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Placer gold mining in northern British Columbia, 1860 to 1880 Trueman, Allan Stanley 1935

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PLACER GOLD MI1IHG I H NORTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA 1860 t o 1880 by A l l a n S t a n l e y Trueman  A Thesis submitted f o r t h e Degree o f .MASTER 0E ARTS i n t h e Department of HISTORY  THE UNIVERSITY OE BRITISH COLUMBIA A u g u s t j 1935,  V^hj^  TABLE OF .CONTENTS  Chapter  I II  Page PREFACE  1  PLACER MINING LAWS AND METHODS  3  STIKINE RIVER  III  1861 - 1863...............  13  PEACE RIVER AND OMINECA 1862 - 1872 S e c t i o n 1 - Geography..................  35  S e c t i o n 2 - Peace R i v e r Proper. iW'.k 3.. . S e c t i o n 3 - V i t a l Creek. L?A'l-J.°.........  46  S e c t i o n 4 - Germans en Creek. Z/.7? 1 7J. . ... .  63  S e c t i o n 5 - Manson Creek. iK?/.~7£< IV  38  CASSIAR  80  If 71 - I t?o  S e c t i o n 1 - Geography.  ... ..  88  S e c t i o n 2 - Discovery.  91  Section 3 - Legal Disputes.............  95  S e c t i o n 4 - p r o d u c t i o n and p o p u l a t i o n . . 101 S e c t i o n 5 - Dease and T h i h e r t ©reeks... 106 S e c t i o n 6 - McDame Creek............... 113 S e c t i o n 7 - Other A r e a s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 S e c t i o n 8 - T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and P r i c e s . . 120 .V  SOME SOCIAL FACTORS S e c t i o n 1 - Towns....................... 135 S e c t i o n 2 - Winter.U/e................. 137 S e c t i o n 3 - Women.  147  Section 4 - J u s t i c e .  150  r  Chapter V  Page SOME SOCIAL FACTORS (Continued)  VI  S e c t i o n 5 - The P r o f e s s i o n s  156  Section 6 - Agriculture.  158  HISTORICAL AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OE THE NORTHERN RUSHES 1860 --1880  160  BIBLIOGRAPHY...................  166  APPENDICES. . . . .  175  LIST OE MAPS I II  NORTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA.#.opposite page STIKENE RIVER PROM THE CHUTINE TO THE KLAPPAN......  III , IV V '  14  03HNEGA DISTRICT.. .  ......  DEASE LAKE AREA MCDAME' CREEK-AREA.  .......  "  "  20  "  "  50  "  "  90  «  »  114  LIST OE TABLES' I  ANNUAL GOLD PRODUCTION ON MAIN CREEKS IN CASSIAR 1872 - 1880............ 102  II  ANNUAL GOLD PRODUCTION IN LESS IMPORTANT AREAS IN CASSIAR 1872 ~ 1880. . *  III  103  TOTAL ANNUAL RETURNS OE GOLD IN BRITISH COLUMBIA LESS VALUE OE NORTHERN FIELD,... 164  Page LIST OP TABLES (Continued) IV V  S a i l i n g s f o r S t i k i n e , 1862  .  . 176  M i n e r s r e t u r n i n g from S t i k i n e . 1 S S 2 .  177  VI  Comings and Goings ( t o S t i k i n e ) 1 8 6 2 , . . . . 178  VII  No. of Men a t t h e Mines ( S t i k i n e ) 1862.. 178  VIII  Recorded S a i l i n g s from V i c t o r i a f o r Skeena Mouth, 1871=..................... 183  IX  Approximate Movement of Men i n t o C a s s l a r 1874.  X XI  ..  ................ 190  Movement of Men out of C a s s i a r 1874..,.. 191 P o p u l a t i o n of C a s s l a r Month by Month 1874.192  LIST OE GRAPHS I  II III IV V  Number of Men on Peace and S t i k i n e R i v e r s 1862 - 1863.............  31  P r i c e s a t T a k l a Landing 1870  62  P r i c e s a t Germansen Creek 1870-1871...... 75 P r i c e s i n Omineca 1872-1873  84  P o p u l a t i o n of Omineca and C a s s i a r 1869 - 1880.............................  VI  Gold P r o d u c t i o n i n Omineca and Ca.ssiar 1869 - 1880 .. . ..  VII  87  .  87A  P o p u l a t i o n o f C a s s i a r Month by Month 1874............................. . . ... .. 104  VIII  P a c k i n g Rates G l e n o r a t o Dease Lake 1874 - 1877............................. 124  Page LIST OF GRAPHS (Continued) i IX X  Food P r i c e s i n C a s s i a r 1874-75......... 126 Some P r i c e s and Wages i n C a s s i a r 1874 - 1877,...  127  LIST OF APPENDICES A  B  Stikine 1. P o p u l a t i o n  175  2. P r o d u c t i o n .  179  Peace R i v e r P r o p e r 1. P o p u l a t i o n .  ,180  2a P r o d u c t i o n . C  D  E  «.. 181  Omineca 1. P o p u l a t i o n .  .... 181  2. P r o d u c t i o n .  185  Cassiar 1, P r o d u c t i o n .  186  2. P o p u l a t i o n  188  A Dozen Prominent Men 1. F r e d B l a c k .  194  2. P e t e r C a r g o t i t c t u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195  •  3. A l e x a n d e r Choquette  196  4 . Joseph C l e a r i h u e .  197  5. "Twelve-foot"  198  Davis.  6. J . A. G a r d i n e r .  .. 199  Page A Dozen prominent Men (Continued) 7. V i t a l Laforce.  ,  .  8. "Dancing B i l l " Latham. ......  199 .. 200  9. Captain William Moore............. 201 10. "Black Jack" Smith  203  11c Rufus Sylvester.  205  12. Henry Thibert.  206  Abbreviations.  B. C. Ordinances  f o r Ordinances passed by t h e L e g i s l a t i v e  C o u n c i l of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B. C. Papers  f o r Papers R e l a t i v e to t h e A f f a i r s of B r i t i s h  Columbia. B . C. S e s s . Papers  f o r - S e s s i o n a l Papers o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f  B r i t i s h Columbia. Canada, 1886  f o r Canada S t a t i s t i c a l A b s t r a c t and Record f o r  the Year 1886, Censuses 1665 - 1871  f o r Censuses of Canada 1866 to 1871,  S t a t i s t i c s o f Canada Volume I V . G e o l . Survey M i n i n g Report  f o r G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada. f o r Report of the M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s .  Morice: Northern I n t e r i o r  f o r M o r i c e j H i s t o r y of the Northern.  I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r m e r l y New Caledonia, 1660 to 1880„•  (1)  PREFACE  Gold i s a m e t a l w i t h peculiar properties w h i c h throughout the centuries have made i t especially s u i t e d for use i n the a r t s and for a medium of exchange.  It i s widely d i s t r i b u t e d over  the earth's surface and i s found i n greater or lesser quantities in the waters of the ocean, the sands of the d e s e r t , the rocks of the mountain h e i g h t s and the f e r t i l e s o i l of the p l a i n s , i n almost every country and clime, hut i n only a few r e g i o n s i s i t found i n s u f f i c i e n t quantity to permit commercial exploitation. B r i t i s h Columbia i s one of them. The e a r l y g o l d m i n i n g developments i n B r i t i s h Columbia were p r i n c i p a l l y i n the southern h a l f of the province.  Eraser River  i n 1858 and 1859, C a r i b o o 1860 to 1865, Kootenay 1864 to 1866, and the " B i g Bend " of the Columbia River 1865 and 1866 a l l attracted hundreds of miners and each has an established place i n the history of the province.  The e a r l y g o l d m i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n  the northern h a l f of the province are not so well known, however, and this thesis i s an attempt to trace, from the limited d a t a available, the development and decline of p l a c e r mining i n the f i r s t period of m i n i n g a c t i v i t y i n that region, roughly from 1860 to 1880, Gold rushes to four w e l l - d e f i n e d areas i n northern B r i t i s h Columbia occurred from 1860 to 1880; v i z . ? S t i k i n e 1861-63, Peace River 1862-63, Omineca 1869-73, and Cassiar 1872-1880.  There was  in addition more or l e s s constant but unremunerative p r o s p e c t i n g by s m a l l p a r t i e s on the Skeena, Hass, Taku and other r i v e r s . j  (2)  Before entering upon the history of these rushes, however, we s h a l l discuss b r i e f l y the gold mining laws i n foroe and the mini n g methods and terms i n use i n B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g the two decades under review.  This i s done i n Chapter I ,  Since contemporary maps of the period a r e not a v a i l a b l e , where special maps have not "been drawn, the writer has used maps of recent date.  On these maps the names of places mentioned i n  the t e x t have been underlined i n y e l l o w .  T r a i l s and travel routes  have been variously marked as indicated i n the legend of each map. Railroads, roads, and p l a c e s not mentioned i n the text may be i g nored as probably not i n existence during the s i x t i e s and seventies of the nineteenth century.  (3)  CHAPTER I " PLACER MINING LAWS AND METHODS  Placer mining i s the separation of gold or other mineral from a l l u v i a l or g l a c i a l deposits of gravel or s o i l by the simple operation of washing the " d i r t % as the gravel or s o i l i s c a l l e d . Mercury may he used to obtain very fine gold dust by arnalgamation. Placer niining may be carried on with very l i t t l e i n i t i a l outlay, consequently i t i s the favourite method of the miner without capital .  The gold mining laws i n the period under consideration were  drawn up with this i n mind, hence the claims were small and the regulations; auited to the individual miner dependent on his own labor. The classes of placer mining claims were bar, creek, bench, and h i l l ,  In general, a bar claim was an area having a certain  number of feet frontage on one bank of a large r i v e r and extend-ing from high water mark down into the water.  In 1858, by GovI"  ernor Douglas' mining regulations, frontage was twenty-five feet . A creek claim was one that extended across the bed of a creek or other watercourse either from high water l e v e l on one bank to high water l e v e l on the other, or from the top of one bank to the top of the opposite bank, not including f l a t s or benches. 1 Douglas' Instructions to Assistant Gold Commissioners, J u l y l , 1858. see B.C. Papers Part I, p. 30.  (4)  In 1858 the creek c l a i m r a n t w e n t y - f i v e f e e t up and down t h e 1 creek or ravine.  Bench c l a i m s were located on f l a t s i n the  river v a l l e y or on terraces or benches on the sides of the h i l l s . In 1858 the area of a l e v e l c l a i m was to be e q u i v a l e n t to a plot 2 twenty feet square.  At f i r s t , i n 1858, h i l l claims were classed  with bench claims but l a t e r they were constituted a s e p a r a t e class with larger dimensions,,  The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and dimena ons  of each claim was s u b j e c t to the approval of the g o l d commissioner.  His decision was f i n a l . Douglas' mining regulations were revised by the L e g i s l a t i v e  Council of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1865 by an ordinance that l a i d down the general regulations which,, w i t h few changes, governed mining i n the colony and province up to 1880.  Its most i m p o r t a n t  clauses were as follows : 6. . The power and j u r i s d i c t i o n of a Gold Commissioner s; h a l l be as follows: a . He s h a l l hear and determine w i t h o u t a Jury, a l l mining disputes a r i s i n g within h i s d i s t r i c t , ' and make such order as to damages, costs, or other matter as he s h a l l think f i t (no appeal), • b. No prescribed forms s h a l l be necessary . 12. Every Gold Commissioner, upon payment of the sums hereinafter mentioned, s h a l l deliver to any person (over sixteen years of age) applying for the same., a c e r t i f i c a t e to be called a Eree M i n e r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e (which 4made him a free miner, and cost one pound s t e r l i n g ) 1 2  Ibid.  Ibid, "on table l a n d or r i v e r f l a t s , constituting dry diggings, twenty feet square t o each person licensed." 3 B. C. Ordinances, 1865, No. 14. An Ordinance to Amend and consolidate the Gold Mining Laws. 4 ' Eive dollars after 1867.  (5)  17. No person s h a l l be r e c o g n i z e d ' as h a v i n g any r i g h t or i n t e r e s t i n or to any m i n i n g c l a i m or d i t c h o r any of the g o l d t h e r e i n , u n l e s s he s h a l l be or i n case o f d i s p u t e d ownership u n l e s s he s h a l l have been a t the time o f the d i s p u t e a r i s i n g , a Free Miner. 18. Every F r e e Miner l o c a t i n g a c l a i m must r e c o r d the same a t the O f f i c e of the Gold Commissioner o f the d i s t r i c t •-- - - w i t h i n t h r e e days a f t e r the l o c a t i o n t h e r e o f , i f l o c a t e d w i t h i n t e n m i l e s of the s a i d o f f i c e . One a d d i t i o n a l day s h a l l he a l l o w e d f o r such r e c o r d f o r every a d d i t i o n a l t e n m i l e s or f r a c t i o n t h e r e o f — •• 1 19. A l l c l a i m s must be r e - r e g i s t e r e d a n n u a l l y . 26. E v e r y f r e e miner s h a l l be a l l o w e d to h o l d a t the same time any number of c l a i m s a c q u i r e d by purchase. •-He s h a l l a l s o be e n t i t l e d > —.--to h o l d a pre-emption c l a i m on each (but not on the same) h i l l , c r e e k , r a v i n e or bench, p r o v i d e d the same be not l e s s than t e n miles apart. 29. ( M a r g i n a l note) One r e c o r d covers not o n l y the c l a i m 9 but a f a i r share of the n e c e s s a r y water to work i t . 30. No c l a i m l o c a t e d and recorded w i t h i n 14 day8 b e f o r e or a f t e r the c l a i m s s h a l l have been l a i d o v e r ^ t i l l the ensuing season -shall be. deemed so l a i d over u n l e s s - — • (a c e r t a i n amount of work i s d o n e ) . 31, A c l a i m s h a l l be deemed abandoned when the same s h a l l have remained unworked by the r e g i s t e r e d h o l d e r t h e r e o f f o r the space o f seventytwo hours u n l e s s s i c k n e s s or o t h e r r e a s o n a b l e cause be shown ( h o l i d a y s not to c o u n t ) 1 A f e e of t e n s h i l l i n g s ( a f t e r 1867 $2.50) was charged f o r each r e g i s t r a t i o n . 2 ' , When a c l a i m i s " l a i d over" by order of the g o l d commissioner i t i s not n e c e s s a r y to work on i t to r e t a i n t i t l e to i t .  (6)  In this same ordinance a claim on "bar d i g g i n g s " was defined as a " s t r i p of land 100 feet wide at high water mark and 1 thence extending into the r i v e r to i t s lowest water l e v e l " . Greek claims were to be measured a hundred feet a l o n g the general course o f the stream and to extend from "base to base of the  h i l l on each side where the bed of the stream or valley i s 2 • •• more than 300 f e e t " . Narrower claims were provided f o r wider 3 v a l l e y s . Bench claims were fixed at a hundred feet square. Provision was made for h i l l c l a i m s one hundred feet wide extend4 ing up the face of a h i l l to the summit. To encourage prospecting $ larger claims were allowed t o the discoverers o f a new m i n i n g f i e l d .  A s i n g l e discoverer was  allowed two c l a i m s j a party of two , f o u r claims; a p a r t y of thre f i v e claims; and a party of four or more, one and a half claims 5 each. • Provision was also made f o r the setting up of m i n i n g boards in d i s t r i c t s where 101 miners or more petitioned f o r them, to make d i s t r i c t by-laws and t o suggest alterations i n t h e mining laws but no such boards were ever constituted i n Omineca or Cassiar. 1 3. G. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. 4 B. G. 5 Ibid. 6 .Ibid.  Ordinances, 1865, No. 14, S e c . 36. Sec. 38. Sec. 37 and 39. Ordinances 1865, No. 14, Sec, 41, S e c . 48. Sec. 134.  (7)  The m i n i n g laws were r e p e a l e d and r e - e n a c t e d  i n 1867,  the u n i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d .  after  The o n l y  n o t a b l e change was t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f d o l l a r s and c e n t s f o r 1 pounds, s h i l l i n g s and pence i n t h e f e e s and d u e s . I n 1872 t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f a c r e e k c l a i m was changed t o g i v e 2 i t a u n i f o r m w i d t h o f one hundred f e e t and g o l d commissioners 3 were recommended to s e t t l e d i s p u t e s on the ground i n v o l v e d * The amendment o f 1874 was passed to meet a s p e c i a l case i n C a s s i a r which wi11 be d i s c u s s e d i n i t s p r o p e r p l a c e , (see p . 95 below) The methods used by the miners t o wash the g o l d depended upon the aim of t h e miner and t h e nature o f t h e ground he was w o r k i n g . When p r o s p e c t i n g , t h e u s u a l method was p a n n i n g , w h i c h r e q u i r e s no p r e l i m i n a r y work. The P r o v i n c i a l M i n e r a l o g i s t o f 4 B r i t i s h Columbia d e s c r i b e s t h e process as f o l l o w s s The s i m p l e s t and most e f f e c t i v e t o o l i s the g o l d pan. T h i s i s 18 i n c h e s i n d i a m e t e r , 3 inches deerj, and has s l o p i n g s i d e s and i s made o f sheet iron,, T h i s w i l l h o l d f r o m 15 t o 25 l b s , o f d i r t , a c c o r d i n g to the c h a r a c t e r of t h e g r o u n d . A s m a l l e r pan 10 inches i n diameter w i l l h o l d from 3 to" 5 l b . " o f d i r t and i s e a s i e r t o h a n d l e . A good p l a c e r - m i n e r by c o n t i n u o u s washing may i n t e n hours pan f r o m | t o 1 c u b i c y a r d , depending on t h e s i t u a t i o n ' w i t h r e g a r d to water and d i r t * 1 3 . C . Ordinances 1867. 30 V i c t . No. 34, 2 S t a t u t e s of B . C . 1872, 35. V i c t . K b . 14* Sec. 3. 3 I b i d . Sec. 1 1 . 4 B, C . Dep't. o f Mines B u l l e t i n Up. 1. 1931, p . 10-11.  (8)  ;The d i r t inoluding the gold i s put i n the pan, the whole then immersed i n water and g e n t l y shaken to loosen the material, while the large gravel i s washed by hand and thrown out. The clayey material i s broken up by hand and caused to leave the pan by a swirling and to-and-fro combined motion given the pan after i t i s l i f t e d from the water. "When by this peculiar motion a l l the gravels, sands, and clay have been removed from the pan the remainder w i l l be found to consist of black sand and gold nuggets and coarse dust. The p a r t i c l e s w i l l consist of gold, platinum, chromite, magnetic i r o n , and, according to the conditions, rubies, garnets, z i r c o n , tungsten, t i n , and many other heavy minerals. .When the heavy p a r t i c l e s have been collected and dried i n the pan magnetic separation with a magnet w i l l leave p r a c t i c a l l y clean gold-dust. This i s put in a s m a l l c h a m o i s - l e a t h e r bag and i s ready for s a l e . The separation of p l a t i n u m from t h e black sand i s more d i f f i c u l t , but by s k i l f u l panning and the use of the magnet can be accomplished. Once the presence of gold i n paying quantities i s established the miners turn from the i n e f f i c i e n t panning to rocking and s l u i c i n g .  The use of the rocker i s described by MacFie, • 1 who saw i t i n operation i n the early s i x t i e s , as follows: -The r o c k e r i s constructed l i k e a c h i l d ' s c r a d l e , with rockers underneath. This box i s 3-|- to 4 feet long, about 2 feet wide and 1^-' feet deep. The upper part and one end a r e open and the sides g r a d u a l l y s l o p e toward the bottom* At the head i s a section closely jointed with a sheet-iron bottom, perforated so as to admit of small stones passing through, along the bottom of the rocker r i f f l e s or c l e e t s 2 are arranged to arrest the gold. This apparatus i s placed on the margin of the r i v e r , the upper iron box i s fed by one miner with earth and by another i s rocked and supplied with water. The gold and pebbles passing down to the bottom, the 1 Eatithew EacFie: Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia, London, Longman, 1865. pp. 268-9. 2 These are strips of wood or metal arranged after the manner of a Venetian b l i n d . -  (9)  water c a r r i e s away the l a t t e r , and the r i f f l e s d e t a i n the f o r m e r . I n case the g o l d i s v e r y f i n e , p a r t of a b l a n k e t i s o f t e n l a i d a l o n g under the box, covered w i t h q u i c k s i l v e r to a t t r a c t the g o l d dust. S l u i c i n g i s c a r r i e d on by means of s l u i c e - b o x e s , w h i c h are so c o n s t r u c t e d t h a t they can be p l a c e d end to end to make a trough from t e n to a thousand f e e t l o n g as r e q u i r e d . t i o n or box i s about t h r e e f e e t l o n g and s t r u c t e d of i n c h boards»  Each s e c -  the same i n w i d t h , c o n -  On the upper p o r t i o n of the f l o o r of  the s l u i c e - b o x are r i f f l e s s i m i l a r to t h o s e i n the r o c k e r , a t the lower end i s a g r a t i n g made of s t r i p s of board n a i l e d a c r o s s one another to c a t c h the c o a r s e r g o l d .  I n the i n t e r s t i c e s of  the g r a t i n g b l a n k e t i n g w i t h mercury on i t i s p l a c e d so as to c a t c h the f i n e g o l d d u s t .  The  s l u i c e - b o x e s are arranged wi t h a  s l o p e s u i t a b l e to the n a t u r e of the d i r t to be washed, and water i s admi11ed a t the upper end, g e n e r a l l y from a flume or d i t c h i n order to g i v e a steady f l o w .  The miners work i n groups of t h r e e  ,  two of whom s h o v e l the d i r t i n t o the s l u i c e w h i l e the t h i r d breaks i t up by s t i r r i n g w i t h a rake and throws out any l a r g e stones or pebbles. S l u i c i n g must not be confused w i t h g r o u n d - s l u i c i n g .  The  l a t t e r term i s a p p l i e d to a method removing a t h i c k s u r f a c e l a y e r say f i v e or t e n f e e t - of non-pay d i r t from a l a y e r of a u r i f e r o u s s t r a t a or bed r o c k .  A stream of water i s d i v e r t e d by means of a  d i t c h or flume to run over the d i r t to be c l e a r e d away and as i t f l o w s over i t the miners l o o s e n the d i r t w i t h p i c k s and The  shovels.  stream c a r r i e s i t away and l e a v e s the pay d i r t exposed f o r  m i n i n g , by o r d i n a r y s l u i c i n g .  (10)  Hydraulieking i s used on a side bank. ed near the base of the bank.  Sluices are construct-  Then a head of water i s obtained  by means of an elevated flume from higher up the stream.  The hose  from the end of the flume i s used to direct a stream of water under pressure at the base of the bank which becomes undermined and f a l l s down. The d i r t i s then easily shovelled into the s l u i c e s . Water wheels were sometimes used to raise water from the stream into a flume for sluicing or hydraulicking when a head of water was  needed.  Shafts and tunnels were used i n deep diggings below the surface of the ground.  Shafts were more or less v e r t i c a l ,  tunnels more or less horizontal but sloping downward. The sides and roof were supported by props as the work proceeded.  The  great aim of deep diggings was to reach bed-rock i n the crevices of which gold was often found i n r i c h " pockets ".  In frozen  ground heated rocks were wheeled into the tunnel to melt the d i r t . Wingdamming was a method used on bar and creek claims to expose the bed of the stream. damming follows:-  A diagram to i l l u s t r a t e the wing-  (11)  A dam  (A) was  c o n s t r u c t e d from the "bank of the stream o b l i q u e l y  as f a r as the f l o w of water would a l l o w - i n c r e e k s g e n e r a l l y to the m i d d l e .  A t i t s end another dam  stream to the end of the c l a i m . second dam was  (B) was  c o n s t r u c t e d down-  I f n e c e s s a r y the end of t h i s  connected to the bank by a t h i r d deio. (C) and the  a r e a enclosed was pumped d r y and mined by means of r o c k e r s or sluices. All  the above methods of m i n i n g were used i n t u r n on the  creeks of Omineca and C a s s i a r ; panning d u r i n g the p r o s p e c t i n g p e r i o d , r o c k i n g by those d e s i r o u s of immediate r e t u r n s , s l u i c i n g by those who  c o n s i d e r e d the f i e l d -worth the e x t r a time and expense  h y d r a u l i e k i n g when the creek bed had been mined o u t , and s h a f t s o r t u n n e l s to r e a c h g o l d at* a d e p t h .  G r o u n d - s l u i c i n g and wingdamming  were used i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h s l u i c i n g when the n a t u r e of the ground f a v o u r e d such a c o u r s e . M i n i n g terms i n use among the miners i n Omineca and C a s s i a r are  c o l l e c t e d below and the sense i n which they seem to have been  used i n the p e r i o d under r e v i e w d e f i n e d ; "Diggings" - a d i s t r i c t i n which p l a c e r mining was b e i n g c a r r i e d on; the m i n i n g c l a i m s of a d i s t r i c t taken en masse. "Shallow d i g g i n g s " - pay d i r t near the s u r f a c e . "Deep d i g g i n g s " - pay d i r t a t a depth r e q u i r i n g s h a f t s or tunnel f o r successful working. "China d i g g i n g s " - d i g g i n g s paying an amount l e s s than w h i t e man's wages and t h e r e f o r e a t t r a c t i v e o n l y to Chinamen. "PIour g o l d " - v e r y f i n e g o l d dust r e q u i r i n g mercury f o r  (12)  separation from d i r t . "Blown dust" - fine g o l d dust "but not requiring mercury for extraction. "per day to the hand" - i n speaking of the gold washed from a mine the unit was the amount of g o l d obtained i n -one day by each man actually a t work.  The amount of gold was expressed i n  ounces of gold, i n d o l l a r s , or i n ounces with the fractions of an ounce i n d o l l a r s .  U n r e f i n e d g o l d was generally found t o be worth  sixteen dollars an ounce, hence ten and a quarter ounces was o f t e n expressed as ten ounces four dollars i n gold. "Pay d i r t " - any s o i l , sand, or gravel containing gold i n s u f f i c i e n t quantity to pay wages or better. "Wages" - t h e daily wage paid to a w h i t e labourer.  It varied  from s i x to ten dollars a day, according to the Supply of men, the number of vacant claims and the cost of l i v i n g .  A mechanic r e -  ceived more. "China wages" - the daily wage of a Chinese labourer which was generally two-thirds of that of a white mane Other terms may be found i n appendix B of M a r t i n ' s Mining 1 Cases and Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia. .  1 ' Hon. Archer Martin; Mining Cases and Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1853-1902, Carswell, T o r o n t o , 1903.  (13)  CHAPTER I I ,1', STIKINE RIVER l\lb\-If63  .:  The f i r s t gold rush to the northern section of what i s now . 1 B r i t i s h Columbia took place to the Stikine River i n 1862.  It  followed a l o n g the lines of a l l comparatively short rushes t o diggings of limited richness.  The returns from the f i r s t strikes  were exaggerated and their report was followed by rumours that s t i l l further enhanced the wealth of the new f i e l d .  A l l classes  of men allowed themselves to be carried away by hopes of "getting r i c h quick" and the rush was on. A year of mining proved the great hopes i l l u s o r y and after two years the r i v e r was restored to the Indian trapper and hunter. The Stikine i s a large r i v e r about three hundred and f i f t y miles long which takes i t s r i s e near the centre o f the north half of B r i t i s h Columbia (see map I,opposite p. 14)„  I t s sources  are i n a widespreading and almost unexplored plateau of r o l l i n g country between the Coast Mountains and the Rockies and spring up within a few m i l e s of streams that flow into the E i n i a y , Skeena and Nass Rivers.  The Stikine describes an irregular semicircle  1 The f i r s t recorded discovery of g o l d i n the northern half of B r i t i s h Columbia was made by John Work i n 1852 while he was chief factor i n charge of the Hudson's Bay Company post at Port Simpson. The 3pot was on the Skeena River and the g o l d was not i n paying quantities. See Howay and Scholefield; B r i t i s h Columbia, V o l . II pp. 8-9, for a quo-tation from the Port Simpson Journal; see a l s o Downie: Hunting for Gold, p. 222 f f ; B. G. Papers Part I I I p. 72 f f ; Ermatinger Letters, p. 170. The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , O c t . 29, 1869 s t a t e s "The H. B. Co's employees have l o n g been aware of the existence of g o l d on Peace River, I n d i a n s h a v i n g brought nuggets to the f o r t s as f a r back as 1846...." but no evidence has been found t o support the c l a i m ,  (14)  n o r t h and westward, and reaches t h e P a c i f i c Ocean a t 56°38' n o r t h l a t i t u d e , ahout t e n m i l e s n o r t h o f Y / r a n g e l l , A l a s k a .  Half-way i n  i t s course t h e S t i l c i n e R i v e r e n t e r s t h e Great Canyon which i s f o r t y - f i v e m i l e s l o n g and a b s o l u t e l y impassable to b o a t s .  Above  the canyon the r i v e r i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l , i n t h e canyon most of i t s l a r g e r t r i b u t a r i e s j o i n i t and below t h e canyon, a l e n g t h of 125 m i l e s , i t i s n a v i g a b l e t o s m a l l steamers. below t h e Great Canyon - t o t h e mouth o f C h u t i n e  For t h i r t y miles (or C l e a r w a t e r )  R i v e r - the S t i k i n e remains narrow, from one to t h r e e hundred yards w i d e , wi t h v e r y few i s l a n d s ; i t was i n t h i s s t r e t c h t h e b e s t a u r i f e r o u s sand b a r s were f o u n d .  Below t h e C h u t i n e R i v e r ,  the S t i k i n e v a r i e s g r e a t l y i n w i d t h from one hundred yards t o two m i l e s and i s studded w i t h i s l a n d s b o t h l a r g e and small»  The  L i t t l e Canyon i s about t h i r t y m i l e s from the sea where t h e r i v e r passes through t h e Coast Range.  The mouth o f t h e r i v e r i s a  d e l t a about f i v e m i l e s w i d e . The d i s t a n c e from V i c t o r i a t o t h e mouth o f the S t i k i n e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e hundred m i l e s by water and t h e voyage was made by s a i l i n g v e s s e l s i n t h r e e weeks o r l o n g e r , depending on the weather; canoes took l o n g e r s t i l l .  The SS. "Labouchere" the  o n l y steamer on the r u n i n 1362, made t h e t r i p i n two weeks on i t s regular run.  The t r i p up t h e S t i k i n e R i v e r t o S h a k e s v i l i e  was made by canoes i n a week or t e n d a y s , and by s m a l l steamers i n t h r e e o r f o u r days,, The c l i m a t e o f t h e S t i k i n e R i v e r d i s t r i c t i s t y p i c a l o f n o r t h -  (15)  era r e g i o n s .  I t has a s h o r t h o t summer w i t h d a y l i g h t up to  twenty hours out of the twenty f o u r and a l o n g c o l d w i n t e r d u r i n g w h i c h the temperature sometimes drops to f o r t y "below zero a t the Great Canyon.  Hear the c o a s t the s n o w f a l l i s v e r y heavy,  ahout twenty f e e t , hut i t decreases as you ascend the r i v e r and above the Great Canyon i s seldom more than two or t h r e e f e e t . . T h e . r i v e r breaks up i n May.  The s p r i n g f l o o d b e g i n s about  two weeks a f t e r the breakup of i c e and l a s t s through June to the m i d d l e of J u l y .  ..  M i n i n g on b a r c l a i m s can be c a r r i e d on o n l y d u r i n g the b r i e f p e r i o d o f low water between the b r e a k up and the s p r i n g f l o o d and from J u l y to the f r e e z e - u p i n O c t o b e r .  The m i n i n g season i s  therefore quite short. 2• Alexander Choquette,  nicknamed  "Buck", a French-Canadian^  was the d i s c o v e r e r of g o l d i n the S t i k i n e R i v e r d i s t r i c t .  The  rumours of Choquette's f i n d were f i r s t p r i n t e d i n the V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t on September 12, 1861, t o g e t h e r w i t h a statement t h a t g o l d had been found t h e r e i n 1858. The rumours were con' 3 t r a d i c t e d soon a f t e r by a " f r e e t r a d e r " who c l a i m e d t h a t i t was 1 G.M. Dawson: Report on an E x p l o r a t i o n i n the Yukon D i s t r i c t of North-West T e r r i t o r i e s and the a d j a c e n t N o r t h e r n P o r t i o n of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . G e o l o g i c a l Survey, New S e r i e s , Volume I I I . Montreal,Dawson Bros.* ^ 1888-9, VtjN'.x. 2 For a b r i e f summary of h i s o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia see appendix E number 3 3 A f r e e - t r a d e r meant a man who was engaged i n the f u r t r a d e w i t h the I n d i a n s but who was not connected w i t h the Hudson's Bay Company. E u r - t r a d e r s d i d not want miners s p o i l i n g the h u n t i n g g r o u n d s .  (16)  m e r e l y an I n d i a n t r i c k to get miners i n t o the c o u n t r y .  The  f o l l o w i n g November, however, the c a p t a i n of the Hudson's Bay Company's steamer, SS "Labouchere", r e p o r t e d on a r r i v a l a t V i c t o r i a t h a t Choquette had bought s u p p l i e s a t F o r t Simpson and had  re-  turned to S t i k i n e R i v e r to mine b a r c l a i m s d u r i n g the low water p e r i o d of the autumn months.  Choquette's own  the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t i n January 1862  s t o r y appeared i n  as f o l l o w s :  • The p r o s p e c t o r l e f t here i n Ifey l a s t ( i . e . 1861) f o r the S t i c k e e n ( s i c ) r i v e r i n an I n d i a n canoe and reached t h e r e i n J u n e . The r i v e r has t h r e e mouths and i s a much l a r g e r stream than the E r a s e r . F o r 40 m i l e s f r o m the c o a s t , a l o n g the r i v e r b a n k s , snow c l a d and p r e c i p i t o u s mountains r e a r t h e i r heads and the country p r e s e n t s a v e r y u n i n v i t i n g a s p e c t . The g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e v e r y s i m i l a r to the E r a s e r but no r a p i d s . F i n e g r a v e l benches covered w i t h t a l l g r a s s and e x t e n s i v e b a r s a r e s e e n . L i g h t draught b o a t s c o u l d ascend a d i s t a n c e of 75 m i l e s a f t e r which s m a l l boats, must be used f o r 30 or 40 m i l e s , when a canyon 12 m i l e s l o n g occurs ( t h e o n l y one i n the r i v e r ) . Here the p r a i r i e l a n d commences Our informant made a rocker with a k n i f e . and s t a r t e d to work on a b a r 100 m i l e s from the r i v e r ' s mouth; but f i n d i n g the r e s u l t s not so f a v o r a b l e as he had hoped, removed to a b a r some m i l e s h i g h e r up, where he made on the f i r s t day $5.50; 2nd. day |10.00; 3 r d . day #11»00; 4 t h day #12.00; and on the l a s t day f 1 3 . 0 0 . A g r e a t d e a l of g o l d , b e i n g f i n e , was l o s t owing to the poor r o c k e r u s e d . A t the c l o s e of the 4 t h day Mr. Choquette's w i f e ( a S t i c k e e n woman) was taken v i o l e n t l y i l l and he a c c o r d i n g l y p l a c e d her i n a canoe and came down. He has mined i n C a l i f o r n i a and was a -58 p i o n e e r on the E r a s e r , and d e c l a r e s he never saw a more f a v o r a b l e l o o k i n g c o1 u n t r y f o r m i n e r a l s t h a n . t h a t b o r d e r i n g on the S t i k i n e . The r e p o r t s , w i t h rumours t h a t exaggerated the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the f i n d , produced a s t r o n g f e e l i n g ' i n f a v o u r of S t i k i n e R i v e r , 1 C o l o n i s t January 10,  1862.  (17)  i n spite of the counter-attractions o f peace River and Cariboo. E d i t o r i a l s appeared i n the newspapers extolling the richness of the new d i s t r i c t and discussing the rights of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n across the pan-handle of Alaska - then Russian t e r r i t o r y . Choquette embarked with eight other Erench Canadians on the schooner"Kingfisher" which l e f t V i c t o r i a on January 27, 1862, 2 . . . . . . . . bound, for Stikine River.  Although the records give few par-  t i c u l a r s about other parties 5 by the end of February a small f l e e t of v e s s e l s was  plying between V i c t o r i a and the mouth of  the Stikine, and from February to July, s a i l i n g vessels and canoes carrying from six to t h i r t y passengers l e f t V i c t o r i a at intervals of four or f i v e days*, A d v e r t i s e m e n t s of the passenger vessels f i l l e d the columns of the newspapers.  The advertisement  shown on p. 18, which appeared i n the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t on February 28, 1862, i s a f a i r sample; Choquette's party arrived at the mouth of the Stikine River early i n A p r i l , 1862.  The river was ice-bound, c o n s e q u e n t l y s  after buying Indian canoes for f i f t y d o l l a r s each, they paddled southward for f i v e miles along the coast to H i g h f i e l d Point, where a number of other miners had a l r e a d y assembled. After waiting there a few days they prospected on a small river about twenty miles south (the r e c o r d s do not give i t a name) but they found 1 I b i d . January 14 and 15, 1862. •2 Ibid.. January 27, 1862.  (18)  n o t h i n g and returned, to H i g h f i e l d P o i n t i n an i l l humour,  The  FOR STICKEEN" RIVER with quick  DisTDatch  The A. no, 1. Schooner EXPLORER C a p t . A. W*  ¥hitford.  W i t h f i r s t r a t e accomodation f o r passengers and f r e i g h t , f o r p a r t i c u l a r s a p p l y to the c a p t a i n on hoard or to Henderson & Burnaby. Ee 28 (advt)  1  Commercial Row, Wharf S t r e e t .  C o l o n i s t May 9, 1862. H i g h f l e l d p f i n t was the s i t e of a R u s s i a n t r a d i n g post p r i o r to 1839; see E. H. O l i v e r The Canadian North-West, Vo1. I I p. 792, the agreement of H. B. C. and the Russian-America Company, 2 This p a r t i c u l a r a d v e r t i s e m e n t appeared i n the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t f o r February 28, 1862, The schooner s a i l e d on March 13, w i t h t h i r t y - f i v e g o l d - h u n t e r s . ( C o l o n i s t l a r c h 14, 1862).  (19)  weather was c o l d and one of the w a i t i n g p a r t y wrote "back to V i c t o r i a on A p r i l 4, as f o l l o w s ; ~ "We  cannot d i p a d i p p e r of water but i t t u r n s i c e almost  immediately and when we wash our f a c e s , our w h i s k e r s a r e f u l l 1 of  i c e b e f o r e we can d r y them." Newcomers added to the numbers i n t h e camp and by the b e -  g i n n i n g of May about two hundred men were i n the l o c a l i t y . The i d l e miners assembled d a i l y a t C a p t a i n W h i t f o r d ' s t e n t s t o r e and passed the time i n t a l k .  Some s u g g e s t e d , w i t h v e i l e d  t h r e a t s o f d i r e r e s u l t s i n event o f f a i l u r e , t h a t i t was time t h a t "Buck" produced h i s g o l d mine, "Buck" became extremely i n d i g n a n t a t the r e f l e c t i o n s on h i s h o n e s t y , perhaps a l s o a  trifle  f r i g h t e n e d , and o f f e r e d to submit w i l l i n g l y to hanging i f he did 2 not  show them "$10.00 a day d i g g i n g s " sonn. The R i v e r c l e a r e d o f i c e on May 9.  A mixed f l o t i l l a o f  boats and canoes i m m e d i a t e l y l e f t E i g h f i e l d P o i n t and ascended the  Stikine.  The miners s c a t t e r e d a l o n g the r i v e r i n groups  r a n g i n g from two to t w e n t y , a c c o r d i n g to the s i z e o f the sandbars s e l e c t e d f o r m i n i n g , and began to wash the g r a v e l w i t h r o c k e r s or pans.  The most i m p o r t a n t b a r s were where Choquette had mined the  year b e f o r e 8 f i v e i n number, Buck' s B a r , C a r p e n t e r * s B a r , R i c h Bar,  F i d d l e r ' s B a r , and Shake's B a r . 1 . I b i d . May 2, 1862. 2 C o l o n i s t May 9, 1862.  Buck's Bar was f i v e m i l e s  (20)  below the Great Canyon; the r e s t were below i t at i n t e r v a l s o f f o u r or f i v e m i l e s , i n the order named, Shake's Bar was a few miles below Shake's Creek.  (See Map Ho. I I opposite t h i s page)  The records are not clear as to the results of m i n i n g i n the s p r i n g .  On Buck's Bar from $1.50 to n i n e d o l l a r s p e r day to  the hand was washed out; on a number o f other bars, not specified 1 by name, from ten to twelve dollars per day was reported. W i l l i a m Carpenter and h i s partner, working on Carpenter T s Bar, eight m i l e s below the Big Canyon, took out nine ounces and 2 fourteen dollars ($158.00) i n one day. One miner was reported to have cleaned up $140.00 a day for f i v e consecutive days and another nine ounces (about $144.00) i n 3 a single day. These p r o m i s i n g beginnings were cut short by the annual spring flood when the r i v e r began to r i s e during the l a s t week i n May, The bars were soon covered wi th water and work on them came to a s t a n d s t i l l except for poor diggings higher up the banks which yielded from |1.00 to $1.50 per day to the hand, A characteristeric experience i s described by a miner who returned to V i c t o r i a i n July.- He "arrived at the mouth of the river about the l a s t of March and started up on the 12th of 1 Ibid. June 14 and 15, 2 3 1862. Ibid. July l9l sand 10,  May, landing at "Buck's" bar on the 1362. * 1862.  (21)  22nd„  H i m s e l f and 4 o t h e r s commenced to work on a b a r , on t h e  South s i d e o f t h e r i v e r 70 o r 80 rods l o n g and 10 f e e t w i d e , b u t a f t e r working 3-|- d a y s , t h e water rose and drove them o u t .  The  p a y - d i r t was 6 t o 20 i n c h e s t h i c k - p r o s p e c t e d 2 to 2jt cents to the pan and they made $3,00 to $4.00 t o t h e hand p e r d a y . The p a r t y a f t e r w a r d s moved t o a b a r on the same s i d e of the r i v e r but 3 m i l e s f u r t h e r up where they made from $4.00 to $5.00 a d a y , b u t subsequently took up c l a i m s on a b a r a t t h e f o o t o f t h e Great Canyon w h i c h p r o s p e c t e d 30 t o t h e pan. The water r o s e and drove them o u t . 1 inst."  Our i n f o r m a n t l e f t Buck's B a r to come down on the l s t „  The I n d i a n s o f the d i s t r i c t , when q u e s t i o n e d as to t h e d u r a t i o n o f h i g h waters  s a i d i t u s u a l l y l a s t e d about s i x weeks.  The  p r o s p e c t of a l o n g w a i t d i d not d i s c o u r a g e t h e m i n e r s , however, f o r many o f them remembered a s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n on t h e E r a s e r i n 1858, and t h e l o s s e s t h a t had r e s u l t e d from an o v e r h a s t y d e s e r t i o n of t h a t r i v e r .  They r e s o l v e d to await e v e n t s .  The time was u t i l -  i s e d by s l u i c i n g on t h e f l a t s above t h e h i g h water l e v e l s , o r p r e p a r i n g f o r f u t u r e a c t i v i t i e s and by p r o s p e c t i n g . Two p a r t i e s l e d by P e t e r Holmes brought water a l o n g a d i t c h to a f l a t on the n o r t h bank of t h e r i v e r about f i v e m i l e s below Buck's Bar*  An o v e r l y i n g  l a y e r of s o i l about 5 f e e t t h i c k had to be removed i n order to  1 I b i d , J u l y 2, 1862,  (22)  r e a c h p a y - d i r t , hut the p a r t i e s took out from s i x to e i g h t d o l l a r s 1 per day to the hand. Other p a r t i e s planned o p e r a t i o n s c o v e r i n g p e r i o d s of two  to t h r e e y e a r s and dug d i t c h e s to supply the necess1  a r y washing w a t e r .  A few adventurous s p i r i t s moved upstream i n t o  the Great Canyon where they found some p r o m i s i n g p r o s p e c t s .  One  p a r t y packed p r o v i s i o n s past the Great Canyon over an I n d i a n  trail  and a t f o r t y m i l e s above Buck's Bar s t r u c k d i g g i n g s t h a t y i e l d e d 2 from f o u r to s i x d o l l a r s a day to the hand.  Buck h i m s e l f , perhaps  s t i l l impressed w i t h the n e c e s s i t y of s a v i n g h i s r e p u t a t i o n and n e c k , s t a r t e d out on May  23 to e x p l o r e the S t i k i n e R i v e r above the 2 Canyon, "as l o n g as h i s s t o r e s should l a s t . " 3 The c e n t r e of the mining f i e l d was G l e n o r a , a t the head of 4 n a v i g a t i o n f o r C a p t a i n Moore's  " P l y i n g Dutchman".  I t consisted  o f h a l f a dozen l o g h u t s , s t a n d i n g on a narrow f l a t on the n o r t h bank of the r i v e r , three m i l e s above the mouth of Shake's Creek (See map  No. I I o p p o s i t e p. 1 8 ) .  There, once a week, the miners  assembled to g r e e t the " F l y i n g Dutchman" and a motley crowd they were.  James Dean, a V i c t o r i a merchant, d e s c r i b e s a f r i e n d who 1 I b i d . J u l y 21, 1862. 2 I b i d . June 14, 1862, 3 Glenora was a l s o c a l l e d Glenora L a n d i n g , Yalk-heen-1ah, S h a k e s v i l l e , and ( l a t e r ) P o n d v i l l e , H a r t v i l l e , and . {perhaps) Moore's L a n d i n g , a l t h o u g h the l a s t probably r e f e r s to. Telegraph C r e e k . 4 C a p t a i n W i l l i a m Moore or "Dutch B i l l " , see appendix E number 9.  (23)  v i s i t e d h i m at Glenora as follows:"W..,.. was d r e s s e d r a t h e r c u r i o u s l y , a cap, a d i r t y s t r i p e d shirt with neck and h r e a s t a l l open and shirt buttonless, an o l d p a i r of corduroy trowsers (sis.) w i t h h a l f a y a r d o f f l o u r sack on the hack of them and a pair of Blutchers cut out of an old pair of boots  too big either to stop on his feet or hide the holes 1 i n his stockings." In V i c t o r i a , notwithstanding the counter-attractions of Cariboo and Peace River, interest i n Stikine continued.  Facilities  for transportation and communication developed wi th the speed characteristic of gold rushes i n general c In June a regular express service was  organized, i t s f i r s t  advertisement appeared i n the B r i t i s h Colonist on June 2 1 , 1862 shown on p. 23. On the same day the Hudson*s Bay Company put the steamer "Labouchere" into the open passenger and freight s e r v i c e up  the  coast,.the rated to Highfield Point being. Cabin passengers f 6 0 , 0 0 , Steerage $45,00, f r e i g h t per ton $25.00.  I Colonist August 26, 1862,  Captain William  (24)  Moore's steamer, the " F l y i n g Dutchman"  1  ' • w h i c h f o r some reason not  s t a t e d was p r o h i b i t e d from c a r r y i n g passengers^ towed a barge  BARHETT'S STIC KEEN RIVER EXPRESS L e t t e r s and Packages l e f t i n the o f f i c e i n V i c t o r i a w i l l be sent by every o p p o r t u n i t y to S t i c k e e n whence they w i l l be forwarded to t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n . The f i r s t  ex-  press w i l l be despatched by the Labouchere on Monday n e x t , Walton & B a r n e t t Agents C o r , of Yates & Commercial S t s . Je 2 1 . 1  I b i d , June 21, 1862. Lewis and Dryden's Marine H i s t o r y of the P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t , e d i t e d by E . W. W r i g h t , Portlands, Oregon, The Lewis and Dryden P r i n t i n g Co. 1895. P . 98, note 30 "The F l y i n g Dutchman" was a s m a l l s t e r n wheeler b u i l t by W i l l i a m Moore f o r the E r a s e r R i v e r t r a d e i n 1860...,.She was n i n e t y - t h r e e f e e t l o n g , seventeen f e e t beam, w i t h 12x56 i n c h engines and was speedy f o r that period. P,111. "The F l y i n g Dutchman" was withdrawn from the E r a s e r i n 1862 and C a p t a i n W i l l i a m Moore found a newf i e l d f o r steamboating on the S t i c k e e n R i v e r , where g o l d had been discovered..,,Moore c l e a r e d $14,000 w i t h h i s steamer i n the f i r s t seventy-two days of the e x c i t e m e n t . P. 98, note 30..,,,In 1860 (they) s o l d an i n t e r e s t I n the v e s s e l to C a p t a i n "Delaware" I n s l e y .  (25)  f i l l e d with miners to the mouth of the S t i k i n e .  Moore then  placed her on the r i v e r run, charging three dollars for passengers, ten dollars a ton for f r e i g h t , four dollars each for canoes.  At  f i r s t he went only half way to Glenora. He had to haul hex . . . 1 through the L i t t l e Canyon with a windlass. On July 8, B, Hoffman, a V i c t o r i a trader at Highfield Point, on h i s way to the diggings, wrote to his brother as follows;"The Dutchman has made several t r i p s and charged $3.00 (sic) passage and $10.00 per ton f r e i g h t . r e a l i t y not more than f i f t y .  She goes up 80 miles, but i n 2 M  About this time news reached Highfield Point that the l e v e l of the r i v e r had f a l l e n enough to permit mining to be resumed on the bars.  A hundred and f i f t y miners who had been waiting at  Highfield Point, at once proceeded up r i v e r . . The "Plying Dutchman" was crowded to capacity. Hoffman wrote another l e t t e r dated July 10, two days after the one quoted above? I have to remain on the schr, u n t i l this day...I paid the Captain $15.00 for one day demurrage, and i t was well that I did so, for those on shore lived i n continual terror of being attacked by the savages and their goods taken away......Freight i s up to the highest spot, about 180 or 190 miles up the river? i s $100.00 per ton; what think you of that? but Captain Moore thinks he i s doing us a favour the passage i s $20,00 per man without grub or anything else, and on every pound of their personal effects, 50 i s charged."^ 1 Colonist. July 10, 2 Ibid. July 21  1862.  (26)  The increase i n freight resulted i n an i n c r e a s e of approximately ten cents a pound i n the price of a l l provisions except f l o u r , for example, the price of "bacon i n c r e a s e d from t h i r t y cents p e r pound to forty cents, the price of f l o u r , prohably on account of a chance oversupply, f e l l from t h i r t y cents a pound to sixteen c e n t s , 1  The prices remained at that l e v e l u n t i l late  i n the f a l l . The resumption of mining on the bars was followed by r e ports of returns. William Carpenter, i t was s t a t e d , took out $970.00 i n one week, others made from four dollars to nine ounces ($144.00) per day•  Carpenter's Bar gave the richest returns.  Fourteen claims were staked on i t and they paid an average of eight dollars per day to the hand„ only one or two d o l l a r s .  Claims on other bars paid  The majority of the miners were soon  convinced that t h e i r venture was a f a i l u r e and early i n August, 2 about two hundred returned to V i c t o r i a . Many of the miners who diggings.,  remained took to prospecting for new  Three parties followed i n the footsteps of "Buck"  Choquette above the Great Canyon, i n May.  The b e s t organized of  these parties obtained a g i f t of three tons of flour from Captain Moore and s i m i l a r  contributions from other traders (three or four)  at Glenora., Sixteen men packed the stores past the Big Canyon, a 1 I b i d . June 15 and July I S , 1862. 2 I b i d . August 23, 25; Octoberl, 20 and 3 1 , 1862 various letters and interviews.  (27)  distance of f i f t y miles.  The other eight did the exploring. For  three months they explored and prospected on the upper river to a distance of 150 miles above Glenora but to no purpose,,  Gold was  found i n many locations but nowhere i n paying quantities.  They  returned to Glenora about September 1. The other parties had similar'experiences. Prospecting on the tributaries gave no better returns. The T a n z i l l a (Third North Pork), the K l a s t l i n e (Second South Pork), and the Tuya (Second North Pork), a l l of which j o i n the Stikine i n the Great Canyon (see maps I and I I opposite pages 14 and 20) gave p r a c t i c a l l y no returns.  The Tahltan (Pirst North Pork) gave  a f a i r y i e l d to prospectors for ten or twelve miles from i t s mouth. Higher up on the river the gold became finer and scarcer ' 1 and none was found above forty miles from i t s mouth. Mess Creek 2 (Pirst South Pork), gold.  Shakes' Creek, and Chutine River yielded no  The Iskaot River, about twenty f i v e miles from the mouth of  the Stikine, on the south side, proved auriferous but since the records give few details about i t s exploration, the return for washing must have been small.  Mining on the tributaries did not  prove even as remunerative as on the main r i v e r . 1  Ibid-. August 26, 1862, James Dean's l e t t e r dated Yalk-heen-ta, August 12, 1862. 2 ' Ibid. August 26,1862, called Heena-heena by the Indians.  (28)  p r o s p e c t i n g ceased when w i n t e r weather s e t i n d u r i n g October and a g e n e r a l exodus to " V i c t o r i a took n l a c e except f o r e i g h t y 1 ~ men  who had f a i r c l a i m s , and who had decided to w i n t e r i n the  d i s t r i c t i n order t o be on t h e ground d u r i n g the low water b e f o r e the s p r i n g f l o o d .  T h e i r hopes a r e expressed i n a l e t t e r from 2  D. S. Dusk, t o h i s f r i e n d , James Duncan, o f V i c t o r i a s "The b e s t time f o r m i n i n g i s F e b r u a r y , March, A p r i l . May and t h e m i d d l e o f June and then t h e water r i s e s . . . . , a n d there i s not much chance t o mine d u r i n g t h e summer; b u t i f t h e r e  should  be d i g g i n g s on t h e creeks and r a v i n e s , o r h i l l d i g g i n g s , there w i l l be a chance f o r a man t o work the y e a r round*" The  e i g h t y miners b u i l t cabins and s e t t l e d down to f a c e t h e  unknown dangers o f a w i n t e r i n the n o r t h . c l i m a t e o f '; the. - .coast . • buy newer, warmer c l o t h i n g .  Used t o t h e temperate  they d i d not take t h e t r o u b l e to The w i n t e r was a c o l d one, I n  January t h e mercury f r o z e i n the thermometers.  Wornout c l o t h i n g  was s l i g h t p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t such severe temperatures; and as a r e s u l t a l l t h e miners s u f f e r e d h a r d s h i p s , many o f them had t h e i r hands and f e e t f r o z e n . Then l a c k o f f r e s h food caused an a t t a c k of s c u r v y , t h a t scourge o f t h e n o r t h e r n w i n t e r , and e i g h t d i e d 3 before springs V. 1 I b i d . May 30 and June 22, 1863<, 2 I b i d . August 2 5 , 1862, 3 C h r o n i c l e June 2 3 , 1863; C o l o n i s t June 22 and 24, 1363.  (29)  The o n l y e x p l o r i n g p a r t y of note d u r i n g the w i n t e r , ascended the T a h l t a n R i v e r under Choquette's l e a d e r s h i p , and c r o s s e d to the 1 headwaters of the Taku, but had no l u c k . • M i n i n g began a g a i n i n A p r i l of 1863. V i c t o r i a j o i n e d the w i n t e r e r s .  F i f t y miners from  About s i x t y got c l a i m s on the  main r i v e r w h i c h p a i d from t h r e e to s i x d o l l a r s a day and the r e s t staked new  c l a i m s i n the Great Canyon or prospected the Upper  S t i k i n e above i t .  At the end of J u l y t h e r e were o n l y t h r e e 2  men  l e f t a t Glenora and they were traders«. Buck Choquette l e d the p a r t y t h a t e x p l o r e d the f a r t h e s t up the S t i k i n e .  H i s p a r t y set out i n May.  s u p p l i e s past the Great Canyon.  C h i 1 c a t I n d i a n s packed  The e x p l o r e r s then made dug-out  canoes and paddled up stream e x p l o r i n g t r i b u t a r i e s on the  way.  They had v e r y poor l u c k i n d e e d , f o r they r e p o r t e d t h a t o n l y i n one l o c a t i o n d i d the r e t u r n of g o l d r e a c h s i x d o l l a r s per day to the hand.  I n J u l y t h r e e of the p a r t y r e t u r n e d to Glenora so as  to eke out the s t o r e s f o r the o t h e r s .  The main p a r t y reached a  p o i n t where the r i v e r branched i n t h r e e f o r k s , which i s not named nor d e f i n i t e l y l o c a t e d i n the r e c o r d s but which was  probably at  the mouth of the E a s t Eork of the Stikine^named; Choquette R i v e r 1  2  C o l o n i s t May  30,  1863.  I b i d . August 14,  1863.  (30) 1 on t h e Pope map.  They e x p l o r e d two t r a n c h e s w i t h o u t success  and r e t u r n e d to G l e n o r a i n O c t o b e r . 2 their return,  They were a ragged hand on . . .  w i t h o u t b l a n k e t s * c l o t h i n g , f o o d , o r moneys  On Choquette's r e t u r n , t h e f a i l u r e o f m i n i n g on the Stikine t h r o u g h o u t ' i t s l e n g t h was a p p a r e n t .  F i f t y men r e t u r n e d to  V i c t o r i a i n -that month and s i x t y more f o l l o w e d i n November, ' Only Choquette and a dozen o t h e r s remained f o r t h e w i n t e r 0 The t o t a l number o f men t h a t v i s i t e d t h e S t i k i n e d i s t r i c t d u r i n g 1862 was about 650; i n 1863, about 130,  The g r e a t e s t  number o f miners and t r a d e r s i n t h e d i s t r i c t a t one time was a t the b e g i n n i n g o f August 1862, when t h e r e were about 480 men. D u r i n g A u g u s t , 1862, about two hundred men r e t u r n e d t o Vancouver Island,  Two hundred more l e f t i n O c t o b e r .  1863 have been g i v e n above.  The movements f o r  F o r a graph o f these f i g u r e s see  p. 3 1 . F o r the b a s i s o f the f i g u r e s see appendix A , 1 . The g o l d p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e S t i k i n e d i s t r i c t d u r i n g t h e year 1862 amounted t o about $55,000.  The average earned per day to  the hand can be e s t i m a t e d a t two d o l l a r s .  When t h e n e c e s s a r y ex-  penses a r e c o n s i d e r e d , t h i s was a poor r e t u r n which would be i n s u f f i c i e n t t o a t t r a c t men except i n times o f g r e a t d e p r e s s i o n . The b a s i s of these f i g u r e s a l s o i s g i v e n i n Appendix A , No.2. I  Map i n B . C. A r c h i v e s , made by Major Pope, 1866-67, based on i n q u i r i e s and e x p l o r a t i o n s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the C o l l i n ' s Overland T e l e g r a p h , 2 ' C h r o n i c l e November 13, 1863. I n 1866 Pope " s t r u c k the headwaters of the S t i c k e e n r i v e r ( s i c ) i n 30 days from B u l k l e y House a n d . . . . . f o l l o w e d down t h e v a l l e y o f the r i v e r . . . t o i t s mouth,..450 m i l e s , " Columbian May 30, 1866.  pagel 31 Graph. I  -  Number o f men  01i  Peace i  and S tikine Rivers 1862 -• 3  500 75 50 25 400 75 50 25 300 75 50 25 200 75 50 25 100 75 50 25 0 0  Peace River Stikine River  •  ; /  \  \ >-  t a  u  <s  a;  <u O Q  Q  A  J:  IS6 X  1 See .kppendic es A and B  .3  1  /£  3  I 0. Q -a: C 0  o  (32)  The Stikine d i s t r i c t , at t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the y e a r 1862, when the a c t i v i t i e s of t h e miners above d e s c r i b e d were i n p r o gress, was i n unorganized t e r r i t o r y .  I n the autumn o f t h e year,  however, the r e g i o n s comprising the p r e s e n t northern B r i t i s h Columbia was organized by the B r i t i s h Government into a colony under the name of Stekin.  The Governor of B r i t i s h Columbia, was  appointed administrator and the j u r i s d i c t i o n  of the B r i t i s h '1  Columbian Supreme Court was extended to include the new colony. It i s a remarkable fact that f o r over seven months, a thousand miles from any constituted authority, between three hundred and f i v e hundred men staked out claims, bought and sold them* formed and dissolved partnerships, drank and quarreled, without a single case of violence between white men being reported. The relations between the white men and the Indians were not so t r a n q u i l , but considering the absence of any conciliatory influence such as the Hudson's Bay Company's o f f i c i a l s , the r e cord of the Stikine miners i s creditable. Some miners as early as A p r i l 9 had begun s e l l i n g liquor to 2 the Indians and thereafter drunken Indians occasionally caused 3 trouble to the miners at Highfield Point. 1 . Howay and Scholefield: B r i t i s h Columbia Vol,II p. 84-85. 2 Colonist, May 1 3 , 1862, Letter from A, Choquette, dated Mouth of Stikine River, A p r i l 9, 1862. 3 I b i d . May 2, 1862.  (33)  At the b e g i n n i n g of the next month a miners meeting was held which threatened to "string up" any w h i t e man found s e l l 1  ing liquor to an Indian* The f r i e n d l y f e e l i n g lasted u n t i l a great forest f i r e destroyed the timber along both sides of the Great Canyon i n June.  The Indians c l a i m e d that the miners were responsible for  the f i r e and demanded compensation f o r the loss of timber and the destruction of wild l i f e , on which to some degree their l i v e l i h o o d depended,  They threatened to attack the miners un-  less Governor Douglas promised consideration f o r their claims, Shots were f i r e d on miners descending the r i v e r i n canoes. Soon a f t e r , Sheks, the Hanyiee Chief who dominated the lower Stikine River, died at Glenora, after receiving medical treatment from a ship's captain.  Some of the Indians charged  that he had been poisoned, but the m a j o r i t y seem to have remained f r i e n d l y , for when two drunken Indians s t o l e a canoe shortly a f t e r w a r d and were k i l l e d hy owners, the entire blame was placed upon l i q u o r .  Indian leaders and whites united to confiscate and.  destroy a l l the liquor i n the hands of traders at Glenora and the • 2 i l l - f e e l i n g subsided. An attempt at robbery near the mouth of the river was the only other clash reported. 1  Four bucks and a k'iootch man rushed  Ibid. May 3 1 , 1862.  2  I b i d , J u l y 9, 1 1 , 2 1 , and August 23, 1862.  (34)  a camp o f three w h i t e miners, and i n the a t t a c k two of the I n d i a n s were k i l l e d ,  A hundred or more I n d i a n s a t once made t h e i r way t o  Highfield Point, bent on revenge.  The t h r e e w h i t e men escaped to 1  the schooner "Alpha" and the a f f a i r blew over.  Uo troubles are  reported for 1863, probably because the I n d i a n s were decimated by 2 small-pox'during  the winter.of  1862,  For the decade f o l l o w i n g 1863, the mining p o p u l a t i o n of Stikine varied, from half a dozen to a dozen.  These men  eked out  a livelihood, by washing at scattered locations for a y i e l d of three or four dollars a day during the low water periods. 3 other times they loafed at Fort Simpson,  their source of supply,  trapped, explored, and traded w i t h the Indians.  Stikine returned  to the quiet of the Indian f u r - t r a d e u n t i l the d i s c o v e r y of Cassiar i n 1372 made i t the highway to Pease Lake* 1  .2  I b i d , August 30s  At  1862.  Chronicle. A p r i l 24, 1863, 3 . . . . . . On the P a c i f i c coast h a l f w a y between the mouths of the ITass and Slceena Rivers, T h i s must not be confused w i t h Fort Simpson on Mackenzie River at the mouth of the L i a r d ,  (35)  CHAPTER I I I 1 PEACE RIVER AND OMINECA  / S l> Z ~ I * 7 z  SECTION 1. GEOGRAPHY The Peace R i v e r 'basin was t h e scene o f g o l d m i n i n g d u r i n g t h e decade f o l l o w i n g t h e S t i k i n e r u s h .  I n two d i s t i n c t p e r i o d s o f  a c t i v i t y miners p e n e t r a t e d two d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s o f the Peace R i v e r b a s i n , f i r s t , t h e main r i v e r w i t h i t s c h i e f t r i b u t a r i e s the E i n l a y and t h e P a r s n i p i n 1862 and 1363,  and t h e n , f i v e  y e a r s l a t e r , t h e Omineca and Manson R i v e r v a l l e y s . The Peace R i v e r (see Map I o p p o s i t e p . 14) i s formed by the j u n c t i o n o f E i n l a y and P a r s n i p R i v e r s , which d r a i n a l a r g e  sec-  t i o n o f t h e Rocky Mountain T r e n c h , about 125 m i l e s w i d e , between 54 30' and 58  north l a t i t u d e .  The a r e a o f t h e i r combined r i v e r  b a s i n s i s r o u g h l y 33,000 square m i l e s . drains the northern  The E i n l a y R i v e r , w h i c h  s e c t i o n of t h i s a r e a , i s 250 m i l e s l o n g .  P a r s n i p which d r a i n s t h e southern s e c t i o n , i s 150 m i l e s  The  long.  Prom t h e j u n c t i o n o f these two r i v e r s a t E i n l a y Porks the Peace R i v e r f l o w s eastward i n t o A l b e r t a .  Erom E i n l a y Porks t o t h e Grand  Canyon above Hudson Hope, t h e v a l l e y i s narrow* east o f Hudson Hope I  G e n e r a l l y pronounced Om-i-ne-ca but p r o p e r l y pronounced 0 - m i n - i - c a , from the I n d i a n name Omoene Khah, "omoene" meaning " l a k e - l i k e " and "khah" meaning " r i v e r " , See Morice:The N o r t h e r n I n t e r i o r pp. 314-15*  (36)  i t f l o w s through an e x t e n s i v e r o l l i n g f o o t - h i l l  country*  B o t h the F i n l a y and the P a r s n i p f l o w c l o s e to the RockyMountain Range» t h e r e f o r e t h e i r l a r g e t r i b u t a r i e s f l o w from the west.  The most im.porta.nt a r e t h e I n g e n i k a , the Omineca, and  the Manson w h i c h j o i n t h e F i n l a y a t d i s t a n c e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , 105 m i l e s , t h i r t e e n m i l e s and t h r e e m i l e s above P i n l a y P o r k s , N a t i o n R i v e r and Pack R i v e r a r e the l a r g e s t t r i b u t a r i e s of Parsnip River. The Omineca R i v e r r i s e s i n the mountain range to the east o f the Skeena v a l l e y near B e a r L a k e .  I t f l o w s through a rough  broken mountainous r e g i o n w h i c h i s c u t up by many s h o r t ranges v a r y i n g from f i v e to s i x thousand f e e t i n a l t i t u d e to the s o u t h of the r i v e r and from s i x to e i g h t thousand f e e t to the n o r t h . The streams w h i c h d r a i n i n t o the Omineca, a r e u s u a l l y U-shaped; among them a r e P a l l R i v e r , S i l v e r Greek, and Germansen Greek. E i g h t m i l e s below Germans en Greek, Omineca e n t e r s B l a c k Canyon, where.mountains  c l o s e i n on each s i d e , and the r i v e r i s a  s i o n of r a p i d s f o r t w e n t y - s i x m i l e s .  succes-  Below the canyon i t i s a  meandering r i v e r 150 y a r d s w i d e , f l o w i n g through f l a t s f o r s i x m i l e s u n t i l i t e n t e r s P i n l a y R i v e r . ( s e e Map  I I I o p p o s i t e p. 50)  Peace R i v e r and Omineca have a. d r y i n t e r i o r c l i m a t e wi t h extreme heat i n summer and extreme c o l d i n w i n t e r . are a constant p e s t i n the summer months.  Mosquitoes  W i n t e r s e t s i n about  the end of October and i n January and February the ground i s covered by t h r e e or f o u r f e e t of snow and the temperature f a l l s to t h i r t y below zero f o r a week .at a t i m e .  The snow i n the  v a l l e y s m e l t s i n A p r i l and on the mountains i n June, sometimes  (37)  c a u s i n g f r e s h e t s and s p r i n g f l o o d s t h a t sweep away any dams or o t h e r equipment i n the creek b e d s .  The m i n i n g y e a r f a l l s  into  two seasons,, s p r i n g b e f o r e the f l o o d s and summer u n t i l the f r e e z e up, about 160 days i n a l l . Access to the Peace R i v e r d u r i n g the f i r s t r u s h , was  by  water t o P o r t S t . James v i a t h e E r a s e r , Hechako and S t u a r t R i v e r s and thence by H. B. 0 . t r a i l to P o r t McLeod, or by the E r a s e r R i v e r to Giscome P o r t a g e and from t h e r e to P o r t McLeod v i a the Crooked R i v e r .  Omineca was f i r s t approached from Peace R i v e r but  the r u s h to V i t a l C r e e k , 1869=70 f o l l o w e d t h e water r o u t e f r o m P o r t S t . James v i a Lakes S t u a r t , Trembleur and T a k l a to T a k l a Landing and from t h e r e by a t r a i l , i n p a r t along the E a l l R i v e r , to V i t a l C r e e k .  When Germansen and Manson Creeks were opened up,  t r a i l s were c o n s t r u c t e d from T a k l a Landing eastward to Germansen C r e e k , and from P o r t S t . James northward to Manson C r e e k .  Canoes  were used on the Omineca between Hogem and Germans en L a n d i n g .  The  c o a s t r o u t e to T a k l a Landing f o l l o w e d the Skeena R i v e r to H a z e l t o n and the Suskwa t o to P o r t Babine a t the north-west end of LaJ.ce B a b i n e , from P o r t Babine t r a i l f o l l o w e d E r y i n g Pan Pass through the B a i t Range, of which the peaks a r e 6,000 f e e t h i g h , to the mouth, of E r y i n g Pan C r e e k , o p p o s i t e T a k l a L a n d i n g . A water r o u t e f o l l o w ed Babine Lake and c r o s s e d the Babine P o r t a g e at i t s southern  end  to j o i n the water r o u t e from P o r t S t . 'James on Lake S t u a r t . A l l r o u t e s were, of n e c e s s i t y , l o n g and  difficult.  (38)  SECTION 2. PEACE RIVER PROPER 1860  Gold was  -  1863  f i r s t r e p o r t e d i n the Peace R i v e r d i s t r i c t i n  1860j when,according to the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t ,  a small party o  miners -names- unknown- o b t a i n e d good p r o s p e c t s on Peace R i v e r , "three hundred m i l e s f u r t h e r n o r t h " than A l e x a n d r a ,  The  next 2  s p r i n g 1861, two miners named W i l l i a m Oust and Edward Gary f o l l o w e d the f u r - t r a d e r s r o u t e from Alexandria,, v i a the E r a s e r , Nechako and S t u a r t R i v e r s to P o r t S t . James? from t h e r e over the n i n e t y - m i l e pack t r a i l to P o r t M c l e o d ,  They a r r i v e d at  P o r t McLeod i n June when the water was h i g h , hut undismayed, they borrowed an o l d dugout canoe from the Erench.-Canad.ian i n charge of the f o r t and d r i f t e d , two hundred m i l e s downstream to the Grand Canyon,  When the water r e c e d e d , they made t h e i r  back a g a i n s t the c u r r e n t .  way  There, a l o n e , i n the midst of the  w i l d e r n e s s , they washed the sands of the r i v e r b a r s at the same time t h a t John Rose was Cariboo  working the newly-found Creeks of  to the s o u t h , and Choquette and h i s I n d i a n w i f e were  washing the f i r s t g o l d from S t i k i n e i n the f a r n o r t h - w e s t , 1  2  C o l o n i s t June 6, 1861; perhaps t h i s i t e m r e f e r s to p r o s p e c t i n g up the S t u a r t R i v e r , see New Westminster Times September 29, 1860, I b i d , W i l l i a m G u s t , v a r i o u s l y r e f e r r e d to as " B i g B i l l " , B i l l G u s t , S i l l C r u s t . B i l l K r i s s , and G i l c h r i s t , was a noted c h a r a c t e r i n the e a r l y h i s t o r y of Peace R i v e r . M i n e r , p a c k e r , merchant, f u r t r a d e r , (see Morice p, 305.) f a r m e r , a c c o r d i n g to fancy and need, He f i n a l l y l e f t B.C. and s e t t l e d on a farm i n A l b e r t a , -near Edmonton. Edward Gary was r e f e r r e d to as " K e l l y " i n some r e p o r t s .  i(39)  Sometimes the two p r o s p e c t o r s pay d i r t and single pan,  s t r u c k a small p a t c h of good  once, they s a i d , they o b t a i n e d t h i r t y cents i n a but u s u a l l y t h e i r  l a b o u r met  w i t h no reward or w i t h  a mocking ."color" i n the bottom of the pan, showing the presence o f g o l d i n q u a n t i t i e s too s m a l l to repay washing,  I n a l l . , they  put i n t h i r t y - f i v e days a c t u a l p r o s p e c t i n g , and obtained a thousand 1 d o l l a r s w o r t h of g o l d ,  They r e t u r n e d to the E r a s e r R i v e r i n  September, - The next y e a r , 1 8 6 2 , ' t w e n t y - f i v e men made t h e i r way to Peace R i v e r . Gust and Gary, w i t h P e t e r Toy, Joseph G a t e s , • 3 ' E z r a Evans, year.  adopted the same p l a n of a c t i o n as i n the" p r e v i o u s  Twenty m i l e s above the Grand Canyon, near R i c h E a r , they  l e f t Toy 9 Gates and Evans, to mine w h i l e t h e y , (Gust and Gary) prospected  downstream to P o r t S t . John,  They had no l u c k a non-  r e t u r n ed to R i c h Bar where the other three had mined $350.00 of g o l d I n two weeks.  They l e f t R i c h B a r , proceeded upstream to  P i n l a y Porks and then ascended E i n l a y R i v e r , w i t h poor l u c k except at one b a r , a spot about f o u r m i l e s above E i n l a y P o r k s , 1  C h r o n i c l e November 20, 1362; B, G. D i r e c t o r y , 1863, p. 204-205; C o l o n i s t February 16, 1870,  2 i'i  A f t e r f u r t r a d i n g near P o r t S t , James f o r a time (Morice o p . c i t p. 304 f ) , P e t e r Toy spent from 1862 to 1870 i n Peace R i v e r , mining on Toy's B a r , f o u r m i l e s above E i n l a y P o r k s , i n summer, and t r a p p i n g i n the w i n t e r . Pie took p a r t i n the mining i n Omineca i n 1871-1873,(Horetsky; Canada on the P a c i f i c p.70) 3  E z r a Evans was a member of-- the p a r t y t h a t d i s c o v e r e d S i l v e r Greek i n 1868, 'and a member of the Peace R i v e r P r o s p e c t i n g p a r t y t h a t d i s c o v e r e d V i t a l Creek i n 1869.  (40)  There, a t Toy's B a r , so named a f t e r P e t e r Toy ;  they  obtained  over two thousand d o l l a r s i n one week, hut the season was and they had f i v e men  to r e t u r n to Q u e s n e l .  late  D u r i n g t h a t summer these  a c t u a l l y worked f i f t y - t w o days on v a r i o u s b a r s  and  mined s i x thousand d o l l a r s w o r t h of g o l d - $51,200.00 each. In August of the same y e a r , 1862, o t h e r p a r t i e s a r r i v e d on the scene.  An unnamed group of f o u r men  took out  f,  $900v00 f o r  2  the crowd i n twelve days" on the p a r s n i p R i v e r .  A t h i r d party  of s i g h t , w h i c h had been p r o s p e c t i n g on the Bowron R i v e r , r e a c h ed P o r t McLeod w i t h o u t p r o v i s i o n s or t o o l s . for  food.  They k i l l e d a b e a r  They then c o n s t r u c t e d a v e r y rough r o c k e r and washed  out a thousand d o l l a r s i n f o u r d a y s .  B r i d g e s and P i e r c e , two  of  the p a r t y , l e f t the r e s t a t work and r e t u r n e d to Quesnel f o r 3 4 supplies. They brought t h e i r s u p p l i e s to P o r t McLeod i n October and the p a r t y of e i g h t proceeded to P i n l a y R i v e r , where they 5 passed the w i n t e r . - 1 C h r o n i c l e , November 20, 1862; C o l o n i s t , February 16, 1870, B. C, D i r e c t o r y ? 1863, p, 205. 2  I b i d , and M o r i c e ; o p . c i t . , p. 296, a q u o t a t i o n from the P o r t S t . James Journal,,  C o l o n i s t , October 17 and 20, 1862, P i e r c e was sometimes c a l l e d P e r s e . 4 , I b i d . June 19, 1863. 5 I b i d . December 17, 1862; January 15, 1863, C h r o n i c l e August 27, 1863.  (41)  A l e x P o r t e r 9 a l o n e hand, prospected  on P a r s n i p R i v e r *  and E i n l a y R i v e r , worked a week on Toy's B a r , and l a t e r descended Peace R i v e r , to R i c h B a r . St.  1 James.  He r e t u r n e d i n October to P o r t  Another p a r t y prospected 1  R i v e r hut w i t h l i t t l e s u c c e s s .  a s h o r t d i s t a n c e up  Nation  The y e a r 1862 had uncovered  p l a c e - Toy'-s Bar -where s i x t y d o l l a r s had been mined i n one  one day  a,nd a few p l a c e s where t h i r t y d o l l a r s per day had been o b t a i n e d . The r e t u r n s were good enough to encourage, miners to t r y t h e i r l u c k the next y e a r . Over 150 men  v i s i t e d Peace R i v e r i n 1863,  Seventy went i n  from Cariboo d u r i n g A p r i l , May and June, i n c l u d i n g John Breneman 2 and "Twelve-foot" D a v i s , who n a v i g a t e d the F r a s e r from i t s mouth to P o r t S t . James w i t h two b o a t s of t e n tons burden and 3 t e n passengers each. L a t e r , r e p o r t s of r i c h r e t u r n s d u r i n g w i n t e r m i n i n g , as t h a t i n the D a i l y C h r o n i c l e of June 4, 1863, ed t h e r e and  the lowest dug out by one man  c u l a t e d i n the c o l o n y , and f i f t y more men  was  "they had  such winter-  #2,400.00" c i r -  went n o r t h i n July»  1 C o l o n i s t December 23, 1862.• Report o f George Simpson who had come from the east w i t h Mackenzie's E . B. C. b r i g a d e , 2  3  See Appendix E No.  5.  M o r i c e : o p . c i t . , p. 296.; C o l o n i s t Eebruary 20, and J u l y 30, 1863.  (42)  The number of men  on the Peace then exceeded 150,  The r e a c t i o n  began i n August and t h e r e a f t e r the number s t e a d i l y d e c r e a s e d . The c o s t of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was moderate c o n s i d e r i n g the times and the d i s t a n c e from V i c t o r i a , P r a s e r and Peace r i v e r systems was  Water t r a n s p o r t on the  connected by the H, B. C .  t r a i l from P o r t S t . James to P o r t M c l e o d , upon which f o r t y • '1 t h r e e pack animals were i n use d u r i n g 1863, moderate. a t $1.10  p r i c e s , t o o , were  In J u l y , the month of g r e a t e s t s c a r c i t y , f l o u r s o l d  per pound; bacon and beans at $1,25; sugar a t 1 -  and tobacco a t $8.00 per poundi  $3,10  I n August p r o v i s i o n s f e l l to  f i f t y cents per pound, N e v e r t h e l e s s , l i k e S t i k i n e , t h i s r u s h to peace R i v e r merely a f l a s h i n the pan,  The  experiences  of a few  was  parties  w i l l s u f f i c e to i l l u s t r a t e t h a t of "the miners i n g e n e r a l . P e t e r G o l d s m i t h , Sam B e l l and t h r e e o t h e r s l e f t V i c t o r i a i n January and reached P o r t Mcleod i n May,  They mined on P a r s n i p  E i v e r , and o b t a i n e d e i g h t d o l l a r s per day to the hand, a comp a r a t i v e l y poor r e t u r n .  Then they pushed on to Toy's B a r ,  There, a f t e r s t r i p p i n g from f i v e to s i x f e e t of l o o s e sand they s t r u c k a s t r e a k or stratum of b l a c k sand o v e r l y i n g g r a v e l .  Prom  the g r a v e l and sand, they washed out from $50*00 to $60.00 per day to the hand, f o r two weeks.  P r o v i s i o n s ran s h o r t and  1 G o l o n i s t June 30 and 31, 1863, 19, 1863.  Chronicle July  they  (43)  proceeded to F o r t S t . John.  A q u a n t i t y of d r i e d bear meat cut  i n l o n g r i b b o n - l i k e s t r i p s was  a l l the food they c o u l d g e t .  Next  they made f o r F o r t McLeod and a r r i v e d t h e r e , d e s t i t u t e of f o o d . P r o v i s i o n s were v e r y s c a r c e a t F o r t McLeod a l s o ; t h e r e f o r e they a t once set out f o r F o r t S t . James on the b a s i s of "each man h i m s e l f , , c a t c h what he c o u l d and no d i v i s i o n . " days to cover the n i n e t y m i l e t r a i l .  for  They took f i v e  A r r i v e d at F o r t S t . James,  they enjoyed t h e i r f i r s t square meal i n weeks, a "grand f e a s t of 1 f l o u r mush," 2 James May and Joe P a t t e r s o n a r r i v e d i n F i n l a y R i v e r about June 15,  "They proceeded up the N o r t h Branch f o r 100 m i l e s w i t h 3  out f i n d i n g any g r e a t e r inducement to  to s t a y —  " "They r e t u r n e d  the j u n c t i o n of the Middle and N o r t h b r a n c h e s , and there  met  by appointment some o t h e r p r o s p e c t o r s who had been up the South 3 and M i d d l e B r a n c h e s , w i t h o u t g r e a t e r s u c c e s s . Most of them 4 agreed to r e t u r n . " The N o r t h Branch mentioned above probably 1 2  ' " S e n t i n e l December 4, 1369„ " F l o u r Mush" I s f l o u r b o i l e d i n water and served up h o t .  James May prospected F I n l a y R i v e r f o r a hundred m i l e s i n 1863, mined on V i t a l Creek i n 1870 and then prospected N a t i o n R i v e r w i t h B l a c k , L a f o r c e , S y l v e s t e r and o t h e r s , R e t u r n i n g , he sank a s h a f t on V i t a l Greek and found n o t h i n g . He was one of Germansen's d i s c o v e r y p a r t y . The next y e a r , 1371, he mined on Germansen but i n the f a l l and w i n t e r of 1372-73 he prospected O s a l i n k a R i v e r and the headwaters of the Skeena about Bear Lake on a government aided e x p e d i t i o n . He remained i n Omineca i n 1874. 3 I . e . g r e a t e r than 4/ per pan obtained on a b a r on P a r s n i p R i v e r sometime b e f o r e , '4 C o l o n i s t August 27 3 1863., r e p o r t of James May (sometimes p r i n t e d "Way) „  (44)  r e f e r r e d to t h e main stream of E i n l a y R i v e r ; the middle Branch to Omineca R i v e r and the South Branch t o Man® n R i v e r , so t h a t i n t h i s y e a r o f d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , t h e f i r s t e x p l o r a t i o n was made of t h e r i v e r s t h a t l a t e r made a name f o r Peace R i v e r . . 1 Another p a r t y , l e d by John Giscome  2  and Henry McDame r e -  opened t h e r o u t e t o Peace R i v e r v i a t h e Giscome P o r t a g e which had been used by Simon E r a s e r , b u t l a t e r had been abandoned by the Hudson's Bay Company. They mined f o r a time on Toy's B a r , making from twentyf i v e t o f o r t y d o l l a r s a day wi t h a r o c k e r . m i l e s up E i n l a y R i v e r and found n o t h i n g . south branch of E i n l a y ' s  They prospected 140 If ext they t r i e d "upper  (probably Omineca).  On t h i s  stream they g o t some pay d i r t y i e l d i n g 8 cents t o t h e pan, b u t 3 no q u a n t i t i e s "  so they r e t u r n e d t o E i n l a y P o r k s .  Undaunted,  Giscome and a companion descended Peace R i v e r , explored Smoky R i v e r f o r 160 m i l e s from i t s mouth, and proceeded to Dunvegan where they turned back on the r e c e i p t o f r e p o r t s t h a t the d i g g i n g 1 John Giscome r e d i s c o v e r e d Giscome P o r t a g e , i n 1862. He prospected Peace R i v e r t o Dunvegan, Smoky R i v e r and N a t i o n R i v e r i n 1862-63. I n Omineca he mined on V i t a l C r e e k , prospected the Omineca R i v e r to i t s mouth i n company w i t h some c o l o r e d men (perhaps i n t h e p a r t y w i t h Germansen and McDame which passed up Germans en Creek) and then rained on Germans en. I n C a s s i a r he was w i t h McDame i n the D i s c o v e r y c l a i m s o f McDame C r e e k . 2 Henry McDame, was a well-known negro miner and '58 p i o n e e r . He was wi t h Giscome i n 1862? Giscome Portage was sometimes c a l l e d "Nigger" Portage a f t e r him. He was a member of Germansen's p a r t y t h a t passed up Germans en Greek i n the summer of 1870. I n C a s s i a r lie was noted f o r t h e d i s c o v e r y i n 1874, of McDame?s Creek, the l a r g e s t g o l d mining s e c t i o n o f t h a t d i s t r i c t . 3 C o l o n i s t , December 14, 1863.  (45)  on Saskatchewan R i v e r were a f a i l u r e and t h a t N a t i o n R i v e r auriferous.  was  They reached N a t i o n R i v e r i n September 8 t h , where  A l e x P o r t e r and a p a r t y l e d by Munro were about f o r t y - f i v e m i l e s from the mouth of the r i v e r making from t e n to t w e n t y - f i v e d o l l a r s per day. " They washed g o l d f o r .a s h o r t time on some a1 bandoned bars and then went to Cariboo* The r e t u r n s i n g o l d from Peace R i v e r i n 1863 were v e r y poor and o n l y a few m i n e r s , n o t a b l y P e t e r Toy, W i l l i a m G u s t , 2 3 "Black Jack" S m i t h , "Dancing B i l l " , and "Twelve-foot" D a v i s , r e t u r n e d i n subsequent y e a r s . They prospected i n the summers, trapped i n the w i n t e r and engaged i n the f u r - t r a d e wi t h the I n d i a n s when the c o m p e t i t i o n of the Hudson's Bay Company was 4 not too k e e n .  They a l s o made t r i p s to the east of the mountains,  A company of such men  l e d by M i c h a e l Eoy, prospected  R i v e r and p o s s i b l y on Omineca i n 1864  on Peace  or 1865, and r e t u r n e d w i t h  f o u r or f i v e thousand d o l l a r s i n g o l d - d u s t .  The l e a d e r r e t u r n e d  to Peace R i v e r and passed s e v e r a l y e a r s i n the d i s t r i c t . 1 C o l o n i s t , December 14, 2 3 4  1863.  See Appendix E  number 10.  See Appendix E  number 8.  5  Eor a d i s c u s s i o n of the r e l a t i o n s between the Hudson's Bay Company and the f r e e t r a d e r s , see M o r i c e ; op, c i t . p. 301 f f . C o l o n i s t , February 17, 1870. P o s s i b l y P e t e r Toy was the l e a d e r of t h i s p a r t y . He i s the o n l y miner known to have 'been c o n t i n u o u s l y i n the d i s t r i c t and a l s o he was r e f e r r e d to as P e t e r Eoy i n a l e t t e r appearing i n the C o l o n i s t , May 17, 1870.  (46)  SECTION 3. VITAL CREEK ' '  .. 1869 - 1870  The Omineca g o l d rushes were l a r g e l y t h e outcome o f the ambiguous r e p o r t s and a c t i v i t i e s o f the Peace R i v e r P r o s p e c t i n g p a r t y which was o r g a n i z e d a t Quesnel i n t h e Cariboo  i n . 1869, and  f i n a n c e d , p a r t l y by p u b l i c s u b s c r i p t i o n and p a r t l y by Government grant.  T h i s p a r t y found g o l d on V i t a l C r e e k , a t r i b u t a r y o f  S i l v e r C r e e k , and worked c l a i m s t h e r e in t h e summer o f 1869, r e t u r n i n g to Quesnel in t h e f a l l . to V i t a l Creek in 1870. the surrounding  Their reports l e d to the rush  The cream o f t h e g o l d in t h i s creek and  d i s t r i c t was gathered b e f o r e t h e d i s c o v e r y of  g o l d on Germans en Greek in the f a l l o f 1870. The Peace R i v e r P r o s p e c t i n g P a r t y was t h e r e s u l t of the d i s c o v e r i e s o f a p a r t y of f o u r Peace-- R i v e r Miners - E z r a Evans, •William Humphrey, "Twelve-Root" D a v i s , and a man named G a y l o r d . In the summer o f 1868,  these men crossed the A r c t i c - P a c i f i c d i -  v i d e -from Lake T a k l a and. found s u r f a c e i n d i c a t i o n s o f g o l d on S i l v e r Greek w i t h rock formations surrounding  country,  of f a v o r a b l e appearance i n the  They r e t u r n e d to Quesnel to a c q u i r e a "stake 1  s u f f i c i e n t f o r a thorough prospect  i n the next s p r i n g ,  The  r e c o r d s do not i n d i c a t e what changed t h e i r minds but e v i d e n t l y they were unable t o c a r r y out t h i s progr8.ni, f o r they appealed to the community a t Quesnel f o r h e l p . 1 ' " • S e n t i n e l , March 19 and 26, 1870, The d i s c o v e r e r s c a l l e d S i l v e r Creek, A r c t i c Creek,  (47)  B u s i n e s s i n B. C. was g o i n g through a p e r i o d of d e p r e s s i o n , and. the Cariboo shared i n the g e n e r a l hard t i m e s , e s p e c i a l l y as s u r f a c e p l a c e r d i g g i n g s i n the d i s t r i c t were becoming s c a r c e r and the d i g g i n g s i n Kbotenay and B i g Bend were n e a r l y exhausted. Miners were on t h e lookout f o r new f i e l d s and the r e p o r t s o f d i s c o v e r i e s i n the Omineca R i v e r c o u n t r y were g i v e n earnest c o n s i d eration,  I t s remoteness, f o r i t was over t h r e e hundred m i l e s  n o r t h as the crow f l i e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the c o l l a p s e o f a r e c e n t r u s h to B i g Bend, caused d i v i d e d o p i n i o n as to the f e a s i b i l i t y o f e x p l o i t i n g i t and d i c t a t e d c a u t i o n i n embarking on another expensive venture.  However, t h e miners f i n a l l y d e c i d e d to o r g a n i z e  a p a r t y to e x p l o r e the Omineca d i s t r i c t and made a p u b l i c f o r funds to f i n a n c e the u n d e r t a k i n g .  appeal  T h i s p a r t y was a f t e r w a r d s  known as the Peace R i v e r P r o s p e c t i n g P a r t y , 1 Gustavus B l i n "Wright, one o f the c h i e f b u i l d e r s o f the 2 Cariboo Road, the Honorable Edgar Dewdney,  a f t e r whom the Dewdney  T r a i l to Mootenay was named, and who l a t e r became L i e u t e n a n t Governor of the p r o v i n c e , and P . C, Dunlevy, a farmer and t r a d e r i n the Upper E r a s e r V a l l e y , were chosen a commi t t e e o f t h r e e to make 5 the necessary  arrangements,  1 G. B . W r i g h t engaged i n p a c k i n g to Omineca i n 1870, l a t e r i n road and t r a i l b u i l d i n g . He was i n b u s i n e s s w i t h C a l b r e a t h f o r a time d u r i n g the C a s s i a r r u s h . 2 " Mr, Dewdney was engaged by the c o l o n i a l and p r o v i n c i a l 3governments i n s u r v e y i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g the c l e a r i n g i n Omineca i n 1870 and 1871, Sofe n t ir na ei l ,s May 1, 1869.  (48)  The a p p e a l f o r funds was s u c c e s s f u l , miners and t r a d e r s i n C a r i b o o s u b s c r i b e d t h r e e hundred d o l l a r s , Soda Creek and W i l l i a m * s Lake f a r m e r s , n i n e hundred d o l l a r s , and the C o l o n i a l Government, a f t e r o f f e r i n g f i v e hundred d o l l a r s , i n c r e a s e d i t s g r a n t to a thousand d o l l a r s on l e a r n i n g of the generous response to the p u b l i r a p p e a l . The t o t a l c o l l e c t e d was $2,200.00. 2 The e x p l o r a t i o n p a r t y chosen c o n s i s t e d o f M i c h a e l Byrnes 3 and V i t a l L a f o r c e , who f o r m e r l y had been Overland T e l e g r a p h Company s c o u t s , W i l l i a m Humphrey, a member o f the p a r t y o f 1868 w h i c h made the f i r s t d i s c o v e r y , P a t r i c k K e l l y , A l l e n Grant and James Hawkins.  M i c h a e l Byrnes was a p p o i n t e d l e a d e r .  Detailed  i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n him, from w h i c h the f o l l o w i n g are ex4 tracts: You w i l l t r y as f a r as your judgment a l l o w s , the v a r i o u s streams f o r m i n g the P i n l a y ' s | s i c ) B r a n c h , and not d i verge too near the coast or too f a r to the east as Peace R i v e r has been a l r e a d y p r o s p e c t e d . You w i l l c o n s i d e r y o u r s e l f i n the s o l e and e n t i r e command of the e x p e d i t i o n , t a k i n g as f a r as you may d e s i r e the a d v i c e and c o u n s e l of your companions, but h a v i n g the f u l l r i g h t to c o n t r o l a l l t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s and movements. 1 2  Ibid, M i c h a e l Byrnes e x p l o r e d from quesnel to Lake S t u a r t , and through the N a s s , Skeena, S t i k i n e and Taku v a l l e y s as f a r n o r t h as Lake T e s l i n wi t h the C o l l i n s Overland Telegraph p a r t i e s from 1865-1867, A f t e r the d i s c o v e r y of V i t a l Creek he went o f f p r o s p e c t i n g i n 1370 by way of Bear Lake toward the Upper S t i k i n e R i v e r . 3 See Appendix E number 7. 4 C o l o n i s t , May 18, 1369.  (49)  I f you f i n d any of the p a r t y who d e c l i n e s to obey your d i r e c t i o n s or who i s d i s a g r e e a b l e to the r e s t and i n c l i n e d to r e t a r d the o b j e c t s of the e x p e d i t i o n , you have f u l l l i b e r t y to f u r n i s h him w i t h s u f f i c i e n t f o r h i s r e t u r n and l e t him l e a v e the party........ I f a t the e x p i r a t i o n of a y e a r , you are not f u l l y s a t i s f i e d and w i s h to remain s t i l l l o n g e r , you can send a p o r t i o n of your p a r t y here (Quesnel) and we w i l l endeavour to f u r n i s h them w i t h more s u p p l i e s . , . The-party was  provisioned f o r a year's prospecting  s u p p l i e d wi t h a s u i t a b l e , b o a t . 1 May  3,  and  They set out from Quesnel on  1869.  The  r o u t e f o l l o w e d i s shown on maps I and III r e s p e c t i v e l y  o p p o s i t e pp.14  and 50; They t r a v e l l e d by boat v i a the E r a s e r ,  ITechako and S t u a r t R i v e r s and. Lakes S t u a r t , Trembleur, and T a k l a to B u l k l e y House, an^ Overland T e l e g r a p h s t a t i o n at  the  n o r t h end of Lake T a k l a , a t o t a l d i s t a n c e of about 230 m i l e s the crow f l i e s and 360 m i l e s a c t u a l r o u t e .  as  Prom B u l k l e y House 9  they went back ten m i l e s along the n o r t h shore of Lake T a k l a to T a k l a Landing and l e a v i n g the boat at the L a n d i n g , set out  on  f o o t i n a n o r t h - e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n , a c r o s s the P a c i f i c - A r c t i c d i vide.  F i v e m i l e s from the l a k e the p a r t y reached F a l l R i v e r  and  f o l l o w e d i t s banks to a p o i n t about s i x m i l e s from i t s mouth; they then proceeded eastward a l o n g the f o o t of the n o r t h e r n  slop  of the V i t a l Mountains to S i l v e r Greek, ( s o - c a l l e d , on account of the presence of a c q u e r i t e , a s i l v e r compounds o f t e n mistaken f o r 2 native s i l v e r ) . on June 21, 1869, g o l d was d i s c o v e r e d by V i t a l 1 I b i d and S e n t i n e l , May  12,  2  ^  « 1  H ->n  e  c  1. o Mr vey,  G. M. Dawson: Report R , V  1869.  Hi  , £ . 13  h.  (50)  L a f o r c e on a t r i b u t a r y o f S i l v e r C r e e k , w h i c h was named V i t a l 1 Creek a f t e r i t s d i s c o v e r e r . A few.days a f t e r the d i s c o v e r y another p a r t y a r r i v e d a t 2 V i t a l Creek: W i l l i a m Chapman, the l e a d e r ; E z r a Evans, l e a d e r 3 of t h e d i s c o v e r y p a r t y of 1868, and a man named Gaydon, The a r r i v a l o f an independent p a r t y which was f r e e t o work any c l a i m s f o r c e d the Byrnes p a r t y to decide whether to stake c l a i m s and c o n t i n u e p r o s p e c t i n g a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r agreement, or to remain a t V i t a l Creek and take out what g o l d they c o u l d before the freeze-up.  They determined to r e m a i n , and staked and  worked c l a i m s on V i t a l Creek about one and a h a l f m i l e s from S i l v e r C r e e k . The Ghapman p a r t y l o c a t e d about two m i l e s f a r t h e r 4 up stream. Byrnes p a r t l y f u l f i l l e d h i s o b l i g a t i o n s to the committee by g o i n g out on two p r o s p e c t i n g t r i p s l a s t i n g about a week each, one eastward i n company w i t h L a f o r c e , and the other westward by himself. 5 miles.  Each t r i e covered a r a d i u s of approximately  twenty  1 S e n t i n e l , October 23, October 30, and November 6, 1869. 2 A former C a l i f o r n i a and e a r l y Cariboo p i o n e e r . 3 S e n t i n e l , October 2 3 , October 30, and November 6, 1869. I b i d and. C o l o n i s t , November 12, 1869. Byrne's R e p o r t , S e n t i n e l , November 6, 1869, and C o l o n i s t , November 5, 1869. L e t t e r to B a r n a r d , u n s i g n e d . C o l o n i s t , November 12, 1869.  (51)  The d e c i s i o n to mine the c l a i m s a t once and to g i v e up  any  f u r t h e r attempts to c a r r y out the i n s t r u c t i o n s of t h e i r f i n a n c i n g committee was described  s t r o n g l y c r i t i c i z e d "fay the community a t Quesnel as  later.  By the end of the s e a s o n , g o l d to the v a l u e of $6,600 had been mined, the r e s u l t of t h i r t y - f i v e days a c t u a l mining s c a t t e r e d over a p e r i o d o f three and a h a l f months.  The Chapman p a r t y  made a thousand d o l l a r s each and the Byrnes p a r t y , s i x hundred each.  The average was  about twenty-one d o l l a r s "to the hand" per  day of a c t u a l m i n i n g , but o n l y about f o u r d o l l a r s and  thirty  cents per day f o r the whole time they were absent from Quesnel, A l l the p r o s p e c t o r s seem to have determined to a r u s h to the c r e e k .  discourage  The d i g g i n g s were s h a l l o w , l i m i t e d i n ex-  t e n t and nowhere v e r y r i c h , a few miners might put i n another season p r o f i t a b l y by c o v e r i n g the whole f i e l d , but i f a -rush f o l l o w e d , few c o u l d more than cover expenses, the m a j o r i t y would get p r a c t i c a l l y n o t h i n g .  The b e s t i n t e r e s t s of a l l concerned  would be served by r e p o r t i n g the f i n d s i n a manner which would d i s c o u r a g e a r u s h and l i m i t the f o l l o w i n g season's work to those a l r e a d y on the ground* The two p a r t i e s r e t u r n e d to Quesnel, a r r i v i n g on October' 19, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of K e l l y and L a f o r c e , who  bought s u p p l i e s at  F o r t S t , James, and r e t u r n e d to the d i g g i n g s ,  The r e t u r n e d miners  a l l s t a t e d t h a t there was g o l d i n the Omineca d i s t r i c t , but not I n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s to repay the l a b o u r of washing and expenses, but t h a t ' " t h e g e n e r a l appearance of the country  general justifies  (52) 1 a further search". B y r n e s ' r e p o r t to the committee was  2 i n the same v e i n , i  n  p a r t as f o l l o w s % »• .we worked t h r e e and a h a l f months w i t h two s t r i n g s of s l u i c e s and took out 35 ounces to each man i n t h a t t i m e . The d i g g i n g s are s h a l l o w . We worked 800 f t . of ground. ,We prospected each way from where we have l o c a t e d f o r about twenty m i l e s w i t h o u t f i n d i n g any o t h e r paying p r o s p e c t , . . . We i n t e n d t a k i n g out s u p p l i e s on the snow. We s h a l l then be b e t t e r a b l e to prospect, next season and a s c e r t a i n w i t h c e r t a i n l y whether the new d i s t r i c t w i l l pay or n o t , A r u s h of miners to t h a t s e c t i o n , u n t i l the extent and v a l u e of i t I s b e t t e r known, can o n l y prove d i s a s t r o u s and r e s u l t i n s e r i o u s i n j u r y to the C o l o n y , I t i s better,perhaps» not to p u b l i s h t h i s r e p o r t u n t i l something more may be known of the c o u n t r y . The e f f e c t of t h i s p r a c t i c a l a d v i c e was  l a r g e l y discounted  i n the Cariboo by d i s t u r b i n g g e n e r a l rumours and the s u s p i c i o u s a c t i v i t y of members of the p r o s p e c t i n g p a r t i e s which appeared to i n d i c a t e t h a t the a c t u a l t r u t h was being c o n c e a l e d , and that the new mines were r i c h and w e l l w o r t h e x p l o r a t i o n . Amongst many other i t e m s , the r e t u r n e d p r o s p e c t o r s made p l a n s to proceed immediately  to V i t a l Creek without a s k i n g f o r  f u r t h e r a i d from the Peace E l v e r p r o s p e c t i n g P a r t y f u n d , Ered 3 Black, of B a r k e r y i l i e , r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r from one of the 1 2 3  S e n t i n e l , October 23,  1869,  Dated Quesnelmouth, October 24, 1869; See C o l o n i s t November 5, 1869 and S e n t i n e l , November 6, 1869. See Appendix E Number 1  (53)  p r o s p e c t o r s 5 u r g i n g h i m to "leave a l l h i s I n t e r e s t s . . . . . . . . . . . . " 1 •• and j o i n the r e t u r n i n g p a r t y ; he l e f t i n h a s t e f o r Quesnel; 2 Duncan M c M a r t i n , o f K e i t h l e y Creek, r e c e i v e d a s i m i l a r i u v i t a 1 t i o n ; Humphrey- d e p o s i t e d seventy ounces of g o l d a t t h e assay o f f i c e , a l t h o u g h t h e members of h i s p a r t y had"obtained o n l y 3 t h i r t y - f i v e ounces each; a p r o s p e c t o r w h i l e under t h e i n f l u e n c e of l i q u o r b o a s t e d t h a t e i g h t thousand d o l l a r s had been taken out 4 i n t h i r t y - f i v e days; a l e t t e r was r e c e i v e d from P e t e r Skene Ogden, s t a t i n g , t h a t the p r o s p e c t o r s had spent t w e n t y - f i v e hundred d o l l a r s purchasing  s u p p l i e s a t P o r t S t . James; and f i n a l l y , some  of t h e p r o s p e c t o r s requested  t h e g o l d commissioners to r e c o r d f o r '5  them c l a i m s l a r g e r than t h e l e g a l  size.  1 S e n t i n e l , October 2 7 , 1869. These l e t t e r s may have come from members of t h e Chapman p a r t y , 2 Duncan M c M a r t i n , was a Cariboo m i n e r . He mined on V i t a l Creek 1869 t o 1870 and then prospected Nation R i v e r w i t h Pred Black i n the l a t t e r year. • A f t e r s i n k i n g a s h a f t on M s r e t u r n to V i t a l Creek he prospected Evans Greek. He d i d f a i r l y w e l l on Germans en C r e e k . He d i e d i n New Westminster i n 1873. 3 C o l o n i s t , February 17, 1870. He e x p l a i n e d that he had won t h e b a l a n c e g a m b l i n g . 4 C o l o n i s t , February 18, 1870. S e n t i n e l December 1 1 , 1869. The request was r e f u s e d . I t was probably made by Chapman and h i s . p a r t n e r s , who,because he had staked b e f o r e B y r n e s , thought that he should be granted the e x t r a f i f t y f e e t per c l a i m , allowed on d i s c o v e r y c l a i m s . Chapman complained about not r e c e i v i n g t h i s concession i n a l e t t e r dated February 25, 1870. S e n t i n e l , March" 26, 1870 h , f Peter Vgdery 1 •* cL 0 ^ a n <U OT, of P ^ t e , Ske-ne O^ieTi  (54)  These rumors and a c t i v i t i e s l e d t o s u s p i c i o n o f , and d i s b e l i e f i n , the b o n a - f i d e s and  o f the p r o s p e c t i n g p a r t y ' s conduct,  e s p e c i a l l y i n Byrnes'; o f f i c i a l r e p o r t .  Many miners prepared  to e x p l o r e "the Omineca country,, A race to V i t a l Creek f o l l o w e d ,  The Byrnes and Chapman  p a r t i e s s e t out f o r t h e . n o r t h a g a i n on October 9, 1869. Three 1 other p a r t i e s f o l l o w e d soon a f t e r , l e d by Rufus S y l v e s t e r , Duncan M c M a r t i n , and "Twelve-foot" D a v i s ,  S y l v e s t e r was sent by  A d a i r and a dozen o t h e r miners t o r e p o r t on p r o s p e c t s i n Omineca. H i s p a r t y reached "Fort S t . James b e f o r e t h e o t h e r s , a r r i v i n g on November 11, and although delayed by s t o r m s , was away f o r the mines on November 14. One of t h e p a r t y , named B u c k l e y ,  returned  to Quesnel from P o r t S t . James w i t h some h o r s e s used i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a r r i v i n g on December 7.  He r e p o r t e d t h a t Byrnes and  h i s f r i e n d s became " p e r f e c t l y w i l d " when they l e a r n e d t h a t S y l v e s t e r was l i k e l y t o r e a c h V i t a l Creek b e f o r e them, and t h a t q u a r r e l s f o l l o w e d w i t h heated exchanges concerning ness of B y r n e s ' r e p o r t .  the t r u t h f u l -  B y r n e s , a c c o r d i n g to B u c k l e y , had s a i d  t h a t V i t a l Greek was r i c h e r than he had r e p o r t e d and had s t a t e d t h a t he and L a f o r c e had d i s c o v e r e d a much r i c h e r creek on t h e i r short p r o s p e c t i n g t r i p s from V i t a l C r e e k , but he had r e f u s e d to iii  1 See Appendix E  Number 11  (55)  d i s c l o s e i t s l o c a t i o n w h i l e Buckl ey was  '1 present, This report  caused q u i t e a s t i r i n C a r i b o o , 2 S y l v e s t e r and C a i n reached V i t a l Creek on November 25, and found t h a t K e l l y and L a f o r c e had  1869  suspended work on account of  f r o s t . ' Grant and Hawkins, f o r m e r l y members of the Byrnes p a r t y , a r r i v e d f o u r days l a t e r - , l o c a t e d c l a i m s and then r e t u r n e d to T a k l a Landing where they met B y r n e s , M c M a r t i n , D a v i s and  fourteen  o t h e r s , who  made a h u r r i e d j o u r n e y to V i t a l C r e e k , l o c a t e d c l a i m s 3 and r e t u r n e d to the L a n d i n g . Dennis C a i n , on h i s r e t u r n to Cariboo  i n December to r e p o r t c o n d i t i o n s to A d a i r , recorded 4  the  f o l l o w i n g c l a i m s w i t h the Gold Commissioners "Discovery Co., New  C a l e d o n i a , 6;  6;  Hazard Co., 1  1."-  6 i n t e r e s t s ; Chapman, 3;  T e l e g r a p h Co. 15;  A d a i r Co. , 11;  Trevor Co. 7;  Martin  These were a. 11 creek c l a i m s , running  \ S e n t i n e l , November 6, December 1 1 , 18 and 25, 1869. B u c k l e y ' s r e p o r t i s HOC x*©Xxcib 1 Ge Xt i s not c o n f i r m e d by o t h e r miners and was c o n t r a d i c t e d by Lamont ( S e n t i n e l , March 19, 1870) and by Chapman, ( S e n t i n e l , March 26, 1870) and v e r y e m p h a t i c a l l y by Byrnes ( S e n t i n e l , A p r i l 3, 1870). Events supported the l a t t e r .  2 Dennis C a i n l a t e r appeared i n C a s s i a r , mined on J h r b e r t Creek i n 1874. ( C o l o n i s t J u l y 5 and 19, 1874) b u i l t a s l o o p f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on Dease Lake a t \$ per pound; ( C o l o n i s t February 6, September 21, 1875) and, perhaps, d i s c o v e r e d Dennis C r e e k , a t r i b u t a r y of S p r i n g Creek ( C o l o n i s t , A p r i l 14, 1876) 3 S e n t i n e l , December 25, 1869; 4 I b i d . December 25,  1869.  and March 19,  1870.  Co., one  (56)  hundred f e e t up and down stream and from h i g h water to h i g h water* across i t .  (See page 6  u n t i l June 30,  above)  A l l the c l a i m s were l a i d over  1870.  Dennis C a i n f u r t h e r r e p o r t e d t h a t the Byrnes p a r t y had worked o n l y about f i v e hundred f e e t on V i t a l C r e e k , not e i g h t hundred as s t a t e d i n Byrnes's r e p o r t , and that even the f i v e hundred f e e t had not been worked t h o r o u g h l y , but o n l y i n s p o t s .  He  ^  contended ' 1  t h a t the c l a i m s were more v a l u a b l e than B y r n e s ' r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d . C a i n , however, saw V i t a l Creek i n the l a t e f a l l , three months a f t e r Byrnes had  l e f t , and a l s o a f t e r a f a l l of snow f o l l o w e d by  heavy f r o s t , and may have been m i s t a k e n .  The newspapers of C a r i b o o ,  V i c t o r i a , and lew Westminster' exaggerated b o t h Buckley'e and reports.  Cain's  A l l these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , rumors, a c t i v i t i e s l e d to the  r u s h to the mines i n  1870.  About a score of miners passed the w i n t e r a t the f i e l d .  They  packed s u p p l i e s to V i t a l Creek, b u i l t c a b i n s and g e n e r a l l y prepared f o r the approaching summer.  S y l v e s t e r sank a s h a f t i n the A d a i r  ground through t h r e e f e e t o f s u r f a c e g r a v e l , and nine f e e t of slum i n t o a l a y e r o f g r a v e l , w h i c h promised w e l l , but which he was  com-  p e l l e d by water and c o l d to abandon b e f o r e i t c o u l d be p r o p e r l y tested.  He sank two other s h a f t s two m i l e s f a r t h e r up the c r e e k , 2  but d i d not s t r i k e pay d i r t .  N o t i c i n g t h a t the stream I n p l a c e s  1 m I b i d . December 25, 1869. 2 I b i d . March 19, 1870; l e t t e r s and Lamont's r e p o r t .  (57)  d i d not r u n i n i t s o r i g i n a l bed, the miners sank s h a f t s on bench c l a i m s i n an attempt to f i n d the o r i g i n a l c o u r s e .  During the  w i n t e r and . s p r i n g , McMartin sank a s h a f t t o a depth o f f o r t y - f o u r f e e t to bed-rock and d r i f t e d t h i r t y f e e t along i t w i t h o u t g e t t i n g 1 i n t o paying ground,, S y l v e s t e r and B l a c k s t r u c k bedrock a t a ' • . 2 depth o f ' t h i r t y f e e t w i t h l i k e r e s u l t „  The w i n t e r o p e r a t i o n s d i d  not p a y . Regular communication was m a i n t a i n e d w i t h the o u t s i d e w o r l d by a one-man c a r r y i n g s e r v i c e c a l l e d the "Omineca E x p r e s s " , R, J . Lament, t h e expressman, s t a r t e d on the f i r s t t r i p from Quesnel to V i t a l Greek, on January 31. w i t h a d o g - t r a i n and t o boggan. He had a hard time g e t t i n g t h r o u g h , on account o f heavy snow and on the r e t u r n j o u r n e y , p a r t s o f h i s hands and f a c e were 3 frozen. The v e n t u r e was s u c c e s s f u l , however, "and on March 19, 3 he announced the i n a u g u r a t i o n o f a r e g u l a r s e r v i c e . During the s p r i n g and summer, he made f o u r t r i p s , a r r i v i n g back a t Quesnel on 4 March 16, May 9, June 2 1 , and August 9.  Much o f the i n f o r m a t i o n  about V i t a l Greek mines i n 1870 i s taken from p e r i o d i c a l r e p o r t s made by Lament and t h e l e t t e r s sent out w i t h him. by m i n e r s .  In  May he arranged to handle the Omineca b u s i n e s s o f Barnard's Express 1 2 3 4  I b i d , May 14 and June 25, 1870. I b i d . June 25; a. r e p o r t made- by nine r e t u r n e d m i n e r s , I b i d . March 19, 1870, I b i d . March 19, May 14, June 14, and August 13, 1870.  (58) 1 and of W e l l s Fargo and Company.  .. . . The express charge to and from  the mines on each l e t t e r was two d o l l a r s and f i f t y c e n t s .  When  V i t a l Creek mines d e c l i n e d i n A u g u s t , 1870, Lament l e f t to prospect 2 on t h e Skeena R i v e r . N a v i g a t i o n on the Upper E r a s e r R i v e r opened up toward the end o f A p r i l i n 1870.  Then C a p t a i n J . W. Moore's "barge "Omineca",  which had been b u i l t d u r i n g the w i n t e r , l e f t Qu.esnel f o r S t u a r t Lake wi t h a crew of t w e n t y - f i v e men, a few passengers and twelve 3 tons of f r e i g h t . Wadley ( or W a d l e i g h ) , P a t r i c k H i c k e y , and 4 o t h e r boatmen f o l l o w e d soon a f t e r . By the middle o f May there were about,one hundred and f i f t y w h i t e men and one hundred Chinamen 5 on t h e i r way from Quesnel : to the m i n e s . 1I b i d , May 28, 1870, a d v e r t i s i n g announcement, 2 I b i d . August 1 3 , 1870. 3 I b i d , A p r i l 30. 4 I b i d , May :7. 5 " • " Lament, r e p o r t e d meeting 125 w h i t e men and a hundred Chinamen on h i s t r i p from V i t a l Creek to Q,uesnel^ A p r i l 20 to May 9, ( S e n t i n e l s May 14, 1870.) The C o l o n i s t , "May 8, 1870, s t a t e d , "Over 200 miners have l e f t Quesnelmouth f o r the Peace R i v e r country t h i s s p r i n g . " On May 15, i t added "350 men had passed Quesnelmouth f o r Peace R i v e r , " On May 17, i t p u b l i s h e d a l e t t e r dated Quesnelmouth, May 7, 1870, from "Peace", a f a i r l y r e l i a b l e c o r r e s p o n d e n t , w h i c h s t a t e d , "About 120 w h i t e men and 40 to 50 C h i n a men have gone up and others are f o l l o w i n g d a i l y . " T h i s l a s t c o n f i r m s Lamont's e s t i m a t e ,  (59)  About f i f t y o t h e r s  1 • • • '' reached t h e raining area by way o f the  Skeena R i v e r r o u t e , which i s shown on Map llo» 1 o p p o s i t e page 14 above.  A p a r t y of t h e s e , c o n s i s t i n g o f Joseph D e v l i n , John  W o l f , G. Roger, P e t e r and S t e v e n s , d e s c r i b e d t h e i r t r i p from the 2 mouth of the Skeena R i v e r as f o l l o w s s The- p a r t y were 10-£ days ( s i c ) from the Mouth t o t h e Porks o f Skeena R i v e r i 6 days from the Porks to B a b i n e ; remained a t Bab i n e 8-g- days t r y i n g to g e t Indians to pack p r o v i s i o n s a c r o s s t h e D i v i d e t o Lake T a t l a h . ^ F a i l i n g t h i s they took canoes and went to F o r t Babine,4 35 m i l e s , There they g o t I n d i a n s by g i v i n g a sack o f f l o u r t o each and found t h a t t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m Babine t o Lake T a t l a h i s 24 m i l e s o f land t r a v e l and 8 m i l e s l a k e n a v i g a t i o n . A t l a k e T a t l a h , they dug o u t , w i t h a, s h o v e l and an axe, a canoe, and went up to T a t l a h ' s l a n d i n g i n l-g- d a y s . A t the l a n d i n g they worked f o r a time on t h e t r a i l from T a k l a l a n d i n g t o F a l l R i v e r w i t h a road gang o f twelve men i n charge of F i t z g e r a l d , t h e newly a r r i v e d , a c t i n g Gold Commissioner, and r e c e i v e d t w e n t y - f i v e d o l l a r s each, and b o a r d , f o r t h i s work, F i t z g e r a l d a l s o b u i l t a b r i d g e w i t h a f i f t y - s e v e n f o o t span across the F a l l .River, near i t s mouth, t o connect wi t h a t r a i l from V i t a l 1 • ' ' ' C o l o n i s t , March 1 9 , 1870, s t a t e d , SS.Otter " s a i l e d y e s t e r d a y w i t h 15 passengers f o r Skeena R i v e r " and on A p r i l 2 1 , SS, O t t e r " c a r r i e d about 60 passengers, 36 of whom were booked f o r Skeena." 2 I b i d , J u l y 24, 1870, 3 l a t e r named T a k l a , 4 They p r o b a b l y meant Babine Portage a t the south end of l a k e B a b i n e , an o l d H. B. C, summer post was l o c a t e d t h e r e .  (60)  Greek, which the miners had j u s t  1 completed.  . .  The t r a i l s gave access to the Omineca f i e l d and were used by pack and c a t t l e t r a i n s w i t h a g r e a t s a v i n g i n time and expense, G a p t a i n J . ¥ . Moore's b a r g e , "Omineca" p r o v i d e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n between F o r t S t , James and T a k l a Landing f o r passengers, f r e i g h t 2 and a n i m a l s , About 350 men were i n the V i t a l Greek d i s t r i c t i n the f i r s t week of June, when the number of miners was a t the h i g h e s t because late-comers were s t i l l coming i n and e a r l y a r r i v a l s had not y e t begun to l e a v e .  The miners s c a t t e r e d over V i t a l Greek and the  o t h e r streams i n the v i c i n i t y , such as S i l v e r Greek? Dan Greek, Humphrey Creek, and F a l l R i v e r .  They soon found t h a t average. earn-  i n g s amounted to o n l y t h r e e d o l l a r s a day.  P r o s p e c t i n g about the  headwaters o f N a t i o n R i v e r gave not b e t t e r r e s u l t s .  Spring freshets "3 '' '  suspended mining i n those p l a c e s t h a t were paying wages.  Many of  the newly a r r i v e d "miners" who had hoped to s t a r t work immediately on and d utor icnlge athe n upnext f o r t hu rn e es weeks, i n a s h about o r t t i two m e , were d i sset i l l au sr ir oi nv ea dl , and hundred out on the r e t u r n j o u r n e y to Cariboo and V i c t o r i a . G i l l i s ' r e c e n t l y b u i l t s a l o o n , and "Twelve-foot" D a v i s ' bakery 1  . I b i d . May 30, and J u l y 24, 1870? S e n t i n e l , June 25, 1870,  2 S e n t i n e l , June 25, 1870, and Moore's advertisement i n the same paper, A p r i l 23, 1870, 3 S e n t i n e l , June 25, and J u l y 9, 1870; C o l o n i s t , September 23, 1870; Standard J u l v 4, 1870. 4. S e n t i n e l , June 25 and J u l y 2, 1870,  (61)  and coffee-house  " '1 a t V i t a l C r e e k , were n o t opened,,  The p r i c e o f  flour f e l l first  t o t h i r t y - f i v e cents p e r pound and then to f o u r " 1 teen c e n t s , w i t h other p r i c e s i n p r o p o r t i o n .  McLeod, a p a c k e r , had d r i v e n rx t r a i n o f pack animals from the ' 2 * E r a s e r V a l l e y v i a the Hudson's Bay Company's t r a i l to P o r t S t . James and from t h e r e a l o n g t h e shores of t h e l a k e s towards V i t a l Creek.  "When he was a few m i l e s from T a k l a Landings McLeod r e c e i v -  ed i n s t r u c t i o n s to dump the goods as the p r i c e o f s u p p l i e s would not cover t h e c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t i n g them t h e r e s t o f the way to the diggings. was  The c o s t of p a c k i n g from T a k l a Landing to V i t a l Creek 1 eighteen cents a pound a t t h e t i m e . 3' By the end o f June, o n l y 150 men remained i n t h e d i s t r i c t ,  ahout t h i r t y men each a t V i t a l Creek and S i l v e r C r e e k , twenty men 3 on Quartz Greek, and t h e r e s t e i t h e r out p r o s p e c t i n g o r w a i t i n g at T a k l a L a n d i n g f o r developments. D u r i n g the month o f J u l y , s u p p l i e s "became s c a r c e r and p r i c e s rose a g a i n .  EI our s o l d a t 25/ per pound; "bacon 60/; "beans 25/; ,  '  4  sugar 50/; t e a $1.50; tobacco $2.00 and b u t t e r $1.50,  These  1 , 2  S e n t i n e l , June 25, 1870; the r e p o r t of n i n e men who l e f t V i t a l Creek on June 8, 1870 a l s o . I b i d , J u l y 2 and 9, and C o l o n i s t , J u l y 14, 1870. This t r a i l f o l l o w e d the Telegraph t r a i l . 3 4 S e n t i n e l J u l y 30 and August 13, 1870; C o l o n i s t , S e n t i n e 11, l , August 13, 1870; August L e t t e r 2, of J . C, August Standard, Eor graph p 1870; rices a t T a k l a Landing 18701870. see next page.  (62) Graph 11  -  J R r i ces at T a k l a Landingj 1870  »  1 .00  /  .50  rs..  '"V  -ci  <^  QJ  •V-  o Y>  <u 11 B  *->  3  bacon sugar .beans flour Feb. 25 m Le t t e r Of Wm. Chapman, S e n t i n e l , Mar. 2t »].870. June 8 _ J . C • i n s e n t i n e l , J'une 21La 187C June 25(?)-S e n t i n e l , J u l y 14, 1870. June 30 (? ) - S e n t i n e l , J u l v 1 6 . 1870. J u l y 25 (? - J . C. i n S e n t i n e l , Aug. 13, 1870. .  1  -  References are g i v e n b elovi r 1,he tab If ! Opt:o£ i t e the date P r i c e s a t V i t a l Creek were Pgreater than thosle a t Takla Landing bv the amount of the packing r a t e ( 1 5 ^ per pound) (Sent i n e l March l 26, August 1 3 , 187C ) u n t i l the miners began to l e a v e V i t a l Creek; t,hen p r i c es were lower at the ere ek. At one t i m e , about June 25, f l o u i s o l d f o i • 14^' a pound a.t V i t a l Creek. ( S e n t i n e l , J u l y Q. 1  (63)  p r i c e s h e l d u t f t i l g o l d s t r i k e s were r e p o r t e d f i f t y m i l e s down the Omineca, on a creek a f t e r w a r d s c a l l e d Germansen C r e e k , There was a l o n g and " b i t t e r c o n t r o v e r s y a t Quesnel  concerning  the conduct and a c t i v i t i e s of the o r i g i n a l Peace R i v e r P r o s p e c t i n g Party.  Some s u b s c r i b e r s contended t h a t t h e members o f the p a r t y  should have c o n f i n e d themselves t o p r o s p e c t i n g , as agreed upon, i n s t e a d o f m i n i n g t h e i r c l a i m s on V i t a l C r e e k .  Others r e c o g n i z e d  t h a t t h e a r r i v a l of t h e Chapman p a r t y was a good reason f o r t h e i r change o f p l a n because o f the l i m i t e d extent o f the mining area,. The l a c k o f candour of t h e o f f i c i o , ! r e p o r t a l s o aroused criticism. to  I n t h i s , however, t h e p a r t y appear t o have endeavored  save t h e l o s s e s which they foresaw i f t h e r e was a r u s h o f  miners to V i t a l Greek, as w e l l as t o r e s e r v e t h e mines f o r themselves.  T h e i r c o u n s e l of c a u t i o n was j u s t i f i e d .  SECTION 4, GERMANSEN CREEK .  " 1870 - 71  Germans en Creek i s a t r i b u t a r y o f t h e Omineca about f i f t y m i l e s , e a s t of S i l v e r Greek.  Germansen Greek f l o w s through a form-  a t i o n o f b l u e s l a t e w i t h v e i n s o f q u a r t z running through the rock in a l l directions.  I t i s a s h a l l o w s w i f t - r u n n i n g stream about  s i x t y f e e t i n w i d t h near i t s mouth, v a r y i n g i n depth from one to three f e e t , w i t h o c c a s i o n a l h o l e s ,  Near t h e mouth t h e bed i s  stony wi t h s t r e t c h e s o f s o l i d r o c k and the banks a r e steep and rocky.  F i v e m i l e s from i t s mouth, and a g a i n about f i v e m i l e s  f u r t h e r up, the stream narrows i n t o a s e r i e s o f canyons; between  (64)  the canyons t h e r e are f l a t reaches of c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t .  The  l a y e r of s u r f a c e s o i l b e c o m e s . s t e a d i l y t h i c k e r as one ascends the stream, and above the lower canyon i t was  necessary to s i n k s h a f t s  to r e a c h b e d r o c k . The g o l d on Germansen Creek was s h a l l o w s o i l and g r a v e l .  I t was  d i s t r i b u t e d through the  coarse and  s c a l y , and  therefore  e x c e l l e n t poor-man's digginga-when found i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t y . Small lumps of s i l v e r were f r e q u e n t l y found i n the s l u i c e boxes • 1 wi t h the g o l d , as i n the V i t a l Creek a r e a . Germans en Creek was Creek i n June,  d i s c o v e r e d a f t e r the f a i l u r e of V i t a l  p r o s p e c t o r s were a t t r a c t e d to P i n l a y R i v e r by  the  r e p o r t t h a t P e t e r Toy and h i s p a r t n e r were making good money on 2 a bar below Omineca R i v e r , A. F r a z e r , w i t h t h r e e companions prospected  N a t i o n R i v e r , P a r s n i p R i v e r , a n d Peace R i v e r , d u r i n g 3 June, J u l y , and A u g u s t . J . Welsh l e f t w i t h a p a r t y f o r Peace -4 R i v e r v i a Omineca about the middle o f June. James Germans en and a p a r t y of f o u r prospected  the Omineca to P i n l a y R i v e r , which they" 5  prospected  u n t i l s i c k n e s s compelled them to r e t u r n to V i t a l Creek,  None of these ventures were s u c c e s s f u l . 1 S e n t i n e l , September 24, 1870 and C o l o n i s t December 11, 1870,some s c a l e s were over an i n c h a c r o s s . 2 S e n t i n e l , J u l y 9 1 8 7 0 ; Standard /'.September 23, 1870, 3 S e n t i n e l June 25 and 30, 187,0; C o l o n i s t September 23, 1870; S t a n d a r d , September 23, 1870. 4 S e n t i n e l , J u l y 9, 1870. 5  I b i d . September 24, 1870, Henry McDame, and, perhaps, . John Giscome were i n t h i s p a r t y .  (65) 1 James Germansen, immediately on M s  r e t u r n to V i t a l  Creek,  o r g a n i z e d another p a r t y w i t h Duncan Martin,, James May and 7/. Smith,  2 to p r o s p e c t more t h o r o u g h l y a" c r e e k , f l o w i n g Into the Omineca, at the mouth of which Germansen had o b t a i n e d f i v e cents to a pan of on  d i r t , but^ which h i s companions had r e f u s e d to t a r r v on t h e i r 3 to P i n l a y R i v e r ,  way  7  Germansen s c o n f i d e n c e i n t h i s stream caused,  the 110 miners l e f t a t V i t a l to await h i s r e t u r n w i t h i n t e r e s t and impatience, Germansen and h i s companions a r r i v e d back a t V i t s , ! Creek l a t e one evening i n the t h i r d week i n A u g u s t ,  They r e p o r t e d that they  had washed' out two d o l l a r s and - f i f t y cents i n coarse g o l d from, a 4 s i n g l e pan at the mouth of Germansen Creek*  Intense excitement  at once f i l l e d the camp and some of the miners s t a r t e d out the same n i g h t and p i c k e d t h e i r way over the t r a i l to Hogem w i t h l i g h t e d candles i n broken b o t t l e s ,  The next evening the o l d camps '  were d e s e r t e d , except, f o r t h r e e men each.at V i t a l and S i l v e r Greeks. 1 " ~ ' • " James Germansen was a n a t i v e of S t , P a u l , Mihh,, who s t a r t e d f o r B r i t i s h Columbia by way of P o r t Garry and Saskatchewan R i v e r i n the s p r i n g of 1866 i n company w i t h "Dancing B i l l " , " B l a c k Jack" and Robert Lamont. They w i n t e r e d on the Saskatchewan and i n the s p r i n g of 1867, o r g a n i z e d a p a r t y to come through the mountains by way.of Jasper House. They a r r i v e d a t Quesnelmouth i n the autumn of 1868; B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , December 11, 1870. I t seems probable t h a t they turned a s i d e Into the Peace R i v e r i n the f a l l of 1867-68, p r o s p e c t i n g on E a t i o n R i v e r , S e n t i n e l , March 19, 1870. Germansen remained i n Omineca when C a s s i a r was opened up, 2 A c c o r d i n g to the C o l o n i s t , December 11,1870, t h i s was "Peace R i v e r " Smith, who mined on McBame Creek i n 1874 and was drowned when the S 3 . " P a c i f i c " foundered i n 1875. (continued on next page)  (66)  to  The f i r s t miners on the creek took out from, h a l f an ounce two ounces o f g o l d per day to the hand.  J . Giscome and Com-  pany, w i t h ' t h r e e c l a i m s , panned out f i f t y - s i x  dollars for a  day's work, . The f i r s t company to b e g i n b o x - s l u i c i n g , the Campb e l l Company, o f w h i c h Rufus S y l v e s t e r was a p a r t n e r , took .out t h i r t y - f o u r and a h a l f ounces i n t h r e e d a y s .  Over 120 miners were  working on the creek by the f i r s t week i n September, some panning, some making crude r o c k e r s , some hewing and whipsawing lumber to 1 c o n s t r u c t wingdams to d i v e r t the water from the creek b e d . • The r i v e r s f r o z e over on October 20%  Two weeks l a t e r , on  November 4, a heavy f r e s h e t on Germansen Greek swept away most of the  wingdams and ended mining i n the bed of the stream f o r the  season,  A l l the miners l e f t , except about twenty who had p r o -  v i s i o n s a t T a k l a Landing and planned to s l e i g h them over the snow 2 ( c o n t i n u e d from p. 65) L a t e r r e p o r t s , however, say i t was "Black Jack" Smith who accompanied Germans en, 3 . S e n t i n e l , September 24, 1870, a l e t t e r of J , C. dated Germansen Greek, September 4," 1870, and o t h e r s l e t t e r s ; C o l o n i s t , December 1 1 , 1870, 4 C o l o n i s t , December 1 1 , 1870, r e p o r t of an i n t e r v i e w w i t h James Germansenj S e n t i n e l , September 24, 1870, L e t t e r s and r e p o r t s . V 1 S e n t i n e l , November 1 9 , 1870..  (67)  and down the ice-hound Omineca d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r months. 2 . . . A l e t t e r t o t h e Mainland Guardian sums up t h e r e s u l t s o f the  season's a c t i v i t i e s as f o l l o w s i The f i r s t company have l a i d over; the second Co.,. • i s ' 1.5 Chinamen,..... | 3 t h e t h i r d Go. i s P a t K e l l y ' s , who have made from $10,00 to $30,00 per day "to the hand", t h e i r ground i s from 2 t o 3 f e e t deep; t h e f o u r t h Co. l a i d o v e r ; t h e f i f t h Co., Joe C l a r i h u e , 4 men, have made from 20 to 30 o z s . per week, t h e 4 depth from 2 t o 6 f e e t ; the s i x t h Go. John Qui scum, 3 men from 18 t o 30 o z s , per week; t h e c e l e b r a t e d 12 f o o t D a v i s Co,, 3 from 20 t o 100 o z s , per week; B. H a l l a d a y Co., have made an average o f |20 p e r day to t h e hand; Chapman Go, from 1 to 2 o z s . p e r day to the hand; the D i s c o v e r y Co. have made 20 t o 70 o z s . per week; t h e B l a c k P i n e Co. have made from $10 t o |20 per day to the hand; t h e S y l v e s t e r Co, 1 to 2 o z s . per day to t h e hand; t h e Co.......above made an ounce to $20 per day t o the hand, t h e next C o . 1 o z , per day to t h e hand; I have now a r r i v e d on my c l a i m , from w h i c h we have taken as h i g h as 30 o z s . p e r week; t h e next Co, above us have made expenses; Moore & Co. have made wages; 5 the B l a c k Bear Co., I have not l e a r n e d 1  S e n t i n e l , September 24, November 1 9 , and 26 and December 3, 1870; G u a r d i a n , November 26 and 30, 1870, B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , November 27,. 1870, Piufus S y l v e s t e r r e p o r t e d on February 1871 t h a t f o r t y men were w i n t e r i n g a t o r above P o r t S t . James; See C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , Pebruarv 4, 1871. 2 G u a r d i a n , November 26, 1870. 3 A c c o r d i n g to S y l v e s t e r t h e Chinamen took out $6,700 and Davis & Co. $5,000; See Cariboo S e n t i n e l November 19, 1870, 4 Giscombe o r Giscome, sometimes r e f e r r e d to as Guichon, b u t not t o be confused w i t h the Guiciion of G i r o d and Guichon, 5 At t h i s time and p l a c e t e n d o l l a r s per day.  (68)  t h e i r s u c c e s s ; Lemeur Go. have made to 5 men 70" o z s . l a s t week; the next Co. have made' $8 to $10 " per day to the hand w i t h r o c k e r ; Penton & B r o . have a v e r y r i c h c l a i m ; G r a t o n & Go. have made $120 to $12 per day to the hand b e s i d e s a nugget t h a t weighed 27 o z s . which I b e l i e v e w i l l g i v e from 18 to 20 o z s . o f pure g o l d . I n g o i n g h i g h e r up, t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l cos.- whose c l a i m s are" l a i d o v e r . F r e d B l a c k showed me a nugget which he took from 2h i s c l a i m a t the top of the creek w e i g h i n g $59. The creek has been p r o s p e c t e d f o r at l e a s t t h r e e m i l e s and i t promises to be e q u a l l y good throughout...... ¥ . H. F i t z g e r a l d confirmed the f a v o u r a b l e r e p o r t s f o r the e a r l y part of the season, but gave warning that no d i g g i n g s had been f o u n d .  extensive  In the l a t e r part of the season, r e -  sults were l e s s p r o m i s i n g but p r o s p e c t s on some benches turned out w e l l and g o l d was found on s e v e r a l creeks i n the v i c i n i t y and even on the O s a l i n k a R i v e r , a l a r g e t r i b u t a r y of the Omineca*, These f i n d s buoyed up hope f o r the next season.  The p r i c e of  p r o v i s i o n s r o s e s h a r p l y when Germansen's f i n d was made known. F l o u r s o l d a t $1,00  per l b . , bacon $1.75 per l b , and o t h e r  s u p p l i e s i n p r o p o r t i o n , t o the p r o f i t of Elmore, the only t r a d e r at Germansen Creek d u r i n g the season of 1870.  F r e s h beef c o u l d  be had f o r 50/ per l b . , because a, drove of t h i r t y - n i n e beeves had reached T a k l a L a n d i n g j u s t a f t e r the r u s h to Germansen and had been d r i v e n i n .  P a r t l y on account of the shortage of p r o v i s i o n s ,  and p a r t l y to a l l o w miners time to r e t u r n to Cariboo b e f o r e the f r e e z e - u p , F i t z g e r a l d l a i d oyer a l l c l a i m s from October 14, 1870 1  . See a l s o S y l v e s t e r ' s Report i n S e n t i n e l , November 19, 1870. A p i e c e of q u a r t z and g o l d had been found weighing 24-f- ounces, 2 I b i d . "Fred B l a c k had found another p i e c e weighing $54.00"» 3 See graph Ho, I I I p. 75 .  (69)  to  1 June 15, 1871, When t h i s news reached the merchants and packers on the way  i n with, c a r g o e s , they s t o r e d the goods and r e t u r n e d to Quesnel, 2 3 J . B. L o v e l l l e f t a "boat l o a d at F o r t S t , James. C a l b r e a t h , ' ' " 1 Dunlevy and "Wright cached t h e i r s on the S t u a r t R i v e r . 1 ' S e n t i n e l , September 24, November 19 and 26, December 3, 1870, February 4, 1371; G u a r d i a n , November 26 and 30, 1870; C o l o n i s t , November 27, 1870, 2 L o v e l l was l a t e r a merchant and packer at Glenora 1874 to 1879, perhaps l o n g e r , He was J u s t i c e of the Peace and arranged f o r l e t t e r c a r r i a g e a t 50^ per l e t t e r when the C a s s i a r m a i l was susjoended i n w i n t e r , 3 John C a l b r e a t l i ( C a l l b r e a t h , C a l b r a i t h ) was a farmer i n the Upper F r a s e r v a l l e y , s t o r e k e e p e r i n Omineca and b o t h i n C a s s i a r , I n 1870 he grew 100,000 pounds of g r a i n on h i s Pra.ser R i v e r farm ( G u a r d i a n , Dec, 21, 1870) and took s u p p l i e s i n t o Omineca i n the same year ( S e n t i n e l Oct, 29, Nov. 19, 1870). I n C a s s i a r he ran pack t r a i n s from 1874 to 1879, and p r o b a b l y l a t e r s t i l l , i n p a r t n e r s h i p a t v a r i o u s times w i t h Uriah". N e l s o n , G. B . W r i g h t , Grant and Goolc ( C o l o n i s t , Aug. 23, 1874; Feb. 4, Nov, 2, 1875; March 30, 1876; Nov. 13, 1877; March 16,-18, 1879), He had a' s t o r e on Dease Creek ( C o l o n i s t , March 30, 1876) another at" Cla-pan b a r on the Upper S t i k i n e i n 1878 ( C o l o n i s t , Sep. 13, 1878) and a t h i r d on Defot Creek ( C o l o n i s t , Oct, 11, 1878), C a l b r e a t h , G r a n t , and Cook were s t i l l i n b u s i n e s s a t Glenora i n 1887 ( B . C. D i r e c t o r y 1887)» There i s s t i l l a C a l b r e a t h f a r m i n g on S t i k i n e R i v e r .  (70)  The v a l u e of the g o l d taken from Germansen Greek i n 1870 was 1 estimated "by Germansen to he $70,000; S y l v e s t e r p l a c e d i t a t 2 .$40,000.  Newspaper r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e r e t u r n s of ah out twenty  d o l l a r s a day i n the e a r l i e r p a r t o f the season. for  After allowing  l o s t time i n wingdamming and the poorer r e t u r n s of the l a t e r  season, t e n d o l l a r s per day to the hand seems a reasonable of  estimat  the average t a k i n g s d u r i n g about f o r t y - f i v e days f o r 120  The t o t a l amount taken out a t the end of 1870  men.  on t h i s b a s i s was  $54,000. D u r i n g the w i n t e r of 1870-71, Rufus S y l v e s t e r c a r r i e d l e t t e r s newspapers, p a r c e l s , g o l d , etc,,' between Germansen Creek and Quesnel a t i n t e r v a l s of about s i x weeks and acted as guide f o r p a r t i e s t r a v e l l i n g to Germansen C r e e k . the Hudson's Bay Company's t r a i l  Rufus S y l v e s t e r f o l l o w e d  (the Telegraph T r a i l ) to F o r t S t ,  Jam.es, and then s t r u c k northward to Germansen Greek, b r e a k i n g h i s 3 own t r a i l along a r o u t e l a t e r f o l l o w e d by the government t r a i l . (See Map Ho, I o p p o s i t e page 14 a b o v e ) . The q u e s t i o n of r o u t e s caused c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n i n Quesnel and V i c t o r i a d u r i n g the w i n t e r of 1370-71,  P e t i t i o n s were  c i r c u l a t e d i n f a v o u r of an almost a l l - w a t e r route v i a , Giscome 1 C o l o n i s t , December 11, 3  1870.  SS ee nn tt ii nn ee ll , September November 19, 1870. 24, November 12, 19, 1870 M o r i c e . op, c i t , p. 318 f ,  et a l |  (71)  P o r t a g e , P a r s n i p and Omineca R i v e r s , (see p. 37 above)  and a 1  c a t t l e t r a i l from Quesnel to Germansen Greek v i a P o r t S t . James , The government a c t e d upon these p e t i t i o n s and "both r o u t e s were opened up hut the Giscome P o r t a g e Omineca R i v e r r o u t e proved so ~ 2 l o n g and d i f f i c u l t t h a t few used i t a f t e r midsummer 1871,  The  t r a i l , from Quesnel to P o r t S t , James was improved and a t r a i l made from P o r t S t , James n o r t h to- Germans en Greek, d u r i n g the 3 '4 summer of 1871. I t was f u r t h e r improved d u r i n g the next y e a r , Meanwhile SS. " V i c f o r i a " n a v i g a t e d the P r a s e r from Soda Greek to the f o o t of Cottonwood Canyon, c a l l i n g a t Quesnel and o t h e r way p o i n t s , and G. B. W r i g h t ' s steamer " E n t e r p r i s e " r a n from above Gottonwood Canyon to P o r t George, sometimes to Giscome Portage up 5 the E r a s e r . As to the Skeena r o u t e , the P r o v i n c i a l Government a d v e r t i s e d i n January 1871, f o r tenders on t r a i l s from H a z e l t o n to B a b i n e , 6 " ' and from Babine to Lake T a k l a v i a P r y i n g Pan C r e e k .  i j „ K. Wood-  cock o b t a i n e d the c h a r t e r w i t h r i g h t to c o l l e c t t o l l s i n r e t u r n 1  S e n t i n e l , December 3. 24, 1870, news Item and copy of the p e t i t i o n . See a l s o B . 0 . A r c h i v e s , M. P. 102, manuscript l e t t e r o f H. M. B a l l , G. C, to the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , dated December 28, 1870, 2 S e n t i n e l , February 4, A p r i l 29, June 24, 1871, 3 M o r i c e : o p . c i t . p. 516; C o l o n i s t , J u l y 25,September 12, 1871; S e n t i n e l , October 4, 1871. 41 3 . G, S e s s i o n a l Papers 1873, P u b l i c Accounts of 1872,p.32 5 Advertisement i n S e n t i n e l May 6, 1871. 6 Government G a z e t t e of B r i t i s h Columbia,Jan,28,1871,  (72) 1 f o r c l e a r i n g and l e v e l l i n g the t r a i l s ,  ' " B e f o r e Woodcock began  work, however, C a p t a i n W i l l i a m Moore a r r i v e d a t H a z e l t o n w i t h a t r a i n of t h i r t y animals loaded w i t h merchandise which he was under c o n t r a c t to d e l i v e r immediately to M e s s r s . S t e r l i n g and Smith a t Takla Landing.  He pushed on through l i t t l e known c o u n t r y , making  h i s own t r a i l and d e l i v e r e d h i s goods.  Then he r e t u r n e d to  H a z e l t o n , o r g a n i z e d a p r o t e s t meeting of miners and merchants to 9 demand compensation  f o r the work done.  Meanwhile, he put the  "Minnie" on the Skeena R i v e r and another boat on Lake B a b i n e . Woodcock hastened to f i n i s h h i s t r a i l s I n September but E. Dewdney i n s p e c t i n g f o r the P u b l i c Uorlcs Department, r e p o r t e d t h a t they d i d not come up to s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and they were taken over by the Government. Woodcock was l a t e r p a i d $2,000,00 compensation f o r 4 • the work done. The next y e a r $2,441,59 more was spent improving 5 them. M i n i n g was recommenced on Germansen Creek e a r l y i n .1871.  In  February James May, Ered B l a c k , Lewis H a l l o w a y , J . Lewis and a few other;,old hands snowshoed from Cariboo t o , the Greek to b u i l d '1 B. C. S e s s . P a p e r s , 1877, Report of P u b l i c Works,p.297. 2Morice; o p . c i t . p,516j C o l o n i s t , June 14, 1871, 3 S t a n d a r d , March 25, August 30, 1871. He continued the "Omineca" to T a k l a L a n d i n g . 4 B. 0. S e s s . P a p e r s , 1877., Report of P u b l i c Works p. 297. Woodcock had demanded $5,000.00. 5 B. C. S e s s , Papers 1873, P u b l i c Accounts 1872, p. 32.  (73)  s t o r e s , saloons? shacks , f o x the merchants i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the 1 expected r u s h . I n the f i r s t h a l f of March, 1871, twenty men more l e f t the C a r i b o o , and farmers became "apprehensive t h a t they w i l l not be 2 a b l e to "procure hands to put i n t h e i r c r o p s " ! I n A n r i l , s i x b o a t s and s i x canoes, b e a r i n g n i n e t y men, 3 Quesnelmouth f o r Germans en Greek,  left  I n May, the exodus i n c r e a s e d ,  I n June the number of miners a t the mines rea,ched f i v e hundred. T r a i n s of animals a l s o made t h e i r way a l o n g T e l e g r a p h - T r a i l t o ward the m i n e s , Rufus S y l v e s t e r on h i s r e t u r n to Quesnel i n May, mentions meeting D. E r c o l e w i t h a drove o f 304 sheep,  D. G.  E n g l i s h w i t h n i n e t e e n beeves and Snyder w i t h s e v e n t y - s i x cows and 4 ' beeves. Eoux hundred pack animals and another 150 head of c a t t l 5  f o l l o w e d soon a f t e r .  I n - s p i t e of t h i s , p r o v i s i o n s became v e r y  s c a r c e , f o r the pack t r a i n s , beeves and sheep were slow to a r r i v e P r i c e s remained h i g h a t the f o l l o w i n g l e v e l s  " f l o u r , 80^" per l b .  1 2  S e n t i n e l , February 4, 1871; C o l o n i s t . F e b r u a r y 24, 1871.  3  S e n t i n e l , March 1 1 , 1871. There were 125 farmers i n Cariboo. I b i d . A p r i l 29,  4 I b i d . May 5  27.  I b i d . June 3, and Standard,"June 12, 1871,  (74) 1 ($2,93 per cwt,)J  "1 ' Beans, 80/ ($2,60 per cwt.)» bacon, $1,50  (none i n market) ( 1 3 / per l b . ) ; s u g a r , $1.25 and $1,40 ( 1 0 / 1 _ ' ' per l b . ) | c o f f e e , $1.25; t e a , $2.00; y e a s t powder, $1,00 per box; • • '3 t o b a c c o , $4,00 per l b , (none i n m a r k e t ) ; c a n d l e s , $1.50". Many miners were o b l i g e d to " s u b s i s t " on one meal a day " r a t h e r than 3 „ . 3 l e a v e " . • Others had to l e a v e . The Mainland Guardian of Eev/ Westminster g i v e s the d e s c r i p t i o n 4 of t h e experiences o f one who r e t u r n e d w i t h o u t mishaps I a r r i v e d here (Germansen Greek) y e s t e r d a y , b e i n g 44 days c o n t i n u e d t r a v e l i n r e a c h i n g t h e mines, I had a v e r y d i s a g r e e a b l e t r i p on the stage t o Soda Greek, i t was r a i n i n g most of t h e time and to make t h i n g s worse, I had an o u t s i d e seat and s u f f e r e d s e v e r e l y from t h e c o l d , which the wind made very i n t e n s e , .When I a r r i v e d a t Quesnelmouth ( Q u e s n e l ) , I found the crowd g o i n g up the E r a s e r i n b o a t s ; so 1 concluded to f o l l o w t h e crowd and go by way o f E r a s e r and Steward ( S i c ) R i v e r s . We s t a r t e d on t h e steamer V i c t o f i a , which took us up to Cottonwood Canyon c o n n e c t i n g w i t h the E n t e r p r i s e f o r E o r t George Canyon. We were two o r t h r e e day ( s i c ) g o i n g and g e t t i n g ready t o embark i n the s m a l l b o a t s , t h r e e o f which s t a r t e d . The one I took passage on was the" • l a r g e s t , i t b e i n g 47 f e e t l o n g and about 12 f e e t w i d e . When the passengers and crew g o t on board we were v e r y crowded, t h e r e b e i n g 29 persons a l l t o l d . We stopped every n i g h t to camp, and as we stopped gen1 The b r a c k e t s c o n t a i n t h e p r i c e s o f these commodities c a l c u l a t e d from the r e t u r n s o f imports amount and p r i c e i n the B. C. Gazette June 17, 1871. The r e t a i l p r i c e s would be h i g h e r . 2 I b i d , hams and bacon were lumped t o g e t h e r i n t h e import r e t u r n s . 3 S e n t i n e l , June 24, 1871, for" a graph of some p r i c e s 4 on Germansen Creek see next page, Guardian, August 1 1 , 1871,  (751 Grap]i I I I „ P r i c e s (i t Germans* ;n Cireek 1 1870 jmd :L871 went to |^3.00 bacon beans sugar flour • beef  2 .00  •  \  1..50  . |^  ... -,t  \  1 .00  .50  1870  ]L871  c |S  >^ ^  Q  3 The r e f e r e n c e s Aug. 1(?)1870 Nov. 7(? 11870 Mav 30(?11871 June 6 J u l y 1(?) J u l y 16 J u l y 30 Aug • 6 Aug. 15(?) Aug• 30 Sep. 8 ctfi-n. 24  Oct.  4(?)  Oct. 23 (  1  C  J  <^  Qo  > cc  J X  04 u  >o  +4 .1  -*-> J  a  f o r the v a r i o u s <i a tes are g i v e n helow: -S e n t i n e l , Aug * 24 « 1870. -G-1a a r d i a n , Nov.30,1870 ; Col o n i s t ,Dec.1,1870. - S e n t i n e l . June 24 1871. - C o l o n i s t , June 30 9 J u l y 5 , 1871 • -3 t a n d a r d , J u l y 25 ,1871; C o l o n i s t , J u l y 25,1871 • -S e n t i n e l . Aug 5,1871. - S e n t i n e l , Aug • 12 ,1871,J.C; Colonist,Aug.15 ,1871. P eter Cargotitch. - S t a n d a r d . Aug • 30 .1871. e n t i n e l . Sep. 2,1871 R.S. and S p e c i a l c orrespondent ( J . C . ) - S e n t i n e l , Sep.16,1871 • J .0 Standard ,Sep.25,L871 * Statement • -c o l o n i s t . Oct .4 ,187 1, Germansen 1871. 5, - S t a n d a r d , Oct.2 • -S e n t i n e l , Oct.28,1871 ; C o l o n i s t Sfov.5, L871 t s t a n d a r d , Nov.6 » 1871. - C o l o n i s t , Nov.22,1871 Guardian ,Nov.22,1871.  i n d i c a t e s an approximate date 9  (76)  e r a l l y about 6 o ' c l o c k we had p l e n t y o f time t o f i s h and cook. We caught some v e r y n i c e t r o u t on t h e way up, w e i g h i n g from h a l f a pound up t o t e n pounds, I p a i d $25.00 f a r e t o T a t l a ( T a k l a ) Landing ( s i c ) and 12-g- per cent ( s i c ) on grub and b l a n k e t s . On r e a c h i n g T a t l a h Landing ( s i c ) I s h o u l d e r e d my "swag" weighing one hundred pounds and s t a r t e d to make a portage of f i f t y m i l e s t o the Omineca r i v e r . ( s i c ) I t took me f o u r day3 to make the f i f t y m i l e s ; b u t I t h i n k i f a l l the g o l d i n t h i s Omineca, c o u n t r y were o f f e r e d t o me to do i t a g a i n 1 would not do i t . A f t e r r e a c h i n g the r i v e r , I found the boatmen wanted seven d o l l a r s f o r a passage down, and seven cents p e r l b , on our p a c k s , which we o b j e c t e d t o , so we took a h a l f day's r e s t and th en walked e i g h t m i l e s f u r t h e r , We then b u i l t a r a f t on which we embarked w i t h our " i k t a s " and r e a c h ed Germansen Greek i n t h i r t e e n h o u r s . . . . . I am a p e r f e c t p i c t u r e t o l o o k a t ; r o u g h , ragged and d i r t y . The knees of my pants a r e i n a v e r y d e l a p i d a t e d s t a t e , and as f o r t h e s e a t , t h a t f e l l out l o n g ago. M i n i n g proceeded apace on t h e Germansen Greek; t h e creek was staked f o r many m i l e s .  A new D i s c o v e r y Company l o c a t e d c l a i m s  about e i g h t m i l e s above t h e lower canyon and took out 380 ounces i n t h i r t e e n days; Duncan McMartin and Gompany made f o r t y d o l l a r s per day t o t h e hand on an a d j o i n i n g c l a i m ; R a l p h and Company 1 - -"• averaged t e n d o l l a r s a day t o t h e hand u s i n g a r o c k e r .  Every-  t h i n g was l o o k i n g r o s y when the s p r i n g f r e s h e t swept the creek i n 2 May and h i g h water suspended creek mining f o r a month. The benches then claimed a t t e n t i o n .  Even d u r i n g A p r i l , Ered  B l a c k and t h r e e o t h e r s had been d i g g i n g out f r o z e n d i r t , and packS e n t i n e l , June 24, 1871, See a l s o the r e p o r t of P. O ' R e i l l y , G, G. dated Germansen C r e e k , June 6, "A company o f f i v e men,..........washed up 390 ounces a f t e r 15 days washing" i n the C o l o n i s t , J u l y 5, 1871. 2 I b i d . May 20, and August 5. The creek c l a i m s were l a i d over u n t i l June 3,  (77)  ing  i t down to t h e creek where they washed i t , making t e n cents  a pan.  They thought t h a t , a f t e r the f r o s t got out of t h e ground3 1  good pay c o u l d he made w i t h a d i t c h and s l u i c e "boxes.  On t h e  South F o r k o f Germansen, Ben Edwards and Company sank a s h a f t to a depth of t h i r t y f e e t and began d r i f t i n g w i t h f a i r r e s u l t s f o r a t i m e , b u t as the c l a i m d i d n o t pay as w e l l as h i s o l d one i n 2 C a r i b o o j Edwards abandoned i t and r e t u r n e d t o B a r k e r v i l l e . The company t h a t c o n t i n u e d o p e r a t i o n s sank a deep s h a f t but f a i l e d to 3 r e a c h bed r o c k by w i n t e r , so t h e y , t o o , abandoned i t . S e v e r a l companies were encouraged by good p r o s p e c t s on the 4 benches to d i g d i t c h e s f o r a water s u p p l y .  The most s u c c e s s f u l  of these was t h e C o r n i s h Company o f f i v e men who worked on t h e f l a t j u s t above the Germansen Creek t o w n s i t e .  They worked f o r  s i x weeks on a d i t c h , which enabled them to wash out f i f t e e n ounces i n f o u r days f o r the f i r s t c l e a n - u p , u s i n g s l u i c e boxes and twelve and e l e v e n ounces to two l a t e r c l e a n - u p s , or about an ounce per : 5 day t o t h e hand f o r t h e p e r i o d o f washing.  'Gold a t Germansen was  w o r t h s i x t e e n d o l l a r s an ounce so t h a t t h e d a i l y earnings o f these men, i n c l u d i n g t h e s i x weeks' d i t c h i n g , was i n t h e neighborhood of 1 Ibid. 2 I b i d . June 24 and August 5. 3 I b i d . October 14. 4 I b i d , June 24, 5C o l o n i s t , August 5 and 30, 1871. Report of Mr, Budlong i n t h e l a t t e r .  (78)  three d o l l a r s a day. Gulch.  The C o r n i s h Company migrated  t o B l a c k Jack  A c e r t a i n K e l l y Company was r e p o r t e d doing w e l l on a  bench c l a i m i n August b u t no p a r t i c u l a r s were g i v e n . F o r the r e s • 2 numerous benches were t r i e d and found to pay o n l y s m a l l wages, which were n e v e r t h e l e s s s u f f i c i e n t t o a t t r a c t a l a r g e number o f miners i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f the season a f t e r they had t r i e d out 3 the c l a i m s on the creek b e d . The water receded i n June 1871, and t h e miners commenced e n e r g e t i c measures f o r d i v e r t i n g t h e creek above the town where wide f l a t s and a winding channel made such a course  feasible.  E l s e w h e r e , wingdams d o t t e d the. c r e e k , water w h e e l s , I n g e n i o u s l y , c o n s t r u c t e d , pumped t h e dammed areas c l e a r o f w a t e r , and men b e gan washing the g r a v e l w i t h s l u i c e boxes o f lumber hewn out o f l o g s o r bought from two s a w - m i l l s , C h r i s t i e B r o s , ' and Romanos', 4 on t h e upper p a r t of the c r e e k , a t 12-g-/ p e r f o o t . were most d i s a p p o i n t i n g .  The r e s u l t s  The o n l y company t o pay c o n s i s t e n t l y  w h i l e working creek c l a i m s was t h e Payne Company which d i v i d e d a d i v i d e n d o f f i f t y d o l l a r s a day to the i n t e r e s t f o r about two 5 months,  Isaac (Ike) Stevens and Company, Kearney (on a c l a i m  1 2 3  I b i d , August 30, and September 2, Small wages'meant about e i g h t d o l l a r s ( h a l f an ounce) per day w h i l e washing. C o l o n i s t , August 10, "1871 and S e n t i n e l , September 2, 1871, 4 S e n t i n e l , September 2,1871, S y l v e s t e r ' s S e p o r t . Standard, J u l y 25, 1371. C o l o n i s t J u l y 25, 1871, 5 . I b i d , September 2 and ""30, C o l o n i s t , October 4 and 8 9 1871  (79)  bought from "Twelve-foot D a v i s ) , Dan McDonald, and the Lewis 1 Company, r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r y i e l d s f o r b r i e f p e r i o d s . As f o r .the r e s t , d u r i n g the b e s t week r e p o r t e d f o r the hundred miners below the t o w n s i t e , the t o t a l r e t u r n was f i v e hundred ounces of g o l d , an average of about $11,50 per day to the hand 2 w h i l e w a s h i n g , g e n e r a l l y , they obtained less'. D i v e r t i n g the creek was even more d i s a p p o i n t i n g , and by the end of A u g u s t , men were l e a v i n g Germansen Creek a t the r a t e of 3 3 seventy per day. Even James Germansen t r i e d to s e l l h i s c l a i m . The g e n e r a l r e s u l t of a c t i v i t i e s i n 1872, were s i m i l a r to t h a t o f 1871, on a s m a l l e r s c a l e .  The Payne Company p a i d twenty4  f o u r d o l l a r s a day to the hand throxighout the season.  The Eugon  Company took out 110 ounces i n two weeks and n o t h i n g d u r i n g the r e s t of the s e a s o n . day to the hand.  Three companies p a i d about twenty d o l l a r s pe  A few o t h e r s p a i d wages.  The r e s t , about 125  out of 150 men on the c r e e k , earned expenses or l e s s and l e f t 5  early. 1 C o l o n i s t , August 15 and September 2, 1871s, and S e n t i n e l , September 2, 1871. 2 S e n t i n e l , September 16, 1071. 3 C o l o n i s t , August 30, 1871? r e p o r t of G. P . Budlong. 4 S e n t i n e l , J u l y 6, 27, September 21, and October 5 26, 1872. I b i d , and C o l o n i s t , a p . c i t .  (80) SECTION 5,  In 1871  MANSON CREEK  1871  - 72  the c e n t r e of the Omineca mining a c t i v i t i e s  from Germansen Creek to the Hanson Creek d i s t r i c t . ,  shifted  Manson Creek  l i e s ahout e i g h t m i l e s to the south-east of Germansen,  Manson  Creek i s a - s m a l l stream w i t h about o n e - t h i r d of the volume of water of Germansen Greek and o n l y f i f t e e n m i l e s l o n g .  I t flows  i n t o Manson Lake through a range o f steep h i l l s w i t h numerous s m a l l g u l l i e s , from which a number of t r i b u t a r i e s from one to 1 t h r e e m i l e s l o n g f e e d the c r e e k . B l a c k Jack G u l c h , L o s t C r e e k , 2 Myers Greek,. S l a t e Greek, Nugget Gulch and K i l d a r e Greek are a l l of  t h i s nature.  These s m a l l streams p r o v i d e d a ready supply of  water f o r s l u i c i n g . Cariboo.  Bed Rock was w e l l below the s u r f a c e , aa i n  The f i e l d was  not r i c h , and the r u s h t h e r e f o l l o w e d a-  l o n g the l i n e s of the rushes d i s c u s s e d above, except t h a t the deep d i g g i n g s prolonged i t f o r two y e a r s , 1871 to 1873, .Gold was d i s c o v e r e d on Manson Greek by Robert H o w e l l , a 3 . . . . . . former R o y a l E n g i n e e r , on J u l y 5,'1871, He dug a d i t c h , hewed a s l u i c e - b o x out of a t r e e and on the t h i r d day, washed out a4 bout two ounces ($36,00) of coarse g o l d i n two h o u r s .  He formed  1 V a r i o u s l y r e f e r r e d to as - I l i e J o s e , I l l e m o r e , E l e n o r e , E l e a n o r , E l l e n o r e , E l n o r a , Elm, and Elmore G u l c h . I t obtained i t s name from i t s d i s c o v e r e r , "Black Jack" Smith. 2 At f i r s t named S k e l e t o n Creek on account of the d i s covery on i t of t h r e e s k e l e t o n s , t o o l s , u t e n s i l s , and remnants of c l o t h i n g ; See C o l o n i s t , October 8, 1871, ' 34S e n t i n e l , August 5, 18.71. Colonist 9, 1871 and r e p o r t of P , O ' R e i l l y , G • C.  (81) 1 a company and "began whipsawing lumber f o r s l u i c e s .  His dis-  covery a t t r a c t e d other miners who found g o l d on t h e v a r i o u s t r i 2 < b u t a r i e s o f Hanson C r e e k . ing  About two hundred worked c l a i m s d u r -  August and September, The r e t u r n s on most o f t h e creeks were poor»  Greek i t s e l f  On Manson  the D i s c o v e r y Company (Howell and Company) d i v e r t e d  the creek and o b t a i n e d f o u r d o l l a r s f o r a month's work. 3 Jack G u l c h , near Howell's o r i g i n a l s t r i k e ,  On B l a c k  "Black J-aok" S m i t h ,  the d i s c o v e r e r , a f t e r g e t t i n g a b i g i n i t i a l r e t u r n , made o n l y two d o l l a r s p e r day f o r w o r k i n g f i f t y f e e t o f h i s c l a i m .  Shafts  sunk t o the bed-rock i n v a r i o u s p l a c e s u s u a l 13/ gave d i s c o u r a g i n g r e t u r n s . One Company made t h r e e d o l l a r s i n t h r e e days on Manson 4 C r e ek, Two on Myers Creek dug t o depths o f t h i r t y - f i v e and seventyf i v e f e e t through b l u e c l a y w i t h o u t o b t a i n i n g a n y t h i n g , o r even reaching bedrock. A few c l a i m s , however, p a i d f a i r l y w e l l .  The D i s c o v e r y  Company - J . Carson and Company - on L o s t C r e e k , took out an ounce p e r day, (about $16.00) t o the hand d u r i n g most o f the 1 B. C. A r c h i v e s . M. S. S. 802, a 1. L e t t e r from H o w e l l t o O ' R e i l l y dated Manson R i v e r , J u l y 12,1871, 2 S e n t i n e l , September 30, 1871 and C o l o n i s t , October 4, 1871, 3 D i s c o v e r e d by "Black Jack" S m i t h , here c a l l e d B . S m i t h , and Shep Young; S e n t i n e l , August 5, 1871 4 and C o l o n i s t , August, 15, 1871. C o l o n i s t , August 30 and 31, 1871.  (82)  season, ground s l u i c i n g .  1  ' The I r v i n g Company, w i t h f i v e  men,  took out 192 ounces i n f i v e days and a t t h e c l o s e of the season 2 a share in" the Company s o l d f o r t w e n t y - f i v e hundred d o l l a r s . A few s h a f t s on B l a c k Jack G u l c h s t r u c k bedrock at a depth of t w e n t y - f i v e f e e t and p a i d t e n , t w e n t y - f i v e , and '3 . . to. the pan s John "White took out e i g h t e e n hundred ' the  fifty.cents . . . . do 1 Lars d u r i n g . "4  season and "Twelve-foot" D a v i s 140 ounces i n one week,  G r a v e l on the benches of Manson Creek p a i d as much as an ounce a day to the hand.  P l a n s were l a i d i n the f a l l f o r the f o r m a l i o n 5  of a j o i n t s t o c k company to s u p p l y water to the benches. Among the l a s t r e p o r t s o f the season was one t h a t P e t e r s o n , and D. Humphreys had t a k e n f i v e thousand and two thousand d o l l a r s 6 i n t u r n from the same c l a i m on P e t e r s o n P l a t . v e r y h o p e f u l v i e w of Manson R i v e r ,  Everyone took a  Once more a f a v o u r a b l e r e p o r t  i n the autumn gave a new les.se of l i f e to Omineca.  About 150  remained f o r the w i n t e r , more t h a n i n any o t h e r - y e a r .  A few dug  tunnels, 1 S e n t i n e l , August 12, September 30, and October 4, 1871, 2 C o l o n i s t , September S e n t i n e l , Septemb 3 C o l o n i s t , August 30 per pan g i v e s about 4 ' C o l o n i s t , September 6 29, I b i d .1871. November 22, 5 I b i d . Sentember 2,  2, and October 4, 1871. nd 30, 1871. and 31, 1871, One d o l l a r two ounces (f 36.00) per day, • . 2, October 4, and November 1871. 1871.  men  (83)  The s p r i n g of 1872 was l a t e .  As the f r o s t came out of the  ground the miners dug d i t c h e s to supply water to the bench c l a i m s on Manson and S l a t e G r e e k s , but mining d i d not become g e n e r a l un-. t i l Julyi  Then the s t o r y of Germansen- Greek was r e p e a t e d ,  The  P e t e r s o n c l a i m on D i s c o v e r y P l a t , Manson Greek, p a i d n e a r l y f o u r thousand d o l l a r s to the i n t e r e s t on the season's work.  The Guichon  Company on S l a t e Creek d i v i d e d 180 ounces between two men f o r the season: and the D i s c o v e r y Company of f i v e men at L o s t Greek, took from seventy to a hundred ounces per week out of a seventy f o o t s h a f t d u r i n g the season.  The m a j o r i t y p a i d o n l y wages or expenses, 1  and many l o s t money on t h e i r v e n t u r e .  Prices declined  steadily.  (See graph on next page) nThe g r e a t e s t number of miner's i n the Omineca f i e l d i n 1872 was s i x hundred, d u r i n g A u g u s t , of which f o u r hundred and f i f t y 2 were i n the Manson Greek a r e a ; but by September the number had "3 been reduced to two hundred and f i f t y , and "few making grub"„  A  g e n e r a l exodus took p l a c e when a f r e s h e t made a c l e a n sweep of a l l dams, water w h e e l s , machinery, s l u i c e boxes and r o c k e r s on b o t h 4 Germansen and Manson C r e e k s . N e a r l y a hundred were d e s t i t u t e when S e n t i n e l , August 17, September 21, Octbber 26, 1372. C o l o n i s t , August 21, September 14, October 1 &, 24, 1872. 2 S e n t i n e l , August 17, 1872. 3 . C o l o n i s t , September 14, 1872* 4 C o l o n i s t , October 24, 1872. S e n t i n e l , October 26, 1872,  (84) GRAPE ]:v PRICES I N OMINECA 1872 -• ]1873. 1 l  ..00  .50  '"O  N.  to  +^  V  2:  Q  1872  187 3  bacon flucrar  — beans beef flour 1 The references 3 i'0]I 1th s v a r i o u s date B 1ar e given below: March 7 . 1872 m S e n t i n e l , March 30, 1872. A n r i l i . :L872 m S t a n d a r d , May 15, 1872. m S e n t i n e l , J u l :Y 6, 1872; June 23 . L872 ! C o l o n i s t , J u l y 18 > 1872 C o l o n i s t , August 7, 1872. J u l y 2, L872 October 17. L372-Sentine 1, October 26, 187 2. Anjo-ust 4.1873 m Standar d, September 1 5, 1873. •  (85)  they reached the mouth of Skeena R i v e r so t h a t the Government 1 p a i d over a thousand d o l l a r s i n f r e e passages to V i c t o r i a , 2 S e v e n t y - f i v e w i n t e r e d a t the mines t u n n e l l i n g . I n 1873 no new s t r i k e s were r e p o r t e d from Omineca,  Parties  l e d "by "Black Jack" Smith and Pred B l a c k and s e v e r a l others went •out p r o s p e c t i n g i n the f a l l of '72 and s p r i n g of '73 on O s a l i n k a 3 Riirer and P i n l a y R i v e r .  The Government had v o t e d $1,250.00 f o r  e x p l o r a t i o n i n Omineca d i s t r i c t and a p u b l i c meeting of miners decided to send James May to the Bear Lake c o u n t r y . He p r o s p e c t e d "4 t h e r e i n September and October  but n o t h i n g came of i t .  I n the  mines t h e r e were never more than two hundred and seventy men a t work d u r i n g 1873.  The o n l y c l a i m s t h a t p a i d w e l l were the D i s -  covery c l a i m on l o s t Creek and the P e t e r s o n c l a i m on Manson Creek, 5 which y i e l d e d from n i n e t y t o two hundred ounces per week.  The  r e s t of the c l a i m s , i n c l u d i n g the Payne Company on Germansen C r e e k , p a i d from poor to good wages w i t h o c c a s i o n a l pockets of good pay, as f o r example, the pocket d i s c o v e r e d by the Canadian 1 B. C. S e s s , Papers 1873 P u b l i c Accounts of 1872 P.10. 2 S e n t i n e l , January 4, 1873, 3 C o l o n i s t , October 6, and 24, 1872; J u l y 5, October .17, and November 19, 1873. S t a n d a r d , A p r i l 21, J u l y 1, and November 19, 1873;" S e n t i n e l „ September 28, and October 26, 1872; March 29 s A p r i l 5, J u l y 26," and August 9, 1873, 4 B. C. S e s s . Papers 1874., Omineca E x p l o r a t i o n PP, 79 - 80, v a r i o u s l e t t e r s and a copy of the minutes of the m i n e r s ' meeting at Dunkeld. 5 Standard, S e p t . 16, 18<73; C o l o n i s t , S e p t . 12, and Nov, 19, 1873; S e n t i n e l , Aug. 9, and September 6, 1873,  (86) 1 Company on B l a c k Jack G u l c h , which p a i d f o r t y ounces i n a week, and t h a t of Hearn and Johnson on Germansen C r e e k , which p a i d a2 "bout the same, and t h a t of Macdonald and Company on Manson Greek, 2 from which one p i e c e of g o l d valued at $40,00 was t a k e n ,  But  these were e x c e p t i o n a l s t r i k e s , and when the r e p o r t s of good prospects  i n C a s s i a r reached Omineca at the "beginning of O c t o b e r ,  1873", most of the men l e f t to t r y t h e i r l u c k i n the n o r t h . The number of miners i n Omineca d u r i n g the next t e n years between f i f t y and a hundred but s t e a d i l y d e c r e a s i n g no, V  on the next page and appendix G no, 1,)  was  (See graph  The g o l d  production  of $400,000 i n 1871 d e c l i n e d to about $30,000 (See graph no, V I . page87A and appendix C no, 2.)  1 2  S t a n d a r d , September 16, 1873 C o l o n i s t , November 18, 1873,  ( 87 ) Graph V SEASONAL VARIATION IN POPULATION OP CASSIAR 1873-1880 AND OMINECA 1869-1880  Cassiar C a s s i a r Chinese Omineca  2  Eor the h a s i s of t h i s graph see appendix D No. 2»and Appendix c N o S f o r Summer, ¥ f o r W i n t e r . *  (87A ) GRAPH VI GOLD PRODUCTION IN OiuilNECA AND CASSIAR 18€ 9-188C 1,100,000 Omin eca Cass iar  1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000  ].8C9  •70 t 71 i 72 i'73  1 Fo r th s ha si 3  <  74 t75 i 76 t77 t78 i 79  «  80  C No. 2 J this i gr aph se e Appendix and Appendix D No. 1•  (88) CHAPTER IV CASSIAR/ 1872 - 1880 SECTION 1. - GEOGRAPHY 1 Cassiar  was the name applied i n the early days to the m i n -  i n g region i n and ahout the Liard River basin i n the f a r north of B r i t i s h Columbia. After the discovery of gold on Thibert Creek, the Cassiar land Recording d i s t r i c t was created bounded "on the South by the 55th P a r a l l e l of North l a t i t u d e , on the East by the 124th. Meridian of West longitude, on the North by the 60th 2 P a r a l l e l ; and on the west by Alaska."  This was Cassiar i n the  period 1872 to 1880. 3 The l i a r d River  has i t s source i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y . I t  flows i n a south-easterly direction for about two hundred miles, enters B r i t i s h Columbia, flows east for another two hundred miles at a distance of from t h i r t y to sixty miles south of the B r i t i s h -  1 The name Cassiar i s thought to be a corruption of Kasha, an Indian name f o r the d i s t r i c t . 2Sentinel, November 7, 1874. 3 The Liard River Is variously referred to as Deloire, Deliore, D e l o i r , Delyare, "Ore, d ' E l i o r , D'Liard, D e l ' l i a r d , D e l i a r d , L a i r d , Riviere des L i a r d s , Riviere aux l i a r d s , and Lizzard (Lee-zar). Riviere des Liards was probably the o r i g i n a l name given to i t by the Prench-Canadian voyageurs of the Hudson's Bay Company. Confusion sometimes arises from the fact that Port Nelson River"(not Nelson River) and Dease River, both tributaries of the L i a r d , were sometimes called Deloire River and t h a t Delure Creek, a tributary of Dease Creek, was sometimes called Deloire Creek.  (89)  Columbia-Yukon boundary, then t u r n i n g towards t h e n o r t h - e a s t , i t xecrosses  t h e p r o v i n c i a l boundary and. j o i n s the Mackenzie R i v e r  at P o r t Simpson (See map No, I o p p o s i t e p . 1 4 ) .  In the B r i t i s h  Columbian, s e c t i o n t h e L i a r d R i v e r i s s w i f t , t u r b u l e n t , and dangerous t o n a v i g a t e , e s p e c i a l l y where i t p i e r c e s t h e Rocky Mountains 1 a t D e v i l ' s Portage and H e l l ' s Gate, The p r i n c i p a l t r i b u t a r i e s o f the L i a r d R i v e r i n B r i t i s h . Columbia a r e t h e P o r t N e l s o n , t h e T u r n a g a i n , and the Dease.  Port  N e l s o n R i v e r (See map n o . I o p p o s i t e p. 14) d r a i n s a l a r g e s e c t i o n of the f o o t h i l l country east o f t h e Rocky Mountains, I t s source 2 i s a few m i l e s from t h e Half-way R i v e r , a t r i b u t a r y o f the peace, and i t j o i n s t h e L i a r d about t h i r t y m i l e s above the p o i n t where 3 the L i a r d l e a v e s the p r o v i n c e .  The Turnagain. R i v e r  j o i n s the  L i a r d about a hundred mi 1es west of P o r t N e l s o n R i v e r .  Its largest  t r i b u t a r y , t h e K e c h i k a o r Muddy R i v e r , r i s e s a few m i l e s from t h e source o f the P i n l a y R i v e r , i n t h e S i f t o n P a s s . Dease R i v e r  d r a i n s Dease Lake and f l o w s i n t o L i a r d R i v e r  j u s t a f t e r , t h e l a t t e r enters B r i t i s h Columbia.  I t i s about two  1 So named by K. B . C. voyageurs; see Campbell's J o u r n a l p. 3 1 . 2 A l s o c a l l e d Middle R i v e r , R i v i e r e au M i l i e u , and R i v i ere du M i l i e u , 3 A l s o c a l l e d the B l a c k R i v e r , and t h e L i t t l e Muddy River. 4 Dease R i v e r i s not Cottonwood R i v e r . Cottonwood R i v e r i s a t r i b u t a r y of Dease R i v e r and flows i n t o i t about f o r t y m i l e s below Dease L a k e . Cottonwood Lake and Cottonwood Rapids a r e b o t h on Dease R i v e r , • t h e former j u s t above, and the l a t t e r j u s t below the mouth of Cottonwood R i v e r . This s e c t i o n o f Dease R i v e r was - and s t i l l i s - f r e q u e n t l y c a l l e d Cottonwood River,  (90)  hundred miles long.  I t s most important tributaries are, from the 2  1  west, Canyon River, Cottonwood River,  McDame Creek  and French  Creek which j o i n i t at distances respectively ten, t h i r t y - f i v e , ninety p and 130 miles north of Dease Lake and, from the east, Rapid Riverj ahout twenty miles below McDarae Creek. (See map I opposite p. 14) . -Dease Creek (not Dease River) and Thihert Creek flow i n t o 3 Dease Lake from the west, the former about ten miles from the south end of the lake and the l a t t e r near i t s outlet at the north 4 end.  Laketon  was situated at the mouth of Dease Creek. (See map  IV opposite this page)  C e n t r e v i l l e , the other town i n Cassiar, was  at the mouth of the Second North Fork of McDame Creek. (See map I V opposite this page.)  -  The mining year i n Cassiar as i n Omineca f e l l into two seasons: spring and summer. The spring mining season lasted from the breakup i n A p r i l u n t i l the beginning of the freshets and spring floods two or three weeks l a t e r .  The summer mining season  began during the recession of the high water i n June and July and lasted u n t i l the freeze-up i n October.  The days were long - over  1  '  Dease River i s not Cottonwood. River,  I  .  -  -  a/,.] s t i l l I s - , .  Sometimes scelt "Dice". 4Also Laketown and Lake Town.  +  "  ,  I e f  ... ..•.•..;-=d  Also called Nigger Creek. O f . Giscombe Portage. 5  7  (91)  twenty hours o f d a y l i g h t i n June - , the weather was h o t , and the i n s e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y the mosquitoes, t o r t u r e d the miners day and night,  The_ two seasons i n c l u d e d about 150 working d a y s , about  h a l f of wl^ich were l o s t i n the ea,rlier y e a r s on account o f f r e s h e t s and the c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e p a i r o f dams, s l u i c e s , a,nd o t h e r e q u i p ment, A t f i r s t the miners n e g l e c t e d the s p r i n g season "but a f t e r the  d e s t r u c t i v e s p r i n g f r e s h e t of 1875 they reached t h e i r c l a i m s  1 e a r l y i n o r d e r to take f u l l advantage of t h e s p r i n g low w a t e r ,  SECTION 2, - DISCOVERY  News of g o l d i n C a s s i a r was f i r s t brought to the o u t s i d e w o r l d 2 by an o l d p r o s p e c t o r named Angus M c C u l l o c h , i n 1872, I t i s p o s s i b l however, t h a t other men washed g o l d i n t h i s d i s t r i c t b e f o r e h i m . ' 3 Robert Cunningham and a, c e r t a i n Hanson may have done so i n 1369. 4 V i t a l ' L a f o r c e ascended t h e E i n l a y on an extended t r i p i n 1871 and may have p e n e t r a t e d the L i a r d v a l l e v ,  P e t e r Toy and W i l l i a m Gust 5  i n t e n d e d to go to L i a r d R i v e r when they l e f t Omineca i n 1872.  A  1 • M i n i n g R e p o r t , 1875, p. 602, A l s o s p e l t McCullough and M c C u l l o g h . 3 See J , B. Kerrs B i o g r a p h i c a l Sketches of Wellknown B r i t i s h Columbians, Vancouver, K e r r and Begg, 1890,p.135. 4 S e n t i n e l , October 28/ 1871, 5 I b i d . J u l y 6, 1872.  (92)  c e r t a i n Hughes was r e p o r t e d p r o s p e c t i n g on the D e l o i r e R i v e r i n 1 the same y e a r . A p a r t y l e d by F . ¥ . Harte set out about t h a t time from Omineca and, by way  of the Peace, H a l f w a y , P o r t  Nelson,  L i a r d , Mackenzie, p e e l , B e l l , R a t , and Yukon R i v e r s , reached B e r i n g \ 2 S t r a i t i n J u l y 1874,  Hone of these p a r t i e s r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g g o l d  i n G a s s l a r "at the time and, t h e r e f o r e , the c r e d i t of d i s c o v e r y must-be g i v e n to M c G u l l o c h and h i s p a r t n e r Henry T h i b e r t . Angus McCulloch or 1866,  took p a r t i n the g o l d r u s h to B i g Bend i n 1865  When he l e f t B i g Bend he crossed the Rocky Mountains to  Athabasca R i v e r and p o s s i b l y prospected t r i c t u n t i l he met  T h i b e r t t h e r e i n the w i n t e r of 1870-71.  Henry T h i b e r t was Minnesota.  i n the Mackenzie R i v e r d i s -  a n a t i v e of M o n t r e a l who  had  s e t t l e d In  I n 1869 he l e f t S t , P a u l f o r P o r t Garry where he  Henry E a k i n g u s , who  had j u s t a r r i v e d from the Peace R i v e r mines.  The two went to the Mackenzie R i v e r and passed the w i n t e r of 70 t h e r e t o g e t h e r ,  met  They prospected  and met McGulloch i n the autumn.  1870  The next s p r i n g (1871) Hakingus  r e t u r n e d east and the o t h e r two men the mouth of the L i a r d R i v e r ,  i n t h i s d i s t r i c t during  1869-  proceeded to P o r t Simpson a t  A f t e r buying a good supply of f o o d ,  f i s h n e t s , and ammunition, they ascended the L i a r d R i v e r to P o r t 1 C o l o n i s t , December 1, 2  1872,  S e n t i n e l , September 28, October 26, 1872; June 7, J u l y 26, 1873; C o l o n i s t , December'13, 1872; October 27, 1874; C h a r l e s Horetsky; Canada on the P a c i f i c , M o n t r e a l , Dawson B r o t h e r s , 1874 p. 59.  (93)  HaLkett probably 2 1871-72.  •- 1 ' on Smith River, where they massed the w i n t e r of 3  In the s p r i n g of 1872  the two p r o s p e c t o r s continued  upstream  and f i n a l l y panned g o l d on what was  l a t e r c a l l e d McCulloch's Bar 4 about f i f t y m i l e s west of t h e i r w i n t e r q u a r t e r ' s . L a t e r i n the •' ^ 2  3  4  F o r t H a l k e t t was moved to Smith R i v e r i n 1834$ See O l i v e r : The Canadian North-West p.760; J o u r n a l of Robert Campbells p. 54, note* C o l o n i s t , November 27, 1872,' r e p o r t of an i n t e r v i e v / w i t h McCulloch;' i b i d . October 17 and 24, 1873, r e p o r t of an i n t e r v i e w w i t h H. T h i b e r t ; R. G. J l c C o n n e l l : Report on E x p l o r a t i o n s i n the Yukon and Mackenzie B a s i n s i n North-West T e r r i t o r i e s , M o n t r e a l , R o s t e r B r o t h e r s and Co,, 1891, G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada 1888-89, New S e r i e s v o l . 4, p. 29Lf Mining r e p o r t , 1876, p. 606, - The account In the mining r e p o r t s t a t e s t h a t Henry Nakingus was a member of the p a r t y on the L i a r d d u r i n g the w i n t e r of 1871-72 and t h a t he and T h i b e r t were alone on the S t i k i n e in the w i n t e r 1872-73. This i s c o n t r a r y to b o t h the i n t e r v i e w s noted abpve and to the statement to the w r i t e r by Mr. Robert Simpson, of V i c t o r i a , a, r e t i r e d PI. v>. Q . o f f i c i a l t h a t T h i b e r t t o l d him (Simpson) p e r s o n a l l y that M c C u l l o c h was h i s only companion i n the journey up the L i a r d , I can f i n d ' no support f o r the statement I n Galloway's " P l a c e r - m i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia", V i c t o r i a , B a n f i e l d , King's P r i n t e r , 1930, p.22. t h a t C a p t a i n Moore and h i s sons set out f o r C a s s i a r independently i n 1872. They explored there i n 1873, In the f o o t s t e p s of John McLeod 1832 and Robert Campbell 1838, of the H. B, C. Campbell e s t a b l i s h e d a t r a d i n g post on Dease Lake i n 1838,  G. M. Dawson: Report R. On the M i n e r a l Wealth of B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h an annotated l i s t of l o c a l i t i e s of M i n e r a l s of Economic V a l u e , G e o l , Survey New S e r i e s Volume I I I M o n t r e a l Dawson B r o t h e r s 18881889 p. 139R.  (94)  season they ascended Dease R i v e r to Dease Lake and made t h e i r way overland t o Ruck's B a r , on the S t i k i n e , where they r e c e i v e d a, warm welcome on October 2 from t h e s i x r e s i d e n t m i n e r s ,  Thibert  remained a t Buck's B a r w h i l e McGulloch went on t o V i c t o r i a to ' 1 seek, u n s u c c e s s f u l l y , government a s s i s t a n c e f o r f u r t h e r p r o s p e c t i n g The u n f o r t u n a t e McGulloch s t a r t e d out to r e j o i n T h i b e r t i n February of the next year b u t was caught by a snowstorm, a few m i l e s 2 uc the S t i k i n e R i v e r and -was f r o z e n to d e a t h . 3 On h e a r i n g of M c C u l l o c h T s d e a t h , T h i b e r t formed a p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h two other French-Canadian miners of Buck's B a r and went up to 4 De3.se Lake I n A p r i l , They panned g o l d from' T h i b e r t Creek (so c a l l e d a f t e r t h e i r l e a d e r ) made r o c k e r s and f o r a time i n May took out s i x t y d o l l a r s p e r day,  I n June they b u i l t a wingdam near the  creek mouth and f o r t h e next t e n weeks washed from f i v e to eleven 5 ounces ($80.00 to $176,00) per day to the hand. In J u l y "Buck" Choquette, the S t i k i n e R i v e r d i s c o v e r e r , v i s i t e T h i b e r t Greek,  He immediately r e s i g n e d h i s p o s i t i o n i n charge of  the H. B . C. post near the mouth o f the S t i k i n e and j o j n e d the miners. 1 See note 2 P« "'-9'5, and C o l o n i s t December 1,1872, 2 S t a n d a r d , May 15, 1873. 3 For l a t e r a c t i v i t i e s of Henry T h i b e r t see appendix E number 12, 4 A l s o c a l l e d T i b b e t ' s , T i b e t t ' s , and T h i b e t ' s . 5 C o l o n i s t , August 29, October 17 and 24, 1873, l e t t e r s of W i l l i a m Lyons and C a p t a i n Moore; J o u r n a l s and ' S e s s i o n a l Papers of B.C. L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly 1373-74, V i c t o r i a , Wolfenden, 1874, Reports of E x p l o r a t i o n , ? , 1 5 .  (95)  C l e r k s , m i n e r s , and o f f i c i a l s a t nearby p o s t s d i d l i k e w i s e , so that when the S3 " C a l i f o r n i a " reached F o r t Wrangel i n September the  o n l y man  t h e r e was  the U n i t e d S t a t e s customs o f f i c e r and good  consigned to Bromovitch's for  s t o r e had to be taken back to P o r t l a n d  l a c k of any one to r e c e i v e them,  A dozen o t h e r m i n e r s , i n -  c l u d i n g C a p t a i n Moore and h i s t h r e e sons, a r r i v e d at T h i b e r t •  ' 2  Creek from V i c t o r i a , Omineca, and C a r i b o o and set to work,  SECTION 3. - LEGAL DISPUTES,  ' I n August two of the Moore boys out p r o s p e c t i n g found ^ o l d on Dease Creek and some of the miners washed out from t e n to a hundred d o l l a r s per day each f o r a short t i m e .  They wished to  secure l o c a t i o n s on b o t h creeks and t h e r e f o r e , s i n c e t h e r e was no government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n the d i s t r i c t , they h e l d a meeting to f o r m u l a t e r e g u l a t i o n s convenient to t h e i r w i s h e s .  Twenty-  t h r e e miners - these were l a t e r c a l l e d the "pioneers" - assembled at T h i b e r t Greek on September X and approved the f o l l o w i n g r e solutions : (1) • That c l a i m s be l a i d over from 20th of September to the 20th of June 1874. (2)  That T. T a i l f e r ' s and X. Looyon's claims be  l a i d over on account of i l l n e s s . 1 Probably Baronovitch's. • 2 C o l o n i s t , August 29, September 9 and 23, 1873. B.C. S e s s i o n a l Papers 1874. Report of E x p l o r a t i o n , C a s s i a r D i s t r i c t , by W. Moore,' p p . 15-16  (96)  (3)  That miners have l i b e r t y t o go p r o s p e c t i n g f o r  20 days and t h a t t h e i r c l a i m s be r e s p e c t e d f o r t h a t p e r i o d , (4)  That ¥ . Reth (Rath)- be appointed  to r e c e i v e money  for  l i c e n c e s and r e c o r d s to be forwarded to the Government 1 as soon as p o s s i b l e . The miners acted as i f t h e r e s o l u t i o n s had the f o r c e o f l a w .  Under r e s o l u t i o n (4) W i l l i a m Rath i s s u e d miner's l i c e n s e s to those present a t the m e e t i n g , r e c e i v i n g payment i n g o l d a t seventeen d o l l a r s per ounce« a d o l l a r more than t h e o f f i c i a l s i x t e e n d o l l a r s for  raw g o l d and to t e n other miners whom he met on h i s way to  Victoria,  R e l y i n g on r e s o l u t i o n s (1). and (3) they l e f t c l a i m s on  T h i b e r t Creek unworked ( c o n t r a r y to law) w h i l e they l o c a t e d and 2 mined c l a i m s on Dease C r e e k , Meanwhile the P r o v i n c i a l Government appointed be m i n i n g r e c o r d e r f o r C a s s i a r .  J , R, Adams to  Rath met Adams a t Buck's Bar and  o f f e r e d to t u r n over h i s records of l i c e n c e s and l o c a t i o n s w i t h the fees t h a t he had c o l l e c t e d - $272.50 a t $17,00 per ounce - on c o n d i t i o n t h a t the r e c o r d s and the r e s o l u t i o n s of the miner's meeting 3 were confirmed as l e g a l , Adams was w i l l i n g to i s s u e l i c e n c e s a1 2  3  I b i d , October 17, 1873, I b i d , December 5, 6, and 7, 1873; Standard December 6, 1873; B.C. S e s s i o n a l Papers 1874, Report of E x p l o r a t i o n , C a s s i a r D i s t r i c t ' pp. 15-16, C o l o n i s t , December 5, 1873; Standard, December 6, 1873, L e t t e r o f J . E . Adams; a l s o l e t t e r o f J . R„ Adams t o Eon, R. Eeaven, dated Buck's B a r , October 10, 1873, i n the f i l e s o f the Department o f Lands 'and Works,  (97)  g a i n s t the g o l d a t the r a t e of s i x t e e n d o l l a r s per ounce and to g i v e the pioneers f i r s t c h o i c e of c l a i m s but he r e f u s e d to a l l o w the l a y - o v e r of c l a i m s from September 20 to June 20, because he 1 had been i n s t r u c t e d to l a y them over from October 15 to June 1, He r e f u s e d a l s o to acknowledge the s p e c i a l l a y - o v e r of c l a i m s on 1 T h i b e r t Creek f o r twenty days w h i l e t h e i r owners went p r o s p e c t i n g . In t h i s he was  a c t i n g a c c o r d i n g to the m i n i n g l a w s , which were  designed to f o r c e continuous work on c l a i m s , o f h i s companions, decided  R a t h , w i t h the a,ssent  to appeal to the C h i e f Commissioner of  Lands and Works i n V i c t o r i a , i n s p i t e of Adams' warning that the p i o n e e r s ' c l a i m s were l i a b l e to be "jumped" because they were not l e g a l l y recorded by p r o p e r l y l i c e n s e d m i n e r s ,  Rath hastened to  Victoria, On h i s a r r i v a l i n V i c t o r i a  on November 7, Rath e x p l a i n e d h i s  case to the C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works, p a i d i n h i s g o l d at seventeen d o l l a r s to the ounce, and on November 27 r e c e i v e d f r e e miners l i c e n c e s f o r h i m s e l f and h i s c o l l e a g u e s , 1 seemed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y s e t t l e d .  Everything  At Buck's B a r , however, the newcomers approved Adams' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the law and set out to "jump" the pioneers  claims.  News of t h i s reached V i c t o r i a e a r l y i n December and the B r i t i s h 1 C o l o n i s t , December 5, 1873; S t a n d a r d , December 6, 1873, l e t t e r of J , R. Adams; a l s o l e t t e r of J , R. Adams to Hon, E, Beaven, dated Buck's B a r , October 10, 1873, i n the f i l e s of the Department of Lands and Works,  (98)  C o l o n i s t of December 4 announced t h a t "a p a r t y of Omineca m i n e r s , headed by the Government Agent (i.e.Adams), had s t a r t e d from Buck's B a r f o r C a s s i a r t o 'jump' c l a i m s , ....... .They s t a r t e d a t 12 o ' c l o c k a t n i g h t . " /light,  That l a s t i t e m put t h e matter i n a s i n i s t e  The next day the e d i t o r of the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t f a l l o w e d  up w i t h an a r t i c l e on the " S t a r t l i n g Outrage -in C a s s i a r " i n which he gave i n d e t a i l Bath's v e r s i o n of the a f f a i r , censured Adams f o r d e c l a r i n g t h e c l a i m s s t i l l open f o r l o c a t i o n , and f i n i s h e d up w i t h a s c a t h i n g d e n u n c i a t i o n o f governmental "dishonesty and 2 tyranny." On the same day the " D a i l y Standard" took up the cudgles f o r the government'with a l e t t e r from Adams to E, B. 3 Marvin  i n which he s t a t e d t h a t Rath and h i s f r i e n d s had " s e t  the l a w a t d e f i a n c e , l a i d over cMaims t h a t were workable i n order to take up c l a i m s on a new creek ( i . e . Dease C r e e k ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . l e f t t h e i r c l a i m s two or three weeks- b e f o r e t h e i r c l a i m s were l a i d over l e g a l l y ; never d e f i n e d a c l a i m by stakes a c c o r d i n g to law; a l s o c a l l e d them a l l creek c l a i m s , when one h a l f were bench, 4 i f not more."• 1 2  I b i d , and G o l o n i s t , December 4, 1873. I b i d , December 5, 1873, 3 , A prominent V i c t o r i a merchant. See K e r r . o p . c i t , . and S c h o l e f i e l d and G o s n e l l j B r i t i s h Columbia, S i x t y Years of P r o g r e s s , Vancouver, B , C. H i s t , 4A s s . 1913. Standard, December 6, 1873,  (99)  For a few days the d i s p u t e "became a matter of p o l i t i c a l The  note.  " B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t " a t t a c k e d the government f o r i n e f f i c i e n c y ,  d i s h o n e s t y , and tyranny; the " D a i l y Standard" defended i t .  The  u s u a l l e t t e r s to the e d i t o r appealed i n both papers, some w i t h v e r y p e r s o n a l r e f e r e n c e s to o f f i c i a l s .  D e l e g a t i o n s w a i t e d upon  c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . F i n a l l y A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l Walkem promised to l e g a l i z e W i l l i a m Bath's r e c o r d by s p e c i a l a c t of the l e g i s l a t u r e where the c l a i m s had been staked and d e s c r i b e d a c c o r d i n g to the 1  mining r e g u l a t i o n s . act  The a g i t a t i o n d i e d down,. I n due course  passed and r e c e i v e d the r o y a l assent on "March 2,  was  A c l a u s e was  the 2  1874,  I n s e r t e d i n the a c t to a u t h o r i z e the e l e c t i o n of a'  r e c o r d e r by the miners themselves when i n a remote d i s t r i c t w i t h out a government a g e n t . The p a s s i n g of t h i s a c t d i d not put an end to t r o u b l e at the diggings,  Adams d e c l a r e d t h a t the c l a i m s of the p i o n e e r s were  not p r o p e r l y staked nor of l e g a l s i z e . 1874,  C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n March  some newcomers "jumped" c l a i m s l o c a t e d by the Rath B r o t h e r s  and the Moores,  At f i r s t Adams recorded the "jumpers" c l a i m s ,  then lie decided to a l l o w each of the p i o n e e r s to choose from h i s p r e v i o u s workings one l e g a l s i z e d c l a i m but to d i s a l l o w claims 3 staked f o r f r i e n d s or p a r t n e r s .  This l e f t everything u n c e r t a i n ,  1 C o l o n i s t , December 10, 1873, 32 CJ oo lu or nn ai ls t of , A pL re ig il s l16a t iand 24, May 14, and J u l1873-74,p.55. y 19, 1874, v e Assembly of B.C.,  (100)  f o r Adams d e c i s i o n s were a l l s u b j e c t t o r e v i e w by t h e g o l d commissi o n e r when he a r r i v e d .  Meanwhile hundreds  C a s s i a r from Y i c t o r i a and Omineca,  of miners poured i n t o  Claims were jumped on t h e  s l i g h t e s t . p r e t e x t and t h e l e | ; a l s i t u a t i o n was c h a o t i c ,  A letter  dated from Dease C r e e k , June 2, 1874, s t a t e s : . . n e a r l y a l l t h e t r a n s f e r s i n the r e c o r d book have been jumped. The jumpers c a l l them bogus b i l l s of s a l e . How they can prove i t i s a q u e s t i o n , b u t h o n e s t l y speaking the t r a n s f e r of c l a i m s by one partner to another has been r u n to ground i n t h i s camp A man s t a r t s i n and s t a k e s c l a i m a f t e r c l a i m and t r a n s f e r s them to h i s p a r t n e r f o r a merely nominal sum t o keep f o r b o t h of them, Some man, not h a v i n g the f e a r of a Government Agent i n h i s h e a r t and of t h e C a s s i a r Agent i n p a r t i c u l a r has a c t u a l l y jumped one o f h i s t r a n s f e r s and i s w a i t i n g f o r the next agent to s e t t l e i t . l E e l g e s o n , a merchant, r e p o r t e d : " The creek i s a l l staked o f f , c l a i m s t a k e n i n the name o f people i n the o l d c o u n t r y , and 2 f o r some who never e x i s t e d . " F o r t u n a t e l y l a t e f r o s t and s p r i n g f l o o d s prevented e x t e n s i v e m i n i n g , o t h e r w i s e t h e miners might have r e s o r t e d to p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e t o prevent work on d i s p u t e d c l a i m s . The Gold Commissioner f o r C a s s i a r , J , H. S u l l i v a n , reached Laketon towards t h e end o f May, Work ceased and some 1200 miners f l o c k e d to the l i t t l e town to hear the d i s p u t e s a r b i t r a t e d .  Dur-  i n g the. next few days f o r t y - f i v e important cases were brought be1 I b i d , J u l y 1 9 , 1874, 2 y I b i d , June 9, 1874,  (101)  f o r e the commissioner's  court.  I n each case S u l l i v a n moved c o u r t  to the a c t u a l ground i n d i s p u t e w i t h the crowd i n a t t e n d a n c e .  On  the whole h i s d e c i s i o n s were a g a i n s t the jumpers and were w e l l received,  The m a j o r i t y of the o t h e r cases were then s e t t l e d "by . 1 p r i v a t e agreement and order r e s t o r e d ,  SECTION 4, - PRODUCTION AND  POPULATION  The t o t a l v a l u e of g o l d mined i n C a s s i a r from 1872 to 1880 was a l i t t l e l e s s than $4,300,000, of which over h a l f was from Dease and T h i b e r t C r e e k s .  taken  The f i g u r e s f o r the more impor-  t a n t areas are g i v e n i n Table I on the next page and Table I I on page 103,  ^  The year 1874, w i t h a t o t a l of $1,1000,000, almost a l l  from  Dease and T h i b e r t Creeks ,• was the banner y ear of p r o d u c t i o n i n Cassiar.  There were few men  "broke" at the end of the season  and a number made $1,000 to $1,500 c l e a r p r o f i t .  The season of  1875 was n e a r l y as good,with McDame p r o v i d i n g a l a r g e s h a r e . T h e r e a f t e r p r o d u c t i o n d e c l i n e d s t e a d i l y (see the Table I page 102 Jb.elow)  1 ;  I b i d . J u l y 8 and 9; S e n t i n e l , J u l y 17, 1874,  (102)  The p o p u l a t i o n of C a s s i a r v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y from year to TABLE NO, I 4WJAL GOLD PRODUCTION ON MAIN CREEKS 1 IN CASSIAR 1872 - 1880 Date  Dease C r . T h i b e r t C r . McDame C r .  Others  Total 1,000  1,000  'l872  2  25,000  (15,000)  1873  (10 s 000)  1874  (650,000)  (340,000)'  (60,000)  50,000  1875  (350,000)  (250,000)  (245,000)  (55,000)  900,000  1876  160 s 300  139,720  163,700  • (92,744)  556,464-  195,178  162,705  50,564  499,800  1,100,000  1877  91,353 •  1878  92,871  97,012  149,837  (180,000)  519,720  1879  56,000  75,000  113,200  149,200  393,400  1880  60,900  57,900  105,000  (75,000)  298,800  Totalfl,471,424  1,169,810  999,442  653,508  4,294,184  Eor the b a s i s of these f i g u r e s see Appendix D No • 1 • 2 ( -) i n d i c a t e s an estimate based on a comparison of t h e t o t a l f o r t h e season, p r o d u c t i o n of other c r e e k s , men workingm and r e p o r t e d d a i l y e a r n i n g s .  (105)  year and from season to season, as may Toe seen i n graph So. V. 1 p. 87 . The r u s h o f 1874 r e f l e c t s t h e i n t e r e s t generated bjr the  TABLE NO. I I ANNUAL GOLD PRODUCTION IN LESS IMPORTANT 2 AREAS IN CASSIAR 1872 - 1880 Date  Defot.O. F r e n c h C. Walker G. L i a r d R.  1872  Others  Total  1,000  1,000  50,000  50,000  1873 1874 3 1875  -  (5,000) -  1876  (25,000)  1877  (15,000)  1873  75,000 (10,000)  1879  95,000  1880  15,000  T o t a l .$185,000  (30,000)  20,000  (55,000)  (30,000)  37,744  (92,744)  10,000  (10,000)  15,564 -  45,000--  (10,000)  14,700 • 24,000  69,700  (15,000)  10,000  94,000  141,000  50,564  (40,000) (180,000) (15,500)  149,200  (35,000)  (75,000)  163,808  653,508  1 Por the b a s i s of t h i s graph see Appendices C . .and p.N»-£. 2 Eor the b a s i s of these f i g u r e s see Appendix D No, 1, 3 <( ) i n d i c a t e d that the f i g u r e s a r e based on a comparison of the t o t a l f o r the season, the p r o d u c t i o n of other c r e e k s , the number of miners w o r k i n g , and t h e i r r e p o r t e d d a i l y e a r n i n g s .  (104) GRAPH VII 1 POPULATION OP CASSIAR MONTH BY MONTH 1874  CI  v_. v: >rt> :A XL  a:  X  cio  <u *~  5  H>  ^  (-=  r  _  3  cL •+-» ^ Q)  cc o0  O  J  F o r the has!a o f t h i s graph see Appendix No. 2.  (105)  romance of i t s d i s c o v e r y "by McCulloch and by the l e g a l d i s p u t e tween Adams and the p i o n e e r s .  The decrease of 1875  be-  naturally-  f o l l o w e d the f a i l u r e to f i n d e x t e n s i v e r i c h d i g g i n g s .  The  h i g h f i g u r e f o r 1876  probably  can be o n l y p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d ,  very  the development of McDame Creek and the absence of many out-and-out f a i l u r e s i n 1875 w i t h d e p r e s s i o n elsewhere were f a c t o r s i n causing 1 men 'to go to C a s s i a r i n t h a t y e a r . men,  was  The low f i g u r e f o r 1877,  t h e . r e s u l t of the l a r g e number of f a i l u r e s i n 1876,  f i g u r e s f o r the next three y e a r s , 1500, 1400, and 800 men,  1200 The  show the  steady downward t r e n d of a d e c l i n i n g mining d i s t r i c t . The p o p u l a t i o n va/ried g r e a t l y from sea,s.on to season i n the . same y e a r . Puck's P a r .  A s m a l l number passed the w i n t e r at the mines or at There was  a r u s h to the d i g g i n g s from the o u t s i d e j u s t  b e f o r e and j u s t a f t e r the breakup i n the s p r i n g and a s i m i l a r exo OAI s j u s t b e f o r e and a f t e r the freeze-up i n October.(See graph V I I A f t e r 1876  p.104  a l a r g e r number passed the w i n t e r at the d i g g i n g s , f o r  the summer r e t u r n s were s m a l l e r , the w i n t e r accomodation  was  b e t t e r , and some deep d i g g i n g s c o u l d be worked d u r i n g the w i n t e r time. An a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r to "be observed i s the i n c r e a s e i n the number and percentage of Chinese m i n e r s . t r i e d to scare them "out. 1  At f i r s t the white miners  N o t i c e s such as the f o l l o w i n g were posted  M i n i n g R e p o r t , 1876, op, 410-412, and the t a b l e of s t a t i s t i c s ; Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d s o p . c i t . v o l , I I p, 271,  (106)  along the t r a i l up the S t i k i n e E l v e r ; Notice Too Jhinermen Yu are h e a r b i n o t i e f e d t h a t i f f you gone \ i n t o these diggens you w i l l k e t c h h-11, Sou you hed b e t t e r l u k ought or y u l l s m e l l powder and b r i m s t o n e i f not hemp.1 One  boss Chinaman disappeared between L i t t l e Canyon and  Buck's B a r , whether by a c c i d e n t or v i o l e n c e i s not known.  After  S u l l i v a n ' s a r r i v a l a-t the mines, however, the Chinese were p r o t e c t e d and the a g i t a t i o n d i e d down. came n o t i c e a b l e a f t e r 1576  The number o f Chinamen be-  and by 1880  more than h a l f the  claims  were I n t h e i r hands. (See graph No. ¥ . . ' p . 87 :)  SECTION 5.  DEASE AND  Dease Creek was  the l a r g e s t and most important mining c e n t r e  i n C a s s i a r d u r i n g 1874. 3 i t s entire length,  THIBERT CREEKS.  I t was  staked f o r s i x t e e n m i l e s , almost  and supported a p o p u l a t i o n . o f seven hundred  w i t h a y i e l d of $650,000 i n g o l d . Some o l d hand3, such as the Moores, mined on a s m a l l s c a l e even b e f o r e the breakup of the i c e .  They chopped i c e from the  s i d e of the creek bed, thawed the sand and g r a v e l w i t h huge f i r e s , 1 2  C o l o n i s t , May  1,  1874,  S t a n d a r d s A p r i l 15,  1874.  3 C o l o n i s t , May  6,  1874,  (107)  and washed i t w i t h r o c k e r s .  They- r e p o r t e d a y i e l d o f from t e n to 1 s e v e n t y - f i v e d o l l a r s per day to the hand, The m a j o r i t y of the m i n e r s , however, w a i t e d u n t i l the breaiaro 2 to begin\Work.  Then t h r e e hundred companies s e t to work  damming and washing w i t h r o c k e r s .  wing-  When w a s h i n g , w h i c h was o n l y f o r  a s h o r t t i m e , they averaged about f i f t e e n d o l l a r s per day to the hand. Two companies d i d w e l l s t h e C a l i f o r n i a w i t h $300,00 f o r f o u r d a y s , and t h e D i s c o v e r y ( t h e Moores) w i t h $2600<>00 i n t h r e e 3 days.  H i g h water a t the end o f May stopped m i n i n g f o r a month. The main m i n i n g season commenced i n J u l y w i t h about seven  hundred men a t work and w i t h so many wingdams t h a t the creek bed was almost b l o c k e d f o r m i l e s ,  The r e t u r n s , as f a r as can be  a s c e r t a i n e d from the incomplete d a t a a v a i l a b l e , were as f o l l o w s t The D i s c o v e r y Company (the Moores) took out 147, 362, and 236 ounces i n r e p o r t e d weeks i n J u l y and A u g u s t , t h r e e or f o u r men w o r k i n g and seem to have m a i n t a i n e d p r o d u c t i o n a t about two hundred ounces per week.  A t t h i s r a t e each p a r t n e r made about  $10,000 f o r the s e a s o n . The B u r r Company took out 410 ounces ($6^560,00) i n t h e i r b e s t week and Brady and C l a r k e 300 ounces 4 ($4,800.00). The H i e l M c A r t h u r , Three to One, Lyons (and Waldron) 1 2  I b i d . May-5, 1874. I b i d . June 9, 1874, 3 C o l o n i s t , May 6, June 9 and 27, 1874, 4 M i n i n g R e p o r t , 1874 pp. 9 - 1 1 ,  (108)  F o r e s t Rose, ¥ i g g , C a n a d i a n , W i l l i s c r o f t , Baronovitch,. McKinnon, C a r g o t i t c h , M i l l e r , Perseverance, Giant, Diamond,Water-lilly  (sic),  Rath B r o t h e r s , I k e S t e v e n s , C a l e d o n i a , B e l f a s t , and Cock of the N o r t h companies tooin, out from t h r e e to f i v e ounces ($48 = 00 to 1 80.00) per day to the hand. Two hundred o r so companies p a i d from ten to twenty d o l l a r s per day to the hand and another hundred 1  f i v e or s i x d o l l a r s ,  The ground was s p o t t y and a l t h o u g h one  company washed 135 ounces ($2160,00) i n one day and Lyons and Waldron uncovered a f o r t y - o u n c e nugget v a l u e d a,t $700,00, t h e r e was l i t t l e v e r y r i c h ground. Much of i t was mined out I n one 1 season. The s p r i n g o f 1875 was c o l d and l a t e ? even a f t e r the breakup t h e r e was so much f r o z e n ground t h a t many miners d i d not s t a r t work d u r i n g the s p r i n g low w a t e r ,  Then a sudden change to hot  weather melted the snow on the mountain tops w i t h e x t r a o r d i n a r y speed and t o r r e n t i a l f l o o d s swept the c r e e k s . On Dease Creek ingdams, s l u i c e s , and other equipment were swept away i n t o the wi l a k e , w h i c h was l i t t e r e d w i t h f l o a t i n g lumber and d e b r i s , 2 van estimated the damage a t $50,000,00,  Sulli-  Out of 400 miners OK  Lease Creek i n 1875 o n l y twenty companies d i d a t a l l w e l l . 1 M i n i n g R e p o r t , 1874, pp. ; C o l o n i s t May 6, June 9 and 19, August 22, 23, and 25, September 24 and 26, 1874. 2 '• M i n i n g R e p o r t , 1875, p,602; C o l o n i s t June 24 and J u l y 17, 1875.  The  (109)  Andrew Company washed 500 ounces ($8,000.00)'in t h e i r t e s t week. Murphy's 270 ounces ($4,320,00), G a l l a g h e r ' s $20,000,00 i n t h r e e weeks, and Booth $10,000.00 f o r the season,  The D i s c o v e r y , L y o n s ,  •Rath,. W i l l i s c r o f t , Three to One, C a l e d o n i a , H a r r i s , G o d f r e y , H a s f o r d , C a r r i g a n , S c o t t , F o n t a i n e , and Wyoming companies washed from one to t h r e e ounces ($16,00 to $48,00) per day to the hand w h i l e a c t u a l l y washing.  The r e s t ma.de wages ($8,00) or l e s s ,  White miners Legan to leave the creek i n the middle of the season. '  2  The Grant Company s o l d out to Chinamen i n .July f o r $2,000.00  and  "Box", a C o l o n i s t news correspondent remarked on the number of " r i c h c l a i m s " a l l wingdammed and ready f o r washing whose owners "are,  strange to s a y , n e a r l y a l l down w i t h rheumatism and 3 want to s e l l out," The t o t a l y i e l d f o r the season was $350,000,00 At the b e g i n n i n g of the season i n the r u s h of 1876 380 w h i t e 4 miners and 130 Chinese l o c a t e d on Dease Greek.  By September 1,  however, there were o n l y t w e n t y - f i v e w h i t e companies at work, of which f o u r were p r o s p e c t i n g , f o u r making wages ($7,00 per day) and ten good wages ($10.00 to $16,00 per d a y ) .  Only one company, the  C a l e d o n i a , .paid w e l l d u r i n g the season w i t h a y i e l d of about one 4 thousand d o l l a r s per week to each p a r t n e r . the  The t o t a l y i e l d f o r  season-was $160,003.00. 1 M i n i n g R e p o r t , 1875,p.604-605; C o l o n i s t J u l y 20, October 27 and 28, 18751 2. C o l o n i s t , J u l y 20, 1875. 3 I b i d . September 3, 1875, .4 M i n i n g R e p o r t , 1876, p.415-416.  (110)  A few miners began t u n n e l l i n g .  S i n c e the ground was  frozen  i n p l a c e s to a depth of about e i g h t y f e e t , even i n summer, they heated r o c k s i n f i r e s a t the mouth .of the t u n n e l , wheeled them i n barrows to the end of i t , dumped them to thaw out the d i r t ,  dug  out the d i r t , and wheeled i t to the mouth of the t u n n e l f o r washing.  One company d r i f t e d 130 f e e t i n t h i s way, 1 wages ($10,00 to $16.00 per d a y ) . In 1877 Dease Creek,  They made' good  t h e r e were n i n e t y w h i t e miners and 120 Chinese on The weather was  extremely u n f a v o u r a b l e , A l a t e  s p r i n g and heavy summer r a i n s caused a s u c c e s s i o n of f r e s h e t s and mudslides which destroyed equipment or b u r i e d tlie s t r a t a of pay d i r t .  Bench and h i l l c l a i m s mining was h e l d up, t o o , on  account of the l a c k of dumping space f o r washed-out d i r t while  th  Chinamen were r e - w o r k i n g the creek bed. The r e t u r n s were o n l y '2 $81,300, However, the w i n t e r f o l l o w i n g was e x c e p t i o n a l l y m i l d 3 and some men worked h i l l c l a i m s f o r a l a r g e p a r t of i t , ' I n 1878 the C h i n e s e , 113 i n number, monopolised the creek c l a i m s and the w h i t e m i n e r s , f o r t y - f o u r i n number, worked the ' '' 4 benches,, The p r o d u c t i o n f o r the year was $62,800,00, 1 M i n i n g R e p o r t , 1876, p. 413: C o l o n i s t August 30, 1876, 2 M i n i n g R e p o r t , 1877, p. 400? C o l o n i s t , J u l y 3, September 23, 1877, 3 C o l o n i s t , February 28, 1878, 4. M i n i n g R e p o r t , 1878, p, 376 and t a b l e of statistics.  The y e a r s  (Ill)  1879  and 1880 brought marked d e c l i n e s i n b o t h p o p u l a t i o n and tiro1 " duction. Dease Greek was, f o r the time b e i n g , mined o u t . I t s t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n 1872-1800 was $1,471,424,00. (See t a b l e I P,102) The h i s t o r y o f T h i b e r t Greek i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of Dease Greek.  The f i r s t g o l d found was i n a s u r f a c e l a y e r of g r a v e l 2  t h a t was soon washed o u t . ings.  Then t h e miners turned to deeper digg-  Some of these p a i d so w e l l t h a t t h e w h i t e miners remained  i n c o n t r o l of t h e creek l o n g e r than on Dease C r e e k . I n 1874 200 3 men l o c a t e d on T h i b e r t C r e e k , The D i s c o v e r y Company ( T h i b e r t , • • • 4 and Duval) r e p o r t e d making $1,500.00 i n two weeks; a number of others made from $15,00 t o $50,00 p e r day t o the hand; b u t the ' 5" m a j o r i t y ma.de wages or l e s s .  The r e t u r n s f o r 1875 were s i m i l a r .  The next y e a r , 1876, A, ¥ , V o w e l l , the g o l d commissioner, l i s t e d f o r t y y f i v e companies wi t h 220 men on t h e c r e e k , i n c l u d i n g i t s t r i b u t a r i e s B e r r y and B o u l d e r G r e e k s .  E l e v e n companies were making  good wages ($12,00 per d a y ) ; nine wages ($6,00); twelve men on Boulder Greek poor wages ($4.00 to $5.00); McDonald's not even wages; a, dozen were p r o s p e c t i n g o r p r e p a r i n g to h y d r a u l i c k and 1 Mining R e p o r t s , 1879 and 1880; C o l o n i s t October 31, 1880. 2 " c o l o n i s t , A u g u s t 22,1874; S e n t i n e l August 29,1874. 3 C o l o n i s t , June 19, J u l y 5, August 22,1874; Mining Report 1874,- p . 4 C o l o n i s t , August 26, 1874. 5 Mining R e p o r t , 1874, p, 1 1 . 6 . M i n i n g R e p o r t , 1875, p . 604; B r , C o l , J u l y 20, 1875,  (112)  and t h e r e f o r e not earning a n y t h i n g ; no comment was made on the 1 rest. The newspapers r e p o r t e d t h a t Midbow and Company washed from seventy to n i n e t y ounces ($1,120.00 to $1,420,00) per week 2 3 s t e a d i l y , and the C o l l i n s made $15,000,00 f o r the season, in 1877 T h i b e r t • C r e e k , l i k e Dease C r e e k , s u f f e r e d from f r e s h e t s and 4 mud-slides up to the middle of A u g u s t , Greek c l a i m s p a i d v e r y p o o r l y i n 1878 and i n 1879 the c r e e k bed was almost e n t i r e l y i n 5 the hands of Chinamen, On the bench and h i l l c l a i m s , however, afew w h i t e miners d i d w e l l from 1877 to 1880, n o t a b l y Theakstone 6 and Company w i t h a, c l a i m on the top of a mountain n e a r b y , and D r i s c o l l and Brady who  are r e p o r t e d to have taken out from 2000 to 7  3000 ounces ($32,000 to $48,000) i n two weeks i n 1880,  The t o t a l  p r o d u c t i o n on T h i b e r t Greek 1872 to 1880 was $1,169,810.00. t a b l e So. 1 p. 102) 1 M i n i n g R e p o r t , 1876, pp, 415 - 416, 2  C o l o n i s t , June 21, August 30, and October 14, 1876. T h i s y i e l d would be $30.00 per day to f i v e men working or good wages f o r . t e n men working, 3 C o l o n i s t , June 21, August 30, and October 14, 1876, '4 M i n i n g R e p o r t , 1877, p. 400, 5 M i n i n g R e p o r t s , 1879 and 1880, 6 C o l o n i s t , J u l y 3, and October 23, 1877; J u l y 7 17 and October 4, 1878, I b i d , October 31, 1880,  (See  (113)  SECTION 6, - MCDAME CREEK 1 McDame Creek was t h e t h i r d and, a f t e r 1874, mining area i n G a s s i a r ,  the most  I t s t o t a l y i e l d surpassed  important  t h a t of any  other creek and t h e l a r g e s t nugget unearthed i n B r i t i s h . Columbia to date was found on i t .  (See p.116below.)  •McDame Creek flox^s from the west i n t o Dease R i v e r about n i n e t y m i l e s below Dease L a k e .  I t flows down a broad v a l l e y w i t h e x t e n s i v e  f l a t s on b o t h s i d e s and mxmbrous s m a l l t r i b u t a r i e s , so t h a t water was easy to g e t ,  I t i s t h i r t y m i l e s l o n g and n a v i g a b l e by loaded  boats f o r twenty m i l e s .  C e n t r e v i l l e was s i t u a t e d a t t h e Second  N o r t h Fork of McDame C r e e k , about f i f t e e n m i l e s from i t s (McDame's mouth. (See Map No. V o p p o s i t e p, 114 below.) McDame Greek was d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e summer o f 1874 by a, c o l o r e d miner named Henry McDame who has a l r e a d y been mentioned i n connect i o n w i t h t h e d i s c o v e r y of Giscome Portage and o f Germansen Creek 2 i n Omineca.  He r e t u r n e d to Laketon and formed the C h a r i t y Company  w i t h 0 . C h a r i t y , J . Giscome, ¥ , H. S m i t h , and f i v e o t h e r s .  They  staked d i s c o v e r y c l a i m s on McDame C r e e k , whipsawed lumber, packed i t on t h e i r backs over a m i l e to t h e i r c l a i m s , c o n s t r u c t e d 400 f e e t o f wingdam and a s e r i e s of s l u i c e boxes, and began washing. I n t h i r t y days they washed $6,000,00 i n g o l d , about $22,00 per day to 3 the hand.  F i f t y other miners who f o l l o w e d them d i d about as w e l l .  The outlook f o r 1875 wan v e r y  encouraging,  ' 1 I t was o c c a s i o n a l l y c a l l e d D e l o i r e Greek, 2 ' See pp. 44 and 64 above 3 MOctober i n i n g Report 13, Nov. 1874, 3 and np, 5, 10 and 1874. 12iColonist  (114)  The y e a r 1875 d i d not l i v e up to the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the m i n e r s , f o r r i c h ground was  s c a r c e and i n s c a t t e r e d s p o t s .  C h a r i t y ( D i s c o v e r y ) Company - now f o u r men  The  ™ mined a hundred  d o l l a r s per day to the hand f o r the two weeks r e p o r t e d : the "Black Jack," McCrum and S t u a r t , C a l e d o n i a , Walker and M i t c h e l l , and a 1 s c o r e of other companies ma.de good wages ($16,00);  two  tributar-  i e s , -"Quartz and Trout Creeks prospected w e l l ; H o l l o w a y ' s F l a t a t the mouth of the Second N o r t h Forks near C e n t r e v l l l e , (See  Map  No, V o p p o s i t e t h i s page) gave good r e t u r n s ; but the m a j o r i t y of the f i v e hundred miners were d i s a p p o i n t e d .  The t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n  f o r the year was $245,000,00, • I n 1876, s i n c e the r u s h of miners and shortage of p r o f i t a b l e c l a i m s gave a supply of cheap l a b o r - out of 700 miners on McDame 3 Creek o n l y 300 found p r o f i t a b l e c l a i m s - a number of water supply p r o j e c t s f o r g r o u n d - s l u i c i n g and h y d r a u l i e k i n g on the benches and s i d e - h i l l s were got under way. Gold Commissioner Y o w e l l granted • t h i r t y - o n e a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r water r i g h t s , some f o r . a s much as 2000 '3 i n c h e s of w a t e r , ambitious schemes,  Gerke (the t r a d e r ) and Fred B l a c k had the most Gerke planned to run a flume and d i t c h from  1 M i n i n g Report 1875, p, 604, 2 o l o n i s t , J u l y 20, August 29, October 6 and 3CMining Report 1876,29,pp. 1876. "41M, 412, 416 and 28, 1875; January t a b l e of s t a t i s t i c s .  (115)  the T h i r d N o r t h F o r k ( See Map  No,  V o p p o s i t e p, 114 ) to P a t z i ' s  C l a i m near C e n t r e v i l l e , a d i s t a n c e of e i g h t m i l e s j B l a c k planned to conduct water from Quartz Greek to Snow Greeks a d i s t a n c e of ten miles5  to- supply the D i s c o v e r y  the r o u t e of the  Gompany on Snow Greek and others  on  conduit.  The D i s c o v e r y Company on Snow Creek c o n s i s t e d of F r e d B l a c k . Ruf us S y l v e s t e r , C h r i s t i e , and V i t a l l a f o r c e , a l l o l d C a r i b o o i t e s , They s t r u c k a stratum of g r a v e l and d i r t , l a t e r c a l l e d the C h r i s t i e l e a d , which c o n t a i n e d  coarse g o l d , sometimes i n the form of nuggets  up to e i g h t ounces ($135.00) i n w e i g h t . of 1876  D u r i n g most of the season 1  they took out from $2,00-0.00 to $6,000,00 per week.  Dur-  i n g the next year they were a b l e to o b t a i n bench c l a i m s i n l i n e w i t h the o r i g i n a l l o c a t i o n and to f o l l o w the l e a d i n t o the s i d e h i l l 2 h y d r a u l i e k i n g and t u n n e l l i n g . broke up.  F i n a l l y they l o s t i t and  by  the company-  D u r i n g the next two years s h a f t s and t u n n e l s were sunk  i n the v i c i n i t y but a l t h o u g h they g e n e r a l l y p a i d wages none succeed3 ed i n p i c k i n g up the o r i g i n a l C h r i s t i e lead.. Around C e n t r e v i l l e there was  c o n s i d e r a b l e a e t i v i t j r i n 18?6 S  f i r s t g r o u n d - s l u i c i n g and h y d r a u l i c k i n g , then s i n k i n g s h a f t s tunnelling,  and  As on Dease and T h i b e r t Creeks work i n the deep digg4  ings wa,s continued  d u r i n g the w i n t e r of 1876-77,  • • 1 C o l o n i s t , J u l y 27, August 30, September 3, and November 2, 1876,- Mining Report 1876, p. 412, 42 CI ob li od n. i March s t , J u l27, y 3, 1877, 1877. 3 I b i d , February 28, 1878,  (116)  Every miner i n B r i t i s h Columbia f e l t a t h r i l l when, e a r l y i n 1877i t h e l a r g e s t nugget found i n the p r o v i n c e t o date was washed out on the D i s c o v e r y Company's C l a i m near C e n t r e v i l l e .  Alfred,  Freeman uncovered a heavy b o u l d e r w h i l e s l u i c i n g which he c a s t a s i d e on account o f i t s s i z e .  I t s weight impressed h i m . however,  and he r e t r i e v e d i t f o r c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n . I t proved to be a nugget w e i g h i n g 73 ounces, w o r t h , a t $17.00 p e r ounce the market 1 v a l u e of McDame Creek g o l d a t t h a t t i m e , $1,241.00. Af.ter t h i s f i n d a s c o r e o f companies began t o t u n n e l i n the 2 s i d e h i l l s n e a r b y . A few such as Dawson and P h i l l i p s and Duncan 3 Cummings d i d w e l l enough b u t the m a j o r i t y made o n l y wages ($6.00 4 per day.) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s i n c e the appearance of t h e ground was f a v o u r a b l e the miners were l o t h to lea/re i t , and f o u r l a r g e companies were formed t o g i v e i t a thorough t e s t by s i n k i n g to bedrock.  The  U n i t e d and the H i l t o n Companies sank s h a f t s t o a s l a n t i n g depth of 300 f e e t w i t h o u t s t r i k i n g any pay d i r t and b o t h abandoned t h e I b i d . J u l y 24, October 24, 1877; The B . G. D e p a r t ment of Mines B u l l e t i n Ho. 2, 1930, p. 2 4 , s e t s the v a l u e a t $1,300.00, 2 M i n i n g Report 1877, p . 400. 3 C o l o n i s t , September 23, 1877, 4 M i n i n g Report 1877, p . 400 f ; C o l o n i s t , August 19, September 13 and 23, October 15, 1877; February 16, 1878.  )117) 1 •work. The Empire Company worked f o r over a year through no-pay d i r t and f i n a l l y abandoned the s h a f t at a depth of 1400 f e e t 2 w i t h o u t s t r i k i n g bedrock, The White Grouse s t r u c k bedrock a f t e r d i g g i n g N for 1580 f e e t . 2 ed.  I t was b a r r e n and the s h a f t was abandon-  These s h a f t s were a dead l o s s , A few w h i t e men  continued  o p e r a t i o n s f o r a y e a r or two l o n g -  er but from 1877 onward the number and percentage of Chinamen i n 5 creased r a p i d l y and by 1880 n e a r l y h a l f of 245 miners were C h i n e s e . (See graph No, V:.'. p. ."870* SEC TlON 7. - OTHER AREAS.  Eor other p a r t s of C a s s i a r , s i n c e the d i g g i n g s were n e i t h e r e x t e n s i v e or r i c h , the r e c o r d of mining o p e r a t i o n s i s f r a g m e n t a r y . On L i a r d R i v e r , f o r example, out of 150 men r e p o r t e d  prospecting  In 1874, o n l y h a l f a dozen p a r t i e s a r e mentioned s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  One  p a r t y , l e d by Kanna, descended the L i a r d R i v e r 325 m i l e s to McG u l l o c h ' s Bar (See p, 94 above) and washed out about $2,000,00 i n 4 a week,  shep Young's p a r t y took $1,600.00 from a c r e v i c e and  1 C o l o n i s t , October 15, 1878. 2  Mining Reports 1877 p, 400f; 1878, p. 375; C o l o n i s t September 13, October 15, 1878;February 16, 1879,  3 4 Mining Reports 1877 to 1880, t a b l e s of S t a t i s t i c s ; CMining o l o n i s tReport September 1877; CJune 1880, "1874,23, p,11-12; o l o n i17, s t Sept,24, Oct. 13 and 14, 1874; G e o l o g i c a l Survey Hew S e r i e s V o l 111 Report by G.M.Dawson p. 139R.  (118) 1 found n o t h i n g e l s e ,  . • A p a r t y of twenty-three .ascended the Upper  L i a r d R i v e r t o F r a n c i s Lake i n Yukon, about 400 m i l e s from Laketon.  They got no g o l d and l o s t s e v e r a l of t h e i r p a r t y by s c u r v y . 2  (See p.14Of b e l o w ) . $50,000,11.  The p r o d u c t i o n f o r 1874 was not more than  I n 1875 Sayyea, and f o u r o t h e r s washed -$10,00 p e r day  to t h e hand on Sayyea Greek i n Yukon,  The next y e a r " B i g Levy"  (perhaps " L e v i " H a r r i s ) found some coarse g o l d around F r a n c i s 4 Lake b u t not i n q u a n t i t y .  I n 1878 seventy-miners made poor .wages  ($4,00) on a b a r near o l d F o r t H a l k e t t , p r o b a b l y McCulloch's B a r , That was a l l . F r e n c h Creek (See p . 90) was p r o s p e c t e d i n 1874 and gave '5 l i t t l e coarse g o l d i n 1875,  R o s e l l a C r e e k , a t r i b u t a r y of F r e n c h  C r e e k , and Bear C r e e k , Bear G u l c h , S p r i n g Greek, and Dennis Greek, t r i b u t a r i e s of R o s e l l a C r e e k , gave a.dozen miners good wages from 1 1876 t o M1878. I n 18781874, a shortage of water mining and i t i n i n g Report p, 11-12; C o l o n ichecked s t September 24-s October 13 and 1 4 , 1874; G e o l o g i c a l Survey'ITew S e r i e s V o l , I I I Report by G. M. Dawson p . 193R. 2 C o l o n i s t A p r i l 18, J u l v 21, 1875, 3 M i n i n g Report 1877, p, 605; C o l o n i s t October 17 and 28, 1875, 4 M i n i n g Report 1876, pp. 411 and 413; C o l o n i s t January 29 and August 3 0 , 1-876, r v F r a n c i s Lake was mined a g a i n i n the Yukon r u s h , also Colonist S&t>.l5~, 5 M i n i n g Report 1875, p, 604; G o l o n i s t January 29, 1876,  It??  (119) 1f e l l i n t o the hands of Chinamen,  The t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n of F r e n c h  Greek i n c l u d i n g i t s t r i b u t a r i e s was  about $75,000,00. (See t a b l e  No, I I p.  103)  Defot Greek  f l o w s down a l i t t l e f l a t v a l l e y two and a h a l f  m i l e s long i n t o the West Branch of Canyon Greek (See Map 3 John D e f o t j T h i b e r t J r .  and a p a r t y of French-Canadians d i s c o v e r -  ed i t i n 1878 when other d i g g i n g s were b e g i n n i n g hundred miners rushed I n and Two  IV p,90).  to p l a y o u t .  Two  the v a l l e y became a h i v e of a c t i v i t y .  s t o r e s , two s a l o o n s , and a b l a c k s m i t h ' s  shop appeared as i f by  magic, whipsawing went on day and n i g h t , o f t e n by c a n d l e l i g h t , an i n t r i c a t e network of wingdams, f l u m e s , and s l u i c e s b l o c k e d v a l l e y from top to bottom,  the  A hundred miners got p r o f i t a b l e c l a i m s ,  T h i b e r t J r . of the D i s c o v e r y Company s o l d h i s share f o r $500,00 and  the purchaser cleaned up t h a t amount on the evening, of the  sale.  A dozen companies washed-from $30,00 to $50,00 per day to  the hand,  Two  nuggets, weights f i f t e e n and f o r t y - f i v e ounces  ($240.00 and $720,00) were uncovered. for  two y e a r s ; i n 1880  The r e t u r n s continued good  t h e r e were s t i l l f o r t y men  on the creek  1 C o l o n i s t , August 19, 1877; 1878, 2  3  March 21, J u l y 17,  The d e s c r i p t i o n of "La-Van" Creek r e f e r r e d to i n the newspapers t a l l i e s w i t h that of Defot Greek; I t h i n k t h a t they are the same, A b r o t h e r of Henry T h i b e r t , probably M. (See C o l o n i s t , October 29, 1876.)  Thibert  (120) 1 making good wages ($12,00 per d a y ) .  ' The p r o d u c t i o n on Defot Greek  1878-1880 was about $175,000,00, (See t a b l e Ho. II p, 1 0 3 ) ,  Vowell  M o s q u i t o , P o r c u p i n e , and o t h e r creeks near Defot Greek gave poor 2 returns, \ Walker C r e e k , a t r i b u t a r y o f R a p i d R i v e r (See p, 90 a b o v e ) , was p r o s p e c t e d by Walker i n 1877.  H i s d i s c o v e r y p a r t y made about 3 $18.00 per day to the hand d u r i n g the f i r s t y e a r . Prom 1877 to 1880 f o r t y to f i f t y men mined the creek d u r i n g the summers and 3 about t e n w i n t e r e d t h e r e . T h e r e a f t e r i t f e l l i n t o the hands of 3 the C h i n e s e . No good p r o s p e c t s were found by p a r t i e s on the t r i ~ .4 b u t a r i e s of Turnagain R i v e r , east of Walker- Greek . (See p. 89 above). SECTION 8. - TRANSPORTATION AND  PRICES  The r e g u l a r r o u t e f o r imports to C a s s i a r was  the S t i k i n e  R i v e r ; beef c a t t l e and o c c a s i o n a l loaded pack t r a i n s came o v e r l a n d from the E r a s e r V a l l e y v i a Skeenaforks (Haze.lt021). 1  The c o s t of  M i n i n g Report 1878, t a b l e of s t a t i s t i c s ; C o l o n i s t September 13 and 20, October 4, 1878; J u l y 22 and 25, 1879; J u l y 13, August 19, and October 3, 1830, 2 M i n i n g Reports 1878 to 1880J C o l o n i s t October 4, November 19, 1878; J u l y 8 and 22, August 17, 1879; J u l y 13, August 19, 1880. 3 Mining Report 1877, P . 4 0 I f ; C o l o n i s t October 9, 14, 23, and 30, November 13, 1877; March 21, June 13 and 23, J u l y 17, 1878; September 13, 1879; August 19, October 31, -1880, •4 M i n i n g Reports 1879, p.239, and 1880 p. 427; C o l o n i s t October 30, 1877,  (121)  water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n from V i c t o r i a to Glenora was f a i r l y  stable  at about s i x cents per pound; t h e c o s t o f p a c k i n g over the t r a i l from Glenora to Dease Lake v a r i e d g r e a t l y and was t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n p r i c e l e v e l s a t t h e d i g g i n g s , Anyone c o n t r o l l i n g the t r a i l o r h a v i n g a monopoly of the pack animals on i t c o u l d e x p l o i t the miners by means of t o l l s or h i g h p a c k i n g r a t e s „ C a p t a i n W i l l i a m Moore a p p l i e d f o r a g r a n t to c o n s t r u c t a road '1 from Glenora to Dea/se Lake i n .January, 1873, when t h i s was r e ~ 2 f u s e d , he a p p l i e d f o r a c h a r t e r to c o n s t r u c t a t r a i l . I n accord-  3  ance w i t h t h e T o l l C h a r t e r A c t , the Government c a l l e d f o r t e n d e r s , Moore's was the o n l y one r e c e i v e d and e,n agreement was signed,'the substance o f w h i c h was as f o l l o w s : 1. The t r a i l t o be p a s s a b l e throughout  i t s l e n g t h by August,  1873, and completed t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and works by August 1, 1874 and to be kept i n c o n d i t i o n thereafter, 2. Moore to have t h e r i g h t to c o l l e c t two cents per pound on goods p a s s i n g over t h e t r a i l when p a s s a b l e  throughout,  3. The Government to have the r i g h t to t e r m i n a t e the agreement by p u b l i c n o t i c e i n the Government Gazette i f Morre does not 1 B. C, S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1874, p. 67; l e t t e r dated V i c t o r i a , January 3, 1873, 2 I b i d , l e t t e r dated February 10, 1873, 3 I b i d . R. Beaven to ¥ . Moore; B r . C o l . March 1873,  (122)  l i v e up to the terms of the agreement, no compensation to he g i v e n i n such c a s e . 4. The- Government to have the r i g h t to redeem the c h a r t e r r i g h t at" any time on g i v i n g Moore t h r e e months n o t i c e and compensa1 t i o h a t 25% more than the a c t u a l c o s t of c o n s t r u c t i o n . Moore e x p l o r e d p o s s i b l e r o u t e s through the Great Canyon over the h i l l s and a c r o s s the Tah.ltan, Tuya and T a n z i l l a E l v e r s i n 1873 on 2 h i s way to and from the mines and "built a b r i d g e over the Tuya 2 R i v e r , f o r which he was: p a i d $250,00. There was c o n s i d e r a b l e d e l a y and c o n f u s i o n w h i l e Moore and h i s p a r t n e r K n o t t , arranged f o r a 3 $5,000 bond,  then i n May 1874, a f t e r / h a l f the miners had gone to  Dease l a k e , he s t a r t e d work on the t r a i l w i t h two men. f o l l o w i n g coarolaints by the miners he put twenty men finished i t ,  I n June,  to work and 4  "A good t r a i l " wa.s the comment of the m i n e r s , a t  that time. Meanwhile s e v e r a l t r a i n s of loaded pack animals had been d i s embarked a t the mouth of the S t i k i n e and d r i v e n to Dease l a k e , John Sevenoaks had 60 oxen, Gerke 15 h o r s e s , Malcolm Mcleod 22 1 2  I b i d . p. 70, Memorandum of  agreement.  33. C. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1874, Report of e x p l o r a t i o n C a s s i a r D i s t r i c t p. 15-16; and P u b l i c A c c o u n t s , f o r 1873, p. 28, I t e m , g r a n t of $250,00 to Moore and 4 Jennings f o r e x p l o r a t i o n i n Gassia;r.« C o l o n i s t May 24, 26, June 19, J u l y 16, 19, 1874j 3 S e n t i n e l October 16, 1874. 1. C. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1874*, pp, 70-78.  (125)  oxen, and C h a r l e s M i l l a r d 22 mules.  The oxen were s l a u g h t e r e d f o r  b e e f ; the mules and horses were put to packing on Moore's at  r a t e s \ v a r y i n g from 45 cents to 60 cents per pound.  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a t t h i s time was  trail  The c o s t of  estimated by Gold Commissioner  S u l l i v a n at $1,030.00 per ton or  cents per pound madeup as  follows: By steamer from Wrangel to Glenora  $80.00  By canoe from Glenora.to Telegraph Greek  $30,00  By pack t r a i n to Dea.se Lake 45/ per pound $900.00 By canoe to Laketon  -  Total  •  $20,00 $l.,030 e 00  2 In August U r i a h N e l s o n , a t r a d e r and p a c k e r , bought a,ll the 1 " pack animals on the t r a i l and r a i s e d the p a c k i n g charge from 45 cents per pound to 50 c e n t s , making the t o t a l c o s t of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n from Wrangel to Laketon 56-§- cents ner pound, or $1,130,00 per ton,  where I t stayed u n t i l the a r r i v a l of c a t t l e and pack t r a i n s  o v e r l a n d from the E r a s e r v a l l e y (3?or a graph of the packing- r a t e s see p.  124)  C o l o n i s t , June 9, 19, J u l y 9, 1874; September 5, 1874. 2  M i n i n g R e p o r t , 1874, p. 10. 3 " C o l o n i s t , August 23, 1874,  Sentinel  (124):..', ; v • ; - GRAPH- ¥111.. ; • - ; ; .'. 1 ; . Gi-apli of P a c k i n g Rates in-'Senta' p e r pound from Glenora to Pease l a k e - 1874-1877, • ,60  .50 .i.5 . 40 <s 3 5 ,30  : »20  ,10  y  ,05 1876 X i 8 ¥ " 4 - •• 5 1 ! 7 5 6 6- •7 8 kL J . J.A.S.G.M.J.J. A. 3,0.Jkt® *X-«- -J--* iS-« S«0»  1877 .......c  1 I C o l o n i s t j S f ^ ^ , 18.74. The l e t t e r s M.J.J.A.S.O. stand; f o r the months May, June, J u l y , August, September^ -Octoberi -• • • • 2 Mining- Report 1874, jr. '10, 3 C o l o n i s t , August,23, 1874. 4 Ibid,/September' 25,' Mining Report 1874, p. 11. •5 Guardian j June 30', 1875, • 6 M i n i n g Report 1875, pp. 603-4. 7 I t i d ' . 1877, p. 400. . - • 8 C o l o n i s t , September 21, 1876. 9 ..Mining Report 1877, p. 400.  (125)  P r i c e s a t Laketon were a t t h i s time as f o l l o w s ; ( p e r  pound  unless otherwise stated)% '1 f l o u r 80/' ($2,93 per cwt,) • bacon-$l\00. (13/)  beans 90/ ($2.60 per cwt,) beef 60/  • sugar $1.00 (10/)  t e a $2,00 ($1.00)  f i s h , l o c a l , 33 1/3/  b u t t e r $2,00  s a l t $1,00  n a i l s $1.00  gumboots (p  ') $20,00  brandy ( p e r b o t t l e ) $6.00  candles $1,50  wages per day - l a b o r e r $10,00 2 wages per day -mechanic $16,00 ( t h e same as i n the Cariboo rush)  P r i c e s a t McDame Creek were about twenty percent i n excess o f 3 those a t L a k e t o n .  F o r the graph of food p r i c e s a t Laketon d u r -  i n g 1874 and 1875 and the p a c k i n g r a t e on Moore's t r a i l i n the same y e a r s see page 126 below; f o r the graph o f wages, l i q u o r , and gumboots see page 127 below. 1  The b r a c k e t s c o n t a i n the p r i c e s of these commodities c a l c u l a t e d from the r e t u r n s o f t h e q u a n t i t y o f each imported and the i n v o i c e d p r i c e as s t a t e d i n t h e Government G a z e t t e , B r i t i s h Columbia, June 1 7 , 1871. The r e t a i l p r i c e a t V i c t o r i a would be h i g h e r , proba b l y double the p r i c e g i v e n above. 2 • " Mining Report 1874, p. 9, 3 Mining R e p o r t , 1876, p. 417  (126) GRAPH IX ces in C as siar 1 874- 1875  Pood p  1  1.5C  \V A  1.or  •  //  sS  «  »-  F  o °^ V  o <u c  a;  at  or  rl  L 1 87 4 —  « - b^cnr - sup-ar beef — - flour  co  R  Q  fS  >  <c  1875 1  .(  ] indie ates an appro? :imate date,  th .e rsiferences for • th?i various dates ax e give n belowj 1874 Cc 1onist March , •23, 1874 Jan .10 March 16 - I b i d . A p r i l 4. packi ng A p r i l 20 _ Ibid. May is: Jane> 3 •- Ibid. 3'ur.e 19 Mi ning IJecort 1874, p. June 13 — Colonist Jul y 5, 8, 1374 -.( ) .ndic i ate ai^proximate date • Ibid. Aus-us t 22 Ausr. 4 5ep1J a 1 m Ibid • Sent ember 26. ( ) ind]_C£ite sipproximate cLat,e. • Ibid. 1'ebruary 3, 1875. Dec, 1875 Jan. 19 - Ibid m March 19 . June 7 •- Guard ian June 30. 1875. June 22 Mini ne ISetort 1875, pp. 6C13-• 4. .onist July 20, 1875. Jul^r 7 •- Col ]hi .d. Augue t 29. Aug.. 2 , 30 - 11)id Se:pt emb er 21  fl27l  GRAPH X a nd Wa-es i n Cassiar  s •yme Pr ic $ 20 .0 0.  \  \ V 15  0.  \!  \  \  \  10.00  \  \  \  5 .00  \ <J c  PS  s  • «c \ QJ  H> 1874  \ P  P  r? 1875  Q <*: O .876  t  <j  Q  .8r '7  Gumboots per pa i t • Mechanic' a wake ¥ ei• t r Laborer «s wag e per day - Brandy per quar t  1. The; references fo r tr .e various date!S are given below 1874  .Tan. Sept.  1875 187'  AXl-gOC  187'7  0cit.  urte  1linir lg Report 1874 P«. 9 )ei j 26, ].874. Ib i d . > and Colon:Ls1• Jeptemt Minir ig R<;port 1 8 7 5.. P. 603-• 4. C0] .onisjt July 20 • ].875. Colonijjt August 30j 1 8 7 6 . 1lining R< jrt 1 8 7 6 , p. 4 1 7 , 4 0 2 and tab.1.e oJ? statj.sties. ]:bi d. ].877 , ]  (128)  The C a t t l e from the E r a s e r V a l l e y , mentioned above, came o v e r l a n d by way of the E r a s e r , B u l k l e y , Skeena, K l a p p a n , and T a n & i l l a r i v e r s to Dease Lake (See Map Mo. I  o p p o s i t e p. 14 ) .  Erom Quesnel .to H a z e l t o n the C o l l i n ' s T e l e g r a p h T r a i l was ~1 p a s s a b l e and was  e a s i l y . cleared, by J . H a m i l t o n  from H a z e l t o n a new t r a i l had to be c l e a r e d . the  still  i n 1874.  North  The e x p l o r a t i o n and  c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s t r a i l i s d e s c r i b e d i n the d i a r y of W i l l i a m  Humphreys,  who was i n charge of the work.  The p a r t y e x p l o r e d the  Skeena and l a s s v a l l e y s d u r i n g March and A p r i l and Iocs, ted  a trail.  They began c l e a r i n g and l e v e l l i n g i t i n May along the M i s p i o x . C r a n b e r r y , Mass, and Skeena r i v e r s (See Map Ho, I o p p o s i t e p. 14 ) to  a wide v a l l e y from w h i c h f l o w t r i b u t a r i e s of the t h r e e g r e a t  r i v e r s , the Mass, the-Skeena, and the S t i k i n e , they descended  Erom t h i s v a l l e y  the v a l l e y of the Klappan ( t h e n the Klapoda,) to the  S t i k i n e R i v e r , c r o s s e d the l a t t e r above the Great Canyon, and then f o l l o w e d the T a n z i l l a R i v e r northward to Moore's t r a i l . Report of J . H a m i l t o n , Report of P u b l i c Works Department, 1874, p. 345-346, 2 The o r i g i n a l of t h i s d i a r y i s i n the B. C. A r c h i v e s , Humphrey-.: had been a, miner i n Omineca (Sent J u l y 2, 1870) and he remained i n C a s s i a r m i n i n g ( C o l o n i s t June 24, 1875) B, G, S e s s i o n a l Papers 1877 P u b l i c Accounts of 1876 p. 205 3 • „ Humphrey's D i a r y , B. C. A r c h i v e s ; C o l o n i s t May 24, 1874; Report of P u b l i c Works 1874, p. 347-349.  The  total  (129) .1 2 423 m i l e s from H a z e l t o n . The cost was $6,484,73. part;y The construct!o.n A ?:as j o i n e d en r o u t e "by two prospectors,' 3 1 Memsworth arid James Orr, who found no g o l d worth m e n t i o n i n g , and  d i s t a n c e was  "by t h r e e p a r t i e s w i t h c a t t l e and pack t r a i n s from the E r a s e r ValleyTwo  of the l a t t e r , E e l c k e r ' s and McGregor's, l e f t Humphreys on 5  Elappan R i v e r and went to Buck's B a r . accompanied him to Dease Lake and was reach L a k e t o n .  The  t h i r d , W i l l i am Welsh's,  the f i r s t over-land herd to  c a t t l e were d r i v e n i n t o the town on August 27 6  through a crowd of c h e e r i n g m i n e r s . Gregor, and  The  the  Wi t h i n a, week E e l c k e r ,  two other drovers reached Laketon w i t h a t o t a l of  head of c a t t l e ; the p r i c e of "beef dropped from 60/ to 10/  Mc334  per  pound, packing r a t e s from 50/ to 20/ per pound, and a l l o t h e r p r i c e proportionately. 1 Humphrey's' D i a r y ; Report of P u b l i c Works 1874, pp, 347-9 and 447, r e p o r t s of Humphreys and O r r . 2 S e s s i o n a l Papers 1875, Report of P u b l i c Works f o r 1874, p. 416, E x p l o r a t i o n on Observatory I n l e t c o s t another $2,305.00; I b i d , p, 424, 3 James Orr had been on an e x t e n s i v e community p r o s p e c t i n g p a r t y n o r t h from B a r k e r v i l l e i n 1867 and • had mined on Manson Creek i n 1871 and 1872; Orr" . was p a i d $22,00 by the Government f o r the eleven days' p r o s p e c t i o n w i t h Humphreys (B.C. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1875, P u b l i c Accounts of 1874, p. 107) 4 C o l o n i s t , September 25, 1874, • 5 6 I b i d , October 3, I b i d . September 25 and 26.  (130)  The d r o v e r s were b i t t e r l y d i s a p p o i n t e d , e s p e c i a l l y C a m p b e l l , the l a s t to a r r i v e , who  had come 1200 milew from the Thompson  v a l l e y and had been robbed o f h i s b l a n k e t s , r o p e , and o t h e r equip1 ment by Skeena I n d i a n s - a l l f o r 10/ a poundI But even Campbell was more f o r t u n a t e than a p a r t y of f i v e 2 3 4 d r o v e r s - p . G r i n d e r , A. B u r n e t t , T. H u t c h i s o n , C u l l e n , and Glenn »'who came a f t e r them,,  Skeena I n d i a n s i n t i m i d a t e d them w i t h random  r i f l e f i r e then s t o l e t h e i r goods and equipment i n w h o l e s a l e f a s h ion.  F u r t h e r n o r t h the d r o v e r s turned from the t r a i l i n s e a r c h of  b e t t e r p a s t u r e and l o s t t h e i r way. head w i t h a horse to f i n d a way  C u l l e n and Glenn were sent a-  to Buck's B a r .  A f t e r s i x days'  t r a v e l these two d i s a g r e e d about the r o u t e and s e p a r a t e d , each wi t h a cup of beans and a pound of b a r l e y „  C u l l e n took the h o r s e .  Six  days l a t e r , about September 10, Glenn staggered h a l f - s t a r v e d i n t o Buck's B a r .  The miners h e l d a meeting to d i s c u s s the d r o v e r s 1  p l i g h t but n o t h i n g was done s f o r a man need not s t a r v e w i t h a h e r d 1  " C o l o n i s t August 22, 1874; August 23, 1874, l e t t e r of A. C. Youmans, S k e e n a f o r k s , August 8. 1874; I b i d . September 24, 1874; Campbell drove c a t t l e to C a s s i a r i n l a t e r years at a p r o f i t . See C o l o n i s t August 21, 1879. 2 "Red A l e c k " 3 Thomas H u t c h i s o n had been a drover and packer i n Omineca ( S e n t i n e l Hovember 11 and 25, 1871.) 4 R i c h a r d Glenn was an Omineca m i n e r , who j o i n e d the pack t r a i n on h i s way to C a s s i a r where he mined unt i l 1380 or l a t e r . I t was he who hauled Kanahan from C e n t r e v i l l e to Laketon i n the w i n t e r of 187980. He had a good c l a i m on S p r i n g Creek i n 1878.  (131)  of c a t t l e no matter how  thin.  Meanwhile G r i n d e r s t r u g g l e d along  through, unknown country u n t i l snow f e l l and the weakened animals c o u l d no longer c a r r y t h e i r loa,ds.  Thereupon he dumped the packs 1 and r e t r a c e d h i s s t e p s . He'reached Quesnel on October 3, i t ws.s ' ' 2 b e l i e v e d t h a t C u l l e n was k i l l e d by I n d i a n s . 3 In May  of the next y e a r , 1875,  been w i t h E e l c k e r i n 1874,  J'ames A. G a r d i n e r ,  and V i t a l L a f o r c e , who  had  who  had  explored  the  r e g i o n w h i l e i n the s e r v i c e of the C o l l i n ' s Overland T e l e g r a p h , were sent to improve Humphreys' t r a i l .  They l e f t i t to explore a, new  r o u t e on the l a s s R i v e r , l o s t t h e i r way,  and f o r two weeks i n J u l y ,  the h o t t e s t month of the y e a r when temperatures run up to 9 5 ° F . , they wandered about w i t h no food but weeds, an o c c a s i o n a l f i s h , a, l y n x s k i n t h a t they f o u n d .  F i n a l l y an I n d i a n met  and guided them to H a z e l t o n . (See Map  and  them by chance  No. I o p p o s i t e p.14)  In  - 4 t h r e e weeks G a r d i n e r ha,d l o s t t h i r t y - s e v e n pounds and La,force 25 0 They r e s t e d and made an u n e v e n t f u l journev back to Telegraph Creek 5 improving  the t r a i l and, where n e c e s s a r y , r e - l o c a t i n g i t ,  1 ' I b i d . August 22, 23, September 25, October 13, 14, 1874; C a r . Sent, October 10, 1874, 2 C o l o n i s t , November 26, 1874," 3 For f u r t h e r d e t a i l s about J . A, Gardiner See Appendix E Number 6, 45 DC io al ro yn i soft August J, A. G a15, r d i n 1875. e r , No, 1, B. C. A r c h i v e s ,  (132)  In  subsequent years the drovers l e a r n e d to f o l l o w the  trail  and to go e a r l y i n the season w h i l e the p a s t u r e was green,  No  h a r d s h i p s -comparable to those o f 1875 were experienced and Cassis was assured a supply of cheap f r e s h beef so l o n g as the market was  l a r g e enough to j u s t i f y the long o v e r l a n d d r i v e from the 1  Eraser v a l l e y . In  the s p r i n g of 1875 the Moore t r a i l was i n a d e p l o r a b l e  condition.  S p r i n g f l o o d s had swept away the b r i d g e s and on June  7 t h e r e was not "a s i n g l e b r i d g e or c r o s s i n g over any of the 2  num-  erous l a r g e streams which must be c r o s s e d as b e s t you can".  The  t r a i l was d e s c r i b e d as "almost impassable f o r men to  the knees i n mud  and animals.'  Up  and c l i m b i n g over f a l l e n t i m b e r , . . . . . . . . . . . I t 3  i s not a t r a i l but a -swamp".  N e v e r t h e l e s s , C a p t a i n Moore c o n t i n -  ued to c o l l e c t t o l l a t the r a t e of two cents per pound on a l l -4 " ' baggage over t w e n t y - f i v e pounds u n t i l stopped by the Gold Comm5 ' " • i s s l o n e r i n June. The government took the t r a i l o v e r , paying Moore. 1 I b i d . September 19, 1875; A p r i l 23, 29, September 30, 1876; March 19, J u l y 26, August 18, 1877; September 13, 1879; March 16, 1880. P. Gannon was a r e g u l a r d r o v e r i n these y e a r s , 2 Guardian June 30, 1875, l e t t e r dated Laketon June 7, 1875. 3 I b i d , June 30, 1875; C o l o n i s t June 24, 1875. 4 5 Guardian June 30, 1875, C o l o n i s t June 24, 1875,  (133) 1 $12,500 f o r h i s work on the t r a i l the swampy s e c t i o n .  . . -. . and "built a corduroy road over  Thereafter  t h e y kept the road i n p a s s a b l e 2 c o n d i t i o n w i t h a f i x e d t o l l of one cent per pound. On the S t i k i n e R i v e r adequate steamer s e r v i c e was m a i n t a i n e d , • 3  Moore put the "Gertrude" on the r u n i n 1875,  He had a monopoly  f o r a short time i n the s p r i n g of 1876 but then U r i a h H e l s o n put the "Beaver" i n t o the S t i k i n e R i v e r s e r v i c e and r e s t o r e d compet4 i t i v e conditions. U n t i l 1878 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on Lease Lake -was by canoe and l a r g e rowboat.  I n 1878, however, John McKenzle and G, Hawk b u i l t  a steamboat c a l l e d "The Lady of the L a k e " ,  I t was launched on  June 7, I n the presence of the l o c a l government o f f i c i a l s and a crowd of miners and merchants. l a k e the p r o j e c t o r s r e t u r n e d  A f t e r a t r i a , l t r i p up and down the  to the James H o t e l f o r a s u i t a b l e  f e a s t to c e l e b r a t e the' o c c a s i o n ,  "The Lady of the Lake" was  sixty  feet' l o n g , w i t h t e n f e e t two inches b r e a d t h of beam and f i v e f e e t 1  S e s s i o n a l Papers 1876, Report of P u b l i c Works f o r 1825, p. 519. $10,000 p l u s 25^ as per agreement. 2 C o l o n i s t September 19, 21, 1875; May 3, J u l y 8, 1876; June 22, 1877. 3 Lewis and Drydem Marine H i s t o r y p. 217, G o l o n i s t May 20, 1876. C o l o n i s t June 6, 10, 1876. The "Beaver" was wrecked i n 1878; see' I b i d . J u l y 17, 1878,  (134)  dentil of h o l d and had a nominal f i f t e e n horse-power engine. ' •• 2 remained i n s e r v i c e on Dea.se Lake u n t i l a f t e r  It  1895.  The b e t t e r s e r v i c e by steamer and t r a i l w i t h the passage of • the years- enabled merchants to import a good and v a r i e d supply goods a t a reasonable  price.  wanted at the l o c a l s t o r e .  You  c o u l d get almost anything  L i f e at the d i g g i n g s became semi-  civilized. 1  I b i d . J u l y 10, 1878; p. 377.  you  M i n i n g Report  1878,  2 ¥ . P i k e : Through the Sub A r c t i c P o r e s t s , London and IT. T. Ed. A r n o l d , 1896. p. 52 "a d e l a p i d a t e d l i t t l e steamer."  of  (135)  CHAPTER V SOME SOCIAL EACTORS SECTION 1. TOWNS  S c a t t e r e d as were the d i g g i n g s i n the N o r t h , more so whre the towns, the t i n y c e n t r e s of s o c i a l and b u s i n e s s l i f e where the miners assembled to e a t , d r i n k , gamble and. dance t o g e t h e r , to q u a r r e l , to f i g h t and to have t h e i r d i s p u t e s s e t t l e d by the Gold Commissioner.  Some of the "towns" c o n s i s t e d of o n l y two or three l o g b u i l d -  i n g s at a break on the r o u t e of t r a v e l , as T a k l a L a n d i n g , S y l v e s t e r ' s Landing and Lake House, others were f a i r s i z e d v i l l a g e s , a,s H a z e l t o n G l e n o r a , C e n t r e v i l l e and the m e t r o p o l i s of Ca,ssiar, L a k e t o n . Thus 1 Omineca C i t y , on Germansen Creek was d e s c r i b e d as "a b i g town w i t h n o t h i n g i n i t . . . . . . . . . . . . . Joe Blum has  s t a r t e d h i s whiskey m i l l ; 2  he  d e a l s i t out on a boa,rd i n one corner of an u n f i n i s h e d house; Dunkeld had ton "two  "3 b u i l d i n g s and a t h e a t r e "  w i t h r e a l a c t o r s ; Howell-  s t o r e s and f o u r other b u i l d i n g s ; C e n t r e v i l l e a dozen b u i l d -  i n g s of v a r i o u s k i n d s and l a k e t o n a dozen s t o r e s , two or three h o t e l s w i t h s a l o o n s , three or f o u r other s a l o o n s , the government o f f i c e s , p o l i c e c o u r t , g a o l and s e v e n t y - f i v e houses and  shacks  huddled together on a narrow f l a t near the l a k e s h o r e . 1 • A l s o c a l l e d A r c t i c C i t y , Germansen, and Germansen Town. 2 S e n t i n e l , August 12, 1871. 3 C o l o n i s t , October 4, 1871, •4 C o l o n i s t , J u l y 16 and 19, 1874; Guardian June 30, September 21, 1875,  (136)  Buck's Bar was "a smart l i t t l e town with. t h r e e s t o r e s , 2 b a k e r i e s , 4 r e s t a u r a n t s , one whiskey m i l l and b u i l d i n g s enough to accommo1 date 400 or 500 men," ghost b u i l d i n g s , f a l l i n g i n t o r u i n , t h e h e r i t a g e ,of the S t i k i n e r u s h i n the decade p r e v i o u s but s t i l l of ' • '2 u s e , f o r a l t h o u g h "lung Lear owns t h e town," he " l e t s s h e l t e r a t . 2 2 h i t s per man per n i g h t . " ' I n the towns summer was the busy season, w i t h men coming and going, laughing  and c u r s i n g , d r i n k i n g " a t 2 % ' a d r i n k "  and e a t i n g  " ( i f you f u r n i s h your own meat).......a 'square' c o m p r i s i n g brown 3 beans, bread and. c o f f e e about $2,00" swatting  i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s , and  the mosquito which t o t u r e mankind day and n i g h t .  Every-  t h i n g was p r i m i t i v e , a s , f o r example, c a n d i e s f o r i l l u m i n a t i o n , and few d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f a r t i c l e s and commodities a v a i l a b l e . As the y e a r s progressed o r d e r l y p r o v i s i o n i n g brought lower p r i c e s • 4 and g r e a t e r v a r i e t y . Candles gave way t o c o a l o i l lamps, and the l o c a l s t o r e could supply almost any want.  Even the g a o l was mod-  ernized' by t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a l o g e d i f i c e s i x t e e n f e e t square and eight h i g h w i t h three l u x u r i o u s c e l l s each f i v e f e e t by seven ' "5 p r o v i d e d w i t h l o c k s and bars and., connected by a s m a l l passageway. 1 C o l o n i s t , September 2 1 , 1875. 2 I b i d , May 7, 1874, 3 I b i d . August 30, 1870, 4 B. C, S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1878, P u b l i c Accounts f o r 1877 p. 165, " t o J . G.learihue f o r lamp Glasses $2.00", 5 I b i d , 1878, Eeport of P u b l i c Works p. 308,  (137)  " I n d i a n Anderson" had no reason to complain (see p 0 152f  SECTIONS. •- WINTER  below)„  LIFE  A cheap and v a r i e d supply of goods d i d not s o f t e n the h e a r t of the God o f W i n t e r i n these n o r t h e r n r e g i o n s where the temper1a t u r e f a l l s to f o r t y below zero f o r days a t a time  and s i l e n t but  dangerous b l i z z a r d s creep up on the l o n e l y t r a v e l l e r , b l i n d i n g h i s eyes and p i l i n g g r e a t d r i f t s b e f o r e h i s weary f e e t .  Each s e t t l e m e n t  became s e m i - i s o l a t e d and even the p o s t a l a u t h o r i t i e s seemed to f o r g e t them f o r they p r o v i d e d a t b e s t a monthly s e r v i c e and a t w o r s t , n e g l e c t e d the poor w i n t e r e r s so e n t i r e l y t h a t they were f o r c e d to p a t r o n i z e a p r i v a t e I n d i a n c a r r i e r s e r v i c e a t f i f t y cents per l e t t e r to or from Wrangel.  One man  i n the w i n t e r of 1877-78  p a i d $9.50 f o r n i n e t e e n l e t t e r s and f o u r t e e n of them were c i r c u l a r 2 advertisements. The  experiences of a few w i n t e r t r a v e l l e r s are d e s c r i b e d i n  the f o l l o w i n g 1  paragraphs.  G. M. Dawson? Report on E x p l o r a t i o n s i n the Yukon D i s t r i c t e t c . G e o l . Survey N. S. V o l . I l l Report B, Appendix VI No. 3 Observations of temperatures a t Laketon by J . C l e a r i h u e from 1878 to 1882; Mining Report 1874, p. 555, r e c o r d of temperatures. 2 C o l o n i s t , March 21, 1878.  (138)  George B a M n g t o n and Byron Brady and f i r e o t h e r s on t h e i r way from Omineca, t o H a z e l t o n missed the b l a z e d t r a i l on P r y i n g Pan Pass and wandered about the mountains f o r t e n days, d u r i n g "the  l a s t N f o u r o f which they had n o t h i n g t o eat except n e t t l e s and  roots,  They f i n a l l y s e p a r a t e d i n t o two groups of f o u r and t h r e e  each.  The group of f o u r f e l l i n w i t h Dewdney, who conducted them  to Babine L a k e ,  The others were never heard of a g a i n ; but s h o r t l y  a f t e r w a r d s the b o d i e s of t h r e e men, supposed to have d i e d of s t a r 1 v a t i o n , were found near the Skeena  Trail.  The next summer "the Road p a r t y d i s c o v e r e d the body of another man l y i n g w i t h i n a few f e e t of. t h e t r a i l under a, t r e e . his  P o r t i o n s of  c l o t h i n g and b l a n k e t s i n shreds were s c a t t e r e d about.  The  poor man's c o f f e e p o t , j a c k - k n i f e and d r i n k i n g cup l a y n e a r , the  On  cup was s c r a t c h e d t h e name " D a n i e l Campbell," perhaps done w h i l e  he l a y there d y i n g - s t a r v i n g to death,........The  body had been  devoured by w i l d b e a s t s , the marks of t h e i r t e e t h b e i n g v i s i b l e on 2 the bones  "  In October 1871, a f t e r a s n o w f a l l , the t r a i l from Germansen Creek t o Quesnel was plowed up by the pack animals i n t o a v e r i t a b l e quagmire t h a t made t r a v e l almost i m p o s s i b l e .  C o l d weather hardened  i t f o r t r a v e l I n November b u t deep snow covered the pasturage; and weakened by a hard summer's work w i t h poor p a s t u r e , horses and 1 •2S e n t i n e l , August 26, 1871. C o l o n i s t , October 26, 1872.  (139)  mules d i e d i n d r o v e s .  T. H u t c h i s o n l o s t s i x t y - e i g h t out of e i g h t y -  s i x mules; J . B, B r i a n l o s t s i x t e e n out of twenty-one horses andabandoned t h e r e m a i n i n g f i v e ;  C a t a l a n l o s t t h i r t y mules; M i t c h e l l  l o s t s i x ; , T e r r y , Dancing B i l l , and B e l l y ( s i c ) Walsh l o s t a l l horses.  their  The road from N a t i o n R i v e r to S t u a r t Lake was strewn w i t h . 1  dead h o r s e s , saddles and g e a r .  I t was a h a r d year f o r p a c k e r s .  The e a r l y f r e e z e - u p a l s o caught many miners who had i n t e n d e d to come out by w a t e r , and f o r c e d them to w a l k . provisions f o r the longer t r i o . reached Quesnel,  Maury were s h o r t o f  S t o r i e s of s u f f e r i n g on the t r a i l  Thereupon the i n h a b i t a n t s , as was u s u a l i n such  c a s e s , c o l l e c t e d a r e l i e f fund., and sent a c e r t a i n D. Robertson., who had r e c e n t l y a r r i v e d a t Quesnel over the same t r a i l , back w i t h a p a r t y of I n d i a n s t o supply f o o d to those on t h e t r a i l who were i n need.  The r e c o r d s mention one poor f e l l o w , an I t a l i a n , who b u r s t  I n t o t e a r s on r e c e i v i n g some bread and cheese, and o f f e r e d R o b e r t son a hundred d o l l a r b i l l .  About s i x t y m i l e s o u t , Robertson hung  the b a l a n c e of t h e p r o v i s i o n s i n a t r e e w i t h a n o t i c e e x p l a i n i n g 2 t h e i r u s e , and r e t u r n e d t o Quesnel f o r a new s u p p l y .  Many o f the  t r a v e l l e r s s u f f e r e d s e v e r e l y from f r o s t b i t e , amongst them C a p t a i n T r a v a i l l o t , who had b o t h f e e t f r o z e n and l o s t a t o e w h i l e I n charge of  t h e e l e c t i o n proceedings i n Omineca,  Bob Smith and two c o l o r e d  men-missed t h e i r way near Stony Greek, and s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s t h e i r 1 2 S e n t i n e l November 1 1 , 18 and 25, 1871; C o l o n i s t , S e n t i n e l , 9November December , 1871. 25, 1871.  (140) 1 f r o z e n b o d i e s were d i s c o v e r e d "by I n d i a n s , T, r e p o r t s i n a l e t t e r dated from Dease Greek, A p r i l 14, "Gold c o u l d not h i r e me  to com.e up the S t i c k e e n R i v e r a g a i n i n the  same season.. A l t h o u g h I f a t t e n e d on the t r i p a f t e r h a u l i n g l b s . on a s l e i g h through snow up to my knees..,,....., I was weeks coming from F o r t Wrangel to h e r e . only" one m i l e .  1874:  250 seven  Some days we would make  We were seven days i n a snowstorm and never moved  and n o t h i n g saved us but the e x e r t i o n of drawing the l o a d s , so 2 t h a t the c o l d c o u l d not take any e f f e c t " Winter sometimes trapped n r o s p e c t o r s , 3 ' Angus M c A l l i s t e r  In the autumn of  1874  and a p a r t y of twenty-two ascended L i a r d R i v e r  f o r two hundred m i l e s i n canoes b e f o r e w i n t e r overtook them,  Then  they made packs and pushed on another two hundred m i l e s to F r a n c i s River,  There the mercury f r o z e and b l i z z a r d s swept down from the -  north,  The men  turned back but scurvy s e i z e d the m a j o r i t y of them  so t h a t they c o u l d make o n l y a few m i l e s each day. two o t h e r s hastened ahead f o r h e l p , scurvy and one was  so s e r i o u s l y i l l  Two  McAllister  and  of them became lame w i t h  t h a t o n l y constant  prodding  .prevented him from l y i n g down on the snow-covered i c e to d i e . 1 - S e n t i n e l December 23, 1 8 7 i | Guardian December 23., 187.1. 2 I b i d . May 6, 1874, 3 M c A l l i s t e r d i s c o v e r e d V o w e l l Creek i n 1878 and mined on Defot Greek i n 1879,  Thej  (141)  reached Laketon on March 24, n e a r l y exhausted.  The Laketon r e s i -  dents g e n e r o u s l y s u b s c r i b e d $850,00 to send l i m e - j u i c e , v i n e g a r , w h i s k y , potatoes and v e g e t a b l e s  to t h e s i c k men, and a r e l i e f  p a r t y h u r r i e d back w i t h M c A l l i s t e r . '1 • four died.  But too l a t e t o save a l l -  In the w i n t e r o f 1876-77 D a n i e l W i l l i a m s was overtaken by a snowstorm w h i l e making a t r i p from S y l v e s t e r ' s L a n d i n g , a t t h e mouth of McDame Greek, to C e n t r e v i l l e , a d i s t a n c e of f i f t e e n m i l e s Presumably he sought s h e l t e r i n a d e s e r t e d c a b i n , l i t a f i r e and went t o s l e e p .  The search p a r t y found h i s t r a c k s l e a d i n g to a 2 . b u r n t c a b i n and h i s charred remains i n s i d e , W i l l i a m Kanahan, a Kanaka employed to h a u l f r e i g h t on Dease R i v e r i n January 1380, f a i l e d t o a r r i v e on t i m e , went out to l o o k f o r him and found Mm his  C h a r l e s Walker  l y i n g almost l i f e l e s s upon  s l e i g h , w i t h h i s hands and arms f r o z e n .  Walker took him to  McDame Greek but they could do n o t h i n g f o r hire t h e r e . Glenn v o l u n t e e r e d ' t o  take h i m t o L a k e t o n .  Then D i c k  Glenn l a s h e d him to a  s l e i g h and p u l l e d i t the n i n e t y m i l e s i n f o u r days through Intense c o l d , r a n g i n g from f o r t y t o f i f t y below z e r o , w i t h a s t r o n g n o r t h wind b l o w i n g ,  A t Laketon C l e a r i h u e and Carson kept Kanahan a t t l i e i  h o t e l f r e e of charge, g i v i n g him every a t t e n t i o n , although he was 1 2  C o l o n i s t A p r i l 18, J u l y 21, 1875. I b i d , February 25, 1877,  (142)  h e l p l e s s as a c h i l d , Incapable- even, of f e e d i n g h i m s e l f , meeting was t i o n was  h e l d on January 18 to c o n s i d e r h i s c a s e ,  A public  A subscrip-  c i r c u l a t e d . Vowel1, the Gold Commissioner, promised gov-  ernment' a s s i s t a n c e and two days l a t e r he was to G l e n o r a , on h i s way  sent w i t h J , Booker  to V i c t o r i a and proper m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n .  The P r o v i n c i a l T r e a s u r y p a i d Glenn $100.00 and Booker $200.00 1 f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s to the s u f f e r i n g man, . Another danger of w i n t e r was  the i c e - r u s h .  I t seems t h a t the  streams sometimes f r o z e so n e a r l y s o l i d in;,.places t h a t the water under the i c e was  dammed back u n t i l i t s weight broke through the  s u r f a c e , and water and i c e came r u s h i n g down l i k e a s p r i n g f r e s h et,  One  of these caught f o u r miners on Dease Greek w h i l e they were  a s l e e p one n i g h t i n F e b r u a r y , 1876, when the temperature was ty-seven below z e r o .  T h e i r f i r s t i n t i m a t i o n of danger was  thirthe  b u r s t i n g open of the door by the i c e and w a t e r , Without d r e s s i n g they'clambered through a s m a l l back window and r a n , bareheaded, b a r e - f o o t and c l a d o n l y i n u n d e r c l o t h e s , a c r o s s the snow to K i r k p a t r i c k ' s c a b i n a hundred yards away. A l l f o u r s u f f e r e d from se' 9  verelj  f r o s t - b i t t e n hands and  feet.  In w i n t e r the towns shrank i n s i z e ; thus Laketon d u r i n g w i n t e r of 1875  the  c o n s i s t e d of "two h o t e l - k e e p e r s , 3 b u t c h e r s , 3  s t o r e k e e p e r s , 3 s a l o o n k e e p e r s , 1 t a i l o r , 12 woodchoppers, 18 m i n e r s , 4 whipsawers ( s i c ) , 1 teamster (Mr. S u l l i v a n ) and our 1  2  C o l o n i s t , March 17, 1880, Report of the p u b l i c meeting at L a k e t o n , January 18; B, C, S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1881, P u b l i c Accounts of 1880, p, 101. C o l o n i s t , March 30,  1876,  en-  (143) 1 l i g h t e n e d and w e l l - i n f o r m e d r e c o r d e r ,  'besides 7 p e t t y l a r c e n y o  poker p l a y e r s , w a s t i n g t h e i r time a t 4 h i t s l i m i t , "  Dunkeld and  H o w e l l t o n had s i m i l a r p o p u l a t i o n s i n the w i n t e r o f 1370-71 p l u s •the unusual ."blessing of a troupe o f a c t o r s , c o n s i s t i n g of Mr, & Mrs, M c G i n l e y , two o r three daughters and a couple o f other-members,  Every f o r t n i g h t the combined p o p u l a t i o n of the two towns  assembled i n the t h e a t r e f o r a performance.  Between times McGinley  rehearsed and d i d a l i t t l e g o l d washing under the t h e a t r e ,  He g o t 3  $500,00 by h i s washing; h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l p f o f i t s a r e not r e p o r t e d . The g r e a t event o f t h e w i n t e r was t h e Christmas c e l e b r a t i o n , F o r t u n a t e l y we have t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f two of them, one a t H a z e l t o n i n 1872 and the other a t L a k e t o n i n 1875,  H o r e t s k y who a r r i v e d  at H a z e l t o n on Christmas Eve a f t e r a hard t r i p t i r e d out and short of s l e e p d e s c r i b e d the former as f o l l o w s ; From e a r l y morning u n t i l f a r i n t o t h e evening t h e miner and every one e l s e a t t h e p l a c e were b u s i l y occupied i n g e t t i n g up s h o o t i n g matches and o t h e r games w i t h which to' usher i n the' time-honoured h o l i d a y ; and a t midnight of the 2 4 t h , t h e b u r s t i n g of a bomb c o n s i s t i n g of 25' pounds' of" gunpowder s e c u r e l y t i e d up i n many t h i c k n e s s e s o f s t r o n g canvas announced the day which Englishmen d e l i g h t to r e s p e c t , S i m u l t a n e o u s l y a dropping f i r e o f muskets and r e v o l v e r s , accompanied by shouts and y e l l s from the exc i t e d crowd, resounded through the a i r , and f o r t h w i t h the -major p a r t of the p o p u l a t i o n o f H a z e l t o n crowded i n t o t h e s a l o o n where ample j u s t i c e was done to the o c c a s i o n i n many a f l o w i n g bumper, the e x c i t i n g e f f e c t s of which were 1 J . L , Crimp, 2 C o l o n i s t , March 30, 1876, 3 Standard, May 15, 1872; C o l o n i s t October 4,1871; S e n t i n e l , October 14, 1871.  (144)  ;  soon m a n i f e s t e d by eager demands f o r music and d a n c i n g . An old. a c c o r d i o n and tambourine t h e o n l y i n s t r u m e n t s a t the "place were c a l l e d i n t o r e q u i s i t i o n w h i l e t h e c r a c k dancers took the f l o o r , among whom, and c h i e f o f them a l l , f i g u r e d "Dancing B i l l " of B r i t i s h Columbian r e nown. : The f u n grew f a s t and f u r i o u s ; the l e g i t i m a t e i n s t r u m e n t s a l r e a d y I n u s e , and soon rendered almost u n s e r v i c e a b l e , were not found s u f f i c i e n t to s a t i s f y t h e t e r p s i c h o r e a n t a s t e s o f the miners; f r y i n g pans., p o k e r s , a n y t h i n g , i n f a c t , capable o f p r o d u c i n g sound,were t h e r e f o r e added to t h e l i s t , and h e l p e d to s w e l l the d i n b e come almost d e m o n a i c a l . To s l e e p through such an up-roar was, o f course out o f t h e question;........These demonstrations o f m i r t h and l o y a l t y c o n t i n u e d f o r s e v e r a l days.-k The L a k e t o n c e l e b r a t i o n was more o r d e r l y , o r perhaps t h e  d i f f e r e n c e I s t h a t the w r i t e r o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n was h i m s e l f one 2 of t h e c e l e b r a n t s . He w r i t e s as f o l l o w s : L a k e t o n , J a n . 24, 1876 Editor Colonists -Christmas 3 Carson and C l a r i h u e d i d not f o r g e t t h e poor miner on Christmas day ( s i c ) . A g e n e r a l I n v i t a t i o n was extended to t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f Dease and' T h i b e r t Creeks to a t t e n d d i n n e r . More than s i x t y persons responded ' and a more o r d e r l y and well-behaved p a r t y i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d i n any c o u n t r y under heaven. A t s i x o ' c l o c k d i n n e r was announced and the doors thrown open. Mr. ¥ m . K i r k p a t r i c k was c a l l e d upon to p r e s i d e . I w i l l not attempt a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the groaning t a b l e , f o r a l l who know Carson and C l a r i h u e - and they are well-known - are aware of t h e i r kindness and l i b e r a l i t y . U n c l e K i r k on t a k i n g h i s p l a c e a t t h e head o f t h e t a b l e r e p l i e d t o the numerous c a l l s i n the f o l l o w i n g manner, ( s i c ) "............ I n c o n c l u s i o n , gentlemen, I p r o pose the h e a l t h o f our absent f r i e n d , the C a s s i a r Eoretsky; Canada on the Pacific pp. 106 0 107. 2 Colonist, March 30, 1876. 3 See Appendix E number 4.  (145)  miner, wherever he may he". Sixty men grasped their glasses and drank Uncle Kirk's well put toast with three times three. The health and prosperity of our hosts„ proposed by Mr. Gustavus Houck, e l i c i t e d a neat and happy speech from "Mr. Clarihue. I regret that I cannot give you h i s remarks i n f u l l , hut about this time the wine passed f r e e l y round, and anointing the heads of those abstemious individuals who refused to drink caused so much merriment and uproar that I was unable to' hear; beside my own "understandings" could not he r e l i e d upon to do j u s t i c e to h i s remarks. Songs and Reoitations Being pronounced i n order James Fitzgerald was f i r s t called upon. He quickly responded, rendering i n effective style the song of" the "Cariboo Miner" with a l l the variations. Mrs® Norton's Bingen on the Rhine A r e c i t a t i o n by James Rodgers was splendidly given . . . . . . . , . • a « From the frequent applause i t . r e c e i v ed one would imagine that every man present, l i k e the dying s o l d i e r , thought of home, mother, brothers, and sweetheart. Do They Miss Me at Home A song by Reuben Albertson, was f i n e l y d e l i v e r e d " . « Albertson called upon Geo. Murdoch for Campbell's poem on The Downfall ©f Poland As he finished 0 i Once again to freedom's cause return The patriot Tell.-The Bruce of Bannockburn The whole house came down thundering and Mr. Murdoch received a handshaking that made his elbows ache The Cottage by the Sea By Mr. M i l l e r from Thibert Creek • • •.. was well r e ceived as were also "The Last Rose of Summer", "Old Arm Chair", and several other favourite ballads  (146)  by persons whose names I did not?-learn* The t o a s t to "The L a d i e s , God's own Policemen, God b l e s s them" was answered by Wm. Parron who r e c i t e d i n c a p i t a l style Montgomery's wellknown poem "The Love of Country and Home ( s i c ) M r . Parron, having w e l l earned the privilege, c a l l e d upon Mr. Blass who 'sang "Mildoon, the solid man" (and) "Milligan Guard". "The prosperity of the Colonist, the Miner's Best and True Priend" Was drunk w i t h a l l the honors and responded to by an old stager and time-honored "Typo" of the New York " H e r a l d " and'who' d e s i r e s his name not to be mentioned. Y«ur correspondent having never sung a song nor "spoke a speech" in his l i f e was, kindly let off with a j i g to the tune of "Patter Jack Walsh" Nine o'clock in the morning found the party principally on the move f o r their homes and to the song of "He's a Jolly Good Fellow" B e i n g participated in by the entire crowd i n honor of Carson dispersed one of the most convivial goodnatured assemblies I have witnessed. In the same winter the strange case of the Chinaman, Sam Sing was reported. Sam Sing was in the habit of getting exceedingly drunk and often while in that state was pursued by many devils. Being a law-abiding person, Sam Sing applied to J« L . 1 • Crimp, the recorder, for authority to shoot a l l devile at sight. Crimp demurred at f i r s t but finally f i on the payment of an appropriate fee, issued a warrant signed by Daniel O'Connell authorizing Sam Sing to shoot at sight a l l emissaries of the Evil One.  Shortly afterwards the whole of Laketon was awakened at mid-  night by an unearthly tumult in the street.  It was Sam Sing,  1 Crimp was recorder- from 1875 to 1876 and again from 1878 to 1887. T. Redgraves was recorder in 1877 and part of 1878.  (147)  howling i n triumph as he shot down the various devils that surround' 1 ed him after a drinking "bout the evening before. Shortly afterward Sam Sing died.  His countrymen raised a  subscription for an impressive funeral feast and b u r i a l ,  The body  was wrapped i n a winding sheet and placed i n an expensive c o f f i n overnight.  The following morning they approached the c o f f i n to  screw on the l i d .  To their amazement and horror the corpse sat up  and refused to participate further i n the funeral proceedings. The Chinamen f l e d . eral feast. spurned him.  Sam Sing lived well f o r three days on the fun-  But when he attempted to j o i n h i s compatriots they They insisted that this was not Sam Sing, their friend  and companion, but the E v i l One, who had taken possession of the body from which the soul.had departed.  Sam Sing took refuge i n a  white man's cabin a short distance up Dease Creek. A few nights later the cabin caught f i r e and the unhappy man ran raving into the snow-covered f o r e s t .  A search f a i l e d to f i n d him.  SECTION 3. WOMEN The Christmas celebration at Laketon described above might have been labelled "Men Only", and indeed i n Casslar up to 1880 no 1 C«loWUtMarch 30, 1876. 2 Ibid. He may have escaped' to- V i c t o r i a for a Sam Sing acted as interpreter i n court there i n 1880 (See B. C. Sessional papers 1881, Public Accounts of 1880, p. 103).  (148)  white woman was reported at the diggings i n the winter time, few even i n summer time and only one, Miss N e l l i e Cashman for more  rthan once.  Miss Cashman was "young and pretty l i g h t blonde" and 2 a •'real energetic Yankee" who l e f t V i c t o r i a i n A p r i l of 1874 to „2 3 "open the f i r s t hotel at the diggings. She returned i n November after a successful season.  The next year she was again i n Cassiar  and J . W. C.j> the Cariboo Sentinel correspondent, reported her as follows i Miss N e l l i e Cashman, more f a m i l i a r l y called "Nellie Pioche M i s quite a character, and deserves more than passing mention of her name. She kept a saloon and eating house here £LaketonJ last year and i s said to have done very w e l l . She was known to most of the Nevada miners, and l i k e a l l good and d u t i f u l children, she sent her mother last f a l l on her a r r i v a l In V i c t o r i a $500.00. She l e f t V i c t o r i a with the f i r s t crowd of miners l a s t February [1875] a l l alone; came up the Stickeen on the i c e with her sled and 200 l b s . of freight i n 18 days with no companion only such as • she met with on the t r i p , and since the middle of 4 March has had her house open, doing a l l her own work. . Miss Cashman l e f t Wrangel f o r Cassiar on January 28, 1835 . with a party of two men.  About two weeks l a t e r Rufus Sylvester  met her below the L i t t l e Canyon with f i v e men. She was "on snow6 shoes and as j o l l y as a sand-hoyiy." The l a s t mention of her i s . . . . . .  r, ,  7  her return from Cassiar i n June of 1876. 1 Colonist February 3, 1875. 2 Ibid. May 1, 1874. 3 Ibid. November 3, 1874. 4 Sentinel,July 17, 1875, l e t t e r of J . ¥ . C. 5 Colonist February 3, 1875. 6 7Ibid. March 6, 1875. I b i d . March 6, 1875.  (149)  Miss Irving, evidently a s o l o i s t , "gave one entertainment [in 18753 and realized $80.  She announced another hut the atten1 dance was so poor she did not sing." H a l f a dozen other women went to Wrangel and perhaps to Glenora, even to Laketon hut i t i s 2 impossible to say d e f i n i t e l y where except that there were a couple of Chinese women at the diggings i n 1876 who may have wintered -3 there. In Omineca, on the other hand, several married couplew were at the diggings and some women remained f o r the winter. The McGinleys have already been mentioned.  Mr. And M r s . E a r l e , (or Earl) lived . 4  on Germansen Creek for a time i n a tent and la.ter passed the same 5 winter there. On Manson Creek, a t Howellton and Dunkeld were the 1 Colonist, August 29, 1875. 2 ~ ' • ' Mr. & Mrs. Mandeville and chiId, "actors from Dease Lake (Colonist September 19, 1875) but no'mention of any performance a t Laketon; M r s . M i l l e r died of a" cold (Ibid. A p r i l 18) but perhaps o n l y at'Wrangel| M i s s S. Moore on the boat from Wrangel (Ibid."Nov. 1, 1676), perhaps related to" Moore, t h e druggist a t Laketon; Master and Miss Duval on t h e boat' from Wrangel (Ibid. October 6, 1877) perhaps son and daughter of Duval, Defot' s partner; Mrs. J . B. Lovell from Wrangel (Ibid. October 30) probably been to her husband at Glenora: M r s . Baronovitch for Wrangel (Ibid. May 1, 1879) her husband had a store at V/r angels "Eor Port Wrangel........ .Mr. & Mrs. Dibbel*'.(Ibid. May 19, 1880) 3 Mining Report, 1876, p. 415. 4 Colonist, October 5, 1871. 5 I b i d . November 22; Ibid. February 14, 1872, report of D. Humphreys.  (150)  McGinleys, a family keeping a "boarding house two  1  •' ' and "Joaephine and  o t h e r women  here, w i t h two more on t h e way also 3 " "2 squaws and'one Chinese woman. A l a t e r r e p o r t mentioned "one "3  Frenchwoman, one Spanish woman, and one Chinawoman.  The women  had to face the same hardships as the men, f o r example "Mr. James Morrison and h i s wife.  entered the Omineca country.....July  l a s t (1871J and started on t h e i r return 1st November. They reached Forks of Skeena 29th November and wintered there.  On 9th A p r i l  they started down v i a Nass t r a i l and reached the coast - Mrs. Morrison walking 155 miles over snow and through slush and rain."  4  SECTION 4. / JUSTICE  We have already noticed that on the Stikine hundreds of miners  lived and worked f o r several months without any legal author-  i t y i n the land but without reported crime (see p. 32 above). A record almost as creditable was maintained i n Omineca and Cassiar during the seventies. ing  Of course then, as now i n mining and logg-  camps, the police did not attempt to stop discreet poker p l a y 1 Colonist, November 22, 1871. 2 Ibid. October 5 3 I b i d . February 14, 1872, report of I>. Humphreys. 4 Colonist, May 15, 1872.  (151)  ing  nor m u t u a l l y a g r e e a b l e f i s t i c u f f s .  They c o n f i n e d t h e i r  activi-  t i e s t o the p r e v e n t i o n o f s e r i o u s crimes l i k e murder, a s s a u l t , r o b b e r y , i n w h i c h they had t h e support o f t h e e n t i r e community. I n • t h i s way one s t i p e n d i a r y m a g i s t r a t e , a dozen j u s t i c e s o f t h e peace and h a l f a dozen s c a t t e r e d c o n s t a b l e s - one a t Omineca; one on Skeena R i v e r ; one on S t i k i n e R i v e r ; one a t Laketon; and one a t C e n t r e v i l l e - w i t h o c c a s i o n a l s p e c i a l s were a b l e to a d m i n i s t e r l a w and order i n t h i s v a s t t e r r i t o r y .  Without them d i s o r d e r appeared,  as a miner r e p o r t e d about Omineca d u r i n g 1874:  " I am v e r y g l a d . . .  ...we have  - Mr. A l l a n  a J . P . amongst us a t l a s t  We had a p r e t t y rough camp here f o r a w h i l e l a s t year-.  ffraham.  I was  s o r r y f o r Mr. Page, who as c o n s t a b l e , d i d a l l he c o u l d b u t the men knew he had no power t o punish them and t h i s made h i s p o s i t i o n v e r y 1  uncomfortable" A l s o b e f o r e the a r r i v a l o f M a g i s t r a t e J . U . S u l l i v a n i n C a s s i a r c o n d i t i o n s were b a d .  " V i c t o r i a " wrote to t h e C o l o n i s t "Gambling i s  rampant h e r e a t p r e s e n t and the s t r e e t s a r e paved w i t h p l a y i n g cards Saloons a r e g o i n g a ' f l o u r i s h i n g b u s i n e s s ' .....To-day we had 2  A p a i r o f d e s t i t u t e miners made a n 3 attempt a t highway robbery on Moore's t r a i l s Sharpers among t h e 4  s e v e r a l knock-downs.,.."  miners p a i d I n d i a n canoemen w i t h w o r t h l e s s n o t e s .  Smuggling was  t r i e d b u t was nipped i n t h e bud by t h e e n e r g e t i c a c t i o n o f H u n t e r , the customs o f f i c e r on S t i k i n e , who' o b t a i n e d o o n v i c t i o n s a g a i n s t 1  C o l o n i s t , F e b r u a r y 13, 1875, from t h e Guardian  2  C o l o n i s t , September 1374;  see a l s o August 25  3 .4  I b i d . June 6 , J u l y 19, August 4 , 1874. I b i d . June 6 and J u l y 19  (152) 1  both Hart and Lear at Glenora, The s a l e o f l i q u o r to the I n d i a n s was the source o f c o n s t a n t  trouble and much of t h e trouble with t h e natives originated i n this p r a c t i c e .  The S t i k i n e e x p e r i e n c e has been mentioned above.  In Omineca i n 1872 an Indian, Tommy, and h i s squaw k i l l e d two en  ^  klootchmen with a hatohet while "in a drunk spree."  i t also i n -  volved Indian women as "ChiHotta" writes to the Colonist in 1876 3  Glenora Landing, March 10, 1876. The law should allow no man who sells intoxicating liquor to sell flash calicoes and gaudy ribbons; his license should be taken away i f he ; permitted an Indian woman into his whisky shop. .If a man robs a simple Indian woman of her senses, then of her chastity and then makes a public strumpet of her what does the law do? 3  Nothing ......... The difficulty was to catch men i n the act of selling the liquor. Two cases of the murder of I n d i a n women by their husbands were reported, one 1878, the other in 1879.  The former case i n -  volved Joe (or Tom) Anderson who ran amuk at Glenora i n January, 1 Ibid. September 24, August 5 and 25, 1874. 2 * 3 Ibid. August 31, 1872; Sentinel, September 7, 1872. Colonist, April 14, 1876.  (153)'  1878.  Constable W. Evans arrested him and released him under bond.  Thereupon Anderson stabbed h i s klootchman to death and attempted suicide.  F a i l i n g i n this he besought Chief Sheks to shoot him,  Sheks turned him over to Evans.  Anderson was not t r i e d i n 1878, the  next year the papers relating to h i s case were at V i c t o r i a when the case came before the Cassiar assizes and the t h i r d , when the suspension of assizes i n Cassiar made i t necessary to send him to V i c t o r i a for t r i a l , the papers remained i n Cassiar so that the autumn of 1880 found him l i v i n g i n comparative luxury i n Laketon 1 gaol at the public expense, much to the amazement of the natives. E l i Harrison, of the Attorney-General's department suggested to Vowell that "under the peculiar circumstances of the case, i t being impossible to try him this F a l l (sic) he might be employed...... to 2 pay for the Expense (sic) of keeping him." Well he might, f o r they were paying J . 1. Crimp from $45.00 to $46.50 a month f o r 3 Anderson's board. 1 : Colonist, February 28, 1878; September 16, October 16, 1879; August 19, 1880. 2 E l i Harrison to A. W. Vowell, V i c t o r i a , September 6, 1880, manuscript l e t t e r i n the f i l e s of the Attorney-General 1 s Department, V i c t o r i a . 3 33. C. Sessional Papers, 1879, Public Accounts of 1878, pp. 116, 157, Ibid. 1880, Public Accounts of 1879, p. 19; Ibid. 1881, Public Accounts of 1880 pp. 104 - 105.  (154)  In contrast to the delay i n Anderson's case i s the speedy disposition of that of Johnson, another Indian murderer.  Johnson  k i l l e d h i s wife f o r going with another Indian. "When two white men interfered he k i l l e d one of them and wounded another. The next day L o v e l l , the J . P. arre sted him after a desperate fight and wis 1 two months later he was convicted. HeAhanged the next year (1880). One of the d i f f i c u l t (and expensive) duties of the police was the transportation of insane men to the asylum at V i c t o r i a .  Since  a constable could not be long absent from h i s d i s t r i c t the patient was generally handed along from point to point with trust-worthy wayfarers; f o r example, i n the Publio Accounts of 1873 the following 2 items appear: A. Cameron Lunatic "Levine" Skeena to V i c t o r i a $218.00 19 » . " at Skeena 14.00 33. Smith « " Babine to Skeena 150.00 S. S. Otter fare " and keeper 32.00 M. Freak " » clothing 25.75 Cunningham and Hankin " " " 3.87 P. D i s c o l l " » • 10.50 B. Smith " " 13.50 Rent and damages to house by lunatic 25.00 Supplies f o r lunatic 8.00 The t o t a l of these items i s $550.62. In spite of the "damage to house" i t would appear that lunatics were safer charges than sane prisoners i f the experience of Beegan with Peter Martin i s any indication.  Frank Beegan and H. Richardson  ' 1 Colonist August 17, September 9, 1879; October 19, 1880. 2 B. C. Sessional Papers, 1874, p. 98.  (155)  were deputed to conduct Martin, nicknamed "Bricktop" from Cassiar to V i c t o r i a where he was to serve a sentence of f i f t e e n months f o r assault and battery.  One day at dinnertime Martin seized their  only firearm, a shot gun, which had been leaned against a tree, and backed away towards the woods. Beegan pursued him with a hatchet and i n the scuffle that followed Beegan was wounded, his head battered and his c o l l a r bone "broken. Later Ri chard son and two others recaptured the f u g i t i v e . • .  He arrived at V i c t o r i a on SS. 1 ""  "Grappler" under a guard of four armed men.  The cost of trans-  portation and guards f o r Martin was $380.90 and of compensation 2 to Beegan $200.00. Assize courts were held in^Cassiar annually from 1876 to 1879 and then suspended f o r lack of business. The Grand Jury of 1879 3 reported "no white men charged" and the gold commissioner i n the 4 same year remarked on the " t o t a l absence of crime." The assizes of 1877 are noteworthy on account of the courage displayed by Supreme Court Judge Crease. The Judge received severe internal injuries when h i s horse stumbled on the McDame Creek t r a i l and was physically helpless for the rest of h i s stay.  Noth-  ing  daunted, he held court lying on a stretcher and disposed of  the  entire docket. He was carried to Buck* s Bar strapped to a  stretcher which, on the h i l l y t r a i l , sometimes sloped "almost per1 Colonist, October 1, 1876; Ruxj Roughing i t after Go4dj> p. 131. 2 B. C. Sessional Papers 1877 Public Accounts of 1876, pp. 190, 222, 226; Ibid. 1878, Public accounts of • 1877 p. 133. 3 4Colonist, September 16, 1879. Mining Report 1879, p. 240.  (156)  pendicularly" o c c a s i o n a l l y w i t h the Judge's head downward. He 1 -never complained. At home i n V i c t o r i a he recovered some degree of health but remained lame.  SECTION 5. - THE PROFESSIONS.  Judge Creare's accident drew attention to the need for medical service i n Cassiar.  The next year a s u b s c r i p t i o n was circulated to 2  get money for a hospital No h o s p i t a l was  and a grant v/as voted by the l e g i s l a t u r e .  erected* however, and i n 1879  the grand jury re-  quested an annual grant towards the salary of a resident physician 3 instead fund  hut nothing was done. Payments were made from the hospi-  t a l f-or the treatment of the destitute and the prisoners, to J . Moore, a druggist who  set up i n business i n 1874 and continued as  druggist and medical advisor u n t i l after 1880. The drug business was not a s u f f i c i e n t livelihood and Moore went into other l i n e s , 5 such as hauling supplies. The only two doctors mentioned i n Cassiar were Theakstone Foster.  and  Theakstone entered Cassiar with Moore, the druggist but 1  Colonist, September 15, 1877. 2 Colonist, September 15, 1877, 3 Ibid. September 16, 1879. 4 " Colonist, May 7, 1874; B. C, Sessional Papers 1876, .5Public Accounts f o r 1875, p. 348; Ibid. 1878, Public B. C. Sessional Papers 1878, Report of Public Works Accounts for 1877 p. 108; Ibid. 1881, Public Accounts fp. o r 349. 1880 p. 101.  (157) 1 soon took to mining. u. F. Fo.ster, "Doc," ran a general store at 2 Centreville. He may have heen a medical man. 3 A Roman Catholic missionary v i s i t e d Cassiar diggings i n 1877. The legal profession was represented by C. J . Leggatt, a c e r y  tain Davie, and a certain Moss (who was  perhaps not q u a l i f i e d ) . •4 ' • "5 Leggatt and Davie were both at the d i g g i n g s i n 1874 and 1875. ' - '6 Leggatt was a resident voter i n the Cassiar l i s t s of 1880. Moss was  the representative of the defendants i n the smuggling cases of 7 . . . . . . 1874. Subsequently he did everything but practice law. The press was well represented at the diggings by correspondents of the various newspapers on the P a c i f i c coast including the Cariboo Sentinel, of B a r k e r v i l l e , and the " C a l i f o r n i a A l t a ' % 8 San Francisco.  of  I n the winter of 1874-75, and possibly i n other  years, the residents of Laketon went into journalism on their own account and produced their own 1  "Cassiar Chronicle", a manuscript  Colonist, May 7, 1874? July 3, October 23, July 17, October 4, 1878.  1877;  2  Ibid* August 30, 1876; July 24, 1877; May 1, 1879; 33.' C. Sessional Papers 1878 Report of Public Works p. 349. 3 Colonist, October 6, 1877. 4 Sentinel, July 4, 1874, Leggatt's advertisement; Colonist August 23, 1874, Davie passed Glenora. 5 Colonist, September 15, 1877. 6 33. C. Sessional Papers 1881, v o t e r ' s l i s t s , p. 86. 7 Colonist, September 24, 1874. 8 Colonist, July 16, 1874 and other newspaper r e f e r ences too numerous to mention.  (,158) • ' ' 1 a f f a i r that was read aloud i n the h o t e l s .  SECTION 6. - AGRICULTURE.  Agriculture, including gardening, was one of th^ f i r s t occupations to appear after mining.  Probably garden vegetables were  raised i n Stikine valley before the Cassiar rush, for W. Moore r e ported i n 1873 that "vegetables and good potatoes are raised to  2  .  .  .. .  good advantage".  In Omineca Pred Black grew turnips, onions, 3 " radishes and lettuce on Germansen Creek i n 1872. In Cassiar Clearihue at Laketon and Campbell a t Lake House (at the south end of 4  Lease Lake) were supplying similar home-grown produce i n 1875. Farm produce - hay, oats, barley - was harvested on Knew Camp Ranch near Lease Lake two years later kine v a l l e y .  and probably e a r l i e r i n the S t i -  The Stikine farmers, some f i f t e e n i n number w i t h a-  bout two hundred acres under cultivation i n a l l , held an a g r i c u l t u r a l exhibition at Telegraph Creek i n 1879.  Vegetables, grain,  eggs and milk were put on show by Messrs. Shearer,Calbreath, Lovell •  1  Colonist, July 16, 1874 Samuel Gothard, of the "Police Gazette", Vancouver, saw an issue of the Cassiar Chronicle i n the possession of the l a t e Magistrate Shaw, 2 B. C. Sessional Papers, 1874, Report of Exploration p.15 3 " Colonist, October 24, 1872. 4 I b i d . August 15, September 21, 1375. 5 I b i d . September 1 5 , 1877.  (159) • •" • D i f f o e , Dakin and o t h e r s .  '1 I t was v o t e d a s u c c e s s .  -  -  As the mining  p o p u l a t i o n d w i n d l e d , however, so d i d the farming p o p u l a t i o n ,  In  1887 the B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y l i s t e d o n l y two farmers to f o r t y 2 miners i n . C a s s i a r .  1  I b i d . September 19, October 1, 1879. 2 E . M a l l a n d a i n e ; B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y 1887, C a s s i a r d i s t r i c t . B o t h f i g u r e s a r e underestimates.  (160)  CHAPTER V I HISTORICAL AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OP THE NORTHERN RUSHES 1860 — 1880 The h i s t o r i c a l and economic importance of Omineca and Cassiar 7 i s to he considered from two view-points; v i z . , their affect f i r s t upon northern B r i t i s h Columbia and, second, upon the populated, southern, half of the province. There are a number of obvious results i n the north- geographi c a l knowledge was increased, t r a i l s blazed and cleared, bridges b u i l t , the attention of mining men was attracted to i t , prospecting for ore bodies was commenced, a hundred or so men remained to mine, prospect, farm, trap, and trade with the Indians, some hydraulieking companies went over the creeks with machinery for small profits  -  but i t i s doubtful that any of these had much perma-  nent importance.  Northern B r i t i s h Columbia i s s t i l l i n the pros-  pecting stage of development, except along the Canadian National Railway l i n e to Prince Rupert, i n the Peace River area, and the coast regions, which developed independently i n the twentieth century.  Had the gold extracted by the early placer miners never  existed, the geological surveyors and prospectors i n search of base metals would have uncovered the mineral wealth of the north soon enough f o r development.  The rushes" were l i k e shooting stars on a  dark night, flashes of passing radiance. To estimate the affect upon the southern sections of the province i s very d i f f i c u l t especially as i t merged i n the affeC't of the  (161)  gold mining industry as a whole. In the f i f t i e s what i s now the province of B r i t i s h Columbia had a population of well under f i v e thousand, i t was i s o l a t e d , separated from Canada by trackless mountains and p r a i r i e s , from B r i t a i n by the sea and from the United States by t a r i f f s and pol i t i c a l factors.  It possessed vast natural resources of minerals,  f o r e s t s , f i s h e r i e s and land suitable f o r development. Its climate i s temperate. A l l i t needed was some stimulating economic force to attract population and to last long enough f o r the secondary industries and export trade to be developed. Such a stimulus was the placer gold mining.  The gold produc-  t i o n rose from p r a c t i c a l l y nothing i n 1857 to $1,615,072 i n 1859, and $3,735,850 i n 1864, then gradually decreased to $1,799,440 i n 1871, $1,786,648 i n 1876 and $1,013,827 i n 1880 according to 1 o f f i c i a l figures. The mining population varied from 25,000 i n 1858, t o 4,000 i n 1860, 2,348 i n 1870, 2,024 i n 1875 and 1955 i n -2 1880. For years i t was the basic and largest industry i n the province In the early years of the mining prices were high and the range of a r t i c l e s and commodities available very limited.  As transportation  became cheaper and prices at the diggings lower, secondary industr i e s developed to supply the demand f o r a greater variety o f commodities.  Population increased, new industries and services developed. 1 Mining Report, 1880, Tafele 2 Howay: B r i t i s h Columbia. The Making of a Provinee,pp.120, ' 131 and M i n i n g Reports 1870,1875 and 1880.Table of Statistics.  (162) '  -  In 1870 the non-Indian Population was 10,586 •  Agriculture Manufacturing  •  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  employed as follows:  1,827 402  Trade  1,303  Mining  2 2,348  Prom these figures i t i s plain that B r i t i s h Columbia was i n 1870 s t i l l very much a "gold colony", for 22.9 per cent of the t o t a l non-Indian population,were miners. During the next decade the development of the secondary i n dustries continued and some industries, l i k e logging and lumbering were able to establish themselves on an export b a s i s , and consequently a f a i r l y stable economic organization was b u i l t up which tended to run on i t s own impetus even when the o r i g i n a l impetus - the placer gold mining - declined. Such a condition was very near i n 1880.  The non-Indian  population had increased to 31,446, an increase of about two hundred per cent. Nearly 23,000 people were reported employed 1 Censuses 1665 - 1871, p. 102 table I . 2 I b i d . p. 103, table I I . In the same year there were 41 marriages and 213 births i n the colony. The t o t a l 5,881 allows for women and children. 3 Canada 1886, p. 41, t o t a l population 56,446, p. 48, Indian population 25,000, hence nonIndian population 31,446.  (163)  i n part as followss Agriculture  5,000  -Trade  2,871  Lumbering  324  Transportation  681  Professions  491  Pishing  1,850  Hunting  856  Gold Mining Hot d e f i n i t e l y indicated  2  1,955 1 6,000  Some production figures f o r the same year (1881) are: wheat 173,653 bushels, oats 253,911 bushels, potatoes 473,837 bushels, turnips and other roots 352,774 bushels, lumber 24,017,877 cubic feet (multiply by 12 to get feet board measure) number of logs 3 t  The?mining population had sunk to 6.2^of the t o t a l and the  The figures are based on those given i n Canada 1886 p. 84-86 Occupations of the People 1881, B r i t i s h Columbia!, Canada Year Book 1905, p. 76, 2,743 occupiers of more than f i v e acres i n 1881*, Ibid. 1931, p. 406 number employed i n manufacture 1881| Mining Report, 1880, tables Report of Royal Commission on Chinese Immigration, Ottawa, 1885, p. 395, employees i n salmon canneries. >  But not gold mining, see Mining Report 1880. Canada Year Book 1905, pp. 78, 102, 110. Tables XXII, XXVII, and XL.  (164)  mining industry to t h i r d or fourth place, not so much on account of decline i n the mining  as of the growth of agriculture, lumber  ing and f i s h i n g . •y  The question that arises next concerns the extent to which  the non-existence of the northern placer gold f i e l d s would have affected the growth of the province from 1870 to 1880. TABLE I I I TOTAL ANNUAL RETURNS OE GOLD IN BRITISH2 COLUMBIA LESS VALUE OP NORTHERN FIELD Provincial Total Value  Bate  $1,774,978 1,336,956 1,799,440 1,610,972 1,305,749 1,844,618 2,474,904 1,786,648 1,608,182 1,275,204 1,290,059 1,013,827  1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880  1  Northern Total Value $  6,600 54,000 400,000 241,000 145,000 it.; 180, ooo 952,000 576,464 524,800 543,720 429,400 344,600  Southern Total Value .'.$1,768,378 1,282,956 1,399,440 1,369,972 1,160,749 " 664,616 1,542,904 1,210,184 1,083,382 731,484 660,659 669,227  The decline in A mining population 1870 to 1880 was 16.7$ and i n value of gold 24.1^. 2 are incorrect The figures f o r 1874 and 1875, A in the opinion of the. writer, probably on account of the practice of estimating t o t a l ' r e t u r n s by known exports. In ordinary years the carry-over did not matter much but the sudden increase o f production i n 1874 and i t s late a r r i v a l arid spending i n V i c t o r i a led to a large carry-over to 1875. The Mining Report of 1874 give Cariboo alone $700,000. The ii^-w^s $2,244,618 and $2,074,904 f o r t o t a l production i n 1874 and 1675 respectively and $1,064,616 and . $1,142,904 f o r the southern t o t a l would probably be closer the actual values. The northern value totals are found by adding the totals of Omineca and Cassiar (See Appendices C and D)  (165)  F i g u r e s showing the gold production of the province exclusive of Omineca and C a s s i a r a r e g i v e n i n Table Ho, I I I p, 1 6 4 , These figures suggest that without C a s s i a r the decline i n gold production would have been s t e a d i e r and a l i t t l e greater; there would have been no sudden r i s e i n 1 8 7 4 and 1 8 7 5 .  T h i s might have meant that  the rate increase i n population after 1 8 7 4 would have been the same as from 1 8 7 0 to 1 8 7 4 - about 41/£ i n four years.  Since the 3.  non-Indian population of the province i n 1 8 7 4 was 1 5 , 0 0 0 would have given by 1 8 8 0 a population of about 2 5 , 0 0 0 .  this On the  other hand the surveys and other work i n connection with the construction of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway provided another a r t i f i c i a l s t i m u l u s that would account d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y f o r a t least one thousand additional population.  Also the fact the r a i l -  way was to be b u i l t was attracting settlers and others who wished to be on the ground to take advantage of the a c t i v i t i e s that would f o l l o w the construction of the r a i l r o a d , probably another two thousand by 1 8 8 0 .  The t o t a l speculative population grows to 2 8 , 0 0 0 ,  only three thousand below the actual f i g u r e .  Without the northern  rushes, therefore, growth would r e a l l y have been l i t t l e retarded, times a l i t t l e less prosperous and d e f i c i t s a l i t t l e greater but i n the l i g h t of the twentieth c e n t u r y development i n mining, f i s h e r i e s , lumbering,, paper-making, to say nothing of agriculture, t h i s O M U Have Kai W  retardation JA•:" l i t t l e h i s t o r i c a l significance, 1  The non-Indian population of B r i t i s h Columbia 3.874 was 1 5 , 0 0 0 ; see Censuses 1 6 6 5 - 1 8 7 1 , p. 3 7 7 , Table • II note. The Increase was nearly 5 , 0 0 0 .  (165A)  To sum up, the S t i k i n e , Peace River, Omineca and C a s s i a r rushes were h a r d l y l a r g e enough g r e a t l y t o a f f e c t the o u t s i d e w o r l d or t o he an e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n the development of the p r o v i n c e , hut they were, n e v e r t h e l e s s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c g o l d rushes w i t h a f u l l measure of movement, t o i l , l u c k , h a r d s h i p and d e a t h .  disappointment.,  They t a k e t h e i r p l a c e b e s i d e Kootenay and  B i g Bend i n t h e romantic  s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia's e a r l y y e a r s .  Finis  (166)  B I B L I O G R A P H Y  1. MANUSCRIPT MATERIALS  1  Adams, J . R. % Letter to the Honorable E. Beaven; from Buck•s Bar,  October 10, 1873 (the f i l e s of the Department of Lands)  A good statement of Adams case i n the legal controversy of 1873 - 74. B a l l , H. M.  i Letter to the Colonial Secretary, December 28, 1870  (B. C. Archives M. P. 102.) Campbell, Robert. %  Journal of Robert Campbell, (transcript i n  B. C. Archives).  Position of Port Halkett and names on  Liard River. Gardiner, J . A.  % Diary of J . A. Gardiner No. 1. (B. C. Archives)  P i r s t hand information on the exploration of the overland c a t t l e t r a i l Hazelton to Telegraph Creek, 1875. Harrison, E l i % Letter to A. ¥ . Vowell, from V i c t o r i a , September 6,1880, (the f i l e s of the Attorney-General's Department). Tom Anderson to work f o r h i s keep i n gaol. 1 The materials, manuscript and printed, used i n the preparation of this thesis are to be found i n the Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Legislative Library at V i c t o r i a B. C., the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library, the Vancouver City Library, and the private l i b r a r y of R. L.« Reid, Esq., 'K. C., at Vancouver, B. C•, the C i t y Library New Westminster, B. C., and the f i l e s of the Attorney-General•s Department and of the Department of Lands at V i c t o r i a , B. C.  (167)  Howell, Robert : L e t t e r to P . O'Reilly, G. Co i n Omineca, from Hanson R i v e r , July 1 2 , 1871 (B. G. Archives M. S. S, 802.a.b.) Discovery of gold on Manson Creek and the laying out of Howellton townsite. Humphrey, William : Diary (B. C. Archives)  Exploration and con-  struction of overland c a t t l e t r a i l Hazelton to Laketon, 1874. Work, John, et a l : Ermatinger L e t t e r s .  Letters to Edward Erma-  ting er from John Work, William Todd, J . K. McDonald and A r c h i bald McDonald, January 2nd 1828 to November 14th 1856. Original l e t t e r s i n the B. C  Archives, transcript i n the  University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library,  The f i r s t discovery  of gold i n northern B r i t i s h Columbia.  2. OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS  Canada, S t a t i s t i c a l Abstract and Record for the Year 1886. Ottawa, Maclean Roger & Co. 1887 - population and occupation figures for 1881. Canada Year Book 1905.  Ottawa, S. E, Dawson, 1906.  Information  on occupiers of farms of f i v e acres or more i n B r i t i s h Columb i a during 1881. Canada Year Book 1931.  Ottawa, P. A. Acland, 1931.  Information  on i n d u s t r i a l and agricultural production i n B r i t i s h Columbia during 1381. Censuses of Canada 1665 - 1871, S t a t i s t i c s of Canada, Volume IV. Ottawa, I. ¥ . Taylor, 1876.  Population o f B r i t i s h Columbia  (168)  1870 and 1874, occupations of the people ox B r i t i s h Columbia in  1870.  Journals oi the l e g ! s l a t i r e Assembly of B r i t i s h Columbia 1871 to 1874, (Volumes I to IV). V i c t o r i a , Wolfenden, 1872 to 1874. The appendices contain the sessional papers. Ordinanoes passed by the L e g i s l a t i v e Council o f B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g the S e s s i o n from January to A p r i l 1865. Government Printing O f f i c e .  Hew Westminster  Laws governing g o l d m i n i n g .  Ordinances passed by the L e g i s l a t i v e Council o f B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g the Session f r o m January to A p r i l , 1867. minster, Government Printing O f f i c e .  New West-  Laws governing g o l d  mining. Papers Relative to the a f f a i r s of B r i t i s h Columbia P a r t s I to I I I . London, George E y r e and Wm. Spottiswoode, 1859 and 1860. Laws governing gold m i n i n g , and f i r s t penetration o f the n o r t h land. Public Accounts o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1874 to 1880, i n t h e Sessional Papers o f the B r i t i s h Columbia Legislature 1875 to 1881. V i c t o r i a , Wolfenden, 1875 to 1881.  These reveal many i n t e r -  esting details on the administration of j u s t i c e , the merchants supplying government offices i n various d i s t r i c t s , and road expenditures. Reports of the Department of Public Works 1874 to 1880, i n the Sessional Papers of the B r i t i s h Columbia Legislature 1875 to 1881.  V i c t o r i a , Wolfenden, 1875 to 1381.  t r a i l s , and t r a i l charters.  Explorations,  (169(  Reports of the M i n i s t e r of M i n i s t e r of Mines 1874 to 1880, i n the S e s s i o n a l Papers of the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e 1875 to 1881, V i c t o r i a , Wolfenden, 1875 to 1881.  L e t t e r s of the g o l d  commissioners a r e v e r y i n f o r m a t i v e . ' Report of the R o y a l Commission on Chinese I m m i g r a t i o n . Ottawa, by o r d e r of the Commission, .1385.  Salmon f i s h e r i e s , and the  p o s i t i o n of the Chinese i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia 1872, 35 V i c t o r i a . den, 1872.  Laws r e g u l a t i n g mining®  S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia 1874, 37 V i c t o r i a . den, 1874.  V i c t o r i a , Wolfen-  V i c t o r i a , Wolfen-  The M i n i n g Amendment of 1874.  u  Carmichae 1,A''and Moore, C . W.  ; B r i t i s h Columbia Department of  M i n e s , B u l l e t i n ITo. 2, 1930, (compiled by J . D. G a l l o w a y ) . M i n i n g methods, d i s c o v e r y of C a s s i a r , the l a r g e s t nugget u n earthed i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t c o n t a i n s a few i n a c c u r a c i e s . Dawson, G. Ms  Report on an E x p l o r a t i o n i n the Yukon D i s t r i c t of  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s and the a d j a c e n t N o r t h e r n P o r t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia (Report B, G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, New S e r i e s , Volume I I I ) .  M o n t r e a l , Daws on B r o t h e r s , 1888-39.  A c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n on mining h i s t o r y , t r a i l s , c l i m a t e and men., Dawson, G. M:  Report on the M i n e r a l Wealth o f B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h  an annotated L i s t of L o c a l i t i e s  of M i n e r a l s of Economic V a l u e .  (Report R, G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, New S e r i e s , Volume I I I ) M o n t r e a l , Dawson B r o t h e r s , 1888-89. item.  See remarks i n p r e v i o u s  (170)  Galloways John D.  : Placer-mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Banfield, 1950, Galloway, John D. • ^  Description of mining methods.  : Placer Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia (extracts  from B u l l e t i n No. 1, 1931). partment of Mines, 1932.  McConnell, R. G.  Victoria,  :  V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia De-  Description of mining methods.  Report on Exploration i n the Yukon and Mackenzie  Basins - Report D of the Geological Survey of Canada New Series, Volume IV. McConnell, R. G.  Montreal, Paster, Brown and Co. 1891.  : Report on Exploration i n the Einlay and  Omineca River Basins - Geological Survey of Canada, New Series, Volume V I I . Ottawa, E. Dawson, 1896.  Geology and  history but not so r e l i a b l e as Dawson. Oliver, E. H.  :  The Canadian North-West, Its Early Development  and Legislative Records. 1915.  Ottawa, Government Printing Bureau,  A cryptic o u t l i n e .  3. NEWSPAPERS  B r i t i s h Colonist, V i c t o r i a , B. C.  \ U 0 - i e s °  <e.c.fl,a/^, »U  Previa,;,)  lihrary)  Many interviews with prominent miners, l e t t e r s , and f u l l r e ports from Peace River, S t i k i n e , the Skeena route to Omineca, and the Cassiar d i s t r i c t . ated.  The Peace River reports are exagger-  It consistently supported the miner i n h i s fight for  t r a i l s , representation and redress of grievances. B r i t i s h Columbian, New Westminster, B. C.  \tU-i*t-<>  (B.C.ftnhl  Y  es)  Most of i t s reports are copied from other newspapers, but i t  (171)  contains a few good l e t t e r s . Cariboo Sentinel, B a r k e r v l l l e , 33. C. lU*-' City  17  *  (b-Cfinhives  Library)  The best source of good reports and l e t t e r s from Peace River •  and ©mineca.  I t i s c r i t i c a l of the Skeena route and of Cassi-  ar. Daily Chronicle, V i c t o r i a , 33. C.  lt(,x~ifU  Id.C.archives)  The "best source f o r the Stikine rush? few reports but they are long and detailed.  It i s f a i r on Cassiar.  Daily Standard, V i c t o r i a , 33. C. lS7o-t?7s(B-chrchives  aW  Pnvi-ncUl  Library)  Pew reports and l e t t e r s . Gazette, V i c t o r i a , 33. C. jrst-itsi  (#•<-•  /»«)><*ve*)  Meagre reports. Government Gazette B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B. C. O f f i c i a l advertisements, appointments, notices and a few reports. Mainland Guardian, Afew West m in ster , ex.1?u-iw5 (Ntw We* t-m Ciiy  Library)  Good f o r Peace River and Omineca, Times, New Westminster, B. C. I w?-  (e.  Meagre reports. 4. OTHER PRINTED SOURCES  B r i t i s h Columbia and V i c t o r i a Directory 1863. V i c t o r i a , Howard and Barnett, 1863.  Peace River mines.  B r i t i s h Columbia Directory, 1887. V i c t o r i a , Mallandaine and Williams 1887.  Unofficial  census  (172)  of C a s s i a r 1886* B u t l e r , Major W i l l i a m P., P. R. G. S.  :  The W i l d N o r t h Land.  Philadelphia, P o r t e r and Coates, 1874*  P i r s t hand d e s c r i p -  t i o n of Omineca, Peter Toy and Rufus Sylvester. Downie, Major W i l l i a m ing  s  Hunting f o r Gold,  C o . San Prancisco, 1895.  California  Publish-  Early discovery o f g o l d on the  Skeena? d i s t a n c e s are exaggerated. Dyer, E. Jerome  % Routes and Mineral Resources of North-Western  Canada. London, Geo, P h i l i p and Son, 1898. Guide to the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r 1877 - 78. Hibben, 1877.  Victoria  Discovery and development o f Cassiar - second-  ary. Horetsky. Charles  s Canada on the P a c i f i c .  Brothers, 1874. Howay, P. W.  Montreal, Dawson  Omineca and the Skeena route 1872.  i B r i t i s h Columbia, the Making of a Province,  Toronto, The Ryerson Press, 1928. Howay, P. W. and Scholefield E. 0, S. the E a r l i e s t Times to the Present. Publishing Co. 1914. Kerr, J . B.  General background.  i B r i t i s h Columbia, from Vancouver, S. J . Clarke  General background.  % Biographical Sketches of Well-known B r i t i s h  Columbians.  Vancouver, Kerr and Begg, 1890.  General back-  ground. MacPie, Matthew, P. R. G. S.  s Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h  Columbia. London, Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green 1865.  Contemporary d e s c r i p t i o n of mining methods.  (173)  Martin, The Honorable A r c h e r i  R e p o r t s of M i n i n g Gases Decided by  the Courts of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Courts of Appeal therefrom to the 1st of October 1902*  Toronto, Carswell, 1903.  D e f i n i t i o n of mining terms. Morice, Reverend A. G., 0. M. I.  s History of the Northern Inter-  i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia, formerly Hew Caledonia (1660 - 1880) Toronto, W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1904.  Information on Peace River  and Omineca, quotations from the P o r t S t . James J o u r n a l . Pike, Warburton  :  Through the Subarctic Porest.  York, E. Arnold, 1896.  London and New  M i n e r s s t i l l i n Cassiar and descrip-  tion of Laketon, 1892. Rux  : Roughing It After Gold. London, Sampson, Law, Marston, Searle and Rivington, L t d . 1891.  F i r s t hand description of  Cassiar Scholefield, E. 0. S., and Gosnell, R. E.  s B r i t i s h Columbia,  " Sixty Years of Progress, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia.  Histor-  i c a l Association, 1913. Wright, S . W. (editor) : Lewis and Dryden's Marine History of the P a c i f i c North-West«> Printing Co. 1895.  Portland, Oregon, The Lewis and Dryden Sea and r i v e r transport.  5* MAPS  Pope's Map.  A map of central and northern B r i t i s h Columbia, made  i n 1867 by Major James Pope from information collected during the surveys of the C o l l i n ' s Overland Telegraph Company's Ex-.  (174)  ploration p a r t i e s  (B. C. Archives)  T r u t c h ' s Map, A Map of t h e Peace R i v e r M i n e s , prepared from t h e "best information a t hand at the Lands and Works Office 1370 (Vancouver C i t y L i b r a r y ) .  (175)  APPENDIX A  1. CALCULATIONS EOE  GRAPH NUMBER I  I n a r r i v i n g a,t an e s t i m a t e of the number of men R i v e r a t the end of each month i n 1862  on the  Stikine  I f i r s t made a l i s t  of  s a i l i n g s f o r the S t i k i n e ( g i v e n i n t a b l e IV below)' w i t h the number of passengers as g i v e n i n the columns of the " B r i t i s h C o l o n ist  ".  Then I made a l i s t of the d e p a r t u r e s from S t i k i n e , the  number of men i n 1862-1863. below.  t h a t d i e s t h e r e , and the numb er t h a t w i n t e r e d This i n f o r m a t i o n I s summarized i n t a b l e s V and  Next from these t a b l e s the number of a r r i v a l s and  u r e s and so the number of men month was  there VI  depart-  a t the d i g g i n g s a t the end of each  c a l c u l a t e d a l l o w i n g a week f o r a steamer and two weeks  f o r o t h e r c r a f t to make the t r i p one way mouth of the S t i k i n e .  between V i c t o r i a and  the  The r e s u l t s a r e shown i n t a b l e V I I on which  Graph No. I page 31 of the t e x t i s b a s e d .  (1.76) TABLE IV - SAILINGS POR STTKTNE* 1862. Date  Ship  Jan.27  Kingfisher  9  May 16  Feb. 11  Antelope  4  21  Hamley  ' 5X  23  3 canoes  18  2 boats  12  18 • 21  Lamgley Fanny Hamley  \  22  Alpha  (?)  Emily  Mar.10  5X  29  John Thornton  28  John Dickson  10  North Star  38  June 3  10  Surprise  5X  9  Ino  5X  13  Plying Du tollman  61  21  Alpha  28  22  Non-Pareil  25  Labouchere  14  Amelia  12  Alarm  5  X  X  18  Eagle  5  19  a canoe  5  Rebecca  36  2 canoes  12  15  12  North Star  23  17  17  2 canoes  8  23  23  Boz  5X  29  canoe  6  7  canoe Nalin  6  9  Trader  4  Commodore  4  Victoria Packett  July 7  Aug. 6  Sep. 2  6  Rebecca  20  Victoria • Packet!  20  • Grace Darling  12  North Star . Alpha  40 30  Rebecca  13  Otter  10  Hamley Total Add Russians  7 639 12  10 246  x  5X  Antelope  35  12  37  26  Explorer  Apr. 4  Rebecca  X 5 20  13  16  May  Men  Total to mines 651  Five men were allowed to a boat when the number was not stated  (177) TABLE V Date  ~  MINERS RETURNING EROM STIKINE,, 1862 ship  Men  June 26  Rebecca  15  July 16  Louise Morris  2  North Star  5  10  a canoe  6  300  15  John Dickson  6  340  17  Alpha  1  20  Rebecca  2  250 816  8  Aug.  Sep*  Bold  #  22  Remarks''  Chinese some g o l d  20 $z.  48 oz.  9  North Star  10  22  SS. Otter  20  small amount  24  Plying Dutchman  60 .• 2000  w i t h barge  Emily Harris  10  26  Native  13  27  Rebecca  28  Alpha  26  29  Perfect Cure  10  Surprise  -«=  11  John Thornton  12  30  John Dickson  15  Louise  11  8 canoes  48  Rebecca  40  SS. Labouchere  100 20000  9  Oct. 19 :.i30 Nov.(?)  John Dickson  Dec.  SS. Labouchere  1  Total  1  6  1600  6000  800  40 459 32s128  (178) TABLE VI - COMING AND GOINGS COMPARED, 1862 No, o f men e n t e r i n g S t i k i n e (see Table I)...........651 No. of men l e a v i n g S t i k i n e (Table I I ) . . . . . « . 4 5 9 No. o f men who died there.  20  No. of men wintering..»..................... 80 T o t a l accounted f o r  559  Not accounted f o r .  92  TABLE VII - NO. OP MEN AT THE MINES To Month mines Mar.  Deaths  Prom mines  Add^ ~ : No. at the" 20% Incr. Deer, of the month  53  53  53  Apr.  148  148  201  May  43  42  243  174  417  June - July  1  215 80  34 5  13  7 3  59  476  Aug.  105  2  152  30  79  397  Sep.  7  12  74  15  94  303  Oct.  146  29  175  128  Nov.  40  8  48  80  459  92  Totals 651 ;  20  476  396  The 92 men not accounted f o r i n Table V a r e distributed among the various months i n proportion to the number . who l e f t that month by adding 20^.  (179)  2o PRODUCTION ON STIKINE 1862  Gold production i n Stikine during 1862 i s d i f f i c u l t to c a l culate.  Judging from the reports received i n V i c t o r i a over the  whole season we may say that a miner could take out $1,00 to $1,50 a day almost anywhere at any time during the summer, that at low waiter there were many bars that paid $3,00 a day to the hand, and t h a t a few bars paid up to $15 a day to the band, We may say then, that on the average the miners took out $2,00 a day to the hand when they were working. An estimate of the t o t a l number of working days follows s No miners working u n t i l June. June 9 men actually at the diggings numbered about 367 (417-150=367) and with high water and moving about we may say they worked and average of f i f t e e n days each, giving a t o t a l of 5,505 working d a y s . J u l y , the men a c t u a l l y at the d i g g i n g s numbered about f o u r hundred (average) and worked,- say, f i f t e e n days giving a to t a l of 6000 working d a y s . August, the men at the d i g g i n g s numbered four hundred and worked, with the water f a l l i n g , an average of twenty-five days, giving a total of 10,000 working days. September, the men at the d i g g i n g s numbered three hundred, and worked an average of twenty days, as there was much prospecting that took time i n transportation, and thus we get a total of 6,000 working days. During the rest of the year men were migrating, g e t t i n g pro-  (180)  visions and "building huts f o r the winter so we may discount the production for the rest of the year. Thus we get a grand t o t a l of 27,50 5 working days, which a t two dollars a day works out to a t o t a l production for the year of $55,010. Another method of calculation i s to take the amount of gold reported to have come down on the ships to V i c t o r i a , a total of $32,128, which represents p r i n c i p a l l y the gold brought down i n the hands of traders, or i n the possession of more s u c c e s s f u l miners who remained t i l l October. Allowing an equal amount for gold i n the hands of other miners we get a t o t a l of $64,256. The writer would judge that the former total i s more nearly correct. The production f o r 1863 was miserably poor and can be placed with safety at under seventy-five dollars per miner, a t o t a l of $9,600.  APPENDIX B No. 1,  The mining population of Peace River i n 1861 was two -  W i l l i a m Gust and Edward Gary (Colonist, June 6, 1861).  I n 1862  Gust and four others (Chronicle November 20, 186 2, Colonist, February 10, 1870), a party of four ( i b i d , and Mo rices Northern I n t e r i o r , p. 296) a party of eight .(Colonist, October 17 and 20, 1862), Alex Porter, alone, (Chronicle December 23, 1862) and another group of u n s t a t e d number (ibid.) v i s i t e d Peace River, i n a l l about twenty-five. The next year the number 150 (Morice; Northern Interior,  {mi}  p. 296, Colonist, June 30 and 31, 1863; Chronicle, July 19, 1863). From 1864  to 1868  the number varied from two to a dozen.  (Colonist, February 17, 1870). No. 2.  The value of the gold mined i n Peace River i n 1861  was #1,000,00 (Chronicle November 20, 1862; B. C. Directory, 1863, p. 204 - 205; C o l o n i s t , February 16, 1870). D u r i n g the next year the following amounts were reported? Cust and p a r t y , $6,000 (Ibid.) an unnamed group of four  men,  $900 (Ibid, and Morice: Northern Interior p. 296) a group of eight, #1,000 (Colonist, October 17 and 20, 1*62), a t o t a l of $7,900.  Add  another $5,000 f o r unreported and late returns and the total becomes #12,900. In 1863 of men.  the t o t a l was higher on account of the greater number  Peter G o l d s m i t h and four others reported about .|4,000  (Sentinel, December 4, 1869).  Other p a r t i e s mined for shorter  periods of time or i n poorer d i g g i n g s and the general returns were poor, say an average of $300.00 per man  during the y e a r .  basis the t o t a l works out to #47,500 ($300 X 145  On t h i s  $4,000)*  From 1864 to 1867 we can place the returns at a p p r o x i m a t e l y $4,000 per year. APPENDIX C OMINECA NO. 1. Population, Summer and Winter 1869 to  1880.  The population i n the summer of 1869 was nine, s i x i n the Peace River prospecting Party and three i n the Chapmen Party (Colonist May 18, 1869).  In the autumn about twenty-two went i n  (182)  to j o i n those l e f t at V i t a l Greek i n the summer ( S e n t i n e l November 13, 1869) so that the winter population was about twenty-five* In 1870 ninety-one passengers were r e p o r t e d leaving V i c t o r i a for Omineca by way of the Skeena River (SS, E l i z a Anderson, 20, Colonist, March 9, 1870, SS. Otter, 15 -+- 36 +-20, Colonist, March 19, A p r i l 19, June 10, 1870) none of whom arrived before May 1 (Sentinel May 14, 1870). The Colonist on May 8, 1870, reported that 200 had passed Quesnel to that date bound f o r Omineca, Lament reported meeting 125 white men and 100 Chinamen on their way  to the mines i n the  f i r s t half of May (Sentinel May 14, 1870) and on May 15 the Sentinel estimated that 350 had gone through to Omineca (Sentinel, May  15,  1870). Allowing f o r overlapping i n reports this seems a good estimate.  These would a l l reach Omineca by the middle o f June making a  t o t a l of about 450.  It i s doubtful i f the t o t a l number exceeded  this at any time later i n the year for as many a r e reported leaving as arriving i n June (Sentinel, June 25, 1870) and i n July more than 200 l e f t the d i s t r i c t (Sentinel July 9, 23, 1870), indeed the C o l onist reported that at the end of June there were only 150 men (Colonist, August 11, 1870).  left  I n September when Germansen's d i s -  covery became known, there were 105 men assembled at V i t a l (Sentinel September 24, 1870). Allowing f o r a few men prospecting, and traders at Bog en and Takla Landing,•there would be under 150 men* Eorty wintered (Sentinel, February 4, 1871), For 1871 the recorded sailings from V i c t o r i a to the mouth of the Skeena River are given i n Table VIII on the next page.  It i s  (183)  probable that the Otter made a t r i p with another 75, say, i n June making a t o t a l by this route of approximately 550 up to the end of June, 1871.  The number reported for the Eraser River route up to  the end of May i s about 350 (Colonist February 21, July 9, 1871; Sentinel March 11, 25, A p r i l 13, 29, May 6, 1871).  The total re-  TABLE VIII - RECORDED SAILINGS EROM VICTORIA EOR SKEENA MOUTH, 1871.  Numb er of Passengers  Ship  Newspaper reference  SS. Otter  Colonist Eeb. 21, 1871  18  SS. Otter and barge Omineca Standard Mar. 25, 1871  140  SS. Grappler  Standard Apr. 6, 1871  55  SS. Otter  Colonist Apr. 15, 1871  75  SS. Otter  Standard May 18, 1871  60  SS. Grappler  Colonist May 18, 1871  90  SS. Emma  Colonist June 10, 1871  40 478  ported entering Omineca i n 1871 i s , therefor, about 900.  The  Sentinel estimated the number at the diggings at 800 by both routes (Sentinel June 17, 1871). P. O'Reilly put the number at 500 for June 12 (Colonist July 5, 1871) but a month later reported 1200. (p. O'Reilly to the Colonial Secretary  the Colonist August 9,  (184)  1871).  I n h i s f i n a l report (Sessional Papers 1872 #5. p. 86) he  says the population was never more than 1500, with 900 actually mining*  Since a f t e r the m i d d l e o f J u l y few were reported enter-  ing and many were reported leaving (Colonist August 30, 1870)  the  writer i s of the opinion t h a t July was the high point and also that the population was not more than a thousand at anytime i n 1871 (See also Sentinel August 5, 1871 and Colonist October 4, 1871, the report of Webster): About 150 wintered at the diggings (Sentinel January 13, 1872j Colonist February 14, 1872). In 1872 the number of men  that went to Omineca was much less  and they began to come e a r l i e r i n the season.  The Colonist i n  a l l reported 686 as Reaving the mines, and the Sentinel reported 75 wintering at the diggings and the Colonist reported 20 wintering at Hazelton (Colonist March 28, 1873), making a t o t a l of 781. The.greatest number reported at the mines at any one time was  600  (Sentinel August 17, 1872) and a l l o w i n g f o r overlapping of arrivals and departures, this figure may be accepted as the summer peak population. January 4,  Seventy-five passed the winter i n  Omineca.(Sentinel  1873)  In 1873 there were not more than 300 men i n Omineca (Colonist June 6, " B u t l e r ' s r e p o r t 1 , August 13, 'Win. Reed's report' 1873; Standard August 13, 1873; Sentinel June 7, 1873). Few wintered at the d i g g i n g s , about a hundred prepared  to w i n t e r at Hazelton, on  their way to Cassiar.(Colonist November 19, In 1874  1873)  there were about 80 men at the mines (Mining Report,  (185)  1874, p. 550i Sentinel November 14, 1874) and about 20 wintered (Sentinel November 28, 1874, February 13, 1875)„ It continued about the same u n t i l 1377 and i n 1878 dropped to about 45. (Colonist July 26, 1877, November 19, 1878, October 14, 1879) '  No, 2.  M i n i n g production i n Omineca 1869 - 1888.  The production of gold on V i t a l Creek i n 1869 has been estimated in the text at $6,600 (see p. 164 above) and i n 1870 at $54,000 (see p. 140 above).  In 1871 the gold commissioner reported  $400,000 (B. G. Sessional Papers, 1872, #5, p. 87), T h i s was the banner year and the best on both Germansen and Manson Creeks, There i s no return i n the B. C. Sessional Papers of the gold production for the next two years, but a reasonable estimate would be to suppose that the annual average per miner was about the same as i n the year preceding, giving a total of $240,000 and $120,000 f o r 1872 and 1873 respectively.  Por the remaining years the mining  report figures may be accepted f o r 1874, $80,000 ( M i n i n g Report, 1874, p. 8); f o r 1375, $32,000 (Mining Report, 1875, p. 612)| f o r 1879, $36,000 (Mining Report, 1879, p . 244); and f o r 1880. The only comment on the years 1376, 1377 and 1878 was "Omineca almost d e s e r t e d " (Mining Report 1376, p. 410) so the returns for those years can be put quite low - say $20,000, $25,000 and $25,000 respectively.  (186)  APPENDIX D No. 1. - Gold P r o d u c t i o n i n Cassiar.  T h e 6 1 o ^ a l t v a l u . o f t h e gold production i n each of the years 1874 and 1875 i s based on the f o l l o w i n g estimates?  J . H. S u l l i v a n , G. C. i n Cassiar 1874 - 75 i n the Mining Report 1874, p. 22 - f o r 1874 $1,000,000; Mining Report 1875, p. 601 - f o r 1875 "a l i t t l e short of a m i l l i o n " . G. B. Wright i n the Mining Report 1875, p. 605 - f o r the two years 1874 and 1875 #2,000,000. J . L. Crimp, Adam's successor as recorder, i n the Colonist November 3, 1874 - f o r 1874 $1,250,000. A. W. Vowell, G. C. i n Cassiar during 1876, i n the Mining Report 1876, p. 410 - f o r 1875, $800,000. Total amounts reported on boats a r r i v i n g at Victoria from the North during 1874,  $1,061,294.  G. M. Dawson, i n Report R, Geol. Survey 1887, New Series, Volume III p. 44 R, for 1874  --  $1,000,000.  for 1875  --  $830,000.  A month to month calculation on the basis of men working and r e ported average e a r n i n g s , with allowances for layoffs and unreported returns, for 1874  $1,268,000.  The figures $1,100,000 f o r 1874, and $900,000 f o r 1875 may be taken as approximately correct.  (187)  The g o l d p r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e s f o r the y e a r s 1876 to 1880 a r e those g i v e n i n t h e mining r e p o r t s , w i t h minor adjustments f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between the main r e p o r t and the t a b l e s and allowances for late returns.  The d i v i s i o n amongst the v a r i o u s d i g g i n g s i s  based on the r e p o r t s , e s p e c i a l l y the t a b l e s o f s t a t i s t i c s , and other i n f o r m a t i o n . :aln the M i n i n g Report 1876, p. 416, the t o t a l f o r t h a t year was g i v e n as #556,474 ($463,720  $92,744 f o r i r r e g u l a r m i n i n g ) .  The $92,744 r e p o r t e d f o r i r r e g u l a r (not i l l e g a l ) mining i s 20^ of the t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n , hence i n t a b l e s I and. I I pp. 102 and 103 i n the t e x t 20$ has been d i s t r i b u t e d amongst the l e s s e r mining  areas  known to have been worked. I n the M i n i n g Report 1877, p. 401, r e p o r t of October 1, 1877, g i v e s a t o t a l of $499,800 ($399,800  $45,000 f o r i r r e g u l a r mining  $55,000 f o r unreported l a t e r e t u r n s ) .  The $55,000 a l l o w e d f o r  l a t e r e t u r n s has been d i s t r i b u t e d pro r a t a amongst the v a r i o u s :  creeks b e i n g mined.  .  I n the M i n i n g Report 1878, p. 377, r e p o r t of October 1 8 , 1878, the t o t a l was $519,720 ($372,720 for late returns).  $99,000 f o r " r e t i c e n c e ' ' $45,000  Of the t o t a l of $144,000 not a l l o c a t e d to the  v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s not more than $10,000 can be assigned to e i t h e r Walker Creek o r D e f o t C r e e k , nor more than $14,000 to other unnamed r e g i o n s , l e a v i n g $110,000 t o be d i s t r i b u t e d pro r a t a to the t o t a l s of the t h r e e main c r e e k s . I n the M i n i n g Report 1879, p. 239 the t o t a l g i v e n i s $405,200, i n the t a b l e of s t a t i s t i c s i t i s g i v e n as $339,200, i n the former  (188)  g i v i n g a l a r g e r , and p r o b a b l y more n e a r l y c o r r e c t , t o t a l f o r McDame Creek - $113,200 - which i s a c c e p t e d , g i v i n g a t o t a l o f $393,400 for Cassiar. ' „  Mosquito Creek i s i n c l u d e d i n T h i b e r t Greek.  F o r 1880 t h e f i g u r e s g i v e n i n t h e M i n i n g Report 1880, t a b l e of  s t a t i s t i c s a r e t a k e n f o r Dease, T h i b e r t and Defot C r e e k s . of t h e f i g u r e s a r e f r o m p. 427 o f t h e r e p o r t .  The r e s t  From the $120,000  r e p o r t e d from the McDame Creek o f f i c e $15,000 i s deducted f o r Walker C r e e k , l e a v i n g $105,000 f o r McDame C r e e k .  Ho. 2 . - C a s s i a r P o p u l a t i o n Changes. The f i g u r e s used i n drawing the graph of the month t o month v a r i a t i o n i n the n o n - I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n of C a s s i a r d u r i n g 1874 a r e based upon t h e o p i n i o n s o f v a r i o u s men as to the t o t a l a t the mines, the t o t a l number o f miners r e p o r t e d l e a v i n g V i c t o r i a f o r C a s s i a r by steamer and, t h e number o f men r e p o r t e d from time to time on t h e i r way t o o r from C a s s i a r . The o p i n i o n s as t o t h e t o t a l number a r e as f o l l o w s s . C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , June 1 3 , 1874  1,500  J . H. S u l l i v a n , G. C. (Mining R e p o r t , 1874, p . 9.) 1,600 and t o t a l v i s i t e d ( I b i d . p . 12)  2,000  R. H u n t e r , Canadian customs o f f i c e r a t the mouth of t h e S t i k i n e , r e p o r t e d . a c t u a l count ( i n c l u d i n g those who passed up more than once) ( C o l o n i s t , December 12, 1874).  1,624  (189)  John F e i g h s as a t J u l y 22, ( C o l o n i s t , August 23,1874) 1,500 The t o t a l number o f miners r e p o r t e d l e a v i n g V i c t o r i a f o r C a s s i a r by steamer i s as f o l l o w s i  '  On S3. O t t e r and Anderson ( C o l o n i s t , March 5, 1874)  200  On SS. C a l i f o r n i a ( I b i d . A p r i l 23)  120  .On SS. O t t e r ( I b i d . )  180  On SS. Hope ( S t a n d a r d , May 1, 1874) - 200 ) ) ( C o l o n i s t , May 1, 1874) - 145 )  say  On SS. O t t e r ( C o l o n i s t , May 12, 1874) f u l l l i s t say  170 180  On SS. C a l i f o r n i a ( C o l o n i s t , May 12, 1874: S e n t i n e l , May 16, 1874) - f u l l l i s t , say  300  On SS. Anderson ( S e n t i n e l , May 16, 1874)  30  On SS. C a l i f o r n i a ( C o l o n i s t , June 5, 1874)  40  Total  ls220  T h i s t o t a l does not i n c l u d e a probable s a i l i n g of the SS. O t t e r I n June nor the numb er of men who s a i l e d d i r e c t from B e l l i n g h a m , Nana!mo, Hew Westminster and. the mouth o f the Skeena (having come from Omineca) nor of those who made the journey i n s m a l l b o a t s , p r o b a b l y about 150.  About 240 were r e p o r t e d at or between P o r t  Wrangel and Buck's B a r b e f o r e the l e a v i n g o f the boats noted above. ( C o l o n i s t March 13 and February 13,1874) b a s i s becomes 1,610.  The grand t o t a l on t h i s  S u b t r a c t 61 f o r men who turned back a t F o r t  Wrangel ( C o l o n i s t , May 14, 1874) and we get 1,549 as the f i n a l number. IX  The approximate movements of these are i n d i c a t e d i n Table  below.  (190)  TABLE- I X APPROXIMATE MOVEMENT OP MEN INTO CASSIAR 1874 1 .. Date ' L e a v i n g At Stikine R. Arrivals Total to V i c t o r i a Wrangel to Dease Lake at Dease L . Dease Lake 2 Jan,10 50 a t Buck's  50  240  490  1140  1530  See preceding page, Br, C o l . Pe"b.l3 and Mar. 13,1874. 5  Ibid. Mar,5. 1 Ibid.Apr,4,Standard Apr.3,1874. 5 Colonist Apr,15. Colonist May 5 and 7, 1874.  C o l o n i s t May 14, 1874 Report o f Rufus S y l v e s t e r . 83 61 M i n e r s r e t u r n e d from P o r t ¥rangel w i t h o u t g o i n g up t h e S t i k i n e , C o l o n i s t May 14, 1874, I b i d , June 9 .  (191)  TABLE X SHOWING MOVEMENT OE MEN OUT OE CASSIAR 1874. A r r i v a l s from Cassiar at V i c t o r i a and Nanaimo-^-  probable date of leaving Cassiar.  May 4  - 2  Apr. 4  •May 13  -20  Apr.20  May 23  - 1  May 1  May 25  -15  May 1  July 3  - 1  June 10  July 7  -50  June 20  Reported leaving Cassiar.  Estimated departures each, month  Apr.-25 Apr«15 - 2  July 18 -96 Aug.4.  -85  -50  May -50  3 June 2 -250 June-100  3  July-200  July 23 Aug. 4  Aug.24 - 40  Aug. 6  Sep.23 -175  Aug.21  Oct.12 -215  Sep.20  Oct.24 - 25  Oct.5  Aug.-350 Sep.2 •- 40  Sep.-305  Sep. 12' -110  Nov. 2  -330  Oct.17  Nov. 8  -100  Oct.22  1  May 2  July 1  Aug.21 -110  1.,265  Apr.28 -Many  Oct.-500  1,530  The r e f e r e n c e s for the v a r i o u s dates i n t h i s column are given below; ' May 4 - Colonist May 5, 1874. (Continued on next page)  (192)  Table X I below combines the r e s u l t s o f t a b l e s I X and X to g i v e an e s t i m a t e o f monthly v a r i a t i o n i n the p o p u l a t i o n o f C a s s i d u r i n g 1874. • •  TABLE X I POPULATION OP CASSIAR MONTH BY MONTH 1874, Month.  Entering  Leaving  Balance  50  50  March-  240  290  Apr i l  250  25  515  May  650  50  1,115  June  390  100  1,405  July  200  1,205  August  550  855  September  305  550  October  500  50  1,530  50  February  1,580  1 (Continued) May 13 - I b i d . May 14j . Aug. 21 - I b i d . Aug. 2 1 . S e n t i n e l May 16,1374. Aug. 24 - I b i d . Aug. 2 5 . May 23 - C o l o n i s t May 24,1374. Sep. 23 - I b i d . Sep. 24. May 25 - I b i d . May 26, O c t . 12 - I b i d . O c t . 1 3 . J u l y 3 - I b i d . July 4. O c t . 24 - I b i d , 0c«, 24. J u l y 7 - I b i d . J u l y 7. Nov. 2 - I b i d , Nov. 3, J u l y 1 8 - I b i d . J u l y 18. Nov. 3 - I b i d . Nov. 1 0 , Aug. 4 - I b i d . Aug. 4 . 2 The r e f e r e n c e s f o r the v a r i o u s dates i n t h i s column are g i v e n belowj A p r . 15 -..Colonist May 5,1874. June 2 - I b i d . June 1 9 , A p r . 28 - I b i d . May 14. Sep. 2 - I b i d . Sep, 24. May 2 -Ibid. Sep,12 - I b i d . 3 P r o b a b l y some r e p o r t e d l e a v i n g e a r l y merely went out prospecting.  The figures f o r the years 1875 to 1880 a r e based primarily upon the Mining Reports as follows? Population of C a s s i a r 1875 - 1880 Date 1875 ^ 1876  1877 1878  1879 1880  Total Chinese Population Population I 1 1,080 80 2 1,000 4 1,800 6 6 1,254 (miners only) 175 7 7 1,200 400 8 1,500 10 345 II 11 1,400 600 12 12 800 350  Winter population 3 75 5 295  g 185 11 335 including 145 -Chinese 150 x o  Mining Report, 1875, p, 603. The Guardian, June 30, ' 1875 reports 900 men at the mines; the Colonist October 17, 1875, 800 men. In the winter population 60 were reported at Laketon, and 15 a r e included as an e s t i m ate of those at C e n t r e v i l l e . 2 M i n i n g R e p o r t , 1876, p. 410. 3 Colonist, March 30, 1876. 4 M i n i n g Report, 1876, p. 411. In the graph allowance has been made f o r the fact that many did not s t a y long enough to bring the population up t o 1,800 at any one time. 5 I b i d . p. 417. 6 I b i d . Table of S t a t i s t i c s , 7 Ibid, 1877, p. 400, (continued on next page)  (194)  APPENDIX E A DOZEN PROMINENT MEN 1. P r e d B l a c k . F r e d B l a c k was a well-known C a r i b o o m i n e r ,  I n 1867 lie and  Isaac Stevens l e d an e x p l o r i n g and p r o s p e c t i n g p a r t y n o r t h from B a r k e r v l i l e i n t o the W i l l o w R i v e r c o u n t r y ( S e n t i n e l J u l y 22, 1867), In November o f 1869 he went to V i t a l Greek w i t h Duncan McMartin and James M c M i l l a n ( S e n t i n e l November 6, 1369).  E a r l y i n 1870, a f t e r  t e s t i n g V i t a l C r e e k , he p r o s p e c t e d N a t i o n R i v e r i n company w i t h Duncan 'Mc M a r t i n , V i t a l l a f o r c e , James May, and R, S y l v e s t e r (Sent i n e l A p r i l 2 5 , 1870)o  On h i s r e t u r n he sunk some s h a f t s on V i t a l  Greek ( S e n t i n e l J u l y 9, 1870),,. He passed the w i n t e r i n C a r i b o o ( S e n t i n e l January 2 8 , February 4, 1871), and mined on Germans en Creek d u r i n g t h e n e x t y e a r i n t h e course o f which he f e l l on a stump and b r o k e t h r e e r i b s ( S e n t i n e l May 20, October 14, 13711 C o l (continued) 8 - I b i d , 1878, p . 376. . The C o l o n i s t J u l y 1 7 , 1878 r e p o r t s 1,600 men i n c l u d i n g 500 Chinese a t the mines, 9 I b i d , p. 377, 10 I b i d . Table of S t a t i s t i c s , 11 I b i d , 1879, p . 239, 12 I b i d , 1880, p . 427, . The C o l o n i s t August 1 9 , 1880 r e p o r t s 700 men a t the mines, h a l f C h i n e s e .  onist October 14, 1871).  In 1872 he went into gardening on the •  side and s u p p l i e d t u r n i p s , o n i o n s , r a d i s h e s and lettuce at 25/ per l b . (Colonist October 24, 1872). He was one of "Black Jack" Smith's prospecting party on Osalinka i n 1373  (Sentinel A p r i l 5, 1873),  In Cassiar he got a good claim on Snow Creek w i t h the D i s covery Company composed of C h r i s t i e , Laforce, Sylvester and h i m s e l f (Colonist July 27, 1876)  and obtained a. charter to lead a ditch to  i t from Quartz Creek, a distance of f i v e miles ( C o l o n i s t November 2, 1876).  In 1877 he tunnelled during the winter months ( C o l o n i s t  F e b r u a r y 28, 1878).  2, Peter Cargotitch Peter Cargotitch f i r s t comes to our attention i n 1863  return-  i n g from Stikine R i v e r wi th B a r n e t t ' s express ( C o l o n i s t July 23, 1863). blast".  In 1871 his saloon on Germansen Greek was running  "full  He returned to V i c t o r i a i n August (Colonist August 15,1871)  Two years later he was  i n Pioche, Nevada, organizing a company  of miners to go to the "North Pork of Stikine River" where (he said) he had discovered "immense d e p o s i t s of s i l v e r , g o l d , and platinum" i n 1861  ( S e n t i n e l l a y 10, 1873; C o l o n i s t A p r i l 4, 1873).  I n 1874  he mined on Dease Creek i n the spring by thawing the frozen d i r t with huge f i r e s and later by hiring seven men at ten d o l l a r s a day to build wingdams, open a drain and blast boulders (Colonist May 26, 1874  - he always reported t h i n g s on a big scale).  16,  Just before  he returned to V i c t o r i a i n November he washed a "heavy prospect from a pan of earth" (Colonist November 10, 1874).  In the f o l l o w -  (196)  ing year he was  accused of exaggerating gold production i n order to  secure sales of worthless claims to people i n Nevada and C a l i f o r n i a . "A noted character-'Peter the Great' - who  i s always i n trouble,  paid $60 for taxing out several bags of black sand to Telegraph Greek representing i t as gold taken from h i s claims" (Sentinel July 17, 1875).  His claim sold f o r only $250.00. Later i n 1875 he prospect-  ed on Taku River and the results on his return to V i c t o r i a i n October were reported as follows "Peter Cargotitch, the i r r e p r e s s i b l e , has brought down some specimens of ore from Deloire River and r e ports that he has a well-defined ledge there" (Colonist July 22, October 17, 1875).  3. Alexander (Buck) Choquette Alexander (Buck) Choquette was a native of Quebec, He mined i n C a l i f o r n i a and took part i n the Praser River rush i n 1858.  In  h e prospected Nass River and northward toward the Stikine.  He  1860  married a Stikine Indian woman and discovered gold on the Stikine i n 1861  (Colonist January 10, 1862), He mined on the Stikine for  the next f i v e years.  In 1862 and 1863 he explored the Upper S t i k -  ine River nearly to i t s source and i n the l a t t e r year also ascended the Tahltan and crossed to the headwaters of the Taku River (Coloni s t May 30, 1863). He usually wintered at Buck's Bar (named after him) but the winter of 1864-65 he passed at port Stewart (Chronicle November 18, 1864; Colonist February 17, 1865)0  In 1866 h e took  charge of the Hudson's Bay Company's newly opened post on Stikine River just east of the Alaska^boundary where he remained u n t i l the  (191)  discovery of gold i n Cassiar.  A f t e r mining for a season or two  he  set up as a trader i n miners' supplies and later (1876) opened a sort of pleasure resort at some hot springs about f o r t y m i l e s from, the mouth of the Stikine River.  4, Joseph Clearihue Joseph Clearihue was a native of Quebec C i t y .  He mined i n  C a l i f o r n i a and Cariboo before entering Omineca i n 1870.  He mined  the f i r s t year with the Payne Company on Germansen Creek which declared a dividend of $700.00 per interest for a weeks work (Sentinel November 5, 19, December 3, 1870). He r e t u r n e d to Cariboo i n November. During the next three years he seems to have done well mining and trading (Sentinel May  27, 1871; Colonist August 4, 7,  1872; November 1 9 , 1873; B. C. Sessional Papers 1873, P u b l i c Accounts of 1872 p . 200),  He passed the winters i n V i c t o r i a going to and  from the mines by the Skeena route (Colonist, November 29,  1872,  November 19, 1873). In 1874 he went to Cassiar and opened an  "eating house" a t  Laketon (Colonist, July 16, 1874). Later he was a merchant (Sessional Papers 1878, Public Accounts of 1877  p. 194) post master  (Guide to B. C. 1877-8 p. 165), justice of the peace, and  partner  of J . Carson i n the "best hotel" at Laketon and he even r a i s e d fresh vegetables i n his garden t h e r e ( C o l o n i s t August 15, September 28, 1875; March 30, 1876). He was one of the notables at the launching of "The Lady of the Lake" (Colonist July 10, 1878)  and  (19 8)  chairman o f the meeting that arranged f o r a i d t o Kanahan (see p.141 above) (Colonist March 17$ 1800)* Under- t h e i n i t i a l s J . C» he was a constant correspondent o f .the Cariboo "Sentinel", writing long,. newsy, accurate accounts of events at the diggings,especially i n Omineca. Two s o n s , J . B . and A. H. Clearihue, and one daughter, Ifiss, E. C. Clearihue now reside i n Victoria*,  5, "Twelve-foot" Davis • "Twelve-foot" Davis was a C a l i f o r n i a forty-niner and noted Cariboo miner.  On the re-survey of some claims twelve feet of land  was found to be unslaked between two r i c h claims.  Davis staked  this remnant and made good on i t - hence h i s nickname.  "Twelve-  foot" Davis was a jack of a l l t r a d e s . He navigated the Eraser from i t s mouth to E o r t S t . James i n two ten-ton boats on the way w i t h supplies for peace River i n 1863.  (Chronicle February 18, 1863).  Erom 1863 to 1868 he engaged i n raining, t r a p p i n g and f u r - t r a d i n g i n the Peace River country and made several trips to t h e east of the mountains.  In 1868 he was a member of Evans' party that d i s -  covered g o l d on Silver Creek (Arctic C r e e k ) .  Two years l a t e r he  b u i l t a bakery and coffee-house on V i t a l Creek but the r u s h subsided before he opened i t (Sentinel June 25, 1870).  He mined on  Man son ©"reek i n 1871, He eventually crossed to the east s i d e of the mountains and engaged i n fur-trading i n the Mackenzie Basin. He was buried on Smoky E l v e r .  (199)  69 James A. G a r d i n e r James A. Gardiner was the r e t u r n i n g o f f i c e r for Omineca i n the election of 1872 (Sentinel J u l y 6, 1 8 7 2 ) .  In t h a t and the  succeeding year a mail c a r r i e r named Gardiner (Gairdner, Gardner) made regular trips between Quesnel and Omineca (Sentinel January 13, November 16, December 14, 1872; February 1, 22, March 9, A p r i l 19, May 10, 1 8 7 3 ) .  It i s probably the same man.  He accompanied  V i t a l Laforce on the re-location t r i p over the cattle t r a i l from Telegraph Creek to Hazelton i n 1875,  The next year he was private  mail c a r r i e r between Wrangel and Laketon (Colonist March 30. A p r i l 26, 1876 and an advertisement i n the Colonist A p r i l 29, 1876).  In  1880 he worked on the Dease Creek t r a i l and then (B. C. Sessional Papers 1831, Public Accounts 1880 p. 120) he planned to leave Telegraph Creek on a prospecting t r i p to Finlay River.  In Cassiar he  was often called David Gardiner.  7. V i t a l Laforce V i t a l ( V i t e l , V i t e l l e . Vattell) Laforce (La Force, Lafour) was one of the C o l l i n ' s Overland Telegraph Company's explorers. From 1865 to 1867 he explored w i t h parties about the headwaters of the Skeena, Nass, and Stikine Rivers (Geol. Survey, 1887, New.Series, Vol.  I l l p. 62B; Columbian A p r i l 1 1 , 1866).  In 1869, when wi th the  Peace River Prospecting Party under Byrnes, he discovered g o l d on V i t a l Creek.  D u r i n g the next two y e a r s he mined on V i t a l Creek,  prospected on Nation River with Fred Black, Duncan McMartin, Allen Grant, James May, and Rufus Sylvester, (Sentinel A p r i l 23, 1870)  ••-  (200)  l o c a t e d on Germansen G r e e k , and went on a six-months' p r o s p e c t i n g t r i p up the U n l a y R i v e r - he may  have p e n e t r a t e d  the L i a r d  v a l l e y ( S e n t i n e l October 28, 1871; C o l o n i s t November 5, 1871), I n C a s s i a r he r e l o c a t e d and improved the c a t t l e t r a i l n o r t h o f H a z e l t o n i n 1875 w i t h Lames A° G a r d i n e r , and mined wi t h the D i s covery Company on Snow Creek i n 1876.  L a t e r he r e t u r n e d to Omineca  and mined t h e r e f o r a numb er of years  ( G e o l . Survey, 1894,  S e r i e s , V o l . V I I , p,  New  12G) 6  8, "Dancing B i l l " Latham Thomas "Dancing B i l l " Latham was  a n a t i v e of Rhode I s l a n d ,  He accompanied " B l a c k Jack" Smith east to F o r t Garry (Winnipeg) i n 1866  and back a g a i n w i t h Germansen and Lamont 1866  ( C o l o n i s t December 1 1 , 1870 $  May  2, 1867)„  to  1868  D u r i n g the Omineca  rushes he put pack t r a i n s on the Skeena R i v e r r o u t e w i t h f a i r success ( C o l o n i s t December 9, 1871;  Standard March 28, 1873)„  H o r e t s k y remarks on h i s dancing a t the H a z e l t o n Christmas c e l e b r a t i o n i n 1873  (Horetskys Canada on the P a c i f i c p„  107),  In 1874 he moved to C a s s i a r to open a" dance house "with f o u r klootchmen and an organ" ( C o l o n i s t May  14, 1874)  but soon turned  to packing and mining w i t h h i s o l d f r i e n d "Black J a c k " ,  He  died  a t the age o f s i x t y - t w o or t h r e e from "sheer exhaustion and a broken down c o n s t i t u t i o n " w h i l e ascending the Dease R i v e r ( C o l o n i s t November 16, 17, 1880),  H i s l a s t words were that he " d i d not mind  dying but r e g r e t t e d he c o u l d not o u t l i v e 'Black Jack'" ( C o l o n i s t November 16, 1880),  (201)  9. C a p t a i n W i l l i a m Moore C a p t a i n W i l l i a m Moore was a s a i l o r prominent i n s h i p p i n g c i r c l e s on the P a c i f i c c o a s t d u r i n g the Second h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , e s p e c i a l l y on the P r a s e r R i v e r .  He was  calculat-  i n g and e n t e r p r i s i n g , w i l l i n g to t u r n h i s hand to a n y t h i n g t h a t promised a p r o f i t , and a past master a t the a r t o f p o l i t i c a l a g i tation. I n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia h i s f i r s t venture was S t i k i n e i n 1362.  on the  H i s SS. " P l y i n g Dutchman" towed h i s barge  J.  Moore", b o t h loaded w i t h m i n e r s , to Wrangel i n June ( C o l o n i s t June 10, 1862)  and went on the r u n between Wrangel and G l e n o r a , then  the head of steamboat n a v i g a t i o n on the S t i k i n e R i v e r .  The  charges  were passenger f a r e , $3.00, a canoe $4.00, and f r e i g h t $100.00 per t o n ( C o l o n i s t J u l y 9, 2 1 , 1862),  Both steamer and barge r e t u r n e d  to V i c t o r i a loaded i n August ( C o l o n i s t August 23, 1362).  Before  l e a v i n g Moore gave 6,000 pounds of f l o u r g r a t i s to h e l p the p a r t y o r g a n i z e d to e x p l o r e and prospect the S t i k i n e R i v e r above the Great Canyon ( C o l o n i s t August 26, 1862).  Moore r e t i r e d from S t i -  k i n e i n 1363. I n Omineca Moore p r o v i d e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s on both the Lake T a k l a and Skeena R i v e r r o u t e s u n t i l the opening up of C a s s i a r . I n 1870 h i s barge the "Omineca" r a n r e g u l a r l y between P o r t S t . James and T a k l a Landing  ( S e n t i n e l A p r i l 23, 1870).  The next y e a r , i n  a d d i t i o n to t h i s , he put a barge "Minnie" on the Skeena R i v e r from the coast t o H a z e i t o n (Standard March 25, 1371)  and another  boat,  (202)  on Lake Babine to connect w i t h the Babine t r a i l and the Omineca on Lake S t u a r t f o r Lake T a k l a (Standard August 30, 1871)e trains connected wi th the boats.  H i s pack  He probably continued these s e r -  v i c e s i n 1872 (Colonist January 31s September 15, 1872). Moore sometimes undertook to deliver goods a t the mines by a certain date.  To f u l f i l l some such obligations i n 1871 he was  forced, at considerable expense, to improve the I n d i a n t r a i l from Hazelton t o Babine Lake i n order to get his pack animals through on time (Colonist July 6, 9, August 10, 1871). He organized a meeting of packers and miners at Hazelton to p r o t e s t against the government »s dilatoriness i n building the t r a i l and to demand compensation for the work he had done.  (Colonist June 14, 1871)  Meanwhile Moore had claims on Germansen Creek being worked by his  sons.  (Colonist October 13, 1870)  In the f i r s t year of the Cassiar r u s h Moore and his three sons were amongst the pioneers (Standard May 1 5 , 1873), and he took a prominent part i n the legal controversy that preceded the passage of t h e M i n i n g Amendment of 1874.  They resumed boat service on the  Stikine i n partnership wi th Millard with a barge and a s t earner the "Gem" i n competition w i t h Irving's SS. "Glenora" (Lewis and Drydem Marine History, p. 217; Colonist May 14, 1874). His sons commissioned the "Grappler" with "young Captain Moore"in command and J . W. Moore as purser (Lewis and Dryden: Marine History p. 216).  During  the winter of 1874-75 the Moores b u i l t the 120-foot steamer "Gertrude" at Wrangel.  So well suited was she for the river that she  was able to reach Telegraph Creek (Colonist August 23, November 3,  '(Ms.) 1874? May 7, 1875; S e n t i n e l F e b r u a r y 1 3 , 1875; Lewis and Lrydenj Marine History p. 217) with f a r e s at $10.00 per passenger and freight at $40.00 -per ton.  In 1876 Irving s o l d the "Glenora" to Moore and  r e t i r e d to the E r a s e r River,  S h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s Nelson put the  "Beaver" on the run to restore competitive conditions (Lewis and Drydeni Marine H i s t o r y p . 217; Colonist May 20, June 1, 1 8 7 6 ) . On the land section of the Cassiar route Moore obtained a charter to build a t r a i 1 from Glenora to Lease Lake with the r i g h t to charge t o l l .  He completed, the t r a i l late i n the summer of 1874  but i n 1875 i t was i n such poor condition that the government bought him out and put their own road gang to work on i t (See p. 132 above). • Moore also went into the store business i n partnership with Hart,  H a r t was one of the traders convicted of smuggling i n 1874  (Colonist September 24, 1874).  Moore continued i n a l l these lines  of business u n t i l the end of the p e r i o d under consideration.  Short-  l y after he transferred his c h i e f interests to the Eraser River.  1 0 . Hehemiah T. Smith - "Black Jack" Nehemiah T. S m i t h , called "Black Jack" was a noted character i n early B r i t i s h Columbia's mining history.  He was a close friend  of "Dancing B i l l " Latham (See Ho. 8 above) with whom he was a s s o c iated on Peace River, across t h e p r a i r i e s , i n Omineca, and i n Cassiar.  W h i l e on peace River "Black Jack", l i k e James May, wore  "long h a i r which f a l l s i n t h i c k masses over h i s shoulders and he has made a vow i t shall never be cut t i l l he 'make a r a i s e ' or u n t i l  (204)  some f a i r D e l i l a h , i n s i s t s on d e p r i v i n g him of the 'charm* which he b e l i e v e s i s c o n t a i n e d i n i t " ( C o l o n i s t August 27, 1 8 6 3 ) .  Perhaps he  grew t i r e d of h i s l o c k s , f o r , a f t e r he had prospected Peace R i v e r as fs.r east as P o r t St* John and r e t u r n e d to Cariboo i n 1862 1865  ( C o l o n i s t November 6, 1862;  b e r 20, 1862, May  and  J u l y 2, 10, 1863; C h r o n i c l e Novem-  1, 1863) he hastened back to P o r t S t . John to  "get p o s s e s s i o n of a c e r t a i n l o v e l y amalgam ( a n g l i c e h a l f - b r e e d nymph o f the f o r e s t ) " but w i t h o u t success ( C o l o n i s t September 23, November 5, 1863). Prom 1866  to 1868  "Black Jack" was  east of the Rockies on a  j o u r n e y to P o r t Garry (Winnipeg) w i t h "Dancing B i l l " whence they r e t u r n e d wi t h Lamont and Germansen ( C o l o n i s t May  2, 1867-from the  Columbian; C o l o n i s t December 1 1 , 1 8 7 0 ) . "Black Jack" p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a l l the Omineca rushes from to  1873 and d i d e x t e n s i v e p r o s p e c t i n g b e s i d e s .  1870  I n 1870 he was  on  V i t a l Greek, S i l v e r C r e e k , N a t i o n R i v e r , and Germansen C r e e k ( w i t h Germansen's d i s c o v e r y p a r t y ) ( S e n t i n e l J u l y 9, 1870; tember 23, 1 8 7 0 ) .  Standard  Sep-  I n 1871 he and Shep. Young d i s c o v e r e d g o l d on  B l a c k Jack Gulch Manson Greek ( S e n t i n e l August 5, 1871) s  I n 1873  he  prospected f o r s e v e r a l months on the O s a l i n k a s l o p e (Standard March 28, 1875; C o l o n i s t , March 28, 1873; C a s s i a r c a l l e d him i n 1874. Creeks wi t h "Dancing B i l l "  S e n t i n e l A p r i l 5, 1873).  He mined on T h i b e r t and Dease  i n that year ( C o l o n i s t November 17,  and on McDame Creek the next ( C o l o n i s t March 6, 1875).  1880)  We next see  him on the morrow of "Dancing B i l l ' s " death (1880), when the C o l o n ist  r e p o r t e r found him i n the "day wards" of the h o s p i t a l at V i c t o r -  (205)  i a , s u f f e r i n g f r o m S t . V i t u s Dance ( C o l o n i s t November 17, 1880).  I I . Rufus S y l v e s t e r Rufus S y l v e s t e r was a well-known C a r i b o o miner and f r e e mason. I n 1869 lie p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e e a r l y r u s h to V i t a l Creek as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e A d a i r Company and mined there d u r i n g 1870 ( S e n t i n e l J u l y 9, 1 8 7 0 ) .  I n a d d i t i o n t o h i s mining,from 1870 t o  1874 S y l v e s t e r and h i s a s s o c i a t e 1. J , l e w i s m a i n t a i n e d a l e t t e r and p a r c e l express between Quesnel and Omineca. I n c l u d i n g a f t e r 1871 t h e government m a i l ( S e n t i n e l November 1 2 , 1 9 , 1870; February 4 May 27, August 5, 1 0 , September 30, October 2 1 , 1871; January 1 3 , liar oh 30, J u l y 27, 1872: F e b r u a r y 22, March 8, June 7, August 9, 1873),  One o f these t r i p s i s d e s c r i b e d by Major W. F . B u t l e r who  t r a v e l l e d w i t h S y l v e s t e r from Germansen Creek t o F o r t S t . James i n the f a l l o f 1873 (W.F. B U t l e r : The W i l d N o r t h Land pp.303 to 3 2 9 ) . Much of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n about Omineca was c o n t a i n e d i n the r e p o r t s of t h e expressmen a f t e r each t r i p .  When Rufus S y l v e s t e r  left  Omineca f o r C a s s i a r Lewis c a r r i e d on the m a i l and express s e r v i c e f o r two y e a r s l o n g e r  ( S e n t i n e l June 6, September 5, October 10,  November 7, 1874; May 1, 27, J u l y 17, September 1 1 , 1875) f o r some considerable  time under the same name.  I n C a s s i a r S y l v e s t e r s t a r t e d out as agent f o r Barnard's E x p r e s s c a r r y i n g l e t t e r s and p a r c e l s between Laketon and Wrangel (sometimes d i r e c t to V i c t o r i a ) (Standard A p r i l 3, 1874; S e n t i n e l August 29m 1874; C o l o n i s t A p r i l 3, May 14, J u l y 8, August 30, Sep-  (206)  tember 24, 1874;  January 3, March 6, 1875).  On one t r i p e a r l y i n  1874 he a r r i v e d ' a t Wrangel snow-blind (Colonist, A p r i l 4, 1874) „ I n 1875 he -transferred h i s express s e r v i c e to the r u n between Centrev i l l e and Laketon with occasional winter t r i p s to Wrangel and established a store at Sylvester's Landing at the mouth of McDame Creek, (Colonist, June 24, 1875; February 28, 1878;  January 28, June 21, 24, .1876;  March 17, 1880), When Walker Creek was discov-  ered he put an express service on the t r a i l from Sylvester's Landing to Walker Creek,  In 1873 he cut the government t r a i l on Dease  Creek to McDame Creek, (33. C, Sessional Papers 1879, Public Accounts 1878, p. 132).  When the mining a c t i v i t y declined Sylvester main-  tained his express services on a reduced scale, extended his store business to include furtrading w i t h the Indians and opened branch posts on Turnagain River (into w h i c h Walker Creek f l o w s ) and at Lower P o s t on the Liard at the mouth of the Dease River.  He r e -  mained i n this business u n t i l the nineties (Bo C e Directory 1887; Geol. Survey 1887 Hew Series Volume III pp. 39B-90B, 1888-89, New Series Volume IV p. 40D) 12, Henry Thibert Henry Thibert was the co-discoverer with Angus McGulloch of g o l d i n Cassiar i n 1872, and the discoverer of g o l d on T h i b e r t Creek i n 1873 (Colonist August 29, 1873). He remained on that creek for several years mining wi th his brother (Colonist August 26, 1874;  October 28, 1875;  July 17, September 13, 1873)  and oper-  ating a -general store i n partnership w i t h Gerke (Colonist A p r i l  (207)  25, August 29, 1875).  I n 1877 he worked on t h e Thibert Creek t r a i l  S . C. S e s s i o n a l Papers 1878 Report o f P u b l i c Works p. 350) and went out prospecting w i t h James porter (later a furtrader and gold commissioner i n Cassiar) and the next year opened a store a t Clapan Bar near the Klappan River on the Upper Stikine River (Colonist September 13, 1878),  He remained i n Cassiar u n t i l the nineties  mining and trading i n furs (Warburton pikes Through t h e A r c t i c Forest, p. 52).  

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