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A statistical analysis of some aspects of the Johnson temperament analysis Hammett, Joseph Francis 1948

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A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OP SOME ASPECTS OP THE JOHNSON TEMPERAMENT ANALYSIS by JOSEPH FRANCIS HAMMETT ^^3 37 Co p'l A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OP MASTER OP ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OP EDUCATION THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER, 1948 A S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of Some Aspects of The Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s A b s t r a c t T h i s study examines a number of aspects of the Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s based on the responses o f 48 male graduates i n the Department of E d u c a t i o n at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Item d i f f i c u l t y i s c o n s i d e r e d from the r e p o r t s of 39 s t u d e n t s . The mean number of d i f f i c u l t items per student i s 21.6 or 12% o f the t o t a l . I t i s found t h a t the d i f f i c u l t i e s can be c l a s s i f i e d under f i v e headings: (a) Lack of experience w i t h the t o p i c . (b) D i f f i c u l t i e s o f comprehension. (c) D i f f i c u l t i e s o f e v a l u a t i o n . (d) Response dependent upon circumstance. (e) - Two or more n o t i o n s i n one q u e s t i o n . I t would appear t h a t a number of these d i f f i c u l t i e s c o u l d be avoided I f a r e v i s i o n of the A n a l y s i s were undertaken. The adjustment of the group i n terms of the A n a l y s i s i s c o n s i d e r e d . The means are i n the a c c e p t a b l e zone or b e t t e r i n a l l t r a i t s except C o r d i a l , where the mean l i e s at the b o r d e r l i n e between accep t a b l e and improvement d e s i r a b l e . Age d i f f e r e n c e s are not found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . There i s some s l i g h t advantage of b e t t e r adjustment i n terms of the A n a l y s i s f o r the o l d e r group. R e l i a b i l i t i e s o f the t r a i t t e s t s , c a l c u l a t e d by the s p l i t h a l f technique are found t o range from ,32 to .82. In g e n e r a l these support the p u b l i s h e d f i g u r e s o f the t e s t author. A phenomenon o f d i f f e r e n c e between the f i r s t and second h a l v e s o f the A n a l y s i s i s noted. No d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s are p r e s e n t e d t o account f o r t h i s , but i t i s suggested t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h might determine the a d v i s a b i l i t y of h a v i n g unscored p r a c t i c e items at the b be g i n n i n g o f such i n v e n t o r i e s . The i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the t r a i t t e s t s are c a l c u l a t e d by the product-moment formula and are found to be comparable to the t e t r a c h o r i c r ' s r e p o r t e d i n . t h e Manual of D i r e c t i o n s , The former are f a c t o r e d by the Gen t r o i d Method and f i v e f a c t o r s e x t r a c t e d . The axes are r o t a t e d by the single-plane"method and a simple s t r u c t u r e o b t a i n e d . T h i s Is d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f Thurstone's c r i t e r i a and i s c o n s i d e r e d to be r e a s o n a b l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . An attempt i s made to i d e n t i f y the f a c t o r s obtained, one b e i n g named w i t h a h i g h degree o f assurance. I t i s F a c t o r I I , S o c i a l I n t r o v e r s i o n - E x t r a v e r s i o n . F a c t o r s I and I I I are i d e n t i f i e d w i t h some assurance as E m o t i o n a l i t y and Rathymia r e s p e c t i v e l y . The remaining two f a c t o r s are most t e n t a t i v e l y , and w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e r e l u c t a n c e , named as O b j e c t i v i t y and Co-operativeness• I t i s suggested t h a t , i f a s h o r t e r form of the A n a l y s i s be r e q u i r e d , t r a i t s D and H would give a f a i r index of the g e n e r a l adjustment of the i n d i v i d u a l i n terms of the f i v e f a c t o r s named. I t i s f e l t t h a t , i n the case o f the 48 students used as the b a s i s of t h i s study, the nine t r a i t s d e f i n e d by the t e s t author are .not d i s t i n c t l y measured. Since the group i s smal l and homogeneous, no g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s to the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n are made. Table of Contents Chapter 1, I n t r o d u c t i o n page 1 Chapter 2, The Subjects page 5 Chapter 3j The D i f f i c u l t y o f Response to Items of the A n a l y s i s page 7 Chapter 4, R e s u l t s and R e l i a b i l i t y page 15 Chapter 5, F a c t o r A n a l y s i s of the Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s page 26 Chapter 6, I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of F a c t o r s page 32 Chapter 7, Summary page 42 L i s t of Tables Table I Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Weights page 3 Table I I Standard D e v i a t i o n s of Weights page 4 Table I I I Age D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s . . . .page 5 Table IV T o t a l Number of Items Reported D i f f i c u l t by Students.... page 7 Table V Reported D i f f i c u l t i e s i n Terms of Items.page 8 Table VI T o t a l Reported D i f f i c u l t i e s by T r a i t s . . . p a g e 13 Table VII Weighted Scores, Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s page 15 Table V I I I P e r c e n t i l e Zones of A c c e p t a b i l i t y page 18 Table IX Comparison of Older and Younger Students page 19 Table X R e l i a b i l i t i e s o f T r a i t s page 20 Table XI R e c a p i t u l a t i o n of C e r t a i n Results.......page 21 Table X I I I n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s o f T r a i t s ...page 26 Table X I I I F a c t o r M a t r i x and R e s i d u a l s page 27, Table XIV Rotated F a c t o r M a t r i x . .page 28 Appendices Appendix A, The Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s Appendix B, The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Items by T r a i t s Appendix C, F u l l F a c t o r M a t r i x and R e s i d u a l M a t r i c e s B i b l i o g r a p h y ' 1 A Statistical Analysis of Some Aspects of The Johnson Temperament Analysis Chapter 1 1• Introduction Personality 'tests 1 are being increasingly used as aids to counselling in schools, in industry, and in c l i n i c s . Evaluations of these personality inventories are being made continuously. That this i s so i s most desirable, in view of their frequent use as diagnostic aids. A search of the literature shows no report on the Johnson Temperament Analysis which was copyrighted in 1944. Inter-correlations and r e l i a b i l i t y coefficients are quoted in the Manual of Directions, but no outside evidence is apparently available to support or refute the figures given. It would appear that an investigation of the Analysis i s overdue. To that end this study was undertaken. By no means a complete evaluation has been attempted, some aspects only having been examined. The sample to whom the Analysis was administered i s small and relatively homo-geneous, hence no sweeping generalizations can or w i l l be made • 2. The Make-up of the Analysis Owing to the peculiar nature of some of the results of this Investigation, It i s necessary to describe the make-up of the Johnson Temperament Analysis in some detail. 2 The Analysis, a copy of which i s to be found i n Appendix A, consists of 182 Items to which the subject, or someone who knows the subject well, i s required to respond i n one of three ways: 'plus,' 'middle' or 'minus,' representing 40$, 20%, 40% respectively of the population of the age and sex of the subject. The 'plus' response can be interpreted as "decidedly yes," while the 'minus' means "decidedly no." The 'middle' reply indicates lack of assurance one way or the other. Of the 182 items only 176 are used i n the scoring keys. By means of them nine t r a i t s are measured, no item being used more than once. The nine t r a i t s are as follows: T r a i t A items T r a i t B items T r a i t C items T r a i t D items T r a i t E Sympathetic - "hard b o i l e d " . ..20 items T r a i t F items T r a i t G items T r a i t H items T r a i t I items Appendix B shows the items which go to make up each t r a i t . Two further items, No. 181 and No. 182, are used to indicate p e r i o d i c i t y i n t r a i t s C and B respectively. These items are: 181 Does S have sp e l l s of l i v e l i n e s s ( l a s t i n g at 3 l e a s t . s e v e r a l days) r a t h e r than s t a y i n g at about the same l e v e l ? 182 Does S have s p e l l s o f b e i n g sad and depressed ( l a s t i n g a t l e a s t s e v e r a l days) r a t h e r than s t a y i n g at about the same l e v e l ? T r a i t s A , C , E and G are scored from items i n the f i r s t 90, w h i l e t r a i t s B , D, P- and H are marked f rom Items i n the second 90. The ques t ions measuring t r a i t I are d i s p e r s e d throughout the whole i n v e n t o r y . Scores f o r each response to the i tems are w e i g h t e d , the weights v a r y i n g from 2 to 7. Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the weights ass igned i n each t r a i t appear below i n Table I . Table I Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s of weights Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s T r a i t s Weights A B C D E P G H I f f f f f f f f f 2 5 9 4 18 5 5 2 7 12 3 18 12 14 14 16 12 15 12 23 4 10 11 21 7 21 17 19 14 6 5 12 12 8 9 14 13 11 13 11 6 15 15 7 10 4 13 7 13 8 7 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 . N 60 60 54 60 60 60 54 60 60 4 Standard d e v i a t i o n s of weights are set out i n Table I I below. Table I I Standard Deviations of Weights Johnson.Temperament A n a l y s i s T r a i t S.D. T r a i t S.D. A 1 .33 B 1 .42 C 1 .10 D 1 .58 E 1 .02 P 1 .24 Gr 1 .07 H 1 .35 I 1 .41 I t w i l l be noted that the v a r i a b i l i t y of weighting Is g r e a t e r i n the t r a i t s scored i n the second h a l f of the A n a l y s i s . None of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n standard d e v i a t i o n s i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , the l a r g e s t C r i t i c a l R a t i o being 2 . 4 1 ,-that between the d i f f e r e n c e s i n S.D's. of weights of t r a i t s D and E . In view of what f o l l o w s i n l a t e r chapters, t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s at l e a s t i n t e r e s t i n g , i f not s i g n i f i c a n t i n a s t a t i s t i c a l sense. Tables of p e r c e n t i l e s f o r weighted scores are given i n the Manual of D i r e c t i o n s f o r the A n a l y s i s . The subject's p r o f i l e i s p l o t t e d on an i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e sheet i n terms of these p e r c e n t i l e s . Computations i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n are based upon the weighted scores. 5 Chapter 2 The Subjects The s u b j e c t s were 48 male graduate students i n the Department o f E d u c a t i o n of the F a c u l t y of A r t s and Science at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Table I I I g i v e s the age d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s u b j e c t s . Table I I I Age D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Subjects Age f 39-40 1 37-38 2 35-36 33-34 31-32 2 29-30 3 27-28 5 25-26 9 23-24 11 21-22 13 19-20 1 The A n a l y s i s was admi n i s t e r e d to the group by Dr. F. T. T y l e r , then of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, on 9 October, 1947 as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the Teacher T r a i n i n g Programme. I t was e x p l a i n e d to the s u b j e c t s t h a t the 6 r e s u l t s might prove u s e f u l In the p r e d i c t i o n of success i n t e a c h i n g and as a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . Each student was p r o m i s e d , — a n d r e c e i v e d , - - a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w concerning h i s scores on t h i s t e s t and two o t h e r s , namely, the Minnesota T. S. E. and the Minnesota P e r s o n a l i t y S c a l e . Since these students were i n t r a i n i n g f o r t h e i r chosen p r o f e s s i o n , i t can be assumed, i n the l i g h t of the above e x p l a n a t i o n t o them, t h a t t h e i r responses would be as honest as they c o u l d make them. That t h i s was i n f a c t the case i s f u r t h e r borne out by t h e i r r e a c t i o n to the A n a l y s i s a f t e r they had f i n i s h e d i t . As a group they complained t h a t many of the questions were d i f f i c u l t t o answer h o n e s t l y or c o r r e c t l y . In order to o b j e c t i f y t h i s complaint, each student was asked to go through the items and l i s t which were d i f f i c u l t . F o r each one so marked, the student was r e q u i r e d to gi v e a reason. Not a l l found time to do t h i s . R e p l i e s o f 39 students are c o n s i d e r e d i n the next chapter. 7 Chapter 3 The D i f f i c u l t y of Response to Items of the A n a l y s i s Students are prone to complain about examinations of any k i n d . I t was thought, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t when put to the tas k o f making t h e i r o b j e c t i o n s s p e c i f i c , they would f i n d but l i t t l e substance behind t h e i r c r i t i c i s m s . There i s no way of knowing i f t h i s were the case w i t h those who f a i l e d to t u r n i n a r e p o r t . F o r those who d i d i t was r a t h e r the other way. They found a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of items t o be d i f f i c u l t . Table IV shows t h i s . Table IV T o t a l Number of Items Reported D i f f i c u l t by Students Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s U. B. C. Data No. of items No. of students 46-50 1 41-.45 '36-40 2 31-35 2 26-30 6 21-25 9 16-20 8 11-15 9 • 6-10 2 N r_ « 39 3£» 21.6 8 In other words a l i t t l e over h a l f the group found at l e a s t 20 items, or more than 1 i n 10, d i f f i c u l t to answer a c c u r a t e l y . Such a p r o p o r t i o n c o u l d markedly a f f e c t s c o r e s . The same i n f o r m a t i o n can be d i s p l a y e d i n another way which i s more f r u i t f u l f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l purposes. Table V shows the d i f f i c u l t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i n terms of items. Table V Reported D i f f i c u l t i e s i n Terms o f Items Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s U. B. C. Data r e p o r t i n g Items S's. r e p o r t i n g Items 17 2 8 10 16 2 7 17 15 2 6 9 14 3 5 12 13 2 4 17 12 6 3 26 11 1 2 24 10 5 1 25 9 6 0 12 Only 12 items p r e s e n t e d no d i f f i c u l t y t o a i y s u b j e c t . 23 items were found to be d i f f i c u l t by a t l e a s t one-quarter of the t o t a l r e p o r t i n g . I t w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g and i n s t r u c t -i v e t o l o o k a t these q u e s t i o n s and the reasons g i v e n f o r t h e i r d i f f i c u l t y . 31-G-lV 5 , Is S so sure of h i m s e l f t h a t i t sometimes annoys oth e r s ? T y p i c a l reasons: "Not easy f o r S t o know t h i s about himself.!': "S's o p i n i o n b i a s e d . " 33-C-17 Is S l e s s a t t e n t i v e than m o s t . I n d i v i d u a l s t o t h i n g s going on around him? T y p i c a l reasons: "Depends upon what, where, why and p r e o c c u p a t i o n . " " A t t e n t i o n v a r i e s markedly." 37-C-16 Is S the k i n d of person one might c a l l a " s e l f s t a r t e r " ? T y p i c a l reasons: " V a r i e s from time t o time." " U s u a l l y v e r y l i t t l e chance to e x h i b i t i t . " 41-G-16 Does S sometimes say t h i n g s t h a t are domin-a t i n g so t h a t p e o p l e s ' f e e l i n g s are some-times h u r t ? T y p i c a l reasons: "Meaning of 'dominating'?" "How o f t e n i s sometimes?". 60-E-15 Would S p r o b a b l y r e s o r t t o c o r p o r a l p u n i s h -ment In the case of d e l i b e r a t e disobedience by l i i s own c h i l d a t age ten? . T y p i c a l reasons; "Have no c h i l d r e n J" "Depends on the circumstances." 93-D-15 In s o c i a l c o n t a c t s Is S thought to be warm-hearted? T y p i c a l reasons: "For someone e l s e t o say." "S may not know what h i s c o n t a c t s t h i n k . " # Code meaning: Item 31 of the A n a l y s i s , i n d i c a t i v e of t r a i t G and found to be d i f f i c u l t by 17 s t u d e n t s . 85-G-14 Does S t h i n k l e s s w e l l of h i s a b i l i t y than the f a c t s warrant? T y p i c a l reasons: " D i f f i c u l t t o form a j u s t o p i n i o n . " "Needs an o u t s i d e r . " 5-G-14 Does S r e s e n t e f f o r t s of others to t e l l him what to do? T y p i c a l reasons: "Depends on what i s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . " '.'Depends on the approach of the t e l l e r . " 151-D-14 Do companions l i k e t o be w i t h S? T y p i c a l reasons: " B e t t e r t o be answered by someone e l s e . " "Hard to be o b j e c t i v e . " 15-A-13 Does S have a v o i c e t h a t flows evenly and smoothly? T y p i c a l reasons: " D i f f i c u l t t o judge one's own v o i c e . " " A f f e c t e d by the emotional s t a t e of S." 49-E-13 Does S t h i n k t h a t modern p r i s o n s coddle the p r i s o n e r too much so as to i n t e r f e r e w i t h needed punishment? T y p i c a l reasons: "No i d e a what p r i s o n treatment i s l i k e . " " P r i s o n s d i f f e r . " 10-G-12 Is S easy going In the matter o f . d i s c i p l i n e ? T y p i c a l reasons: " P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g caused c o n f u s i o n h e r e . " " E x t e r n a l o r s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e ? " 104-B-12 Is S sometimes thought of as a "wet b l a n k e t " T y p i c a l reasons: "Meaning?" "Might not know." 90-E-12 In an automobile a c c i d e n t i n which S i s i n v o l v e d does he r e a l l y t r y to see t h a t any damage he d i d i s made good? T y p i c a l reasons: "The c o u r t w i l l p r o b a b l y s o l v e S f s problem f o r him." "No e x p e r i e n c e . " 8 2 - G - 1 2 Does S t a l k l e s s than h i s share when w i t h o t h e r s ? T y p i c a l reasons: "Depends on the group he Is i n . " " C o n d i t i o n a l on the t o p i c of c o n v e r s a t i o n . " 6 7 - G 3 u E 2 Is S emphatic i n v o i c e and manner? T y p i c a l reasons: "Could be one and not the o t h e r . " "Depends on circumstances." 4 6 - E - l l Is 5 as much i n f l u e n c e d i n h i s behavior by c o n s i d e r a t i o n of g e n e r a l w e l f a r e as by c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f h i s own advantage? T y p i c a l reasons: " D i f f i c u l t t o analyze motives o b j e c t i v e l y . " "This c o u l d have been worded more simply." 5 9 - G - 1 0 Does S accept d e f e a t e a s i l y without any evidence of h i s d i s a p p o i n t e d f e e l i n g ? T y p i c a l reasons: "Depends on the k i n d of d e f e a t . " "One can be unaware 0 of what one .Is showing." 1 0 5 - D - 1 O Is S c o n s i d e r e d cheery by some people? T y p i c a l reasons: "Everyone i s so c o n s i d e r e d by some." "How can S know t h i s ? " 1 1 7 - H - 1 0 Does S take c r i t i c i s m e a s i l y without resentment? T y p i c a l reasons: "Depends on the person g i v i n g the c r i t i c i s m . " "Depends on the k i n d of c r i t i c i s m . " 131-D-10 Does S show a u n i f o r m . r a t h e r than a v a r i e d e x p r e s s i o n i n t a l k i n g ? T y p i c a l reasons: "Hard t o know one's own v o i c e . " "Not constant." 12 173-F-10 Does S succeed i n p r e v e n t i n g h i s emotions swaying h i s judgment much? T y p i c a l reasons: 11 'Much1 confused me." " D i f f i c u l t to a n a l y z e . " The responses g i v e n here, and those made to l e s s d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n s , can he c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s . (1) Lack of experience i n the matter. (2) D i f f i c u l t y of comprehension. (3) D i f f i c u l t y o f e v a l u a t i o n . (4) Response depends upon circumstance. (5) Two or more n o t i o n s In one q u e s t i o n . I t would seem t h a t the s t u d e n t s ' p o i n t s are w e l l made. Questions c o u l d be framed that are dependent on experiences common to everyone. ( I t i s to be hoped that not a l l of us have had automobile a c c i d e n t s I) D i f f i c u l t i e s i n comprehen-s i o n c o u l d be avoided by rewording. 173-F-10 might be r e w r i t t e n w i t h advantage as, "Does S succeed i n p r e v e n t i n g h i s judgment from being much swayed by h i s emotions?" In p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s ' e v a l u a t i o n ' of o n e s e l f i s always a problem. With f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h of type items, I t might be p o s s i b l e to a v o i d questions of t h i s k i n d . To get around the problem o f circumstances a f f e c t i n g the answer, r e q u i r e s o n l y the making of more p r e c i s e statements. 5-G-14 c o u l d be reworded, "Does S r e s e n t e f f o r t s of h i s s u p e r i o r s to t e l l him what to do, i f i t i s done t a c t f u l l y ? " T h i s would not have q u i t e the same i n p l i c a t i o n as the o r i g i n a l item, 13 hence i t might be n e c e s s a r y to have a d d i t i o n a l items r e p r e s e n t i n g the other p o s s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s would r e q u i r e l e n g t h e n i n g the A n a l y s i s , a procedure which has disadvantages. Taking as i t does n e a r l y an hour, to l e n g t h e n i t would p r o b a b l y a f f e c t the s u b j e c t ' s r a p p o r t . Two o r more n o t i o n s i n one q u e s t i o n can be d i s p o s e d of by s p l i t t i n g . T h i s again would l e n g t h e n the t e s t . I t was noted i n Chapter 1, (p. 4 ) , t h a t the v a r i a b i l i t y of w e i g h t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n s was i n g e n e r a l s m a l l e r i n the t r a i t s measured i n the f i r s t h a l f of the A n a l y s i s than i n those measured i n the second. T h i s same d i s c r e p a n c y occurs i n the case of d i f f i c u l t y . Table VI shows t h i s f a c t . Table VI T o t a l Reported D i f f i c u l t i e s by T r a i t s Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s U. B. C. Data 'Trait D i f f i c u l t i e s Average A Nervous 78 1.62 B Depressive 50 1.04 C A c t i v e 107 3.94* D C o r d i a l 95 1.98 E Sympathetic 117 2.44 P S u b j e c t i v e 82 1.71 G A g g r e s s i v e 135 3.12* H C r i t i c a l 61 1.26 I S e l f - m a s t e r y 63 1.31 C o r r e c t e d as f o r 20 items. 14 An obvious explanation of t h i s phenomenon i s that students r e p o r t i n g on 182 items were more thorough i n the e a r l y stages of the t a s k , — i n other words, t h a t they j u s t got t i r e d . I t may w e l l be that the matter cannot be disposed of so e a s i l y . F urther d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be postponed, however, u n t i l a l a t e r chapter, s i n c e there are f a c t s s t i l l to be presented which appear to have a bearing on the question. 15 Chapter 4 R e s u l t s and R e l i a b i l i t y The d i s t r i b u t i o n s of weighted s c o r e s , means and standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r each o f the t r a i t s i s s e t out In Table V I I on t h i s and t h e f o l l o w i n g page. Table VII Weighted Scores, Means and S.D's 48 Male Students i n Teacher T r a i n i n g Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s T r a i t A T r a i t B T r a i t C T r a i t D T r a i t E Score f Score f Score f Score f Score f 95-97 2 105-108 1 87-88 2 111-114 2 98-99 4 92-94 101-104 85-86 4 107-110 2 96-97 3 89-91 1 97-100 83-84 4 103-106 5 94-95 5 86-88 4 93-96 81-82 3 99-102 6 92-93 10 83-85 2 89-92 79-80 4 95-98 4 90-91 7 80-82 3 85-88 1 77-78 4 91-94 4 88-89 6 77-79 4 81-84 1 75-76 4 87-90 7 86-87 6 74-76 3 77-80 7 73-74 7 83-86 3 84-85 4 71-73 4 73-76 6 71-72 2 79-82 3 82-83 68-70 9 69-72 7 69-70 6 75-78 4 80-81 2 65-67 7 65-68 6 67-68 5 71-74 5 78-79 62-64 3 61-64 5 65-66 1 67-70 1 76-77 1 59-61 6 57-60 10 63-64 63-66 53-56 4 61-62 2 59-62 55-58 1 1 T r a i t P Table VII (continued) T r a i t G T r a i t H Score f Score 95-97 1 89-90 92-94 1 87-88 89-91 2 85-86 86-88 3 83-84 83-85 3 81-82 80-82 2 79-80 77-79 4 77-78 74-76 3 75-76 71-73 8 73-74 68-70 11 71-72 65-67 6 69-70 62-64 2 67-68 59-61 2 65-66 63-64 f 1 1 3 2 4 4 4 6 5 5 6 6 1 T r a i t A, X=72.94 s»9.66 T r a i t C, X-75.44 s«6.80 T r a i t E, X-90.46 s=4.88 T r a i t G, X-73.58 s-6.22 Tr a i t I, X=88.19 s~10.38 Score 94-96 91-93 88-90 85-87 82-84 79-81 76-78 73-75 70-72 67-69 64-66 61-63 58-60 55-57 f 1 2 2 5 1 4 5 6 7 9 5 1 T r a i t B, X' Tr a i t D, % Tr a i t P, X< Trait H, % Trai t I Score f 106-108 1 103-105 4 100-102 3 97-99 3 94-96 5 91-93 .4 88-90 8 85-87 2 82-84 6 79-81 4 76-78 1 73-75 3 70-72 1 67-69 2 64-66 1 =68.43 s = 9.72 =88.50 s=13.44 -74.15 s-7.86 •69.44 s-8.76 17 The p e c u l i a r i t y noted i n r e g a r d to w e i g h t i n g and d i f -f i c u l t y m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f a gain i n the standard d e v i a t i o n s of weighted s c o r e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the S.D's. of weightings and the S.D's. o f scores i n the n i n e t r a i t s i s f3 * .97. T h i s i s to be expected, but i t s importance w i l l not be apparent u n t i l l a t e r . The means obtained, In terms of p e r c e n t i l e s g i v e n In the Manual o f D i r e c t i o n s , i s as f o l l o w s : T r a i t A 60th. p e r c e n t i l e T r a i t B 53rd. p e r c e n t i l e T r a i t C 43rd. p e r c e n t i l e T r a i t D 38th. p e r c e n t i l e T r a i t E 70th. p e r c e n t i l e T r a i t P 28th. p e r c e n t i l e T r a i t G 34th. p e r c e n t i l e T r a i t H 43rd. p e r c e n t i l e T r a i t I 59th. p e r c e n t i l e The 50th. p e r c e n t i l e i s not n e c e s s a r i l y what the p r o f i l e shows as the most d e s i r a b l e . The percentage range f o r each t r a i t i s d i v i d e d i n t o zones. How these zones were determined i s unknown, no e x p l a n a t i o n b e i n g g i v e n e i t h e r on the p r o f i l e or i n the Manual of D i r e c t i o n s . Table V I I I shows the Zones of A c c e p t a b i l i t y . 18 Table V I I I P e r c e n t i l e Zones of A c c e p t a b i l i t y -Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s Zone T r a i t E x c e l l e n t Acceptable Improvement Improvement d e s i r a b l e urgent A 0-41 14-85 85-95 95-100 B 0-38 38 -71 71-94 94-100 G 19-96 13-19 3-13 0-3 96-98 98-100 D 86-96 37-86 17-37 0-17 96-98 98-100 E 78-96 30-78 14-30 0-14 96-100 P 12-40 6-12 0-6 99-100 40-96 96-99 G 7-62 6-7 5-6 0-5 62-98 98-100 H 3-58 0-3 87-95 95-100 58-87 I 80-100 22-80 3-22 0-3 I t w i l l be seen t h a t the group forming the b a s i s of t h i s study e x h i b i t a mean w i t h i n the e x c e l l e n t range on f o u r t r a i t s , namely, A c t i v e , S u b j e c t i v e , Aggressive and C r i t i c a l . In f o u r others the mean l i e s i n t h e acceptable a r e a . These t r a i t s are, Nervous, D e p r e s s i v e , Sympathetic and S e l f - m a s t e r y . In the t r a i t C o r d i a l the mean f o r the group i s at the bo r d e r -l i n e between acceptable and improvement d e s i r a b l e . The scores of o l d e r students were compared w i t h those of a younger group. 14 s u b j e c t s were 27 years of age or over and 14 were 22 years of age o r l e s s . Table IX summarizes these r e s u l t s . Table' IX Comparison o f Older and Younger Students Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s U. B. C. Data Mean S. D. C.R. foil e. Zone T r a i t 0 Y 0 Y Mean 0 Y 0 Y A 69.64 72.22 8.46 8.43 .78 46 52 A A B 66.21 67.93 7.46 8.08 .57 42 49 A A C 74.79 77.64 5.84 7.34 1.10 58 73 E E D 91.64 93.93 9.60 13.92 .49 48 54 A A E 90.50 92.36 " 5.54 3.58 1.02 80 86 E E P 70.28 75.43 6.39 10.26 1.54 40 59 E A G 74.21 72.36 5.50 6.70 .77 39 29 E E H 69.93 70.36 9.30 8.64 .12 57 57 E E I 92.90 86.14 11.04 11.46 1.56 57 33 A A In no case i s the d i f f e r e n c e i n means s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , though t h i s c o u l d h a r d l y be expected w i t h such s m a l l groups. I f the p e r c e n t i l e s are c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n to the Zones of A c c e p t a b i l i t y , (See Table V I I I , p. 18), the o l d e r group has the advantage i n f o u r of the t r a i t s , A, B, P and I j i s equal i n f o u r , C, E, G and H and i n f e r i o r i n one, D. This supports i n some measure Boynton's f i n d i n g s . 20 Boynton^ u s i n g a home-made i n v e n t o r y , t e s t e d 1022 women te a c h e r s . S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s showed the age group 16 t o 20 years t o be the most "maladjusted." Older t e a c h e r s were g e n e r a l l y b e t t e r than other groups. D i f f e r e n c e s i n v a r i a b i l i t y were not foujid to be s t a t -i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The h i g h e s t c r i t i c a l r a t i o was 1,63 f o r t r a i t P. The r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f the ni n e t r a i t t e s t s were c a l -c u l a t e d by the s p l i t h a l f technique.. They are p r e s e n t e d i n Table X, tog e t h e r w i t h those r e p o r t e d i n the Manual of D i r e c t i o n s . Table X R e l i a b i l i t i e s of T r a i t Tests Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s U. B. G. Data T r a i t R e l i a b i l i t y This s t u d y Johnson A .58 .76 B .77 .75 C .65 .72 D .82 .77 E .31 .57 P .75 .71 G .57 .65 H .79 .78 I .56 .76 1. Boynton, P.L. An A n a l y s i s o f the Responses of Women Teachers on a P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory, Pea. J . of E., 20, 13-18 21 The r e l i a b i l i t i e s found i n t h i s study are i n g e n e r a l comparable w i t h those quoted by the t e s t author. Johnson's r e s u l t s are based on the responses of 100 men and 100 women. The lower f i g u r e s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n may be accounted f o r by the g r e a t e r homogeneity of the group used. Once agai n the d i f f e r e n c e between the f i r s t and second h a l v e s of the A n a l y s i s shows i t s e l f , markedly i n the case of the r e l i a b i l i t i e s c a l c u l a t e d i n t h i s study, but s t i l l apparent i n Johnson's f i g u r e s . Before d i s c u s s i o n i s under-taken, i t w i l l be d e s i r a b l e t o r e c a p i t u l a t e the d a t a i n t a b u l a r form. Table XI does t h i s . Table XI R e c a p i t u l a t i o n of C e r t a i n R e s u l t s Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s U. B. C. Data T r a i t S.D.,weights D i f f i c u l t i e s S.D.,scores r 1 s P* A 1,33 1.62 9.66 .58 .15 B 1.42 1.04 9.72 .77 .23 C 1.10 3.94 6.80 .65 .17 D 1.58 1.98 13.44 .82 .29 E 1.02 2.44 4.88 .31 .10 P 1.24 1.71 7.86 .75 .17 G 1.07 3.12 6.22 .57 .15 H 1.35 1.27 8.76 .79 .23 I 1.41 1.31 10.38 .56 .15 Column I I I I I I IV V *P i s the sum of the percentages of students u s i n g the Mid. response not at a l l of 50$ or more of the time. 22 The rank d i f f e r e n c e I n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the columns of Table XI are as f o l l o w s : I I I I I I I IV I I .72 I I I .97 .60 IV .67 .33 .52 V .73 .35 .58 .97 T h i s m a t r i x was f a c t o r e d by two d i f f e r e n t methods, v i z . the c e n t r o i d and d i r e c t summation. The c e n t r o i d was f i r s t used, one g e n e r a l f a c t o r b e i n g shown to account f o r most of the v a r i a n c e . The f i r s t f a c t o r r e s i d u a l s d i d not completely v a n i s h as might be expected w i t h estimated communalities i n . so small a m a t r i x . In o r d e r to determine more a c c u r a t e l y the f a c t o r l o a d i n g s , the m a t r i x was t h e n f a c t o r e d by d i r e c t summation which does not r e q u i r e the e s t i m a t i o n of communalities. Below are g i v e n the f a c t o r l o a d i n g s : C e n t r o i d Summation I .97 1.00 I I .65 .57 I I I .87 .83 IV .83 .77 V .86 .82 T h i s o n l y h e l p s t o prove the obvious: t h a t each of these f i v e columns i s a f u n c t i o n o f the t e s t i t s e l f . ' The other p o s s i b i l i t y must be d i s c a r d e d s i n c e the d i f f i c u l t y o f the items cannot be a f u n c t i o n o f the w e i g h t i n g . 23 The h i g h r e l a t i o n s h i p between the standard d e v i a t i o n s of weights and the standard d e v i a t i o n s of weighted scores i s worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Quite o b v i o u s l y the former c o n d i t i o n s to some extent the l a t t e r . However i t i s i n -c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t , i f the nine t r a i t s are i n e f f e c t measurably d i s t i n c t i n terms of the items used, a group o f 48 s u b j e c t s would be e q u a l l y v a r i a b l e i n those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . What i s more l i k e l y i s t h a t the t r a i t s are by no means d i s t i n c t but are i n s t e a d a combination of common f a c t o r s . T h i s p r e d i c t i o n i s v e r i f i e d by the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s d i s c u s s e d i n the next chapter. The h i g h r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i a b i l i t y and the sum o f the percentages o f s u b j e c t s u s i n g the m i d - i n t e r v a l not at a l l or more than 5o% o f the time may be completely f o r t u i t o u s . I t might be however t h a t t h i s sum would g i v e a r a p i d approximation to the r e l i a b i l i t y of a t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e t e s t . I t was not p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y out the n e c e s s a r y r e -search f o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n or r e f u t a t i o n of t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . With r e g a r d to the p e c u l i a r d i f f e r e n c e s noted between the two h a l v e s o f the t e s t , no d e f i n i t e answer can be g i v e n . I t may w e l l be t h a t the s u b j e c t ' s r e a c t i o n s are r e s p o n s i b l e . In the e a r l y p a r t of the A n a l y s i s h i s enthusiasm i s l i k e l y to be h i g h , hence he pays more a t t e n t i o n t o shades of meaning and to honest answers. Towards the end, h a ving s t r u g g l e d w i t h a f a i r number of nebulous q u e s t i o n s , he c a r e s l e s s and the f i r s t response t h a t comes t o mind Is marked. 24 I t was noted, f o r example, t h a t the number of erasures and changes of response was h i g h e r i n the f i r s t h a l f of the A n a l y s i s . Test-wiseness may a l s o be a f a c t o r , the p e c u l i a r use of «S' i n the questions becoming e a s i e r to d e a l w i t h as one has e x p e r i e n c e . The w r i t e r found i t to be so i n h i s own case. T r a i t I runs throughout the whole i n v e n t o r y . I t seemed d e s i r a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , to examine the r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the two h a l v e s of t h i s t r a i t . The f i r s t h a l f r was found to be .60, and the second to be -.29. T h i s i s the r e v e r s e o f what was found i n the other t r a i t s . In an e f f o r t t o account f o r the lowness of r i n the second h a l f of t r a i t I, the w e i g h t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d . This d i s t r i b u t i o n i s bi-modal a t the extremes, i t i s s u r p r i s i n g i n view of t h i s t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y i s as h i g h as..it i s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n f o l l o w s : D i s t r i b u t i o n of Weights, Second H a l f , T r a i t I Weight Frequency 2 9 3 10 4 1 5 3 6 7 The d i f f i c u l t i e s r e p o r t e d i n the two h a l v e s of t r a i t I f o l l o w the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n , 35 b e i n g noted i n the f i r s t 25 and 28 i n the second. I t seems reasonable t o suggest t h a t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of l o n g p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s i n order. I t may be t h a t e a r l y items should be d i s -regarded. They might be looked on as t r a i n i n g or p r a c t i c e , such as i s o f t e n given In group i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . 26 Chapter 5 F a c t o r A n a l y s i s of the Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s The i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s of the nine s u b - t e s t s were c a l c u l a t e d by the product-moment formula from weighted scores t r a n s l a t e d i n t o standard s c o r e s . Table X I I shows these i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s . The f i g u r e s below the d i a g o n a l are those found i n t h i s study, while those above the d i a g o n a l are r e p o r t e d i n the Manual of D i r e c t i o n s . Johnson's f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t t e t r a c h o r i c r ' s , which assume n o r m a l i t y of d i s t r i b u t i o n . Normal d i s t r i b u t i o n s were not found i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The t e s t author does not s t a t e whether or not h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n s were normal. Table XII I n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s of T r a i t s , Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s A B C D E F G H I A .74 -.31 -.38 -.26 .48 -.15 .56 -.40 B .68 -.46 -.49 -.09 .58 -.05 .63 -.33 C -.04 -.27 .69 .11 -.22 .49 -.20 .19 D -.01 -.29 .47 .19 -.29 .30 -.34 .17 E .03 -.26 .14 .48 -.35 -.01 -.25 .29 F .66 .54 .16 .07 -.20 .06 .72 -.48 G -.31 -.30 .42 .23 .01 .03 .08 .22 H .45 .65 .12 .11 -.13 .69 -.08 -.49 I -.48 -.37 -.09 .27 .32 -.58 .03 -.32 Below the d i a g o n a l , t h i s study. Above the d i a g o n a l , Johnson's f i g u r e s . 27 The agreement between these two s e t s of i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s i s marked. As i n the case of r e l i a b i l i t y Johnson's r e s u l t s are confirmed by t h i s study. The m a t r i x of i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s was f a c t o r e d by the c e n t r o i d method. F i v e f a c t o r s , — t h e most p o s s i b l e from nine t e s t s , — w e r e e x t r a c t e d b e f o r e the r e s i d u a l m a t r i x vanished s u f f i c i e n t l y . The f a c t o r l o a d i n g s of the l a s t two f a c t o r s were s m a l l . Table X I I I s e t s out the f a c t o r m a t r i x and r e s i d u a l s . The f u l l f a c t o r m a t r i x and the r e s i d u a l m a t r i c e s are t o be found i n appendix C. Table X I I I F a c t o r M a t r i x and R e s i d u a l s Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s U. B. C. Data F a c t o r s T r a i t I I I I I I IV V R e s i d u a l s A .68 .41 .25 -.33 .07 .04 B .84 .12 .27 -.14 -.25 .05 C -.30 .58 -.28 .07 .08 .05 D -.42 .58 .25 .10 .27 -.04 E -.41 .27 .46 -.21 .11 .03 F .64 .59 -.16 .05 .12 .01 G> -.37 .31 -.43 .22 -.16 .02 H .58 .49 .10 .39 .11 -.05 I -.59 -.21 .41 .23 -.13 .03 28 R o t a t i o n o f axes was undertaken by the s i n g l e - p l a n e method. I t proved to be somewhat l a b o r i o u s f o r f i v e f a c t o r s , but i t has three advantages: (1) c a l c u l a t i o n i s f a i r l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , (2) the procedure i s s e l f - c o r r e c t i n g and (3) one hyper-plane I s determined at a time. P o i n t (3) i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n i c e , s i n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o postpone the det e r m i n a t i o n o f the remaining hyper-planes w h i l e c a r r y i n g out the more e x c i t i n g and c r e a t i v e t a s k of i d e n t i f y i n g the f a c t o r . Simple s t r u c t u r e was achieved a f t e r much e f f o r t . The r o t a t e d f a c t o r m a t r i x i s p r e s e n t e d i n Table XIV. Table XIV Rotated F a c t o r M a t r i x Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s U. B. C. Data F a c t o r s T r a i t A b A 0 A a A e A .55 .06 .31 .32 .17 B .58 -.01 .18 .35 .33 G .13 .54 .19 .26 .00 D .28 .41 .55 .34 .21 E .29 .14 .57 .05 .02 F .41 .58 .09 .53 .29 G -.02 .51 -.01 .14 T.02 H .47 .27 .19 .72 .63 I .00 .00 .29 .02 .18 29 The uniqueness of the simple s t r u c t u r e a t t a i n e d must be c o n s i d e r e d . T r a i t s D and H are of complexity ' r 1 , t h a t i s , e v e r y . f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e i r v a r i a n c e , hence they are e l i m i n a t e d from c o n s i d e r a t i o n as regards uniqueness ( 1 ) . The f i v e c r i t e r i a which Thurstone (2) g i v e s to e v a l u a t e the •compellingness 1 of the simple s t r u c t u r e are as f o l l o w s : (1) "Each row of the o b l i q u e f a c t o r m a t r i x V should have at l e a s t one z e r o . " The above matrix, (Table XIV), meets t h i s f i r s t c r i t e r i o n . F A C - .09 i s s u f f i c i e n t l y small to be c o n s i d e r e d z e r o . (2) "For each column, p, of the o b l i q u e f a c t o r m a t r i x V there should be some t e s t s whose f a c t o r l o a d i n g s are z e r o . " At l e a s t two t e s t s i n each column of the f a c t o r m a t r i x under c o n s i d e r a t i o n meet t h i s requirement. (3) "For every p a i r of columns of V there should be s e v e r a l t e s t s whose e n t r i e s v a n i s h i n one column but not i n another." This c r i t e r i o n i s w e l l met by the f a c t o r m a t r i x developed i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In every combination t h i s occurs w i t h at l e a s t three of the seven t e s t s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . (4) "For every p a i r of columns of V, a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the t e s t s should have zero e n t r i e s i n both columns." T h i s requirement a p p a r e n t l y i s not met by the m a t r i x (1) Thurstone, L. L., M u l t i p l e - F a c t o r A n a l y s i s , Chicago, The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1947, p. 334. (2) I b i d . , p. 335. 30 shown i n Table XIV. However, i n t h i s case the matter i s not s e r i o u s . Thurstone i s c o n s i d e r i n g s i t u a t i o n s where a l a r g e number of t e s t s are used t o determine the f a c t o r s . Here there are o n l y seven t e s t s t o c o n s i d e r . O b v i o u s l y i f more than one p a i r of t e s t s s a t i s f i e d t h i s o b j e c t i v e , the p r e v i o u s one, (3), would not be a t t a i n e d . I t i s s u r p r i s i n g r a t h e r t h a t the c r i t e r i o n a p p l i e s at a l l and s i n c e I t does i n e i g h t out of t e n p o s s i b l e combinations, there i s reason t o be w e l l s a t i s f i e d . (5) "For every p a i r of columns of V t h e r e should p r e f e r a b l y be o n l y a small number of t e s t s w i t h non v a n i s h i n g e n t r i e s i n both columns." With so s m a l l a m a t r i x t h i s case can h a r d l y be expected to a p ply. The word ' p r e f e r a b l y ' too g i v e s room f o r leeway. The simple s t r u c t u r e i s not i n v a l i d a t e d because t h i s requirement i s o n l y p a r t i a l l y met. I t can be concluded t h a t the simple s t r u c t u r e o b t a i n e d i n t h i s study measures up r e a s o n a b l y w e l l t o Thurstone's c r i t e r i a . He, h i m s e l f , s t a t e s , " A c t u a l l y , we do not o f t e n a t t a i n uniqueness." (1) In the f a b r i c a t e d examples i n h i s book t h i s does occur, but i n the case of the box problem, (p. 140, pp. 3 2 9 f f . , and pp. 4 5 3 f f . ) , uniqueness i s not o b t a i n e d by f a c t o r i a l methods. The degree o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the hyperplanes v a r i e s . A a andAfc can be c o n s i d e r e d as b e i n g over determined, i n each case f o u r of the nine t r a i t s b e i n g f a i r l y h e a v i l y (1) I b i d . , p. 336. 31 loaded w i t h the f a c t o r . Since T r a i t G i s p r a c t i c a l l y c o l l i n e a r i t i s p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y ^ w i t h a f a i r l y h i g h degree of assurance. T r a i t s A and B w i t h t h e i r com-p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l l o a d i n g s o f the other f a c t o r s h e l p t o make the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of f a c t o r A re a s o n a b l y l i k e l y . Hyperplanes A c a n d A ^ are determined and p r o b a b l y can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h some assurance. H y p e r p l a n e A e i s r e l a t i v e l y Indeterminate. But f o r the f a c t o f s e v e r a l zero l o a d i n g s of t h i s f a c t o r i n the v a r i o u s t r a i t s and the h i g h l o a d i n g i n t r a i t H n o t h i n g c o u l d be s a i d f o r i t . As i t i s o n l y t e n t a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i l l be suggested. 32 Chapter 6 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f F a c t o r s To f a c i l i t a t e the problem of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f a c t o r s , each item o f the A n a l y s i s was typed on a separate c a r d . F o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f a c t o r I the cards of t r a i t s A and B were p l a c e d s i d e by s i d e on a l a r g e t a b l e . Adjacent to them were put the cards of t r a i t s H and F r e s p e c t i v e l y . At the other s i d e o f the t a b l e the cards o f t r a i t s G and I were spread out. T r a i t B was f i r s t c o n s i d e r e d . The f o l l o w i n g items seemed to go t o g e t h e r ; 94 Do h i s f a i l u r e s come hard to S? 116 Does S get over bad news q u i c k l y ? 130 Does.S o f t e n ponder on the m i s f o r t u n e s of h i s p a s t ? 137 Is S bothered.at times with the i d e a t h a t nobody cares f o r him? 138 Does S f i n d t h a t a minor f a i l u r e o f poor showing of h i s can be q u i c k l y f o r g o t t e n ? 152 Does S o f t e n have the b l u e s ? 169 Does S o f t e n f e e l sad because of h i s i n f e r i o r i t y i n some r e s p e c t s ? The Items o f t r a i t A were next examined. The f i r s t q u e s t i o n e s s e n t i a l l y the same as those of t r a i t B was: 75 Does S worry more than the circumstances warrant? Next t o i t i n order was: 80 Does S take.necessary r i s k s o f m i s f o r t u n e without undue worry? T h i s seemed to f i t w i t h the o t h e r s . S e v e r a l more items 33 which admitted of the same p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n were found: 3 Is S r e l a t i v e l y calm when others are g e t t i n g r a t t l e d ? 25 Can S make a speech at a p u b l i c performance without stage f r i g h t ? 44 Does S have some thought p r e s s i n g i t s e l f on h i s a t t e n t i o n too much of the time to h i s annoyance? 72 Does S become so s c a r e d o f apprehensive at times so as t o f e e l hot, or s h i v e r i n g o r have s k i n get goose-pimples, (goose-skin, g o o s e - f l e s h ) ? T r a i t s G and I were read through c a r e f u l l y to see i f any of t h e i r items f i t t e d i n t o t h i s p a t t e r n . I f the above questions are taken to i n d i c a t e i n f e r i o r i t y , which was the o r i g i n a l d i r e c t i o n o f the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s t h i n k i n g , t h r e e items i n t r a i t G h e l p t o d i s p e l the n o t i o n ; 59 Does S accept d e f e a t e a s i l y without any evidence of h i s d i s a p p o i n t e d f e e l i n g s ? 67 Is S emphatic i n v o i c e and manner? 85 Does S t h i n k l e s s w e l l o f h i s a b i l i t y than the f a c t s warrant? None of the items of t r a i t I seemed t o be s i m i l a r to those l i s t e d from t r a i t s A and B. They are concerned l a r g e l y w i t h a c t i o n of one s o r t or another. T r a i t s P and H were then c o n s i d e r e d . A number of items appear to f i t i n wi t h those from t r a i t s A and B. In t r a i t P there a r e : 134 Is S l i k e l y to be j e a l o u s ? 136 Is S "touchy" on s e v e r a l t h i n g s about h i m s e l f ? 34 160 Can S see t h i n g s as others see them, when he wishes to? 165 Does S g i v e too h i g h importance to h i s own i n t e r e s t s and f i e l d s of knowledge i n comparison w i t h o t h e r s ? 167 Does S f i n d i t annoying to have any c r i t i c i s m made of h i m s e l f even though j u s t i f i e d and from which he c o u l d p r o f i t ? In t r a i t H the f o l l o w i n g occur: 92 Is i t v e r y hard f o r S to take the blame so that he avoids i t ? 117 Does S take c r i t i c i s m e a s i l y without resentment? 125 Does S tend to exaggerate h i s g r i e v a n c e s ? 147 Does S f e e l abused not being a b l e t o do something i n s t e a d o f adapting t o i t by some s u b s t i t u t e a c t i v i t y ? 149 Does S o n l y seldom express any g r i e v a n c e s ? 161 Does S, when he has a grievance s t r a i g h t e n e d out, continue d i s g r u n t l e d f o r a wh i l e ? What s o r t of person would respond ' c o r r e c t l y ' t o each of these q u e s t i o n s ? One who i s e m o t i o n a l l y mature seems most l i k e l y . T h i s f a c t o r i s t h e r e f o r e t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d as E m o t i o n a l i t y . The G u i l f o r d s r e p o r t e d such a f a c t o r i n 1936 ( 1 ) . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d from the p r e v i o u s chapter t h a t there i s reason to expect t h a t F a c t o r I I can be i d e n t i f i e d f a i r l y e a s i l y and w i t h some c e r t a i n t y . This proved t o be so. F o r the r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s f a c t o r t r a i t s G, F, C and (1) G u i l f o r d , J . P. and G u i l f o r d , R. B., P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r s S, E and M and t h e i r Measurement., J . Psych., 1936, 2, 107-127. 35 D were c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r . T y p i c a l items from each t r a i t are c o l l e c t e d below: 14-G Does S g i v e i n or stop d u r i n g a c o n t r o v e r s y to "keep the peace?" 31-Gf Is S so sure of h i m s e l f t h a t i t sometimes annoys o t h e r s ? 41-G Does S sometimes say t h i n g s t h a t are dominating so t h a t p e o p l e s ' f e e l i n g s are sometimes h u r t ? 50-G Would you c o n s i d e r S a "go-getter"? 52-G Is S l i k e l y to g i v e way to the wishes of others r a t h e r than t o seek to have h i s own way? 102-F Is S much i n t e r e s t e d i n the a f f a i r s o f other people? 107-P Does S n e a r l y always f i n d i t easy t o take an i n t e r e s t i n other p e o p l e s ' i n t e r e s t s i n c o n v e r s a t i o n ? 140-P Is S p r e j u d i c e d i n f a v o r of h i s own c l u b , s t a t e , e t c . ? 175-P In disagreements w i t h a s s o c i a t e s does S f i n d i t h a r d t o understand how the other can p o s s i b l y d i f f e r from him, so v e r y one s i d e d does the matter seem? 179-P Does S estimate h i s f r i e n d s too f a v o r a b l y , i n comparison w i t h others whom he judges s e v e r e l y ? 13-C Does S u s u a l l y t r y to a v o i d b e i n g made c h a i r -man of a committee or an o f f i c e r of an o r g a n i z a t i o n ? 24-C Does S move about a good d e a l at a s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g ? 26-C Is S l i k e l y to s t a y on the veranda by p r e f e r e n c e when some of the others go f o r t e n n i s or a swim? 28-C Is S good at "breaking the i c e " i n a s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g ? 82-C Does S t a l k l e s s than h i s share when w i t h o t h e r s ? 93-D In s o c i a l c o n t a c t s i s S thought of as warm-hearted? 100-D Is S r e a l l y f o nd of o n l y a few people? 121-D Is S h e a r t y i n g r e e t i n g people? 151-D Do companions l i k e to be w i t h S? 178-D Does S t h i n k he has many warm f r i e n d s ? In t r a i t s A, B and I there occur no items s i m i l a r to 'the above. The f a c t o r i s r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d as S o c i a l I n t r o v e r s i o n - E x t r a v e r s i o n . I t was a l s o found by G u i l f o r d and G u i l f o r d i n 1936 ( 1 ) . A somewhat s i m i l a r f a c t o r , K, " t r a i n e d , s o c i a l i z e d c u l t u r e d mind v s . b o o r i s h n e s s , " i s r e p o r t e d by C a t t e l l ( 2 ) . For the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of F a c t o r I I I , t r a i t s D, E and I were c o n s i d e r e d . The l a s t mentioned, while i t s l o a d i n g i s not h i g h , has th r e e zero l o a d i n g s and a f o u r t h v e r y s m a l l . T y p i c a l questions which appear t o make a p a t t e r n are s e t out below: 98-D Does S express h i s emotions r e a d i l y ? 128-D Does S l i v e an easy-going l i f e w i t h o n l y a few enthusiasms to express? 131-D Does S show a un i f o r m r a t h e r than a v a r i e d e x p r e s s i o n when t a l k i n g ? 141-D Does S smile much? 143-D Is S u n s u c c e s s f u l i n a c t i n g , impersonating, or r e l a t i n g i n c i d e n t s e f f e c t i v e l y ? (1) I b i d . , pp.107-127. (2) C a t t e l l , R. B., The D e s c r i p t i o n of P e r s o n a l i t y I I I Amer. J . Psych., 1945, 58, pp. 69-90. 37 12-E Does S t h i n k the government i s spending too much money on r e l i e f and pensions? 18-E Is S c o n s i d e r a t e i n h i s demands on employees, r e l a t i v e s , or p u p i l s ? 49-E Does S t h i n k t h a t modern p r i s o n s coddle the p r i s o n e r too much so as to i n t e r f e r e w i t h needed punishment? 71-E Does S f a v o r zoning the c i t y t o c o n t r o l r e s i d e n c e areas f o r negroes and o r i e n t a l s ? 73-E Is S impatient w i t h a c h i l d ' s s t r o n g d e s i r e f o r a worthless o b j e c t ? 20-1 Does S sometimes s u r p r i s e h i s acquaintances by unexpected a c t i o n s ? 22-1 Does S a c t d e l i b e r a t e l y r a t h e r than i m p u l s i v e l y ? 61-1 Does S get i n t o scrapes o c c a s i o n a l l y ? 83-1 Does S break out i n more e x p l o s i v e a c t i o n or words than would be expected from the cause? 120-1 Does S "put h i s f o o t i n i t " o f t e n (make a t a c t l e s s b l u n d e r ) ? T r a i t A a l s o , w h i l e not h e a v i l y loaded w i t h the f a c t o r , p r o v i d e s items which appear t o go w i t h those a l r e a d y l i s t e d : 15-A Does S have a v o i c e t h a t flows evenly and smoothly? 38-A Can S enjoy a r e s t when there are d i s t r a c t i n g n o i s e s and movements around him? 47-A Does S sle e p w e l l ? 56-A Does S become d i s t u r b e d by harmless r a t t l e s , c r i c k e t s or the wind? 70-A Can S r e l a x e a s i l y when s i t t i n g or l y i n g down? These questions appear to c o n t r a s t happy-go-lucky or a c a r e f r e e d i s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n h i b i t i o n or o v e r - c o n t r o l . T h i s f a c t o r i s t e n t a t i v e l y named Rhathymia, r e p o r t e d by 38 the G u i l f o r d s i n p r e l i m i n a r y f a s h i o n i n 1936 and more d e f i n i t e l y i n 1939 ( 1 ) . T r a i t s H, P and B were used to determine the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the f o u r t h f a c t o r . The questions which make a p a t t e r n are s e t out below: 106-H Does S t h i n k t h a t someone i s d e f i n i t e l y u n f r i e n d l y to him and works a g a i n s t him? 122-H Is S almost f r e e from b e i n g s u s p i c i o u s o f the a c t i o n s o f othe r s ? 129-H Does S t h i n k as w e l l o f those w i t h whom he has a disagreement, as bef o r e ? . 158-H Does S t h i n k someone does not l i k e him and speaks c r i t i c a l l y about S to ot h e r s ? 164-H When S l o s e s something, i s he almost f r e e from the tendency to t h i n k t h a t someone e l s e s t o l e or m i s l a i d i t ? 109-P Does S g i v e judgments o n l y a f t e r a weighing o f the pros and cons? 119-P Does S f i n d i t easy t o be i m p a r t i a l when c a l l e d on t o judge? 144-F Is S l o g i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c i n h i s t h i n k i n g ? 154-P Are p e r s o n a l . i n t e r e s t s unable to sway S from sound d e c i s i o n s ? 173-F Does S succeed i n p r e v e n t i n g h i s emotions swaying h i s judgment much? 127-B Do death, s i c k n e s s , p a i n , sorrow e n t e r l a r g e l y i n t o S's dreams? (1) G u i l f o r d , J . P. and G u i l f o r d , R. B., P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r s D, T, R, A., J . Abnor. Soc. Psych., 1939, 34,-pp. 21-36 and 239-248. 146-B Does S f i n d t h a t the memories of i l l n e s s o r p a i n pass out of h i s mind f a i r l y soon? 171-B Does S p r e f e r not to pass a cemetry, so as not to be reminded o f death? 176-B Does S f i n d t h a t g r i e f over war v i c t i m s and refugees comes to mind o f t e n ? 180-B Is S almost f r e e from b e i n g d i s t u r b e d by e i t h e r h i s immaturity or aging? An examination of t r a i t s E and I shows no items of t h i s t y pe. Each o f those l i s t e d above answers, i n some measure, the q u e s t i o n , "Does the s u b j e c t view h i m s e l f and h i s surroundings o b j e c t i v e l y ? " . Together they may be taken as r e p r e s e n t i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t , O b j e c t i v i t y . This f a c t o r i s by no means p o s i t i v e l y determined i n t h i s I n v e s t i g a t i o n . The b e s t t h a t can be s a i d i s t h a t F a c t o r IV c o u l d be O b j e c t i v i t y . The same s i t u a t i o n o b t a i n s w i t h r e g a r d to F a c t o r V. I t i s w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of h e s i t a t i o n t h a t any attempt i s made to d e f i n e i t . The f o l l o w i n g items from t r a i t H seem to go t o g e t h e r : 96-H Does S put i n t o h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n q u i t e a few "knocks" about o t h e r s ? 108-H When S does c r i t i c i z e , i s i t always t a c t f u l and r e a l l y meant to be h e l p f u l ? 132-H Is S hard t o p l e a s e ? 145-H Does S comment on many shortcomings i n the shows he sees and the books he reads? 156-H Does S t h i n k w e l l of most people, as to o n l y r a r e l y speak s l i g h t i n g l y of them? 40 Three items from each of t r a i t s B and D appear to f i t i n w i t h those l i s t e d above: 101-B Does S make e f f o r t s t o get others to l a u g h and smile? 104-B Is S sometimes thought of as a "wet b l a n k e t " ? 135-B Is S r a t h e r o p t i m i s t i c about o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r young people? 157-D Does S show a c o r d i a l a t t i t u d e o n l y to c l o s e f r i e n d s i f at a l l ? 170-D Does S show a f r i e n d l y a t t i t u d e i n h i s v o i c e and expression? 174-D Is S appealed t o s t r o n g l y by young l o v e r s who are hampered by o p p o s i t i o n ? These questions c e n t r e around the i d e a o f a c c e p t i n g t h i n g s and people as they are as opposed t o over c r i t i c a l r e a c t i o n s and i n t o l e r a n c e . Since F a c t o r I I I was examined b e f o r e t h i s one, some items i n t r a i t E which would have m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , had a l r e a d y been a l l o c a t e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , as judgment r e g a r d i n g the p l a c i n g of items i s v e r y l i k e l y to be f a u l t y , — t h e G u i l f o r d s found t h i s i n attempting to make questions t o i d e n t i f y t h e i r f a c t o r s R and T , — t h e d e c i s i o n about t h i s f a c t o r i s i n c o n s i d e r a b l e doubt. With r e l u c t a n c e i t w i l l be c a l l e d C o-operativeness. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t a l l the f i v e f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e to the v a r i a n c e o f t r a i t s D and H. Furthermore the r e l i a b i l i t i e s of these two t e s t s were the h i g h e s t i n the b a t t e r y . I t i s suggested t h a t these two t r a i t s c o u l d be combined i n t o a s h o r t t e s t of 40 items which might w e l l g i v e as good a g e n e r a l index as does the l a r g e r A n a l y s i s . In so f a r as the f a c t o r i n g i n t h i s study can be t r u s t e d , i t does not appear t h a t , f o r the group used, the Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s measures the n i n e t r a i t s d e f i n e d by the t e s t author. Chapter 7 Summary i T h i s study of the Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s was made on the b a s i s of the responses of 48 male graduates i n teacher t r a i n i n g at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. A number of d i f f e r e n t aspects o f the A n a l y s i s were examined: (1) The d i f f i c u l t y of response to items as r e p o r t e d by s u b j e c t s . The mean number o f d i f f i c u l t Items was 21.6. The k i n d s of d i f f i c u l t i e s were c l a s s i f i e d as f i v e : (a) Lack of experience w i t h the t o p i c . (b) D i f f i c u l t i e s o f comprehension. (c) D i f f i c u l t i e s o f e v a l u a t i o n . (d) Response dependent upon circumstances. (e) Two or more n o t i o n s i n one q u e s t i o n . I t i s thought t h a t some of these d i f f i c u l t i e s c o u l d be overcome i f a r e v i s i o n o f the A n a l y s i s were undertaken. (2) The g e n e r a l adjustment of the group on the b a s i s o f the A n a l y s i s was c o n s i d e r e d . The means were i n . or above the ' a c c e p t a b l e 1 zones i n a l l t r a i t s except C o r d i a l , where the mean was at the b o r d e r l i n e between 'acceptable' and 'improvement d e s i r a b l e ' . (3) Age d i f f e r e n c e s were co n s i d e r e d and were not found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . There was some s l i g h t advantage i n f a v o r of the o l d e r group. (4) Test r e l i a b i l i t i e s were c a l c u l a t e d by the s p l i t 43 h a l f technique and found to range from r = .82 to r = .32. The r e l i a b i l i t i e s found were i n g e n e r a l s i m i l a r to those quoted by the t e s t author. (5) A phenomenon of d i f f e r e n c e between the f i r s t and second h a l v e s of the A n a l y s i s was noted i n a l l aspects of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . No d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be drawn, but i t was suggested t h a t a change i n a t t i t u d e on the p a r t o f the s u b j e c t s might be r e s p o n s i b l e . I t i s f e l t that, f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h might determine the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f h a v i n g a s e r i e s o f p r a c t i c e items p r i o r to those s c o r e d . (6) The i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s of the nine t r a i t s were f a c t o r e d by the c e n t r o i d method. F i v e f a c t o r s were found to account f o r most of the v a r i a n c e . Axes were r o t a t e d by the s i n g l e - p l a n e method and a r e a s o n a b l y c o m p e l l i n g simple s t r u c t u r e o b t a i n e d . The uniqueness of t h i s s t r u c t u r e was d i s c u s s e d i n terms of Thurstone's f i v e . c r i t e r i a . (7) An attempt was made to i d e n t i f y the f a c t o r s d i s c o v e r e d . One i s o f f e r e d w i t h a f a i r l y h i g h degree of assurance, namely F a c t o r I I , — S o c i a l I n t r o v e r s i o n - E x t r a -v e r s i o n . Two f a c t o r s are i d e n t i f i e d w i t h some assurance, F a c t o r s I and I I I as E m o t i o n a l i t y and Rhathymia r e s p e c t i v e l y . F a c t o r s Iv and V are d e f i n e d w i t h some r e l u c t a n c e as O b j e c t i v i t y and Co-operativeness. (8) I f a s h o r t e r measure o f the f i v e f a c t o r s were r e q u i r e d , i t i s suggested t h a t t r a i t s D and H might be used without the remainder of the A n a l y s i s , s i n c e each 44 f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t e s to t h e i r v a r i a n c e . T h e i r r e l i a b i l i t i e s , too, are the h i g h e s t i n the b a t t e r y . These f i n d i n g s are made from a v e r y small sample, hence no great credence can be p l a c e d i n them. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n on other samples Is necessary b e f o r e d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn. A JOHNSON TEMPERAMENT ANALYSIS Devised by Roswell H. Johnson Directions I. The questions, on the following all refer to the person about whom the questions are answered, called the subject or S. They do not refer to any other person who may be describing S. , '2. The word "he" is to be taken' as applying to the subject whether a man or woman. i 3. Be sure you understand the question, reading it twice if necessary. t • • ' 4. Do not ponder too long on any one question, but answer as soon as you have thought it through and pass on to the next question. If you are uncertain about the answer, make the best estimate you can. 5. If the answer would be different as of some period in the past rather than of the present, answer as of the present, unless the question is expressly stated otherwise. 6. Be sure your name and other requested data are on the answer sheet. 7. On the Answer Sheet you are given three columns on which to mark your answer as follows: +40%; "Yes" to the extent of the highest 40% of the population of the age and sex of S in response to that question,' this means "decidedly yes" or "mostly so". Mid. 20%; that "S" is average or belonging to the middle 20% in regard to this question. —40%; S considers his answer is "No" to the extent of the lowest 40%, or "decidedly no" in regard to this question, The "mid" column is sometimes used by apparently lazy persons to evade the labor of making a decision. Please do not mark the "mid" column, unless the answer really belongs here to describe the subject. 8. Your answer is indicated by making a heavy black line between the pair of dotted lines in the column which will show your answer. Be sure that the answer row number on the Answer Sheet agrees with the .number of the question in the test booklet. 9. Keep your Answer Sheet on a hard surface while marking your answers. Make your marks heavy and as long as the dotted lines, completely blackening the space. When the answers are to be machine scored, a special pencil adapted for this purpose must be. used. 10. If you change your mind, erase your first mark completely. e II. Explanations or other comment are desirable and may be recorded on the reverse side of the answer sheet, but not elsewhere. 12. Please do not omit any answer. Guess or estimate if you do not know. Copyright, 1941, by Roswell H. Johnson Published by California Test Bureau Questions Mark answers on answer sheet. Please do not mark these questions. Any comment should go on back of answer sheet. 1. Does S decline to interfere to protect some animal from needless suffering? 2. Is one motive for S to go places so that he can talk about having been there?. 3. Is S relatively calm when others are getting rattled? 4. When hunting or fishing is S free from being disturbed by the pain inflicted on living bait or the fish caught? 5. Does S resent efforts of others to tell him what to do? 6. Does S make a considerable use of the telephone, dictionary, or atlas when not necessary? 7. Does S sometimes have sudden unexpected jerks of some of his muscles even though nothing has hap-pened? 8. Is S very eager to have his own business, or be an independent professional man, or if in an organiza-tion to be in a position to give orders rather than to take them? 9. Does S write in for samples, catalogs, solve puzzles, or submit questions to radio programs at times? 10. Is S easy-going in the matter of discipline? 11. Does S. tend to say what comes to mind without enough thought as to whether it would be better left unsaid? 12. Does S think the government is spending too much on relief and pensions? 13. Does S usually^try to avoid being made a chairman of a committee or an officer of an organization? 14. Does S give in or stop during a controversy to "keep the peace"? 15. Does S have a voice that flows evenly and smoothly? 16. Is S inclined to say little except in response? 17. Does S have jerking motions of some muscles when unexpected things happen? 18. Is S considerate in his demands on employees, relatives, or pupils? 19. Does S talk slowly (making due allowance for age)'? 20. Does S sometimes surprise his acquaintances by unexpected actions? 21. Would S buy an article at the cheaper price if he noticed that the-clerk has asked less than the .price tag indicates, apparently having misread it? 22. Does S act deliberately rather than impulsively? 23. Does S often keep his views to himself because they do not seem important enough to tell others? 24. Does S move about a good deal at a social gathering? 25. Can S make a speech or public performance without stage fright? 26. Is S likely to stay on the veranda by preference when some of the others go for tennis or a swim? 27. Does S have phobias, i.e., an unwarranted and disturbing hatred or fear of any object or group of ob-jects or situations? 28. Is S good at "breaking the ice" in a social gathering? 29. Does S have the same religion, politics, philosophy as his parents? 30. Is S constantly careful to protect his health? ' „' 31. Is S so sure of himself that it sometimes annoys others? 32. Does S quickly recover his composure after an accident or similar disturbing incident? 33. Is S less attentive than most individuals to things going on around him? 34. Is S rather indifferent to maintaining the dignity and privileges of his job or place in life? 35. Can S work in a room with many others talking and work efficiently without strain? 36. Does S maintain uniformly, courteous behavior to other members of his family? 37. Is S the kind of a person one might call a "self starter"? 38. Can S enjoy a rest when there are distracting noises and movements about? 39. Does S love to travel and when on a trip does hs seek new experiences characteristic of the country? 40. Does S chew pencils or bite fingernails? 41.. Does S sometimes say things that are dominating so that peoples' feelings are sometimes hurt? 42. Does S have few interests or activities of his own choosing? 43. Does S "stick-to-it" at the cost of much inconvenience rather than give up? -44. Does S have some thought pressing itself on his attention too much of the time to his-annoyance? 45. Does S eat slowly (making due allowance for age)? 46. Is S as much influenced in his behavior by consideration of general welfare as by considerations of his own advantage? 47. Does S sleep well? 48. Does S take responsibility with reluctance, because he is doubtful of his fitness for it? 49. Does S think that modern prisons coddle the prisoner too much so as to interfere with needed pun-ishment? 50. Would you consider S a "go-getter"? , 51. Is S so sympathetic with those he sees in pain as to want to do something about it? 52. Is S likely to give way to the wishes of others rather than to seek to have his own way? 53. Would S feel sympathetic with conscientious objectors in time of war, where it is a war of invading other countries by one's own country? 54. Does S try to convert people to his views in several fields in which he is not an expert? 55. Does S prefer to take a passive role in the clubs to which he belongs? 56. Does S become disturbed by harmless rattles, crickets or the wind? 57. Does S make a practice of offering help to motorists who need help, but do not ask for it? 58. Does S use all reasonable precautions to prevent accidents? 59. Does S accept defeat easily without any evidence of his disappointed feeling? 60. Would S probably resort to corporal punishment in the case of deliberate disobedience by his own child at age ten? — 4 — 61. Does S get into scrapes occasionally? 62. • Does S have a habit of blinking eyes or pulling at ears? 63. Does S fail to finish what he sets out to do, often enough to be a bother to him? 64. Does S incline to ride rather than walk when the distance'is intermediate? 65. Do S's "teeth get on edge" when hearing some noises? 66. Does S buy on credit to excess? 67. Is S emphatic in .voice and manner? •68. Can S get along with children of various ages without becoming irritated by them? 69. Has S made more than one loan out of kindheartedness in which he was "worked" and never repaid? 70. Can S relax easily when sitting or lying down? 71. Does S favor zoning the city ito control residence areas for negroes or orientals? 72. Does S become so scared or apprehensive at times so as to feel hot, or shivering or have skin get - goose-pimples, (goose-skin, goose-flesh)? 73. Is S impatient with a child's strong desire for a worthless object? 74. Does S feel strongly convinced of the correctness of his views when in a controversy, excluding those in which he is expert? 75. Does S worry more than the circumstances warrant? 76. Does S sometimes get quite "keyed-up" (exclusive of drinking)? 77. Does S make plans well in"advance of the event and carry them out? 78. Does S often get so wakeful as to be disinclined to go to bed at the usual time? 79. Does S tend to put off doing things past the time that wbiild be best? 80. Does S take necessary risks of misfortune withaut undue worry? 81. In traveling does S watch out to help the aged, infirm, or those with children rather than leave such acts to the officials? 82. Does S talk less than his share when with others? 83. Does S break out in more explosive action or words than would be expected from the cause? 84. Does S want to have no children or one or two (not more) (assuming adequate health and income)? 85. Does S think less well of his ability than the.facts warrant? 86. Is S opposed to the parole system for. criminals? ,87. Does S try to "get things going" in the community to which he belongs? 88. Is S almost always truthful to others? 89. Is S lively enough so someone might refer to him as "always-on-the-go"? 90. In an automobile accident in which S is involved does he really try to see that any damage he did is made good? — 5 -91. Is S inclined to have a few select friends rather than a large circle of friends and speaking acquaint ances? ' - » 92. Is it very hard for S to take blame, so that he sseks to avoid it? 93. In social contacts is S thought of as warm-hearted? 94. Do his failures come hard to S? 95. Is S usually able to steady a difficult situation where "others lose their heads"? 96. Does S put into his conversation quite a few "knocks" about others? '97. Is singing or whistling often started by S out o^  the joys of life? 98. Does S express his emotions readily? 99. Is S independent in .making a judgment uninfluenced by whether he likes or dislikes the leading sup porter of the proposal in question? 100. Is S really fond of only a few people? 101. Does S make efforts to get others to laugh and smile? 102. Is S much interested in the affairs of other people? 103. Does S refrain from complaining, when the other is late to an appointment? 104. Is S sometimes thought of as a "wet blanket"? 105. Is S considered cheery by some people? ' . 106. Does S think that someone is definitely unfriendly to him and works against him? 107. Does S nearly always find it easy to take an interest in other peoples' interests in conversation? 108. 'When S does criticize, is it always tactful and really meant to be helpful? 109. Does S give judgments only after a weighing of the pros and cons? 110. Is S relatively unaffected in listening to emotional music? •111. Does S think less well of rivals than they deserve? 112. Does S express his satisfaction when he sees beautiful things? 113. Does S give very little time in his conversation to the criticism of people and things? 114. Does S sometimes think people are looking at him or talking about him when they are really not do ing so? ' v 115. Does S pay his debts and keep his promises wh^n it is possible? 116. Does S get over bad news quickly? 117. Does S take criticism easily without resentment? 118. Do various satisfactions keep S's life so full that life seems very much worth living? 119. Does S find it easy to.be impartial when called on to judge? 120. Does S "put his foot in it" often (make a tactless blunder)? — 6 — 121. Is S hearty.in greeting people? 122. Is S almost free from being suspicious of the actions of others? 123. Does S sometimes get the experience in hearing speakers of thinking that the speaker'is referring to S? 124. Does S have a tendency to do some things beyond what good judgment would indicate? 125. Does S tend to exaggerate his grievances? 126. Does S adapt readily to new difficult conditions and situations? 127. Do death, sickness, pain, and sorrow enter largely into S's dreams? 128. Does -S live an easy-going life with only few enthusiasms to express? 129. Does S think as well of those with whom he has a disagreement, as before? 130. Does S often ponder on the misfortunes of his past? 131., Does S show a uniform rather than a varied expression in talking? 132. Is S hard to please? 133. Does S carry out assignments promptly and systematically? 134. Is S likely to be jealous? 135. Is S rather optimistic about opportunities for young people? 136. Is S "touchy" on several things about himself? 137. Is S bothered at times with the idea that nobody cares for him? 138. Does S look ahead and fail to smile and show interest when passing a beautiful child? 139. Is S well pleased with life and so never considered committing suicide? 140. Is S prejudiced in favor of his own club, college, state, etc.? 141. Does S smile much? 142. Does S find that a minor failure or poor showing of his can be quickly forgotten? 143. Is S unsuccessful in acting, impersonating or relating incidents effectively? 144. Is S logical and scientific in this thinking? 145. Does S comment on many shortcomings in the shows he sees and the books he reads? 146. Does S find that the memories of illness or pain pass out of mind fairly soon? 147. Does S feel abused not being able to do something, instead of adapting to it by some substitute activity? 148. Does S prefer to be with adults nearly all the time rather than with children part of the time? 149. Does S only seldom express any grievances? 150. Does S have his opinions influenced by looking at things from the standpoint of his experience, occupation, or training? 151. Do companions like to be with S? . -152. Does S often have the blues? 153. After seeing a tragic motion picture or drama, does S quickly return to normal, rather than continue being disturbed for a while? 154. Are personal interests unable to sway S from sound decisions? 155. Does S ,when on a picnic find himself sometimes unable to share the good spirits of the others? 156. Does S think well of most people, as to only'rarely speak slightingly of them? 157. Does S show a cordial attitude only to close friends if at all? 158. Does S think someone does not like him and speaks critically about S to others?' 159. Does S smile or laugh a good deal? 160. Can S see things as otherssee them, when he wishes to? t 161. Does S, when he has a grievance straightened out, continue disgruntled for a while? 162. In voting does S^study the personalities and issues, sometimes voting for a candidate of the other party, rather than regularly voting the same party ticket straight? 163. Does S refrain from giving a kiss, hug, pat on the back or otherwise manifesting pleasure in meeting friends, except as needed for politeness, after an absence of a fortnight or so? 164. When S loses something, is he almost free from the tendency to think that some one else stole or mislaid it? 165. Does S give too high an importance to his own interests and fields of knowledge in comparison with 'others? 166. Does S find it hard to get started on a task that needs to be done? 167. Does S find it annoying to have any criticism made of himself even though justified and from which he could profit? 168. Can S "stand-up" under adversity well? 169. Does S often feel sad because of his inferiority in some repects? 170. Does S show a friendly attitude in his voice or expression? 171. Does S prefer not to pass a cemetery, so (as not to be reminded of death? 172. Does S spend only very little time or no time'grumbling about the condition of his work? 173. Does S succeed in preventing his emotions swaying his judgment much? 174. Is S' appealed to strongly by young lovers who are hampered by opposition? 175. In disagreements with associates does S find it hard to understand how the other can possibly differ from him, so very one sided does the matter seem? 176. Does S find that grief over war victims and refugees comes to mind often? 177. Does S spend too freely in view of his income? ' , 178. Does S think he has many warm friends? 179. Does S estimate his friends too favorably, in comparison with others whom he judges more severely? 180. Is S almost free from being disturbed by either his immaturity or aging? 181. Does S have spells of liveliness (lasting at least several days) rather than staying at about the same level? • , , 182. Does S have spells of being sad and depressed (lasting at least several days) rather than staying at about the same level? Now look back over your answer sheet to make sure you have an answer for every question. If you do not know, make the best guess you can. Be sure to look to make sure you filled in the blanks at top of answer sheet showing your name, etc. Appendix B Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s Item Numbers C l a s s i f i e d by T r a i t s T r a i t A • B C D E F Gf H I 3 94 6 91 1 99 5 92 11 7 97 13 93 4 102 8 96 20 15 101 16 98 12 107 10 103 22 17 104 19 100 18 109 14 106 30 25 116 24 105 21 114 23 108 58 27 118 2"6 110 36 119 31 111 61 32 127 28 112 46 123 34 113 66 35 130 33 121 49 134 41 117 77 38 135 37 128 51 136 43 122 79 40 137 42 131 53 140 48 125 83 44 139 45 138 57 144 50 129 95 47 142 55 141 60 150 52 132 115 56 146 64 143 69 154 54 145 120 62 152 76 148 71 160 59 147 124 65 155 78 151 73 162 63 149 126 68 159 82 157 81 165 67 156 133 70 169 87 163 84 167 74 158 153 72 171 89 170 86 173 85 161 166 75 176 178 88 175 164 168 80 180 90 179 172 177 Appendix C C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s T r a i t A B C D E . P G H • I A .68 -.04 -.01 .03 .66 -.31 .45 -.48 B .68 -.27 -.29 -.26 .54 -.30 .65 -.37 C -.04 -.27 .47 .14 .16 .42 .12 -.09 - D -.01 -.29 .47 .48 .07 .23 .11 .27 E .03 -.26 .14 .48 -.20 .01 -.13 .32 F .66 .54 .16 .07 -.20 .03 .69 -.58 G -.31 -.30 .42 .23 .01 .03 -.08 .03 H .45 .65 .12 .11 -.13 .69 -.08 -.32 I -.48 -.37 -.09 .27 .32 -.58 .03 -.32 s .98 . .38 .91 1.33 .39. 1.37 .03 1.49 -1.22 .68 .84 -.30 -.42 -.41 .64 -.37 .58 -.59 Appendix C F i r s t F a c t o r R e s i d u a l s Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s i i T r a i t A B C D E F G H I A .11 .16 .28 .31 .23 -.06 .06 -.08 B .11 -.02 .06 .08 .00 .01 .16 . .13 C .16 -.02 .34 .02 .35 .31 .29 -.27 D .28 .06 .34 .31 .34 .07 .35 .02 E .31 .08- .02 .31 .06 -.14 .11 .08 F .23 .00 .35 .34 .06 .27 .32 -.20 G -.06 .01 .31 .07 -.14 .27 .13 -.19 H .06 .16 .29 .35 .11 .32 .13 .02 I -.08 .13 -.27 .02 .08 -.20 -.19 .02 s 1.01 .53 1.18 1.77 .83 1.37 .40 1.44 -.49 .41 .12 .58 .58 .27 .59 .31 .49 -.21 Appendix C Second F a c t o r R e s i d u a l s Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s i i i T r a i t A B c . D E F G H I A .06 -.08 .04 .20 -.01 -.19 -.14 .01 B .06 -.09 -.01 .05 -.07 -.03 .10 .16 C -.08 -.09 - .00 -.14 .01 .13 .01 -.15 D .04 -.01 .00 .15 .00 -.11 .07 .14 E .20 .05 -.14 .15 -.10 -.22 -.02 .14 F -.01 -.07 .01 .00 -.10 .09 .03 -.08 G -.19 -.03 .13 -.11 -.22 .09 -.02 -.12 H -.14 .10 .01 .07 -.02 .03 -.02 .12 I .01 .16 -.15 .14 ,14 -.08 -.12 .12 s -.11 .17 -.31 .28 .06 -.13 -.47 .15 .22 ,25 .27 -.28 ,25 .46 -.16 -.43 .10 .41 Appendix C T h i r d F a c t o r R e s i d u a l s Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s i v T r a i t A B C D E F G H I A -.01 -.01 -.02 .08 .03 -.08 -.16 -.09 B -.01 -.01 -.09 -.07 -.03 .09 .07 .05 C -.01 -.01 .07 -.01 -.03 .01 .04 -.04 D • -.02 -.09 .07 .04 .04 .00 .04 .04 E .08 -.07 -.01 .04 -.03 -.02 -.07 -.05 F .03 -.03 -.03 .04 -.03 .02 .05 -.01 G -.08 .09 .01 .00 -.02 .02 .02 .06 H -.16 .07 .04 .04 -.07 .05 .02 .08 I -.09 .05 -.04 .04 -.05 -.01 .06 .08 s -.26 .00 .02 .12 -.13 .04 .10 .07 .04 -.33 .14 .07 .10 -.21 .05 .22 .39 .23 Appendix C F o u r t h F a c t o r R e s i d u a l s Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s v T r a i t A B C D E F G H I A .03 .01 .01 .01 .05 -.01 -.03 -.01 B .03 -.02 -.10 -.04 -.04 .06 .02 .02 C .01 -.02 .06 .00 -.03 .00 .01 -.06 D .01 -.10 .06 .06 .03 -.02 .00 .02 E .01 -.04 .00 .06 -.02 .02 .01 .00 F .05 -.04 -.03 .03 -.02 .01 .03 ' -.02 G -.01 .06 .00 -.02 .02 .01 -.07 .01 H -.03 .02 .01 .00 .01 .03 -.07 -.01 I -.01 .02 -.06 .02 .00 -.02. .01 -.01 s .06 -.07 -.03 .06 .04 .01 .00 -.04 -.05 .07 -.25 .08 .27 .11 .12 -.16 .11 -.13 V Appendix C F i f t h F a c t o r R e s i d u a l s Johnson Temperament A n a l y s i s v i T r a i t A B C D A .05 .00 -.01 B .05 .00 -.04 C .00 .00 .04 D -.01 -.04 .04 E .00 -.01 -.01 .03 F .04 -.01 -.04 .00 G .00 .02 .01 -.02 H -.04 .05 .00 -.03 I -.00 -.01 .05 -.01 E F G H I .00 .04 .00 -.04 .00 -.01 -.01 .02 .05 -.01 -.01 -.04 .01 .00 .05 .03 .00 -.02 -.03 -.01 - y03 .04 .00 .01 -.03 .03 .02 .00 .04 ..03 -.05 -.01 .00 .02 -.05 .00 .01 .00 -.01 .00 s .04 .05 .05 -.04 .03 .01 .02 -.05 .03 B i b l i o g r a p h y B l a i r , G. 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