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The syntax of the gerund and participle in the language of Aleksej N. Tolstoj Matkovcik, Edward 1950

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9<dta  )  i^^rcj  The Syntax of the Gerund and P a r t i c i p l e i n the Language of Aleksej N. T o l s t o i hy Edward MatkovSik  & Thesis Suhraitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment the Requirements f o r the Degree of Master of Arts i n the Department of Slavonic Studies  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia October, 1950.  L&5  f??  Abstract of The Syntax of the Gerund and P a r t i c i p l e i n the Language of Aleksej N» T o l s t o j hy Edward MatkovSik  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, October, 1950s  1 Abstract of The Syntax of the Gerund and P a r t i c i p l e i n the Language of Aleksej N. Tolstoi) hy Edward Matkovcik The thesis, "The Syntax of the Gerund and P a r t i c i p l e i n the Language of Aieksej N. T o l s t o j , " consists of 169 pages. It  i s d i v i d e d into s i x main sections (marked with Roman  numerals), each section de*laing separately with one type of gerund or p a r t i c i p l e found i n three of Aieksej N. T o l s t o j ' s prose workSo  In addition to that, two short s t o r i e s were  chosen i n order to search f o r past imperfective gerunds, present passive and past passive imperfective p a r t i c i p l e s * The commentary* which follows the l i s t of examples of present and past gerunds, present active and past active p a r t i c i p l e s , present passive and past passive p a r t i c i p l e s , treats primarily questions of syntax, and any outstanding or interesting examples are commented on i n d e t a i l . At the conclusion of the f i r s t part, dealing with the gerund, i s a syntactic summary on the gerund; and at the end of the second part, dealing with the p a r t i c i p l e , i s a syntactic summary on the p a r t i c i p l e .  There then follows a s t a t i s t i c a l  analysis of the frequency of the various types of gerunds and p a r t i c i p l e s i l l u s t r a t e d by percentages of the estimated t o t a l word count of each of three works. "bibliographical l i s t of works.  F i n a l l y , there i s a  A l l of them have been c i t e d i n  f u l l , including works of Aieksej* N. Tolsto-j, from which a l l examples were gathered,,  2  The  selected compositions of Aleksej K. T o l s t o j ' s works  from which a l l examples were taken are:  the short story,  Detstvo Nlkity (A); the short essay, Moskve ugro&aet vrag (B); and the comedy, Fahrlka molodosti short s t o r i e s are: pod krovat^ju ( E )  8  (G). The a d d i t i o n a l two  Mlloserdl.la I (D), and Rukopis*. na.idenna.1a  I want to express my gratitude to Dr. J . St. C l a i r Sobell and Dr. James 0. P e r r e l i of the Slavonic  Department,  University of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r t h e i r patience, kindness and co-operation throughout the preparation of ray thesis.  My debt i s especially great to Professor" P e r r e l i ,  and I should l i k e to thank him f o r h i s guidance throughout, f o r the g i f t of much time and the loan of many books," a l l of which greatly f a c i l i t a t e d my work.  Table of Contents Introduction  p. I .  Present gerund ••••••••••••••••••»••«•«•••• p» 1* Past gerund  P. 36.  Syntactic part (gerund)  p» 59*  Present a c t i v e p a r t i c i p l e  p« 63»  Past active p a r t i c i p l e  p. 90»  Present passive p a r t i c i p l e Past passive p a r t i c i p l e  ..  1 0  9*  « p» 117«  Syntactic part ( p a r t i c i p l e )  p. l 6 l .  S t a t i s t i c a l analysis  p.  Bibliography  p. 168.  166.  I Introduction This i s a short note on the plan of the work.  I t consists  of s i x main sections (marked with Roman numerals), each one dealing separately with one type of gerund ©j* p a r t i c i p l e found i n three of Aleksej T o l s t o i s prose works.  In addition to  that, two short s t o r i e s were chosen i n order to search f o r past imperfective gerunds, present passive and past imperfective p a r t i c i p l e s * questions of syntax.  passive  The commentary treats primarily  At the end of the f i r s t part, which deals  with the gerund, i s a syntactic summary on the gerund; and at the end of the second part, which deals with the p a r t i c i p l e , i s a syntactic summary on the p a r t i c i p l e .  Then there follows  a s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the frequency of the various types of gerunds and p a r t i c i p l e s I l l u s t r a t e d by percentages of the estimated t o t a l word count of each of three works. there i s a b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l l i s t of works. been c i t e d i n f u l l , have gathered my  Finally,  A l l of them have  including works of Tolstoo, from which I  examples.  The selected compositions of T o l s t o i * s works represent the short story, Detstvo Niklt.v (A), the short essay, Moskva ugrogaet vrag (B), and the comedy, Fabrika molodosti {b)).  The additional two short s t o r i e s are:  (B) and Rukoois*. na.ldenna.la  (C (a)  Miloserdi.la I  pod krovat'rtu (E).  X A I  Detstvo N i k i t y Present Gerund  1.  Matuskamolcavzgljanula na Arkadija Ivenovida, na N i k i t u ••• P. 9* (Mother s i l e n t l y looked at Arkadia Ivanovic and H i k l t a . )  2o  bystro p i s a l karandasom c i f r y , pomnozal i k h i d e l i l , povtoraja: "odnav ume, d v e v umev- P» !©• ••(•••• he wrote down the f i g u r e s quickly with a p e n c i l , m u l t i p l i e d and divided, repeating: "One to carryv two^to carry* ^)  ?'•  • •• 1 tafc naelsja, c't o p r i S l o e nekotoroe vremja postdet molca. P» I6v •••(••• a n d f i l l e d h i m s a l f up so much, that, i t was neeossary 9  9  k.  Khotja j a mogu tysjacu dnetf nie'ego lie ©st*> P» 2 7 . (Although^ I am a h l e t o go without food f o r a thousand day s.)  5.  H i k i t a v y l e z i z p o s t e l l i ne speSa nadal odevat sja. P* 27« (Nikita got out of "bed and unhurriedly fceganiro^ dress*)  6.  >o •, vyt'»ria^ret--'-8a''l^et~edkD^i; ne speia sleaila so st»Xa i ,  9  !  /  V • •» having wiped her: mouth' wi t h a serviette^ she -slowly got:""'of^ tne chair and, approaching Alexandra' Leont^vna, s a i d o••) :  7.  <,.., tol'ko u dernogo k r y l c a dve sohaki, Sarok 1 Katok, stoja hok o ook 1 povernuv:golovyj r y d a l i drug na^druga• Pi 2&V (•••, only near the hack porch two dogs* Sarolr and Katok, standing side "by side and having tmfwd the i r : head^ were snarling at one another.)  8v  Za obedom e s l i >y i vydlo, at L i l j a , have come  e  N i k i t a s t a r a l s j a ne gljadet* na L i l ^ u , khotja staraIsoay vse ravno i z etogo nldego %y ne P. 30» (Duringdinner N i k i t a t r i e d not to look and> though even i f h e h a d t r i e d , nothing would of i t a l l the same •>.)  9* L l l j a , 8 lush J a, rabotala tlkho i moXda, tol'ko poraogala sepe jjazykom v trudnye mlnuty. P»-31© ( L l l j a worked  slowly and quietly, while she listened, helping herseIf only "by s t i c k i n g out % e r t o n g u e i n d i f f i c u l t moments«  Arkadif Ivanovicl g o v o r i l eto khotja obyknovennym golosom, no deresdur pospeano. Pw 33* (Although A r k a d i j l v a n o v l c l said t h i s i n an ordinary inaimer* ho spo  11.  Ha sanaakh, s prlpraaSennyrat szadl vtoryroi salazkamt, le£ala, skrlpaa 1 pokadtvajaa*, dvukhyeeei*na3akirotliiio*saja lodkav P. 3U« (On the*sleigh, with a second s l e d bitched on behind, there lay creaking and^ swaying a p a i r oared sharp-prowed boat.)  12*  Xgraja, obemula k elke ulybajuBcees3a lie© 1 zapelas • • • P. 3oV (Whlle playing, she turned^ her-smiling face t owards the GhristinaB tree and began to sing •. •) 1  13*  Begaga, on p r l k h v a t i l efice dvoikhj pot cm Ntkitu, L i l j u , Vlktora, • •• P* 3 7 * (While running around^ he grabbed up two more and then H i k i t a , L i l j a , V i c t o r , • • o )  Hi •  8 derevjannogo makhovikay khlopada, ubegaet beskonednyj remen* k krasnoj, bol* Soa, kakrdcm*molotilke, » P» 9 6 * (Frcm, the wooden f l y wheel, banging, runs an endless -belt , towards the red thresher which i s a s btg ae a housey <,„ •) ;  15*  Voet, zapadaja, ukhaet, svirepo revet baraban, P« 9 6 . .(Swirling a r oundy the drum resounds and -roars f e r o c i o u s l y • )  16V  - i naelnal filbko myllt* golovtt 1 prigovariva^aJ •««. P© 6%* (- and began energetically t o soap h i s head and beardi snorting and saying J • • •)  17o  2&letelo koromystoy^^ ceiinymi glazami na myl nu3u golovu «... P. &%« f l y flew tipv and f l u t t e r tngly^ pop-eyeaat the soapy head ©;<»•)  (A dragon-  16,  Sergej Xvanovic skazal, podkhodja i• Ivanovid said, coming ups ..«,)  (Sergei  19©  Vemnlsja*k N l k i t e prikhramyvaja, back t o U i k l t a limping, •••)  20©  Togda, ne raadumyvaja, ^ i»l^il±^n- VBlEDMl -]ia^<va80'olEai a s nee na ple5o Hlktty i s e l , P© 77© (Theny without further thought, Eeltukhln hopped-onto ^e-vase^and®from there upon H i k l t a *s shoulder where he sat, •••)  21©  I z gnezda1 s vetvej* podnjalls' gi&6l, tYevo£nv lsTt6& ?• 73• (Prom the nest* and the^branchee arose the- rooks, crying with alarm,,)  22©  Ntkltay ne B p e s a i ••-•©•••- odelsja v novuju rubaSku• • • P© 72© (Without hurrying, N i k l t a , - • dressed hims e l f ln^ a new s h i r t •••) '  23*  po khrustjasdimlu2ara B otrazajusSimisja v ntkh zvezdamt, s l l molda l j u d i : ... Po 68* (»•«» along the crunching frosen puddles* withthe* stars* r e f l e c t e d In them* s i l e n t l y waikooV the'peoples •••)  ?  8  3  :,  • P i 82s  P© 7 9 * (He oame ' v  9  3  2h>  L i l j a molca vspleenula rukarai. P. h3. threw up hep arms.)  (Lllja- silently  25©  V i k t o r m o l c a v y t j a n u l guby dal'se evojego noaa. P« I4I1* (Victor" s i l e n t ly stretehedr h i s i l i p s past h i s nose • )  26*  I g r o k i s i l ' n o S c e l k a l i llpkimiy pakbuc'liaikartarai* p r i govartva^a-J P i 53© |The"players l o u d l y hanged s t i c k y , smelly cards, adding**©.• )  27*  Babodie molca i e e r j e s n o s e l l k s t o l u , razobralilo£ki© P© 5**v (The workers s i l e n t f y and seriously sat down at the table a M selected the spoons.)  28©  ••» i o k o l o k a r e t n l k a * s u e t ^ e s * i lumja, zakladyyali alogo* sllL'nogo zerebca Hegra v sanM be® podrezovj ©•© P© 59© •(•• • • and near the carriage shedj with h u B t l e * and noise* they^ were-hitchlng up the strong s p i r i t e d s t a l l i o n Negr to a s l e t g h without s t e e l runnersj -•>••)  29©  inaja nacinala valoat'eja, inaja, oSc'erjas , v i z ^ a , n o r o v l l a khvat i t • z u b a m l , . P . 71© ( © • • one "began to ro 11, the other, baring: he ir teeth and s queal ing* t r i e d to grab with her teeth©) 8  ;  30©  H i k i t a n e s p e s a o d e l s j a 1, • „ P© 16© Nikitft dressed himself and* •©»)  (Hot hurrying  31©  HI ska EorjaSonok* postukivaja zubami ot kholoda, skaza1s ••• P. 13« (Miska Korja^onok, h i s teeth chattering f r o m cold, salds ©.«)  32©  Ho H i k i t a u2e protjanul rufci* o t t o l k n u l s i a ot stola 1 prygnul i , bystro-bystro pereblrala nogaml, ne to p o l e t e l , ne t o poplyl nad? p o l o m v P© 15© (But Hikita'had already stretched out h i s hands* pushed away from the table and taken-a leap and m o T l n g h i the other* almost f lew* aImost f l o a t e d over the floor» ) ;  33©  Eogda Hlfctta* protlra^a glaza, s e l n a p o s t e l l , Arkadij ^ IvanovlS podmignul neskol'k© ram 1 fiibko poter^rufci© P© 16© (When H i k i t a * rubbing his;eyes, had taken a sitting**poB%v t i o n on the bed* Arkadlj Ivanovl6 winked several times aii^-'ojalekly'-'-rBl^ear^hiB hands.) A  ;  3hv  H i k i t a postuesl pal' cem v stekio* voronasarakhnulas bokom 1 poletela* sblvaja k r y l i a m l s n e g s v e t v e j , P© 17© (Hikita tapped^ on the pane with h i s finger* the* crow ^shied sideways and flew* knocking the snw the branches with her wings,) 0  9  35©  2a okncmop3*at^ poaavllas* vorona, osypaja sneg, seia na vetku 1 p r l n i a i a s ^ n y r j a t ! golovoij, razevat fcliuv, fcarkala, P. 18© (Behind the windowthe*crow appearedragain© Scattering snow:lt perched on a branch and began* to duck i t s head. I t opened, i t s beak and cawed.) 8  5  36V  • Mi ska na minutku zaderzalsja, vynul perocinny^ noSik I korobku epidek, p r i s e l i , smygaja nosom, s t a l d o i b i t s i n i 3 l e d v torn meste, gde v nem b y l vnutri "belyj pttzyr*» BV 19« (••• Mi ska stopped f o r a moment, took out a pen-r knife and a "box of matches, sqaatted,and twitching h i s hose "began to c h i s e l the "blue i c e i n the place where there was a white bubble inside i t . ) 9  37* ffiiSka, podojdja k izbe, e v i s t n u l , Artaman oberaulsga, a«3a hoi* film rtomv pogrozil Mi ska lozko 3 • P» 20. (MiSka, having approached the house, gave a whistle, A r t a maa turned, chewing with h i s "big mouth, shook h i s spoon threateningly at Mi ska » ) 38*  Tros mal*6isek i s c e z l i i sejcas &e p o j a v i l i s na k r y l ' c e , podpojasyvaja kusakami polusubkU P. 20 • (The three, .lads disappeared and at once reappeared on the porch, "belting up their sheep-skin coats with sashese)  39.  - Ekh, vy, - skazal Mififca, sdvigaja Sapku na ukho, - ekh, vy - devdonki e. Doma s i d i t e , - z a h o j a l i s * . P* 20o 0*0h, you," said MSka, pushing h i s cap doftn over h i s ear, "oh. you s i s s i e s • • • You stay at home. You are  8  0  afraldo")  IjO* —  Vykhodite na odnu ruku, e i , kon^anskie 1 k r l c a l Mifika, khlopaja rukavicami• P • 2 1 e ("Hey, k o n c a n s k i e J shouted MiSka, slapping h i s mittens, eome out and I w i l l f i g h t you with one hand.) ^ ,  v  tt  w  kl»  Pokhlopyva^a, pogiaiivaja rukavicami po hokam, popravljaja sapki, oni toz> n a c a l l k r l c a t ' % P. 2li- (Slapping and stroking t h e i r sides with t h e i r mittens, adjusting t h e i r hats, they, too, started t o shout: »«•)  It2e  ^ s * * * Koriaionok v o r c a l , ottjagivaja kuSak pod fcivot: oi• P» 22s Mis'ka Kor jafionok growled^ * -1 tightening the^ sash a r o  l|3-»- Peregonjaja H i k l t u , s krlkora:: "KaSa beret J** - vseju stenoju k i n u l i s * na kondanskikh;nasi«, P. 22. (Overtaking Hikita-with shouts: "©to^-side^ls--wt-tmlnsri*'--- our men threw themselves l i k e :a w a l l against tne^' !koiieaii:8kle' *) ;?  :  kk»  I*5.  1  ,  w  Arkadij Ivanovic' s p r o s l l , ne podntmaja goiovy ot tetradki: P* 2 5 » (Arkadlj lyanovic' askeet, without r a i s i n g h i s head from the exercise "book: ••»)  .  L i i j a pozdorovalas * i , no o b r a s c a j a h o i *fiena H i k i t u vniraanija, y z j a l a oheimi rukami hoi* siiji'^da^aidut-da.slsa i o• 27»' ( t t l j a - exchanged the greetings and, without paying any attention to H i k i t a , picked up a large tea cup> with1 hoth hands and •••)  5  2j6©  Togda matuaka n a l l i a v kastcu i z samovara krutogo k l p 3atfcu, vse vremja s i l ' n o mesaja lo2koj, krakhmal s t a l prozraSnyj, ••• P© 31© (Thenmother poured some vigorously b o i l i n g water from the samovar into the paste, a l l the while s t i r r i n g energetically with a spoon, the starch became transparent, •••)  I|7»  •- Tarn esce est* khorosleveSc'l, - skaza l a matuSka* jopuskaja r u k i v cemodan* - P© 31© ("There are other good things here," said mother, dipping her hands into the trunk, -)  hS»  Dot! n a c a l l rabotat' molca, dysa nosami, v y t t r a i a krakhmal'nye r u k i ob ode&duv P© 31» (The c h i l d r e n started, to work s i lent l y , breathing through t h e i r noses and wiping t h e i r starchy handa on t h e i r c l o t h ^ . )  k$o  L l i j a , ne podnlmaja golovy, ulybnuias', • P© 31« ( L i 1 j a , without rat sing her head, smiled* © • © )  50©  Vdrug L l i j a , ne podnlmaja glaz, s p r o s i l a ego druglm golosom, •©• P© 32© (SuddenlyLlija,• - wi'lfcout'cvPalBimg^Jiar eyes, asked him In a d i f f e r e n t tone of voice, • •©)  51©  Bakhom dolgo stueal i t e s a l tOporom, prila£ivaaa k r e s t • P* 3k » (Pakhonr pounded and hewed with the axe f o r a long time*' f i t t i n g on the cross-piece©)  52*  - Akh* H i k i t a , H i k i t a * - progovorila matuaka, c e l u j a ego v golovu, - e a l l by ty vsegda b y l takim raal'dikom. P i 35® ("Oh, H i k i t a ^ H i k i t a , ^ said h i s mother, k i s s i n g him on the head* - i f only you were such a nice boy a l l of the tlme>")  53©  Taper * by l o slysno, kak* Scekall orekhi, khrustela skor<» lupa pod nogami, kak d y s a l l dot! nosaml, razvgazyvaaa pakety s podarkamlv P© 37© XHcw^©ne'--o©uld^h»ap"--tibMtt cracking nuts, the s h e l l s crunching under-foot* and* the c h i l d r e n breathlngctmrou^ unpacked the parcels witii the presents©)  5*4©  ¥ prikhoitea L t l j a otorvalas* ot cept 1 ostanovllas*, perevodja dykhante i gljadja ha H i k t t u smeousc'imisja glazaml. P© 37« ( i n the anteroom Lil3a broke away from the chain (of dancers)and Btopped, catching--hep*breath and looking at H i k i t a with laughing eyes© ) J  55©  Peregonjaja detej, po lunayui kvadratam ne slyano pronessja Vasi 113 V a s i l * evi«* opustlv khvost•© P© k5 • (Overtaking the c h i l d r e n along the moonlight squares, V a s i l i d V a s l l ' e v i S s i l e n t l y moved by with h i s t a i l lowered*)  56©  - Hasel?. - voskliknul on, zaMma^a e"to v kulafce, 1 sprygnul na pol« P© U3* ("I found i t ** he* exclaimed* squeezing i t i n h i s fist*and:sprang ontotthe floor©)  6 57®  Gna raasvernula, s t a l a c'itat*, sevelja gubami, i potom skazala zadumSlvo: P* k k « (She opened t t , started • reading, moving her l i p s , and then said thoughtfully s ><».-)  5&»  Kot s l d e l na d i s t o vymytorn polu, v y s t a v i l zadnjuju nogu pistoletorn, 1 v y l i z y v a i ee, Scurja glaza<>P. kk* (The eat sat on the cleanly washed f l o o r , stuck out his,hind l e g l i k e a p i s t o l and l i c k e d i t while squinting*)  59»  N i k i t a ostanovilsja pered L i l e j 1, pokusyvajaguby, s k a z a l : P * b$»•••(••., N i k i t a stopped i n front of LiSJa and, b i t i n g h i s l i p s , s a i d : ••.)  60»  - Eto z a v l s l t ot moej mamy, - tohen'kim golosom o t v e t i l a L i l ^ a , ne podnimaja glaz* P* kt>»' ("That depends on ray mother** said L l l j a , i n a t h i n voice, without r a i s i n g her eyes.) .  6lv  Nidego nel's3a "bylo ponjat', gljadja e3 vsled* P* 1|5« (One could.not understand anything by looking a t her r e ^ treating form»)  62*  P o k u d a V i k t o r v o r c a l , ufcladyvaiav korzinku kni£ki i igrudkl, o t k l e i v a l 1 p r j a t a i v korobocSkukakie-to' kartino&ki, l a z l l pod a t o l , razyekivaja perocinnyi no£ik, N i k i t a ne skazal n i slova; P. 1*5* (While V i c t o r muttered, packing the books and toys into the* "basket, unpasted a n d h i d s o m e iplcturea i n t o a l i t t l e "box and crawled under the table hunting f o r a penknife, - N i k i t a d i d hot say a word; • ••)  63»  Matuska s l l ' n o zagrustila nad pis mom i vecerom, pokazyvajaego Arkadiju XvanovlcUi g o v o r l l a : • .. • P i k 6. (Mother became very sad because of the l e t t e r and* i n the evening, showing i t t o Arkadl3 I v a n o v i e > s a i d r •»•) 9  6ti» Risuja reku Ainazonku s prltokaml, N i k i t a -s- l i u o o v ' i u 1 neznym vesel'em dumaloh otce. P* l*d« (Drawing the A m a z o n i l y e r r w i t h i t s t r i b u t a r i e s ^ Nikita,thought"of h i s father with love and tender 3oy«) 65*  Guja voi6i3 dukhi Sarok i Katok ot toski n a c l n a l l s k u l i t podvyvat'i l e a l t p o d karetnlk 1 «... P. i*9« (Smelling _ the wolf: scent, Sarok and Sat okwere fceglnnlng t o whimper and howl, and were crawling under the carriage shed and «*•) 9  x  66Y  V o l k i perekhodlli prud 1 s t o j a i l v karaySakhy njukhaja zMloj zapakh usad'"by* P. kS* (The wolves were crossing the pond and standing i n the reeds* s n i f f i n g the l i v e smell of the farm*)  7  67e  o»«, sadilts* na sneznoj poljane pared domom 1,  svetjaBdiralsia  gljadja  glazami na temnye zamerzSle okna* podnimali raordy v ledjanuju temnotu i anadala, budto vorSa, po~ toffl vse grcande, zabtraja golodnoi glotk©3 vse vySe, naeln a l i vyt , ne perevodja dukhu, - vyfie, vySe, pronzltel'nee ... If9-v («.., they sat downinthe snowy clearing 'before the house and, staring"-'-with* gleaming eyes at the- dark frosted windows, raised their muzzles into the icy darkness and began as If growling, then ever louder* l i f t i n g their hungry gullets ever higher, they began t o howl withmt stopping to breathe* higheri higheri more penetratingly.**) 1  68*  Uea arifmetiku, po krajnej mere- mozno hylo dumat o . raznykh hezpoleznykh, no zabavnykh vesdakh: * • • P. if 9* (While studying arithmetic, at least one was able to think of different useless but' amusing things: .. • ) -  69.  Stepanlda vnesla* derev3annu3u casku s haran'imi derepamlj ot nikh, zastllaja otvoro&ennoe l l c o strjapukhl, v a l l l , pakhudij' par. P. 5k* (Stepanida brought In a wooden cup with sheep skulls; from-them arose an aromatic steam covering the averted' face of the cook.)  70.  - Portjanki, - skazal ej Pakhom* ostorb^no razlamyvaja dyiijadc\dtt9^'lcart-oikiX'--l- ^tauaaa^polovtm-BB-v B'olV, portjanki sozgla, ... P. 5k* toot rags, W&fycm said to her* as he carefully hroke a steaming:potaio and dipped half of i t Into the salt, "you burned my foot rags," ...) .  71.  «rt--da3a-"d«l- mokryj veter* s'edaja enega. • P. 55* (Tho moist wind blew for three days consuming snow.)  72*  Kogda otvordali vorota na skotnom dvore, korovy vykhod l l i k kolodcu, tesnja drug druga, studa rogarai i gromko my da. P• 55 • (When they opened the gates of the cattle yard, the cowa would go out to the well, crowding" one another* knocking horns and loudly lowing.)  73.  Byk Bajan svirepo revel, niufchaSa iresennlj veter. P. 55* (The b u l l Bajjan he llowed ferociously * sniffing the spring breeze.)  71|«  Xromaja led, reka vykhodila i z beregov, ... P. 57* (Breaking the Ice, the river wa s overflow^ing * i t s hanks* «)  75*  - Boze, kakoj vozdukh, - progovorlla matuSka, prigimaaa k grudi rukl pod pukhovod Sal'ju. P. 56V" ("Lord, such a i r , " said mother, pressing her hands to her^breast, under a downy shawl.  9  a  :  8, 76*  Prlnlmaja proslogodn3u3u travu, s t r u t l a s , tekla snegova3a, dlstaja, pakhucaja voda. P. 58* (The clean scented water arising from the snow streamed and flowed, taking along last year's grass.)  77*  Qn kolotlX pjatkami mukhrastuju losadenku, zavallvals3a, vzmakhivaia loktaami. P« 58. (He struck the shaggy l i t t l e horse with his heels, swaying and pumping his elbows.)  78©  Ucernogo kryl*ca stojala, siroko povodja razdutymi "bokanrll karnauskinskaja losadenka, - P. 59. (Karnauskin*s horse was standing at the hack porch, heavily^heaving her bloated sides, -)  9  79* — Skoree, skoree, - krlknulaona, raspakhiva^a dver na kukhnju, - P. 59. ("Quick, quick," she cried, throwing open the door to the .kitchen, -) 9  80.  - povtorjal on, izo vsej s i l y siimaja emu obe ruki vyse ioktja. P. 59. (- he repeatedf i t with a l l his strength, squeezing "both his arms above the elbqw*)  81v  nim vsledposkakali rabocle, krica i kolotja verevkamt losade3, sbivsikhsja v kucu. P. 60* (The workers galloped after him* shouting and beating with ropes the horses that had gathered into a bunch.)  82.  V ambarakh lopatami peregonaal1 zadokhsi jaja khleh, t r e voza myse3 i podnimaBa ohiaka p y l l . P. 6 5 . ( l a the "barns they were -shovelling over the rotting grain, disturbing the mice and raising up clouds of dust.)  83.  Pod potolkom, edva osvegca3a komnatu, v zeleznom kol*ce vise la lampa ... P* 65* (The lamp, "barely illuminating the room, hung from-the ceiling i n an iron ring ...)  8kv  Mar*3a Mironovna. ne snimaja S a i l , sidela ustalaja, • ...P. 68. (Mar*3a Mironovna was wearily sitting without taking off her shawl, - •••)  85.  V sadu, i z rasogreto3 zemlijr pretykajazelenymi kocetkami dognivajus'c'ie list*3a, lezla trava, ... P. 70. (In the garden, from the warmed up earth, poked the grass piercing the nearly rotted leaves with green stocks* «• •)  86.  V a s i l i j Bikit*evi6, osobennym obrazom otduvaja eceku, dudel morekoj .roars'. P. 73* (Vasili3 Hifcit'evicV blowing out his cheeks i n a- specie1ma-n^*y---wa«"plping---a- marine march.) i  87.  V a s i l i J Vasil*evld ohizenn© vzvyl i ubezal, volocakhvost. P. 76. (Vasill3 Vasll'evlc gave an of fended howl* and ran off dragging his t a l l . )  9 88.  prygnul v tekudij l e g k i j vozdukh 1, melko-melko trepesca krylyskarai, p o l e t e l nad aamym polom, P. 76. . w , (•.., he leaped into the streaming l i g h t a i r and, hare l y vibrating h i s wings,flew close t o the f l o o r * )  89.  Pot cm, soskociv s raznuzdannoj l o s a d i , kotoraja, i pozvjakivaja udllaml, prinimalas' r v a t travu,Mis'ka P. 78. (Then having jumped o f f the unbridled horse which, clanging i t s b i t , began to graze, Miska...)  -  - •  8  9&»  • raerin s t o j a l smirao, l i s * pedbival sebja • brjukho. zadnej nogoj, otgonjaja s l e p n i a . P. 78* •{'•»•» the gelding stood quietly, i t only struck i t s e l f - i n the stomach with i t a hind leg, chasing away a h o r s e f l y . )  91*  K i k i t a g o r j a c l i ot styda, sosko6tl, v s j a l ego za povod 1 povel k vykhodu, sepia k h i t r c ^ ^ n r e r ^ P. 82* (Hikita, hot with shame, jumped o f f , grabbed i t by the r e i n s and led It to the e x i t , whispering to the crafty gelding: ...) 1  92.  «»., i trojka, rvanuvsls* 1 stu5a po doskam, v y l e t e l a Iz kai^tnika, sverkaja lakom 1 med'ju k o l j a a k i , k l d a j a svezirai kom'jaml o kopyt pristjaznykh, ... P. 82* ( e . « , and the three-horse team r ^ the boards, flew out of the shed, f l a s h i n g with the lacquer and copper of the barouche, tossing Up f r e s h b i t s of raudfrom the hoofs of side horses, • . • ) , r  5  93*  S kry 1* ca spustllas* Aleksandra t e o n t evna v be lorn p l a t e i t , r a s k r y v s j a b e l y j _zontik,-trevogojv-smotrela na "",.• gareovavsego vdaleke H l k i t u . P. 83* (Aleksandra Leoht'evna,in a white dress, descended from the porch and, opening a white umbrellay^ at H i k i t a prancing i n the distance•) 1  ?  :  9i|.  Arkadij Ivanovlc' v etb vremja pospesno 1 s t y d l l v o razdeV valsga,* podz'ima^a dllnmye ''p&l ey^M''nogakh' w* P. 8h. (Arkadij Ivanovlc a t t h i s time was undressing quickly and bashfully, c u r l i n g h i s long;,toes ...) :<  r  t  95>  *•• 1 p l y l po-ljagusinomu, medlenno razvodja rukami i hogaml v prozracnoj vode. P. 85. (•••• and he swam l i k e a f r o g , slowly parting the transparent water with h i s arms and legs.)  96.  Za obedom V a s i i i j H i k l t ' e v i e , vyblvaja pal'caml pole^ku po kra^u t a r e l k i , skaza!:•-»•••. P; 86. (At dinner V a s i l l j * H l k l t ' e v l d , beating out a polka rhythm with h i s f i n g e r s on the edge of h i s plate, saids •©.)  10  97©  - Stranno, - otvecal otec,, zakhvatyvaga*vsegu* gorstj'au borodu, kusaja ee 1 poz'imaja plecaml, - dtoooen* stranno' P© 91© ( "Strange, * f a t h e r - answered*-'--selzlxig'-a'-wh;ole handful of h i s beard, b i t i n g i t , and shrugging h i s shoulders, " t h i s i s very strange© )  98©  Drevnij starik* ©.., podoSei'''k--vozaa*------polp2#i^riiiBa' na. nakhlestku t e l e g i 1 skazal, t r a a s j a nepokrytoa golovojs • •• P© 92© (The aged man, ©.., came up to the loads, placed h i s hand on the side of a wagon and,shaking h i s uncovered head* he said: •••)  99©  Ko on, prikladyvaga uSl, pokazyvaja znby* sarakha!, uvertyvalsaa ot arkana 1 t o k i d a l s j a v gus<5u talnina, to vybegal na prostorooO: mesto. P© 9*1© {But (the-horse), f l a t t e n i n g "back h i d ears, baring h i s teeth, shied away, dodged the l a r i a t , now dashed into the t h i c k of the herd, now ran into the open©)  100© «•• 1 veselym galopom pomcalsja v kovyl'nuju step', otduvaja grivu i khvost po vetru. P© 9h© (©•© and with a merry gallop he tore out into the feather-grass steppe l e t t i n g h i s mane and t a i l f l y i n the wind©) 8  101© - SoverSenno sludagno k u p i l p a r t i j u verb!judov, - skaza 1 on, ne g l j a d j a H i k l t e v glaza, - strasno nedorogo ••• P. 95© (-Completely by chance I bought a group of camels," he said* not looking H i k i t a i n the eyes, "awfully cheap ©.o' ) 9  102© Razdvigaja nogl, • be&lt za vozllko;)uparen' • •• P© 96. (Stretching h i s legs* a young l a d runs a f t e r the^ cart ©. •) 103© - Apkadia IvanovlS s t o i t peredzerkalom l , der&a sebja za konilk borodki* zadum^ivo posvistyvaet: ©.. P© 97* ( - Arkadlj Ivanovid stands before a mirror, and, grasping the t i p of h i a beard* thoughtfully w h i s t l e s : © • • ) IGir© Vet mimo, s i l ' n o cokajja podkovami, p r o l e t e l voronog rysak, • «© P..98© (Here flew by a black t r o t t e r * stamping h i s shoes heavily* ©.©) 105© Sergej IvanoviS s i d e ! stepenno 1 strogo nakozlakh, prlderz" tvaaa troaku ry603. P. 98© (Sergeg Ivanovlc sat gravely and r i g i d l y on the coach-box, holding the three-horse team at a t r o t . ) 106© ••©, ozaboSennye Idudi begut, prikryvaaa rot v o r o t n i kami ot vetra* nesusdego bumaiki 1 p y l . P. 100© (••©, the worried people are running* shielding t h e i r mouths with their colSa r s from the wind*r which* was blowing papers and dust©)  11  107*  Kobyly-trekhletkl, otbivajas' ot tabuna, v z b r y k i v a l l v z v l z g t v a l l , n o s i l l s po vygonu* brykagas** motaja mordoj, P» 71* (Three year old - mattes*-separating from the-herd* bucked* neighed, tore-about the pasture, kicking and shaking t h e i r heads, . . . )  108,  - v z v a l l l skametku na pleco, zakhvatil lopatku, dumaja, £to ponadobltsaa, 1 pobezal po doroge vdol* sada k p l o t i n e . P. I I , ( - he loaded the s l e d oh h i s shoulder, grabbed a shovel, thinking i t might be of use, and r a n along the road' alongside the garden to the dam,)  109,  H i k i t a zaerneoals3a, s l e z so skamejkt 1 potaSSl! ee v goru, uvjazaja po koleno. P. 12. (Hikita laughed, got off h i s sled and dragged i t u p h i l l , sinking up ,to h i s knees.)  110,  Glaadja na svoe otrazenle v samovare, on dolgo u d l v l g a l s j a , kakoe u nego dlinmoe, vo ves* samovar, urodskoe l i c o . P. 16, lEpoklng at b i s r e f l e c t i o n In the samovar, he wondered at h i s face, deformed and s t r e t c h e d the whole length of idle samovar.)  Ill©  H i k i t a ne spesa odelsga 1, vedja v d o l stukaturennoj steny pal'cam, posel po dlinnomu korido^u, ... P. lb© (Hikita dressed without hurrying, and, drawing h i s f i n ger along the stucco wall, went through the long c o r r i -  8  9  dor,  ©»»J  1X2©  Stepka Earnauskln, v i d j a , eto nlkto ne khocet s nlm bit'sjja, makhnul rukavlcea svolm: P. 22. (Stepkaj Karnauskln, seeing that no one wanted to f i g h t with him* waved h i s mitten: •..)  113•  H i k i t a ypzvrascalsaa na svoj konec, vzvolnovanyj, r a z goriademayj, posmatrlvaja, a kem -by efice skhvatlt * s j a . P© 22. (Hikita was returning to h i s side, flushed, looking f o r someone with whom he could s t i l l grapple©)  llii©  Syn ee, Viktor, o i i d a j a , kogda a nego enimut baSlyk, g i g a d e l i s p o d l o b ' g a n a H i k i t u . P. 26. (Her son, V i c tor, walking f o r i h l s G a u c a s i a n hood to be taken o f f ,  115©  H i k i t a 1 V i k t o r Babkin prosnulis* rano utrorat v H l k l t l noj koranate 1, 'Zid3a'-'^''-po8toliakhi'--na-8up|a'8^'' g l j a d e l l drug na druga© P© 26© (Hikita and V i c t o r Babkln awoke early In the-morning In H i k i t a ^ 8 room and, a l t ting In bed, looked a t o n e a n o t h e r f r o m t n g l y . )  116©  Tak e t o t u c l t e l * do togo glup, dto odna2dy v prlkhozej, ukhodja Iz gostej, v z j a l vmesto-sapfct kosku, kotorala spala na sunduke, i nadel ee na golovu •.• P. 30* (This teacher i s so stupid that once i n the hallway* as be wa s leaving a f t e r a v i s i t , he •took* i n place of h i s cap, the cat which was sleeping on a trunk and put i t on h i s head •••)  12  117e  P o z ^ o vederom Htfctta, l e i a v zakryvsis' a golovoj*, s p r o s l l golosom: . P. 32. (Late In In bed I n the dark room* with asked from under the q u i l t In  temnoj koranate v p o e t e l i , iz-pod odejala glukhira t&e evening,,Hlkttav l y i n g even= h i s head covered up, a muffled voice: • • •)  118•  Uvjazaja v snegu* prjamifcorar Seres dvor k N l k l t e Set Mlaka KorjasVmok ... P i 3b. (Sinking In the snow* Mieka Eorjasonok was walking straight' across the" court to H l k l t a ...) ^  119.  Ona vse vreratfa sraejalas , posmatriva^a na ogroranuju kuklu, ... P i 37* (Shekept smiling as she looked? at the enormous d o l l , • ••••)  12Di  Oni fill pr jamo na krepost , uvjazaja po koleno v snegu. P« 39* \They were advancing straight toward the f o r t r e s s , sinking up to t h e i r knees In the snow.)  121*  On vernulsga domoi, razdelsja 1 , prokhodja derez komnaty, usly s a l , kak L i l ja g o v o r i i a : ... P. I40© (He r e turned home, took o f f h i s outer clothing and, walking through the rooms, heard L i i j a say: »•»)  122.  H i k l t a nadal rasskazyvat* son pro kota, pro o2tvs'le portrety i pro t o , kak on l e t a l i 6to v l d e l , lata3a pod potolkom. P i i|2« (Hiklta began to t e l l h i s dream about the cat, ahout the'''plct«peB^t]bat'' had^oome''--tO''' l i f e * ahout how he -flewandwhat? he saw as he was f l y i n g under the celling.) ;, ;  9  9  :  ;  f  123.  L i l j a vnimatel 'no slusa la * derza na kolenjakh kuklu • • • P. i*2. ( L i l ^ a - l i s t e n e d a t t e n t i v e l y , hoMtng the d o l l on her kneei;..}  12b.  - ©nl 8motr3at* - prose pt a la L i l j a , pokazyvaja na dva temnye portreta na^ stone* - p, t^They are looking, L i l j a whispered, p o i n t i n g a t the two:dark p o r t r a l t a on . the wall, -) 11  125.  Mozno "bylo casaral g l j a d e t emu v r o t , pomlraja so smekha, kogda on rasskazyvaet. P. kl» (At times one could look Into h i s mouth, dying from laughing, when he t e l l a s t o r i e s . )  126.  i , prod©l2aja rysovat*, povel reku Amazonku sovsem usa ne v t u storonu, - derea Paragva j 1 Urugvaj k Ognexmoj Semle. P. Ij8. (... and, continuing t o sketch, he "brought the Amazon R i v e r t h e wrong way - through Paraguay and Uruguay toward Tterra d e l Puegp.)  9  ;  127i  ?  Rasskazyvaja po t s t o r i i , A r k a d i j Ivanovid v s t a v a l spinp^ ju k p e d k e v P. 50. ( T e l l i n g h i s t o r i c a l t a l e s * ArkadlJ Ivanovic" wouldstand? up with- h i s hack to the"furnace.)  13 128*  Rasskazyvaja, kak Ptptn K o r o t k t i v Sua a one r a z r u b i l kru^ku, Arkadli Ivanovld s razraakhu r e z a l vozdukh ladon'ju. P. 5 0 * ( T e l l i n g how P i pin the Short s p l i t the mug i n Solsson. Arkadij Ivanovic would cleave the a i r with h i s palm*)  1 2 9 * r Profchodae po plotlne* H l k i t a vspomnll, kak on s e l zdes noc'ju, • •• P. 51o'''.(While passing along the dam* H l k l t a r e c a l l e d how he had been walking here at night, ,»..) 9  130«  - zavldev Dunjasu, v t y k a l v l l y 1 Sel k nej, vySagivaia na dllnnykh nogakh, kak verhljud, P. 5 2 , (-having caught sight of Dunjasa, he had stuck h i s fork into the ground and was walking toward her, walking l i k e a camel with h i s long feet*)  131*  ?- g o v o r i l Artem*:udivlenno g l j a d j a v karty. - Hepra v i l ' n o , osibka* P* 5 3 « ( - Artem, looking with surprise at h i s cards, was saying,,"I'm wrong* I made a mistake•")  132*  I kogda on tak poraoltlsja, gijjadja na lo2ku, butylku i derenok ot noza, - emu na samom dele s t a l o legde. P. 5 6 * (And when he had s a i d t h i s prayer, looking at the spoon, the h o t t l e , and the k n i f e haft, - he r e a l l y began to f e e l easier*)  133*  Vsjudu n a z a l ! r u d * i , ukhodja mestami pod serye k r u p i datye sugroby, - P?* 5 8 * (Streams'were running everywhere, flowing away under:the grey, grainy snow d r i f t s ,  131).  - on dto-to kriknul N i k l t e , proskakivaja mirao po luzam; • Pv 5 9 * (- he c a l l e d out something t o H l k i t a as he galloped past along the ponds; •••)  135•  Bunjasa l e t e l a Iz domay der2a v okhapke haranlj tulup i dokhuv P* 5 9 * (Dunjasawas-rushing out of the house, holding i n her arms a sheepskin short" coat and a f u r coat*)  136*  Stepanida'vnesla = na dugunnoj skovorodke b o l * s l e lepeski *8korospelki y 1 o n l S i p e l l maalom* sto^a na s t o l e , P. 61* (Stepanida "brought i n on an i r o n s k i l l e t some enormous hot cakes f a s t - r i p e n e r s , and they hissed with butter as they-stood on the"table* -) l,  w  137.  w  K vederu u matuski na p o s t e l l u£e leza to, otdy khaaa pod distymi poloteneami, stukdes^at * vysokikh "bah 1 p r i zemistykh kalle'e.j • P* 6U. (Toward evening i n mother• a room, t e n t a l l cakes and squat easter cakes were lying on the bed, resting under clean towels•)  -)  13&V  Tret 13 mal'dlk, Kolja, leza na boku* podpers'is' kulakom, vse vremga g l j a d e ^ na H l k i t u ... P. 66, .{?he t h i r d youngster* Koija, l y i n g on h i s s ide* propping: himself with h i s f i s t , kept looking at H l k l t a . )  139v  • ••> on v l d e l , kak mal* dikl; u£e nadall posmelyat:'sja, pogljadyvaja na nego, ---odlnJiD*lkimlr-P«-69.*.«v (•-••# he saw that the hoys had already "begun t o laugh a t htm. One c a l l e d out: ...)  U|0.  • neinym golosom blagoslavtla vsekh, kto i l l v sadu, naSlnaja ot ceryjakov: ... P. 71• (•••• with a tender voice she was blessing a l l who l i v e d I n the garden, beginning with the worms: ...)  U41»  kobyly oborac'lvall golovy, posmatrivajafr- zdes* 11 2ere"benok; » • • P. 71* (••••; the mares would turn"their heads t o see whether t h e i r f o a l was there; • • • ) , ,  Ul2.  •«• poprygal vdol* podokonnlka*gljadja na voroh'ev, vysmotrel odnogo starogo, • .v P. 75 • (• • • It hoppe d along the s i l l ; looking at the sparrows, i t spied an old one, ...)  Wk3» Skaca po zelenomu lugu za otblvSeisja ot tabuna koby-  lenkoj, Mlgka k r l d a l : "azet J ' P. ?8. (Bounding along the green meadow after the f i l l y that had; got away front the herd, Mtska was crying, "Azat.*') 1  lhi|«  Vernulsja on k H l k l t e prlkhramyvaja, v y t l r a j a s l s c a rapannojj fidekl krov* • P. 79. (He came back to H l k i t a . limping and wiping the blood from h i s scratched cheek.)  Ill5•  - 1 g o v o r i l , sagaja po trave k konjusnjara: P. 81* (- and Bald, as he stepped along the grass toward the stables: «••)  U»&V  Bol'&ajadelka zakryvala emuglaza, 1 on pomotyval golovoi, veselo pogljady vaja i z - z a volos. P l 81. (A big forelock was covering I t s eyes and- It was shaking Its head, looking merrily ^frem behind the ha Ir •) 1  Ul7.  ••• 1 troika rvanuvSis* 1 studa po doskam, v y l e t e l a tz karetnlka, ... P. 82. . ( . . . and the three-horse team, tearing o f f and galloping along the boards, flew out of the carriage shed, ...)  3i)8.  H l k l t a t r j a s s j a , szav rot* naprjazenno gljadda me^du usej l o s a d l . P. 83. (Hlklta trembled* having pressed h i s l i p s together* staging Intently- between the ears, of the horse.)  15 11*9*  N i k i t a kuvyrkom l e t e l v prud i , dognav otca, p l y l rjadom e nimy ozidada, kogda otec pokhvaltt: ••• P. 85* (Hikita sommersaulted into the pond and, having overtaken h i s father, swam along with him wait ing f o r h i s father t o praise him: *..) «, ^ ,  150*  £eltukhln k l a n j a l s j a , s i d - j a na k a m i a i k e , opuskai kryl'da, ... P. 87* (Zaltukhln howed, s i t t i n g ^ o n the cornice, he lowered h i s wings, • ••) ;  151>  Migaja ot volnenija, H i k i t a procel: ... P. 90* h i s eyes from excitement, H i k i t a reads . , . )  (Batting  152»  "G^kuska, c'okus'ka," - narocne, d l j a smekhu^ z a k r i c a l Serged Ivanovlc, ukazyvada na koleso. P. 92* ("Glickety , c l i c k , Serged Ivanovlc' c r i e d , as a 3 oke, -while point ing at; the wheel*) 18  X53*  i e r e h d i k nadal vertet'sda po p o l ' j u , i kaz*dyd .raz naper e r e z enm vyskaklva^ P. 9*»v (The f o a l began to twist about along the f i e l d , and the Bashkir, screeching l i k e a beast, would gallop to cut h i m o f f * )  15^*  H i k i t a v z d o k h n u i , prosypadas , 1 o t k r y l g l a z a . P* 7* (Hikita sighed", on awakening, and opened h i s eyes.)  155*  On vo^el k H l k l t e v komnatu, posmeivadas*, ostanovilsda u okna, ... P. 8. (He came into N i k i t a a room, stopped near the window, chuckling, •••)  156*.  Arkadij Ivanovlc' o p u s t i l kniz'ku, prisluSlvagais . P. 10* (Arkadid Ivanovid l e t the book f a l l , as he listened*)  157*  - Spat -to da spal khoroso, - o t v e t l l on, ulybadas nepondatno Semu,= v -ry&ie usy, ..• P. 8. ("As f o r sleeping, I slept w e l l , he answered, smiling at something or other i n t o h i s red;moustache, .• •)  8  8  8  8  8  88  158*  Bleda 1 t e s n j a s , ovcy l e z l i k kolode,prolamyveil raordockaml tonkid ledok, ... P* 19* (Bleating and crowding one another, the sheep were swarming to the well, were breaking the t h i n i c e with their noses, ...)  159.  H i k i t a 1 Mi s k a p o b e z a l i po dvoru, smedas 1 drazndas . P. 19* (Hikita and Miska ran along the yard, laughing and teasing one another.)  160*  M a l ' c i k l , ulybadas , g l d a d e l i drug na druga. (The boys, s a i l i n g , l o o k e d a t one another.)  161*  Batuska podndala brovl, ne otryvadas ot k n i g i . P* 2l<* (Mother r a i s e d her brows, without tear ing h e r s e l f away from her book. )  8  8  8  ;  8  8  P. 22*  16 162*  MatuSkapodndala golovu, prlsluSivadas*, peredernula plecaml 1 potdanula na nikh pukhovyd piatok. P. 2l| • (Mother raised her head, shruggedher shoulders and drew a fleecy kerchief over them*)  163•  Arkadid Ivanovlc' podbezal k oknu i , vzgldadyvadas*, voskllknul: P r i e k h a l l . P. 25* (Arkadid Ivanpvig ran to the window and, glancing, exclaimed* ."They have arrived. J")  16*1,  Devodka vzdokhnula, otkryla s l n i e b o l ' s l e glaza 1 vzdokhnula esSe raz, prosypadas*. P.;26© (The g i r l sighed, opened, her "big blue eyes and sighed^again, as she was waking»)  165»  H i k i t a podoSel k izrazcovod peel s lezankod, ne kasajas* rukami, vsprygnul na lezanku ... P. 27. (Nikita went up to the t i l e stove with the benchand*•-without touching i t with h i 8 hands, leaped up on the bench.)  166.  Detl, kradudts*. v y s l t v koridor ... P. 4»2. f u r t i v e l y entered the corridor ...)  167.  Tak onl mogll rycafr', oska Idas' 1 zakhlebyvadas*, ocen* dolgo, pokuda prokhoddaSSid rabofiid ne b r o s i t v.nlkh . rukavtced, togda onl kas'ldada ot zloby, v s t a v a H na dybkl 1 d r a l i s ' tak, cto l e t e l a s e r s t * . P. 28* (Thus they could growl, baring t h e i r teeth.and becoming breathless, very long; u n t i l a passing worker would throw them a mitten* Then, coughing withranger, they would: r i s e up on t h e i r back feet and f i g h t t i l l the f u r flew.)f  168.  Vse vrerada do obeda, katadas* s gor, khokhoca 1 "besdas* , N i k i t a krajuskora mysled dumal: .*. P. 29* ( S l i d i n g down. the h i l l , chuckling, and "acting l i k e crazy" a l L the time; t i l l dinner, H i k i t a kept thinkings In th^ his minds ...)  169.  Ha sandakh, s priprdaiennymi^ szadi vtoryml salazkaral, ; leaala, skripda i pokaeiva^as^,^ d^khvesei'na^a krutonosada lOdka. P. 3U» (Bpoh a sled with a.second s l e d t i e d pn behind, a blunt-prbwed pair-oar was creaking,, squeaking and rocking.)  170.  Ona stodala, kak ognennoe derevo, perellvadas' zolotprai, Iskraml, dlinnymt lu3aral>i • ?:• 36. • (He stood l i k e :a tree of f i r e , flooded with gold* sparksy l p ^ rays.)  171*  V gosilnbd r a s k r y l l s ^ drugie dverl, 1, tesndas*;k stenke, vofiil derevenskle mal'eiki i devoclci. P. 36. . ( i n the l i y i n g room the otherrdoors opened, and, pressing t o the; wail, the v i l l a g e fbpys andvglrls: entsr^  (fhevchildren -,  w  17 172.  - Kto eto? - sprosila L i l d a , pridvlgadas* k H l k l t e . P.I43. ("Who Is i t ? " asked L t l j a , moving-up t o H i k i t a . )  173.  L i l j a klvnula golovod 1 ydrug, ogldadyvadas', v s k r i k nula: ... P. 43* ( L l l d a gone a nod and, looking about, c r i e d : • ••)  174.  LIIda kivnula bantora, podala ruku, kondikl pal* cev, 1 posla k sebe, ne Woradlvadas*; ... P. 45* (Lilda gone a nod with her ribbon, gave her hand, her: f i n g e r t i p s , and went to her reomiwithout turning aroundf . ..)  175.  S t e p a n l d a , z a k r i c a l on, podnimadas* 1 idda k rukomodntku, - sobirad obedat*. P. 54. ("Stepanida," he c r i e d , r i s i n g and going to :the basin, **get dinner ;ready 2 ) W  176.  1 7 7 #  ,  178.  ... 1, cepldadas* za suradas'c'le vetly, oni k r i d a l i o smutnom, o straSnom, o radostnom, - P. 54. (••.and, clinging to the imirmuring willows, t hey c r i e d aloud of the sad, the t e r r i b l e , the doyens, -) Bea tolku suetdas* 1 k r i c a , l e t a l i nad krySami mokrye g a l k l . P. 55. (The damp daws, bustling-and crying meaninglessly, flew over the roofs.) Pi 56. (The l i t t l e ; d o o r , swinging on a single,loop, squeaked p l a i n t i v e l y . ) ^  179.  H i k i t a g o v o r l l eto, kiandadas* I toropllvo krestdas'• P. 56. (Hikita said this,- bowing-'-and- quickly crossing • himself.)  180.  ... s e l v krbvatl 1 s l u S a l , ulybadas*. on the bed and listened, ^smiling.) .  181.  leg opdat* 1 vorodalsda pod vdaaanym odedalora, ustralvadas' kak raozno udobnee. P. 57* (•»•;* he lay down again and,turning under the k n i t t e d coverlet, himself as comfortably a s possible.)  182.  Ulybadas*, matuSka atanovllas' kraSe vsekh na svete.  183v  P. 58. (Mother, smiling, became the prettiest-person on earth.) POrednid* oboraSivadas*, dto-to, vldlmo, k r l d a l , vzmakhivada svdaakod verevok. P. 58. (The one i n front, turning around, was evident ly crying something, -waving a bundle of rope.)  184*  P. 56V  (•••  >i.i.. •  sat  . -»?  Sredl golykh Ikh suc'ey s i d e l l , kacadas', gradl, IzmokSle za nod*. P. 58.. (Among t h e i r bare-branches the rooks perched swaying, drenched during the night.)  18 185*  • •• 1 okolo karetnlka, suetjas' i surnja zakladyvali zlogo, sll'nogo 3are"bca Hegra y sank! bes podrezov; ... 59• (»«• and near the carriage shed, amid hustle, and noise, they were harnessing the s t r o n g - s p i r i t e d f o a l Hegr to a sled without runners; <»»•}  186*  MatuSka vskriknula stremitel'no podnlmajas*, - l i c o ee zadrozalo. P© 60. (Bother gave a shriek, .getting up impetuously« Her face tremhied.)  187.  H l k l t a side1 na kolenjakh na stule i , navaltva-Jas* glvotom na s t o l , tak i l e a otcu v r o t . P. 61, (Hlklta was s i t t i n g i n the c h a i r on h i s knees and* with h i s h e l l y sprawled on the tahle, was p r a c t i c a l l y crawling into h i s father's mouth.)  188.  Daju tebe gestnoje slovO, - ne zadumyvajas'j o t v e t i l V a s i l l J H l k l t ' e v l c . - P. 62. ("I give you my word of h o n o u r * " V a s t l y H l k l t ' e v l d answered, without a moment's h e s i t a t i o n . -)  189.  Anna progovorila z a d v e r * 3u, bbjas', Stoby H l k l t a ne povertl Leskes ... P. 66. (Anna said from "behind the door, fearing- that H l k i t a would be 1 ieve Leaks: . . . )  190.  ... i Eeska k l n u l s j a pb perine k avert, t o l k n u l ; ^ maien'kogo, kotoryj ne prosypajas', zakhnykal. P. 6 7 • (••• and Leska-hurled himself along tha feather bed t o ward the door* j o s t l e d the l i t t l e f e l l o w who, without waking up, hegan to whimper.)  191U  Leska "skazal; vozvraScajas' 5' - K materi skry l a s *. P^i 67. (Iieska Said* on returning, ^8he^s to,mother and:hidden*'')  192.  l a l u j a s ' H l k i t e m Annu^ veleno bylo lesat* tikhb, ••.P. 67* (eomplaiming to H l k l t a ahout Anna, the boyscompletely;forgot they had heen ordered to l i e quiet, •••)  19f*  Pbtom, sepSas-, tolkajas', nadali natjagivat* sapogl, nadell pblusubkl* ... P..67. (Then, whispering* pushing, they began to put on t h e i r ' • shoes and short coats, • -..•) f  Petr Petrovte* v dlinnopolom c'ernom'Sjurtuke* posmelvajjas* v tatarskle u s i k i , - ... - n a l l l vsem-po rjumocke yisnevoj n s l l v k l . P.^68. (Petr Petrovic, In-a-longt a l l e d "black coat, chuckling i n t o his Tartar moustache, poured each of thema gla%s o f cherry;liquer.) ::i  195.  otvorjajutsja zapadnye d v e r i , naklonjajas* y a_ dver^akh, tout khorugvi. P. 68. (... they open the back doors. The hanners come* dipping In the doors*)  19 196*  i&fcttsgF «e- ©oopa^lva-aa**-* s e r d i t o motnul golovogV P. 70* (Hikita, without turning, a n g r i l y shook h i s head.)  197.  N i k i t a , ne oborac'ivajas*, s l u s e l , kak vorcala Anna* no napoddalsda. P* 70. ( H i k i t a , without turning, l i s t e n e d to Anna's muttering hut didn't y i e l d . )  198*  ¥ lipakh zavelas' lvolga* hoi' sa ja pt i c a , ••• «-. suet jas', s v i s t e l a medoyyinxgolosom. P..71* (An oriole* ,a large „ b i r d * had appeared i n the lime t r e e s . I t whistled with a honeyed voice as i t hopped ahout.)  199.  Kobyly - t r e k h l e t k i * otblvajjas' ot taounav vztorykivall. vavlzglvall, n o s l U s po vygonu, hryka^as-, motaja mordojY Inaja naca/la valdat'sda, lx»3a~o&erje:B*y v l z z a , norovlla khvatit' zuhami. P. 71. (The three-year o l d mares* separating from the herd, kicked, shlnnled, moved along the pasture, "bucking, shaking t h e i r"-beads.?:,-©ne' begins t o r o l l , another baring her teeth* whinneying, t r i e s to catch her with her teeth.) 9  w  200.  Umil3adas na samogosebja* on v y d i s t i l zuby^ P i 72. (Peelings welll-disposed toward himself, he cleaned; h i s teeth.)  201.  iteltukhin sejeas ze z a b i l s j a v ugol, starajas* pokasat , dto desevo ne prodast Man . P. 74* (Zeltukhin straightway erouched i n a corner* t r y i n g to show that he would not give up without a f i g h t . )  202.  Vse eetvero o b e m u l l golovy i * ne dviga^as*, g l g a d e l i na Seltukbina. P i 77* ( A l l four turned t h e i r heads and looked at Zeltukhin*without moving.)  e  9  x  t  203»  eapocknr-s per-'darai on nadevaly t o l ' l ^ sadjas® ,na kozly* - P* 81... (- he would put on tbe^ feathered can only when he was s i t t i n g down-on the d r i v e r ' s box, -)  20tiv  ... 1 trojka* rvanuvals* 1 stuca po doskam, v y l e t e l a l z karetnika ... z a l i v a d a s podobrannymi bubencaml* - ...... oplsala po zelenomu dvoru polukrug i ... P. 82.. (..© and the three-horse team* rushing along the boards*iflew out of the carriage house, r i n g i n g with-'-matoh«d^oel'lL8.-dato~ c r i b e d a semt-circle along the- green yard and . « • ) 8  205©  H i k i t a dognal ee i , ot pykhlvajas , radostno g l i a d e l na otca. P. 83. (Hikita overtook i t and* panting* joyously looked at h i s father.)  206.  ...ft aa eto leto/ H i k i t a l o v k o n a u c l l s j apla^at--•*- kupajas* s mal'c'lkami v Gagre, - urael bokom* 1 na- opinev 1 s t o j a , „ ... P. 85. (..©$ That summer H i k i t a bad learned to swim expert ly * bathing with the boy a In the* Gagrav He knew how to swim on h i s side* on h i s back, and i n a s i t t i n g position* ©..)  9  20 207*  Arkadij Ivanovld, vzrevev, n a e i n a l raetat'sja, vyspvyvajas* po pojas, i n y r j a l . P* 85* (Arkadij Ivanovlc, with a howl, would begin to toss ahout, thrusting himself out to the waist, he would dive*)  208.  Vozvrascajas' s pruda, ohySno v s t r e d a l i Aleksandru Leont'evnu .*• P. 85, (Returning from the pond, they would.generally meet Aleksandra Leont'evha * * • ) , . ,  209*  Hatuska, scurja glaza ot solnca t ulybajas', govorllas P. 85* (Mother, squinting because o f the. sun, would smile and say. ©••) v  210*  Sohirajas' za stolom, domasnte ne s u t i l l , kak prezde* P* 86* (While gathering at the table, toe members of the household' didn't joke aa before, -)  211©  «• • 1 vremja ot vremeni popravljal odki* stara|j as?...skryt* etiffi sderzannyj vzdokh* P* 86* (•*• from time to time, he would straighten h i s spectacles, trying* to. hide a r e s t r a i n e d sigh.) —--r 4  212*  Ne s'evelias*, v l s e l l pyl'nye l i s t * ja* kak zastjanye. • P* 87* (The dusty leaves hung motionless as I f made of tin*) - . .  213*  H l k l t a * ne doitdajas* otveta, skrylsja za dver* j u . P* 89* (Nikita, without watting f o r an answer* disappeared behind the door*)  2Hi*  - Bostoronia* J - k r i k n u l im N i k i t a * sadjas* y sedlo© P. 90* ("To.one side.** N i k i t a c r i e d to them, as he got into the saddle*)  215*  Pokad'ivarjas* ten'ju na stene, p o j a v i l s j a bol'soj bant nad vniiaatel'nymi sintmt glazarai devodkt, »•• P. 90* (Moving unsteadily l i k e a shadow on a wall, a>hig rihhon appeared over the attentive "blue eyes of a g i r l , •.. •) :  216*  o«* vyrvalas' i , opustiv mordu 1 brykajas' tak, dto kom'ja s kopyt ee poletell-yy^e-'lia'retnlkav^'POSkalcala k tabunu. P. 92* (•„. she tore o f f and* having lowered her head and kicking so that the clods from her hooves flew higher than the carriage house, she galloped toward the herd*) s  217*  Vgljadyvajas*, Ntktta r a s l i d a l v etoj volnujuSc'eij sineve to plyvuSdij;dom* to derevo, *.* P* 93* (Looking, N i k i t a could d i s t i n g u i s h In t h i s unsteady blueness now a f l o a t ing house, now a tree* •••)  21 218*  Vot idut devkl •** i svorac'ivajutkparusinovym balaganam, gde, peregibajas ceres p r i l a v k i , k r i c a t ..prodavcy* khvatadutt prokhoddaSdifchs • •.* P. 93* (Here come .some g i r l s •*.* and they turn to the canvas shops where, "bending over the counters, the salesmen are crying, s e i z i n g passers-by: ••'•)•'" 9  219*  Vot, kolasja nogami, t o l k a j a s idet paren* v razodranRoj na piece goluboj* rubakhe *.. P* 9U» (There with wheeli n g s t e p s , pushing, comes a l a d with a blue s h i r t that i s torn a t the shoulder *••)  220*  Ba'stclrla-'peveyaliTa^av^'^'-koBb'topay p o b e s a l i k verkhovym losadjam, • •• P* 9li« (The Bashkirs, waddl ing pigeon-toed, r a n toward the saddle horses, • ••)  9  22  A\ I  "*  ;  Present Gerund There are 220 examples of the present imperfective gerunds i n the Detstvo K i k i t y (Section AV I )*  The entire l i s t i s d i v i -  ded into four major groups* (1)  Gerunds which have passed over into other forms of  speech, and others which are Isolated and correspond;;more to the nature of the adverb than t o the verb* (2)  Gerunds governing the same cases as their; c o r r e l a t e d  verhs; i n indicative do* (3)  Gerunds complemented with the same types of i n f i n i -  t i v e and* propositional phrasea or other subordinated phra aea as the other forms* of the verb, (Jb)  ^..^r.-.  The group of r e f l e x i v e gerunds*  , ,  r  Referring to the f i r s t group above, the foliowing words are no longer gerunds but have become other parts of speech.; However, they are worthy of mention Insofar as t h e i r origin; stems from gerunds* Molca (1. 3. 9, 23, 2k  9  25> 27) i s an adverb whose-adver-  h l a l quality i s emphasized by a s h i f t i n accent.  This r e s u l t s  i n the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n "between the gerund and the adverbi KhotJa (k$ 8, lO) i s used as a concessive conjunction i n contemporary Russian although, i n respect t o itSgform, i t i s the present gerund••-••of the imperfective verb khjotet*. 1.  V/*V. Vinogradov. Russkia :1az.vk; Moscow. 19h7. p. 382*  2o D. Nv Usakov. T o l k o w j s l o v a r r u e s k o g o 3azvka. Moscow* 19I40, IV, column 1183• 8  23 Sto.la (7) i s an adverb possessing the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as molca. and other adverbfelized forms such as gl.1ad.1a.leza. ... -1 "' ..... sld.la. st&.1a. e t c . 1  !  The following words are normal verbal gerunds used i n adverbial relationship within the sentence: Ppvtoraaja (2), s,pe&a, (5, 6), afoBjtfa (9), Bkrftpja, ( l l ) , ISSSM (12>, bega^a (13). khlopada fyrka.1a  (16),  prikhramyvala  prigovarlvaja  4l6j. trepegea (17). podkhod.1a (18).  (19 ). razdumyvada ( 2 0 ^ terlga ( 2 l ) , JseJs (22),  prlgovarlvaJa (26). vog<fe ( 6 %  (Mi). gapadaJa (15).  sumda (28). v l z z a (29). spesa (30).  (72),  bleda (1^8), kj*pjfchjga: (l68)> krjggr (81,  177). Only one of the above-mentioned examples, i . e . vlzza-(29) commands special interest.. The present imperfective gerund vizza. (29) Is coupled with the past perfective r e f l e x i v e gerund* ogcer.1a s'. i n the same clause.  The' perfective aspect  indicates, i n regard t o the action of the main verb, a completed a c t i o n , while the imperfective aspect represents an Incompleted a c t i o n .  Thus, both these gerunds, s i d e by side,  have a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n i n t h e i r f o r c e .  :  The remainder of the examples of present gerunds reveal, on the one hand, a verbal nature, and, on the other, an adverbial quality.  In respect to, t h e i r verbal quality they have aspect,  voice and tense, which r e l a t e to the time of action of the main verb rather tham to the time of utterance.  I n respect  to their adverbial quality they tend t o modify the a c t i o n of 1. . V/. V. Vinogradov,  pp. clt«. p. 385.  2k  the verb to which they are subordinated. predominantly that of manner* the main verb i s adverbial.  The-modification i s  However, t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o  Krlda (21) and my da (72 ) are  used as adverbs indicating maimer, but t h e i r verbal force i s underlined by the adverbs which pre cede them.  Vorda (67) i s  modified by the word budto with which i t maintains a verba 1 conditional force* Referring to the second group of present gerunds, we  find  those gerunds whose verbal force i s supported by oblique cases with which they are associated* These gerunds can govern the same cases as the Indicative of the verbs with which they are correlated*  They represent an action synchronous with that of  the main verb* action*  T h e i r aspect force i s that of an incomplete  The second group of present gerunds appears i n the  following paragraph* est  Those possessing s p e c i a l points of i n t e r -  s h a l l be commented on, and those that are regular s h a l l not  be discussed* Postukiva.1a (51). perebirala (32). protiraria (33). ablvaia (31i). osypa^la (35l. smygaJa (36l>v l u d a (37). pod*po*a8yvader438). (k 1),  sdvlgaJa (39). khlooada*ihQ),  p o g l a l i v a d a t o ) . popravUaJa  peregon.1a.1a (k3)«  podnfoaja (Wr)  9  to),  pokhlopyva.1a  otoagivada (1*2).  obrascaja (U5),  mesa^a (h6),  opuska.1a (ii7). dysa 0i8). yytirade (h8); jfodnlma^ 0i9). podnliaada (5Q). p r l l a f l v a a a v ( f i ) . eeluda; (52V. raavitazyvada (.53), perevodja (5*4)» glladda (5h). peregonlada (55), 2 a | i ma.1a  (36), sevel.1a (57), gourde (^y.^potaisyvaaa ( # ) . ppdnfr-  pa^a (60k  ?l;jadfo ( 6 l ) . ukladyva.la (62)V r^zystelvaja ( 6 2 ) *  25 pokazyvafla (65), r^su^a, (6h), £uja. (65), njukha/ja, (66), gl-ladJa (67), z a h l r a J a (67). perevod:ia ( 6 ? ) . u e a ( 6 a ) . :  j a j l i i a i a ( 6 9 ) , raglamvvada (70^. ^kungja (70), jdedaJs (71), tesn-fa (72). stuca (72). n.1ukha.1a (73). Iomega (7h). p r i & l maJS (75), prjnimaja, (76), vaj^kMyaja, (77), povodja (78), raspalftflvaftr (79), «#toaja (80), X p l p t j a (81), podnlma^a (82)v  &g22sh>  ppvesdftjla (83>»; j ^ t m a i r ( p r p t y k a j a p  (82),  (85),  otduvaJa (86). 2SJi2«a (87)^ trepeSca (88)* poavlaklvada (89). otgon.1a3a (90). s e o e V (91)..- sverkaia (92). k>dafla ^ 9 2 ) , raskry vala (93)»  podilma.1a (9*r), r a z v o d j a ( 9 0 ) ,  vyblvaja (96) »  zakhvatyva^a (97). po2lmaJa (97). kuaaja; (97)i £rjaeJgH98), prtkladyvada (99i). pokazyva^a ;(#9). otduva^ia (IPO). g]£a£te  (103)* SS&SM  (101)* razdvlgala (102).  ),  p y i d e y ^ i , y ^ r (105), P ^ f e ^ f f & ( l 0 6 ) * njolaja (107), vzmakftJT vafla (183), and  (209).  ,  I n some of the examplesthe gerund appears i n a negative form- and- thus governs i t s object i n the genitive rather than r  i n the accusative case* Peregon.ia.1a (55). k o l p t j a ( 8 1 ) , sverkjjj^ (92), kldaja. (92), appear i n clauses associated with past perfective":, gerunds.  The d i s t i n c t i o n between them i n regard t o the'  a c t i o n of the main verb i s c l e a r :  the present gerund denotes  an incompleted action, the past, gerund a completed a c t i o n r e l a t i v e to the time of the action of the main verb* The  t h i r d group of present gerunds can he regarded as  a continuation of the preceding group insofar as the quality of these gerunds i s concerned*  verbal  Their verhal f e r c e  26  i s stressed by a complementing phrase; i n the majority of cases by a prepositional phrase, and i n a few cases by an i n finitive  phrase, or any other dependent phrase.  Again, t h e i r  aspect force i s that of an incompleted action and t h e i r time of a c t i o n i s simultaneous to the time of action of the main verb.  The l i s t of them i s as follows:  ^Sm^  ilOQ),  (109), K M W f t (11©), v e j j a (111),  v l d i a (112). nosmatrlvada (113): ozida.la (114).  (116),  ukhpdja  jidJa  (115),  i e ^ (117), uv.iaza.1a (118), Dosmatrlva.ia (119),  uvlagada (120). prokhod.1a ( l 2 l ) ,  i§£§Ja (122),  Sgrjg (123),  pokazyvaia (I2fa). pomlra4a 4 l 2 5 ) v prodolzala (126). ra,sskazvvada (127). rasskazvva da*(128)% prokhod^a (129). vvsagi(130), g j j a d i a (131), EM&m  zste  (132), ukjiodaa. (133),  proakaklvaae (154). der&a (135)., atoJa (136). otdykhata (137), l§Ja (138), pogl.1advva.1a  (139). naclna .1a (140). £osmatrl-  vaia (141), EMM&fe (142), s f c ^ (143), M&g&te saga.1a (145), pogl.1advva.1a  (146), m&k :  (144),  (147). "rtJad^j (348),  . p j i d j ^ (^^^^  ukazvvala (152).  Z i z J a (153), ]&Iy§Ja (167), m&  (175).  Only a few of the above-mentioned gerunds deserve s p e c i a l mention.  Examples 115, 117, 138 and 147 are interesting from  the point of view of time and aspect r e l a t i o n to the main verb.  I n a l l those examples a present imperfective gerund  appears together with a past perfective r e f l e x i v e gerund. However, t h e i r aspect force and time r e l a t i o n i s c l e a r .  The  verbal force of g l ^ d ^ ( 110, 131, 132, 142, 148), s j & & (115,  150),  (117, 138), and s t a i i (136) i s underlined by  27  associated prepositional phrases, and thus they are opposed to the l i s t of adverbialized forms of gerunds which have the accent s h i f t on the stem (gl.1ad.1a. sld.ia. i M a . sto.la. molca. 1 .2 . „ e t c . ) . But according to Usakov only st&ja and molca are l i s t e d as adverhs. The fourth and f i n a l group of present imperfective gerunds consists of the r e f l e x i v e gerunds. are divided i n t o three groups,  These are l i s t e d "below and  (a), (b) and ( c ) , s i m i l a r t o  the general c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the non-reflexive gerunds (Section A I ) . (a)  Prosy pa .las' (15k), posmelva.las' (155), o r i s l u s i -  va.1as' (156), tesnjas' (158). sme.las' (159), drazn.las' (159), ulybarjas' (160), prlsiuSlvaJas* (162), vzgi.1adyva.1as' (163 ), pros.vpa.1as' (l6b), zakhleb.vva.1as' (167). "bes.1as'  w  pokadlvajas* (169). ogl.1adyva.1as'  (168),  (173), oboradivalas*  (l7k),  klanja.1as* (179), krest.las' (179). ulvba.las' ( l 8 o ) . uiy.ba.1as' (182), oboraSlvalas' (183), ka£ajiajs»" (l8h), suetlas' (185), podnimalas*  (186), zadumyva.las' (188), y y z y r a ^ a . ^ s  1  (191), sepcas' (193), t o l k a l a s ' (193), oboraclvaiaa* (196), oboraglvalas' (197). suet.1as' (198), brjjkajaj' (199), d j o s a i a s * (262)* o i p y k ^ i v ^ q V (205), u j j & a i a j ' (209),  geyeiyas* (212), y g l ^ d y v a ^ s ' V (217), t p l ^ s *  (219), £ere-  vallya.1as' (220). The only i n t e r e s t i n g example i s zakhlebyvajas' (I67), a present imperfective gerund coupled with the past perfective gerund oskal.1as*. 1.  V. V. Vinogradov,  pp. c l t . . p. 385.  2*  D. H. Usakov,  c l t . . IV, Column 539; I I , column 251.  SIR*  28 £b)  The following r e f l e x i v e gerunds govern the same  cases as the indicative,of the verbs with which they are correlated:  uLvba.1as* (157)* kasadas' (165 ), perellvadas*  (170) . navallva^as' 1187). ^alqjas' ( J92). dogidaW (c)  (213). p o k a c I v a W  zallvadas* (20*.),  (215).  The remaining r e f l e x i v e gerunds are assoieated, i n  most cases, with a prepositional phrase or an i n f i n i t i v e .  In  some of these examples they are complemented "by another subordinated phrase.  Following i s the l i s t of the remaining r e -  f l e x i v e gerunds:  (171) ,  otryva.1as*-,. ( l 6 l ) . k a t a j a s  DridvlgaW  suetjas  8  sad-las'  (203),  (199)>  kuoaJas'  WVUrtm*--*  (178;). ustraivaJas* ( l 8 l ) , botes'  (189), prosy pa .las' (lQO). posmeivaias* (195), Q t b l v a W  (168)* tesnJas •  ('175). "  'ilT^i&timtotf-  (177). m o t a W  1  mm&tes' (206),  ( i f f * ) , na.klon.1ajas* (200), iiajgajas  9  (201),  vysbvyvalas' (207), 2©i-  vrascalas' (208). s o M r a k 8 * 4 ( 2 1 0 ) . 8tara.1as' (211), saunas' (2H4), brvkalas  8  (216), peregJDa,1as* (218). "  There s t i l l remains one example kradugis' (166). which, although by o r i g i n i s related.to the present imperfective: 1 gerund f o r m s i n -uc*l. -judiv i s now an adverb.  Usakov gives  t h i s a separated entry and c l a s s i f i e s i t as a present gerund from k r a s t s.1a or as an advert i n the meaning of ukradko.1. . . ... 2 talkom; skrytno. 1  1. JOS'* 2.  On t h i s point see the note i n V. V. Vinogradov, P» 387* D. N. Usakov, £g. c l t . . I , column ]i*9h.  29  B I Moskve ugrozaet vrag Present Gerund Podognuy drozas'c'le koleni, stojat-*, otkidyvaja so strakha golovu, pered raordastyra,sl|yirepo laguScim na berlinskom dialekte gitlerovskira okhrannikom, ... P. fft&V (Haying bent t h e i r trembling knees, they stand throwing back t h e i r heads i n fear before H i t l e r ' s bestial-faoed guards who bark f e a r f u l l y i n the B e r l i n d i a l e c t , ,...) :  T-e i z rabotnlkov, ot kogo z a v i s i t vypolnenie i perevypolnenle ezsdnevnogo plana, i l l ze te, kto na khodu perestraivaet proizvodstvo, rabotajut po troe i l i po . detyero sutok, ne vykhodja i z eekha. P. 548» (Those of the workers on whom depends the fulfilment and overfulfilment of the d a i l y plan, or those who, on the go, reorganize production, work up to three or four twentyfour hour periods without leaving t h e i r workshop.)  30 B I N  Present Gerund "\  There are only two present gerunds In the Moskve ugrozaet vrag (Section B I ) , and "both are imperfect Ive • 6tkldyva.1a (1) i s the present gerund of the Imperfective verb- otkldyvat *.  I t i s verhal i n force, and i t s verbal quality  i s stressed by two f a c t o r s :  F i r s t , i t i s modified by the pre-  p o s i t i o n a l phrase SJJ strakha. and, second, i t governs the direct object golovu. Vykhod.la (2) verb w k h o d l t * . I t  i s the present gerund of the imperfect ive i s used verbally and i t s verbalness i s  underlined by the prepositional phrase Iz cekha*  31 C I (a) Paprika molodosti Present Gerund V prazdniki vy ne stanete drykhnut' ves' den'* ne smlmajo sapog 1 fitanov, vy uznaete vostorgi ljjubvl, sumasfcrodstvo junostl ... P. 11. (On holidays you won't sleep a l l day, not taking o f f your hoots and trousers, you w i l l recognize the raptures of love, the extravagance of youth •.•) Ne obraSdaja vnlmanija ... P. 27.  (Not paying attention ...)  Onl ze hesedujut drug s drugom, ne obraSeaja vnlmanlja ••• P. 30. (They are conversing with one another* not paying attention •••) Pravo, gljadja na vas, mozno do slez zasraejat'sja ••• P> kk» (Truly, looking at you, one could laugh to tears ...) Zadusit' rehenka, gladja emu v glaza, - celovek ved* ne mozst dtogo sdelatP. 5*4. (To choke a c h i l d , looking him i n the eye* - one could not do such a thing ...) Ne mogu z> jay slomja golovu, kinut'sja v mirovoe predp r i j a t i e ••• P. 35• ( I cannot, rashly, throw myseIf into the a f f a i r s of state ...) Ne ee. vas z a l e j u c l . pity.)  P. 22,  (Not her* i t i s you whom I  32  G I (a) Present Gerund The present gerunds of the Pabrika molodostl are s i x i n number.  Three of them. snlmaja ( l ) . obraa'ca.la (2. 3), are  used with the negation ne-.  They are used verhally and can  govern a direct object i n the same manner as t h e i r correlated verhs i n the indicative can govern. Gl.1ad.ia (U. 5) i s verbal i n force and i t s verbalness i s underlined by associated p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrases.  Slom.1a golovu  (6) i s an adverb that Usakov l i s t s In the sense of ocen 1 byjstro, pospeano. present gerund.  falejudl  (7) i s the only -.1uct f orm of  I t i s verbal* i n force and i t s verbalness i s  stressed by governing the d i r e c t object vas.  1.  9  D. H . Usakov, .gp/. ci£., IV, Column 277.  33  G I (b) Pahrlka moiodostl Present Gerund (Stage Direction) 1.  Tanja (Stoja p'et kofe). coffee).) ,  P. 16.  (Tanja (standing, drinks  2.  Mar*ja Aiekseevna (molca osvobo£daet r u k i , ottalkivaet ego, otkhodit)• P. k5. (Mar*ja Alekseevna ( s i l e n t l y f r e e s her hands, pushes him away, walks away).)  3*  Tanja (gljadja emu v s l e d ) . P. 9. with her eyes).)  k»  Kosceev (khokhoc'et, sopja v dverjakh). P. 12. (laughs boisterously, wheezing i n the door).)  5.  Tanja (vymetaja Iz dverej vorokh bumag). P. 1U. (pweeping out of the door a p i l e of papers).)  6.  G i r * k i n (vykhodja i z Taninoj komnaty). (coming out of Tanja*e room).)  7.  PriSdemikhln (ukazyvaja na ekran). (pointing at the screen).)  8.  Prls'c'emikhin (ne otryvaja g l a z ot s t r e l k i ) . P. 35* (PriScemlkhin (not taking h i s eyes o f f the pointer).)  9.  Mar* ja Alekseevna ( g l j a d i t v zerkalo, snacala ne ponlmaja, potom s vozrastajuldim udivleniem). P. 36. (Mar* ja Alekseevna (looks into the mirror* at f i r s t not understanding, t hen with gr owing amazement) •)  (Tanja (following him  P. lk»  P. 31.  P. h o .  (Tanja (Glr'kln  (Pris'eemikhln  10. Mar*ja Alekseevna (gljadja v zerkalo). P. 37. Alekseevna (looking Into the mirror).) 11. J u l i j a (vkljuca3a apparat). the apparatus).)  (Kosceev  (Mar'ja  ( J u l 1 ja (turning on  12. Zarubin (ukhodja, ogljadyvaetsja na Mar*ju Alekseevnu). P. U l . (Zarubin (departing, looks back;at Mar*ja Alekseevna).) 13. Mar*3a Alekseevna (ukazyvaja vsled emu karandasem). P. kl» (Mar-ja Alekseevna,(pointing a f t e r him with a p e n c i l ) . ) Jil. Mar* ja Alekseevna (zapisyvaja, Zarubinu). Alekseevna (noting.down, t o Zarubin).)  P. 1*2.  (Mar'ja  3k  15.  Mar*3a Alekseevna (prtpodymaito'-vual')•' P. k3» Alekseevna ( l i f t i n g her v e i l ) • )  16.  Mar'da Alekseevna (Perecityvada, vycerkivaet)• P. (Mar j a Alekseevna (re-reading, crosses out)•)  17*  Gorvard (zapikhvaja v rot edu). ing food into h i s mouth)*)  18.  Mar'da Alekseevna (Smeetsja, pogljadyvaja na J u l i j u ) . P. 1)8. (Mar'ja Alekseevna (laughs, glancing at J u l i j a ) . )  19.  Zarubin (zakryvaja l i c o rukami)• ing h i s face with h i s hands).).  20*  Mar'ja Alekseevna k nemu)* P. 1»8. hows to him).)  21.  Gorvard (Ukazyvada palkod na strojaddujusja dekoraelju)* P. U9« (Gorvard (pointing with a stick at the decoration that was being b u i l t ) . )  22.  Prigcemlkhtn (otduvadas')• (puffing).)  23*  Zarubin (ohorae'lyadas').  2k.  Medlenno podnlmaet ruku* kak "by zas'c'is'cada&' • P. 18. (He slowly raises h i s hand, as i f defending.himself.);  25.  Mar' da Alekseevna (vyryvadas'). seevna (freeing h e r s e l f ) . )  26.  Svtecev (Idet, kacadas'). rocking)•)  27.  Mar'da Alekseevna otklnula golovu, zadykhajas'. P. 28* (Mar da Alekseevna tossed her head back,: gasping f o r breath. )  28.  J u l i d a (kldadas* k Mar'da Alekseevne). P. 1|2* (throwing h e r s e l f toward Mar'da Alekseevna).)  29.  Mar'da Alekseevna (sraedas*, slepnula ego la don'du). P. k3* (Mar'da Alekseevna(laughing, slapped him with.the palm of her hand).)  30.  Zarubin (dike vsmatrlvadas'). with amazement).)  P. U6v  '(Mar;'da kk»  (Gorvard ( s t u f f -  P. h8*  (Zarubin (cover-  (prokhodja mimo Zaruhina, naklonjaetsja (Mar* da Alekseevna (passing Zaruhin, . .  P. 10. P. 16.  (Priscemikhin , (Zarubin (turning).)  P* 21*.  (Mar'ja Alek-  P. 2k •. (Sviacev (walks,  P. k3*  (Julida  (Zarubin (staring  35 e i (b) Present Gerund The present gerunds (pertaining to stage direction) of the  Pabrlka molodost1 are t h i r t y i n number, and only two of  them, storja ( l ) and molca (2) appear as adverbs. The remaining (3),  gerunds are verbal, and a l i s t of them follows: gl.ladia sop.1a (4), wmeta.la  (5). vykhod.la (6), ukaz.vva.1a (7),  Ptr.vva.1a, (8),  ponlma,1a ( 9 ) , g j ^ ^ t f e (lO),  ukhod.1a (12).  ukaz.vva.1a (15). zapls.vva.1a (14). prlpod.vma.1a  (15).  vklJuca.ia ( l l ) .  peredltyvala (16). - zaplkhlva.1 a (17), pbgl.1ad.vva.1a (18).  'f^TOTgAB (19),  prp^h,o^.1ft (20),  ukazyvada, ( 2 l ) .  The following l i s t represents the r e f l e x i v e present gerunds, which are also used i n a verbal sensei otduva.las* (22),  oboracivalas' ( 2 3 ) ,  (24). w r y v a l a s ' (25),  kacalas' (26), zadykhalas* (27), k l d a i a s and vsmatr 1 va .1as * ( 3 0 ) .  8  ( 2 8 ) . s m e W (29).  36  A II Petstvo Mikity Fast Gerund 1*  Otkryv glaza, N i k i t a vspomnil, cto vdera vederom p l o t n l k Pakhom skaza1 emu: • •• P. 7* (On opening h i s eyes, N i k i t a remembered that l a s t night the carpenter Pakhom t o l d him* • ••)  2*  Vysunuv kondik jazyka, N i k i t a p i s a l , pero skrlpelo 1 bryzgalo* P. 10* (Nikita was w r i t i n g , having stuck out h i s tongue, the pen s queaked and spattered*)  3*  Arkadid Ivanovtd, podgav guhy, pogrozil dllnnym, kak karandas, pal'eem 1 hystro vysel i z klassnoj* P* 10• (Arkadlj Ivanovld, having pursed h i s l i p s , threateningly shook h i s finger, which was as long as a pencil, arid quickly l e f t t h e classroom*)  1*«  Vyryv pescerku, N i k i t a v l e z v nee, v t a s c i l skamejku 1 i z n u t r i s t a l zakladyvat'sja kom'jjaml. P. 12. (Having dug out the cave, N i k i t a crept i n t o . i t , pulled i n the sled, and from the inside began to barricade himself with lumps of snow*)  5*  N i k i t a s e l na divan i , podperev kulakaml podborodok, rassmatrlval damu* P* 17* (Hikita sat down on the couch and, supporting h i s chin with h i s f i s t s , was examining the lady*  6*  Prodolbiv led, Bilska zazeg spicku i podnes k skvaslne, koSka vspykhnula, **. P* 19* (Having chiseled through the i c e , Mlska l i t a match and held i t to the crack, the frozen gas bubble f l a r e d up, • • • ) . .  7*  V drugoe okosecko, pripljusnuv k steklu nosy, g l ^ a d e l i t r i konopatykh mal* dlka, Artamanovy synbv'da:• • • P* 20• (Three shock-headed boys, Artaman's sons, having f l a t t e n e d t h e i r noses to the glass, were looking through the other window: *.*•)  8*  *•*, v t a s d l l i na sugrob s a l a z k l , s e l l na nlkh, protjanuv pered soboj nogi v valenkakh, u k h v a t i l l s za verevku, *•• P. 20* (••*, they dragged the:sleigh onto the snow d r i f t , sat on i t , having stuck their felt-booted feet out i n front of them, they grabbed the rope, • ••)  9*  Na kolenjakh u matuski, poloSiv mokryj svinod noslk na l a p k i , spit rudno;j ©2 - Akhilkav P* 2k i (Akhilka, the tame porcupine, i s asleep, on mother's lap, having placed his damp, p i g - l i k e nose on h i s paws*)  w  H  37  HO.  S i d i t smirno 1, podperev edeki, voet: ... P. 25* (He s i t s quietly, and propping up h i s cheeks, howls: • ••)  11.  V glubine koranaty, skripnuv dver *jju, pojavilsda kot Vas'ka, - P. 25. (Prom the farthest reaches of the room. Vas'ka, the cat, having made the door creak, appeared, -) 1  12v  Razinuv rozovy3 r o t , on cut' slygno rajauknul. P. 25. (Opening h i s pink mouth,- he:gave a barely audible miaow.)  13.  Skloniv golovu n a p l e c o jarasc'lka, ona l e z a l a s zakrytymi glazaml, ... P. 26* (Resting her head on the coachman's shoulder, she lay with her eyes closed, • •..)  lij.  - Aleksandra Leont'evna, prinimad gosted, - i , podn^av ruki m c a l a raskutyvat' plat ok. P. 26. (''Aleksandra Leont* evna, greet your guests, and, having 1 i f t e d up her arms,_she began t o take o f f her kerchief.) tt  15.  Potom posla k oknu, v l e z l a s nogami v ogromnoe koricnevoe kreslo i , vytasc'iv otkuda-to i z karmana korobodku s igolkami i nitkami, p r i n j a l a s ' git'. P. 28. (Then she went to the window, climbed into the huge hrown chair, feet and a l l , and p u l l i n g from somewhere out of her pocket a l i t t l e box with needles and thread,she began to sew.)  16.  tol'ko u dernogo kryl'ca dve sobaki, Sarok 1 Katok, stoja bok o bok i povernuv.golovy, ryca.ll drug na druga. P. 28. (..., only at the back porch the two dogs, Sarok and Eat ok, standing side by side, and having turned t h e i r heads, were growling at one another.)  17.  o.«, no v eto vreraja podosel Viktor i , prosunuv golovu meznu L i l e j 1 H l k i t o j , progovoril skorogovorkoj: ... Pi' 32. (• • •, but at t h i s time* V i c t o r came up, stuck his head between M l j a and H i k i t a , and said quickly: •••)  18.  Uvidev H i k i t u , on podnjal nogi vmeste s odedalom, u d a r l l imi po krovati i zakrlcals ... P. 33. (Having seen H i k i t a , he raised h i s feet together with the blanket, h i t them on the bed and shouted: • ••)  19.  Migka Korjasbnok, p r i s t a v i v bol'SOd palec rukavicy k nosu, yysmorkalsjja i skazal: ... P. 3t|. (MiSka Korjasonok, having the thumb of h i s mitten against h i s nose, blew i t and said: •..)  20.  Za etoj rabotod d e t i p r o s i d e l i ves* vecer, pqkuda L l l j a , opustiy golovu s izmjatym bantom na lokot , ne zasnula u s t o l a . P. 35. (At t h i s job v t h e c h i l d r e n s p e n t - t h e whole evening, u n t i l L i l j a , having lowered her head with i t s crumpled bow on her elbow, f e l l asleep at the table.)  38 21.  Ogljadev krepost*, on podosel k saraoj stene 1 skazal: ... P. 39. (Having looked over the f o r t r e s s , he cameup to the very wall and s a i d : •••)  22.  ... ulybnula s*, vzdokhnula i , ohkhvativ N l k i t u za seju, pocelovala ego. P. kk» (... she smiled, sighed* and having thrown her arms around N i k i t a * s neck, she k i s s e d him.) '„  23.  Sohrav vse p r i s u t s t v i e dukha, on prcgovoril: ... P. l\k+ (Having gathered a l l h i s presence of mind, he said: ...)  2k,  Anna Apollosovna, okondiv pjatuju daaku so slivkami ... o d i s t i l a ot dasek, t a r e l o k i krosek mesto pered soboju, ... P. kkm (Anna Apollosovna, having f i n i s h e d her f i f t h cup of tea with cream, cleared the space "before her of cups, plates and crumbs,...)  25.  Artem, gde by on n i b y l , - vez 11 s gumna mjakinu i i i d i s t i l ovcam j a s l l , - zavtdev Dunjasu, vtykal v i l y i s e l k ne;), ... P. 52. (No matter where Artem was, whether he was hauling chaff from the threshing f l o o r or was cleaning the sheep s t a l l s , on catching sight of Buhjasa, he would s t i c k h i s fork i n the ground and walk toward her, ...)  26.  n a c e l l v a l s j a svlnoj ^detinkoj na konce dratvy, protykal 1 zazav golenidde mezMu kolen, tjjanul dratvu za dva konca. P. 33* •(••••• and he aimed the hog b r i s t l e at the end of the waxed thread* drove i t through* and, squeezing the boot top between h i s legs* drew the waxed thread by the two ends.)  27.  V dto vremja Pakhora, poioSiv golenifide 1 sapoznyj i n s t r u ment pod lavku, skazal surovo: ... P. 53. (Then Pakhom, having l a i d the boot top and the shoemaker's instrument under the bench, said austerely: ...)  28.  Kot V a s i l l j V a s i l ' e v i d , zadrav tordkom khvost, tak i khodll, tak 1 k r u ^ i l okolo kozanogo kresla, ... P. 61. ( V a s i l i j Vast1*ev i d , the cat,. having 1 i f t e d i t s t a i l , thus walked* thur c i r c l e d around the leather armchair, •••)  29.  Artem s l d e l molda, poveslv dlinnyj nos, - dumal pro neSdastnuju ljubov* k BunjaSe. P. 65. (Artem was s i t t i n g i n silence with a long face. He was thinking of h i s unhappy love f o r Bunjasa.)  30.  Volodja, s t a r s i j , smugly3 kurdavyj mal'dlk, s i d e v S i l , podzav nogi, na perine, skazal N i k i t a : . . . . P. 66. (Yolodja, the elder, a dark, curly-haired boy, s i t t i n g on the mattress with h i s knees drawn up* said to N i k i t a : ...)  39 31*  Podtennye meriny, opustiv s e i , bystro r v a l i eSde korotkuju travu, . P . 71* (The respected geldings, having lowered t h e i r necks, were s t i l l plucking the short grass, •••)  32*  Po doroge, minovav plotinu, ekhal na dro2kakh V a s i l l j N l k l t ' e v l d v paruslnovom pal*to, P. 71. ( V a s i l l j N l k l t ' e v l d , inf;S canvas coat, having passed the bridge, was r i d i n g along the road i n a droshky.)  33*  Uvidav N i k i t u , on natjanul voz2t I skazal: ... P. 72.. (Having caught sight of N i k i t a , he drew i n h i s reins and said: ...)  3k* Matuska p r l v l e k l a N l k i t u 1, zabyv ego admiral*skij din, slovno god ne v i d a l a , gljadela v l i c o I pocelovala. P. 72* (Mother drew N i k i t a to her and, f o r g e t t i n g h i s admiral's rank, looked him i n the face as i f she hadn't seen him f o r a year, and kissed him.) 35*  Aleksandra Leont'evna uvidev skvorca, v z j a l a ego tak ie, kak N i k i t a , v ladonl, ... P. 7k • (Aleksandra Leont'evna, seeing the s t a r l i n g , took I t i n her hand l i k e N i k i t a * •»•)  36.  • razzav pal'cy, vysypal na podokonnlk mukh 1 dervjakov. P. 75• (•••» opening h i s fingers, he scattered f l i e s and worms upon the window s i l l . )  37.  Zavlde-v- Zieltukhlna, matuska vsegda govorlla emu: ... P. 77. (On seeing Zeltukhln, mother always said to him: •. ,)•  38.  On e z d i l na vysokom kazackom sedle, vdev v stremens bosye nogi, z a v a l l v a l s j a 1 h o l t a l loktjaml. P. 78. (He rode In a high Cossack saddle. Putting h i s hare feet I n the s t i r r u p and l o l l i n g , he l e t h i s elbows dangle.)  39•  J$o, usevSis', vzjav povod'ja 1 pustiv stvogo rys'ju, Nikita. nadtnal v a l l t ' s j a to na pravyj bok, to na levyjv. P. 78. (But having seated himself and taken the reins and set the grey t r o t t i n g , N i k i t a would begin to topple f i r s t to the right and then to the l e f t . )  kQ»  Mi Ska pobezal k neezZenym esde trekhletkam 1, protjanuv ruku, nadal ikh swat's ... P. 78. (Miska ran toward the unriddeni three-year;old horses and, having stretched out h i s arm, began t o c a l l them:  111.  - V a s i l l j N l k l t ' e v l d , opustiv glaza, harabanil pal*caml po kraju s t o l a . ; P. 81. (- V a s i l l j N l k l t ' e v l d , haying lowered h i s eyes, drummed along the-edge of the table with h i s fingers.)  i|2.  V casde sadavorkoval d i k i j golub* - zakryv glaza, naduv grudku, pedal'no, sladko vorkoval_o torn, dto tocno tak £e vse eto budet vsegda, i projdet, i snova budet. P. 8L». (A wild dove was cooing i n a thicket i n the garden. Shutting i t s eyes, puffing up i t s breast, i t cooed sadly and sweetly of how a l l t h i s would always be exactly thus.)  43.  N i k i t a kuvyrkom l e t e l v prud i , dognav otca, p l y l rjadom s nira, ... P. 85. (Nikita somraersaulted i n t o the pond and, having overtaken! his father, swam side by side w i t h him, ••»)  kk»  Nakapav na konvert kudu pylajuSdego surguda, on skhvatil volosatoj rukoj pedat* ... P. 8 9 . (Having dropped some flaming sealing wax on the envelope, he seized the s e a l with a hairy hand ...)  2J5.  ... pustiv Klopika i t t i vol^nym dagom, N i k i t a r a s k r y l sumku i peresmotrel podtu. P. 90). (... l e t t i n g Klopik walk at a free pace, N i k i t a opened the bag and looked over the mail.)  Zj6.  • •• vyrvalas* i , opustiv raordu i brykajas* tak, dto kom*ja s kopyt ee p o l e t e l i vyse karetnika, poskakala k tabunu.. P. 9 2 . (... i t tore o f f and, having lowered i t s head, and k i c k i n g so hard that clods flew up higher than the carriage s t a l l , i t galloped toward the herd.)  h7.  Razdvigaja nogi, b e 2 i t za v o z i l k o j u paren*, sakhvativ ogromnyj vorokh soloray, stanovitsja na dosku i rye*ju volodit solomu k oraetam. P. 9 6 . (Stretching h i s legs, the lad runs behind the draught animals, having seized a hugh heap of straw, he gets on the board and drags the straw at a t r o t toward the stacks.)  I48.  Dve nedeli mo2es* begat*, vysunja jazyk. P. 16. (For two weeks you can run about with your tongue s t i c k i n g out.)  2*9.  Vnizu, na l*du, stomal, zadrav golovu, Arkadij Ivanovid. P. 12. (Arkadij Ivanovlc was standing below on the i c e with his.head perked up.)  50.  Matuska skazala, podnjav golovu ot k n i g i : ... P. Hi• (Having r a i s e d her head from her book, mother s a i d : ...)  51.  Nad casami, na stene, v rame v i s i t s t r o g i j staridok s trubkoj, sboku ot nego - starus'ka, v depce 1 'sail,'1smotrit, pod2av: guby. P. Ii*. (Above the clock, on the wall, i n a frame hangs a stern old man with a pipe; beside him, an o l d woman i n a cap and shawl. And she-has pursed her l i p s and i s looking.)  l4l 52»  Vot zatjanul© "basom - "uuuuuu, - t janet, khmurltsja, naduv guby. P. 2L\-.. (It struck i t i n a bass voice, "uuuuuu", i t prolongs i t , frowns, having puffed out its lips.)  53»  Peregonjaja detej, po lunnym kvadratara neslysno pronessja V a s i l l j V a s l l ' e v i c , opustiv khvost. P, k5'» (Overtaking the children along the moon-lit squares, V a s i l l j V a s l l ' e v i c , l e t t i n g h i s t a i l droop, passed them*)  54*  N i k i t a c i t a l Kupera; potora, nasupivsis', podolgu, bez vnadala 1 konca, p r e d s t a v l j a l sebe zelenye, *.* Strokle J l b r e r i l j pegikh mustangov, -rzu&clkh na vsem skaku* obernuv veseluju raordu; ••• Pp. 50, 51» (Nikita was-reading Cooper. Then, with k n i t t e d brows, f o r a long time, without beginning or end, he pictured the broad ••• green p r a i r i e s , the roan mustangs, neighing at f u l l gallop, haying turned I t s merry head; *..)  55V  V lesnoj cas'c'obe, v kornjakh gigantskogo dereva, na kamne s i d l t on sam - N i k i t a , podperev sceku* P. 51» (In a forest thicket, among the roots of a gigantic tree, he himself, N i k i t a , s i t s , propping up h i s cheek*)  56.  Nado hylo by togda vnlmatel'no, zakryv glaza, pocuvstvovat", kakoe bylo Beast's* P. 51*. (Then one had to f e e l attent i v e l y , having closed one's eyes, what happiness was*)  57*  N i k i t a s t o j a l , zadrav golovu, raskryv r o t . P. 5I4V (Nikita was standing with h i s head back, h i s mouth open*)  58*  -s<el, ayemuv truboSkoj, vtoruju lepesku, - P* 61* (- he r o i l e d the pancake into a cylinder and ate i t ,  M  -)  59*  • •• 1, kodga onl s a d l l l s * k stolu, on v s l u S l v a l s j a , nagnuv golovku ... P* 77* (••••".and, while they were s i t t i n g at the table, i t l i s t e n e d with head bent •••)  60*  N i k i t a t r j a s s j a , s2av r o t , naprja&enno g l j a d j a mez^du ufiej losadl* P. 83* (Nikita shivered, pressing h i s l i p s t o gether, looking intently between the ears of the horse*.)  6l»  Otec, ocen' v e s e l y j , s t o j a l u odnogo Iz zagonov, z a l o z i v rukl v karmany poddevkl* P* 94 • \Hls father was standing very m e r r i l y beside one of the enclosures with h i s hands stuck i n the pockets of h i s coat*)  62*  N i k i t a l e z a l na spine, zakryv glaza* P* 96» was lying on M B back with h i s eyes closed*)  63*  - otec podoSel k oknu I g l j a d e l na nebo, zasunuv r u k i v karmany desufievykh pantaIon, - P* 86* .(- h i s father went up to the window and looked at the sky, having stuck h i s hands into the pockets of the s i l k trousers, -)  (Nikita  h2  6k*  — skazal on, vnlmatel'no pogljadev v glaza Vlktoru. P. 27. (- he said* having looked a t t e n t i v e l y Into V i c t o r ' s eyeSo)  65.  Vzgljanuv na gustye, nacavsle uze posevelivat'sja hrovl materi, p r o s t i l i s ' 1 vmeste s H t k i t o j p o s l i l z s t o l o voj. P. i}5„ (Haying glanced at t h e i r mother's thick hrows, which were already beginning to move, they took t h e i r leave and went from the dining room with N i k i t a . )  66.  - eto byla ta samaja galkas prisev okolo nee, L i l j a g o v o r l l a : "ICak mne zalko, N i k i t a , posmotrite - mertvaja pttdka." P. 51. (- i t was the same daw. L l l j a had. sat down beside i t and said, "How sorry I f e e l , N i k i t a . Look, a dead b i r d . " )  67.  Zadudev v &ceku, on bystro s t a l pereblrat' bedevu, standart poheZal po flagStoku ... P. 73* (Humming with puffed-out cheeks, he began to draw the towllne through his hands and the ensign ran up the flagpole -•.•)  68.  Potom, soskociv s raznuzdannoj l o s a d i , ... MitSka l l b o s a d i l s j a na grehne kanavy 1 strogal palocku, l l b o , zakatav vyse kolena portki, zakhodil v prud ... P. 78. (Then having leaped from the unbridled horse, Mlska would e i t h e r s i t on the top of the d i t c h and whittle a s t i c k or, having r o l l e d h i s trousers above the knees, go into the pool •••)  69.  Zaplyv na seredinu pruda, Arkadij Ivanovld nadinal perekuvyrkivat'sja, ... P . 8 J j . (Having swum to the middle of the pool. ArkadljJ Ivanovld began to turn sorameassaults, • ••)  70.  opjat* razZeg surgug, no, kapnuv sehe na ruku, vskodil, zarycal i s e l opjat'. P. 89. (••*, he again l i g h t e d the sealing wax, but, having dropped some om h i s hand, bellowed and sat down again.)  71.  Vyekhav i z sela v step', s o l o t l s t o - & e l t u j u i gorjacuju ot spelykh khlebov, pustiv Klopika i t t i vol'nyra sagom, N i k i t a r a s k r y l sumku I peresmotrel poStu. P. 90.. (Having ridden out of the v i l l a g e into the steppe, which was golden yellow and f i e r y from ripe grain, having l e t K l o p i k pick his own pace, N i k i t a opened the pouch and began to read.)  72.  Doekhav do stana - domlka na kolesakh, Artem o s t a n o v i l losad', ... P. 92. (Having reached the station, a l i t t l e house on wheels, Artem stopped the horse, •••)  73.  Ot'ekhav ot stana, v s t r e t i i i Setyre cabana; ... P. 92. (Having departed from the camp, they met four shepherds;  ...)  43 74 •  Niiktta nagnul golovu 1, Sagnuv navstrecu, Izo vaej a l l y u d a r i l Stepku v grud*. P. 22. (Nikita "bowed hie head, and, going t o meet Stepka, struck him i n the chest with a l l h i s strength.)  75.  Akhllka, khrjuknuv, p o k a t l l s j a s kolen. P. 25. (Akhllka grunted and s l i d down her legs.)  76.  N i k i t a b r o s l l v nego poduskoj, no t o t , zamyeav, potjanul na golovu odejalo. P. 33« ( N i k i t a threw a pillow at him, hut he "bellowed and drew the q u i l t over h i s head.)  77*  0 sine lev, p r o b l r a l i s * po sadu, s a d i l i s ' na snezno;) poljane pered domom 1, ... P. I 4 9 . (Growing hold, they moved along the garden* sat In the snow-covered clearing before the house and * . • )  78*  - Uzas, - poblednev, progovorlla matuska. ( "Al horrojy* said mot her, growing pale. )  79•  "Po2ivem esce," - podumal 2eltukhin, podskociv, k l j u n u l mukhu, p r o g l o t l l . P. 75. (*%et*s go on l i v i n g , " &eltukhln thought, and hopped, over and pecked up a f l y and swallowed i t . )  80.  Nautro, poev, on s t a l vygljadyvat', kak by vyhrat'sja l z - z a raarli. P. 76. (In the morning* a f t e r eating* he began to look around for a way to get out of the gauze.)  81*  Ostynuv, otec b r a l duslstoe mylo... P. 81). his father took the scented soap •••)  82*  Podplyv, oni k i d a l l s * k nemu na sazenkakh. P. 85. (Swimming up, they rushed upon him while treading water.)  83.  Arkadij Ivanovlc, vzrevev, naclnal raetat'sja, vysovyvadas* po pojas, 1 n y r j a l . P. 85* (Arkadij Ivanovie, with a howl, would begin to f l i n g himself about, thrusting himself out to the waist, and would dive*)  8I4.  PodySav, on p r o l e t e l nad stolom 1 s e l N i k l t e na plecb. P. 87* (Having had a breath, i t flew over the table and perched on N i k i t a * s shoulder.)  85.  Artem obernulsja 1 skazal, podmignuys - HaS p y l i t 1 P* 93• (Artem turned and said, with a wink, "Ours i s r a i s i n g dust.")  86*  Artema, kidavsego s vozov snopy na p o l a t i m o l o t i i k l , devki pojjmall meSdu t e l e g , zascekotali, - on b o j a l s j a §c"ekotkl, - povaliv, n a b i l l ego pod ode^doj mjaklrioj. P* 96. (The g i r l s seized Artem between the carts as he was throwing sheaves upon the platform of the thresher and began to t i c k l e him - he dreaded t i c k l i n g - and having thrown him down, they stuffed chaff under h i s clothes.)  P. 62.  (Chilled,  kk  87.  On podslval golenisc'e: ostorozno Silora protykal kozu, etnasja golovu, s c u r i l s j a n a c e l l v a l s j a svtnoj Scetinkod na konce dratvy, ... P. 53. (fie was sewing the boot top. he c a r e f u l l y pushed through the leather with an awl. Drawing back h i s head* he blinked, aiming a hog b r i s t l e on the end of a waxed thread, ,..)  88.  Kogda ze s i v y j , projdja sagov t r i d c a t ' , srazu ostanovliy a l s j a i opuskal v travu gubastuju mordu, H i k i t a sudoroznc v c e p l j a l s j a v perednjuju luku, a inogda i skatyvalsja cerez seju pod nogi sivomu, ... P. 78. (When the grey, having gone t h i r t y paces past, stopped a l l a t once, and dropped h i s big-lipped mouth into the grass, H i k i t a would convulsively grasp the forward pommel* but sometimes he would r o l l down across the grey's neck t o i t s feet* ••.)  89y  Mi ska, podojdja k izbe* s v i s t n u i , Artaman obernuls-Ja* P. 20. (Migka, coming up to the hut* whistled, Artaman turned around, ...)  90*  Vas'ka podojdja k matuSke* g l j a d e l na nee zelenymi, s uzkoj Seel'ju, pritvornymi glazami 1 ra-jauknul grom6e. P. 25© (Vas'ka, having come up to mother, looked at her with green, narrow-slitted, h y p o c r i t i c a l eyes and miaowed louder.)  91.  H i k i t a , podojdja k nej, pokrasnel i sarknui nogoj, P. 27* (Hikita, having come up to him, blushed and scraped h i s feet.)  92.  ©.., vyterla rot salfetoSkoj, ne spesa* s l e z l a so stula i , podojdja k Aleksandre Leont'evne, progovorila ve£livo i akkuratno: ... P. 28. (..., she wiped her mouth without hurrying and slipped down from the chair, and, coming up to Aleksandra Leont'evna, said p o l i t e l y and prec i s e l y : ..,)  93©  Podojdja k Dunjjase, snimal sapku i k l a n j a l s j a : ... P. 52. (Having reached DunjaSa, he took o f f h i s hat and bowed: •••)  Skm  Projdja po dlinnymi khlopa jus Sinn po vode mostkam v doscatuju kupal'nju, V a s i l l j H i k i t ' e v l c razdevalsja v ten! na lavke ... P. 8i|-©>- (Having walked along the long planked footway that slapped a long the water to the timb er bathhouse, • V a s l l i d N i k i t ' e v i e undressed upon a bench i n the shade «••) .  95•  Vojdja, vysokaja zenscina voskliknula gromkimi basom: • • • P. 26. (Having come i n , the t a l l woman c a l l e d out i n a bass voice*)  96©  Podojdja, L i l j a s grimasoj ogljadela H i k i t u . P. 36, (©oming up to H i k i t a , t i l j a looked him over with a grimace.)  45  97.  Vzobravsis* pod samyj mys, N i k i t a nada1 kopat*peSderu. P. 12. (©limbing ups under the very promontory, H l k i t a "began to dig a cave.)  98.  Kogda l j u d i ljagut spat*, on, vyspavsis* za den*, pojdet vsju nod* topotat* po komnate, ... P. 24. (When people lay down;to r e s t , he, having slept during the day, would wake up and start; tramping about the room a l l night, •••)  99*  OtdellvSis* ot stada, k raal'dikam gel Bajan, rozovo-seryj dlinnyj byk ••• P. 29• (Haying separated from the herd, Bajan, a rosy-gray bull,.was coming toward the children...)  100. L i l j a , vzobravsis na podokonnik, gljadela na N l k i t u 1 vdrug ulybnulas*., P. 29. ( L i l j a , having got up on the window s i l l , was looking at.Nikita, and suddenly she smiled.) 8  101. Pozdno vederom N i k i t a , leza v teranoj komnate v p o s t e l i , zakryvsis* s golovoj, s p r o s i l iz-pod odejala glukhim golosom: ... P. 32. (Late In the evening N i k i t a , lying lm bed i n the dark room, head and a l l under the cover* asked i n a muffled voice from under the g u i l t : •••..) 102. V a s i l i j , povernuvsis* v ugol. k bumaznoj, v tarakan*ikh sledakh ikonke, s t a l i k r e s t l t - s j a . P. 54. (Having turned into the corner t o the paper: icon which was covered with roach tracks, V a s i l l j began t o cross himself.) 103. Otsidevsis* u N i k i t y na plede, fceltukhin vsporkhnul pod potolok, pojraai mukhu, ... 1 progolodavsis*, p o l e t e l k svojemu oknu, ... P. 77. (Having made h i s stay on N i k i t a * s shoulder, Zeltukhln flew up near the c e l l i n g , caught .a f l y , ... and having swallowed I t , flew toward h i s own window, •••) 104. I v etu mlBoutu N i k i t a uvidel, cto s i n j a j a strelka na c i f e r b l a t e , daleko o t d e l l v s l s * ot zolotod s t r e l k l , droZit raegdu "peremendivo" 1 "burej", P. 87. (And i n the minute Nikita.noticed that the blue.hand on the.indicator, having separated widely from the gold hand, was trembling "between "changeable and "storm".) M  105. Viktor, okazyvaetsja, p i l daj, kak malen*kij, sognuvSis* nad daskoj ... P. 28. ( V i c t o r j i t seems, was drinking, tea l i k e a t o t , bent over the cup »••) ?  106. Arkadlj Ivanovid s nidego ne vyraZajuBdlm liccm s i d e l , utknuvsis* v svoj stakan, ... P. 44* (Arkadij Ivanovid, with a face that expressed nothing, was s i t t i n g , absorbed i n h i s glass, ...)  k6  107.  Pod larapoj, u kruglogo stole, snova sidela L i l d a , oblokotivsis' na kulaeok ... P. 90. (Under: the lamp L i l d a was s i t t i n g , with her face propped against the f i s t of her arm which was resting against the c i r c u l a r table ...)  108.  Malen'kle s p a l i , utknuvsis* nosom v perinu. P. 65. (The l i t t l e ones were asleep, having buried t h e i r noses in. the f ea the r mat t res see. )  109.  ... Kolja, leza na boku, podpersis' kulakom, vse vremja gldadel na N i k i t u ... P. 66. (....Kolda, lying on h i s side, having propped, himself up with h i s f i s t , kept looking at N i k i t a •••)  110.  N i k i t a zevnul, z a k r y l "Nivu" i , podpersis', s t a l s l u s a t * . P. 2b. (Nikita yawned, closed"Hiva ', and having propped himself up, began to listen*}  111.  EzV prosnuvs'is', zadysal nosom serdito. P. 24. (The hedgehog, having waked up, began- to breathe a n g r i l y through i t s nose.).  112.  Ona laskovo ulybnuvSis*, p r i v l e k l a N i k i t u i poeelovala v golovu: ... P. 25. (Having smiled tenderly, she drew N i k i t a to her and k i s s e d him on the head: • ••)  113.  N i k i t a , posel v kabinet, s e l na divan, na to mesto, gde pozaveera sidela Lilda> i , p r i S c u r i v S i s ' , gldadel na raspisannye morozom stekla. P. 40* (Nikita went into the study, s a t down on the divan, on the place where the day before yesterday L i l d a had sat, and, having screwed up h i s eyes, looked a t the windows that were traced with frost.)  114.  N i k i t a i nakhmurivSis', vzdal ee r u k u i s t a l nadevat' ej kolecko na ukazatel'nyd palec. P. 1J4V (Nikita, with a frown, took her hand.and began to put the.ring on her index finger.)  115.  potom, nasupivfiis', podolgu, bez nacala 1 konca, predstavldal sebe zelenye* ... Sirokie p r e r i i ; ... P. 50. (•••; then, k n i t t i n g h i s brows, f o r long periods of time without beginning or end, he would picture the green, w « broad p r a i r i e s ; ..*•)  116.  ... 1, podpersis', gldadel, kak po beregu verkhnego pruda po rovnomu zelenomu vygonu khodlt tabun. P. 71* (*•• and, having propped himself up, he watched the herd walking along the bank of the upper pond along the smooth green pasture.)  1  47  117»  • do togo bylo fchoroso, prosnuvs-is*'. s l u s a t ' s v l s t I v o l g i , gljadet* v okno na mokrye l i s t * 3 a . P. 72. (•• • •: i t was so.pleasant, having a wakened, to l i s t e n to the whistling of the o r i o l e , to look through the window at the damp leaves.)  118*  Hakhokhllys'ls serdito - na v s j a k l j sludaj - Z'eltukhln kadnulsja nemnogo vpered, potom na khvost i zasnul. P. 75. (Having puffed up angrily - i n case of need feeltukhin rocked forward a l i t t l e then upon h i s t a l l , and f e l l asleep.)  119.  Ho, usevsMs', vz3av povod'ja 1 pustlv sivogo rys'ju, H l k l t a naSinai v a l l t sja to na pravyj hok, to na.levy3. P. 78. (But having sat down, having taken the r e i n s and having l e t the grey go at a t r o t , H l k l t a began t o f a l l f i r s t to the right, then to the l e f t side.)  120.  1 tro3ka rvanuvsis* 1 studa po doskam, v y l e t e l a Iz karetnika, ... P. 82. (..., and the three-horse team, rushing f o r t h and beating against the hoards, flew out of the carriage house, ...)  121.  H l k l t a , prlgnuvsls*, broslv povod*3a, vo ves* makh dogonjal trojku. P. 83. ( H l k l t a , having bent over and let go of the reins, was driving a f t e r the three-horse team at f u l l speed.)  122.  Otec, zaemej&viitB', skazal Serge3u;Ivanovidus ... P. 83. (Father, having burst out laughing, said to Sergej IvanovidJ ...)  123.  •*.., I on, rasserdlvgls*, skakal toper' dto bylo s l l y , s t a r a l s j a uzasno. P. 83. (..., and he, grown angry, galloped as hard as he could, t r i e d t e r r i b l y . )  124.  H l k i t a i V i k t o r Babkln prosnulls* rano utrom y H l k i t l no3 komnate 1, sld3a v posteljakh, nasup3as' g l 3 a d e l l drug na druga. P. 26. (Hlklta and V i c t o r Babkln awoke early i n the morning i n H l k l t a ' s roomi and* s i t t i n g In bed, they frowningly looked at.one another.)  125*  ... inaja nadala v a l 3 a t s 3 a , Inaja, oa'der^as*, v l z z a , , - , norovlla khvatlt* zubami. P. 71. (•••• another began t o r o l l about, another showing i t s teeth, whinnying, ln>tended to nip with I t s teeth.)  126.  Tak onl mogll rycat*, oskaljas* 1 zakhlebyvajas* oden' dolgo, pokuda ... P, 28. (Thus they could growl, having shown t h e i r teeth and choking f o r a long time u n t i l •••)  ,  :  ,  48 127.  Koncatye s t o j a l i nasupjas'• stood frowning.) .  P. 21.  (The ,„,  "endsters"  128.  - on kamefikom nyrnul v l i s t ' j a , g l j a d e l p^ttuda oscetinjas*. P. 76. (- he.dived among the leaves l i k e a st one and 1 o oke d from the re, hr i s 11 ing • )  129.  V koljaske s i d e ! otec v 6esu5evo3 poddevke* podbocenjas'; ... P. 93. (His father, i n a s i l k coat with his arms akimbo, was s i t t i n g i n the barouche; ...)  kS A II Past Gerund The  past gerunds of the Detstvo N l k l t y (Section A I I )  are divided Into two major groups:  ( l ) perfective, and  (2) r e f l e x i v e . At t h i s point I t should be stated that ho  past  imperfective gerunds were found i n our examples. The perfective gerunds are classified;'below according c e r t a i n factors which underline t h e i r verbal f o r c e .  to  First  are  l i s t e d those which govern a d i r e c t object and which precede the main verb to which they r e f e r r e s u l t i n g In an increase of 1 t h e i r verbal f o r c e .  podperev ( 5 ) . prodoibiv ( 6 ) . prlpl.1usnuv  w r y v (k),  (8).  prot.lanuv razlmtv  Otkryv ( l ) , wsunuv ( 2 ) . oodzav ( 3 ) . (7),  polozlv ( 9 ) . podoerev ( 1 0 ) . skrlpnuv ( i t ) .  ( 1 2 ) . sklonlv ( 1 3 ) . podn.iav (LU). w t a s c l v  (15).  povernuv ( l 6 ) , prosunuv ( 1 7 ) . uvldev ( 1 8 ) . p r l s t a v i v ( 1 9 ) . opustlv ( 2 0 ) , Qgl.1adev  ( 2 1 ) ; obkhvatlv ( 2 2 ) , sobrav ( 2 3 ) . ( 2 5 ) . zazav ( 2 6 ) . polozlv (27), zadrav  okongiv (2k),  zavidev  ( 2 8 ) . povesiv  (29), podzav ( 5 0 ) . opustlv ( 3 1 ) , mlnovav ( 3 2 ) ,  uvidav ( 3 3 ) . zabyv (~5h). uvldev ( 3 5 ) . razzav  (36), zavidev  ( 3 7 ) , vdev ( 3 8 ) , vz.iav ( 3 9 ) . pustiv ( 3 9 ) . prot.lanuv  (ho),  opustiv ( h i ) , zakrvv ( i i 2 ) . naduv ( 4 2 ) . dognav ( i i 3 ) . nakaoav pustiv (k5),  opustlv ( i | 6 ) , zakhvatlv  (kh).  ( h 7 ) . b^asiv, ( 1 2 1 ) .  Secondly are l i s t e d those perfective gerunds which follow the main verb to which they r e f e r .  The verbal f o r c e  2 of such gerunds, according to Ovsjahiko-Kullkovskij, decreases. 1 . The observation of D. N. Ovsjaniko-Kulikovsklj found i n V. V. Vinogradov's Russki.1 .1az.vk. Moscow. 1947. p. 3 8 7 . 2.  V/. V. Vinogradov, OP. c i t . . p. 387.  50 Their verbal quality i s underlined by c o n t r o l l i n g a direct object. (k9),  These gerunds are as follows:  PQdn.1av (50),  yysunja (48). zadrav  podzav (51), naduv (52), ooustiv (53),  obernuv (5i»), podoerev (55).  zakrvv (56).  zadrav ( 5 ? ) ,  raskrvv (57), svemuv (58). nagnuv (59), szav (60), ( 6 l ) , zakrvv (62),  zasunuv ( 6 3 ) .  zaloMv  These gerunds express a  maintenance of the r e s u l t of the a c t i o n rather than the com1  pleted a c t i o n i t s e l f . Only a few of the above-mentioned examples are of special. interest.  Mlnovav (32) i s the past gerund of the verb minovat . 2  which can be perfective or imperfective.  1  Prom the context i n  whlcb i t i s used here i t i s perfective, expressing an a c t i o n completed while the action of the main verb was continuing. Pustlv (ii5) besides governing the d i r e c t object also controls the  i n f i n i t i v e phrase i t t i vol'nvro fiagom. V.vsun.1a (I48) i s a  past perfective gerund used as an idiomatic adverbial express3 ion i n the example c i t e d , and i s l i m i t e d to t h i s phrase* accorda ing to Usakov. Thirdly are l i s t e d those perfective gerunds which are modified by prepositional phrases which underline t h e i r verbality.  M l * of them, with the exception of pogl.1adev (6U).  precede the main verb to which they r e f e r . vzgljanuv (65). prisev (66). 1.  They are as follows:  zadudev (67). soskoclv (68).  V. V. Vinogradov, OP. c i t . . p. 390.  2. D. N. Ufiakov, Tolkov.v.1 slovar' russkogo .tazyka. Moscow, 1938, I I , column 220. 3»  V. V. Vinogradov, OP. c i t . . p. 392.  i|.  B. H. Usakov. OP. c i t . . I, column 510.  51  galeatav (68). zaplyv (69). kapnuv (70). vvekhav (71). doekhav (72).  ot'ekhav  (73).  F i n a l l y , and completing the f i r s t major group of past gerunds, are l i s t e d those perfective gerunds which are used, i n a rather i s o l a t e d position and are followed "by i n d i c a t i v e phrases.  They precede the main.verb to which they refery with,  one exception, podmlgnuv ( 8 5 ) . They are as follows:  Sagnuv  (74),  khr.luknuv (75). zamycav (76).  (78),  podskoclv (79). poev ( 8 0 ) . ostynuv ( 8 l ) . podoLvv (82).  osmelev (77), poblednev  vzrevev (83), podygav (8I4), podmlgnuv (85). povaliv (86). otnes.1a (87). pro.id.ia ( 8 8 ) . podo.1d.1a (89. 90. 91, 92, 93, 96), projdla (94). vo.id.1a ( 9 5 ) . The second major group of past gerunds, which are r e f l e x i v e gerunds, consists of the following: (1)  Gerunds which are modified by a prepositional phrase  and precede the main verb.  They are:  vygpavsls* ( 9 8 ) , o t d e l l v s i s  1  vzobravsls (97). 1  ( 9 9 ) . vzobravsls* (100),  zakryvSis* ( l O i ) , povernuvgis* (102), otsldevsis* (i03), and otdellvsis* (2)  (IQU).  Gerunds which are modified by a prepositional phrase  but follow the main verb.  They are:  sognuvSis*  (105),  utknuvgls* (106), oblokotlvgis* (107), utknuvSls* (108). (3)  Gerunds which stand i n a rather i s o l a t e d p o s i t i o n ,  inasmuch a s they precede the main verb of an i n d i c a t i v e or i n f i n i t i v e phrase.  They are:  progolodavfiis* (103), pod-  persis' (109, 110), prosnuvgis* (111), ulvbnuvgis* (112j; prlgcurlvgls*  (113). nakhmurlygls'  ( l U i ) . haauplvste* (115).  52 podperals* ( l l 6 ) . proemr/sis' (1171.- n a k h o k h l l v s i s ( 1 1 8 ) , usevsia' (119). rvanuvsis* (120)-. prlgnuvsis* zasmelavgis* (122), r a s s e r d i v a l s oggerlas (ij)  9  1  (l2l),  (123), nasupjas*  (l2h).  (125), F i n a l l y , those gerunds which follow the main verb  and emphasize the maintenance of the r e s u l t of the action rather 1  '  than the completed action i t s e l f , and they function as an adverb of manner.  They are:  ostealgias* (126). nasup.1as' (127).  oflgetlnlas* (128), and podbocen.las*  1.  (129).  V, V, Vinogradov, .op., c i t . . p. 390.  53  B II  Moskve ugroiaet vrag Past Gerund Podognuv drozascie koleni, stojat', otkldyvaja so strakha golovu, pered mordastym* svirepo lajuSclmv na berlinskora. dialekte gitlerovskim okhrannikom, . • • P. 5 4 8 . (Having "bent t h e i r trembling knees, they stand, throwing back t h e i r heads i n fear, before the big-jawed H i t l e r guards who bark f i e r c e l y i n the B e r l i n dialeet, •..)  54  B II Past Gerund There Is only one past gerund i n the Mpskyp ugro&aet vrag (Section B I I ) , and i t i s the p e r f e c t i v e gerund podognuv ( l ) .  I t i s used verbally, and I t s verbal force Is  underlined by governing the p a r t i c i p i a l phrase drozascie kolenl as the d i r e c t object.  55 C I I (b) Fabrika molodostl Past Gerund 3L-  Prlseemlkhln. (Podnjav r u k l , podpryglvaet). P. 12, (Prisfcemlkhln. (Having raised h i s hands, jumps about),)  2.  Tanja (Podnjav golovu, p l j u n u l a ) . (Having raised her head, spat),)  3.  PriScemlkhin (Vytjanuv borodu konfidenclal'no), P. 31* (Prisfiemlkhln (Having stretched out h i s chin confidentially).)  4.  G i r ' k l n (kasijanuv).  5.  Tanja (vzdernuv nos). her nose).)  6.  Zarubin (vzgljanuv na Mar'ju Alekseevnu, vzdrognul, nakhmurilsja). P. 40, (Zarubin (having glanced at Mar'ja Alekseevna, shrugged and frowned).J  7.  Zarubin (obidno aakhokhotav). laughed offensively).)  8.  Zarubin (podnjav k u l a k l ) . raised his f i s t s ) . )  9.  J u l l j a (v dverjakh, oskallv zuhyY. P. 48. the door, having shown her teeth).)  P. 32.  P. Ii*.  (Tanja  (Girkin (having coughed).)  P. 32.  (Tanja (having stuck up;  P. 42*  P. 48.  (Zarubin (having  (Zaruhin (having (Jullja (in  10. Gorvard v pal'to i sijape s t o i t na scene, zadrav golovu, kric'lt werkh. P. 49. (Gorvard dressed i n a coat and hat stands on the stage, having raised h i s head, shouts upwards.) 11. liar'ja Alekseevna (vspykhnuv). (having f l a r e d up).) 12. Zarubin (korotko vadokhnuv). given a short sigh).) 13. J u l l j a (Sdelknuv pal'caml). snapped;herfingers),) 14. J u l l j a (prldja v sebja). to her senses),)  P. 54. P. 54.  P. 56.  P . 43.  (Bar'ja Alekseevna . (Zarubin (having  ( J u l l j a (having  (Jullja  (having come  56  P. 3 l j .  15,  Zarubin (spokhvativfils*). recollected). )  16,  Zarubin ( v o z y r a t i v 8 i s s caskaml kofe). P. U2. (Zarubin (haying come;back---with cups of coffee).)  17,  Gorvard (Skhvatlvsis' za volosy). P. 47. (Having grabbed h i s h a i r ) . )  r  (Zarubin (having  ,  (Gorvard  © I I (b) Past Gerund There were no past gerunds found i n the Fabrika molodostl (Section C I I ( a ) ) . However, i n Section C I I (b), which deals with the stage d i r e c t i o n , were found the following gerunds which are derived from perfective verbs and are used v e r b a l l y : podn.lav ( l . 2). wt.1anuv (3), kasl.lanuv Ch). vzdernuv ( 5 ) . vzgLianuv ( 6 ) . zakhokhot av ( 7 ) . podndav ( 8 ) . oskaliv ( 9 ) , zadrav (10).vspykhnuv (11). vzdokhnuv  (12), Scelknuv (13) and  prld.1a i l k ) . Three of the past gerunds are r e f l e x i v e :  spokhvatlvsls*  (15), v o z v r a t l y s i s ' (16 ), and skhvatlvsis' (17). Ho imperfective past gerunds were found i n the Fabrika ?  molodostl.  58  Miloserdi.ia I E II * Rukoois'. naMennaJa pod krovat*.1u Past Gerund.  ,  In the search f o r past ImperfectIve gerunds i n M i l o s e r d i l a I (Section DII), and i n the Rukopis*. najdenna.la pod krovat'.lu (Section E I I ) . none was found.  59 Syntactic Part A.  The Gerund  The gerund has aspect, voice and tense.  As f a r as  aspect Is concerned, the gerund o f f e r s the same opposition 1 as the-verbs with which I t i s correlated, that Is, I t can he imperfective or perfective. As f a r as voice i s concerned, the gerund i s capable of expressing a l l of them, i . e . , a c t i v e , passive, and middle 2 voice, and offers no contrast to the i n d i c a t i v e forms of the verb. As f a r as tense i s concerned, i t i s r e l a t i v e to the time of the a c t i o n of the main verb and not to the time of u t t e r ance.  Let us c i t e a recent d e f i n i t i o n of this relationship:  and check i t against our examples. The gerunds show time In r e l a t i o n to the action that i s being expounded: gerunds of the imperfective aspect, as-a r u l e , denote actions simultaneous with the a c t i o n that Is being expounded:; My. Idem razgovar iva.ia. My e l l razgovar iva.ia. My budem I d t i razgovar Iva.ia. But the gerunds of the perfective aspect denote; actions which took place before the action that i s being expounded: My raskhodlms.la. pogovorivsl. My, 3 r a z o s l i s , pogovorivsl. My razo.1 demsria. pogovorivsl. 1  In general, speaking of the tense r e l a t i o n s h i p of the gerunds to the main verb, according t o Vinogradov's i n t e r pretation i t i s , In r e a l i t y , an aspect r e l a t i o n s h i p : The  de  1.  A. Mason, GrammaIre de l a l a n g u e russe. ( C o l l e c t i o n de l ' l n s t l t u t dTetudes slaves* V.), Paris, 1943.  grammalTes  2. Nikolaj GreS, Praktl&e skie uroki r u s skol grammat i k l . Saint Petersburg, 1832, p. 212. 3. A. Mt. Zemsklj, S. E. Krjudkov, and M. V. Svetlaev, Grammatlka russkogo .lazrka. Moscow. 19it8. 1, p. 173.  60  imperfective aspect acquires a sense of  simultaneousness,  while the perfective acquires a sense of the past.  This gen-  e r a l rule supports the manner i n which the gerunds i n our examples were used, hut i t i s s t i l l not s u f f i c i e n t to claim that A, T o l s t o j did not cross the l i m i t s of that r u l e ,  I  think that considerably more research Into the works of T o l s t o j would confirm my opinion. Now,  passing from the discussion of the gerund w i t h i n  i t s clause, we  now  come to discuss the gerund clause i n r e -  lationship to the sentence i n which i t occurs.  The gerund  phrase can be one of manner, cause, condition, purpose* time and concession.  In T o l s t o j ' s use i t rather appears t o be  mostly l i m i t e d to circumstances and time.  Here i s an example  where the gerund phrase seems to be accompanying circumstances J %••,  s a d l l i s ' na sneznoj poljane pered domom 1,  syetjasdimlsja glazami na temnye zamerzsle  gljadja  okna, podnimali  mordy v ledjanuju temnotu i snacala, budto vorca, potom vse gromde, zabiraja golodnoj glotkoj vse vyfie, naSinali vyt*, 2  ne perevodja dukhu, -vyse, vySe, pronzitel*nee . ,, ' (««., they w  sat down inthe snowy clearing before the house and,  staring  with gleaming eyes at the dark f r o s t e d windows, raised t h e i r muzzles into the icy darkness and began as i f growling,-then ever louder, l i f t i n g t h e i r hungry g u l l e t s ever higher* they began t o howl without morelpenetratingly  stopping to breathe, higher* higher*; v:  ...)  1*  V, V, Vinogradov, OP. c i t . . p. 5 8 5 .  2.  A I, example 6 7 .  61  In t h i s example the gerund phrase i s one of timet lW6&  v  arlfmetlku, po krajnej mere mozno bylo dumat' o raznykh 1  bezpoleanykh, no zabavnykh vesSakhs  (While studying  arithmetic, at least one was able t o think of d i f f e r e n t usel e s s but amusing things: . . . ) • Generally speaking, the use of Isolated gerunds i n T o i s t o j ' s works seems t o he adverbial rather than verbal. This observation supports the growing f e e l i n g that the gerunds: used as such are not divided by commas within the sentences i n which they are used.  I t i s the direct opposite to the 2  usage of gerunds i n Pushkin's works, where the usage i s verhal and, as such, the gerunds are divided by commas. Another i n t e r e s t i n g observation i s that T o l s t o j i s in>~ 3 c l i n e d to use r e f l e x i v e past perfective gerunds (e.g. odderjas ll • . oskaljas', etc.) more often than the past perfective non5  6  r e f l e x i v e forms of gerunds (e.g. projdja, vojdjja, e t c . ) , which are both i n the form, of present imperfective gerunds. I t Is interesting to note that there were no past Imperf e c t i v e gerunds found i n any of our l i s t e d examples, (although i n Sections.D I I and E I I a very c a r e f u l search was made). 1. A I , example 68. 2. J . P e r r e l l , The Syntax of the Gerund and P a r t l c l p l e r i n Pushkin' s Prose Works* 194 9. 3.  A I I , example 125.  4.  A ii,  example 126.  5.  All,  example 94.  6.  A I I , example 95•  62  Although the material i s unsufficient to draw any firm conclusions from i t , t h i s would seem t o support the generally held contention that past imperfective gerunds are not used, Another interesting observation i s that no passive gerunds occurred i n a l l of our l i s t e d examples.  63  A III Betstvo H i k i t v Present Active P a r t i c i p l e I*  v komnatu prosunulas* golova v o6kakh, s torcaScimi ry&imi brovjarai; v.. P. 8» (••• into the room was stuck a head wearing glasses and with protruding reddish eyebrows ...)  2v  S i r o k i j dvor h y l ves* pokryt sljajugc'im, helym, mjagklm snegom. P. 11. (The wide yard was e n t i r e l y covered with radiant, w h i t e , s o f t snow.)  3*  ffilkita sbezal s kryl*ca po khrustjasc'im; stupenjam • Pv'll* (Hlkita ran down from the porch along the crunching steps •«•)  lw  Sledujusdaja kartinka izobrazala v i d goroda Buzuluka: verstovoj stolh 1 slomannoe koleao u dorogi, • •• P. 23. (The following picture represented the appearance of the c i t y Buzuluk: a verst post and a broken wheel near the road, •«*)  5.  Ona derzala za ruku mal'Cika v serom palto s blestjaScimi pugovicami • P. 25. (She held, by the hand, a boy i n a grey coat with shining buttons ...)  6«  MatuSka p r l n j a l a u kudera spjagcuju devoSku, snjala s nee mekhovoj kapor, - P. 26, (Mother took from the coachman the sleeping g i r l , she took o f f her f u r hood, -)  7*  Tak onl (sobaki) mogli r y c a t , oskal-jas' 1 zakhlebyvajas , ooen* dolgo, pokuda prokhodjaSc'i;) raboeij ne b r o s i t v n i k h r u k a v l c e j >.. P. 28. (So they (dogs) could snarl, showing t h e i r teeth and choking f o r a long time, u n t i l a passing workman would throw a glove at them ...)  8.  Krasnovatym migajusdim svetom h y l i osveS6eny splnki kozanykhkresel ..« P. 36. (The backs of the leather chairs were illuminated by a reddish b l i n k i n g l i g h t «••)  9»  V/ bol'Soj prikhoZej osvefidennod gorjafidej pe8*3u ... s i dels Liljja 1 gljadela ... P. hl» ( i n the large anteroom illuminated by the burning stove ... sat L i l j a and looked •••)  1  10. Ves* oBtryjj, c i e t y j vozdukh b y l polon mjagkim i sil'nym sumom padajugfiej vody. P. 57. ( A l l of the sharp* clear a i r was f u l l of the soft, strong murmur of the f a l l i n g water.)  t  6U  lit..  »»• oboznaWilis' r u c ' i sverkajusdimi zajdikami ... P. 57 » (••• r i v e r s w e r e denoted by shining r e f l e c t e d l i g h t s ...)  12.  ... i tekuscle ovragi snopami sveta o t r a z i l i solnce. P. 58. (... and the flowing g u l l i e s r e f l e c t e d the sun with sheaves of rays.)  13.  vot khoroso by popiyt po etim vesnim vodam i z ovraga v ovrag, mimo prosykhajusdikh vjalykh beregov ... P. 58. (...: how good i t would be to f l o a t along these ancient waters from gulliy to g u l l y , past drying w i l t e d banks •. • ) vi  lij.  Vdrug izdaleka poslyfialsja gusto-J, ugrozajusdij golos l l a r ' i Mironovny: ... P. o7. (Suddenly, from the distance, one.could hear the heavy threatening voice of Mar*ja Mironovna: ...)  15.  ••• i snova v i d e l , kak ldet po otsvecivajuSdemu polu i govorit L i l e : ... P. 101. (... and again he saw himself walking across the shining f l o o r and saying to L i l j a : ...)  16.  ... 1 na K i k i t u snova g l j a d e l i strannye, zasasyvajuScie* perelivajugdie glaza. P. 75* (••• and again the strange, devouring, overflowing eyes were looking at N i k i t a . )  17•  V sadu, i z razogretoj zerall, protykaja zelenymi kodetkaml dognivajusdie. l i s t ' j a , l e z l a trava ... P. 70. (In the garden, up from the warmed earth, appeared the grass piercing the r o t t i n g leaves with green shoots-••••)  .18.  1  :  ... on v i d e l veseloje l i c o otca - temnaja boroda na dve storony, gromkij pokhokhatyvajusdlj golos. P. JU7* (... he saw the happy face of h i s father - h i s dark beard parted i n the middle, h i s loud boisterous voice  19.  N i k i t a s e l , drozafidej nogoj naSel pravoe uskol'zavSee stremja ... P. 82. (Nikita sat, with a quivering leg he found the elusive right s t i r r u p ...)  20.  Nakapav na konvert kudu pylajuScego surguda, on skhvatll volosatoj rukoj pedat', ... P. 89. (Having heaped a blob of flaming wax onto the envelope, he grabbed the stamp with a hairy hand, ...)  21.  H i k i t a v i d e l ... dva v i s j e s d i e lpkona ... P. 28. (Hikita saw ... two hanging locks • ••)  22.  V okne on uvidel dva sinikh udivlennykh glaza 1 nad nirai stojasdi;} babodkoj goluboj bant. P. 29. (In the window he saw two dark blue amazed eyes and over them was the sky-blue b u t t e r f l y - l i k e bow.)  65  23.  Arkadij Ivanovid s nldego ne vyra2ajusdira ilcora s l d e l ... P. kU* (Arkadlj Ivanovid eat with a poker-face ...)  21*.  KadajuSdlesja versiny v e t e l by 11 zakutany nizko letjasdiml rvanyml ohlakaml. P. 54. (The swaying tops of the willows were enveloped by low f l y i n g "broken clouds.)  25*  - dro&tSdim ot dosady golosom progovoril Viktor ... P. 27. (- with a voice shaking from disappointment V i c t o r said...)  26.  H l k l t a na cypodkakh vysel v korydor I uvidel vazno ldusduju emu navstrecu devocku v belora. P. 35. (Hiktta, on tip-toes, came out into the corridor and he saw a g i r l i n white approaching gravely to meet him.)  27*  •••• p r e d s t a v l j a l sebe zelenye, sumjaSdle pod vetrom Sirokie p r e r l l ; ... P. 50. .(.... he pictured f o r himself green, broad p r a i r i e s , r u s t l i n g under the winds ...)  28•  Bto bylo oden atranno - skadufidie bez dorogi po poloj voderau2i k i . .P. 58. (That was very strange - the peasants jumping, without the road, over the flood waters.)  29.  Projdja po dlinnym khlopajusdim po vode mostkam... P. 8h. (Having passed along the long plopping board bridge • •••}  30.  Koe-gde sly galas' pesnja s vysokim tajusfiira v stepi podgoloskom. P..95* (Somewhere one could hear a song with a high repeating voice melting into the steppe.)  31»  za oknom - groraykhajusdie po bulyznlku loraovikl i spesasdie, odetye vse, kak zemskij vrad i z Pestravkl, Verinosov, ozabodennye l j u d i begut, ... P; 100. £•.• beyond the window - the carters r a t t l i n g over the cobblestones and hurried, worried people, who are a l l dressed l i k e the governmental doctor,.Verinosov/ from Pestravka, are running, ...)  32.  &to byla matuskina p r i j a t e l ' n i c a , Anna Apolosovna, zivuSdaja vsegda y Samare. .P. 26. (This was mother's f r i e n d , Anna Apolosovna, who always l i v e d i n Samare.)  33.  Ona vse vremja smejalas', posmatrivaja na ogromnuju kuklu, sidjasduju pod elkoj . P . 37. (She continually laughed, looking at the huge d o l l , which was s i t t i n g under the Ghristraas tree *••-) ;  1  ;;  3k°  »•• p r e d s t a v l j a l sebe ... pegikh mustangov, r&usdikh na vsem skaku ... P. 51. (... he pictured to himself ... spotted mustangs, neighing as they gallop ..•••)  35*  Verkhovye proskakali derevni, lezasdej po horsemen galloped by v i l l a g e lying on the  po napravlenlju Khomjakovki, tu storonu refci ... P. 58. (The i n the d i r e c t i o n of Khorajakovka, a other side of the r i v e r •<••)  66 36.  ... otec b r a l dufiistoe mylo, oden' legkoe, ne tonuscee v vode ... P. Sit. (••• father was taking the scented soap, very l i g h t , that would not sink • ••-)  37*  i ne bol'no khvatal zubaml za pleco Sergeja Ivanovlca, vypravljajufidego emu delku Iz-pod nabornod uzdy. P. 81. (•»• and (the horse) was gently b i t i n g Sergej Ivanovlc on h i s shoulder as the l a t t e r straightened out I t s f o r e lock from under the i n l a i d b r i d l e . )  38.  ••• proletela troika ... s vislozadyml pristjaznymi, gryzuSeiml zemldu ot z l o s t i . P. 93. ,(..... a three-horse team flew by ... with side-horses, with sagging rumps, who were b i t i n g the earth from anger.)  39 •  v ruke on der2al c i s t y j nosovoj piatok, rasprostranjajuficid zapakh odekolona. P. 100. (••• i n h i s hand he held a clean handkerchief, giving out the aroma of Eau-deCologne.)  i}0.  Kogda on vozvrascalsja domod, mokryd, odldavsld, pakhnuSdld sobakod, matuska gldedela na nego vnlmatel'no, nelaskovo, osu2daduSce. P. 55. (When he was returning home wet, wild, smelling of dog, .his mother looked at him a t t e n t i v e l y , i n an* unaffeetlonate, reproachful manner.)  ifl.  ••• glaza u nego by11 bol*file, dvlgaduSclesda, hepondatnye, odarovyvadufidle. P..74. (•»•• h i s eyes were large* mobile, incomprehensible* fascinating.)  k2. ffiatuSka gljadela na nego vnlmatel'no, nelaskovo, osuidadusde. P. 55. (Mother was looking at him a t t e n t i v e l y , unkindly, reproachfully.) k3o  MerlnlSka kakod khitrdasdld. a cunning creature.)  P. 82.  (The gelding, what  kk*  ... 1 s grust'du pogldadyvala na N i k i t u , kak na podiezaSeego na slom.... P. 80. (...and with sorrow she was glancing at N i k i t a l i k e on© condemned to d e s t ^ e t I o n ...)  i»5»  V ee svetlykh 1 v'duScikhsda volosakh b y l vtbrod bant ... P. 27» (In her bright curly hair was a second bow ...)  h6.  N i k i t a v i d e l ... dva visdasdie lokona i me&du niral dvigadusdidsda kondik dut'-dut* vysunutogo dazyka P. 28. (Nikita saw ... two hanging locks and between them the.moving t i p of a barely protruding tongue •••)  2|7« . Igrada, obernula k elke ulybadusdeesda l i c o 1 zapela: ... P. 3o. (Playing, she turned her smiling face toward the Christmas tree and began to sing: • ••)  67  i*8.  L A l j a otorvalas* ot cepi i ostanovllas* ... g l j a d j a na N l k i t u sme juacimisja glazami. P. 37. . ( L l l j a "broke away from the chain and stopped ... looking at N i k i t a with laughing eyes.)  kS»  Voliki ... gljadja svetjasSlralsja glazaml na temnye zamerzSle okna, podnlmali mordy v ledjanuju temnotu ... P. kS* (The wolves ... looking with hrlght eyes Into the dark.frost-covered windows, r a i s e d t h e i r muzzles Into the Icy darkness •••)  50©  - skazal ej Pakhom, ostorozno razlamyvaja dymjaseujusda kartoSku ••• P. 54 ... (- Pakhom said t o her, c a r e f u l l y breaking a steaming potato . , ) #  51.  Kaeajudclesja verainy v e t e l b y l l zakutany ... ohlakaml* P. 5 J 4 . (The swaying tops of the willows were enveloped ••• by clouds.)  52*  I on sta-l predstavljat' ... cernuju pustynju neba 1 p r l b l i z a j u s c l j s j j a iazurnyj hereg nevedomoj planety ... P. 96. (He started to picture ... the black emptiness of the sky and the approaching azure shore of an unknown planet •••)  53*  V oblakakh* B r e d l motajuSSlkhsja suc'ev, v a l e t a l l ... fternye p t i c y . P . 54. (Among the waving branches, there flew up ... black;birds In clouds.)  52*.  ... na balkone, gde v'juseiesja po beeevkam n a s t u r c l i h r o s a l l dvizuSelesja tent na skatert* ... P. 80 • (... .om the balcony, where, entwining along the cords, the nasturtiums were throwing moving shadows on the t a b l e c l o t h -..,.)  55*  V opuskaouscejBjja na glaza dremote v poslednlj r a z p o j a v l l s j a kak ten* na stone, ogromnyj bant ... P. 45* (As slumber was descending on h i s eyes, f o r the l a s t time there appeared on the w a l l a huge bow l i k e a shadow •••)  56.  O n u v l d e l ... krasnovatu-Ju dorozku skvoz' gustuju, legko rasstupaduSdudusja pered ntm z a r o s l * . P. 46. (He saw ... a reddish path through thick overgrowth that parted l i g h t l y before him.)  57»  ••• veter s juga, zakutavSi;J polja ... s beseno nesuSfilmlsja nad samo j zemlej rvanymi oblakami. P• 52. (••• the south wind, having enveloped the fields ... with broken clouds furiously f l y i n g low over the earth •••)  38.  ... po khrustjaseimi luzam s otrazajusSimisja v nikh zvezdaml, §11 mol6a l j j u d l : ... P. 66. (••• along the crunching frozen puddles, with the stars r e f l e c t e d In them, s i l e n t l y walked the people: ...)  68  59<»  za bykami pokacivajuscimlsja v jarmakh, t a s d i l i s * perevernutye w e r k h lemekhami plug! ... P. 92. (... behind the oxeny swaying from side to side i n t h e i r yokes, ploughs were pulled along, turned upside down >..) 1  60*  Otsjuda bylo vidno ... pustynja, slivajusdajasja moroznoj mgloj s nebom. P. 52. (Prom here one could see ... a desert* blending with the sky by:means of a frosty mist.)  6l«  ... ubegaet beskonecnyj remen* k krasnoj bol*Soj, kak dom, molotilke,beseno t r j a s u s ^ e j s j a solomotrjasami i resetami. P. 96. (... the endless b e l t runs on toward a red m i l l i n g machine, b i g as a house, f u r i o u s l y shaking i t s chaff-screens and sieves.) • '  62.  T lezafiego b i t * bylo nel'ztfa. P. 22. (- one was not allowed to s t r i k e a man who was down.)  63.  A sejcas: k o l j u d i j veter sumit v merzlykh, cernykh vetlakh ... P. 51. (And now: the piercing wind sounds through the frozen* black willows ...)  6U.  ... ot nikh, z a s t i l a j a otvorocennoe l i c o strjapukhl, v a l i l pakhucij par. P. 514. (••• from them, covering the averted face,of the cook* poured a fragrant steam.)  65*  ... v temnote teploj pakhucej solomy. P. 56. the darkness of the warm,scented straw.)  66.  ... tekla snegovaja, c i s t a;} a, pakhucaja voda. P. 58. ( a . , there flowed clear, fragrant water from melted snow. )  67.  Strjapukha prinesla emu gorjacej kartoskl ... P. 5k• (The cook brought him hot potatoes •••)  68.  Otec s udovol'stviem s e l gorjaduju lepesku, ... P. 61. (The father, with pleasure, ate a hot f l a t cake, ...)  69.  ... lampa 8 podvemutyn sinim vonjudim ogon'kom. P. 65. (••• the lamp with a turned up, blue, smelly flame.)  70.  Dolgo ekhali mim© salotopennykh vonjueikh zavodov ... P. 98. (For a long time they rode past the stinking, fat-rendering f a c t o r i e s ...)  71•  ••• prygnul v tekueij legkhij vozdukh ... i p o l e t e l nad samym polom. P. 76. (••• i t leaped into the l i g h t , flowing a i r ... and flew just above the f l o o r . )  72.  Pod'ezzajut skripucie voza s snopami. P. 96. (The creaking carts loaded with sheaves were a r r i v i n g . )  (•••  in  (  69  73»  X on s t a l predstavljat' l e t u c i j korahl* s kry 1*jami P. 96* (And he started to pretend as i f he were a f l y i n g hbat with wings ••»)  74.  1 vse ze ego, sonnogo 1 odurelogo ot vetra>zapakha padall, losadnykh kopyt, navoza, rykhlogo snega, mudllo 1-jubopytstvo, tjanulo k© vsemu etomu. P. 55• (And he, sleepy, and maddened hy the wind, by the stench of carrion, horse hoofs, manure and s o f t snow, was continu a l l y tormented hy c u r i o s i t y , and was drawn to a l l t h i s . )  75«  Pod gllnistym obryvora esce l e z a l t a l y j grjaznyj sneg* P. 69. (Under the clay precipice there was s t i l l d i r t y , melting snow.)  70 A III Present Active P a r t i c i p l e The present active p a r t i c i p l e s of the Detatvo (Section A I I I ) are arranged, according to t h e i r  Hiklt.v position,  into: (1)  A group of p a r t i c i p l e s which precede the nouns  they modify, (2)  A group of p a r t i c i p l e s which follow the nouns they  modify. (3)  A\ group of r e f l e x i v e  (k)  A supplementary group of adjectives which were  participles.  originally participles. The following p a r t i c i p l e s belong to group ( l ) : Torcasglml. ( 1 ) , sl.1a.1usdlm (2), khrust.laSdlm ( 3 ) , sledu.lu^gda.la (h). blest.1as5lmi (5). sp.1aSgu.1u (6). prokhod.1asdl.1 ( 7 ) , mlga.lusdlm (8), gor.1asde.1 (9), pada.lusge.i (10), sverkalusdimi (11),  tekuSdie (12). pros.vkha.1u§glkh ( 1 3 ) , ugrozalusdi.1 ( l h ) ,  otsveglvalusgemu  (15 ), zaeasyvaluedie ( 1 6 ) , pereiiva.lufldle  (16), dogniva.lus'dle (17). pokhokhat.vva.1u§di.1 (18). drozagde.1 (19). Pvlalusdego (20). v l s l a a d l e wraza.1ufidlm (23). letjasdiml  ( 2 1 ) , s t o l a s d i l (22),  (2k).  A few of the above-mentioned p a r t i c i p l e s are worthy of mention.  Sl.1a.1ugdlm (2) i s the present active p a r t i c i p l e of  the Imperfective verb si.1at'. to i t s p o s i t i o n  Taking I t s quality  i n respect  into consideration, i t appears to be ad-  j e c t i v i z e d or nearly a d j e c t i v i z e d .  I t precedes the noun  71 which i t modifies thus putting i t s e l f i n the same word order r e l a t i o n s h i p as the ad.1 actives bel.vm and mlagkim which follow i t * In addition to that, insofar as i t i s derived from an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb, i t i s i n c l i n e d to develop f r e e l y 1 and largely a d j e c t i v a l q u a l i t i e s .  Sledu.1usca.1a (k)  present active p a r t i c i p l e of the imperfective verb  i s the sledovat . 1  I t s verbal force i s completely o b l i t e r a t e d and, on f i r s t sight, gives a strong impression of an adjective, although 2  Usakov considers t h i s usage pronominal and condemns a variant form BleduJUBcTj*  This form i s very popularly used, and  serves as an excellent example of a p a r t i c i p l e that has i t 8 verbalness and has become an adjective. (5)  lost  Blest .lagelmi  i s the present active p a r t i c i p l e of the imperfective  blestet*.  verb  I t Is nearly adjectivized, and on t h i s point I  would l i k e to draw especial attention t o Vinogradov's observation and h i s example, insofar as i t can also apply to the 3  other p a r t i c i p l e s of t h i s group. Vinogradov states: The a d j e c t i v a l q u a l i t i e s develop e s p e c i a l l y extensively and f r e e l y i n the forms on -sei.1 with an i n t r a n s i t i v e significance or at the elimination of a t r a n s i t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e . 1. p.  On t h i s point see:  V. V. Vinogradov, O P . c i t . .  273.  2.  D. IT. Usakov, oj>. c i t . , IV, column 259.  3.  V. V. Vinogradov, op» c i t . . p.  277.  72 Cf. **Pikety, raz*ezdy, posty i otrjady nesut radostno svoj b l i s t a t e l ' n y j , b l e s t j a g d i j , blegeugdij dolg." Brat*.1a.)  (K. Fedin,  Sp.1aggu.iu (6) Is the present active p a r t i c i p l e of  the imperfective verb spat'. sized by several f a c t o r s .  I t s adjectivainess i s empha-  F i r s t of a l l i t i s i n t r a n s i t i v e ,  precedes the noun that i t modifies, and i s i t s e l f not modif i e d by any adverb or prepositional phrase* 2 3 S. Boyanus l i s t i t as an adjective* so l i s t i t .  V. Muller and  Usakov, however, does not  He gives the conjugation of i t s verb, but I- think  t h i s does not give us s u f f i c i e n t reason to consider i t other than as an a d j e c t i v i z e d form*  The old Russian p a r t i c i p l e  sp.1ael.1 s t i l l persists i n modem Russian i n the sense of  4 "sonnyj, nakhodjaScijsja v f s o s t o j a n i i sna" thus closely parallelling the a d j e c t i v a l use of the p a r t i c i p l e here. MlgaJusdlm (8) i s the present active p a r t i c i p l e of the imperf e c t i v e verb migat*.  I t i s strongly a d j e c t i v i z e d .  I t s pre-  positive position, i n regard to the noun i t modifies, and i t s p o s i t i o n p a r a l l e l to that of a pure adjective, kra snovatym. tend to reinforce i t s purely a d j e c t i v a l q u a l i t i e s .  Tekugdle  (12) i s the present active p a r t i c i p l e of the imperfective verb t;e5**  I t s a d j e c t i v a l q u a l i t i e s are stressed not only  because i t i s derived from an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb and precedes the noun i t modifies, but because i t i s commonly used i n the sense of an adjective. Let us take, for example, the very 1* V/. V. Vinogradov, OP. c i t . , p. 27?. 2. V. Muller and S. Boy a nus. Rus sko-angl 1.1 akl .1 slovar*. Moscow* 1937, p. 666. . 3.  D. H. Ugakov. OP* c i t . .  4*-  Ibid., column 458.  IV, column 458.  73  common use of expressions l i k e v tekuggem gpduv tekusCego mes.1aea. tekugga.1a p o l i t i k a . tekusdle a o b y t i . i e u e t c . , where the p a r t i c i p l e would not he considered as anything hut the 1 equivalent of the adjective "current « w  Usakov l i s t s It as a  p a r t i c i p l e with the exception of where i t Is used f i g u r a t i v e ly In the sense of tepereSni."). naetoJasclJ. and gives the following examples:  10-go glsla; tekuggego meslaca. v tekug&em  godu. tekusdi.1 moment*  This observation serves to point out  the high degree of a d j e c t i v a l quality of the p a r t i c i p l e and would "bring i t closer t o a pure adjective of the same verb tekuglj which, l i k e the rest of the -ag. -.lag, -ug. -.1uS 2 category of adjectives* were formerly p a r t i c i p l e s . l e t us bring the p a r t i c i p l e s tekuS&l.l or sto.iaggl.1 into contrast with the adjectives of the same verbs tekugl.1 or stojagi.1.  Quoting Pegkovskij's observation on the meaning  of the form o f the parts of speech, we may judge how f a r a p a r t i c i p l e (e.g. tekugga.1a or sto.1agga.1a) Is divorced from I t s verbalness and how closely I t approaches the adjective (e.g. tekugala o r stolagala). In the p a r t i c i p l e two opposing shades of meaning, constancy and inconstancy, a d j e c t i v a l ness and verbalness, must be combined. That t h i s i s so w i l l be c l e a r i f we compare I t In turn with the adjective and with the verb. The difference between sto.1aga.1a and sto.1agga.1a lampa i s a sto.1aga.1a lampa always stands or. at least, should i n accordance with i t s construction, always stand. A sto 1agca.ia lampa stands only at given moment. I f you hang a sto.1aga.ia lampa i t remains, none the l e s s , a sto.1aga.1a t  1. ' D. N. Usakov, op. c l t . . IV, column 668. 2. A. Ml. PeSkovskij, RuBskl.i sintaksls v naugnpm osveggenii. Moscow. 1914, p. 61. "*  7k lampa but can no longer b a a sto.1asca.1a. On the other hand, i f I continue to stand a vis.1 aca.1 a lampa. i t w i l l be stojasc'aja but w i l l not become thereby sto.1aca.1a. Stolaseala means that which i s standing right now. In comparison with the adject i v e , the verbalness emerges very c l e a r l y . On the other hand, i f we compare the adjective with the verb stojascaj a with s t o i t . then the adjectivainess of the p a r t i c i p l e s s t r i k e s our eye t o an even greater degree. I f someone says to us: lampa s t o i t . then there i s expressed c l e a r l y here what the lamp-is doing, what c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i t i s creating. I f someone w i l l say to us, sto.1agca.ia lampa and nothing more, then we w i l l not see such a c l e a r action; rather, we s h a l l s t i l l be waiting f o r the action of the lamp and asks "What i s i t doing, t h i s sto.1a5ca.ia lampa?" or "What i s being done with i t ? " - - I t means that we.accept the action i n the word sto.1asca.ia as something c o l l a t e r a l , and t h i s i s because there i n the f i r s t plan f o r us was the quality of the lamp; we took sto.1as5a1a lust as i f " b i g " or "bronze", etc., had been s a i d . 1  Frosykha.1 us c ikh (l3) i s the present active p a r t i c i p l e of the imperfective verb prosykhat*• nearly a d j e c t i v i z e d .  I t i s a d j e c t i v i z e d or  I t s adjectivainess i s underlined by i t s  being yoked with the adjective v.lalykh.  Sto.1asci.1 (22) i s  the present active p a r t i c i p l e of the imperfective verb j s t o j a t . 8  I t i s verbal and i t s verbalness i s reinforced by the instrumenta l babocko.1. even though the l a t t e r i s non-agential. Vyraza.luggim (23) i s the present active p a r t i c i p l e of the imperfective verb yyrazat'.  There i s no doubt of i t s v e r b a l -  ness, even though i t precedes immediately the word which i t modifies.  But there i s a stronger f a c t o r which supports i t s  verbal q u a l i t i e s : Let.lasciml {2k)  i t governs the d i r e c t object nigego.  i s the present active p a r t i c i p l e of the im-  perfective verb l e t e t . 1  1.  According to i t s p o s i t i o n i n the  A. M. Peskovsklj, pp. c i t . . p. 6 l .  75  sentence, this p a r t i c i p l e would seem t o l o s e ' i t s verbal force f o r i t precedes the adjective and noun rvanymi oblakami which i t modifies. By t h i s fact i t would tend to coalesce with the 1 adjective of the same verb -letudlj. but being modified by the adverb nizko. i t gains verbal force within the phrase. The following l i s t e d p a r t i c i p l e s also belong to group  (l),  that i s , they precede the nouns they modify, but they are verbal i n quality and t h e i r verbalness i s stressed by their associated prepositional phrases.  These participles- ares  drozagglm (25). idugcuiiu (26), gum:! aggie (27), skaguggle (28). khlopa.lugglm (29), ta.1us5Jm (30), and gromvkha.luggie  (3l).  (Also i n example ( 3 l ) we f i n d the p a r t i c i p l e joejajfiie which i s a d j e c t i v a l rather than verbal i n quality as there i s no support f o r i t s verbalness.) X s h a l l merely comment on two of these exampleas Idug6u.1u (26) i s the present active p a r t i c i p l e of the imperf e c t i v e verb i t t l or l d t i .  I t s use i s verbal, although i t s  p o s i t i o n within the sentence i s a t t r i b u t i v e , but i t s associat i o n with the adverbial phrase emu navstregu reinforced by the adverb vagno guarantees completely i t s verbal f o r c e . Ta.luggim (30) i s the present active p a r t i c i p l e of the imperf e c t i v e verb ta.1at: .  The intransitiveness of t h i s verb, as  w e l l as the p o s i t i o n of t h i s p a r t i c i p l e preceding the noun, would stress i t s a d j e c t i v a l quality.  But i n t h i s case the  p a r t i c i p l e i s associated with the prepositional phrase v s t e p l . a f a c t which develops the l a t e n t verbal quality of 1.  A. M. Fegkovskij, op. c l t . . p. 6 l .  76  this participle.  In support of my comments on the p r e p o s i t i o n a l  phrases connected with the p a r t i c i p l e s , I should l i k e to quote Peskovsktj's  observation:  In the p a r t i c i p l e we represent the subject's a c t i v i t y as i t s quality. How q u a l i t i e s are not.thus derived from a c t i v i t i e s as a c t i v i t i e s from q u a l i t i e s . In accordance with a man's action we judge about h i s q u a l i t i e s . In accordance with h i s q u a l i t i e s we expect correspondingly actions from him. I f , i n our eyes, a man behaves merrily, we-suppose him a-merry man. I f we know he i s merry, we suppose he sometinB s "behaves m e r r i l y ... In just the same fashion as "the snow thaws" and "thawed snow" combine i n the -expression ta.1ufigi;T aneg. where i t i s shown both what sort of snow i t Is and why It Is so i n consequence of some action of Its own ... However, one must note that there i s not, nevertheless, an i d e a l equilibrium between the verb and a d j e c t i v e . The adjective always outweighs. The explanation of t h i s i s that the part i c i p l e has a l l the forms of the adjective and by no means a l l the forms of the verb. Besides, the forms of the adjective are expressed i n i t by i n f l e c t i o n s hut the forms of the verb by s u f f i x e s . T h i s i s why the verbal quality can disappear i n a p a r t i c i p l e but the a d j e c t i v a l quality never can. I f the s u f f i x of the p a r t i c i p l e loses f o r some reason i t s tense s i g nificance, the p a r t i c i p l e changes for. a given moment or forever into an ordinary adjective\ The following p a r t l e l p l e s belong to group ( 2 ) ; that i s , they fo 1low the nouns they modify. sid.1asgu.iu (53).  ilvuggaja (32),  rzujgikh (34), le&asgel (Vi).  tonuaSee  (56).  are verbal i n quality and t h e i r verbalness i s stressed by associated prepositional phrases. gryzugglmi  Vypravl.1a.1usgego (37),  (38), and ra sprostran.1a ^uggl j, (39) govern direct  objects and by t h i s fact t h e i r verbalness i s underlined. The remaining  p a r t i c i p l e s i n group (2) are:  (hO). ogarovyva.lusgle podlezasdegQ (44)• 1.  pakhnuSgl.1  ( h i ) , osuzda.1u6ge ( h i ) , khltr.iasgi.i (43).  Paknnus'glj (40) i s the present a c t i v e  A. M. Pefikovskij, pp. c l t . . p. 6lo  77 p a r t i c i p l e of the imperfective verb pakhnut*» which he-longs to a group of unproductive verbs nearly h a l f of which are of an 1 i n t r a n s i t i v e nature and denote: (merznut . pakhnut . klsnut*.) 8  1  to be i n some status, Eakhnusgl.1 (40) i s combined  with the instrumental noun sobako.1. which seems to support i t s verbalness.  Qgarovyvajuggle  (l*l) i s the present active par-  t i c i p l e of the imperfective verb pgarovyvat*.  It i s intransi-  t i v e and i t s p o s i t i o n i s predicative to the verb by11 which would indicate i t s adjectivainess.  Qsu£da.1usce (1*2) i s i n  stem the present active p a r t i c i p l e of the imperfective verb qsuzdat*.  I t s use i s purely adverbial.  Khitr.1aggl 1 (43) r  i s the present: active p a r t i c i p l e of the imperfective verb khitrlt*.  I t s use i s a d j e c t i v a l .  Podlezasgego  (hh)  i s the  present active p a r t i c i p l e of the Imperfective verb podiezat*. I t i s used nominally rather than verbally, and corresponds 2 to the noun podle&as'ceey  -ego l i s t e d by USakov as a l i t e r a l  t r a n s l a t i o n of the L a t i n word subjectum. We now come to group ( 3 ) , present active r e f l e x i v e part i c i p l e s , w h i c h w i l l be arranged i n the same manner as the nonreflexive participles.  F i r s t w i l l be l i s t e d the p a r t i c i p l e s  which precede the nouns they modify: dvlga.1uaci.1s.1a (1*6), u^ybajuggeesja  v*.tusglkhsla (45). (47), smejuSSimisja (1*8),  svet.1asgimis.1a (i*9), dvm.1aSguJus.1a (50). kaga.1uggles.1a ( 5 l ) , p r i b l i z a j u g g l j s j a (52), dvi&uSgjesja (5l*)» Concerning the process of a d j e c t i v i z a t i o n of r e f l e x i v e lv 2.  V. V Vinogradov, O P . c i t . . p. 641. D. H . USakov, O P . c i t . . I l l , column 399» #  78  p a r t i c i p l e s , Vinogradov makes the following observat ions In the category of active p a r t i c i p l e s i t i s necessary, f i r s t of a l l , to separate the formations i n -s.1 a. the r e f l e x i v e forms of the p a r t i c i p l e s . T h e i r c l e a r morphological d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n from the adjectives ( i . e . the final--8.1a. t h e i r significance i n respect to voice serve as an obstacle to t h e i r becoming q u a l i f i e r s . Only the complete grammatical i s o l a t i o n of such a p a r t i c i p l e from the other forms of the same verb, the inclusion of i t into the c i r c l e of c l e a r l y qualifying meanings can bring about the n e u t r a l i z a t i o n of i t s verbal q u a l i t i e s ( c f . e.g. yyda.1usgi.1 s.1a. opustivslls.1a and especially the forms of p a r t i c i p l e s with negative ne-. which gives a word a c l e a r l y expressed shade of potential q u a l i t y : neyy tancova vsa .1as.1a povest *. negadavseea.1a oredprl.latle. neudavsllsla akter; c f . nerazorvavsaiasla bomha. compare the role of negation ne- In other types of p a r t i c i p l e s : nemudr.1aSdi.1:. neunvvalus'gi.l obytatel': neprlkra senna.1a nagota. etc.) However, although what Vinogradov says may have some general v a l i d i t y , we are i n c l i n e d to f e e l that i f -8.1a/ i s s u f f i c i e n t to preserve the verbal sense, then i t should do so In a l l cases.  Otherwise, r e f l e x i v e p a r t i c i p l e s should be judged by  the same standards as other p a r t i c i p l e s .  For t h i s reason the  r e f l e x i v e p a r t i c i p l e s have "been grouped i n the same way as the non-reflexive ones, and thus the aforementioned  participles  preceding the nouns they modify, and not having any other support f o r t h e i r verbalness, are considered to be a d j e c t i v i z e d or nearly a d j e c t i v i z e d . The following r e f l e x i v e p a r t i c i p l e s are v e r b a l : Mota.1uBgikhB.ia (55). v'.iuagiesla (54). opuskaJusgeJs.ia (55). rasstupa.1u8gu.1us.1a (58).  (56). nesusgimis.1a  (57). otraza.iusglmls.1a  T h e i r verbalness Is underlined by associated preposi-  t i o n a l phrases, except i n -toe case of motalusglkhs.1 a ( 5 3 ) . 1.  V. V. Vinogradov, ojj. c l t . . pp. 273-4*  79  The remaining r e f l e x i v e p a r t i c i p l e s are: sfilmls.la (59),  sllva.1nsga.1as.1a (60).  pokaglvaju*.-  tr.1asugge.1s.1a  These p a r t i c i p l e s follow the nouns they modify, .1uggimls.1a (59)  (6l). Pokaclva-  i s modified by the prepositional phrase v  .larmakhs sllva.1usga.1asda (60)  i s combined with the i n s t r u -  mental* of agent morozno.1 mglo.1; and tr.1asugge1s.1a  (6l) i s  preceded by the adverb begeno which, reinforces i t s verbalness. Thus these three r e f l e x i v e p a r t i c i p l e s seem to be a l l verbal i n f o r ee© F i n a l l y we have the supplementary  group of adjectives  which were o r i g i n a l l y p a r t i c i p l e s * to which I r e f e r r e d previously while dealing with present active p a r t i c i p l e s .  At  t h i s point I should l i k e to draw attention to PeSkovsklj's observation, a f t e r which I l i s t the adjectives.  Peskovskij  says* I f the s u f f i x of the p a r t i c i p l e loses f o r some reason i t s tense significance, the p a r t i c i p l e changes f o r a given moment or forever into an ordinary adj e c t i v e ... In t h i s way whole categories of adject i v e s are created i n the language and i t i s only through a s c i e n t i f i c analysis of them that the former p a r t i c i p l e can be discovered. Thus a l l the Russian adjectives with the suffixes -ag. -ja,g. -ug. -jug ( l e z a g l j . sto.1agi.1. visjagl.1. e t c ) and a l l with the s u f f i x -1- ( u s t a l v j . prely.i. merzl.v.1. etc.) are part i c i p l e s i n o r i g i n . On the-other hand, since a part i c i p l e i s , f i r s t of a l l , an adjective* i t shares a l l the q u a l i t i e s of adjectives, among them the a b i l i t y to become a substantive£ The adjectives are as follows: meralykh (63),  pakhugjj (6U),  gor.1age.1 (67),  gor.1agu.1u (68).  le&agego (62). kol.lugl 1 (63),  pakhuge.1 (65), von.luglur (69).  pakhugada vonluglkh  (66), (76),  tekugl.1 (71). skrlpugle (72), letugi.1 (75). odurelogo (7fa). t a l y j (75). 1.  A. Ms. Peskovskij, O P V c i t . . p. 65.  80 B III Mpsteve ugrozaet  vra g 1  Present Active P a r t i c i p l e 1.  Hastanet das, kogda my perejdem te resajusdej faze vojny — na stupatel * nomu udaru po germansteomu frontu. P. 547. (The time w i l l come, when we w i l l pass to the d e c i s i v e _phase of the war — to the offensive attack along the German f r o n t . )  2.  Odessa dolgo sder£ivala nastuplenie vfietvero prevoskhodjasdej po s i lam rumynskoj a r m i i . P. 547* (.Odessa long r e s i s t e d the advance of the Rumanian army*.whichwas" four times greater i n strength.)  3c  POdognuv drozafidie koleniy - B t o j s t , otkldyvaja, so strakha golovu, pared mordastym, svirepo lajusdim na berlinskom dialekte gitlerovsklm otenrannikom- groajaSdim dobrat*sja kulakom do moikh zubov? Poterjet- navsegda nadezdu na slavu i scast'e Rodiny raoej, zabyt* navsegda svjaSdennye i d e i delovednosti i s p r a v e d l i v o s t i - vse, vse prekrasnoe, vysokoe, odiSdajuSdee z*izn*, r a d l cego my zivem .• • P. 548© (Having hent our shaking knees, must we stand, throwing aside our heads from f e a r , before the loud-mouthed H i t l e r i t e guard savagely barking i n a B e r l i n d i a l e c t , threatening t© bash me i n the teeth with h i s f i s t ? Must I lose forever hope f o r glory and happiness of my native land, must I forget forever the sacred ideals of humanity and j u s t i c e - and everything, everything b e a u t i f u l and lofty which p u r i f i e s l i f e , f o r the sake of which we l i v e . •.)  4«  8  medlenno nadinaet p j a t l t ' s j a . P. 547. (Here at present, the German f r o n t , l o s i n g . i t s l i f e ' s blood, i s slowly beginning to r e t r e a t . ) Ha mesto ukhodjafidikh na front prikhodjat zanfidiny 1 molodeg*. P. 548. (In the place of those who were leaving.for the front come women and young people.)  6.  Bessmertnuju slavu zavojujut sebe 2ivuSdie. (The l i v i n g w i l l win undying glory.)  7*  Ty v s j a v nadeznakh na svetloe budusdee ... P. (You are f u l l of hope f o r a bright future ...)  8>  Ben* i nod* nasi tank! vo vse uvelidivajuSdemsja k o l i d e s t v e g o t o v j a t s j a na masinostroitel*nykh zavodakh Sojuza. P. 547. (Bay and night our tanks, i n a continru a l l y increasing number, are being "built at the automot i v e f a c t o r i e s of the Union.)  P.  549 • 549.  81 9*  Rosslja 1 Germanlja b'autsda na smart , i ves' mir vnimaet gtgantskoj bitve, ne prekraSfiajusdeasja uz"e bolee s t a dnej, P. 547. (Russia and Germany are engaged In a death-to-death struggle, and the entire world i s attentive to the gigantic hattie that has not ceased f o r more than a hundred days,) 8  10, He vo vsju s i l u ponlmall razmer grozno;} opasnostl, nadvlgajuSeejsja na nas, P, 548. (We d i d not grasp f u l l y the extent of the t e r r i b l e danger approaching us,)  82 Bill Present Active P a r t i c i p l e low that we have discussed the present active p a r t i c i p l e s of the Betstvo N l k i t y (Section A I I I ) ,  i t w i l l he interesting  to observe the occurrence of p a r t i c i p l e s and gerunds i n a d i f f e r e n t s t y l i s t i c form i n T o l s t o i * s writings, the short essay, Moskve ugrozaet vrag. The present active p a r t i c i p l e s are grouped i n the same manner as the present active p a r t i c i p l e s i n Section A. I l l , that i s , according to t h e i r p o s i t i o n .  There are only t h i r t e e n  present active p a r t i c i p l e s i n Moskve ugrozaet vrag. and they are as follows: refiaiugde.1 ( l ) . prevoskhod.iagdeii (2). drozagdie (3). la.lugdim (3). groz.lagdim (3). odigda.ius&ee (3). istekalugdi.1 (If), ukhodjagdikh ( 7 ), uvelidlva.1ugdems.1a  (5) , givugdie (6), budugdee  (8 )y prekragda.1ugde.is.1a  (9 ), n a j v i -  ga.1ugde.1s.ia ( l O ) . Rega.1ugde.i ( l ) i s the present p a r t i c i p l e of the imperf e c t i v e verb resat*.  Though i t can be a t r a n s i t i v e verb, i t  i s not t r a n s i t i v e here.  In addition to that i t s t a n d s i n a  predominantly a d j e c t i v a l position, that i s , i t precedes the noun faze Which i t modifies.  Perhaps i t s popular use, not only  i n the written language but also i n the spoken tongue, colours i t with an a d j e c t i v a l sense so much that we could replace i t 1 by a pure adjective, e.g. i n the sense of Usakov*s interpretation^as glavny.1. vaznyj, osnovnoj, or by an English a d j e c t 1.; D. • H. Ugakov, £ B . c i t . . I I , column 1354* :  *  83  ive "decisive",  Prevoakhod.1 asde.1 (2) i s the present a c t i v e  p a r t i c i p l e of the imperfective verb prevoskhodit'.  Although  i t precedes the noun which i t modifies, i t i s verbal and i t s verbalness i s underlined by the p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrase po s i lam that modifies i t .  Broiias'cie (3) i s the present a c t i v e  p a r t i c i p l e of the imperfective verb droza t *.  I t precedes the  noun kolent which i t modifies, and appears to be a d j e c t i v i z e d or nearly adjectivized, as there i s no support f o r i t s verbalness.  Lajusdim ( 3 ) . grozJaSclm  (5) and o&isca.luggee (3)  are present a c t i v e p a r t i c i p l e s from the-imperfective verbs l a . i a t . grozilt* and o d i g d a t . 1  exception of l a j a t * . verbal quality,  They are t r a n s i t i v e , with the  A l l three p a r t i c i p l e s show retention of  the verbalness of la.lugdim l a supported by  the following p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrase,na, ber 1 inskom dialekte.and by the preceding adverb svlrepo. although t h i s p a r t i c i p l e i s i n t r a n s i t i v e and precedes the noun which i t modifies. Grozlagdlm  (5) follows the word which i t modifies and governs  the i n f i n i t i v e of the r e f l e x i v e verb dobrat* s~ia* gc*ee (3) governs the d i r e c t object z l z n ' .  OdlsgaJuu  Isteka.1u§ci.1 (it)  i s the present p a r t i c i p l e of the imperfective verb-1stekat . 9  I t i s verbal and i t s verbalness i s underlined by the i n s t r u mental of means k r o v j u . which i s associated with i t , and 1  i t follows the substantive which i t modifies.  UkhodiaSSikh  (5) and zlvugdie (6) are present active p a r t i c i p l e s used a s nouns.  Budugdee (7) can be an adjective, although  appearing  i n the form of a p a r t i c i p l e , but I am i n c l i n e d to consider i t  8a i as a noun In the sense of Usakov*s interpretation of buduggnoat'.  The remaining partioipiesy uve 1161 Va.luscems.1 a  (8), prekra66a.1ug ge .1 s j a (9) and nadviga.1ug6e.1s.1a (10). reflexive participles,  are  UveIi6iva.1ua6ems.1a (8 ). although pre-  ceding the noun, which i t modifies,  i s verbal and  i t s verbal-  ness i s supported hy the sense of i t s modifier vse i n the phrase vo vse uve 1 i61 va.1uS6ems.1 a koligestve,  ErekraS6a.1u- •  gge.-fe.1a (9) follows the noun which i t modifies and i n quality.  I t s verbalness i s reinforced by the  adverbial phra se uz e -bo-lee- sta dnej.  i s verbal associated  Hadviga .1uS 6e .i s:) a  (10)  i s verbal i n force, a n d t h i s verhal quality Is reinforced hy i t s position a f t e r the noun which i t modifies,  and hy  presence of the dependent prepositional phrase na  1,  Do N. USakov, gg*  c l t . . I, column 199©  nas.  the  85 C I I I (a) Paprika molodost Present Active P a r t i c i p l e lo  My prosim, - pozujte rezinku i , kak uCeny;) spec, dajte isSerpyvajus'c'ij otzyv ••• P. 35* (We ask yon, - have a chew of gum and, l i k e a learned s p e c i a l i s t , give us a comprehensive comment '••••)•  2.  My nidego ne vydumyvaem ... Pakty ••• Pakty ... Pakty • Prosto kak ponedel'nik: 2izn* uvjadajus'ce;) 2enS2iny, drama sedykh volos.... P. 51,. (We do not think of anything . , only f a c t s , f a c t s ... f a c t s «... Just l i k e Monday, the l i f e of a w i l t i n g woman, a drama of gray h a i r ,,,) a  3.  Videl «•• P. ing •  ee l i c o , - rozovoe, sljajuScee, oslepltel'noe (He saw ... her face, - rosy, bright, b l i n d -  ke  Von idet, kolobrodit, etot k a k r a z dl-ja tebja podkhodjasc*ij« P. 23* (There he comes, lounging ah out, t h i s one s u i t s you exactly. )  5«  Gady polzudie ... P. 2h.  6«  Gad polzudij ... P« 34 •  32j>  (Creeping (Creeping  serpents •••) serpent ...)  86 G I I I (a) Present Active B a r t i c i p i e In order to gain a more complete idea of the  occurrence  of gerunds and p a r t i c i p l e s i n T o l s t o i ' s writings, i t w i l l he interesting to comment again on s t i l l another type of compos i t i o n , the comedy, Fabrika molodosti.  A l l the p a r t i c i p l e s  and gerunds taken from t h i s comedy include excerpts taken from (a), the language of the pure dramatical structure contained mostly i n dialogues and monologues, and (b), the language of the stage d i r e c t i o n . There are only f o u r present active p a r t i c i p l e s taken from (a) referred to above.  They are as follows?  isderpyva.1ugdl.1 ( l ) , uv.1ada.1ug6e:i (2), si.la.luggee (3) and podkhodjagcli ( i i ) , These are arranged i n the sane-manner as the present active p a r t i c i p l e s of the previous sections, Isder py va .1ugoT.1 ( l ) and uv.iada.1uge'e.1 (2) are present active p a r t i c i p l e s of the imperfective verbs iscerpyvat* and uv.ladat*.  Both precede the nouns they modify and have l i t t l e  or no support for t h e i r verbal force. rather a d j e c t i v a l i n quality,  They appear to be  Sl.1a.1ugcee (3) i s the present  active p a r t i c i p l e of the imperfect ive verb s i .1a t -' ,  I t follows  the noun which i t modifies but i t s a d j e c t i v a l quality i s underlined by the coupling of the two adjectives rozovoe and oslepltel'noe.  Only one of the present active p a r t i c i p l e s ,  podkhodjagc'lj (4), i s verbal i n force, and i t s verbalness i s underlined by the prepositional phrase d),,-ja teb.1a.  87 In a d d i t i o n to the present active p a r t i c i p l e s , I s h a l l include the adjectives which o r i g i n a l l y were p a r t i c i p l e s . As I have already commented--on- this type of a d j e c t i v a l form i n Section A I I I , I s h a l l simply l i s t them without further comment.  They are oolzuele ( 5 ) and polzugi.1  (6).  83 CHI  (b)  Fabrika molbdbsti Present Active P a r t i c i p l e (Stage Direction) !•  Za stenoj sum, tresk padajusc'ikh predraetov. P. 10. (Behind the wall there i s a cracking noise of f a l l i n g objects.)  2.  Za stenoj slysen SipjaSdij zvuk. wall i s heard a h i s s i n g sound.)  3«  So stakanora v ruke s l e d l t za prygajuSeejj s t r e l k o j . P. 34© (With a glass i n h i s hand he follows the jumping pointer.)  h.  Rasdaetsja r e z k l j Sipjasc'ij zvuk. hissing sound i s heard.)  5.  Mar'ja Alekseevna ( g l j a d i t v zerkalo, snadala ne poniraaja, potom s vbzrastajuSfiim udlvleniem). P. 36. (Mar j a Alekseevna (looking into the mirror* at f i r s t not.understanding, then with increasing amazement).)  6.  E l e k t r i c e s k i j svet, r e 2 u s d l j glaza. l i g h t , causing the eyes to smart).  7.  P. 12.  (Behind the  P. 35.  P. 38.  (The sharp  (The e l e c t r i c  Podajut r e p l i k i , ne sootvetstvujuScie ikh Seatam. P. 57. ((They give cues not corresponding to t h e i r gestures.)  8.  Gorvard (Ukazyvaja palkoj na strojajuScujusja dekoraciju). P. I49. (Gorvard (Pointing with a s t i c k at the decoration which is,being built ).)  9.  Zarubin (VozvraScaetsja k strojajuSeejsja d e k o r a c i l ) . P. 50. (Zarubin (Returns to the decoration which i s being built).).  .10* Gorvard (vytaskivaet i z karmana plenki, raskruclvaet i k h pared v i s jade j larapoj). P. 1|6<» (Gorvard (pulls f i l m s out of h i s pocket, unwinds themt before the.hanging lamp).)  89 G I I I (h) Present #ctive P a r t i c i p l e There were found only nine present active p a r t i c i p l e s i n the Fqhrtka molodostl (Section G I I I (h) - stage d i r e c t i o n ) . The • following p a r t i c i p l e s , padaluaclkh ( l ) . Sip.iasgj.1 (2),  SSSmM^Sl O),  gipjagglj (**), vozrastajugctm (5), precede  the nouns they modify, have no support f o r their verbal force, and appear rather as qua l i f t e r s having a d j e c t i v a l quality, Rezugci.1 (6) and sootvetstvu.1ufi6le (7) follow the nouns they modify, and are verbal i n force©  The verbalness of  re&igc'l.l (6) i s underlined by c o n t r o l l i n g a direct object, glazau while the verbal force of sootvetstvu.lugdle (7) is; supported by the associated phrase ikh l e s t am. The remaining two pa r t i c i p l e s . st rod a .1 ug6u.1us.1a (8) and stro3a1ugdeds.1a  (9). are both r e f l e x i v e , precede the nouns  they modify, and have no support f o r their verbal f o r c e , 1 Regardless of Vinogradov's observation on the present active r e f l e x i v e p a r t i c i p l e s , I t would be preferahle to judge these 2 p a r t i c i p l e s by the same standards as non-reflexive p a r t i c i p l e s , VlB.1a&e.i (10) i s an adjective which o r i g i n a l l y was a participle.  1. V, V. Vinogradov, pp. c l t . . pp. 273-4* 2. See the comment r e f e r r i n g t o that observation on p. 78 herein.  90 A IV Bat at vo Hlklt. Past Active P a r t i c i p l e 1«  Mad ocagora vsja v svetu, gljadela na vosedsikh dama v amazonke ••« P. 43* (From ahove the hearth, a l l i l l u m i n ated, a lady, i n riding-habit, was looking a t those who entered »•«.)  2»  i g r a l v karty - v nosy i l l v k h l j u s t , kogda proigravSego t a s k a i i za volosy. P. 51# .(•».. he played cards - "noser" or "rosea!", where they pulled the loser about by.the hair«).  3<>  On h y l ... ves* skucnyj i p l o s k i j , vysokhsij. (He was ... a l l boring and thin, withered©)  4«  Halevo sumeli vetly, obmjakSie, Sirokie, ogromnye. P. (To the l e f t r u s t l e d pulpy, hroad and huge willows*-)  5»  Kogda on voavrascalsja domoj, mokryj, odicavsij ... P. 55«> (When he was returning home, wet and wild looking ...)  6e  Portret nescastnogo pradeda v i s e l zdes* - toscij, vostronosyj staridok s zapavsimi glazaral; ...P. 17. (The p o r t r a i t of h i s unfortunate great grandfather was hanging here ••. - t h i n , with a pointed nose and with sunken eyes; • ••>)  7«  V sumerkakh vernulsja Viktor, posinevSlj ot kholoda i a raspukhsim nosom. Ev 4l«> (At t w i l i g h t V i c t o r returned, blue from cold and with a swollen nose.)  8.  H l k i t a nadal rasskazyvat' son pro kota, pro o z l v s i e portrety «,.. P. 4 2 . (Hlklta began to t e l l ahout his dream of a cat, and of p o r t r a i t s which had become a l i v e ...)  9®  Ona otvemulas* i s t a l a gljadet* v dernoe zamerzaee okno. P. 46. (She turned aside and began to look into the dark, frozen window.)  P. 9«> 58e  10* Snega pokrylls* tverdym nastom, po kotoromu l z z j a b s l e 1 golodnye v o l k i . . . . podkhodili po nodam k samoj usad*he© P. 48. (The snow was covered with the hard crust over which the frozen* hungry wolves ... used to approach d u r i n g the night r i g h t up to the farmstead©) 11* Ha serom, krupidatom, kak s o l * , snegu z e l t e l prostuplvSiji navoz. EV 54 » (On the grey> . c r y s t a l l i z e d l i k e s a l t , snow the protruding manure appeared yellow*)  91 12*  Skvoz* zamerzsie stekla l l l s j a b e l y j svet. P. 50. white.light poured through the frozen window.)  (A  13*  ... skhvatll kota za otstavsuju ko£u i svyrnul k dverl* P. 76. (*.. he grabbed the cat by loose skin and threw i t towards the door*) ••• i povel ego po zatikhBej jarraarkej mez"du vozov ... P. 95* (••• he l e d him over the now quiet market place, among the carts «••)  15*  *•• s otvrascenlera spljunul 1 u2e tol'ko togda pokosllsja znplyvSimi glazaml na N i k i t u . P. 89*. .(•-•• with disgust he spat and only then d i d he turn h i s watery eyes towards Nikita.)  16.  Po zagonu rae2du loSadej k h o d l l i t r i baskira v v y l l n j a v S i k h steganykh khalatakh ... P. 9k • (In the corral among the horses, three Bashkirs walked i n faded, q u i l t e d jackets • ••••)  17*  Viktor ... poSmygtval pokrasnevsim ot moroza nosom. P. 39* (Victor ... was twitching h i s nose, reddened from the frost*)  18.  N i k i t a s t o j a l na telege i v i d e l : vot zarosSlj ot samykh glas cernoj borodoj cygan, ... g l j a d i t v zuby bol'noj losadenke ... P. 93* (Nikita was standing on the.cart and saw a gypsy, covered up to the eyes with a black beard, ... looking at the teeth of the sick horse•*.*••)  19*  Vzgijanuv na .gustye, nacavs'le u2e pofievelivat * sja b r o v i materi ... P. 45* (Having looked up at the thick brows of h i s mother, which were already beginning to twitch • *•<)  2©.  .*.*.. zagonjali skotinu obratno v razfoukhsle navozom dvory. P* 55. (*•• they drove the c a t t l e back into the yards swollen from manure*)  21.  Po u2e provjadsemu sklonu on sbe2al k ovragu. P. 58*_ (Along the already wilted slope he ran down to the ravine.)  22.  ... i slezy b r y z n u l i i z ee zasijavSikh g l a a . P. .(•-•• and tears f e l l from her brightened eyes.)  23*  H i k i t a zabyl 1 drugoe: imenno - svoj son, vazocku na dasakh 1 golos, SepnuvSlj na ukho:„ ... P. 16. (And In addition H i k i t a forgot s t i l l another thing: namely - h i s dream, the l i t t l e vase on the clock, and a voice which had whispered into h i s ear: . . . - ) .  24*^  Vesta, potemnevsaja ot pota, Siroko dySala bokami ...  1  5  60*  92  25©  V sumerkakh vernulsja Viktor, posinevgij ot kholoda i • *» P« 41* (At t w i l i g h t V i c t o r returned, blue from c o l d and * . . ).  26,  Eto b y l i gradi, p r i l e t e v s i e s pervoj vesennej hurej *.. P» 54 • (These were rooks, which had a r r i v e d with the f i r s t spring storms «.•)  27*  • ••• s i d e i i , gradi, izmofcgie za nod' • P. 58* sat, having become wet during the night©)  28*  ©*« vesennie vegdi, pomjatye v sundukakh i ot simnego lezanija stavgie novymi, P. 64* (... the spring cloths, creased i n the trunks and from winter storage having become new*)  29*  ••-*.* i uvidel dervjaka, do poloviny zalezSego v gdelku podokonnika, ••• P. 75* (*•• and he saw a worm* which had h a l f crawled into the crack of the window s i l l , ..*),  30*  Vse vegdi, privykSie na zimu le&a-t* na svoikhraestakh ... P« 64* ( A l l the things, accustomed to l i e i n t h e i r own places f o r the winter •• ••)  31*  Anna podespevgaja neponjatno otkuda, Sepnula emus P. 69* (Anna, having rushed up, no one knew from where, whispered to hints , * * ) - *  32*  *.. glaza —'pohelevfiie, raskrytye uzasom. P* 59* (*•• eyes - having become white, wide open from t e r r o r * )  33*  mozno byl© dumat* • ••: «*. o kakom - to, v kleendatcm sjurtuke, s dlinnym nosom, vednom n e k t o , smegaygemi t r i sorta kofe i l l kupivgem stol'ko-to/zolotnikov medi ... P. 49* (*•• one could think;*..s ••• of someone i n an o i l s k i n frock-coat, with the long nose, an external "somebody", who had mixed three v a r i e t i e s of coffee or who had •bought so and so many "zolotniks" (16th part of a former Russian pound) of copper • • * ) _ .  34*  No nastojagdij c e l i t e l * p r i g e l derez t r i n e d e l i : s i l ' n y j syroj veter s juga, zakutavgij polja sad i usad'hu ... Po 52. (But the r e a l healer came i n three weeks: a strong, humid wind from the south, having enveloped the f i e l d s , garden and farm *..)  35*  I snova u v i d e l ••• - golubja, prosterSego k r y l ' j a * P* 68© (And he again saw ... - the pigeon which spread i t s wings.)  36.  Daze Arkadij Ivanovid, nadevgij dernyj dolgopolyj s j u r t u k i korohom sto•JavSuju nakrakhmalennuju ruhalku, ne znal ... P* 35* (Even Arkadlj Ivanovid, having put on a black, long-skirted frock and a s t i f f starched s h i r t that stood l i k e a box, d i d not know *.*)  H  (.,.  rooks  the  w  93  37e  - losadi ... s potemnevsej lin-javse;j Serstju. C- horses «>.. with darkened faded hair.)  P. 55» .  38.  ... naSel pravoe uskol'zavsee stremja ... P. 82. (..,. he found the elusive right s t i r r u p •••)  39*  ... kogda N i k i t a razdevalsja, prokhodivsaja mlmo matuska vzgljjanula na nego, - ... 1 vdrug nezno ulybnulas*, provela ladonVju N i k i t e po volosam 1 skazala J ... P. 56. when N i k i t a was undressing, h i s mother, who; was passing hy, looked up at him, - ... and suddenly, tenderly, smiled, passed her hand along N i k i t a * s h a i r and said: ...)  !}0.  «... pokryisja cernymi, otlivavSimi voron'im krylom per'jami ... P. 77» (••• he covered himself with black feathers, giving an impression of a raven's wing ».) OJ  41.  ... s trevogoj smotrela na garcovavSego vdaleke N i k i t u . P. 83. (...she looked with alarm at N i k i t a , who was galloping im the distance.)  h2o  ... 1 ruga1 pomogavSego emu Artema: ... P. 81. cursed Artema who was helping him: •••)  («.. he  h3. ffiokryj dvor b y l pokryt sinimi* rjabivSlml pod vetrom luzami. P. 57. (The wet yard was covered with blue puddles that were r i p p l e d by the wind.) hif.  1 vse vmeste p o l e z l i na bol'Soj sugrob, l e z a v s i j poperek u l l c y ... P. 2 0 . (••• and a l l together climbed onto a b i g snowdrift, which was l y i n g across the street  !|5*  N i k i t a g l j a d e l na kosmatu-ju nedovol'nuju voronu, letevsuju ot gumna na skotnyj dvor... P. 28. ( N i k i t a was looking at a d i s s a t i s f i e d dishevelled raven, which was f l y i n g from the threshing barn toward the c a t t l e yard.)  1}6.  Ruka ego, derzavsaja v karmane bumaz'ku, vspotela, ... P. Ul« (His hand, which was holding a paper i n h i s pocket, was i n a sweat,'..,)  i|7.  VolpdJa, s t a r S i j , smuglyj kurdavyj mal*3ik, s i d e y s i j , podzav nogi, na perine, skazal ... P. $6. (Volodja, the older, tanned and curly headed boy, s i t t i n g on the eiderdown with h i s legs pressed under him, said ...).  Jj8.  N i k i t a posel k mal'.elkam, igravsimi v 3u5ki, ... P. 69* (Nikita went to the boys who were playing "pigs" (game), ...)  1J9»  Artema, kidavsego s vozov snopy . devkl pojmali rae2du teleg ... P. 96, (Artem?* who was throwing sheaves from the wagons ... was:caught, among the carts by the g i r l s ....}  9k  50.  Vzgljadyvajas*, N i k i t a r a z l l d a l v etoj volnujuSdej sineve jto plyvuSdlj dom, to derevo, visevsee nad zemlej, to ... P o 93o (Looking up, N i k i t a distinguished i n t h i s wavy hlueness, now a f l o a t i n g house, now a tree which was hanging ahove the ground, now •.•)  51«  • •• progovoril Arkadij Ivanovld, uze davno smotrevSij dto vydelyvaet s kartoj N i k i t a . P. h 8 v (... said Arkadij Ivanovld, who had already been watching f o r a long time what N i k i t a was doing with the card.)  52.  Arkadij Ivanovlc lovko pojmal raukhu, uporno norovlvSuju sest* emu na nos, -.P. 80. (Arkadij Ivanovid dexteriously caught the f l y which stubbornly was ? try ing: :t 6 slt'idn hisonose, -)  53.  Arkadij 2e Ivanovlc, linovavfiij tetradku, ... , progovoril skorogovorkpjs ... P . 2k• (Arkadij Ivanovlc', indeed, having drawn l i n e s on the writing pad, ... , he s a i d quickly: ...)  5k •  ... v y s k o d i l k o t , V a s l l l j V a s i l V v i d , l o v l v s l j mysej v b l b l l o t e k e . P. ZJ3. (.«... out jumped the cat, V a s t l i j V a s i l ' e v i d , which had.been hunting mice i n the library.}  55.  Akhllka* n e l j u b i v S i j suety, ... so z l o s t i uSel ... P . 6i|« (Akhilka, who d i d not l i k e a fuss, ... l e f t In anger . . . J  56.  Drevnij s t a r l k , v a r i v s i j plugarjam kaSu, podoSel k vozam, ... P . 92. (The ancient man* who was cooking porridge f o r the ploughmen, approachedV.the carts, ...)  57*  preletela trojka s u v a l i s t o j rys* ju Lorda Bajrona, zadlravsego raordu ... P . 93» (••• s.three-horse team flew by with the sidewise trot,of Lord Byron, which was holding i t s head back • ••)  58.  Vsled im zasmejalsja k h i t r y j starlcok, prodavavSij gorfikl. P . 9k • (After them the crafty old man, who was s e l l i n g pots, laughed.)  59.  ... z a s t u c a l l tjazelye sagl kuderov vnoslvSlkh demodany ... 100. (.... there began to thud the heavy steps of the coachmen who were carrying the suitcases ..•••}  60.  Svet ot nee Sel gustoj, t e p l y j , pakhnuvglj khvoej ... P . 36. (The l i g h t from It (Christmas tree) was dense, warm, and was scented from the pine needles-•••)  61.  Arkadij Ivanovid, i d a v S i j vse S t i dni pis'ma i z Samary i ne doztlavdi j s j a , s i d e l pod kljudora u sebja v komnate ..... P . 6L|. (Arkadij Ivanovld, who was awaiting a l e t t e r from Samara a l l these days, and who had not received one, sat i n h i s room behind locked doors ..»)  95 62*  Ot e l i vejalo kh01odom> no ponemnogu slezavSiesja vetvy ee o t t a j a l l «.. P* 35» (Prom the f i r - t r e e wafted a c o l d breath, hut slowly i t s sagging branches melted*.*)  63*  V arabarakh lopataml peregonjall zadokhgljsja khleb . P. 63© (In the grain sheds they were shovelling the musty smelling grain ...)  6b/e  ... na mgnovenie dernymi odertanijaml p o j a v i l l s ' nlzko naklonlvgiesja derev'ja* P. 88* (... f o r a moment there appeared, i n black silhouette, low bending trees*)  65*  vorony k h o d i l i vokrug obna&ivsejsja iz-pod snega padall. P. 55* (••• the ravens were walking around the carrion which was protruding from out of the snow*)  66*  Skada po zelenomu lugu za otbtvgejsja ot tahuna kobylenkoj, Mlgka k r l d a l : ... P. 78* (Running over the green meadow a f t e r the l i t t l e mare which had parted from the herd, Ml Ska was shouting: ...)  67.  ooo u kazxlogo igroka v.ladoni stolblkom s l l p d i e s j a semlgnikl, t r e s n i k i . P. 53* (•••• every player had In his hand two and three ruhle coins, which were stuck together In a column*)  68*  Arkadlj Ivanovid, zxlavgij vse e t l dnl pls*ma Iz Samary 1 ne dozaavSljsja, s i d e ! pod kljudom u s e b j a v komnate ... P. 6*r. (Arkadij Ivanovid, who was awaiting a l e t t e r from Samara a l l these days, and who had not received one, sat In his room behind-"locked doors *..)  69*  **. gde naverkhu polukruglye dvojnye stekla, Inogda ne proteravgiesja, b y l i zatjanuty pautlnoj* P* 86. where the h a l f round --double panes, which were at times l e f t unwiped, were covered over with cobwebs at the top.)  70.  «... krida 1 kolotja verevkaml losadej shivglkhsja v kudu. P. 60. (... shouting and beating with ropes the horses Which had bunched together*)  71.  v arke s belyml kolonkaml, otrazavgimisja v polu, pojavilas' devodka . P . 99* (•*. In the arc with white small columns which were r e f l e c t i n g i n the floor, there appeared a l i t t l e g i r l ..»)  72*  U kryl'ca na slegka dymlvgejsja kude zoly Sarok 1 Eatok rydall.drug na druga. P. 33. (Near the porch, on l i g h t l y smoking p i l e of ashes, barok and Eatok snarled at each other*)  73*  "Vot ty smeeasja - g o v o r i l on matugke, smejavgejsja do slez *.. P. 47. ("There you are laughing," he s a i d to mother, who was laughing to tears .*•)  96 A  IV  Past Active P a r t i c i p l e The  past active p a r t i c i p l e s of the Detstvo M k l t y  (Section A IV) are, f i r s t of a l l , segregated from the reflexive participles.  past  Then the members of each group are  divided Into perfective and imperfective  subdivisions.  These  subdivisions are further arranged according to t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the word order. The f i r s t two perfective p a r t i c i p l e s , vogedglkh ( l ) and prolgravsego (2)-§  are-used nominally.  VysokhsT.t (3), pbmjak-  Sle (i|) and odicavgi.i (5) are used predicatlvely and coupled with other adjectives. verbalness, vized.  are  There Is no support f o r t h e i r  and they appear to be almost completely a d j e c t i -  The following perfective p a r t i c i p l e s precede the nouns  they modify, and have l i t t l e or no support f o r t h e i r verbalness, and can probably be considered as a d j e c t i v i z e d or nearly adjectivized. (7),  They are as follows:  zapavsimi (6). raspukhsim  oSlvgle (8). zamerzgee ( 9 ) . izz.iabsle (10). prostupivsi.i  ( l l ) , zamerzsie (12). otstavsu.lu (13), zatlkhgei (Hi), zapLvvslmi (15), vylln.1avsikh (16) and potemnevSe.1 (37). ing  The  follow-  perfective p a r t i c i p l e s also precede the nouns they modify  and appear to he verbal:  pokrasnevsim (17), zarosglj (18).  nadavgie (19), razbukhgle (20). prov.1adgemu (21). zasl.lavglkh  (22). Various factors support the verbalness of the above-  mentioned p a r t i c i p l e s .  Pokrasnevglm (17) and zarosgi.1  (18)  97  are associated with prepositional phrases, ot moroza and qt samykh glaz. respectively.  Hacavgle  (19) 1 B associated with  an i n f i n i t i v e phrase poSevellvat* s.1a. RazbukhSle (20) i s connected with the instrumental case -navozom.-  Erov.ladsemu  (21) i s also verbal, and i t s verbalness i s underlined by the adverh u&e preceding i t .  In t h i s group only zasi.iavglkh (22)  lacks external support. The following perfective p a r t i c i p l e s follow the nouns they modify:  Sepnuvgl.1 (23), potemnevsa.1a (2k). poslnevgLi  (25), p r i l e t e v s l e (26), IzmokSie (27), stavgie (28). zalezgego (29).  M l these p a r t i c i p l e s are verbal i n force, and t h e i r  verbalness Is emphasized by associated prepositional phrases. The remaining perfective p a r t i c i p l e s following the nouns they modify are:  privy kg ie (30), oodospevgarla (3l)» pohelevgie  (32), smegavgem (33), kuplvgem (33), zakutavgi.1 (3k) » prostersego (35). and nadevgi.1 ( 3 6 ) . Privykgie (30) i s associated with a prepositional phrase na zlmu and the i n f i n i t i v e phrase l e z a t Podospevgala  9  na svoikh mestakh.  (31) Is verbail In force, and i t s verbalness i s  supported by the phrase nepon.jatno otkuda.  Pobelevgle (32)  i s yoked together with raskrytye. which, In turn, i s modified by the instrumental u|aspm.  Kuplvgem (33). zakutavgi.1 (3k)»  prostergego (35) and nadevgi.1 (36) are a l l verbal i n quality . .1: .  since they govern direct objects. 1. I should stress again the importance of governance of direct objects f o r preserving the verbalness of these part i c i p l e s . On t h i s point see: S. G. Berezkov, "K. voprosu o perekhode p r i c a s t i j v p r i l a g a t e l * n y e . Lenlngradskli. gosudarstvenny.1 pedapopideskl.1 Inst 1 tut 1m. A. I . Gercena. Udenye z a p i s k l . Kafedra russkogo .lazvka. Leningrad, 1939, XX, p. 80.w  98  Referring to the group of past a c t i v e perfective p a r t i c i p l e s , i t w i l l he noted that the p a r t i c i p i a l forms end e i t h e r 1 i n - v s i j or -sl.1.  Vinogradov says that the past p a r t i c i p l e s  ending i n -vsi.1 express the verbal Q u a l i t y more c l e a r l y than the p a r t i c i p l e s having the ending -§ii.  The type of past  perfective p a r t i c i p l e s adding the -sl.1 ending to the base are unproductive, i n other words they have become i s o l a t e d from the system of verbal forms. to the adjective.  This fact causes: an approximation  Vinogradov also states that the t r a n s i t i v e -  ness or intransitiveness of the verb should be taken into consideration, and that the great majority of the a d j e c t i v i z e d past p a r t i c i p l e s r e f e r p a r t i c u l a r l y to the forms ending i n -§11 of perfective i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs (e.g. padSl3. umerSi.1. 2 _ . ....... e t c . ) . Our examples, however, seem to contradict Vinogradov's observations. We w i l l now discuss the group of past active imperfective participles.  The following past active imperfective p a r t i c i p l e s  precede the nouns they modify:  sto.1avgu.1u (36), lin.lavsej  (37), uskol'zavgee (38), orokhodivsaja (39), otlivavsiml 0i0). garcovavSego • •  ( h i ) , pomogavSego (1*2), r l a b l v s i m i (h3). 3  t  . '  StoJavsu.1u (36), although i t precedes the noun i t modifies, 1.  V. V. Vinogradov, op. c i t . pp. 275-6.  2.  I b i d . , p. 27b.  3. The function of stolavguju seems to be that of an a u x i l i a r y almost equivalent to "to be", nakhodit s.la or b.vt . On t h i s point see: P. B i c f l l l . Die Funktion der P a r t i z l o l a l formen auf-gel.1 i n der russischen Litera-t-ursprache. Ins Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r slavische P h i l o l p g i e , L e i p z i g , .19*41, XXVII, Ho. 2, p. 25h» 8  1  99  i s verbal i n force and i t s verbalness i s underlined by the dependent adverbial instrumental case korobora.  Linjavgej  (37) i s the past active imperfective p a r t i c i p l e coupled the past active perfective p a r t i c i p l e potemneygei.  with  Both  p a r t i c i p l e s appear as q u a l i f i e r s of the noun gerst.iu and,  not  having any support f o r t h e i r verbalness, can be regarded as adjectival i n quality,  Uskol*zavgee (38) i s verbal i n f o r c e  even though i t precedes the noun stremja which i t modifies, At f i r s t sight one would rather expect the perfective form of t h i s p a r t i c i p l e instead.  The use of the imperfective  parti-  c i p l e which expresses a repeated a c t i o n i n past time underlines i t s verbal force,  ProkhodlvgaJa (39) i s verbal i n force, and  i t s verbalness i s supported by the adverb mlmo which follows it.  Qtlivavgiral (kO) i s also verbal i n force, and i t s verbal-  ness i s underlined by the associated instrumental case voron* im toy lorn.  Qarcovavgego (h 1) i s modified by the adverb  ydaleke. which helps to maintain i t s verbalness. (1*2) i s verbal i n force.  Pomogavgego  I t controls the dative case  emu.  Ejabivglmi (k3) i s governed by the prepositional phrase pod vetrom which underlines i t s verbal q u a l i t y . The following past active imperfective p a r t i c i p l e s follow the nouns they modify; derzavSa.la visevgee  le&avgij (kk)»  letevgu.1u (h5),  (L6). sidevgl.1 (hi), igravgim (U8>. kidavsego (1+9),  (56). smotrevgil  (53), l o v l v g i j (5k),  (51), norovlvguju  (52), Mnovavgl.1  lJublvSlJ (55), varivgl.1 (56), zadirav-  gego (57), prodavavgi.1 (58), vnosivgikh (59). paMinuvgi.1 and zdavgij ( 6 l ) .  (60)  100 The past active Imperfective a l l verbal In force. ness.  p a r t i c i p l e s just l i s t e d are  Various factors underline t h e i r verbal-  Legavfi-1.1 (44), letevsuriu (I45), dergavsaia (U6),  side vsi.1 (hi), IgravSim (48), kldavsego (49), visevsee  (50)  are modified by t h e i r respective associated prepositional phrases, and,  i n addition to that, the p a r t i c i p l e s numbered  k6 and 49 govern d i r e c t objects.  Smot rev Sl.1 (5-1) governs a  phrase object, dto vydelvvaet s kartoj Nikita.and i s reinforced by the adverb of time davno. controls the I n f i n i t i v e phrase, sest* emu (53), lovlvSl.1 (5i|), l.1ubivSi.1 (55), Sego (57), objects.  i t s verbalness  NorovivSu.1u  na nos.  LlnovavSiJi  varivSi.1 (56).  prodavavSl.1 (58), vnoslvSikh  (52)  zadirav-  (59) govern d i r e c t  Of those, lJublvSi.1 (55) governs a d i r e c t object,  but,because the negative form ne l.iublvSl.1 i s used, the associated d i r e c t object appears i n the genitive case, suety. PakhnuvSi.1 (60) controls the instrumental Mavsi.1 (61)  case, khvoej. and  controls the genitive case pls'ma.  I t s verbal-  ness i s underlined by the temporal phrase, vse e t i dni. We  s h a l l now  discuss our group of r e f l e x i v e p a r t i c i p l e s  which are subdivided arranged according  into perfective and imperfective, and ;  to t h e i r p o s i t i o n .  The  following past  active r e f l e x i v e p a r t i c i p l e s are of perfective aspect and precede the nouns they modify!  slezavS ie sj a (62 ) . 1  zadokhSlJsJa (63). naklonivSiesIa otbivSe.1s.1a (66),  slipSiesJa (67).  (64),  obna&lvSe.is.1a (65),  A i r of the above l i s t e d  p a r t i c i p l e s are verbal i n force, except zadokhSl.1 s.ia (63) which q u a l i f i e s the noun khleb and does not have any f o r i t s verbalness.  support  The verbal force of naklonlvSles.la  (64)  101 i s maintained by the adverb nlzko*  Qbnazivge.1 s.1 a, (65) and  Qtbivge.1s.1a (66) are associated with the prepositional phrases iz-pod snega and ot tahunq respectlvalv.,  Sllpgjes.ia (67) i s  verbal and i t s verbalness i s maintained by the instrumental ease stolbikom. The following past active r e f l e x i v e p a r t i c i p l e s are of perfective aspect and follow the nouns they modify! aozdavgi.1s.1a (68), proteravgles.la (69). sblvgitehs.1a (70), otrazavgimis.la ( 7 l ) . M l force.  these p a r t i c i p l e s are verbal i n  Do&davgj.1 sda (68) coincides with the negative  c i p i a l phrase which i t forms and which i s v e r b a l .  parti-  Proterav-  gles.la (69) i s the past active r e f l e x i v e p a r t i c i p l e used i n passive meaning.  Such usage of a r e f l e x i v e p a r t i c i p l e 1  only strengthen and underline i t s verbal character.  In  addition to that, i t s verbalness i s maintained by the ing adverb inogda.  can  preced-  SbivglkhsJa (70) and otrazavglmls.1a  (7l)  are both reinforced, as f a r as t h e i r verbalness i s concerned, by the associated prepositional phrases v, kudu and v polu  ,.  respectively. There are only two past a c t i v e r e f l e x i v e p a r t i c i p l e s of imperfective aspect.  They are dymlvgelsla (72), which has I t s 5  verbal force stressed by the adverb slegka. and sme.1avge.1s.1a (73) which i s also verbal i n force, i t s verbalness "being stressed by the associated p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrase, do s l e z .  1.  V/. V. Vinogradov, .©jo. c l t . . p. 274*  102 B IV Mioskve ugrozaet  vrag  Past Active P a r t i c i p l e 1.  U nikh potemnevfiieot u s t a l o s t i Ilea, ustalye glaza jasny i spokojny. P. 5kQ» (Their faces were darkened from fatigue, t h e i r t i r e d eyes were c l e a r and a t peace.)  2.  Bessmertnaja slava pogibsimi za Rodinu. P. 549. glory f o r those who died f o r t h e i r fatherland.)  3.  " E s l i hy russkie z n a l i svoi s i l y - nikto by ne mog borot'sja s nimi, a ot ikh vragov sokhranilis'hy koe kakie.ostatki" - tak p i s a l v XVI veke odin i z . p i s a t e l e j pobyvavSij v Moskve ... P. 5kS» ("If only the Russians knew t h e i r strength - no one could struggle with them and only some remains of their enemies would be preserved, " s o wrote, i n the 16th century, one of the writers who v i s i t e d i n Moscow ..•)  h.  Ostanovlennyj v e t i dnl, on imenno sejfias, zakhlebnuvSijsja v svoem nastuplenii, perejdet k oborone i ... P. 547* (Having been stopped during these days, p a r t i c u l a r l y how, he, having exhausted himself in: h i s attack, w i l l passkover to the defence and ...)  (Undying  103  B IV Past Active P a r t i c i p l e There were four past active p a r t i c i p l e s found i n the Moskve ugrozaet vrag (Section B- IV).  Three of them are per-  f e c t ive> and one i s imperfective, Potemnevsie ( l ) i s the past active p a r t i c i p l e of the perfective verb potemnet'. Although i t precedes the noun which i t modifies, i t i s verbal i n force and i t s verbalness i s underl i n e d by the prepositional phrase ot u s t a l o s t i . i s used nominally.  Pobyvav5l.1 (3) Is the past active p a r t i c i -  ple of the imperfective verb pobyvat'.  I t follows the word  odln. which i t modifies, and i t s verbalness  i s reinforced by  the associated prepositional phrase, v Moskve, si.1s.1a (k) section.  Poglbalm (2)  Zakhlebnuv-  i s the only r e f l e x i v e past p a r t i c i p l e of t h i s I t i s c l e a r l y verbal i n force, and i t s verbalness  Is underlined by the prepositional phrase, v svoem n a s t u p l e n l l .  id* C IV (a) Fafrrlka molodosti Past Acttve P a r t i c i p l e 1«  I on otorvet ot sebja zakoSenevsie e t i ruki ... P. lit* (And he w i l t tear from himself these numb hands •••)  2*  Zapisyvajte tol'ko moi slova Itak ••. my, zensciny, sdelavsie r e v o l j u e i j u ... P. i|2, (Take down only my words o . « And so . w e women who have accomplished a revolution ...)  105 C IV  (a)  Fast Active P a r t i c i p l e There are only two past active p a r t i c i p l e s of the Fahrika molodosti  (Section © IV ( a ) ) . Both are p e r f e c t i v e ,  2ak;odenevgle ( l ) precedes the object e t l ruici and seems to adopt the quality of an adjective,  Sdelavsie (2) follows  the noun which i t modifies and i t s verbalness hy governing a direct object revol.1uclju»  i s underlined  106 G IV  (b)  Paorlka molodost1 Past Active P a r t i c i p l e (Stage Direction) Mar*3a Alekseevna (surovo, no drognuvgim golosom), P«r 27, (Mar ja Alekseevna (sternly, but with a quivering voice),) Vkhodit Zaruhin, gdagol* s k i odetyj, blednyj, osunuvgijsja, P, 33e (Zarubin enters, dressed l i k e a dandy, pale, hollow-cheeked,) Uvldela obernuvsujusja k nej Mar'ju Alekseevnu, skhvatilas za gcekl, sela na p o l . P, 38, (She has seen Mar*ja Alekseevna, who has turned toward her, she has seized h e r s e l f by the cheeks and sat on the f l o o r , )  1Q7 c iv  (b)  Past Active P a r t i c i p l e The following three past active p a r t i c i p l e s of the Fabrlka molodostl (Section C IV (h) are taken from parts d e a l ing with stage d i r e c t i o n .  They are a l l perfective.  Drognuvgim ( l ) i s a d j e c t i v a l i n q u a l i t y .  I t precedes the  noun golosom. which It modifies, and has no support f o r i t s verbal force.  The remaining two p a r t i c i p l e s are r e f l e x i v e .  They are oaunuvgl.1s.ia (2) and obernuvsu.1u8Ja (3) .  Osunuv-  gj.1s.ia (2) has no support f o r i t s verbalness and appears t o he coupled with the adjective bledny.1 and past passive p a r t i c i ple odetyj. I t seems t o have the same degree of a d j e c t i v a l quality as bledny.1 and odetyj. Qbernuvgu.1us.1 a (3) Is c l e a r l y verbal i n force, although I t precedes the noun which i t modifies, and i t s verbalness i s reinforced by the prepositiona l phrase, k, ne.1.  108 A V Detstvo H i k l t y Eresent Pass ive Part i e i pie !•  Arkadij Ivanovld b y l nevynosimyi Selovek. P-. 8. Ivanov16 was an unbearable man.)  (Arkadij  2.  Dora, krome etoj koranaty, s t o j a l zakolocennyj, neobltaemyji. P. 17 • (The house, except f o r t h i s room, was boarded up, uninhabited.)  3.  ... bol'Soj belyj bant v voloeakh, i Sest* pySnykh lokonov 8 bokov ee Ilea, toze sejcas neuznavaemogo, s p ^ k a H e * na khuden*kie p l e c i . P. 35» a large white bow i n her h a i r and s i x f l u f f y c u r l s from the sides of her face, which 5 was also at t h i s time unrecognizable* were f a l l i n g 6nto her slender shoulders.) ' " ( • • • •  if.  Ogljadyvalis* na raskrytye v nevidimyj sad balkonnye d v e r i . P. 88. (They looked at the doors of the balcony opened into an i n v i s i b l e garden.)  5.  ... kacalis* nevidiraye versiny. tpps were swaying.)  6.  y i k t o r b y l nezavisimyj i rassejannyj. P. 100. was independent and absentminded.)  7.  ... nezavisimyj nosik b y l gordyj i 6u2foj ... P. 101. (••. the i n d e p e n d e n t l i t t l e nose was proud and distant • •«)•  8.  Batjufiki rodimye. ... P. 62.  9.  - Ty dolmen sebe l j u d i , kak P i p i n volej ... P. 50. to H i k i t a , "that distinguished by  P. 88.  (...  (-•••' i n v i s i b l e (Victor  Dear Fathers 2 ...)  usvoit*, - g o v o r i l on H i k i t e , - 6to takie K o r o t k i j , o t l i d a l i s * nepokolebimoj ("You must understand," he was saying such people l i k e P i p i n the Short were an uncompromising w i l l •••)  10. Perednij, oboradivajas', 6to-to, vidiroo, k r i d a l ... P. 58. (The one i n front, turning, was apparently shouting something. ..) 11. ... nevidimo v solnecnom svete p e l l prosten'kimi golosami zavoronki ... P. 83. (... i n v i s i b l e i n the.light of the sun, the larks sang with simple voices ...)  109  A V Present Passive P a r t i c i p l e Of the 11 examples l i s t e d i n the Detstvo N l k l t y (Section A V), nevynosim.v.1 (1), nezavisim.v.1 (6, 7) are potentia 1 de verbatives and not present passive p a r t i c i p l e s . neuznavaemogo ( 3 ) , nevldimy.1 (h)  NeobltaemyJ ( 2 ) .  and nevldlmye (5) can he  regarded as either p a r t i c i p l e s or potentials. l i s t e d are derived from imperfective verbs.  A l l the ahove Rodlmve (8) can  he derived either from an imperfective or perfective verb. Nepokolehlmo.i (9) i s derived from a perfective verb. The remaining two, vidimo (10) and nevldimo ( l l ) , are adverbs formed from potential deverbatives, derived from imperfective verbs.  110 B V Moskve ugrozaet vrag Present Passive P a r t i c i p l e Hot a single present passive p a r t i c i p l e was found i n the Moskve ugrozaet vrag (Section B V ) .  Ill  C V (a) Fabrika molodoatl Present Passive P a r t i c i p l e 1.  Hezavlslmoe.  Po 31*  (Independent.)  2.  Ja nevynoslmo stradaju.  3.  Ty umerla, staren'kaja Mafia, krotkaja, obizennaja ..... Neljublmaja ... P. 37. (You died, l i t t l e old Masa, gentle, Insulted .•• Unloved ...)  4.  Eto nelspravlmo.  P. 39.  (This cannot be corrected.)  5.  Eto nepostlzlmo.  P, hh.  (This Is unattainable.)  P. 33.  (I suffer unbearably.)  112 C V (a) Present Passive P a r t i c i p l e There are no present passive p a r t i c i p l e s i n the Fabrika molodostl (Section C V (a)) that function as such.  There  are, however, a few examples of potential deverbatives, which are as follows!  nezavlsimoe  (1). nevynoslmo (2) and  nel.1ublma.1a ( 3 ) , which are derived from Imperfective verbs; nelspravlmo  (h) and nepostigimo  (5), which are derived from  perfective verbs. I t should also be noted that there a r e m present passive p a r t i c l p e s i n the Fabrika molodostl (Section C V (b) - stage direction).  113 D V Miloserdl.la I Present Passive P a r t i c i p l e 1*  Okazalos*, dto j a V a s l l l j a Petroviea, nekotoraja pervonacal'naja suScnost *, emu odnomu prlnadlezaeca.ja, ••• - ne priznavaemaja Darvinom, a tem bolee vse3 etoj neponjatnoj d'javol'sSinoj, proiskhodjaScej v strane, dufia V a s l l l j a Petroviea. okazalas' srajatennoj 1 maloj do z a l o s t i . P. 2 * 2 5 . ( I t appeared that the " I " of V a s l l i j Petrovic, a certain.elemental substance belonging to him alone, unacknowledged by Darwin* and a l l the more by a l l t h i s incomprehensible devilry which was taking place i n the land, - the soul of V a s i l i j Petrovic appeared to be confused and p i t i f u l l y small.) M  M  j  2.  Ol'ga Andreevna, soprovoi&daeraaja sozalenlera i slezami znakomykh dam, uekhala v sanitaraom poezde na f r o n t . P. 430. (Ol'ga Andreevna, accompanied with sympathy and tears of the.ladies of her acquaintance, was departing i n the h o s p i t a l t r a i n f o r the front.)  3.  V a s i l i j Petrovic ecuvstvoval, kak cerez- e t i tonkie rebryski, dto dvigajutsja pod ego pal'cami, v kholodnoj temnote, v otsvetakh zaduvaemykh vetrom fonarej, skvoz Subu kosnulas', kol'nula v serdce grustnaja Mzn*, teplo 1 z a l o s t * . P. hhO.. ( V a s i l l j Petrovic f e l t * how through these t h i n l i t t l e r i b s that were moving under h i s f i n g e r s , i n the cold darkness, i n the r e f l e c t i o n s of the lanterns which were being blownby the wind, through the f u r coat sad l i f e , warmth and sorrow touched and pricked the heart.)  U»  Vyjdja i z zaSltogo doskami pod'ezda, okhranjaemogo v etot das clenomi domovogo komiteta ... P. 1*28. (Having come out from the boarded entrance which was being guarded, at t h i s time, by a member of the house committee•••)  Ill*  D V Present Passive P a r t i c i p l e There are only four present passive p a r t i c i p l e s In the Mlloserdl.la I (Section D V).  They are a l l a r t i c u l a t e d forms  and of imperfective aspect.  They belong to the type of im»-  perfectlve verbs, which are very productive i n the formation of present passive p a r t i c i p l e s , especially those which are 1  compounds. The following present passive p a r t i c i p l e s , CD,  priznavaema.ia  soprovo&daema.la (2) and zaduvaemykh ( 3 ) , follow the nouns  they modify.  They are verbal In force, and t h e i r verbalness  i s underlined by the associated InstrumentaIs of agent Darvinom. sozalenlem. and vetrom. respectively. 0khran.1aemogo (lij follows the noun pod*ezda which It modifies.  I t Is verbal i n force* and I t s verbalness i s  supported by t h e a s s o c i a t e d prepositional phrase v etot 6a a and the instrumental of agent (Slenom.  1. On t h i s point see: B. 3. I s t r l n a , "GrammatiSeskie zametkl", Lenlngradski.1 gosudaratvennv.1 pedagogiSeski.l Inst1tut ira. A. I . Geroena. Uganye zapiakl. Kafedra russkogo .lazyka. Leningrad" 1939, XX, .pp. 8-10.  E V Rukopis  1  na.idenna.1a pod krovat' .iu  Present Passive P a r t i c i p l e Eto krieat na ostrove S i t e r y e a r i , s&igaemye zazMvo P. 582. (This i s what the knights on the island of S i t e are shouting, while heing burnt a l i v e ©••) Rasbivaema-ja i unizennaja - voznikala vnov* kak trava posle posSara, - krepla i s i r i l a s * . P. 585, (Shattered and humiliated - i t was growing again l i k e grass a f t e r a f i r e , - gained strength and expanded.)  116  E V  Present Of the present  Passive  Participle  p a s s i v e p a r t i c i p l e s found i n the Rukools'  na.1denna.1a pod k r o v a t ' .1u ( S e c t i o n E V), szigaemye ( l ) i s d e r i v e d from the i m p e r f e c t i v e verb s a i g a t the group of verbs  1  which, belongs t o  (on -at,', - 1at'. - v a t ' , more o f t e n w i t h r  p r e f i x e s ) which are most p r o d u c t i v e i n r e s p e c t to forming 1 present  passive p a r t i c i p l e s *  I t Is a r t i c u l a t e d  the  in f o r c e ,  f o l l o w s the noun r y c a r l which i t m o d i f i e s , and I t s v e r h a l n e s s Is emphasized by t h e adverb z a z i v o * Razhlvaema.1a (2 ) i s the present the i m p e r f e c t i v e verb r a z b l v a t * . verbs  passive p a r t i c i p l e  I t belongs t o the group of  (on - y v a t * . - i v a t ' ) of which the p a r t i c i p l e s 2  from them are l e s s commonly used*  of  derived  I t s aspect-tense  meaning  here i s t h a t of repeated a c t i o n which i s u n d e r l i n e d by phrase, v o z n l k a l a vnov' kak t r a v a posle pozarab  The  the  intransl-  t i v e n e s s of t h i s p a r t i c i p l e makes i t s v e r b a l f o r c e more a l i v e *  1*  V. V. Vinogradov, oo.. c l t * .  2*  Ibid*,  p. 278*  p* 2?8*  117  A VI Detstvo H i k i t y Past Passive P a r t i c i p l e 1.  Za etoj rabotoj d e t i p r o s i d e l i ves* voder, pokuda L i l j a , opustiv golovu s izrajatym bantom na lokot , ne zasnula u s t o l e . P . 35. (Children were s i t t i n g at that work through the whole evening, u n t i l L i l j a , having dropped her head with i t s crumpled bow on her elbow, f e l l asleep at the table*)  2»  H l k i t a s e l za s t o l , ves' v Serai I'nykh pjatnakh i narysovannykh ro2ieakhv P. 9* (Nikita sat down at the table, which was a l l covered with inkspots and doodled faces*)  3*  I ottocennym karandasikomi podeerknul homer zadaci. P* 9* (And with a f i n e l y sharpened p e n c i l underlined the number of the problem.)  h*  . . . j sboku l e z a i polurazvernutyj papirus i gusinoe pero. P. 17* (*••; to the side there lay a h a l f u n r o l l e d papyrus and a goose q u i l l * )  5.  Mal'diki •*. p r o b r a l i s ' Seres povalennye zeltye kamysl •*.* P* 19* (The boys *.. made t h e i r ways through the f a l l e n yellow canes*)  6*  ••• had zanesennymi ometami i krysami, s v e t i l o mgllstoe solnce. P* 20. (••• on the snow-covered straw stacks and roofs, a misty sun was shining.)  7*  Tulup ego b y l raspakhnut, podnjatyj haranij vorotnik, Sapka, boroda ego i brovi b y l i v inee. P. 34* (His f u r coat was opened, h i s upturned sheep-skin c o l l a r and cap, his beard and brows were frosted.)  8*  V komnate pakhlo t e p l o j iStukaturkoj, vymytymi polami. P. 24* (The room sraelled of warm plaster and f r e s h l y washed f l o o r s . )  9.  ... ona leza la s zakrytymi glazami ... P. 26. was lying with her eyes closed *..)  (**..  she  10* Mal'diki poSli k kolodcu, kuda i z otvorennykh vorot vykhodili na vodopoj korovy. P. 29. (The hoys set out toward the well, where from the open gates cows came out for water.)  118 11*  V okne on u v i d e i dva s i n i k h udivlennykh glaza ... P. 29. (In the window he saw two s t a r t l e d hlue eyes ...)  12.  Na khodu N i k l f o r obernulsja i prostuzennym, krepkim golosora k r i k n u l zadnim vozam: ... P. 34 • (Nikifor, while walking, turned and shouted to the rear carts with a strong voice, husky from a cold: *.*.)  13*  Daze Arkadij Ivanovid nadevsij ... nakrakhmalenmuju rubasku, ne znal, ... P. 35* (Even Arkadij Ivanovic, having put on ... a starched s h i r t , d i d not know, ••••)  14©  By16 dudesno, kogda svetom peci osvescalis* ee sceka i pripodnjatyj noslk. P. 36. (It was wonderful when the l i g h t of the stove l i t up her cheeks and her l i t t l e , turned-up nose.)  15*  N i k i t e kazalos*, cVto on idet vo sne, v zakoldovanmom carstve. P. 38* (It seemed to N i k i t a that he was sleepwalking i n a bewitched kingdom*)  16*  Tol'-ko v  17*  P* 38. (Only i n an enchanted kingdom Is i t so strange**.) V a n ' k a — eernye u s i z a s v i s t a l v sognutyj palec. P. 39 • (Van ka-"Black Ears" whistled by putting a bent f i n g e r i n h i s mouth.)  zacarovannorai carstve  byvaet tak stranno ...  ,  18*  »•• iz-za zanesennykh ometov, so storony derevni, pokazalis* koncanskie. P. 39• (... from behind the snowcovered haystacks, front the d i r e c t i o n of the v i l l a g e , appeared the boys from the lower end of the village*,)  19*  »».. gde ot svetlo vySiSeennogo samovara s e l takoj par do potolka, 6to zapoteli okna. P. 27* (•»• where from the b r i g h t l y polished samovar so much steam rose to the c e i l i n g , that the windows were i n a sweat.)  20.  • •», to s bystro odisSennogo neba, i z sinej bezdny, l i l s j a prokhladnyj vesenij svet, ... P. 64. (..., thus from-the quickly cleared sky, from the blue abyss, poured a cool spring l i g h t , .*.*•)  21*  Klopik b y l ry£ij, khoroso vyciSdenmyj, ... merinok ,P* 81* (Klopik was a well-groomed bay, ... gelding  ...)  22*  GJisto odetye prokhoz'ie s udivleniem ogljadyvalia* na zaleplennye graz*ju ekipaSi. P. 98. (The cleanly dressed passers-by gazed with astonishment at the coaches covered with mud.)  23*  Sot s l d e l na Sisto vymytom polu ... P. 44• on the cleanly washed f l o o r • • • ) . ' .  (The cat sat  119 24*  Stepanida vnesla derevjannuju casku s baran'imi >'cerepami; ot nikh, z a s t i l a j a otvorocennoe l i c o strjapukhi, v a l i l pakhuclj par. P. 5h• (Stepanida brought i n a wooden howl with sheep s k u l l s ; from them arose an aromatic steam covering the averted face of the cook.)  25.  Eto b y l i graCi, p r i l e t e v S i e ... k razorennym gnezdara. P. 54. (These were the rooks who had flown ... to t h e i r demolished nests.)  26«>  - losadi ... s razdutymi iivotarai. with bloated b e l l i e s . )  27*  .... ukhodil on na gumno, gde ot poSatykh draetov mjakiny pakhlo khlebnoj pyl'ju ... P. 55. (...he used to take himself to the threshing f l o o r , where from the decaying stacks of chaff there was a sine 111 of g r a i n dust •  28.  ..., na polocke esce s prosloj oseni v a l j a l i s ' izgryzannaja derevjannaja lozka, butylka ... P. 56© (..., on the shelf there was s t i l l lying a gnawed wooden spoon and a bottle l e f t from last f a l l ....)  29.  S juga meSdu rasorvannykh tud p o j a y i l s j a i so strafinoj bystrotoj l e t e l na usad'bu o s l e p i t e l ' n y j lazurnyj klocok heba. P. 57» (Prom the south between the torn clouds there appeared, and with t e r r i f i c speed flew upon the homestead, a b l i n d i n g scrap of blue sky.)  30.  ... s t o j a l a , Siroko povodja razdutymi bokami karnauSkinskaja loSadenka - P. 59. (•••• there was standing Karnauskin's horse, heavily heaving her bloated sides -)  31.  V a s i l i j H i k i t ' e v i d B c u r l l s j a ot udovol'styija, ot vypitoj vodki, ... P. 60. ( V a s i l i j H i k i t ' e v i c blinked from pleasure, from; the vodka he had-drunk, ••••)  32.  ... 1 perednimi kopytami u d a r i l szadi v raskrytuju dokhu ... P. 63. (... and with i t s front feet h i t him from behind and got them caught i n h i s open fur-jacket • ••<)  33.  .... v i s e l a lampa s podvernutym sinim vonjucin* ogon'kora. P. 65. («., a lamp hung with a turned-down smelly.blue flame.)  3U»  Posle aautreni vernulis* domoj k nakrytorau s t o l u ... P. 68. (After the early service they returned home t o the table covered with food ....)  35.  ... s i d e l i devki ... v sitcevykh novykh, rastoporggennykh plat'jakh. P. 68. (... the maids sat ... i n s t i f f , new, cotton dresses.)  P. 55.  (~ horses ...  120 36.  i uglora podzatogo r t a za Septa l a : ... P. 69. (*«• and from the corner of her pursed mouth she whispered? ...)  37*  V sadu^ i z razogretoj zemli •*,*• l e z l a trava ... P. 7 0 * (In the garden, the grass was creeping ••• out of the warmed earth *•••)  38,  ... i s i l * n y j 2erebec legko pones dro2ki po nakatannoj doroge. P. 7 2 . (•.. and the strong s t a l l i o n pulled the droshky e f f o r t l e s s l y along the packed-earth road.)  39*  ••* 1 e razinutym kljuvom k i n u l s j a k 2eltukhinu, - P. 6 5 * (*.. and with h i s beak open he darted towards Zeltukhin.)  40.  Potom, soskodiv s raznuzdannoj losadi *•*, Mistea l l h o s a d i l s j a ... l i h o • P.* 7 8 * (Then, having jumped from the unbridled horse ».., Miska either sat down ... or • ••<)  4 1*  Odivlenna j a , razgnevannaja, Zivezda sarakhnula vbok . . . P. 7 9 * (Astonished and angry, Zvezda leaped to the side  42*  Vernulsja on k N i k i t a *.*• v y t i r a j a s iscarapannoj SSeki krov*. P. 7 9 * (He turned to N i k i t a ... wiping the blood from.his scratched face.)  43•  Prjamo v khvorost skinula prokljataja kobyleska, - P. 7 9 * (The cursed mare threw him right into the twigs, -)  44*  i trojka .*. zalivajas* podobrannymi bubencami, opisala ... polukrug ... P. 82. .(*,• and the three-horse team *.. ringing out with matched s l e i g h b e l l s , , - des- cribed a semi-circle •*.*.)  45*  **• l e t e l a ozaboc'ennaja bee was f l y i n g by* )  46.  Zaletelo koromyslo, trepesSa gljadelo izumrudnymi vypuc^nnymi glazami:-• JP* 8 4 * (A dragon-fly flew i n , and, cqulvering, looked, with bulging emerald eyes ...)  47.  ••*.* v z l e t a l i s v e t e l ispugannye gra6i *... P. 8 4 * . ( ; * • • the frightened rooks were f l y i n g up from the willows *..)  48*  «.. o t p r a v i l s j a odin guljat* v raskalennuju step*. P. 86. .(«.... he started out-to walk alone to the,hot steppe.)  49*  Wo vot v poluraskrytom okne, na podokonnike, p o j a v i l s j a Zeltukhin ... P. 8 7 . (But look! In the half opened window, on the windows!!!, Zeltukhin appeared *...<)  pcela.  P* 8 4 * (..* a worried  1231 50.  Sonnyj, izrajatyj golos otca s p r o s i l pospesno:... P. 87. (The sleepy, t i r e d voice of father asked quickly: -..•••)  51.  .... 1 v priotkrytuju dver* prosunulas' vsklocennaja horoda: ... P. 88, (... and Into the.partly opened door there was thrust a matted heard: ....)  52.  P o j a v i l s i a s balkona rastrepanny-j V a s i l i j N i k l t ' e v i c ... P. 88, (There appeared from the balcony a dishevelled V a s l l l d N l k l t * e v l 6 ...)  53«  - Vre& - Ispugannym sppotom progovoril otec ... P. 88, ("You are talking nonsense," said father, i n a frightened whisper ••.....)  54©  K. veceru nizkoe solnce skryloe' v raskalenno-j ragle, P. 88, (Toward evening the setting sun disappeared i n the hot haze.)  55«  d o l e t e l l ispugannye k r i k i g r a c e j . P, 88. .(.... frightened c r i e s from the rooks came t o them.)  56*  ... zazvenell razbitye stekla. paneis of glass t i n k l e d , )  57©  - Pojmi nakonec, cto ja edu, ctoby prodat* etu prokljatuju kobylu Zaremku. P. 91. (- understand once and f o r a l l * that I am leaving to s e l l that damned mare Zaremka,") ..  58.  Vot k h i t r y j staricok ugovarivaet ispugannuju babu kupit* gorSok P. 93, (There a crafty * old man i s urging a „ frightened peasant woman to buy a pot ,..)  59»  Povsjudu tordat podnjatye o g l o b l l vozov. wagon-shafts projected everywhere,)  60.  ... i pobe£al po utoptannomu kobyl*nomu polju k konskira zagonara, ,.. P, 94, (,.* and he set out across the trampled f i e l d of steppe grass to the horse c o r r a l , ...)  61.  SmorSSennyj staryj baSkir meSkom s k a t i l s j a s sedla 1 podoSel ... P i 95* (An old wrinkled bashkir s l i d o f f h i s saddle l i k e a sack and approached ....)  62.  V sumerkakh na pustynnykh sXatykh poijakh v i d n e l l s * borozdy pasni. P. 96. (Ait twilight one could see the plough furrows i n the empty harvested f i e l d s . )  63*  ... svirepo revet baraban, daleko slyfinyj v s t e p i , zret raskinutye-snopy, ... P. 96. •(.... the drum roars savagely, audible f a r off i n the steppe, - i t i s devouring the spread sheaves, ...)  P. 88, («•• the broken "  P. 94, (Raised  122 64»  ••• ozaboe'ennye l j u d i begut, prikryvaja rot vorotnikaml ot vetra, ... P. 100. (••• worried people are running, covering t h e i r mouths from the wind with t h e i r c o l l a r s •••••)  65*  Sueta, sum, vzvolnovannye razgovory. noise, agitated conversations.)  66.  Ho H l k l t a ... cuvstvoval sehja pojmannym plennikom ... P. 100. (But H l k i t a ... f e l t l i k e a captured prisoner  P. 100.  (Turmoil,  ...)  67.  "Ocon , ocen* sderaannyj kharakter" - kak govorlla pro nee Anna Apollosovna. P. 45* ("Very, very reserved character" - as Anna Apollosovna.used to say of her.)  68.  ... ivremja ot vremenl popravljal ocki, s t a r a j a s s k r y t etim sderzanmyj vzdokh. P. 86. (... and from time to .. time he straightened h i s glasses, t r y i n g i n t h i s way to hide a restrained sigh.)  69.  ... d r a l i s * na kustu prezrenmye voroh ! - P. 74. despised sparrows were f i g h t i n g i n the hush;;?-)  70.  Podtemnye merlny, opustlv s e i , hystro r v a l l ... P* 71. (The honored geldings, having lowered t h e i r necks, were quickly grazing .,..)  71*  Sonnyj, vstrevozannya, h r o d l l on po dvoru ... P. -55 • (Sleepy and anxious, he wandered around the yard »...-)  72*  ».. medlenno skakali pjatero verkhovykh na neosedlannykh losadjakh. P. 58. (.., f i v e horsemen slowly galloped bareback on horses.)_  73*  gde sneg b y l netronutyj, c i s t y l , ... P. 11. the snow was untouched, clean, •••)  74*  Vmesto spokojnogo, radostnogo derevenskogo razdol'ja sem* tesnovatykh, heob&itykh komnat, za oknom - gromykhajuSSle po bulyznlku lomovikl i spesasSie, odetye vse, kak zerasklj vrad i z Pestravki, Verlnosov, ozabocennye I j u d i begut, p r i k r i v a j a rot vorotonlkami ot vetra, *•• P. 100. (Instead of the quiet, happy v i l l a g e ease, seven small uninhabited rooms, through the window the carters r a t t l i n g ; over the cobblestones and hurried, worried people, who are a l l dressed l i k e the governmental doctor, Verinosov, from Pestravka, are running covering t h e i r mouths from the wind with t h e i r c o l l a r s •••)  73*  H l k i t a y i d e l ... dva visjasc'ie lokona 1 mezdu nimi dvlgajuSdijsja konSik cut *-cut * vysunutogo jazyka ... P. 28. (Nikite saw two hanging.locks and between them the moving t i p of a barely protruding tongue ...)  9  9  9  9  •(*... the  (•••  where  123  7 6 N a sanjakh, s priprja&enmymi Bzadi vtorymi salazkaml, lesala ... (lodka). P. 34* (On the s l e i g h , with a second sled.harnessed to i t , lay ...(the boat)•) 77•  V raskrytom naste£' karetnike zakladyvali t r o j k u v koljasku. P. 811, (In the wide open shed they were hitching three horses to the carriage.)  78.  ... nad spelyml, koe-gde uze Bzatyml khlebami ... plaval o r e l . P. 90. (... above the ripened grain, already harvested here and there ...an eagle was g l i d i n g about.)  79*  - vytas'Sil i z karmana smjatuju, sloSennuju v vosem* raz humaSku ... P. kk* (- he pulled out of h i s pocket crumpled paper, folded eight times .....)  80.  Sonja, s vySderblennym ot postojannogo peregryzanlja n i t k i perednim zubom ... P. k9» (Sonja, whose front tooth was notched from the continual b i t i n g through of thread ...)  Si.  - on podnimal knigu s zasunutym v seredinu ee pal'cem, P. 30. (- he was r a i s i n g the book into the middle of which he had thrust h i s finger, -)  82.  ... reka vykhodila i z beregov, k r u t i l a l'diny, vydrannye a kornem kusty ... P. 57. (••• the r i v e r o v e r f l o w e d I t s banks, whirled chunks of i c e and bushes which had been p u l l e d out hy the roots •••)  83.  V/ stolovoj, v prldvinutom k kruglomu s t o l u ogromnom kozanom kresle, s i d e l otec ... P. 60. ( i n the dining room, father was s i t t i n g i n a huge leather chair which had been drawn up to the round table •...)  8Z4.  daza na stene prikolotye k oho jam, k r a s n e l l bumaznye rozany. P. 68. (... even on the wall, pinned to the wallpaper, paper roses shone red.)  0 # a  83*  ... i on upal 1 z a b i l s j a v ugol, na prizatye k zemle l i s t * j a oduvandika. P. 7k• (••••• and he f e l l and squeezed into the corner upon the leaves of a dandelion which were pressed to the ground.)  86.  Na prudu, vrezanhaja v tuskluju vodu, s t o j a l a lodka, ... P. 89. (In the pool, engraved i n the murky water, stood a boat, ...)  87.  Posredine zala s t o j a l ogolennyj ot s k a t e r t i ... obedennyj s t o l . P. 87. (In the center of the h a l l there stood a dinner table bare of c l o t h ...)  88.  ... cygan, v raskrytom na goloj grudl sinem kaftahe ... g l j a d i t v zuby bol'noj losadenke. P. 93» (•'•• a gyp ay i n a blue caftan, open at the bare chest ... i s examining the teeth of the sick horse.)  89.  ... idet paren* v razodrannoj na piece goluboj rubakhe ... P« 9k* (.•••• there goes a l a d i n a blue s h i r t torn at the shoulder ....)  90.  ••• mozno bylo dumat' zarzavlennykh, s dokhlymi mygarni bassejnakh ... P. k9* (*•• one could think of rusty reservoirs with dead mice ...)  91.  Za otkrytpj zagorodkoj s i d e l vsklokofcennyj, s opukhgim licom, poStmejster ... P. 89. (Behind the opened p a r t i t i o n sat the dishevelled postmaster with a swollen face •••)  92.  ... t a g c i l i s * perevernutye werkh lemekhami plugi ... P. 92. (....there dragged ploughs with upturned ploughshares •••)  93.  Me2du ogromnykh potoloenykh balok, zasizennykh golubjami, v a l j a j u t s j a starye, prodrannye, s ogolennyml pruzinami s t u l * j a ... P. 25* (Between the huge c e i l i n g j o i s t s , covered with pigeon droppings, there-were thrown around old torn chairs with bared springs ...)  9k•  Zdes* vdol' sten s t o j a l i pokrytye p y l ' j u skafy ... P. 17» (Here along the walls there were cupboards covered with dust ••) 0  95- V sadu s t o j a l i pokrytye ineem rozovatye derev'ja. P. 28. (In the garden were reddish trees covered with hoar-frost.) 96.  H i k i t a ... g l j a d e l na raspisannye morozom stekla. P. kQ* (Hikita ... looked at the windows painted with f r o s t . )  97*  V. bol'soj prikho2ej, osvegeennoj gorjagcej pefi'ju ... sidela L i l j a ... P. h i . (In the large antechamber, l i t up by the burning stove, ... L i l j a was s i t t i n g ...)  98.  Cisto odetye prokhoiie s udivleniem ogljadyvalis* na zaleplennye g r j a z ' j u ekipazt. P. 98. (The cleanly dressed passers-by gazed with astonishment at the coaches covered with mud.;  99*  Skvorca p o s a d i l l na podokonnik raskrytogo v sad i z a t j a nutogo mariej okna. P. Ik• (They put the s t a r l i n g on the s i l l of the gauze-covered window which opened into the garden.)  100. ... vsegda vsera udivlennye ljaguSki ... P. 71. always astonished at everything <•••)  (•*• frogs,  125 101.  «•• eredi kol'cora zakrudennykh, pakhucikh stru2ek Pakhom vystrogal d v e d o s k i i detyre no2kl; ... P. 7. (•••among scented shavings, curled i n l i t t l e rings* Pakhom had cut two hoards and four legs; * . . . ) .  102.  H l k i f o r , korenastyj s t a r i k , legko s e l v merzlykh, obmotannykh verevkami valenkakh sboku sanej. P. 34. (Hikifor, a thick-set o l d man i n frozen f e l t hoots, wrapped with strings, walked easily beside the sleigh*)  103*  Cerez, lu21, po izmjatoj buroj trave tjanulas* navoznaja, ne ysja eSde s^dennaja do2dem doroga. P. 57. (Across the puddles along the storm-crumpled grass, stretched the crude road which was not yet completely eaten up by the rain.)  104*  U Nikity zaSdipalo v gorle ot etikh neobyknovenno grustnykh, sejdas im vydumannykh slov. P, 48. (Hikita*s throat began to p r i c k l e because of these unusually'sad „ words which he had just thought up*)  105*  Sergej Ivanovld nadel obsypannye mukoj perdatki ... P* 82. (Sergej Ivanovld put on the gloves which were covered with f l o u r ••••)  106*  *.. skvoz* dudesno raspisannye serebrom zvezdy i lapdatye l i s t ' j a s v e t l l o solnce. P. 7. (••• through the wonderful s i l v e r s c r o l l e d stars and webbed leaves shone the sun.)  107*  •*., uvidel, kak tja£elo o t v o r i l a s ' obitaja vojlokom dver*, ... P. 25* (*.., he saw with what d i f f i c u l t y the door, padded over with f e l t , opened, ...)  108*  U s t o l e s i d e l i i g r o k i •*. s rasdesannyml maslorn. volosarai. P. 53, (At the table sat the players ... t h e i r hair made sleek with grease.)  109*  Dva malen*kikh, Izmazannykh kvasnoju guidej mal'dika, g l j a d e l i na losad'. P. 89. (Two small boys smeared with kvass sediment ... were gazing at the horse.)  110.  V nebol'som, okleennom belym, soversenno pustom zale bylo svetlo, pakhlo masljanoj kraskoj, na blestjaSdem krasenom polu u steny s t o j a l i dve k i t a j s k l e vazy ... P« 99. (In the smallish empty h a l l , papered i n white, i t was l i g h t and smelled of o i l paint; on the shiny, painted f l o o r by the wall there stood two Chinese vases •».) ~  111*  ... ni2naja doska s perednego kraja - s nosa srezannaja, ... P. 7» (•••• the bottom board from the front - from the nose - was trimmed, •••')  •••  126 112*  Odno Iz pi sera "bylo raalen'koe ... nadplsannoe bukvami "Peredat' N i k l t e . " P. 90. (One of the l e t t e r s was small ... Inscribed with the words - "For N i k i t a . ) M  113.  ... trava byla sedaja, tronutaja Ineem. grass was gray, touched with f r o s t . )  P. 97. (••• the  114.  ... i on khodit ves* rascarapannyj. he goes around a l l scratched up.)  115.  Gasy v kabinete u deduskl stodat, slomannye. P. 42. (The clock In the grandfather's den stood broken.)  116.  Deti s t o j a l i nepodvi2no, potrjasennye. P. 36. (The children were standing motionless, shaken.)  117.  N i k i t a vozvrasSalsja na svoj konec, vozvolnovannyj, razgorjaeennyj, posmatrivaja s kem by eSce s k h v a t i t s j a . P. 22. (Nikita was returning to h i s own side, excited and flushed, looking around to see with whom else he could grapple.)  118.  ... gde sneg yokrug b y l 2 e l t y j , obledenelyj 1 lstoptannyj ... P. 18. (... around where the snow was yellow, trampled and turned to ice ..•)  119.  Dora> krome etoj komnaty, s t o j a l zakolocennyj, neobitaemyj.P. 17. (The house, aside from this room, was nailed up and uninhabited. -)  120.  L i c o u nego bylo smuscennoe. embarrassment.)  121.  - Ilea u otca 1 matuSkl b y l i ozabo5ennye; ... P. 86. (- father's and mother's faces showed anxiety; ..,)  122.  N i k i t a zdes* - v polskakh L l l i , pokhlsdennoj kovarno ... P. 51.' (Nikita i s here - i n search of L i l j a who had been c r a f t i l y kidnapped ...)  123.  ... mal'filk, zakutannyj krest-nakrest v materinskij platok.. P. 21. (... the boy, wrapped cross-wise i n h i s mother*s kerchief.)  124.  ... i makal v vodu konSik golicy - koSanoj rukavicy,  P. 90.  (•••• and  1  P. 95*  (His face showed  of the gauntlet, the leather glove, pulled onto his.hands.) 125.  L i l j a by la odeta v beloe plat'e s golubojj Selkovoj l e n t o j , zavjazannoj szadi v bol'Soj bant. P. 27. ( L i l j a was dressed i n a white dress with a blue s i l k ribbon, t i e d at the back into a large how.)  127  126©  Korennik Lord Bajron, rastjanutyj na remne v Sirokikh dverjakh, gryz u d i l a . P. 81. (The wheeler, Lord Byron, held by h i s reins i n the wide doorway, was chewing h i s b i t . ) •• • •  127*  Po ozeru p l y l i dva lebedja, zaprija&ennye v zolotuju lododku. P. 31* (On the lake two swans were swimming harnessed to a l i t t l e golden boat.)  128.  Tak vot cto b y l za podarok, obescannyj v tainstvennom pls'me. P. 34. (So t h i s was the g i f t promised i n the mysterious l e t t e r ! )  129 •  • •• pakety ... zavernutye v raznoevetnye p l a t k i . P. 37. (... parcels ... wrapped i n multi-coloured kerchiefs.)  130.  ... V a s i l i j N i k i t ' e v i d , odetyj v mjagkij verbljuzij; khalat, obutyj v desanye valenki. P. 60. (••• V a s i l i j N i k i t ' e v i d dressed i n a soft camel-hair dressing gown> shod i n carded f e l t boots.)  131.  Matuska ... peresmatrivala vesenle vesci pomjatye v sundukakh ... P. 64. (Mother .. was looking over the spring things which had been rumpled i n the trunks ...)  132.  Anna, zakutannaja v bol'soj platok, derzalas* za ruku materi. P. 68. (Anna, wrapped i n a large kerchief, held onto her mother's hand.)  133*  o.. v dulane, k o t - V a s i l i j V a s i l ' e v i d , zapertyj pod zamok ... oral khriplym mjavom .... P. 77» (••• i n the closet, under lock and key, the cat, V a s i l l j VasilL'evid, howled with a hoarse miaow ...)  134©  ••• v e l e l N i k i t e vzjat' sedlo zamsi, podarennoe na roMestvo, H i k i t a to take the saddle - the suede, given him f o r Ghristraas,  135.  Ego zagoreloe l i c o ... kazalos' pristavlennym k belomu t e l u .. P. 84. (His sun-burned face ... seemed a r t i f i c i a l l y attached to h i s white body.)  136.  ... p r o l e t e l voronoj rysak, zaprjazennyj v lakirovannyj fiaraban. P. 9 8 . (... there whipped by a black pacer hitched to a lacquered gig.)  137.  Prikhodila domasnjaja Sveja, vypisannaja i z sela Pestravki ... P. 49. (The dressmaker, f o r whom they had written from the v i l l a g e Pestravka, used to come to the house ...)  138.  U Stepki KarnauSkina kulak zagovorenny;). (Stepka Karnauskin*s f i s t i s bewitched.)  anglioskoe> i z seroj - P. 81. (••• he ordered E n g l i s h one of gray -)  P.  18.  128 139•  ... na ju2no;j storone dome, b y l i raspolozeny zimnie komnaty, natopiennye i 2 i l y e . P. 16. (... on the south side of the house there were situated winter rooms, heated and l i v e d in.)  IhO©  Skvoz' polukruglye okna h y l viden sad, zavalennyj snegom. P. 17. (The garden heaped up with snow could be seen through semicircular windows.)  lhl.  ... i pojavilas' vysokaja i polnaja 2ensSina v dvukh subakh i v platke, vsja zaporosennaja snegom. P. 25. (»•« and there appeared a t a l l stout woman i n two f u r coats and a kerchief, a l l powdered with snow.)  242.  Pered zamkom bylo ozero i z zerkala, okruzennoe mkhom. P, 31. (In front of the castle was a m i r r o r - l i k e lake surrounded with moss.)  Hi3.  V/ torn omete eS6e o s t a i l s * nory, vykopannye raboSimi ... v P. 55- (In that hay stack there s t i l l remained burrows dug by the workers: ... )  lkk*> S i n i j vecer otrazalsja v luzakh, zatjanutykh tonkim ledkom. P. 65. (The blue evening was r e f l e c t e d i n puddles skimmed with t h i n i c e . ) 1L»5»  Popiskivala v okne v kletke, kanarejka, gotrevozennaja svetom lampy. P.. 68. (The canary, i n the cage i n the window, disturbed by the l i g h t of the lamp, chirped a little.)  146.  Karetnik, saraj i skotnye dvory s t o j a l i prizemistye, pokrytye belymi sapkarai, budto v r o s l i v sneg. P. 11. (The shed and the barn and the c a t t l e yards were close to ground, covered with white caps as i f grown into the snow.)  147.  ... khrustal*nye l j u s t r y v i s e l i , okutannye marlej, ... P. 17. .(••••_the c r y s t a l candelabra were hanging covered with gauze, •.•)  148.  . . . n a sunduke, pokrytom vold*ira mekhom, s i d e l a L i l j a i g l jade la ... P. 41. (..., L i l j a sat on the chest, covered with the wolf skin, and looked ...)  149*  Potom on u v i d e l ... oden* strannyj gvozd* s obryvoSkora verevocki, obsa&ennyj mertvymi mukhami. ,P. 15. (Then he saw a very peculiar n a i l with a l i t t l e piece of s t r i n g attached to i t and covered with dead f l i e s . )  150.  ... tol'ko dve devocki, obmotannye platkami, v t a S f i i l i na sugrob salazki, ... P. 20. (... only the two g i r l s , wrapped i n kerchiefs, shad dragged the s l e i g h up on the snowdrift, ...)  129  15!•  »••• vytasfiil ottuda svincatku - babku, n a l i t u j u syincora: •.. P. 23. (••• he pulled out the "svincatka" a knucklebone f i l l e d with lead: ...)  152.  ... p r e d s t a v l j a l sehe ... - predvoditelja guronov indejca, uhrannogo per'jam! ... P 50. (... he pictured to himself ... - the chief of the H u r o n s - an Indian decorated with feathers ...) 0  153*  • •• glaza - pobelevSie, raskrytye u2asora. P. 59. (••• the eyes - having become white, wide open from horror.)  154.  N i k i t a s e l ... shoku roslogo Arteraa, nizko podpojasannogo novym kuSakom ... P. 65. (Nikita sat down ... beside stalwart Artem, belted low with a new sash ...)  155.  V/ot k h i t r y j staridok ugovarivaet ispugannuju babu kupit* gorsok, raspisannyj travkami, - P. 93. (Here a crafty . old man Is urging a frightened peasant woman to buy a pot, decorated i n grass blade pattern, -)  156.  ••• raskazal ... 6to u c i t e l ' a r l f m e t i k l u nikh v klasse p r l k l e i v a l s j a k stulu, vymazannorau gumralarabikom. P. lOOs. (.». he said ... that the arithmetic teacher stuck to h i s classroom chair which had been smeared with glue.)  157»  ••»; ni2njaja doska s perednego kraja - s nosa srezannaja, dtoby ne zaedalas v sneg; no£ki to6enye; v verkhnej doske sdelany dva vyreza d l j a nog ... P. 7. (...j the bottom board from the front - from the nose was trimmed, so that It would not dig into the snow; the iegs were pointed; i n the top board there were cut two notches f o r the legs . . . . ) '  158.  N i k i t a smotrel - sdelana procno, poprohoval - s k o l ' z i t khoroso. P. 11. (Nikita looked at i t . It i s w e l l made. He t r i e d i t . It s l i d e s n i c e l y . )  159.  Kogda stenka byla zalo2ena, v peSSerke r a z l i l s j a goluboj polusvet, - P. 12. (When the wall was blocked up, blue t w i l i g h t flooded the l i t t l e cave, -)  160.  U N i k i t y b y l i rasterjany vse mysli. P. 28. thoughts were completely scattered.)  161.  - s cetyrekh storon oni ( s a r l k i ) b y i i vdavleny 1 drugogo cveta, ... P. 31. •(-. (the globes) were pressed In from four sides and of a different colour, .. ••)--  162.  Tulup ego h y l raspakhnut, opened, .. ••)  ... P. 34.  (Nlkita's  (His f u r coat  was  130 163-  Matuska skazala, eto elka konCena. P. 38. that the Christmas tree was finished.)  (Mother said  164.  Stena byla prolomena ... P. 40. through •....)  165.  L i l j a vnimatel'no slusala, derza na kolenjakh kufclu, u kotoroj b y l sdelan korapress. P. l»2. ( L i l j a l i s t e n e d attentively, holding on her knees a d o l l on which she had applied a compress.)  (The wall was broken  1  166.  Dubovye polovinkl dverej v sosednjuju temnuju koranatu b y l i priotvoreny. P. i|2. (The oaken double doors ieading into the dark neighbouring room were s l i g h t l y ajar.)  167.  Vse e t i raery b y l i p r i n j a t y . had been taken.)  168.  Za 6a>emi matuska byla vavolnovana... P. 57. upset at tea time ...)  169.  Hogi promoSeny.  170.  Scast'e, eto dokhabyla rasstegnuta ... P. 63. (Fortunately, the fur jacket was unbuttoned ...•)  171.  ... glaza b y l i veselo priScureny ... P. 71. eyes were squinting merrily •••-)  172.  Vesennle polevye raboty b y l i zakonceny, fruktovyj sad perekopan 1 p o l i t , - P. 78. (The spring f i e l d work was finished, the orchard was;spaded and watered, -)  173.  Stekljannaja dver' na balkon byla zakryta ... P. (The glass door to the balcony was closed .,.-)  174.  ... k l j u v u nego b y l raskryt, - do togo zarko. ( • • • i t s beak was open, - i t was so hot.)  175.  P o j a v i l s j a s balkona rastrepannyj V a s i l l j H l k i t ' e v i c , rot ego b y l raskryt, glaza rassireny. P. 88. (There appeared from; the balcony the dishevelled V a s i l l j Nlkit evid', his mouth was gaping, h i s eyes were wideropen.)  P. 62.  P. 52.  ("Ml  these measures (Mother  was  (The feet were soaked.)  («.»  his  86. P.  87.  ,  176.  Kogda trojka byla zaloSena ... P. 81. horses were hitched up • • • • ) .  177.  Okazalos , Sto loSadi ne b y l i prlgotovleny ... P. 91© (It turned out that the horses had not been readied ...) 1  (When the three  131 178*  ... na juznoj storone doma, b y l i raspolo2eny zimnie koranaty, natoplennye i z i l y e . P. 16. (... on the south side of the house there were situated winter rooms, heated and l i v e d in.)  179«  - Saga, Saga, burja • ... U r a l ... Spaseny! P. 88. ("Saga, Saga, the storm. ... Hurrah! ... We are saved!")  180.  ... i dygal na steklo v torn meste, gde snaruzi b y l privlneen gradusnik. P. 50. (•.... he breathed on the window at the spot where, outside, a thermometer had heen screwed.)  181.  L i l j a by la odeta v beloe plat's ... P. 27. dressed i n a white dress • •••),  182.  ... glaza ee h y l i raskryty ot strakha ... P. U.2. (•.. her eyes were wide open from fear ....)'•  183«  Usy i vla&iaja kagtanovaja horoda ego h y l i rascesany na storony ... P. 60. (His moustache and h i s damp chestnut-coloured: heard were parted i n the middle .,.)  184.  Vse vegci, privykgie za zimu le£at* na svoikh raestakh, h y l i potrevo&eny, vyterty ot p y l i , „ postavleny po-novomu« P. 64. ( A l l those things which had become accustomed to l y i n g i n , t h e i r own places during the winter were d i s turbed, dusted and put somewhere else.)  185.  ... u kupal'ni b y l vryt gest s jablokom na verkhuske. P. 73. (••• at the swimming hole there was a pole driven i n t o the ground with an apple on i t s top.)  186.  Grolova u iieltukhina by la zakinuta na spinu .... P. 74 • (Zeltukhin's head was thrown back on h i s spine ••••)'  187*  •«. p o l e t e l k svoemu oknu, gde b y l i prigotovleny d l j a nego sve&ie Servjaki. P. 77 • (••• he flew to h i s window where some f r e s h worms had been readied, f o r him.)  188.  daj nakryt v sadu, pod l i p o j . P. 85. i n the garden, under the lime tree.)  189.  ... napisala, cto "prikovana k p o s t e l i bol'noj materi" ... P. 86. •(.... she wrote that "she was chained to the bed of her sick mother" ..,••)  ( M l j a was  (Tea was  served  19Q. "Ruki ee b y l i zaloSeny pod b e l y j fartucek ... P. 99« (Her hands were hidden under a l i t t l e white apron . •••) 191.  Volosy b y l i zacesany: v kosu ... P. 99. done up i n a tress •••)  (Her h a i r  was  132  192*  Krasnovatymi miga'jus'cira svetom b y l i osveSceny spinki kozannykhkresel ••• P. 36* (The backs of the leather chaira were illuminated with-reddish b l i n k i n g l i g h t ••••)  193*  Prizracnym svetom b y l i z a l i t y sneSnye k r y S i , ... P. 90* (The snowy roofs were flooded with a spectral l i g h t , ...)  194*  S i r o k i j dvor b y l ves* pokryt sija-jusclm, belym, mjagkim snegom. P. 11. (The broad yard was a l l covered with soft, sparkling white snow*)  195*  KacajuBCiesja versiny v e t e l b y l i zakutany nizko letjasdimi rvanymi oblakami. P. 54. (The swinging tops of the willows were enveloped by the low-flying ragged clouds*)  196*  S l r o k i j dvor byl. pokryt sinimi, r j a b i v s i m l pod vetrom luzarai. P. 57. (The large yard was covered with blue puddles pockmarked by the wind.)  197*  *•• s t o j a i bol'Soj buket landySej, vsja komnata byla napolnena ikh zapakhom. P. 72. (... there was a bouquet of l i l i e s - o f - t h e - v a l l e y , the whole room was f u l l of t h e i r aroma.)  198.  *.*.* dvojnye stekla ... b y l i zatjanuty pautinoj. P. 86. (*.. the double panes ... were v e i l e d by cobwebs.)  199*  ••-••••» vse veScT b y l i slovno podernuty p y l * j u . P. 86. •(•*..., a l l things were as i f covered with, dust.)  200.  Hejasnye teni na snegu b y l i propitany tem 2e teplym svetom. P. 28. (The vague shadows on the snow were impregnated with the same warm l i g h t . )  201.  ... no s t o j storony SSelka byla zalozsna bumaSkoj. P. 36. («.. but on the other side the crack was s t u f f e d with paper*)  202.  §5eki ee r a z g o r e l i s * , kak j a b l o k i , guby b y l i izmazany Sokoladom. P. 37* . (Her cheeks were rosy as apples and her l i p s were smeared, with chocolate*)  203*  V; temnom vysokom zale gustym ineem b y l i zapuseny okna. P. 42. (In the dark l o f t y h a l l the windows were sprinkled with dense hoar-frost.)  204*  Ves s t o l u nego b y l zakapan surgufiom i cernilarai, zasypan tabacnym peplom. P. 89. (His whole table was spotted with sealing-wax and ink, sprinkled with tobacco ash.) " 1  133 205*  Skol*ko bylo prodano sinego 1 skol'ko dernogo? P. 10, (How.much blue (woolens) and how much black were sold?)  206.  Nakonec s arifmetikoj bylo pokondeno, nadalsja diktant. P. 10. ( F i n a l l y tfche arithmetic (lesson) was finished,'; dictation.began.)  207*  Vot narisovano: s t o i t 2enS5ina na kryl'ce s golymi do loktja rukami; ... P. 23. (Here Is what i s sketched: a woman, with arms bare to the elbow, i s standing on a porch; •••-)  208.  V ob'jasnenii skazano: "kto i z vas ne v i d a l domaSnikh olubej, e t i k h istinnykh,druzej delOveka?" P. 23. The legend s a i d : "Who of you has not seen domestic pigeons, those true,friends of man?")  209.  Vse, dto bylo sdelano za god plokhogo, - vse p r o s t i l o s * v etu nod*. P; 68. (Everything had that had been dona during the year was forgiven t h i s night.)  210.  Ja skazala, - znacit, no2om otrezano; khorosen'kogo ponemnoz*ku. P. kk» (I said, - that i s the f i n a l word; a l i t t l e b i t of a good thing s u f f i c e s . )  211.  ...; za e t i t r i mesjaca ne zaplaSeno do slkh por &alovan*ja Arkadiju Ivanovidu ... P. 47. (.(••; Arkadij Ivanovid has not been paid: f o r the past three months ...*)  212.  ..*, ne t a r a s d l l i pomlnutno g l a s ha"dernil'hicu; na kotoroj nldego ne napisano ... P. 50. (..., they d i d not stare every minute at the inkholder on which there i s no writing ....)  213.  ... l i c o ee hylo Iskaieno, ... P. 59. (.•-•• her face was distorted, ...)  214.  N i k l t e bylo predlozeno: e s l i on khodet ekhat* ... P. 64. (It was proposed to N i k i t a : I f he wanted to.go • ••)  215.  Okno bylo raskryto .... P. 72. (The window was open ...-)  216.  Segodnja b y l den* ro&denlja N i k i t y , Odlnnadcatoe maja, 1 naznadeno podnjatie flaga na prudu. P. 72* (Today was the J l t h of May, N i k i t a * s birthday, and i t was arranged to raise the f l a g over the pond.)  217.  Vse nebo usypano avgustovsklmi sozvezdijaml. P. 96. (The whole sky was sprinkled with the August c o n s t e l l a tions.)  218.  - E s i l vy ego segodnja ze ne otdadlte, - raeSdu naral vse kondeno ... P. 99. (- I f you do not give i t back today, - everything i s f i n i s h e d between us .,.-)  f  219.  ReSeho bylo otmenlt* z a n j a t i j a po algebre ••• P. 52. (It was decided to cancel the study of algebra f o r •••)  220.  ... kobylu reSeno bylo prodat* ... P. 91„ decided.to s e l l the mare , . . ) .  221.  ... Ntktte budet razreSeno der2at* vstupitel*nyj ekzamen vo vtoroj k l a s s . P. 98. (... H l k i t a w i l l bo permitted to take an entrance exam f o r the second form.)  222.  Detjam to2e veleno bylo le&at* ... P. 65. were also ordered to l i e . . . ) .  (The children  223.  ... delajut 6to ne veleno ... P. 67. forbidden ...)  they do what i s  22h.  Miska KorjasohokozaboSenno zaseptal N i k i t e : ... P. 94. (MiSka KorjaSonok worriedly whispered to H l k i t a : ...)  225.  V a s i l i j V a s i ^ e v i S obi2enno vzvyl i ube2al, voloca khvost. P. 77. ( V a s l l i j V a s i l ' e v i c l e t out an offended howl and ran away, dragging h i s . t a i l . )  226.  Viktor ozabocenno Smygnul. and f r o apprehensively.)  227.  Bo2e mod I progovorila matuska vzvolnovanno. ( 0 my Lord." said mother excitedly.)  228.  ... Ie2a, S l t a l vse to2e samoe t r i d c a t ' raz ira citannoe, pis*mo. P. 33. (.•• as he lay, he read that same l e t t e r which he had read before t h i r t y times.)  229.  H l k l t a ne speSa odelsja 1 vedja vdol' Stukaturennoj steny pal'cam, poSel ... P. 16. (Hot hurrying, N i k i t a put on h i s . c l o t h e s and dragging h i s finger along the plastered wall, went o f f ...)  230©  •<•«, pust* razyScet Artema 1 skaiet, dvukolku kobylu Afroditu, ona kovana P. 6 U V (••••.» l e t him f i n d Artem and the mare Afrodite to the two-wheeled on a l l fours.)  231.  H i k l t a naSel u sebja na p o s t e l i s i n j u j u gelkovuju rubafiku, v y s l t u j u elockojj na vorotu ... v i t o j pojasok s kistjami ... P. 35. (Nikita found on h i s bed a blue s i l k s h i r t embroidered with a f i r pattern on t h e : c o l l a r ... a twisted b e l t with tassels •••)  232.  ... skamejka s rao2al*no3 v i t o j verevkoj. the sleigh with a twisted bast rope.)  P. 39*  (••-•  (...  i t was  .(Victor darted to  H  P. 25.  Stoby z a l o 2 i l l v na vse ftetyre nogi. t e l l him to h i t c h cart, she i s shod  P. 11.  (...  135 233»  K nemu podoSla khlebnica, tonkonogaja balovannaja kobyla ... P. 78. (The thin-legged, bread-loving, spoiled brood-mare came up to him •..)  234.  podoSlo vremja plat i t * nedoimki, a ikh u Artema nabralos' l e t za p j a t neplacennykh, podtomu, ... P. 92. (... the.time approached f o r the payment of tax arrears which Artem had, let- accumulate f o r about f i v e years, not having paid them, and therefore ...) 1  136  A VI Past Passive P a r t i c i p l e The past passive p a r t i c i p l e s of the Detstvo Hiklty a (Section A VI) are divided into two major groups?  ( l ) Per-  f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p l e s , and (2) Imperfective p a r t i c i p l e s .  These  two major groups are again subdivided into (a) a r t i c u l a t e d participles,- and (h) unarticulated p a r t i c i p l e s .  However* i n  a l l these groups, the p a r t i c i p l e s are arranged according to t h e i r position, such as preceding or following the nouns which they modify, or i f they are a t t r i b u t i v e or predicative forms. We s h a l l now discuss the f i r s t major group above, i . e . perfective p a r t i c i p l e s .  The following p a r t i c i p l e s are a r t i -  culated p a r t i c i p l e s and precede the nouns they modify: izmjatym ( l ) , narysovanmykh  ( 2 ) , ottodennym (3), poiurazver-  nut.vl (I*), povalennye ( 5 ) , zaneaennymi  ( 6 ) , podnlat.v.1 ( 7 ) ,  vyrnvtymi ( 8 ) , zakrytyml ( 9 ) , otvorennykh (lO), udlvlennvkh ( l l ) , prostuzennym (12), nakrakhmalennuju (13), pripodn.1at.yj (lh)» zakoldovannom (lf>)» zacarovannom (16). sognut.yj (-17), zanesennykh (18), vygisgennogo (19), ogisgennogo (20), yygiSgennv.1 ( 2 l ) , odetye (22), zfi^ep^epnye (22), vyrnvtom ( 2 3 ) , otvorogennoe (2J4), razorennym (25), razdutymi (26), ppgatykh. (27), izgryzannala (28), ragorvannvkh (29), razdutymi (30), vypitol (31), raskrvtulu (32), podvemutym (33),  nakrvtomu  (3k)» rastoporsgennykh (35)t podaatogo (36), razogreto.1 (37). nakatanno.1 (38), razlnut.vm (39), raznuzdanno.1 (ko), udivlennala (U 1). razgnevanna 1 a (I4I), lscarapanno.1 (U2). prokllataja  137  (43), podobrannvmi (44)» ozaboeenna.la ispugannve  (47), raskalennu.iu (48).  (45), wpugennvmi  (46),  ppluraskrytorn (49).  tzmlaty.1 (50), prlotkrytu.lu ( 5 l ) , rastrepannv.1 (52), ispugannym (53), raskalenno.i (54), ispugannve  (55), raz.pit.ve (56),  prokl.1atu.1u (57), IspugannuJu (58 ). podn.iat.ve (59). utoptannomu (60), smorgcennv.1 ( 6 l ) , szatykh (62), raskinutye (63), ozabocennye (64)7 vzvolnovffnnve (65), pojinannvm (66), ozabodennve (74), otkryto.1 (91), ogolennvml  (93), lzm.iato.1  (103). The above-listed past passive p a r t i c i p l e s have no support f o r their verbalness and can be considered as a d j e c t i v i z e d or very nearly a d j e c t i v i z e d .  Only a few of these p a r t i c i p l e s  c a l l f o r s p e c i a l comment.  Hakrakhmalennulu (13) i s the past  passive p a r t i c i p l e of the perfective verb nakrakhmalit *. I t belongs to the type of p a r t i c i p l e s on -nnyj of the perfective verbs on which Vinogradov comments as follows: The p a r t i c i p l e s on -nnyj and - t y j of perfective aspect, i n modern Russian, intrude deeply into the grammatical system of adjectives. Many of them weaken or lose completely t h e i r connection with the verb. I t i s known that p a r t i c i p l e s i n -nnyj i n booki s h language have long been i n mutual reaction with adjectives formed by means of the s u f f i x e s -n-, -*n-, such as: bezdykhannyj. namerennyj. isstupiennyj.. etc. Gf. the duality .of forms and meanings: vdokhnovennyj and vdoknovlenavj: blagoslovennyj (blagosjLovennvl kra.i) and blagoslovlennv.1: krakhmal ny.1 and nakrakhmalennv.i » . » a T  Vydi§6ennogo (19), odiscennogo (20). v.v5igcennv.1  ( 2 l ) , odet.ve  (22), vymytorn (23) are preceded by the adverbs svetlo. bystro. khoroso. c l s t o . and c i s t o respectively.  Since the adverb pre-  cedes the p a r t i c i p l e (e.g. svetlo vyclg&ennogo. bystro 1.  V. Vinogradov, OP. c i t . . p. 281.  138 ociggennogo. etc.), the p a r t i c i p l e therefore adopts the semantics of the adverb, and denotes the result of the state of the action rather than the completed action i t s e l f , and thus 1  gains an a d j e c t i v a l quality, Prokl.lata.la (43) and prokl.i&tu.iu (57) are t o be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from prokljiatyj which i s the past passive p a r t i c i p l e 2  of the perfective verb prokljast* •  In our examples these two  p a r t i c i p l e s , 43 and 57, appear as deverbatives d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n form from the p a r t i c i p l e pr6kl.iaty.1.  Isougannvm (53) i s  considered as the past passive p a r t i c i p l e of the verb ispugat*. 3 The meaning i n which i t i s used he re. vy raSa .1us 61 $ ispug. expresses too wide a semantic r i f t to allow the homonyms to r e main unseparated.  In en active expression, Sopot cannot be  the object of ispugat*. The following l i s t e d past active p a r t i c i p l e s also belong to group ( l ) .  They are perfective, a r t i c u l a t e d , and precede  the nouns they modify.  Sderzannv.1 (67, 68), prezrennve (69),  po&tennye (70.), vatrevogenhyj (71), neosedlannvkh (72), netronuty.1 (73) and neob&it.vkh (74). These p a r t i c i p l e s are of a d j e c t i v a l quality.  Sderzanny.1 (67, 68) serves as a good  example of an a d j e c t i v i z e d p a r t i c i p l e , upon which Vinogradov makes the following observations This process of a d j e c t i v i z a t i o n and semantic change was strengthened and kept by the influence of the French language, especially i n the second h a l f of the 18th Century and i n the f i r s t t h i r d of the 19th century. Cf. e.g. koncenayj celovek lo  S. G . BereSfcov, O P . c i t . , pp. 81-2.  2.  B. N. USakov, ojg. c i t . . I I , column 948.  3«  Ibid., I, column 1246.  139 - l*homme f I n i : poter.lannoe vrem.la - l e temps perdu; etc, Cf.: raster.lanny.l vid;"dusarraster.1ana (Ostrovski.1); sder£anny.1 kharakter. etc.* w  Prezrennye (69) i s to be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from among several homonyms i f i t i s to he defined as a p a r t i c i p l e or an adjeet2 i v e . USakov sets up a p a r t i c i p l e , orezrennv.l or prezreraatv.1. to the perfective verb prezret'.  Then as the adjactive  p a r a l l e l to i t , he sets up prezrenmy.1 with the apocopated forms prezren (or prezrenen). presrenna. prezrenno.  However,  i n our example (72) prezrennye appears as an adjective i n the sense of "worthy of contempt."  Pogtennye  (70) i n our example  appears as a deverbative i n the sense of uvagaemy.1 d i f f e r e n 3 t i a t e d i n form from the p a r t i c i p l e pogtenny.1.  Vstrevo&enpy.i  (71) possesses the same a d j e c t i v a l quality as the preceding adjective sonny.i. Neosedlannykh  (72), netronut.v.1 (73) and  neob£lt.vkh (74) are a r t i c u l a t e d forms prefixed by the negat i v e a r t i c l e ne-..  I f the a r t i c u l a t e d form i s prefixed by the  negative a r t i c l e ne-. i t i s less subject to change i n i t s e l f , but, however, t h i s does not apply to the unarticulated p a r t i c i p i a l form, which i s normally used as predicate to the past or future tense of b y t . 1  The ne- does not normally precede  the unarticulated form of the p a r t i c i p l e , but the b y l or budet (e.g. sneg ne b y l tronut): while i n normal word order the ne- precedes the a r t i c u l a t e d form of the p a r t i c i p l e (e.g. sneg b y l netronut.v.1). I.  V. V. Vinogradov, .gn. c i t . . p. 282.  •2.  Dv-N. Usakov, .ojo. c i t . . III. column 734-5•  3.  i b i d . . I l l , column 681.  :  140  The following l i s t e d p a r t i c i p l e s are also perfective, a r t i c u l a t e d , and precede the nouns they modify:  odetye (74 )»  vysunnutogQ (75)» pripr.la&ennymi  (77), and  (76), raskrytom  szatyml (78), They are a l l verbal i n force.  The verbalness  of odetye (74) i s underlined by the phrase kak gemski.1 vrac l g Pestravkl, Cut'-cut* stresses the verbalness of vysunnutogQ (75)»  Pripr.lazennymi (76) precedes the adverb szadl  which emphasizes i t s verbalness. raskrytom  The same a p p l i e s t o  (77) which precedes the adverb nastez- , 1  The verbal  force of szajtymi (78) i s reinforced by koe-gde uze. The following l i s t e d p a r t i c i p l e s are also perfective, articulated, and precede the nouns they modify.  They are a l l  verbal i n force, and t h e i r verbalness i s underlined by prep o s i t i o n a l phrases associated with them.  They are as f o l l o w s :  sm.1atu.1u (79), slozennulu (79), vyScerblennym (80). zasunutym (81),  vydrannve (82), pridvinutom (83), prikolotye (6*4),  prizatye (85), vrezanna .1 a (86), ogolennv.1 (87), raskrytom (88),  razodrannol (89), zarzavlennykh (90). vsklokoc ennv.1  (9l)» perevernutve  (92) and prodrannve (S3)*  The following past passive p a r t i c i p l e s are similar i n every respect to the last mentioned p a r t i c i p l e s with the exception that their verbalness i s underlined by t h e i r associated instrumental of agent.  They are as follows:  pokrytye (94), pokrytye (95), raspisannye .(96). osveSdenno.1 (97)# zaleolennye- (98), zat.ianutogo (99)» We w i l l now  l i s t the past passive p a r t i c i p l e s where t h e i r  verbalness i s reinforced by an instrumental case i n other  141 functions.  Udlvlennye (lOO), aakrugennykh ( l O l ) , pbrnptannykh,  (102), s'edenna.la  (103), vydumannykh (104)1  obsypannve (105),  raspisannye (106), obitala (107). rasgesannyml (108). Izmazannykh (109) and okleennom ( l i o ) . The following a r t i c u l a t e d forms of the past passive part i c i p l e are used predieatively, and thus p a r a l l e l the use of the a r t i c u l a t e d form pf the adjective i n that meaning. aret  srezannaja ( i l l ) , nadpisannoe (112), tronuta.la  rascarapanny.1  (114), slomannye (115). potr.1asenn.ve  voz,volnovannv.1  They  (113).  (116),  (117), razgor.1a6enny.1 (117), istoptann.v.1  ( l l 8 ) , zakoloc'ennyj (119), smugs ennoe (126) and ozahpgennye (121). The following l i s t e d past passive perfective p a r t i c i p l e s of a r t i c u l a t e d form follow the nouns they modifyt raskrvtogo (99). pokhisgenno.1 (122), zakutann.v.1 (123), nadeto.1 (12h). zav.1azanno.1 ( l ? 5 ) , rast.1anutv.1 (126), zapr.lagennye (127), oheSdanny.1 (128), zaverautye (129), odety.i (130), obuty.1 (130), pom.1at.ve (151). zakutannala zapertv.1 (133). podarennoe (l3ij), pristavleniaym  (132), (155).  zapr.1a&ennv.1 (136), vyplsanna.la (137), zagoyorennv.1 (138), and natoplennye  (l39)»  A l l the ahove-mentloned p a r t i c i p l e s  are verbal i n force, and t h e i r verbalness i s underlined hy . associated prepositional phrases with the exception of pokhisgenno.1 (122), i t s verbalness being stressed by the following adverb kovarno«  £agovorenny.1 (138) and  natoplennye  (139), although they follow the nouns they modify, have no support f o r t h e i r verbalness and appear rather a d j e c t i v a l i n  142 quality.  The  l a t t e r one Is coupled with the adjective z i l y e  which merely stresses i t s adjectivainess. To the l i s t of p a r t i c i p l e s just mentioned also belong the following, except f o r the fact that, insofar as their verbalness i s concerned, i t i s reinforced by the instrumental agent.  Zasizennvkh (93), zavalennv.i  of  (140), zaporpgennaja  (l4l)» okruzennoe (142), vykopannye (143), zatjanutykh (l44)»  potrevozennaja (145)« The verbalness of the following p a r t i c i p l e s i s stressed by an instrumental  case:  pokr.vt.ve (146), okutannve (147).  pokrytom (148), obsa&enny.1 ( l h 9 ) . obmotannve (150). nalltu.lu (151), ubrannogo (152), raskrytye  (153), podpojasannogo (154),  raspiaanav.1 (155), vymazannomu (156), We  s h a l l now  list  the unartlculated past passive  c i p l e s of perfective aspect. b a l i n force.  parti-  These apocopated forms are  ver-  Their verbalness i s reinforced by t h e i r usage  as predicates to forms of byt'. They are as follows:  (whether expressed or not).  sdelany (157), sdelana (158), zalozena  (159), raster.1a-nv (160). vdavlenv ( l 6 l ) . raspakhnut (162), koncena, (163), prolomena (164), sdelan  (165),  priotvoreny  (166), prlnjaty (167), vzvolnovana (168). promoceny (169). rasstegnuta (170), prlgcureny  (Hi),  perekopan (172). p o l i t (172), zakryta 175),  raaglrenv  zakongeny (172), (173). raskrvt  (175), zalogena (176). prigotovleav  raspolozenv (178), soasenv (179), orivineen (180),  (174, (t77),  and  potrevozeny (184). 1. Of. example (177) to examples (7%)) and discussion thereon on page 139 herein.  (73), (74), '  143 The following unartlculated p a r t i c i p l e s , In addition to being predicates to b y l or b y l i . are also modified by associated prepositional phrases which underline their verbalness.  They are:  (l83), w t e r t y  odeta ( l 8 l ) . raskryty (182), rascesany  (184), oostavienv (184), vrvt (I85), zakinuta  (186), prlgotovlenv (187), nakrvt (188). prlkovana (189), zalozenv (190) and zacesany  (191).  The verbalness of the following unartlculated p a r t i c i p l e s i s underlined by t h e i r being associated with an instrumental of agent: zakutanv  osvesceny  (192). z a l l t y (193), pokryt (194)»  (195). pokryt (196), naoolnena (197), zatjanuty  (198), podernuty  (199).  An instrumental case stresses the  verbalness of the following unartlculated p a r t i c i p l e s : propltanv (200). zalozena (201). izmazanv (202), zapuaeny (203)* zakapan (204) and zasypan (204)« To complete the group of past passive unartlculated p a r t i c i p l e s of perfective aspect, we s h a l l l i s t the following p a r t i c i p l e s which appear i n our examples i n neuter form. They are a l l verbal i n force, and the majority of them form an impersonal past passive p a r t i c i p i a l construction. They are as follows:  prodano (205), pokonceno (206), narlsovano  (207), skazano (208), sdeiano (209). otrezano (210), zaplaceno (211). naplsano (212), iska&eno (213), predlozeno (214), raakryto (215), naznaceno (216), usypano (217), konceno (218), reseno (219, 220), razreseno (221) and veleno (222. 223). The remaining four p a r t i c i p l e s , ozabocenno (224),  m opjgenno (225), ozaboeenno (226) and vzvolnovanno (22?), are used adverbially. There are only four past passive p a r t i c i p l e s of imperf e c t i v e aspect,  ffitannoe  (228) i s an a r t i c u l a t e d p a r t i c i p l e ,  verbal i n force, i t s verbalness; being reinforced by the i n s t r u mental of agent jLm.  This imperfective p a r t i c i p l e denotes an  iterated action which i s underlined hy the expression t r i d c a t * raz. and probably f o r that reason i s used instead of the perf e c t i v e progltannoe.  Stukaturennoj (229) i s a past passive  p a r t i c i p l e of a r t i c u l a t e d form, derived from the imperfective verb Stukaturlt*. I t precedes the noun which i t modifies, has no support f o r i t s verbalness, and appears as a q u a l i f i e r . Kovana (230) i s the apocopated form of the past passive p a r t i 1  c i p l e derived from the Imperfective verb kovat*.  Usakov does  not l i s t a correlated perfective form to kovat'. but he makes entry to the imperfective verb podkovyvat' and i t s c o r r e l a t e d 2  perfective verb podkovat'.  This p a r t i c i p l e i s verbal i n force,  and i t s verbalness i s supported by the associated prepositional phrase na, yse eetyre nogi.  V i t o j (231, 232) Is an adjective*  not a p a r t i c i p l e , and i s derived from the imperfective verh •  3  v l t . As f a r as i t s meaning i s concerned, USakov l i s t s It In the meaning of skrucennv j . izvit.v.1. which are derived from perfective aspect. Balovanna.ia (233) Is imperfective in form, 1  k  although USakov defines i t i n the meaning of Izbalovannyj. The l a s t p a r t i c i p l e of t h i s group, neplacennykh (234) i s pref i x e d with ne- and appears to be completely a d j e c t i v i z e d . 1. D. N. USakov, c i t . . I, column 1388. 2. I b i d . . I l l , column 392. 3. I b i d . . I, column 300. h. I b i d . , I, column 1139*  145  B VI Moskve ugro&aet vrag Past Passive P a r t i c i p l e 1*  OstanOVlennyj v e t i d h i , on imenno sejgas, zakhlebnuvsijs j a v svoem n a s t u p l e n i i , perejdet k oborone i ... P. 547* (Having been stopped during these days, he, p a r t i c u l a r l y now, having exhausted himself i n h i s attack, w i l l pass over to the defence and • ••)  2.  Zdes*, na zavode, - neustrannoe tvorcestvo: inzanery, n a c a l ' n i k i cekhov, mastera, raboc'ie izobretajut, prisposobljajut, vydumyvajut ... I tut ze za vorotami, na aerodrome, novye i novye groznye p t i c y , sozdannye " tvordestvom russkogo naroda, podnimajutsja na vozdukh i s tugim zvukom natjanutoj struny u l e t a j u t na zapad - v boj ... Na vsekh nasikh zavodakh idet t a ze naprjaSennaja tvorceskaja, izobretatel*skaja rabota. P. 548. (Here at the factory, - continuous a c t i v i t y : engineers, the leaders of guilds, masters, workers invent, adjust, think up • •» And here beyond the gates, on the airdrome, new and newer f i e r c e b i r d s , made by the creativeness of the Russian people, take o f f i n t o the a i r and with a d u l l sound of a tightened s t r i n g f l y to the West - i n t o action ... In a l l our f a c t o r i e s goes the same i n t e n s i f i e d , creative^, inventive work.)  3.  Leningrad surovo, orgahizavanno i tverdo p r i n j a l na sebja Sudovisdnyj udar germanskikh tankovykh i strelkovykh korpusov. P. 547* (Leningrad, with grimness, organization and firmness, received the monstrous attack of the Qerman tank and a r t i l l e r y corps.)  4.  Oni b y l i skonstruirovany nezadolgo do vojny. P.548• (They were constructed not long before the war.)  5*  Zavody Dnepropetrovska, Dneprodzer2inska, Zaporoz*ja, Brjanska, Kieva evakuirovany v glub« strany. "P. 547• (The f a c t o r i e s of Dnepropetrovsk, Dneprodzeriinsk, Zaporoz«e, Brjansk and Kiev have been evacuated into the depths of the country.) vr'-;;"'^  6.  Nasa zadaca v torn, ctoby ostanoyit' g i t l e r o v s k i e armii pered Moskvoj. Togda v e l i k a j a b i t v a budet vyigrana nami. P. 547. (Our problem i s to stop the H i t l e r i t e armies before Moscow. Then the great struggle w i l l have been won by us.)  7.  Kazalos*, tak i poloXeno, ctoby russkoe s o l n c e j a s h o s v e t i l o nad russkoj z e m l e j P . 548. ( I t seemed t o be fated that the Russian sun would shine b r i g h t l y over the Russian land.)  146 B VT Past Passive P a r t i c i p l e There are only nine past passive p a r t i c i p l e s i n the Moskve ugrogaet vrag, (Section B VT), and they are a l l of perf e c t i v e aspect*  They are as f o l l o w s :  ostanovlenny.i (1),  nat.ianuto.i (2). napr.iagenna.1a (2). sozdannve (2), organ!zavanno (3). skonstruirovany (4). evakuirovanv  (5). w i g r a n a  (6) and polo&eno (7)« F i r s t we w i l l discuss the a r t i c u l a t e d forms of the abovementioned p a r t i c i p l e s *  Ostanovlenny.i  (1) i s verbal i n force*  Its verbalness i s supported by the associated prepositional phrase, v e t i dni*  Nat.ianuto.i (2) appears as a q u a l i f i e r of  the noun struny which i t modifies, and has no support f o r i t s verbalness*  I t can be considered as a d j e c t i v i z e d or very near-  l y adjectivized*  Napr.ia&enna.ia (2), preceding the adjectives  tvorCeska.ia and izobretatel'ska.ia. as w e l l as the noun rabota. which i t modifies, takes on a high degree of a d j e c t i v a l q u a l i t y and has no support f o r i t s verbalness* i s verbal i n force*  Sozdannye (2)  I t follows the noun p t i c y which i t  modifies, and i t s verbalness i s r e i n f o r c e d by the instrumental of agent, tvoreestvom* The remaining past passive p a r t i c i p l e s are unarticulated forms*  Organizavanno (3) i s used a d v e r b i a l l y i n the same  manner as the adjectives surovo and tverdo with which i t i s coupled*  I t i s derived from organizevat*, which can be of im-  perfective or p e r f e c t i v e aspect* 1*  D* N* Usakov, op* c i t * . I I , column 845*  147 Skonstruirovany  (k) forms a predicative to b y l i . and, in  addition to that, i t s verbalness i s reinforced by the temporal phrase nezadolgo do voiny*  Bvakuirovany (5) i s the past  passive participle derived from the verb evakuirovat* which can be perfective and imperfective i n aspect*  It i s verbal  i n force, and i t s verbalness i s underlined by the associated prepositional phrase v glub^ strany*  Vyigrana  (6}M±s  verbal  in force, and i t s verbalness i s reinforced by the instrumental of agent, nami*  In addition to that, i t forms a predicate to  budet. with which i t denotes a future passive i n the same manner that the past passive participles joined with byl form 2 a past passive* PoloSeno (7) i s the past passive participle :  - -  3 .  of the perfective verb polozit' i n the meaning of r e s i t * . It i s used as a predicate form i n the verbal sense.  1.  D. N* Usakov, ©£. c i t . , I¥, column  2*  A* A* Sakhmatov, Sintaksis russkogo .iazyka. Leningrad,  1941, p. 3*  471  1391.  v  D* N. USakov, op* c i t * . I I , column 535«  148 G VI (a) Fabrika molodostl Past Passive Participle 1.  - otcego ae e t i morScihy, e t i prokljatye sedye volosy? ... P. 15. ( - why these wrinkles, these damned grey hairs?*..)  2.  Ja ponimaju, 5to vmesto blagodarnosti za vse, cto vynesla za menja Masa, za ee sedye volosy, za ee uvjadanie, vySvyrivaju ee, kak snosennoe bel'e ... P. 17. (I understand that instead of being thankful for everything that Masa suffered for me, for her grey hair, for her wilting I am tossing her out like worn-out clothing •••)  3.  K certu ljubov* ... Bal'se. Ljubov* eto u raznykh rumjanykh idiotok s razvitymi formami ... P. 44* (To the devil with love ... Further. Love i s for various blushing idiotic women with well developed figures •••)  4*  Nastukaturennaja staraja kljaca. P. 48. nag.)  (Plastered old r  5.  Govorju, koska s perebitym zadom ... P. 57• with a broken back-side • ••)  (I say, a cat  6.  Ja predlagaju zamecatel*nyj proekt: smesannoe akcionernoe obscestvo dlja dksploatacii v mirovom masStabe Priscemikhina ... P. 59• . (I offer a wonderful project: a mixed joint-stock company of Prisdemikhin for the exploitation on a world scale •••)  7«  Za etu ljubov' prokljatuju rasstrelivat* nuzno ... P. 15. (Because of this damned love, i t i s necessary to k i l l •••)  8.  Ty vsja kakaja-to pronizannaja muzykoj, ty straSno volnues* ... P. 25* (You are a l l f u l l of music. You are frightfully exciting ...)  9.  Cn v Moskve teper*, khodit cisto odetyj, kurit dorogie papirosy. P. 8. {He i s i n Moscow now, he dresses well and smokes expensive cigarettes.)  10. Priscemikhin. SluSajte. Kobel' ovsjankuzret. Zarubin. Kakoj kobel'? Priscemikhin. Gmolozennyj. P. 17. (Priscemikhin. "Listen. The dog i s eating porridge." Zarubin. "What dog? * Priscemikhin. "The one which has been made young.") 1  11. Mozet ty pereodetaja? ... P. 24. your clothes? •••)  (Maybe, you have changed  149 12©  Trotuary prokljatye ... P . 24*  13*  VidiS^ ja - uni2ennaja, zamucennaja, rastoptannaja ... P. 26. (You see - I am humiliated, tormented, trampled on ...)  14*  Ved* t y ne zenscina ... Ved* ty besplodnaja, vykholoscennaja ... P. 27* (You are not a woman ... Indeed you are barren, sterile-•••)  15*  Radujsja ... Ljubov* moja mertvaja ... Ljubov' moja prokljataja ... P. 29* (Rejoice ... my-dead Love ... my damned Love ...) -  16.  Masa, rodnaja, zamucennaja, obi2enhaja ... P. 34. my own, tormented, offended one ...)  17*  Ty umerla, staren*kaja Masa, krotkaja, obiSennaja ... P. 37. (You have died, you dear old Masa* gentle, offended ...)  18.  Bud* prokljataja, bud» prokljataja takaja ljubov'. P. 55* (Be damned, be damned such love.)  19.  Zdet? ... Anicego, - ne rasstroena? P. 8. waiting? ... And not at a l l disturbed?)  20*  0, celoveceskaja glupost•• Vy vse polomany, zaga2eny, zarzavleny ... P. 12. (0, human stupidity. You are a l l broken, dirty, rusty •••)  21.  Bud * prokljat ... P. 25*  22.  U nee i glaza to elektricestvom vyzzeny ... P. 26. her eyes have been burnt out by electricity ...)  (The damned sidewalks • ••)  (Masa,  (Is she  (Be damned •••) (Even i  23. Nicego ne ponimaju ••• Sraertel'hp udivlen ...P. 31. ' (I do not understand anything ... I am mortallyTamazed  •••)  24*  V etoj komnate vse slova skazany ... P. 33* room a l l words have been spoken •••)  (In this  25*  Podcinjajus* ja raz, i moja nezavisimost* koncena. P . 32. (If I submit once, my independence i s ended.)  26.  Ja razodran ... P. 33*  27*  Vy budete rasstreljany.  28.  Da, zavtrak uze okohcen ... P. 38. already finished •••)  29*  Ja often' rasstroena. P. 47*  (I am completely confused P. 33*  •••)  (You shall be shot.) (Yes, breakfast i s  (I am very perturbed.)  150 30*  Mar*ja Alekseevna, motor podan. P. 48. Alekseevna, the car i s ready*)  31*  Pared nej siroko raskryty vorota Sizni, - vesna ••• P» 51* (Before her were the wide open doors of l i f e , - spring «••)  32*  Ja ne besedoval s vami posle Stranhogo posesfienija pod vidoia interv*juersi, no mne kazalos*, 5to henavist* vasa nasysCena ... Vragi u2e rastoptahy. P. 53* (I have not conversed with you after the strange v i s i t under the guise of an interviewer, but i t seemed to me that your animosity i s satiated ••• The enemies have already been trampled on.)  33.  Uveren ved», eto eSee ljublju tebja ... P. 54* (I am convinced that I s t i l l love you • •«) Izorvalsja ••• Vybrosen ... P. 54* (I am ruined .*• Tossed out • ••)  34.  P* 11*  (Mar'ja  35.  Sest* krys razorvany v kloSki* bits.)  (Six rats torn to  36.  Ja nenavizu etu SenSSinu ... Vot moja tragedija ... Ja svjazan s nej pocti prestupleniem P. 45. (I hate this woman ... There i s my tragedy ... I am bound to her by almost a crime • ••)  37*  U vas Skleroz, iznoseno serdee ... P. 11* sclerosis, a worn-out heart ...)  38*  U nego vse imuscestvo opisano - fininspektorom* P* 59. (All his property has been l i s t e d by the finance inspector.)  39*  U menja tak postanovljeno: navoz budu est*, cerepusku sebe razob*ju, a Serez pjat« let ja -professor* P. 8. (This is how I have planned: I w i l l eat dung, I ' l l beat my brains out but i n five years I*11 be a professor.)  40.  Ja vse napisal tebe ••• Vse pb'jasneno • ""P. 1 9 * (I have written you everything ••• A l l has been explained ...)  41*  Sidela v sSeH, kak tarakafi, obiSennb povodila usami ... P. 55. (She sat i n the cranny l i k e a cockroach, resentf u l l y she moved her whiskers • ••)  42.  Ranennoe Sivotnoe.  43*  Sergej PetroviS, pod oknom stoju j a , tvoja MaSa dorogaja ... Tvoja nenagljadnaja, celovanhaja. P. 25. (Sergej Petrovid, I, your dear Masa, am standing near the window, ... your beloved, whom you kissed.)  (You have  :  P. 57.  (Wounded animal.)  151 C VI (a) Past Passive P a r t i c i p l e TJie past passive p a r t i c i p l e s of the Paprika molodosti (Section G VI (a)) are divided into two major groups! ( l ) Perfective p a r t i c i p l e s , and (2) Imperfective  participles.  These two major groups are again subdivided into (a) a r t i c u lated p a r t i c i p l e s , and (b) unarticulated p a r t i c i p l e s . The following a r t i c u l a t e d past passive p a r t i c i p l e s of perfective  aspect precede the nouns they modify, and have no  support f o r t h e i r verbalness.  They are:  prokljatye ( l ) .  snosennoe (2). razvitymi (3), nastukaturenna.ia -CU). perebitym (5) and smesannoe (6). The following a r t i c u l a t e d past passive p a r t i c i p l e s of perfective  aspect follow the nouns they modify:  prokljatuju  (7)> oronizannaja (8), odetyj ( 9 ) , omolozennvj (lO). pereodetaja (11), prokljatye (12), unizennaja -(13)# zamugennaja (13) , rastoptanna.ia (13). vykholoSgennaja (15),  (lit-),  prokljataja  zamugennaja (16). obizennaja ( l 6 , 17). prokljataja  prokl.latana (18).  Of these p a r t i c i p l e s , prokljatu.iu  (18),  (7),  odet.v.1 ( 9 ) , omoloZenmvJ (10), prokljatye (12), wkholoscennaja (14) , prokljataja  (15), zamugenna .ia (16).  objg enna j a (16),  .  obizennaja (17), have no support f o r their verbalness and can be considered as adjectivized  or very nearly  adjectivized.  The remainder of these p a r t i c i p l e s are used predicatively,  and  thus p a r a l l e l the use of the a r t i c u l a t e d form of the adjective i n that meaning.  152  The remaining past passive perfective p a r t i c i p l e s are unarticulated forms.  They appear as predicates t o the  a u x i l i a r y verb byt' (whether expressed or not), and, as such, construct phrases of verbal sense.  They are as-follows!  rasstroena (19), polomany (20), zaga&eny (20), zarzavlehy (20), prokl.lat (21). vyzzenv (22), udlvlen (23), ska zany (2k), kongena (25), razodran (26), rasstrelianv (27). okongen (28), rasstroena (29), podan (30), raskrvty (51).-nasyggena (32), uveren (55). vybrogen (34), razorvanv (35), sv.1azan (36), iznogeno (37), oplsano (38), postanovl.ieno (39), obMasneno (ho).  Of these, vyzSenv (22) and opisano (38) control an  instrument of agent.  The verbalness of razor vany (35) and  sv.lazan (36) i s underlined by associated prepositional phrases. Obi&enno ( h i ) i s used as an adverb.  Ranennoe (42) i s  derived from the verb r a n i t , which can be of perfective or 1  1  . . .  '  •  imperfective aspect. I n the manner i n which i t i s used here i t can be considered to be of perfective aspect. There i s only one past passive p a r t i c i p l e of the imperf e c t i v e aspect.  I t i s an a r t i c u l a t e d form, celovanna.la (43)»  and i s used i n the sense of repeated a c t i o n .  1.  D. N. Ugakov, op,, c l t . , I l l , column 1214.  153  C VI (b) Fabrika molodostl Past Passive P a r t i c i p l e (Stage Direction) 1*  Pojavljaetsja; vsklokocennaja boroda i volosy, pidzak ves* dymitsja. P. 10. (He appears; h i s matted beard and hair, his coat a l l i n smoke.)  2.  Mar*ja Alekseevna (ukazyvaet na osveScennye okna) ... P. 21. (Mar*ja Alekseevna (points to the illuminated windows)....)  3.  Serez; scenu prokhodjat krajne ozabocennye Prizent i KoSceev. P. 27. (Prizent and KoSceev, extremely d i s turbed, walk across the stage.)  h.  Neskol'-ko otkrytykh sundukov. trunks.)  5.  Tanja (vykhodit prosten'ko, no izjasftno odetaja). (Tanja (appears, simply.but elegantly dressed).)  6.  Vkhodit Zarubin, SSegol'ski odetyj, blednyj, osunuvSijsja. P. 33» (Zarubin walks i n , dressed l i k e a dandy, pale, hollow-cheeked.)  7.  Ona podnimaet s pola veScl, broSennye Tanej. P. 18. (She i s picking up from the f l o o r the things that were thrown down by Tanja.)  8.  Iz drugoj bokovoj dveri vykhodit KoSceev v podtjaZkakh, yz^eroSen, zaspannyj. P. 11. (From another side door KoSceev appears i n suspenders, dishevelled, sleepy.)  9.  Mar* ja Alekseevna s t o i t , poluprikrytaja pokryvalora. Izuralenno ogljadyvaetsja. F. 36. (Mar*ja Alekseevna stands half-covered with the blanket. She looks about im an astonished manner.)  P. 38.  (Several open P.  15.  10. Vkhodit Zarubin; v i d u nego poterjannyj, boroda vz<eroSena; ... P. k9» (Zarubin enters; he appears disturbed, h i s beard dishevelled; ...) 11. Drugoj (ugol) - eSce ne zakonfien. (corner) - was not yet finished.)  P. 49 •  (The other  154  12.  Mar*ja Alekseevna (ukhodit odetaja v pal*to i z vtoroj kartiny, zagrimiroyana, napudreny volosy). P. 56. (Mar'ja Alekseevna (enters dressed i n the same coat as i n the second scene, made up, powdered h a i r ) . )  13.  Zarubin (vkhodit, odet, pricesan, nagrimirovan). (Zarubin (enters, dressed, groomed, made up).),  14.  Mar*ja Alekseevna (iss.tuplenno). P. 24. (Mar*ja Alekseevna ( i n a frenzy)..) ,  15.  U stola s posudoj v o z i t s j a Tanja, bosaja, v grubora perednike, strizennaja, lovkaja, s e r d i t a j a . P. 7. (Near the table Tanja i s fussing about with the dishes, bare-footed, i n a rough apron, h a i r cut short, dexterous, angry.)  P. 56.  155  GJ VI  (b)  Past Passive P a r t i c i p l e The past passive p a r t i c i p l e s of the Fabrika molodosti (Section G VT (h) - stage d i r e c t i o n ) are d i v i d e d i n the same manner as i n Section G VI (a). The following a r t i c u l a t e d past passive p a r t i c i p l e s are of perfective aspect, precede the nouns they modify, have no support f o r t h e i r verbalness, and can be considered a d j e c t i v a l In quality.  They are:  vaklokodenmala ( l ) . Qsvesc'eiuaiye (2),  pzabogennve ( 3 ) . otkr.vt.ykh (i|), odeta.ia (5) and odety.i ( 6 ) . The following a r t i c u l a t e d past passive p a r t i c i p l e s are again of perfective aspect, but they follow the nouns they modify and are verbal i n force.  They are:;  broSenmve (7),  zaspanny.1 (8), poluprikr.yta.1a ( 9 ) . poter.lannv.1 (10) and odeta.ia (12).  The verbalness of brosennve (7) Is supported  by the instrumental of agent, Tane.1.  The instrumental phrase  pokryvalomi helps to maintain the verbalness of poluprikryta.ia (9).  Poter.1anny.1  (10) appears as the predicate to the  a u x i l i a r y verb byt-'. which i s not expressed.  The  verbalness  of odetala (12) i s underlined by the associated prepositional phrase, v pal*to. The remaining past passive perfective p a r t i c i p l e s are unarticulated forms and appear as predicates to the a u x i l i a r y verb b.vt' (whether expressed or not). force.  They are as follows:  zakoncen ( l l ) , zagrlmirovana  They are verbal i n  vz'erosen (8). vz'erosena  (10),  (12), naoudreav (12), odet (13).  156  priSesan (13), nagrimirovan (13).  Iastuplenno (U4) i s used  as an adverb. There i s only one past passive p a r t i c i p l e derived from an imperfective verb: form.  strlzennaja (15).  It i s articulated i n  I t appears to be yoked with other adjectives and i s  coloured with the same degree of a d j e c t i v a l quality.  157 D VI Mlloserdl.la I Past Passive P a r t i c i p l e •,.; v lakirovannykh ramakh, bjuste, v l j u s t r e bylo samodovol*stvo, oSen* opasnoe po nyneSnimvremenara; ... P© 426. (•••; i n the laquered frames, bust, l u s t r e , there was.a self-contentment, very dangerous i n these days; ...)  158 D VI Past Passive P a r t i c i p l e A f t e r searching p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r past passive imperfective p a r t i c i p l e s i n the Mlloserdi.1a 2 (Section D VI), only one was found, laklrovanavkh ( l ) . I t i s an a r t i c u l a t e d form of p a r t i c i p l e derived from the imperfective verb lakirovat'.  I t pre-  cedes the noun ramakh which i t modifies, has no support f o r i t s verbalness, and appears rather as a; q u a l i f i e r having adjectival  quality.  159  E VI Rukoois*. na.jdennaja pod krovat* .i.u Past Passive P a r t i c i p l e 1.  A Mikhail MikhajloviC khikhikal i drygalsja, kak gal'vaniairovannyj ljaguSonok: "Vot tebe V i z a n t i j a J" ... P. 572. (And Mikhail MikhajloviS chortled and was seized with convulsions l i k e a galvanized f r o g : "There i s Byzantium f o r you2" .....)  2.  Mikhail MikhajloviS b y l pokho2 na veselogo pokojnicka, hritoe l i c o SeluSilos*, glaza vypu5ennye* ... P. 582, (Mikhail Mikhajlovifi resembled a gay s t i f f , - h i s shaved face quivered, h i s eyes protruded, . •••)  3.  ••-••» pripukhSee l i c o ego - b r i t o e i krasnoe - vse smeetsja, z a l i t o e slezami. P. 568. (..., his puffed face - shaved and red - covered with tears, continually laughs.)  ij»  A iz-za okeana S l i novye, dymili na polneba k o r a b l i , gru2ennye vojskarai. P. 581. (And from beyond the ocean covering h a l f of the sky with smoke, s a i l e d new ships, laden with troops.)  5*  2ela;ju pokojno sldet* pod abazurom u kamina, 2elaju nogi moi, opozorennye melkojj begotnej, celovannye nekogda mater*ju raoej, khudye nogi moi, protjanut k ognju. P. 590. (I wish to s i t peacefully under a lamp-shade near the f i r e p l a c e , I wish to stretch my legs, humiliated by l i t t l e runnings to and f r o , kissed formerly by my mother, my t h i n legs I wish to stretch toward the fire..) 1  160  E VI Past Passive P a r t i c i p l e In the search f o r past passive imperfective p a r t i c i p l e s In Rukopis*. na.1denna.1a pod krovat* j u (Section E VI), only f i v e examples of that type were found. forms.  They are a i l a r t i c u l a t e d  The following two p a r t i c i p l e s , g a l vanizirovann.v.1 ( l ) 1  and b r i t o e (2), precede the nouns they modify, have no  support  f o r t h e i r verbalness, and appear as a d j e c t i v i z e d or nearly adjectivized.  Brltoe (3) follows the noun which i t modifies,  but, being--yoliBd with the adjective krasnoe. i s a d j e c t i v a l im quality. The remaining p a r t i c i p l e s , gruzennve (4) and celovannve (5), follow the nouns which they modify and are verbal i n force.  The verbalness of gruzennve (4) i s underlined by the  instrumental of agent volskami. while the verbal force of celovannve (5) i s supported by the instrumental of agent, mater ,1u moej. and the adverb of time, nekogda. 1  161 Syntactic Part B3.  The P a r t i c i p l e  One concern i n c l a s s i f y i n g the p a r t i c i p l e s was to consider how much a p a r t i c i p l e retains i t s verbalness or gravitates towards an adjective. Since i t i s part adjective and part verb, the p a r t i c i p l e i s a hybrid form. The p a r t i c i p l e within i t s phrase can possess aspect, voice and tense. perfective aspect.  I t i s able to express both perfective and imAs f a r as voice i s concerned, the p a r t i c i p l e  can express the a c t i v e , r e f l e x i v e and passive forms. The question of the tense of p a r t i c i p l e s i s very cated.  compli-  For that reason i t would a s s i s t us to divide the p a r t i -  c i p l e s into three groups and to treat each group separately: ( l ) Unartlculated p a r t i c i p l e s of passive voice, (2) a r t i c u l a t e d passive p a r t i c i p l e s , and (3) active p a r t i c i p l e s which consist only of the a r t i c u l a t e d forms.  These three groups include the  present imperfective, the past imperfective and the past perfective p a r t i c i p l e s . The unartlculated passive forms are only used as predicates to the a u x i l i a r y verb, which may or may not be expressed. There i s no example of the unartlculated form of the present passive imperfective p a r t i c i p l e i n T o l s t o j * s works.  This would  support Sakhmatov*s observation that the present passive imperfective p a r t i c i p l e i n i t s unartlculated formi i s not used as frequently as i n Its a r t i c u l a t e d form with the a u x i l i a r y verb i n the present tense.  In the case of the a u x i l i a r y i n  162 other tenses, the use of the present passive imperfective  1  p a r t i c i p l e i s extremely r a r e . T o l s t o i s use of the past passive imperfective p a r t i c i p l e s i n their unarticulated form i s very l i m i t e d .  Sometimes an  im-  perfective p a r t i c i p l e i s used instead of a perfective p a r t i c i p l e , when the verb lacks a perfective aspect, e.g.:  "...,  pust*  razySSet Artema i skaSet, Stoby z a l o 2 i l i v dvukolku kobylu : Afroditu, ona kovana na vse Setyre nogi."  (...,  l e t him f i n d  Artem and t e l l him to h i t c h the mare A f r o d i t e to the two2 wheeled cart, she i s shod on a l l fours.) Kovana lacks perfect3  ive aspect.  The existing perfective verb podkovat  1  is a  correlated form to the imperfective verb podkowvat *.  The .  neuter form of the unarticulated past passive p a r t i c i p l e i s k  frequently used as an impersonal We now  verb.  come to the group of a r t i c u l a t e d p a r t i c i p l e s of  passive voice©  The present passive imperfective p a r t i c i p l e s  appear, i n T o l s t o j ' s works, only i n t h e i r a r t i c u l a t e d forms. The use of the a r t i c u l a t e d forms of the imperfective past passive p a r t i c i p l e i s more frequent than the use of the u n a r t i culated forms. Sometimes there.seems to be an opposition between the imperfective and perfective aspect of these 5 participles. 1. A\. A. Sakhmatov, c i t . , p. 471. 2. A VI, example 23.0. 3.  D. N. USakov,  clt>, I I I , column 392.  4.  See example A VI,  5.  See examples A VI, 228,  222. 229.  163 Speaking generally of the tense relationship of a r t i c u lated or unartlculated passive p a r t i c i p l e s , the present p a r t i c i p l e s represent an incompleted (imperfective)  action  synchronous to that of the main verb, while the past p a r t i c i p l e s represent an aspect relationship of incompleted (imperfective) and completed (perfective) a c t i o n being p r i o r to that of the main verb. We s h a l l now  discuss the group of active p a r t i c i p l e s which  consist only of the a r t i c u l a t e d forms. of the present imperfective  The  time of the a c t i o n  p a r t i c i p l e i s generally synchronous 1  with the action of the main verb.  The past perfective a c t i v e  p a r t i c i p l e expresses an action completed before the time of the a c t i o n of the main verb.  Sometimes the past perfective active  p a r t i c i p l e can denote the maintenance of the r e s u l t of the action rather than the meaning of an action performed i n past time and thus to indicate a sort of simultaneousness to  the  3  action of the main verb. The function and use of the past active imperfective part i c i p l e are rather more complicated, according to the observa-  5  nt  tions of Vinogradov, N. A; Kaganovic, and  6  Bicilll.  1.  See examples A I I I , 26, 27; B I I I , 2.  2.  See examples A IV, 7, 9; G I¥ (a), 1.  3.  Sse example A IV,  k»  V. V. Vinogradov, on. c i t . . p.  36. 276.  5. N.A* Kaganovic, "0 vremennykh funkcijakh priftastij v russkom jazyke," Hankovi zapiski Kharklvls'kol naukovodoslldgoi katedri movoznavstva. 1929, nr 2, pp. 151-171» 6.  P. B i c i l l l , oj2. c i t . , pp. 2h6-258.  m However, in T o l s t o j * s use, the past imperfective  participle  seems to o f f e r a simple picture of i t s time r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t represents, a past action i n reference to the time of the action of the main verb.  Though the action of the p a r t i c i p l e i s p r i o r  to the time of the action of the main verb, i t s completion i s not necessarily p r i o r to the inception of the action of the main verb.  Thus the a c t i o n of the p a r t i c i p l e can be either ,...  completed before the inception of the action of the main verb 1  or continued oni into the action of the main verb.  The time of  the p a r t i c i p l e can be past and i t s action completed at the 2  inception of the a c t i o n of the main verb. of the past active imperfective  Sometimes the action  p a r t i c i p l e can be drawn out of  the sphere of a t t r a c t i o n of the main verb and can be more 3  closely connected with an adverb or adverbial phrase. the use of the past active imperfective  Sometimes  p a r t i c i p l e connected  with the present active p a r t i c i p l e underlines  the sense of the  past. There remains the question of the p o s i t i o n of the p a r t i c i p l e s within the sentence.  A p a r t i c i p l e , l i k e any other ad-  j e c t i v e , agrees with the noun that i t modifies,  or i t can be  modified by words and phrases by which an adjective can be modified.  Thus i t can function as an adjective.  But i f the  p a r t i c i p l e governs a d i r e c t object or possibly the  instrumental  1. The following examples i l l u s t r a t e both types of r e l a t i o n s h i p : A IV, 44, 45, 46, 47, 53, 72. 2.  See examples A IV, 39, 49, 52, 54.  3*  See examples A IV, 51, 61.  4.  See example A IV, 50.  165 1  of agent, the verbal force of the p a r t i c i p l e i s kept.  Every  p a r t i c i p l e tends t o become adjectivized, unless there are obvious counter-indications, such as the governance by the p a r t i c i p l e of an accusative or the maintenance by the p a r t i c i p l e of a strong sense of r e l a t i v e tense.  The past passive  p a r t i c i p l e s are mostly i n c l i n e d to become a d j e c t i v i z e d because they lack the above-mentioned strongest indications of v e r b a l ness.  A passive form cannot govern the direct object.  On  the other hand, however* the verbalness of the past passive p a r t i c i p l e s i s clearest when they are accompanied by an i n s t r u 2 mental of agent. In general, i t i s the a r t i c u l a t e d form of t h e p a r t i c i p l e r that i s most e a s i l y adjectivized, especially when i t i s yoked :  3  with other a d j e c t i v e s .  I. See examples A I I I , 3 7 , 3 8 , 3 9 , 6 0 ; B I I I , 3 ; A IV, 3 3 , . 3 4 , 3 5 , 3 6 . 2o  See examples A VI, 9 7 , 9 8 , 9 9 .  3.  See example B VI, 2 .  S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis The following s t a t i s t i c a l analyses of the Detstvo Nikity (A). Moskve ugrozaet vrag (B), and the Fabrika molodostl ( 0 (a) (b)), are based on estimated word counts of 2 5 , 1 0 0 , 8 9 5 and 1 3 , 2 0 0 respectively. ' Active P a r t i c i p l e s?  Occurrences! As  1* 2.  Present Past (Total).. Imperfective .... Perfective ......  [I)  Bs  Percentages;  Gs  ~"  ~  I*  is  62 75 28 47  10 4 1 3  k 2 0 2  9 3 0 3  A; ™ .25 .298 «111 .17  Bs "  1.12 .446 oil «33  Cs Js • .©3" .015 0 .015  tjs .062 .023 0 .023  Passive P a r t i c i p l e s s 1. 2.  Present ( a r t i c u l a t e d ) . Past (Total).. (a) Imperfective; .... A r t i c u l a t e d ... Unartlculated . (b) Perfective ....... Articulated... Unartlculated .  Present Imperfective Gerund Past Imperfective Gerund Past Perfective Gerund  0 250  0 9  0) 49  0 21  5 4 1 245 168 77  0 1 0 1 0 0 9 48 4 23 5 25  1 1 0 20 11 9  252  2  5  28  0  0  0  1  0  17  0 132  .  •  . . . . . . . . .  »  0  0  0  0  .995  .99  .38  .15  .019 .016 004 .993 67 .36  0 0 0 .99 .44 .55  .007 .007 0 .37 .175 .19  ©996  .22  .038  0 526  .007 .007 0 ol4 .084 .068 .21  O  0  0  .11  0  .129  167 We ana 111 now compare the r e s u l t s of the preceding s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of p a r t i c i p l e s i n respect to t h e i r  occurrence  i n the various types of l i t e r a r y w r i t i n g s . In the short story, (e.g. Detstvo N i k i t y ) . one would expect to f i n d a moderate use of p a r t i c i p l e s , with the exception of the past passive p a r t i c i p l e s .  In the short essay, (e.g.  Moskve ugrozaet vrag). one would expect the active and present passive p a r t i c i p l e s to he used i n a greater measure.  In a  comedy, (e.g. Fabrlka molodosti). one would f i n d a minimal use of p a r t i c i p l e s , other than the past passive p a r t i c i p l e s . On the whole, we f i n d that our percentages  of the use of  p a r t i c i p l e s conform well with the above expectations. Betstvo Nikity the t o t a l percentage  In  of p a r t i c i p l e s used i s  •548 per cent, other than past passive p a r t i c i p l e s which show a t o t a l figure of •995 per cent.  In the short essay, Moskve  ugro&aet vrag,-. i s found a considerable increase i n the use of active and present passive p a r t i c i p l e s , as represented by a t o t a l percentage figure of 1.566, as against .99 per cent representing the use of past passive p a r t i c i p l e s .  The  total  percentage f i g u r e s i n Fabrika molodosti show only.045 per cent Ca)>,  .085  per cent (b) of p a r t i c i p l e s , other than the past  passive p a r t i c i p l e s which are represented by t o t a l figures of .38  (a) and .15 (b).  percentage  168 Bibliography Bere2kov, S. G., "K voprosu o perekhode p r i S a s t i j v prilagatel'nye," Leningradskl.1 gosudarBtvenny.1 pedagogigeskl.1 Inst1tut im. A. I . Gercena. UCenye z a p i s k i . Kafedra russkogo .iaz.vka. Leningrad, 1939, XX. B i c l l l l , P., "Bie Funktion der Partiziplalformen auf -55ij i n der russischen L i t e r s t u r s p r a c h e , Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r slavische P h l l o l o g i e . L e i p z i g , 1941, XXVII, no 2. n  DegoSskaja, A. S., L. S. T r o i c k i j and T. V. S i r k o v s k a j a , Rodna.ia l i t e r a t u r a (Khrestomatija dlja 7 klassa), Leningrad, 1949* (Note: The short essay, Moskve ugro2aet vrag, i s included i n t h i s work.) F e r r e l l , J . , The Syntax of the Gerund and P a r t i c i p l e i n Pushkin* s Prose Works. 1949. Gred", Nikola j I., Prakticeskie urokl russko.1 gramma t i k i . Saint Petersburg, v t l p o g r a f l l Izdatelja, 1832. I s t r i n a , E. S., "Grammatigeskle zametki," Lenlngradski.i gosudarstvennv.1 pedagoglCeski.1 I n s t i t u t im. A. I . Gercena. Ugenve z a p i s k i . Kafedra russkogo .Iazyka, Leningrad, 1939, XX. Kaganovifi, N. A., "0 vremennykh funkcijakh p r i g a s t l j v russkom jazyke," Naukovi zapiski Kharkivis'koi naukovodoslidgoi katedri movoznavstva. 1929, no 2. Mazon, Andre, Gramma ire de la, langue russe ( C o l l e c t i o n de gramma i r e s de l ' l n s t i t u t d'^etudes slaves. V). Paris, 1943* Miiller, V. K., and S. K. Boyanus, Russko-angli.1 ski.i slovar'. Moscow, Ogiz, RSFSR, 1937. PeSkovskij, A. M., Russkl.1 sintaksis v nauCnom osvesgenil. Moscow, 11914; new and revised edition, Moscow, 1938. Sakhmatov, A. A., Sintaksis russkogo ,iaz.vka. Leningrad, Ugpedgiz, 1941. T o l s t o j , Aleksej N., Polnoe sobranie sogineni.1. Moscow, Ggiz, 1948, v o l . 4. (Note: The following short s t o r i e s are included i n t h i s work: Betstvo N i k i t y . Miloserdi.ia I, and Rukopis*. na.1denna.1a pod krovat' .1u. ) T o l s t o j , Aleksej N., Fabrika molodosti. (Komedija v 4 dejstvijakh 1 5 kartinakh), Paris, 1928.  169 USakov, D. N., Tolkovy.i slovar* russkogo ,jazyka, Moscow, Gosudarstvennoe izdatelstvo inostrannykh.i naeional'nykh slovarej, 1935-^40. Vinogradov, V. V., Russki.1 .laz.vk. Moscow, Udpedgiz, 192J7. Zemskij, A. M., S. E. KrjuCkov, and M. V. Svetlaev, Grammatika russkogo .iaz.vka. Moscow. Ufipedgiz, 19148.  

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