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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The work of Reverend Father J.M.R. Le Jeune, O.M.I. Gurney, William Harold 1948

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THE WORK OF REVEREND FATHER J . M. R. LE JEUNE, 0. M.  William Harold Gurney  A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of The Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of HISTORY  The University of- B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1948  ABSTRACT Reverend F a t h e r Jean M a r i e Raphael Le  J e u n e , 0. M.  h o r n a t P l e y b e r t - C h r i s t , Department o f F i n i s t e r r e , April and  12,  1855.  He  attended  the neighbouring  s t u d i e s were t a k e n Ordained  i n the  of  His  he  left  s h o r t l y afterwards  of B r i t i s h Columbia  on  village  theological  f o r the  i n company w i t h  stationed f i r s t  a t New  Bishop  Westminster,  l a t e r a t S t . M a r y ' s M i s s i o n , he m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e t h e F r a s e r Canyon and  was  c o l l e g e a t Autun, Burgundy.  Durieu of that provinoe. and  France,  schools of h i s native  town o f S t . P o l de L e o n .  i n 1879,  Indian missions  the  I.,  Indians  t o t h e Roman C a t h o l i c s among t h e  workmen engaged i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c Railway.  I n 1882  he was  transferred to St. Louis Mission at  Kamloops. Kamloops, f o u n d e d in  1812,  had  Company on visit  been an  by D a v i d S t u a r t as a f u r t r a d i n g  important  p o i n t o f t h e Hudson's  Its f u r brigade t r a i l .  the Indians of t h i s  Demers i n 1842.  The  first  Bay  missionary  d i s t r i c t had been Rev.  post  to  Modeste  I r r e g u l a r v i s i t s were made t o t h e v i c i n i t y by  the Oblate Fathers a f t e r  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  t h e Immaculate C o n c e p t i o n  of the M i s s i o n  on L a k e Okanagan i n 1859,  and  of  a  r e s i d e n t O b l a t e m i s s i o n a r y had b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d a t Kamloops i n 1878. From h i s h e a d q u a r t e r s travelled or  a t Kamloops F a t h e r L e  Jeune  a c i r c u i t o f some s i x h u n d r e d m i l e s v i s i t i n g t h r e e  f o u r t i m e s a y e a r t h e I n d i a n camps o f Shuswap, N i c o l a ,  ABSTRACT—(2) Douglas Lake, Bonaparte, Kamloops.  A few  time r e l i g i o u s  Deadman's C r e e k , N o r t h Thompson,  d a y s were s p e n t  e x e r c i s e s and  according to a s t r i c t  and  a t each c e n t r e d u r i n g which  i n s t r u c t i o n were c a r r i e d  schedule.  The  liquor traffic  on  among t h e  I n d i a n s was  f o u g h t b y t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n among them o f Temperance  Societies.  Under F a t h e r L e  built  Jeune's guidance  by t h e I n d i a n s t h r o u g h o u t  t a s t e and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  the d i s t r i c t  many c h u r c h e s and  furnished with  O c c a s i o n a l l y , l a r g e g a t h e r i n g s were  h e l d a t c e n t r a l p o i n t s , when h u n d r e d s o f I n d i a n s w o u l d r e l i g i o u s scenes  gather  for  t h e enactment o f s u c h  The  s t e a d f a s t d e v o t i o n o f F a t h e r L e Jeune t o h i s t a s k was  t h a t he  as t h e P a s s i o n P l a y .  i n h i s c a r e e r F a t h e r Le Jeune s e t out t o m a s t e r  various Interior S a l i s h dialectw i n his d i s t r i c t  own  such  a c h i e v e d o u t s t a n d i n g s u c c e s s as a m i s s i o n a r y .  Early  he was  were  able t o preach  languages.  t o and  the  and e v e n t u a l l y  converse w i t h the Indians i n t h e i r  I n a d d i t i o n , he  gained  great f a c i l i t y i n the  use o f t h e C h i n o o k j a r g o n , a means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n among t h e v a r i o u s I n d i a n t r i b e s and adapted  the w h i t e  settlers.  the Duployan system of shorthand  t e a c h h i s method t o t h e I n d i a n s .  writing The  at least  two  he  t o C h i n o o k and began t o  His b r i g h t e s t students i n turn  became t e a c h e r s and w i t h i n a few y e a r s he were i n h i s d i s t r i c t  I n 1890  thousand  claimed that there Indians  reading  shorthand. n e c e s s i t y o f s t i m u l a t i n g ^ and m a i n t a i n i n g  among h i s I n d i a n s t u d e n t s and  interest  of p r o v i d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l  and  ABSTRACT—(3) material Wawa.  f o r them l e d t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  This publication,  o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as  newspaper i n t h e w o r l d " was continued u n t i l m o n t h l y , and  1904.  I t was  quarterly.  mimeographed c o p i e s a t to over  first  o f t h e Kamloops "the  i s s u e d on May  queerest 2,  From a c i r c u l a t i o n the o u t s e t F a t h e r L e  and  o f one  and  Jeune r e t i r e d  d i e d a t New  i n the Oblate  coverage.  Chinook, i t s m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t e d of  announcements o f t h e p r i e s t ' s  F a t h e r Le  buried  hundred  Jeune r a i s e d i t  B i b l e h i s t o r y , p r a y e r s , hymns, news o f the v a r i o u s bands, and  and  p u b l i s h e d i n t u r n weekly,  t h r e e t h o u s a n d c o p i e s a month w i t h w o r l d - w i d e  W r i t t e n i n shorthand  1929,  1891,  forthcoming  from h i s m i s s i o n  City.  visits.  i n t h e summer o f  W e s t m i n s t e r on November 21, cemetery a t M i s s i o n  Indian  1930.  He  is  (1) TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  PAGE The Years of Preparation. ( B i r t h , education, a r r i v a l i n B r i t i s h Columb i a , and early years i n the province)  II.  The Ohlates come to the P a c i f i c Coast  23  (Early history of the Roman Catholic Church west of the Rockies, with special reference to the Oblates of Mary Immaculate) III.  Indian Languages and the Chinook Jargon  43  (The complexity of Indian dialects and the r i s e of a common trading jargon—Chinook. The vocabulary used by Father Le Jeune) IV. Y.  Father Le Jeune as a Missionary Father Le Jeune as a Teacher  68 108  (Two thousand Indians reading and writing shorthand) VI.  Father Le Jeune as E d i t o r , Author, Publisher...127 (The famous Kamloops Wawa)  VII.  The Closing Years  141  (Father Le Jeune's f i n a l years on the missions, his golden jubilee, retirement, and death) VIII.  Father Le Jeune the Man  154  (Personal characteristics of Father Le Jeune) Appendix A  161  (List of Wawa exchanges with comments by Father Le Jeune) Appendix B  164  (List of Father Le Jeune's publications with a b r i e f description, of each) Appendix C  (Biographical notes)  168  Appendix D  (Bibliography)...  170  (2) ILLUSTRATIONS  PAGE  A l a t e photograph of Father Le Jeune  4  Right Rev. Bishop D u r i e u i s hurled i n S t . Mary's cemet e r y , M i s s i o n O i t y , B. G  8  to New  Map of Father Le Jeune's route from France minster, September 5 — O c t o b e r 17, 1879  West-  I n d i a n v i l l a g e , Kamloops, In the a f t e r n o o n sun of a winter day Headstone marking the grave of Right Rev.  29  The meeting house on Kamloops r e s e r v e . . . . of most important  22  Bishop D'Her-  bomez at S t . Mary's M i s s i o n , M i s s i o n O i t y , B. C  Map  12  36  I n d i a n reserves v i s i t e d by  Le Jeune from h i s missionary headquarters  Father  at Kamloops...39  Indians on the reserve at De adman's Greek  41  Map  of main Indian languages of B r i t i s h Columbia  44  Map  of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h d i a l e c t s  46  Indian c h i l d r e n on the r e s e r v e at Kamloops....  48  S e c t i o n of Indian v i l l a g e onDeadman's Creek reserve  67  Indian cemetery at Deadman's Creek  69  Map  71  of N i c o l a and Douglas Lake Indian r e s e r v e s  Indian church, Quilchena, B. C. Map  of the Coldwater and N i c o l a — M a m i t  74 Indian r e s e r v e s . . . 76  Indian church at Deadman's Creek reserve  79  Map  of Deadman's Greek I n d i a n reserve  81  Map  of the Shu swap Indian r e s e r v e s  '  Close view of church, Kamloops Indian reserve Map of Kamloops I n d i a n r e s e r v e . . , The long main s t r e e t of the Indian v i l l a g e , Kamloops, with Mount Paul i n the background  85 88 92 103  (3) ILLUSTRATIONS  (continued)  PAGE  I n d i a n v i l l a g e , Lower N i c o l a , B. 0  ...113  The I n d i a n c h u r c h , K a m l o o p s r e s e r v e , w i t h Mount P a u l i n the  background...  ......126  C o v e r page of K a m l o o p s Wawa, A u g u s t , 1895 Cover  page o f K a m l o o p s Wawa, June, 1897...  C o v e r p a g e o f Kamloops Wawa, December,  1903  128 130 134  I n d i a n c h u r c h , Lower N i c o l a , B. C . . .  147  I n d i a n c e m e t e r y , Lower N i c o l a , B. 0......  149  H e a d s t o n e m a r k i n g t h e g r a v e of F a t h e r L e J e u n e a t S t . M a r y ' s , M i s s i o n C i t y , B. C . . .  152  (4)  A late photograph of Father Le  Jeune.  (5)  THE WORK OE REVEREND FATHER J . M. R. LE JEUNE, 0. M. I .  CHAPTER I . TEE YEARS OF PREPARATION "Two more young missionaries f o r ouj? Indians!  I t i s 'Deo  Gratias' a l l day long," exclaimed Bishop D'Herbomez as he greeted Fathers Le Jeune and Chirouse at New Westminster on October 17, 1879. (1) Immediately behind the young priests lay a journey of several thousand miles.  Families, friends,  and the s e t t l e d , ordered existence of school days i n distant France were now but memories. Before each stretched an apost o l i c career of half a century among the Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia.  This thesis i s concerned with the f i r s t of these  young men—Father Le Jeune.  He was to give to his Indian  charges the benefit of a b r i l l i a n t i n t e l l e c t , a steady enthusiasm for his cause, and a l i f e - t i m e of devoted l o y a l t y .  He  was destined to serve his Church, his Order, and humanity with dignity and d i s t i n c t i o n . Rev. Father Jean Marie Raphael Le Jeune, 0. M. I., was born at the v i l l a g e of Pleybert-Christ, i n the Department of F i n i s t e r r e , France, on A p r i l 12, 1855, and was baptised on the following day.  His father's name was Pierre Le Jeune, and his  (1) Notices necrologiques des membres de l a congregation des Oblats de Marie Immaculee, Rome, Maison Generale, 0. M. I . Tome Huitieme, 1939, p. 136:  (6) mother's maiden name was Marie Breton. His  to)  v  '  early education was gained i n the v i l l a g e o f his  b i r t h and at the neighbouring town of S t . Pol de Leon.  1  '  At t h e age of eighteen he started upon his theological studies at Autun where, after a course distinguished by exceptional b r i l l i a n c e , he was ordained priest by Bishop Perraud, l a t e r a Cardinal of the Church, on June 7, 1879.  Autun, i n Burgundy,  i s the "Augustodunum" or Fort August of the Romans, who have l e f t there quite a number of monuments and r u i n s .  These  include two magnificent gateways as well as the remains of a  (4) temple, a theatre and city w a l l s . Soon after his ordination Father Le Jeune applied to his r e l i g i o u s Superiors f o r permission to enter the missionary field.  His request was granted and he was assigned to the  Indian missions of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Bishop Durieu, of that  *  province, was in France at the time, and met h i s young recruit at the Mother House of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate i n Paris on September 1, 1879.  The next day the Bishop and Father Le  Jeune went together to Montmartre, where they recommended t h e i r forthcoming journey and their entire missionary l i v e s to the Sacred Heart.  The two days remaining to Father Le Jeune i n  Paris were spent i n preparing f o r his journey, and i n purchasing and assembling certain indispensable a r t i c l e s that would (2) Autobiographical note by Father Le Jeune, i n possession of Provincial Archives, V i c t o r i a , B. C. (3) Kamloops Sentinel, 14 June, 1929, p. 1. (4) Morice,_Rev. A. G., 0. M. I., abridged memoirs o f , by D. L. s *» F i ^ y years i n western Canada, Toronto, The Ryerson  (7) in  a l l probability  Included  be d i f f i c u l t  i nthe l a t t e r  to obtain i n B r i t i s h  c a t e g o r y was a s m a l l p r i n t i n g  w h i c h F a t h e r L e Jeune was t o u s e l a t e r the  first  press  i n theproduction of  c o p i e s o f h i s famous Kamloops Wawa.  I n company w i t h H i s L o r d s h i p B i s h o p Chirouse,  Columbia.  D u r i e u , F a t h e r E . C.  and a l a y p o s t u l a n t , F a t h e r L e Jeune l e f t  F r i d a y m o r n i n g , September 5, 1879.  P a r i s on  The p a r t y a r r i v e d  H a v r e a b o u t n o o n o f t h e same day.  Here the Bishop  at Le  was met a t  t h e s t a t i o n b y a b r o t h e r , who t o o k h i m t o h i s r e s i d e n c e on t h e outskirts  of the c i t y .  The t h r e e r e m a i n i n g  members o f t h e  p a r t y r e m a i n e d i n t h e c i t y , where t h e y v i s i t e d the B r e t o n s .  Owing t o t h e k i n d n e s s  of this  t h e Curate o f  reverend  gentleman  t h e p a r t y was a b l e t o c e l e b r a t e H o l y Mass on t h e f o l l o w i n g morning—the The  day o f t h e i r  departure  t r a v e l l e r s went o n b o a r d  from  France.  the "Pereyre,"  T r a n s a t l a n t i c Company, t o w a r d s noon on S a t u r d a y , and  left  p o r t a b o u t 1:00 P. M.  f a s t e s t on the A t l a n t i c ,  o f the French September 6,  T h e i r s t e a m e r , one o f t h e  c o u l d have made t h e v o y a g e t o New  Y o r k i n s e v e n d a y s , b u t was h e l d down t o e l e v e n days b e c a u s e o f the speed o f t h e o t h e r v e s s e l s o f t h e l i n e . r o u g h , " s t a t e d F a t h e r L e J e u n e many y e a r s p a s s e n g e r h a d been h e a r d  "The voyage was  later,  ^  "and one  t o c u r s e t h e man who d i s c o v e r e d  A m e r i c a , between h i s t r i b u t e s t o t h e o c e a n . " (5) L e J e u n e , R e v . J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, v o l . 9, n o . 3, M a r c h , 1900. " (6) "Rev. F a t h e r L e Jeune g i v e s r e m i n i s c e n c e s a t R o t a r y , " Kamloops S e n t i n e l , F r i d a y , September 17, 1926, p . 1.  R i g h t Rev. B i s h o p D u r i e u i s b u r i e d i n S t Mary's c e m e t e r y , M i s s i o n C i t y , B. C.  (9)  Soon after they l o s t sight of land, Fathers Le Jeune and Chirouse went to Bishop Durieu to ask him to give them a lesson i n the Indian language. His Lordship had already prepared for them the f i r s t of a series of f l y i n g sheets, containing about t h i r t y Chinook words.  The two ambitious young  priests took much pleasure i n reading that f i r s t lesson over and over again.  They were quite decided to continue t h e i r  studies steadily during the whole passage, but that same evening they began to experience the nausea of sea-sickness themselves, and for three days could not think of their Chinook. After t h e i r recovery they resumed their studies, His Lordship passing them a new sheet of vocabulary every day.  In t h i s  manner they had a good start on the Chinook vocabulary by the time they reached New York. In the year 1886 Father Le Jeune printed a few copies of Durieu's o r i g i n a l vocabulary on his small printing press, and reproduced the l i s t again i n his Chinook Rudiments published on May 3, 1924.  Bishop Durieu's l i s t was  divided into sections,  the f i r s t of which began with the numerals "iht"—one, "moxt" — two, "tloon"—three, "laket"—four, etc.  The l a s t or eighteenth  section covered Chinook terms for the Deity and various holy days throughout the year. The "Pereyre" arrived at New York i n the early morning hours of September 17, 1879, but the passengers were compelled to remain on board u n t i l their baggage was ready to be landed with them. Shortly after lunch they f i n a l l y got on the wharf,  (10) where they s t i l l had to wait a considerable time before the customs' o f f i c e r s cleared their e f f e c t s .  The Bishop's f i r s t  care was to secure transportation for his party from New York to San Francisco.  After this matter was arranged, Father Le  Jeune and his companions had a few hours i n which to see the city. They l e f t New York the same evening f o r B u f f a l o , t r a v e l l i n g a l l that night and the next forenoon i n a very crowded railway car.  The fatiguing journey was brightened f o r the group by .  the very hearty welcome they received i n Buffalo from Fathers G-uillard and Barber, who were residing there at the Church of the Holy Angels,  The t r a v e l l e r s had just l e f t the t r a i n when  the Bishop received a telegram c a l l i n g him to Montreal, from which point four S i s t e r s of S t . Ann, destined f o r B r i t i s h C o l umbia, wanted to make the t r i p under the direction of His Lordship. The Bishop l e f t that same evening for Montreal, while the remaining members of the party stayed i n Buffalo.  Under Father  Barber's guidance, they v i s i t e d many points of interest i n Buffalo and the surrounding d i s t r i c t .  Advantage was even  taken of reduced excursion rates to make a t r i p to Niagara Falls. F i n a l l y , on the 30th of September, Father Le Jeune and his two companions l e f t to rejoin the Bishop at Detroit, and the party, increased by the addition of the four Sisters of S t . Ann, travelled to Chicago and on across the p l a i n s .  On the  (11) t r a i n F a t h e r s Le Jeune and C h i r o u s e resumed t h e i r study o f Chinook and were soon a t the end o f the v o c a b u l a r y . " I went t o t h e B i s h o p f o r the next l e s s o n , " s a i d F a t h e r Le Jeune, i n r e l a t i n g the s t o r y . "There i s no more," was  v  '  the answer.  " B l e s s y o u r L o r d s h i p , " s a i d F a t h e r Le Jeune, "Give us then t h e grammar." "There i s no grammar," r e p l i e d the B i s h o p . got a l l t h e w o r d s .  Go on now  "You have  and speak the language.  You  will  get used t o i t s o o n j " B i s h o p D u r i e u went on t o e x p l a i n t o the two young p r i e s t s t h a t they had l e a r n e d i n the v o c a b u l a r y enough words t o express a l l the i d e a s t h a t they would want t o convey t o the I n d i a n s . He recounted the e x p e r i e n c e o f F a t h e r M a r c h a l , who  preached t o  the I n d i a n s I n Chinook j u s t t h r e e days a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l a t New Tfestminster i n the y e a r  1867.  San F r a n c i s c o w as reached on October 6, and here the p a r t y remained u n t i l October 10, when the steamer f o r V i c t o r i a was due t o l e a v e .  At the time t h e r e were o n l y t h r e e boats a  month from San F r a n c i s c o t o V i c t o r i a , l e a v i n g the former on t h e 1 0 t h , 2 0 t h , and 3 0 t h .  oity  D u r i n g t h e i r s t a y i n San F r a n -  c i s c o , Bishop D u r i e u and h i s companions enjoyed the h o s p i t a l i t y (7) M c K e l v i e , B. A., Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 6 September, 1924. (8) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, v o l . 9, no. 4, A p r i l , 1900.  (1?.)  (13) of the J e s u i t F a t h e r s , who  were s t i l l  i n t h e i r o l d residence  on Market S t r e e t . The group l e f t San F r a n c i s c o on the steamer " C i t y of Chester" and a r r i v e d at V i c t o r i a on October 14.  Fathers  Jonk.au and Leroy were there i n charge at the o l d C a t h e d r a l , Bishop Sehers having been r e c e n t l y t r a n s f e r r e d t o the A r c h diocese of P o r t l a n d . the steamer f o r New  At V i c t o r i a the p a r t y had to wait f o r  Westminster, which then l e f t o n l y twice a  week, on Tuesdays and F r i d a y s . New Westminster, and the end of the p a r t y ' s long journey, was  reached on the afternoon of October 17,  welcome was  1879.  A hearty  accorded the group by Father H o r r i s , who  upon a r r i v a l .  met  them  A pleasant s u r p r i s e awaited young Father  Chirouse, f o r at New Chirouse, S e n i o r , who  Westminster he found h i s u n c l e , Father had been i n the western m i s s i o n s of  Oregon and B r i t i s h Columbia ever s i n c e the year  1847.  Father Le Jeune spent h i s f i r s t w i n t e r i n B r i t i s h Columbia  at New Westminster.  In the s p r i n g of the year 1880,  was  asked by Bishop Durieu t o begin h i s missionary work among  the Indians o f the F r a s e r Canyon.  He was  he  a l s o t o m i n i s t e r to  the r e l i g i o u s needs of the many Roman C a t h o l i c s among the thousands of workmen who for  were being brought  the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Canadian P a c i f i c  i n t o the country Railway.  S t i r r i n g events were i n formation, and the q u i e t o f the (9) Le Jeune, Rev. May, 1900.  J . M . R.,  Kamloops Wawa, v o l . 9, no.  5,  (14) Fraser River valley was soon to be shattered as these workmen blasted and hacked t h e i r way through the canyon i n the construction of the railway. The syndicate headed by Andrew Onderdonk and D. 0 . M i l l s , of San Francisco, was i n the year 1879 awarded the contract for construction of the new l i n e from Emory's Bar to Savona's Ferry—one hundred and twenty-eight miles of the most d i f f i c u l t and expensive work i n the whole system.  In the year 188S, t h i s  syndicate was awarded a second contract f o r completion of the l i n e from Emory's Bar to Port Moody on Burrard I n l e t . Construction headquarters of the syndicate were established at Y a l e , and included general o f f i c e s , powder and acid works, and construction and repair shops of a l l Kinds.  Y a l e , which  had already experienced one "boom" twenty years before i n the gold rush, was again a busy centre with an influx of some nine thousand workmen on railway construction.  By February, 1883,  the r a i l s had been l a i d from Emory to beyond North Bend, and by June 30, 1885, the l i n e was completed from Port Moody to beyond Sicamous. ^  '  Leaving New Westminster on June 10, Father Le Jeune proceeded up the valley to Y a l e , where a strange novitiate indeed opened up to him.  In Yale there were already two Catholic  churches, one for the whites and one for the Indians.  Both  churches were, however, l i t t l e better than hovels—simply (10) Howay, Judge F. W., B r i t i s h Columbia, the making of a province, The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1928, p. 2197  (15) s h e l t e r s f o r t h e s a y i n g o f Mass.  They h a d no h e a t  r e a s o n t h a t t h e y d i d n o t n e e d i t — t h e y were u s e d  f o r the  only i n the  summer. The  "white'  1  only furnishings  c h u r c h h a d a room b e h i n d t h e rude a l t a r . c o n s i s t e d o f a bed w i t h a straw  Its  mattress—a  b e d w h i c h F a t h e r L e Jeune r e m a r k e d "had n o t h a d a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h a n y t h i n g f o r a l o n g time  e x c e p t m i c e and r a t s . "  F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e p r i e s t h a d b r o u g h t w i t h h i m from New Westmins t e r a p a i r o f b l a n k e t s and managed r e a s o n a b l y w e l l w i t h t h e r e s o u r c e s a t hand. began t o r a i n  I n the middle  i n e a r n e s t , and soon  o f t h e nigh£,^ however, i t t h e whole r o o f o f t h e room  became t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a w a t e r i n g - p o t , w i t h t h e outcome a severe d r e n c h i n g f o r t h e occupant and  last The  below.  t i m e t h a t F a t h e r L e Jeune s l e p t  T h i s was t h e f i r s t i n that bed.  f o l l o w i n g d a y , Sunday, he s a i d Mass i n t h e c h u r c h  b e f o r e a group  o f about  twenty  persons.  t h e a c q u a i n t a n c e o f t h e I n d i a n s and to  Then he went t o make s a y Mass i n t h e i r church ,  where t h e a t t e n d a n c e was c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r t h a n i t h a d b e e n i n t h e case o f t h e w h i t e s . F a t h e r L e Jeune s o o n became f r i e n d l y w i t h t h e I n d i a n captain of the d i s t r i c t — M i c h e l ,  and h i s v/lfe Agnes.  Michel  was a t r u l y p i o u s man, who n e v e r f o r g o t h i s p r a y e r s , m o r n i n g o r e v e n i n g , and who c o u l d s a y them p e r f e c t l y , w i t h o u t h e l p . He o b s e r v e d Sunday, F r i d a y , and a l l t h e f a s t days a s he h a d (11) L e Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n F r a n c a i s e , no. 157, December, 1915~ *  (16) been t a u g h t . and  He knew how t o a c t a s i n t e r p r e t e r f o r t h e p r i e s t  c o u l d even p r e a c h  was n o t t h e r e . of  t o t h e I n d i a n s h i m s e l f when t h e p r i e s t  He h a d t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a man o f f i f t y  age when F a t h e r L e J e u n e f i r s t  met h i m .  years  P o s s i b l y he was  a b o u t f o r t y y e a r s o l d , f o r a p p e a r a n c e s c a n be d e c e p t i v e , e s p e c i a l l y among I n d i a n s , b e c a u s e o f t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i f e which causes Early  them t o m a t u r e  early.  i n t h e i r acquaintanceship M i c h e l proposed  w h i c h r a t h e r t o o k F a t h e r L e Jeune a b a c k . o p i n i o n a s t o w h i c h he t h o u g h t first—hunger  or t h i r s t .  hard  He a s k e d  a question  the priest's  a p e r s o n would succumb  from  I n s u b s e q u e n t c o n v e r s a t i o n , i t was  brought  o u t b y F a t h e r L e Jeune t h a t M i c h e l , b e i n g o f an ex-  tremely  i n q u i s i t i v e n a t u r e , had experimented  had  answered t h e q u e s t i o n t o h i s e n t i r e  gone w i t h o u t end  upon h i m s e l f and  satisfaction.  He h a d  food o r d r i n k f o r a p e r i o d o f f i v e days.  A t the  o f t h a t t i m e , n o t b e i n g a b l e t o endure h i s d i s c o m f o r t a n y  l o n g e r , he h a d thrown h i m s e l f i n t o until  t h e w a t e r and had n o t e a t e n  a f t e r he h a d d r u n k ! Having  gained  t h e f r i e n d s h i p o f M i c h e l , F a t h e r L e Jeune  began w i t h h i m t h e s t u d y o f t h e Thompson I n d i a n l a n g u a g e . soon f o u n d  He  t h a t i t was a more d i f f i c u l t u n d e r t a k i n g t h a n t h e  m a s t e r y o f C h i n o o k , w i t h i t s f i x e d v o c a b u l a r y o f a few h u n d r e d words, had b e e n . w i t h h i s statement  M i c h e l intimated the complexity  o f the study  t h a t " o u r l a n g u a g e has as many words a s  t h e r e a r e l e a v e s on t h e t r e e s o r s t o n e s on t h e r o a d . "  They  began w i t h t h e n u m e r a l s , "one," "two," " t h r e e ; " — " p a i a , "  (IV) "shaia," "kalhlaj." two  and  T h a t was  t h r e e p e r s o n s i t was  "kakalhlaj;" for fruits, sticks,  "piaiokr,"  satisfactory necessary  t o say  "shiaiokr," "kalhaiokr." F a t h e r Le  up  not  After  s a y i n g , " I t was  spending  F a t h e r Le  Jeune  on  t e n m i l e s t o the n o r t h . M i c h e l had  Proceeding found  engaged i n w e a v i n g a b a s k e t  to  greet  the o l d I n d i a n  "Hello," said  In f a c t ,  for  there  Jeune t e r s e l y  encouraging  summed  at a l l . " at Yale,  a r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n c a r f o r Spuzzum,  recommended, he  r e p a i r i n g some f i s h i n g  one,  "papia," " s h i s h a i a , "  s e v e r a l days among t h e I n d i a n s  left  for  "piouja," "shiouju," "kalhouja;"  were h u n d r e d s o f ways t o c o u n t . t h e m a t t e r by  enough, h u t  t o an I n d i a n home t h a t  t h e r e an  o l d woman b u s i l y  from reeds, w h i l e  gear.  F a t h e r Le  i n the  her husband  Jeune h e l d o u t  was  h i s hand  customary f a s h i o n .  the I n d i a n ,  "but  I do n o t  shake hands w i t h  a  Protestant minister." "I "I  am  not  a P r o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r , " r e p l i e d F a t h e r Le  come on b e h a l f o f M o n s e i g n e u r "Oh,  will  you  a r e w i t h Mgr.  s h a k e hands w i t h y o u ,  Durieu."  Durieu," and  said  so w i l l my  the Indian.  study  i n t h e i r h o u s e , and  Jeune  was  with  his  soon p r o c e e d i n g  o f t h e Thompson l a n g u a g e u n d e r t h e t u t e l a g e o f t h e  lady—Marie  Ta-hwi-nak by name.  h e l p t h e young p r i e s t , (12)  was  "Then I  wife."  A f t e r t h i s exchange o f g r e e t i n g s , F a t h e r L e installed  Le  and  Jeune.  She  was  extremely  old  willing  gradually h i s vocabulary  Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n no. 157, December, 1915.  of  to  the  Francaise,-  (18) most n e c e s s a r y words began t o t a k e  shape.  I t was f r e q u e n t l y  n e c e s s a r y f o r F a t h e r L e Jeune t o have t h i n g s e x p l a i n e d by s i g n s as t h e y p r o c e e d e d "ska'ha;"  w i t h words  like  the f o l l o w i n g — " d o g , "  "cow," " s t o m a l t ; " " h o r s e , " n ' k ' i s a - s k a h a ; " H  "kaouten;"  "eyes,"  "n-kot-kot-tloushten;" "feet,"  The p r i e s t  o f t e n r e m a r k e d i n l a t e r y e a r s o f what  "skoh'kwa*t." a ludicrous  p i c t u r e he and t h e o l d l a d y must have made as t h e y lated  and worked o u t t h e i r words f o r c e r t a i n  "hair,"  gesticu-  signs.  O c c a s i o n a l l y M a r i e w o u l d become i m p a t i e n t w i t h F a t h e r L e Jeune and s a y , " B u t l e a v e now  t h e h o r s e s and t h e cows and t e a c h  us o u r p r a y e r s . " " W a i t , " he w o u l d r e p l y t o h e r , " t h a t w i l l when I have l e a r n e d enough o f y o u r  come l a t e r ,  language."  F a t h e r L e Jeune e s t a b l i s h e d h i s h e a d q u a r t e r s  a t Spuzzum  f o r s e v e r a l weeks, w h i l e he g a i n e d t h e f r i e n d s h i p and c o n f i - . dence o f t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . m o r n i n g , and t h e I n d i a n s also,  He s a i d Mass  said their prayers.  Every  every  evening,  t h e y s a i d t h e i r e v e n i n g p r a y e r s , and one o f F a t h e r L e  Jeune's f i r s t  c a r e s , a f t e r h a v i n g composed  a vocabulary,  t o w r i t e o u t as w e l l as he c o u l d t h e p r a y e r s and  was  catechism  t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e had l e a r n e d . All  through  t h e summer o f t h e y e a r 1880 F a t h e r L e Jeune  moved up and down t h e F r a s e r Canyon between Y a l e and L y t t o n , making t h e a c q u a i n t a n c e s e l f tp t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s At  the same t i m e  o f t h e I n d i a n bands and o r i e n t i n g himo f m i s s i o n a r y work i n t h e new l a n d .  c a l l s were made by t h e p r i e s t  upon t h e  (19) various  camps o f r a i l w a y w o r k e r s i n o r d e r t o a t t e n d t o  r e l i g i o u s needs o f t h e Roman C a t h o l i c s among them. fall  o f the y e a r ,  F a t h e r Le  This Mission, w i t h an  two  years  e s t a b l i s h e d by  l a t e r , was  the  t o make h i s h e a d -  the O b l a t e s  centre of missionary  d e s c r i b e s S t . Mary's as a l o c a l i t y  endure. 1880,  He  just  Columbia.  f o r the p o v e r t y  i n the y e a r  school f o r Indian g i r l s  among t h e n a t i v e s o f t h e Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y .  missionaries  the  years.  accompanying i n d u s t r i a l  b o y s two  In  J e u n e went down t h e v a l l e y t o S t .  M a r y ' s M i s s i o n on t h e F r a s e r , where he was quarters during the next  the  and  discomfort  h i m s e l f a r r i v e d t h e r e i n the a few months a f t e r F a t h e r L e  and  activities  Father  famous among t h e  1861  Morice  early  i t s i n m a t e s had  summer o f t h e Jeune reached  to  year British  H i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p l a c e a t t h a t time f o l l o w s :  S a i n t M a r y ' s M i s s i o n was t h e most p e a c e f u l and l e a s t p r e t e n t i o u s o f p l a c e s , a q u i e t o a s i s o f v e r y r e s t r i c t e d s i z e on t h e s k i r t o f t h e p r i m e v a l f o r e s t , w i t h o n l y two i n c i p i e n t f a r m s , t h o s e o f a Mr. P e r k i n s and a Mr. W e l l s , as s a t e l l i t e s , t o w h i c h m i g h t be added t h e l i t t l e c l e a r i n g of a French half-breed, G a b r i e l L a c r o i x . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f a f a i r l y l a r g e church w i t h a white-washed i n t e r i o r , the unusual s i z e o f w h i c h was r e q u i r e d by o c c a s i o n a l I n d i a n g a t h e r i n g s , or s e r i e s o f p r e d i c a t i o n s . T h i s s t o o d on t h e l o w e r r e a c h , where t h e r a i l w a y l i n e now p a s s e s , and had f o r immediate companions, r i g h t and l e f t , a r a t h e r p r i m i t i v e house o f r o u g h , u n p l a n e d b o a r d s f o r the p r i e s t s and a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r f i n i s h e d convent f o r the S i s t e r s , who c o n d u c t e d a s c h o o l f o r I n d i a n g i r l s , w h i l e t h e F a t h e r s had, d i r e c t l y u n d e r B r o t h e r H e n r y , an I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l f o r b o y s . Just east of the b u i l d i n g b e l o n g i n g to that i n s t i t u t i o n was a t i n y c r e e k , a t t h e mouth  (20) o f which stood a g r i s t m i l l the p r o p e r t y of t h e M i s s i o n , h u t o p e r a t e d by a Mr. T h r e a t a w a y . I t was  d u r i n g t h e summer o f t h e y e a r 1881  o f F a t h e r L e J e u n e and B r o t h e r M o r i c e u n t i l J u l y 2,  1882)  first  F a t h e r D e n i s Lamure who h u n t i n g m i s h a p , had  An  Le  Some t e n y e a r s b e f o r e , a  o r g a n was  T h e s e had  not been used  and t h e r e , and  f o r years,  but  s o o n had  a band o f  r e q u i r e d f o r the l o c a l church  and no  Brother Morice  the l a t t e r , B r o t h e r M o r i c e  the  t h e n above, where t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y  In d e s c r i b i n g t h i s  funds  and  Father  necessary  and h i s band went  up t h e r i v e r t o Y a l e , where a r e g u l a r c o n c e r t was  f o r the f u t u r e l i n e  Indian  efficiency.  for i t s acquisition.  P i l o t e d by  t e a r i n g a way  in a  t o g e t h e r a t S t . M a r y ' s a number o f  Jeune s e i z e d upon an i n g e n i o u s p l a n t o r a i s e  money.  ordained  later accidentally killed  to q u i t e a h i g h degree o f  were a v a i l a b l e  not  paths  d r a g g e d them o u t f r o m t h e i r l a y e r o f d u s t , made  necessary r e p a i r s here b o y s up  was  gathered  b r a s s band i n s t r u m e n t s . Brother Morice  crossed.  (he was  t h a t the  given,  and  workmen were  a l o n g t h e Canyon w a l l s .  tour, Morice  says:  In the evening atfter supper the boys would ' d i s c o u r s e sweet m u s i c ' t o t h e camps o f w o r k i n g men, and a c o l l e c t i o n was t a k e n up by F a t h e r L e J e u n e . The men were g e n e r a l l y l o s t i n a d m i r a t i o n o f t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e p e r f o r m e r s , some o f whom seemed t o them so young t h a t t h e y were i n c l i n e d t o imagine t h e y were t h e r e o n l y f o r sake o f number. T h e y w o u l d even o f f e r them money t o h e a r (13) M o r i c e , Rev. A. G., 0. M. I . , a b r i d g e d memoirs o f , by D. L . S., F i f t y y e a r s i n w e s t e r n Canada, T o r o n t o , The R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1930.  (21) them p l a y s e p a r a t e l y t h e i r own i n s t r u m e n t s and. make s u r e t h e y were n o t dummies. Practically e v e r y w h e r e p e o p l e showed t h e m s e l v e s g e n e r o u s t o t h e t r o u p e , and when t h e y o u n g s t e r s r e t u r n e d t o S t . M a r y ' s , t h e y had amassed more t h a n was n e c e s s a r y t o d e f r a y t h e c o s t o f a good o r g a n . (14) F a t h e r L e Jeune a l w a y s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e men ing  o f the Canadian  eon h e l d  l o o k e d b a c k w i t h p r i d e upon h i s  and  events  connected w i t h the  P a c i f i c Railway.  At a Rotary Club l u n c h -  a t Kamloops on ?fednesday, December 27,  h o n o u r o f t h e p i o n e e r s o f t h e c i t y and were a s k e d  t o w r i t e down s a l i e n t  work.  items r e l a t i n g  Two  Columbia  are s i g n i f i c a n t  questionnaire. came up 1884  r i v e r to turn  at opening of C i s c o Three years a f t e r  L e Jeune was  in  features of their l i f e  i n Father Le  first  1922,  d i s t r i c t , the o l d - t i m e r s  to h i s e a r l i e s t  F i r s t , " I n New  build-  days i n B r i t i s h  Jeune's  Westminster  r e p l y t o the  when Mr.  s o d f o r C. P. R,,"  B r i d g e , C. P. R."  and  ^  1 5  and  Onderdonk second,  "In  ^  h i s a r r i v a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  Father  o r d e r e d by h i s S u p e r i o r s t o p r o c e e d t o Kamloops, j  to  be  attached to the S t . L o u i s M i s s i o n of that centre.  October his  17, 1882,  headquarters  he  arrived  a t Kamloops, w h i c h was  d u r i n g the remainder  of h i s entire  to  On remain  missionary  life.  (14) M o r i c e , Rev A. G., 0. M. I . , a b r i d g e d memoirs o f , by u. L. b., F i f t y _ y e a r s i n w e s t e r n Canada, T o r o n t o , The R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1930. _ : ' (15) " P i o n e e r s o f c i t y and d i s t r i c t h o n o u r e d , " Kamloops S e n t i n e l , 29 December, 1922.  I n d i a n v i l l a g e , Kamloops, i n the a f t e r n o o n o f a w i n t e r day.  sun  (23) CHAPTER I I .  THE OBLATES COME TO THE PACIEIC COAST  F a t h e r L e Jeune b e l o n g e d late,  an O r d e r  t o the Oblates  o f t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h f o u n d e d  y e a r 1816 a t A i x , F r a n c e , b y C h a r l e s J o s e p h afterwards Bishop  of Marseilles.  en-Provence, France,  Immacui n the  Eugene de Mazenod,  Born o f noble  family at Aix-  On A u g u s t 1, 1782, y o u n g de Mazenod r e -  ceived h i s early education i n I t a l y , family f l e d  o f Mary  t o which country h i s  i n o r d e r t o escape t h e p e r s e c u t i o n s o f t h e F r e n c h  Revolution. Returning t o the country o f h i s b i r t h  i n t h e y e a r 1802,  de Mazenod d e c i d e d t o e n t e r upon e c c l e s i a s t i c a l was o r d a i n e d i n t h e y e a r 1811.  time  o n , F a t h e r de  Mazenod d e v o t e d  h i m s e l f w i t h u n f l a g g i n g energy  to the salva-  tion  I n t h e y e a r 1816 he f o r m e d t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n  of souls.  the M i s s i o n a r i e s o f Provence, gave t h e t i t l e granted years  From t h i s  s t u d i e s and  of  a group t o w h i c h Pope L e o 211  "Missionary Oblates  formal approval t o t h e i r  o f M a r y Immaculate" when he  Rules  and C o n s t i t u t i o n s t e n  later. Appointed  Bishop  of Marseilles  i n t h e y e a r 1837, de Mazenod  c o n t i n u e d as S u p e r i o r - G e n e r a l o f t h e O b l a t e s u n t i l h i s death i n 1861.  Throughout h i s l i f e - t i m e  religious  and s o c i a l  t h e sons o f h i s O r d e r throughout  (16)  he worked u n c e a s i n g l y f o r t h e  regeneration of France. extended  A t t h e same t i m e ,  their missionary  activities  s e v e r a l E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s and a s f a r d i s t a n t a s  "An a p o s t l e o f t h e p o o r , C h a r l e s J o s e p h Eugene de Mazenod," O b l a t e M i s s i o n s , September, 1946, p p . 2 — 4 .  (24) Ceylon, South A f r i c a ,  and  Canada.  The O b l a t e s e x c e l l e d as m i s s i o n a r i e s , and i n t h e h i s t o r y of  the extension o f C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s to the n a t i v e people  of  B r i t i s h Columbia,  not,  however, t h e f i r s t m i s s i o n a r i e s  Spain's s h o r t - l i v e d was  t h e y h o l d an h o n o u r e d  on t h e P a c i f i c  Coast.  A F a t h e r Magin  were F r a n c i s c a n s , The  present  C a t a l a was  there i n the years  s u c c e e d e d by a F a t h e r Gomez. from  f i r s t m i s s i o n a r y to cover the mainland sections day B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  12, 1809,  parish priest  of  i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o have B o r n on O c t o b e r  a t S t . N i c o l a s , Lower Canada, he was  F e b r u a r y 7, 1836.  o r d a i n e d on  A f t e r a f o u r t e e n month a s s i s t a n t s h i p t o t h e  o f T r o i s P i s t o l e s , he embarked f o r t h e west  L a c h i n e on A p r i l  27, 1837,  and,  i n O c t o b e r o f t h e same y e a r .  t h e Mass was  o f what i s now Here the H o l y  o f f e r e d up by t h i s p r i e s t  t o become B r i t i s h  British  Sacrifice  a t B o a t Encampment  on t h e B i g Bend o f t h e U p p e r C o l u m b i a , t h e f i r s t t h i s a c t o f w o r s h i p was  at  i n company w i t h Rev. N o r b e r t  F. B l a n c h e t , r e a c h e d t h e e a s t e r n l i m i t s Columbia  These  California.  been Rev. M o d e s t e Demers, a s e c u l a r p r i e s t .  was  Coast.  c o l o n y on N o o t k a Sound, u n d e r M a r t i n e z ,  1 7 9 3 — 9 4 ; and he was  of  They were  t h e e r a d l e o f t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h on t h e N o r t h  Pacific  men  place.  time that  c a r r i e d o u t on t h e m a i n l a n d o f what  Columbia.  From h i s m i s s i o n a r y s t a t i o n  on t h e Lower C o l u m b i a , F a t h e r  (17) M o r i c e , Rev. A, G., 0. M. I . , H i s t o r y o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h i n w e s t e r n Canada, T o r o n t o , Musson Book Co., L t d . , v o l . 2, 1910.  (25) Demers t r a v e l l e d t o F o r t L a n g l e y  i n A u g u s t , 1841,  where he  was  (18) w e l l r e c e i v e d by  t h e f a c t o r o f t h e day,  Tames M.  A f t e r b a p t i z i n g s e v e r a l h u n d r e d c h i l d r e n , and g o s p e l t o a crowd o f n a t i v e s n u m b e r i n g up he  r e t u r n e d t o t h e C o l u m b i a i n September, The  son Bay  f o l l o w i n g J u n e , Demers l e f t Company c a r a v a n  P e t e r Skene Ogden.  The  (Kamloops) on A u g u s t 10, had  so f a r r e a c h e d ,  arms by  i n t o the  the  thousands,  1841.  f o r t h e n o r t h w i t h a Hud-  p a r t y a r r i v e d a t Thompson's R i v e r P o s t 1842,  where no m i n i s t e r o f t h e  a n d where t h e p r i e s t was  gospel  received with  D u r i n g h i s two-day s t a y h e r e ,  Demers b a p t i z e d a number o f c h i l d r e n .  Visits  to Forts  t h e time  o f F a t h e r Demers  1  open Father  Alexan-  S t . James, t o g e t h e r w i t h a s i x t e e n - d a y m i s s i o n  W i l l i a m ' s Lake, completed h i s n o r t h e r n At  preaching  under the p e r s o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n o f  crowds o f n a t i v e s .  d r i a and  Yale.  at  tour.  visit,  Thompson's R i v e r  P o s t w as a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d s t a t i o n o f t h e Hudson's Bay  Com-  pany.  of  I t owed i t s f o u n d a t i o n t o D a v i d S t u a r t , a p a r t n e r  t h e P a c i f i c F u r Company, who district  i n the l a t e  first visited  autumn o f t h e y e a r 1811.  n o r t h w a r d f r o m F o r t Okanagan, a t t h e and  ^  1 9  ^  Proceeding  j u n c t i o n o f t h e Okanagan  C o l u m b i a R i v e r s , S t u a r t b l a z e d t h e way  b r i g a d e s by  t h e Thompson R i v e r  f o r the f u t u r e f u r  f o l l o w i n g Okanagan R i v e r and L a k e , c r o s s i n g t h e  h e i g h t o f l a n d , and  descending  i n t o the v a l l e y o f the  Thompson  (18) N e l s o n , Denys, F o r t L a n g l e y , a c e n t u r y o f s e t t l e m e n t , V a n c o u v e r , B. C , A r t , H i s t o r i c a l , and S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1927, p . 15. (19) Howay, Judge F. W.,  o£.  p i t . , p.  69.  (26) River.  H e r e he made t h e a c q u a i n t a n c e  Indians), noted actually  that  o f t h e She Waps (Shuswap  f u r t r a d i n g p r o s p e c t s seemed good,  and  s p e n t t h e w i n t e r when an u n u s u a l l y heavy f a l l o f snow  blocked h i s r e t u r n journey. Going back d u r i n g August o f the next y e a r , S t u a r t s e t a t r a d i n g post near the son R i v e r s .  j u n c t i o n o f t h e N o r t h and S o u t h  the years of i t s h i s t o r y  Cumcloups, t h e She Waps, Thompson's R i v e r P o s t , The F o r t Thompson, and F o r t K a m l o o p s .  ^  Shortly after Stuart's arrival, in this  on f r i e n d l y  2 0  as  Porks,  ^ an o p p o s i t i o n p o s t  was  s e c t i o n by J o s e p h L a Roque, on b e h a l f o f  t h e N o r t h - W e s t Company. remained  Thomp-  T h i s e v e n t marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f K a m l o o p s , a  p o i n t v a r i o u s l y known t h r o u g h  established  up  The  two  companies, a l t h o u g h  terms i n t h i s  section u n t i l  the  rivals, absorp-  t i o n o f t h e P a c i f i c F u r Company by t h e Nor* W e s t e r s l a t e i n t h e y e a r 1813. in  Eight years l a t e r  t h e North-West Company  t u r n merged w i t h t h e Hudson's Bay  was  Company, u n d e r t h e  l a t t e r name. Kamloops became an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t o f t h e company on i t s fur  b r i g a d e t r a i l which l i n k e d F o r t Vancouver w i t h the n o r t h -  ern  p o s t s o f New  Caledonia.  L a r g e bands o f h o r s e s were k e p t  Kamloops and  used  f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f f u r s and  particularly  i n the p a r t of the brigade t r a i l  Okanagan and A l e x a n d r i a .  at  supplies,  between F o r t s  A f t e r the T r e a t y o f Washington  (20) H a r v e y , A. G., " D a v i d S t u a r t : Okanagan p a t h f i n d e r — f o u n d e r o f Kamloops," B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 9, no. 4, O c t o b e r , 1945, p . 285.  was  (27) s i g n e d i n t h e y e a r 1846, was  sought.  By  a new  t h e y e a r 1849,  C o a s t i n t o t h e I n t e r i o r was September 5, 1847, a strenuous  trip  Bishop  of  Oregon C i t y .  trail  the u s u a l t r a d e r o u t e from  the  f r o m F o r t Hope t o K a m l o o p s .  marked t h e a r r i v a l a t W a l l a W a l l a  across the p l a i n s of the f i r s t  a r i e s i n the west. to  r o u t e f o r the f u r b r i g a d e  Oblate  T h e y came a s t h e d i r e c t r e s u l t o f  de Mazenod a t M a r s e i l l e s by A r c h b i s h o p  after  missionappeals  N. F .  Blanchet  I n t h i s p a r t y o f p i o n e e r m i s s i o n a r i e s were  R e v . P a s c a l R i c a r d , Eugene CasiLmir C h i r o u s e , C h a r l e s P a n d o s y , and G e o r g e s B l a n c h e t .  A l l the l a s t  Marie  t h r e e were  aspir-  a n t s t o t h e p r i e s t h o o d , b u t a t t h e t i m e were n o t y e t even  sub-  deacons. The couver and  first  s t a t i o n o f the O b l a t e s  I s l a n d was  i n the Diocese  a t E s q u i m a l t , where c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a house  a s m a l l c h u r c h was  begun i n t h e y e a r 1857.  p o s t became t h e o f f i c i a l  This  Esquimalt  r e s i d e n c e o f R e v . L o u i s J . D'Herbomez,  t h e V i c a r o f t h e O b l a t e m i s s i o n s on t h e P a c i f i c From E s q u i m a l t , F a t h e r C h i r o u s e the n a t i v e s of Vancouver I s l a n d . P e t e r R i c h a r d and  of Van-  On  Coast.  t u r n e d n o r t h t o work w i t h the m a i n l a n d , F a t h e r  B r o t h e r S u r e l , o u t f i t t e d w i t h h o r s e s a t Kam-  l o o p s by t h e I n d i a n c h i e f , L o l o , p r o c e e d e d s o u t h t o t h e e a s t o f Okanagan L a k e known as L'Anse au S a b l e . F a t h e r P a n d o s y coming n o r t h f r o m C o l v i l l e , and f o u n d e d , on O c t o b e r 8 , 1859, Conception  t h e M i s s i o n of t h e  plain  Here they h e r e the  party  Immaculate  on t h e e a s t e r n s h o r e 6 f L a k e Okanagan, n e a r  met  the  (38) p o i n t where t h e c i t y The  next  o f K e l o w n a now s t a n d s .  (  2 1  )  few y e a r s were b u s y ones f o r t h e O b l a t e  T h e i r r a n k s were s t r e n g t h e n e d  by t h e a r r i v a l  Fathers.  o f y o u n g and  e n t h u s i a s t i c r e c r u i t s — s u c h men a s Rev. P i e r r e P. D u r i e u a n d Rev.  L e o n F o u q u e t i n t h e y e a r 1859, F a t h e r s B a u d r e , L e J a c q ,  and Gendre i n t h e y e a r 1862, a n d o t h e r s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r s . We have a l r e a d y n o t e d i n t h e y e a r 1861. started  the establishment  The i m p o r t a n t  o f S t . Mary's M i s s i o n  House o f S t . C h a r l e s was  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , a n d c h u r c h e s  Hope and i n v a r i o u s I n d i a n v i l l a g e s .  were b u i l t  at Fort  S t . L o u i s M i s s i o n a t Kam-  l o o p s , d e s t i n e d t o be t h e f u t u r e home o f F a t h e r L e J e u n e , was founded  i n t h e y e a r 1878, w i t h F a t h e r C h i r o u s e  I n d i a n s c h o o l a t T u l a l i p , Washington, t o take Increased missionary a c t i v i t y  called  coming f r o m t h e charge.  f o r changes i n t h e  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e huge t e r r i t o r y t a k e n o v e r b y t h e Oblat.es. I n t h e y e a r 1864, t h e m a i n l a n d  of British  C o l u m b i a was made  i n t o a V i c a r i a t e - a p o s t o l i c , w i t h R t . Rev. L . J . D'Herbomez i n charge. couver  Two y e a r s l a t e r , I s l a n d and t h e i r  t h e O b l a t e s were r e c a l l e d  from  Van-  e n e r g i e s i n t h e f u t u r e , were t o be c o n -  c e n t r a t e d on t h e m a i n l a n d .  I n t h e y e a r 1875, B i s h o p  D'Herbomez  a p p l i e d f o r a c o a d j u t o r a n d t h e p o s t was awarded t o F a t h e r P i e r r e P a u l D u r i e u , who was p r e c o n i s e d B i s h o p i n June, 1875, and c o n s e c r a t e d  of Marcopolis  a t New W e s t m i n s t e r on O c t o b e r  24 o f t h e same y e a r .  (21) N e l s o n , Denys, "Yakima Days," W a s h i n g t o n H i s t o r i c a l t e r l y , v o l . 19, no. 3, J u l y , 1928, p . 189.  Quar-  (29)  H e a d s t o n e m a r k i n g the g r a v e o f R i g h t Rev. B i s h o p D'Herbomez a t S t . Mary's M i s s i o n , M i s s i o n C i t y , B. C.  (30) A t the time  o f F a t h e r Le  Jeune s a r r i v a l 1  S u p e r i o r o f S t . L o u i s M i s s i o n was Le  J a c q , who  had  the v e t e r a n m i s s i o n a r y ,  e s t a b l i s h e d and  conducted  M i s s i o n f o r t h i r t e e n y e a r s b e f o r e he y e a r 1880.  I n t h e y e a r 1881  by F a t h e r O o c c o l a ,  of  and  Father  Lake  came t o Kamloops i n t h e  F a t h e r G r a n d i d i e r was  i n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r F a t h e r  succeeded by F a t h e r Le  located  the Stewart  the  H i s a s s e s s o r s a t t h e o u t s e t were F a t h e r s G r a n d i d i e r  and P e y t a v i n .  was  i n Kamloops,  Jeune.  city  T h e r e was Mission until  no  and  o n e - h a l f m i l e s west  centre.  f u r t h e r change i n t h e p e r s o n n e l  the year  1887,  when B i s h o p  r e t u r n from the Chapter-General,  left  of  this  D'Herbomez, upon h i s  F a t h e r J . A. B e d a r d a t  Kamloops i n t h e p l a c e o f F a t h e r C o c c o l a . sent to take  Peytavin  The m i s s i o n b u i l d i n g s were  on t h e Thompson R i v e r a b o u t two  the present  replaced  The  l a t t e r was  then  c h a r g e o f S t . Eugene's M i s s i o n i n t h e K o o t e n a y  country. Rev. district  Jacq attended  f o r twelve y e a r s ,  y e a r 1880 an  F a t h e r Le  until  industrial  1892.  In the l a t t e r  of o f f i c e  moved f r o m i t s o r i g i n a l  y e a r he l e f t  to  g i r l s at S t .  the  i n the  organize Joseph's  a t Kamloops, S t . L o u i s M i s s i o n  l o c a t i o n t o a s i t e w h i c h i s bounded  by N i c o l a S t r e e t , B a t t l e S t r e e t , F i r s t Avenue and  Avenue w i t h i n t h e vocable  of h i s a r r i v a l  of  Lake.  During h i s tenure  to-day  f r o m the time  s c h o o l f o r I n d i a n b o y s and  Mission, William's  was  t o t h e Shuswap I n d i a n s  c i t y o f Kamloops.  o f t h e S a c r e d H e a r t , was  The  built  Church, w i t h  Second  the  i n t h e y e a r 1887,  and  (31) t h e house two behind ded  the  years  S i t u a t e d on an  g r o w i n g town and  a striking  elevation close  l o o k i n g northward, the  site  affor-  v i e w o f t h e f o r k s o f t h e Thompson R i v e r , o f  Indian v i l l a g e and  later.  and  r e s e r v e on  the o p p o s i t e s i d e o f t h e  o f t h e M o u n t a i n s P a u l and Upon F a t h e r L e  Jacq's  Peter  i n the  departure  river,  background.  i n t h e y e a r 1892,  Father  B e d a r d became S u p e r i o r o f t h e M i s s i o n , w i t h F a t h e r s L e and G u e r t i n as a s s e s s o r s .  At t h i s  while  to Father G u e r t i n f e l l  Jeune  t i m e F a t h e r L e Jeune  assigned t o a t t e n d to a l l the Indians  the  was  o f t h e whole d i s t r i c t ,  t h e t a s k o f v i s i t i n g t h e Roman  C a t h o l i c s a l o n g the Canadian P a c i f i c  Railway  line  f r o m Kam-  l o o p s e a s t t o t h e summit o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s . T h i s l a s t named c h a r g e , railroad  d i s t r i c t , had  as f o l l o w s :  1888.  I t was  missionaries,  F a t h e r Le not  i n t u r n by v a r i o u s  F a t h e r Le  J e u n e , 1885;  Jeune a g a i n , 1887; popular  siding  priests  Father  and F a t h e r B e d a r d ,  d i s t r i c t with  the  R e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s i n each o f the  Sunday a month.  D o n a l d and G o l d e n — c o u l d  The  f o u r t h Sunday r e q u i r e d  t h e Okanagan L a k e C h u r c h , f u r t h e r s o u t h .  spent  the  i n v o l v i n g a s i t d i d tremendous d i s t a n c e s and  centres—Revelstoke,  o n l y one at  1884;  a particularly  scattered population. largest  been attended  F a t h e r Fay,  C o c c o l a , 1886;  known t o t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s as  s t a t i o n s and  along the l i n e .  F a t h e r Le  visit  t h e whole t e r r i t o r y  throughout  Jeune e s t i m a t e d  three held  attendance  Weekdays were  i n v i s i t i n g s c o r e s o f i n t e r m e d i a t e p l a c e s and at or near the d i f f e r e n t  be  a  people  re-  s e c t i o n houses  that a  thorough  o f the r a i l r o a d  district,  (33) g i v i n g one n i g h t t o e a c h l i t t l e  p l a c e o r house a l o n g t h e r o a d , \  (op  w o u l d t a k e no l e s s  t h a n t h r e e o r f o u r months.  v  The l i f e o f  w  c o n t i n u a l l y m o v i n g f r o m house t o house was b e s e t w i t h able hardships, e s p e c i a l l y reached  a depth  of  i n t h e w i n t e r months when t h e snow  of several feet  I n November, 1893,  i n the mountains.  F a t h e r L e Jeune was a p p o i n t e d  S t . L o u i s , w i t h F a t h e r G-uertin a s P r o c u r a t o r .  f o l l o w i n g y e a r Rev.  innumer-  Father Carion arrived  Superior  Early  i n the  a t Kamloops t o t a k e  over t h e d i r e c t i o n o f the Indian I n d u s t r i a l School.  Rev.  F a t h e r Edmund P e y t a v i n a l s o was a t t a c h e d t o t h e S t . L o u i s M i s s i o n during these  years.  A d i r e c t o r y p u b l i s h e d b y F a t h e r L e Jeune i n December, 1895,  gave t h e p e r s o n n e l o f a l l t h e Roman C a t h o l i c  of B r i t i s h Columbia a t t h a t time. St.  L o u i s were as f o l l o w s :  is  t h e number i n t h e O r d e r  fessions; thef i r s t  ^  2 4  Missions  ^ Those a t the House o f  (The number i n f r o n t  o f each name  o f t h e 0. M. I . , b y o r d e r o f P r o -  number f o l l o w i n g t h e name i s t h e d a t e o f  birth;  t h e second,  t h e d a t e o f P r o f e s s i o n i n t h e 0. M. I . ; t h e  third,  t h e date o f O r d i n a t i o n . )  (22) L e Jeune, R e v . J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, J a n u a r y , 1898, v o l . 7, n o . 1, p . 3. (23) L e Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, May, 1895, no. 5, p . 66.  v o l . 4,  (24) L e J e u n e , R e v . J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, December, 1895, v o l . 4, n o . 12, p p . 178, 179.  (33) No.  Birth.  Prof.  Ord.  1855  1875  1879  Rev. F a t h e r C a r i o n , A l p h o n s u s Mary ( D i r . I n d i a n S c h o o l ) . . . . 1 8 4 8  1871  1872  916  Rev. F a t h e r G u e r t i n ,  Frederic..1846  1876  1877  762  Rev. F a t h e r P e y t a v i n ,  Edmund...1849  1870  1872  898  Rev. F a t h e r L e J e u n e , John Mary ( S u p e r i o r )  805  Lay  Brothers  183  Bro. S u r e l , P h i l i p  1819  1848  1562  B r o . Mulvaney, John  1851  1892  O l d B r o t h e r S u r e l , as he was a f f e c t i o n a t e l y known, was horn  January  1883.  1, 1819, a n d had been a t Kamloops s i n c e t h e y e a r  As l a t e a s M a r c h , 1901, he was s t i l l  notwithstanding  h i s age.  Oregon i n t h e y e a r Janin. part  s t r o n g and h e a l t h y ,  He had come t o t h e M i s s i o n s o f  1854 w i t h F a t h e r D'Herbomez and B r o t h e r  A l w a y s a c h e e r f u l and w i l l i n g w o r k e r , he had t a k e n  i n the establishment  i n the west. near tragedy  of several of the C a t h o l i c Missions  He o f t e n t o l d  o f t h e time he was a w i t n e s s  to a  on t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r , n o t f a r f r o m t h e D a l l e s .  F a t h e r s R i c a r d and P a n d o s y , a l o n g w i t h B r o t h e r V e r n e y , wanted to cross t h e Columbia.  No b o a t  t h e y made a p r i m i t i v e r a f t l i n i n g the shore. up  f r o m some d r i f t w o o d t h e y  In the middle  and i t s p a s s e n g e r s  being a v a i l a b l e at the time,  of the r i v e r  were thrown i n t o  found  the r a f t  broke  the s w i r l i n g water.  H e l p l e s s t o a s s i s t , B r o t h e r S u r e l and F a t h e r R i c h a r d w a t c h e d from t h e bank*  F o r t u n a t e l y , the occupants o f the r a f t  each a b l e t o s e c u r e h o l d o f a l o g , t o w h i c h t h e y  clung  were  (34) t e n a c i o u s l y u n t i l washed up on a p o i n t t h r e e m i l e s  down t h e  stream. Up  t o February,  1898,  t h e r e was l i t t l e  membership o f S t . L o u i s M i s s i o n . of  that date  Olivarius  change i n t h e  F a t h e r Le Jeune's  directory  m e n t i o n s o n l y one r e p l a c e m e n t — R e v .  Cornellier  instead of Father Guertin.  however, F a t h e r L e Jeune was t h e o n l y o r i g i n a l t h e 1890's, w i t h  Father  By J u n e , 1903, incumbent o f  the exception of Father Carion.  H i s directory  (27) at  t h a t time  himself:  lists  t h e f o l l o w i n g members i n a d d i t i o n t o C. M a r e h a l ,  Rev. F a t h e r s  F a t h e r G a r i o n was s t i l l  A. M i c h e l s , and P. Conan.  i n charge o f the I n d u s t r i a l  School.  F a t h e r C h a r l e s M a r e h a l had f o r m e r l y been a t t a c h e d  to the  Okanagan M i s s i o n , a t t e n d i n g t h e I n d i a n s a t P e n t i c t o n and i n t h e southern p a r t o f the p r o v i n c e . Indian Reserve l a t e  During h i s v i s i t  i n J u n e , 1896,  served f o r him w h i l e  he f o u n d  i n t h e camp was a l r e a d y  t o the  Osoyoos  t h a t t h e house r e inhabited—by  rattlesnakes.  During  t h e n i g h t t h e p r i e s t was somewhat  turbed to f i n d  t h e snakes c r a w l i n g from under t h e f l o o r and  g l i d i n g a c r o s s t h e room. for feet  The n e x t  s n a k e s and managed t o k i l l i nlength. ^ 10,  2 8  two,  d a y t h e F a t h e r went  hunting  e a c h o f w h i c h measured f o u r  )  n o . 1.  per-  Kamloops Wawa  3 Jeune, R e v . J . M. R. Kamloops ??awa v o l . 7, n o . 2, p . 18. 3 Jeune, R e v . J . M. R. 12, n o . 6, p . 3 5 .  Kamloops Wawa  3 J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R. 5 , n o . 7, p . 147.  Kamloops Wawa  (35) The  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the  r e l i g i o u s p u r p o s e s by o r i g i n a t e d by B i s h o p o f Paraguay. ( $) 2  a  Indians  the Oblates Durieu  and  o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r  followed a w e l l defined  b a s e d on t h e  t h e p o s i t i o n had  i n f l u e n c e and  t h e m s e l v e s and c a r e l e s s and  i n the  different  group s u f f e r i n g a c c o r d i n g l y .  Jeune and  bands. their  the  the  considerable  c h i e f was  a s s i s t e d by  i n number t o t h e  r e s e r v e t o w h i c h t h e y were a t t a c h e d .  The  t o have t h e laws o f t h e C h u r c h o b s e r v e d  before t h i s  of p u b l i c i n f r a c t i o n ,  e l e c t e d c o u r t and  a whipping, to a f i n e ,  and  a captain  general duties  standpoint,  c u l p r i t was  g u i l t y was  choice of captain u s u a l l y f e l l  were the  brought  sentenced  or merely t o the r e c i t a t i o n of a  p r a y e r s , a c c o r d i n g t o the s e v e r i t y o f t h e  the  of  by t h e members o f  the  i f found  and  importance of  h i s a s s i s t a n t s , from a r e l i g i o u s  In case  Le  people.  some watchmen, p r o p o r t i o n e d  c h i e f and  men  extremely  the o t h e r m i s s i o n a r i e s i n i n c u l c a t i n g m o r a l i t y  I n most p l a c e s t h e  The  o f the band.  d i s c i p l i n e with  Others exercised  had  t h e i r bands and were a g r e a t h e l p t o F a t h e r  good o r d e r among t h e i r  tribe.  Some were  in  custom  a u t h o r i t y o f the c h i e f s v a r i e d w i t h  led disorderly lives,  a u t h o r i t y over  the v o t e s  recognized  Although  been h e r e d i t a r y , t h e  g r a d u a l l y a r i s e n o f e l e c t i n g a c h i e f by The  Reductions  E a c h camp o r s m a l l band o f I n d i a n s  c h i e f , whom t h e members were s u p p o s e d t o obey.  e a r l i e r times  the  famous  plan  to  few  offence.  upon t h e most  (29) Donze, J e a n , 0. M. I . , "The I n d i a n s a t t h e O b l a t e M i s s i o n s . December, 1946, p. 7.  influential  crossroads'» ^aas, c  £ O S S  (36)  The meeting house on Kamloops reserve.  (37) man  i n t h e hand, a f t e r t h e c h i e f .  to act f o r the c h i e f  H i s p a r t i c u l a r d u t i e s were  i n the l a t t e r ' s  absence,  to carry  c h i e f ' s o r d e r s t o t h e members o f t h e band, and were p u t men,  into execution.  u s u a l l y a p p o i n t e d by  t o see t h a t  good c o n d u c t  F a t h e r Le  Jeune, " s e e  meeting, The tages.  and w i l l  the I n d i a n Agent,  on t h e r e s e r v e s .  T h e i r d u t i e s were  I t tended  awake t h o s e who  have a t e n d e n c y  o f e v a n g e l i z a t i o n had  the  to s l e e p , "  several  advanand  i t l e s s e n e d t h e bad  influences  from  (^1)  Several factors  combined, however, t o o f f s e t  the  effec-  t i v e n e s s o f the work o f the m i s s i o n a r i e s t o a d e g r e e — t o  make  l i k e F a t h e r Le Jeune doubt i n moments o f despondency  "whether t h e bad  i s not g o i n g t o exceed  t h e good, and  i f faith  I s n o t l i a b l e t o become e x t i n c t among t h e s e I n d i a n s a f t e r c e r t a i n number o f y e a r s . "  (30)  (30)  i t strengthened the p r i e s t ' s a u t h o r i t y w i t h h i s  Indian charges.  men  said  i t k e p t t h e I n d i a n s f o r t h e most p a r t i n  the p r a c t i c e o f r e l i g i o n , and  also,"  t o a v o i d c o n f l i c t s between t h e w h i t e  Indian mentalities,  without,  "They w i l l  t o keep  that the Indians are a t t e n t i v e at  " D u r i e u system"  they  The watchmen were t h e I n d i a n p o l i c e -  t o assemble t h e members o f t h e band f o r m e e t i n g s and o r d e r and  the  (32)  Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloop3 Wawa, May, no.  5, p .  a  1898, v o l . 7,  68,  (31)  Donze, J e a n , 0. M. I . , "The I n d i a n s a t t h e c r o s s r o a d s , " O b l a t e M i s s i o n s , December, 1946, p. 7.  (32)  L e Jeune, Rev. J . M. 7, no. 4, p . 51.  R.,  Kamloops Wawa, A p r i l , ~  1898,  vol.  (38) In ly.  t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t h e I n d i a n economy was c h a n g i n g  When t h e w h i t e men f i r s t  were h u n t e r s  and f i s h e r m e n .  came t o t h e I n t e r i o r Having  very l i t t l e  t h a n t h e i r h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g o u t f i t s , difficult and  t o answer t h e m i s s i o n a r y ' s  the Indians  property  difficult  other  they d i d n o t f i n d i t  call  at h i s regular v i s i t  to r e p a i r t o the appointed place with a l l t h e i r  possessions.  rapid-  earthly  B y F a t h e r L e J e u n e ' s t i m e , however, i t was o f t e n  f o r them, and f r e q u e n t l y i m p o s s i b l e , t o answer t h e  c a l l w i t h t h e same p r o m p t n e s s , engaged as t h e y were i n f a r m i n g and s t o c k r a i s i n g a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s on t h e r e s e r v e s , and i n casual labour i n the white  settlements.  Then, t o o , t h e v e r y s i z e a n d e x t e n t o f t h e m i s s i o n a r y circuits militated work.  i n the  I n h i s e a r l y days on t h e m i s s i o n s F a t h e r L e Jeune was  able to v i s i t to  against the greatest p o s s i b l e success  h i s charges  o n l y t h r e e o r f o u r times  a y e a r , due  t h e wide d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n bands he c o n t a c t e d .  As  l a t e a s t h e summer o f 1928, when he was o v e r s e v e n t y y e a r s o f age,  F a t h e r L e Jeune h a d t h i r t y - t w o m i s s i o n s Lastly,  certain to  to v i s i t .  the demoralizing influence of a close contact with  elements o f t h e advancing  i n c r e a s e drunkeness,  white  "civilization"  tended  i m m o r a l i t y and o t h e r v i c e s among t h e  Indians. Thus we f i n d district  reached  t h a t n o t a l l t h e bands i n F a t h e r L e Jeune's t h e degree o f r e l i g i o u s f e r v o u r f o r which the  (33) F o r b e s , Rev. G e o r g e , 0. M. I., l e t t e r O c t o b e r , 1947.  t o t h e a u t h o r , 16 '  (39)  Le  Map o f most i m p o r t a n t I n d i a n r e s e r v e s v i s i t e d bv F a t h e r Jeune from h i s m i s s i o n a r y h e a d q u a r t e r s a t Kamloops.  Scale:  2 0 miles to 1 inch  (40) priest  strove.  "In those  are f e r v e n t C h r i s t i a n s ,  camps," he  said,  o r where t h e  "where t h e  c h i e f has  Indians  some i n f l u e n c e  o v e r h i s p e o p l e , t h e work o f t h e m i s s i o n a r y i s r e n d e r e d 'more a g r e e a b l e by t h e encouragement he r e c e i v e s , made a s a c r i f i c e by h i s v i s i t . to r e s o r t  of t h e i r  interests  having  i n o r d e r t o come and  profit  T h e r e a r e a l s o o t h e r camps where i t i s n e c e s s a r y  to hard p u l l i n g ,  b e i n g absent  the Indians  from r e l i g i o u s  as some I n d i a n s have no  scruples f o r  exercises."  P a t i e n c e , tacfc, d i p l o m a c y , the face of d i f f i c u l t i e s — t h e s e  self-restraint, qualities  perseverance  and many more were  e s s e n t i a l t o t h e O b l a t e F a t h e r s as. t h e y worked w i t h Indians year a f t e r  in  their  year.  F a t h e r L e J e u n e ' s a p p r o a c h as a m i s s i o n a r y t o h i s I n d i a n s was  founded  through lief  upon a w e l l d e f i n e d p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h m a t u r e d  a l o n g a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h them.  I t was  always h i s  t h a t v e r y few p e o p l e w o u l d r e f u s e t o embrace t h e  religion to preach  i f t h e y once u n d e r s t o o d the Gospel  alone; perfect  i n hand w i t h t h e r e l i g i o u s A t t h e o u t s e t i t was to win  it.  To him  i t was  instruction  their priest  and  not  enough  h i s p o l i c y t o reach the Indians  e s t a b l i s h e d , the  hand  given.  f o r which t h e r e are f r e q u e n t o c c a s i o n s .  o f f r i e n d s h i p was  Christian  u n d e r s t a n d i n g must go  t h e i r a f f e c t i o n by k i n d n e s s and by t h o s e many  services  be-  Indians  had  and  little  Once a bond  confidence i n  advisor.  (34) L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R., 0. M. 1898, v o l . 7, no. 4, p. 52.  I . , Kamloops Wawa, A p r i l ,  I n d i a n s on t h e r e s e r v e a t Deadman's  Creek.  (42) Above a l l ,  i t was n e c e s s a r y  pleasing the Indians, e s p e c i a l l y a p p r o a c h t o them.  to avoid offending or disi n the i n i t i a l  stages  of h i s  I t was o n l y n a t u r a l f o r t h e I n d i a n s t o  question the motives  behind  the p r i e s t ' s  interest  i n them.  W i t h t h e examples b e f o r e them o f so many w o r k i n g f o r e a r t h l y interests  alone,  i t wa§ d i f f i c u l t  f o r them t o u n d e r s t a n d  t h e r e c o u l d be p e o p l e who w o u l d c o n s e c r a t e  themselves  s e r v i c e o f God f o r t h e s a l v a t i o n o f s o u l s . likely  t o be e x p r e s s e d  to the p r i e s t .  t o the  T h i s s k e p t i c i s m was  b y d i f f i d e n c e o r even o u t r i g h t  rudeness  F a t h e r Le Jeune's c o u n t e r a c t i n g f o r c e t o t h i s  type o f treatment for  was s i m p l y " t o r e s t r a i n one's s e l f  t h e t i m e when t h e g r a c e  one's i n t e n t i o n s w i l l t o one's p o s i t i o n . "  (  o f God and a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  b r i n g them t o a sense 3 5  and w a i t  o f t h e r e g a r d due  )  (35) L e Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa. May, 1898, no.  that  5, p . 68.  ———  vol. 7  '  (43) CHAPTER I I I . The  Indian  INDIAN LANGUAGES AND  l a n g u a g e s and  The  a difficult  C a n a d i a n a u t h o r i t y on  Jenness, l i s t s  Canada, most o f them s u b d i v i d e d  (1)  as f o l l o w s :  River valleys. (3)  Islands. linguistic they  The  (2) The The  The  A l e x a n d r i a , Dean and  dialects  the K w a k i u t l  t r i b u t a r y v a l l e y s as  Burke C h a n n e l s , and  the  (6) The  A t h a p a s k a n l a n g u a g e o f the n o r t h e r n  This that  the  Vancouver f a r up  as  Okanagan V a l l e y .  British  Columbia.  i n t e r i o r of  British  ( ) 3 6  l a r g e s t n a t i o n i n the  the one  interior of B r i t i s h  among whose p e o p l e F a t h e r L e  greater part of h i s l i f e , d i f f e r e d widely (36)  Nass  Nootka  dialect of  S a l i s h a n language o f southern  K o o t e n a y -language o f s o u t h - e a s t e r n  and  of  Columbia,  so d i v e r g e n t  languages, v i z . , the  (5) The  The  Six  Wakashan l a n g u a g e o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d .  I s l a n d , t h e F r a s e r r i v e r and  Columbia.  in  H a i d a l a n g u a g e o f t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e  o f t h e west c o a s t , and (4)  current  confined to B r i t i s h  s t o c k d i v i d e s i n t o two  east coast.  stocks  l a n g u a g e o f t h e Skeena and  c o n s t i t u t e almost d i s t i n c t  dialect  complicated  i n t o numerous d i a l e c t s .  stocks are Tsimshian  and  t h i s m a t t e r , Diamond  e l e v e n main l i n g u i s t i c  these main l i n g u i s t i c  CHINOOK JARGON  d i a l e c t s o f Canada, and p a r t i c u -  l a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia, p r e s e n t problem.  THE  was  Jeune s p e n t  the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h .  i n customs, d i a l e c t , and  Columbia, the This  group  even p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e  J e n n e s s , Diamond, The I n d i a n s o f Canada, Ottawa, N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada, 2nd e d i t i o n ^ 1934, p. 18.  Map of main Indian languages of B r i t i s h Columbia  (45) from t h e S a l i s h a n - s p e a k i n g n a t i v e s o f t h e c o a s t a l a r e a . Le  J e u n e ' s v e r s i o n o f t h e o r i g i n o f t h e word " S a l i s h " was t h a t  i t was f r o m t h e word " S h a l e e s h , " son language, t h e o l d I n d i a n s  meaning " k n i f e "  clothing—hence The  t h e name o f S h a l e e s h ,  Interior  them u n d e r  or Salish. ^  S a l i s h were d i v i d e d i n t o  e r e n t t r i b e s w h i c h spoke m u t u a l l y were l i n k e d  3 7  their  ^  at least  five  diff-  unintelligible dialects, yet  t o g e t h e r by o r i g i n and l i n g u a l s t o c k .  background o f k i n s h i p , these  five tribes  were o f t e n h o s t i l e t o one a n o t h e r .  D e s p i t e any  i n pre-European  times  The f i v e t r i b e s and t h e (1)  t e r r i t o r y w h i c h e a c h i n h a b i t e d were as f o l l o w s : ooet  i n t h e Thomp-  o f t h a t t r i b e b e i n g a l w a y s on t h e  d e f e n s i v e and c o n s t a n t l y c a r r y i n g a k n i f e w i t h  The L i l l -  o r " W i l d O n i o n " I n d i a n s were t h e w e s t e r n m o s t o f t h e I n t e r i o r  Salish tribes, living  i n the L i l l o o e t River v a l l e y  of  (2) The Thompson I n d i a n s , f o r m i n g  the Fraser River.  contact w i t h t h e Coast between Y a l e up  Father  Salish,  occupied  t o t h e west a close  the Fraser River  valley  and L i l l o o e t , and t h e Thompson R i v e r v a l l e y (3) The Okanagan I n d i a n s  as A s h c r o f t .  (4)  o f t h e l a k e and r i v e r o f t h a t name.  as f a r  l i v e d i n the v a l l e y The L a k e I n d i a n s  lived  i n t h e t e r r i t o r y a d j a c e n t t o t h e Arrow Lakes and i n t h e upper Columbia R i v e r v a l l e y . Fraser River valley country  controlled the  f r o m L i l l o o e t t o A l e x a n d r i a and a l l t h e  e a s t w a r d t o t h e summit o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s . ^  (37) L e  Jdune, Rev  HO•  (38)  (5) The Shuswap I n d i a n s  O,  p.  RavenMll,  3 8  ^  J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa. May, 1895, v o l .  DO.  A l i c e , The n a t i v e t r i b e s  V i c t o r i a , B. C.  o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  ^ -g^^ ^^ ^ ~ ^ ^ ^*  }  n  ±  1  6  w  lT  7  4,  mi  Map  of the Interior Salish dialects  (47) A t t h e end to  Jenness,  ^  among t h e s e  3 9  o f the  ^  e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e was,  a s m a l l A t h a p a s k a n - s p e a k i n g t r i b e wedged i n  five Salishan tribes.  This isolated  o c c u p i e d t h e v a l l e y s o f t h e N i c o l a R i v e r and of  the Similkameen.  During  the  early years  c e n t u r y t h e Thompson R i v e r I n d i a n s sorbed a few its  previous  and  the upper p o r t i o n o f the  nineteenth  a small vocabulary  completely  ab-  that  only  of-names b e a r w i t n e s s  Jeune f o u n d  i n the N i c o l a country  I n d i a n s , by name T e m l k - s k o o l - h a n , Haap-kan, and p a g a n s and who  had  spent  their  three old Shoo-yaska,  early lives  S i m i l k a m e e n , o r between t h e S i m i l k a m e e n and  the N i c o l a .  f a m i l y o f w h i c h t h e y were t h e o n l y s u r v i v o r s .  skool-han  still  w h i c h he was  They  "shna-hlet  gave t o F a t h e r L e  Jeune, were:  "sh-ho," "horns;"  "knee," " a r r o w ; "  " a r r o w p o i n t ; " " r o s e s s , " "soup o l a l i ; " "tloolh," fish;"  Temlk-  the N i c o l a I n d i a n s .  s e k - h a , " "a l a z y woman;" " r a p e n t l e ' h e  "a l a z y man;"  to  remembered a few words o f h i s o l d l a n g u a g e ,  n o t a l l o w e d t o s p e a k by  words, w h i c h he  who  i n the  were n e i t h e r S i m i l k a m e e n n o r N i c o l a I n d i a n s , b u t b e l o n g e d another  to  existence.  F a t h e r Le  were s t i l l  community  a r e s u p p o s e d t o have  t h i s A t h a p a s k a n - s p e a k i n g group so legends  according  "tenenn,"  " s t r a p " o r "band f o r p a c k i n g ; "  " t k e n t k s h i n , " "another  "groundhog;" "skowm," "to-morrow;" " a we  "sek-ha,""woman;" rain tie'hen," "nalsisi," "bearberry;"  "roroltooty,"  kind of f i s h ; "  These  "small  "selh-ka-ke,"  k'ha," "come  child."  (39)  J e n n e s s , Diamond, The I n d i a n s o f Canada, Ottawa, N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada, 2nd e d i t i o n , 1934, p . 351.  (40)  Le  Jeune, Rev. J . M. no. 7, p. 98.  R.,  Kamloops Wawa, J u l y , 1895,  v o l . 4,  (48)  Indian children on the reserve at Kamloot>s.  (49) The l a n g u a g e s i t u a t i o n among t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h umbia i s w e l l  summed  up by J e n n e s s when he s a y s ,  Col-  "British  Columbia, t h e r e f o r e , l i k e t h e P a c i f i c Coast o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , was a b a b e l o f c o n f l i c t i n g t o n g u e s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i t had been a c u l - d e - s a c f r o m w h i c h n e i t h e r could escape.  invaded nor invader  I n p r e - E u r o p e a n t i m e s c o n t a c t between t h e t r i b e s  was so f r e q u e n t l y h o s t i l e t h a t no one l a n g u a g e g a i n e d t h e ascendancy." However, t h e coming  o f white e x p l o r e r s and t r a d e r s t o the  l a n d s b o r d e r i n g upon t h e P a c i f i c Washington  Ocean—the  and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a — g r a d u a l l y b r o u g h t i n t o  t e n c e a common medium o f i n t e r c o u r s e . Chinook  p r e s e n t Oregon,  j a r g o n , o r Oregon  exis-  T h i s was t h e famous  T r a d e l a n g u a g e , w h i c h became f o r a  century the i n t e r n a t i o n a l language o f t h e P a c i f i c  Coast  region  f r o m n o r t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a t o A l a s k a , and f r o m t h e P a c i f i c t o t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s .  Ocean  G r a d u a l l y t a k i n g shape between t h e  y e a r s 1790 and 1810, i t became t h e common d e n o m i n a t o r o f l a n g u a g e among n a t i v e s o f a t l e a s t two dozen d i f f e r e n t s p e a k i n g as many d i f f e r e n t  tribes  t o n g u e s , a s w e l l a s among n a t i v e s ,  w h i t e s and O r i e n t a l s . The  Chinook  j a r g o n i s a c u r i o u s l y composite form o f speech,  b e i n g p a r t l y Chinook language, p a r t l y Nootka Erench, p a r t l y E n g l i s h , matopoeia. (41)  language,  and t o some e x t e n t t h e r e s u l t  I t i s possible that  partly o f ono-  some form o f common t r a d i n g  J e n n e s s , Diamond, The I n d i a n s o f Canada, Ottawa, Museum o f Canada, 2nd e d i t i o n , p . 18.  National  (50) l a n g u a g e e x i s t e d among t h e I n d i a n s on t h e P a c i f i c t h e coming o f t h e w h i t e s .  Coast  "before  However, t h e C h i n o o k j a r g o n  really  began when t h e e a r l y t r a d e r s a t N o o t k a , i n t h e c o u r s e o f  their  d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e I n d i a n s , a c q u i r e d a number o f words o f  the  Nootkan tongue.  The  Indians  i n t u r n began t o use o c c a s i o n a l  E n g l i s h words. L a t e r on, when t r a d e r s began t o f r e q u e n t t h e  Columbia  R i v e r , t h e y u s e d words l e a r n e d a t N o o t k a i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s communicate w i t h t h e C h i n o o k I n d i a n s  there.  added N o o t k a and E n g l i s h words t o t h e i r own f o u n d a t i o n was jargon.  The  laid  j a r g o n was  e n l a r g e d by  v o c a b u l a r y , and  jargon.  c o n t r i b u t i o n s from  listed  By  250 words i n f a i r l y  I n d i a n languages The  grown t o a r o u n d 500.  other than  time  when t h e language,  these, and  221  39 were  Chinook. j a r g o n has  been v a r -  d i s a p p e a r e d , w h i l e o t h e r s were  t o time to f i l l  Despite i t s comparatively  of  111  T h i s i s b e c a u s e many o f t h e o r i g i n a l words  g r a d u a l l y became o b s o l e t e and i n t r o d u c e d from  Of  67 E n g l i s h ,  number o f words c u r r e n t i n t h e  iously stated.  needs.  t h e y e a r 1863,  and  I n s t i t u t e p u b l i s h e d i t s d i c t i o n a r y of the  were c o n s i d e r e d C h i n o o k , 94 F r e n c h , from  early  Of t h e s e , 18 were r e c o g n i z a b l e as  formed t h e C h i n o o k f o u n d a t i o n .  t h e number o f words had  the  An  N o o t k a o r i g i n , 41 o f E n g l i s h s o u r c e , 34 were F r e n c h ,  Smithsonian  a  Chinook  Company s e r v a n t s .  v i s i t o r to the Coast, H o r a t i o H a l e , i n the  Chinooks  f o r what e v e n t u a l l y became t h e  Nor'West, A s t o r , and Hudson's Bay  common use  The  to  the requirements  of  local  s m a l l v o c a b u l a r y , and i t s  (51) absence o f grammatical f o r m s , Chinook had a s u r p r i s i n g bility  a n d power o f e x p r e s s i o n .  The v e r y  smallness  flexi-  of i t s  word l i s t s made i t e a s y o f a c q u i s i t i o n ;  so much so t h a t few  Europeans took t h e t r o u b l e t o l e a r n the  original  Indian  languages themselves. The  e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s i n t r o d u c e d many r e l i g i o u s  i n t o the jargon.  Rev.  M o d e s t e Demers, who a r r i v e d  V a n c o u v e r on November 24, 1838,  m a s t e r e d the  w i t h i n a f e w weeks o f h i s a r r i v a l , i n Chinook.  He o r g a n i z e d  jargon, which succeeding  many p r a y e r s  i n t o the  very u s e f u l .  adapted.  shorthand The  proficient  i n Chinook and  When he began h i s s h o r t h a n d  (l)  teaching  The p a g e s o f t h e Kamloops Wawa c o n t a i n i n g h i s  c h a r a c t e r s a p p l i e d t o the Chinook  are w r i t t e n  jargon.  as w e l l as i t s  i n t e r e s t , l e d Father Le Jeune t o a d e s i r e t o i n -  struct h i s E n g l i s h readers  i n the s u b j e c t .  many r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e Chinook  present  the  i t was t o C h i n o o k t h a t t h e s h o r t h a n d was  very novelty of the jargon i t s e l f ,  historical  He  i n Chinook, and t r a n s l a t e d  i n s t r u c t i o n s , messages a n d s t o r i e s f o r t h e I n d i a n s  has  of the  {jargon.  of his d i s t r i c t .  among t h e I n d i a n s ,  in  jargon  i t a s h i s c h i e f means o f w r i t t e n communication w i t h  Indians  first  existing  a vocabulary  m i s s i o n a r i e s found  F a t h e r L e J e u n e became e x t r e m e l y used  a t Port  a n d was s o o n a b l e t o p r e a c h  and arranged  a l s o composed s e v e r a l c a n t i c l e s  words  status.  jargon,  A complete l i s t - of t h e s e  The Kamloops Wawa i t s background, and references follows:  E a r l y t i t l e p a g e , r e p r o d u c t i o n of t h e f i r s t number, volume 1, number 1, May 2, 1891, on page 150, September, 1894.  (52) (2)  T i t l e page, September, sive.  1894,  t o September,  1895,  inclu-  (3)  T i t l e page, O c t o b e r , 1895, 1897.  (4)  S e c o n d page o f c o v e r from September,  (5)  E l e m e n t s o f phonography, i n a r u d i m e n t a r y way i n t h e f i r s t f o u r numbers, May, J u n e , J u l y , A u g u s t , 1891, and r e p r o d u c e d on pages 4, 5, and 6, J a n u a r y , 1895.  (6)  A condensed Chinook v o c a b u l a r y 1895, page 30.  (7)  O r i g i n o f t h e C h i n o o k , pages  (8)  What i s C h i n o o k , anyhow?  (9)  C h i n o o k — F r e n c h vocabulary, a l l i n shorthand, f o u r t h page o f c o v e r , June, 1895.  (10)  First  (11)  F r e n c h — C h i n o o k method, a l l i n s t e n o g r a p h y , t h i r d o f c o v e r , J u n e , 1895.  (12)  A c l i p p i n g f r o m t h e M o n t r e a l G a z e t t e o f November 29, 1894, c o p i e d i n t h e Wawa o f J u l y , 1895, pages 98 and 99.  (13)  November, 1895, page 161, a h i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a C h i n o o k — E n g l i s h condensed v o c a b u l a r y w h i c h a p p e a r s i n f u l l on page 162 o f t h e same number.  (14)  Page 165 o f November, 1895, a m i n i a t u r e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f 5,000 C h i n o o k w o r d s , e q u a l t o 7,500 E n g l i s h words, a l l i n a p o s t - c a r d s p a c e , 3 § x 5% i n c h e s .  (15)  A r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e f i r s t numbers o f t h e Wawa (May t o A u g u s t , 1891) c o m p l e t e i n two pages ( p h o t o - e n g r a v e d ) , pages 90 a n d 91, A p r i l , 1896.  (16)  The Wawa s h o r t h a n d i n s t r u c t o r , r e p r o d u c e d i n f u l l , pages eaoh number^ J a n u a r y t o J u l y , 1896.  (17)  C h i n o o k — . F r e n c h v o c a b u l a r y and method, pages 92 and 93, A p r i l , 1896.  (18)  C h i n o o k c o n d e n s e d v o c a b u l a r y i n one page, May, 1896, 118.  and on through, y e a r s 1896 and 1894, o n .  i n one page, F e b r u a r y ,  50 a n d 51, A p r i l , 1895.  Page 66, May, 1895.  l e s s o n i n C h i n o o k , June, 1895, pages 82 a n d 83. page  a few  page  (53) In a d d i t i o n t o these published Father  at intervals  extent  as f o l l o w s :  French words.  A coupled  Chinook  1924, and t o a g r e a t  summarized h i s e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h on t h e s u b j e c t . list  a t o t a l o f 552 words i n t h e j a r g o n ,  ( a ) 163 o r i g i n a l  C h i n o o k words more o r l e s s  poeia,  jargon,  a 3 6 — p a g e monograph e n t i t l e d  T h i s was i s s u e d i n t h e y e a r  His vocabularies divided  t o t h e Chinook  i n t h e pages o f t h e Kamloops Wawa,  L e Jeune c o m p i l e d  Rudiments.  references  Chinook words.  i n common u s e .  ( c ) 36 Hudson's Bay  (d) 26 words w h i c h a r e t h e r e s u l t  ( e ) 38 r e l i g i o u s w o r d s .  t h e sound words u n d e r  Chinook—English  vocabulary  o f onomato-  ( f ) 233 E n g l i s h w o r d s .  c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e C h i n o o k words u n d e r with  (b) 56  (a) a n d ( b ) ,  (d), give the f o l l o w i n g  used by F a t h e r L e Jeune.  It will  be n o t e d t h a t F a t h e r L e J e u n e , b e i n g F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g ,  used  F r e n c h r a t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h sounds as t h e b a s i s f o r h i s p h o n e t i c system. A  A  al'ke  l a t e r on  a na!  al' ta  now  a nana!  an'kate o r ans'kuttie or ans'kutie o r ahn'kutte  displeasure •  aI i n time  a' yak-  --quick  a'yaz-  --.great  a'yoo-  —many  a hal-  —yes,  a la!-  —surprise  past  ankechim  a  h» handkerchief  ats  younger B  bloo-so  .  pain  be'be bit or mit  'blue a kiss  -dime  sister  (54) C  H  cha'ko  to  come  chi  new  chik'min or chika'min  metal  chok o r chuck  water  cultus  had D  diet  right  dla' i  dry E'  e'he  to  eh'pooi  laugh  ha'ha  awful or wonderful  ha'lak  to  h ' l o ' ima  different  hum  smell  he'he  to  hwa!  surprise  hallo!  hallo  ho'ho  to  hul'hul  mouse  h'pa' i  cedar  earth  ela'item  slave  e'lo  none  enata'i  across  e'it  one  ik ta  what  i k ' tas  belongings  e'lo e  paddle  itloo-ilh  flesh  live  ik' ik  fish  nowhere  i'na-  affirming  i ' tlokom  to  t _  1  G glo  first  is' sik eight  kah  •  hide  take  or  elle  i l ' ep i p soot  to  stotkin  cough  iht !  es'kom  laugh  I  --shut  e'lehe-  open  hook  •—•—•—beaver •—gambling  K yellow  kah  where  kak shet  broken  k a ' kwa  like  1  (55) K  K  kalla'nan  fence  kal' kala  birds  kal'tash  useless  ka'mooxs ka'nawe  dog -all  kanamo1 xt  together  kan' s ih  how many  kap'ho  elder brother  kap'shwala  to steal  ka'ta  —how  kloo'chmin or kloo'chman  -woman  kloo'na's  -perhaps  kene'm or canim •—  -canoe  kola'n  -ear, hear  kom'tax or kumf tux^  -to know  ko'pa  -at, i n , to  kope't  —  -finished or only  koyokoya  —finger r  k'ell  hard  k;t0  to arrive  kwash  ••—afraid  k' ow  tied  kwa1ten-  •—belly  ki'koole  below  kwe' nam  •—five  kilapa'i  to return  k±m'ta  behind  kwa'itz or nain  •—nine  kip' ooit--  needle  kha' w  •  •—tied  kis'kis  to drive  kla'haw yam  —poor  kioo' tan  horse  kla'hane  outside  kla'hoyam  how do you do?  klak' sta  who  klas'ka  they  kla'twa or kla'tawa  to go  klis-kes  —mats  kol  — •—cold  koo'li——  —to walk  ko'pa i'lep  —at f i r s t  kah kah  —here and there  •  kanawe kah  —everywhere  ki'wa  —because  keh' t s i kwi j'kwi j  •  although -squirrel  (56) K  M  kapo  overcoat  kat'chem  to  kayoo t i  coyote  kwa' t a  quarter  1  mokst t a ' t i l a m — t w e n t y  catch  ma'ma  mother  mamook-haul  to p u l l or haul  L  m a m o o k - l a p i o c h e — t h i n k i n g over  l a ' ket  four  le'le  a l o n g time  lep'lep-  to b o i l  lo'lo--  to carry  l e ' zi—>  moo' l a  -mule  N  •—lazy  na'ika nika  1, me  na'nich  see  na'witka  M  —yes  n s a ' i k a or  ma'ika or thou  nesika  ma'kook  t o buy  nal  l o o k here  mak'mak  to  niwa!-<  l e t me see  ma'mook  t o make o r work  mash  throw away  mika  •  eat  mas a c h i — •  bad  ma'wich  deer  memloo's  dead  mitla'it  t o be  mit'wit  to stand  moos'moos  cow  moo'soom  to  msa' i k a  you  mokst  two  1  sleep  •  we, us  0  o ' i h a t or wayhut  road  o'ihoi  to exchange  ola' l i  berries  o' l o  —hungry  oo'kook  this  oo'poots ow0  i  o'ptsah  --hind part younger b r o ther ,  wondering, oh! knife  (57) P  S  pa'ya  fire  saple'l  papoos  child  se'le  pasis'si  blankets  senmoxt  seven  patl  full  s i a ' hoos  face  pel--  red  sie'sem  pa'tlach  to  pe' l p e l  give  bread -soul  —to  tell  sit'kom  half  blood  skoo' koom  strong  pelh' ten  Insane  sna' z  rain  pi  and  snow  snow o r  poo  shot  sta' l o —  river  poos  i f  sti'wilh-  to  poos'poos  w i l d cat  shem  ashamed  sik  sick  poola'kle poo  pray  powder  sa'waz  pelh' te  thick  sa'hale taye  God  poo'li—•  rotten  sia'pool  hat  pa' p a - - -  father  siks—•  pata k  potatoes  sit'kom  1  lale  r-night  1  R rat* rat  -sour  — tala  so'pena geese  S sa'hale or seg'halie  above  sa'ya  far  saka' l o o x  pants  sa« l i x  angry  year  friend half to  a  dollar  jump  T ta'ham—  six  takmo'nak  one  tamano' a z  magic  tana' z  small  t a n ' k e son  yesterday  ta' tilam  ten  hundred  (58) T  T  ta'tilam p i moxst—twelve  torn'torn o r  ta'tilam p i iht  eleven  turn turn  to think, heart  ta'ye or tyee  chief  to'lo  to win  te'ke  to l i k e  t a l ' k e son  yesterday  teko'p  white  t a l ' k e warn  last  summer  tired  t a l ' k e snow  last  winter  people  ta—  no  ta' l a  dollar s i l v e r fox  tel  <  te' likom tep'so  —grass  tik'tik  watch  ta'lapos  tin* tin  hell  tamoo'letj  tlap  t o get  t e t o o * sh  milk  slowly  tia'wit  legs  broken  mamook t i a ' w i t — t o  tla'wa  •  t l e m ' en tlementlemen tlemenooit  --smashed >  tell  a lie  —barrel  toma' l o  walk  to-morrow  to' to  toy  tlep  deep  too'too  a pet cat  tm  black  tseh  to split  tloon  three  tloon ta'tilam  thirty  tloos tsem  •  W wah  •  pour out  •—good  wa'wa  t o speak  —writing  weht  again  t s e ' pe>  mistaken  wek  no  tsi  sweet  warn  warm  tsik'tsik  carriage  wahpoos  tsil' tsil--  stars  wap' t o e s  tema' l o  untamed  •—snake potatoes  (59) Y yoot.'l  glad  y o o l 'kat  long  ya'ka  he,  yah* soot  hair  ya' kwa  here  ya'wa  there  ya'yem  to talk  The  she  r e l i g i o u s words i n t h e j a r g o n l i s t e d by F a t h e r L e  J e u n e as b e i n g i n common use a r e as B l i s s chok Catholic  follows:  ——Holy  stiwilh  water  Catholic  Jesu-kri  Jesus  Klis'mas  Christmas  La confirmasio La kroa'  o'ihat  L a Mass  •-—-  Gross -¥ay  Nativity  La p e l i t a s  •—•  L e Batem chapelet  -rosary Holy  Le kat eta  Le m a l i a j  Eucharist  •—-Smher days  carem  Legliz  penance baptism  Le k a l i s t i  Le  o f t h e Cros >ss  H o l y Mass  La Noel  Le  Christ  —confirmation  •  La Kroa'  Church  — •  Lent •  the  church  Matrimony  (60) L'autel  the  L e Pape  t h e Pope  L e peche  •  sin  Le p l e t  the  Les  anges  angels  Les  apot  the  Apostles  Les  evek—  the  Bishop  L' e s t l e m - o s i o L'ord  priest  Extreme  •  —Holy medal  Mi s t e l l  mystery  Pak  Saster  or paska  Ste.  •  Unction  Orders  Mali  Sakr amenta  'Sacrament s  Trinite  Holy  Trinity  Tloos M a r i — - •  Holy  Mary  Le  Vigils  vijil  Ay a s son In  altar  Feast  o r d e r t o g i v e t h e r e a d e r an  day  i d e a of t h e  bility  and power of e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e C h i n o o k  tation  of t h e f i r s t  and  second  with E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n . Ankate L o n g ago pi and mitlait were  ookook this  c h a p t e r s of G e n e s i s f o l l o w s ,  mamook made kopet only  ookook this J . M.  j a r g o n , an adap-  4  elehe; earth;  (42) L e J e u n e , Rev. pp. 21, 22.  flexi-  ( ^)  Sahale Taye Heaven's L o r d  kopa on  amazing  R.,  .elehe; earth;  sahale t h e above chok water pi and  Chinook rudiments,  elehe land  pi and  poolakle darkness  Sahale God May  3,  Taye  1924,  (61) wawa: said:  "Tloos "Let  light light  kopa on t h e  kopa on t h e  chako come elehe. earth. son. day.  iht first  bloo blue  sky, sky,  sky. sky.  smoke, snaz, l i k e clouds, r a i n ,  snow, snow,  haha awful  pay a kopa l i g h t n i n g up  wawa noise  kakwa as i f t h e  Sahale God  kakwa so  ayoo 1 e k , the l a k e s ,  chako chok klahane s p r i n g i n g water out o f e l ehe, t i n e n t s,  ainam e l e h e , the i s l a n d s ,  stik, woods, spakram flowers  mitooit stik, standing t r e e s , Pi and  tloos good  sahale smoke-  pi and  ookook that  skookoom terrible  mamook made  tlap have  sal the  k o o l i chok, streams , kopa the  klatwa go  chok, ocean,  t om wat a , waterfalls,  elehe; ground;  st one s, stones, mamook made  olali fruit  stik, trees,  olali. fruit.  musket, guns.  chako dlai come out t h e d r y  pi and  elehe yaka t h e e a r t h He  Kopa Prom  wind, wind,  pi and  Taye  nsaika we  st a l o , rivers,  tloos good  poo ayoo ayaz s h o o t i n g o f many b i g  kanamoxt together  chok kanawe the waters a l l elehe; land;  chako comes  sahale, above,  kopa up  komtax ' t o know  ayaz s n a z , hail,  poos  Tloon son The t h i r d d a y  nanich see  chako come Pi Then  kakwa that  S a h a l e Taye God  nsaika w h i c h we  nsaika we  chako came  mamook made  S a h a l e Taye God  sky sky  Yawa There  sahale. above.  Ayak At once  Moxt son The second d a y  ookook the  mamook made  light!" l i g h t !"  weht also  pi and pi and ayaz the con-  l a motai. mountains. chako grow pi and  tepso, herbs  kanawe tloos a l l k i n d s o f goo  (62) Laket son The f o u r t h day pi and  Sahale God  Kakwa So  tsiltsil. stars.  sitkom son, noon,  Taye  mamook made  nsaika we  memloos s o n , sunset,  tlap have  sun, moon, t h e s u n , moon, tanaz son, morning,  poolakle, night,  sitkom p o o l a k l e . mi d n i g h t .  A c l e a r a n d d e f i n i t e means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e I n d i a n s was e s s e n t i a l their to the  i f a m i s s i o n a r y hoped t o w i n and t o h o l d  esteem and a f f e c t i o n .  he l a r g e l y i n e f f e c t i v e  Knowing t h a t t h e i r  without  easy  c o m m u n i c a t i o n , most o f  e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s s e t about l e a r n i n g  We have  seen how B i s h o p  work was l i k e l  t h e Ghinook  D u r i e u p r o v i d e d h i s two young  jargon. recruits  F a t h e r s L e Jeune and C h i r o u s e , w i t h a C h i n o o k v o c a b u l a r y they a r r i v e d i n t h i s  country.  Even w i t h a thorough p i t f a l l s beset  in age  knowledge o f C h i n o o k , however, many  the missionary  common p r o c e d u r e  i n preaching t o the Indians.  was f o r t h e p r i e s t  the Indian d i a l e c t .  c o u l d n o t o r would not  t r a n s l a t e t h e p r i e s t ' s message p r o p e r l y .  quently t e l l  gave a q u e e r , the  Rather  than  t h e meaning, t h e i n t e r p r e t e r would  his listeners  sermon a t a l l .  t o p u t t h e mess-  Under t h i s method t h e r e was  always t h e r i s k t h a t t h e i n t e r p r e t e r  not t o have g r a s p e d  appear fre-  something n o t p e r t i n e n t t o t h e  A l s o , the t r a n s l a t i o n mechanical  o f Ghinook word f o r word  meaning c a r r y i n g v e r y l i t t l e  sense t o  listeners. F a t h e r L e Jeune c o l l e c t e d  assing  A  t o speak t o a n i n t e r p r e t e r  C h i n o o k , and t h e l a t t e r w o u l d t h e n attempt into  befor  several anecdotes  o f embarr-  s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h some o f h i s f e l l o w - p r i e s t s  found  (63) themselves  when dependent  interpreter.  e n t i r e l y upon t h e s e r v i c e s o f a n  One wanted t o make t h e I n d i a n s u n d e r s t a n d  our L o r d l i v e d many y e a r s The  C h i n o o k word f o r " y e a r "  meanings i n t h e j a r g o n . the at  i n Nazareth  that  w i t h Mary and J o s e p h .  i s "snow," w h i c h ?,rord h a s two  The i n t e r p r e t e r t o o k  one meaning f o r  o t h e r and t o l d t h e I n d i a n s t h a t t h e r e was p l e n t y o f snow Nazareth! Another  said  t h a t h e was v e r y much o b l i g e d t o a C a p t a i n  J o h n f o r some v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e s and t h a t he was g o i n g t o g i v e him  a " c h a p e l e t , " w h i c h means " p r a y e r beads."  m i s t o o k t h e word " c h a p e l e t " f o r " s a p l e l " that the p r i e s t  The i n t e r p r e t e r  and t o l d  the Indians  was g o i n g t o g i v e C a p t a i n J o h n a sack  of f l o u r !  A t h i r d m i s s i o n a r y wanted t o g i v e t h e I n d i a n s an i d e a o f the t r i u m p h a l Our L o r d never  into Jerusalem  s a t o n a n a s s ; but what was t h a t ?  seen s u c h  was a h o r s e , that  e n t r y o f our L o r d  an animal;  so t h e p r i e s t  resembled  said  The I n d i a n s had  t h i n g t o i t t h e y knew o f  t h a t our L o r d  a h o r s e , y e t was n o t a h o r s e .  said t o the Indians: not a h o r s e ;  the nearest  on Palm Sunday.  s a t upon something The i n t e r p r e t e r  "He s a t on s o m e t h i n g l i k e  a h o r s e , but  i t must have been a mare t h e n ! "  Father Le Jeune's t i m e l y advice f o r t h e avoidance  o f such  s i t u a t i o n s a s t h e above was t h e s i m p l e one o f h a v i n g t h e p r i e s t a l w a y s spend a few m i n u t e s w i t h t h e i n t e r p r e t e r b e f o r e t h e s e r mon o r i n s t r u c t i o n stood beforehand  i n o r d e r t o make s u r e t h a t t h e l a t t e r  what he was go,ing t o i n t e r p r e t .  (  4 3  under-  )  (43) L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, v o l . 7, no. 6, J u n e , 1898, p . 84.  ( 64) The  fact  t h a t F a t h e r L e J e u n e was  the r e l i a b i l i t y  o f i n t e r p r e t e r s may  extremely  distrustful  have b e e n one  incentive for  him  t o become a m a s t e r of I n d i a n d i a l e c t s -  set  o f h i s m i s s i o n a r y c a r e e r he h e l d t o the b e l i e f t h a t  o r d e r t o become t h o r o u g h l y c o n v e r s a n t manners, i t was language  itself.  another)  who  various Indian d i a l e c t s .  treatise  w i t h I n d i a n ways  in and  field  Indian  was  note-  c o u l d preach from  the p u l p i t  L a t e i n h i s l i f e he "he  i n the  humourously  told  c o u l d swear i n twenty-two  and went on t o " b e w i l d e r h i s l i s t e n e r s w i t h a  on e t y m o l o g y w h i c h b a c k e d  of p a r t s . "  up h i s r e p u t a t i o n a s a  p i l a t i o n and  man  < ) 44  I n any e v e n t , F a t h e r L e Jeune was  eight  out-  of t h e f e w m i s s i o n a r i e s ( F a t h e r  t h e Kamloops R o t a r y C l u b how languages,"  the  n e c e s s a r y f o r the m i s s i o n a r y t o l e a r n the  w o r t h y , and he became one M o r i c e was  R i g h t from  H i s s u c c e s s i n the l i n g u i s t i c  of  editing  different  e n t r u s t e d w i t h the  of t h e p r a y e r s and  catechism i n at  Indian dialects—Shuswap,  Stalo,  com-  least  Squamish,  S e c h e l t , Slayamen, L i l l o o e t , Thompson, and Okanagan.  T h i s work  took  pages of  a l l h i s f r e e t i m e f o r a y e a r and  phonetic  s c r i p t , the  resulted  i n 550  e q u i v a l e n t of 2,200 p a g e s i n l o n g h a n d .  A  C h i n o o k and E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h the L a t i n p r a y e r s f o r Mass, completed  t h e P o l y g l o t manual o f p r a y e r s i n e l e v e n  languages, p u b l i s h e d i n the year T h i s manual was p l a n drawn up (44)  1896.  c o m p i l e d by F a t h e r Le Jeune t o f i t i n t o  by B i s h o p Durieu.-  Among t h e l a t t e r ' s p a p e r s  " P i o n e e r s o f c i t y and d i s t r i c t . 29 December, 1922, p . 1.  h o n o u r e d , " Kamloops .  a  could  Sentinel  (65) "be f o u n d  a prayer  in  S e c h e l t , and  to  f i n d and  i n the S t a l o language,  a hymn i n Squamish.  classify  the m a t e r i a l .  a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e work, s e n d i n g e a c h t r i b e who  a chapter  I t was Bishop  of  catechism  a b i g undertaking D u r i e u gave  every  t o F a t h e r Le J e u n e I n d i a n s  were t h e most p r o f i c i e n t  i n their prayers  from  and  catechism. F a t h e r L e Jeune t e l l s  o f some of t h e work i n h i s own  words:  I a r r i v e d a t New W e s t m i n s t e r one e v e n i n g i n t h e month o f M a r c h , 1896, t o do the work i n the S t a l o language. The B i s h o p had brought two or t h r e e I n d i a n s o f t h a t t r i b e who knew t h e i r p r a y e r s and c a t e c h i s m , and l o d g e d and f e d them a l l t h e time t h a t I needed them. The f i r s t day was employed i n l e a r n i n g a l l t h e y knew; I made them r e c i t e t h e i r p r a y e r s one a f t e r t h e o t h e r — f o r i n s t a n c e t h e 'Our F a t h e r . ' While t h e y r e c i t e d I t o o k i t down i n s h o r t h a n d ; i f I m i s s e d some words I l e f t s p a c e s and t h e n I made them r e p e a t t h e p r a y e r f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g b e c a u s e y o u c o u l d not stop them i n t h e m i d d l e — t h e y would o n l y g e t a l l mixed up. At t h e end o f t h e day I h a d t h e t e x t o f t h e i r p r a y e r s and t h e c a t e c h i s m . Two or t h r e e more days were spent i n r e v i s i n g and p e r f e c t i n g t h e t e x t ; I c o u l d t h e n s t o p them w h e r e v e r i t was n e c e s s a r y , because I had t h e w r i t t e n t e x t from t h e f i r s t day. They were v e r y much s u r p r i s e d t o h e a r me r e a d and p r o n o u n c e t h e i r l a n g u a g e a c c u r a t e l y . (45) Later that  same y e a r F a t h e r L e J e u n e went t o  different  p a r t s of t h e c o u n t r y — t o Squamish, t o S e c h e l t and t o to  do t h e  year  same work i n t h e o t h e r l a n g u a g e s .  At t h e  t h e manual of p r a y e r s i n e l e v e n l a n g u a g e s  E a c h of t h e  550 p a g e s was  large phonetic reduced  end  of  the  completed.  then w r i t t e n i n i n d e l i b l e ink i n  s c r i p t , w h i c h was  reproduced  by h a l f f o r t h e p r i n t i n g p l a t e s .  (45) L e J e u n e , Rev. M a r c h , 1916,  was  Lillooet—  by p h o t o g r a v u r e  T h i s work c o s t  J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa. E d i t i o n p p . 205, 206.  and  about  FranCaise,  (66) one thousand d o l l a r s .  ^46)  Father George Forbes, 0. M. I. , who knew Father Le Jeune intimately,, and who was associated with him on the missions for a year during 1928, says: student and a genius.  "Father Le Jeune was a very apt  When something interested him, he would  not give up u n t i l he had mastered i t . "  This was true  p a r t i c u l a r l y of Father Le Jeune's l i n g u i s t i c studies and achievements.  In support of h i s statement Father Forbes c i t e s  the interest taken by Father Le Jeune when the l a t t e r discovered that several Shuswap and Hebrew words had a similar sound and meaning. At that time he knew l i t t l e Hebrew and so, i n order to pursue h i s investigations further, he set to work to learn that language.  As a result of his studies, Father Le Jeune  claimed that he found i n the f i r s t three pages of the Bible at least seventy-two Hebrew words alike or almost alike Indian words of the same meaning. ( 4 ®)  (46) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, Edit ion FranQaise, March, 1916, pp. 205, 206, 207. (47) Forbes, Rev. George, 0. M. I . , l e t t e r to writer, 16 October, 1947. (48) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, Edit ion Franoaise, August, 1915, p. 37.  (67)  Section of Indian v i l l a g e  on  Deadman's C r e e k  reserve.  (68)  CHAPTER IV.  FATHER LE JEUNE AS A MISSIONARY  • From h i s headquarters at Kamloops Father Le Jeune t r a velled thousands of miles over a l l kinds of roads and t r a i l s to carry on his missionary a c t i v i t i e s .  In the heat of summer  and the cold of winter v i s i t a t i o n s were made regularly to the various Indian hands of h i s d i s t r i c t .  In addition t o the regu-  l a r c i r c u i t c a l l s , special v i s i t s to scattered points were f r e quently made upon the occasions of sickness and death.  A study  of h i s itinerary f o r the f i r s t quarter of the year 1893 shows some of the places he v i s i t e d regularly and indicates the amount of doubling back necessary to keep h i s stated appointments. ( 4 9 ^ January 1—8-  Douglas Lake  January 9  Quilchena  January 10—13  -Harnette Lake  January 14—22  Coldwater  January 23  Coutlie  January 24  Spence's Bridge  January 25—27  Kamloops  January 28—February 2  Spuzzum  February 3—7  North Bend  February 8—10 February 11—12  • •  Kamloops Lytton  February 13—25  Kamloops  February 26—March- 5  North Thompson  (49) See map p. 39.  (69)  I n d i a n cemetery a t Deadman's C r e e k .  (TO) March  •Kamloops  6—14  March 15—19-  Savona  March 2 0 — 2 3  Kamloops  March  Shuswap  24—31  S e v e r a l o f t h e p l a c e s m e n t i o n e d above a r e on the m a i n l i n e of t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c is relatively  that  Others  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n between them of  involved trips  Shuswap i s l o c a t e d t h i f t y - f i v e  or t r a i l . and  easy.  Railway  the t h r e e I n d i a n r e s e r v e s attended  many m i l e s by  m i l e s e a s t o f Kamloops  by F a t h e r L e Jeune i n  v i c i n i t y were l o c a t e d w i t h i n e i g h t or t e n m i l e s of  station.  The  N o r t h Thompson camp was  of Kamloops and was trail,  reached  located f i f t y  s u c c e s s i v e l y through  waggon r o a d and C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l  From Kamloops a waggon r o a d went  m i l e s west  of Q u i l c h e n a  the  miles  north  the years  south t o Quilchena,  l a y the Coldwater  fifty  ^ ^ 5 (  reserve.  From C o l d w a t e r t h e d i s t a n c e by r o a d t o S p e n c e ' s B r i d g e was m i l e s and t o Savona s i x t y t o Savona by  rail  miles.  The  by  Railway.  m i l e s , thence eastward t o Douglas Lake, f i f t e e n m i l e s . Twenty-five  road  fifty  j o u r n e y west f r o m Kamloops  i s twenty-five miles.  From Savona a t r a i l  or  r o u g h waggon r o a d l e d t o t h e Deadman's C r e e k I n d i a n camp, t e n m i l e s away.  T e n m i l e s n o r t h o f A s h c r o f t , on the  R i v e r , t h e r e was  a settlement  o f I n d i a n s w h i c h was  l a r l y v i s i t e d by F a t h e r L e J e u n e . hood a l s o took him  (5$)) See map  p.  His t r i p s  t o C l i n t o n and H i g h B a r ,  t w e n t y - f i v e m i l e s west of 39.  Bonaparte  Clinton.  also  in this  regu-  neighbour-  the l a t t e r p l a c e  A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f some o f  ill) W4-  S  I t  NICOLA  LAKE INDIAN  HAMlLTO N CREEK I N D I A N  Map of Nicola and Douglas Lake Indian reserves Scale: 2 miles to 1 inch  (72) the  j o u r n e y s made-by F a t h e r L e Jeune w i l l  sight  i n t o the d i f f i c u l t i e s  endure, type  and  and h a r d s h i p s he  furthermore w i l l  o f work he  carried  On J a n u a r y  4, 1894,  g i v e us a k e e n e r i n -  outline  o f t e n had  to  i n greater detail  on among h i s I n d i a n  the  charges.  he l e f t Kamloops f o r t h e s o u t h  and  f 51) experienced f i n e eight  weather but h e a v y s l e i g h i n g .  days between D o u g l a s L a k e and  Indians  ted  f o r them, b o t h The  160  -'  Spending  Q u i l c h e n a , he f o u n d  so a n x i o u s t o improve t h a t t h e y k e p t  t i m e and were v e r y a s s i d u o u s  W J  together a l l that  i n a t t e n d i n g the meetings  i n t h e c h u r c h and  160  i n t h e meeting  appoin-  rooms.  I n d i a n s o f t h e s e two p l a c e s were made up  of  about  e i g h t y at D o u g l a s L a k e and a s i m i l a r number a t t h e mouth o f t h e N i c o l a R i v e r on N i c o l a L a k e , f i v e Mamette L a k e i s a l s o i n t h i s was  scattered.  in  was  still  the N i c o l a c o u n t r y  F a t h e r L e Jeune had  (51)  the p o p u l a t i o n here spoke t h e Okanagan  living  when F a t h e r Le J e u n e  i n t h e y e a r 1882.  b a p t i z e d him  As a m a t t e r  on J a n u a r y  advanced age  6, 1883,  arrived of  fact,  just  t o t h e number o f s e v e n t y - n i n e .  I n d i a n o f m a g n i f i c e n t b e a r i n g and I n l a n d S e n t i n e l , F r i d a y , M a r c h 9,  (52) Le J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R., A u g u s t , 1915,,p. 39.  a  of n i n e t y y e a r s .  C h i e f S h i l h i t s a had h a d no l e s s t h a n t w e l v e w i v e s  descendants ing  but  Quilchena.  of the o l d C h i e f , L o u i s N i c o l a  y e a r b e f o r e h i s d e a t h at t h e Old  district,  Most o f t h e s e I n d i a n s , who  d i a l e c t , were d e s c e n d a n t s S h i l h i t s a , who  m i l e s north of  He  was  appearance,  a fine and  and look-  was  1894.  Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n  FranQaise,  (73) favourably looked upon and respected "by the early settlers i n the country.  He was very i n t e l l i g e n t and knew how to guard h i s  rights and those of the other Indians.  "The whites are looking (5  for  1  the slightest excuse to seize our lands," he used to say.v Chief Louis Nicola was succeeded by B a s i l e , one of h i s  younger sons.  Basile was, however, k i l l e d i n a drunken brawl  just a year after he was elevated to the position of c h i e f . An election was then held i n the band, and the resulting choice for  chief f e l l upon Johnny S h i l h i t s a , otherwise known as  Celestin.  The l a t t e r embarked upon a programme of improvements  on both the Douglas Lake and Quilchena reserves. The f i r s t thing Celestin undertook after h i s appointment as chief was to build a church at Douglas Lake, and i n l e s s than two years a neat l i t t l e chapel stood at a distance of f i f t y yards from h i s house.  A steeple was soon added to the  church and a four hundred pound b e l l placed i n i t . One of Father Le Jeune's most enduring monuments i n his d i s t r i c t i s the large number of l i t t l e chapels where the Indians meet for divine worship.  He was instrumental i n en-  couraging the Indians to erect many of these churches and to furnish them with taste and discrimination. In the. year 1894 a second church was completed by Celest i n and h i s band on their lower reserve north of Quilchena. This was the Church of Our Lady of Lourdes, a neat l i t t l e building twenty feet by forty f e e t , costing nearly two thousand d o l l a r s , with a six hundred pound b e l l i n the steeple and a very (53) Le Jeune, Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, Edition Francaise, August, 1915, p. 41. * '  (74)  Indian church, o.uilchena, B.  C.  (75) expressive  s t a t u e o f Our L a d y o f L o u r d e s above t h e a l t a r .  On J a n u a r y 15, 1894, F a t h e r L e Jeune l e f t  ing  Their routine called f o r rising  s e r v i c e s a t 7 and 8 o ' c l o c k ;  h o l d work u n t i l  opened w i t h ter  the n a t i v e language.  session.  T h i s p e r i o d was  Then came a l e s s o n o f C a t e c h i s m  was g i v e n f o r d i n n e r u n t i l  ground.  another  general  I t was f i r s t  and p r o c u r i n g  t h a n t h e f i s h and game on  which t h e y f o r m e r l y h a d t o r e l y f o r s u s t e n a n c e .  Paul had  i n v i e w , t o o , which was t o make C h r i s t i a n s o f  who accompanied him.  o f good l i v i n g  Paul  h i s f a m i l y from Boston Bar f o r  a more c e r t a i n means o f l i v e l i h o o d  those people  session  o'clock.  s e t t l e d by a n I n d i a n ,  the purpose of r e a r i n g horses, t i l l i n g the s o i l ,  object  ser-  t h i s , Coldwater had been merely a  S a t c h i e , who came t h e r e w i t h  another  any d i s -  5 P. M. when t h e r e was e v e n i n g  At 8 o'clock  Twenty y e a r s b e f o r e  i n the  At 2 P. M. t i m e  was h e l d f o r t h e same p u r p o s e s a s t h e one a t 11  hunting  of a chap-  and e x p l a i n i n g o f t h e same i n  p u t e s t h a t may have a r i s e n among the I n d i a n s .  6 o'clock.  f o r morn-  c a l l e d them t o t h e  n a t i v e l a n g u a g e , and t h e g a t h e r i n g ended i n s e t t l i n g  vice u n t i l  among 120  at 6 A. M.  s i n g i n g and was f o l l o w e d hy t h e r e a d i n g  o f C h i n o o k and t h e r e a d i n g  ^  t h e n t i m e was g i v e n f o r house-  11 o ' c l o c k , when t h e h e l l  m e e t i n g house f o r a t h r e e - h o u r  5 4  Q u i l c h e n a and  went t o O o l d w a t e r , where e i g h t more days were s p e n t natives.  ^  to h i s people.  He s e t a s p l e n d i d example  He was always opposed t o t h e  (54)  L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M.  (55)  I n l a n d S e n t i n e l , F r i d a y , March 9, 1894.  P., Kamloops Wawa, J u n e , 1901, p . 19.  Map  o f the C o l d w a t e r and N i c o l a — M a m i t  Scale:  Indian  reserves  2 m i l e s to 1  inch  (77)  Tamanoaz, o r M e d i c i n e Men, and d i d a l l he c o u l d t o d i m i n i s h their  influence  over h i s p e o p l e .  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the f i r s t ly  a l l himself.  I t was he who s t a r t e d t h e  c h u r c h a t ColdYfater and b u i l t  i t near  I n h i s y o u n g e r d a y s he h a d a c c o m p a n i e d and  g u i d e d many p a r t i e s  o f s u r v e y o r s and e x p l o r e r s .  Dewdney and J u d g e O ' R e i l l y h a d him i n t h e i r  L i e u t . Gov.  company d u r i n g  t h e i r p i o n e e r e x c u r s i o n s t h r o u g h t h e c o u n t r y and h e l d h i m i n h i g h esteem.  I n the y e a r 1868 he h a d a c c o m p a n i e d  Bishop  D'Herbomez from Y a l e on h i s e x p e d i t i o n i n t o t h e C a r i b o o . (^6) Leaving Coldwater  on J a n u a r y  23, 1894,  f o r the  return  j o u r n e y t o K a m l o o p s , F a t h e r L e Jeune f o u n d t h e f o r m e r group he had  v i s i t e d at Quilchena s t i l l  l e s s o n s begun a t t h e f i r s t at  instructing  meeting.  each o t h e r on t h e  A f t e r s p e n d i n g t h r e e days  Kamloops engaged i n i s s u i n g t h e Kamloops Wawa f o r F e b r u a r y ,  the p r i e s t  went t o Spuzzum, where o v e r f i f t y  gathered f o r t h e i r lessons.  p e o p l e were  Here t h r e e o r f o u r young men b e -  came so e n t h u s i a s t i c t h a t t h e y s p e n t t h r e e whole n i g h t s r e p e a t i n g the l e s s o n s of the  day.  The t i m e between F e b r u a r y 2 and F e b r u a r y 9 was spent a t Spuzzum, between F e b r u a r y 10 a n d F e b r u a r y 15 a t N o r t h Bend, between F e b r u a r y 20 and F e b r u a r y 26 a t B o n a p a r t e , M a r c h 2 and M a r c h 7 a t Deadman's C r e e k . procedure  as that  and between  P r a c t i c a l l y t h e same  c a r r i e d out a t C o l d w a t e r  was f o l l o w e d i n  each o f t h e s e p l a c e s . Upon h i s r e t u r n t o Kamloops,, F a t h e r L e Jeune was g r a t i f i e d (56) L e J e u n e , Rev.  J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, J u l y , 1895,  p . 97.  (78) to  f i n d t h a t t h e c h i e f t h e r e had h i s I n d i a n s assembled  night  from  7 t o 10 o ' c l o c k a s a r e g u l a r s c h o o l .  made such p r o g r e s s a s t o be a b l e t o c o r r e s p o n d l a n g u a g e among t h e m s e l v e s  and w i t h p e o p l e  every  H e r e some had i n the E n g l i s h  o f the o t h e r b a n d s .  B o n a p a r t e I n d i a n v i l l a g e was c o n s i d e r e d by F a t h e r L e J e u n e a s " p e r h a p s t h e most m i s e r a b l e v i l l a g e country, at l e a s t  i n t h e whole o f t h i s d i s t r i c t . "  v i e w e d t h e B o n a p a r t e camp f o r t h e f i r s t and  i t h a d changed v e r y l i t t l e  houses or huts sand  i n t h e whole  time  5 8  ) He h a d  i n F e b r u a r y , 1883,  i n the i n t e r v e n i n g years.  o f t h e 180 i n h a b i t a n t s were b u i l t  and r o c k s washed flown from  (  The  on a s l i d e o f  a m o u n t a i n b y one o f t h o s e  t o r r e n t i a l r a i n s t o r m s w h i c h c a r r y a l l b e f o r e them i n t h e i r p a s s a g e , and w h i c h c o v e r t h e l a n d s c a p e gravel of  and s t o n e s .  Most  with a thick  l a y e r of  of t h e houses o f the v i l l a g e c o n s i s t e d  o l d cabins belonging t o the e a r l y  miners.  F a t h e r L e J e u n e had s e e n t h e B o n a p a r t e I n d i a n v i l l a g e two or  t h r e e t i m e s i n p a s s i n g d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1883, 1885, a n d  1890. 1895 had  It fell on.  to h i s lot to v i s i t  i t r e g u l a r l y from t h e year  I n t h e e a r l y days and up t o t h e y e a r 1900, the p e o p l e  a very p r i m i t i v e type of church.  I t was s i m p l y a c a b i n  s i m i l a r t o t h e houses o f t h e I n d i a n s , complete w i t h d i r t and p a t c h e d at  here  and t h e r e w i t h o l d t i m b e r s .  I n the y e a r 1900,  F a t h e r Le Jeune's i n s t i g a t i o n , the i n h a b i t a n t s b u i l t  church f a i r l y (57)  suitable  f o r the v i l l a g e .  roof,  a new  But t h e y f a i l e d t o  I n l a n d S e n t i n e l , F r i d a y , M a r c h 9, 1894.  (58) Le J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n F r a n c h i s e , A p r i l , 1916, p . 212.  (79)  I n d i a n c h u r c h a t Deadman's C r e e k  reserve.  (80)  provide any room for the p r i e s t , who was forced to accommodate himself f o r twelve years i n a part of the old church, now r e duced i n size to a space about three yards square with just room for a bed, t a b l e , stove and three v i s i t o r s , more or l e s s . Upon the occasion of one of Father Le Jeune's v i s i t s t o Bonaparte i n the year 1896, most of the v i l l a g e r s were assembled in the largest house (that of the chief) f o r a lesson i n Catechism.  An Indian came running to t e l l the priest that a big  rattlesnake was i n the next house coiled beside a young c h i l d who was reaching out to t r y to grasp the snake by the neck. The Catechism meeting broke up i n some disorder when everybody ran  to see the snake, which someone had by t h i s time p u l l e d  away from the c h i l d and outside. "What shall we do with the snake?" the Indians asked Father Le Jeune. " K i l l i t , of course," he replied. "But Father Le Jacq t o l d us that i t was not good to k i l l a rattlesnake—that i t s mate would always return to avenge i t s death." "Very well," responded Father Le Jeune, " i f i t s mate comes, you w i l l k i l l i t also." Strange to say, the next day the Indians k i l l e d another snake which was crawling behind the same house. Due east of Bonaparte, and ten miles north of Savona, lay the  Deadman's Creek Indian reserve.  Deadman's Creek, or the  "River of the Dead," owed i t s name to the fact that t r a d i t i o n  Map  of Deadman's Greek I n d i a n reserve Scale:  2 m i l e s to 1 i n c h  (82) claimed  that  travellers  t h e r e . h a d been s e v e r a l  i n this  drownings among t h e e a r l i e s t  s e c t i o n when t h e y t r i e d t o c r o s s t h i s  e r o u s stream w i t h o u t  adequate p r e p a r a t i o n .  their river "Ski-jis-ten"  and t h e i r  The I n d i a n s  The i n h a b i t a n t s  reserve  s u b s i s t e d by f a r m i n g t h e b o t t o m l a n d s  river.  The p o p u l a t i o n  e a r l y days t h e r e Fortunately, generation,  Father  adjoining the  o f about  L e Jeune o b s e r v e d that  h a d been s e v e r a l  since  120 men,  i n the  d r u n k a r d s among t h e band. (59)  these had p r e t t y w e l l  d i e d o f f , and t h e y o u n g e r  having witnessed the i l l  i n w h i s k e y , were n o t so i n c l i n e d the  of t h i s  o f t h e v i l l a g e h a d changed l i t t l e  y e a r 1880, and b y t h e y e a r 1915 c o n s i s t e d  women, a n d c h i l d r e n .  called  village "S-hi-ain-ouel-lih,"  w h i c h means " a bend i n t h e r i v e r . "  the  treach-  e f f e c t s of over-indulgence  t o f o l l o w i n t h e f o o t s t e p s of  deceased. T h e i r c h u r c h was b u i l t  use.  I t was l a r g e and w e l l I n d i a n s now l i v i n g  i n t h e y e a r 1909 a n d i s s t i l l i n equipped.  on Deadman's C r e e k r e s e r v e  a u t h o r ( O c t o b e r , 1947) t h a t  when F a t h e r  Le J e u n e f i r s t  them he always t r a v e l l e d f r o m Savona on f o o t there  being  no waggon r o a d a t t h a t  time.  told the visited  o r on h o r s e b a c k ,  The t r a n s i t i o n be-  tween t h e o l d and t h e new i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n methods came i n t h e month o f J u n e , 1915.  On t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t r i p  Father  L e Jeune  was met a t Savona on T h u r s d a y , June 1 1 , by o l d C h i e f Thomas, who came by waggon t o t r a n s p o r t (59)  him t o t h e v i l l a g e .  L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, B d i t i o n J u l y , 1915, p . 26.  On Monday, Franoalse,  (83) J u n e 14, when t h e p r i e s t was r e a d y surprise. first Mr.  An automobile  car to travel  arrived  t o l e a v e he h a d a p l e a s a n t  f r o m Savona t o get  This  o v e r t h e Deadman's C r e e k r o a d was d r i v e n by  G e o r g e T u n s t a l l , a s o n o f Judge T u n s t a l l The  him.  o f Kamloops. ^  6 0  ^  N o r t h Thompson I n d i a n r e s e r v e , w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f  approximately  150,  was s i t u a t e d  On December 1, 1898,  fifty  m i l e s n o r t h o f Kamloops.  two young I n d i a n s f r o m t h a t d i s t r i c t  came  t o Kamloops t o t a k e F a t h e r L e Jeune up t o t h e i r r e s e r v e .  They  started it  on F r i d a y m o r n i n g , December 2, a n d a c o l d  was f r o m m o r n i n g t o n i g h t , f o r t h e y a r r i v e d  T h r e e days were b u s i l y ninety-five cold  of f i f t y  miles  communions.  being-  Another  i n e i g h t hours brought t h e  back t o Kamloops on December 6, t o spend t h e F e a s t  Immaculate C o n c e p t i o n One  ride  t h e r e a t 9 P. M.  by t h e p r i e s t , t h e r e s u l t  c o n f e s s i o n s and f i f t y - f i v e  sleigh ride  priest  spent  sleigh  of t h e  at t h e Indian reserve there.  y e a r l a t e r , on November 30, 1899,  C h i e f Andrew, o f t h e  N o r t h Thompson r e s e r v e , came t o Kamloops f o r t h e p r i e s t — t h i s time  with horses  and buggy.  about 10 o ' c l o c k , h o p i n g  They s t a r t e d  out t h e next  t o r e a c h L o u i s C r e e k t h e same day, a  d i s t a n c e of t h i r t y - s i x m i l e s .  But t h e i r h o r s e s p r o v e d  s l o w , and t h e r o a d v e r y s o f t , s o t h e y were o v e r t a k e n t e n m i l e s from t h e i r  morning  intended  destination.  t o be  b y dusk  F i n a l l y they  came t o  a v e r y muddy p l a c e i n the r o a d a n d were tempted t o g e t down f r o m (60) L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n F r a n c a i s e , J u l y , 1915, p . 26. (61) L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, December, 1898, p . 3.  (84) t h e buggy t o l o o k f o r t h e r o a d . c o u l d not  have drawn t h e i r  walk i n t h a t mud.  But  i t was  so muddy t h a t  shoes back i f t h e y had  By u r g i n g on t h e i r h o r s e s  attempted  to  they t r a v e l l e d  an  a d d i t i o n a l two  m i l e s , h a r d l y knowing whether t h e y were on  o f f the  Finally,  road.  d i s t a n c e and  were on a h u n t i n g with  some l i g h t s began t o show up  these proved  t o be t h e f i r e s  expedition.  them f o r t h e n i g h t .  The  fireplace.  The  sleep without up  w e a t h e r was  not  much d i f f i c u l t y .  before t h e i r  priest  and  tents*.  which  Proceeding  T h e r e were h e r e  open  journey,  the  L o u i s C r e e k about noon and m i l e s f u r t h e r on,  the  about  Railway,  f r o m Shuswap s t a t i o n  on  t h i r t y - f i v e m i l e s east o f Kamloops.  t h r e e b a n d s , the Upper Shuswap o r Kwowt  t h e Shuswap C e n t r e  or Shehkaltkmah I n d i a n s , and  Indians,  the Lower Shu-  Indians.  The Kwowt band was  P a u l , was  on t h e i r  set  (62)  the Canadian P a c i f i c  Their l i t t l e  s e r v e d a s a common  c e l e b r a t e d i n the  Shuswap r e s e r v e s were r e a c h e d  swap or Halowt  stay  v e r y c o l d , so t h e y were a b l e t o  N o r t h Thompson I n d i a n r e s e r v e , t w e l v e  The  who  each  I n t h e morning t h e I n d i a n s  C h i e f Andrew r e a c h e d  t n , three o clock.  Indians  t r a v e l l e r s were g l a d t o  a n a l t a r w i t h b o x e s , and Mass was  spaces  o f a few  or  i n the  T h e r e were f o u r t e n t s t o u c h i n g  o t h e r and p i t c h e d a r o u n d a s q u a r e  they  church,  composed o f about  dedicated t o the  seventy-five persons.  Apostles St. Peter  s i t u a t e d about h a l f a m i l e above t h e h e a d of  Shuswap L a k e and  d i r e c t l y opposite  (62) L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. pp. 1 2 9 — 1 3 2 .  S q u i l a x S i d i n g on  and  Little  the  R. , Kamloops Wawa, December,  1899,  St.  (85)  LlTTLC l-AKt  S H U S w j * ^ |. ft. N O \  KWOWT  JNPO I r*i VLILK "^!lTTv4 S H U S W / V P cA^Jil | . « N O . U-  SMfc'HKAl.TMIM^' INDIAN A D A M S  VIL.LA'V'  V  V  LAK6/  Mi •J j  <  HALO-  IT  Map of the Shuswap Indian reserves Scale:  2 miles to 1 inch  (86) railway.  I t had  F a t h e r Le  Jeune's guidance at a  dollars.  In  energetic  chief  h i s men  been b u i l t  by  o r d e r t o meet t h e of the  in cutting  the  I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s under  cost  of  some f i f t e e n h u n d r e d  expense o f  the  building,  the  r e s e r v e , F r a n c o i s S h i l p a h a n , had  down t i m b e r and  selling  It t o  the  employed  sawmills  nearby. The the  c h u r c h at Shuswap C e n t r e , d e d i c a t e d t o S t . H e l e n  H o l y C r o s s , was  foot  of L i t t l e  some 150  I t was  i n s i z e , and  A p p r o x i m a t e l y 150  and  had  with a transept took up  twenty f e e t  the  forty-four by  was  feet  by  twenty-  1892.  Halowt  Shuswap s t a t i o n .  f e e t by  l o n g by  or Lower  the  room u p s t a i r s , This  officially  situated  I t was  of  twenty f e e t  twenty f e e t .  t w e n t y f e e t and  in size.  I n d i a n s and  of  the  r e l i g i o u s centre for  d e d i c a t e d t o S t . M i c h e l , and  seventy-six feet  sixteen feet  the  I n d i a n s l i v e d near t h e  apartment, w i t h a p r i v a t e by  was  o f Kwowt at  been opened s i n c e J u l y ,  o n e - h a l f m i l e s west  frame c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  m i l e s west  a log building, f i f t y  Shuswap c h u r c h , w h i c h was one  a few  Shuswap L a k e , and  Indians.  f i v e feet  located  and  The  vestry,  was  c h a p e l a l s o had  also  wide,  sanctuary or  priest's  sixteen  feet  been e r e c t e d  opened on November 4,  by  1894. (63)  A f i v e hundred pound b e l l T r o y , New tion  Y o r k , was  i n the  among the Le  city  o f Kamloops.  a b l e b o d i e d men  J e u n e , Rev.  J . M.  Meneely B e l l Foundry,  steeple.  of t h i s c h u r c h were r a i s e d by  wood i n t h e  (63)  set  from the  the  Funds f o r t h e I n d i a n s , who  of the hand that  construc-  sold  A m u t u a l agreement was  of  fire-  reached  each would make  R. , Kamloops Wawa, May,  1895,  p.  up 65.  (87) five  c o r d s o f wood f o r t h i s  purpose.  . I t was F a t h e r L e J e u n e ' s itinerary  i n s u c h a way t h a t  u s u a l custom the i n t e r v a l  t o arrange h i s between C h r i s t m a s a n d  New  Y e a r would he spent a t the Kamloops I n d i a n r e s e r v e .  was  h i s procedure during that p e r i o d  about  550 I n d i a n s g a t h e r e d a t K a m l o o p s f o r r e l i g i o u s  tion. 250,  but on t h i s o c c a s i o n s e v e r a l  instruc-  i n s t r u c t i o n were k e p t a t 6 A. M., r i s i n g ;  p r a y e r s , H o l y Mass and i n s t r u c t i o n ; and h o u s e h o l d work; f r o m 10:30 C a t e c h i s m house;  about  v i s i t o r s from n e i g h b o u r i n g  f o r t h e h o l i d a y season.  i n the r e l i g i o u s  schedule as f o l l o w s :  the  when  T h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e Kamloops r e s e r v e numbered  r e s e r v e s had a r r i v e d part  i n t h e y e a r 1894,  This  Those  taking  to a strict  f r o m 7 t o 8, morning  f r o m 8 t o 10:50, b r e a k f a s t  A. M. t o 1:30 P. M., m e e t i n g i n  1:30 t o 5, l e i s u r e h o u r  f o r dinner and  o u t - d o o r work; f r o m 5 t o 6:30, R o s a r y , n i g h t p r a y e r s , B e n e d i c t i o n and sermon; 6:30 t o 8, s u p p e r t i m e ; 8 t o 10:30, meeting The  i n the C a t e c h i s m house; time at the meetings  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: instruction; the ing,  11, bed time.  i n t h e C a t e c h i s m house was spent  i na revision  reading, translating  O l d o r New Testament i n groups  second  or r e p e t i t i o n  and e x p l a i n i n g  of the  a chapter of  p u b l i s h e d i n t h e Kamloops Wawa; s t u d y -  o f two, t h r e e , o r f o u r , a n o t h e r c h a p t e r o r two  f r o m t h e Kamloops Wawa; e x p l a i n i n g a few q u e s t i o n s o f C a t e c h i s m ; practising  some k i n d  o f chant  or music; w r i t i n g o r c o p y i n g some  p o r t i o n s o f t h e m a t e r i a l s r e v i s e d d u r i n g t h e m e e t i n g . (64)  (64) L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa. v o l . 4, no. 3, M a r c h , 1895, p . 33.  (88)  C l o s e view o f c h u r c h , Kamloor>s I n d i a n  reserve.  (89) Up t o t h e y e a r 1900 t h e I n d i a n s on t h e Kamloops r e s e r v e used an o l d l o g church as t h e i r p l a c e of worship.  I n that  year  t h i s b u i l d i n g was t o r n down and c o n s t r u c t i o n begun on a l a r g e frame c h u r c h .  The s e r v i c e s o f a g o o d c a r p e n t e r were  secured  by F a t h e r L e J e u n e , and t h e I n d i a n s worked a l o n g under h i s d i rection.  At t i m e s t h e r e were a s many a s f i f t y  on t h e new c h u r c h .  Indians  working  By November 10 the b u i l d i n g was f i n i s h e d  on t h e o u t s i d e , t h e windows and d o o r s were i n t h e i r p l a c e s , and  the c e i l i n g  was c o m p l e t e d  on t h e i n s i d e .  c o n s t r u c t i o n h a l t e d f o r t h e time not want t o m i s s  their f a l l  r e t u r n a few days'  At t h i s p o i n t  being, since the Indians d i d  hunt fif deer f o r meat.  work c o m p l e t e d  Upon  their  t h e new c h u r c h , and o p e n i n g  s e r v i c e s were h e l d on Sunday m o r n i n g , December 23. (^5) In  the course of h i s missionary a c t i v i t i e s  i t was F a t h e r  L e J e u n e ' s e x p e r i e n c e t o l i v e t h r o u g h t h e famous h i g h water of the y e a r 1894, an event  remembered f o r a g e n e r a t i o n  throughout  t h e I n t e r i o r and t h e l o w e r F r a s e r V a l l e y f o r t h e i n c o n v e n i e n c e and  d e v a s t a t i o n i t caused.  While  t h e annual  recurrence of  s p r i n g f r e s h e t s on t h e F r a s e r R i v e r a n d i t s t r i b u t a r i e s p l a y havoc w i t h r a i l B r i t i s h Columbia,  often  and r o a d t r a n s p o r t a t i on t h r o u g h o u t  c o n d i t i o n s were much worse i n t h e e a r l i e r  days o f s e t t l e m e n t , when r o a d beds a n d g r a d e s  were not a s w e l l  e s t a b l i s h e d as they are to-day. There  h a d been p r e v i o u s y e a r s o f e x t r e m e l y h i g h w a t e r ,  n o t a b l y those (65)  o f 1876 and 1882. "During F a t h e r L e J e u n e ' s  I n l a n d Sent i n e l . F r i d a y , Dec. 28, 1900.  early  (90) t r a v e l s on the O a r i h o o Road he was  o f t e n amazed t o s e e , h i g h  above h i s h e a d , t h e marks o f t h e h i g h water o f t h e 1 6 t h of J u l y , 1876.  While  t r a v e l l i n g from Y a l e t o L y t t o n d u r i n g t h e  first  days of J u n e , 1882,  i n company w i t h I n d i a n J a c k , o f S k u z z y ,  near  B o s t o n B a r , t h e two  r e m a r k e d upon t h o s e h i g h water marks o f  1876.  Little  d i d they t h i n k that  upon t h e i r  a week l a t e r t h e w a t e r would be same marks.  Yet  water r e a c h e d I n d i a n up  s u c h was  the l a r g e s t  water.  bia  begin t h e i r  A few effect  -  i n 1894,  warm days of  serious freshets. t h e s p r i n g remained  Thus w i t h a l t e r n a t e hot  snow w a t e r r e a c h e s t h e  I n t h e y e a r 1894,  May.  the and  cool  ocean without  however, t h e weather d u r i n g  very cool u n t i l past the middle  Then an e x t r e m e l y hot  was  of B r i t i s h Colum-  c o o l e r d a y s and n i g h t s g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w , h a v i n g  s p e l l s of weather the  could  t h e h i g h water of 1882  r i s e during the f i r s t  of c h e c k i n g t h e r i s e .  each  backs.  I n a normal y e a r t h e r i v e r s annual  one  The  o f them  to push  even remarked t h a t  of  May.  s p e l l ensued f o r some weeks, c a u s i n g a  sudden and  c o n t i n u o u s m e l t i n g o f . t h e snow i n t h e m o u n t a i n s .  The  result  was  had  a l r e a d y s u r p a s s e d t h e h i g h w a t e r mark of 1882,  that  or  of  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  f i l l e d w i t h salmon, thousands  f o r d t h e r i v e r on salmon  a g a i n exceeded.  the  same y e a r c o i n c i d e d w i t h one  I t was  Twelve y e a r s l a t e r ,  those  on June 1 1 , 1882,  at t h e s i d e s of the r i v e r a s i f t r y i n g  o t h e r out o f the almost  That  literally  higher than  h i g h e s t p o i n t e v e r known t o w h i t e  salmon r u n s e v e r w i t n e s s e d  F r a s e r R i v e r was crowding  several feet  the c a s e , and  i t s peak—the  to that time.  r e t u r n journey from L y t t o n  by June 2 the F r a s e r and  i t s tributaries with a  (91) continual  rise  even above t h i s p o i n t  f o r several  days f o l l o w -  ing. The C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c line  Railway suffered  s e v e r e l y on i t s m a i n  a l l t h e way f r o m t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s t o t h e P a c i f i c .  B r i d g e s were c a r r i e d away, embankments c a v e d i n , t r a c k s were several feet  under w a t e r i n p l a c e s ,  so t h a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e whole  system.  In addition,  f o u r b r i d g e s on the Thompson R i v e r were c a r r i e d a w a y — t h o s e Savona, A s h c r o f t , S p e n c e ' s B r i d g e and L y t t o n .  was  Thousands  at  ©f  a c r e s i n the l o w e r P r a s e r V a l l e y were i n u n d a t e d , and the f a r m ing  a r e a s o f C h i l l i w a c k , Sumas and M a t s q u i were one v a s t The h i g h w a t e r o f 1894  c o i n c i d e d with the v i s i t  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a m i s s i o n s of t h e V e r y R e v e r e n d F a t h e r Superior-General tor  o f t h e 0. M.  f o u n d upon h i s a r r i v a l  difficulties  I.  lake.  t o the Souillier,  that the d i s t i n g u i s h e d  must have  visi-  opened h i s e y e s t o t h e  sometimes e n c o u n t e r e d by h i s m i s s i o n a r i e s i n t h i s  province. A l e t t e r f r o m the V e r y R e v e r e n d F a t h e r r e a c h e d Kamloops J u n e 2, a n n o u n c i n g h i s a r r i v a l T h a t was t h e l a s t his that  f o r the 1 6 t h o f t h e same month.  m a i l r e c e i v e d a t Kamloops  a r r i v a l , and l i t t l e  on  until  the eve o f  d i d t h e p e r s o n n e l a t Kamloops  t h e i r guest would be w i t h them as  believe  scheduled.  However, b y t h i s t i m e t h e t r a i n s were b e g i n n i n g t o g e t t h r o u g h , and t h e R e v e r e n d S u p e r i o r - G e n e r a l 17, o n l y a few h o u r s l a t e , toine, Assistaat-General  did arrive  on J u n e  accompanied by R e v e r e n d F a t h e r  An-  o f t h e O r d e r , and Rev. F a t h e r Lacombe.  The I n d i a n s o f Kamloops, h a v i n g been warned  o f h i s coming,  Map  of Kamloops I n d i a n Scale:  reserve 2 miles to 1  inch  (93) attended  i n a body t o welcome him  the  same a f t e r n o o n .  Next day t h e R e v e r e n d F a t h e r went t o v i s i t S c h o o l , the  j o u r n e y h a v i n g t o he  was  still  several feet  was  made t o t h e  six  feet  floor but  under w a t e r .  looked  submerged.  T h i s day  the t r i p  was  a  visit  one  w i t h water  i n c h e s of the  attempted  by  carriage,  s l o u g h w h i c h had  so deep t h a t the  t o s t a n d on t h e s e a t of t h e  road  Some days b e f o r § ,  w i t h even a few  i n s e v e r a l p l a c e s and p a r t i c u l a r l y  be c r o s s e d , t h e w a t e r was had  On T u e s d a y t h e 1 9 t h  somewhat l i k e Noah's A r k ,  deep a l l a r o u n d i t and  Industrial  made i n a canoe s i n c e t h e  o l d m i s s i o n house n e a r b y .  t h i s b u i l d i n g had  the  to  d i s t i n g u i s h e d guest  c a r r i a g e t o escape a c o m p l e t e  wet t i n g . On J u n e 21 a v i s i t  was  made t o t h e Kamloops I n d i a n r e s e r v e ,  F o r t h i s p u r p o s e a boat  was  taken at a short d i s t a n c e from  r a i l w a y t r a c k i n town and t h e main s t r e e t  the party paddled  i n the I n d i a n v i l l a g e .  c o u l d have gone w i t h t h e i r boat landed  on t h e  s t e p s at t h e f r o n t  through  A week e a r l i e r  ing  and h i s p a r t y l e f t  o f June 21,  by t h e r a i l w a y .  door o f t h e I n d i a n  but  Kamloops a t 11 P.  M.  they and  Father on t h e  even-  been opened  T h e r e a d e l a y o f some h o u r s was (now  the  next  experienced, K a t z , B.  At t h i s p o i n t t h e y were o b l i g e d t o l e a v e t h e  continue t h e i r  j o u r n e y by  steamer, a r r i v i n g  M i s s i o n about 7 o ' c l o c k i n t h e e v e n i n g .  of  church.  T h e y a r r i v e d a t N o r t h Bend on t i m e  t h e y r e a c h e d Y a l e by noon and G a t ' s L a n d i n g  by 2 P. M. and  Reverend  c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h e west h a v i n g  morning at 7 A. M.  end  t h e main s t r e e t  Accompanied by F a t h e r Le J e u n e , V e r y Souillier  o f f t o the  the  train  a t S t . Mary's  From t h e  steamer  they  G.)  (94) c o u l d view the I n d i a n churches they  approached.  reaches,  had  and  T h e s e b u i l d i n g s , l o c a t e d t h e n on t h e  a l l been p a r t i a l l y  by the h i g h  submerged a few  Indian v i l l a g e  in  days  as  lower  earlier  water.  Upon l a n d i n g , the p a r t y was  church  t h e h o u s e s on t h e hank  a few  in their  informed  t h a t a t the  Sundays b e f o r e , the I n d i a n s had  canoes.  Tselez gone t o  T h e r e t h e y had b e e n c o m p e l l e d  s i x inches of water while they  t h e i r b r a s s band p l a y e d t h e t u n e s  chanted  their  to  kneel  service,  as  f r o m t h e canoes o u t s i d e  the  windows.  (66) A of  journey  u n d e r t a k e n by F a t h e r L e J e u n e d u r i n g t h e  t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , 1895,  took  him  through  c o u n t r y between Kamloops and W i l l i a m ' s L a k e . on June 28,  and  r e a c h e d L o u i s Greek t h e  summer  the w i l d He  uncharted  l e f t Kamloops  same e v e n i n g .  The  next  day he a r r i v e d a t t h e N o r t h Thompson I n d i a n r e s e r v e , where t h e whole band was s t a r t e d out  a s s e m b l e d f o r Sunday.  called Little  and  rode about  Ford ( L i t t l e  of  side.  spent  i n p u t t i n g the  horses  s w i f t , i t being  the  They camped f o r the n i g h t on t h e west  began the d i f f i c u l t F a l l e n timber  ten miles north to a place  v e r y h i g h and  t h e N o r t h Thompson, at a Mr.  they  (66)  r i v e r , w h i c h was  of h i g h w a t e r .  two  F o r t ) , s i x t y m i l e s n o r t h o f Kamloops.  T h e r e t h e whole a f t e r n o o n was  time  he  on h o r s e b a c k , accompanied by C h i e f Andrew and  dozen of h i s p e o p l e ,  a c r o s s the  On Monday, J u l y 1,  Lemieux's p l a c e .  Next m o r n i n g  c l i m b up t h e m o u n t a i n s on t h e west  a l l a l o n g t h e i r way  Le J e u n e , Rev. J . M. 5, no. 8, p . 171.  side  R.,  and  the p r e c i p i t o u s  Kamloops Wawa, A u g u s t , 1896,  vol.  (95) r i s e made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o p r o c e e d p a c e , and miles'  t h e t o p was  not  reached  was  noon a f t e r about  r o u t e became more l e v e l , and  T h e y were now  on a p l a t e a u - l i k e c o u n t r y  t h e r e w i t h low h i l l s ,  sparsely.timbered.  better  horses.  the p a r t y p i t c h e d i t s t e n t s i n t h i s  At  sunset  l a n d , and n e x t  b y t h e young men,  sacrifice  o f f e r e d f o r the f i r s t That  day,  J u l y 3,  here  abundant g r a s s p r o v i d e d f e e d f o r t h e  morning, a r u s t i c  the  befor  Many b e a u t i f u l  and  was  ten  dotted  l a k e s were p a s s e d ,  like  snail's  made, t h e p a r t y c o v e r i n g about t w e n t y - f i v e m i l e s  nightfall. and  until  t h a n at a  travel.  I n the a f t e r n o o n the time  otherwise  time  was  J e u n e and h i s companions.  one  park-  a l t a r h a v i n g been  o f t h e Body and on t h o s e of hard  lonely riding  They c o v e r e d  Blood  built  of  Christ  hills. f o r Father  some f i f t y - f i v e  Le or .  s i x t y m i l e s , r e a c h i n g t h e Canim L a k e I n d i a n v i l l a g e , t h r e e f r o m t h e west end a day and  and  two  of Canim L a k e , by e v e n i n g .  n i g h t s at t h i s v i l l a g e , the p a r t y l e f t  a r r i v e d next  H e r e the p a r t y  day  thousand Indians  ing  o f a new  remaining on J u l y  5,  at S t . J o s e p h M i s s i o n , W i l l i a m ' s L a k e .  joined. His Lordship  one  i n the  Bishop D u r i e u  ceremonies connected  church at St. Joseph's.  and  nearly  with the  open-  (^7)  Such a j o u r n e y , under d e l i g h t f u l refreshing  After  mile  summer s k i e s , p r o v i d e d  a  i n t e r l u d e , and F a t h e r Le Jeune l o o k e d back upon i t  as a h o l i d a y . the L i l l o o e t  During  the l a t e f a l l  c o u n t r y was  c a r r i e d - out  of the y e a r  1896  a trip  in  under c o n t r a s t i n g  (67) Le J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, September, v o l . 4, no. 9, p . 130.  1895,  (96) conditions.  F a t h e r s L e Jeune a n d Thomas h a d been a t t h e S e t o n  L a k e M i s s i o n f r o m November 6 t o November 1 2 , c a r r y i n g on r e ligious ooet  e x e r c i s e s and w r i t i n g  down t h e v o c a b u l a r y  of the L i l l -  language. On t h e i r  return to Lillooet,  w i t h a severe wind p r e v a i l i n g  snow b e g a n t o f a l l h e a v i l y ,  a l l d u r i n g the n i g h t o f t h e 1 2 t h .  On t h e morning o f November 15 t h e main s t r e e t d r i f t s t h r e e and f o u r f e e t  high.  They l e f t  m o r n i n g i n t h e company o f C a p t a i n T a t l o w start  was f u l l  of  on t h e s t a g e t h a t  of V i c t o r i a .  t h e y had a b r i s k n o r t h wind blowing  At t h e  t h e snow i n t o  their  f a c e s f o r t h r e e m i l e s ; t h e n t h e y had t o d e a l w i t h d r i f t s d e l a y e d them f o r n e a r l y a n h o u r . the  snow and wind storm The  foot  T h e i r p r o g r e s s was v e r y  snow was n e a r l y two f e e t  deep when t h e y came t o t h e  o f P a v i l i o n m o u n t a i n , where an exchange was made o f t h e  p l a c e d t h e weary ones, and t h u s Carson's miles. spent  They a r r i v e d at supper a comfortable  Carson  twelve  A f r e s h team o f h o r s e s r e they  p l a c e a f t e r a continuous  succeeded  ascent  time  i n reaching  of seven  or eight  i n s t e a d of f o r dinner, and  n i g h t ' s r e s t , thanks  to the hospitality of  and h e r f a m i l y .  Next morning t h e y f o u n d inches of f r e s h  snow.  thus with four-in-hand, t h e i r pull  slow,  c o n t i n u i n g unabated.  e x p r e s s waggon f o r a b o b - s l e i g h .  Mrs.  which  t h e i r bob-sleigh covered  Two more h o r s e s were added, and d r i v e r , E d d i e B e l l , was a b l e t o  them o v e r P a v i l i o n m o u n t a i n .  t h e t o p , about f i v e  with  I t took  and o n e - h a l f m i l e s from  t h r e e hours t o reach Carson's.  The  (97) descent  was made a t a more l i v e l y  K e l l y ' s L a k e t h e y met a c o u p l e three hours.  At l a s t  i n the evening, it  But  o f snow s l i d e s and were  C l i n t o n was r e a c h e d  twenty-four  was t h i r t y - f i v e  speed, but a l o n g t h e shore o f  hours behind  degrees below zero  about f i v e schedule.  i n Clinton.  delayed  o'clock That  (  6 8  night  )  t h e problems o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , f o u l weather and t h e  l i k e were t r i v i a l  i n r e l a t i o n t o one t h a t c o n s t a n t l y f a c e d  F a t h e r Le Jeune and other m i s s i o n a r i e s . ting effect  of l i q u o r  T h i s was t h e d e v a s t a -  upon t h e i r I n d i a n c h a r g e s .  o f m o r a l e and t h e l o n g l i s t  of crimes  The l o w e r i n g  attributable  d i r e c t l y or  i n d i r e c t l y t o t h e e x c e s s i v e u s e o f l i q u o r form a s o r r y p i c t u r e through the  the years.  selling  Despite the f a c t  or g i v i n g  o f i n t o x i c a n t s t o I n d i a n s , t h e r e were  always u n p r i n c i p l e d whites  t o be found  o b t a i n i n g l i q u o r f o r them. game f o r t h e s u p p l i e r s , them w e l l .  t h a t t h e law p r o h i b i t e d  who made "a p r a c t i c e o f  T h i s was a p a r t i c u l a r l y  since the Indians  were r e a d y  illegal  to obtain liquor ing.  to pay  The c l o s e p r o x i m i t y o f many o f t h e I n d i a n  t o t h e white settlements d i d not help matters The  lucrative  reserves  any, e i t h e r .  manner i n w h i c h i t was n e c e s s a r y  f o r an I n d i a n  d i d not tend t o produce moderation i n h i s d r i n k -  One o r two d r i n k s a t t h e t i m e were n o t s u f f i c i e n t ; t h e  usual procedure consumed, w i t h  was t o keep on u n t i l subsequent  events  "Whiskey h a s been t h e c a u s e ,  left  an e n t i r e b o t t l e h a d been to t h e imagination.  " s a i d F a t h e r L e J e u n e , " o f prema-  t u r e d e a t h t o s c o r e s o f our young I n d i a n s , and y e t t h e y  continue  (68)  1896,  L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, December, v o l . 5, no. 12, p . 249.  (98) madly c r a v i n g f o r i t , no m a t t e r u n d e r what T h i s c r a v i n g f o r l i q u o r was by  any means.  tion,  As  t h e r e was  t o any  i n any  general  u n i v e r s a l among t h e  c r o s s s e c t i o n of t h e  o f t e n a s m a l l group  e x t r e m e s to o b t a i n l i q u o r .  cases—the  not  circumstances."  o f young men These were t h e  ones whose names a p p e a r e d i n t h e  the neighbouring  usual punishment, e s p e c i a l l y a few  A f t e r two  of  a s e c o n d or  or a  h i s p r o p e r t y t o meet t h e f i n e  would be  prison.  b e f o r e t h e m a g i s t r a t e , and  the  sufficient  released.  sent  of  Some-  back t o  H e r e a g a i n a f i n e would have redeemed him  w a i t i n g f o r another punishment was punishing  occasion to obtain l i q u o r .  g e n e r a l l y found  innocent people  c h i l d r e n o f t e n had  w a n t i n g and  f o r the g u i l t y  and  set  him  T h i s method of  resulted only i n  ones, since wives  to s u f f e r p r i v a t i o n f o r the  and  sake o f p a y i n g  fines. F a t h e r Le J e u n e and  p r o b l e m among t h e I n d i a n s Abstinence  Societies.  h i s compatriots by  fought  These were l o c a l  L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. •7, no. 3, p . 33.  the  liquor  o r g a n i z i n g Temperance or T o t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s set  i n a l l d i s t r i c t s where t h e need a r o s e , under t h e (69)  of  s c a r c e l y a week e l a p s e d b e f o r e he would be f o u n d d r i n k i n g  a g a i n , b r o u g h t up  the  third  fine.  in selling  he  of  Drunken-  or t h r e e days' imprisonment t h e f r i e n d s  and  go  themselves—the  c o n v i c t e d I n d i a n would o f t e n s u c c e e d  times  would  court records  i f t h e c a s e was  months' imprisonment  popula-  desperate  towns w i t h monotonous r e g u l a r i t y .  e s s , f i g h t i n g , making p u b l i c n u i s a n c e s  o f f e n c e , was  who  Indians  control  R. , Kamloops Wawa, M a r c h , 1898,  up of t h e vol.  (99) B i s h o p of t h e d i o c e s e , hut a d m i n i s t e r e d by l o c a l While  the aim of t h e s e s o c i e t i e s  officers.  i n c l u d e d t h e i n c u l c a t i o n of  good c i t i z e n s h i p g e n e r a l l y , the p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e was the craving f o r i n t o x i c a t i n g  drinks  to  check  e x i s t i n g among c e r t a i n  s e c t i o n s of the I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . A prominent initiation  o f t h e new  general meeting b e r s , who  feature  and  o f t h e s e temperance  members, which  i n the p r e s e n c e  always of the  t h u s became w i t n e s s e s of each new  his initiation  s o c i e t i e s was  the  took p l a c e i n a existing  subscri-  member's vows.  each member p l e d g e d h i m s e l f t o c e r t a i n  On  under-  t a k i n g s , s i g n i n g h i s name o r making h i s mark i n a r e g i s t e r p r o v i d e d f o r the p u r p o s e .  These  u n d e r t a k i n g s were as f o l l o w s :  (a) I p l e d g e m y s e l f and p r o m i s e  to a b s t a i n from every k i n d  l i q u o r and o f f e r m e n t e d b e v e r a g e s e l f and p r o m i s e  for life.  (b) I p l e d g e  t o o b s e r v e f a i t h f u l l y t h e r u l e s and  of  my-  regula-  t i o n s o f t h e S o c i e t y , and t o f o l l o w t h e d i r e c t i o n s g i v e n by grand p r e s i d e n t promise  or h i s d e l e g a t e s .  (c) I p l e d g e myself  the  and  t o p e r f o r m a p u b l i c p e n a n c e , t o be d e s i g n a t e d by t h e  g r a n d p r e s i d e n t , h i s d e l e g a t e , o r even by the l o c a l  president  o f t h e C o u n c i l o f t h e S o c i e t y , e v e r y time I be f o u n d g u i l t y  of  i m m o r a l i t y , g a m b l i n g , a s s i s t i n g a t a p o t l a c h , a t a tamanoaz f e a s t , o r a t any m e e t i n g  o r ceremony f o r b i d d e n by t h e  (d) I p l e d g e m y s e l f and p r o m i s e t i o n of t h e c h u r c h o f my of t o t a l  t o pay t o the  village,  r e p a i r s or d e c o r a -  each time I break my  a b s t i n e n c e , a c c o r d i n g ,to t h e f o l l o w i n g  i n t h i s C o u n c i l — $ 1 . 0 0 f o r an u n b a p t i z e d ;  Society,  scale  pledge adopted  $2.00 f o r a C h r i s t i a n ;  $3.00 f o r a communicant; $5.00 f o r t h e p r e s i d e n t  and watchmen  (100) of t h e C o u n c i l , or the F a t h e r L e Jeune l i q u o r by event  saw  the Indians.  which o c c u r r e d  c h i e f and  watchmen of t h e  many t r a g e d i e s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e None t o u c h e d  i n the  him  of l i q u o r ,  shot  s p r i n g o f t h e y e a r 1899.  and k i l l e d  Kamloops, P h i l i p Walker, w h i l e f r o n t porch  o f h i s home w i t h i n t h e  chase which l a s t e d C a s i m i r was 1899. the he  the f a c t  condemned man, c o n s i d e r e d was  c a l m l y t o the  sitting  town l i m i t s .  the  on  the a  convicted,  on t h e m o r n i n g of J u n e  2,  h i s duty  t o him.  i n his cell and  As  he  talked quietly  a l l the  Casimir  i n what and  wild recklessness  died anxious  s h o u l d be a w a r n i n g t o a l l h i s I n d i a n f r i e n d s .  that h i s After  e x e c u t i o n , F a t h e r L e Jeune i s s u e d t h e f o l l o w i n g statement the  of  Caught a f t e r  F a t h e r L e Jeune n e v e r once f a l t e r e d  young man  an  that p u b l i c f e e l i n g ran high against  departed from h i s s p i r i t , fate  under  s e v e r a l d a y s , t r i e d f o r murder and  hanged a t Kamloops G a o l  Despite  was  of  A young  a respected c i t i z e n  the l a t t e r  use  more d e e p l y t h a n  I n d i a n of t h e K a m l o o p s band named C a s i m i r , w h i l e influence  village.  the to  press: Indian Casimir died penitent. S i n c e my f i r s t v i s i t t o him i n g a o l , A p r i l 28, he r e a l i z e d h i s pos i t i o n , and set h i m s e l f to p r e p a r e f o r t h e end. He spent most of h i s time r e a d i n g a l l t h e Ghinook p a p e r s he c o u l d o b t a i n , e s p e c i a l l y t h e l i f e of C h r i s t and H i s s u f f e r i n g s . He was v e r y c o o l t o t h e end, and r e p e a t e d l y t o l d t h e I n d i a n s t h a t came t o v i s i t him t h a t he was i n s t r o n g s p i r i t s and p r e p a r e d t o d i e ; he t o l d them and the C h i e f i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t i t was r e c k l e s s l i f e and d r i n k i n g t h a t brought him t o h i s end; and a s k e d t h e C h i e f t o warn t h e o t h e r I n d i a n s and d e t e r them f r o m f o l l o w i n g h i s example. He a c c u s e d h i m s e l f b e f o r e t h e S h e r i f f and s e v e r a l  (70)  L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. 4, no. 8, p . 115.  R.,  Kamloops Wawa, A u g u s t , 1895,  vol.  (101) o t h e r s o f b e i n g g u i l t y of the murder o f P h i l i p W a l k e r , and was now v e r y s o r r y f o r what he had done. When a s k e d what was h i s m o t i v e , he s a i d he d i d not know why; he h a d a l w a y s been on f r i e n d l y terms w i t h W a l k e r , f o r whom he h a d been w o r k i n g f o r a c o u p l e o f y e a r s . He had been d r i n k i n g t h a t day and the day b e f o r e , d i d not know even t o what e x t e n t , and i t was some t i m e b e f o r e he r e a l i z e d what he h a d done. His l a s t words, r e p e a t e d a f t e r me i n Ghinook b e f o r e he d r o p p e d down f r o m the s c a f f o l d , ?rere: 'I am s o r r y f o r t h e bad I have done, I a c c e p t d e a t h as an atonement. I ask f o r g i v e n e s s f r o m A l m i g h t y God. God, T h o u l o v e s t me so much, and I l o v e Thee w i t h my whole h e a r t . I throw m y s e l f i n t o t h e hands o f Thy mercy.' The I n d i a n s were much i m p r e s s e d w i t h C a s i mir's f a t e . A number o f h i s c o u s i n s and o t h e r r e l a t i v e s came t o b i d him f a r e w e l l y e s t e r d a y and t h e day b e f o r e . A l l o f them a r e s a t i s f i e d of t h e j u s t i c e of h i s s e n t e n c e . Y e s t e r d a y morni n g n e a r l y f i f t y of them r e c e i v e d H o l y Communion f o r C a s i m i r ' s I n t e n t i o n , and t h i s m o r n i n g as e a r l y a s f i v e t h e y were a g a i n i n C h u r c h , a s s i s t i n g a t t h e f u n e r a l s e r v i c e f o r t h e r e p o s e of B i s h o p D u r i e u who d i e d y e s t e r d a y , and f i f t y a g a i n r e c e i v e d Communion. At h a l f - p a s t seven t h e b e l l at the I n d i a n r e s e r v e was h e a r d a g a i n , t h e I n d i a n s coming t o c h u r c h t o i n t e r c e d e f o r C a s i m i r , and t o recommend h i s s o u l t o h i s Maker at t h e v e r y moment t h a t t h e e x e c u t i o n t o o k p l a c e . Pageantry ing  an i n t e r e s t  and  d i s p l a y , a s a means of a r o u s i n g  that  1  maintain-  i n r e l i g i o n , were f r e q u e n t l y u s e d by the  m i s s i o n a r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. successful  and  , . ^' <'  One  of the l a r g e s t  I n d i a n c e l e b r a t i o n s ever h e l d i n the  a t Kamloops d u r i n g J u n e , 1901.  I t was  and  Interior  arranged  Oblate  by  most was  Father  L e J e u n e f o r the p u r p o s e of g i v i n g h i s I n d i a n s the e x e r c i s e s of an a n n u a l  R e t r e a t , and  a l s o of i n i t i a t i n g  them i n t o  the  ceremonies customary i n I n d i a n c e l e b r a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y P a s s i o n Tableaux.  (71)  He  was  a s s i s t e d by h i s o l d f r i e n d ,  the  Father  "The p e n a l t y p a i d , I n d i a n C a s i m i r hanged t h i s m o r n i n g , " - I n l a n d S e n t i n e l , 2 J u n e , 1899, p . 1.  (102) C h i r o u s e , and all  by F a t h e r Rohr and  a Squamish I n d i a n , L a k e t  t h r e e o f whom had had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e  conducting On trict  such c e l e b r a t i o n s on t h e  Saturday,  swap t h e y c a m e — s o m e by Over the dusty roads  steamer and  from the  seven hundred gathered Sunday, J u n e 16, 7 A. M.,  Father  a man  dis-  own  canoes.  west t h e y came i n l i g h t  In a l l a total  o f more  officiating.  A f t e r Mass a  short  g i v e n on t h e t e x t "What does i t p r o f i t and  s u f f e r t h e l o s s of h i s  I l l u s t r a t i o n s f r o m t h e l i v e s o f Mary M a g d a l e n and  At t e n o ' c l o c k  the  the p r a y e r s f o r Holy  then addressed  St.  text.  t h e I n d i a n s were a g a i n i n the  r e c i t a t i o n o f t h e R o s a r y and Father Chirouse  than  opened w i t h t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f H i g h Mass  F r a n c i s X a v i e r were u s e d to c l a r i f y  church  f o r the  Communion.  them, e x p l a i n i n g t h e o b j e c t  t h e e x e r c i s e s , the r e g u l a t i o n s t o be and  some i n t h e i r  s o u t h and  i f he g a i n t h e whole, w o r l d  soul?"  Coast.  on t h e Kamloops I n d i a n r e s e r v e .  Chirouse  i n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d was  and  Down the Thompson R i v e r f r o m Shu-  and h e a v y waggons or on h o r s e b a c k .  at  i n organizimg  J u n e 15, I n d i a n s f r o m a l l p a r t s of t h e  c o n v e r g e d on Kamloops.  Joe,  of  f o l l o w e d d u r i n g t h e week,  e x h o r t i n g them t o the ' g r e a t e s t f i d e l i t y  d u r i n g t h e whole  time. Between t h r e e and was At  five  begun o f t h e p e r s o n s  o ' c l o c k i n the a f t e r n o o n  who  selection  were t o a c t i n t h e P a s s i o n T a b l e a u x .  e i g h t o ' c l o c k the crowd assembled i n the  church f o r night  p r a y e r s , f o l l o w e d by a sermon by F a t h e r C h i r o u s e , w i t h L o u i s F a l a r d e a u as i n t e r p r e t e r .  A f t e r the  t h e B l e s s e d Sacrament was  g i v e n , and  sermon the B e n e d i c t i o n of e x e r c i s e s f o r the  day  (103)  The Ions; main street of the Indian v i l l a g e , Kamloops, with Mount Paul in the baokpround.  (104) were  ended. Monday, J u n e 17, a n d T u e s d a y , J u n e 18, were f u l l y  w i t h r e l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e s , meetings,  further  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o s t u m e s , and r e h e a r s a l s . June 1 9 , an i m p o r t a n t  occupied  s e l e c t i o n of a c t o r s On Wednesday m o r n i n g  m e e t i n g was c a l l e d a t n i n e o ' c l o c k . A l l  the Indian c h i e f s present gathered  around t h e Fathers with  thei  f l a g s o f t e m p e r a n c e , and t h e p r i e s t s r e a d b e f o r e t h e whole assembly t h e r e g u l a t i o n s which the people to observe, times.  had a l r e a d y  promised  b u t on w h i c h t h e r e had been t o o much r e l a x a t i o n a t  T h e s e l a w s were:  t o a b s t a i n from a l l i n t o x i c a t i n g  d r i n k s ; t o be p u n c t u a l a t a l l e x e r c i s e s i n t h e c h u r c h and Catechism  house; not t o i d l e  a r o u n d town; t o be c a r e f u l n o t t o  miss the p r i e s t ' s v i s i t s t o t h e i r  s p e c i a l camps; c h i e f s and  watchmen were t o s e e t o t h e o b s e r v a n c e t h e punishment  o f t h o s e who b r o k e them.  E v e r y one o f t h e c h i e f s p r e s e n t t h e assembly about t h e observance last  o f t h e s e r u l e s and t o  o f these r e g u l a t i o n s .  a l l t h e c h i e f s came and k n e l t  h o l d i n g t h e temperance f l a g  r o s e i n t u r n and spoke t o At the  i n t u r n before the p r i e s t s ,  i n one hand, t h e o t h e r hand on t h e  c r u c i f i x and s a c r e d b o o k s , and p r o m i s i n g t o do a l l t h e y c o u l d t o ensure  the carrying  o u t o f t h e s e r u l e s by t h e i r  T h e n t h e whole a s s e m b l y was p l e d g e d a i d them i n k e e p i n g  their  people.  t o obey t h e c h i e f s and t o  promises.  F i n a l l y , on F r i d a y e v e n i n g t h e time formance o f t h e P a s s i o n Tableaux.  arrived f o r the per-  The r o a d s and avenues o f t h e  v i l l a g e had a l l b e e n c l e a n e d and swept, and l i n e d w i t h t i o n s of evergreens  brought  i n from  the h i l l s .  decora-  While the  (105) procession the  started.and  a c t o r s went t o d r e s s and t o p o s e i n t h e i r d i f f e r e n t  along  t h e main avenue o f t h e I n d i a n v i l l a g e .  enactment  of those  various  the P a s s i o n Tableaux. p r o c e s s i o n stopped first  and l a s t First  groups  Then began t h e  s c e n e s which go t o make up  I n t e r p r e t e r s commented o n e a c h a s t h e  before  Tableau;—In  i s going  sacred  i t .  (  7 2  ) The commentary on o n l y t h e  tableau are o u t l i n e d  Saviour kneeling that  wound i t s way s l o w l y a r o u n d t h e c e m e t e r y ,  i ndetail  below.  t h e G a r d e n o f Gethsemanjt.  i n t h e Garden.  He s e e s i n s p i r i t  "See o u r everything  t o happen t o Him, e v e r y t h i n g t h a t He i s g o i n g t o  suffer.  He sees t h e n u m b e r l e s s s i n s o f a l l mankind f o r which He  i s going  t o s u f f e r , y o u r own i n t h e number.  miserable  creatures are going t o e v e r l a s t i n g p e r d i t i o n ,  withstanding with you  He s e e s how many  h i s s u f f e r i n g s t o save them.  s a d n e s s , and says t o the A p o s t l e s ,  not-  He i s overwhelmed  'Watch and p r a y .  Do  n o t see J u d a s , how he does n o t s l e e p , and how he e x e r t s  himself  t o b e t r a y me?'  How i s t h e c a s e w i t h y o u r s e l v e s ?  s l e e p y f o r g o o d , eager f o r e v i l ,  slothful  Often  and c a r e l e s s f o r your  s a l v a t i o n , w a k e f u l whole n i g h t s when a f t e r  evil?"  Second T a b l e a u : — T h e B e t r a y a l . Third Tableau:—Christ  before t h e High P r i e s t .  Fourth T a b l e a u : — C h r i s t  before  F i f t h Tableau:—The Scourging  Pilate. o f Our L o r d .  S i x t h T a b l e a u : — T h e Crowning w i t h Thorns. Seventh T a b l e a u : — C h r i s t (72)  overburdened with t h e Cross.  L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, September, 1901,  v o l . 10, no. 5, p p . 35--43.  (106) E i g h t h T a b l e a u : — C h r i s t meeting h i s Mother. N i n t h T a b l e a u : — S i m o n , the Cyrenean, h e l p s Jesus t o c a r r y His Cross. Tenth Tableau:—Veronica  w i p e s t h e Pace o f J e s u s .  Eleventh Tableau:—Jesus  s p e a k s t o t h e Women o f J e r u s a l e m .  Twelfth Tableau:—Jesus  i s s t r i p p e d o f H i s Garments.  Thirteenth Tableau:—Jesus  i s n a i l e d t o the Cross.  Fourteenth T a b l e a u : — C h r i s t dying on the Cross. Christ  on t h e c r o s s .  crowned w i t h t h o r n s . nails.  He s u f f e r s i n a l l H i s body. H i s hands and f e e t  H i s s k i n a l l cut from  "See  H i s head i s  a r e p i e r c e d w i t h the  the scourges, His blood a l l run  o u t , H i s whole body b u r n i n g w i t h p a i n , a n d He e n d u r e s b e s i d e s t h e most t o r m e n t i n g cross. caused  thirst.  I t i s Mary M a g d a l e n .  See t h a t woman a t t h e f o o t  S h e weeps f o r h e r s i n s w h i c h have  s o g r e a t s u f f e r i n g s t o t h e S o n o f God.  ample, k n e e l a t t h e f o o t  of the  F o l l o w h e r ex-  o f t h e c r o s s , weep f o r a l l y o u r  past  s i n s , and make a r e s o l u t i o n f o r e v e r n o t t o s i n any more." The p r o c e s s i o n , a f t e r w i n d i n g gathered  at the l a s t  the east  end o f t h e v i l l a g e .  "0 C r u x Ave." from was  i t s way around t h e t a b l e a u x ,  b e f o r e t h e C a l v a r y t h a t h a d been e r e c t e d a t Everybody k n e l t  The l a r g e c r u c i f i x t h e n began t r i c k l i n g  a l l t h e wounds o f t h e f i g u r e o f C h r i s t . d e e p l y moved.  words, e x c i t i n g  spent  The whole group  t o C o n t r i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y o f those  two r e m a i n i n g  i n further  blood  One o f t h e p r i e s t s a r o s e and a d d r e s s e d  w h i c h t h e I n d i a n s were most The  down and sang t h e  a few  sins t o  inclined.  d a y s o f t h e I n d i a n c e l e b r a t i o n s were  i n s t r u c t i o n and r e l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e s .  Finally,  (107) l a t e Sunday a f t e r n o o n or e a r l y Monday m o r n i n g t h e were o v e r and t h e I n d i a n s  started  activities  on t h e i r homeward  journeys.  F a t h e r L e Jeune l o v e d h i s m i s s i o n a r y work and h i s I n d i a n s . He  d i d not  spare h i m s e l f i n m i n i s t e r i n g to h i s charges  i n t u r n were q u i c k  t o sense  h e a r t e d l y f o r them. Indians  On  the f a c t  t h a t he was  asked  they r e p l i e d , "Yes,  b e r him  good man."  perhaps,  He  was  but  i t was  a g r e a t and  older  Invariably their  f a c e s l i g h t e d up w i t h p l e a s u r e as well.  they  w o r k i n g whole-  s e v e r a l r e s e r v e s the author  i f t h e y remembered F a t h e r Le J e u n e .  and  A simple  we  remem-  tribute,  t h e k i n d t h a t F a t h e r L e Jeune h i m s e l f would  have a p p r e c i a t e d - m o s t  of  all.  (108) CHAPTER.V.  FATHER L E JEUNE AS A TEACHER.  When F a t h e r L e Jeune a r r i v e d a t New W e s t m i n s t e r i n t h e year  1879, he f o u n d  h o t h Mgr. D u r i e u  and Mgr.  s t r o n g l y i n c l i n e d towards the a d o p t i o n  D'Herbomez  of a form of s y l l a b i c  w r i t i n g f o r recording the Indian languages of the country. As  a m a t t e r o f f a c t , t h e r e were a l r e a d y f i l e d  minster  s e v e r a l hundred small  (' ) 75  a t New West-  books o f s y l l a b i c  characters i n  w h i c h t h e e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s h a d t r i e d t o p u t down s e v e r a l o f the  twenty-six  or twenty-seven I n d i a n d i a l e c t s of the p r o v i n c e .  This syllabic writing consisted i n writing a syllable a single character.  with  T h e r e were, t h e r e f o r e , a s many s i g n s o r  c h a r a c t e r s a s t h e r e were c o n s o n a n t s m u l t i p l i e d by t h e vowels t o t h e number ©  0U.  of f o u r — A  E  I  I n using a s y l l a b i c w r i t i n g , then,  s i g n s f o r each o f the f o l l o w i n g  (73}  0U, o r p e r h a p s f i v e — A  E  I  one had t o f i n d  sounds:—  PA  PE  PI  P0  POU  TA  TE  TI  TO  TOU  KA  KE  KI  K0  KOU  LA  LE  LI  LO  LOU  MA  ME  MI  MO  MOU  NA  NE  NI  NO  NOU  SHA  SHE  SHI  SHO  SHOU  SA  SE  SI  SO  SOU  VA  WE  WI  WO  WOU  YA  YE  YI  YO  YOU, e t c .  L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n F r a n c a i s e , no. 260, M a r c h , 1916, p.. 197.  (109) This writing  i s o f a t y p e w h i c h i s a p p a r e n t l y w e l l adap-  ted  t o t h e Gree and  ing  t o t h e sounds g i v e n above.  is  other languages  with  Rev.  syllables  correspondI.,  A r t h u r B i l o d e a u , 0. M.  t o - d a y u s i n g s u c h a system among t h e Gree I n d i a n s a t Moos-  onee, O n t a r i o .  H i s symbols used  sound v a l u e s a r e r e p r o d u c e d e  i  A  o  V  a  X7  <  Y  pi  A  po  >  pa  te  KJ  ti  A  to  0  ta  ki  P  ko  A  ka  tche  f  tchi  1  C  b  tcho J tcha  ne  —o  ni  no  -o  na  a—  se  s  si  so  r1  sa  s  1  she  pne  ro  }>  ra  li  c—  lo  —j*  la  mi  r  mo  J  ma  pni  •A  pno  •>  pna  P  I  •V i  t  /  k  tch  \ 1  T o r o n t oDuring  <\» sha  rx.  -»  me  sho  ri  re le  s  shi  the f i r s t  Gree  below:—  pe  ke  t o r e p r e s e n t the  two  —  l_ •<  n  ? »D or t h r e e y e a r s t h a t he was  i n the  p r o v i n c e , F a t h e r L e Jeune t r i e d t o make some headway w i t h s y l l a b i c method f a v o u r e d by B i s h o p D u r i e u . certain  difficulties  Indian dialects. (74)  arose  i n i t s use  When a c e r t a i n  But  he f o u n d  the that  with t h e B r i t i s h Columbia  s y l l a b l e ended i n a consonant  L e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r f r o m Mr. F r e d J a r r e t t , C a n a d i a n - . manager of Gregg P u b l i s h i n g Company, September 10,  1946.  (no; it  was  like  n e c e s s a r y to. add  "mokst" t h r e e a d d i t i o n a l  first  syllable.  insurmountable like  an a d d i t i o n a l  when one  was  "t-kwa-koul-tk-sht'n."  ordinary English l e t t e r s  I n d i a n sounds.  the  added a f t e r  system  became  the  almost  c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a Shuswap word So F a t h e r L e Jeune f i n a l l y  a r r i v e d at the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t use  To make a word  s i g n s had t o he  d i f f i c u l t i e s of  The  sign.  i t was  s i m p l e r and e a s i e r  to  i n a t t e m p t i n g t o w r i t e down t h e  T h i s i s what he  t r i e d t o do  during h i s  first  t w e l v e y e a r s on t h e m i s s i o n s f o r w r i t i n g t h e p r a y e r s and  cate-  chism f o r the I n d i a n s . F a t h e r L e Jeune had  l e a r n e d t h e D u p l o y a n system  hand i n t h e y e a r 1871,  while  gaged i n h i s s e c o n d a r y  school studies.  sively cate  still  a y o u t h o f s i x t e e n and  l e c t u r e notes.  had  used  He  had a l s o u s e d  T h i s shorthand used was  i t exten-  French  It  may  be r e g a r d e d as of  it  was  l a t e r adapted  i t i n h i s personal correspon-  system  Columbia.  d i s t i n c t i v e l y French o r i g i n ,  D u r i n g the l a t t e r p a r t of  H. M.  and  o f Abbe" E m i l e D u p l o y 6 .  t o E n g l i s h by Mr.  I s l e s and by Mr.  of s h o r t h a n d  Scholasti-  system w h i c h F a t h e r Le J e u n e m a s t e r e d  the o r i g i n a l  en-  extremely u s e f u l f o r r e c o r d i n g  dence d u r i n g h i s e a r l y y e a r s i n B r i t i s h  system  He  d u r i n g h i s l a t e r e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y at t h e  of A u t u n , where i t p r o v e d  British  of short-  J o h n M.  although  S l o a n i n the  P e r n i n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the D u p l o y a n  and i t s a d a p t a t i o n s were  energetically  a d v e r t i s e d and p r o m o t e d , and e x e r c i s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e (75) L e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r from Mr. J . D. S l o a n , s e c r e t a r y o f the S l o a n - D u p l o y a n s h o r t h a n d s o c i e t y , E n g l a n d , J a n u a r y 1947.  9.  (Ill) upon t h e development . D r . John Robert the h i s t o r y  of t h e a r t o f shorthand g e n e r a l l y . Gregg, perhaps  of shorthand  f e a t u r e s of Duploy^'s metric,  systems,  t h e g r e a t e s t a u t h o r i t y on  summarizes t h e l e a d i n g  shorthand as f o l l o w s :  (b) I t h a s s i m p l e  (a) I t i s geo-  stroke s i g n s f o r consonants,  a r r a n g e d i n p a i r s and d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y l e n g t h o r by d i a c r i t i cal  marks,  writing,  (c) There i s freedom from  shading and " p o s i t i o n "  (d) I t employs j o i n e d v o w e l s ,  h o o k s , and q u a d r a n t s ,  with d i a c r i t i c a l  p r e c i s e vowel sounds i n a f e w c a s e s ,  expressed by  circles,  marks t o d e n o t e t h e (e) I t h a s minute  curves  w r i t t e n i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s t o e x p r e s s t h e n a s a l sounds o f " a n , " "in,"  "un," w i t h d i a c r i t i c a l  when n e c e s s a r y .  marks t o denote t h e e x a c t  ( f ) I t h a s a s i m p l e a l p h a b e t , and p r a c t i c a l l y  n o t h i n g beyond t h e a l p h a b e t , a s t h e system a fluent  w r i t i n g , capable  c h i l d r e n i n the elementary for  sounds  was i n t e n d e d t o be  o f being a c q u i r e d and used schools.  Consequently  even b y  the forms  many words a r e v e r y l o n g . (^6) S t r a n g e l y enough, t h e i d e a o f u s i n g h i s s h o r t h a n d  ledge f o r p u t t i n g  down t h e I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s  F a t h e r L e Jeune u n t i l about  i n the following  d i d not occur t o  the summer o f t h e y e a r 1890. manner.  know-  A number o f O b l a t e  I t came Fathers  were g a t h e r e d a t New W e s t m i n s t e r d u r i n g t h e month o f J u l y f o r the exercises of t h e i r period  annual  one a f t e r n o o n s e v e r a l  retreat.  During a recreation  o f t h e p r i e s t s were  t h e s y l l a b i c w r i t i n g m e n t i o n e d above.  The a l m o s t  discussing universal  (76) Gregg, J o h n R o b e r t , S e l e c t i o n s from t h e s t o r y of s h o r t h a n d , New Y o r k , The Gregg P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1941, p . 100.  (112) o p i n i o n among them was  that  i t c o u l d n e v e r he  adapted  f u l l y to t h e I n d i a n languages of B r i t i s h Columbia Shuswap, Thompson, and L i l l o o e t .  In the  course  success-  s u c h as  of t h e  conver-  s a t i o n F a t h e r C h i a p p i n i c a s u a l l y e x p r e s s e d t h e thought stenographic alphabet  c h a r a c t e r s might f u r n i s h a s i m p l e  t h a t the I n d i a n s  could e a s i l y  I n s t a n t l y an i d e a f l a s h e d t h r o u g h R i g h t t h e n and ted  t h e r e he  and  that  natural  learn. F a t h e r Le J e u n e ' s mind.  began t o i m a g i n e some e a s y and  A  AA  AH  AHHA  HA  HAHA  PA  PAPA  TA  TATA,etc. ^  Upon h i s r e t u r n among t h e Thompson I n d i a n s , F a t h e r Le tried  out h i s f i r s t  easy l e s s o n s .  made.  writing  out  a p p l i e d to the Indian  ^  attempt.  practically  N e v e r t h e l e s s , F a t h e r Le Jeune  experiments w i t h shorthand  7 7  Jeune  F a i l u r e marked t h i s  I n d i a n s were lukewarm about t h e whole t h i n g and  no p r o g r e s s was his  gradua-  l e s s o n s i n t h e Thompson l a n g u a g e b a s e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g  sounds:  The  the  continued sounds,,  s e v e r a l e x e r c i s e s and p r a y e r s i n t h e Thompson  dialect. I n September o f t h e y e a r 1890 C o l d w a t e r r e s e r v e i n the  course  F a t h e r Le Jeune was  of h i s r e g u l a r d u t i e s as  A young c r i p p l e d I n d i a n , whose name was happened t o be his  first  then  a l i t t l e scribbler  The  pondered over  remarked, " T h a t ' s  very  the priest.  C h a r l i e A l e x i s Mayous,  t h e C o l d w a t e r camp.  l e s s o n t o Mayous, who  m i n u t e s and l o a n e d him  visiting  at  easy."  priest  it for a  showed few  F a t h e r Le  i n which the p r i e s t  Jeune  had w r i t t e n a  d o z e n p a g e s or so o f p r a y e r s i n t h e Thompson l a n g u a g e . (77) L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n F r a n c h i s e , no. 260, M a r c h , 1916, p . 199.  (113)  Indian v i l l a g e , Lower Nicola, B. C.  (114) C h a r l i e Mayous a p p e a r s than  o r d i n a r y i n t e l l i g e n c e b e c a u s e two  F a t h e r Le J e u n e met in  t o have b e e n a young man  his scribbler  him  a g a i n , he was  and had  w r o t e i n Thompson. p r a y e r s and  The  months l a t e r , when able to r e a d e v e r y t h i n g  l e a r n e d i t a l l by h e a r t .  t h a t , but Mayous r e a d a t  sight  o f more  Not  only  e v e r y t h i n g t h a t F a t h e r Le  priest  completed  he memorized i t v e r y  f o r him  Jeune  t h e book  of  quickly.  P r o u d of h i s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t , and  e n c o u r a g e d by F a t h e r  Le  J e u n e , Mayous began t o communicate h i s l e a r n i n g t o h i s f r i e n d s and  relatives.  He  accompanied t h e p r i e s t  to Coldwater  and  to  D o u g l a s L a k e ; at b o t h p l a c e s t h e I n d i a n s were d e f i n i t e l y i n t e r e s t e d and s t a g e was  wanted t o keep him  being  set f o r a great  Mayous s e t t l e d his of  time  t o t e a c h them t o r e a d . experiment  down f o r t h e w i n t e r  i n mass e d u c a t i o n .  at C o l d w a t e r  i n s t r u c t i n g a d o z e n young boys and g i r l s  older persons  Easter v i s i t  he  as w e l l . found  some new  them i n s h o r t h a n d  and  a l a r g e number of I n d i a n s who  p r a y e r s and  and t h e  and  spent  a number  When F a t h e r Le Jeune a r r i v e d f o r h i s  anything w r i t t e n i n shorthand. by l e a r n i n g  The  could read  They p r o f i t e d d u r i n g h i s  visit  some songs, the p r i e s t  writing  I n d i a n s r e a d i n g them back and  memor-  i z i n g them. One Pyrenees,  morning a t C o l d w a t e r who  had  been f a r m i n g i n t h e N i c o l a c o u n t r y f o r some  y e a r s , came t o c h a t  w i t h F a t h e r Le J e u n e .  ding before h i s p u p i l s , having a c o u p l e t of  a Basque f r o m t h e c o u n t r y o f t h e  just  The p r i e s t  w r i t t e n on t h e  song.  "What i s t h a t ? " a s k e d t h e Basque.  was  stan-  blackboard  (115) "That "But bet , how the  i s shorthand,"  r e p l i e d the  i f t h e I n d i a n s a r e not  c a p a b l e of l e a r n i n g t h e a l p h a -  do y o u t h i n k y o u c a n t e a c h them s h o r t h a n d ? "  responded  visitor. In  r e p l y F a t h e r Le Jeune w r o t e  b o a r d and a l i t t l e g i r l "Monsieur  some s h o r t h a n d words on t h e  r e a d back t h e f o l l o w i n g  C a s t i l l a n , comment a l l e z - v o u s ? "  s e n t e n c e and como e s t a  a second l i t t l e g i r l  fluently,  He w r o t e  read, "Signor  another  Gastillan,  usted?"  When F a t h e r L e J e u n e had two  young I n d i a n s t o o k him  way  t h e y s t o p p e d a t the  a l r e a d y h e a r d o f t h e new ing  priest.  i t a "savage  The p r i e s t  completed  his visit  at  Coldwater  on t o t h e camp a t Q u i l c h e n a .  store i n Nicola. writing,  The  On  the  merchant , who  had  started to c r i t i c i z e  w r i t i n g , " u s e l e s s f o r any p r a c t i c a l  i t , call-  purposes.  w r o t e some s h o r t h a n d words on a s h e e t o f m a n i l l a  p a p e r w h i c h l a y on t h e c o u n t e r and r e a d them back i n E n g l i s h w i t h o u t  one  o f h i s young companions  error.  "Don't you s e e , " t h e  I n d i a n s a i d t o t h e merchant, " I c a n r e a d E n g l i s h as w e l l -Chinook  or I n d i a n .  I do not need t o go t o s c h o o l f o r two  t h r e e y e a r s t o know how Two  months l a t e r t h e r e was  Lake.  a r e u n i o n a t Kamloops.  T h e s e p e o p l e were n o t  knowledge t o copy the up.  The  A some from  their  songs and p r a y e r s t h a t were b e i n g  Shuswap I n d i a n s n o t e d what was  writing.  as w e l l a s  slow i n a i r i n g  t u r n , became e n v i o u s o f t h e i r f r i e n d s ' and  or  t o read or w r i t e . "  good number of I n d i a n s came f r o m C o l d w a t e r Douglas  as  g o i n g on and abilities  new  taken  they, i n  i n reading  (116) Towards the m i d d l e  o f J u l y , 1891,  t h e I n d i a n s at Shuswap C e n t r e . had assembled.  P r a y e r s were not f o r g o t t e n , hut  on t h i s o c c a s i o n .  Lessons  made by t h e  visited  Here n e a r l y f i v e hundred I n d i a n  say t h a t d e s i r e t o l e a r n the new  g r e s s was  F a t h e r Le Jeune  w r i t i n g was  i t i s safe to  t h e drawing c a r d  were h e l d t w i c e a day,  and f a i r  pro-  Indians.  I n a l l t h e camps t h a t F a t h e r Le Jeune v i s i t e d  during that  y e a r o f 1 8 9 1 — a t Deadman's C r e e k , t h e N o r t h Thompson, Kamloopst h e r e was term  t h e same e a g e r n e s s  the I n d i a n s themselves  P e n c i l s and  t o l e a r n t h e Chinook w r i t i n g , a used f o r the p h o n e t i c  s c r i b b l e r s became s t a n d a r d equipment t o be  e a c h t i m e t o t h e meeting h o u s e . sheet  B  C's.  "Now  oh  oo  ow  wa  e  o  O  Q  O  O  t  m.  )c  and how  carried  or a l a r g e  illustrations  I w i l l make known t o you  our  Here you see s i x t e e n marks o r s i g n s , a l l d i f f e r e n t .  ah  n  Using a blackboard  of m a n i l l a p a p e r tacked t o t h e w a l l f o r h i s  the m i s s i o n a r y began: A  writing.  u ^  h *  p  t  k  '  —  /  1  sh  /  y~\  When you come t o know the names of a l l these  t o w r i t e them on p a p e r ,  g e t h e r , then you w i l l know t h i s  and  how  to connect  z  letters,  them t o -  writing."  These seven vowel sounds and n i n e c o n s o n a n t s n u c l e u s of F a t h e r L e Jeune's shorthand  system.  formed t h e  Couched i n  s i m p l e language f o r h i s I n d i a n s t u d e n t s , t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s p r o ceeded, s l o w l y , step by  step.  I. o o o o o o o " T h i s  first  s m a l l c i r c l e , l i k e a s m a l l eye.  letter i s called  'ah.' W r i t e a  Make i t very s m a l l .  I fear  (117) o n l y one t h i n g , l e s t  y o u make i t t o o l a r g e , so a s t o r e s e m b l e  t h e f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r which i s c a l l e d 'ah' a f e w t i m e s on p a p e r , correctly. dot  'oh.'  Write t h i s  letter  i n o r d e r t o l e a r n t o make i t  A g a i n I say t o make i t v e r y s m a l l , o n l y a w h i t e  inside.  A s l o n g a s i t i s n o t a b l a c k eye i t w i l l  be a l l  right." II.  O  O  a pretty large  O  III.  O  O  (D  circle,  O  O  "The t h i r d l e t t e r  O  O  paper."  i s named 'oo.'  a s 'oh' w i t h a t a i l  down  inside,  Write  same a s  paper." G  same s i z e  V. O  Write  same s i z e a s y o u s e e on t h i s  same s i z e  see o h t h i s IV. O  " T h i s l e t t e r ' s name i s 'oh.'  circle,  down a c i r c l e , you  O  O  "The f o u r t h l e t t e r  i s ' ow.'  Write a large  a s 'oh,' w i t h a s m a l l dot i n s i d e . "  O  "Our f i f t h  and w r i t e 'ah' i n s i d e .  letter  i s 'wa.'  When your p e n c i l  f i n i s h e s w r i t e the l e t t e r  W r i t e down 'oh'  comes t o where 'oh'  'ah' i n s i d e , w i t h o u t l i f t i n g  o f f the  p e n c i l from t h e paper." VI. c c t c down h a l f  "Our s i x t h l e t t e r  a circle, like ^  VII.  C  C_  i s called  h a l f our f i r s t  "The s e v e n t h l e t t e r  letter  'e.  1  Write  'ah.'"  I s 'u.'  W r i t e down  a q u a r t e r o f a c i r c l e , p r e t t y l a r g e , same a s y o u see on t h i s paper." VIII  "This l i t t l e  eye, i s c a l l e d write  'h. '  You w i l l  dot, l i k e  a little  black  n o t have much t o do, t o l e a r n t o  i t down." IX.  one l i e s  I—  / /  "Here y o u see f o u r l e t t e r s ; one s t a n d s up,  down, and two a r e h a l f s t a n d i n g . "  (118) { \ J { write it  "The one t h a t  s t a n d s up i s 'P.'  i t down, a p p l y y o u r p e n o r p e n c i l  down.  I f y o u want t o  t o t h e p a p e r and draw  Make t h e mark p e r p e n d i c u l a r and v e r y s h o r t , a s y o u  see." X.  "This l e t t e r , horizontal,  i s c a l l e d 'T.'  A p p l y your p e n t o t h e p a p e r , draw a l i n e t o t h e r i g h t ,  and y o u  have t h i s l e t t e r . " XI.  / /  / /  "Of t h e s e two l e t t e r s w h i c h h a l f  one  i s called  'K.'  I f y o u want t o w r i t e i t down, a p p l y y o u r  pen  or p e n c i l  t o the paper  left  / /  wish t o write  alike  and draw i t downwards and t o t h e  as you see." XII.  line  s t a n d up,  / /  "The o t h e r l e t t e r i s c a l l e d  'L.'  i t down a p p l y y o u r p e n t o t h e p a p e r  upwards a n d t o t h e r i g h t . and y e t t h e y a r e p e r f e c t l y  These  and draw a  two l e t t e r s  distinct,  I f you  seem t o he  t h e n you w r i t e  your p e n a l w a y s r u n s downwards, and when y o u w r i t e  f  L'  'K  1  it  a l w a y s r u n s upwards." X I I I . <*""v  )  C "Here y o u see f o u r o t h e r l e t t e r s .  V " \ f~\ S~\ /-""NThis one, l i k e a h a t , i s ' J . ' Draw h a l f same s i z e a s y o u see on t h i s v^y<_y"This,  XIV. W XV.  }  XVI. careful  ( C C C  (  ? 8  circle,  paper." l i k e a cup, i s c a l l e d 'S. " 1  "This other, l i k e a s i c k l e , i s c a l l e d "The l a s t , l i k e a moon, i s c a l l e d  t o make t h e s e f o u r l e t t e r s p r e t t y  t h i s paper." (78)  ) ) )  a  large,  'M.'  'N.'" Be  same s i z e a s o n  )  Le J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, no. 2, v o l . 1, J u n e , 1891, p p . 1—4.  (119) T h e n began t h e e x e r c i s e s , so f a m i l i a r  to a l l shorthand  s t u d e n t s , o f j o i n i n g v o w e l s and c o n s o n a n t s following  consonants  vowels p r e c e d i n g  came f i r s t — " p a , "  consonants  together.  "po,"  "Vowels  "poo," "pow;"  came next w i t h "ap,"  "op,"  "oop,"  "owp." Needless covered  i n one  t o s a y , t h e s i x t e e n s t e p s o u t l i n e d above were n o t lesson.  P r o g r e s s was  very slow at f i r s t .  P e y t a v i n , an a s s o c i a t e of F a t h e r Le J e u n e ' s , i n every He  camp and  even had  w r i t i n g , f o l l o w the K a m l o o p s he first and  organized classes  gave a g r e a t i m p e t u s t o t h e C h i n o o k  the b l i n d , who  writing.  were not a b l e t o t a k e p a r t i n the  l e s s o n s and l e a r n the words by h e a r t .  started with a  l e s s o n he was  c l a s s o f 250  persons.  a b l e , t o t e a c h them o n l y two  a half hours—one letter  a f t e r another.  But  foundation l a i d  s e c u r e l y , i t was  whole g a t h e r i n g c o u l d r e a d C h i n o o k from f a i r degree of f a c i l i t y . In  e v e r y group  ^  7 9  words i n  In the  two  second However,  not l o n g b e f o r e  the  the shorthand with  a  ^  some made f a s t e r p r o g r e s s t h a n  others.  These b r i g h t e r s t u d e n t s were e n t r u s t e d w i t h t h e j o b of on c l a s s e s u n t i l  At  at the  l e s s o n , t h r e e more words were m a s t e r e d i n t h r e e h o u r s . with the  Father  the p r i e s t s  returned.  carrying  C h a r l i e Mayous was  pre-  v a i l e d upon t o spend a w i n t e r a t Kamloops and gave c o n s i d e r a b l e assistance  to the  cause.  a s s i s t a n t s are l e g i o n . first  The Noting  names o f F a t h e r L e J e u n e ' s o n l y a few,  we  other  have Damien, t h e  Chinook s c h o l a r at K a m l o o p s , J o h n J a c k s o n  and P e t e r Kwal  (79) L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n F r a n c h i s e , no. 260, M a r c h , 1916, pp. 203, 204.  (120) of L i l l o o e t , Morice  Sazy o f P a v i l i o n , and F r a n c i s Joseph, o f the  Fountain. The to  q u e s t i o n o f t e x t s and  satisfy  supplementary  so many s t u d e n t s became an immediate p r o b l e m .  D o u g l a s L a k e on  one  F a t h e r Le J e u n e had  o c c a s i o n i n the  e a r l y s t a g e s of  t o copy some p a g e s of p h r a s e s  t i m e s t o s a t i s f y t h e d e s i r e of a l l t h o s e Gradually the c a t i o n such  instruction  up  to  sixty  wished to l e a r n .  as t h e K a m l o o p s Wawa e v e n t u a l l y became.  upon< t h e t w i n n e c e s s i t y f i r s t  taining  interest  It  was  of s t i m u l a t i n g and main-  among h i s I n d i a n s t u d e n t s , and  secondly  of  i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l f o r them.  As t h e  I n d i a n s advanced  hand, a unique s e l v e s , and and  who  At  i d e a e v o l v e d i n h i s mind o f a mimeographed p u b l i -  founded  providing  reading material  Europe.  in their ability  correspondence  with  "pen p a l s "  I t was  of N o r t h Bend, had  was  to write short-  s t a r t e d , both  among them-  i n e a s t e r n Canada, U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  reported i n A p r i l , r e c e i v e d a post  1896,  that C h a r l e y F r y ,  c a r d i n Chinook and  hand f r o m L i e g e , B e l g i u m .  One  post  v e r y f a i r Chinook f r o m Rome.  c a r d i n s h o r t h a n d and  week l a t e r he  received  shortanother (80)  C o n t a c t s were made by F a t h e r L e J e u n e w i t h  the  Seholasti-  c a t e of t h e O b l a t e s of Mary Immaculate a t L i e g e , and w i t h t h e i r C o l l e g e a t Rome. first  Over t h i r t y e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  i n s t i t u t i o n and  a h a l f - d o z e n at t h e l a t t e r t o o k  study o f Chinook through Wawa, and  entered into  (80) Le J e u n e , Rev.  students at up  the  shorthand, d e l i g h t e d i n reading  the  correspondence  J . M.  the  R.,  with the Indians.  Kamloops Wawa, A p r i l , 1896,  p.  73.  (121) On New Y e a r ' s D a y , 1896, o v e r 150 l e t t e r s s h o r t h a n d were to L i e g e .  i n Chinook and  sent from Kamloops t o Rome, a n d a n e q u a l number  S h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s t h e N o r t h Bend I n d i a n s sent a  c o l l e c t i o n o f some f o r t y - f i v e l e t t e r s t o Rome, and t h e same number t o L i e g e . C o n t e s t s f o r speed  i n w r i t i n g Chinook  were a l s o  encouraged  by F a t h e r L e Jeune a s a means o f s t i m u l a t i n g t h e s h o r t h a n d a r t . I n one t e s t speeds minute.  a t Spuzzum, c a n d i d a t e s i n t h e i r t e e n s wrote a t  o f t h i r t y - f i v e , t h i r t y - s i x a n d f o r t y Chinook More a b l e s t u d e n t s r e a c h e d  s i x t y words p e r m i n u t e . on t h e a v e r a g e  comes a l l t h e more While  of f i f t y  and even  When one c o n s i d e r s t h a t C h i n o o k  a r e double  words, t h e p e r f o r m a n c e  speeds  words p e r  words  a n d t r e b l e t h e s i z e of common E n g l i s h  o f t h e s e I n d i a n s h o r t h a n d a r t i s t s be-  remarkable.  the g r e a t e s t s u c c e s s i n m a s t e r i n g  s h o r t h a n d was  n a t u r a l l y a t t a i n e d b y t h e y o u n g e r I n d i a n s , age d i d n o t d e t e r some o f t h e o l d e r ones f r o m  trying.  C h i e f Andrew f r o m t h e  N o r t h Thompson, aged s i x t y and w i t h f a i l i n g the  eyesight, started  study o f s h o r t h a n d a s soon a s he saw h i s young men p r o -  g r e s s i n g i n t h e knowledge o f t h e Chinook  writing.  He h a d t o  p r o c u r e a p a i r o f s p e c t a c l e s t o j^egin w i t h , and even t h e n h a d to r e a d from  a s p e c i a l e d i t i o n w r i t t e n out i n l a r g e c h a r a c t e r s  by some o f h i s men.  A f t e r a few days'  he was n o t t o o o l d t o m a s t e r  s t u d y he f o u n d  out t h a t  t h e s h o r t h a n d a n d was so p l e a s e d  w i t h h i s s u c c e s s t h a t he wrote a t once t o C h i e f L o u i s at Kamloops:  " I f you are not q u i t e b l i n d yet, you had b e t t e r  start  (122) i n t o l e a r n t h e Chinook w r i t i n g ;  y o u s e e , I am n e a r l y b l i n d ,  y e t I am l e a r n i n g t h e Wawa s h o r t h a n d . " succeeded in  (^l)  q  ]_^  chief  so w e l l t h a t he was e v e n t u a l l y a b l e t o r e a d  anything  Chinook. Mr.  J o h n P. S m i t h ,  (  8 2  ) one o f t h e f i r s t  settlers  i n the  N o r t h Thompson V a l l e y , r e l a t e s how he r e c e i v e d a n o t e f r o m a n I n d i a n w r i t t e n i n shorthand. called  upon C h i e f Andrew f o r a s s i s t a n c e .  spectacles, read the l e t t e r , Smith,  U n a b l e t o d e c i p h e r t h e n o t e , he  and concluded  Andrew drew out h i s  e x p l a i n e d t h e c o n t e n t s t© Mr.  w i t h t h e remark t h a t p r e v i o u s l y the  Indians  had t o go t o t h e i r c i v i l i z e d f r i e n d s f o r t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e i r correspondence;  now the  International i n the  field  c o n t r a r y was t a k i n g p l a c e .  r e c o g n i t i o n f o r outstanding  of shorthand  was a c c o r d e d  t o F a t h e r L e J e u n e and  h i s I n d i a n s t u d e n t s upon s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s . placed i n May,  i n a shorthand 1896,  accomplishments  From  samples  e x h i b i t i o n h e l d at Montlhery,  t h e f o l l o w i n g awards came t o B r i t i s h  a g o l d medal t o the e d i t o r (81) L e J e u n e , Rev.  France, Columbia—  o f t h e Wawa ( F a t h e r L e J e u n e ) , a  J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, J u n e , 1896,  p.  121.  (82) J o h n F . S m i t h , o f n e g r o o r i g i n , was b o r n i n t h e B r i t i s h West I n d i e s a n d came t o t h i s p r o v i n c e a s a boy. He became a c t i v e i n r a n c h i n g and m i n i n g c i r c l e s and s e r v e d f o r some y e a r s a s I n d i a n Agent , w i t h h e a d q u a r t e r s i n Kamloops. I n t h e l a t t e r c a p a c i t y he was c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h F a t h e r Le J e u n e . I n f a c t , t h e y were life-long friends. Mr. S m i t h commanded t h e r e s p e c t o f a l l i n t h e community and r a n k s h i g h among t h o s e p i o n e e r s who d e v e l o p e d t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e . In his l a t e r y e a r s he o f t e n amused l i s t e n e r s b y t e l l i n g them t h a t he was t h e f i r s t w h i t e man t o s e t t l e i n t h e N o r t h Thompson v a l l e y . (83) L e J e u n e , Rev.  J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, J u n e , 1896,  p . 121.  (123) s i l v e r palm t o t h e f i r s t p a g e s ( R t . Rev.  c o n t r i b u t o r o f reading matter f o r i t s  P. D u r i e u ) , and b r o n z e  medals t o M i s s C a r o l i n e  F a l a r d e a u o f Kamloops a n d J a m i e M i c h e l o f Q u i l c h e n a . t h e r h o n o u r s came i n O c t o b e r  o f t h e same y e a r from  E x p o s i t i o n a t Nancy, P r a n c e ,  i n t h e form  diploma  a  (  8 4  ) Fur-  Shorthand  of a s i l v e r medal a n d  o f h o n o u r f o r t h e e d i t o r o f t h e Wawa,and a n o t h e r d i -  ploma f o r h i s I n d i a n p u p i l s . E x p o s i t i o n and " C o n c o u r s " h e l d at  For the great Shorthand  Roubaix, Nord, France, from January fifty  to May, 1897,  I n d i a n s f r o m K a m l o o p s , Shuswap, a n d the  districts  sent compositions  of t h e i r  shorthand  surrounding work.  t h e Wawa f o r 1895 a n d 1896 were a l s o e x h i b i t e d . was  a g o l d medal f o r t h e Wawa, and f i f t y  for  t h o s e o f t h e I n d i a n s whose work r a n k e d  one h u n d r e d  S e t s of  The r e s u l t  diplomas  o f honour  the highest. (  )  8 5  E v e n Queen V i c t o r i a was a c q u a i n t e d w i t h what was b e i n g accomplished The  among t h e I n d i a n s i n one c o r n e r of h e r Empire.  I n l a n d S e n t i n e l o f F r i d a y , June 2 5 , 1897,  Le Jeune h a s forwarded s e v e r a l J u b i l e e post dren i n phonography.  t o t h e Queen t h r o u g h  states:  "Father  Sir Wilfrid Laurier  c a r d s b e a r i n g i n s c r i p t i o n s by I n d i a n  chil-  T r a n s l a t i o n s and a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e  system accompany t h e c a r d s . " Although or  the Indians c a l l e d t h e i r  shorthand  "Chinook P e p a "  "Chinook W r i t i n g , " F a t h e r L e Jeune p o p u l a r i z e d t h e method  as t h e  "Wawa S h o r t h a n d . "  (8®) L e J e u n e , Rev. p. 1 9 . (85)  However, he was a l w a y s c a r e f u l t o  J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, F e b r u a r y , 1897,  I n l a n d S e n t i n e l , T u e s d a y , December 7, 1897.  (124) a c k n o w l e d g e h i s debt t o Abbe Duploye'.  The c h i e f i n s t r u c t i o n a l  book i n h i s whole system h e e n t i t l e d The Wawa s h o r t h a n d i n s t r u c tor  o r The D u p l o y a n s t e n o g r a p h y a d a p t e d t o E n g l i s h * T h i s l i t t l e book o f t w e n t y - f o u r p a g e s was p u b l i s h e d a t  Kamloops b y F a t h e r f i f t e e n cents.  L e Jeune  i n t h e y e a r 1896 a n d s o l d f o r  I t o u t l i n e d seventeen lessons  system, gave c l e a r e x p l a n a t i o n s  f o r learning the  of p o s s i b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s the  s t u d e n t m i g h t e n c o u n t e r , a n d c l o s e d w i t h some p r a c t i c e and  reading  tained tor,  material.  Further  writing  s u p p l e m e n t a r y m a t e r i a l was c o n -  i n a s e c o n d p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e same s i z e a s t h e I n s t r u c -  v i z . , The Wawa s h o r t h a n d e x e r c i s e  book.  This  companion  volume t o t h e I n s t r u c t o r was i s s u e d a f e w months a f t e r t h e l a t t e r and a l s o s o l d f o r f i f t e e n The the  t i t l e p a g e s o f t h e I n s t r u c t o r a n d o f many c o p i e s o f  Wawa c a r r i e d F a t h e r  L e J e u n e ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e Wawa  S h o r t h a n d was t h e s i m p l e s t the  I t was always h i s c l a i m t h a t he h a d two t h o u s a n d  Indians reading  and w r i t i n g phonography, a f e a t which seemed t o  the p l a i n e s t p r o o f He f r e q u e n t l y  be his  system o f s h o r t h a n d i n t h e w o r l d ,  e a s i e s t t o l e a r n , and a h u n d r e d t i m e s e a s i e r t h a n t h e o l d  writing.  him  cents.  learned  without  challenge,  of the simplicity  o f h i s system.  made t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e Wawa S h o r t h a n d a teacher  fifty  i n one t o t h r e e h o u r s .  y e a r s a f t e r he made i t , u s i n g  s h o r t h a n d i n s t r u c t or a s a g u i d e .  simple e x e r c i s e s  I accepted h i s Wawa  On J u l y 17, 1947, a f t e r about  t h r e e h o u r s o f i n t e n s i v e work, I f o u n d m y s e l f a b l e to decipher  could  i n the s y s t e m .  t o w r i t e and  I h a v e a good  w o r k i n g knowledge o f a n o t h e r s h o r t h a n d s y s t e m , which may o r may  (125) not  nave g i v e n me an a d v a n t a g e .  representing hut  The p r i n c i p l e  of c e r t a i n  sounds and not l e t t e r s was a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r  I laboured  under t h e disadvantage  o f confusing  strokes t o me,  the strokes  o f t h e two s y s t e m s . What F a t h e r L e J e u n e f a i l e d t u s was t h a t , w h i l e i n a few h o u r s , the necessary  the t h e o r y  i t would t a k e  to p o i n t  out i n h i s p r o s p e c -  o f t h e system might  he m a s t e r e d  a much l o n g e r t i m e t o a c q u i r e  f l u e n c y t o p u t t h e system i n t o  p r a c t i c a l use.  (126)  Paul  The I n d i a n c h u r c h , Kamloops r e s e r v e , w i t h F o u n t i n the background.  (127) CHAPTER V I .  FATHER L E JEUNE AS EDITOR, AUTHOR  AND  PUBLISHER The f i r s t  number o f F a t h e r L e J e u n e ' s famous  o f t e n d e s c r i b e d a s " t h e q u e e r e s t newspaper i s s u e d on May was  2, 1891.  I t was  publication,  i n the world,"  was  e n t i t l e d t h e Kamloops Wawa and  w r i t t e n i n Chinook, Duployan shorthand, and E n g l i s h .  began:  "Ookook p e p a i a k a name Kamloops Wawa.  chako t a n a z .  Msaika alke t l a p  p a p e r i s named Kamloops  Wawa.  Chi alta  i a k a kanawe Sunday." I t i s born just  now.  It iaka  (This You  will  r e c e i v e i t every Sunday). " I a k a a l k e kwanesem l o l o t l o u s wawa kopa m s a i k a . h e l p m s a i k a p o u s ayak chako komtax p e p a . t e k o p man,  K a l t a s h pous msaika  k a l t a s h p o u s m s a i k a sawaj t e l i k o m . "  c a r r y good words t o y o u .  It will  Iaka  ( i tw i l l  always  help you to l e a r n t o read.  No m a t t e r i f y o u be w h i t e p e o p l e o r I n d i a n s ) . "Pous m s a i k a kwanesem eskom ookook p e p a , m s a i k a d r e t chako komtax mamook ookook tsem."" paper, you w i l l "Wek  ( i f you always take  ayak  this  soon l e a r n t o w r i t e t h i s P h o n o g r a p h y ) .  ayaz makook ookook p e p a , k o p e t i h t t a l a kopa i h t  snow, i h t kwata t l o o n moon." v e r y much, o n l y one d o l l a r  ( T h i s paper w i l l  not cost  a y e a r , one q u a r t e r e v e r y  you  three  months) . "SLo J a Bone, kopet p o u s i l e p msaika p a t l a c h e h i k m i n , p i msaika t l a p and  ookook p e p a . "  t h e n you w i l l "Poos wek  lost."  (No c r e d i t , y o u have t o pay  receive this  cash,  paper).  m s a i k a ayak eskom ookook p e p a , m s a i k a ayoo  ( i f y o u do not s u b s c r i b e f o r t h i s p a p e r a t once, y o u  (128)  No. 131.  SO C e n t i m e s .  <?SL Vol. W. lo. 8.  10 Cents.  00.  KAMLOOPS WAWA.  August, 1895.  7i> ewr Reader*. Apprtnex la Ste'noara.. Th* Shorttstswy toltarn. phit a I'aioU 4M Chinook the Jhortharul is though, <tle Chinook oi J aid* «U the Chinook, anil th« short. l a SttVioejraphte,. , «st way to Uarn. Hit uhinook R ny a. pas d( <hem.in i» through Iht Shorthand . On, the Cover of,ttuipaper ^ 40 S"» is /.>(? plus Courr pour apprtn. drt la Stenograph!e ^u< you. have, all lliat is nt«S par U Chinook, ej-il ny tasy for learning thu Sys/tV Ins. c?t? a. pas de theniin plus temojWrthand court pour apprendrc ^-Tpjie f,h( Alphabet at Iht lop of htxl pajt, and ^ / J e i x s ^ ^ ^ s le Chinook eju«. par to. Ste'noejraphit. on, f 0 <Uttph(r (very w/ora La Xenoa/aphx Puploy* that tomes along. VW Will hardly Haft decipher- 9a'•op • % v —f^is ett"une St('no4raphit« o> •uvrrselle., s'adopro«l" ed all the matter on this aussi J-atiUmtnt ci UuSt cover, whin yott will bt <*>a*?t \ «» b» «A let lanaues,Mwrt(S o»i* Surprised to Jindyourielf litVanttt. b a r barf s on C O M familiar with a'Uhe « • lise'es. crits o\ this Shorthand. L( Chinook «it « M M t/»tf^ W.2»iU>w* lanaaae, umversel. (tot ' This paper is now prod* fois pl»s f a u U t i ^ ted by fVote Enyarina,a /a/>u'M% i ixp p r e no. m.h pretest which alWs space, It fois plus rift P« s m ./ for nearly times »i Iters <U prrjannrs de Aafei mad* /uJunqj as before. nations S'n son* wrmtk of 0*e pane of (his UMteu** •y.y^< 4jt<P> $>n serpent tewaltsjaarsv a: N «.h as f i/t pajCf of up. «/s-. e»> v f n , tSie j o r m . r number*. By >«*<•• 4 I LAboiwvtmtnt • u n i t iiur parihj «r.« ipau auuiLapterest d» unEotU.-. ind by LTtalith test m/uk ypc and the tarn* <» rHo 6 ^ e » > S _ / ^ ^ e * - v 5 ou. tf/ny /rrfyl, i par <MWum«'r« Sp(i.">»", * » a » 4 ne.r paat Linifuantt CffAmtf. i» will be s.« A/ /hat MM pay* J - V V - , £nveyi> d(» Tinxom fc* mjhorthand it MMIjl to i . » ^ 6 > e i j » s k , \ ; "1c<» rranuv's. AntfW COM»W f ntD puiff, ordinary type fe.if*.**401" .M»S*'d/w»lhAdresseidlldihur JM 1/ at | f .01 per annum diiJriM I'diterof Kttw.l<>»P>Waww P/.i Juif £»• MamlMpt lMi*a. lUimlMfl * < (Cn»«d*l . . m t o w l t ' j KamlMpi t>C m  fi.j',,a;hj.aii«  />«^«. ifljfc^  Cover page of Kamloops Wawa, August, 1895.  (129) lose  v e r y much.) . "Tloos  n a n i c h ookook p e p a ; wek i a k a k a l t a s h .  m s a i k a t l o o s n a n i c h ookook p e p a , a l k e tomtom."  (Take c a r e  i a k a chako s i c k m s a i k a  o f t h i s paper; i t i s not a u s e l e s s one.  I f y o u do n o t t a k e c a r e very  P o u s wek  o f t h i s paper, you w i l l  a f t e r w a r d s he  sorry f o r i t ) . The  Kamloops Wawa went t h r o u g h many ups a n d downs  i t s fourteen love  years of existence.  with Father  Le J e u n e — i t s  I t was l a r g e l y a l a b o u r o f  originator, publisher, printer,  b u s i n e s s manager and s t e n o g r a p h e r .  S i n g l e - h a n d e d he r a i s e d i t  f r o m a c i r c u l a t i o n o f one h u n d r e d c o p i e s three  thousand copies  during  at the outset  t o over  a month w i t h w o r l d - w i d e c o v e r a g e .  Even  to-day, f o r t y - f o u r years a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the l a s t copy, e n q u i r i e s t o the  still  r e a c h Kamloops a s t o how one may  Wawa.  The  t e r m "Wawa" i s a C h i n o o k word meaning " t a l k , " "speak,"  or"echo."  Father  L e Jeune i s s u e d  p u b l i c a t i o n on May 2, 1891,  volume 1, number 1 o f h i s  a t one h u n d r e d mimeographed  I n d i a n women a s s i s t e d i n t h e mimeographing and m a i l i n g copies.  copies. of the  A l t h o u g h i t was e v i d e n t l y h i s i n t e n t i o n t o p u b l i s h t h e  Wawa w e e k l y , a s s t a t e d J a n u a r y 1 5 , 1892, appear weekly. December 31st The  subscribe  i n h i s o p e n i n g number, i t was n o t u n t i l  w i t h number 9, t h a t  t h e p u b l i c a t i o n began t o  The Wawa was t h e n i s s u e d copy, 1893,  once a week u n t i l t h e  when m o n t h l y p u b l i c a t i o n was begun.  m o n t h l y form was c o n t i n u e d  u n t i l December, 1900.  From  this  time u n t i l  c e s s a t i o n o f p u b l i c a t i o n i n December, 1904,  was  q u a r t e r l y , t h e numbers coming out each M a r c h , J u n e ,  issued  t h e Wawa  (130)  No. "53  p.2.  -v  50 Centimes  .'TjKvK.  »  t  **.—*i*^SZig ^-',^cl'*4'"  Yol. YL  NO. 6.  *  r  *  <i.,i ! i.t> i. i|V».ai»«  «• bj "  p  10 Cents.  q  s  —  J  'y s  —  c  "  ~  r  —  k  t  KAMLOOPS WAWA.  THE WAWA SHORTHAND!  THE KAMLOOPS WAWA!  The simplest system of Shorthand in the world. The easiest to learn. A hundred times easier than the old writing. Two million people (2,000,000) throughout the world already "using the same shorthand. It is adapted to over twenty different languages. Can be learned without a teacher in one to three hours. If you are a stranger to Shorthand, take this paper and become acquainted with this useful art. If you have failed to learn Shorthand owing to the complication of the system you adopted, or from want of time, do not give up, but try this system, and wonder at its simplicity.  Jnoe, 1897.  SHORTHAND AU0N0 INDIANS A Newspaper In Shorthand Circulating Among the Natives.  Two Thousand Indians reading and writing Phonography. . . . The Plainest Proof of the Simplicity of the System A .NOVEL IDEA TO T E A C H T H E INDIANS SHORTHAND  HOW CAN INDIANS LEARN SHORTHAND? Because Khorthand is a hundred nay » thousand time* t-lmplfr than the old writing. A n y oue can l e a n It In a few hoars, and become expert in It In a few days. Many of our Indians learned It In two or three days. If you arc a lover of curious specimens, you must have this paper. It la  "Tho Queerest Newspaper in the World"  Time is precious. You will save time as soon n*. you ar<- nrqiminted with this phonography.  Subscribe for this paper, and help to civilize our Indiana, lo enlighten tin ' " - I I : "In darkness and the  Your Subscription Solicited. ADDRESS:  " E D I T O R  Only One Dollar per Annum. W A W A ,  K A M L O O P S ,  B.C."  Cover page of Kamloops Wawa., June, 1897  (131) September and December. Circulation 1892,  -was h e l d a t one h u n d r e d c o p i e s u n t i l December,  when i t d o u b l e d .  I n M a r c h , 1893,  i s s u e d h a d t o be i n c r e a s e d t o f i v e one  t h o u s a n d , and l a t e r  I n J a n u a r y , 1895,  i n the  when t h r e e  month. (  8 6  h u n d r e d , i n J u n e , 1893, t o  same y e a r t o t w e l v e  hundred.  two t h o u s a n d c o p i e s were i s s u e d m o n t h l y , a n d  peak c i r c u l a t i o n was r e a c h e d 1898,  t h e number o f c o p i e s  d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1896,  1897, a n d  t h o u s a n d o r more c o p i e s were d i s t r i b u t e d  each  )  M e n t i o n s h o u l d be made a t t h i s  time o f c e r t a i n  special  i s s u e s o f t h e Wawa p u b l i s h e d b y F a t h e r L e Jeune d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1915,  1916,  and 1917.  T h e s e were mimeographed I n l o n g -  hand o r t y p e w r i t t e n w i t h a h e c t o g r a p h r i b b o n and r e p r o d u c e d a copying pad. in  These i s s u e s , a l l w r i t t e n i n F r e n c h ,  i n f o r m a t i o n a n d were d o u b t l e s s  rather reminiscences The  than  paper  are rich  author  clearly indicates this:  having  8 7  ^  "This  i s n o t i s s u e d b y t h e m i l l i o n , n o t e v e n by t h e  t h o u s a n d , n o t e v e n b y t h e h u n d r e d , but o n l y two o r t h r e e copies, just  t o be  a newspaper, p r o p e r l y s p e a k i n g . ^  e d i t o r i a l o f M a r c h , 1916,  little  i n t e n d e d by t h e  on  enough t o p r e v e n t  a few c o p i e s  the o r i g i n a l from being  s t o r e d up i n c a s e  dozen  l o s t by  r e f e r e n c e t o i t may be  n e e d e d l a t e r on, when n o t h i n g e l s e c a n be f o u n d subjects that are discussed i n t h i s l i t t l e  concerning the  Issue." (88)  (86)  Inland S e n t i n e l . F r i d a y , Jan.  (87)  "The q u e e r e s t newspaper i n t h e w o r l d , " O b l a t e - J u n e , 194-6, p . 1 5 , a u t h o r n o t g i v e n .  (88) L e J e u n e , Rev. March, 1916,  8, 1897,  p . 8. Missions,  J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n p . 192.  FranQalse,  (132) The  first  mimeographed c o p i e s o f t h e Wawa c o n t a i n e d  pages, a l l i n shorthand.  four  The m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t e d o f B i b l e  his-  t o r y i n C h i n o o k , C h i n o o k p r a y e r s , news o f t h e v a r i o u s I n d i a n b a n d s , and announcements o f t h e p r i e s t ' s f o r t h c o m i n g  visits.  When p u b l i c a t i o n went on a m o n t h l y b a s i s i n t h e y e a r  1894, t h e  volume o f m a t e r i a l p e r i s s u e was much i n c r e a s e d , a n d s i x t e e n p a g e s became t h e a v e r a g e number each month. A forward was  first  s t e p was t a k e n  produced by the photo-engraving  t h e e d i t o r t o condense f i v e space a s b e f o r e . d o l l a r p e r annum. age  i n September, 1894,  times  when t h e Wawa  process.  This  enabled  as much m a t e r i a l i n t o t h e same  The s u b s c r i p t i o n p r i c e  a t t h i s time was one  The e d i t o r ' s announcement  stated that post-  stamps were a c c e p t a b l e f o r t h i s — E n g l i s h ,  Canadian, or  United States. The and  first  p h o t o g r a p h a p p e a r e d i n t h e November, 1894,  was one o f t h e V e r y  General  Rev.  o f t h e 0. M. I .  Father L o u i s S o u i l l i e r ,  T h i s was f o l l o w e d f r o m t i m e  Superiort o time by  p h o t o g r a p h s o f o t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h e d members o f t h e O r d e r , local  churches  and Indian  and of  groups.  F a t h e r L e J e u n e ' s s u p e r i o r s gave h i m e v e r y i n h i s e f f o r t s w i t h the Wawa.  encouragement  The H o l y F a t h e r Pope L e o X I I I  bestowed on i t a b l e s s i n g t h r o u g h H i s L o r d s h i p B i s h o p The  issue,  l a t t e r , t o o , Father L e Jeune s a i d , "helped  Durieu.  i t s beginnings,  e n l i g h t e n e d i t s e d i t i n g , a n d c o n t r i b u t e d t o I t s pages a l a r g e amount o f b e a u t i f u l Chinook m a t e r i a l . " (89) He was r e f e r r i n g (89) L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, J a n u a r y , 1895, v o l . 4, no. 1, p . 1.  (133) here t o H i s L o r d s h i p ' s Chinook  Bible history  T e s t a m e n t s , w h i c h was p u b l i s h e d  serially  o f t h e O l d a n d New-  i n t h e Wawa.  Financial  a s s i s t a n c e was a p p a r e n t l y f o r t h c o m i n g t h r o u g h t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f V e r y Rev. F a t h e r S o u i l l i e r b e c a u s e F a t h e r L e J e u n e wards, " H i s encouraging v i s i t  last  said  summer was q u i c k l y  after-  succeeded  by t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s p a p e r f r o m a p o o r p r o d u c t i o n o f a mimeograph t o t h e most a t t r a c t i v e f o r m o f p h o t o - e n g r a v i n g . " (90) The f i n a n c i n g F a t h e r L e Jeune. hundred  o f h i s p a p e r was always a s o u r c e o f w o r r y t o B y May, 1895, i t was c o s t i n g between  and a thousand d o l l a r s a year t o produce.  r e c e i p t s from s u b s c r i p t i o n s expense.  Theoretically,  s h o u l d have b e e n ample t o c o v e r  this  H i s I n d i a n s u b s c r i b e r s , however, were n o t o r i o u s l y  slow  i n p a y i n g and i n d e e d t h e p r i e s t It  seven  n e v e r p r e s s e d them f o r payment.  was always h i s u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e t o o b t a i n money enough  f r o m h i s w h i t e s u b s c r i b e r s , f r o m d o n a t i o n s , and f r o m o t h e r s o u r c e s t o l e t h i s I n d i a n c h a r g e s have t h e p a p e r f o r a p u r e l y nominal  sum. B y A p r i l , 1896, t h e Wawa was g o i n g t o n e a r l y  hundred  subscribers outside of the Indians, including  d i s t i n g u i s h e d P r e l a t e s and t h r e e hundred  five  fifteen  of t h e Reverend  Clergy  t h r o u g h o u t Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Some o f the Kamloops' I n d i a n s p a i d t h e i r t h e Wawa i n p o t a t o e s . at t h e manufacture  subscriptions to  O t h e r s p a i d w i t h g l o v e s and moccasins,  o f which  some o f t h e I n d i a n s became v e r y a d e p t .  (90) L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa» 4, n o . 1, p. 1.  J a n u a r y , 1895, v o l .  (91) L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, A p r i l , 1896, v o l . 5, n o . 4, p . 74.  (134)  UN  •'•» 3 • ••' '-.".'..V v;  y7. ~£"; r  ;  28  KK A N C « i  :.-Y~ >  ;• J  •"i • •  CENTS  ;;Tf"v^l  •  <....>v%i>r-2£| >V>V  Vv*f ^ - J ^  _-uv—  -.TV  k-l-rf.  l 1 -x<.. .... v - f '  Vol.  Dec,  KAMLOOPS WAWA  XII.. No. 8  //. P. OORDOiV.  1903  £. 0. ?rugr if Co. UmilttiiuUtlly, lwporters •' Irorv, bled, amd. General Hardware., JlqruuUurO-l ImpU merit, UJaytmi, . Suyyies, etc..  l-ioumlocps. B. C.  \.< Furniture,Carpets, cloves wild l i a r a w a r * .  ^£> A,  <^tv -<e# , •-'  i » As' ;A, T-T;  «A  O'S  '  ^•  Vixlona., Vancouver Ham/.  <MtttHium <tM<ff(/y, I'auccu iw.BJCT V QuilcVitna. Hotel •i-<«-f« ~i  A ^ i ^ !  cijo  Vltcwr tr.t C t n t r t  oV  ^TCCola. Z - O L K C . ^.C"mAWi SoulKcfHawllwipi  -A tie '•^••t^cjp JtHcatK. ancL Saturn** Resort' Fcrilclhinacjallliifuii, B e o L u l i f u l Scenery yrOiici--iff, Tea.lCcfict; ,»..>.* C0.ma.te-. Tewfttarieti}ir<~ashttd. C - R o u r H t . Prop. The Ptz<c Ltrudi is at/  S Harper.  • To h o A J t t « < B«it QvLoiUt»< , u.1 iht leweit PriCei, DMAI uour C<roctrie» a t : XX. Houj^e <SL/iii oO Central .4(trch&nt, 6(<, t J 3<,^_j Co*. ^VitUa. Zak-c. AC. 21 et\ A P. »^/!. RourKc. HamloepS. -V.c Arthur  k.  Cover pap;e of Kamioors Wawa, December,  1903.  (135) With, c o n s i d e r a b l e d i v e r s i t y o f t a s t e among h i s s u b s c r i b e r s , it  was not  e a s y f o r F a t h e r L e J e u n e t o p l e a s e them a l l i n t h e  c o n t e n t s o f t h e Wawa. sufficient  Some c o m p l a i n e d  t h a t t h e r e was n o t  E n g l i s h r e a d i n g , w h i l e a number o f t h e I n d i a n s d i d  not f i n d a s much m a t e r i a l i n C h i n o o k as t h e y w o u l d have Other  s u b s c r i b e r s wanted more i l l u s t r a t i o n s , and s t i l l  wanted more m a t t e r p u b l i s h e d about In  a l e t t e r t o the e d i t o r  Le Jeune t o l d  liked. others  shorthand.  of the Inland S e n t i n e l Father  o f some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s  of h i s l i f e  as a  publisher: You w o u l d wonder i f y o u saw how my l i f e i s spent i n t h i s c o u n t r y . I have t o a t t e n d f r o m two to t h r e e thousand I n d i a n s and other people s c a t t e r e d a l o n g a c i r c u i t o f s i x h u n d r e d m i l e s . I am c o n t i n u a l l y on t h e g o , and, o f d e l i c a t e h e a l t h a s I am, I am t h e f i r s t t o wonder how I s t a n d i t . I have been t h i s way now f o r s e v e n t e e n y e a r s . So t h e Wawa o c c u p i e s o n l y a few o f my l e i s u r e h o u r s each month. About t w e l v e h o u r s o f w r i t i n g a r e s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e making out o f t h e c o p y . A n o t h e r book, w h i c h h a s k e p t me busy f o r a whole y e a r , i s t h e I n d i a n p r a y e r book, i n e l e v e n l a n g u a g e s , w h i c h h a s j u s t been completed. So I f e e l somewhat r e l i e v e d . But t h e h a r d e s t t h i n g t o c o n t e n d w i t h i s t h e expense o f p u b l i shing the p a p e r and the books. E a c h page h a s t o be w r i t t e n b y hand w i t h a s p e c i a l i n k and t h e n t o be photo-engraved. F o r t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e work, e a c h p l a t e c o s t $2.00. H a p p i l y now t h e y a r e made f o r much l e s s . Y e t nobody s h o u l d wonder a t l e a r n i n g t h a t #1,000 w i l l h a r d l y c o v e r t h e d e f i c i t . O f c o u r s e a l i t t l e encouragement would enable me t o p u r s u e t h e work begun and t o i s s u e f o r t h e s s a y s o r s t u d i e s on t h e l a n g u a g e s o f s e v e r a l t r i b e s o f I n d i a n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h i c h s h o u l d be cons i d e r e d o f some i m p o r t a n c e . ( 9 2 ) The  list  o f b u s i n e s s f i r m s u s i n g t h e Kamloops Wawa as an  a d v e r t i s i n g medium f o r m s a n i n t e r e s t i n g (92)  study.  I n l a n d S e n t i n e l , F r i d a y , May 28, 1897,  p . 6.  (136) The  first  and most c o n s i s t e n t  h i s t o r y was a M o n t r e a l p u b l i s h i n g Company. ber,  first  t i m e i n Septem-  t h i s company drew a t t e n t i o n t o i t s d e v o t i o n a l ,  doc-  and i n s t r u c t i o n a l books.  The in  through i t s  h o u s e , D. a n d J . S a d l i e r a n d  U s i n g t h e Wawa columns f o r t h e  1894,  trinal  advertiser  newspapers o f Kamloops a d v e r t i s e d  t h e Wawa.  The I n l a n d  Sentinel  fairly  described  itself  consistently a s a news-  p a p e r i n t o u c h w i t h t h e m i n i n g , r a n c h i n g a n d commercial i n t e r ests of the i n t e r i o r  o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  Kamloops S t a n d a r d , began a d v e r t i s i n g  I t s r i v a l , the  i n t h e Wawa i n O c t o b e r ,  1897.  T h i s p a p e r , whose manager was J . T. R o b i n s o n ,  itself  a s the l e a d i n g newspaper o f t h e I n l a n d  only paper that Hotels  gave a l l t h e  few  news.  The C o s m o p o l i t a n H o t e l , w i t h  Ratchford as p r o p r i e t o r , described l i s h e d house i n Kamloops.  The centre  as the o l d e s t  Jos. estab-  of t h i s h o t e l  and Herod a s p r o p r i e t o r s .  I t made  o f i t s f r e e b u s t o a l l t r a i n s and i t s good  i n connection. Quilchena Hotel  was l o c a t e d ,  of N i c o l a Lake," f i f t y m i l e s  p r o p r i e t o r , Ed. and  itself  The advertisement  appeared l a t e r w i t h R u s s e l l a special feature  were always  a d v e r t i s i n g columns o f t h e Wawa. We n o t e a  o f these as f o l l o w s .  stabling  C a p i t a l and t h e  o f Kamloops a n d o t h e r i n t e r i o r p o i n t s  r e p r e s e n t e d i n the  described  O'Rourke, d e s c r i b e d  t h e copy s a i d , "near t h e  s o u t h o f Kamloops. I t s h i s l o c a l i t y as a health  summer r e s o r t , w i t h b e a u t i f u l s c e n e r y and c l i m a t e . Marshall  on t h e  a n d S m i t h were p r o p r i e t o r s  overland  route t o the  Klondike.  of t h e C l i n t o n  Hotel,  (137) The advertisement of the Montreal Hotel, Kamloops, B. G. , redecorated and refurnished throughout, and under the proprietorship of N. Latremouille, appeared frequently. The Grand P a c i f i c H o t e l , Kamloops, B. C., was described as the nearest house to the railway station and the only convenient hotel f o r railway t r a v e l l e r s .  I t s proprietor, P. A. Barn-  h a r t , made a feature of i t s good rooms, good t a b l e , good liquors and good stabling i n connection. Transportation companies using the Wawa columns as an advertising medium were the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company and the B r i t i s h Columbia Express Company. The former company, over the signature of i t s Kamloops' agent, J . N. Trickey, and Its Vancouver d i s t r i c t passenger agent, Geo. McL. Brown, advertised the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway as the best and cheapest route to a l l eastern points with fewest changes and quickest time.  In A p r i l , 1898, the advertisement of t h i s company began  appearing over the signatures of W. 0. M i l l e r , agent at Kamloops, and E. J . Coyle, d i s t r i c t passenger agent at Vancouver. The B r i t i s h Columbia Express Company, with head o f f i c e at Ashcroft, gave a good deal of advertising space to the Wawa• Its manager and superintendent was S. Tingley, and i t s general agent was J . J . Mackay. This pioneer transportation company offered passage north from Ashcroft to Barkerville and a l l intermediate points and connections every Monday and Friday morning at 5:30 o'clock; returning stages arrived i n Ashcroft every Tuesday and Saturday. Other stages travelled between Ashcroft and Clinton, and  (138) between A s h c r o f t and L i l l o o e t v i a the Marble Canyon.  Single  f a r e s between A s h c r o f t and C l i n t o n were $5.00, w h i l e r e t u r n t i c k e t s , good f o r e i g h t d a y s , were s o l d f o r $8.00.  T h i s com-  pany would a l s o f u r n i s h e x t r a stages o r s p e c i a l r i g s or l i g h t stages) at short n o t i c e .  (buggies  A t t e n t i o n was drawn t o t h e i r  f e e d s t a b l e s and c o r r a l at A s h c r o f t , w i t h water on the premises where the best care would be g i v e n a t moderate r a t e s . Merchandising  f i r m s were r e p r e s e n t e d i n the a d v e r t i s i n g  columns of t h e Wawa by t h e f o l l o w i n g :  James V a i r , Kamloops,  d e a l e r and manufacturer i n s t o v e s , t i n w a r e , p l u m b i n g , hardware, p a i n t s , o i l and g l a s s ; M. P . Gordon, Kamloops, f u r n i t u r e , c a r p e t s , window-shades, e t c . ; M. G a g l i e t t o , Kamloops, g e n e r a l merchant; J a s * M c M i l l a n and Company, M i n n e a p o l i s , M i n n . , d e a l e r i n raw f u r s ; P. 3 . S m i t h , Kamloops, e s t a b l i s h e d 1883, d e a l e r i n dry goods, g r o c e r i e s , boots and shoes, c l o t h i n g , m i l l i n e r y , c a r p e t s , house f u r n i s h i n g s , e t c . ; E . G. P r i o r and Company, w i t h o f f i e e s i n V i c t o r i a , V a n c o u v e r , and Kamloops, importers of i r o n s t e e l , g e n e r a l hardware, a g r i c u l t u r a l i n s t r u m e n t s , waggons, b u g g i e s , e t c . ; J . R. H u l l and Company, Kamloops, e s t a b l i s h e d 1880, p u r v e y o r s of meat, c o n t r a c t o r s , and g e n e r a l d e a l e r s i n l i v e s t o c k ; Hudson's Bay Company, Kamloops, the o l d e s t f u r traders-j e s t a b l i s h e d 1670; Harvey and B a i l e y , A s h c r o f t , genera l merchants; Robert C h a r t e r s , Q u i l c h e n a , g e n e r a l merchant; McLennan and M c P e e l y , Cordova S t r e e t , Vancouver, d e a l e r i n stoves and hardware; R. McLughan, Kamloops, d e a l e r i n stoves and t i n w a r e , a l l k i n d s o f t i n , sheet i r o n , plumbing and h e a t i n g work done; D. P . S e l b y , Q u i l c h e n a , g e n e r a l merchant; M a l l e r y ' s  (139) D r u g S t o r e , M a i n S t r e e t , Kamloops; a n d H. S t e f f e n s , L y t t o n , dealer tin  i n g r o c e r i e s , dry goods, c o n f e c t i o n e r y , boots  goods, f l o u r , f r u i t ,  t h i n g kept  etc., f u l l  i n stock, butcher  miners'  and shoes,  s u p p l i e s , every-  shop i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h f r e s h meat  every day. The Kamloops Wawa f r o m  i t s b e g i n n i n g was t a k e n b y t h e  B r i t i s h Museum, L o n d o n , b y t h e S m i t h s o n i a n ton,  by the P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y  A s t o r L i b r a r y , by the L i b r a r y of  I n s t i t u t e , Washing-  of B r i t i s h Columbia, by the o f the U n i v e r s i t y  New Y o r k , a n d by L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , Quebec.  s t i t u t i o n s , F a t h e r L e Jeune the  said,  of the  State  A l l these i n -  "remitted very w i l l i n g l y f o r  paper. H  In  (93)  a d d i t i o n , a number o f exchanges w i t h o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s  were e n t e r e d i n t o b y t h e e d i t o r list  o f the Wawa. (  9 4  ) A complete  o f t h e s e p e r i o d i c a l s , w i t h comments by F a t h e r Le J e u n e ,  appears  i n A p p e n d i x A.  T h i s wide-spread  exchange o f t h e Wawa w i t h p u b l i c a t i o n s o f  s e v e r a l c o u n t r i e s i n two c o n t i n e n t s d i d much t o p u b l i c i z e t h e work w h i c h F a t h e r L e Jeune was d o i n g among t h e I n d i a n s . of  t h e exchange p u b l i c a t i o n s p r i n t e d  of  Father Le Jeune. The  I l l u s t r a t e d phonographic  an a r t i c l e the f i r s t  accounts  Many  o f t h e Wawa a n d  w o r l d f o r J u n e , 1895,  printed  on t h e Kamloops Wawa a l o n g w i t h a r e p r o d u c t i o n o f p a g e o f t h e "Sugar Cane T i n t i n , "  an a r t i c l e  (93) L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, A p r i l , 4, no. 4, p . 66.  i n the  1895,  vol.  (94) L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, May, 1895, p . 67; A u g u s t , 1895, p p . 113, 114; November,, 1895 , p . 161.  (140) M a r c h , 1895, 2 5 , 1894,  Wawa.  The C h i c a g o Sunday H e r a l d  o f November  p r i n t e d a l o n g a r t i c l e by M i s s M a i b e l l e  Justice  c o v e r i n g the h i s t o r y o f the Wawa and i t s e d i t o r . Even  thfcftty  young s t u d e n t s  l e a r n e d C h i n o o k , and t h e  i n a high  school  i n Belgium  e d i t o r o f a P a r i s newspaper a p p l i e d  t o Father Le Jeune f o r l e s s o n s  i n t h e Chinook  jargon.  T h a t F a t h e r L e J e u n e was a most p r o l i f i c w r i t e r i s e v i denced by t h e f a c t t h a t had  w r i t t e n and c o m p i l e d a t l e a s t  Since and  i n t h e y e a r 1916 he e s t i m a t e d  a good d e a l  3,500 p a g e s o f m a t e r i a l . (^7)  o f t h i s w r i t i n g was i n s h o r t h a n d  t h e r e f o r e condensed, i t i s probable that hts  would reach A list  t h a t he  characters,  contributions  over t e n thousand pages o f o r d i n a r y t y p e w r i t i n g .  o f F a t h e r L e J e u n e f s w o r k s , a s c o m p l e t e a s I have b e e n  able t o a s c e r t a i n , i s given  i n A p p e n d i x B, a l o n g  with a b r i e f  d e s c r i p t i o n of each.  (95) L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa, November, 1 8 9 5 , v o l . 4 , no. 1 1 , p . 1 6 1 . (96)  L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, A p r i l , 1 8 9 5 , 4 , no. 4 , p . 4 9 .  (97) L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R. , Kamloops Wawa. E d i t i o n December, 1916, p . 2 7 7 .  vol.  Franchise,  (141) CHAPTER V I I .  THE CLOSING YEARS.  Twice i n the last decade of his career at Kamloops, Father Le Jeune was honoured by the Kamloops Rotary Club.  At i t s  luncheon on Wednesday, December 27, 1922, the club was host to Father Le Jeune and other pioneers of the c i t y and d i s t r i c t . Called upon to say a few words, the priest spoke i n humourous vein, t e l l i n g the gathering many incidents of his l i f e and work among the Indians, but stressing the l i g h t e r side of events and minimizing the hardships which he had encountered.  (^8)  Again on Wednesday, September 15, 1926, Father Le Jeune was a guest and t h i s time chief speaker at the Rotary luncheon. Introduced by another pioneer and friend of forty-four years' standing, Mr. John F. Smith, the priest was greeted by a s p i r i ted round of applause.  Upon this occasion he spoke i n more  serious vein, giving the Rotarians an account of the v i s i t s to Kamloops and d i s t r i c t of some of the early Catholic missionaries-  He described the work done by Father Nobili among the  Indians of thfes region during the years 1843—44. He also made reference to that strange Indian character, Lolo St. P a u l , who exercised such an influence over h i s compatriots during the middle years of the nineteenth century.  Mr. A. C. Taylor,  Rotary president, thanked Father Le Jeune heartily on behalf of the club. .(98) "Pioneers of c i t y and d i s t r i c t honoured," Kamloops Sentinel . Friday, 29 December, 1922, p. 1. (99) "In Dominion for forty-seven years," Kamloops Sentinel, , Friday, 17 September, 1926, p. 1..  (142) F a t h e r L e Jeune r e m a i n e d a c t i v e i n h i s work u n t i l retirement. Forbes,  During  0. M.  t h e summer o f t h e y e a r 1928  I . , a r r i v e d a t Kamloops t o t a k e  ( N o r t h Thompson) and t h e m i s s i o n s e a s t Le Jeune c o n t i n u e d t o v i s i t  usually  went t o one  George  over Ghu  Ghua Father  t h e m i s s i o n s a r o u n d M e r r i t t , KamEvery F r i d a y or  of t h e s e m i s s i o n s  on Monday o r T u e s d a y .  Mass i n more t h a n one  Father  o f Kamloops, but  l o o p s , Deadman's C r e e k and B o n a p a r t e . day m o r n i n g he  his  Sometimes he  mission during a  and  Satur-  returned  visited  and  said  trip.  F a t h e r L e J e u n e had b e e n a t i r e l e s s w o r k e r a l l h i s but b y  the summer o f 1928,  he  began t o age  o f g e n e r a l f a t i g u e i n c r e a s e d as t h e a d d i t i o n he  fallen  s p r i n g of 1929,  of h i s m i s s i o n s , was  down t h e  stairs  arm.  He  fully  c l o t h e d and  t o get  in One  t o l d t h a t F a t h e r Le J e u n e  of t h e Kamloops R e c t o r y and f o u n d  d o z i n g on h i s bed.  He  up.  He  had f o r g o t t e n t h a t he had  b r u i s e d but  falling. not  I t was  and b r o k e n h i s  F a t h e r Le asked  had  Jeune  him what  h u r t h i s arm  had tried  and  f i n a l l y disclosed that  b r o k e n h i s arm,  and  day  upon r e t u r n i n g  F a t h e r L e Jeune a p p e a r e d somewhat dazed and  c o u l d not r e c a l l had  y e a r went on, and  Father Forbes,  h u r r i e d to t h e Rectory  happened.  Symptoms  g r a d u a l l y became more and more f o r g e t f u l .  i n the e a r l y f r o m one  rapidly.  life,  t h a t he had  he  fallen  v e r y h e a v i l y on h i s head. From t h a t time One  day,  another  when he was  on, he t o go  in a different  became more and more f o r g e t f u l . t o a c e r t a i n m i s s i o n , he  direction.  worn o u t , p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y ,  went  The  t r u t h i s t h a t he  and  too i l l  to was  t o c a r r y on  any  (143) longer.  H i s mind f o r t h e most p a r t was  p a i r e d , but  him  b r i g h t and  regretted to  do  so.  decided  I t was  f r o m h i s work w o u l d k i l l  him.  be f o u n d t o t a k e  t o r e t i r e him,  o v e r and  the f a c t  younger men  Forbes says,  but  and  a d m i r e and  take  remains had  to  his place.  I n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s m a t t e r of F a t h e r Le J e u n e ' s  missionary,  much  commonly s a i d t h a t t o I t d i d , but  t h a t h i s p e r i o d of u s e f u l n e s s was  Father  unim-  h i s g e n e r a l h e a l t h and p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s f o r g e t f u l -  n e s s were s u c h t h a t h i s S u p e r i o r s as they  still  one  "He  was  a p e r f e c t gentleman, a hard-working  of the k i n d e s t  love, and  towards the  r e t i r e d was  a blow t h a t h u r t  b e f o r e , but  he  accepted  retirement,  him  orders  o f men. end,  as he  and  You  c o u l d not  p i t y him.  had  His  help  being  n e v e r been h u r t  followed  them." (100)  F a t h e r L e J e u n e ' s f r i e n d s and  a s s o c i a t e s at Kamloops d i d  not  f o r g e t t o pay  the  c e l e b r a t i o n of h i s golden j u b i l e e  priesthood.  upon t h e  occasion  of o r d i n a t i o n t o  T h a t memorable e v e n t t o o k p l a c e on t h e  J u n e 7, 1 9 2 9 ,  fifty  ordination. of t h e  t h e i r t r i b u t e t o him  At  Sacred  the  Heart,  years  t o the  c l o s e o f the those  very  day  evening  i n attendance r e t i r e d to the  made t o t h e  Mr.  o f the (100)  J o h n F. S m i t h was  t o make t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a p u r s e  congregation  and  evening  s e r v i c e s i n the  s p e e c h e s were g i v e n and  gathering  the  a box  of  from the time of h i s  h a l l where c o m p l i m e n t a r y old priest.  of  Church parish  presentations  s e l e c t e d by of g o l d on  the  behalf  of c i g a r s f r o m t h e male members.  F o r b e s , Rev. G e o r g e , 0 . M". I . , l e t t e r t o t h e O c t o b e r , 1947.  author,  16  (144) He  spoke of t h e r e s p e c t i n w h i c h t h e p r i e s t  had  h e l d by t h e whole community, h i s r e m i n i s c e n c e s seven  y e a r s of a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h him.  back t o J u n e , 1882, L y t t o n , and first  told  Smith,  Jeune.  and  Mrs.  f i r s t met  spanning  forty-  carried his listeners  F a t h e r Le J e u n e a t  of t h e F a t h e r ' s e f f o r t s i n g e t t i n g b u i l t  l i t t l e church.  a s a l t a r boy Mr.  when he  He  a l w a y s been  Upon i t s c o m p l e t i o n Mr.  c h o i r master. A. S.  Way  S m i t h had  A f t e r t h e two p r e s e n t a t i o n s by  presented flowers to Father  Le  days a f t e r t h i s  ceremony i n S a c r e d H e a r t  Ohurch  p a r i s h h a l l , F a t h e r L e Jeune l e f t Kamloops f o r t h e l a s t  of  served  (l°l)  A few  and  his  t r a v e l l e d t o New the Oblate Order  Westminster.  Early  i n September, members  i n B r i t i s h Columbia g a t h e r e d  c i t y t o t a k e p a r t i n the e x e r c i s e s o f t h e i r O p p o r t u n i t y was  taken at t h i s time  when a Solemn H i g h Mass was H i s E x c e l l e n c y Archbishop  at the  annual  latter  retreat.  t o honour F a t h e r Le  conducted  time  i n St. Peter's  Jeune  church.  Duke p r e s i d e d o v e r t h i s ceremony  and  t h e r e were a l s o p r e s e n t many r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e v a r i o u s r e ligious cial,  o r d e r s , V e r y Rev.  and  W.  Byrne G r a n t ,  t h e 0. M.  some t w e n t y - f i v e O b l a t e F a t h e r s .  The w i n t e r  of 1 9 2 9 — 3 0 was H i s h e a l t h was  I. Provin-  (l°2)  p a s s e d by F a t h e r Le Jeune i n  New  Westminster.  good f o r t h e most p a r t , and  was  a b l e t o make s e v e r a l t r i p s t o V a n c o u v e r t o v i s i t  (101)  " F a t h e r Le J e u n e ' s g o l d e n j u b i l e e i s remembered - Kamloops S e n t i n e l , F r i d a y , 14 J u n e , 1929.  (102)  Kamloops S e n t i n e l , 10 September, 1929,  p.  1.  friendsf here,"  he  (145) in  company w i t h F a t h e r S t e v e Murphy, 0. M.  time  had not  been good now  his recital  life.  But  put  that  w o u l d g i v e him  audience.  f o r some t i m e ; he was  f o r t h e most p a r t he  last  often inaccurate  i s b e l i e v e d t h a t he  t h e stomach. (• ^^) L  he was  weaker as t h e months went b y ,  taken i l l s h o r t l y  the doctor  some f o r m  summer he  was  of c a n c e r  of  became p e r c e p t i b l y  and f i n a l l y p a s s e d  t h e m o r n i n g h o u r s of F r i d a y , November 21.  away d u r i n g  (104)  s e r v i c e s were h e l d on the f o l l o w i n g Monday morn-  November 24,  a t 10:30, a t S t . P e t e r ' s C h u r c h , when Requiem  s a i d by h i s f r i e n d , F a t h e r Murphy.  Interment at  life.  t a k e n t o S t . Mary's H o s p i t a l .  s u f f e r e d from  During the  him  evidence  w i n t e r of h i s  A haemorrhage d e v e l o p e d ,  c a l l e d , and F a t h e r L e Jeune was  Mass was  H i s memory  there i s l i t t l e  m o r n i n g e a r l y i n A p r i l , 1930,  after breakfast.  ing,  con-  H i s f r i e n d s and a s s o c i a t e s o f t e n u r g e d  he w r o t e v e r y much d u r i n g t h i s  Funeral  was  r e t a i n e d good c o n t r o l o f h i s  down on p a p e r h i s memoirs, but  One  It  occupied h i s  o f e v e n t s w h i c h had t a k e n p l a c e i n h i s e a r l i e r  mental f a c u l t i e s . to  He  by r e a d i n g a g r e a t d e a l , hut h i s c h i e f d e l i g h t  v e r s a t i o n w i t h a l l who  in  I.  took p l a c e the next  day  i n the O b l a t e  S t . M a r y ' s M i s s i o n , M i s s i o n C i t y . ' At  F a t h e r George F o r b e s , 0. M.  (l0§) cemetery  the M i s s i o n C h u r c h  I . , a s s o c i a t e of F a t h e r Le  Jeune's  (103)  Murphy, F a t h e r S., 0. M. I . , New W e s t m i n s t e r , i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e a u t h o r , 15 A u g u s t , 1947.  (104)  The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n , New W e s t m i n s t e r , B. C., 21 November, 1930, p . 8.  (105)  The  Friday,  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n , Monday, 24 November, 1930,  p,  2.  (146) at K a m l o o p s , p a i d a h i g h l y e l o q u e n t pioneer missionary.  and moving t r i b u t e  to the  He s a i d i n p a r t :  The good Shuswap I n d i a n s whom d i r e c t p o v e r t y a l o n e p r e v e n t s f r o m b e i n g h e r e , and t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e Thompson and t h e N i c o l a V a l l e y s have a s k e d me t o t e l l y o u how much t h e y g r i e v e a t t h e d e a t h o f him who f o r f i f t y y e a r s l a b o u r e d a n d p r a y e d and s u f f e r e d f o r them. Had y o u seen n o t o n l y t h e women and c h i l d r e n but e v e n s t r o n g men b r e a k down and weep when t h e y h e a r d t h a t F a t h e r L e J e u n e h a d d i e d , y o u would have r e a l i z e d how t h e y l o v e d h i m whom they c a l l e d ' P r e s s a n t — P e r e S a i n t , ' the holy p r i e s t . They have a s k e d me t o t e l l y o u how d e e p l y t h e y r e g r e t , a s the p e o p l e o f Kamloops r e g r e t , t h a t t h e y have b e e n d e n i e d t h e p r i v i l e g e o f h a v i n g t h e i r f r i e n d and Father b u r i e d i n t h e i r midst. Had he been l a i d t o r e s t i n t h e f i e l d o f h i s l a b o u r s , t h e I n d i a n s f r o m a h u n d r e d m i l e s and more would have gathered i n t h e i r hundreds t o j o i n w i t h the Cathol i c s and n o n - C a t h o l i c s of the I n t e r i o r i n paying f i t t i n g homage t o h i m whom a l l l o v e d and r e v e r e d and a d m i r e d . D e p r i v e d o f t h a t p r i v i l e g e , t h e y have a s k e d me t o b e g y o u t o u n i t e w i t h them i n p r a y e r f o r t h e s o u l o f him whom t o know was t o love. F a t h e r F o r b e s went on t o speak o f F a t h e r L e J e u n e ' s and  education i n France.  He t o l d  of his b r i l l i a n t  career as  a young s t u d e n t , o f h i s o r d i n a t i o n , and o f h i s f i r s t ment a s C h a p l a i n a t t h e N a t i o n a l S h r i n e . and  s a t i s f y i n g nature  was  not content.  Despite  birth  appoint-  the strenuous  o f t h e work o f t h i s p o s t , F a t h e r L e J e u n e  He y e a r n e d  i n h i s mind, more h e r o i c .  for duties s t i l l  With c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  more a r d u o u s , a n d , energy  he be-  sieged h i s r e l i g i o u s Superiors u n t i l they f i n a l l y granted h i s r e q u e s t and i m m e d i a t e l y , left and  i n company w i t h F a t h e r C h i r o u s e , he  h i s home, h i s f r i e n d s , h i s n a t i v e l a n d , t o spend h i m s e l f t o be spent  i n the I n d i a n m i s s i o n s  Father Forbes Order  of B r i t i s h  then t r a c e d the beginnings  Columbia.  of the Oblate  and p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e O r d e r had o r i g i n a l l y  been  (147)  Indian church, Lov/er Nicola, B. C.  (148) founded,  not t o do I n d i a n work, "but t o r e p a i r  t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n had t h e y e a r 1842, to  caused  i n Catholic  i n answer t o a p l e a f r o m  come t o the r e s c u e of t h e C h u r c h  responded  the ravages France.  the B i s h o p  But  which in  of Montreal  i n Canada, t h e O b l a t e s  i n a most g r a t i f y i n g manner.  They v o l u n t e e r e d f o r  t h e f o r e i g n m i s s i o n s i n s u c h numbers t h a t w i t h i n t e n y e a r s t h e i r missions stretched from Labrador and  extended  f a r i n t o the A r c t i e  had  t o the P a c i f i c  Coast  Circle.  The m i s s i o n a r i e s sent t o Canada, c o n t i n u e d F a t h e r F o r b e s , were s p i r i t u a l and m e n t a l g i a n t s . They f o u n d t h e i r m i s s i o n s p a g a n and t h e y l e f t them s t a u n c h l y G a t h o l i c . They f o u n d the n a t i v e s s i t t i n g i n the shadow of d e a t h and t h e y l e d them t o t h a t l i g h t w h i c h e n l i g h t e n e t h e v e r y man coming i n t o the world. They f o u n d them s t e e p e d i n p a g a n ism, i n s u p e r s t i t i o n , i n i m m o r a l i t y , and t h e y l e f t them b e l i e v e r s i n C h r i s t and p r a c t i c e r s o f H i s law. F a t h e r Le J e u n e d i d not need f e a r h a v i n g h i s r e c o r d compared w i t h t h a t o f any o f t h e s e men. They were s p i r i t u a l and m e n t a l g i a n t s and so was he. F o r f i f t y y e a r s , e v e n when he was i n h i s s e v e n t i e s , he r o s e a t a v e r y e a r l y h o u r and p r a y e d f o r h i s I n d i a n s b e f o r e s a y i n g Mass f o r them. Hund r e d s o f t i m e s , w i t h a heavy s u i t e a s e s t r a p p e d on h i s back and one i n each hand he walked t w e n t y m i l e s and more a day. At o t h e r t i m e s he f o r c e d h i s weary canoe up t r e a c h e r o u s r i v e r s o r rodte o v e r r o a d l e s s m o u n t a i n s on h i s I n d i a n pony. He g e n e r a l l y c a r r i e d a l i t t l e r i c e and"a l o a f of b r e a d , h i s u s u a l f o o d , but many a t i m e , even as h i s s u c c e s s o r s o f t o - d a y , he had t o go w i t h o u t f o o d u n t i l l a t e a t n i g h t , and t h a t f o o d was a t times decayed f i s h . As we t r a v e l i n r a i l w a y c o a c h e s or r i d e i n a u t o m o b i l e s o r as we s i t i n our e a s y c h a i r s we do not r e a l i z e what f o r h a l f a c e n t u r y t h i s v e t e r a n d i d and s u f f e r e d , and p e r h a p s as we s i t i n a c o m f o r t a b l e room we seek t o . p i c k out f l a w s i n h i s work w h i c h i f we compared our work w i t h h i s , we ought t o hang our heads i n shame. Few p e o p l e know, what t h i s m i s s i o n a r y s u f f e r e d f o r C h r i s t and f o r s o u l s b e c a u s e h i s s m i l i n g f a c e and j o v i a l c o n v e r s a t i o n were a mask behind which h i s h u m i l i t y h i d h i s heroism.  (149)  Indian cemetery, Lower Nicola, B .  (150) He i s gone, "but h i s work r e m a i n s . Count t h e c h u r c h e s between Salmon Arm and N o r t h l e n d , between Chu Chua a n d C o l d w a t e r , a n d y o u have c o u n t e d so many monuments t o h i s z e a l . Number t h e h u n d r e d s he b a p t i z e d a n d y o u have numbered t h e j e w e l s i n h i s crown. Count t h o s e c r o s s e s i n t h e I n d i a n g r a v e y a r d s a n d y o u have c o u n t e d so many p a i n f u l j o u r n e y s to I n d i a n deathbeds* Look at t h o s e h e a l e d s c a r s and t h o s e h e a l t h y I n d i a n s and y o u have s e e n t h e so many t e s t i m o n i a l s t o t h e m e d i c a l s k i l l o f him who was a s p r o f i c i e n t a s a m e d i c a l d o c t o r a s he was a p h y s i c i a n o f s o u l s . (106) G-o i n t o any I n d i a n c h u r c h , open t h e p r a y e r book, a n d i n a d o z e n l a n g u a g e s y o u w i l l f i n d the f r u i t s of h i s labours. How d i d he f i n d t h e t i m e f o r a l l t h e r e l i g i o u s and a l l t h e s c i e n t i f i c and m e d i c a l work he d i d ? Had y o u s e e n h i m , book i n h a n d , p l o d d i n g a l o n g on f o o t or on h o r s e b a c k o r i n h i s canoe, y o u w o u l d know t h e answer. Go i n t o h i s I n d i a n c h u r c h e s a n d y o u w i l l f i n d I n d i a n s t h e r e s a y i n g t h e i r m o r n i n g and n i g h t p r a y e r s he composed f o r them a n d w h i c h he t a u g h t them t o read. Go t o t h e i r c h u r c h e s on Sundays a n d , w h e t h e r t h e m i s s i o n a r y i s t h e r e o r n o t , y o u w i l l h e a r them s i n g the K y r i e , t h e G l o r i a , t h e Credo, t h e Sanctus, the Agnus D e i . Go t o t h e s e c h u r c h e s when t h e p r i e s t i s t h e r e and y o u w i l l f i n d t h e c o n f e s s i o n a l b e s i e g e d  (106)  I c o u l d f i n d no e v i d e n c e t h a t F a t h e r L e J e u n e e v e r p e r f o r m e d s u r g i c a l o p e r a t i o n s , as F a t h e r C o c c o l a i s r e p o r t e d t o have done i n e m e r g e n c i e s . T h e r e i s , however, e v i d e n c e "that he h a d some c o n s i d e r a b l e knowledge o f m e d i c i n e and d i d on many o c c a s i o n s o f f e r t h e b e n e f i t of h i s knowledge t o t h e I n d i a n s a n d w h i t e s e t t l e r s throughout t h e country. L i k e some o t h e r m i s s i o n a r i e s he p r o b a b l y f o u n d t h a t a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a t l e a s t e l e m e n t a r y m e d i c i n e would be most u s e f u l t o combat t h e " I n d i a n d o c t o r s " who, i n t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s , opposed Christianity. F a t h e r Forbes s t a t e s that F a t h e r Le Jeune p o s s e s s e d s e v e r a l F r e n c h m e d i c a l books and t h a t he s t u d i e d and u s e d t h e knowledge g a i n e d f r o m them. During t h e 1918 i n f l u e n z a ep|)fl.emic , he t u r n e d a number o f h i s I n d i a n c h u r c h e s i n t o h o s p i t a l s and spent days a n d n i g h t s nursing the s i c k . He h a d a p e r s o n a l t h e o r y about t h e e f f i c a c y o f c h a r c o a l a n d , d u r i n g the e p i d e m i c , kept s u c k i n g some and d i d n o t f a l l i l l . A c c o r d i n g t o h i s t h e o r y , c h a r c o a l drew p o i s o n s t o i t s e l f which were l a t e r evacuated. F a t h e r L e J e u n e a l s o a p p e a r s t o have had some s u c c e s s i n t h e u s e o f epsom s a l t s f o r t h e  (151) and t h e communion t a b l e crowded. Try to find a p a r i s h i n w e s t e r n Canada o r i n e a s t e r n Canada where one h u n d r e d p e r c e n t o f t h e f a i t h f u l have p e r f o r m e d t h e i r d u t i e s and when y o u have s e a r c h e d and s e a r c h e d i n v a i n f o r such a p a r i s h , come w i t h infe and I w i l l t a k e y o u t o one o f Father Le Jeune's missions t o f i n d a p a r i s h where t h e r e i s not an u n b e l i e v e r , n o t a nonC a t h o l i c , and when y o u have f a i l e d t o f i n d s u c h a p a r i s h I w i l l take you t o a l l t h e missions F a t h e r L e J e u n e , l e f t i n my c a r e . What p a s t o r of s o u l s but e n v i e s s u c h a r e c o r d a s t h a t o f F a t h e r Le Jeune? What p a s t o r o f s o u l s b u t wonders and a d m i r e s a n d i s s i l e n t ? I w i l l n o t d w e l l upon F a t h e r L e J e u n e * s work among t h e p i o n e e r s e t t l e m e n t s n o r upon t h e f a c t t h a t w h i l e he numbered h o s t s o f nonC a t h o l i c s among h i s f r i e n d s , t h e r e was n e v e r a man o f a n y c r e e d o r r a c e who e v e r met him w i t h o u t becoming h i s f r i e n d and a d m i r e r . I n c l o s i n g l e t me r e m i n d y o u t h a t h i s I n d i a n s have a s k e d me t o beg y o u t o u n i t e w i t h them i n p r a y e r f o r t h e r e p o s e , o f h i s soul. T h e y know h i s z e a l a n d t h e y know h i s sanctity. They c a l l him ' p r e s s a n t — P e r e S a i n t , ' that i s 'the h o l y p r i e s t . ' And t h e y beg y o u t o p r a y f o r h i m because t h e y r e a l i z e t h a t t o h i m who h a s r e c e i v e d more, more s h a l l be r e q u i r e d . They know t h a t he r e c e i v e d f i v e t a l e n t s and t h a t he h a s h a d t o r e t u r n a n o t h e r five. L e t u s t h e n f e r v e n t l y p r a y f o r him a n d f o r h i s l i f e - l o n g f r i e n d , whom y o u a l l l o v e d , t h e s a i n t l y and h e r o i c F a t h e r C h i r o u s e . May t h e i r s o u l s and the s o u l s o f t h e i r h e r o i c a s s o c i a t e s and t h e s o u l s o f a l l t h e f a i t h f u l d e p a r t e d , t h r o u g h t h e mercy o f God, r e s t i n peace. Amen. (107) (106)  t r e a t m e n t o f rheumatism. He had the p a t i e n t p u t a quant i t y i n h o t water and l i e i n i t f o r a t i m e . In h i s l a t e r y e a r s on t h e m i s s i o n s t h e r e were of c o u r s e doct o r s and h o s p i t a l s i n K a m l o o p s , M e r r i t t , Salmon Arm and A s h c r o f t , t o w h i c h p l a c e s he sent o r t r i e d t o send the s i c k .  (107)  " F a t h e r L e J e u n e ' s f u n e r a l , " Kamloops S e n t i n e l , 2 Decemb e r , 1930, p . 1.  (152)  H e a d s t o n e m a r k i n g t h e g r a v e o f F a t h e r L e Jeune at S t . M a r y ' s , M i s s i o n C i t y , B. C. When we v i s i t e d t h e s n o t on August 16, 1947, an o v e r h a n g i n g hough from a n e a r b y t r e e o b s c u r e d t h e name and d a r k e n e d t h e g r a v e . The p r i e s t accompanying us c a l l e d f o r one o f t h e c a r e t a k e r s , a young P o l i s h boy, who came w i t h an axe and trimmed t h e t r e e , t h u s e n a b l i n g us t o t a k e t h e above p i c t u r e . F a t h e r L e Jeune's g r a v e i s a t t h e n o r t h end o f one o f s e v e r a l l o n g rows o f graves o f t h e O b l a t e F a t h e r s . H i s l i f e - l o n g f r i e n d and a s s o c i a t e , F a t h e r E . C. C h i r o u s e , i s b u r i e d n o t f a r away.  (153) News of F a t h e r Le J e u n e ' s d e a t h l o o p s — t h e c i t y w h i c h had had  been a f a m i l i a r f i g u r e  c a s t a gloom o v e r Kam-  been h i s h e a d q u a r t e r s f o r so l o n g .  and  Commenting  where  he  editor-  i a l l y upon h i s p a s s i n g t h e Kamloops S e n t i n e l remarked: The d e a t h of F a t h e r L e Jeune l e a v e s a b l a n k t h a t none c a n f i l l . He was u n i q u e . F e a r l e s s , i n d e f a t i g a b l e , h i s l i f e consecrated, he s e r v e d h i s c a u s e w i t h j o y a n d l a u g h ter. N o t h i n g p l e a s e d him l i k e a new s t o r y . H i s was a c h a s t e mind. And he l o v e d h i s I n d i a n s and c h a s t e n e d them, e s p e c i a l l y when t h e y were s i c k and n e e d e d c a s t o r o i l . F a t h e r Le J e u n e saw t h i s c o u n t r y change f r o m a w i l d e r n e s s t o a s e t t l e d , and l a w - a b i d i n g l a n d . He b e l o n g e d t o t h o s e p i o n e e r s who c o u l d say t h e y were h e r e b e f o r e t h e r a i l way. He h e l p e d t o make h i s t o r y and was at t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g of t h i n g s h e r e , b e i n g w i d e l y sought and c o n s u l t e d , as the s k e t c h of h i s c a r e e r i n t h i s i s s u e w i l l show. He was s u p e r i o r t o the mere c o n v e n t i o n s of l i f e . H i s c a s s o c k was o f t e n s o i l e d ; weeks on t h e r o a d might make h i s e x t e r i o r d u s t y and grimy. But the h e a r t was u n s u l l i e d and he had t h e o u t l o o k of a c h i l d and a l l of a boy's s h e e r joy of a s i m p l e j e s t . As he went h i s way through t h e c o u n t r y he n e v e r f o r g o t h i s a b i d i n g hobby. G y p s i e s w o u l d have named him 'Lavengro,' o r 'word m a s t e r . ' N o t h i n g p l e a s e d him more t h a n l a n g u a g e , and he gave t o the w o r l d i n s h o r t hand a j o u r n a l l i k e none o t h e r , w i t h a s t o r y that s t i l l p e r s i s t s i n t r a v e l l i n g around the world. I t i s w i t h r e g r e t t h a t we see t h e R e v e r e n d F a t h e r d e p a r t , e v e n a l t h o u g h he had r u n h i s course. Men of a l l r a c e s and r e l i g i o n s would r e a d i l y j o i n i n t h e amen t o t h e 'Well done, good and f a i t h f u l s e r v a n t , ' as a p p l i e d t o t h i s good l i t t l e man of God. (108)  (108)  "The l a t e F a t h e r L e J e u n e , " Kamloops S e n t i n e l , 25 , b e r , 1930, p . 4.  Novem-  (154) CHAPTER What was  VIII.  FATHER L E  JEUNE THE  the s e c r e t of Father Le  m i s s i o n a r y among t h e I n d i a n s ?  MAN.  J e u n e ' s s u c c e s s as  Partly  i t lies  a  i n his long  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e same hands; i n f i f t y y e a r s r o o t s grow deep.  But m o s t l y  i t l i e s w i t h t h e man  q u a l i t i e s o f m i n d and  himself—with  those  body w h i c h combine t o make p e r s o n a l i t y  or character. What manner o f man, this I  t h e n , was  F a t h e r L e Jeune?  q u e s t i o n I went t o h i s f r i e n d s and  i n t e r v i e w e d p e o p l e who  w i t h Mrs.  A. E . Way,  had met  him  o f Kamloops, who  To  answer  acquaintances.  b u t once and  I  (  1 0 9  )  talked  knew him w e l l f o r o v e r  forty years. In p h y s i c a l appearance F a t h e r Le s t o c k y b u i l d , about f i v e weighing e r e c t and  a b o u t one  feet  of short,  four inches i n height,  h u n d r e d f o r t y pounds.  d i d n o t become s t o o p e d  b e a r d , w h i c h was  Jeune was  He  and  held himself  even i n h i s o l d age.  o f a r e d d i s h t i n g e i n h i s younger  His  days,  (109) M a t e r i a l f o r t h i s c h a p t e r was o b t a i n e d l a r g e l y t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the f o l l o w i n g : — (a) M r s . A. E . Way, o f Kamloops, who was b o r n a t T r a n q u i l l e and who knew F a t h e r L e Jeune w e l l f o r o v e r forty years. (b) Mr. W i l l i a m B r e n n a n , o f Kamloops, an o l d - t i m e r o f t h e c i t y and d i s t r i c t , and a keen s t u d e n t o f e a r l y C a t h o l i c h i s t o r y i n t h i s p a r t o f the p r o v i n c e . ( c ) Mr. F r e d I r w i n , whose f a t h e r was I n d i a n Agent f o r some y e a r s and a s s o c i a t e d v e r y c l o s e l y w i t h F a t h e r L e Jeune w h i l e employed i n t h a t c a p a c i t y . (d) The l a t e Mr. D. J . MacDonald, p u r c h a s i n g agent f o r t h e C a n a d i a n N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y Company when i t was b u i l d i n g t h r o u g h t h e N o r t h Thompson V a l l e y . (e) Mr. G-. D. Brown, J r . , s t u d e n t o f the e a r l y h i s t o r y o f Kamloops, w i t h a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e l i f e o f t h e Indian chief, Lolo St. Paul.  (155) turned t o a dark gray  c o l o u r i n the l a t e r years o f h i s l i f e .  He was a g r e a t r e a d e r and, due t o s h o r t s i g h t e d n e s s , always wore g l a s s e s .  A good d e a l o f h i s r e a d i n g , t o o , was done u n d e r  l i g h t s w h i c h w o u l d he c o n s i d e r e d e x t r e m e l y dards.  p o o r b y modern s t a n -  I n t h e I n d i a n homes, o r i n t h e p r i e s t ' s room a t t h e  back o f t h e l i t t l e  churches,  c a n d l e s were t h e c h i e f means o f  i l l u m i n a t i o n d u r i n g t h e 1880's and 1890's.  O f t e n , when  candles  were n o t a v a i l a b l e , r e s o u r c e was had t o l i g h t s made f r o m f a t s s e t i n some m e t a l As  container.  a m a t t e r o f f a c t , F a t h e r L e Jeune was one o f t h o s e men  who p u r s u e knowledge t h r o u g h  reading, yet f i n d  t h e i r h i g h e s t forms o f r e l a x a t i o n . to his  rest  melted  i n i t one o f  I f he l a y down on a couch  d u r i n g t h e d a y , i t was always w i t h a book o r p a p e r i n  hands.  He w o u l d r e a d a l i t t l e ,  p e r h a p s doze f o r a few  m i n u t e s , r e a d a g a i n , and t h e n pause t o r e f l e c t  upon what he had  read. Mr.  W i l l i a m B r e n n a n , o f Kamloops, t o l d me o f many  o c c a s i o n s on t h e N o r t h the  Thompson r o a d when a s w i r l o f d u s t i n  d i s t a n c e s i g n a l l e d t o him t h e approach o f a v e h i c l e .  A  p r a n c i n g c o l t a t t h e s i d e o f t h e team and s e v e r a l l e a n dogs n e a r b y w o u l d u s u a l l y i d e n t i f y t h e conveyance as an I n d i a n waggon o r democrat.  And s e a t e d b e s i d e t h e young I n d i a n  driver  ( f ) M r s . M. Mooney, o f Kamloops, who many t i m e s e x t e n ded h o s p i t a l i t y t o F a t h e r L e Jeune i n h e r home a t Chase, B. C. (g) M r s . F r a s e r , o f the-Kamloops I n d i a n band, who h e l p e d F a t h e r L e Jeune t o mimeograph e a r l y i s s u e s o f t h e Wawa. (h) S e v e r a l I n d i a n s on t h e r e s e r v e s a t Kamloops, Deadman's C r e e k , Q u i l c h e n a , and Shuswap.  (156) w o u l d be F a t h e r L e J e u n e , open book i n h i s l a p , and ly  o b l i v i o u s o f h i s surroundings  d r i v e r s brought  until  complete-  t h e w&lcoming h a i l o f  him t o a r e a l i z a t i o n o f events  a r o u n d him.  T h i s c o m p l e t e a b s o r p t i o n i n some p r o b l e m o f t h e moment once b r o u g h t  F a t h e r L e Jeune i n t o a v e r y e m b a r r a s s i n g  situa-  t i o n w h i c h h i s f r i e n d s d i d n o t l e t h i m f o r g e t f o r many y e a r s . He l e f t speech  one m o r n i n g f o r Q,uilchena, a f t e r m a k i n g a l i t t l e and s a y i n g good-bye t o t h e p u p i l s o f t h e M i s s i o n  s c h o o l on M i s s i o n F l a t s . for  s e v e r a l weeks.  for  along.  his  topic.  Later i t transpired that after  i t s head w h i l e he c o n t i n u e d t o be a b s o r b e d i n  The h o r s e , w i t h o u t  adequate d i r e c t i o n , had s i m p l y  s o c i e t y from  He m i x e d w e l l w i t h a l l c l a s s e s  t h e humblest t o t h e h i g h e s t , and he t h o r o u g h l y  enjoyed t h e companionship o f h i s fellow-men. extremely  He was o f an  f r i e n d l y n a t u r e , and one o f h i s c h i e f d e l i g h t s was  c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a l l and s u n d r y . when he was r e c o u n t i n g a n e c d o t e s or  journey.  t o s a y t h a t F a t h e r L e Jeune was e s s e n t i a l l y a b o o k i s h  t y p e o f man would be u n t r u e . of  dismounting  t o r e a d , and upon r e m o u n t i n g h a d  t u r n e d a r o u n d and s t a r t e d upon i t s homeward But  later  r e t u r n i n g t o t h e M i s s i o n , r e a d i n g a book  l u n c h he had s t a r t e d  given h i s horse  t o s e e him b a c k  Imagine t h e i r s u r p r i s e a few h o u r s  when he was o b s e r v e d a s he rode  They d i d n o t e x p e c t  o f h i s unusual  the h o s p i t a l i t y  He was n e v e r of h i s l i f e  e x p e r i e n c e s on t h e t r a i l .  o f t h o s e p i o n e e r days,  o l d - t i m e r s throughout  happier  than  among t h e I n d i a n s In keeping  with  t h e homes o f a l l t h e  h i s v a s t d i s t r i c t , whether P r o t e s t a n t o r  (157) Roman C a t h o l i c , were open t o h i m . and  "Come i n , F a t h e r ,  come i n  have d i n n e r w i t h u s , " was t h e c u s t o m a r y g r e e t i n g e x t e n d e d  to him.  And h i s h o s t  c o u l d a l w a y s he s u r e t h a t F a t h e r L e  Jeune w o u l d have some new s t o r i e s which had o c c u r r e d  s i n c e he l a s t  to t e l l  of various incidents  saw h i m .  A f t e r d i n n e r , w h i l e he p u f f e d a t h i s p i p e o r c i g a r , F a t h e r L e Jeune w o u l d t e l l trip.  his listeners  O l d I n d i a n J u l e s a t Deadman's C r e e k had d i e d .  was s u r e t o be h i g h w a t e r t h i s s e a s o n . Savona had some w o n d e r f u l at Quilchena Of  I n d i a n women p r e p a r e i n an I n d i a n ' s  foods that  f o r sale.  My, b u t t h e I n d i a n s ribs.  d e e r r i b s t h e p r i e s t was v e r y f o n d .  d u r i n g the e a r l y days.  church.  gloves  They formed a  i n t h e I n d i a n camps,  particularly  H e r e t h e custom p r e v a i l e d o f h a v i n g  the food f o r the p r i e s t  and s e r v e i t t o  c a b i n o r i n h i s rooms a t t h e r e a r o f the  N a t u r a l l y , venison,  served.  There  I n d i a n Maggie a t  had c o o k e d h i m some n i c e d e e r  major p a r t o f h i s d i e t  him  a l l about h i s l a t e s t  The I n d i a n s  fish,  o r b e r r i e s were the u s u a l  shared with the p r i e s t  the best  t h e y h a d , b u t sometimes t h a t b e s t was none t o o good.  T h e r e were f r e q u e n t l y l e a n p e r i o d s i n t h e I n d i a n v i l l a g e s when f o o d was v e r y s c a r c e .  A l s o , the l a c k o f v a r i e t y  was g e n e r a l l y n o t c o n d u c i v e Jeune's h e a l t h d i d s u f f e r of  Indian d i e t .  to  complain;  Indians villages  to healthy l i v i n g ,  i n the' d i e t  and F a t h e r L e  t o some e x t e n t f r o m t h i s monotony  However, i t was n o t i n t h e p r i e s t ' s  he was most a p p r e c i a t i v e o f t h e e f f o r t s  t o make h i m a s c o m f o r t a b l e and camps.  as they  nature of h i s  could i n t h e i r  (158) Due with  to the  t h e n a t i v e s f o r so l o n g a p e r i o d o f t i m e ,  prising of  c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t F a t h e r Le  conducive  the dusty  r o a d s and  trails  opportunity  f o r a change o f c l o t h i n g .  Jeune a p p e a r s t o have b e e n one engrossed  an  optimist.  s t o r y , and  he h i m s e l f was  recognized  as a g r e a t p r a c t i c a l  had  F a t h e r Le have. plied  M  0h,  an  extremely  the  He  a good was  i n conversation  to avoid being  expected  a man  with  drawn ask  they would  w i t h p l e n t y o f snow," r e -  priest.  and  ask me  s a i d t o Mr.  F a t h e r L e Jeune s t a r t e d to  I r w i n , "You  know t h a t ' s t h e t h i r d  t h a t same q u e s t i o n s i n c e I l e f t  t o e a c h I gave a d i f f e r e n t Upon b e i n g a s k e d why  " W e l l , I'm t h a t one  j o k e r and  c o l d one,  secon-  Jeune  enjoyed  F r e d I r w i n once h e a r d  When h i s q u e s t i o n e r l e f t ,  and  Le  t h e i r minds  t h e o r i g i n a t o r o f many.  Mr.  little  appearance.  thoroughly  Jeune what k i n d o f a w i n t e r he  the  chuckle  He  long  keen s e n s e o f humour.  t o keep h i s w i t s a b o u t him  i n t o some s u b t l e t r a p .  to  who,  remember F a t h e r L e  f o r h i s happy d i s p o s i t i o n and  one  and  w i t h w e i g h t y m a t t e r s o f the moment, g i v e o n l y  E s s e n t i a l l y , he was  him,  Frequent  Then, t o o , F a t h e r  c o n s i d e r a t i o n to neatness of personal  best  H i s methods  i n Kamloops gave  o f t h o s e men  Many o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s man  sur-  o f the t i m e s were n o t  t o c l e a n l i n e s s o f body o r c l o t h e s .  p e r i o d s o f absence from h i s headquarters  had  i t i s not  t h a t h i s p e r s o n a l appearance d e t e r i o r a t e d .  t r a v e l over  dary  Jeune  forever after w i l l  home t h i s m o r n i n g  answer."  he had  a l m o s t c e r t a i n t o be  man  done t h i s , right with  the p r i e s t one  say t h a t F a t h e r Le  replied,  o f the t h r e e  and  Jeune i s c e r t a i n l y  (159) a wonderful The  weather  statement  prophet." i s made i n F i f t y Y e a r s  i n W e s t e r n Canada  t h a t F a t h e r L e Jeune was " t h e most u n m u s i c a l In denying follows:  this  statement,  "Father Morice  joker.  F a t h e r George F o r b e s  j o k e s and F a t h e r L e Jeune was a  I t w o u l d n o t s u r p r i s e me i n t h e l e a s t t o  l e a r n t h a t , knowing how s e r i o u s l y F a t h e r M o r i c e and of  remarks a s  was so s e r i o u s and solemn t h a t he was  a good t a r g e t f o r p r a c t i c a l practical  o f men."  took  music  o t h e r t h i n g s , F a t h e r L e Jeune h a d d e l i b e r a t e l y sung o u t tune as a p r a c t i c a l  joke on F a t h e r M o r i c e . " ^  1 1 1  ^  F a t h e r L e Jeune was v e r y f o n d o f c h i l d r e n and t h e y i n t u r n l o v e d and a d m i r e d h i m . He made them happy b y t e l l i n g them l i t t l e to  stories  and anecdotes.  I t was a common  occurrence  s e e h i m i n t h e s t o r e s o f Kamloops i n company w i t h t h r e e o r  four Indian boys. some l i t t l e  treat  He w o u l d be b u y i n g such  clothes, oroccasionally  a s candy, f o r them.  By t h e t i m e o f  F a t h e r Le Jeune's l a t e r y e a r s , t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e I n d i a n b o y s and g i r l s were b e i n g t a u g h t E n g l i s h i n t h e r e s i dential  s c h o o l , and t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n d i a l e c t s were  p a s s i n g out of e x i s t e n c e .  rapidly  An i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n on t h i s  f a c t v/as t o l d me by Mr. G. D. Brown, J r .  He o v e r h e a r d  Father  (110)  F i f t y Y e a r s i n W e s t e r n Canada, A b r i d g e d Memoirs o f Rev. A. G. M o r i c e , 0. M. I . , b y D. L . S., The R y e r s o n P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1930, p . 17.  (111)  F o r b e s , Rev. G e o r g e , 0. M. I . , l e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r , 16 O c t o b e r , 1947.  (160) Le  Jeune a d d r e s s i n g  some remarks i n t h e l o c a l I n d i a n  t o h i s two companions, I n d i a n hoys about t w e l v e The  boys a p p a r e n t l y  could n o t understand  dialect  years o l d .  him f o r he q u i c k l y  t u r n e d t o them and c h i d e d them q u i t e s h a r p l y i n E n g l i s h , "Shame on y o u b o y s , " he s a i d . stranger i n your country,  "You l e a v e  i t t o me, a  t o s p e a k y o u r own l a n g u a g e w h i c h y o u  do n o t know." Of F a t h e r L e J e u n e * s s t e a d f a s t e n e r g y and e n t h u s i a s m f o r his  cause we have spoken b e f o r e . " I n e v e r knew h i m t o be c o n t e n t  n o t h i n g , " M r s . A.  E . Way t o l d me.  to just  s i t down and do  " T h e r e seemed t o be some-  t h i n g w i t h i n h i m s p u r r i n g h i m on a l l t h e t i m e .  He was a l w a y s  on t h e go, always t r y i n g t o t h i n k up new ways i n w h i c h he could help h i s beloved  Indians.  And my, how h i s I n d i a n s  did"  l o v e him." This,  t h e n , was F a t h e r L e Jeune t h e m a n — a  worker f o r the s a l v a t i o n o f s o u l s , possessed sympathy and u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  tireless  o f deep human  y e t with the a b i l i t y  t o descend  t o t h e l e v e l o f t h e l o w l y and t h e humble i n a l l e a r t h l y matters.  APPENDIX A LIST OP WAWA EXCHANGES WITH COMMENTS BY FATHER LE JEUNE 1. La Lumiere St$nographique , Duploy^'s own paper. Forty cents a year. A monthly issue, similar i n size to the Kamloops Wawa. Address, E . Duploye , Sinceny (Aisne) , France. 2. The Stenographer, 38 Sixth South Street, Philadelphia, Pa. J u s t l y ealled the f i n e s t paper on shorthand matters published i n America. Only §1.00 per annum. 3.  The Inland S e n t i n e l , Kamloops, B. G. A repertory of infor mation concerning the mining, a g r i c u l t u r a l , e t c . , resour ces of the interior of B r i t i s h Columbia. Weekly, $2.00 per annum.  4.  The Weekly World, Vancouver, B. C.  5.  The Weekly Columbian. New Westminster, B. C. annum.  6.  The Weekly C o l o n i s t , V i c t o r i a , B. C. The pioneer paper of B r i t i s h Columbia. $2.00 per annum.  §1.50 per annum. §2.00 per  7. Le St^nographe Canadien, the pioneer organ of the Duployan stenography i n Canada. $1.00 per annum. 8. The Month» New Westminster, B. C. 9.  La Croix du Canada.  $1.00 per annum.  $2.00 per annum.  10.  La Semaine Religieuse de Montreal•  $1.00 per annum.  11.  The Northwest Review, Winnipeg, Manitoba.  12.  The Messenger of the Sacred Heart, New York C i t y . The finest monthly of i t s kind i n existence. Profusely i l l u s t r a t e d with half-tones. $2.00 per annum.  13.  The Chicago Sunday Herald. The largest paper that comes t hand. An immense volume of reading every week, each issue weighing nearly one pound. Only $2.00 per annum.  14.  The Catholic Record. London, Ontario. A weekly, got up i n f i r s t class s t y l e . $2.00 per annum.  15.  La Voix du Precieux Sang, S t . Hyacinthe, P. Q. annum.  16.  Le Rosaire, S t . Hyacinthe, P. Q.  $2.00 per annum  $1.00 per  $1.00 per annum.  17.  L e p r o p a g a t e u r d e s bons l i v r e s , M o n t r e a l . O n l y 50 c e n t s p e r annum. I s s u e s t w i c e a month. Worth t w i c e i t s price.  18.  L a ruche  stenograph!que.  Bose L e H a r d , P r a n c e .  Price,  50 c e n t s p e r annum. 19.  L a plume s t ^ n o g r a p h i q u e , P £ r i g u e u x , D o r d o g n e , P r a n c e .  20.  L a gazette stenographique, P a r i s , Prance. annum.  21.  L e grande S t e n o g r a p h e . P a r i s , P r a n c e . The l e a d i n g p a p e r of t h e D u p l o y a n s t e n o g r a p h y . I s s u e s monthly. $1.00 p e r annum.  22.  The p h o n o g r a p h i c J o u r n a l , P t . J e r v i s , New Y o r k . A monthly p e r i o d i c a l c o n c e r n i n g s h o r t h a n d and t y p e w r i t i n g . V e r y i n t e r e s t i n g r e a d i n g . O n l y 50 c e n t s p e r annum.  23.  The s h o r t h a n d edueat o r , B r o o k l y n , New Y o r k . Got up i n f i r s t class style. O n l y 50 c e n t s p e r annum.  24.  L e .journal d e s s t e n o g r a p h e s , P a r i s ,  25.  The w e e k l y  26.  B . C. c o m m e r c i a l p e r annum.  27.  The B r i t i s h Columbia g a z e t t e . Weekly. $5.00 p e r annum.  28.  The B. G. m i n i n g j o u r n a l , A s h c r o f t , B. C. W e e k l y . I s s u e d f i r s t i n May, 1895. $2.00 p e r annum.  29.  Comfort , A u g u s t a , Me. A w e l l - k n o w n p a p e r . 1,250,000 circulation. O n l y 25 c e n t s a y e a r . I s s u e s monthly.  30.  Donahue's m a g a z i n e , B o s t o n , Mass. A b e a u t i f u l magazine o f over one h u n d r e d p a g e s , w i t h p r o f u s e i l l u s t r a t i o n s , h a l f - t o n e s , e t c . M o n t h l y , $2.00 p e r y e a r .  31 •  The P i l g r i m Monthly.  32.  L ' a b e i l l e p a r o i s s i s l e , M o n t r e a l , monthly. a year.  33.  M a r i a Immaculata , Pauquembnt, H o l l a n d .  34.  L ' e t o i l e stenograph!que p e r annum.  $1.00 p e r  Prance.  g a z e t t e , M o n t r e a l , Canada.  $1.00 p e r annum.  j o u r n a l , V i c t o r i a , B. C.  Weekly.  $2.00  P u b l i s h e d by a u t h o r i t y .  o f o u r Lady, o f M a r t y r s , New Y o r k 50 c e n t s a y e a r .  de P r a n c e .  City.  O n l y 50 c e n t s  Bi-monthly.  $1.00  (Hi) 35.  L ' e c l a i r stenograph!que annum.  36.  P e r n i n ' s monthly  illustr6.  Monthly.  $1.00 p e r  stenographer, D e t r o i t , Michigan.  $1.00  p e r annum. 37.  The i l l u s t r a t e d p h o n o g r a p h i c  38.  The Ave M a r i a , N o t r e Dame, I n d i a n a .  39.  The V i r g i n i a V a . , a t 50 The h a r v e s t , A monthly,  40.  w o r l d , New  York.  $2.00 p e r y e a r .  Stenographer. P u b l i s h e d monthly a t Richmond, cents a year. a n organ o f C a t h o l i c works. S a l f o r d , England. well i&Justrated. 40 c e n t s p e r annum.  41.  The p o o r s o u l s f r i e n d and S t . Joseph* s m o n i t o r , p u b l i s h e d at C h u d l e y , D e v o n , E n g l a n d . Same p r i c e a s p r e c e d i n g .  42.  L e messager de S t . A n t o i n e , C h i c o u t i m i , P. Q. O n l y 25 c e n t s a y e a r .  1  Monthly.  APPENDIX B L I S T OP FATHER L E JEUNE*S PUBLICATIONS WITH A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF EACH 1*  Kamloops Wawa, 1891. T h i s was commenced on May 2, 1 8 9 1 , and p u b l i s h e d m o n t h l y up t o and i n c l u d i n g t h e December, 1891 i s s u e . E a c h number c o n t a i n e d f o u r mimeographed pages. The f i r s t few i s s u e s c o n s i s t e d o f i n s t r u c t i o n s as t o how t o w r i t e t h e new s h o r t h a n d system, w h i l e i n t h e l a t e r numbers s e v e r a l G h i n o o k hymns were p u b l i s h e d .  2.  Kamloops Wawa, 1892, was p u b l i s h e d w e e k l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r f r o m J a n u a r y 15 t o December 25 i n c l u s i v e . Each i s s u e c o n t a i n e d f o u r mimeographed p a g e s , t h e whole b e i n g w r i t t e n i n stenographic characters with various paragraph headings i n E n g l i s h . The contents i n c l u d e d short B i b l e s t o r i e s , o c c a s i o n a l C h i n o o k hymns, and news items c o v e r i n g e v e n t s o f i n t e r e s t i n the v a r i o u s I n d i a n camps.  3.  Kamloops Wawa, 1893, was p u b l i s h e d w e e k l y f r o m J a n u a r y 1, 1893, t o December 3 1 , 1893, i n c l u s i v e . T h e r e was p r a c t i c a l l y no change f r o m t h e 1892 i s s u e s i n f o r m o r c o n t e n t .  4.  Kamloops Wawa, 1894, was i s s u e d monthly t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r , each i s s u e c o n t a i n i n g s i x t e e n p a g e s . The c o p i e s were mimeographed up t o and i n c l u d i n g A u g u s t , but f r o m September on t h e p a p e r was p r o d u c e d b y the p h o t o - e n g r a v ing process. S u b s c r i p t i o n r a t e was one d o l l a r p e r y e a r or t e n c e n t s a copy. A d v e r t i s e m e n t s were a c c e p t e d f r o m t h e September i s s u e o n , and one o r more p i c t u r e s were i n c l u d e d e a c h month.  5.  Kamloops Wawa, 1895. c o n s i s t e d o f t w e l v e monthly numbers, each c o n t a i n i n g s i x t e e n p a g e s . An attempt was now b e i n g made t o i n c l u d e more m a t e r i a l i n E n g l i s h .  6.  Kamloops Wawa, 1896, pages per i s s u e .  was p u b l i s h e d  monthly a t t w e n t y - f o u r  7.  Kamloops Wawa, 1897. per i s s u e .  was p u b l i s h e d  monthly a t s i x t e e n p a g e s  8.  Kamloops Wawa, 1898, was p u b l i s h e d m o n t h l y a t s i x t e e n p a g e s per i s s u e . A t y p i c a l number, F e b r u a r y , 1898, contained two p a g e s o f e d i t o r i a l n o t e s i n E n g l i s h , one page o f F r e n c h i n s h o r t h a n d , one page o f m o n t h l y news I n C h i n o o k , e i g h t p a g e s o f " S t o r i e s o f t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y , " two p a g e s of C h i n o o k v o c a b u l a r y , and two p a g e s of a d v e r t i s e m e n t s .  (its) 9.  Kamloops Wawa, 1899, i s s u e d t w e l v e t i m e s d u r i n g t h e y e a r , went hack t o a mimeographed form o f p u b l i c a t i o n , w i t h t h e number o f p a g e s v a r y i n g w i t h the v a r i o u s i s s u e s .  10.  Kamloops Wawa, 1900, was i s s u e d m o n t h l y i n p r i n t e d w i t h s i x t e e n p a g e s p e r number.  form  11.  Kamloops Wawa. 1901, was i s s u e d q u a r t e r l y , i n t h e months of M a r c h , J u n e , September, and December. The i s s u e o f September, 1901, was i n d e e d a bumper one as i t c o n t a i n e d n i n e t y - f o u r pages, and s o l d f o r twenty-five c e n t s .  12.  Kamloops Wawa, 1902,  was p u b l i s h e d q u a r t e r l y .  13.  Kamloops Wawa, 1903,  was p u b l i s h e d q u a r t e r l y .  14.  Kamloops Wawa, 1904, was p u b l i s h e d q u a r t e r l y . The December, 1904, i s s u e c o n t a i n e d t h e a c c o u n t o f F a t h e r L e J e u n e ' s t r i p t o Europe i n t h a t year. He was accompanied on t h a t o c c a s i o n b y two I n d i a n c h i e f s f r o m h i s d i s t r i c t — L o u i s , of Kamloops, a n d C e l e s t i n , o f N i c o l a .  15.  Kamloops Wawa, s p e c i a l F r e n c h e d i t i o n , was p u b l i s h e d m o n t h l y t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s 1915, 1916, a n d 1917. These c o p i e s were t y p e d o r w r i t t e n by hand b y F a t h e r Le. J e u n e , and r e p r o d u c e d b y means o f a h e c t o g r a p h . E a c h copy averaged s i x t e e n pages.  16.  Chinook f i r s t r e a d i n g book i n c l u d e d Chinook hymns, s y l l a b a r y a n d v o c a b u l a r y , a n d was p u b l i s h e d b y F a t h e r L e J e u n e at Kamloops i n t h e y e a r 1893. I t was w r i t t e n i n s t e n o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r s a n d mimeographed.  17.  C h i n o o k hymns» p u b l i s h e d i n t h e y e a r 1893, c o n s i s t e d o f s i x t e e n p a g e s i n s t e n o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r s a n d was mimeographed.  18.  The Wawa s h o r t h a n d i n s t r u c t o r o r the, D u p l o y a n s t e n o g r a p h y a d a p t e d t o E n g l i s h was a 24-page pamphlet p u b l i s h e d a t Kamloops i n t h e y e a r 1896. I t contained f u l l instruct i o n s f o r t h e m a s t e r y o f t h e s h o r t h a n d system u s e d b y F a t h e r L e J e u n e . T h i s l i t t l e book s o l d f o r f i f t e e n cents.  19.  The Wawa s h o r t h a n d e x e r c i s e book, a l s o p u b l i s h e d i n t h e y e a r 1896, was a 24-page supplement t o t h e Wawa s h o r t hand i n s t r u c t o r . T h i s book a l s o s o l d f o r f i f t e e n c e n t s .  20.  E n g l i s h manual o r p r a y e r s a n d c a t e c h i s m i n E n g l i s h t y p o g r a p h y was a 40-page b o o k l e t p u b l i s h e d a t Kamloops i n t h e y e a r 1896, w i t h t h e a p p r o b a t i o n o f R i g h t Rev. P. D u r i e u , B i s h o p o f New W e s t m i n s t e r .  21.  C h i n o o k manual o r p r a y e r s , hymns and c a t e c h i s m i n C h i n o o k was a r r a n g e d hy F a t h e r L e J e u n e and c o n s i s t e d o f a manual o f one h u n d r e d p a g e s p u b l i s h e d a t Kamloops i n t h e y e a r 1896.  22.  L a t i n manual o r hymns a n d c h a n t s i n u s e h y t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s was a s e v e n t y page b o o k l e t c o n t a i n i n g hymns a n d c h a n t s a r r a n g e d i n s h o r t h a n d b y F a t h e r L e J e u n e . The book was p u b l i s h e d a t Kamloops i n t h e y e a r 1896.  23.  Chinook B i b l e h i s t o r y . T h i s was o r i g i n a l l y w r i t t e n by B i s h o p D u r i e u , but F a t h e r Le J e u n e p u b l i s h e d a t Kamloops i n t h e y e a r 1896 a 112-page t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s work i n shorthand. B o t h t h e O l d and New T e s t a m e n t s were i n c l u d e d , and p a r t s o f t h i s work a p p e a r e d f r o m t i m e t o t i m e i n t h e Kamloops Wawa.  24.  S t a l o manual o r p r a y e r s , hymns a n d t h e c a t e c h i s m i n t h e . S t a l o or Lower F r a s e r l a n g u a g e . T h i s was a t h i r t y page b o o k l e t , i n s h o r t h a n d , p u b l i s h e d a t Kamloops i n t h e y e a r 1897.  25.  Shuswap manual o r p r a y e r s , hymns and c a t e c h i s m i n Shuswap c o n s i s t e d o f 132 p a g e s i n s h o r t h a n d and was p u b l i s h e d by F a t h e r L e Jeune at Kamloops i n t h e y e a r 1906. I t i n c l u ded g e n e r a l p r a y e r s , p r a y e r s b e f o r e and a f t e r m e a l s , t h e f o r m o f b a p t i s m , m o r n i n g and n i g h t p r a y e r s , p r e p a r a t i o n f o r c o n f e s s i o n , p r a y e r s f o r communion, t h e r o s a r y , v i a c r u e i s , hymns and c a n t i c l e s , c a t e c h i s m , and e x a m i n a t i o n of c o n s c i e n c e . A supplement c o n t a i n e d forms o f t h e c a t e c h i s m a s a r r a n g e d by B i s h o p D'Herbomez, F a t h e r L e Jacq., and F a t h e r G e n d r e .  26.  SkwarnIsh Manual o r p r a y e r s , hymns and c a t e c h i s m i n Skwarnish was a f i f t y - s i x page b o o k l e t p u b l i s h e d a t Kamloops i n t h e y e a r 1896.  27.  She sheI manual o r p r a y e r s , hymns and c a t e c h i s m i n t h e S e c h e l l a n g u a g e was a f o r t y - e i g h t page b o o k l e t i n s h o r t hand c h a r a c t e r s p u b l i s h e d at Kamloops i n t h e y e a r 1896.  28.  Okanagan manual o r p r a y e r s , hymns and c a t e c h i s m i n t h e Okanagan l a n g u a g e , f i f t y p a g e s , was i s s u e d b y F a t h e r L e J e u n e i n t h e y e a r 1897.  29.  C h i n o o k and s h o r t h a n d r u d i m e n t s , b y F a t h e r L e J e u n e , was p u b l i s h e d a t Kamloops i n t h e y e a r 1898. I t was a s i x t e e n p a g e b o o k l e t p p r p o r t i n g t o be t h e means b y w h i c h t h e Chinook j a r g o n c o u l d be m a s t e r e d w i t h o u t a t e a c h e r i n a few hours. I t s t i t l e page made t h e c l a i m t h a t " t h e s h o r t e s t way t o l e a r n t h e C h i n o o k i s t h r o u g h t h e • s h o r t h a n d , and t h e s h o r t e s t way t o l e a r n t h e s h o r t h a n d i s through the Chinook."  am) 30.  S l a y a m e n manual or p r a y e r s , hymns and c a t e c h i s m i n t h e SIayamen l a n g u a g e • T h i s was a f o r t y p a g e b o o k l e t i n s h o r t h a n d c h a r a c t e r s p u b l i s h e d at Kamloops i n t h e y e a r 1896.  31.  C h i n o o k book of d e v o t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r was a book o f 188 p a g e s i n G h i n o o k and s h o r t h a n d c h a r a c t e r s , a r r a n g e d by F a t h e r L e J e u n e and p u b l i s h e d at Kamloops i n the year 1902.  32.  C h i n o o k s h o r t grammar, s i x t e e n p a g e s , was 1923.  33.  C h i n o o k r u d i m e n t s , by F a t h e r L e J e u n e , was a t h i r t y - s i x page b o o k l e t p u b l i s h e d at Kamloops on May 3, 1924. It c o n t a i n e d a s h o r t a c c o u n t o f t h e h i s t o r y of C h i n o o k , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Wawa s h o r t h a n d , f a i r l y complete voc a b u l a r i e s , and e x e r c i s e s i n C h i n o o k .  34.  P r a y e r s b e f o r e and a f t e r hoihy communion i n s e v e r a l l a n g u a g e s of t h e n a t i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia was a twenty-two page b o o k l e t p u b l i s h e d by F a t h e r Le Jeune a t Kamloops i n the y e a r 1925.  35.  What s h a l l I do t o p o s s e s s l i f e e v e r l a s t i n g ? was a twenty page b o o k l e t a d a p t e d f r o m t h e e x e r c i s e s o f S t . I g n a t i u s and t r a n s l a t e d by F a t h e r L e J e u n e f r o m Chinook and t h e n a t i v e l a n g u a g e s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s was publ i s h e d at Kamloops i n t h e y e a r 1925.  36.  S t u d i e s on Shuswap c o n s i s t e d of a t h i r t y - t w o page b o o k l e t and was p u b l i s h e d by F a t h e r Le Jeune at Kamloops i n t h e year 1925.  issued i n  May,  (168) APPENDIX C BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES R i g h t R e v e r e n d P a n ! D u r i e u , £ . M. I . , h o r n a t S t . P o l de-Mons, D i o c e s e o f Puy, F r a n c e , on December 4, 1830; made h i s P r o f e s s i o n i n t h e O r d e r o f t h e 0. M. I . , November 1, 1849; o r d a i n e d p r i e s t , M a r c h 11, 1854; a r r i v e d Vancouver I s l a n d , December 12, 1859; named T i t u l a r y B i s h o p o f M a r c o p o l i s and C o a d j u t o r o f R i g h t Rev. B i s h o p D'Herbomez, June 2, 1875; c o n s e c r a t e d , O c t o b e r 24, 1875; appointed f i r s t B i s h o p o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , September 2, 1890; d i e d , June 1,  1899.  2»  R i g h t R e v e r e n d L o u i s J o s e p h D'Herbomez, 0. M. I . , born a t B r i l l o n , D i o c e s e o f C a m b r a i , F r a n c e , on J a n u a r y 17, 1822; made h i s P r o f e s s i o n on November 21, 1848; ordained p r i e s t , O c t o b e r 14, 1849; came t o t h e Oregon M i s s i o n s by way o f Cape H o r n i n y e a r 1850; named T i t u l a r y B i s h o p o f M i l e t o p o l i s and V i c a r A p o s t o l i c o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , December 20, 1863; c o n s e c r a t e d , O c t o b e r 9, 1864; died at New W e s t m i n s t e r , June 3, 1889. .  3.  R e v e r e n d F a t h e r N i c h o l a s C o c c o l a , 0. M. I . , b o r n 1854 and o r d a i n e d i n y e a r 1881. A f t e r s e r v i n g at S t . L o u i s M i s s i o n , Kamloops, and a t S t . Eugene's M i s s i o n i n t h e Kootenay country, succeeded F a t h e r M o r i c e at S t u a r t Lake M i s s i o n i n y e a r 1905. Having taken a medical t r a i n i n g , F a t h e r C o c c o l a was i n a p o s i t i o n t o m i n i s t e r t o t h e s i c k and h e l p e d many, b o t h w h i t e s and I n d i a n s , who were beyond t h e r e a c h o f a m e d i c a l d o c t o r . He d i e d a t S m i t h e r s , B. C., on M a r c h 1, 1943.  4.  R e v e r e n d F a t h e r A d r i a n G a b r i e l M o r i c e , 0. M. I . , b o r n 1859, and o r d a i n e d by Mgr. D'Herbomez a t S t . Mary's M i s s i o n , J u l y 2, 1882; sent t o the S t u a r t Lake M i s s i o n i n 1885; h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d by t h e I n d i a n s and g a i n e d g r e a t i n f l u e n c e o v e r them; p r e p a r e d t h e Denes S y l l a b a r y f o r t h e C a r r i e r I n d i a n s , a s y l l a b i c s y s t e m o f w r i t i n g m o d e l l e d somewhat a f t e r t h a t i n v e n t e d i n t h e y e a r 1840 by James E v a n s , a M e t h o d i s t m i s s i o n a r y a t Norway House, f o r use among t h e C r e e I n d i a n s ; u s e d a p r i n t i n g p r e s s f o r t u r n i n g out pamp h l e t s and p r a y e r books f o r use o f h i s I n d i a n s ; g a i n e d d i s t i n c t i o n as a man o f l e t t e r s i n t h e f i e l d s o f e t h n o l o g y , and h i s t o r y ; a u t h o r o f The h i s t o r y o f t h e n o r t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and H i s t o r y o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h i n w e s t e r n Canada f r o m L a k e S u p e r i o r t o the P a c i f i c .  »  R e v e r e n d F a t h e r J . M. L a J a c q , 0. M. I . , b o r n 1837 at R o s c o r r , F l n i s t e r r e , ""France; s t u d i e d aT tn*e C o l l e g e o f S t . P o l de L e o n and a t t h e Seminary o f Quimper, and was o r d a i n e d p r i e s t a t M a r s e i l l e s i n y e a r 1862. Was soon s e n t t o t h e  5  (169) m i s s i o n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and s p e n t t h e f i r s t y e a r s o f h i s m i s s i o n a r y l i f e on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and on t h e P a c i f i c Coast, r e s i d i n g p r i n c i p a l l y at F o r t Rupert. I n 1867 was s e n t t o the newly e s t a b l i s h e d m i s s i o n a t W i l l i a m s Lake, and s h o r t l y a f t e r t o S t u a r t L a k e , where he r e m a i n e d u n t i l t h e summer, o f 1880. Was t h e n s e n t t o Kamloops as S u p e r i o r o f S t . L o u i s M i s s i o n , w i t h the charge o f a t t e n d i n g t o the Shuswap I n d i a n s f r o m L i l l o o e t t o E n d e r b y . A f t e r t w e l v e y e a r s a t Kamloops was s e n t b a c k t o W i l l i a m s L a k e t o o r g a n i z e an i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l f o r I n d i a n boys and g i r l s at S t . Joseph's. D i e d a t New W e s t m i n s t e r , J a n u a r y 2 3, 1899.  (170) APPENDIX D--BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS: Gregg, John R o b e r t , S e l e c t i o n s from the s t o r y o f shorthand, New Y o r k , The G r e g g P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1941. (An a c c o u n t o f t h e o r i g i n and development o f a l l t h e m a j o r shorthand systems. D e s c r i b e s the c h i e f f e a t u r e s o f each system. T h i s book d e v o t e s s e v e r a l pages t o t h e D u p l o y a n s h o r t h a n d , a F r e n c h s y s t e m worked o u t by Abbe' E m i l e Duploye'. I t was l a t e r a d a p t e d t o E n g l i s h by S l o a n and Pernin. F a t h e r L e Jeune l e a r n e d the D u p l o y a n s y s t e m w h i l e a s t u d e n t i n F r a n c e and u s e d i t as t h e b a s i s f o r h i s Wawa s h o r t h a n d among t h e I n d i a n s ) Howay, Judge F. W., B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e making o f a p r o v i n c e , T o r o n t o , The R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1928. (A good g e n e r a l work by an o u t s t a n d i n g h i s t o r i a n o f t h e N o r t h West c o a s t . G i v e s a p a r t i c u l a r l y good a c c o u n t o f t h e f u r t r a d i n g days i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e p r o v i n c e and devotes a chapter t o the b u i l d i n g of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway) J e n n e s s , Diamond, The I n d i a n s o f Canada, Ottawa, N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada, 2nd e d i t i o n , 1934. (A w e l l - i l l u s t r a t e d volume g i v i n g an e x c e l l e n t a c c o u n t o f t h e C a n a d i a n I n d i a n — h i s o r i g i n , l a n g u a g e , and t h e development o f h i s economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . The book i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s , t h e f i r s t g e n e r a l i n n a t u r e and c o v e r i n g t h e c o u n t r y as a w h o l e ; t h e s e c o n d g i v e s a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t of p a r t i c u l a r t r i b e s . Two c h a p t e r s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and c o v e r b o t h t h e t r i b e s o f t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t and t h o s e o f t h e C o r d i l l e r a , i n c l u d i n g the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h . I f o u n d t h i s book v e r y u s e f u l as a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r t h e s t u d y o f t h e I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s and d i a l e c t s ) M o r i c e , Rev. A. G., 0. M. I . , H i s t o r y o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h i n w e s t e r n Canada, T o r o n t o , Musson Book Company, L t d . , v o l . 2, 1910"! T C h a p t e r s XXXVII t o X L I I I , i n c l u s i v e , o f t h e volume a r e d e v o t e d e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e work o f t h e Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e O b l a t e s , i n t h e t e r r i t o r y now i n c l u d e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia. T h e i r work i s s u r v e y e d f r o m i t s b e g i n n i n g s up t o and i n c l u d i n g t h e y e a r 1895) M o r i c e , Rev. A. G., 0. M. I . , . H i s t o r y o f t h e n o r t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia, T o r o n t o , W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1905. ( C o n t a i n s a good d e a l o f m a t e r i a l on t h e e a r l y Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia)  (171) M o r i c e , Rev, A. G., 0. M. I . , a b r i d g e d memoirs o f , by D. L . S., F i f t y y e a r s i n w e s t e r n Canada, T o r o n t o , The R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1930. T S e v e r a l pages o f t h i s book a r e d e v o t e d t o an e x c e l l e n t d e s c r i p t i o n o f S t . M a r y ' s M i s s i o n a s i t was i n t h e 1880's. F a t h e r s L e Jeune and M o r i c e were c o n t e m p o r a r i e s t h e r e f o r a two-year p e r i o d ) N o t i c e s N e c r o l o g i q u e s des membres de l a c o n g r e g a t i o n des O h l a t s de M a r i g Immaoule'e, Rome, MaTson Geneirale, 0. M. I . , Tome Huitie*me, 1939. ( B i o g r a p h i c a l n o t e s on v a r i o u s members o f the O b l a t e o r d e r . There i s a v e r y i n c o m p l e t e l i f e o f F a t h e r Le J e u n e , w r i t t e n by F a t h e r L a r d o n , an a d m i r e r o f h i s . The d a t e o f F a t h e r L e J e u n e ' s d e a t h i s wrong i n t h e a c c o u n t . There i s a l s o a more c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n i n t h e volume o f F a t h e r L e J e u n e ' s v e r y l e a r n e d b r o t h e r , F a t h e r L o u i s L e Jeune, p r o f e s s o r a t Ottawa U n i v e r s i t y and n o t e d w r i t e r on theological topics. T h i s volume was i s s u e d j u s t b e f o r e W o r l d War I I b r o k e o u t , but was n o t r e c e i v e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a u n t i l a f t e r the war) R a v e n h i l l , A l i c e , The n a t i v e t r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a , B. C , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1938~ ( T h i s book c o n t a i n s a good d e s c r i p t i o n o f the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h t r i b e s , w h i c h i n c l u d e t h e Thompson, L i l l o o e t , Shuswap, and Okanagan) Thomas, Edward H a r p e r , Ghinook, a h i s t o r y and d i c t i o n a r y o f t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t t r a d e j a r g o n , P o r t l a n d , Oregon, M e t r o p o l i t a n P r e s s , 193*5^ fA v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g book on t h e o r i g i n and development o f t h e C h i n o o k j a r g o n . Exc e l l e n t v o c a b u l a r y l i s t s a r e g i v e n , and p o i n t s o f d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e j a r g o n i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the count r y are emphasized. The b e s t book- on t h e C h i n o o k j a r g o n a v a i l a b l e to-day) PAMPHLETS: Le  J e u n e , Rev. J . M. B. C , 1891.  R.,  E l e m e n t s o f S h o r t h a n d , Kamloops,  Le  J e u n e , Rev, 1892.  R.,  C h i n o o k p r i m e r , Kamloops, B.  Le  J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R., loops, B.C., 1893.  Chinook f i r s t  Le  J e u n e , Rev. 1893.  J . M.  C h i n o o k hymns, Kamloops, B.  Le  Jeune, Rev. Kamloops, B.  J . M. R., The Wawa s h o r t h a n d C, 1896.  J . M.  R.,  C,  r e a d i n g book, KamC.,  instructor,  (172) L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R., The Wawa s h o r t h a n d f i r s t hook, K a m l o o p s , B. C , 1896. L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R., G h i n o o k and s h o r t h a n d Kamloops, B. C., 1898. Le Jeune,  Rev.  J . M. R., C h i n o o k  reading  rudiments,  r u d i m e n t s . May 3 , 1924.  ( A l l t h e above p a m p h l e t s h e l p e d t o f u r n i s h t h e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e c h a p t e r s on t h e C h i n o o k j a r g o n a n d on F a t h e r L e Jeune's s h o r t h a n d s y s t e m among t h e I n d i a n s ) N e l s o n , Denys, F o r t L a n g l e y , a c e n t u r y o f s e t t l e m e n t , V a n c o u v e r , B. C , A r t , H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1927. ( T h i s l i t t l e pamphlet g i v e s a good d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t o f the Lower F r a s e r Valley. I used i t c h i e f l y f o r an account o f t h e v i s i t o f F a t h e r Demers t o F o r t L a n g l e y i n t h e y e a r 1841) PERIODICALS: L e J e u n e , Rev. J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, many i s s u e s , t i c u l a r l y those o f the f o l l o w i n g d a t e s : — June, 1891, v o l . 1, n o . 2. J a n u a r y , 1895, v o l . 4, n o . 1. M a r c h , 1895, v o l . 4, n o . 3 . . A p r i l , 1895, v o l . 4, n o . 4. May, 1895, v o l . 4, n o . 5. J u l y , 1895, v o l . 4, n o . 7. A u g u s t , 1895, v o l . 4, n o . 8. September, 1895, v o l . 4, nQ. 9. November, 1895, v o l . 4, n o . 1 1 . December, 1895, v o l . 4, n o . 1 2 . A p r i l , 1896, v o l . 5, n o . 4. June, 1896, v o l . 5, n o . 6. J u l y , 1896, v o l . 5, n o . 7. A u g u s t , 1896, v o l . 5, n o . 8, December, 1896, v o l . 5, n o . 1 2 . F e b r u a r y , 1897, v o l . 6, n o . 2. J a n u a r y , 1898, v o l . 7, n o . 1. F e b r u a r y , 1898, v o l . 7, n o . 2. M a r c h , 1898, v o l . 7, n o . 3 . A p r i l , 1898, v o l . 7, n o . 4. May, 1898, v o l . 7, n o . 5. J u n e , 1898, v o l . 7, n o . 6. December, 1899, v o l . 8, n o . 12. M a r c h , 1900, v o l . 9, n o . 3 . A p r i l , 1900, vo&. 9, n o . 4. May, 1900, v o l . 9, n o . 5. M a r c h , 1901, v o l . 10, n o . 1.  par-  (173) J u n e , 1901,  v o l . 10, n o . 2.  (The above i s s u e s o f the Wawa a r e r i c h i n i n f o r m a t i o n . They t e l l o f F a t h e r L e J e u n e s s h o r t h a n d system and i t s a d a p t a t i o n t o C h i n o o k , o f h i s m i s s i o n a r y work i n t h e v a r i o u s camps, o f h i s s t r a n g e e x p e r i e n c e s on t h e t r a i l , o f h i s philosophy. They c o n t a i n h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s t o h i s I n d i a n s , a n d t h e y a r e f i l l e d w i t h a good d e a l o f i n t e r e s t i n g m a t e r i a l covering events o f the times) 1  Le  J e u n e , R e v . J . M. R., Kamloops Wawa, E d i t i o n F r a n c a i s e , many i s s u e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t e s : J u l y , 1915. August, 1915. December, 1915. M a r c h , 1916. A p r i l , 1916, December, 1916. (These i s s u e s were p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e t o me. W h i l e much o f t h e i r c o n t e n t i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e e a r l i e r i s s u e s o f t h e Wawa, t h e y b r i n g o u t a more c o m p l e t e e x p o s i t i o n o f F a t h e r L e Jeune's p h i l o s o p h y )  N e l s o n , Denys, "Yakima Days," i n t h r e e i s s u e s o f t h e W a s h i n g t o n H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y as f o l l o w s : — Vol. Vol. Vol.  1 9 , n o . 1, J a n u a r y , 1928. 19, n o . 2, A p r i l , 1928. 19, n o . 3, J u l y , 1928.  ( T h i s a r t i c l e d e s c r i b e s t h e advance o f t h e O b l a t e F a t h e r s i n t o what i s now t h e p r e s e n t W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e , t h e i r t r i a l s and t r i b u l a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e I n d i a n w a r s t h e r e , a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t movement o f many o f them i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia) H a r v e y , A. G., " D a v i d S t u a r t : Okanagan p a t h f i n d e r — f o u n d e r o f Kamloops,"' B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 9, n o . 4, O c t o b e r , 1945" (An i n t e r e s t m g a r t i c l e d e s c r i b i n g the beginnings o f white s e t t l e m e n t i n t h e d i s t r i c t o f Kamloops) J o h n s o n , F . H e n r y , " O l d F o r t Kamloops," C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , v o l . 22, n o . 2, F e b r u a r y , 1941. (A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e a r l y f u r t r a d i n g days a r o u n d Kamloops)  (174) O b l a t e M i s s i o n s , v a r i o u s numbers a s f o l l o w ^ : — "Tne q u e e r e s t newspaper i n t h e w o r l d , " June, 1946. (A v e r y c o m p l e t e a r t i c l e on t h e Kamloops Wawa) "An a p o s t l e o f t h e p o o r , C h a r l e s Josefch Eugene de Mazenod," September, 1946. ( A s h o r t a r t i c l e on t h e l i f e o f t h e founder o f the O b l a t e Order) Donze, J e a n , 0. M. I . , "The I n d i a n s a t t h e c r o s s r o a d s , " December, 1946. (A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t - d a y problems o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Indian) NEWSPAPERS:// Inland Sentinel, various  issues as f o l l o w * : —  2 M a r c h , 1894. " F a t h e r L e J e u n e ' s t r i p , " 9 M a r c h , 1894. " H i s t o r y i n s h o r t h a n d , " 15 June, 1894. 29 J u n e , 1894. "Kamloops Wawa," 27 J u l y , 1894. 8 M a r c h , 1895. 19 A p r i l , 1895. 15 November, 1895. 17 J u n e , 1 8 9 6 . "Kamloops Wawa," 8 J a n u a r y , 1897. "Kamloops Wawa," 22 May, 1897. 25 J u n e , 1897. 7 December, 1897. 21 June, 1898. "The p e n a l t y p a i d , I n d i a n C a s i m i r hanged t h i s m o r n i n g , " 2 J u n e , 1899. 26 O c t o b e r , 1900. 21 December, 1900. "The Kamloops Wawa," 4 O c t o b e r , 1901. 8 J u l y , 1904. 19 J u l y , 1904. Kamloops S e n t i n e l , v a r i o u s i s s u e s a s f o l l o w ^ : — " P i o n e e r s o f c i t y and d i s t r i c t h o n o u r e d , " 29 December, 1922. " I n D o m i n i o n f o r 47 y e a r s , " 17 September, 1926. S m i t h , John F . , " P i o n e e r C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s , " 1 O c t o b e r , 1926. " F a t h e r L e Jeune's g o l d e n j u b i l e e i s remembered h e r e , " 14 June, 1929. 10 September, 1929. "Death o f F a t h e r L e Jeune much r e g r e t t e d , " 25 November, 1930.  (175) "The l a t e F a t h e r L e Jeune," 25 November, 1930. " F a t h e r L e J e u n e ' s f u n e r a l , " 2 December, 1930. M o r s e , J . J",,"Father L e Jeune," 14 December, 1934. V a n c o u v e r D a l l y P r o v i n c e , a r t i c l e on F a t h e r Le by B. A. M c K e l v i e , 6 September, 1924. The  British  Jeune  C o l u m b i a n , i s s u e s as f o l l o w ^ : —  21 November, 24 November,  1930. 1930.  (The above newspaper a r t i c l e s and news i t e m s a r e a v e r y u s e f u l s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . They t e l l o f F a t h e r L e Jeune's v i s i t s t o t h e I n d i a n camps, o f h i s p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e Kamloops Wawa, o f h i s comings and h i s g o i n g s , and o f what h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s thought o f h i s work) UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL: A u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l n o t e by F a t h e r L e Jeune i n p o s s e s s i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a , B. C. M i s c e l l a n e o u s notes  o f F a t h e r Le  Jeune.  PERSONAL COMMUNICATION; B r e n n a n , W i l l i a m , Kamloops, B. C , several interviews, 1947 and 1948. (Mr. B r e n n a n knew F a t h e r Le Jeune i n t i m a t e l y and f u r n i s h e d me w i t h a good d e a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n about the personal, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the man) Brown, G. D., J r . , Kamloops, B. C., i n t e r v i e w , 10 J a n u a r y , 1947. (Mr. Brown gave me h i s i m p r e s s i o n s o f F a t h e r Le Jeune as he knew him) F l e u r y , F a t h e r , 0, M . I . , S u p e r i o r o f S t . Mary's M i s s i o n , i n t e r v i e w , 16 A u g u s t , 1947. (Since Father Fleury had a r r i v e d from t h e e a s t but a s h o r t time ago, he was n o t a b l e t o g i v e me much i n f o r m a t i o n about F a t h e r L e Jeune. He d i d , however, conduct me o v e r t h e M i s s i o n b u i l d i n g s and t o t h e O b l a t e cemetery n e a r b y where F a t h e r L e Jeune i s b u r i e d ) F o r b e s , F a t h e r G e o r g e , 0. M. I . , l e t t e r , 16 O c t o b e r , 1947. ( F a t h e r F o r b e s gave me a g r e a t amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n about F a t h e r Le J e u n e . He was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h F a t h e r L e Jeune on t h e m i s s i o n s f o r a y e a r j u s t b e f o r e the l a t t e r ' s r e t i r e m e n t )  (176) E r a s e r , M r s . , I n d i a n , Kamloops, B. C , s e v e r a l i n t e r v i e w s , 1947 and 1948, and many o t h e r i n t e r v i e w s w i t h I n d i a n s on v a r i o u s r e s e r v e s o f t h e d i s t r i c t . (Every I n d i a n I i n t e r v i e w e d p r a i s e d f a t h e r L e Jeune and h i s work. I d i d n o t meet one who h a d a h a r s h word t o s a y about him) G r e g g , D r . J o h n R,, l e t t e r , 17 September and 6 O c t o b e r , 1946. (The l a t e D r . G r e g g gave me e v e r y e n c o u r a g e ment i n t h e w r i t i n g o f my t h e s i s . He was e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s h o r t h a n d a s p e c t s o f i t . He v i s i t e d t h e S h o r t h a n d C o l l e c t i o n i n t h e New Y o r k P u b l i c L i b r a r y on my b e h a l f and s e n t me t h e complete l i s t o f F a t h e r L e J e u n e s s h o r t h a n d works w h i c h he found there) f  I r e l a n d , W i l l a r d E . , l e t t e r , 11 September, 1946, and i n t e r v i e w , A u g u s t , 1947. (Mr. I r e l a n d l i s t e d f o r me t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f F a t h e r L e J e u n e s works i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , and made them r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o me d u r i n g a v i s i t t o t h e A r c h i v e s i n A u g u s t , 1947) 1  I r w i n , F r e d , Kamloops, B. C., i n t e r v i e w , 6 J a n u a r y , 1947. (Mr. I r w i n knew F a t h e r L e Jeune p e r s o n a l l y . He h a d a l s o h e a r d many s t o r i e s o f h i m f r o m h i s f a t h e r , who was I n d i a n A g e n t f o r a t i m e and o f t e n t r a v e l l e d w i t h F a t h e r L e Jeune t o t h e I n d i a n r e s e r v e s ) J a r r e t t , F r e d , l e t t e r , 10 September, 1946. (Mr. J a r r e t t , who i s C a n a d i a n manager o f t h e G r e g g P u b l i s h i n g Company, d i d n o t know much a b o u t F a t h e r L e J e u n e . B u t he was e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s h o r t h a n d a s p e c t s o f my t h e s i s and gave me a g r e a t d e a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n about s y l l a b i c systems w h i c h t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s a r e u s i n g among t h e C r e e I n d i a n s t o - d a y ) J e n n i n g s , B i s h o p E . Q,., Kamloops, B. C , I n t e r v i e w s , J a n u a r y , 1948. ( B i s h o p J e n n i n g s h e l p e d me w i t h v a r i o u s t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s o f my t h e s i s and a i d e d i n f i n d i n g b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l . He a l s o d i s c u s s e d w i t h me t h e v i e w p o i n t o f h i s Ghurch i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e work o f s u c h a man a s F a t h e r L e Jeune) Murphy, F a t h e r S t e v e , 0. M. I . , New W e s t m i n s t e r , B. C , i n t e r v i e w , 15 A u g u s t , 1947. ( F a t h e r Murphy gave me much i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t F a t h e r L e Jeune d u r i n g h i s r e t i r e m e n t a t New W e s t m i n s t e r ) Mooney, M r s . M., Kamloops, B. C., i n t e r v i e w s , A p r i l , 1948. ( P e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f F a t h e r L e Jeune)  (177) M a c D o n a l d , D. J . , P r o v i n c i a l Home, Kamloops, B. C , i n t e r v i e w , 15 O c t o b e r , 1947. ( P e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f F a t h e r L e Jeune) S c o t t , F a t h e r , 0. M. I . , Kamloops, i n t e r v i e w s , Decemb e r , 1946. ( F a t h e r S c o t t made a v a i l a b l e t o me many o f t h e w r i t i n g s o f F a t h e r L e Jeune w h i c h I c o u l d not o t h e r w i s e have o b t a i n e d . He a l s o drew my a t t e n t i o n t o t h e many b e a u t i f u l f u r n i s h i n g s o f t h e I n d i a n c h u r c h e s o f t h e d i s t r i c t , l a r g e l y due t o t h e work o f F a t h e r L e Jeune) S l o a n , J . D., l e t t e r , 9 J a n u a r y , 1947. (Mr. S l o a n , s e c r e t a r y o f the Sloan-Duployan Shorthand S o c i e t y , d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r me t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s h o r t h a n d s y s t e m u s e d b y F a t h e r L e Jeune was t h e o r i g i n a l F r e n c h s y s t e m o f Abbe' D u p l o y e ) Todd, J . R o l a n d , l e t t e r , 18 December, 1946. (Mr. Todd, who i s N o r t h w e s t e r n L i b r a r i a n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , l i s t e d f o r me t h e works o f F a t h e r L e Jeune w h i c h a r e a v a i l a b l e , i n t h i s l i b r a r y a t S e a t t l e ) Way, M r s . A. 1 . , i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l , 1948. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f F a t h e r L e Jeune)  (Personal  

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