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Milton's Satan; a study of his origin and significance Siemens, Katie 1953

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MILTON'S SATAN; A STUDY OF HIS ORIGIN AND SIGNIFICANCE by  KATIE SIEMENS  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of English  We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS  M ^ r i b ^ ^ o f the Department of  English  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1953  ABSTRACT on the thesis MILTON1S SATAN; A STUDY OF HIS  ORIGIN AM)  SIGNIFICANCE  My thesis i s a study of the poetic origin of Milton's Satan and his significance apart from his dramatic function in Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained. I have tried to establish Satan's poetic origin by investigating the studies of a number of prominent c r i t i c s , Miltoh's own prose works, such as the Eikonoklastes and his Second Defence, and also the correspondences between Satan's speeches and the words of King Charles I in his Eikon Bazilike.  From these studies I have drawn the conclusion  that Milton used King Charles I as he appears i n the Eikon Bazilike as his model for Satan.  Since Milton hated the King for his tyranny,  Milton's emotional involvement and the human model resulted i n the portrayal of a Satan, whose vividness and realism make him one of the most towering Satans in world literature. Satan's true significance lies in his revelation of Milton's personality.  He reflects Milton's thoughts, his political and religious  philosophy, his attitudes towards contemporary events, and his personality traits.  Milton's development of Satan's personality reveals his  unsurpassed craftsmanship as a poetic a r t i s t .  As we follow Satan's  career we discover a new Milton, differing enormously from the generally  accepted conception of a stern Puritan.  The Milton revealed in Satan's  action has a keen appreciate of a l l that is beautiful in the universe, besides moral values.  He has a sense of humour and a capacity for  friendship, hitherto found incompatible with Milton's retiring character. Paradise Lost also shows us Milton's hope for the future.  In man's  regeneration he looks forward to an England liberated from the tyranny of kings, while his spiritual vision embraces the realization of God's initial purpose when he created man; Heaven, and Heaven to Earth."  namely, that "Earth be changed to  CONTENTS Page Introduction Chapter I II III N IV N  V  V TT VII VIII IX X -XI ' XII XIII XIV XV XVI Bibliography  The Conception of Satan as the Source of Evil  1  The Argument over Milton's Poetical Conception of Satan  4  Satan as a Counterpart of the Eikon in the Eikon Bazilike The Magnificence of Satan Based upon His Own Demonstration and Allegation  14 22  Twentieth-Century Theories of Satan's Greatness in Paradise Lost  32  An Objective Study of Satan to Assess His True Nature  39  The Poetic Unity of Satan in Hell, on Mount Niphates, and in Eden  59  The Background of Satan's Rebellion  75  The Rebellion  89  Satan, the Rebel of Heaven  94  Satan and the Fall of Man Satan and the Crisis of Paradise Lost Satan and the Second Adam  104 124 132  The Significance of Milton's Satan  143  Satan and Milton's Poetic Art  159  Conclusion  164 169  INTRODUCTION  Paradise Lost is considered Milton's most outstanding poetic work and Satan his greatest artistic achievement in character portrayal. However, besides presenting his readers with a magnificent work of art, Milton has left posterity an insoluble enigaa in the figure of Satan. How did Milton conceive such dynamic force, such realistic emotions?  What is Satan's function in Paradise Lost?  What does  Milton consciously or unconsciously express through Satan?  Why does  the Satan on Mount Niphates differ from the Satan of Books One and Two? These questions have preoccupied the minds of literary critics during the last two centuries and have given rise to numerous controversies on the subject of Satan. To understand Satan a knowledge of Milton's time and of Milton himself as the man, the thinker, and the philosopher is a prime requisite.  It is also necessary to get a clear picture of his state  of mind at the time of the composition of Books One and Two.  Con-  sequently, I have based my conclusions about Satan upon the investigation of Milton's prose works, such as the Eikonoklastes, the Second Defence, the Tenure of Kings, Of Education, Reason of Church Government; on contemporary history; the Fd.kon Bazilike; and on Miltonic criticism. A large number of Miltonic critics believe that Milton created Satan in his own image.  Guided by the discovery of many correspondences  ii  i between the Eikon in the Eikon Bazilike and Satan in Paradise Lost and by the consideration of Milton's state of mind at the time of the Restoration, I believe that Milton drew upon his hatred and estimation of Charles I in the Eikonoklastes for his origin of Satan. This inference invalidates the conception that Milton admired his Satan, and indicates that he meant him to appear spurious.  dice  this is established, the alleged dualism in Satan's characterization disappears, and the much-deplored split in Paradise Lost becomes nonexistent. The eating of the apple has been considered the crisis in Paradise Lost by most of its readers.  This has been responsible for  the difficulty in determining the hero of the epic.  Dr. Tillyard has  shifted the climax to the reconciliation scene between Adam and Eve. By advancing this to their repentance, which becomes the turning point for the destiny of the whole race, the action of man's positive attitude and Satan's humiliation coincide.  This proves that Adam is the  hero as he rises from his Fall towards a brighter future for mankind. Satan's significance in the action of the epic lies in his role as seducer of man.  Milton, in accordance with his conception of  the poet as instructer, warns man of Satan's continuing powers of seduction through which he " s t i l l destroys".  To the twentieth-century  reader Satan represents the embodiment of the powers of rebellion against a l l order and a l l positive values, the dictator type who subverts everything to the realization of his own ends.  Moreover, Satan  reflects Milton's time, his personality, his religious and political philosophy.  iii  In conclusion I should like to point out that, though my statements may sound rather too positive, they are not intended to be dogmatic, since I am fully aware of the weakness of some of my arguments. I am fully convinced that I have by no means dissipated the mystery and exploited the wealth of Satan's personality.  My endeavour amounts to  nothing more than an honest attempt to pierce the secret that shrouds Milton's conception of Satan and to help establish the unity of the author's art, his l i f e , and his thinking.  Chapter I  THE CONCEPTION OF SATAN AS THE SOURCE OF EVIL  The existence of evil has been rendered axiomatic by i t s universal manifestation i n human experience.  The  seven cardinal sins with their numerous amplifications have been the motivating elements i n the shaping of human history, and continue to direct the destiny of mankind and the fate of the individual.  Consequently, the persistence of evil has  always occupied a dominant place i n the field of philosophical and theological thinking and, during the twentieth century, is receiving major attention i n psychological investigation. Many theories have been evolved as a result of this preoccupation with the problem of e v i l .  The earliest records  of theological speculation place the most feasible, though by no means rational, solution to this problem i n the realm of the supernatural by conceiving of evil as a supernatural force.  This early concept remains predominant i n a l l subse-  quent thinking until i t reaches the ultimate i n the Middle Ages in a fully developed doctrine of Satan at the head of a  - 2 -  hierarchial realm.  This medieval conception i s founded upon  Hebrew demonology and New Testament doctrine.  Satan i s a  fallen angel and is responsible for the F a l l of Man and a l l evil upon earth. Popular notion invests Satan with fanciful, distorted characteristics, which make him both grotesque and bizarre.  The Reformation modifies these ideas only partially.  Nor are they held by the vulgar alone, for we learn on good authority^" that Luther ascribes various noises to the devil and feels his corporeal presence to such an extent that he throws his Inkstand at him. Jacob Boehme gives expression to the generally accepted orthodox view of the seventeenth century i n ; Lucifer envied the Son his glory; his own beauty deceived him and he wanted to place himself on the throne of the Son, and stresses the fact that woe was brought into the world through Lucifer's malice and envy.  The numerous literary  works of this century, such as Hugo Grotius' Adamus Excel, Andreini's L'Adamo. Lope de Vega Caspio's Greacion del mnndo y primera culpa de hombre. Lancetta's La scena tragica d'Adamo ed Eva,  Salandra's Adamo Caduto, Vondel's Lucifer  and Adam i n Ballings-chap* and Milton's Paradise Lost and  1 Schaff, D. S., "Devil", in Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed., The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Funk and Wagnalls Co., 1918, v o l . I l l , p. 416. 2  Loc. c i t .  - 3 -  Paradise Regained, attest to an extreme preoccupation with the mystery of e v i l and the character of Satan, It appears that the degree of interest i n e v i l and Satan i n any one age corresponds to the intensity of pessimism resulting from p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , or religious perplexities which assume cataclysmic proportions, e.g., the twentiethcentury threat of atomic warfare.  Werblowsky, In his  "Preface" to Lucifer and Prometheus, voices this opinion with respect to a new awareness of the appalling consequences of e v i l when he states that: It i s not the writers who have reintroduced the d e v i l , but i t i s our present world which has forced them to take notice of him again.... We are l i v i n g through times where e v i l has manifested i t s e l f with an almost revelation-like obtrusiveness and power. ... I t i s understandable therefore that books on the d e v i l have been on the increase l a t e l y . Edward Langton c a l l s the l a s t chapter of his study 'The Return of Satan', giving as a recent example Professor C . E. M. Joad's God and E v i l . We may add C. S. Lewis' Screwtape Letters, Denis de Rougemont's La Part du Diable and others. The Carmelite Fathers i n France have edited a remarkable symposium on Satan. The analytical psychology of Jung has already long insisted on bringing the d e v i l and the problem of the shadow to the fore; mainly i n connection with analytical treatment, but, also, more recently, i n theoretical research. It suffices here to mention Professor Jung's essay on the T r i n i t y and Miss Scharf's s t i r r i n g study on the Old Testament Satan.... Novelists too are returning to the habit of introducing the d e v i l , and using him as a dramatis personae. I t may therefore be excused i f one of the greatest and most towering Satans of 3 l i t e r a t u r e i s made the new subject of a new study.  3 Werblowsky, R. J . Zwi, "Preface", Lucifer and Prometheus, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., 1952, p. XVI.  Chapter II  THE ARGUMENT OVER MILTON'S POETICAL CONCEPTION OF SATAN  In Paradise Lost Milton has l e f t to the world a profound enigma i n this, "one of the greatest and most towering Satans of literature," that hitherto has defied the penetrative analysis of many outstanding thinkers and literary critics of several centuries.  The crux of the problem l i e s In the per-  sistence of divergences i n opinion with regard to the personality and function of Satan. To Milton's contemporaries Satan evidently presented no special problem.  Predisposed by their orthodoxy, they  regarded Paradise Lost as a purely religious poem and Satan as the archfiend of mankind. As for the great Satanic defiances, they would have admired them for their strength and deplored them for their perversity. 4 This idea predominated throughout the greater part of the eighteenth century.  The absence of characteristics ascribed to  Satan by popular notion and manifested i n an especially bizarre fashion in Dante's Inferno as he depicts Satan thus: 4 Rajan, B., Paradise Lost and the Seventeenth-Century Reader, London, Chatto and Windus, 1947, p. 95.  - 5At six eyes he wept; the tears Adown three chins distilled with bloody foam At every mouth his teeth a sinner champ'd Bruised as with ponderous engine; so that three Were in his guise tormented, 5 was attributed to Milton's respect for the aesthetic feelings and religious perceptions of his readers.  Both Newton i n :  A devil a l l made up of wickedness would be too shocking to any reader, 6 and Addison i n his essays on Paradise Lost pay tribute to Milton for his consideration. The romantic school of Miltonic criticism veered drastically from any preceding idea by imputing Promethean qualities to Milton's Satan.  Blake, who originated this idea,  and Shelley represent the ultimate i n Romantic thought.  In  his Marriage of Heaven and Hell Blake becomes the protagonist of a fascinating and inspiring Satan i n Paradise Lost and ascribes Milton's conception of such to the fact that Milton  7 "was a true poet and of the Devil's party without knowing it!'  5 Welsh, Henry C , editor, Dante's Inferno, translated from the original of Dante Alighieri by H. F. Cory, Philadelphia, Henry Altemus, p. 160. 6 Newton's note to Paradise Lost II . 4 8 3 , i n Werblowsky Zwi, Lucifer and Prometheus, p. 37 Blake, "The Marriage of Heaven and Hell", Poetical Works, ed. Sampson (Oxford, 1914) p. 249, cited i n Denis Saurat, Milton: Man and Thinker, London, J . M. Dent and Sons Ltd., 1946, PTTYT.  -  6 -  Shelley looks upon Milton's Satan as a refutation of orthodox teaching when he argues that: Nothing can exceed the energy and magnificence of the character of Satan as expressed i n Paradise Lost. It i s a mistake to suppose that he could ever have been intended for the popular personification of e v i l . Implacable hate, patient cunning, and a sleepless refinement of device to i n f l i c t the extremest anguish on an enemy, these things are e v i l , and although venial in a slave, are not to be forgiven i n a tyrant; although redeemed by much that enobles his defeat i n one subdued, are marked by a l l that dishonours his conquest i n the victor. Milton's devil as a moral being is as far superior to his God, as one who perseveres i n some purpose which he has conceived to be excellent in spite of adversity and torture, i s to one who in the cold security of undoubted triumph i n f l i c t s the most horrible revenge upon his enemy, not from any mistaken notion of inducing him to repent of a perseverance i n enmity, but with the alleged design of exasperating him to deserve new torments. Milton has so far violated the popular creed ( i f this shall be judged to be a violation) as to have alleged no superiority of moral virtue to his God over his Devil." 8 Shelley, apparently, attributes to Milton the intentional glorification of Satan;  and this conception, though in less extreme  form, persisted throughout the nineteenth century. A new approach to Milton's works added impetus to the interest in the Miltonic criticism of the twentieth century. Led by Denis Saurat, a great many literary critics have recently attempted "to reveal the unity of the man himself" by linking "Milton's art to his thought, and both art and thought to his > l i f e , one i n i t s e l f , varied i n its expression, p o l i t i c a l , 8 Shelley, P. B., "A Defence of Poetry" i n Campbell, Pyre and Weaver, ed. Poetry and Criticism of the Romantic Movement, New York, London, Century-Crofts, Inc., 1 9 3 2 , p. 513•  - 7 -  private, philosophical or a r t i s t i c . " 7  Paradise Lost, on the  whole, and the towering personality of Satan^in particular, provide the critics with the widest scope for investigation. With regard to Satan, criticism has divided Miltonic scholars largely into two camps, Satanists and Anti-Satanists, each of them by no means a unanimous entity.  The Satanists  accept the Satan in Books One and Two ab face value: admirable;  he was meant to be admirable.  he is  Moreover, they try  to assert that Milton, consciously or unconsciously, poured into the personality of Satan his own "powerful feeling of 10 egotism and pride."  To a l l of them, in various degrees,  Satan represents Milton. Satan on f i r s t impressions.  The anti-Satanists refuse to accept Keeping forever in mind the pre-  conceived orthodox notion about Satan's character, they prefer to see under the grandiose veneer his hollownees and repulsiveness.  Some, such as Mr. C. S. Lewis, have explored this  attitude to the point where Satan appears ludicrous. The protagonists of the Satanist theory are Mr. Hamilton, Professor S t o l l , Professor Waldock and Mr. D. Saurat. Messrs. C. Williams, C.S.Lewis, and Professor Musgrove are exponents of the anti-Satanist view.  Dr. Tillyard^in his  Milton, expresses Satanist tendencies when he states that "Milton did partly ally himself with Satan, that unwittingly 9 Saurat, Denis, Milton: Man and Thinker, Introduction, London, J . M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1946, p. XII. 10 Ibid., p. XIII .  he was led away by the creature of his own imaglnation."1"1However, he has recently shifted his position In Studies on Milton (1951)< when he definitely takes his stand as an antiSatanist and refutes his own error. Although no two critics agree in their Interpretation of Satan, a l l are unanimous in according Milton's Satan unsurpassed excellence as a work of poetic art.  The romantics  do not quarrel with Shelley's tribute, "Nothing can exceed the energy and magnificence of the character of Satan as expressed 12 in Paradise Lost."  Nor do the twentieth-century writers  disagree with A. Gardner who assesses the Satan In Paradise Lost as"a  figure of heroic magnitude and heroic energy, developed  by Milton with dramatic emphasis and dramatic intensity."-^ The question arises why Satan's grandeur i s not matched poetically by God, the Messiah, and the Heavenly Host. Milton approaches these characters with diffidence and evidently anticipates d i f f i c u l t i e s , evidenced by his plea that the "Celestial Light": "Shine inward, and the mind through a l l her power Irradiate; there plant eyes; a l l mist from thence Purge and disperse, that I may see and t e l l Of things invisible to mortal sight." 14 11 Tillyard, E. M. W., Milton, London, Chatto and Windus, 1946, p. 277. 12  Shelley, A Defense of Poetry, p. 513.  13 Gardner H., "Milton's Satan and the theme of Damnation in Elizabethan Tragedy", i n Wilson, E.P., ed. English Studies, London, John Murray, Albermarl St. W., 1948, vol. 1, p. 49. 14 Milton, John,"Paradise Lost" in Paradise Lost and Selected Prose and Poetry, New York, Toronto, Mnehart & Co. 1951, I I I , 51-54'  - 9 In dealing with heavenly characters, Milton is largely thrown upon his own imagination, especially in his characterization of God, for whom heathen mythology presents Inadequate counterparts and Hebrew teaching and Christian theology insufficient scope for poetic elaboration. realm of the supernatural. Milton.  Satan, too, belongs to the  Yet he presents no difficulties to  Throughout the epic there is no sense of hesitation.  On the contrary, Milton's sponteniety of deliniation and his psychological penetration strike the reader as uncanny and vividly demonstrate the author's profound familiarity with his subject. Hence arises the assumption of many of his critics that Milton expressed his own ruling passions of boundless pride, unyielding nature, and intellectual arrogance; and, greatly self-opiniated, admired his own image in Satan.  Saurat  asserts emphatically that: Satan's f i r s t speeches are pure Miltonic lyricism.... Here we have the rage and defiance Milton himself felt when he saw the Restoration coming, and which we have seen him expressing in prose in his Ready and Easy Way? 15 and that: Milton had Satan in him and wanted to drive him out. He had felt passion, pride, and sensuality. 16 However, Mr. Saurat .seems to invalidate his theory of the poetic derivation of Satan by his evaluation of Milton's 15  Saurat, Milton:  16  Ibid., p . 184.  Man and Thinker, p. 179.  - 10 character.  He commences with, "The very centre of Milton's  personality seems to me to consist In a powerful feeling of egotism and pride, i n the fullest self-consciousness of a 17  tremendous individuality."  Then he modifies his statement  by explaining that Milton looked upon himself as a representative man and, therefore, "His high opinion of himself is also -j o  a high opinion of man."  He adds that Milton manifested a  "noble humility" in remembering that he was the servant of his people, in sacrificing his literary ambition to a cause, when he "gave up his throne of poetical glory, and eagerly became 19  an obscure workman In the service of God."  '  Some Satanists base their argument for the identification of Milton with Satan on the assumption that the great regicide against the Stuarts is hurling, through Satan, defiance against God's providence in the failure of the Revolution. we must not ignore Milton's conception of leadership.  But  Accord-  ing to his political principles the Stuarts had incurred their own downfall, for: When Kings or Rulers become blasphemers of God, oppressions and murderers of their subjects, they ought no more to be accounted Kings or lawful Magistrates, but as privat men to be examin'd, accus'd, condemn'd and punisht by the law of God.... 20. 17  Saurat, Denis, Milton: Man and Thinker, Introduction, pXIII.  18 Loc. c i t . 19 Saurat, op_. c i t . , p. 21. 20 Milton, John,"The Tenure of Kings,"in The Works of John Milton, vol. V, New York, 1932, Columbia University Press, p. 50.  - 11 -  Hence I t was not o n l y l e g i t i m a t e , but imperative f o r the subjects t o r e j e c t t h e i r r u l e . obedience M i l t o n never q u e s t i o n s .  Yet God's p r e r o g a t i v e to Man's Even during the c a t a s t r o -  phic days o f the R e s t o r a t i o n he J u s t i f i e s God's way by p l a c i n g the blame f o r the f a i l u r e o f the R e v o l u t i o n on the E n g l i s h people f o r t h e i r d e f e c t i o n i n c h a r a c t e r .  He expresses t h i s  c o n v i c t i o n i n Paradise Lost i n : "Yet sometimes nations w i l l d e c l i n e so low From v i r t u e , which i s reason, that no wrong, But j u s t i c e and some f a t a l curse annexed, Deprives them o f t h e i r outward l i b e r t y , T h e i r inward lost."21 Mr. Lewis, as a n t i - S a t a n l s t , r e j e c t s the i d e a that M i l t o n i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f with Satan.  He a s c r i b e s the p o e t i -  c a l e x c e l l e n c e o f Satan to the f a c t that i t i s e a s i e r to draw a bad character than a good one because o f the author's as w e l l as the reader's  inner d e p r a v i t y .  "The Satan i n M i l t o n  enables him to draw the character w e l l , j u s t as the Satan i n us enables us to r e c e i v e  it."  22  Dr. T i l l y a r d , i n h i s M i l t o n , agrees with Mr. Saurat when he w r i t e s that "Satan i s the very essence o f M i l t o n ' s  23 nature"  21  J  and that the l a t t e r admired him because "Satan  M i l t o n , Paradise L o s t ,  XII, 97-101-  22 Lewis, C.S., A Preface to Paradise L o s t , London: New York: Toronto, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1946, p . 99. 23  T i l l y a r d , E.M.W., M i l t o n , p . 2 7 7 .  - 12 24 expresses heroic energy in what Milton believed very strongly? However, a few years later Dr. Tillyard revokes his earlier avowals i n no uncertain terms by stating that: ... we now see that Milton did not sympathise with Satanic pride, but that recognizing the temptation to pride In himself, he passionately embraced and expressed the ethics of Christian humility. Indeed the very structure of Paradise Lost is an ironic exposure of the weakness of Satanic pride (for a l l the reverberant protests of i t s power) when matched with the smallest manifestation of sincere and regenerate human feeling. 25 And he goes on to say: You might as well argue that the author of the Book of Samuel was really on the side of Goliath against David.... More than ever i t is certain that Milton was on the side of Christian humility against pride. 26 Considering Milton's religious orthodoxy, according to which Satan was the archfiend of humanity, causing a l l evil and a l l woe, a deliberate identification with the enemy of mankind and his personal antagonist seems inconceivable.  On  the basis of his political convictions Milton would have rejected the analogy which the Satanists are trying to draw between Satan, the outlaw rebel, and Milton, the defeated regicide.  Satan was cast out of Heaven because of a defection  in character.  He rebelled against his superior in virtue.  Milton opposed a dynasty which had forfeited its right to rule through i t s decadence. 24  Satan was motivated by pride and  Loc. c i t .  25 Tillyard, E.M.W., Studies in Milton, London, Chatto and Windus, 1951, p. 6. 26 Ibid., p. 51v  - 13 selfishness.  Milton acted under the duress of duty and sacri-  ficed his eyesight and his poetic ambition to the service of his fellow men.  At no time during the catastrophe did Milton  question God's justice.  Consequently, It Is d i f f i c u l t to  assume that even unconsciously he imputed his own feelings to Satan.  Therefore, throughout this thesis, I shall regard the  identification of Milton with Satan as an erroneous conception.  Chapter III  SATAN AS A COUNTERPART OF THE EIKON IN THE EIKON BAZILIKE  Dr. Tillyard does not investigate the possible sources for the poetic conception of Milton's Satan.  Yet i n  his statement/'That Milton should have depicted such potentialities in Satan argues not his covert approval but his sound knowledge of the dictator type," 2 ^ he gives  the clue.  In the  Tenure of Kings Milton investigates the regimes of a l l times. Political and religious developments throughout Europe and especially in England are forcing the characteristics of tyrants upon Milton and his collaborators in personal experience. Moreover, Milton's pen accompanied the whole Puritan revolution from the modest constitutional opposition in which i t commenced, through its unexpected triumph, to i t s crushing overdo throw by the royalist and clerical reaction. 0 As Secretary for the Commonwealth his duty lay, to a great extent, in refuting the accusations and defamations directed against the regicides by the royalists and their continental  27  Tillyard, E.M.W., Studies in Milton, p. 6.  28 Pattison, Mark, Milton, London, MacMilland and Co.Ltd., 1932, p. 72.  - 15 supporters.  This he could do effectively only hy exploring  every intricacy of the manifold and voluminous literature in order to explode the v e i l of casuistry and thus disabuse the English mind from the effects of i t s propqganda. In the Eikon Bazilike Milton was challenged by the self-portrayal of Charles I as the saint and martyr, the man of sorrows, praying for his murderers; the King, who renounced an earthly kingdom to gain a heavenly, 29 to dissipate the illusion which the book imposed upon the g u l l i ble populace.  The tone of the Eikonoklastes, through which  Milton attempted to expose the King's sophistry, reveals a bitter personal antagonism for a tyrant whose rule had been a constant negation of his profession i n the Eikon Bazilike. This hostile attitude grew i n intensity during the years "when his tower of dreams for England's salvation crumbled to deso30 late ruin,"  and when the "New Israel" rejected God's providence  for idolatrous king-worship.  L'Estrange states that Milton  "had done more to keep him [Charles if) out, and had attacked him and his more ferociously, more relentlessly, and more 31  successfully, than any other living."-^ 29  He also comments on  Pattison, Mark, Milton, p. 101.  30 Wolfe, Don M., Milton in the Puritan Revolution, New York, Thomas Nelson and Sons, 194-1, p . 37/. 31 Masson, David, The Life of John Milton, London, MaeMillan and Co., 1877, vol. V, p. 693-  -  16  -  Milton's power of penetration in "... your piercing malice enters into the private agonies of his [Charles f] struggling soul...." 3 2 A l l this indicates Milton's intense hatred of kingship and his profound understanding of the nature of a tyrant. Moreover, he needed l i t t l e imagination to portray his Satan during the early days of the Restoration, when the "apocalypti beast let loose" became a reality in his experience.  He  sensed Satan's fury i n the frenzied rejoicings of the rioting mobs.  He became aware of his cataclysmic violence in the mar  tyrdom of his friends, whose fortitude, expressed in Harrison' dying words? By God I have leaped over a Wall, by God I have runn'd through a Troop, and by my God I w i l l go through this death, and he will make i t easie to me5 33 34  and demonstrated by Vane, who "dyed like a Prince," abate the diabolic malice.  did not  Overshadowed by e v i l , in constant  jeopardy of his own l i f e , out of the bitterness of his soul } Milton brought forth his "towering" Satan in conformity with orthodoxy, yet with King Charles as his psychological prototyp It is natural that Milton, having analyzed the King's thoughts 32 Masson, Life of John Milton, p.  694.  33 Wolfe, Milton in the Puritan Revolution, p. 34 Ibid.. p.  340.  338.  - 17 -  and nature In the Eikon Bazllike in minutest detail, should turn to i t for his characterization of Satan.  Moreover, the  numerous correspondence? in the Eikon and Paradise Lost are ample evidence that Milton deliberately identified his Satan with the king.  At times the analogy i s so close that Satan's  statements strike the reader as the poetic paraphrase of Charles's arguments. Both trace the provocation of their opposition to injured merit.  The king in his complaint against the curtail-  ment of his powers states, God knows, though I had then a sense of Injuries; 35 while Satan admits that the rebellion was caused by his "... sense of injured merit, ->6 That with the Mightiest raised me to contend." Both boast of the invincibility of their soul;  the king in  But I have a soul invincible ... here I am sure to be Conquerour, ^ ' and again: ...here I am and ever shall be fixt and resolutej 38 and Satan to Beelzebub: " A l l is not lost - the unconquerable w i l l , and study of revenge, immortal hate,  35 Almack, Edward, ed., Eikon Bazilike, London, The De La Mare Press, 1904, p. 30.  36 Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 97-98. 37 38  Almack, op_. c i t . , p. 5 6 , 1.8 Ibid. ; P. 40, 1. 4.  - 18 -  and courage never to submit or y i e l d . n ^ The king expresses his determination to persist i n his defiance, for he considers i t : better for me to die enjoying the Empire of my soul, ... then live with the Title of King, i f i t shall carry such vassalage with i t , as not to suffer me to use My Reason and Conscience, in which I declare as a King, to like or disl i k e . 40. Satan incites his follower: "To wage by force or guile eternal war, Irreconcilable to our grand Foe,*^ The king tries to rationalize his predicament by derogating the success of his opponents, because They have no great cause to triumph, that they have got my Person into their Power; since my Soule is s t i l l my own; nor shall they ever gaine my Consent against my Conscience ... the greatest injuries my enemies seek to i n f l i c t upon 4 me, cannot be without my own consent.  2  Satan similarly extols the sovereignty of his soul through the superiority of mind over matter when he persuades himself that " The mind is i t s own place, and in i t s e l f 40 Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven." 39 Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 106-108. 40  0p_. c i t . , p. 33, 1. 2 f f .  41  Ibid., I, 121-122.  42  Eikon Bazilike, p. 211, 1. 19ff.  43  Milton, Paradise Lost, I,  254-255.  - 19 -  Both try to find comfort i n the theory that true greatness is not contingent upon material circumstances.  The king asserts  that: I shall never think my self lesse than my self while I am able thus to preserve the Integrity of my Conscience. 44 Satan tries to reassure himself, in the very centre of Hell, with "What matter where, i f I be s t i l l the same, And what I should be ... " 45 The king expresses his self-deception and arrogance by a false optimism for a future when my reputation shall like the Sun (after Owles and Bats have had their freedome i n the night and darker times) rise and recover i t s e l f to such a degree of splendour, as those ferall birds shall be grieved to behold, and unable to bear. For never were any Princes more glorious, than those whom God hath suffer'd to be tried i n the fornace of a f f l i c t i o n , by their injurious Subjects. 46 Satan's argument; "I give not Heaven for lost: from this descent Celestial Virtues rising w i l l appear 47 More glorious and more dread than from no f a l l / is equally vainglorious. The king presents himself as a martyr in a great  44 Milton, Paradise Lost. I, p. 209, 1. 3 f f . 45  Ibid., p. 256-7.  46 Eikon Bazilike. p. 140, 1. 13 f f . 47 Milton, op_. c i t . , I I , 14-16.  - 20 -  cause, because! I would but defend My self so far, as to be able to defend my good Subjects from those mens violence and fraud. 48 Satan, by a similar perversion of truth^gains the acclaim of the fallen angels, as: ... Towards him they bend With awful reverence prone, and as a God Extol him equal to the Highest in Heaven. Nor failed they to express how much they praised. That for the general safety he despised His own.^9 A metaphor, i n which the Sun represents the king and the moon parliament, and which the king uses to describe his deposition occasioned by the Interposition and shadow of that body, which as the Moone receiveth its chiefest light from Me, 50 is successfully exploited i n Paradise Lost to give a vivid picture of the fallen Satan, ... as when the sun new-risen Looks through the horizontal misty air Shorn of his beam$ or, from behind the moon, In dim eclipse, disastrous twilight sheds On half the nations ... 51 In his Eikonoklastes Milton endeavors to shatter the Eikon the king has created of himself.  By revealing the king's  power of dissimulation, his hypocrisy, his false pride, and 48 F.ikon Bazilike, p. 72, 1. 12 ff49 Milton, Paradise Lost, I I , 477 - 4-82. 50 Milton, op_. c i t . , p. 74-, 1. H 51 Milton, op_. c i t . , I,  f f  594 f f .  '  - 21 mental perversion, Milton makes him the embodiment of the orthodox Satan.  In Paradise Lost he reverses the process in  making Satan the adumbration of the king as he sees him In the Eikon Bazilike.  Moreover, his hatred of the Prelacy causes him  to impute also to his Satan the evils he execrates i n the Bishops. Thus the Satan of Paradise Lost is not Milton, but Is deliberately created in the image of Charles.  The use of  a human model results i n a humanized Satan and produces the startling realism so lacking in God, the Son, and the Heavenly Host.  Moreover, the immediacy of the experience and Milton's  intense emotional involvement lend  his characterization a  dramatic force which renders the Satan of Paradise Lost unsurpassed in the literature of the world.  Chapter IV  THE MAGNIFICENCE OF SATAN BASED UPON HIS OWN DEMONSTRATIONS AND ALLEGATIONS  The epic convention permits Milton to start "in medlas res" and present his Satan to the reader before working out an exposition and thus conditioning him for the encounter. In the introduction Milton effectively reveals his plot i n epigrammatic form.  Satan's part he sums up thus:  Th1 infernal Serpent; he i t was whose guile, Stirred up with envy and revenge, deceived The mother of mankind, what time his pride Had cast him out from Heaven, with a l l his Host Of rebel Angels, by whose aid, aspiring To set himself i n glory above his peers, He trusted to have equalled the Most High, If He opposed, and with ambitions aim Against the throne and monarchy of God, Raised impious war in Heaven and battle proud, With vain attempt. Him the Almighty Power Hurled headlong flaming from th* ethereal sky, With hideous ruin and combustion, down To bottomless perdition, there to dwell In adamantine chains and penal f i r e , 52 Who durst defy th' Omnipotent to arms. In these few lines the poet apprises the reader of his personal attitude towards Satan. "th 1  He stigmatizes him as  infernal Serpent," f i l l e d with "envy and revenge," dis-  rupting the natural order by aspiring "above his peers."  He  calls him "impious", "proud", "a rebel", the seducer of "the 52  Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 34-4-9.  - 23 -  mother of mankind."  He depicts him in the ludicrous, un-  heroic state of heing Hurled headlong flaming from th 1 ethereal sky.^3 There i s a note of satisfaction over God's punishing of him> 54  Who durst defy th' Omnipotent to arms, as Milton goes on to describe without a vestige of compassion: The dismal situation waste and wilde. A dungeon horrible, on a l l sides round, As one great furnace flamed; yet from those flames No light; but rather darkness visible Served only to discover sights of woe, Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where peace And rest can never dwell, hope never comes That comes to a l l , . . . 55 Satan's predicament does not mitigate Milton's abhorence for 56  the "horrid crew ... rolling in the fiery gulf"  nor for their  leader, whose "baleful eyes" instead of remorse over his sinful ambition, show only "steadfast hate." Having thus clarified his own feelings, Milton exposes the reader directly to the influence of Satan's demonstrations and allegations.  He lets Satan speak for himself,  even as Charles I spoke i n the Eikon Bazilike. Through the realistic description of hell as: ... a fiery deluge, fed 57 With ever-burning sulphur unconsumed 53 Milton, Paradise Lost. I, 45. 54 Ibid., I, 49. 55 Ibid., I, 60-67. 56 Ibid., I, 52. 57  Ibid., I, 68. -67.  - 24 -  and the fallen angels; ... o•erwhelmed With floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous fire ... weltering by his side ; 58 Milton successfully stimulates the imagination and incites curiosity to learn from Satan the cause of such deep a f f l i c tion, for which there is l i t t l e Biblical explanation.  Where  groans and self pity would have been quite i n order, Satan voices an admirable courage i n : "All is not lost, - the unconquerable w i l l , And courage never to submit or yield: And what i s else not to be overcome?"59 His determination and optimism i n the face of such recent calamity causes his rationalizing: "Since, through experience of this great event In arms not worse, in foresight much advanced, We may with more successful hope resolve To wage by force or guile eternal war, Irreconcilable to our grand Foe,"60 to lose i t s ludicibusness. The contagion of his invincibility communicates i t s e l f to Beelzebub, who at f i r s t challenges Satan's optimism by questioning: "What can i t then avail though yet we feel Strength undiminished, or eternal being To undergo eternal punishment?" 61 His leadership l i f t s a numerous army from utter despair, where:  58 Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 86 - 88. 59 Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 106 * 108.  60 Ibid., I. 118-122. 61 Ibid., I. 150-152.  - 25 -  Abject and l o s t , lay these, covering the flood, Under amazement of their hideous change. 62 His high reputation makes his military discipline effective even i n H e l l , for: They heard, and were abashed, and up they sprung Upon the wing, as when men wont to watch On duty, sleeping found by whom they dread, Rouse and bestir themselves ere well awake. Nor did they not perceive the evil plight In which they were, or the fierce pain not feel; Yet to their General's voice they soon obeyed Innumerable. 63 From his point of vantage on the burning land, Satan surveys his predicament undismayed, yet with the f u l l realization of its cataclysmal nature.  He accepts the situation defiantly:  64  "Be i t so."  But he i s convinced of the superiority of his  mind over matter and Is determined to impose his w i l l upon his environment, upon Hell i t s e l f , for "The mind i s i t s own place, and in i t s e l f ^ Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven" Since the glories of Heaven left him unhappy, there will be more inner satisfaction for him "to reign in Hell, than serve in Heaven."^ His over-bearing self-confidence is heightened by the success of his f i r s t overt defiance of God's punishment as he and Beelzebub shake off their chains and rise: As Gods, and by their own recovered strength, Not by the sufferance of supernal Power. 67 62 63 64 65 66 67  Milton, Paradise Lost. I, 313-314. I M i . ,  I, 331-338.  Ibid.. Iold.. Ibid., Ibid.,  I, I, I, I,  245. 254 - 255. 263. 240-241.  - 26 -  Satan's heroic qualities are matched by his grandiose figure.  His ... eyes . That sparkling blazed ... °8  are fascinating as they mirror the Intensity of his emotions. The vagueness in the description of his figure as.* ... long and large, ... i n bulk as huge ,Q as whom the fables name of monstrous size,, ' leaves the imagination free to conjecture up a picture of an incomparable Titan. His armour bears tribute to his great physical strength and his courage. ... his ponderous shield, ... massy, large, and round. The broad circumference 7 Q Hung on his shoulders like a moon^ gives, by i t s battered appearance, ample evidence of many an intercepted blow and many an adversary valorously met. Under the impact of so much physical vigour and intellectual energy any preconceived notion about Satan gives way to a sense of respect and admiration.  His dramatic force  completely eclipses Milton's interspersed maledictions, such as "unblest feet"''1, "the superior Fiend,"?2 68 69 70 71 72 73  "bad angels,"^  Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 193 - 194. Ibid., I, 195 - 197. Ibid., I, 284 - 291Ibid., I, 238. Ibid., I, 283. Ibid., I, 344.  - 27 74  and "Sultan"  — "a name hateful in Milton's day to a l l Euro-  peans both as freemen and as Christians."^  Even the extensive  analogy to Leviathan, whom: the pilot of some small night-foundered s k i f f , Deeming some island, o f t , as seamen t e l l , finds a treacherous counterfeit, interferes l i t t l e with the reader's predisposition in favour of Satan. The impressiveness of his companion chiefs, ... - godlike Shapes, and Forms Excelling human; princely Dignities , And Powers that erst i n Heaven sat on thrones,'" 77  augments the grandeur of "their great Commander."  Milton's  subsequent description of these epic companions sounds a note of caution. They seem also to lack the heroic lustre of their chief. But Courage i n a gangster is s t i l l y courage and therefore good ' is Mr. Waldock's opinion.  Moreover, the display of a mighty  army, the Dorian music creating an atmosphere of steadfastness and sublimity, quickly dissipates the unpleasant impression, as Satan again projects his powerful personality into the  74  Milton, Paradise Lost. I , 348.  ,  75  Lewis, C. S., A Preface to Paradise Lost, p. 77, 11.9,10-  76 Milton, Paradise Lost, I . 358r360. 77  Loc. c i t .  78 Waldock, A. J . H., Paradise Lost and Its C r i t i c s , Cambridge, The University Press, 1947, 76, line 22.  - 28 foreground, against a dramatic background of; Th'imperial ensign; which, f u l l high advanced, Shone like a meteor streaming to the wind, With gems and golden lustre rich emblazed,'° and Ten thousand banners ... With orient colours waving, and A forest huge of spears; and thronging helms ... , and serried shields in thick array of depth immeasurable. 80 Satan, who ... above the rest In shape and gesture proudly eminent Stood like a tower, 81 has grown to such heroic proportions and magnificence at this point that Milton's appeals to the reader's reason, such as his reference to Satan's speech : ... high words, that bore o Semblance of worth not substance,  d  p  pass henceforth unheeded. Moreover, the emotional factor enters pre-eminently at this point as the loyalty of; Millons of Spirits for his fault amerced 33 Of Heaven, and from eternal splendours flung 7  79  Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 536-538.  80  Ibid., I, 545-550.  81  Ibid., I, 589.  82  Ibid., I, 528-29.  8  Ibid., I, 609-10.  3  - 29 -  and Satan's "Tears such as Angels weep"^ appeal to the reader's sympathy and add to the hitherto purely militaristic heroism the gentler qualities of devotion, remorse, and compassion. Satan's further speeches portray him as the successful demagogue and shrewd psychologist.  He convinces his  followers that, i n spite of failure, their « ... s t r i f e , „gc; v Was not inglorious, though th'event was dire_, thus ensuring continued cooperation.  He arouses their optim-  ism hy his affirmation that; "... this infernal pit shall never hold Celestial Spirits in bondage, nor th' Abyss Long under darkness cover," 86 and sustains i t by action in the building of Pandemonium. The abject despair of failure completely disintegrates with the rising of the counterpart of his former capital, 87  ... those proud towers to swift destruction doomed. The re-establishment of the hierarchial order and procedure restores the lost sense of security and their confidence that a l l will be well i n the end. In the "Great Consult" Satan adds diplomatic s k i l l to his other qualities.  He keeps the situation at a l l times  84  Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 620.  85  Ibid., I, 623.  86  Ibid., I, 667-69.  87  Ibid., V, 997-  - 30 well under control and seizes upon the right moment to carry his point.  His daring plan, artfully presented, focuses the  minds of the fallen angels on the future;  while his self-  sacrifice in undertaking the dangerous exploit personally, captivates their loyalty with a more intense abandonment as; ... towards him they bend With awful reverence prone; and as a God Extol him equal to the Highest in Heaven. Nor failed they to express how much they praised That for cyti the general safety he despised His own. A provident statesman, Satan makes provision to sustain the climate, which he has worked up laboriously, during his absence. His command: "... intend at home While here shall be our home, what best may ease The present misery, and render Hell More tolerable; i f there be cure or charm To respite, or deceive, or slack the pain Of this i l l mansion, "89 sends the angels in pursuit of occupations that w i l l provide an opiate for their woes t i l l their "great chief return."9° In his encounter with Sin, Death, and Chaos rises effectively to unexpected situations.  Satan  The fact that he  identifies himself with lust and passion under the most horrible circumstances causes, no doubt, some of the readers to pause and wonder.  Yet, on the whole, Satan at this point  88 Milton, Paradise Lost, I I , 477-4-82.  89  Ibid., II, 457-463-  90  Ibid., I I , 527.  - 31 -  has succeeded i n impairing a l l logical reasoning and appears as M  a figure of heroic magnitude and heroic energy", encouraging  the despairing, l i f t i n g up the fallen, jeopardizing his l i f e in a Promethean attempt to elevate his followers to a higher level of existence. Thus the reader of Paradise Lost may he easily induced to conceive an admiration and sympathy for Satan on the basis of his rhetorical charm and his actions, without paying due regard to Milton's running commentary.  He may yield to  the influence of a masterful demagogue who is making capital out of the misery of his followers as well as the g u l l i b i l i t y of the careless reader.  91 Gardener, H., Milton's Satan and the Theme of Damnation in Elizabethan Tragedy, p. 59.  Chapter V  TWENTIETH-CENTURY THEORIES OF SATAN'S GREATNESS IN PARADISE LOST  The question arises, naturally, why Milton has given such preponderance to Satan's demonstration over his own commentary.  Literary criticism has advanced various theories  for this apparently Promethean complex in the conception of Satan, his grandeur and magnificence.  Mr. Saurat speaks for 92  the Satanists in his explanation that "Milton admires him." Mr. Wolfe prefers a contrary opinion i n ; Had Satan revolted against a ruler inferior to himself, Milton would have acclaimed him; but since Satan rebelled against One supreme i n spiritual attainment, Milton has him undergo eternal pain. 93 If Milton's own argument in the Eikonoklastes can be accepted as a criterion for his attitudes in Paradise Lost, the solution is near at hand.  To the king's  94 But I have a soul Invincible, Milton states sarcastically; 'But he had a soul invincible,* What praise i s that? The stomach of a Child is ofttimes 92  Saurat, Denis, Milton: Man and Thinker, p. 189, line 32.  93 Wolfe, Don M., Milton in the Puritan Revolution, p. 346, line 21 f f . 94 Eikon Bazilike, p. 56, line 10.  - 33 -  invincible to a l l correction. The unteachable man hath a soule to a l l reason and good advice invincible; and he who i s intractable, he whom nothing can persuade, may boast himself invincible; whenas in some things to be overcome i s more honest and laudable then to conquer. 95 To the King's second statement: Is there no way left to make me a glorious King but by my sufferings?^ 0 Milton replies: A glorious 'King he would be,' though 'by his sufferings•: But that can never be to him whose 97 sufferings are his own doings. Mr. Waldock's assertion that: What we feel most of a l l , I suppose in his Satan's refusal to give in just that. How can Milton help sympathizing with qualities such as these?.QObviously he sympathizes with them, 9o is inconsistent with Milton's attitude towards the same "qualities" i n the king.  Satan boasts of an equally "invincible"  soul where submission would have been more "laudable," and his sufferings "are of his own doings", too.  If one accepts Mr.  Pattison's estimate of Milton that the latter i s : ... not one of the false prophets, who turn round and laugh at their own enthusiasm, who say one thing in their verses, and another thing over their cups. What he writes i n his poetry i s what he thinks, what he means, and 95  Milton, Eikonoklastes, p. 151, line 8.  96  Eikon Bazilike, p. 56, lines 23-25.  97 Milton, OP. c i t . , p; 152, lines 17-19. 98 Waldock, A. J . H., Paradise Lost and Its C r i t i c s , p. 71, lines 14-17.  -  34  -  99 what he w i l l do, one may feel justified in assuming that Milton did not admire Satan.  Why then did he create him great? Mr. Lewis tries to simplify the problem by assuming  that when Milton: ... put the most specious aspects of Satan at the very beginning of his poem he was relying on two predispositions i n the minds of his readers, which in that age, would have guarded them from our later misunderstanding. Men s t i l l believed that there really was such a person as Satan and, that he was a l i a r . The poet did not foresee that his work would one day meet the disarming simplicity of critics who take for gospel things said by the father 3.00 of falsehood in public speeches to his troops. But Mr. Lewis is not justified i n placing such utter confidence in the good sense of Milton's contemporaries.  Milton denoun-  ces their g u l l i b i l i t y when the insidiousness of the Eikon Bazilike causes themJ ... to f a l l flat and give adoration to the Image and Memory of this man, who hath offer'd at more cunning fetches to undermine our Liberties, and putt Tyranny into an Art, then any British King before him. 101 Mr. Rajan shares his supposition with other critics that the aggrandizement of Satan is necessary to emphasize the magnitude of the struggle and give preponderance to the victorious s i d e . 1 0 2 99 Pattison, Mark, Milton, p. 14-7, lines 16-20. 100 Lewis, C. S., A Preface to Paradise Lost, p. 88, lines 1-9101 Milton, Eikonoklastes, p. 69. 102 Rajan, B., Paradise Lost and the Seventeenth-Century Reader, p. 99•  - 35 Mr. Werblowsky settles the Satanic predicament satisfactori l y for himself by questioning Milton's efficiency as poet. He J_ Satan_J simply does not do what he was intended to do, and is he not then, according to that very criterion, a bad piece of workmanship?-^ he enquires.  Yet, Mr. Saurat's tribute to Milton's workmanship:  Milton, unlike Blake, is a clear and precise poet, perfectly in command of his ideas and art, who says what he wants to say, all he wants to say and no more, 20/^ completely contradicts Mr. Werblowsky's criticism. Since Milton's other works show him as a well-disciplined artist, i t seems incredible that in Paradise Lost, his most ambitious literary project and the product of a lifetime, the character of Satan should have gotten out of hand.  Hence, I believe that  Satan is what Milton meant him to be. The assumption that Milton creates the Satan in Paradise Lost in the image of the Eikon seems, at first thought to  complicate  experience  the Satanic problem.  Milton knew from bitter  the tremendous impact the Eikon Bazilike had upon  the minds of the English people.  The king's professions of  courage, loyalty to his followers,  affection for his subjects,  and concern for their liberty "served to make the appeal of the 103  Werblowsky, R- J. Zwi, Lucifer and Prometheus, p. 14, lines  104  Saurat, Denis, Milton: Man and Thinker, p. 175-  11-12.  - 36 -  Eikon irresistible to the multitude of king-revering English-  105 men,"  and rendered a l l attempts to explode the deception  ineffectual.  Moreover, i t s influence became more potent with  the years and served as the most powerful propaganda weapon to bias the minds of the people i n favour of the Restoration. Yet i n the very days when the success of the royalists proves its potency, Milton, having been for years quite aware of its fascination and seductiveness, subjects his readers i n the Satan of Paradise Lost to the same "Sophistry flashing with 106 Rhetorieke." The logical conclusion seems that Milton creates Satan deliberately and purposely in the image of the Eikon. He intends him to be great and fascinating in order to achieve the same result.  Satan has deceived the fallen angels with 107  "that boast so vain"  ' that a l l Is not lost.  Chaos and Night with his promise to "reduce darkness and your sway"  He has deceived  To her original  the new world, which he i s deter-  mined to conquer for his own ends. Later on, disguised as a spirit of light, through Hypocrisy - the only evil that walks Invisible, except to God alone, 109 he deceives Uriel. 105  Wolfe, Don, Milton in the Puritan Revolution, p. 219 •  106  Ibid., p. 221 .  107  Milton, Paradise Lost, IV, 87.  108  Ibid., I I , 983.  109  Ibid., i n , 683-684.  - 37 -  So far he seems triumphant In his strength, and might well deceive not only himself but the readers of Paradise Lost into thinking him a dauntless hero, 110 states Mss Wood h u l l .  The large number of Satan's admirers  attests to the success of the deception, and this is a tribute to Milton's craftsmanship of effecting the desired emotive response in his readers.  To Milton pity for Charles amounts to  "a carnal admiring of that wordly pomp and greatness" from whence he had f a l l e n . 1 1 1  Sympathy and admiration for Satan,  aroused by giving too much credence to him, is idolatry and constitutes the f a l l of the reader i n the same measure as Eve's f a l l was conditioned by a similar weakness.  No doubt, a less  powerful Satan would have been effective enough to ensnare the average twentieth century reader, whose sensibilities to the orthodox conception of Satan are atrophied.  But Milton was  writing for men of his own age, fortified by a religious tradition by which: ... the angels and devils of the Jewish Scripture were more real beings, and better vouched, than any historical personages could be. 112 This should explain Mr. Werblowsky's query why such "insistence and obstrusiveness of the Promethean element" and why "Milton selected i t with a l l i t s 'charge'."113 110 Woodhull, Marianna, The Epic of Paradise Lost, New York and London, G.P.Putnam's Sons, 1907, p. 2 6 9 . 111 Hutchinson, F.E., Milton and the English Mind, London, The English Universities Press, 1950, p. 7 4 . 112 Pattlson, Mark, Milton, p. 1 8 5 . 113 Werblowsky, Zwi, Lucifer and Prometheus, p. 1 9 .  - 38 -  In bringing his reader toafall, Milton achieves several ends.  He conforms to the epic convention by involving  the reader emotionally in such a way as to make him feel a participant in the action.  He conditions him for a wider  sympathy for Adam and Eve as they f a i l to resist Satan's temptation and thus bring woe upon the world.  In his function as  poet, he impresses upon his readers the fact that Satan " s t i l l 114 destroys Thus, the Satan in Books One and Two of Paradise Lost is  conceived by Milton, not in his own image, but modelled  the Eikon of the Eikon Bazilike.  on  Milton does not admire him,  but he endows him with a spurious magnificence to subject the reader to his deception and thus condition him for a more sympathetic participation i n the action of the epic.  In faith-  fulness to the role of the poet, Milton warns the reader of Satan's everlasting enmity towards God and  man.  The reader's emotional response to Satan inhibits the clarity of his reasoning powers.  He accepts Satan on the  authority of the latter's highly subjective and biased statements.  Only through an intelligent and objective analysis of  a l l circumstances, including Satan's demonstrations, his allegations, and Milton's commentary, can the true nature of Satan in Paradise Lost be accurately comprehended.  114  Milton, Paradise Lost, III, 301.  Chapter VI AN OBJECTIVE STUDY OF SATAN TO ASSESS HIS TRUE NATURE  Mr. Waldock criticizes Milton's technique of dealing with Satan on two different levels: and the level of commentary.  the level of demonstration,  Moreover, he is greatly annoyed  at the inconsistences between the two levels, as "Milton's commentary clashes with Satan's demonstration."112 The d i f f i c u l t y lies in the fact that Paradise Lost suffers "from superficial reading rather more generally than 113 any other masterpiece of English literature."  Readers seem  to become immediately absorbed by Satan's demonstration; i.e., his performance and eloquence, while they completely disregard Milton's commentary. Mr. Waldock decides to ignore the latter deliberately and accept only the demonstration of Satan as 117 valid.  ' Moreover, many readers go beyond their preference  for Satan's allegations when they identify Milton with Satan and take him for Milton's mouthpiece. 115 Waldock, A.J.R., Paradise Lost and Its C r i t i c s , p. 78. 116  Woodhull, Marianna, The Epic of Paradise Lost, p. 1.  117  Waldock, H. J . A., op^. c i t . , p. 81.  - 40 -  The technique in Paradise Lost follows the basic pattern of the Eikonoklastes. in which each statement of the king i s elucidated by Milton's commentary to reveal the decep118  tion lest "these may happly catch the People, as was intended." A great deal of confusion can be avoided by discarding the idea of the identification between Milton and Satan, and by regarding Milton's commentary as the expression of his sincere beliefs. In his effort to procure the desired emotive response, Milton, knowing man's nature, bases his presentation of Satan upon the human weakness of predisposition to the spectacular. He, no doubt, expects, as in the Eikonoklastes, that those "whom perhaps ignorance without malice, or some error, less than f a t a l , has for the time misledd, on this side Sorcery or abduration, may find the grace and good guidance to bethink 119 themselves, and recover." Mr. Waldock argues that the demonstration must be accorded the higher v a l i d i t y .  Even i f the reader has disre-  garded Milton's commentary throughout the scene in H e l l , his sympathy and admiration must receive a shock when he learns from Sin that Satan, while aspiring to divine leadership i n Heaven, has secretly indulged in lust.  He is neither repent-  ant nor appalled when confronted with the horrible consequence  118 Milton, John, Eikonoklastes, p. 308. 119 Milton, John, Eikonoklastes. p. 309-  41 -  of his passion.  He does not recoil from the "execrable Shape," 120  "the grisly Terror," nor the "yelling monsters", attest to his shameful guilt.  a l l of which  Instead of evincing remorse,  he accepts the relationship, recollects i t s pleasures, and provides for its continuance in: "Dear daughter - since thou claim'st me for thy sire, And my fair son here show'st me, the dear pledge Of dalliance had with thee in Heaven, and joys Then sweet, now sad to mention, through dire change Befallen us unforseen, unthought of — know, From out this dark and dismal house of pain Both him and thee, and a l l the heavenly host Of spirits that, in our just pretences armed, F e l l with us from on high. And bring ye to the place where thou and Death Shall dwell at ease, and up and down unseen Wing silently the buxom a i r , embalmed With odours. There ye shall be fed and f i l l e d , 2 , Immeasurably; a l l things shall be your prey." If this passage i s treated as symbolical, the close association of Sin and Satan persists and the issue remains unaltered. Therefore, i n either case this event causes a feeling of misgiving as to. the validity of claim to the sovereignty of Heaven by the progenitor of Sin and Death, no matter how heroic his other qualities may be.  The reader must begin to surmise  that his admiration has been based upon deception, which would have been avoided had he given the commentaries more attention. It appears, consequently, of utmost importance that the commentary be considered of at least equal significance 120  Milton, John, Paradise Lost, I I , 681 f f .  121  Ibid., I I , 817.  - 42 -  with the demonstration i n order to get an all-comprehensive, realistic picture of Satan. reassessment.  This will greatly facilitate a  Milton's commentary does not begin, as Mr.  Waldock has stated, after Satan's f i r s t speech,  122  which capti-  vates the reader's Imagination, but precedes Satan's appearance in Hell.  As stated in Chapter One, Milton in no uncertain  terms expresses his unmitigated hostility towards "the infernal Serpent," envious, proud, revengeful, and impious.  He depicts  Satan in the unheroic position of being 123 Hurled headlong flaming from th 1 ethereal sky and lying for "nine" days Prone on the flood, extended long and large, 124 before he i s ready with a rationalization for his defeat to save his face before his followers. His glorious speech loses i t s impressiveness when we realize that his vaunted courage lies i n a determination to persevere i n evil not for the achievement of good, but that by it «... ofttimes may succeed so as perhaps Shall grieve him /J}od7, i f I f a i l not, and disturb His inmost counsels from their destined aim." 125 First of a l l , he disclaims a l l responsibility for the participation of the other fallen angels who, he alleges, from the 122 123 124 125  Waldock, A.J.H., Paradise Lost and Its Critics, p. 78 . Milton, John, Paradise Lost, I, 45. Ibid., I, 195Ibid., I, 166 .  - 43 -  same "sence of injured merit," "durst d i s l i k e his reign,"  and joined the r e b e l l i o n .  God's  In this Milton's Satan  i s the counterpart of Vondel's L u c i f e r , who treacherouslyinstigated the rebellion through his companion chiefs, then upon apparent persuasion accepted the leadership, as he explains to Raphael: I s h a l l maintain the holy Right, compelled By high necessity, thus urged at length, Though much against my w i l l , by the complaints And mournful groans of myriad tongues. l2 7 In juxtaposition to Beelzebub's rational evaluation of the situation: "Too well I see and rue the dire event That, with sad overthrow and foul defeat, Hath lost us Heaven," 128 Satan's blind fury seems to have completely perverted his judgement as he rationalizes the "foul defeat" into an experience through which, "In arms not worse, i n foresight much advanced, We may with more successful hope resolve To wage by force or guile eternal war, Irreconcilable to our grand Foe." 129 As we consider the speeches of his companion, i t becomes evident that Satan's i n t e l l e c t i s darkened, for he completely ignores circumstances which are referred to by the others as established f a c t s . 126  He c a l l s upon H e l l to receive  Milton, John, Paradise Lost, I , 102.  127 Vondel, J . L u c i f e r , (translated by Van Noppen), North Carolina, 1917, Chas. L. Van Noppen, IV, 2 5 0 . 128 Milton, John, OP. c i t . , I, 134. 129 I b i d . , I , 119-123.  - 44-  its "proud possessor" and gives i t preference to Heaven /  130  because "Here at least / We shall be free," while Beelzebub professes his knowledge of God's omnipotence and sarcastically reprimands the fallen host for foolishly hoping to establish an empire i n Hell: "... for so the popular vote Inclines - here to continue and build up here A growing empire; doubtless! while we dream, And know not that the King of Heaven hath doomed This place our dungeon, not our safe retreat Beyond his potent arm, to live exempt From Heaven's high jurisdiction, in new league Banded against his throne, but to remain In strictest bondage, though thus far removed, Under th' inevitable curb, reserved His captive multitude. For he, be sure, In height or depth, s t i l l first and last will reign Sole king, and of his kingdom lose no part By our revolt, but over Hell extend His empire, and with iron sceptre rule ^1 Us here, as with his golden those in Heaven.' Again, while Satan is planning "1^2  "To work i n close design, by fraud or guile, -* Belial opposes such intention, for "... what can force or guile With him £GodJ, or who deceive his mind, whose eye Views a l l things at one view, He from Heaven's height A l l these our motions vain sees and derides, Not more almighty to resist our might Than wise to frustrate a l l our plots and wiles, thus fully recognizing God's omniscience. Beelzebub  130 IHt©n J? Paradise Lost, I, 258. 131  Ibid., I I , 313-328.  132  Ibid., I, 646.  133  Ibid., I I , 188-193.  - 45 -  acknowledges God as "Heaven's p e r p e t u a l King,"  134  while Satan  represents him as a usurper, "Who now triumphs, and i n t h excess of joy ^ Sole r e i g n i n g holds the tyranny o f Heaven. ? 1  3  Beelzebub's  s i n c e r e concern f o r  "... a l l t h i s mighty host, In h o r r i b l e d e s t r u c t i o n l a i d  »1^6 thus low, J  evokes no compassion f o r the prone multitude i n Satan. eye remains  cruel.  L a t e r , when they stand before  His  him:  T h e i r g l o r y withered: as, when heaven's f i r e Hath scathed the f o r e s t oaks or mountain p i n e s , With singed top t h e i r s t a t e l y growth, though bare, Stands on the b l a s t e d heath, 137 his  remorse makes more the impression o f the r e a c t i o n of the  f a l l e n angels when they see t h e i r " g l o r i o u s c h i e f " t u r n i n t o a serpent;  and,  consequently,  ... Horror on them f e l l , And h o r r i d sympathy, f o r what they They f e l t themselves than repentant r e g r e t . true s t a t e .  now  changing,  saw 138  T h e i r degradation mirrors h i s own  The potency of h i s opponent i s , no doubt,  f o r c i b l y brought home to him through the l o y a l t y of h i s mighty host, whose v a l o u r and f a i t h f u l n e s s under h i s g l o r i o u s 134  M i l t o n , John, Paradise L o s t ,  135  Ibid., I, 125-126,  136  IMd.,  137  Ibid., I, 612-615.  138  I b i d . , X,  I , 136-137. 537.  I,  131.  (the i t a l i c s are my  own)  - 46 -  leadership could not prevail against the  139 "Ministering Spirits, trained up In feast and song,"  and, allegedly, serving "through sloth" alone.  The loyalty  of his fallen angels does not convict him of his own disloyalty.  His subsequent speech expresses no concern for them,  but is again a refusal to accept the situation and the responsibility for their dilemma. , He calls the sad victims of his false ambition: " for me, be witness a l l the host of Heaven, If counsels different, or danger shunned By me, have lost our hopes. " 140 In default of another v i l l a i n , he finally pins the blame on God, for He, 11  ... his strength concealed ( ... Which tempted our attempt, and wrought our f a l l . 1  Surely, this last reasoning is a convincing truth that Satan's / 142 "high words ... bore / Semblance of worth, not substance." In his analagies and metaphors; e.g., calling Satan Sultan14"-^- a name hateful to a l l contemporaries of Milton Milton stimulates hostility and reinforces i t by Satan's 144 opposition towards a l l accepted ideas and values.  Satan  is blaspheming God by calling Him the "Potent Victor i n his rage."  In his repudiation of repentance he rejects the  140  Milton, John, Paradise Lost, I, 635-636.  141  Ibid., I, 641-642.  142 143 144  Ibid., I, 528 Lewis, C. S., A Preface to Paradise Lost, p. 77Bush, Douglas, Paradise Lost i n Our Time, p. 58.  - 47 -  tenets of Christian teaching.  His ambition is not a zeal for  the establishing of righteousness and justice, but for personal advancement with an utter disregard for the issues of good and evil involved.  His boundless pride permeates his whole  demonstration, and Milton frequently refers to i t in his commentary.  In the introduction we learn that  his pride Had cast him out, from Heaven, with a l l his host of rebel Angels. 145 In Hell his "obdurate pride" 14 "^ prevents him from seeking grace "with suppliant knee"14''  At the sight of his army he, as  ... his heart Distends with pride, and, hardening in his strength, Glories,, 148 is blinded to the fact that a l l this force at his command avails him nothing in Hell.  Pandemonium, "the high capital  Of Satan and his peers," 1 4 ^ is the symbol of his consummate arrogance. In the Great Consult Satan arrogates to himself sovereign pre-eminence by the very "fixed laws of Heaven," which he has decried; and arbitrarily establishes a hierarchi a l order, against which he revolted in Heaven.  Moreover,  his followers are enslaved from the beginning by fear and awe 150  of "Hell's dread Emperor", 145 146 147 148 149 150  for they:  Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 36-39Ibid., I, 5 8 . Ibid., I, 112. Ibid., I, 571-573 . Ibid., I, 7 5 6 . Ibid., I I , 510 .  - 48 -  Dreaded not more the adventure than his voice Forbidding; and at once with him they rose  ... Towards him they bend With awful reverence prone, and as a God Extol him equal to the Highest in Heaven.151 The most profound admiration for Satan must fade at the proposal of his diabolic plan for revenge through  man:  "By sudden onset - either with Hell-fire To waste his whole creation, or possess A l l as our o\<m, and drive, as we were driven, The puny habitants; or, i f not drive, Seduce them to our party, that their God May prove their foe, and with repenting hand Abolish his own works. " 152 Milton's denunciation of i t leaves no room for doubt about his attitude.  This ... devilish counsel-first devised By Satan, and i n part proposed: for whence, But from the author of a l l i l l , could spring So deep a malice, to confound the race Of mankind i n one root, and Earth with Hell To mingle and involve, done a l l to spite The great Creator, 153-  he bitterly satirizes as the "bold design," and thus communicates to the reader his utmost scorn of these: ... godlike Shapes, and Forms Excelling human; princely Dignities; And Powers that erst in Heaven sat on thrones. 151  Milton, Paradise Lost, II 474-479*  152  Ibid., I I , 364-370.  153  Ibid., I I , 379-385.  154  Ibid., I, 351.  - 4-9 Satan's highly commended self-sacrifice appears doubtful in the light of Milton's commentary on Moloch.  Just  when Satan has emphasized the "union, and firm faith, and firm 155 accord"  in Hell, Milton introduces Moloch into the debate  as: ... - the strongest and the fiercest Spirit That fought in Heaven, now fiercer by despair. His trust was with th' Eternal to be deemed Equal in strength, and rather thanbe less Cared not to be at a l l ; with that care lost Went a l l his fear: of God, or Hell, or worse, He recked not.... 156 Although Satan may not have known his secret ambition, he must have been aware of Moloch's antagonism when Moloch disdainfully opposed his idea of regaining Heaven through "covert guile", by these words: "My sentence is for open war. Of wiles, More unexpert, I boast not: them let those Qontrive who need, or when they need; not now, For, while they sit contriving, shall the rest Millions that stand in arms, and longing wait The signal to ascend - sit lingering here, Heaven's fugitives, and for their dwelling-place Accept this dark approbrious den of Shame, The prison of his tyranny who reigns By our delay? " 1 5 7 The intense urgency for action to assuage the inner agony vents i t s e l f further in: "... No I let us rather choose, Armed with Hell-flames and fury, a l l at once, O'er Heaven's high towers to force resistless way, Turning our tortures into horrid arms Against the Torturer; "158 155  Milton, Paradise Lost, I I , 36.  156 157 158  Ibid., I I , 44-50. Ibid., I I , 91-100. Ibid., I I , 60-64.  - 50 and might have e a s i l y induced Moloch t o v o l u n t e e r f o r the dangerous a d v e n t u r e .  Thus, Satan's h e r o i c f e a t appears more  l i k e d i p l o m a t i c expedience than t r u e courage. "What matter where, i f I be s t i l l the same, And what I should be," 159 i s Satan's s e l f - a s s u r a n c e under the "mournful gloom " o f H e l l , as he i s t r y i n g t o convince h i m s e l f o f the s u p e r i o r i t y o f h i s mind over m a t t e r , which s h a l l enable him t o "make a Heaven o f  160 H e l l , a H e l l of Heaven." I n the i n t e n s e a c t i v i t y o f the b u i l d i n g of Pandemonium and t h e p l a n n i n g o f an e r u p t i o n , the r i g o u r s o f H e l l seem to have l o s t t h e i r a c u i t y .  While Satan i s on h i s way, the  f a l l e n a n g e l s are g r e a t l y humanized through t h e i r pursuance o f various earthly occupations.  T h i s d i m i n i s h e s the sense o f  p h y s i c a l s u f f e r i n g and the l u r i d n e s s of H e l l .  Satan h i m s e l f  appears l e s s odious as he wanders through the cosmos i n s e a r c h of the new w o r l d .  The r e a d e r shares w i t h him h i s c u r i o s i t y  and i s eager t o view the marvels o f the u n i v e r s e .  When Satan  finally ... a s t r i p l i n g Cherub he appears, Not o f the p r i m e , y e t such as i n h i s f a c e Youth s m i l e d c e l e s t i a l , and t o every l i m b S u i t a b l e grace d i f f u s e d ; ... Under a coronet h i s f l o w i n g h a i r I n c u r l s on e i t h e r cheek p l a y e d ; wings he wore Of many a c o l o u r e d plume s p r i n k l e d w i t h g o l d , His h a b i t f i t f o r speed s u c c i n c t , and held B e f o r e h i s decent steps a s i l v e r wand, l 6 l 159 160 161  M i l t o n , P a r a d i s e L o s t , I, I b i d . , I, 255I b i d . , I l l , 636-644.  256.  - 51 -  Satan makes more the impression of a mischievous Ariel than a potent power for e v i l .  However, as at the beginning, Milton  stands on guard with warning epithets, such as "The Fiend", "the spirit malign", "the spirit impure."1^2  Through his  disguise as cherub Satan1s power to deceive the very elect is manifested.  In Hell his deceitfulness prevails upon the  fallen angels because i t lends a tinge of hope to their desperate situation. intellect.  Chaos and Night do not connote brilliance of  But to deceive with such ease The sharpest-sighted Spirit of a l l in Heaven,  must needs accord him the pre-eminence of the father of a l l 164 liars.  As the "stripling Cherub" radiantly bright, in  keeping with his outward appearance, Satan, for the f i r s t time, speaks the truth in his reference to God as one, "Who justly has driven out his rebel foes To deepest Hell, and, to repair that loss, Created this new happy race of men 265 To serve him better; wise are a l l his ways." The irony lies in that he resorts to this truth i n order to deceive.  He thus reveals another evil trait in being a master  in the exercise of Hypocrisy - the only evil that walks Invisible, except to God alone. 166 162  Milton, Paradise Lost, I I I , 498-630.  163  Ibid., I I I , 691 .  164  Bible, John 8 : 44.  165  Milton, Paradise Lost, I I I , 676-679 .  166  Ibid.., I l l , 683-684.  - 52 Considering Satan's whole course, the Promethean analogy becomes impossible.  Satan's rebellion is motivated  by ambition to equal the "Most High."  Prometheus' opposition  to Zeus is based on ... the love that I loved man's seed withal, The love unabated. 167 Satan rebels against the Almighty, his superior;  while  Prometheus rises against Zeus, whom he has established on his throne.  Satan is determined to drive "the puny habitants" out of  earth to spite his God.  Prometheus  ... saved the sons of men From passing thunder-blasted down to Hades.  8  Satan reduces man to the vassalage of Sin and, while yet i n Heaven, degrades himself and his followers to ever lower levels; while Prometheus leads man to exalted levels by giving him fire, ... which to mortals shone revealed ]_69 Their teacher of a l l arts, invention's crown, and by teaching him to use his reason. On looking at Satan's chief companions through Milton's eyes we realize that they, too, entertained various lusts before the rebellion, while s t i l l in Heaven.  Moloch,  as stated before, shared Satan's ambition "with th' Eternal to  167 Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, London, 1907, MaeMillan and Company Limited, p. 11, lines 121-122. 168 Ibid., p. 15, lines 236-237169 Ibid., p. 10, lines 110-111 .  - 53 be deemed/ Equal in strength." Mammon, the least erected Spirit that f e l l Brom Heaven; for even in Heaven his looks and thoughts Were always downward bent, admiring more The riches of Heaven's pavement, trodden gold, Than ought divine or holy else enjoyed In vision beatific, 170 is the epitome of avarice. Of Belial we learn: ... than whom a Spirit more lewd F e l l not from Heaven, or more gross to love Vice for i t s e l f . 171 During the Great Consult his hypocrisy is revealed i n Milton's commentary: A fairer person lost not Heaven; he seemed For dignity composed, and high exploit. But a l l was false and hollow; though his tongue Dropt manna, and could make the worse appear The better reason, to perplex and dash Maturest counsels: for his thoughts were lowTo vice industrious, but to nobler deeds Timorous and slothful. 172 Beelzebub seems the least depraved of them a l l .  However, in  lending himself as Satan's mouthpiece and i n submitting on a l l occasions to his influence, he exhibits a great lack of w i l l power. In their deliberations they differ greatly in their proposals, but a l l are unanimous in that none suggests a  170  Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 679-684.  171  Ibid., I, 490-492.  172  Ibid.? II5 110-117.  - 54 -  positive action to re-establish themselves in God's grace. Milton is pointing this out when he comments on Belial's 173 speech in: Thus Belial with words cloath'd i n reason's garb Counsel'd ignoble ease and peaceful sloth, Not peace, 174 rather than deliberately derogating him, as Dr. Waldock interprets this criticism when he defends Belial and berates Milton thus: But Milton dislikes B e l i a l . To 'low thoughts' of this sort he much prefers (although he will not say so) dashing v i l l a i n y . . . . Belial's words are not only 'cloath'd in reasons garb': they are reasonable.... Milton's perfectly brazen object, i n short, i s to discredit B e l i a l . What he gives with one hand he takes away with the other. Having permitted his character to speak well and wisely he then says that he has spoken meanly and foolishly. What he has just affirmed (through a demonstration) he now denies (in a comment). 175 In any case, i t is quite evident that Heaven has become untenable for these chief companions because of their inner degradation.  However, i n fairness to Satan the  "tyranny of Heaven" which he holds responsible for this revolt, remains to be investigated. Besides keeping a proper balance between demonstration and commentary, i t is important to follow the sequence of events as presented by Milton.  Satan's denunciation of  173  Lewis, C. S., A Preface to Paradise Lost, p. 102.  174  Milton, Paradise Lost, I , 226-228.  175 Waldock, A.J.H., Paradise Lost and Its Critics, p.79-80.  the "Potent victor", who "in his rage" has inflicted abject misery upon millions of spirits, leaves a certain bias i n the reader's attitude towards such arbitrary disposition. However, Milton disabuses our minds by depicting the "Potent victor" as About him a l l the Sanctities of Heaven Stood thick as stars, and from his sight received Beatitude past utterance, 177 and as Beyond compare the Son of God was seen Substantially expressed; and in his face Divine compassion visibly appeared, o Love without end, and without measure grace. 1 ' In juxtaposition to this harmony, utmost f e l i c i t y , and sacrif i c i a l love, the recollection of Hell's passions and Satan's demoniac hatred grow more lurid and repulsive.  His accusa-  tions of the Almighty pale in credibility. Evidently the basis of Heaven's hierarchy is well understood by the angels, for they sing of "Thee, Father, first",  "Thee next ... of a l l created f i r s t / Begotten Son,"  through whom "He Heaven of Heavens, and a l l the Powers therein ... created. 1 ^  The Heavenly Host, moreover, is in perfect  accord with its ruler and there i s no feeling of duress as The multitude of Angels, with a shout Loud as from numbers without number, swell * As from blest voices, uttering joy, Heaven rung  177  Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 95*  178  Ibid., III, 138-141.  179  Ibid., III, 372 f f .  - 56 With jubilee, and loud hosannas filled Th' eternal regions. 1 8 0 While Satan's followers "Dreaded ... his voice forbidding" and "towards him they bend / With awful reverence 181 prone,"  The Heavenly Host,  ... Lowly reverent Towards either throne they bow, and to the ground With solemn adoration down they cast Their crowns .... 182. Submission i n Hell is based upon arbitrary compulsion and fear service in heaven, upon love and free w i l l , for God tells the Sons 11  Such I created a l l th' ethereal Powers And Spirits both them who stood and them who failed; Freely they stood who stood, and f e l l who f e l l . " 1 8 3  Through Satan's rebellion the whole Host of Heaven has been subjected to the test of loyalty, and two-thirds have given 184  /  proof "sincere / Of true allegiance, constant faith, or love, this casting a doubt on the validity of Satan's denunciation of the "tyranny of Heaven."  The revelation of the element of free will precludes any speculation as to the possibility of Satan's f a l l having been predestined.  It also leads to the assumption that evil  180 181  Milton, Paradise Lost, III, 345,349. Ibid., I I , 4 7 4 f f .  182 183  Ibid., I l l , 349-352 . Ibid., I l l , 100-102.  184  Ibid•>  1 1 1  »  1 0 4  -  - 57 and goodness as forces co-exist in Heaven. " E v i l " , as expounded later by Adam, "... into the mind of God or Man May come and go, so unapproved, and leave No spot or blame b e h i n d 1 8 5 In Heaven i t is f i r s t approved by Satan in his rebellion against God and thus generated into an overt experience. In witnessing the perfect f e l i c i t y in Heaven, we find an explanation for Satan's words: "... If then his providence Out of our evil seek to bring forth good.  R  ,  Satan's disobedience, though deplorable in i t s e l f , accorded God an opportunity to rid Heaven of a l l i t s dross. The reader, guided by Milton's commentary and his picture of Heaven, takes a soberer view of Satan.  What  appears, on the basis of demonstration, heroic and admirable, reveals i t s e l f as diabolic and destructive.  Satan's terrify-  ing power i s emphasized even i n that he is able, i n his demonstration, to make that appear desirable which, apart from the force of his personality, would be regarded as detestable and abominable. Thus, i n the light of his own allegations and his demonstration, Satan appears to the reader as he wishes to  185  Milton, John, Paradise Lost, V, 117-  186  Ibid., I, 162.  - 58  -  appear to his fallen angels except in the encounter with Sin and Death, where demonstration and commentary harmonize and apprise the reader that he has been deceived:  partly, because  of Satan's speciousness, but mainly, through superficial reading.  A Satan and his companions, committed i n Heaven to  envy, pride, and lust} blasphemous, perverted in judgment, and obdurate i n the rejection of a l l accepted values of virtue, compassion, and responsibility, hardly necessitates the degrading process, which Mr. Waldock so bitterly denounces and a l l Satanists deeply deplore. For orientation and easy reference i t may be advisable to sum up the conceptions presented in this chapter. There seems to be l i t t l e development in the character of Satan in Hell:  the passions which originated in Heaven are the  passions which animate him i n Hell.  The angels in Heaven and  Hell are aware of God's omnipotence and omniscience manifested in Christ.  Satan in his denunciation of "Heaven's tyranny"  does not differentiate between the Father and the Son.  Milton  informs the reader that the Son is ... of a l l creation f i r s t , ^.87 Begotten Son, Divine Similitude, 188  and that the "Heaven of Heavens, and a l l the Powers therein" were created by Him. 187  Milton, John, Paradise Lost, I I I , 383-384.  188  Ibid., I l l , 390.  Chapter VII  THE POETIC UNITY OF MILTON'S SATAN IN HELL, ON MOUNT NIPHATES, AND IN EDEN  The NIphates speech introduces a d i f f i c u l t problem i f the conception of Satan i s based entirely upon his own demonstration and allegation i n Books One and Two, by which, of necessity, he must be accepted as the epic hero.  The  Satan of the Niphates speech provides no counterpart to a figure of genuine heroic proportions.  Consequently, a dual-  ism appears which, Mr. Werblowsky asserts, results from Milton's presentation of Satan, f i r s t , as "bright and glorious and, later, as "implacable i n his hate, and e v i l , and fhe like and from making "these beliefs poetically so real, that they 189 simply upset a l l balance!"  Mr. Werblowsky assumes further  that the seventeenth-century reader, under the influence of his spiritual climate, really saw the Satan Milton intended to write, sharing Milton's own ignorance as to what he actually had written. 190 Such supposition does not tally with the tribute paid by  189  Werblowsky, R.J.Zwi, Lucifer and Prometheus, p. 19.  190  Ibid., p. 26.  - 60 -  numerous critics to Milton's mastery of literary art. In deference to Milton's reputation as a disciplined artist and upon the consideration that character-revelation in soliloquy was a seventeenth-century convention, i t seems logical to accept Satan at this point as the product of deliberate planning, rather than as the failure of poetic inefficiency.  In his self-revelation Satan amply corroborates  the reader's conception of him, as based on a close study of demonstration and commentary in the preceding books.  Under  these circumstances the dualism, or s p l i t , is non-existent. Moreover, i t becomes clear that Satan is not being deliberately degraded by Milton, but that he manifests his inner depravity in overt experience.  Anti-social principles and immoral  attitudes are never so objectionable in theory as they appear in practice.  We must study the Satan dn Mount Niphates step  by step, as we have studied the Satan i n Hell. Satan's sprightllness i n his disguise as a cherub and Uriel's address of "fair Angel" create the impression that Satan is able to simulate a heavenly nature at w i l l .  Yet, at  the very moment he alights on Niphates and when he is within reach of his objective, instead of joy, ... Horror and doubt distract His troubled thought, and from the bottom stirs The hell within him; for within him Hell He brings, and round about him, nor from Hell One step, no more than from himself, can f l y By change of place. 191 , 191  Milton, Paradise Lost, IV, 18-23.  .  - 61 When Satan defies God's judgment in refusing to accept the rigour of the punishment, because "The mind is i t s own place, and i n i t s e l f Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven, " 2 he l i t t l e realizes that his vaunt will recoil on him in a vast irony.193  He means to Impose his feelings at will on any  environment and achieve f e l i c i t y in the midst of horror.  In  view of Heaven and surrounded by the magnificent splendour of the new world, he feels the mental hell persist within his soul and inure him to a l l aesthetic stimuli.  In vain does he  subject himself to the appeal of his glorious environment as: Sometimes towards Eden, which now in his view Lay pleasant, his grieved look he fixes sad; Sometimes towards Heaven and the full-blazing,^ sun,1^ thus trying to evoke his former responses to beauty and b l i s s . But this test of his inner self only ... wakes the bitter memory Of what he was, what i s , and what must be 195 Worse; of worse deeds worse sufferings must ensue. The remainder of the soliloquy reveals the raging turmoil of a mind which realizes i t s own degradation, yet refuses to accept the responsibility for i t .  His hatred bursts out against the  sun, which fails to revive his deadened faculties to their  192  Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 254-255.  193  Tillyard, E. M. W.,  194  Milton, Paradise Lost, IV, 27-29.  195  Ibid., IV, 23 - 25.  Studies in Milton, p. 3 5 .  - 62 -  former appreciation of aesthetic values, and thus brings out glaringly the contrast of "what he was" and "what i s . " Unrestrained by the presence of his fallen angels and the expediency of dissimulation, he momentarily throws aside a l l pretence, confesses that "pride and worse ambition" 1 ^ are responsible for his downfall, and vindicates God of any provocation in: "... He deserved no such return From me, whom he created what I was In that bright eminence, and with his good Upbraided none, nor was his service hard. What could be less than to afford him praise, The easiest recompense, and pay him thanks, How duel" 197. He also admits that God created him.  However, his sincerity  seems but the flash of sanity of a darkened intellect, which immediately seeks an escape in the invention of a provocation. He blames his high position as the source of an insatiable ambition for pre-eminence, which makes him a counterpart of Cassius i n that such (men) as he be never at heart's ease - . Q O While they behold a greater than themselves.' He seeks a plausible excuse in the burden of his gratitude and in the f a l l i b i l i t y of God's judgment when elevating him to his exalted position instead of creating him "some inferior Angel." 1 " 196 197 iqo  Milton, Paradise Lost, TV, 40.  Ibid., IV, 42-48. Shakespeaie, William, "Julius Caesar" in Shakespeare., ed. by Harrison G.B., New York, 1948, Harcourt, Brace and Company, p. 529, I, i i , 208 - 209199 Milton, Ibid., IV, 59-  - 63 However, his own reason refutes his arguments: his burden of gratitude was an illusion;  his high state was no snare, for:  "... other Powers as great F e l l not, but stand unshaken, from within Or from without to a l l temptations armed$"200 a lower rank would not have protected him from treason, as "... Some other Powers As great might have aspired, and me, though mean, Drawn to his part." 201. In deliberate self-deception he turns against God's benevolence and justice, which "...  Heaven's free love dealt equally to a l l , ' ^ 2  and which created him with free will to stand or f a l l .  There  is deep irony in this denunciation of liberty by one who recently has rebelled against the "tyranny of Heaven."  His  curse of God's love, his self-accusation do not solve his dilemma, and his agony breaks forth in: "Me miserable I which way shall I f l y Infinite wrath and infinite despair? Which way I f l y is Hell; myself am Hell; And in the lowest deep, a lower deep S t i l l threatening to devour me opens wide, 2 0 ^ To which the Hell I suffer seems a Heaven.^ ^ Like Macbeth, he i s at bay. die  a soldier's death.  But Macbeth could rush out and  The Romans committed suicide.  Satan  is cursed with immortality; his only prospect is intensified  201  Milton, Paradise Lost, IV, 61-63  202  Ibid.,  203  Ibid., IV, 73 - 78.  IV, 68.  - 64 suffering.  Pride has locked the door to repentance, his only  way to pardon;  neither agony nor despair can break its power.  In his refusal to accept the responsibility for the f a l l , and i n his deliberate self-deception, the Satan of Mount Niphates is Identical with the Satan in Hell.  His dis-  dain for submission remains unabated. He refers to i t as / 204 "that word y Disdain forbids me." Likewise, his attitude towards evil is unaltered.  In Hell he i s determined "out of  205 good s t i l l to find means of evil."  Here he invokes i t  with: "Evil be thou my good: by thee at least Divided empire with Heaven's King I holdr The passions of " i r e , envy, and despair, / Which marred his 207 borrowed visage"  are but the continuation of his temper in  Hell. If obdurate pride, a determination to persevere in e v i l , refusal to accept responsibility for one's own action, and lack of humility are meritorious qualities, then the Satan of Mount Niphates is as admirable as the Satan in Hell. may be considered even more so, as here he maintains those 204  Milton, Paradise Lost, IV, 81.  205  Ibid•, I, 165.  206  Ibid., IV, 10-11 .  207  Ibid., IV, 115-  He  -  65  -  attitudes in the f u l l realization of his dilemma, while in Hell he kept up the self-deception of " a l l is not lost." There is irony in the fact that he has forged his own fetters; but also pathos, which might easily induce sympathy for his abject despair. Consequently,the Niphates speech does not present a different Satan.  His basic characteristics of pride, envy,  and egotism remain static.  The only additional aspect  appears not as a development, but as a revelation: in his f a l l he has lost not only his outward brightness, but his heavenly sensibilities as well.  Moreover, the features of Satan's  model, so easily detectable on a comparison of Satan i n Hell and the Eikon In Eikon Bazilike persist here.  and Milton's Eikonoklastes.  Satan's obdurate pride closes his only avenue  to readmission into Heaven.  He recognizes this fact,  examines i t , and rejects i t in a few words: "O, then, at last relent I Is there no place Left for repentance, none for pardon left? None left but by submission; and that word Disdain forbids me...." 208 Of the king Milton says: This however would be remember'd and well noted, that while the K. instead of that repentance which was in reason and in conscience to be expected from him, without which we could not lawfully readmit him, persists here to maintain and 209 justifie the most apparent of his evil doings. 208  Milton, Paradise Lost, IV, 79-82.  209  Milton, Eikonoklastes, p. 72-  - 66 Thus Milton i s successful i n maintaining the poetic unity of his Satan in Hell and his Satan on Mount Niphates. Nor does he break this unity by attempting to degrade Satan deliberately i n his use of such similes as "prowling wolf," 2 1 0 "cormorant," and "toad," the employment of which Mr. Waldock decries i n : "It was mean of Milton to use his Satan so." To the seventeenth-century reader such comparisons were no more derogatory than the oriental epithets applied to Satan in Hell. Milton, moreover, conforms to the epic convention when he reverts from elaborate analogies to homely imagery in order to bring the action closer to the reader's experience. We have seen him at work in this previously when Satan's "Princes, Potentates, j  Warriors, the Flower of Heaven" rise  from the burning lake like "a pitchy cloud of locusts, warping  212 on the eastern wind;" and also when they flock to the Great Consult: ... As bees In spring-time, when the Sun with Taurus rides, Pour forth their populous youth about the hive In clusters; they among fresh dews and flowers Fly to and fro.... 213 Such technique is a l l the more important at this point, 210 Milton, op_i c i t . , IV, 183 f f . 211 Waldock, Paradise Lost and Its C r i t i c s , p. 87. 212 Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 315213  Ibid., I, 768 - 771-  - 67 -  because he is preparing the stage for the Introduction of the human element in Adam and Eve. A l l these comparisons, except that of the bees which i s from V i r g i l , are drawn from the Bible, and in their various connotations predict — again i n conformance with epic convention —- the course of the action.  These connota-  tions were well-known to Milton's contemporaries through their thorough familiarity with the Bible.  The "wolf" becomes the  symbol of persecution in.* Her princes in the midst thereof are like wolves ravening the prey, to shed blood, and to destroy souls, to get dishonest gain, 214 and causes the reader to anticipate man's a f f l i c t i o n .  The  "cormorant" connotes desolation, as i n ; But the cormorant and the bittern shall possess i t fwasted land]; the owl also and the raven shall dwell in i t : and he shall stretch out upon i t the line of confusion and the stones of emptiness; 215 and presages the desolation of Paradise after the P a l l .  The  "toad," or frog, as the embodiment of evil spirits, 2 3 -^  fore-  shadows man's subjection to the influence of the powers of darkness.  214  The Bible, Ezekiel 22 : 27-  215  Ibid., Isaiah 34 : 11.  216  Ibid., Revelations 16 : 13*  - 68 -  Through these b i b l i c a l a l l u s i o n s M i l t o n solves another problem.  The reader, i n h i s preoccupation with  Satan's demonstrations I n H e l l and h i s search f o r a new world, for  which there i s no orthodox background,  can e a s i l y l o s e  the sense of a s s o c i a t i o n between the Satan of Paradise Lost and the Satan of the B i b l e .  By a p p l y i n g well-known b i b l i c a l  e p i t h e t s to h i s Satan, M i l t o n immediately e s t a b l i s h e s the connection. to  Thus he e f f e c t s a smooth t r a n s i t i o n from f i c t i o n  orthodox t r a d i t i o n and from the f a l l o f the angels to the  f a l l o f Man.  But t h i s i s not a degrading process.  It i sa  f e a t o f p o e t i c a r t that few w r i t e r s handle as e f f e c t i v e l y . Satan's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as observed i n H e l l and on Mount Niphates and i n t e r p r e t e d on the b a s i s of demonstration and commentary, p e r s i s t d u r i n g h i s f i r s t Garden o f Eden.  experiences i n the  H i s a e s t h e t i c impotence,  revealed f i r s t on  Mount Niphates, i s again apparent as he surveys "undelighted 217 a l l delights"  o f the newly created world.  deception are unimpaired. to  H i s powers o f  I n s p i t e o f the f a c t that man i s  s u f f e r through him, he impresses some of h i s readers,  among them Mr. Waldock, as being " r e a l l y sad, r e a l l y r e g r e t ful"  01 ft because f o r Adam and Eve "... a l l these d e l i g h t s W i l l v a n i s h , and d e l i v e r ye to woe -  217  M i l t o n , Paradise L o s t , IV, 286.  218  Waldock, Paradise Lost and I t s C r i t i c s , p. 89-  - 69 More woe, the more your taste is now of loy.'2*^  220 The profession that he "could love"  man for his"divine  resemblance" is sheer mockery, for he knows that he has no capacity for love.  In his defiance of God he has forfeited  both his moral and intellectual being.  In his profession  of charitable responses he refuses to accept his inner dilemma in the same way as he rejected a rational appraisal of his physical predicament.  He once more puts the responsibility  for his diabolic actions on God inj "Thank him who puts me, loath, to this revenge 221 On you, who wrong me not, for him who wronged." His genuine reaction: «0h HellI what do mine eyes with grief behold? Into our room of bliss thus high advanced Creatures of other mold, " 222 expresses his envy, now directed against man.  His thirst  for revenge and his sadism, which were to find satisfaction in an effort to "succeed so as perhaps j are again quite apparent.  Shall grieve him [Godf^  Mr. Waldock, too, admits the  brutal irony in Satan's words: "... League with you I seek, And mutual amity, so strait, so elose,  219 220 221  Milton, op_. c i t . , IT, 367-369Ibid., IV, 363. Milton, Paradise Lost, IV, 386-387.  222  Ibid., IV, 358 - 360.  223  Ibid., I, 166.  That I with you must dwell, or you with me, Henceforth. My dwelling, happly may not please, Like this fair Paradise, your sense; yet such Accept your Maker's work; he gave i t me, Which I as freely give," 224 which "makes him seem to l i c k his lips as he looks at the  225 pair,"  in eager anticipation of their sufferings when "... Hell shall unfold, To entertain you two, her widest gates, And send forth a l l her kings."226  The "tyrant plea" of Satan: "Honour and empire with revenge enlarged By conquering this new World - compels me now ? p „ To do what else, though damned, I should abhor, ' shows once more that Milton consistently draws his portrait from the Eikon Bazilike. in which the king again and again justifies his evil deeds and obdurate resistance to parliament OO Pi  by the expediency of public safety and public f e l i c i t y . Later Satan's eavesdropping and his attempt to introduce evil desires into Eve's imagination are the Initial steps in the execution of his plan in Book One, where he proposed: "To work in close design, by fraud or guile, What force effected not." 229 In Hell he imputes to God his own passion in:  224 225  Milton, Paradise Lost, IV, 375-381. Waldock, p. 89 .  226 227  Milton, op_, c i t . , IV, 381-383Ibid., IV, 390-392.  228  Eikon Bazilike, pp. 72,73. Milton, op^ c i t . , I, 646-647.  229  - 71 " ... th' Almighty hath not built Here for his envy." 230 He does the same in Eden when, at the intelligence of God's prohibition to man, the question immediately arises in his mind: " ... Why should their Lord Envy them that?" 231 In a l l three places he manifests a profound nostalgia for the loss of aesthetic values.  In Hell he betrays his longing  by: "Is this the region, this the s o i l , the clime, this the seat That we must change for Heaven? - this mournful gloom For that celestial light?"  232  On Mount Niphates the sudden consciousness of the loss of his aesthetic receptivity "wakes Despair j That slumbered."2^ Adam's and Eve's mutual love and f e l i c i t y remind him of the 234  horrors of H e l l , "where neither joy nor love"  is found.  He realizes that the Imposition of his w i l l upon his environment will never make for happiness.  His w i l l to propogate  evil has recoiled on himself and has become his fate. The assumption that Satan's deterioration in outward  230  Milton, Paradise Lost, Ibid., I, 259-260.  231  Ibid., IV, 93-94.  232  Ibid., I, 242-244.  233  Ibid., IV,  23.  234  Ibid., IV,  309-  - 72 splendour takes place mainly after his descent from Heaven is based upon Milton's commentary,* ... His form had yet not lost a l l her original brightness, nor appeared Less than Archangel ruined, and th 1 excess Of glory obscured, 235and our disregard of the changed appearance of the other angels i n Hell.  Satan immediately comments upon Beelzebub's  impairment in brightness, which is so striking that he questions the identity of his former close associate: "If thou beest he - but 0 how fallen! how changed From him who, in the happy realms of light Clothed with transcendent brightness, didst outshine Myriads, thou bright!" 236 Zephon's rebuke of Satan: "Think not, revolted S p i r i t , thy shape the same, Or undiminished brightness, to be known As when thou stood'st in Heaven upright and pure That glory then, when thou no more wast good, Departed from thee...," 237 informs us that Satan lost his magnificence when he lost his virtue, while s t i l l in Heaven.  The inconsistency of the  f i r s t statement with the other evidence may be Milton's poetic device of understatement, not uncommon in his works; i t may be irony, for any angel "ruined" could hardly retain heavenly characteristics.  However, I shall discuss the problem of  Satan's outward deterioration more fully in a later chapter.  235 Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 591-594. 236 Ibid., I, 84-87. 237  Ibid., 17, 821 f f . (The italics are my own)  - 73 It present i t is quite evident that the glorious " . . . chief of many throned Powers That led th' embattled Seraphim to war " 238 turns up i n Hell immediately after his defeat in Heaven an "Archangel ruined." In Zephon Satan for the first time has to face reality without finding an avenue of escape. ... Abashed the Devil stood , And felt how awful goodness is and saw Virtue in her shape how lovely - saw, and pined His loss  239  The remorse for his fallen state which he thought to dismiss almost flippantly with "Farewell remorse!"24'0 has become inalienable from his nature. Milton sums up Satan's character traits from the day he f a l l s , through Gabriel, who accuses him of treason in breaking his "Allegiance to th' acknowledged Power supreme," of dissimulation, of disobedience, guile, and, f i n a l l y , of hypocrisy: "And thou, sly hypocrite, who now wouldst seem Patron of liberty; who more than thou Once fawned, and cringed, and servilely adored Heaven's awful Monarch." 241 It i s true that Satan pays hypocritical lip-service to God  238  Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 138-140.  239  Ibid., IV, 846 - 849.  240  Ibid., IV, 109-  241  Ibid., IV, 947-950.  -  74  in his encounter with Uriel.  -  But the picture of a fawning,  cringing, servilely-adoring figure is Incompatible with our earlier conception of Satan as openly defiant and freely avowing his profound hostility.  Therefore, at this point  Gabriel's accusation can be accepted only as a poetic device to sustain the reader's interest, i n causing him to look forward to i t s justification. In a general survey of Satan's characteristics there appears l i t t l e development from his f i r s t appearance in Hell t i l l his meeting with a Heavenly Host in Eden. elements of his nature remain unmodified.  A l l the basic  How adamant he is  in his evil is effectively brought out in the failure of the rigours of Hell to induce him to submission. appearance, too, he remains unaltered. once was a glorious angel.  In outward  But we know that he  Consequently, there remains no  alternative but to assume that his development, or deterioration, took place i n Heaven. The persistence of his characteristics vouch for Satan's poetic unity and invalidate Mr. Werblowsky's assertion that lack of unity in Milton's conception of Satan's character is "one of the reasons which to us make Paradise Lost a 242 failure."  242  Werblowsky, Lucifer and Prometheus, p. 104.  Chapter VIII  THE BACKGROUND OF SATAN'S REBELLION  In the f i r s t books of Paradise Lost Satan has hurled defiant charges of usurpation and tyranny against God in: "Who now triumphs, and i n th' excess of joy Sole reigning holds the tyranny of Heaven."24-3 However, this accusation i s refuted by the heavenly chorus when they hail the Father as; "Immutable, Immortal, Infinite, ll? Eternal King; Thee, Author of a l l being. 4  4  Satan himself recants his calumny in his Niphates speech when 245 he calls God "Heaven's matchless King", confesses His goodUpbraided none," admits that God created him.  - and  Milton's representation of  Heaven, where About him a l l the Sanctities of Heaven Stood thick as stars, and from his sight received Beatitude past utterance, 247 243 Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 123-124. 244 Ibid., I I , 373-374. 245 Ibid., IV, 41. 246 Ibid., IV, 44-45. 247 Ibid., I I I , 6 O - 6 3 .  - 76 conveys the atmosphere of f e l i c i t y , which is incompatible with tyranny.  Moreover, Raphael by his statement: "... freely we serve, Because we freely love, as i n our will To love or not," 248  l i f t s the relationship of God and the angels from autocratic benevolence to mutual congeniality.  Harmony and devotion  are quite apparent as the Heavenly Host under standards, "... that bear emblazed Holy memorials, acts of zeal and love Recorded eminent," 249 congregate on the sacred h i l l of "... the Father infinite By whom i n bliss embosomed sat the Son. Thus the anthem of the angels around God's throne, Satan's confession, and Milton's commentary a l l bear testimony to the Father's goodness. However, the Satanists, having based their i n i t i a l conception of Satan entirely upon his demonstrations in the f i r s t two books, refuse to accept him at face value on Mount Niphates, because they regard his speech as Milton's deliberate 2 51 attempt at "hitting Satan below the belt."  y  Mr. Waldock  voices their discontent with Milton's "technique of degradation" and refuses to change his high opinion of Satan, based 248  Milton, Paradise Lost, III, 5 3 8 - 5 4 0 .  249  Ibid., V, 592-594 •  250  Ibid., V, 5 9 6 - 5 9 7 • Werblowsky, Lucifer and Prometheus, p. 8.  251  - 77 entirely on the latter's demagogy.  He simply declines "to  play when the trump ^Milton's commentary] has appeared too 2  obviously from Milton's sleeve." 5  2  With the Niphates speech conveniently discarded, Mr. Waldock announces: We cannot with any reasonableness talk of Satan's 'wrong*. In theory, at least, there are no wrongs, and we know so l i t t l e about the facts of the matter that we are not in a position to dispute the theory. The background of Satan's revolt i s , so to say, nonexistent; we cannot argue from i t , because i t is not there. 253 Mr. Waldock, evidently, Ignores the fact that no writer ever throws a l l his cards on the table at once.  Not  the event i t s e l f , but i t s presentation - the when and how - is of utmost importance i n an epic, because the readers are well acquainted with the basic plot, and the poet must sustain their interest entirely by his poetic art and technique.  We must  remember, also, that Milton's presentation in non-chronological order i s no accident, but designed to secure the greatest participation i n the action on the part of the reader, and to establish in his mind certain predispositions and conceptions, in the light of which the succeeding events assume the desired proportions.  Thus, no doubt, Milton laboured to have the  reader participate i n the events of the rebellion with a strong  252 Waldrock, Paradise Lost and Its Critics, p. 81. 253  Ibid., P. 72.  - 78 p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r the Father and the Son, comparable to h i s own adoration i n : Beyond compare the Son o f God was seen Most g l o r i o u s ; i n him a l l h i s Father shone S u b s t a n t i a l l y expressed; and i n h i s face D i v i n e compassion v i s i b l y appeared, 254 Love without end, and without measure grace. L i k e w i s e , he has provided the reader w i t h the c o r r e c t connotation o f the word "begot" i n God's d e c r e e , " T h i s day I have begot whom I d e c l a r e My only Son..." 255 That the word has a d u a l meaning M i l t o n explains i n The C h r i s t ian  D o c t r i n e as f o l l o w s : ... f o r though the Father he said i n S c r i p t u r e to have begotten the Son i n a double sense, the one l i t e r a l , with reference t o the product i o n o f the Son, the other m e t a p h o r i c a l , w i t h reference to h i s e x a l t a t i o n . . . . Certain, however, i t i s . . . that the Son existed i n the beginning, under the name of the logos or word, and was the f i r s t o f the whole c r e a t i o n , by whom afterwards a l l other things were made both i n heaven and e a r t h . 256  In Paradise Lost the reader forms the concept o f the primacy 'of the Son i n c r e a t i o n through: Thee next they sang, o f a l l c r e a t i o n Begotten Son, 257  first,  which, as part o f the a n g e l s ' hymn.conveys the f e e l i n g that t h i s i s t r a d i t i o n a l knowledge with them.  254  M i l t o n , Paradise L o s t , I I I , 138-142.  255 I b i d . , V, 603-$04 . 256 Milton,"of C h r i s t i a n Doctrine," i n the Works o f John M i l t o n , New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1932, vol.XIV,p. 257 M i l t o n , Paradise L o s t , I I I , 383-384.  - 79 In spite of this endeavour to establish the right attitude, Milton makes i t possible to trace the background of Satan's revolt, apart from any consideration of what has gone before.  If we pay close attention to Raphael's recapitulation  of the events and apply Shakespeare's criterion of plot development, we soon see the background take shape. God's decree: " 'Hear, a l l ye Angels, Progeny of Light, Thrones, Dominations, Princedoms, Virtues, Powers, Hear my decree, which unrevoked shall standi This day I have begot whom I declare My only Son, and on this holy h i l l Him have anointed, whom ye now behold At my right hand. Your head I him appoint, And by myself have sworn to him shall bow A l l knees i n Heaven, and shall confess him Lord. Under his great viceregent reign abide, United as one individual soul, For ever happy. Him who disobeys Me disobeys, breaks union, and, that day, Cast out from God and blessed vision, falls Into utter darkness, deep ingulfed, his place Ordained without redemption, without end,'*1258 comes as a startling surprise i n the midst of apparent concord and peace.  At this time, when the Heavenly Host i s unanimous-  ly demonstrating overt obedience and loyalty by appearing in answer to the imperial summons, such command sounds, indeed,  259 "domineering, provocative and dictatorial."  One i s almost  prepared to join Mr. Werblowsky i n his estimate of the situation: As Professor Wilson Knight has bluntly expressed i t , i t really Is Messiah who starts a l l the trouble. Why God's threat and challenge 258 259  Milton, Paradise Lost, V, 600-615. Werblowsky, Lucifer and Prometheus, p. 8.  - 80 -  •where nothing but God's courteous consideration for his faultless subject was needed?' 260 However, before accepting this as the final judgment, i t Is imperative to investigate the reaction of the Heavenly Host to God's decree and determine whether His stern injunction is it  indeed directed towards "faultless  subjects without any provo-  cation. Raphael gives the i n i t i a l response in a few terse words? "So spake the Omnipotent, and with his words All seemed well pleased; a l l seemed, but , were not a l l . " ^ 1 Through repetition Milton focuses our attention on " a l l seemed". He thus indicates that no angel betrays the least sign of disapprobation, while some are genuinely pleased. Outwardly, perfect accord persists, when "That day, as other solemn days, they spent In song and dance about the sacred h i l l . " 262 So indiscernable is the dissimulation of the antagonists to the decree that there appears not the least dissonance i n the mystic dance of the angels, but "... in their motions harmony divine So smooths her charming tones that God's own ear Listens delighted." 263 260  Werblowsky, Lucifer and Prometheus, p. 8.  261 Milton, Paradise Lost, V, 616-617. (Italics are my own) 262  Ibid., V, 618-619.  263  Ibid., V, 625-627.  - 81 -  The reader, too, ignores easily the deep implication of " a l l seemed", because he becomes completely absorbed, f i r s t , i n the intricate mazes of the dance and, later, i n the exotic banquet, as a  Tables are set, and on a sudden piled With Angel's food; and rubied nectar flows In pearl, in diamond, and massy gold, "264 Fruit of delicious vines, the growth of Heaven.  This physical delectation and the beatitude of spiritual union and fellowship, expressed i n : "They eat, they drink, and in communion sweet Quaff immortality and joy ... ... before th' all-bounteous King, who showered With copious hand, rejoicing in their joy^'2o5 diffusei a climate of heavenly b l i s s , which precludes a l l suspicion of subversive elements. Yet, as darkness deepens, Satan manifests his true feelings and reveals himself as one of those who "seemed, but were not" pleased.  A l l day he has beguiled his fellow-angels  by hiding his "... envy against the Son of God, that day Honoured by his great Father, and proclaimed Messiah, King Anointed," 2 6 6 under hypocritical worship.  In the light of this development  264 Milton, Paradise Lost, 7. 632-635' 265 Ibid., 7, 637-640. 266 Ibid., 7, 662-665.  - 82 -  Gabriel's accusation, "And thou, sly hypocrite who now would at seem Patron of liberty, who more than thou Once fawned, and cringed, and servilely adored Heaven's awful Monarch?" 267 finds i t s justification and i s neither the "high-handed piece of unsupported calumny," the "undocumented assertion", Milton's  268 "literary cheating",  nor an unjust rebuke of Satan "for his  pre-lapsarian virtues." 2 *^ So far Satan's hostility seems to be his response to God's provocative speech;  and we have the uneasy feeling  that perhaps God has made a mistake, and that His "courteuus consideration" for his apparently "faultless" angels might have saved His most glorious servant and a host of angels from eternal damnation. However, Satan's words to Beelzebub: " 1 Sleep'st thou, companion dear? what sleep can close Thy eyelids? and rememb'rest what decree, Of yesterday, so late hath passed the lips Of Heaven's Almighty? Thou to me thy thoughts Was wont, I mine to thee was wont to impart, Both waking we were one; how then can now Thy sleep dissent?' " 270 make i t immediately evident that a l l the angels are not faultless.  A concourse for the exchange of secret thoughts i s  267  Milton, Paradise Lost, IV, 957-960.  268  Waldock, Paradise Lost and Its C r i t i c s , p. 81.  269  Werblowsky, Lucifer and Prometheus, p. 10.  270  Milton, Paradise Lost, V, 673-679.  - 83 suggestive of treasonous inclinations, and Satan's "both waking we were one" indicates plotting and consent between the two.  This shows that Satan's hostility is not rooted i n the  exaltation of the Son, but has i t s origin in an earlier situation.  Moreover, his disloyalty is confirmed by his bitter  sense of abasement i n worshipping God with "prostration vile." He openly confesses this revulsion to his followers with biting sarcasm: "'This only to consult, how we may best, With what may be devised of honours new, Receive him [the Son] coming to receive from us Knee-tribute yet unpaid, prostration v i l e ! Too much to one I but double, how endured To one and to his image now proclaimed I"271 It becomes amply evident that his primary hatred is directed against God, "the one"; and that the Son's exaltation is providing the ostensible motive for open defiance.  With the  astuteness of one of God's highest creatures, Satan has fully realized the f u t i l i t y of trying to gain accomplices to a conspiracy against God, the Almighty.  Hence, the exaltation  of the Messiah, though intensifying his hatred, presents him with a welcome subterfuge under which to aspire to the supremacy of God, since the angels can be incited against a new power, whose potency is as yet untried. In this we find a close correspondence between Satan and Vondel's Lucifer.  271 Milton, Paradise Lost, V, 778-783- (The Italics are my  own)  - 84 I shall have care this purpose to prevent Let not a power inferior thus dream To rule the Powers above, 272 is Lucifer's open defiance of the exaltation of man.  Yet,  in the same breath his real ambition finds vent im Now swear I by my crown, upon this chance To venture a l l , to raise my seat amid The firmament, the spheres, the splendor of The stars above. The Heaven of Heavens shall then My palace be, the rainbow be my Throne. 273 Consequently, a l l the angels are not "faultless" subjects;  i t is not the "Messiah, who starts a l l the trouble";  and God's "courteous consideration" for the angels is not efficacious enough to extinguish the passions of "pride and  274 worse ambition" revolt.  which alone are responsible for Satan's  This then is the background to the revolt as far as  Satan i s concerned. After Satan reveals his antagonism towards God the Father, the analogy to Macbeth forces itself upon the reader. In both Macbeth and Paradise Lost antagonism seems to arise out of the exaltation of a son.  God's decree of the exalta-  tion of the Messiah finds a ready parallel in King Duncan's words, We will establish our estate upon Our eldest, Malcolm, whom we name hereafter The Prince of Cumberland. 275  272 Vondel, Lucifer (translated by Van Noppen), I I , 282-284 273  Ibid., II, 286-290 .  274 Milton, Paradise Lost, IV, 39. 275 Shakespeare, William, Macbeth i n Harrison, G.B.,ed., Shakespeare, Major Plays and the Sonnets.H e w York, Harcourt Brace and Company, 1948, p. 833, I, Sc. V, 37-39-  - 85 In their respective hierarchies Macbeth and Satan enjoy an equally enviable reputation, based upon merit and devotion to their kings.  The response to the decrees is similar.  Both  hide their chagrin, but both are stimulated into action. The Prince of Cumberland $ That is a step On which I must f a l l down or else o'erleap, For i n my way i t l i e s , 276 Is Macbeth's feeling towards this new obstacle to the realization of his ambition.  Satan's revelation of an earlier  antagonism finds i t s counterpart i n the indication through Lady Macbeth*s exclamation: What beast was't then That made you break this enterprise to me? ... Nor time nor place Did then adhere ..., 277 that they had planned Duncan's murder long before the contingency  of Malcolm's succession had arisen,  Macbeth, however,  is not Satan's equal i n powers of dissimulation.  While  Macbeth's face is as a book where men 278 May read strange matters, Satan lives up expertly to Lady Macbeth's injunction: Look like the innocent flower 2 7 9 But be the serpent under i t . However, there i s one great discrepancy between God 276, Shakespeare, Macbeth, op. c i t . , I, Sc.V, 49-51277, Ibid., I, Sc. VII, 47-50278 Ibid., I, Sc. V, 63-64.  279  Ibid., I, Sc. V, 66-65 -  - 86 -  and King Duncan.  The latter goes to his destruction because  ,to mortals There's no art o To find the mind's construction in the face; ?  n  while God through His omniscience, which Milton has continually emphasized, discerns the Innermost thoughts of a l l creatures in Heaven, on Earth, and in Hell.  Belial refers  to i t in Hell as well-known to a l l angels: " ... for what can force or guile With him, or who deceive his mind, whose eye Views a l l things at one view? He from Heaven's height o.  A l l these our motions vain sees and derides."  ?  Milton stresses i t in his commentary: Now had the Almighty Father from above, From the pure Empyrean where he sits High throned above a l l height, bent down his eye His own works and their works at once to view.  ... On earth he f i r s t beheld Our two f i r s t parents.... He then surveyed Hell and the gulf between, and Satan there 2 g 2 Coasting the wall of Heaven on this side Night. Consequently, the reader i s quite prepared for the information: "Meanwhile, th' Eternal eye, whose sight discerns Abstrusest thoughts, from forth his holy Mount, And from within the golden lamps that burn Nightly before him, saw without their light  280  Shakespeare, Macbeth, I, Sc. IV, 12-13-  281  Milton, Paradise Lost, II,~l88-191-  282  Ibid., I l l , 56-65.  •  - 87 -  Rebellion rising - saw i n whom, how spread Among the Sons of Morn, what multitudes Were banded to oppose his high decree," which signifies God's awareness of Satan's disobedience and of his innermost thoughts from their very inception. Satan is not the only one in dalliance with Sin. As stated before, Moloch is fostering like ambitions.  Others  as stated by Sin: " ... recoiled afraid At f i r s t , and called me Sin, and for a sign Portentous held me; but familiar grown, I pleased, and with attractive graces won The most averse." 284 However, God cannot tolerate evil anywhere in the Heavenly universe;  f o r , with his omnipotence inviolable, He may find  Himself in the end a ruler of a kingdom of darkness.  Conse-  quently, the exaltation of the Son is His strategic move to bring a l l secret thoughts into the open, to cause the loyal angels to reaffirm their "true allegiance, constant faith, or love";  while of his antagonists the " ... hard he harden'd, blind be blinded more, That they may stumble on, and deeper f a l l . " 285  Thus "God, even as He helps the good i n their virtue, will  286  help the wicked in their evil,"  making the individual's  w i l l his fate. 283 Milton, Paradise Lost, V, 711-717284 Ibid., I I , 759285 Ibid., V, 699-700. 286 Saurat, Milton, Man and Thinker, p. 151.  - 88 Satan is given the opportunity to seduce the Heavenly Host:  as an angel of light on the pretense of acting under  287 the "Most High commanding;"  as a demagogue, who  " ... casts between Ambiguous words and jealousies, to sound Or taint integrity;" 288 and as the open importunate solicitor, who " ... with calumnious art 2ftQ Of counterfeited truth thus held their ears." ' God withdraws in order not to Interfere with the angels' exercise of free choice, for: "Not free, what proof could they have given sincere Of true allegiance, constant faith, or love, Where only what they needs must do appeared, Not what they would? What praise could they receive, What pleasure I, from such obedience paid, When Will and Reason (Reason also is choice) Useless and vain, of freedom both dispoild, Made passive both, had served necessity, Not me?" 290 In Abdiel, Milton represents the repudiation of evil by the loyal element of Heaven.  When he arrives before the  throne, he finds "Already known what he for news had thought To have reported." 291  287  Milton, op_. c i t . , V.  699.  288  Ibid., V, 702-703.  289  Ibid., V, 770-771-  290  Milton, Paradise Lost, III, 103-U1.  291  Ibid., VI, 20.  - 89 -  In this, Milton points out that the whole Heavenly Host Is facing the issue, and that Heaven's wide open borders, which admit Abdiel, will not close upon anyone wishing to depart. Only after the segregation is complete does God appear again upon the scene. God, knowing a l l innermost thoughts, could have routed the disloyal angels from Heaven one by one.  However,  Milton i s trying to justify God's ways and, consequently, lets the evil become apparent before God takes action.  The fact  that so many readers are incensed by God's decree of the exaltation of the Son, which is pronounced without an immediate explanation, proves that, had God condemned the scheming rebels without revealing their inner wickedness, the same readers would have placed Him among the foremost tyrants of history. Thus the exaltation of the Son i s a poetic as well as moral necessity: i t brings Satan's evil into the open and satisfies the reader that God's attitude towards Satan is based upon right reason and not upon passion.  It also serves  to bring good out of evil in that, being the pretext for the revolt, i t serves for the ingathering of a l l rampant passions, that through one action Heaven might be cleansed of its dross and restored to i t s pristine purity.  Chapter IX  SATAN'S REVOLT  Satan's rebellion against God begins long before any overt action takes place.  As an angel of the highest hierarchy, his duty,  aptly described in Vandel's Lucifer as /  ...of Seraphim And Cherubim, and Thrones, the highest, they Who form God's inmost Council and confirm AH His commands, is grievous to him, especially where expressions of devotion and submission are involved.  His pride revolts against "Knee tribute...  prostration v i l e J " ^ ^  Beelzebub, his "companion dear", equally shares  his revulsion: "Both waking we were one."2%  Using the Son's exalt-  ation for a subterfuge, they immediately initiate the open revolt in Satan's decision: "With a l l his legions to dislodge and leave Unworshipped, unobeyed, the Throne supreme."2^ The gravity of such act can be understood best in the light of Milton's 292 293 294 295  Vandel, Lucifer, I, 293-296. Milton, Paradise Lost, V, 730. Ibid., V, 673 ffIbid., V, 668-669-  - 91 -  denunciation, in the Eikonoklastes, of the King's withdrawal from the Parliament at Westminster: ...when Richard the Second departed but from a Gommittie of Lords, who sat preparing_matter for the Parlament not yet assembl'd, .../they/ coming up to London with a huge Army, requir'd the King...to come to Westminster. Which he refusing, they told him flatly, that unless he came, they would choose another. So high a crime it was accounted then, for Kings to absent themselves, not from Parlament, which none ever durst, but from any meeting of his Peeres and Counselors, which did but tend towards a ParlamentIf such was the severity of the offence in a king, how much more reprehensible would be the withdrawal of a subordinate! Through lying, hypocrisy, and guile Satan succeeds in drawing  297 after him "the third part of Heaven's host."  All the angels -who  have been unknowingly involved in the initial step of disobedience by withdrawing with Satan, except Abdiel, yield him henceforth unquestioning obedience and seem to take no cognizance of the weakness of his argument against Abdiel. The combat is related as an epic narrative. movement of two huge opposing armies.  There is the  There is the Homeric combat of  epic heroes in the fight of Satan, Abdiel, and Michael, and the long speeches of the champions in the midst of strife and bloodshed. However, Milton conveys more to the reader than merely the events of warfare.  In Abdiel's denunciation of Satan we find the criterion for  superiority, the qualifications for kingship, and the definition of 296  Milton, Eikonoklastes, p. 126.  297  Milton, Paradise Lost, V, 709-  - 92 -  Christian liberty: "...God and Nature bid the same. When he who rules is worthiest, and excels Them whom he governs. This is servitude To serve th'unwise, or him who hath rebelled Against his worthier, as thine now serve thee, Thyself not free, but to thyself enthralled. "2% Thus, superiority rests upon inner merit, and Christian liberty upon the subjugation of passion to right reason.  In the defeat of Satan Milton  demonstrates the triumph of good over evil and the confounding of mighty powers by humility and virtue.  In the end he points out through Raphael  that the account of the rebellion expresses the truth only symbolically, "measuring things in Heaven by things on earth, "299 to make them comprehensible to human understanding. Milton, similarly, throughout the epic drops to the level of the experiences of his contemporaries.  In Satan's feats of war he tries  to bring out the latter's prodigious prowess as well as his diabolic perspicacity for the invention of destructive devices.  The introduction  of the invention of gunpowder by the rebels strikes the twentieth-century reader as gross, and is decried by Mr. Saurat as "a scandal to true believers."300  However, Milton draws here upon the tradition of cannon  as "infernal," connoting the devastating power of Hell which dashes "to pieces" a l l that i t encounters.  Moreover, he turns to a recent  political event; namely, the massacre of the Parliamentarian army through superior cannon introduced by the royalists from Holland. 298 299 300 301  Milton, Paradise Lost. VI, 176-181. Ibid., VI, 893Saurat, Milton, Man and Thinker, p. 173Ranke, Leopold von, A History of England, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1878, vol.Ill, p.367-  - 93 -  With the horrors of that incident s t i l l fresh before him, the contemporary reader becomes, no doubt, emotionally involved in the conflict, and the glory of the Messiah's victory is thus correspondingly enhanced.  Chapter X  SATAN, THE REBEL OF HEAVEN  In Raphael's account of the rebellion as well as in Paradise Lost on the whole, we do not meet the Lucifer of orthodox conception in his state of early perfection, as found in the adumbration of the King of Tyre: Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty. Thou hast been in Eden the Garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created. Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee so: thou wast upon the holy mountain of Godj thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire. Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day thou was created t i l l iniquity wast found in thee •0 ^ Lucifer is described here as created perfect in his entire being.  His  kingdom is called Eden, but is distinguished from man's Eden in that i t is a mineral kingdom.  The magnificence of his abode is given in:  "every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold." "The workmanship of thy tabrets 302 Ezekiel, 28: 12-15, Bible, in Cooper, D.L., What Men Mast Believe, California, Biblical Research Society, 1943, P- 240 f f .  - 95 -  and thy pipes was prepared in thee...," shows that Satan was a master musician, besides being the designer and builder of his crystal towers. "Thou art the anointed cherub" indicates Lucifer's exalted position in Heaven.  Thus, Lucifer is depicted in every way as God's perfect  creation, exalted above many others, with access to God's holy mountain. Vondel brings out more than Milton Satan's pre-lapsarian glory in his Lucifer, when Raphael addresses the rebel thus: ...God hath his seal And image stamped upon thy hollowed head And forehead, where all beauty seemed out-poured, With wisdom and benevolence and a l l That flows in streams unbounded from the fount Of every precious thing. In Paradise, Before the countenance of God's own sun, Thou shon'st from clouds of dew and roses fresh; Thy festal robes stood stiff with pearl, turquoise, And diamond, ruby, emerald, and fine gold; 'Twas thy right hand the weightiest sceptre held; And as soon as thou didst mount into the light, Throughout the blazing firmament and through These shining vaults the sounds began to roll Of trumpet and of drum.^03 However, there i s a number of references in Paradise Lost, from which we are able to draw a fairly dear picture of Satan's pre-lapsarian personality.  As to his status in the hierarchial order, Raphael accords him  pre-eminence over most, i f not a l l , of the angels when he introduces him as: "...He of the first, If not the first Archangel, great in power, In favour and pre-eminence."„n.  303 304  Vondel, Lucifer, IV, 179-193Milton, Paradise Lost, V, 659-661.  - 96 -  By virtue of such exalted condition his influence over the Host of Heaven under his control is shown as correspondingly potent by the angels' obedience to "The wonted signal, and the superior voice Of their great Potentate, for great indeed His name, and high was his degree in Heaven." 305  His regal state is indicated by the magnificence of his capital, "...his royal seat High on a h i l l , far blazing, as a mount Raised on a mount, with pyramids and towers From diamond quarries hewn and rocks of gold The palace of great Lucifer, "^Q^, and the immensity of his army, " ...an host Innumerable as the stars of night, Or stars of morning, dew drops which the sun Impearls on every leaf and every flower."^Qy The biblical allusion of the morning star in: "His countenance, as the morning star that guides The starry flock, allured them...,"^^ shows the power of his glorious appearance over the minds of the angels. This radiance is emphasized by references to his shining armour and"his sun-bright chariot."3°9 305 306 307  Milton, Paradise Lost, V, 704-706. Ibid., V, 756-760. Ibid., V, 744-747-  308  Ibid., V, 78-79-  309  Ibid., 71, 100.  - 97 -  Yet, the picture of his pre-lapsarian magnificence grows pallid under the impact of his diabolic personality from the very opening of the scene in Heaven.  Only God's early statement that He has created man and 310  "all th'ethereal Powers" "just and right," that Satan represents essential evil.  prevents the assumption  His former wisdom, subverted to  evil, makes him the crafty contriver who shuns no means to accomplish his wicked designs. His acute powers of dissimulation and his profound hypocrisy deceive the very elect of the heavenly hierarchies as he spends the day with them "in song and dance about the sacred hill."-*1"'"  His pride and  envy, first, of God and, later, of the Messiah pervert his reasoning powers and sweep him headlong into the revolt.  He lacks the loyalty of  a leader for his faithful subjects when, instead of enlisting their support by fair means, he commits them to disobedience to God through his fraudulent order: "1...Assemble thou Of all those myriads which we lead the chief; Tell them that, by command /_of Gody7, ere yet dim night Her shadowy cloud withdraws, I am to haste And a l l who under me their banners wave Homeward with flying march where we possess The quarters of the North, there to prepare Fit entertainment to receive our King, The Great Messiah, and his new commands, Mho speedily through all the Hierarchies Intends to pass triumphant, and give laws,"' , ? and thus involves them in his initial overt transgression in leaving 310 311  312  Milton, Paradise Lost, III, 98. Ibid., V, 619Ibid., 683-693-  - 98 -  "unobeyed" the precincts of Heaven, while they are under the impression of obeying God's order.  His lies, his insinuation, his casting  ".. .between Ambiguous words and jealousies, to sound Or taint integrity",^ are worthy of an Iago. In the palace of great Lucifer, the crafty demagogue insinuates into the minds of his followers his own grievance and thus provides them with a personal motive to oppose the Almighty: "'Will ye submit your necks, and choose to bend The supple knee? Te will not, i f I trust To know ye right, or i f ye know yourselves Natives and Sons of Heaven possessed before By none, and, i f not equal a l l , yet free'"  314 However, in his presentation of the issues i t becomes quite evident that his inordinate ambition is perverting his right reason. equality with God, but denies such to his followers.  He aspires to  He is determined  to destroy God's hierarchial order "'to cast off this yoke, '"^^ y e t claims that, "1...orders and degrees Jar not with liberty, but well consist.'"^^ He rejects Abdiel's argument that " 'the mighty Father made 313  Milton, Paradise Lost. V,  314  Ibid., V, 7S7-791-  315  Ibid., V, 786. Ibid., V, 792-793-  316  702-704-  - 99 -  All things, even thee, and all the Spirits of Heaven _ By him /Son/ created in their bright degrees,'"  317  by "1...Strange point and new Doctrine which we would know whence learned! saw When this creation was? Remember'st thou Thy making, while the Maker gave thee being? We know no time when we were not as now; Know none before us, self-begot, self-raised By our own quickening power when fatal course Had circled his f u l l orb..., "'^g  Who  thus denying both the creation by the Son and by God and trying to impress his host with utter folly. Mr. Waldock, however, does not find these rejoinders silly and rallies to Satan's defence: The point must be new, or he could not in full assembly say i t was. We are not told why i t is that Abdiel is so exceptionally well informed; for some reason he is, just as for some reason the rebel angels appear to have been kept in the dark about a number of other facts that good angels kaow.^o. As stated before, Milton presents his events in inverted chronological order to establish certain conceptions in the light of which later developments become clear. as being Heaven's tradition. ludicrous.  The creation by the Son has been emphasized Consequently, Satan's statements are  The fact that he voices them "in full assembly" does not  make them more credible or rational than his harangue for and against 317  Milton, Paradise Lost, V, 836-838.  318  Ibid., V, 855-S62.  319  Waldock, Paradise Lost and Its Critics, p. 71.  - 100 equality and the hierarchial orders, which, too, occurs "in full assembly" without meeting with any opposition except Abdiel's. Satan's complete loss of emotional response to goodness is apparent in his defiant rejection of God's pardon.  That pardon, offer-  ed to Satan even after his overt opposition to God, is the manifestation of His Divine compassion..., Love without end, and without measure grace.^20 There is no hesitation in his refusal, no inner conflict, but obdurate pride and boundless self-reliance.  For Vondel's Lucifer this last  offer of God's grace is the climax, because i t involves a tremendous conflict, as expressed in his bitterness: What creature else so wretched is as I? On the one side flicker feeble rays of hope, While on the other yawns a flaming horror. But 'tis too late, no cleansing for my stain Is here. All hope is past.-321 But Satan is already completely alienated from his former godly nature as Abdiel pronounces judgment upon him: "'0 alienate from God. 0 Spirit accursed, Forsaken of a l l good! I see thy fall Determined, and thy hapless crew involved In this perfidious fraud, contagion spread Both of thy crime and punishment •1 xx He has also lost a l l capacity for seeing things objectively. 320 321 322  Milton, Paradise Lost, III, 141Vandal, Lucifer, IV, 385 ff• Milton, op.cit., V, 877-881.  His own  - 101 thoughts and actions are law unto himself and those around him.  There  is a deep irony in his words objecting to the enforcement of laws "on us, who without law / Err not,"-^ uttered as they are in the midst of rebellion. In the encounter with the Heavenly Host Satan's powers of seduction are emphasized by Gabriel thus: "1...how hast thou instilled Thy malice into thousands, once upright And faithful, now proved false1'"224 325  By calling Abdiel "seditious A n g e l , S a t a n projects his own faults onto others.  His two humiliating defeats in single combat do not  shake his overbearing self-confidence. ious power"326  The demonstration of "prodig-  unfailing courage and the ingenious invention of  gunpowder attest to the fact that Satan's positive qualities are invariably channeled into the pursuance of evil and destruction.  An  epic hero in his performance on the battlefield, he yet lacks a l l the characteristics of moral greatness, such as honour, truth, and justice. Even at this early stage he and his associates are determined "... by force or fraud ... to prosper, and at length prevail Against God and Messiah."^gy His envy is emphasized by his reaction to the glory of the Son:  323 324 325 326  327  Milton, Paradise Lost, V, Ibid., V I , 269-271. Ibid., VI, 152. Ibid., VI, 247Ibid., VI, 794-797-  798-799-  - 102 "They, hardened more by what might most reclaim, Grieving to see his glory, at the sight Took envy, and, aspiring to his height, Stood re-embattled fierce."-^g As to Satan's appearance, there is sufficient evidence to justify the assumption that his secret inner degradation does not impair his outward magnificence.  In the congregation around the sacred h i l l he is  apparently unchanged.  His beauty,  "...as the morning star that guides The starry flock allured them, and with lies Drew after him the third part of Heaven's host." Even when he confronts God's host his lustre remains impressive, as: "High in the midst, exalted as a God Th'Apostate in his sun-bright chariot sat, Idol of majesty divine, enclosed With flaming Cherubim and golden shields."^^ Abdiel deplores the persistence of Satan's grandeur as incompatible with his inner depravity: "'0 HeavenJ that such resemblance of the Highest Should yet remain, where faith and realty Remain not 1'"331 However, during the battle ominous portents and signs of external impairment of glory appear.  First, Satan's armour, " erewhile so bright",  is stained with his own blood.  328 329 330 331  Next, the spirits find i t difficult to  Milton, Paradise Lost, VI, Ibid., V, 708-710. Ibid., VI, 99-102. Ibid., VI, 114-116.  791-794•  - 103 -  extricate themselves from underneath the rocks because: "...though Spirits of purest light, 1 Purest at first, now gross by sinning grown.' 332 In the end,  when the Messiah meets than on their own terms of violence " '...since by strength They measure a l l , of other excellence Not emulous, "'333  the puissance of the stars of morning is shattered.  Those fierce and  vaunting champions now "...all resistance lost, All courage; down their idle weapons dropped;" 334  Satan, who so recently has borne "such resemblance of the Highest," becomes undlstinguishable among the "Thrones and mighty Seraphim 335 prostrate;n-JJJ and, merely one of the "exhausted, spiritless, afflicted, fallen," 3 3 ^ is driven disdainfully headlong "down from the verge of Heaven."337 Even though Milton does not describe the sudden metamorphosis by which Vondel's Lucifer Even as bright day to gloomy night is changed, Whene'er the sun forgets his golden glow, So in his downward fall his beauty turned To something monstrous and most horrible, Into a brutish snout his face, that shone 332 333 334  335 336 337  Milton, Paradise Lost, VI, 660-661. Ibid., VI, £20-322. Ibid., VI, 838-839Ibid., VI, 841Ibid., VI, 852 Ibid., VI, 865.  - 104 -  So glorious; his teeth into large fangs, Sharpened for gnawing steel; his hands and feet Into four various claws; into a hide Of black that shining skin of pearl... ...His beauteous form Is now a monster execrable, by God And spirit and man e'er to be cursed,  338  he definitely implies an outward deterioration in his analogies in Hell  339 between Satan and "whom the fables name of monstrous size Tibanian" and Briareos, a fearful monster.  Beelzebub comments on "all our glory  extinct;"340 the angels l i e Abject and lost...covering the flood, Under amazement of their hideous change;  341  and Milton refers to them as "a pitchy cloud."3^2  Satan, "Darkened  343  so, yet shone above them all" in Hell.  But any brightness he assumes  in disguise is only "permissive glory."344 Thus Satan at the point of his expulsion from Heaven appears as the procreator of sin and the epitome of a l l passions characteristic of orthodox tradition.  All his heavenly attributes have been replaced  by diabolic qualities.  Hence, his character is complete, and this  excludes the possibility of any further development.  Events in Hell  and on Earth reveal these changes, of some of which he himself is not immediately aware. 338 339 340 341 342 343 344  Milton's statement about the other fallen angels,  Vandel, Lucifer, V, 306 f f . Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 198. Ibid., I, 141Ibid., I, 3H-312. Ibid., I, 340. Ibid., I, 599Ibid., I, 451'  - 105 -  ...neither do the Spirits damned Lose a l l their virtue, o i r 345  may be preferred as an argument against the assertion of Satan's utter degradation.  However, i t must be remembered that their disobedience to  God is entirely based upon their loyalty to their chief. consists in giving too much credence to Satan's words.  Their offence But they do not  share his other passions and, consequently, will deteriorate with time under his leadership.  Milton indicates Satan's deeper degradation by:  High on a throne of royal state... •  *  •  *  •  Satan exalted sat, by merit raised To that bad eminence...01c  345 346  Milton, Paradise Lost, I I , 482-483Ibid., II, 1 f f .  Chapter XI  SATAN AND THE FALL OF MAN  The Satan who finally appears in Paradise is confirmed in evil.  Milton stresses this by placing the recapitulation of the Fall  of the Angels immediately before the Fall of Man. in Hell might have easily deceived a l l readers.  Satan's sophistry The Mount Niphates  speech might have left them puzzled as to his true nature.  But here  is no ambiguity, no contradiction of commentary and demonstration. He is "the author of evil",- 3 ^ the "forsaken of a l l good",-^ who has " '...disturbed Heaven's blessed peace and into Nature brought Misery, uncreated t i l l the crime Of thy /Satan1sj rebellion J ' " ^ He has also "'...instilled ...malice into thousands, once upright And faithful, now proved false, "'^CJQ 351  "Thrones, Dominations, Princedoms, Virtues, Powers""^ have fallen a prey to his glozing words. In a physical conflict God himself alone 347 348 349 350 351  Milton, Paradise Lost, VI, 262.. Ibid., V, 878. Ibid., VI, 266-269Ibid., VI, 269-272. Ibid., V, 772.  - 107 through the Messiah has been able to overcome him as an adversary. A conflict between this sinister force and Adam and Eve, the "puny" inhabitants of Earth, appears so incongruous that Milton's attempt to "justify the ways of God to men"352 s e e l n s to break down in the very anticipation of such unequal struggle.  However, the incongruity arises  out of our misconception of the first Man, as expressed by Mr. Lewis: I had come to the poem associating innocence with childishness. I had also an evolutionary background which led me to think of early men, and therefore a fortiori of the first men, as savages. The beauty I expected in Adam and Eve was that of the primitive, the unsophisticated, the naif. I had hoped to be shown their inarticulate delight in a new world which they were spelling out letter by letter, to hear them prattle. Yet, as we pay closer attention to Milton's presentation of Adam and Eve: Two of far nobler shape, erect and t a l l , God-like erect, with native honour clad In naked majesty, seemed lords of a l l , And worthy seemed; for in their looks divine The image of their glorious Master shone, Truth, wisdom, sanctitude severe and pure Severe, but in true, f i l i a l freedom placed, Whence true authority in men... For contemplation he and valour formed, For softness she and sweet attractive grace; He for God only, she for God in him. His fair large front and eye sublime declared Absolute rule,^t;^ to Raphael's deference to Eve, and the revelation of Adam's intellectual 352 353 354  Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 26. Lewis, A Preface to Paradise lost, p. 112. Milton, op.cit., IV, 288.  - 108  -  capacities, Satan's preponderance appears greatly diminished in juxtaposition to man who possesses all the attributes of the true image of God.  Moreover, Raphael, The affable Archangel, had forewarned Adam, by dire example, to beware Apostasy, by what befell in Heaven To those apostates, lest the like befall In Paradise to Adam or his race,0__  and God has created him with powers to " Stand fast; to stand or f a l l Free in thine own abitrement i t lies Perfect within, no outward aid require. Nevertheless, Satan remains a redoubtable enemy. Milton never lets the reader lose sight of this.  As Satan enters Paradise to  vent his evil tendencies in action, he once more reveals a l l his former characteristics in soliloquy. "But neither here seek I, no, nor in Heaven, To dwell, unless by mastering Heaven's Supreme,"357 expresses the ambition and hatred he has fostered in Heaven. "evil, be thou my good""^  finds its counterpart in:  "To me shall be the glory sole among The infernal Powers, in one day to have marred What he, Almighty styled, six nights and days Continued making, and who knows how long Before had been contriving?".^ 355 356 357  358 359  Milton, Paradise Lost, VII, 41• ' Ibid., V, 640-642. Ibid., IX, 124-125. Ibid., IV, 110. Ibid., IX, 135-138.  His  - 109 His deliberate self-deception is evident in his rationalization of the Fall of the Angels: "...I in one night freed From servitude inglorious well-nigh half Th'angelic name, and thinner left the throng Of his adorers, "^Q Again he attributes his own malignity to God, "  He to be avenged ...or to spite us more Determined to advance into our room A creature formed of earth...." ,  361 His envy against God and man persists as he pours his spite out on him •...who next Provokes my envy, this new favorite Of Heaven, this Man of clay, son of despite. The loss of his intellectual being is also apparent, as once again the nostalgia for his lapsed aesthetic perceptions overpowers him at the sight of Paradise, as seen from his exclamation: "With what delight could I have walked thee round. If I could joy in aught - sweet interchange Of h i l l and valley, rivers, woods, and plains, Now land, now sea, and shores with forest crowned, Rocks, dens, and caves! But I in none of these Find place or refuge; and the more I see Pleasures about me, so much more I feel Torment within me, as from the hateful siege Of contraries; a l l good to me becomes Bane, and in Heaven much worse would be my state." ^  360 361 362 363  Paradise Lost, IX, 140-143Ibid., IX, 143-149Ibid., IX, 174-176 Ibid., IX, 114-123-  - 110 -  Thus, Satan manifests the same fundamental characteristics of inordinate ambition, hatred, envy, self-deception, wherever we encounter him: in Heaven, in Hell, on Mount Niphates, in Paradise.  All his transgressions  are rooted in his one initial trespass against God - disobedience. As Satan conceives his plan of attack upon man, we find him by virtue of experience more astute in strategy.  The failure of his  army "With furious expedition... That self-same day, by fight or by surprise, To win the Mount of God, and on his throne To set the envier of his state, the proud Aspirer," ^ has taught him discretion.  Man's destruction he plans for "the space 365  of seven continued nights;"  and, finally, attempts i t not haphazard-  ly, but with "meditated fraud and malice."-^  "His mounted scale  aloft" has revealed to him that the loss of his physical prowess during the war in Heaven, when "...shot forth pernicious fire Amongst th'accursed, that withered all their strength, And of their wonted vigour left them drained, Exhausted, spiritless, afflicted fallen, is final and irretrievable.  Although in his encounter with Gabriel's  host His stature reached the sky, and on his crest 364 365 366 367  Milton, Paradise Lost. VI, 86-90. Ibid.. IX, 64Ibid., IX, 55- (The italics is my Tbid., VI, 849-852.  own.)  - Ill -  Sat Horror plumed; nor wanted in his grasp What seemed both spear and shield, , 368 he becomes aware of the hollowness behind this display of might through that "...celestial_signA Where thou /Satan/ art weighed, and shown how light, how weak If thou resist."369 Consequently, fraud and guilt must be his weapons in the attack upon man.  Ithuriel's touch of the spear has broken his disguise and has  restored him to his proper shape, imparting to him a hitherto unknown truth; namely, that .•.no falsehood can endure Touch of celestial temper, but returns Of force to its own likeness. ^ 371  Since Adam and Eve are "to heavenly Spirits bright / Little inferior", Satan will not jeopardize the success of his attempt by appearing before them as a changeling.  As a result of this consideration  The serpent subtlest beast of a l l the field ...his final sentence chose Fit vessel, fittest imp of fraud, in whom To enter, and his dark suggestions hide From sharpest sight.^72  368 369 370 371  Milton, Paradise Lost, IV, 988-990. Ibid., IV, 1011 - 1013Ibid., IV, 811-813• Ibid-, IV, 361-362.  - 112 -  Thus, as Satan appears on the human stage, he is no less than essential evil.  The evil which he originated in Heaven, was purged  thence with his expulsion as seen from: "•Hence, then, and evil go with thee along, Thy offspring.'" With the complete forfeiture of a l l goodness, he becomes the e^odiment of a l l passions hitherto unknown in God's cosmos.  Through his seduction  of Man evil is generated into the universe. As Satan views the new world and its two inhabitants, his despite is intensified by the realization that in the creation of man God has already accomplished the initial step of his plan: "Good out of evil to create - instead Of Spirits malign, a better race to bring Into their vacant room, and thence diffuse His good to worlds and ages infinite,"' , by forming such god-like beings.  Consequently, the success of his  counter-purpose: "...to pervert that end, And out of good s t i l l to find means of evil, "^y^ is of paramount importance. During his first appearance in Eden he has tainted Adam's and Eve's imagination in the hope that eventually i t will get the better of their right reason.  373 374 375  His insinuations in Eve's dream:  Milton, Paradise Lost, VI, 275-276Ibid., VII, 188-191. Ibid., I, 164-165-  - 113 "'And why not gods of men, since good, the more Communicated, more abundant grows, The author not impaired, but honoured more?"' , 376  are such as to force speculation upon the human mind.  Adam, who hither-  to has known good alone, now gives evidence of a theoretical knowledge of evil in: 377 "Best image of myself, and dearer half The trouble of thy thoughts this night in sleep Affects me equally; nor can I like This uncouth dream - of evil sprung, I fear. 1 '., i to  Eve's sudden independence, emerging in her desire to work separately i s , no doubt, the unconscious outgrowth of Satan's words in her dream: "•Taste this, and be henceforth among the gods  Thyself a goddess.'"279  The appearance of the Tempter, "One shaped and winged like one of those from Heaven By us oft seen; his dewy lips distilled Ambrosia,"^gQ causes her to ascribe to Satan the nobility of their heavenly guests, which precludes the possibility that "A foe so proud will first the weaker seek."  376 377  378 379 380  The boundless self-reliance expressed in, "So bent  Milton, Paradise Lost, V, 71-73• Bailey, Milton and Jacob Boehme, p. 154Milton, op.cit., V, 95-98. Ibid., V, 77-78. Ibid., V, 55-56.  - 114 -  the more shall shame him his repulse,"-^  in one "for softness" formed  "and sweet attractive g r a c e " , a r i s e s from her conviction that Satan can only tempt her in the angelic form of her dream; and shall, therefore, be easily recognized.  Satan's extreme subtlety is also manifest-  ed herein. The whole action of the temptation is pregnant with irony. Eve is the least prepared for the test when her self-confidence is the greatest.  While she ascribes heroic qualities to Satan, "he wished  his hap might find / Eve separate."^^  Satan attempts to pervert  God's good to evil, but is, indeed, God's agent in testing man's obedience.  The moment of Satan's greatest triumph seals his ultimate  doom; and man's self-abasement is the key to his eternal l i f e . When Satan first meets Eve, his evil passions are momentarily arrested as he ...for the time remained Stupidly good, of enmity disarmed, Of guile, of hate, of envy, of revenge.^g^ Some critics would see in this a redeeming quality in Satan.  However,  Mr. Diekhoff gives an explanation more in keeping with the Satanic nature: At the moment when he hesitates here in the presence of Eve, his hesitation is not an impulse toward virtue, but merely a moment of abstraction during which the activity of  381 382 383 384  Milton, Paradise Lost, IX, 383Ibid., IY, 298. Ibid., IX, 421Ibid., IX, 464-466.  - 115 his intellect and of his will is interrupted.ortr  385  Moreover, Satan, in his attempt to avoid Adam, "Whose higher intellectual more I shun, And strength, of courage haughty, and of limb Heroic built, though of terrestrial mould; Foe not informidable, exempt from wound,"^g^ proves the speciousness of his former demonstrations of courage and this stamps him as a human villain of the lowest order.  No heroic elements  enter into the execution of his plan, which is based entirely upon the exercise of "meditated fraud." In his incarnation of the serpent, a familiar beast in the Garden, Satan has eliminated a l l hazards to himself.  Through the  influence of her dream Eve's mind has become fertile ground for his second appeal to her imagination.  In his seduction he practises every  tactic which has proved successful in committing the heavenly powers to the revolt against God.  There his natural beauty allured the angels.  Consequently, he appears before Eve with his head Crested aloft, and carbuncle his eyes; With burnished neck of verdant gold, erect Amidst his circling spires, that on the grass Floated redundant. Pleasing was his shape And lovely.^gy His specious devotion to God as he partakes in the worship around the sacred mount, he duplicates here in his profession of a similar sentiment for Eve, as 385  386 387  Diekhoff, Milton's Paradise Lost, p. 42. Milton, Paradise Lost, IX, 483-486. Ibid., IX, 500-504-  - 116 -  Oft he bowed His turret crest and sleek enamelled neck; Fawning, and licked the ground whereon she trod.^gg In both events he cunningly impairs the mental alertness of his victims through flattery.  The angels fall for his words:  " 'Will ye submit your necks, and choose to bend The supple knee? Ye will not, i f I trust To know ye right, or i f ye know yourselves Natives and Sons of Heaven possessed before By none, and, i f not equal a l l , yet free.'"^g^ Eve, with Adam's reproach: "Wouldst thou approve thy constancy, approve First thy obedience; th'other who can know Not seeing thee attempted, who attest?"^^ s t i l l fresh in her mind must, of necessity, feel exalted by the imputation to her of superior qualities implied in "Thy awful brow, more awful thus retired"-^! and openly advanced in: "...who shouldst be seen A Goddess among Gods, adored and served By Angels numberless, thy daily train." Thus, Satan's experience in Heaven has rendered him indeed improved in fraud and malice. In the account of his transformation, during the process of which he claims to have acquired the "Language of Man" and "human  388 389 390 391 392  Milton, Paradise Lost, IX, Ibid., V, 787-791. Ibid., IX, 367-369Ibid., IX, 536. Ibid., IX, 537-539-  524-526.  - 117 -  sense,"393n  e  takes into consideration every aspect of their situation  to appeal the more effectively to Eve's senses.  Since the time  approaches noon, he vividly describes the "savoury odour", and the "sharp desire"he felt" of tasting those fair apples". ^  He plays  upon man's inherent longing for the unattainable by depicting the difficulty of obtaining the miraculous fruit and the frustration of other beasts: "For, high from ground, the branches would require Thy utmost reach, or Adam's: round the tree All other beasts that saw, with like desire Longing and envying stood, but could not reach."395 He dwells upon the virtue of the fruit as an intellectual stimulant through which: "Thenceforth to speculations high or deep I turned my thoughts, and with capacious mind Considered a l l things visible in Heaven, Or Earth, or Middle, a l l things fair and good,"-^ and thus stirs Eve's curiosity to see the tree.  Although Eve fully  trusts in the veracity of the serpent, she unhesitatingly takes a definite stand of obedience to God's command on recognizing the forbidden tree: "Serpent, we might have spared our coming hither, Fruitless to me, though fruit be here to excess." However, Eve i s no match for Satan's sophistry. 393 394 395 396 397  Milton, Paradise Lost, IX, 553• Ibid-, IX, 579 f f . Ibid., IX, 590-593Ibid., IX, 602-605Ibid-, IX, 647-648-  As he  -  118  -  "presents the prospect of evil as though i t were the highest good; and his voice, even in the act of temptation, is impassioned with his 'zeal of right',"398 g v e gradually loses ground.  Moreover, his persuasion  carries the conviction of factual evidence: "Ye shall not die. How should ye? By the fruit? i t gives you life To knowledge. By the threatener? look on me, Me who have touched and tasted, yet both live, And life more perfect have attained than Pate Meant me, by venturing higher than my l o t . " . ^ He stresses the importance of knowing evil, "since easier shunned" and he advances his own interpretation of God's threat as implying not physical death, but the dying of ignorance in the assuming of godly qualities: "So shall ye die perhaps, by putting off Human, to put on Gods."^,^ The rapidity of his movements from argument to argument prevents Eve from discovering their inconsistency and speciousness. And gradually ...his words, replete with guile, Into her heart too easy entrance won.^. However, at no time is Eve overwhelmed to the extent that she loses her 398 399 400 401 402  Sewell, A., Satan, p. 57Milton, Paradise Lost, IX, 685-670. Ibid., IX, 699Ibid-, IX, 713-714Ibid., IX, 731-732.  - 119 -  reasoning power.  But her reason misinforms her, because her argument  is based on two faulty premises; namely, that i t is the serpent who is speaking, and that his transformation into a reasonable beast is due to the virtue of the fruit.  But she is not overpowered by passion like  the Eve in Vondel's Lucifer, described at the same point of the temptation: "Forthwith begins the heart of the fair bride To burn and to enkindle, t i l l she flames To see the praised fruit, which first allures The eye: the eye the mouth, that sighs to taste, Desire doth urge the hand, a l l quivering to pluck.n On the contrary, after she has overcome a l l mental reservations by what appears clear logic, her action is quite deliberate as Forth-reaching to the fruit, she plucked, she ©at.^Q^ Nor does Adam f a l l as the victim of a sweeping passion, because ...He scrupled not to eat, Against his better knowledge, not deceived, But fondly overcome with female charm..„t Various theories have been advanced to ascertain the emotion which led to Eve's f a l l .  Mr. Williams suggests "injured merit".  Mr.  Lewis decides that "Eve fell through P r i d e , s i n c e the serpent stirs up her vanity through his praise, makes her feel impaired because there is no-one but Adam to admire her beauty, and, consequently, arouses her 403  404 405 406  Vondel, Lucifer, V, 500-504Milton, Paradise Lost, IX, 781• Ibid.-., IX, 997-999Lewis, A Preface to Paradise Lost, p. 121.  - 120 -  ambition to attain to a position worthy of her qualities.  However,  a l l this precedes their arrival at the site of the tree, at which instant Milton states that Eve was "yet sinless."^ 07 Just before the f a l l takes place, Milton focuses the reader's attention through repetition on the word forbids, uttered by Eve: "In plain then, what forbids he but to know? Forbids us good, forbids us to be wise! Such prohibitions bind not."^^ Consequently, i t seems clear that Eve's transgression is her deliberate disobedience of God's command.  She fails to trust his veracity  blindly in the face of factual evidence to the contrary.  Adam fore-  casts the cause of her fall in: "But bid her /reason/ well beware, and s t i l l erect, Lest, by some fair appearing good surprised, She dictates false, and misinforms the Will To do what God expressly hath forbid."^QQ Adam himself prefers his conjugal love to his love and loyalty for God. Satan's disobedience to God's decree introduces sin into Heaven. Adam and Eve, similarly, through their disobedience to God's command are responsible for sin upon earth, with one difference, "The first sort by their own suggestion f e l l , Self-tempted, self-depraved; Man falls, deceived By the other f i r s t . " ^ Q Evil, once liberated into the world by Satan and approved by 407 408 409 410  Milton, Paradise Lost. IX, 659- ' Ibid., IX, 758-760. (The italics is my own.) Ibid., IX, 353-356. Ibid., I, 129-131-  - 121 man, immediately appears in its multiple forms. Eve commits idolatry in her veneration of the tree: So saying, from the tree her step she turned, But first low reverence done, as to a Power That dwelt within, whose presence had infused Into the plant sciental sap, derived From nectar, drink of Gods.^-| She questions God's omniscience in assuming that He may never learn of her trespass because "Heaven is high High, and remote to see from thence distinct Each thing on Earth. She, who a few hours ago joined nature in adoration and worship, now refers to God sacriligeously as "Our great Forbidder, safe with a l l his spies About him.''^2 Her ambition grows from a desire for intellectual equality with the Gods to an aspiration to superiority over Adam.  In relating her  experience and trespass, she reflects Satan's guile and hypocrisy as she presents her disobedience as committed "for thee / Chiefly,"^ 1 ' and in turn becomes Adam's seducer.  Together they try to rationalize  their offence through deliberate self-deception.  Their own relation-  ship is degraded by the awakening of carnal desires and lasciviousness, which breaks down their mutual respect.  411 412 413 414  Milton, Paradise Lost, IX, Ibid., IX, 811-813. Ibid., IX, 815-816. Ibid., IX, 877-  When the first wave of their false  834-838.  - 122 enthusiasm finally subsides, they find themselves animated by ...high passions - anger, hate, _ Mistrust, suspicion, discord - /which7 shook sore Their inward state of mind, calm region once And full of peace, now tost and turbulent. Thus man, created in the image of God and endowed with heavenly attributes, is perverted by Satan, who, having contaminated his victims with a l l his evil passions, "back to the thicket slunk."^"^ However, the reader of Paradise Lost cannot l i f t an accusing finger against the fallen Adam and Eve.  Fore-warned by Milton's  commentary and armed by the orthodox conception of Satan, he has failed to recognize Satan's speciousness in the opening books of the epic In his admiration and sympathy for Satan he has committed himself to a similar f a l l .  Thus Milton has prepared us for a sympathetic under-  standing of the dilemma of our First Parents. In this chapter man is revealed not as the "puny" inhabitant whom Satan is determined to drive out, but as perfect and in every way a match for Satan.  But man falls because he permits Satan to under-  mine his faith in the absolute veracity of God's word.  As soon as  his faith is destroyed, his right reason is perverted and misleads him into disobedience.  God's providence in giving man power to stand,  besides creating him with a free will, makes man's offence his own. Satan's basic characteristics, revealed in Heaven, in Hell, and on Mount Niphates, persist in Eden.  Milton thus preserves the  unity of his character throughout Paradise Lost.  415 416  Milton, Paradise Lost, 32, Ibid., IS, 785-  1123-1126.  hi the seduction of  - 123 -  man Satan has accomplished his revenge against God and has conquered a new kingdom for the host in Hell.  In doing this, he generates evil  into the world, and this, henceforth, becomes innate in man's nature. Thus Satan's guile and man's surrender to his temptation are responsible for the origin of evil on Earth.  Chapter XII  SATAN AND THE CRISIS IN PARADISE LOST  Adam's Fall has been generally considered as the crisis of Paradise Lost.  In determining the climax, i t is essential to consider  God's initial purpose in the creation of man: '...out of one man a race _ _ Of men innumerable, there /Earth/ to dwell, Not here, t i l l by degrees of merit raised, They open to themselves at length the way Up hither, under long obedience tried. And Earth be changed to Heaven, and Heaven to Earth, One kingdom, joy and union without end. ' " n 7 Adam's disobedience definitely vitiates this purpose. in perfect harmony with God-  Man has existed  If his turning against God is the climax,  then the estrangement must be final:  the relationship has to deterior-  ate until man reaches his ultimate doom presaged in, "God has pronounced i t death to taste that Tree."^"^  But men are to "open to themselves at  length the way / Up hither," is God's decree, which in the light of his assertion, "And what I will is fate,"^1-^ becomes immutable.  417 418 419  Milton, Paradise Lost. VII, 155-161Ibid, IV, 427Ibid., VII, 173-  Moreover,  - 125 God, foreseeing man's Fall, has made provision for his restoration: "...Once more I will renew His lapsied powers, though forfeit, and enthralled By sin to foul exorbitant desires: Upheld by me; yet once more he shall stand On even ground against his mortal foe.'^Q Consequently, the crisis must occur at a point which indicates the u l timate realization of God's purpose, rather than its vitiation, as the Fall does. Since God's and Satan's plans run forever counter one to the other, i t is evident that the rising action in one is coincident with the falling action in the other; man's f a l l , his victory.  e.g., man's felicity is Satan's despair;  Consequently, i t is possible to determine the  climax in Paradise Lost by following Satan's further movements.  Milton  himself points the way by developing the crisis in Satan's career prior to man's. After Eve's seduction Satan slinks into the wood, re-assumes his shape, makes sure of Adam's Fall, and, finally, learns of God's  421 judgment upon him "not Instant, but of future time",  by eavesdropping.  Since he interprets the Fall in terms of its immediate importance; namely, the achievement of his revenge and the conquest of a kingdom, he recks not what the future may hold in store for him.  The greatness  of his achievement overwhelms him at the sight of the prodigious bridge by which Sin and Death have effected 420 421  Milton, Paradise Lost, 711, 173Ibid., X, 345-  - 126 "...one realm Hell and this World - one realm, one continent Of easy thoroughfare,"^22 making a vast irony of God's purpose that "'...Earth be changed to Heaven, and Heaven to Earth, One kingdom, joy and union without end.1,1 On the appointment of Sin and Death: "There dwell, and reign in bliss; thence on the Earth Dominion exercise and in the air, Chiefly on Man, sole lord of a l l declared; Him first make sure you thrall, and lastly k i l l . My substitutes I send ye, and create Plenipotent on Earth, of matchless might Issuing from ^ J " ^ ^ Satan creates a hierarchy upon Earth, a close parody of the heavenly order, with a trinity - Satan, Sin, and Death - at its head. again God uses evil for His own ends.  However,  Sin and Death are  "My Hell-hounds, to lick up the draff and filth Which Man's polluting sin with taint hath shed On what was pure^'j^, Satan, re-instated dramatically on his throne in Hell the morning after the seduction, ...as from a cloud, his fulgent head And shape star-bright appeared, or brighter, clad With what permissive glory since his f a l l 422  423 424  Milton, Paradise Lost, X, 391Ibid., X, 399-405. Ibid., X, 630-632.  - 127 Was left him, or false glitter,  425  gives a boastful, specious account of his journey in order to enhance his prestige.  In his tale of the seduction he holds God's might up to  ridicule because he has overcome His providence "with an apple."  He  makes light of the Messiah's judgment: "True i s , me also he hath judged; or rather Me not, but the brute Serpent, in whose shape Man I deceived. That which to me belongs Is enmity, which he will put between Me and Mankind: I am to bruise his heel; His seed - when is not set - shall bruise my headl A world who would not purchase with a bruise, Or much more grievous pain?"^->£ However, the judgment Satan has so disparagingly brushed aside, commences at the very moment he glories in his vile success.  Under  various disguises he has worked his deceit upon angels, man, and animals, let, as ...down he f e l l , A monstrous serpent on his belly prone, Reluctant, but in vain,^7 he, for the first time, is subjected to a disguise he has not chosen and which he cannot shake off at will.  Having been free to execute  his evil designs, he suddenly feels God's hand upon himself.  His sense  of physical abasement is intensified in the bitter realization that a l l his actions have been executed under permissive control.  425 426 427  Milton, Paradise Lost. X, Ibid yg, 494-501Ibid., X, 513-515-  449-452  By God's  - 128 -  permission has he left Hell; by God's permission has he seduced man and has conquered the new world.  In the light of this truth, how vain his  vaunts, boasts and defiances do appear, how deserving of God's derision and even ridiculeI The tree, to which he fraudulently imputed supernatural qualities to induce Eve to disobedience, is at his disposal.  In self-delusion  and despair he blindly reaches for its fruit, only to be brought low "to ashes upon the earth in the sight of a l l them that behold thee /Satan/"^2 together with a l l his host, To dash their pride, and joy for Man seduced. And this i s , unmistakably, the crisis in Satan's career. From this crisis Milton turns to the development of events in the Garden of Eden.  As observed before, instead of repentance,  ...high passions - anger, hate, Mistrust, suspicion, discord have taken possession of man's mind, "calm region once / And full of peace."^-30  Adam in his complaint:  "Did I request thee, Maker from my clay To mould me Man? Did I solicit thee From darkness to promote me, or here place In this delicious garden? As my will Concurred not to my being, i t were but right And equal to reduce me to my dust, Desirous to resign and render back  428 429 430  Ezekiel, 28 : 18. Milton, Paradise Lost, X, 577Ibid., IX, 1123 ff-  - 129 -  All I received, unable to perform Thy terms too hard, by which I was to hold The good I sought not, to the loss of that, Sufficient penalty, why hast thou added The sense of endless woe?1' which Satan, "returned / By night, and listening",^ 2 recognizes as the cnlmination of his success hoped for when planning his revenge in Hell; "...This would surpass Common revenge, and interrupt his joy In our confusion, and our joy upraise In his disturbance; when his darling sons, Hurled headlong to partake with us, shall curse Their frail original, Faded so soon .'"2^3 However, Satan has based this conclusion upon the premise of his own obdurate nature.  When he observes sin work in man the evil  passions which precluded his own reconciliation with God, he entirely over-looks man's capacity for repentance.  Thus, while he is deriding  God, His judgment and power, Adam and Eve, ...forthwith to the place Repairing where he /God/ judged them prostrate fell Before him reverent, and both confessed Humbly their faults, and pardon begged, with tears Watering the ground, and with their sighs the air Frequenting, sent from hearts contrite, in sign Of sorrow unfeigned and humiliation meek,.01 fulfilling the condition for salvation determined before the creation 431 432 433  Milton. Paradise Lost, X, 743-754> Ibid., X, 341Ibid., II, 370-376.  434  Ibid., X, IO98-IIO4.  - 130 -  of the world: "Man shall not quite be lost, but saved who will,"  435  and corroborated by God's promise: "To prayer, repentance, and obedience due, Though but endeavoured with sincere Intent, Mine ear shall not be slow, mine eye be shut."^6 On the very morning Satan appears on his throne in Hell, announcing his conquest of man, God initiates his plan of Salvation and sets the stage for Satan's judgment and final defeat.  The dreadful  metamorphosis, Yearly enjoined, some say, to undergo This annual humbling certain numbered days To dash their pride and joy for Man seduced, ^7 turns his victory into bitterness in the realization of impending doom. All are brought low before God at the same time.  But, while  Satan is s t i l l attempting to rise in his own power through seeking the •virtue of the forbidden fruit, Adam and Eve are "prostrate" in submission.  Their repentance invalidates Satan's victory: i t leads to  reconciliation with God and foreshadows the ultimate realization of God's purpose for man.  Hence, i t is the crisis of Paradise Lost.  Dr. Tillyard sees the crisis of Paradise Lost in the reconciliation of Adam and Eve, ^8 since that involves a positive action 435 436 437 43S  Milton, Paradise Lost. I l l , 63. Ibid., III, 191-193Ibid-, 2, 575-577Saurat, Studies in Milton, p. 40.  - 131 -  their first after the f a l l .  However, since their minds are s t i l l under  the control of passion and i l l will towards God, they might have continued in their defiance of God, even as Satan and his companions. The close correspondence in time and action of the two humiliation scenes: one, the rising action for man, the other, the falling action for Satan and his hellish crew, establishes the two crises at the same point and makes one contingent upon the other. Mr. Waldock describes the transformation scene as "the technique of the comic cartoon."4-39  j_t ±s true that the scene is grotesque.  But  Milton makes the scene deliberately impressive that the effect may be carried over to the scene of man's repentance and considered in juxtaposition to i t .  As Mr. Lewis has stated:  ...the location of the reader is of the highest moment for understanding the construction of the poem; for the centre of importance will be where the reader imagines himself to be situated and not necessarily where the action is taking place.^n In this case the reader is expected to be in two places simultaneously. Hence, Milton's attempt to achieve this through the grotesque may not be as reprehensible as Mr. Waldock indicates.  Moreover, humiliation  in ashes is of orthodox origin and is applied especially to the Fall of Satan.h ^ L  439 440 441  Waldock, Paradise Lost and Its Critics, p. 91Lewis, A Preface to Paradise Lost. Ezekiel, 28 : 18.  Chapter XIII  SATAN AND THE SECOND ADAM  The first Adam has succumbed to the wiles of Satan.  Like the  Heavenly Host, God created him "... just and right Sufficient to have stood, though free to fall."  442  Through their Fall both angels and man have lost their power for good; i.e., their power to withstand evil.  Consequently, they become 11  immediately "enthralled / By sin to foul exorbitant desires."  3  But  because "man falls deceived / By the other f i r s t , G o d ' s promise i s : "Once more I will renew His lapsed powers..."^^ Accordingly, man will b e restored eventually to his original nature, having again the power to will both good and evil.  Man's will for good  will restore his lost faith, his virtue, temperance, and love and thus create "A Paradise within"^ 1 him. 442 443 444 445  446  God's initial purpose to people  Milton, Paradise Lost, III, 9 8 . Ibid., I l l , 176. Ibid., III, 1 3 0 . Ibid., I l l , 1 7 5 - 1 7 6 . Ibid., XII, 5 8 7 -  - 133 -  Heaven by man from this state "under long obedience t r i e d , w h i c h has been frustrated by Satan's seduction, will find its ultimate fulfilment. However, since man is completely enthralled by Satan, he can neither set himself free nor offer an expiation for his trespass.  Con-  sequently, through the Son's incarnation a new Adam will be created, who, in his defeat of Satan will open the way for man's return to his prelapsarian state.  Moreover, the sinless Messiah will be an acceptable  expiation and will, through His death "...bruise the head of Satan, crush his strength Defeating Sin and Death, "/^g In Paradise Regained Milton deals not with man's regeneration through the atonement, but with the restoration of man's power to will good and, consequently, his liberation from Satan's absolute thralldom. Since Satan's victory over the first Adam was accomplished through argument, his defeat must be brought about in a similar way. Consequently, there is no great dramatic struggle.  The heroic Son  has given way to a humanized Messiah, in nature the very essence of the First Adam; while Satan is no longer "the proud archangel, but the crafty councellor with the experience of half a myriad of years; a Satan Machiavel, a gray dissimulation. "449 The Satan who confronts the Second Adam is the same Satan who caused the Fall of the First.  447 448 449 Trubner  It is true that he has lost his former  Milton, Paradise Lost, VII, 159Ibid., XII, 430. Dowden, Edward, Puritan and Anglican, London, Kegan Paul, Trench, and Co., Ltd., 1901, p. 188.  - 134 -  bombast through the humiliation when at the height of his exaltation "down he f e l l / A monstrous serpent," realizing that "a greater power / Now ruled him"^° within the very, confines of Hell, of which he had boasted:  "Here at least / We shall be free I "^1  God's curse upon him,  "Her seed shall bruise thy head, thou bruise his heel,"^ 2 which he then dismissed with a jest: "True i s , me also he has judged: or rather Me not, but the brute Serpent, in whose shape Man I deceived,"^53 suddenly assumes its full sinister significance.  The day of his victory  over man is followed by endless days of fearful anticipation of God's wrath.  He no longer tries to deceive his fallen angels, but shares his  fears with them: "With dread attending when that fatal wound Shall be inflicted, by the Seed of Eve Upon my head....".r .  454 However, his nature shows no change.  As in his former enter-  prises, he relies upon "well couch't fraud, well woven snares"455 in his temptation of the Messiah.  He s t i l l refuses to admit the loss of  his aesthetic perceptions; in his fawning upon Christ he reveals his old hypocrisy; he envies man, because "Man fall'n shall be restor'd, I  450 Milton, Paradise Lost, X, 513 ff451 Ibid-, I, 258. 452 Ibid., X, 181. 453 Ibid., X, 494-496. 454 Milton, Paradise Regained, in The Poetical Work of John Milton, London, New York, Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1950, I, 53455 Ibid-, I , 97-  - 135 -  never more."^-^  Christ's pronouncement, "For lying is thy sustenance,  thy food, "^7 shows him the incorrigible liar;  while his powers of  delusion are effectively brought out in "For God hath justly giv'n the Nations up / To thy Delusions.  Thus the new Adam is tempted by a  Satan whose powers for evil are unimpaired and whose zeal for destruction is intensified by his urge for self-preservation. His strategy of attack, too, is unaltered and planned with the utmost care to his disguise and procedure.  As the brilliance of  the Serpent harmonized with the splendour of Paradise, so the ...aged man in Rural weeds, Following, as seem'd, the quest of some stray Eve, Or wither'd sticks to gather... blends perfectly with the "pathless Desert, dusk with horrid shades. Satan's first temptation is an attempt to destroy the Messiah's faith in God: that He "Who brought me hither Will bring me hence.. '"^^ However, the Son's reply: "Why dost thou then suggest to me distrust, Knowing who I am, as I know who thou a r f c ?"^£2 456 457 458 459 460 461 462  Milton, Paradise Regained, I, 406. Ibid., I, 429. Ibid., I, 442Ibid., I, 314-316. Ibid., I, 296. Ibid., I, 335Ibid., I, 356.  - 136 -  frustrates this attempt immediately and reveals the deep discernment so lacking in Eve.  He also repudiates Satan's fawning flattery:  "What can be then less in me than desire To see thee and approach thee, whom I know Declar'd the Son of God, to hear attent Thy wisdom, and behold thy God-like deeds?"^ He announces the termination of Satan's absolute rule upon Earth: "But this thy glory shall be soon retrend'd; No more shalt thou by oracling abuse The Gentiles,"^ and the restoration of freedom from the thralldom of evil because "God hath now sent his living Oracle Into the World, to teach his final will, And sends his Spirit of Truth henceforth to dwell In pious Hearts, an inward Oracle To a l l truth requisite for men to know." 465  In the realization that pretence has no chance against the discernment of the Son, ...Satan bowing low His gray dissimulation, disappear'd Into thin Air diffus'd,"^ knowing that the weapons which gave him victory over man in Eden are  463 464 465 466  Milton, Paradise Regained, I, 3#3-386. Ibid., I, 454-456. Ibid., I, 460-464Ibid., I, 497-499-  - 137 -  ineffective here.  He, too, has discernment, and recognizes the superior  strength of the Second Adam, though weakened by fasting. Consequently, Satan completely changes his tactics.  Instead  of accepting Belial's advice based on an appeal to passion: "Set women in his eye and in his walk, Among daughters of men the fairest found,"^^^ his decision is: "...With manlier objects must we try His constancy, with such as have more shew Of worth, of honour, glory, and popular praise."^g His next attempt is an offer to minister to the Son's legitimate need of hunger by spreading before him a sumptuous feast.  However, God has  imposed this fast and to break i t by any other means except by His dispensation is disobedience. Satan next offers his assistance in realizing the Son's youthful aspirations when "...victorious deeds Flam'd in my heart, heroic acts, one while To rescue Israel from the Roman yoke, Thence to subdue and quell o'er all the earth Brute violence and proud tyrannick pow'r, 11 T i l l truth were freed, and equity restor'd, ^ by offering him wealth, military power, and diplomatic skill to overthrow the decadent Roman Empire, subdue the Parthians, and achieve for himself  467 468 469  Milton, Paradise Regained, II, 153-154Ibid., 225-227Ibid., I, 215-220.  - 138 -  "The fame and glory, glory the reward That sole excites to high attempts the flame Of most erected Spirits." However the Son's preference for that " ... glory and renown, when God Looking on Earth, with approbation marks The just man, and divulges him through Heaven To a l l his Angels...," and his reference to Satan's Fall through an inordinate aspiration to glory, completely vanquish Satan's argument. The Son's concluding words: "Yet so much bounty is in God, such grace, That who advance his glory, not their own, Them he himself to glory will advance, "4/72 provide the astute Tempter immediately with a new basis for argument. "If Kingdom move thee not, let move thee Zeal, And Duty...; Zeal of thy Father's house, Duty to free Thy country from her Heathen servitude; So shalt thou best fullfil, best verifie The Prophets old, who sung thy endless raign, The happier raign the sooner i t begins."._0 Thus he insists on the Son's obligation to pursue with greater diligence the realization of God's plan to establish His Kingdom upon Earth. Satan completes his offer of temporal greatness by trying to commit the Savior to idolatry through offering him the gift of all the kingdoms of 470 471 472 473  Milton, Paradise Regained, III, -60-62. Ibid., I l l , 6O-63. Ibid., I l l , 142-144. Ibid., I l l , 171-176.  - 139 -  the world in return for knee-tribute. Satan's last offer is the glory of wisdom and intellectual achievement, represented by the knowledge and fame of Athens, attributes most congenial to a person who comments upon his own childhood thus: "When I was yet a child, no childish play To me was pleasing, a l l my mind was set Serious to learn and know...." But i t finds s t i l l no acceptance because, unlike the First Adam who f e l l through his preference of the lesser good, the Second Adam preserves the integrity of his reason and to the end exalts the highest good: his love for God and his unswerving obedience. Satan, exasperated, finally turns to violence.  Transferring  his scene of action to the Temple, There on the highest Pinacle he set The Son of God, 475  trusting that this precarious perch will break his passive resistance and force him to take action on his own behalf, rather than continue to wait for what "The Father in his purpose hath decreed, He in whose hand a l l times and season roul." ^ However, to Satan's amazement the Saviour retains his calm and serenity under the control of reason, and empowered by his inner rectitude  474 475 476  Milton, Paradise Regained, I, 201-203Ibid., IV, 549Ibid., I l l , 186-187-  - 140 -  "Tempt not the Lord thy God, he said and stood,"^77 safely in his "uneasy station," while Satan, ...smitten with amazement fell Fell whence he stood to see the Victor fall.^73 In this triumph of reason over passion the Second Adam has avenged "Supplanted Adam, and by vanquishing Temptation, has(t) regain'd lost Paradise And frustrated the conquest fraudulent."^7o. Herein God's purpose, "Once more I will renew His lapsed powers...,"^gQ has been accomplished.  Man is no longer the helpless victim of evil;  but, through the Second Adam, has regained his lost power to will good and, consequently, once more possesses his pre-lapsarian nature of free choice, which, as God states i t , is "Sufficient to have stood, though free to ^11. "  4 8 1  God's ultimate purpose to provide men with an opportunity to "open to themselves at length the way / Up hither,"^ 2 shall find its realization  477 478 479 4S0  481 482  Milton, Paradise Regained. IV, 561. Ibid., iTT562 lf7^ Ibid., XV, 607-609. Milton, Paradise Lost. I l l , 175-176. Ibid., I l l , 99. Ibid.. VII, 158.  - 141 -  in Christ's atonement, "...the death thou /Joan/ shouldst have died, In sin for ever lost from life," when His heel "Shall bruise the head of Satan, crush his strength, Defeating Sin and Death, his two main arms."^^ Satan's final condemnation is forecast in: "But thou, Infernal Serpent, shalt not long Rule in the Clouds: like an Autumnal Star Or Lightning thou shalt fall from Heav'n trod down Under his feet."^^ Thus, in Paradise Regained God has conquered evil by the triumph of reason over passion. the humble and weak.  He has confounded the great through  He has used evil to bring forth good.  In Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained Milton has traced the existence of Satan and, consequently, the existence of evil from the very origin to the ultimate doom.  Satan, originally a glorious Angel,  originates evil in Heaven through his aspiration to God's power.  God,  aware of the existence of evil, brings i t into the open through the exaltation of the Son, for "Law can discover sin."^^  Satan's dis-  obedience to the decree results in the expulsion of a l l reprobate angels and evil from Heaven.  483 484  485  Milton, Paradise Lost, XII, 428 f f . Milton, Paradise Regained, IV, 618-621. Milton, Paradise Lost, XII, 290.  - 142 -  In Hell Satan's speciousness and his powers of dissimulation become apparent as he casts his spell upon the reader and, in spite of orthodox pre-conception, stimulates admiration and sympathy. Satan is primarily responsible for introducing evil into the world.  However, since man has the power to stand or f a l l , his failure  to abide in obedience to God's command places the responsibility for the procreation of evil upon earth solely upon him.  In his Fall man loses  his faculty to strive for goodness and his prerogative to external l i f e . Through Christ's defeat of Satan in the wilderness man's capacity for goodness is restored and Satan's power upon Earth impaired.  Christ's  atonement opens the gates of Heaven once more to man and provides for Satan's ultimate doom and the cessation of a l l evil.  When the latter  is accomplished man's dual nature, his capacity for good and evil, will disappear in a complete union with the goodness of God, "'And Earth be changed to Heaven, and Heaven to Earth One Kingdom, joy and union without end."'  486  Milton, Paradise Lost, VII, l60-l6l.  Chapter XIV  THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MILTON'S SATAN  The assessment of Satan on the basis of his demonstration alone in Books One and Two has made him in the opinion of many readers and critics the hero of Paradise Lost.  If Satan is accepted as the  hero, then the Fall of the Angels and the subsequent developments centred in their actions must be the theme of the epic But Milton announces his theme: Of man's first disobedience, and the fruit Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste Brought death into the World, and a l l our woe, With loss of Eden, t i l l one greater Man Restore us, and regain the blissful seat.^gy If from Homer's announcement, "The Wrath of Achilles is my theme,"488 we accept Achilles as the hero of the Iliad, which indeed he i s , then, in recognition of the fact that Milton takes over a l l conventional features from the classical epic, we feel compelled to assign to Man the role of hero in Paradise Lost and consider the human action the main theme.  Moreover, this theme is introduced in Book One and is continued  throughout the epic long after Satan has dropped out. 487 Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 1-6488 Homer, The Iliad, Rieu, E.V., translator, Boston, D.C Heath and Co., p. 1.  - 144 -  In no one action in both Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained can Satan be recognized as a true epic hero. Christ remains the victor.  In the war in Heaven  On Earth Satan's victory over man is  invalidated by man's repentance and Christ's sacrificial love. In Paradise Regained Christ, the Second Adam, is again the victor.  From  the very beginning of theepic Satan's actions are circumscribed by God's permissive control.  He has lost his free will through his disobedience  against God and has no capacity for positive action. are constantly used by God to effect good.  His evil powers  Adam's realization of this  truth is evincedin his exclamation: "0 Goodness infinite, Goodness immense, That a l l this good of evil shall produce, And evil turn to good."^g^ Thus, throughout the poem Satan represents the antithesis of a l l goodness, which in the end is triumphant. The human action, though very subdued in juxtaposition to Satan's spectacular demonstration, is pervaded with the manifestation of God's creative power, His omnipotence and omniscience, the immutability of His purpose, His justice and love.  Adam, who, on super-  f i c i a l observation, appears a poor counterpart for the dramatic, "towering" Satan, possesses innate qualities that make for positive action and that enable him to bring his will into conformity with God's plans.  In his repentance, in his submission to God's judgment, and the  acceptance of his changing situation, as expressed in his courageous words: 489  Milton, Paradise Lost, XII, 469-471-  - 145 -  "With labour I must earn My bread; what harm? Idleness had been worse; My labour will sustain me,". Q A he turns the tide of his defeat into channels of ultimate victory and thus becomes the hero of the human race. However, in his role of epic antagonist Satan is of the utmost significance in the development of the plot.  The scene in Hell provides  Milton with an appropriate point to start in epic convention in medias res at the lowest point, in this case the point farthest away from Heaven and God.  His thirst for revenge provides an easy transition to  the human action and demands Divine interference.  His revolt in Heaven  serves as an apt warning for Adam, while Its recapitulation by Raphael provides the digression from the main theme, which is an epic convention. Satan's main function is to serve as seducer of man.  Through this,  God's purpose for man is revealed as i t unfolds itself to its ultimate fulfilment when through Christ, the Second Adam, the loss is repaired and man is restored to his original "blissful seat." However, there is a far greater significance in the figure of Satan in both Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained than a l l the importance of the role of an epic antagonist can lend to i t .  Paradise Lost and  Paradise Regained, besides being works of poetic art, are mirrors which effectively reflect Milton, the man, in his private l i f e , in his politica l , and philosophical thinking.  Satan is one of the outstanding  characters of Milton's writings, through whom he reveals his conceptions of religion, political ideas, social structure, and various aspects of  490  Milton, Paradise Lost, X, 1054-1056.  - 146 -  the universe as a whole.  In the choice of his characters and the  portrayal of the incidents Milton's experiental background is paramount. The very choice of the epic form is the result of Milton's "encyclopaedic range of knowledge to be derived from the study of the classics"^ 1 ^  his need for a poetic vehicle in which he can syn-  thesize his religious, political, philosophical, and scientific ideas. His preference for a religious theme arises out of his own orthodoxy, which predisposes him in favour of such subject as being the most authentic, real, and most revelatory of divine truth. The struggle of the Commonwealth, its defeat, and the Restoration are amply mirrored in Milton's Works and in no small degree through Satan in Paradise Lost.  The pattern of Milton's commonwealth  principles finds its counterpart in the hierarchial order in Heaven against which Satan revolts; again in Hell, where he arrogates leadership to himself because "orders and degrees / Jar not with liberty, but well consist;"^ 2 and, finally, in the relationship of Adam and Eve, which, when upset by Satan, results in a catastrophe for the race. Moreover, Milton's hierarchial order i s neither based on succeeded power, nor "upheld by old repute, consent, or custome," but is conditioned solely by inner merit as expressed throughout the action, but voiced most directly by Abdiel in his rebuke of Satan: 11  'God and Nature bid the same, When he who rules is worthiest, and excells Them whom he governs' ."^3 491 Prose, 492 493  Milton, Introduction to Paradise Lost and Selected Poetry and p. XVI. Milton, Paradise Lost, V, 792-793Ibid., VI, 176-178.  - 147 -  In Hell Satan becomes the leader as the most depraved of the degenerate host and occupies the throne "by merit raised / To that bad eminence."494 In the home, Milton claims that the more virtuous and intelligent of the pair must rule; and, since in his opinion the husband is as a rule superior to the wife, he must be the master.  When, in Paradise Lost,  Eve through the influence of Satan's dream demands independence of action, she falls to Satan's delusion. However, Milton's philosophy of leadership transcends outward political structures or human relationships in that i t is applicable to psychology as well, and thus determines man's inner happiness. Satan sinks from the highest position of outer and inner bliss to the lowest level of human villainy because he violates this principle of government by the superior in his revolt against God.  He also disturbs  the hierarchial order within his soul by giving passion precedence over reason.  This concept in Paradise Lost is based directly on Milton's  personal experience when the English people through failure to "learn obedience to reason and the government of yourselves" are "judged unfit, both by God and mankind, to be entrusted with the possession of liberty and the administration of government,"495  gi v e n over to their  idolatrous worship of kingship and their thralldom.  Satan and his  host become the slaves of their own evil passions, which cause their disobedience to God and the loss of their outward liberty.  Michael  explains the process to Adam with regard to fallen humanity: "Yet sometimes nations will decline so low 494 Milton, Paradise Lost, II, 5-6. 495 Milton, Second Defence, in Paradise Lost and Selected Poetry and Prose, p. 536-  - 148 -  From virtue, which is reason, that no wrong, But justice and some fatal curse Deprive them of their outward liberty Their inward lost... . " ^ 6 Milton's personal hatred for the Stuart dynasty and the cavaliers becomes evident through his creation of Satan, the tyrant, in the image of the Eikon in the Eikon Bazilike - which has been discussed in the opening chapter of this thesis - and in his denouncement of the dissolute court of the Restoration: In courts and palaces he (Belial) also reigns, And in luxurious cities, where the noise Of riot ascends their loftiest towers, And injury and outrage; and, when night Darkens the streets, then wander forth the sons Of Belial, flown with insolence and wine.^7 His experiences in four revolutions have convinced Milton of the vanity of achieving the ideal State by means of violence.  The  Commonwealth has gone to ruin because of the people's defection in character. source.  Milton traces all failures in Paradise Lost to the same  Consequently, in Paradise Regained he emphasizes his idea of  the purpose of education which he first expounds in Of Education as being: "to repair the ruins of our first parents by regaining to know God aright, and out of that knowledge to love him, to imitate him, to be like him, as we may the nearest, by possessing our souls of true virtue, which, being united to the heavenly grace of faith, makes up the highest perfection. 496  Milton, Paradise Lost, XII, 97-101-  498 Milton,^Education, in Paradise Lost and Selected Poetry and Prose, p. 439-  - 149 -  It has been alleged that Milton repudiates a l l learning except the Hebraic in Paradise Regained.  However, this interpretation is altogether incon-  sistent with Milton's delight in classical literature.  His words:  ...who reads Incessantly, and to his reading brings not A spirit and judgment equal or superior, Uncertain and unsettled s t i l l remains, Deep verst in books and shallow in himself, Crude or Intoxicate, so collecting toys And trifles for choice matters,^99 seem to indicate more the need for a deep discernment of lesser and higher goods, than an outright repudiation of all non-religious values. The higher values alone can achieve within each individual the inner perfection, which is Milton's last hope for re-establishing liberty upon earth, and which Michael holds up before Adam as a remedy for his fallen state: ''.. .add faith, Add virtue, patience, temperance; add love, By name to come called charity, the soul Of all the rest: then wilt thou not be loath To leave this Paradise, but shalt possess A Paradise within thee, happier far.1' m Thus, instead of the realization of liberty through a few leaders, which has proved a failure, Milton advocates the regeneration of the individual, for "What wise and valiant man would seek to free These, thus degenerate, by themselves enslaved Or could of inward slaves make outward free?1' 499 500 501  Milton, Paradise Regained, IV, 322-328. Milton, Paradise Lost, XII, 582-587Milton, op.cit., IV, 143-145-  - 150 -  His endorsement of violence in his defence of the execution of Charles I and Cromwell's iron rule undergoes a radical change.  Out  of the bitterness and heartbreak over the ruination of his cherished dream for England, Milton emerges with the realization that God's purposes do not reach their ultimate consummation through spectacular opposition, but "...with good S t i l l overcoming evil, and by small Accomplishing great things - by things deemed weak Subverting worldly-strong and worldly-wise By simply meek."/^ The Restoration, which to Milton spelled at first the defeat of Christianity and the frustration of God's plan to establish His kingdom upon earth, assumes under the above-stated illumination the aspect of Satan's permissive eruption from Hell that God may use evil to bring forth good and establish his kingdom "Not by destroying Satan, but his works, In thee and in thy seed."^^ Thus, as Mr. Wolfe states: "It was inevitable, too, that both the tone and the idea of his great epic should reflect not only the intense political thinking of his twenty years of pamphleteering, but also his interpretation of the place of Restoration in the scheme of cosmic justice. 5 0 4  502 503 504  Milton, Paradise Lost, XII, 565-569Ibid., XII, 394-395Wolfe, Milton in the Puritan Revolution, p. 342-  - 151 -  Milton's religious philosophy finds an even wider expression in Satan and the action advanced by his function in the epic  It is in  the introduction of Milton's religious attitudes that we find the greatest fusion of his thinking, experience, and art.  His poetry is  stimulated by his zeal to serve God in leading men to higher levels of spiritual perception and by his conviction that his artistic performance is conditioned by the visitation of the "Heavenly Muse" and the illumination of the "inner light", which has the power to "shine inward, and the mind through a l l her powers / /toj Irradiate."^^ To enter upon the manifold intricacies of Milton's theology, which find their echoes in his characterization of Satan and in his action, and which have been minutely expounded by Mr. Saurat in his Milton, Man and Thinker, is beyond the limits of this thesis.  A few  references, however, will establish the influence of his religious convictions upon his work. Milton accepts unreservedly the orthodox conception of the Fall of the Angels, the origin of evil, the Fall of Man, and the Redemption through Christ.  His conception of God as an abstract power  Milton expresses at the gathering of the heavenly hierarchies thus: "Thus when in orbs Or circuit inexpressible they stood, Orb within orb, the Father Infinite, By whom in bliss embosomed sat the Son, Amidst, as from a flaming mount, whose top Brightness had made invisible...'"^Q^  505 506  Milton, Paradise Lost, 52 Ibid., V, 594-599-  - 152 -  The Son is created by God, and, consequently is inferior to Him.  The  507  Holy Spirit is the comforter "who shall dwell.. .within men"; being subservient to God, cannot be his equal.  but, who,  In Paradise Regained  God's reference to the intellectual debate between Satan and the Messiah: "He /Satan/ now shall know I can produce a man Of female seed, far abler to resist All his solicitations, and at length All his vast force; and drive him back to Hell Winning by conquest what the first man lost By fallacy surpriz'd,"^Qg depicts Christ as just another man, only endowed with a greater portion of the divine.  A l l creatures and things in Heaven and upon Earth are  created out of the essence of God, as expressed in God's plan of creation after the Fall of the Angels: "...one Almighty i s , from whom-* All things proceed, and up to him return If not depraved from good, created a l l To such perfection; one first matter a l l , Endued with various forms, various degrees Of substance, and, in things that live, of life.«5Q9 Therefore, because God is good, matter must be good also. In Paradise Lost the origin of evil is definitely attributed to Satan in having Sin appear from his head, "...on the left side opening wide, Likest to thee in shape and countenance bright."5  507 508 509 510  10  Milton, Paradise Lost. XII, 4 8 7 Milton, Paradise Regained, I, 1 5 0 - 1 5 5 ' Milton, op.cit., V, 4 6 9 - 4 7 4 Ibid., II, 7 5 5 - 7 5 6 -  - 153 -  He i t i s , too, who generates sin into the world by seducing Adam and Eve.  In Satan's method of bringing about man's fall Milton reveals his  conception of the importance of the imagination.  In this he is one  with Boehme/who states that "we apprehend the divine essence through the imagination. ,,511  Milton justifies God's permission of evil by his  conviction that He uses evil as a tool to create good.  Thus the Fall  of the Angels results in the creation of man, because God in His ...wisdom had ordained Good out of evil to create." 512 Milton's obsession with liberty finds its expression in his definition of Christian liberty through Adam as he warns Eve of the danger of encountering Satan: "But God left free the Will; Reason Is free;1'  for what obeys  He completely refutes the Calvinistic doctrine of predestination when God predicts the Fall of Man: "They, therefore, as to right belonged, So were created, nor can justly accuse Their Maker, or their making, or their fate, As i f predestination overruled Their will, disposed by absolute decree Or high foreknowledge,1' ,. and reflects on i t humorously in Satan's claim: 511 512 513 514  Bailey, Milton and Jacob Boehme, p. 153. Milton, Paradise Lost. VII, 187-188. Ibid., IX, 351-352. Ibid., I l l , 111-116.  - 154 -  "The Son of God I also am, or was, And i f I was, I am; relation stands."^2.5 Although Milton deals with a physical Hell and Heaven in his epic, he emphasizes his belief in a Hell as well as a Paradise within man.  Satan, exemplifies the former in his agonized cry: "Which way I fly is Hell; myself am Hell J" ^ 6  Micha el promises the latter to Adam after his seduction by Satan: "...but shalt possess A Paradise within thee, happier far."  517  Milton's antagonism to the imposition of church ordinances breaks forth again and again in his epic.  He rails against the  hypocrisy of the church, and holds up to ridicule the non-biblical doctrines by which they hope to ascend to Heaven, but which lands them in the "Paradise of F o o l s . 1 1 H e advocates the freedom of the interpretation of the Gospel as against "...teachers, grievous wolves, Who a l l the sacred mysteries of Heaven To their own vile advantage shall turn, "52.9 and opposes the union of Secular and Spiritual authority, his lifelong grievance. Milton expresses his opposition to war in his juxtaposition  515 516 517 518 519  Milton, Paradise Regained, IV,•518-519Milton, Paradise Lost, IV, 75Ibid., I l l , 586. Ibid., 475 f f . Ibid., XII, 508-510.  - 155 of the concord of the fallen angels in Hell to the disagreements of men, Of creatures rational, though under hope Of heavenly grace, and, God, proclaiming peace, Yet live in hatred, enmity, and strife Among themselves, and levy cruel wars Wasting the earth, each other to destroy, Raphael's introduction to the account of the Rebellion in Heaven: "...what surmounts the reach Of human sense I shall delineate so, By likening spiritual to corporal forms, As may express them best - though what i f Earth Be but the shadow of Heaven, and things therein Each to other like, more than on Earth is thought," reveals Milton's belief that certain Gospel truths are presented to man in terms of his own environment in order to make them accessible to his finite mind. In his Christian Doctrine Milton abrogates a l l laws for the true believer.  In Paradise Lost he gives an exposition of this in  revealing the purpose of laws as "Law can discover sin, but not remove"^^ and demonstrates the application of laws to reveal Satan's iniquity in Heaven and Adam's and Eve's tainted Imagination upon Earth.  God's  object in decreeing laws is to reveal evil at an early stage so that, in the case of Satan, it may not contaminate the whole host of Heaven; 520 521 522  Milton, Paradise Lost. II, 498-502Ibid., V, 571-576. Ibid., XII, 290.  - 156 -  and, with Adam and Eve, not perpetuate in a race through the subsequent eating of the fruit off the Tree of Life.  Since believers are free  from sin, laws are ineffectual to them. In Christ's rejection of Satan's ministration to His legitimate needs of hunger in his reply, "Thereafter as I like / Thee gives, "523 to Satan's query, "Tell me i f Food were now before thee set,/Would'st thou not eat?" 524- Milton shows that evil is relative. Thus Milton's whole religious background, both experiental his struggle against the various churches - and doctrinal plays a large part in the action of Satan and the poems as a whole.  How permeated  Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained are with Milton's theology is evidenced by the fact that "in the English-speaking world, the Christian mythology of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries came from the study of Milton, rather than the study of the Bible."525 Milton's invocation and commentaries contain direct biographical references.  The Fall of Man and the introduction of evil into  the universe remind him of his own sufferings in an evil world to which he gives expression in: On evil days though fallen, and evil tongues, In darkness, and with dangers compassed round, And solitude. He refers to his outer blindness,  523 524 525 526  Milton, Paradise Regained. II, 321-322. Ibid.. II, 320. Bailey, Milton and Jaeob Boehme, p. 176. Milton, Paradise Lost. VII, 26-27-  - 157 -  ...but thou Revisit'st not these eyes, that role in vain To find thy piercing ray, and find no dawn in juxtaposition to the "celestial Light," which can Shine inward, and the mind through a l l her powers Irradiate. Thus Milton brings himself ostensibly into his epic. In his theme of Satan and the origin of evil Milton does full justice to his ideal of a poet in that he "employs his imagination to make a revelation of truth, truth which the poet himself entirely believes."-^  In depicting his "towering" Satan, he brings before  his readers Satan's profound speciousness and his powers of seduction, through which he " s t i l l destroys."  The Fall of Man is brought so  close to the reader's level that i t appears as a prototype of the fall recurring in every individual's life and frequently, as in the f a l l of the Commonwealth, on a national scale.  Milton's constant emphasis on  the control of passion by reason approaches evangelistic fervour; while by his final admonition: "Only add Deeds to thy knowledge answerable; add faith; Add virtue, patience, temperance; add love, By name to come called charity, the soul Of all the rest,"eon he once more places before a l l men the choice of virtuous action which 527 528 529 530  Milton, Paradise Lost, III, 22-24. Ibid., I l l , 52-53Pattison, Milton, p. 198. Milton, op.cit., XII, 581-585-  - 158 -  is the condition for a "Paradise within thee"; and which, i f achieved by a whole nation, will result in a Utopia that will forever obliterate man's struggles, errors, and defects. Thus, the true significance of Satan lies not in his function as one of the most important characters in a religious epic, but in the vast scope his personality and action provide for the revelation of the unity of Milton's actual experiences, his philosophy of religion and politics, and his aspirations and hopes for mankind.  Chapter XV  SATAN AND MILTON'S POETIC ART  Milton's reputation as poetic artist rests to a great extent upon his creation of Satan's"towering" personality.  However, the  canvas Milton has painted for his readers in his delineation of Satan and the portrayal of his vast spheres of action is more than a poet's objective elaboration of an orthodox conception. never dissociated from himself.  Milton's art is  It is the mirror of his real person-  ality. From the very beginning of the epic Milton's craftsmanship reveals long years of self-discipline and rigid schooling.  His  perfection in diction, rhythm, and structure give evidence of a conscious and conscientious striving for art throughout the entire epic and prove his perseverance and devotion to his self-assigned task.  The use of  classical mythology, biblical knowledge, geography, science, and literature in depicting his supernatural characters and their abodes gives evidence of his ability to assimilate his learning into an artistic whole through his creative energy.  The proper development of his theme  through the infinity of time - from eternity to eternity - and the immensity of space, embracing a l l the natural and supernatural cosmogeny, attests to his correct logical sense in his evaluation of the relative  - 160 -  importance of events. Milton's poetic genius comes to the fore in his description of the supernatural .  By the use of suggestive instead of definite  detail he appeals to the imagination of the reader. He begins in Baroque style with the dynamic action of: Him the Almighty Power Hurled headlong flaming from th'ethereal sky, With hideous ruin and combustion, down To bottomless perdition... This reveals his psychological penetration: he secures the reader's fascinated attention and gives i t direction in following the rapid downward movement "to bottomless perdition."  In contrast to Dante's  fragmentary and departmentalized Hell, Milton's Hell is vast, indeterminate, overwhelming in its total effect of "darkness visible..., / With ever-burning sulphur unconsumed"-^2 and its demon angels "thick 533  bestrown, / Abject and lost,...covering the flood." In his description of Satan's view of the new world Milton manifests almost uncanny powers of sensibility, especially striking in the light of the fact that, when he spreads the glorious panorama out before his readers, he has been blind for at least ten years.  There  is no vagueness in his portrayal of the splendour of the universe as he seems to seize eagerly upon the myriad forms of beauty, which many of us behold daily, but fail to apprehend. readers 531 532 533 534  The sense appeal to the  in: the "ambrosial fragrance"5^ which fills all Heaven; the Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 44-47Ibid., I, 63 ffIbid., I, 311-312. Ibid., I l l , 135-  - 161 -  "Angels1 food and rubied nectar" that flows "In pearl, in diamond, and massy gold, Fruit of delicious vines, the growth of Heaven, " ^ 5 ...the gentle gales, Fanning their odoriferous wings 537  and the "melodious hymns about the sovereign throne"^' reveals Milton's own keenness of perception, his alertness, and his vigorous energy. Milton's keen appreciation of harmony in action and rhythm and of music is reflected in his melodious verse. through changes of the caesura in his lines;  This he effects  the change of metre from  the rising iambic: "On high; who into glory Him received"^ 8 to the falling trochaic: "Down from the urge of Heaven: eternal wrath Burnt after them to the bottomless pit; "^9 by varying the number of syllables in the line, or the addition of an unaccented syllable at the close of the line or after its chief pause; and through his arrangement of vowel sounds.  Milton's "flutes and  soft recorders'*^0 in Hell, "the choir / Of creatures wanting v o i c e " ^ 535 536 537 538 539 540 541  Milton, Paradise Lost, Ibid., IV, 156-157 Ibid., V, 656. Ibid., VI, 891. Ibid., VI, 864-865. Ibid., I, 551Ibid., IX, 198-199-  - 162 -  on Earth, and the sacred music of Heaven, together with his appreciation of nature, depict him not as the stern Puritan, but as a lover of a l l that is beautiful in the universe. In his representation of Satan Milton uses four scenes and thus avoids the tediousness which is apt to arise from a long literary description.  Our first glimpse of Satan gives us a very general im-  pression of his appearance and mood, as: Round he throws his baleful eyes, That witnessed huge affliction and dismay, Mixed with obdurate pride and steadfast hate.,.^ Through epic similes of remote classical giants further information gives a clearer, but by no means precise picture.  As Satan moves  towards solid ground Milton, through the use of metaphor, stimulates our imagination in presenting him as the warrior.  Finally, he cul-  minates a l l suggestive imagery in a comparison with his chiefs as: He, above the rest In shape and gesture proudly eminent, Stood like a tower.c,0  543 In Satan's activity in Hell Milton shows his acute understanding of the machinations of a specious nature.  It is through the effective-  ness of the portrayal of Satan's diabolical nature that Milton achieves his "towering" Satan.  Milton relies to a great extent on disproportion  to bring out Satan's character.  Against Satan as the derivation of  hatred and egoism, Milton poses Christ as the derivation of love and  542 543  Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 56. Ibid., I, 589-591.  - 163 -  sacrifice.  Where Satan destroys, Christ creates.  His own hatred of  Satan is expressed in his derogatory epithets and his evident rejoicing over his predicament. Milton never loses sight of his reader.  After flights into  classical mythology and ancient history, he suddenly drops down to a homely simile, such as: As bees In springtime, when the Sun with Taurus rides, Pour forth their populous youth about the hive In cluster; they among fresh dews and flowers Fly to and fro,^ y and thus brings the action right to the level of the reader's experienc Milton's revulsion against passions and sin is evidenced by his gross picture of Sin and Death; while his love of virtue is expressed in his description of Christ and the angels, who oppose Satan because he is evil. His capacity for friendship and love of social intercourse is revealed in his record of the heavenly congregation as: "They eat, they drink, and in communion sweet Quaff immortality."^ Milton's keen sense of humour, which adds to the appeal of the otherwise stern epic, is revealed in his description of the "Paradise of Fools", whose members, while at the point of entering Heaven, . . . l i f t their feet, when, loi 544 545  Milton, Paradise Lost, I, 768-722. Ibid., V, 637-638.  - 164 -  A violent cross wind from either coast Blows them traverse ten thousand leagues away, Into the devious a i r . ^ ^ It appears as effectively in Paradise Regained when Satan relates his first meeting with Christ: "...I among the rest, Though not to be Baptiz'd, by voice from Heav'n Heard thee pronounc'd the Son of God belov'd."^7 The humour arises out of the incongruity of the mere suggestion that Satan might seek baptism. The spell of Milton's personality permeates his poetry and exerts its power over the reader.  Only a writer animated by intense  religious ardour and prophetic zeal could have produced such epic, unsurpassed in its vast scope and sublimity. Thus, Milton's description of Satan and of his career in the propagation of evil gives us more than the most "towering" Satan of a l l ages: i t gives us a clear picture of Milton himself as poet, as religious and political philosopher, as humanist, and as prophet and seer.  546 547  Milton, Paradise Lost. I l l , 486-490. Milton, Paradise Regained, IV, 511-513- (The italics is my  own.)  Chapter XVI  CONCLUSION  The purpose of my thesis is not to prove Milton's absolute perfection as a poetic genius, but to assess, and where possible to clarify, some of the difficulties that have arisen from his literary conception of Satan and that have assumed new proportions under the twentieth-century approach to Milton's works.  That there are flaws  in Paradise Lost no one will try to deny, who realizes the scope of the epic - infinite in time, and infinite in space - one of the greatest endeavours in English literature. In investigating the literary criticism of Satanists and anti-Satanists alike, I find that none of them except Mr. Gilbert takes serious cognizance of the fact that Paradise Lost in its present arrangement of books does not represent Milton's composition in chronological order.  When Mr. Waldock exerts himself to decry  Milton's "theory of degradation," he takes i t for granted that "the first book of Paradise Lost is the work of John Milton fresh at his task and Book XII his product when he was worn down by much writing."^' Mr. Gilbert tries to rectify this conception of Milton's methodical writing by examining the drafts for his early tragedies, the 548 Gilbert, Allan H., On the Composition of Paradise Lost, Chapel H i l l , the University of North Carolina Press, 1947, p. 4-  - 166 -  parts of which were later incorporated into his epic. does Satan appear in Hell at the beginning.  In none of them  Moreover, "Satan bemoaning  himself"549 occurs in one of the earlier drafts for a tragedy.  Con-  sequently Satan's speeches in Hell were not composed until Milton settled on the epic form.  This places the composition of Satan's  Niphates speech anterior to his speech in Hell.  Therefore, the  Niphates speech could not have been planned by Milton to degrade Satan who had become too great for his role.  This seems to corroborate my  earlier assumption that we must assess the Satan of Books One and Two, guided by Milton's running commentary instead of accepting him at face value as Mr. Waldock does.  He then deplores the result that there are  parts in Paradise Lost "that do not make sense."550 On a superficial reading of the first two books of Paradise Lost, I share Mr. Waldock's admiration for Satan, although I am unable to discern the superabundance of "Promethean charms"551 with which Mr. Werblowsky endows him. However, when Sin and Death check our admiration, i t is not difficult to discover Satan's spuriousness on a reassessment of his demonstration.  If we follow Satan systematically from book to book,  the constant reappearance of his fundamental evil qualities become so obtrusive that they completely dissipate the impression of grandeur which Satan's specious rhetoric has made at the beginning. In trying to establish Satan's unity, I have followed his progress faithfully from book to book, since I suspected that Milton's 549 550 551  Gilbert, On the Composition of Paradise Lost, p. 152. Waldock, Paradise Lost and Its Critics, p. 143• Werblowsky, Zwi, Lucifer and Prometheus, p. 3-  - 167 -  laborious re-arrangement of the books is not without significance.  As  a result there appears a great deal of over-lapping in my characterization of Satan as I compare his attitudes while he proceeds from Hell to Mount Niphates, thence to Eden, and as he appears in the Revolt of Heaven.  If we remember that Milton is a precise and well-disciplined  poet, we readily recognize that in his frequent repetition of Satan's evil tendencies he had a definite purpose in view. The influence of this technique on us is entirely lost unless we f a l l in line with Milton and expose ourselves to this repetition. Satan's obstrusiveness in contrast to Christ's restraint, his gentleness and meekness, becomes more and more objectionable, while we are attracted by the serenity and calm of Heaven.  Thus the qualities we admired so  much at the beginning of the epic, become positively repulsive when Satan, upon his return to Hell, once more assumes his former attitude. Milton does not try to degrade Satan; i t is on us that he works quietly and assiduously. In my thesis I have given perhaps a disproportionately large amount of space to my theory of Milton's poetic origin of Satan. However, since my argument seems to be a venture in a new direction, I felt compelled to explore i t as far as I could possibly go within the confines of such work and also desired to make my statements quite clear. Much more is left to be said about Satan's significance in conveying to us various information about Milton's character, his attitudes, and thinking.  His poetic art, too, provides a vast source for  the assessment of his character, which I have by no means exhausted. Because of the loftiness of his ideals and aspirations Milton has been  - 168 -  considered cold and unsympathetic.  In his artistic conception of  Satan we find his true nature, his love of beauty, his capacity for friendship, his enjoyment of social intercourse. All lovers of Milton will agree with Mr. Thompson that ...all phases of his truly great work bespeak the same character behind It. His style is pure and sublime because his thoughts are sound and his ideals high. Nowhere in that great work is his mode of expression inadequate to express the thought; nowhere is the thought unworthy of the noble style. He is the archidealist of English letters, a worshipper of purity, justice, liberty, and truth.  552 Thompson, Elbert N.S., Essays on Milton, London, Oxford University Press, 1914, p. 214-  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, translated by Way, Arthur S., London, MaeMillan and Co. Ltd., 1907. Allen, D. C , "Milton and the Sons of God," in Modern Language Notes, Langcaster, Charrington H., ed., Baltimore, The John Hopkins Press, 1946, vol. 61, pp. 73-79Allen, D. C , "Milton's Winged Serpents," in Modem Language Notes, Langcaster, Charrington H., ed., Baltimore, The John Hopkins Press, 1945, vol. 59, pp. 537-538Almaek, E., editor, Eikon Bazilike, London, The De La Mare Press, 1904• Bailey, Margaret L., Milton and Jacob Boehme, New York, Oxford University Press, 1914Bible, King James Version, New York, American Bible Society. 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P., ed., London, Albemarle St., W. Gilbert, Allan, Oa the Composition of Paradise Lost, Chapel Hill, The university of North Carolina Press, 1947Goethe, Faust, Berlin, G. Grote'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1888. Hanford, James H., A Milton Handbook, New York, F. S. Crofts and Co., 1946.  Hollingworth, G. E., Milton: Paradise Lost, London, University Tutorial Press, 1909Homer, The Iliad, translated by Rieu, E. V., Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Penguin Books Ltd., 1951Hutchinson, F. E., Milton and the English Mind, London, The English University Press, 1921. Kent, W. H., "Devil," in The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 14, Herbermann, Ch., ed., New York, Appleton Company. Kirkconnel, Watson, The Celestial Cycle, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1952. Lewis, C. S., A Preface to Paradise Lost, London, New York, Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1946-  - 171 -  MaeMillan, M . , Paradise L o s t . limited, 1913•  Mass on, D a v i d , The l i f e  Book II,  London, MaeMillan and Co.  o f John M i l t o n . London, MaeMillan and C o . ,  M i l t o n , John, E i k o n o k l a s t e s , i n P r o s e Works V . P a t t e r s o n , e d . , New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1932.  1877-  Frank A l l a n ,  M i l t o n , John, "Of E d u c a t i o n , " i n Paradise Lost and S e l e c t e d Poetry and P r o s e , F r y e , Northrop, e d . , New York, Toronto, R i n e h a r t and C o . ,  1951M i l t o n , John, P a r a d i s e L o s t , i n Paradise Lost and S e l e c t e d Poetry and P r o s e , F r y e , Northrop, e d . , New York, Toronto, R i n e h a r t and C o . ,  1951. M i l t o n , John, P a r a d i s e Regained, i n The P o e t i c a l Works o f M i l t o n , Beeching, H. C , e d . , London, New York, Toronto, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1950.  M i l t o n , John, Reason o f Church Government (1642), i n Paradise L o s t and S e l e c t e d Poetry and Prose, F r y e , Northrop, e d . , New York, T o r o n t o , Rinehart and C o . , 1951-  M i l t o n , J o h n , Second Defence o f the People o f England, i n Paradise L o s t and S e l e c t e d P o e t r y and Prose, F r y e , Northrop, e d . , New York, T o r o n t o , R i n e h a r t and C o . , 1951.  M i l t o n , John, Tenure o f Kings, i n Prose Works V, P a t t e r s o n , e d . , New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1932.  Frank A l l a n ,  N i c h o l s o n , M., " S p i r i t World i n M i l t o n and More" i n Studies i n P h i l o l o g y , Greenlaw, Edwin, e d . , Chapel H i l l , The U n i v e r s i t y o f North C a r o l i n a Press, 1925.  Osmund, A i r y , Charles II, New York, Longman and Company,  Pattison,  Mark, M i l t o n , London, MaeMillan and Company,  Rajan, B . , P a r a d i s e L o s t and the Seventeenth-Century and Windus, London, 1947-  1904-  1932.  Reader,  Chatto  - 172 -  Ranke, Leopold von, History of England, vol. II, Oxford, At the Clarendon Press, 1875Sampson, Alden, Studies, in Milton and an Essay on Poetry, New York, Moffat, Yard and Company, 1913Saurat, Denis, Milton Man and Thinker, London, J. M. Dent and Sons Ltd., 1925Schaff, D. S., "Devil," in the New Schaff-Berzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Jackson, S. M., ed., New York and London, Funk and Wagnalls Co., 1918, vol. I l l , p. 4I6. Sewell, A., "Milton's 'De Doctrina Christiana'," in Essays and Studies, collected by Smith, Nichol D., Oxford, At the Clarendon Press, 1934.  Shakespeare, William, Ma.jor Plays and Sonnets, Harrison, S. B., ed., New York, Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1948Thompson, Elbert N. S., Essays on Milton, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1914Tillyard, E. M. W., Milton, London, Chatto and WIndus, 1946. Tillyard, E. M. W., Studies in Milton, London, Chatto and WIndus, 1951. Vondel, Justus van den, Lucifer, translated from the Dutch by Van Noppen, Charles, Greenshore, Van Noppen, 1917• Waldock, A. J. A., Paradise Lost and Its Critics, Cambridge, At the University Press, 1947• Welsh, Henry C , editor, Dante's Inferno, translated from the Original of Dante Alighieri by Cary H. F., Philadelphia, Henry Altemus. Werblowsky, R. J. Zwi, Lucifer and Prometheus, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., 1952.  - 173 Williams, Arnold, "The Motivation of Satan's Rebellion in 'Paradise Lost'", in Studies in Philology, Coffman, George R., ed., Chapel Hill, The University of North Carolina, 1945Wolfe, D., Milton and the Puritan Revolution, New York, London, Toronto, Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1941Woodhull, Marianna, The Epic of Paradise Lost, New York and London, The Knickerbocker Press, 1907•  

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