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A study of variations in egg production in British Columbia, 1943-1951 Herring, Stephen Harold Edward 1952

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A STUDY OF VARIATIONS I N EGG PRODUCTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 19L:-3 - 1951 b y STEPHEN HAROLD EDWARD HERRING A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE in the Departments of AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS and • POULTRY HUSBANDRY We accept this thesis as conforming to the standards required from candidates for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCg-^jJ AGRICULTURE Members of the Departments of Agricultural Economics and Poultry Husbandry THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1952 ABSTRACT The commercial egg industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia Is the sixth largest In Canada. It provides about ten percent of the t o t a l farm Income. About 85 percent of a l l B r i t i s h Columbia eggs are produced i n the Lower Mainland, 10 percent on the east coast of Vancouver Island, and' about f i v e percent i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. The export market between 19l:-0 and 19^ -9 created favorable conditions for expansion of the industry. To meet export demands, the Canada wartime government promoted and f a c i l i t a t e d production through agencies concerned with extension, prices, subsidies and standards. After the loss of the B r i t i s h egg contract In January, 19li-9? exports dropped. Imports increased during this period because of storage space shortage on the pr a i r i e s and price d i f f e r e n t i a l s between B r i t i s h Columbia and the p r a i r i e s . The B r i t i s h egg contracts supplied the equivalent of a floor price at wholesale l e v e l u n t i l January 315 19l!-9. The Canada government, i n January, 1950, Included eggs i n i t s Support Price Policy to assist farmers In adjustment from wartime,conditions. Analyses of data ga.th.ered for the period from 19'+3 to 1951 show that great annual and c y c l i c a l variations exist i n the commercial egg industry of B r i t i s h Columbia. An annual average marketing peak occurred in January with the low marketing month in July. Egg prices \ •: reciprocated with, an average y e a r l y peak i n J u l y end a low.point i n January. Egg p r i c e s were higher i n the former h a l f of the year, on the average, than i n the l a t t e r h a l f , while feed p r i c e s were higher i n the f i r s t h a l f and lower i n the second h a l f . Excess capacity increased g r e a t l y a f t e r termination of the B r i t i s h egg contracts i n 19^+9* The annual egg-feed r a t i o , as an i n d i c a t o r of p r o f i t a b i l i t y , seems to move wit h the annual returns to c a p i t a l and labour. The monthly r a t i o seems to precede the marketings by some months.. An increased guaranteed minimum income over that supplied by the present f l o o r p r i c e w i l l decrease excess capacity and increase the number of farmers whose r e t u r n to c a p i t a l and labour i s more than the point of d i s i n v e stment. The problem of what the minimum guaranteed Income should be i s considered through a reconsideration of the f l o o r p r i c e using producer c r i t e r i a . The 1951 costs of production are combined with the annual r e c e i p t s from fowl and eggs of a sample B r i t i s h Columbia p o u l t r y farm to give a scale of returns to c a p i t a l and labour, under incremental increases i n egg and fowl p r i c e s . Normal p e r q u i s i t e s decrease the cash Income necessary to give a f a i r r e t u r n to operator's labour as based on the average annual wage f o r farm labour without board. PREFACE The commercial egg industry in British Columbia is beset with price and output fluctuations which are not In the best Interest of either the producer or the consumer. Annual and cyclical variations occur in quantities of eggs prodxiced and marketed, also in egg and feed prices. These fluctuations are unsatisfactory to the producer because of the high variations in return to capital and labour which lie experiences. .They are unsatisfactory from the consumer's viewpoint because of the wide differences which occur in re t a i l egg prices from year to year. This thesis attempts to show the nature of these variations and to suggest how they might be alleviated through a reconsideration c f the present floor price policy,, I wish to thank Professors W.J. Anderson and E.A. Lloyd for their help and guidance in carrying out this study. • TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 0 l l c l T ) "b © I* I~. THE BRITISH COLUMBIA EGG AND POULTRY l i s L / U v J l i - H • • • • * • o « • • « • • • « * * The P o u l t r y Industry i n Canada and Comparative Importance Present Size and R e l a t i v e Importance of the 'Commercial Egg Industry The P o u l t r y Producing Areas Types of Farm Producing P o u l t r y Products An Average Commercial Egg and P o u l t r y Farm Marketing Agencies and Channels Domestic and Export Egg Markets Canadian Per Capita Consumption of C e r t a i n Proteins B r i t i s h Columbia Exports and Imports I I . FEDERAL. GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND AGENCIES . . 15 Wa.rtime P o l i c y Result of E f f o r t s to Increase Wartime Egg Supply Agencies The A g r i c u l t u r a l Supplies Board Wartime P r i c e s and Trades Board The S p e c i a l Products Board The Food Administration Board Committee on Food Requirements and Production Capacity The Canada Government Egg Regulations; Grading, Packing, Marking I I I . VARIABILITY IN THE INDUSTRY 32 Seasonal P r i c e s General P r i c e Level V a r i a b i l i t y i n Feed P r i c e s Egg Production nnd Marketing V a r i a t i o n s V a r i a t i o n s i n the Movement of Eggs Into Hatching V a r i a t i o n s i n the Number of Layers Excess Capacity The Point of Disinvestment Va r i a t i o n s i n Returns to C e p l t a l and Labour - i i i -'. Page v v i i 1 Chapter The Farmer's Response to the Egg-Feed Ratio "The Egg-Feed Ratio and Real Returns to C a p i t a l and Labour IY. AGRICULTURAL PRICE POLICY NECESSARY TO REDUCE VARIABILITY Wartime Canadian P r i c e P o l i c y Postwar Canadian P r i c e P o l i c y A g r i c u l t u r a l P r i c e Support Board Storage S p e c i f i c a t i o n s A Reconsideration of the Support P r i c e APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY LIST OP TABLES 'able Page 1. Average P o u l t r y Stock and Production by Provinces, 19 l\-6 to 19^ 9 1 2. Estimated Cash Income From the Sale of Eggs i n B r i t i s h Columbia 3 3. Annual Per Capita Supplies of C e r t a i n C i v i l i a n Foods Moving Into C i v i l i a n Consumption . . . 12 h. Egg Exports and Imports, B r i t i s h Columbia, I9H3 to 1950 13 5. Returns to C a p i t a l and Labour of a Sample B r i t i s h Columbia Commercial Egg Farm h3 6. A Support P r i c e Scale of Returns . . . . 56 7. Poultry Stock and Production, By Province s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 8. Monthly Producer P r i c e s i n Cents Per Dozen of Grade A Large and Grade A Medium Eggs, In Vancouver » . 66 9. Monthly Producer P r i c e s Per Ton and Per Pound of Mash, Wheat, B a r l e y , Oats, Delivered to Fraser V a l l e y . . . . 67 10. Proportions of Grade A Large and Grade A Medium Eggs i n Cases of 30 Dozens, Marketed i n B r i t i s h Columbia Through Registered Egg Grading S t a t i o n s , 19^ 3 - 191*9 7h 11. Composite Producer P r i c e i n Cents Per Dozen of Grade A Large and Grade A Medium Eggs, Vancouver, 19^ 3 to 1951 • • 75 12. Composite Feed P r i c e s i n Cents Per Pound Delivered i n the Lower Mainland . . 76 13. Monthly Egg Marketings At Registered Egg Grading Stations i n B f i t i s h Columbia and Concurrent Monthly Egg-Feed Ratio . . 77 - v -Table , Page lh._ Yearly Aggregate Receipts of Ungraded Eggs i n Cases of 30 Dozens at Registered Egg Grading Stations i n the Main Producing Areas of B r i t i s h Columbia, IS'VM- - 19^ 9 78 15. Results of Nine Years Operations of the P o u l t r y Products S e c t i o n , S p e c i a l Products Board; Canadian Government Shipments to Great 79 B r i t a i n and the United States 16. Eggs Sold and Used By the Producer For Hatching Purposes i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n '000 Dozens, 19V6 - 1950 . . 80 17. Storage Stocks of S h e l l Eggs at Vancouver, i n '000 Dozens 81 18. B r i t i s h Columbia Stock, Production, and D i s t r i b u t i o n i n the Commercial-Egg Industry . • 32 19. D i s p o s i t i o n of E?gs i n B r i t i s h Columbia, '000 Dozens, 19'+6 - 1950 . . . S*f 20. Budget of a Sample B r i t i s h Columbia Commercial Egg Farm 89 21. Farm Wages i n B.C. Without Board, 19 "TJ ™* 19 5*2 • • • • » • • • • • • • • • • 9 ^ 22. Annual Average Farm Index, 19H3 - 1951 91 23. Farm P e r q u i s i t e s 92 - v i -LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Graph of Monthly Egg Marketings at Registered Egg Grading Stations and Concurrent Monthly Egg-Feed Ratio . - v i i -CHAPTER I THE B R I T I S H COLUMBIA EGG AND POULTRY INDUSTRY The P o u l t r y Industry In Canada and Comparative Importance TABLE I AVERAGE POULTRY STOCK AND PRODUCTION, BY PROVINCES, 19^6 to 19^9 Province T o t a l P o u l t r y 'OOO Hens and Chickens 'ooo Average Layers '000 Eggs L a i d '000 doz. Production Per 100 Layers Ontario 27,658 26,51^ 10,^ +68 135,628 15,753 Quebec 12, ^ 11,963 ^•,595 57,592 15,279 Sask. 11,088 10,503 3,^13 35,802 12,785 A l b e r t a 10,387 9,^21 3,279 35,716 13,265 Manitoba 7,565 7,099 2,358 26,2>f8 13,585 B r i t i s h Columbia ^,271 1,955 26,825 16,663 Nova S c o t i a 2,217 2,162 11,057 15,893 New Brunswick 1,59^ 1,5^6 575 7,20^ 15,170 P.E.I, 1,183 1,155 U.89 6,009 l^+,928 a ^ " P o u l t r y Stock and Production By Provinces, 19^6 to 19^9", Table 7, Appendix I. The order of importance of the provinces in Canada, during the period 19^6 to 19^9 > in regard to poultry population, numbers of hens and chickens, average numbers of layers are} Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Manitoba, British Columbia, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. The order is the same for total egg production, except that British Columbia i s slightly greater than Manitoba. The British Columbia commercial egg industry is sixth in importance among the Canadian provinces. The poultry population of British Columbia i s about 60 percent that of Manitoba; percent that of Alberta, and Saskatchewan; 37 percent that of Quebec; almost double that of Nova Scotia; nearly three times that of New Brunswick; and about four times that of Prince Edward Island. Numbers of hens and chickens, in provinces have similar proportions between provinces and the same order of importance as total poultry. Figures on the egg production per hen by provinces for the period 19^6 to 19*+9, show that British Columbia was the highest at an average of 166 eggs per layer; Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, approximated 155 eggs per layer; Alberta 131 eggs; Manitoba 135; and Sask-atchewan about 127 eggs per layer. - 3 -Present Size and Relative Importance of the Commercial Egg Industry TABLE 2 ESTIMATED CASH INCOME FROM.THE SALE OF EGGS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA^, 1°M to 1950 Year Cash Income % of Total Eggs Total 1950 101,709 ll,6H-6 12 19^ 9 101,222 10, W 10 19W 103,655 10,758 10 19^ 7 9^ ,256 10,29^  11 19^ 6 85,606 8,866 10 19^ 5 75,006 8,052 10 Av 10 'Department of Agricultural Statistics Branch, British Columbia, "Estimated Cash Income From the Sale of Farm Products in British Columbia", Agricultural Statistics Report For British Columbia, (Victoria; King's Printer and Controller of Stationery, 1951), p . m . Between 19>+5 and 1950, the cash income from egg production in British Columbia averaged approximately ten percent of the total cash farm income. The cash farm income from a l l classes of poultry meat averaged 3.3 percent of the total cash farm income during the same period. The t o t a l marketings" remained f a i r l y constant, f o r 19V5, 19h6, and 19^-8 with a sharp Increase^ i n I9V7. They tapered downward between 19^ 9 and 1950, with a reduction of about 100,000 cases each year. The graph of r a t i o s and marketings^ i n d i c a t e s that the egg-feed r a t i o was high u n t i l I9V7. A f t e r that date, the great increase i n marketing reduced egg p r i c e s and th e r e a f t e r the egg-feed r a t i o was lower. The P o u l t r y Producing Areas The r e c e i p t s of eggs marketed at Registered Egg Grading S t a t i o n s ^ i n B r i t i s h Columbia show that about 85 percent of a l l B r i t i s h Columbia eggs are produced In the Lower Mainland, 10 percent on the east coast of Vancouver I s l a n d , and about f i v e percent i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 Monthly Egg Marketings at Registered Egg Grading Stations i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Concurrent Monthly Egg-Feed R a t i o " , Table 13, Appendix 3. Annual egg marketings at Registered Egg Grading Stations f o r these years were about 663,000 cases of 30 dozens. 8^00,572 cases of 30 dozen eggs. l h ,Graph of Monthly Egg Marketings at Registered Egg Grading Stations i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Concurrent Monthly Egg-Feed R a t i o " , Appendix 9. ^"Yearly Aggregate Receipts of Ungraded Eggs i n Cases of 30 Dozen at Registered Grading Stations i n the Main Producing Areas of B r i t i s h Columbia", Table lh, Appendix 10. - 5 -Types of Farm Producing P o u l t r y Products Commercial egg and p o u l t r y e n t e r p r i s e s i n the main producing areas of B r i t i s h Columbia are operated on three general types of farms."*" 1. S p e c i a l i z e d p o u l t r y farms w i t h no other farm or non-farm income of Importance. 2 . Part-time farms having a small to medium s i z e e n t e r p r i s e s p e c i a l i z e d i n the sense that other farm income i s small, bu% wit h non-farm income amounting to as much or more than other farm income. They are operated u s u a l l y by persons In semi-retirement or who have f u l l occupations other than farming. 3. Mixed farms on which a small to medium s i z e p o u l t r y e n t e r p r i s e , that may or may not be the main e n t e r p r i s e , i s combined with other farm e n t e r p r i s e s , such as small f r u i t s or d a i r y and operated by f u l l -time farmers. Other e n t e r p r i s e s i n c l u d e : 1. Breeder farms producing hatching eggs f o r sale to s p e c i a l i z e d h a t c h e r i e s . 2 . Breeder-hatchery farms producing t h e i r own hatching eggs and operating t h e i r own incubators. 3. B r o i l e r or f r y e r s p e c i a l i s t s , "^R.H.Campbell, "Egg and* P o u l t r y Production i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 19^ +8 - 19^9, Part 2 " , The Economic A n n a l i s t . (Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of St a t i o n e r y , February, 1 9 5 2 ) , pp . 7 - 8 . - 6 -A recent survey of the B r i t i s h Columbia egg and p o u l t r y i n d u s t r y found t h a t about 29 percent of a l l farms surveyed produced hatching eggs f o r s a l e ; about 36 percent produced them f o r hatching t h e i r own c h i c k s ; 15 percent produced market eggs only, with cash r e c e i p t s from such s a l e s making up 85 percent of t o t a l r e c e i p t s ; 13 pereent of the farms produced hatching eggs, f r y e r s and b r o i l e r s . 1 An Average Commercial Egg and P o u l t r y Farm As stated p r e v i o u s l y , the major commercial egg producing areas I n B r i t i s h Columbia, are the Lower Fr a s e r V a l l e y , and Vancouver Island Coast. Most p o u l t r y producers In these areas are l o c a t e d on upland l i g h t sand and g r a v e l s o i l # that are unused f o r other types of a g r i c u l t u r a l production. The annual average temperature i n 19*+9 "was *+3 degrees Fahrenheit and moderate o p r e c i p i t a t i o n occurred of 57 inches. The most common breeds were Leghorn and New Hampshire. Average f l o c k s i z e was 633 l a y e r s , with average annual feed consumption per hen of 58.^ pounds 1 I b i d i , P.8. ^Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , "Long-Term Averages of C l i m a t i c Data For Representative Canadian S t a t i o n s " , The Canada Year Book. (Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of St a t i o n e r y , 1950), Pp. 66-67. mash and 53.7 pounds g r a i n . F l o c k c u l l i n g averaged 80.6 percent and m o r t a l i t y averaged 19 .3 percent. These c a l c u l a t i o n s were on a hen-day oasis."*" The operator c o n t r i b u t e d 1,805 hours or 81 percent o f t o t a l labour, f a m i l y members 351 hours or 15 percent, and h i r e d labour 90 hours or k- percent, on the average. The average f a m i l y labour income per hour was 53 cents. The average inventory was $ 5 , 3 ^ per farm. T h i s included land valued at 18^-0 or 16 percent o f the t o t a l investment, b u i l d i n g s valued at $2,763, or h7 percent of t o t a l investment. T o t a l cash r e c e i p t s per farm averaged $5,587. T o t a l cash expenses were $*+,201 per farm. Of t h i s , 83 percent was f o r feed, 2.5 percent f o r l i t t e r , 7 percent f o r chicks and stock, 2.5 percent f o r t o o l s , equipment and b u i l d i n g improvements. I l l other expenses amounted to s i x percent of the t o t a l . The r e t u r n to capital and labour averaged |1,28>+ per farm. The r e t u r n to labour was $1,150 a f t e r a llowing k percent r e t u r n to c a p i t a l . P o u l t r y p e r q u i s i t e s were valued at $6J+ per year.^ •^ One hen-day = One hen i n the l a y i n g f l o c k f o r one day. 365 hen-days - One l a y e r . 2R.H.Campbell, "Egg and P o u l t r y Production i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 19I+8-I9V9, Part I , " The Economic A n n a l i s t . (Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r o f St a t i o n e r y , December, 1951), pp. 127-233. - 8 -Marketing Agencies and Channels Farm consumption in British Columbia amounted to about three million eggs per year, with increases during the war years.^ Direct sales to the consumer are an important source of income among producers located around an urban area such as Vancouver. The present government egg grading regulations permit certain producers to grade their own eggs for direct selling. Wastage and spoilage account for a very small amount of the eggs produced. The eggs unmarketed through Registered Egg Grading Stations eonsist of those moving into hatching, 2 those home consumed, wasted, or sold directly. The British market ended on January 31? 1 9 ^ 9 5 just before baby chicks were to be ordered for the next production period. Consequently, there was a sharp drop in the number of eggs moving Into hatching channels. In 1 9 ^ 8 , these sales to hatcheries were one-half what they were in 1 9 ^ 7 . 3 Farm consumption which had increased during and ^Dominion Bureau of Statistics, "Summary of Supply, Distribution and Consumption of Poultry Meat and Eggs, In Canada", Production of Poultry and Eggs, (Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 195D, P . 2 6 . o "British Columbia Stock} Production, and Distribution in the Commercial Egg Industry", Table 1 8 , Appendix Ih. 3"Eggs Sold and Used by the Producer for Hatching Purposes in British Columbia", Table 16, Appendix 12. after the war years to a 19^ 7 peak dropped gradually each year thereafter to a l i t t l e more than one-half this peak. Direct sales and forms of disposal other than farm consumption and hatching, and marketing through Registered Egg Grading Stations increased sharply during 19^ 9 and thereafter, as producers sought to augment their income through direct sales to consumers. Most eggs in British Columbia are marketed through Registered Egg Grading Stations which are subject to government inspection. Some sales are made by producers through public markets, roadside marketing stands and by direct delivery to the consumer's house. Direct selling has become more important in the period after the loss of the export market, and producers seem to be selling directly as many eggs as possible. In 195+9J there were 76 Registered Egg Grading Stations operating in British Columbia with a total valume of 5li+>1+5l eases of 30 dozen eggs, or 95 percent of a l l recorded marketings. Commercial hatcheries took a further four percent while the remaining one percent moved to consumers through public markets and roadside stands.1 About one-half the Registered Egg Grading Stations -^S. L.Med land, W.R.Hickman, A Study of the Marketing of Eggs and Poultry in British Columbia, (Unpublished Report, Canada Department of Agriculture in Co-operation With The Department of Agriculture Economics, U.B.C.'j 195D• ~ 10 -In B r i t i s h Columbia are l o c a t e d i n Vancouver, New Westminster, V i c t o r i a and Nanaimo^' the remainder i n producing areas. The c i t y group takes about percent of a l l marketings. S i x t y percent of the Registered S t a t i o n s are independent businesses, t a k i n g 57 percent of the t o t a l volume, 23 percent are branches o f c h a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s (mainly feed and meat packing companies) t a k i n g 30 percent o f the volume, while the remaining seventeen per percent are co-operative, handling about e i g h t percent. The remainder o f the eggs, f i v e percent, represent marketings to h a t c h e r i e s , and home consumers through p u b l i c markets and roadside stands. The main o u t l e t f o r eggs handled by Registered Egg Grading S t a t i o n s i s the r e t a i l store through which 7^ .3 percent o f a l l recorded marketings were sold i n 19^9. A f u r t h e r 6A percent were d i s t r i b u t e d by Registered Egg Grading S t a t i o n s to i n s t i t u t i o n a l consumers such as h o s p i t a l s and logging camps. Exports accounted f o r 6.5 percent of the marketings by these agencies. Breaking p l a n t s were estimated to have received 3.3 percent of the 5*3 percent supplied to home consumers through marketing agencies, other than r e t a i l s t o r e s . Registered s t a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d \ . 2 percent, b r i n g i n g the t o t a l percentage of eggs marketed by the s t a t i o n s to I b i d . , p. 8 - 11 -n i n e t y - f o u r percent. Home consumers r e c e i v e d a f u r t h e r 1.1 percent of t o t a l marketing from p u b l i c markets and roadside stands, while the commercial h a t c h e r i e s took the remaining percent d i r e c t l y from farms. •Producers, marketing through d i r e c t channels such as roadside stands, p u b l i c markets, and egg routes are not r e q u i r e d to operate Registered Egg Grading S t a t i o n s . P r a c t i c a l l y a l l p o u l t r y passes through Registered P o u l t r y S t a t i o n s and then to r e t a i l s t o r e s . A few s t a t i o n s s e l l d i r e c t l y to consumers. Less than one percent of the t o t a l volume marketed i n 19^9 reached customers through p u b l i c markets or roadside marketing stands. Apart from s t a t i o n s producing and processing t h e i r own b i r d s , about one-half of the p o u l t r y p r o c e s s i n g s t a t i o n s are l o c a t e d i n the producing areas, while the balance operate i n the marketing centers of Vancouver, and New Westminster. Two-thirds of the p o u l t r y s t a t i o n s are independent, the remainder being e q u a l l y d i v i d e d between the chains and co-operative form of o r g a n i z a t i o n . Domestic and Export Egg Markets Canadian Per C a p i t a Consumption of C e r t a i n P r o t e i n s Due to meat r a t i o n i n g and increased consumer purchasing power i n Canada during the war years, the - 12 -consumption per capita of eggs increased. After the war, i n 19^6, meat rationing ceased and consumption of meat increased while that of eggs decreased. TABLE 3 ANNUAL PER CAPITA SUPPLIES OF CERTAIN PROTEIN FOODS MOYING INTO CIVILIAN CONSUMPTION, 19^ 3 to 19^ 9 ; Year Pork Beef Hens & Chickens Other Poultry Eggs Lbs. % Lbs. % Lbs. % Lbs. % Lbs. % 19^ 9 59.3 IkO 56.5 106 17.7 131.5 3.5 125 33.5 109 •19kQ 5^ .2 136 58.0 107 15.8 101.3 3.3 118 35.1 I l k 19h7 52.7 132 67.7 12k 21.2 135.9 3.6 135 36.1 118 19^ 6 h7.8 120 6k. 9 119 21.k 137.2 3.k 121 33.5 109 19^ 5 55.2 138 60. k 110 23.2 1^9.0 3.8 136 39.0 127 19M+ 61.H- 15k 6I.7 113 23.7 152.0 3.7 139 36.k 119 19^ 3 61.0 153 69.3 127 20.5 131.0 3.5 125 35.3 115 39.9 100 5k.7 100 15.6 100.0 2.8 100 30.7 100 a^Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , " C i v i l i a n Food Consumption" The Canada Year Book, (Ottawa: King's Printer and Controller of Stationery, 19^ 5 to 1950). ^Average for the base period 1935 to 1939. There was an increase i n per capita consumption of pork, beef, mutton and poultry meat from 19^ 6 to 19k7| but thereafter, the per capita consumption of beef and mutton decreased, and the consumption of poultry meat - 13 -per c a p i t a increased each year during the war. In the two year s , 1950 and 1951, the per c a p i t a consumption was 23 dozen (276 eggs and 277'eggs r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . 1 TABLE if EGG EXPORTS AND IMPORTS, BRITISH COLUMBIA, 19^ 3 to 1950 Year Imports 8^, dozens E x p o r t s ^ , dozens Other Prov. F o r e i g n 1950 if,^06,790 17,020 306,^ 90 19^ 9 l,98i+, 290 12,227 1,233,7^ 6 19^ 8 13^ ,79^  71 6,232,266 19H-7 105,^ 20 13,301 9,153,^ 60 19h6 106,770 5,5^ 7 6,377,350 19h5 139,150 1,060 8,2^ 5,260 19^ 4- 508,350 727 7,708,620 19^ 3 920,319 698 908,2h0 a'Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , " A g r i c u l t u r a l Products Imported From For e i g n Points Into B r i t i s h Columbia, Years 191+3 to 1951", Province of B r i t i s h Columbia A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c a l Report, ( V i c t o r i a ; King's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of St a t i o n e r y , 19^ 3 to 1950), P. 50. ^Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , "Estimate of A g r i c u l t u r a l Products Exported From B r i t i s h Columbia, Years 19^ 3 to 19^ 7," i b i d . , P. 51. dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Production of Poultry and Eggs, (Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 1951?, P? 26. - lb, -B r i t i s h Columbia Exports and Imports Between 19^+3 and 19^ +7, there was a steadily-i n c r e a s i n g annual export of eggs from B r i t i s h Columbia. A f t e r the B r i t i s h c o n t r a c t s ended on January 31? 19^ 9, the exports dropped to n e g l i g i b l e amounts. The year of maximum marketings and the year of g r e a t e s t export of surplus eggs was 19*+7. Eggs have been imported i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia i n r e l a t i v e l y great q u a n t i t i e s d u r i n g 19^ 9 and 1950 because of lower p r i c e s , and shortage of storage on the p r a i r i e s . CHAPTER I I FEDERAL GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND AGENCIES Wartime P o l i c y In 19^ 3, the increase i n the Canadian domestic egg consumption threatened to prevent f u l f i l l -ment of Canada's egg c o n t r a c t with Great B r i t a i n . In order to meet the overseas demand, the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e began to issue advice on i n c r e a s i n g prod-u c t i o n and q u a l i t y . A page of the weekly Canada Government p u b l i c a t i o n , "Egg and P o u l t r y Market Report", published by the Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e was set aside each week i n the form of a poster, g i v i n g p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n as to how to achieve maximum spr i n g , summer, and f a l l production of eggs and p o u l t r y i n a d d i t i o n to data on expected p r i c e and export c o n d i t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e . Operators of Registered Egg Grading S t a t i o n s , h a t c h e r i e s , feed companies and other s e r v i c e groups connected with the p o u l t r y i n d u s t r y were requested to co-operate, i n t h i s campaign. 1 Shortage of feed, e s p e c i a l l y of p r o t e i n i n g r e d i e n t s , during the war years was s e r i o u s . In 19^+3, the government 1 Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Egg and P o u l t r y Market Report. (Ottawa: Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , A p r i l 16,19^ 3). - 15 -placed c o n t r o l s on the p r o t e i n content of l a y i n g mash. No more than..16 percent animal p r o t e i n could be used i n a l a y i n g r a t i o n . T h i s r e g u l a t i o n was removed on January h, 19^ 9. Throughout the war p e r i o d , and f o r a short time t h e r e a f t e r , the government warned producers to conserve feed through c u l l i n g , proper feeding, and other management p r a c t i s e s . The program of expanding egg production a l s o Included c e r t a i n s u b s i d i e s . Commencing i n A p r i l , 19W, the f e d e r a l government began paying a f r e i g h t subsidy of $k.50 per ton on Western wheat, oats, b a r l e y , rye, wheat bran, wheat shorts, wheat middlings, and Number 1 and Number 2 feed screenings shipped from the P r a i r i e s i n t o the f i v e E astern Provinces and B r i t i s h Columbia f o r l i v e s t o c k and p o u l t r y feed. To encourage the manufacturing of a l f a l f a meal, a subsidy of $h.00 per ton was paid to a l l processors.''" The e f f e c t of these s u b s i d i e s i n the Lower Fra s e r V a l l e y , was to reduce the producer p r i c e per ton of feed i n A p r i l , I9M+7 Laying mash reduced ffom $50 to $k8$ wheat from #3>+ to #32; oats from I36 to |33j and ^F. S h e f r i n , "Community Wartime A g r i c u l t u r a l Commodities", The Economic A n n a l i s t , (Ottawa: Economics D i v i s i o n , Marketing S e r v i c e , Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ) , November, 19^ 3, Pp. 7*+-75. 2"Producer P r i c e s Per Ton of Mash, Wheat, Barley, and Oats, D e l i v e r e d To F r a s e r V a l l e y P o i n t s " , Table 9, Appendix I I I . - 17 -barley from $31 to $30. The Government Marketing Service reported the average increase in cost of a complete laying ration across Canada was, after adjustment in feed prices, $8.37 per ton between the f a l l of 19H-6 and September 19V7. Since the average consumption per bird per year was 92 pounds, these figures mean that cost of feed increased '2.6/^  per dozen for a bird laying 180 eggs per year"*". A premium of three cents per dozen on Grade A Large eggs purchased for export, and an additional bonus of one-half cent per dozen was paid for o i l dipp-ing such eggs to help retain quality while in transit and storage. In addition to these subsidies, an effective floor price was provided by the United Kingdom contract. The national program to insure quality and protect delivery in Great Britain was detailed. A l l eggs were graded In Registered Egg Grading Stations, by approved graders, according to the Canadian Standards for eggs. Grade A quality only was set aside for export in the shell. A l l eggs were Inspected for quality and ^Department of Agriculture, Egg and Poultry Marketing Report, (Ottawa: Department of Agriculture Marketing Service, September 26, I9V7). p F.Shefrin, "Eggs For Export", on. c i t . , August 19^2, Pp. 61-63* - 18 -packaging "by government i n s p e c t o r s at p o i n t s of shipment. A l l eggs were c a r r i e d hy r a i l at s p e c i f i e d temperatures f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d and a u t o m a t i c a l l y recorded. When q u a n t i t i e s j u s t i f i e d , arrangements were made f o r s p e c i a l through t r a i n s from assembly p o i n t s to seaboard. There they were inspected f o r p o s s i b l e damage during t r a n s f e r from car to ship at seaboard, and were shipped r e g u l a r l y and stored i n the c o o l e s t forward holds on board. They were inspected f o r q u a l i t y and c o n d i t i o n by a senior Canadian government egg i n s p e c t o r on a r r i v a l i n Great B r i t a i n . Arrangements were made i n Great B r i t a i n f o r the d i v e r s i o n and rehandling of any shipments showing damage or diminution o f q u a l i t y during transit."'" On December 30, 19*+3> the F e d e r a l Government announced the Grade A Large s h e l l egg p r i c e s for. the 19^ 4 l a y i n g season t o be paid by the S p e c i a l Produces Board at 'typical p o i n t s . There were no seasonal v a r i a t i o n s and i n co n t r a s t to previous p o l i c y , there was a s i n g l e wholesale p r i c e b a s i s f o r the whole year. P r i c e s quoted at t y p i c a l shipping p o i n t s i n Eas t e r n Canada were: 35? 3 5 i and 35i cents per dozen at Charlottetown, H a l i f a x , and St. John r e s p e c t i v e l y ; 35 and 351" cents at Montreal and Quebec r e s p e c t i v e l y ; iDepartment of A g r i c u l t u r e , Egg and P o u l t r y Market Report, (Ottawa: Department of A g r i c u l t u r e Marketing S e r v i c e , February 16, 19*+5). 2 I b i d . . December 30, 19^5. 35, 3^ 4", 3^ 4", and 35 cents per dozen at Toronto, London, Harreston, B e l l e v i l l e r e s p e c t i v e l y ; 3!+£ and 31+£ cents per dozen at Winnipeg and Brandon r e s p e c t i v e l y ; 33"!" cents per dozen at Calgary and Edmonton; 33 cents per dozen at Vane Oliver., On A p r i l 13, 19*+5, the 19^ 6 export contract was o u t l i n e d to the commercial egg producers. The prospects i n the f a l l of 19M+ had not been encouraging f o r the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the 19*+5 p r i c e , but as a r e s u l t of the world meat shortage, the o v e r a l l p r i c e f o r s h e l l eggs i n the 19^-6 c o n t r a c t was w i t h i n seven-tenths of a cent a dozen of the 19^ 5 p r i c e . D r i e d egg shipments were reduced by more than one-half, and s h e l l eggs by one-ninth the 19!+5 c o n t r a c t p r i c e . 1 The producer Grade A Large p r i c e at Vancouver to be r e c e i v e d i n 19-+5 was 33i between January and May; 3H-§ between August and November; and 36f f o r December. In 19^ 6, because of the increased f r e i g h t on eggs, the p r i c e to producers was to be about two-thirds cents lower. The contract stated that minimum requirements were equivalent to 2,750,000 cases of 30 dozen. Minimum p r i c e was h2& per dozen f o r Grade A Large i n c a r l o t s F.O.B. Canada seaboard, and f o r d r i e d eggs, $1.22 per pound. P r i c e d i f f e r e n t i a l s were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the f i r s t time. These were a s i n g l e p r i c e f o r 1 I b i d J _ , A p r i l 13, 19^ 5. - 20 -winter, s p r i n g , and summer f r e s h eggs, a higher p r i c e f o r f a l l f r e s h eggs, and a p r i c e f o r storage eggs, a l l of which were GEade A Large or Grade A Medium. In Vancouver,"'" the 19^ 8 producer p r i c e during the months of January, February, and March was 3Op' per dozen, during A p r i l and May, 31/ per dozen, and 35/ per dozen f o r December. Grade ^ Mediums ranged from two cents to f o u r cents l e s s , with the g r e a t e s t range during the summer and f a l l months when supply of t h i s grade was h e a v i e s t . On August 3j 19^ 5. the poster advertisement said t h at a s h e l l egg contract f o r 19^ 7 was f o r e c a s t , and t h a t f u r t h e r requirements of d r i e d eggs were i n d i c a t e d by the D i r e c t o r of Egg Supplies f o r the B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y of Food. 2 On November 16, 19^ 5• i t was stated that the f a l l f l o o r p r i c e i n 19^ 6, would be per dozen 3 Grade A Large, at seaboard. On November 22, 19^ 6, the poster advertisement ^"Producer P r i c e s Per Dozen For Grade A Large Eggs, Vancouver," Table 8, Appendix I I . ^Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Egg and P o u l t r y Market Report. (Ottawa: Department of A g r i c u l t u r e Marketing S e r v i c e , August 19, 19^ 5)• ^ I b i d . . November 22, 19^ 6. - 21 s a i d that one and one-half m i l l i o n cases of 30 dozen eggs were the o b j e c t i v e f o r the p e r i o d from 19*+7 to 19^ 8.1 On October if, 19*+6, the poster advertisement announced that the new egg c o n t r a c t , purchasing s i m i l a r annual q u a n t i t i e s as during the years 19*+5 and 19^ +6, would provide a f l o o r p r i c e under the egg market u n t i l January 31, 19-+9. The co n t r a c t s up to 19^ 5 ended December 31, of each year, but because the naed of eggs i n Great B r i t a i n was greater during the f a l l and winter p e r i o d , and because Canada had shown p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t y to meet t h i s demand, the winter premium p e r i o d was extended to January 31, 19*+7 to 19^ 9. The winter premium was two cents per dozen at seaboard, from p September 1, to January 31* R e s u l t of E f f o r t s to Increase Wartime Egg Supply Exports of eggs during the f i r s t e i g h t months o f the war u n t i l the formation of the S p e c i a l Products Board, amounted to one and a h a l f m i l l i o n dozens.^ In the 1Ib_id., November 22, 19^ 6. 2 I b i d . , October h, 19k6l 3F. S h e f r i n , "Eggs For Export", The Economic A n n a l i s t , (Ottawa: Economic D i v i s i o n , Marketing S e r v i c e , Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , August 1942), pp. 62. - 22 -calendar year of 19^ 0, B r i t a i n imported from Canada 10,680,000 dozen eggs. During 19^ +1, B r i t a i n placed frequent orders through the S p e c i a l Products Board f o r eggs. A f t e r t h i s year, she contracted f o r them from one to two years i n advance. On March lk-, 19^ 1, the B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y of Food ordered 600,000 dozen eggs. On A p r i l k, 19^ +1, i t ordered three m i l l i o n dozen. On A p r i l 12, an order was placed f o r f i v e and one-half m i l l i o n dozen to he stored f o r f a l l shipments. In October, 19*+1, a c o n t r a c t between the B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y o f Food and the S p e c i a l Products Board was .consummated, which provided f o r the shipment of 30 m i l l i o n eggs between September 1, 19^ -1, and May 31? 19^ 2.2 On January 8, 19^ 2, a c o n t r a c t was arranged f o r 15 m i l l i o n dozen at 32/zf per dozen at Montreal f o r f a l l d e l i v e r y . On A p r i l 22, 19*+2, a new c o n t r a c t was made f o r 6.9 m i l l i o n dozen eggs, 3 at $1.00 per pound or 26-§-£f per dozen, Grade B, Montreal. "'""Results of Nine Years Operations of the P o u l t r y Products S e c t i o n - S p e c i a l Products Board", Table 15, Appendix XI. 2 S h e f r i n , op. c i t . . p. 63"-. 3This equals 2.3 m i l l i o n pounds d r i e d . - 21 -In 19*+3, the egg production objective to supply the domestic and British markets was 33+5 million dozen, an increase of 36 percent over 19*+2 and k-1 percent over 19hl. Before the war, exports of eggs averaged three to four million dozen per annum. The 19^ 3 export objectives to meet the United Kingdom requirements were 63 million dozen, which were to be reduced to powder to conserve shipping space.1 The 19^ 5 egg exports were the largest shipped to Great Britain during the period 19^ 1 to 19^9, amounting to the equivalent of 89,700,000 dozen. This was about 120 percent more than the 19hh shipments, 300 percent more than In 19H-3, and 600 percent more than in 195+1. Egg exports lessened by 20 percent In 19^ 6, then increased by 115 percent in 19^ 7 to 82,999,750 eases of 30 dozen. They dropped 25 percent in 19*+8 and in 19^ +9 dropped a further 50 percent. During the period from 19*+! to 19*+9, more than 500 million dozen eggs were shipped to Great Britain. Of these, 13*+ million dozen eggs were shipped fresh, 81 million dozen were storage and the remainder dried. •^Shefrin, op. c i t . , p. 6*+. "Results of Nine Years Operation of The Poultry Products Section - Special Products Board", op. c i t . - 2k -Agencies The A g r i c u l t u r a l Supplies Board The purpose of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Supplies Board was to insure the u t i l i z a t i o n of the a g r i c u l t u r a l resources of Canada to the best advantage during the war. I t co-operated w i t h a d v i s o r y committees •representing producer and trade o r g a n i s a t i o n s , and w i t h the v a r i o u s d i v i s i o n s of the F e d e r a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . The Board l i m i t e d i t s e l f to suggestions f o r p r oduction programmes based on wartime needs. These were c a r r i e d forward by the p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s , i n co-operation with producer and trade o r g a n i z a t i o n s and o f f i c e r s of the F e d e r a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Wartime P r i c e s and Trades Board The f u n c t i o n of the Wartime P r i c e s and Trades Board was to assure an adequate and continuous d i s t r i b u t i o n of goods and s e r v i c e s at reasonable p r i c e s , and to prevent hoarding and p r o f i t e e r i n g . I t exercised a u t h o r i t y over a l l p r i c e s , and had the power to c o n t r o l the supply of a l l goods and s e r v i c e s other than war m a t e r i a l s . The S p e c i a l Products Board From the beginning of the war to May 1, 19^0, i F . S h e f r i n , "Administration of Wartime A g r i c u l t u r a l C o n t r o l s i n Canada", The Economic A n n a l i s t , (Ottawa: The Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , February, 191+3). - 25 -eggs exported to Great B r i t a i n were handled by p r i v a t e B r i t i s h importers. In May, 19^+0, the B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y of Food became the sole importer of eggs. In Canada, s a l e s of eggs to the B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y during 19I+O, were made d i r e c t by the t r a d e . Following the expressed d e s i r e of the B r i t i s h Food M i n i s t r y to d e a l w i t h a s i n g l e agency, the F e d e r a l government on A p r i l 15, 19^ 1, set up the 'Special Products Board. T h i s Board could d e a l , not o n l y w i t h eggs and p o u l t r y export orders but a l s o with orders f o r any other a g r i c u l t u r a l products. The powers of the Board included the r i g h t to r e g u l a t e exports of products not covered by other Boards; to r e q u i r e anyone to d e l i v e r products needed at seaboard and to snore i f necessary; to determine p r i c e s to be paid provided the purchase p r i c e and a l l costs except a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were met out of the amount r e c e i v e d from the United Kingdom government. I t encouraged increased output of c e r t a i n products such as eggs that were produced i n Canada i n i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s to meet requirements. I t a s s i s t e d i n the movement of s u p p l i e s such as feeds, to areas where they were needed. The Board a l s o encouraged and a s s i s t e d In the establishment of dehydration p l a n t s f o r eggs and i n o b t a i n i n g p r i o r i t i e s f o r m a t e r i a l s important i n war i n d u s t r i e s . In a d d i t i o n to these f u n c t i o n s , the A g r i c u l t u r a l Supplies Board i n adopted o i l d i p p i n g ' - 26 -of eggs to maintain t h e i r q u a l i t y when shipped overseas. T h i s method of p r e s e r v a t i o n has since been f u r t h e r developed and now i s i n common use i n warehouse storage.. The Food A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Board A Food A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Board was set up i n order to administer maximum wholesale and r e t a i l p r i c e s , and .to insure a s a t i s f a c t o r y d i s t r i b u t i o n of f o o d s t u f f s from producer to r e t a i l e r s , processors, and u l t i m a t e consumers. Through s e t t i n g maximum and i n many cases minimum p r i c e s , i t provided guidance and i n c e n t i v e f o r the production of d e s i r e d a g r i c u l t u r a l products. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was d i v i d e d i n t o s i x main s e c t i o n s , of which p o u l t r y and p o u l t r y products was one. Committee on Food Requirements and Production Capacity The purpose of t h i s committee was to determine a g r i c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e s , that i s , the food requirements, domestic and export, and the nations productive c a p a c i t y . S p e c i f i c o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s were set up to a s s i s t farmers i n making t h e i r plans f o r the new year. The Canada Government Egg Regulations; Grading, Packing, Marking A l l l i v e s t o c k and l i v e s t o c k products produced w i t h i n or imported i n t o Canada are c o n t r o l l e d by the L i v e s t o c k and L i v e s t o c k Products Act. The c o n t r o l provides f o r i n s p e c t i o n , grading, packing, l a b e l l i n g , branding, + • - 27 -and marking. I t p r e s c r i b e s types, s i z e s , s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of packages, packing m a t e r i a l and method of packing. I t provides f o r l i c e n s i n g over shipping and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y , and p r e s c r i b e s the grades and c l a s s of l i v e s t o c k and l i v e s t o c k products that may be exported or imported. Buyers must prepare a statement of accounts of purchases; f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n to s e l l e r or shipper and f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of such accounts. The Act c o n t r o l s egg grades that may be broken or d r i e d i n egg breaking p l a n t s . According to tfe,e Act a l l those engaged i n the grading of any l i v e s t o c k products are required to o b t a i n a c e r t i f -i c a t e upon such terms as are necessary f o r p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . Eaose engaged i n shipping or i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of l i v e s t o c k and l i v e s t o c k products must r e g i s t e r with the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . These r e g i s t r a t i o n s are granted upon terms and c o n d i t i o n s necessary to p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . The Act a l s o c o n t r o l s a d v e r t i s i n g of l i v e s t o c k and l i v e -stock products f o r which grades have been p r e s c r i b e d , and any other matter deemed necessary f o r the enforcement of the L i v e s t o c k and L i v e s t o c k Products Act. Canada Government egg standards are a p p l i e d to ^Decpartment of A g r i c u l t u r e , "Regulations Respect-ing the grading, Packing and Marking of Eggs, Canada, 19*4-0, and Relevant Parts of the L i v e s t o c k and L i v e s t o c k Products Act, 1939. (Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 195D? pp. 3-12. - 28 -eggs shipped, transported, o f f e r e d , or possessed f o r s a l e , or purchase. They r e f e r to grades, grading premises and equipment, packing m a t e r i a l s , and grade markings. Compulsory grades are Grade A Large S i z e , Grade A Medium S i z e , Grade B, Grade C, and Cracks, with 1 noneompulsory grades- i n t o which Grade A q u a l i t y eggs can he placed, as Grade A E x t r a Large S i z e , Grade A Small S i z e , Grade A Peewee S i z e , Grade A l g x t r a Large S i z e , Grade A l Large S i z e , Grade A l Medium Size and Grade A l Small S i z e . Eggs must be placed i n the highest grade f o r which t h e y . q u a l i f y . C o n s i d e r a t i o n i n grading must be given t o , (a) the q u a l i t y f a c t o r as determined by c a n d l i n g , (b) the weight f a c t o r and (c) the s h e l l f a c t o r . The l a t t e r Is determined by c l e a n l i n e s s , soundness and s h e l l c o n s t r u c t i o n . In Grade A, 1 the q u a l i t y i s determined by c a n d l i n g . The y o l k o u t l i n e Is i n d i s t i n c t , round and reasonably centered, showing no germ development or r e a d i l y v i s i b l e d e f e c t s or abnormalities. A i r 6 e l l must not exceed 3/16 i n c h i n depth, and f l o a t i n g a i r c e l l s , blood spots, and meat spots are not permitted. The s h e l l i n Grade A eggs must be unbroken, and p r a c t i c a l l y normal i n shape. S l i g h t l y r i d g e d , rough or misshapen s h e l l s are permitted. D e f i n i t e l y misshapen, h e a v i l y ridged or t h i n s h e l l s are ^Ibid_j_, p. 15» - 29 -p r o h i b i t e d . The s h e l l must be c l e a n bufc may show three s t a i n spots not exceeding an area of 1/8 X 1/16 inches. I n d i v i d u a l weight per dozen are; Grade A E x t r a Large 27 ounces or over; Grade A Medium 21 ounces; Grade A Small Size 18 to 21 ounces; and Grade A Peewee 18 ounces or l e s s -Grade B eggs must weigh i n d i v i d u a l l y at the r a t e •of 21 ounces per dozen or over. S h e l l must be unbroken, may show d e f i n i t e redges or rough areas but no pronounced t h i n spots. Reasonably prominent s t a i n s or spots are permitted p r o v i d i n g they do not s e r i o u s l y d e t r a c t from the egg appearance. I n t e r n a l q u a l i t y f a c t o r s are; the yolk may be v i s i b l e , moderatly but not d e f i n i t e l y oblong i n shape, must f l o a t f r e e l y \\rhen egg i s t w i r r l e d , but p o s i t i o n i s not a determining f a c t o r . A i r c e l l must not exceed 3/8 inches deep. F l o a t i n g a i r c e l l s are permitted. Blood and meat spots are not permitted. Grade G eggs have no minimum or maximum weight, a and s h e l l must be unbroken, but may be i r r e g u l a r and d i r t y or s t a i n e d . Yolk o u t l i n e may be d i s t i n c t l y v i s i b l e and d e f i n i t e l y oblong i n shape, but must not adhere to the s h e l l membrane and must be unbroken. There i s no maximum a i r c e l l s i z e . Moderate grass y o l k s , d e f i n i t e l y pronounced germ spots, f l o a t i n g a i r c e l l s , meat and blood spots are p e r m i t t e d . 1 I b i d . , p. 18. - 30 -Grade Cracks i n c l u d e s any egg otherwise e l e g i b l e f o r any of the grades but w i t h a cracked s h e l l . Grade A l eggs are packed, graded, and marked by producers, co-operatives, or marketing groups approved by the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Approval comes when p o u l t r y premises are c l e a n , s a n i t a r y and yards are fenced; when no male b i r d s are kept i n pens supplying Grade A l eggs; when only feed grains plus-recognized supplementary feeds are f e d ; when producers have adequate f a c i l i t i e s f o r c o o l -ing eggs; and when the producer s a t i s f i e s the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e that the eggs w i l l go to the consumer i n o r i g i n a l sealed packages, p r o p e r l y marked. I f eggs are graded, packed, and marketed by co-operatives or marketed by groups, such groups must operate a Registered Egg Grading S t a t i o n . In Grade A l q u a l i t y the y o l k shadow Is i n d i s t i n c t , small, round, and maintains a c e n t e r a l p o s i t i o n . The a i r c e l l must not exceed 1/8 i n c h i n depth. However, mottled or grass y o l k s , v i s i b l e germ spots, f l o a t i n g a i r c e l l s or meat spots are d i s q u a l i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The s h e l l must be c l e a n , unbroken, and normal i n shape. Weight of Grade A l Large eggs must be 2h ounces to the dozen, of Grade A Medium must be between 21 and 2h ounces per dozen, and grade A l Small eggs must be 18 to 21 ounces per dozen. A l l eggs must be classed as "Rejects", which show any abnormalities or p r o h i b i t e d c o n d i t i o n s , matter o r ' d i s c o l o r a t i o n , or musty odour, any that have been i n - 31 -an incubator, or c o n t a i n candling d e f e c t s , such as blood c l o t , bloody eggs, blood r i n g , mixed or red r o t , spot r o t , b l a c k . r o t , white r o t , sour r o t , stuck y o l k . A Department of A g r i c u l t u r e permit i s r e q u i r e d before any of these eggs may be purchased. Wooden egg cases must have i n s i d e dimensions of 2*+ inches In length, 11 5/8 Inches width, and 12.5 Inches i n h i g h t h , and must be made of w e l l seasoned sound wood with not more than 15 percent moisture content. Paper boxes passing s p e c i f i c B u r s t i n g t e s t s , which must be p r i n t e d on them, may be used. F i l l e r s and f l a t s of pulp f i b e r of medium f i n i s h may be used. Grade A eggs must be packed i n new cases w i t h new f i l l e r s , f l a t s and pads or the equivalent i n regard to c l e a n l i n e s s and soundness of c o n s t r u c t i o n . CHAPTER I I I VARIABILITY IN THE INDUSTRY Seasonal P r i c e s The p r i c e s of eggs show the greatest average seasonal f l u c t u a t i o n s of a l l the p r i c e s of staple year round farm p r o d u c t s . 1 A drop i n egg p r i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia occurs u s u a l l y between December and February and c o i n c i d e s roughly with the annual peak i n egg production. A r i s e i n egg p r i c e s occurs f r e q u e n t l y during the months of June, J u l y , and 2 August. The seasonal change i n egg p r i c e s r e s u l t from f l u c t u a t i o n i n egg production from season to season; cost of s t o r i n g eggs; and d e t e r i o r a t i o n that takes place i n the q u a l i t y of eggs i n storage. During these short run f l u c t u a t i o n s , the d i f f e r e n c e between extremes seldom v a r i e s a great d e a l . The p r i c e s are at t h e i r lowest l e v e l during the e a r l y p a r t of the year, u s u a l l y showing the lowest poin t i n "*"G.S.Shepherd, Marketing Farm Products. (Ames: Iowa State College Press, 192+9), p. 89. o "Composite Producer P r i c e i n Cents Per Dozen, of Grade A Large and Grade A Medium Eggs at Vancouver",-Table 8, Appendix I I . - 32 -. - 33 -January i n B r i t i s h Columbia and u s u a l l y reach the highest p o i n t i n J u l y . The annual h i g h and low egg mark-e t i n g months occur near the beginning of the r e s p e c t i v e periods of low and higher p r i c e s . There seems to be evidence that t h i s seasonal p a t t e r n of p r i c e s i s changing with the passage of time. The amplitude of the p r i c e swing i n E a s t e r n United •States has been decreasing and the peak of p r i c e s coming e a r l i e r . 1 F o r t y years ago, the p r i c e peak u s u a l l y came i n January; g r a d u a l l y i t moved to December; now the peak comes i n November, and i n d i c a t i o n s are that i n the next few years i t may come as e a r l y as October. The reasons f o r these changes i n the seasonal p r i c e p a t t e r n trace back to changes i n production and storage p r a c t i s e s . Before the World War 1, many small farm f l o c k s produced a l l t h e i r eggs In the s p r i n g , and none during f a l l and winter. In the 1920's, important d i s c o v e r i e s were made i n the f i e l d of p o u l t r y n u t r i t i o n and breeding. P o u l t r y producers began to make use of these d i s c o v e r i e s to get more eggs per hen during the year, and to get a greater p r o p o r t i o n of these eggs i n the h i g h p r i c e d months. xJ.Working, MAn Analyses'- of Monthly P r i c e s of Eggs", J o u r n a l of Farm Economics, (Menasha: American J o u r n a l of-Farm Economics, 1929), XII, p. H-60. Storage reduces egg p r i c e f l u c t u a t i o n s , f o r i f a l l eggs were put on the r e t a i l market when produced, p r i c e s would almost c e r t a i n l y f l u c t u a t e much more than at present. Eggs are placed i n storage during months of lower p r i c e s and taken out during months of higher p r i c e s . With ample storage f a c i l i t i e s , the average seasonal p r i c e f l u c t u a t i o n s should amount to the cost of storage. Storage stocks of s h e l l eggs i n B r i t i s h Columbia''" increase from February to J u l y , the p e r i o d of i n c r e a s i n g p r i c e s and decrease between August and December i n the p e r i o d of decreasing p r i c e s . The government through i t s f l o o r p r i c e p o l i c y o f f e r s to buy at the wholesale support l e v e l f o r Grade A q u a l i t y , any eggs unsold at the end of the storage withdrawal season. General P r i c e L e v e l The general upward movements In annual average egg p r i c e s , from 19V3 to 1951 are associated with changes i n the general p r i c e l e v e l . In the United States, a very high c o r r e l a t i o n was found to e x i s t between the annual p r i c e of eggs per dozen and the general p r i c e x"Storage Stocks of S h e l l Eggs at Vancouver", Table 17j,Appendix X I I I . . - 35 -l e v e l as Indicated by the annual index of wholesale prices.,' V a r i a b i l i t y i n Feed P r i c e s Feed p r i c e s have almost doubled i n the nine year p e r i o d between 19V3 and 1951. Wartime s t a b i l i z a t i o n measures e f f e c t i v e l y h e l d feed p r i c e s down, f o r between 19^ 2 and 19^ 6 the p r i c e of l a y i n g mash went up about SH-.00 per ton. From 19^ 7 to 1951, however, the p r i c e increased from $^+9 to $89 per ton. P r i c e s of l a y i n g mash, wheat, oats, and b a r l e y do not n e c e s s a r i l y f l u c t u a t e i n accord with one another. In January, of 1951 and of 1950 the p r i c e s per ton of l a y i n g mash increased $h from |80 to |8H-; wheat decreased $h from $70 to $66; oats increased $13 from $56 to $69; and b a r l e y increased $9 from $60 to $69. In 19^ 5, while l a y i n g mash and wheat remained steady, oats and b a r l e y r a i s e d $1 per ton during the f i r s t and second halves of the year 2 r e s p e c t i v e l y . U s u a l l y , the p r i c e s of l a y i n g mash and s c r a t c h g r a i n s are higher i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the year, than i n the beginning h a l f of the year. During the years, I9U3 to 19^ +6, the s t a b i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e of wartime p r i c e iR.W.Hoeke, The Economics of the P o u l t r y E n t e r p r i s e on Kansas Farms, (Manhattans A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment s t a t i o n , Kansas State d o l l e g e of A g r i c u l t u r e and Applied Science, 19^2), p. 30. "Producer P r i c e s Per Ton of Mash, Wheat, Barley, Oats, D e l i v e r e d To F r a z e r V a l l e y P o i n t s " , Table 9, .Appendix I I I . - 36 -c o n t r o l , i s to be noted i n the few p r i c e r i s e s occuring during that time, as compared with the l a t e r u n c o n t r o l l e d period,. The composite p r i c e of the complete r a t i o n rose l/2f per pound or $20 per ton between January and December 19V7, a f t e r wartime c o n t r o l s were removed. The three year p e r i o d between 19^ 8 and 1951 showed a p r i c e increase from 3.1/ to h& per pound or $18 per ton."'" Between 19*+3 and 1951? the monthly composite p r i e e i n the Lower'Mainland was higher than the average monthly p r i c e f o r each year during a p e r i o d of f i v e months, and under the average monthly p r i c e f o r each year during a p e r i o d of seven months. These months of over and under annual average p r i c e s do not n e c e s s a r i l y appear i n the same months of each year, but i n general, the over average p r i c e appears i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the year, and under average p r i c e i n the former h a l f of the year. Egg Production and Marketing V a r i a t i o n s Due to' the c u l l i n g program necessary during the war i n order to obtain, maximum production from minimum feed consumption, the average annual egg production per hen increased twelve percent. This was accompanied by a ""Composite Producer P r i c e s i n Cents per Dozen of Grade A Large and Grade A Medium Eggs at Vancouver", Table 11, Appendix VI. A - 37 -d e c l i n e of about 25 percent i n the l a y i n g hen p o p u l a t i o n but r e s u l t e d i n a d e c l i n e of only one percent i n marketed eggs. The annual egg marketings rose 2k percent between 19^ 6 and 19V7. Marketing d e c l i n e d about 30 percent between IJhQ and 1951.1 From 19^ 6 to 19V7, the.average annual number of l a y e r s increased o n e - s i x t h as a r e s u l t of postwar expansion and r e s u l t e d i n a r i s e i n production of 2k percent. The c h i e f reason f o r the great swing In production from s p r i n g to f a l l i s the change from season to season i n the number of eggs l a i d per hen per month. During the per i o d from the mid-year low to the l a t t e r part of the year, c h i c k s purchased In the spring Increase i n egg production and reach t h e i r peak about January. V a r i a t i o n s i n the Movement of Eggs i n t o Hatching The number of baby chicks hatched, e i t h e r on farms, or i n commercial h a t c h e r i e s appears to be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the egg-feed r a t i o during the hatching season.. The number of hens and p u l l e t s of l a y i n g age i n farm f l o c k s on March act as a second important v a r i a b l e . In " ^ " B r i t i s h Columbia Stock., Production, and D i s t r i b u t i o n i n the Commercial Egg Industry", Table 18, Appendix XIV. - 38 -considering the egg-feed ratio only, i t may he shown that the profits prospects as indicated by the aggregate egg-feed ratio during the hatching season, from January to May of each year in British Columbia, corresponds only roughly with the total eggs purchased by hatcheries during the same period. This Indicates that other variables are important. The variations in numbers of hens and pullets of laying age which are reported in United States farms flocks on March 1, largely reflect profitability of feeding chickens for egg production in preceding months, and is there-, fore in part an indication of earlier relationships between feed costs and egg prices. In British Columbia, the heaviest movement of 2 eggs into hatching occurs in the f i r s t half of the year. The heavier quantity of eggs going into hatching use in the earlier portion of the year, corresponds with the heavier production of marketed eggs occurring in the months of December to February. Chicks purchased during the heaviest months of hatching egg movement, February, March, and April , mature in about four months, so that egg ^.W.Sprague, "The Effect of the Egg-Feed Ratio on the Numbers of Young Chickens in Farm Flocks on March 1", Journal of Farm Economics,(Menashas American Farm Economic association, 193^ ), XVI, pp. 331+-31K). 2"Eggs Sold and Used, by the Producer, for Hatching Purposes in British Columbia", Table 16, Appendix XII. • - 39 -production begins about June, J u l y , or August. Egg production slowly i n c r e a s e s as the b i r d grows, and reaches i t s peak between December to February. T o t a l eggs i n B r i t i s h Columbia sold f o r hatching has shown a d e c l i n e of about k-0 percent from 19kQ to 1950, Those used by producers f o r hatching show a s i m i l a r percentage d e c l i n e during the same p e r i o d . T h i s r e s u l t s from the prospect of smaller p r o f i t when the egg-feed r a t i o i s u nfavorable.^ V a r i a t i o n s i n the Number of Layers The percentage of l a y e r s to chickens i n c l u d i n g young stoek, increases between surveys taken by Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e on June 1, and December 1, from approximately h9 percent i n June to approximately 88 per-p cent i n December. T h i s Is the r e s u l t of growth, i n c r e a s i n g age, and coming i n t o production of c h i c k s hatched e a r l i e r In the year. On Jtuie 1, the number of l a y e r s are fewer i n number than those of December.1. T h i s i s the r e s u l t of c u l l i n g of f l o c k s which i s p a r t l y due to unfavorable r a t i o e x i s t i n g between between cost of feed and r e t u r n s ^ " B r i t i s h Columbia Stock, Production, and D i s t r i b u t i o n In the Commercial Egg Industry", Table 18, Appendix XIV 4 - ko -from eggs. This culling of early "birds is more drastic that that of late birds, because later In the year, the ratio i s more favorable. The June 1 figures for layers also includes some early maturing birds purchased in the spring, as well as yearling carry-over. Excess Capacity The largest number of laying birds in the British Columbia commercial egg industry for the period 19H-U- to 1951 occurred in I9M+.^  Making the assumption that these birds had an adequate capital investment In land, in buildings and equipment, and in layers and flock replace-ments, excess capacity occurred in the commercial egg industry in British Columbia as the number of layers reduced in the following years. A large increase resulted in excess capacity from the total capital investment needed for the 2,1+93,000 layers In the Br i t i s h Columbia commercial egg industry in 19M+ to that needed for 1,^-66,000 layers in 1951. The capital investment per layer in British Columbia increased 63 percent from $k.952 in 19kh to $7»6?^ in 19^ 9. The total capital investment needed for the laying flocks 1I b i d . B.D.Woodward, Some Factors That Influence Poultry Farm Income. (Ottawa: Department of Agriculture, January, 19M3), p. 15. 3R.H.Campbell, "Egg and Poultry Production in British Columbia", The Economic Annalist. (Ottawa: The Department of Agriculture, December, 195D, p. 130. - hi -increased 7 percent from $12,3^ 0,350 in l$hh to $13,852,020 in 19^ 4. During the same period, the number of layers reduced 79 percent from 2,^+93,000 in 19*+8 to 1,806,000 in 19^ 9. The excess capcity in 19*+6 was high as this was a year of expanding investment. The demand for chicks was also high, 1 and thus growing stock accounted for 'the comparative increase in chickens and reduced number of layers. Excess capacity decreased during I9V7 and I9H-8, the two years of greatest farm production during the data period. It increased again in 19^ +9, after the termination of the British egg contract, and decreased slightly in 1950 as a result of the Korean situation. In 1951, the excess capacity again increased because of the reduced prices resulting from egg imports. The Point of Bisinvestment When the returns to capital and labour go below a certain amount,2 the farmersitend to move out of the industry, reduce production, or seek alternative forms of income. During the period 19W3 to 19^ +6, the returns to ^"Eggs Sold and Used, by the producer, for Hatching Purposes In British Columbia11, Table 16, Appendix X I I . 2"Budget of a Sample British Columbia Commercial Egg Farm", Table 21, Appendix X V I I . 2^ -c a p i t a l and labour were above average and were below average between 19^ 7 and 1950. Uniformly high marketings of 19V7 r e s u l t e d from the i n a b i l i t y of the i n d u s t r y to r e a d i l y adapt i t s e l f to the below average r e t u r n commencing that year. Between I.9V7 and 1950, the period of l e s s than .average r e t u r n s , the annual marketings show a c o n t i n u a l d e c l i n e . T h i s continues to 1951, a year of above average re t u r n s and again r e s u l t s from the i n e r t i a of the i n d u s t r y . The average c o n d i t i o n s of p r o f i t a b i l i t y of the commercial egg i n d u s t r y are i n d i c a t e d by the average egg-feed r a t i o f o r the p e r i o d , or 1^ .68. The c o n d i t i o n s of p r o f i t a b i l i t y were under average i n I9V7, as were the E e t u r n s to c a p i t a l and labour, and continued below f o r the remainder of the p e r i o d . The r a t i o as an i n d i c a t o r of p r o f i t a b i l i t y tenft-to precede marketing movements by some months. 1 V a r i a t i o n s i n Returns to C a p i t a l and Labour There are l a r g e annual and c y c l i c a l v a r i a t i o n s i n the r e t u r n to c a p i t a l and labour of the commercial egg producer. •^Mechanical i n s p e c t i o n of the Graph of Monthly Egg Marketings and Concurrent Egg-Feed R a t i o , B.C., Appendix IX, showed a 16 months l a g which gave a l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n of .82. The f e d e r a l government reported i n the Egg and P o u l t r y Market Report of December 13, 19^ 6, that Canada-wide changes In egg marketing followed n o t i f i c a t i o n of egg p r i c e boosts or d e c l i n e s during the war by 18 months. TABLE 5 RETURNS TO CAPITAL AND LABOUR OF A SAMPLE BRITISH COLUMBIA COMMERCIAL EGG FARM3"' Year Returns 1951 3,^ 92 1950 1-676 19^ 9 2,160 19^ 8 1,807 19V7 • 1 J 6 ^ 19^ 6 ' 2,582 19^ 5 2,629 19^ 2,115 19^ 3 3,181 Av 2,366 '"Budget of a Sample B r i t i s h Columbia Commercial Egg Farm", Table 21, Appendix XVII. Between 19^ 3 and 19*+6 the r e t u r n to c a p i t a l and labour dropped from $3,181 to $2,582, and i n 1950 dropped to $1,676. During t h i s p e r i o d , I t ranged $1515. The v a r i a t i o n s are l a r g e l y determined by move-ments i n the p r i c e s of feed and of eggs. The r e t u r n to c a p i t a l and labour i n 1950 was $1,676, and i n 1951 was $3,*+92. Between these two years the p r i c e o f feed advanced 2 pereent and that of eggs 17 percent. The Farmer's Response To The Egg-Feed Ratio The cost o f feed represented about three-quarters o f the co s t of producing eggs during the p e r i o d I9I+3 to 1951. Consequently feed p r i c e s had an important bearing upon the commercial egg producer's p r o s p e r i t y . The r a t i o f o r each month may be compared with the a r i t h m e t i c average of the monthly egg-feed r a t i o f o r the nine year p e r i o d , 19^3 to 1951? to a s c e r t a i n whether the month i s more or l e s s f a v o r a b l e than average. 1 The r a t i o was unfavorable during the period from January 19*4-6 onward. During t h i s p e r i o d , feed p r i c e s increased from an annual average of 2.078/ per pound to 3.817/ per pound i n 195L This increase amounted to 1.739/ or 130 percent. Egg p r i c d s increased from 33.7/ i n l°h6 to 5*+.3/ i n 1951? an increase of 20.6/2" or 16 percent. During the pe r i o d of comparatively h i g h r a t i o s , from May, 19*+3 to February, 19*+5, the average annual composite p r i c e per dozen of eggs was ^ 6.56^ " i n 19*4-3» 31.31/ i n 19M4, and 3*4-.66/ i n 19*4-5. P r i c e s of feed f o r the 2 same years were 2.077/, 2.022/, and 2.056/. l r ,Graph of Monthly Egg Marketings at Registered Egg Grading S t a t i o n s and Concurrent Monthly Egg-Feed R a t i o " , Appendix IX. 2"Budget of a Sample B r i t i s h Columbia Commercial Egg Farm", Table 21, Appendix XVIII. - if5 -During the impetus of wartime demands, the ratio was more favorable than afterwards, and as overseas demands were high i t remained so during 19^ -6. The heavy marketings in 19^ 7 resulting from the expansion in production during the war and immediately after, was accompanied by a reduction in egg prices. Considered in the light of the increased feed price, this production presented the f i r s t indication of the unfavorable situation which continued through to 1951. The generally unfavorable ratio in 19^ 7, accomp-anied by the possibility of the expiry of the British egg contract during the next production period, resulted in a less favorable outlook for the next production period . On January 31, 19^ 9, the contract expired and was not renewed. In 19*+9, the domestic market took most of the production, and this less favorable situation became evident in the ratio. The price of eggs made less than proportional increases as compared to feed prices. The production and ratio took a downward trend until late 1950, when the Korean war and defense preparations started. The unfavorable situation from the producer's point of view is indicated by the low returns to capital and labour during the latter part, of 1950. The average monthly egg-feed ratio for the period from 19^ 3 to 1951 was lk.68 and the average monthly marketings for'the period was 8^,922 cases of 30 dozen eggs. The - 1+6 -charted monthly ratios and monthly marketings , show that the ratio for the beginning of the period was more favorable and marketings increased more than average while toward the end of the data period the ratio became •unfavorable, and marketings decreased. The Egg-Feed Ratio and Real Returns to Capital and Labour The return to capital and labour, when reduced by the farm cost of living index represents a comparison between the amount the return would buy now, as compared to the amount i t would buy in the base period 1935 to 1939. The deflated or real return to capital and labour and the egg-feed ratio show a rising trend from 19^ 3 to 19V7, except for 19I+1+. Then, in 19I+8, both dipped sharply as a result of the disproportionate decreases of egg and feed prices in that year, as a result of the largest domestic surplus of eggs to that date, and the large amount of feed grains available. The ratio reduced in 19^-8 and accompanying this was a drop in the real return to the producer. In 19^ 9 both rose slightly, because the price of feed rose somewhat less than that of eggs. In 1950, the price of eggs dropped because of Qp. cit f !i • j; | - 1+7 - I unfavorable market c o n d i t i o n s while the p r i c e of feed rose s l i g h t l y , making a re d u c t i o n i n the egg-feed r a t i o and reducing the r e t u r n to c a p i t a l and labour. In 1951, the p r i c e of eggs rose d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y K h i g h as a. r e s u l t of defense preparations, and caused an increased r a t i o . T h i s was accompanied by an Increased r r e a l r e t u r n to c a p i t a l and labour. ; In 19V7, the Cost of Farm L i v i n g Index was 138,1 I and increased about 20 percent to 200.7 i n 1951. Between the same years, the r a t i o increased 6 percent from 13.52 <: i n 19^ 7 to l1+.33 i n 1951. This shows the increase i n | cost of goods farmers buy as compared to the decreased j-p r o f i t a b i l i t y of the in d u s t r y . Accompanying these was an I i n c r e a s e o f *+5 percent i n the r e a l income from $1,199 i n I 19V7 to $1,739 i n 1951, to the producer." This i n d i c a t e s | the greater increase to the farmer of the p r i c e s of h i s f producer, as compared to the p r i c e s of the things he I purchased, such as food, c l o t h i n g , f u e l , household equip- I ment, h e a l t h maintenance and miscellaneous items. 1 The average r a t i o f o r the period 19*+2 to 1951 was | lh»6Q while the average r e a l r e t u r n to c a p i t a l and labour ?, f o r the same pe r i o d $1,636. The p r o f i t a b i l i t y , as shown by I the egg-feed r a t i o beeame l e s s favorable than average | l r'Budget of a Sample B r i t i s h Columbia Commercial j; Egg Farm", Table 21, Appendix XVIII. I L - 1+8 -between 19*+6 and 19^7 and r e m a i n e d t h a t way u n t i l 1950. T h i s i s accompanied b y a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i n s o f a r as t h e r e a l r e t u r n was c o n c e r n e d . I n 1951 , t h e impetus g i v e n egg p r i c e s by p r e p a r a t i o n f o r d e f e n c e , as compared t o f e e d p r i c e s , i n c r e a s e d t h e r e a l r e t u r n s t o c a p i t a l and l a b o u r . CHAPTER IV AGRICULTURAL PRICE POLICY NECESSARY TO REDUCE VARIABILITY I t has been shown i n the previous chapter that v a r i a t i o n s e x i s t i n the p o u l t r y i n d u s t r y of B r i t i s h Columbia which a f f e c t the r e t u r n s to c a p i t a l and labour of the farmer, reduce the egg marketings, egg p r i c e s , and tend to cause excess c a p a c i t y . I t i s suggested as a r e s u l t of t h i s a n a l y s i s that a higher minimum egg p r i c e would reduce these f l u c t u a t i o n s . A higher minimum p r i c e would prevent producer incomes from f a l l i n g to the p o i n t where l a r g e numbers of producers would leave the i n d u s t r y . Thus the c o n d i t i o n s f o r reduced production, higher p r i c e s and a repeat of the c y c l e would be a l l e v i a t e d . The present support p r i c e p o l i c y of the f e d e r a l government grew out of wartime condi t i o n s and i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n of wartime p o l i c y . - 1+9 -- 50 -Wartime Canadian Price Policy The declared purpose of the federal government policy in regard to agricultural price control was stated hy the Prime Minister on October 11, 19^ 1, to be two fold, "The policy touches the farmer two ways, the price ceiling w i l l be applied to agricultural price while at the same time total agricultural income wil l be supported • . 1 where necessary by government action." Canadian price policy during wartime was complicated by the necessity of holding down the price level and at the same time of allowing some adjustment in relative prices so as to meet essential war and c i v i l i a n requirements. Farm price policy included price control and price setting to prevent inflation.. This was accomplished, by the establishment of an overall price ceiling in December, 19^1, by the regulation of the amount of mark up, and by the fixing of price differentials between different markets. Price setting was accomplished through the establishment of fixed prices, guaranteed minimum prices, and contract prices for exportation of farm products. "''F.Shefrin, "Agricultural Policy: Wartime Prices of Farm Products," The Economic Annalist, (Ottawa: King's Printer anft1 Controller of Stationery, February, 19*4-5), pp. 10-11. - 51 -Farm p r i c e s were set at l e v e l s intended to b r i n g f o r t h the d e s i r e d production. By p r i c e s e t t i n g , s h i f t i n g f l o o r s beneath a f i x e d c e i l i n g were avoided. T h i s was done so that the farmer would not be p e n a l i z e d i f he increased production at the request of the government. The Wartime P r i c e s and Trades Board exempted .farmer's p r i c e s from the c e i l i n g , and r e l i e d on c e i l i n g s over the manufactured or processed products, or on the wholesale p r i c e s . The reason f o r these exemptions from c e i l i n g r e g u l a t i o n s was to give farmers the b e n e f i t of any t r a d i n g s i t u a t i o n which might a r i s e without i n c r e a s i n g p r i c e s to the u l t i m a t e consumer. I t also aimed to permit supplies to flow f r e e l y from farmers to processors. Such commodities and s e r v i c e s included p o u l t r y and p o u l t r y products among other a g r i c u l t u r a l products and s u p p l i e s . Farmers became r e t a i l e r s to a l l i n t e n t s and purposes when s e l l i n g d i r e c t to consumers, through market s t a l l s or otherwise. The I n d i r e c t f l o o r p r i c e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r eggs through the o p e r a t i o n of the B r i t i s h egg contract guaranteed an adequate r e t u r n to primary producers and stimulated them to greater productive e f f o r t s . The f e d e r a l government provided minimum p r i c e s f o r farm products such as wheat s e l l -i n g on a diminished market. This-measure aimed at p r o v i d i n g a minimum l i v i n g income and enabling the majority of farmers to continue producing such products, while waiting f o r the market c o n d i t i o n s to improve. - 52 -The establishment of minimum p r i c e s i n wartime was, as a r u l e , not accompanied by the d i f f i c u l t i e s that beset the maintenance of a pr i c e c e i l i n g . With guaranteed markets f o r a l l they could produce, there was no reason f o r producers to s e l l below the set minimum p r i c e . However, problems of administering a support p r i c e p o l i c y were unavoidable. In order to maintain minimum or guaranteed p r i c e s , the government at times was forced to buy and store large supplies u n t i l markets became a v a i l a b l e . Following are three broad c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the main types of d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t p r i c e supports. 1. Fixed p r i c e s f o r wheat which were both c e i l -ing and f l o o r p r i c e s were u s u a l l y announced p r i o r to the seeding season. 2. Minimum p r i c e s set i n conjunction with c e i l i n g p r i c e s , and d a i l y market p r i c e s , were free to f l u c t u a t e between f l o o r and c e i l i n g f o r such commodities as oats and b a r l e y . 3. I n d i r e c t p r i c e support f o r such commodities as eggs, through d e f i n i t e large scale export commitments had a s t a b i l i z i n g influence on the market, w i t h the r e s u l t , that p r i c e s f o r produce consumed domestically remained i n more or l e s s close proximity to the contract p r i c e . On the domestic market, 'the Wartime P r i c e s and Trades Board c e i l i n g d i d not apply to eggs when sold by the primary producers to r e t a i l e r s , processors or 1 - 53 -manufacturers. Egg prices, wholesale and retail for Grade A Large fluctuated under a price ceiling established in the base period, September 15, to October 11, 19*+1. These levels were established for eleven Canadian cities serving as major distributing centers. Appropriate zonal differentials for other grades, subgrades, and weights were provided. Postwar Canadian Price Policy A price support program for eggs was put into effect on January 26, 1950, to assist the poultry industry in the adjustment to conditions created by the discontinuance of the gritish egg markets, on January 31, 19*+9. Under this program, operated through the Agricultural Prices Support Board, the government does not participate directly in the egg business. The storage and merchandising of eggs remains in the hands of the industry. The Agric-ultural Prices Support Program offers to buy at any time, any or a l l eggs which have been stored according to Board specifications. The Board pays at a l l storage points, 33/ per dozen for eggs stored as Grade A Large and 36/ per dozen for eggs stored as Grade A.Medium, plus a stipulated allowance to cover costs of oiling, storage, interest, and insurance. This adtion provides a floor price to producers of approximately 30 to 32 cents per dozen, basis Grade A Large, depending on shipping costs from station to storage. The government policy1- to buy any otherwise unsaleable eggs meeting specifications provides the same stabilizing influence as operated under gritish contracts when the government contracted to buy eggs out of storage for delivery to Great Britain. Agricultural Price Support2 Board Storage Specifications Eggs must be stored in conformity with certain specifications to be elegible to be sold to the Board. Only Grade A Large and Grade A Medium eggs are to be stored. The eggs must be oil-dipped prior to storage in clean, odorless tasteless mineral o i l to which no fungicides or bacteriacides have been added. Before oiling, the interior temperature of the eggs should be equal to that of the oiling room, and the egg surface must be dry. Eggs for storage are to be packed, large end up, in new wood cases or the equivalent and in new packing material. The storer must place a lot number issued by the Board on a card attached to the upper right hand corner of one end. Eggs are to be inspected into storage and the inspection stamp placed over the lot number. Storage rooms must be approved by the Board. Storage temperature ^Department of Agriculture, Reference #6, Sub.ject -Operation of Support Program, 1952. (Ottawa: Agricultural Prices Support Board, Department of Agriculture, January 2, 1952). 2 Ibid., pp. 2-h, - 55 -must be 30 degrees plus or minus one degree, and r e l a t i v e humidity not to exceed 85 percent. A l l cases must have adequate a i r c i r c u l a t i o n . The Board may at any time during the storage p e r i o d c a l l the a t t e n t i o n of the s t o r e r to c o n d i t i o n s which i t considers p r e j u d i c i a l to the proper care of the eggs and may requ i r e c o r r e c t i o n of such c o n d i t i o n s . During the storage period the eggs remain the prop e r t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the s t o r e r . Eggs may be withdrawn by him at any time f o r sale other than to the Board. The tag must be destroyed and no withdrawn eggs s h a l l be returned to storage. Should the Board o f f e r to buy any" eggs, during the 1952 season, the r e s p e c t i v e p r i c e per dozen w i l l be, f o r Grade A Large, and f o r Grade A Medium; and hog up to and i n c l u d i n g October 1; h2.5& and h0,5& between October 2 and November 1 i n c l u s i v e ; *+3/ and h±<£ between November 2 and December 1, Eggs Stored according to s p e c i f i c a t i o n s may be o f f e r e d to the Board on December! 1, and w i l l be accepted at h3& and l+ljzf per dozen r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the two grades. . The r i g h t of support i s c a n c e l l e d wit]? respect to any eggs s t i l l remaining i n storage and which are not o f f e r e d to the Board by December*!, 1952. - 60 -A Reconsideration of the Support Price""-On the basis of past results i t would seem that the present support price is too low. This is indicated by the fact that no eggs have been purchased under past levels of price support. It is suggested that i f the price support were at a level that would give a labour return equal to the return of agricultural hired labour then farmers might not seek alternative Income or leave the industry. Thus some of the basis for further cycles would be removed. What should that floor price be? The annual average wage for British Columbia farm 2 labour in 1951 was $1,690 without board. Labour income per year of the farm operator should have a cash value aearly equivalent to this amount. The point of disinvestment for the period, 19^3 to 1951j for the British Columbia commercial egg industry occurred when the annual return to capital and labour dropped near or below $2,366, that i s , when the annual cash return to the farm operator's labour Without board drops near or below $1,672. For a farm operator, perquisitesuch as low cost rental of the farm home, garden produce, and egg and 1 , 1 A Support Price Scale of Returns", Table 6. 2"Farm Wages in B.C. Without Board, 19I+3-1952", Table 23, Appendix XVIII. "Farm Perquisites", Table 2h, Appendix XXI. - 56 -TABLE 6 A SUPPORT PRICE SCALE OF RETURNS** An. Av. P r i c e Annual Receipts Annual Return to Egg c) Fowl a) Eggs e) T o t a l C.&L. f ) F.Labf* O.Lab^ (2) (3) (4) (5) %6$ (7) (8) 1+0 42 44 1+6 1+8 50 I 2 54 56 58 60 1+0 1+2 44 1+6 1+8 50 52 54 56 58 60 1+0 1+2 1+1+ 1+6 1+8 50 52 54 56 58 60 1,431 1,431 1.1+31 l,i+31 l,i+31 1,1+31 1,431 l,i+31 l,i+31 1,431 1,431 1,561 1,561 1,561 1,561 1,561 1,561 1,561 1,561 1,561 1,561 1,561 1,691 1,691 1,691 1,691 1,691 1,691 1,691 1,691 1,691 1,691 1,691 7,200 7,560 7,920 8,280 8,61+0 9,000 9,360 9,720 10,080 10, ¥+0 10,800 7,200 7,560 7,920 8,280 8,6i+0 9,000 9,360 9,720 10,080 10,1+1-1-0 10,800 7,200 7,560 7,920 8,280 3,640 9,000 9,360 9,720 10,080 10,1+1+0 10,800 8,631 8,991 9,351 9,811 10,071 10,1+31 10,791 11,151 11,5U 11,871 12,231 8,761 9,121 9,481 9,841 10,201 10,561 10,921 I J L _ L J CL\J Jm 111,641 h o,001 ,361 9, 9, ,021 ,381 ,741 -fcl h6l 1 9,/ •10 4$ 10,46 10,82-11,181 11,541 11 a m 11,901 12,261 12,621 138 498 858 1,318 1 578 1»938 2,298 2,658 3,018 3,378 3,738 268 628 988 1,368 1,708 2,068 2,428 2,788 3,148 3,508 3,868 528 888 1,248 1,603 1,968 2,328 2,688 3,048 3,408 3,768 4,128 582 1,042 1,302 1,662 2,022 2,383 2,742 3,102 3,462 352 712 1,092 1,432 1,792 2,152 2,512 2,872 3,232 3,592 252 612 972 1,332 1,692 2,052 2,412 2,772 3,132 3,492 3,852 178 526 814 1,042 1,330 1,678 1,907 2,194 2,482 2,770 282 570 874 1,146 1,434 1,722 2,010 2,298 2,586 2,774 202 490 778 1,066 1,334 1,642 1,930 2,218 2,506 2,794 3,082 TABLE 6 —Continued An. Av. Price Annual Receipts Annual Return to Eggs c) Fowl d) Eggs e) Tota l C.&LP F.Labf^ O.LabV (2) (3) (h) C5) (6) (7) (8) ko h2 hh he hQ 50 52 5k 56 58 60 ko k2 k6 k8 50 52 5k 56 58 60 ho h2 k+ k6 k8 50 52 5k 56 58 60 1,821 1,821 1,821 1,821 IL • 8 2-L 1,821 1,821 1,821 1,821 1,821 1,821 1,951 1,951 1,951 1,951 1,951 1,951 1,951 1,951 1,951 1,951 1,951 2,081 2,081 2,081 2,081 2,081 2,081 2,081 2,081 2,081 2,081 2,081 7,200 7,560 7,920 8,280 8,6kO 9,000 9,360 9,720 10,080 10,*4k0< 10,800 7,200 7,560 7,920 8,280 8,6*4-0 9,000 9,360 9,720 10,080 10,*4k0 10,800 7, 7, l> 8 200 560 ,920 ,280 8,6kO 9,000 9,360 9,720 10,080 10,*fk0 10,800 9,021 9,381 9,7m 10,101 10,k60 10,821 HL ^  13 JL n,5ki 11,901 12,261 12,621 9,151 9,511 9,871 10,231 10,591 10,951 11,311 11,671 12,031 12,391 12,751 9,281 9 , 6 k l 10,001 10,361 10,721 11,080 11, ¥+1 11,801 12,161 12,521 12,881 528 888 l,2k8 1,608 1,968 2,328 2,688 3,0^ -8 3,k08 3,768 *+,128 658 1,018 1,378 1,738 1,951 2,*f58 2,818 3,178 3,538 3,898 k,258 788 1,1*4-8 1,508 1,868 2,588 2,9**-9 3,309 3,668 *f,023 *f,388 252 612 972 1,332 1,692 2,052 2, *fl2 2,772 3,132 3, k92 3,852 382 7k2 1,102 l,*f62 1,675 2,182 2,3*+2 2,902 3,262 3,622 3,982 512 872 11232 1,592 1,952 2,312 2,673 3,033 3,392 3,752 *f,112 202 k90 778 1,066 1,33k l,6k2 1,930 2,218 2,506 2,79k 3,082 306 58k . 882 1,170 l,3>tO 1,732 1,87k 2,322 2,610 2,898 3,192 klO 698 1,086 1,27*4-1,562 1,850 2,139 2,k27 2,71k 3,002 3,290 - 58 -TABLE 6 An. Av. Price Annual Receipts Annual Return to Fowlb*Eggsc) ,d ) Fowlw Eggse> Total C.&LV F.LabfP Q.Lab^ (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 40 42 4*f 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 40 42. *+4 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 40 42 44 46 48 5o 52 54 56 53 60 ^ 2 XX ^ 2.XX ,211 t211 211 211 2,211 2,211 2,211 2,211 2,341 2,341 2,341 2,341 2,341 2,341 2,341 2,341 2,341 2,341 2,341 2,471 2,471 2,471 2,471 2,471 2,471 2,471 2,471 2,471 2,471 2,471 7,200 7,560 7,920 8,280 8,640 9,000 9,360 9,720 10,080 10,440 10,800 7,200 7,560 7,920 8,280 8,640 9,000 9,360 9,720 10,080 10,440 10,800 7,200 7,560 7,920 8,280 8,640 9,000 9,360 9,720 10,080 10,440 10,800 9,411 9,771 10,131 10,491 10,851 XX}2XX 11,571 11,931 12,291 12,651 13,011 9,541 9,901 10,261 10,621 10,981 11,341 11,701 12,061 X»2 ^  ^' l*^^ X-12,781 13,141 9,671 10,031 10,391 10,751 XX 2 XXX 11,471 11,831 12.191 12,551 12,911 13,271 918 1,278 1,638 1,998 2,358 2,718 3,078 3,438 3,798 4,158 4,518 1,048 1,408 1,768 2,128 2,488 2,848 3,208 3,568 3,928 4,288 4,648 1,178 1,538 1,898 2,258 2,618 2,978 3,338 3,698 4,058 4,418 4,778 642 1,002 1,462 1,722 2,082 2,442 2,802 3,162 3,522 3,882 4,242 772 1,132 1,492 1,352 2,212 2,572 2,932 3,292 3,652 4,012 4,372 902 1,262 1,622 1,982 2,342 2,702 3,062 3,422 3,982 4,242 4,502 514 802 1,170 1,373 1,666 1,854 2,242 2410o 2,818 3,106 3,384 613 906 1,197 1,282 1,770 2.058 2,346 2,634 2,822 3,210 3,498 722 1,010 1,298 1,486 1,874 2,162 2,450 2,738 3,186 3,394 3,602 TABLE 6 —Continued ——'—: ——•* An. Av. Price Annual Receipts Annual Return to Fowlb ) Eggsc) Fowld* T. e) Eggs ' Total f) C »&L o F . L a b g ) O . L a b . (1) (2) (3) (4) C5) (6) (7) (8) 40 40 ho ho . ho ho ho ho ho hQ ho 5+0 1+2 44 1+6 i+a 50 52 54 56 58 60 2,601 2,601 2,601 2,601 2,601 2,601 2,601 2,601 2,601 2,601 2,601 7,200 7,560 7,920 8,280 8,640 9,000 9,360 9,720 10,080 10,440 10,800 9,801 10,161 10,521 10,881 11,241 11,601 11,961 12,321 12,681 13,041 13,401 1,308 1,768 2,028 2,388 2,748 3,108 3,468 3,828 4,188 4,548 4,908 1,033 1,492 1,752 2,112 2,472 2,822 3,192 3,552 3,912 4,272 4 632 831 1,194 1,402 1,690 1,878 2,258 2,534 2,842 3,130 3,418 3,706 a) "Method of Calculation of a Support Price Scale of Returns", Appendix XXII. Annual average producer price of 4§- l b . fowl in cents per pound c* Annual Average producer of eggs in eents per dozen. Dollar receipts from 1445 4g- l b . fowl at fowl price per pound. e* Dollar receipts from 18,000 dozen eggs. Dollar return to capita}, and labour. g) Dollar return to farm labour. Dollar return to operator's labour. - 61 -p o u l t r y produce should amount to about $1+00 per year. I f equivalent items to the p e r q u i s i t e s were purchased, the cash income would have to be on a par with that of h i r e d farm labour, without board. Therefore, the cash r e t u r n to the farm operator should be about $1,272 per year under 1951 c o s t . c o n d i t i o n s i f he i s to r e c e i v e an Income n e a r l y equivalent i n value to that of h i r e d farm labour during 1951. T h i s income i s approrxiraated when the producer p r i c e of fowl per pound and of eggs per dozen are r e s p e c t i v e l y ; 22/ and 51/; 2*+/ and 51/; 26/ and 1+9/; 28/ and 1+9/; 30/ and 1+8/; 32/ and 1+8/; 3V and 1+7/5 36/ and 5+7/j 33/ and 1+6/; 1+0/ and 1+5/. The present basie f l o o r p r i c e i s 38/ per dozen f o r Grade A Large at the wholesale l e v e l , with Incremental Increases to cover costs of o i l i n g , warehousing, insurance, and handling. When the annual average fowl p r i c e per pound i s 32/, approximately that of 1952**", the annual average producer p r i c e of eggs per dozen necessary to meet the minimum operator's cash r e t u r n to labour i s 1+8/, Present seasonal increments can be used to apportion the new f l o o r p r i c e . Incremental Increases would then be i n the same p r o p o r t i o n to the d e s i r e d annual average f l o o r p r i c e as the present seasonal increments are to the average f l o o r p r i c e s f o r 1952. •'•Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ? Egg and P o u l t r y Market Report, (Ottawa: Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Marketing S e r v i c e ) , 1952. - 62 -The average price per dozen of Grade A Large eggs, as determined from the present 1952 floor prices is H2.6/. Proportionate seasonal variations following similar proportions as those of the present policy change the annual average price per dozen of Grade A Large eggs from k&y to V7.3/, V7.Sy, k6.1/, and H-6.1/ for the respective periods; up to October 1 Inclusive; between October 2 and November 1 inclusive; between November 2 and December 1; and on December 1. Grade A Medium eggs would be 2/ per dozen less, as under the present program. The average difference between producer and wholesale prices per dozen in 1951 was 10 cents and between wholesale and retail prices, five cents.1 Thus, the wholesale pudce per dozen for these four seasonal periods for Grade A Large would be 57/, 58/,56/, and 56/. Retail price per dozen would be 62G per dozen, 63/, 63/, 61/ and 61/ per dozen for the respective seasonal periods. Canada Department of Agriculture, Poultry Products Market Report. (Ottawa: Department of Agrigulture Marketing Service, 1951;. APPENDIX I TABLE 7 POULTRY STOCK AND PRODUCTION.BY PROVINCES, 19^ 6 TO !9>+9a} Year Total Poultry 'GOO0' Hens and Chickens f000DJ Number Layers '000CJ Eggs Laid . '000 AozV Production Per 100. Layers0'' Ontario 19*4-6 19*47 19*4-8 19*4-9 29,7*4^  30,77*4-25,395 2*1-, 720 28, *4-67 29, *4-38 2*4-,*+50 23,700 10,010 12,166 10,661 9,035 130,0*f8 15*+, 160 1*4-1,331 116,962 15,733 15,3^ 2 16,06*+ 15,868 Av 27,658 26,51*4- 10,*+68 135,628 15,753 Quebec 19*4-6 19*f7 19*4-8 19*f9 12,571 1*+, 00*4-10,99*4-12,127 12,183 13,513 10,605 11,551 *4-,112 *f,979 k,777 *4-,5io 52,032 61,27*4-60,131 56,929 15,3*^ 0 1*4-, 912 15,2*f9 15,615 Av 12,*+2*4- 11,963 *f,595 57,592 15,279 Saskatchewan 19*4-6 19*f7 19*4-8 19*4-9 11,333 13,535 9,962 9,522 10,599 12,780 9,590 9,0*6 3,330 3,*+17 3,061 35,67*4-39,16*4-36,*4-*i-0 31,930 13,031 12,3*4-6 12,925 12,838 Av 11,088 10,503 3,*H3 35,802 12,785 - 63'-- 6*+ -TABLE 7 —Continued Total Hens and Numbers Eggs Production Year Poultry '000D; Chicl 5 f n s Layers '000c; Laid x '000 DozV Per 100 x Layers c' '000 19*1-6 19*1-8 19*4-9 9,739 10,916 10,*f00 10,*>39 9,0^ 5 10,055 9,833 9,751 3,133 3,*fl6 3,*4-23 3,1^ 5 33,056 37,718 37,780 3k,309 12,852 13,*f0*+ 13,265 13,537 Av 10,337 9,k21 3,279 35,716 13,265 Manitoba 19*+6 19*1-7 19*+8 19*+9 7,57*4-8,22*+ 7,360 7,100 7,073 7,619 7,035 6,670 2,287 2,*t-83 2,398 2,266 25,767 27,53*4-26,73*4-2*+,956 13,657 l3,kko 13,516 13,726 Av 7,565 7,099 '2,358 26,2*+8 13,585 British Columbia 19*+6 19*4-7 19*4-8 19*4-9 h,555 *4-,9H *f,298 *f,072 *f,*+27 *f,7l5 *4-,129 3,81*+ 1,827 2,l*+2 2,0*f6 1,806 25,188 29,066 28,191 2*+,853 • 16,682 16,*+15 16,670 16,883 Av *+,*+59 ,^271 1,955 26,825 16,663 Nova Scotia 19*4-6 19*4-7 19*4-8 19*4-9 2,338 2,682 1,870 1,979 2,300 2,632 l,8l*+ 1,902' 6*4-9 836 966 92*+ 18,308 10,796 12,977 12,l*+6 I5,*f97 15,617 16,259 16,198 Av 2,217 2,162 8*+*+ 11,057 15,893 New Brunswick 19*4-6 19*4-7 19*4-8 19*4-9 1,713 1,879 1,308 1,^ 75 1,672 1,829 1,265 l,*fl9 . 576 603 567 55k 7,222 7,696 * 7,110 6,786 15,16*4-l5,*+27 15,1*4-7 1*+, 9*4-2 Av 1,59*4- l,5*+6 575 7,20*f 15,170 - 65 -TABLE 7 —Continued Year Total Poultry '000 } : Hens and Chickens '000 ; Numbers Layers '000C7 Eggs Laid \ '000 doz.7 Production Per IOQN Layers Prince Edward Island 1946 1947 1948 1949 1,184 1,369 993 1,225 lml47 1,333 957 1,181 486 508 480 485 6,268 6,288 5,872 5,607 15,608 14,956 14,794 14,354 Av 1,193 1,155 489 6,009 14,928 The years 1946 to 1949 are taken to be Indicative of the period 1943 to 1951, as total poultry, and poultry products reached their peak between 1947 and 1948. b) Dominion Bureau of Statistics, "Numbers and Values of Farm Poultry, By Provinces, as at June 1", The Canada Year Book, (Ottawa: King's Printer and Controller of Stationery, 1947 - 1950)* ' Dominion Bureau of Statistics, "Production, Utilization and Total Value of Farm Eggs, By Provine.es," ibid. # APPENDIX II TABLE 8 MONTHLY PRODUCER PRICES IN CENTS PER DOZEN OF GRADE A LARGE AND GRADE A. MEDIUM EGGS, IN VANCOUVERa> Year 1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 Grade AL AM AL AM AL AM AL AM AL AM Month January- '44 42 39 37 46 42 4o 38 36 34 February 51 49 35 37 42 40 37 35 31 29 March 48 46 38 36 42 40 37 35 31 29 April 58 57 38 36 42 44 37 35 31 29 May 57 56 39 37 42 40 37 35 32 30 June 60 59 43 41 44 42 40 38 32 30 July 63 60 49 47 59 51 46 34 32 August 67 60 50 48 59 56 57 55 36 3§ September 60 49 51 48 58 55 56 53 40 38 October 54 42 52 50 57 52 55 51 40 38 November 52 47 59 55 58 % 53 42 38 December 51 46 58 56 36 24 28 26 40 38 An. Av. 55 51 46 44 49 45 44 42 35 34 Year 1946 1945 1944 1943 1942 January 30 28 33 28 31 26 36 32 30 26 February 30 28 33 28 31 26 34 29 29 24 March 30 28 33 28 31 26 33 28 26 21 April 31 29 33 28 31 26 31 26 26 21 May 31 29 33 29 31 26 32 27 26 21 June 34 30 33 29 31 26 36 31 28 23 July 34 30 34 29 31 26 43 39 34 29 August 39 36 4l 36 33 28 41 27 36 31 September 39 36 40 35 35 30 44 39 43 36 October 39 36 41 36 35 30 47 42 45 40 November- 39 36 39 37 32 48 43 47 42 December 36 34 38 31 33 28 39 34 47 42 An. Av. 34 32 36 32 33 28 39 33 35 30 Vancouver Daily Province. 1942-1951. APPENDIX III TABLE 9 MONTHLY PRODUCER PRICES PER TON AND PER POUND OF MASH, WHEAT, BARLEY, OATS, DELIVERED TO FRAZER VALLEY8"' Month!" J a n u a r y Item Mash Wheat Oats Barley Year Ton Lb. Ton Lb. Ton Lb. Ton Lb. 1951 $84 4.2/ $66 3.3/ $69 3.45/ $69: 3.45/ 1950 80 4.00 70 3.50 56 2.80- 60 3.00-1949 79 3.95 72 3.60 54 2.70 56 2.80 1948 70 3.50 54 2.70 56 2.80 58 2.90 1947 49 2.45 32 1.60 36 1.80 32 1.60 1946 49 2.45 33 1.65 36 1.80 32 1.60 1945 49 2.45 33 1.65 35 1.75 31 1.55 1944 50 2.50 34 1.70 36 1.80 31 1.55 1943 50 2.50 29 1.45 32 1.60 30 1.50 1942 45 2.25 . 26 1.30 34 1.70 28 1.40 Month Foe b r u a r 7 1951 86 4.30 68 3.40 72 3.60 74 3.70 1950 80 4.00 70 3.50 56 2.80 60 3.00 1949 79 3.95 72 3.60 52 2.60 54 2.70 1948 70 3.50 54 2.70 49 2.45 52 2.60 1947 51 2.55 43 2.15 36 1.80 32 1.60 1946 49 2.45 33 1.65 36 1.80 32 1.60 1945 49 2.45 33 1.65 35 1.75 31 1.55 1944 50 2.50 34 1.70 36 1.80 31 1.55 1943 50 2.50 28 1.40 32 1.60 30 1.50 1942 49 2045 26 1.30 28 i.4o 31 1.55 Month M a r c h 1951 86 4.30 68 3.40 72 3.60 74 3.70 1950 82 4.10 70 3.50 60 3.00 62 3.10 1949 80 4.00 72 3.60 52 2.60 55 2.75 1948 68 3.4o 54 2.70 49 2.45 52 3.60 1947 51 2.55 43 2.15 38 1.90 33 1.65 1946 49 2.45 33 ,1.65 36 1.80 32 1.60 1945 49 2.45 33 1.65 35 1.75 32 1.60 1944 50 2.50 34 1.70 36 1.80 31 1.50 1943 51 2.55 31 1.55 32 1.60 30 1.50 1942 49 2.45 28 1.40 28 1.40 31 1.55 - 67 - 68 -TABLE 9 —Continued Plonth Item Year 1951 1950 19*4-9 19*4-8 19*4-7 191+6 19*f5 19*+*i-19*4-3 19*4-2 A p r i 1 Mash Ton $86 82 80 70 52 52 1+9 f1 k-9 L b . k.30^  h.10 *KOO 3.50 2.60 2.60 2.V5 2.*4-0 2.55 2.*+5 Wheat Ton $69 70 72 5*4-i+3 33 33 32 31 28 L b . 3.50-3.60 2.70 2.65 1.65 1.65 1.60 1.55 l . k o Oats Ton $70 65 52 53 38 36 35 33 32 28 L b . 3.50/ 3.25-2.60 2.90 1.90 1.80 1.75 1.65 1.60 1.4-0 Barley Ton $72 6h 55 57 33 32 32 30 30 31 L b . 3.60/ 3.2G-2.75 2.85 1.65 1.60 1.60 1.50 1.50 1.55 Month' M a y 1951 86 4-. 30 69 3.!+5 70 3.50 72 3.60 1950 85 *4-.25 70 3.50 65 3.25 61+ 3.20 19*t-9 80 *+.?o 72 3.60 52 2.60 . 55 2.75 191+8 70 3.50 9+ 2.70 58 2.90 57 2.85 19*4-7 52 2.60 k3 2,65 38 1.90 33 1.65 19*4-6 ?2 2„60 33 1.65 36 1.80 32 1.60 19*4-5 ,1+9 2o*l-5 33 1.65 35 1.75 32 1.60 19*4-*+ *4-8 2.*+0 32 1.60 33 1.65 30 1.50 19*4-3 51 2.55 31 1.55 32 1.60 30 1,50 19*4-2 1+9 2.*f5 28 l.*fO 28 l.*4-0 31 1.55 Month J 12 n e 1951 86 ^ .30 69 3A5 70 3.50 72 3.60 1950 85 *4-.25 70 3.50 65 3.25 6h 3.20 19*4-9 80 *4-.5o 72 3.60 52 2.60 55 2.75 19*4-8 70 3.50 5*4- 2.70 58 2.90 57 2.85 19*4-7 52 2.60 L+3 2.65 38 1.90 33 1.65 19*f6 52 2.60 33 1.65 36 1.80 32 1.60 19*4-5 1+9 2.*+5 33 1.65 35 1.75 32 1.60 19*+V *4-8 2.*40 32 1.60 33 1.65 30 I.50 19*4-3 51 2.55 31 1.55 32 1.60 30 1.50 19*4-2 1+9 2.*4-5 28 i.ko 28 l.*4-0 31 1.55 68 -- 69 -TABLE 9 —Continued Month J u l y Item Year 1951 1950 1949 19*+8 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943 1942 1941 Mash Ton $86 86 80 70 49 49 43 50 Lj-Q 47 Lb. 4. 4. 4. 3. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 30/ 30-00 50 60 45 45 40 50 45 35 Wheat Ton $74 70 72 54 43 33 53 32 33 27 30 Lb* 3.70/ 3.50-3.60 2.70 2.15 1.65 1.65 1.60 1.65 1.35 1.50 Oats Ton $62 66 56 65 38 36 35 33 36 28 30 Lb. 3.W] 3.30 2.80 3.25 1.90 1.80 1.75 1.65 1.80 1.40 1.50 Barley TorJ Lb. 162 70 64 59 -> o .JO 32 32 30 31 31 31 3.10/ 3.50-3.20 2.95 1.65 1.60 1.60 1.50 1.55 1.50 1.50 Month A u g u s t 1951 33 4.15 74 3.70 60 3.00 62 3do 1950 86 4.30 67 3.35 61 3.05 67 3.35 1949 82 4.10 70 3.50 52 2.60 60 3.oo 1948 75 3.75 70 3.50 56 2.80 56 2.80 1947 52 2.60 43 2.15 38 1.90 33 1.65 1946 49 2.45 33 1.65 36 1.80 32 1.60 1945 49 2.45 33 1.65 35 1.75 32 1.60 1944 48 2.40 32 1.60 33 1.65 30 1.50 1943 50 2.50 34 1.70 36 1.80 31 l o 55 1942 47 2.35 28 1.40 28 1.40 28 1.40 1941 49 2.45 30 1.50 32 1.60 32 1.60 Month S e P t € J m b e r I9filh 83 4.15 4.30 70 3.50 63 3.15 62 3.10 1950 86 67 3.35 60 3.00 66 3.30 1949 82 4.20 70 3.50 53 2.65 64 3.20 1948 1947 75 3.75 70 3.50 54 2.70 52 2.60 57 2.85 46 2.30 38 1.90 33 1.65 1946 49 2.45 33 1.65 36 1.80 32 1.50 1945 49 2.45 33 1.65 36 1.-80 32 1.60 1944 48 2.40 32 1.60 33 1.65 30 1.50 1943 51 2.55 36. 1.80 36 1.80 31 1.55 1942 47 2.35 28 1.40 30 1.50 28 1„4Q 1941 49 2.45 30 1.50 34 1.70 34 1*70 - 70 -TABLE 9 —Continued Month O c t o b e r Item Mash Wheat Oats Barley Year Ton Lb. Ton Lb. Ton Lb. Ton Lb. 1951 |86 k.30£ $70 6k 3*50/ $66 3.30/ $66 66 3.30/ 1950 8k k.20 •3.20 60 3.00- 3.30 191+9 86 k.30. 71 3.55 57 2.95 68 3.k0 19k8 75 3.75 70 3.50 5k 2.70 52 2.60 19h7 61 3.05 31+ 2.70 k5 2.75 k5 2.25 19k6 1+9 2.k5 33 1.65 36 1.80 32 1.60 19k5 1+9 2.1+5 33 1.65 36 1.80 32 1*60 191+1+ k8 2.1+0 32 1.60 36 1.80 30 1.50 I9k3 51 2.55 36 1.80 36 1.80 31 1.55 19k2 k7 2.35 29 1.1+5 30 1.50 28 1.1+0 19kl 1+9 2.1+5 32 1.60 31+ 1.70 3k 1.70 Month N 0 v• e at b e r 89 1+.1+5 71 3.55 66 3.30 66 3.30 81+ 1+.20 62 3.10 65 3.25 66 3.30 83 1+.15 70 3.50 56 2.80 66 3.30 79 3.95 72 3.60 57 2.85 56 2.80 65 3.25 5k 2.70 53 2.65 52 2.60 1+9 2.1+5 32 1.60 36 1.80 32 1.60 1+9 2.1+9 33 1.65 36 1.80 32 1.60 1+8 2.1+0 32 1.60 36 1.80 30 1.50 51 2.55 3k 1.70 36 1.80 31 1.55 k9 2.1+5 29 i.k5 3p 1.50 28 1.1+0 1+5 2.25 26 1.30 31+ 1.70 28 1.1+0 1951 1950 191+9 191+8 191+7 191+6 I9k5 191+1+ I9k3 19k2 19kl Month D e c e m b e r 1951 1950 19k9 191+8 19k7 19k6 191+5 19kk 19k3 19k2 19kl 89 k.k5 71 3.55 66 3.30 66 8k k.20 6k 3.20 65 3.25 68 80 k.oo 70 3.50 5k 2.70 60 79 3.95 72 3.60 5k 2.70 53 68 3.ko 51+ 2.70 55 2.75 56 1+9 2.k5 32 1.60 36 1.80 32 1+9 2.k5 33 1.65 36 1.80 32 k8 2.k0 32 1.60 36 1.80 30 51 2.55 3k 1.70 36 1,80 31 k9 2.k5 29 i.k5 30 1.50 28 k5 2.25 26 1.30 3k 1.70 28 3.30 3.k0 3. i o 2.65 2.80 1.60 1.60 1.50 1*55 i.ko l.kO a) Source: Laying Mash Prices; Buckerfield11 Ltd., Vancouver; Wheat, Oats, Barley Prices; Brackman-Kerr Ltd., lew Westminster. APPENDIX IT METHOD OF CALCULATION OF THE EGG-FEED RATIO Two recent surveys of the poultry industry of British Columbia show that the cost of feed as a proportion of total expense is the greatest single cost factor in poultry production. In 1945, i t was found that the total cost of feed for layers and replacements was $2.70 per bird, or 78 percent of the total expenses of #3.44 per bird. 1 In 1949? i t was found that the cash feed expense per farm surveyed was 83 percent of total cash expense. A typical laying mash was obtained-^ for the period 1943 to 1951. This consisted by weight, of 50 percent commercially prepared laying mash, and 50 percent scratch grains. The latter consisted of 30 percent wheat, 10 percent oats, and 10 percent barley by weight. Monthly prices per ton, celivered in the Lower 4 Mainland were obtained from two local feed companies. IE.D.Woodward, Some Factors That Influence Poultry Farm Incomes. (Victoria: King's Printer and Controller of Stationery,: 1946), p. 15. 2 R.Campbell, "Egg and Poultry Industry in British Columbia, Part 1, 1948-1949", The Economic Annalist. (Ottawa, The King's Printer and Controller of Stationery, December, 195D, p. 132. -^Department of Poultry Nutrition, U.B.C. k Braekman-Kerr Milling Co., Ltd., New Westminster, Buckerfield1s Ltd., Vancouver. - 71 -- 72 -Since the companies are competitive, the prices at which feed is sold is similar for both. These prices were brought to a monthly per pound basis. The composite feed price per pound of complete laying ration, delivered in the Lower Mainland, was calculated by weighting the price per pound of feed by the percentage proportion of the feed to be found in the complete laying ration. The quantities of frade A Large, and Grade A Medium eggs that were marketed in British Columbia at Registered Egg Grading Stations for the years 1948 to 1950 were 1 obtained. For each year, the proportion of the two grades 2 to the total marketings were found. These figures for each grade were averaged for the three years. It was found that for the three year period, Grade A Large Eggs were 64 percent and Grade A %dium Eggs were 20 percent of total marketings. The remaining three grades, B, C, and Cracks, consisted of 16 percent of the total marketings. Consequently, the Grade A Large and Grade A Medium prices were weighted by 64 and 20 respectively. Average monthly producer prices per dozen for Grade A Large and Grade A Medium eggs were obtained. The annual monthly egg price- for each of these two grades was found Compiled from records of the Poultry Division, Livestock and Livestock Products' Marketing Branch., Canada Department of Agriculture, Vancouver. ^'Proportions of Grade A Large and Grade A Medium ' Eggs Marketed, in British Columbia Through Registered Egg Grading Stations For the Period 1948 to 1950',' Table 10, Appendix V. - 73 -by averaging the weekly observations.1 A single price was then calculated by weighting the prices for eaigh grade. The monthly egg-feed ratio was calculated by dividing the monthly composite price of feed per pound into the monthly composite price of eggs per dozen to obtain the amount of feed in pounds for each month that one dozen egg sold by the producer wil l buy. "Vancouver Daily Province. 19!+3-195l. APPENDIX V TABLE 10 PROPORTIONS OF GRADE A LARGE AND GRADE A MEDIUM EGGS IN CASES OF 30 DOZEN, MARKETED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA THROUGH REGISTERED%E Year 1 9 5 0 ; 1 9 k 9 Grade AL b ) AM c ) Total AL AM Total Month January February March A p r i l May June July August September October November December 26,80k 22,51k 32,787 32,856 32,003 2k,510 19,796 16,510 13,136 11,602 Ik,718 21,2kl 9,k79 5,2k5 5,838 5,075 k,835 3,705 3,398 k,05k 5,963 9,217 9,828 9,319 kO,825 30,317 k2,120 kl,75l kO,761 31,756 27,906 27,759 30,167 31,179 31,155 35,056 3k,330 29,358 3k,800 33,552 3k,Ok9 27,855 23,890 20,666 16,931 15,605 21,360 28,651 11,983 6,k57 6,252 6,007 5,995 k,670 3,793 5,331 , 8,55k 12,807 16,030 15,535 51,525 38,895 kk,679 k3,627 kk,5k8 36,559 32,7k8 35,811 k29056 kk,kio k8,6k5 52,kkl Total 268,k77 75,956 kl0,752 321,0k7 103,k7k 515,9kk Percent 65 19 100 . 62 20 100 Year 1 9 k 8 January February March A p r i l May June July August September October November December 5k,170 k3,112 51,382 52,399 50,195 37,777 29,528 2k,171 19,217 I6,k38 20,361 29,315 20,230 12,653 10j708 9,286 8,203 6,860 5,k70 5,827 8,7k7 13,173 15,336 Ik,875 8k,kk8 67,07k 68,109 67,939 65,k32 50,593 kl,207 kl,709 kk,k79 kk,826 k5,820 5l,k36 Total k33,865 131,kk8 673,07a Percent 65 20 100 a^0p. c i t . "^A Large. e^ A Medium Egg Price Weights Year AL AM 1950 65* 19% 19k9 62 20 19k8 65 20 Av 6k 20 - 7k -APPENDIX VI TABLE 11 COMPOSITE PRODUCER PRICES IN CENTS PER DOZEN OF GRADE A LARGE AND GRADE A MEDIUM EGGS, VANCOUVER, 1943-1951 Year 1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 Month January 43.52 38.51 45.05 39.52 35.52 February 50.52 35.48 36.52 23.62 March 47.52 37*52 41.52 36.52 23.62 April 57.76 37.52 42.48 36.52 23.62 May 55.76 38.52 41.52 36.52 31.52 June 59.76 42.52 43.52 39.52 31.52 July 62.29 49.52 57.10 45.52 33-52 August 65.33 49.52 58.29 56.52 36.48 September 57»38 50.29 57.29 55.29 39.52 October 51.14 58.05 55.81 54.05 39.52 November 50.81 57.52 56.33 43.43 41.05 December 49.81 57.52 33.14 27.52 39.52 Average 54.30 46.04 47.30 42.29 33.25 Year 1946 1945 1944 1943 M0Avoa) January 29.52 31.51 29.81 35.05 36.45 February 29*52 31.81 29.81 32.81 34.62 March 29.52 31.31 29.81 31.81 34.41 April 30.52 31.81 29.81 29.81 35.54 May 30.52 31.81 29.81 30.81 36.31 June 33.05 31.31 29.81 34.81 38.48 July 33.05 32.81 29.81 32.76 41.82 August 33.29 39.81 31.81 37.67 45.97 September 38.29 38081 33.31 42.81 45.94 October 38.29 42.19 33.31 45.81 46.52 November 33029 42.81 35.81 46.81 45.87 December 35.52 28*95 31.81 37.81 37.96 Average 33.70 34.66 31.31 36.56 Monthly Average, for 1943-1951. - 75 - ' APPENDIX VII TABLE 12 COMPOSITE FEED PRICE IN CENTS PER POUND DELIVERED IN THE LOWER MAINLAND 1942-1951 Year 1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 Month J anuary 3.780 3.630 3.605 3.130 2.045 February 3.900 3.630 3.585 3.065 2.260 March 3.900 3.710 3.615 3.H5 2.270 A p r i l 3.395 3.745 3.615 3.135 2.450 May 3.860 3.870 3.395 3.190 2.300 June 3,830 3.910 3.645 3.170 2,300 J u l y 3.880 3.880 3.680 3.180 2.300 August 3.795 3.795 3.660 3.485 2.300 September 3.750 3.785 3.735 3.455 2.470 October 3.266 3.690 3.840 3.455 2.830 November 3.950 3.685 3.735 3.620 2.960 December 3.950 3.725 3.630 3.590 3.065 Average •3.817 3-755 3.694 3.300 2.460 Year 1946 1945 1944 1943 1942 January 2.060 2.050 2.120 1.995 1.825 February 2.060 2.050 2.095 lo980 1.910 March 2.060 2.055 2.050 2.050 1.940 A p r i l 2.135 2.055 1.995 2.050 1.940 May 2.135 2.055 1.995 2.060 1.940 June 2.135 2.055 1.995 2.070 1.910 i u l y 2.060 2.055 1.995 2 . 0 8 0 1.920 August 2.060 2.055 1.995 2.095 1.875 September 2.060 2.060 1.995 2.150 1.885 October 2.060 2.060 2.010 2.150 1.900 November 2.045 2.060 2.010 2.120 1.950 December 2.045 2.060 2,010 2 . 1 2 0 1,950 Average 2.073 2.056 2.022 2.077 1.912 - 76 -APPENDIX VIII TABLE 13 MONTHLY EGG MARKETINGS AT REGISTERED EGG GRADING STATIONS51' IN BRITISH COLUMBIA AND CONCURRENT MONTHLY EGG-PEED RATIO, 1943-1951 Month Year 1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943 Month 1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943 Month 1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943 January R 12 1 1 13 13 1 7 1 4 14 1 8 Mktg. 32V749 40,839 49,994 8 4 , 4 3 3 73,947 63,537 66,132 54,179 May 15 1 0 11 11 1 4 1 4 1 6 15 15 2 3 , 3 6 2 4 0 , 7 6 4 44,549 65,250 7 5 , 6 4 0 53,372 6 6 , 4 8 3 6 5 , 1 8 1 42,665 September 15 13 15 1 6 1 6 19 19 1 7 20 February R 13 1 0 1 2 12 1 1 1 4 1 6 1 4 1 6 Mktg. 25,505 30,314 38,660 67,078 65,219 5 3 , 4 6 3 6 0 , 7 8 1 55,242 June 15 1 1 12 1 4 1 6 1 6 15 17 28,942 51,756 36,668 5 0 , 5 9 4 4 8 , 3 3 5 53,152 57,210 30,047 October 50,230 30,167 4 2 , 0 6 8 4 4 , 5 4 3 6 3 , 8 7 7 52,923 4 6 , 6 1 7 5 2 , 9 3 4 32,730 1 6 1 6 15 1 6 14 19 21 17 21 4 1 , 2 7 2 31,179 4 4 , 4 4 1 44,945 6 7 , 3 9 7 53,527 4 5 , 4 6 0 4 9 , 7 4 6 4 0 , 4 9 6 March R 1 2 1 0 1 2 1 2 1 0 1 4 1 6 15 1 6 Mktg. 2 8 , 4 6 6 42,119 4 4 , 6 6 5 6 8 , 1 0 7 7 6 , 6 9 0 6 0 , 3 4 6 6 8 , 3 6 7 6 4 , 0 7 8 July 1 6 13 1 6 1 4 15 1 6 1 6 15 17 22,933 27,906 32,715 41 , 2 1 2 52,158 42,113 4 4 , 2 2 0 5 1 , 5 4 6 36,007 November 13 1 6 15 12 1 4 19 2 1 1 8 22 41 , 7 4 9 31,155 4 8 , 6 6 8 45,812 66,285 53,532 44,208 4 8 , 2 0 0 32,172 April R 15 10 12 12 10 1 4 1 6 15 15 Mktg. 23,362 4 1 , 7 5 1 4 3 , 7 5 6 6 7 , 9 3 9 74 ,013 5 7 , 3 2 4 68,158 65,060 31,915 August 1 7 13 1 6 1 6 1 6 19 19 1 6 1 8 31,576 27,759 35,824 4 1 , 7 4 8 54,037 45,726 42,596 51,153 29,078 December 13 15 9 8 13 17 1 4 1 6 1 8 52,224 35,056 52,440 52,990 71,634 67,139 56,904 58,770 52,117 a*Poultry Division, Livestock and Livestock Products Marketing Branch, Department,of Agriculture, Vancouver. - 77 -n r APPENDIX X TABLE lk YEARLY AGGREGATE RECEIPTS OF UNGRADED EGGS IN CASES OF 30 DOZEN AT REGISTERED GRADING STATIONS IN THE MAIN PRODUCING AREAS OF s BRITISH COLUMBIA, I9kk-19k9aj Year L,M.b) V.I.c ) Other Total 19kk 571,k78 72,086 29,735 673,299 ft I9k5 556,655: 33,193 663,068 19h6 56k,*+71 65,003 26,868 656,3k2 ±9h? 688,960 7k,95k 36,653 800,572 19kS 576,173 67,28k 31,202 67k,659 19^9 ¥+2,859 kl,921 29,671 5ik,k5i Av 566,766 65,7k5 31,221 663,732 Percent 38 9..9 k.7 100 * Ibid. ^ Lower Mainland Vancouver Island APPENDIX XI TABLE 15 RESULTS OF NOTE YEARS OPERATIONS OF THE POULTRY PRODUCTS SECTION, SPECIAL PRODUCTS BOARD; CANADIAN .GOVERNMENT SHIPMENTS TO. GREAT BRITAIN AND THE UNITED STATSSaJ Year Dozens Eggs Purchased 19kl 19k2 •I9k3 19LJ+ 191+5 19k6 19k7 19k8 19V9 Total Year 19kl I9k2 19k3 I9kk 19^-5 I9k6 19H-7 I9k8 19k9 15,336,000 37,535,9k0 33,6^ 2,810 79,920,000 89,700,000 68,263,290 32,999,750 63,2^ 6,000 3^ ,366,030 505,009,820 Pounds Shipped Fresh-Total 130,351 10,299,^ 88 15,^ 29,839 Dozens Shipped Fresh 15,336,000 k,133,^ 60 27,3^ 3,290 23,771,^ 00 30,601,710 32,532,810 133,713,670' Pounds Dressed Poultry 253,699 1,973,089 Dozens Shipped Storage 12,953,790 13,35k,770 19,105,920 19,^ 09,310 16,65k, 560 5l,k73,3kO Pounds Shippedx Dried D ; 11,567,1^ 9 n,7kk,ooo 27,575,763 17,916,680 7,kl9,372 13,561,12k 9,2k3,570 5,977,3kk 105,005,502 Total Shipping Value k,07k,lk2 13,158,577 lk,078,587 35,759,kok 21,578, 2k3 cf k2, k3k, 53 6 21,396,696 36,kl7,117d) kO,373,109 32,666,775 16,916,325 k5,111,727 p35,878,992 a) Canada Department of Agriculture, Egg and Poultry Market Report, (Ottawa: Canada Department of Agriculture, Marketing Service, April l k , 1950). b"} ' One pound of dried eggs Is equivalent to 3 dozen shell eggs. ° ) Shipped to U.S.A. and valued at $6,128,220. d) 7,977,737 pounds dressed poultry valued at $2.k62,000 was shipped to U.S.A, - 79 . APPENDIX XII TABLE 1 6 EGG SOLD AND USED BY THE PRODUCER FOR HATCHING PURPOSES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, IN 'OOO DOZEN, 1946 - 1950 a ; Year 1 9 5 0 1 9 4 9 1 9 4 8 Month. Sold Used Sold Used Sold Used January 65.7 25.9 56.2 30.2 53.0 10,1 February 156.2 24.7 1 8 4 . 4 41,7 1 6 9 . 2 14.9 March I89.9 59.3 217.2 4 8 . 3 283.4 62.3 April 100,4 12.1 234.0 34.5 1 6 4 . 1 28.4 May . 26.6 7.4 39.3 9.4 49.9 .11.8 June 7.5 4.3 . 26.3 2.0 98.0 ' 13.2 July 5.6 22.6 64.3 August 3.5 27.9 ---- 20.5 2.3 September 3.3 18 • X 23.9 6.5 October 7.8 XvS a 2 31.8 14.9 November 15.7 9.1 42.8 24.8 December 25.9 9.7 _ „ _ _ 22.2 33.2 Total • 603.6 133.7 911.0 1 6 6 . 6 1023.1 222.4 NOTE? No monthly data, is available for 1946 and 1947. In 1947; Eggs Sold For Hatching = 1,022,000 dozens Eggs Used For Hatching = 104,000 dozens I n 19465 Eggs Sold For Hatching = 1,112,800 dozens Eggs Used For Hatching = 234,300 dozens a) Data is in '000 dozens. Department of Trade and Commerce, Production of Poultry and Eggs, (Dominion Bureau of StatisticsjOttawa, 1946-1950) - 8 0 -APPENDIX X I I I TABLE 17 STORAGE STOCKS OF SHELL EGGS AT VANCOUVER?-) IN 'OOO DOZEN Month J an. Feh. Mar. Ap. May June J u l y Year 1950 19k9 19IrS 19Li-7 19k6 I9k5 19kk I9k3 9*+ 89 3,965 2,262 3,306 2,665 1,768 1,20k 80 108 8,175 2,130 6,607 3,295 k,273 3,372 11+6 220 k,926 2,735 7,581 2,900 6,77k 3,201 229 375 9,602 6,279 8,63k 5,610 6,670 3,21k 375 556 17,915 13,620 12,775 13,kk8 10,k06 5,k3k 557 655 2k,28k 23,13k lk,8k3 17,371 12,5k3 6,930 556 655 2k, 1+03 36,098 16,k06 20,023 21,k36 5,916 AT '1,919 3,505 3,560 5,077 9,316 ,12,539 15,686 Month Aug. Sept. Oet. Nov. Dec, 1950 19L+-9 19k3 19*f7 191*6 l9*+5 19kk 19H-3 k82 637 22,825 28,377 16,025 19,910 18,088 S'905 373 572 20,62k 25,691 15,097 19,330 15,089 3,890 256 258 8,385 16,91+8 11,698 13,k7l 10,78k 2,8k7 112 56 1,680 5,550 3,kl7 5,k88 k,8kO l,'+70 k8 63 l,k87 k,5oo 1,570 53k l,8k8 620 Av, 13,906 12,587 8,080 2,826 11,336 a) Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , "Stocks of Eggs i n Storage i n Vancouver", Stocks of Dairy and Po u l t r y Products. (Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r and Co n t r o l l e r of Stationery^,19^3-1950) o - 81 -APPENDIX XIV TABLE 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA STOCK, PRODUCTION. DISTRIBUTION, IN THE COMMERCIAL EGG INDUSTRY3-' Year Average Layers 'OOOp; dumber Eggs/ Layer") Farm Production CasesCJ Registered Marketings Cases } Unregistered Marketings Cases 1951 1,466 i5oe) 723,733 346,108 377,625 1950 1,917 174 926,596 503,702 422,884 1949 1,806 169 847,817 529,545 318,272 1948 2,046 167 949,117 773,790 170,327 1947 2,142 164 975,800 740,146 235,654 1946 1,827 167 347,525 621,377 226,148 1945 2,458 135 921,750 694,422 227,328 1944 2,493 135 934,875 583,650 351,225 1943 2,137 135 801,375 500,000 f ) 301,375 Direct Home Hatching Stock on B.C. Farms , '000b< Sales & Cons- Eggs » Casesw Chickens Layers Year Other Cases limp tion\ Cases June 1 Dec.l June 1 Dec.l 1950 323,884 69,300 29,700 3,370 2,050 1,917 1,810 1949 222,395 91,567 4,310 3,814 2,490 1,806 2,126 1948 14,301 106,213 49,813 4,129 2,470 2,042 2,148 1947 11,221 113,533 110,900 4,715 2,654 2,142 2,427 1946 80,815 98,033 47,300 4,427 2,479 2,406 2,138 - 82 -TABLE 18 --Continued fo D . L §} % D . L ^ % J.LP Year to D.C. to J.C* to J . C . to D.C. 1950 88 5*+ 57 91+ 191+9 85 56 h7 73 19^ 8 87 52 50 83 19^ 7 92 52 i+5 81 19M-6 86 5+8 5k 97 a^Data calculated from July to June of each year. ^Dominion Bureau of Statistics, "Poultry and Eggs", The Canada Year Book, (Ottawa; King's Printer and Controller of Stationery, 19>+3 - 195D. c^Canada Department of Agriculture, Production of Poultry and Eggs, (Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics, I91+6-I950)'. d^Poultry Division, Livestock and Livestock Products Branch, Marketing Service, Vancouver. e) /Canada Department of Agriculture, Poultry Estimates, (Ottawa:Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 1950-1951). f) g) h) i) Estimate. Percent December Layers are to December Chickens. Percent December Layers are to June Chickens. Percent June Layers are to June Chickens. ^Percent June Layers are to December Chickens. - 83 -APPENDIX XVI TABLE 19.) DISPOSITION OF EGGS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 'OOO DOZENS, 19li-6-1950aj S o l d F 0 r Year Market From Hatching From " • ' Farms. Otherb\ Farms Other I950 19^ 9 19l+8 19^ 7 195+6 19,5+10 21,5+71 25+, 327 25+, 937 21,509 3,831 5+,295+ 5+,861 +,987 lr,303 609 911 1,023 1,022 122 182 205 209 205+ P r o d u C e r U s e Year Consumed On Hatched On Farm Other Farm Other 1950 19k9 195+8 19k7 195+6 1,732 2,239 2,655 2,310 2?+5+2 3>+7 5+58 531 596 1+99 135+ 167 222 161 161 27 33 1+1+ 32 32 Canada Department of Agriculture, Production of Poultry and Eggs, (Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 195+6-1950) Elsewhere than on farms„ - 85+ -APPENDIX XVII METHOD OF CALCULATION OF THE BUDGET OF A SAMPLE BRITISH COLUMBIA COMMERCIAL EGG FARM The capital investment of an average family poultry farm in British Columbia^ was proportionately 2 increased from 633 layers to accommodate a flock of 1200 layers per year. It was assumed to be under good management, and to have a good breed and strain of properly fed and housed birds laying at the rate of 180 eggs per year. The following operating statement was drawn up k to arrive at the return to capital and labour. Receipts— Annual Egg Receipts = 18,000 dozen eggs @ annual composite producer's! price per dozen. ^"R.H.Campbell, "Egg and Poultry Production in British Columbia, 1948-1949, Part I", The Economic Annalist, (Ottawa: The Canada Department of Agriculture, December, 1951),' P* 130. Culling is 85 percent, and mortality is 19 percent, calculated on a hen-day basis. 3The capital investment to accommodate 633 layers, calculated on a hen-day basis, was: Land Used For Poultry | 342 14# Buildings 2,763 47 Flock 479 29 Equipment 71 8 Feed 17 2 Total 5,344 100 >This was proportionately increased to $11,077 to accommodate 1,200 birds. ^Department of Agricultural Economics, U.B.C. An Outlook Report For A Poultry Enterprise in B.C. In 1952. (Vancouver:The Department of Agricultural Economics, U.B.C., 1952), p. 6. - op -Annual Fowl Receipts - 1,445 4£ pound fowl @ annual average fowl price. Total Receipts = annual egg receipts plus annual fowl receipts. Expenses— Annual Feed Cost For Layers = 65 tons @ annual composite producer price. Annual Feed Cost For Pullets = 24 tons © annual composite producer price. Other Expenses1 = 25 percent of total feed costs. Total Costs - annual feed costs for payers and pullets plus other expenses. , Return To Capital and Labour = total receipts minus total expenses. Total expenses were feed costs plus other expenses. The cost of feed for layers and pullets amounts to about 75 percent of total costs in 1951. The total cost of feed was calculated on the basis of the average annual composite price and the total feed consumption of 89 tons for pullets and layers. The Other Expenses of the enterprise include depreciat-ion on buildings and equipment, taxes, sexed chicks, l i t t e r , g r i t , maintenance and repairs, electricity, disinfectant '''"Other Expenses" for 1951 were calculated on the basis of 25 percent of the 1951 total feed costs. For the previous years, this figure was reduced by the Five Factor Index of Things Western Canadian Farmers Use compiled by the Dominion Bureau, of Statistics, Ottawa. and medicines. The t o t a l of these amounted to 25 percent of the t o t a l feed costs f o r the year 1951• This was -• reduced i n the same proportion by the Five Factor Index of Things Western Farmers Use"'" f o r each preceeding year to 195+3 • • I t was f e l t that even though the items considered applied to a wider range of s p e c i a l i z e d farmers than the p o u l t r y e n t e r p r i s e , they might give an i n d i c a t i o n of the general annual l e v e l s of the Other Expenses of the B r i t i s h Columbia poultry farms considered. The Index r e f l e c t s a c t u a l p r i c e changes only, and does not show v a r i a t i o n i n t o t a l farm costs r e s u l t i n g from changes i n quantity purchased. I t includes; equipment and materials such as farm implements, b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , hardware; taxes and i n t e r e s t r a t e s . Taxes r e f e r to r u r a l municipal property taxes based on assumed land values. Interest rates r e f e r to i n t e r e s t on mortgages. The t o t a l annual egg r e c e i p t s were cal c u l a t e d on the b a s i s of the average annual composite p r i c e of Grade A Large and Grade A Medium eggs. The t o t a l r e c e i p t s from the sale of c u l l hens were cal c u l a t e d on.the ba s i s of the p r e v a i l i n g annual average •^Department of Trade and Commerce, Price Index Numbers of Commodities and Services Used by Farmers, (Ottawa: King's "printer and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 19^+3 - 195D. - 8 P market price for Vg- pound fowl, the Standard Weight of p Leghorn hens. The total receipts were egg receipts plus cull receipts. The annual return to capital and labour was found fcy deducting the annual total expenses from the total receipts. The annual return to capital and labour was deflated by the Farm Cost of Living Index^ in order to show the real return to capital and labour In 1935 "to 1939 dollars. ^Canada Department of Agriculture, Egg and Poultry Market Report, (Ottawa; Canada Department of Agriculture, Marketing Service, 1943-19 5D. 2 Imerlcan Poultry Association, The Standard of Perfection, (Davenport: The American Poultry Association, 1945), p. 194. •^Department of Trade and Commerce, Price Index Numbers of Farm Family Living Costs, (Ottawa: King's Printer and Controller of Stationery, 19V3-1951). APPENDIX XVIII TABLE 20 BUDGET OF A SAMPLE BRITISH COLUMBIA COMMERCIAL EGG FARMaj Annual Av. Produ cer Price An. Av. Receipts Year Eggs1^ Feedc) Fowld) Eggse^ Cullsf) Total An. Av. Composite $1.53 1.13 1.04 .90 .95 0 81 .31 .90 $9,744 8.287 3,604 7,610 5,985 6,066 6,238 5,635 6,580 $2,210 1,632 1,632 1,502 1,300 1,372 1,170 1,170 1,300 $11,984 9,920 10,236 9,U3 7,285 7,438 7,409 6,806 7,381 1951 1950 1949 1943 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943 54.30^  46.04-47.80 42.29 33.25 33.70 34.66 31.31 36.56 3.8W 3.755-3.694 3.300 2.460 2.078 2.056 2.022 2.077 Av 39.99 2.807 1.02 7,198 1,477 8,675 Annual Av. Costs An. Av. Return to Egg-Feed Ratio Year Feed2^ Other11) Total Cap. and Labour; Real1-* 1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943 16,794 6,683 6,575 5,874 4,378 3,698 3,659 3,659 3,697 $1,698 1,559 1,501 1,432 1,251 1,157 1,119 1,092 1,002 $8,492 8,243 8,076 7,306 5,630 4,356 4,779 4,691 4,699 $3,492 1,676 2,160 1,807 1,655 2,582 2,629 3,131 $1,739 938 1,240 1,105 1,199 2,033 2,137 1,720 2,614 14.33 12.26 12.94 12.82 13.52 16.25 16.86 15.58 17.60 Av 4,995 1,312 6,308 2,366 1,636 14.68 a) b) Data calculated from January to December yearly. Cents per dozen. c) Cents per pounda 0 Value of 4i" pound fowl "at annual average fowl price per pound. e1^8,000 dozen at annual average composite price per - 89 -dozen. APPENDIX XIX —Continued TABLE 2 1 FARM WAGES IN B.C. WITHOUT BQARDa) 19I6-1952 Year 1951 1950 195+9 19*+S 19k? 19k6 l9*+5 195+k 19lf3 Av Monthly $1+0.89 123.4k 116 . 6 5 126.17 103.37 100.02 85+.02 81.08 Annual $1,690.68 1,5+81.28 1,399.80 i,5i!+.ok 1,333.kk 1,25+0.5+5+ 1,200.25+ 1,008.2+ 972.96 1,315.68 1,5+5+5 fowl weighing 5+J- pounds @ annual average fowl orice. tons feed at annual average composite price per pound h) Includes a l l other expenses calculated at 25 percent of the 1951 feed costs and then reduced by the Five Factor Index of Things Western Canadian Farmers Use. -5) The return to capital and labour deflated by the Farm Cost of Living Index. a)Dominion Bureau of Statistics, "Farm Wages in B.C., Without Board", Farm Wages, (Ottawa: Dominion Bureau o f Statistics, 19'+3-195D. - 90 -APPENDIX XX TABLE 22 ANNUAL AVERAGE FARM INDEX, 19+3-1951 Year Cost of\ West. Can. , x Five Factor ; L i v i n g8' 1951 200.7 • 225.'+0 1950 179.7 206.90 I94.9 17k. 9 199.20 19lf3 163.5 190.03 19^ 7 138.0 166.03 19+6 127.0 153-61 19^ 5 123.0 1+8.60 191+4 122.9 l¥f.90 19^ 3 121.7 133.00 a^Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , P r i c e Index Numbers of Commodities and Services Used -By.Farmers. (Ottawa: Dominion Bureau-of S t a t i s t i c s , 19^ 3-1951). b^Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Five Factor Index of Things Western Canadian Farmers APPENDIX XXI TABLE 2$-FARM PERQUISITES House Rental, 12 months @ $20 $24-0 Poultry Products3-) 64-Garden Produce: 200 lbs be&ts . . • O 300 cabbage ... 6 200 carrots 8 1,000 potatoes ...35 300 turnips 12 200 onions » « • S 300 apples ... 8 300 pears ... 15 Total garden produce 100 a'R.H.Campbell, "Egg and Poultry Industry In British Columbia", The Economic Annalist, (Ottawa: King's Printer and Controller of Stationery, December, 1951)? P» 133. ^Prices of a l l garden produce i s on a producer basis, New Westminster City Market, September, 1952. - 92 -APPENDIX XXII METHOD OF CALCULATION OF A SUPPORT PRICE SCALE 1 OF RETURNS The c a l c u l a t i o n s are based on a sample B r i t i s h p Columbia commercial egg farm. The egg r e c e i p t s ^ were c a l c u l a t e d on the b a s i s of farm s a l e s of 18,000 dozen eggs with p r i c e s ranging • two cent: increments from k-Off per dozen to 60/ per dozen. Fowl r e c e i p t s were c a l c u l a t e d on the b a s i s of 6 c u l l s weighing pounds, and the producer p r i c e ranging two.cent increments from 22? to kQtf per pound. The fowl r e c e i p t s were h e l d constant, while the egg r e c e i p t s v a r i e d on the b a s i s of the incremental increase i n p r i e e s . The t o t a l r e c e i p t s f o r the sample commercial egg farm v a r i e d t h e r e f o r e , as the egg and fowl r e c e i p t s v a r i e d . Feed expenses were c a l c u l a t e d on the ba s i s of 89 tons of feed, necessary on the sample farm to feed the l a y i n g stock and the necessary p u l l e t replacements f o r -1 it - -X"A Support P r i c e Scale of Returns , Table 6. "Budget of a Sample B.C. Commercial Egg Farm , Table 2 1 , Appendix XVII. -3QP, c i t . . Column h. ^ I b l d . , Column 2. ^ I b i d . , Column 3. ^ I b l d . , Column 1 ^ I b i d . , Column 5« - 93 -one year, at the 1951 average composite price for laying rations of 3.817^ " per pound. The total feed cost was increased twenty-five percent to cover a l l other expenses, and total expenses became a constant of 18,1+92. 1 Returns to capital and labour are total receipts p less total expenses. Return to farm labour is the return to capital and labour less the return to capital. Return to capital is calculated at five percent Interest on one-half the average capital investment of $11,077. 3 This amount to $276. The return to operator's labour^ is the return to farm labour less the return to family and hired labour. The latter amounts to about 20 percent of the tot a l . On the sample British Columbia farm, the operator contributed 81 percent of the lahou r , the family 15 percent, and hired labour 1+ percent, ^Ibid., Column 6. 2 Ibid., Column 7. 3 Ibid., Column 8. BIBLIOGRAPHY American P o u l t r y A s s o c i a t i o n . The Standard of P e r f e c t i o n . Davenport, Iowa: The American Poultry A s s o c i a t i o n , Inc., 194-7. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Province of B r i t i s h Columbia S t a t i s t i c a l Reports. V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 194-3 - 1951. Campbell, R.K. "Egg and P o u l t r y Production In B r i t i s h Columbia, 194-8 - 194-9, Part I , " The Economic A n n a l i s t . Ottawa: Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Marketing S e r v i c e , Economics D i v i s i o n . December, 1951. Pp. 127 - 133» . "Egg and P o u l t r y Production In B r i t i s h Columbia, 19*78 9 194-9, Part I I " . The Economic A n n a l i s t . Ottawa: Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Marketing Ser v i c e , Economics D i v i s i o n . February, 1952. Pp. 6 - 10. Canada Department" of A g r i c u l t u r e . Egg and Poultry Market Report. Ottawa: Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Marketing Serviee, 194-3 -"l9J>0. . P o u l t r y Products Market Report. Ottawa: Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Marketing Service, 1951 - 1952. . Regulations Respecting the Grading, Packing and Marking of-Eggs, Canada, 19w7^ -n<3- Relevant Parts of the Livestock and Livestock Products Act, 1939. Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 1951. Pp. 3 - 24-. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Production of P o u l t r y and • Eggs. Ottawa: Dominion Department of S t a t i s t i c s , I943 - 1951. i „ Stocks of Dairy and P o u l t r y Products. Ottawa: Dominion Department of S t a t i s t i c s , 194-3 - 1951. - . Price, Index Numbers of Farm Family L i v i n g Costs. Ottawa: Dominion Department of S t a t i s t i c s , 194-3 1951. . Farm Wages. Ottawa: Dominion Department of S t a t i s t i c s , 194-3 - 1951. Rampson E . , and W i l l a r d A. "Feed-Egg R a t i o " . Washington: State Collegs of Washington, A g r i c u l t u r a l experimental S t a t i o n , Technical B u l l e t i n 297, 1934-. - 95 -- 96 -Hoeke, R.W. The Economics of The Poultry Enterprise on Kansas Farms. Kansas: Agricultural Experimental Station, Kansas State College of Agriculture and Applied Science, 1942. P. 30. Medland S., and Anderson W. An Outlook Report For a Poultry Enterprise in B.C. in 1952. Vancouver. B.C.: Department of Agricultural Economics, U.B.C., 1952. Pp.. 5 - 6 . Medland S., and Hickman R. A Study of the Marketing of Eggs and Poultry in British Columbia. Vancouver, ETC.: Canada Department of Agriculture In Co-operation With The Department of Agricultural Economics, U.B.C, 1951. Shefrin, F. "Community Wartime Agricultural Committees". The Economic Annalifet. Ottawa: Department of Agriculture, Marketing Service, Economics Division, November, 1943. Pp. 74 - 75. . "Eggs For Export". The Economic Annalist. Ottawa: Department of Agriculture, Marketing Service, Economics Division, August, 1942. Pp. 61 - 63. . "Administration of Wartime Agricultural Controls In Canada". The Economic Annalist. Ottawa: Department of Agriculture, Marketing Service, Economics Division, August, 1943. . "Agricultural Policy: Wartime Prices of Farm Products". The Economic Annalist. Ottawa: Department of Agriculture, Marketing Service, Economics Division, February, 1945. Shepherd, G.S. Marketing Farm Products. Ames: Iowa State College Press, 1949. ~ ~~~ Sprague, G.W. "The Effect of The Feed-Egg Ratio on Numbers of Young Chickens In Farm Flocks On March 1", Journal of Farm Bconomics. Menasha: American Farm Economic Association, 1929. Pp. 334 - 340. The Vancouver Dally Province. 1941 - 1951. Woodward, E.D. Some Factors That Influence Poultry Farm Income. Ottawa: Canada Department of Agriculture, 1946. P. 15. Working, J . "An Analysis of Monthly Prices of Eggs". Journal of Farm Economics. Menasha: American Farm Economic • Association, 1929. Pp. 460 - 464. 

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