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Summer day camping : an evaluation of current Vancouver experience in relation to accepted standards… Furness, Anne-Marie 1951

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trr/ 4*  SUMMER DAY CAMPING An Evaluation of Current Vancouver Experience i n Relation to Accepted Standards i n Day Camping.  ANNE-MARIE FURNESS  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of Social Work  June,  1951  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  ABSTRACT Organized recreation programs for school children during the summer months have developed rapidly i n the past decade.  Resident camping and playground programs have  constituted the essential  areas of study.  Inadequate  attention has been given to the development of summer day camping as a specialized recreational service i n the f i e l d of camping.  With this situation i n mind, t h i s thesis has  been prepared to study the acceptable  standards of practice  i n day camping and to evaluate the current Vancouver s i t uation i n the l i g h t of these standards. Information embodied i n t h i s thesis,  i n addition  to those sources oited i n the Bibliography, was obtained from the answers to two questionnaires which provided the material to evaluate f a c i l i t i e s ,  program, and leadership  i n the i n - o i t y programs of five Red Feather recreation agencies.  Additional data was obtained from interviews  with summer program d i r e c t o r s .  The written material of the  Day Camp Committee, Group Work D i v i s i o n , Community Chest and  Council was also used. In view of the present confusion as to the  essential differences between the various forms of summer program, and the l i m i t e d appreciation of the function of day camping, i t was f e l t that a study of the current Vancouver s i t u a t i o n would be of reference value.  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The writer wishes to express sincere i a t i o n to those agencies discussed  apprec-  i n t h i s thesis,  for  t h e i r cooperation and understanding i n making available the necessary information for study;  to those who gave  such valuable assistance i n preparing the material; to Miss Elizabeth Thomas and Dr. Leonard Marsh of the School of Social Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, for  t h e i r advice, guidance and encouragement i n the  c o l l e c t i o n and assembling of material.  SUMMER DAY CAMP An Evaluation of Current Vancouver Experience i n Relation to Accepted Standards i n Day Camping. TABLE OF CONTENT Components of the True Day Camp Page History and development of day camping. Standards i n regards to program and facilities.  1  Chapter  1  Chapter  11  Social and Administrative Implications of Day Camping Page 21 Day camping as a specialized agency service. Administration, finance and p u b l i c i t y i n day camping. Use of records.  Chapter 111  The Importance of Leadership i n Day Camping Page 47 The function of leadership. The seleotion, t r a i n i n g , and supervision of the leaders. A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of leadership r e s p o n s i b i l ities.  Chapter  IV  Facilities Page 61 The five Red Feather Recreation Agencies i n Vancouver offering a summer program i n 1949: Vancouver East " Y " , Alexandra House, Jewish Community Centre, Y . M . C . A . , Gordon House. Description and evaluation of outdoor and indoor f a c i l i t i e s used i n the summer programs i n these agencies. Future needs i n Vancouver i n regards to f a c i l i t i e s for day camping.  Chapter  V  Program Page 75 Description of summer program i n the f i v e agencies; evaluation of the organization and selection of a c t i v i t i e s . Types of groupings i n program: implications of varying methods used to develop groupings.  Chapter  VI  Leadership Page 96 Evaluation of the leadership i n five summer programs; the selection, t r a i n i n g , supervision and assignment of leadership r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Proportion of leaders to campers. Agency practice i n keeping i n d i v i d u a l and group reoords. Committees involved i n planning summer day camp. Parent p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Table of Content - Continued Chapter T i l  Bibliography  Appendices  Page 123 Implications for the Future The clear d i s t i n c t i o n between day camping and other forms of summer program. Social group work leadership i n day camping. The Gordon House Day Camp. Community leadership headed by the Community Chest and Council. Suggested steps to assure progress i n day camping.  Page  137  Pages 139 - 153  TABLES IN THE TEXT Table 1. Table S. Table 3.  Detail ( a C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) of F a c i l i t i e s (Six Programs) Page  67  A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of A c t i v i t i e s ( Six Programs)  Page  77  Page  89  Page  y?  The Composition of Groups ( Six Programs)  Table 4.  Staff Engaged i n Six Programs  Table 5.  The Function of Staff Engaged i n Six Programs Ratio of Staff to Campers i n Six Programs  Table 6.  Page 101 Page 107  1  CHAPTER 1 Components of The True Day Camp Since the turn of the century,  considerable  attention has been given to developing summer camping for ohildren of a l l ages.  Resident camping has grad-  ually developed from a haphazard though earnest  effort  to provide a healthy outdoor experience where children could be kept occupied, to a specialized f i e l d providing l e i s u r e time opportunities for individuals and groups to derive maximum educational and recreational benefits. This gradual development has shown the cont r i b u t i o n camping can make i n organized l e i s u r e time services,  but i t has also shown that greater attention  must be given to i t s values i f the f u l l  potentialities  of camping are to be r e a l i z e d . Gradually the many public, semi-publio and private agencies and organizations involved i n sponsoring summer camping are developing common aims and objectives.  They are defining methods whereby the camping  program can be of maximum service i n helping children achieve s o c i a l and emotional as well as physical growth. Organized camping i s a comparatively new f i e l d . In i t s development there has been a strong tendency to  2 c o n f i n e an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f i t s i n t r i n s i c p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n o f a r e s i d e n t camp.  values to the  The g r a d u a l  emphasis on h i g h s t a n d a r d s o f f a c i l i t i e s , program and l e a d e r s h i p has been based on t h e assumption  that these  s t a n d a r d s a p p l y o n l y t o t h i s a r e a o f camping. I t i s f e l t t h a t t h i s sharp foous on t h e r e s i dent camp i g n o r e s t h e f a c t t h a t oamping i s a s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a o f r e c r e a t i o n w h i c h c a n be o f f e r e d i n a v a r i e t y o f s e t t i n g s , o f w h i c h r e s i d e n t camping i s b u t one. t h e r e f o r e suggested  It i s  t h a t o r g a n i z e d oamping be viewed as  the framework i n which s t a n d a r d s o f p r a c t i c e a r e dev e l o p e d ; these s t a n d a r d s would v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e s o f v a r i o u s forms o f camping, suoh as r e s i d e n t eamping o r day oamping. T h i s p r e s e n t study i s based on t h e assumption t h a t day camping i s a s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a w i t h i n t h e f i e l d of oamping.  I t has r e c e i v e d i n s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n i n  terms o f t h e v a l u e s i t a f f o r d s and t h e s t a n d a r d s t h a t must be m a i n t a i n e d i n the development o f adequate services. Day camping e n o o r p o r a t e s many o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s of  o t h e r forms o f camping, b u t i s unique i n t h e p h y s i c a l  setting  used. "Day  Camping i s d e f i n e d as an o r g a n i z e d out-  door e x p e r i e n c e i n group l i v i n g ,  conducted on  3  a daytime b a s i s .  I t i s g e n e r a l l y c a r r i e d on i n a  close-to-home s i t u a t i o n , so t h a t t h e camper may s l e e p and e a t h i s morning and evening meals at home, and y e t , d u r i n g t h e day, p a r t i c i p a t e i n a program 1.  r e l a t e d t o l i v i n g i n and e n j o y i n g t h e out o f d o o r s . " Within t h i s p h y s i c a l structure there i s a general o b j e c t i v e w h i c h g u i d e s i t s development. "Day  camping should be a means t h r o u g h w h i c h  o h i l d r e n come t o know l i v i n g a t f i r s t hand, whieh they may develop  through  i n d i v i d u a l freedom and i n i t -  i a t i v e w h i l e they l e a r n t o l i v e i n groups.  At t h e  day camp t h e c h i l d should l e a r n t o f e e l at one w i t h the w o r l d o f n a t u r e , t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t o use l e i s u r e time r e w a r d i n g l y .  Day camping s h o u l d 2.  aim a t c r e a t i v e p l a y and c r e a t i v e e d u c a t i o n . " The  r o o t s o f day camping a r e found i n the need  to p r o v i d e o r g a n i z e d r e c r e a t i o n i n h e a v i l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d o i t y areas.  I n i t s o r i g i n t h e r e were s i m i l a r components  to t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f r e s i d e n t camping where t h e main g o a l  1.  Reynold B. C a r l s e n , Day Camping, i n A m e r i c a n Camping A s s o c i a t i o n Camping Magazine, V o l X V I I , Ho. 7 (November 1945), p. 12.  2.  N a t i o n a l B e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , Day Oamping, New York, 1939, p. 6.  4 was t o remove t h e c h i l d r e n from the smoke and heat o f t h e c i t y and b r i n g them t o a h e a l t h i e r environment e l o s e to nature. I n r e s i d e n t camping these g o a l s tended, f o r many y e a r s , t o s l o w down t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e s of camping beyond t h i s b a s i c achievement o f providing fresh air.  T h i s a t t i t u d e has a l s o a f f e c t e d day  camping, f o r i t was r e g a r d e d as a compromise between smoke and f r e s h a i r ; at l e a s t one c o u l d p r o v i d e a h e a l t h y environment i n t h e day t i m e . T h i s a t t i t u d e can be found amongst many w r i t e r s on summer day oamping. that:  R. B. C a r l s e n , f o r example,  says  "day camping i s a compromise t o communities who  r e c o g n i z e t h e need f o r oamping y e t cannot a f f o r d t o 3.  support r e g u l a r camp t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e . " T h i s approach t o Summer Day Camping i s i n i t s e l f one o f t h e major f a c t o r s w h i c h i s p r e v e n t i n g t h e d e v e l o p ment of good day camp p r a c t i c e .  I t i s , i n t h e main, a  n e g a t i v e approach, and an approach w h i c h i m m e d i a t e l y produces l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e work done and t h e f i n a n c i a l support o f i n t e r e s t e d groups. of  I t i s reduced t o a form  oamping t h a t i s seen as a compromise,  and n o t a  p r o j e c t w h i c h has a unique c o n t r i b u t i o n t o make i n reoreation servioes.  I b i d , p. 13  I n some c o u n t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e U n i t e d  5  S t a t e s , day camping has developed enough t o be s t u d i e d by i t s e l f .  I t should be o f f e r e d because of t h e k i n d o f  e x p e r i e n c e i t a f f o r d s and i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e needs of a p a r t i c u l a r community.  T h i s a t t i t u d e however, demands  a h i g h degree o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e components o f day camping, i t s s t a n d a r d s and v a l u e s  and i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n  to t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s of a community. The  American Camping A s s o c i a t i o n , an o r g a n i z a t i o n  oomprised o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of p u b l i e , p r i v a t e and semip u b l i o agencies i n v o l v e d i n organized many y e a r s ,  camping, h a s , f o r  assumed t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f s e t t i n g s t a n d a r d s  of r e q u i r e m e n t s and performance i n o r g a n i z e d l e a d e r s h i p i n t h i s a r e a has been r e c o g n i z e d ica  oamping. I t s i n N o r t h Amer-  as t h e most v a l i d and p r o g r e s s i v e work i n t h e camping  field. Because o f t h e r a p i d e x p a n s i o n of v a r i o u s grams under t h e name o f day camping, a d m i n i s t e r e d  pro-  by many  k i n d s o f a g e n c i e s b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , i t was f e l t t h a t t h e term was b e i n g  too l o o s e l y applied.  At t h e r e -  quest o f t h e American Camping A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e Chicago s e c t i o n o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n a p p o i n t e d a committee i n 1945 to f o r m u l a t e  standards.  A p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t was p r e -  s e n t e d i n 1945 and r e v i s e d i n l y 4 6 . These s t a n d a r d s have been s e t up under f o u r headings; program, f a c i l i t i e s ,  h e a l t h and l e a d e r s h i p ,  6  and these are u t i l i z e d i n the following discussion, leadership, however, w i l l he examined i n separate chapter, for  the c r i t e r i a concerning t h i s major area demands par-  t i c u l a r consideration. These standards would thus "be related to every aspect of day camping.  In turn, day oamping, i t s advan-  tages and l i m i t a t i o n s w i l l be viewed i n r e l a t i o n to t o t a l reoreation services  offered by recreation agencies.  With  t h i s background of the function of day oamping attention w i l l be given to the development and present l e v e l of services i n day oamping i n the Red Feather Recreation Agencies i n the City of Vancouver. Program "The only sensible c r i t e r i o n for an outdoor program would be:  we w i l l do those a c t i v i t i e s whioh  can best be accomplished i n the out of doors rather than those a c t i v i t i e s which can be carried on as w e l l , or better,  i n the home or school.  With t h i s goal  and with the necessity to use native materials  for  building their camp homes and cooking t h e i r own meals, the campers w i l l find that nature study has become integrated with a l l t h e i r  activities."  4.  The emphasis and the basis of day camp program i s that i t i s primarily concerned with outdoor l i v i n g . 4.  Mabel Lyman Jobe, The Handbook of Day Camp, Associ a t i o n Press, New York, 1949, p7 125.  7  The p l a n n i n g and p h i l o s o p h y e n t a i l e d i n o f f e r i n g program i n summer day camp combine two main f e a t u r e s .  The out-  door s e t t i n g p r o v i d e s t h e environment, and n a t u r e p r o v i d e s program r e s o u r c e s . E l a b o r a t i o n on t h e l a s t statement  shows t h a t  summer day camp program e n t a i l s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of i n d i g e n o u s oamping; t h a t i s , use o f n a t u r a l a v a i l a b l e resources.  I t i n v o l v e s a consoious  attempt  t o avoid  those programs w h i c h can be o f f e r e d i n an i n d o o r s e t t i n g o r which i n v o l v e p r e f a b r i c a t e d equipment. r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s and f l e x i b i l i t y  Imagination,  a r e demanded. A q u i c k  g l a n c e a t v a r i o u s areas o f day camp program b e a r out t h i s statement.  Among p o s s i b l e program would be:  o r a f t , a r t s and c r a f t s , o v e r n i g h t t r i p s , n a t u r e music, a r c h e r y games, d r a m a t i c s , w a t e r f r o n t and s p e c i a l e v e n t s .  The m a j o r i t y o f these  oan be o f f e r e d i n any s e t t i n g .  for  example, cover a wide a r e a .  study,  activities, activities  I n themselves  not n e c e s s a r i l y outdoor a c t i v i t i e s .  eamp-  they a r e  A r t s and c r a f t s ,  Their chief value i n  t h i s s e t t i n g , however, i s when n a t u r a l r e s o u r o e s  such  as p i n e oones, s h e l l s , f l o w e r s , and l e a v e s a r e used t o develop c r e a t i v e s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s .  Competitive  games n e c e s s i t a t i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e equipment, a g a i n , a r e not t h e f o c u s i n summer day camp; i n s t e a d o r g a n i s e d games s h o u l d be c r e a t e d and adapted t o t h e outdoor s e t t i n g , and t o the r e s o u r c e s  available.  8  The  p r i n c i p l e s of program content must be based  on r e a l camp l i f e .  They must be s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e t o  meet day t o day i n t e r e s t s and needs. a continuing experience, which w i l l  They s h o u l d  provide  making p o s s i b l e c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y  s t i m u l a t e new i n t e r e s t s and s k i l l s .  T h i s un-  f o r c e d c o n t i n u i t y a l l o w s one n a t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e t o l e a d to another. T h i s need f o r f l e x i b i l i t y has numerous i m p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e a r e a o f p l a n n i n g program. of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s  C r e a t i v e use  and p r o v i s i o n o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  c o n t i n u i n g e x p e r i e n c e s demands o r g a n i z a t i o n o f program and g r o u p i n g o f oampers i n such a way t h a t i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s advantage.  may be used t o b e s t  Grouping i n s m a l l u n i t s a f f o r d s t h e oppor-  t u n i t y f o r a l l a c t i v i t i e s t o be d i r e c t e d toward t h e c e n t r a l theme o f outdoor l i v i n g . Program p l a n n i n g three l e v e l s : -  first,  s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e e v o l v e on  a l l camp a c t i v i t i e s p l a n n e d on  the b a s i s o f group r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , w h i c h would f o c u s on s p e c i a l e v e n t s to c r e a t e u n i t y i n t h e t o t a l camp group. The  second l e v e l i s t h e i n t e r e s t group, where emphasis  i s on t e a c h i n g  and d e v e l o p i n g  appreciation of s p e c i f i c  a c t i v i t i e s , p e r m i t t i n g s u f f i c i e n t v a r i e t y t o meet i n d i v i d u a l oampers i n t e r e s t .  The t h i r d and most i m p o r t a n t  l e v e l i s t h e s m a l l group u n i t .  The t o t a l camp group  would be broken down i n t o s m a l l u n i t s , on t h e b a s i s o f  9 f r i e n d s h i p a s s o c i a t i o n , i n t e r e s t and age. under c o n t i n uing leadership,  considerable  leeway s h o u l d he p r o v i d e d  t o a l l o w s m a l l u n i t a c t i v i t i e s and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n t e r e s t s . Mabel lyman Jobe s u g g e s t s t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r i a f o r evaluating  cri-  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r m o f t h e  summer day oamp program:(1)  I s t h e program t h e r e s u l t o f d e m o c r a t i c p l a n n i n g i n s m a l l groups?  (2)  Does t h e program p e r m i t and encourage individual differences special  (3)  and use o f  talents?  Do t h e a c t i v i t i e s used make t h e c h i l d r e n aware o f t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and broaden t h e i r c r e a t i v e and i m a g i n a t i v e  (4)  skill?  Does t h e a c t i v i t y o f f e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r l e a r n i n g something w h i c h would n o t be learned  (6)  otherwise?  A r e a c t i v i t i e s s e l e c t e d which have a c a r r y over i n t o permanent h o b b i e s i n t h e home o r school?  (6)  A r e e x t e r n a l rewards o r c o e r c i o n  necessary  or a r e c h i l d r e n m o t i v a t e d by i n t e r e s t i n the  activity? 5  (7)  5.  A r e c h i l d r e n prompt and eager t o come t o camP?  I b i d , p. 124.  10  facilities One of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n setting up summer day camp i s finding adequate space to provide the kind of experience desired.  Few communities w i l l be i n a  p o s i t i o n to acquire a s i t e which meets every required standard and desirable natural feature.  Consequently  some d i s t i n c t i o n should be made between the necessary standards to be considered i n ohosing a day camp s i t e and the desirable features which increase the value of the s i t e .  Although such a d i s t i n c t i o n i s made, i t  is  important to recognise that c r e a t i v i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y improve the s i t e which has some l i m i t a t i o n s . The essential  c r i t e r i a for the seleotion and  l o c a t i o n of the camp s i t e are as follows; (1)  Adequate space f o r a balanced and suitable program.  Shis e n t a i l s the need for open  areas for games, freedom from hazards and 6  sufficient (2)  shady and sunny areas.  "Primitive' 1 ' camp area. setting i s essential craft program.  Adequate natural  i n offering a camp-  It should be a l o c a t i o n  where wood i s available, where f i r e s may be b u i l t , and where outdoor cooking and experimentation with camp crafts, 6.  Ibid, p. 39.  using  11 natural materials, may be carried on. (3)  Convenient public transportation.  7  Js'ifty to  sixty minutes should be the maximum time i n volved i n reaching the camp s i t e . of participants  The number  who can hold t h e i r i n t e r e s t ,  and oan be adequately handled i s  substantially  reduced i f a longer period of time i s needed to reach the destination.  Attention should be  given to the oost of transportation,  the pos-  s i b i l i t y of acquiring chartered buses and to the minimization of the walking necessary i n reaching the camp s i t e . (4)  A p l e n t i f u l supply of safe drinking water. Where safe drinking water i s not available at the camp s i t e , i t may be hauled i n d a i l y .  This,  however, imposes certain l i m i t a t i o n s which oan only be minimized i f good transportation  faoil-  8  i t i e s are provided. (5)  Adequate t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s .  In i s o l a t e d  p i t l a t r i n e s w i l l suffice.  One unit i s  f i c i e n t for twenty people.  Handwashing  7.  Reynolds.  Uarlsen, op. c i t . , p. 15.  8.  Mabel Lyman jobe, op. c i t . , p. 41.  areas suf-  f a c i l i t i e s must a l s o "be p r o v i d e d . (6)  Seclusion.  12  9  I s o l a t i o n has a d i r e c t b e a r i n g  on t h e freedom o f t h e camp program, t h e development o f camp s p i r i t , ion  and t h e p r o v i s -  o f adequate s u p e r v i s i o n .  I n securing  i s o l a t i o n , however, i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e s i t e t o be e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e by c a r , f o o t , 10  or (7)  telephone.  Health.  T h i s e n t a i l s adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r  good d r a i n a g e , adequate r e f u s e d i s p o s a l , and 11 a s i t e whioh oan be kept c l e a n . Any c o n s i d e r a b l e d e v i a t i o n from t h e s e s t a n d ards i n l o c a t i n g a s i t e w i l l impose severe l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e day camp.  The e s s e n t i a l p o i n t , however, i s f o r  those groups i n v o l v e d i n s e t t i n g up day camps t o reoogn i z e and accept these s t a n d a r d s as e s s e n t i a l .  Realist-  i c a l l y i t i s f r e q u e n t l y n e c e s s a r y t o d e v i a t e , t o some extent, f o r a p e r i o d of time. made t o improve  E v e r y e f f o r t s h o u l d be  the s i t u a t i o n and develop t h e l e v e l o f  s t a n d a r d s a t t h e e a r l i e s t moment p o s s i b l e . There a r e s e v e r a l d e s i r a b l e n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s and camp f a c i l i t i e s which have a v e r y v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o make i n t h e s u c c e s s o f day camping.  T. 10. 11.  I b i d , p. 43. " I b i d , p. 40. Reynold E. C a r l s e n , op. c i t . p. 16.  (1)  Adequate and safe swimming location.  This  would e n t a i l an area free from hazard, gradu a l l y slanted towards deeper water, i n a l o c a t i o n where adequate safeguards are possible. (2)  Natural beauty.  Woodland, streams, h i l l s ,  lakes, natural resources of interest are desirable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n improving camp s p i r i t , developing a love of nature and providing program resources. (3)  Shelter. ant  Some central coverage i s an import-  factor as storage space, shelter from  rainy weather and i n a s s i s t i n g children to adjust to an outdoor experience.  The type  of shelter w i l l vary considerably according to the number of campers involved, the degree of use of the camp s i t e , and the frequency of overnight t r i p s .  The Adirondack type of  shelter i s frequently s u f f i c i e n t to meet the needs.  This type of shelter may be erected  with ease by the oampers themselves and consequently may be b u i l t by each unit group. (4)  F i r e plaoe. Council Ring;. Tables and Benches* Such camp f a c i l i t i e s are closely related to the needs of the groups involved and the program evolved. They o f f e r an important eon-  14  t r i b u t i o n , where t r e e s and frames a r e a v a i l able. the  They a s s i s t i n c r e a t i n g u n i t y w i t h i n  camp, and are v a l u a b l e t o o l s i n program  planning.  There i s f r e q u e n t l y a tendency  amongst camp  leaders to react n e g a t i v e l y to  s e t t i n g up accommodation w h i c h p r o v i d e any degree o f comfort i n camp s e t t i n g .  This  a t t i t u d e ignores the p o s i t i v e values of making oamping  as c o m f o r t a b l e as p o s s i b l e ,  and a r e a l i s t i c r e c o g n i t i o n o f s t r o n g i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s i n a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h l i v i n g i n the o u t d o o r s . T h i s k i n d o f camp f a c i l i t y can be b u i l t by the  campers under adequate l e a d e r s h i p ; i t  c r e a t e s a f e e l i n g o f p r i d e and accomplishment and a sense o f ownership, and p r o v i d e s a h e a l t h f u l degree o f comfort w i t b i n t h e oamp site. Equipment i s a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a r e a w i t h i n camp f a c i l i t i e s .  Adequate a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h i s .  I n t h e f i e l d o f r e s i d e n t oamping, t h e study o f e s s e n t i a l equipment h a s p r o g r e s s e d t o a h i g h degree o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e advantages o f adequate equipment i n e x p o s i n g campers to  a v a r i e t y o f outdoor programs and making adequate p r o -  vision for individual  differences.  There i s a tendency t o r e g a r d day camping  15 as a more p r i m i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e o u t d o o r s , and  there-  f o r e t o c o n s i d e r t h a t l e s s equipment i s n e c e s s a r y .  There  i s danger here i n i m p o s i n g upon the campers an a d u l t woods man's a t t i t u d e toward the l e v e l o f i n t e r e s t and e x p e c t e d o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  ability  I t a l s o tends t o impose an  a d u l t l e v e l o f c r e a t i v i t y , and i n g e n u i t y  i n camp l i f e .  I n the main the c h i l d ' s c r e a t i v i t y w i l l concern those a r e a s which are r e c r e a t i o n a l i n q u a l i t y r a t h e r  t h a n those  concerned w i t h e a t i n g , b u i l d i n g s h e l t e r s , and  providing  adequate  sanitation. A c o m b i n a t i o n o f recommendations of Mabel lyman  Jobe i n h e r book, The Handbook o f Day l i s t of materials  Camping, and the  suggested by the American  i a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d as t h e d e s i r a b l e  Camping Assoc-  equipment f o r day  camp program. ll)  F i r s t A i d Equipment.  (2)  S a n i t a t i o n and »a) (b) to) Id) (e) (fj  (3)  Maintenance:-  disinfectant water b a s i n s soap t o i l e t paper matches f i r e - f i g h t i n g equipment  Campcraft:(a) (b) (c) (d) le) (f)  heavy c o r d and c a r p e n t e r ' s t w i n e axes hammer and a s s o r t e d n a i l s scout k n i f e p l i a b l e b a i l i n g wire knapsacks  16  (4)  Cooking (for ( a) (b) (c) Id)  (5)  pot with l i d to f i t large spoon large knife several paring knives small s k i l l e t can opener mixing bowl baking t i n matches  Handcraft : (a) lb) (o) Id) (e) (f) is) lh) li) (3) (k)  (7)  large pot with l i d large frying pan coffee pots two f l a t wash tuckets or dishpans.  Cooking (for each u n i t ) : (a) lb) le) Id) (e) (f) ig) (h) li)  (6)  headquarters):-  paper soissors crayons water paint brushes paste ooping saws and blades embroidery thread and r a f f i a thread needles burlap  Nature: (a) lb) le) (d) (e)  nature encyclopedia and guide books magnifying glass plaster of paris eheesecloth carbon tetrachloride for k i l l i n g 12, 13 insects  In studying the above l i s t ,  differentiation  should be made between equipment which i s 12. 13.  mabel lyman Jobe, op. c i t . , p. 46 Reynold E. Carlsen, op. o i t . , p. 15  elaborate  17 and minimizes i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e , and that which i s essential.  The former should be regarded as the tools  which assist i n greater development of program, but should not be used unless the program evolved demands the equipment.  Exposure purely through the use of  equipment therefore would inevitably defeat the purpose of program i n day camp. Health and Sanitation The environment of resident camping, the complete removal of the child from the home and the need to be prepared for any emergency have resulted i n the gradual development of high standards of health and sani t a t i o n i n t h i s setting.  Increasingly i t has become a  l e g a l necessity to meet standards of cleanliness and medical supervision i n the resident camp. In some parts of the United States, these same standards are essential  i n day camping.  This, however,  has tended to be a matter of governmental insistence on adequate health standards, rather than a unified acceptance by day camp agencies of the necessity of maintaining these standards. Necessary standards of health and sanitation i n day camps are: (1)  F a c i l i t i e s and areas must be kept i n good  18 condition. fore of  the  any  The  site  opening  existing  he  inspected  be-  o f camp f o r t h e e l i m i n a t i o n h a z a r d s s u c h as p o i s o n  unguarded  cliffs,  etc.,  should  and  should  deep w a t e r , be  traffic  inspected  ivy, danger,  r e g u l a r l y there-  after. Need  o f good f o o d  Need o f f i r s t  and  equipment  a i d expert  Need o f c o n v e n i e n t  i n day  telephone  camp  and  method  of  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r emergencies. Need  of s t a f f personnel  habits each  and  fill  daily  focus  on  health  h e a l t h forms f o r  camper.  Supervision Adjustment  of s a n i t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . of p r o g r a m and  activities, ual  out  to  and  balancing  personalized  quiet  group needs f o r r e s t  I f perishable food  and  milk  t o meet  and r e l a x a t i o n . are kept  p r o v i s i o n must be made f o r k e e p i n g M i l k must be excess of Unless  local  at  i n camp,  them c o o l .  a temperature not  in  50°  a city  approval  kept  individ-  water system i s used,  o f w a t e r u s e d must be  department  of h e a l t h .  written  obtained  from  Ample w a t e r must  be  a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l purposes.  Tests  be  made w i t h i n two  camp opens,  weeks b e f o r e  should  IS  and p e r i o d i c a l l y thereafter. (10)  F a c i l i t i e s for water disposal,  such as l a t -  r i n e s , drains and showers, must "be adequate and so located that the drainage w i l l not contaminate the water supply. (11)  l a t r i n e s must have p i t s that are f l y t i g h t , and must he kept clean at a l l times.  Hand-  washing f a c i l i t i e s must be provided at the latrines.  There must be one unit to every  twenty persons. (12)  Campers should require medical examination before attending camp,  Few camps to date  have i n s i s t e d on t h i s .  Gradually, however,  day camps are taking the precaution of providing forms for a medical report as a part of the camp records. Every effort i  should be made to see that high  standards of health and sanitation are an integral part of day camping.  There i s noth-  ing more useless than focusing on methods of assisting  individuals to achieve soeial and  emotional adjustment i n a recreational  setting  i f one simultaneously ignores the importance of health and physical needs. This discussion of standards i n the areas of  20  p r o g r a m , h e a l t h and f a c i l i t i e s , ifications  represents  t h a t must b e met i n o f f e r i n g  form the nucleus i n planning  These s t a n d a r d s p r o v i d e oamping c a n b e s t u d i e d  qual-  day camping.  They  a d a y camp p r o j e c t and i n d i c -  ate the areas t h a t are unique i n t h i s  day  the basic  form o f camping.  t h e g u i d e by w h i c h  as a s p e c i a l i z e d  area w i t h i n  a r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c y and t h e a d v a n t a g e s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s i t affords.  W i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f h i g h  s t a n d a r d s i n day c a m p i n g as a p r o j e c t o f a r e c r e a t i o n agency, c o n s i d e r a t i o n would t h e n t u r n t o t h e l e a d e r s h i p involved.  A d a y camp p r o g r a m n e e d s a f i r m b a s e and an  understanding of i t s p a r t i c u l a r values; o f t h e camp w i l l operation  but the leadership  determine the degree o f success i n t h e  o f t h e camp.  21 CHAPTER  11  S o c i a l and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e I m p l i c a t i o n s of Day  Day  Camping  camping can be o r g a n i z e d  and o f f e r e d by  groups, committees and a s s o c i a t i o n s n o t i n v o l v e d i n o t h e r recreation services.  I t may be s e t up under t h e a u s p i c e s  of s e v e r a l a g e n c i e s i n t h e community.  I t may be operated  by t h e r e c r e a t i o n department of p a r k commissioners, by s c h o o l o r y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r by a group o f i n t e r e s t e d citizens. However t h e p r i m a r y concern i s w i t h those a g e n c i e s and groups which, i n d e v e l o p i n g  r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , have  i n c l u d e d summer day camp as a s p e c i a l i z e d area.  In focus-  i n g t h e study of day camping i n t h i s way, p a r t i c u l a r cons i d e r a t i o n can be g i v e n t o i t s r e l a t e d n e s s  t o a y e a r round  program, r a t h e r than as a s p e c i a l i z e d u n i t detached from o t h e r community s e r v i c e s . I t i s f e l t t h a t i n t h i s way t h e p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e s of day camping can be r e c o g n i z e d  and t h a t b e t t e r use can  be made o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a f f o r d e d t o r e l a t e day camping to t o t a l agency o b j e c t i v e s .  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r i l y impor-  t a n t i n t h e c a r r y over v a l u e from summer t o w i n t e r program in offering a total recreation  experience.  22  The basis on which the emphasis i s on agencies offering day camping as a part of a t o t a l program i s the advantage integral i n day camping i n developing community relationships and i n strengthening the total agency program. Continuity i s a basic and essential t i o n work.  Short term programs,  requirement i n recre-  unrelated to other  services,  w i l l be of more limited value than a program geared to  offer-  ing a specialized experience as a part of a recreation service. An ever-present  problem i n recreation i s the d i f f -  i c u l t y i n r e l a t i n g the many specialized services  that  are  developed to the general services l a i d down i n the agency policy.  There i s a tendency for a selected group to enjoy  the specialized services without feeling any relatedness to the total agency or other services  offered.  This minimizes  the unity i n an agency membership and narrows considerably the experiences  that can be gained i n an agency program.  Applying this problem to the f i e l d of organized camping, one immediately sees one of the greatest d i f f i c u l t ies i n the area of resident camping.  Hedley S. Dimock has  pointed out that" . . we„have long recognized that one of the greatest l i m i t a t i o n s of the summer camp as an educational agency l i e s i n i t s  separation from the continuing l i f e  of the camper i n the community.  Unless this gap can be  bridged, much of the potential effectiveness  of the camp  w i l l not.be achieved; the camp experience w i l l remain but  23 an i s o l a t e d and f l e e t i n g episode r a t h e r than a permanent c o n t r i b u t i o n to the e d u c a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l . " This d i f f i c u l t y  i n r e s i d e n t camping takes the  form o f l a c k of contact w i t h the community of l a c k of r e a l i t y i n the experience.  and an element  Care must be taken  to see that the i n d i v i d u a l ' s experience does not become an i s o l a t e d dream of summer'respite which has no c a r r y o v e r i n the c h i l d ' s year around environment.  Channels must be  sought through which the c h i l d ' s home and community  life  can be r e l a t e d to h i s camping experience. There i s need to c o n s i d e r t h i s problem i n r e s i d e n t camping i n r e l a t i o n to the s i t u a t i o n i n day camping. c l e a r r e c o g n i t i o n of the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g these two  A fields  o f camping ensures a r e a l i s t i c approach i n s e t t i n g up program and a r e a l i z a t i o n of the p o s i t i v e framework w i t h i n which the s e r v i c e may be o f f e r e d .  I t should be p o i n t e d out  that no attempt i s b e i n g made t o suggest that one area o f organized camping i s more v a l u a b l e than another.  The  emphasis i s r a t h e r on the v a l u e s o f day camping which resident  camping does not share, and t h e r e f o r e the c o n t r i -  b u t i o n o f day camping as a f i e l d  i n camping i n r e l a t i o n to  i n d i v i d u a l , group and agency needs. (1)  In day camping, the c h i l d d i v i d e s h i s time between day camp and h i s f a m i l y .  1.  T h i s i s p o s s i b l y the  Hedley S. Dimock, New F r o n t i e r s f o r Camping,in appraisin, the Summer Camp, A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , l e w York, 1937, p.22  24  essential part  t o be c o n s i d e r e d  a day camp s i t u a t i o n . ment  of the c h i l d  The g r o w t h and d e v e l o p -  i n this  s i t u a t i o n i s depend-  ent  on a d e q u a t e l y r e l a t i n g  day  camp and v i c e v e r s a .  the  family  the  opportunity  interests  as w e l l  i n working i n  home f a c t o r s to t h e I t means w o r k i n g  as t h e c h i l d .  to develop,  with  It affords  i n the c h i l d ,  t h a t may be c o n t i n u e d  i n t h e home  environment. Psychologically, attitude from  i t must be r e c o g n i z e d  o f the c h i l d  i s markedly d i f f e r e n t  t h o s e he e x p e r i e n c e s  where he i s c o m p l e t e l y situation. is and  he i s c a l l e d  to  removed  from  the a c t i v i t i e s  a t camp.  substitute left  feelings  to f e e l tends  a d u l t s and  be an a d e q u a t e  Parents v i s i t i n g  of a c t i v i t i e s  a strong  o r may s u f f e r f r o m  d a y s and a  full  a r e needed t o m i n i m i z e  of loneliness.  experiences  o f t h e group  f o r t h e f a m i l i a r e n v i r o n m e n t he h a s  behind.  program  will  a r e new,  the c h i l d  i n t e n s i f y h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s with there  t h e home  In order  i n t h i s new e n v i r o n m e n t  h i s p e e r s so t h a t  camp  camp t h e s e t t i n g  upon t o be a p a r t  throughout h i s stay secure  i n a resident  In the r e s i d e n t  new t o t h e c h i l d ,  that the  Frequently  desire  the c h i l d  to receive  homesickness.  mall,  In the day camp situation the c h i l d ' s attitude and needs are more similar to those i n general recreational  situations.  The d i v i s i o n of time between the camp and the home environment i n day camping means that more children can p a r t i c i p a t e .  As has been mention-  ed above, the summer day camp does not require the same degree of adjustment resident camp.  as does the  This means that a physically  handicapped or emotionally malajusted  child  i s more capable of adjusting to this s i t u a t i o n . Insecure children who are not ready to leave home may nevertheless p r o f i t from a camp program. Similar problems are found i n the need of readiness for a group experience, but the security of familiar environment and the sustaining contact with the home enables the child to  integrate  his day camping experiences with his d a l l y l i f e , longer camping periods may be offered to a l l children.  The limited f i n a n c i a l expenditure  involved permits greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n and longer camping periods.  It diminished the need to l i m i t  camp periods to ten days where the child having gained his f i r s t glimmer of what camping means, i s bustled back to the c i t y again.  This question  of time i s an important part of the process  26  involved i n the o h i l d 1 s adjustment to camp a c t i v i t i e s and i n the building of r e l a t i o n ship with campers and leaders. Day camping i s usually a co-educational experience.  Although the sexes may be separated  i n s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s to meet their varying interests  at p a r t i c u l a r age l e v e l s , there  nevertheless  sufficient  is  opportunity for boys  and g i r l s to play or work together i n some activities.  This i s another area where, i n  resident camping, there tends to be an unnatural element since resident camps are usually open to one sex only. The day camp lends i t s e l f to close co-operation with the community.  Arrangements for camp  s i t e s , transportation, parent planning groups, are a l l i n t e g r a l parts of summer day camping and i n turn demand close community cooperation. Community resources must be used to their f u l l e s t i f an adequate program i s to be offered. The limited equipment and permanent building i s a s t i m u l a t i n g ' s i t u a t i o n , with good leadership, to the development of oreative a b i l i t i e s i n the campers.  One of the problems found i n  recreation today i s the l i m i t e d creativeness shown by part icipant s.  Children have become  more  dependent  athletic to  equipment  entertain  ively and  on f a b r i c a t e d  the  and a d u l t  them,  rather  resources  interests.  challenge  i f  at  Day  its  toys,  leadership  than  hand  meet  are  creat-  their  can meet  activities  skills  adapting  to  camping  expensive  needs  this  i n an  outdoor  setting. Summer d a y greater  camp p r o v i d e s  continuity  participants. factor  This  leadership  is  year-around  campers  will  program.  receives fifty  i n the  program.  be  needs  and v a r i a t i o n s  and p r o v i d e s  sight  into  of  as  a  These  daily  in  the  total  agency  a greater  extent  on  individual  greater  development  the  of  in-  the  group  whole. advantages  certain ency  the  c o n t i n u i t y enables  to  level  of  employed  the  staff  the  to  important  A portion of  sustained  focus  individual  percent  of  for  insufficient  camp i s  participants  This  and  an e x t r e m e l y  Generally  involved  opportunity  leadership  which frequently  consideration.  the  of  the  of  limitations.  towards  less  summer d a y There  regular  is  camp  may r e s u l t  w h i c h makes  it  more  impose  a definite  participation.  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s .voluntary,  interests  also  in irregular difficult  to  other  tendSince  community  attendance stimulate  28  growth and carry a consistant program.  However,  with enthusiastic and positive leadership this can he an advantage since i t necessitates providing stimulating and varied a c t i v i t i e s which w i l l hold the interest of the individual and groups involved. The d i v i s i o n of the camper's time "between home and camp has been discussed values.  as a factor with many positive  It must also be recognized that t h i s lack of con-  t i n u i t y on a chort term basis of twenty four hours has some tendency to dilute the camp effect creating camp unity.  i n the area of  The process of building and strength-  ening group relations w i l l be a more gradual process and may receive greater  set  backs.  The limited time each day also l i m i t s the variety of camp s k i l l s that can be taught.  This should be recog-  nized and development of program should be i n accordance with available time, degree of continuity in attendance, and the l e v e l of development of camp unity as well as considerations discussed  i n the previous chapter.  Having established  the standards and c r i t e r i a  involved i n the various areas integral i n day camping, and having b r i e f l y reviewed the advantages and l i m i t a t i o n s of day camping, careful consideration should be given to the dynamic components involved i n r e l a t i n g this program to t o t a l agency  services.  29 Realistically specialized will It  cut  is  services  across  of  every  partieularily  this the  philosophy agency  to  p o r t i o n of the  important  of  the day  relating total  camp  in relation  agency services.  to:  administration finance publicity the use of r e c o r d s d e v e l o p m e n t o f community relations Administration The  administrative  camping must meet t h e at  the  same t i m e  organizational tive day  channels  to  assume  of  the  created  to  insure  the  ment.  be  need  for  Beyond t h i s  there  t o be more d i r e c t l y  agency  for  the  i s need f o r  involved with  parent  where  program p l a n n i n g , camp p u b l i c i t y ,  advice  to  the  they  exist  of  in  a  administration.  summer day its  a special  take  the  staff  to  camp and develop-  committee financing  form o f  f u n c t i o n would  camp d i r e c t o r ,  providing volunteer  the  Administra-  the p l a n n i n g ,  T h i s might  committee  if  of  whilst  organization  sanctioning  and p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t . advisory  area  board o f d i r e c t o r s  aspects of  responsibility  involved.  effective  the  summer day  framework  successful  the  of  specialized  the  agency  truly  remainder of  the v a r i o u s the  this  policy  There i s understand  of  remaining w i t h i n  camping w i l l n o t  vacuum from  needs  organization  include  developing and  a  parent  30 education.  It might take the form of a day camp committee  of the operating agency, usually appointed agency including representatives agencies. recruiting,  by the operating  of various youth serving  Its function may include public interpretation, finance  etc..  The s p e c i f i c form and function of a committee would be determined by the policy and the needs of a part i c u l a r agency.  B a s i c a l l y i t i s necessary for the adequate  development of the day camp that a special committee concerned with the various aspects of camping can be delagated the authority to function i n t h i s area and be responsible to the board for i t s  decisions.  There i s a dual need for such a group-adequate development of community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n day camping projects and the need to provide democratic channels of part i c i p a t i o n i n planning so that the camp w i l l meet community needs. Mabel Lyman Jobe has outlined the following points as suggestions for the work of the planning committee. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)  2.  Studying community needs Planning camp objectives Maintaining public relations Recruiting participants for the camp Making f i n a n c i a l plans Giving leadership i n such special events hikes etc. P u b l i c i s i n g camp program g Seeking community f i n a n c i a l support  Mabel Lyman Jobe, op. c i t . , p. 22.  as  31  Miss Jobs, i n suggesting tne areas of concern of such an advisory group, indicates that i t s should include parents,  participants  c i t i z e n s , director, counsellor, one  or two campers, and representatives  of recreation and  education boards i n the community. The camp director works d i r e c t l y with t h i s advisory committee.  He represents the direct l i n k between  the eamp group and the committee.  In the same manner i n  which the advisory group is,responsible directors,  to the board of  so would the camp director be responsible to an  agency executive i n a higher p o s i t i o n of authority.  Since  there would be considerable v a r i a t i o n within agencies,  it  can only be stated that the employed director should be responsible to a permanent agency staff person to ensure that the camp development remains within the bounds of agency function, finance  etc..  Within the administrative organization, prov i s i o n must be made to maintain a direct l i n e from the d i r e c t o r , assistant director, s p e c i a l i s t s , volunteer and camper.  counsellor,  These channels permit the development  of planning i n a c i r c u l a r movement at any point between the director and the camper and vise versa.  Further breakdown  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s within the administrative organization w i l l be discussed  i n Chapter Three.  32  Finance Within the sphere of financing, the costs of operating a day camp f a l l roughly into four groups;  equip3  ment, s a l a r i e s , daily milk supply and transportation. These considerations should he given adequate attention and should be carefully related to the standards presented i n the preceeding chapter.  There i s a d i s t i n c t  danger i n feeling that day camping i s a good thing for an agency to develop beeause i t costs so l i t t l e . as a primary philosophy, the results  With t h i s  are approximately  parallel. Whilst i t i s true the costs of day camping are considerably l e s s than i n resident camping, i t i s by no means an inexpensive program.  A camp i n which high  standards are maintained expense i s essential,  particular-  l y i n terms of securing adequate leadership. At the same time, r e a l i s t i c a l l y , the majority of agencies w i l l be affected by the factor of f i n a n c i a l expenditure i n planning summer programs,  and the program  offered w i l l be determined i n large measure by the funds available for i t s development. The f i n a n c i a l question must also be developed i n r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l agency budget, 3.  so that the a l l o t -  National Recreation Association, Day Camping, op. c i t . , p. 8 .  33 ment to camp operations does not drain disproportionately from funds specified for other agency services.  This i s  an ever present danger i n developing specialized  services.  One frequently finds that following allotment to specialized services,  services where frequently the p u b l i c i t y  involved attracts greater services,  attention than the regular  the f i n a n c i a l picture resulting demands decreas-  ing regular services which have proved necessary i n meeting community needs.  Thus such a program should not be  undertaken at the expense of other agency services  unless  community needs warrants such a plan. A day camp should not be undertaken i f the necessary funds to maintain adequate camp standards are not available.  Acceptance of the philosophy of day camping,  the standards developed, and a recognition of the c o n t r i bution t h i s program can make i n a s o c i a l agency w i l l contribute to determining whether the community needs warrants the f i n a n c i a l expenditure i n a p a r t i c u l a r agency.  Alternate  program should be selected i f the costs demanded i n a good summer day camp cannot be met. Salaries for camp personnel constitutes greatest expenditure i n day camping.  Although this  i n most areas of recreational services,  applies  i t i s increased to  some degree i n t h i s situation by the need of close v i s i o n and highly s k i l l e d leadership.  the  super-  As i n other areas  of recreation, volunteers or personnel hired on an honor-  34 arium basis have a definite and important contribution to make.  However they can not substitute  number of s k i l l e d personnel.  for an adequate  Adequate salaries must be  paid i f adequate personnel i s to be secured.  This r e a l i z -  ation i s gradually being accepted i n resident camping and greater attention i s being given to budgeting for camp salaries.  The e a r l i e r philosophy that camping provided a  vacation for prospective counselors i s being replaoed by the recognition that good employment practices the calibre of work produced.  affects  Day camping must p r o f i t from  t h i s experience and budget for the expenditure. The discussion i n chapter one indicates that expenditure i s involved i n providing adequate equipment and facilities.  Without t h i s budget allotment to equipment,  undue pressure i s put upon leadership to develop program and health standards without assistance.  Within t h i s area  of equipment, consideration should be given to financing the building of permanent f a c i l i t i e s discussed  earlier.  Consideration should also be given to insurance coverage i n day camping.  It i s advisable to carry such  protection covering a l l major hazards,  and such areas as  f i r e , public l i a b i l i t y insurance, and automobile l i a b i l i t y . There i s inevitably extreme v a r i a t i o n between agenoies setting camp fees.  Care should be taken to insure  that the fees are i n accordance with the a b i l i t y of the community to pay them, and yet s u f f i c i e n t l y high to insure  35  a sense of belonging and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards the eamp program. Considerable variations occur i n methods of c o l l e c t i n g fees.  In some instances  a minimum fee i s set and  d a i l y the camper brings his money for milk and transportation.  In other instances  one fee i s set to cover regis-  t r a t i o n , milk and transportation.  The f i r s t method freq-  uently presents less problems to a family incapable of paying the fees i n one sum.  However i t presents insurmountable  problems when the c h i l d forgets, loses or spends t h i s money. The second method i s probably a better one, but adjustments should be made for those families incapable of paying the t o t a l sum at one time. Publicity P u b l i c i t y i s an important consideration i n summer day camp planning, for i t serves many purposes.  It  provides  the opportunity to acquaint the public with the purpose and program of the eamp.  It develops community understanding  and support of the program and i t i s an effective method of reaching those families where there i s a need for such a program but a lack of knowledge of  resources.  P u b l i c i t y , i n the main w i l l be an i n d i v i d u a l consideration,  i n each agency.  In some instances the prim-  ary focus w i l l be on increasing the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s . Its main emphasis may be on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,  let again i t  >  36  may be mainly for the purpose of acquainting the community with the agency a c t i v i t i e s .  It may combine these three  factors. Responsibility for p u b l i c i t y should be specifi c a l l y assigned to a staff person but maximum effort  should  be made to involve a committee, such as the parents group, i n t h i s area of planning. A good p u b l i c i t y program should be planned and presented before the opening of camp.  As i n other areas,  p u b l i c i t y i n day camping may include newspapers, posters, photographs,  movies or speaking  radios,  programs.  Use of Records In every area of group work, and eamping i s no exception, the use of records to gain understanding of the development of individuals and of groups i s an important process.  Without some form of recording, the  icant factors i n the a c t i v i t i e s  signif-  of the individual and the  group as a whole tends to be minimized or lacking i n objectivity. The central aim of camping i s the desirable sooial,  emotional and physical growth of i n d i v i d u a l .  Growth, however, demands understanding,  objective  and d i r e c t i o n .  by which the leader-  One of the chief tools  guidance  ship can provide this d i r e c t i o n i s the f u l l use of recording techniques to gain appreciation of the needs of the  37  group. In planning the camp schedule, adequate time should he allowed for the leadership to complete i n d i v i d ual and group records,  and receive adequate supervisory  assistance i n making use of the material "brought out i n t h i s way.  Camping i s one of the few areas i n recreation  where the individual i s i n a group setting for such a long period of time.  This creates s p e c i f i c faotors which i n -  crease the importance of recording as a technique to assist the individual to benefit from the camp experience. (1)  Number of campers who are experiencing for the first  time the daily need to share co-operativ-  ely i n a f u l l day's schedule. (£)  Contact throughout the day with an adult person but the need to share that person with other members of the group.  In such a program the .  leader inevitably functions i n situations,  such  as assisting i n preparing meals, which are associated with the function of the mother person i n the home.  There i s continued necess-  i t y for the leader to be objective i n understanding the r o l e he plays with each individual and the i n d i v i d u a l ' s needs that can be met i n a group s i t u a t i o n . (3)  •  It i s frequently d i f f i c u l t to divide the t o t a l  38  oamp r e g i s t r a t i o n into natural groupings based on friendship associations previously formed by the members themselves.  Registration i n  day camp i s affected by the summer plans made by the parents,  consequently the individual  w i l l frequently find himself associating with different  children i n the summer than those  with whom he associated i n the winter.  It  is  frequently neeessary to assist individuals to find t h e i r place i n the group and to encourage group awareness of their group i d e n t i t y . Regardless  of careful r e g i s t r a t i o n ,  it is  fre-  quently the parent who decides that the c h i l d i s attending camp, and not the c h i l d himself. This may be because the parents are taking a holiday t r i p or are not i n a p o s i t i o n to take care of the c h i l d during the day when school i s closed.  To some degree t h i s s i t u a t i o n  varies from the recreational program where the c h i l d comes v o l u n t a r i l y of his own choice.  In  t h i s s i t u a t i o n there i s a tendency towards having a number of children who have never had any group experience, f e e l they are on the fringe of the group and feel they have been rejected by t h e i r parents because they have been sent to eamp.  39  Camp s i t e s i n a quiet out of doors setting frequently brings many new experiences for a c h i l d whose contact with nature has been limited.  To many t h i s is, i n i t i a l l y , a f r i g h t -  ening experience.  Camp a c t i v i t i e s may be com-  p l e t e l y different from a c t i v i t i e s usually undertaken.  This novelty w i l l be stimulating and  exciting to many children, but i t w i l l tend to increase the insecurity of the child who has d i f f i c u l t y i n adjusting to his group and new environment. Where sustained contact i s maintained with the parent group during the summer i t i s important to have considerable awareness of the  strengths  and l i m i t a t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d i f the staff i s to work cooperatively with the parents i n the positive development of the c h i l d .  Par-  ents frequently send t h e i r children to camp with s p e c i f i c desires as to what they should learn. This may vary a l l the way from learning to swim, learning to drink milk, or to develop a l i k i n g for playing with other children.  Considerable  understanding of the c h i l d and his home environment i s needed i f the s t a f f i s to interpret camp values and the progress the individual making.  is  40 The length of the day camp, and the continued hours spent i n a group environment reveals i n d i v i d u a l behaviour d i f f i c u l t i e s and needs to a greater extent than i n most recreational situations.  There i s greater opportunity for  the leadership to assist the c h i l d i n meeting his needs but there i s also the danger of attempting too intensive therapeutic assistance. There i s need to evaluate continuously the degree of assistance that can be given on an individual basis and where the focus must be on assisting the group as a whole.  There i s need  to distinguish between the kind of help that w i l l give the i n d i v i d u a l support,  and the kind  of assistance that opens up personal problems without assisting the individual to overcome these problems.  Adequate recording w i l l provide  the guide by which the leadership can evaluate the kind of assistance needed, and the degree to which the individual and the group can benefit from t h i s help. Many of the children registered i n summer day camp w i l l take part i n the winter a c t i v i t i e s of the agency.  Frequently however there would be  a change i n the leadership involved i n changing groups.  Recorded material w i l l be helpful to a  41 new leader i n understanding the behavior and interests of the c h i l d . (9)  It may be found advisable to refer an i n d i v i d ual from the camp to a ease work agency for individual treatment.  Here recorded material  on the c h i l d ' s behavior, plus factual material found i n r e g i s t r a t i o n forms w i l l assist i n making a good r e f e r r a l . These nine points would be only a portion of the dynamic situations which arise i n day camping accentuating the need for good recording habits. Mabel Lyman Jobe suggests the following cumul a t i v e folder for each i n d i v i d u a l camper containing: (1) (£) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)  The r e g i s t r a t i o n information The physical a b i l i t y and health record Anecdotal record of behaviour Counselor summaries of the c h i l d ' s personal and behaviour habits and h i s progress i n each period of camping. Copies of the camper's reports mailed to the home Correspondence related to the camper Records of a l l interviews Records of camper interests, a c t i v i t y p a r t i c i pation, special a b i l i t i e s and l e v e l of achievement i n certain a c t i v i t i e s . Such an approach to working with the camper  group w i l l make the difference between objective under4.  Ibid, p. 91.  42  standing of the leadership work i n camp and a haphazard d a i l y contact with the membership. Developing Community Relations Day camping provides an excellent opportunity for the development of community r e l a t i o n s .  At the same  time i t may also he aaid that the development of day camp ing i s largely affected by the development of oommunity relations. This essential  area of community r e l a t i o n s  includes questions involving the t o t a l community and the s p e c i f i c area offering day camping. (1)  Does a study of the community indicate a need for summer day camps? Where? How many are needed?  (2)  Is there a need for day camp groups to join forces to develop standards, to improve program or to develop  ( 3 )  facilities?  Is there close cooperation and understanding with the administrators of p u b l i c a l l y owned f a c i l i t i e s i n terms of finding suitable  sites,  or providing adequate transportation? (4)  What community f a c i l i t i e s how can they be obtained? expanded?  are available, and How can they be  (5)  Are joint training courses for t r a i n i n g camp leaders  (6)  advisable?  Is the purpose and value of day camping recognized by the community?  Is there need for some  central group to assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of interpreting t h i s program? (7)  Within the smaller community or neighbourhood, are such organizations as schools,  churches, or  youth groups concerned and involved i n developing day camping?  Have a l l groups been reached that  should be informed, with a program that i s of interest to each? (8)  What follow up techniques have been used to ret a i n oontact with cooperating groups?  (9)  Does the immediate community assist with publici t y and finance?  Can adequate volunteers be  found i n the community? (10)  Is there sufficient  community response to set  up an adequate day camping advisory committee, a parents advisory committee, or a day camp committee of the operating agencies? (11)  Do the parents participate i n planning, join i n program, and i n other ways demonstrate t h e i r interest  i n the day camp?  These questions make clear that summer day camp-  44 ing demands v i s i o n considerably beyond the confines of agency i s o l a t i o n and a concern for the development and cooperation of the community. The tangible needs i n day camping for community cooperation provides positive opportunities to develop this community organization.  The proximity of the camp to the  community, the daily departure of the camp group brings camp more r e a l i s t i c a l l y to the attention of the p u b l i c . The elose proximity of the camp, and the d i v i s i o n of the campers hours between home and camp makes the parents more readily available,  and with careful planning, d i r e c t l y  concerned. From an organizational point of view, the planning of day camp must allow sufficient  time for the leader-  ship to participate  i n community groups involved i n devel-  oping day camping.  The leadership must also concern i t s e l f  with the development of committee groups responsible the p a r t i c u l a r camp.  for  Thirdly, adequate time must be pro-  vided to work with the parent group, c o l l e c t i v e l y and i n dividually,  so that they w i l l assume adequate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  within the t o t a l group and so that they w i l l continually gain understanding of the camp purpose and the i n d i v i d u a l development of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r  child.  This work with the parent group demands s k i l l and time but i t i s essential  i f the individual camper i s  to benefit from the camp experience.  It has been stated  4 5  e a r l i e r that one of the advantages of summer day oamp i s that the child divides his time between the home and the camp thus providing a more r e a l i s t i c experience than that offered i n resident camping where the c h i l d i s completely removed for a short period of time.  In the main, this  is  not an advantage i f the camp leadership does not develop continued contact with the parents.  Home v i s i t s  "before  and during eamp, parent study groups and parent p a r t i c i pation In specific program are amongst the tools whereby the d i v i s i o n of time between home and camp provides a positive experience to both child and parent i n the day camp program.  This contact with the parent i n summer pro-  gram i s one that they frequently welcome.  The hours that  the child i s away from home, parent concern over a program i n the forest involving the use of such equipment as axes, t h e i r feeling over the d e s i r a b i l i t y of such a c t i v i t i e s  as  overnight hikes provides a much greater concern and interest i n the program than i s usually exhibited i n winter activities  offered by the agency.  Adequate interpretation  must be given, moving gradually to parent p a r t i c i p a t i o n , building an interest not only i n t h i s summer program, but an interest which w i l l carry over to year around agency programs. This same factor w i l l apply to a l l community relations developed around summer day camp.  Since this  study i s primarily concerned with agencies offering day  46  camp as a portion of t h e i r entire program, i t w i l l follow that community contacts developed w i l l have a bearing on the t o t a l agency and year around services.  In yet another  way the day camp w i l l thus contribute to making the agency a v i t a l part of the community and an organization which can b u i l d on the expressed needs and interests  of that community.  Consideration has been given i n t h i s chapter to the p a r t i c u l a r advantages and problems of offering day camping as a specialized area within an agency structure.  This  has involved b r i e f consideration of the areas of administ r a t i o n , p u b l i c i t y , finance the use of records and community relations. These considerations must be seen i n r e l a t i o n to the question of standards i n health, f a c i l i t i e s , ment and program.  equip-  They are interdependent i f best use  is  to be made of the values and opportunities of a v a l i d day camp. The standards of practice and the unique values of summer day camping as a specialized service within an agency program provide a structure i n which considerable benefits may be gained by individuals, groups, communities.  The essential  factor,  agencies and  however, which w i l l  determine the degree to which these potential strengths brought into play i s the camp leadership.  are  The crux of the  success or f a i l u r e of the day camp i s i n the hands of the leadership.  47 CHAPTER 1 1 1  The Importanoe of Leadership i n Day Camp  One of the essentials of summer day oamp i s the selection, t r a i n i n g , supervision and assigning of responsi b i l i t i e s to the day camp leadership.  In fact,  i n the  realm of personnel l i e s the crux of the success or f a i l u r e of a oamp; for ultimately development of camping i s dependent upon i t s leadership.  This includes the quality of  leadership provided, i t s function i n the camp situation and the guidance and t r a i n i n g given to personnel.  This,  i n turn, w i l l determine the quality of services rendered, and the value of the camping experience to the individual and to the group. Closely related to t h i s focus on the importance of leadership,  i s the conception that the central aim of  camping i s the desirable growth of i n d i v i d u a l s .  Growth  of the i n d i v i d u a l i s dependent on more than such aims as a 'recreational experience 1  or an 'educational experience'.  Growth demands understanding and objective guidance and direction.  These enable the i n d i v i d u a l to develop  and a b i l i t i e s ,  skills  stimulate latent interests, develop friend-  ship associations and participate i n democratic planning. They involve i n t e r a c t i o n between individuals and the group  48  as a whole. The essence of camping i s i t s group l i f e . makes camp effective satisfying needs,  It  instrumentally i n the development of  i n t e r e s t s , desires, attitudes and habits  of conduct. In the philosophy and the choice of leadership, as well as i n the training of personnel within the setting,  specific  l i e s the opportunity to develop this central ob-  jective i n camping.  It involves a philosophy applicable to  recreation i n a l l settings, of which camping i s but one. In essence i t deals with the group work approach to camping. What i s group work i n camping?  "Group work i n  camping may be said to be a conscious d i r e c t i v e force, generated by the interactions of leaders, campers and groups, which aims at the creation of a dynamic environment that w i l l provide opportunities for the constructive release of the powers of the i n d i v i d u a l and the group. to educationally sound objectives  It i s oriented  that include the matur-  ation of the i n d i v i d u a l on a l l fronts - p h y s i c a l , mental, emotional, and s o c i a l .  It r e l i e s for i t s effect  on a cre-  ative combination of a l l the forces i n the eamp residing not only i n the leader, who i s most important, but also on the camper, the group, the s o c i a l process, the camp environ1 ment and the purpose of a c t i v i t y as w e l l " . 1.  Blumenthal, 1. H . , Group Work i n Camping. Association Press, flew York, 1937, p. 22.  49  With the development of t h i s group work philosophy, the f i e l d of oamping has developed considerably, and new implications for camping have emerged.  The group work  method, aimed at developing the maximum p o t e n t i a l i t i e s  in  camping, seeks to insure for the camper a constructive group experience through a consciously directed democratic process.  With a c t i v i t i e s viewed as means, the group work  method represents guided group l i v i n g ,  i n the achievement  of which certain basic conditions are considered e s s e n t i a l . These essentials would be; educationally productive groupings,  recognition of the worth of each i n d i v i d u a l , democra-  t i c participation,  and a leadership trained to f u l f i l  these  conditions. These conditions represent  c r i t e r i a by which one  can measure the progress of camping i n the use of the group work method.  The formulation and general acceptance of  these c r i t e r i a constitute one of the outstanding ments i n the camping f i e l d .  achieve-  There has been growing aware-  ness of the role of the group i n 1) providing the milieu for growth and satisfaction  through the maximum of i n t e r -  action, s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and s e l f - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ;  and 2) es-  tablishing the framework for the psychic interplay of i n dividuals whereby t h e i r status and acceptance can be achieved and their emotional needs be met. Staff capacity to implement the group work method has lagged far behind our knowledge of this method.  -  _.  ,  50  The leader's personality and human relations s k i l l s are the basic instruments for achieving effective human leadership and for establishing desirable relationship with campers. Inevitably, the selection and training of leaders i s closely interwoven with the prospective number of campers involved, the administrative assignment of respons i b i l i t i e s and the program anticipated.  Although these  factors may vary considerably i n individual day camps, a comprehensive framework of standards has been reached so that i n the forthcoming years leadership i n day camping can assume greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n developing the values of t h i s area of camping, In terms of selection of camp personnel Mabel Lyman Jobe has summarized the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of leadership i n the following way: "A day camp leader i s one who enjoys  creative  outdoor work with c h i l d r e n . " Taking each word of t h i s statement  separately  she goes on to describe the essential q u a l i t i e s with descriptive notes. (1)  Bnjoy—happy, relaxed, interested,  and objective.  (2)  Creative—resourceful, imaginative, i n t e l l i g e n t , self-confident, i n i t i a t i v e .  (3)  Outdoor—camping i n t e r e s t s - s k i l l s - s e c u r i t y outdoor setting.  in  51  f'4)  work--physical v i t a l i t y ,  (5)  1  organizer.  with'--democratic procedures, cooperative, unselfish, respectful of rights of others. 2  (6)  children—understanding of and l i k i n g for There i s a threefold emphasis i n this outline of  Mabel Lyman Jobe's.  It includes an understanding of 1) the  personality of the i n d i v i d u a l leader,  his motivation and  degree of maturity 2) his program and organizational i n a camping setting,  skills  3) his understanding of and a b i l i t y  to work with individuals and groups. Thus, i n selecting personnel, i t i s more usual to find the adequate leader among those persons who have some experience i n working with groups, who have a variety of of program s k i l l s — a d u l t s whose educational background i s sufficient for them to have gained some objective understanding of children and of  themselves.  It i s understandable,  to some degree, that no  fixed standards have been set^of desirable minimum age or educational background of leaders. desirable  The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  are too dynamic to permit the setting of this  p a r t i c u l a r kind of standard.  There i s a marked tendency,  however, to avoid this area because of greater  accessibil-  i t y and lesser f i n a n c i a l cost of very young leaders, and because of a limited appreciation of the function of leadership i n camping. 2.  If the emphasis could be l a i d on the  Mabel Lyman Jobe, op. c i t . , p. 57  52 ..  aspects of emotional maturity, o b j e c t i v i t y , and understanding of s e l f and of the children with whom one i s working, the problem would not ,  arise.  An understanding of the motivation of the indiv-  idual leader i n becoming a day camp s t a f f member i s an important factor.  It i s not as important as i n resident camp-  ing which involves a twenty-four-hour-a-day i n t e r e s t , and where the number of leaders i s usually greater. nevertheless,  It  will,  have a strong bearing on the quality of leader-  ship, staff unity and camp atmosphere.  This can be seen  by remembering that counsellors do not come to camp a l l sharing common interests,  as do the campers ( a l l of whom  anticipate having a good time) but with a wide variety of motives.  Mr. Blumenthal suggests that these motives i n -  clude the desires: (1) (2) 13) (4) (5) (6)  to to to to to to  get away from home earn money have a rest improve himself make s o c i a l contacts have an inexpensive vacation and  (7)  to serve youth . The wise director who i s group-conscious i n  selecting staff, keeps i n mind the extent to which the camp can satisfy the needs and interests  of the counsellors.  He w i l l recognize that the individual leader must,in addition to having something constructive and positive to give, 3.  Blumenthal, i . H . , op. c i t . , p. 32.  53 "be i n a position where he can learn and benefit from his camp experience. This dual focus should provide the basis for t r a i n i n g counsellors:  i . e. the development of the training  program to enable counsellors to give the kind of desirable,  leadership  and provide the opportunity for the leader to  broaden his knowledge and s k i l l for his personal  satis-  faction. This pre-camp training has strong values i n preparing the staff for this work, and i n creating staff unity. Here the counsellors  would not only learn s k i l l s ,  would themselves l i v e daily i n small groups.  but  They should  be shown how they may l i v e simply i n the outdoors,  preparing  t h e i r own meals, keeping house i n the open, and planning t h e i r own recreation. The National Recreation Association has suggested the following topics as those which should be included i n a leadership t r a i n i n g course for summer day camp:!.-?(1)  Objectives and methods of recreation  (2)  Objectives of day camping  (3)  The campers  (4)  Staff  (5)  4.  (a) lb) (c)  as individuals as members of a group attitudes toward eamp and camp a c t i v i t i e s .  responsibilities 4 Program  National Recreation Association, op. c i t . , p. 32.  54 The Settlement House at North End Union,  Boston,  has o u t l i n e d t h e i r course on a somewhat d i f f e r e n t "basis. They have suggested i n g course.  s e v e r a l worthwhile  a d d i t i o n s to a t r a i n -  T h i s course was organized f o r summer l e a d e r s  who i n c l u d e d s p e c i a l i s t s , r e s i d e n t and n o n - r e s i d e n t v o l u n t e e r s , and neighbourhood  leaders.  T h i s course i n c l u d e d :  (1)  Keeping  records  (8)  Program p l a n n i n g  (3)  D i s c i p l i n e and C h i l d  (4)  P i c n i c program p l a n n i n g  (5)  A r t s and c r a f t s  (6)  General F i r s t A i d H i n t s  (7)  P l a n n i n g summer nature work  (8)  B r i n g i n g Country t o the C i t y  (9)  F o l k dancing, M u s i c a l games  Behaviour  5 (10)  What to do w i t h odds and ends. Care should "be taken to see that t h i s  training  course p r o v i d e s s u f f i c i e n t l y dynamic experiences f o r the c o u n s e l l o r to g a i n understanding of h i m s e l f i n r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l camp s e t t i n g .  To some measure, t h i s can "be a c h i e -  ved through d i s c u s s i o n on t o p i c s such as: good c o u n s e l l o r ?  what makes a  What a c t i v i t i e s are we prepared to teach?  What do we need to l e a r n i n order to guide a w e l l rounded program? 5.  Margaret Day, Summer i n the C i t y . N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n Settlement, New York, 1942, p. 31.  55  Any of the topics mentioned b r i e f l y w i l l bute to the value of leadership i n day camping. t i a l factor,  contri-  The essen-  however, i s that definite time should be set  aside before the opening of camp for a t r a i n i n g program. A f u l l week i s desirable,  and four consecutive days should  be the minimum time a l l o t t e d for this purpose.  This t r a i n -  ing i s p a r t i c u l a r l y necessary for the new counsellor, but has definite value for the t o t a l leadership group.  It  should include volunteers and part-time s p e c i a l i s t s .  In  t h i s regard i t should be pointed out that frequently we tend to view individual leaders with previous eamp experience as f u l l y prepared to move d i r e c t l y into their work. There i s need to understand what that previous camping experience has entailed, and recognize that orientation to the present work cannot be dismissed as unnecessary because of previous experience. Supervision of camp leadership throughout the eamp session i s imperative. never a f a i t  Training of staff personnel i s  accompli. Both individual and group super-  v i s i o n throughout the camp period greatly effects the quality of leadership given.  There i s need for continuous  evaluation of the individual work being done, and discussion of the individual leader's  changing function and  role i n regard to the small group u n i t , the t o t a l camper group and the staff group.  There i s need, also, to discuss  the progress of the small group, the problems and l i m i t a t -  56 ions present.  I t i s important f o r the i n d i v i d u a l l e a d e r  to f e e l the s e c u r i t y i n v o l v e d i n the p r o v i s i o n of opportunity f o r supervisory discussed  extensively  conferences.  T h i s area w i l l not he  since the same focus  i s i n v o l v e d as  i n a l l phases of r e c r e a t i o n . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of l e a d e r s h i p  responsibilities,  i n a d d i t i o n to s e l e c t i o n , t r a i n i n g , and s u p e r v i s i o n , essential consideration.  i s an  The breakdown and assignment of  personnel r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,  adequate o r g a n i z a t i o n of d u t i e s  i n v o l v e d , g i v e s a comprehensive framework and p r o v i d e s the basis f o r a valuable  summer day camp program.  In the main, the g e n e r a l  areas to be  would be those of the d i r e c t o r , group l e a d e r , and g e n e r a l  leaders.  considered specialist  Depending on the s i z e of the camp,  the f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s are accepted as standards i n day camping:(1) - One l e a d e r to every group of s i x to t e n . OR one experienced person and one student with f i f t e e n . (2)  - F o r a camp of t h i r t y -- a d i r e c t o r with one group and three adult c o u n s e l l o r s OR a d i r e c t o r s u p e r v i s i n g f o u r or f i v e . younger c o u n s e l l o r s with s m a l l e r groups.  ( 3 ) - F o r a camp of s i x t y -- a d i r e c t o r and an a s s i s t a n t - d i r e c t o r , and eight l e a d e r s . (4) - F o r a camp of 100 c h i l d r e n -- a d i r e c t o r , two a s s i s t a n t - d i r e c t o r s — When the camp i s as l a r g e as t h i s i t i s p r e f e r a b l e to break the eamp i n t o two or three d i v i s i o n s , w i t h d i v i s i o n l e a d e r s s u p e r v i s i n g f o u r or f i v e counsellors 6.  Mabel lyman Jobe, op. c i t . , p. 54.  5 7  Although the above figures  include the varying  proportions of leaders to campers the following section indicates the area of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of staff personnel, which would apply, to a large extent,  regardless of the  number involved. Director (1  Promotes community r e l a t i o n s , coordinates services of a l l assisting agencies and volunteers.  (2  Plans a l l work with an o f f i c i a l supervisory board or advisory council.  (3  Selects and obtains camp f a c i l i t i e s  (4  Selects a l l staff or recommends them for selection.  (5  Trains and supervises high morale.  (6  Supervises maintenance staff, and t o t a l camp personnel.  ( 7  ( 8  (9  and materials.  camp leaders, maintaining c l e r i c a l workers,  Plans camp p o l i c i e s with camp staff Trains for and supervises programs.  and board.  camp evaluation  Evaluates own administrative work.  (10) Works with children as needed. i l l ) Organizes and supervises health and safety programs. . (12) Keeps records and makes reports at definite intervals. Assistant Director (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)  Organizes supplies Acts as secretary and treasurer for the camp. Plans and organizes special all-camp events. Gives f i r s t aid and makes detailed health reports to parents and administration. Serves as safety d i r e c t o r , cheeking hazards.  58  Specialists (1) (2)  Help i n organizing pre-camp training course. Conduct work shops and demonstrations, i n both pre-camp and in-serviee t r a i n i n g .  (3)  Work i n the camp, subordinate to the director, helping counsellors and campers. D i r e c t l e a d e r s h i p of groups i n area of specialization. Assume planning and administrative responsibili t i e s for their special phase of eamp program.  (4) (5)  Group Leader (1) (2) (3J  (4)  Continuous direct leadership of a group. Keeping of records of the group. Leadership i n program, health, interests and problems of the individual and the group. Responsible for guiding the a c t i v i t i e s and experiences of the group. A s s i s t s i n planning t o t a l programs i n which the group i s involved.  General Counsellors (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)  Assist i n all-over activities—planning and direct leadership. Assist i n s p e c i a l i s t program. Assist i n development of program. Assist i n coordinating program interests of small group u n i t s . Assist director where necessary i n the program area. It i s highly desirable that a l l staff members  have a clear understanding of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and of the relationship to be maintained with each other. There should be a job analysis for each staff member.  There  should be a definite understanding of the relationship of jobs to one another.  Adequate attention must also be given  to careful assigning of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  7.  Ibid, p. 5 8 .  i n order not to  59  load particular staff members unduly, nor to assign res p o n s i b i l i t i e s beyond the i n d i v i d u a l ' s capacity or i n areas i n which the leader i s not involved. Oare should also be taken by the director i n seeing that the individual staff member plays a functional role i n the administrative organization.  There i s need  for cooperative staff planning; objectives communally reached, i n which the counsellor has free and extensive participation,  are more apt to be sincerely accepted.  The  counsellor's function, i s not mainly that of a technician working within the l i m i t e d sphere of his s p e c i a l i t y . is,  rather,  It  i n the t o t a l i t y of his behaviour as a s o c i a l  being i n r e l a t i o n to a l l others i n camp, campers and noncampers alike - the emphasis should be placed.  Thus the  leadership r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s as important as the careful organization of the duties entailed. The effective use of leadership i n day camp i s dependent on the development of high standards of personnel practice i n the selection, t r a i n i n g , supervision and assigning of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s within the camp administration. The effective use of leadership i s essential  be-  cause staff personnel guides the process of interaction between individuals  and between the group as a whole so  that the group experience w i l l be a positive one.  The  leadership enables the individual and the group to develop skills,  abilities,  latent interests  and to take part i n  60 democratic planning. Adequate understanding of standards i n regards to f a c i l i t i e s ,  program and leadership i n a recreation  agency offering a day canp program, w i l l provide an agency service which w i l l have a great contribution to make i n leisure time a c t i v i t i e s  of individuals and groups.  ing these standards to specific summer programs  Apply-  offered  i n the Gity of Vancouver, there w i l l he opportunity to see the degree to which day camping has developed i n this c i t y and the l e v e l of standards maintained.  61 CHAPTER IV Facilities In the City of Vancouver, 38,000 school children enjoy two months holiday each summer.  During this holiday  season, the time these children have for recreation i s greatly increased and the need for supervised leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s i s enlarged accordingly.  At present there are  30 public playgrounds and 28 camps, between them capable of accommodating 5,000 children during a summer.  These  f a c i l i t i e s and the programs thus far organized around them are not sufficient  to meet the summer recreation needs of  38,000 children. Gradually, recreation agencies are sharing the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to develop summertime a c t i v i t i e s i n Vancouver.  In the f a l l  of 1949, five Red Feather recreation  agencies offered summer programs i n the city for the part i c u l a r memberships and l o c a l communities they serve. Recreation agencies generally are showing a growing recognition of their r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for c h i l d r e n ' s summertime a c t i v i t i e s .  However, there has been l i t t l e system-  a t i c investigation of what kinds of summer programs would be most b e n e f i c i a l , while standards of practice are far from having been established i n t h i s  field.  As l a t e r study w i l l indicate, there i s only one agency i n the city that i s carrying on a program that may  62  be f a i r l y defined as a summer day camp program.  There are,  however, four other agencies presenting programs, of which may be c l a s s i f i e d  elements  as summer day camp programs.  Since the summer day camp a c t i v i t i e s of these agencies are elements of a larger program, i t is proposed to describe the f u l l program of these four agencies, including those a c t i v i t i e s which may be r i g h t l y called summer day camp activities,  as well as the program which i s f a i r l y defined  as a summer day camp i n the previously cited agency. At December, 1949, five Red Feather agencies had offered a summer program i n the c i t y .  These include the  Y.W.C.A., Vancouver Bast Y Community Branch, Alexandra Neighbourhood House, the Y.M.C.A. Central Branch, Jewish Community Centre and Gordon Neighbourhood House. The Vancouver Bast Branch of the Y.W.C.A. has been operating a summer program for nine years.  In 1949  t h i s program was opened throughout the month of July three days a week to g i r l s between the ages of 7 and 13.  Sixty  were registered i n the program and the average daily attendance was forty-nine. Alexandra Neighbourhood House has offered a summer program for seven years.  In 1949 t h i s program was  open throughout the month of July.  A c t i v i t i e s were sched-  uled four days a week, two half days and two seven-hour days.  The forty-seven boys and twenty-seven g i r l s  totaled  63 seventy-six members registered i n the program with an average d a i l y attendance of forty-four.  Participants included  children between the ages of s i x and twelve. The Jewish Community Centre f i r s t summer program i n 1949.  offered a  The program ran s i x weeks from  July 1st and the camp was divided into two three-week periods.  There were t h i r t y boys i n the f i r s t  forty i n the second.  camp and  Average attendance was t h i r t y .  This  program was carried five days a week and seven hours a day for children between the ages of five and nine. Summer programs have been offered at the Y.M.C.A. for eight years.  In 1949 a program of s i x weeks duration  beginning the f i r s t week of July was open to boys between nine and f i f t e e n years of age three days a week.  The t o t a l  r e g i s t r a t i o n was 186 and the average daily attendance was 110. Gordon Neighbourhood House has offered a summer program for three years.  In 1949 the program was divided  into two parts on an experimental basis.  One program was  developed for children between the ages of six and nine, which was called the "midget" program.  A second program  called the "junior camp" was f o r children between the ages of nine and twelve. The midget program was conducted throughout July for twenty-five registrants, fourteen being boys and eleven  64 g i r l s , the average daily attendance "being eighteen. a half-day program carried on five days a week.  It was  The junior  camp, open throughout July, had a r e g i s t r a t i o n of twentysix,  twenty "boys and six g i r l s .  ance was twenty.  The average daily attend-  This program was available five days a  week, two of which were half-days, while the remaining three were seven-hour days. In 1950 a questionnaire was returned by the agencies mentioned above and these replies indicate the summer day eamp a c t i v i t i e s carried on by them during 1949, and they are the source of the description which follows.^ This description i s comparative and related to three topics, facilities,  program, and leadership.  Facilities There i s probably no recreational a c t i v i t y i n which f a c i l i t i e s are of such great importance as they are i n r e l a t i o n to summer day camping.  The term f a c i l i t i e s  i s here used to denote s i t e , surroundings, natural resources and equipment.  Although i t i s true that the quality of  program and leadership outweigh the importance of f a c i l i t i e s , i t i s also true that adequate f a c i l i t i e s provide a positive . basis on which to build program, and provide the setting i n which leadership can assist the participant to develop interests and s k i l l s . 1.  See Appendex " A "  The character of the f a c i l i t i e s  65 determines whether the program i s to be indoor or outdoor, a camping program, a games program, or an a t h l e t i c program. In camping, the recreation a c t i v i t i e s possible are so dependent on the f a c i l i t i e s  available that the variety and  quality of a camping program i s sharply limited by them. Yet, strangely enough, the summer day oamp budgets of these agencies contain no allotment of funds for f a c i l i t i e s . a l l five agencies,  In  r e g i s t r a t i o n and camp fees covered the  eost of program, equipment, milk, and transportation while staff salaries and building maintenance costs were drawn from the yearly Community Chest grant or from the Jewish Community Council. Participant fees varied. r e g i s t r a t i o n fee  In three agencies the  was $1.50 for non-members and $1.25 for  members, with an additional oharge of 15 cents a day to cover the cost of milk and transportation.  One camp charg-  ed $3.00 for r e g i s t r a t i o n i n addition to the daily milk and transportation fee of 15 cents. Centre set a much higher fee,  The Jewish Community  a general fee of $5.00 a week  and a fee of $1.50 per week for transportation. It i s interesting to note that each agency has borne leadership and maintenance costs, while relying on participant fees to cover the costs of program, equipment, d a i l y milk supply, and transportation.  In the majority of  agencies the camp fee i s low enough to permit great numbers  66  of children to participate but too low to provide both program and equipment.  Cost of permanent equipment cannot  be borne by participant fees but must be borne by the agency. The questionnaire requested directors to l i s t outdoor and indoor f a c i l i t i e s used, and to rate them as good, medium, or poor.  Outdoor f a c i l i t i e s and equipment  were rated i n accordance with the c r i t e r i a presented i n Chapter 1 as regards the selection and location of s i t e and the character of equipment. It i s notable that there i s extreme v a r i a t i o n i n the degree to whioh the outdoor f a c i l i t i e s  character-  i s t i c of day camping (as compared with indoor f a c i l i t i e s ) are employed. doors.  One agency has a l l i t s f a c i l i t i e s  out of  Gordon House developed a camp s i t e i n the Univer-  s i t y Endowment lands for junior camp.  Gordon House midget  camp and the Alexandra House program used the playgrounds adjacent  to Gordon House and Alexandra House as their  central locations, using the buildings for a portion of the program and for some of the necessary equipment.  The three  remaining agencies used t h e i r building and indoor equipment as the central program s i t e , thus l i m i t i n g outdoor f a c i l i t i e s to swimming programs and specific outdoor t r i p s . Accordingly, a tabulation of agency s e l f - r a t i n g of outdoor and indoor f a c i l i t i e s  (Table 1) includes general  headings permitting eaoh agency to answer those  questions  67 which apply to their own agency under the columns "indoor" and "outdoor."  The f i n a l  column indicates the number of  programs to which a p a r t i c u l a r question applies. be noted that,  It i s to  since Gordon House has two d i s t i n c t  programs,  they are tabulated separately, making six programs i n a l l .  Table 1.  D e t a i l (a C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) ( s i x programs)  OUTDOOR FACILITY  Good  of F a c i l i t i e s  INDOOR  Med- Poor ium  Good  Med- Poor ium  Total number of Agencies Using a Specific Facility  Central Site  -  1  2  1  2  -  6  Shelter  1  -  2  3  -  -  6  Adequate open space .  1  2  -  -  2  1  6  Swimming facilities  -  5  -  Cooking facilities  1  Drinking water  -  Privacy  1  -  Camping equipment  2  -  Storage space  1  mm  1  -  2  1  farf  4  2  2  -  6  2  -  2  1  2  6  1  -  -  -  3  2  mm  3  6  mm  6  §8  This table indicates several interesting  facts.  The major point i s that both outdoor and indoor f a c i l i t i e s are rated as inadequate.  The outdoor camp s i t e i s  regarded  as "medium," while both agencies using the playground have rated the s i t e as "poor."  The agency using an outdoor camp  s i t e has rated highly their shelter,  cook f a c i l i t i e s ,  and  degree of privaey, but adequate drinking water, swimming facilities,  open space and camping equipment are matters  that need improving. rated t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s  Both agencies using playgrounds have as "poor" or "medium" i n a l l activ-  i t i e s i n which outdoor f a c i l i t i e s Indoor f a c i l i t i e s regards shelter,  are used.  are rated as "good" only as  cooking f a c i l i t i e s ,  Exeept as regards cooking f a c i l i t i e s ,  and drinking water. the answer to these  three questions applied to an indoor program merely indicate that the roof doesn't leak and that there i s drinking water i n the b u i l d i n g .  In matters of importance, namely adequate  central s i t e , storage space, adequate play area, and privacy indoor f a c i l i t i e s were rated "poor." It i s interesting to note that a l l agencies have rated swimming f a c i l i t i e s  as "medium."  A l l used public  beaches, with the exception of one agency which uses i t s indoor swimming pool.  It i s surprising that i n a city with  so many beaches no move has been made to obtain swimming area affording greater privacy and to provide adequate  69  supervision of swimming programs through cooperation of the agencies i n need of swimming f a c i l i t i e s . This tendency to low rating indicates agency dissatisfaction gram.  and inadequacy of f a c i l i t i e s for summer pro-  In p a r t i c u l a r i t indicates the inadequacy of the  playground as the central outdoor location for summer program.  The agencies which have heretofore used playground  f a c i l i t i e s are obliged to decide whether to carry on an indoor summer program or obtain the f a c i l i t i e s without which experience has shown an outdoor summer program cannot he carried on. As regards indoor f a c i l i t i e s ,  i t i s d i f f i c u l t to  estimate the degree to which the low rating applies to i n adequacy of building f a c i l i t i e s on a year-round basis, or the degree to which t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y applicable to the summer program.  E s s e n t i a l l y t h i s w i l l mean the difference  between attempting to make the indoor f a c i l i t i e s able as possible, insufficient p ar t i cipa nts .  as service-  or a decision that indoor f a c i l i t i e s  are  to meet the summertime interests of the program This question i s closely a l l i e d to agency  program and choice of a c t i v i t i e s .  I f the emphasis i s on  outdoor a c t i v i t i e s attention should be given to raising the standards of indoor f a c i l i t i e s .  At present the s p e c i f i c  indoor f a c i l i t i e s included i n the above rating and the number of agencies which use these specific  facilities  70  are as follows: 3 gym  3 1 2 1 2 3 3  kitchen woodwork room library indoor swimming pool auditorium arts and crafts room club room  The general inadequacy of program  facilities,  coupled with the fact that most agencies are obliged to shift t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s from one room to another and one outdoor location to another, imposes serious l i m i t a t i o n s on program.  It centres the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y completely on  the leadership to provide continuity and creative  interest  for the program participants who are either using  inadequate  facilities  or are moving from place to place. It raises a doubt as to whether agencies offering  summer programs have attached due importance to the prov i s i o n of suitable f a c i l i t i e s .  For example, agencies using  playground areas adjacent to the agency building have cons i s t e n t l y rated their f a c i l i t i e s  as "poor," except on the  point of adequate cleared space. surfaces do not, i n themselves,  These f l a t ,  black-top  provide any stimulus to  program, or any natural resources.  They involve transport-  ing equipment from the b u i l d i n g , moving participants back into the b u i l d i n g , or leaving the playground to develop program p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  This constant shifting of environ-  71  ment prevents the participants from developing knowledge of the environment and the possible program resources.  It  also  tends to make the participants dependent on the leadership for  ideas.  In constantly shifting the area, the group  remains at the exploration stage and never gets to know one area well enough to develop the program p o s s i b i l i t i e s area might allow.  The result i s that program is  adapted to the setting, from the  the  constantly  rather than the program evolving  setting. This suggests that agencies offering summer pro-  grams should carefully evaluate t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s to the reasons why they have chosen them. attention i s given to t h i s ,  in relation  I f adequate  agency standards w i l l be set  up before offering the program and action w i l l be taken to see that these standards are met.  Program should not be  planned without regard to f a c i l i t i e s . needs,  facilities  To meet recreation  as well as program and leadership must  be adequate. In reviewing the l i s t  of agency f a c i l i t i e s  obvious that there i s only one agency which has facilities  adapted to day camp needs.  it  is  selected  The junior camp at  Gordon House i s the only one where an outdoor s i t e i n a " p r i m i t i v e ™ area has been selected, facilities  are used.  and where outdoor  Therefore t h i s agency program i s the  only one that can be discussed s p e c i f i c a l l y i n r e l a t i o n to  72 standards set up i n Chapter 1 regarding  facilities.  Previous discussion has presented a l i s t of necessary standards for the selection and location, of the camp s i t e .  Agency s e l f - r a t i n g ,  additional interviews, and  study of the s i t e rate the f a c i l i t i e s  i n the following  manner: (1)  Adequate spaee for a balanced and suitable program, (medium)  (2)  " P r i m i t i v e " camp area providing adequate natural setting, (good)  (3)  Convenient public transportation,  (4)  P l e n t i f u l supply of fresh drinking water,  (5)  Adequate t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s ,  (6)  Seolusion. (good)  (7)  Health, i . e . , adequate provision for good drainage, adequate refuse f a c i l i t i e s , and a s i t e which can be kept clean, (good)  (medium) (poor)  (good)  It is obvious that the above standards incorporate several features which are d i f f i o u l t to obtain i n any one s i t e within convenient public transportation of a c i t y recreation agency.  In order to develop a camp s i t e i n an  outdoor setting where sufficient fires  wood was available, where  could be b u i l t , and where outdoor cooking and experi-  mentation with campcrafts using natural materials could be carried on, Gordon House adopted the University Endowment Lands as a campsite,  not-withstanding i t s remoteness from  public transportation and the necessity of carrying the  73  d a i l y water supply.  Also i t provided an i d e a l setting for  nature study, many unique opportunities for program experience, and a wholesome outdoor setting conducive to development of a camping program. Gn the other hand, t h i s s i t e did not afford adequate space for free play, and the water supply had to he carried on foot two miles through the woods each day. children were obliged to travel for  The  three-quarters-of-an-  hour by public conveyance, making two transfers  en-route  and then walking two miles i n order to reach the campsite. A s i m i l a r return journey had to be made at the end of the day and i t was necessary  to supervise the children during  two-and-a-half hours of travel each day.  Another l i m i t a t i o n  i s that the nearest swimming f a c i l i t i e s are three miles from the camp. These troubles can be ameliorated only by increased agency expenditure.  Revenue from registrant  fees i s not  s u f f i c i e n t to bear the costs of improving camp f a c i l i t i e s . Indeed, the amount a l l o t t e d for summer day camp equipment by the Gordon House budget i s so small as to necessitate extremely temporary camp equipment.  Since no permanent struc-  tures can be b u i l t , each year the campers must erect anew the necessary  shelters,  furnishings.  Moreover, only the minimum of campcraft equip-  ment essential  council rings, benches, and l i k e  for the camping program can be provided.  74 It i s evident therefore that the p r i n c i p a l shortcomings of the university s i t e can he overcome only by substantially increased agency expenditures. An important d i f f i c u l t y would be overcome i f water were piped to the s i t e , but t h i s would require considerable capital expenditure.  The hiring of busses for  transportation of the children would be a great improvement, but would substantially increase operating costs. While such expenditures can improve the summer day camp f a c i l i t i e s offered by Gordon House, they are only ameliorative and do not constitute a r a d i c a l solution of the problem of Gordon House, or of the agencies concerned as a group.  In the long run, and seen from the point of view  of these agencies,  the most f r u i t f u l  and economical solution  must l i e i n a cooperative endeavour on the part of these agencies i n sharing the oapital costs of a central site and smaller adjoining s i t e s , equipment and transportation.  \  and i n sharing the costs of  75 CHAPTER V  Programs "The  only s e n s i b l e c r i t e r i o n  f o r an outdoor  program would be, we w i l l do those a c t i v i t i e s which can best be accomplished i n the outdoors r a t h e r than those a c t i v i t i e s which can be c a r r i e d on as w e l l , or b e t t e r , i n „ 1. the home or school. The essence o f day camp program i s outdoor l i v i n g * In t h i s outdoor s e t t i n g the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f the e n v i r onment p r o v i d e program p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  A general l i s t of  a c t i v i t i e s t h a t could be developed i n c l u d e  campcraft,  o v e r - n i g h t t r i p s , nature study, dramatios, swimming, music, and s p e c i a l events.  The e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n these  programs i s the contact w i t h the outdoor s e t t i n g permits v a r i e d a c t i v i t i e s ,  a l l o f which would develop  a c c o r d i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l and group  interests.  A day eamp develops the a c t i v i t i e s above. five  which  mentioned  However, since t h e r e i s only one day camp i n the  agencies, the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e v i s e d to l i s t  both  outdoor a c t i v i t i e s ( i n the order of t h e i r importance i n a day eamp program) and the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s which might be  1.  Mabel Lyman Jobe, op. c i t . , p. 125.  76 included  i n a general  marked t h e a c t i v i t i e s  r e c r e a t i o n program. included  number o f t i m e s e a c h a c t i v i t y The ed  table  therefore  i n the f i v e  agencies that frequency  have  of that  i n i t s program  of a c t i v i t i e s  summer p r o g r a m s ,  o f f e r e d each s p e c i f i c activity.  and t h e  was o f f e r e d i n a s i n g l e week.  shows t h e sum t o t a l  agencies'  E a c h agency h a s  offer-  t h e number o f activity  and t h e  77  Table 2.  A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of A c t i v i t i e s (six programs) Frequency Offered  ACTIVITY  days 2 days 1 day l e s s than d a i l y ! a week , a week a week 1 day a week !3  Total Number Agencies offering each activity  Campcraf t  -  1  -  -  2  3  Nature Study  -  1  1  -  -  2  Informal games  2  2  2  Cooking  -  1  Arts and Crafts  -  Overnight trips  -  -  3  4  1  4  -  1  6  -  -  -  -  2  2  Swimming  1  -  3  2  -  6  Sing song, music  1  -  2  1  -  4  -  1  -  1  2  tm  1  Dramatics Dane ing Fishing  -  mm  Tours to Scenic Spots Industrial visits  -  Hikes (walks)  -  Gym  1  -.  6  -  1  -  -  1  -  -  2  -  2  -  1  1  -  2  -  -  2  -  2  1  1  78 T h i s t a b l e i n d i c a t e s the extreme v a r i a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r e d i n Vancouver summer programs and the great d i f f e r e n c e s of emphasis on the number o f times an a c t i v i t y i s scheduled.  There i s no primary emphasis on  outdoor camping a c t i v i t i e s .  Instead, the agencies have  combined elements of outdoor and indoor programs, activities,  athletic  and programs i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s use c i t y  commercial r e c r e a t i o n  facilities.  The three a c t i v i t i e s regarded as important by a l l the  agencies are a r t s and c r a f t s , i n f o r m a l games, and  swimming.  Beyond t h i s , each agency has developed i t s own  p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s since a l l others mentioned above are o f f e r e d i n two or l e s s programs, or e l s e they are o f f e r e d so ity  r a r e l y that they could s c a r c e l y be regarded as an a c t i v i n the sense o f developing i n t e r e s t and s k i l l  of the  participant. Since there are such d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the k i n d s of programs developed i n the f i v e agencies, i t i s necessary to  take each agency program i n t u r n t o understand which  activities  are emphasized and how the t o t a l program of that  agency i s developed.  Therefore the d a i l y schedule o f each  agency program i s i n c l u d e d to d e s c r i b e s p e c i f i c  activities  and t o show the framework i n which a c t i v i t i e s are o f f e r e d .  79 Vancouver B a s t "Y" The s i x a c t i v i t i e s emphasized i n t h i s agency i n the o r d e r of f r e q u e n c y i n which they are o f f e r e d are a r t s and c r a f t s , i n f o r m a l games, music, swimming, t r i p s , and h i k e s .  industrial  The program, one day a week, i s devoted  t o i n d u s t r i a l v i s i t s , movies, r o l l e r - s k a t i n g , o r s i m i l a r activities.  I n the r e m a i n i n g two days the program i s  d i v i d e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: D a i l y Schedule 9:30- 9:45; 9:45-10:45; 10:45-11:45; 11:45-12:45; 12:45- 1:30; 1:30- 3:30; 3:30- 4:30;  A r r i v a l at b u i l d i n g . Attendance check. Announcements. C r a f t s ( h a l f the camp) Games ( o t h e r h a l f of camp) Games ( r e v e r s e o f above) C r a f t s ( r e v e r s e o f above) Lunch; c l e a n up; s i n g song. T r a v e l to beach Swimming, games, h i k e s . Return t o b u i l d i n g .  The major a c t i v i t i e s and the above d a i l y program schedule i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e are elements of outdoor, i n door, and commercial r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n the summer program of t h e Vancouver E a s t "Y".  The emphasis i s on  g e n e r a l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s s i n c e , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of outdoor swimming, a l l the a c t i v i t i e s are o f f e r e d i n a w i n t e r r e c r e a t i o n program. ities,  There are few camping a c t i v -  and t h e r e i s l i t t l e i m a g i n a t i v e use o f outdoor  80 resources  of  facilities.  The  combination  recreation into  fusing kind  this  situation.  interests.  individual  idual  there  The  The in  total  the  no  c r e a t e s a con-  c o n t i n u i t y i n the  chosen p r o v i d e opportunity  or s k i l l . of  The  a r t s and  and  opportunity  f o r the  indiv-  program i s ,  crafts  activities,  nature.  p r o v i s i o n made for  v a r y i n g group  p a r t i c i p a n t - g r o u p f u n c t i o n s as one  the  fields  a d d i t i o n , the program s t r u c t u r e i s such t h a t  sub-divided.  in  activities  exception  the morning c r a f t s  permits  summer program  his ability  recreational in  i s no  from v a r i o u s  o f f e r e d to s t i m u l a t e i n d i v i d u a l  t h e r e f o r e , w i t h the  In  one  activities  enjoyment b u t  to develop  purely  of  There i s i n s u f f i c i e n t  of a c t i v i t i e s  group for  and  The  and  interests. unit  except  games p e r i o d where the g r o u p i s  sole merit  of  this  system  i s that i t  agency to i n c l u d e a l a r g e number o f c h i l d r e n  program.  G o r d o n House J u n i o r Camp The in  the  order  campcraft, crafts,  and  six activities of' f r e q u e n c y  nature  swimming.  week a r e d e v o t e d three  study,  emphasized  i n which they  in this are  program  offered  i n f o r m a l games, c o o k i n g ,  The  two  t o a r t s and  arts  h a l f - d a y programs i n  crafts  and  swimming,  s e v e n - h o u r d a y s the p r o g r a m i s d i v i d e d i n  are  the  and  the in  the  81  following manner: Daily Schedule 9:30; 11:00; 11:00-12:00; 12:00-12:45; 12:45- 2:45; 3:00- 4:30;  Meeting at Gordon House. Arrival at eamp site. Gamp divides into groups to build shelters, arrange eamp, explore, free play. Lunch, sing song, storry t e l l i n g . Nature study, f i r s t aid, camp craft, exploring and games. Leaving camp and returning to Gordon House.  Gordon House has a sustained camper aft program as the basic activity, with nature study and outdoor cooking important adjuncts.  One day is set aside for swimming  and arts and crafts, but, in the remainder of the week, activities develop from the camp setting, participants' interests,  and leadership guidance.  The period set aside  for interest groups is extremely flexible and several choices are available to participants.  They may develop  their own activities, may participate in instruction groups, or may join other groups and individuals in a different activity. The swimming and craft programs are not held in the camp setting since the limitations of the site preclude such activities.  This fact is regretable for i t disrupts  the continuity of the camp experience, and there are two  •ft u  82  days  i n the  week i n w h i c h t h e  unit  rather  than i n small  Regardless balanced  day  including camping  these l i m i t a t i o n s ,  ample o p p o r t u n i t y  swimming,  the  it  is  outdoor  individual  a well activities  to  develop  Program  music,  and n a t u r e  study.  that  certain  activities  are  scheduled  specific  are days  Daily 9:00; 9 : 0 0 - 1 0 : 3 0 ;  12:00;  A l t h o u g h the outdoor programs  and g r o u p  arts  in this  and c r a f t s ,  offered of  daily,  program story-telling,  The m o r n i n g i s  divided whilst  t h e week as  limitations  function interests  from  the  program s t r u c t u r e .  that  the  playground  is  the  so  others  follows:  Schedule  program schedule  the  participants  individual  stressed  Arrival Games, s i n g s o n g , s t o r y G r a f t s ( 2 days) Swimming ( 1 day) N a t u r e S t u d y ( 1 day) H i k e s and s p e c i a l t r i p s Camp c l o s i n g .  10:30-12:00;  the  for  activities  i n f o r m a l games,  that  total  skills.  The s i x  of  as a  groups.  camp p r o g r a m , w i t h v a r i e d  G o r d o n House M i d g e t  are  of  camp f u n c t i o n s  as  lie  shows i n the  (2  a  days)  variety fact  one p r o g r a m u n i t ,  cannot  vary  The s c h e d u l e central  telling.  site  to  any  and degree  indicates  for  83 the f i r s t half of each d a i l y program, and the group leaves the site, for the second part of the morning.  This d i v i s i o n  l i m i t s the degree to which participants can pursue  interests  stimulated from e a r l i e r program experiences of the day*  It  i s interesting to note that a c t i v i t i e s chosen for the second part of each morning are primarily outdoor day camp activities. Since the emphasis has been placed on out of door a o t i v i t i e s i n this Midget Program, Gordon House should develop t h i s program further,  incorporating f a c i l i t i e s  desir-  able i n day camping, and scheduling a c t i v i t i e s to permit greater leeway for individual and group  interests.  Jewish Community Centre There are four programs regarded as essential i n t h i s agency: informal games, swimming, music, and dancing. Any other a c t i v i t i e s offered are limited to the days i n which bad weather necessitates providing program substitutes. The program i s divided as follows:  Daily Schedule  9:30; 10:00-12:30; 12:00- 1:00; 1:00- 4:00; 4:00- 4:30;  A r r i v a l . General meeting. Active games. Lunch and rest hour. Swimming and games. Clean up and closing.  84  The program at the Jewish Community Centre i s neither a day eamp nor a summer program since i t has not developed organized or varied a c t i v i t i e s .  It i s an inform-  al recreation program i n which the t o t a l stress is on enjoyment.  It does not provide stimulation to make use of nat-  ural resources,  increase s k i l l s ,  individual interests.  or to develop group and  The agency i s not offering  activities  which a c h i l d could not enjoy i n his own free play with his neighbours.  There i s l i m i t e d opportunity for the c h i l d to  widen his appreciation of program p o s s i b i l i t i e s and to develop his understanding of how to work and play with others. The agency has had the problem of adapting summer program to the interests and a b i l i t i e s of children between the ages of 5 and 9. To develop group relations and group r e s p o n s i b i l i t y at this early age i s d i f f i c u l t .  The short  interest span of this age group creates problems i n program. Nevertheless a stimulating outdoor program for such an age group i s possible providing there is s u f f i c i e n t variety to hold the interests of the members. Better organization of a c t i v i t i e s at the Jewish Community Centre would provide for stimulated and continuous interests r e s u l t i n g i n satisfactory summer leisure-time experiences.  85  Y.M..C.A. The six a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d i n the Y . M . C . A . summer program i n the order of frequency are: gym, arts and crafts, informal games, i n d u s t r i a l v i s i t s ,  sports, and swimming.  The following indicates the framework i n which these acti v i t i e s were offered: Daily Schedule 9:00; 9:15-  Arrival. Devotional. Industrial t r i p s . Lunch. Hobbies, l i b r a r y , gym, sports, indoor swimming. Country Court. Special events (once weekly) i . e . movies etc. •  9:45;  9:45-12:00; 12:00-  1:00;  1:00-  3:30;  3:30-  4:30;  7:00-  9:00;  In the main, t h i s indoor program i s a continuation of the winter program.  It i s primarily a sports  centred program, i n addition to mass a c t i v i t i e s of an educational nature.  The many agency f a c i l i t i e s have been  placed at the disposal of this summer program, and consequently a wide variety of a c t i v i t i e s are offered i n the afternoon.  Although the structure does not permit the  development of small natural groupings within the membership, the variety of interest groups permit  considerable  individual choice. It i s regretable  that such a large proportion  86  of time i s spent indoors i n the summertime, and that no attempt i s made to develop a c t i v i t i e s which are limited to the summer season.  For the many participants who come to  the agenoy the year-round t h i s condition means limited opportunities.  However, the agency operates two summer  camps, which provide a v a r i a t i o n from the winter program.  Alexandra Neighbourhood House Informal games, arts and crafts,  f i s h i n g , swimming,  nature study, and music are the major programs at Alexandra House.  The program schedule as follows i s divided so that  two  s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s are developed for the t o t a l group,  and  additional a c t i v i t i e s are geared to the interests  of  the small group:  Daily Schedule 9:00; 9:30-12:00; 9:30- 4:30;  A r r i v a l . Bach group plans the day's activities. Arts and crafts (2 days) Informal games (2 days) Closing. Bach group heads off with unit leader to such a c t i v i t i e s as f i s h i n g , swimming, nature study and exploring (2 days a week)  The Alexandra House program presents several interesting factors.  The site chosen i s not an environment  87  conducive to day camping.  At the same time the a c t i v i t i e s  are predominantly those found i n day camping (although the basic a c t i v i t y , camp craft, degree).  i s offered to a very limited  This program i s possible because the central  camp s i t e i s used only for arts and crafts, and music.  informal games,  In the remainder of the a c t i v i t i e s each small  group i n camp, together with a unit leader, leaves the s i t e for such a c t i v i t i e s as swimming, hiking, nature study, and fishing. The a c t i v i t i e s ,  therefore,  are extremely varied  as participants w i l l choose where they want to go i n addition to choosing what they want to do.  There i s a  tendency towards limited continuity and learning experience i n these a c t i v i t i e s . f o r each group i s constantly v i s i t i n g new places and planning different a c t i v i t i e s .  Without a  camp s i t e to provide the setting i n which program i s developed, i t i s almost impossible to stress continuity i n program.  Types of Groupings i n Program The kinds of a c t i v i t i e s offered i n these five agencies and the scheduling of these a c t i v i t i e s are i n part affected  by the manner i n which the t o t a l camp participants  are divided into groups.  The previous discussion of agency  programs indicates that two programs emphasize the d i v i s i o n  88  of the camp into small natural groupings "based on friendship bonds between members.  In two other programs the p a r t i c i -  pant group i s divided according to age and i n t e r e s t .  In the  two remaining programs there are no sub-divisions, the camp functions as one u n i t . Table 3 indicates the s i t u a t i o n which exists i n each agency u t i l i z i n g sub-divisions of the t o t a l participant group.  The essential  factors - the number of new and old  campers i n the program and the age range of the participants are set forth and seen i n r e l a t i o n to the d i v i s i o n of the camp into groups and to the development of a camp council.  89  Table 3.  lumber new to the agency.  The Composition of Groups (six programs)  Number i n Age previous Range winter. 16 9-12  Basis on which camp i s divided into groups.  Basis on which canp council i s formed.  Groups formed on the basis of common interests.  Bach friendship group elects two members to council.  G.H.  10  G.H. Midget  10  15  6- 9  Divided into age groups.  No council  A.H.  47  29  6-12  Groups formed on the basis of common friendship.  Bach group elects one member to council.  3.C.C.  70  --  5- 9  Divided into age groups.  No council  Y.M.C.A ,70  70  9-15  Age group friendship where possible expediency  Council chosen from the t o t a l group by secret ballot.  47  13  7-13  Age, friendship and a b i l i t y to get along with one another.  No council  90  In four of the six programs the great number of newcomers indicates that summer program i s a community need. This provides an excellent r e c r u i t i n g program for the agency for future year-round programs,  and s t a t i s t i c a l l y  indicates  the need for further development of summer programs.  How-  ever, i t presents several problems i n the camp i t s e l f .  It  i s imperative that the leaders make best use of every opportunity to develop i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s so that small friendship groups can develop and function.  When a large part  of the program i s offered to the group as a whole, and at the other extreme, when the program i s immediately s p l i t up and small numbers go separate ways, i t becomes very d i f f i c u l t to provide opportunities for members to get to know one another s u f f i c i e n t l y well to develop friendship associations. In the four programs where the eamp i s divided primarily by age groups and where three of the four have no camp council, there are l i m i t a t i o n s on the value of the summer program.  Ho structure i s provided to assist indiv-  iduals to develop t h e i r a b i l i t y to work and play together and to participate  i n a democratically planned group  activity. The wide age-span i n three of these four camps, the large numbers, i n these same three programs,  and the  degree to which the participants function as one group  91  present enormous problems to the leadership i n getting to know the individuals and to understand t h e i r interests and needs.  For example, i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to assist the  insecure c h i l d i n t h i s setting.  Such a ohild might be  having d i f f i c u l t y i n playing with others of his own age. In t h i s de-personalized structure i n which he i s either i n a program where there are large numbers, or he i s following his own age group to participate i n a specific a c t i v i t y , he has l i t t l e opportunity to adjust himself to this experience, unless his interests  and areas of security coincide  with the program organization.  It i s a setting which could  be a negative experience to a c h i l d who i s uncomfortable i n a group. In these same four programs,  the basis of div-  i d i n g the eamp into groups, and the fact that three of the four have no camp council mean  that the program i s enjoy-  able and of recreational value, i f the individuals have interests which coincide with the a c t i v i t i e s scheduled. From a structural point of view the emphasis i s on program, not on the individual participants. however, w i l l be the leadership.  The determing factor,  The quality of leader-  ship, the d i v i s i o n of leadership r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,  and the  degree of leadership continuity with i n d i v i d u a l participants could change t h i s picture considerably. In the two remaining programs,  the emphasis  is  92 on small groups although the situations vary enormously. In the Alexandra  House setting the emphasis has been  placed on the s e l f determination of natural groups i n a decentralized program.  It i s remarkable that this has been  achieved since the age range runs of age.  from s i x to twelve years  Furthermore, out of a t o t a l r e g i s t r a t i o n of  seventy-six,  forty-seven are newcomers to the agency.  The Alexandra House s i t u a t i o n i s duplicated i n many agency winter programs where the aim i s the development of small group a c t i v i t i e s .  However, two factors create a difference  i n t h i s summer program: weeks.  1)  the program l a s t s only four  This time factor l i m i t s the effectiveness  of grad-  u a l l y providing opportunities for natural relationships to form, and, i n turn sub-dividing the t o t a l group into friendship u n i t s .  2)  the de-centralized program with the major-  i t y of a c t i v i t i e s away from the central s i t e l i m i t s the opportunity the individual newcomer has to mix with others and to decide which group he would l i k e to j o i n . There i s probably frequent shifting of i n d i v i d u a l members from one group to another during the summer.  Out-  t r i p s of small groups w i l l s o l i d i f y relationships, but there could often be some unhappy i n d i v i d u a l members who are m i s f i t s i n a particular, group and because of the d i s tance between groups i n t h i s program there would be problems i n exposing these individuals to other groups with  93  whom they might feel more congenial.  These various environ-  mental conditions create a need for exceptional leadership s k i l l i f they are to be overcome. In the Gordon House situation there i s opportuni t y for the t o t a l group to participate i n a l l over camp activities,  divide into various groups for interest group  a c t i v i t i e s , plus opportunities for friendship groups to develop t h e i r own program.  The problem of strengthening  these small group units and assisting the i n d i v i d u a l to find the group i n which he can best function i s minimized because of the program structure and the environment.  By  building a central camp s i t e , with numerous small s i t e s close at hand, there i s opportunity for the individual to shop around, at the same time sufficient scope for the friendship group to remove i t s e l f from the t o t a l camp group. These small group units develop a sense of belonging and a feeling of accomplishment i n building their own shelters and camp equipment.  The a l l over camp projects of b u i l d -  ing a common council ring and f i r s t  aid shelter provides  a situation which enables the individuals who have not formed relationships to participate together i n a program where they can get to know each other and frequently create friendship groups of t h e i r own. It can be seen that the setting i t s e l f plays an important role i n developing individual and group r e l a t i o n ships.  The leadership function i s that of guiding and  94  supporting these relationships, come the environmental factors  rather than having to overthat prevent t h e i r develop-  ment • The numbers involved i n t h i s camp program are l e s s than half the average registered i n other programs. This i s p a r t i a l l y due to the fact  that the agency provided  two separate programs rather than including the six to twelve year olds i n the one program.  In addition, this day  camp was an experimental project and no attempt was made to p u b l i c i z e the program or to r e c r u i t large numbers.  The  program structure would permit considerable expansion i n numbers without l o s i n g any of the advantages seen i n t h i s year's  experience. The Gordon House Junior Camp i s the one program  which meets the necessary standards to qualify as a day camp program.  It i s the only one i n which the p r i n c i p l e s  of program content are consistently based on camp a c t i v i t i e s and camp l i f e .  The program structure and the emphasis on  the small group unit i s such that t h i s program i s i n close accord with standards of program i n day camping presented in Chapter 2. Desirable a c t i v i t i e s i n day camp programs have been developed to apply s p e c i f i c a l l y to t h i s form of camping.  They form a part of program standards i n day camping.  The broader elements of standards i n program, however, are  95  those  which constitute  ional  program.  essential  Therefore  it  a l a r m i n g to  majority  of  terms  of  the  particular activities  terms  of  the  general  agencies  summer p r o g r a m s  is  c r i t e r i a i n any  include  camping but  the  some  of  the  small group There  is  activities put  inadequate  interests  the  of  purpose  present  agency ional  is  need  of  for  each  agency  program which has  in  full  program  as  but  it  i n other  in  in  in  of  day  on t h e  campers  limited the  individual  standards areas  to  evaluate  agency's general  of  decide  its state-  whether  or  summer p r o g r a m i n  general only is  aims i n one  element  a segment  of  of  are  services  of  as  essential  agency  services.  the in  not that  recreatin  the  an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to  rounded r e c r e a t i o n a l  adequate  stress  agency  Summer p r o g r a m i s  r e c r e a t i o n program,  Therefore  also  indicates  and to  with its  agency  the  only  The m a j o r i t y  and n e e d s o f  development  i n accordance  services.  not  the  i n program.  and f u n c t i o n ,  level  that  characteristic  summer p r o g r a m i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e ment  inadequate chosen but  The p r o g r a m s t r u c t u r e  understanding and  as  program s t r u c t u r e .  t h e y have  themselves.  rate  see  recreat-  an total make  agency. this  96  CHAPTER VI  leadership In the realm of staff personnel l i e s the crux of the success or f a i l u r e of a recreation program, for ultimately the development of program i s dependent upon i t s leadership.  The leaders guide the development of program  and assist the individuals to grow emotionally and s o c i a l l y . Adequate leadership i n a carefully planned administrative  structure can mean the difference between a hap-  hazard recreation experience and an enjoyable program where individuals and groups receive objective guidance and direction. There are four essential  areas of study i n deter-  mining the quality of leadership i n summer program. include the selection,  These  t r a i n i n g , supervision, and d i v i s i o n  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of staff. Selection In the selection of staff i t is important to know the proportion of paid, part-time and voluntary staff personnel i n each agency.  The following table indicates  into which categories the t o t a l staff of an agency i s divided, and the t o t a l number of paid, part-time and  97 voluntary leaders i n the six summer programs.  Table 4..  Staff Engaged j.n_Slx Programs  Agency  Part time  Paid  I  Voluntary  Total  -  3  Gordon House, Midgets  2  Gordon House, Junior  4  Alexandra House  2  Jewish Community Centre  7  Vancouver East "Y1^  1  1  14  16  Y.M.C.A.  4  1  7  12  28  .51  1  -  -  4 9  7  -  7  -  Six Agencies  3  20  In three programs the greatest proportion of leadership i s voluntary and i n the other three there are no volunteer leaders whatsoever.  In this regard i t  is  interesting to note that the volunteers are i n those programs where the number of participants exceeds s i x t y . Opinions vary i n these agencies as to the function of volunteers i n a recreation program.  The proportion of  paid to voluntary staff suggests that budget allotment for leadership played an important role i n determining the leadership i n each agency.  In the agency where the t o t a l  leadership i s paid, i t i s possible  that inadequate  attention  has been given to the values and contributions of voluntary  98  leadership.  In the two agencies where the number of v o l -  unteers greatly exceeds paid staff a s i t u a t i o n i s  created  i n which the paid staff spend most of t h e i r time supervising volunteers,  or else very l i m i t e d time i s available for v o l -  unteer supervision. Greater attention could be given by these agencies to the proportion of paid, part-time and voluntary leadership i n summer program. ducive to e f f i c i e n t  The balance at present  i s not con-  administration.  Information as to the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  of leadership  i s limited to the knowledge that there were seven people with formal education i n some branch of work with children i n leadership capacity i n these programs.  This included  four s o c i a l work graduates, two physical education graduates, and one leader with training i n education.  Five of these  leaders were i n two agencies, Alexandra House and Gordon House.  This i s a small proportion since there was a t o t a l  of forty-nine leaders involved.  (It  is a particularly  small proportion i f Gordon House and Alexandra House are excluded f o r i t means a proportion of two to t h i r t y - f i v e . ) There i s limited recognition of the importance of  adequately  trained staff i n summer programs. Training and Supervision Closely related to selection of staff i s the  99  question of training and supervision of staff members.  A  pre-camp training course has strong values i n preparing the staff person for his work and i n creating s t a f f group unity. Supervision throughout the camp period, i s i n part a continuation of s t a f f t r a i n i n g and provides an opportunity for continuous evaluation of the work being done. A l l five agencies offering summer program have seen the need for providing pre-camp training courses and continuous supervision for each staff member throughout the program period.  A l l but one program include a leadership  training course as an essential part of staff preparation for summer program.  These courses varied i n length i n each  agency from a minimum of two days to a maximum of one week. The average length of the training course was three and a half days.  Four agencies offered this course just p r i o r  to camp opening and one agency held i t s sessions once monthly throughout the winter.  Considering the numbers of  staff i n each agency, and the number of volunteers, i t natural that these courses vary greatly i n content.  is  In a l l  cases the greatest emphasis was placed on planning the camp program, describing the leader's function, and discussing the aims of the summer program. Every program made provision for individual supervisory conferences.  Time available for these conferences  varied from three a week to one every ten days.  The average  100  number of conferences was two a week with each leader. This unanimous agency stress on training and supervision of leadership i s important.  It indicates the  recognition that i n order to provide adequate leadership for recreation a c t i v i t i e s ,  continuous attention must be  given to helping staff develop t h e i r potential a b i l i t i e s . The content of these conferences and the r e l a t i v e s k i l l s of supervisor and supervisee would be the main factor i n determining the values of both the training course and weekly supervision.  The quality of supervision given i n these  agencies i s not known.  Information i s limited to the time  devoted to supervision.  Assignment of R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s Inevitably the assigning of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  will  vary i n each agency according to the s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s of the staff, offered,  the number of campers,  and the agency budget.  the program being  However, the general div-  i s i o n of leadership r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s break down into the functions of the d i r e c t o r , assistant director (or program d i r e c t o r ) , program s p e c i a l i s t s , leader.  A program s p e c i a l i s t  unit leader,  and general  i s here defined as a staff  person s k i l l e d i n one or two arts or crafts who gives i n struction i n these a c t i v i t i e s .  A unit leader i s a leader  assigned to a small group or friendship group whose main  101 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t o be w i t h those c h i l d r e n and a s s i s t i n the development of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . one who out  A general  leader i s  a s s i s t s i n i n t e r e s t groups and s p e c i a l events with-  d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r an a c t i v i t y  or a group.  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i n d i c a t e s the number of s t a f f , and  the number of them employed i n the s e v e r a l c a p a c i t i e s  indicated.  Table 5.  The f u n c t i o n o f S t a f f Engaged i n S i x Programs  1 1  Ass * t . ProUnit D i r e c - D i r e c - gram J tor Special-j Leader tor ist j I ! i  1  1  Agency -  .  .  .  ...  .._  <  I  i  Gordon House, Midgets  i  1  2  3 •  Gordon House, Juniors  1  A l e x a n d r a House  1  31 1 |  Jewish Community i Centre j I  1  1  1  Vancouver E a s t Y.M.C.A.  GenTotal • ! eral i No. of | Leader i Leaders I  "Y, 1  2 '  1  i 2  8  1  !  4 2  3 1  9  -  5  7  1  -  14  16  1  —  7  11  -  1  3  3  i  1 - I n d i c a t e s d u p l i c a t e count 2 - The d i r e c t o r a l s o serves as a general l e a d e r 3 -;.The a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r a l s o serves as a u n i t l e a d e r .  102  In every eamp one person, the d i r e c t o r , i s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the g e n e r a l of l e a d e r s .  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n  I n three programs the d i r e c t o r i s also respon-  s i b l e f o r the program, and i n the remaining three t h i s i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r . the  In four of  s i x programs the d i r e c t o r was a member o f the r e g u l a r  s t a f f o f the agency.  T h i s i s a very p o s i t i v e f a c t o r f o r  i t permits g r e a t e r c o n t i n u i t y i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and program and prevents summer program from being service unrelated  to year-round  a s p e c i a l ageney  planning.  Program s p e c i a l i s t s have not been emphasized I n the s e l e c t i o n o f l e a d e r s .  Two camps have secured  special-  i s t s t o g i v e s p e c i f i c l e a d e r s h i p i n games, f o l k dancing, and  sports.  I n one agency the same personnel  u n i t l e a d e r s and as s p e c i a l i s t s .  f u n o t i o n as  This involves unit leaders'  g i v i n g l e a d e r s h i p i n programs i n which they have p a r t i c u l a r skill,  i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r work w i t h a f r i e n d s h i p group. The l i m i t e d number of program s p e c i a l i s t s i s  i n t e r e s t i n g i n view of the f a c t that s e v e r a l agencies have emphasized i n t e r e s t group a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r program. the Y.M.C.A., f o r example, the afternoon s e v e r a l s p o r t s , gym and c r a f t one program s p e c i a l i s t .  In  program i n c l u d e s  s e s s i o n s , y e t there i s only  Since the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p  i s not i n v o l v e d i n program, a l a r g e p o r t i o n of t h i s program s p e c i a l i s t ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s c a r r i e d by the seven u n i t  103  leaders who are a l l volunteers.  Either minimum emphasis  is  placed on developing s k i l l i n these a c t i v i t i e s or the general leaders  are exceptional people who are capable of  giving leadership i n many areas. In the two columns indicating the number of unit and general leaders there i s a sharp d i v i s i o n i n the various agencies.  In two programs the emphasis has been placed  on unit leaders and i n four programs general leaders have been stressed.  This involves a clear d i v i s i o n i n function.  In programs where the emphasis i s on unit leaders, i t is essential  to hire staff and r e c r u i t volunteers who  are capable of meeting the varying program interests  of the  small group with which they are working, and assuming res p o n s i b i l i t y for meeting individual and group needs.  Since  such a leader i s responsible for a l l the a c t i v i t i e s of eight or ten children i t i s essential  that this leader have under-  standing of children and a wide variety of program s k i l l s . ' Where the emphasis i s on general leaders,  it  is  possible to pool the c o l l e c t i v e a b i l i t i e s of the t o t a l number of general leaders and i n turn assign each leader to assist i n the a c t i v i t i e s where he can do the best job. Hence i t i s possible  to hire younger leaders and those who,  although they lack a sufficient variety of s k i l l and experience to assist a group i n a l l programs undertaken, have one or two specific  skills.  104 It has been said, i n discussing program, that the program structure and scheduling of a c t i v i t i e s i n four agencies has emphasized the program rather than the individuals within that program.  These same four programs stress  general leaders i n preference to unit leaders.  This i n -  creases the depersonalized atmosphere of these programs, for there i s no one leader responsible for specific iduals or small groups.  indiv-  Therefore there i s no one person  to whom the i n d i v i d u a l , or group of individuals, feels he has the right to turn. Mabel lyman Jobe l i s t s the specific responsibili t i e s of the group leader and the general leader;  these  are adapted to t h i s study to further c l a r i f y the different function of each, and to substantiate the above  statement.  Group Leader The group Leader;  (1) (2) (3)  (4)  gives continuous direct leadership in a group. keeps records of the group. gives leadership i n program, health, interests and problems of the individual and the group. He is responsible for guiding the activi t i e s and experience of the group. assists i n planning t o t a l program i n which the group is involved.  General Leader The general leader:  (1) assists i n a l l over a c t i v i t i e s planning and direct leadership. 12) assists i n s p e c i a l i s t program. (3) assists i n development of program. (4) assists i n coordinating program  105  (5)  interests of small groups. assists director where necessary i n the program area.  This outline of the r e l a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of unit and general leader clearly indicates the difference between the continuous relationship of the one leader to a group and his concern with every aspect of the development of i t s members, and the assisting role of the general leader who i s involved i n some element of program with a l l the children and responsible for none.  Thus i t is  felt  that the use of general leaders only, does not provide a • leadership structure i n which program participants receive adequate attention. The emphasis on general leaders also presents problems i n supervision.  It is d i f f i c u l t to give adequate  guidance to a staff person when his r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  are  varied, ever changing and lacking i n continuity.  is  difficult  It  to evaluate the strengths of such a leader because  his work rarely involves keeping records of group activi t i e s which would enable the supervisor to understand the d i f f i c u l t i e s which he encounters.  Moreover, the leader  himself w i l l find i t d i f f i c u l t to evaluate his own work or increase his a b i l i t y to give adequate leadership, for  1.  Ibid, p . , 58.  106 he i s c o n s t a n t l y sharing r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with other  leaders  f o r the same c h i l d r e n . I t should be emphasized that t h i s d i s c u s s i o n does not imply  that a l l program l e a d e r s should be u n i t  l e a d e r s , or t h a t general i n summer programs.  l e a d e r s have not an important r o l e  Both have a f u n c t i o n .  The g e n e r a l  l e a d e r , however, can never be a s u b s t i t u t e f o r an adequate number of u n i t l e a d e r s .  P r o p o r t i o n of l e a d e r s to Campers One important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the study of l e a d e r s h i p i s the number of l e a d e r s i n r e l a t i o n to the number of campers.  Although the p r o p o r t i o n would vary  with  the type of program and the q u a l i t y and f u n c t i o n of l e a d e r s h i p , the d e s i r a b l e r a t i o i s one l e a d e r to every s i x to 2 ten c h i l d r e n . In the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , the f i r s t  three  columns  i n d i c a t e the t o t a l number of r e g i s t r a n t s , the t o t a l number of l e a d e r s and the average d a i l y attendence of campers. The  next two columns i n d i c a t e the number of members per  l e a d e r based on the t o t a l r e g i s t r a t i o n , daily  attendence. In the Vancouver E a s t  2.  then on the average  I b i d , p., 87.  "Y" and the Y.M.C.A., v o l -  107 unteer leaders i n program do not give leadership every program day..  Therefore the figures  i n brackets indicates the  average number of leaders i n each d a i l y program and the r a t i o i n accordance with this  Table 6..  Agency  Ratio of Staff  ! Total number of campers  ! Gordon House,, iMidgets  figure.  to Campers i n Six Programs  Total number of leaders  No. of Campers per leader (based on total ! group  3  18  26 ,  4  Alexandra House  76  Jewish Community Centre tVancouver Bast " Y " | (a) t o t a l leader- . I ship 1 (b) d a i l y leader! ship  [ Gordon House, j Juniors  !  Y.M.C.A. (a) t o t a l leadership (b) d a i l y leadership Total  No. of Campers per leader (based on average attendance  Average daily attendance i  8  6  20  - 4|  5  9  44  8  5  35  7  30  5  4  1 60  16  49  4  3  (6)  (5)  !  !  . (49)  (60).  186  12  110  (186)  (8)  110  408  51  271  :  15fc ' (23f  9  '  9 (14)  8  108  With the noticeable exception of one agency, the proportion of leaders to campers i s well within the standards proposed above. for staff  Thus ample opportunity i s provided  to know the needs and interests of the campers.  Since these agencies have an adequate number of leaders, i t seems regretable that i n most programs, the use of facilities,  the program structure and assigning of respon-  sibilities,  are not conducive to building understanding  relationships with i n d i v i d u a l s . In view of the proportion of leaders to campers shown above i t is evident that there i s no shortage of leaders available i n the community for summer programs. The inadequacy therefore l i e s i n the f a i l u r e of the agency to make the best possible use of the leadership available so as to develop the emotional and s o c i a l growth of the program p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Use of Records Continuous recording by the leaders i n their work with individuals and groups frequently means the difference between haphazard adult guidance, and objective understanding of the emotional and sooial needs of the child. Recording enables the camp leader to accumulate knowledge and understanding of individual needs, to eval-  109  uate the assistance being given to the i n d i v i d u a l , and i t provides a f i l e of information on the individual which i s invaluable for future leaders i n working with the same child.  This holds true i n a program of short duration.but  i s even more applicable when this program i s related to a year-round agency recreation program.  Without this element  of continuity through recording, the c h i l d constantly attempts to express his interest who know nothing about him.  to a series of new leaders  In addition to the harmful  effects of t h i s experience to the c h i l d ,  administrative  inefficiency results for valuable time i s wasted as each new leader attempts to gain understanding of the individual situation. Consideration must therefore be given to agency recording habits i n the summer programs being discussed. Individual records kept i n these programs into three categories.  fall  In three programs the only indiv-  idual recording attempted was the i d e n t i f y i n g information given at the time of r e g i s t r a t i o n . ation included: parents'  This identifying inform-  name, address,  'phone number,  occupation, the number and ages of brothers and s i s t e r s , the age and school grade of the program p a r t i c i p a n t .  In  one of these agencies the identifying information was limited to name, address and 'phone number. In two agencies,  summary individual records were  110  kept i n addition to this identifying information.  That i s ,  a closing summary i s written at the end of the camp period indicating the a c t i v i t i e s i n which the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c ipated, and general comments on any problems that might have been noticed i n the program weeks.  A weekly summary  was kept on specific individuals where definite emotional problems were noted or where the individual displayed part i c u l a r a b i l i t i e s and leadership  qualities.  There was only one program i n which continuous individual records were kept. It i s evident that these agencies have given completely inadequate attention to the importance of recording.  The complete dearth of written material about the  campers i s a serious l i m i t a t i o n i n four summer programs and should be given immediate attention. The four programs i n which the recorded material on individuals i s limited to i d e n t i f y i n g information, are the same programs wherein the camp functions as one unit for a large proportion of the time.  These programs divide  the camp into age groups when smaller numbers seem expedient, and they use a great number of general leaders.  In practice,  i t i s d i f f i c u l t to keep individual records, for i t i s probable that no one staff person has sufficient information regarding an individual to record his progress. seem possible,  It would  however, that staff meetings could be held  Ill i n which the staff could pool their information about i n dividuals and subsequently  record i t .  This would perform  the dual function of providing some recorded information and would increase staff understanding of individual needs. This lack of recording further substantiates the previous statement that these agencies have emphasized the program a c t i v i t i e s  rather than the individuals i n the pro-  gram. In the Junior camp at Gordon House, where continuous individual records were kept, i t was the i l i t y of the unit leader to f i l l  responsib-  out agency i n d i v i d u a l  record forms at the end of each program day.  This form  (headings indicated below) was adapted to the recording of information regarding the emotional and s o c i a l growth of the individual and his program interests and s k i l l s .  j  New Interests  Activi t i e s Participated In  Degree of Participation Use symbol i f no further comment i s needed. Complete Passive Negative  .C. .P. .N.  Symptoms Status | of Maladjustment  Health  112  The p a r t i c u l a r advantage of this individual record form i s that i t i s d i r e c t , concise, and i s not timeconsuming.  It provides a structure i n which the salient  factors can be recorded, and does not demand a lengthy report on those days when there might be l i t t l e to add concerning i n d i v i d u a l s .  Its l i m i t a t i o n s l i e i n the fact  that  none of the headings direct recorded remarks concerning positive behavior or adequate emotional growth. In addition to this daily record, the unit leader compiles an i n d i v i d u a l summary record at the close of the camp period for each member of his group. divided into six  This form i s  sections:  (1)  a s t a t i s t i c a l count of attendance i n each s p e c i f i c program a c t i v i t y .  (2)  interest  (3)  new interests  (4)  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n d i v i d u a l and group projects  (5)  status i n the group  (6)  conclusions  and progress i n each a c t i v i t y .  Again, this record form has the advantage of being concise.  In fact, i t i s possibly too abbreviated for i t  does not provide the space to discuss the growth of the individual as a person - i t i s always i n r e l a t i o n to an a c t i v i t y or to others. This record form would provide valuable information i n understanding the i n d i v i d u a l , i n assisting the  113  leader to develop h i s own understanding of the guidance he must give, and i n f i l i n g adequate individual records for the use of future leaders.  It would provide essential  information where i t i s deemed advisable to refer an i n dividual to a casework agency for more extensive ual assistance.  individ-  It would also be useful to the staff i n  home v i s i t i n g , when the c h i l d ' s camping experience  is  discussed with the parents. It should be pointed out that these forms used i n the Gordon House Junior camp are not presented as i d e a l individual record forms.  Each agency prepares i t s own  form, bearing In mind the a b i l i t y of the staff to complete these forms, the intended use of the form, and an appreci a t i o n of the kind of i n d i v i d u a l information that  is  neoessary or valuable i n giving adequate leadership. Therefore, the forms would vary to some degree. the information to be recorded  However,  should be i n substance  that indicated i n the above sample.  Group Records In five programs no group records of any kind were kept.  The recorded information i s limited to a  statistical  count of the numbers present.  In one program, a weekly summary group record i s f i l l e d out.  This i s the same program i n which con-  114  tinuous individual records are kept.  This one-page-form  has as i t s only heading "the development of the group as a whole."  In discussing this form with the agency, and i n  reviewing records, i t was found that t h i s l i m i t e d d i r e c t i o n as to desirable material to he included was intended to avoid duplication.  Several headings on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  form called for information regarding the r e l a t i o n of the individual to the group.  Therefore, this group record  emphasizes only the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s of the group as a whole, and the general trends i n group "behavior and group activities.  In reading these records and i n discussing them  with the director of the agency using them, i t became apparent that they were l i t t l e employed for recording the views of leaders as to how group unity might be fostered, or the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s of group members guided.  It was  found that the environment of a camp site with each smaller unit within a dozen paces of the central council r i n g , contributed so greatly to creating group unity that the main task became that of helping the. individual i n each group to gain as much as possible from the experience. In the five situations i n which no group records are kept, i t i s recommended that these agencies record something more than mere physical presence.  Certainly there  i s such a thing as over-emphasis of recording which leaves insufficient  time for direct group leadership.  However,  115  such recording as would "be done i n the above samples i s not time-consuming.  It i s ,  on the contrary, time-saving,  for  i t sharpens leaders' understanding of individual and group needs, minimizes the instances i n which leaders could give misguided d i r e c t i o n , and provides a basis for continuous leadership i n agency services  to i t s members.  Committees Involved i n Planning Summer Day Camp. In this consideration of leadership,  emphasis  has been placed thus far on direct group leadership.  There  i s need to consider the leadership function of agency committees  responsible for the planning, financing, and pro-  gram development of the project.  In considering the admin-  i s t r a t i v e function i n a previous section, emphasis was placed on the need for a special committee to i n planning the e f f i c i e n t  participate  organization of a summer program.  The committee was intended to provide opportunity for democratic community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n summer program projects to the end that the camp might the better meet community needs. In three agencies (carrying on four programs) there was a special committee working with the camp director i n planning summer program.  These committees were  d i r e c t l y responsible to the board of d i r e c t o r s . In two of these three agencies the responsibil-  116 i t i e s o f t h i s s p e c i a l committee were s i m i l a r . included; regard  1) approval  of general  to budget allotments  plans;  I t s function  2) d e c i s i o n i n  to the summer program;  3) de-  c i s i o n i n s e t t i n g the camp f e e ; and 4) o u t l i n e o f camp objectives.  Thus t h i s committee d i d not l i m i t i t s f u n c t i o n  to the p u r e l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , but shared i n the l e a d e r s h i p of d i r e c t s e r v i c e s . In the two remaining agencies,  the p l a n n i n g  done by the s t a f f without l a y p a r t i c i p a t i o n . and  The camp,  the l e a d e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r , have a g r e a t e r f u n c t i o n than  that of d i r e c t s e r v i c e s . get  was  community  I t i s the b u s i n e s s o f l e a d e r s to  support and community  of the summer program.  Varied  a s p e c i a l committee p r o v i d e s  opinions  community  on the s e r v i c e s  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on  g r e a t e r understanding o f com-  munity i n t e r e s t , support, and awareness of the aims of summer program. There i s a l s o a p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r i n v o l v e d . When the s t a f f personnel works d i r e c t l y w i t h a s p e c i a l committee, there i s g r e a t e r p r o b a b i l i t y that the program i s s u i t e d to the needs of the community.  Without such a  committee, there i s the danger that the l e a d e r s h i p  will  focus i t s a t t e n t i o n wholly on the program s t r u c t u r e and the program i t s e l f , which ought t o be  to the e x c l u s i o n of community  factors  considered.  An example of t h i s was found i n one agency p r o -  117  gram where the limited number of s t a f f available for the program necessitated forty.  l i m i t i n g the number of registrants  to  The agency decided that this was the maximum number  that could be adequately handled, i f high standards were to be maintained.  Nothing was done for the other children,  who, under t h i s p o l i c y , would necessarily be excluded from the benefits  of the camp program.  camp committee. representatives  However, there was a  When, t h i s plan was presented,  the committee  from the l o c a l school and church expressed  concern for the many ohildren i n the community who could not be served under the proposed p o l i c y .  It was decided  therefore that additional volunteer leadership would be supplied through the school and the church, which would mean increasing the number of participants while maintaining high standards of leadership.  Since community needs  could not be wholly met under t h i s plan, the committee also decided to keep adequate l i s t s of the applicants turned away so that the information might be used as an argument for increased provision of summer programs i n that  area  the following year. This s i t u a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s  the broader community  considerations which are brought into play when the camp leaders and the agency recognize the valuable role of a special committee concerned with summer a c t i v i t i e s .  118  Parent  Participation S i m i l a r b e n e f i t s r e s u l t from parent  and i n t e r e s t i n program.  participation  I n f i v e programs, the only p o i n t  at which the parents are i n v o l v e d i n the program was the parents' day, h e l d at the c l o s e of the camp p e r i o d .  This  served the purpose o f g i v i n g the parents a f l e e t i n g of what t h e i r c h i l d r e n had been doing throughout  glimpse  the month.  In one program, the Y.M.C.A., the parents  took  a more a c t i v e p a r t i n program, a s s i s t i n g w i t h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , p l a n n i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s p e c i a l events.  This  work assignment helped the parents to f e e l a v i t a l p a r t of the program, and make a c o n t r i b u t i o n i n determining the k i n d s of programs that would i n t e r e s t the p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s l a c k of contact w i t h the parent group i n f i v e programs, i s f u r t h e r l i m i t e d by the f a c t that only one agency, Gordon House, p r o v i d e d time f o r h o m e - v i s i t i n g . I n t h i s agency the parents o f each c h i l d were v i s i t e d to d i s c u s s the program, the c h i l d ,  and the parents' hopes as  to what the eamp experience would give the c h i l d . gave the s t a f f some understanding  I t also  of the home s i t u a t i o n of  each camper, and i n d i c a t i o n s of the c h i l d ' s needs. H o m e - v i s i t i n g i s an important  aspect of work with  parents, and one which strengthens community  r e l a t i o n s and  g i v e s i n s i g h t i n t o the needs and i n t e r e s t s o f program  119  participants. In setting up staff r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s work loads,  and staff  the limited work with parents i n the programs  being discussed,  indicates inadequate appreciation of the  importance of relationship with the parent group.  Instead  i t i s regarded as unduly time-consuming and generally a work which the staff cannot undertake.  Actually, home-  v i s i t i n g and parent-participation i s l i k e adequate recording habits i n that i t provides essential materials enabling the staff to have more understanding of i t s work.  Finally,  i t saves time by furnishing data necessary for informed d i r e c t i o n of  effort.  Consideration of the function of leadership has included the administrative organization of adequate sel e c t i o n , t r a i n i n g , and supervision of leaders.  It has  been found that i n the majority of agencies pre-camp t r a i n ing and continuous supervision has been given.  Variations  occurred i n the number of paid and volunteer leaders, with few agencies showing a balanced proportion between the two. There was a very l i m i t e d number of staff people i n these agencies with formal training i n work with children. In assigning leadership r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  each  agency recognized the importance of one person assuming f i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , but beyond this each agency assigned work loads i n different ways.  In the majority of  instances  120  the leaders were not responsible for a p a r t i c u l a r group, although the majority of programs maintained high standards of proportion of leaders to campers. Extremely inadequate individual and group records were kept i n summer a c t i v i t i e s .  There was limited contact  with the parent group either i n the eamp or through homevisiting.  On the other hand, the majority of agencies  worked with a special l a y - s t a f f  committee i n planning the  activities. This indicates that there was unanimous recogn i t i o n of the importance of leadership only as regards the number involved and the pre-camp training and supervision given, with growing awareness of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the community i n the development of camp committees. Beyond t h i s , agency understanding of the responsi b i l i t i e s of leadership,  and the methods whereby this  leadership can be effective,  i s very l i m i t e d .  care each agency has trained a staff  With great  to do a good job  without providing the structure wherein t h i s a b i l i t y can be used.  Without the integration of every aspect of leader-  ship r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s discussed, i t s purpose.  the agency i s  defeating  For example, what is the value of hiring one  adult for eight children i f that leader i s with.different children each day?  What purpose i s served by continuous  supervision when the leader's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s vary d a i l y ,  131  and when no records are kept? There i s need for each agency to analyze the function of leadership i n i t s program and to relate each aspect of leadership r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the needs of membership, staff,  agency, and community.  A decision must be  made as to whether recreation i s purely playtime or whether there i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to use recreation settings to further s o c i a l and emotional growth of the members and democratic community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n planning.  122 CHAPTER 711  Implications for the Future  Summer day camping gradually came into being as a f i e l d of recreation to meet the summer leisure-time needs of c i t y children.  Throughout the United States, communi-  t i e s concerned with recreational programs recognized that resident camping and playground programs did not provide s u f f i c i e n t resources to meet recreational needs.  These  communities repeated the pattern that characterized the early development of resident camping. were offered,  Summer programs  based on the philosophy that any program i s  better than no program.  Gradually, the f a l l a c y of such an  approach to recreational services, the summer programs offered,  and the inadequacies of  were recognized.  Through a  national organization, the American Camping Association, these communities pooled.their knowledge and experience i n summer program, and formulated standards which could guide the development of day camping. The essential  elements,  facilities,  program and  leadership, were incorporated into a clear statement of the necessary standards that must be maintained i n day camping. These standards demanded adequate f a c i l i t i e s  conducive to  the development of creative indigenous camping,  a varied  133  program based on outdoor a c t i v i t i e s developed through the interests of small group units, and a leadership group capable of guiding the emotional and social development of the children through the a c t i v i t i e s .  Clearly, i n formulating  these standards, the essential goal was the development of a specialized recreational service where trained leadership i n a program of a highly creative quality could provide experience significant to each individual p a r t i c i p a n t . However, these general trends of development represent the highest l e v e l of understanding of what day oamping should be; and are based on the pooling of information from agencies i n various communities i n the United States and Canada where day camping has been carefully studied and concerted efforts made to establish high standards of p r a c t i c e .  The general trends do not imply  that the individual c i t i e s or communities i n Canada or the United States have reached t h i s l e v e l of development. situation i n each community v a r i e s .  The  In the City of Van-  couver, s p e c i f i c a l l y , both the purpose and the goals of summer day camping are not yet understood and thus not met. A considerable variety of summer programs are offered, but few are based on a clear understanding of the components of different kinds of summer programs, t h e i r aims, the methods, and the goals by which the objectives of these programs can be reached.  124  Instead,  the majority of agencies interested i n  offering summer leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s have developed a program, taking into account only the agency "budgets,  the  number they would l i k e to have i n program, and the winter agency f a c i l i t i e s .  The result i s that some agencies have  merely extended their winter program into the summer season, while others have combined features of winter program, summer fun, and day camping, and offered this conglomeration i n an effort  to provide summer recreational services.  There  i s only one agency which offered a- day eamp, f u l l y aware of i t s specialized nature. Consequently, a primary essential  is the need for  each agency to study and understand the standards and factors which constitute any summer program.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y  - and a special implication of the present  study - there i s  need to recognize that the standards and features which constitute a day camp program are different from those of a summer fun program.  Once differences  are c l e a r l y under-  stood, each agency can appreciate the r e l a t i v e values of each program, and offer that which meets the needs of the children served, dependent upon the kinds of services the agency i s equipped to offer.  Moreover, such c l a r i f i c a t i o n  would eliminate the present situation i n which 'hybrid' programs, fun,  consisting of a mixture of day camping and summer  are offered.  These 'hybrid' programs prevent under-  125  standing of the r e l a t i v e values of day camping and summer fun programs and serve only to confuse.  In themselves  these ' h y b r i d ' programs lack d i r e c t i o n , do not provide cont i n u i t y , and hinder the agency from r e a l i s t i c a l l y choosing the program i t i s best equipped to  offer.  Once the agency has a clear understanding of the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two kinds of program, there i s need to recognize that a day camp project should not be undertaken i f the agency i s unable to meet the requirements i n terms of f a c i l i t i e s ,  program and leadership.  The stand-  ards i n these three areas do not merely aim at r a i s i n g the l e v e l of day camp practice;  their integrated adequate  implementation i s essential i f the values of day camping are to be r e a l i z e d .  The degree to which these standards  are interrelated and interdependent means that their part i a l implementation would seriously affect  the values of  the project. The standards required have been discussed length i n the f i r s t  three chapters'.  at  It i s evident from t h i s  that p a r t i c u l a r emphasis must be placed on leadership since in the f i n a l analysis the development of day camp program i s dependent upon i t s leadership.  Though cited authorities  do not go so far i n commitment, i t may well be suggested by t h i s study, that the s o c i a l group worker i s the professional person best equipped to see that the standards  126 of day camping are met to the greatest  extent.  The views of a well known s o c i a l worker may be quoted i n elaboration of this point;  "Group work arose out  of an increasing awareness that i n the recreation-education a c t i v i t i e s which went on i n groups there were obviously two dimensions: the stream of activity-games, on the one hand, and on the other interplay that creates the group p r o c e s s . . . . T o  discussions of  -  personalities  concentrate on one -  for example, the a c t i v i t y - without recogniging and checking with the other i s l i k e playing the piano with one hand only.  Program and relationships are inextricably i n t e r -  twined.  The group work method developed as social group  workers began to see that the understanding and use of the human relations involved were as important as the under1 standing and use of various types of program'.' Thus i s the 'way' of group work and group workers. The nature of summer day camp as a specialized type of program has been emphasized consistently.  Therefore i t stands  to reason that the need for the group worker i s heightened i n the summer day camp program.  Where s o c i a l group workers  are employed i n agencies they are i n a position to develop standards of day camping and thus conduct a specialized program where the dual leadership focus on creative outdoor 1.  Grace Coyle, Group Experience and Democratic Values, Woman' Press, IST. Y . , 1947, p. 70.  127 a c t i v i t i e s and the development of human r e l a t i o n s can guide the s o c i a l and emotional growth of the part icipant s.  Then  day camping "becomes a v i t a l part of the t o t a l agency program; moreover i t proves to be an area which not only has a contribution to make i n summer leisure-time  activities,  but which i s d e f i n i t e l y related to the agency year-round program. The Gordon House day camp program i n 1949 has proved the values of day camping to the membership, the agency and the community.  The agency selected this program  with the understanding of i t s unique values and i t s bution as a specialized program within the agency There was recognition that the objectives,  contriservices.  the program, and  the methods of work entailed i n day camping were such that a day camp was the kind of summer program i n which the s k i l l s of the agency's, professional social group work s t a f f could best be used. the staff,  Understanding and cooperation among  the advisory committee and the board enabled the  setting up of high standards i n every area of the program so that the f u l l benefits  of the project could be r e a l i z e d .  This Gordon House day camp has proved that i n practice the philosophy and standards of summer day camping provide a recreational experience of great benefit to the participants, the agency, and the community.  It i s worthy of considerable  attention i n any community offering summer leisure-time  138 activities*  Similar projects should he developed .in other  Vancouver recreation agencies.  Community Leadership Headed by the Community Chest and Council What i s the most effective method by which community understanding of day camping can be developed, and projects, such as the Gordon House camp, be undertaken i n other agencies i n Vancouver?  It may be granted that  each agency has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of selecting the part i c u l a r program to be offered, but there i s an important function which must be assumed by a group concerned with program development i n a l l Red Feather Recreational Agencies to give leadership i n developing community understanding of day camping.  Such a group came into being  with the establishment of a day camp committee of the Community Chest and Council i n 1950.  To indicate the  present l e v e l of understanding and coordination of summer leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s i t i s valuable to review the a c t i v i t i e s of t h i s Committee. Following the f i r s t experimental day camp project i n 1949, Gordon Neighbourhood House requested that the Group Work Division of the Community Chest and Council set up a committee to investigate possible summer day camping.  sites for  Gordon House made this request,  129  having concluded from i t s f i r s t experimental program i n 1949 that summer day camp offered many opportunities for summer leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s .  The agency was capable  of making the necessary program plans, hut f e l t that a completely adequate site for the camp could only "be obtained through cooperative agency planning and would have to be suited to serve several  agencies.  A Summer Day Camp Committee, a special committee of the Group Work D i v i s i o n of the Community Chest and Council, was set up i n the winter of 1950. posed of representatives  It was com-  of each Red Feather Recreation  Agency offering a summer program, or hoping to do so i n the near future,  together with the Group Work Secretary  of the Community Chest and Council.  The agencies involved  were Gordon Neighbourhood House, Alexandra Neighbourhood House, the Vancouver East " Y " , the i . M . C . A . ,  the Jewish  Community Centre, Marpole Community Centre, and the Kiwassa Girls'  Club. Although the Gordon House request resulted i n  the formation of this committee, the group did not see the location of a common site as t h e i r primary function. The extreme variations of opinion as to the kind of summer programs that could be offered,  and the limited committee  understanding of what day camping means, resulted i n the setting up of two sub committees - a s i t e committee and a  130 committee on standards of day camping. It was decided that the s i t e committee would investigate  suitable camp locations i n or near the Greater  Vancouver area, but would l i m i t t h e i r function to presenting a l i s t of possible s i t e s .  This decision was made  e s s e n t i a l l y because i t was necessary for the Standards Committee to present a report on desirable standards i n choosing a camp site as well as other standards involved. It was also decided i n t h i s way, because i t was necessary for each agency to choose whether they were interested i n offering a day camp and whether they were interested in having one common s i t e . The sub committee on standards met once a month u n t i l i t was disbanded i n the winter of 1951.  In the ten  months i n which i t was active this committee prepared a report on day camp standards concerning f a c i l i t i e s ,  program  and leadership, which was circulated to a l l recreation agencies interested i n summer programs.  Although by no  means as detailed as the standards discussed i n Section One the framework was s i m i l a r .  These standards were c i r -  culated to provide basic material for each agency as to what summer day camping entailed and the desirable standards of p r a c t i c e .  There was, of course, no obligation to follow  the outline. After the summer term i n 1950, a report was sent  131 to each agency which had offered summer a c t i v i t i e s , and included specific headings which would give some indication of the kinds of summer programs offered,  the setting,  facil-  2  ities,  and leadership.  In addition, suggestions were  requested as to areas i n which inter-agency cooperation i n preparing day camps might he useful. completed this report were: Alma Branch, Y . M . C . A . ,  The agencies that  Alexandra Neighbourhood House,  Central Branch, x . M . C . A . , Gordon  Neighbourhood House, Kiwassa G i r l s Club, Marpole Community Centre, North Vancouver Memorial Community Centre, Vancouver East Community Y . M . C . A . , Vancouver East Community Y . W . C . A . , and the West Vancouver Y . M . C . A . . The summary of these reports made on City Summer A c t i v i t i e s was presented to the January meeting, 1951, of 3  the Group Work D i v i s i o n of the Community Chest and Council. It was decided at  this time that the day camp committee  would disband and that a summer program committee would be set up, of which the day camp group would be a sub committeeo This decision was based on the fact that seven agencies offered a summer fun program, two held a c i t y camp program, and one agency had a day camp. (On the basis of c r i t e r i a discussed i n Section One there were nine agencies who had a summer fun program and one agency had a 2. 3.  See Appendix "B" See Appendix " C "  138 day camp.)  It was unanimously agreed by the Group Work  D i v i s i o n that there was need for a special committee to be set up to study summer programs, a program entailed.  and determine what such  (The sub committee on day camping was  to continue i t s efforts  to locate a suitable s i t e which  could be used by several agencies,  since two agencies i n -  dicated a desire to offer a day camp program rather than a summer fun program..  (The s i t e committee previously formed  had considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n suggesting possible  sites  sinoe there was no i n d i c a t i o n of which agencies might be interested and therefore the committee had no guide as to what area would be within convenient transportation distance of a l l agencies interested. ) This Summer Program Committee has not as yet been set up. fall  It i s probable that i t w i l l not be formed u n t i l the  of 1951. The problems encountered and the situation seen  i n the Day Gamp Committee, indicates that the situation i n 1951 i s similar to that seen following the 194y summer season.  Although nine summer programs were offered i n 1950,  as against the six programs i n 1949, structure, program, f a c i l i t i e s to those discussed  the variations i n  and leadership are comparable  earlier.  The function of the Day Camp Committee of the Community Chest  and Council was to report b r i e f l y on  133 desirable  standards of summer day camping and forward a  report form to each agency based on these standards so that a general estimate could be made of the degree to which day oamping had progressed  i n the City of Vancouver.  was made to evaluate these programs,  No attempt  singly or t o t a l l y ,  to suggest directions for the future.  or  However, the return-  ed report form from agencies offering summer programs  indi-  cate agency interest i n a cooperatively used s i t e , family p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n day camp programs,  and program exchange  and preparation of written material. Although there i s some interest  i n developing a  common s i t e , no decision has been made as to whether a s i t e of the kind discussed i n preceding sections i s desired, whether the aim i s to obtain a large playground area.  or It  is interesting to note that the agencies expressed w i l l i n g ness to discuss family p a r t i c i p a t i o n and program content— two. phases i n which there were i n 1949 the weaknesses i n dicated i n this paper. The community problems i n developing summer program, and the interest evidenced thus far i n the Day Camp Committee of the Community Chest and Council indicates the importance of Community Chest leadership i n the development of summer programs and of day camps i n p a r t i c u l a r .  Although  each agency w i l l make i t s own decision as to the kind of program to be offered,  the committee under Community Chest  134 leadership w i l l have a v i t a l role to play i n c l a r i f y i n g agency understanding of summer fun programs and day camping and i n r a i s i n g the l e v e l of standards i n these programs. It i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important that the sub committee on day camping should remain an active part of the summer program committee to p u b l i c i z e the  characteristics  and values of day oamping, and i n turn discuss the possible areas of inter-agency cooperation to further day camping i n Vancouver.  I f several agencies were interested i n day camp  program, several areas could be considered which would l i m i t the cost of the project and help i n the development of high standards of f a c i l i t i e s and program.  These areas might  inelude: (1)  Establishing one large central camp site for a l l the agencies involved, with smaller adjoining s i t e s to be used by each agency.  (2)  Sharing cost and use of expensive equipment.  (3)  Sharing a permanent shelter which could be used for program i n bad weather and where equipment could be kept.  (4)  Cooperating i n providing transportation to and from the camp.  (5)  Planning inter-agency special  events.  135  Conclusion This study has surveyed and described the summer day camp as a program within a recreational setting, s p e c i a l i z a t i o n within the camping f i e l d i t s e l f .  and a  Emphasis  throughout has been placed on standards, to be worked toward and maintained.  With these i n mind, a l l those Van-  couver agencies providing any kinds of program which they loosely group under the heading "summer day camp" were examined and evaluated, for the purpose of this  study.  At present only one agency of the t o t a l number of agencies studied could be given an accreditation i n regard to standards i n day camping.  Hot only i s this agency  operating a v a l i d summer day camp, but i t also rates above average i n i t s standing.  Gordon House, by virtue of  its  pioneering i n t h i s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , with the consequent experience gained, i s thus seen as the pace-setter i n the t o t a l community picture. However-, the development of a summer day camp program, as has been frequently pointed out, should be on a community-wide basis.  A beginning i n this respect has  been marked i n the establishment  of the Day Camp Committee  of the Group Work Division of the Community Chest and Council.  Though i n the main the work of this committee i s  rather ineffectual  at present,  dealing as i t has with the  136 l e s s fundamental a s p e c t s , i t does n o t mean t h a t work cannot come through t h i s committee.  effective  The next stage  w i l l depend on the i n s p i r a t i o n , i n t e r e s t , and f u r t h e r s t i m u l a t i o n t h a t such a v a l u a b l e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n t h e f i e l d of r e c r e a t i o n deserves.  137 Bibliography  Artioles Carlson, R. E . , Day Camping, The Camping Magazine, American Camping Association, American Camping Association Inc., Volume AV11, No. 7. National Recreation Association, Day Camping, National Recreation I n c . , N. Y . , 1939. Books A l l e n , Hazel K . , Camps and Their Modern Administration Womans Press, N. ly38. Baxter, Berniee and Cassidy, Rosalind, Group Experience, Democratic Way, Harper and Brothers, New York and London, 1943. Blumenthal, Louis H . , Group Work i n Camping, Press, N. Y . , 1937. Buseh, Henry M . , Leadership i n Group Work, Press, New York, N. 1•, 1938. Day, Margaret, Summer i n the City, National of Settlements, N. Y . , 1942.  Association  Association Federation  Dimock, H. S., Administration of the Modern Camp, Association Press, N. 1948. Dimock, Statton, Talks to Counsellors. N. Y . , 1943.  Association Press,  Hendry, Graham, Dimock, Sorenson, Levy, Appraising the Summer Camp, Association Press, N. Y . , 1937. Jobe, Mabel Lyman, The Handbook of Day Camping. Press, N. Y . , 1949. Mason, Bernard S., N. X . , 1930.  Association  Camping and Education, McCall Company,  Peters, Haymond R., Lets Go Camping, Brethren Publishing House, E l g i n , I l l i n o i s , 1945.  Bibliography continued Slavson, S. E . , Creative Group Education, Press, lew York, i i . Y . , ly37.  138 Association  Pamphlets Pay Camping Standards for G i r l Scouts, G i r l Scouts, National Organization, M, l*. Reports Sohool of Applied Social Sciences, Preliminary Draft, Prepared by members of Seminar on Supervision under Gertrude Wilson, The Role of the Leader, University of Pittsburg, 1941. Camp Seminar, George Williams College, Camping and the Future, Character Education i n Summer Camp Ix, Assooiation Press, 1937.  APPENDIX " A * PROGRAM QUESTIONNAIRE on SUMMER DAY CAMP (Questions refer to program of 1 9 4 9 ) 139  Agency sponsoring Summer Day Camp_ Number of years the camp has been operating Total number of campers Length of day eamp  Average d a i l y attendance No. of hours per week  Age groups included Please check a c t i v i t i e s PROGRAM Campcraft Arts and Crafts Nature Study Music Informal Games Dramatics  No. of boys  No. of hours a day No. of g i r l s  offered FREQUENCE  Check OUTDOOR f a c i l i t i e s at LEFT.  PROGRAM Swimming (List others)  L i s t INDOOR f a c i l i t i e s  Camp S i t e Shelter Cooking F a c i l i t i e s Drinking Water Swimming F a c i l i t i e s Storage Space Privacy Adequate Cleared Space Camping Equipment Divide the average eamp day las i n the example at ;  9.30  A r r i v a l at s i t e General meeting  10.  - 11.30  Interest groups  12.  -  1.00  lunch  1.  -  2.00  Clean up. Rest hour.  2.  -  3.30 i  Interest groups  3.30-  4.00 ;  Games  4.00  Camp closing  left  FREQUENCY  at RIGHT*  APPENDIX * B *  140  GENERAL QUESTIONNAIRE on SUMMER DAY CAMP ( Q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e f e r s t o Day Camp, 1949) Paid  Part-time Specialist  Volunteer  T o t a l number o f l e a d e r s i n summer program I n d i c a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and the number i n v o l v e d as i n example at l e f t . PERSONNEL  PERSONNEL  NUMBER  Director  1  Assistant Director  0  S p e c i a l i s t - Program  2  U n i t (group) l e a d e r  2  General Leader  1  I s the Camp D i r e c t o r employed i n the agency's winter  NUMBER  program?  Do the c o u n s e l l o r s r e c e i v e i n d i v i d u a l s u p e r v i s i o n ? I s t h e r e a pre-oamp t r a i n i n g course?  How long?  I n d i c a t e number of day camp p a r t i c i p a n t s new t o agency Number of day campers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n p r e v i o u s w i n t e r  program  I n d i c a t e headings used i n i n d i v i d u a l r e c o r d s "kept  t h a t i s camp fee?  M i l k fee?  I s there a camp c o u n c i l ?  Transportation How i s i t s e l e c t e d ?  I s the eamp d i v i d e d i n t o groups?  fee?  ______________  On what b a s i s ?  How i s the camp financed? Are parents  i n t e r e s t e d i n the program?  I n what ways do they p a r t i c -  ipate?  I s a s p e c i a l committee i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g What i s i t s f u n c t i o n ?  summer day eamp?  APPENDIX "C"  141  REPORT FORM I n t h e C i t y Summer A c t i v i t i e s 1950 1.  General a.  Agency  b.  Name o f P r o j e c t  c.  T o t a l number o f r e g i s t r a n t s  d.  Girls....  Age Range....  to  Boys ....  Age Range....  to  Check s o c i a l areas i n w h i c h p a r t i c i p a n t s resided.  11. S e t t i n g How many d a i l y s e s s i o n s were h e l d ? . . . . Average no. hours per s e s s i o n ? . . . . How many o f above s e s s i o n s were h e l d at agency headquarters? F o r c e r t a i n groups only How many of above s e s s i o n s were h e l d away from agency headquarters For a l l r e g i s t r a n t s For c e r t a i n g r o u p s o n l y S t a t e type ( p i c n i c , i n d u s t r i a l t r i p , swim, o v e r n i g h t h i k e , e t c . ) and l o c a t i o n o f program h e l d away from agency. For a l l r e g i s t r a n t s Type o f program  location  F o r C e r t a i n Groups Type o f program  Location  142  Appendix " C " continued 111. Leadership Definitions  Administrative - agency executive i f concerned with summer program and / or any person responsible for general administration, leadership t r a i n i n g , program arrangements, recording, financing for while project under authority from agency board or executive. group Leaders - persons held responsible for the program of a stated number of registrants i n an organized and recognized group, the membership of which i s f a i r l y consistent throughout the program period. S k i l l s Leaders - persons who are employed or volunteer to teach special s k i l l s to registrants and who are not responsible for an organized group. Oombination, Group Leaders and S k i l l s Leaders - persons who combine leadership of a group with the teaching of s k i l l s to members outside the group. Staff  On regular Year-round agency staff  Employed for period of summer program  VOLUNTEER (No payment whatsoever except incidental expense, carfare,)  a. b. o. d.  Administrative Group Leaders S k i l l s Leaders Combination Group and s k i l l s e. Other  IV.  Sub Groups Name sub-groups (swim club, drama group, pirates, niners, etc.) and state No. of registrants i n eaoh and check type of leader used within these groups for the special program of t h i s group {not camp as a whole. )  143  Apendix "G" continued V.  Summer program as a Whole Approximately how many sessions of your summer program were operated for the total registrants as one group? More than one a day? one a day? «... More than one a week?... One a week? Desoribe briefly one such daily session, i f any  VI. Leadership Training Did you have a pre program leadership course or staff meetings? (If "yes" how many hours meeting did this involve?) Did you have daily planned meetings of program staff? (If "yes" how many hours a week did this involve? Content of Leadership Training Program In an average staff training period what proportions (*.^>§'. whole) were devoted to following concerns of leaders? 1. Administrative detail (time, place, program material, staff assignments) 2. Methods in Group Leadership...... 3 . Actual teaching of s k i l l s 4. Assistance in understanding individual campers.... Approximately How many periods of individual supervision of leaders with administrator or direotor were held  144 Appendix "C" VII.  continued  Home V i s i t s Did any of the s t a f f v i s i t the homes of r e g i s t r a n t s ( i n regard to your program) i n the month preceding program or during the summer program I f "yes" approximately how many home v i s i t s were made?  V I I I . Parent P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Program Approximately how many parents v i s i t e d your summer program? As i n d i v i d u a l s , to i n t e r v i e w d i r e c t o r , etc To attend a planned program How many parents a s s i s t e d i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l e a d e r s h i p ( c o n s i s t a n t or o c c a s i o n a l ) 1Z.  or  Standards Your Day Camp or Summer Program and f o r Day Camping".  "the  Standards  Rank your program a c c o r d i n g to c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a d e s i r a b l e day camp as g i v e n on page 5 of r e p o r t . A B C D 0 IE LI  -  Excellent Good Pair Poor Do not t h i n k t h i s i s important i n our agency. l i m i t e d "by inadequate f a c i l i t i e s . L i m i t e d because o f inadequate l e a d e r s h i p .  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of d e s i r a b l e day following:  camp i n c l u d e  the  1.  A program r e l a t e d to the needs of c h i l d r e n and to the n a t u r a l y p h y s i c a l environment i n whieh the camp i s l o c a t e d . The program should provide c o n t i n u i t y of experience over an extended p e r i o d to time.  2.  Responsible management w i t h d e a r l y d e f i n e d obj e c t i v e s and the assurance of f i n a n c i a l i n t e g r i t y .  3.  Competent p a i d d i r e c t o r and  a qualified  staff.  145 A p p e n d i x "C"  X.  continued  4.  Adequate t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p . The r a t i o o f t r a i n e d l e a d e r s t o campers s h o u l d be n o t l e s s t h a n one t o e i g h t .  5.  A camp s i t e so l o c a t e d campers i s i n e x p e n s i v e much t i m e .  6.  l o c a t i o n and f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h may v a r y g r e a t l y b u t w h i c h s h o u l d i n c l u d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r campt y p e a c t i v i t i e s and s a f e g u a r d s f o r t h e h e a l t h and s a f e t y o f campers.  7.  Basic standards maintained i n health, safety, and s a n i t a t i o n b o t h i n p r o g r a m and f a c i l i t i e s .  8.  A p r o g r a m d e r i v e d f r o m community n e e d s , w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s h a r e d b y t h e community.  9.  Adequate r e c o r d s  Practicability  t h a t t r a v e l f r o m homes o f and d o e s n o t consume t o o  and r e p o r t s .  of Standards  A f t e r r e a d i n g t h e R e p o r t o f t h e Committee on Day Camp S t a n d a r d s , do y o u t h i n k t h a t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o r t h e g r a d u a l working towards the achievement o f these standa r d s w o u l d p r o v i d e a t y p e o f summer p r o g r a m d e s i r a b l e and u s e f u l i n m e e t i n g t h e n e e d s o f y o u r membership o r community? Give  XI.  reasons f o r your  answer.  Site Have y o u r summer p r o g r a m s t a f f p a r t i c i p a n t s o r comm i t t e e s on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s summer e x p e r i e n c e , any s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e p o s s i b l e s i t e o f an I n t e r - A g e n o y Day Camp i n o r n e a r V a n c o u v e r :  146 Appendix  Zll.  W  C " continued  Suggestions for Inter-Agency cooperation i n preparation of Day Camps, 1951 On the basis of your experience this summer, what do you f e e l should be the emphasis of the Day Camp Committee, Community Chest and Council for 19b0-51. 1. 2. 3. 4. 6.  Work towards s i t e to be used c o o p e r a t i v e l y . . . . Recruitment of leaders .... Staff sessions on leadership t r a i n i n g .... Records and recording .... Program exchange and preparation of written material .... 7. P u b l i c i t y .... 8. Study of family p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n day camp program 9. Intake p o l i c i e s i n day camps .... 10. Other .... 11. Cooperation ....  147  APPENDIX " D " SUMMARY OF REPORTS MADE ON CITY S U M M E R ACTIVITIES COMPILED BY THE COMMITTEE ON STANDARDS DAY CAMP COMMITTEE GROUP WORK DIVISION, COMMUNITY CHEST & COUNCIL VANCOUVER, JANUARY, 1951.  GENERAL a. Agencies reporting: Alexandra Neighbourhood House Alma Branch, X.M.C.A. Central Branch, YM.C.A. Gordon Neighbourhood House Kiwassa G i r l s Club Marpole Community Centre North Vancouver Memorial Community Centre Vancouver East Community - . M . C . A . Vancouver East Community - . W . C . A . West Vancouver I.M.C.A. b. Name of projects: Day Camp - 1 City Camps - 2 Summer Fun Club or Program - 7 c. T o t a l number of registrants G i r l s - 315 Boys - 424  Age range 4 -16 " " 5_~15  749 Average age range 8-12 n " " 7-13  d. A l l s o c i a l areas were represented including North and West Vancouver, Burnaby and Richmond except Social Area 15. . SETTING Daily sessions held - t o t a l 195, hours per day - 5 hrs.  average number of  The questionnaire f a i l e d to ask the weekly schedule of each summer operation, It i s apparent that most programs were one month i n duration which were operated for two to five days a week. Some operated §• days while others were a l l day sessions. This information can be obtained and appended to t h i s report.  146  Appendex " D " continued North Shore Community Centre Heywood Community Centre King George High School and grounds North Vancouver Ferry Fraser River U.B.C. Beach Windemere Pool Deep Cove Oak Ridge Air-port Camp Howdy Crystal Pool B.C. F i r and Cedar Police Stations North Vancouver Ferry  Truck Farms Central x.M.C.A. C.P.R. Yards Art Gallery Post Office Capitol Theatre Wreck Beach Woodland Park Children's Zoo C.P.R. Grounds Waterfront tour Aquarium Bidwell Bay Palm Dairies F i r e Halls  111. LEADERSHIP This section offered some d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the r e p l i e s for i n some cases the administrative staff, the group leaders, and the s k i l l s , leaders were one and the same person. The figures show the following: A l l agencies had administrative staffs - a t o t a l of 15 persons being responsible for administration i n 10 camps. * One agency had four workers including supervisor (agency executive) who shared administrative duties. 12 of these 15 administrative positions were carried by members of the permanent staff while 3 persons were employed temporarily for summer program. 9 agencies reported group leaders - a t o t a l of 46 persons being c l a s s i f i e d as "group leaders". Of these  6 were members of permanent agency staff 18 were employed for summer program or day camp 25 were volunteers  4 agencies reported using " s k i l l s leaders" p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s or interests.  to teach  A t o t a l of 14 such leaders were used. 4 of these s k i l l e d persons were from regular s t a f f 1 was employed for summer program 8 were volunteers.  A p p e n d e x "D" c o n t i n u e d  149  TYPE Off PROGRAM Some p r o g r a m s and l o c a t i o n s w e r e u s e d b y some a g e n c i e s f o r s p e c i a l g r o u p s , b u t were u s e d by o t h e r a g e n c i e s f o r the e n t i r e r e g i s t e r e d group. T h e r e i s no c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of these. ACTIVITIES Group A - T h i s g r o u p o f a c t i v i t i e s was u s e d b y t h e Day Camp a n d t h e C i t y Camps p r i m a r i l y , b e i n g t y p i c a l l y p a r t o f t h e u s u a l camping program. Hikes Overnight hikes* Crafts Camp s i t e c a m p i n g Campcraf t  program  G r o u p games Swimming Cook o u t s S i n g songs  Group B - The f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s w e r e u s e d by t h e a g e n c i e s i n t h e i r summer p r o g r a m a l t h o u g h some o f t h e above were a l s o u s e d . Picnics First Aid Instruction Movies* S p e c i a l e v e n i n g program' T h e a t r e Under the S t a r s " I n d i a n Museum T r a c k meet Industrial Trips Swimming i n s t r u c t i o n 1  Fishing* Roller Skating Day t r i p s Museum Sports Boat t r i p Experimental-Farm  L I S T OF LOCATIONS USED FOR SUMMER PROGRAM Lynn Creek S t a n l e y Park-Lumberman's A r c h Capilano River 2nd & 3rd B e a c h e s D underabe Beach L y n n Y a l l e y - u p p e r and l o w e r Mahon P a r k P u b l i c L i b r a r y I n d i a n Museum X i t s i l a n o Pool H a r b o u r and B a r r o w s B o a t t r i p White Rock Burrard Bridge (fishing) R o y a l V a n c o u v e r Y a c h t C l u b i t r i p ) S t a n l e y P a r k Zoo Capilano Stadium V a n c o u v e r Sun Newspaper Grouse M o u n t a i n Worth Shore I n d u s t r i a l P l a n t s H o l l y b u r n Ridge O.J.O.R. R a d i o S t a t i o n Whyteoliff U.B.C. Endowment g r o u n d s G r o w e r s ' i'arm S t a n l e y Park Harbour M a p l e Grove P a r k E x h i b i t i o n Park R o l l e r Rink Sea I s l a n d A m e r i c a n Can F a c t o r y McGavins' Bakery A l b e r t a Wheat P o o l Associated Dairies Vancouver P r o v i n c e Newspaper  150  Appendex " D " continued  4 agencies reported that members of t h e i r s t a f f included persons who were responsible for group leadership and the teaching of special s k i l l s (combination). Uone of these were permanent staff members 2 were employed for summer 45 were volunteers. The figures are i n some cases duplications, as i n one project, three workers shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n a l l three areas while i n another employed workers moved i n different roles from one group to another. It would appear that i n an estimated unduplicated count, that approximately 108 persons were active i n the leadership of these 10 projects. Of those, approximately 27 were employed agency staff members or temporary paid workers. 81 were volunteers. By eliminating administ r a t i v e personnel where relationship to individual groups would be l i m i t e d , i t would appear that the r a t i o of program leaders to children was approximately 1 to 10. It i s hard to r e c o n c i l i a t e t h i s average with the size of sub groups, (see IV). IV. SUB GROUPS Six agencies divided the t o t a l registrants into subgroups, ranging from 2 - 6 such groups per agency. 4 agencies did not divide into sub-groups. The number of registrants 67.  i n eaoh sub-group varied 7 -  11 groups were led by volunteers, attached to 8 of these were group leaders as s p e c i a l i s t s . 2 groups were l e d by administrative staff with group and s k i l l s leaders a s s i s t i n g . 3 groups were l e t by group and s k i l l s leaders 7 groups were led by group leaders. There was a t o t a l of 24 sub-groups reported. V. DECENTRALIZATION Off PROGRAM The question regarding "summer program as a whole" was poorly worded. It was the i n t e n t i o n of the questionnaire to point up to what degree the programs were conducted on a mass recreation base, for a l l comers, and to what degree programs were planned on a decentralized  151 Appendex " D " continued group "basis. Agencies had natural d i f f i c u l t y i n answering t h i s question. Quotation from or summaries of t h i s section may indicate the present lack of trend i n t h i s regard. "Except for announcements each day participants came together less than once a week. We found i t very d i f f i c u l t to force 80 people to do the same t h i n g " . "Come together more than once a day". "As one group for games, bonfire, swimming and track meet". "No t o t a l a c t i v i t i e s . " " A l l a c t i v i t i e s together." Most a c t i v i t i e s on small group basis with occasional t o t a l group program based on small group experience. VI.  LEADERSHIP TRAINING Leadership Course - a l l agencies answered t h i s question showing that 8 agencies held a leadership t r a i n i n g course, 2 did not have such a course. These courses ranged from 6 - 1 5 hours per week. A l l were held p r i o r to camp except one. The content of the courses varied but 5 agencies considered administration, 5 considered the i n d i v i d u a l campers, 3 discussed s k i l l s and 1 stated the course was mainly a general exchange of ideas regarding the plans f o r the summer. STAFP MEETINGS A l l agencies answered:  7 agencies held s t a f f meetings during the program 3 agencies did not have staff meetings.  These meetings ranged from lg- to 8 hours per week. A l l agencies gave i n d i v i d u a l supervision of leaders. Individual supervision periods ranged from 6 - 4 1 periods during the summer. 711. HOME VISITS 5 agencies reported home v i s i t i n g . The r e p l i e s showed a great v a r i a t i o n - from 5 agencies making no home v i s i t s to 1 agency making 35 v i s i t s  Appendex "D" continued  152  T i l l . PARENT PARTICIPATION A l l agencies stated parents v i s i t e d as individuals and a l l but two bad planned programs where parents visited. The t o t a l number o± parents v i s i t i n g ranged from 3 i n one agency to 160 i n another agency. Parents served as volunteers i n 7 agencies, number ranging from 2 to 40.  the  Parents did not serve as volunteers i n 3 agencies. IX.  STANDARDS AS AGAINST APPROVilP DA* CAMP STANDARDS No definite conclusions were tabulated i n this section because of the f a i l u r e of the agencies to relate t h e i r answers to Day Camp Standards as such. However, most agencies ranked t h e i r summer program high as i t related to the questions i n connection with t h e i r summer program. This i s explained by the answers to X.  X.  PRACTICABILITY OF STANDARDS A l l but one agency answered t h i s question. A l l f e l t standards were valuable although there were a number of reservations; i n d i c a t i n g especially that they did not f e e l that these standards applied to their agency and i t s summer program. In question IX, on those questions r e l a t i n g to the camping movement, the rating was generally low.  XI. SITE 5 agencies suggested definite s i t e s as follows: Shore between Ambleside and Capilano River Hollyburn Ridge Lynn Y a l l e y Capilano River Confederation Park Bridgeman Park or east of Bridgeman Park 2 agencies mentioned places such as Spanish Banks and F t . Atkinson as being considered but unavailable. XII.  SUGGESTED EMPHASES FOR FUTURE DAY CAMP COMMITTEES These answers show that the greatest interest l y l i e s i n working:  apparent-  Appendex "D" continued  153  1. toward a site to be used cooperatively (7) 2. study of family p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n day oamp program (7 3. programme exchange and preparation of written material (5) Agencies made additional suggestions, suggesting such matters as integration with other summer a c t i v i t i e s and work toward improving standards be considered.  

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