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A study of student adjustment at varying grade levels in high school Groome, Les Jaquest 1948

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££5 j5 7 Cop- / A STUDY OF STUDENT ADJUSTMENT AT VARYING GRADE LEVELS IN HIGH SCHOOL A Thesis Submitted to the Committee on Graduate Studies In P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of Master of A r t s , i n the Department of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. by L e s l i e J . Groome Regina, Saskatchewan. A p r i l 16, 1948. i A STUDY OF STUDENT ADJUSTMENT AT VARYING GRADE LEVELS IN HIGH SCHOOL Since educators today consider the development of the p e r s o n a l i t y of students t o be an important f u n c t i o n of the school, the w r i t e r attempted to measure the growth of p e r s o n a l i t y during the high-school p e r i o d . From an a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s , i t was hoped to discover how the students' p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs v a r i e d as they went through high school, and what the i m p l i c a -t i o n s were f o r a guidance program. The C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y was administered to 7 2 0 students i n K i t s i l a n o High School, Vancouver, B.C. These s t u -dents are b e l i e v e d to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the academic a b i l i t y and socio-economic background of the students i n the Vancouver high schools. One hundred and seventy-two boys and 1.55 g i r l s were t e s t e d i n grade e i g h t , 1 2 6 boys and 1 2 5 g i r l s i n grade ten, and 74 boys and 68 g i r l s i n grade twelve. In general, there was no d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores of boys and g i r l s w i t h i n each grade. Only f i v e of 39 d i f -ferences were three times as l a r g e as t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e standard e r r o r s . The p e r s o n a l i t y development of the boys from Grade V I I I through Grade X I I was compared w i t h the growth shown by the g i r l s i n the same p e r i o d . D i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores of the two sexes f o r the various components of the t e s t l e d to the f o l l o w -ing observations: ( 1 ) For both sexes, higher means were found i n the l a t e r grades i n t o t a l and self-adjustment, and i n s e l f - r e l i a n c e , p e r s o n a l worth, f e e l i n g of ' belonging, a n t i - s o c i a l t endencies and school r e l a t i o n s ; (2) There was l i t t l e change i n s o c i a l - a d j u s t m e n t , s o c i a l s k i l l s , and f a m i l y and community r e l a t i o n s ; (3) I r r e g u l a r development was found i n p e r s o n a l freedom, withdrawing tendencies and s o c i a l standards; (4) Scores of the g i r l s tended to i n c r e a s e and those of the boys to remain s t a t i o n a r y i n nervous symptoms; (5) The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t n e g ative d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores of boys i n grades twelve and te n was i n withdrawing t e n d e n c i e s . In general, g r a d e - l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean sco r e s i n -d i c a t e d that students i n grade e i g h t were not as w e l l a d j u s t e d as those i n grade t e n , and students i n grade ten ranked lower than those i n grade twelve i n most components of the C a l i f o r n i a  Test o f P e r s o n a l i t y . The mean d i f f e r e n c e s between grades e i g h t and t e n tended to be f a i r l y l a r g e , w h ile the changes i n means from grades t e n t o twelve were found to be s m a l l e r and more e r r a t i c . From the test, data, the components of p e r s o n a l i t y which c a l l e d f o r p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n appeared to be: (1) Nervous symptoms, s e l f r e l i a n c e , s o c i a l s k i l l s and freedom from a n t i - s o c i a l t e n dencies i n grade V I I I ; (2) S o c i a l s k i l l s and f a m i l y and community r e l a t i o n s as w e l l as t o t a l s o c i a l - a d j u s t m e n t i n the upper grades; (3) P e r s o n a l worth, f e e l i n g of b e l o n g i n g and s o c i a l standards f o r grade-ten boys; Sense of p e r s o n a l freedom and withdrawing tendencies f o r grade-twelve boys; (4) Freedom from nervous symptoms i n the upper grades; (j>) P e r s o n a l freedom f o r grade-twelve g i r l s . In a d d i t i o n to the general areas o u t l i n e d above, c e r t a i n students w i t h very low t e s t scores would, i f the t e s t r e s u l t s were v a l i d , r e q u i r e expert guidance and help to c o r r e c t t h e i r maladjustments. The evidence p o i n t s t o the need f o r a guidance program e s p e c i a l l y designed t o enable p u p i l s to improve from year t o year i n the t r a i t s i n which t h e i r scores suggest u n s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This i n v e s t i g a t i o n would have been i m p o s s i b l e without the wholehearted c o o p e r a t i o n and help of the P r i n c i p a l and s t a f f of the K i t s i l a n o Junior and Senior High Schools, Vancouver, B. C. where the t e s t s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were ad m i n i s t e r e d . S p e c i a l indebtedness i s due to Mr. J . Gordon, P r i n c i p a l , and to the c o u n s e l l o r s , Miss J . E. Casselman and Mr. B. E. Wales f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t , c o o p e r a t i o n and e f f o r t . F i n a l l y , the w r i t e r o f f e r s h i s thanks to h i s w i f e who p a i n s t a k i n g l y checked the s t a t i s t i c a l and b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l s e c t i o n s of the t h e s i s . L.J•G• i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF GRAPHS v i i Chapter I . INTRODUCTION . 1 I I . REVIEW OF LITERATURE . . h R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of Person-a l i t y Tests 5" Patt e r n s of Behaviour I n d i c a t i v e of Maladjustment • 10 Teachers 1 a b i l i t y to diagnose maladjustment 11 Normal behaviour p a t t e r n s ............. l£ Maladjusted behaviour p a t t e r n s 17 Fa c t o r s R e l a t e d to Maladjustment 21. The d i f f i c u l t i e s and methods of d i a g n o s i s ..................... 21 Causes of Maladjustment 2k P h y s i c a l causes of maladjustment ... 2$ I n t e l l i g e n c e as a c a u s a l f a c t o r .... 28 P s y c h o l o g i c a l causes 30 Of p e r s o n a l maladjustment ....... 31 'Of s o c i a l maladjustment 38 Age of Onset of S p e c i f i c Forms of Maladjustment 5h I I I . THE INVESTIGATION 60 The Measuring Instrument ................. 60 The T e s t i n g Program 62 The schools t e s t e d 62 Comparison of t h i s sampling w i t h the c i t y as a whole 63 i i i Chapter >. I I I . continued Page Comparison of Test R e s u l t s w i t h Ratings of Teachers and C o u n s e l l o r s •• 65 IV. PRESENTATION OF THE TEST DATA 69 Comparison of the Sexes Within Each Grade • 69 Comparison of the P e r s o n a l i t y Develop-ment of Boys and G i r l s Considered Separ-a t e l y 75 Evidences of Grade-Level D i f f e r e n c e s i n P e r s o n a l i t y Components ................... 9k Statement of Areas of P e r s o n a l i t y Requir-i n g A t t e n t i o n of Teachers and C o u n s e l l o r s . 102 V. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GUIDANCE WORK 105" Review of Suggestions Found i n L i t e r a t u r e . 105 Recommendations f o r students w i t h low t e s t scores •••• 105 Recommendations f o r sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y w i t h i n each grade ......... 116 L i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g growth i n person-a l i t y t r a i t s d u r i n g high s c h o o l 121 Recommendations f o r the areas of pe r -s o n a l i t y i n which n e g l i g i b l e i n c r e a s e s were found ............................ 122 E r r a t i c scores of the boys i n person-a l i t y t r a i t s 131 Suggestions to a d j u s t guidance to meet the s p e c i a l needs of the boys and of the g i r l s 132 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a Guidance Program ....... 136 VI. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 11*0 Summary 1 i;0 Recommendations and Th e i r L i m i t a t i o n s ..... l l ; 0 Further Research Needed l i | 2 i v Page APPENDIX lk$ Appendix IA Questionnaire Given Home-room Teachers . II4.5 Appendix IB Qu e s t i o n n a i r e Given the C o u n s e l l o r s .... II4.8 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ik9 v LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 . Numbers of P u p i l s C l a s s i f i e d i n Various Cate-g o r i e s by Teachers, Tests and C l i n i c i a n s ....... 13 2 . Numbers of Students Tested i n Each Grade 62 3 . Median I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients of Students i n K i t s i l a n o and i n A l l Vancouver Schools 63 k» Contingency C o e f f i c i e n t s Between the Opinions of Teachers and C o u n s e l l o r s and Test R e s u l t s ... 67 5. Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n Test Components i n Grade VIII . 70 6 . Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n Test Components i n Grade X ... 72 7 . Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n Test Components i n Grade XII . 7k 8 . Grade-Level D i f f e r e n c e s i n Test Components f o r G i r l s i n Grades VIII and XII 81 9 . Grade-Level D i f f e r e n c e s i n Test Components f o r Boys i n Grades VIII and XII 83 1 0 . Grade-Level D i f f e r e n c e s i n Test Components f o r G i r l s i n Grades VIII and X 8$ 1 1 . Grade-Level D i f f e r e n c e s i n Test Components f o r Boys i n Grades VIII and X •• 87 1 2 . Grade-Level D i f f e r e n c e s i n Test Components f o r G i r l s i n Grades X and XII 8? 1 3 . Grade-Level D i f f e r e n c e s i n Test Components f o r Boys i n Grades X and XII 91 111.. P e r c e n t i l e D i f f e r e n c e s f o r the Grade-Level Comparisons f o r Each Sex • 93 l j ? . Grade D i f f e r e n c e s i n Test Components f o r Grades VIII and XII 97 1 6 . Grade D i f f e r e n c e s i n Test Components f o r Grades VIII and X 99 1 7 . Grade D i f f e r e n c e s i n Test Components f o r Grades X and XII 101 v i LIST OF GRAPHS Graph Page 1. Comparison of the Mean P r o f i l e s of the G i r l s at Varying Grade Leve l s •*•• 77 2. Comparison of the Mean P r o f i l e s of the Boys at Varying Grade L e v e l s .....«• •••••••• 78 3. Comparison of the Mean P r o f i l e s o f the Grade Level s ••••••• 95 v i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The adequacy of any s c h o o l ' s program i s determined by the ex t e n t to which i t meets the i n d i v i d u a l needs of i t s s t u d e n t s . In the past, these needs were c o n s i d e r e d to be c h i e f l y the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge and s k i l l s , and l i t t l e emphasis was p l a c e d on the development of a w e l l -rounded p e r s o n a l i t y . However, i n the minds of modern educators, the development of p e r s o n a l i t y i s c o n s i d e r e d to be an important f u n c t i o n of the s c h o o l program. This d i f f e r e n c e i n emphasis i s p o i n t e d out by Koos ( 1 2 6 , p . 2 ) : "Whereas, i t i s o f t e n a s s e r t e d , the overwhelming emphasis i n purpose and p r a c t i c e at the t u r n of the century was on p r e p a r a t i o n f o r c o l l e g e f o r s e l e c t e d p u p i l s , purposes are now dominately c a s t i n terms of aspects of l i f e and l i v i n g , such as c i t i z e n s h i p , h e a l t h , r e c r e a t i o n , and v o c a t i o n . " Other authors l i s t s i m i l a r o b j e c t i v e s of edu c a t i o n f o r today."1" Worth ( 2 5 5,p » 5 3 ) conceives the aims of edu c a t i o n to be the "development and t r a i n i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l f o r e f f e c t i v e l i v i n g i n h i s s o c i a l environment." S t a t e d i n another way, these o b j e c t i v e s ares s e l f r e a l i z a t i o n , e f f e c t i v e and wholesome human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , economic e f f i c i e n c y and c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ( 1 6 0 a ) . 1 . See r e f e r e n c e numbers 5 U , 7 5 , l U l , 2 2 5 , 2 5 5 . (2) The Department of S u p e r v i s o r s and D i r e c t o r s of I n s t r u c -t i o n of the N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , w r i t i n g as l a t e as 19k0 (159,p.5), are not convinced t h a t any great change i n emphasis i n the e d u c a t i o n a l program has y e t o c c u r r e d . "When we are convinced of the supreme importance of the p e r s o n a l i t y , we w i l l begin to r e c o g n i z e the present one-s i d e d b i a s of e d u c a t i o n towards i n t e l l e c t u a l development and t r a i n i n g i n s k i l l s to the n e g l e c t of the emotional and p e r s o n a l i t y development upon which our f u t u r e l i f e depends." I t would appear, however, t h a t the d i r e c t o r s who p l a n the e d u c a t i o n a l programs i n Canada are becoming aware of the need to change the emphasis to the development of the "whole c h i l d . " An i n c r e a s i n g number of the p r o v i n c e s of Canada now i n c l u d e a guidance program i n the course of s t u d i e s to meet the p e r s o n a l i t y needs of the s t u d e n t s . The w r i t e r , t h e r e f o r e , c o n s i d e r s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the f i e l d of p e r s o n a l i t y to be of primary importance. In t h i s f i e l d , the w r i t e r chooses to i n v e s t i g a t e the person-a l i t y development of p u p i l s d u r i n g the hi g h s c h o o l p e r i o d . From an a n a l y s i s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t i s hoped to d i s -cover i n what ways the students* needs vary as they go through high s c h o o l , and what the i m p l i c a t i o n s are f o r a guidance program. (3) The purpose of t h i s study i s to compare student a d j u s t -ment, as measured by the C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y , i n grades e i g h t , t en and twelve. The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of the t e s t s w i l l c o n s t i t u t e the b a s i s f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a guidance program. CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE L i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g with a comparison of student person-a l i t y adjustment a t v a r y i n g grade l e v e l s i s meagre. S p e c i f i c -a l l y , not a s i n g l e study comparing p e r s o n a l i t y adjustments of j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h - s c h o o l p u p i l s was found i n the l i t e r a -t u r e . T h i s chapter w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , c o n f i n e i t s e l f to the experimental evidence which formed the background f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n of t h i s problem. The chapter w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o three main s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t w i l l d e a l with the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The second s e c t i o n , d e s c r i b i n g p a t t e r n s of behaviour i n d i c a t i v e of maladjustment, w i l l out-l i n e , f i r s t , the readings on the a b i l i t y of teachers to r e -cognize these p a t t e r n s ; next, normal behaviour p a t t e r n s ; and f i n a l l y , the p a t t e r n s of maladjustment. The t h i r d s e c t i o n w i l l d e a l with the v a r i o u s causes of maladjustment and w i l l i n c l u d e a d e s c r i p t i o n of the methods and d i f f i c u l t i e s of d i a g n o s i s . The causes of inadequate p a t t e r n s of behaviour w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l . For convenience, the p s y c h o l o g i c a l ones are c l a s s i f i e d as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e w i t h the components of the C a l i f o r n i a  Test o f P e r s o n a l i t y under the two main headings of s e l f and s o c i a l adjustment. (5) R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of P e r s o n a l i t y Tests There i s comparatively l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n on the r e l i a -b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s . This l a c k i s due i n p a r t to the d i f f i c u l t y of o b t a i n i n g such data, and i n p a r t to disagreement among test-makers on what c o n s t i t u t e s a c r i t e r i o n of adjustment. The r e l i a b i l i t y of p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s has been found to be comparable to th a t of many w i d e l y used t e s t s of mental a b i l i t y and achievement. The authors of the C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y r e p o r t the c o e f f i c i e n t s of r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the i n t e r m e d i a t e and secondary s e r i e s used i n t h i s study to be i n the neighbourhood of . 9 0 . The c o r r e l a t i o n s were obtained with 792 cases by the s p l i t - h a l v e s method c o r r e c t e d by the Spearman-Brown formula. P i n t n e r , F o r l a n o , Greene, Eisenberg and T r a x l e r are i n ge n e r a l agreement t h a t s t a n d a r d i z e d p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s do possess r e l i a b i l i t y . However, they do not agree on the degree of r e l i a b i l i t y . In t h e i r s t u d i e s , the r e l i a b i l i t y scores range from ,7k to . 9 1 . P i n t n e r and Forlano s t u d i e d the r e l i a b i l i t y of de v i c e s f o r r a t i n g p e r s o n a l i t y . T h e i r f i r s t study ( 176 ,p.97) was based on P i n t n e r ' s "Aspects of P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory." The in v e n t o r y was given to 58 boys and U2 g i r l s i n grade V. The t e s t was repeated f o u r times a t i n t e r v a l s of two weeks. I t was found t h a t the s t a b i l i t y of the scores f o r each i n d i v i d u a l was hi g h . The authors concluded from t h i s evidence t h a t (6) " c h i l d r e n tend to be c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r responses • • • • • What we are measuring i s not some unimportant t r a i t t h a t f l u c t u a t e s from day to day, but r a t h e r something more b a s i c and s t a b l e i n the p e r s o n a l i t y make-up of the c h i l d . " L i k e -wise, Benton and Stone (25) and Neprash (1610 found the pe r -centage of changed responses d i d not vary a f t e r an i n t e r v a l of a week or two. A l a t e r study by P i n t n e r and Forlano (175) gave evidence t h a t the c o n s i s t e n c y of response to p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n c r e a s e s s l i g h t l y w i t h age. They d e f i n e c o n s i s t e n c y as the marking of items the same way a f t e r two-week i n t e r v a l s . The study does not i n d i c a t e t h a t c h i l d r e n are more i n c o n s i s t e n t than a d u l t s are; i t suggests q u i t e the op p o s i t e , f o r 71 per cent of the c h i l d r e n had c o n s i s t e n c y scores comparable to those found f o r a d u l t s . A study by Eisenberg and Wesman (69) s u b s t a n t i a t e s the f i n d i n g s of P i n t n e r and Forlano t h a t person-a l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are r e l i a b l e . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n by Lentz (6°,p . 3 3 3 ) , who used the r e t e s t method, bore out these same c o n c l u s i o n s of high r e l i a b i l i t y . Tyron (229) s t u d i e d 300 c h i l d r e n , aged 11 and 12 y e a r s , to determine the constancy and g e n e r a l i t y of emotional a d j u s t -ment as measured by a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . She r e p o r t s c o n s i s t e n t and constant i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n emotional adjustment. T r a x l e r ( 2 2 7 ) , i n a very complete survey of the "Use of Test s and R a t i n g Devices i n A p p r a i s a l of P e r s o n a l i t y , " r e p o r t s ( 7 ) numerous s t u d i e s which found hi g h r e l i a b i l i t y f o r p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s . . One can conclude from the above evidence t h a t person-a l i t y r a t i n g d e v i c e s possess hi g h r e l i a b i l i t y , A study of attempts to v a l i d a t e the instruments of measure-ment i n the p e r s o n a l i t y f i e l d r e v e a l s low measures of v a l i d i t y . Strang ( 2 0 7 ) , Symonds ( 2 1 6 ) and C l a r k e and Smith ( 5 2 ) a l l found l i m i t e d v a l i d i t y . The l a t t e r i n v e s t i g a t e d the v a l i d i t y and p r o g n o s t i c value of the B e l l Adjustment Inventory, 193k e d i t i o n , and The Washburne S o c i a l Adjustment Inventory, 1 9 3 9 e d i t i o n . V a l i d i t y was determined by comparing the scores made by 138 students on the i n v e n t o r i e s w i t h f a c u l t y r a t i n g s of these students on t r a i t s s i m i l a r to the s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s of the i n v e n t o r y . The c o r r e l a t i o n s between the B e l l Inventory and f a c u l t y r a t i n g s v a r i e d from - . 3 1 9 to . 1 6 5 * the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the Washburne Inventory and f a c u l t y r a t i n g s v a r i e d from - . 2 9 8 to .3I4.8. I t was concluded t h a t the B e l l and Wash-burne i n v e n t o r i e s were not v a l i d i n d i c a t o r s of student a d j u s t -ment as i t p r e v a i l e d a t the Rochester Athenaeum and Mechanics I n s t i t u t e . However, the authors p o i n t out s e v e r a l weaknesses i n t h e i r .study: there was a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of cases; f a c u l t y r a t i n g s were s u b j e c t to many i n a c c u r a c i e s , such as r a t i n g n o i s y and a g g r e s s i v e students as p o o r l y a d j u s t e d and o v e r l o o k i n g the q u i e t , r e t i r i n g i n d i v i d u a l * the f a c u l t y may o f t e n have been too generous* there may have been hidden and suppressed maladjustments which were not v i s i b l e i n day-to-day classroom a c t i v i t i e s . Hence, the f a c u l t y r a t i n g s may (8) have been i n v a l i d r a t h e r than the t e s t r e s u l t s . Other papers a l s o s t r e s s e d the weaknesses i n the methods of v a l i d a t i o n so f a r employed. V a l i d a t i o n i s o f t e n attempted on the b a s i s of teacher and c o u n s e l l o r r a t i n g s . Yet s t u d i e s have found t h a t t e a c h e r s ' o p i n i o n s of p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment are not h i g h l y r e l i a b l e . Burt (1;2), i n a study of the r e l i a -b i l i t y of t e a c h e r s ' assessment of t h e i r p u p i l s , found t h a t teachers tended to be more r e l i a b l e i n a s s e s s i n g i n d u s t r y , attainment i n s c h o o l work, and c h a r a c t e r than they were i n a s s e s s i n g s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s and n e u r o t i c t e n d e n c i e s . Burt d e f i n e d r e l i a b i l i t y i n h i s study as the " r a t i o of true v a r i a n c e to t o t a l v a r i a n c e , i . e . freedom from e r r o r . " Laycock (133,p.27), M i t c h e l l (152,pp.306-7), and Wickman (21*0,pp. 159-60) c o n s i d e r that there i s l i t t l e r e l i a b i l i t y i n t e a c h e r s ' and c o u n s e l l o r s * r a t i n g s . Many areas of p e r s o n a l i t y such as r e t i r -i n g or withdrawing a c t i o n , s o c i a l s k i l l s , or a t t i t u d e s about o n e s e l f , which q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t r y to measure, are not normally t h r u s t upon the a t t e n t i o n of t e a c h e r s . In a d d i t i o n , the com-p l e x i t y of the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s as shown by Terman (218,p.116) makes i t even more d i f f i c u l t f o r teachers to r a t e students' p e r s o n a l i t y a c c u r a t e l y . T h i s tendency towards u n r e l i a b i l i t y of t e a c h e r s ' estimates of p u p i l p e r s o n a l i t y may account i n p a r t f o r the s m a l l c o r r e l a -t i o n between the t e a c h e r s ' assessment and t e s t r e s u l t s . However, the u n r e l i a b i l i t y of t e a c h e r s ' r a t i n g s i s not the only f a c t o r causing low v a l i d i t y measures f o r p e r s o n a l i t y (9) q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Strang (207 ,p.211) p o i n t s out t h a t the v a l i d i t y i s lowered by v a r i o u s sources of e r r o r s w i t h i n the t e s t s themselves: a) Students have a n a t u r a l i n c e n t i v e to make a good showing; b) Questions i n the i n v e n t o r y do not present the same s t i m u l i to every i n d i v i d u a l * each person i n t e r p r e t s the items i n terms of h i s own experience and immediate mood; c) A s a t i s f a c t o r y c r i t e r i o n of v a l i d i t y i s d i f -f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e , to o b t a i n ; d) Chance enters i n t o the t o t a l score of many p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s ; e) A p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d , maladjust-ed person can answer the questions i n such a way as to o b t a i n a f a v o u r a b l e s c o r e . To these sources of e r r o r s should be added t h a t found by Symonds and Jackson ( 2 1 6 ) .. A f t e r s urveying q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , they concluded t h a t the s e c l u s i v e type of student tends to r a t e h i m s e l f too low, and the b o i s t e r o u s r a t e h i m s e l f too hi g h i n adjustment. The authors of the C a l i f o r n i a v T e s t of P e r s o n a l i t y i n the manual of d i r e c t i o n s (53,P»U) c a u t i o n t h a t "the v a l i d i t y of any instrument i s dependent not onl y upon i t s i n t r i n s i c nature but a l s o upon the manner i n which i t i s to be used. The l a t -t e r p o i n t i s an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the v a l i d a t i o n of (io) • instruments i n the p e r s o n a l i t y f i e l d . " Unless the r a t i n g device or q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s w e l l known to the a d m i n i s t r a t o r of the t e s t , and i t s weaknesses and st r e n g t h s known to him through experience, then, i n no true sense, can the person-a l i t y t e s t r e s u l t s be considered to be v a l i d measurements of p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment. Though hi g h v a l i d i t y of p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s has not been found, a r e p o r t by Greene and S t a t t o n (93) suggests that what-ever p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s t r y to measure, the t e s t s are i n sub-s t a n t i a l agreement i n t h e i r measurements of many areas of ad-justment. These men c o r r e l a t e d the r e s p e c t i v e f a c t o r s of the B e l l Adjustment Inventory, the Bernreuter P e r s o n a l i t y Inven- t o r y and the Willoughby Emotional M a t u r i t y S c a l e . Greene and S t a t t o n c o nsidered the c o r r e l a t i o n s they found between the t e s t f a c t o r s to i n d i c a t e that the t e s t s were u s e f u l f o r group, though not f o r i n d i v i d u a l , d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . I t must be concluded, on the one hand, t h a t few s t u d i e s to date have r e v e a l e d high v a l i d i t y f o r p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s . On the other hand, there are some i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the methods of v a l i d a t i o n used so f a r are not i n themselves v a l i d , and t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i t has not yet. been proven that the t e s t s do or do not possess high v a l i d i t y . Patterns of Behaviour I n d i c a t i v e of Maladjustment Before attempting to determine the causes of maladjust-ment, one must be able to p i c k out p a t t e r n s o f behaviour (11) i n d i c a t i v e of maladjustment. Contrary to c u r r e n t o p i n i o n , t h i s i s a d i f f i c u l t task, f o r there i s no sharp l i n e between s a t i s f a c t o r y and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y behaviour. Furthermore, be-haviour t h a t meets with s o c i a l a p p r o v a l i s not always accept-able from the viewpoint of the mental h y g i e n i s t . I t i s o f t e n , moreover, not a q u e s t i o n of what i s wrong with the c h i l d ' s be-haviour, but what i s wrong w i t h the home or sch o o l environment. In a d d i t i o n , behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u n d e s i r a b l e a t the a d u l t or adolescent age l e v e l are not n e c e s s a r i l y u n d e s i r a b l e i n the c h i l d . Teachers' A b i l i t y to Diagnose Maladjustment -Can teachers r e c o g n i z e p a t t e r n s of behaviour which sug-gest maladjustment? Most s t u d i e s of t h i s q u e s t i o n conclude t h a t the answer i s "No." Laycock (133) made a study of t e a c h e r s ' r e a c t i o n s to the maladjustments of s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . He found t h a t teachers emphasize v i o l a t i o n s of g e n e r a l stand-ards of m o r a l i t y and i n t e g r i t y , t r a n s g r e s s i o n s a g a i n s t author-i t y , v i o l a t i o n s of sch o o l r e g u l a t i o n s and requirements, r a t h e r than d i f f i c u l t i e s with other c h i l d r e n or r e t i r i n g or negative p a t t e r n s of behaviour. He found t h a t teachers and mental h y g i e n i s t s ranked the se r i o u s n e s s of c e r t a i n types of malad-justments i n almost the rev e r s e o r d e r . Garinger (85) r e p o r t e d t h i s same tendency. As a r e s u l t of h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e to 312 h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , he found a tendency " f o r educators to magnify o f f e n c e s a g a i n s t s c h o o l r e g u l a t i o n s and moral code and to ignore those t h a t denote (12) l a c k of p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l adjustment." These f i n d i n g s are i n g e n e r a l agreement with the ex t e n s i v e study made by Wickman ( 2 ^ 0 ,pp. 1 5 9 - 6 0 ) . Wickman concludes t h a t "our experimental r e s u l t s may be summed up i n two statements: To the extent t h a t any k i n d of behavior s i g n i f i e s a t t a c k upon the teach e r s and upon t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l endeavors does such behavior r i s e i n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n as a s e r i o u s problem. To the extent t h a t any k i n d of unhealthy behavior i s f r e e from such a t t a c k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s does i t appear, to tea c h e r s , to be l e s s d i f -f i c u l t , l e s s u n d e s i r a b l e and l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t of chil d , malad-justment." Contrary to the f i n d i n g s j u s t o u t l i n e d , a study made by M i t c h e l l (152) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s ' awareness of malad-justment was much more i n accordance with t h a t of p s y c h o l o -g i s t s or mental h y g i e n i s t s i n 19li-0 than i t was i n 1 9 2 7 . M i t c h e l l compared the r a t i n g s made i n 1927 by teachers w i t h those by mental h y g i e n i s t s on c e r t a i n behaviour problems of c h i l d r e n . He made a s i m i l a r comparison of t h e i r 19U0 r a t i n g s . He found t h a t present-day teachers u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d non-ag g r e s s i v e t r a i t s more s e r i o u s than d i d teach e r s i n 1927 . The 19U0 c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n between the r a t i n g s of mental h y g i e n i s t s and teachers was found to be . 7 0 ; the coe f -f i c i e n t f o r 1927 was found to be - . 0 8 . M i t c h e l l concluded t h a t v a r i o u s educative f a c t o r s had brought teachers and mental h y g i e n i s t s to a c l o s e r agreement on what c o n s t i t u t e s malad-justment. (13) L o v e l l and Sargent (ll | . 0,p. I 8 3 - 8 ) compared t e a c h e r s ' d i a g n o s i s of maladjusted c h i l d r e n w i t h c l i n i c a l f i n d i n g s . These i n v e s t i g a t o r s gave Rogers' P e r s o n a l i t y Adjustment Scale f o r C h i l d r e n to 370 male cases, l a r g e l y below grade nine, who had been r e f e r r e d to Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y P s y c h o l o g i c a l C l i n i c by t h e i r t e a c h e r s . The t e a c h e r s ' o p i n i o n s , the t e s t r e s u l t s and the examiners' d i a g n o s i s were compared i n f i v e areas of p e r s o n a l i t y . This comparison i s summarized i n Table I. TABLE I NUMBERS OF PUPILS CLASSIFIED IN VARIOUS CATEGORIES BY TEACHERS, TESTS AND CLINICIANS Number re-f e r r e d by teac h e r s Numb er i n -d i c a t e d by Rogers' T e s t Number d i a g -nosed by examiner s F e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y 3 79 86 Family maladjustment 6 8 6 X 1 5 7 X X S o c i a l maladjustment 3h 1 3 1 6 5 P h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y 2 0 51 Daydreaming 3 8U 28 x Not as many f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d as examiners' d i a g n o s i s i n c l u d e d . xx Included f i x a t i o n , over-indulgence, n e g l e c t , f a m i l y d i s c o r d , o v e r s t i m u l a t i o n . (110 As i n d i c a t e d i n Table I, the i n v e s t i g a t o r s found t h a t examiners and teachers d i d not agree on the symptoms of mal-adjustment. T h i s i s not to say t h a t the teacher had over-looked the symptoms found by the examiners, but r a t h e r had co n s i d e r e d other f a c t o r s more important or p e r t i n e n t . Day-dreaming, i n f e r i o r i t y f e e l i n g s , and d i f f i c u l t i e s caused by f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s may e a s i l y be mistaken f o r other t h i n g s by the teacher. Only i n three cases d i d the teacher diagnose f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y , •while the t e s t diagnosed 79 cases and the examiners 8 6 . Teachers d i d not appear to know the home s i t u a t i o n very w e l l e i t h e r f o r they found only s i x p u p i l s having maladjustments i n f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s while the Rogers' t e s t found 86 cases and the examiners, c o n s i d e r i n g many home f a c t o r s , found 157 cases. P h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s appear to be g e n e r a l l y overlooked by teach e r s as c a u s a l f a c t o r s of malad-justment. The c l i n i c i a n s found o n l y 65 cases to be s o c i a l l y maladjusted, but 131 cases d i s c l o s e d s o c i a l maladjustment as measured by the Rogers' t e s t . In c o n c l u s i o n , i t must be admitted t h a t the evidence presented by most educators shows t h a t teachers are not ab l e to i d e n t i f y maladjusted students with any hi g h degree of accuracy. M i t c h e l l ' s study (152) i n d i c a t e s , however, t h a t teachers of today agree more c l o s e l y w i t h mental h y g i e n i s t s than they d i d i n 1927 on what symptoms i n d i c a t e s e r i o u s mal-adjustment ( c o r r e l a t i o n i n 191*0 was .70; c o r r e l a t i o n i n 1927 was - . 0 8 ) . (15) Normal Behaviour P a t t e r n s Before p a t t e r n s of maladjusted behaviour can be p r o p e r l y d i s c e r n e d , a c l e a r p i c t u r e of what i s c o n s i d e r e d as normal behaviour must be v i s u a l i z e d . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y , as suggested by v a r i o u s w r i t e r s , ^ are c l a s s i f i e d here under the two main headings of the C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y , namely, s e l f and s o c i a l ad-justment. In s e l f adjustment, the i n d i v i d u a l : 1 2 3 h 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 l l * 15 16 17 maintains good h e a l t h through proper l i v i n g ; knows h i s own weaknesses and s t r e n g t h s and does not t r y to deceive h i m s e l f ; r e c o g n i z e s f a c t s and f a c e s them; gains confidence by accumulation of moderate successes i n s t e a d of expecting too-easy success; r e a c t s normally to emotional s i t u a t i o n s ; r e f u s e s to worry about what cannot be helped; possesses a wholesome a t t i t u d e towards sex; i s temperate i n s a t i s f y i n g h i s basic.needs; i s not e x c e s s i v e l y argumentative or b o a s t f u l ; g e n e r a l l y f u l f i l s h i s promise to do something; u s u a l l y p e r s i s t s u n t i l f i n i s h e d i n whatever he s t a r t s ; speaks with normal f l u e n c y - does not stammer; i s u s u a l l y i n favour of proposed a c t i v i t i e s ; g e n e r a l l y t e l l s the t r u t h ; i s g e n e r a l l y happy, not e a s i l y depressed; i s a c t i v e , wants to do t h i n g s , not sleepy; i s f r e e of n e u r o t i c t r a i t s such as b i t i n g f i n g e r n a i l s or grimacing. In s o c i a l adjustment, the i n d i v i d u a l : 1) p a r t i c i p a t e s i n and enjoys normal s o c i a l l i f e ; 2) p l a y s as w e l l as works; makes each c o n t r i b u t e to the o t h e r ; 3) i s f a i r i n d e a l i n g w i t h o t h e r s ; 11) i s n e i t h e r too Independent nor dependent; 5) i s open-minded; 6) i n h i b i t s p e r s o n a l l y and s o c i a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e motives, tendencies and impluses; 1, See r e f e r e n c e numbers: 1, 6, 81*, 117, 195, 225, (16) 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 l i t 15 16 17 18 seldom f i g h t s with playmates; not over-pugnacious; seldom p l a y s t r u a n t from s c h o o l or home; i s no "teacher's pet" or "goody-goody;" appears f r e e from worry and o v e r - s e n s i t i v e n e s s ; g e n e r a l l y conforms to r u l e s and d i s c i p l i n e ; does not s t e a l ; i s not r e t a r d e d i n sch o o l work; i s not a b u l l y , a l i a r or coward; has reasonable s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e ; has s a t i s f a c t o r y home and community r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; has s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l standards and s k i l l s ; enjoys r e l a t i v e freedom from a t t e n t i o n - g e t t i n g or sympathy-getting mechanisms. Normal people are not onl y those l o c a t e d a t the exact cen t r e of a d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r any giv e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but i n c l u d e many on e i t h e r side of the c e n t r e . A c c o r d i n g to Cole ( 5 i j - j P . 2 U l ) "normalcy i s an area, not a p o i n t . I t c o u l d be s t a t i s t i c a l l y d e f i n e d as t h a t area of a d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h -i n which 80 to 85 per cent of the cases f a l l . " Teachers must r e c o n c i l e themselves to the f a c t t h a t students can be w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t from one another and y e t be normal. Cole l i s t s the adjustment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of normal a d o l e s c e n t s as: concern over p h y s i c a l growth and' sexual development; s e l f -consciousness; g r e a t s e n s i t i v i t y to s o c i a l s t i m u l i of a l l s o r t s ; h e t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r e s t s ; g r e a t concern over appearance, c l o t h e s , r e p u t a t i o n of f r i e n d s and s o c i a l behaviour. Normal ad o l e s c e n t s have o c c a s i o n a l t r o u b l e w i t h school d i s c i p l i n e and v i o l e n t l y d i s l i k e one t h i r d of t h e i r t e a c h e r s . They o f t e n attempt to escape from uncomfortable s i t u a t i o n s by daydreaming. They belong to a crowd and go about together, are b l i n d l y l o y a l to these f r i e n d s , and are i n t o l e r a n t of other s o c i a l groups. M o r a l l y , t h e i r i d e a l s may, or may not, (17) be socially acceptable, and they are l i k e l y to crib on ex-aminations unless supervised. These young people reveal no great interest in school work and prefer athletics, team games and social a f f a i r s . Doll l i s t s in the Vineland Maturity Scale (68) the f o l -lowing signs of social maturity for an individual from 18 to 2$ years of age: goes to distant places alone; looks after own health; goes out nights unrestricted; controls own expenditures; assumes responsibilities beyond his own person-al needs; performs skilled work; engages in beneficial re-creation; inspires confidence; can be relied upon in times of stress; f i l l s positions of social trust; shares community responsibility; creates his own opportunities; and promotes the general welfare. These are, i f not standards, at least goals for adolescents. Maladjusted Behaviour Patterns When a clear conception of normal adjustment has been gained, one is better qualified to detect symptoms of malad-justment. Patterns of behaviour indicative of maladjustment must not be confused with causes of maladjustment. In genera faulty adjustment is the symptom of a child's losing battle for self-reliance, achievement, status in a group, and so on. The f i r s t task of the teacher and the counsellor is to re-cognize the symptoms before proceeding to a diagnosis and determination of the causes of the maladjustment. Various groupings of symptoms of maladjustment have been (18) In g e n e r a l , there i s g r e a t o v e r l a p p i n g between the c a t e g o r i e s . Ackerson ( l , p . 5 U ) , who made a study of $000 problem c h i l d r e n s u f f e r i n g from one or more of 1;78 d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f i c u l t i e s , r e p o r t s t h a t the 17 com-mon symptoms were* 1) R e s t l e s s , i r r i t a b l e temperament, 2) Disobedience, i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y , 3) R e t a r d a t i o n i n s c h o o l , k) Temper d i s p l a y s , "tantrums," 5) L i s t l e s s n e s s , l a c k of i n i t i a t i v e and ambition, 6) S t e a l i n g , 7) Immature and impaired manner of judgment, 8) F i g h t i n g , quarrelsomeness, v i o l e n c e , 9) l y i n g , 10) E n u r e s i s beyond the t h i r d b i r t h d a y , 11) Poor s c h o o l work, 12) C r y i n g e a s i l y , 13) Masturbation, Ik) Truancy, IS) S e n s i t i v e n e s s , 16) Worry i n excess, 17) Bashfulness and shyness. S l a t t e r y (195,P»U6) i n c l u d e s other common symptoms of emotional maladjustment. He d e s c r i b e s the maladjusted a d o l -escent ast 1) The b o a s t e r ; 2) The "goody-goody" p u p i l ; 3) The e x c e s s i v e l y argumentative i n d i v i d u a l ; k) The negative p u p i l who i s u s u a l l y a g a i n s t any proposed a c t i o n ; 5) The b u l l y ; 6) The p u p i l who promises to do something, but always f a i l s to do so, or to do i t on time; 7) The stammerer; 8) The one who c o n s t a n t l y erases w r i t t e n work; 9) The one whose idea s f r e q u e n t l y become bloc k e d when he i s t r y i n g to express h i s thoughts; 10) The one who takes s m a l l o b j e c t s ; 11) The one who chews h i s f i n g e r n a i l s or p e n c i l s ; 12) The one who w r i t e s sex notes, who w r i t e s obscene words or draws obscene p i c t u r e s . suggested by writers.•*• T . See r e f e r e n c e numbers* 6, 8"Ii^  117, 120, 195» (19) F r e d e r i k s e n (81*), d e a l i n g with common evidences of p u p i l maladjustment i n a c i t y s c h o o l system, mentions some of the f o l l o w i n g more g e n e r a l symptoms: the u n d i s c i p l i n e d , c h i l d ; the c h i l d who missed s o c i a l c o n t a c t s ; the s o c i a l l y -immature c h i l d - a p r a n k i s h "playboy;" the one who l a c k s energy or i s mentally or p h y s i c a l l y handicapped; the one who f a i l s to s t i c k to a job; the c h i l d who shows a l a c k of secur-i t y . Woolf (25U) found that maladjusted boys and g i r l s whom he s t u d i e d were s u p e r - s e n s i t i v e , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , b i t t e r , and had f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y . They hated people, moped, cut c l a s s e s and c r i e d o f t e n . Cole (51i.,pp.32U-5) l i s t s a complete and extremely u s e f u l survey of symptoms to enable teachers to r e c o g n i z e types of abnormal behaviour under the headings o f : p h y s i c a l symptoms of nervousness, symptoms of emotional p r e o c c u p a t i o n , h y s t e r i c a l symptoms, e x h i b i t i o n i s m and emotional immaturity. From t h i s l i t e r a t u r e on symptoms of maladjustment, i t can be seen t h a t , although authors vary i n t h e i r way of ex-p r e s s i n g the symptoms, and i n t h e i r r e g a r d f o r the s e r i o u s -ness of each symptom, n e v e r t h e l e s s , there i s much g e n e r a l agreement. A d e s c r i p t i o n of symptoms of maladjustment would not be complete without p a r t i c u l a r mention of the d e l i n q u e n t a d o l e s -cent and the ch r o n i c emotional d e v i a t e . Cole (5k) found t h a t d e l i n q u e n t a d o l e s c e n t s r-arely get i n t o h i g h s c h o o l ; do poor (20) work; are i r r e g u l a r i n attendance and do not l i k e s c h o o l . Delinquents are g e n e r a l l y e m o t i o n a l l y u n s t a b l e and unadjusted. "They are not r e c o n c i l e d to s o c i e t y as i t i s c o n s t i t u t e d . They l i k e the wrong people and want to do the wrong t h i n g s . They are bored with the o r d i n a r y ways of l i v i n g and want ex-citement and change. They r e a c t to the s t r e s s e s of everyday l i f e i n unusual ways. They r e s e n t d i s c i p l i n e , and d i s c i p l i n e leaves l i t t l e or on e f f e c t upon them. They w i l l not submit to normal s o c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s but set about making t h e i r own s o c i e t y . A l l o b s e r v a t i o n s and t e s t s produce the same r e s u l t s ; t h a t d e l i n q u e n t s d i f f e r from normal c h i l d r e n mainly i n t h e i r s o c i a l and emotional adjustments. Thus, i n one c a r e f u l study, i t was found t h a t , of l,3l±3 d e l i n q u e n t s , 97 per cent showed s o c i a l malad-justments, 83 per cent maladjustments i n s c h o o l , and 77 per cent i n a b i l i t y to a d j u s t to t h e i r homes" (51*,p.262). C o n s i d e r a t i o n should a l s o be given to the n e u r o t i c or emotion-a l d e v i a t e s who make up from 3 to 15 per cent of the a d o l e s -cent p o p u l a t i o n . Cole {5h>PP»286-315) d e s c r i b e s n e u r o t i c symptoms of a s e r i o u s nature: Neurasthenic symptoms: Always t i r e d , p r e o c c u p i e d and withdrawing-with few f r i e n d s j H y s t e r i a : E x c i t a b l e , v o l u b l e , i r r i t a b l e , o v e r a c t i v e w i t h v i o l e n t o u t b u r s t s ; F a n a t i c symptoms: Chronic a t t i t u d e of s u s p i c i o n and m i s t r u s t , f i x i t y of ideas and tendency to b u i l d up whole systems of i n t e r r e l a t e d i d e a s , many of which are untrue; F e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y : (Which may be due to any-t h i n g r e a l o r imagined) Withdrawal e s p e c i a l l y from competitive a c t i v i t y , overcompensation; Psychopathic symptoms: Utter i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n -a b i l i t y to l e a r n a d e q u a t e l y from e x p e r i e n c e . (21) F a c t o r s R e l a t e d to Maladjustment n e P i f f l e u l t i e s and Methods of D i a g n o s i s When the o v e r t a c t i o n s which i n d i c a t e maladjustment are recognized, one can then proceed w i t h a d i a g n o s i s of the t r o u b l e . For adequate d i a g n o s i s of causes of maladjustment, teachers r e q u i r e a knowledge of proven methods and of the d i f f i c u l t i e s and hazards i n i d e n t i f y i n g causes. As d e f i n e d by Tiegs and Katz (225,p.177), d i a g n o s i s i s "the process or technique by which the causes of a problem, d i f f i c u l t y , or p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n of maladjustment are i d e n t i f i e d . I t i n v o l v e s a study of the o r i g i n and development of the d i f -f i c u l t y and embraces a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of such f a c t o r s as c a p a c i t i e s , a b i l i t i e s , s k i l l s , s p e c i a l t a l e n t s , s p e c i a l d i s a b i l i t i e s , work methods and achievements. More p a r t i c u l a r l y , i t i n v o l v e s a c a r e f u l and comprehensive i n -v e s t i g a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r p a t -t e r n of maladjustment i n the l i g h t of the f a c t o r s presented above." The task of accurate d i a g n o s i s i s , t h e r e f o r e , a d i f f i c u l t one, beset with numerous problems and p i t f a l l s . Rugg (188), J e r s i l d (115), A l l p o r t (1*), and C a r b e r r y (1*7) p o i n t out these v a r i o u s o b s t a c l e s . Rugg reasons t h a t , s i n c e d i a g n o s i s deals w i t h h i g h l y e m o t i o n a l i z e d areas of experience, .there are dangers of m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n because of t r a d i t i o n a l p r e -j u d i c e s ( f o r example, r e g a r d i n g "only" c h i l d r e n as being s p o i l e d or c o n c e i t e d ) or because of the "halo e f f e c t " which i s one of the most constant and d i s c o n c e r t i n g sources of e r r o r . In a d d i t i o n to these problems, J e r s i l d p o i n t s out t h a t , not o n l y i s there no sharp l i n e between what might be ( 2 2 ) c o n s i d e r e d as i d e a l behaviour and behaviour d i s o r d e r s , but there i s a l s o the problem of whether the t r o u b l e l i e s w i t h i n the student, w i t h i n the requirements and c o n d i t i o n s of the sc h o o l , or w i t h i n the s o c i a l customs and standards. Common sources of e r r o r i n the d i a g n o s i s of maladjust-ment mentioned by A l l p o r t (k) i n c l u d e : 1) O v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n on account of the l i m i t -a t i o n s of human i n t e l l e c t , and emotional p r e -j u d i c e s of v a r i o u s k i n d s ; 2) C e n t r a l tendency of judgments, i.e», judges avoid extreme valu e s on r a t i n g s c a l e s ; 3) The tendency to give complimentary judgment when i n doubt. Kanner ( l l 6,p.U 6 0) cautions t h a t the d i s c o v e r y of the causes depends upon the r e c o g n i t i o n of the f a c t t h a t "causes of a p a r t i c u l a r maladjustment can seldom, i f ever, be d e t e r -mined by merely observing the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . No s i n g l e cause or set of causes i s always a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c e r t a i n k i n d of misbehavior." Hence, i t i s important to be aware of a l l the c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s . T h i s f a c t presupposes the need f o r an o b j e c t i v e and o r d e r l y procedure i n gathering data from many p e r t i n e n t sources. S i m i l a r emphases are made by Tiegs and Katz ( 2 2 5 ) , G r i f f i n , Laycock and Line (9k,p.85) and Van A l s t y n e ( 2 3 1 ) . Some general suggestions o f f e r e d by Tiegs and Katz ( 2 2 5 ,p.1 9 9 ) r e g a r d i n g the approach to d i a g n o s i s a r e : ( 2 3 ) 1) Be content with w a t c h f u l w a i t i n g u n t i l sure a problem e x i s t s ; 2) Be cautious i n asking questions of an i n t i m a t e nature. Do not be too a g g r e s s i v e ; 3) Keep a sympathetic a t t i t u d e at a l l times. The p u p i l should f e e l t h a t the examiner i s on h i s s i d e ; 1*) Do not.be o v e r - c r i t i c a l . A student needs s e c u r i t y r a t h e r than c r i t i c i s m ; 5 ) Keep a sense of humour; 6) Avoid quick d e c i s i o n s ; 7) Use simple, understandable language; 8) When necessary, temper sympathy w i t h s t e r n n e s s . Do not l e t the student f e e l t h a t he can "get by." Laycock ( 9 U > P » 8 5 ) c o n s i d e r s t h a t s t e r e o t y p e d forms of r e -cord cards o f t e n supply a minimum of s i g n i f i c a n t and u s e f u l i n -f o r m a t i o n about a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d . " I t i s much b e t t e r , with the data c o l l e c t e d , to w r i t e simple d e s c r i p t i v e accounts of the case i n a manner thoroughly o b j e c t i v e . " F u r t h e r , i t i s most important f o r the teacher to d i s c r i m i n a t e between f a c t s as he knows them and " f a c t s " r e p o r t e d by other people. Diagnosis and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n should be r e s e r v e d u n t i l a l l a v a i l a b l e f a c t s are on hand and c r i t i c a l l y a n a l y s e d . The d i a g n o s t i c approach to classroom problems i s e s s e n t -i a l l y the same, whether i t be recommended by Van A l s t y n e , Kanner, Laycock, or Tiegs and Katz. For b r e v i t y , the one out-l i n e d by Laycock (9l+,pp. 8 5 f f ) i s summarized. Laycock s t r e s s e s the need i n d i a g n o s i s f o r the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : 1) Information from the school board - (from the cumulative r e c o r d card i f p o s s i b l e ) - b i r t h date, age on e n t e r i n g s c h o o l , days i n each grade, days absent, achievement, frequency of changes of s c h o o l s , medical r e c o r d , d e f e c t s , i l l n e s s e s , e t c ; (21*) 2) I n f o r m a t i o n from the parents - p o s i t i o n i n f a m i l y , e a r l y development, s l e e p i n g and r e -c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , socio-economic s t a t u s , a t t i t u d e of f a m i l y to c h i l d and of c h i l d to c h i l d ; 3) Information concerning classroom behaviour -a w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n o f c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c h i l d as observed i n classroom - h a b i t s of o v e r t a c t i o n , nervous h a b i t s , speech, l a n g -uage, work h a b i t s , s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s * k) Information from the c h i l d - by p e r s o n a l i n t e r -view, i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , e d u c a t i o n a l t e s t s , e t c . Tiegs and Katz, and Van A l s t y n e o b t a i n the necessary i n -formation f o r d i a g n o s i s from the use of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and r a t i n g s , p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s , source f o l d e r s , o b s e r v a t i o n , and i n f o r m a t i o n about community i n f l u e n c e s . Baker (1$) s t r e s s e s o b j e c t i v e and s c i e n t i f i c e v a l u a t i o n of such .data by the use of a s c a l e such as the D e t r o i t Scale of Behavior F a c t o r s . which a s s i g n s d e f i n i t e scores to 6 6 f a c t o r s . A knowledge of these recommended methods of d i a g n o s i s combined with an awareness of the sources o f e r r o r s i n such work w i l l do much to e l i m i n a t e mistaken judgments of the causes of maladjustment. Causes of Maladjustment The causes of maladjustment a r i s e from the i n a b i l i t y of the student to meet h i s own p e c u l i a r p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i -c a l needs. The maladjustment seems to be due, not so much to a lack of e f f o r t , as to the student's choice of u n d e s i r a b l e methods of d e a l i n g w i t h h i s problem, such as, extreme forms of a g gression, compensation or escape. I f a teacher i s to be capable of diag n o s i n g u n s a t i s f i e d (25) needs, she must have a sound knowledge of the fundamental p s y c h o l o g i c a l requirements of each i n d i v i d u a l . Such needs are not separate i d e n t i t i e s o p e r a t i n g s i n g l y i n the person-a l i t y . Strang ( 2 0 6 ,p.5 1 ) p o i n t s out t h a t " i n every case, the need i s p a r t of a t o t a l p a t t e r n or scheme of v a l u e s , i n -v o l v i n g both the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s environment." C a t e g o r i z -a t i o n of needs i s done, t h e r e f o r e , merely f o r d e s c r i p t i v e purposes. There are many c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n use such as the one suggested by Park and Burgess ( 1 7 1 ) , by Frank ( 8 2 ) , or by P r e s c o t t ( 1 7 8 , p . l l U ) . P r e s c o t t d i v i d e s the needs i n t o three main groups: p h y s i o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l or s t a t u s , and ego or i n t e g r a t i v e . The w r i t e r has, i n t h i s study, grouped them i n t o p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l . P h y s i c a l Causes of Maladjustment The p h y s i c a l causes of maladjustment w i l l be d e a l t with f i r s t . A c c o r d i n g to Bosset ( 3 5 ,p. 3 ) , mental hygiene " i s a mosaic of aspects of b i o l o g y , medicine, p s y c h i a t r y , psycho-a n a l y s i s , psychology, euth e n i c s , e t c . " No l i n e of separa-t i o n should be drawn between mental and p h y s i c a l hygiene by the p r o f e s s i o n a l worker. Meyers (157) contends t h a t p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s tend to f o s t e r p e r s o n a l i t y d e f e c t s . He i l l u s t r a t e s how every i l l n e s s of a c h i l d makes i t harder f o r the parent not to s p o i l him by over-mothering and, hence, cause the c h i l d to f i n d s o c i a l adjustment d i f f i c u l t . P h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s seem to be much more numerous than parents and t e a c h e r s r e a l i z e . B e n t l e y (2U) r e p o r t s t h a t f o u r (26) out of every s i x c h i l d r e n have some p h y s i c a l d e f e c t that i s damaging to p e r s o n a l i t y . Some of the common p h y s i c a l im-p e r f e c t i o n s which cause p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s are d i s o r d e r s of ear, nose, thr o a t - d e f e c t s of eye, spine, f e e t and le g s -p o s t u r a l d e f e c t s ; and a b n o r m a l i t i e s of s i z e . As f u r t h e r evidence of the frequency of p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s , Fenton and Wallace (76) r e p o r t t h a t the number of recommendations of a c h i l d guidance c l i n i c f o r improvement of p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g was exceeded on l y by the numbers made f o r improvement of the home s i t u a t i o n and of the s c h o o l . Although Pope ( 1 7 7 ) r e p o r t s t h a t s l i g h t importance i s att a c h e d to h e a l t h by ad o l e s c e n t s themselves, Bursch ( U l ) , J e r s i l d ( 1 1 5 ) , Cole ( 5 U ) and Topper and Mul i e r (226) a l l r e p o r t poor h e a l t h to be a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to mal a d j u s t -ment. Bursch*s study r e v e a l e d t h a t 3 5 per cent of maladjust-ed c h i l d r e n , i n c o n t r a s t to 5 per cent of normal c h i l d r e n , were a t l e a s t 1 0 per cent underweight. J e r s i l d a t t r i b u t e s i r r i t a b i l i t y and l a c k of energy to poor h e a l t h , p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s and other p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s . The c h i l d ' s physique can be a s i g n i f i c a n t cause of mal-adjustment according to Knight ( 1 2 3 ) . The very t a l l c h i l d and the very short one face w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t problems of ad-justment. The a t t i t u d e s of teachers, p u p i l s and community toward d i f f e r e n c e s i n appearance a l l a f f e c t the boy or g i r l -o f t e n a d v e r s e l y . The c h i l d may even r e c e i v e too much (27) a t t e n t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n . He may develop f e e l i n g s of i n f e r -i o r i t y when p h y s i c a l handicaps prevent him from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n games w i t h o r d i n a r y c h i l d r e n . As a r e s u l t , he may withdraw or daydream. In a d d i t i o n to these p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s , the v a r y i n g r a t e s of the growth of organs and the r e s u l t i n g p h y s i o l o g i c a l un-balance during adolescence are o f great importance to t e e n -agers, s i n c e these changes are accompanied by innumerable adjustment d i f f i c u l t i e s . B e v e r l y ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of a d olescent growth (75,p . l5 i | . ) i s c l e a r on t h i s p o i n t : "At t h i s p e r i o d changes take p l a c e i n the whole body. Apparently i n i t i a t e d and c o n t r o l l e d by the glands of i n t e r n a l s e c r e t i o n , we see changes i n s t a t u r e , metabolism, r e s i s t a n c e to i n f e c t i o n , s i z e of organs, - the heart u s u a l l y doubles i n s i z e -and f i n a l l y emotional d evelopment and maturing a t -t i t u d e s toward l i f e . I t i s not uncommon to see a boy - l e s s o f t e n a g i r l - grow from'eight to ten inches i n height i n a s i n g l e year. With t h i s r a p i d growth, s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and problems p r e s -ent themselves. There i s awkwardness. The muscles and bones do not develop at the same r a t e j some muscles grow more r a p i d l y than o t h e r s . I t takes s e v e r a l years f o r some boys and g i r l s to achieve good c o - o r d i n a t i o n . This awkwardness gives r i s e to embarrassment. The i n d i v i d u a l s who grow r a p i d l y are uncomfortable i f they remain i n the same p o s i t i o n f o r more than a few minutes. The a d olescent cannot stand up on h i s two f e e t l i k e a gentleman.' The r a p i d l y growing a d o l e s c e n t boy or g i r l becomes f a t i -gued e a s i l y . Many high s c h o o l students- are too t i r e d to study at n i g h t . " This d e s c r i p t i o n omits the great demand th a t r a p i d growth makes upon the d i g e s t i v e system. The ravenous a d o l e s c e n t f i n d s i t very d i f f i c u l t to observe p r e v i o u s l y a c q u i r e d t a b l e manners. Furthermore, the vigorous o b j e c t i o n s of a d u l t s do (28) not s o l v e , but r a t h e r , a g g r a v a t e x t h i s problem of youth. The meaning of adolescence i s w e l l d e s c r i b e d by Frank (162,p.1) as both "a b i o l o g i c a l process and a s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n : The j u v e n i l e organism undergoes a process of growth and maturation as i t moves toward a d u l t s i z e and f u n c t i o n a l c a p a c i t y . a n d , more or l e s s c o n c u r r e n t l y , the i n -d i v i d u a l must pass through a t r a n s i t i o n from the s t a t u s and conduct of a c h i l d to the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the a d u l t . " "Like the god Janus, the adolescent f a c e s two ways" (162,p.332). I n t e l l i g e n c e as a Ca u s a l F a c t o r Since mental c a p a c i t y i s p a r t of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s n a t u r a l endowment j u s t as h i s p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t y i s , a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the e f f e c t of i n t e l l i g e n c e upon p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment w i l l be given i n t h i s s e c t i o n . Bursch (1*1), Adam (2) and Smith (197) s t u d i e d the r o l e of i n t e l l i g e n c e as a c a u s a l f a c t o r i n maladjustment. Bursch found, f o r example, that low m e n t a l i t y d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y cause s c h o o l maladjustment. In 3,000 cases of maladjusted students, he r e p o r t e d 15 per cent above average, 1*0 per cent average, 27 per cent d u l l and 18 per cent v e r y d u l l or feeble-minded. Therefore, f a c t o r s other than i n t e l l i g e n c e were a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r maladjustment. Adam found no r e l a t i o n s h i p between I.Q. and the type of maladjustment. A s i m i l a r f i n d i n g i s r e p o r t e d by Conrad, Freeman and Jones ( I 6 2 , p . l 7 9 f f ) , who concluded t h a t " i n the mass, i n t e l l i g e n c e o f f e r s l i t t l e or no p r e d i c t i o n as to p e r s o n a l adjustment." They i n d i c a t e that a t l e a s t f i v e (29) f a c t o r s are i n v o l v e d i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e l -l i g e n c e and adjustment: "These are the c h i l d ' s a b s o l u t e l e v e l of i n t e l l i g e n c e ; the l e v e l of i n t e l l i g e n c e r e q u i r e d i n the a c t i v i t i e s toward which he i s p o i n t e d through the ambitions of h i s f a m i l y and f r i e n d s ; the s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s which a r i s e from such ambitions; h i s own f e l t needs and the l e v e l of as-p i r a t i o n and h i s a c t u a l achievement. These f a c t o r s are i n t e r -connected i n a v a r i e t y of ways and a great v a r i e t y of complex p a t t e r n s may r e s u l t . " Cole (51+,p.3hk) found t h a t d u l l a d o l e s c e n t s are no d i f -f e r e n t from anyone e l s e s o c i a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y , p r o v i d e d t h e i r environment has not made too-heavy demands upon them. She p o i n t s out, however, that d u l l a d o l e s c e n t s develop un-d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l t r a i t s when too much i s asked of them. "They become discouraged, d i s i l l u s i o n e d , unhappy, t r u c u l e n t , and sometimes d e l i n q u e n t . Such t r a i t s appear at any l e v e l of i n t e l l i g e n c e among those who b e l i e v e themselves to be c h r o n i c f a i l u r e s . A good adjustment i s made out of successes - not f a i l u r e s . I f d u l l c h i l d r e n show unf a v o r a b l e t r a i t s more f r e q u e n t l y than those of average a b i l i t y , i t i s because they have more o c c a s i o n f o r d e s p a i r . " In the case of the b r i l l i a n t p u p i l , the same author (51;,p .338) d e s c r i b e s the problems of such a student as primar-i l y p e r s o n a l . He has so l i t t l e i n common i n an i n t e l l e c t u a l way with the m a j o r i t y of students that he becomes i s o l a t e d and u n s o c i a l . Dale (62) d i s a g r e e s with Cole's c o n c l u s i o n . Dale (30) gave a b a t t e r y of l i * t e s t s measuring i n t e l l i g e n c e , a c h i e v e -ment and p e r s o n a l i t y , "There appears to be r e l i a b l e evidence i n terms of the t e s t s used t h a t a d j u s t e d p u p i l s are above average i n i n t e l l i g e n c e and s c h o o l achievement, and average i n knowledge of s o c i a l standards. Maladjusted p u p i l s seem to be below average i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , academic achievement and know-ledge of s o c i a l standards. Both groups are average i n person-a l i t y adjustment," I t must be concluded, on the b a s i s of the data c o l l e c t e d , t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e i s not a major f a c t o r i n causes of maladjust-ment, but onl y one f a c t o r among many o t h e r s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Causes of Maladjustment This study turns now from a survey of the r o l e of i n t e l l i -gence i n p e r s o n a l i t y to the p s y c h o l o g i c a l causes of maladjust-ment. Wrenn and B e l l (256,pp.18-1?) have i n d i c a t e d the f o l l o w -ing " basic problems f a c e d by a d o l e s c e n t s : l ) emancipation from the home* 2) establishment of h e t e r o s e x u a l i t y • 3) d e t e r m i n a t i o n of a v o c a t i o n a l g o a l ; JL|.) development of a sense of s e c u r i t y -emotional, p h y s i c a l , economic; 5) the est a b l i s h m e n t of s t a t u s (or acceptance among h i s f e l l o w s ) ; 6) the development of a ph i l o s o p h y of l i f e , the est a b l i s h m e n t of a s a t i s f a c t o r y system of v alues and standards." In the main, the way a student r e a c t s or a d j u s t s to these important needs comprises h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . The manner and e f f e c t i v e n e s s with which he_meets h i s p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l (31) problems make up h i s "-wholeness" which p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s attempt to measure and d e s c r i b e . Because the C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y was used i n t h i s study, the p s y c h o l o g i c a l causes of maladjustment have been c l a s s i f i e d to c o i n c i d e as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e w i t h the components of th a t t e s t . The t e s t groups the components under the two main headings of s e l f adjustment and s o c i a l adjustment. These two g e n e r a l areas are, of course, not i s o l a t e d from one another, but are simply p a r t s of the whole dynamic p e r s o n a l i t y p i c t u r e . Since other i n v e s t i g a t o r s c l a s s i f y the causes d i f -f e r e n t l y , i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t a t times to separate the l i t e r -ature i n t o these s p e c i f i c headings. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Causes of P e r s o n a l Maladjustment The f i r s t component l i s t e d under s e l f adjustment i s c a l l -ed s e l f - r e l i a n c e . The authors of the t e s t c l a i m ( 5 3 , p . 3 ) t h a t "a student may be s a i d to be s e l f - r e l i a n t when h i s a c t u a l a c t i o n s i n d i c a t e that he can do th i n g s independently of o t h e r s , depends upon h i m s e l f i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s , and d i r e c t s h i s own a c t i v i t i e s . The s e l f - r e l i a n t boy or g i r l i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c a l l y s t a b l e e m o t i o n a l l y , and r e s p o n s i b l e i n behavior." A study of the questions on s e l f - r e l i a n c e i n d i c a t e s that the maladjustment may be due to l a c k of s o c i a l s k i l l s and exper-iences (items U , 9 , 1 3 ) , to l a c k of self-rconfidence (items 3 , 1 1 ) , and to l a c k of c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the job a t hand (items 6 , 1 5 ) . J e r s i l d ( 1 1 5 , p . 5 6 2 ) c r e d i t s l a c k of s e l f - r e l i a n c e to l a c k of (32) a b i l i t y , to l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n and encouragement, or to a p r e v i o u s s e r i e s of f a i l u r e s . J e r s i l d b e l i e v e s that the most c o n f i d e n t person i s the one, who, other things being e q u a l , i s the most competent. The White House Conference on C h i l d Health and P r o t e c t i o n (238,p.1*0) found t h a t nothing f a i l s l i k e f a i l u r e , and t h a t o f t e n no s p e c i a l study i s ever made of a c h i l d t i l l he i s two years r e t a r d e d i n s c h o o l . By t h i s time, he i s w e l l grounded i n h a b i t s of f a i l u r e and discouragement. Wickman's study (2lj.0,p.171) r e v e a l s t h a t f e e l i n g s of dependency and i n -adequacy of p u p i l s are o f t e n i n c r e a s e d by teachers c a t e r i n g to the sympathy-seeking t a c t i c s of the c h i l d r e n . The c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c of s e l f - r e l i a n c e cannot be viewed i n vacuo f o r i t i s i n -t e r l o c k e d and c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h other aspects of person-a l i t y . Causes which destroy s e l f - r e l i a n c e may a l s o be respon-. s i b l e f o r developing other maladjustments. The second component of s e l f adjustment i s c a l l e d a sense of p e r s o n a l worth. The authors of the C a l i f o r n i a Test of  P e r s o n a l i t y c o n s i d e r t h a t a student i s maladjusted i n h i s -sense of p e r s o n a l worth when he f e e l s t h a t he i s not w e l l r e -garded by o t h e r s , that others have no f a i t h i n h i s f u t u r e suc-cess and t h a t he has below-average a b i l i t y . To f e e l worthy, the student needs to f e e l capable and r e a s o n a b l y a t t r a c t i v e . This area o f adjustment i s s i m i l a r to that designated by other authors as f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y . Pope (177) r e p o r t s t h a t f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y and s u p e r i o r i t y were the most numerous problems of p e r s o n a l adjustment c i t e d by students i n t h e i r essays on t h e i r own problems. Smith (197) found t h a t those (33) who s u f f e r e d from pronounced i n f e r i o r i t y f e e l i n g s were l i k e l y to have more than the average number of n e u r o t i c tendencies as measured by the Bernreuter P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory. He found a l s o that d e l i n q u e n t s r e p o r t e d a l a r g e r number of i n f e r i o r i t y f e e l i n g s than d i d non-delinquent c h i l d r e n . Tiegs and Katz (22.5,p.3U2 ) give a very complete l i s t of both organic and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a u s a l f a c t o r s of these f e e l i n g s . Organic d e f e c t s were not i n themselves c o n s i d e r -ed to be the cause of i n f e r i o r i t y f e e l i n g s . However, the r e s u l t i n g i n a b i l i t y to compete s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h peers and the t e a s i n g by playmates do tend to cause the c h i l d to f e e l inadequate, i n f e r i o r and u n a t t r a c t i v e . These authors are of the o p i n i o n that most f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y develop, not from p h y s i c a l , but from p s y c h o l o g i c a l , f a c t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y the home environment. There, r e j e c t i o n , unfavourable comparisons, t e a s i n g , punishment, and o v e r - s o l i c i t u d e are too f r e q u e n t l y causes of maladjustment. As w e l l as the home, the s c h o o l en-vironment may be a c a u s a l f a c t o r of f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y i f students are assigned s c h o o l tasks beyond t h e i r a b i l i t y or comprehension. Laycock (129) compared 51 s u p e r i o r students (median I.Q .121) and 51 students below average i n mental a b i l i t y (median I.Q . 7 8 ) . His study throws l i g h t upon some of the b a s i c causes of i n f e r i o r i t y f e e l i n g s . I t was found, over a three-year p e r i o d , that the i n f e r i o r group had higher r a t -ings i n u n d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l t r a i t s such as o v e r - s e n s i t i v e n e s s , (3k) day-dreaming, i n f e r i o r i t y f e e l i n g s , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , nervousness, and s u g g e s t i b i l i t y . Laycock concluded t h a t "the d i f f e r e n c e s i n degree of maladjustment between the groups of su p e r i o r and i n f e r i o r c h i l d r e n , are, to a very l a r g e degree, occasioned by the ' c o n f l i c t over d i f f e r e n c e ' or f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y t h a t have been occasioned i n the l a t t e r group who are maladjusted to the c u r r i c u l u m and l o c k - s t e p system of ed u c a t i o n . " Because of re p e a t e d f a i l u r e s and of always being the "under-dogi" those i n f e r i o r i n a b i l i t y cannot f a i l to make unfavourable comparisons of t h e i r own poor a b i l i t y w i t h that of t h e i r companions i n home and s c h o o l . The same study gave evidence t h a t students of the i n f e r i o r group who were w i s e l y handled were not maladjusted. Conrad, Freeman and Jones ( 1 6 2 ,p.3 2 ) found a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y and a t t i t u d e s of f a m i l y , f r i e n d s and s c h o o l , and between the l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n of the p u p i l and h i s a c t u a l achievement. The f e e l i n g of p e r s o n a l freedom i s the t h i r d component th a t i s measured. The Manual of D i r e c t i o n s ($3,V»3) says a student i s enjoying a sense of p e r s o n a l freedom "when he i s pe r m i t t e d to have a reasonable share i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of hi s conduct and i n s e t t i n g the g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s t h a t s h a l l govern h i s l i f e . D e s i r a b l e freedom i n c l u d e s p e r m i s s i o n to choose one's own f r i e n d s and-to have at l e a s t a l i t t l e spend-in g money." An adolescent's f e e l i n g of p e r s o n a l freedom i s , (35) t h e r e f o r e , connected with h i s emancipation from h i s home. The F o r t y - T h i r d Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Study of Ed u c a t i o n ( 1 6 2 ,p. 21*6) p o i n t s out t h a t "emancipation from dependence upon the f a m i l y and from c h i l d i s h submission to p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y are acute a d o l e s c e n t problems i n our s o c i e t y . The poor a d o l e s c e n t may never i n h i s l i f e have had an o p p o r t u n i t y to use judgment or take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , but now he i s ber a t e d f o r i n a b i l i t y to take charge of h i s own l i f e . " Cole (51*,PP.387-95) blames the home i t s e l f f o r many hindrances to emancipation from the home and f o r r e s u l t i n g a d o l escent maladjustments. F a i l u r e of parents to l e s s e n s t r i c t c o n t r o l of c h i l d r e n ' s spending money, of choice of f r i e n d s and choice of v o c a t i o n , or f a i l u r e to a l l o w a d o l e s -cents to solve t h e i r own d i f f i c u l t i e s are some of these stum-b l i n g b l o c k s . Another hindrance to t h i s emancipation i s the strong tendency of parents to i n t e r p r e t behaviour of a d o l e s -cents by a d u l t standards of conduct and a t t i t u d e s . Zachry (257-P*259) p o i n t s out t h a t " i n our s o c i e t y , the c h i l d has two b a s i c emotional needs: the need to achieve and the need f o r a f f e c t i o n and s e c u r i t y . " The authors of the C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y c a l l t h i s need f o r a f f e c t i o n and s e c u r i t y a need f o r a f e e l i n g of belonging, and make i t ' the f o u r t h component of s e l f adjustment. They consider t h a t a student f e e l s t h a t he belongs when he enjoys the love of h i s f a m i l y , the w e l l wishes of h i s good f r i e n d s , and a c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with people i n g e n e r a l . A c c o r d i n g to Rose (36) (187,p.1+6), adolescence i s a t r a n s i t i o n a l stage i n which youth leaves a phase of l i f e to which he i s adequately ad-j u s t e d and s t r i v e s towards the unknown. The r e s u l t i s a f e e l i n g of u n c e r t a i n t y and i n s e c u r i t y w i t h p o s s i b l e r e a c t i o n s of a g g r e s s i v e n e s s , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s and withdrawal. In ad-d i t i o n to the f a c t o r of the onset of adolescence, f a c t o r s con-t r i b u t i n g to f e e l i n g s of i n s e c u r i t y may be r e a l ones such as r e j e c t i o n by parents or teachers, or u n r e a l when the c h i l d f e e l s , without due cause, t h a t he i s unwanted. The C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y t r i e s next to measure freedom from withdrawing t e n d e n c i e s . The l i t e r a t u r e on the causes of withdrawing i s q u i t e e x t e n s i v e . A c c o r d i n g to Cole (51+jP»307), withdrawing tendencies are n e a r l y always assoc-i a t e d w i t h s e r i o u s or c h r o n i c f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y . Katz (120) p o i n t s out t h a t students adopt day-dreaming and w i t h -drawal tendencies as adjustment mechanisms i n s o l v i n g person-a l problems which cannot be s o l v e d simply or d i r e c t l y . For some, the e a s i e s t way out i s to r e s o r t to n e g a t i v i s m or f a n t -asy. T i egs and Katz (225,p.318) show how "the boy or g i r l who s u b s t i t u t e s imagery f o r r e a l i t y , t h i n k i n g f o r doing, and wish-ing f o r a c t i n g c u r t a i l s the p o s s i b i l i t y of engaging i n normal s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Such persons withdraw from s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and become s e n s i t i v e , l o n e l y , and given to day-dreams." F i n a l l y , i n s e l f adjustment, the p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t used (37) i n t h i s study i n c l u d e s a measurement of freedom from nervous symptoms. This type of maladjustment i s r e v e a l e d , says Cole (51+,p«32i*), by v a r i o u s p h y s i c a l symptoms such as l a c k of a p p e t i t e , eye s t r a i n , c h r o n i c f a t i g u e , n a i l - b i t i n g , scowling, and constant r e s t l e s s n e s s . A c c o r d i n g to Olson ( 1 6 ? ) and Baker and Traphagen ( l 6 , p . l 6 ° ) , these h a b i t s may be caused by p h y s i c a l d i s o r d e r s due to undernourishment, l a c k of s l e e p , h e r e d i t a r y n e u r o t i c i n f l u e n c e s , or to p h y s i c a l weaknesses con-nected w i t h some organic or g l a n d u l a r weakness. Besides prim-a r i l y p h y s i c a l causes of nervous symptoms, there are numerous p s y c h o l o g i c a l causes such as f e e l i n g s of i n s e c u r i t y due to r e j e c t i o n , unhappy homes, l a c k of f r i e n d s or s o c i a l s k i l l s (53 Tiegs and Katz (2 2 5 ,pp.3 0 0 - 7) have o u t l i n e d some of the causes of s p e c i f i c nervous symptoms. Regarding n a i l - b i t i n g , they r e p o r t s t u d i e s by Kanner and Wechsler which i n d i c a t e t h a t the main cause i s emotional tenseness r e s u l t i n g from f a u l t y and h i g h l y emotional-toned punishments or f e e l i n g s of being unwanted. T i c s may a r i s e from organic or p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s ac-c o r d i n g to Kanner's study ( 2 2 5 ,p.3 0 3 ) . The organic cause of t i c s i s o f t e n i r r i t a t i o n due to e y e - s t r a i n or improper c l o t h -ing or other d i s t u r b a n c e s of a p h y s i c a l nature. Neverthe-l e s s , T r a v i s and Baruch (225,P«30l*) found t h a t the causes of t i c s are p r i m a r i l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l , a r i s i n g from mental and emotional c o n f l i c t s . A r e p o r t by Mahler (llj . 6 ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t (38) "recent t i c r e s e a r c h r e v e a l e d t h a t motor n e u r o s i s of which the t i c i s a p a r t , o f t e n o r i g i n a t e s through i n t e r a c t i o n of a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l motor f a c t o r of the im p u l s i v e type i n the c h i l d c o n comitantly w i t h too much or too l i t t l e e n v i r o n -mental i n t e r f e r e n c e with the s m a l l c h i l d ' s d i f f u s e expres-s i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . " Mahler and Cross (11+7) r e p o r t a higher frequency of t i c s among c h i l d r e n who were gi v e n by the parents an unsound importance i n the f a m i l y s e t t i n g - e.g., out of 33 cases of t i c s , 12 were "on l y " c h i l d r e n , 7 were "the baby", and 10 were the f i r s t l i v i n g c h i l d . A c c o r d i n g to s e v e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s such as Thorpe, Dunlop, T r a v i s and others (2 2 5 ,pp.3 0 8 - 9 ), other nervous symptoms of maladjustment such as s t u t t e r i n g and stammering e x i s t , not p r i m a r i l y because of a speech d e f e c t , but because of a major f a c t o r of p e r s o n a l i t y maladjustment due to c o n f l i c t s , emot-i o n a l t e n s i o n s and f a i l u r e to meet b a s i c motives and needs. These same sources ( 2 2 5 ,p.3 0 9 ) a s s o c i a t e unfavourable home f a c t o r s of nagging, r i d i c u l i n g , or l e a r n i n g language t h a t i s s o c i a l l y taboo, with t h i s type of maladjustment. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Causes of S o c i a l Maladjustment The a v a i l a b l e s t u d i e s on the causes of maladjustment t o -ward s e l f have been o u t l i n e d . There remains a review of the causes of s o c i a l maladjustment under the convenient groupings of the C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y - s o c i a l standards and s k i l l s , freedom from a n t i - s o c i a l t endencies, f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s , (39) s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s and community r e l a t i o n s . The r e s e a r c h on the f i r s t two headings of s o c i a l stand-ards and s k i l l s i s r a t h e r l i m i t e d . C l a r k e et a l (53,P»3) d e s c r i b e the student who r e c o g n i z e s d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l standards as "the one who has come to understand the r i g h t s of others and who a p p r e c i a t e s the n e c e s s i t y of s u b o r d i n a t i n g c e r t a i n d e s i r e s to the needs of the group. Such a person understands what i s regarded as being r i g h t or wrong." The frequency of maladjustment i n t h i s area has been found to be r e l a t i v e l y h i g h . Nash (158) r e p o r t e d a t l e a s t 25 per cent of s c h o o l c h i l d r e n needed s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to become e f f e c t i v e i n t h e i r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Cole (51*,P« 21*3) r e p o r t s a study by Pressey who found t h a t even among young c o l l e g e women con-s i d e r e d normal, 52 per cent r e p o r t e d d i f f i c u l t y i n s o c i a l ad-justment, 25 per cent i n s o c i a l conventions and 57 per cent i n moral or r e l i g i o u s matters. Tiegs and Katz (225,p. 21*14.) c l a i m that moral and s o c i a l standards are the product of i m i t a t i o n , understanding and h a b i t . " C h i l d r e n ' s concepts of what i s r i g h t and wrong are b u i l t up g r a d u a l l y on the b a s i s of what i s encouraged, t o l e r a t e d , or avoided i n the home." These same authors (225,P«206) blame another f a c t o r b e s i d e s the home, namely, l a c k of s c h o o l success, f o r inadequate s o c i a l standards of a d o l e s c e n t s . "The i n s e c u r i t i e s , i n a d -equacies and i n f e r i o r i t i e s which produce such u n d e s i r a b l e (Uo) behavior as rudeness, d i s c o u r t e s y , and b u l l y i n g are o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with l a c k o f sch o o l success." They add t h a t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s may be t r a c e d to emotional t e n s i o n s i n home and community, to l a c k of knowledge of soc-i a l standards, or to l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r developing soc-i a l s k i l l s . V i o l a t i o n s of s o c i a l standards such as l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , c h e a t i n g , and immorality are, a c c o r d i n g to Wickman (2J+0,pp. 1 6 1 - 7 1 ) , to be looked upon g e n e r a l l y as evidences of teacher and p a r e n t a l mismanagement and misunderstanding. Since u n d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l standards of ado l e s c e n t s can be blamed on both the home and the s c h o o l , the recommendation of Holbeck ( 1 0 3 ) f o r more and b e t t e r understanding, agreement and c o o p e r a t i o n between these two i n s t i t u t i o n s cannot be over-emphasized. The authors of the C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y con-s i d e r t h a t the a d o l e s c e n t needs s o c i a l s k i l l s to be s o c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e . He needs to show a l i k i n g f o r people, to be of a s s i s t a n c e to them, to be w i l l i n g to inconvenience h i m s e l f f o r o t h e r s , and to be d i p l o m a t i c i n h i s d e a l i n g s w i t h both f r i e n d s and s t r a n g e r s . In g e n e r a l , he w i l l subordinate h i s e g o i s t i c tendencies i n favour of the i n t e r e s t s and problems of h i s a s s o c i a t e s . Evidence has been found to i n d i c a t e t h a t maladjustment i n t h i s area i s q u i t e f r e q u e n t . Pope ( 1 7 7 ) used the essay method to d i s c o v e r the p e r s o n a l problems of high school ( U i ) p u p i l s . Essays w r i t t e n by l,°Ol|. students of grades nine to twelve i n c l u s i v e l i s t e d 7 ,103 problems. Pope r e p o r t s t h a t one out of twelve students was conscious of inadequate s o c i a l adjustment and f e l t a d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l acceptance. G i r l s appeared more s e n s i t i v e than boys towards problems of boy-g i r l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Fenton and Wallace ( 7 6,p . 6 0 ) r e p o r t t h a t among types of recommendations made by guidance s p e c i a l i s t s who s t u d i e d 795 cases, I4.I2 recommendations were made to im-prove the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r adequate s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . N a t u r a l l y enough, the causes of maladjustment i n t h i s area of s o c i a l development centre around the inadequacy of home t r a i n i n g and example, the la c k of adequate o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the l a c k of f r i e n d s and of the q u a l i t i e s of p e r s o n a l l e a d e r s h i p . In a study by the case-h i s t o r y method, Symonds (211*,p. 75) compared t h i r t y - o n e ac-cepted and t h i r t y - o n e r e j e c t e d c h i l d r e n . He found t h a t mem-bers of the accepted group were " s o c i a l i z e d , c o o p e r a t i v e , f r i e n d l y , l o y a l , s t a b l e e m o t i o n a l l y and c h e e r f u l , 11 whereas those i n the r e j e c t e d group were l a c k i n g i n s t a b i l i t y , were given to a t t e n t i o n - g e t t i n g behaviour and showed pronounced de l i n q u e n t and a n t i - s o c i a l t r e n d s . The symptoms co n s i d e r e d by the authors of the C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y (53,P -3) under the component of a n t i -s o c i a l tendencies a r e : " b u l l y i n g , too f r e q u e n t q u a r r e l l i n g , disobedience, and d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s to p r o p e r t y . The a h t i -(1+2) s o c i a l person i s the one who endeavors to get h i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n s i n ways t h a t are damaging and u n f a i r to o t h e r s . " Tiegs and Katz d e s c r i b e the a n t i - s o c i a l person as a person-a l i t y motivated by s e l f i s h n e s s . Cole (51+,P»90) p o i n t s out that a n t i - s o c i a l tendencies are "the r e s u l t of i n s e c u r i t y and i n e f f i c i e n c y of some s o r t . " Tiegs and Katz ( 2 2 5 ,p.2 0 7 ) and L o u t t i t (1 3 9 ,p. 1+78) b e l i e v e the main c a u s a l f a c t o r s are l a c k of s c h o o l success and i n -c o n s i s t e n t home-training by which the c h i l d r e n are confused and r e s o r t to argument, disobedience and d e f i a n c e . Symonds (213 ,p.75) c o n s i d e r s that homes which r e j e c t a member of the f a m i l y f r e q u e n t l y cause t h a t r e j e c t e d member to develop a n t i -s o c i a l t e n d e n c i e s . A good summary of the type, of environment causing de-li n q u e n c y and a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour i s giv e n by Cole (51+, p. 267 ) • She b e l i e v e s i t c o n s i s t s o f : "1) a home i n which parents are i n e f f e c t i v e i n d i s c i p l i n e , u n s u c c e s s f u l e c o n o m i c a l l y , of not more than average n a t i v e a b i l i t y , of u n d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l h a b i t s , and of que s t i o n a b l e m o r a l i t y ; 2) a neighborhood t h a t i s d e v i s e d f o r a d u l t s , t o t a l l y without safeguards f o r c h i l d r e n , and l a r g e l y without safe o u t l e t s f o r emotional and s o c i a l l i f e ; and 3 ) a s c h o o l that t r i e s to make s c h o l a r s out of nonacademic m a t e r i a l . " The p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n next t r i e s to measure a student's adjustment to h i s home s i t u a t i o n . "The (U3) student who e x h i b i t s d e s i r a b l e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s the one who f e e l s t h at he i s lo v e d and w e l l - t r e a t e d at home, and who has a sense of s e c u r i t y and s e l f - r e s p e c t i n con n e c t i o n w i t h the v a r i o u s members of h i s f a m i l y . Superior f a m i l y r e -l a t i o n s also i n c l u d e p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l t h a t i s n e i t h e r too s t r i c t nor too l e n i e n t " ( 5 3 , P » 3 K The frequency of maladjustment i n t h i s component i s r e -po r t e d by Fenton and Wallace ( 7 6,p . 6 0 ) . Ranking the recom-mendations of guidance s p e c i a l i s t s i n order of frequency, they found t h a t those suggestions f o r improvement of the home con-d i t i o n s averaged 3•h3 per case compared to the next h i g h e s t of 2 . 6 5 f o r e d u c a t i o n a l adjustment and 1.58 f o r improvement of p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . In the home s i t u a t i o n , most of the suggestions concerned s o c i a l or e d u c a t i o n a l work i n the home (1.14.1 per case) and advice r e g a r d i n g methods of c h i l d t r a i n -i n g ( 1 . 3 0 per c a s e ) . The committee on the "Family ana Parent E d u c a t i o n " of the Whitehouse Conference on C h i l d Health and P r o t e c t i o n ( 2 3 9 ,p.7 ) s t u d i e d 9 , 0 0 0 American students of grades V I I I , IX and X. They found: "The e x t e r n a l s of home l i f e l i k e i t s economic s t a t u s or i t s housing arrangements, while im-por t a n t , are not n e a r l y so s i g n i f i c a n t f o r p e r s o n a l i t y development of the c h i l d as are the s u b t l e r and more i n t a n g i b l e aspects of f a m i l y l i f e such as a f f e c t i o n a t e behavior, r e l a t i o n s of conf i d e n c e , i n c u l c a t i o n of r e g -u l a r i t y i n h e a l t h h a b i t s and r e a c t i o n s to the i l l n e s s or nervousness of pa r e n t s . " (1+1+) Stemsrud and Wardwell (201,pp.165-70) found t h a t p a r e n t a l r e j e c t i o n combined wi t h a measure of o v e r - p r o t e c t i o n was the cause of maladjustment i n many cases. Meyers (157) als o found that the over-mothered and e m o t i o n a l l y dependent c h i l d i s t i m i d and l a c k s s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n . He r e p o r t s t h a t j e a l o u s y of a b e t t e r - a p p r e c i a t e d brother or s i s t e r , the l a c k of adequate and e a r l y r e s t r a i n t i n the home and the over-ambition of parents who f o r c e a c h i l d beyond h i s a b i l i t y are causes of maladjustment, both i n the home and at s c h o o l . Witmer' s (21+9) i n v e s t i g a t i o n of insane a d u l t s g i v e s data con-c e r n i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the homes i n which these i n -d i v i d u a l s spent t h e i r c h i l d h o o d . She found t h a t a combination of the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s r e p e a t e d l y l e d to emotional d e v i a t i o n : constant f r i c t i o n between parents, an o v e r - s o l i c i t o u s or domin-a t i n g mother, a r e j e c t i o n of the c h i l d by both par e n t s , or a marked emotional dependence of the c h i l d upon f a t h e r or mother. B e l l (22) and Tiegs and Katz (225,p.3i+3) c o n f i r m the importance of these causes of maladjustment. They l i s t r e -j e c t i o n , unfavourable comparisons, t e a s i n g , d i s a p p r o v a l , un-f a i r punishment, and o v e r - s o l i c i t u d e as the p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s l e a s t d e s i r a b l e f o r wholesome p e r s o n a l i t y growth of c h i l d r e n . Cole (51+, p. 397) adds to these f a c t o r s the f a i l u r e of parents to " l e t go" the e a r l y domination of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . There are numerous s t u d i e s and r e p o r t s on the e f f e c t s of s i z e of f a m i l y , r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of c h i l d r e n and s i b l i n g r e -(1*5) l a t i o n s h i p s on p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment to the home. L o u t t i t ( 1 3 9 ,p.2 8 2 ) and W i t t y (252) found t h a t being the o n l y c h i l d i n the f a m i l y i s not, c o n t r a r y to c u r r e n t o p i n i o n , a handicap. These men found t h a t "only" c h i l d r e n are not n e c e s s a r i l y s p o i l -ed, c o n c e i t e d or otherwise d i f f i c u l t to manage. However, L o u t t i t p o i n t s out t h a t p o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y has an u n p r e d i c t -able i n f l u e n c e on any g i v e n c h i l d . L o u t t i t ' s f i n d i n g s agree w i t h those of Adam ( 2 ,p. 1*5) t h a t problem c h i l d r e n are more f r e q u e n t l y found among f i r s t or second-born c h i l d r e n . The e f f e c t of p o s i t i o n seems dependent upon the a t t i t u d e s of the other members of the f a m i l y . The s i z e of the f a m i l y a l s o appears to have some r e l a t i o n s h i p to c h i l d r e n ' s maladjustment. Bursch (1*1,p.320) found an average of 1.8 s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n the average home, whereas maladjusted c h i l d r e n came from fam-i l i e s where 2 . 5 p u p i l s were e n r o l l e d i n s c h o o l . Bursch (1*1) and Adam (2,p.1*5) found t h a t m a r i t a l s t a t u s was a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g the adjustment of the c h i l d r e n to t h e i r homes. Bursch r e p o r t e d that one study of the homes of maladjusted c h i l d r e n showed 15 per cent to be l i v i n g with n e i t h e r parent, 20 per cent w i t h parents who were d i v o r c e d and 62 per cent with the mother alone. Ninety-f i v e per cent of cases l a c k e d evening s u p e r v i s i o n . Adam found problem boys were more f r e q u e n t i n broken than i n normal homes. Adam warns, however, that the i n f l u e n c e of the d i s r u p t e d home may be much l e s s than has been commonly assumed. He bases t h i s c o n c l u s i o n on h i s study of normal (1*6) and broken homes compared to the homes of servicemen where the f a t h e r s were away at war. Educators f i n d t h a t the home f a c t o r i s a d i r e c t cause of sexual maladjustment of young people. Frank ( 8 3 ) , i n an a r t i c l e d e a l i n g with "The Adolescent and The Family," found t h a t f a u l t y a d o l e s c e n t adjustment to sex problems or he t e r o -sexual misconduct was u s u a l l y caused by e a r l y d i s t o r t i o n s , t h r e a t s of punishment and emo t i o n a l l y - c h a r g e d experiences r e -l a t e d to sex taboos. The causes o f sexual i n t e r c o u r s e among adol e s c e n t s a r e , i n most cases, to be t r a c e d to f a u l t y home c o n d i t i o n s where there are low home standards and poor moral a t t i t u d e s ( 2 2 5 , p . 3 2 9 ) . Bernard (27,p.21*1*) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t of unmarried motherhood upon a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s , and found t h a t " a l l the g i r l s showed e f f e c t s of e a r l y emotional m a l n u t r i t i o n * they r e c e i v e d too l i t t l e p a r t e n t a l l o v e , p r o t e c t i o n , esteem, encouragement, and l i b e r a t i o n to develop adequate emotional s e c u r i t y or i n n e r c o n t r o l s and i d e a l s i n harmony w i t h r e a l i t y . " Cole (5k,P«261;) r e p o r t s an e x t e n s i v e survey by Wi l l i a m s of l , 3 l * 3 c h i l d r e n who were problems i n s c h o o l . The de l i n q u e n t home was found to be one of the major f a c t o r s i n causes of delinquency among c h i l d r e n . Cole found 7 7 per cent of malad-j u s t e d c h i l d r e n "came from homes i n which one or both parents were of low-grade m e n t a l i t y , i l l i t e r a t e , d i s e a s e d , or immoral. From the above data i t i s c l e a r t h a t d e l i n q u e n t s come from p o o r l y equipped homes i n which the parents are of low c a p a c i t y , i n f e r i o r economic s t a t u s and q u e s t i o n a b l e morals. (hi) "There are two f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these homes, however. In h a l f of those s t u d i e d the parents were separated - by death, d e s e r t i o n , d i v o r c e , or absence of one parent from c h r o n i c i l l n e s s or imprisonment .... In 70 per cent of the homes the d i s c i p l i n e was e i t h e r s a d l y l a c k i n g or quite unsound. The parents of d e l i n q u e n t s are e v i d e n t l y people who have l i t t l e c o n t r o l over them-s e l v e s and even l e s s over t h e i r c h i l d r e n . " While a l l these " s u b t l e r and more i n t a n g i b l e " (239>P»7) aspects of home r e l a t i o n s h i p s are extremely important, the e x t e r n a l s of economic s t a t u s and housing arrangements i n f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s are also f a c t o r s i n home adjustment. F i s h e r (77) made a study of 360 problem and 360 non-problem c h i l d r e n from grades I, I I I , V, VI, IX, and X I I . He found t h a t super-i o r economic s t a t u s of the home was more common to non-problem than to problem c h i l d r e n . Bursch ( l | l ) a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t of economic s t a t u s , r e p o r t i n g t h a t 90 per cent of f a m i l i e s which had maladjusted c h i l d r e n had inadequate or i r -r e g u l a r incomes - i . e . , l e s s than $800 per annum f o r two or more persons. He found t h a t there was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -ship between crowded l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s and maladjustment i n s c h o o l . He r e p o r t s that 86 per thousand maladjusted c h i l d r e n came from s i n g l e - f a m i l y homes compared to 153 per thousand from m u l t i p l e - f a m i l y homes. The area of p e r s o n a l i t y which i s of s p e c i a l concern t o educators i s , of course, adjustment to the s c h o o l . The study by Fenton and Wallace (76) to f i n d r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s of maladjustment found the number of recommendations made by the (U8) c l i n i c concerning e d u c a t i o n a l maladjustment was 2.65 per case. When these recommendations were c l a s s i f i e d , m o d i f i c a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n p l a c e d f i r s t i n frequency (1.31 per cas e ) , classroom management second (.61 per case) and p l a c e - . ment and progress third, (.ij.2 per c a s e ) . In these areas one can expect to f i n d some of the c a u s a l f a c t o r s of maladjust-ment to s c h o o l . In a study of 7,103 problems mentioned i n essays by high s c h o o l students, Pope (177) found t h a t kh per cent of a l l t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s concerned s t u d y - l e a r n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Only one quarter of the students were concerned about f u t u r e v o c a t i o n s , one t e n t h about p e r s o n a l adjustment and a s i m i l a r number about home-life r e l a t i o n s h i p s . G i r l s were s l i g h t l y more concerned than boys about t h e i r s t u d y - l e a r n i n g problems. When these s c h o o l problems were c l a s s i f i e d , i t was found that f i f t y per cent were due to r e l a t i o n s h i p s with teachers, to the amount of home study and to t e a c h e r s ' u n f a i r n e s s and s t e r n a t t i t u d e . What are the causes of these problems? Hattwick and St o w e l l (99) found that problems of p u p i l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i r s t grade, are i n f l u e n c e d to a l a r g e extent by f a c t o r s i n the home. However, the sch o o l system i t s e l f c o n t a i n s hazards to s a t i s f a c t o r y p e r s o n a l i t y development. Such handicaps to mental hygiene are l i s t e d by Ryan (189) and W i t t y (251). (k9) According to Ryan, the more serious obstacles to wholesome adjustment are: a) Rigidity of grades and promotions* b) Recitations of the mere re-recitation type and homework lacking i n real interest to the students; c) The traditional and out-moded reliance upon ex-aminations and marks* d) Discipline of the punitive type instead of var-ious forms of self-discipline. The hazards in the school program mentioned by Witty included: lack of opportunity for creative expression; r i g i d administra-tion including large classes, homogeneous grouping and depart-mentalization; unstable teachers; and too much subject matter with consequent failures. Worth (255,p..5i)-) reports that the school practices causing personality d i f f i c u l t i e s are: mis-placement and failure i n school; programs unsuited to a child's needs and a b i l i t i e s ; uniform lesson assignments; race-horse competition; report cards shoving relative position; blanket testing to determine efficiency of teachers i n passing stud-ents; and X,I,Z groupings. The effects of marks and examinations as factors i n personality adjustment have been reported by Ayer ( l l ; ) , Symonds (210) and Ryan (189)* Ayer states that there i s evi-dence of the essential value of marks to our educational system. "Experiments prove learners make the best progress when they are aware of the rate of their improvement." (SO) However, he urges that "marks themselves should be made more r e l i a b l e , more s p e c i f i c , and more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g . They should be used as checks and guides, r a t h e r than as rewards and punishments." Symonds claims t h a t , "as i n the case of scho o l marks^ the t r o u b l e seems to l i e not so much w i t h ex-aminations as the way i n which they are used." Examinations are causes of maladjustment when they are used as t h r e a t s f o r f a i l u r e or demotion, as speed f o r c e r s , or means of f o r c i n g students to study what i s not of any r e a l i n t e r e s t to the p u p i l . I t was adequately shown by the ext e n s i v e and l o n g -range r e s e a r c h of "The Eight-Year Study" (3) t h a t r i g i d i t y o f su b j e c t matter and formal examinations are not necessary to good a l l - r o u n d p u p i l development. The e f f e c t s of sch o o l a c c e l e r a t i o n upon p e r s o n a l i t y and s o c i a l adjustment are r e p o r t e d i n s t u d i e s by W i l k i n s (21*1+) and Engle (71). W i l k i n s found t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment i s p r obably not a p p r e c i a b l y a f f e c t e d by the s i n g l e f a c t o r of sc h o o l a c c e l e r a t i o n . Engle r e p o r t s there i s some i n d i c a t i o n , although not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , t h a t a c c e l e r a t e d p u p i l s are not so a c t i v e s o c i a l l y as t h e i r no n - a c c e l e r a t e d classmates. However, when compared w i t h students of t h e i r own c h r o n o l o g i c a l age, they are j u s t as a c t i v e s o c i a l l y . I t seems l o g i c a l to conclude from these s t u d i e s t h a t reasonable a c c e l e r a t i o n i s not a major cause of sch o o l maladjustment. In s t u d i e s by Boynton (38), G o l d r i c h (91), C a r r i n g t o n (1*8) and Wickman (21+0), one important cause of p u p i l mal-adjustment to sch o o l i s r e p o r t e d to be the teacher h e r s e l f . ( 5 D Boynton and others i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the mental h e a l t h of 73 teachers and the p u p i l w e l l - b e i n g of 1 ,195 students i n N a s h v i l l e . The study "seems to g i v e very d e f i n i t e , c l e a r - c u t evidence to the e f f e c t t h a t e m o t i o n a l l y unstable teachers tend to have a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them c h i l d r e n who tend toward i n s t a b i l i t y , whereas e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e teachers tend to be a s s o c i a t e d with more e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e p u p i l s . " C a r r i n g t o n p o i n t s out that a teacher needs good h e a l t h , a p l e a s a n t v o i c e , a t t r a c t i v e appearance, a sense of humour, f a i r n e s s and a p p r e c i a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . A s i m i l a r viewpoint i s expressed by G o l d r i c h . Not only the p e r s o n a l i t y of the teacher, but a l s o her methods are important to good mental hygiene i n the c l a s s . Wickman's study of c h i l d r e n ' s behaviour and t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s r e v e a l e d a t l e a s t two ways i n which teachers i n c r e a s e d d i f -f i c u l t i e s of adjustment and u n d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l behaviour. He found that t e a c h e r s o f t e n p r o t e c t the s o l i t a r y , dependent c h i l d and thereby encourage t h i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y type of ad-justment. On the other hand, the teacher very o f t e n punishes the a t t a c k i n g type of conduct. Since the punishment seems p e r s o n a l to the student, f u r t h e r a t t a c k i n g behaviour i s t h e r e -by s t i m u l a t e d . The comparative e f f e c t s of a u t o c r a t i c teacher l e a d e r s h i p and of f r i e n d l y and democratic l e a d e r s h i p were ex-amined by L i p p i t t (136, p. lij .7) by studying the amount of h o s t i -l i t y expressed i n the c h i l d r e n ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n . A u t o c r a t i c (52) c o n t r o l i n the classroom produced s i x t y times as many i n -stances of h o s t i l i t y as democratic c o n t r o l , •which g r e a t l y decreased r e s i s t a n c e , demands f o r a t t e n t i o n and h o s t i l e c r i t i c i s m . Hobson ( 1 0 2 ) , a f t e r g i v i n g a t e s t i n mental hygiene p r i n c i p l e s to 1 , 6 0 0 teachers, found that enough teachers showed a lack of knowledge of those p r i n c i p l e s to j u s t i f y s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g courses. The committee on " S o c i a l l y Handicapped" of the White House Conference on C h i l d Health and P r o t e c t i o n ( 2 3 8 ) , and. Tiegs and Katz ( 2 2 5 ,p.5 9 ) f e e l that truancy and other i n -f r a c t i o n s of r u l e s are n a t u r a l and expected i n d i c a t o r s of the school's f a i l u r e to meet the needs of the c h i l d . A c a r e f u l diagnosis of the school set-up may be necessary to determine the r e a l causes of truancy. The r o l e of emotional problems i n school adjustment has been studied by K a r l a n ( 1 1 9 ) . He found that emotional problems accounted f o r many of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n school', work, but that "guidance has improved the work of most of these students i n a d d i t i o n to helping i n the adjustment of t h e i r p e r s o n a l -i t i e s . " Of t h i r t y - o n e cases t r e a t e d f o r emotional maladjust-ment, 28 s u c c e s s f u l l y completed two terms of work i n one a f t e r having p r e v i o u s l y f a i l e d the same course. The f i n a l s e c t i o n of s o c i a l adjustment i n the C a l i f o r n i a  Test of P e r s o n a l i t y deals w i t h community r e l a t i o n s . I t i n -cludes the adolescent's adjustment to neighbours, strangers, (53) and foreigners, as well as attitudes to laws and regulations pertaining to the general welfare. Guidance courses of school curricula usually include a generous section on the study of the community. Generally these courses do not em-phasize the factors in the structure of the community which cause personality maladjustment. Tiegs and Katz (225,pp.21*9-67) devote a whole chapter to the influences of the community which, for good or i l l , play upon the development of youth. They (225,PP»37-9) found that the main p i t f a l l s of urban centres included: failure to provide schools for abnormal children, the lack of properly administered charity and r e l i e f , prejud-ice and dislikes, graft and corruption, broken laws, lack of proper sanitation and recreational f a c i l i t i e s as well as bad housing. Bursch (1*1,pp.320-3) points out that close crowding of homes into small areas and the close crowding of people in homes have been found to hinder personality adjustment. Cole (51*,pp. 1*59-81) places a different emphasis upon the community forces which cause youth to develop unsuitable pat-terns of behaviour. To her, the great cause of these danger-ous situations is the "general indifference of adults toward the safety of youth." Community factors which prove dangerous to youth include granting drivers' licences too early, per-mitting youth to obtain tobacco and liquor while too young, and allowing improper places of amusement such as the cheap dance hall, poolrooms, houses of prostitution and the li k e . (510 Cole feels that any community whose adults allow such forces to prosper unchecked i s only asking for adolescent moral col-lapse. Cole studied the effects of the movies on the adolescent group. She reports Peterson and Thurstone's (51i,P«l|68) re-search to determine the effect of movies on r a c i a l prejudice. They concluded that the pictures used in their study markedly increased prejudice, and that these attitudes persisted for several months - even becoming apparently permanent prejudices. In another study (5U,P» lj-68 ) which Cole describes, i t was found that movies had a bad influence on delinquents. On the other hand, Cole reports good effects of movies shown by other studies. She concluded that "motion pictures are neither ex-clusively bad nor exclusively good influences. It i s , in fact, probable that what adolescents get from the theatre i s mainly a crys t a l l i z a t i o n of points of view, desires, or attitudes already in existence." Age of Onset of Specific Forms of Maladjustment This study now turns from a survey of literature dealing with causes of maladjustment to a determination of the age of onset of specific forms of maladjustment, Tiegs and Katz ( 2 2 5 ,p.26) consider the c r i t i c a l periods of adjustment for an individual to be: early childhood, early school years, adoles-cence and leaving school, getting and holding a job, courtship and marriage, and homemaking. In other words, they portray (55) the whole l i f e h i s t o r y of an i n d i v i d u a l as a s e r i e s of p e r i o d s , each one of which may s u b j e c t the i n d i v i d u a l to e x t r a hazards. T h i s study w i l l d e a l p r i m a r i l y with the age of adolescence and the s p e c i f i c forms of maladjustment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s p e r i o d . The onset of puberty w i t h r e s u l t i n g p h y s i o l o g i c a l un-balance and the growth of secondary sex c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b r i n g many new adjustment problems to a d o l e s c e n t s . Cole (51*,P«36) presen t s the f i n d i n g s of s e v e r a l s t u d i e s which p l a c e the on-set of puberty at nine to ei g h t e e n years of age f o r g i r l s and twelve to ei g h t e e n f o r boys. W i t h i n t h i s wide range i n the age of r e a c h i n g m a t u r i t y , one may expect to f i n d the on-set of any of the many forms of maladjustment due to p h y s i o -l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . Owing to the f a c t t h a t g i r l s tend on the average to grow up or reach pubescence about two years e a r l i e r than boys, pro-blems of s o c i a l adjustment f o r g i r l s a r i s e i n the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l p e r i o d , where a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s are l i m i t e d to the com-pany of r e l a t i v e l y immature boys of t h e i r own c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. "Approximately two t h i r d s o f the g i r l s at any one time are i n the post-pubescent stage while an equal number of boys are s t i l l pre-pubescent i n a t t i t u d e s and behavi o r " (20l*,p.6l5). Strang r e p o r t e d a study by S t o l z et a l (201*) showing t h a t problems of s o c i a l adjustment come to the f o r e i n the e i g h t h grade and continue through the n i n t h and subsequent grades. (56) I t was shown, furthermore, t h a t d u r i n g the e i g h t h and. n i n t h grade a d o l e s c e n t s come i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h a d u l t s who o f t e n do not understand the ado l e s c e n t s 1 ways of t h i n k i n g and a c t i n g . Strang p o i n t s out t h a t problems of l o v e and. f r i e n d s h i p which may or may not cause problems of maladjust-ment, reach a peak i n frequency between s i x t e e n and twenty years of age. Mackenzie (lh3) i n the Forty-Third. Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Study of Education r e p o r t e d t h a t : "By the e i g h t h or n i n t h grade a str o n g s o c i a l i n -t e r e s t develops, i n many cases to the e x c l u s i o n of former concerns. For some boys and g i r l s , however, t h i s s o c i a l concern does not appear u n t i l l a t e r . By the time they reach the e l e v e n t h and t w e l f t h grade many a d o l e s c e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the g i r l s , w i l l have made more or l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment wi t h t h e i r age mates and w i l l r e c o g n i z e t h e i r need f o r s e v e r a l o f the school's o f f e r i n g s . Many w i l l have a strong i n t e r e s t i n themselves, t h e i r b e l i e f s , t h e i r purposes and t h e i r f u t u r e . Some w i l l become very much occupied w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s . A few w i l l a r r i v e at t h e i r h i g h e s t l e v e l of i n t e r e s t i n s e r i o u s study. A c o n s i d e r a b l e number of the boys may not a r r i v e at t h i s stage u n t i l the t h i r t -eenth or f o u r t e e n t h grade." Pope's study (177) found t h a t problems of s o c i a l adjustment became l e s s s e r i o u s as p u p i l s advanced through high s c h o o l . I t would appear from these s t u d i e s , then, t h a t the onset of problems of s o c i a l adjustment u s u a l l y appears i n e a r l y high school grades. Strang (20l*,p. 509 ) re p o r t e d some evidence which i n d i c a t e s that "under o r d i n a r y s c h o o l c o n d i t i o n s 'behavior problems' ( 5 7 ) reach a peak at about t h i r t e e n or f o u r t e e n years f o r boys and at f i f t e e n or s i x t e e n years i n the case of g i r l s . More problems are r e p o r t e d f o r boys than g i r l s , i n the r a t i o of about ten to s i x . " Strang found the behaviour problems l i s t -ed most f r e q u e n t l y to be: 1) Aggressive and a n t a g o n i s t i c behaviour, 2) Disobedience and d i s r e s p e c t , 3) D i f f i c u l t i e s i n s c h o o l "work, daydreaming, it) F a i l u r e to cooperate, 5) Truancy, l y i n g and s t e a l i n g , 6) Nervousness and hurt f e e l i n g s . In a study based on the a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s o f adolescent g i r l s , Rose (l87,p.l|6) found t h a t adolescence brought with i t many other problems of adjustment. He found that f e e l i n g s of u n c e r t a i n t y and i n s e c u r i t y became more pronounced, as d i d r e -a c t i o n s o f a g g r e s s i v e n e s s , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , withdrawal, worries about p h y s i c a l development and concern over s t r o n g "crushes." At t h i s time, a l s o , c o n f l i c t s w i t h parents • -develop as the adolescent s t r u g g l e s f o r emancipation. Pope (177tp,hk$) found t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , problems r e -q u i r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l guidance became of i n c r e a s i n g concern to p u p i l s as they advanced through s c h o o l . In the n i n t h grade, only f o u r t e e n per cent of the problems l i s t e d by the students themselves concerned education, but by t h e t w e l f t h grade, the percentage had i n c r e a s e d to 5>° per cent. This study a l s o r e -(58) v e a l e d t h a t problems of o c c u p a t i o n a l adjustment l i k e w i s e i n c r e a s e d i n importance as the students passed from the n i n t h to the t w e l f t h grade. On the one hand, Pope found t h a t problems i n co n n e c t i o n with home and f a m i l y were fewer i n grade twelve than those i n grade n i n e . On the other hand, another study ( 192) found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n adjustment to the home at these two grade l e v e l s . The age of onset of d e l i n q u e n t t e n d e n c i e s may be q u i t e e a r l y a c c ording to a study by W i l s o n (21*7,p. 5 8 8 ) . He claims t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n of problem c h i l d r e n can be p i c k e d out by r a t i n g s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n t e r v i e w s even i n the lower p u b l i c s c h o o l grades. Cole ( 5 U,p . 2 6 9 ) , i n a study of the h i s t o r y of one thousand j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s , found t h a t approximately 80 per cent of these cases gave evidence of d e l i n q u e n t behaviour i n the age span from seven to twelve y e a r s . A p p a r e n t l y the onset of d e l i n q u e n t maladjustment o f t e n begins p r i o r to grade n i n e . Two very i n t e r e s t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s to t h i s s e c t i o n , though not i n complete agreement, are presented by Cole (51i,P»32l) and S.chreiber. S c h r e i b e r i n h i s a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Measurement of Growth of Adjustment a f t e r Four Years, i n High School" ( 1 9 2 ,p.2 1 0 - 2 1 9 ) found that students made lower scores on an adjustment q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n 19l|.l than i n 1937 a f t e r f o u r years i n high s c h o o l . The author summarizes h i s f i n d i n g s : (59) "As a g e n e r a l o v e r - a l l view of the r e s u l t s of the study i t may be s a i d that the b e t t e r students be-gan high s c h o o l b e t t e r a d j u s t e d than the poorer students. But the b e t t e r students a f t e r f o u r years i n high school were not as w e l l a d j u s t e d as when they entered. The poorer students d i d not s t a r t high s c h o o l very w e l l a d j u s t e d , and at the end of the f o u r years t h e i r adjustment s i t u a t i o n d i d not change i n any way to any a p p r e c i a b l e de-gree, but appeared to be s t a t i c . Perhaps the bet-t e r students were more c r i t i c a l of t h e i r e n v i r o n -ment." Cole (5U-PP«321-2) summarizes her c o n c l u s i o n s as to the p e r -manence of t r a i t s of p e r s o n a l i t y i n these words: "As more and more r e s e a r c h i s done i t seems c l e a r t h a t not only d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i -t i e s remain f a i r l y s t a b l e d u r i n g the s c h o o l y e a r s , but a l s o d i f f e r e n c e s i n emotional and s o c i a l ad-justment. The over t b e h a v i o r , of course, a l t e r s , but the u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e s seem to become f i x e d very e a r l y i n l i f e . As one p s y c h i a t r i s t has s a i d , unusual i n d i v i d u a l s merely get to be more and more l i k e themselves as they grow o l d e r . " To emphasize her p o i n t , Cole goes on to say: "During c h i l d h o o d the t r a i t s shown at entrance to school develop as regards e x p r e s s i o n , but they r e -main r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e as regards fundamental a t -t i t u d e s . With the coming of adolescence there i s l i k e l y to be a change, o f t e n f o r the worse Both a c c e p t a b l e and i n a c c e p t a b l e t r a i t s are em-phasized by these new demands of e x i s t e n c e • D i f f i c u l t i e s of adjustment are u s u a l l y brought i n t o high r e l i e f d u r i n g adolescence." One t h i n g i s c l e a r from t h i s study of the age of onset of s p e c i f i c forms of maladjustment. Although some t r a i t s and a t t i t u d e s appear to remain f a i r l y constant throughout ch i l d h o o d , adolescence b r i n g s to the f o r e many new or newly-emphasized adjustments t h a t must be made by the i n d i v i d u a l . CHAPTER III THE INVESTIGATION Having reviewed the literature relative to the problem of pupil adjustment at different grade levels, i t . i s now necessary to outline the present study of personality ad-justment of students in grades eight, ten and twelve. The Measuring Instrument Before describing the California Test of Personality, several reasons for using i t w i l l be suggested. In the f i r s t place, i t has a f a i r l y simple marking system, arid requires only a short time to score. In the second place, this test claims to measure com-ponents which are li k e l y to be understood and noted by the average teacher. The two main divisions of the test deal with the student's adjustment to himself and to society. The teacher can observe the scores of each student in the areas of personal adjustment - his self-reliance, his sense of personal worth, his sense of personal freedom, his fee l -ing of belonging, his freedom from withdrawing tendencies and from nervous symptoms. The other major component, social adjustment, attempts to describe for the teacher the individual's adjustment in social standards and s k i l l s , his adjustment to his family, his school and community, and his freedom from anti-social tendencies. After careful ( 6 0 ) (61) study of these components, the t e s t appeared more s u i t a b l e than ever f o r the problem at hand s i n c e , i f r e l i a b l e and v a l i d , i t s r e s u l t s would pr o v i d e v a l u a b l e data i n many areas of p e r s o n a l i t y and would allow a b e t t e r and more d e t a i l e d comparison of the three grade l e v e l s . Another reason f o r s e l e c t i n g t h i s t e s t was that i t gives measures of adjustment to home and to s c h o o l , thus e l i m i n a t i n g the need f o r two t e s t s . A f u r t h e r advantage i s that the C a l i f o r n i a Test of  Personal i t y i s a v a i l a b l e i n an i n t e r m e d i a t e s e r i e s f o r grades e i g h t and t e n , and i n a s e n i o r s e r i e s f o r grade twelve. This permits a study of p u p i l adjustment over a wide grade range i n the same areas of p e r s o n a l i t y . The Manual of D i r e c t i o n s (f?3) d e s c r i b e s the t e s t and i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and a l s o gives remedial suggestions f o r maladjustment i n the v a r i o u s components measured. F i n a l l y , a c c o r d i n g to the Manual of D i r e c t i o n s , the r e l i a b i l i t y i s h i g h . The r e l i a b i l i t y which was determined by the s p l i t - h a l v e s method c o r r e c t e d by the Spearman-Brown formula i s r e p o r t e d to be .932 f o r the t o t a l s c o r e s , .898 f o r the s e l f adjustment s c o r e s , and .873 f o r s o c i a l a d j u s t -ment. The c o r r e l a t i o n between the s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l s e c t i o n s , . 7 U , i s s u f f i c i e n t l y low to emphasize the d e s i r -a b i l i t y of studying the student from the standpoint of both s e l f and s o c i a l adjustment. (62) The T e s t i n g Program I t was decided to t e s t students i n grades e i g h t , t en and twelve i n order to compare t h e i r adjustment s c o r e s . I t was exp ected t h a t g r a d e - l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e s would be more apparent than i f comparisons were made between p u p i l s i n s u c c e s s i v e grades. The Schools Tested Through the co o p e r a t i o n of the P r i n c i p a l and the C o u n s e l l o r s of K i t s i l a n o High School, Vancouver, B. C , i t was p o s s i b l e to use the t e s t i n t h e i r h i g h s c h o o l . A l l students i n the three grades were t e s t e d . The numbers of p u p i l s by grade and sex who completed the t e s t are shown i n Table I I . TABLE I I NUMBERS OF STUDENTS TESTED IN EACH GRADE Grade V I I I Grade X Grade XII T o t a l Boys 172 126 7U 372 G i r l s 155 125 68 31*8 T o t a l 327 251 l i * 2 7 20 (63) Comparison of This Sampling With the City as a Whole An attempt was made to determine whether the students tested were representative of high school students in general. The Director of the Bureau of Tests and Measurements assured the writer that the school tested was a fa i r sampling of the high school students of the city as a whole since i t enrol-led students from a cross-section of most economic levels in Vancouver. It was also assumed that the students were represent-ative in academic a b i l i t y . The median intelligence quo-tients of the grade levels tested were compared with the median intelligence quotients of Vancouver students at similar grade levels. The latter scores were supplied by the Bureau of Tests and Measurements of the Vancouver School Board. Table III shows the median I.Q.'s of the students tested and of a l l Vancouver students in the same grades. TABLE III MEDIAN INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS OF STUDENTS IN KITSILANO AND IN ALL VANCOUVER SCHOOLS Grade Median I.Q.'s for Kitsilano Median for City Boys Girls Total XII X VIII 1 0 9 . 3 1 0 8 . 5 1 0 7 . 3 1 1 3 . 9 1 0 9 . 9 1 1 0 . 8 112.7 1 0 9 . 6 1 0 9 . 0 111*.8 Not known 1 0 5 . 7 <6U) From Table I I I i t w i l l be seen t h a t the median f o r grade twelve of K i t s i l a n o was somewhat lower, and the median f o r grade e i g h t somewhat higher than the medians f o r c o r -responding grades i n a l l Vancouver s c h o o l s . Various i n t e l -l i g e n c e t e s t s had been used i n the t e s t i n g programs, and some students had had as many as four t e s t s , others o n l y one. A l l a v a i l a b l e r e s u l t s were used to determine the median f o r the c i t y . The w r i t e r was unable to f i n d any s i n g l e i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t t h a t had been common to a l l students of K i t s i l a n o . The average of the s e v e r a l I.Q.'s l i s t e d f o r an i n d i v i d u a l student was used as the best index of h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e . In other cases, where one score was that recorded on e n t e r i n g elementary s c h o o l and the other at high s c h o o l age, the l a t e r of the two I.Q.'s was used. For these reasons, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to evaluate the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s r e p o r t e d i n Table I I I . The w r i t e r gave the C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y to twenty-two c l a s s e s i n a l l - ten grade-eight c l a s s e s , e i g h t grade-ten c l a s s e s and four groups of grade-twelve s t u d e n t s . Since the w r i t e r had not p r e v i o u s l y had any experience w i t h the students, he f e l t t h a t a l i t t l e more e x p l a n a t i o n than the simple command of the Manual of D i r e c t i o n s to "Open the b o o k l e t " was needed to e s t a b l i s h r a p p o r t and to ensure maxi-mum e f f o r t and honesty. A f t e r the home-room teacher had i n t r o d u c e d the w r i t e r to the c l a s s , the f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n (65) was made before beginning the t e s t : "This i s not an examination or a test« I t i s merely a study by myself to find, out how students f e e l and t h i n k about a great many t h i n g s . Be a b s o l u t e l y f r a n k and honest i n answering these q u e s t i o n s . Your answers w i l l be seen o n l y by myself and not by your t e a c h e r s . " I f the students asked whether they c o u l d f i n d out t h e i r r e s u l t s , they were t o l d t h a t i f they asked t h e i r c o u n s e l -l o r , he or she would be able to give them the i n f o r m a t i o n on the f r o n t page, but t h a t no c o u n s e l l o r would have seen the i n d i v i d u a l answers to the q u e s t i o n s . Since the c l a s s p e r i o d was approximately f o r t y - f i v e minutes i n l e n g t h , i t was found t h a t there was s u f f i c i e n t time f o r the students to f i n i s h the t e s t . In o n l y two cases was i t necessary to allow e x t r a time. In a l l , 720 t e s t s were completed, scored and checked thoroughly f o r s c o r i n g e r r o r s . Comparison of Test R e s u l t s w i t h Ratings o f Teachers and C o u n s e l l o r s An attempt was made to determine the v a l i d i t y of the t e s t by comparing the t e s t scores w i t h the o p i n i o n s of the home-room teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s . Each home-room teacher was g i v e n a l e t t e r c o n s i s t i n g of three pages.^ The f i r s t page contained an e x p l a n a t i o n of the purpose of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The second sheet was r u l e d and typed as a blank on which the teacher was asked to l i s t those students of h i s c l a s s whom he c o n s i d e r e d to T See Appendix IA (66) be very w e l l a d j u s t e d and then those he judged to be p o o r l y a d j u s t e d . The t h i r d page was not to be read u n t i l the second one was completed. To safeguard t h i s requirement, the t h i r d page was f o l d e d i n two and pinned before being attached to the other sheets. On t h i s t h i r d page were the names of the students of that c l a s s who had ranked below the f i f t e e n t h p e r c e n t i l e i n t o t a l adjustment or the lower d e c i l e i n one or more component. In the next column the t e s t f i n d i n g was given f o r each name l i s t e d . Beside the t e s t s core, the teacher was asked to s t a t e whether or not he agreed w i t h t h i s f i n d i n g and, i f so, to i n d i c a t e h i s o p i n i o n of the causes of t h i s maladjustment. The c o u n s e l l o r s were a l s o given a questionnaire.•*" • They were asked to l i s t names of students whom they knew to be p o o r l y or w e l l a d j u s t e d . The use of the word "know" was u n f o r t u n a t e . Each c o u n s e l l o r i n communications w i t h the w r i t e r s a i d t h a t he was h e s i t a n t to s t a t e that he "knew" of the p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment of a student when i n r e a l i t y he was only g i v i n g h i s o p i n i o n . The r e s u l t s of the completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s from both the home-room teachers and the c o u n s e l l o r s were used to compute the Contingency C o e f f i c i e n t a p p l y i n g Yates' c o r -r e c t i o n . Since the teachers had merely been asked to name w e l l a d j u s t e d and p o o r l y a d j u s t e d s t u d e n t s , the 1 See Appendix IB ( 6 7 ) remainder of the students were l a b e l l e d as average i n c a l c u l a t i n g the index v a l u e s . The upper twenty per cent of the t e s t scores were considered as s u p e r i o r , the lower twenty per cent as i n f e r i o r and the c e n t r a l s i x t y per cent as average. Table IV shows the contingency c o e f f i c i e n t s between t e a c h e r s 1 and c o u n s e l l o r s 1 o p i n i o n s and t e s t r e s u l t s . In i each case, c o r r e c t i o n was made f o r the small number of cases. TABLE IV • CONTINGENCY COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN THE OPINIONS OF TEACHERS AND COUNSELLORS AND TEST RESULTS Grade Sex Cases Teachers 1 Contingency C o e f f i c i e n t Cases C o u n s e l l o r s • Contingency C o e f f i c i e n t XII G i r l s 60 .33 68 .21 XII Boys 70 .26 71* .17 X G i r l s 92 .29 1 2 5 . 1 6 X Boys 85 .1*2 126 .28 VIII G i r l s 121 .38 — C o u n s e l l o r absent VIII Boys Ikh .21* C o u n s e l l o r absent In each grade l e v e l , the q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r one of the c l a s s e s of K i t s i l a n o High School was not completed by the home-room teacher so t h a t the number or cases i s s m a l l e r i n each i n s t a n c e i n Table IV than the t o t a l number t e s t e d . (68) The unfortunate wording of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r the counsellors-*- probably accounts f o r the f a c t t h a t Table IV shows each C to be l e s s f o r c o u n s e l l o r s than f o r t e a c h e r s . The c o e f f i c i e n t s , ranging from . 1 6 to .1*2, are not i n d i c a -t i v e of high c o r r e l a t i o n between t e a c h e r s ' or c o u n s e l l o r s ' opinions and the t e s t r e s u l t s . The r e t u r n s of the t h i r d page of the teachers ' q u e s t i o n -p n a i r e were i n v e s t i g a t e d . Of the 223 cases on which teachers gave t h e i r o p i n i o n , the teachers d e f i n i t e l y agreed w i t h the t e s t f i n d i n g s i n 116 cases, were undecided or d i d not know i n 56 cases, and i n o n l y 51 were they of the opposite o p i n i o n . Twenty-seven of the 5 l students ranked low i n t o t a l s c ore, while the remaining 21* students ranked below the lower d e c i l e i n one or more component. Thus when the a t t e n t i o n of the teacher was c a l l e d to a student i n regard to s p e c i f i c areas of maladjustment, the teachers agreed w i t h t e s t f i n d i n g s i n 52 per cent of cases, d i d not know i n 25 per cent and d i s -agreed i n 23 per cent. The l i t e r a t u r e d i s c l o s e d t h a t i n gen e r a l teachers * o p i n i o n s had l i t t l e c o r r e l a t i o n with p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t r e s u l t s . 3 From t h i s study, i t i s b e l i e v e d that the c o e f f i c i e n t s shown i n Table IV i n d i c a t e as much v a l i d i t y f o r the C a l i f o r n i a Test  of P e r s o n a l i t y as has been found f o r p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and r a t i n g d evices when the t e s t scores are v a l i d a t e d by compar-i n g w i t h t e a c h e r s ' and c o u n s e l l o r s ' o p i n i o n s . 1 See Appendix IB 2 See Appendix IA 3 See chapter I I , pages 7-10 CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION OF TEST DATA Comparison of the Sexes W i t h i n Each Grade Before making a comparison of student p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment i n high s c h o o l , the w r i t e r s t u d i e d the r o l e of sex to determine whether the g i r l s and boys c o u l d be t r e a t e d as a s i n g l e group at each grade l e v e l . The w r i t e r compared the scores of the boys w i t h those of the g i r l s w i t h i n each grade t e s t e d - e i g h t , ten and twelve. Table V shows the comparison of the sexes i n grade e i g h t . (69) . (70) TABLE V. SEX DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS IN GRADE VIII Factor Boys Gir] L S D i f f . i n Means Ob C.R. Mean S.D. Mean S.D. SELF ADJUSTMENT 6 7 . 2 1 12.31* 65.17 10.86 2.01* 1.28 1.59 S e l f -R e l i a n c e 1 0 . 3 7 2 .51 9.53 2 . 6 0 .81* .28 2.98 Personal Worth 1 0 . 7 6 2 . 6 9 1 1 . 1 3 2 .79 -.37 . 3 0 - 1 . 2 Personal Freedom 1 2 . 5 2 2.65 1 2 . 6 9 2.1*3 -.17 .28 - . 5 0 F e e l i n g of Belonging 12.95 2.53 1 2 . 2 9 2.91* .63 .31 2.07 Withdrawing Tendencies 1 0 . 7 9 2.85 1 0 . 6 0 2 .79 .19 .31 .61 Nervous Symptoms 1 2 . 0 0 2.56 11 .12 2.61* .88 . 2 9 3 . 0 5 SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT 66.1*5 i i - U l * 6 9 . 1*5 1 0 . 1 2 - 3 . 0 0 1.19 - 2 . 5 0 S o c i a l Standards 13.20 1 . 9 U . 13.53 1.69 -.33 .20 -1.65 S o c i a l S k i l l s . 10.61* 3 . 2 5 11.51* 2 . 2 3 -.90 .31 -2.95 A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies 1 0 . 1 0 3 . 1 5 11.U3 2.57 - 1 . 3 3 .32 -1*.20 Family R e l a t i o n s 1 2 . 5 2 2.88 11.98 3.12 .51* . 3 3 1.61* School R e l a t i o n s 10.58 2.79 10.69 2.67 - . 1 1 . 3 0 -.37 Community R e l a t i o n s 1 1 . 9 0 2.81* 12.56 2.1*1* - . 6 6 . 2 9 -2.26 TOTAL ADJUSTMENT 132.90 2 0 . 7 1 133.90 19.87 - 1 . 0 2 . 2 5 -.1*0 (71) The data of Table V i n d i c a t e t h a t there are very few-sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n grade e i g h t . Boys tend to have higher scores i n freedom from nervous symptoms and i n s e l f - r e l i a n c e . G i r l s score higher i n freedom from a n t i - s o c i a l tendencies and s o c i a l s k i l l s . With these e x c e p t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , the grade-eight c l a s s can be t r e a t e d as a s i n g l e group. Table VI shows the scores made by boys and g i r l s i n grade t e n . (72) TABLE VI SEX DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS IN GRADE X Factor Boys Gir] Ls D i f f . i n Means °5 C.R. Mean S.D. Mean S.D. SELF ADJUSTMENT 6 9 . 9 2 11.71* 7 0 . 2 8 9 . 5 1 - . 3 6 1 . 3 5 - . 2 7 S e l f -R e l i a n c e 1 0 . 8 6 2 . 3 3 1 0 . 3 0 2 . 17 .56 .28 2 . 0 0 Personal Worth 1 0 . 5 2 2.1*6 1 2 . 5 U 2 . 0 6 •r-2.02 .29 - 7 . 0 6 Personal Freedom 1 3 . 5 6 2 . 2 3 1 3 . 1 8 2.1*9 .38 . 3 0 1 . 26 F e e l i n g of Belonging 12.1*8 2 . 9 1 1 3 . 3 5 2 . 1 0 - . 8 7 . 32 - 2 . 7 2 Withdrawing Tendencies 12.2k 2.51; 11 .71; 2.k9 . 5 0 . 3 2 1 . 58 Nervous . Symptoms 1 2 . 2 3 2 .57 11 . 53 2 . 3 3 . 70 .31 2 . 26 SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT 6 8 . 8 1 1 0 . 5 3 7 1 . 8 8 9 . 8 3 - 3 . 0 7 1 . 29 - 2 . 3 9 S o c i a l Standards 1 2 . 8 1 2 . 2 0 1 3 . 8 6 1 . 5 5 - 1 . 0 5 .21* - 5 . 6 0 S o c i a l S k i l l s 1 1 . 0 2 2.51; 1 1 . 81 2 . 0 0 - . 7 9 . 2 9 -2.81* A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies 1 1 . 3 2 2 .81; 1 2 . 1 2 2.1*6 - . 8 0 .31; - 2 . 3 9 Family R e l a t i o n s , 1 2 . 7 5 2 .81; . 1 2 . 0 6 3 . 2 5 . 69 .39 1 . 7 9 School R e l a t i o n s 1 1 . 2 9 2 . 5 3 11 .37 2 .36 - . 0 8 . 3 1 - . 2 6 Community R e l a t i o n s 1 2 . 03 2 . 78 12.1*6 2.1*7 -.1*3 .33 - 1 . 3 0 TOTAL ADJUSTMENT 1 3 8 . 2 5 1 9 . 6 3 11*1.08 1 7 . 3 - 2 . 8 3 2.31* -1 . 21 (73) I t may be seen from Table VI t h a t o n l y two d i f f e r e n c e s are s i g n i f i c a n t . G i r l s tend to have b e t t e r adjustment i n sense of p e r s o n a l worth, s o c i a l standards, s o c i a l s k i l l s and f e e l i n g of b e l o n g i n g . S e v e r a l other c r i t i c a l r a t i o s are between 2 . 0 0 and 2 . 5 0 . Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n grade twelve are shown i n Table V I I . (710 TABLE VII SEX DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS IN GRADE XII 1 Boys G i r l s D i f f . i n ° b Factor Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Means C.R. SELF ADJUSTMENT 72.16 9 . 0 9 71*.86 9 . 0 0 - 2 . 7 0 1 .52 - 1 . 7 8 S e l f -R e l i a n c e 1 0 . 7 3 2.19 1 0 . 7 6 2.29 - . 0 3 . 3 8 - . 0 8 P e r s o n a l Worth 12.1*0 2 . 3 2 1 3 . 1 5 1 . 8 3 - . 7 5 . 3 5 - 2 . 1 5 Personal Freedom 1 3 . 3 8 1 .82 1 3 . 2 9 2.15 . 0 9 .31* . 2 6 F e e l i n g of Belonging 13.31* 1 .83 1 3 . 5 0 1.92 - . 1 6 . 3 2 - . 5 0 Withdrawing Tendencies 1 1 . 3 8 2.82 1 2 . 2 6 2.17 - . 8 8 .1*2 - 2 . 0 9 Nervous Symptoms 1 0 . 6 0 2.63 1 1 . 3 2 2.82 - . 7 2 .1*6 -1 .57 SOCIAL . ADJUSTMENT 69 . 3 2 9.1*6 7 1 . 9 1 9.28 - 2 . 5 9 1 .53 - 1 . 6 9 S o c i a l Standards 13.1*1 1 . 9 7 11*.1*7 1 . 0 6 - 1 . 0 6 .26 - l * . 0 l * So c i a l S k i l l s 11.1*1 2. 21 12.18 2 . 2 0 - . 7 7 .37 - 2 . 0 8 A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies 12.73. 2 . 0 1 1 3 . 2 6 1.72 - . 5 3 . 3 1 - 1 . 6 9 Family R e l a t i o n s 1 2 . 3 2 2 . 6 6 1 2.26 3.16 . 0 6 .1*9 . 12 School R e l a t i o n s 12.1*3 1.90 1 2 . 1 2 1.80 . 3 1 . 3 1 1 . 0 0 Community R e l a t i o n s 1 2 . 0 5 2 . 6 1 1 1 . 8 5 2 . 0 1 . 2 0 . 3 9 .51 TOTAL ADJUSTMENT 11*1.08 1 6 . 1 0 11*6.15 1 5 . 3 0 - 5 . 0 7 2.61* - 1 . 9 2 ( 7 5 ) From Table VII, i t i s apparent t h a t the sex d i f f e r e n c e s are even smaller i n grade twelve than i n the other two grade l e v e l s . In only one component, s o c i a l standards, i s .the grade twelve d i f f e r e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t , g i r l s having the higher scores. Are boys d i f f e r e n t from g i r l s i n the three grades t e s t e d ? The answer, br o a d l y , i s "No." In not one of the t o t a l or s u b - t o t a l scores at any of the three grade l e v e l s i s the d i f f e r e n c e noteworthy. In only f i v e >out of t h i r t y - s i x component-comparisons are the values of the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s over 3 . 0 0 . Comparison of the P e r s o n a l i t y Development of Boys and G i r l s  Considered S e p a r a t e l y Before the d i f f e r e n c e s i n adjustment scores between the grade l e v e l s can be d e a l t w i t h , the q u e s t i o n of the r a t e of progress of each separate sex must be i n v e s t i g a t e d . The p e r s o n a l i t y changes of the boys and g i r l s through t h e i r h i g h s c h o o l years can be seen r e a d i l y from graphs of the p r o f i l e s f o r each grade l e v e l . These p r o f i l e s are p l o t t e d on c h a r t s s i m i l a r to those s u p p l i e d with the C a l i f o r n i a Test of  P e r s o n a l i t y , using the p e r c e n t i l e norms of the manual of d i r e c t i o n s ( 5 3 - P » 1 6 ) . The norms used f o r grades e i g h t and ten are those s u p p l i e d f o r the .intermediate s e r i e s of the t e s t used, and f o r grade twelve, those of the s e n i o r s e r i e s . (76) Graph I shows the p r o f i l e s o b t a i n e d f o r the g i r l s at the three grade l e v e l s u s i n g the p e r c e n t i l e s of the mean scores from Tables V, VI and V I I . Graph I I shows p r o f i l e s computed i n a s i m i l a r manner f o r the boys. (77) GRAPH I COMPARISON OF THE MEAN PROFILES OF THE GIRLS AT VARYING GRADE LEVELS COMPONENTS Self Adjustment A. Self-reliance B. Sense of personal worth C. Sense of personal freedom D. Feeling of belong-ing E. Withdrawing Tend-encies F. Nervous Symptoms Social Adjustment A. Social Standards B. Social S k i l l s C. Anti-social Tendencies D. Family Relations E. School Relations F. Community Relat-ions TOTAL ADJUSTMENT 5 2 2 2LU-9° loo (78) GRAPH I I COMPARISON OF THE MEAN PROFILES OF THE BOYS AT VARYING GRADE LEVELS COMPONENTS Self Adjustment A. Self-reliance B. Sense of personal worth C. Sense of personal freedom D. Feeling of belong-ing E. Withdrawing Tend-encies F. Nervous Symptoms Social Adjustment A. Social Standards B. Social S k i l l s C. Anti-social Tendencies D. Family Relations E. School Relations F. Community Relat-ions TOTAL ADJUSTMENT _PERCENIILE *y<Tf .*_ <u / • » • J o I f.c> $t> | C O 7 0 S O 100 ? 8 fTo fo 100 (79) From Graph I i t may be seen t h a t , on the whole, g i r l s 1 adjustment scores tend to improve from grade e i g h t to grade twelve, with c e r t a i n exceptions, namely: (a) sense of p e r s o n a l freedom; (b) t o t a l s o c i a l adjustment; (c) s o c i a l s k i l l s ; (d) community r e l a t i o n s . A study of Graph I I r e v e a l s that there i s some tendency f o r mean p e r c e n t i l e s of the boys to vary e r r a t i c a l l y from one grade to another. The v a r i a t i o n s are summarized b r i e f l y i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a r t : Steady Improvement L i t t l e Change Regressions 1) S e l f Adjustment 2) S e l f - r e l i a n c e 3) A n t i - s o c i a l Tend-e n c i e s k) School R e l a t i o n s 5) T o t a l Adjustment 1) S o c i a l Adjustment 1) Sense of p e r -sona l worth 2) Nervous Symptoms 2) Sense of per-sona l freedom 3) Family R e l a t i o n s 3) F e e l i n g of be-l o n g i n g k) Community R e l a t i o n s k) Withdrawing tendencies 5) S o c i a l Stand-ards 6) S o c i a l S k i l l s The graphs make i t apparent t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s between the grade l e v e l s need to be s t u d i e d to f i n d which ones are s i g n i f i c a n t . However, s i n c e the secondary s e r i e s of the C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y was used i n grade twelve, w h i l e the i n t e r m e d i a t e s e r i e s was used i n both grades e i g h t and ten, (80) i t i s not p o s s i b l e to compare the raw scores of the d i f f e r e n t s e r i e s . T h e r e f o r e , f o r the comparisons o f grades e i g h t and twelve and grades t e n and twelve, the raw scores were changed to p e r c e n t i l e e q u i v a l e n t s and the p e r c e n t i l e d i f f e r e n c e s s t u d i e d . Only the d i f f e r e n c e s between grades e i g h t and ten are considered from the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s of mean raw-score d i f f e r e n c e s . Table VIII shows the comparison of the grade-eight and grade-twelve g i r l s u s i n g p e r c e n t i l e v a l u e s . ( 8 1 ) TABLE VIII GRADE-LEVEL DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS FOR GIRLS IN GRADES VIII AND XII Factor Mean Scores P e r c e n t i l e " Equiv- ~ a l e n t s D i f f . i n Percent-i l e s Gr.VIII Gr.XII Gr.VIII Gr.XII SELF ADJUSTMENT 6 5 . 1 7 7 l * . 8 6 30 69 39 S e l f -R e l i a n c e 9 . 5 3 1 0 . 7 6 3 6 65 3 2 Personal Worth 1 1 . 1 3 1 3 . 1 5 1*1 67 26 Personal Freedom 1 2 . 6 9 1 3 . 2 9 1*5 52 7 F e e l i n g of Belonging 1 2 . 2 9 1 3 . 5 0 31* 58 21* Wi thdrawing Tendencies 1 0 . 6 0 1 2.26 36 51* 18 Nervous Symptoms 1 1 . 1 2 1 1 . 3 2 37 58 21 SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT 7 1 . 9 1 37 1*0 3 S o c i a l Standards 1 3 . 5 3 11*. 1*7 58 79 21 S o c i a l S k i l l s 11.51* 1 2 . 1 8 58 59 1 A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies 11.1*3 1 3 . 2 6 1*1* 75 31 Family R e l a t i o n s 1 1 . 9 8 1 2 . 2 6 1*0 1*9 9 School R e l a t i o n s 1 0 . 6 9 1 2 . 1 2 1*7 62 1 5 Community R e l a t i o n s 1 2 . 5 6 1 1 . 8 5 56 .1*8 - 8 TOTAL ADJUSTMENT 1 3 3 . 9 0 11*6.15 3 5 55 20 , (82) Since the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s were not determined f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s between the p e r c e n t i l e e q u i v a l e n t s , the w r i t e r has a r b i t r a r i l y c o n s i d e r e d a p e r c e n t i l e d i f f e r e n c e of 10 or more to i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . As a b a s i s f o r t h i s c h o i c e , the w r i t e r compared the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s of the mean raw scores of each t e s t f a c t o r f o r the boys and g i r l s of grades e i g h t and ten (where the i n t e r m e d i a t e s e r i e s was used f o r both grades) w i t h the r e s p e c t i v e p e r c e n t i l e d i f f e r -ence f o r the same f a c t o r . In no i n s t a n c e d i d a p e r c e n t i l e d i f f e r e n c e of l e s s than 10 have a raw-score c r i t i c a l r a t i o as great as 2.99 (see Tables X, XI and XIV). From Table V I I I , i t may be seen t h a t t h e r e i s a d i s -t i n c t tendency f o r grade-twelve g i r l s to have higher scores than do those i n grade e i g h t , although the d i f f e r e n c e i s very sma l l i n t o t a l s o c i a l adjustment and s o c i a l s k i l l s , and a c t u a l l y r e v e r s e d i n community r e l a t i o n s . A s i m i l a r study of the p e r c e n t i l e d i f f e r e n c e s of the grade-eight and grade-twelve boys i s shown i n Table IX. (83) TABLE IX GRADE-LEVEL DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS FOR BOYS IN GRADES VIII AND XII Factor Mean Scores P e r c e n t i l e Equiv- D i f f . i n Percent-i l e s Gr.VIII Gr. XII Gr.VIII Gr. XII SELF ADJUSTMENT 67.21 72.16 35 56 21 S e l f -R e l i a n c e 10.37 10.73 52 67 15 Personal Worth 10.76 12.1*0 38 56 18 Personal Freedom 12.52 13.38 1*3 55 12 F e e l i n g of Belonging 12.95 13.31* 1*1* 51* 10 Withdrawing Tendencies 10.79 11.38 38 1*1 3 Nervous Symptoms 12.00 10.60 50 51 1 SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT 66.1+5 69.32 30 35 ' 5 So c i a l Standards 13.20 13.1*1 50 55 5 S o c i a l S k i l l s 10.61* 11.1*1 1*5 1*6 l A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies 10.10 12.73 31 65 31+ Family R e l a t i o n s 12.52 12.32 1*5 50 5 School R e l a t i o n s 10.58 12.1*3 1*6 66 20 Community R e l a t i o n s 11.90 12.05 1*9 51 2 TOTAL ADJUSTMENT 132.90 11*1.08 30 1*5 15 (810 Large d i f f e r e n c e s between the scores of boys i n grades e i g h t and twelve are not as numerous as were found f o r the g i r l s of these grades. Seven of the d i f f e r e n c e s are indeed very s m a l l , being 5 or fewer p e r c e n t i l e p o i n t s . The c a t e g o r -i e s having p e r c e n t i l e d i f f e r e n c e s of 10 or more may be d e t e r -mined by i n s p e c t i o n of Table IX. There appear to be numerous s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s which i n d i c a t e p e r s o n a l i t y changes over the f o u r - y e a r p e r i o d from grade e i g h t to twelve. The study, t h e r e f o r e , proceeds to determine the d i f f e r e n c e s when the span i s o n l y two y e a r s . Since the i n t e r m e d i a t e s e r i e s of the t e s t was used i n both grades e i g h t and ten, i t i s p o s s i b l e to compare the mean raw scores of these l e v e l s . The standard d e v i a t i o n s and c r i t i c a l r a t i o s are shown i n Table X f o r the g i r l s i n these grades. ( 8 5 ) TABLE X GRADE-LEVEL DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS FOR GIRLS IN GRADES VIII AND X Gr.VIII. G i r l s Gr.X . G i r l s D i f f . i n °D Factor Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Means C.R. SELF ADJUSTMENT 65.17 1 0 . 8 6 70.28 9 . 5 1 5 . H 1 . 2 2 1*.19 S e l f -R e l i a n c e 9 . 5 3 2 . 6 0 1 0 . 3 0 2 . 1 7 . 7 7 . 2 9 2 . 7 0 Personal Worth 1 1 . 1 3 2 . 7 9 12.51* 2 . 0 6 1.1*1 . 2 9 1*.86 Personal Freedom 1 2 . 6 9 2.1*3 13.18 2.1*9 .19 . 3 0 1 . 6 3 F e e l i n g of Belonging 1 2 . 2 9 2.91* 1 3 . 3 5 2 . 1 0 1 . 0 6 . 3 0 3 . 5 1 Withdrawing Tendencies 1 0 . 6 0 2 . 7 9 11.71* 2.1*9 l . l l * . 3 2 3 . 6 1 Nervous Symptoms 1 1 . 1 2 2.61* 1 1 . 5 3 2 . 3 3 .1*1 . 3 0 1 . 3 8 SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT 69.1*5 1 0 . 1 2 7 1 . 8 8 9 . 8 3 2.1*3 1 . 2 0 2 . 0 3 S o c i a l Stan dards 1 3 . 5 3 1 . 6 9 1 3 . 8 6 1 . 5 5 . 3 3 . 1 9 1 . 7 0 S o c i a l S k i l l s 11.51* 2 . 2 3 11.81 2 . 0 0 .27 . 2 5 1 . 0 7 A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies 11.1*3 2 . 5 7 1 2 . 1 2 2.1*6 . 6 9 . 3 0 2 . 2 8 Family R e l a t i o n s 1 1 . 9 8 3 . 1 2 1 2 . 0 6 3 . 2 5 .08 . 3 8 . 2 1 School R e l a t i o n s 1 0 . 6 9 2 . 6 7 1 1 . 3 7 2 . 3 6 . 6 8 . 3 0 2 . 2 7 Community R e l a t i o n s 1 2 . 5 6 2.1*1* 12.1*6 2.1*7 - . 1 0 . 3 0 - . 3 3 TOTAL ADJUSTMENT . 1 3 3 . 9 0 1 9 . 8 7 11*1.08 1 7 . 3 0 7 . 1 8 2 . 2 2 3 . 2 3 (86) Table X r e v e a l s t h a t grade-ten g i r l s tend to have higher adjustment scores than do gra d e - e i g h t g i r l s . F i v e of the d i f f e r e n c e s are h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , being more than three times t h e i r standard e r r o r s . In f o u r cases, the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s exceed two. The remaining s i x d i f f e r e n c e s are small, and a l l but one i n favour of the g i r l s i n the higher grade. The boys of grades e i g h t and ten are compared next. Table XI shows t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e s t components. (87) TABLE XI GRADE-LEVEL DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS FOR BOYS IN GRADES VIII AND X Factor Gr.VIII. Boys Gr. X ". Boys D i f f . i n Means °D C.R. Mean S.D. Mean S.D. SELF ADJUSTMENT 67.21 12.31+ 69.92 11.71+ 2.71 1.1*1 1.92 S e l f -R e l i a n c e 10.37 2 . 5 1 10.86 2.33 .1+9 .28 1.71+ Personal Worth 10.76 2.69 10 . 5 2 2.1*6 -.21* . 3 0 -.80 Personal Freedom 12 . 5 2 2.65 13.56 2 . 2 3 1.01+ .28 3.67 F e e l i n g of Belonging 12.95 2.53 12.1*8 2.91 -.1*7 . 3 2 -1.1+6 Withdrawing Tendencies 10.79 2.85 12.21+ 2.51+ 1./-+5 .31 1+.62 Nervous Symptoms 12.00 2.56 12 . 2 3 2.57 . 2 3 . 3 0 .76 SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT 66.1+5 11.1+1+ 68.81 10.53 2 . 3 6 1.28 1.81+ S o c i a l Standards 13.20 1.91+ 12.81 2.20 -.39 . 2 5 -1.59 S o c i a l S k i l l s 10.61+ 3 . 2 5 11.02 2.51+ .38 .31+ 1.12 A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies 10.10 3 . 1 5 . 11 . 3 2 2.81+ 1.22 . 2 5 1+.82 Family R e l a t i o n s 12 . 5 2 2.88 12.75 2.81+ . 2 3 .31+ .69 School R e l a t i o n s 10.58 2.79 11.29 2.53 .71 .31 2.29 Community R e l a t i o n s 11.90 2.81+ 12 . 0 3 2.78 . 1 3 .33 .39 TOTAL ADJUSTMENT 132.90 20.71 138 . 2 5 19 . 6 3 5.35 2 . 3 6 2.27 (88) When the d i f f e r e n c e s between the g i r l s ' scores i n grades e i g h t and t e n are compared w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e s between the boys' scores of the same grades, c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i s found. In onl y one component i s the d i f f e r -ence both s i m i l a r and s i g n i f i c a n t f o r each sex, namely, freedom from withdrawing t e n d e n c i e s . In the case of the boys, only three d i f f e r e n c e s are s i g n i f i c a n t , and only two other d i f f e r e n c e s exceed twice t h e i r standard e r r o r s . A l l the remaining ten d i f f e r e n c e s are s m a l l and three of them are i n favour of the grade-eight boys. There remains a comparison of the g i r l s of grades ten and twelve, and of the boys of these same grades. The g i r l s are compared i n Table X I I . (89) TABLE XII GRADE-LEVEL DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS FOR GIRLS IN GRADES X AND XII Mean Scores P e r c e n t i l e Equiv-a l e n t s D i f f . i n Percent-Factor Grade 2 Gr. XII Gr. X Gr. XII i l e s SELF ADJUSTMENT 70.28 7U.86 1*1 69 28 S e l f -R e l i a n c e 1 0 . 3 0 1 0 . 7 6 51 68 17 Personal Worth 12.51* 13 . 1 5 6 1 67 6 Personal Freedom 13.18 1 3 . 2 9 51; 52 - 2 F e e l i n g of Belonging 1 3 . 3 5 1 3 . 5 0 52 58 6 Withdrawing Tendencies 11.71* 1 2 . 2 6 1*7 51* 7 Nervous Symptoms 1 1 . 5 3 1 1 . 3 2 1*3 58 1 5 SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT 71.88 7 1 . 9 1 1*5 1*0 - 5 S o c i a l Standards 13.86 ll*..l*7 67 79 12 S o c i a l S k i l l s 1 1 . 8 1 1 2 . 1 8 6 2 59 - 3 A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies 1 2 . 1 2 1 3 . 2 6 52 7 5 23 Family R e l a t i o n s 12.06 1 2 . 2 6 1*1 1*9 8 School R e l a t i o n s 11.37 1 2 . 1 2 '51* 62 8 Community R e l a t i o n s 12.1*6 1 1 . 8 5 55 1*8 - 7 TOTAL ADJUSTMENT 11*1.08 11*6.15 1*5 55 10 (90) The data of Table XII reveal" t h a t no c o n s i s t e n t i n -crease i n t e s t scores i s made by g i r l s i n grade twelve over grade t en. Only s i x d i f f e r e n c e s exceed nine p e r c e n t -i l e p o i n t s . F i v e d i f f e r e n c e s are small but i n favour of the grade-twelve g i r l s , while f o u r small d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e s u p e r i o r adjustment among grade-ten g i r l s ; . A s i m i l a r comparison of the boys at these two grade l e v e l s i s made, . Table X I I I shows t h e i r mean scores,, p er-c e n t i l e e q u i v a l e n t s and d i f f e r e n c e s between p e r c e n t i l e s i n the t e s t components. ( 9 1 ) TABLE X I I I GRADE-LEVEL DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS FOR BOYS IN GRADES X AND XII Factor Mean Scores P e r c e n t i l e Equiv-a l e n t s D i f f . i n , Percent-i l e s Gr. X Gr. XII Gr. X Gr.XII SELF ADJUSTMENT 69.92 7 2 . 1 6 1*0 • 56 1 6 S e l f -R e l i a n c e 1 0 . 8 6 1 0 . 7 3 6 2 67 5 Personal Worth 1 0 . 5 2 12.1*0 3 5 56 . 21 Personal Freedom 1 3 . 5 6 1 3 . 3 8 61 55 - 6 F e e l i n g of Belonging 12.1+8 1 3 . 3 k 37 Sk ! 7 Withdrawing Tendencies 12.21+ 1 1 . 3 8 51+ l+i - 1 3 Nervous Symptoms 1 2 . 2 3 1 0 . 6 0 53 5 i - 2 SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT 6 8 . 8 1 6 9 . 3 2 3 5 3 5 0 S o c i a l Standards 1 2 . 8 1 1 3 . Ill • 1+2 55 13 S o c i a l S k i l l s 1 1 . 0 2 11.1*1 . 50 1+6 - 1+ A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies 1 1 . 3 2 1 2 . 7 3 1+3 6 5 22 Family R e l a t i o n s 1 2 . 7 5 1 2 . 3 2 kQ 50 2 School R e l a t i o n s 1 1 . 2 9 12.1*3 53 66 13 Community R e l a t i o n s 1 2 . 0 3 1 2 . 0 5 50 51 1 TOTAL ADJUSTMENT 1 3 8 . 2 5 11*1.08 l+o 1+5 5 (92) From Table X I I I , i t may be seen t h a t the i n c r e a s e s i n t e s t scores of the boys are more i n c o n s i s t e n t than those of the g i r l s . Compared wi t h grade-ten boys, the se n i o r boys have s i x s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher p e r c e n t i l e e q u i v a l e n t s , f o u r s l i g h t l y h igher, and one equal - t h a t of s o c i a l adjustment. Three sm a l l d i f f e r e n c e s are i n favour of the grade-ten boys, while i n freedom from withdrawing tendencies the d i f f e r e n c e i s 13 p e r c e n t i l e p o i n t s higher f o r grade-ten boys. A summary of the r e s u l t s of Tables V I I I to X I I I i s given i n Table XIV. ( 9 3 ) TABLE XIV PERCENTILE DIFFERENCES FOR THE GRADE-LEVEL COMPARISONS FOR EACH SEX Component Boys G i r l s Gr.XII & VIII Gr. X & VIII Gr.XII & X Gr.XII & VIII Gr. X & VIII Gr.XII §c X SELF ADJUSTMENT 21 5 1 6 39 1 1 28 S e l f -R e l i a n c e 1 5 1 0 5 32 1 5 17 Personal Worth 18 - 3 21 26 20 6 P e r s o n a l Freedom 1 2 18 - 6 7 9 - 2 F e e l i n g of Belonging 1 0 - 7 17 2k 18 6 Withdrawing Tendencies 3 16' - 1 3 18 1 1 7 Nervous Symptoms 1 3 - 2 21 6 1 5 SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT 5 5 0 3 8 - 5 S o c i a l Standards 5 - 8 13 21 9 1 2 S o c i a l S k i l l s l 5 -k 1 1* - 3 A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies 3k 12 22 31 8 23 Family R e l a t i o n s 5 3 2 9 1 8 School R e l a t i o n s 20 7 1 3 1 5 7 8 Community R e l a t i o n s 2 1 1 - 8 - 1 - 7 TOTAL ADJUSTMENT 1 5 1 0 5 20 1 0 10 (9k) C e r t a i n p o i n t s are worth n o t i n g : (1) For both sexes, t o t a l adjustment and s e l f - a d j u s t -ment scores tend to be higher i n the l a t e r grades; (2) Higher scores i n the l a t e r grades tend to occur i n s e l f - r e l i a n c e , p e r s o n a l worth, f e e l i n g of belong-i n g , a n t i - s o c i a l tendencies and sc h o o l r e l a t i o n s ; (3) There i s l i t t l e change i n s o c i a l adjustment scores; (k) Rather minor changes tend to occur i n s o c i a l s k i l l s , f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s and community r e l a t i o n s ; (5) I r r e g u l a r development i s found i n p e r s o n a l freedom, withdrawing tendencies and s o c i a l standards; (6) Scores of the g i r l s tend to i n c r e a s e and those of the boys to remain s t a t i o n a r y i n nervous symptoms; (7) The onl y s i g n i f i c a n t negative d i f f e r e n c e occurs be-tween the boys of grades twelve and t e n i n w i t h -drawing tendencies* Evidences of Grade-Level D i f f e r e n c e s i n P e r s o n a l i t y Components This study now presents the evidence of d i f f e r e n c e s be-tween the grade l e v e l s when the sexes are combined. To get a g e n e r a l p i c t u r e of p e r s o n a l i t y development from grade to grade a c c o r d i n g to the measurement of the C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y , the mean p r o f i l e s f o r the three l e v e l s are p l o t t e d i n Graph I I I , using the a p p r o p r i a t e p e r c e n t i l e norms f o r each grade. (95) GRAPH I I I COMPARISON OF THE MEAN PROFILES OF THE GRADE LEVELS COMPONENTS Self Adjustment A. Self-reliance B. Sense of personal worth C. Sense of personal freedom D. Feeling of belong-ing E. Withdrawing Tend-encies F. Nervous Symptoms Social Adjustment A. Social Standards B. Social S k i l l s C. Anti-social Tendencies, D. Family Relations E. School Relations F. Community Relat-ions TOTAL ADJUSTMENT PERCENTILE (96) In g e n e r a l , i t can be seen from Graph I I I t h a t grade e i g h t i s not as w e l l a d j u s t e d as grade ten and t h a t grade ten ranks lower than grade twelve i n most components of the C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y . There appear to be some grade d i f f e r e n c e s between the p e r s o n a l i t y components i n the v a r i o u s grades, hence comparisons are made between the three l e v e l s . Table XV shows the means, p e r c e n t i l e e q u i v a l e n t s and p e r c e n t i l e d i f f e r e n c e s f o r grades e i g h t and twelve. ( 9 7 ) TABLE XV GRADE DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS FOR GRADES VIII AND XII Factor Mean Scores P e r c e n t i l e Equiv-a l e n t s D i f f . i n Percent-i l e s Gr.VIII Gr.XII Gr.VIII Gr. XII SELF ADJUSTMENT 6 6 . 2 5 7 0 . 5 6 3 1 1*8 17 S e l f -R e l i a n c e 1 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 7 5 1*5 68 23 Personal Worth 1 0 . 9 k 1 2 . 7 6 39 6 1 22 Personal Freedom 1 2 . 6 0 1 3 . 3 k kk 51* 10 F e e l i n g of Belonging 12.6k 1 3 . k2 1*0 56 16 Withdrawing Tendencies 1 0 . 7 0 1 1 . 8 0 37 1*7 1 0 Nervous Symptoms 1 1 . 5 8 10.9k 1*1* 5.1* 10 SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT 6 7 . 8 7 7 3 . 1 7 31* 1*6 12 S o c i a l • Standards 1 3 . 3 5 1 3 . 9 2 51* 68 11* S o c i a l S k i l l s 1 1 . 0 7 1 1 . 7 8 51 52 1 A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies 1 0 . 8 7 1 2 . 9 9 39 70 3 1 Family R e l a t i o n s 1 2 . 2 7 1 2 . 3 0 1*3 50 7 School R e l a t i o n s 1 0 . 6 3 1 2 . 2 8 1*6 61* 18 Community R e l a t i o n s 1 2 . 2 1 12.2k 52 55 3 TOTAL ADJUSTMENT 1 3 3 . Mt 11*3.52 32 1*8 1 6 (98) A study of the t a b l e r e v e a l s t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s be-tween grade-eight and grade-twelve p e r c e n t i l e scores tend to be f a i r l y l a r g e . In only three i n s t a n c e s - s o c i a l s k i l l s , f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s , and community r e l a t i o n s - are the d i f f e r -ences l e s s than ten p e r c e n t i l e p o i n t s . Table XVI compares the scores made by p u p i l s i n grades e i g h t and ten. i ( 9 9 ) TABLE XVI GRADE DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS FOR GRADES VIII AND X 1 Grade VIII Grade X D i f f . i n OD Factor Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Means C.R. SELF ADJUSTMENT 6 6 . 2 5 11.1*2 7 0 . 0 2 10 . 7 1 3 . 7 7 .93 1*.08 S e l f -R e l i a n c e 1 0 . 0 0 2 . 5 1 1 0 . 5 8 2 . 2 6 . 5 8 . 2 0 2 . 9 1 Personal Worth 10.91; 2.71* 11.71* 2.1*0 .80 . 2 1 3 . 7 3 Personal Freedom 1 2 . 6 0 2 . 6 5 1 3 . 3 7 2 . 3 8 . 7 7 . 2 1 3 . 6 7 F e e l i n g of Belonging 12.61* 2 . 7 6 1 2 . 9 1 2 . 5 7 . 2 7 . 2 2 1 . 2 1 Withdrawing Tendencies 1 0 . 7 0 2 . 8 6 1 1 . 9 9 2 . 5 2 1 . 2 9 . 2 2 5 . 7 5 Nervous Symptoms 1 1 . 5 8 2.61* 1 1 . 8 8 2.1*8 . 3 0 . 2 1 l . U o SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT 6 7 . 8 7 1 0 . 9 1 70.31* 1 0 . 3i* 2.1*7 . 8 9 2 . 7 8 S o c i a l Standards 1 3 . 3 5 1 . 8 3 13.33 1 . 9 7 - . 0 2 . 1 6 - . 1 2 S o c i a l S k i l l s 1 1 . 0 7 2.1*5 11.1*9 2.1*6 .1*2 . 1 8 2 . 3 6 A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies 1 0 . 8 7 2 . 8 8 1 1 . 7 2 2 . 7 0 . 8 5 . 2 3 3.61* Family R e l a t i o n s 1 2 . 2 7 3 . 1 1 12.1*0 3 . 0 7 . 1 3 .26 . 5 0 School R e l a t i o n s I O . 6 3 2 . 7 3 1 1 . 3 3 2 . 5 2 . 7 0 . 2 2 3 . 1 9 Community R e l a t i o n s 1 2 . 2 1 2 . 6 8 12.62 2.1*1* . U l . 2 1 1.92 TOTAL ADJUSTMENT 1 3 3 . W i ' 2 0 . 3 2 1 3 9 . 7 5 18.1*9 6 . 3 1 1.62 3 . 9 0 (100) Only f i v e d i f f e r e n c e s are l e s s than twice t h e i r c o r -responding standard e r r o r s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t grade-ten p u p i l s tend to have b e t t e r adjustment scores than do g r a d e - e i g h t p u p i l s . These f i v e components i n c l u d e f e e l i n g of b e l o n g i n g , nervous symptoms, s o c i a l standards, f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s and community r e l a t i o n s . A l l the d i f f e r e n c e s , except one very sm a l l one, are i n favour of the p u p i l s i n grade t e n . Table XVII compares the p e r c e n t i l e e q u i v a l e n t s of p u p i l s i n grades ten and twelve. ( 1 0 1 ) TABLE XVII GRADE DIFFERENCES IN TEST COMPONENTS FOR GRADES X AND XII Factor Mean Scores P e r c e n t i l e Equiv-a l e n t s D i f f . i n Percent- . i l e s Gr. X Gr.XII Gr. X Gr. XII SELF ADJUSTMENT 7 0 . 0 2 7 0 . 5 6 1*0 1*8 8 S e l f -R e l i a n c e 1 0 . 5 8 1 0 . 7 5 57 6 8 11 Personal Worth 11.71* , 1 2 . 7 6 1*7 61 11* Personal Freedom 1 3 . 3 7 13.31* 57 51* - 3 F e e l i n g of Belonging 12.91 13.1*2 1*1* 56 1 2 Withdrawing Tendencies 11.99 1 1 . 8 0 50 1*7 - 3 Nervous Symptoms 11.88 10.91* 1*8 5.1* 6 SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT 70.31* 7 3 . 1 7 1*2 1*6 1* S o c i a l Standards 13.33 1 3 . 9 2 53 68 1 5 S o c i a l S k i l l s 11.1*9 11 . 7 8 57 52 - 5 A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies 1 1 . 7 2 12.99 1*7 70 23 Family R e l a t i o n s ,12.1*0 1 2 . 3 0 1*1* 50 6 School R e l a t i o n s 11.33 12.28 53 61* 11 Community R e l a t i o n s 12.62 12.21* 56 55 - 1 TOTAL ADJUSTMENT 1 3 9 . 7 5 11+3.52 1*0 1*8 8 (102) I t i s apparent from Table XVII, t h a t changes i n scores from grades ten to twelve are smaller and more e r r a t i c than was the case i n the comparison of grades e i g h t and t e n . S i x p e r c e n t i l e d i f f e r e n c e s exceed ten p o i n t s i n favour of grade twelve, while f o u r of the s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s favour the lower grade. Statement of Areas of P e r s o n a l i t y R e q u i r i n g A t t e n t i o n of  Teachers and C o u n s e l l o r s (1) From a study of the t e s t data., i t becomes apparent t h a t some areas of p e r s o n a l i t y r e q u i r e the a t t e n t i o n of teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s . Before s p e c i f i c areas should be s i n g l e d out f o r a t t e n t i o n , i t must be admitted t h a t a percentage of students at each grade l e v e l had such low scores i n every area of p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t , i f the t e s t r e s u l t s are v a l i d , these students r e q u i r e expert guidance and help to c o r r e c t t h e i r maladjustments. (2) From t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n of sex d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n the grades, i t i s found t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , boys and g i r l s are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment and t h a t they can be t r e a t e d as one group w i t h i n each grade i n the guidance program. The s p e c i f i c exceptions to t h i s g e n e r a l -i z a t i o n are i n the areas of nervous symptoms, s e l f - r e l i a n c e , s o c i a l s k i l l s and freedom from a n t i - s o c i a l tendencies i n grade e i g h t ; i n sense of p e r s o n a l worth and s o c i a l standards i n grade ten; and i n s o c i a l standards i n grade twelve. ( 3 ) When a l l students i n e a c h grade l e v e l are compared, i t becomes e v i d e n t , as i t does f o r each separate sex, that ( 1 0 3 ) the t e s t scores r e v e a l a gradual i n c r e a s e from grade e i g h t to ten and from ten to twelve i n t o t a l adjustment and i n t o t a l s e l f - a d j u s t m e n t scores, as w e l l as i n three components - s e l f -r e l i a n c e , a n t i - s o c i a l tendencies and s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s . Since other s t u d i e s do not agree w i t h t h i s finding,•*• teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s should be aware of the evidence of personality-development i n d i c a t e d i n t h i s study. (U) In a l l comparisons of the components of s o c i a l s k i l l s and f a m i l y and community r e l a t i o n s , as w e l l as of t o t a l s o c i a l adjustment, no s i g n i f i c a n t or even marked d i f f e r e n c e s , are found. Cognizance of t h i s l a c k of g a i n should be taken by those d i r e c t i n g the guidance program of the s c h o o l . (5) .From t h i s study of the r a t e s of p e r s o n a l i t y development of the boys and g i r l s as measured by the C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y , teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s should note t h a t g i r l s tend to develop more evenly than the boys, e s p e c i a l l y i n the . area of s e l f adjustment and i t s s i x components. The scores of the boys seem to f l u c t u a t e more. ( 6 ) The boys show i r r e g u l a r development i n f i v e components. In p e r s o n a l worth, f e e l i n g of belonging and s o c i a l standards, t h e i r scores are s l i g h t l y lower i n grade ten than i n grade e i g h t j then the scores i n c r e a s e markedly at the grade-twelve l e v e l . I t would appear t h a t the guidance program should give s p e c i a l help to the grade-ten boys i n these three areas of p e r s o n a l i t y . On the other hand, s p e c i a l help f o r the grade-twelve boys would appear to be j u s t i f i e d i n sense of p e r s o n a l 1~, See r e f e r e n c e numbers: 1 9 2 , 16~S. (1020 freedom and i n withdrawing tendencies where the scores drop back from decided gains i n grade ten to a minor and a major l o s s r e s p e c t i v e l y " i n grade twelve. F i n a l l y , the boys show no i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r scores i n the component of nervous symptoms. To ensure a g a i n i n these scores, s p e c i a l a t t e n -t i o n should be given to t h e i r problems i n t h i s area, (7) In only one of the s i x components j u s t mentioned f o r the boys, do the g i r l s show i r r e g u l a r i n c r e a s e s . In t h i s component of sense of p e r s o n a l freedom, the t e s t d ata i n d -i c a t e t h at grade-twelve g i r l s need s p e c i a l c o u n s e l l i n g . CHAPTER V RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GUIDANCE WORK Review of Suggestions Found i n L i t e r a t u r e The l i t e r a t u r e reviewed f o r t h i s study c o n t a i n e d many recommendations f o r guidance work. Some of these suggestions are d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e to those areas of p e r s o n a l i t y which, according to the t e s t data, needed the a t t e n t i o n of te a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s . Other suggestions can onl y be a p p l i e d i n d i r -e c t l y . No s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s were found to vary guidance according to grade l e v e l or according to sex d i f f e r e n c e s of high school students.- However, the l i t e r a t u r e does c o n t a i n many h e l p f u l suggestions f o r maladjusted students. Recommendations f o r Students w i t h Low Test Scores In each grade l e v e l , a percentage of the students have very low s c o r e s . I f the t e s t i s a v a l i d i n d i c a t o r of person-a l i t y adjustment, such students would r e q u i r e s p e c i a l help and guidance to c o r r e c t t h e i r maladjustments. S t u d i e s of the e f f e c t of r e m e d i a l work on maladjusted p e r s o n a l i t i e s r e v e a l f a v o u r a b l e r e s u l t s from guidance work w i t h problem students. Blau and Veo ( 3 2 ) c a r r i e d out an experimental p r o j e c t i n which the group approach, supplemented by a c h i l d - g u i d a n c e c l i n i c , was used to help problem c h i l d r e n . The maladjusted p u p i l s were d i v i d e d i n t o groups according to t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l needs. Each c o u n s e l l o r t r i e d by d i s c u s s i o n and remedi a l work to c o r r e c t the p a r t i c u l a r maladjustment of h i s group. Such (105) ( 1 0 6 ) "group treatment" brought about marked improvement i n a t t i t -udes and adjustment, and many of the p u p i l s were r e t u r n e d to r e g u l a r c l a s s e s . Berman and K l e i n (26) r e p o r t e d a p r o j e c t w i t h s u p e r i o r students who were f a i l i n g i n v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s . While p r o f e s s -i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e was found to be necessary f o r some of the c h i l d r e n , most of the p u p i l s were helped by the simple p r o c e s s of f o c u s i n g the home-room teacher's a t t e n t i o n on the nature of the c h i l d ' s maladjustment, and by u r g i n g the teacher to t r y to help the c h i l d i n the o r d i n a r y classroom procedures. J e r s i l d ( 1 1 5,pp . 5 7 1 f f) i n v e s t i g a t e d the response of c h i l d r e n to c l i n i c a l treatment by mental h y g i e n i s t s . He found t h a t success or f a i l u r e depended upon a tremendous complexity of f a c t o r s . He r e p o r t s a study of 1 0 0 cases s e l -e c t e d at random from 7 0 0 c h i l d r e n t r e a t e d at three v a r y i n g age l e v e l s . In the case of c h i l d r e n under 12 years of age, i t was judged t h a t 15 per cent were s u c c e s s f u l l y adjusted, 26 p a r t i a l l y , 27 unadjusted and 3 2 undetermined (where the r e s u l t of the treatment c o u l d not be measured, or where the permanency of the improvement was s t i l l i n doubt). In the age range from 12 to 20 years, 10 per cent were judged to be s u c c e s s f u l l y adjusted, 28 p a r t i a l l y , 20 unimproved and ij.2 undetermined. The corresponding percentages f o r persons aged 21 and over were 7 , 2 8 , 2k and k l per cent. J e r s i l d concluded t h a t "while the s t u d i e s show t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of c h i l d r e n are helped, they also i n d i c a t e (107) that many c h i l d r e n who r e c e i v e treatment over v a r y i n g p e r i o d s of time do not seem to show s i g n i f i c a n t improvement. 1 1 Tiegs and Katz (2 2 5 ,P«1 7 U ) c l a i m t h a t "evidence so f a r a v a i l a b l e i n d i c a t e s t hat i n t e l l i g e n t l y d i r e c t e d e f f o r t s can do much to a i d c h i l d r e n who are e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y . " S ince guidance has been shown to help many students, a guidance program i s needed i n any s c h o o l system to give s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to problem students. Such a program must be based on sound p r i n c i p l e s of guidance. The l i t e r a t u r e o u t l i n e d numerous fundamentals to be kept i n mind by those d i r e c t i n g the guidance program: ( 1 ) Guidance i s the f u n c t i o n of the whole s t a f f ( 1 7 3 ) , ( 1 6 5 ) . ( 2 ) Guidance i s a gradual, long-time process extending from the home and the elementary s c h o o l to hi g h -s c h o o l g r aduation and even beyond ( 2 1 3 ) . ( 3 ) P r e v e n t i o n of maladjustment i s a very important f u n c t i o n of guidance work ( 2 2 5 , p . 1 7 U ) • (k) Treatment should be s t a r t e d e a r l y . The best area f o r r e m e d i a l work i s i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l before the student becomes too f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n h a b i t s of inadequate p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment ( 2 l ; 7 ) . The White House Conference (238,p.Jj.O) s t r e s s e s the f a c t t h at nothing f a i l s l i k e f a i l u r e . -They p o i n t out t h a t o f t e n no s p e c i a l study i s made of a c h i l d u n t i l he i s two years behind i n h i s s t u d i e s and i s ( 1 0 8 ) thus w e l l grounded i n h a b i t s of f a i l u r e , (5) To ensure c o n t i n u i t y of guidance, a j o i n t com-mittee of the elementary and secondary schools i s needed (71;). (6) Adequate time a l l o t m e n t should be p r o v i d e d . I t i s estimated that an e q u i v a l e n t of one f u l l - t i m e c o u n s e l l o r f o r every 5 0 0 students i s r e q u i r e d (97,p.61*). (7) Good cumulative r e c o r d cards f o r each student should be kept to pr o v i d e a more complete understanding of the p u p i l and h i s problems (126,pp.572-82), (71*). (8) A l l students should be r e q u i r e d to v i s i t the c o u n s e l -l o r i n order that such a v i s i t may not c l a s s i f y any student as "odd" or d i f f e r e n t (71*). (9) Teachers should be s e l e c t e d whose p e r s o n a l i t y , tem-perament and t r a i n i n g f i t them f o r guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g (35), (1*8), (189). (10) F u l l advantage should be taken of pa r e n t - t e a c h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s to e n l i s t p a r e n t a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n the guidance program (51*,PP*i*0i*—7). (11) A sc h o o l c l i n i c c o n s i s t i n g of the p r i n c i p a l , the guidance committee and the teacher concerned should be set up. T h i s allows o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o - o r d i n a t e d guidance and forms an i n s t r u c t i o n a l "lab" f o r c o u n s e l l o r s and teachers (88,p.8). (12) An atmosphere of f r i e n d l i n e s s , i n t e r e s t and sympa-( 1 0 9 ) t h e t i c concern i s needed ( 1 8 9 ) . ( 1 3 ) The c l i n i c a l approach i s needed to i n t e r p r e t the p e r s o n a l i t y as a whole. I t i s important to be aware of a l l the f a c t o r s i n determining causes of maladjustment ( 9 l , p . 8 5 ) , ( 2 3 1 ) , ( l l 6 , p . l ; 6 0 ) , ( 2 0 7 , p . 2 1 1 ) . ( i l l ) An o b j e c t i v e a t t i t u d e i s necessary i n the f i e l d of r e m e d i a l work ( l l , p , 1 7 U ) , ( 6 ) , (9k), ( 1 5 ) . ( 1 5 ) Guidance must be i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and s p e c i a l i z e d a ccording to the separate needs of each case ( 1 2 6 ,pp. 22i*f f ) , ( 1 3 U ) . No one standard program i s s u i t a b l e f o r a l l s i t u a t i o n s or f o r a l l persons. ( 1 6 ) The simpler elements of the adjustment problem should be attacked and remedied f i r s t before attempting the more complicated aspects of the t r o u b l e ( 5 3 ) . In p u t t i n g these p r i n c i p l e s i n t o p r a c t i c e , Chisholm ( 5 1 ,p. 2 5 ) found that f o u r major handicaps i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the success of the program: 1) Teachers were i n a d e q u a t e l y prepared f o r the type of guidance needed (61; per c e n t ) . 2) Teachers and p r i n c i p a l s were too busy ( 6 3 per c e n t ) . 3 ) Teachers moved to other p o s i t i o n s d u r i n g p r e p a r a t i o n of a guidance program ( 3 7 . 7 per c e n t ) . k) There was i n a b i l i t y to judge how w e l l guidance met the needs. Along w i t h these f a c t o r s were found l a c k of i n t e r e s t , l a c k of money and l a c k of p l a n n i n g . ( n o ) I f the guidance program i s w e l l planned and c a r e f u l l y -arranged, i t can avoid most of these p i t f a l l s . When f u n c -t i o n i n g w e l l , guidance w i l l a f f e c t a l l phases of the sc h o o l program - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m , teaching methods, d i s -c i p l i n e and the teacher h e r s e l f . School a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s very important to e f f e c t i v e guidance f o r upon i t r e s t s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p u t t i n g i n t o p r a c t i c e the g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s of c o u n s e l l i n g . Newell ( 1 6 5 ) made a survey of the e f f e c t s of the c o - o p e r a t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n upon the e f f o r t s of the guidance c l i n i c to t r e a t p u p i l problems. In schools where the f a c u l t i e s co-operated with the c l i n i c s t a f f much b e t t e r r e s u l t s were ob-t a i n e d ; i n f a c t , f a i l u r e to help the c h i l d r e n was r e p o r t e d i n o n l y ten per cent of the cases, while i n the schools whose f a c u l t i e s d i d not co-operate, the r e p o r t e d percentage was t h i r t y - t h r e e . Newell found t h a t , i n the c o - o p e r a t i v e s c h o o l s , 6 5 per cent of the cases showed improvements as com-pared w i t h o n l y 17 per cent i n the non-cooperative s c h o o l s . Dimmick ( 6 6 ) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t upon p u p i l - p e r s o n -a l i t y of r e o r g a n i z i n g classroom procedure. He s t u d i e d the changes i n behaviour trends and a t t i t u d e s of 258 c h i l d r e n f o l l o w i n g the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of a s c h o o l from the o r d i n a r y to the re m e d i a l type of c l a s s e s . Marked i n c r e a s e s were found i n 13 d e s i r a b l e behaviour t r e n d s . Most of the teachers f e l t t h a t the t e a c h e r - p u p i l r e l a t i o n s h i p was improved, and a l l agreed t h a t i t was e a s i e r to teach slow p u p i l s by t h i s method. ( I l l ) The c o - o p e r a t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h the c o u n s e l l i n g body i s necessary to secure adequate time al l o t m e n t ( 9 7,p . 6 U ) , the keeping of good cumulative r e c o r d cards ( 1 2 6 ,pp.5 7 2 - 8 2 ) , the s e l e c t i o n of s u i t a b l e teachers ( 1 8 9 ) , and the promotion of parent-teacher o r g a n i z a t i o n s (51*,PP• ii-OU—7 ) • School a d m i n i s t r a t i o n must make c a r e f u l p r o v i s i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n order to a i d students who are mal-ad j u s t e d to s c h o o l . P r o v i s i o n s f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s i n cap-a c i t y , i n t e r e s t and p e r s o n a l i t y have taken three forms: homogeneous grouping, s p e c i a l c l a s s e s and complete i n d i v i d u a l -i z a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n . Cole (5k,PP«k35-14-1) and Koos ( 1 2 6 ,p. 266) base grouping not onl y upon i n t e l l i g e n c e but al s o upon ed-u c a t i o n a l achievement, t e a c h e r s ' r a t i n g s , p h y s i c a l development and s o c i a l m a t u r i t y . Cole found t h a t s e l e c t i o n based on sev-e r a l f a c t o r s appeared to have been more s u c c e s s f u l than group-ings f o r which only one measure was used. An attempt to pro v i d e f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l not only a f f e c t the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s c h o o l but w i l l a l s o n e c e s s i t a t e changes i n the c u r r i c u l u m . Cole ( P P • i 4 . l l 4 . - 3 l 4 - ) d i s c u s s e s the c u r r i c u l u m at l e n g t h . B r i e f l y , she c o n s i d e r s t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m should possess c u l t u r a l , d i s c i p l i n a r y and p r a c t i c a l v a l u e s . High-school s u b j e c t s should be the fo u n d a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r academic or t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . They should prepare the student i n some degree to meet the needs of the average a d u l t . They should a l s o con-t a i n the answers to the most common and vexa t i o u s problems (112) of the adolescents themselves. In the main, the subject matter should f i t them for normal existence in the community and for earning a l i v i n g . Cole l i s t s her selection of courses that should be on every pupil's schedule: (1) Social Science, (2) Psychology, (3) Physical Hygiene, (k) Mental Hygiene, (5) Biological Science, (6) Non-biological Science, (7) Child Care and Homemaking, (8) English Composition and Reading, (9) Music, Art, Physical Education -Extra-curricular Activities, (10) Extra elective and vocational courses. She would establish two-year courses for those who cannot take more time, or who do not have enough abil i t y to complete four years of work. Such short courses should prepare a student for normal living and for the relatively simple lines of work open to him. Cole (5U,p .U6) believes that the curriculum needs a new "hygiene" course for adolescents. "Such a course should cover matters of diet, sleep, fatigue, over- and under-weight, heart strain, skin infections, perspiration, smoking, drinking and sex manifestations." The course should be taught by teachers who are respected by the pupils and who are not afraid of the facts. Koos (126,p.Ul) outlines what he terms a "constants-with-variables" program of studies which does not c a l l for committal by the pupil to specialization during junior high-school years. The program provides a wide range in the "variables" portion. This greater freedom of choice in subject matter makes more ( 1 1 3 ) p r o v i s i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . Koos goes even f u r t h e r i n a l l o w i n g f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s by modifying both q u a n t i t -a t i v e l y and q u a l i t a t i v e l y the content of the courses f o r the d i f f e r e n t i a t e d l e v e l s . For the slow l e a r n e r , t h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n i s a n e c e s s i t y . I r w i n and Marks ( 1 1 2 ) consider i t shameful the way a d u l l c h i l d i s demoralized f o r the good of the cu r r i c u l u m . They b e l i e v e t h a t , at a l l c o s t s , school i n f l u e n c e s should be shaped to avoid g i v i n g the student an inward sense of f a i l -ure and i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s . In teaching methods, i t i s e q u a l l y as important as i n the curriculum, that m o d i f i c a t i o n s be made f o r the maladjust-ed students. Hanna ( ° 8 ) views remedial teaching as a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n to a p e r s o n a l i t y problem. Helping the student to achieve success i n school gives him new confidence and s e l f -r e s p e c t . M a r s h a l l (II4.8) b e l i e v e s that a planned "success program" i s a v i t a l f a c t o r i n developing good mental adjust-ment. Loftus ( 1 3 8 ) made a study of the e f f e c t upon p e r s o n a l i t y of the use of progressive methods. He compared the scores on p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s of the students i n progressive schools w i t h those of students i n c o n t r o l schools. He judged that the students i n the former had b e t t e r s o c i a l and personal adjustment. They were superior i n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s and be-l i e f s as w e l l as i n such f a c t o r s as i n i t i a t i v e and co-oper-a t i o n . From t h i s study i t appears that progressive methods (HU) assist personality development. The directors of the Eight-Year Study came to a similar conclusion ( 3 ) . Cole (Sh t pp. i|.l*5-8) summarizes the requisites of good teaching methods. Teaching should have the following char-acteristics : "It must relate d r i l l to some desired purpose and must eliminate sheer monotony as much as possible; i t must be interesting; i t must give the adolescent mental exercise; i t must s t i r his imagination; i t must allow him to fe e l and develop his independence; and i t must provide him with as many explanations as he can understand. Work that lacks these characteristics simply does not get done; no learning can be brought about without the co-operation of the learner." No outline of teaching methods i s complete without a discussion of the effect of discipline upon the maladjusted child. In this regard, Symonds ( 2 1 1 , p. II4.7 ) makes a pointed claim: "When i t i s understood that misconduct by a pupil usually i s a symptom of mental disorder, superficial and temporary perhaps, but some-times deep-seated and permanent, and that one should seek the cause and i n each case aim to prevent conduct disorders by removing the cause-then real gain i s made in handling disciplinary situations in school. Misconduct i s a symptom." Cutts and Mosely (6 0 ,pp. 1 5 9 - 9 3) give a sixfold program for promoting better behaviour. This program includes: " 1 . establishing friendly relations with a child, 2 . helping him make desirable friend-ships with other children, 3 . providing suc-cess by adjusting his work to his achievement and a b i l i t y , I * , cultivating his interests, 5 . giving him responsibility, and 6 . giving him praise. In adapting this program to children who are chronic offenders the teacher may have to make a special effort to overcome ( 1 1 5 ) her q u i t e n a t u r a l d i s l i k e f o r a d i s t u r b e r and a s u s p i c i o u s r e s i s t a n c e e q u a l l y n a t u r a l on h i s p a r t . " Most authors c o n s i d e r that much of the value of the r e m e d i a l work of the s c h o o l depends upon the c h a r a c t e r and a b i l i t y of the t e a c h e r . C e r t a i n l y , a maladjusted teacher p r e s e n t s a poor example f o r her students, and y e t Fenton (75,PP»29h~5) r e p o r t s the p r o p o r t i o n of maladjusted t e a c h e r s to be 22.5 per c e n t . He s t r e s s e s the need f o r these t e a c h -ers to seek c o u n s e l l i n g by s p e c i a l i s t s i n order to help them to r i g h t t h e i r p e r s o n a l problems. Baxter (21), a f t e r c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , concluded t h a t the conduct of each of the teachers s t u d i e d was r e f l e c t -ed i n the behaviour of her p u p i l s . Ryan (189) s t a t e s that a "healthy s c h o o l atmosphere can o n l y be c r e a t e d by t e a c h e r s who are themselves m e n t a l l y h e a l t h y and who have an a b i d i n g i n t e r e s t i n c h i l d r e n and a r e a l r e s p e c t f o r the p e r s o n a l i t y of each c h i l d .... Whatever the system i n vogue the person-a l i t y of the teacher i s , i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , the medium through which the c h i l d comes i n c o n t a c t with i t . " C a r r i n g t o n (1*8) o u t l i n e s the important q u a l i t i e s of the teacher's p e r s o n a l i t y i f she i s to be the b e s t i n f l u e n c e upon her s t u d e n t s : h e a l t h , p l e a s a n t v o i c e , a t t r a c t i v e p e r s o n a l appearance, sense of humour, promptness, i n d u s t r y and t h r i f t , i n t e l l i g e n c e , f a i r n e s s , i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l problems, apprec-i a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and l o v e of the b e a u t i f u l . The teacher needs t a c t , wisdom, freedom from complexes, ( 1 1 6 ) p a t i e n c e , and purposive f l e x i b i l i t y . Above a l l , she needs balance and c o n t r o l . Jones ( l l i i ) used the method of planned c h a r a c t e r i n -s t r u c t i o n to develop p e r s o n a l i t y . He found t h a t t h i s method ' r e s u l t e d i n a d e f i n i t e improvement i n s t u d e n t - c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s , but that the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the method depended upon the teacher. Ojemann and Wilkinson ( 1 6 8 ) c l a i m t h a t teachers must know the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of t h e i r students i f they would be e f f e c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y "developers." The evidence has shown t h a t a guidance program based on sound p r i n c i p l e s under t r a i n e d l e a d e r s should help many of the maladjusted students to achieve a more ac c e p t a b l e standard of adjustment. One might, t h e r e f o r e , expect the percentage of low scores i n p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s to drop apprec-i a b l y as a r e s u l t of a p r o p e r l y f u n c t i o n i n g guidance program. Recommendations f o r Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n P e r s o n a l i t y W i t h i n  Each Grade Sch r e i b e r ( 1 9 2 ) found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between boys and g i r l s throughout the h i g h - s c h o o l p e r i o d . G u i l f o r d and M a r t i n ( 9 6 ) found that s e n i o r boys were more i n t r o v e r t i n s o c i a l adjustment than the g i r l s , but g i r l s were more i n t r o v e r t w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e i r t h i n k i n g and more emotion-a l l y i n c l i n e d . The w r i t e r ' s study r e v e a l e d no wide d i f -ferences i n p e r s o n a l i t y between the sexes w i t h i n each grade. However, there were s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l i t y areas i n each grade (117) l e v e l which were exceptions to t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . I f the t e s t data can be c o n s i d e r e d v a l i d , then the suggestions f o r guidance i n each of the areas where d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d would be u s e f u l f o r the sex w i t h the s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower score. Grade-eight g i r l s were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r e e r from a n t i - s o c i a l tendencies than the boys of t h e i r grade (See Table V ) . Baker and Traphagen (16,p.375) found t h a t many a n t i - s o c i a l tendencies are much more pronounced at twelve years than at seven years of age. Since the w r i t e r ' s study showed s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n t h i s component a f t e r grade e i g h t , i t i s comforting to teachers to r e a l i z e t h a t boys i n grade e i g h t seem to have reached a peak i n a n t i -s o c i a l t e n d e n c i e s . Probably t h i s tendency i s a n a t u r a l stage i n t h e i r development. Grade-eight g i r l s were found to be lower than the boys of t h e i r grade i n t h e i r s e l f - r e l i a n c e scores (C.R. 2 . 9 8 ) . The w r i t e r a t t r i b u t e s t h i s i n e q u a l i t y to the f a c t t h a t , w h i le few of the boys have reached puberty i n grade e i g h t , many of the g i r l s have, and as a r e s u l t , the g i r l s are un-sure of themselves i n t h e i r new r o l e of adolescence. C l a r k e et a l (53) o u t l i n e what they c a l l the d i r e c t method' of p e r s o n a l i t y e x e r c i s e and p r a c t i c e f o r treatment of l a c k of s e l f - r e l i a n c e . Such an approach i n v o l v e s h e l p i n g the student to understand the nature and causes of h i s d i f f i c u l t y , and then g i v i n g r e m e d i a l p r a c t i c e i n the c o r r e c t responses. (118) Fenton (75,P»198) s t r e s s e s how important i t i s t h a t the student have the assurance that h i s e v e n t u a l adequacy i s t r u s t e d by h i s f a m i l y , f r i e n d s and t e a c h e r s . L o u t t i t (139, pp»li59 - 6 0 ) b e l i e v e s t h a t , whether the cause be p h y s i c a l , mental or s o c i a l , the aim of improving i n f e r i o r i t y f e e l i n g s (under which he i n c l u d e s s e l f - r e l i a n c e ) should be to remove the c h i l d from u n s u c c e s s f u l c o m p e t i t i o n . Cole (5 h ,PP• 1*06-7) advises teachers, attempting to help an adolescent who i s over-dependent upon h i s home, to e x p l a i n to him the nature of h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s . "Once he understands what the matter i s , he i s o f t e n able to work out h i s own adjustment, e i t h e r by o b t a i n i n g g r e a t e r freedom along c o n v e n t i o n a l l i n e s from h i s parents or by conformity to t h e i r main demands u n t i l he i s o l d enough to leave home." Grade-eight g i r l s ranked s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than t h e i r male classmates i n freedom from nervous symptoms. (See Table V ) . C l a r k e , Tiegs and Thorpe ( 5 3 , P . l l ) , Cole (51*,p.91) and Baker and Traphagen (16,p.173) c o n s i d e r t h a t nervous symptoms very o f t e n have a p h y s i c a l f o u n d a t i o n . P a r t i c u l a r l y i s t h i s t r ue of ado l e s c e n t s who are undergoing many p h y s i c a l changes. Since many of these grade-eight g i r l s have o n l y r e c e n t l y reached puberty, such an e x p l a n a t i o n may w e l l account f o r t h e i r lower scores i n t h i s component. According to the w r i t e r ' s study, grade-ten boys have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower score i n sense of p e r s o n a l worth than the g i r l s i n t h e i r grade l e v e l . Here again, the d i f f e r e n c e s (119) may be due to the d i f f e r i n g r a t e s of the sexes i n r e a c h i n g puberty. Most grade-ten boys have very r e c e n t l y reached adolescence and might w e l l be expected to be q u e s t i o n i n g t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l worth. To t r e a t p u p i l s t r o u b l e d w i t h f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y or a low sense of p e r s o n a l worth, L o u t t i t ( 1 3 9,p . l 4 - 5 9 ) d i v i d e s the students i n t o two groups. "Whether the c o n d i t i o n at the b a s i s of the c h i l d ' s i n f e r i o r i t y i s r e a l or imaginary w i l l govern the nature of therapy." Tiegs and Katz (2 2 5 ,pp.3 U 6 - 8 ) f o l l o w t h i s same d i v i s i o n . When the d e f e c t i s r e a l , they use the d i r e c t method of inf o r m i n g the student of the nature of h i s , d e f e c t s and of g i v i n g him r e m e d i a l work. For c o r r e c t i n g imagined f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y , time, p a t i e n c e , i n t e l l i g e n c e , understanding and c o - o p e r a t i o n are p r e r e q u i s i t e s of the c o u n s e l l o r . These authors recommend s i x t e e n r e m e d i a l t e c h -niques f o r t h i s type of maladjustment: ( 1 ) " E s t a b l i s h s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n the c h i l d by g i v i n g s i n c e r e p r a i s e f o r work w e l l done. ( 2 ) Provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s that are i n harmony w i t h h i s a b i l i t i e s and c a p a c i t i e s . ( 3 ) Teach t h e c h i l d t h a t a l l cannot succeed i n every f i e l d , but that a l l can be s u c c e s s f u l i n some f i e l d of a c t i v i t y . (k) Avoid s i t u a t i o n s where the c h i l d has no chance to succeed. ( 5 ) I n s t i l l s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , courage, and p e r s e v e r -ence by a v o i d i n g o v e r p r o t e c t i o n and over s o l i c i t u d e . ( 6 ) Curb and r e p l a c e a l l negative measures such as reproach, scorn, d i s g u s t , r i d i c u l e , nagging, and anger w i t h p o s i t i v e measures such as p r a i s e and rewards. ( 7 ) Treat the c h i l d w i t h r e s p e c t as w e l l as i n a f r i e n d l y , n o n - c r i t i c a l , i n t e r e s t e d , and under-standing manner. (8) Avoid unfavorable comparison w i t h other c h i l d r e n -improvement should be viewed w i t h r e s p e c t to h i s own a b i l i t i e s and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . (120) (9) Reassure the c h i l d from time to time t h a t he i s a healthy, wholesome, and d e s i r a b l e member of the group. (10) Encourage him to a t t a c k every problem i n a f r a n k , s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d manner; i n d i c a t e t h a t he has not f a i l e d u n t i l he q u i t s t r y i n g . (11) Let the c h i l d t a s t e the t h r i l l of success and accomplishment i n some a c t i v i t y t h a t i n t e r e s t s him; t h i s acts as an i n c e n t i v e to continue working. (12) P l a y up h i s s p e c i a l t a l e n t s and a b i l i t i e s w hile keeping him a c t i v e i n overcoming h i s weaknesses. ( 1 3 ) P r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r him to make h i s own d e c i s i o n s and to assume some r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s . ( l l i ) Set a good example f o r t h e c h i l d ; l e t him know about more handicapped c h i l d r e n who are succeeding. (15) P r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s where h i s achievements can be p r e s e n t e d before the group i n a f a v o r -able l i g h t . (16) Avoid producing f e e l i n g s of g u i l t by any suggestions or i n f e r e n c e s of immorality or s i n . " The w r i t e r ' s study of sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y r e v e a l e d that the scores i n the area of s o c i a l standards were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower f o r the boys i n grades ten and twelve than f o r the g i r l s . The boys of these grade l e v e l s appear to r e q u i r e s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . The l i t e r a t u r e touches on l y b r i e f l y upon s o c i a l s t a n -dards. Tiegs and Katz (2 2 5 ,p.2 h k ) b e l i e v e t h a t s o c i a l s t a n dards are l a r g e l y the product of i m i t a t i o n , understanding and h a b i t of what i s "encouraged, t o l e r a t e d or avoided i n the home." The same authors c o n s i d e r a b i l i t y to l e a r n as n e c e s s a r i l y a f f e c t i n g the knowledge of s o c i a l standards. Such f a c t o r s o p e r a t i n g e q u a l l y on both boys and g i r l s c o u l d h a r d l y account f o r the sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c o r e s . Tiegs (121) and Katz c o n s i d e r t h a t the sch o o l program should p r o v i d e d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n on the nature of s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s and standards expected of each i n d i v i d u a l . Perhaps the l a t e n t i n t e r e s t of the boys c o u l d be aroused by such a measure. L i t e r a t u r e Regarding Growth i n P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s During High School The w r i t e r ' s study r e v e a l e d a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n scores between grades e i g h t and ten and between grades t e n and twelve i n t o t a l adjustment, t o t a l s e l f - a d j u s t m e n t and three components - s e l f - r e l i a n c e , a n t i - s o c i a l tendencies and scho o l r e l a t i o n s ( See Table XIV). Some s t u d i e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h i s f i n d i n g . S c h r e i b e r (192, p. 211J,) summarized h i s f i n d i n g s i n these words: "The b e t t e r students began hi g h s c h o o l b e t t e r ad j u s t e d than the poorer students. But the b e t t e r students a f t e r f o u r years were not so w e l l a d j u s t e d as when they entered. The poorer students d i d not s t a r t s c h o o l very w e l l a d j u s t e d and at the end of fou r years t h e i r adjustment remained s t a t i c w i t h l i t t l e change. Perhaps the b e t t e r students were more c r i t i c a l of t h e i r environment." A study of p e r s o n a l i t y development duri n g the f o u r - y e a r c o l l e g e p e r i o d was made by N p r r i s (l66,p.38). She concluded t h a t : "there i s l i t t l e c o n s i s t e n t growth through the f o u r years i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . The growth i n d i c a t e d occurs l a r g e l y i n the r e c o r d s of p u p i l s moving from below-average to normal r a t i n g s , not from normal to above-average. A ge n e r a l t r e n d of improvement c u l m i n a t i n g i n the s e n i o r year i s not observed i n these data. (122) T h i s l a c k of improvement seems to mean t h a t as long as p u p i l s are succeeding they are content w i t h t h e i r r a t i n g s . " Cole ( 51 | ,pp.3 2 1 -2 ) takes the p o i n t of view t h a t person-a l i t y maladjustments occur very e a r l y i n l i f e and t h a t these d i f f e r e n c e s i n emotional and s o c i a l adjustment, l i k e d i f f e r -ences i n i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t i e s , remain f a i r l y s t a b l e dur-in g the sch o o l y e a r s . Alsop (6) takes a somewhat d i f f e r e n t p o i n t of view. I t i s h i s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t , although not a l l c h i l d r e n can be cured or saved, y e t a l l may be giv e n d i r e c t i o n towards a more s o c i a l l y acceptable e x i s t e n c e . While the w r i t e r ' s study r e v e a l s improvement i n t o t a l adjustment from grade to grade, i t does not show c o n s i s t e n t growth i n nine of the twelve t e s t components. The ge n e r a l recommendation of N o r r i s ( 1 6 6 ) , t h e r e f o r e , a p t l y a p p l i e s : "With t h i s evidence of l a c k of continued growth, teachers might w e l l i n s t i t u t e a program that would enable p u p i l s to improve from year to year i n the t r a i t s i n which t h e i r marks were not s a t i s f a c t o r y . " Recommendations f o r the Areas of P e r s o n a l i t y i n Which N e g l i g i b l e Increases Were Found The w r i t e r ' s study r e v e a l s t h a t the scores i n t o t a l s o c i a l adjustment have onl y minor d i f f e r e n c e s between the grade l e v e l s . The same i s true i n the area of s o c i a l s k i l l s . In a d d i t i o n , the measurements of the students' adjustment to t h e i r f a m i l y and t h e i r community remain p r a c t i c a l l y the same throughout the h i g h - s c h o o l p e r i o d . (See Tables XV, XVI and XVII). ( 1 2 3 ) Cole {Shyp.101) s t a t e s t h a t "the adolescent years a r e , pre-eminently, a p e r i o d of s o c i a l development and adjustment." So f a r as the high s c h o o l i s concerned, the o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s takes the form of the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r pro-gram -•- school government, c l u b s and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . Such c l u b s and other a c t i v i t i e s of the sch o o l should, then, be the means f o r developing i n t e r e s t s , f o r g i v i n g t r a i n i n g i n the wise use of l e i s u r e , f o r p r o v i d i n g p r a c t i c e i n s e l f -government, f o r a l l o w i n g l e a d e r s to p r a c t i s e l e a d e r s h i p , and f o r b u i l d i n g c h a r a c t e r . .Yet the t e s t data do not r e v e a l a p p r e c i a b l e s o c i a l development. I f t h i s i s a v a l i d measure-ment, then Cole's o b s e r v a t i o n may pr o v i d e a c l u e to the reason f o r the l a c k of progress toward these o b j e c t i v e s : " I t has always seemed to the w r i t e r t h a t the p u p i l s who most needed e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v -i t i e s f o r t h e i r own development were, the ones who had the l e a s t o p p o r t u n i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i n g . I f i t i s the f u n c t i o n of such a c t i v i t i e s to de-velop the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of adolescent boys and g i r l s and to t r a i n them i n s o c i a l adjustment, then those who most need t h i s t r a i n i n g should be the ones to r e c e i v e i t . Instead, the a c t i v -i t i e s a l l too o f t e n become merely the means of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n f o r adolescents who are alre a d y examples of p e r f e c t s o c i a l adjustment. The boy or g i r l who i s shy, s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , and r e -pressed r a r e l y has much o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c -i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s and thus to achieve the s o c i a l ease that he or she l a c k s . " ( 5 U,P« 1 2 8 ) . Cole's suggestions (S h ,PP» 1 3 1 - 3 h ) to remedy t h i s tendency i n c l u d e : 1) A d e f i n i t e p e r i o d of s c h o o l time set aside f o r c l u b s , 2) every student D i s p e r s i o n of to attend some meeting the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r managing v a r i o u s ( 1 2 1 * ) s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s upon a l a r g e number of students; 3) Intramural tournaments where every member of the s c h o o l i s on some team w i t h approximately equal chances of winning; U) Some teacher or teachers d e f i n i t e l y delegated w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of b r i n g i n g about p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the p a r t of those p u p i l s who most need the t r a i n -ing and s o c i a l i z a t i o n and who are l e a s t l i k e l y to get i t of t h e i r own accord. Tiegs and Katz ( 2 2 5 ,p.2 0 ? ) c o n s i d e r that the f i r s t and most l o g i c a l step to improve s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i s t h a t of improv-ing the p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the inadequate or i n -secure c h i l d and the teacher. Fenton (75,P»2lj.l) recommends f o r b e t t e r s o c i a l adjustment the development and c o - o r d i n -a t i o n of community f a c i l i t i e s . P r e s c o t t ( 1 7 8 ,p.2 7 2 ) c o n s i d -ers i t the duty of a l l t e a c h e r s to promote s o c i a l acceptance among p u p i l s i n the classroom. "These p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s need to be made more conscious i n the minds of a l l e d u c a t i o n a l workers i n order that i s o l a t e d c h i l d r e n may be brought i n t o e f f e c t i v e group p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n order t h a t the e f f e c t s of mutual r e j e c t i o n s may be s o f t e n e d and s a t i s f y i n g belongings estab-l i s h e d . I t i s e q u a l l y important to r e c o g n i z e l e a d e r s of a l l s o r t s and to demand a genuine conscious assumption of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s on t h e i r p a r t s which w i l l be commensurate w i t h the p l e a s u r e they d e r i v e from being l e a d e r s . " Fenton and Wallace ( 7 6 ,p.6 0 ) d i s c u s s the development of s o c i a l s k i l l s . To do t h i s , they advocate the p r o v i s i o n of adequate s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and r e c r e a t i o n . Keely (121) ( 1 2 5 ) i s more s p e c i f i c and recommends a conscious program i n sch o o l to develop p o i s e and l a c k of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . He recommends the f o l l o w i n g : s c h o o l p u b l i c a t i o n s , Big Brother and S i s t e r groups, teacher a d v i s o r s , c l u b s and assembly programs wi t h a hig h degree of p u p i l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , lunchrooms, and student-managed campaigns. Koch ( 1 2 I * ,p.5 0 ° ) r e p o r t s an experiment where u n s o c i a l students were p l a c e d i n p a i r s w i t h s o c i a l ones w i t h a r e s u l t i n g improvement i n the maladjusted ones. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h the home f a c t o r r e v e a l s the educators' keen consciousness of the need f o r improvement i n home r e l a t i o n s h i p s . They c o n s i d e r t h a t the s c h o o l must help the home and the student i n t h e i r r e -l a t i o n s w i t h one another. Witmer ( 7 5 ,p. 2 3 7 ) suggests f o u r l e v e l s of d e a l i n g w i t h the home: 1) S u p e r f i c i a l methods i n g i v i n g concrete and s p e c i f i c recommendations• 2) E d u c a t i o n of the parent i n r e g a r d to the meaning of the c h i l d ' s symptoms-3 ) I n s i g h t therapy i n c l u d i n g an attempt to have the parents view o b j e c t i v e l y t h e i r c a u s a l r e l a t i o n -ships to the maladjustment of the c h i l d * k) R e l a t i o n s h i p therapy u s i n g as i t s f o c a l p o i n t the treatment of the p a r e n t s ' own problems. The o r d i n a r y s c h o o l can u s u a l l y employ the f i r s t method, and (126) through "Home and School Clubs" can s c r a t c h the su r f a c e of the second one. Yet, other things being equal, Witmer r e -p o r t s that the chances of improvement i n c r e a s e w i t h t h e complexity of the treatment. Hence, there i s a need f o r the use of the more complex methods which ensure greater success i n improving f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s . Any treatment of home r e l a t i o n s r e q u i r e s the co-opera-t i o n of the p a r e n t s . This i s a f a c t s t r o n g l y emphasized by i n v e s t i g a t o r s F o s t e r and Stebbins (80), Witmer, and Healy and Bronner (75,p.85). Healy and Bronner go so f a r as to c l a i m t h a t "the fundamental recommendations t h a t a c l i n i c may make simply cannot be c a r r i e d out u n l e s s . . . much more i n t e n s i v e work can be done w i t h f a m i l i e s . " Cole (5i+,PP• ItOij.—7) s i g n i f i e s the importance of h e l p i n g the student who i s maladjusted i n h i s home r e l a t i o n s h i p s to take a more impersonal view of h i s home l i f e . The teacher needs to show an ado l e s c e n t how he can ad j u s t to h i s home as i t i s . The S i x t e e n t h Yearbook of the American A s s o c i a t i o n of School A d m i n i s t r a t o r s (161,pp.90-6) suggests t h a t a s c h o o l program designed to improve f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s should i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : (1) "Some study .... of the process of growing up, so that they w i l l understand (a) t h e i r own maturation; (b) the change of l i f e through which t h e i r parents are p a s s i n g ; and (c) how to achieve mutual c o n s i d e r a t i o n .... (2) Schools can help parents d i r e c t l y , and youth i n d i r e c t l y , through p u b l i c education (127) a c t i v i t i e s which keep a d u l t s a b r e a s t of good contemporary thought i n s c i e n c e , a r t , and s o c i a l problems (3) A l l of our i n s t i t u t i o n s , but parents i n p a r t i c u l a r , need to counterbalance t h i s l o p s i d e d s t r e s s upon 'success' w i t h warmth, a f f e c t i o n , and love which accepts the i n -d i v i d u a l as v a l u a b l e i n h i m s e l f and f o r h i s own sake, whatever h i s r e c o r d of accomp-l i s h m e n t s . " Most authors b e l i e v e that the most d i r e c t way i n which schools can help the parents i s through parent-teacher organ-i z a t i o n s . Cole (Sh,PP*i+OU— 7) contends that such a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r impersonal approach can do much toward modifying the home s i t u a t i o n . Symonds (211) i n c l u d e s v i s i t i n g and i n t e r v i e w i n g the parents as one of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e r v i c e s of the sch o o l h e l p f u l f o r problem c h i l d r e n . One of the adolescent's t r o u b l e s i n home r e l a t i o n s i s r e l a t e d to sex. Laycock (130) would have parents avoid the f o l l o w i n g p r a c t i c e s which hinder a d o l e s c e n t s ' adjustment to the opposite sex: l a c k of a f f e c t i o n by one or both parents, o v e r - p r o t e c t i o n , f a i l u r e to accept the sex of the c h i l d , l a c k of true p a r t n e r s h i p between par e n t s , attempts to keep the c h i l d i g n o r a n t of sex matters, p r e s e n t a t i o n of warped a t t i t u d e s about the opposite sex, p r e v e n t i o n of companion-ship w i t h t h e opposite sex as long as p o s s i b l e . Laycock s t r e s s e s t h at i t i s c o r r e c t and wholesome a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s r a t h e r than f a c t s r e g a r d i n g sex t h a t are important to development. Parents need to be open-minded and i n t e l l i -gent about sex so t h a t they can r e l a t e sex matters to l i f e (128) unemotionally and e f f e c t i v e l y ( 2 2 5 , p « 3 3 0 ) . They should pro-vide f o r adolescents a program of s p o r t s , p l a y a c t i v i t i e s , hobbies, c l u b s and the l i k e to d i v e r t t h e i r sex urge i n t o s o c i a l l y approved channels, Zachry ( 2 6 0 , p . 5 3 2 ) p o i n t s out the need f o r s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d and experienced teachers to educate youth f o r f u t u r e f a m i l y l i f e , Fenton ( 7 5 ,pp. 3 6 5 - 6 ) and Cole ( 5 U,p . U 2 3 ) also regard t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n of primary importance to make p o s s i b l e improvement i n the home r e l a t i o n s of f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . Turning now to suggestions i n the l i t e r a t u r e on commun-i t y r e l a t i o n s , the a v a i l a b l e data w i l l be org a n i z e d under the f o l l o w i n g headings: what the community can do to help; how the s c h o o l can help the community; and what the s c h o o l can do to help the i n d i v i d u a l a d just to the community. The community can help i n the treatment of maladjusted p u p i l s by the p r o v i s i o n of s u i t a b l e playground f a c i l i t i e s which not o n l y keep adolescents o f f the s t r e e t s and out of m i s c h i e f but also p r o v i d e r e a l f u n and h e a l t h y a c t i v i t i e s . A c cording to B u t l e r (UU), the i d e a l playground should have: P l a n n i n g and l e a d e r s h i p f o r the r i g h t type of p l a y , f a c i l i t i e s f o r l e t t i n g o f f steam without r e p r e s s i o n or i n t e r f e r e n c e from e l d e r s , p r o v i s i o n f o r r e l a x a t i o n , p r o v i s i o n f o r encouragement of a great v a r i e t y of s k i l l s and wide i n t e r e s t s , and develop-ment through s e r v i c e - the o l d e r h e l p i n g the younger, Bursch ( U l ) found poor housing to be a f a c t o r i n caus-ing delinquency. U s u a l l y along w i t h poor housing are the (129) other f a c t o r s of l a c k of good food and other minimum essen-t i a l s . Tiegs and Katz ( 2 2 5 , p . 2 5 2 ) d e s c r i b e an attempt i n the United States to remedy slum c o n d i t i o n s by the Wagner-S t e a g a l l B i l l which p r o v i d e s f o r the b u i l d i n g of s u n l i t , a i r y homes at a r e n t a l w i t h i n the means of the low-wage groups. The same authors recommend t h a t the community pro-vide the youth w i t h l i b r a r i e s , museums, h e a l t h c l i n i c s , S o c i a l Welfare agencies, p u b l i c l y supported C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c s , j u v e n i l e c o u r t s , and h o s p i t a l s f o r those m e n t a l l y i l l . They also s t r e s s the important i n f l u e n c e of the church i n improving community i n f l u e n c e s . Fenton ( 7 5,P« 3 8 l ) mentions s e v e r a l r e p o r t s on the value of C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l s c o n s i s t i n g •  of p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s and p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s f o r improving the w e l f a r e of c h i l d r e n . These Community or C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l s c o n t r i b u t e much . toward the improvement of community i n f l u e n c e s . They promote: A. "Improvements i n community s e r v i c e s . . (1) A d u l t education programs (forums, parent study-groups, A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n c l a s s e s , f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s conferences, young mar-r i e d people's groups* c l a s s e s i n a r t s and c r a f t s , dramatics, homemaking, e t c . ) ( 2 ) P u b l i c h e a l t h programs, development of f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , water supply, community b e a u t i f i c a t i o n ( 3 ) E s t a b l i s h m e n t of nu r s e r y s c h o o l s , c h i l d guidance c l i n i c s , playgrounds, r e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r s , t o y - l o a n l i b r a r i e s (k) L i g h t e d playgrounds, backyard playgrounds, garden p r o j e c t s , swimming p o o l s , t e n n i s c o u r t s , year-round camps, and other a c t i v -i t i e s such as ou t i n g s or p i c n i c s ( 5 ) Hobby, h a n d i c r a f t , and pet shows* boat r e g a t t a s , soap-box d e r b i e s , e d u c a t i o n a l t o u r s , other r e c r e a t i o n a l events*, (130) community dances and other group a c t i v i -t i e s ( 6 ) P r o v i s i o n of l e a d e r s h i p f o r boys' and g i r l s ' group work and f o r s u p e r v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n c enters and playgrounds; encouragement of Big.Brother programs (7) V a c a t i o n church-schools (8) Youth employment bureaus (°) V o c a t i o n a l Counseling s e r v i c e B. The establishment of community i n f o r m a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s (1) S o c i a l S e r v i c e Exchange (2) Christmas Basket Clearance Bureau (3) Community Calendars (k) D i r e c t o r i e s of Youth Welfare Agencies (J?) M o t i o n - P i c t u r e Estimate S e r v i c e s (6) P u b l i c education i n regard to the community through newspaper a r t i c l e s , r a d i o programs, and p u b l i c meetings C. The support of community agencies (1) A s s i s t a n c e i n Community Chest D r i v e s and b e n e f i t s f o r p a r t i c u l a r agencies (2) Establishment o f Youth A c t i v i t y Commit t e e s , boys' s e r v i c e c l u b s , l e a d e r s h i p -t r a i n i n g s c h o o l D. The c o n t r o l of u n d e s i r a b l e i n f l u e n c e s (1) Support of r e s t r i c t i o n s on gambling, s l o t machines, e t c . (2) Support of enforcement of l i q u o r laws concerning minors (3) Support of p o l i c e o f f i c e r s i n the sup-p r e s s i o n of s a l e of obscene l i t e r a t u r e to s c h o o l c h i l d r e n E. The sponsorship of community surveys (1) Neighborhood, c i t y , and county surveys (2) Questionnaire s t u d i e s of youth problems, i n c l u d i n g use of l e i s u r e time, v o c a t i o n a l p l a n s , e t c . F. The support o f c h i l d - w e l f a r e l e g i s l a t i o n (1) Housing and slum-clearance p r o j e c t s (2) B i l l s f o r community r e c r e a t i o n (3) Establishment of i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r d e f e c t i v e d e l i n q u e n t s ( 1 3 1 ) (1+) S u p e r v i s i o n of c h i l d r e n i n s t r e e t trades ( 5 ) Laws d e a l i n g w i t h the j u v e n i l e c o u r t s and delinquency p r e v e n t i o n ( 6 ) The l i c e n s i n g of b i c y c l e s (7) Curfew r e g u l a t i o n s . " Such a comprehensive l i s t of b e n e f i t s suggests t h a t Co-o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l s a f f o r d one of the b e s t means to help youth toward good c i t i z e n s h i p . Few suggestions are r e v e a l e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l -i n g w i t h the s e r v i c e s which the s c h o o l can render the c h i l d who i s t r o u b l e d i n h i s community r e l a t i o n s . Tiegs and Katz ( 2 2 5 ,p. 1 5 9 ) b e l i e v e that s u p e r v i s e d s c h o o l playgrounds are a very important f a c t o r i n improving adjustment and reduc-ing delinquency, e s p e c i a l l y where the community does not have adequate f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n and entertainment. C u t t s and Mosely ( 6 0 , p . 2 8 2 ) see the need f o r the f u l l - t i m e o p e r a t i o n of the school playground and b u i l d i n g as a com-munity c e n t r e . By p r o v i d i n g c l e a n and wholesome r e c r e a t i o n -a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , the s c h o o l can compensate f o r a poor com-munity environment. The s c h o o l must give d i r e c t help to the c h i l d who i s not a d j u s t e d to h i s community. Keely ( 1 2 1 ) b e l i e v e s t h a t the s c h o o l should help the student to help h i m s e l f and develop h i s a b i l i t i e s to assume c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . E r r a t i c Scores of the Boys i n P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s The t e s t data show the scores of the grade-ten boys to be q u i t e u n p r e d i c t a b l e i n the t e s t components. Some compon-ents show wide i n c r e a s e s , some s t a t i o n a r y scores and three ( 1 3 2 ) even negative d i f f e r e n c e s when compared w i t h grade-eight boys. A s i m i l a r tendency . i s found i n the comparison of the boys of grades twelve and ten. The l i t e r a t u r e con-t a i n e d no s p e c i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r such v a r i a t i o n s . The t e s t data i n d i c a t e t h a t the grade-ten l e v e l i s the c r i t -i c a l p e r i o d i n three areas of the p e r s o n a l i t y growth of the boys - p e r s o n a l worth, f e e l i n g of belonging and s o c i a l standards - while the grade-twelve l e v e l i s the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i n p e r s o n a l freedom and withdrawing t e n d e n c i e s . From t h i s evidence, i t would appear t h a t adequate guidance i s e s p e c i a l l y important to the boys i n grades ten and twelve. Suggestions to Adjust G u i d a n c e t o Meet the S p e c i a l Needs of the Boys and of the G i r l s The w r i t e r i s f u l l y aware, i n p r e s e n t i n g the recommend-at i o n s of the l i t e r a t u r e f o r d i f f e r e n t areas of p e r s o n a l i t y , t hat the boys and g i r l s may d i f f e r n a t u r a l l y at each grade l e v e l , or may develop normally from year to year at d i f f e r e n t r a t e s . Such may be the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the i r r e g u l a r score d i f f e r e n c e s of the t e s t data i n Table XIV. However, when the p e r c e n t i l e e q u i v a l e n t s of some components do not i n c r e a s e over a two-year p e r i o d , and even at times decrease, the t e s t data may d i s c l o s e p u p i l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n those areas and i n -d i c a t e the need f o r s p e c i a l guidance. On the other hand, the data may i n d i c a t e a l a c k of v a l i d i t y of the measuring instrument. The w r i t e r , t h e r e f o r e , assumes high v a l i d i t y f o r the r a t i n g device used when he o u t l i n e s recommendations ( 1 3 3 ) f o r r e m e d i a l work i n s p e c i f i c components. When the s c o r e s of the boys a t v a r y i n g grade l e v e l s are compared, s i x components show i r r e g u l a r gains and l o s s e s . In one of these, freedom from nervous symptoms, the small d i f f e r e n c e s range from 3 to -2 p e r c e n t i l e p o i n t s . Since n e i t h e r grade-twelve nor grade-ten boys g a i n i n t h i s t r a i t , the suggestions o u t l i n e d below are meant to apply to both grades. Such a s t a t i c c o n d i t i o n i n scores i s probably due to the f a c t t h a t most grade-eight boys are i n a pre-pubesc-ent stage and f a i r l y w e l l adjusted to t h e i r s t a t u s . How-ever, the onset of puberty and i t s p h y s i c a l changes i n most grade-ten and grade-twelve boys may tend to aggravate t h e i r nervous symptoms. Baker and Traphagen (l6,p,173) and C l a r k e , Tiegs and Thorpe (53-.P»H) consi d e r t h a t nervous symptoms may have e i t h e r a p h y s i c a l or a p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a s i s . Where the cause i s p h y s i c a l , these students g e n e r a l l y need l e s s vigorous, e x e r c i s e , more sleep, and a b e t t e r balanced d i e t (5H,P«°1), The authors of the C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y (53,p.12) recommend the f o l l o w i n g methods of h a n d l i n g cases w i t h nervous symptoms: (1) Examine the student's h e a l t h r e c o r d ; (2) I f the r e c o r d bears evidence of a p h y s i c a l b a s i s f o r nervous tendencies, r e f e r the student to a p h y s i c i a n f o r treatment; (3) I f the p h y s i c i a n f i n d s no p h y s i c a l cause, the cause i s probably the need of a f e e l i n g of adequate p e r s o n a l s e c u r i t y ; (k) Provide a p p r e c i a t i o n , approval and ego s a t i s -f a c t i o n s which the i n d i v i d u a l c raves; (5) P h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e l a x a t i o n should be encouraged. ( 1 3 U ) Grade-ten boys appear to need s p e c i a l help i n three of the s i x components where i r r e g u l a r i t i e s are noted - f e e l i n g of belonging, sense of p e r s o n a l worth and s o c i a l standards* The comparison of the boys w i t h the g i r l s i n grade ten out-l i n e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter a l s o r e v e a l s low scores f o r the boys i n the l a t t e r two components. Therefore, the sug-g e s t i o n s i n the l i t e r a t u r e which apply to sense of p e r s o n a l worth and s o c i a l standards have a l r e a d y been given"*-. Recom-mendations f o r developing the f e e l i n g of belonging remain to be o u t l i n e d . Most p s y c h o l o g i s t s agree that adolescence i s a time of changing p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The S i x t e e n t h Yearbook of the American A s s o c i a t i o n of School A d m i n i s t r a t o r s (161,p.8 0 ) s t a t e s t h a t : "the profound changes i n g l a n d u l a r f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the body,concurrent w i t h e q u a l l y great changes i n s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n the c u l t u r e , make adolescence a time when e a r l y p a t t e r n s of p e r s o n a l - r e l a t i o n s h i p may be c o n s i d e r a b l y a l t e r e d . Dependence upon parents normally decreases, and emotional attachments develop toward persons o u t s i d e of the f a m i l y c i r c l e . P e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s have a much deeper s i g n i f -icance when the c a p a c i t y f o r mature love r e p l a c e s the a f f e c t i o n of the younger c h i l d . " No wonder t h a t some high s c h o o l students are mixed up i n t h e i r f e e l i n g of b e l o n g i n g j Laycock ( l 3 0 , p . 7 ) s t r e s s e s the f a c t t h a t "adolescents are p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e to the o p i n i o n of the 'crowd 1." The method of Cole (51+,p. 1 0 7 ) to help the maladjusted to f e e l t h a t they belong i s to encour-age them to get i n t o one of these crowds, f o r she b e l i e v e s 1 . pages 1 1 8 - 1 2 1 ( 1 3 5 ) t h a t "the crowd i s a s o c i a l l y v a l u a b l e u n i t of adolescent s o c i e t y and probably does more to b r i n g about normal s o c i a l growth than teachers and parents combined." Grade-twelve boys have s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower scores i n the f a c t o r of freedom from withdrawing tendencies than the grade-ten boys. No s i m i l a r tendency was found i n other i n v e s t i g -a t i o n s . Numerous recommendations are found f o r p u p i l s w i t h pronounced abnormal t r a i t s of withdrawing ( 5 h,P« - 3 2 3 ) , ( 1 5 7 ) , ( 2 2 5 , P . 3 3 7 ) , ( l 3 9,PP» U 7 5-6). The p a r t i c u l a r emphasis i s on reme d i a l work f o r the i n d i v i d u a l s who daydream too much. But there are no s p e c i f i c suggestions f o r group therapy f o r normal students who r e v e a l withdrawing t e n d e n c i e s . Both boys and g i r l s i n grade twelve have sma l l negative d i f f e r e n c e s when compared w i t h grade t e n i n sense of p e r s o n a l freedom. One might expect t r o u b l e i n the area of p e r s o n a l freedom d u r i n g adolescence. Cole ( 5 U,P» 3 8 8 ) p o i n t s out t h a t . "between the ages of twelve and twenty an i n d i v i d u a l must change from a c h i l d dependent upon h i s home to an a d u l t who i s s u f f i c i e n t l y detached from h i s parents to e s t a b l i s h a suc-c e s s f u l home of h i s own." Complete emancipation i n such a r e l a t i v e l y short time i s bound to b r i n g problems w i t h i t . Laycock ( 1 3 0 ) o u t l i n e s the c h i e f c o n f l i c t s a r i s i n g between teen-agers and t h e i r parents as; d i f f e r e n c e s over spending money, l a t e hours, f r i e n d s , mode of dress, use of the f a m i l y car and church attendance. These c o n f l i c t s c a l l f o r parents who are c o u n s e l l o r s and f r i e n d s , not s u p e r v i s o r s 'and d i c t a t o r s . ( 1 3 6 ) The c h i e f duty of p a r e n t s , a c c o r d i n g to Jones ( 1 1 3 ) , i s ' the g u i d i n g of c h i l d r e n i n "the d i r e c t i o n of independence and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . " Tiegs and Katz ( 2 2 5,p . 2 l | 6 ) d e s c r i b e t h i s emancipation as progress i n a "decreasing r e s o r t to a u t h o r i t y i n p a r e n t - c h i l d d i f f e r e n c e s and an i n c r e a s i n g r e l i a n c e upon calm f r a n k d i s c u s s i o n s of problems i n terms of the c o n d i t i o n s which e x i s t . U n desirable behavior should be t r e a t e d as o f f e n c e s a g a i n s t the f a m i l y group and a g a i n s t r e c o g n i z e d standards r a t h e r than a g a i n s t p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y . " Remedial work f o r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n sense of p e r s o n a l freedom, t h e r e f o r e , i n v o l v e s h e l p i n g the adolescents to understand t h e i r problems and h e l p i n g the parents through such means as "Home and School Clubs" to be aware of methods of r e s o l v -ing t h e i r c o n f l i c t s w i t h teen-agers. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a Guidance Program Assuming v a l i d i t y f o r the t e s t r e s u l t s , more emphasis should be p l a c e d upon improved methods of d i a g n o s i s and treatment of the students w i t h low t e s t scores who might r e q u i r e the help of a s p e c i a l i s t . From the recommendations i n the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h the treatment of d i f f i c u l t i e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment, i t i s apparent that such a s s i s t a n c e i n v o l v e s the c l i n i c a l approach and more f r e q u e n t p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s . Since a guidance program based on sound p r i n c i p l e s and c a r r i e d out w i t h the f u l l c o - o p e r a t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has been found to help maladjusted p e r s o n a l i t i e s , the t e s t ( 1 3 7 ) data imply a need f o r a broad and f u l l y - f u n c t i o n i n g guidance program which makes p r o v i s i o n s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s of i t s p u p i l s . Much more should be known of the s p e c i f i c needs of normal adolescents f o r guidance at the v a r y i n g grade l e v e l s , and of the e f f e c t of s p e c i a l guidance upon normal youth. To allow f o r the sex d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n the grade, two main emphases are needed i n a guidance program. In the f i r s t p l a c e , the adoption of the "Hygiene" course designed by Cole (5U,p.UU) might help the g i r l s at the grade-eight l e v e l i n t h e i r s e l f - r e l i a n c e and nervous-symptom d i f f i c u l t i e s , and the boys of grade ten i n t h e i r sense of p e r s o n a l worth. I t would appear t h a t such s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n about puberty and i t s accompanying problems of adjustment should be given e a r l i e r to the g i r l s than to the boys. The second emphasis should be on d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n i n s o c i a l standards to the boys i n grades ten and twelve. In t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s , cognizance should be taken of the s t r o n g a n t i - s o c i a l tenden-c i e s of grade-eight boys i n order t h a t the i n e x p e r i e n c e d teacher may know what to expect. The boys and g i r l s do not appear from t h e t e s t d a t a to improve c o n s i s t e n t l y i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . The s c h o o l might w e l l i n s t i t u t e a progr.am designed to enable p u p i l s to improve from year to year i n the t r a i t s i n which t h e i r scores were not s a t i s f a c t o r y . S a l i e n t f e a t u r e s of such a program would i n c l u d e more f r e q u e n t and c l o s e r c o n t a c t w i t h the home through (138) parent-teacher o r g a n i z a t i o n s to improve the f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s of the student as w e l l as to e l i m i n a t e other p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f i c u l t i e s caused by the home. G i v i n g parents a broader understanding of t h e i r job as parents and of the nature of adolescence should promote b e t t e r student adjustment. In a d d i t i o n to d e a l i n g w i t h the home, the d i r e c t o r s of guidance must accept t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r g u i d i n g the adolescent toward a b e t t e r understanding o f h i m s e l f through c l a s s e s i n Mental Health, P h y s i c a l Hygiene and Adolescent Psychology. The ad o l e s c e n t s need o p p o r t u n i t y to develop t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s , not only by studying them-s e l v e s , but by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n group a c t i v i t i e s i n order to p r a c t i s e s o c i a l s k i l l s , to develop a f e e l i n g o f belong-i n g and a sense of p e r s o n a l worth, to improve t h e i r sense of p e r s o n a l freedom and to l e s s e n t h e i r withdrawing tend-e n c i e s . The guidance program must a l s o t r y to provide the bes t p o s s i b l e school s i t u a t i o n to ensure the maximum development i n p e r s o n a l i t y . Cole (5 k ,pp• Uil5-8 ) has a p a r t i c u l a r l y ap-p l i c a b l e s e c t i o n i l l u s t r a t i n g how t e a c h i n g methods and cu r -r i c u l u m should be adjus t e d f o r a d o l e s c e n t s . Adolescents are u s u a l l y i m p a t i e n t of d r i l l or monotony, and w i l l only spend time studying classwork t h a t i s i n t e r e s t i n g and that p r e s e n t s a r e a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r mental e x e r c i s e . Whenever p o s s i b l e , s u b j e c t matter should be approached through the emotions and im a g i n a t i o n r a t h e r than through impersonal l o g i c . W i t h i n (139) reasonable l i m i t s the students should be allowed to p l a n t h e i r own work and the means of g e t t i n g i t done. Strang (20)4,p#639) d e s c r i b e s a w e l l - o r g a n i z e d s c h o o l system: " I t s teachers have been s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r a b i l i t y to guide p u p i l s ; i t s l e a d e r s h i p i s expert and democratic; i t s s c h o o l p l a n t i s conducive to the b e s t development of adolescent boys and g i r l s ; i t s c u r r i c u l u m p r o v i d e s f o r t h e i r v a r i e d c a p a c i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , and needs; i t s c l i n i c a l s e r v i c e s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r con-tinuous i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n of teachers and g i v e s a s s i s t a n c e on problems w i t h which the teacher cannot d e a l because he has n e i t h e r the time nor the h i g h l y spec-i a l i z e d knowledge and s k i l l ; i t s commun-i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s are c o - o p e r a t i v e and h e l p f u l . " No guidance program i s s u f f i c i e n t i f i t stops w i t h the students, t h e i r home and the s c h o o l . The program must cam-paign f o r a community which i s safe and h e a l t h y f o r a d o l e s c -ents, and which f u r n i s h e s a s u f f i c i e n t number and v a r i e t y of h e a l t h y emotional o u t l e t s . Such a guidance program g i v e s s p e c i a l help i n the areas i n which the t e s t data r e v e a l no i n c r e a s e s - f a m i l y and com-munity r e l a t i o n s , s o c i a l adjustment and s o c i a l s k i l l s . The t e s t data imply t h a t boys need more a t t e n t i o n than g i r l s i n one h a l f of the components of the t e s t . Both grades ten and twelve appear to be c r i t i c a l p e r i o d s of adjustment f o r boys and warrant s p e c i a l guidance and e x t r a c o u n s e l l i n g . On the other hand, the g i r l s i n the senior year a l s o need s p e c i a l emphasis i n the adjustment area of p e r s o n a l freedom. CHAPTER VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND - RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The f i n d i n g s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n can be summarized b r i e f l y . I t i s shown th a t an a p p r e c i a b l e percentage of students have such low scores t h a t they need expert c o u n s e l -l i n g . Assuming t h a t the t e s t s are c o r r e c t , the study has r e v e a l e d , a l s o , the ge n e r a l weakness of teachers to r e c o g -n i z e p e r s o n a l i t y d e f e c t s . While i t i s found to be g e n e r a l l y t r u e t h a t the sex d i f f e r e n c e s are n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t , the need f o r some sex d i s t i n c t i o n i n i n s t r u c t i o n i s found to be d e s i r a b l e . These d i f f e r e n c e s are perhaps due l a r g e l y to the d i f f e r e n c e s be-tween the boys and g i r l s i n age of onset of puberty. This study i n d i c a t e s t h a t the guidance program should take i n t o account the v a r i a t i o n s i n the r a t e of development i n person-a l i t y t r a i t s of the boys. I t i s b e l i e v e d , too, th a t a t t e n -t i o n should be given to the areas of t o t a l s o c i a l adjustment, of s o c i a l s k i l l s and of home and community r e l a t i o n s s i n c e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e n t i l e e q u i v a l e n t s are record e d i n any of the grade l e v e l s t e s t e d . Recommendations and Th e i r L i m i t a t i o n s I t i s one t h i n g to p o i n t out the i m p l i c a t i o n s of these f i n d i n g s upon a guidance program, but i t i s q u i t e another ( 1 U 0 ) C U D matter to o u t l i n e recommendations. The l i t e r a t u r e d i d not prov i d e any i n f o r m a t i o n of attempts t h a t have been made to meet changing p e r s o n a l i t y needs duri n g the student's h i g h -s c h o o l l i f e . Hence, there i s a l a c k of any experimental evidence of the e f f e c t s of v a r i a t i o n s i n guidance programs to adjust to such changes. To attempt to o u t l i n e a guidance course without exper-i m e n t a l study of i t s worth seems presumptuous. Any recom-mendations are, t h e r e f o r e , simply suggested emphases, rem-edies or changes which, i f c a r r i e d out, might b e t t e r meet the student's p e r s o n a l i t y needs. These proposed changes would r e q u i r e experimental v a l i d a t i o n to determine t h e i r r e a l v a l u e . In the l i g h t of the w r i t e r ' s g r a d e - l e v e l com-p a r i s o n s of s t u d e n t - p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment i n high s c h o o l , the f o l l o w i n g recommendations are presented. 1. Teachers would be b e t t e r able to diagnose and t r e a t p e r s o n a l i t y t r o u b l e s i f there were a d e f i n i t e t e a c h e r -c o u n s e l l o r course of s t u d i e s with i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g a v a i l -a b l e . The f i n d i n g s of the Teachers' C o l l e g e Guidance Laboratory i n d i c a t e d : "le are sure, a f t e r t e n years of ex-pe r i m e n t a t i o n i n the Guidance Laboratory, that there i s no s u b s t i t u t e f o r c l o s e l y s u p e r v i s e d experience i n c o u n s e l -l i n g " (71;,p.7). 2. To cope e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h s e r i o u s problem cases, the sc h o o l should provide the s e r v i c e s of a guidance expert or s p e c i a l i s t . ( 1 U 2 ) 3» To ensure an improvement i n the areas of home and community r e l a t i o n s and i n sense of p e r s o n a l freedom, the h i g h - s c h o o l course of s t u d i e s might w e l l p r o v i d e f o r d i s -c u s s i o n on t o p i c s of f a m i l y and community matters as w e l l as a psychology course on adolescence. i l . Regarding sex d i s t i n c t i o n i n guidance i n s t r u c t i o n , some p e r i o d s during the year should be g i v e n to the separate sexes to emphasize t h e i r own s p e c i a l needs of that grade l e v e l . A r e v i s e d hygiene course which p r o v i d e s f o r sex i n s t r u c t i o n would r e q u i r e the s e g r e g a t i o n of the boys and g i r l s . 5. Awareness by the t e a c h e r s of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes i n p e r s o n a l i t y development would give i n d i r e c t help i n the o r d i n a r y classroom procedures. 6. D i s c u s s i o n groups d e a l i n g w i t h teen-age c o n f l i c t s w i t h parents and s u p e r i o r s would help to meet the need of improve-ment i n the sense of p e r s o n a l freedom of s e n i o r students. 7. D i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n i n s o c i a l standards expected of youth should be given to-the boys i n the l a s t three years of high s c h o o l . 8. The g i r l s i n grade e i g h t need c o u n s e l l i n g i n the areas of s e l f - r e l i a n c e and nervous symptoms. 9. The boys at the grade-ten l e v e l need s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n f o r group or "crowd" a c t i v i t i e s to help them i n t h e i r f e e l i n g of belonging and sense of p e r s o n a l worth. Further Research Needed For s e v e r a l reasons, the r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n (1U3) should be checked by f u r t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y measurement. In the f i r s t p l a c e , the t e s t r e s u l t s depend l a r g e l y upon the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the r a t i n g device used. Evidence has been c i t e d of the need f o r improvement i n methods used to measure p e r s o n a l i t y . R e t e s t i n g w i t h other t e s t s would be a check on the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n the f i r s t t e s t i n g . Secondly, the number of p u p i l s t e s t e d i n t h i s study i s com-p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l i n the s e n i o r grade l e v e l . F i n a l l y , a more accurate comparison would be o b t a i n e d from a study of the same group of students at two-year i n t e r v a l s . The f i e l d of p e r s o n a l i t y development has comparatively r e c e n t l y come to the a t t e n t i o n of educators. To date c o n s i d -e r a b l e experimentation has been c a r r i e d out i n r e m e d i a l work f o r s e r i o u s l y warped p e r s o n a l i t i e s . However, there has as y e t been l i t t l e attempt to measure the e f f e c t s of guidance upon the average or normal student. I f guidance i s to be w i s e l y administered, much more must be known of the needs of the p u p i l s at each grade l e v e l and of the r e s u l t s of the pres ent system. The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of p o s s i b l e t o p i c s of i n v e s t i g -a t i o n i n the f i e l d of p e r s o n a l i t y . I t i s i n no way complete but i t may suggest beginnings, at l e a s t . 1. The d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the growth of p e r s o n a l i t y d u r i n g the h i g h - s c h o o l p e r i o d by measurement at y e a r l y i n t e r v a l 2. Experimental r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t of s p e c i a l help f o r one group as compared to a c o n t r o l group: (1UU) a) i n the area of sense of p e r s o n a l freedom i n Grade XII-b) i n the area of sense of p e r s o n a l worth of Grade X boys-c) i n the area of f e e l i n g of belonging f o r the Grade X boys-d) i n the area of s o c i a l standards f o r Grade X and XII boys-e) i n the area of freedom from nervous symptoms f o r Grade V I I I g i r l s and f o r Grades X and XII boys-f ) i n the area of s e l f - r e l i a n c e f o r Grade V I I I g i r l s Study of the e f f e c t of an emphasis i n the guidance program upon the student's r e l a t i o n to h i s f a m i l y . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the e f f e c t of a guidance program e s p e c i a l l y designed to improve the student's r e l a t i o n to h i s community. A d e t e r m i n a t i o n of sex d i f f e r e n c e s of the students i n p e r s o n a l i t y development. A study to determine the v a l i d i t y of the f i n d i n g of t h i s study r e g a r d i n g the low mean score of Grade XII boys i n the area of withdrawing t e n d e n c i e s . APPENDIX IA QUESTIONNAIRE GIVEN HOME-ROOM TEACHERS Dear The students of your room have been give the C a l i f o r n i a Test of P e r s o n a l i t y , We now wish t t r y to check i t s v a l i d i t y by comparing i t s r e s u l t s w i t h your o p i n i o n and p e r s o n a l knowledge of the students. The t e s t proposes to measure the s e l l " adjustment and s o c i a l adjustment o±" your students i n the f a c t o r s shown below. Would you please complete t h i s q u e s t i o n -n a i r e at your e a r l i e s t convenience and r e t u r n i t t Mr, Wales, Please do not r e f e r to the l a s t page u n t i l you have completed the f i r s t one. The i n f o r m a t i o n you-submit w i l l be t r e a t ed as s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . Thank you. SELF ADJUSTMENT 1-A S e l f - r e l i a n c e 1-B Sense of Personal Worth 1-C Sense of Personal Freedom .... 1-D F e e l i n g of Belonging 1-E Withdrawing Tendencies 1-F Nervous Symptoms SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT 2-A S o c i a l Standards 2-B S o c i a l S k i l l s 2-C A n t i - s o c i a l Tendencies 2-D Family R e l a t i o n s 2-E School R e l a t i o n s 2-F Community R e l a t i o n s .. (11*6) Please l i s t the students whom you consider to be very w e l l a d j u s t e d both to s e l f and to s o c i e t y , r a n k i n g them beginning w i t h the b e s t . 2. 3. It. 5. 6. 7 . 8. Please l i s t the students whom you conside r to be b a d l y adjusted to s e l f and s o c i e t y , r a n k i n g them beginning with the worst. I t would a l s o be most h e l p f u l i f you i n c l u d e d the symptoms of the maladjustment. 1. 2. 3 . It. 5. 6. 7 . 8. Please do not r e f e r to the next page u n t i l you have  completed t h i s one. (1U7) A . From the p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s given, the f o l l o w i n g ranked  low i n a l l f a c t o r s f o r your c l a s s i Name Do you agree ? I f so, what causes do you suggest f o r the maladjustment? 1. 2. 3. U . B. The f o l l o w i n g ranked low i n c e r t a i n f a c t o r s of person- a l i t y . Name Factor Do you What causes do you agree ? suggest? 1. 2. 3. I N C. These are suggestions of some p o s s i b l e causes of low sco r e . 1. Is i t t r o u b l e i n the home? d i v o r c e ? s e p a r a t i o n ? l o s s of parent? e t c . 2. Is i t l a c k of a b i l i t y ? or l a z i n e s s ? or shyness? 3 . Is i t appearance? Too f a t or t h i n , or too t a l l , e t c . 11. Is i t money i n l a c k or excess? 5« Is i t an i n f e r i o r i t y complex? 6 . Is i t nervousness? 7. Is i t low moral and s o c i a l standards? 8. I f you have never n o t i c e d maladjustment, could that be because the student i s no problem i n s c h o o l , or of ve r y r e t i r i n g nature? These are merely a few suggestions and by no means exhaust the many causes. Please add any others which you, from your p e r s o n a l knowledge of the student i n q u e s t i o n , b e l i e v e to be l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the abnormal or maladjusted behaviour or p e r s o n a l i t y . Thank you f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n . APPENDIX IB QUESTIONNAIRE GIVEN THE COUNSELLORS Please l i s t the students i n the c l a s s i n d i c a t e d whom you, as c o u n s e l l o r , know to be: d e f i n i t e l y maladjusted p e r s o n a l i t i e s : Grade B. d e f i n i t e l y w e l l ad-j u s t e d p e r s o n a l i t i e s : Grade Name Cause 1. 2. 3. k. 5. 6. Name 1.. 2.. .3.. b.. 5 . . 6. (1U8) BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Ackerson, Luton. C h i l d r e n ' s Behavior Problems. 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