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A study of variations in egg production in British Columbia, 1943-1951 Herring, Stephen Harold Edward 1952

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A STUDY OF VARIATIONS I N EGG PRODUCTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 19L:-3 - 1951 by  STEPHEN HAROLD EDWARD HERRING A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE i n the Departments of AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS and • POULTRY HUSBANDRY We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the standards required from candidates for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCg-^jJ AGRICULTURE  Members of the Departments of Agricultural Economics and Poultry Husbandry  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1952  ABSTRACT The commercial egg industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia Is the  s i x t h l a r g e s t In Canada.  of the t o t a l farm Income.  I t provides about ten percent  About 85 percent of a l l B r i t i s h  Columbia eggs are produced i n the Lower Mainland, 10 percent on the east coast of Vancouver I s l a n d , and' about f i v e percent i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. l  The export market between 19:-0 and 19^-9  created  favorable conditions f o r expansion of the i n d u s t r y .  To  meet export demands, the Canada wartime government promoted and f a c i l i t a t e d production through agencies concerned with extension, p r i c e s , subsidies and standards. A f t e r the l o s s o f the B r i t i s h egg contract In January, 19i-9? exports dropped. l  Imports increased during  t h i s period because of storage space shortage on the prairies  and p r i c e d i f f e r e n t i a l s between B r i t i s h Columbia  and the p r a i r i e s . The B r i t i s h egg contracts supplied the equivalent l  of a f l o o r p r i c e at wholesale l e v e l u n t i l January 315 19!-9. The Canada government, i n January, 1950,  Included eggs i n  i t s Support P r i c e P o l i c y to a s s i s t farmers In adjustment from wartime,conditions. Analyses of data ga.th.ered f o r the period from to 1951  19'+3  show that great annual and c y c l i c a l v a r i a t i o n s  e x i s t i n the commercial egg industry of B r i t i s h Columbia. An annual average marketing peak occurred i n January with the low marketing month i n J u l y .  Egg p r i c e s \ •:  r e c i p r o c a t e d w i t h , an average y e a r l y peak i n J u l y end a low.point  i n January.  Egg p r i c e s were h i g h e r i n the  former h a l f of the y e a r , on the average, than i n the l a t t e r h a l f , w h i l e feed p r i c e s were h i g h e r i n the f i r s t h a l f and lower i n the second h a l f .  Excess c a p a c i t y  i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y a f t e r t e r m i n a t i o n of the B r i t i s h egg c o n t r a c t s i n  19^+9*  The annual egg-feed r a t i o , as an i n d i c a t o r of p r o f i t a b i l i t y , seems t o move w i t h the annual r e t u r n s t o c a p i t a l and l a b o u r .  The monthly r a t i o seems t o precede  the marketings by some months.. An i n c r e a s e d guaranteed minimum income over t h a t s u p p l i e d by the p r e s e n t f l o o r p r i c e w i l l decrease excess c a p a c i t y and i n c r e a s e the number of farmers whose r e t u r n to c a p i t a l and l a b o u r i s more than the p o i n t o f d i s i n v e stment. The problem of what the minimum guaranteed Income should be i s considered through a r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the f l o o r p r i c e u s i n g producer c r i t e r i a .  The 1951  c o s t s of  p r o d u c t i o n are combined w i t h the annual r e c e i p t s from f o w l and eggs of a sample B r i t i s h Columbia p o u l t r y farm to give a s c a l e of r e t u r n s t o c a p i t a l and l a b o u r , under i n c r e m e n t a l i n c r e a s e s i n egg and f o w l p r i c e s .  Normal  p e r q u i s i t e s decrease the cash Income necessary to give a f a i r r e t u r n to o p e r a t o r ' s labour as based on the average annual wage f o r farm labour without b o a r d .  PREFACE The commercial egg industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s beset with price and output fluctuations which are not In the best Interest of either the producer or the consumer.  Annual and c y c l i c a l variations occur i n  quantities of eggs prodxiced and marketed, also i n egg and feed p r i c e s .  These fluctuations are unsatisfactory  to the producer because of the high variations i n return to c a p i t a l and labour which lie experiences. .They are unsatisfactory from the consumer's viewpoint because of the wide differences which occur i n r e t a i l egg prices from year to year. This thesis attempts to show the nature of these variations and to suggest how they might be alleviated through a reconsideration c f the present floor price policy,, I wish to thank Professors W.J. Anderson and E.A. Lloyd for their help and guidance i n carrying out this study.  • TABLE OF CONTENTS Page v  LIST OF TABLES LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 0 l l c l T ) "b ©  I~.  vii  I*  THE BRITISH COLUMBIA EGG AND POULTRY lisL/UvJli-H  •  •  •  •  *  •  o  «  •  •  «  •  •  •  «  *  *  1  The P o u l t r y I n d u s t r y i n Canada and Comparative Importance Present S i z e and R e l a t i v e Importance of the 'Commercial Egg I n d u s t r y The P o u l t r y P r o d u c i n g Areas Types of Farm P r o d u c i n g P o u l t r y P r o d u c t s An Average Commercial Egg and P o u l t r y Farm M a r k e t i n g Agencies and Channels Domestic and E x p o r t Egg Markets Canadian Per C a p i t a Consumption of C e r t a i n P r o t e i n s B r i t i s h Columbia E x p o r t s and Imports II.  FEDERAL. GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND AGENCIES  . .  15  Wa.rtime P o l i c y R e s u l t o f E f f o r t s to Increase Wartime Egg Supply Agencies The A g r i c u l t u r a l S u p p l i e s Board Wartime P r i c e s and Trades Board The S p e c i a l Products Board The Food A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Board Committee on Food Requirements and Production Capacity The Canada Government Egg R e g u l a t i o n s ; G r a d i n g , P a c k i n g , Marking III.  VARIABILITY IN T H E INDUSTRY Seasonal P r i c e s General P r i c e L e v e l V a r i a b i l i t y i n Feed P r i c e s Egg P r o d u c t i o n nnd M a r k e t i n g V a r i a t i o n s V a r i a t i o n s i n the Movement of Eggs Into Hatching V a r i a t i o n s i n the Number of L a y e r s Excess C a p a c i t y The P o i n t of D i s i n v e s t m e n t V a r i a t i o n s i n Returns to C e p l t a l and Labour - i i i -'.  32  Chapter The Farmer's Response t o the Egg-Feed R a t i o "The Egg-Feed R a t i o and R e a l Returns to C a p i t a l and Labour IY.  AGRICULTURAL PRICE POLICY NECESSARY TO REDUCE VARIABILITY Wartime Canadian P r i c e P o l i c y Postwar Canadian P r i c e P o l i c y A g r i c u l t u r a l P r i c e Support Board Storage S p e c i f i c a t i o n s A R e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the Support Price  APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY  LIST OP TABLES 'able 1. 2. 3.  h. 5.  Page Average P o u l t r y Stock and P r o d u c t i o n by P r o v i n c e s , 19 l\-6 to 19^9  1  E s t i m a t e d Cash Income From the Sale of Eggs i n B r i t i s h Columbia  3  Annual Per C a p i t a S u p p l i e s of C e r t a i n C i v i l i a n Foods Moving I n t o C i v i l i a n Consumption . . .  12  Egg E x p o r t s and I m p o r t s , B r i t i s h Columbia, I9H3 t o 1950  13  Returns t o C a p i t a l and Labour o f a Sample B r i t i s h Columbia Commercial Egg Farm  h3  6.  A Support P r i c e Scale o f Returns  7.  P o u l t r y Stock and P r o d u c t i o n , By P r o v i n c e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  63  Monthly Producer P r i c e s i n Cents Per Dozen o f Grade A Large and Grade A Medium Eggs, I n Vancouver  66  8.  9.  10.  12. 13.  » .  Monthly Producer P r i c e s Per Ton and Per Pound of Mash, Wheat, B a r l e y , O a t s , D e l i v e r e d to F r a s e r V a l l e y . . . . P r o p o r t i o n s of Grade A Large and Grade A Medium Eggs i n Cases of 30 Dozens, Marketed i n B r i t i s h Columbia Through R e g i s t e r e d Egg Grading S t a t i o n s ,  19^3 -  11.  . . . .  191*9  56  67  7h  Composite Producer P r i c e i n Cents Per Dozen of Grade A Large and Grade A Medium Eggs, Vancouver, 19^3 t o 1951 • •  75  Composite Feed P r i c e s i n Cents Per Pound D e l i v e r e d i n the Lower Mainland . .  76  Monthly Egg Marketings At R e g i s t e r e d Egg Grading S t a t i o n s i n B f i t i s h Columbia and Concurrent Monthly Egg-Feed R a t i o . .  77  - v -  Table lh._  15.  16.  ,  Page  Y e a r l y Aggregate R e c e i p t s of Ungraded Eggs i n Cases of 30 Dozens at R e g i s t e r e d Egg Grading S t a t i o n s i n the Main P r o d u c i n g Areas of B r i t i s h Columbia, IS'VM- - 19^9  78  R e s u l t s o f Nine Years O p e r a t i o n s of the P o u l t r y P r o d u c t s S e c t i o n , S p e c i a l P r o d u c t s Board; Canadian Government Shipments to Great B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s  79  Eggs Sold and Used By the Producer For H a t c h i n g Purposes i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n '000 Dozens,  19V6 - 1950 . .  80  17.  Storage Stocks o f S h e l l Eggs at Vancouver, i n '000 Dozens  81  18.  B r i t i s h Columbia S t o c k , P r o d u c t i o n , and D i s t r i b u t i o n i n the CommercialEgg I n d u s t r y . •  32  19.  D i s p o s i t i o n of E?gs i n B r i t i s h Columbia, '000 Dozens, 19'+6 - 1950  20.  Budget of a Sample B r i t i s h Columbia Commercial Egg Farm  21.  Farm Wages i n B.C. Without B o a r d ,  22. 23.  . . .  S*f 89  19 "TJ ™* 19 5*2 • • • • » • • • • • • • • • •  9^  Annual Average Farm Index,  19H3 - 1951  91  Farm P e r q u i s i t e s  92  - vi -  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  Graph o f Monthly Egg M a r k e t i n g s at R e g i s t e r e d Egg Grading S t a t i o n s and Concurrent Monthly Egg-Feed R a t i o .  - vii-  CHAPTER  THE BRITISH  I  C O L U M B I A E G G AND P O U L T R Y  INDUSTRY  The P o u l t r y I n d u s t r y I n Canada and C o m p a r a t i v e Importance TABLE  I  A V E R A G E P O U L T R Y S T O C K AND  19^6  to  PRODUCTION, BY PROVINCES,  19^9  Province  Production Hens and Average E g g s Total Per 100 Laid Poultry Chickens Layers L ayers '000 '000 d o z . 'OOO 'ooo  Ontario  27,658  Quebec  12,  Sask.  11,088  Alberta  26,51^  10,^+68  135,628  15,753  ^ 11,963  ^•,595  57,592  15,279  10,503  3,^13  35,802  12,785  10,387  9,^21  3,279  35,716  13,265  7,565  7,099  2,358  26,2>f8  13,585  ^,271  1,955  26,825  16,663  11,057  15,893  Manitoba British Columbia Nova Scotia  2,217  2,162  New Brunswick  1,59^  1,5^6  575  7,20^  15,170  P.E.I,  1,183  1,155  U.89  6,009  l^+,928  ^ " P o u l t r y S t o c k and P r o d u c t i o n By P r o v i n c e s , t o 19^9", T a b l e 7, A p p e n d i x I . a  19^6  The order of importance of the provinces i n Canada, during the period 19^6 to 19^9 > i n regard to poultry population, numbers of hens and chickens, average numbers of layers are} Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Manitoba, B r i t i s h Columbia, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. The order i s the same for t o t a l egg production, except that B r i t i s h Columbia i s s l i g h t l y greater than Manitoba. The B r i t i s h Columbia commercial egg industry i s sixth i n importance among the Canadian provinces. The poultry population of B r i t i s h Columbia i s about 60 percent that of Manitoba;  percent that of  Alberta, and Saskatchewan; 37 percent that of Quebec; almost double that of Nova Scotia; nearly three times that of New Brunswick; and about four times that of Prince Edward Island. Numbers of hens and chickens, i n provinces have similar proportions between provinces and the same order of importance as t o t a l poultry. Figures on the egg production per hen by provinces for the period 19^6 to 19*+9, show that B r i t i s h Columbia was the highest at an average of 166 eggs per layer; Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, approximated 155 eggs per layer; Alberta 131 eggs; Manitoba 135; and Saskatchewan about 127 eggs per layer.  - 3Present Size and Relative Importance of the Commercial Egg Industry TABLE 2 ESTIMATED CASH INCOME FROM.THE SALE OF EGGS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA^, 1 ° M to 1950 % of Total  Year  Cash Income Total Eggs  1950  101,709 ll,6H-6  12  19^9  101,222 10, W  10  19W  103,655 10,758  10  19^7  9^,256 10,29^  11  19^6  85,606  8,866  10  19^5  75,006  8,052  10  Av  10  'Department of Agricultural S t a t i s t i c s Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia, "Estimated Cash Income From the Sale of Farm Products i n B r i t i s h Columbia", Agricultural S t a t i s t i c s Report For B r i t i s h Columbia, (Victoria; King's Printer and Controller of Stationery, 1951), p . m . Between 19>+5 and 1950, the cash income from egg production i n B r i t i s h Columbia averaged approximately ten percent of the t o t a l cash farm income.  The cash  farm income from a l l classes of poultry meat averaged 3.3 percent of the t o t a l cash farm income during the same period.  The t o t a l m a r k e t i n g s " remained f a i r l y constant, for  19V5,  19h6, and  19^-8 w i t h  a sharp I n c r e a s e ^ i n  I9V7.  They t a p e r e d downward between 19^9 and 1950, w i t h a r e d u c t i o n o f about  100,000  cases each y e a r .  The graph o f  r a t i o s and m a r k e t i n g s ^ i n d i c a t e s t h a t the egg-feed was h i g h u n t i l  I9V7.  ratio  A f t e r t h a t d a t e , t h e great i n c r e a s e  i n marketing reduced egg p r i c e s and t h e r e a f t e r t h e eggf e e d r a t i o was l o w e r . The P o u l t r y Producing Areas The r e c e i p t s o f eggs marketed at R e g i s t e r e d Egg Grading S t a t i o n s ^ i n B r i t i s h Columbia show t h a t about 85 percent o f a l l B r i t i s h Columbia eggs are produced I n the Lower M a i n l a n d , 10 percent on the east coast o f Vancouver I s l a n d , and about f i v e percent i n the of B r i t i s h  interior  Columbia,  1  Monthly Egg Marketings a t R e g i s t e r e d Egg Grading S t a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Concurrent Monthly Egg-Feed R a t i o " , Table 13, Appendix 3. Annual egg marketings a t R e g i s t e r e d Egg Grading S t a t i o n s f o r these y e a r s were about 663,000 cases o f 30 dozens.  ^800,572  cases of  30  dozen eggs.  lh,  Graph o f Monthly Egg Marketings a t R e g i s t e r e d Egg Grading S t a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Concurrent Monthly Egg-Feed R a t i o " , Appendix 9. ^ " Y e a r l y Aggregate R e c e i p t s o f Ungraded Eggs i n Cases o f 30 Dozen a t R e g i s t e r e d Grading S t a t i o n s i n the Main Producing Areas o f B r i t i s h Columbia", Table lh, Appendix 10.  -  5 -  Types o f Farm P r o d u c i n g P o u l t r y P r o d u c t s Commercial egg and p o u l t r y e n t e r p r i s e s i n t h e main p r o d u c i n g a r e a s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e o p e r a t e d on t h r e e g e n e r a l t y p e s o f farms."*" 1. or  S p e c i a l i z e d p o u l t r y f a r m s w i t h no o t h e r  farm  non-farm income of I m p o r t a n c e . 2 . P a r t - t i m e f a r m s h a v i n g a s m a l l t o medium  enterprise  specialized  i n t h e sense  that other  size  farm  income i s s m a l l , b u % w i t h n o n - f a r m income amounting t o as much o r more t h a n o t h e r f a r m income. o p e r a t e d u s u a l l y by p e r s o n s who have f u l l 3.  They a r e  In semi-retirement or  occupations other than  farming.  Mixed f a r m s on w h i c h a s m a l l t o medium  size  p o u l t r y e n t e r p r i s e , t h a t may o r may n o t be t h e main e n t e r p r i s e , i s combined w i t h o t h e r f a r m  enterprises,  s u c h as s m a l l f r u i t s o r d a i r y and o p e r a t e d by time  full-  farmers. Other e n t e r p r i s e s i n c l u d e : 1.  Breeder  f a r m s p r o d u c i n g h a t c h i n g eggs f o r  sale to s p e c i a l i z e d hatcheries. 2. Breeder-hatchery  farms p r o d u c i n g t h e i r  own  h a t c h i n g eggs and o p e r a t i n g t h e i r own i n c u b a t o r s . 3.  B r o i l e r or fryer  specialists,  "^R.H.Campbell, "Egg and* P o u l t r y P r o d u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 19^+8 - 1 9 ^ 9 , P a r t 2 " , The Economic A n n a l i s t . (Ottawa: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r o f S t a t i o n e r y , February, 1952), p p . 7 - 8 .  - 6 A r e c e n t s u r v e y o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a egg and p o u l t r y i n d u s t r y f o u n d t h a t about 29 p e r c e n t o f a l l f a r m s about 36 p e r c e n t  s u r v e y e d p r o d u c e d h a t c h i n g eggs f o r s a l e ;  p r o d u c e d them f o r h a t c h i n g t h e i r own c h i c k s ; 15 p e r c e n t p r o d u c e d market  eggs o n l y , w i t h c a s h r e c e i p t s  s u c h s a l e s making up 85 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l  from  receipts;  13 p e r e e n t o f t h e f a r m s p r o d u c e d h a t c h i n g eggs, and  broilers.  fryers  1  An Average  Commercial  Egg and P o u l t r y Farm  As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e major  commercial  egg p r o d u c i n g a r e a s I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a r e t h e Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , and V a n c o u v e r  Island Coast.  Most  poultry  p r o d u c e r s I n t h e s e a r e a s a r e l o c a t e d on u p l a n d l i g h t and g r a v e l s o i l # t h a t a r e unused a g r i c u l t u r a l production.  sand  f o r other types o f  The a n n u a l a v e r a g e  temperature  i n 19*+9 "was *+3 d e g r e e s F a h r e n h e i t and moderate  o p r e c i p i t a t i o n o c c u r r e d o f 57  inches.  The most common b r e e d s were L e g h o r n and New Hampshire.  Average  flock  s i z e was 633  layers, with  a v e r a g e a n n u a l f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n p e r hen o f 58.^ 1  Ibidi,  pounds  P.8.  ^Dominion B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , "Long-Term Averages o f C l i m a t i c D a t a F o r R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C a n a d i a n S t a t i o n s " , The Canada Y e a r Book. (Ottawa: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r o f S t a t i o n e r y , 1950), Pp. 66-67.  mash and 53.7 pounds g r a i n . percent  Flock culling  and m o r t a l i t y a v e r a g e d  averaged  19.3 percent.  c a l c u l a t i o n s were o n a hen-day oasis."*"  80.6  These  The o p e r a t o r  c o n t r i b u t e d 1,805 h o u r s o r 81 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l  labour,  f a m i l y members 351 h o u r s o r 15 p e r c e n t , and h i r e d  labour  90 h o u r s o r k- p e r c e n t , o n t h e a v e r a g e . The 53  a v e r a g e f a m i l y l a b o u r income p e r h o u r was  The a v e r a g e i n v e n t o r y was $ 5 , 3 ^ p e r f a r m .  cents.  This included land valued total  investment,  percent o f t o t a l  a t 18^-0 o r 16 p e r c e n t o f t h e  b u i l d i n g s valued  a t $2,763, o r h7  investment.  T o t a l cash r e c e i p t s p e r farm  T o t a l c a s h expenses were $*+,201 p e r f a r m . 83 p e r c e n t was f o r f e e d , 2.5 p e r c e n t 7 percent  for  Of t h i s , litter,  f o r c h i c k s and s t o c k , 2.5 p e r c e n t f o r t o o l s ,  equipment and b u i l d i n g amounted t o s i x p e r c e n t  capital  $5,587.  averaged  improvements. o f the t o t a l .  and l a b o u r a v e r a g e d  I l l other  The r e t u r n t o  |1,28>+ p e r f a r m .  r e t u r n t o l a b o u r was $1,150 a f t e r a l l o w i n g k return to capital.  expenses  The percent  P o u l t r y p e r q u i s i t e s were v a l u e d a t  $6 + p e r y e a r . ^ J  •^One hen-day One h e n i n t h e l a y i n g f l o c k f o r 365 hen-days - One l a y e r . =  one  day.  R . H . C a m p b e l l , "Egg and P o u l t r y P r o d u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 19I+8-I9V9, P a r t I , " The Economic A n n a l i s t . (Ottawa: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r o f S t a t i o n e r y , December, 1951), pp. 127-233. 2  -  8 -  Marketing Agencies and Channels Farm consumption i n B r i t i s h Columbia amounted to about three m i l l i o n eggs per year, with increases during the war years.^  Direct sales to the consumer are an  important source of income among producers located around an urban area such as Vancouver.  The present  government egg grading regulations permit certain producers to grade their own eggs for direct s e l l i n g . Wastage and spoilage account for a very small amount of the eggs produced. The eggs unmarketed through Registered Egg Grading Stations eonsist of those moving into hatching, 2 those home consumed, wasted, or sold d i r e c t l y .  The  B r i t i s h market ended on January 31? 1 9 ^ 9 5 just before baby chicks were to be ordered for the next production period.  Consequently, there was a sharp drop i n the  number of eggs moving Into hatching channels.  In 1 9 ^ 8 ,  these sales to hatcheries were one-half what they were i n 19^7.  3  Farm consumption which had increased during and ^Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , "Summary of Supply, Distribution and Consumption of Poultry Meat and Eggs, In Canada", Production of Poultry and Eggs, (Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 195D, P . 2 6 . o  " B r i t i s h Columbia Stock} Production, and Distribution i n the Commercial Egg Industry", Table 1 8 , Appendix Ih. 3"Eggs Sold and Used by the Producer for Hatching Purposes i n B r i t i s h Columbia", Table 16, Appendix 12.  after the war years to a 19^7 peak dropped gradually each year thereafter to a l i t t l e more than one-half this peak. Direct sales and forms of disposal other than farm consumption and hatching, and marketing through Registered Egg Grading Stations increased sharply during 19^9 and thereafter, as producers sought to augment their income through direct sales to consumers. Most eggs i n B r i t i s h Columbia are marketed through Registered Egg Grading Stations which are subject to government inspection.  Some sales are made by producers  through public markets, roadside marketing stands and by direct delivery to the consumer's house.  Direct  s e l l i n g has become more important i n the period after the loss of the export market, and producers seem to be s e l l i n g directly as many eggs as possible. In 195+9J there were 76 Registered Egg Grading Stations operating i n B r i t i s h Columbia with a t o t a l valume of  5li+>1+5l eases  of 30 dozen eggs, or  of a l l recorded marketings.  95 percent  Commercial hatcheries took  a further four percent while the remaining one percent moved to consumers through public markets and roadside stands. 1 About one-half the Registered Egg Grading Stations -^S. L.Med land, W.R.Hickman, A Study of the Marketing of Eggs and Poultry i n B r i t i s h Columbia, (Unpublished Report, Canada Department of Agriculture i n Co-operation With The Department of Agriculture Economics, U.B.C.'j 195D•  ~ 10 I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e l o c a t e d i n V a n c o u v e r , New Westminster, V i c t o r i a producing of  areas.  and Nanaimo^' t h e r e m a i n d e r i n  The c i t y group t a k e s about  percent  a l l marketings. S i x t y percent  o f the Registered Stations are  i n d e p e n d e n t b u s i n e s s e s , t a k i n g 57 volume, 23  percent  of the t o t a l  percent a r e branches o f c h a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s  ( m a i n l y f e e d and meat p a c k i n g  30  companies) t a k i n g  percent  o f t h e volume, w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g  percent  a r e c o - o p e r a t i v e , h a n d l i n g about e i g h t p e r c e n t .  The  r e m a i n d e r o f t h e eggs, f i v e p e r c e n t ,  seventeen p e r  represent  m a r k e t i n g s t o h a t c h e r i e s , and home consumers p u b l i c m a r k e t s and r o a d s i d e The Egg 7^.3  Stations i s the r e t a i l  percent  19^9.  stands.  main o u t l e t f o r eggs h a n d l e d  Grading  A f u r t h e r 6A  store through  Breaking  Stations to i n s t i t u t i o n a l Exports  percent o f t h e marketings by these p l a n t s were e s t i m a t e d  percent  o f t h e 5*3  through  marketing  Registered  which  p e r c e n t were d i s t r i b u t e d b y  such a s h o s p i t a l s and l o g g i n g camps. 6.5  by Registered  o f a l l r e c o r d e d m a r k e t i n g s were s o l d i n  R e g i s t e r e d Egg G r a d i n g  for  through  percent  accounted  agencies.  t o have r e c e i v e d  3.3  s u p p l i e d t o home consumers  agencies, other than r e t a i l  stations contributed\.2  t o t a l percentage  consumers  stores.  percent, bringing the  o f eggs marketed b y t h e s t a t i o n s t o  I b i d . , p. 8  - 11 ninety-four percent. 1.1  Home consumers r e c e i v e d a  percent of t o t a l marketing  from  further  p u b l i c markets  and  r o a d s i d e stands, w h i l e the commercial h a t c h e r i e s took the remaining  p e r c e n t d i r e c t l y from  •Producers, marketing  through  farms.  direct  as r o a d s i d e s t a n d s , p u b l i c m a r k e t s , and n o t r e q u i r e d t o o p e r a t e R e g i s t e r e d Egg Practically P o u l t r y S t a t i o n s and  then to r e t a i l  t o t a l volume marketed i n 19^9  through  stores.  L e s s t h a n one reached  p u b l i c markets or r o a d s i d e marketing s t a t i o n s producing  routes  such  are  Grading S t a t i o n s .  a l l p o u l t r y passes  s e l l d i r e c t l y t o consumers.  from  egg  channels  Registered  A few  stations  percent of  customers stands.  the  through  Apart  and p r o c e s s i n g t h e i r own  birds,  about o n e - h a l f o f t h e p o u l t r y p r o c e s s i n g s t a t i o n s  are  located  operate  i n the producing  i n the marketing Two-thirds remainder  areas, while  the balance  c e n t e r s o f V a n c o u v e r , and New  Westminster.  o f the p o u l t r y s t a t i o n s are independent, b e i n g e q u a l l y d i v i d e d between t h e c h a i n s  the and  c o - o p e r a t i v e form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n .  D o m e s t i c and E x p o r t Egg  Markets  C a n a d i a n Per C a p i t a Consumption o f Certain Proteins Due  t o meat r a t i o n i n g and  i n c r e a s e d consumer  p u r c h a s i n g power i n Canada d u r i n g t h e war  years,  the  - 12 consumption per c a p i t a o f eggs increased. i n 19^6,  A f t e r the war,  meat r a t i o n i n g ceased and consumption of meat  increased while that o f eggs decreased. TABLE 3 ANNUAL PER CAPITA SUPPLIES OF CERTAIN PROTEIN FOODS MOYING INTO CIVILIAN CONSUMPTION, ; 19^3 to 19^9  Year  Pork Lbs.  Beef  %  Lbs.  Hens & Chickens % Lbs. %  Other Poultry Lbs. %  Eggs Lbs.  %  19^9 59.3 IkO  56.5 106 17.7 131.5  3.5  125 33.5 109  •19kQ 5^.2 136  58.0 107 15.8 101.3  3.3  118 35.1 I l k  52.7 132  67.7 12k 21.2 135.9  3.6  135 36.1 118  19^6 h7.8 120  6k. 9 119 21.k 137.2  3.k  121 33.5 109  19^5 55.2 138  60. k 110 23.2 1^9.0 3.8  136 39.0 127  19M+ 61.H- 15k  6I.7 113 23.7 152.0  3.7  139 36.k 119  19^3 61.0 153  69.3 127 20.5 131.0  3.5  125 35.3 115  39.9 100  5k.7 100 15.6 100.0  2.8  100 30.7 100  19h7  ^Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , " C i v i l i a n Food Consumption" The Canada Year Book, (Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 19^5 to 1950). a  ^ A v e r a g e f o r the base p e r i o d 1935  to  1939.  There was an increase i n per c a p i t a consumption of pork, beef, mutton and p o u l t r y meat from 19^6 to 19k7|  but t h e r e a f t e r , the per c a p i t a consumption of beef  and mutton decreased, and the consumption of p o u l t r y meat  - 13 per  capita increased In  e a c h y e a r d u r i n g t h e war.  t h e two y e a r s , 1950  c o n s u m p t i o n was respectively).  and 1951,  23 d o z e n (276 eggs  the p e r c a p i t a  and 277'eggs  1  TABLE if EGG  EXPORTS AND IMPORTS, BRITISH COLUMBIA, 19^3 t o 1950  Imports ^, 8  Year  Other  dozens  Prov.  Exports^,  Foreign  1950 if,^06,790  17,020  306,^90  19^9 19^8  12,227  1,233,7^6  71 13,301  6,232,266  19H-7  13^,79^ 105,^20  19h6  106,770  5,5^7  6,377,350  19h5  139,150  1,060  8,2^5,260  19^4-  508,350  7,708,620  19^3  920,319  727 698  l,98i+, 290  dozens  9,153,^60  908,2h0  'Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , " A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t s Imported From F o r e i g n P o i n t s I n t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Y e a r s 191+3 t o 1951", P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c a l Report, ( V i c t o r i a ; K i n g ' s P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r o f S t a t i o n e r y , 19^3 a  to 1950), P. 50.  ^ D o m i n i o n Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , "Estimate o f A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t s E x p o r t e d From B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Y e a r s 19^3 t o 19^7," i b i d . , P. 51.  d o m i n i o n Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , P r o d u c t i o n o f P o u l t r y and Eggs, (Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r o f S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 5 1 ? , P? 26.  - lb, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x p o r t s and Between increasing After the  19^+3  and  19^+7,  Imports  t h e r e was  a steadily-  a n n u a l e x p o r t o f eggs f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  t h e B r i t i s h c o n t r a c t s ended  e x p o r t s dropped  to n e g l i g i b l e  on J a n u a r y 31? amounts.  19^9,  The y e a r o f  maximum m a r k e t i n g s and t h e y e a r o f g r e a t e s t e x p o r t o f s u r p l u s eggs was  19*+7.  B r i t i s h Columbia  i n r e l a t i v e l y great  19^9  and 1950  because  Eggs have b e e n i m p o r t e d quantities  o f lower p r i c e s ,  s t o r a g e on t h e p r a i r i e s .  into during  and s h o r t a g e o f  II  CHAPTER  FEDERAL GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND  AGENCIES  Wartime P o l i c y I n 19^3, d o m e s t i c egg  the  increase  i n the  consumption threatened to prevent  ment o f Canada's egg o r d e r t o meet t h e  contract  u c t i o n and  A page o f the  quality.  Government p u b l i c a t i o n , "Egg published  by  set aside  e a c h week i n the  pertinent  information  summer, and  future.  Stations,  fall  prod-  w e e k l y Canada  form o f a p o s t e r ,  production  to co-operate, i n t h i s  companies and poultry  campaign.  Shortage of f e e d , y e a r s was  giving  o f eggs and  e x p e c t e d p r i c e and  feed  was  t o a c h i e v e maximum  Operators of Registered  hatcheries,  the war  increasing  P o u l t r y Market R e p o r t " ,  as t o how  groups c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e  during  and  on  of  Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e  i n a d d i t i o n t o d a t a on f o r the  In  o v e r s e a s demand, t h e Department issue advice  the  fulfill-  with Great B r i t a i n .  A g r i c u l t u r e began t o  spring,  Canadian  poultry  export Egg  conditions  Grading  other  service  i n d u s t r y were r e q u e s t e d  1  e s p e c i a l l y of protein  serious.  In  19^+3,  the  ingredients, government  1 Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Egg and P o u l t r y R e p o r t . (Ottawa: Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , A p r i l  Market  16,19^3).  - 15 -  placed No  c o n t r o l s on t h e p r o t e i n c o n t e n t  than..16  more  percent  in a laying ration. J a n u a r y h,  19^9.  o f l a y i n g mash.  a n i m a l p r o t e i n c o u l d be  T h i s r e g u l a t i o n was  T h r o u g h o u t t h e war  a short time t h e r e a f t e r , the  used  removed  p e r i o d , and  on for  government warned p r o d u c e r s  to conserve feed through c u l l i n g , proper feeding, other  management p r a c t i s e s . The  Included  program o f e x p a n d i n g egg  certain subsidies.  $k.50  per  production  a freight  Number 2 f e e d  screenings  i n t o the f i v e E a s t e r n f o r l i v e s t o c k and  shipped  Provinces  and  poultry feed.  To  and  from the British  rye, 1  Number Prairies  Columbia  encourage  m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f a l f a l f a meal, a s u b s i d y was  19W,  subsidy  t o n on W e s t e r n wheat, o a t s , b a r l e y ,  wheat b r a n , wheat s h o r t s , wheat m i d d l i n g s , and  also  Commencing i n A p r i l ,  the f e d e r a l government began p a y i n g of  and  the  o f $h.00  per  ton  p a i d t o a l l processors.''" The  e f f e c t o f t h e s e s u b s i d i e s i n t h e Lower  F r a s e r V a l l e y , was of feed  $k8$  in April,  wheat f r o m  t o r e d u c e the  I9M+7  #3>+  to  Laying  #32;  producer p r i c e per mash r e d u c e d  oats from  I36  to  ton  ffom $50 |33j  to  and  ^ F . S h e f r i n , "Community Wartime A g r i c u l t u r a l Commodities", The Economic A n n a l i s t , (Ottawa: E c o n o m i c s D i v i s i o n , M a r k e t i n g S e r v i c e , Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e ) , November, 19^3, Pp. 7*+-75. " P r o d u c e r P r i c e s Per Ton o f Mash, Wheat, B a r l e y , and O a t s , D e l i v e r e d To F r a s e r V a l l e y P o i n t s " , T a b l e 9, Appendix I I I . 2  - 17 barley from $31 to  $30.  The Government Marketing Service reported the average increase i n cost of a complete laying ration across Canada was, after adjustment i n feed prices, $8.37 per ton between the f a l l of 19H-6  and September  19V7.  Since the average consumption per bird per year was  92  pounds, these figures mean that cost of feed increased '2.6/^ per dozen for a bird laying 180 eggs per year"*". A premium of three cents per dozen on Grade A Large eggs purchased for export, and an additional bonus of one-half cent per dozen was paid for o i l dipping such eggs to help retain quality while i n transit and storage.  In addition to these subsidies, an effective  floor price was provided by the United Kingdom contract. The national program to insure quality and protect delivery i n Great B r i t a i n was detailed. A l l eggs were graded In Registered Egg Grading Stations, by approved graders, according to the Canadian Standards for eggs.  Grade A quality only was set aside for export i n  the s h e l l .  A l l eggs were Inspected for quality and  ^Department of Agriculture, Egg and Poultry Marketing Report, (Ottawa: Department of Agriculture Marketing Service, September 26, I9V7).  p F.Shefrin, "Eggs For Export", on. c i t . , August 19^2, Pp. 61-63*  - 18 p a c k a g i n g "by government i n s p e c t o r s a t p o i n t s o f s h i p m e n t . All  eggs were c a r r i e d h y r a i l  fully  at specified  temperatures  c o n t r o l l e d and a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e c o r d e d .  quantities  justified,  When  a r r a n g e m e n t s were made f o r s p e c i a l  through t r a i n s from assembly p o i n t s t o seaboard. t h e y were i n s p e c t e d  f o r p o s s i b l e damage d u r i n g  f r o m c a r t o s h i p a t s e a b o a r d , and were s h i p p e d and  stored  i n t h e coolest forward holds  were i n s p e c t e d  There  transfer regularly  on b o a r d . They  f o r q u a l i t y and c o n d i t i o n b y a s e n i o r  C a n a d i a n government egg i n s p e c t o r o n a r r i v a l i n G r e a t Britain.  Arrangements were made i n G r e a t B r i t a i n f o r t h e  d i v e r s i o n and r e h a n d l i n g damage o r d i m i n u t i o n On December announced 19^4  o f any s h i p m e n t s  o f q u a l i t y during  showing  transit."'"  30, 19*+3> t h e F e d e r a l  Government  t h e Grade A L a r g e s h e l l egg p r i c e s for. t h e  l a y i n g s e a s o n t o be p a i d b y t h e S p e c i a l P r o d u c e s  Board a t 'typical p o i n t s .  T h e r e were no  v a r i a t i o n s and i n c o n t r a s t t o p r e v i o u s  seasonal p o l i c y , there  was a s i n g l e w h o l e s a l e p r i c e b a s i s f o r t h e whole P r i c e s quoted a t t y p i c a l Canada were: 35? Charlottetown, and  351" c e n t s  35i  year.  shipping points i n Eastern  and 35i c e n t s  p e r dozen a t  H a l i f a x , and S t . J o h n r e s p e c t i v e l y ; 35 a t M o n t r e a l and Quebec r e s p e c t i v e l y ;  i D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Egg and P o u l t r y M a r k e t R e p o r t , (Ottawa: Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e M a r k e t i n g S e r v i c e , F e b r u a r y 16, 19*+5). 2  I b i d . . December 30,  19^5.  35,  3^4",  3^4",  and 35  c e n t s p e r d o z e n a t T o r o n t o , London, r e s p e c t i v e l y ; 3!+£  Harreston, B e l l e v i l l e  and 31+£  cents  p e r d o z e n a t W i n n i p e g and B r a n d o n r e s p e c t i v e l y ; 33"!" p e r d o z e n a t C a l g a r y and Edmonton; 33  cents  cents per dozen  a t Vane Oliver.,  13, 19*+5,  On A p r i l was  outlined  the  19^6  export  contract  t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l egg p r o d u c e r s . o f 19M+  prospects i n the f a l l  f o r the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the  The  had n o t been e n c o u r a g i n g  19*+5  price,  but  as a r e s u l t  o f t h e w o r l d meat s h o r t a g e , t h e o v e r a l l p r i c e f o r s h e l l eggs i n t h e 19^-6  c o n t r a c t was w i t h i n s e v e n - t e n t h s o f a  c e n t a d o z e n o f t h e 19^5  price.  Dried  egg  shipments  were r e d u c e d by more t h a n o n e - h a l f , and s h e l l eggs by o n e - n i n t h t h e 19!+5  contract  price.  1  The p r o d u c e r Grade A L a r g e p r i c e a t Vancouver t o be r e c e i v e d i n 19-+5 3H-§ between I n 19^6,  was  between  J a n u a r y and  August and November; and 36f  May;  f o r December.  b e c a u s e o f t h e i n c r e a s e d f r e i g h t on eggs, t h e  p r i c e t o p r o d u c e r s was lower.  33i  The c o n t r a c t  t o be about t w o - t h i r d s  s t a t e d t h a t minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s  2,750,000  were e q u i v a l e n t t o  cents  cases o f  30  dozen.  Minimum p r i c e was h2&  p e r dozen f o r Grade A L a r g e i n  c a r l o t s F.O.B. Canada  s e a b o a r d , and f o r d r i e d  $1.22  p e r pound.  f o r the f i r s t  1  P r i c e d i f f e r e n t i a l s were e s t a b l i s h e d  time.  These were a s i n g l e p r i c e f o r  I b i d _ , A p r i l 13, J  eggs,  19^5.  - 20 winter, for  spring,  fall  and summer f r e s h e g g s , a h i g h e r  price  f r e s h eggs, and a p r i c e f o r s t o r a g e eggs, a l l  o f w h i c h were GEade A L a r g e o r Grade A Medium. I n Vancouver,"'" t h e 19^8 the  during  months o f J a n u a r y , F e b r u a r y , and M a r c h was 3Op' p e r  dozen, d u r i n g A p r i l  p e r d o z e n , and 35/  Grade ^ Mediums r a n g e d f r o m  cents to four cents l e s s ,  two  months when s u p p l y o f  heaviest.  On August 3j  19^5.  the poster advertisement  a s h e l l egg c o n t r a c t f o r 19^7  said that  per  w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t range  d u r i n g t h e summer and f a l l grade was  31/  and May,  d o z e n f o r December.  this  producer p r i c e  was  forecast,  and t h a t f u r t h e r r e q u i r e m e n t s o f d r i e d eggs were i n d i c a t e d by t h e D i r e c t o r o f Egg S u p p l i e s f o r t h e B r i t i s h Ministry of Food. On November 16, fall  floor  price  i n 19^6,  2  19^5•  i t was  would be  stated that the p e r dozen  3 Grade A L a r g e , a t s e a b o a r d . On November 22,  19^6,  the p o s t e r a d v e r t i s e m e n t  ^ " P r o d u c e r P r i c e s P e r Dozen F o r Grade A L a r g e E g g s , V a n c o u v e r , " T a b l e 8, Appendix I I . ^Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Egg and P o u l t r y M a r k e t R e p o r t . (Ottawa: Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e M a r k e t i n g S e r v i c e , August 19, 19^5)• ^ I b i d . . November 22,  19^6.  - 21 said  t h a t one and o n e - h a l f m i l l i o n c a s e s o f 30  dozen  19*+7  eggs were t h e o b j e c t i v e f o r t h e p e r i o d f r o m  to 19^8.1 On  October  if,  19*+6,  the poster  advertisement  announced t h a t t h e new egg c o n t r a c t , p u r c h a s i n g annual  q u a n t i t i e s as d u r i n g t h e y e a r s  19*+5  and  similar  19^+6,  would p r o v i d e a f l o o r p r i c e u n d e r t h e egg market January  31, 19-+9.  until  The c o n t r a c t s up t o 19^5 ended  December 31, o f e a c h y e a r , b u t b e c a u s e t h e naed o f eggs i n G r e a t B r i t a i n was g r e a t e r d u r i n g t h e f a l l and w i n t e r p e r i o d , and b e c a u s e Canada h a d shown p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t y t o meet t h i s demand, t h e w i n t e r premium p e r i o d was  extended  t o January  31, 19*+7 t o 19^9.  The w i n t e r  premium was two c e n t s p e r d o z e n a t s e a b o a r d ,  from  p September 1, t o J a n u a r y  31*  R e s u l t o f E f f o r t s t o I n c r e a s e Wartime Egg S u p p l y E x p o r t s o f eggs d u r i n g t h e f i r s t  e i g h t months o f  t h e war u n t i l t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e S p e c i a l P r o d u c t s amounted t o one and a h a l f m i l l i o n d o z e n s . ^  1  2  I b _ i d . , November 22, Ibid.,  O c t o b e r h,  Board,  I n the  19^6.  19k6l  3F. S h e f r i n , "Eggs F o r E x p o r t " , The Economic A n n a l i s t , (Ottawa: Economic D i v i s i o n , M a r k e t i n g S e r v i c e , Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , August 1942), p p . 62.  - 22 c a l e n d a r y e a r o f 19^0,  10,680,000  imported from  Canada  Britain  placed frequent orders through  dozen eggs.  19^+1,  During the  Britain  S p e c i a l P r o d u c t s Board f o r eggs.  After this  year,  she c o n t r a c t e d f o r them f r o m one t o two y e a r s i n advance. On M a r c h lk-, 19^1, ordered  600,000 d o z e n  three m i l l i o n for  five  fall  t h e B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y o f Food  eggs.  On A p r i l k,  On A p r i l 12,  dozen.  and o n e - h a l f m i l l i o n  19^+1,  an o r d e r was  i t ordered placed  d o z e n t o he s t o r e d f o r  shipments. In  October,  19*+1,  a c o n t r a c t between  M i n i s t r y o f Food and t h e S p e c i a l P r o d u c t s B o a r d  the B r i t i s h was  .consummated, w h i c h p r o v i d e d f o r t h e shipment o f  30  million  eggs between  1, 19^-1,  September  and May  31?  19^2.2 On J a n u a r y 8, 15  6.9  a c o n t r a c t was  arranged f o r  d o z e n a t 32/zf p e r d o z e n a t M o n t r e a l f o r f a l l  million  delivery. for  19^2,  On A p r i l  million  22, 19*+2,  dozen e g g s ,  26-§-£f p e r dozen, Grade B,  3  a new  a t $1.00  c o n t r a c t was made p e r pound  or  Montreal.  "'""Results o f N i n e Y e a r s O p e r a t i o n s o f t h e P o u l t r y Products S e c t i o n - S p e c i a l Products Board", Table 15, Appendix X I .  2 S h e f r i n , op. c i t . . p.  3This  equals  2.3  million  63"-. pounds d r i e d .  - 21 In  19*+3, the egg production objective to supply  the domestic and B r i t i s h markets was an increase of 19hl.  33+5 m i l l i o n dozen,  36 percent over 19*+2 and  k-1 percent over  Before the war, exports of eggs averaged three  to four m i l l i o n dozen per annum. The 19^3 export objectives to meet the United Kingdom requirements were 63 m i l l i o n dozen, which were to be reduced to powder to conserve shipping space. 1 The 19^5 egg exports were the largest shipped to Great B r i t a i n during the period 19^1 to 19^9, amounting to the equivalent of  89,700,000 dozen. This  was about 120 percent more than the 19hh shipments,  300 percent more than In 19H-3, and 600 percent more than in 195+1. Egg exports lessened by 20 percent In 19^6, then increased by  115 percent i n 19^7 to 82,999,750  eases of 30 dozen.  They dropped 25 percent i n 19*+8 and  i n 19^+9 dropped a further 50 percent. During the period from  19*+! to 19*+9, more than  500 m i l l i o n dozen eggs were shipped to Great B r i t a i n . Of these, 13*+ million dozen eggs were shipped fresh, 81 m i l l i o n dozen were storage and the remainder dried. •^Shefrin, op. c i t . , p. 6*+. "Results of Nine Years Operation of The Poultry Products Section - Special Products Board", op. c i t .  -  2k  -  Agencies The The was  Board  purpose of the A g r i c u l t u r a l S u p p l i e s Board  to i n s u r e the u t i l i z a t i o n of the  resources war.  A g r i c u l t u r a l Supplies  o f Canada t o t h e b e s t  I t co-operated  advantage d u r i n g  with advisory  •representing producer  and  agricultural  committees  t r a d e o r g a n i s a t i o n s , and  t h e v a r i o u s d i v i s i o n s o f t h e F e d e r a l Department Agriculture.  The  the  Board l i m i t e d  itself  to  with  of  suggestions  f o r p r o d u c t i o n programmes b a s e d on wartime n e e d s . were c a r r i e d f o r w a r d  These  by the p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s ,  co-operation with producer  and  trade organizations  in and  o f f i c e r s o f t h e F e d e r a l Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . Wartime P r i c e s and The B o a r d was  f u n c t i o n o f t h e Wartime P r i c e s and  to assure  an adequate and  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f goods and and  to prevent  a u t h o r i t y over the  Trades Board  hoarding  continuous  s e r v i c e s at reasonable  and  a l l prices,  s u p p l y o f a l l goods and  profiteering. and  had  Trades  prices,  I t exercised  t h e power t o c o n t r o l  s e r v i c e s other than  war  materials. The  S p e c i a l Products  From the b e g i n n i n g  o f t h e war  Board t o May  1,  19^0,  i F . S h e f r i n , " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Wartime A g r i c u l t u r a l C o n t r o l s i n Canada", The Economic A n n a l i s t , (Ottawa: The Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , F e b r u a r y , 191+3).  - 25 eggs e x p o r t e d t o G r e a t B r i t a i n were h a n d l e d by B r i t i s h importers.  19^+0, t h e  I n May,  British  o f Food became t h e s o l e i m p o r t e r o f eggs.  Ministry  I n Canada,  19I+O,  s a l e s o f eggs t o t h e B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y d u r i n g made d i r e c t by t h e t r a d e .  private  F o l l o w i n g the expressed  desire  o f t h e B r i t i s h Food M i n i s t r y t o d e a l w i t h a s i n g l e t h e F e d e r a l government on A p r i l 15, 'Special Products Board.  19^1,  T h i s Board  s e t up  could deal,  o r d e r s f o r any o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s .  not  powers  t o r e q u i r e anyone  t o d e l i v e r p r o d u c t s needed a t s e a b o a r d necessary; to determine  met  with  i n c l u d e d the r i g h t to r e g u l a t e exports o f  p r o d u c t s n o t c o v e r e d by o t h e r B o a r d s ;  purchase  The  agency,  the  o n l y w i t h eggs and p o u l t r y e x p o r t o r d e r s b u t a l s o  o f the Board  were  p r i c e and  and  t o snore i f  p r i c e s t o be p a i d p r o v i d e d  a l l c o s t s except  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were  out o f t h e amount r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e U n i t e d Kingdom  government. It  encouraged  i n c r e a s e d output  s u c h as eggs t h a t were p r o d u c e d q u a n t i t i e s t o meet r e q u i r e m e n t s .  of c e r t a i n  products  i n Canada i n i n s u f f i c i e n t I t assisted  i n the  movement o f s u p p l i e s such as f e e d s , t o a r e a s where t h e y were needed.  The B o a r d  a l s o encouraged  and  assisted  In  t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f d e h y d r a t i o n p l a n t s f o r eggs and  in  o b t a i n i n g p r i o r i t i e s f o r m a t e r i a l s important  i n war  industries.  the  In a d d i t i o n to these f u n c t i o n s ,  A g r i c u l t u r a l S u p p l i e s Board  in  adopted  o i l dipping  '  - 26 -  o f eggs t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r q u a l i t y when s h i p p e d  overseas.  T h i s method o f p r e s e r v a t i o n has s i n c e b e e n f u r t h e r developed  and now i s i n common u s e i n warehouse storage.. The  Food A d m i n i s t r a t i o n B o a r d  A Food A d m i n i s t r a t i o n B o a r d was s e t up i n o r d e r t o a d m i n i s t e r maximum w h o l e s a l e  and r e t a i l p r i c e s , and  .to i n s u r e a s a t i s f a c t o r y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f o o d s t u f f s f r o m producer  t o r e t a i l e r s , p r o c e s s o r s , and u l t i m a t e consumers.  T h r o u g h s e t t i n g maximum and i n many c a s e s minimum p r i c e s , it  p r o v i d e d guidance  and i n c e n t i v e f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f  desired  a g r i c u l t u r a l products.  divided  into  The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  s i x main s e c t i o n s , o f w h i c h p o u l t r y and  p o u l t r y p r o d u c t s was one.  Committee on Food R e q u i r e m e n t s and Production Capacity The  p u r p o s e o f t h i s committee was t o d e t e r m i n e  agricultural objectives, domestic  and e x p o r t ,  that  i s , the food  requirements,  and t h e n a t i o n s p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y .  S p e c i f i c o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s were s e t up t o a s s i s t  farmers  i n making t h e i r p l a n s f o r t h e new y e a r .  The All  Canada Government Egg R e g u l a t i o n s ; Grading, Packing, Marking  l i v e s t o c k and l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t s  w i t h i n o r imported  i n t o Canada a r e c o n t r o l l e d by t h e  L i v e s t o c k and L i v e s t o c k P r o d u c t s for  produced  A c t . The c o n t r o l p r o v i d e s  i n s p e c t i o n , grading, packing, l a b e l l i n g ,  branding,  + and m a r k i n g . of  packages,  • - 27 -  I t prescribes types, sizes,  p a c k i n g m a t e r i a l and method o f p a c k i n g .  provides f o r l i c e n s i n g q u a n t i t y and  specifications  quality,  o v e r s h i p p i n g and  transportation,  and p r e s c r i b e s t h e g r a d e s and  of  l i v e s t o c k and l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t s t h a t may  or  imported.  of  purchases; f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o s e l l e r  B u y e r s must p r e p a r e a s t a t e m e n t  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of such accounts. g r a d e s t h a t may  The  be b r o k e n o r d r i e d  It  be  class  exported  of  accounts  o r s h i p p e r and f o r  Act c o n t r o l s  egg  i n egg b r e a k i n g p l a n t s .  A c c o r d i n g t o tfe,e A c t a l l t h o s e engaged i n t h e g r a d i n g o f any l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t s a r e r e q u i r e d  to o b t a i n a  certif-  i c a t e upon such terms as a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r p u b l i c  interest.  Eaose engaged i n s h i p p i n g o r i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f l i v e s t o c k and l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t s must r e g i s t e r w i t h the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . upon terms and The  These r e g i s t r a t i o n s a r e  conditions necessary to p u b l i c  granted  interest.  A c t a l s o c o n t r o l s a d v e r t i s i n g o f l i v e s t o c k and  live-  s t o c k p r o d u c t s f o r w h i c h g r a d e s have been p r e s c r i b e d ,  and  any o t h e r m a t t e r deemed n e c e s s a r y f o r the enforcement  of  t h e L i v e s t o c k and L i v e s t o c k P r o d u c t s A c t . Canada Government egg  standards are a p p l i e d  to  ^Decpartment o f A g r i c u l t u r e , " R e g u l a t i o n s R e s p e c t i n g t h e g r a d i n g , P a c k i n g and M a r k i n g o f E g g s , Canada, 19*4-0, and R e l e v a n t P a r t s o f the L i v e s t o c k and L i v e s t o c k P r o d u c t s A c t , 1939. (Ottawa: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r S t a t i o n e r y , 195D? pp. 3-12.  of  - 28 eggs s h i p p e d , t r a n s p o r t e d , o f f e r e d , o r p o s s e s s e d f o r s a l e , or purchase.  They r e f e r t o g r a d e s , g r a d i n g p r e m i s e s and  equipment, p a c k i n g m a t e r i a l s , and grade m a r k i n g s . Compulsory g r a d e s a r e Grade A L a r g e S i z e ,  Grade  A Medium S i z e , Grade B, Grade C, and C r a c k s , w i t h noneompulsory  1  grades- i n t o w h i c h Grade A q u a l i t y eggs c a n  he p l a c e d , as Grade A E x t r a L a r g e S i z e , Grade A S m a l l S i z e , Grade A Peewee S i z e , Grade A l g x t r a L a r g e S i z e , Grade A l L a r g e S i z e , Grade A l Medium S i z e and Grade A l Small  Size. Eggs must be p l a c e d i n t h e h i g h e s t grade f o r  which t h e y . q u a l i f y .  C o n s i d e r a t i o n i n g r a d i n g must be  g i v e n t o , (a) t h e q u a l i t y f a c t o r as d e t e r m i n e d by candling,  (b) t h e w e i g h t f a c t o r and ( c ) t h e s h e l l  The l a t t e r shell  I s d e t e r m i n e d by c l e a n l i n e s s ,  factor.  soundness and  construction. I n Grade A ,  1  t h e q u a l i t y i s d e t e r m i n e d by  candling.  The y o l k o u t l i n e I s i n d i s t i n c t , r o u n d and r e a s o n a b l y c e n t e r e d , showing no germ development o r r e a d i l y defects or abnormalities.  visible  A i r 6 e l l must n o t exceed  3/16 i n c h i n d e p t h , and f l o a t i n g and meat s p o t s a r e n o t p e r m i t t e d .  a i r c e l l s , blood  spots,  The s h e l l i n Grade A  eggs must be u n b r o k e n , and p r a c t i c a l l y n o r m a l i n shape. S l i g h t l y r i d g e d , r o u g h o r misshapen s h e l l s a r e p e r m i t t e d . D e f i n i t e l y misshapen, h e a v i l y r i d g e d o r t h i n s h e l l s a r e  ^Ibid_j_, p.  15»  - 29 prohibited.  The  s h e l l must be c l e a n bufc may  s p o t s n o t e x c e e d i n g an a r e a o f 1/8  stain  show t h r e e  X 1/16  inches. 27  I n d i v i d u a l w e i g h t p e r d o z e n a r e ; Grade A E x t r a L a r g e ounces o r o v e r ; Grade A Medium 21 S i z e 18  t o 21  o u n c e s ; Grade A S m a l l  o u n c e s ; and Grade A Peewee 18  ounces o r  lessGrade B eggs must w e i g h i n d i v i d u a l l y a t t h e r a t e •of 21 may  ounces p e r d o z e n o r o v e r .  S h e l l must be u n b r o k e n ,  show d e f i n i t e r e d g e s o r r o u g h a r e a s b u t no  thin  spots.  pronounced  Reasonably prominent s t a i n s or spots are  p e r m i t t e d p r o v i d i n g t h e y do n o t s e r i o u s l y d e t r a c t t h e egg  appearance.  y o l k may in  from  I n t e r n a l q u a l i t y f a c t o r s are; the  be v i s i b l e , m o d e r a t l y b u t n o t d e f i n i t e l y o b l o n g  shape, must f l o a t  f r e e l y \\rhen egg i s t w i r r l e d ,  p o s i t i o n i s not a determining f a c t o r . exceed 3/8  i n c h e s deep.  Floating  but  A i r c e l l must n o t  air cells  are p e r m i t t e d .  B l o o d and meat s p o t s a r e n o t p e r m i t t e d . Grade G eggs have no minimum o r maximum w e i g h t , a and s h e l l must be u n b r o k e n , b u t may or stained.  Y o l k o u t l i n e may  be i r r e g u l a r and  be d i s t i n c t l y v i s i b l e  dirty and  d e f i n i t e l y o b l o n g i n shape, b u t must n o t adhere t o t h e s h e l l membrane and must be u n b r o k e n . air  cell  size.  Moderate  germ s p o t s , f l o a t i n g permitted.  grass y o l k s , d e f i n i t e l y  a i r c e l l s , meat and b l o o d  1  I b i d . , p.  T h e r e i s no maximum  18.  pronounced  spots are  - 30 Grade C r a c k s i n c l u d e s any egg o t h e r w i s e e l e g i b l e f o r any o f t h e g r a d e s b u t w i t h a c r a c k e d  shell.  Grade A l eggs a r e p a c k e d , g r a d e d , and marked by p r o d u c e r s , c o - o p e r a t i v e s , or marketing groups approved b y t h e Department  of Agriculture.  p o u l t r y premises are c l e a n ,  A p p r o v a l comes when  s a n i t a r y and y a r d s a r e f e n c e d ;  when no male b i r d s a r e k e p t i n pens  s u p p l y i n g Grade A l eggs;  when o n l y f e e d g r a i n s p l u s - r e c o g n i z e d  supplementary feeds  a r e f e d ; when p r o d u c e r s have adequate f a c i l i t i e s i n g eggs; and when t h e p r o d u c e r s a t i s f i e s of A g r i c u l t u r e original  that  t h e eggs w i l l  for cool-  t h e Department  go t o t h e consumer  s e a l e d p a c k a g e s , p r o p e r l y marked.  in  I f eggs a r e  g r a d e d , p a c k e d , and m a r k e t e d by c o - o p e r a t i v e s o r marketed by g r o u p s , s u c h groups must o p e r a t e a R e g i s t e r e d Grading S t a t i o n . indistinct,  I n Grade A l q u a l i t y t h e y o l k shadow I s  s m a l l , r o u n d , and m a i n t a i n s a c e n t e r a l  The a i r c e l l must n o t exceed 1/8 mottled or grass yolks, v i s i b l e  i n c h i n depth.  position.  However,  germ s p o t s , f l o a t i n g a i r  c e l l s o r meat s p o t s a r e d i s q u a l i f y i n g The  Egg  characteristics.  s h e l l must be c l e a n , u n b r o k e n , and n o r m a l i n shape.  Weight o f Grade A l L a r g e eggs must be 2h  ounces t o t h e  d o z e n , o f Grade A Medium must be between  21 and 2h  ounces  p e r d o z e n , and grade A l S m a l l eggs must be 18 t o 21 ounces p e r dozen. All  eggs must be c l a s s e d as " R e j e c t s " , w h i c h  show any a b n o r m a l i t i e s o r p r o h i b i t e d c o n d i t i o n s , m a t t e r o r ' d i s c o l o r a t i o n , o r musty  odour, any t h a t have been i n  - 31 an i n c u b a t o r , o r c o n t a i n c a n d l i n g d e f e c t s , such as clot, rot,  bloody  eggs, b l o o d r i n g , mixed o r r e d r o t , s p o t  b l a c k . r o t , white  r o t , sour r o t , s t u c k y o l k . A  Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e p e r m i t of  these  eggs may  be  Wooden egg 2*+  i s required before  c a s e s must have i n s i d e d i m e n s i o n s 5/8  Inches width,  and  i n h i g h t h , and must be made o f w e l l s e a s o n e d w i t h n o t more t h a n 15  percent moisture  12.5  p r i n t e d on them, may  be u s e d .  content.  o f medium f i n i s h may  F i l l e r s and be  to  flats  c l e a n l i n e s s and  Inches  Paper  flats  be of  used.  Grade A eggs must be p a c k e d i n new fillers,  of  sound wood  boxes p a s s i n g s p e c i f i c B u r s t i n g t e s t s , w h i c h must  new  any  purchased.  i n c h e s I n l e n g t h , 11  pulp f i b e r  blood  cases  with  and pads o r the e q u i v a l e n t i n r e g a r d soundness o f c o n s t r u c t i o n .  CHAPTER I I I VARIABILITY IN THE Seasonal The  INDUSTRY  Prices  p r i c e s o f eggs show t h e  s e a s o n a l f l u c t u a t i o n s o f a l l the round f a r m  products.  staple  year  p r i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia  u s u a l l y between December and a n n u a l peak i n egg  occurs frequently  p r i c e s of  average  1  A d r o p i n egg  w i t h the  greatest  during  F e b r u a r y and production.  occurs  coincides A rise  roughly  i n egg  t h e months o f J u n e , J u l y ,  prices  and  2 August.  The  s e a s o n a l change i n egg  f l u c t u a t i o n i n egg  d e t e r i o r a t i o n that  q u a l i t y o f eggs i n  takes place  run  fluctuations,  part  are  in  the  d i f f e r e n c e between extremes seldom v a r i e s a g r e a t prices  cost  storage.  During these short  The  from  p r o d u c t i o n from season to season;  o f s t o r i n g eggs; and the  prices result  at t h e i r lowest l e v e l during  o f the year, u s u a l l y  showing t h e  the  deal.  early  lowest point  "*"G.S.Shepherd, M a r k e t i n g Farm P r o d u c t s . Iowa S t a t e C o l l e g e P r e s s , 192+9), p. 89.  in  (Ames:  o "Composite P r o d u c e r P r i c e i n C e n t s Per Dozen, o f Grade A L a r g e and Grade A Medium Eggs a t Vancouver",T a b l e 8, Appendix I I .  - 32 -  . - 33 January  i n B r i t i s h Columbia  and u s u a l l y r e a c h t h e  highest p o i n t i n July.  The  e t i n g months o c c u r n e a r  the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e  p e r i o d s o f low There  and h i g h e r  a n n u a l h i g h and low egg  prices.  seems t o be  evidence that t h i s  p a t t e r n of p r i c e s i s changing The  amplitude  of the p r i c e  F o r t y y e a r s ago,  1  i n January;  seasonal  w i t h the passage of  swing  •States has b e e n d e c r e a s i n g and earlier.  peak comes i n November, and  The  time.  i n Eastern United  t h e peak o f p r i c e s  coming  t h e p r i c e peak u s u a l l y came  g r a d u a l l y i t moved t o December; now  n e x t few y e a r s i t may  mark-  the  i n d i c a t i o n s are t h a t i n the  come as e a r l y as  October.  r e a s o n s f o r t h e s e changes i n t h e  seasonal  p r i c e p a t t e r n t r a c e b a c k t o changes i n p r o d u c t i o n and storage p r a c t i s e s .  B e f o r e t h e World War  farm f l o c k s produced none d u r i n g f a l l  many s m a l l  a l l t h e i r eggs I n t h e s p r i n g ,  and w i n t e r .  I n t h e 1920's,  d i s c o v e r i e s were made i n the f i e l d and b r e e d i n g .  1,  of poultry  and  important nutrition  P o u l t r y p r o d u c e r s began t o make use  of  t h e s e d i s c o v e r i e s t o get more eggs p e r hen d u r i n g t h e y e a r , and  t o get a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e eggs i n  the h i g h p r i c e d months.  J . W o r k i n g , A n Analyses'- o f M o n t h l y P r i c e s o f E g g s " , J o u r n a l o f Farm E c o n o m i c s , (Menasha: A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l of-Farm E c o n o m i c s , 1929), X I I , p . H-60. x  M  Storage all  reduces  egg  at p r e s e n t .  prices.  certainly fluctuate  and  t a k e n out d u r i n g months o f  W i t h ample s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s ,  seasonal p r i c e f l u c t u a t i o n s storage.  Storage  should  of increasing  prices  o f f e r s t o buy  and  to J u l y ,  decrease  government t h r o u g h a t the w h o l e s a l e  Grade A q u a l i t y , any storage withdrawal  average  between August  and  prices.  support  policy  level for  a t t h e end  of  the  season. Price  Level  g e n e r a l upward movements I n a n n u a l  p r i c e s , f r o m 19V3  cost  the p e r i o d  i t s floor price  eggs u n s o l d  General The  the  higher  amount t o t h e  December i n t h e p e r i o d o f d e c r e a s i n g The  than  s t o c k s o f s h e l l eggs i n B r i t i s h  Columbia''" i n c r e a s e f r o m F e b r u a r y  t o 1951  i n the g e n e r a l p r i c e l e v e l . v e r y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n was annual  much more  Eggs a r e p l a c e d i n s t o r a g e d u r i n g months  of lower p r i c e s  egg  for i f  eggs were put on the r e t a i l market when p r o d u c e d ,  p r i c e s would almost  of  price fluctuations,  average  are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  changes  In the United S t a t e s , a  found  t o e x i s t between t h e  p r i c e o f eggs p e r dozen and  the general  price  " S t o r a g e S t o c k s o f S h e l l Eggs a t V a n c o u v e r " , T a b l e 17j,Appendix X I I I . . x  - 35 l e v e l as  I n d i c a t e d by  the  a n n u a l i n d e x o f w h o l e s a l e prices.,'  Variability  i n Feed P r i c e s  Feed p r i c e s have a l m o s t d o u b l e d i n t h e y e a r p e r i o d between 19V3  and  1951.  Wartime  nine  stabilization  measures e f f e c t i v e l y h e l d f e e d p r i c e s down, f o r between 19^2  19^6  and  t h e p r i c e o f l a y i n g mash went up  SH-.00 p e r  ton.  increased  f r o m $^+9  From  19^7  t o $89  to  1951,  per  about  however, t h e  price  ton.  P r i c e s o f l a y i n g mash, wheat, o a t s , and not n e c e s s a r i l y f l u c t u a t e i n accord I n January, o f 1951 mash i n c r e a s e d $h $70  to  $66;  and  o f 1950  f r o m |80  f r o m $60  t o $69.  wheat remained s t e a d y , o a t s  ton during  the  first  and  the  t o |8H-;  i n c r e a s e d $13  oats  $9  increased  and  with  one  ton of l a y i n g  wheat d e c r e a s e d $h t o $69;  I n 19^5,  while  and  from barley  l a y i n g mash  b a r l e y r a i s e d $1  second h a l v e s  do  another.  p r i c e s per  f r o m $56  and  barley  of the  per  year  2 respectively. U s u a l l y , the g r a i n s are h i g h e r i n the beginning  I9U3  to  19^+6,  p r i c e s o f l a y i n g mash and  scratch  i n the l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e y e a r , h a l f of the year.  the  stabilizing  During the  than  years,  i n f l u e n c e o f wartime p r i c e  iR.W.Hoeke, The Economics o f t h e P o u l t r y E n t e r p r i s e on K a n s a s Farms, (Manhattans A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment s t a t i o n , Kansas S t a t e d o l l e g e o f A g r i c u l t u r e and A p p l i e d S c i e n c e , 19^2), p. 30. " P r o d u c e r P r i c e s Per Ton o f Mash, Wheat, B a r l e y , O a t s , D e l i v e r e d To F r a z e r V a l l e y P o i n t s " , T a b l e 9, .Appendix I I I .  - 36 control,  i s t o be n o t e d i n t h e few p r i c e r i s e s  d u r i n g t h a t t i m e , as compared w i t h t h e l a t e r  occuring  uncontrolled  period,. The c o m p o s i t e p r i c e o f t h e complete r a t i o n r o s e l/2f p e r pound o r $20  p e r t o n between J a n u a r y and December  19V7,  c o n t r o l s were removed.  a f t e r wartime  y e a r p e r i o d between 19^8 f r o m 3.1/  and 1951  p e r pound o r $18  p e r ton."'"  Between  19*+3 and 1951?  the monthly  was  three  showed a p r i c e  t o h&  i n the Lower'Mainland  The  increase  composite  h i g h e r t h a n t h e average  priee  monthly  p r i c e f o r e a c h y e a r d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f f i v e months, and under t h e average m o n t h l y p r i c e f o r e a c h y e a r d u r i n g p e r i o d o f seven months.  These months o f o v e r and  a  under  a n n u a l average p r i c e s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y appear i n t h e same months o f e a c h y e a r , b u t i n g e n e r a l , t h e o v e r a v e r a g e price  a p p e a r s i n t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e y e a r , and  under  average p r i c e i n t h e former h a l f o f t h e y e a r .  Egg P r o d u c t i o n and M a r k e t i n g V a r i a t i o n s Due war  t o ' t h e c u l l i n g program n e c e s s a r y d u r i n g t h e  i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n , maximum p r o d u c t i o n f r o m minimum  f e e d consumption,  t h e average a n n u a l egg p r o d u c t i o n p e r  hen i n c r e a s e d t w e l v e p e r c e n t .  T h i s was  accompanied  by  a  ""Composite P r o d u c e r P r i c e s i n C e n t s p e r Dozen o f Grade A L a r g e and Grade A Medium E g g s a t Vancouver", T a b l e 11, Appendix V I .  A  d e c l i n e o f about 25 but r e s u l t e d  p e r c e n t i n t h e l a y i n g hen p o p u l a t i o n  i n a d e c l i n e o f o n l y one p e r c e n t i n m a r k e t e d  The a n n u a l egg m a r k e t i n g s r o s e 2k  eggs. 19^6  - 37 -  and 19V7.  between  Marketing declined  IJhQ and  about 30  t o 19V7,  percent  t h e . a v e r a g e a n n u a l number o f  l a y e r s i n c r e a s e d o n e - s i x t h as a r e s u l t  The  between  1951.1  From 19^6  and r e s u l t e d  percent  i n a rise  o f postwar  i n p r o d u c t i o n o f 2k p e r c e n t .  c h i e f reason f o r the great  from s p r i n g t o f a l l  expansion  i s t h e change f r o m  i n t h e number o f eggs l a i d p e r i o d from the mid-year  swing I n p r o d u c t i o n season t o s e a s o n  p e r h e n p e r month.  low t o the l a t t e r  year, c h i c k s purchased In the spring p r o d u c t i o n and r e a c h t h e i r peak about  During the  part of the  I n c r e a s e i n egg January.  V a r i a t i o n s i n t h e Movement o f Eggs i n t o H a t c h i n g The number o f baby c h i c k s h a t c h e d , e i t h e r on f a r m s , o r i n c o m m e r c i a l h a t c h e r i e s a p p e a r s t o be related  closely  t o t h e e g g - f e e d r a t i o d u r i n g t h e h a t c h i n g season..  The number o f hens and p u l l e t s o f l a y i n g  age i n f a r m  f l o c k s on M a r c h a c t as a second i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e .  In  " ^ " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Stock., P r o d u c t i o n , and D i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e Commercial Egg I n d u s t r y " , T a b l e A p p e n d i x XIV.  18,  - 38 considering the egg-feed ratio only, i t may he shown that the p r o f i t s prospects as indicated by the aggregate egg-feed ratio during the hatching season, from January to May of each year i n B r i t i s h Columbia, corresponds only roughly with the t o t a l eggs purchased by hatcheries during the same period.  This Indicates that other variables  are important. The variations i n numbers of hens and pullets of laying age which are reported i n United States farms flocks on March 1, largely r e f l e c t p r o f i t a b i l i t y of feeding chickens for egg production i n preceding months, and i s there-, fore in part an indication of earlier relationships between feed costs and egg p r i c e s . In B r i t i s h Columbia, the heaviest movement of 2  eggs into hatching occurs i n the f i r s t half of the year. The heavier quantity of eggs going into hatching use i n the e a r l i e r portion of the year, corresponds with the heavier production of marketed eggs occurring i n the months of December to February.  Chicks purchased during the  heaviest months of hatching egg movement, February, March, and A p r i l , mature i n about four months, so that egg ^.W.Sprague, "The Effect of the Egg-Feed Ratio on the Numbers of Young Chickens i n Farm Flocks on March 1", Journal of Farm Economics,(Menashas American Farm Economic 1 1 association, 193^), XVI, pp. 33+-3K). 2  "Eggs Sold and Used, by the Producer, for Hatching Purposes i n B r i t i s h Columbia", Table 16, Appendix XII.  - 39 -  • p r o d u c t i o n b e g i n s about  June, J u l y , o r August.  p r o d u c t i o n s l o w l y i n c r e a s e s as the b i r d  Egg  grows, and  reaches  i t s peak between December t o F e b r u a r y . T o t a l eggs i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s o l d f o r h a t c h i n g has  shown a d e c l i n e o f about k-0 p e r c e n t f r o m 19kQ  Those used by p r o d u c e r s f o r h a t c h i n g show a percentage  d e c l i n e d u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d .  to  1950,  similar This results  from t h e p r o s p e c t o f s m a l l e r p r o f i t when t h e e g g - f e e d  ratio  i s unfavorable.^ V a r i a t i o n s i n the Number o f L a y e r s The  percentage  of l a y e r s to chickens  including  young s t o e k , i n c r e a s e s between s u r v e y s t a k e n by Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e on June 1, a p p r o x i m a t e l y h9  Canada  and December 1,  from  p e r c e n t i n June t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 88  per-  p  c e n t i n December.  T h i s I s the r e s u l t o f growth,  i n c r e a s i n g age,  and  coming i n t o p r o d u c t i o n o f c h i c k s  hatched  I n the  earlier  On Jtuie 1,  year.  t h e number o f l a y e r s a r e fewer  number t h a n t h o s e o f December.1.  T h i s i s the r e s u l t  c u l l i n g o f f l o c k s w h i c h i s p a r t l y due ratio  in of  to unfavorable  e x i s t i n g between between c o s t o f f e e d and r e t u r n s  ^ " B r i t i s h Columbia S t o c k , P r o d u c t i o n , and D i s t r i b u t i o n I n t h e Commercial Egg I n d u s t r y " , T a b l e Appendix XIV 4  18,  - ko -  from eggs.  This culling of early "birds i s more drastic  that that of late b i r d s , because later In the year, the ratio i s more favorable.  The June 1 figures for layers  also includes some early maturing birds purchased i n the spring, as well as yearling  carry-over.  Excess Capacity The largest number of laying birds i n the B r i t i s h Columbia commercial egg industry for the period 19H-U- to  1951 occurred i n I9M+.^ Making the assumption that these birds had an adequate capital investment In land, i n buildings and equipment, and i n layers and flock replacements, excess capacity occurred i n the commercial egg industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia as the number of layers reduced i n the following years. A large increase resulted i n excess capacity from the t o t a l capital investment needed for the  2,1+93,000 layers  In the B r i t i s h Columbia commercial egg industry i n 19M+ to that needed for  1,^-66,000 layers i n 1951.  The capital investment per layer i n B r i t i s h Columbia  63 percent from $k.952 i n 19kh to $7»6?^ i n 19^9.  increased  The t o t a l capital investment needed for the laying flocks 1  Ibid.  B.D.Woodward, Some Factors That Influence Poultry Farm Income. (Ottawa: Department of Agriculture, January,  19M3), p. 15.  3R.H.Campbell, "Egg and Poultry Production i n B r i t i s h Columbia", The Economic Annalist. (Ottawa: The Department of Agriculture, December, 195D, p. 130.  - hi -  7 percent from $12,3^0,350 i n l$hh to  increased  $13,852,020  i n 19^4.  During the same period, the  number of layers reduced  79 percent from 2,^+93,000 i n 19*+8  to 1,806,000 in 19^9. The excess capcity i n 19*+6 was high as this was a year of expanding investment. was also high, 1  The demand for chicks  and thus growing stock accounted for  'the comparative increase i n chickens and reduced number of layers. Excess capacity decreased during  I9V7 and I9H-8,  the two years of greatest farm production during the data period.  It increased again i n 19^+9, after the termination  of the B r i t i s h egg contract, and decreased s l i g h t l y i n 1950 as a result of the Korean situation.  In 1951, the  excess capacity again increased because of the reduced prices resulting  from egg imports. The Point of Bisinvestment  When the returns to capital and labour go below 2  a certain amount, the farmersitend to move out of the industry, reduce production, or seek alternative forms of income. During the period 19W3 to 19^+6, the returns to ^"Eggs Sold and Used, by the producer, for Hatching Purposes In B r i t i s h Columbia11, Table 16, Appendix X I I . 2  "Budget of a Sample B r i t i s h Columbia Commercial Egg Farm", Table 21, Appendix X V I I .  ^2 c a p i t a l and l a b o u r  were above a v e r a g e  a v e r a g e between 19^7  and 1950.  Uniformly high  o f 19V7  r e s u l t e d from the i n a b i l i t y  readily  adapt i t s e l f  that  marketings  o f the i n d u s t r y to  t o t h e below a v e r a g e r e t u r n  commencing  year. Between  .average r e t u r n s , decline. returns  I.9V7 and 1950,  and  commercial  again  t o 1951,  average  conditions  conditions  of the  or  average  o f p r o f i t a b i l i t y were u n d e r and l a b o u r ,  average and  period.  as an i n d i c a t o r o f p r o f i t a b i l i t y t e n f t -  t o p r e c e d e m a r k e t i n g movements by Variations  industry.  1^.68.  below f o r the remainder o f the ratio  average  o f p r o f i t a b i l i t y o f the  as were t h e E e t u r n s t o c a p i t a l  The  continual  a y e a r o f above  egg i n d u s t r y a r e i n d i c a t e d by t h e  The  continued  of l e s s than  show a  r e s u l t s from the i n e r t i a  egg-feed r a t i o f o r the p e r i o d ,  I9V7,  the p e r i o d  the annual marketings  This continues  The  in  and were b e l o w  some m o n t h s .  i n R e t u r n s t o C a p i t a l and  1  Labour  T h e r e are l a r g e a n n u a l and c y c l i c a l v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e r e t u r n t o c a p i t a l and l a b o u r  of the  commercial  egg p r o d u c e r .  •^Mechanical i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e Graph o f M o n t h l y Egg M a r k e t i n g s and C o n c u r r e n t Egg-Feed R a t i o , B.C., Appendix IX, showed a 16 months l a g w h i c h gave a l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n o f .82. The f e d e r a l government r e p o r t e d i n the Egg and P o u l t r y Market R e p o r t o f December 13, 19^6, t h a t Canada-wide changes I n egg m a r k e t i n g f o l l o w e d n o t i f i c a t i o n o f egg p r i c e b o o s t s o r d e c l i n e s d u r i n g t h e war by 18 months.  TABLE 5 RETURNS TO CAPITAL AND LABOUR OF A SAMPLE BRITISH COLUMBIA COMMERCIAL EGG FARM "' 3  Year  Returns  1951  3,^92  1950  1-676  19^9  2,160  19^8  1,807  19V7  •  1  J  6  ^  19^6 '  2,582  19^5  2,629  19^  2,115  19^3 Av  3,181  2,366  '"Budget o f a Sample B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Commercial E g g Farm", T a b l e 21, Appendix X V I I . Between  19^3  l a b o u r dropped from to  $1,676.  and 19*+6 t h e r e t u r n t o c a p i t a l and  $3,181 t o $2,582, and i n 1950  D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , I t ranged  dropped  $1515.  The v a r i a t i o n s a r e l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d b y movements i n t h e p r i c e s o f f e e d and o f eggs. c a p i t a l and l a b o u r i n  $3,*+92.  The r e t u r n t o  1950 was $1,676, and i n 1951  Between t h e s e two y e a r s t h e p r i c e o f f e e d  advanced 2 p e r e e n t and t h a t o f eggs 17  percent.  was  The  F a r m e r ' s Response To The Egg-Feed  The  cost o f feed represented  quarters o f the cost o f producing  about  Ratio  three-  eggs d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d  I9I+3 t o 1951. C o n s e q u e n t l y f e e d p r i c e s had an i m p o r t a n t bearing  upon t h e c o m m e r c i a l egg p r o d u c e r ' s p r o s p e r i t y . The  ratio  f o r e a c h month may be compared  the  a r i t h m e t i c average o f t h e m o n t h l y e g g - f e e d  for  t h e n i n e y e a r p e r i o d , 19^3  t o 1951?  whether t h e month i s more o r l e s s The  r a t i o was u n f a v o r a b l e  J a n u a r y 19*4-6 onward.  During  with  ratio  to ascertain  f a v o r a b l e than during  average.  the period  1  from  t h i s p e r i o d , feed p r i c e s  i n c r e a s e d f r o m an a n n u a l average o f 2.078/ p e r pound t o  3.817/ p e r pound i n 195L 1.739/ o r 130 p e r c e n t . in  amounted t o  E g g p r i c d s i n c r e a s e d f r o m 33.7/  l°h6 t o 5*+.3/ i n 1951? During  This increase  an i n c r e a s e o f 20.6/2" o r 16 p e r c e n t .  the period o f comparatively  high  f r o m May, 19*+3 t o F e b r u a r y , 19*+5, t h e average  ratios,  annual  c o m p o s i t e p r i c e p e r d o z e n o f eggs was ^6.56^" i n 19*4-3»  31.31/ i n 19M4, and 3*4-.66/ i n 19*4-5. P r i c e s o f f e e d f o r t h e 2 same y e a r s were 2.077/, 2.022/, and 2.056/. G r a p h o f M o n t h l y Egg M a r k e t i n g s a t R e g i s t e r e d E g g G r a d i n g S t a t i o n s and C o n c u r r e n t M o n t h l y Egg-Feed R a t i o " , Appendix IX. l r ,  " B u d g e t o f a Sample B r i t i s h Columbia Commercial Farm", T a b l e 21, Appendix X V I I I . 2  Egg  - if5 During the impetus of wartime demands, the ratio was more favorable than afterwards, and as overseas demands were high i t remained so during  19^-6.  The heavy marketings i n 19^7  resulting from the  expansion i n production during the war and immediately a f t e r , was accompanied by a reduction i n egg prices. Considered i n the l i g h t of the increased feed p r i c e , this production presented the f i r s t indication of the unfavorable situation which continued through to The generally unfavorable ratio i n 19^7,  1951. accomp-  anied by the p o s s i b i l i t y of the expiry of the B r i t i s h egg contract during the next production period, resulted i n a less favorable outlook for the next production period . On January 31, 19^9,  the contract expired and was  not  renewed. In  19*+9,  the domestic market took most of the  production, and t h i s less favorable situation became evident i n the r a t i o .  The price of eggs made less than proportional  increases as compared to feed prices. The production and ratio took a downward trend u n t i l late 1950, started.  when the Korean war and defense preparations  The unfavorable situation from the producer's  point of view i s indicated by the low returns to capital and labour during the l a t t e r part, of  1950.  The average monthly egg-feed ratio for the period from 19^3  to 1951  for'the period was  was lk.68 and the average monthly marketings  ^8,922  cases of  30  dozen eggs.  The  - 1+6 charted monthly ratios and monthly marketings , show that the ratio f o r the beginning of the period was more favorable and marketings increased more than average while toward the end of the data period the ratio became •unfavorable, and marketings decreased. The Egg-Feed Ratio and Real Returns to Capital and Labour The return to capital and labour, when reduced by the farm cost of l i v i n g index represents a comparison between the amount the return would buy now, as compared to the amount i t would buy i n the base period 1935 to 1939. The deflated or real return to capital and labour and the egg-feed ratio show a r i s i n g trend from 19^3 to  19V7, except for 19I+1+. Then, i n 19I+8, both dipped sharply as a result of the disproportionate decreases of egg and feed prices i n that year, as a result of the largest domestic surplus of eggs to that date, and the large amount of feed grains available.  The ratio reduced i n 19^-8  and accompanying this was a drop i n the real return to the producer.  In 19^9 both rose s l i g h t l y , because the price  of feed rose somewhat less than that of eggs. In 1950, the price of eggs dropped Qp. c i t  because of  f !i  j; |  - 1+7 unfavorable rose  I  market c o n d i t i o n s w h i l e  the p r i c e of feed  s l i g h t l y , making a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e e g g - f e e d r a t i o and  reducing  t h e r e t u r n t o c a p i t a l and l a b o u r . I n 1951,  t h e p r i c e o f eggs r o s e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y  h i g h a s a. r e s u l t o f d e f e n s e p r e p a r a t i o n s , increased r a t i o .  and caused an r  T h i s was accompanied b y an I n c r e a s e d  r e a l r e t u r n t o c a p i t a l and l a b o u r . I n 19V7,  t h e Cost  and  i n c r e a s e d about  the  same y e a r s ,  in  the r a t i o  19^7 t o l+.33 1  ;  o f Farm L i v i n g  20 p e r c e n t  to  200.7  I  Index was 138,  1  i n 1951.  increased 6 percent  i n 1951.  K  Between  f r o m 13.52  T h i s shows t h e i n c r e a s e  in  <:  |  c o s t o f goods f a r m e r s buy as compared t o t h e d e c r e a s e d  j-  p r o f i t a b i l i t y o f the industry.  I  increase o f  19V7 the  to  *+5 p e r c e n t  $1,739  greater  Accompanying t h e s e was a n  i n t h e r e a l income f r o m  i n 1951, t o t h e p r o d u c e r . "  $1,199  in  This indicates  increase t o the farmer o f the p r i c e s o f h i s  c l o t h i n g , f u e l , household equip-  ment, h e a l t h maintenance and m i s c e l l a n e o u s The  lh»6Q  while  average r a t i o f o r t h e p e r i o d  items.  19*+2 t o 1951  $1,636.  the egg-feed r a t i o  beeame l e s s f a v o r a b l e t h a n a v e r a g e  was  a s shown by  'Budget o f a Sample B r i t i s h Columbia Commercial Farm", T a b l e 21, Appendix X V I I I . lr  Egg  The p r o f i t a b i l i t y ,  f  I 1  t h e average r e a l r e t u r n t o c a p i t a l and l a b o u r  f o r t h e same p e r i o d  |  I  p r o d u c e r , as compared t o t h e p r i c e s o f t h e t h i n g s he p u r c h a s e d , such as f o o d ,  I  |  ?, I  |  j; I  L  -  between  1+8 -  19*+6 and 19^7 and r e m a i n e d t h a t way u n t i l 1950.  T h i s i s a c c o m p a n i e d b y a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i n s o f a r as r e a l r e t u r n was c o n c e r n e d .  I n 1951,  p r i c e s by p r e p a r a t i o n f o r d e f e n c e , prices,  the impetus g i v e n  as compared t o  the egg  feed  i n c r e a s e d t h e r e a l r e t u r n s t o c a p i t a l and l a b o u r .  CHAPTER  IV  AGRICULTURAL PRICE POLICY NECESSARY REDUCE VARIABILITY I t has  b e e n shown i n the  v a r i a t i o n s e x i s t i n the  and  farmer, reduce the  t e n d t o cause e x c e s s It  a higher A higher  chapter  p o u l t r y industry of  Columbia which a f f e c t the r e t u r n s o f the  previous  egg  that  British  t o c a p i t a l and  m a r k e t i n g s , egg  labour  prices,  capacity.  i s s u g g e s t e d as a r e s u l t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s  minimum egg  t o the  would l e a v e  the  production,  higher  that  p r i c e would r e d u c e t h e s e f l u c t u a t i o n s .  minimum p r i c e would p r e v e n t p r o d u c e r  from f a l l i n g  TO  incomes  p o i n t where l a r g e numbers o f  industry.  Thus the  p r i c e s and  conditions  a repeat  o f the  producers f o r reduced  c y c l e would  be a l l e v i a t e d . The  present  government grew out continuation  support p r i c e p o l i c y of the o f wartime c o n d i t i o n s  o f wartime p o l i c y .  -  1+9  -  and  federal  is a  - 50 Wartime Canadian Price Policy The declared purpose of the federal government policy i n regard to agricultural price control was stated hy the Prime Minister on October 11, 19^1, to be two f o l d , "The policy touches the farmer two ways, the price c e i l i n g w i l l be applied to agricultural price while at the same time t o t a l agricultural income w i l l be supported  •  . 1  where necessary by government action."  Canadian price policy during wartime was complicated by the necessity of holding down the price l e v e l and at the same time of allowing some adjustment i n relative prices so as to meet essential war and c i v i l i a n requirements. Farm price policy included price control and price setting to prevent inflation..  This was accomplished, by  the establishment of an overall price c e i l i n g i n December, 19^1, by the regulation of the amount of mark up, and by the f i x i n g of price d i f f e r e n t i a l s between different markets. Price setting was accomplished through the establishment of fixed prices, guaranteed minimum prices, and contract prices for exportation of farm products. "''F.Shefrin, "Agricultural Policy: Wartime Prices of Farm Products," The Economic Annalist, (Ottawa: King's Printer anft1 Controller of Stationery, February, 19*4-5),  pp. 10-11.  - 51 Farm p r i c e s were s e t a t l e v e l s i n t e n d e d t o b r i n g  forth  the d e s i r e d p r o d u c t i o n . By p r i c e  setting,  c e i l i n g were a v o i d e d .  s h i f t i n g f l o o r s beneath  T h i s was  done so t h a t t h e  a  fixed  farmer  would n o t be p e n a l i z e d i f he i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n a t t h e r e q u e s t o f the  government.  The Wartime P r i c e s and T r a d e s B o a r d .farmer's p r i c e s from  the c e i l i n g ,  over the manufactured wholesale p r i c e s .  The  ceilings  r e a s o n f o r t h e s e exemptions  the from  t o g i v e f a r m e r s the b e n e f i t o f  s i t u a t i o n w h i c h might  t o t h e u l t i m a t e consumer.  a r i s e without i n c r e a s i n g  I t a l s o aimed t o p e r m i t  t o f l o w f r e e l y from f a r m e r s t o p r o c e s s o r s . and  on  o r p r o c e s s e d p r o d u c t s , o r on  c e i l i n g r e g u l a t i o n s was trading  and r e l i e d  exempted  Such  any prices  supplies commodities  s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e d p o u l t r y and p o u l t r y p r o d u c t s among  o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s and  supplies.  F a r m e r s became  r e t a i l e r s t o a l l i n t e n t s and p u r p o s e s when s e l l i n g  direct  t o consumers, t h r o u g h market s t a l l s o r o t h e r w i s e . The  I n d i r e c t f l o o r p r i c e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r eggs  t h r o u g h t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h egg an adequate  contract  r e t u r n t o p r i m a r y p r o d u c e r s and  to greater productive e f f o r t s .  The  guaranteed  s t i m u l a t e d them  f e d e r a l government  p r o v i d e d minimum p r i c e s f o r f a r m p r o d u c t s such as wheat i n g on a d i m i n i s h e d market. a minimum l i v i n g  This-measure  sell-  aimed a t p r o v i d i n g  income and e n a b l i n g the m a j o r i t y o f f a r m e r s  t o c o n t i n u e p r o d u c i n g such p r o d u c t s , w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r t h e market c o n d i t i o n s t o  improve.  - 52 The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of minimum p r i c e s i n wartime was, as a r u l e , not accompanied by the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t beset the maintenance o f a p r i c e c e i l i n g .  With  guaranteed markets f o r a l l they c o u l d produce, t h e r e was no r e a s o n f o r producers to s e l l below the set minimum price.  However, problems o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g a support p r i c e  p o l i c y were u n a v o i d a b l e .  I n order to m a i n t a i n minimum or  guaranteed p r i c e s , the government at times was f o r c e d t o buy and s t o r e l a r g e s u p p l i e s u n t i l markets became a v a i l a b l e . F o l l o w i n g are t h r e e broad c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f the main types o f d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t p r i c e s u p p o r t s . 1. F i x e d p r i c e s f o r wheat which were b o t h c e i l i n g and f l o o r p r i c e s were u s u a l l y announced p r i o r t o the seeding season. 2. Minimum p r i c e s set i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h c e i l i n g p r i c e s , and d a i l y market p r i c e s , were f r e e to f l u c t u a t e between f l o o r and c e i l i n g f o r such commodities as oats and b a r l e y . 3 . I n d i r e c t p r i c e support f o r such commodities as eggs, through d e f i n i t e l a r g e s c a l e export commitments had a s t a b i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e on the market, w i t h the r e s u l t , t h a t p r i c e s f o r produce consumed d o m e s t i c a l l y remained i n more or l e s s c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o the c o n t r a c t p r i c e . On the domestic market, 'the Wartime P r i c e s and Trades Board c e i l i n g d i d not apply t o eggs when s o l d by the p r i m a r y producers to r e t a i l e r s , processors or  1  manufacturers.  - 53 -  Egg prices, wholesale and r e t a i l f o r  Grade A Large fluctuated under a price c e i l i n g established i n the base period, September  15,  to October  11, 19*+1.  These levels were established for eleven Canadian c i t i e s serving as major distributing centers.  Appropriate zonal  d i f f e r e n t i a l s for other grades, subgrades, and weights were provided. Postwar Canadian Price Policy A price support program for eggs was put into effect on January 26, 1950, to assist the poultry industry i n the adjustment to conditions created by the discontinuance of the g r i t i s h egg markets, on January 31, 19*+9. Under this program, operated through the Agricultural Prices Support Board, the government does not participate d i r e c t l y i n the egg business.  The storage and merchandising  of eggs remains i n the hands of the industry.  The Agric-  u l t u r a l Prices Support Program offers to buy at any time, any or a l l eggs which have been stored according to Board specifications. The Board pays at a l l storage points, 33/ per dozen for eggs stored as Grade A Large and 36/ per dozen for eggs stored as Grade A.Medium, plus a stipulated allowance to cover costs of o i l i n g , storage, interest, and insurance. This adtion provides a floor price to producers of approximately 30 to 32 cents per dozen, basis Grade A Large, depending on shipping costs from station to storage.  The government policy 1 - to buy any otherwise unsaleable eggs meeting specifications provides the same s t a b i l i z i n g influence as operated under g r i t i s h contracts when the government contracted to buy eggs out of storage for delivery to Great B r i t a i n . Agricultural Price Support 2 Board Storage Specifications Eggs must be stored i n conformity with certain specifications to be elegible to be sold to the Board. Only Grade A Large and Grade A Medium eggs are to be stored.  The eggs must be oil-dipped prior to storage  i n clean, odorless tasteless mineral o i l to which no fungicides or bacteriacides have been added.  Before  o i l i n g , the interior temperature of the eggs should be equal to that of the o i l i n g room, and the egg surface must be dry. Eggs for storage are to be packed, large end up, in new wood cases or the equivalent and i n new packing material.  The storer must place a l o t number issued by  the Board on a card attached to the upper right hand corner of one end.  Eggs are to be inspected into storage and the  inspection stamp placed over the l o t number. Storage rooms must be approved by the Board.  Storage temperature  ^Department of Agriculture, Reference #6, Sub.ject Operation of Support Program, 1952. (Ottawa: Agricultural Prices Support Board, Department of Agriculture, January 2,  1952).  2Ibid.,  pp. 2-h,  - 55 must be 30  d e g r e e s p l u s o r minus one d e g r e e , and  h u m i d i t y n o t t o exceed adequate  85  percent.  relative  A l l c a s e s must have  air circulation. The B o a r d may  a t any time d u r i n g t h e  p e r i o d c a l l the a t t e n t i o n of the s t o r e r to  storage  conditions  which i t c o n s i d e r s p r e j u d i c i a l to the proper care of the  eggs and may  r e q u i r e c o r r e c t i o n o f such c o n d i t i o n s .  D u r i n g t h e s t o r a g e p e r i o d t h e eggs r e m a i n t h e p r o p e r t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e s t o r e r . be w i t h d r a w n the  Board.  The  t a g must be d e s t r o y e d and no  any" e g g s , d u r i n g  the  1952  for  Grade A L a r g e , and f o r Grade A Medium;  s e a s o n , the r e s p e c t i v e p r i c e p e r dozen w i l l  and i n c l u d i n g O c t o b e r 1;  2 and  November  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s may  h2.5&  be,  and hog  up  between  h±<£ between  Eggs S t o r e d a c c o r d i n g t o  be o f f e r e d t o t h e B o a r d on December!  and w i l l be a c c e p t e d a t h3& and t h e two  and h0,5&  1 i n c l u s i v e ; *+3/ and  November 2 and December 1,  for  withdrawn  storage.  S h o u l d t h e B o a r d o f f e r t o buy  October  may  by him a t any time f o r s a l e o t h e r t h a n t o  eggs s h a l l be r e t u r n e d t o  to  Eggs  1,  l+ljzf p e r dozen r e s p e c t i v e l y  grades.  . The r i g h t o f s u p p o r t i s c a n c e l l e d wit]? r e s p e c t t o any eggs s t i l l r e m a i n i n g i n s t o r a g e and w h i c h are n o t o f f e r e d t o t h e B o a r d by December*!,  1952.  - 60 A Reconsideration of the Support Price""On the basis of past results i t would seem that the present support price i s too low.  This i s indicated  by the fact that no eggs have been purchased under past levels of price support.  I t i s suggested that i f the price  support were at a l e v e l that would give a labour return equal to the return of agricultural hired labour then farmers  might not seek alternative Income or leave  the industry. Thus some of the basis for further cycles would be removed. What should that floor price be? The annual average wage for B r i t i s h Columbia farm 2 labour i n 1951 was $1,690 without board.  Labour income  per year of the farm operator should have a cash value aearly  equivalent to this amount. The point of disinvestment for the period, 19^3 to  1951j for the B r i t i s h Columbia commercial egg industry occurred when the annual return to capital and labour dropped near or below $2,366, that i s , when the annual cash return to the farm operator's labour Without board drops near or below $1,672. For a farm operator, p e r q u i s i t e s u c h as low cost rental of the farm home, garden produce, and egg and 1,1  A Support Price Scale of Returns", Table 6.  2  "Farm Wages i n B.C. Without Board, 19I+3-1952", Table 23, Appendix XVIII. "Farm Perquisites", Table 2h, Appendix XXI.  - 56 6  TABLE  A SUPPORT PRICE SCALE OF  An.  Av. P r i c e  a ) Eggs e) T o t a l  Fowl  (2)  (3)  1+0  42  44 1+6 1+8  50 I2 54 56 58 60  Annual Return t o  Annual Receipts  Egg c )  (4)  RETURNS**  (5)  C.&L.f ) %6$  1,431 7,200 8,631 138 1,431 7,560 8,991 498 1.1+31 7,920 9,351 858 l,i+31 8,280 9,811 1,318 l,i+31 8,61+0 10,071 1 578 1,1+31 9,000 10,1+31 1»938 1,431 9,360 10,791 2,298 l,i+31 9,720 11,151 2,658 l,i+31 10,080 1 1 , 5 U 3,018 1,431 10, ¥+0 11,871 3,378 1,431 10,800 12,231 3,738 7,200 8,761 268 7,560 9,121 628 7,920 9,481 988 8,280 9,841 1,368 8,6i+0 10,201 1,708 9,000 10,561 2,068 9,360 10,921 2,428 9,720 J Jm 2,788 1,561 3,148 10,080 1,561 111,641 ho 1 0 , 1 + 1 1 0 1,561 , 0 0 1 3,508 10,800 1,561 ,361 3,868  1,561 1,561 1,561 44 1+6 1,561 1+8 1,561 50 1,561 52 1,561  1+0 1+2  54 56 58 60  I  JL_L  CL\J  1,691 7,200 9,,021 528 1+2 1,691 7,560 9,,381 888 1+1+ / • 1,248 1,691 7,920 9,,741 8,280 10 4$ 1+6 1,691 -fcl 1,603 3,640 1+8 1,691 h6l 1,968 50 1,691 9,000 10,46 1 2,328 52 1,691 9,360 10,82- 2,688 11,181 54 1,691 9,720 11,541 3,048 3,408 56 1,691 10,080 11,901 1 1 a m 3,768 12,261 58 1 0 , 1 + 1 + 0 1,691 60 1,691 10,800 12,621 4,128 1+0  F.Labf*  (7)  O.Lab^  (8)  1,662  2,022 2,383 2,742 3,102 3,462  178 526 814 1,042 1,330 1,678 1,907 2,194 2,482 2,770  352 712 1,092 1,432 1,792 2,152 2,512 2,872 3,232 3,592  282 570 874 1,146 1,434 1,722 2,010 2,298 2,586 2,774  252  202 490 778 1,066 1,334 1,642  582  1,042  1,302  612  972 1,332 1,692 2,052 2,412 2,772 3,132 3,492 3,852  1,930  2,218 2,506 2,794 3,082  TABLE 6 —Continued Annual R e c e i p t s Eggs c) Fowld) Eggse) T o t a l  An. Av. Price  (2)  ko h2  hh he hQ 50 52 5k 56 58 60  ko  k2 k6 k8 50 52 5k 56 58 60  ho h2  k+ k6 k8  50 52 5k 56 58 60  (h) C5) 1,821 7,200 9,021 1,821 7,560 9,381 1,821 7,920 9,7m 1,821 8,280 10,101 IL • 8 2-L 8,6kO 10,k60 1,821 9,000 10,821 1,821 9,360 H L ^ 1 3 JL 1,821 9,720 n,5ki 1,821 10,080 11,901 1,821 10,*4k0< 12,261 1,821 10,800 12,621 (3)  1,951 7,200 1,951 7,560 1,951 7,920 1,951 8,280 1,951 8,6*4-0 1,951 9,000 1,951 9,360 1,951 9,720 1,951 10,080 1,951 10,*4k0 1,951 10,800  9,151 9,511 9,871 10,231 10,591 10,951 11,311 11,671 12,031 12,391 12,751  2,081 7,200 2,081 7,560 2,081 ,920 2,081 l>,280 2,081 8 8,6kO 2,081 9,000 2,081 9,360 2,081 9,720 2,081 10,080 2,081 10,*fk0 2,081 10,800  9,281 9,6kl  10,001 10,361 10,721 11,080 11, ¥+1 11,801  Annual Return t o C.&LP F.L a bf^ O.LabV (6)  (7)  (8)  528 888 l,2k8 1,608 1,968 2,328 2,688 3,0^-8 3,k08 3,768 *+,128  252 612 972 1,332 1,692 2,052 2, *fl2 2,772 3,132 3, k92 3,852  202 k90 778 1,066 1,33k  382 7k2 1,102 l,*f62 1,675 2,182 2,3*+2 2,902 3,262 3,622 3,982  306 58k . 882  658  1,018  1,378 1,738 1,951 2,*f58 2,818 3,178 3,538 3,898 k,258 788 1,1*4-8  1,508 1,868  2,588 2,9**-9 3,309 12,161 3,668 12,521 *f,023 12,881 *f,388  512 872 11232 1,592 1,952 2,312 2,673 3,033 3,392 3,752 *f,112  l,6k2  1,930 2,218 2,506 2,79k 3,082  1,170 l,3>tO  1,732  1,87k  2,322 2,610 2,898 3,192 klO  698  1,086 1,27*4-  1,562 1,850 2,139 2,k27 2,71k 3,002 3,290  - 58 -  TABLE 6 An. Av. Price Annual Receipts , d )w Eggse> Total Fowlb*Eggsc) Fowl (2) 40 42  (4)  (3)  C.&LV  (6)  F.LabfP Q.Lab^  (8)  (7)  211 2,211 2,211 2,211 2,211  7,200 7,560 7,920 8,280 8,640 9,000 9,360 9,720 10,080 10,440 10,800  9,411 918 9,771 1,278 10,131 1,638 10,491 1,998 10,851 2,358 XX}2XX 2,718 11,571 3,078 11,931 3,438 12,291 3,798 12,651 4,158 13,011 4,518  642 1,002 1,462 1,722 2,082 2,442 2,802 3,162 3,522 3,882 4,242  4 o 2,818 3,106 3,384  54 56 58 60  2,341 2,341 2,341 2,341 2,341 2,341 2,341 2,341 2,341 2,341 2,341  7,200 7,560 7,920 8,280 8,640 9,000 9,360 9,720 10,080 10,440 10,800  9,541 1,048 9,901 1,408 10,261 1,768 10,621 2,128 10,981 2,488 11,341 2,848 11,701 3,208 12,061 3,568 X»2 ^ ^' l*^^ 3,928 X4,288 12,781 13,141 4,648  772 1,132 1,492 1,352 2,212 2,572 2,932 3,292 3,652 4,012 4,372  613 906 1,197 1,282 1,770 2.058 2,346 2,634 2,822 3,210 3,498  40 42 44 46 48 5o 52 54 56 53 60  2,471 2,471 2,471 2,471 2,471 2,471 2,471 2,471 2,471 2,471 2,471  7,200 7,560 7,920 8,280 8,640 9,000 9,360 9,720 10,080 10,440 10,800  9,671 1,178 10,031 1,538 10,391 1,898 10,751 2,258 XX 2 XXX 2,618 11,471 2,978 11,831 3,338 12.191 3,698 12,551 4,058 12,911 4,418 13,271 4,778  902 1,262 1,622 1,982 2,342 2,702  722 1,010 1,298 1,486 1,874 2,162 2,450 2,738 3,186 3,394 3,602  4*f  46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 40 42. *+4 46 48 50 52  ^ 2 XX ^ 2.XX ,211 t211 211  (5)  Annual Return to  3,062  3,422 3,982 4,242 4,502  514 802 1,170 1,373 1,666 1,854 2,242 2  10  TABLE  ——'—  6 —Continued  ——•*  :  An. Av. Price  Annual Receipts  c) Fowl b ) Eggs  Fowld* Eggs e)' Total T.  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  40  5+0  2,601  44 1+6  2,601 2,601 2,601 2,601  7,200 7,560  40  ho ho . ho ho ho ho ho hQ ho  1+2  i+a 50 52 54 56 58  60  2,601  C5)  Annual Return to f) O.Lab. C »&L o F . L a b g )  (6)  9,801 1,308 10,161 1,768  7,920 8,280 8,640  10,521 2,028 10,881 2,388  9,000 9,360 2,601 9,720 2,601 10,080  12,321 3,828  2,601  11,241 2,748 11,601 3,108 11,961 3,468  2,601 10,440 2,601 10,800  12,681 4,188 13,041 4,548 13,401 4,908  (7)  (8)  1,033 1,492 1,752 2,112 2,472 2,822 3,192 3,552 3,912 4,272 4 632  831 1,194  1,402 1,690  1,878 2,258 2,534 2,842 3,130 3,418 3,706  a  ) "Method of Calculation of a Support Price Scale of Returns", Appendix XXII. Annual average producer price of 4§- l b . fowl i n cents per pound c  * Annual Average producer of eggs i n eents per  dozen. Dollar receipts from 1445 4g- l b . fowl at fowl price per pound. e  * Dollar receipts from 18,000 dozen eggs. Dollar return to capita}, and labour.  g  ) Dollar return to farm labour. Dollar return to operator's labour.  - 61 p o u l t r y produce equivalent  -  s h o u l d amount t o about  $1+00 p e r  year.  i t e m s t o t h e p e r q u i s i t e s were p u r c h a s e d ,  If  the  c a s h income would have t o be on a p a r w i t h t h a t o f h i r e d farm l a b o u r , without board. t h e f a r m o p e r a t o r s h o u l d be 1951  $1,272 p e r y e a r u n d e r  about i s to  c o s t . c o n d i t i o n s i f he  equivalent  T h e r e f o r e , the c a s h r e t u r n t o  r e c e i v e an Income n e a r l y  i n value to t h a t o f h i r e d farm labour d u r i n g  1951. T h i s income i s approrxiraated when t h e p r i c e o f f o w l p e r pound and r e s p e c t i v e l y ; 22/ and  1+9/; 30/  5  +7/j 33/  1+8/;  and  and 1+6/; The  for  and  producer  o f eggs p e r d o z e n are  51/;  2*+/  32/  and  51/;  26/  and 1+9/;  1+8/; 3V  and  1+7/5 36/  and  28/ and  1+0/ and 1+5/.  present basie f l o o r p r i c e  Grade A L a r g e  a t the w h o l e s a l e  i s 38/  per dozen  l e v e l , with  Incremental  Increases to cover c o s t s of o i l i n g , warehousing, i n s u r a n c e , and h a n d l i n g . is  32/,  When t h e a n n u a l average  approximately that of  producer  1952**",  f o w l p r i c e p e r pound the annual  p r i c e o f eggs p e r dozen n e c e s s a r y t o meet t h e  minimum o p e r a t o r ' s c a s h r e t u r n t o l a b o u r i s Present t h e new i n the  average  floor  seasonal increments  price.  Incremental  1+8/,  can be used  to a p p o r t i o n  I n c r e a s e s would t h e n  same p r o p o r t i o n t o the d e s i r e d  a n n u a l average  price  as t h e p r e s e n t s e a s o n a l i n c r e m e n t s  floor  prices for  are to  the  be  floor average  1952.  •'•Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e Egg and P o u l t r y Market R e p o r t , (Ottawa: Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , M a r k e t i n g Service), 1952. ?  - 62 The average price per dozen of Grade A Large eggs, as determined from the present 1952 floor prices i s H2.6/. Proportionate seasonal variations following similar proportions as those of the present policy change the annual average price per dozen of Grade A Large eggs from  k&y to V7.3/, V7.Sy, k6.1/, and H-6.1/ for the respective periods; up to October 1 Inclusive; between October 2 and November 1 inclusive; between November 2 and December 1; and on December 1.  Grade A Medium eggs would be 2/ per  dozen l e s s , as under the present program. The average difference between producer and wholesale prices per dozen i n 1951 was 10 cents and between wholesale and r e t a i l prices, five cents. 1  Thus, the  wholesale pudce per dozen for these four seasonal periods for Grade A Large would be  57/, 58/,56/, and 56/.  Retail price per dozen would be 62G per dozen, 63/,  63/,  61/ and 61/ per dozen for the respective seasonal periods.  Canada Department of Agriculture, Poultry Products Market Report. (Ottawa: Department of Agrigulture Marketing Service, 1951;.  APPENDIX I TABLE 7 POULTRY STOCK AND PRODUCTION.BY PROVINCES, 19^6 TO !9>+9 a}  Year  Hens and Total Chickens Poultry 'GOO0' 000 f  DJ  Number Eggs Production Layers Laid . Per 100. '000 AozV Layers0'' '000 CJ  Ontario 19*4-6 19*47 19*4-8 19*4-9 Av  29,7*4^ 30,77*425,395 2*1-, 720  28, *4-67 29, *4-38 2*4-,*+50 23,700 27,658 26,51*4-  130,0*f8 15*+, 160 1*4-1,331 116,962  15,733 15,3^2 16,06*+ 15,868  10,*+68 135,628  15,753  10,010 12,166 10,661 9,035  Quebec 19*4-6 19*f7 19*4-8 19*f9  12,571 12,183 1*+, 00*4- 13,513 10,99*4- 10,605 12,127 11,551  Av  12,*+2*4- 11,963  *4-,112 52,032 *f,979 61,27*4k,777 60,131 *4-,5io 56,929 *f,595 57,592  15,3*^0 1*4-, 912 15,2*f9 15,615 15,279  Saskatchewan 19*4-6 11,333 10,599 19*f7 13,535 12,780 19*4-8 9,962 9,590 19*4-9 9,522 9,0*6 Av  11,088 10,503  3,330 3,*+17 3,061  35,67*439,16*436,*4-*i-0 31,930  3,*H3  35,802  - 63'-  13,031 12,3*4-6 12,925 12,838 12,785  - 6*+ TABLE 7 —Continued Hens and Chicl5 f  Numbers Layers c;  Eggs Laid  '000 DozV  Production Per 100 x Layers c '  9,739 10,916 19*1-8 10,*f00 19*4-9 10,*>39  9,0^5 10,055 9,833 9,751  33,056 37,718 37,780 3k,309  12,852 13,*f0*+ 13,265 13,537  10,337  9,k21  3,133 3,*fl6 3,*4-23 3,1^5 3,279  35,716  13,265  Year  Total Poultry D;  '000  19*1-6  Av  n s  '000  '000  x  Manitoba  19*+6 19*1-7 19*+8 19*+9 Av  7,57*48,22*+ 7,360 7,100  7,073 7,619 7,035 6,670  2,287 2,*t-83 2,398 2,266  25,767 27,53*426,73*42*+,956  13,657 l3,kko 13,516 13,726  7,565  7,099  '2,358  26,2*+8  13,585  B r i t i s h Columbia  19*+6 19*4-7 19*4-8 19*4-9 Av  h,555  *4-,9H *f,298 *f,072 *+,*+59  *f,*+27 *f,7l5 *4-,129 3,81*+  1,827 2,l*+2 2,0*f6 1,806  25,188 29,066 28,191 2*+,853 •  16,682 16,*+15 16,670 16,883  ^,271  1,955  26,825  16,663  Nova Scotia  19*4-6 19*4-7 19*4-8 19*4-9 Av  2,338 2,682 1,870 1,979  2,300 2,632 l,8l*+ 1,902'  6*4-9 836 966 92*+  18,308 10,796 12,977 12,l*+6  I5,*f97 15,617 16,259 16,198  2,217  2,162  8*+*+  11,057  15,893 15,16*4l5,*+27 15,1*4-7 1*+, 9*4-2  New Brunswick  19*4-6 19*4-7 19*4-8 19*4-9 Av  1,713 1,879 1,308 1,^75 1,59*4-  1,672 1,829 1,265 l,*fl9  . 576 603 567 55k  7,222 7,696 * 7,110 6,786  l,5*+6  575  7,20*f  15,170  - 65 TABLE  Year  Total Poultry }  '000  :  Hens and Chickens ;  '000  7 —Continued  Numbers Layers C7  '000  Eggs Laid \7 '000 doz.  Production Per  IOQN  Layers  Prince Edward Island  1946 1,184 1947 1,369 1948 993 1949 1,225  lml47 1,333 957 1,181  486  508 480 485  6,288 5,872 5,607  1,193  1,155  489  6,009  Av  6,268  15,608 14,956  14,794 14,354 14,928  The years 1946 to 1949 are taken to be Indicative of the period 1943 to 1951, as total poultry, and poultry products reached their peak between 1947 and 1948. b) Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , "Numbers and Values of Farm Poultry, By Provinces, as at June 1", The Canada Year Book, (Ottawa: King's Printer and Controller of Stationery, 1947 - 1950)* ' Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , "Production, U t i l i z a t i o n and Total Value of Farm Eggs, By Provine.es," ibid.#  APPENDIX I I TABLE 8 MONTHLY PRODUCER PRICES IN CENTS PER DOZEN OF GRADE A LARGE AND GRADE A. MEDIUM EGGS, IN VANCOUVERa> Year Grade  1951  1950  1949  1948  1947  AL AM  AL AM  AL AM  AL AM  AL AM  Month  46 42 4o 38 42 40 37 35 42 40 37 35 42 44 37 35 42 40 37 35 44 42 40 38 59 51 46 59 56 57 55 58 55 56 53 57 52 55 51 58 % 53 36 24 28 26 An. Av. 55 51 46 44 49 45 44 42  JanuaryFebruary March April May June July August September October November December  Year January February March April May June July August September October NovemberDecember  '44 42 39 37 51 49 35 37 48 46 38 36 58 57 38 36 57 56 39 37 60 59 43 41 63 60 49 47 67 60 50 48 60 49 51 48 54 42 52 50 52 47 59 55 51 46 58 56  1946  1945  30 28 33 30 28 33 30 28 33 31 29 33 31 29 33 34 30 33 34 30 34 39 36 4l 39 36 40 39 36 41 39 36 36 34 38  An. Av. 34 32  28 28 28 28 29 29 29 36 35 36 39 31  1944 31 26 31 26 31 26 31 26 31 26  31 31 33 35 35 37 33  1943 36 34 33 31 32  26 36 26 43 28 41 30 44 30 47 32 48 28 39  36 31 31 31 32 32 34 36  34 29 29 29 30 30 32 3§ 40 38 40 38 42 38  40 38  35 34 1942  32 30 26 29 29 24 28 26 21 26 26 21 27 26 21 31 28 23 39 34 29 27 36 31 39 43 36 42 45 40 43 47 42 34 47 42  36 32 33 28 39 33  35 30  Vancouver Daily Province. 1942-1951.  APPENDIX I I I TABLE 9 MONTHLY PRODUCER PRICES PER TON AND PER POUND OF MASH, WHEAT, BARLEY, OATS, DELIVERED TO FRAZER VALLEY "' 8  J a n u a r y  Month!" Item Year  Ton Lb.  1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943 1942  $84  80 79 70  49 49 49 50 50 45  4.2/ 4.00 3.95 3.50 2.45 2.45 2.45 2.50 2.50 2.25  Month  1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943 1942  Wheat  Mash  Ton Lb.  Ton Lb.  $66 3.3/ 70 3.50 72 3.60 54 2.70 32 1.60 33 1.65 33 1.65 34 1.70 29 1.45 . 261.30  $69 56 54 56 36 36 35 36 32 34  Barley Ton Lb.  3.45/ $69:3.45/ 2.8060 3.002.70 56 2.80 2.80 58 2.90 1.80 32 1.60 1.80 32 1.60 1.75 31 1.55 1.80 31 1.55 1.60 30 1.50 1.70 28 1.40  Foe b r u a r 7 86  80 79 70 51 49 49 50 50 49  4.30  68 3.40 72 56 72 3.60 52 54 2.70 49 43 2.15 36 33 1.65 36 33 1.65 35 34 1.70 36 28 1.40 32 26 1.30 28  4.00 70 3.50  3.95 3.50 2.55 2.45 2.45 2.50 2.50 2045  M a r c  Month  1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943 1942  Oats  86  82 80 68 51 49 49 50 51 49  4.30 4.10 4.00 3.4o 2.55 2.45 2.45 2.50 2.55 2.45  3.60 2.80 2.60  2.45 1.80 1.80 1.75 1.80  1.60  i.4o  74 3.70 60 3.00 54 2.70 52 2.60 32 1.60 32 1.60 31 1.55 31 1.55 30 1.50 31 1.55  h  3.40 70 3.50 72 3.60 54 2.70 43 2.15 33 ,1.65 33 1.65 34 1.70 31 1.55 68  28 1.40  - 67  72 3.60 60 3.00 52 2.60 49 2.45 38 1.90 36 1.80 35 1.75 36 1.80  32 1.60 28 1.40  74 62 55 52 33 32 32 31 30 31  3.70  3.10 2.75  3.60  1.65  1.60  1.60 1.50 1.50  1.55  - 68 TABLE Plonth  9 —Continued Apr i 1  Item  Mash  Year  Ton L b .  Wheat Ton L b .  Oats  Barley  Ton L b .  Ton L b .  1951 $86 k.30^ $69 $70 3.50/ $72 3.60/ 82 h.10 1950 70 3.50- 65 3.25- 6h 3.2G19*4-9 80 *KOO 72 3.60 52 2.60 55 2.75 19*4-8 70 3.50 2 . 7 0 53 2.90 5*457 2.85 i+3 2.65 38 1.90 19* 4-7 52 2.60 33 1.65 191+6 52 2.60 36 1.80 32 1.60 33 1.65 35 1.75 32 1.60 19*f5 1+9 2.V5 33 1.65 19*+*i32 1.60 33 1.65 30 1.50 2.*4-0 32 1.60 19*4-3 f1 2.55 31 1.55 30 1.50 19*4-2 k-92.*+5 28 1.4-0 l . k o 31 28 1.55 Month'  May  86 4-. 30 1951 1950 85 *4-.25 19*t-9 80 *+.?o 70 3.50 191+8 19*4-7 52 2.60 19*4-6 ?2 2„60 19*4-5 ,1+9 2o*l-5 19*4-*+ *4-8 2.*+0 19*4-3 51 2.55 19*4-2 1+9 2.*f5 Month 1951 1950 19*4-9 19*4-8 19*4-7 19*f6 19*4-5 19*+V 19*4-3 19*4-2  69 3.!+5 70 3.50 72 3.60 9+2.70 k3 2,65 33 1.65 33 1.65 32 1.60 31 1.55 28 l.*fO  70 65 52 58 38 36 35 33 32 28  3.50 72 3.60 3.25 61+ 3.20 2.60 . 552.75 2.90 57 2.85 1.90 33 1.65 1.80 32 1.60 1.75 32 1.60 1.65 30 1.50 1.60 30 1,50 l.*4-0 31 1.55  70 65 52 58 38 36 35 33 32  3.50 3.25 2.60 2.90 1.90 1.80 1.75 1.65 1.60  J 12 n e 86 ^.30 85 *4-.25 80 *4-.5o 70 3.50 52 2.60 52 2.60 1+9 2.*+5 *4-8 2.*40 51 2.55 1+9 2.*4-5  69 3A5 70 3.50 72 3.60 5*4- 2.70 L+3 2.65 33 1.65 33 1.65 32 1.60 31 1.55 28 i.ko  68 -  28 l.*4-0  72 6h 55 57 33 32 32 30 30 31  3.60 3.20 2.75 2.85 1.65 1.60 1.60 I.50 1.50 1.55  - 69 TABLE 9 —Continued Month  J u l y  Item  Mash  Wheat  Year  Ton Lb.  Ton Lb*  1951 $86 4.30/ 1950 86 4.301949 80 4.00 19*+8 70 3.50 1947 2.60 1946 49 2.45 1945 49 2.45 1944 43 2. 1943 50 2.40 1942 Lj-Q 2.50 1941 47 2.45 35 Month  1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943 1942 1941  1950 1949 1948 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943 1942 1941  Ton Lb.  3.70/ $62 3.W] 3.50- 66 3.30 3.60 56 2.80 2.70 65 3.25 2.15 38 1.90 1.65 36 1.80 1.65 35 1.75 1.60 33 1.65 1.65 36 28 1.80 1.35 30 1.40 1.50 1.50  Barley TorJ Lb.  162 3.10/  70 3.5064 3.20 59 -> o 2.95 .JO 32 1.65 32 1.60 30 1.60 31 1.50 31 1.55 31 1.50 1.50  A u g u s t  33 4.15 86 4.30 82 4.10 75 3.75 52 2.60 49 2.45 49 2.45 48 2.40  50 2.50 47 2.35 49 2.45  74 67 70 70 43 33 33 32 34 28 30  3.70 3.35 3.50 3.50 2.15 1.65 1.65 1.60 1.70 1.40  1.50  60 3.00 61 3.05 52 2.60  56 38 36 35 33 36 28 32  2.80 1.90 1.80 1.75 1.65 1.80  1.40 1.60  62 67 60 56 33 32 32 30 31 28 32  3do 3.35  3.oo  2.80 1.65  1.60 1.60  1.50 55  l o  1.40 1.60  Se P t € J m b e r  Month I9filh  $74 70 72 54 43 33 53 32 33 27 30  Oats  4.15 4.30 4.20 3.75 2.85 2.45 2.45 48 2.40 51 2.55 47 2.35 49 2.45 83 86 82 75 57 49 49  70 67 70 70  3.50 3.35 3.50 3.50 46 2.30 33 1.65 33 1.65 32 1.60 36.1.80 28 1.40 30 1.50  63 3.15 60 3.00 53 2.65 54 2.70 38 1.90 36 1.80 36 1.-80 33 1.65 36 1.80 30 1.50 34 1.70  62 3.10 66 3.30 64 3.20 52 2.60 33 1.65 32 1.50 32 1.60 30 1.50 31 1.55 28 1„4Q 34 1*70  - 70 TABLE 9 —Continued Month Item  O c t o b e r Mash  Wheat  Oats  Barley  Ton Lb.  Ton Lb.  Ton Lb.  1951 |86 k.30£ 1950 8k k.20 191+9 86 k.30. 19k8 75 3.75 19h7 61 3.05 19k6 1+9 2.k5 19k5 1+9 2.1+5 191+1+ k8 2.1+0 I9k3 51 2.55 19k2 k7 2.35 19kl 1+9 2.1+5  $70 3*50/ 6k •3.20 71 3.55 70 3.50 31+ 2.70 33 1.65 33 1.65 32 1.60 36 1.80 29 1.1+5 32 1.60  $66 3.30/ 60 3.0057 2.95 5k 2.70 k5 2.75 36 1.80 36 1.80 36 1.80 36 1.80 30 1.50 31+ 1.70  $66 3.30/ 66 3.30 68 3.k0 52 2.60 k5 2.25 32 1.60 32 1*60 30 1.50 31 1.55 28 1.1+0 3k 1.70  Month  N  Year  Ton Lb.  1951 89 1+.1+5 1950 81+ 1+.20 191+9 83 1+.15 3.95 191+8 79 65 3.25 191+7 1 + 9 2.1+5 191+6 I9k5 1+9 2.1+9 191+1+ 1+8 2.1+0 I9k3 51 2.55 19k2 k9 2.1+5 19kl 1+5 2.25 Month  1951 89 k.k5 1950 8k k.20 19k9 80 k.oo 191+8 79 3.95 19k7 68 3.ko 19k6 1+9 2.k5 191+5 1+9 2.k5 19kk k8 2.k0 19k3 51 2.55 19k2 k9 2.k5 19kl k5 2.25  0  v• e atb e r  71 3.55 62 3.10 70 3.50 72 3.60 5k 2.70 32 1.60 33 1.65 32 1.60 3k 1.70 29 i.k5 26 1.30  66 3.30  65 3.25 56 2.80 57 2.85 53 2.65 36 1.80 36 1.80 36 1.80 36 1.80 3p 1.50 31+ 1.70  3.30 3.30 3.30 56 2.80 52 2.60 32 1.60 32 1.60 30 1.50 31 1.55 28 1.1+0 28 1.1+0 66 66 66  D e c e m b e r  71 3.55 6k 3.20 70 3.50 72 3.60 51+ 2.70 32 1.60 33 1.65 32 1.60 3k 1.70 29 i.k5 26 1.30  66 3.30 65 3.25 5k 2.70 5k 2.70 55 2.75 36 1.80 36 1.80 36 1.80 36 1,80 30 1.50 3k 1.70  66 3.30 68 3.k0 60 3. i o 53 2.65 56 2.80 32 1.60 32 1.60 30 1.50 31 1*55 28 i . k o 28 l.kO  a) Source: Laying Mash Prices; Buckerfield 1 1 Ltd., Vancouver; Wheat, Oats, Barley Prices; Brackman-Kerr Ltd., lew Westminster.  APPENDIX  IT  METHOD OF CALCULATION OF THE EGG-FEED RATIO Two recent surveys of the poultry industry of B r i t i s h Columbia show that the cost of feed as a proportion of t o t a l expense i s the greatest single cost factor i n poultry production.  In 1945,  i t was found that  the t o t a l cost of feed for layers and replacements was  $2.70  per b i r d , or  #3.44 per  bird.1  78 In  percent of the t o t a l expenses of  1949?  i t was found that the cash  feed expense per farm surveyed  was 83 percent of t o t a l  cash expense. A typical laying mash was obtained-^ for the period 1943  to 1951.  This consisted by weight, of 50 percent  commercially prepared laying mash, and 50 percent scratch grains.  The latter consisted of 30 percent wheat, 10  percent oats, and 10 percent barley by weight. Monthly prices per ton, celivered i n the Lower  4 Mainland were obtained from two l o c a l feed companies. IE.D.Woodward, Some Factors That Influence Poultry Farm Incomes. (Victoria: King's Printer and Controller of Stationery,: 1946), p. 15.  2  R.Campbell, "Egg and Poultry Industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Part 1, 1948-1949", The Economic Annalist. (Ottawa, The King's Printer and Controller of Stationery, December, 195D, p. 132. -^Department of Poultry Nutrition, U.B.C. k Braekman-Kerr Milling Co., Ltd., New Westminster, Buckerfield 1 s Ltd., Vancouver.  - 71 -  - 72 Since the companies are competitive, the prices at which feed i s sold i s similar for both.  These prices were  brought to a monthly per pound basis. The composite feed price per pound of complete laying r a t i o n , delivered i n the Lower Mainland, was calculated by weighting the price per pound of feed by the percentage proportion of the feed to be found i n the complete laying ration. The quantities of frade A Large, and Grade A Medium eggs that were marketed i n B r i t i s h Columbia at Registered Egg Grading Stations for the years 1948  to 1950 were  1 obtained.  For each year, the proportion of the two grades  2 to the t o t a l marketings were found.  These figures for each  grade were averaged for the three years. It was found that for the three year period, Grade A Large Eggs were 64 percent and Grade A %dium Eggs were 20 percent of t o t a l marketings. The remaining three grades, B, C, and Cracks, consisted of 16 percent of the t o t a l marketings.  Consequently, the  Grade A Large and Grade A Medium prices were weighted by 64 and 20 respectively. Average monthly producer prices per dozen for Grade A Large and Grade A Medium eggs were obtained. The annual monthly egg price- for each of these two grades was found Compiled from records of the Poultry D i v i s i o n , Livestock and Livestock Products' Marketing Branch., Canada Department of Agriculture, Vancouver. ^'Proportions of Grade A Large and Grade A Medium ' Eggs Marketed, i n B r i t i s h Columbia Through Registered Egg Grading Stations For the Period 1948 to 1950',' Table 10, Appendix V.  - 73 by averaging the weekly observations. 1  A single price  was then calculated by weighting the prices for eaigh grade. The monthly egg-feed ratio was calculated by dividing the monthly composite price of feed per pound into the monthly composite price of eggs per dozen to obtain the amount of feed i n pounds for each month that one dozen egg sold by the producer w i l l buy.  "Vancouver Daily Province.  19!+3-195l.  APPENDIX V TABLE 10 PROPORTIONS OF GRADE A LARGE AND GRADE A MEDIUM EGGS IN CASES OF 30 DOZEN, MARKETED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA THROUGH REGISTERED%E 1 950  Year  AL  Grade  b)  ;  AM  c)  1 9k9 Total  AL  AM  3k,330 29,358 3k,800 33,552  11,983  Total  Month January February March April May June July August September October November December  22,51k  9,k79 5,2k5  32,856 32,003 2k,510  5,075 k,835 3,705 3,398  26,80k 32,787  19,796  16,510  13,136 11,602 Ik,718  21,2kl  5,838  k,05k 5,963  9,217 9,828 9,319  kO,825 30,317 k2,120 kl,75l kO,761 31,756 27,906 27,759 30,167 31,179  31,155 35,056  3k,Ok9  27,855 23,890 20,666  16,931 15,605 21,360 28,651  6,k57 6,252 6,007 5,995 k,670 3,793  51,525  38,895 kk,679  k3,627 kk,5k8 36,559 32,7k8  5,331 35,811 , 8,55k k29056 12,807  16,030 15,535  kk,kio  k8,6k5 52,kkl  268,k77 75,956 kl0,752 321,0k7 103,k7k 515,9kk 100 20 100 62 19 . 65  Total Percent  1 9k8  Year January February March April May June July August September October November December  5k,170 k3,112 51,382 52,399 50,195 37,777 29,528 2k,171 19,217 I6,k38 20,361 29,315  20,230 12,653 10j708 9,286 8,203  6,860 5,k70  5,827 8,7k7 13,173 15,336 Ik,875  8k,kk8 67,07k 68,109 67,939 65,k32 50,593 kl,207 kl,709 kk,k79 kk,826  k5,820 5l,k36  k33,865 131,kk8 673,07a  Total  65  Percent  100  20  a  ^0p. c i t . "^A Large.  - 7k -  e  ^ A Medium  Egg Price Weights Year  AL  AM  1950 19k9 19k8  65* 62 65  19% 20 20  6k  20  Av  APPENDIX VI TABLE  11  COMPOSITE PRODUCER PRICES IN CENTS PER DOZEN OF GRADE A LARGE AND GRADE A MEDIUM EGGS, VANCOUVER, 1943-1951  1951 1950 1949 1948 1947  Year Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Average  43.52 38.51 45.05 39.52 35.52 50.52 35.48 36.52 23.62 47.52 37*52 41.52 36.52 23.62 37.52 42.48 36.52 23.62 57.76 38.52 41.52 36.52 31.52 55.76 59.76 42.52 43.52 39.52 31.52 62.29 49.52 57.10 45.52 33-52 65.33 49.52 58.29 56.52 36.48 57»38 50.29 57.29 55.29 39.52 51.14 58.05 55.81 54.05 39.52 50.81 57.52 56.33 43.43 41.05 49.81 57.52 33.14 27.52 39.52 54.30 46.04 47.30 42.29 33.25 1946 1945 1944 1943  Year January February March April May June July August September October November December Average  M 0 Av o a )  29.52 31.51 29.81 35.05 36.45 29*52 31.81 29.81 32.81 34.62 29.52 31.31 29.81 31.81 34.41 30.52 31.81 29.81 29.81 35.54 30.52 31.81 29.81 30.81 36.31 33.05 31.31 29.81 34.81 38.48 33.05 32.81 29.81 32.76 41.82 33.29 39.81 31.81 37.67 45.97 38.29 38081 33.31 42.81 45.94 38.29 42.19 33.31 45.81 46.52 33029 42.81 35.81 46.81 45.87 35.52 28*95 31.81 37.81 37.96 33.70 34.66 31.31 36.56  Monthly Average, for  - 75 - '  1943-1951.  APPENDIX V I I TABLE  12  COMPOSITE FEED PRICE IN CENTS PER POUND DELIVERED IN THE LOWER MAINLAND  1942-1951  Year  1951  1950  1949  1948  1947  3.780 3.900 3.900 3.395 3.860 3,830 3.880 3.795 3.750 3.266 3.950 3.950  3.630 3.630 3.710 3.745 3.870 3.910 3.880 3.795 3.785 3.690 3.685 3.725  3.605 3.585 3.615 3.615 3.395 3.645 3.680 3.660 3.735 3.840 3.735 3.630  3.130 3.065 3.H5 3.135 3.190 3.170 3.180 3.485 3.455 3.455 3.620 3.590  2.045 2.260 2.270 2.450 2.300 2,300 2.300 2.300 2.470 2.830 2.960 3.065  Month J anuary February March April May June July August September October November December Average Year January February March April May June iuly August September October November December Average  •3.817 3-755 3.694 3.300 2.460  1946  1945  1944  1943  1942  2.060 2.060 2.060 2.135 2.135 2.135 2.060 2.060 2.060 2.060 2.045 2.045  2.050 2.050 2.055 2.055 2.055 2.055 2.055 2.055 2.060 2.060 2.060 2.060  2.120 2.095 2.050 1.995 1.995 1.995 1.995 1.995 1.995 2.010 2.010 2,010  1.995 lo980 2.050 2.050 2.060 2.070  1.825 1.910 1.940 1.940 1.940 1.910 1.920 1.875 1.885 1.900 1.950 1,950  2.080  2.095 2.150 2.150 2.120 2.120  2.073 2.056 2.022 2.077 1.912  - 76 -  APPENDIX  VIII  TABLE 13 MONTHLY EGG MARKETINGS AT REGISTERED EGG GRADING STATIONS51' IN BRITISH COLUMBIA AND CONCURRENT MONTHLY EGG-PEED RATIO,  1943-1951  Month January  February  March  April  Year  R  R Mktg. R  Mktg.  R Mktg.  1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943  12 32V749 13 25,505 1 1 40,839 1 0 30,314 13 49,994 1 2 38,660 13 8 4 , 4 3 3 12 67,078 17 73,947 1 1 65,219  28,466  15 23,362  12  44,665 68,107  10  76,690  14  60,346 68,367 64,078  12 4 3 , 7 5 6 12 6 7 , 9 3 9 10 7 4 , 0 1 3  14  63,537 66,132  16 14  18  16  May  15 10  11 11 14 14 16  15 15  53,463  60,781  12 10 12  16  55,242 15  4 2 , 1 1 9 10 4 1 , 7 5 1  16  June  July  14  57,324  68,158 15 65,060 15 31,915 16  August  15 28,942 1 6 22,933 1 7 31,576 51,756 13 27,906 13 27,759 11 44,549 12 36,668 1 6 32,715 1 6 35,824 65,250 50,594 1 4 41,212 16 4 1 , 7 4 8 75,640 14 15 52,158 1 6 54,037 53,372 1 6 4 8 , 3 3 5 1 6 42,113 19 45,726 6 6 , 4 8 3 1 6 53,152 1 6 4 4 , 2 2 0 19 42,596 6 5 , 1 8 1 15 57,210 15 5 1 , 5 4 6 1 6 51,153 42,665 17 30,047 17 36,007 1 8 29,078 23,362 40,764  Month September  1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943  14  14 54,179  Month  1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943  Mktg.  October  15 50,230 1 6 4 1 , 2 7 2 13 30,167 1 6 31,179 15 4 2 , 0 6 8 15 4 4 , 4 4 1 16 4 4 , 5 4 3 44,945 16 16 6 3 , 8 7 7 14 6 7 , 3 9 7 19 52,923 19 53,527 19 4 6 , 6 1 7 45,460 17 5 2 , 9 3 4 21 4 9 , 7 4 6 20 32,730 17 4 0 , 4 9 6 21  November  December  13 52,224 15 35,056 9 52,440 8 52,990 13 71,634 17 67,139 14 56,904 1 8 48,200 16 58,770 22 32,172 1 8 52,117 13 4 1 , 7 4 9 16 31,155 15 4 8 , 6 6 8 12 45,812 14 66,285 19 53,532 44,208 21  a  *Poultry D i v i s i o n , Livestock and Livestock Products Marketing Branch, Department,of Agriculture, Vancouver. - 77 -  nr  APPENDIX X TABLE l k YEARLY AGGREGATE RECEIPTS OF UNGRADED EGGS IN CASES OF 30 DOZEN AT REGISTERED GRADING STATIONS IN THE MAIN PRODUCING AREAS OF s BRITISH COLUMBIA, I9kk-19k9 aj  Year  L,M.b)  V . I . c ) Other  Total  19kk 571,k78 72,086 29,735 673,299 ft 33,193 663,068 556,655: I9k5 19h6 56k,*+71 65,003 26,868 656,3k2 ±9h?  688,960 7k,95k 36,653 800,572  19kS 576,173 67,28k 31,202 67k,659 19^9 ¥+2,859 kl,921 29,671 5ik,k5i Av  566,766 65,7k5 31,221 663,732  Percent  38  9..9  * Ibid. ^ Lower Mainland Vancouver  Island  k.7  100  APPENDIX XI TABLE  15  RESULTS OF NOTE YEARS OPERATIONS OF THE POULTRY PRODUCTS SECTION, SPECIAL PRODUCTS BOARD; CANADIAN .GOVERNMENT SHIPMENTS TO. GREAT aJ BRITAIN AND THE UNITED STATSS  Dozens Year Eggs Purchased  Dozens Shipped Storage  Dozens Shipped Fresh  19kl 15,336,000 15,336,000 19k2 37,535,9k0 k,133,^60 •I9k3 33,6^2,810 19LJ+ 79,920,000 27,3^3,290 191+5 89,700,000 68,263,290 23,771,^00 19k6 32,999,750 30,601,710 19k7 63,2^6,000 32,532,810 19k8 3^,366,030 19V9 Total 505,009,820 133,713,670'  Pounds Shippedx D ; Dried  11,567,1^9  n,7kk,ooo 27,575,763  12,953,790 17,916,680 13,35k,770 7,kl9,372 19,105,920 13,561,12k 19,^09,310 9,2k3,570 5,977,3kk 16,65k, 560 5l,k73,3kO 105,005,502  Pounds Shipped Year Fresh-  Pounds Dressed Poultry  19kl  k,07k,lk2 13,158,577 253,699 lk,078,587 1,973,089 21,578, 2k3c f35,759,kok k2, k3k, 53d)6 36,kl7,117 21,396,696 kO,373,109  I9k2  19k3 I9kk 19^-5 I9k6  Total Shipping Value  19H-7 130,351 32,666,775 I9k8 16,916,325 19k9 10,299,^88 Total 15,^29,839 k5,111,727 p35,878,992 a)  Canada Department of Agriculture, Egg and Poultry Market Report, (Ottawa: Canada Department of Agriculture, Marketing Service, A p r i l l k , 1950).  b"}  ' One pound of dried eggs Is equivalent to 3 dozen shell eggs. ° ) Shipped to U.S.A. and valued at $6,128,220. d) 7,977,737 pounds dressed poultry valued at $2.k62,000 was shipped to U.S.A,  - 79 .  APPENDIX XII TABLE 1 6 EGG SOLD AND USED BY THE PRODUCER FOR HATCHING PURPOSES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, IN 'OOO DOZEN, 1946 - 1950 a ;  19 50  Year  1 9  4  9  1  9 48  Month.  Sold  Used  Sold  January  65.7  25.9  56.2 30.2 53.0 10,1  Used  February  156.2  24.7  184.4  41,7  March  I89.9  217.2  4 8 . 3  April  100,4  59.3 12.1  26.6  7.4  7.5 5.6  4.3  26.3  2.0  May  .  June July  .  22.6  September  27.9 18  October  7.8  XvS a 2  November  15.7  9.1  December  25.9  9.7 911.0  Total • In In  603.6  133.7  NOTE? No monthly Eggs Sold For Eggs Used For 19465 Eggs Sold For Eggs Used For  14.9  98.0 '13.2 64.3  ----  20.5  2.3  23.9 6.5 31.8 14.9 42.8 24.8  • X  1947;  169.2  Used  283.4 62.3 234.0 34.5 1 6 4 . 1 28.4 9.4 49.9 .11.8 39.3  3.5 3.3  August  Sold  _„__ 166.6  22.2 33.2 1023.1 222.4  data, i s available for 1946 and Hatching = 1,022,000 dozens Hatching = 104,000 dozens Hatching = 1,112,800 dozens Hatching = 234,300 dozens  1947.  a) Data i s i n '000 dozens. Department of Trade and Commerce, Production of Poultry and Eggs, (Dominion Bureau of StatisticsjOttawa,  1946-1950)  -  8 0  -  APPENDIX X I I I TABLE  17  STORAGE STOCKS OF SHELL EGGS AT VANCOUVER?-) IN 'OOO DOZEN Month  J an.  Feh.  Mar.  Ap.  9*+ 89 3,965 2,262 3,306 2,665 1,768 1,20k  80 108 8,175 2,130 6,607 3,295 k,273 3,372  11+6 220 k,926 2,735 7,581 2,900 6,77k 3,201  229 375 9,602 6,279 8,63k 5,610 6,670 3,21k  3,505  3,560  5,077  May  June  July  Year 1950 19k9 I 19LrS 19i-7 19k6 I9k5 19kk I9k3 AT  '1,919  Nov.  Dec,  k82 637 22,825 28,377 16,025 19,910 18,088 S'905  256 2 58 572 20,62k 8,385 25,691 16,91+8 15,097 11,698 19,330 13,k7l 15,089 10,78k 3,890 2,8k7  112 56 1,680 5,550 3,kl7 5,k88 k,8kO l,'+70  k8 63 l,k87 k,5oo 1,570 53k l,8k8 620  13,906  12,587  Aug.  19L50 19+-9 19k3 19*f7 191*6 l9*+5 19kk 19H-3 Av,  373  8,080  557  655 2k,28k 23,13k lk,8k3 17,371 12,5k3 6,930  9,316 ,12,539  Oet.  Month  Sept.  375 556 17,915 13,620 12,775 13,kk8 10,k06 5,k3k  556 655 2k, 1+03 36,098 16,k06 20,023 21,k36 5,916 15,686  2,826 11,336  a) Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , "Stocks o f Eggs i n Storage i n Vancouver", Stocks o f D a i r y and P o u l t r y P r o d u c t s . (Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r o f Stationery^,19^31950) o - 81 -  APPENDIX XIV TABLE 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA STOCK, PRODUCTION. DISTRIBUTION, 3 IN THE COMMERCIAL EGG INDUSTRY -'  Year  Registered Average dumber Farm Marketings Production Eggs/ Layers } CJ p; Cases Cases Layer") 'OOO e)  Unregistered Marketings Cases  723,733  346,108  377,625  174  926,596  503,702  422,884  1,806  169  847,817  529,545  318,272  1948  2,046  167  949,117  773,790  170,327  1947  2,142  164  975,800  740,146  235,654  1946  1,827  167  347,525  621,377  226,148  1945  2,458  135  921,750  694,422  227,328  1944  2,493  135  934,875  583,650  351,225  1943  2,137  135  801,375  500,000f )  301,375  1951 1,466  i5o  1950  1,917  1949  Year  Direct Sales & Other Cases  b Hatching Stock on B.C. Farms , '000< Home Eggs »w Chickens Layers Conslimp tion\ C a s e s June 1 Dec.l June 1 Dec.l Cases  1950 323,884  69,300  1949  91,567  222,395  29,700 3,370 2,050 1,917  1,810  3,814  2,490 1,806  2,126  4,310  1948  14,301 106,213  49,813 4,129  2,470 2,042  2,148  1947  11,221 113,533  110,900 4,715  2,654 2,142  2,427  1946  80,815  47,300 4,427 2,479 2,406  2,138  98,033  - 82 -  TABLE 18 --Continued  }  D.L§ % D.L^ to D . C . to J . C *  fo  Year  %  to  J.LP J.C.  to  1950 191+9  88  5*+  57  91+  85  56  h7  73  19^8  87  52  50  19^7  92  52  i+5  83 81  19M-6  86  5+8  5k  97  a  D.C.  ^Data calculated from July to June of each year.  ^Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , "Poultry and Eggs", The Canada Year Book, (Ottawa; King's Printer and Controller of Stationery, 19>+3 - 195D. c  ^Canada Department of Agriculture, Production of Poultry and Eggs, (Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s ,  I91+6-I950)'. d  ^Poultry D i v i s i o n , Livestock and Livestock Products Branch, Marketing Service, Vancouver.  e) /  Canada Department of Agriculture, Poultry Estimates, (Ottawa:Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 1950-1951). f) Estimate. g) Percent December Layers are to December Chickens. h) Percent December Layers are to June Chickens. i) Percent June Layers are to June Chickens. ^Percent June Layers are to December Chickens.  - 83 -  APPENDIX XVI TABLE 19.) DISPOSITION OF EGGS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, aj  'OOO DOZENS, 19i-6-1950 l  Sol Year "  • '  I950 19^9 19l+8 19^7 195+6  1950 19k9 195+8 19k7 195+6  F  0  r Hatching From  Market From Farms.  Other b \ Farms  Other  19,5+10 21,5+71 25+, 327 25+, 937 21,509  3,831 5+,295+ 5+,861  609  122 182 205 209  P r o d Year  d  + ,987 l r,303 u  C  911  1,023 1,022 U s e  e r  Consumed On  Hatched  Farm  Other  Farm  3>+7 5+58 531 596 1+99  135+  1,732 2,239  2,655 2,310  2?+5+2  205+  On Other  167 222 161  161  27 33 1+1+  32 32  Canada Department of Agriculture, Production of Poultry and Eggs, (Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 195+6-1950) Elsewhere than on farms„  - 85+ -  APPENDIX XVII METHOD OF CALCULATION OF THE BUDGET OF A SAMPLE BRITISH COLUMBIA COMMERCIAL EGG FARM The capital investment of an average family poultry farm i n B r i t i s h Columbia^ was proportionately  2 increased from 633 layers  to accommodate a flock of  1200 layers per year. It was assumed to be under good management, and to have a good breed and strain of properly fed and housed birds laying at the rate of 180 eggs per year. The following operating statement was drawn up k to arrive at the return to capital and labour. Receipts— Annual Egg Receipts =  18,000 dozen eggs @ annual  composite producer's! price per dozen. ^"R.H.Campbell, "Egg and Poultry Production i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1948-1949, Part I", The Economic Annalist, (Ottawa: The Canada Department of Agriculture, December, 1951),' P* 130. Culling i s 85 percent, and mortality i s 19 percent, calculated on a hen-day basis. 3The capital investment to accommodate 633 layers, calculated on a hen-day basis, was: Land Used For Poultry | 342 14# Buildings 2,763 47 Flock 479 29 Equipment 71 8 Feed 17 2 Total 5,344 100 >This was proportionately increased to $11,077 to accommodate 1,200 birds. ^Department of Agricultural Economics, U.B.C. An Outlook Report For A Poultry Enterprise i n B.C. In 1952. (Vancouver:The Department of Agricultural Economics, U.B.C.,  1952), p. 6.  - op -  Annual Fowl Receipts - 1,445 4 £ pound fowl @ annual average fowl price. Total Receipts = annual egg receipts plus annual fowl receipts. Expenses— Annual Feed Cost For Layers = 65 tons @ annual composite producer p r i c e . Annual Feed Cost For Pullets  =  24 tons © annual  composite producer p r i c e . Other Expenses1  =  25 percent of t o t a l feed costs.  Total Costs - annual feed costs for payers and pullets plus other expenses. , Return To Capital and Labour = t o t a l receipts minus t o t a l expenses. Total expenses were feed costs plus other expenses. The cost of feed for layers and pullets amounts to about 75 percent of t o t a l costs i n 1951.  The t o t a l cost of  feed was calculated on the basis of the average annual composite price and the t o t a l feed consumption of 89 tons for pullets and layers. The Other Expenses of the enterprise include depreciation on buildings and equipment, taxes, sexed chicks, l i t t e r , g r i t , maintenance and repairs, e l e c t r i c i t y , disinfectant '''"Other Expenses" for 1951 were calculated on the basis of 25 percent of the 1951 total feed costs. For the previous years, this figure was reduced by the Five Factor Index of Things Western Canadian Farmers Use compiled by the Dominion Bureau, of S t a t i s t i c s , Ottawa.  and m e d i c i n e s .  The t o t a l of these amounted to 25 percent  of the t o t a l feed c o s t s f o r the year 1951•  This was -•  reduced i n the same p r o p o r t i o n by the F i v e F a c t o r  Index  of Things Western Farmers Use"'" f o r each preceeding year to  195+3 • •  I t was f e l t t h a t even though the items considered  a p p l i e d t o a wider range of s p e c i a l i z e d farmers than the p o u l t r y e n t e r p r i s e , they might give an i n d i c a t i o n of the g e n e r a l annual l e v e l s of the Other Expenses of the B r i t i s h Columbia p o u l t r y farms c o n s i d e r e d .  The Index  r e f l e c t s a c t u a l p r i c e changes o n l y , and does not show v a r i a t i o n i n t o t a l farm c o s t s r e s u l t i n g from changes i n q u a n t i t y purchased.  I t i n c l u d e s ; equipment and m a t e r i a l s  such as farm implements, b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , hardware; taxes and i n t e r e s t r a t e s .  Taxes r e f e r t o r u r a l  p r o p e r t y taxes based on assumed land v a l u e s .  municipal  Interest rates  r e f e r to i n t e r e s t on mortgages. The t o t a l annual egg r e c e i p t s were c a l c u l a t e d on the b a s i s of the average annual composite p r i c e of Grade A Large and Grade A Medium eggs. The t o t a l r e c e i p t s from the s a l e of c u l l hens were c a l c u l a t e d on.the b a s i s of the p r e v a i l i n g annual average •^Department of Trade and Commerce, P r i c e Index Numbers of Commodities and S e r v i c e s Used by Farmers, (Ottawa: K i n g ' s " p r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y ,  19^+3 - 195D.  - 8P market price  for Vg- pound fowl, the Standard Weight of p  Leghorn hens.  The t o t a l receipts were egg receipts  plus c u l l receipts. The annual return to capital and labour was found fcy deducting the annual t o t a l expenses from the t o t a l receipts. The annual return to c a p i t a l and labour was deflated by the Farm Cost of Living Index^ i n order to show the r e a l return to capital and labour In 1935 "to 1939  dollars.  ^Canada Department of Agriculture, Egg and Poultry Market Report, (Ottawa; Canada Department of Agriculture, Marketing Service, 1943-19 5D. 2  Imerlcan Poultry Association, The Standard of Perfection, (Davenport: The American Poultry Association,  1945), p. 194.  •^Department of Trade and Commerce, Price Index Numbers of Farm Family Living Costs, (Ottawa: King's Printer and Controller of Stationery, 19V3-1951).  APPENDIX XVIII TABLE 20 BUDGET OF A SAMPLE BRITISH COLUMBIA COMMERCIAL EGG FARMaj Annual Av. Produ cer Price c) 1 Year Eggs ^ Feed  An. Av. Receipts Eggs e ^  Fowl d )  Cullsf)  Total  An. Av. Composite  1951 54.30^ 1950 46.041949 47.80 1943 42.29 1947 33.25 1946 33.70 1945 34.66 1944 31.31 1943 36.56 Av  39.99  3.8W 3.755-  $9,744  $1.53  3.694 3.300  2.460 2.078 2.056 2.022 2.077  2.807  8.287 3,604  1.13 1.04 .90 .95 81  7,610  .31 .90  5,985 6,066 6,238 5,635 6,580  1.02  7,198  0  Feed 2 ^  1,170  $11,984 9,920 10,236 9,U3 7,285 7,438 7,409 6,806  1,477  8,675  1,372  1,170 1,300  7,381  An. Av. Return to Egg-Feed Cap. and Labour; Real1-* Ratio  Annual Av. Costs Year  $2,210 1,632 1,632 1,502 1,300  Other11) Total  1951 16,794 $1,698 $8,492 1950 6,683 1,559 8,243 1949 6,575 1,501 8,076 1948 5,874 1,432 7,306 1947 4,378 1,251 5,630 1946 3,698 1,157 4,356 1945 3,659 1,119 4,779 1944 3,659 1,092 4,691 1943 3,697 1,002 4,699 Av 4,995 1,312 6,308  $3,492  1,676 2,160 1,807 1,655 2,582 2,629  3,131  2,366  $1,739 938 1,240 1,105 1,199 2,033 2,137 1,720  14.33 12.26  2,614  12.94 12.82 13.52 16.25 16.86 15.58 17.60  1,636  14.68  a)Data calculated from January to December yearly. b)  Cents per dozen.  c)Cents per pounda  0Value of 4i" pound fowl "at annual average fowl price per pound. e  ^18,000 dozen at annual average composite price per  dozen.  - 89 -  APPENDIX XIX —Continued TABLE 2 1 a  FARM WAGES IN B.C. WITHOUT BQARD ) I  19 6-1952  Year  Monthly  Annual  1951 $1+0.89 $1,690.68 1950 123.4k 1,5+81.28 195+9 1 1 6 . 6 5 1,399.80 ! 19*+S  19k? 19k6 l9*+5 195 +k l 19f3  126.17  103.37 100.02  85+.02  81.08  Av  i,5i +.ok  1,333.kk  1,25+0.5+5+  1,200.25+  1,008.2+ 972.96 1,315.68  1,5+5+5 fowl weighing 5+J- pounds @ annual average fowl o r i c e . per pound h)  tons feed at annual average composite price  Includes a l l other expenses calculated at 25 percent of the 1951 feed costs and then reduced by the Five Factor Index of Things Western Canadian Farmers Use. -5)  The return to capital and labour deflated b y the Farm Cost of Living Index. a)Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , "Farm Wages i n B.C., Without Board", Farm Wages, (Ottawa: Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , 19'+3-195D.  - 90 -  APPENDIX  XX  TABLE 22 ANNUAL  AVERAGE FARM  Year  Cost o f \ Living8'  1951 1950  200.7 179.7 17k. 9 163.5  I94.9 l  19f3 19^7 19+6 19^5 191+4 19^3  138.0  127.0 123.0 122.9 121.7  INDEX,  19+3-1951  West. Can. ,; x Five Factor  • 225.'+0 206.90  199.20 190.03  166.03 153-61 1+8.60  l¥f.90  133.00  a  ^Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , P r i c e Index Numbers o f Commodities and S e r v i c e s Used By.Farmers. (Ottawa: Dominion Bureau-of S t a t i s t i c s , 19^3-1951).  b  ^Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , F i v e F a c t o r Index o f Things Western Canadian Farmers  APPENDIX  XXI  TABLE 2$FARM PERQUISITES  House Rental,  12  months @  $20  Poultry Products3-)  $24-0 64-  Garden Produce: . . • O 200 lbs be&ts cabbage ... 6 300 carrots 8 200 potatoes ...35 1,000 turnips 300 12 onions »«• S 200 apples 300 ... 8 pears 300 ... 15 Total garden produce  100  a  'R.H.Campbell, "Egg and Poultry Industry In B r i t i s h Columbia", The Economic Annalist, (Ottawa: King's Printer and Controller of Stationery, December, 1951)? P» 133. ^ P r i c e s of a l l garden produce i s on a producer basis, New Westminster City Market, September, 1952.  - 92 -  APPENDIX  XXII  METHOD OF CALCULATION OF A SUPPORT PRICE S C A L E OF The  1  RETURNS  c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e b a s e d on a sample  British  p C o l u m b i a c o m m e r c i a l egg f a r m . The  egg r e c e i p t s ^ were c a l c u l a t e d  on t h e b a s i s o f  farm s a l e s  o f 18,000 d o z e n eggs w i t h p r i c e s  • two  increments from  cent:  k-Off  F o w l r e c e i p t s were c a l c u l a t e d  ranging  p e r d o z e n t o 6 0 / p e r dozen.  on t h e b a s i s o f 6  c u l l s weighing  pounds, and t h e p r o d u c e r  r a n g i n g two.cent i n c r e m e n t s from 22? t o The  kQtf  p e r pound.  f o w l r e c e i p t s were h e l d c o n s t a n t , w h i l e t h e egg r e c e i p t s  varied The  price  on t h e b a s i s  total receipts  varied  therefore,  o f the incremental increase  i n priees.  f o r t h e sample c o m m e r c i a l egg f a r m as t h e egg and f o w l r e c e i p t s  varied.  F e e d expenses were c a l c u l a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f 89 the  tons o f feed, laying  n e c e s s a r y on t h e sample farm t o f e e d  s t o c k and t h e n e c e s s a r y p u l l e t  X  "A  replacements f o r it  -1  Support P r i c e Scale  o f Returns  -  -  , T a b l e 6.  "Budget o f a Sample B.C. Commercial Egg Farm , T a b l e 2 1 , Appendix X V I I . -3QP, c i t . . Column h.  ^ I b l d . , Column  ^ I b i d . , Column 3.  ^ I b l d . , Column 1  ^ I b i d . , Column 5«  - 93 -  2.  one year, at the 1951 average composite price for laying rations of  3.817^" per  pound. The t o t a l feed cost  was increased twenty-five percent to cover a l l other expenses, and t o t a l expenses  became a constant of  18,1+92.  1 Returns to capital and labour  are t o t a l receipts p  less t o t a l expenses. Return to farm labour  i s the  return to capital and labour less the return to c a p i t a l . Return to capital i s calculated at five percent Interest on one-half the average capital investment of $11,077. 3 This amount to  $276.  The return to operator's labour^  i s the return to farm labour less the return to family and hired labour. of the t o t a l .  The l a t t e r amounts to about 20 percent  On the sample B r i t i s h Columbia farm, the  operator contributed 81 percent of the lahou r , the family 15 percent, and hired labour 1+ percent, ^ I b i d . , Column 6.  2 Ibid., Column 7.  3 Ibid., Column 8.  BIBLIOGRAPHY American P o u l t r y A s s o c i a t i o n . The Standard o f P e r f e c t i o n . Davenport, Iowa: The American P o u l t r y A s s o c i a t i o n , I n c . ,  194-7.  B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia S t a t i s t i c a l R e p o r t s . V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 194-3 - 1951. C a m p b e l l , R.K. "Egg and P o u l t r y P r o d u c t i o n I n B r i t i s h Columbia, 194-8 - 194-9, P a r t I , " The Economic A n n a l i s t . Ottawa: Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Marketing S e r v i c e , Economics D i v i s i o n . December, 1951. Pp. 127 - 133» . "Egg and P o u l t r y P r o d u c t i o n I n B r i t i s h Columbia,  19*78 9 194-9, P a r t I I " . The Economic A n n a l i s t . Ottawa:  Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Marketing S e r v i c e , Economics D i v i s i o n . F e b r u a r y , 1952. Pp. 6 - 10. Canada Department" o f A g r i c u l t u r e . Egg and P o u l t r y Market R e p o r t . Ottawa: Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , M a r k e t i n g S e r v i e e , 194-3 -"l9J>0. . P o u l t r y Products Market R e p o r t . Ottawa: Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Marketing S e r v i c e ,  1951 - 1952.  . R e g u l a t i o n s R e s p e c t i n g the G r a d i n g , Packing and n < Marking o f - E g g s , Canada, 19w7^-3- Relevant P a r t s o f the L i v e s t o c k and L i v e s t o c k Products A c t , 1939. Ottawa: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1951. Pp. 3 - 24-. Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s . P r o d u c t i o n o f P o u l t r y and • Eggs. Ottawa: Dominion Department of S t a t i s t i c s ,  I943 - 1951.  „ Stocks of D a i r y and P o u l t r y P r o d u c t s . Ottawa: i Dominion Department o f S t a t i s t i c s , 194-3 - 1951. -  . P r i c e , Index Numbers of Farm F a m i l y L i v i n g C o s t s . Ottawa: Dominion Department of S t a t i s t i c s , 194-3 1951. . Farm Wages. Ottawa: Dominion Department of S t a t i s t i c s , 194-3 - 1951. Rampson E . , and W i l l a r d A. "Feed-Egg R a t i o " . Washington: S t a t e C o l l e g s o f Washington, A g r i c u l t u r a l e x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n 297, 1934-.  - 95 -  - 96 Hoeke, R.W. The Economics of The Poultry Enterprise on Kansas Farms. Kansas: Agricultural Experimental Station, Kansas State College of Agriculture and Applied Science, 1942. P. 30. Medland S., and Anderson W. An Outlook Report For a Poultry Enterprise i n B.C. i n 1952. Vancouver. B.C.: Department of Agricultural Economics, U.B.C., 1952. Pp.. 5 - 6 . Medland S., and Hickman R. A Study of the Marketing of Eggs and Poultry i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver, ETC.: Canada Department of Agriculture In Co-operation With The Department of Agricultural Economics, U.B.C, 1951. Shefrin, F . "Community Wartime Agricultural Committees". The Economic Annalifet. Ottawa: Department of Agriculture, Marketing Service, Economics Division, November, 1943. Pp. 74 - 75. . "Eggs For Export". The Economic Annalist. Ottawa: Department of Agriculture, Marketing Service, Economics D i v i s i o n , August, 1942. Pp. 61 - 63. . "Administration of Wartime Agricultural Controls In Canada". The Economic Annalist. Ottawa: Department of Agriculture, Marketing Service, Economics Division, August, 1943. . "Agricultural Policy: Wartime Prices of Farm Products". The Economic Annalist. Ottawa: Department of Agriculture, Marketing Service, Economics D i v i s i o n , February, 1945. Shepherd, G.S. Marketing Farm Products. Ames: Iowa State College Press, 1949. ~ ~~~ Sprague, G.W. "The Effect of The Feed-Egg Ratio on Numbers of Young Chickens In Farm Flocks On March 1", Journal of Farm Bconomics. Menasha: American Farm Economic Association, 1929. Pp. 334 - 340. The Vancouver Dally Province. 1941 - 1951. Woodward, E.D. Some Factors That Influence Poultry Farm Income. Ottawa: Canada Department of Agriculture, 1946. P. 15. Working, J . "An Analysis of Monthly Prices of Eggs". Journal of Farm Economics. Menasha: American Farm Economic • Association, 1929. Pp. 460 - 464.  

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