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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The work of Reverend Father J.M.R. Le Jeune, O.M.I. Gurney, William Harold 1948

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THE WORK OF REVEREND FATHER J . M. R. LE JEUNE, 0. M. A Thesis submitted in Partial Fulfilment of The Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of HISTORY William Harold Gurney The University of- British Columbia A p r i l , 1948 ABSTRACT Reverend Father Jean Marie Raphael Le Jeune, 0. M. I . , was horn at P l e y b e r t - C h r i s t , Department o f F i n i s t e r r e , France, on A p r i l 12, 1855. He attended the schools of h i s n a t i v e v i l l a g e and the neighbouring town of S t . P o l de Leon. H i s t h e o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s were taken i n the c o l l e g e at Autun, Burgundy. Ordained i n 1879, he l e f t s h o r t l y afterwards f o r the Indian missions of B r i t i s h Columbia i n company with Bishop Durieu o f t h a t p r o v i n o e . s t a t i o n e d f i r s t a t New Westminster, and l a t e r at S t . Mary's M i s s i o n , he m i n i s t e r e d to the Indians of the F r a s e r Canyon and t o the Roman C a t h o l i c s among the workmen engaged i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. In 1882 he was t r a n s f e r r e d t o S t . L o u i s M i s s i o n a t Kamloops. Kamloops, founded by David S t u a r t as a f u r t r a d i n g post i n 1812, had been an important p o i n t of the Hudson's Bay Company on I t s f u r brigade t r a i l . The f i r s t m i s sionary to v i s i t the Indians of t h i s d i s t r i c t had been Rev. Modeste Demers i n 1842. I r r e g u l a r v i s i t s were made to the v i c i n i t y by the Oblate Fathers a f t e r the establishment of the M i s s i o n of the Immaculate Conception on Lake Okanagan i n 1859, and a r e s i d e n t Oblate m i s s i o n a r y had been e s t a b l i s h e d at Kamloops i n 1878. From h i s headquarters at Kamloops Father Le Jeune t r a v e l l e d a c i r c u i t of some s i x hundred m i l e s v i s i t i n g three or four times a year the Indian camps of Shuswap, N i c o l a , ABSTRACT—(2) Douglas Lake, Bonaparte, Deadman's Creek, North Thompson, and Kamloops. A few days were spent at each centre d u r i n g which time r e l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e s and i n s t r u c t i o n were c a r r i e d on according to a s t r i c t schedule. The l i q u o r t r a f f i c among the Indians was fought by the o r g a n i z a t i o n among them of Temperance S o c i e t i e s . Under Father Le Jeune's guidance many churches were b u i l t by the Indians throughout the d i s t r i c t and f u r n i s h e d w i t h t a s t e and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . O c c a s i o n a l l y , l a r g e gatherings were h e l d a t c e n t r a l p o i n t s , when hundreds of Indians would gather f o r the enactment of such r e l i g i o u s scenes as the P a s s i o n P l a y . The s t e a d f a s t devotion of Father Le Jeune to h i s task was such t h a t he achieved o u t s t a n d i n g success as a m i s s i o n a r y . E a r l y i n h i s c a r e e r Father Le Jeune s e t out t o master the v a r i o u s I n t e r i o r S a l i s h d i a l e c t w i n h i s d i s t r i c t and e v e n t u a l l y he was able t o preach to and converse w i t h the Indians i n t h e i r own languages. In a d d i t i o n , he gained great f a c i l i t y i n the use of the Chinook jargon, a means of communication among the v a r i o u s Indian t r i b e s and the white s e t t l e r s . In 1890 he adapted the Duployan system of shorthand to Chinook and began to teach h i s method to the Indians. H i s b r i g h t e s t students i n t u r n became teachers and w i t h i n a few years he claimed t h a t there were i n h i s d i s t r i c t at l e a s t two thousand Indians reading and w r i t i n g shorthand. The n e c e s s i t y of s t i m u l a t i n g ^ and m a i n t a i n i n g i n t e r e s t among h i s Indian students and of p r o v i d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l ABSTRACT—(3) m a t e r i a l f o r them l e d to the establishment of the Kamloops Wawa. T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n , o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as "the queerest newspaper i n the world" was f i r s t i s s u e d on May 2, 1891, and continued u n t i l 1904. I t was p u b l i s h e d i n t u r n weekly, monthly, and q u a r t e r l y . From a c i r c u l a t i o n of one hundred mimeographed copies a t the outset Father Le Jeune r a i s e d i t to over three thousand copies a month wit h world-wide coverage. W r i t t e n i n shorthand and Chinook, i t s m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t e d of B i b l e h i s t o r y , p r a y e r s , hymns, news o f the v a r i o u s Indian bands, and announcements of the p r i e s t ' s forthcoming v i s i t s . Father Le Jeune r e t i r e d from h i s m i s s i o n i n the summer of 1929, and died at New Westminster on November 21, 1930. He i s b u r i e d i n the Oblate cemetery at M i s s i o n C i t y . (1) TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. The Years of Preparation. (Birth, education, arrival in British Colum bia, and early years in the province) I I . The Ohlates come to the Pacific Coast 23 (Early history of the Roman Catholic Church west of the Rockies, with special reference to the Oblates of Mary Immaculate) III. Indian Languages and the Chinook Jargon 43 (The complexity of Indian dialects and the rise of a common trading jargon—Chinook. The vocabulary used by Father Le Jeune) IV. Father Le Jeune as a Missionary 68 Y. Father Le Jeune as a Teacher 108 (Two thousand Indians reading and writing shorthand) VI. Father Le Jeune as Editor, Author, Publisher...127 (The famous Kamloops Wawa) VII. The Closing Years 141 (Father Le Jeune's f i n a l years on the missions, his golden jubilee, retirement, and death) VIII. Father Le Jeune the Man 154 (Personal characteristics of Father Le Jeune) Appendix A 161 (List of Wawa exchanges with comments by Father Le Jeune) Appendix B 164 (List of Father Le Jeune's publications with a brief description, of each) Appendix C (Biographical notes) 168 Appendix D (Bibliography)... 170 (2) ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE A late photograph of Father Le Jeune 4 Right Rev. Bishop Durieu i s hurled i n St. Mary's ceme tery, Mission Oity, B. G 8 Map of Father Le Jeune's route from France to New West minster, September 5—October 17, 1879 12 Indian v i l l a g e , Kamloops, In the afternoon sun of a winter day 22 Headstone marking the grave of Right Rev. Bishop D'Her- bomez at St. Mary's Mission, Mission Oity, B. C 29 The meeting house on Kamloops reserve.... 36 Map of most important Indian reserves v i s i t e d by Father Le Jeune from his missionary headquarters at Kamloops...39 Indians on the reserve at De adman's Greek 41 Map of main Indian languages of B r i t i s h Columbia 44 Map of the Inte r i o r S a l i s h d i a l e c t s 46 Indian children on the reserve at Kamloops.... 48 Section of Indian v i l l a g e onDeadman's Creek reserve 67 Indian cemetery at Deadman's Creek 69 Map of Nicola and Douglas Lake Indian reserves 71 Indian church, Quilchena, B. C. 74 Map of the Coldwater and Nicola—Mamit Indian reserves... 76 Indian church at Deadman's Creek reserve 79 Map of Deadman's Greek Indian reserve 81 Map of the Shu swap Indian reserves ' 85 Close view of church, Kamloops Indian reserve 88 Map of Kamloops Indian reserve.., 92 The long main street of the Indian v i l l a g e , Kamloops, with Mount Paul i n the background 103 (3) ILLUSTRATIONS (continued) PAGE Indi a n v i l l a g e , Lower N i c o l a , B. 0 ...113 The In d i a n church, Kamloops r e s e r v e , w i t h Mount P a u l i n the background... ......126 Cover page of Kamloops Wawa, August, 1895 128 Cover page of Kamloops Wawa, June, 1897... 130 Cover page of Kamloops Wawa, December, 1903 134 Indian church, Lower N i c o l a , B. C . . . 147 Indian cemetery, Lower N i c o l a , B. 0...... 149 Headstone marking the grave of Father Le Jeune at S t . Mary's, M i s s i o n C i t y , B. C . . . 152 (4) A late photograph of Father Le Jeune. (5) THE WORK OE REVEREND FATHER J . M. R. LE JEUNE, 0. M. I. CHAPTER I . TEE YEARS OF PREPARATION "Two more young missionaries for ouj? Indians! It is 'Deo Gratias' a l l day long," exclaimed Bishop D'Herbomez as he greeted Fathers Le Jeune and Chirouse at New Westminster on October 17, 1879. (1) Immediately behind the young priests lay a journey of several thousand miles. Families, friends, and the settled, ordered existence of school days in distant France were now but memories. Before each stretched an apos to l i c career of half a century among the Indians of British Columbia. This thesis is concerned with the f i r s t of these young men—Father Le Jeune. He was to give to his Indian charges the benefit of a b r i l l i a n t i n t e l l e c t , a steady enthus iasm for his cause, and a life-time of devoted loyalty. He was destined to serve his Church, his Order, and humanity with dignity and distinction. Rev. Father Jean Marie Raphael Le Jeune, 0. M. I., was born at the village of Pleybert-Christ, in the Department of Finisterre, France, on April 12, 1855, and was baptised on the following day. His father's name was Pierre Le Jeune, and his (1) Notices necrologiques des membres de l a congregation des Oblats de Marie Immaculee, Rome, Maison Generale, 0. M. I. Tome Huitieme, 1939, p. 136: (6) to) mother's maiden name was Marie Breton. v ' His early education was gained in the village o f his birth and at the neighbouring town of St. Pol de Leon. 1 ' At t h e age of eighteen he started upon his theological studies at Autun where, after a course distinguished by exceptional bril l i a n c e , he was ordained priest by Bishop Perraud, later a Cardinal of the Church, on June 7, 1879. Autun, in Burgundy, is the "Augustodunum" or Fort August of the Romans, who have le f t there quite a number of monuments and ruins. These include two magnificent gateways as well as the remains of a (4) temple, a theatre and city walls. Soon after his ordination Father Le Jeune applied to his religious Superiors for permission to enter the missionary f i e l d . His request was granted and he was assigned to the Indian missions of British Columbia. Bishop Durieu, of that * province, was in France at the time, and met his young recruit at the Mother House of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate in Paris on September 1, 1879. The next day the Bishop and Father Le Jeune went together to Montmartre, where they recommended their forthcoming journey and their entire missionary lives to the Sacred Heart. The two days remaining to Father Le Jeune in Paris were spent in preparing for his journey, and in purcha sing and assembling certain indispensable articles that would (2) Autobiographical note by Father Le Jeune, in possession of Provincial Archives, Victoria, B. C. (3) Kamloops Sentinel, 14 June, 1929, p. 1. (4) Morice,_Rev. A. G., 0. M. I., abridged memoirs of, by D. L. s*» F i ^ y years in western Canada, Toronto, The Ryerson (7) i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y be d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Included i n the l a t t e r category was a sm a l l p r i n t i n g press which Father Le Jeune was to use l a t e r i n the pr o d u c t i o n of the f i r s t copies o f h i s famous Kamloops Wawa. In company w i t h H i s L o r d s h i p Bishop Durieu, Father E. C. Chirouse, and a l a y p o s t u l a n t , Father Le Jeune l e f t P a r i s on F r i d a y morning, September 5, 1879. The p a r t y a r r i v e d at Le Havre about noon of the same day. Here the Bishop was met at the s t a t i o n by a b r o t h e r , who took him to h i s r e s i d e n c e on the o u t s k i r t s of the c i t y . The three remaining members of the pa r t y remained i n the c i t y , where they v i s i t e d the Curate o f the Bretons. Owing t o the kindness of t h i s reverend gentleman the p a r t y was able to c e l e b r a t e Holy Mass on the f o l l o w i n g m o r n i n g — t h e day of t h e i r departure from France. The t r a v e l l e r s went on board the "Pereyre," o f the French T r a n s a t l a n t i c Company, towards noon on Saturday, September 6, and l e f t p ort about 1:00 P. M. T h e i r steamer, one o f the f a s t e s t on the A t l a n t i c , could have made the voyage to New York i n seven days, but was h e l d down t o eleven days because o f the speed o f the other v e s s e l s of the l i n e . "The voyage was rough," s t a t e d Father Le Jeune many years l a t e r , ^ "and one passenger had been heard t o curse the man who dis c o v e r e d America, between h i s t r i b u t e s t o the ocean." (5) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, v o l . 9, no. 3, March, 1900. " (6) "Rev. Father Le Jeune gives reminiscences at Rotary," Kamloops S e n t i n e l , F r i d a y , September 17, 1926, p. 1. Right Rev. Bishop Durieu i s b u r i e d i n St Mary's cemetery, M i s s i o n C i t y , B. C. (9) Soon after they lost sight of land, Fathers Le Jeune and Chirouse went to Bishop Durieu to ask him to give them a lesson in the Indian language. His Lordship had already pre pared for them the f i r s t of a series of flying sheets, con taining about thirty Chinook words. The two ambitious young priests took much pleasure in reading that f i r s t lesson over and over again. They were quite decided to continue their studies steadily during the whole passage, but that same even ing they began to experience the nausea of sea-sickness them selves, and for three days could not think of their Chinook. After their recovery they resumed their studies, His Lordship passing them a new sheet of vocabulary every day. In this manner they had a good start on the Chinook vocabulary by the time they reached New York. In the year 1886 Father Le Jeune printed a few copies of Durieu's original vocabulary on his small printing press, and reproduced the l i s t again in his Chinook Rudiments published on May 3, 1924. Bishop Durieu's l i s t was divided into sections, the f i r s t of which began with the numerals "iht"—one, "moxt" — two, "tloon"—three, "laket"—four, etc. The last or eighteenth section covered Chinook terms for the Deity and various holy days throughout the year. The "Pereyre" arrived at New York in the early morning hours of September 17, 1879, but the passengers were compelled to remain on board until their baggage was ready to be landed with them. Shortly after lunch they finally got on the wharf, (10) where they s t i l l had to wait a considerable time before the customs' officers cleared their effects. The Bishop's f i r s t care was to secure transportation for his party from New York to San Francisco. After this matter was arranged, Father Le Jeune and his companions had a few hours in which to see the city. They l e f t New York the same evening for Buffalo, travelling a l l that night and the next forenoon in a very crowded railway car. The fatiguing journey was brightened for the group by . the very hearty welcome they received in Buffalo from Fathers G-uillard and Barber, who were residing there at the Church of the Holy Angels, The travellers had just l e f t the train when the Bishop received a telegram calling him to Montreal, from which point four Sisters of St. Ann, destined for British Col umbia, wanted to make the trip under the direction of His Lordship. The Bishop l e f t that same evening for Montreal, while the remaining members of the party stayed in Buffalo. Under Father Barber's guidance, they visited many points of interest in Buffalo and the surrounding d i s t r i c t . Advantage was even taken of reduced excursion rates to make a trip to Niagara F a l l s . Finally, on the 30th of September, Father Le Jeune and his two companions l e f t to rejoin the Bishop at Detroit, and the party, increased by the addition of the four Sisters of St. Ann, travelled to Chicago and on across the plains. On the (11) t r a i n Fathers Le Jeune and Chirouse resumed t h e i r study of Chinook and were soon at the end of the vocabulary. " I went to the Bishop f o r the next lesson," s a i d Father Le Jeune, i n r e l a t i n g the s t o r y . v ' "There i s no more," was the answer. "Bless your Lordship," s a i d Father Le Jeune, "Give us then the grammar." "There i s no grammar," r e p l i e d the Bishop. "You have got a l l the words. Go on now and speak the language. You w i l l get used to i t soonj" Bishop Durieu went on to e x p l a i n to the two young p r i e s t s that they had learned i n the vocabulary enough words t o express a l l the ideas that they would want to convey to the I n d i a n s . He recounted the experience of Father Marchal, who preached to the Indians In Chinook j u s t three days a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l at New Tfestminster i n the year 1867. San Francisco w as reached on October 6, and here the party remained u n t i l October 10, when the steamer f o r V i c t o r i a was due to l e a v e . At the time there were only three boats a month from San Francisco to V i c t o r i a , l e a v i n g the former o i t y on the 10th, 20th, and 30th. During t h e i r stay i n San Fran c i s c o , Bishop Durieu and h i s companions enjoyed the h o s p i t a l i t y (7) McKelvie, B. A., Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 6 September, 1924. (8) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, v o l . 9, no. 4, A p r i l , 1900. (1?.) (13) of the Jesuit Fathers, who were s t i l l in t h e i r old residence on Market Street. The group l e f t San Francisco on the steamer "City of Chester" and arrived at V i c t o r i a on October 14. Fathers Jonk.au and Leroy were there i n charge at the old Cathedral, Bishop Sehers having been recently transferred to the Arch- diocese of Portland. At V i c t o r i a the party had to wait for the steamer for New Westminster, which then l e f t only twice a week, on Tuesdays and Fridays. New Westminster, and the end of the party's long journey, was reached on the afternoon of October 17, 1879. A hearty welcome was accorded the group by Father Horris, who met them upon a r r i v a l . A pleasant surprise awaited young Father Chirouse, for at New Westminster he found his uncle, Father Chirouse, Senior, who had been i n the western missions of Oregon and B r i t i s h Columbia ever since the year 1847. Father Le Jeune spent h i s f i r s t winter i n B r i t i s h Colum bia at New Westminster. In the spring of the year 1880, he was asked by Bishop Durieu to begin his missionary work among the Indians of the Fraser Canyon. He was also to minister to the religious needs of the many Roman Catholics among the thousands of workmen who were being brought into the country for the construction of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. S t i r r i n g events were i n formation, and the quiet of the (9) Le Jeune, Rev. J. M . R., Kamloops Wawa, v o l . 9, no. 5, May, 1900. (14) Fraser River valley was soon to be shattered as these workmen blasted and hacked their way through the canyon in the con struction of the railway. The syndicate headed by Andrew Onderdonk and D. 0. M i l l s , of San Francisco, was in the year 1879 awarded the contract for construction of the new line from Emory's Bar to Savona's Ferry—one hundred and twenty-eight miles of the most d i f f i c u l t and expensive work in the whole system. In the year 188S, this syndicate was awarded a second contract for completion of the line from Emory's Bar to Port Moody on Burrard Inlet. Construction headquarters of the syndicate were established at Yale, and included general offices, powder and acid works, and construction and repair shops of a l l Kinds. Yale, which had already experienced one "boom" twenty years before in the gold rush, was again a busy centre with an influx of some nine thousand workmen on railway construction. By February, 1883, the rai l s had been laid from Emory to beyond North Bend, and by June 30, 1885, the line was completed from Port Moody to beyond Sicamous. ^ ' Leaving New Westminster on June 10, Father Le Jeune pro ceeded up the valley to Yale, where a strange novitiate indeed opened up to him. In Yale there were already two Catholic churches, one for the whites and one for the Indians. Both churches were, however, l i t t l e better than hovels—simply (10) Howay, Judge F. W., British Columbia, the making of a province, The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1928, p. 2197 (15) s h e l t e r s f o r the s a y i n g o f Mass. They had no heat f o r the reason t h a t they d i d not need i t — t h e y were used only i n the summer. The "white' 1 church had a room behind the rude a l t a r . I t s only f u r n i s h i n g s c o n s i s t e d of a bed w i t h a straw m a t t r e s s — a bed which Father Le Jeune remarked "had not had acquaintance w i t h anything f o r a l o n g time except mice and r a t s . " F o r t u n a t e l y , the p r i e s t had brought w i t h him from New Westmin s t e r a p a i r of blankets and managed reasonably w e l l with the resources at hand. In the middle o f the nigh£,^ however, i t began t o r a i n i n earnest, and soon the whole r o o f of the room became transformed i n t o a watering-pot, w i t h the outcome a severe drenching f o r the occupant below. T h i s was the f i r s t and l a s t time t h a t F a ther Le Jeune s l e p t i n that bed. The f o l l o w i n g day, Sunday, he s a i d Mass i n the church before a group o f about twenty persons. Then he went t o make the acquaintance o f the Indians and to say Mass i n t h e i r church , where the attendance was c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r than i t had been i n the case o f the whites. Father Le Jeune soon became f r i e n d l y w i t h the Indian c a p t a i n o f the d i s t r i c t — M i c h e l , and h i s v/lfe Agnes. M i c h e l was a t r u l y pious man, who never f o r g o t h i s prayers, morning or evening, and who could say them p e r f e c t l y , without h e l p . He observed Sunday, F r i d a y , and a l l the f a s t days as he had (11) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n F r a n c a i s e , no. 157, December, 1915~ * ( 1 6 ) been taught. He knew how to act as i n t e r p r e t e r f o r the p r i e s t and could even preach to the Indians h i m s e l f when the p r i e s t was not t h e r e . He had the appearance of a man of f i f t y years of age when Father Le Jeune f i r s t met him. P o s s i b l y he was about f o r t y years o l d , f o r appearances can be deceptive, e s p e c i a l l y among Indians, because of the comparatively hard l i f e which causes them to mature e a r l y . E a r l y i n t h e i r acquaintanceship M i c h e l proposed a question which r a t h e r took Father Le Jeune aback. He asked the p r i e s t ' s o p i n i o n as to which he thought a person would succumb from f i r s t — h u n g e r or t h i r s t . In subsequent c o n v e r s a t i o n , i t was brought out by Father Le Jeune that M i c h e l , being o f an ex tremely i n q u i s i t i v e nature, had experimented upon h i m s e l f and had answered the quest i o n t o h i s e n t i r e s a t i s f a c t i o n . He had gone without food or d r i n k f o r a p e r i o d o f f i v e days. At the end of that time, not being a b l e to endure h i s discomfort any longer, he had thrown h i m s e l f i n t o the water and had not eaten u n t i l a f t e r he had drunk! Having gained the f r i e n d s h i p of M i c h e l , Father Le Jeune began with him the study of the Thompson Indian language. He soon found t h a t i t was a more d i f f i c u l t undertaking than the mastery of Chinook, w i t h i t s f i x e d vocabulary o f a few hundred words, had been. M i c h e l i n t i m a t e d the complexity o f the study with h i s statement t h a t "our language has as many words as there are leaves on the t r e e s or stones on the road." They began with the numerals, "one," "two," " t h r e e ; " — " p a i a , " (IV) " s h a i a , " " k a l h l a j . " That was s a t i s f a c t o r y enough, hut f o r one, two and three persons i t was necessary to say "papia," " s h i s h a i a , " " k a k a l h l a j ; " f o r f r u i t s , " p i o u j a , " " s h i o u j u , " " k a l h o u j a ; " f o r s t i c k s , " p i a i o k r , " " s h i a i o k r , " " k a l h a i o k r . " In f a c t , there were hundreds o f ways to count. Father Le Jeune t e r s e l y summed up the matter by s a y i n g , " I t was not encouraging at a l l . " A f t e r spending s e v e r a l days among the Indians a t Y a l e , Father Le Jeune left on a r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n car f o r Spuzzum, ten m i l e s to the n o r t h . Proceeding t o an Indian home that M i c h e l had recommended, he found there an o l d woman b u s i l y engaged i n weaving a basket from reeds, while her husband was r e p a i r i n g some f i s h i n g gear. Father Le Jeune h e l d out h i s hand to greet the o l d Indian i n the customary f a s h i o n . " H e l l o , " s a i d the Indian, "but I do not shake hands with a P r o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r . " " I am not a P r o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r , " r e p l i e d Father Le Jeune. " I come on b e h a l f of Monseigneur Durieu." "Oh, you are w i t h Mgr. Durieu," s a i d the Indian. "Then I w i l l shake hands w i t h you, and so w i l l my w i f e . " A f t e r t h i s exchange of g r e e t i n g s , Father Le Jeune was i n s t a l l e d i n t h e i r house, and was soon proceeding with h i s study o f the Thompson language under the t u t e l a g e of the o l d l a d y — M a r i e Ta-hwi-nak by name. She was extremely w i l l i n g to help the young p r i e s t , and g r a d u a l l y h i s vocabulary of the (12) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n Francaise,- no. 157, December, 1915. (18) most necessary words began to take shape. I t was f r e q u e n t l y necessary f o r Father Le Jeune t o have t h i n g s explained by signs as they proceeded w i t h words l i k e the f o l l o w i n g — " d o g , " "ska'ha;" "cow," "stomalt;" "horse," H n ' k ' i s a - s k a h a ; " " h a i r , " "kaouten;" "eyes," " n - k o t - k o t - t l o u s h t e n ; " " f e e t , " "skoh'kwa*t." The p r i e s t o f t e n remarked i n l a t e r years of what a l u d i c r o u s p i c t u r e he and the o l d l a d y must have made as they g e s t i c u  l a t e d and worked out t h e i r words f o r c e r t a i n s i g n s . O c c a s i o n a l l y Marie would become impatient w i t h Father Le Jeune and say, "But leave now the horses and the cows and teach us our p r a y e r s . " "Wait," he would r e p l y to her, "that w i l l come l a t e r , when I have l e a r n e d enough of your language." Father Le Jeune e s t a b l i s h e d h i s headquarters at Spuzzum f o r s e v e r a l weeks, w h i l e he gained the f r i e n d s h i p and c o n f i - . dence of the Indians of the neighbourhood. He s a i d Mass every morning, and the Indians s a i d t h e i r p r a y e r s . Every evening, a l s o , they s a i d t h e i r evening p r a y e rs, and one of Father Le Jeune's f i r s t c a r e s , a f t e r having composed a vocabulary, was to w r i t e out as w e l l as he could the prayers and catechism that these people had l e a r n e d . A l l through the summer of the year 1880 Father Le Jeune moved up and down the F r a s e r Canyon between Y a l e and L y t t o n , making the acquaintance of the Indian bands and o r i e n t i n g him s e l f tp the requirements of missionary work i n the new l a n d . At the same time c a l l s were made by the p r i e s t upon the (19) v a r i o u s camps of r a i l w a y workers i n order to attend to the r e l i g i o u s needs of the Roman C a t h o l i c s among them. In the f a l l o f the year, Father Le Jeune went down the v a l l e y t o S t . Mary's M i s s i o n on the F r a s e r , where he was to make h i s head quarters d u r i n g the next two y e a r s . T h i s M i s s i o n , e s t a b l i s h e d by the Oblates i n the year 1861 w i t h an accompanying i n d u s t r i a l s chool f o r Indian g i r l s and boys two years l a t e r , was the centre of m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s among the n a t i v e s of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . Father Morice d e s c r i b e s S t . Mary's as a l o c a l i t y famous among the e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s f o r the poverty and discomfort i t s inmates had to endure. He h i m s e l f a r r i v e d t h e r e i n the summer of the year 1880, j u s t a few months a f t e r Father Le Jeune reached B r i t i s h Columbia. H i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p l a c e at t h a t time f o l l o w s : S a i n t Mary's M i s s i o n was the most p e a c e f u l and l e a s t p r e t e n t i o u s of p l a c e s , a q u i e t o a s i s of very r e s t r i c t e d s i z e on the s k i r t of the p r i  meval f o r e s t , w i t h only two i n c i p i e n t farms, those of a Mr. P e r k i n s and a Mr. W e l l s , as s a  t e l l i t e s , to which might be added the l i t t l e c l e a r i n g of a French h a l f - b r e e d , G a b r i e l L a c r o i x . The establishment c o n s i s t e d of a f a i r l y l a r g e church w i t h a white-washed i n t e r i o r , the unusual s i z e of which was r e q u i r e d by o c c a s i o n a l Indian gatherings, or s e r i e s of p r e d i c a t i o n s . This stood on the lower reach, where the r a i l w a y l i n e now passes, and had f o r immediate companions, r i g h t and l e f t , a r a t h e r p r i m i t i v e house of rough, unplaned boards f o r the p r i e s t s and a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r f i n i s h e d convent f o r the S i s t e r s , who conducted a school f o r Indian g i r l s , w h i l e the Fathers had, d i r e c t l y under Brother Henry, an I n d u s t r i a l School f o r boys. Just east of the b u i l d i n g belonging to that i n s t i t u t i o n was a t i n y creek, at the mouth (20) of which stood a g r i s t m i l l the p r o p e r t y of the M i s s i o n , hut operated by a Mr. Threataway. I t was d u r i n g the summer of the year 1881 t h a t the paths o f Father Le Jeune and Brother Morice (he was not ordained u n t i l J u l y 2, 1882) f i r s t c r ossed. Some ten years b e f o r e , a Father Denis Lamure who was l a t e r a c c i d e n t a l l y k i l l e d i n a hunting mishap, had gathered together at S t . Mary's a number of brass band instruments. These had not been used f o r y e a r s , but B r o t h e r Morice dragged them out from t h e i r l a y e r o f dust, made necessary r e p a i r s here and t h e r e , and soon had a band o f Indian boys up to q u i t e a high degree of e f f i c i e n c y . An organ was r e q u i r e d f o r the l o c a l church and no funds were a v a i l a b l e f o r i t s a c q u i s i t i o n . B rother Morice and Father Le Jeune s e i z e d upon an ingenious p l a n to r a i s e the necessary money. P i l o t e d by the l a t t e r , B r other Morice and h i s band went up the r i v e r to Y a l e , where a r e g u l a r concert was given, and then above, where the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway workmen were t e a r i n g a way f o r the f u t u r e l i n e along the Canyon w a l l s . In d e s c r i b i n g t h i s t o u r , Morice says: In the evening atfter supper the boys would 'discourse sweet music' to the camps of working- men, and a c o l l e c t i o n was taken up by Father Le Jeune. The men were g e n e r a l l y l o s t i n admiration of the a b i l i t y of the performers, some o f whom seemed to them so young that they were i n c l i n e d t o imagine they were there only f o r sake o f num ber. They would even o f f e r them money to hear (13) Morice, Rev. A. G., 0. M. I . , abridged memoirs of, by D. L. S., F i f t y years i n western Canada, Toronto, The Ryerson P r e s s , 1930. (21) them p l a y s e p a r a t e l y t h e i r own instruments and. make sure they were not dummies. P r a c t i c a l l y everywhere people showed themselves generous to the troupe, and when the youngsters returned to S t . Mary's, they had amassed more than was necessary to defray the cost of a good organ. (14) Father Le Jeune always looked back w i t h p r i d e upon h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the men and events connected w i t h the b u i l d  i n g o f the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. At a Rotary Club l u n c h  eon h e l d at Kamloops on ?fednesday, December 27, 1922, i n honour of the pioneers of the c i t y and d i s t r i c t , the o l d - t i m e r s were asked to w r i t e down s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e i r l i f e and work. Two items r e l a t i n g to h i s e a r l i e s t days i n B r i t i s h Columbia are s i g n i f i c a n t i n Father Le Jeune's r e p l y t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . F i r s t , "In New Westminster when Mr. Onderdonk came up r i v e r to t u r n f i r s t sod f o r C. P. R,," and second, "In 1884 at opening of C i s c o B r i d g e , C. P. R." ^ 1 5 ^ Three years a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Father Le Jeune was ordered by h i s S u p e r i o r s to proceed to Kamloops, j to be attached to the S t . L o u i s M i s s i o n of that centre. On October 17, 1882, he a r r i v e d at Kamloops, which was to remain h i s headquarters during the remainder of h i s e n t i r e m i ssionary l i f e . (14) Morice, Rev A. G., 0. M. I . , abridged memoirs of, by u. L. b., Fifty_ years i n western Canada, Toronto, The Ryerson P r e s s , 1930. _ : ' (15) "Pioneers o f c i t y and d i s t r i c t honoured," Kamloops S e n t i n e l , 29 December, 1922. Indian v i l l a g e , Kamloops, i n the afternoon sun of a winter day. (23) CHAPTER I I . THE OBLATES COME TO THE PACIEIC COAST Father Le Jeune belonged to the Oblates of Mary Immacu l a t e , an Order o f the Roman C a t h o l i c Church founded i n the year 1816 at A i x , France, by Charles Joseph Eugene de Mazenod, afterwards Bishop o f M a r s e i l l e s . Born of noble f a m i l y a t A i x - en-Provence, France, On August 1, 1782, young de Mazenod r e  ceived h i s e a r l y education i n I t a l y , to which country h i s f a m i l y f l e d i n order t o escape the pe r s e c u t i o n s o f the French R e v o l u t i o n . Returning to the country o f h i s b i r t h i n the year 1802, de Mazenod decided t o enter upon e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s t u d i e s and was ordained i n the year 1811. From t h i s time on, Father de Mazenod devoted h i m s e l f with u n f l a g g i n g energy t o the s a l v a  t i o n of s o u l s . In the year 1816 he formed the Congregation o f the M i s s i o n a r i e s o f Provence, a group t o which Pope Leo 211 gave the t i t l e " M i ssionary Oblates o f Mary Immaculate" when he granted formal approval t o t h e i r Rules and C o n s t i t u t i o n s ten years l a t e r . Appointed Bishop of M a r s e i l l e s i n the year 1837, de Mazenod continued as Superior-General of the Oblates u n t i l h i s death i n 1861. Throughout h i s l i f e - t i m e he worked unceasingly f o r the r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l r e g e n e r a t i o n of France. At the same time, the sons of h i s Order extended t h e i r missionary a c t i v i t i e s throughout s e v e r a l European c o u n t r i e s and as f a r d i s t a n t as (16) "An a p o s t l e o f the poor, Charles Joseph Eugene de Mazenod," Oblate M i s s i o n s , September, 1946, pp. 2 — 4 . (24) Ceylon, South A f r i c a , and Canada. The Oblates e x c e l l e d as m i s s i o n a r i e s , and i n the h i s t o r y of the extension o f C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s t o the n a t i v e people of B r i t i s h Columbia, they h o l d an honoured p l a c e . They were not, however, the f i r s t m i s s i o n a r i e s on the P a c i f i c Coast. Spain's s h o r t - l i v e d colony on Nootka Sound, under M a r t i n e z , was the e r a d l e of the Roman C a t h o l i c Church on the North P a c i f i c Coast. A F a t h e r Magin C a t a l a was there i n the years 1793—94; and he was succeeded by a Father Gomez. These men were F r a n c i s c a n s , from C a l i f o r n i a . The f i r s t m i s s i o n a r y to cover the mainland s e c t i o n s o f present day B r i t i s h Columbia i s g e n e r a l l y considered to have been Rev. Modeste Demers, a s e c u l a r p r i e s t . Born on October 12, 1809, at S t . N i c o l a s , Lower Canada, he was ordained on February 7, 1836. A f t e r a f o u r t e e n month a s s i s t a n t s h i p to the p a r i s h p r i e s t o f T r o i s P i s t o l e s , he embarked f o r the west at Lachine on A p r i l 27, 1837, and, i n company w i t h Rev. Norbert F. Blanchet, reached the eastern l i m i t s of what i s now B r i t i s h Columbia i n October of the same year. Here the Holy S a c r i f i c e of the Mass was o f f e r e d up by t h i s p r i e s t at Boat Encampment on the B i g Bend of the Upper Columbia, the f i r s t time that t h i s a c t o f worship was c a r r i e d out on the mainland of what was to become B r i t i s h Columbia. From h i s m i s s i o n a r y s t a t i o n on the Lower Columbia, Father (17) Morice, Rev. A, G., 0. M. I . , H i s t o r y of the C a t h o l i c Church i n western Canada, Toronto, Musson Book Co., L t d . , v o l . 2, 1910. (25) Demers t r a v e l l e d t o F o r t Langley i n August, 1841, where he was (18) w e l l r e c e i v e d by the f a c t o r o f the day, Tames M. Y a l e . A f t e r b a p t i z i n g s e v e r a l hundred c h i l d r e n , and preaching the gospel to a crowd of n a t i v e s numbering up i n t o the thousands, he returned to the Columbia i n September, 1841. The f o l l o w i n g June, Demers l e f t f o r the north w i t h a Hud son Bay Company caravan under the p e r s o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n of P e t e r Skene Ogden. The p a r t y a r r i v e d at Thompson's R i v e r Post (Kamloops) on August 10, 1842, where no m i n i s t e r of the gospel had so f a r reached, and where the p r i e s t was r e c e i v e d w i t h open arms by crowds of n a t i v e s . During h i s two-day stay here, Father Demers b a p t i z e d a number of c h i l d r e n . V i s i t s t o F o r t s Alexan d r i a and S t . James, together w i t h a sixteen-day m i s s i o n at W i l l i a m ' s Lake, completed h i s northern t o u r . At the time o f F a t h e r Demers 1 v i s i t , Thompson's R i v e r Post w as a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d s t a t i o n of the Hudson's Bay Com pany. I t owed i t s foundation to David S t u a r t , a p a r t n e r of the P a c i f i c Fur Company, who f i r s t v i s i t e d the Thompson R i v e r d i s t r i c t i n the l a t e autumn of the year 1811. ^ 1 9 ^ Proceeding northward from F o r t Okanagan, at the j u n c t i o n of the Okanagan and Columbia R i v e r s , S t u a r t blazed the way f o r the f u t u r e f u r brigades by f o l l o w i n g Okanagan R i v e r and Lake, c r o s s i n g the height of l a n d , and descending i n t o the v a l l e y of the Thompson (18) Nelson, Denys, F o r t Langley, a century of settlement, Vancouver, B. C , A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , and S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1927, p. 15. (19) Howay, Judge F. W., o£. p i t . , p. 69. (26) R i v e r . Here he made the acquaintance of the She Waps (Shuswap I n d i a n s ) , noted t h a t f u r t r a d i n g prospects seemed good, and a c t u a l l y spent the w i n t e r when an unusually heavy f a l l of snow blocked h i s r e t u r n journey. Going back d u r i n g August of the next year, S t u a r t set up a t r a d i n g post near the j u n c t i o n of the North and South Thomp son R i v e r s . T h i s event marked the beginning of Kamloops, a p o i n t v a r i o u s l y known through the years of i t s h i s t o r y as Cumcloups, the She Waps, Thompson's R i v e r Post, The Porks, F o r t Thompson, and F o r t Kamloops. ^ 2 0 ^ S h o r t l y a f t e r S t u a r t ' s a r r i v a l , an o p p o s i t i o n post was e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n by Joseph La Roque, on b e h a l f of the North-West Company. The two companies, although r i v a l s , remained on f r i e n d l y terms i n t h i s s e c t i o n u n t i l the absorp t i o n of the P a c i f i c Fur Company by the Nor* Westers l a t e i n the year 1813. E i g h t years l a t e r the North-West Company was i n t u r n merged wi t h the Hudson's Bay Company, under the l a t t e r name. Kamloops became an important p o i n t of the company on i t s f u r brigade t r a i l which l i n k e d F o r t Vancouver w i t h the north ern posts of New C a l e d o n i a . Large bands of horses were kept at Kamloops and used f o r the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of f u r s and s u p p l i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the p a r t of the brigade t r a i l between F o r t s Okanagan and A l e x a n d r i a . A f t e r the Treaty of Washington was (20) Harvey, A. G., "David S t u a r t : Okanagan p a t h f i n d e r — founder of Kamloops," B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 9, no. 4, October, 1945, p. 285. (27) signed i n the year 1846, a new route f o r the f u r brigade t r a i l was sought. By the year 1849, the u s u a l trade route from the Coast i n t o the I n t e r i o r was from F o r t Hope to Kamloops. September 5, 1847, marked the a r r i v a l at W a l l a W a l l a a f t e r a strenuous t r i p across the p l a i n s of the f i r s t Oblate m i s s i o n  a r i e s i n the west. They came as the d i r e c t r e s u l t of appeals to Bishop de Mazenod at M a r s e i l l e s by Archbishop N. F . Blanchet of Oregon C i t y . In t h i s p a r t y o f pioneer m i s s i o n a r i e s were Rev. P a s c a l R i c a r d , Eugene CasiLmir C h i r o u s e , Charles Marie Pandosy, and Georges B l a n c h e t . A l l the l a s t three were a s p i r  ants to the p r i e s t h o o d , but at the time were not yet even sub- deacons. The f i r s t s t a t i o n o f the Oblates i n the Diocese of Van couver I s l a n d was at E s q u i m a l t , where c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a house and a small church was begun i n the year 1857. T h i s Esquimalt post became the o f f i c i a l residence of Rev. L o u i s J . D'Herbomez, the V i c a r of the Oblate missions on the P a c i f i c C oast. From E s q u i m a l t , Father Chirouse turned n o r t h to work with the n a t i v e s of Vancouver I s l a n d . On the mainland, Father P e t e r Richard and Brother S u r e l , o u t f i t t e d w i t h horses at Kam loops by the Indian c h i e f , L o l o , proceeded south to the p l a i n east of Okanagan Lake known as L'Anse au S a b l e . Here they met Father Pandosy coming n o r t h from C o l v i l l e , and here the p a r t y founded, on October 8, 1859, the M i s s i o n of the Immaculate Conception on the e a s t e r n shore 6f Lake Okanagan, near the (38) p o i n t where the c i t y o f Kelowna now stands. ( 2 1 ) The next few years were busy ones f o r the Oblate F a t h e r s . T h e i r ranks were strengthened by the a r r i v a l o f young and e n t h u s i a s t i c r e c r u i t s — s u c h men as Rev. P i e r r e P. Durieu and Rev. Leon Fouquet i n the year 1859, Fathers Baudre, Le Jacq, and Gendre i n the year 1862, and others i n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r s . We have a l r e a d y noted the establishment of S t . Mary's M i s s i o n i n the year 1861. The important House of S t . Charles was s t a r t e d i n New Westminster, and churches were b u i l t at F o r t Hope and i n v a r i o u s Indian v i l l a g e s . S t . L o u i s M i s s i o n at Kam loops, d e s t i n e d to be the f u t u r e home of Father Le Jeune, was founded i n the year 1878, w i t h Father Chirouse coming from the Indian s c h o o l at T u l a l i p , Washington, t o take charge. Increased m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y c a l l e d f o r changes i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the huge t e r r i t o r y taken over by the Oblat.es. In the year 1864, the mainland o f B r i t i s h Columbia was made i n t o a V i c a r i a t e - a p o s t o l i c , with Rt. Rev. L. J . D'Herbomez i n charge. Two years l a t e r , the Oblates were r e c a l l e d from Van couver I s l a n d and t h e i r energies i n the future, were to be con centrated on the mainland. In the year 1875, Bishop D'Herbomez a p p l i e d f o r a coadjutor and the post was awarded to Father P i e r r e P a u l Durieu, who was preconised Bishop of Marcopolis i n June, 1875, and consecrated at New Westminster on October 24 of the same year. (21) Nelson, Denys, "Yakima Days," Washington H i s t o r i c a l Quar t e r l y , v o l . 19, no. 3, J u l y , 1928, p. 189. (29) Headstone marking the grave of Right Rev. Bishop D'Herbomez at S t . Mary's M i s s i o n , M i s s i o n C i t y , B. C. (30) At the time o f Father Le Jeune 1s a r r i v a l i n Kamloops, the S u p e r i o r o f S t . L o u i s M i s s i o n was the veteran m i s s i o n a r y , Father Le Jacq, who had e s t a b l i s h e d and conducted the Stewart Lake M i s s i o n f o r t h i r t e e n years before he came to Kamloops i n the year 1880. H i s a s s e s s o r s at the outset were Fat h e r s G r a n d i d i e r and P e y t a v i n . In the year 1881 Father G r a n d i d i e r was r e p l a c e d by Father Ooccola, and i n the f o l l o w i n g year Father P e y t a v i n was succeeded by F a t h e r Le Jeune. The m i s s i o n b u i l d i n g s were l o c a t e d on the Thompson R i v e r about two and one-half m i l e s west of the present c i t y c e n t r e . There was no f u r t h e r change i n the personnel of t h i s M i s s i o n u n t i l the year 1887, when Bishop D'Herbomez, upon h i s r e t u r n from the Chapter-General, l e f t F a t h er J . A. Bedard a t Kamloops i n the p l a c e of Father Coccola. The l a t t e r was then sent to take charge o f S t . Eugene's M i s s i o n i n the Kootenay country. Rev. Father Le Jacq attended to the Shuswap Indians of the d i s t r i c t f o r twelve y e a r s , from the time of h i s a r r i v a l i n the year 1880 u n t i l 1892. In the l a t t e r year he l e f t to organize an i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l f o r Indian boys and g i r l s at S t . Joseph's M i s s i o n , W i l l i a m ' s Lake. During h i s tenure of o f f i c e at Kamloops, S t . Louis M i s s i o n was moved from i t s o r i g i n a l l o c a t i o n t o a s i t e which i s bounded to-day by N i c o l a S t r e e t , B a t t l e S t r e e t , F i r s t Avenue and Second Avenue w i t h i n the c i t y of Kamloops. The Church, w i t h the vocable of the Sacred Heart, was b u i l t i n the year 1887, and (31) the house two years l a t e r . S i t u a t e d on an e l e v a t i o n c l o s e behind the growing town and l o o k i n g northward, the s i t e a f f o r  ded a s t r i k i n g view of the f o r k s of the Thompson R i v e r , of the Indian v i l l a g e and reserve on the opposite s i d e of the r i v e r , and of the Mountains Paul and P e t e r i n the background. Upon Father Le Jacq's departure i n the year 1892, Father Bedard became S u p e r i o r of the M i s s i o n , w i t h Fathers Le Jeune and G u e r t i n as a s s e s s o r s . At t h i s time Father Le Jeune was assigned to attend to a l l the Indians of the whole d i s t r i c t , w h i l e to Father G u e r t i n f e l l the task of v i s i t i n g the Roman C a t h o l i c s along the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway l i n e from Kam loops east to the summit of the Rocky Mountains. This l a s t named charge, known t o the m i s s i o n a r i e s as the r a i l r o a d d i s t r i c t , had been attended i n t u r n by v a r i o u s p r i e s t s as f o l l o w s : Father Fay, 1884; Father Le Jeune, 1885; Father Coccola, 1886; Father Le Jeune again, 1887; and Father Bedard, 1888. I t was not a p a r t i c u l a r l y popular d i s t r i c t with the m i s s i o n a r i e s , i n v o l v i n g as i t d i d tremendous d i s t a n c e s and a s c a t t e r e d p o p u l a t i o n . R e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s i n each of the three l a r g e s t c e n t r e s — R e v e l s t o k e , Donald and G o l d e n — c o u l d be h e l d only one Sunday a month. The f o u r t h Sunday r e q u i r e d attendance at the Okanagan Lake Church, f u r t h e r south. Weekdays were spent i n v i s i t i n g scores of intermediate p l a c e s and people r e  s i d i n g at or near the d i f f e r e n t s t a t i o n s and s e c t i o n houses along the l i n e . Father Le Jeune estimated that a thorough v i s i t throughout the whole t e r r i t o r y of the r a i l r o a d d i s t r i c t , (33) g i v i n g one n i g h t t o each l i t t l e p l a c e or house along the road, (op \ would take no l e s s than three or f o u r months. v w The l i f e of c o n t i n u a l l y moving from house to house was beset w i t h innumer able hardships, e s p e c i a l l y i n the w i n t e r months when the snow reached a depth of s e v e r a l f e e t i n the mountains. In November, 1893, Father Le Jeune was appointed S u p e r i o r o f S t . L o u i s , w i t h Father G-uertin as P r o c u r a t o r . E a r l y i n the f o l l o w i n g year Rev. Father C a r i o n a r r i v e d at Kamloops t o take over the d i r e c t i o n o f the Indian I n d u s t r i a l S c h ool. Rev. Father Edmund P e y t a v i n a l s o was attached to the S t . L o u i s M i s s i o n during these y e a r s . A d i r e c t o r y p u b l i s h e d by Father Le Jeune i n December, 1895, gave the personnel of a l l the Roman C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n s of B r i t i s h Columbia at that time. ^ 2 4 ^ Those at the House of S t . L ouis were as f o l l o w s : (The number i n f r o n t of each name i s the number i n the Order of the 0. M. I . , by order of Pro f e s s i o n s ; the f i r s t number f o l l o w i n g the name i s the date o f b i r t h ; the second, the date of P r o f e s s i o n i n the 0. M. I . ; the t h i r d , the date of Ordination.) (22) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, January, 1898, v o l . 7, no. 1, p. 3. (23) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, May, 1895, v o l . 4, no. 5, p. 66. (24) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, December, 1895, v o l . 4, no. 12, pp. 178, 179. (33) No. Birth. 898 Rev. Father Le Jeune, John Mary (Superior) 1855 805 Rev. Father C a r i o n , Alphonsus Mary ( D i r . Indian School)....1848 P r o f . 1875 1871 1876 1870 Ord. 1879 1872 1877 1872 916 Rev. Father G u e r t i n , Frederic..1846 762 Rev. Father P e y t a v i n , Edmund...1849 Lay Brothers 183 Bro. S u r e l , P h i l i p 1819 1848 1562 Bro. Mulvaney, John 1851 1892 Old Brother S u r e l , as he was a f f e c t i o n a t e l y known, was horn January 1, 1819, and had been at Kamloops s i n c e the year 1883. As l a t e as March, 1901, he was s t i l l s t r o n g and he a l t h y , notwithstanding h i s age. He had come to the M i s s i o n s of Oregon i n the year 1854 w i t h Father D'Herbomez and Brother J a n i n . Always a c h e e r f u l and w i l l i n g worker, he had taken part i n the establishment of s e v e r a l of the C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n s i n the west. He o f t e n t o l d of the time he was a witness t o a near tragedy on the Columbia R i v e r , not f a r from the D a l l e s . Fathers R i c a r d and Pandosy, along with Brother Verney, wanted to cross the Columbia. No boat being a v a i l a b l e at the time, they made a p r i m i t i v e r a f t from some driftwood they found l i n i n g the shore. In the middle of the r i v e r the r a f t broke up and i t s passengers were thrown i n t o the s w i r l i n g water. H e l p l e s s to a s s i s t , Brother S u r e l and Father Richard watched from the bank* F o r t u n a t e l y , the occupants of the r a f t were each able to secure h o l d of a l o g , t o which they clung ( 3 4 ) t e n a c i o u s l y u n t i l washed up on a p o i n t three m i l e s down the stream. Up to February, 1898, there was l i t t l e change i n the membership o f S t . L o u i s M i s s i o n . Father Le Jeune's d i r e c t o r y of that date mentions only one replacement—Rev. Father O l i v a r i u s C o r n e l l i e r i n s t e a d of Father G u e r t i n . By June, 1903, however, Father Le Jeune was the only o r i g i n a l incumbent of the 1890's, with the exception of Father C a r i o n . H i s d i r e c t o r y (27) at that time l i s t s the f o l l o w i n g members i n a d d i t i o n to hi m s e l f : Rev. Fathers C. Marehal, A. M i c h e l s , and P. Conan. Father Garion was s t i l l i n charge of the I n d u s t r i a l School. Father Charles Marehal had formerly been attached to the Okanagan M i s s i o n , a t t e n d i n g the Indians at P e n t i c t o n and i n the southern p a r t of the p r o v i n c e . During h i s v i s i t to the Osoyoos Indian Reserve l a t e i n June, 1896, he found t h a t the house r e  served f o r him while i n the camp was already i n h a b i t e d — b y r a t t l e s n a k e s . During the night the p r i e s t was somewhat per turbed to f i n d the snakes crawling from under the f l o o r and g l i d i n g across the room. The next day the Father went hunting f o r snakes and managed to k i l l two, each of which measured four f e e t i n l e n g t h . ^ 2 8 ) 10, no. 1. 3 Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. v o l . 7, no. 2, p. 18. 3 Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. 12, no. 6, p. 3 5 . 3 Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. 5 , no. 7, p. 147. Kamloops Wawa Kamloops ??awa Kamloops Wawa Kamloops Wawa (35) The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r r e l i g i o u s purposes by the Oblates f o l l o w e d a w e l l d e f i n e d p l a n o r i g i n a t e d by Bishop Durieu and based on the famous Reductions o f Paraguay. ( 2$) Each camp or small band of Indians recognized a c h i e f , whom the members were supposed to obey. Although i n e a r l i e r times the p o s i t i o n had been h e r e d i t a r y , the custom had g r a d u a l l y a r i s e n o f e l e c t i n g a c h i e f by the votes of the band. The i n f l u e n c e and a u t h o r i t y o f the c h i e f s v a r i e d w i t h the men themselves and i n the d i f f e r e n t bands. Some were extremely c a r e l e s s and l e d d i s o r d e r l y l i v e s , t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e with the group s u f f e r i n g a c c o r d i n g l y . Others e x e r c i s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a u t h o r i t y over t h e i r bands and were a great help to Father Le Jeune and the other m i s s i o n a r i e s i n i n c u l c a t i n g m o r a l i t y and good order among t h e i r people. In most p l a c e s the c h i e f was a s s i s t e d by a c a p t a i n and some watchmen, p r o p o r t i o n e d i n number to the importance of the reserve to which they were attached. The general d u t i e s of the c h i e f and h i s a s s i s t a n t s , from a r e l i g i o u s standpoint, were to have the laws of the Church observed by the members of the t r i b e . In case of p u b l i c i n f r a c t i o n , the c u l p r i t was brought before t h i s e l e c t e d court and i f found g u i l t y was sentenced to a whipping, to a f i n e , or merely t o the r e c i t a t i o n of a few prayers, according to the s e v e r i t y of the o f f e n c e . The choice of c a p t a i n u s u a l l y f e l l upon the most i n f l u e n t i a l (29) Donze, Jean, 0. M. I . , "The Indians at the crossroads'» Oblate M i s s i o n s . December, 1946, p. 7. c - £ O S S ^ a a s , (36) The meeting house on Kamloops reserve. (37) man i n the hand, a f t e r the c h i e f . H i s p a r t i c u l a r d u t i e s were to act f o r the c h i e f i n the l a t t e r ' s absence, to c a r r y the c h i e f ' s orders to the members of the band, and to see that they were put i n t o execution. The watchmen were the Indian p o l i c e  men, u s u a l l y appointed by the Indian Agent, T h e i r d u t i e s were to assemble the members of the band f o r meetings and to keep order and good conduct on the r e s e r v e s . "They w i l l a l s o , " s a i d Father Le Jeune, "see that the Indians are a t t e n t i v e at the meeting, and w i l l awake those who have a tendency to s l e e p , " (30) The "Durieu system" of e v a n g e l i z a t i o n had s e v e r a l advan tages. I t tended to a v o i d c o n f l i c t s between the white and Indian m e n t a l i t i e s , i t kept the Indians f o r the most p a r t i n the p r a c t i c e o f r e l i g i o n , i t lessened the bad i n f l u e n c e s from without, and i t strengthened the p r i e s t ' s a u t h o r i t y w i t h h i s Indian charges. (^1) S e v e r a l f a c t o r s combined, however, to o f f s e t the e f f e c  t i v e n e s s of the work of the m i s s i o n a r i e s to a d e g r e e — t o make men l i k e Father Le Jeune doubt i n moments of despondency "whether the bad i s not going to exceed the good, and i f f a i t h I s not l i a b l e t o become e x t i n c t among these Indians a f t e r a c e r t a i n number of year s . " (32) (30) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloop3 Wawa, May, 1898, v o l . 7, no. 5, p. 68, (31) Donze, Jean, 0. M. I . , "The Indians at the crossroads," Oblate M i s s i o n s , December, 1946, p. 7. (32) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, A p r i l , 1898, v o l . 7, no. 4, p. 51. ~ (38) In the f i r s t p l a c e , the Indian economy was changing r a p i d  l y . When the white men f i r s t came to the I n t e r i o r the Indians were hunters and fishermen. Having very l i t t l e property other than t h e i r hunting and f i s h i n g o u t f i t s , they d i d not f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o answer the mis s i o n a r y ' s c a l l a t h i s r e g u l a r v i s i t and to r e p a i r to the appointed p l a c e with a l l t h e i r e a r t h l y p o s s e s s i o n s . By Father Le Jeune's time, however, i t was o f t e n d i f f i c u l t f o r them, and f r e q u e n t l y impossible, to answer the c a l l with the same promptness, engaged as they were i n farming and s t o c k r a i s i n g at v a r i o u s p o i n t s on the r e s e r v e s , and i n casu a l labour i n the white settlements. Then, too, the very s i z e and extent of the mis s i o n a r y c i r c u i t s m i l i t a t e d a gainst the greatest p o s s i b l e success i n the work. In h i s e a r l y days on the missions Father Le Jeune was able to v i s i t h i s charges only three or f o u r times a year, due to the wide d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Indian bands he contacted. As l a t e as the summer o f 1928, when he was over seventy years of age, Father Le Jeune had t h i r t y - t w o missions to v i s i t . L a s t l y , the dem o r a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e of a clo s e contact w i t h c e r t a i n elements of the advancing white " c i v i l i z a t i o n " tended to i n c r ease drunkeness, immorality and other v i c e s among the Indians. Thus we f i n d t h a t not a l l the bands i n Father Le Jeune's d i s t r i c t reached the degree of r e l i g i o u s f e r v o u r f o r which the (33) Forbes, Rev. George, 0. M. I., l e t t e r to the author, 16 October, 1947. ' (39) Map of most important Indian reserves v i s i t e d bv Father Le Jeune from h i s missionary headquarters at Kamloops. Scale: 20 miles to 1 inch (40) p r i e s t s t r o v e . "In those camps," he s a i d , "where the Indians are f e r v e n t C h r i s t i a n s , or where the c h i e f has some i n f l u e n c e over h i s people, the work of the missionary i s rendered 'more agreeable by the encouragement he r e c e i v e s , the Indians having made a s a c r i f i c e of t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n order to come and p r o f i t by h i s v i s i t . There are a l s o other camps where i t i s necessary to r e s o r t to hard p u l l i n g , as some Indians have no s c r u p l e s f o r being absent from r e l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e s . " P a t i e n c e , tacfc, diplomacy, s e l f - r e s t r a i n t , perseverance i n the face of d i f f i c u l t i e s — t h e s e q u a l i t i e s and many more were e s s e n t i a l to the Oblate Fathers as. they worked with t h e i r Indians year a f t e r year. Father Le Jeune's approach as a m i s s i o n a r y to h i s Indians was founded upon a w e l l defined philosophy which matured through a long a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h them. I t was always h i s be l i e f that very few people would r e f u s e to embrace the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n i f they once understood i t . To him i t was not enough to preach the Gospel alone; p e r f e c t understanding must go hand i n hand w i t h the r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n given. At the outset i t was h i s p o l i c y t o reach the Indians and to win t h e i r a f f e c t i o n by kindness and by those many l i t t l e s e r v i c e s f o r which there are frequent occasions. Once a bond of f r i e n d s h i p was e s t a b l i s h e d , the Indians had confidence i n t h e i r p r i e s t and a d v i s o r . (34) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., 0. M. I . , Kamloops Wawa, A p r i l , 1898, v o l . 7, no. 4, p. 52. Indians on the reserve at Deadman's C r e e k . (42) Above a l l , i t was necessary to a v o i d o f f e n d i n g or d i s  p l e a s i n g the Indians, e s p e c i a l l y i n the i n i t i a l stages of h i s approach to them. I t was only n a t u r a l f o r the Indians to question the motives behind the p r i e s t ' s i n t e r e s t i n them. With the examples before them of so many working f o r e a r t h l y i n t e r e s t s alone, i t wa§ d i f f i c u l t f o r them to understand that there could be people who would consecrate themselves to the s e r v i c e of God f o r the s a l v a t i o n of s o u l s . T h i s s k e p t i c i s m was l i k e l y to be expressed by d i f f i d e n c e or even o u t r i g h t rudeness to the p r i e s t . Father Le Jeune's c o u n t e r a c t i n g f o r c e to t h i s type of treatment was simply "to r e s t r a i n one's s e l f and wait f o r the time when the grace of God and a b e t t e r understanding o f one's i n t e n t i o n s w i l l b r i n g them to a sense o f the regard due to one's p o s i t i o n . " ( 3 5 ) (35) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa. May, 1898, v o l . 7 no. 5, p. 68. ——— ' (43) CHAPTER I I I . INDIAN LANGUAGES AND THE CHINOOK JARGON The Indian languages and d i a l e c t s o f Canada, and p a r t i c u  l a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia, present a d i f f i c u l t and complicated problem. The Canadian a u t h o r i t y on t h i s matter, Diamond Jenness, l i s t s eleven main l i n g u i s t i c stocks current i n Canada, most of them sub d i v i d e d i n t o numerous d i a l e c t s . S i x of these main l i n g u i s t i c stocks are confined t o B r i t i s h Columbia, as f o l l o w s : (1) The Tsimshian language of the Skeena and Nass R i v e r v a l l e y s . (2) The Haida language of the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . (3) The Wakashan language of Vancouver I s l a n d . T h i s l i n g u i s t i c stock d i v i d e s i n t o two d i a l e c t s so divergent that they c o n s t i t u t e almost d i s t i n c t languages, v i z . , the Nootka d i a l e c t of the west coast, and the Kwakiutl d i a l e c t o f the east coast. (4) The S a l i s h a n language o f southern Vancouver I s l a n d , the F r a s e r r i v e r and t r i b u t a r y v a l l e y s as f a r up as A l e x a n d r i a , Dean and Burke Channels, and the Okanagan V a l l e y . (5) The Kootenay -language of south-eastern B r i t i s h Columbia. (6) The Athapaskan language of the northern i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. ( 3 6 ) The l a r g e s t n a t i o n i n the i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and the one among whose people Father Le Jeune spent the g r e a t e r p a r t of h i s l i f e , was the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h . T h i s group d i f f e r e d widely i n customs, d i a l e c t , and even p h y s i c a l appearance (36) Jenness, Diamond, The Indians of Canada, Ottawa, N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada, 2nd e d i t i o n ^ 1934, p. 18. Map of main Indian languages of British Columbia (45) from the Sali s h a n - s p e a k i n g n a t i v e s o f the c o a s t a l area. Father Le Jeune's v e r s i o n o f the o r i g i n of the word " S a l i s h " was that i t was from the word "Shaleesh," meaning " k n i f e " i n the Thomp son language, the o l d Indians of that t r i b e being always on the defensive and c o n s t a n t l y c a r r y i n g a k n i f e w i t h them under t h e i r c l o t h i n g — h e n c e the name of Shaleesh, or S a l i s h . ^ 3 7 ^ The I n t e r i o r S a l i s h were d i v i d e d i n t o at l e a s t f i v e d i f f  erent t r i b e s which spoke mutually u n i n t e l l i g i b l e d i a l e c t s , yet were l i n k e d together by o r i g i n and l i n g u a l s t o c k . Despite any background of k i n s h i p , these f i v e t r i b e s i n pre-European times were o f t e n h o s t i l e to one another. The f i v e t r i b e s and the t e r r i t o r y which each i n h a b i t e d were as f o l l o w s : (1) The L i l l  ooet o r "Wild Onion" Indians were the westernmost of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h t r i b e s , l i v i n g i n the L i l l o o e t R i v e r v a l l e y to the west of the F r a s e r R i v e r . (2) The Thompson Indians, forming a c l o s e contact w i t h the Coast S a l i s h , occupied the F r a s e r R i v e r v a l l e y between Y a l e and L i l l o o e t , and the Thompson R i v e r v a l l e y as f a r up as A s h c r o f t . (3) The Okanagan Indians l i v e d i n the v a l l e y of the lake and r i v e r o f that name. (4) The Lake Indians l i v e d i n the t e r r i t o r y adjacent to the Arrow Lakes and i n the upper Columbia R i v e r v a l l e y . (5) The Shuswap Indians c o n t r o l l e d the Fr a s e r R i v e r v a l l e y from L i l l o o e t to A l e x a n d r i a and a l l the country eastward to the summit o f the Rocky Mountains. ^ 3 8 ^ (37) Le Jdune, Rev J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa. May, 1895, v o l . 4, HO• O, p . DO. (38) R a v e n M l l , A l i c e , The n a t i v e t r i b e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B. C. }^n-g^^±^^1^6~w^lT^7^* mi Map of the Interior Salish dialects (47) At the end o f the eighteenth century there was, a c c o r d i n g to Jenness, ^ 3 9 ^ a s m a l l Athapaskan-speaking t r i b e wedged i n among these f i v e S a l i s h a n t r i b e s . This i s o l a t e d community occupied the v a l l e y s o f the N i c o l a R i v e r and the upper p o r t i o n of the Similkameen. During the e a r l y years of the nineteenth century the Thompson R i v e r Indians are supposed to have ab sorbed t h i s Athapaskan-speaking group so completely that only a few legends and a s m a l l vocabulary of-names bear witness to i t s previous e x i s t e n c e . Father Le Jeune found i n the N i c o l a country three o l d Indians, by name Temlk-skool-han, Haap-kan, and Shoo-yaska, who were s t i l l pagans and who had spent t h e i r e a r l y l i v e s i n the Similkameen, or between the Similkameen and the N i c o l a . They were n e i t h e r Similkameen nor N i c o l a Indians, but belonged to another f a m i l y of which they were the only s u r v i v o r s . Temlk- skool-han s t i l l remembered a few words of h i s o l d language, which he was not allowed to speak by the N i c o l a Indians. These words, which he gave to Father Le Jeune, were: "sek-ha,""woman;" "shna-hlet sek-ha," "a l a z y woman;" "rapentle'he r a i n t i e ' h e n , " "a l a z y man;" "sh-ho," "horns;" "knee," "arrow;" " n a l s i s i , " "arrow p o i n t ; " " r o s e s s , " "soup o l a l i ; " "tenenn," "bearberry;" " t l o o l h , " " s t r a p " or "band f o r packing;" " r o r o l t o o t y , " "small f i s h ; " " t k e n t k s h i n , " "another k i n d of f i s h ; " "selh-ka-ke," "groundhog;" "skowm," "to-morrow;" "a we k'ha," "come c h i l d . " (39) Jenness, Diamond, The Indians of Canada, Ottawa, N a t i o n a l Museum of Canada, 2nd e d i t i o n , 1934, p. 351. (40) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, J u l y , 1895, v o l . 4, no. 7, p. 98. (48) Indian children on the reserve at Kamloot>s. (49) The language s i t u a t i o n among the Indians of B r i t i s h C o l  umbia i s w e l l summed up by Jenness when he says, " B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e r e f o r e , l i k e the P a c i f i c Coast of the United S t a t e s , was a babel of c o n f l i c t i n g tongues, suggesting that i t had been a cul-de-sac from which n e i t h e r invaded nor invader could escape. In pre-European times contact between the t r i b e s was so f r e q u e n t l y h o s t i l e t h a t no one language gained the ascendancy." However, the coming of white e x p l o r e r s and t r a d e r s to the lands b o r d e r i n g upon the P a c i f i c O cean—the present Oregon, Washington and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a — g r a d u a l l y brought i n t o e x i s  tence a common medium of i n t e r c o u r s e . This was the famous Chinook jargon, or Oregon Trade language, which became f o r a century the i n t e r n a t i o n a l language of the P a c i f i c Coast r e g i o n from northern C a l i f o r n i a to Alas k a , and from the P a c i f i c Ocean to the Rocky Mountains. G r a d u a l l y t a k i n g shape between the years 1790 and 1810, i t became the common denominator of language among n a t i v e s of at l e a s t two dozen d i f f e r e n t t r i b e s speaking as many d i f f e r e n t tongues, as w e l l as among n a t i v e s , whites and O r i e n t a l s . The Chinook jargon i s a c u r i o u s l y composite form of speech, b e i n g p a r t l y Chinook language, p a r t l y Nootka language, p a r t l y Erench, p a r t l y E n g l i s h , and to some extent the r e s u l t of ono matopoeia. I t i s p o s s i b l e that some form of common t r a d i n g (41) Jenness, Diamond, The Indians of Canada, Ottawa, N a t i o n a l Museum of Canada, 2nd e d i t i o n , p. 18. (50) language e x i s t e d among the Indians on the P a c i f i c Coast "before the coming of the whites. However, the Chinook jargon r e a l l y began when the e a r l y t r a d e r s at Nootka, i n the course of t h e i r d e a l i n g s w i t h the Indians, a c q u i r e d a number of words of the Nootkan tongue. The Indians i n t u r n began to use o c c a s i o n a l E n g l i s h words. L a t e r on, when t r a d e r s began to frequent the Columbia R i v e r , they used words l e a r n e d at Nootka i n t h e i r attempts to communicate wi t h the Chinook Indians t h e r e . The Chinooks added Nootka and E n g l i s h words to t h e i r own vocabulary, and a foundation was l a i d f o r what e v e n t u a l l y became the Chinook jargon. The jargon was enlarged by c o n t r i b u t i o n s from the Nor'West, A s t o r , and Hudson's Bay Company servants. An e a r l y v i s i t o r to the Coast, H o r a t i o Hale, l i s t e d 250 words i n f a i r l y common use i n the jargon. Of these, 18 were r e c o g n i z a b l e as o f Nootka o r i g i n , 41 of E n g l i s h source, 34 were French, and 111 formed the Chinook foundation. By the year 1863, when the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t e p u b l i s h e d i t s d i c t i o n a r y of the language, the number of words had grown to around 500. Of these, 221 were considered Chinook, 94 French, 67 E n g l i s h , and 39 were from Indian languages other than Chinook. The number of words current i n the jargon has been var i o u s l y s t a t e d . T h i s i s because many of the o r i g i n a l words g r a d u a l l y became obsolete and disappeared, while others were introduced from time to time to f i l l the requirements of l o c a l needs. Despite i t s comparatively small vocabulary, and i t s (51) absence of grammatical forms, Chinook had a s u r p r i s i n g f l e x i  b i l i t y and power of exp r e s s i o n . The very smallness of i t s word l i s t s made i t easy of a c q u i s i t i o n ; so much so that few Europeans took the t r o u b l e t o l e a r n the o r i g i n a l I n d i a n languages themselves. The e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s i n t r o d u c e d many r e l i g i o u s words i n t o the jargon. Rev. Modeste Demers, who a r r i v e d at Port Vancouver on November 24, 1838, mastered the e x i s t i n g jargon w i t h i n a few weeks of h i s a r r i v a l , and was soon able t o preach i n Chinook. He organized and arranged a vocabulary of the jargon, which succeeding m i s s i o n a r i e s found very u s e f u l . He a l s o composed s e v e r a l c a n t i c l e s i n Chinook, and t r a n s l a t e d many pr a y e r s i n t o the {jargon. Father Le Jeune became extremely p r o f i c i e n t i n Chinook and used i t as h i s c h i e f means of w r i t t e n communication with the Indians of h i s d i s t r i c t . When he began h i s shorthand t e a c h i n g among the Indians, i t was t o Chinook that the shorthand was f i r s t adapted. The pages of the Kamloops Wawa c o n t a i n i n g h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s , messages and s t o r i e s f o r the Indians are w r i t t e n i n shorthand c h a r a c t e r s a p p l i e d to the Chinook jargon. The very n o v e l t y of the jargon i t s e l f , as w e l l as i t s h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t , l e d Father Le Jeune t o a d e s i r e t o i n  s t r u c t h i s E n g l i s h readers i n the s u b j e c t . The Kamloops Wawa has many r e f e r e n c e s t o the Chinook jargon, i t s background, and present s t a t u s . A complete l i s t - of these references f o l l o w s : ( l ) E a r l y t i t l e page, reproduction of the f i r s t number, volume 1, number 1, May 2, 1891, on page 150, September, 1894. (52) (2) T i t l e page, September, 1894, t o September, 1895, i n c l u  s i v e . (3) T i t l e page, October, 1895, and on through, years 1896 and 1897. (4) Second page o f cover from September, 1894, on. (5) Elements of phonography, i n a rudimentary way i n the f i r s t f o u r numbers, May, June, J u l y , August, 1891, and reproduced on pages 4, 5, and 6, January, 1895. (6) A condensed Chinook vocabulary i n one page, February, 1895, page 30. (7) O r i g i n of the Chinook, pages 50 and 51, A p r i l , 1895. (8) What i s Chinook, anyhow? Page 66, May, 1895. (9) C h i n o o k — F r e n c h vocabulary, a l l i n shorthand, f o u r t h page of cover, June, 1895. (10) F i r s t l e s s o n i n Chinook, June, 1895, pages 82 and 83. (11) F r e n c h — C h i n o o k method, a l l i n stenography, t h i r d page of cover, June, 1895. (12) A c l i p p i n g from the Montreal Gazette of November 29, 1894, copied i n the Wawa of J u l y , 1895, pages 98 and 99. (13) November, 1895, page 161, ah i n t r o d u c t i o n to a C h i n o o k — E n g l i s h condensed vocabulary which appears i n f u l l on page 162 of the same number. (14) Page 165 of November, 1895, a miniature r e p r o d u c t i o n o f 5,000 Chinook words, equal t o 7,500 E n g l i s h words, a l l i n a post - c a r d space, 3§ x 5% inches. (15) A rep r o d u c t i o n of the f i r s t numbers of the Wawa (May to August, 1891) complete i n two pages (photo-engraved), pages 90 and 91, A p r i l , 1896. (16) The Wawa shorthand i n s t r u c t o r , reproduced i n f u l l , a few pages eaoh number^ January to J u l y , 1896. (17) Chinook—.French vocabulary and method, pages 92 and 93, A p r i l , 1896. (18) Chinook condensed vocabulary i n one page, May, 1896, page 118. (53) In a d d i t i o n to these references to the Chinook jargon, p u b l i s h e d at i n t e r v a l s i n the pages of the Kamloops Wawa, Father Le Jeune compiled a 36—page monograph e n t i t l e d Chinook Rudiments. This was issued i n the year 1924, and to a great extent summarized h i s e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h on the s u b j e c t . H i s v o c a b u l a r i e s l i s t a t o t a l of 552 words i n the jargon, d i v i d e d as f o l l o w s : (a) 163 o r i g i n a l Chinook words. (b) 56 Chinook words more or l e s s i n common use. (c) 36 Hudson's Bay French words. (d) 26 words which are the r e s u l t o f onomato poeia, (e) 38 r e l i g i o u s words. ( f ) 233 E n g l i s h words. A c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f the Chinook words under (a) and (b), coupled with the sound words under (d), g i v e the f o l l o w i n g C h i n o o k — E n g l i s h vocabulary used by Father Le Jeune. I t w i l l be noted t h a t Father Le Jeune, being French - speaking, used French r a t h e r than E n g l i s h sounds as the b a s i s f o r h i s phonetic system. A a l ' k e l a t e r on a l ' t a now an'kate o r a n s ' k u t t i e or ans'kutie o r ahn'kutte i n time past a' yak- a'yaz- a'yoo- a h a l - a l a ! - --quick --.great —many — y e s , so — s u r p r i s e A a na! d i s p l e a s u r e a nana! • p a i n a I . ah» ankechim handkerchief ats younger s i s t e r B bloo-- 'blue be'be a k i s s b i t or mit -dime (54) C c h a ' k o t o come c h i new c h i k ' m i n o r c h i k a ' m i n m e t a l chok o r chuck w a t e r c u l t u s had D d i e t r i g h t d l a ' i d r y E ' e ' h e t o l a u g h e h ' p o o i - - shut e ' l e h e - e a r t h e l a ' i t e m s l a v e e ' l o none e n a t a ' i a c r o s s es 'kom t o t a k e e ' i t o r s t o t k i n e i g h t e l l e t o l i v e e ' l o k a h nowhere et _ a f f i r m i n g G g l o y e l l o w H h a ' h a a w f u l o r w o n d e r f u l h a ' l a k t o open h ' l o ' ima d i f f e r e n t hum s m e l l h e ' h e t o l a u g h hwa! s u r p r i s e h a l l o ! h a l l o h o ' h o t o cough h u l ' h u l mouse h ' p a ' i c e d a r I i h t one i k ! t a what i k ' t a s b e l o n g i n g s i l ' ep • f i r s t i p 1 s o o t h i d e i s ' s i k p a d d l e i t l o o - i l h f l e s h i k ' i k f i s h hook i ' n a - •—•—•—beaver i ' t l o k o m •—gambl ing K k a h where k a k 1 s h e t b r o k e n k a ' kwa l i k e (55) K kalla'nan fence kal' kala birds kal'tash useless ka'mooxs dog ka'nawe - a l l kanamo1 xt together kan' s ih how many kap'ho elder brother kap'shwala to steal ka'ta —how k'ell hard k;t0 to arrive k' ow tied ki'koole below kilapa'i to return k±m'ta behind kip' ooit-- needle kis'kis to drive kioo' tan horse kla'hane outside kla'hoyam how do you do? klak' sta who klas'ka they kla'twa or kla'tawa to go klis-kes —mats K kloo'chmin or kloo'chman kloo'na's kene'm or canim •— kola'n kom'tax or kumf tux^  ko'pa kope't — -woman -perhaps -canoe -ear, hear -to know -at, in, to -finished or only koyokoya —finger r kwash ••—afraid kwa1ten- •—belly kwe' nam •—five kwa'itz or nain •—nine kha' w • •—tied kla'haw yam —poor kol — •—cold koo'li—— —to walk ko'pa i'lep —at first kah kah • —here and there kanawe kah —everywhere ki'wa —because keh' tsi • although kwi j'kwi j -squirrel (56) K kapo overcoat kat 'chem to catch kayoo 1 t i coyote kwa' t a quar ter L l a ' ket four l e ' l e a l o n g time l e p ' l e p - to b o i l l o ' l o - - t o c a r r y l e ' zi—> •—lazy M m a ' i k a or mika • thou ma'kook to buy mak'mak to eat ma'mook to make or work mash throw away mas a 1 c h i — • bad ma'wich deer memloo's dead m i t l a ' i t to be m i t ' w i t to s tand moos'moos cow moo'soom to s leep msa' i k a you mokst two M mokst t a ' t i l a m — t w e n t y ma'ma mother mamook-haul t o p u l l or h a u l mamook- lap ioche—thinking over moo' l a -mule N n a ' i k a 1, me n i k a n a ' n i c h see n a ' w i t k a —yes n s a ' i k a or n e s i k a • we, us na l l o o k here niwa!-< l e t me see 0 o ' i h a t or wayhut road o ' i h o i to exchange o l a ' l i b e r r i e s o' l o —hungry oo'kook t h i s oo'poots - - h i n d p a r t ow- younger b r o  t h e r 0 i , wondering, oh! o ' p t s a h k n i f e (57) P pa'ya f i r e papoos c h i l d p a s i s ' s i blankets p a t l f u l l p e l - - red p a ' t l a c h t o give pe' l p e l blood p e l h ' ten Insane p i and poo shot poos i f poos'poos w i l d cat p o o l a ' k l e r-night poo 1 l a l e powder pe l h ' te t h i c k p o o ' l i — • r o t t e n pa' pa--- f a t h e r p a t a 1 k potatoes R r a t * r a t geese S sa'hale or s e g ' h a l i e above sa'ya f a r saka' loox pants sa« l i x angry S s a p l e ' l bread s e ' l e - s o u l senmoxt seven s i a ' hoos f a c e sie'sem — t o t e l l sit'kom h a l f skoo' koom s t r o n g sna' z r a i n snow snow o r year s t a ' l o — r i v e r s t i ' w i l h - to pray shem ashamed s i k s i c k sa'waz -sour sa'hale taye God s i a ' p o o l hat s i k s — • — f r i e n d sit'kom t a l a h a l f a d o l l a r so'pena to jump T t a ' h a m — s i x takmo'nak one hundred tamano' az magic tana' z s m a l l tan'ke son yesterday t a ' t i l a m ten (58) T t a ' t i l a m p i mox s t — t w e l v e t a ' t i l a m p i i h t eleven ta'ye or tyee c h i e f te'ke to l i k e teko'p white t e l < t i r e d t e ' likom people tep'so — g r a s s t i k ' t i k watch t i n * t i n h e l l t l a p t o get tla'wa • slowly tlem' en broken tlementlemen --smashed tlemenooit > t e l l a l i e t l e p deep t m b l a c k t l o o n three t l o o n t a ' t i l a m t h i r t y t l o o s • •—good tsem — w r i t i n g t s e ' pe> mistaken t s i sweet t s i k ' t s i k c a r r i a g e t s i l ' t s i l - - s t a r s tema' l o untamed T torn'torn or turn turn to t h i n k , h e a r t t o ' l o to win t a l ' k e son yesterday t a l ' k e warn l a s t summer t a l ' k e snow l a s t w inter t a — no t a ' l a d o l l a r t a ' l a p o s s i l v e r fox tamoo'letj — b a r r e l tetoo* sh m i l k t i a ' w i t l e g s mamook t i a ' w i t — t o walk toma' l o to-morrow to' t o toy too'too a pet cat tseh t o s p l i t W wah • pour out wa'wa to speak weht again wek no warn warm wahpoos •—snake wap' toes potatoes (59) Y yoot.'l g l a d y o o l 'kat l o n g ya'ka he, she yah* soot h a i r ya' kwa here ya'wa there ya'yem t o t a l k The r e l i g i o u s words i n the jargon l i s t e d by Father Le Jeune as being i n common use are as f o l l o w s : B l i s s chok — — H o l y water C a t h o l i c s t i w i l h C a t h o l i c Church J e s u - k r i Jesus C h r i s t Klis'mas Christmas La confirmasio — c o n f i r m a t i o n L a kroa' • Gross >ss La Mass •-—- Holy Mass La Noel N a t i v i t y La p e l i t a s •—• penance Le Batem baptism Le chapelet - r o s a r y Le k a l i s t i Holy E u c h a r i s t Le kat e t a •—-Smher days Le carem — Lent L e g l i z • • the church Le m a l i a j Matrimony La Kroa' o'ihat -¥ay of the Cros (60) L ' a u t e l the a l t a r Le Pape the Pope Le peche • s i n Le p l e t the p r i e s t Les anges angels Les apot the Apostles Les evek— the Bishop L' estlem-osio Extreme Unction L ' o r d • — H o l y Orders M a l i medal Mi st e l l mystery Pak or paska S a s t e r Sakr amenta • 'Sacrament s Ste. T r i n i t e Holy T r i n i t y T l o os M a r i — - • Holy Mary Le v i j i l V i g i l s Ay as son Feast day In order t o give the reader an idea of the amazing f l e x i  b i l i t y and power of expression of t h e Chinook jargon, an adap t a t i o n of the f i r s t and second chapters of Genesis f o l l o w s , with E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n . ( 4^) Ankate Sahale Taye mamook sahale elehe Long ago Heaven's L o r d made the above l a n d p i ookook elehe; kopet chok p i p o o l a k l e and t h i s e a r t h ; only water and darkness m i t l a i t kopa ookook .elehe; p i Sahale Taye were on t h i s earth; and God (42) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Chinook rudiments, May 3, 1924, pp. 21, 22. (61) wawa: sa i d : "Tloos "Let chako come l i g h t ! " l i g h t !" Ayak chako At once came l i g h t l i g h t kopa on the mamook made sahale. above. sky, sky, smoke, kopa on the i h t f i r s t ookook the Yawa There elehe. Sahale Taye e a r t h . God son. Moxt son day. The second day sky nsaika sky which we mamook made Sahale Taye God kakwa that n s a i k a we chako come bloo blue sky. sky. P i Then chako comes snaz, l i k e clouds, r a i n , snow, snow, ayaz snaz, h a i l , nanich see komtax ' to know wind, wind, p i and kopa up t l o o s good sahale smoke- ookook that haha pay a kopa awful l i g h t n i n g up wawa kakwa poos nois e as i f t h e sahale, above, p i and skookoom t e r r i b l e poo ayoo ayaz musket, shooting of many b i g guns. T l o o n son The t h i r d day chok kanawe the waters a l l Sahale Taye God mamook made klatwa go kanamoxt together elehe; l a n d ; ayoo 1ek, the l a k e s , kakwa so nsaika we p i and t l a p have chako d l a i come out the dry s a l chok, the ocean, st a l o , r i v e r s , k o o l i chok, streams , t om wat a, w a t e r f a l l s , chako chok klahane s p r i n g i n g water out of e l ehe, t i n e n t s, ainam elehe, the i s l a n d s , kopa the st one s, stones, elehe; ground; weht a l s o p i and p i and ayaz the con- l a motai. mountains. Kopa Prom elehe yaka mamook the earth He made chako tepso, grow herbs s t i k , woods, spakram flowers mitooit s t i k , o l a l i s t i k , p i kanawe t l o o s standing t r e e s , f r u i t t r e e s , and a l l kinds of goo P i and t l o o s good o l a l i . f r u i t . (62) Laket son The f o u r t h day Sahale Taye God mamook made sun, moon, the sun, moon, p i and t s i l t s i l . s t a r s . Kakwa So n s a i k a we t l a p have tanaz son, morning, sitkom son, noon, memloos son, sunset, p o o l a k l e , n i g h t , sitkom p o o l a k l e . mi dnight. A c l e a r and d e f i n i t e means of communication with t h e Indians was e s s e n t i a l i f a mis s i o n a r y hoped t o win and to hold t h e i r esteem and a f f e c t i o n . Knowing that t h e i r work was l i k e l to he l a r g e l y i n e f f e c t i v e without easy communication, most of the e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s set about l e a r n i n g the Ghinook jargon. We have seen how Bishop D u r i e u provided h i s two young r e c r u i t s Fathers Le Jeune and Chi r o u s e , with a Chinook vocabulary befor they a r r i v e d i n t h i s country. Even with a thorough knowledge of Chinook, however, many p i t f a l l s beset the missionary i n preaching t o the Indians. A common procedure was f o r the p r i e s t to speak t o an i n t e r p r e t e r i n Chinook, and the l a t t e r would then attempt t o put the mess age i n t o the Indian d i a l e c t . Under t h i s method there was always the r i s k that the i n t e r p r e t e r c o u l d not or would not t r a n s l a t e the p r i e s t ' s message p r o p e r l y . Rather than appear not t o have grasped the meaning, the i n t e r p r e t e r would f r e  quently t e l l h i s l i s t e n e r s something not pert i n e n t to the sermon at a l l . A l s o , the t r a n s l a t i o n of Ghinook word f o r word gave a queer, mechanical meaning c a r r y i n g very l i t t l e sense t o the l i s t e n e r s . Father Le Jeune c o l l e c t e d several anecdotes of embarr assing s i t u a t i o n s i n which some of h i s f e l l o w - p r i e s t s found (63) themselves when dependent e n t i r e l y upon the s e r v i c e s of an i n t e r p r e t e r . One wanted t o make the Indians understand that our L o r d l i v e d many years i n Nazareth with Mary and Joseph. The Chinook word f o r "year" i s "snow," which ?,rord has two meanings i n the jargon. The i n t e r p r e t e r took one meaning f o r the other and t o l d t h e Indians that t h e r e was p l e n t y of snow at Nazareth! Another s a i d that he was very much o b l i g e d to a C a p t a i n John f o r some valuable s e r v i c e s and that he was going to give him a "chapelet," which means "prayer beads." The i n t e r p r e t e r mistook the word "chapelet" f o r " s a p l e l " and t o l d the Indians that the p r i e s t was going t o g i v e C a p t a i n John a sack of f l o u r ! A t h i r d missionary wanted t o give the Indians an idea of the triumphal e n t r y of our L o r d i n t o Jerusalem on Palm Sunday. Our L o r d sat on an ass; but what was that? The Indians had never seen such an animal; the nearest t h i n g t o i t they knew of was a horse, so the p r i e s t said that our Lord sat upon something that resembled a horse, yet was not a horse. The i n t e r p r e t e r s a i d t o the Indians: "He sat on something l i k e a horse, but not a horse; i t must have been a mare then!" Father Le Jeune's t i m e l y advice f o r the avoidance o f such s i t u a t i o n s as the above was t h e simple one of having the p r i e s t always spend a few minutes with the i n t e r p r e t e r before the ser mon or i n s t r u c t i o n i n order t o make sure that the l a t t e r under stood beforehand what he was go,ing t o i n t e r p r e t . ( 4 3 ) (43) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, v o l . 7, no. 6, June, 1898, p. 84. ( 64) The f a c t that Father Le Jeune was extremely d i s t r u s t f u l of the r e l i a b i l i t y of i n t e r p r e t e r s may have been one i n c e n t i v e f o r him t o become a master of I n d i a n d i a l e c t s - Right from the out set of h i s missionary career he h e l d to the b e l i e f t h a t i n order to become thoroughly conversant w i t h I n d i a n ways and manners, i t was necessary f o r the missionary to l e a r n the Indian language i t s e l f . H i s success i n the l i n g u i s t i c f i e l d was note worthy, and he became one of the few m i s s i o n a r i e s (Father Morice was another) who c o u l d preach from the p u l p i t i n the various I n d i a n d i a l e c t s . L a t e i n h i s l i f e he humourously t o l d the Kamloops Rotary Club how "he c o u l d swear i n twenty-two languages," and went on t o "bewilder h i s l i s t e n e r s with a t r e a t i s e on etymology which backed up h i s r e p u t a t i o n as a man of p a r t s . " < 4 4) In any event, Father Le Jeune was entrusted with the com p i l a t i o n and e d i t i n g of the p r a y e r s and catechism i n at l e a s t eight d i f f e r e n t I n d i a n d i a l e c t s — S h u s w a p , S t a l o , Squamish, S e c h e l t , Slayamen, L i l l o o e t , Thompson, and Okanagan. T h i s work took a l l h i s f r e e time f o r a year and r e s u l t e d i n 550 pages of phonetic s c r i p t , the equivalent of 2,200 pages i n longhand. A Chinook and E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , along with the L a t i n p r a y e r s f o r Mass, completed the P o l y g l o t manual of prayers i n eleven languages, p u b l i s h e d i n the year 1896. T h i s manual was compiled by Father Le Jeune to f i t into a p l a n drawn up by Bishop Durieu.- Among the l a t t e r ' s papers could (44) "Pioneers of c i t y and d i s t r i c t honoured," Kamloops S e n t i n e l . 29 December, 1922, p. 1. . (65) "be found a prayer i n the S t a l o language, a chapter of catechism i n S e c h e l t , and a hymn i n Squamish. I t was a b i g undertaking to f i n d and c l a s s i f y the m a t e r i a l . Bishop Durieu gave every a s s i s t a n c e i n the work, sending to Father Le Jeune Indians from each t r i b e who were the most p r o f i c i e n t i n t h e i r p r a y e r s and catechism. Father Le Jeune t e l l s of some of the work i n h i s own words: I a r r i v e d at New Westminster one evening i n the month of March, 1896, to do the work i n the S t a l o language. The Bishop had brought two or three Indians of that t r i b e who knew t h e i r p r a y e r s and catechism, and lodged and f e d them a l l the time that I needed them. The f i r s t day was employed i n l e a r n i n g a l l they knew; I made them r e c i t e t h e i r p r a y e r s one a f t e r the o t h e r — f o r instance the 'Our Father.' While they r e c i t e d I took i t down i n shorthand; i f I missed some words I l e f t spaces and then I made them repeat the prayer from the beginning because you c o u l d not stop them i n the m i d d l e — they would only get a l l mixed up. At the end of t h e day I had the t e x t of t h e i r p r a y e r s and the catechism. Two or three more days were spent i n r e v i s i n g and p e r f e c t i n g the t e x t ; I c o u l d then stop them wherever i t was necessary, because I had the w r i t t e n text from the f i r s t day. They were very much s u r p r i s e d to hear me read and pronounce t h e i r language a c c u r a t e l y . (45) L a t e r that same year Father Le Jeune went to d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the c o u n t r y — t o Squamish, t o Sechelt and t o L i l l o o e t — to do the same work i n t h e other languages. At the end of the year the manual of p r a y e r s i n eleven languages was completed. Each of the 550 pages was then w r i t t e n i n i n d e l i b l e ink i n l a r g e phonetic s c r i p t , which was reproduced by photogravure and reduced by h a l f f o r the p r i n t i n g p l a t e s . T h i s work cost about (45) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa. E d i t i o n FranCaise, March, 1916, pp. 205, 206. (66) one thousand dollars. ^46) Father George Forbes, 0. M. I. , who knew Father Le Jeune intimately,, and who was associated with him on the missions for a year during 1928, says: "Father Le Jeune was a very apt student and a genius. When something interested him, he would not give up until he had mastered i t . " This was true particularly of Father Le Jeune's linguistic studies and achievements. In support of his statement Father Forbes cites the interest taken by Father Le Jeune when the latter discovered that several Shuswap and Hebrew words had a similar sound and meaning. At that time he knew l i t t l e Hebrew and so, in order to pursue his investigations further, he set to work to learn that language. As a result of his studies, Father Le Jeune claimed that he found in the f i r s t three pages of the Bible at least seventy-two Hebrew words alike or almost alike Indian words of the same meaning. (4®) (46) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, Edit ion FranQaise, March, 1916, pp. 205, 206, 207. (47) Forbes, Rev. George, 0. M. I., letter to writer, 16 October, 1947. (48) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, Edit ion Franoaise, August, 1915, p. 37. (67) S e c t i o n of Indian v i l l a g e on Deadman's Creek reserve. (68) CHAPTER IV. FATHER LE JEUNE AS A MISSIONARY • From his headquarters at Kamloops Father Le Jeune tr a  velled thousands of miles over a l l kinds of roads and t r a i l s to carry on his missionary a c t i v i t i e s . In the heat of summer and the cold of winter visitations were made regularly to the various Indian hands of his d i s t r i c t . In addition to the regu lar circuit c a l l s , special visits to scattered points were fre quently made upon the occasions of sickness and death. A study of his itinerary for the f i r s t quarter of the year 1893 shows some of the places he visited regularly and indicates the amount of doubling back necessary to keep his stated appoint ments. (49^ January 1—8- Douglas Lake January 9 Quilchena January 10—13 -Harnette Lake January 14—22 Coldwater January 23 Coutlie January 24 Spence's Bridge January 25—27 Kamloops January 28—February 2 Spuzzum February 3—7 North Bend February 8—10 • Kamloops February 11—12 • Lytton February 13—25 Kamloops February 26—March- 5 North Thompson (49) See map p. 39. (69) Indian cemetery at Deadman's Creek. (TO) March 6—14 •Kamloops March 15—19- Savona March 20—23 Kamloops March 2 4 — 3 1 Shuswap Several of the p l a c e s mentioned above are on the main l i n e of t h e Canadian P a c i f i c Railway and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n between them i s r e l a t i v e l y easy. Others i n v o l v e d t r i p s of many mi l e s by road or t r a i l . Shuswap i s l o c a t e d t h i f t y - f i v e m i l e s east of Kamloops and the t h r e e I n d i a n r e s e r v e s attended by Father Le Jeune i n that v i c i n i t y were l o c a t e d w i t h i n e i g h t or ten miles of the s t a t i o n . The North Thompson camp was l o c a t e d f i f t y m i l e s north of Kamloops and was reached s u c c e s s i v e l y through the years by t r a i l , waggon road and Canadian National Railway. From Kamloops a waggon road went south to Quilchena, f i f t y m i l es, thence eastward to Douglas Lake, f i f t e e n m i l e s . ^ 5 ( ^ Twenty-five miles west of Quilchena l a y the Coldwater r e s e r v e . From Coldwater the d i s t a n c e by road to Spence's Bridge was f i f t y miles and t o Savona s i x t y m i l e s . The journey west from Kamloops to Savona by r a i l i s twenty-five m i l e s . From Savona a t r a i l or rough waggon road l e d t o the Deadman's Creek Indian camp, ten miles away. Ten m i l e s n o r t h of A s h c r o f t , on the Bonaparte R i v e r , there was a settlement of Indians which was a l s o regu l a r l y v i s i t e d by Father Le Jeune. His t r i p s i n t h i s neighbour hood a l s o took him to C l i n t o n and High Bar, the l a t t e r p l a c e twenty-five miles west of C l i n t o n . A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of some of (5$)) See map p. 39. i l l ) I t W 4 - S N I C O L A H A M l L T O N C R E E K I N D I A N L A K E I N D I A N Map of Nicola and Douglas Lake Indian reserves Scale: 2 miles to 1 inch (72) the journeys made-by Father Le Jeune w i l l give us a keener i n  sight i n t o the d i f f i c u l t i e s and hardships he o f t e n had t o endure, and furthermore w i l l o u t l i n e i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l the type of work he c a r r i e d on among h i s Indian charges. On January 4, 1894, he l e f t Kamloops f o r the south and f 51) experienced f i n e weather but heavy s l e i g h i n g . W J - ' Spending eight days between Douglas Lake and Quilchena, he found 160 Indians so anxious to improve that they kept together a l l that time and were very assiduous i n attending the meetings appoin t e d f o r them, both i n the church and i n t h e meeting rooms. The 160 Indians of these two p l a c e s were made up of about e i g h t y at Douglas Lake and a s i m i l a r number at t h e mouth of the N i c o l a R i v er on N i c o l a Lake, f i v e m iles north of Quilchena. Mamette Lake i s a l s o i n t h i s d i s t r i c t , but the p o p u l a t i o n here was s c a t t e r e d . Most of these I n d i a n s , who spoke the Okanagan d i a l e c t , were descendants of the o l d C h i e f , L o u i s N i c o l a S h i l h i t s a , who was s t i l l l i v i n g when Father Le Jeune a r r i v e d i n the N i c o l a country i n the year 1882. As a matter of f a c t , Father Le Jeune had baptized him on January 6, 1883, j u s t a year before h i s death at the advanced age of ninety y e a r s . Old C h i e f S h i l h i t s a had had no l e s s than twelve wives and descendants to the number of seventy-nine. He was a f i n e look ing I n d i a n of magnificent bearing and appearance, and was (51) Inland S e n t i n e l , F r i d a y , March 9, 1894. (52) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n FranQaise, August, 1915,,p. 39. (73) favourably looked upon and respected "by the early settlers in the country. He was very intelligent and knew how to guard his rights and those of the other Indians. "The whites are looking ( 5 1 for the slightest excuse to seize our lands," he used to say.v Chief Louis Nicola was succeeded by Basile, one of his younger sons. Basile was, however, k i l l e d in a drunken brawl just a year after he was elevated to the position of chief. An election was then held in the band, and the resulting choice for chief f e l l upon Johnny Shilhitsa, otherwise known as Celestin. The latter embarked upon a programme of improvements on both the Douglas Lake and Quilchena reserves. The f i r s t thing Celestin undertook after his appointment as chief was to build a church at Douglas Lake, and in less than two years a neat l i t t l e chapel stood at a distance of f i f t y yards from his house. A steeple was soon added to the church and a four hundred pound bell placed in i t . One of Father Le Jeune's most enduring monuments in his district is the large number of l i t t l e chapels where the Indians meet for divine worship. He was instrumental in en couraging the Indians to erect many of these churches and to furnish them with taste and discrimination. In the. year 1894 a second church was completed by Celes tin and his band on their lower reserve north of Quilchena. This was the Church of Our Lady of Lourdes, a neat l i t t l e building twenty feet by forty feet, costing nearly two thousand dollars, with a six hundred pound bell in the steeple and a very (53) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, Edition Francaise, August, 1915, p. 41. * ' (74) Indian church, o.uilchena, B. C . (75) expressive statue of Our Lady of Lourdes above the a l t a r . ^ 5 4 ^ On January 15, 1894, Father Le Jeune l e f t Quilchena and went t o Ooldwater, where eight more days were spent among 120 n a t i v e s . T h e i r r o u t i n e c a l l e d f o r r i s i n g at 6 A. M. f o r morn ing s e r v i c e s at 7 and 8 o'clock; then time was g i v e n f o r house h o l d work u n t i l 11 o'clock, when the h e l l c a l l e d them t o the meeting house f o r a three-hour s e s s i o n . T h i s p e r i o d was opened with s i n g i n g and was f o l l o w e d hy the reading of a chap t e r of Chinook and the reading and e x p l a i n i n g of the same i n the n a t i v e language. Then came a l e s s o n of Catechism i n the na t i v e language, and the gathering ended i n s e t t l i n g any d i s  putes that may have a r i s e n among the Indians. At 2 P. M. time was g i v e n f o r dinner u n t i l 5 P. M. when there was evening ser v i c e u n t i l 6 o'clock. At 8 o'clock another general s e s s i o n was h e l d f o r the same purposes as the one at 11 o'clock. Twenty years before t h i s , Coldwater had been merely a hunting ground. I t was f i r s t s e t t l e d by an Indian, Paul S a t c h i e , who came there with h i s f a m i l y from Boston Bar f o r the purpose of r e a r i n g horses, t i l l i n g the s o i l , and p r o c u r i n g a more c e r t a i n means of l i v e l i h o o d than the f i s h and game on which they formerly had to r e l y f o r sustenance. Paul had another object i n view, too, which was to make C h r i s t i a n s of those people who accompanied him. He set a sp l e n d i d example of good l i v i n g to h i s people. He was always opposed to the (54) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. P., Kamloops Wawa, June, 1901, p. 19. (55) Inland S e n t i n e l , F r i d a y , March 9, 1894. Map of the Coldwater and Nicola—Mamit Indian reserves Scale: 2 miles to 1 i n c h (77) Tamanoaz, or Medicine Men, and d i d a l l he cou l d to d i m i n i s h t h e i r i n f l u e n c e over h i s people. I t was he who s t a r t e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the f i r s t church at ColdYfater and b u i l t i t near l y a l l h i m s e l f . I n h i s younger days he had accompanied and guided many p a r t i e s of surveyors and expl o r e r s . L i e u t . Gov. Dewdney and Judge O ' R e i l l y had him i n t h e i r company during t h e i r p i o n e e r excursions through the country and h e l d him i n hig h esteem. I n the year 1868 he had accompanied Bishop D'Herbomez from Yale on h i s e x p e d i t i o n i n t o the Cariboo. (^6) Leaving Coldwater on January 23, 1894, f o r the r e t u r n journey t o Kamloops, Father Le Jeune found the former group he had v i s i t e d at Quilchena s t i l l i n s t r u c t i n g each other on the l e s s o n s begun at the f i r s t meeting. A f t e r spending three days at Kamloops engaged i n i s s u i n g the Kamloops Wawa f o r February, the p r i e s t went to Spuzzum, where over f i f t y people were gathered f o r t h e i r l e s s o n s . Here three or four young men be came so e n t h u s i a s t i c that they spent three whole n i g h t s r e  p e a t i n g the l e s s o n s of the day. The time between February 2 and February 9 was spent at Spuzzum, between February 10 and February 15 at North Bend, between February 20 and February 26 at Bonaparte, and between March 2 and March 7 at Deadman's Creek. P r a c t i c a l l y the same procedure as that c a r r i e d out at Coldwater was f o l l o w e d i n each of these p l a c e s . Upon h i s r e t u r n t o Kamloops,, Father Le Jeune was g r a t i f i e d (56) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, J u l y , 1895, p. 97. (78) to f i n d that the c h i e f there had h i s Indians assembled every night from 7 to 10 o'clock as a r e g u l a r school. Here some had made such progress as to be able t o correspond i n the E n g l i s h language among themselves and with people of the other bands. Bonaparte I n d i a n v i l l a g e was considered by Father Le Jeune as "perhaps the most miserable v i l l a g e i n the whole country, at l e a s t i n the whole of t h i s d i s t r i c t . " ( 5 8 ) He had viewed the Bonaparte camp f o r the f i r s t time i n February, 1883, and i t had changed very l i t t l e i n the i n t e r v e n i n g years. The houses or huts of the 180 i n h a b i t a n t s were b u i l t on a s l i d e of sand and rocks washed flown from a mountain by one of those t o r r e n t i a l rainstorms which c a r r y a l l before them i n t h e i r passage, and which cover the landscape with a t h i c k l a y e r of g r a v e l and stones. Most of the houses of the v i l l a g e c o n s i s t e d of o l d cabins belonging to the e a r l y miners. Father Le Jeune had seen the Bonaparte Indian v i l l a g e two or three times i n passing during the years 1883, 1885, and 1890. I t f e l l t o h i s l o t to v i s i t i t r e g u l a r l y from the year 1895 on. I n the e a r l y days and up t o the year 1900, the people had a very p r i m i t i v e type of church. I t was simply a c a b i n s i m i l a r t o the houses of t h e Indians, complete with d i r t r o o f , and patched here and th e r e with o l d timbers. I n the year 1900, at Father Le Jeune's i n s t i g a t i o n , the i n h a b i t a n t s b u i l t a new church f a i r l y s u i t a b l e f o r the v i l l a g e . But they f a i l e d t o (57) Inland S e n t i n e l , F r i d a y , March 9, 1894. (58) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n F ranchise, A p r i l , 1916, p. 212. (79) Indian c h u r c h at Deadman's Creek reserve. (80) provide any room for the priest, who was forced to accommodate himself for twelve years in a part of the old church, now re duced in size to a space about three yards square with just room for a bed, table, stove and three v i s i t o r s , more or less. Upon the occasion of one of Father Le Jeune's visits to Bonaparte in the year 1896, most of the villagers were assembled in the largest house (that of the chief) for a lesson in Cate chism. An Indian came running to t e l l the priest that a big rattlesnake was in the next house coiled beside a young child who was reaching out to try to grasp the snake by the neck. The Catechism meeting broke up in some disorder when everybody ran to see the snake, which someone had by this time pulled away from the child and outside. "What shall we do with the snake?" the Indians asked Father Le Jeune. " K i l l i t , of course," he replied. "But Father Le Jacq told us that i t was not good to k i l l a rattlesnake—that i t s mate would always return to avenge its death." "Very well," responded Father Le Jeune, " i f its mate comes, you will k i l l it also." Strange to say, the next day the Indians k i l l e d another snake which was crawling behind the same house. Due east of Bonaparte, and ten miles north of Savona, lay the Deadman's Creek Indian reserve. Deadman's Creek, or the "River of the Dead," owed its name to the fact that tradition Map of Deadman's Greek Indian reserve Scale: 2 miles to 1 i n c h (82) claimed that there.had been s e v e r a l drownings among the e a r l i e s t t r a v e l l e r s i n t h i s s e c t i o n when they t r i e d to c r o s s t h i s t r e a c h  erous stream without adequate p r e p a r a t i o n . The Indians c a l l e d t h e i r r i v e r " S k i - j i s - t e n " and t h e i r v i l l a g e " S - h i - a i n - o u e l - l i h , " which means "a bend i n the r i v e r . " The i n h a b i t a n t s of t h i s reserve s u b s i s t e d by farming the bottom lands a d j o i n i n g the r i v e r . The p o p u l a t i o n of the v i l l a g e had changed l i t t l e s i n c e the year 1880, and by the year 1915 c o n s i s t e d of about 120 men, women, and c h i l d r e n . Father Le Jeune observed that i n the e a r l y days t h e r e had been several drunkards among the band. (59) F o r t u n a t e l y , these had p r e t t y w e l l d i e d o f f , and the younger gen e r a t i o n , having witnessed the i l l e f f e c t s of over-indulgence i n whiskey, were not so i n c l i n e d t o f o l l o w i n the f o o t s t e p s of the deceased. T h e i r church was b u i l t i n the year 1909 and i s s t i l l i n use. I t was l a r g e and w e l l equipped. Indians now l i v i n g on Deadman's Creek reserve t o l d t he author (October, 1947) that when Father Le Jeune f i r s t v i s i t e d them he always t r a v e l l e d from Savona on f o o t or on horseback, there being no waggon road at t h a t time. The t r a n s i t i o n be tween the o l d and the new i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n methods came i n the month of June, 1915. On t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t r i p Father Le Jeune was met at Savona on Thursday, June 11, by o l d Chief Thomas, who came by waggon to tr a n s p o r t him t o the v i l l a g e . On Monday, (59) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, B d i t i o n Franoalse, J u l y , 1915, p . 26. (83) June 14, when the p r i e s t was ready t o leave he had a pleasant s u r p r i s e . An automobile a r r i v e d from Savona t o get him. T h i s f i r s t car to t r a v e l over t h e Deadman's Creek road was d r i v e n by Mr. George T u n s t a l l , a son of Judge T u n s t a l l of Kamloops. ^ 6 0 ^ The North Thompson I n d i a n r e s e r v e , with a p o p u l a t i o n of approximately 150, was s i t u a t e d f i f t y m i l e s n o r t h o f Kamloops. On December 1, 1898, two young Indians from that d i s t r i c t came t o Kamloops t o take Father Le Jeune up to t h e i r r e s e r v e . They s t a r t e d on F r i d a y morning, December 2, and a c o l d s l e i g h r i d e i t was from morning t o n i g h t , f o r they a r r i v e d there at 9 P. M. Three days were b u s i l y spent by the p r i e s t , the r e s u l t being- n i n e t y - f i v e c onfessions and f i f t y - f i v e communions. Another c o l d s l e i g h r i d e of f i f t y m i l e s i n e i g h t hours brought the p r i e s t back t o Kamloops on December 6, to spend the Feast of the Immaculate Conception at the In d i a n reserve t h e r e . One year l a t e r , on November 30, 1899, C h i e f Andrew, of the North Thompson reserve, came to Kamloops f o r the p r i e s t — t h i s time with horses and buggy. They s t a r t e d out the next morning about 10 o'clock, hoping to reach L o u i s Creek the same day, a distance of t h i r t y - s i x m i l e s . But t h e i r horses proved to be slow, and the road very s o f t , so they were overtaken by dusk te n m i l e s from t h e i r intended d e s t i n a t i o n . F i n a l l y they came t o a very muddy p l a c e i n the road and were tempted to get down from (60) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n F r a n c a i s e , J u l y , 1915, p. 26. (61) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, December, 1898, p. 3. (84) the buggy to look f o r the road. But i t was so muddy that they c o u l d not have drawn t h e i r shoes back i f they had attempted to walk i n t h a t mud. By u r g i n g on t h e i r horses they t r a v e l l e d an a d d i t i o n a l two m i l e s , h a r d l y knowing whether they were on or o f f the road. F i n a l l y , some l i g h t s began to show up i n the distance and these proved to be the f i r e s of a few Indians who were on a hunting e x p e d i t i o n . The t r a v e l l e r s were g l a d to stay with them f o r the n i g h t . There were f o u r t e n t s touching each other and p i t c h e d around a square which served as a common f i r e p l a c e . The weather was not very c o l d , so they were able to sleep without much d i f f i c u l t y . I n the morning the Indians set up an a l t a r with boxes, and Mass was c e l e b r a t e d i n the open spaces before t h e i r tents*. Proceeding on t h e i r journey, the p r i e s t and C h i e f Andrew reached L o u i s Creek about noon and the North Thompson Indian r e s e r v e , twelve m i l e s f u r t h e r on, about t n , (62) three o c l o c k . The Shuswap reserves were reached from Shuswap s t a t i o n on the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, t h i r t y - f i v e miles east of Kamloops. There were here three bands, the Upper Shuswap or Kwowt Indians, the Shuswap Centre or Shehkaltkmah Indians, and the Lower Shu swap or Halowt Indians. The Kwowt band was composed of about se v e n t y - f i v e persons. T h e i r l i t t l e church, dedicated to the Apostles S t . Peter and St. P a u l , was s i t u a t e d about h a l f a mile above the head of L i t t l e Shuswap Lake and d i r e c t l y opposite S q u i l a x S i d i n g on the (62) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, December, 1899, pp. 129—132. (85) L l T T L C S H U S w j * ^ l - A K t |. ft. N O \ K W O W T JNPIOir* VILLK •J "^!lTTv4 S H U S W / V P c A^ J i l | . « NO. U- SMfc'HKAl.TMIM^' INDIAN VIL.LA'V' V V A D A M S LAK6/ j < H A L O - Mi IT Map of the Shuswap Indian reserves Scale: 2 miles to 1 inch (86) r a i l w a y . I t had been b u i l t by the Indians themselves under Father Le Jeune's guidance at a cost of some f i f t e e n hundred d o l l a r s . I n order t o meet the expense of the b u i l d i n g , the e n e r g e t i c c h i e f of the r e s e r v e , F r a n c o i s Shilpahan, had employed h i s men i n c u t t i n g down timber and s e l l i n g It t o the sawmills nearby. The church at Shuswap Centre, dedicated t o St. Helen and the Holy Cross, was l o c a t e d a few m i l e s west of Kwowt at the f o o t of L i t t l e Shuswap Lake, and was the r e l i g i o u s centre f o r some 150 Indians. I t was a l o g b u i l d i n g , f i f t y f e e t by twenty- f i v e f e e t i n s i z e , and had been opened since J u l y , 1892. Approximately 150 Indians l i v e d near th e Halowt or Lower Shuswap church, which was d e d i c a t e d to S t . M i c h e l , and s i t u a t e d one and one-half m i l e s west of Shuswap s t a t i o n . I t was of frame c o n s t r u c t i o n , seventy-six f e e t long by twenty f e e t wide, with a transept f o r t y - f o u r f e e t by twenty f e e t . The sanctuary took up s i x t e e n f e e t by twenty f e e t and the v e s t r y , or p r i e s t ' s apartment, w i t h a p r i v a t e room u p s t a i r s , was a l s o s i x t e e n f e e t by twenty f e e t i n s i z e . T h i s chapel a l s o had been e r e c t e d by the Indians and was o f f i c i a l l y opened on November 4, 1894. (63) A f i v e hundred pound b e l l from the Meneely B e l l Foundry, of Troy, New York, was set i n the s t e e p l e . Funds f o r the construc t i o n of t h i s church were r a i s e d by the Indians, who s o l d f i r e  wood i n the c i t y of Kamloops. A mutual agreement was reached among the able bodied men of the hand that each would make up (63) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, May, 1895, p. 65. (87) f i v e cords of wood f o r t h i s purpose. . I t was Father Le Jeune's usual custom to arrange h i s i t i n e r a r y i n such a way that the i n t e r v a l between Christmas and New Year would he spent at the Kamloops I n d i a n reserve. T h i s was h i s procedure during that p e r i o d i n the year 1894, when about 550 Indians gathered at Kamloops f o r r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c  t i o n . The p o p u l a t i o n of the Kamloops reserve numbered about 250, but on t h i s o c c a s i o n several v i s i t o r s from neighbouring reserves had a r r i v e d f o r the h o l i d a y season. Those t a k i n g p a r t i n the r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n were kept t o a s t r i c t schedule as f o l l o w s : at 6 A. M., r i s i n g ; from 7 to 8, morning p r a y e r s , Holy Mass and i n s t r u c t i o n ; from 8 t o 10:50, breakfast and household work; from 10:30 A. M. t o 1:30 P. M., meeting i n the Catechism house; 1:30 t o 5, l e i s u r e hour f o r dinner and out-door work; from 5 t o 6:30, Rosary, night p r a y e r s , Benedic t i o n and sermon; 6:30 to 8, supper time; 8 to 10:30, second meeting i n the Catechism house; 11, bed time. The time at the meetings i n the Catechism house was spent i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: i n a r e v i s i o n or r e p e t i t i o n of the i n s t r u c t i o n ; r eading, t r a n s l a t i n g and e x p l a i n i n g a chapter of the Old or New Testament p u b l i s h e d i n the Kamloops Wawa; study i n g , i n groups of two, three, or f o u r , another chapter or two from the Kamloops Wawa; e x p l a i n i n g a few questions of Catechism; p r a c t i s i n g some k i n d of chant or music; w r i t i n g or copying some p o r t i o n s of the m a t e r i a l s r e v i s e d during the meeting. (64) (64) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa. v o l . 4, no. 3, March, 1895, p. 33. (88) Close view of c h u r c h , Kamloor>s Indian reserve. (89) Up to the year 1900 the Indians on the Kamloops reserve used an o l d l o g church as t h e i r p l a c e of worship. I n that year t h i s b u i l d i n g was t o r n down and c o n s t r u c t i o n begun on a l a r g e frame church. The s e r v i c e s of a good carpenter were secured by Father Le Jeune, and the Indians worked along under h i s d i  r e c t i o n . At times there were as many as f i f t y Indians working on the new church. By November 10 the b u i l d i n g was f i n i s h e d on the o u t s i d e , the windows and doors were i n t h e i r p l a c e s , and the c e i l i n g was completed on the i n s i d e . At t h i s p o i n t c o n s t r u c t i o n h a l t e d f o r the time being, since the Indians d i d not want to miss t h e i r f a l l hunt fif deer f o r meat. Upon t h e i r r e t u r n a few days' work completed the new church, and opening s e r v i c e s were h e l d on Sunday morning, December 23. (^5) In the course of h i s missionary a c t i v i t i e s i t was Father Le Jeune's experience to l i v e through the famous high water of the year 1894, an event remembered f o r a generation throughout the I n t e r i o r and the lower F r a s e r V a l l e y f o r the inconvenience and d e v a s t a t i o n i t caused. While the annual recurrence of sp r i n g f r e s h e t s on the F r a s e r River and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s o f t e n p l a y havoc with r a i l and road t r a n s p o r t a t i on throughout B r i t i s h Columbia, c o n d i t i o n s were much worse i n the e a r l i e r days of settlement, when road beds and grades were not as w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d as they are to-day. There had been p r e v i o u s years of extremely high water, notably those of 1876 and 1882. "During Father Le Jeune's e a r l y (65) Inland Sent i n e l . F r i d a y , Dec. 28, 1900. (90) t r a v e l s on the Oarihoo Road he was o f t e n amazed to see, h i g h above h i s head, the marks of the h i g h water of t h e 16th of J u l y , 1876. While t r a v e l l i n g from Y a l e to L y t t o n during the f i r s t days of June, 1882, i n company with I n d i a n Jack, of Skuzzy, near Boston Bar, the two remarked upon those high water marks of 1876. L i t t l e d i d they t h i n k that upon t h e i r r e t u r n journey from L y t t o n a week l a t e r the water would be s e v e r a l f e e t higher than those same marks. Yet such was the case, and on June 11, 1882, the water reached i t s p e a k — t h e highest p o i n t ever known to white or I n d i a n up to that time. That same year c o i n c i d e d with one of the l a r g e s t salmon runs ever witnessed i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The F r a s e r R i v e r was l i t e r a l l y f i l l e d with salmon, thousands of them crowding at the sides of the r i v e r as i f t r y i n g to push each other out of the water. I t was- even remarked that one could almost f o r d the r i v e r on salmon backs. Twelve years l a t e r , i n 1894, the h i g h water of 1882 was again exceeded. I n a normal year the r i v e r s of B r i t i s h Colum b i a begin t h e i r annual r i s e during the f i r s t warm days of May. A few c o o l e r days and n i g h t s g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w , having the e f f e c t of checking the r i s e . Thus with a l t e r n a t e hot and c o o l s p e l l s of weather the snow water reaches the ocean without ser i o u s f r e s h e t s . In the year 1894, however, the weather during the spring remained very cool u n t i l past the middle of May. Then an extremely hot s p e l l ensued f o r some weeks, causing a sudden and continuous melting of.the snow i n the mountains. The r e s u l t was that by June 2 the Fraser and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s had already surpassed the h i g h water mark of 1882, with a (91) c o n t i n u a l r i s e even above t h i s p o i n t f o r several days f o l l o w  i n g . The Canadian P a c i f i c Railway s u f f e r e d s e v e r e l y on i t s main l i n e a l l the way from the Rocky Mountains t o t h e P a c i f i c . B ridges were c a r r i e d away, embankments caved i n , tr a c k s were s e v e r a l f e e t under water i n p l a c e s , so that t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d throughout the whole system. I n a d d i t i o n , f o u r bridges on the Thompson R i v e r were c a r r i e d away—those at Savona, A s h c r o f t , Spence's Bridge and L y t t o n . Thousands ©f acres i n the lower Praser V a l l e y were inundated, and the farm ing areas of C h i l l i w a c k , Sumas and Matsqui were one vast l a k e . The high water of 1894 c o i n c i d e d with the v i s i t to the B r i t i s h Columbia missions of the Very Reverend Father S o u i l l i e r , Superior-General of the 0. M. I. t h a t the d i s t i n g u i s h e d v i s i  t o r found upon h i s a r r i v a l must have opened h i s eyes to the d i f f i c u l t i e s sometimes encountered by h i s m i s s i o n a r i e s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . A l e t t e r from the Very Reverend Father reached Kamloops on June 2, announcing h i s a r r i v a l f o r the 16th of the same month. That was the l a s t mail r e c e i v e d at Kamloops u n t i l the eve of h i s a r r i v a l , and l i t t l e d i d the personnel at Kamloops b e l i e v e that t h e i r guest would be w i t h them as scheduled. However, by t h i s time the t r a i n s were beginning t o get through, and the Reverend Superior-General d i d a r r i v e on June 17, only a few hours l a t e , accompanied by Reverend Father An- t o i n e , A s s i s t a a t - G e n e r a l of the Order, and Rev. Father Lacombe. The Indians of Kamloops, having been warned of h i s coming, Map of Kamloops Indian reserve Scale: 2 miles to 1 inch (93) attended i n a body to welcome him the same afternoon. Next day the Reverend Father went to v i s i t the I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , the journey having to he made i n a canoe since the road was s t i l l s e v e r a l f e e t under water. On Tuesday the 19th a v i s i t was made t o the o l d m i s s i o n house nearby. Some days befor§, t h i s b u i l d i n g had looked somewhat l i k e Noah's Ark, with water s i x f e e t deep a l l around i t and with even a few inches of the f l o o r submerged. T h i s day the t r i p was attempted by c a r r i a g e , but i n s e v e r a l p l a c e s and p a r t i c u l a r l y one slough which had t o be c r o s s e d , the water was so deep that the d i s t i n g u i s h e d guest had to stand on the seat of the c a r r i a g e to escape a complete wet t i n g . On June 21 a v i s i t was made t o the Kamloops I n d i a n r e s e r v e , For t h i s purpose a boat was taken at a short distance from the r a i l w a y track i n town and the p a r t y paddled o f f t o the end of the main s t r e e t i n the Indian v i l l a g e . A week e a r l i e r they could have gone with t h e i r boat through the main str e e t and landed on the steps at the f r o n t door of the Indian church. Accompanied by Father Le Jeune, Very Reverend Father S o u i l l i e r and h i s p a r t y l e f t Kamloops at 11 P. M. on the even ing of June 21, connections with the west having been opened by the r a i l w a y . They a r r i v e d at North Bend on time the next morning at 7 A. M. There a delay of some hours was experienced, but they reached Yale by noon and Gat's Landing (now K a t z , B. G.) by 2 P. M. At t h i s p o i n t they were o b l i g e d to leave the t r a i n and continue t h e i r journey by steamer, a r r i v i n g at St. Mary's M i s s i o n about 7 o'clock i n the evening. From the steamer they (94) could view the I n d i a n churches and the houses on the hank as they approached. These b u i l d i n g s , l o c a t e d then on the lower reaches, had a l l been p a r t i a l l y submerged a few days e a r l i e r by the high water. Upon l a n d i n g , the p a r t y was informed that at the T s e l e z Indian v i l l a g e a few Sundays before, the Indians had gone to church i n t h e i r canoes. There they had been compelled to kneel i n s i x inches of water while they chanted t h e i r s e r v i c e , as t h e i r brass band p l a y e d the tunes from the canoes outside the windows. (66) A journey undertaken by Father Le Jeune during the summer of the f o l l o w i n g year, 1895, took him through the w i l d uncharted country between Kamloops and W i l l i a m ' s Lake. He l e f t Kamloops on June 28, and reached L o u i s Greek the same evening. The next day he a r r i v e d at the North Thompson I n d i a n r e s e r v e , where the whole band was assembled f o r Sunday. On Monday, J u l y 1, he s t a r t e d out on horseback, accompanied by C h i e f Andrew and two dozen of h i s people, and rode about ten miles north t o a p l a c e c a l l e d L i t t l e Ford ( L i t t l e Fort) , s i x t y m i l e s n o r t h of Kamloops. There the whole afternoon was spent i n p u t t i n g the horses across the r i v e r , which was very high and s w i f t , i t being the time of h i g h water. They camped f o r the night on the west side of the North Thompson, at a Mr. Lemieux's p l a c e . Next morning they began the d i f f i c u l t climb up the mountains on the west s i d e . F a l l e n timber a l l along t h e i r way and the p r e c i p i t o u s (66) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, August, 1896, v o l . 5, no. 8, p. 171. (95) r i s e made i t impossible t o proceed otherwise than at a s n a i l ' s pace, and the top was not reached u n t i l noon a f t e r about ten m i l e s ' t r a v e l . I n the afternoon the route became more l e v e l , and b e t t e r time was made, the p a r t y covering about twenty-five m i l e s befor n i g h t f a l l . They were now on a p l a t e a u - l i k e country dotted here and t h e r e with low h i l l s , sparsely.timbered. Many b e a u t i f u l l akes were passed, and abundant grass p r o v i d e d f e e d f o r the horses. At sunset the p a r t y p i t c h e d i t s t e n t s i n t h i s park l i k e l a n d , and next morning, a r u s t i c a l t a r having been b u i l t by the young men, the s a c r i f i c e of the Body and Blood of C h r i s t was o f f e r e d f o r the f i r s t time on those l o n e l y h i l l s . That day, J u l y 3, was one of hard r i d i n g f o r Father Le Jeune and h i s companions. They covered some f i f t y - f i v e or . s i x t y m i l e s , reaching the Canim Lake I n d i a n v i l l a g e , t hree mile from the west end of Canim Lake, by evening. A f t e r remaining a day and two n i g h t s at t h i s v i l l a g e , the p a r t y l e f t on J u l y 5, and a r r i v e d next day at S t . Joseph M i s s i o n , William's Lake. Here the p a r t y joined. H i s Lordship Bishop Durieu and n e a r l y one thousand Indians i n the ceremonies connected with the open ing of a new church at St. Joseph's. (^7) Such a journey, under d e l i g h t f u l summer s k i e s , p r o v i d e d a r e f r e s h i n g i n t e r l u d e , and Father Le Jeune looked back upon i t as a h o l i d a y . During the l a t e f a l l of the year 1896 a t r i p i n the L i l l o o e t country was carried- out under c o n t r a s t i n g (67) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, September, 1895, v o l . 4, no. 9, p. 130. (96) c o n d i t i o n s . F a t h e r s Le Jeune and Thomas had been at the Seton Lake M i s s i o n from November 6 to November 12, c a r r y i n g on r e  l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e s and w r i t i n g down the vocabulary of the L i l l - ooet language. On t h e i r r e t u r n t o L i l l o o e t , snow began t o f a l l h e a v i l y , with a severe wind p r e v a i l i n g a l l during the night of t h e 12th. On the morning of November 15 the main s t r e e t was f u l l of d r i f t s three and fo u r f e e t high. They l e f t on the stage that morning i n the company of C a p t a i n Tatlow of V i c t o r i a . At the s t a r t they had a b r i s k n o r t h wind blowing the snow i n t o t h e i r f a c e s f o r three m i l e s ; then they had t o deal with d r i f t s which delayed them f o r n e a r l y an hour. T h e i r progress was very slow, the snow and wind storm c o n t i n u i n g unabated. The snow was n e a r l y two f e e t deep when they came t o the foot of P a v i l i o n mountain, where an exchange was made of the express waggon f o r a b o b - s l e i g h . A f r e s h team of horses r e  p l a c e d the weary ones, and thus they succeeded i n reaching Carson's p l a c e a f t e r a continuous ascent of seven or eight m i l e s . They a r r i v e d at supper time i n s t e a d of f o r dinner, and spent a comfortable n i g h t ' s r e s t , thanks to the h o s p i t a l i t y of Mrs. Carson and her f a m i l y . Next morning they found t h e i r bob-sleigh covered w i t h twelve inches of f r e s h snow. Two more horses were added, and thus with four-in-hand, t h e i r d r i v e r , Eddie B e l l , was able to p u l l them over P a v i l i o n mountain. I t took three hours t o reach the top, about f i v e and one-half miles from Carson's. The (97) descent was made at a more l i v e l y speed, but along the shore of K e l l y ' s Lake they met a couple of snow s l i d e s and were delayed three hours. At l a s t C l i n t o n was reached about f i v e o'clock i n the evening, twenty-four hours behind schedule. That night i t was t h i r t y - f i v e degrees below zero i n C l i n t o n . ( 6 8 ) But the problems of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , f o u l weather and the l i k e were t r i v i a l i n r e l a t i o n t o one that c o n s t a n t l y f a c e d Father Le Jeune and other m i s s i o n a r i e s . T h i s was the devasta t i n g e f f e c t of l i q u o r upon t h e i r I n d i a n charges. The lowering of morale and the lo n g l i s t of crimes a t t r i b u t a b l e d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y to the excessive use of l i q u o r form a s o r r y p i c t u r e through the years. D e s p i t e the f a c t that the law p r o h i b i t e d the s e l l i n g or g i v i n g of i n t o x i c a n t s to Indians, there were always u n p r i n c i p l e d whites to be found who made "a p r a c t i c e of o b t a i n i n g l i q u o r f o r them. T h i s was a p a r t i c u l a r l y l u c r a t i v e game f o r the s u p p l i e r s , since the Indians were ready to pay them w e l l . The c l o s e p r o x i m i t y of many of the Ind i a n reserves t o the white settlements d i d not help matters any, e i t h e r . The i l l e g a l manner i n which i t was necessary f o r an Indian to o b t a i n l i q u o r d i d not tend to produce moderation i n h i s d r i n k  i n g . One or two drinks at the time were not s u f f i c i e n t ; the usual procedure was t o keep on u n t i l an e n t i r e b o t t l e had been consumed, with subsequent events l e f t to t h e imagination. "Whiskey has been the cause, " s a i d Father Le Jeune, "of prema tu r e death to scores of our young Indians, and yet they continue (68) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, December, 1896, v o l . 5, no. 12, p. 249. (98) madly c r a v i n g f o r i t , no matter under what circumstances." T h i s c r a v i n g f o r l i q u o r was not u n i v e r s a l among the Indians by any means. As i n any general c r o s s s e c t i o n of the popula t i o n , there was o f t e n a small group of young men who would go to any extremes to o b t a i n l i q u o r . These were the desperate c a s e s — t h e ones whose names appeared i n the court r e c o r d s of the neighbouring towns with monotonous r e g u l a r i t y . Drunken- ess, f i g h t i n g , making p u b l i c nuisances of t h e m s e l v e s — t h e usual punishment, e s p e c i a l l y i f the case was a second or t h i r d o f f e n c e , was a few months' imprisonment or a f i n e . A f t e r two or t h r e e days' imprisonment the f r i e n d s of the c o n v i c t e d Indian would o f t e n succeed i n s e l l i n g s u f f i c i e n t of h i s p r o p e r t y to meet the f i n e and he would be released. Some times s c a r c e l y a week elapsed before he would be found d r i n k i n g again, brought up before the magistrate, and sent back to p r i s o n . Here again a f i n e would have redeemed him and set him w a i t i n g f o r another occasion to o b t a i n l i q u o r . T h i s method of punishment was g e n e r a l l y found wanting and r e s u l t e d o n l y i n punishing innocent people f o r the g u i l t y ones, since wives and c h i l d r e n o f t e n had to s u f f e r p r i v a t i o n f o r the sake of paying the f i n e s . Father Le Jeune and h i s compatriots fought the l i q u o r problem among the Indians by organizing Temperance or T o t a l Abstinence S o c i e t i e s . These were l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s set up i n a l l d i s t r i c t s where the need arose, under the c o n t r o l of the (69) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, March, 1898, v o l . •7, no. 3, p. 33. (99) Bishop of the diocese, hut administered by l o c a l o f f i c e r s . While the aim of these s o c i e t i e s i n c l u d e d the i n c u l c a t i o n of good c i t i z e n s h i p g e n e r a l l y , the primary o b j e c t i v e was t o check the c r a v i n g f o r i n t o x i c a t i n g drinks e x i s t i n g among c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s of the Indian p o p u l a t i o n . A prominent f e a t u r e of these temperance s o c i e t i e s was t h e i n i t i a t i o n of the new members, which always took p l a c e i n a general meeting and i n the presence of the e x i s t i n g s u b s c r i  b e r s , who thus became witnesses of each new member's vows. On h i s i n i t i a t i o n each member pledged himself to c e r t a i n under t a k i n g s , s i g n i n g h i s name or making h i s mark i n a r e g i s t e r pro vided f o r the purpose. These undertakings were as f o l l o w s : (a) I pledge myself and promise to a b s t a i n from every k i n d of l i q u o r and of fermented beverage f o r l i f e . (b) I pledge my s e l f and promise to observe f a i t h f u l l y the r u l e s and r e g u l a  t i o n s of the S o c i e t y , and to f o l l o w the d i r e c t i o n s g i v e n by the grand p r e s i d e n t or h i s delegates. (c) I pledge myself and promise to perform a p u b l i c penance, to be designated by the grand p r e s i d e n t , h i s delegate, or even by the l o c a l p r e s i d e n t of the Council of the S o c i e t y , every time I be found g u i l t y of immorality, gambling, a s s i s t i n g at a p o t l a c h , at a tamanoaz f e a s t , or at any meeting or ceremony f o r b i d d e n by the S o c i e t y , (d) I pledge myself and promise to pay to the r e p a i r s or decora t i o n of the church of my v i l l a g e , each time I break my pledge of t o t a l abstinence, according ,to the f o l l o w i n g scale adopted i n t h i s Council—$1.00 f o r an unbaptized; $2.00 f o r a C h r i s t i a n ; $3.00 f o r a communicant; $5.00 f o r the p r e s i d e n t and watchmen (100) of the C o u n c i l , or the c h i e f and watchmen of the v i l l a g e . Father Le Jeune saw many t r a g e d i e s a r i s i n g from the use of l i q u o r by the Indians. None touched him more deeply than an event which occurred i n the spring of the year 1899. A young I n d i a n of the Kamloops band named C a s i m i r , while under the i n f l u e n c e of l i q u o r , shot and k i l l e d a respected c i t i z e n of Kamloops, P h i l i p Walker, while the l a t t e r was s i t t i n g on the f r o n t porch of h i s home w i t h i n the town l i m i t s . Caught a f t e r a chase which l a s t e d s e v e r a l days, t r i e d f o r murder and c o n v i c t e d , Casimir was hanged at Kamloops Gaol on the morning of June 2, 1899. Despite the f a c t that p u b l i c f e e l i n g ran high against the condemned man, Father Le Jeune never once f a l t e r e d i n what he considered was h i s duty t o him. As he t a l k e d q u i e t l y and calmly to the young man i n h i s c e l l a l l the w i l d r e c k l e s s n e s s departed from h i s s p i r i t , and Casimir died anxious that h i s f a t e should be a warning to a l l h i s Indian f r i e n d s . A f t e r the e x e c u t i o n , Father Le Jeune i s s u e d the f o l l o w i n g statement t o the press: Indian Casimir died p e n i t e n t . Since my f i r s t v i s i t to him i n g a o l , A p r i l 28, he r e a l i z e d h i s po s i t i o n , and set himself to prepare f o r the end. He spent most of h i s time reading a l l the Ghinook papers he c o u l d obtain, e s p e c i a l l y the l i f e of C h r i s t and H i s s u f f e r i n g s . He was very c o o l to the end, and repeatedly t o l d the Indians that came to v i s i t him that he was i n strong s p i r i t s and prepared to d i e ; he t o l d them and the C h i e f i n p a r t i c u l a r that i t was r e c k l e s s l i f e and d r i n k i n g that brought him to h i s end; and asked the C h i e f to warn the other Indians and deter them from f o l l o w i n g h i s example. He accused himself before the S h e r i f f and several (70) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, August, 1895, v o l . 4, no. 8, p. 115. (101) others of being g u i l t y of the murder of P h i l i p Walker, and was now very s o r r y f o r what he had done. When asked what was h i s motive, he s a i d he d i d not know why; he had always been on f r i e n d l y terms with Walker, f o r whom he had been working f o r a couple of years. He had been d r i n k i n g that day and the day before, d i d not know even t o what extent, and i t was some time before he r e a l i z e d what he had done. H i s l a s t words, repeated a f t e r me i n Ghinook before he dropped down from the s c a f f o l d , ?rere: 'I am s o r r y f o r the bad I have done, I accept death as an atonement. I ask f o r g i v e n e s s from Almighty God. God, Thou l o v e s t me so much, and I love Thee wi t h my whole hea r t . I throw myself i n t o the hands of Thy mercy.' The Indians were much impressed with C a s i - mir's f a t e . A number of h i s cousins and other r e l a t i v e s came t o b i d him f a r e w e l l yesterday and the day before. A l l of them are s a t i s f i e d of the j u s t i c e of h i s sentence. Yesterday morn ing n e a r l y f i f t y of them r e c e i v e d Holy Communion f o r C a simir's I n t e n t i o n , and t h i s morning as e a r l y as f i v e they were again i n Church, a s s i s t  ing at the f u n e r a l s e r v i c e f o r the repose of Bishop Durieu who d i e d yesterday, and f i f t y again r e c e i v e d Communion. At h a l f - p a s t seven the b e l l at the I n d i a n reserve was heard again, the Indians coming to church to i n t e r c e d e f o r C a s i m i r , and t o recommend h i s soul to h i s Maker , . at the very moment that the execution took p l a c e . ^'1<' Pageantry and d i s p l a y , as a means of arousing and maintain ing an i n t e r e s t i n r e l i g i o n , were f r e q u e n t l y used by the Oblate m i s s i o n a r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. One of the l a r g e s t and most s u c c e s s f u l Indian c e l e b r a t i o n s ever h e l d i n the I n t e r i o r was that at Kamloops during June, 1901. I t was arranged by Father Le Jeune f o r the purpose of g i v i n g h i s Indians the e x e r c i s e s of an annual R e t r e a t , and a l s o of i n i t i a t i n g them into the ceremonies customary i n Indian c e l e b r a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y the P a s s i o n Tableaux. He was a s s i s t e d by h i s o l d f r i e n d , Father (71) "The p e n a l t y p a i d , Indian Casimir hanged t h i s morning," - Inland S e n t i n e l , 2 June, 1899, p. 1. (102) Chirouse, and by Father Rohr and a Squamish I n d i a n , Laket Joe, a l l three of whom had had p r e v i o u s experience i n organizimg and conducting such c e l e b r a t i o n s on the Coast. On Saturday, June 15, Indians from a l l p a r t s of the d i s  t r i c t converged on Kamloops. Down the Thompson R i v e r from Shu swap they came—some by steamer and some i n t h e i r own canoes. Over the dusty roads from the south and west they came i n l i g h t and heavy waggons or on horseback. I n a l l a t o t a l of more than seven hundred gathered on the Kamloops Indian reserve. Sunday, June 16, opened with the c e l e b r a t i o n of High Mass at 7 A. M., Father Chirouse o f f i c i a t i n g . A f t e r Mass a short i n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d was g i v e n on the t e x t "What does i t p r o f i t a man i f he g a i n the whole, world and s u f f e r the l o s s of h i s soul?" I l l u s t r a t i o n s from the l i v e s of Mary Magdalen and St. F r a n c i s Xavier were used to c l a r i f y the t e x t . At t e n o'clock the Indians were again i n the church f o r the r e c i t a t i o n of the Rosary and the p r a y e r s f o r Holy Communion. Father Chirouse then addressed them, e x p l a i n i n g the object of the e x e r c i s e s , the r e g u l a t i o n s to be followed during the week, and exhorting them to the 'greatest f i d e l i t y during the whole time. Between three and f i v e o'clock i n the afternoon s e l e c t i o n was begun of the persons who were t o act i n the Passion Tableaux. At eight o'clock the crowd assembled i n the church f o r night p r a y e r s , f o l l o w e d by a sermon by Father Chirouse, with L o u i s Falardeau as i n t e r p r e t e r . A f t e r the sermon the Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament was given, and exercises f o r the day (103) The Ions; main street of the Indian village, Kamloops, with Mount Paul in the baokpround. (104) were ended. Monday, June 17, and Tuesday, June 18, were f u l l y occupied with r e l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e s , meetings, f u r t h e r s e l e c t i o n of a c t o r s d i s t r i b u t i o n of costumes, and r e h e a r s a l s . On Wednesday morning June 19, an important meeting was c a l l e d at nine o'clock. A l l the I n d i a n c h i e f s present gathered around the Fathers with t h e i f l a g s of temperance, and the p r i e s t s read before the whole assembly the r e g u l a t i o n s which the people had already promised to observe, but on which there had been too much r e l a x a t i o n at times. These laws were: to a b s t a i n from a l l i n t o x i c a t i n g d r i n k s ; t o be punctual at a l l e x e r c i s e s i n the church and Catechism house; not to i d l e around town; t o be c a r e f u l not t o miss the p r i e s t ' s v i s i t s to t h e i r s p e c i a l camps; c h i e f s and watchmen were to see t o the observance of these r u l e s and to the punishment of those who broke them. Every one of the c h i e f s present rose i n t u r n and spoke to the assembly about the observance of these r e g u l a t i o n s . At the l a s t a l l the c h i e f s came and k n e l t i n t u r n before the p r i e s t s , h o l d i n g the temperance f l a g i n one hand, the other hand on the c r u c i f i x and sacred books, and promising to do a l l t h e y could t o ensure the c a r r y i n g out of these r u l e s by t h e i r people. Then the whole assembly was pledged to obey the c h i e f s and to a i d them i n keeping t h e i r promises. F i n a l l y , on F r i d a y evening the time a r r i v e d f o r the per formance of the Pa s s i o n Tableaux. The roads and avenues of the v i l l a g e had a l l been cleaned and swept, and l i n e d with decora t i o n s of evergreens brought i n from the h i l l s . While the (105) p r o c e s s i o n started.and wound i t s way slowly around the cemetery, the a c t o r s went t o dress and to pose i n t h e i r d i f f e r e n t groups along the main avenue of the Indian v i l l a g e . Then began the enactment of those v a r i o u s sacred scenes which go to make up the P a s s i o n Tableaux. I n t e r p r e t e r s commented on each as the p r o c e s s i o n stopped before i t . ( 7 2 ) The commentary on only the f i r s t and l a s t t a b l e a u are o u t l i n e d i n d e t a i l below. F i r s t T a b l e a u ; — I n the Garden of Gethsemanjt. "See our Saviour k n e e l i n g i n the Garden. He sees i n s p i r i t e verything that i s going t o happen t o Him, ev e r y t h i n g that He i s going to s u f f e r . He sees the numberless s i n s of a l l mankind f o r which He i s going to s u f f e r , your own i n the number. He sees how many miserable c r e a t u r e s are going t o e v e r l a s t i n g p e r d i t i o n , not withstanding h i s s u f f e r i n g s to save them. He i s overwhelmed with sadness, and says t o the A p o s t l e s , 'Watch and pray. Do you not see Judas, how he does not s l e e p , and how he ex e r t s himself to betray me?' How i s the case w i t h yourselves? Often sleepy f o r good, eager f o r e v i l , s l o t h f u l and c a r e l e s s f o r your s a l v a t i o n , wakeful whole n i g h t s when a f t e r e v i l ? " Second Tableau:—The B e t r a y a l . T h i r d T a b l e a u : — C h r i s t before the High P r i e s t . Fourth T a b l e a u : — C h r i s t before P i l a t e . F i f t h T ableau:—The Scourging of Our Lord. S i x t h Tableau:—The Crowning with Thorns. Seventh T a b l e a u : — C h r i s t overburdened with the Cross. (72) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, September, 1901, v o l . 10, no. 5, pp. 35--43. (106) E i g h t h T a b l e a u : — C h r i s t meeting h i s Mother. Ninth Tableau:—Simon, the Cyrenean, helps Jesus t o c a r r y H i s Cross. Tenth T a b l e a u : — V e r o n i c a wipes the Pace of Jesus. E l e v e n t h T a b l e a u : — J e s u s speaks to the Women of Jerusalem. T w e l f t h T a b l e a u : — J e s u s i s s t r i p p e d of His Garments. T h i r t e e n t h T a b l e a u : — J e s u s i s n a i l e d to the Cross. Fourteenth T a b l e a u : — C h r i s t dying on the Cross. "See C h r i s t on the c r o s s . He s u f f e r s i n a l l H i s body. H i s head i s crowned with thorns. H i s hands and f e e t are p i e r c e d with the n a i l s . H i s s k i n a l l cut from the scourges, H i s blood a l l run out, His whole body burning with p a i n , and He endures besides the most tormenting t h i r s t . See th a t woman at the foot of the c r o s s . I t i s Mary Magdalen. She weeps f o r her s i n s which have caused so great s u f f e r i n g s to the Son of God. Follow her ex ample, k n e e l at the f o o t of the c r o s s , weep f o r a l l your past s i n s , and make a r e s o l u t i o n f o r e v e r not to s i n any more." The p r o c e s s i o n , a f t e r winding i t s way around the tableaux, gathered at the l a s t before the C a l v a r y that had been e r e c t e d at the east end of the v i l l a g e . Everybody k n e l t down and sang the "0 Crux Ave." The l a r g e c r u c i f i x then began t r i c k l i n g blood from a l l the wounds of the f i g u r e of C h r i s t . The whole group was deeply moved. One of the p r i e s t s arose and addressed a few words, e x c i t i n g to C o n t r i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y of those s i n s t o which the Indians were most i n c l i n e d . The two remaining days of the Indian c e l e b r a t i o n s were spent i n f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n and r e l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e s . F i n a l l y , ( 1 0 7 ) l a t e Sunday afternoon or e a r l y Monday morning the a c t i v i t i e s were over and the Indians s t a r t e d on t h e i r homeward journeys. Father Le Jeune lo v e d h i s missionary work and h i s Indians. He d i d not spare h i m s e l f i n m i n i s t e r i n g to h i s charges and they i n t u r n were quick to sense the f a c t that he was working whole h e a r t e d l y f o r them. On several r e s e r v e s the author asked older Indians i f they remembered Father Le Jeune. I n v a r i a b l y t h e i r f a c e s l i g h t e d up with p l e a s u r e as they r e p l i e d , "Yes, we remem ber him w e l l . He was a great and good man." A simple t r i b u t e , perhaps, but i t was the k i n d that Father Le Jeune h i m s e l f would have appreciated-most of a l l . (108) CHAPTER.V. FATHER LE JEUNE AS A TEACHER. When Father Le Jeune a r r i v e d at New Westminster i n the year 1879, he found hoth Mgr. Durieu and Mgr. D'Herbomez s t r o n g l y i n c l i n e d towards the adoption of a form of s y l l a b i c w r i t i n g f o r recor d i n g the I n d i a n languages of the country. ('75) As a matter of f a c t , there were already f i l e d at New West minster several hundred small books of s y l l a b i c c h a r a c t e r s i n which the e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s had t r i e d to put down s e v e r a l of the twenty-six or twenty-seven I n d i a n d i a l e c t s of the pro v i n c e . T h i s s y l l a b i c w r i t i n g c o n s i s t e d i n w r i t i n g a s y l l a b l e with a s i n g l e c h a r a c t e r . There were, t h e r e f o r e , as many sign s or c h a r a c t e r s as there were consonants m u l t i p l i e d by the vowels to the number of f o u r — A E I 0U, or perhaps f i v e — A E I © 0U. I n using a s y l l a b i c w r i t i n g , then, one had t o f i n d s igns f o r each of the f o l l o w i n g sounds:— PA PE PI P0 POU TA TE TI TO TOU KA KE KI K0 KOU LA LE L I LO LOU MA ME MI MO MOU NA NE NI NO NOU SHA SHE SHI SHO SHOU SA SE SI SO SOU VA WE WI WO WOU YA YE YI YO YOU, etc. (73} Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, Edit i o n F r a n c a i s e , no. 260, March, 1916, p.. 197. (109) T h i s w r i t i n g i s of a type which i s apparently w e l l adap te d to the Gree and other languages with s y l l a b l e s correspond i n g t o the sounds g i v e n above. Rev. Arthur B i l o d e a u , 0. M. I . , i s to-day using such a system among the Gree Indians at Moos- onee, O n t a r i o . H i s symbols used t o represent the Gree sound values are reproduced below:— e i A o V a X7 pe Y p i A po > pa < te KJ t i A t o 0 t a C ke k i P ko A ka b tche 1 t c h i f tcho J tcha ne —o n i no - o na a— se s s i so r1 sa s she 1 s h i s sho <\» sha re r i rx. ro }> r a l e -» l i c— l o — j * l a me I mi r mo J ma l_ pne •V p n i •A pno •> pna •< P i t / k \ t c h — n Toront o- 1 ? » D During the f i r s t two or three years that he was i n the p r o v i n c e , Father Le Jeune t r i e d to make some headway with the s y l l a b i c method favoured by Bishop Durieu. But he found that c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s arose i n i t s use with the B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n d i a l e c t s . When a c e r t a i n s y l l a b l e ended i n a consonant (74) L e t t e r to the author from Mr. Fred J a r r e t t , Canadian - . manager of Gregg P u b l i s h i n g Company, September 10, 1946. ( n o ; i t was necessary to. add an a d d i t i o n a l s i g n . To make a word l i k e "mokst" three a d d i t i o n a l signs had t o he added a f t e r the f i r s t s y l l a b l e . The d i f f i c u l t i e s of t h e system became almost insurmountable when one was confronted with a Shuswap word l i k e "t-kwa-koul-tk-sht'n." So Father Le Jeune f i n a l l y a r r i v e d at the c o n c l u s i o n that i t was simpler and e a s i e r to use o r d i n a r y E n g l i s h l e t t e r s i n attempting to write down the Indian sounds. T h i s i s what he t r i e d to do during h i s f i r s t twelve years on the missions f o r w r i t i n g the p r a y e r s and cate chism f o r the Indians. Father Le Jeune had l e a r n e d the Duployan system of short hand i n the year 1871, while s t i l l a youth of s i x t e e n and en gaged i n h i s secondary school s t u d i e s . He had used i t exten s i v e l y during h i s l a t e r e ducation, e s p e c i a l l y at the S c h o l a s t i - cate of Autun, where i t proved extremely u s e f u l f o r r e c o r d i n g l e c t u r e notes. He had a l s o used i t i n h i s p e r s o n a l correspon dence during h i s e a r l y years i n B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s shorthand system which Father Le Jeune mastered and used was the o r i g i n a l French system of Abbe" Emile Duploy6. I t may be regarded as of d i s t i n c t i v e l y French o r i g i n , although i t was l a t e r adapted to E n g l i s h by Mr. John M. Sloan i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s and by Mr. H. M. P e r n i n i n the United S t a t e s . During the l a t t e r p art of the nineteenth century the Duployan system of shorthand and i t s adaptations were e n e r g e t i c a l l y a d v e r t i s e d and promoted, and e x e r c i s e d considerable i n f l u e n c e (75) L e t t e r t o the author from Mr. J . D. Sloan, s e c r e t a r y of the Sloan-Duployan shorthand s o c i e t y , England, January 9. 1947. ( I l l ) upon the development of the art of shorthand g e n e r a l l y . . Dr. John Robert Gregg, perhaps the greatest a u t h o r i t y on the h i s t o r y of shorthand systems, summarizes the l e a d i n g f e a t u r e s of Duploy^'s shorthand as f o l l o w s : (a) I t i s geo metric, (b) I t has simple stroke signs f o r consonants, arranged i n p a i r s and d i s t i n g u i s h e d by l e n g t h or by d i a c r i t i  c a l marks, (c) There i s freedom from shading and " p o s i t i o n " w r i t i n g , (d) I t employs j o i n e d vowels, expressed by c i r c l e s , hooks, and quadrants, with d i a c r i t i c a l marks t o denote the p r e c i s e vowel sounds i n a few cases, (e) I t has minute curves w r i t t e n i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s t o express the n a s a l sounds of "an," " i n , " "un," with d i a c r i t i c a l marks t o denote the exact sounds when necessary. (f) It has a simple alphabet, and p r a c t i c a l l y nothing beyond the alphabet, as the system was intended t o be a f l u e n t w r i t i n g , capable of being a c q u i r e d and used even by c h i l d r e n i n the elementary schools. Consequently the forms f o r many words are very l o n g . (^6) Strangely enough, t h e idea of using h i s shorthand know ledge f o r p u t t i n g down the Indian languages d i d not occur to Father Le Jeune u n t i l the summer of the year 1890. I t came about i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. A number of Oblate Fathers were gathered at New Westminster during the month of J u l y f o r the e x e r c i s e s of t h e i r annual r e t r e a t . During a r e c r e a t i o n p e r i o d one afternoon several of the p r i e s t s were d i s c u s s i n g the s y l l a b i c w r i t i n g mentioned above. The almost u n i v e r s a l (76) Gregg, John Robert, S e l e c t i o n s from t h e s t o r y of shorthand, New York, The Gregg P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1941, p. 100. (112) o p i n i o n among them was that i t could never he adapted success f u l l y to t h e I n d i a n languages of B r i t i s h Columbia such as the Shuswap, Thompson, and L i l l o o e t . In the course of the conver s a t i o n Father C h i a p p i n i c a s u a l l y expressed t h e thought that stenographic c h a r a c t e r s might f u r n i s h a simple and n a t u r a l alphabet that the Indians could e a s i l y l e a r n . I n s t a n t l y an i dea f l a s h e d through Father Le Jeune's mind. Right t h e n and there he began to imagine some easy and gradua ted l e s s o n s i n the Thompson language based on the f o l l o w i n g sounds: A AA AH AHHA HA HAHA PA PAPA TA TATA,etc. ^ 7 7 ^ Upon h i s r e t u r n among the Thompson Indians, Father Le Jeune t r i e d out h i s f i r s t easy l e s s o n s . F a i l u r e marked t h i s attempt. The Indians were lukewarm about the whole t h i n g and p r a c t i c a l l y no progress was made. Nevertheless, Father Le Jeune continued h i s experiments with shorthand a p p l i e d to the Indian sounds,, w r i t i n g out several e x e r c i s e s and p r a y e r s i n the Thompson d i a l e c t . I n September of t h e year 1890 Father Le Jeune was at the Coldwater reserve i n the course of h i s r e g u l a r d u t i e s as p r i e s t . A young c r i p p l e d Indian, whose name was C h a r l i e A l e x i s Mayous, happened to be v i s i t i n g the Coldwater camp. The p r i e s t showed h i s f i r s t l e s s o n t o Mayous, who pondered over i t f o r a few minutes and then remarked, "That's very easy." Father Le Jeune loaned him a l i t t l e s c r i b b l e r i n which the p r i e s t had w r i t t e n a dozen pages or so of prayers i n the Thompson language. (77) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n F r a n c h i s e , no. 260, March, 1916, p. 199. (113) Indian village, Lower Nicola, B. C. (114) C h a r l i e Mayous appears to have been a young man of more than o r d i n a r y i n t e l l i g e n c e because two months l a t e r , when Father Le Jeune met him again, he was able to read everything i n h i s s c r i b b l e r and had l e a r n e d i t a l l by h e a r t . Not only t h a t , but Mayous read at sight everything that Father Le Jeune wrote i n Thompson. The p r i e s t completed f o r him the book of p r a y e r s and he memorized i t very q u i c k l y . Proud of h i s accomplishment, and encouraged by Father Le Jeune, Mayous began to communicate h i s l e a r n i n g t o h i s f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s . He accompanied the p r i e s t to Coldwater and to Douglas Lake; at both p l a c e s the Indians were d e f i n i t e l y i n  t e r e s t e d and wanted to keep him t o teach them to read. The stage was being set f o r a great experiment i n mass education. Mayous s e t t l e d down f o r the winter at Coldwater and spent h i s time i n s t r u c t i n g a dozen young boys and g i r l s and a number of o l d e r persons as w e l l . When Father Le Jeune a r r i v e d f o r h i s E a s t e r v i s i t he found a l a r g e number of Indians who c o u l d read anything w r i t t e n i n shorthand. They p r o f i t e d during h i s v i s i t by l e a r n i n g some new p r a y e r s and some songs, the p r i e s t w r i t i n g them i n shorthand and the Indians reading them back and memor i z i n g them. One morning at Coldwater a Basque from the country of the Pyrenees, who had been farming i n the N i c o l a country f o r some year s , came t o chat with Father Le Jeune. The p r i e s t was stan ding before h i s p u p i l s , having ju s t w r i t t e n on the blackboard a couplet of song. "What i s t h a t ? " asked the Basque. (115) "That i s shorthand," r e p l i e d the p r i e s t . "But i f the Indians are not capable of l e a r n i n g the alpha bet , how do you t h i n k you can teach them shorthand?" responded the v i s i t o r . In r e p l y Father Le Jeune wrote some shorthand words on the board and a l i t t l e g i r l read back t h e f o l l o w i n g f l u e n t l y , "Monsieur C a s t i l l a n , comment a l l e z - v o u s ? " He wrote another sentence and a second l i t t l e g i r l read, "Signor G a s t i l l a n , como esta usted?" When Father Le Jeune had completed h i s v i s i t at Coldwater two young Indians took him on to the camp at Quilchena. On the way they stopped at the store i n N i c o l a . The merchant , who had a l r e a d y heard of the new w r i t i n g , s t a r t e d t o c r i t i c i z e i t , c a l l  i n g i t a "savage w r i t i n g , " u s e l e s s f o r any p r a c t i c a l purposes. The p r i e s t wrote some shorthand words on a sheet of m a n i l l a paper which l a y on the counter and one of h i s young companions read them back i n E n g l i s h without e r r o r . "Don't you see," the I n d i a n s a i d t o the merchant, "I can read E n g l i s h as well as -Chinook or Indian. I do not need to go to school f o r two or three years to know how to read or w r i t e . " Two months l a t e r there was a reunion at Kamloops. A good number of Indians came from Coldwater as w e l l as some from Douglas Lake. These people were not slow i n a i r i n g t h e i r new knowledge to copy the songs and prayers that were being taken up. The Shuswap Indians noted what was going on and they, i n t u r n , became envious of t h e i r f r i e n d s ' a b i l i t i e s i n reading and w r i t i n g . (116) Towards the middle of J u l y , 1891, Father Le Jeune v i s i t e d the Indians at Shuswap Centre. Here n e a r l y f i v e hundred Indian had assembled. Prayers were not f o r g o t t e n , hut i t i s safe to say that d e s i r e to l e a r n the new w r i t i n g was the drawing card on t h i s occasion. Lessons were held twice a day, and f a i r pro gress was made by the Indians. In a l l the camps that Father Le Jeune v i s i t e d during that year of 1891—at Deadman's Creek, the North Thompson, Kamloops- there was the same eagerness to l e a r n the Chinook w r i t i n g , a term the Indians themselves used f o r the phonetic w r i t i n g . P e n c i l s and s c r i b b l e r s became standard equipment to be c a r r i e d each time to the meeting house. Using a blackboard or a l a r g e sheet of manilla paper tacked to the wall f o r h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n s the missionary began: "Now I w i l l make known to you our A B C's. Here you see s i x t e e n marks or signs, a l l d i f f e r e n t . ah oh oo ow wa e u h p t k 1 sh z o O Q O O t ^ * ' — / / y~\ n m. When you come t o know the names of a l l these l e t t e r s , ) c and how to write them on paper, and how to connect them t o  gether, then you w i l l know t h i s w r i t i n g . " These seven vowel sounds and nine consonants formed the nucleus of Father Le Jeune's shorthand system. Couched i n simple language f o r h i s Indian students, the i n s t r u c t i o n s pro ceeded, slowly, step by step. I. o o o o o o o " T h i s f i r s t l e t t e r i s c a l l e d 'ah.' Write a small c i r c l e , l i k e a small eye. Make i t very small. I fear (117) only one t h i n g , l e s t you make i t too l a r g e , so as to resemble the f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r which i s c a l l e d 'oh.' Write t h i s l e t t e r 'ah' a few times on paper, i n order to l e a r n to make i t c o r r e c t l y . Again I say t o make i t very s m a l l , only a white dot i n s i d e . As long as i t i s not a black eye i t w i l l be a l l r i g h t . " I I . O O O O "This l e t t e r ' s name i s 'oh.' Write down a p r e t t y l a r g e c i r c l e , same s i z e as you see on t h i s paper." I I I . O O O (D "The t h i r d l e t t e r i s named 'oo.' Write down a c i r c l e , same s i z e as 'oh' wit h a t a i l i n s i d e , same as you see oh t h i s paper." IV. O O O G "The f o u r t h l e t t e r i s ' ow.' Write a l a r g e c i r c l e , same si z e as 'oh,' with a small dot i n s i d e . " V. O O O O "Our f i f t h l e t t e r i s 'wa.' Write down 'oh' and w r i t e 'ah' i n s i d e . When your p e n c i l comes t o where 'oh' f i n i s h e s w r i t e the l e t t e r 'ah' i n s i d e , without l i f t i n g o f f the p e n c i l from the paper." VI. c c t c "Our s i x t h l e t t e r i s c a l l e d 'e. 1 Write down h a l f a c i r c l e , l i k e h a l f our f i r s t l e t t e r 'ah.'" V I I . ^ C C_ "The seventh l e t t e r Is 'u.' Write down a quarter of a c i r c l e , p r e t t y l a r g e , same as you see on t h i s paper." VIII "This l i t t l e dot, l i k e a l i t t l e black eye, i s c a l l e d 'h. ' You w i l l not have much to do, t o l e a r n to write i t down." IX. I — / / "Here you see f o u r l e t t e r s ; one stands up, one l i e s down, and two are h a l f standing." (118) { \ J { "The one that stands up i s 'P.' I f you want t o write i t down, apply your pen or p e n c i l t o the paper and draw i t down. Make the mark p e r p e n d i c u l a r and very s h o r t , as you see." X. "This l e t t e r , h o r i z o n t a l , i s c a l l e d 'T.' Apply your pen to the paper, draw a l i n e to the r i g h t , and you have t h i s l e t t e r . " XI. / / / / "Of these two l e t t e r s which h a l f stand up, one i s c a l l e d 'K.' I f you want to write i t down, apply your pen or p e n c i l t o the paper and draw i t downwards and to the l e f t as you see." XII. / / / / "The other l e t t e r i s c a l l e d 'L.' I f you wish to write i t down apply your pen t o the paper and draw a l i n e upwards and t o the r i g h t . These two l e t t e r s seem t o he a l i k e and yet they are p e r f e c t l y d i s t i n c t , t h e n you wr i t e 'K1 your pen always runs downwards, and when you write f L ' i t always runs upwards." X I I I . <*""v ) C "Here you see four other l e t t e r s . V"\ f~\ S~\ /-""NThis one, l i k e a hat, i s ' J . ' Draw h a l f a c i r c l e , same s i z e as you see on t h i s paper." XIV. W v^y<_y"This, l i k e a cup, i s c a l l e d 'S. 1" XV. } ) ) ) "This other, l i k e a s i c k l e , i s c a l l e d 'N.'" XVI. ( C C C "The l a s t , l i k e a moon, i s c a l l e d 'M.' Be c a r e f u l to make these f o u r l e t t e r s p r e t t y l a r g e , same s i z e as on t h i s paper." ( ? 8 ) (78) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, no. 2, v o l . 1, June, 1891, pp. 1—4. (119) Then began the e x e r c i s e s , so f a m i l i a r to a l l shorthand students, o f j o i n i n g vowels and consonants together. "Vowels f o l l o w i n g consonants came f i r s t — " p a , " "po," "poo," "pow;" vowels preceding consonants came next with "ap," "op," "oop," "owp." Needless t o say, the s i x t e e n steps o u t l i n e d above were not covered i n one l e s s o n . Progress was very slow at f i r s t . F a t h er P e y t a v i n , an a s s o c i a t e of Father Le Jeune's, organized c l a s s e s i n every camp and gave a great impetus t o the Chinook w r i t i n g . He even had the b l i n d , who were not able t o take p a r t i n the w r i t i n g , f o l l o w the l e s s o n s and l e a r n the words by h e a r t . At Kamloops he s t a r t e d with a c l a s s of 250 persons. But at the f i r s t l e s s o n he was able, t o teach them only two words i n two and a h a l f h o u r s — o n e l e t t e r a f t e r another. I n the second lesson, three more words were mastered i n t h r e e hours. However, with the foundation l a i d s e c u r e ly, i t was not long before the whole g a t h e r i n g could read Chinook from the shorthand with a f a i r degree of f a c i l i t y . ^ 7 9 ^ In every group some made f a s t e r progress than o t h e r s . These b r i g h t e r students were entrusted w i t h the job of c a r r y i n g on c l a s s e s u n t i l the p r i e s t s returned. C h a r l i e Mayous was p r e  v a i l e d upon to spend a winter at Kamloops and gave considerable assistance to the cause. The names of Father Le Jeune's other a s s i s t a n t s are l e g i o n . Noting only a few, we have Damien, the f i r s t Chinook s c h o l a r at Kamloops, John Jackson and Peter Kwal (79) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n Franchise, no. 260, March, 1916, pp. 203, 204. (120) of L i l l o o e t , Morice Sazy of P a v i l i o n , and F r a n c i s Joseph, of the Fountain. The question of t e x t s and supplementary reading m a t e r i a l to s a t i s f y so many students became an immediate problem. At Douglas Lake on one occasion i n the e a r l y stages of i n s t r u c t i o n Father Le Jeune had to copy some pages of phrases up to s i x t y times to s a t i s f y the d e s i r e of a l l those who wished to l e a r n . G r a d u a l l y the idea evolved i n h i s mind of a mimeographed p u b l i  c a t i o n such as the Kamloops Wawa e v e n t u a l l y became. I t was founded upon< the twin n e c e s s i t y f i r s t of s t i m u l a t i n g and main t a i n i n g i n t e r e s t among h i s I n d i a n students, and secondly of p r o v i d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l f o r them. As the Indians advanced i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to write s h o r t  hand, a unique correspondence was s t a r t e d , both among them s e l v e s , and with "pen p a l s " i n e a s t e r n Canada, United S t a t e s , and Europe. I t was r e p o r t e d i n A p r i l , 1896, that C h a r l e y F r y , of North Bend, had r e c e i v e d a post card i n Chinook and short hand from L i e g e , Belgium. One week l a t e r he r e c e i v e d another post card i n shorthand and very f a i r Chinook from Rome. (80) Contacts were made by Father Le Jeune with the S e h o l a s t i - cate of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate at L i e g e , and w i t h t h e i r C o l l e g e at Rome. Over t h i r t y e c c l e s i a s t i c a l students at the f i r s t i n s t i t u t i o n and a half-dozen at the l a t t e r took up the study of Chinook through shorthand, d e l i g h t e d i n reading the Wawa, and entered into correspondence with the Indians. (80) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, A p r i l , 1896, p. 73. (121) On New Year's Day, 1896, over 150 l e t t e r s i n Chinook and shorthand were sent from Kamloops to Rome, and an equal number to L i e g e . S h o r t l y afterwards the North Bend Indians sent a c o l l e c t i o n of some f o r t y - f i v e l e t t e r s t o Rome, and the same number to L i e g e . Contests f o r speed i n w r i t i n g Chinook were also encouraged by Father Le Jeune as a means of s t i m u l a t i n g the shorthand a r t . In one t e s t at Spuzzum, candidates i n t h e i r teens wrote at speeds of t h i r t y - f i v e , t h i r t y - s i x and f o r t y Chinook words per minute. More able students reached speeds of f i f t y and even s i x t y words per minute. When one co n s i d e r s that Chinook words on the average are double and t r e b l e the s i z e of common E n g l i s h words, the performance of these Indian shorthand a r t i s t s be comes a l l the more remarkable. While the greatest success i n mastering shorthand was n a t u r a l l y a t t a i n e d by t h e younger Indians, age d i d not deter some of the older ones from t r y i n g . Chief Andrew from the North Thompson, aged s i x t y and with f a i l i n g eyesight, s t a r t e d the study of shorthand as soon as he saw h i s young men pro g r e s s i n g i n the knowledge of the Chinook w r i t i n g . He had to procure a p a i r of s p e c t a c l e s t o j^egin with, and even then had to read from a s p e c i a l e d i t i o n w r i t t e n out i n large characters by some of h i s men. A f t e r a few days' study he found out that he was not too o l d t o master the shorthand and was so ple a s e d with h i s success that he wrote at once t o Chief L o u i s at Kam loops: " I f you are not qui t e b l i n d yet, you had b e t t e r s t a r t (122) i n to l e a r n the Chinook w r i t i n g ; you see, I am nearly b l i n d , yet I am l e a r n i n g the Wawa shorthand." (^l) q ] _ ^ c h i e f succeeded so w e l l that he was e v e n t u a l l y able to read anything i n Chinook. Mr. John P. Smith, ( 8 2 ) one of the f i r s t s e t t l e r s i n the North Thompson V a l l e y , r e l a t e s how he r e c e i v e d a note from an Indian w r i t t e n i n shorthand. Unable t o decipher the note, he c a l l e d upon C h i e f Andrew f o r a s s i s t a n c e . Andrew drew out h i s s p e c t a c l e s , read the l e t t e r , explained the contents t© Mr. Smith, and concluded with the remark that p r e v i o u s l y the Indians had t o go t o t h e i r c i v i l i z e d f r i e n d s f o r the reading of t h e i r correspondence; now the c o n t r a r y was t a k i n g p l a c e . I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n f o r outstanding accomplishments i n the f i e l d of shorthand was accorded to Father Le Jeune and h i s Indian students upon s e v e r a l occasions. From samples p l a c e d i n a shorthand e x h i b i t i o n h e l d at Montlhery, France, i n May, 1896, the f o l l o w i n g awards came to B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a — a g o l d medal t o the e d i t o r of the Wawa (Father Le Jeune), a (81) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, June, 1896, p. 121. (82) John F. Smith, of negro o r i g i n , was born i n the B r i t i s h West In d i e s and came to t h i s province as a boy. He be came a c t i v e i n ranching and mining c i r c l e s and served f o r some years as In d i a n Agent , with headquarters i n Kamloops. In the l a t t e r c a p a c i t y he was c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with Father Le Jeune. In f a c t , they were l i f e - l o n g f r i e n d s . Mr. Smith commanded the respect of a l l i n the community and ranks high among those pioneers who developed t h i s s e c t i o n of the p r o v i n c e . In h i s l a t e r years he o f t e n amused l i s t e n e r s by t e l l i n g them that he was the f i r s t white man to s e t t l e i n the North Thompson v a l l e y . (83) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, June, 1896, p. 121. (123) s i l v e r palm t o the f i r s t c o n t r i b u t o r of reading matter f o r i t s pages (Rt. Rev. P. D u r i e u ) , and bronze medals to Miss C a r o l i n e F a l a r d e a u of Kamloops and Jamie M i c h e l of Quilchena. ( 8 4 ) Fur ther honours came i n October of the same year from a Shorthand E x p o s i t i o n at Nancy, Prance, i n the form of a s i l v e r medal and diploma of honour f o r the e d i t o r of the Wawa,and another d i  ploma f o r h i s Indian p u p i l s . For the great Shorthand E x p o s i t i o n and "Concours" h e l d at Roubaix, Nord, France, from January to May, 1897, one hundred f i f t y Indians from Kamloops, Shuswap, and the surrounding d i s t r i c t s sent compositions of t h e i r shorthand work. Sets of the Wawa f o r 1895 and 1896 were a l s o e x h i b i t e d . The r e s u l t was a g o l d medal f o r the Wawa, and f i f t y diplomas of honour f o r those of the Indians whose work ranked the h i g h e s t . ( 8 5 ) Even Queen V i c t o r i a was acquainted with what was being accomplished among the Indians i n one corner of her Empire. The I n l a n d S e n t i n e l of F r i d a y , June 25, 1897, s t a t e s : "Father Le Jeune has forwarded to the Queen through S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r s e v e r a l J u b i l e e post cards bearing i n s c r i p t i o n s by Ind i a n c h i l  dren i n phonography. T r a n s l a t i o n s and an explanation of the system accompany the cards." Although the Indians c a l l e d t h e i r shorthand "Chinook Pepa" or "Chinook W r i t i n g , " Father Le Jeune p o p u l a r i z e d the method as the "Wawa Shorthand." However, he was always c a r e f u l to (8®) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, February, 1897, p. 19. (85) Inland S e n t i n e l , Tuesday, December 7, 1897. (124) acknowledge h i s debt t o Abbe Duploye'. The c h i e f i n s t r u c t i o n a l book i n h i s whole system he e n t i t l e d The Wawa shorthand i n s t r u c  t o r or The Duployan stenography adapted to E n g l i s h * T h i s l i t t l e book of twenty-four pages was p u b l i s h e d at Kamloops by Father Le Jeune i n the year 1896 and s o l d f o r f i f t e e n cents. I t o u t l i n e d seventeen lessons f o r l e a r n i n g the system, gave c l e a r explanations of p o s s i b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s the student might encounter, and c l o s e d with some p r a c t i c e w r i t i n g and reading m a t e r i a l . F u r t h e r supplementary m a t e r i a l was con t a i n e d i n a second p u b l i c a t i o n of the same s i z e as the I n s t r u c - t o r , v i z . , The Wawa shorthand e x e r c i s e book. T h i s companion volume t o the I n s t r u c t o r was issued a few months a f t e r the l a t t e r and a l s o s o l d f o r f i f t e e n cents. The t i t l e pages of the I n s t r u c t o r and of many copies of the Wawa c a r r i e d Father Le Jeune's a s s e r t i o n that the Wawa Shorthand was the simplest system of shorthand i n the world, the e a s i e s t to l e a r n , and a hundred times e a s i e r than the o l d w r i t i n g . I t was always h i s claim that he had two thousand Indians reading and w r i t i n g phonography, a f e a t which seemed to him the p l a i n e s t proof of the s i m p l i c i t y of h i s system. He f r e q u e n t l y made the clai m that the Wawa Shorthand could be learned without a teacher i n one to three hours. I accepted h i s challenge, f i f t y years a f t e r he made i t , using h i s Wawa shorthand i n s t r u c t or as a guide. On J u l y 17, 1947, a f t e r about three hours of i n t e n s i v e work, I found myself able to write and to decipher simple e x e r c i s e s i n the system. I have a good working knowledge of another shorthand system, which may or may (125) not nave gi v e n me an advantage. The p r i n c i p l e of c e r t a i n strokes r e p r e s e n t i n g sounds and not l e t t e r s was a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r to me, hut I laboured under the disadvantage o f confusing the strokes of the two systems. What Father Le Jeune f a i l e d to point out i n h i s prospec tus was t h a t , while the theory of the system might he mastered i n a few hours, i t would take a much longer time t o a c q u i r e the necessary f l u e n c y t o put the system i n t o p r a c t i c a l use. (126) The Indian church, Kamloops reserve, with Fount Paul i n the background. (127) CHAPTER VI . FATHER LE JEUNE AS EDITOR, AUTHOR AND PUBLISHER The f i r s t number of Father Le Jeune's famous p u b l i c a t i o n , o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as "the queerest newspaper i n the world," was iss u e d on May 2, 1891. I t was e n t i t l e d the Kamloops Wawa and was w r i t t e n i n Chinook, Duployan shorthand, and E n g l i s h . I t began: "Ookook pepa iaka name Kamloops Wawa. Chi a l t a i a k a chako tanaz. Msaika alke t l a p iaka kanawe Sunday." ( T h i s paper i s named Kamloops Wawa. I t i s born just now. You w i l l r e c e i v e i t every Sunday). "Iaka alke kwanesem l o l o t l o u s wawa kopa msaika. Iaka help msaika pous ayak chako komtax pepa. K a l t a s h pous msaika tekop man, k a l t a s h pous msaika sawaj telikom." ( i t w i l l always c a r r y good words t o you. I t w i l l help you to l e a r n to read. No matter i f you be white people or I n d i a n s ) . "Pous msaika kwanesem eskom ookook pepa, msaika dret ayak chako komtax mamook ookook tsem."" ( i f you always take t h i s paper, you w i l l soon l e a r n t o w r i t e t h i s Phonography). "Wek ayaz makook ookook pepa, kopet i h t t a l a kopa i h t snow, i h t kwata t l o o n moon." ( T h i s paper w i l l not cost you very much, only one d o l l a r a year, one quarter every three months) . "SLo J a Bone, kopet pous i l e p msaika p a t l a c h ehikmin, p i msaika t l a p ookook pepa." (No c r e d i t , you have to pay cash, and then you w i l l r e c e i v e t h i s paper). "Poos wek msaika ayak eskom ookook pepa, msaika ayoo l o s t . " ( i f you do not subscribe f o r t h i s paper at once, you (128) No. 131. SO Centimes. 10 Cents. <?SL 00. Vol. W. lo. 8. KAMLOOPS WAWA. August, 1895. Th* Shorttstswy toltarn. the Jhortharul is though, the Chinook, anil th« short. «st way to Uarn. Hit uhinook i» through Iht Shorthand . On, the Cover of, ttui paper you. have, all lliat is nt«S - tasy for learning thu Sys- temojWrthand -^Tpjie f,h( Alphabet at Iht lop of htxl pajt, and on, f 0 <Uttph(r (very w/ora that tomes along. VW Will hardly Haft decipher ed all the matter on this cover, whin yott will bt Surprised to Jindyourielf familiar with a'Uhe «• crits o\ this Shorthand. ' This paper is now prod* ted by fVote Enyarina,a pretest which alWs space, for nearly times »i mad* /uJunqj as before. 0*e pane of (his UMteu** a: N «.h as f i/t pajCf of tSie j o r m . r number*. By iiur parihj «r .« ipau auui- find by LTtalith test m/uk ypc and the tarn* <» rHo i.j',,a;hj.aii« ne.r paat i» will be s.« A/ /hat MM pay* mjhorthand it MMIjl to f ntD puiff, ordinary type .M»S*'d/w»lh- 1/ at | f .01 per annum P/.i Juif £»• . . m t o w l t ' j 7i> ewr Reader*. ^ 40 S"» is /.>(? /tV Ins. c?t? ^ / J e i x s ^ ^ ^ s 9a '• op • % v —f^ is <*>a*?t \ «» b» «A lit- t/»tf^ W.2»iU>w* •y.y^< 4jt<P> up. «/s-. e»> v f n , >«*<•• 4 6 ^ e » > S _ / ^ ^ e*-v5 J - V V - , />«^ «. ifljfc^ i .»^6>eij»s k ,\; "1c<» fe.if*.**401" diiJriM I'diterof MamlMpt lMi*a. KamlMpi t>C Apprtnex la Ste'noara.. phit a I'aioU 4M Chinook <tle Chinook oi J aid* «U la SttVioejraphte,. , R ny a. pas d( <hem.in plus Courr pour apprtn. drt la Stenograph!e ^ u< par U Chinook, ej-il ny a. pas de theniin plus court pour apprendrc le Chinook eju«. par to. Ste'noejraphit. La Xenoa/aphx Puploy* ett"une St('no4raphit« o> •uvrrselle., s'adopro«l" aussi J-atiUmtnt ci UuSt let lanaues,Mwrt(S o»i* Vanttt. b a r barf s on C O M - lise'es. L( Chinook «it «MM m lanaaae, umversel. (tot fois pl»s f a u U t i ^ /a/>u'M% i ixp p r e no . m.h It fois plus r ift P«s m./ Iters <U prrjannrs de Aafei nations S'n son* wrmtk of $>n serpent tewaltsjaarsv I LAboiwvtmtnt • u n i t Lapterest d» unEotU.- . ou. tf/ny /rrfyl, i par <M- Wum«'r« Sp(i.">»", *»a»4 Linifuantt CffAmtf. £nveyi> d(» Tinxom fc* rranuv's. AntfW COM»W Adresseidlldihur JM Kttw.l<>»P>Waww lUimlMfl * < (Cn»«d*l Cover page of Kamloops Wawa, August, 1895. (129) l o s e very much.) . "Tloos nanich ookook pepa; wek iaka k a l t a s h . Pous wek msaika t l o o s nanich ookook pepa, a l k e iaka chako s i c k msaika tomtom." (Take care of t h i s paper; i t i s not a us e l e s s one. I f you do not take care of t h i s paper, you w i l l afterwards he very sorry f o r i t ) . The Kamloops Wawa went through many ups and downs during i t s f o u r t e e n years of exis t e n c e . I t was l a r g e l y a labour of love with Father Le J e u n e — i t s o r i g i n a t o r , p u b l i s h e r , p r i n t e r , business manager and stenographer. Single-handed he r a i s e d i t from a c i r c u l a t i o n of one hundred copies at the outset t o over three thousand copies a month wit h world-wide coverage. Even to-day, f o r t y - f o u r years a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of the l a s t copy, e n q u i r i e s s t i l l reach Kamloops as to how one may subscribe t o the Wawa. The term "Wawa" i s a Chinook word meaning " t a l k , " "speak," or"echo." Father Le Jeune i s s u e d volume 1, number 1 of h i s p u b l i c a t i o n on May 2, 1891, at one hundred mimeographed copies. I n d i a n women a s s i s t e d i n the mimeographing and m a i l i n g of the copies. Although i t was e v i d e n t l y h i s i n t e n t i o n to p u b l i s h the Wawa weekly, as sta t e d i n h i s opening number, i t was not u n t i l January 15, 1892, with number 9, that the p u b l i c a t i o n began to appear weekly. The Wawa was then issued once a week u n t i l the December 31st copy, 1893, when monthly p u b l i c a t i o n was begun. The monthly form was continued u n t i l December, 1900. From t h i s time u n t i l c e s s a t i o n of p u b l i c a t i o n i n December, 1904, the Wawa was issued q u a r t e r l y , the numbers coming out each March, June, (130) No. "53 50 Centimes p.2. -v .'TjKvK. » t r * <i.,i ! i.t> i. i|V».ai»« **.—*i*^SZig «• bj s — J — c " ~ r — k ^ - ' , ^ c l ' * 4 ' " * " p q 'y s t 10 Cents. Y o l . YL NO. 6. KAMLOOPS WAWA. Jnoe, 1897. THE WAWA SHORTHAND! easier The simplest system of Short hand in the world. The easiest to learn. A hundred times than the old writing. Two million people (2,000,000) throughout the world already "using the same shorthand. It is adapted to over twenty different languages. Can be learned without a tea cher in one to three hours. If you are a stranger to Short hand, take this paper and become acquainted with this useful art. If you have failed to learn Shorthand owing to the compli cation of the system you adopted, or from want of time, do not give up, but try this system, and won der at its simplicity. Time is precious. You will save time as soon n*. you ar<- nrqimint- ed with this phonography. THE KAMLOOPS WAWA! SHORTHAND AU0N0 INDIANS A Newspaper In Shorthand Circulating Among the Natives. Two Thousand Indians reading and writing Phonography. . . . The Plainest Proof of the Simpli city of the System A . N O V E L I D E A T O T E A C H T H E I N D I A N S S H O R T H A N D HOW CAN INDIANS LEARN SHORTHAND? Because Khorthand is a hundred nay » thousand time* t-lmplfr than the old writ ing. Any oue can l e a n It In a few hoars, and become expert in It In a few days. Many of our Indians learned It In two or three days. If you arc a lover of curious specimens, you must have this paper. It la "Tho Queerest Newspaper in the World" Subscribe civilize our for this paper, and help to Indiana, lo enlighten tin ' " - I I : "In darkness and the Your Subscription Solicited. Only One Dollar per Annum. A D D R E S S : " E D I T O R W A W A , K A M L O O P S , B.C." Cover page of Kamloops Wawa., June, 1897 (131) September and December. C i r c u l a t i o n -was h e l d at one hundred copies u n t i l December, 1892, when i t doubled. I n March, 1893, the number of copies i s s u e d had to be inc r e a s e d to f i v e hundred, i n June, 1893, t o one thousand, and l a t e r i n the same year t o twelve hundred. In January, 1895, two thousand copies were i s s u e d monthly, and peak c i r c u l a t i o n was reached during the years 1896, 1897, and 1898, when three thousand or more copies were d i s t r i b u t e d each month. ( 8 6 ) Mention should be made at t h i s time of c e r t a i n s p e c i a l i s s u e s of the Wawa p u b l i s h e d by Father Le Jeune during the years 1915, 1916, and 1917. These were mimeographed In lo n g  hand or t y p e w r i t t e n with a hectograph ribbon and reproduced on a copying pad. These i s s u e s , a l l w r i t t e n i n French, are r i c h i n i n formation and were doubtless intended by the author t o be r a t h e r reminiscences than a newspaper, p r o p e r l y speaking. ^ 8 7 ^ The e d i t o r i a l of March, 1916, c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h i s : " T h i s l i t t l e paper i s not i s s u e d by the m i l l i o n , not even by the thousand, not even by the hundred, but only two or three dozen c o p i e s , j u s t enough t o prevent the o r i g i n a l from being l o s t by having a few copies stored up i n case reference t o i t may be needed l a t e r on, when nothing e l s e can be found concerning the subjects that are d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s l i t t l e Issue." (88) (86) Inland S e n t i n e l . F r i d a y , Jan. 8, 1897, p. 8. (87) "The queerest newspaper i n the world," Oblate M i s s i o n s , - June, 194-6, p. 15, author not given. (88) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n FranQalse, March, 1916, p. 192. (132) The f i r s t mimeographed c o p i e s of the Wawa contained f o u r pages, a l l i n shorthand. The m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t e d of B i b l e h i s  t o r y i n Chinook, Chinook p r a y e r s , news of the v a r i o u s Indian bands, and announcements of the p r i e s t ' s forthcoming v i s i t s . When p u b l i c a t i o n went on a monthly b a s i s i n the year 1894, the volume of m a t e r i a l per issue was much increased, and s i x t e e n pages became the average number each month. A forward step was taken i n September, 1894, when the Wawa was f i r s t produced by the photo-engraving p r o c e s s . T h i s enabled the e d i t o r to condense f i v e times as much m a t e r i a l i n t o the same space as before. The s u b s c r i p t i o n p r i c e at t h i s time was one d o l l a r per annum. The e d i t o r ' s announcement s t a t e d that p o s t  age stamps were acceptable f o r t h i s — E n g l i s h , Canadian, or United S t a t e s . The f i r s t photograph appeared i n the November, 1894, i s s u e , and was one of the Very Rev. Father L o u i s S o u i l l i e r , S uperior- General of the 0. M. I . T h i s was f o l l o w e d from time to time by photographs of other d i s t i n g u i s h e d members of the Order, and of l o c a l churches and Indian groups. Father Le Jeune's s u p e r i o r s gave him every encouragement i n h i s e f f o r t s with the Wawa. The Holy Father Pope Leo XIII bestowed on i t a b l e s s i n g through H i s Lordship Bishop D u r i e u . The l a t t e r , t oo, Father Le Jeune s a i d , "helped i t s beginnings, enlightened i t s e d i t i n g , and c o n t r i b u t e d t o I t s pages a l a r g e amount of b e a u t i f u l Chinook m a t e r i a l . " (89) He was r e f e r r i n g (89) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, January, 1895, v o l . 4, no. 1, p. 1. (133) here to H i s Lordship's Chinook B i b l e h i s t o r y of the Old and New- Testaments , which was p u b l i s h e d s e r i a l l y i n the Wawa. F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was apparently forthcoming through the i n s t i g a t i o n of Very Rev. Father S o u i l l i e r because Father Le Jeune s a i d a f t e r  wards, "His encouraging v i s i t l a s t summer was q u i c k l y succeeded by the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t h i s paper from a poor p r o d u c t i o n of a mimeograph t o the most a t t r a c t i v e form of photo-engraving." (90) The f i n a n c i n g of h i s paper was always a source of worry to Father Le Jeune. By May, 1895, i t was c o s t i n g between seven hundred and a thousand d o l l a r s a year to produce. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , r e c e i p t s from s u b s c r i p t i o n s should have been ample to cover t h i s expense. H i s In d i a n s u b s c r i b e r s , however, were n o t o r i o u s l y slow i n p a ying and indeed the p r i e s t never pressed them f o r payment. I t was always h i s u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e to ob t a i n money enough from h i s white s u b s c r i b e r s , from donations, and from other sources t o l e t h i s Indian charges have the paper f o r a p u r e l y nominal sum. By A p r i l , 1896, the Wawa was going t o n e a r l y f i v e hundred s u b s c r i b e r s outside of the Indians, i n c l u d i n g f i f t e e n d i s t i n g u i s h e d P r e l a t e s and three hundred of the Reverend Clergy throughout Canada and the United S t a t e s . Some of the Kamloops' Indians p a i d t h e i r s u b s c r i p t i o n s to the Wawa i n potatoes. Others p a i d with gloves and moccasins, at the manufacture of which some of the Indians became very adept. (90) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa» January, 1895, v o l . 4, no. 1, p. 1. (91) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, A p r i l , 1896, v o l . 5, no. 4, p. 74. (134) U N K K A N C 28 CENTS •'•» 3• y7. r ~£"; « i ;• J • " i • • • ; ; T f " v^ l ••' ; '-.".'.V v; : . - Y ~ > < . . . . > v % i > r - 2 £ | Vv*f l 1 - x< . . .... v - f ' >V>V ^ - J ^ _-uv— -.TV k - l - r f . V o l . X I I . . N o . 8 KAMLOOPS WAWA Dec, 1903 //. P. OORDOiV. l-ioumlocps. B. C. \.< Furniture,Carpets, cloves wild liarawar*. i » As' A, T-T; <^tv -<e# «A; , •-' <MtttHium <tM<ff(/y, - I'auccu iw.BJC •i-<«-f« ~i A ^ i ^ ! -A cijo tie '•^••t^cjp ' Fcrilclhinacjallliifuii, yrOiici--iff, Tea.lCcfict; Tewfttarieti}ir<~asht The Ptz<c Ltrudi is at/ -V.c Arthur S Harper. • XX. Houj^ e Central .4(trch&nt, ^VitUa. Zak-c. AC. £. 0. ?rugr if Co. UmilttiiuUtlly, lwporters •' Irorv, bled, amd. General Hardware., JlqruuUurO-l ImpU - merit, UJaytmi, . Suyyies, etc.. ^£> A, O'S ' ^ • Vixlona., Vancouver Ham/. T V QuilcVitna. Hotel Vltcwr tr . t C t n t r t oV ^TCCola. Z - O L K C . ^ . C"mAWi S o u l K c f H a w l l w i p i JtHcatK. ancL Saturn** Resort- B e o L u l i f u l Scenery ,»..>.* C0.ma.te-. td. C - R o u r H t . Prop. To h o A J t t « < B«it QvLoiUt»< , u.1 iht leweit PriCei, DMAI uour C<roctrie» at: <SL/iii oO 6(<, t J3<,^_j Co*. et\ A P. 21 »^/!. RourKc. HamloepS. k. Cover pap;e of Kamioors Wawa, December, 1903. (135) With, considerable d i v e r s i t y of t a s t e among h i s s u b s c r i b e r s , i t was not easy f o r Father Le Jeune to ple a s e them a l l i n the contents of the Wawa. Some complained that there was not s u f f i c i e n t E n g l i s h r e a d i n g , while a number of the Indians d i d not f i n d as much m a t e r i a l i n Chinook as they would have l i k e d . Other s u b s c r i b e r s wanted more i l l u s t r a t i o n s , and s t i l l others wanted more matter p u b l i s h e d about shorthand. In a l e t t e r t o the e d i t o r of the Inland S e n t i n e l Father Le Jeune t o l d of some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of h i s l i f e as a p u b l i s h e r : You would wonder i f you saw how my l i f e i s spent i n t h i s country. I have t o attend from two to three thousand Indians and other people s c a t t e r e d along a c i r c u i t of s i x hundred m i l e s . I am c o n t i n  u a l l y on the go, and, of d e l i c a t e h e a l t h as I am, I am the f i r s t t o wonder how I stand i t . I have been t h i s way now f o r seventeen years. So the Wawa occu p i e s only a few of my l e i s u r e hours each month. About twelve hours of w r i t i n g are s u f f i c i e n t f o r the making out of the copy. Another book, which has kept me busy f o r a whole year, i s the Indian p r a y e r book, i n eleven languages, which has ju s t been com p l e t e d . So I f e e l somewhat r e l i e v e d . But the har dest t h i n g to contend with i s the expense of p u b l i  shing the paper and the books. Each page has t o be w r i t t e n by hand with a s p e c i a l ink and then t o be photo-engraved. For the f i r s t h a l f of the work, each p l a t e cost $2.00. Happily now they are made f o r much l e s s . Yet nobody should wonder at l e a r n  i n g that #1,000 w i l l h a r d l y cover the d e f i c i t . Of course a l i t t l e encouragement would enable me t o pursue the work begun and to i s s u e f o r t h essays or stu d i e s on the languages of s e v e r a l t r i b e s of Indians i n B r i t i s h Columbia, which should be con si d e r e d of some importance. (92) The l i s t of business f i r m s using the Kamloops Wawa as an a d v e r t i s i n g medium forms an i n t e r e s t i n g study. (92) Inland S e n t i n e l , F r i d a y , May 28, 1897, p. 6. (136) The f i r s t and most c o n s i s t e n t a d v e r t i s e r through i t s h i s t o r y was a Montreal p u b l i s h i n g house, D. and J . S a d l i e r and Company. Using the Wawa columns f o r the f i r s t time i n Septem ber, 1894, t h i s company drew a t t e n t i o n t o i t s d e v o t i o n a l , doc t r i n a l and i n s t r u c t i o n a l books. The newspapers of Kamloops a d v e r t i s e d f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t l y i n the Wawa. The Inland S e n t i n e l d e s c r i b e d i t s e l f as a news paper i n touch with the mining, ranching and commercial i n t e r  ests of the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t s r i v a l , the Kamloops Standard, began a d v e r t i s i n g i n the Wawa i n October, 1897. T h i s paper, whose manager was J . T. Robinson, de s c r i b e d i t s e l f as the l e a d i n g newspaper of the Inland C a p i t a l and the only paper that gave a l l the news. Hotel s of Kamloops and other i n t e r i o r p o i n t s were always represented i n the a d v e r t i s i n g columns of the Wawa. We note a few of these as f o l l o w s . The Cosmopolitan H o t e l , w i t h J o s . Ratchford as p r o p r i e t o r , described i t s e l f as the oldest estab l i s h e d house i n Kamloops. The advertisement of t h i s h o t e l appeared l a t e r with R u s s e l l and Herod as p r o p r i e t o r s . I t made a s p e c i a l f e a t u r e of i t s f r e e bus t o a l l t r a i n s and i t s good s t a b l i n g i n connection. The Quilchena Hotel was l o c a t e d , the copy s a i d , "near the centre of N i c o l a Lake," f i f t y m i les south of Kamloops. I t s p r o p r i e t o r , Ed. O'Rourke, described h i s l o c a l i t y as a h e a l t h and summer r e s o r t , with b e a u t i f u l scenery and climate. Marshall and Smith were p r o p r i e t o r s of the C l i n t o n H o t e l , on the overland route to the K l o n d i k e . (137) The advertisement of the Montreal Hotel, Kamloops, B. G. , redecorated and refurnished throughout, and under the proprie torship of N. Latremouille, appeared frequently. The Grand Pacific Hotel, Kamloops, B. C., was described as the nearest house to the railway station and the only conven ient hotel for railway travellers. Its proprietor, P. A. Barn- hart, made a feature of its good rooms, good table, good liquors and good stabling in connection. Transportation companies using the Wawa columns as an advertising medium were the Canadian Pacific Railway Company and the British Columbia Express Company. The former company, over the signature of i t s Kamloops' agent, J . N. Trickey, and Its Vancouver district passenger agent, Geo. McL. Brown, ad vertised the Canadian Pacific Railway as the best and cheapest route to a l l eastern points with fewest changes and quickest time. In A p r i l , 1898, the advertisement of this company began appearing over the signatures of W. 0. Miller, agent at Kam loops, and E. J . Coyle, district passenger agent at Vancouver. The British Columbia Express Company, with head office at Ashcroft, gave a good deal of advertising space to the Wawa• Its manager and superintendent was S. Tingley, and its general agent was J . J . Mackay. This pioneer transportation company offered passage north from Ashcroft to Barkerville and a l l intermediate points and connections every Monday and Friday morning at 5:30 o'clock; returning stages arrived in Ashcroft every Tuesday and Saturday. Other stages travelled between Ashcroft and Clinton, and (138) between Ashcroft and L i l l o o e t v i a the Marble Canyon. Single f a r e s between Ashcroft and C l i n t o n were $5.00, while r e t u r n t i c k e t s , good f o r eight days, were s o l d f o r $8.00. This com pany would also f u r n i s h extra stages or s p e c i a l r i g s (buggies or l i g h t stages) at short n o t i c e . A t t e n t i o n was drawn to t h e i r feed s t a b l e s and c o r r a l at A s h c r o f t , w i t h water on the premises where the best care would be given at moderate r a t e s . Merchandising f i r m s were represented i n the a d v e r t i s i n g columns of the Wawa by the f o l l o w i n g : James V a i r , Kamloops, dealer and manufacturer i n stoves, t i n w a r e , plumbing, hardware, p a i n t s , o i l and g l a s s ; M. P. Gordon, Kamloops, f u r n i t u r e , c a r  p e t s , window-shades, e t c . ; M. G a g l i e t t o , Kamloops, general mer chant; Jas* McMillan and Company, Minneapolis, Minn., dealer i n raw f u r s ; P. 3. Smith, Kamloops, es t a b l i s h e d 1883, dealer i n dry goods, g r o c e r i e s , boots and shoes, c l o t h i n g , m i l l i n e r y , c a r p e t s , house f u r n i s h i n g s , etc.; E. G. P r i o r and Company, with o f f i e e s i n V i c t o r i a , Vancouver, and Kamloops, importers of i r o n s t e e l , general hardware, a g r i c u l t u r a l instruments, waggons, buggies, e t c . ; J . R. H u l l and Company, Kamloops, e s t a b l i s h e d 1880, purveyors of meat, c o n t r a c t o r s , and general dealers i n l i v e stock; Hudson's Bay Company, Kamloops, the oldest f u r traders-j established 1670; Harvey and B a i l e y , A s h c r o f t , gener a l merchants; Robert Cha r t e r s , Quilchena, general merchant; McLennan and McPeely, Cordova S t r e e t , Vancouver, dealer i n stoves and hardware; R. McLughan, Kamloops, dealer i n stoves and tinware, a l l kinds of t i n , sheet i r o n , plumbing and heating work done; D. P. Selby, Quilchena, general merchant; Ma l l e r y ' s (139) Drug S t o r e , Main S t r e e t , Kamloops; and H. S t e f f e n s , L y t t o n , dealer i n g r o c e r i e s , dry goods, c o n f e c t i o n e r y , boots and shoes, t i n goods, f l o u r , f r u i t , e t c . , f u l l miners' s u p p l i e s , every t h i n g kept i n stock, butcher shop i n connection with f r e s h meat every day. The Kamloops Wawa from i t s beginning was taken by the B r i t i s h Museum, London, by the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t e , Washing ton, by the P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, by the A s t o r L i b r a r y , by the L i b r a r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of the S t a t e of New York, and by L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , Quebec. A l l these i n  s t i t u t i o n s , Father Le Jeune s a i d , "remitted very w i l l i n g l y f o r the paper. H (93) In a d d i t i o n , a number of exchanges with other p u b l i c a t i o n s were entered i n t o by the e d i t o r of the Wawa. ( 9 4 ) A complete l i s t of these p e r i o d i c a l s , with comments by Father Le Jeune, appears i n Appendix A. T h i s wide-spread exchange of the Wawa with p u b l i c a t i o n s of seve r a l c o u n t r i e s i n two cont i n e n t s d i d much to p u b l i c i z e the work which Father Le Jeune was doing among the Indians. Many of the exchange p u b l i c a t i o n s p r i n t e d accounts of the Wawa and of Father Le Jeune. The I l l u s t r a t e d phonographic world f o r June, 1895, p r i n t e d an a r t i c l e on the Kamloops Wawa along with a reproduction of the f i r s t page of the "Sugar Cane T i n t i n , " an a r t i c l e i n the (93) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, A p r i l , 1895, v o l . 4, no. 4, p. 66. (94) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, May, 1895, p. 67; August, 1895, pp. 113, 114; November,, 1895 , p. 161. (140) March, 1895, Wawa. The Chicago Sunday Her a l d of November 25, 1894, p r i n t e d a long a r t i c l e by Miss M a i b e l l e J u s t i c e covering the h i s t o r y of the Wawa and i t s e d i t o r . Even thfcftty young students i n a high school i n Belgium learned Chinook, and the e d i t o r of a P a r i s newspaper a p p l i e d to Father Le Jeune f o r l e s s o n s i n the Chinook jargon. That Father Le Jeune was a most p r o l i f i c w r i t e r i s e v i  denced by the f a c t that i n the year 1916 he estimated that he had w r i t t e n and compiled at l e a s t 3,500 pages of m a t e r i a l . (^7) Since a good de a l of t h i s w r i t i n g was i n shorthand c h a r a c t e r s , and t h e r e f o r e condensed, i t i s probable that hts c o n t r i b u t i o n s would reach over t e n thousand pages of ordinary t y p e w r i t i n g . A l i s t of Father Le Jeune fs works, as complete as I have been able to a s c e r t a i n , i s g i v e n i n Appendix B, along with a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of each. (95) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, November, 1895, v o l . 4, no. 11, p. 161. (96) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, A p r i l , 1895, v o l . 4, no. 4, p. 49. (97) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa. E d i t i o n F r a n c h i s e , December, 1916, p. 277. (141) CHAPTER VII. THE CLOSING YEARS. Twice i n the last decade of his career at Kamloops, Father Le Jeune was honoured by the Kamloops Rotary Club. At i t s luncheon on Wednesday, December 27, 1922, the club was host to Father Le Jeune and other pioneers of the city and d i s t r i c t . Called upon to say a few words, the priest spoke in humourous vein, telling the gathering many incidents of his l i f e and work among the Indians, but stressing the lighter side of events and minimizing the hardships which he had encountered. (^ 8) Again on Wednesday, September 15, 1926, Father Le Jeune was a guest and this time chief speaker at the Rotary luncheon. Introduced by another pioneer and friend of forty-four years' standing, Mr. John F. Smith, the priest was greeted by a s p i r i  ted round of applause. Upon this occasion he spoke in more serious vein, giving the Rotarians an account of the v i s i t s to Kamloops and district of some of the early Catholic missionar ies- He described the work done by Father Nobili among the Indians of thfes region during the years 1843—44. He also made reference to that strange Indian character, Lolo St. Paul, who exercised such an influence over his compatriots during the middle years of the nineteenth century. Mr. A. C. Taylor, Rotary president, thanked Father Le Jeune heartily on behalf of the club. .(98) "Pioneers of city and district honoured," Kamloops Sentinel . Friday, 29 December, 1922, p. 1. (99) "In Dominion for forty-seven years," Kamloops Sentinel, , Friday, 17 September, 1926, p. 1.. (142) Father Le Jeune remained a c t i v e i n h i s work u n t i l h i s retirement. During the summer of the year 1928 Father George Forbes, 0. M. I . , a r r i v e d at Kamloops to take over Ghu Ghua (North Thompson) and the missions east of Kamloops, but Father Le Jeune continued to v i s i t the missions around M e r r i t t , Kam lo o p s , Deadman's Creek and Bonaparte. Every F r i d a y or Satur day morning he went to one of these missions and returned u s u a l l y on Monday or Tuesday. Sometimes he v i s i t e d and s a i d Mass i n more than one m i s s i o n during a t r i p . Father Le Jeune had been a t i r e l e s s worker a l l h i s l i f e , but by the summer of 1928, he began to age r a p i d l y . Symptoms of general f a t i g u e increased as the year went on, and i n a d d i t i o n he g r a d u a l l y became more and more f o r g e t f u l . One day i n the e a r l y s p r i n g of 1929, Father Forbes, upon r e t u r n i n g from one of h i s m i s s i o n s , was t o l d that Father Le Jeune had f a l l e n down the s t a i r s of the Kamloops Rectory and broken h i s arm. He h u r r i e d to t h e Rectory and found Father Le Jeune f u l l y c l o t h e d and dozing on h i s bed. He asked him what had happened. Father Le Jeune appeared somewhat dazed and t r i e d to get up. He had f o r g o t t e n that he had hurt h i s arm and could not r e c a l l f a l l i n g . I t was f i n a l l y d i s c l o s e d that he had b r u i s e d but not broken h i s arm, and that he had f a l l e n very h e a v i l y on h i s head. From that time on, he became more and more f o r g e t f u l . One day, when he was to go to a c e r t a i n mission, he went to another i n a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n . The t r u t h i s that he was worn out, p h y s i c a l l y and mentally, and too i l l to c a r r y on any ( 1 4 3 ) longer. H i s mind f o r the most part was s t i l l b r i g h t and unim p a i r e d , but h i s general h e a l t h and p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s f o r g e t f u l - ness were such that h i s S u p e r i o r s decided to r e t i r e him, much as they r e g r e t t e d t o do so. I t was commonly s a i d that to take him from h i s work would k i l l him. I t d i d , but the f a c t remains that h i s p e r i o d of u s e f u l n e s s was over and younger men had to be found to take h i s p l a c e . I n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s matter of Father Le Jeune's retirement, Father Forbes says, "He was a p e r f e c t gentleman, a hard-working missi o n a r y , and one of the k i n d e s t of men. You c o u l d not help but admire and love, and towards the end, p i t y him. H i s being r e t i r e d was a blow that hurt him as he had never been hurt b e f o r e , but he accepted orders and followed them." ( 1 0 0 ) Father Le Jeune's f r i e n d s and a s s o c i a t e s at Kamloops d i d not f o r g e t to pay t h e i r t r i b u t e t o him upon the occasion of the c e l e b r a t i o n of h i s golden j u b i l e e of o r d i n a t i o n t o the p r i e s t h o o d . That memorable event took p l a c e on the evening of June 7, 1 9 2 9 , f i f t y years to the very day from the time of h i s o r d i n a t i o n . At the c l o s e of the evening s e r v i c e s i n the Church of the Sacred Heart, those i n attendance r e t i r e d to the p a r i s h h a l l where complimentary speeches were gi v e n and p r e s e n t a t i o n s made t o the o l d p r i e s t . Mr. John F. Smith was s e l e c t e d by the gathering to make the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a purse of gold on b e h a l f of the congregation and a box of c i g a r s from the male members. ( 1 0 0 ) Forbes, Rev. George, 0 . M". I . , l e t t e r to the author, 16 October, 1947. (144) He spoke of the respect i n which the p r i e s t had always been h e l d by the whole community, h i s reminiscences spanning f o r t y - seven years of a s s o c i a t i o n with him. He c a r r i e d h i s l i s t e n e r s back to June, 1882, when he f i r s t met Father Le Jeune at L y t t o n , and t o l d of the Father's e f f o r t s i n g e t t i n g b u i l t h i s f i r s t l i t t l e church. Upon i t s completion Mr. Smith had served as a l t a r boy and c h o i r master. A f t e r the two p r e s e n t a t i o n s by Mr. Smith, Mrs. A. S. Way presented f l o w e r s to Father Le Jeune. (l°l) A few days a f t e r t h i s ceremony i n Sacred Heart Ohurch p a r i s h h a l l , Father Le Jeune l e f t Kamloops f o r the l a s t time and t r a v e l l e d t o New Westminster. E a r l y i n September, members of the Oblate Order i n B r i t i s h Columbia gathered at the l a t t e r c i t y t o take p a r t i n the e x e r c i s e s of t h e i r annual r e t r e a t . Opportunity was taken at t h i s time to honour Father Le Jeune when a Solemn High Mass was conducted i n S t . Peter's church. H i s E x c e l l e n c y Archbishop Duke p r e s i d e d over t h i s ceremony and there were a l s o present many r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the various re l i g i o u s orders, Very Rev. W. Byrne Grant, the 0. M. I . P r o v i n  c i a l , and some twenty-five Oblate Fathers. (l°2) The winter of 1929—30 was passed by Father Le Jeune i n New Westminster. H i s h e a l t h was good f o r the most p a r t , and he was able to make several t r i p s t o Vancouver to v i s i t f r i e n d s f (101) "Father Le Jeune's golden j u b i l e e i s remembered here," - Kamloops S e n t i n e l , F r i d a y , 14 June, 1929. (102) Kamloops S e n t i n e l , 10 September, 1929, p. 1. (145) i n company with Father Steve Murphy, 0. M. I . He occupied h i s time by reading a great d e a l , hut h i s c h i e f d e l i g h t was con v e r s a t i o n with a l l who would give him audience. H i s memory had not been good now f o r some time; he was o f t e n inaccurate i n h i s r e c i t a l of events which had taken p l a c e i n h i s e a r l i e r l i f e . But f o r the most p a r t he r e t a i n e d good c o n t r o l of h i s mental f a c u l t i e s . H i s f r i e n d s and a s s o c i a t e s o f t e n urged him to put down on paper h i s memoirs, but there i s l i t t l e evidence that he wrote very much during t h i s l a s t w i n t e r of h i s l i f e . One morning e a r l y i n A p r i l , 1930, he was taken i l l s h o r t l y a f t e r b r e a k f a s t . A haemorrhage developed, the doctor was c a l l e d , and Father Le Jeune was taken to S t . Mary's H o s p i t a l . I t i s b e l i e v e d that he s u f f e r e d from some form of cancer of the stomach. (•L^^) Durin g the summer he became p e r c e p t i b l y weaker as the months went by, and f i n a l l y passed away during the morning hours of F r i d a y , November 21. (104) Funeral s e r v i c e s were h e l d on the f o l l o w i n g Monday morn i n g , November 24, at 10:30, at S t . P e t e r ' s Church, when Requiem Mass was s a i d by h i s f r i e n d , Father Murphy. (l0§) Interment took p l a c e the next day i n the Oblate cemetery at S t . Mary's M i s s i o n , M i s s i o n C i t y . ' At the M i s s i o n Church Father George Forbes, 0. M. I . , a s s o c i a t e of Father Le Jeune's (103) Murphy, Father S., 0. M. I . , New Westminster, i n t e r v i e w with the author, 15 August, 1947. (104) The B r i t i s h Columbian, New Westminster, B. C., F r i d a y , 21 November, 1930, p. 8. (105) The B r i t i s h Columbian, Monday, 24 November, 1930, p, 2. (146) at Kamloops, p a i d a h i g h l y eloquent and moving t r i b u t e to the pioneer missionary. He s a i d i n p a r t : The good Shuswap Indians whom d i r e c t poverty alone prevents from being here, and the Indians of the Thompson and the N i c o l a V a l l e y s have asked me to t e l l you how much they g r i e v e at the death of him who f o r f i f t y years laboured and prayed and su f f e r e d f o r them. Had you seen not only the women and c h i l d r e n but even strong men break down and weep when they heard that Father Le Jeune had d i e d , you would have r e a l i z e d how they l o v e d him whom they c a l l e d ' P r e s s a n t — P e r e S a i n t , ' the holy p r i e s t . They have asked me t o t e l l you how deeply they r e  g r e t , as the people of Kamloops r e g r e t , that they have been denied the p r i v i l e g e of having t h e i r f r i e n d and Father b u r i e d i n t h e i r midst. Had he been l a i d to r e s t i n the f i e l d of h i s l a b o u r s , the Indians from a hundred m i l e s and more would have gathered i n t h e i r hundreds to j o i n with the Catho l i c s and non-Catholics of the I n t e r i o r i n paying f i t t i n g homage to him whom a l l l o v e d and revered and admired. Deprived of that p r i v i l e g e , they have asked me t o beg you t o u n i t e with them i n prayer f o r the soul of him whom to know was to l o v e . Father Forbes went on to speak of Father Le Jeune's b i r t h and education i n France. He t o l d of h i s b r i l l i a n t c areer as a young student, of h i s o r d i n a t i o n , and of h i s f i r s t appoint ment as Ch a p l a i n at the N a t i o n a l Shrine. Despite the strenuous and s a t i s f y i n g nature of the work of t h i s p o s t , Father Le Jeune was not content. He yearned f o r d u t i e s s t i l l more arduous, and, i n h i s mind, more h e r o i c . With c h a r a c t e r i s t i c energy he be sieged h i s r e l i g i o u s S u p e r i o r s u n t i l they f i n a l l y granted h i s request and immediately, i n company with Father Chirouse, he l e f t h i s home, h i s f r i e n d s , h i s n a t i v e land, t o spend himself and to be spent i n the Indian missions of B r i t i s h Columbia. Father Forbes then t r a c e d the beginnings of the Oblate Order and p o i n t e d out that the Order had o r i g i n a l l y been ( 1 4 7 ) Indian church, Lov/er Nicola, B. C. (148) founded, not t o do Indian work, "but to r e p a i r the ravages which the French R e v o l u t i o n had caused i n C a t h o l i c France. But i n the year 1842, i n answer to a p l e a from the Bishop of Montreal to come to the rescue of the Church i n Canada, the Oblates had responded i n a most g r a t i f y i n g manner. They volunteered f o r the f o r e i g n missions i n such numbers that w i t h i n ten years t h e i r missions stretched from Labrador to the P a c i f i c Coast and extended f a r i n t o the A r c t i e C i r c l e . The m i s s i o n a r i e s sent to Canada, continued Father Forbes, were s p i r i t u a l and mental g i a n t s . They found t h e i r missions pagan and they l e f t them staunchly G a t h o l i c . They found the n a t i v e s s i t t i n g i n the shadow of death and they l e d them to that l i g h t which e n l i g h t e n e t h every man coming i n t o the world. They found them steeped i n pagan ism, i n s u p e r s t i t i o n , i n immorality, and they l e f t them b e l i e v e r s i n C h r i s t and p r a c t i c e r s of H i s law. Father Le Jeune d i d not need f e a r having h i s r e c o r d compared with that of any of these men. They were s p i r i t u a l and mental g i a n t s and so was he. For f i f t y y e a r s , even when he was i n h i s s e v e n t i e s , he rose at a very e a r l y hour and prayed f o r h i s Indians before saying Mass f o r them. Hun dreds of times, with a heavy suitease strapped on h i s back and one i n each hand he walked twenty mi l e s and more a day. At other times he f o r c e d h i s weary canoe up treacherous r i v e r s or rodte over r o a d l e s s mountains on h i s I n d i a n pony. He g e n e r a l l y c a r r i e d a l i t t l e r i c e and"a l o a f of bread, h i s usual food, but many a time, even as h i s successors of to-day, he had to go without food u n t i l l a t e at n i g h t , and that f o o d was at times decayed f i s h . As we t r a v e l i n r a i l w a y coaches or r i d e i n automobiles or as we s i t i n our easy c h a i r s we do not r e a l i z e what f o r h a l f a century t h i s veteran d i d and s u f f e r e d , and perhaps as we s i t i n a comfortable room we seek t o . p i c k out f l a w s i n h i s work which i f we compared our work with h i s , we ought to hang our heads i n shame. Few people know, what t h i s missionary s u f f e r e d f o r C h r i s t and f o r souls because h i s s m i l i n g face and j o v i a l conversation were a mask behind which h i s h u m i l i t y h i d h i s heroism. (149) Indian cemetery, Lower Nicola, B . (150) He i s gone, "but h i s work remains. Count the churches between Salmon Arm and North l e n d , be tween Chu Chua and Coldwater, and you have counted so many monuments t o h i s z e a l . Number the hundreds he b a p t i z e d and you have numbered the jewels i n h i s crown. Count those c r o s s e s i n the Indian grave yards and you have counted so many p a i n f u l journeys to I n dian deathbeds* Look at those healed scars and those healthy Indians and you have seen the so many t e s t i m o n i a l s t o the medical s k i l l of him who was as p r o f i c i e n t as a medical doctor as he was a p h y s i c i a n of s o u l s . (106) G-o i n t o any Indian church, open the prayer book, and i n a dozen languages you w i l l f i n d the f r u i t s of h i s l a b o u r s . How d i d he f i n d the time f o r a l l the r e l i g i o u s and a l l the s c i e n t i f i c and medical work he did? Had you seen him, book i n hand, pl o d d i n g along on f o o t or on horseback or i n h i s canoe, you would know the answer. Go i n t o h i s Indian churches and you w i l l f i n d Indians there saying t h e i r morning and night p r a y e r s he composed f o r them and which he taught them t o read. Go t o t h e i r churches on Sundays and, whether the missionary i s there or not, you w i l l hear them sin g the K y r i e , the G l o r i a , the Credo, the Sanctus, the Agnus D e i . Go to these churches when the p r i e s t i s there and you w i l l f i n d the c o n f e s s i o n a l besieged (106) I could f i n d no evidence that Father Le Jeune ever per formed s u r g i c a l o p e r a t i o n s , as Father Coccola i s repor ted to have done i n emergencies. There i s , however, evidence "that he had some con s i d e r a b l e knowledge of medicine and d i d on many occasions o f f e r the b e n e f i t of h i s knowledge t o the Indians and white s e t t l e r s throughout the country. L i k e some other m i s s i o n a r i e s he probably found that an understanding of at l e a s t elementary medicine would be most u s e f u l to combat the "Indian doctors" who, i n t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s , opposed C h r i s t i a n i t y . Father Forbes s t a t e s that Father Le Jeune possessed several French medical books and that he studied and used the knowledge gained from them. During the 1918 i n f l u e n z a ep|)fl.emic , he turned a number of h i s Indian churches i n t o h o s p i t a l s and spent days and n i g h t s nursing the s i c k . He had a personal theory about the e f f i c a c y of charcoal and, during the epidemic, kept sucking some and d i d not f a l l i l l . According t o h i s theory, charcoal drew poisons t o i t s e l f which were l a t e r evacuated. Father Le Jeune a l s o appears to have had some success i n the use of epsom s a l t s f o r the (151) and the communion t a b l e crowded. Try to f i n d a p a r i s h i n western Canada or i n e a s t e r n Can ada where one hundred p e r cent of the f a i t h f u l have performed t h e i r d u t i e s and when you have searched and searched i n v a i n f o r such a p a r i s h , come with infe and I w i l l take you t o one of Father Le Jeune's missions to f i n d a p a r i s h where there i s not an u n b e l i e v e r , not a non- C a t h o l i c , and when you have f a i l e d t o f i n d such a p a r i s h I w i l l take you t o a l l the missions Father Le J e u n e , l e f t i n my care. What p a s t o r of s o u l s but envies such a r e c o r d as that of Father Le Jeune? What p a s t o r of souls but wonders and admires and i s s i l e n t ? I w i l l not dwell upon Father Le Jeune*s work among the p i o n e e r settlements nor upon the f a c t that while he numbered hosts of non- C a t h o l i c s among h i s f r i e n d s , there was never a man of any creed or race who ever met him without becoming h i s f r i e n d and admirer. I n c l o s i n g l e t me remind you that h i s Indians have asked me to beg you to u n i t e with them i n p r a y e r f o r the repose, of h i s s o u l . They know h i s z e a l and they know h i s s a n c t i t y . They c a l l him ' p r e s s a n t — P e r e S a i n t , ' that i s 'the h o l y p r i e s t . ' And they beg you t o pray f o r him because they r e a l i z e that t o him who has r e c e i v e d more, more s h a l l be r e q u i r e d . They know that he r e c e i v e d f i v e t a l e n t s and that he has had to r e t u r n another f i v e . L et us then f e r v e n t l y pray f o r him and f o r h i s l i f e - l o n g f r i e n d , whom you a l l loved, the s a i n t l y and h e r o i c Father Chirouse. May t h e i r souls and the s o u l s of t h e i r h e r o i c a s s o c i a t e s and the souls of a l l the f a i t h f u l departed, through the mercy of God, r e s t i n peace. Amen. (107) (106) treatment of rheumatism. He had the p a t i e n t put a quan t i t y i n hot water and l i e i n i t f o r a time. In h i s l a t e r years on the missions there were of course doc t o r s and h o s p i t a l s i n Kamloops, M e r r i t t , Salmon Arm and A s h c r o f t , t o which p l a c e s he sent or t r i e d to send the s i c k . (107) "Father Le Jeune's f u n e r a l , " Kamloops S e n t i n e l , 2 Decem ber, 1930, p. 1. (152) Headstone marking the grave of Father Le Jeune at St. Mary's, M i s s i o n C i t y , B. C. When we v i s i t e d the snot on August 16, 1947, an overhanging hough from a nearby tr e e obscured the name and darkened the grave. The p r i e s t accompanying us c a l l e d f o r one of the caretakers, a young P o l i s h boy, who came with an axe and trimmed the t r e e , thus enabling us to take the above p i c t u r e . Father Le Jeune's grave i s at the north end of one of s e v e r a l long rows of graves of the Oblate Fa t h e r s . H i s l i f e - l o n g f r i e n d and a s s o c i a t e , Father E. C. Chirouse, i s buried not f a r away. (153) News of Father Le Jeune's death cast a gloom over Kam l o o p s — t h e c i t y which had been h i s headquarters and where he had been a f a m i l i a r f i g u r e f o r so l o n g . Commenting e d i t o r  i a l l y upon h i s p a s s i n g the Kamloops S e n t i n e l remarked: The death of Father Le Jeune l e a v e s a blank that none can f i l l . He was unique. F e a r l e s s , i n d e f a t i g a b l e , h i s l i f e consecra ted , he served h i s cause with joy and laugh t e r . Nothing p l e a s e d him l i k e a new s t o r y . H i s was a chaste mind. And he loved h i s Indians and chastened them, e s p e c i a l l y when they were s i c k and needed c a s t o r o i l . Father Le Jeune saw t h i s country change from a wilderness to a s e t t l e d , and law-abi ding l a n d . He belonged t o those pioneers who could say they were here before the r a i l  way. He helped to make h i s t o r y and was at the very beginning of t h i n g s here, being widely sought and consulted, as the sketch of h i s c a r e e r i n t h i s issue w i l l show. He was s u p e r i o r to the mere conventions of l i f e . H i s cassock was o f t e n s o i l e d ; weeks on the road might make h i s e x t e r i o r dusty and grimy. But the heart was u n s u l l i e d and he had the outlook of a c h i l d and a l l of a boy's sheer joy of a simple j e s t . As he went h i s way through the country he never f o r g o t h i s a b i d i n g hobby. Gypsies would have named him 'Lavengro,' or 'word master.' Nothing p l e a s e d him more than language, and he gave to the world i n short hand a j o u r n a l l i k e none other, w i t h a s t o r y that s t i l l p e r s i s t s i n t r a v e l l i n g around the world. I t i s with regret that we see the Reverend Father depart, even although he had run h i s course. Men of a l l races and r e l i g i o n s would r e a d i l y j o i n i n the amen to the 'Well done, good and f a i t h f u l servant,' as a p p l i e d to t h i s good l i t t l e man of God. (108) (108) "The l a t e Father Le Jeune," Kamloops S e n t i n e l , 25 Novem- , ber, 1930, p. 4. (154) CHAPTER V I I I . FATHER LE JEUNE THE MAN. What was the s e c r e t of Father Le Jeune's success as a missionary among the Indians? P a r t l y i t l i e s i n h i s long a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the same hands; i n f i f t y years r o o t s grow deep. But mostly i t l i e s with the man h i m s e l f — w i t h those q u a l i t i e s of mind and body which combine to make p e r s o n a l i t y or c h a r a c t e r . What manner o f man, then, was Father Le Jeune? To answer t h i s question I went t o h i s f r i e n d s and acquaintances. ( 1 0 9 ) I interviewed people who had met him but once and I t a l k e d w i t h Mrs. A. E . Way, o f Kamloops, who knew him w e l l f o r over f o r t y y e a r s . In p h y s i c a l appearance Father Le Jeune was of short, stocky b u i l d , about f i v e f e e t f o u r inches i n height, and weighing about one hundred f o r t y pounds. He h e l d h i m s e l f ere c t and d i d not become stooped even i n h i s o l d age. H i s beard, which was o f a r e d d i s h t i n g e i n h i s younger days, (109) M a t e r i a l f o r t h i s chapter was obtained l a r g e l y through interviews w i t h the f o l l o w i n g : — (a) Mrs. A. E. Way, of Kamloops, who was born at Tran- q u i l l e and who knew Father Le Jeune w e l l f o r over f o r t y years. (b) Mr. W i l l i a m Brennan, of Kamloops, an old-timer of the c i t y and d i s t r i c t , and a keen student of e a r l y C a t h o l i c h i s t o r y i n t h i s part of the province. (c) Mr. Fred Irwin, whose f a t h e r was Indian Agent f o r some years and a s s o c i a t e d very c l o s e l y w i t h Father Le Jeune while employed i n that c a p a c i t y . (d) The l a t e Mr. D. J . MacDonald, purchasing agent f o r the Canadian Northern Railway Company when i t was b u i l d i n g through the North Thompson V a l l e y . (e) Mr. G-. D. Brown, J r . , student of the e a r l y h i s t o r y of Kamloops, with a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the l i f e of the Indian c h i e f , L o l o S t . P a u l . (155) turned to a dark gray c o l o u r i n the l a t e r years of h i s l i f e . He was a great reader and, due to shortsightedness, always wore g l a s s e s . A good deal of h i s reading, too, was done under l i g h t s which would he considered extremely poor by modern st a n  dards. In the Indian homes, or i n the p r i e s t ' s room at the back of the l i t t l e churches, candles were the c h i e f means of i l l u m i n a t i o n during the 1880's and 1890's. Often, when candles were not a v a i l a b l e , resource was had to l i g h t s made from melted f a t s set i n some metal c o n t a i n e r . As a matter o f f a c t , Father Le Jeune was one of those men who pursue knowledge through reading, yet f i n d i n i t one of t h e i r h i g h e s t forms of r e l a x a t i o n . I f he l a y down on a couch to r e s t during the day, i t was always w i t h a book or paper i n h i s hands. He would read a l i t t l e , perhaps doze f o r a few minutes, read again, and then pause t o r e f l e c t upon what he had read. Mr. W i l l i a m Brennan, of Kamloops, t o l d me of many occasions on the North Thompson road when a s w i r l of dust i n the distance s i g n a l l e d t o him the approach of a v e h i c l e . A prancing c o l t at the side o f the team and s e v e r a l lean dogs nearby would u s u a l l y i d e n t i f y the conveyance as an Indian waggon or democrat. And seated beside the young Indian d r i v e r ( f ) Mrs. M. Mooney, of Kamloops, who many times exten ded h o s p i t a l i t y to Father Le Jeune i n her home at Chase, B. C. (g) Mrs. F r a s e r , of the-Kamloops Indian band, who helped Father Le Jeune to mimeograph e a r l y issues of the Wawa. (h) S e v e r a l Indians on the reserves at Kamloops, Dead- man's Creek, Quilchena, and Shuswap. (156) would be Father Le Jeune, open book i n h i s l a p , and complete l y o b l i v i o u s of h i s surroundings u n t i l the w&lcoming h a i l of d r i v e r s brought him to a r e a l i z a t i o n of events around him. Th i s complete ab s o r p t i o n i n some problem of the moment once brought Father Le Jeune i n t o a very embarrassing s i t u a  t i o n which h i s f r i e n d s d i d not l e t him f o r g e t f o r many years. He l e f t one morning f o r Q,uilchena, a f t e r making a l i t t l e speech and saying good-bye to the p u p i l s o f the M i s s i o n s c h o o l on M i s s i o n F l a t s . They d i d not expect to see him back f o r s e v e r a l weeks. Imagine t h e i r s u r p r i s e a few hours l a t e r when he was observed r e t u r n i n g to the M i s s i o n , reading a book as he rode along. L a t e r i t t r a n s p i r e d t h a t a f t e r dismounting f o r l unch he had s t a r t e d to read, and upon remounting had given h i s horse i t s head while he continued to be absorbed i n h i s t o p i c . The horse, without adequate d i r e c t i o n , had simply turned around and s t a r t e d upon i t s homeward journey. But to say that Father Le Jeune was e s s e n t i a l l y a bookish type o f man would be untrue. He mixed w e l l with a l l c l a s s e s of s o c i e t y from the humblest to the highest, and he thoroughly enjoyed the companionship o f h i s fellow-men. He was of an extremely f r i e n d l y nature, and one of h i s c h i e f d e l i g h t s was conversation w i t h a l l and sundry. He was never happier than when he was recounting anecdotes of h i s l i f e among the Indians or of h i s unusual experiences on the t r a i l . In keeping with the h o s p i t a l i t y of those pioneer days, the homes of a l l the old-timers throughout h i s vast d i s t r i c t , whether Pr o t e s t a n t or (157) Roman C a t h o l i c , were open t o him. "Come i n , Father, come i n and have dinner w i t h us," was the customary g r e e t i n g extended to him. And h i s host could always he sure that Father Le Jeune would have some new s t o r i e s to t e l l o f v a r i o u s i n c i d e n t s which had occurred s i n c e he l a s t saw him. A f t e r dinner, w h i l e he puf f e d at h i s pipe or c i g a r , Father Le Jeune would t e l l h i s l i s t e n e r s a l l about h i s l a t e s t t r i p . Old Indian J u l e s a t Deadman's Creek had d i e d . There was sure t o be high water t h i s season. Indian Maggie at Savona had some wonderful gloves f o r s a l e . My, but the Indians at Quilchena had cooked him some n i c e deer r i b s . Of deer r i b s the p r i e s t was very fond. They formed a major p a r t o f h i s d i e t i n the Indian camps, p a r t i c u l a r l y d uring the e a r l y days. Here the custom p r e v a i l e d of having Indian women prepare the food f o r the p r i e s t and serve i t to him i n an Indian's c a b i n or i n h i s rooms at the r e a r o f the church. N a t u r a l l y , venison, f i s h , or b e r r i e s were the usual foods served. The Indians shared with the p r i e s t the best that they had, but sometimes that best was none too good. There were f r e q u e n t l y l e a n periods i n the Indian v i l l a g e s when food was very s c a r c e . A l s o , the l a c k of v a r i e t y i n the' d i e t was g e n e r a l l y not conducive to healthy l i v i n g , and Father Le Jeune's h e a l t h d i d s u f f e r to some extent from t h i s monotony of Indian d i e t . However, i t was not i n the p r i e s t ' s nature to complain; he was most a p p r e c i a t i v e of the e f f o r t s of h i s Indians to make him as comfortable as they could i n t h e i r v i l l a g e s and camps. (158) Due to the c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n that Father Le Jeune had w i t h the n a t i v e s f o r so l o n g a p e r i o d of time, i t i s not sur p r i s i n g t h a t h i s p e r s o n a l appearance d e t e r i o r a t e d . His methods of t r a v e l over the dusty roads and t r a i l s of the times were not conducive to c l e a n l i n e s s of body or c l o t h e s . Frequent and long p e r i o d s o f absence from h i s headquarters i n Kamloops gave l i t t l e o p p o rtunity f o r a change of c l o t h i n g . Then, too, Father Le Jeune appears t o have been one of those men who, t h e i r minds engrossed w i t h weighty matters of the moment, give only secon dary c o n s i d e r a t i o n to neatness of personal appearance. Many of h i s contemporaries remember Father Le Jeune the man best f o r h i s happy d i s p o s i t i o n and keen sense of humour. E s s e n t i a l l y , he was an o p t i m i s t . He thoroughly enjoyed a good s t o r y , and he h i m s e l f was the o r i g i n a t o r of many. He was recognized as a great p r a c t i c a l joker and i n conversation with him, one had to keep h i s w i t s about him to avoid being drawn i n t o some s u b t l e t r a p . Mr. Fred Irwin once heard a man ask Father Le Jeune what k i n d of a winter he expected they would have. M 0 h , an extremely c o l d one, w i t h p l e n t y of snow," r e  p l i e d the p r i e s t . When h i s questioner l e f t , Father Le Jeune s t a r t e d to chuckle and s a i d to Mr. Irwin, "You know that's the t h i r d man to ask me t h a t same question since I l e f t home t h i s morning and to each I gave a d i f f e r e n t answer." Upon being asked why he had done t h i s , the p r i e s t r e p l i e d , "Well, I'm almost c e r t a i n to be r i g h t with one of the three and that one f o r e v e r a f t e r w i l l say that Father Le Jeune i s c e r t a i n l y (159) a wonderful weather prophet." The statement i s made i n F i f t y Years i n Western Canada t h a t Father Le Jeune was "the most unmusical of men." In denying t h i s statement, Father George Forbes remarks as f o l l o w s : "Father Morice was so s e r i o u s and solemn that he was a good t a r g e t f o r p r a c t i c a l jokes and Father Le Jeune was a p r a c t i c a l joker. I t would not s u r p r i s e me i n the l e a s t to l e a r n t h a t , knowing how s e r i o u s l y Father Morice took music and other t h i n g s , Father Le Jeune had d e l i b e r a t e l y sung out of tune as a p r a c t i c a l joke on Father Morice." ^ 1 1 1 ^ Father Le Jeune was very fond of c h i l d r e n and they i n t u r n l o v e d and admired him. He made them happy by t e l l i n g them l i t t l e s t o r i e s and anecdotes. I t was a common occurrence to see him i n the s t o r e s o f Kamloops i n company with three or four Indian boys. He would be buying c l o t h e s , or o c c a s i o n a l l y some l i t t l e t r e a t such as candy, f o r them. By the time o f Father Le Jeune's l a t e r y ears, the great m a j o r i t y of the Indian boys and g i r l s were being taught E n g l i s h i n the r e s i  d e n t i a l s chool, and the n a t i v e Indian d i a l e c t s were r a p i d l y p a s s i n g out of e x i s t e n c e . An i n t e r e s t i n g observation on t h i s f a c t v/as t o l d me by Mr. G. D. Brown, J r . He overheard Father (110) F i f t y Years i n Western Canada, Abridged Memoirs of Rev. A. G. Morice, 0. M. I . , by D. L. S., The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1930, p. 17. (111) Forbes, Rev. George, 0. M. I . , l e t t e r to the author, 16 October, 1947. (160) Le Jeune addressing some remarks i n the l o c a l Indian d i a l e c t t o h i s two companions, Indian hoys about twelve years o l d . The boys apparently could not understand him f o r he q u i c k l y turned to them and chided them q u i t e sharply i n E n g l i s h , "Shame on you boys," he s a i d . "You leave i t to me, a stra n g e r i n your country, t o speak your own language which you do not know." Of Father Le Jeune*s s t e a d f a s t energy and enthusiasm f o r h i s cause we have spoken before. " I never knew him to be content to jus t s i t down and do nothing," Mrs. A. E. Way t o l d me. "There seemed to be some t h i n g w i t h i n him s p u r r i n g him on a l l the time. He was always on the go, always t r y i n g to t h i n k up new ways i n which he could help h i s beloved Indians. And my, how h i s Indians d i d " love him." T h i s , then, was Father Le Jeune the man—a t i r e l e s s worker f o r the s a l v a t i o n of s o u l s , possessed of deep human sympathy and understanding, yet with the a b i l i t y to descend to the l e v e l of the lowly and the humble i n a l l e a r t h l y matters. APPENDIX A LIST OP WAWA EXCHANGES WITH COMMENTS BY FATHER LE JEUNE 1. La Lumiere St$nographique , Duploy^'s own paper. Forty cents a year. A monthly issue, similar in size to the Kamloops Wawa. Address, E. Duploye , Sinceny (Aisne) , France. 2. The Stenographer, 38 Sixth South Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Justly ealled the finest paper on shorthand matters pub lished in America. Only §1.00 per annum. 3. The Inland Sentinel, Kamloops, B. G. A repertory of infor mation concerning the mining, agricultural, etc., resour ces of the interior of British Columbia. Weekly, $2.00 per annum. 4. The Weekly World, Vancouver, B. C. §1.50 per annum. 5. The Weekly Columbian. New Westminster, B. C. §2.00 per annum. 6. The Weekly Colonist, Vic t o r i a , B. C. The pioneer paper of British Columbia. $2.00 per annum. 7. Le St^nographe Canadien, the pioneer organ of the Duployan stenography in Canada. $1.00 per annum. 8. The Month» New Westminster, B. C. $1.00 per annum. 9. La Croix du Canada. $2.00 per annum. 10. La Semaine Religieuse de Montreal• $1.00 per annum. 11. The Northwest Review, Winnipeg, Manitoba. $2.00 per annum 12. The Messenger of the Sacred Heart, New York City. The finest monthly of its kind in existence. Profusely illustrated with half-tones. $2.00 per annum. 13. The Chicago Sunday Herald. The largest paper that comes t hand. An immense volume of reading every week, each issue weighing nearly one pound. Only $2.00 per annum. 14. The Catholic Record. London, Ontario. A weekly, got up in f i r s t class style. $2.00 per annum. 15. La Voix du Precieux Sang, St. Hyacinthe, P. Q. $1.00 per annum. 16. Le Rosaire, St. Hyacinthe, P. Q. $1.00 per annum. 17. Le propagateur des bons l i v r e s , Montreal. Only 50 cents per annum. Issues twice a month. Worth twice i t s p r i c e . 18. La ruche stenograph!que. Bose Le Hard, Prance. P r i c e , 50 cents per annum. 19. L a plume st^nographique , P£rigueux, Dordogne, Prance. 20. La gazette stenographique, P a r i s , Prance. $1.00 per annum. 21. Le grande Stenographe. P a r i s , Prance. The l e a d i n g paper of the Duployan stenography. Issues monthly. $1.00 per annum. 22. The phonographic J o u r n a l , P t . J e r v i s , New York. A monthly p e r i o d i c a l concerning shorthand and t y p e w r i t i n g . Very i n t e r e s t i n g r e a d i n g . Only 50 cents per annum. 23. The shorthand edueat or, Brooklyn, New York. Got up i n f i r s t c l a s s s t y l e . Only 50 cents per annum. 24. Le .journal des stenographes, P a r i s , Prance. 25. The weekly g a z e t t e , Montreal, Canada. $1.00 per annum. 26. B . C. commercial j o u r n a l , V i c t o r i a , B. C. Weekly. $2.00 per annum. 27. The B r i t i s h Columbia g a z e t t e . Published by a u t h o r i t y . Weekly. $5.00 per annum. 28. The B. G. mining j o u r n a l , A s h c r o f t , B. C. Weekly. Issued f i r s t i n May, 1895. $2.00 per annum. 29. Comfort , Augusta, Me. A well-known paper. 1,250,000 c i r c u l a t i o n . Only 25 cents a year. Issues monthly. 30. Donahue's magazine, Boston, Mass. A b e a u t i f u l magazine of over one hundred pages, with profuse i l l u s t r a t i o n s , h a l f - t o n e s , e t c . Monthly, $2.00 per year. 31 • The P i l g r i m of our Lady, of Martyrs, New York C i t y . Monthly. 50 cents a year. 32. L ' a b e i l l e p a r o i s s i s l e , Montreal, monthly. Only 50 cents a year. 33. Maria Immaculata , Pauquembnt, Holland. 34. L ' e t o i l e stenograph!que de Prance. Bi-monthly. $1.00 per annum. (Hi) 35. L ' e c l a i r stenograph!que i l l u s t r 6 . Monthly. $1.00 per annum. 36. Pernin's monthly stenographer, D e t r o i t , Michigan. $1.00 per annum. 37. The i l l u s t r a t e d phonographic world, New York. 38. The Ave Maria, Notre Dame, Indiana. $2.00 per year. 39. The V i r g i n i a Stenographer. P u b l i s h e d monthly at Richmond, Va., at 50 cents a year. 4 0 . The harvest , an organ of C a t h o l i c works. S a l f o r d , England. A monthly, w e l l i & J u s t r a t e d . 40 cents per annum. 4 1 . The poor s o u l 1 s f r i e n d and S t . Joseph* s monitor, p u b l i s h e d at Chudley, Devon, England. Same p r i c e as p r e c e d i n g . 42. Le messager de S t . Antoine, Chicoutimi , P. Q. Monthly. Only 25 cents a year. APPENDIX B LIST OP FATHER LE JEUNE*S PUBLICATIONS WITH A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF EACH 1* Kamloops Wawa, 1891. T h i s was commenced on May 2, 1891, and p u b l i s h e d monthly up t o and i n c l u d i n g the December, 1891 i s s u e . Each number contained four mimeographed pages. The f i r s t few i s s u e s c o n s i s t e d of i n s t r u c t i o n s as to how to wr i t e the new shorthand system, while i n the l a t e r numbers s e v e r a l Ghinook hymns were p u b l i s h e d . 2. Kamloops Wawa, 1892, was p u b l i s h e d weekly throughout the year from January 15 to December 25 i n c l u s i v e . Each i s s u e contained f o u r mimeographed pages, the whole being w r i t t e n i n stenographic characters with v a r i o u s paragraph headings i n E n g l i s h . The contents included short B i b l e s t o r i e s , o c c a s i o n a l Chinook hymns, and news items cover i n g events of i n t e r e s t i n the v a r i o u s Indian camps. 3. Kamloops Wawa, 1893, was publis h e d weekly from January 1, 1893, t o December 31, 1893, i n c l u s i v e . There was prac t i c a l l y no change from the 1892 i s s u e s i n form or content. 4. Kamloops Wawa, 1894, was issued monthly throughout the year, each issue c o n t a i n i n g s i x t e e n pages. The copies were mimeographed up t o and i n c l u d i n g August, but from September on the paper was produced by the photo-engrav ing p r o c e s s . S u b s c r i p t i o n r a t e was one d o l l a r per year or ten cents a copy. Advertisements were accepted from the September issue on, and one or more p i c t u r e s were i n c l u d e d each month. 5. Kamloops Wawa, 1895. c o n s i s t e d of twelve monthly numbers, each c o n t a i n i n g s i x t e e n pages. An attempt was now being made t o inc l u d e more m a t e r i a l i n E n g l i s h . 6. Kamloops Wawa, 1896, was p u b l i s h e d monthly at twenty-four pages per i s s u e . 7. Kamloops Wawa, 1897. was pu b l i s h e d monthly at s i x t e e n pages per i s s u e . 8. Kamloops Wawa, 1898, was pu b l i s h e d monthly at s i x t e e n pages per i s s u e . A t y p i c a l number, February, 1898, contained two pages of e d i t o r i a l notes i n E n g l i s h , one page of French i n shorthand, one page of monthly news In Chinook, eight pages of " S t o r i e s of the second century," two pages of Chinook vocabulary, and two pages of advertisements. ( i t s ) 9. Kamloops Wawa, 1899, i s s u e d twelve times d u r i n g the year, went hack t o a mimeographed form of p u b l i c a t i o n , w i t h the number of pages varying w i t h the various i s s u e s . 10. Kamloops Wawa, 1900, was issued monthly i n p r i n t e d form with s i x t e e n pages per number. 11. Kamloops Wawa. 1901, was issued q u a r t e r l y , i n the months of March, June, September, and December. The issue of September, 1901, was indeed a bumper one as i t contained n i n e t y - f o u r pages, and s o l d f o r twenty-five cents. 12. Kamloops Wawa, 1902, was p u b l i s h e d q u a r t e r l y . 13. Kamloops Wawa, 1903, was p u b l i s h e d q u a r t e r l y . 14. Kamloops Wawa, 1904, was pu b l i s h e d q u a r t e r l y . The December, 1904, issue contained the account of Father Le Jeune's t r i p t o Europe i n t h a t year. He was accompanied on that occasion by two Indian c h i e f s from h i s d i s t r i c t — L o u i s , of Kamloops, and C e l e s t i n , of N i c o l a . 15. Kamloops Wawa, s p e c i a l French e d i t i o n , was p u b l i s h e d monthly through the years 1915, 1916, and 1917. These copies were typed or w r i t t e n by hand by Father Le. Jeune, and reproduced by means of a hectograph. Each copy averaged s i x t e e n pages. 16. Chinook f i r s t reading book i n c l u d e d Chinook hymns, s y l l a  bary and vocabulary, and was pu b l i s h e d by Father Le Jeune at Kamloops i n the year 1893. I t was w r i t t e n i n steno graphic characters and mimeographed. 17. Chinook hymns» p u b l i s h e d i n the year 1893, c o n s i s t e d of s i x t e e n pages i n stenographic characters and was mimeo graphed. 18. The Wawa shorthand i n s t r u c t o r or the, Duployan stenography adapted t o E n g l i s h was a 24-page pamphlet p u b l i s h e d at Kamloops i n the year 1896. I t contained f u l l i n s t r u c  t i o n s f o r the mastery of the shorthand system used by Father Le Jeune. T h i s l i t t l e book s o l d f o r f i f t e e n cents. 19. The Wawa shorthand e x e r c i s e book, a l s o p u b l i s h e d i n the year 1896, was a 24-page supplement to the Wawa short hand i n s t r u c t o r . T h i s book a l s o s o l d f o r f i f t e e n cents. 20. E n g l i s h manual or praye r s and catechism i n E n g l i s h typo graphy was a 40-page booklet p u b l i s h e d at Kamloops i n the year 1896, with the approbation of Right Rev. P. Duri e u , Bishop of New Westminster. 21. Chinook manual or p r a y e r s , hymns and catechism i n Chinook was arranged hy Fa t h e r Le Jeune and c o n s i s t e d of a manual of one hundred pages p u b l i s h e d at Kamloops i n the year 1896. 22. L a t i n manual or hymns and chants i n use hy the Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s was a seventy page booklet con t a i n i n g hymns and chants arranged i n shorthand by Father Le Jeune. The book was p u b l i s h e d at Kamloops i n the year 1896. 23. Chinook B i b l e h i s t o r y . T h i s was o r i g i n a l l y w r i t t e n by Bishop Durieu, but Father Le Jeune p u b l i s h e d at Kamloops i n the year 1896 a 112-page t r a n s c r i p t i o n of t h i s work i n shorthand. Both the Old and New Testaments were i n  cluded, and p a r t s of t h i s work appeared from time t o time i n the Kamloops Wawa. 24. S t a l o manual or pr a y e r s , hymns and the catechism i n the . S t a l o or Lower F r a s e r language. T h i s was a t h i r t y page bo o k l e t , i n shorthand, p u b l i s h e d at Kamloops i n the year 1897. 25. Shuswap manual or p r a y e r s , hymns and catechism i n Shuswap c o n s i s t e d of 132 pages i n shorthand and was p u b l i s h e d by Father Le Jeune at Kamloops i n the year 1906. I t i n c l u  ded general p r a y e r s , prayers before and a f t e r meals, the form of baptism, morning and night p r a y e r s , p r e p a r a t i o n f o r c o n f e s s i o n , prayers f o r communion, the ro s a r y , v i a c r u e i s , hymns and c a n t i c l e s , catechism, and examination of conscience. A supplement contained forms of the catechism as arranged by Bishop D'Herbomez, Father Le Jacq., and Father Gendre. 26. SkwarnIsh Manual or p r a y e r s , hymns and catechism i n Skwarnish was a f i f t y - s i x page booklet p u b l i s h e d at Kamloops i n the year 1896. 27. She sheI manual or p r a y e r s , hymns and catechism i n the Sechel language was a f o r t y - e i g h t page booklet i n short hand characters p u b l i s h e d at Kamloops i n the year 1896. 28. Okanagan manual or p r a y e r s , hymns and catechism i n the Okanagan language, f i f t y pages, was i s s u e d by Father Le Jeune i n the year 1897. 29. Chinook and shorthand rudiments, by Father Le Jeune, was pu b l i s h e d at Kamloops i n the year 1898. I t was a s i x  teen page booklet p p r p o r t i n g to be the means by which the Chinook jargon could be mastered without a teacher i n a few hours. I t s t i t l e page made the claim that "the shortest way to l e a r n the Chinook i s through the • shorthand, and the shortest way to l e a r n the shorthand i s through the Chinook." am) 30. Slayamen manual or p r a y e r s , hymns and catechism i n the SIayamen language• T h i s was a f o r t y page booklet i n shorthand c h a r a c t e r s p u b l i s h e d at Kamloops i n the year 1896. 31. Chinook book of devotions throughout the year was a book of 188 pages i n Ghinook and shorthand c h a r a c t e r s , arranged by Father Le Jeune and p u b l i s h e d at Kamloops i n the year 1902. 32. Chinook short grammar, s i x t e e n pages, was issued i n May, 1923. 33. Chinook rudiments, by Father Le Jeune, was a t h i r t y - s i x page booklet p u b l i s h e d at Kamloops on May 3, 1924. I t contained a short account of the h i s t o r y of Chinook, a d e s c r i p t i o n of the Wawa shorthand, f a i r l y complete vo c a b u l a r i e s , and e x e r c i s e s i n Chinook. 34. Prayers before and a f t e r hoihy communion i n s e v e r a l languages of the n a t i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia was a twenty-two page booklet p u b l i s h e d by Father Le Jeune at Kamloops i n the year 1925. 35. What s h a l l I do to possess l i f e e v e r l a s t i n g ? was a twenty page booklet adapted from the e x e r c i s e s of S t . I g n a t i u s and t r a n s l a t e d by Father Le Jeune from Chinook and the na t i v e languages of B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s was pub l i s h e d at Kamloops i n the year 1925. 36. Studies on Shuswap c o n s i s t e d of a t h i r t y - t w o page booklet and was p u b l i s h e d by Father Le Jeune at Kamloops i n the year 1925. (168) APPENDIX C BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Right Reverend Pan! Durieu, £. M. I . , horn at S t . P o l - de-Mons, Diocese of Puy, France, on December 4, 1830; made h i s P r o f e s s i o n i n the Order of the 0. M. I . , November 1, 1849; ordained p r i e s t , March 11, 1854; a r r i v e d Vancouver I s l a n d , December 12, 1859; named T i t u l a r y Bishop of Marco- p o l i s and Coadjutor of Right Rev. Bishop D'Herbomez, June 2, 1875; consecrated, October 24, 1875; appointed f i r s t Bishop of New Westminster, September 2, 1890; d i e d , June 1, 1899. 2» Right Reverend L o u i s Joseph D'Herbomez, 0. M. I . , born at B r i l l o n , Diocese of Cambrai, France, on January 17, 1822; made h i s P r o f e s s i o n on November 21, 1848; ordained p r i e s t , October 14, 1849; came to the Oregon M i s s i o n s by way of Cape Horn i n year 1850; named T i t u l a r y Bishop of M i l e t o p o l i s and V i c a r A p o s t o l i c of B r i t i s h Columbia, December 20, 1863; consecrated, October 9, 1864; died at New Westminster, June 3, 1889. . 3. Reverend Father N i c h o l a s Coccola, 0. M. I . , born 1854 and ordained i n year 1881. A f t e r s e r v i n g at S t . L o u i s M i s s i o n , Kamloops, and at S t . Eugene's M i s s i o n i n the Kootenay country, succeeded Father Morice at S t u a r t Lake M i s s i o n i n year 1905. Having taken a medical t r a i n i n g , Father Coccola was i n a p o s i t i o n to m i n i s t e r to the s i c k and helped many, both whites and Indians, who were beyond the reach of a medical doctor. He d i e d at Smithers, B. C., on March 1, 1943. 4. Reverend Father A d r i a n G a b r i e l Morice, 0. M. I . , born 1859, and ordained by Mgr. D'Herbomez at S t . Mary's M i s s i o n , J u l y 2, 1882; sent to the S t u a r t Lake M i s s i o n i n 1885; h i g h l y respected by the Indians and gained great i n f l u e n c e over them; prepared the Denes S y l l a b a r y f o r the C a r r i e r Indians, a s y l l a b i c system of w r i t i n g modelled somewhat a f t e r that invented i n the year 1840 by James Evans, a Methodist missionary at Norway House, f o r use among the Cree Indians; used a p r i n t i n g press f o r t u r n i n g out pam p h l e t s and prayer books f o r use o f h i s Indians; gained d i s t i n c t i o n as a man of l e t t e r s i n the f i e l d s of ethnology, and h i s t o r y ; author of The h i s t o r y of the northern i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia and H i s t o r y of the C a t h o l i c Church i n western Canada from Lake Superior to the P a c i f i c . 5 » Reverend Father J . M. L a J a c q , 0. M. I . , born 1837 at Roscorr, F l n i s t e r r e , ""France; s t u d i e d aT tn*e College of St. P o l de Leon and at the Seminary of Quimper, and was ordained p r i e s t at M a r s e i l l e s i n year 1862. Was soon sent to the (169) missions of B r i t i s h Columbia and spent the f i r s t years of h i s m issionary l i f e on Vancouver I s l a n d and on the P a c i f i c Coast, r e s i d i n g p r i n c i p a l l y at F o r t Rupert. In 1867 was sent to the newly e s t a b l i s h e d m i s s i o n at W i l l i a m s Lake, and s h o r t l y a f t e r to S t u a r t Lake, where he remained u n t i l the summer, of 1880. Was then sent to Kamloops as S u p e r i o r of S t . L o u i s M i s s i o n , with the charge of a t t e n d i n g to the Shuswap Indians from L i l l o o e t to Enderby. A f t e r twelve years at Kamloops was sent back to W i l l i a m s Lake to organize an i n d u s t r i a l school f o r Indian boys and g i r l s at S t . Joseph's. Died at New Westminster, January 2 3, 1899. (170) APPENDIX D--BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS: Gregg, John Robert, S e l e c t i o n s from the s t o r y of shorthand, New York, The Gregg P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1941. (An account of the o r i g i n and development of a l l the major shorthand systems. Describes the c h i e f f e a t u r e s of each system. T h i s book devotes s e v e r a l pages to the Duployan shorthand, a French system worked out by Abbe' Emile Duploye'. I t was l a t e r adapted to E n g l i s h by Sloan and P e r n i n . Father Le Jeune le a r n e d the Duployan system w h i l e a student i n France and used i t as the b a s i s f o r h i s Wawa shorthand among the Indians) Howay, Judge F. W., B r i t i s h Columbia, the making of a p r o v i n c e , Toronto, The Ryerson Press, 1928. (A good general work by an outstanding h i s t o r i a n of the North West coast. Gives a p a r t i c u l a r l y good account of the f u r t r a d i n g days i n the i n t e r i o r of the province and devotes a chapter to the b u i l d i n g of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway) Jenness, Diamond, The Indians of Canada, Ottawa, N a t i o n a l Museum of Canada, 2nd e d i t i o n , 1934. (A w e l l - i l l u s t r a t e d volume g i v i n g an e x c e l l e n t account of the Canadian I n d i a n — h i s o r i g i n , language, and the development of h i s economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . The book i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s , the f i r s t general i n nature and covering the country as a whole; the second gives a d e t a i l e d account of p a r t i c u l a r t r i b e s . Two chapters are concerned with the Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia and cover both the t r i b e s of the P a c i f i c Coast and those of the C o r d i l l e r a , i n c l u d i n g the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h . I found t h i s book very u s e f u l as a p o i n t of departure f o r the study of the Indian languages and d i a l e c t s ) M orice, Rev. A. G., 0. M. I., H i s t o r y of the C a t h o l i c Church i n western Canada, Toronto, Musson Book Company, L t d . , v o l . 2, 1910"! TChapters XXXVII to X L I I I , i n c l u  s i v e , of the volume are devoted e x c l u s i v e l y to the work of the Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s , and p a r t i c u  l a r l y the Oblates, i n the t e r r i t o r y now included i n B r i t i s h Columbia. T h e i r work i s surveyed from i t s beginnings up to and i n c l u d i n g the year 1895) Morice, Rev. A. G., 0. M. I . , . H i s t o r y of the northern i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Toronto, W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1905. (Contains a good deal of m a t e r i a l on the e a r l y Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia) (171) Morice, Rev, A. G., 0. M. I . , abridged memoirs o f , by D. L. S., F i f t y years i n western Canada, Toronto, The Ryerson P r e s s , 1930. T S e v e r a l pages of t h i s book are devoted to an e x c e l l e n t d e s c r i p t i o n of S t . Mary's M i s s i o n as i t was i n the 1880's. Fathers Le Jeune and Morice were contemporaries there f o r a two-year period) N o t i c e s Necrologiques des membres de l a congregation des Ohlats de Marig Immaoule'e, Rome, MaTson Geneirale, 0. M. I . , Tome Huitie*me, 1939. ( B i o g r a p h i c a l notes on v a r i o u s members of the Oblate order. There i s a very incomplete l i f e o f Father Le Jeune, w r i t t e n by Father Lardon, an admirer of h i s . The date of Father Le Jeune's death i s wrong i n the account. There i s a l s o a more complete d e s c r i p t i o n i n the volume of Father Le Jeune's very l e a r n e d brother, Father L o u i s Le Jeune, p r o f e s s o r at Ottawa U n i v e r s i t y and noted w r i t e r on t h e o l o g i c a l t o p i c s . T h i s volume was i s s u e d j u s t before World War I I broke out, but was not r e c e i v e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia u n t i l a f t e r the war) R a v e n h i l l , A l i c e , The n a t i v e t r i b e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B. C , King's P r i n t e r , 1938~ (This book contains a good d e s c r i p t i o n of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h t r i b e s , which i n c l u d e the Thompson, L i l l o o e t , Shuswap, and Okanagan) Thomas, Edward Harper, Ghinook, a h i s t o r y and d i c t i o n a r y of the northwest coast trade jargon, P o r t l a n d , Oregon, M e t r o p o l i t a n P r e s s , 193*5^ fA very i n t e r e s t i n g book on the o r i g i n and development of the Chinook jargon. Ex c e l l e n t vocabulary l i s t s are given, and p o i n t s of d i f f e r e n c e i n the jargon i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the coun t r y are emphasized. The best book- on the Chinook jargon a v a i l a b l e to-day) PAMPHLETS: Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Elements of Shorthand, Kamloops, B. C , 1891. Le Jeune, Rev, J . M. R., Chinook primer, Kamloops, B. C , 1892. Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Chinook f i r s t reading book, Kam loops, B.C., 1893. Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Chinook hymns, Kamloops, B. C., 1893. Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., The Wawa shorthand i n s t r u c t o r , Kamloops, B. C , 1896. (172) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., The Wawa shorthand f i r s t r eading hook, Kamloops, B. C , 1896. Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Ghinook and shorthand rudiments, Kamloops, B. C., 1898. Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Chinook rudiments. May 3, 1924. ( A l l the above pamphlets helped to f u r n i s h the m a t e r i a l f o r the chapters on the Chinook jargon and on Father Le Jeune's shorthand system among the Indians) Nelson, Denys, F o r t Langley, a century of settlement, Vancouver, B. C , A r t , H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1927. (This l i t t l e pamphlet gives a good d e s c r i p t i o n of the e a r l y settlement of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . I used i t c h i e f l y f o r an account of the v i s i t o f F a t her Demers t o F o r t Langley i n the year 1841) PERIODICALS: Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, many i s s u e s , par t i c u l a r l y those of the f o l l o w i n g d a t e s : — June, 1891, v o l . 1, no. 2. January, 1895, v o l . 4, no. 1. March, 1895, v o l . 4, no. 3. . A p r i l , 1895, v o l . 4, no. 4. May, 1895, v o l . 4, no. 5. J u l y , 1895, v o l . 4, no. 7. August, 1895, v o l . 4, no. 8. September, 1895, v o l . 4, nQ. 9. November, 1895, v o l . 4, no. 11. December, 1895, v o l . 4, no. 12. A p r i l , 1896, v o l . 5, no. 4. June, 1896, v o l . 5, no. 6. J u l y , 1896, v o l . 5, no. 7. August, 1896, v o l . 5, no. 8, December, 1896, v o l . 5, no. 12. February, 1897, v o l . 6, no. 2. January, 1898, v o l . 7, no. 1. February, 1898, v o l . 7, no. 2. March, 1898, v o l . 7, no. 3. A p r i l , 1898, v o l . 7, no. 4. May, 1898, v o l . 7, no. 5. June, 1898, v o l . 7, no. 6. December, 1899, v o l . 8, no. 12. March, 1900, v o l . 9, no. 3. A p r i l , 1900, vo&. 9, no. 4. May, 1900, v o l . 9, no. 5. March, 1901, v o l . 10, no. 1. (173) June, 1901, v o l . 10, no. 2. (The above i s s u e s of the Wawa are r i c h i n in f o r m a t i o n . They t e l l of Father Le Jeune 1s shorthand system and i t s a d a p t a t i o n t o Chinook, of h i s m i s s i o n a r y work i n the v a r i o u s camps, of h i s strange experiences on the t r a i l , o f h i s philosophy. They c o n t a i n h i s i n s t r u c  t i o n s to h i s Indians, and they are f i l l e d with a good de a l of i n t e r e s t i n g m a t e r i a l covering events of the times) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n F r a n c a i s e , many i s s u e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those of the f o l l o w i n g dates: J u l y , 1915. August, 1915. December, 1915. March, 1916. A p r i l , 1916, December, 1916. (These i s s u e s were p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e to me. While much of t h e i r content i s s i m i l a r to that of the e a r l i e r i s s u e s of the Wawa, they b r i n g out a more complete e x p o s i t i o n o f Father Le Jeune's philosophy) Nelson, Denys, "Yakima Days," i n three issues of the Washington H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y as fo l l o w s : — V o l . 19, no. 1, January, 1928. V o l . 19, no. 2, A p r i l , 1928. V o l . 19, no. 3, J u l y , 1928. (This a r t i c l e d e s c r i b e s the advance of the Oblate Fathers i n t o what i s now the present Washington S t a t e , t h e i r t r i a l s and t r i b u l a t i o n s during the Indian wars there, and the subsequent movement of many of them i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia) Harvey, A. G., "David S t u a r t : Okanagan p a t h f i n d e r — founder of Kamloops,"' B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 9, no. 4, October, 1945" (An i n t e r - e s t m g a r t i c l e d e s c r i b i n g the beginnings of white settlement i n the d i s t r i c t of Kamloops) Johnson, F. Henry, "Old F o r t Kamloops," Canadian Geographical J o u r n a l , v o l . 22, no. 2, February, 1941. (A d e s c r i p t i o n of the e a r l y f u r t r a d i n g days around Kamloops) (174) Oblate M i s s i o n s , v a r i o u s numbers as f o l l o w ^ : — "Tne queerest newspaper i n the world," June, 1946. (A very complete a r t i c l e on the Kamloops Wawa) "An a p o s t l e o f the poor, Charles Josefch Eugene de Mazenod," September, 1946. (A short a r t i c l e on the l i f e of the founder of the Oblate Order) Donze, Jean, 0. M. I . , "The Indians at the c r o s s  roads," December, 1946. (A d i s c u s s i o n of the present-day problems of the B r i t i s h Columbia Indian) NEWSPAPERS:// Inland S e n t i n e l , v a r i o u s issues as f o l l o w * : — 2 March, 1894. "Father Le Jeune's t r i p , " 9 March, 1894. " H i s t o r y i n shorthand," 15 June, 1894. 29 June, 1894. "Kamloops Wawa," 27 J u l y , 1894. 8 March, 1895. 19 A p r i l , 1895. 15 November, 1895. 17 June, 1896. "Kamloops Wawa," 8 January, 1897. "Kamloops Wawa," 22 May, 1897. 25 June, 1897. 7 December, 1897. 21 June, 1898. "The pe n a l t y p a i d , Indian Casimir hanged t h i s morning," 2 June, 1899. 26 October, 1900. 21 December, 1900. "The Kamloops Wawa," 4 October, 1901. 8 J u l y , 1904. 19 J u l y , 1904. Kamloops S e n t i n e l , v a r i o u s issues as f o l l o w ^ : — "Pioneers o f c i t y and d i s t r i c t honoured," 29 December, 1922. "In Dominion f o r 47 years," 17 September, 1926. Smith, John F., "Pioneer C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s , " 1 October, 1926. "Father Le Jeune's golden j u b i l e e i s remembered here," 14 June, 1929. 10 September, 1929. "Death of Father Le Jeune much r e g r e t t e d , " 25 November, 1930. (175) "The l a t e Father Le Jeune," 25 November, 1930. "Father Le Jeune's f u n e r a l , " 2 December, 1930. Morse, J . J",,"Father Le Jeune," 14 December, 1934. Vancouver D a l l y P r o v i n c e , a r t i c l e on Father Le Jeune by B. A. McKelvie, 6 September, 1924. The B r i t i s h Columbian, i s s u e s as f o l l o w ^ : — 21 November, 1930. 24 November, 1930. (The above newspaper a r t i c l e s and news items are a very u s e f u l source o f i n f o r m a t i o n . They t e l l of Father Le Jeune's v i s i t s to the Indian camps, of h i s production of the Kamloops Wawa, of h i s comings and h i s goings, and of what h i s contemporaries thought o f h i s work) UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL: A u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l note by Father Le Jeune i n possession of P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a , B. C. M i s c e l l a n e o u s notes of Father Le Jeune. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION; Brennan, W i l l i a m , Kamloops, B. C , s e v e r a l i n t e r v i e w s , 1947 and 1948. (Mr. Brennan knew Father Le Jeune i n t i m a t e l y and f u r n i s h e d me w i t h a good deal of i n f o r m a t i o n about the personal, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the man) Brown, G. D., J r . , Kamloops, B. C., interview, 10 January, 1947. (Mr. Brown gave me h i s impressions of Father Le Jeune as he knew him) F l e u r y , Father, 0, M . I ., Superior of S t . Mary's M i s s i o n , i n t e r v i e w , 16 August, 1947. (Since Father F l e u r y had a r r i v e d from the east but a short time ago, he was not able to give me much information about Father Le Jeune. He d i d , however, conduct me over the M i s s i o n b u i l d i n g s and to the Oblate cemetery nearby where Father Le Jeune i s buried) Forbes, Father George, 0. M. I . , l e t t e r , 16 October, 1947. (Father Forbes gave me a great amount of i n f o r m a t i o n about Father Le Jeune. He was a s s o c i a  ted with Father Le Jeune on the missions f o r a year j u s t before the l a t t e r ' s retirement) (176) E r a s e r , Mrs., Indian, Kamloops, B. C , s e v e r a l i n t e r  views, 1947 and 1948, and many other interviews with Indians on v a r i o u s reserves of the d i s t r i c t . (Every Indian I interviewed p r a i s e d f a t h e r Le Jeune and h i s work. I d i d not meet one who had a harsh word to say about him) Gregg, Dr. John R,, l e t t e r , 17 September and 6 October, 1946. (The l a t e Dr. Gregg gave me every encourage ment i n the w r i t i n g of my t h e s i s . He was extremely i n t e r e s t e d i n the shorthand aspects of i t . He v i s i t e d the Shorthand C o l l e c t i o n i n the New York P u b l i c L i b r a r y on my behalf and sent me the complete l i s t o f Father Le Jeune fs shorthand works which he found there) I r e l a n d , W i l l a r d E., l e t t e r , 11 September, 1946, and in t e r v i e w , August, 1947. (Mr. I r e l a n d l i s t e d f o r me the c o l l e c t i o n of Father Le Jeune 1s works i n the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , and made them r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to me during a v i s i t to the Ar c h i v e s i n August, 1947) Irwin, Fred, Kamloops, B. C., inte r v i e w , 6 January, 1947. (Mr. Irwin knew Father Le Jeune p e r s o n a l l y . He had a l s o heard many s t o r i e s of him from h i s f a t h e r , who was Indian Agent f o r a time and o f t e n t r a v e l l e d w i t h Father Le Jeune to the Indian reserves) J a r r e t t , Fred, l e t t e r , 10 September, 1946. (Mr. J a r r e t t , who i s Canadian manager of the Gregg P u b l i  shing Company, d i d not know much about Father Le Jeune. But he was extremely i n t e r e s t e d i n the shorthand aspects of my t h e s i s and gave me a great deal of info r m a t i o n about s y l l a b i c systems which the m i s s i o n a r i e s are using among the Cree Indians to-day) Jennings, Bishop E. Q,., Kamloops, B. C , Interviews, January, 1948. (Bishop Jennings helped me with v a r i o u s t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s of my t h e s i s and aided i n f i n d i n g b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l . He a l s o discussed with me the viewpoint of h i s Ghurch i n ev a l u a t i n g the work of such a man as Father Le Jeune) Murphy, Father Steve, 0. M. I . , New Westminster, B. C , in t e r v i e w , 15 August, 1947. (Father Murphy gave me much info r m a t i o n about Father Le Jeune during h i s retirement at New Westminster) Mooney, Mrs. M., Kamloops, B. C., int e r v i e w s , A p r i l , 1948. (Personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Father Le Jeune) (177) MacDonald, D. J . , P r o v i n c i a l Home, Kamloops, B. C , int e r v i e w , 15 October, 1947. (Personal c h a r a c t e r  i s t i c s of Father Le Jeune) S c o t t , Father, 0. M. I., Kamloops, i n t e r v i e w s , Decem ber, 1946. (Father S c o t t made a v a i l a b l e t o me many of the w r i t i n g s of Father Le Jeune which I could not otherwise have obtained. He a l s o drew my a t t e n t i o n to the many b e a u t i f u l f u r n i s h i n g s of the Indian churches of the d i s t r i c t , l a r g e l y due t o the work of Father Le Jeune) Sloan, J . D., l e t t e r , 9 January, 1947. (Mr. Sloan, s e c r e t a r y of the Sloan-Duployan Shorthand S o c i e t y , d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r me the f a c t that the shorthand system used by Father Le Jeune was the o r i g i n a l French system of Abbe' Duploye) Todd, J . Roland, l e t t e r , 18 December, 1946. (Mr. Todd, who i s Northwestern L i b r a r i a n at the U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, l i s t e d f o r me the works of Father Le Jeune which are a v a i l a b l e , i n t h i s l i b r a r y a t S e a t t l e ) Way, Mrs. A. 1 . , in t e r v i e w , A p r i l , 1948. (Personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Father Le Jeune) 

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