from Japan. $10,307 110,735 508,609 659,118  A.R.M.Lower, Canada and the Far East. 1940 . New York, Institute of P a c i f i c Relations, 1940, p. 51. (8) House of Commons Debates Canada. (9) ibid. 1907, p. 1548, J.B.Kermedy. (10) Canada Year Book. 1943-44. pp. 182-3  ;  1£7  the f a c t that the Chinese, having recovered from the shock of the f i v e hundred d o l l a r capitation tax, were coming i n again i n large numbers^70 i n 1906 and 1524 i n 19'07^,v<ere the immediate cause of the a n t i - A s i a t i c r i o t s i n Vancouver i n 1907, f o r most of these immigrants had remained i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The r i o t s of 1907, as has been noted, brought W.L.Mackenzie King west to Investigate the causes. He discovered that the great i n f l u x of Japanese to Canada was due to the f a c t that many who had received passports from the Japanese Government to go to the United States v i a Hawaii had been diverted, to Canada because the United States had closed i t s doors i n 1907 against the entry of Japanese. The Deputy Minister of Labour found hbaevideneewof.bad f a i t h on the part of the Japanese Government. He continued that:"In coming to Canada, i t seems reasonable to assume that they£the Japanese immigrants^ went beyond the wishes of the authorities by whose permission they had been allowed to emigrate at a l l l '  12  He therefore recommended the passage of a  measure which would avoid a r e p e t i t i o n of such an i n f l u x . His suggestion IS  was incorporated i n an Order-in-Council  l a t e r to be known as the "Continu-  ous Passage" Clause of the Immigration Act. As a r e s u l t of the r i o t s of 1907, the people of B r i t i s h Columbia again petitioned the Dominion Government f o r e f f e c t i v e r e s t r i c t i o n of Oriental immigration. Ralph Smith, member of parliament of Nanaimo, i n supporting the p e t i t i o n said that: Today the commercial men of B r i t i s h Columbia fear the Japanese. (11) Canada Year Book. 1945-44, p. 182. (12) Sessional Papers, 1907. Report of the J^yal Commission,No,. • pp552,66,67. (15) P.C.No.920 of May 9, 1910, superseded on January 7, 1914 by P.C.25, which says:"From and a f t e r the date hereof the landing i n Canada s h a l l be and the same i s hereby prohibited of any immigrant who has come to Canada otherwise than by continuous journey from the country of which he i s a native or naturalized citizen~and upon a through t i c k e t purchased i n that country or prepaid i n Canada'.'  16 8^ as the i n d u s t r i a l classed ten years ago feared the Chinaman. The Chinese coolie entered into i n d u s t r i a l competition with the man who had to work with the pick and shovelj but the Japanee- and this accounts f o r the extraordinary excitement and the p o s i t i o n of antagonism against the Oriental i n B r i t i s h Columbia at the present time- the Japanee enters into competition with the commercial classes i n B r i t i s h Columbia...Every businessman i n B r i t i s h -Columbia today i s just as ready to sign the p e t i t i o n as the i n d u s t r i a l classes themselves.  V  4  It was as a r e s u l t of t h i s p e t i t i o n that S i r Wilfred Laurier sent h i s Mini s t e r of Labour  3t  Rudolphe Lemieux, to ^apan-that  he might investigate the  report of the entry of "some eight thousand.immigrants into B r i t i s h Columbia during the summer" following the signing of the trade treaty with Japan. Lemieux was commissioned to f i n d how t h i s large emigration had been given permission to enter Canada, and how a recurrence of such an immigration could /a"  be avoided. The Government was undoubtedly stimulated to action by a statement made by members of the Opposition that "Japan should be shown .that publ i c opinion i s unanimous against that most r e g r e t f u l surrender of our rights ...We  have abandoned control of our immigration  which t h i s Government  conceded to Japan i n 1906'.' • Laurier d i d not follow t h i s f o r t h r i g h t counsel; he was too cautious and too/sensitive to the trend of i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . He preferred that measures of r e s t r i c t i o n should come from Japan. "Japan ,' he said, " i s no longer 1  a nation that we can treat with indifference'.' He d i d , however, concede that Canada had a right to send a diplomatic mission to Japan. Fortunately, the Japanese Government was w i l l i n g and able to co-operate with Canada. Assisted by the B r i t i s h Ambassador, and by Joseph Pope, the Under-Secretary  of State f o r Canada, Lemieux succeeded i n arranging with the  169  <  Japanese Government a "Gentleman's Agreement" which was duly presented to the Canadian people i n 1908.  In 1896  the Japanese government had passed a  law forbidding Japanese nationals to leave the country without the consent of the government. As t h i s law was for  s t i l l on the statutes', i t was  the Japanese representative, Count Tadosu Hayashi to  possible  say:  Although the e x i s t i n g treaty between Japan and Canada absolutely guarantees to Japanese subjects f u l l l i b e r t y to enter, t r a v e l and reside i n any part of the Dominion of Canada, yet i t i s not the intention of'the Imperial Government to i n s i s t upon the complete enjoyment of those r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s . Acting i n t h i s s p i r i t and having p a r t i c u l a r regard to c i r cumstances of recent occurrence i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the Imperial Government have decided to take e f f i c i e n t means to r e s t r i c t immigration to Canada...giving c a r e f u l consideration to l o c a l conditions p r e v a i l i n g i n Canada. Ths agreement entered i n t o between Canada and Japan, c a l l e d the Lemieux Agreement, was  as follows:  A.  The Japanese Government would grant permission to the following classes to emigrate, i . Those emigrants having previous residence i n Canada and holding c e r t i f i c a t e s of such residence issued by Japanese consular authorities i n the Dominion; the wives and children of such. i i . Emigrants s p e c i a l l y engaged by Japanese residents of Canada for bona f i d e personal or domestic service upon written evidence of such engagement attested by competent Japanese consular authorities. i i i . Contract emigrants when the terms of the contract are specified and the contracts approved by Japanese consuls.  B.  Consular authorities would not issue c e r t i f i c a t e s unless they f i r s t received the permission of the Canadian Government, Except i n the case of contract labour f o r farms held by Japanese landholders who may apply f o r labourers at the rate of f i v e to ten labourers per hundred acres of land. Japanese a u t h o r i t i e s were instructed to ascertain the bona f i d e s of applications and to take i n t o consideration the condition of the labour market i n Canada. The Japanese Government d i d not a n t i c i p a t e that, f o r the domestic and labour classes the number would exceed four hundred per annum.x  ( W)  House of Commons Debates [Canada] 1924. p. 1384,A.W.Neill;.1912-3,p.6971. T  170  v  As might well be expected, t h i s agreement d i d not please the B r i t i s h Columbians. The number of the "labouring" classes d i d not exceed three hundred, but the annual average was well over four hundred, and the cry of "unfair" was repeatedly heard, both i n anc/out of parliament. Japan was accused of not respecting the agreement, and an agitation again developed, directed toward having the control of immigration centred i n Canada rather than i n Japan. Feeling became inflamed when i t was r e a l i z e d that more than h a l f the newcomers were women; t h i s was an i n d i c a t i o n of the permanence of the movement. The coming of World War I . put a stop at once to-large scale immigration and to agitation against Orientals, who were now a l l i e s of Canada, and^- as such, to be respected. When the War was over, the numbers of Orientals increased once more/'and the agitation began again. When the revised Chinese Immigration Act came.into e f f e c t i n 1923, andagreement was reached with the Japanese Government that the number of immigrants should be l i m i t e d to one hundred and f i f t y per annum. This agreement was re-stated i n an exchange of notes between Japanese and Canadian o f f i c i a l s i n 1928, and i t s provisions held u n t i l the outbreak of World War I I . brought an end to Japanese immigration and- a d i s p e r s a l of those already here to the various provinces Sf Canada, away from the danger points on the P a c i f i c Coast. The agreement of 1928 d e f i n i t e l y brought to an end the "Picture Brides'.', a system whereby an unmarried Japanese i n Canada could "order" a bride from a series of pictures issued by the home government. The two were married by proxy, and the woman was then admitted to Canada as a wife. Although the agreement of 1928 l i m i t e d the number of immigrants, i t also recognized the f a c t that the Japanese were here to stay. With this knowledge the B r i t i s h Columbians had  Canada Year Book. 1943-44,p^l82-3, 1918,Chinese, 2^-988, Japanese,1,039.  171 ' .  /('.''  through'-  to be content, although t h e i r most enthusiastic member of parliament, .A  A.W.Neill, they continued to f i g h t the issue to the outbreak of the War i n 1939. In the control of immigration from India, Canada has been faced by one of the most d i f f i c u l t problems of her experience, f o r the Indians were B r i t i s h subjects, and the exclusion of the members of one part of the Commonwealth from the lands of another part c a l l e d f o r more diplomacy than Canadians had often been c a l l e d upon to exercise.  As B r i t i s h subjects, the  East Indians claimed the r i g h t to s e t t l e i n any part of the B r i t i s h and were both hurt  Empire,  and aggrieved to r e a l i z e that , although they were con-'  sidered as B r i t i s h i n India and i n England, they were B r i t i s h i n the same sense when they entered Canada as immigrants with the intention of staying. The entry of the f i r s t East Indians into B r i t i s h Columbia was prompted by accounts of Canada taken home by East Indians returning home f o r Queen V i c t o r i a ' s Jubileeein 1897. The immigration was planned by c e r t a i n Indian leaders whom by  U3ing  glowing reports of B r i t i s h Columbia,  intended to  exploit t h e i r fellow-countrymen as cheap labour. The Indians mortgaged their homes at great rates of i n t e r e s t i n order to reach Canada. In 1906 and again i n 1907 over two thousand Indians arrived i n B r i t i s h Columbia with the idea of s e t t l i n g . About a year l a t e r , many of them were destitute, were unable to obtain work, and had to seek c i t y r e l i e f . Their requests f o r help brought them to the notice of the government. Investigation disclosed that many of these immigrants d i d not meet the requirements of B r i t i s h Columbia  either  from the physical or the s o c i a l point of view. As u n s k i l l e d laboufc, they had found some work i n saw-mills, clearing land, or had taken up small farms.  (19)  House of Commons Debates [Canada!.1958. February/17, and May. 31. reprints of the speeches made by A.W.Neill, King's P r i n t e r , 1938.  172/ Their r e l i g i o n set them apart from most s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , and excluded them from many occupations. The wages they were able to earn i n t h e i r r e s t r i cted environment were..not s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e i r needs and they were often i n d i s t r e s s . ?\ A suggestion was made to the Laurier .Government that the Indians should emigrate to the West Indies, where the climate would be more suitable f o r them. Lord Crewe proposed to Lord Grey that the Indians should go to t B r i t i s h Honduras. The Indians refused to go unless so advised by t h e i r leaders.- A delegation consisting of Sikhs, Hindus and Dominion Government o f f i c i a l s was sent to B r i t i s h Honduras. The Indian leaders returned with a very adverse report c h i e f l y as regards low wages and i n s u f f i c i e n t food. Their followers then refused to leave Canada. As thfs mission f a i l e d , i t then became the object of the Dominion Government to prevent any further immigration of East Indians, While the Government of India issued warnings both to i t s people and to steamship companies that Indians were not.welcome i n Canada, S i r Wilfred Laurier invoked the "Continuous Passage" Clause of the Immigration  Act. This Clause  used against the Japanese as well as i n cases of European immigration,was efifecfcivee i n the case of the East|lndians because there was no d i r e c t steamship route from India to Canada; therefore no Indians could l e g a l l y enter. Some Indians decided to test the strength of the "Continuous Passage" Clause. In 1908,aaship carrying 185 Hindus docked i n Vancouver. Except for about twenty who had previous-residence q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , the Indians were refused admittance by Dr. A.S.Munro, who rejected them on the ground that they had trachoma, a disease of the eyes f o r which many on the east coast were also rejected. T h i r t y - f i v e of the t r a v e l l e r s were returned to India by  (26) Sessional Papers. ration, p. 8.  Report of the Commissioners on Indian Immig-  • ' 17/3 the Canadian P a c i f i c Steamships. The remainder were l e f t i n Vancouver. A meeting of protest was held by f i v e hundred Sikhs i n their Vancouver temple. They aigued that the deportation of t h e i r countrymen would be a strong weapon i n the hands of the secessionists i n India. They also i n s i s t e d that, as B r i t i s h subjects, they had the right to reside anywhere within the Empire. The protests of the Indians were carried to John Morley, Secretary of State f o r India. The delegate, Uday Ram said:"If our i n t e r e s t s are overlooked by others, those i n India must necessarily resent your government's  negligence".  Laurier's reply was that the Continuous Passage Clause must apply to a l l persons immigrating to Canada, .'.'to Hindus, to B r i t i s h , subjects, and to f o r eigners of a l l n a t i o n a l i t i e s . . . I t i s essential to control the character of the immigration to t h i s country."/' As i t was realized that the i n t e r e s t i n the question of East  Indian  immigration went beyond the bounds of Canada, Laurier sent his Deputy Minist e r of Labour, W.L.Mackenzie King, to study and report on'the subject of the immigration of East Indians to Canada. This report i s found i n the Sessional Papers f o r 1908,  Number 36a. The commissioner found that the East  Indians were unsuitable f o r the climate of Canada, and that their  low  standard  of l i v i n g made fhfcm a* undesirable competitors i n the labour market. Mackenzie King's investigations took him to London where he conferred with Lord E l g i n , Secretary of State f o r the Colonies; John Morley, Secretary of State f o r India; and Lord Grey, Secretary of State f o r Foreign A f f a i r s . The agreement reached included the following statement: That Canada should desire to r e s t r i c t immigration from the Orient i s regarded as natural; that Canada should remain a white man's country i s believed desirable f o r economic and s o c i a l reasons, but highly desirable on p o l i t i c a l and national grounds. Canada as a self-governing Dominion can l e g i s l a t e as d i s c r e e t .  (8/) House of Commons Debates, 1908, p.  54&A»  S i r Wilfred Laurier.  174/3 As a c o r o l l a r y to . this r i g h t of self-government i s the understanding that B r i t i s h i n t e r n a t i o n a l a l l i a n c e s place no res- . f r i c t i o n s on Canada's r i g h t to l e g i s l a t e . While Canada's autonomy i s conceded and respected, Canada's p o s i t i o n as part of the Empire i s regarded as s u f f i c i e n t guarantee that the exercise of her plenary powers w i l l not be without regard to the obligations of c i t i z e n s h i p within the Empire Canada was c l e a r l y i n a d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n : that of choosing  the immigrants  she wanted without offending those she rejected. As the matter was allowed to rest f o r some time, the United India League and the Khalsa Divan Society of Vancouver i n December of 1911 sent a delegation to the Honourable R. Rogers, the Minister of the I n t e r i o r , asking that t h e i r fellow countrymen be allowed entry to Canada. The Minister promised to give the matter his immediate consideration, but when a year and a quarter had passed and nothing had been heard from him, the Indians once more expressed t h e i r indignation against a "crooked regulation" which - i t was impossible to obey. The following year , several East Indians sent f o r their wives and f a m i l i e s . At f i r s t these were declared deportable, but after some l i t i g a t i o n , and as an act of grace, they were f i n a l l y allowed to stay. Shortly a f t e r another group of f o r t y were refused entry.  The case f o r t h e i r  admittance was brought before Chief Justice Hunter who declared the law refusing entry t o hthese immigrants was u l t r a v i r e s . They were allowed to enter, but the Immigration Act was soon amended to prevent any recurrence. The amendment was P.C.2o which replaced P.C.No. 920 of May, 1910, and which has already been quoted as the "Continuous Passage ClauseJl on page  ..  The Minister of the Interior had previously ruled that unless an immigrant i s a c t u a l l y admitted as a "desirable^ he cannot claim "habeas corpus .' He 1  said:  0&)Sessional  Papers, 1908. .^o.Igga. p. 7.  175. There i s no.question that comes before the Government of Canada f o r i t s consideration that i s so important i n regard to the present and ultimate future well-being of Canada as the subgect of immigration. There i s no feature of that question which constitutes such a serious menace to the present and future welfare of Canada as the subject of A s i a t i c i m m i g r a t i o n . ^ This r u l i n g made i t d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible f o r Indians to reach a hearing i n Canadian courts i f they managed to present themselves at Canada's gateways. The Indians were persistent, however, and i n 1914 caused the Canadian government a serious embarrassment through one of the most unpleasant episodes i n the history of i t s immigration, the"Komagata Maru Affair'.' In 1914, Gurdit Singh, an a g i t a t o r against the B r i t i s h Government i n India, hired from i t s Japanese swners the "Koraagata Maruy a small passenger ship. Gathering 376 of h i s fellow Sikhs , Gurdit Singh crossed the P a c i f i c by way of Shanghai, where he added to h i s passengers, he presented himself i n Vancouver harbour demanding admittance. Not having completed a Passage", the t r a v e l l e r s were refused entry. Gurdit  Singh:-i  "Continuous  then declared h i s  mission:"The main object of our coming i s to l e t the B r i t i s h Government know that they cannot maintain t h e i r rule i n India as the Indian Government i s i n danger nowadays."  He further implied that i f he and h i s friends were not  admitted to Canada, ihere would be troubiej i f they were admitted, a l l would be well i n India. / The -threat was not taken as serious, and the entry of the Indians was not'allowed. Only the leader,ah>is secretary and twenty passengers were permitted to land, and a board of enquiry was c a l l e d . Meanwhile the passengers on the ship went on a supposed hunger s t r i k e . Food, c h i e f l y two tons of f l o u r , three hundred pounds of r i c e and a quantity of f r u i t , was offered by  {ii ) Information on the"Komagata Maru" A f f a i r from the a r t i c l e of that name i n the B.C.Historical Quarterly, January, 1941, p.6 by Judge Robie Reid. (aa)House of Commons Debates {[Canada] 1915. p. 122. Frank; Oliver. ?  176 / the Government was refused unless supplemented by a wide variety of other v foods, including f i f t y l i v e sheep or goats, one hundred fowls and cigarettes. Gurdit Singh also t r i e d to obstruct the findings of the board of enquiry. The board upheld the provisions of P.O.23 and ordered that the immigrants be rejected. The Indians were advised to return home, but this they refused to do, defeating a l l the e f f o r t s of the police to make them obey. It was t then that H.M.C.S."Rainbow",recently prepared at Esquimalt f o r service,  was  taken t'ooVancouver harbour, with orders to "Stand by" and ^ i f necessary, to f i r e on the v e s s e l . Only then did the "Komagata Maru" leave, being escorted out of the harbour by the warship, a f t e r having been provisioned by the Dominion Government with food f o r the return journey to India. This incident did much to i n j u r e the prestige of both Canada and Great B r i t a i n i n India, to which some of the passengers returned with tales of t h e i r "ill-treatment" at the hands of the Canadians, tales which were carried even up into the Pun j ab. Judging, from GurdiijSingh' s avowed intention, that was what they intended to do. Except f o r minor incidents there v;as no further trouble with the East Indians. When f e e l i n g had died down a l i t t l e many people expressed the b e l i e f that the wives and children of resident East Indians should, i n a l l humanity, be allowed to enter. At the Imperial War Conference of 1917  this  matter came up f o r discussion. Canada, while maintaining her objection to the admission of more East Indians, d i d concede the admission of "one 'wife and the children of that wife", i n the case of those males already i n the country. Under t h i s agreement a number of women and children entered. The immigration of East Indians to Canada has never been extensive, as the following tables show:  (?3^House of Commons Debates, 1S14. p. 4955,  /  177. 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911  2,326 2,423 309 24 16 7  1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918  88 0 1 0 0 0  1912  5  1919  0  1920.. 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925  9 11 22 30 49 58  1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932  1926  70  1933  ..56 56 49 80 52 61 36. ,  Since 1924 the majority of the immigrants have been wives and families of resident East Indians who had entered Canada previous to World War. I. That there i s l i t t l e f e e l i n g against them now was shown i n the passage of. the  c i t i z e n s h i p acts through the l o c a l l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1946. Although the  East Indians have not been assimilated to any extent, partly because of t h e i r r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but c h i e f l y because of t h e i r r e l i g i o n , thosewwho have remained i n Canada have found occupations suitable to t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , which i n many cases are considerable. Many have prospered greatly; few, i f any, now require c h a r i t y . While t h a i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and language  diff-  i c u l t i e s i s o l a t e the older immigrants, the younger ones, and the native-born show a great tendency to cfiitathemselves to Canadian ways and to develop into desirable c i t i z e n s . There seems to be l i t t l e fear of a future "I ndian problem.".  Canada Year Book. 1945-44. p. 184.  i2r  Total C Hoc tie ns  f f e m  a  showing re la five Tmmigratu n of Oriinla/t inll Canada  c hart  .  ~ '736  arc  n  i Cdi'mjt  Seo/«  I cm--  H9L-  F.att  <  <10l-  i  J*p»»t\t  Head laf\.  Chinese  1160  *  ,/, f  jT^ ??o i  ItII  * 6 0  I<tu - '?3z t st;  Tnttiqn  flefs  qouernitK)  i'ff  OrientalJntmiqtatto, i~o ta.f  /7c/--itiflift-ilVichCTQ  Hit  qch- iiai(oi-iit \li'ci-.t.3i)f toe  111  II  ti'oo /"«/  lie I- - liaij. ( 7 EJalVllt-t) • 'f73C'3 C-"v.e-3°) " £ j r W v 3 / < u r  ficfi- 1110  «• Sic. 3» "fin finio\s \ aye* Ci/otis*.  Pail  .....  ...  A  V//. 7 /  A Y  A  A  9  7A  A  7  A A7/  i  '/, /  A-  A  Y  A  /  A  /  A  Y  A/  A A /  V  Y* //  A/  / /,  A A  •  A •/,  ' A  i A>  A  Y  purn  _y  A 'y  •y  A  A y  / . •  /  Y\ Y  A y  x  /  y s  //  /y y y' yy y  y  y  y y  / '  Y  AM  .,, fir  s  mm  APPENDIX. Table showing immigration of Chinese into Canada 1885-1938. .1886-}891 1892 1893 1894 1895 . 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1908 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914  4812 3282 2238 2009 1462 1786 2671 2192 4402 4257 2544 5597 5329 4747 77 168 .291 J.2234 2106 2302 5320 6181 7445 5622  1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1925 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1935 1956 1957 1958  •  1258 89 593 759 4135 544 2435 1746 711 676 0 e 0 3 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0  Canada Year Book, 1930,p.175 and Canada Year Book. 1945-44, p. 184.  BIBLIOGRAPHY.  Ooveraaent Docaaentg. House of Coissoas Debates, Canada. 1867-1939 Debates on immigration and colonisation as listed in the Indexes. Government of Canada Sessional Papers. 186?~19S9. Exports of the agents for immigration i n tho report of the Department of Agriculture, 1867-1893. Reports of the agents; for issigration i n the report of the Department of the Interior. 180S-J918. Reports of the Department of Immigration and Golonization,1918-S8.. Report of the Sojwslssion on Chinese Immigration.,lS8S. So. Ma. Report of the Coaialssion of 1802. Ho* 54 b. Report of SF.L.S*Sing on .the Anti-Asiatic Riots, 1S07, No. 74 f . Report on East Indian Immigration, 1908, l o . 5Sa. Report of the Canadian Council of the Isalgration of omen,1919. Esport of the OosEsltte® of the Privy Council, 1903. Reports of the Mor^h-Weat Mounted Police, 1890-1904. Bsfjorta of the Inspector of Penetontiarios, No. 1$17@&9. Census of Canada 1041. Census of tha-.firairie Provinces. Vol. I. 1941. Gssraond Papers on Emigration and Immigration. Boainlons Royal Qom±sai<m» Oversea Settlement Visit to Canada. Delegation to Canada. Oversea Settlemeat . Coamit'iee. Imperial -Sconoaiic Conference,1323 ©osimlttee of Overseas fflaigratica. Conference of Prim© Mini stars, 1921  CSD.S516 .•'•Cad.2760 .•^2aid.2235 .. . Qmd..25G9 V Csd.KOi-3 Cmd, S73 Cad. 1474*. v  .Canada Ye<ne- Books, especially 1S21, 1950, 1940, 1943-44* %\  x  'Caoadian Statistical Record, 1882, 1896* British North Iserica Act and, _Selected Statutes, 1867-134S. Pab.1945. the Grey-Elgin Correspondence, fubli&hed by the Canadian Archives. . Be^orts from the Dominion. ^Statistician, based on the census of 1941... Report of the settlement into the Prince eorge d i s t r i c t of British, Columbia. Sir Henry Page-Croft. H.M.Stationery Office.1919. u  Periodicals and Mearepapers. F i l e s of the Manitoba Free Press. Archives i n Ottawa. Montreal Gazette. Archives i n Ottawa. Caily Oolonliit. Archives i n Victoria. togus, H.F., k contribution to international i l l - w i l l . Balhoa<sie Bevies, p. 5 3 . A p r i l , 1S33. &Bgus, H.F., The law and i t s aus&nistration.American Journal of International Law. Vol. £8, So.l, it,.mx^ry. 1934. p. 74. t  Boggs, T.H., The Oriental of the Pacific Coa3t. Qtisenfs Qa-^rterly. 1925-28,p. 313... • . Brown, W.J., Iaaigr&tion and agriculture. I c G i l l University Magazine. Vol. IS. 1914. p. 25. : %  Cooper, fi.H., faahaa. Eoyal- Canadian Mounted Police quarterly. Vol. 11, No. 4.'April, 1946,. pp. 224-251. Com, J.R., lamigration. Queen's Quarterly l o l . . Q.p. -ISO. Jaly, 1S00.-. Loser,- A.IL.E,, §B@at and the trade .cycle. Canadian Historical Bevies. Vol. S. 1922. pp. 57-47. i&rchbia, Andrew, Origin of migration from south-eastern £urone to Canada. , 'Caa&di&B Historical Association, 1934, pp. M,;,y,1934. Mors©.,  Komagata. Maru A f f a i r . Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association. 1936, pp. 100-108.  Mend Singh 3irh&, Balwant Singh, Marain Sissgb, Indian Iaai^ration Indian Review, Juna ISIS. Osborn, San vers. Migration *d thin the Ibpira. Empire Review, Vol. £5, 1915. pp.. 242-3.Reid, Robie 1. The Kom^eta Mam.. B r i t i s h Columbia Historical Quarterly. January, 1941, pp. 1-2S. Rovall, Eugene, Mo3 Regions de colonisations. Confsrsnces Pabliques. L'Univ-araite Laval. Quebec, 1902. i  Vropman, Dr. P.B., B r i t i s h Ooljaabia and her imperial outlook, Bspire.. 1312. pp. 45S-474.  teited  .Whitton, Charlotte, $a& ittsaigratloa probing i n Canada. '^ieen*s University Quarterly. So.. 43. Msy, 1924.  general References. Angus, H.F., Canada- and the doctrine of peaceful penetration. Toronto, C.'jj&diaa Institute of International affairs. 1957 k useful -study with a- modern appro-wen to the matter of rsigra-tioa Carr-Saunders,. &*M., World population. Oxford,Clarendon Press. k helpful study of world-wide migration.  1936  Creigfaton, B.G.Commercial eatpire of the St. Lawrence. Toronto, %erson Press. Giv«s a good general picture.  1937.  Cralghton, B.G.Soainion of the Boston, Houghton These booMs give the latter b&ing  North* Mifflin Go. 1944. an excellent study of thier respective- fields, att exceptionally interesting .background study.  Falconer, Sir Robert, The united States as a neighbour. Cambridge University Press. 1925 Gives interesting aad useful detail on the relations between Canada and the United States. .. Gib'bdn, J.I., Canadian Mosaic. Toronto, McLelland and Stewart. 1938 Gives the picturesque atory of foreign setfelea-ente. Hansen, M.L., Atlanticn S&ftration ifsasen, S3 .!»**• The jEmlgrast in Mar lean, history.  1941. 1940  Hansen, K.L. and Brabner. J.B.. The mingling; of the . Cftcadifen and M -laerican People. Hear Haven,' Tale University Press*. 1940. These books, especially the last &re vary valuable* readable, scholarly bookf, of -special interest to anyone studying the broader aspects of iaaigr&tion. Innis, H.A., gas problem .of -staple production in Canada. Toronto, %erson Press.  19S3  Innis, H.A.. and Lo?/sr. A.R.E.. Select Bocuaents in Canadian aeonoisic history. t vol. Toronto, University of Toronto Press. 193-1953. These studies give a vary useful material on the ecoaosiic side ; of Canadian l i f e . fh& latter book gives issny .interesting extracts fros original -sources on & variety of topics. Innis.  Sconoaie history of ^taaada* Toronto, i^r arson Press. 1935* A good study of i t s subject, containing statistics of value.  /£3 Keenleyside, H.L., Canada ana the United ^fcat-os. Sew York', Knopf. Useful i n considering the migrations across the ^anat • • •• American border. Macdonald, Horaian, Canadian, jfflffiijgration and .settlement. 1761-1840 Toronto, Longawiia Q een said Co. 1939 A good detailed study of the early pneriod of settlement. Reynolds,. L.C., The B r i t i s h i a s i ^ r a n t . Lundon £jod Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1914S ' A study o f the adjustments o r attempts a t aetjustaent o f B r i t i s h immigrants to Canadian l i f e . Oseful. Ooatsj^.H.'''-aad. Maclean. Ivt.G-.,., The jtffiaricfoi-bo.rn In Canada.: Toronto, person Press, 194S. Truesdell, Leon 1, The Catiadian-bom i n the United states. Mew Haven, Yale' University Press. 1943these books are invaluable as giving a s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of immigration -und i t s results on the population nusbors. f  ggecial forks . Sarly gfelgratlon Carrothers,  IsSnigration f r e a the B r i t i s h t a l e s . London, P.S.Kiag. 19E9. Gives a valuable account of emigration froa. the. B r i t i s h Isles to the Snitsd State-is and the B r i t i s h Dominions. Useful tables.  Cos&n, Helen- I.., I m i t a t i o n t o British. North, .aserica.. Toronto, University o f Toronto Press..  1911  Mscdesald, Herman, Canadian igsaigration and set tiemenfc.I?-S 5-1840 T..ronts, Longmana ©reen m& Co. 1SS9. The*i© books cover the early period w e l l . The Sifton Period. Dafoe, J . i . , C l i f f o r d Sifton i n relation, to h i s t i m s 3 . Toronto, 'Maetsill&n. and Goapany* . 1931 * coaprehessive biography of S i r C l i f f o r d S i f t o n , t o l d by his f r i e n d and adairer, the editor of the Free Press of 9 innipog, Ba-wson, C.A. Groyj .settleaieats* ethnic comsanitiaa i n western &&na&&. ?OTOS|$>. MtsCffiilian and Soiapsny. 19-36-.  Sngl&nd, Bobert, The colonisation of western Canada. London, P.S.King.  1936.  flrfEngland.. Jtobert, The Ceaifer.al.^JPffl.egJXS.. ;io Canada,. Toronto, 'M&eoillan and Company. 19-fheae books are very good references f o r a detailed stud} of the foreign settle-meats o f panada. Hedges, J.S., Building the Cumatlian We at. Toronto, M&ciaiil<ai und Company. 19S9, A good and f u l l account o f the Canadian P a c i f i c Sailway iind i t s settleseat p o l i c i e s i n Canada. Lysenko. Vara, Men i n the 4feeei>~skin coatst a study i n a s s i m i l a t i o n . Toronto, p e r s o n Press. 1847 A i^rao&thetic study o f the Kkrainian s e t t l e r s by one o f thea. .Mackintosh., W.A. p r a i r i e .gattlessenti the ffaographlcal s e t t i n g . 1354 Mackintosh, t..A. gconosic 'problems o f t h e g r & l r i e ogoyinees. 1955 Martin, Chaster sod'Morton, &.S., History of p r a i r i e settlement and Bosinion lands p o l i c y . 19S8 . these books, -with Msswon's Sroao Settlement are invaluable f o r asy study of settlement on the p r a i r i e s . They contain a wealth o f s t a t i s t i c a l Information and interpretation by those* who know t h e i r f i e l d by personal eon tact* Maude 4yliB®r, The Doukhobors. a aeculiar .aaoale. ' .-ft.'.-. tox%., Funk and ^agnails* 1904. An account o f the coming end settlement o f the Doukhobors by one «h© «aa c l o s e l y associated a 1th t h e i r migrations, foodsworth, J . 3 . , Strangers within our gates. Toronto, 'the. Eetbbdlst Mission Booms* 1909 M early study of the soc -.al e f f e c t s o f large scale foreign -imsig.C6.tioB.* Young, C H .  and B.2id, H.R.I. .fh.e •Qlqraiaiaw Cansdims.. Toronto, Helson and Company. 1931 Covers much the s*sme f i e l d as Siss> Lysenko's'.eoek but mo re ob|actively., •>> :  Oriental  Immigration.  Cheng, Tien-fang, O r i e n t a l iHaigr&tion i n t o Canada. Shanghai.,, CoESjerei&l Press.. 1931 A 3>ocior*s t h e s i s . A good'objective study by" a Qaiaeaa -student .Hoodsaorth, .C.J., Canada and the Orient, Toronto, Sacatiilsn and CksapaEgrf 1341, & doctor's thesis which gives a good study o f %h& .international aspects: of immigration from the Orient. Young, C.H., Reid, fi.E.f., snd Cttrrothers.ft'.A,, The Japanese-Canadians. Toronto, University o f Toronto Press. 1968... A comprehensive study o f the background of Japanese .migrations and o f t h e i r habits of l i f e i n ^anaua»Lower, A.R.M., Canada and the Far East. New York, Institute of P a c i f i c Relations. 1940.  Special tooies. Social Clark, 8.B.,  S o c i a l Beveloaaieht i n Canada. Toronto, University of Toronto Pr^ss. 1942 A most i n t e r e s t i n g c o l l e c t i o n and interprets,clon of dccoaeats tilth an acccapesyiiig survs^- o f Canada's s o c i a l dgvelopaent.,  Logan.  History o f trades unions &rg*mi3 atlon i n anad&.Chicago, University ©&. Chicago Press . . l$g8 • Gives an account of the growth of the o£$<aeMoB. of ' Labour to Immigration, information not e a s i l y obtained els©w&©r#. w  r  •/:• *?  Legal, • - Kennedy. is •P.M.,. Constitution o f C-asaaa. 1555-1957. * Toronto, Oxford' dniveraity -[Press. -Dasrson, E.M.,  Constitutional issues i n Gambia'. Toronto, C^forcl felverstiy f r e s a .  The.v9  1938.. 3 . 1933.'  books give the l e g a l background of Canadian h i s t o r y .  Tran a port at ion . Giaaabrook, G.P.de fix story ••6ftTran3port^.tlon i n Canape.. .. * Toronto, p e r s o n Pr#as. ' W A useful study.. Hedges, J.gi.Baildina the Canadian Ifeat. Toronto; ''ffiacslllan and Company*  1928  1S39.  

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