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Reminiscence and successive retention trials in human serial rote learning of paired-associate nonsense… Hickson, Robert Hugh 1954

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Reminiscence and S u c c e s s i v e R e t e n t i o n T r i a l s i n Human S e r i a l Rote L e a r n i n g o f P a i r e d - A s s o c i a t e Nonsense S y l l a b l e s by Robert Hugh Hickson A T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree o f Master o f A r t s i n the Department of Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the stan d a r d r e q u i r e d from candidates f o r the degree of Master of A r t s . Members of the Department o f Psychology and P h i l o s o p h y . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1951+ i i i A b s t r a c t I t i s the purpose of the p r e s e n t study to attempt t o o b t a i n reminiscence w i t h p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e nonsense s y l l a b l e s , and to determine a " f o r g e t t i n g curve" based on a continuous measure of r e t e n t i o n . Reminiscence i s d e f i n e d as an improvement i n r e t e n t i o n a f t e r l e a r n i n g , without i n t e r v e n i n g p r a c t i c e , as shown by some measure of a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l . The experiment i s designed t o g i v e an e m p i r i c a l demonstration of reminiscence phenomena as p r e d i c t e d by the r o t e l e a r n i n g t h e o r y system of C. L. H u l l , and the experimental work o f C. I. Hovland. H u l l ' s p r e d i c t i o n of an i n i t i a l i n c r e a s e i n the amount r e t a i n e d a f t e r l e a r n i n g f o l l o w s from a " d i f f e r e n t i a l f o r g e t t i n g " t h e o r y i n which c o r r e c t responses a c q u i r e decrement i n s t r e n g t h at a slower r a t e than do i n c o r r e c t responses: the r e s u l t i s t h a t near-c o r r e c t responses at the t e r m i n a t i o n of l e a r n i n g t e m p o r a r i l y r e a c h s u p r a - t h r e s h o l d s t r e n g t h d u r i n g the e a r l y stages of r e t e n t i o n , and "reminiscence" r e s u l t s . The m a j o r i t y of r o t e l e a r n i n g s t u d i e s have used l i s t s of s i n g l e nonsense s y l l a b l e s p r e s e n t e d i n a s e r i a l o r d e r . Reminiscence e f f e c t s have been found i n some of the l a t t e r s t u d i e s but have not been found w i t h p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e m a t e r i a l s p r e s e n t e d i n a random order on s u c c e s s i v e t r i a l s . In the p r e s e n t experiment the s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l s are p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e nonsense s y l l a b l e s p r e s e n t e d i n a s e r i a l o r d e r ; the a n t i c i p a t i o n method o f l e a r n i n g i s used; the c r i t e r i o n of l e a r n i n g i s 6/9 c o r r e c t a n t i c i p a t i o n s ; two i v groups of 16 Ss each are employed - an immediate r e c a l l group, and a delayed r e c a l l group; the i n t e r p o l a t e d i n t e r v a l between l e a r n i n g and the f i r s t r e c a l l measure f o r the dela y e d r e c a l l group i s two minutes; and s u c c e s s i v e measures of r e t e n t i o n are ob t a i n e d on Ss i n both r e c a l l groups such t h a t the time between r e a c h i n g the l e a r n i n g c r i t e r i o n and the l a s t r e c a l l t r i a l i s s i x minutes. Prom the r e s u l t s , a s e r i a l e f f e c t i s demonstrated d u r i n g l e a r n i n g and i t i s expected t h a t t h i s w i l l enhance the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e m i n i s c e n c e . W i t h analyses o f the data i n terms of group i n d i c e s , i n d i v i d u a l i n d i c e s , and item i n d i c e s , no d i f f e r e n c e between r e t e n t i o n measures i s found which c o u l d be c a l l e d r e m i n i s c e n c e . S u c c e s s i v e t r i a l r e t e n t i o n measures are compared between the two r e c a l l groups. The H u l l i a n theory p r e d i c t s a g e n e r a l decrement i n r e t e n t i o n performance on s u c c e s s i v e t r i a l s f o l l o w i n g any reminiscence e f f e c t . The r e s u l t s show t h a t o v e r l e a r n i n g of some responses r e s u l t s i n a s t e r e o t y p y o f r e t e n t i o n responses which obscures r e d u c t i o n i n s t r e n g t h o f the l e s s w e l l l e a r n e d responses and r e s u l t s i n no s i g n i f i c a n t d e c l i n e i n r e t e n t i o n on s u c c e s s i v e t r i a l s . i i Acknowledgment The w r i t e r wishes to express h i s s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dr. E. I . S i g n o r i , who s u p e r v i s e d t h i s r e s e a r c h and who p r o f e r r e d many h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m s . He would a l s o l i k e to thank P r o f . E. S. W. B e l y e a f o r h i s a c t i v e i n t e r e s t . A p a r t i c u l a r a p p r e c i a t i o n i s o f f e r e d t o Dr. Douglas Kenny whose s e n s i t i v e l e c t u r e s s t i m u l a t e d the w r i t e r ' s i n t e r e s t i n the f i e l d of " l e a r n i n g t h e o r y . " Contents A b s t r a c t i i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 T h e o r e t i c a l Background 5 Relevant S t u d i e s 12 E x p e r i m e n t a l Method 19 The R e s u l t s and t h e i r S t a t i s t i c a l Treatment . 25 D i s c u s s i o n 32 C o n c l u s i o n s 39 Summary 1+2 Table 1: R i l e y ' s experimental d e s i g n 1+1+ Table 2: E x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n ( t h i s study) ... 1+5 Table 3: C h i f o r s e r i a l e f f e c t i n l e a r n i n g . 1+6 Table i+: L a s t l e a r n i n g t r i a l and r e c a l l t r i a l raw scores 1+7 Table 5* A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e o f s u c c e s s i v e r e t e n t i o n measures 1+8 F i g u r e 1: H u l l ' s theory o f I n t e r f e r e n c e i n s e r i a l l e a r n i n g 1+9 F i g u r e 2: H u l l ' s p r e d i c t i o n of reminiscence . 50 F i g u r e 3: I n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k a c t i v i t y photograph 5l F i g u r e 1+: to 9: Apparatus photographs 52 F i g u r e 10: Sample r e c o r d sheet 55 F i g u r e 11: Mean group r e c a l l scores 56 F i g u r e 12: Improvements i n r e t e n t i o n 57 References: 58 I n t r o d u c t i o n S i n c e Ebbinghaus's p i o n e e r t r e a t i s e i n 1885 ( 8 ) , p s y c h -o l o g i s t s have shown an ap p r o p r i a t e and p e r s i s t e n t i n t e r e s t i n problems of human v e r b a l l e a r n i n g ; p a r t i c u l a r l y , the r o t e l e a r n i n g of nonsense s y l l a b l e s . The r o t e l e a r n i n g of nonsense s y l l a b l e s i s not, of course, a phenomenon of the "everyday world," but i s , r a t h e r , one of those p a r t i a l l y a r t i f i c i a l l a b o r a t o r y s i t u a t i o n s designed t o demonstrate a paradigm from which, i t i s hoped, more g e n e r a l laws may be induced. One e m p i r i c a l phenomenon which has been demonstrated i n a s i g n i f -i c a n t number of r o t e l e a r n i n g s t u d i e s i s t h a t of r e m i n i s c e n c e . The l a t t e r demonstrations were w i t h s e r i a l l y p r e s e n t e d l i s t s of nonsense s y l l a b l e s . However, no study has appeared which demonstrates reminiscence w i t h p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l i s t s o f nonsense s y l l a b l e s , nor has any attempt been made to account f o r t h i s non-appearance o f reminiscence by an e m p i r i c a l exam-i n a t i o n of the retention curve. I t i s the purpose of the pr e s e n t study t o attempt to o b t a i n r e m iniscence w i t h p a i r e d -a s s o c i a t e s y l l a b l e s , and, t o determine a " f o r g e t t i n g c u r v e " based on a continuous measure of r e t e n t i o n . Reminiscence i s d e f i n e d as. an improvement i n r e t e n t i o n , without i n t e r v e n i n g p r a c t i c e , as shown by some measure of a b i l i t y to r e c a l l . Reminiscence phenomena are somewhat a t y p i c a l s i n c e i t i s u s u a l l y s t a t e d t h a t the a b i l i t y t o reproduce p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l decreases w i t h the passage of time and t h a t the most r a p i d f o r g e t t i n g occurs 2 immediately a f t e r l e a r n i n g . In other words, when e f f i c i e n c y of r e t e n t i o n i s p l o t t e d a g a i n s t s u c c e s s i v e increments of time, I t i s u s u a l l y expected t h a t a n e g a t i v e l y a c c e l e r a t e d curve w i l l r e s u l t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f d e v i a t i n g cases have been observed i n which an i n i t i a l r i s e i n the curve of r e t e n t i o n precedes the n e g a t i v e l y a c c e l e r a t e d curve. I t i s t h i s i n i t i a l r i s e i n the curve of r e t e n t i o n t h a t has been named r e m i n i s c e n c e . The phenomenon was named i n 1913 by B a l l a r d ( 2 ) . In the t y p i c a l r e t e n t i o n experiment d e s i g n e d to demonstrate reminiscence f o u r g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of d e s i g n are apparent, * F i r s t , s e r i a l l i s t s of nonsense s y l l a b l e s are used as stimulus m a t e r i a l s . S e r i a l l y p r e s e n t e d nonsense s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t of ( u s u a l l y 12) s i n g l e nonsense s y l l a b l e s p r e s e n t e d one at a time i n the same sequence on s u c c e s s i v e t r i a l s . However, s e v e r a l experiments, n o t a b l y those of Hovland (li+, 1 5 , 1 8 ) , haye used p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s y l l a b l e s p r e s e n t e d i n a random o r d e r . Secondly, the a n t i c i p a t i o n method of l e a r n i n g i s used, i . e . , a f t e r the f i r s t complete exposure o f the e n t i r e l i s t , Ss b e g i n to t r y to a n t i c i p a t e the next-to-be-presented s y l l a b l e . Or, i n the case of p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l i s t s (In which p a i r s of nonsense s y l l a b l e s are p r e s e n t e d i n random order on s u c c e s s i v e t r i a l s ) Ss are p r e s e n t e d w i t h a s i n g l e s y l l a b l e and attempt t o a n t i c i p a t e i t s c o r r e c t p a i r . T h i r d l y , Ss l e a r n a s e r i a l l i s t o f nonsense s y l l a b l e s to a p r e s c r i b e d c r i t e r i o n of achievement. F o l l o w i n g t h i s , one 3 o f two procedures i s used as a measure of the curve o f r e t e n t i o n : e i t h e r (a) a l l Ss are g i v e n an immediate t e s t of r e t e n t i o n of the l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l , f o l l o w e d by a l a t e r t e s t of r e t e n t i o n , or (b) one group of Ss i s t e s t e d f o r immediate r e t e n t i o n , w h i l e another group, which has achieved the same degree of l e a r n i n g , i s t e s t e d f o r r e t e n t i o n a f t e r some s p e c i f i e d i n t e r v a l o f time. The f i r s t procedure (a) i s not a c c e p t a b l e as a measure of r e m i n i s c e n c e . I t i s a c t u a l l y a d i s t r i b u t e d l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n c e the immediate r e c a l l t r i a l s a l s o c o n s t i t u t e d an a d d i t i o n a l l e a r n i n g t r i a l . That i s , both the immediate and delayed r e t e n t i o n measures are made on the same group and comparison i s made w i t h the c r i t e r i o n l e a r n -i n g t r i a l : thus, both time and number bf p r a c t i c e t r i a l s v a ry independently and are confounded i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s . Procedure (b) Is the g e n e r a l l y accepted d e s i g n s i n c e o n l y time between c r i t e r i o n and the r e t e n t i o n measure i s allowed t o var y . F o u r t h l y , o n l y one measure of r e t e n t i o n i s compared between groups. In the presen t experiment the st i m u l u s m a t e r i a l s are p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e nonsense s y l l a b l e s p r e s e n t e d i n a s e r i a l o r d e r . The a n t i c i p a t i o n method of l e a r n i n g i s employed. The c r i t e r i o n o f l e a r n i n g i s 6/9 c o r r e c t a n t i c i p a t i o n s . Two groups of Ss are used - an immediate r e c a l l group ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as C ( c o n t r o l g r o u p ) ) , and a de l a y e d r e c a l l group (E (experimental) group). The i n t e r p o l a t e d i n t e r v a l between l e a r n i n g and the f i r s t r e c a l l measure f o r if the E group i s two minutes; and, s u c c e s s i v e measures o f r e t e n t i o n are o b t a i n e d on Ss i n both the C and E groups such t h a t the time between r e a c h i n g the l e a r n i n g c r i t e r i o n and the l a s t r e c a l l t r i a l i s s i x minutes. The purpose of the d e s i g n i s to p r o v i d e maximally appro-p r i a t e c o n d i t i o n s f o r the demonstration of re m i n i s c e n c e w i t h p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e m a t e r i a l s , and to attempt t o p r o v i d e e m p i r i -c a l d ata on the r e t e n t i o n curve f o l l o w i n g l e a r n i n g which may g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n of more a p p r o p r i a t e hypotheses t o account f o r the appearance o r non-appearance of re m i n i s c e n c e e f f e c t s . 5 T h e o r e t i c a l Background The more r e c e n t experimental l i t e r a t u r e i s r e p o r t e d i n the next c h a p t e r . Thre present chapter i s concerned w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l papers which have proposed systems t o account f o r s e r i a l l e a r n i n g and reminiscence phenomena. The H u l l l a n Reminiscence Theory A s t r o n g i n c e n t i v e t o r e s e a r c h on s e r i a l l e a r n i n g phenomena o c c u r r e d i n 1935 w i t h the appearance o f an e x p l i c i t t h e o r e t i c a l statement concerning r o t e l e a r n i n g . In "The c o n f l i c t i n g p s y c h o l o g i e s of l e a r n i n g - a way out" ( 2 3 ) , C. L. H u l l used s e r i a l l e a r n i n g as a p r o t o t y p e of the l o g i c o - d e d u c -t i v e method of the o r y c o n s t r u c t i o n . The s u b j e c t matter o f t h i s paradigm was an e x t e n s i o n of L e p l e y ' s ( 2 9 , 30) e a r l i e r attempts t o apply c o n d i t i o n i n g p r i n c i p l e s t o s e r i a l l e a r n i n g . H u l l deduced from the L e p l e y h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i n h i b i t i o n s a c t i n g at the c e n t e r o f r o t e s e r i e s d u r i n g l e a r n i n g might " d i e out" r a t h e r r a p i d l y w i t h the passage of s h o r t i n t e r v a l s o f time, l e a v i n g the c o r r e c t tendencies more f r e e to a c t and perhaps g i v i n g i n c r e a s e d success or r e m i n i s c e n c e . A c o r o l l a r y o f t h i s d eduction i s t h a t r e m i n i s c e n c e , when i t does occur, should be more n o t i c e a b l e i n , i f not e n t i r e l y c o n f i n e d t o , those s y l l a b l e s at the c e n t e r of r o t e s e r i e s . B r i e f l y , the ded u c t i o n of reminiscence may be s a i d to depend upon two p r o c e s s e s : the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the l e a r n i n g process and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the r e t e n t i o n p r o c e s s . The L e a r n i n g P r o c e s s . In the u s u a l s e r i a l l e a r n i n g procedure, the s u c c e s s i v e items are exposed s i n g l y by a memory 6 apparatus w i t h an i n t e r v a l of two or three seconds between items. The f i r s t item serves as the stimulus f o r the p r o -n o u n c i a t i o n o f the second item, w h i l e the second item serves as the v e r i f i c a t i o n of the Ss f i r s t response and a l s o serves as the stimulus f o r the t h i r d item. The s e r i a l c h a r a c t e r of the l e a r n i n g t a s k i s o b t a i n e d by the f i x e d o r d e r of p r e s e n t a -t i o n o f the items. Note t h a t v e r i f i c a t i o n of the c o r r e c t n e s s of the response occurs a f t e r each response so t h a t the s i t u -a t i o n i s not anal ogous t o the maze l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . I t i s assumed by the H u l l l a n t h e o r y t h a t v e r i f i c a t i o n o f the c o r r e c t response c o n s t i t u t e s a rewarding s t a t e of a f f a i r s . The reward of c o r r e c t l y a n t i c i p a t i n g an a s s o c i a t i o n i s not, however, an e x p e r i m e n t a l l y observable reward, but r a t h e r a secondary reinforcement or s u b s t i t u t e or symbolic reward. The s i t u a t i o n i s more i n keeping w i t h the c o n d i t i o n i n g concept o f secondary reward t r a i n i n g , i n which the c o n d i t i o n e d response i s f o l l o w e d by a stimulus such as a token which has a c q u i r e d reward v a l u e i n p r e v i o u s l e a r n i n g . But i t i s Often the case t h a t , d u r i n g the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , Ss make responses which are not a? p r o p r i a t e at t h a t time but which would be a p p r o p r i a t e at a p o i n t f u r t h e r on i n the l i s t . These a s s o c i a t i o n s have been named remote forward a n t i c i p a t o r y responses. I t i s assumed by the the o r y t h a t each a s s o c i a t i v e tendency which i s shown to span an item a c t s as a depressant t o t h a t item. A gr a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f H u l l ' s 1 9 3 5 ( 2 3 ) statement of the the o r y i s shown i n f i g u r e 1 . The c o r r e c t a n t i c i p a t i o n s are termed " e x c i t a t o r y t e n d e n c i e s ; " 7 while the remote forward and backward associations are c a l l e d " i n h i b i t o r y tendencies" since they are not only "non-rewarding" but also have a negative effect on any presently ex i s t i n g excitatory p o t e n t i a l . The learning of paired-associate nonsense s y l l a b l e s i s not e n t i r e l y p a r a l l e l to that of learning s e r i a l l i s t s . S e r i a l l i s t s are always presented i n the same prescribed order. It has been the general p r a c t i c e , however, to present paired-associate l i s t s with a d i f f e r e n t random order of presentation on each t r i a l . The present experiment uses paired-associates presented i n the same s e r i a l order oh successive t r i a l s , thus enhancing the p o s s i b i l i t y of remote forward a i d backward associations. The Retention Process. In 191+0, f i v e years a f t e r the appearance of the f i r s t statement of a deductive system a£ rote learning, H u l l (21+), with the help of empirical data obtained by Hovland, and with the assistance of mathematical protifs from Ross, H a l l , and Perkins, and supplemented by the lo g i c of Pi t c h , published a monograph on rote learning which i s the epitome of the logico-deductive method of theory construction. A s p e c i a l case of Hull's 191+0 theory i s the deduction of what happens to the associations during the time af t e r learning when learning i s interrupted before mastery. The basis of Hull's p r e d i c t i o n of reminiscence a f t e r learning i s theorem ten ( 5 5 , P« H8)> which states: "In a rote learning consisting of a single massed prac t i c e , of two points equidistant ( i n time) from the maximum point of e f f e c t i v e excitatory p o t e n t i a l (E)after 8 the t e r m i n a t i o n of l e a r n i n g , the r a t e of i n c r e a s e of 1* a t the p o i n t p r e c e d i n g the maximum i s g r e a t e r than the r a t e of decrease at the p o i n t f o l l o w i n g the maximum." The meaning of t h i s theorem becomes c l e a r when t h e o r e t -i c a l v a l u e s f o r the r e t e n t i o n curve are c a l c u l a t e d . These t h e o r e t i c a l v a l u e s f o r the e f f e c t i v e e x c i t a t o r y p o t e n t i a l are c a l c u l a t e d by s u b t r a c t i n g the i n h i b i t o r y p o t e n t i a l ( P o s t u l a t e 13 B (55, P« 67)) from the a b s o l u t e e x c i t a t o r y p o t e n t i a l ( P o s t u l a t e 12 B (55, p. 65)). Prom H u l l ' s t a b l e 3 (55, p. 120) i t may be noted t h a t where t (time) f o l l o w i n g the t e r m i n a t i o n of a c t i v e l e a r n i n g equals zero then E equals f o u r . S i m i l a r l y , 2t = J+.353 E (the maximum p o i n t of E, o r , r e m i n i s c e n c e ) , i+t = I4..158 E, 6t = 3.730 I , 20t = 1.072 I . T h e r e f o r e , the r e t e n t - i o n curve shows a sharp i n i t i a l r i s e f o l l o w i n g l e a r n i n g ,  f o l l o w e d by a not so r a p i d , but n e v e r t h e l e s s marked, d e c l i n e . The e m p i r i c a l evidence c i t e d to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s f ormal d e d u c t i o n i s the w e l l known work of Ward (I4.8). The p r e d i c t i o n of reminiscence i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 2. A l t e r n a t i v e P r e d i c t i o n s A s t e r e o t y p y of response e v o c a t i o n d u r i n g s u c c e s s i v e r e c a l l t r i a l s might w e l l be p r e d i c t e d from a H u l l i a n " r e i n f -orcement" th e o r y i f the p r e c e d i n g degree of l e a r n i n g was h i g h . That i s , w i t h any g i v e n p a i r of s y l l a b l e s , i f the c o r r e c t resppnse has been g i v e n to the s t i m u l u s s y l l a b l e on s e v e r a l t r i a l s i t w i l l be expected t h a t t h e r e i s , i n H u l l i a n terms, a h i g h l e v e l of e f f e c t i v e r e a c t i o n p o t e n t i a l . The f r e q u e n t g i v i n g of the c o r r e c t response - which i s i t s own reward - w i l l tend to b u i l d up the s t r e n g t h of the bond between 9 s y l l a b l e s o f the p a r t i c u l a r p a i r . Over a s h o r t i n t e r v a l o f time, then, t h e r e i s no reason t o expect t h a t t h e r e w i l l be anything but s t e r e o t y p y of response d u r i n g r e t e n t i o n t r i a l s , A s t e r e o t y p y o f response d u r i n g s u c c e s s i v e r e c a l l t r i a l s might a l s o be p r e d i c t e d from a G u t h r i a n c o n t i g u i t y p r i n c i p l e i f i t i s assumed t h a t those s y l l a b l e s which have been l e a r n e d as d i s c r e t e u n i t s . Or, i f i t can be assumed t h a t t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t d i s s i m i l a r i t y among st i m u l u s s y l l a b l e s and among response s y l l a b l e s to prevent s t i m u l u s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o r response g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , then t h e r e i s reason t o expect s t e r -eotypy. That i s , In terms of the c o n t i g u i t y p r i n c i p l e , p a i r e d -a s s o c i a t i o n s w i l l remain i n t a c t i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t no v e r i f i c a t i o n o f the c o r r e c t n e s s of the response e v o c a t i o n i s gi v e n t o the s u b j e c t d u r i n g the r e t e n t i o n t r i a l s . S t e r e o t y p y of response d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n t r i a l s (and i t i s submitted t h a t , s i n c e t h e r e i s repeated p r e s e n t a t i o n of the stimulus without e x p e r i m e n t a l l y g i v e n reward f o l l o w i n g the response, the t r i a l s f o l l o w i n g l e a r n i n g may be l e g i t i m a t e l y c a l l e d e x t i n c t i o n t r i a l s ) might a l s o be p r e d i c t e d from a P a v l o v i a n c o n d i t i o n i n g p o i n t of view. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s view the e l i m i n a t i o n of c o n d i t i o n e d responses depends upon some a c t i v e p r o c e s s . T h i s i s c a l l e d " i n h i b i t i o n " (10, p. lOlj.) and i s d e f i n e d as "the r e d u c t i o n i n s t r e n g t h o f a response r e s u l t i n g from p o s i t i v e s t i m u l a t i o n o f some s o r t . " That i s , t h e r e must be an a c t i v e i n t e r f e r i n g of some other s t i m u l a t i o n b e f o r e e x t i n c t i o n o f the o l d response w i l l o c c u r . I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t w i t h o v e r l e a r n e d a s s o c i a t i o n s t h e r e w i l l be no 10 sti m u l u s p r e s e n t i n the experimental s i t u a t i o n which w i l l i n t e r f e r e w i t h the a s s o c i a t i o n and s t e r e o t y p y w i l l r e s u l t . The d i s c u s s i o n c o ncerning the r e t e n t i o n p rocess has been concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the r e t e n t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n s which were l e a r n e d c o r r e c t l y d u r i n g the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . However, i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t c o r r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s may appear d u r i n g r e c a l l t r i a l s which were never c o r r e c t l y a s s o c -i a t e d d u r i n g l e a r n i n g t r i a l s . At l e a s t , the a s s o c i a t i o n s were never c o r r e c t at an e m p i r i c a l l y demonstrable v e r b a l l e v e l d u r i n g l e a r n i n g . Or i t may be t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n s are l e a r n e d c o r r e c t l y d u r i n g l e a r n i n g , then do not appear d u r i n g the f i r s t stages of r e c a l l , then reappear at some l a t e r r e c a l l t r i a l . The P a v l o v i a n concept of spontaneous r e c o v e r y "...the r e t u r n i n s t r e n g t h o f a c o n d i t i o n e d response, whether p a r t i a l o r complete, brought about by l a p s e o f time f o l l o w i n g i t s d i m i n u t i o n by e x t i n c t i o n " (10, p. 35D, Is a s i m i l a r phenom-enon. But i n the case of c o r r e c t r e c o v e r y of simple p a i r e d -a s s o c i a t e s i t i s d o u b t f u l whether d i m i n u t i o n o f the response by e x t i n c t i o n has a c t u a l l y o c c u r r e d . D i m i n u t i o n by e x t i n c t i o n o f a d i s c r e t e response u n i t of complex l e a r n i n g i s g e n e r a l l y thought to be a l o n g term p r o c e s s . I t may be argued t h a t H u l l ' s 19l]-0 d i f f e r e n t i a l g r a d i e n t h y p o t h e s i s which was p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d would p r e d i c t the same r e s u l t s as the al t e r n a t i v e hypotheses d i s c u s s e d above. T h i s i s shown not t o be the case i f we reason t h u s l y : the decrement i n i n h i b i t o r y p o t e n t i a l (as shown i n f i g u r e 2) i s shown to be more r a p i d than the concurrent decrement i n e x c i t -11 a t o r y p o t e n t i a l . However, i n order t h a t the p r e d i c t i o n o f reminiscence w i l l be v a l i d a t e d by the e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s o f Ward (1+8), i t i s nec e s s a r y t h a t the decrement i n e x c i t a t o r y p o t e n t i a l be o n l y s l i g h t l y l e s s r a p i d than the decrement i n i n h i b i t o r y p o t e n t i a l . Otherwise, i t would be p r e d i c t e d t h a t reminiscence i s a l o n g term phenomenon. I f i t were the case t h a t t h e r e were a r a p i d decrement i n i n h i b i t o r y p o t e n t i a l f o l l o w i n g l e a r n i n g , but a v e r y slow decrement i n e x c i t a t o r y p o t e n t i a l , i t would be n e c e s s a r y to p r e d i c t t h a t the curve o f r e t e n t i o n a f t e r l e a r n i n g would r i s e s h a r p l y and remain somewhat c o n s i s t e n t l y at t h i s i n c r e a s e d l e v e l o f e f f i c i e n c y . I t f o l l o w s then, t h a t the H u l l i a n d i f f e r e n t i a l g r a d i e n t hypo-t h e s i s p r e d i c t s a s h o r t term reminiscence f o l l o w e d by a r a t h e r steady d e c l i n e i n the g e n e r a l e f f i c i e n c y of r e t e n t i o n . T h i s l a t t e r p r e d i c t i o n i s not i n agreement w i t h the p r e d i c t i o n o f c o n s i s t e n t l e v e l , i . e . , s t e r e o t y p y , of performance. 12 Relevant S t u d i e s The e a r l y work on the reminiscence phenomenon was e x c e l l e n t l y reviewed i n 191+3 by Buxton (1+). More r e c e n t g e n e r a l reviews of s e r i a l l e a r n i n g phenomena and rem i n i s c e n c e are by H i l g a r d and Marquis (10), Hovland (19), McGeoch and I r i o n (36), and Melton (38)• S p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s to h i s t o r -i c a l l y important (prev i o u s t o 1938) s t u d i e s which have g i v e n i n i t i a l d i r e c t i o n to the more recertt work are those of Ebbinghaus (8), B a l l a r d (2), K j e r s t a d t (28), W i l l i a m s (1+9), Le p l e y (2 9, 30), Bunch and Magsdick (3), H u l l (21, 22, 23), McGeoch (33, 3l+, 35), and Ward (1+8). S i n g l e S y l l a b l e S e r i a l L e a r n i n g Experiments I t should be noted t h a t no experiments have been performed i n which reminiscence has been found w i t h p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e m a t e r i a l . Reminiscence has been found o n l y i n the case o f s e r i a l l y p r e s e n t e d l i s t s of s i n g l e nonsense s y l l a b l e s (5, 7, 11, 12, llj., 16, lj.8, 5l)o Reminiscence has not been found i n s e v e r a l experiments w i t h s e r i a l l i s t s of s i n g l e nonsense s y l l a b l e s (5, 6, 20, 37, 39, 1+0). The l a t t e r experiments had c o n d i t i o n s very s i m i l a r t o those i n which reminiscence was found and were, i n most cases, more r e c e n t l y performed. The most s t r i k i n g exam-p l e of these i s t h a t of Hovland and Kurtg's r e p e t i t i o n (20) of an e a r l i e r experiment by Hovland (11). In the e a r l i e r experiment Hovland used 12-unit s e r i a l l i s t s o f nonsense s y l l a b l e s ; the c r i t e r i o n o f l e a r n i n g was 7/12 c o r r e c t a n t i c -i p a t i o n s ; one group of Ss had an immediate r e c a l l t r i a l f o l l o w i n g l e a r n i n g , while the other group had two minutes of i n t e r p o l a t e d 13 c o l o r naming b e f o r e r e c a l l . The r e s u l t s showed that the d e l a y e d r e c a l l group was a b l e to r e c a l l more s y l l a b l e s and took fewer t r i a l s to r e a c h the mastery c r i t e r i o n . The s i n g l e t r i a l r e c a l l comparison showed the reminiscence e f f e c t l e s s than d i d the number of t r i a l s r e q u i r e d to go from seven s y l l a b l e s c o r r e c t t o mastery. The r e s u l t s were i n t e r p r e t e d as a v a l i d a t i o n of the r e m i n i s c e n c e e f f e c t found by Ward (1+8). Hovland and K u r t z ' s ( 2 0 ) l a t e r work, although of primary i n t e r e s t f o r the i n f l u e n c e of " p r i o r work" on the subsequent l e a r n i n g and r e t e n t i o n of s e r i a l l i s t s , showed, under the c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n of no " p r i o r work" b e f o r e the e x p e r i m e n t a l l e a r n i n g task, t h a t f o r g e t t i n g r a t h e r than r e m i n i s c e n c e i s o b t a i n e d d u r i n g the r e s t pause. T h i s , however, i s not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Hovland's p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s (11) nor w i t h the work of Ward (1+8), nor Buxton (50. When reminiscence was measured by the savings method, i . e . , savings i n terras o f the number pf t r i a l s to proceed to mastery f o l l o w i n g s i n g l e r e c a l l t r i a l s , then a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the immediate and d e l a y e d r e c a l l groups was found. T h i s l a t t e r measure i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i n d i n g s o f Noble (1+0). P a i r e d - A s s o c i a t e L e a r n i n g Experiments S e v e r a l r e c e n t experiments have been conducted u s i n g p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e m a t e r i a l . In the most r e c e n t l y proposed t e s t of the d i f f e r e n t i a l f o r g e t t i n g theory, R i l e y (1+1) i n t r o -duced competing responses i n t o the p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s i t u a t i o n . H i s e x p e r i m e n tal d e s i g n i s shown i n t a b l e 1. A c c o r d i n g to h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t i a l f o r g e t t i n g t h e o r y he p r e d i c t e d ".••a b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t o f the r e s t i n Experiment 1, no e f f e c t or a s l i g h t n e g a t i v e e f f e c t i n Experiment 2, and a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t i n Experiment 3 which would be l a r g e r than t h a t i n Experiment 2." Reminiscence, as measured by p o s t - r e s t r e c a l l t r i a l s , was absent. But i s i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s does not r e p r e s e n t a l e g i t i m a t e t e s t of t h e t h e o r y . The t h e o r y i s based on d i f f e r e n t i a l r a t e s of decrement o f c o r r e c t and i n c o r r e c t t e n d e n c i e s ; not on d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t r e n g t h s o f t e ndencies at the c e s s a t i o n of l e a r n i n g . N e i t h e r would the theory assume a one-to-one correspondence between the number o f t r i a l s on which c o r r e c t responses are l e a r n e d and the e x c i t a t o r y s t r e n g t h , or i n h i b i t o r y s t r e n g t h , of these responses. Underwood (1+6, 1+7) takes a somewhat d i f f e r e n t approach to the problem. He says (1+6, p. 131+) t h a t "...remote assoc-i a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t e n d e n c i e s . I f t h i s i s so, and i f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n tendencies e x i s t i n p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g (as seems l i k e l y , eg., 1+5), the q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n t i n -u i t y between s e r i a l l e a r n i n g and p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g can be maintained on the b a s i s of the argument t h a t no e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t p rocesses are r e p r e s e n t e d by the two forms of l e a r n i n g . " To t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s Underwood used d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f I n t r a l i s t s i m i l a r i t y w i t h h i s p a i r s o f nonsense s y l l a b l e s . The r e s u l t s f a v o r no support t o g e n e r a l -i z a t i o n as a c r i t i c a l process i n l e a r n i n g p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l i s t s by massed o r d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e and no d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e t e n t i o n o c c u r r e d as a f u n c t i o n of e i t h e r i n t e r t r i a l r e s t 15 or s i m i l a r i t y . Experiments on Associated Variables Thune's study (I4J4.) i s not concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y with reminiscence but i s worthy of comment. He was interested i n the e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t types of preliminary a c t i v i t i e s on subsequent learning of paired-associate material. The study follows from I r i o n ( 2 5 , 26, 2 7 ) and Ammons ( 1 ) on the "warm-up" f a c t o r (the reinstatement of set l o s t during the r e s t i n t e r v a l ) . The r e s u l t s showed that the f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s of preliminary warm-up pra c t i c e arenmost prominent during the f i r s t few learning t r i a l s following the r e s t i n t e r v a l . The implication f o r the present research i s that any remin-iscence effect may well be obscured by a loss of "set." Rockway (1+2), i n a more recent study, has f a i l e d to confirm the b e n e f i c i a l effects of a "warm-up" period. It may be well to emphasize here that the present study i s concerned with reminiscence i n verbal learning and i s not to be confused with reminiscence studies i n a motor tasks such as b i - l a t e r a l transfer s i t u a t i o n s . The experiments of Withey, Buxton, and E l k i n (5l), and Hovland (18), show that the speed of color-naming during the rest i n t e r v a l has r e l a t i v e l y small e f f e c t upon amount of reminiscence. Hovland 1s Paired-Associate-Experiments The basic exploratory experiments i n paired-associate learning as those of Hovland (11+, 1 5 K These and f i v e other experiments ( 1 1 , 1 2 , 1 3 , 16, 1 7 ) on s e r i a l learning are the 16 empirical basis off the t h e o r e t i c a l monograph of H u l l , et a l (21+) which appeared i n 191+0. In the l a t t e r of the two experiments on paired-associate learning (l£) Hovland concludes (p. 161) that "...learning by d i s t r i b u t e d practice resulted i n a pronounced reduction i n the number of t r i a l s required f o r mastery i n the case of s e r i a l material. No s u p e r i o r i t y of d i s t r i b u t e d over massed practice was found i n the case of paired-associates." In other words, with massed practice of s e r i a l materials progressively more t r i a l s are required to reach successive c r i t e r i a of performance. This i s due to the increasing number of incorrect remote associationswhich occur as learning progresses. With d i s t r i b u t e d practice of s e r i a l materials, however, these Incorrect responses diminish i n strength during the i n t e r t r i a l period according to the d i f f e r e n t i a l f o r g e t t i n g hypothesis (figure 2). Therefore, with d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e of s e r i a l material the learning curve i s more nearly l i n e a r . On the other hand, since paired-associate material i s presented i n a d i f f e r e n t random order on each t r i a l i t i s expected that the occurrence of remote associations i s much less frequent. The curves for paired-associates were nearly i d e n t i c a l ( i . e . , l i n e a r ) f o r massed and d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e ; which i s what would be expected by the d i f f e r e n t i a l forgetting theory. From the above, i t seems to follow l o g i c a l l y that the s e r i a l presentation of paired-associates (rather than random presentation on successive t r i a l s ) would enhance the p o s s i b i l i t y 17 o f the fo r m a t i o n o f remote a s s o c i a t i o n a l bonds between p a i r s o f s y l l a b l e s . H o v land 1s other e a r l y experiment on p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g was d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h reminiscence (li+). The experiment was designed so t h a t r e s u l t s might be d i r e c t l y compared w i t h e a r l i e r s t u d i e s (11, 12) on s e r i a l l e a r n i n g . Hovland r e p o r t s (ll+, p. 1+67) t h a t : " . . . t o equate the number of t r i a l s r e q u i r e d f o r l e a r n i n g by the two methods ( s e r i a l and p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e ) , a p r e l i m i n a r y experiment was run. The r e s u l t s showed t h a t Ss r e q u i r e as many t r i a l s to l e a r n a l i s t of n i n e p a i r e d -a s s o c i a t e s as a s e r i a l l i s t of elev e n s y l l a b l e s , and t e n p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s r e q u i r e more t r i a l s than twelve s e r i a l s y l l a b l e s . The p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l i s t s were, t h e r e f o r e , made up of nine p a i r e d nonsense s y l l a b l e s so as to permit the c l o s e s t comparison w i t h the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d p r e v i o u s l y (12) on t w e l v e - u n i t l i s t s . " The assumption he i s making t h e r e f o r e , i s t h a t r e s u l t s from a n i n e - u n i t p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l i s t are d i r e c t l y comparable w i t h t w e l v e - u n i t s e r i a l l i s t s . Hovland 1 s 32. Ss had s i x p r a c t i c e day s e s s i o n s t o t e a c h Ss how to "l e a r n - h o w - t o - l e a r n " the t a s k and so reduce w i t h i n group v a r i a b i l i t y . Reminiscence was measured by a comparison between groups of the percentage of Ss that showed i n c r e a s e d r e c a l l over the l e a r n i n g c r i t e r i o n . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d . Hypotheses f o r the Present Experiment In the l i g h t o f the d e s i g n and r e s u l t s o f p r e v i o u s experiments the presen t experiment proposes the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses: 1. That reminiscence w i l l occur, as determined from a comparison between s i n g l e - t r i a l r e c a l l s c o r e s o f immediate 18 and delayed r e c a l l groups a f t e r r e a c h i n g a c r i t e r i o n on an i n t e r u p t e d 3e a r n i n g t a s k . 2. That, on comparable t r i a l s (determined by the time s i n c e r e a c h i n g the l e a r n i n g c r i t e r i o n ) t h e r e w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e i n r e c a l l t r i a l scores i n the immediate r e c a l l group and the d e l a y e d r e c a l l group. 19 E x p e r i m e n t a l Method S u b j e c t s T h i r t y - t w o Ss ( f o u r t e e n men and seventeen women) were employed i n the t o t a l experiment. The Ss were U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Summer S e s s i o n students e n r o l l s d i n undergraduate psychology c o u r s e s . S u b j e c t s were v o l u n t e e r s . Most o f the Ss were sc h o o l t e a c h e r s by p r o f e s s i o n and t h e i r average age was about 22 y e a r s . They had not p r e v i o u s l y been employed i n memory experiments and were not aware of the purpose o f the experiment. Stimulus M a t e r i a l s Two p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l i s t s were prepared from Melton's l i s t (19, p. 5l+5>) of nonsense s y l l a b l e s o f low a s s o c i a t i o n v a l u e . As f a r as p o s s i b l e the standar d r u l e s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f nonsense s y l l a b l e l i s t s were f o l l o w e d (19, p. 51+C-). The two l i s t s are reproduced below: P r a c t i c e L i s t Experimental L i s t S I T Y U K T I V P 0 B Z A L R I X L E B N U K K E B D A 0, M O J Z I R P E G N I S Y E D P U P B E J V U R B O P V A H M I P T O V J A T G 0 X Y I B Q A: D Z U D K I P R U Z P A P G I C M E J W U C G A X D A X R U V L i s t s were typed on heavy bond paper i n " p i c a " t y p e . Design S u b j e c t Groups The Ss were d i v i d e d on a random b a s i s i n t o two groups o f 16 each: an immediate r e c a l l group and a de l a y e d r e c a l l group. 20 Procedure Reminiscence was s t u d i e d by s u b j e c t i n g the E group to two minutes of c o l o r naming a f t e r r e a c h i n g the l e a r n i n g c r i t e r i o n of 6/9 c o r r e c t a n t i c i p a t i o n s p r e v i o u s to r e c a l l . The C group began r e c a l l t r i a l s immediately f o l l o w i n g the l e a r n i n g c r i t e r i o n . The r eminiscence measure was taken as the d i f f e r e n c e between E and C groups on the f i r s t r e c a l l t r i a l . The Ss i n both groups p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the experiment on two s u c c e s s i v e days. The second days' data we r e v t ho s e. - use d i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of the r e s u l t s . The f i r s t o f the two days served as a p r a c t i c e day i n which Ss l e a r n e d how t o l e a r n t h i s type of task and thus reduced the v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n groups on the second day. The d e s i g n of the experiment i s summarized i n t a b l e 2. The L e a r n i n g Task. The Ss l e a r n e d by the a n t i c i p a t i o n method. That i s , the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of a p a i r was p r e s e n t e d by i t s e l f f o r two seconds, then both the stimulus s y l l a b l e x and i t s a s s o c i a t e were shown t o g e t h e r f o r two seconds. T h i s c o n t i n u e d u n t i l a l l n i n e p a i r s had been exposed. On the second and subsequent t r i a l s the Ss, u p o n * p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s i n g l e s y l l a b l e a l one, t r i e d to a n t i c i p a t e i t s a s s o c i a t e b e f o r e the c o r r e c t p a i r was shown. A f t e r the s i n g l e s timulus s y l l a b l e had been shown and the S responded w i t h a guess as t o the c o r r e c t a s s o c i a t e , the c o r r e c t a s s o c i a t e was shown and the S c o r r e c t e d h i s guess, or repeated the p a i r i f he had guessed c o r r e c t l y . The i n t e r v a l between one exposure and the next was n e g l i g i b l e . The i n t e r v a l between t r i a l s was a l t e r n -21 a t e l y f o u r and s i x seconds (an unavoidable v a r i a t i o n due to the circu m f e r e n c e of the drum). L e a r n i n g , then, was by massed p r a c t i c e s i n c e o n l y a few seconds se p a r a t e d s u c c e s s i v e t r i a l s . The R e t e n t i o n Task. On the f i r s t t r i a l on which s i x or more s y l l a b l e s were c o r r e c t l y a n t i c i p a t e d the f o l l o w i n g o c c u r r e d : the Ss i n C group saw the s l i d e i n the apperature o f the apparatus move one space t o the l e f t and were then shown, a t i n t e r v a l s of f o u r seconds (the r a t e a t which they had been shown s i n g l e s y l l a b l e s d u r i n g l e a r n i n g ) , j u s t the f i r s t s y l l a b l e o f each p a i r . T h i s c ontinued without i n t e r -u p t i o n f o r n i n e t r i a l s ( s i x m i n u t e s ) . The apparatus d i d not stop between l e a r n i n g and r e c a l l t r i a l s - the t r a n s i t i o n from l e a r n i n g to r e c a l l t r i a l s was completely continuous. In the E group, on the oth e r hand, the Ss, upon r e a c h i n g the l e a r n i n g c r i t e r i o n , were t o l d by means of a r e d s i g n a l l i g h t t o cease the l e a r n i n g t a s k and b e g i n an i n t e r p o l a t e d a c t i v i t y . A f t e r two minutes of t h i s i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k the l i g h t went o f f ag a i n and the Ss r e t u r n e d to the memory apparatus a c t i v i t y and were g i v e n s i x s u c c e s s i v e r e c a l l t r i a l s ( f o u r minutes) i n the same manner as d e s c r i b e d f o r C group. The t r a n s i t i o n from l e a r n i n g to the i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k was made as simple as p o s s i b l e s i n c e the Ss had o n l y to t u r n l i f t i n the same c h a i r i n which they were s i t t i n g d u r i n g the memory t a s k . The memory apparatus was turned o f f d u r i n g the i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k . The i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k f o r the E group c o n s i s t e d o f naming c o l o r s ( f i g u r e 3 ) . E i g h t e e n p i e c e s o f paper 3/1+ x 2 w i t h d i f f e r e n t shades of c o l o r s such as are found i n p a i n t a d v e r t i z i n g brochures were p a s t e d i n two columns on a l i j . " x 8^-" p e i c e of paper and s t a p l e d i n s i d e a l a r g e f i l i n g f o l d e r . The Ss were a l s o g i v e n a sheet of paper w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s t o choose an a p p r o p r i a t e name f o r each c o l o r from a l i s t of 26 names at the r i g h t hand s i d e of the answer sheet and t o w r i t e t h e i r c h o i c e s i n the a p p r o p r i a t e l y numbered space on the l e f t hand s i d e of the sheet which corresponded to the numbers of the c o l o r s on the c o l o r sheet. The c o l o r naming t a s k was s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f i c u l t and long enough so t h a t no S was q u i t e a b l e t o complete the t a s k . This, a c t i v i t y e f f e c t -i v e l y prevents r e h e r s a l of the s y l l a b l e s and g i v e s l i t t l e r e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n . D i f f e r e n t c o l o r s were used on the p r a c t i c e day and on the e x p e r i m e n t a l day. Apparatus. The apparatus was an e l e c t r i c a l l y d r i v e n memory drum. S e v e r a l of the d e t a i l s of the d e s i g n were taken from MacPhee ( 3 2 ) , S c h l o s b e r g ( k 3 ) , and Winter ( 5 0 ) . The f r o n t of the apparatus c o n s i s t e d of a b l a c k metal s u r f a c e 22" x 3 8 " . The ap-erture through which the Ss viewed the s y l l a b l e s was 1 3/V' x 7/l6n. The Ss s a t at a comfortable d i s t a n c e i n f r o n t of the apparatus and were a b l e to see no more o f the apparatus, r e c o r d i n g m a t e r i a l , o r experiment, than the f r o n t s o f the apparatus (see f i g u r e s i+, 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , and 9 ) . I n s t r u c t i o n s to the S u b j e c t . A l l Ss were given the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s and the i n s t r u c t i o n s were re p e a t e d 23 on both the p r a c t i c e and experimental day: "T h i s i s an experiment i n l e a r n i n g nonsense s y l l a b l e s , and not a p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t . We are i n t e r e s t e d i n c e r t a i n complex r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the l e a r n i n g process common to a l l people, and are not s p e c i f i c a l l y concerned w i t h your p e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n s . > "When the l i g h t at your l e f t goes o f f the apparatus w i l l b e g i n . S h o r t l y a f t e r the apparatus s t a r t s you w i l l see a three l e t t e r s y l l a b l e i n the window. A f t e r a few seconds t h i s s y l l a b l e w i l l move down and two s y l l a b l e s w i l l appear. That i s , a s i n g l e s y l l a b l e w i l l always be f o l l o w e d by a p a i r of s y l l a b l e s . T h i s s i n g l e s y l l a b l e w i l l always be the same as the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of the p a i r which f o l l o w s i t . You are to l e a r n to a s s o c i a t e the two, so th a t when the f i r s t appears you can g i v e the second b e f o r e i t appears. You are to pronou-nce each of these s y l l a b l e s as you see i t . The b e g i n n i n g o f each s u c c e s s i v e t r i a l i s denoted by t h r e e t y p e w r i t t e n a s t e r i s k s . " F o l l o w i n g the f i r s t complete exposure of the e n t i r e s e r i e s of p a i r s you are t o b e g i n t o a n t i c i p a t e the second s y l l a b l e of the p a i r , i n other words, you are to pronounce the second s y l l a b l e o f the p a i r b e f o r e i t appears w h i l e the s i n g l e s y l l a b l e i s s t i l l exposed. Always pronounce the s i n g l e s y l l a b l e f i r s t ; then a n t i c i p a t e i t s p a i r ; and then, when the c o r r e c t p a i r i s shown pronounce both the s y l l a b l e s of the p a i r . " I f , when you are a n t i c i p a t i n g , you t h i n k you know what the s y l l a b l e I s , but are not sure, guess, because i t w i l l not h u r t your s c o r e any more than to say n o t h i n g and i f you get i t r i g h t i t w i l l count as a s u c c e s s . T r y always t o speak the s y l l a b l e s as d i s t i n c t l y as p o s s i b l e . "Please do not t r y to t h i n k ahead more than one step at a time; or t o count; or to make up f a n c i f u l connections between the s y l l a b l e s to a s s i s t the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s : simply l e a r n each s y l l a b l e w i t h i t s a s s o c i a t e . " A f t e r q u i t e a number of the t r i a l s which have j u s t been d e s c r i b e d , the s l i d e i n the a^apeEture w i l l move to the l e f t ' one space, and you w i l l be shown j u s t the s t i m u l u s , or f i r s t s y l l a b l e of the p a i r s which you have j u s t l e a r n e d . Y 0 u are then to r e c a l l the response which you have l e a r n e d by a n t i c -i p a t i o n t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h the f i r s t s y l l a b l e . Pronounce each of these s i n g l e s y l l a b l e s as you see thera and then r e c a l l and pronounce the s y l l a b l e which you have l e a r n e d t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h i t . " I f the l i g h t a t your l e f t goes oM a g a i n d u r i n g the experiment the apparatus w i l l stop and you are then to t u r n t o 2k the t a b l e at your l e f t . Open the f o l d e r which i s t h e r e and c a r r y out the i n s t r u c t i o n s which are on the sheet i n s i d e the f o l d e r . When t h i s l i g h t goes o f f again , cease t h i s t a s k and r e t u r n again t o the l e a r n i n g t a s k which was i n t e r u p t e d . "Do not ask qu e s t i o n s about the purpose of the experiment u n t i l the study i s over . Are t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s about the i n s t r u c t i o n s ? " I f the S was i n doubt about any p a r t of the procedure then the i n s t r u c t i o n s were repeat e d . The i n s t r u c t i o n s were r e c o r d e d . Recording o f the data. A l l responses of the Ss were recor d e d (sample r e c o r d sheets f i g u r e 1 0 ) . Responses were counted c o r r e c t on a phonet i c b a s i s , i . e . , "ZIR" = "ZER" = "ZUR" t h a t i s , a response was counted c o r r e c t d u r i n g r e c a l l i f i t was pronounced the same way as t h a t S had pronounced i t d u r i n g l e a r n i n g . 2$ The R e s u l t s and t h e i r S t a t i s t i c a l Treatment S e r i a l E f f e c t i n L e a r n i n g I t was p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r (p. 6, and f i g u r e 1) t h a t the d e d u c t i o n o f reminiscence by the d i f f e r e n t i a l f o r g e t t i n g t h e o r y f o l l o w s from the occurrence of a s e r i a l e f f e c t d u r i n g l e a r n i n g . That i s , the s y l l a b l e s a t the extremes of the s e r i a l l i s t are more e a s i l y l e a r n e d s i n c e t h e r e are fewer remote forward and backward a s s o c i a t i o n s a t t a c h e d to them, w h i l e the s y l l a b l e s at the c e n t e r of the l i s t are most d i f f i c u l t to l e a r n . That s e r i a l e f f e c t i s p r e s e n t i n these l e a r n i n g data i s evident by comparison of the number o f c o r r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s of s y l l a b l e s at the extremes of the l i s t p w i t h s y l l a b l e s at the c e n t e r of the l i s t . The c h i technique i s a p p l i c a b l e h e r e . There are n i n e p a i r s of s y l l a b l e s i n the l i s t . The extremes may be compared to the c e n t e r by comparing p a i r s 1, 2, 8, and 9, w i t h p a i r s a t the c e n t e r : 3 , Ij., 6, and 7. That more c o r r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s were made on p a i r e d -a s s o c i a t e s at the extremes o f the s e r i a l l i s t i s shown by a c h i 2 of 220.21 ( t a b l e 3 ) . Reminiscence Measures A t a b u l a r p r e s e n t a t i o n o f l a s t l e a r n i n g t r i a l scores and raw r e c a l l t r i a l scores i s g i v e n i n t a b l e i+. The g r o s s e s t measure of r e m i n i s c e n c e i s t h a t which may be deduced from computing the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e between the means o f r e c a l l t r i a l s E - l and C - l ( E - l r e f e r s to the f i r s t r e c a l l t r i a l i n the delayed r e c a l l group, and C - l r e f e r s t o the f i r s t r e c a l l t r i a l o f the immediate r e c a l l group as shown i n t a b l e Ij.). The " t " here, w i t h 30 d . f . , i s equal t o »lj2; which i s not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . There are, i n f a c t , approximately 65 chances i n 100 t h a t the observed d i f f e r e n c e i s due to chance. A much more s e n s i t i v e measure of reminiscence i s one based on the d i f f e r e n c e between percentages of Ss showing improvement i n r e c a l l performance. In t h i s case the l a s t l e a r n i n g t r i a l score i s taken as the value from which impro-vement, e q u a l i t y , or decrement of the r e c a l l score i s meas-ure d . The r a t i o n a l e of the method i s t h a t r e m i n i s c e n c e i s not a group a f f a i r but i s r a t h e r a phenomenon o f i n d i v i d u a l Ss. Some people may be " r e m i n i s c e r s o t h e r , n o t . The use o f group averages o f t e n tends to obscure the f a c t t h a t s e v e r a l people have shown some improvement, while a few have shown marked decrease i n r e t e n t i o n . In the p r e s e n t data two Ss i n each group showed a b s o l u t e i n c r e a s e i n r e c a l l s cores on the f i r s t r e c a l l t r i a l s as compared w i t h the l a s t l e a r n i n g t r i a l . There i s no d i f f e r e n c e , then, between percentage of Ss showing improvement i n r e c a l l performance. In the E group 10/16 Ss showed decrement on the f i r s t r e c a l l t r i a l ; i n the C group, l l / l 6 showed decrement on the f i r s t r e c a l l t r i a l . The d i f f e r e n c e i n percentage o f Ss showing decrement i n r e t e n t i o n on the f i r s t r e c a l l t r i a l i s o b v i o u s l y not s i g n i f i c a n t . A w t " t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e i n decrement y i e l d s a v a l u e of . i 4.ll, which,with 19 d . f . , i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . 2 7 R e t e n t i o n Curves Du r i n g R e c a l l The second h y p o t h e s i s to be t e s t e d (p. 1 7 ) i s t h a t , on comparable t r i a l s (determined by the time s i n c e r e a c h i n g the l e a r n i n g c r i t e r i o n ) t h e r e w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e i n r e c a l l t r i a l scores i n the C group and the E group. To t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s t r i a l s E - l to E - 6 are compared w i t h t r i a l s C-h to C-9. I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the h y p o t h e s i s as s t a t e d above would not be r e j e c t e d under s e v e r a l extremely d i f f e r e n t data c o n d i t i o n s . That I s , both E and C groups might show r e t e n t i o n curves which c o u l d t h e o r e t i c a l l y f a l l anywhere along the continuum of complete f o r g e t t i n g t o complete r e t e n t i o n . T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the next c h a p t e r . Here i t i s proposed t h a t the s t a t i s t i c a l method o f comparison w i l l show any d i f f e r e n c e i n c o m p a r a b i l i t y of the r e t e n t i o n curves f o r the two groups. F i g u r e 1 1 shows mean r e c a l l scores on s u c c e s s i v e r e t e n t i o n t r i a l s f o r b o t h E and C groups. The method of a n a l y s i s i s t h a t d e s c r i b e d by Edwards ( 9 , p. 2 8 8 ) f o r repeated measurements on s e v e r a l independent groups and i s s i m i l a r to the method d e s c r i b e d by L i n d q u i s t ( 3 D . > Since the method employs a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , i t i s d e s i r a b l e to b e g i n w i t h a demonstration of homogeneity of 2 v a r i a n c e . B a r t l e t t ' s c h i t e s t f o r homogeneity o f v a r i a n c e ( 9 , p. 1 9 6 ) was used. In order to apply the t e s t , the v a r i a n c e s on s i m i l a r t r i a l s between groups were combined. 28 In other words, the v a r i a n c e i n t r i a l C-ij. was combined w i t h the v a r i a n c e i n t r i a l E - l j C - 5 w i t h E-2; e t c . The r e s u l t a n t c h i 2 was 0.1932. T h i s i s not s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h 5 d . f . 2 S i n c e the ob t a i n e d v a l u e of c h i i s not s i g n i f i c a n t , the data o f f e r no evidence a g a i n s t the h y p o t h e s i s of random sampling from a p o p u l a t i o n or p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h a common v a r i a n c e . T h e r e f o r e , i f the F t e s t , as a p p l i e d below, r e s u l t s i n the r e j e c t i o n o f the h y p o t h e s i s o f random sampling from a common p o p u l a t i o n , we w i l l have every reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the value o f F i s the r e s u l t o f the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the means. The r e s u l t o f the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of the s i x comparable r e c a l l t r i a l s i s shown i n t a b l e 5 . As shown i n the t a b l e , the v a r i a t i o n between the method o f immediate r e c a l l and the method of delay e d r e c a l l was l e s s than the v a r i a t i o n between Ss i n the same group. With 1 and 3 0 d . f . t h i s r e s u l t s i n a r e j e c t i o n o f the hy p o t h e s i s o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between methods o f r e c a l l . So we may i n f e r t h a t the two methods are e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e , s i n c e the d i f f e r e n c e s between them can be accounted f o r i n terms o f random sampling from a common p o p u l a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , the F f o r t r i a l s i s g i v e n by . 6 0 8 / . 1 1 + 5 , and f o r 5 and £ d . f . t h i s i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e r e f o r e , the t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s v a r i a t i o n Is not g r e a t e r than can re a s o n a b l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o random sampling from a common p o p u l a t i o n and any d i f f e r e n c e between 29 t r i a l s i s no g r e a t e r than can re a s o n a b l y be a t t r i b u t e d to chance. S t e r e o t y p y o f R e c a l l Responses I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t the r e j e c t i o n o f the t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between t r i a l s i s due t o s t e r e o t y p y o f c o r r e c t r e c a l l responses due to o v e r l e a r n i n g of these p a r t i c u l a r p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s . That t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t t h i s i s the case i s shown by a comparison of the response sequences d u r i n g r e c a l l i n each group. A s t e r e o t y p e d response sequence i s d e f i n e d as s u c c e s s i v e c o r r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n of the same p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e on a l l o f the r e c a l l t r i a l s . W i t h the delayed r e c a l l group a t o t a l o f 6 5 s t e r e o -typed response.sequences o c c u r r e d . T h i s accounts f o r 6 5 x 6 , or 390 c o r r e c t responses out of the a b s o l u t e t o t a l of 5 3 1 c o r r e c t responses i n the E group. An average of s l i g h t l y more than s i x c o r r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s d u r i n g l e a r n i n g o f the same a s s o c i a t i o n s was ne c e s s a r y t o produce a s t e r e o t y p e d response sequence d u r i n g r e c a l l . W i t h the C group a t o t a l o f 60 s t e r e o t y p e d response sequences o c c u r r e d . T h i s accounts f o r 60 x 9> or 5^-0 responses out of the a b s o l u t e t o t a l of 7 5 0 c o r r e c t responses d u r i n g r e c a l l . A g ain, an average of s l i g h t l y more than s i x c o r r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s d u r i n g l e a r n i n g of the same assoc-i a t i o n s was necessary t o produce a s t e r e o t y p e d response sequence d u r i n g r e c a l l . Prom the above r e s u l t s i t may be i n f e r r e d t h a t those a s s o c i a t i o n s which were c o r r e c t l y l e a r n e d l e s s than s i x times might be more amenable t o reminiscence e f f e c t s . The p r e v i o u s examination of the data f o r reminiscence was i n terms of group averages and i n terms of increment and decrement of r e c a l l of i n d i v i d u a l Ss. The pr e s e n t p r o p o s a l makes reminiscence a phenomenon of i n d i v i d u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . F i g u r e 12 i s a scat t e r g r a m of the i n c r e a s e of one o r more c o r r e c t r e c a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s compared w i t h the same ass o c -i a t i o n d u r i n g l e a r n i n g when t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n has been l e a r n e d 5 or l e s s times. F i f t h - f o u r p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s i n the E group show an i n c r e a s e on r e c a l l t r i a l s of one or more c o r r e c t p a i r i n g s compared to the number of c o r r e c t p a i r i n g s d u r i n g l e a r n i n g . On the f i r s t s i x t r i a l s of r e c a l l the C group had 5>6 p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s which showed an i n c r e a s e over the number c o r r e c t d u r i n g l e a r n i n g . I t i s obvious t h a t no i n d i c a t i o n of reminiscence i s g i v e n w i t h t h i s s t a t i s t i c . However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note from the scat t e r g r a m t h a t seven Ss i n the E group made two or more c o r r e c t r e c a l l s o f responses which they had not " l e a r n e d , " whereas o n l y one S In the C group made more than two c o r r e c t r e c a l l responses t o a stimulus a s s o c i a t i o n which had not been " l e a r n e d . " The number of items which were never l e a r n e d but which were s u c c e s s f u l l y r e c a l l e d at some time d u r i n g r e c a l l i s an i n t e r e s t i n g s t a t i s t i c but one which i s d i f f i c u l t to e v a l u a t e . The t o t a l number of these c o r r e d t p a i r i n g s o f un l e a r n e d responses ( i n c l u d i n g r e p e t i t i o n s o f the same response on 31 d i f f e r e n t r e c a l l t r i a l s ) was 18 i n the C group and 32 i n the E group. It was mentioned previously that the reminiscence effect might be negated by a loss of "set" during the s h i f t from the learning task to the interpolated task and back again to the r e c a l l task. I f one t r i a l can be assumed to be s u f f i c i e n t time to regain l o s t "set," then the second r e c a l l t r i a l s i n each group (E-2 and C-2) might be taken as a measure of reminiscence. However, from figure 11 the difference between means of these two t r i a l s i s less than the difference between the means of the f i r s t t r i a l s . D i s c u s s i o n The r e s u l t s show c l e a r l y t h a t the E group e x h i b i t s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t s u p e r i o r i t y of r e t e n t i o n of the l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l . With s u c c e s s i v e l y f i n e r analyses o f the data i n terms of group i n d i c e s , i n d i v i d u a l i n d i c e s , and item i n d i c e s , no d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e t e n t i o n s t a t i s t i c s were found which c o u l d be c a l l e d "reminiscence e f f e c t s . " T h i s f i n d i n g i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n agreement w i t h r e m i n i s c -ence experiments u s i n g p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g . I t might have been suspected t h a t the undoubted demonstration of s e r i a l e f f e c t d u r i n g l e a r n i n g would be conducive to r e m i n i s c e n c e ; although t h i s was not the case. An a t t r a c t -i v e l y t e n a b l e p o s i t i o n here i s t h a t , i n e f f e c t , the s e r i a l l e a r n i n g phenomenon has not been demonstrated. Because the f i r s t and l a s t p a i r s o f a s e r i a l l i s t are l e a r n e d b e f o r e the c e n t e r p a i r s of a s e r i a l l i s t are l e a r n e d i s no r e a s on to deduce t h a t t h i s i s due to the i n t e r f e r i n g e f f e c t s of f i r s t and l a s t p a i r s . That the f i r s t and l a s t p a i r s of the s e r i a l l i s t a r e , i n f a c t , l e a r n e d f i r s t may w e l l be r e l a t e d to r e h e r s a l by the s u b j e c t d u r i n g the v e r y s h o r t time d u r i n g i n t e r t r i a l i n t e r v a l . Between t r i a l s the Ss have a few seconds i n which they may p r a c t i c e the t e m p o r a l l y r e c e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s and i n which they may a l s o d i r e c t t h e i r t h i n k i n g towards the n ext-to-be-presented f i r s t p a i r s o f the l i s t . A lthough there i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t measure of r e m i n i s c e n c e , i t may be observed from f i g u r e 11 t h a t , on 33 a group b a s i s , t h e r e i s b e t t e r r e t e n t i o n on t r i a l E - l then on t r i a l C - l . With a l a r g e r number of Ss a s t a t i s t -i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e might have been found. A more i n t e r e s t i n g p r a c t i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n from f i g u r e 11 i s one co n c e r n i n g r e t e n t i o n t r i a l s subsequent t o the f i r s t r e c a l l (reminiscence) t r i a l . I t was noted p r e v i o u s l y (p. 27) t h a t the r e t e n t i o n h y p o t h e s i s under t e s t was s t a t e d ambiguously. That i s , the h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e s an e q u a l i t y among t e m p o r a l l y comparable r e t e n t i o n t r i a l s but does not s t a t e the d i r e c t i o n o f t h i s e q u a l i t y . E i t h e r complete f o r g e t t i n g or complete r e t e n t i o n or any s l o p e o f the curve between these two extremes would r e s u l t i n n o n - r e j e c t i o n o f the h y p o t h e s i s of no d i f f e r e n c e as long as the same r e t e n t i o n curve o c c u r r e d i n both r e c a l l groups. That t h i s i s a l e g i t i m a t e h y p o t h e s i s and one which f o l l o w s from the d i f f e r e n t i a l f o r g e t t i n g t h e o r y may be seen i f we reason t h u s l y : i t i s noted t h a t the t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i s between t e m p o r a l l y comparable r e t e n t i o n t r i a l s ( i . e . , t r i a l s E - l t o E-6 compared w i t h t r i a l s C-I}. t o C-9). I f i t can be shown t h a t the f i r s t three t r i a l s o f the C group (the t r i a l s comparable t o the i n t e r p o l a t e d a c t i v i t y o f the E group) had no e f f e c t on l a t e r r e c a l l t r i a l s i n the C group then t h e r e would be no reason t o expect a d i f f e r e n c e between groups. S i n c e Ss are shown o n l y the sti m u l u s s y l l a b l e on these f i r s t t h ree t r i a l s , as on other r e c a l l t r i a l s , and are g i v e n no d i r e c t v e r i f i c a t i o n o f the c o r r e c t n e s s o f their;; response, t h e r e should t h e o r e t i c a l l y be no reason t o expect t h a t I n t e r f e r i n g responses (remote a n t i c i p a t o r y responses) would not be "dropping out" at the same r a t e as those d u r i n g the i n t e r p o l a t e d a c t i v i t y o f the delayed r e c a l l group. The o n l y v a r i a b l e s which are "anchored" d u r i n g these f i r s t t h r e e r e c a l l t r i a l s i n the immediate group are the sti m u l u s s y l l -a b l e s : the response s y l l a b l e s - most p a r t i c u l a r l y the low-l e v e l - o f - l e a r n i n g response s y l l a b l e s and the i n c o r r e c t l y l e a r n e d responses - are g i v e n no experimental m a n i p u l a t i o n , and, as i t were, are allowed to-arrange themselves as they w i l l i n the S's o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . W i t h t h i s i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n the n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t e m p o r a l l y comparable r e t e n t i o n t r i a l s i s e n t i r e l y i n agreement w i t h the p r e d i c t i o n s of the d i f f e r e n t i a l f o r g e t t i n g t h e o r y . A d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n i s t h a t c o n c e r n i n g the curve o f s u c c e s s i v e r e t e n t i o n t r i a l s ( f i g u r e 11). I t sh o u l d be made c l e a r t h a t the h y p o t h e s i s makes no p r e d i c t i o n c o n c erning t h i s . However, from an examination o f f i g u r e 11, and from the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n t a b l e 5> the d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e t e n t i o n values between t r i a l s i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . In f a c t , the scores from t r i a l t o t r i a l are remarkably c o n s i s t e n t . The d i f f e r e n t i a l f o r g e t t i n g t h e o r y would p r e d i c t some f a l l i n g o f f o f the r e t e n t i o n curves on l a t e r r e c a l l t r i a l s (p. 8). In f a i r n e s s to the H u l l i a n viewpoint i t may be argued t h a t the pr e s e n t experiment does not continue r e c a l l t r i a l s f o r a s u f f i c i e n t l e n g t h of time t o make an adequate t e s t o f the t h e o r y . That i s , the deduced r e t e n t i o n v a l u e s (p. 8) at a time i n t e r v a l of two t o 3 5 s i x are onl y s l i g h t l y l e s s than the values at the l e a r n i n g c r i t e r i o n . The c o n s i s t e n c y o f response from t r i a l to t r i a l may be due t o the h i g h percentage of s t e r e o t y p e d response sequences d u r i n g r e c a l l produced by o v e r l e a r n i n g o f the same s y l l a b l e p a i r d u r i n g l e a r n i n g . The c o r r e c t appearance d u r i n g r e c a l l of a s s o c i a t i o n s which were never c o r r e c t l y l e a r n e d i s an i n t e r e s t i n g phenom-enon, althought one f o r which no s t a t i s t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n i s g i v e n . An e m p i r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the appearance o f these c o r r e c t responses may be found i n the nature of the l a s t l e a r n i n g t r i a l . For example, the s u b j e c t may make an i n c o r r -e c t a n t i c i p a t i o n d u r i n g the l a s t l e a r n i n g t r i a l ; he i s then shown the c o r r e c t p a i r . On t h i s l a s t p r e s e n t a t i o n he may l e a r n the c o r r e c t response. Whether or not he has l e a r n e d t h i s would not be shown u n t i l the f i r s t r e c a l l t r i a l . A t the t e r m i n a t i o n of l e a r n i n g , then, the s u b j e c t may a c t u a l l y have l e a r n e d more c o r r e c t p a i r s than he has responded. T h i s would account f o r the seeming appearance d u r i n g r e c a l l o f p r e v i o u s l y i n c o r r e c t responses. There i s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t " s e t " may be l o s t d u r i n g the i n t e r p o l a t e d a c t i v i t y which would negate the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s o f the reminiscence phenomenon. The f i n d i n g by I r i o n (26, 27) t h a t "warm-up" on r e l a t e d tasks has a bene-f i c i a l e f f e c t on l a t e r performance has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the present m a t e r i a l . I f i t i s the case t h a t the f i r s t r e c a l l t r i a l of the E group s u f f e r s as a r e s u l t of l o s s of " s e t , " 36 i t might be h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a more v a l i d t e s t o f remin-i s c e n c e would be a comparison of t r i a l E-2 w i t h t r i a l C-2. That no reminiscence was found by t h i s measure, may, or may not, be taken as an i n d i c a t i o n of no l o s s of " s e t . " Hovland's experiments (11+, 1$) have taken the number of t r i a l s f o l l o w i n g r e c a l l t o proceed to mastery as a measure of r e m i n i s c e n c e . In t h i s case the delayed r e c a l l group would be expected to r e q u i r e fewer t r i a l s t o proceed to mastery s i n c e i n c o r r e c t responses have dropped out d u r i n g the i n t e r p o l a t e d a c t i v i t y . I t can be m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h i s measure i s confused w i t h d i s t r i b u t e d l e a r n i n g e f f e c t s . S e v e r a l comments are a p p r o p r i a t e c o n c e r n i n g the d e s i g n of the p r e s e n t experiment: F i r s t , the nonsense s y l l a b l e s employed were of approx-i m a t e l y e q u i v a l e n t a s s o c i a t i o n v a l u e . These a s s o c i a t i o n v a l u e s were, however, determined f o r s i n g l e s y l l a b l e s - not f o r p a i r s of s y l l a b l e s . P a i r s of s y l l a b l e s may have e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t a s s o c i a t i o n v a l u e s . Secondly, i t was noted p r e v i o u s l y (p. llj.) t h a t Underwood found s i m i l a r i t y of s y l l a b l e s a n o n - c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n l e a r n i n g . I t may t h e r e f o r e be presumed t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s between l i s t s w i t h r e g a r d to s i m i l a r i t y and r e s u l t a n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s i s of no consequence. T h i r d l y , a v a l i d c r i t i c i s m of the p r e s e n t experiment i s t h a t the Ss were not s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l p r a c t i c e d i n p a i r e d -a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g . Hovland's (12+) Ss had s i x p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s : Ss i n the p r e s e n t experiment had one p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n . 37 I t may be t h a t Ss i n the p r e s e n t experiment were s t i l l " l e a r n i n g - h o w - t o - l e a r n " on the experimental day. What e f f e c t would t h i s have on the appearance of reminiscence? There may be g r e a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r a t e of "3e arning-how-to-learn" which would account f o r the h e t e r -o g e n e i t y of the number of l e a r n i n g t r i a l s t o the c r i t e r i o n and f o r the amount of l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l which was r e t a i n e d . I f t h i s f a c t o r were more h i g h l y c o n t r o l l e d , as i n the Hovland experiments, the d i f f e r e n c e i n r e s u l t s due t o d i f f e r e n c e i n r e c a l l methods might be more e a s i l y i s o l a t e d . F o u r t h l y , a presumably " c o n t r o l l e d" v a r i a b l e i n the p r e s e n t experiment i s the l e a r n i n g c r i t e r i o n of s i x out of n i n e s y l l a b l e s . The s e l e c t i o n of t h i s c r i t e r i o n i s t r a d -i t i o n a l ; which, o f course, i s no v a l i d reason to p e r p e t u a t e i t . W i t h h i g h e r degrees o f l e a r n i n g b e f o r e r e c a l l t h e r e i s l e s s chance of improvement on r e c a l l t r i a l s . With a lower degree of l e a r n i n g , and more i n c o r r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e r e may be more p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e m i n i s c e n c e e f f e c t s . F i f t h l y , i t i s assumed t h a t m o t i v a t i o n i s constant from l e a r n i n g t o r e c a l l . T h i s may not be the case. D u r i n g l e a r n -i n g the Ss know t h a t , a f t e r they have made an a n t i c i p a t i o n , they w i l l be shown the c o r r e c t response. I t a l s o appears t o the Ss t h a t t h e r e i s no l i m i t to the number o f t r i a l s which they may have to l e a r n the t a s k . A d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s d u r i n g r e c a l l . The Ss are g i v e n o n l y the s t i m u l u s s y l l a b l e s and must make an a c t i v e attempt t o r e c a l l what they have l e a r n e d . I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t m o t i v a t i o n i s i n c r e a s e d 38 d u r i n g the r e c a l l t r i a l s . The pre s e n t experiment p r o v i d e s no c o n t r o l f o r t h i s ; nor i s i n c r e a s e d m o t i v a t i o n d u r i n g r e c a l l suspected s i n c e t h e r e was a g e n e r a l but c o n s i s t e n t decrement i n r e c a l l performance as compared w i t h l a s t l e a r n i n g t r i a l performance. 39 C o n c l u s i o n s I t i s concluded t h a t the use of p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e nonsense s y l l a b l e s i s an Inadequate procedure i n exper-iments designed to demonstrate the e m p i r i c a l phenomenon of reminiscence i n human s e r i a l r o t e l e a r n i n g . Furthermore, two c o n c l u s i o n s may be made con c e r n i n g the use of s u c c e s s i v e r e t e n t i o n t r i a l s as a t e s t o f the H u l l i a n d i f f e r e n t i a l f o r g e t t i n g t h e o r y . F i r s t l y , H u l l ' s p r e d i c t i o n of re m i n i s c e n c e i s based on s e r i a l l i s t s o f s i n g l e nonsense s y l l a b l e s as i n the r e f e r e n c e study by Ward (1+8), The H u l l i a n theory extended t o p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s y l l -a b l e s , as i n the experiments by Hovland and the p r e s e n t experiment, i s a r a t h e r gross and p r o b a b l y unwarranted e x t r a -p o l a t i o n . The e x t r a p o l a t i o n i s not one which can be phrased In mathematical or l o g i c a l l y r i g o r o u s form i n a s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n to p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s . Secondly, the pr e s e n t experiment employs s u c c e s s i v e r e t e n t i o n t r i a l s i n an e f f o r t t o p r o v i d e data c o n s i s t e n t w i t h H u l l ' s p r e d i c t i o n o f the r e t e n t i o n curve over a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r v a l o f time f o l l o w i n g l e a r n i n g . The experiment p r o b a b l y does not con t i n u e r e t e n t i o n t r i a l s over a s u f f i c i e n t p e r i o d of time to permit demonst-r a t i o n o f a n o t i c a b l e d e c l i n e i n r e t e n t i o n as p r e d i c t e d by the th e o r y . A c o r o l l a r y i s proposed t o the g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s a l r e a d y s t a t e d . The tone of the comments t o t h i s p o i n t has i m p l i e d t h a t the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n r e s u l t s i n attempts to v e r i f y t h e o r e t i c a l p r e d i c t i o n s have r e s u l t e d from i n a b i l i t y l+o t o gather the a p p r o p r i a t e k i n d of da t a . That i s , i t may be argued t h a t the the o r y p r e d i c t i o n s are not v e r i f i e d by the data simply because the theory makes no p r e d i c t i o n s about the k i n d o f data t h a t atee b e i n g colJe c t e d . The problem, then, has appeared to be a problem of da t a . The suggested c o r o l l a r y i s t h a t the prese n t problem i s one o f t h e o r y c o n s t r u c t i o n r a t h e r than data c o l l e c t i o n . Thus, those experimenters who have attempted t o demonstrate r e m i n i s c e n c e w i t h p a i r e d -a s s o c i a t e s and who f a l l i n l i n e w i t h the H u l l i a n t h e o r y , have, of course, assumed t h a t the H u l l i a n t h e o r y i s adequate to p r e d i c t the occurrence or non-occurrence o f re m i n i s c e n c e w i t h p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s . The f i n d i n g s o f the pr e s e n t experiment are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i n d i n g s o f a l l other p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e experiments i n t h a t r e m i n i s c e n c e was not found. S i m i l a r l y , , the theory has not g i v e n r e l i a b l e p r e d i c t i o n s about r e m i n i s -cence when s e r i a l l i s t s o f s i n g l e nonsense s y l l a b l e s have been used; s i n c e approximately o n e - h a l f o f the experiments designed t o demonstrate reminiscence w i t h s e r i a l l i s t s o f s i n g l e nonsense s y l l a b l e s have f a i l e d t o demonstrate the phenomenon. There i s no doubt t h a t p a r t o f the inadequacy of the H u l l i a n t h e o r y i s due to i t s u n i n t e n t i o n a l dependence on terminology and t h e o r y c o n s t r u c t s which, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , have been i n h e r i t e d from outmoded and u n s c i e n t i f i c mental-i s t i c p s y c h o l o g i e s . Thus, the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t s such as " i n t e r f e r e n c e s " which "drop-out" over the passage o f time, and " i n h i b i t i o n s " which prevent the occurrence of oth e r responses, o n l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o c o n f u s i o n i n t h e o r i z i n g r a t h e r kl than t o c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f the observable r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t may be t h a t c o n s i s t e n t and reproducable r e s u l t s i n r e m i n i s -cence experiments, as i n many o t h e r types o f l e a r n i n g experiments, w i l l not be o b t a i n e d u n t i l a t h e o r e t i c a l model i s developed which makes no c a u s a l assumptions about s t i m u l u s response r e l a t i o n s h i p s , which does not r e g a r d s t i m u l i and responses as d i s c r e t e , i r r e d u c i b l e e n t i t i e s , and which does not attempt t o p r e d i c t s i n g l e response occurrences w i t h a dichotomous ' e i t h e r - o r ' p r o b a b i l i t y . A more adequate theory of r e m i n i s c e n c e , and ot h e r l e a r n i n g phenomena, may proceed from q u a n t i f i a b l e , manipulable, and rep r o d u c a b l e d a t a which etee dependably and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e c u r r e n t over a passage of time and which can be p r e d i c t e d w i t h a n a l y t i c -a l l y d e r i v e d s t a t i s t i c a l p r o b a b i l i t i e s . k2 Summary The purpose o f the present experiment i s t o attempt t o o b t a i n r e m i niscence w i t h p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e nonsense s y l l a b l e s , and t o determine a f o r g e t t i n g curve based on a continuous measure of r e t e n t i o n i n the human v e r b a l s e r i a l r o t e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . The experiment i s designed t o g i v e an e m p i r i c a l demonstration of reminiscence phenomena as p r e d i c t e d by the r o t e l e a r n i n g theory system of C. L. H u l l , and the experimental work of C. I. Hovland. The proposed hypotheses a r e : (1) t h a t r e m i n i s c e n c e w i l l occur, as determined from a comparison between s i n g l e t r i a l r e c a l l scores of immediate and d e l a y e d r e c a l l group a f t e r r e a c h i n g a c r i t e r i o n on an i n t e r u p t e d l e a r n i n g t a s k , and ( 2 ) , t h a t , on comparable t r i a l s (determined by the time s i n c e r e a c h i n g the l e a r n i n g c r i t e r i o n ) t h e r e w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e i n r e c a l l t r i a l s c ores i n the immediate r e c a l l group and the dela y e d r e c a l l group. In the prese n t experiment 32 Ss are used: 16 In an Immed-i a t e r e c a l l group and lh i n a delayed r e c a l l group. The immediate r e c a l l group Is s u b j e c t e d t o n i n e r e c a l l t r i a l s ; the d e l a y e d r e c a l l group Is s u b j e c t e d t o s i x r e c a l l t r i a l s subsequent t o two minutes o f c o l o r naming. The st i m u l u s mater-i a l s are p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e nonsense s y l l a b l e s p r e s e n t e d In a s e r i a l o r d e r ; the a n t i c i p a t i o n method o f l e a r n i n g i s used; the c r i t e r i o n o f l e a r n i n g i s 6/9 c o r r e c t a n t i c i p a t i o n s ; and, the time between r e a c h i n g the l e a r n i n g c r i t e r i o n and the l a s t r e c a l l t r i a l i s s i x minutes. Prom the r e s u l t s , a s e r i a l e f f e c t i s demonstrated d u r i n g 1+3 l e a r n i n g and I t i s expected t h a t t h i s w i l l enhance the poss-i b i l i t y o f r e m i n i s c e n c e . W i t h analyses o f the data i n terras of group i n d i c e s , i n d i v i d u a l i n d i c e s , and item i n d i c e s , no d i f f e r e n c e between r e t e n t i o n measures i s found which c o u l d be c a l l e d r e m i n i s c e n c e . S u c c e s s i v e t r i a l r e t e n t i o n measures are compared between the two r e c a l l groups by the use of an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e technique f o r s u c c e s s i v e measures on non-independent t r i a l s . The H u l l i a n theory p r e d i c t s a g e n e r a l decrement In r e t e n t i o n performance on s u c c e s s i v e t r i a l s f o l l o w i n g any re m i n i s c e n c e e f f e c t . The r e s u l t s show t h a t o v e r l e a r n i n g o f some responses r e s u l t s i n a s t e r e o t y p y of r e t e n t i o n responses which obscures r e d u c t i o n i n s t r e n g t h of the l e s s w e l l l e a r n e d responses and r e s u l t s i n no s i g n i f i c a n t d e c l i n e i n r e t e n t i o n on s u c c e s s i v e t r i a l s . In c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the H u l l i a n t h e o r y and a l t e r n a t i v e c o n t i g u i t y t h e o r i e s , s e v e r a l ad hoc comments are made concern-i n g the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s . F i v e s p e c i f i c comments are made con c e r n i n g inadequacies o f the d e s i g n o f the experim-ent. I t i s concluded t h a t the use of p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e nonsense s y l l a b l e s i s , a t p r e s e n t , an inadequate procedure i n experim-ents designed t o demonstrate the e m p i r i c a l phenomenon o f remi n i s c e n c e i n human s e r i a l r o t e l e a r n i n g . The s u g g e s t i o n i s made t h a t the prese n t hypotheses are an unwarranted e x t r a -p o l a t i o n from H u l l i a n t h e o r y and a c o r o l l a r y i s appended t h a t H u l l i a n t h e o r y may be inadequate t o d e a l w i t h these l e a r n i n g d a t a . Table 1 R i l e y ' s (lfl) E x p e r i m e n t a l Design Experiment P r e l e a r n i n g t a s k Experimental t a s k I n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k Reminiscence t a s k 1 Ss l e a r n wrong Ss l e a r n c o r r e c t E x p e r i m e n t a l g r : L e a r n i n g t o responses f o r responses t o the two minute r e s t . mastery. f o u r t r i a l s . same s t i m u l i f o r s i x t r i a l s . C o n t r o l g r : no r e s t . 2 Ss l e a r n c o r r e c t E x p e rimental g r : L e a r n i n g to responses f o r two minutes r e s t . mastery s i x t r i a l s . C o n t r o l g r : no r e s t . 3 Ss l e a r n c o r r e c t Ss l e a r n i n c o r r - E x p e r i m e n t a l g r : L e a r n i n g t o responses f o r ect responses t o two minute r e s t . mastery. f o u r t r i a l s . the same s t i m u l i f o r s i x t r i a l s . C o n t r o l g r : no r e s t . 1+5 Table 2 Ex p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n Task C o n t r o l Group E x p e r i m e n t a l Group 1, L e a r n i n g t o c r i t e r i o n Yes Yes of 6/9 c o r r e c t a n t i c -i p a t i o n s . 2, I n t e r p o l a t e d a c t i v i t y No Yes ( c o l o r naming) 3» Number of r e c a l l t r i a l s : Nine S i x The same d e s i g n was employed on the p r a c t i c e day and on the experimental day. Table 3 C h i f o r S e r i a l E f f e c t d u r i n g L e a r n i n g P a i r Number of times c o r r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d T o t a l C o n t r o l Group E x p e r i m e n t a l Group T I V P 0 B 1 5 8 1 3 8 2 9 6 L E B N U K 8 2 7 8 1 6 0 M 0 J Z I R 6 7 6 5 1 3 2 Y E D F u P 9 11+ 2 3 B 0 P V A H (omit) (omit) J A T G 0 X 28 3 9 6 7 Z TJ D K I F 6 1 3 1 9 G I C M E J 2 7 3 3 6 0 D A X R U V 7 5 10k 1 7 9 T o t a l : 9 3 6 Mean: 1 1 7 if7 Table 1+ L a s t L e a r n i n g T r i a l and R e c a l l T r i a l s Raw Scores S u b j e c t T r i a l E x p e r i mental L a s t E - l E - 2 E - 3 E-1+ E-5 E - 6 ' Group L e a r n i n g • T r i a l 1 6 if if if if 5 if 2 7 6 6 6 6 5 6 3 7 3 5 if 3 i+ 5 If 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 5 5 5 5 6 6 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 5 8 6 if if 5 5 k 5 9 6 if 5 5 5 5 5 10 6 3 5 if if 5 5 11 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 6 6 5 6 6 6 6 13 6 6 6 7 6 7 7 34 6 7 7 6 6 6 2 15 6 5 if 3 3 3 6 16 6 6 8 7 7 7 7 C o n t r o l Group C - l C - 2 C - 3 C-If C-5 C - 6 C - 7 C-8 C - 9 1 2 3 * 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 •7 6 6 7 8 6 6 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 I 6 9 2 if 3 6 7 6 7 5 5 2 if 8 5 7 8 8 2 if 7 5 7 5 6 5 5 3 if 7 if 6 7 6 2 5 3 3 7 if 6 5 if it 7 5 5 7 6 2 if if 3 7 5 6 5 I if 7 if 6 5 7 2 6 it 7 5 6 5 5 6 if 7 if 6 7 7 2 5 if 3 7 5 5 5 5 6 6 7 5 6 8 8 2 5 if 3 7 5 6 5 3 6 5 7 I 8 7 2 5 if 3 7 6 6 5 5 6 5 7 3 6 8 7 2 5 if 2 7 5 6 5 if 6 5 1+8 T a b l e 5 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e of Performance Scores of Two Groups of S u b j e c t s T e s t e d under D i f f e r e n t C o n d i t i o n s , w i t h S i x T r i a l s f o r each Group Source of v a r i a t i o n Sum of Squares d . f . Mean Square P Between methods: E,C« I+.O83 1 1+.083 Between s u b j e c t s i n the same group: 31+ 3 . 0 6 2 3 0 11.1+35 T o t a l between s u b j e c t s : 31+7.11+5 3 1 Between t r i a l s : E - l t o E - 6 ; and, C-1+ t o C - 9 : 3.01+1 5 . 6 0 8 1 . 2 5 6 * I n t e r a c t i o n : T r i a l s x methods . 7 2 9 5 . ii+5 I n t e r a c t i o n : Pooled s u b j e c t s x t r i a l s : 7 2 . 5 6 1 + 1 5 0 .1+81+ T o t a l w i t h i n s u b j e c t s : 7 6 . 3 3 1 + 1 6 0 T o t a l : 1+23.1+79 1 9 1 "Not s i g n i f i c a n t a t the . 0 1 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . F i g u r e 1 H u l l ' s Theory of I n t e r f e r e n c e i n S e r i a l L e a r n i n g 0 5 8 9 8 5 0 KEM FAP ZIT YEV JUD KEX POF "An e x p l a n a t i o n i n terms of i n h i b i t i o n of d e l a y f o r the d i f f i c u l t y i n memorization at the middle of a s e r i e s o f nonsense s y l l a b l e s . "The f i g u r e , which i s taken from H u l l ( 2 3 ) , shows remote a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the forward d i r e c t i o n by curved l i n e s . Backward a s s o c i a t i o n s are n e g l e c t e d f o r purposes of s i m p l i c i t y . The amount by which an i n t e r v e n i n g item i s i n t e r f e r e d w i t h ( ' i n h i b i t e d ' ) may be determined by c o u n t i n g the number of l i n e s spanning each item. The numbers are presented above the s y l l a b l e s . I t i s evident t h a t the ends of the l i s t w i l l be f a v o r e d i n memorization, w h i l e items toward the middle w i l l be p r o g r e s s i v e l y more d i f f i c u l t t o 3e a r n . ( 1 0 . ) F i g u r e 2 H u l l ' s P r e d i c t i o n of Reminiscence "Diagram showing the t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f Ward's (i+8) reminiscence phenomenon t o the d i f f e r e n t i a l r a t e o f decay o f e x c i t a t o r y and i n h i b i t o r y p o t e n t i a l s at a g i v e n p o i n t of f i n a l c o n d i t i o n i n g . ...the e f f e c t i v e e x c i t a t o r y p o t e n t i a l i s simply the e x c i t a t o r y p o t e n t i a l l e s s the i n h i b i t o r y p o t e n t i a l , i . e . , E - E - I . The area r e p r e s e n t i n g the reminiscence e f f e c t i s hatched." (from H u l l , et a l (2lj.)). 51 Figure 3. I n t e r p o l a t e d task a c t i v i t y F i g u r e !+. S u b j e c t ' s view of apperature of the memory apparatus. F i g u r e 5« S u b j e c t seated and ready f o r the l e a r n i n g t a s k . The l i g h t to the l e f t s i g n a l s the s t a r t and end of the l e a r n i n g t a s k and the i n t e r p o l a t e d t a s k i n the E group. Figure 6. Timing mechanism for the revolving drum. Figure 9 . Recording of Ss responses. F i g u r e 1 0 Sample Record Sheet S u b j e c t # 28 Day: experimental L e a r n i n g Data Sheet # 1 (immediate r e c a l l ) (delayed r e c a l l ) T R I A L 1 2 3 k 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 11+ 15 16 17 18 TIV POB POV + + + + + + + + + + + + + + LEB NUK NIR ZIR ZIR + ZAH MIR MIR MIR + MEJ ZIR MOJ ZIR + + + + + + + + + + + + + YED FUP NUK GIC VAH MIR NUK NUK NUK GOC BOF VAH ZAH ZAH ZAH ZAH ZAH ZAH + + JAT GOX NIX NUK + ZUD KIF MEJ RUV PAF MEJ GIC MEJ RUV + RUV + + + + + + + DAX RUV + POV + + + PAV PAV PAF PAF + + c o r r e c t a m t i c i p : 1 2 1 2 2 I I 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 6 T o t a l c o r r e c t : I4.7 Number of t r i a l s t o c r i t e r i o n : 16 Remote a n t i c i p a t i o n s : 1 5 CO LU rr o o CO < o LU rr C L O rr o z < LU 6.5 0 6.25 6.00 5.75 5.5 0 5.25 5.00 4 .75 F i g u r e 11, S u c c e s s i v e mean group r e c a l l scores f o r Ss i n the exper-im e n t a l group ( t r i a l s E - l t o E-6, f o l l o w i n g i n t e r p o l a t e d a c t i v i t y ) , and f o r Ss i n the c o n t r o l group ( t r i a l s C-1 t o C-9, w i t h no i n t e r p o l a t e d a c t i v i t y ) . \ N.B. L.L.T. = L a s t L e a r n i n g T r i a l . E X P E R I M E N T A L G R O U P R E C A L L T R I A L S L.L.T. 2 3 C O N T R O L 4 5 6 G R O U P R E C A L L 7 8 T R I A L S C* CD H J° ft CD p. o 16 is! O o Pi o fS o H» 4 3 CO <K) O ct H H c t CD «<J H« P 3 4 P CD 3 w ta co O »o O P ct CD P-Number o f times p a i r c o r r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d d u r i n g r e c a l l . o VA Vo ro ro VO VA vo i ro H H J=-0 s 0 s t-* I I 4=* ro H i vn. I vO Vo H VA ro ro i vn ro i ro ro -o vjo \jj ro H 4T-H ro VA Vo ro ro vo vn. o •xl P H* CD P. P CO CO o o H» P O ct O CD 4 CO CD O « O Ct 4 4 > CD CQ O CO Ct O H O *<| *J H» P W ct CD H« O O P 3 (—1 CD ca H CD H pi ro 4 3 H» O C3 CD t"* ^ CD *1 H P CD 3 4 iO 0 £ CD H* CD P. H* era ct P M ct «4 CD O Q O s o •o P p tJ *1 CD P. ct O 58 References 1 . Ammons, R. B. A c q u i s i t i o n of motor s k i l l : I . Q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s and t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n . P s y c h o l . Rev., 191+7, 51+, 263-281. 2 . B a l l a r d , P. B. O b l i v i s c e n c e and r e m i n i s c e n c e . B r i t . J . Ps y c h o l . , Monogr. Supp., 1913, I (2), Pp. i v + 82. 3. Bunch, M.E., & Magsdick, W. K. The r e t e n t i o n i n r a t s of an i n c o m p l e t e l y l e a r n e d maze s o l u t i o n f o r s h o r t i n t e r v a l s o f time. J . comp. P s y c h o l . , 1933, 16, 385. 1+. Buxton, C. E. The s t a t u s of r e s e a r c h i n r e m i n i s c e n c e . P s y c h o l . B u l l . , 191+3, 1+0, 313-31+0. 5. Buxton, C E . R e p e t i t i o n o f two b a s i c experiments on remin i s c e n c e i n s e r i a l v e r b a l l e a r n i n g . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 191+9, 39, 676-682. 6. Buxton, C. E., & Bakan, M i l d r e d B. C o r r e c t i o n v s . non-c o r r e c t i o n techniques as r e l a t e d t o rem i n i s c e n c e i n s e r i a l a n t i c i p a t i o n l e a r n i n g . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 191+9, 39, 338-31+1. 7. Buxton, C. E., & Ross, Hugh V. R e l a t i o n s h i p between reminiscence and type of l e a r n i n g t e c h n i q i e i n s e r i a l a n t i c i p a t i o n l e a r n i n g . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 191+9, 39, 1+1-1+6. 8. Ebbinghaus, H. Uber das Geda c h t n i s. L e i p z i g : Dunker and Humbolt. 1585, PP. i x + 169. 9. Edwards, A. L. E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n i n P s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . N.Y., R i n e h a r t , 1950. pp. J+2+6T 10. H i l g a r d , E. R., & Marquis, D. G. C o n d i t i o n i n g and l e a r n i n g . N.Y. Apple ton-Century, 191+0, pp. i+29. 1 1 . Hovland, C I . Ex p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s i n r o t e l e a r n i n g theory. I . Reminiscence f o l l o w i n g l e a r n i n g by massed and d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1938, 22, 201-22!+. 1 2 . Hovland, C. I . E x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s i n r o t e l e a r n i n g t h e o r y . I I . Reminiscence w i t h v a r y i n g speeds o f s y l l a b l e p r e s e n t a t i o n . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1938, 22, 338-353. 1 3 . Hovland, C.I. E x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s i n r o t e l e a r n i n g t h e o r y . I I I . D i s t r i b u t i o n of p r a c t i c e w i t h v a r y i n g speeds o f s y l l a b l e p r e s e n t a t i o n . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1938, 2 3 , 172-190. 5 9 ll+. Hovland, C. I. E x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s i n r o t e l e a r n i n g t h e o r y . IV. Comparison of r e m i n i s c e n c e i n s e r i a l and p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1 9 3 9 , 21+, 1446-1+81+. 1 5 . Hovland, C. I. E x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s i n r o t e l e a r n i n g t h e o r y . V. Comparison o f d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r a c t i c e i n s e r i a l and p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1 9 3 9 , 2 5 , 622-633. 16. Hovland, C. I . E x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s i n r o t e l e a r n i n g t h e o r y . VI. Comparison o f r e t e n t i o n f o l l o w i n g l e a r n i n g to same c r i t e r i o n by massed and d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e . J. exp. P s y c h o l . , 191+0, 26, 5 6 8 - 5 8 7 . 17. Hovland, C. I. E x p erimental s t u d i e s i n r o t e l e a r n i n g t h e o r y . V I I . D i s t r i b u t i o n of p r a c t i c e w i t h v a r y i n g ^ l e n g t h of l i s t s . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 191+0, 2 7 , 271-281+. 1 8 . Hovland, C.I. E x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s i n r o t e l e a r n i n g theory. V I I I . D i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e of p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e s w i t h v a r y i n g r a t e s of p r e s e n t a t i o n . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 191+9, 3 9 , 711+-718. 19. Hovland, C. I. "Human l e a r n i n g and r e t e n t i o n . " In Stevens, S.S., Handbook of experimental psychology. N.Y. W i l e y . 1 9 5 1 . pp. 6 1 3 - 6 8 9 . 20. Hovland, C. I . , & K u r t z , K. H., E x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s i n r o t e l e a r n i n g t h e o r y . IX. I n f l u e n c e o f work decrement f a c t o r s on v e r b a l l e a r n i n g . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1 9 5 1 , 1+2, 2 6 5 . 21. H u l l , C. L. The meaningfulness of 3 2 0 s e l e c t e d nonsense s y l l a b l e s . Amer. J . P s y c h o l . , 1 9 3 3 , 1+5, 730-731+. 2 2 . H u l l , C. L. The i n f l u e n c e of c a f f e i n e and other f a c t o r s on c e r t a i n phenomenon of r o t e l e a r n i n g . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1 9 3 5 , 1 3 , 2l+9-27i{.. 2 3 . H u l l , C. L. The c o n f l i c t i n g p s y c h o l o g i e s of l e a r n i n g -a way out. P s y c h o l . Rev., 1 9 3 5 , 1+2, 1+91-516. 21+. H u l l , CL., Hovland, C. I., Ross, R. T., H a l l , M., P e r k i n s , D. T., & f i t c h , P. B. Mathematico-deductive t h e o r y of r o t e l e a r n i n g . New Haven: Y a l e . 191+0. pp. 3 2 9 . 2 5 . I r i o n , A. L. The r e l a t i o n o f " s e t " to r e t e n t i o n . P s y c h o l . Rev., 191+8, 5 5 , 336-31+1. 26. I r i o n , A. L. R e t e n t i o n and warming-up e f f e c t i n p a i r e d -a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g . J. exp. P s y c h o l . , 191+9, 3 9 , 6 6 9 . 60 2 7 . I r i o n , A. L., & Wham, D. S. Recovery from r e t e n t i o n l o s s as a f u n c t i o n o f amount o f p r e - r e c a l l warming-up. J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1 9 5 1 , 1+1, 21+2. 2 8 . K j e r s t a d , C. L. The form of the l e a r n i n g curve f o r memory. P s y c h o l . Monogr., 1 9 1 9 , 26, (Whole No. 116). pp. v + 8 9 . 2 9 . L e p l e y , W. M. A theory o f s e r i a l l e a r n i n g and f o r g e t t i n g based upon c o n d i t i o n e d r e f l e x p r i n c i p l e s . P s y c h o l .  Rev., 1 9 3 2 , 3 9 , 279 -288 . 3 0 . L e p l e y , W. M. S e r i a l r e a c t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d as c o n d i t i o n e d r e a c t i o n . P s y c h o l . , Monogr., 1931+, 1+6. (Whole No. 2 0 5 ) 3 1 . L i n d q u i s t , E. P. Goodness o f f i t of t r e n d curves and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t r n e d d i f f e r e n c e s . Case I I I . S i g n i f -i c a n c e o f t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e s : s u c c e s s i v e means based on s i n g l e sample f o r each t r e n d s e p a r a t e l y . Psychometrika, 191+7, 1 2 , 7 6 . 3 2 . MacPhee, H. M. A simple and inex p e n s i v e exposure apparatus. Amer. J . P s y c h o l . , 191+2, 5 5 , 1+19-1+21. 3 3 . McGeoch, G. 0. The c o n d i t i o n s of re m i n i s c e n c e . Amer. J . Ps y c h o l . , 1 9 3 5 , 1+7, 6 5 - 8 9 . 3l+. McGeoch, J . The d i r e c t i o n and extent o f i n t r a - s e r i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s at r e c a l l . Amer. J . P s y c h o l . , 1 9 3 6 , 1+8, 221-21+5. 3 5 . McGeoch, J . A., & McKinney, P., & P e t e r s , H. N. S t u d i e s i n r e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n . IX. R e t r o a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n , r e p r o d u c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n , and re m i n i s c e n c e . J . exp.  Ps y c h o l . , 1 9 3 7 , 2 0 , 1 3 1 - 1 1 + 3 . 3 6 . McGeoch. J . A., & I r i o n , A. L. The psychology o f human l e a r n i n g . N.Y. Longman's. 1952. 3 7 . Melton, A. W., & Stone, G. R. The r e t e n t i o n o f s e r i a l l i s t s of a d j e c t i v e s over sho r t time i n t e r v a l s w i t h v a r y i n g r a t e s o f p r e s e n t a t i o n . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1 9 3 2 , 3 0 , 2 9 5 - 3 1 0 . 3 8 . Melton. A. W. "L e a r n i n g " i n Annu. Rev. P s y c h o l . , 1 9 5 0 , I . 3 9 . Noble, C. E. Absence o f remi n i s c e n c e i n the s e r i a l r o t e l e a r n i n g o f a d j e c t i v e s . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1 9 5 0 , 1+0, 622-631. 1+0. Noble, C. E. The role o f stim u l u s meaning (m) i n s e r i a l v e r b a l l e a r n i n g . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1 9 5 2 , 1+3, 1+37. 6 1 1+1. R i l e y , D. A. Reminiscence e f f e c t s i n p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1 9 5 3 , 1+5, 2 3 2 . 1+2. Rockway, N. R., & Duncan, C. P. P r e - r e c a l l warming-up i n v e r b a l r e t e n t i o n . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1 9 5 2 , 1+3, 3 0 5 . 1+3. S c h l o s b e r g , H. An i n e x p e n s i v e memory drum. J . exp.  P s y c h o l . , 191+1, 2 9 . 1 6 1 - 1 6 3 . 1+1+. Thune, L. E. The e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t types o f p r e l i m i n a r y a c t i v i t i e s on subsequent l e a r n i n g of p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e m a t e r i a l . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1 9 5 0 , 1+0, 1+23-1+38. 1+5. Underwood, B. J . S t u d i e s of d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e . I I . L e a r n i n g and r e t e n t i o n of p a i r e d - a d j e c t i v e s l i s t s w i t h two l e v e l s o f i n t r a - l i s t s i m i l a r i t y . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1 9 5 1 , 1+2, 1 5 3 . 1+6. Underwood, B. J . S t u d i e s of d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e . V I I I . L e a r n i n g and r e t e n t i o n of p a i r e d nonsense s y l l a b l e s as a f u n c t i o n of I n t r a l l s t s i m i l a r i t y . J. exp. P s y c h o l . , 1 9 5 3 , 1+5, 1 3 3 • 1+7. Underwood, N. J . S t u d i e s of d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e . IX. L e a r n i n g and r e t e n t i o n of p a i r e d - a d j e c t i v e s as a f u n c t i o n of i n t r a l i s t s i m i l a r i t y . J . exp.  P s y c h o l . , 1 9 5 3 , 1+5, 11+3. 1+8.v Ward, L. B. Reminiscence and r o t e l e a r n i n g . P s y c h o l .  Monogr., 1 9 3 7 , 1+9, 1+. (Whole No. 2 2 0 ) . pp. 61+. 1+9. W i l l i a m s , 0. A study of the phenomenon o f r e m i n i s c e n c e . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 1 9 2 6 , 9 , 31+5-31+6. 5 0 . W i n t e r , J . E . An i n e x p e n s i v e , n o i s e l e s s memory apparatus. J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 191+2, 3 0 , 31+5-31+6. 5 1 . Withey, J . , Buxton, C. E., & E l k i n , A. C o n t r o l of r e s t i n t e r v a l a c t i v i t i e s i n experiments on r e m i n i s c e n c e i n s e r i a l v e r b a l l e a r n i n g . J . exp. P s y c h o l . , 191+9, 3 9 , 1 7 3 - 1 7 6 . 

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