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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of student adjustment at varying grade levels in high school Groome, Les Jaquest 1948

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££5  j5 7  Cop- /  A STUDY OF STUDENT ADJUSTMENT AT VARYING GRADE LEVELS  IN HIGH SCHOOL  A Thesis Submitted In  t o t h e Committee  Partial  Fulfilment  on G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s  of the Requirements  for the Degree  of Master o f A r t s , i n the  Department University  of Education,  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  by Leslie  Regina,  April  J . Groome  Saskatchewan.  16, 1948. i  A STUDY OF STUDENT ADJUSTMENT AT VARYING GRADE LEVELS IN HIGH SCHOOL S i n c e educators today c o n s i d e r the development of t h e p e r s o n a l i t y of s t u d e n t s t o be an important f u n c t i o n of the s c h o o l , the w r i t e r attempted  t o measure the growth of p e r s o n a l i t y  d u r i n g the h i g h - s c h o o l p e r i o d . i t was  hoped t o d i s c o v e r how  From an a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s ,  the s t u d e n t s ' p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs  v a r i e d as t h e y went t h r o u g h h i g h s c h o o l , and what t h e t i o n s were f o r a guidance  program.  The C a l i f o r n i a Test o f P e r s o n a l i t y was 720  implica-  administered to  s t u d e n t s i n K i t s i l a n o High S c h o o l , Vancouver, B.C. These s t u -  dents are b e l i e v e d t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the academic and socio-economic high schools.  ability  background of the s t u d e n t s i n the Vancouver  One hundred and seventy-two boys and 1.55 g i r l s were  t e s t e d i n grade e i g h t , 1 2 6 boys and 1 2 5 g i r l s i n grade t e n , and 74 boys and  68 g i r l s i n grade t w e l v e .  In g e n e r a l , t h e r e was  no d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean  s c o r e s of boys and g i r l s w i t h i n each grade.  Only f i v e of 3 9 d i f -  f e r e n c e s were t h r e e times as l a r g e as t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t a n d a r d errors. The p e r s o n a l i t y development of the boys from Grade V I I I t h r o u g h Grade X I I was i n the same p e r i o d .  compared w i t h the growth shown by t h e D i f f e r e n c e s between mean s c o r e s of the  girls two  sexes f o r the v a r i o u s components o f the t e s t l e d t o the f o l l o w ing  observations: ( 1 ) F o r both sexes, h i g h e r means were found i n the l a t e r grades i n t o t a l and s e l f - a d j u s t m e n t , and  in  self-reliance,  p e r s o n a l worth,  ' belonging, a n t i - s o c i a l  feeling  t e n d e n c i e s and  of  school  relations; (2) T h e r e was social  little  skills,  change  and  in social-adjustment,  f a m i l y and  (3) I r r e g u l a r d e v e l o p m e n t  was  community  relations;  found i n p e r s o n a l  f r e e d o m , w i t h d r a w i n g t e n d e n c i e s and  social  standards; (4) S c o r e s o f t h e g i r l s of  t h e boys  t e n d e d t o i n c r e a s e and  to remain  stationary  those  i n nervous  symptoms; (5)  In dicated  that  The  only  the  mean s c o r e s  ten  was  general,  significant  negative difference  o f boys  between  i n grades twelve  and  i n withdrawing tendencies. grade-level  differences  i n mean s c o r e s i n -  s t u d e n t s i n g r a d e e i g h t were n o t a s w e l l  as t h o s e i n g r a d e t e n , and  s t u d e n t s i n grade  t h a n t h o s e i n g r a d e t w e l v e i n most  adjusted  ten ranked  components o f t h e  California  Test of P e r s o n a l i t y .  The mean d i f f e r e n c e s between g r a d e s  and t e n t e n d e d t o be  fairly  l a r g e , w h i l e the  f r o m g r a d e s t e n t o t w e l v e were f o u n d t o be  changes  called  for particular  (1) N e r v o u s and  symptoms, s e l f  freedom  grade  attention  VIII;  appeared reliance,  from a n t i - s o c i a l  eight  i n means  s m a l l e r and more  From t h e t e s t , d a t a , t h e components o f which  lower  personality to  be:  social  skills  tendencies i n  erratic.  (2) S o c i a l  skills  and  as w e l l as t o t a l  f a m i l y and  community  relations  social-adjustment i n the  upper  grades; (3) P e r s o n a l w o r t h ,  feeling  o f b e l o n g i n g and  s t a n d a r d s f o r g r a d e - t e n boys; freedom twelve  Sense  social  of p e r s o n a l  and w i t h d r a w i n g t e n d e n c i e s f o r g r a d e boys;  (4) F r e e d o m f r o m n e r v o u s  symptoms  i n the  upper  grades; (j>) P e r s o n a l f r e e d o m In  addition  The  year  s c o r e s would,  e x p e r t g u i d a n c e and  especially  i f the test  help to correct  e v i d e n c e p o i n t s t o t h e need  designed t o enable p u p i l s  i n the t r a i t s  adjustment.  girls.  to the g e n e r a l a r e a s o u t l i n e d above,  w i t h v e r y low t e s t require  f o r grade-twelve  i n which t h e i r  c e r t a i n students  results their  were  maladjustments.  f o r a guidance  t o improve  s c o r e s suggest  valid,  program  from y e a r t o unsatisfactory  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This  i n v e s t i g a t i o n w o u l d have b e e n i m p o s s i b l e  the wholehearted staff  c o o p e r a t i o n and help  of the K i t s i l a n o  administered. Principal, Mr.  painstakingly  interest,  the w r i t e r o f f e r s  Schools,  i s due t o Mr. J . G o r d o n ,  and t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r s , M i s s  Finally,  High  and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were  S p e c i a l indebtedness  B. E . Wales f o r t h e i r  sections  o f the P r i n c i p a l and  J u n i o r and S e n i o r  V a n c o u v e r , B. C. where t h e t e s t s  without  J . E . C a s s e l m a n and  c o o p e r a t i o n and e f f o r t .  h i s t h a n k s t o h i s w i f e who  checked the s t a t i s t i c a l  and b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l  o f the t h e s i s . L.J•G•  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page L I S T OF TABLES  vi  LIST OF GRAPHS  v i i  Chapter I.  INTRODUCTION  .  II.  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  ..  R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y a l i t y Tests  1 h  of Person5"  Patterns of Behaviour I n d i c a t i v e of Maladjustment  •  Teachers a b i l i t y to diagnose maladjustment Normal b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maladjusted behaviour patterns  10  1  Factors Related  to Maladjustment  The d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d methods o f d i a g n o s i s ..................... Causes o f M a l a d j u s t m e n t P h y s i c a l c a u s e s o f m a l a d j u s t m e n t ... I n t e l l i g e n c e as a c a u s a l f a c t o r . . . . P s y c h o l o g i c a l causes Of p e r s o n a l m a l a d j u s t m e n t ....... 'Of s o c i a l m a l a d j u s t m e n t Age  o f Onset  of Specific  21 2k 2$ 28 30 31 38  5h  THE INVESTIGATION The The  21.  Forms o f  Maladjustment III.  11 l£ 17  60  Measuring Instrument ................. T e s t i n g Program The s c h o o l s t e s t e d Comparison o f t h i s sampling w i t h the c i t y a s a whole iii  60 62 62 63  C h a p t e r >. III.  Page  continued Comparison o f Test R e s u l t s w i t h R a t i n g s o f T e a c h e r s and C o u n s e l l o r s ••  IV.  69  PRESENTATION OF THE TEST DATA C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e Sexes W i t h i n  E a c h Grade  •  75  Evidences o f Grade-Level Differences i n P e r s o n a l i t y Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9k  RECOMMENDATIONS Review  of Suggestions  Implications  Found i n L i t e r a t u r e  f o r a G u i d a n c e Program  .  .......  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  105  105 116 121 122 131  132 136 11*0 1 i;0  Summary Recommendations  102 105"  FOR GUIDANCE WORK  Recommendations f o r s t u d e n t s w i t h l o w test scores •••• Recommendations f o r s e x d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y w i t h i n each grade ......... L i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g growth i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s during high school Recommendations f o r t h e a r e a s o f p e r s o n a l i t y i n which n e g l i g i b l e i n c r e a s e s were f o u n d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E r r a t i c s c o r e s o f the boys i n p e r s o n ality traits S u g g e s t i o n s t o a d j u s t g u i d a n c e t o meet the s p e c i a l needs o f t h e b o y s a n d o f the g i r l s  VI.  69  Comparison o f the P e r s o n a l i t y Development o f Boys a n d G i r l s C o n s i d e r e d S e p a r ately  Statement o f Areas o f P e r s o n a l i t y R e q u i r i n g A t t e n t i o n o f T e a c h e r s and C o u n s e l l o r s . V.  65  and T h e i r  F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h Needed  iv  Limitations  ..... l l ; 0 li|2  Page APPENDIX  lk$  A p p e n d i x IA  Questionnaire  Given  Home-room T e a c h e r s  .  II4.5  A p p e n d i x IB  Questionnaire  Given  t h e C o u n s e l l o r s ....  II4.8  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Ik9  v  L I S T OF  TABLES  Table 1.  Page Numbers o f P u p i l s C l a s s i f i e d g o r i e s by T e a c h e r s ,  Tests  i n Various  Cate-  and C l i n i c i a n s  .......  2.  Numbers o f S t u d e n t s  3.  Median I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t s o f Students i n K i t s i l a n o and i n A l l V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l s C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t s Between t h e O p i n i o n s o f T e a c h e r s and C o u n s e l l o r s and T e s t R e s u l t s ...  k» 5.  Tested  Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n T e s t  13 62  i n E a c h Grade  63 67  Components i n Grade  VIII  .  70  6.  Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n T e s t  Components i n Grade X ...  72  7.  Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n T e s t  Components i n Grade X I I .  7k  8.  Grade-Level D i f f e r e n c e s i n Test G i r l s i n Grades V I I I and X I I Grade-Level D i f f e r e n c e s i n Test Boys i n G r a d e s V I I I and X I I  9. 10. 11. 12.  13.  111..  lj?. 16. 17.  Components f o r 81 Components f o r 83  Grade-Level D i f f e r e n c e s i n Test G i r l s i n G r a d e s V I I I and X  Components f o r  Grade-Level D i f f e r e n c e s i n Test Boys i n G r a d e s V I I I and X ••  Components f o r  Grade-Level D i f f e r e n c e s i n Test G i r l s i n G r a d e s X and X I I  Components f o r  Grade-Level D i f f e r e n c e s i n Test Boys i n G r a d e s X and X I I  Components f o r  P e r c e n t i l e D i f f e r e n c e s f o r the C o m p a r i s o n s f o r E a c h Sex  Grade-Level  8$ 87 8?  91  Grade D i f f e r e n c e s i n T e s t V I I I and X I I  Components f o r G r a d e s  Grade D i f f e r e n c e s i n T e s t V I I I and X  Components f o r G r a d e s  Grade D i f f e r e n c e s i n T e s t X and X I I  Components f o r G r a d e s  vi  •  93  97 99  101  L I S T OF GRAPHS Graph 1. 2.  3.  Page C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e Mean P r o f i l e s a t V a r y i n g Grade L e v e l s •*••  of the G i r l s 77  C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e Mean P r o f i l e s o f t h e Boys a t V a r y i n g Grade L e v e l s . . . . . « • ••••••••  78  C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e Mean P r o f i l e s Levels  95  vii  o f t h e Grade •••••••  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION  The a d e q u a c y o f any s c h o o l ' s p r o g r a m by the e x t e n t its to  t o w h i c h i t meets  students.  In the p a s t ,  be c h i e f l y  little  "Whereas, in  needs were  and  However, i n t h e minds  i n emphasis  Other authors Worth  1  to  be  similar  (255,p»53)  another  living  conceives  way,  effective  these  responsibility  education  of the i n d i v i d u a l f o r  environment."  o b j e c t i v e s ares  and c i v i c  living,  vocation."  t h e aims o f  self  Stated i n  realization,  and wholesome human r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  efficiency  1.  i n his social  and  o b j e c t i v e s of education f o r  t h e " d e v e l o p m e n t and t r a i n i n g  effective  on  purposes are  of l i f e  h e a l t h , r e c r e a t i o n , and  list  emphasis  a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y was  c a s t i n terms o f a s p e c t s  as c i t i z e n s h i p ,  This  (126,p.2):  i t i s o f t e n a s s e r t e d , the overwhelming  dominately  today." "  and  o f modern  i s p o i n t e d o u t by Koos  preparation for college f o r selected pupils,  such  skills,  f u n c t i o n of the s c h o o l program.  p u r p o s e and p r a c t i c e  now  considered  the development of p e r s o n a l i t y i s c o n s i d e r e d  be an i m p o r t a n t  difference  these  needs o f  p l a c e d on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a w e l l -  rounded p e r s o n a l i t y .  to  determined  the i n d i v i d u a l  t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f knowledge  e m p h a s i s was  educators,  is  economic  (160a).  See r e f e r e n c e numbers 5 U , 7 5 ,  lUl,  225,  255.  (2) The D e p a r t m e n t  of Supervisors  t i o n of the N a t i o n a l  (159,p.5),  as  19k0  in  emphasis  "When we  training  we  will  in skills  child."  An  include  to the n e g l e c t  programs  increasing  ality From cover  of p e r s o n a l i t y the w r i t e r  an a n a l y s i s  school,  program.  life  a r e becoming  and  and depends."  t h e d i r e c t o r s who  plan  aware o f t h e  of  "whole  Canada  of studies  to  students.  considers  an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n  t o be o f p r i m a r y  during  importance.  the high  school  needs v a r y a s t h e y  and what t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s  In  the person-  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t i s hoped  i n what ways t h e s t u d e n t s *  through high  one-  development  chooses to i n v e s t i g a t e  of t h i s  late  change  to the development of the  needs o f t h e  development o f p u p i l s  guidance  the present  number o f t h e p r o v i n c e s  therefore,  as  importance of the  a guidance program i n the course  The w r i t e r ,  field,  that  Instruc-  occurred.  of the e m o t i o n a l  i n Canada  the emphasis  meet t h e p e r s o n a l i t y  field  great  p r o g r a m has y e t  to r e c o g n i z e  w o u l d a p p e a r , however,  educational  this  begin  any  d e v e l o p m e n t upon w h i c h o u r f u t u r e  n e e d t o change  the  that  of  writing  of e d u c a t i o n towards i n t e l l e c t u a l  personality  now  are not convinced  a r e c o n v i n c e d o f t h e supreme  sided bias  the  Education Association,  i n the e d u c a t i o n a l  personality,  It  and D i r e c t o r s  period. to d i s go  are f o r a  (3) The p u r p o s e  of t h i s  s t u d y i s t o compare  ment, as m e a s u r e d by t h e C a l i f o r n i a grades e i g h t ,  t e n and t w e l v e .  of  the t e s t s w i l l  the  implications  constitute  student  Test of P e r s o n a l i t y ,  The r e s u l t s o f t h e the b a s i s  f o r a guidance  adjust-  analysis  f o r a discussion  program.  in  of  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE Literature  dealing with  ality  adjustment a t v a r y i n g  ally,  not a s i n g l e study  junior  and s e n i o r  ture.  This  experimental formulation The The  patterns line,  will  For  confine  be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e  deal with  the r e l i a b i l i t y The s e c o n d  itself  to t h e  f o r the  main  sections.  section, describing  i n d i c a t i v e o f maladjustment, w i l l  the readings  on t h e a b i l i t y  of teachers  next, normal behaviour  of maladjustment.  the v a r i o u s  The t h i r d  tor e -  section and w i l l  a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e methods and d i f f i c u l t i e s The c a u s e s o f i n a d e q u a t e p a t t e r n s  as p o s s i b l e w i t h  o f P e r s o n a l i t y under adjustment.  out-  p a t t e r n s ; and  causes o f maladjustment  convenience, the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  social  i n the l i t e r a -  and v a l i d i t y o f  be d i v i d e d i n t o p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l  closely Test  will  the p a t t e r n s  diagnosis. will  therefore,  questionnaires.  deal with  include  p u p i l s was f o u n d  problem.  these p a t t e r n s ;  finally,  Specific-  comparing p e r s o n a l i t y adjustments o f  will,  of behaviour  first,  cognize  of this  person-  i s meagre.  evidence which formed the background  will  personality  grade l e v e l s  high-school  chapter  chapter  first  a comparison o f student  of  of behaviour  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l .  ones a r e c l a s s i f i e d  as  t h e components o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a t h e two main h e a d i n g s  o f s e l f and  (5) Reliability  and V a l i d i t y  of Personality  There i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y bility in  and v a l i d i t y  part  little  Tests  information  of personality t e s t s .  to the d i f f i c u l t y  of obtaining  on t h e r e l i a -  This  lack  such data,  i s due  and i n p a r t  t o d i s a g r e e m e n t among t e s t - m a k e r s on what c o n s t i t u t e s a criterion The be  of adjustment. reliability  comparable  ability  o f p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s has b e e n f o u n d t o  to that  and a c h i e v e m e n t .  of P e r s o n a l i t y r e p o r t the be  intermediate  Forlano,  The c o r r e l a t i o n s were  agreement t h a t  Greene, E i s e n b e r g standardized  range from  Pintner  b a s e d on P i n t n e r ' s  are i n  inventories  the r e l i a b i l i t y  was g i v e n  studied Their  the r e l i a b i l i t y  first  study  "Aspects of P e r s o n a l i t y t o 58 b o y s and U2 g i r l s  t e s t was r e p e a t e d f o u r  was h i g h .  personality  In their studies,  and F o r l a n o  was f o u n d t h a t  and T r a x l e r  ,7k t o . 9 1 .  rating personality.  inventory  corrected  However, t h e y do n o t a g r e e on t h e  degree o f r e l i a b i l i t y . scores  study to  formula.  do p o s s e s s r e l i a b i l i t y .  for  s e r i e s used i n t h i s  w i t h 792 c a s e s b y t h e s p l i t - h a l v e s method  Pintner,  Test  the c o e f f i c i e n t s of r e l i a b i l i t y f o r  and s e c o n d a r y  t h e Spearman-Brown  general  t e s t s of mental  The a u t h o r s o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a  i n the neighbourhood o f . 9 0 .  obtained by  o f many w i d e l y u s e d  of  devices  (176,p.97)  was  Inventory."  The  i n g r a d e V.  t i m e s a t i n t e r v a l s o f two weeks.  the s t a b i l i t y  o f the scores  The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d f r o m t h i s  The It  f o r each i n d i v i d u a l evidence  that  (6) "children  tend  t o be c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r  What we a r e m e a s u r i n g fluctuates and  responses  i s n o t some u n i m p o r t a n t  f r o m d a y t o day, b u t r a t h e r  (25)  B e n t o n and S t o n e  and N e p r a s h  (1610 f o u n d  Likethe per-  after  an i n t e r v a l  (175)  gave  a week o r two. A  that  later  study  by P i n t n e r  the consistency  increases marking study  cent  and F o r l a n o  of response  s l i g h t l y with  age.  to p e r s o n a l i t y  They d e f i n e  o f i t e m s t h e same way a f t e r  questionnaires  consistency  found f o r a d u l t s .  substantiates  q u i t e the opposite,  questionnaires  Lentz  (6°,p.333),  same c o n c l u s i o n s Tyron  A study  scores  The  (229)  are r e l i a b l e .  who  f o r 71 p e r  comparable t o  by E i s e n b e r g  the f i n d i n g s of P i n t n e r  ality  and Wesman  and F o r l a n o  that  Traxler  of high  reliability.  s t u d i e d 3 0 0 c h i l d r e n , a g e d 11  and 12  She r e p o r t s  i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n emotional (227),  and R a t i n g  person-  u s e d t h e r e t e s t method, b o r e o u t t h e s e  ment as measured b y a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . constant  (69)  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n b y  d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n s t a n c y and g e n e r a l i t y o f e m o t i o n a l  Tests  as the  two-week i n t e r v a l s .  o f t h e c h i l d r e n had c o n s i s t e n c y  those  evidence  does n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e more i n c o n s i s t e n t  than a d u l t s a r e ; i t suggests  and  that  s o m e t h i n g more b a s i c  centage o f changed r e s p o n s e s d i d n o t v a r y  to  trait  s t a b l e i n t h e p e r s o n a l i t y make-up o f t h e c h i l d . "  wise,  of  • • • • •  i n a very  Devices  complete  survey  years, adjust-  consistent adjustment.  o f t h e "Use o f  i n A p p r a i s a l of P e r s o n a l i t y , " reports  (7) numerous s t u d i e s tests.. ality  One  can  study of  ment i n the  found  and  edition. 138  these  (216)  value  The  The  of  the  the  inventories  traits  inventory.  The  and  faculty ratings  similar  in  .3I4.8.  I t was  i t prevailed  at  rating  noisy  overlooking often  the  However, the  ratings and the  was  quiet,  validity  the  the  out  Bell  s t u d e n t s as  number  poorly  Hence, t h e  of  correlations varied and  Washadjust-  Mechanics weaknesses of  cases;  such  adjusted  i n d i v i d u a l * the may  of  student  several  small  made  Inventory  the  i n d i c a t o r s of  there  1939  scores  t o many i n a c c u r a c i e s ,  generous*  193k  sections  Bell  .165*  that  a relatively  retiring  classroom a c t i v i t i e s .  the  faculty ratings  s u p p r e s s e d m a l a d j u s t m e n t s w h i c h were n o t day  a l l  Inventory,  several  to  authors point  aggressive  (52)  R o c h e s t e r Athenaeum and  were s u b j e c t  have b e e n too  the  concluded valid  validity.  Inventory,  comparing  v a r i e d from - . 3 1 9  t h e i r .study: t h e r e  faculty  Smith  c o r r e l a t i o n s between the  b u r n e i n v e n t o r i e s were n o t  Institute.  and  measure-  with f a c u l t y ratings  to  Washburne I n v e n t o r y and to  person-  measures of  B e l l Adjustment  s t u d e n t s on  from - . 2 9 8  low  investigated  d e t e r m i n e d by  on  that  instruments of  Washburne S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t  the  ment as  latter  was  between the  the  Clarke  Validity  students  personality  reliability,  reveals  and  for  above e v i d e n c e  to v a l i d a t e  limited validity.  edition,  by  attempts  Symonds  prognostic  the  possess high  personality f i e l d  (207),  Strang  high r e l i a b i l i t y  conclude from  r a t i n g devices A  and  which found  as and  faculty  may  have been h i d d e n visible  in  and  day-to-  faculty ratings  may  (8) have b e e n i n v a l i d  rather  Other papers a l s o o f v a l i d a t i o n so on  the  basis  have f o u n d are  not  bility  of  f a r employed. and  teachers'  highly reliable. of  teachers  the  stressed  teacher  that  than  teachers'  defined  reliability  variance  to  total  (133,p.27), consider  opinions  counsellors* ing  there  or w i t h d r a w i n g  oneself, thrust  of  the  social  teachers  to r a t e  (218,p.116) students'  t i o n between the However, the the  only  low  of  true  Wickman  Laycock  (21*0,pp. 159-60)  i n teachers'  and  o f p e r s o n a l i t y s u c h as skills,  or  not  In a d d i t i o n ,  normally the  of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s  of  teachers'  estimates  i n p a r t f o r the  a s s e s s m e n t and  validity  com-  as for  This of  small c o r r e l a -  test  of teachers'  retir-  a t t i t u d e s about  personality accurately.  unreliability  f a c t o r causing  "ratio  Burt  makes i t e v e n more d i f f i c u l t  account  teachers'  tendencies.  and  teachers.  tendency towards u n r e l i a b i l i t y p u p i l p e r s o n a l i t y may  that  industry,  t r y to measure, a r e  intercorrelation  Terman  relia-  t h a n t h e y were i n  reliability  Many a r e a s  a t t e n t i o n of  shown by  the  the  i . e . freedom from e r r o r . "  which q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  upon the  plexity  s t u d y as  is little  action,  i n assessing  neurotic  (152,pp.306-7),  ratings.  studies  p u p i l s , found  character  and  attempted  Yet  i n a study of  their  more r e l i a b l e  variance,  ratings.  methods  of p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment  (1;2),  Burt  i n his  Mitchell  that  weaknesses i n the  counsellor  special abilities  results.  Validation i s often  a t t a i n m e n t i n s c h o o l work, and assessing  the  assessment of  t e n d e d t o be  test  results.  ratings  is  not  measures f o r p e r s o n a l i t y  (9) questionnaires. validity tests  Strang  i s lowered  (207,p.211)  p o i n t s out t h a t the  by v a r i o u s s o u r c e s o f e r r o r s w i t h i n t h e  themselves: a)  Students good  b)  to every i n d i v i d u a l *  interprets  the items  each  i n terms o f h i s  own e x p e r i e n c e  and i m m e d i a t e mood;  A satisfactory  criterion  ficult,  of v a l i d i t y  i s dif-  i f not impossible, to obtain;  Chance e n t e r s i n t o personality  e)  t o make a  i n t h e i n v e n t o r y do n o t p r e s e n t  same s t i m u l i  person  d)  incentive  showing;  Questions the  c)  have a n a t u r a l  s c o r e o f many  tests;  A psychologically ed p e r s o n  the t o t a l  sophisticated,  c a n answer  maladjust-  the q u e s t i o n s i n such  a way a s t o o b t a i n a f a v o u r a b l e s c o r e . To  these  sources  of errors  Symonds and J a c k s o n they concluded  s h o u l d be added t h a t f o u n d b y  (216).. After  that the s e c l u s i v e  surveying questionnaires, type  of student tends to  r a t e h i m s e l f t o o low, and t h e b o i s t e r o u s r a t e  himself too  h i g h i n adjustment. The  authors  of the C a l i f o r n i a v T e s t  manual o f d i r e c t i o n s  (53,P»U)  any  instrument  but  also  ter  p o i n t i s an i m p o r t a n t  of P e r s o n a l i t y i n the  c a u t i o n that "the v a l i d i t y o f  i s d e p e n d e n t n o t o n l y upon i t s i n t r i n s i c  upon t h e manner i n w h i c h i t i s t o be u s e d .  nature  The l a t -  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the v a l i d a t i o n o f  (io) instruments device of  •  i n the p e r s o n a l i t y  or questionnaire  field."  i s well  Unless  known t o t h e  the r a t i n g administrator  t h e t e s t , and i t s w e a k n e s s e s and s t r e n g t h s known t o h i m  through experience, ality  t h e n , i n no t r u e  t e s t r e s u l t s be c o n s i d e r e d  personality  can the p e r s o n -  t o be v a l i d  measurements o f  adjustment.  Though h i g h v a l i d i t y found, a r e p o r t  of personality  b y Greene and S t a t t o n  ever p e r s o n a l i t y stantial  sense,  tests  tests  (93)  has n o t b e e n  suggests  t r y t o measure, t h e t e s t s  that  a r e i n sub-  a g r e e m e n t i n t h e i r measurements o f many a r e a s  justment.  These men c o r r e l a t e d  the r e s p e c t i v e  Bell  Adjustment  Inventory, the Bernreuter  tory  and t h e W i l l o u g h b y E m o t i o n a l M a t u r i t y  of the  Personality Scale.  Inven-  Greene  Statton  the  test factors  for  group, though n o t f o r i n d i v i d u a l , d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  to  date  to indicate  must be c o n c l u d e d , have r e v e a l e d  On t h e o t h e r  therefore,  that  t h e t e s t s were  useful  on t h e one hand, t h a t  few  for personality  a r e some i n d i c a t i o n s  that  studies tests.  t h e methods  so f a r a r e n o t i n t h e m s e l v e s v a l i d , and  high  of Behaviour  Before  t h e y found between  i t has n o t yet. b e e n p r o v e n t h a t  do n o t p o s s e s s  Patterns  that  high v a l i d i t y  hand, t h e r e  of v a l i d a t i o n used  or  the c o r r e l a t i o n s  of ad-  factors  and  It  considered  what-  attempting  ment, one must be a b l e  the t e s t s  do  validity.  Indicative  of Maladjustment  to determine to pick  the causes o f m a l a d j u s t -  out patterns  of behaviour  (11) indicative this  of maladjustment.  i s a difficult  satisfactory haviour  task, f o r there  social  the viewpoint  In  in  b u t what  approval  or adolescent  line  i s not always  age l e v e l  the c h i l d ' s beenvironment.  undesirable  a t the  are not n e c e s s a r i l y undesirable  the c h i l d .  Teachers' Can  Ability teachers  to Diagnose Maladjustment recognize  gest maladjustment? that  patterns  of behaviour  Most s t u d i e s o f t h i s  t h e answer i s "No."  Laycock  which  question  found  that teachers  emphasize  ards  o f m o r a l i t y and i n t e g r i t y ,  ity,  violations  than  difficulties  patterns  ( 1 3 3 ) made a s t u d y o f  rather  with  other  c h i l d r e n or r e t i r i n g  He f o u n d  that teachers  the s e r i o u s n e s s  i n almost the reverse (85) r e p o r t e d  this  t o 312 h i g h  "for educators  regulations  stand-  o f s c h o o l r e g u l a t i o n s and r e q u i r e m e n t s ,  of h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e tendency  of general  author-  of behaviour.  Garinger  violations  children.  transgressions against  h y g i e n i s t s ranked justments  sug-  conclude  t e a c h e r s ' r e a c t i o n s to the maladjustments of school He  accept-  I t i s often,  t h e home o r s c h o o l  characteristics  between  Furthermore, be-  o f what i s wrong w i t h  i s wrong w i t h  a d d i t i o n , behaviour  adult  i s no s h a r p  opinion,  of the mental h y g i e n i s t .  moreover, n o t a q u e s t i o n haviour,  to current  and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y b e h a v i o u r .  t h a t meets w i t h  able from  Contrary  or negative  and m e n t a l  of c e r t a i n types  o f malad-  order. same t e n d e n c y .  As a r e s u l t  school teachers,  to magnify o f f e n c e s  a n d m o r a l code a n d t o i g n o r e  he f o u n d  against  those  that  school denote  a  (12) l a c k o f p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l in  g e n e r a l agreement w i t h  (2^0,pp.159-60).  adjustment."  These f i n d i n g s a r e  the extensive  Wickman c o n c l u d e s  s t u d y made b y Wickman  t h a t "our e x p e r i m e n t a l  r e s u l t s may be summed up i n two s t a t e m e n t s : t h a t any k i n d o f b e h a v i o r and in any  upon t h e i r their  a t t a c k upon t h e t e a c h e r s  p r o f e s s i o n a l e n d e a v o r s does s u c h b e h a v i o r  e s t i m a t i o n as a s e r i o u s problem.  kind of unhealthy  characteristics ficult,  signifies  To t h e e x t e n t  behavior  i s free  does i t a p p e a r ,  To t h e e x t e n t  from  that  such a t t a c k i n g  to t e a c h e r s ,  l e s s u n d e s i r a b l e and l e s s  rise  significant  t o be l e s s  dif-  o f child, malad-  justment." Contrary  to the f i n d i n g s  just  outlined,  Mitchell  (152)  justment  was much more i n a c c o r d a n c e  gists  with  that of psycholo-  compared t h e r a t i n g s made i n 1927 b y t e a c h e r s  by m e n t a l h y g i e n i s t s on c e r t a i n b e h a v i o u r  children. He f o u n d  He made a s i m i l a r that present-day  aggressive The  t h a t t e a c h e r s ' awareness o f malad-  o r m e n t a l h y g i e n i s t s i n 19li-0 t h a n i t was i n 1 9 2 7 .  Mitchell those  indicated  a s t u d y made b y  traits  comparison of t h e i r  teachers u s u a l l y  f o r 1927 was f o u n d  justment.  i n 1927.  t o be - . 0 8 .  t o be . 7 0 ; t h e c o e f Mitchell  t h a t v a r i o u s e d u c a t i v e f a c t o r s had brought hygienists  19U0 r a t i n g s .  o f c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e r a t i n g s o f  m e n t a l h y g i e n i s t s and t e a c h e r s was f o u n d ficient  problems o f  c o n s i d e r e d non-  more s e r i o u s t h a n d i d t e a c h e r s  19U0 c o e f f i c i e n t  with  to a c l o s e r  concluded  teachers  and m e n t a l  agreement on what c o n s t i t u t e s m a l a d -  (13) (ll|.0,p.I83-8)  L o v e l l and S a r g e n t diagnosis  of maladjusted  compared  c h i l d r e n with  teachers'  clinical  findings.  These i n v e s t i g a t o r s gave R o g e r s ' P e r s o n a l i t y A d j u s t m e n t Scale f o r C h i l d r e n nine,  t o 370 male c a s e s ,  grade  who had b e e n r e f e r r e d t o N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y  Psychological opinions,  Clinic  the t e s t  summarized  by t h e i r  teachers.  The t e a c h e r s '  r e s u l t s and t h e examiners'  were compared i n f i v e is  l a r g e l y below  areas of p e r s o n a l i t y .  diagnosis This  comparison  i n Table I .  TABLE I NUMBERS OF PUPILS C L A S S I F I E D IN VARIOUS CATEGORIES BY TEACHERS, TESTS AND CLINICIANS  Number r e - Numb er i n dicated f e r r e d by by R o g e r s ' teachers Test Feelings  of i n f e r i o r i t y  3  79 86  Family  maladjustment  6  Social  maladjustment  3h  Physical  disability  Daydreaming  x  xx  Number d i a g nosed by examiner s  86 157  X  65  131  2  0  51  3  8U  28  Not a s many f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d diagnosis included.  as examiners'  Included f i x a t i o n , over-indulgence, family discord, overstimulation.  neglect,  X X  (110 As  indicated  examiners  T h i s i s not to say t h a t  dreaming,  by  inferiority  r e l a t i o n s h i p s may  the teacher.  feelings and  Only  the examiners  home s i t u a t i o n  test  found  factors,  •while t h e t e s t  Teachers  very well  either  157  cases.  b u t 131  diagnosed  c o n s i d e r i n g many home  disabilities  found  o n l y 65 c a s e s  appear  i d e n t i f y maladjusted  of today  adjustment  -.08).  (correlation  socially  s o c i a l maladjustment  as  test.  shows t h a t  that  the evidence  teachers are not able  s t u d e n t s w i t h any h i g h d e g r e e  study  agree  t o be  of malad-  t o be  (152)  indicates,  more c l o s e l y w i t h m e n t a l  i n 191*0 was  of  however, t h a t  t h a n t h e y d i d i n 1927 on what symptoms i n d i c a t e  was  79 c a s e s  only s i x pupils  Physical  p r e s e n t e d by most e d u c a t o r s  Mitchell's  diagnose  f o r they found  I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t must be a d m i t t e d  teachers  f o r other things  t o know t h e  cases d i s c l o s e d  m e a s u r e d by t h e R o g e r s '  accuracy.  by  i n f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s while the Rogers'  The c l i n i c i a n s  maladjusted,  to  caused  o v e r l o o k e d by t e a c h e r s as c a u s a l f a c t o r s  justment.  Day-  d i d n o t appear  86 c a s e s a n d t h e e x a m i n e r s ,  found  generally  and d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n three cases d i d the teacher  86.  having maladjustments  b u t r a t h e r had  or p e r t i n e n t .  e a s i l y be m i s t a k e n  of i n f e r i o r i t y ,  that  t h e t e a c h e r had o v e r -  more i m p o r t a n t  feelings,  found  on t h e symptoms o f m a l -  t h e symptoms f o u n d b y t h e e x a m i n e r s ,  considered other f a c t o r s  family  I, the i n v e s t i g a t o r s  and t e a c h e r s d i d n o t a g r e e  adjustment. looked  i n Table  hygienists serious  .70; c o r r e l a t i o n  mal-  i n 1927  (15) Normal B e h a v i o u r  Patterns  Before p a t t e r n s of maladjusted discerned, behaviour  a clear must be  well-integrated are c l a s s i f i e d California  picture  c a n be  o f what i s c o n s i d e r e d as  visualized.  personality, here  behaviour  The as  under the  characteristics  suggested  two  T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y , namely,  normal of  by v a r i o u s  main headings self  and  of  properly  the writers,^  the  social  ad-  justment. In s e l f  1 2 3 h  5 6 7 8  9  10 11 12 13  ll*  15 16 17  adjustment,  the  individual:  m a i n t a i n s good h e a l t h t h r o u g h p r o p e r l i v i n g ; knows h i s own w e a k n e s s e s and s t r e n g t h s and does n o t t r y to d e c e i v e h i m s e l f ; r e c o g n i z e s f a c t s and f a c e s them; g a i n s c o n f i d e n c e by a c c u m u l a t i o n o f m o d e r a t e successes i n s t e a d of expecting too-easy success; r e a c t s normally to emotional s i t u a t i o n s ; r e f u s e s t o w o r r y a b o u t what c a n n o t be h e l p e d ; p o s s e s s e s a wholesome a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s sex; i s temperate i n s a t i s f y i n g h i s b a s i c . n e e d s ; i s n o t e x c e s s i v e l y a r g u m e n t a t i v e or b o a s t f u l ; g e n e r a l l y f u l f i l s h i s p r o m i s e t o do s o m e t h i n g ; u s u a l l y p e r s i s t s u n t i l f i n i s h e d i n w h a t e v e r he starts; s p e a k s w i t h n o r m a l f l u e n c y - does n o t stammer; i s u s u a l l y i n favour of proposed activities; g e n e r a l l y t e l l s the t r u t h ; i s g e n e r a l l y happy, n o t e a s i l y d e p r e s s e d ; i s a c t i v e , w a n t s t o do t h i n g s , n o t s l e e p y ; i s f r e e o f n e u r o t i c t r a i t s such as b i t i n g f i n g e r n a i l s or g r i m a c i n g .  In s o c i a l  adjustment,  the  individual:  1) 2)  p a r t i c i p a t e s i n and e n j o y s n o r m a l s o c i a l l i f e ; p l a y s as w e l l as works; makes e a c h c o n t r i b u t e t o the o t h e r ; 3) i s f a i r i n d e a l i n g w i t h o t h e r s ; 11) i s n e i t h e r t o o I n d e p e n d e n t nor d e p e n d e n t ; 5) i s open-minded; 6) i n h i b i t s p e r s o n a l l y and s o c i a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e m o t i v e s , t e n d e n c i e s and i m p l u s e s ; 1,  See  r e f e r e n c e numbers: 1,  6,  81*, 117,  195,  225,  (16) seldom f i g h t s w i t h playmates; n o t o v e r - p u g n a c i o u s ; s e l d o m p l a y s t r u a n t f r o m s c h o o l o r home; i s no " t e a c h e r ' s p e t " o r "goody-goody;" a p p e a r s f r e e f r o m w o r r y and o v e r - s e n s i t i v e n e s s ; g e n e r a l l y c o n f o r m s t o r u l e s and d i s c i p l i n e ; does n o t s t e a l ; i s n o t r e t a r d e d i n s c h o o l work; i s n o t a b u l l y , a l i a r o r coward; has r e a s o n a b l e s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e ; has s a t i s f a c t o r y home and community r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; has s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l s t a n d a r d s and s k i l l s ; enjoys r e l a t i v e freedom from a t t e n t i o n - g e t t i n g or s y m p a t h y - g e t t i n g mechanisms.  7 8 9 10 11 12 13 lit 15 16 17 18  Normal p e o p l e  are not o n l y those  l o c a t e d a t the exact  c e n t r e o f a d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r any g i v e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , b u t i n c l u d e many on e i t h e r (5ij-jP.2Ul)  Cole  side o f the c e n t r e .  " n o r m a l c y i s an a r e a ,  not a p o i n t .  be  statistically  in  w h i c h 80 t o 85 p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s themselves  different  from  adjustment  concern  over  sorts;  t o the f a c t  one a n o t h e r  great  that students  c a n be w i d e l y Cole  to s o c i a l  stimuli  great concern  over  school  and  teachers.  often  attempt  daydreaming. are b l i n d l y other  social  dislike  one t h i r d  to escape from They b e l o n g  loyal  t o these  groups.  lists  of their  uncomfortable  Morally,  appearance,  their  Normal  discipline They  s i t u a t i o n s by  t o a crowd and go a b o u t friends,  self-  of a l l  and s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r .  a d o l e s c e n t s have o c c a s i o n a l t r o u b l e w i t h violently  must  o f normal a d o l e s c e n t s a s :  sensitivity  r e p u t a t i o n of f r i e n d s  with-  Teachers  growth and' s e x u a l d e v e l o p m e n t ;  heterosexual interests;  clothes,  fall."  and y e t be n o r m a l .  characteristics  physical  consciousness;  I t could  d e f i n e d as t h a t area o f a d i s t r i b u t i o n  reconcile  the  According to  together,  and a r e i n t o l e r a n t o f i d e a l s may, o r may n o t ,  (17)  be s o c i a l l y acceptable, and they are l i k e l y to crib on examinations unless supervised.  These young people reveal no  great interest i n school work and prefer a t h l e t i c s , team games and s o c i a l a f f a i r s . Doll l i s t s i n the Vineland Maturity Scale (68) the  fol-  lowing signs of s o c i a l maturity for an i n d i v i d u a l from 18 to  2$ years of age: goes to distant places alone; looks after  own health; goes out nights unrestricted; controls own expenditures; assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s beyond his own  person-  al needs; performs s k i l l e d work; engages i n b e n e f i c i a l r e creation; inspires confidence; can be r e l i e d upon i n times of stress; f i l l s positions of s o c i a l t r u s t ; shares community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; creates his own opportunities; and promotes the general welfare.  These are, i f not standards, at least  goals for adolescents. Maladjusted Behaviour  Patterns  When a clear conception of normal adjustment has been gained, one i s better q u a l i f i e d to detect symptoms of maladjustment.  Patterns of behaviour indicative of maladjustment  must not be confused with causes of maladjustment.  In genera  f a u l t y adjustment i s the symptom of a child's losing battle for  s e l f - r e l i a n c e , achievement, status i n a group, and so on.  The f i r s t task of the teacher and the counsellor i s to recognize the symptoms before proceeding to a diagnosis and determination of the causes of the maladjustment. Various groupings of symptoms of maladjustment have been  (18) s u g g e s t e d by writers.•*• b e t w e e n the of  Ackerson  there  i s great  (l,p.5U),  $000 p r o b l e m c h i l d r e n s u f f e r i n g f r o m one  different mon  categories.  In g e n e r a l ,  personality difficulties,  reports  who  overlapping  made a  or more o f t h a t the  17  study  1;78 com-  symptoms were*  1) R e s t l e s s , i r r i t a b l e temperament, incorrigibility, 2) D i s o b e d i e n c e , 3) R e t a r d a t i o n i n s c h o o l ,  Temper d i s p l a y s , " t a n t r u m s , " L i s t l e s s n e s s , l a c k o f i n i t i a t i v e and ambition, Stealing, Immature and i m p a i r e d manner o f judgment, F i g h t i n g , quarrelsomeness, v i o l e n c e , lying, E n u r e s i s beyond the t h i r d b i r t h d a y , P o o r s c h o o l work, Crying easily, Masturbation, Truancy, Ik) IS) S e n s i t i v e n e s s , 16) Worry i n e x c e s s , 17) B a s h f u l n e s s and s h y n e s s . k)  5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13)  Slattery emotional escent  (195,P»U6) i n c l u d e s o t h e r common symptoms o f  maladjustment.  He  describes  the  maladjusted  adol-  ast 1) 2) 3) k)  The b o a s t e r ; The "goody-goody" p u p i l ; The e x c e s s i v e l y a r g u m e n t a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l ; The n e g a t i v e p u p i l who i s u s u a l l y a g a i n s t any p r o p o s e d a c t i o n ; 5) The b u l l y ; 6) The p u p i l who p r o m i s e s t o do s o m e t h i n g , b u t always f a i l s t o do so, or to do i t on t i m e ; 7) The stammerer; 8) The one who c o n s t a n t l y e r a s e s w r i t t e n work; 9) The one whose i d e a s f r e q u e n t l y become b l o c k e d when he i s t r y i n g t o e x p r e s s h i s t h o u g h t s ; 10) The one who t a k e s s m a l l o b j e c t s ; 11) The one who chews h i s f i n g e r n a i l s or p e n c i l s ; 12) The one who w r i t e s sex n o t e s , who writes o b s c e n e words or draws o b s c e n e p i c t u r e s . T.  See  reference  numbers* 6,  8"Ii^  117,  120,  195»  (19) Frederiksen  (81*), d e a l i n g w i t h common e v i d e n c e s o f  p u p i l maladjustment of  t h e c h i l d who  immature c h i l d energy  to s t i c k  ity.  Woolf  to of:  some  s o c i a l c o n t a c t s ; the s o c i a l l y -  - a p r a n k i s h "playboy;"  to a j o b ; the c h i l d  (25U) f o u n d  t h e one who  handicapped; who  feelings  that maladjusted  of i n f e r i o r i t y .  extremely  often.  useful  r e c o g n i z e types physical  emotional  hysterical  moped, c u t  to enable  of abnormal b e h a v i o u r  and  a  complete  teachers  under t h e  headings  symptoms o f e m o t i o n a l  symptoms, e x h i b i t i o n i s m and  immaturity.  From t h i s c a n be s e e n pressing  s u r v e y o f symptoms  of secur-  bitter,  (51i.,pp.32U-5) l i s t s  symptoms o f n e r v o u s n e s s ,  preoccupation,  t h e one who  b o y s and g i r l s whom  They h a t e d p e o p l e ,  Cole  lacks  shows a l a c k  s t u d i e d were s u p e r - s e n s i t i v e , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s ,  c l a s s e s and c r i e d and  missed  or i s m e n t a l l y o r p h y s i c a l l y  fails  had  s c h o o l system, mentions  t h e f o l l o w i n g more g e n e r a l symptoms: t h e u n d i s c i p l i n e d ,  child;  he  in a city  literature  that,  on symptoms o f m a l a d j u s t m e n t , i t  although authors vary i n t h e i r  t h e symptoms, and i n t h e i r  ness o f each  symptom,  way o f ex-  r e g a r d f o r the s e r i o u s -  n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s much g e n e r a l  agreement. A description complete  without  o f symptoms o f m a l a d j u s t m e n t w o u l d n o t be  particular  mention of the d e l i n q u e n t a d o l e s -  c e n t and t h e c h r o n i c e m o t i o n a l delinquent  deviate.  a d o l e s c e n t s r-arely g e t i n t o  Cole  (5k)  found  h i g h s c h o o l ; do  that  poor  (20) work; a r e i r r e g u l a r Delinquents  i n attendance  and do n o t l i k e  are generally emotionally unstable  school.  and u n a d j u s t e d .  "They a r e n o t r e c o n c i l e d t o s o c i e t y as i t i s constituted. They l i k e t h e wrong p e o p l e and want to do t h e wrong t h i n g s . They a r e b o r e d w i t h t h e o r d i n a r y ways o f l i v i n g and want exc i t e m e n t and c h a n g e . They r e a c t to t h e s t r e s s e s of e v e r y d a y l i f e i n u n u s u a l w a y s . They r e s e n t d i s c i p l i n e , and d i s c i p l i n e l e a v e s l i t t l e o r on e f f e c t upon them. They w i l l n o t s u b m i t t o n o r m a l s o c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s b u t s e t a b o u t making t h e i r own s o c i e t y . A l l o b s e r v a t i o n s and t e s t s p r o d u c e t h e same r e s u l t s ; t h a t d e l i n q u e n t s d i f f e r from n o r m a l c h i l d r e n m a i n l y i n t h e i r s o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t s . Thus, i n one c a r e f u l s t u d y , i t was f o u n d t h a t , o f l,3l±3 d e l i n q u e n t s , 97 p e r c e n t showed s o c i a l m a l a d j u s t m e n t s , 83 p e r c e n t m a l a d j u s t m e n t s i n s c h o o l , and 77 p e r c e n t i n a b i l i t y t o a d j u s t t o t h e i r homes" (51*,p.262). Consideration al  should also  be g i v e n t o the n e u r o t i c o r e m o t i o n -  d e v i a t e s who make up f r o m  cent p o p u l a t i o n .  Cole  symptoms o f a s e r i o u s  3 t o 15  {5h>PP»286-315)  per cent  of the adoles-  describes neurotic  nature:  N e u r a s t h e n i c symptoms: Always t i r e d , and w i t h d r a w i n g - w i t h few f r i e n d s j  preoccupied  Hysteria: Excitable, voluble, i r r i t a b l e , with violent outbursts;  overactive  F a n a t i c symptoms: C h r o n i c a t t i t u d e o f s u s p i c i o n and m i s t r u s t , f i x i t y o f i d e a s and t e n d e n c y t o b u i l d up whole systems o f i n t e r r e l a t e d i d e a s , many o f w h i c h are untrue; Feelings of i n f e r i o r i t y : (Which may be due t o a n y t h i n g r e a l o r imagined) Withdrawal e s p e c i a l l y from competitive a c t i v i t y , overcompensation; P s y c h o p a t h i c symptoms: Utter i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n a b i l i t y to l e a r n a d e q u a t e l y from e x p e r i e n c e .  (21) Factors Related n  e  Piffleulties When t h e  recognized, trouble.  one  Methods o f  Diagnosis  can  then  proceed  with  a diagnosis  a d e q u a t e d i a g n o s i s of c a u s e s o f  of  and  hazards  d e f i n e d by  Tiegs  in identifying and  Katz  are  the  maladjustment,  r e q u i r e a knowledge o f p r o v e n methods and  difficulties As  Maladjustment  o v e r t a c t i o n s which i n d i c a t e maladjustment  For  teachers  and  to  of  the  causes.  (225,p.177), d i a g n o s i s i s  " t h e p r o c e s s or t e c h n i q u e by w h i c h t h e c a u s e s of a p r o b l e m , d i f f i c u l t y , or p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n of m a l a d j u s t m e n t a r e i d e n t i f i e d . It involves a s t u d y o f t h e o r i g i n and d e v e l o p m e n t o f the d i f f i c u l t y and embraces a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s u c h f a c t o r s as c a p a c i t i e s , a b i l i t i e s , s k i l l s , s p e c i a l t a l e n t s , s p e c i a l d i s a b i l i t i e s , work methods and a c h i e v e m e n t s . More p a r t i c u l a r l y , i t i n v o l v e s a c a r e f u l and c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n o f m a l a d j u s t m e n t i n t h e l i g h t o f the f a c t o r s p r e s e n t e d above." The  task  one,  of accurate  beset with  Jersild these  (115),  various  deals with are  diagnosis  numerous p r o b l e m s and Allport  (1*), and  obstacles.  highly emotionalized  dangers of m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ( f o r example, r e g a r d i n g  spoiled  or c o n c e i t e d )  one  error. that,  of the  not  only  Carberry  areas  most c o n s t a n t  i s there  and  these no  since  (188),  out diagnosis  of e x p e r i e n c e ,  " o n l y " c h i l d r e n as the  .there  "halo  line  Jersild  pre-  being  effect"  d i s c o n c e r t i n g sources  problems,  sharp  point  (1*7)  that,  Rugg  because of t r a d i t i o n a l  or b e c a u s e o f  I n a d d i t i o n to  pitfalls.  Rugg r e a s o n s  judices  is  i s , therefore, a d i f f i c u l t  points  which of out  between what m i g h t  be  (22) considered there the  as i d e a l b e h a v i o u r  and b e h a v i o u r  d i s o r d e r s , but  i s a l s o t h e p r o b l e m o f whether t h e t r o u b l e l i e s  student,  school,  w i t h i n t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s and c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e  o r w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l customs and  Common s o u r c e s  standards.  o f e r r o r i n the d i a g n o s i s  ment m e n t i o n e d b y A l l p o r t 1)  within  (k)  of  maladjust-  include:  O v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n on a c c o u n t o f t h e l i m i t ations  o f human i n t e l l e c t ,  judices  of various  and e m o t i o n a l  pre-  kinds;  2) C e n t r a l t e n d e n c y o f j u d g m e n t s , i . e » , j u d g e s  3)  a v o i d extreme v a l u e s  on r a t i n g  scales;  The t e n d e n c y t o g i v e  complimentary  judgment  when i n d o u b t . Kanner  (ll6,p.U60) cautions  t h a t the d i s c o v e r y  c a u s e s depends upon the r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f a c t of  a particular  maladjustment  mined b y m e r e l y o b s e r v i n g  that  can seldom, i f ever,  the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s .  all  of misbehavior."  Hence, i t i s i m p o r t a n t  the c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s .  This fact  "causes  be d e t e r -  No s i n g l e  cause o r s e t o f causes i s always a s s o c i a t e d w i t h kind  of the  a  certain  t o be aware o f  presupposes the  need f o r an o b j e c t i v e a n d o r d e r l y p r o c e d u r e i n g a t h e r i n g data by and  f r o m many p e r t i n e n t s o u r c e s .  Tiegs  and Katz  Van A l s t y n e  (225),  Griffin,  S i m i l a r emphases a r e made L a y c o c k and L i n e  (9k,p.85)  (231).  Some g e n e r a l  suggestions  (225,p.199) regarding  o f f e r e d by T i e g s  and K a t z  the a p p r o a c h t o d i a g n o s i s a r e :  (23) 1) Be c o n t e n t w i t h w a t c h f u l w a i t i n g u n t i l s u r e a problem e x i s t s ; 2 ) Be c a u t i o u s i n a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s o f an i n t i m a t e nature. Do n o t be t o o a g g r e s s i v e ; 3 ) Keep a s y m p a t h e t i c a t t i t u d e a t a l l t i m e s . The p u p i l s h o u l d f e e l t h a t t h e e x a m i n e r i s on h i s side; 1*) Do n o t . b e o v e r - c r i t i c a l . A s t u d e n t needs s e c u r i t y r a t h e r than c r i t i c i s m ; 5 ) Keep a sense o f humour; 6) A v o i d q u i c k d e c i s i o n s ; 7) Use s i m p l e , u n d e r s t a n d a b l e language; 8) When n e c e s s a r y , temper sympathy w i t h s t e r n n e s s . Do n o t l e t t h e s t u d e n t f e e l t h a t he can "get b y . " Laycock cord  cards  formation  (9U>P»85)  c o n s i d e r s t h a t s t e r e o t y p e d forms o f r e -  o f t e n s u p p l y a minimum o f s i g n i f i c a n t about a p a r t i c u l a r  the  data  collected,  the  case  i n a manner t h o r o u g h l y  most i m p o r t a n t he  interpretation  are  on  hand and  the  s h o u l d be  critically  descriptive  objective."  accounts  of  Further, i t i s  to d i s c r i m i n a t e between f a c t s other people.  reserved u n t i l  as  Diagnosis  a l l available  facts  analysed.  d i a g n o s t i c a p p r o a c h to c l a s s r o o m same, w h e t h e r  useful i n -  " I t i s much b e t t e r , w i t h  " f a c t s " r e p o r t e d by  and  ially  simple  f o r the t e a c h e r  knows them and  The  to w r i t e  child.  and  i t be  problems i s e s s e n t -  recommended by  Kanner, L a y c o c k ,  o r T i e g s and  Katz.  l i n e d by  Laycock  (9l+,pp. 8 5 f f ) i s summarized.  the need  i n d i a g n o s i s f o r the  Van  For b r e v i t y ,  Alstyne, the  one  out-  Laycock s t r e s s e s  following information:  1) I n f o r m a t i o n f r o m the s c h o o l b o a r d - ( f r o m the cumulative r e c o r d card i f p o s s i b l e ) - b i r t h d a t e , age on e n t e r i n g s c h o o l , days i n e a c h g r a d e , days a b s e n t , a c h i e v e m e n t , f r e q u e n c y o f changes o f s c h o o l s , m e d i c a l r e c o r d , d e f e c t s , i l l n e s s e s , etc;  (21*)  2)  I n f o r m a t i o n from the p a r e n t s - p o s i t i o n i n f a m i l y , e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t , s l e e p i n g and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , socio-economic status, a t t i t u d e of f a m i l y t o c h i l d and o f c h i l d t o child;  3)  Information concerning classroom behaviour a written description of chief characteristics o f t h e c h i l d as o b s e r v e d i n c l a s s r o o m - h a b i t s of o v e r t a c t i o n , nervous h a b i t s , speech, l a n g uage, work h a b i t s , s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s *  k) I n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e c h i l d - b y p e r s o n a l i n t e r view, i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , e d u c a t i o n a l t e s t s , e t c . Tiegs formation ratings,  and K a t z ,  and Van A l s t y n e  f o r diagnosis  from  personality tests,  o b t a i n the necessary  t h e u s e o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and source  folders,  i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t community i n f l u e n c e s . objective of  and s c i e n t i f i c  definite  scores  A knowledge o f t h e s e combined w i t h work w i l l  o b s e r v a t i o n , and  Baker  (1$) s t r e s s e s  e v a l u a t i o n o f s u c h .data b y t h e u s e  a s c a l e s u c h as t h e D e t r o i t S c a l e  which assigns  in-  of Behavior  Factors.  to 6 6 f a c t o r s .  recommended methods o f d i a g n o s i s  an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e s o u r c e s  o f e r r o r s i n such  do much t o e l i m i n a t e m i s t a k e n j u d g m e n t s o f t h e  causes of maladjustment. Causes o f M a l a d j u s t m e n t The  causes o f maladjustment a r i s e  from  the i n a b i l i t y o f  the  student  t o meet h i s own p e c u l i a r p h y s i c a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i -  cal  needs.  The m a l a d j u s t m e n t  a lack of e f f o r t ,  as t o t h e s t u d e n t ' s  methods o f d e a l i n g w i t h of  aggression, If  seems t o be due, n o t so much t o  h i s problem,  choice  of u n d e s i r a b l e  such a s , extreme  forms  compensation or escape.  a teacher  i s to be c a p a b l e  of diagnosing  unsatisfied  (25) needs,  she must have a sound  knowledge o f t h e  fundamental  p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s of each i n d i v i d u a l . are not separate i d e n t i t i e s  operating  t h e need  " i n every case,  i s p a r t o f a t o t a l p a t t e r n or scheme o f v a l u e s , i n -  v o l v i n g b o t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l and h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . " ation  o f needs  purposes. one  i s done, t h e r e f o r e ,  (171),  s u g g e s t e d by P a r k and B u r g e s s (178,p.llU).  Prescott  t h r e e main g r o u p s : p h y s i o l o g i c a l , integrative.  into  physical,  The w r i t e r  P h y s i c a l Causes  of  and  i n use  s u c h as  by Frank  (82),  divides social  tion  how  tend to f o s t e r  every i l l n e s s  to f i n d  dealt  mental hygiene  etc."  Meyers  (157)  personality  No  line  of a c h i l d  social  ego them  He  with  "is a psycho-  of s e p a r a -  that  by  physical  illustrates  makes i t h a r d e r f o r t h e p a r e n t  adjustment  Physical disabilities  contends  defects.  n o t t o s p o i l him by o v e r - m o t h e r i n g and, child  be  drawn b e t w e e n m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l h y g i e n e  the p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r . defects  will  medicine, psychiatry,  psychology, euthenics,  s h o u l d be  and  Maladjustment  of aspects of b i o l o g y ,  analysis,  or  psychological.  A c c o r d i n g to Bosset ( 3 5 , p . 3 ) ,  mosaic  the  into  study, grouped  The p h y s i c a l c a u s e s o f m a l a d j u s t m e n t first.  t h e needs  or s t a t u s ,  has, i n t h i s  intellectual  Categoriz-  merely f o r d e s c r i p t i v e  T h e r e a r e many c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  by P r e s c o t t  or  needs  s i n g l y i n the person-  S t r a n g (206,p.51) p o i n t s out t h a t  ality.  Such  hence,  cause  the  difficult.  seem t o be much more numerous t h a n  p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s r e a l i z e .  B e n t l e y (2U)  reports  that  four  (26) out  of every  s i x c h i l d r e n have  damaging t o p e r s o n a l i t y . perfections of  ear,  throat-  postural defects;  Wallace child was  defects  d i s t r e s s are disorders  o f eye, s p i n e ,  and a b n o r m a l i t i e s  f e e t and l e g s -  of s i z e .  As f u r t h e r  o f the f r e q u e n c y of p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s , (76) r e p o r t  that  guidance c l i n i c  exceeded o n l y  that i s  Some o f t h e common p h y s i c a l i m -  which cause p s y c h o l o g i c a l  nose,  evidence  some p h y s i c a l d e f e c t  Fenton and  t h e number o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f a  f o r improvement o f p h y s i c a l  well-being  b y t h e numbers made f o r improvement o f t h e  home s i t u a t i o n and o f t h e s c h o o l . A l t h o u g h Pope attached  to health  (115),  Jersild report  poor  ment.  Bursch*s  ed  ( 1 7 7 ) reports by a d o l e s c e n t s  (5U)  Cole  health  The  short  often adversely.  (226) a l l to maladjustof maladjust-  o f normal c h i l d r e n ,  underweight. to poor  to Knight  one f a c e  (123).  Jersild  attributes  health,  physical  The v e r y  cause o f maltall  child  w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t problems of ad-  The a t t i t u d e s o f t e a c h e r s ,  toward d i f f e r e n c e s  (Ul),  physical factors.  according  the very  justment.  t h a t 3 5 p e r cent  c h i l d ' s p h y s i q u e c a n be a s i g n i f i c a n t  adjustment and  Bursch  and M u l i e r  to 5 per cent  and l a c k o f e n e r g y  and o t h e r  importance i s  themselves,  and Topper  study r e v e a l e d  were a t l e a s t 1 0 p e r c e n t  defects  slight  t o be a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r  children, i n contrast  irritability  that  p u p i l s a n d community  i n appearance a l l a f f e c t the boy or g i r l The c h i l d  may e v e n r e c e i v e  t o o much  -  (27) attention  and  protection.  i o r i t y when p h y s i c a l  games w i t h o r d i n a r y  or  daydream.  of the  growth of  balance agers,  addition  during since  develop  children.  As  to t h e s e p h y s i c a l o r g a n s and  the  adolescence are  these  (75,p.l5i|.)  i s clear  him  feelings  from p a r t i c i p a t i n g  a r e s u l t , he  factors,  the  great  may  withdraw  varying  importance  a c c o m p a n i e d by  this  to  rates un-  teen-  innumerable  Beverly's description on  of i n f e r -  resulting physiological of  changes a r e  adjustment d i f f i c u l t i e s . growth  may  handicaps prevent  in  In  He  of  adolescent  point:  "At t h i s p e r i o d changes t a k e p l a c e i n the whole body. A p p a r e n t l y i n i t i a t e d and c o n t r o l l e d by t h e g l a n d s o f i n t e r n a l s e c r e t i o n , we see changes i n s t a t u r e , m e t a b o l i s m , r e s i s t a n c e to i n f e c t i o n , s i z e of organs, - the h e a r t u s u a l l y doubles i n s i z e and f i n a l l y e m o t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t and m a t u r i n g a t t i t u d e s toward l i f e . I t i s not uncommon to see a boy - l e s s o f t e n a g i r l - grow f r o m ' e i g h t to t e n inches i n height i n a single year. With t h i s r a p i d growth, s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r o b l e m s p r e s ent t h e m s e l v e s . There i s awkwardness. The m u s c l e s and bones do not d e v e l o p a t t h e same r a t e j some m u s c l e s grow more r a p i d l y t h a n o t h e r s . I t takes s e v e r a l y e a r s f o r some b o y s and g i r l s to a c h i e v e good c o - o r d i n a t i o n . T h i s awkwardness g i v e s r i s e t o embarrassment. The i n d i v i d u a l s who grow r a p i d l y a r e u n c o m f o r t a b l e i f t h e y r e m a i n i n the same p o s i t i o n f o r more than a few m i n u t e s . The a d o l e s c e n t c a n n o t s t a n d up on h i s two f e e t l i k e a gentleman.' The r a p i d l y g r o w i n g a d o l e s c e n t boy or g i r l becomes f a t i gued e a s i l y . Many h i g h s c h o o l students- a r e t o o t i r e d to s t u d y a t n i g h t . " This  description  upon t h e it  digestive  very d i f f i c u l t  manners.  omits the system. to  great The  demand t h a t  ravenous adolescent  observe p r e v i o u s l y  Furthermore, the  rapid  vigorous  acquired  objections  g r o w t h makes finds  table  of a d u l t s  do  (28) not  solve, but rather, aggravate this x  The  meaning o f a d o l e s c e n c e  (162,p.1) a s b o t h transition:  "a b i o l o g i c a l  problem o f youth.  i s w e l l d e s c r i b e d by Frank process  and a  social-cultural  The j u v e n i l e o r g a n i s m u n d e r g o e s a p r o c e s s  growth and m a t u r a t i o n  a s i t moves t o w a r d a d u l t  f u n c t i o n a l capacity.and,  more o r l e s s  of  s i z e and  concurrently,  the i n -  d i v i d u a l must p a s s t h r o u g h a t r a n s i t i o n f r o m t h e s t a t u s and conduct of a c h i l d "Like  to the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  t h e god J a n u s , t h e a d o l e s c e n t  Intelligence Since  as a C a u s a l  faces  o f the a d u l t . " two ways"  (162,p.332).  Factor  mental c a p a c i t y i s part  o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s n a t u r a l  endowment j u s t a s h i s p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t y i s , a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  the e f f e c t  will  be g i v e n  Smith  i n this  i n maladjustment.  mentality  and  18 p e r c e n t other  maladjustment. the  type  very  average,  that  maladjustment.  he r e p o r t e d  15 p e r  27 p e r c e n t  dull  Therefore,  were a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  Adam f o u n d no r e l a t i o n s h i p between I.Q. a n d  of maladjustment.  t h e mass, i n t e l l i g e n c e  to p e r s o n a l  as a c a u s a l  school  or feeble-minded.  than i n t e l l i g e n c e  C o n r a d , Freeman a n d Jones "in  students,  1*0 p e r c e n t dull  ( 2 ) and  B u r s c h f o u n d , f o r example,  d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y cause  above a v e r a g e ,  factors  (1*1), Adam  Bursch  of intelligence  I n 3,000 c a s e s o f m a l a d j u s t e d cent  upon p e r s o n a l i t y a d j u s t m e n t  section.  (197) s t u d i e d the r o l e  factor low  of intelligence  adjustment."  A similar  f i n d i n g i s r e p o r t e d by  ( I 6 2 , p . l 7 9 f f ) , who c o n c l u d e d offers l i t t l e  that  o r no p r e d i c t i o n a s  They i n d i c a t e t h a t a t l e a s t  five  (29) factors  are  i n v o l v e d i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p  ligence  and  adjustment:  level the of  of  intelligence;  activities  such  piration connected  their She  anyone e l s e  social  felt  required i n the  ambitions  p r e s s u r e s which  needs and  the  arise  level  of  are  as-  inter-  a great v a r i e t y of  p o i n t s out,  that d u l l  socially  complex  however,  that d u l l  personal t r a i t s  emotionally,  adolescents  when t o o  no  Such t r a i t s  intelligence  among t h o s e  who  failures.  A  good a d j u s t m e n t  failures.  If dull  frequently  than  children  appear  of  ability,  un-  truculent, level  t o be  successes  show u n f a v o r a b l e  of average  them.  them.  a t any  b e l i e v e themselves i s made o u t  of  unhappy,  dif-  provided  develop  much i s a s k e d  disillusioned,  sometimes d e l i n q u e n t .  those  and  a d o l e s c e n t s are  n o t made t o o - h e a v y demands upon  "They become d i s c o u r a g e d , and  intelligence  i s p o i n t e d through  o f ways and  found  e n v i r o n m e n t has  desirable  of  absolute  result."  (51+,p.3hk)  from  the c h i l d ' s  intel-  h i s a c t u a l a c h i e v e m e n t . These f a c t o r s  p a t t e r n s may  ferent  the  h i s own  in a variety  Cole  level  friends;  ambitions; and  the  t o w a r d w h i c h he  h i s f a m i l y and  from  "These a r e  between  traits  of  chronic -  not  more  i t i s because  they  have more o c c a s i o n f o r d e s p a i r . " In the (51;,p.338)  case  the  brilliant  d e s c r i b e s the problems  ily  personal.  way  with  unsocial.  of  He  has  so l i t t l e  the m a j o r i t y of Dale  (62)  pupil, of  the  such  same  a student  i n common i n an  students  t h a t he  disagrees with  Cole's  author as  primar-  intellectual  becomes i s o l a t e d conclusion.  and  Dale  (30) gave  a battery  of l i * t e s t s measuring  ment and p e r s o n a l i t y , in  terms  average  of the t e s t s  average  Maladjusted pupils  Both groups  are average  i n person-  must be c o n c l u d e d , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e d a t a  collected,  standards.  i s n o t a major  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Causes This  study turns  among many  i n causes of m a l a d j u s t -  others.  now f r o m a s u r v e y o f t h e r o l e  (256,pp.18-1?) have i n d i c a t e d  ing  "basic  the  home* 2) e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f h e t e r o s e x u a l i t y •  physical,  intelli-  the f o l l o w -  by a d o l e s c e n t s : l ) e m a n c i p a t i o n f r o m  JL|.) d e v e l o p m e n t economic;  3) d e t e r m i n a t i o n  of a sense o f s e c u r i t y  -  5) t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s t a t u s  a c c e p t a n c e among h i s f e l l o w s ) ;  philosophy of l i f e , of  faced  a vocational goal;  emotional,  of  to the p s y c h o l o g i c a l causes of m a l a d j u s t -  Wrenn a n d B e l l problems  factor  of Maladjustment  i n personality  ment.  (or  seem t o be and know-  ment, b u t o n l y one f a c t o r  of  and average i n  achievement  intelligence  gence  a r e above  adjustment," It  that  standards.  evidence  academic  ledge of s o c i a l ality  adjusted pupils  and s c h o o l achievement,  i n intelligence,  achieve-  a p p e a r s t o be r e l i a b l e  used t h a t  i n intelligence  knowledge o f s o c i a l below  "There  intelligence,  6) t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  of a  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s a t i s f a c t o r y  system  v a l u e s and s t a n d a r d s . " In  t h e main,  important  needs  t h e way a s t u d e n t r e a c t s  comprises h i s p e r s o n a l i t y .  or a d j u s t s  to these  The manner and  e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h w h i c h he_meets h i s p e r s o n a l and  social  (31) p r o b l e m s make up h i s "-wholeness" w h i c h p e r s o n a l i t y attempt  t o measure a n d  describe.  Because the C a l i f o r n i a T e s t this  study,  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  been c l a s s i f i e d components the  to c o i n c i d e  of t h a t  test.  two g e n e r a l  another,  Since  ferently,  i twill  ature  into  these  Psychological The  The t e s t g r o u p s adjustment  specific  a t times  component  listed  under  self  s t u d e n t may be s a i d t o be s e l f - r e l i a n t he c a n do t h i n g s i n various  istically  emotionally,  study  of the questions  maladjustment iences and  to lack  Jersild  to l a c k  is call-  (53,p.3)  that  when h i s a c t u a l  independently of  boy or g i r l  i s also  others,  of s o c i a l  skills  of self-rconfidence  on t h e j o b a t hand  credits lack  character-  i n behavior."  on s e l f - r e l i a n c e i n d i c a t e s  of concentration  (115,p.562)  the l i t e r -  adjustment  and r e s p o n s i b l e  may be due t o l a c k  (items U , 9 , 1 3 ) ,  dif-  s i t u a t i o n s , and d i r e c t s h i s  The s e l f - r e l i a n t  A  the causes  of the t e s t c l a i m  own a c t i v i t i e s . stable  personality  Maladjustment  "a  that  adjustment.  headings.  The a u t h o r s  depends upon h i m s e l f  dynamic  to separate  self-reliance.  indicate  under  n o t i s o l a t e d f r o m one  ed  actions  with the  and s o c i a l  investigators classify  be d i f f i c u l t  have  t h e components  o f t h e whole  Causes o f P e r s o n a l  first  of maladjustment  areas a r e , of course,  other  was u s e d i n  as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e  but are simply parts  picture.  of Personality  causes  two m a i n h e a d i n g s o f s e l f  These  tests  that the  and e x p e r (items  (items  3,11),  6,15).  of s e l f - r e l i a n c e to lack of  (32) ability,  to l i t t l e  previous  series  confident  r e c o g n i t i o n and  of f a i l u r e s .  person  i s the  Jersild  one,  most  and  P r o t e c t i o n (238,p.1*0) f o u n d  and  t h a t o f t e n no two  years  The  who,  the  is  competent.  White  special  of p u p i l s  of  By  and  ality. sible  and  closely  Causes w h i c h for developing  The  second  Personality  cannot  be  this  destroy other  The  by  c e s s and  student  self  authors  area o f adjustment  authors  as  feelings  feelings  on t h e i r  own  other  o f the  he  i s well  catering  The  character-  aspects may  to  for i t is i n -  also  of  person-  be  respon-.  feels  capable  and  i s similar  and  California  t h a t he faith  Test  cited  To  feel  Smith  (197)  of  well re-  (177)  worthy,  by  other  reports that  students found  suc-  attractive.  were t h e  by  sense  i n his future  to t h a t d e s i g n a t e d Pope  a  i n his -  i s not  reasonably  superiority  problems.  is called  i s maladjusted  have no  problems of p e r s o n a l adjustment essays  till  Wickman's  i n vacuo  adjustment  of i n f e r i o r i t y .  of i n f e r i o r i t y  he  teachers  below-average a b i l i t y .  needs t o f e e l  failure,  maladjustments.  others, that others has  like  Health  o f d e p e n d e n c y and i n -  viewed  consider that a student  t h a t he  time,  self-reliance  o f p e r s o n a l w o r t h when he  garded  fails  children.  integrated with  equal, i s  Child  discouragement.  of the  component o f  of p e r s o n a l worth.  sense  tactics  on  most  made o f a c h i l d  a r e o f t e n i n c r e a s e d by  self-reliance  terlocked  This  Conference  that nothing  retarded i n school.  sympathy-seeking  istic  the  things being  (2lj.0,p.171) r e v e a l s t h a t f e e l i n g s  adequacy the  other  House  a  b e l i e v e s t h a t the  study i s ever  grounded i n h a b i t s o f f a i l u r e study  encouragement, or to  most in that  numerous their those  (33) who to  suffered  from pronounced  have more t h a n  inferiority  the a v e r a g e  number o f n e u r o t i c  measured b y t h e B e r n r e u t e r P e r s o n a l i t y also  that  feelings  did non-delinquent  T i e g s and of  Katz  feelings. ed t o be  Organic the cause  resulting  causal factors  of i n f e r i o r i t y t o compete  feelings.  inadequate,  unattractive.  inferior  and  t e n d to  t h e o p i n i o n t h a t most f e e l i n g s  t e a s i n g , p u n i s h m e n t , and causes  if  may  be  the  rejection,  As w e l l  (median  I . Q . 1 2 1 ) and  ability  (median  the b a s i c  causes  51  (129)  child  of i n f e r i o r i t y  a causal factor  Laycock  factors,  as t h e  are too  51  of  feelings.  ings i n undesirable personal t r a i t s  feel are  of  not the  frequently school  en-  inferiority  their  ability  or  superior students in  His study throws l i g h t  the i n f e r i o r  to  comparisons,  home, t h e  of f e e l i n g s  and  especially  unfavourable  compared  of i n f e r i o r i t y  a three-year period, that  the  develop,  students below average  I.Q.78).  consider-  However,  s t u d e n t s are a s s i g n e d s c h o o l t a s k s beyond  comprehension.  of these  These a u t h o r s  over-solicitude  of maladjustment.  vironment  cause  from p s y c h o l o g i c a l , There,  list  s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h peers  do  home e n v i r o n m e n t .  found  inferiority  d e f e c t s were n o t i n t h e m s e l v e s  t h e t e a s i n g by p l a y m a t e s  but  number o f  as  children.  psychological  inability  from p h y s i c a l ,  He  (22.5,p.3U2 ) g i v e a v e r y c o m p l e t e  b o t h o r g a n i c and  likely  tendencies  Inventory.  delinquents reported a larger than  f e e l i n g s were  I t was  group  had  mental upon some o f found, higher  over rat-  s u c h as o v e r - s e n s i t i v e n e s s ,  (3k) day-dreaming,  inferiority  feelings,  n e r v o u s n e s s , and s u g g e s t i b i l i t y . differences superior  children,  o c c a s i o n e d by the ' c o n f l i c t  are  t h a t have  been  the  over d i f f e r e n c e '  Because  "under-dogi" those i n f e r i o r  that  of t h e i r  gave  evidence that  wisely  companions  inferiority  actual  The same s t u d y group who were  between  friends  feelings  and s c h o o l ,  o f a s p i r a t i o n o f the p u p i l  and h i s  achievement. of p e r s o n a l freedom  i s measured.  The Manual  i s enjoying  permitted  i s the t h i r d  of Directions  component  ($3,V»3)  a sense o f p e r s o n a l freedom  says a  "when he i s  t o have a r e a s o n a b l e s h a r e i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f  conduct and i n s e t t i n g  govern h i s l i f e . choose  with  C o n r a d , Freeman and  and a t t i t u d e s o f f a m i l y ,  The f e e l i n g  student  being  cannot f a i l to  i n home and s c h o o l .  h a n d l e d were n o t m a l a d j u s t e d .  who  system o f  own p o o r a b i l i t y  students of the i n f e r i o r  and between t h e l e v e l  ing  i n ability  of t h e i r  group  and o f a l w a y s  (162,p.32) found a close r e l a t i o n s h i p  Jones  that  and l o c k - s t e p  of repeated f a i l u r e s  degree,  or f e e l i n g s o f  occasioned i n the l a t t e r  make u n f a v o u r a b l e c o m p a r i s o n s  his  are, to a very large  maladjusted to the curriculum  education."  of  Laycock c o n c l u d e d t h a t "the  i n degree of maladjustment between t h e groups o f  and i n f e r i o r  inferiority  self-consciousness,  one's  money."  the general p o l i c i e s  D e s i r a b l e freedom  own f r i e n d s  a n d - t o have  An a d o l e s c e n t ' s f e e l i n g  that  shall  i n c l u d e s p e r m i s s i o n to at least  a little  spend-  o f p e r s o n a l freedom i s ,  (35) therefore, The Study from to  connected with h i s emancipation  from  h i s home.  F o r t y - T h i r d Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r  of Education  ( 1 6 2 , p . 21*6) p o i n t s o u t t h a t  dependence upon t h e f a m i l y  and f r o m  "emancipation  childish  submission  p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y a r e a c u t e a d o l e s c e n t p r o b l e m s i n our  society.  The poor  a d o l e s c e n t may n e v e r  in his life  have had  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o use judgment o r t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , b u t now he i s b e r a t e d f o r i n a b i l i t y life."  (51*,PP.387-95)  Cole  to take charge  b l a m e s t h e home i t s e l f  hindrances to emancipation from adolescent maladjustments. strict  control  friends  bling  blocks.  strong  tendency  family,  call  a need f o r a f e e l i n g  that  i sthe  of adoles-  and a t t i t u d e s .  and s e c u r i t y . "  Test of P e r s o n a l i t y  a student f e e l s  emancipation  stum-  " i n our s o c i e t y , the  e m o t i o n a l n e e d s : t h e need t o a c h i e v e and  t h e f o u r t h component o f s e l f  his  a r e some o f t h e s e  to t h i s  standards of conduct  t h e need f o r a f f e c t i o n  security  to allow adoles-  of parents to i n t e r p r e t behaviour  has two b a s i c  California  hindrance  to l e s s e n  money, o f c h o i c e o f  (257-P*259) p o i n t s o u t t h a t  Zachry  and  spending  own d i f f i c u l t i e s  Another  c e n t s by a d u l t  child  of parents  and c h o i c e of v o c a t i o n , o r f a i l u r e  cents to solve their  f o r many  t h e home and f o r r e s u l t i n g  Failure  of c h i l d r e n ' s  o f h i s own  The a u t h o r s o f t h e  this  need f o r a f f e c t i o n  o f b e l o n g i n g , and make i t '  adjustment.  They c o n s i d e r t h a t  he b e l o n g s when he e n j o y s t h e l o v e o f  the w e l l wishes  r e l a t i o n s h i p with people  o f h i s good f r i e n d s ,  i n general.  According  and a c o r d i a l t o Rose  (36) (187,p.1+6), a d o l e s c e n c e i s a t r a n s i t i o n a l s t a g e i n w h i c h y o u t h l e a v e s a phase justed  and  feeling of  strives  of l i f e  towards  of u n c e r t a i n t y  to w h i c h  he  t h e unknown.  and  to the f a c t o r  tributing  The r e s u l t  is a  insecurity with possible  aggressiveness, self-consciousness  dition  i s adequately ad-  reactions  and w i t h d r a w a l .  to f e e l i n g s  w i t h o u t due  The  o f i n s e c u r i t y may  freedom  cause,  California  causes of withdrawing  points  he  be r e a l  ones s u c h  out t h a t  al  problems  which  asy.  T i e g s and  substitutes ing  for acting  participation  and  on  solved  assoc-  and  Katz withperson-  simply or d i r e c t l y .  For  t o n e g a t i v i s m or " t h e boy  fant-  or g i r l  t h i n k i n g f o r d o i n g , and  the p o s s i b i l i t y Such  the  According to Cole  mechanisms i n s o l v i n g  for reality,  social relationships.  literature  day-dreaming  out i s to r e s o r t  curtails  n e x t t o measure  of i n f e r i o r i t y .  (225,p.318) show how  Katz  imagery  The  feelings  students adopt  c a n n o t be  some, the e a s i e s t way  tries  extensive.  d r a w a l t e n d e n c i e s as a d j u s t m e n t  as  child  t e n d e n c i e s are n e a r l y always  or c h r o n i c  con-  i s unwanted.  tendencies.  i s quite  (51+jP»307), w i t h d r a w i n g  (120)  that  Test of P e r s o n a l i t y  from withdrawing  iated with serious  ad-  of the onset of a d o l e s c e n c e , f a c t o r s  r e j e c t i o n by p a r e n t s o r t e a c h e r s , o r u n r e a l when the feels,  In  of engaging  persons withdraw  become s e n s i t i v e ,  lonely,  from and  who  wish-  i n normal  social  given to  day-  dreams." Finally,  i n self  adjustment,  the p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t  used  (37) in  this  study i n c l u d e s  symptoms.  This  (51+,p«32i*), appetite, and  eye  constant  Baker and by  by  type of maladjustment various  strain,  chronic  neurotic  arily  p h y s i c a l causes of  rejection,  and  faulty being  studies  and  highly  tics  to  lack  weakness.  symptoms,  s u c h as f e e l i n g s o f  by  symptoms.  Kanner and  caused of  sleep,  to p h y s i c a l w e a k n e s s e s  glandular  nervous  be  Besides  there  are  Regarding  prim-  numerous  i n s e c u r i t y due social  con-  to (53  skills  some o f  the  nail-biting,  Wechsler which  indicate  e m o t i o n a l - t o n e d p u n i s h m e n t s or f e e l i n g s  or  a r i s e from organic  Kanner's  i s often  less,  or  and  of  unwanted.  cording  ing  may  of  main cause i s e m o t i o n a l t e n s e n e s s r e s u l t i n g f r o m  T i c s may  tics  these habits  Cole  scowling,  (16?)  Olson  to undernourishment,  nervous  says  lack  ( 2 2 5 , p p . 3 0 0 - 7 ) have o u t l i n e d  Katz  specific  they r e p o r t the  causes  to  unhappy homes, l a c k o f f r i e n d s or  Tiegs c a u s e s of  According  or  nervous  fatigue, nail-biting,  influences,  some o r g a n i c  psychological  that  due  i s revealed,  symptoms such as  (l6,p.l6°),  physical disorders  nected with  physical  restlessness.  Traphagen  hereditary  a measurement o f f r e e d o m f r o m  other  irritation disturbances  T r a v i s and are  study  Baruch  (225,p.303). due of  The  factors  organic  t o e y e - s t r a i n or  A report  by  Mahler  cloth-  causes  from mental (llj.6)  of  Neverthe-  (225,P«30l*) f o u n d t h a t t h e arising  ac-  cause  improper  a p h y s i c a l nature.  primarily psychological,  emotional c o n f l i c t s .  or p s y c h o l o g i c a l  of  and  indicates  that  (38) "recent the  t i cresearch revealed  t i c i s a part,  often originates  a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l motor child  t h a t motor  factor  n e u r o s i s of which  through i n t e r a c t i o n of  o f the i m p u l s i v e  c o n c o m i t a n t l y w i t h t o o much or t o o l i t t l e  mental i n t e r f e r e n c e with the small c h i l d ' s sional activities." frequency of t i c s  Mahler  "the  baby",  Travis  and o t h e r s  maladjustment primarily factor  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Causes The  available  ward s e l f  symptoms o f e x i s t , not o f a major  due t o c o n f l i c t s ,  emot-  m o t i v e s and n e e d s .  or l e a r n i n g  language t h a t i s  type of maladjustment.  of S o c i a l  outlined.  causes of s o c i a l maladjustment  skills,  nervous  Dunlop,  Maladjustment  s t u d i e s on t h e c a u s e s o f m a l a d j u s t m e n t t o -  have been  the C a l i f o r n i a  7 were  a s s o c i a t e u n f a v o u r a b l e home  of nagging, r i d i c u l i n g , taboo, w i t h t h i s  - e.g.,  child.  b u t because  t o meet b a s i c  same s o u r c e s ( 2 2 5 , p . 3 0 9 )  socially  setting  and stammering  of a speech d e f e c t ,  and f a i l u r e  a higher  such as Thorpe,  (225,pp.308-9), other  of p e r s o n a l i t y maladjustment  factors  of  living  authorities  s u c h as s t u t t e r i n g  because  ional tensions These  to s e v e r a l  expres-  were g i v e n by t h e  12 were " o n l y " c h i l d r e n ,  and 10 were t h e f i r s t  According  diffuse  importance i n the f a m i l y  o f 33 c a s e s o f t i c s ,  environ-  and C r o s s (11+7) r e p o r t  among c h i l d r e n who  p a r e n t s an unsound out  type i n the  There remains a r e v i e w of the under  the convenient groupings  Test of P e r s o n a l i t y - s o c i a l  freedom from a n t i - s o c i a l  tendencies,  s t a n d a r d s and  family  relations,  (39) school relations The  r e s e a r c h on t h e f i r s t  a r d s and s k i l l s describe as and  i s rather limited.  t o t h e needs o f t h e g r o u p . as being r i g h t  maladjustment i n t h i s (158)  Nash  children  needed  normal, 25  justment, i n moral  standards  of others  52  that  t o be  relatively  25 p e r c e n t o f s c h o o l  and s o c i a l  conventions  t h e home, namely,  reports a  study  standards  and h a b i t .  tolerated,  (225,P«206)  i n s o c i a l ad-  and 57  T i e g s and K a t z  and wrong a r e b u i l t  same a u t h o r s  (51*,P« 21*3)  e v e n among young c o l l e g e women c o n -  matters.  understanding  standards  The f r e q u e n c y o f  per cent r e p o r t e d d i f f i c u l t y  o f what i s e n c o u r a g e d ,  equacies  Cole  per cent i n s o c i a l  that moral  what i s r i g h t  o r wrong."  understands  s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o become e f f e c t i v e i n  or r e l i g i o u s  imitation,  social  social  the r i g h t s  a r e a has b e e n f o u n d  social relationships.  sidered  These  stand-  (53,P»3)  Such a p e r s o n  reported at least  by P r e s s e y who f o u n d  claim  of s o c i a l  Clarke et a l  has come t o u n d e r s t a n d  what i s r e g a r d e d  their  two h e a d i n g s  appreciates the n e c e s s i t y of subordinating c e r t a i n  desires  high.  relations.  t h e s t u d e n t who r e c o g n i z e s d e s i r a b l e  " t h e one who who  and community  per cent  (225,p. 21*14.)  are the product of "Children's concepts of  up g r a d u a l l y on t h e b a s i s or avoided  blame a n o t h e r  i n t h e home." factor  besides  lack of school success, f o r inadequate of a d o l e s c e n t s .  and i n f e r i o r i t i e s  "The i n s e c u r i t i e s ,  which produce  inad-  such u n d e s i r a b l e  (Uo) behavior  as rudeness,  associated with difficulties tensions  lack o f school success."  i n social  standards,  ial  skills.  stealing,  Violations  of and  t o l a c k o f knowledge o f s o c -  of s o c i a l  standards  t o be l o o k e d  are,  undesirable  social  such  soc-  as l y i n g ,  according  t o Wickman  u p o n g e n e r a l l y as e v i d e n c e s o f  a n d p a r e n t a l mismanagement and  Holbeck  They add t h a t  may be t r a c e d t o e m o t i o n a l  c h e a t i n g , and i m m o r a l i t y  blamed on b o t h  are often  or t o l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r developing  (2J+0,pp. 1 6 1 - 7 1 ) ,  Since  relations  i n home and community,  ial  teacher  d i s c o u r t e s y , and b u l l y i n g  standards  misunderstanding.  of adolescents  c a n be  t h e home a n d t h e s c h o o l , t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n  ( 1 0 3 ) f o r more and b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  c o o p e r a t i o n between t h e s e  two i n s t i t u t i o n s  agreement  c a n n o t be over-  emphasized. The sider  authors  t h a t the adolescent  effective. assistance for  skills  t o be s o c i a l l y  f o r people,  to inconvenience  t o be o f himself  and t o be d i p l o m a t i c i n h i s d e a l i n g s w i t h  tendencies  In general,  i n favour  he w i l l  both  subordinate h i s  of the i n t e r e s t s  and problems  h i s associates. Evidence  in  social  t o them, t o be w i l l i n g  and s t r a n g e r s .  egoistic  needs  Test o f P e r s o n a l i t y con-  He needs t o show a l i k i n g  others,  friends  of  o f the C a l i f o r n i a  this  method  area  has b e e n f o u n d  to i n d i c a t e  i s quite frequent.  to d i s c o v e r the p e r s o n a l  Pope  that  maladjustment  ( 1 7 7 ) used t h e essay  problems o f high  school  (Ui) pupils. twelve one  E s s a y s w r i t t e n b y l,°Ol|. s t u d e n t s o f g r a d e s n i n e t o inclusive listed  out o f twelve  7,103 problems.  Pope r e p o r t s  that  s t u d e n t s was c o n s c i o u s o f i n a d e q u a t e  a d j u s t m e n t and f e l t  a desire  f o r social  acceptance.  social  Girls  a p p e a r e d more s e n s i t i v e t h a n b o y s t o w a r d s p r o b l e m s o f b o y girl relationships.  F e n t o n and W a l l a c e  (76,p.60) report  among t y p e s o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s made b y g u i d a n c e who s t u d i e d prove  area  the o p p o r t u n i t i e s  f o r adequate  social relationships.  Naturally  enough, t h e c a u s e s  of maladjustment i n t h i s  of s o c i a l  development c e n t r e  around  the lack  s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the lack  qualities  of personal  c e p t e d and t h i r t y - o n e bers of the accepted friendly,  loyal,  of adequate  compared  children.  emotionally  to attention-getting  The Test  behaviour  and a n t i - s o c i a l  (53,P-3)  s o c i a l tendencies are: disobedience,  cooperative, 11  whereas  in stability,  were  a n d showed p r o n o u n c e d  trends.  symptoms c o n s i d e r e d  of Personality  He f o u n d t h a t mem-  and c h e e r f u l ,  t h o s e i n t h e r e j e c t e d g r o u p were l a c k i n g  delinquent  thirty-one ac-  group were " s o c i a l i z e d ,  stable  opportunities  I n a s t u d y by t h e c a s e -  (211*,p. 75)  rejected  the inadequacy of  o f f r i e n d s and o f t h e  leadership.  h i s t o r y method, Symonds  given  specialists  I4.I2 r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s were made t o i m -  795 c a s e s ,  home t r a i n i n g a n d example, for  that  by t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a under t h e component o f a n t i -  " b u l l y i n g , too f r e q u e n t  and d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s  to property.  quarrelling, The a h t i -  (1+2) s o c i a l person factions Tiegs  i s t h e one who e n d e a v o r s  i n ways t h a t a r e damaging and u n f a i r t o o t h e r s . "  and K a t z d e s c r i b e  a l i t y motivated  the a n t i - s o c i a l  person  "the r e s u l t  T i e g s and K a t z  o f i n s e c u r i t y and i n e f f i c i e n c y (225,p.207)  c o n s i s t e n t home-training  and L o u t t i t  considers  tendencies o f some  ( 1 3 9 , p . 1+78) success  sort."  believe and i n -  by w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e n a r e c o n f u s e d  r e s o r t t o argument, d i s o b e d i e n c e  (213,p.75)  person-  by s e l f i s h n e s s .  the m a i n c a u s a l f a c t o r s a r e l a c k o f s c h o o l  and  as a  (51+,P»90) p o i n t s o u t t h a t a n t i - s o c i a l  Cole are  to g e t h i s s a t i s -  and d e f i a n c e .  t h a t homes w h i c h r e j e c t  Symonds  a member o f t h e  f a m i l y f r e q u e n t l y c a u s e t h a t r e j e c t e d member t o d e v e l o p social A  tendencies. good  linquency She  summary o f t h e type,  b e l i e v e s i t c o n s i s t s o f : "1)  more t h a n habits,  o f environment c a u s i n g de-  and a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r  ineffective  is  anti-  i n discipline,  i s g i v e n by Cole  a home i n w h i c h p a r e n t s a r e  unsuccessful economically,  average n a t i v e a b i l i t y ,  and o f q u e s t i o n a b l e  of undesirable  morality;  devised f o r adults, t o t a l l y without  and  l a r g e l y without  and  3) a school that t r i e s  (51+, p . 267 ) •  of not  personal  2) a n e i g h b o r h o o d safeguards  safe o u t l e t s f o r emotional  that  for children,  and s o c i a l  life;  t o make s c h o l a r s o u t o f nonacademic  material." The  personality test  t o measure a s t u d e n t ' s  used  i n this  adjustment  i n v e s t i g a t i o n next  to h i s home s i t u a t i o n .  tries "The  (U3) student one  who e x h i b i t s d e s i r a b l e f a m i l y  who f e e l s  that  he i s l o v e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s the  and w e l l - t r e a t e d  a t home, and  who has a s e n s e o f s e c u r i t y and s e l f - r e s p e c t i n c o n n e c t i o n with  the various  lations strict  also  members o f h i s f a m i l y .  include  parental  nor too l e n i e n t "  The ported  that those  ditions of  suggestions  component i s r e -  Ranking t h e recom-  i n order  of frequency,  f o r improvement o f t h e home  a v e r a g e d 3•h3 p e r c a s e compared t o t h e n e x t  2.65 f o r educational  suggestions  adjustment  concerned  and 1 . 5 8  they con-  highest  f o r improvement  I n t h e home s i t u a t i o n , most o f t h e  s o c i a l or e d u c a t i o n a l  (1.14.1 p e r c a s e ) and a d v i c e  regarding  work i n t h e home  methods o f c h i l d  train-  (1.30 per case). The  committee  on the " F a m i l y  the W h i t e h o u s e C o n f e r e n c e (239,p.7) IX  i s n e i t h e r too  i n this  (76,p.60).  specialists  of p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g .  ing  family r e -  (53,P»3K  and W a l l a c e  mendations of guidance found  control that  frequency of maladjustment  by F e n t o n  Superior  and X.  studied They  ana P a r e n t E d u c a t i o n "  of  on C h i l d H e a l t h a n d P r o t e c t i o n  9,000 American  students  of grades  VIII,  found:  "The e x t e r n a l s o f home l i f e l i k e i t s economic s t a t u s or i t s housing arrangements, w h i l e imp o r t a n t , a r e n o t n e a r l y so s i g n i f i c a n t f o r p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h i l d as a r e t h e s u b t l e r and more i n t a n g i b l e a s p e c t s o f f a m i l y l i f e s u c h as a f f e c t i o n a t e b e h a v i o r , r e l a t i o n s of confidence, i n c u l c a t i o n o f r e g u l a r i t y i n h e a l t h h a b i t s and r e a c t i o n s t o the i l l n e s s or n e r v o u s n e s s o f p a r e n t s . "  (1+1+) Stemsrud  and W a r d w e l l  (201,pp.165-70)  p a r e n t a l r e j e c t i o n combined w i t h was  the cause o f maladjustment  also found child  i n many c a s e s .  social  of a better-appreciated  adequate  ambition  and e a r l y r e s t r a i n t  of parents  who f o r c e  that  a measure o f o v e r - p r o t e c t i o n  the over-mothered  i s t i m i d and l a c k s  jealousy of  that  found  Meyers  and e m o t i o n a l l y  adaptation. brother  (157)  dependent  He r e p o r t s  or s i s t e r ,  that  the lack  i n t h e home and t h e o v e r -  a child  beyond h i s a b i l i t y are  c a u s e s o f m a l a d j u s t m e n t , b o t h i n t h e home and a t s c h o o l .  (21+9) i n v e s t i g a t i o n  Witmer' s cerning  spent t h e i r  constant  friction  mother,  marked  She f o u n d  Bell  importance jection, fair least Cole  between p a r e n t s ,  data  con-  a r e j e c t i o n o f the c h i l d  (22) and  Tiegs  of these causes  unfavourable  punishment,  and K a t z  a combination deviation:  by b o t h p a r e n t s ,  or a  upon f a t h e r o r  (225,p.3i+3)  of maladjustment.  comparisons,  that  an o v e r - s o l i c i t o u s or domin-  teasing,  confirm the  They l i s t r e d i s a p p r o v a l , un-  and o v e r - s o l i c i t u d e as t h e p a r e n t a l  attitudes  d e s i r a b l e f o r wholesome p e r s o n a l i t y g r o w t h o f c h i l d r e n . (51+, p. 397)  adds t o t h e s e f a c t o r s t h e f a i l u r e  " l e t go" t h e e a r l y d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r There  size  gives  l e d to emotional  e m o t i o n a l dependence o f t h e c h i l d  mother.  to  childhood.  the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s repeatedly  ating  adults  t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e homes i n w h i c h t h e s e i n -  dividuals of  of insane  a r e numerous s t u d i e s  of f a m i l y ,  relative  of  parents  children.  and r e p o r t s  on t h e e f f e c t s o f  p o s i t i o n o f c h i l d r e n and s i b l i n g r e -  (1*5) lationships  on p e r s o n a l i t y a d j u s t m e n t to  (139,p.282)  and  in  the  family  These men ed,  (252)  Witty  i s not,  found that  conceited  out  able  i n f l u e n c e on  contrary "only"  with  t h o s e o f Adam  given  child.  ( 2 , p . 1*5)  other  a p p e a r s to have Bursch the  where 2 . 5 Bursch  t o manage.  (1*1)  their  and  an  or  Louttit's findings  agree more  second-born c h i l d r e n .  The  s i z e of  average of  1.8  spoil-  unpredict-  The  a t t i t u d e s of  the  family  the  also  maladjustment.  school  children in  with  f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g the homes.  neither 62  parent, per  20 per  five  of cases l a c k e d  cent  with  cent the  evening  f o u n d p r o b l e m boys were more f r e q u e n t n o r m a l homes. disrupted  assumed.  He  with  bases t h i s  be  on  the  study  cent  to  parents  supervision.  of be  who NinetyAdam  i n broken than i n the  much l e s s t h a n has  conclusion  per  one  status  mother a l o n e .  Adam warns, however, t h a t home may  that  c h i l d r e n showed 15  and  cent  a d j u s t m e n t of  Bursch reported  were d i v o r c e d per  school.  Adam (2,p.1*5) f o u n d t h a t m a r i t a l  homes o f m a l a d j u s t e d  living  the  handicap.  However,  f a m i l y has  p u p i l s were e n r o l l e d i n  a significant  c h i l d r e n to the  an  a  child  t h a t problem c h i l d r e n are  family.  found  only  necessarily  some r e l a t i o n s h i p to c h i l d r e n ' s  (1*1,p.320)  Louttit  a v e r a g e home, w h e r e a s m a l a d j u s t e d c h i l d r e n came f r o m fam-  ilies  was  not  o f p o s i t i o n seems d e p e n d e n t upon t h e members o f t h e  the  opinion,  c h i l d r e n are  f r e q u e n t l y f o u n d among f i r s t effect  to c u r r e n t  t h a t p o s i t i o n i n the any  home.  found that being  or o t h e r w i s e d i f f i c u l t  Louttit points  the  his  influence  of  been commonly  study of  normal  (1*6)  and  b r o k e n homes compared t o the homes o f s e r v i c e m e n  the  f a t h e r s were away a t war. Educators  of  find  t h a t t h e home f a c t o r  sexual maladjustment  article that  dealing with  faulty  adolescent  sexual misconduct threats lated  i s a direct  o f young p e o p l e .  "The A d o l e s c e n t adjustment  was u s u a l l y  Frank  by e a r l y  The c a u s e s  (225,p.329).  of unmarried  Bernard  the g i r l s  showed e f f e c t s  they  r e c e i v e d too l i t t l e  security  (5k,P«261;)  delinquency  and p o o r  home moral  s t u d i e d the e f f e c t  girls,  and f o u n d  that  emotional m a l n u t r i t i o n *  l o v e , p r o t e c t i o n , esteem,  to develop  adequate  emotional  i n harmony w i t h  reality."  r e p o r t s an e x t e n s i v e s u r v e y b y W i l l i a m s  c h i l d r e n who were p r o b l e m s i n s c h o o l .  home was f o u n d  justed  of early  o r i n n e r c o n t r o l s and i d e a l s  Cole of l , 3 l * 3  (27,p.21*1*)  partental  e n c o u r a g e m e n t , and l i b e r a t i o n  experiences r e -  t o be t r a c e d t o f a u l t y  m o t h e r h o o d upon a d o l e s c e n t  "all  distortions,  o f s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e among  c o n d i t i o n s where t h e r e a r e l o w home s t a n d a r d s attitudes  found  t o sex problems or h e t e r o -  caused  a d o l e s c e n t s a r e , i n most c a s e s ,  cause  ( 8 3 ) , i n an  a n d The F a m i l y , "  o f p u n i s h m e n t and e m o t i o n a l l y - c h a r g e d  t o sex t a b o o s .  where  t o be one o f the major  among c h i l d r e n .  Cole  factors  found  The d e l i n q u e n t i n causes o f  7 7 per cent o f malad-  children "came f r o m homes i n w h i c h one o r b o t h p a r e n t s were of low-grade m e n t a l i t y , i l l i t e r a t e , d i s e a s e d , o r immoral. From t h e above d a t a i t i s c l e a r t h a t d e l i n q u e n t s come f r o m p o o r l y e q u i p p e d homes i n w h i c h t h e p a r e n t s a r e o f low c a p a c i t y , i n f e r i o r e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and q u e s t i o n a b l e m o r a l s .  (hi) "There a r e two f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e homes, however. I n h a l f o f those s t u d i e d the p a r e n t s were s e p a r a t e d - b y d e a t h , d e s e r t i o n , d i v o r c e , o r a b s e n c e o f one p a r e n t f r o m c h r o n i c i l l n e s s o r i m p r i s o n m e n t .... I n 70 p e r c e n t o f the homes t h e d i s c i p l i n e was e i t h e r s a d l y l a c k i n g or q u i t e unsound. The p a r e n t s o f d e l i n q u e n t s a r e e v i d e n t l y p e o p l e who have l i t t l e c o n t r o l o v e r thems e l v e s and e v e n l e s s o v e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . " While aspects  of economic s t a t u s  and h o u s i n g  ior  grades  than t o problem  children.  Bursch  (l|l)also  of economic s t a t u s , r e p o r t i n g  regular  s h i p between school. came f r o m  He f o u n d t h a t crowded l i v i n g  He r e p o r t s  that  Fenton  super-  that  investigated the  90 p e r c e n t o f or i r -  $800 p e r annum f o r two o r  conditions  relation-  and m a l a d j u s t m e n t  86 p e r t h o u s a n d  maladjusted  in  children  compared t o 153 p e r t h o u s a n d  homes.  area o f p e r s o n a l i t y which i s of s p e c i a l concern t o  educators i s , o f course, adjustment by  that  t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  s i n g l e - f a m i l y homes  multiple-family The  children  c h i l d r e n had i n a d e q u a t e  incomes - i . e . , l e s s t h a n  more p e r s o n s .  He f o u n d  Fisher  o f t h e home was more common t o n o n - p r o b l e m  f a m i l i e s w h i c h had m a l a d j u s t e d  from  arrangements i n  and 360 n o n - p r o b l e m  I , I I I , V, V I , I X , and X I I .  economic s t a t u s  effect  important, the  r e l a t i o n s a r e a l s o f a c t o r s i n home a d j u s t m e n t .  ( 7 7 ) made a s t u d y o f 360 p r o b l e m from  (239>P»7)  " s u b t l e r and more i n t a n g i b l e "  o f home r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e e x t r e m e l y  externals family  a l l these  and Wallace  maladjustment  found  ( 7 6 ) to f i n d  to the school. relative  The s t u d y  frequencies of  t h e number o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s made b y t h e  (U8) clinic  concerning e d u c a t i o n a l maladjustment  When t h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s were c l a s s i f i e d , curriculum case),  and i n s t r u c t i o n p l a c e d f i r s t  c l a s s r o o m management s e c o n d  ment and p r o g r e s s t h i r d , can e x p e c t ment  to f i n d  (.ij.2  modification of  i n frequency  (1.31 p e r  (.61 p e r c a s e ) a n d p l a c e - .  per case).  I n t h e s e a r e a s one  some o f t h e c a u s a l f a c t o r s  of maladjust-  to school. I n a s t u d y o f 7,103 p r o b l e m s m e n t i o n e d  school their Only  was 2.65 p e r c a s e .  s t u d e n t s , Pope difficulties  (177) f o u n d  concerned  that  i n essays by high  kh p e r c e n t o f a l l  study-learning relationships.  one q u a r t e r o f t h e s t u d e n t s were c o n c e r n e d  vocations, number  one t e n t h a b o u t  about  home-life r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  more c o n c e r n e d When t h e s e fifty  p e r s o n a l adjustment  than boys about  their  future  and a s i m i l a r  G i r l s were  slightly  s t u d y - l e a r n i n g problems.  s c h o o l p r o b l e m s were c l a s s i f i e d ,  p e r c e n t were due t o r e l a t i o n s h i p s  t h e amount  about  i t was f o u n d  that  with teachers, to  o f home s t u d y a n d t o t e a c h e r s ' u n f a i r n e s s and s t e r n  attitude. What a r e t h e c a u s e s Stowell first  (99) f o u n d  grade,  of these problems?  that problems o f p u p i l s ,  are influenced  to a large  H a t t w i c k and especially  i n the  e x t e n t by f a c t o r s i n  t h e home. However,  the s c h o o l system  satisfactory personality mental  hygiene  are l i s t e d  itself  development. b y Ryan  contains hazards to Such h a n d i c a p s to  (189)  and W i t t y  (251).  (k9)  According to Ryan, the more serious obstacles to wholesome adjustment are: a) R i g i d i t y of grades and promotions* b) Recitations of the mere r e - r e c i t a t i o n type and homework lacking i n real interest to the students; c) The t r a d i t i o n a l and out-moded reliance upon examinations and marks* d) Discipline of the punitive type instead of various forms of s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e . The hazards i n the school program mentioned by Witty included: lack of opportunity for creative expression; r i g i d administration including large classes, homogeneous grouping and departmentalization; unstable teachers; and too much subject matter with consequent f a i l u r e s .  Worth (255,p..5i)-) reports that the  school practices causing personality d i f f i c u l t i e s are: misplacement and f a i l u r e i n school; programs unsuited to a child's needs and a b i l i t i e s ; uniform lesson assignments; race-horse competition; report cards shoving r e l a t i v e position; blanket testing to determine efficiency of teachers i n passing students; and X,I,Z  groupings.  The effects of marks and examinations as factors i n personality adjustment have been reported by Ayer ( l l ; ) , Symonds (210) and Ryan (189)*  Ayer states that there i s e v i -  dence of the essential value of marks to our educational system.  "Experiments prove learners make the best progress  when they are aware of the rate of their improvement."  (SO)  However, he u r g e s t h a t reliable, should and  more s p e c i f i c ,  be u s e d  marks^  aminations are  as c h e c k s  punishments."  school  "marks t h e m s e l v e s  should  and more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g . and g u i d e s ,  Symonds c l a i m s  the t r o u b l e  rather  that,  pupil.  I t was  are used."  adequately  subject  and f o r m a l  The social  is  Engle  (71). Wilkins  found  a r e n o t so a c t i v e  classmates.  acceleration In  are not necessary to  there  significant,  that  as t h e i r  accelerated  no n - a c c e l e r a t e d  s t u d e n t s of t h e i r  these  studies  i s n o t a major cause o f s c h o o l (38), G o l d r i c h  (1*8) and Wickman (21+0), one i m p o r t a n t adjustment to school  adjustment  i s some i n d i c a t i o n ,  a r e j u s t as a c t i v e  to conclude from  s t u d i e s by Boynton  (21*1+)  a f f e c t e d by t h e s i n g l e f a c t o r o f  socially  age, t h e y  by W i l k i n s  that personality  However, when compared w i t h  own c h r o n o l o g i c a l seems l o g i c a l  (3) t h a t r i g i d i t y o f  i n studies  Engle r e p o r t s  although not s t a t i s t i c a l l y pupils  and l o n g -  a c c e l e r a t i o n upon p e r s o n a l i t y and  are r e p o r t e d  acceleration.  i n t e r e s t to the  development.  probably not appreciably  school  Study"  examinations  e f f e c t s of school  adjustment  as t h r e a t s f o r  shown b y t h e e x t e n s i v e  o f "The E i g h t - Y e a r  good a l l - r o u n d p u p i l  Examinations  as s p e e d f o r c e r s , or means o f f o r c i n g  range r e s e a r c h matter  as r e w a r d s  seems t o l i e n o t so much w i t h e x -  as t h e way i n w h i c h t h e y  or demotion,  They  "as i n t h e c a s e o f  s t u d e n t s t o s t u d y what i s n o t o f any r e a l  and  than  c a u s e s o f m a l a d j u s t m e n t when t h e y a r e u s e d  failure  be made more  i s reported  socially.  that  It  reasonable  maladjustment.  (91), Carrington  cause  of p u p i l mal-  t o be t h e t e a c h e r  herself.  (5D B o y n t o n and  others 73  mental h e a l t h of 1,195  students  definite,  i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p teachers  in Nashville.  clear-cut  evidence  unstable  teachers  who  toward i n s t a b i l i t y ,  tend  teachers  tend  pupils." health,  tend  t o be  Not  viewpoint  Wickman's s t u d y revealed ficulties  that teachers  child  and  thereby  justment.  On  the  personal  to  the  stimulated.  leadership amined by lity  and  o f t e n p r o t e c t the  student, The  and  also  i n the  and  of  ad-  very often  punishes  punishment  seems i s there-  of a u t o c r a t i c teacher  democratic  (136, p. lij.7) by  He  dependent  f u r t h e r a t t a c k i n g behaviour effects  dif-  behaviour.  solitary,  the  her  class.  increased  social  teacher  Since  comparative  of  teachers' attitudes  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y type  hand, t h e  of f r i e n d l y  Lippitt  expressed  teacher, but  undesirable  of conduct.  good  by G o l d r i c h .  encourage t h i s  a t t a c k i n g type  needs  stable  individual differences.  ways i n w h i c h t e a c h e r s  other  children  appearance, a sense  to good m e n t a l h y g i e n e  o f a d j u s t m e n t and  found  emotionally them  that a teacher  i s expressed  two  very  whereas e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e  of c h i l d r e n ' s behaviour  at least  that  to have a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  a p p r e c i a t i o n of  important  of  "seems t o g i v e  effect  o n l y the p e r s o n a l i t y of the  methods a r e  by  to t h e  a pleasant voice, attractive  similar  the  study  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h more e m o t i o n a l l y  and  the  the p u p i l w e l l - b e i n g  The  C a r r i n g t o n p o i n t s out  humour, f a i r n e s s A  and  of  studying  l e a d e r s h i p were the  i n the c h i l d r e n ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n .  amount o f  ex-  hosti-  Autocratic  (52)  c o n t r o l i n t h e c l a s s r o o m produced s i x t y t i m e s as many i n s t a n c e s of h o s t i l i t y as democratic c o n t r o l , •which g r e a t l y decreased r e s i s t a n c e , demands f o r a t t e n t i o n and h o s t i l e criticism.  Hobson ( 1 0 2 ) ,  a f t e r g i v i n g a t e s t i n mental  hygiene p r i n c i p l e s to 1 , 6 0 0 t e a c h e r s , f o u n d t h a t enough t e a c h e r s showed a l a c k o f knowledge o f those p r i n c i p l e s t o justify special training The  courses.  committee on " S o c i a l l y Handicapped" o f the White  House Conference  on C h i l d H e a l t h and P r o t e c t i o n ( 2 3 8 ) , and.  T i e g s and Katz ( 2 2 5 , p . 5 9 ) f e e l t h a t t r u a n c y and o t h e r i n f r a c t i o n s o f r u l e s a r e n a t u r a l and expected  i n d i c a t o r s o f the  s c h o o l ' s f a i l u r e t o meet t h e needs o f the c h i l d .  A careful  d i a g n o s i s of t h e s c h o o l set-up may be n e c e s s a r y t o determine the r e a l causes  of t r u a n c y .  The r o l e o f e m o t i o n a l problems i n s c h o o l adjustment has been s t u d i e d by K a r l a n ( 1 1 9 ) . accounted  He found t h a t e m o t i o n a l problems  f o r many of t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n school', work, b u t  t h a t "guidance  has improved t h e work of most o f these  i n a d d i t i o n to h e l p i n g i n t h e adjustment ities."  students  of their personal-  Of t h i r t y - o n e cases t r e a t e d f o r e m o t i o n a l m a l a d j u s t -  ment, 28 s u c c e s s f u l l y completed  two terms o f work i n one  a f t e r h a v i n g p r e v i o u s l y f a i l e d t h e same c o u r s e . The f i n a l s e c t i o n of s o c i a l adjustment  i n the C a l i f o r n i a  Test o f P e r s o n a l i t y d e a l s w i t h community r e l a t i o n s . c l u d e s the a d o l e s c e n t ' s adjustment  It in-  to neighbours, s t r a n g e r s ,  (53) and foreigners, as well as attitudes to laws and regulations pertaining to the general welfare.  Guidance courses of  school c u r r i c u l a usually include a generous section on the study of the community.  Generally these courses do not em-  phasize the factors i n the structure of the community which cause personality maladjustment.  Tiegs and Katz (225,pp.21*9-67)  devote a whole chapter to the influences of the community which, for  good or i l l ,  play upon the development of youth.  They  (225,PP»37-9) found that the main p i t f a l l s of urban centres included: f a i l u r e to provide schools for abnormal children, the lack of properly administered charity and r e l i e f ,  prejud-  ice and d i s l i k e s , graft and corruption, broken laws, lack of proper sanitation and recreational f a c i l i t i e s as well as bad housing.  Bursch (1*1,pp.320-3) points out that close crowding  of homes into small areas and the close crowding of people i n homes have been found to hinder personality adjustment. Cole (51*,pp. 1*59-81) places a d i f f e r e n t emphasis upon the community forces which cause youth to develop unsuitable terns of behaviour.  To her, the great cause of these danger-  ous situations i s the "general the safety of youth."  pat-  indifference of adults toward  Community factors which prove dangerous  to youth include granting drivers' licences too early, permitting youth to obtain tobacco and liquor while too young, and allowing  improper places of amusement such as the cheap  dance h a l l , poolrooms, houses of p r o s t i t u t i o n and the l i k e .  (510  Cole feels that any community whose adults allow such forces to prosper unchecked i s only asking for adolescent moral c o l lapse. Cole studied the effects of the movies on the adolescent group.  She reports Peterson and Thurstone's  (51i,P«l|68)  re-  search to determine the effect of movies on r a c i a l prejudice. They concluded that the pictures used i n their study markedly increased prejudice, and that these attitudes persisted for several months - even becoming apparently permanent prejudices. In another study  (5U,P» lj-68 )  which Cole describes, i t was found  that movies had a bad influence on delinquents.  On the other  hand, Cole reports good effects of movies shown by other studies.  She concluded that "motion pictures are neither ex-  clusively bad nor exclusively good influences.  I t i s , i n fact,  probable that what adolescents get from the theatre i s mainly a c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of points of view, desires, or attitudes already i n existence." Age of Onset of Specific Forms of Maladjustment This study now turns from a survey of l i t e r a t u r e dealing with causes of maladjustment to a determination of the age of onset of specific forms of maladjustment, (225,p.26)  Tiegs and Katz  consider the c r i t i c a l periods of adjustment for an  individual to be: early childhood, early school years, adolescence and leaving school, getting and holding a job, courtship and marriage, and homemaking.  In other words, they portray  (55) t h e whole l i f e periods, extra of  each  history  o f an i n d i v i d u a l  one o f w h i c h may s u b j e c t t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o  hazards.  T h i s study w i l l  adolescence  and t h e s p e c i f i c  characteristic The balance  onset  d e a l p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e age forms o f maladjustment  of t h i s period. of puberty with r e s u l t i n g  and t h e growth o f s e c o n d a r y  many new a d j u s t m e n t presents  of puberty  and  twelve  p h y s i o l o g i c a l un-  sex c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  problems to a d o l e s c e n t s .  the f i n d i n g s  set  as a s e r i e s o f  of s e v e r a l  a t nine  o f age f o r g i r l s  Within this  t h e age o f r e a c h i n g m a t u r i t y , one may e x p e c t set  to f i n d  that  girls  or r e a c h pubescence about  blems o f s o c i a l  due t o p h y s i o -  adjustment  t e n d on t h e a v e r a g e  two y e a r s e a r l i e r  for girls  s c h o o l p e r i o d , where a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s pany of r e l a t i v e l y age.  the on-  factors.  Owing t o t h e f a c t up  wide r a n g e i n  o f any o f t h e many f o r m s o f m a l a d j u s t m e n t  logical  (51*,P«36)  s t u d i e s which p l a c e the on-  to e i g h t e e n y e a r s  t o e i g h t e e n f o r boys.  Cole  bring  i n the junior  own  two t h i r d s o f t h e g i r l s  are  i n the post-pubescent  are  still  pre-pubescent  than boys,  are limited  immature boys o f t h e i r  "Approximately  prohigh  t o t h e com-  chronological a t a n y one t i m e  s t a g e w h i l e a n e q u a l number o f b o y s  i n attitudes  S t r a n g r e p o r t e d a study by S t o l z problems of s o c i a l  adjustment  grade  through  and c o n t i n u e  arise  t o grow  and b e h a v i o r "  (20l*,p.6l5).  e t a l (201*) showing  come t o t h e f o r e  that  i n the e i g h t h  t h e n i n t h and s u b s e q u e n t  grades.  (56) I t was shown, f u r t h e r m o r e ,  that during  ninth  grade a d o l e s c e n t s  come i n t o  often  do n o t u n d e r s t a n d  the a d o l e s c e n t s  and  acting.  Strang  t h e e i g h t h and.  conflict 1  with  a d u l t s who  ways o f t h i n k i n g  p o i n t s out t h a t problems  o f l o v e and.  f r i e n d s h i p w h i c h may o r may n o t c a u s e p r o b l e m s o f m a l a d j u s t ment, r e a c h a peak i n f r e q u e n c y years  between  s i x t e e n and t w e n t y  o f age. Mackenzie  National  (lh3)  i n the F o r t y - T h i r d . Y e a r b o o k o f t h e  S o c i e t y f o r Study o f E d u c a t i o n  reported  that:  "By t h e e i g h t h o r n i n t h g r a d e a s t r o n g s o c i a l i n t e r e s t d e v e l o p s , i n many c a s e s t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f former concerns. F o r some b o y s and g i r l s , however, t h i s s o c i a l c o n c e r n does n o t a p p e a r u n t i l l a t e r . By t h e time t h e y r e a c h t h e e l e v e n t h and t w e l f t h g r a d e many a d o l e s c e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e g i r l s , w i l l have made more o r l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y a d j u s t m e n t w i t h t h e i r age mates and w i l l r e c o g n i z e t h e i r n e e d f o r s e v e r a l o f the s c h o o l ' s o f f e r i n g s . Many w i l l have a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e m s e l v e s , t h e i r b e l i e f s , t h e i r p u r p o s e s and t h e i r f u t u r e . Some w i l l become v e r y much o c c u p i e d w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s . A few w i l l a r r i v e a t t h e i r h i g h e s t l e v e l o f i n t e r e s t i n s e r i o u s study. A c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f t h e b o y s may n o t a r r i v e a t t h i s s t a g e u n t i l t h e t h i r t eenth or f o u r t e e n t h grade." Pope's s t u d y became l e s s  (177) f o u n d  s e r i o u s as p u p i l s a d v a n c e d t h r o u g h  I t would appear from problems school  of s o c i a l  these  adjustment  high  school.  s t u d i e s , then, t h a t t h e o n s e t o f  adjustment u s u a l l y appears i n e a r l y  high  grades.  Strang that  t h a t problems of s o c i a l  (20l*,p. 509 ) r e p o r t e d  some e v i d e n c e  "under o r d i n a r y s c h o o l c o n d i t i o n s  which i n d i c a t e s  'behavior  problems'  (57) r e a c h a peak a t a b o u t and  at f i f t e e n  thirteen  or f o u r t e e n years f o r boys  o r s i x t e e n y e a r s i n the  problems are r e p o r t e d f o r boys than about  ten to s i x . "  Strang found  ed most f r e q u e n t l y t o  case o f g i r l s .  girls,  i n the r a t i o  the behaviour  problems  and  3)  i n s c h o o l "work, d a y d r e a m i n g ,  Difficulties to  Truancy,  6)  Nervousness  lying  In a study based  disrespect,  cooperate,  5)  Rose  on  and  and  stealing,  hurt  (l87,p.l|6) found  and  feelings.  the a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s o f a d o l e s c e n t t h a t adolescence brought  many o t h e r p r o b l e m s o f a d j u s t m e n t . uncertainty  list-  behaviour,  2) D i s o b e d i e n c e  it) F a i l u r e  of  be:  1) A g g r e s s i v e and a n t a g o n i s t i c  girls,  More  He  found  that  with i t  feelings  i n s e c u r i t y became more p r o n o u n c e d ,  as  of  did re-  actions of aggressiveness, self-consciousness, withdrawal, worries  about  "crushes."  physical  At t h i s  d e v e l o p m e n t and  time, a l s o ,  concern over  conflicts with  strong  parents  • -  develop  as t h e a d o l e s c e n t s t r u g g l e s f o r  Pope quiring pupils  (177 p,hk$)  found t h a t ,  t  e d u c a t i o n a l guidance as  they advanced  o n l y f o u r t e e n per  emancipation.  i n g e n e r a l , problems r e -  became o f i n c r e a s i n g  through  school.  In the n i n t h  c e n t o f the p r o b l e m s l i s t e d  themselves  concerned  percentage  had  e d u c a t i o n , but by t h e  i n c r e a s e d t o 5>° p e r  cent.  concern  by  the  twelfth  to  grade, students  grade,  the  This study also  re-  (58) v e a l e d t h a t problems of o c c u p a t i o n a l adjustment increased  i n importance  n i n t h to the t w e l f t h  as t h e s t u d e n t s p a s s e d  w i t h home and f a m i l y were f e w e r grade  no  significant  two  nine.  grade The  early  t h a t problems i n c o n n e c t i o n i n grade  difference  i n adjustment  than  (192)  study  found  to t h e home a t t h e s e  age o f o n s e t o f d e l i n q u e n t t e n d e n c i e s may be q u i t e  o u t by r a t i n g s , public  the h i s t o r y  (21*7,p. 5 8 8 ) .  o f one t h o u s a n d  c h i l d r e n c a n be p i c k e d  Cole  (5U,p.269),  juvenile  delinquent behaviour  i n t h e age span f r o m  t o grade  Two v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g  seven  to twelve  maladjustment  nine.  conclusions to t h i s  section,  not i n complete  agreement, a r e p r e s e n t e d by C o l e  and  Schreiber i n h i s a r t i c l e  o f Growth o f A d j u s t m e n t (192,p.210-219) adjustment  found  after  that  Four  Years,  entitled i n High  s t u d e n t s made l o w e r  q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n 19l|.l t h a n i n 1937  i n high school.  that  gave e v i d e n c e o f  Apparently the onset of delinquent  often begins p r i o r  i n a study of  o f f e n d e r s , found  80 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e c a s e s  S.chreiber.  He c l a i m s  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n t e r v i e w s e v e n i n t h e  school grades.  approximately  years  those  levels.  t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n of problem  years.  twelve  On t h e o t h e r hand, a n o t h e r  a c c o r d i n g t o a s t u d y by W i l s o n  lower  from the  grade.  On t h e one hand, Pope f o u n d  in  likewise  The a u t h o r  though  (51i,P»32l) "Measurement School"  s c o r e s on an after  four  summarizes h i s f i n d i n g s :  (59)  "As a g e n e r a l o v e r - a l l v i e w o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y i t may be s a i d t h a t t h e b e t t e r s t u d e n t s b e gan h i g h s c h o o l b e t t e r a d j u s t e d t h a n t h e p o o r e r students. But the b e t t e r students a f t e r f o u r y e a r s i n h i g h s c h o o l were n o t as w e l l a d j u s t e d as when t h e y e n t e r e d . The p o o r e r s t u d e n t s d i d n o t s t a r t h i g h s c h o o l v e r y w e l l a d j u s t e d , and a t t h e end o f t h e f o u r y e a r s t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t s i t u a t i o n d i d n o t change i n any way t o any a p p r e c i a b l e d e gree, b u t appeared to be s t a t i c . Perhaps the b e t t e r s t u d e n t s were more c r i t i c a l o f t h e i r e n v i r o n ment." Cole  (5U-PP«321-2) summarizes h e r c o n c l u s i o n s  manence o f t r a i t s  of p e r s o n a l i t y i n these  as t o t h e p e r -  words:  "As more and more r e s e a r c h i s done i t seems c l e a r that not only d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t i e s remain f a i r l y s t a b l e d u r i n g the s c h o o l y e a r s , b u t a l s o d i f f e r e n c e s i n e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l a d justment. The o v e r t b e h a v i o r , o f c o u r s e , a l t e r s , b u t t h e u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e s seem t o become f i x e d very e a r l y i n l i f e . As one p s y c h i a t r i s t has s a i d , u n u s u a l i n d i v i d u a l s m e r e l y g e t t o be more and more l i k e t h e m s e l v e s as t h e y grow o l d e r . " To  emphasize  her p o i n t , Cole  goes on t o s a y :  " D u r i n g c h i l d h o o d t h e t r a i t s shown a t e n t r a n c e t o s c h o o l d e v e l o p as r e g a r d s e x p r e s s i o n , b u t t h e y r e main r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e as r e g a r d s f u n d a m e n t a l a t titudes. W i t h t h e coming o f a d o l e s c e n c e t h e r e i s l i k e l y t o be a c h a n g e , o f t e n f o r the w o r s e B o t h a c c e p t a b l e and i n a c c e p t a b l e t r a i t s a r e emp h a s i z e d by t h e s e new demands o f e x i s t e n c e • D i f f i c u l t i e s of adjustment are u s u a l l y brought into high r e l i e f during adolescence." One t h i n g i s c l e a r of s p e c i f i c and  from t h i s  study  forms of maladjustment.  a t t i t u d e s appear  to r e m a i n  fairly  of the age of  Although constant  some  onset  traits  throughout  childhood,  adolescence  brings  to t h e f o r e many new o r n e w l y -  emphasized  adjustments  t h a t must be made b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  CHAPTER I I I THE INVESTIGATION Having reviewed the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i v e to the problem of pupil adjustment at d i f f e r e n t grade l e v e l s , i t . i s now necessary to outline the present study of personality adjustment of students i n grades eight, ten and twelve. The Measuring Instrument Before describing the C a l i f o r n i a Test of Personality, several reasons for using i t w i l l be suggested.  In the  f i r s t place, i t has a f a i r l y simple marking system, arid requires only a short time to score. In the second place, this test claims to measure components which are l i k e l y to be understood and noted by the average teacher.  The two main divisions of the test deal  with the student's adjustment to himself and to society. The teacher can observe the scores of each student i n the areas of personal adjustment - his s e l f - r e l i a n c e , his sense of personal worth, his sense of personal freedom, his f e e l ing  of belonging, his freedom from withdrawing tendencies  and from nervous symptoms.  The other major component,  s o c i a l adjustment, attempts to describe f o r the teacher the  individual's adjustment i n s o c i a l standards and s k i l l s ,  his adjustment to his family, his school and community, and his freedom from a n t i - s o c i a l tendencies. After careful  (60)  (61) study than  of ever  valid, of  these  components, t h e  f o r the  test  p r o b l e m a t hand s i n c e , i f r e l i a b l e  i t s r e s u l t s would p r o v i d e  p e r s o n a l i t y and  comparison of  the  a p p e a r e d more s u i t a b l e  valuable  w o u l d a l l o w a b e t t e r and three  Another reason  grade  the  for selecting  need f o r two  A f u r t h e r advantage  twelve.  ten,  i s that  This permits  and  this  The  test  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and  for  maladjustment Finally,  reliability the  according  i s high.  split-halves  formula  i s reported  for  self  the  ment.  The  ability self  and  of  various  The  the  t o be  social  .932  student  series  of  for  f o r grade over  a  describes  the  test  and  remedial  suggestions measured.  Manual o f D i r e c t i o n s , the w h i c h was  f o r the  s c o r e s , and  adjustment.  thus  Test  adjustment  c o r r e c t e d by  is sufficiently the  that i t  school,  series  components  c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e  studying  detailed  of p e r s o n a l i t y .  reliability  method  adjustment  .7U,  sections,  also gives  to  was  California  of p u p i l  same a r e a s  i n the  to  intermediate  M a n u a l o f D i r e c t i o n s (f?3)  its  by  the  i n a senior  a study  wide grade r a n g e i n t h e  more  areas  tests.  P e r s o n a l i t y i s a v a i l a b l e i n an g r a d e s e i g h t and  i n many  levels.  g i v e s measures o f a d j u s t m e n t t o home and eliminating  data  and  low  the  Spearman-Brown  total  .873 social  determined  for social and  adjust-  personal  to e m p h a s i z e  from the  .898  scores,  the  standpoint  desirof  both  (62) The  T e s t i n g Program I t was  and  twelve  I t was  i n order  to test  students  t o compare t h e i r  i n grades e i g h t , t e n adjustment  scores.  exp e c t e d t h a t g r a d e - l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e s w o u l d be  apparent  than  successive The  decided  Schools  i f c o m p a r i s o n s were made between p u p i l s i n  grades. Tested  Through t h e c o o p e r a t i o n Counsellors of Kitsilano  i n the t h r e e  of the P r i n c i p a l  High School,  was p o s s i b l e to use the t e s t students  more  i n their  g r a d e s were  o f p u p i l s by g r a d e and sex who  and t h e  V a n c o u v e r , B. C , i t high  tested.  school. A l l The numbers  completed the t e s t are  shown i n T a b l e I I .  TABLE I I NUMBERS OF STUDENTS TESTED IN EACH GRADE  Grade  VIII  Grade X  Grade X I I  Total  Boys  172  126  7U  372  Girls  155  125  68  31*8  Total  327  251  li*2  7 20  (63) Comparison of This Sampling With the City as a Whole An attempt was made to determine whether the students tested were representative of high school students i n general. The Director of the Bureau of Tests and Measurements  assured  the writer that the school tested was a f a i r sampling  of the  high school students of the c i t y as a whole since i t enrolled students from a cross-section of most economic levels i n Vancouver. It was also assumed that the students were representative i n academic a b i l i t y .  The median i n t e l l i g e n c e quo-  tients of the grade levels tested were compared with the median i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients of Vancouver students at similar grade l e v e l s .  The l a t t e r scores were supplied by  the Bureau of Tests and Measurements of the Vancouver School Board.  Table I I I shows the median I.Q.'s of the students  tested and of a l l Vancouver students i n the same grades. TABLE I I I MEDIAN INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS OF STUDENTS IN KITSILANO AND IN ALL VANCOUVER SCHOOLS Grade  XII X VIII  Median I.Q.'s for Kitsilano Boys  Girls  Total  109.3 108.5 107.3  113.9 109.9 110.8  112.7 109.6 109.0  Median for City 111*.8 Not known 105.7  <6U) From T a b l e grade for  twelve  III i t will  of K i t s i l a n o  was  ligence  grades  somewhat l o w e r ,  some s t u d e n t s  had  had  A l l available  single  Kitsilano.  an  individual  recorded  on  The  test  grade-ten  as  programs, others  to d e t e r m i n e unable  been  introduced  the any  s e v e r a l I.Q.'s l i s t e d the b e s t  two  index  the  that  other  I.Q.'s was  to e v a l u a t e  the  for  of his  s c o r e was  California  at  used.  For  significance  Test of P e r s o n a l i t y to  felt  classes,  f o u r groups of grade-twelve n o t p r e v i o u s l y had that a l i t t l e  any  honesty.  After  the w r i t e r t o the  the  class,  eight  students.  experience  with  more e x p l a n a t i o n t h a n  needed t o e s t a b l i s h r a p p o r t and  and  and  common t o a l l s t u d e n t s  command o f the Manual o f D i r e c t i o n s t o  effort  intel-  reported i n Table I I I .  c l a s s e s and  b o o k l e t " was  median  only  to f i n d  classes i n a l l - ten grade-eight  s t u d e n t s , he  the  Various  tests,  s c h o o l and  o f the  and  for  medians f o r c o r -  c a s e s , where one  i t is difficult  S i n c e t h e w r i t e r had  simple  o f the used  later  w r i t e r gave t h e  twenty-two  t h a t had  average  the  differences  four  w r i t e r was  e n t e r i n g elementary  reasons,  of the  The  In o t h e r  s c h o o l age,  these  many as  s t u d e n t was  intelligence.  high  city.  The  as  i n the  r e s u l t s were u s e d  intelligence  of  the  testing  been used  median f o r the  than  schools.  had  one.  t h a t the median  i n a l l Vancouver  tests  mum  seen  g r a d e e i g h t somewhat h i g h e r  responding  the  be  "Open to  the  the  ensure  home-room t e a c h e r  the  maxihad  following explanation  (65) was  made b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g  the t e s t :  " T h i s i s n o t an e x a m i n a t i o n o r a test« I t i s merely a study by myself t o f i n d , o u t how s t u d e n t s f e e l and t h i n k a b o u t a g r e a t many t h i n g s . Be a b s o l u t e l y f r a n k and h o n e s t i n a n s w e r i n g t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . Your answers w i l l be s e e n o n l y b y m y s e l f and n o t b y y o u r t e a c h e r s . " If  the students  results, lor, on  t h e y were  whether  told  they  could f i n d  that i f they  asked  out their  their  counsel-  he o r she w o u l d be a b l e t o g i v e them t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  the front  the  asked  page, b u t t h a t no c o u n s e l l o r w o u l d have  individual Since  seen  answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s .  t h e c l a s s p e r i o d was a p p r o x i m a t e l y  forty-five  m i n u t e s i n l e n g t h , i t was f o u n d  t h a t t h e r e was  time  the t e s t .  f o r the students  c a s e s was i t n e c e s s a r y  to f i n i s h  I n o n l y two  to allow e x t r a time.  720  t e s t s were c o m p l e t e d ,  for  scoring  scored  sufficient  In a l l ,  and c h e c k e d  thoroughly  errors.  Comparison of Test R e s u l t s w i t h Ratings  o f Teachers  and  Counsellors An test  a t t e m p t was made t o d e t e r m i n e  by comparing  home-room t e a c h e r s  the t e s t  scores with  of  three pages.^  of  the purpose of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . and t y p e d those  The f i r s t  as a b l a n k  to  list  T  See A p p e n d i x IA  o f the  the o p i n i o n s of the  and c o u n s e l l o r s .  E a c h home-room t e a c h e r was g i v e n  ruled  the v a l i d i t y  students  a letter  page c o n t a i n e d  consisting  an e x p l a n a t i o n  The s e c o n d  on w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r  s h e e t was was  asked  o f h i s c l a s s whom he c o n s i d e r e d t o  (66) be  very w e l l adjusted  adjusted.  The t h i r d  and t h e n  third  attached  to the other  fifteenth  decile  To s a f e g u a r d  sheets.  On t h i s  third  percentile  i n total  I n the next  test  s c o r e , t h e t e a c h e r was a s k e d this  finding  Beside the  to s t a t e whether o r not  maladjustment.  c o u n s e l l o r s were a l s o g i v e n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . • * " •  They were a s k e d be  column t h e  and, i f s o , t o i n d i c a t e h i s  o p i n i o n o f the causes o f t h i s The  below  a d j u s t m e n t o r the lower  f i n d i n g was g i v e n f o r e a c h name l i s t e d .  with  being  page were t h e  o f t h a t c l a s s who had r a n k e d  i n one o r more component.  agreed  requirement, before  test  he  t o be p o o r l y  u n t i l the  this  page was f o l d e d i n two and p i n n e d  names o f t h e s t u d e n t s the  he j u d g e d  page was n o t t o be r e a d  s e c o n d one was c o m p l e t e d . the  those  to l i s t  names o f s t u d e n t s  poorly or well adjusted.  was u n f o r t u n a t e .  whom t h e y  The u s e o f t h e word  knew t o  "know"  Each c o u n s e l l o r i n communications  with  the w r i t e r s a i d t h a t he was h e s i t a n t t o s t a t e t h a t he "knew" of the p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment he was o n l y The the  giving  results  rection.  o f the completed  the Contingency Since  1  See A p p e n d i x IB  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s from  both  and t h e c o u n s e l l o r s were u s e d t o Coefficient  the t e a c h e r s  name w e l l a d j u s t e d  when i n r e a l i t y  his opinion.  home-room t e a c h e r s  compute  of a student  applying Yates'  cor-  had m e r e l y b e e n a s k e d t o  and p o o r l y a d j u s t e d  students, the  (67) remainder  of  the  students  calculating  the  of  s c o r e s were c o n s i d e r e d  the  test  twenty per as  cent  index  were l a b e l l e d  as  values.  inferior  The  and  as  upper as  the  average  in  twenty per  s u p e r i o r , the  central  cent lower  s i x t y per  cent  average. Table  teachers  1  i each c a s e ,  IV and  shows the  contingency  counsellors  c o r r e c t i o n was  1  coefficients  opinions  and  made f o r t h e TABLE  test  between  results.  s m a l l number o f  Cases  Sex  cases.  IV  • CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN THE OPINIONS OF AND COUNSELLORS AND TEST RESULTS  Grade  In  Teachers Contingency Coefficient  Cases  1  TEACHERS  Counsellors• Contingency Coefficient  XII  Girls  60  .33  68  .21  XII  Boys  70  .26  71*  .17  X  Girls  92  .29  125  .16  X  Boys  85  .1*2  126  .28  VIII  Girls  121  .38  —  VIII  Boys  Ikh  .21*  In each grade l e v e l , classes  of  Kitsilano  home-room t e a c h e r each i n s t a n c e  the  so t h a t the  i n Table  IV  than  Counsellor absent  questionnaire  High School  was  not  number o r the  Counsellor absent  total  f o r one  of  c o m p l e t e d by cases  the the  i s smaller  number  tested.  in  (68) The  unfortunate wording  counsellors-*- p r o b a b l y  accounts  shows e a c h C t o be l e s s The  coefficients,  tive  o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r t h e f o r the f a c t  t h a t T a b l e IV  f o r c o u n s e l l o r s than  ranging  .16  from  t o .1*2,  f o r teachers.  are not i n d i c a -  o f h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between t e a c h e r s ' or c o u n s e l l o r s '  opinions The  and t h e t e s t  results.  r e t u r n s o f the t h i r d  page o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' q u e s t i o n -  p naire  were i n v e s t i g a t e d .  gave t h e i r test in  Of t h e 223 c a s e s  o p i n i o n , the t e a c h e r s  findings  56 c a s e s ,  i n 116  definitely  c a s e s , were u n d e c i d e d  on w h i c h agreed  teachers  with the  o r d i d n o t know  and i n o n l y 51 were t h e y o f t h e o p p o s i t e  Twenty-seven o f the 5 l s t u d e n t s  ranked  low i n t o t a l  21* s t u d e n t s  ranked  below the lower  while in  the remaining  one o r more component.  t e a c h e r was c a l l e d of maladjustment, 52  p e r cent  agreed  Thus when t h e a t t e n t i o n  to a student the t e a c h e r s  agreed  with  score,  o f the  to s p e c i f i c test  decile  areas  findings i n  d i d n o t know i n 25 p e r c e n t a n d d i s -  of cases,  i n 23 p e r c e n t .  The  literature  disclosed  opinions  had l i t t l e  correlation  From t h i s in  i n regard  opinion.  Table  study,  that i n general teachers * with p e r s o n a l i t y  test  i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the c o e f f i c i e n t s  IV i n d i c a t e  as much v a l i d i t y  results.3 shown  f o r the C a l i f o r n i a  Test  o f P e r s o n a l i t y as has b e e n f o u n d  f o r personality questionnaires  and  scores  rating  d e v i c e s when t h e t e s t  a r e v a l i d a t e d b y compar-  i n g w i t h t e a c h e r s ' and c o u n s e l l o r s ' o p i n i o n s . 1 See A p p e n d i x I B 2 See A p p e n d i x IA 3 See c h a p t e r I I , pages 7 - 1 0  CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION OF TEST DATA Comparison  o f t h e Sexes W i t h i n E a c h  B e f o r e making adjustment  i n high  a comparison of student p e r s o n a l i t y school,  sex t o d e t e r m i n e whether as a s i n g l e group the  Grade  the w r i t e r  the g i r l s  a t each grade  studied  and b o y s  level.  could  The w r i t e r  s c o r e s o f t h e boys w i t h t h o s e o f t h e g i r l s  grade  tested  comparison  - eight,  t e n and t w e l v e .  o f t h e sexes i n grade  (69)  eight.  the r o l e of be  treated  compared  within  each  T a b l e V shows t h e  . (70) TABLE V. SEX  DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS IN GRADE  Boys  Factor  Mean  S.D.  SELF ADJUSTMENT  67.21  12.31*  SelfReliance  10.37  Personal Worth  G i r ] LS S.D. Mean  Diff.in Means  Ob  VIII  C.R.  65.17  10.86  2.01*  1.28  1.59  2.51  9.53  2.60  .81*  .28  2.98  10.76  2.69  11.13  2.79  -.37  .30  Personal Freedom  12.52  2.65  12.69  2.1*3  -.17  .28  -.50  Feeling of Belonging  12.95  2.53  12.29  2.91*  .63  .31  2.07  Withdrawing Tendencies  10.79  2.85  10.60  2.79  .19  .31  .61  Nervous Symptoms  12.00  2.56  11.12  2.61*  .88  .29  3.05  SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT  66.1*5  ii-Ul*  6 9 . 1*5  10.12  -3.00  1.19  -2.50  Social Standards  13.20  1.9U.  13.53  1.69  -.33  .20  -1.65  Social Skills.  10.61*  3.25  11.51*  2.23  -.90  .31  -2.95  Anti-social Tendencies  10.10  3.15  11.U3  2.57  -1.33  .32  -1*.20  Family Relations  12.52  2.88  11.98  3.12  .51*  .33  1.61*  School Relations  10.58  2.79  10.69  2.67  -.11  .30  -.37  Community Relations  11.90  2.81*  12.56  2.1*1*  -.66  .29  -2.26  2.25  -.1*0  TOTAL ADJUSTMENT  132.90  20.71  133.90  19.87  -1.0  -1.2  (71) The sex  data of Table  differences  i n grade e i g h t .  s c o r e s i n freedom Girls and  score higher  social  that there Boys  tend  f r o m n e r v o u s symptoms  a r e v e r y few-  t o have  higher  and i n s e l f - r e l i a n c e .  i n freedom from a n t i - s o c i a l  tendencies  skills.  With these can  V indicate  exceptions, t h e r e f o r e , the grade-eight  be t r e a t e d as a s i n g l e  made by boys  and g i r l s  group.  class  T a b l e V I shows t h e s c o r e s  i n grade t e n .  (72) TABLE VI SEX  DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS IN GRADE X  Boys  Diff.in Means  °5  C.R.  Mean  SELF ADJUSTMENT  69.92  11.71*  70.28  9.51  -.36  1.35  -.27  SelfReliance  10.86  2.33  10.30  2.17  .56  .28  2.00  Personal Worth  10.52  2.1*6  12.5U  2.06  •r-2.02  .29  -7.06  Personal Freedom  13.56  2.23  13.18  2.1*9  .38  .30  1.26  Feeling of Belonging  12.1*8  2.91  13.35  2.10  -.87  .32  -2.7 2  Withdrawing Tendencies  12.2k  2.51;  11.71;  2.k9  .50  .32  1.58  Nervous . Symptoms  12.23  2.57  11.53  2.33  .70  .31  2.26  SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT  68.81  10.53  71.88  9.83  -3.07  1.29  -2.39  Social Standards  12.81  2.20  13.86  1.55  -1.05  Social Skills  11.02  2.51;  11.81  2.00  -.79  .29  -2.81*  Anti-social Tendencies  11.32  2.81;  12.12  2.1*6  -.80  .31;  -2.39  Family Relations  12.75  2.81;  .12.06  3.25  .69  .39  1.79  School Relations  11.29  2.53  11.37  2.36  -.08  .31  -.26  Community Relations  12.03  2.78  12.1*6  2.1*7  -.1*3  .33  -1.30  138.25  19.63  11*1.08  TOTAL ADJUSTMENT  ,  S.D.  G i r ] Ls Mean S.D.  Factor  17.3  -2.83  .21* - 5 . 6 0  2.31* - 1 . 2 1  (73) It are  be  seen  significant.  sense and  may  from  Girls  Table tend  of p e r s o n a l worth,  feeling  Sex  and  differences  t h a t o n l y two  differences  t o have b e t t e r a d j u s t m e n t  social  of b e l o n g i n g .  a r e between 2 . 0 0  VI  standards,  Several other  in  social  skills  critical  ratios  2.50. i n grade  twelve  are  shown i n T a b l e  VII.  (710 TABLE V I I SEX DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS IN GRADE X I I 1 Mean  S.D.  Girls S.D. Mean  72.16  9.09  71*.86  9.00  -2.70  1.52  -1.78  SelfReliance  10.73  2.19  10.76  2.29  -.03  .38  -.08  Personal Worth  12.1*0  2.32  13.15  1.83  -.75  .35  -2.15  Personal Freedom  13.38  1.82  13.29  2.15  .09  .31*  .26  Feeling of Belonging  13.31*  1.83  13.50  1.92  -.16  .32  -.50  Withdrawing Tendencies  11.38  2.82  12.26  2.17  -.88  .1*2 - 2 . 0 9  Nervous Symptoms  10.60  2.63  11.32  2.82  -.72  .1*6 - 1 . 5 7  SOCIAL . ADJUSTMENT  69.32  9.1*6  71.91  9.28  -2.59  1.53  -1.69  Social Standards  13.1*1  1.97  11*.1*7  1.06  -1.06  .26  -l*.0l*  So c i a l Skills  11.1*1  2. 21  12.18  2.20  -.77  .37  -2.08  Anti-social Tendencies  12.73.  2.01  13.26  1.72  -.53  .31  -1.69  Family Relations  12.32  2.66  12.26  3.16  .06  .1*9  .12  School Relations  12.1*3  1.90  12.12  1.80  .31  .31  1.00  Community Relations  12.05  2.61  11.85  2.01  .20  .39  .51  11*1.08  16.10  11*6.15 1 5 . 3 0  -5.07  2.61*  -1.92  Factor SELF ADJUSTMENT  TOTAL ADJUSTMENT  Boys  Diff.in Means  °b  C.R.  (75) From T a b l e V I I , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e sex are even  smaller  levels.  I n o n l y one  grade  differences  i n g r a d e t w e l v e t h a n i n t h e o t h e r two component, s o c i a l  twelve d i f f e r e n c e  significant,  grade  s t a n d a r d s , i s .the  girls  having the higher  scores.  Are boys The  different  answer, b r o a d l y ,  sub-total  scores  difference  from g i r l s  i s "No."  i n the three  I n n o t one  a t any o f t h e t h r e e  noteworthy.  component-comparisons  levels  I n o n l y f i v e >out o f  or  i s the  thirty-six  are t h e v a l u e s of the c r i t i c a l  of the P e r s o n a l i t y Development  Considered  Separately  Before grade  the d i f f e r e n c e s  levels  c a n be  p r o g r e s s of each personality  changes  each grade  similar  i n adjustment  ratios  o f Boys and  s c o r e s between t h e  of the boys  and g i r l s  seen r e a d i l y  level.  investigated.  from graphs  These p r o f i l e s  of the  are p l o t t e d  directions  using  the p e r c e n t i l e  (53-P»16).  The  and f o r g r a d e  high  profiles  on  charts  of  norms of t h e manual o f  norms u s e d f o r g r a d e s e i g h t  are t h o s e s u p p l i e d f o r t h e . i n t e r m e d i a t e used,  Test  of  The  through t h e i r  to those s u p p l i e d with the C a l i f o r n i a  Personality,  Girls  d e a l t w i t h , the q u e s t i o n of the r a t e  s e p a r a t e sex must be  s c h o o l y e a r s c a n be  test  of the t o t a l  grade  Comparison  ten  tested?  3.00.  over  for  grades  series  and  of the  twelve, those of the s e n i o r  series.  (76) Graph  I shows t h e p r o f i l e s  three  grade l e v e l s  from in  Tables  a similar  obtained  f o r the g i r l s  using the p e r c e n t i l e s  V, VI and V I I .  Graph  manner f o r t h e b o y s .  at the  o f t h e mean  I I shows p r o f i l e s  scores computed  (77) GRAPH I COMPARISON OF THE MEAN PROFILES OF THE GIRLS AT VARYING GRADE LEVELS  COMPONENTS Self Adjustment  A. S e l f - r e l i a n c e B. Sense of personal worth C. Sense of personal freedom D. Feeling of belonging E. Withdrawing Tendencies F. Nervous Symptoms  S o c i a l Adjustment  A. S o c i a l Standards  B. S o c i a l S k i l l s C. A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies D. Family Relations  E. School Relations  F. Community Relations TOTAL ADJUSTMENT 9°  5 2  2  2LU-  loo  (78) GRAPH I I COMPARISON OF THE MEAN PROFILES OF THE BOYS AT VARYING GRADE LEVELS _PERCENIILE  COMPONENTS  *y<Tf .*_  S e l f Adjustment  /•  » •  J o  I  f.c>  <u $t>  |  CO  70  SO  ?8  fTo  100  A. S e l f - r e l i a n c e B. Sense of personal worth C. Sense of personal freedom D. Feeling of belonging E. Withdrawing Tendencies F. Nervous Symptoms  S o c i a l Adjustment  A. S o c i a l Standards  B. S o c i a l S k i l l s C. A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies D. Family Relations  E. School Relations  F. Community Relations TOTAL ADJUSTMENT fo  100  (79) From G r a p h adjustment  I i t may be s e e n t h a t ,  s c o r e s t e n d t o improve  twelve, with c e r t a i n (a)  sense o f p e r s o n a l  (b) t o t a l (c)  exceptions,  social  social  for  mean p e r c e n t i l e s  grade the  to another.  following  Steady  2)  Self-reliance  3) A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies k) S c h o o l R e l a t i o n s  The the  Adjustment  levels  significant. California the  freedom;  adjustment;  relations.  II reveals o f t h e boys  that  there  i s some  tendency  to vary e r r a t i c a l l y a r e summarized  Little  Change  f r o m one  briefly i n  need  Regressions  1) S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t  1) Sense o f p e r sonal worth 2) N e r v o u s Symptoms 2) Sense o f p e r s o n a l freedom 3) F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s 3) F e e l i n g o f belonging k) Community R e l a t i o n s k) W i t h d r a w i n g tendencies 5) S o c i a l S t a n d ards 6) S o c i a l S k i l l s  g r a p h s make i t a p p a r e n t t h a t  grade  t o grade  chart:  Adjustment  5) T o t a l  eight  1  namely:  The v a r i a t i o n s  Improvement  1) S e l f  grade  girls  skills;  (d) community A s t u d y o f Graph  from  on t h e w h o l e ,  t o be s t u d i e d  However, s i n c e  the d i f f e r e n c e s  to f i n d which  the secondary s e r i e s  between  ones a r e of the  T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y was u s e d i n grade t w e l v e , w h i l e  intermediate  s e r i e s was u s e d i n b o t h g r a d e s e i g h t  and t e n ,  (80) it  i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o compare  series. twelve  Therefore,  and g r a d e s t e n and t w e l v e ,  studied.  o f the  f o r the c o m p a r i s o n s o f g r a d e s  to p e r c e n t i l e e q u i v a l e n t s  are  t h e raw s c o r e s  t h e raw  different  e i g h t and  s c o r e s were  changed  and the p e r c e n t i l e d i f f e r e n c e s  O n l y t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between g r a d e s e i g h t and t e n  considered  from the c r i t i c a l  ratios  o f mean r a w - s c o r e  differences. Table  VIII  shows t h e c o m p a r i s o n  grade-twelve g i r l s  of the g r a d e - e i g h t  using percentile values.  and  (81) TABLE  VIII  GRADE-LEVEL DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS FOR GIRLS IN GRADES V I I I AND X I I  Factor SELF ADJUSTMENT  Mean Gr.VIII  Scores Gr.XII  Percentile" Equiv- ~ alents Gr.VIII Gr.XII  Diff. i n Percentiles  65.17  7l*.86  30  69  39  SelfReliance  9.53  10.76  36  65  32  Personal Worth  11.13  13.15  1*1  67  26  Personal Freedom  12.69  13.29  1*5  52  7  Feeling of Belonging  12.29  13.50  31*  58  21*  Wi t h d r a w i n g Tendencies  10.60  12.26  36  51*  18  Nervous Symptoms  11.12  11.32  37  58  21  71.91  37  1*0  SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT  3  Social Standards  13.53  11*. 1*7  58  79  21  Social Skills  11.51*  12.18  58  59  1  Anti-social Tendencies  11.1*3  13.26  1*1*  75  31  Family Relations  11.98  12.26  1*0  1*9  9  School Relations  10.69  12.12  1*7  62  15  Community Relations  12.56  11.85  56  .1*8  133.90  11*6.15  35  55  TOTAL ADJUSTMENT  -  8 20 ,  (82) Since  the  differences has  between the  arbitrarily  more to this  choice,  the  percentile  writer  and  compared  ten  (where t h e the  ence f o r  the  In no  as  great  (see  From T a b l e  VIII,  and  instance  and  i t may  seen t h a t  those i n grade e i g h t ,  small  in total  actually reversed A  similar  grade-eight  and  10  or  for  r a t i o s of  a  the  girls  series  was  differ-  percentile  critical  ratio  XIV). there  is a dis-  t o have h i g h e r  although the  s o c i a l adjustment  of  percentile  a raw-score XI  writer  b o y s and  did  the  a basis  intermediate  T a b l e s X, be  As  f o r the  respective  have  the  difference  critical  tendency f o r grade-twelve g i r l s  t h a n do very  t h a n 10  2.99  tinct  as  same f a c t o r . less  the  each t e s t f a c t o r  both grades) with  of  equivalents,  a percentile  used f o r  difference  determined f o r  a significant difference.  s c o r e s of  grades e i g h t  r a t i o s were n o t  considered  indicate  mean raw of  critical  and  difference social  scores is  skills,  i n community r e l a t i o n s .  study of  the  percentile  differences  g r a d e - t w e l v e b o y s i s shown i n T a b l e  of  the IX.  (83) TABLE I X GRADE-LEVEL DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS BOYS IN GRADES V I I I AND X I I  Mean Factor SELF ADJUSTMENT  Scores  Percentile Gr.VIII  FOR  Equiv-  Gr. X I I  Diff. i n Percentiles  Gr.VIII  Gr. X I I  67.21  72.16  35  56  21  SelfReliance  10.37  10.73  52  67  15  Personal Worth  10.76  12.1*0  38  56  18  Personal Freedom  12.52  13.38  1*3  55  12  Feeling of Belonging  12.95  13.31*  1*1*  51*  10  Withdrawing Tendencies  10.79  11.38  38  1*1  3  Nervous Symptoms  12.00  10.60  50  51  1  SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT  66.1+5  69.32  30  35  So c i a l Standards  13.20  13.1*1  50  55  5  Social Skills  10.61*  11.1*1  1*5  1*6  l  Anti-social Tendencies  10.10  12.73  31  65  31+  Family Relations  12.52  12.32  1*5  50  5  School Relations  10.58  12.1*3  1*6  66  20  Community Relations  11.90  12.05  1*9  51  2  132.90  11*1.08  30  1*5  15  TOTAL ADJUSTMENT  '  5  (810 Large d i f f e r e n c e s eight  and  girls  of  very ies  twelve these  small,  not  grades.  being  inspection  There which  appear  eight  determine the  Seven of  the  differences  of  Table  t o be  of  ratios  are  and  these  boys i n  differences  of  10  The  s e r i e s of  over  study,  the  The  indeed  The  categorbe  deter-  the  four-year  therefore,  span i s o n l y  to  standard  shown i n T a b l e X f o r  the  differences  t e s t was  i t is possible  levels.  the  IX.  d i f f e r e n c e s when t h e  ten,  grades  are  or more may  numerous s i g n i f i c a n t  to t w e l v e .  intermediate  grades e i g h t scores  the  of  numerous as were f o u n d f o r  i n d i c a t e p e r s o n a l i t y changes  from grade  Since  as  scores  5 or f e w e r p e r c e n t i l e p o i n t s .  having p e r c e n t i l e  mined by  to  are  between t h e  proceeds two  used i n  compare t h e  deviations  girls  years. both  mean  and  i n these  period  raw  critical  grades.  (85) TABLE X GRADE-LEVEL DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS FOR GRADES V I I I AND X  Factor  Gr.VIII. G i r l s S.D. Mean  SELF ADJUSTMENT  65.17  10.86  Gr.X . G i r l s S.D. Mean  GIRLS IN  Diff.in Means  °D  C.R.  70.28  9.51  5.H  1.22  1*.19  SelfReliance  9.53  2.60  10.30  2.17  .77  .29  2.70  Personal Worth  11.13  2.79  12.51*  2.06  1.1*1  .29  1*.86  Personal Freedom  12.69  2.1*3  13.18  2.1*9  .19  .30  1.63  Feeling of Belonging  12.29  2.91*  13.35  2.10  1.06  .30  3.51  Withdrawing Tendencies  10.60  2.79  11.71*  2.1*9  l.ll*  .32  3.61  Nervous Symptoms  11.12  2.61*  11.53  2.33  .1*1  .30  1.38  SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT  69.1*5  71.88  9.83  2.1*3  1.20  2.03  Social Stan d a r d s  13.53  1.69  13.86  1.55  .33  .19  1.70  Social Skills  11.51*  2.23  11.81  2.00  .27  .25  1.07  Anti-social Tendencies  11.1*3  2.57  12.12  2.1*6  .69  .30  2.28  Family Relations  11.98  3.12  12.06  3.25  .08  .38  .21  School Relations  10.69  2.67  11.37  2.36  .68  .30  2.27  Community Relations  12.56  2.1*1*  12.1*6  2.1*7  -.10  .30  -.33  7.18  2.22  3.23  TOTAL ADJUSTMENT  . 133.90  10.12  19.87  11*1.08  17.30  (86) Table X r e v e a l s that grade-ten higher of  adjustment  the d i f f e r e n c e s  three  times  critical are  their  ratios  scores than  girls  do g r a d e - e i g h t  are h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , standard  exceed  two.  errors.  t o have  girls.  Five  b e i n g more  than  In f o u r cases, the  The r e m a i n i n g  s m a l l , and a l l b u t one i n f a v o u r  higher  tend  six differences  of the g i r l s  i n the  grade.  The boys o f g r a d e s T a b l e X I shows t h e i r  e i g h t and t e n a r e compared  differences  i n test  next.  components.  (87) TABLE X I GRADE-LEVEL  Factor  DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS FOR BOYS IN GRADES V I I I AND X  Diff.in Means  °D  11.71+  2.71  1.1*1  1.92  G r . X ". Boys S.D. Mean  G r . V I I I . Boys S.D. Mean  C.R.  SELF ADJUSTMENT  67.21  12.31+  69.92  SelfReliance  10.37  2.51  10.86  2.33  .1+9  .28  1.71+  Personal Worth  10.76  2.69  10.52  2.1*6  -.21*  .30  -.80  Personal Freedom  12.52  2.65  13.56  2.23  1.01+  .28  3.67  Feeling of Belonging  12.95  2.53  12.1*8  2.91  -.1*7  .32  -1.1+6  Withdrawing Tendencies  10.79  2.85  12.21+  2.51+  1./-+5  .31  1+.62  Nervous Symptoms  12.00  2.56  12.23  2.57  .23  .30  .76  SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT  66.1+5  11.1+1+  68.81  2.36  1.28  1.81+  Social Standards  13.20  1.91+  12.81  2.20  -.39  .25  Social Skills  10.61+  3.25  11.02  2.51+  .38  Anti-social Tendencies  10.10  3.15  11.32  2.81+  1.22  Family Relations  12.52  2.88  12.75  2.81+  School Relations  10.58  2.79  11.29  Community Relations  11.90  2.81+  TOTAL ADJUSTMENT  132.90  20.71  .  10.53  -1.59  .31+  1.12  .25  1+.82  .23  .31+  .69  2.53  .71  .31  2.29  12.03  2.78  .13  .33  .39  138.25  19.63  5.35  2.36  2.27  (88) When t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e g i r l s '  scores i n  g r a d e s e i g h t and t e n a r e compared w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e b o y s '  scores  variation  i s found.  ence b o t h  similar  other  considerable  I n o n l y one component i s t h e d i f f e r -  and s i g n i f i c a n t  freedom from withdrawing boys, o n l y t h r e e  o f t h e same g r a d e s ,  f o r each s e x , namely,  tendencies.  In the case  d i f f e r e n c e s are s i g n i f i c a n t ,  d i f f e r e n c e s exceed twice  their  standard  and o n l y two errors. A l l  the r e m a i n i n g  t e n d i f f e r e n c e s a r e s m a l l and t h r e e  are  of t h e g r a d e - e i g h t  i n favour  There r e m a i n s a c o m p a r i s o n and  twelve,  are compared  o f them  boys. of the g i r l s  and o f t h e boys o f t h e s e i n Table X I I .  of the  of grades t e n  same g r a d e s .  The  girls  (89) TABLE X I I GRADE-LEVEL DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS FOR GIRLS IN GRADES X AND X I I  Mean S c o r e s  Percentile Equivalents Gr. X Gr. X I I  Diff. i n Percentiles  Factor  Grade 2  Gr. X I I  SELF ADJUSTMENT  70.28  7U.86  1*1  69  28  SelfReliance  10.30  10.76  51  68  17  Personal Worth  12.51*  13.15  61  67  6  Personal Freedom  13.18  13.29  51;  52  - 2  Feeling of Belonging  13.35  13.50  52  58  6  Withdrawing Tendencies  11.71*  12.26  1*7  51*  7  Nervous Symptoms  11.53  11.32  1*3  58  SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT  71.88  71.91  1*5  1*0  Social Standards  13.86  ll*..l*7  67  79  Social Skills  11.81  12.18  6  59  Anti-social Tendencies  12.12  13.26  52  75  Family Relations  12.06  12.26  1*1  1*9  8  School Relations  11.37  12.12  '51*  62  8  Community Relations  12.1*6  11.85  55  1*8  - 7  11*1.08  11*6.15  1*5  55  10  TOTAL ADJUSTMENT  2  15 -  5 12  -  3 23  (90) The crease over ile  data of Table X I I reveal" that  i n t e s t scores  grade  grade-twelve superior A levels  Five  differences  girls,  while four  adjustment  i n grade  are small small  among g r a d e - t e n  i s made, . T a b l e X I I I  test  equivalents components.  twelve  exceed nine  percent-  but i n favour  differences  of the  indicate  girls;.  s i m i l a r comparison o f the boys a t these  centile the  i s made b y g i r l s  t e n . Only s i x d i f f e r e n c e s  points.  no c o n s i s t e n t i n -  two g r a d e  shows t h e i r mean s c o r e s , , p e r -  and d i f f e r e n c e s  between p e r c e n t i l e s i n  (91) TABLE X I I I GRADE-LEVEL DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS BOYS IN GRADES X AND X I I  Mean  Scores  Percentile alents Gr. X  FOR  Diff. i n , PercentGr.XII iles Equiv-  Factor  Gr. X  Gr. X I I  SELF ADJUSTMENT  69.92  72.16  1*0  SelfReliance  10.86  10.73  62  67  Personal Worth  10.52  12.1*0  35  56 .  Personal Freedom  13.56  13.38  61  55  Feeling of Belonging  12.1+8  13.3k  37  Sk  !7  Withdrawing Tendencies  12.21+  11.38  51+  l+i  -13  Nervous Symptoms  12.23  10.60  53  5i  -  SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT  68.81  69.32  35  35  0  Social Standards  12.81  13.  • 1+2  55  13  Social Skills  11.02  11.1*1  50  1+6  - 1+  Anti-social Tendencies  11.32  12.73  1+3  65  22  Family Relations  12.75  12.32  kQ  50  2  School Relations  11.29  12.1*3  53  66  13  Community Relations  12.03  12.05  50  51  1  l+o  1+5  5  TOTAL ADJUSTMENT  138.25  Ill  11*1.08  .  •  16  56  5 21 -  6  2  (92) From T a b l e X I I I , i t may be s e e n test the  s c o r e s o f t h e boys a r e more i n c o n s i s t e n t girls.  Compared w i t h  have s i x s i g n i f i c a n t l y slightly  higher,  while  i n freedom from  percentile  are i n favour  withdrawing  i n T a b l e XIV.  those o f  the s e n i o r boys equivalents, four adjustment.  of the grade-ten  tendencies  points higher f o r grade-ten  A summary o f t h e r e s u l t s given  boys,  than  and one e q u a l - t h a t o f s o c i a l  small differences  13 p e r c e n t i l e  grade-ten  higher  Three  is  that the increases i n  of Tables  boys,  the d i f f e r e n c e boys.  VIII to XIII i s  (93) TABLE X I V PERCENTILE DIFFERENCES FOR THE GRADE-LEVEL FOR EACH SEX  Component SELF ADJUSTMENT  Gr.XII & VIII  Boys Gr. X & VIII  COMPARISONS  Gr.XII & X  Gr.XII & VIII  Girls Gr. X & VIII  Gr.XII §c X  21  5  16  39  11  28  SelfReliance  15  10  5  32  15  17  Personal Worth  18  -3  21  26  20  6  Personal Freedom  12  18  -6  7  9  -2  Feeling of Belonging  10  -7  17  2k  18  6  -13  18  11  7  Withdrawing Tendencies  3  16'  Nervous Symptoms  1  3  -2  21  6  15  SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT  5  5  0  3  8  -5  Social Standards  5  -8  13  21  9  12  Social Skills  l  5  -k  1  1*  -3  3k  12  22  31  8  23  Family Relations  5  3  2  9  1  8  School Relations  20  7  13  15  7  8  Community Relations  2  1  1  -8  -1  -7  15  10  5  20  10  10  Anti-social Tendencies  TOTAL ADJUSTMENT  (9k)  C e r t a i n p o i n t s are worth n o t i n g : (1) F o r b o t h  sexes,  total  ment s c o r e s t e n d (2) H i g h e r  is little  Rather  change  (6) S c o r e s  and community  tendencies  of the g i r l s  the boys t o r e m a i n (7)  negative  tween t h e b o y s o f g r a d e s drawing Evidences This  tween t h e g r a d e l e v e l s  grade  according  Personality, plotted for  each  i n social  skills,  i n p e r s o n a l freedom, standards;  i n nervous  symptoms;  difference  occurs be-  twelve  the evidence  when t h e s e x e s  of p e r s o n a l i t y  and t e n i n w i t h -  of d i f f e r e n c e s be-  a r e combined.  development from  i n Graph I I I , u s i n g  To g e t  grade to  t o t h e measurement o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a  t h e mean p r o f i l e s  grade.  scores;  D i f f e r e n c e s i n P e r s o n a l i t y Components  now p r e s e n t s  a general picture  relations;  tendencies*  of Grade-Level study  of belong-  t o i n c r e a s e and t h o s e o f  stationary  The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t  to occur i n  relations;  and s o c i a l  tend  grades;  adjustment  to occur  development i s found  withdrawing  tend  and s c h o o l  i n social  minor changes t e n d  Irregular  i n the l a t e r  grades  tendencies  family relations (5)  and s e l f - a d j u s t -  p e r s o n a l worth, f e e l i n g  anti-social  (3) T h e r e (k)  t o be h i g h e r  scores i n the l a t e r  self-reliance, ing,  adjustment  Test of  f o r the three l e v e l s are  the a p p r o p r i a t e p e r c e n t i l e  norms  (95) GRAPH I I I COMPARISON OF THE MEAN PROFILES OF THE GRADE LEVELS  COMPONENTS S e l f Adjustment A. S e l f - r e l i a n c e B. Sense of personal worth C. Sense of personal freedom D. Feeling of belonging E. Withdrawing Tendencies F. Nervous Symptoms S o c i a l Adjustment  A. S o c i a l Standards  B. S o c i a l S k i l l s C. A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies, D. Family Relations  E. School Relations  F. Community Relations TOTAL ADJUSTMENT  PERCENTILE  (96) In eight  general,  i t c a n be  i s n o t as w e l l  adjusted  t e n r a n k s lower than grade the  C a l i f o r n i a Test  some grade  the  three  I I I that  t e n and  that  grade grade  t w e l v e i n most components o f There  appear  between t h e p e r s o n a l i t y  g r a d e s , hence  comparisons  t o be  components  a r e made between  levels.  T a b l e XV percentile  Graph  as g r a d e  of P e r s o n a l i t y .  differences  i n the various  seen from  shows t h e means, p e r c e n t i l e e q u i v a l e n t s  differences  f o r grades e i g h t  and t w e l v e .  and  (97) TABLE XV GRADE DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS FOR GRADES V I I I AND X I I  Mean Factor SELF ADJUSTMENT  Scores  Percentile Equivalents Gr.VIII Gr. X I I  Diff. i n Percentiles  Gr.VIII  Gr.XII  66.25  70.56  31  1*8  17  SelfReliance  10.00  10.75  1*5  68  23  Personal Worth  10.9k  12.76  39  61  22  Personal Freedom  12.60  13.3k  kk  51*  10  Feeling of Belonging  12.6k  1 3 . k2  1*0  56  16  Withdrawing Tendencies  10.70  11.80  37  1*7  10  Nervous Symptoms  11.58  10.9k  1*1*  5.1*  10  SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT  67.87  73.17  31*  1*6  12  Social• Standards  13.35  13.92  51*  68  11*  Social Skills  11.07  11.78  51  52  1  Anti-so c i a l Tendencies  10.87  12.99  39  70  31  Family Relations  12.27  12.30  1*3  50  7  School Relations  10.63  12.28  1*6  61*  Community Relations  12.21  12.2k  52  55  11*3.52  32  1*8  TOTAL ADJUSTMENT  133.  Mt  18 3 16  (98) A study o f the t a b l e tween g r a d e - e i g h t to be f a i r l y family  reveals  In only  three  r e l a t i o n s , and community ten p e r c e n t i l e  and t e n .  i  instances  scores  be-  tend  - social  r e l a t i o n s - are the  skills,  differ-  points.  T a b l e XVI compares the s c o r e s eight  the d i f f e r e n c e s  and g r a d e - t w e l v e p e r c e n t i l e  large.  ences l e s s than  that  made by p u p i l s  i n grades  (99) TABLE XVI GRADE DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS FOR GRADES V I I I AND X 1 Factor SELF ADJUSTMENT  Grade V I I I Mean S.D.  Grade Mean  X S.D.  Diff.in Means  OD  C.R.  .93  1*.08  .58  .20  2.91  2.1*0  .80  .21  3.73  13.37  2.38  .77  .21  3.67  2.76  12.91  2.57  .27  .22  1.21  10.70  2.86  11.99  2.52  1.29  .22  5.75  Nervous Symptoms  11.58  2.61*  11.88  2.1*8  .30  .21  l.Uo  SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT  67.87  10.91  70.31*  1 0 . 3i*  2.1*7  .89  2.78  Social Standards  13.35  1.83  13.33  1.97  -.02  .16  -.12  Social Skills  11.07  2.1*5  11.1*9  2.1*6  .1*2  .18  2.36  Anti-social Tendencies  10.87  2.88  11.72  2.70  .85  .23  3.61*  Family Relations  12.27  3.11  12.1*0  3.07  .13  .26  .50  School Relations  IO.63  2.73  11.33  2.52  .70  .22  3.19  Community Relations  12.21  2.68  12.62  2.1*1*  .Ul  .21  1.92  133.Wi  '20.32  139.75  1.62  3.90  66.25  11.1*2  70.02  10.71  3.77  SelfReliance  10.00  2.51  10.58  2.26  Personal Worth  10.91;  2.71*  11.71*  Personal Freedom  12.60  2.65  Feeling of Belonging  12.61*  Withdrawing Tendencies  TOTAL ADJUSTMENT  18.1*9  6.31  (100) Only  five  responding tend  differences  standard  nervous  These f i v e  s m a l l one,  grades  compares  t e n and  standards,  A l l the  are i n favour  Table XVII  scores  twice  their  twelve.  cor-  that grade-ten than  do  of  belonging,  family relations  differences,  of the p u p i l s the p e r c e n t i l e  pupils  grade-eight  components i n c l u d e f e e l i n g  symptoms, s o c i a l  community r e l a t i o n s .  than  indicating  t o have b e t t e r a d j u s t m e n t  pupils.  in  errors,  are l e s s  except  i n grade  and  one  very  ten.  equivalents of  pupils  (101) TABLE X V I I GRADE DIFFERENCES  Mean  IN TEST COMPONENTS X AND X I I  Scores  FOR GRADES  Percentile Equivalents Gr. X Gr. X I I  Diff. i n Percent- . iles  Factor  Gr. X  Gr.XII  SELF ADJUSTMENT  70.02  70.56  1*0  1*8  SelfReliance  10.58  10.75  57  68  11  Personal Worth  11.71*  12.76  1*7  61  11*  Personal Freedom  13.37  13.31*  57  51*  - 3  Feeling of Belonging  12.91  13.1*2  1*1*  56  12  Withdrawing Tendencies  11.99  11.80  50  1*7  - 3  Nervous Symptoms  11.88  10.91*  1*8  5.1*  6  SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT  70.31*  73.17  1*2  1*6  1*  Social Standards  13.33  13.92  53  68  15  Social Skills  11.1*9  11.78  57  52  - 5  Anti-social Tendencies  11.72  12.99  1*7  70  23  Family Relations  ,12.1*0  12.30  1*1*  50  6  School Relations  11.33  12.28  53  61*  11  Community Relations  12.62  12.21*  56  55  - 1  1*0  1*8  8  TOTAL ADJUSTMENT  139.75  ,  11+3.52  8  (102) It  i s apparent from Table XVII, t h a t  f r o m g r a d e s t e n to t w e l v e a r e s m a l l e r was  t h e c a s e i n the c o m p a r i s o n  percentile  differences  twelve, while four  changes i n s c o r e s  and more e r r a t i c  of grades e i g h t  exceed t e n p o i n t s  and  ten.  i n f a v o u r of  of the s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s  than Six  grade  favour the  lower  grade. Statement  of Areas of P e r s o n a l i t y R e q u i r i n g  T e a c h e r s and (1)  Attention  of  Counsellors  From a s t u d y of t h e t e s t  data., i t becomes a p p a r e n t  that  some a r e a s o f p e r s o n a l i t y r e q u i r e  the a t t e n t i o n of t e a c h e r s  and c o u n s e l l o r s .  a r e a s s h o u l d be  out  Before s p e c i f i c  for attention,  students  i t must be  at each grade  area of p e r s o n a l i t y students require  level  that,  admitted that had  s u c h low  i f the t e s t  expert guidance  a percentage of  scores  results  and h e l p  singled  i n every  are v a l i d ,  to c o r r e c t  these  their  maladjustments. (2)  From t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f sex d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n  grades,  i t i s found that,  significantly t h e y c a n be  different  treated  guidance program. ization social grade in (3) it  i n general,  in personality  as one The  group w i t h i n  specific  eight;  grade  and f r e e d o m  from  in social  each grade  anti-social and  grade  level  as i t does f o r e a c h  are not  and  that  i n the general-  self-reliance,  tendencies i n social  s t a n d a r d s i n grade  When a l l s t u d e n t s i n e a c h becomes e v i d e n t ,  adjustment  symptoms,  i n sense of p e r s o n a l worth  t e n ; and  girls  exceptions to t h i s  a r e i n the a r e a s o f n e r v o u s skills  b o y s and  the  are  standards  twelve. compared,  s e p a r a t e sex,  that  (103) the  test  ten  and  scores r e v e a l a gradual from  t e n to t w e l v e  self-adjustment reliance, other  scores,  anti-social  s t u d i e s do  counsellors  not  f a m i l y and  found. those  significant  Cognizance directing  (5) .From t h i s  tend  self  the  (6)  girls  eightj level.  then  and  adjustment  the  scores  1~,  See  On  boys would  of personality-  social  skills  w e l l as o f t o t a l  s h o u l d be  social  taken  by  school.  the  California  the  boys,  development  of b e l o n g i n g  appear  and  i n grade  r e f e r e n c e numbers: 1 9 2 ,  guidance  ten  The  of  girls i n the .  scores  components.  social than  at the program  boys i n t h e s e  hand,  t o be  that  especially  in five  i n c r e a s e markedly  grade-ten  Test  more.  lower  other  note  i t s s i x components.  appear t h a t the  the  teachers  even marked d i f f e r e n c e s , a r e  than  and  slightly  s p e c i a l help to the  twelve  and  c o u n s e l l o r s should  more e v e n l y  I t would  personality.  finding,•*•  evidence  as measured by  teachers  are  selfSince  p r o g r a m o f the  b o y s show i r r e g u l a r  scores  total  of t h e r a t e s of p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t  In p e r s o n a l worth, f e e l i n g their  in  components -  components o f  boys seem t o f l u c t u a t e  The  and  school r e l a t i o n s .  l a c k of gain  guidance  study  to d e v e l o p  area of  this  grade e i g h t t o  study.  or  of t h i s  the  the b o y s and  Personality,  i n three  community r e l a t i o n s , a s  a d j u s t m e n t , no  of  in this  adjustment  and  aware o f t h e  I n a l l c o m p a r i s o n s of t h e  and  of  as w e l l as  agree w i t h  development i n d i c a t e d (U)  in total  tendencies  s h o u l d be  i n c r e a s e from  three  standards, i n grade  grade-twelve should areas  s p e c i a l help f o r the  justified 16~S.  i n sense of  give of  gradepersonal  (1020 freedom back  and i n w i t h d r a w i n g t e n d e n c i e s where t h e s c o r e s  from  d e c i d e d g a i n s i n grade t e n t o a m i n o r  l o s s r e s p e c t i v e l y " i n grade no  increase  symptoms.  i n their  scores  To e n s u r e a g a i n  twelve.  Finally,  i n these scores,  s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e i r  (7)  I n o n l y one o f t h e s i x components boys,  do t h e g i r l s  component o f sense icate  that  and a m a j o r  t h e boys  show  i n t h e component o f n e r v o u s  tion  the  drop  problems  show i r r e g u l a r  i n this  need  atten-  area,  j u s t mentioned f o r increases.  of p e r s o n a l freedom,  grade-twelve g i r l s  special  the t e s t  special  In t h i s data  ind-  counselling.  CHAPTER V RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GUIDANCE WORK Review o f S u g g e s t i o n s The  Found i n L i t e r a t u r e  l i t e r a t u r e reviewed  recommendations f o r guidance are d i r e c t l y according and  applicable  to the t e s t  counsellors.  ectly.  according high  t o grade  each  level  level,  their  r e s u l t s from  guidance  i n w h i c h t h e group approach, was u s e d  needs. to  into  the p a r t i c u l a r  have  of personhelp  Studies of the  personalities  work w i t h p r o b l e m  reveal  students. project  s u p p l e m e n t e d by a c h i l d - g u i d a n c e  groups  Each c o u n s e l l o r t r i e d  correct  indicator  o u t an e x p e r i m e n t a l  t o help problem  p u p i l s were d i v i d e d  Scores  maladjustments.  B l a u and Veo ( 3 2 ) c a r r i e d  clinic,  does c o n t a i n  of the students  i s a valid  o f r e m e d i a l work on m a l a d j u s t e d  favourable  guidance  students would r e q u i r e s p e c i a l  to correct  indir-  students.  Low T e s t  a percentage  such  effect  of t e a c h e r s  to vary  However, t h e l i t e r a t u r e  ality  adjustment,  which,  or a c c o r d i n g t o sex d i f f e r e n c e s o f  I f the test  guidance  the a t t e n t i o n  suggestions f o r maladjusted  grade  suggestions  of p e r s o n a l i t y  i n s t r u c t i o n s were f o u n d  v e r y low s c o r e s .  and  Some o f t h e s e  s u g g e s t i o n s c a n o n l y be a p p l i e d  Recommendations f o r S t u d e n t s w i t h In  s t u d y c o n t a i n e d many  areas  d a t a , needed  school students.-  many h e l p f u l  work.  to those  Other  No s p e c i f i c  for this  children.  according to t h e i r  by d i s c u s s i o n  maladjustment  (105)  The m a l a d j u s t e d individual  and r e m e d i a l work  of h i s group.  Such  (106) "group  treatment"  udes and regular  adjustment,  and  about  marked improvement i n  many o f  s t u d e n t s who  Klein  (26)  were f a i l i n g  a s s i s t a n c e was  children,  t h e p u p i l s were r e t u r n e d t o  reported a project with superior i n various subjects.  found  t o be  most o f the p u p i l s were h e l p e d by  the c h i l d ' s  try  to help  the c h i l d  found  to c l i n i c a l  that  success  complexity ected age it  the  treatment  of f a c t o r s .  levels.  He  700  judged  that  15  27  result  treatment  of the  be  from  successfully  ij.2 u n d e t e r m i n e d . aged  21  and  concluded  12  teacher  to  procedures.  hygienists.  He  of 100  and  32  cases  sel-  at three v a r y i n g  under 12  years  successfully undetermined  of  age,  adjusted, (where  the  c o u l d n o t be m e a s u r e d , o r where still per  i n doubt).  c e n t were  a d j u s t e d , 28 p a r t i a l l y ,  "while the  28,  2k  and  k l per  s t u d i e s show t h a t  l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of c h i l d r e n  are h e l p e d ,  In  judged  20 u n i m p r o v e d  corresponding percentages  o v e r were 7 ,  that  nature  of  treated  c e n t were  t o 20 y e a r s , 10  The  the  process  the response  r e p o r t s a study  unadjusted  the  d e p e n d e d upon a t r e m e n d o u s  permanency o f the improvement was range  u r g i n g the  of c h i l d r e n  per  26 p a r t i a l l y ,  age  by  by m e n t a l  children  I n the c a s e  profess-  simple  on  ordinary classroom  or f a i l u r e  a t random f r o m  was  i n the  and  (115,pp.571ff) investigated  Jersild children  maladjustment,  While  n e c e s s a r y f o r some of  o f f o c u s i n g t h e home-room t e a c h e r ' s a t t e n t i o n of  attit-  classes.  Berman and  ional  brought  for  cent. a  they  the the to  and  persons  Jersild  relatively also  indicate  (107) t h a t many c h i l d r e n who r e c e i v e of  time  do n o t seem t o show s i g n i f i c a n t  Tiegs available  and K a t z indicates  (225,P«17U) claim that  Since a guidance special  guidance program  outlined directing (1)  on sound  varying periods  that  directed  so f a r  e f f o r t s can  are e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y . "  has b e e n shown t o h e l p many s t u d e n t s ,  to problem principles  students.  the guidance  to give  Such a p r o g r a m must  of guidance.  numerous f u n d a m e n t a l s  Guidance  11  "evidence  i s n e e d e d i n any s c h o o l s y s t e m  assistance  based  over  improvement.  intelligently  do much t o a i d c h i l d r e n who  be  treatment  The l i t e r a t u r e  t o be k e p t i n mind by t h o s e  program:  i s the f u n c t i o n  o f t h e whole  (173),  staff  (165). (2)  Guidance from  i s a gradual, long-time process extending  t h e home and t h e e l e m e n t a r y  s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n and e v e n (3)  (k)  Treatment  o f g u i d a n c e work  (213).  beyond  P r e v e n t i o n of maladjustment function  school to high-  i s a very (225,p.17U)•  s h o u l d be s t a r t e d  early.  for  r e m e d i a l work i s i n t h e p u b l i c  the  s t u d e n t becomes t o o f i r m l y  habits  of inadequate  House C o n f e r e n c e  fact  nothing f a i l s  out  that that  until  area  school before  adjustment  (238,p.Jj.O)  like  o f t e n no s p e c i a l  The b e s t  established i n  personality  The W h i t e  important  failure.  (2l;7).  stresses the -  They  point  s t u d y i s made o f a c h i l d  he i s two y e a r s b e h i n d  i n h i s studies  and i s  (108) thus w e l l grounded i n h a b i t s of f a i l u r e , (5)  To e n s u r e  c o n t i n u i t y of guidance,  mittee  of the elementary  needed  (71;).  (6) A d e q u a t e  time  estimated  allotment  a joint  and s e c o n d a r y  should  f o r every  schools i s  be p r o v i d e d .  t h a t an e q u i v a l e n t o f one  counsellor  com-  500 students  Itis  full-time  i s required  (97,p.61*). (7) Good c u m u l a t i v e be  kept  to provide  the p u p i l  (9)  Teachers  should  perament  and t r a i n i n g  Full  organizations  (11)  be  guidance  (12)  the c o u n s e l -  not c l a s s i f y  any  (71*).  and  (189).  be t a k e n  of  parent-teacher  parental cooperation  i n the  (51*,PP*i*0i*—7). consisting  committee  of the p r i n c i p a l ,  and t h e t e a c h e r  This allows  and f o r m s  counsellors  (71*).  f i t them f o r g u i d a n c e  to e n l i s t  program  s e t up.  may  of  be s e l e c t e d whose p e r s o n a l i t y , tem-  should  A school c l i n i c guidance  a visit  ( 3 5 ) , (1*8),  advantage  guidance  (126,pp.572-82),  as "odd" o r d i f f e r e n t  counselling (10)  t h a t such  should  understanding  s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o v i s i t  i n order  student  f o r each student  a more c o m p l e t e  and h i s p r o b l e m s  (8) A l l s t u d e n t s lor  r e c o r d cards  should  opportunity f o r co-ordinated  an i n s t r u c t i o n a l  and t e a c h e r s  concerned  the  "lab"  for  (88,p.8).  An a t m o s p h e r e o f f r i e n d l i n e s s ,  interest  and sympa-  (109) thetic (13)  The  concern  clinical  personality  (189).  i s needed  approach i s needed to i n t e r p r e t as  a whole.  I t i s important  aware o f a l l t h e f a c t o r s maladjustment ( i l l ) An  (15)  (9l,p.85),  objective attitude  r e m e d i a l work  according  separate  to the  (13U).  the  e l e m e n t s o f the  attacked  found  and  remedied f i r s t aspects  principles  before  of the  into  practice,  needed  2)  Teachers  and  3)  Teachers  moved t o o t h e r p o s i t i o n s  a guidance  T h e r e was  (61; p e r  (53).  Chisholm with  principals  program  inability  to  f o r the  type  were t o o b u s y  (37.7  per  judge  how  (63  per  cent).  during preparation  cent). w e l l guidance  met  needs.  l a c k of  planning.  of  cent).  t h e s e f a c t o r s were f o u n d  money and  the  program:  guidance  with  should  attempting  interfered  were i n a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e d  the  problem  trouble  Teachers  k)  case  standard program i s  t h a t f o u r major h a n d i c a p s  of the  of  of  each  adjustment  simpler  of  specialized  The  success  Along  and  or f o r a l l p e r s o n s .  p u t t i n g these  1)  (207,p.211).  suitable for a l l situations  more c o m p l i c a t e d  (51,p.25)  one  of  (15).  needs o f  No  causes  i n the f i e l d  ( 6 ) , (9k),  individualized  be  (ll6,p.l;60),  i s necessary  G u i d a n c e must be  be  In  (231),  (ll,p,17U),  ( 1 2 6 , p p . 22i*f f ) ,  (16)  i n determining  to  the  l a c k of i n t e r e s t ,  lack  (no) If  t h e guidance program  arranged, tioning  i s w e l l planned  i t c a n a v o i d most o f t h e s e  w e l l , guidance w i l l  affect  pitfalls.  and t h e t e a c h e r  School  When  func-  a l l phases of the s c h o o l  program - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m , cipline  and c a r e f u l l y -  teaching  methods,  dis-  herself.  administration i s very  important  to e f f e c t i v e  g u i d a n c e f o r upon i t r e s t s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p u t t i n g into  p r a c t i c e the g u i d i n g  (165)  made a s u r v e y  administration treat  o f the e f f e c t s  upon t h e e f f o r t s  p u p i l problems.  operated  with  i n fact,  in  t e n per cent  whose f a c u l t i e s was  failure  schools,  pared with  only  Dimmick ality  t h e c h i l d r e n was  of the cases,  while  the r e p o r t e d  that,  of the cases  trends  showed improvements  the remedial  type  in  13 d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o u r  upon  procedure.  schools.  pupil-person-  He s t u d i e d t h e  of c l a s s e s . trends.  from  the ordinary  M a r k e d i n c r e a s e s were Most o f t h e t e a c h e r s  t h e t e a c h e r - p u p i l r e l a t i o n s h i p was i m p r o v e d ,  agreed that  as com-  and a t t i t u d e s o f 2 5 8 c h i l d r e n  the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of a school  to  percentage  i n the co-operative  i n the non-cooperative  classroom  reported  i n the schools  (66) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t  changes i n behaviour  that  to help  17 p e r c e n t  of r e o r g a n i z i n g  following  where t h e f a c u l t i e s c o -  s t a f f much b e t t e r r e s u l t s were ob-  Newell found  65 per cent  Newell  of the co-operation o f  d i d not co-operate,  thirty-three.  of c o u n s e l l i n g .  of the guidance c l i n i c t o  In schools  the c l i n i c  tained; only  principles  i t was e a s i e r t o t e a c h  found felt  and a l l  slow p u p i l s by t h i s  method.  (Ill) The  co-operation  body i s n e c e s s a r y  of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h  to secure  adequate time  the  keeping  the  s e l e c t i o n of s u i t a b l e teachers  of  o f good c u m u l a t i v e  parent-teacher School  individual adjusted acity,  and t h e p r o m o t i o n  (51*,PP• ii-OU—7 ) •  d i f f e r e n c e s i n order  social maturity.  three  forms:  s p e c i a l c l a s s e s and c o m p l e t e Cole  (5k,PP«k35-14-1)  n o t o n l y upon i n t e l l i g e n c e  achievement,  who a r e m a l -  d i f f e r e n c e s i n cap-  and p e r s o n a l i t y have t a k e n  of i n s t r u c t i o n .  base g r o u p i n g  to a i d students  P r o v i s i o n s f o r these  homogeneous g r o u p i n g ,  and  (189),  (97,p.6U),  (126,pp.572-82),  record cards  organizations  to school.  ucational  allotment  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n must make c a r e f u l p r o v i s i o n f o r  interest  ization  the c o u n s e l l i n g  teachers' Cole  found  individual-  and Koos  ( 1 2 6 , p . 266)  b u t a l s o upon e d -  r a t i n g s , p h y s i c a l development that  s e l e c t i o n b a s e d on s e v -  e r a l f a c t o r s a p p e a r e d t o have b e e n more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n  group-  i n g s f o r w h i c h o n l y one measure was u s e d . An not  attempt  only  affect  necessitate discusses that and  to provide  for individual  differences w i l l  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the s c h o o l b u t w i l l  changes i n the c u r r i c u l u m .  the curriculum  the c u r r i c u l u m  at length.  should possess  p r a c t i c a l values.  High-school  Cole  ( P P •  Briefly, cultural, subjects  also  i4.ll4.-3l4-)  she c o n s i d e r s disciplinary  should  be t h e  foundation  f o r f u r t h e r academic o r t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l  training.  They s h o u l d p r e p a r e  meet t h e needs o f t h e a v e r a g e tain  the student adult.  t h e answers t o t h e most common  i n some d e g r e e t o  They s h o u l d and v e x a t i o u s  also  con-  problems  (112) of the adolescents themselves.  In the main, the subject  matter should f i t them for normal existence i n the community and for earning a l i v i n g .  Cole l i s t s her selection of courses  that should be on every pupil's schedule: (1) (2) (3) (k) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)  S o c i a l Science, Psychology, Physical Hygiene, Mental Hygiene, B i o l o g i c a l Science, Non-biological Science, Child Care and Homemaking, English Composition and Reading, Music, Art, Physical Education Extra-curricular A c t i v i t i e s ,  (10) Extra elective and vocational courses. She would establish two-year courses for those who more time, or who years of work.  cannot take  do not have enough a b i l i t y to complete four  Such short courses should prepare a student  for normal l i v i n g and for the r e l a t i v e l y simple l i n e s of work open to him. needs a new  Cole (5U,p.U6) believes that the curriculum "hygiene" course for adolescents.  should cover matters  "Such a course  of diet, sleep, fatigue, over- and under-  weight, heart s t r a i n , skin i n f e c t i o n s , perspiration, smoking, drinking and sex manifestations." by teachers who  The course should be taught  are respected by the pupils and who  are not  afraid of the f a c t s . Koos (126,p.Ul) outlines what he terms a "constants-withvariables" program of studies which does not c a l l for  committal  by the p u p i l to s p e c i a l i z a t i o n during junior high-school years. The program provides a wide range i n the "variables" portion. This greater freedom of choice i n subject matter makes more  (113)  provision for individual  differences.  Koos goes even f u r t h e r  i n a l l o w i n g f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s by m o d i f y i n g  both q u a n t i t -  a t i v e l y and q u a l i t a t i v e l y the c o n t e n t of the c o u r s e s f o r t h e differentiated  levels.  For the slow l e a r n e r , t h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n i s a n e c e s s i t y . I r w i n and Marks ( 1 1 2 ) c o n s i d e r  i t shameful t h e way a d u l l  c h i l d i s d e m o r a l i z e d f o r the good of t h e c u r r i c u l u m .  They  b e l i e v e t h a t , a t a l l c o s t s , s c h o o l i n f l u e n c e s s h o u l d be shaped t o a v o i d g i v i n g the s t u d e n t an inward sense o f f a i l ure and i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s . I n t e a c h i n g methods, i t i s e q u a l l y as i m p o r t a n t as i n the c u r r i c u l u m , ed s t u d e n t s .  t h a t m o d i f i c a t i o n s be made f o r t h e m a l a d j u s t -  Hanna ( ° 8 ) views r e m e d i a l  s o l u t i o n t o a p e r s o n a l i t y problem.  teaching  Helping  as a p o s s i b l e  the s t u d e n t t o  a c h i e v e success i n s c h o o l g i v e s him new c o n f i d e n c e respect.  Marshall  (II4.8)  and s e l f -  b e l i e v e s t h a t a p l a n n e d "success  program" i s a v i t a l f a c t o r i n d e v e l o p i n g  good mental a d j u s t -  ment. Loftus  ( 1 3 8 ) made a study o f the e f f e c t upon p e r s o n a l i t y  of the use of p r o g r e s s i v e  methods.  He compared t h e s c o r e s  on p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s of the s t u d e n t s i n p r o g r e s s i v e w i t h those of s t u d e n t s i n c o n t r o l s c h o o l s .  schools  He judged t h a t  the s t u d e n t s i n t h e former had b e t t e r s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l adjustment.  They were s u p e r i o r i n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s and be-  l i e f s as w e l l as i n such f a c t o r s as i n i t i a t i v e and co-operation.  From t h i s s t u d y i t appears t h a t p r o g r e s s i v e  methods  (HU)  assist personality development.  The directors of the Eight-  Year Study came to a similar conclusion ( 3 ) . Cole (Sh pp. i|.l*5-8) summarizes the requisites of good t  teaching methods.  Teaching should have the following char-  acteristics : "It must relate d r i l l to some desired purpose and must eliminate sheer monotony as much as possible; i t must be interesting; i t must give the adolescent mental exercise; i t must s t i r his imagination; i t must allow him to f e e l and develop his independence; and i t must provide him with as many explanations as he can understand. Work that lacks these characteristics simply does not get done; no learning can be brought about without the cooperation of the learner." No outline of teaching methods i s complete without a discussion of the effect of d i s c i p l i n e upon the maladjusted child.  In this regard, Symonds ( 2 1 1 , p. II4.7 ) makes a pointed  claim: "When i t i s understood that misconduct by a p u p i l usually i s a symptom of mental disorder, s u p e r f i c i a l and temporary perhaps, but sometimes deep-seated and permanent, and that one should seek the cause and i n each case aim to prevent conduct disorders by removing the causethen r e a l gain i s made i n handling d i s c i p l i n a r y situations i n school. Misconduct i s a symptom." Cutts and Mosely ( 6 0 , p p . 1 5 9 - 9 3 ) give a s i x f o l d program for promoting better behaviour.  This program includes:  " 1 . establishing f r i e n d l y relations with a c h i l d , 2 . helping him make desirable f r i e n d ships with other children, 3 . providing success by adjusting his work to his achievement and a b i l i t y , I * , c u l t i v a t i n g his interests, 5 . giving him r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and 6 . giving him praise. In adapting this program to children who are chronic offenders the teacher may have to make a special e f f o r t to overcome  (115) her q u i t e n a t u r a l d i s l i k e f o r a d i s t u r b e r and a s u s p i c i o u s r e s i s t a n c e e q u a l l y n a t u r a l on h i s part." Most  authors  consider  r e m e d i a l work o f t h e ability  of  presents  the  (75,PP»29h~5) 22.5  t o be ers  to  the  i n the  are  o f the  through  which the  teacher's  upon her  sense  intelligence,  teacher  teachers  to  teach-  help  concluded reflect-  states that  c r e a t e d by  and who  teachers  have an  abiding  a r e a l r e s p e c t f o r the p e r s o n a l i t y the  system last  i n vogue t h e  analysis,  comes i n c o n t a c t w i t h important i s t o be  health, pleasant  interest  the  medium  it."  qualities  of  the b e s t i n f l u e n c e  i n d u s t r y and  i n s o c i a l problems,  d i f f e r e n c e s , and  person-  voice, attractive  of humour, p r o m p t n e s s ,  of i n d i v i d u a l  (189)  o n l y be  o u t l i n e s the  fairness,  Fenton  s t u d i e d was  Ryan  healthy  p e r s o n a l i t y i f she  students:  appearance,  The  (1*8)  teachers  can  i s , i n the  child  i n order  investigation,  pupils.  Whatever  teacher  Carrington  iation  the  s c h o o l atmosphere  ....  yet  problems.  careful  o f her  and  and  and  teacher  need f o r these  specialists  o f e a c h of  in children  students,  the  character  a maladjusted  s t r e s s e s the  personal  after  behaviour  of each c h i l d  the  He  of  p r o p o r t i o n of m a l a d j u s t e d  themselves mentally  interest  ality  their  conduct  a "healthy who  cent.  (21),  Baxter  ed  example f o r h e r  seek c o u n s e l l i n g by  them t o r i g h t  that  Certainly,  r e p o r t s the  per  value  s c h o o l depends u p o n the  teacher.  a poor  t h a t much o f t h e  l o v e of the  n e e d s t a c t , wisdom, f r e e d o m f r o m  personal thrift, apprec-  beautiful.  complexes,  (116) patience, balance  and  and  Jones struction  purposive  flexibility.  ( l l i i ) used to  the  method o f p l a n n e d  develop p e r s o n a l i t y .  He  i n a d e f i n i t e improvement  but  the  teacher.  effectiveness  Ojemann and  must know the be  on  p e r s o n a l i t i e s of  evidence  has  found  maladjusted  standard  iably  as  o f low  (168)  shown t h a t  Each  b o y s and  girls  Martin social  introvert ally  method '  this  claim  that  traits, the  teachers  s t u d e n t s i f they would  a guidance program  One  scores  should  a c h i e v e a more  might,  help  many  acceptable  therefore, expect  in personality  t e s t s to  functioning  Differences  based  the  drop  guidance  i n Personality  apprecprogram.  Within  Grade Schreiber  and  students to  f o r Sex  that  method depended upon  their  a r e s u l t of a p r o p e r l y  Recommendations  in-  "developers."  of adjustment.  percentage  character  i n student-character  sound p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r t r a i n e d l e a d e r s  of the  in  of the  Wilkinson  effective personality The  needs  control.  resulted that  Above a l l , she  (96)  (192)  f o u n d no  significant  difference  t h r o u g h o u t the  high-school  period.  found  adjustment with  inclined.  that  than the  respect The  senior  to  writer's  but  thinking  girls and  study revealed  ferences  i n p e r s o n a l i t y b e t w e e n the  However,  there  were s p e c i f i c  Guilford  b o y s were more i n t r o v e r t  girls,  their  between  were more  more no  emotion-  wide  sexes w i t h i n  dif-  each  p e r s o n a l i t y areas i n each  grade. grade  (117) l e v e l w h i c h were e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s test  d a t a can be c o n s i d e r e d v a l i d ,  guidance  i n each  generalization.  then the suggestions f o r  o f t h e a r e a s where d i f f e r e n c e s  w o u l d be u s e f u l f o r t h e s e x w i t h  I f the  occurred  the s i g n i f i c a n t l y  lower  score. Grade-eight  g i r l s were f o u n d  from  anti-social  tendencies than  (See  Table V ) .  Baker  many a n t i - s o c i a l twelve  years than  a t seven  grade  eight,  eight  tendencies.  stage i n t h e i r  The  grade  writer  y e a r s o f age.  seem t o have r e a c h e d Probably  girls  this  component  attributes  sure of themselves  that  i s a natural  t o be l o w e r  self-reliance  this  inequality  scores  puberty  new r o l e  t h e boys  (C.R. 2 . 9 8 ) .  to the f a c t  have, and as a r e s u l t , i n their  than  that,  i n grade  the g i r l s  of  personality  of  self-reliance.  e x e r c i s e and p r a c t i c e f o r t r e a t m e n t Such an a p p r o a c h  student to understand  the nature  giving remedial practice  eight, are un-  of adolescence.  e t a l (53) o u t l i n e what t h e y c a l l t h e d i r e c t  then  after  a peak i n a n t i -  tendency  were f o u n d  i n their  many o f t h e g i r l s  and  that  Since the w r i t e r ' s  improvement i n t h i s  w h i l e f e w o f t h e boys have r e a c h e d  Clarke  (16,p.375) f o u n d  development.  Grade-eight their  grade  i t i s comforting to teachers to r e a l i z e  boys i n grade  freer  t e n d e n c i e s a r e much more p r o n o u n c e d a t  showed s i g n i f i c a n t  of  the boys o f t h e i r  and T r a p h a g e n  study  social  t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  method' of lack  i n v o l v e s helping the  and c a u s e s  of h i s d i f f i c u l t y ,  i n the c o r r e c t  responses.  (118) Fenton  ( 7 5 , P » 1 9 8 ) s t r e s s e s how i m p o r t a n t  student  have  trusted  by h i s f a m i l y , f r i e n d s  pp»li59-60)  the assurance  the  that h i s eventual and t e a c h e r s .  t h e aim o f i m p r o v i n g  advises  (139,  Louttit  inferiority  w h i c h he i n c l u d e s s e l f - r e l i a n c e )  child  adequacy i s  b e l i e v e s t h a t , w h e t h e r t h e c a u s e be p h y s i c a l ,  mental or s o c i a l , (under  i t i s that the  s h o u l d be t o remove  from u n s u c c e s s f u l competition.  teachers,  attempting  to help  feelings  ( 5 h , P P • 1*06-7)  Cole  an a d o l e s c e n t who i s  o v e r - d e p e n d e n t upon h i s home, t o e x p l a i n t o him t h e n a t u r e of h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s . is, by  he i s o f t e n a b l e  o r by c o n f o r m i t y  o l d enough t o l e a v e Grade-eight  male c l a s s m a t e s V).  Clarke,  Baker  girls  along  and T r a p h a g e n  to their  ranked  and T h o r p e  (16,p.173) c o n s i d e r  o f a d o l e s c e n t s who a r e u n d e r g o i n g  their  lower  significantly the  girls  such  scores  According  grade-eight  girls  i n their  Cole  than  their  (See T a b l e  (51*,p.91) and  t h a t nervous  symptoms  Particularly  i s this  many p h y s i c a l c h a n g e s . have o n l y r e c e n t l y  an e x p l a n a t i o n may w e l l a c c o u n t f o r  i n this  component.  to the w r i t e r ' s study, lower  lower  symptoms.  (53,P.ll),  true  puberty,  from  main demands u n t i l he  significantly  o f t e n have a p h y s i c a l f o u n d a t i o n .  reached  either  home."  very  S i n c e many o f t h e s e  the matter  conventional lines  i n freedom from nervous  Tiegs  what  t o work o u t h i s own a d j u s t m e n t ,  o b t a i n i n g g r e a t e r freedom  his parents is  "Once he u n d e r s t a n d s  score grade  grade-ten  b o y s have a  i n sense o f p e r s o n a l w o r t h level.  Here a g a i n ,  than  the d i f f e r e n c e s  (119) may  be  due  puberty.  to the  Most g r a d e - t e n  adolescence their  or the  sense  students  basis  the nature  follow  this  his,defects imagined  and  groups.  of therapy."  is real  inferiority  (139,p.l4-59)  Katz  student  time,  the  will  they  o f the n a t u r e For  patience,  c o - o p e r a t i o n are p r e r e q u i s i t e s  These a u t h o r s recommend  at  (225,pp.3U6-8)  defect i s real,  r e m e d i a l work.  of i n f e r i o r i t y ,  type  divides  or i m a g i n a r y  T i e g s and  When t h e  him  of  "Whether t h e c o n d i t i o n  inferiority  of g i v i n g  and  niques f o r t h i s  reached  t o be q u e s t i o n i n g  Louttit  method of i n f o r m i n g the  understanding  (1)  expected  troubled with feelings  same d i v i s i o n .  feelings  counsellor.  two  child's  govern  the d i r e c t  i n reaching  b o y s have v e r y r e c e n t l y  of p e r s o n a l w o r t h ,  into  of the  sexes  worth.  treat pupils  a low  r a t e s of the  and m i g h t w e l l be  individual To  differing  use of  correcting intelligence, of  the  sixteen remedial tech-  of maladjustment:  " E s t a b l i s h s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e c h i l d by g i v i n g s i n c e r e p r a i s e f o r work w e l l done. ( 2 ) P r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t a r e i n harmony w i t h h i s a b i l i t i e s and c a p a c i t i e s . ( 3 ) Teach t h e c h i l d t h a t a l l cannot succeed i n e v e r y f i e l d , b u t t h a t a l l c a n be s u c c e s s f u l i n some f i e l d of a c t i v i t y . (k) A v o i d s i t u a t i o n s where t h e c h i l d has no c h a n c e to succeed. ( 5 ) I n s t i l l s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , c o u r a g e , and p e r s e v e r ence by a v o i d i n g o v e r p r o t e c t i o n and o v e r s o l i c i t u d e . ( 6 ) C u r b and r e p l a c e a l l n e g a t i v e m e a s u r e s s u c h as reproach, scorn, d i s g u s t , r i d i c u l e , nagging, and anger w i t h p o s i t i v e m e a s u r e s s u c h as p r a i s e and r e w a r d s . ( 7 ) T r e a t t h e c h i l d w i t h r e s p e c t as w e l l as i n a f r i e n d l y , n o n - c r i t i c a l , i n t e r e s t e d , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g manner. (8) A v o i d u n f a v o r a b l e c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n improvement s h o u l d be v i e w e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o h i s own a b i l i t i e s and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s .  (120) (9)  R e a s s u r e the c h i l d f r o m t i m e to t i m e t h a t he i s a h e a l t h y , wholesome, and d e s i r a b l e member o f the g r o u p . (10) E n c o u r a g e him t o a t t a c k e v e r y p r o b l e m i n a f r a n k , s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d manner; i n d i c a t e t h a t he has n o t f a i l e d u n t i l he q u i t s t r y i n g . (11) L e t the c h i l d t a s t e the t h r i l l o f s u c c e s s and a c c o m p l i s h m e n t i n some a c t i v i t y t h a t i n t e r e s t s him; t h i s a c t s as an i n c e n t i v e to c o n t i n u e working. (12) P l a y up h i s s p e c i a l t a l e n t s and a b i l i t i e s w h i l e k e e p i n g him a c t i v e i n o v e r c o m i n g h i s weaknesses. (13) P r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r him t o make h i s own d e c i s i o n s and to assume some r e s p o n s i bilities. ( l l i ) S e t a good example f o r t h e c h i l d ; l e t him know a b o u t more h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n who are s u c c e e d i n g . (15) P r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s where h i s a c h i e v e m e n t s c a n be p r e s e n t e d b e f o r e the group i n a f a v o r able l i g h t . (16) A v o i d p r o d u c i n g f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t by any s u g g e s t i o n s or i n f e r e n c e s o f i m m o r a l i t y or sin. " The revealed were  writer's  study of  that  scores  the  significantly than f o r the  appear  to r e q u i r e  dards. dards  are  and  habit  the  home."  and  i n the  girls.  special  literature Tiegs  differences i n personality area  l o w e r f o r the  twelve  The  sex  The  l a r g e l y the  boys of  necessarily  briefly  product  of  upon s o c i a l  t o l e r a t e d or  knowledge o f  Such f a c t o r s o p e r a t i n g  equally  hardly  sex  on  that  stan-  social  stan  i m i t a t i o n , understanding  same a u t h o r s c o n s i d e r  account f o r the  and  these grade l e v e l s  (225,p.2hk) b e l i e v e  a f f e c t i n g the  standards  assistance.  of what i s " e n c o u r a g e d , The  social  boys i n grades ten  touches only  Katz  of  ability social  both boys  differences  avoided to  learn  in as  standards.  and  girls  i n scores.  could  Tiegs  (121) and  Katz  direct  c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e s c h o o l program  instruction  standards interest  expected  of s o c i a l  o f each i n d i v i d u a l .  o f t h e b o y s c o u l d be a r o u s e d  Literature High  on t h e n a t u r e  Regarding  should  provide  o b l i g a t i o n s and  Perhaps by s u c h  the l a t e n t  a measure.  Growth i n P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s  During  School The  w r i t e r ' s study r e v e a l e d a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n scores  between g r a d e s twelve  e i g h t and t e n and b e t w e e n g r a d e s  in total  adjustment,  total  components - s e l f - r e l i a n c e , school r e l a t i o n s literature  ( See T a b l e  disagreed with  Schreiber  s e l f - a d j u s t m e n t and t h r e e  anti-social XIV).  this  t e n and  t e n d e n c i e s and  Some s t u d i e s i n t h e  finding.  (192, p . 211J,) summarized h i s f i n d i n g s  i n these  words: "The b e t t e r s t u d e n t s began h i g h s c h o o l b e t t e r a d j u s t e d than the poorer s t u d e n t s . But the b e t t e r s t u d e n t s a f t e r f o u r y e a r s were n o t so w e l l a d j u s t e d as when t h e y e n t e r e d . The p o o r e r students d i d not s t a r t school very w e l l adjusted and a t t h e end o f f o u r y e a r s t h e i r adjustment remained s t a t i c w i t h l i t t l e change. Perhaps t h e b e t t e r s t u d e n t s were more c r i t i c a l o f t h e i r environment." A study  of personality  development d u r i n g t h e f o u r - y e a r  college  p e r i o d was made b y N p r r i s ( l 6 6 , p . 3 8 ) .  She c o n c l u d e d  that: " t h e r e i s l i t t l e c o n s i s t e n t growth through the four years i n personality t r a i t s . The g r o w t h i n d i c a t e d occurs l a r g e l y i n the records of p u p i l s moving f r o m b e l o w - a v e r a g e t o n o r m a l r a t i n g s , not from normal t o above-average. A g e n e r a l t r e n d o f improvement c u l m i n a t i n g i n the s e n i o r year i s n o t o b s e r v e d i n these d a t a .  (122) T h i s l a c k o f improvement seems t o mean t h a t as l o n g as p u p i l s a r e s u c c e e d i n g t h e y a r e content with their r a t i n g s . " (51|,pp.321-2)  Cole ality  maladjustments  takes the point  occur  very  early i n l i f e  d i f f e r e n c e s i n e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l ences i n i n t e l l e c t u a l ing  the s c h o o l  point  of view.  children towards  of view t h a t  and t h a t  adjustment,  like  c a p a c i t i e s , remain f a i r l y  years.  Alsop  (6)  takes  I t i s his conclusion  person-  differ-  stable  While  the w r i t e r ' s  adjustment from  acceptable  that,  although not a l l  improvement  i t does n o t show  g r o w t h i n n i n e o f t h e t w e l v e t e s t components. recommendation of N o r r i s  (166),  direction  existence.  study r e v e a l s  grade t o g r a d e ,  dur-  a somewhat d i f f e r e n t  c a n be c u r e d o r s a v e d , y e t a l l may be g i v e n a more s o c i a l l y  these  therefore,  i n total consistent  The  aptly  general  applies:  "With t h i s e v i d e n c e o f l a c k o f c o n t i n u e d growth, t e a c h e r s might w e l l i n s t i t u t e a program t h a t would enable p u p i l s t o improve from year t o year i n the t r a i t s i n which t h e i r marks were n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y . " Recommendations f o r t h e A r e a s o f P e r s o n a l i t y i n W h i c h Negligible The social  I n c r e a s e s Were Found  writer's  study r e v e a l s  a d j u s t m e n t have o n l y m i n o r  grade l e v e l s . In  addition,  to  their  The same i s t r u e  and  the scores  differences  i n the area  family  and t h e i r  XVII).  i n total  between t h e  of s o c i a l  t h e measurements o f t h e s t u d e n t s '  skills.  adjustment  community r e m a i n p r a c t i c a l l y t h e  same t h r o u g h o u t t h e h i g h - s c h o o l XVI  that  period.  (See T a b l e s XV,  (123) Cole  {Shyp.101)  pre-eminently,  s t a t e s t h a t "the adolescent years a r e ,  a p e r i o d of s o c i a l  development  So f a r as t h e h i g h s c h o o l i s c o n c e r n e d , social  activities  takes  the form  and  the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f  of the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  gram -•- s c h o o l government, c l u b s and a t h l e t i c Such c l u b s and o t h e r  activities  of the s c h o o l s h o u l d ,  t h e means f o r d e v e l o p i n g  interests,  f o r giving  in  t h e w i s e use o f l e i s u r e ,  f o r providing practice  government, f o r a l l o w i n g l e a d e r s t o p r a c t i s e building  appreciable ment, t h e n  character. social  Cole's  .Yet t h e t e s t  development.  then,  training i n self-  l e a d e r s h i p , and  d a t a do n o t r e v e a l  If this  i s a valid  o b s e r v a t i o n may p r o v i d e  r e a s o n f o r the l a c k of p r o g r e s s  pro-  activities.  be  for  adjustment."  measure-  a clue to the  toward these o b j e c t i v e s :  " I t has a l w a y s seemed t o t h e w r i t e r t h a t t h e p u p i l s who most n e e d e d e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e i r own d e v e l o p m e n t were, t h e ones who had t h e l e a s t o p p o r t u n i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g . I f i t i s the f u n c t i o n o f such a c t i v i t i e s t o dev e l o p t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f a d o l e s c e n t b o y s and g i r l s and t o t r a i n them i n s o c i a l adjustment, t h e n t h o s e who most n e e d t h i s t r a i n i n g s h o u l d be t h e ones t o r e c e i v e i t . I n s t e a d , t h e a c t i v i t i e s a l l t o o o f t e n become m e r e l y t h e means o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n f o r a d o l e s c e n t s who a r e a l r e a d y examples o f p e r f e c t s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t . The boy or g i r l who i s shy, s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , and r e p r e s s e d r a r e l y h a s much o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s and t h u s t o a c h i e v e t h e s o c i a l e a s e t h a t he o r she l a c k s . " ( 5 U , P « 1 2 8 ) . Cole's  suggestions  ( S h , P P » 1 3 1 - 3 h ) t o remedy t h i s  tendency  include: 1)  A definite every  2)  p e r i o d o f s c h o o l time  s t u d e n t to  D i s p e r s i o n o f the  set aside f o r clubs,  a t t e n d some m e e t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r managing  various  (121*)  social 3)  activities  Intramural  c h a n c e s of  some team w i t h  Some t e a c h e r  or t e a c h e r s  logical ing  and  get  i t of t h e i r  Katz  own  (225,p.20?)  step to improve  child  and  p u p i l s who  socialization  the  better social  equal  and who  consider  most n e e d t h e  t h a t the f i r s t i s t h a t of  between t h e  teacher.  Fenton  and  inadequate  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and  t o promote  of a l l t e a c h e r s  i n the  most  improvor i n -  co-ordin-  ers  among p u p i l s  to  (75,P»2lj.l) recommends  P r e s c o t t (178,p.272)  duty  train-  likely  a t i o n of community f a c i l i t i e s . i t the  with  participation  are l e a s t  social relations  adjustment  delegated  accord.  the p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p  secure for  ing  definitely  of b r i n g i n g about  on t h e p a r t o f t h o s e  and  approximately  the  winning;  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  Tiegs  students;  t o u r n a m e n t s where e v e r y member o f  s c h o o l i s on  U)  upon a l a r g e number o f  social  consid-  acceptance  classroom.  "These p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s n e e d to be made more c o n s c i o u s i n t h e minds o f a l l e d u c a t i o n a l w o r k e r s i n o r d e r t h a t i s o l a t e d c h i l d r e n may be b r o u g h t i n t o e f f e c t i v e group p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n order t h a t the e f f e c t s of mutual r e j e c t i o n s may be s o f t e n e d and s a t i s f y i n g b e l o n g i n g s e s t a b lished. I t i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t to r e c o g n i z e l e a d e r s o f a l l s o r t s and t o demand a g e n u i n e conscious assumption of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s on t h e i r p a r t s w h i c h w i l l be commensurate w i t h the p l e a s u r e they d e r i v e from being l e a d e r s . " Fenton social  and W a l l a c e  skills.  To  do  (76,p.60)  this,  they  adequate s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s  d i s c u s s the advocate  development  the p r o v i s i o n  and r e c r e a t i o n .  Keely  of  (121)  of  (125) is  more s p e c i f i c  to develop  Brother  He recommends t h e f o l l o w i n g : and S i s t e r  assembly programs w i t h lunchrooms, reports  an e x p e r i m e n t social  the m a l a d j u s t e d  factor  groups,  teacher  a h i g h degree  i n school  ones w i t h  Koch ( 1 2 I * , p . 5 0 ° )  a resulting  improvement i n  ones. of the l i t e r a t u r e  r e v e a l s the educators'  dealing with  keen c o n s c i o u s n e s s  improvement i n home r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  the  s c h o o l must h e l p  Witmer  participation,  where u n s o c i a l s t u d e n t s were p l a c e d  investigation  lations with  publications,  a d v i s o r s , c l u b s and  of p u p i l  for  the  program  school  and s t u d e n t - m a n a g e d c a m p a i g n s .  in pairs with  An  a conscious  p o i s e and l a c k o f s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n s o c i a l  situations. Big  and recommends  o f t h e need  They c o n s i d e r  t h e home and t h e s t u d e n t  t h e home  that  i n their r e -  one a n o t h e r . (75,p.237)  suggests  four levels  of d e a l i n g w i t h  home: 1)  S u p e r f i c i a l methods i n g i v i n g  concrete  and s p e c i f i c  recommendations• 2)  Education of the parent of  3)  the c h i l d ' s  Insight therapy  k)  including  The  an a t t e m p t their  t o the maladjustment  R e l a t i o n s h i p therapy treatment  t o t h e meaning  symptoms-  parents view o b j e c t i v e l y ships  i n regard  using  t o have t h e  causal  relation-  of the c h i l d * as i t s f o c a l  p o i n t the  o f t h e p a r e n t s ' own p r o b l e m s .  ordinary school can usually  employ t h e f i r s t  method, and  (126) through the  "Home and S c h o o l C l u b s " c a n s c r a t c h t h e s u r f a c e o f  second  ports  one.  Yet, other  things being  t h a t t h e c h a n c e s o f improvement  complexity  of the treatment.  e q u a l , Witmer r e -  increase with the  Hence, t h e r e i s a n e e d f o r  t h e u s e o f t h e more c o m p l e x methods w h i c h e n s u r e success  i n improving  Any tion  treatment  family relations.  o f home r e l a t i o n s  of the p a r e n t s .  This i s a f a c t  i n v e s t i g a t o r s F o s t e r and S t e b b i n s and  Bronner  claim  (75,p.85).  Healy  t h a t "the fundamental  may make s i m p l y c a n n o t  be c a r r i e d  emphasized by  (80), Witmer,  and H e a l y  go so f a r as t o  o u t u n l e s s . . . much more  families."  (5i+,PP• ItOij.—7) s i g n i f i e s  a more i m p e r s o n a l  strongly  recommendations t h a t a c l i n i c  t h e s t u d e n t who i s m a l a d j u s t e d take  r e q u i r e s the co-opera-  and B r o n n e r  i n t e n s i v e work c a n be done w i t h Cole  greater  the importance  of helping  i n h i s home r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o  v i e w o f h i s home l i f e .  The t e a c h e r  needs t o show an a d o l e s c e n t how he c a n a d j u s t t o h i s home as it is. The  S i x t e e n t h Yearbook of the American A s s o c i a t i o n o f  S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t o r s (161,pp.90-6) s u g g e s t s  that a school  program  should include  designed  t o improve f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s  the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : (1)  "Some s t u d y .... o f t h e p r o c e s s o f g r o w i n g up, so t h a t t h e y w i l l u n d e r s t a n d ( a ) t h e i r own m a t u r a t i o n ; (b) t h e change o f l i f e t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e i r p a r e n t s a r e p a s s i n g ; and (c) how t o a c h i e v e m u t u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n ....  (2)  S c h o o l s c a n h e l p p a r e n t s d i r e c t l y , and youth i n d i r e c t l y , through p u b l i c education  (127) a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h keep a d u l t s a b r e a s t o f good c o n t e m p o r a r y t h o u g h t i n s c i e n c e , a r t , and s o c i a l p r o b l e m s (3) A l l o f o u r i n s t i t u t i o n s , b u t p a r e n t s i n p a r t i c u l a r , need t o c o u n t e r b a l a n c e t h i s l o p s i d e d s t r e s s upon ' s u c c e s s ' w i t h warmth, a f f e c t i o n , and l o v e w h i c h a c c e p t s t h e i n d i v i d u a l as v a l u a b l e i n h i m s e l f and f o r h i s own s a k e , w h a t e v e r h i s r e c o r d o f accomplishments." Most  authors b e l i e v e  t h a t t h e most d i r e c t way i n w h i c h  schools can help the parents izations.  Cole  with  impersonal  their  (Sh,PP*i+OU— 7)  the home s i t u a t i o n . interviewing of  i s through contends  approach Symonds  the parents  (211)  related  to sex.  Laycock  over-protection,  children.  ( 1 3 0 ) w o u l d have p a r e n t s  lack of a f f e c t i o n  failure  attitudes  about  parents,  attempts  t o keep  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f warped  the o p p o s i t e sex, p r e v e n t i o n of companion-  ship with t h e opposite  sex as l o n g as p o s s i b l e .  that i t i s correct  f e e l i n g s r a t h e r than f a c t s  about  to  t o accept the sex of the c h i l d ,  i g n o r a n t of sex matters,  gent  by one o r b o t h  o f true p a r t n e r s h i p between p a r e n t s ,  development.  a v o i d the  a d o l e s c e n t s ' adjustment  the c h i l d  to  i n c l u d e s v i s i t i n g and  as one o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e r v i c e s  p r a c t i c e s which hinder  the o p p o s i t e s e x :  stresses  modifying  o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t ' s t r o u b l e s i n home r e l a t i o n s i s  following  lack  organ-  t h a t such a s s o c i a t i o n s  c a n do much t o w a r d  the s c h o o l h e l p f u l f o r problem One  parent-teacher  Parents  Laycock  and wholesome a t t i t u d e s and r e g a r d i n g sex t h a t are important  need t o be open-minded and i n t e l l i -  s e x so t h a t t h e y c a n r e l a t e  sex matters  to l i f e  (128) unemotionally vide  and e f f e c t i v e l y  f o r adolescents  c l u b s and t h e l i k e  socially  approved  trained  life,  regard  this  improvement Turning ity  (260,p.532)  Fenton  instruction  pupils  by t h e p r o v i s i o n  w h i c h n o t o n l y keep  According Planning for  elders, of  Bursch ing  t o make p o s s i b l e  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  t h e community;  be o r g a n i z e d  i n the treatment  of s u i t a b l e  of maladjusted  playground  facilities and o u t o f  p r o v i d e r e a l f u n and h e a l t h y  o f f steam w i t h o u t  of s k i l l s  type  activities. should  of play,  have:  facilities  r e p r e s s i o n or i n t e r f e r e n c e from p r o v i s i o n f o r encouragement  and wide i n t e r e s t s ,  and d e v e l o p -  - the o l d e r h e l p i n g the younger,  (Ul) found  delinquency.  under  and what t h e s c h o o l  adolescents o f f the s t r e e t s  service  on commun-  a d j u s t t o t h e community.  provision for relaxation,  ment t h r o u g h  also  of f u t u r e generations.  and l e a d e r s h i p f o r t h e r i g h t  a great variety  for future  (5U,p.U23)  t o B u t l e r (UU), t h e i d e a l p l a y g r o u n d  letting  specially  youth  importance  data w i l l  the i n d i v i d u a l  but also  into  what t h e community c a n do t o h e l p ;  community c a n h e l p  mischief  to educate  of primary  the a v a i l a b l e  how t h e s c h o o l c a n h e l p  The  teachers  now t o s u g g e s t i o n s  do t o h e l p  activities,  sex urge  p o i n t s o u t the need f o r  i n t h e home r e l a t i o n s  relations,  their  ( 7 5 , p p . 3 6 5 - 6 ) and C o l e  the f o l l o w i n g headings:  can  to divert  pro-  channels,  and e x p e r i e n c e d  family  They s h o u l d  a program o f s p o r t s , p l a y  hobbies,  Zachry  (225,p«330).  poor housing  t o be a f a c t o r  U s u a l l y along w i t h poor housing  i n causare the  (129) other f a c t o r s  o f l a c k o f good f o o d  tials.  and K a t z  the  Tiegs  airy  vide  essen-  d e s c r i b e an a t t e m p t  in  s l u m c o n d i t i o n s by t h e Wagner-  B i l l which provides f o r the b u i l d i n g  of  sunlit,  homes a t a r e n t a l w i t h i n t h e means o f t h e low-wage  groups.  The same a u t h o r s  the youth  S o c i a l Welfare Clinics, ill. in  (225,p.252)  U n i t e d S t a t e s t o remedy  Steagall  and o t h e r minimum  with  They a l s o  improving Fenton  libraries,  agencies,  juvenile  recommend t h a t t h e community museums, h e a l t h  publicly  supported  clinics,  C h i l d Guidance  c o u r t s , and h o s p i t a l s f o r t h o s e  s t r e s s the important  community (75,P«38l)  mentally  i n f l u e n c e of the  church  influences. m e n t i o n s s e v e r a l r e p o r t s on t h e v a l u e  o f C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l s c o n s i s t i n g •• o f p u b l i c private  pro-  c i t i z e n s f o r improving  the w e l f a r e  of  officials  and  children.  These Community or C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l s c o n t r i b u t e much . toward A.  t h e improvement "Improvements  o f community i n community  influences.  They  promote:  services. .  (1) A d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s ( f o r u m s , p a r e n t study-groups, A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n c l a s s e s , f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s c o n f e r e n c e s , young marr i e d p e o p l e ' s groups* c l a s s e s i n a r t s and c r a f t s , d r a m a t i c s , homemaking, e t c . ) ( 2 ) P u b l i c h e a l t h programs, development o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , w a t e r s u p p l y , community beautification ( 3 ) E s t a b l i s h m e n t of n u r s e r y s c h o o l s , c h i l d guidance c l i n i c s , playgrounds, r e c r e a t i o n centers, toy-loan l i b r a r i e s (k) L i g h t e d p l a y g r o u n d s , b a c k y a r d playgrounds, g a r d e n p r o j e c t s , swimming p o o l s , t e n n i s c o u r t s , y e a r - r o u n d camps, and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as o u t i n g s or p i c n i c s ( 5 ) Hobby, h a n d i c r a f t , and p e t shows* b o a t r e g a t t a s , soap-box d e r b i e s , e d u c a t i o n a l t o u r s , o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l events*,  (130) community d a n c e s and o t h e r group a c t i v i ties ( 6 ) P r o v i s i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p f o r b o y s ' and g i r l s ' group work and f o r s u p e r v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r s and p l a y g r o u n d s ; encouragement o f B i g . B r o t h e r programs (7) V a c a t i o n c h u r c h - s c h o o l s (8) Y o u t h employment b u r e a u s (°) V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l i n g s e r v i c e B.  C.  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f community i n f o r m a t i o n a l services (1) (2) (3) (k) (J?) (6)  S o c i a l S e r v i c e Exchange Christmas Basket C l e a r a n c e Bureau Community C a l e n d a r s D i r e c t o r i e s of Youth Welfare Agencies Motion-Picture Estimate Services P u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n r e g a r d t o the community t h r o u g h newspaper a r t i c l e s , r a d i o p r o g r a m s , and p u b l i c m e e t i n g s  The  support  o f community  agencies  (1) A s s i s t a n c e i n Community C h e s t D r i v e s and b e n e f i t s f o r p a r t i c u l a r a g e n c i e s (2) E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Y o u t h A c t i v i t y Commit t e e s , boys' s e r v i c e c l u b s , l e a d e r s h i p training school D.  The  control  of u n d e s i r a b l e  influences  (1) S u p p o r t o f r e s t r i c t i o n s on g a m b l i n g , s l o t machines, e t c . (2) S u p p o r t o f e n f o r c e m e n t o f l i q u o r l a w s concerning minors (3) S u p p o r t o f p o l i c e o f f i c e r s i n the s u p p r e s s i o n of s a l e of obscene l i t e r a t u r e to s c h o o l c h i l d r e n E. The  s p o n s o r s h i p o f community  surveys  (1) N e i g h b o r h o o d , c i t y , and c o u n t y (2) Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d i e s o f y o u t h i n c l u d i n g use o f l e i s u r e t i m e , plans, etc. F.  The  support of  child-welfare  surveys problems, vocational  legislation  (1) H o u s i n g and s l u m - c l e a r a n c e p r o j e c t s (2) B i l l s f o r community r e c r e a t i o n (3) E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r defective delinquents  (131) (1+) (5)  S u p e r v i s i o n of c h i l d r e n i n s t r e e t t r a d e s Laws d e a l i n g w i t h t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t s and d e l i n q u e n c y p r e v e n t i o n The l i c e n s i n g of b i c y c l e s  (6)  (7) C u r f e w r e g u l a t i o n s . " Such a c o m p r e h e n s i v e ordinating  Councils  y o u t h toward Few  the  a very ing  of  the b e s t  are r e v e a l e d  s e r v i c e s which the  believe that  important  delinquency,  Cutts  and  Mosely  o p e r a t i o n of the munity c e n t r e .  factor  i n the  supervised  literature render  see  the  school playground By  providing clean s c h o o l can  the  child  T i e g s and  adjustment  and  Katz are  reduc-  community does  f o r r e c r e a t i o n and  (60,p.282)  deal-  school playgrounds  i n improving  s c h o o l must g i v e  adjusted  help  his  to  abilities  Erratic The  Scores test  direct  t o h i s community.  school should  the  student  assume c i v i c  of the data  not  entertainment.  need f o r t h e  full-time  and  b u i l d i n g as a com-  and  wholesome r e c r e a t i o n -  compensate f o r a p o o r  com-  help  is  Keely to  help  to the (121)  c h i l d who  believes that  himself  and  the  develop  responsibilities.  Boys i n P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s  show the  quite unpredictable  ents  help  environment.  The not  Co-  means t o  s c h o o l can  e s p e c i a l l y where t h e  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , the  munity  that  citizenship.  have a d e q u a t e f a c i l i t i e s  be  one  i s t r o u b l e d i n h i s community r e l a t i o n s .  (225,p.159)  al  of b e n e f i t s suggests  afford  suggestions  ing with who  good  list  scores  i n the  test  of  the  grade-ten  components.  show w i d e i n c r e a s e s , some s t a t i o n a r y s c o r e s  boys  to  Some componand  three  (132) e v e n n e g a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s when compared w i t h boys.  A similar  tendency  grade-eight  . i s found  i n the comparison  and t e n .  The l i t e r a t u r e  the boys o f grades  twelve  tained  e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r such v a r i a t i o n s .  no s p e c i f i c  test  data i n d i c a t e  that  the grade-ten  ical  p e r i o d i n three areas  level  of the p e r s o n a l i t y  standards  level  period From is  i n p e r s o n a l freedom  this  evidence,  especially  Suggestions the  ations  rates.  writer  i s fully  of the l i t e r a t u r e and g i r l s  o r may d e v e l o p  guidance  t e n and t w e l v e .  Meet t h e S p e c i a l  Needs o f  aware, i n p r e s e n t i n g t h e recommendfor different may d i f f e r  normally  of the t e s t  the p e r c e n t i l e  of p e r s o n a l i t y ,  naturally  from  year  a t each  to year  d a t a i n Table XIV.  grade  at d i f f e r e n t  d a t a may d i s c l o s e  pupil  t h e d a t a may i n d i c a t e  a lack  The w r i t e r ,  the r a t i n g  However, when  at times decrease,  difficulties  t h e need f o r s p e c i a l  instrument.  score  e q u i v a l e n t s o f some components do n o t i n c r e a s e  a t w o - y e a r p e r i o d , and e v e n  dicate  areas  Such may be t h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e i r r e g u l a r  differences  for  adequate  t o the boys i n grades  to Adjust Guidanceto  t h e boys  level,  over  that  tendencies.  Boys and o f t h e G i r l s The  that  important  appear  and s o c i a l  i s the c r i t i c a l  and w i t h d r a w i n g  i t would  The  growth o f  of belonging  the grade-twelve  con-  i s the c r i t -  t h e boys - p e r s o n a l w o r t h , f e e l i n g - while  of  guidance.  i n those  areas  On t h e o t h e r  of v a l i d i t y  the t e s t and i n hand,  of the measuring  t h e r e f o r e , assumes h i g h  d e v i c e u s e d when he o u t l i n e s  validity  recommendations  (133) for  r e m e d i a l work i n s p e c i f i c When t h e s c o r e s of  are compared, In  one  the  grade-twelve  suggestions  grades. to ent  stage  ever,  the  grade-ten nervous  3 t o -2  nor  outlined  Such a s t a t i c  the f a c t  show i r r e g u l a r  freedom from  d i f f e r e n c e s range from neither  the b o y s a t v a r y i n g g r a d e  s i x components  of t h e s e ,  components.  nervous  and  fairly  onset and  boys  are  w e l l a d j u s t e d to t h e i r and  grade-twelve  apply  Since  to  in a  due  pre-pubesc-  status.  How-  i t s p h y s i c a l c h a n g e s i n most  boys may  tend  to aggravate  Traphagen  (l6,p,173)  and  Clarke, Tiegs  ( 5 3 - . P » H ) c o n s i d e r t h a t n e r v o u s symptoms may  either  a physical  physical,  exercise,  recommend  these  more  authors  nervous  both  i s probably  Thorpe  The  trait,  their  symptoms.  B a k e r and  is  losses.  small  boys g a i n i n t h i s  c o n d i t i o n i n scores  of p u b e r t y  and  points.  below a r e meant to  t h a t most g r a d e - e i g h t  gains  symptoms, t h e  percentile  grade-ten  levels  or  a psychological basis.  students  s l e e p , and  of the C a l i f o r n i a  have  Where t h e  g e n e r a l l y need l e s s  a better balanced  and  cause  vigorous,  diet  (5H,P«°1),  T e s t of P e r s o n a l i t y (53,p.12)  t h e f o l l o w i n g methods o f h a n d l i n g  cases  with  symptoms:  (1) Examine t h e s t u d e n t ' s h e a l t h r e c o r d ; (2) I f t h e r e c o r d b e a r s e v i d e n c e of a p h y s i c a l b a s i s f o r nervous t e n d e n c i e s , r e f e r the s t u d e n t to a p h y s i c i a n f o r t r e a t m e n t ; (3) I f t h e p h y s i c i a n f i n d s no p h y s i c a l c a u s e , t h e c a u s e i s p r o b a b l y the n e e d o f a f e e l i n g of a d e q u a t e p e r s o n a l s e c u r i t y ; (k) P r o v i d e a p p r e c i a t i o n , a p p r o v a l and ego s a t i s f a c t i o n s which the i n d i v i d u a l c r a v e s ; (5) P h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e l a x a t i o n s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d .  (13U) G r a d e - t e n b o y s appear the  s p e c i a l help  s i x components where i r r e g u l a r i t i e s  of b e l o n g i n g , The  t o need  earlier  i n this  chapter  the boys i n t h e l a t t e r gestions  are noted  s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l w o r t h and s o c i a l  comparison of the boys w i t h  lined  i n three of  the g i r l s  - feeling standards*  i n grade  ten out-  a l s o r e v e a l s low s c o r e s f o r  two components.  Therefore,  the sug-  i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e which a p p l y t o sense o f p e r s o n a l  w o r t h and s o c i a l  standards  mendations f o r developing  have a l r e a d y b e e n given"* . -  the f e e l i n g  of belonging  Recom-  remain  to be o u t l i n e d . Most p s y c h o l o g i s t s agree changing  that adolescence  personal relationships.  the American A s s o c i a t i o n of S c h o o l states  i s a time o f  The S i x t e e n t h Y e a r b o o k o f Administrators  (161,p.80)  that: "the p r o f o u n d c h a n g e s i n g l a n d u l a r f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the body,concurrent with e q u a l l y great changes i n s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e c u l t u r e , make a d o l e s c e n c e a t i m e when e a r l y p a t t e r n s o f p e r s o n a l - r e l a t i o n s h i p may be c o n s i d e r a b l y altered. Dependence upon p a r e n t s n o r m a l l y d e c r e a s e s , and e m o t i o n a l a t t a c h m e n t s d e v e l o p toward persons o u t s i d e of the f a m i l y c i r c l e . P e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s have a much d e e p e r s i g n i f i c a n c e when t h e c a p a c i t y f o r mature l o v e r e p l a c e s the a f f e c t i o n of the younger c h i l d . "  No wonder t h a t some h i g h their fact  feeling  of belongingj  that "adolescents 1  age 1.  the maladjusted them to g e t i n t o pages  118-121  Laycock  a r e m i x e d up i n  (l30,p.7)  are p a r t i c u l a r l y  o p i n i o n of the 'crowd ." help  school students  sensitive  The method o f C o l e  to f e e l  that they belong  one o f t h e s e  s t r e s s e s the to the  (51+,p. 1 0 7 ) t o i s to encour-  crowds, f o r she b e l i e v e s  (135) that  "the crowd i s a s o c i a l l y  society  valuable unit  and p r o b a b l y does more t o b r i n g  g r o w t h t h a n t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s Grade-twelve factor  of freedom  ten boys. ations.  No  b o y s have  significantly  abnormal  (225,P.337),  traits  found  normal  specific  s t u d e n t s who  The  freedom  One  i n grade  change f r o m  ages o f t w e l v e a child  sufficiently  cessful  Laycock  t e e n - a g e r s and money, l a t e  e m p h a s i s i s on  daydream t o o much. therapy f o r  tendencies.  t e n i n sense  of p e r s o n a l  i n the a r e a of p e r s o n a l (5U,P»388)  twenty  points  out t h a t .  an i n d i v i d u a l  upon h i s home t o an  time  car  and  who  are c o u n s e l l o r s  emancipation  i s bound t o b r i n g p r o b l e m s  outlines their  Complete  the c h i e f  conflicts  must  adult  attendance. and  over  mode o f d r e s s , use These  friends,  conflicts not  a  suca  with i t . between spending  of the  call  who  i n such  arising  p a r e n t s as; d i f f e r e n c e s  hours, f r i e n d s ,  church  (157),  detached from h i s p a r e n t s to e s t a b l i s h  short  (130)  and  dependent  home o f h i s own."  relatively  Cole  with  t w e l v e have s m a l l n e g a t i v e  expect t r o u b l e  during adolescence.  "between t h e  is  might  grade-  investig-  (5h,P«-323),  s u g g e s t i o n s f o r group  d i f f e r e n c e s when compared w i t h g r a d e freedom.  s c o r e s i n the  i n other  particular  r e v e a l withdrawing  B o t h b o y s and g i r l s  social  are f o u n d f o r p u p i l s  r e m e d i a l work f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who But t h e r e a r e no  lower  of withdrawing  (l39,PP»U75-6).  normal  t e n d e n c i e s than the  t e n d e n c y was  Numerous r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  pronounced  about  combined."  from withdrawing  similar  of a d o l e s c e n t  family  f o r parents  s u p e r v i s o r s 'and  dictators.  (136) The  chief  the  g u i d i n g of c h i l d r e n i n "the  direction  and  self-direction."  Katz  this  duty  of p a r e n t s ,  emancipation  authority reliance  according  Tiegs  and  as p r o g r e s s  upon c a l m f r a n k  the  be  t r e a t e d as o f f e n c e s standards  as ing  "Home and their  against  rather  and  School  Clubs"  conflicts with  Assuming be  treatment require  validity  adolescents parents  t o be  freedom,  s u c h means  aware o f methods o f r e s o l v -  teen-agers. Program  f o r the  test  with  a specialist.  in  the  dealing with  in  p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment, clinical  against  through  results,  low  the  should  understand  students  literature  behavior  to  of  of  an i n c r e a s i n g  i n s e n s e of p e r s o n a l  methods o f  help  r e s o r t to  against parental authority."  upon i m p r o v e d  the  describe  f a m i l y group and  placed  the  involves  the  than  h e l p i n g the  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a Guidance  should  (225,p.2l|6)  Undesirable  i n v o l v e s h e l p i n g the  problems  independence  d i s c u s s i o n s of p r o b l e m s i n t e r m s  R e m e d i a l work f o r d i f f i c u l t i e s therefore,  of  i n a "decreasing  c o n d i t i o n s which e x i s t .  recognized  (113), i s '  Jones  i n p a r e n t - c h i l d d i f f e r e n c e s and  of  their  to  the  test  emphasis  diagnosis  s c o r e s who  From t h e treatment  i t i s apparent  a p p r o a c h and  more  and might  recommendations of  difficulties  t h a t such  more f r e q u e n t  assistance  personal  interviews. Since carried has  a g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m b a s e d on  out w i t h  been found  the f u l l  co-operation  to h e l p m a l a d j u s t e d  sound p r i n c i p l e s of  and  administration  personalities,  the  test  (137) data  imply  a need f o r a b r o a d  and  fully-functioning  p r o g r a m w h i c h makes p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e of  i t s pupils.  Much more s h o u l d be  needs o f n o r m a l a d o l e s c e n t s levels,  and  of the  effect  individual differences  known o f  f o r guidance  of  special  guidance  the  at the  guidance  specific varying  grade  upon n o r m a l  youth. To  a l l o w f o r the  sex  d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n the  main emphases are n e e d e d i n a g u i d a n c e place,  the  adoption  o f the  program.  "Hygiene" course  grade,  two  In the  first  designed  by  Cole  (5U,p.UU) m i g h t h e l p the g i r l s a t t h e g r a d e - e i g h t l e v e l i n their  self-reliance  and  the boys of grade t e n would its  appear  that  accompanying  earlier should  to be  the on  cognizance cies  girls  The  ten  and  taken  institute  from year not  of  boys.  the s t r o n g  satisfactory.  do  second  emphasis  standards  to  anti-social  t h a t the  not  the  tenden-  inexperienced  appear from t h e  in personality traits.  i n the  traits  Salient  i n c l u d e more f r e q u e n t  given  expect.  a progr.am d e s i g n e d  to year  The  be  and  In t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g schools,  boys i n o r d e r  girls  It  about p u b e r t y  should  in social  twelve.  know what t o  b o y s and  to the  and  of p e r s o n a l w o r t h .  instruction  instruction  improve c o n s i s t e n t l y well  special  than  s h o u l d be  may  sense  difficulties,  problems of adjustment  of g r a d e - e i g h t  teacher  in their  such  direct  boys i n g r a d e s  nervous-symptom  and  to  enable  i n which  f e a t u r e s of closer  The  data  to  s c h o o l might  p u p i l s to  their  such  test  improve  s c o r e s were  a program would  c o n t a c t w i t h the home  through  (138) parent-teacher  o r g a n i z a t i o n s to improve  of the student  as w e l l a s t o e l i m i n a t e o t h e r  difficulties  caused  understanding  of their  of a d o l e s c e n c e  guidance  the  through  to d e a l i n g w i t h  Psychology.  to  their  selves,  t h e home, t h e d i r e c t o r s  Health,  f o r guiding  social  and a s e n s e  skills,  of himself  P h y s i c a l Hygiene and  The a d o l e s c e n t s  b u t by p a r t i c i p a t i o n  to p r a c t i s e  adjustment.  responsibility  personalities,  a broader  and o f t h e n a t u r e  toward a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Adolescent  ing  their  c l a s s e s i n Mental  develop  Giving parents  j o b as p a r e n t s  must a c c e p t  adolescent  personality  s h o u l d promote b e t t e r s t u d e n t  In a d d i t i o n of  b y t h e home.  the f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s  need  opportunity  not only by s t u d y i n g  i n group a c t i v i t i e s  to develop  a feeling  o f p e r s o n a l worth, to improve  o f p e r s o n a l f r e e d o m and to l e s s e n t h e i r  them-  i n order o f belong-  their  sense  withdrawing  tend-  encies. The possible  guidance school  p r o g r a m must a l s o  situation  to ensure  (5k,pp•  in personality.  Cole  plicable  illustrating  riculum  section should  studying classwork  a real subject  how t e a c h i n g methods and c u r -  that i s interesting exercise.  s h o u l d be a p p r o a c h e d  i m a g i n a t i o n r a t h e r than  development  Uil5-8 ) has a p a r t i c u l a r l y a p -  Adolescents are  o r monotony, and w i l l  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r mental matter  t h e maximum  be a d j u s t e d f o r a d o l e s c e n t s .  u s u a l l y impatient of d r i l l time  t r y to p r o v i d e t h e b e s t  through  only  and t h a t  Whenever  through  impersonal  spend presents  possible,  the e m o t i o n s and logic.  Within  (139) reasonable their  own  limits  the  work and  students  s h o u l d be  allowed  to  the means o f g e t t i n g i t done.  (20)4,p 639) d e s c r i b e s a w e l l - o r g a n i z e d  school  #  plan  Strang  system:  " I t s t e a c h e r s have b e e n s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s of t h e i r a b i l i t y t o g u i d e p u p i l s ; i t s l e a d e r s h i p i s e x p e r t and d e m o c r a t i c ; i t s s c h o o l p l a n t i s c o n d u c i v e to t h e b e s t d e v e l o p m e n t o f a d o l e s c e n t b o y s and g i r l s ; i t s curriculum provides for their varied c a p a c i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , and n e e d s ; i t s c l i n i c a l s e r v i c e s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r continuous i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n of t e a c h e r s and g i v e s a s s i s t a n c e on p r o b l e m s w i t h w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r c a n n o t d e a l b e c a u s e he has n e i t h e r t h e t i m e nor t h e h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge and s k i l l ; i t s communi t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s are c o - o p e r a t i v e and helpful." No  guidance  students,  their  program home and  is sufficient the  school.  paign  f o r a community w h i c h i s s a f e  ents,  and  of  emotional  Such a guidance i n which the  test  test  i n one  ten  and  for  boys and  On  program g i v e s  social  data imply half  twelve  the o t h e r  special  and  of  hand,  emphasis  p r o g r a m must cam-  healthy f o r number  and  the  adolesc-  variety  i n the  i n the  i n c r e a s e s - f a m i l y and social  areas com-  skills.  t h a t b o y s n e e d more a t t e n t i o n t h a n components o f t h e  special  the  s p e c i a l help  a d j u s t m e n t and  appear t o be  warrant  the  outlets.  d a t a r e v e a l no  munity r e l a t i o n s ,  girls  The  which f u r n i s h e s a s u f f i c i e n t  healthy  The  i f i t stops with  girls  critical  p e r i o d s of  guidance i n the  adjustment  test.  and  Both  grades  adjustment  extra counselling.  s e n i o r year  also  area of p e r s o n a l  need freedom.  CHAPTER V I SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND - RECOMMENDATIONS  Summary The  findings of this  briefly.  I t i s shown t h a t  s t u d e n t s have ling.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n c a n be summarized  s u c h low s c o r e s  Assuming  revealed,  that  also,  that  percentage of  t h e y need e x p e r t  counsel-  t h e t e s t s a r e c o r r e c t , t h e s t u d y has  the g e n e r a l  nize personality While  an a p p r e c i a b l e  weakness o f t e a c h e r s  to recog-  defects.  i t i s found  t o be g e n e r a l l y  true  that  the sex  differences  are n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t ,  distinction  i n i n s t r u c t i o n i s found  differences  a r e p e r h a p s due l a r g e l y t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e -  tween t h e b o y s and g i r l s study  indicates that  account ality tion  should  of  social  no  significant  skills  findings  differences  and T h e i r  take  These  This into  of development i n p e r s o n -  to the areas of t o t a l  and o f home  i s one t h i n g  should  I t i s believed,  too, that social  atten-  adjustment,  and community r e l a t i o n s  since  i n p e r c e n t i l e e q u i v a l e n t s are  i n any o f t h e g r a d e l e v e l s  Recommendations It  the guidance program  of the boys. be g i v e n  t o be d e s i r a b l e .  i n age o f o n s e t o f p u b e r t y .  the v a r i a t i o n s i n the r a t e  traits  recorded  t h e need f o r some s e x  tested.  Limitations  to p o i n t  out the i m p l i c a t i o n s of these  upon a g u i d a n c e program, b u t i t i s q u i t e (1U0)  another  CUD matter  to o u t l i n e recommendations.  provide  The l i t e r a t u r e  any i n f o r m a t i o n o f a t t e m p t s t h a t have b e e n made t o  meet c h a n g i n g  p e r s o n a l i t y needs d u r i n g  school l i f e .  Hence, t h e r e  evidence to  of the e f f e c t s  a d j u s t t o such To  imental  the student's  i s a l a c k o f any  of v a r i a t i o n s  i n guidance  study  seems p r e s u m p t u o u s .  of i t s worth  are, therefore, simply  suggested  e d i e s or changes which, i f c a r r i e d p e r s o n a l i t y needs.  would r e q u i r e e x p e r i m e n t a l r e a l value.  I n the l i g h t  Teachers  personality counsellor able.  to determine  no  of studies with  in-service  2.  To cope e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h should provide  school,  after  and t r e a t teacher-  training  avail-  Guidance  ten years  o f ex-  that there i s  supervised experience  " (71;,p.7).  specialist.  College  i n t h e Guidance L a b o r a t o r y ,  ling  school  i n high  a definite  i n d i c a t e d : " l e are sure,  substitute f o r closely  their  are presented.  t r o u b l e s i f t h e r e were  perimentation  changes  o f t h e w r i t e r ' s g r a d e - l e v e l com-  The f i n d i n g s o f t h e T e a c h e r s '  Laboratory  emphases, rem-  w o u l d be b e t t e r a b l e t o d i a g n o s e  course  exper-  Any r e c o m -  These p r o p o s e d  validation  f o l l o w i n g recommendations  1.  without  o u t , m i g h t b e t t e r meet  p a r i s o n s of s t u d e n t - p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment the  programs  changes. a guidance course  student's  high-  experimental  attempt t o o u t l i n e  mendations  the  d i d not  i n counsel-  s e r i o u s problem cases, the  the s e r v i c e s of a guidance  expert or  (1U2) 3»  To  ensure  an improvement  community r e l a t i o n s high-school course cussion  on  a psychology  il.  Regarding  some p e r i o d s  o f home  of s t u d i e s might w e l l p r o v i d e  course sex  on  and  the y e a r their  own  A r e v i s e d hygiene  for  community m a t t e r s  the dis-  as w e l l  adolescence.  distinction  during  sexes to emphasize  areas  i n sense of p e r s o n a l freedom,  t o p i c s of f a m i l y and  as  level.  and  i n the  i n guidance  s h o u l d be  instruction,  g i v e n to the  s p e c i a l needs of t h a t  course  i n s t r u c t i o n would r e q u i r e the  separate grade  which provides f o r  s e g r e g a t i o n of  sex  the boys  and  girls. 5.  Awareness by  the  the  teachers  of  the  sexes i n p e r s o n a l i t y development would g i v e  help  i n the  6.  D i s c u s s i o n groups d e a l i n g w i t h  parents  and  ordinary classroom  sense  7.  instruction  Direct  youth  8. of 9. for  s h o u l d be  high The  girls  boys  group o r  of b e l o n g i n g  in social  to-the  of  need of  senior  standards  boys i n the  improve-  students.  expected  last  three  of years  i n grade e i g h t need c o u n s e l l i n g i n t h e and  at the  nervous  and  grade-ten  sense  areas  symptoms.  "crowd" a c t i v i t i e s  Further Research For  t o meet t h e  with  school.  self-reliance The  teen-age c o n f l i c t s  of p e r s o n a l f r e e d o m  given  indirect  procedures.  s u p e r i o r s would help  ment i n the  of  d i f f e r e n c e s between  level  need  to h e l p  of p e r s o n a l  special provision  them i n t h e i r  feeling  worth.  Needed  s e v e r a l reasons,  the r e s u l t s  of  this  investigation  (1U3) s h o u l d be  checked  the f i r s t  p l a c e , the  reliability has  and  been c i t e d  by f u r t h e r test  validity o f the  measure p e r s o n a l i t y .  be  a c h e c k on  the r e s u l t s  recently erable  the r a t i n g  field  been l i t t l e  wisely  average  the p u p i l s ent  ation  1.  2.  level  and  of  out  comparatively To  date  consid-  i n r e m e d i a l work  effects  of  I f guidance  of  as  guidance i s to  be  known of t h e needs the r e s u l t s  of the  of pres  system. The  but  t o measure t h e  much more must be  at each grade  a study  However, t h e r e has  or n o r m a l s t u d e n t .  administered,  a  intervals.  been c a r r i e d  yet  i s com-  Finally,  of educators.  s e r i o u s l y warped p e r s o n a l i t i e s . attempt  testing.  o b t a i n e d from  for  used  would  study  d e v e l o p m e n t has  attention has  level.  at two-year  of p e r s o n a l i t y  experimentation  upon the  the Evidence  tests  tested in this  s e n i o r grade  students  come t o t h e  upon  device used.  o b t a i n e d i n the f i r s t  c o m p a r i s o n w o u l d be  same group o f  depend l a r g e l y  Retesting with other  s m a l l i n the  more a c c u r a t e  The  of  the number o f p u p i l s  paratively  the  results  In  need f o r improvement i n methods  to  Secondly,  p e r s o n a l i t y measurement.  following i s a l i s t  i n the f i e l d  i t may  suggest  of p o s s i b l e t o p i c s  of p e r s o n a l i t y . beginnings,  at  investig-  I t i s i n no way  complete  least.  The  d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the  the  h i g h - s c h o o l p e r i o d by measurement  growth of p e r s o n a l i t y  Experimental  r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g the  help  group  f o r one  of  as compared t o  during  at y e a r l y  effect  a control  of  interval  special  group:  (1UU) a)  i n the Grade  b)  area of  i n the  sense of p e r s o n a l worth of  a r e a of f e e l i n g  i n the and  e)  in  Grade  boys-  Grade X d)  sense of p e r s o n a l freedom  XII-  i n the X  c)  a r e a of  i n the for  for  the  boysarea  XII  of belonging  of  social  standards  f o r Grade X  boysa r e a of f r e e d o m f r o m n e r v o u s  Grade V I I I g i r l s  and  symptoms  f o r Grades X  and  XII  boysf)  i n the  a r e a of  Study of the  self-reliance  effect  o f an  emphasis i n t h e  p r o g r a m upon t h e  student's  An  of the  investigation  especially to  his  designed  personality study  this  relation  effect  to improve  of the  girls  guidance  to h i s f a m i l y .  a guidance student's  program relation  community.  A determination  A  f o r Grade V I I I  of  sex  boys i n the  of  the  students  in  development.  to determine  study  differences  regarding  the  validity  the  low  of  the f i n d i n g  mean s c o r e  area of withdrawing  of Grade  tendencies.  of XII  APPENDIX  IA  QUESTIONNAIRE GIVEN HOME-ROOM TEACHERS  Dear The s t u d e n t s o f y o u r room have b e e n g i v e the C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y , We now w i s h t t r y to check i t s v a l i d i t y by c o m p a r i n g i t s r e s u l t s w i t h y o u r o p i n i o n and p e r s o n a l knowledge o f t h e students. The t e s t p r o p o s e s t o measure the s e l l " a d j u s t m e n t and s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t o±" y o u r s t u d e n t s i n the f a c t o r s shown b e l o w . Would you p l e a s e c o m p l e t e t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t y o u r e a r l i e s t c o n v e n i e n c e and r e t u r n i t t Mr, W a l e s , P l e a s e do n o t r e f e r to the l a s t page u n t i l y o u have c o m p l e t e d t h e f i r s t one. The i n f o r m a t i o n y o u - s u b m i t ed as s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . Thank  SELF  will  be  you.  ADJUSTMENT 1-A 1-B 1-C 1-D 1-E 1-F  Self-reliance Sense o f P e r s o n a l Worth Sense o f P e r s o n a l Freedom F e e l i n g of Belonging Withdrawing Tendencies Nervous Symptoms  SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT 2-A 2-B 2-C 2-D 2-E 2-F  S o c i a l Standards Social Skills A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies Family Relations School Relations Community R e l a t i o n s ..  ....  treat  (11*6) P l e a s e l i s t t h e s t u d e n t s whom y o u c o n s i d e r w e l l a d j u s t e d b o t h t o s e l f and t o s o c i e t y , them b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e b e s t .  t o be v e r y ranking  2. 3. It. 5. 6. 7. 8.  P l e a s e l i s t t h e s t u d e n t s whom y o u c o n s i d e r t o be b a d l y a d j u s t e d t o s e l f and s o c i e t y , r a n k i n g them b e g i n n i n g with the worst. I t w o u l d a l s o be most h e l p f u l i f y o u i n c l u d e d t h e symptoms o f t h e m a l a d j u s t m e n t . 1. 2. 3. It. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Please  do n o t r e f e r  completed  t h i s one.  t o the next  page u n t i l  y o u have  (1U7) A. From t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s g i v e n , low i n a l l f a c t o r s f o r y o u r c l a s s i Name  Do y o u agree ?  the following  ranked  I f s o , what c a u s e s do y o u suggest f o r the maladjustment?  1. 2. 3.  U. B. The f o l l o w i n g ality. Name  ranked Factor  low i n c e r t a i n Do you agree ?  factors  of person-  What c a u s e s suggest?  do y o u  1. 2. 3. IN  C. These a r e s u g g e s t i o n s o f some p o s s i b l e score. 1. 2. 3. 11. 5« 6. 7. 8.  causes  o f low  I s i t t r o u b l e i n t h e home? divorce? separation? loss of p a r e n t ? e t c . Is i t lack o f a b i l i t y ? or l a z i n e s s ? or shyness? Is i t appearance? Too f a t o r t h i n , o r t o o t a l l , e t c . I s i t money i n l a c k o r e x c e s s ? I s i t an i n f e r i o r i t y complex? Is i t nervousness? I s i t l o w m o r a l and s o c i a l s t a n d a r d s ? I f y o u have n e v e r n o t i c e d m a l a d j u s t m e n t , c o u l d t h a t be b e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t i s no p r o b l e m i n s c h o o l , o r o f v e r y r e t i r i n g nature?  These a r e m e r e l y a few s u g g e s t i o n s a n d b y no means e x h a u s t t h e many c a u s e s . P l e a s e add any o t h e r s w h i c h y o u , f r o m y o u r p e r s o n a l knowledge o f t h e s t u d e n t i n q u e s t i o n , b e l i e v e t o be l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e abnormal or m a l a d j u s t e d b e h a v i o u r or p e r s o n a l i t y . Thank y o u f o r y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n .  APPENDIX IB QUESTIONNAIRE  GIVEN THE COUNSELLORS  Please l i s t the students i n t h e c l a s s y o u , as c o u n s e l l o r , know t o b e : d e f i n i t e l y maladjusted personalities:  Grade  Cause  Name  1.  1..  2.  2..  3.  .3..  k.  b..  5.  5..  6.  6.  (1U8)  whom  B. d e f i n i t e l y w e l l a d justed personalities:  Grade Name  indicated  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1.  Ackerson, Luton. C h i l d r e n ' s Behavior Problems. Chicagot U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1931. 268pp.  2.  Adam, J e a n . "An I n q u i r y i n t o t h e I n f l u e n c e o f B r o k e n Homes on t h e M a l a d j u s t m e n t o f C h i l d r e n . 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