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Contemporary usage of the Spanish relative pronouns Munro, John Robert 1951

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CONTEMPORARY USAGE OF THE SPANISH RELATIVE PRONOUNS by JOHN ROBERT MUNRO A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of SPANISH We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of MAST^ J? OF ARTS. Membe^ of the Department of THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Apri l , 1951 A b s t r a c t o f T h e s i s o n ' " C o n t e m p o r a r y U s a g e o f t h e S p a n i s h R e l a t i v e P r o n o u n s " b y J o h n R o b e r t M u n r o P r o b l e m T h e p u r p o s e i n u n d e r t a k i n g t h i s s t u d y w a s t o d e t e r m i n e m o r e e x a c t l y t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y u s a g e o f t h e S p a n i s h r e l a t i v e p r o n o u n s , t h u s m a k i n g i t p o s s i b l e (1) t o s u p p l e m e n t e x i s t i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e u s a g e o f t h e r e l a t i v e p r o n o u n s , a n d (2) t o r e s t a t e c o n t e m p o r a r y u s a g e . M e t h o d F o r t h i s s t u d y , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w o r k s o f t h e b e s t c o n t e m p o -r a r y S p a n i s h a n d S p a n i s h - A m e r i c a n . a u t h o r s w e r e u s e d , e m p l o y i n g ' K e n i s t o n ' s s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e . T h r e e p a s s a g e s o f t e n p a g e s e a c h w e r e s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h e m i d d l e , a n d t h e e n d o f t h e ' w o r k i n q u e s t i o n . A l l e x a m p l e s f o u n d w e r e r e c o r d e d i n d i v i d u a l l y f o r a n a l y s i s , t h u s m a k i n g p o s s i b l e a s t u d y o f a m u c h l a r g e r n u m b e r o f a c t u a l e x a m p l e s t h a n a r e a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e K e n i s t o n s t u d y . C o n c l u s i o n A . T h e f o l l o w i n g f i n d i n g s w h i c h h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i n s o m e c a s e s s u p p l e m e n t e x i s t i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s b y 2. t h e a u t h o r i t i e s a n d i n o t h e r s , a r e a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e m . 1 . Q , u e i s n o t f r e q u e n t l y r e p l a c e d a f t e r c o n b y e l c u a l t o a v o i d c o n f u s i o n w i t h c o n q u e . 2. £ u e d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w i t s a n t e c e d e n t i m m e d i a t e l y . I n f i f t e e n p e r c e n t o f a l l c a s e s o b s e r v e d q u e w a s r e m o v e d f r o m i t s a n t e c e d e n t i n s u c h a w a y t h a t d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f i t s a n t e c e d e n t w a s d i f f i c u l t . 3 . Q u e d o e s o n r a r e o c c a s i o n s a s o b j e c t o f a p r e p o s i t i o n r e f e r t o a p e r s o n . 4. Q , u i e n i s f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h a p e r s o n f r o m a t h i n g , a s a n t e c e d e n t . 5 . Q u i e n a s a s u b s t a n t i v e r e f e r s m o r e f r e q u e n t l y t o i n d e f i n i t e p e r s o n s t h a n e l q u e . 6 . Q u i e n a s a s u b s t a n t i v e i s u s e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y a f t e r c o m o ( m e a n i n g " a s o n e w h o " ) . 7. E l q u e , a s w e l l a s e l c u a l , i s r e g u l a r l y r e m o v e d f r o m i t s a n t e c e d e n t b y a c o m m a ( o r s i m i l a r p u n c t u a t i o n , a n d / o r o n e o r m o r e w o r d s . ) B . R e s t a t e m e n t o f C o n t e m p o r a r y U s a g e 1 . I n a r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e a . T h e s u b j e c t i s r e g u l a r l y q u e f o r p e r s o n s a n d 3. t h i n g s . t>.' The o b j e c t i s u s u a l l y que f o r p e r s o n s and . t h i n g s . Q,uien i s used w i t h " p e r s o n a l a". A l c u a l and a l que a r e r a r e l y so used. 2 . I n a n o n - r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e a. The s u b j e c t i s u s u a l l y que f o r p e r s o n s and t h i n g s , but may be q u i e n , e l c u a l , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , e l que. b. The o b j e c t i s u s u a l l y que f o r p ersons and t h i n g s ; q u i e n i s used f r e q u e n t l y w i t h " p e r s o n a l a"; a l c u a l or a l que, r a r e l y . 3» O b j e c t of a ( e x c l u s i v e of " p e r s o n a l a " ) , en, de and con a. R e f e r r i n g t o p e r s o n s , q u i e n , e l c u a l or e l que a r e used. I n n o n - r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s q u i e n i s most f r e q u e n t l y u sed. b. R e f e r r i n g t o t h i n g s , que, e l c u a l or e l que a r e u s ed. Que i s normal i n r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s ; que, e l c u a l o r e l que i n n o n - r e s t r i c t i v e . 4. O b j e c t of p o r , s i n and t r a s a. E l c u a l o r e l que a r e used; p o s s i b l y , q u i e n . 5. O b j e c t of d i s s y l l a b i c p r e p o s i t i o n s a. E l o u a l or e l que a r e n o r m a l l y used. 6. Object of compound preposition a » E l cual i s normally used; e l que, r a r e l y . NOTE: Where there are choices i n the usage indicated through-out Section B to t h i s point, variety, rhythm and euphony are considerations. However, the choice of quien, e l cual and e l que to avoid ambiguity must be p a r t i c u l a r l y borne i n mind. 7. Lo cual and l o que as r e s t r i c t i v e and non-restrictive  r e l a t i v e s a. After monosyllabic prepositions both are used. b. After d i s s y l l a b i c and compound prepositions, only l o cual i s used. 8. Quien and e l que as substantive r e l a t i v e s a. As object of a preposition, quien and e l que are both used, the l a t t e r more frequently. b. Referring to i n d e f i n i t e persons, quien i s used .more frequently. c. Referring t o ' d e f i n i t e persons, e l que i s used more frequently. d. After como (meaning "as one who") quien i s used. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I INTRODUCTION 1 A. Statement, of the problem 1 B. Past investigation 1 C. The present investigation 3 II THE INDIVIDUAL RELATIVE PRONOUNS 5 A. Que 5 1. As subject of i t s clause 5 a. In a restrictive clause 5 b. In a non-restrictive clause 5 2. As object of a preposition 6 a. As object of the monosyllabic pre-position 6 b. As object of con 6 c. As object of por, sin, tras 7 d. As object of dissyllabic pre-positions 7 e. As object of compound prepositions 8 f. As object of a preposition, referring to persons 8 3. The position of que in relation to i t s antecedent 11 a. Must que follow i t s antecedent?.. 11 i . The non-ambiguous group 13 i i . Group where ambiguity i s likely 14 i i i . Conclusions 16 b. Statements of grammarians 16 B. Quien as a restrictive and non-restrictive relative 17 1. As subject of i t s clause 17 a. Not used as subject of a restrict-tive clause 17 b. As subject of a non-restrictive clause 1 7 2. As object of a monosyllabic pre-position 18 a. In restrictive clauses 18 b. In non-restrictive clauses 18 c. The frequency of quien after a, o en, de and con 18 >* Object of dissyllabic and compound prepositions . ... 1Q i i . P a g e 4. U s e d w i t h a p e r s o n i f i e d a n t e -c e d e n t 1 9 5 . D i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n p e r s o n s a n d t h i n g s 2 0 G . E l c u a l a n d e l q u e a s r e s t r i c t i v e a n d n o n -r e s t r i c t i v e r e l a t i v e s 2 1 1 . R e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y 2 1 " 2 . R e f e r ; , t o t h i n g s m o r e t h a n t o " p e r s o n s . . 2 1 3 . A s s u b j e c t o r o b j e c t o f i t s c l a u s e . 2 1 a . I n a r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e 2 1 b . I n a n o n - r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e 2 2 i . s u b j e c t r e f e r r i n g t o p e r s o n s a n d t h i n g s 2 2 i i . a s o b j e c t r e f e r r i n g t o a p e r s o n 2 2 c . S t a t e m e n t o f H a r m e r a n d N o r t o n . . 2 3 4 . A s o b j e c t o f a p r e p o s i t i o n 2 3 a . R e f e r r i n g t o p e r s o n s 2 3 b . R e f e r r i n g t o t h i n g s 2 4 c . A f t e r c o m p o u n d p r e p o s i t i o n s . . . 2 4 d . A s o b j e c t o f a p r e p o s i t i o n i n r e s t r i c t i v e a n d n o n - r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s 2 5 i . T a b l e s V I a n d V I I 2 5 i i . L o w f r e q u e n c y i n r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s , h i g h i n n o n r ; r e s t r i c t i v e ; r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y o f e l c u a l a n d e l q u e i n r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s ; a s o b j e c t o f c o n 26 5 . R e f e r t o m o r e r e m o t e o f t w o o r m o r e p o s s i b l e a n t e c e d e n t s 2 7 6. G e n e r a l c o m m e n t s o n e l c u a l a n d e l q u e 2 7 L o c u a l a n d l o q u e a s r e s t r i c t i v e a n d n o n - r e s t r i c t i v e r e l a t i v e p r o n o u n s 2 9 1 . R e f e r t o i d e a s o r s t a t e m e n t s 2 9 2 . R e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y o f u s a g e 3 0 3 . A s o b j e c t o f m o n o s y l l a b i c p r e -p o s i t i o n s 3@ 4 . A s o b j e c t o f d i s s y l l a b i c a n d c o m -p o u n d p r e p o s i t i o n s 3 1 i i i . P a g e E . Q u i e n a n d e l q u e a s s u b s t a n t i v e r e l a t i v e s 32 1. D e s c r i p t i o n o f s u b s t a n t i v e 32 2. R e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y o f u s a g e 32 3. A s o b j e c t o f a p r o p o s i t i o n . . . 33 4. U s e d a s s u b j e c t i v e c o m p l e m e n t . 33 5. R e f e r r i n g t o i n d e f i n i t e p e r s o n s . . . 34 6. A f t e r c o m o 35 E . E l q u e a s a s u b s t a n t i v e r e l a t i v e u s e d n o n - p e r s o n a l l y 36 1. R e f e r s t o t h i n g s 36 2. I s e q u i v a l e n t t o " t h e f a c t t h a t " . . 36 G. L o q u e a s a s u b s t a n t i v e r e l a t i v e . . . 37 I I I C O M P A R I S O N OF T H E R E L A T I V E S A C C O R D I N G * T O . . . F U N C T I O N _ 38 A . R e s t r i c t i v e a n d n o n - r e s t r i c t i v e r e l a t i v e s 38 1. A s s u b j e c t o r o b j e c t o f i t s c l a u s e . 38 2. a . I n r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s 38 b . I n n o n - r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s 39 2. A s o b j e c t o f p r e p o s i t i o n s 41 a . a s o b j e c t o f p r e p o s i t i o n s a , d e , e n , c o n . . 41 i . I n r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s 41 i i . I n n o n - r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s 42 b . a f t e r s i n , p o r a n d t r a s 43 c . a s o b j e c t o f a d i s s y l l a b i c p r e -p o s i t i o n 44 I V OTHER FACTORS: AMBIGUITY AND POSITION .... 45 A . A m b i g u i t y 45 B . P o s i t i o n 46 V C O N T E M P O R A R Y USAGE R E S T A T E D 47 B i b l i o g r a p h y 50 I. INTRODUCTION A. Statement of the problem. The purpose in undertaking this study was to determine more exactly the contemporary usage of the Spanish relative pronouns. Much has been written on the relative pronouns during the past seventy-five years, some of i t original, and some not. Unfortunately, much of that which Is not original has been based on the results of investigations which used nineteenth century writings for their research material. Furthermore, the investigations that have been carried out to date have l e f t unanswered various problems of usage. From the study made by the present writer, i t has been possible (1) to supplement existing descriptions of the usage of the relative pronouns ;.and (2) to restate contemporary usage. B. Past investigation. Before describing the method of the present study, a brief survey w i l l be made of the work that has been done to date. The nineteenth century grammarian, Andres Bello, has probably given us the most comprehensive and dependable description of the use of the relative pronouns, i n his Gramatica de la Lengua Castellana (1847 ). Bello*s work has the advantage of having been written by one who i s dealing with his native tongue. However, i t i s now about one hundred years old, and for this reason one may ask the question 2. whether i t s description i s wholly applicable to contemporary usage. Furthermore, complete as i t i s , i t does not answer a l l the problems. Ramseyl seems to follow Bello's description closely, although using variations in terminology. Most of the grammars written subsequently follow the dictates of these early authorities, and consequently, they neither throw new light on the subject, nor present a necessarily adequate or valid description of the language to-day, as Professor Spaulding points out in an article on the relative pronouns, v In the introduction he writes: Our investigation of the subject was undertaken i n the suspicion that some of the traditional pronounce-ments on ... the use of el que, el cual and quien would not bear scrutiny through the lens of practice. (Robert K. Spaulding, "Notes and Queries on the Relative Pronouns i n Modern Spanish," Hispania, vol. XVIII, May 1935, p. 161.) His study i s suggestive as to trends in more modern usage, but is limited in i t s scope. The importance of Dean Keniston's Spanish Syntax L i s t 2 cannot be over-emphasized. This i s a s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of Spanish syntax which uses examples gathered from the works of sixty outstanding contemporary writers representing a l l parts of Spain and Latin-America. The study indicates the 1 Marathon M. Ramsey/ A Text-Book of Modern Spanish (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 19A-6.) 2 Hayward,Keniston, Spanish Syntax List (Henry Holt and Company,' 1937.) ' — : 1  frequency of the functional patterns established by usage. Under the main classification of "Relative Pronouns" there are three sub-classifications: "Restrictive Relatives", "Parenthetical Relatives" and "Substantive Relatives". These are again sub-divided into other classifications, each of which deals specifically with one of the relative pronouns as used i n a given functional pattern; for example, the relative used as subject, or object, or object of a preposition, and so on. By a comparison of the frequencies of the various relatives i n a given pattern, the characteristic usage may be easily determined. Keniston's method i s s t r i c t l y objective. No attempt i s made to correlate the statistics into a com-prehensive statement of the usage of the relatives in relation to one another. C. The present investigation. Jor this study, representative works of the best contemporary Spanish and Spanish-American authors were used, employing Keniston's sampling technique. Three passages of ten pages each were selected from the beginning, the middle, and the end of the work in question. Actually to equalize for ; variations- • i n the number of words on a page, a page of usual size was considered to consist of approximately 400 words. A l l examples found were recorded individually for analysis, thus making possible a study of a much larger number of actual examples than are available from the Keniston study. In setting down the results of this present investigation, Keniston's findings were used for 4. comparison wherever possible. An example of these findings, taken from the Spanish Syntax List, under the classification "Substantive Relatives," i s : el que Referring to definite persons or things. (54-438) This means that el que was found used in this way a total of 438 times by fifty-four of the sixty authors used in the investigation. It should be noted that Keniston used three times the number of works employed in this present study, and therefore, his frequencies should be three times as large. For example, in the case quoted above, the corresponding frequency for this study would be approximately 145. At times Keniston's frequency seemed low; this may be explained by the fact that one half of the works used by him were dramas, in which far fewer cases of relative pronouns would be found. The grammars of Bello, Ramsey, and Harmer and Norton which have been used for comparison are prescriptive rather than s t a t i s t i c a l . In this present study, which is s t a t i s t i c a l , the odd case was found whose limited occurrence would not justify inclusion in such grammars. However, in spite of difference in object, this study does give new light on relative pronouns for prescriptive purposes. The data found, and the conclusions reached have been organized on the following pages according to the outline in the Table of Contents. II. THE INDIVIDUAL RELATIVE PRONOUNS Que 1. As subject or object of i t s clause a. In a restrictive clause: Que was found to be used almost exclusively with either a person or a thing as i t s antecedent. In this present study que was found to be used in this way i n 1337 cases. Examples: Viaje en el expreso que corre de Paris a Lisboa; ... (Rojas, Retablo Espanol, p. 14) Nada me importa ni me aflige e l ruin concepto que formes de mi. (Valera, Juanita l a Larga, p.87) Keniston's frequency: subject (60-2820); object (60-1224) b. In a non-restrictive clause: Que was again found to be the relative pronoun.' most used as subject or object, with either a person or a thing as antecedent. Q.ue was found used In this way in 1141 cases. Acabo de vestirse, y a l s a l i r a l huerto hallo a Tasarin que estaba regando los rosales. (Leon, E l Amor de los Amores, p. 125) Saco e l brazo de l a cama, lo alargo como para bendecirla, y poniendole l a mano sobre l a cabeza, que e l l a inclino con los claros ojos empanados, le dijo: ... (Unamuno, La Tia Tula, p. 135) Keniston's frequency: subject and object (60-1354) 6. 2 . As object of a preposition a. As object of the monosyllabic prepositions a, en, de: Table I, which shows the frequency of que as object of the prepositions a, en, de, and con, is based on the findings of the present investigation. TABLE I QUE AS THE OBJECT OF A, EN, DE, AND CON, TPTRESTRICTIVE AND NON-RESTRICTIVE CLAUSES. A EN DE CON TOTAL Restrict. [xo 1 2 0 12 46 188 Non-res t r i c t . [>> 33 '8 9 54 These figures indicate that the frequency of que after the prepositions a, en, de, and con, i s much higher in restrictive clauses than in non-restrictive clauses. (There were 211 cases of a, en, de, and con in non-restrictive clauses; 223 cases in restrictive clauses.) Keniston classifies them together as monosyllabic prepositions, but his figures indicate the same total results; restrictive clauses (60-420); non-restrictive clauses (18-42). These findings agree with Bello's statement: Despues de las preposiciones a, de, en, en ^roposi-ciones especificativas, es mejor que: (Gramatica, sect. 1078) b. As object of con: Bello writes in his next section: 7. Despues de con se emplea a menudo que, pero tiene bastante uso e l cual (y no tan bien, a mi juicio, e l que), sobre todo en las propo-siciones explieativas [non-restrictive], y particularmente s i son algo largas o cierran el periodo. (Gramatica, sect. 1079) The inference of his two sections would seem to be that que i s the usual choice after the prepositions en, de, and a in restrictive clauses; and that after con, que i s frequently replaced by el cual (or possibly el que), especially in non-restrictive clauses. Is this state-ment s t i l l true in reference to contemporary usage? -In the cases studied i t was found that que was used more frequently after the preposition con, than after the prepositions a or de in botli restrictive and non-restrictive clauses. (See Table I.) Furthermore, i t was discovered that el cual and el que were used much less after con than after a, en, or de (see C,5,d.). These observations show that que i s not frequently replaced to-day by e l cual after con, and i t must be concluded that the distinction made by Bello between a, en, de and con i s not valid for contemporary usage. c. As object of por, sin, tras: In the passages read, no cases were found in which que was employed as object of por, sin or tras. Keniston gives no examples. d. As object of dissyllabic prepositions: Only one case was found were que was used as object of a dissyl-8. labic preposition, namely, after the preposition sobre. Example: ...; l a ciudad es monasterio, convento de solitarios; aqui l a tierra, sobre que casi se acuestan, los uney los animales son otras tantas serpientes del paraiso ... (Unamuno, La Tia Tula, p. 81) This conforms in general to Keniston's findings, in which no cases are shown of que used as object of a dissyllabic preposition; and also to Bello's statement: Despues de preposiciones de mas de una silaba tiene poco uso que ... Dificilmente se tolera-rian l a ciudad hacia que, l a .Corte ante que; ... y s i despues de estas preposiciones quisiese variarse e l cual, se preferiria mas bien el que. Pero despues de bajo, desde, para y sobre se extranaria quizas menos el relativo simple [que]. (Gramatica, sect. 1081) e. As object of compound prepositions: In the present investigation no cases were found i n which que was used as object of a compound preposition, examples of which are, en frente de, acerca de, por medio de. Keniston also l i s t s no cases. f. As object of a preposition, referring to persons: May que refer to persons when i t i s object of a preposi-tion? Two examples uncovered in the present study are pertinent to this question. Examples: Para el cfonista frances y los hombres de que nos habla, es el mundo una realidad esplendida dotada de facetas innumerables: ... (Ortega y Gasset, Espana Invertebrada, p.820) 9 . Antonio, a su vez, tuvo cuatro hijos, todos tejedores o sastres, de que algo se hablara mas adelante. (Madariaga, Cristobal Colon, p.47) In both of these cases, que referring to persons i s used as object of a preposition. Contemporary grammar-ians hardly allow for these examples. The statement of Harmar and Norton i s typical of most grammars: When the relative i s governed by a preposition que cannot be used to refer to persons, i t s place being usually taken by quien. (A Manual  of Modern Spanish, p. 36) Similarly, but less inclusive, Keniston: Only after a preposition, with a personal 'antecedent, i t i s [que) regularly replaced by quien ... (Spanish Syntax List, p. 9 0 ) Bello, however, does not exclude the possibility of que after prepositions referring to persons: In lugar de que o el cual, cuando se trata de personas, se dice frecuentemente quien; ... (G-ramatioa, sect. 1 0 8 5 ) Spaulding quotes the statement of Tarr and Centeno: ... que may be used (a) referring to persons after the prepositions de and con. In his own statement, Spaulding tends to compromise: Although this use i s sufficiently ancient that in "Exemplo X" of the Conde Lucanor Patronio.says "vio un homme cabo del ... 10. e era aquel de que vos fable de suso," no one, I suspect, even at this late date w i l l naturally say "Juan, de que queria hablarte"; nor "mi hermano, con que viajabamos por Espana." Would i t not have been better to restrict the rule [of Tarr and Centeno] to cases in which the•"personality" of the noun is weak? (Hispania, vol. XVIII, May 1935, p.l62) However, i t i s not necessary to go back to mediaeval literature to find such cases. Keniston3 gives examples from sixteenth century writings: ... es bien que informeis de ... las personas con que lo hacen. (Jimenez de Cisneros, Cartas  dirigidas a don Diego Lopez de Ayala, p. 115) ... les embio mas gente con que hiziessen lo que hizieron. (Valdes, Alfonso de, Dialogo de  las Cosas Ocurridas en Roma, p. 1131 ... los autores en que yo he leido. (Valdes, Juan de, Dialogo de l a Lengua, p. 349) The similar occasional use of que in contemporary literature, as in the f i r s t examples given in this section, i s apparently a survival of the earlier usage, and i t may be that que, referring to persons, is used not only after con and de as Tarr and Centeno state, but also after a and en. It i s questionable whether i t s use i s limited to cases where the "personality" of the antecedent is weak as Spaulding suggests. 3 Hayward Keniston, The. Syntax Of Castllian Prose (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1937.) 11. • f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h m u s t b e c a r r i e d o u t b e f o r e t h e s e q u e s t i o n s c a n b e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y a n s w e r e d . T h e p o s i t i o n o f q u e i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s a n t e c e d e n t : a . M u s t q u e f o l l o w i t s a n t e c e d e n t i m m e d i a t e l y a s m a n y g r a m m a r i a n s c o n c l u d e ? T h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a -t i o n w h i c h a r e r e l e v a n t a r e s h o w n b e l o w i n T a b l e I I . T h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h q u e w a s e m p l o y e d i n a n y g i v e n p o s i t i o n i s l i s t e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r e a c h w o r k u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . U s i n g t h e t i t l e C r i s t i a n y Y o , f o r e x a m p l e , u n d e r t h e s y m b o l I ( f o r " i m m e d i a t e " ) i s t h e n u m b e r 1 2 8 . T h i s m e a n s t h a t i n , t h e c a s e s o b s e r v e d i n t h i s b o o k , q u e w a s f o u n d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r i t s a n t e c e d e n t 1 2 8 t i m e s . U n d e r t h e s y m b o l R , i s t h e n u m b e r 1 4 . T h i s s i g n i f i e s t h a t f o u r t e e n c a s e s w e r e f o u n d i n w h i c h q u e w a s r e m o v e d f r o m i t s a n t e c e d e n t b y a c o m m a , a n d s o o n . I t w i l l b e s e e n f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n o f q u e f a l l s i n t o t w o m a i n g r o u p s . I n t h e f i r s t g r o u p , w h i c h c o m p r i s e s a b o u t 8 5 p e r c e n t o f a l l c a s e s , q u e e i t h e r f o l l o w s i t s a n t e c e d e n t i m m e d i a t e l y o r i s r e m o v e d f r o m i t b y s o m e e l e m e n t w h i c h w i l l n o t c a u s e a m b i g u i t y ; f o r e x a m p l e : a p u n c t u a t i o n m a r k , a n a d j e c t i v e , a p r e p o s i t i o n , o r s o m e c o m b i n a t i o n o f a n a d j e c t i v e o r p r e p o s i t i o n w i t h a c o m m a . I n t h e s e c o n d g r o u p , c o m p r i s -i n g s o m e 1 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e e x a m p l e s , q u e w a s f o u n d t o b e r e m o v e d f r o m i t s a n t e c e d e n t b y s o m e e l e m e n t o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f e l e m e n t s w h i c h c o u l d c a u s e a m b i g u i t y i n TABLE II 12. THE POSITION OF £UE IN RELATION TO ITS ANTECEDENT KEY TO SYMBOLS I « que follows antecedent immediately R, = que removed from antecedent by a comma Ra - que removed from antecedent by an adjective Ra, = que removed from antecedent by an adjective and a comma R(,)prep - que removed from antecedent by a comma and a preposition or only by a preposition R app - que removed from antecedent by a noun i n apposition or by an appositional phrase Rpp - que removed from antecedent by a prepositional phrase Rpp, = que removed from antecedent by a prepositional phrase and a comma Rc - antecedent i s a compound: e.g. "un vaso de agua" Rcl = que removed from antecedent by one or more clauses &5% 15%_ I I D'Halmar, Cristian y yo Icaza, Huasi Pungo Reyles, E l Terruno Biasco Ibafiez, Saiigre y Arena Madariaga, Cristobal Colon Quiroga, Anaconda, etc. Valdes, Jose Gallegos, Dona Barbara Galdos, Misericordia Ortega y Gasset, Espana invertebrada Pereda, Pefias Arriba Rivera, La Voragine Menendez Pidal, Rodrigo e l Ultimo Godo Azorin. Los Clasicos Redivivos*.. Unamuno, La Tia Tula Leon, E l Amor de los Amor.es •-. Guiraldes, Don Segundo Sombra Rojas, Retablo Espa&ol R, Ra Ra, R(,)prep Rapp Rpp Rpp, Rc Rcl Mis 128 14 12 1 15 1 5 5 3 7 i 73 34 8 2 20 5 3 17 108 2 14 2 1 15 10 8 i 60 14 15 7 8 17 1 1 5 81 21 8 4 5 11 8 4 6 1 69 21 6 9 8 11 6 4 2 2 112 14 20 2 16 3 16 8 5 4 22 7 5 1 6 1 7 1 4 1 50 20 9 2 6 8 1 3 61 5 11 4 9 4 1 2 1 2 50 31 9 6 8 2 10 2 3 1 61 13 33 11 11 1 5 12 2 117 15 7 4 23 3 4 2 77 15 8 3 7 1 6 4 38 24 16 9 16 16 1 1 5 75 10 11 11 12 8 1 4 4 33 12 9 2 18 1 6 1 1 4 1 56 19 7 6 12 16 3 5 4 85 30 7 3 16 9 3 1 66 18 15 8 10 2 8 5 3 5 3 13. determining the antecedent. i . In the non-ambiguous group i t was found that: 1) In 50 per cent of a l l cases examined in the study, que followed immediately after i t s antece-dent . Example: Los marineros que estaban en el pueblo habian acudido todos a l a ribera. (Valdes, Jose, p. 147) 2) In 35 per cent of a l l cases que was removed from i t s antecedent by some element which would not cause ambiguity, for example, an adjective, a punctuation mark, a preposition, or some combi-nation of an adjective or preposition with a c omnia: Exampl e s: Abajo queda el valle en silencio, repleto de luz crepuscular que empequenece l a figura entumecida de las chozas; ... (Icaza, Huasi Pungo, p. 17) Una copiosa fuente, que nacia no lejos de a l i i , ... (Leon, E l Amor de los Amores, p. 12) Las especies materiales, que Sarmiento llama-ba "civilizacion", pueden trasplantarse a otros continentes, ... (Rojas, Retablo  Esoanol. p. 354) La distancia a que le veiamos disminuia las proporciones de su persona. (Azorin, Los Clasicos Redivivos, p. 25) 14. i i . In the second group of examples (where ambiguity-i s likely) comprising about 15 per cent of a l l cases, i t was found that: 1) There were approximately 12 cases in which que was removed from i t s antecedent by a noun in appo-sition, or by an appositional phrase. Example: Ejemplo de los admirables efectos de l a volun-tad humana en el gobierno de las grandes como de las pequenas agrupaciones de seres, era Juliana, mujer sin principios, que apenas sabia leer y escribir ... (Galdos, Miseri- cordia, p. 2040) 2) In a large proportion of the second group of examples, more than two hundred cases, que was separated from the antecedent by a prepositional phrase. In many of these i t was d i f f i c u l t to determine the antecedent. Examples: Luz de sol meridiano, como el de Mision.es, en que las camisas de los dos hombres deslumbra-ban. (Quiroga, Los Fabricantes de Carbon, P. 113) Galicia ha producido hombres y mujeres nota-bles en arte, ciencia, p o l i t i c a , armas y ne-gocios, que dieron prestigio a l nombre regio-nal. (Rojas, Retablo Espanol, p. 345) Acabo la escena, como tantas otras del teatro en que.se fingen estos pasajes de la vida humana, ... (Pereda, Penas Arriba, p. 636) De mis petizos mis tias prestaron uno a l hijo del tendero Festal, que yo aborrecia por orgul-loso y maricon.(GUiraldes, Don Segundo Sombra, p < 1 9 - j 15. esta leyenda debia ser substancial-mente la misma que l a de Rodrigo y l a hija de Julian ultrajada por fraude que conocia e l Silense hacia 1115; ... (Menendez Pidal, Rodrigo, p. LVI) 3) Some 75 cases were found in which the antece-dent was of the type: un vaso de agua, i n which neither vaso nor agua alone i s the antecedent, but the entire phrase un vaso de agua. The pres-ence of two nouns sometimes caused ambiguity. Example: Dejo e l b a r r i l de raba que habia comprado en manos de otro caminante ... (Valdes, Jose, p. 155) 4) In approximately 75 cases que was removed from the antecedent by one or more clauses. Example: ya por un mastin corpulento y poderoso que hay en casa de ellas, que inspira terror a las visitas, que parece capaz de derribar a un hombre de un manotazo y de destrozarle de un mordisco, y que, sin embargo, se echa con l a mayor humildad a las plantas de su ama, ... (Valera, Juanita la Larga, p. 85) 5) In a number of cases que was greatly removed from i t s antecedent. Examples: ...; y por ultimo, un curioso documento, sin fecha ni firma, sobre el problema de l a mano de obra india, que se cree haber sido remitido a l Cardenal Cisneros hacia 1517 por un f r a i l e jeronimo, en cuyo primer parrafo se lee l a siguiente.afirmacion ... ( Madariaga, Cristo- bal Colon, p. 482) 16. La proxima vez que divisamos a l joven apren-diz por entre las rendijas que nos abren los papeles, es ya Doraenico on maestro de su oficio, un hombre hecho que alquila una casa y un terreno en el Vico dell'Olivella, ya desaparecido por e l crecimiento y trans-figuracion de l a gran ciudad genovesa, pero que, a l decir de los c.ompetentes, era enton-ces una calle muy animada ... (Madariaga, Cristobal Colon, p. 48) Se de muchos hombres que no se han equivocado, y se de otro en particular cuya eleccion ha sido un verdadero hallazgo, que me hizo esta profunda observacion ... (Quiroga, Miss  Dorothy P h i l l i p s , Mi Bsposa, p. 2011 111. On the basis of these findings, one may say that que-does not always immediately follow i t s anteced-ent. In many cases i t i s removed i n such a way as to make identification of the antecedent d i f f i c u l t . b. Does this conclusion agree with the statement of contemporary grammarians? Ramsay writes: Que follows close after i t s antecedent, so that, although i t i s invariably i n form, we are at no loss to see what i t refers to. A preposition may intervene when i t refers to things; ... (A Text-Book of Modern Spanish, sect. 680) Willis K. Jones says: Que must follow i t s antecedent closely, even i f the sentence has to be recast. (Hispania, Vol. XXXI, No. 4, 1948) And Lastly, the statement of Harmer and Norton: As subject or object i t [que] must immediately 17. follow i t s antecedent.' When que i s governed by a preposition the latter Immediately follows the antecedent, and que the preposition. (A Manual of Modern Spanish, p. 36) These statements are not a complete description of contemporary usage, in that they do not account for many of the cases. The statement of Harmer and Norton only accounts for 50 percent of the examples. Ramsey only accounts for 85 percent of the cases. Quien as a restrictive and non-restrictive relative 1. As subject of i t s clause a* As subject of a restrictive clause quien i s not used. No cases were found in this study, nor does Keniston l i s t any. Bello writes: Cuando quien no lleva en s i mismo su antecedent^ no puede ser sujeto de una proposicion especificativa: no se podria pues decir, el hombre quien.vino. Sirve s i a menudo de sujeto en las proposiciones explicativas:... (Gramatica, sect. 331) The findings of this investigation indicate that Bello's statement i s s t i l l applicable to contemporary usage. b. As subject of a non-restrictive clause: Of the 98 cases of quien found in this investigation, 11 were cases in which quien was subject of a non-_ restrictive clause.. .:Example: 18. Rami era Estevanez, quien debe a l a condescendencia del capataz su actual descanso, ... (Rivera, La Voragine, p. 240) Keniston's frequency: (15-28) As object of monosyllabic prepositions a. In restrictive clauses: There were 17' cases of quien as object of a monosyllabic preposition in a restrictive clause. Example: Haz lo que quieras, desventurado, que has de verte peor que esos idiotas a quienes persiguen los rapaces con injurias ... (Leon, E l Amor de  los Amores, p. 293) Keniston's frequency: (23-37) and (15-20); total: 57 cases. b. In non-restrictive clauses: In 68 of the examples quien was object of a monosyllabic preposition in a non-restrictive clause (86 per cent of the total number of occurrences of quie'n). Examples: ..., un gomero del Ecuador a quien llamabamos E l Presbitero.... (Rivera, La Voragine, p. 157) Keniston's frequency: quien (36-83); quienes (5-8); total: 91 cases. c. The frequency of quien after a, en, de and con: Table III shows the frequency of quien after the in-dividual monosyllabic prepositions: 19 TABLE III QUIEN AS OBJECT OF THE MONOSYLLABIC PREPOSITIONS A, EN, DE, AND CON A EN DE CON TOTAL Restrict. i i 11 i 15 - 2 - 17 Non-res t r i c t . [ [ 46 6 7 9 68 3. Object of dissyllabic and compound prepositions: In only one case was quien used as object of a dissyllabic preposition. Example: A ella, a Gertrudis, ante quien sin saber por que temblaba,... (Unamuno, La Tia Tula, p. 89) There were no cases with compound prepositions. Keniston has no examples of either dissyllabic or compound pre-positions. k. Used with a personified antecedent: Bello writes: Quien, sin embargo, no se limita hoy tan estrictamente a personas, que no se refiera algunaCs] veces a cosas, cuando en estas hay cierto color de personificacion, por ligero que sea. (Gramatica, sect. 330) Two examples of personification were found in the present study. Examples: Habreis notado en ambos rostros una fealdad risuena, del mas pu.ro Madrid, en quien e l caracter arquitectonico y el moral se aunan maravillosamente. (Galdos, Misericordia, p. 1925) 2 0 . Pero e l patito slente l a nostalgia de nadar y se lo eonfiesa a l a gallina, quien se horripila de lo que ella llama fantasias de l a ociosidad. (D'Halmar, Cristian y Yo, p. 41) 5. Distinguishes between persons and things: In order to make the antecedent clear, i t i s necessary, in certain sentences to distinguish between a person and a thing. Quien was used in 31 such cases. This is about 31 per cent of the total number of examples of quien, which demonstrates that this i s an important function of quien. Examples: Asi lo confirms ademas el testimonio de Zurita, por quien sabemos que ... (Madariaga, Cristobal Colon, p. 339) ... pueda entrar en posesion de la herencia de l a madre, de quien no se han vuelto a tener noticias, fOallegos, Dona Barbara, p. 198) ' En general, eran apologos de propositos morales o cuentos satiricos, y especies analogas se hallan en el Infante don Juan Manuel, en quien hay influencias... (Rojas, Retablo EspaBol, p. 179) La mujer gris era el unico ser de los que habitabamos la casona, en quien no habia estampado alguna roncha . .V (Pereda, Pefias Arriba, p. 314) 21. C. E l cual and e l que as restrictive and non-restrictive  relatives 1. Relative frequency: In the present investigation i t v/as found that el cual was favored over el que. E l cual was used in 108 cases,-el que in 74 cases. 2. Refers to things more than to persons: 67 per cent of the cases of e l cual referred to things (71 cases); 79' per cent of the cases of e l que referred to things (57 cases). 3. As subject or object of i t s clause: a. In a restrictive clause: Neither e l cual nor el que were used as subject or object referring to persons or things, in a restrictive clause. Keniston found no examples. Bello says: Para preferir e l cual [to que]'es preciso que alguna circunstancia lo motive; como la distancia del antecedente o la conveniencia de determinarlo por medio del genero y numero: "La definicion oratoria necesita eer una pintura animada de los objetos, l a cual, presentandolos a l a imaginacion con colores vivos, entusiasme y arrebate" (Gil y Zarate). Algunos dirian l a que, y asi lo hace e l mismo escritor en casos analogos. (Gramatica sect. 1076) Is this true for contemporary usage? Although the findings of the present study and those of Keniston were negative, they are not conclusive. It seems probable that e l cual and e l que would be used on rare occasions today- in such an example as that from Gi l y Zarate which Bello quotes above. b. In a.non-restrictive clause: i . As subject referring to persons and things . el cual was used i n 30 cases (20 of which referred to persons), and el que in five cases (three of which referred to persons). Examples: Eu6 tan prof undo el pinchazo eniocional que lo obligo a saltar sobre el Andres, el cual, perdiendo e l equilibrio, se hundio con pies y manos en el barro. (Icaza, Huasi Pungo, p. 15) ... rienzi se apresuraba a hacer las paces con la chica, l a cual festejaba en c u c l i l l a s l a cara lavada ... [Quiroga, Los Eabricantes  de Carbon, p. 120). De aqui salio despues Don Diego, conquistador de America, el que murio en Santiago del Estero,... (Rojas, Retablo Espafiol, p. 18) i i . As object referring to a person, el cual was used i n one case. There were no eases i n which el que was used. Julian se sentia incitado por e l rencor de su hija violada, l a cual el rey Rodrigo le habia arrebatado arteramenta... (Menendez Pidal, Rodrigo, E l Ultimo Godo, p. L) Keniston's frequencies for subject and object combined el cual referring to persons ( 14-22); to a thing (10-12); (total, ,34 cases); and el que referring to 23. persons and things (21-26). c. The findings of the present study which are pre-sented above are in accord with the statement of Harmer and Norton: As subject, referring to persons or things - in which case el cual i s nearly always preferred to el que - and as object, referring to things, they usually introduce non-defining [non-restrictive] clauses. (A Manual of Modern Spanish, sect. 169) 4. As object of a preposition: a. Referring to persons: The' following table shows how el cual and el que were used as objects of a preposition, referring to persons. TABLE IV EL CUAL AM) EL QUE AS OBJECTS OF A PREPOSITION, REFERRING TO PERSONS E l j! que K A DE EN CON SIN POR DIS-TRAS SYLL. COM-POUND TOTAL 2 9 - - 1 - 2 1 15 10 1 1 - 1 2 - 15 It i s evident from the table that el cual and el que are not used to any great extent as objects of a pre-position when referring to persons. While there would seem to be a difference in the use of el cual and el que with the prepositions a and de, there are not 24. . enough cases to make the individual figures very-significant. Of the ten cases of -el que after the preposition a, five were drawn from Blasco Ibaiiez, in his Sangre y Arena. Spaulding points out that Blasco Ibaiiez shows a preference for el que after mono-syllabic prepositions where quien would normally be used. b. Referring to things: The following table gives the details: TABLE V EL CUAL AND EL QUE REFERRING TO THINGS, AS OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION DIS- COM-A DE EN CON SIN POR TRAS SYLL. POUND TOTAL E l cual i—11 i 11 9 16 5 1 3 1 7 7 60 E l que i 11 i 11 7 21 4 - 4 - 5 1 53 These figures show that el cual and e l que were used in the majority of cases to refer to a thing, as object of a preposition. There was no significant distinction i n the use of el cual and el que after monosyllabic or dissyllabic prepositions. c. After compound prepositions el cual, (referring to both persons and things) was definitely favoured, in-dicating that Bello's statement i s s t i l l true in reference to contemporary usage. He states: 25. Si a l a preposicion precede algun adverbio o complemento, l a forma que generalmente se prefiere es el cual. Se dira, pues, acerca del cual, enfrente de l a cual, por medio del cual, alrededor  de l a cual. (Gramatica, sect. 1082) Under his classification of restrictive clauses, Keniston combines dissyllabic and compound prepositions, but under the classification of non-restrictive clauses, he l i s t s the compound prepositions separately: el cual (9-11); el que: no cases. This agrees with the findings of the present investigation. d. A comparison of the use of e l cual and el,que in  restrictive and non-restrictive clauses as object  of a preposition. i . Attacking the problem from a different point of view, Tables VI and VII below, based on the findings of this present study, show how el cual and el que were used i n these two types of clauses, as object of a preposition. TABLE VI EL CUAL AND EL QUE AS OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION IN RESTRICTIVE CLAUSES DIS- COM-A DE EN CON SIN POR TRAS SYLL. POUND TOTAL 2 1 2 - 1 2 8 5 3 3 2 - - - 2 15 E l cualf 2 - 1 - 2 - 8 ] ] ] 26. TABLE VII EL CUAL AND EL QUE AS OBJECT OE A PREPOSITION, IN NON-RESTRICTIVE CLAUSES DIS- COM-A DE EN CON SIN POR TRAS SYLL. POUND TOTAL E l cual 1 1 1 1 11 17 14 5 2 2 1 7 8 67 E l que 1—1 1 1 1 1 16 15 8 3 - 5 - 5 1 53 i i . From the tables above, i t may be noted that: Both el cual and e l que had a low frequency in restrictive clauses. Both had a high frequency in non-restrictive clauses. Keniston: in restrictive clauses: el cual (27-47); el que (22-41) in non-restrictive clauses: el cual (55-125); el que (37-125) Compared with each other, i n restrictive clauses, however, e l que was somewhat more common. But in the Keniston study, e l cual i s used slightly more: el cual 128 (composite total); el que 105 (composite to t a l ) . Both e l cual and e l que in restrictive and non-restrictive clauses, were used less as object of con than as object of a, de or en. This i s significant since Bello and many of those who have written subsequently state that e l cual often replaces que as object of con in order to avoid 27. confusion with conque (See A, 2, b). Such i s apparently not the case in contemporary practice. 5. E l cual and el que refer to the more remote of two  or more possible antecedents In this present study, many cases were found in-which both el cual and el que referred to a remote antecedent: el cual in 28 per cent of i t s cases (30 instances); el que in 36 per cent of i t s cases (27 instances). Examples: ...; l a vaca lamia a l ternero atado a una de sus patas delanteras, el cual tenia e l hocico y l a frente blancos de espuma; ... (Reyles, E l Terrufio, p. 2.'3) Asi se echa de ver en l a carta que los Reyes escriben a Colon, en la cual, y no en las que... (Madariaga, Cristobal Col6n,; p. 352) Hay guias para los viajeros de Cook, las que, como el excelente Baedecker, han de usarse en tales andanzas,... (Rojas, Retabio EspaSol p.11) Su memoria era rico arsenal o archivo de coplas, tiernas o picantes, en l a que l a casta... (Valera, Juanita La Larga, p. 12) 6. General comments on el cual and el que In the foregoing discussion i t was seen that el cual and el que were used interchangeably in most of the classi-fications, although el cual was favored numerically. There were, however, two marked differences. First, 2 8 . el cual was used almost exclusively after.compound pre-positions (see C, 4, c); secondly, as subject of a non-restrictive clause, el cual was definitely favored over el que (see C, 3, 6). What observations do grammarians make? Bello in discussing the problem quotes the following example: "Aparece con toda claridad establecido desde entonces el gusto a esa clase de diversiones" (dramaticas); "el cual cohtinuo luego sin interrupcion y con creces, como se echa de ver a cada paso, registrando las obras subsistentes de aquellos rudos tiempos" (Martinez de l a Rosa). (Gramatioa, Sect. 1077.) Then referring to the example quoted, he says: E l cual es la forma relativa que mejor se adapta a las circunstancias, porque seSalandose con e l l a numero singular y genero masculino, no vacila el entendimiento entre los sustantivos gusto,  clase, y diversiones, y reconoce por antecedente el primero, aunque es el mas distante de los tres. La perspicuidad requiere que cada palabra sugiera, s i es posible, en e l momento mismo en que la proferimos, su sentido preciso, y no de lugar a juicios anticipados, que despues sea menester corregir. En los dos ultimos ejemplos [the last of which is cited above] hubiera podido ponerse el que por e l cual conforme a l a practica modernisima, que segun hemos dicho, no carece de inconveniente. (Gramatica, sect. 1077) Bello prefers el cual to el que under a l l cirsumstances, possibly because of the fact that: 29. ...: los que, sustituido a los cuales, ofreceria, aunque no fuese mas que momentaneamente, un sentido algo ambiguo, por l a doble significacion de aquella frase [referring to a previous example] en que, como nemos visto (secciones 165, 166, 167), el articulo puede ser o una mera forma del relativo o su antecedente. (Gramatica, sect. 1075). Ramsey states: The two do not differ in meaning, and may be used as subject' or object relating either to persons or things; but el cual belongs rather to a studied or oratorical, and e l que to a more easy and off-hand, style — .just the difference between which and that in English. (A Text-book of  Modern Spanish, sect. 686) Harmer and Norton make no distinction between them, (op. c i t . ) . Spaulding says: One of the most recent and most important contributions to the subject is found in the Graded Spanish Review Grammar of Tarr and' Genteno.... Here f i n a l l y the distinction between the written and the spoken language i s taken into account. (Hispania, May, 1935, Vol. XVIII, p. 162) Lo cual and lo que as restrictive and non-restrictive  relative pronouns: Lo cual and lo que are neuter relative pronouns which have as antecedents ideas or statements: Examples: 30. Es inteligente, de genio vivo y emprendedor, astuta y habilidosa, por lo cual lleva casi siempre la direccion de la familia. (Valdes, Jose, p. 13) Y liasta alguna vez se burlaban de e l l a , por ciertas raaneraEs] de hablar, lo que l a ponia de grana. (Unamuno, La Tia Tula, p. 89) 2. Relative frequency of usage: Lo cual was used considerably more than lo que. Lo cual was observed in 38 cases, lo que in 26 cases. Keniston shows more cases of lo cual than lo que, but the total for the various classifications i s not clear. 3. As object of monosyllabic prepositions: Lo cual was used in 23 instances, lo que in 17. Keniston's fre-quencies seem very low under this classification: lo cual (9-12); lo que (8-9). Table IX below gives the particulars. TABLE IX LO CUAL AND LO QUE AFTER MONOSYLLABIC PREPOSITIONS A EN DE CON POR TRAS SIN TOTAL lo cual^l 2 3 8. 8 1 - 23 3 lo que £9 1 . 2 3 2 There was a noticeable difference in usage after a and 17 3 V 31. por. Apparently lo que is preferred after a, and l o ;eual after por. Of the nine cases above of lo que as object of a, seven referred to a statement and two cases to an idea. Example: ... le impulso a preguntar: "idonde vive?", a lo que el canto amante contesto:... (Madariaga, Cristobal Colon, p. 40) The observation made before this last example indicates that lo que was preferred to lo cual referring to state-ments. Only two cases of the latter were found In which i t referred to a statement. There are not, however, enough examples to draw definite conclusions. 4 . As object of dissyllabic and compound prepositions:  Lo cual was object of a dissyllabic preposition in three cases, and of a compound preposition in two cases. There were no cases of lo que with either type of preposition. Keniston does not give particulars. Bello says: ...despues.de las preposiciones de mas de una silaba, o de preposiciones precididas de adverbios o complementos, lo cual debe preferirse a lo que: para lo cual, segun  lo cual, mediante lo cual, acerca de lo  cual. ("Gramatioa, sect. 1087] On the basis of the present study i t seems that this statement remains valid for contemporary usage. By way of comparison i t i s to be noted that el cual was pre-ferred to el que only after compound prepositions. With 32. dissyllabic prepositions there was no difference in the use of el cual and el que. (See C, 4, c). E. Quien and el que as substantive relatives referring  to persons 1, Description of substantive use: Quien and el que have been discussed as simple relatives, that i s , as relatives which do not include their antecedents. Now they w i l l be discussed as substantive relatives which include their own antecedents: Example: Hay quien sale del dilema rechazando de" golpe los documentos genoveses como.otras tantas falsificaciones. (Madariaga, Cristobal Colon,, p. 42) Los ciegos solemos tener algo de musicos, poetas y trovadores, y aun los que son pobres e incultos distraen el animo propio... (Leon, E l Amor de los Amores, p. 28) Quien refers only to persons, el que to both persons and things. At this point el que w i l l be discussed only as i t refers to persons. 2. Relative frequency of usage: E l que referring to persons was used more frequently than quien. E l que - referring to persons was found to be used in 149 cases. Quien was:'found uood in -98':casesi : .: Since Keniston does not make a distinction between 33. persons and things when dealing with el que, his figures cannot be used here for comparison. 3. As object of a preposition: In the examples gathered, there seems to be no definite distinction in the use of quien and el que after the different pre-positions, except that el que was used more frequently. Table IX gives the particulars: TABLE IX THE SUBSTANTIVE RELATIVES QUIEN AND EL QUE AFTER PREPOSITIONS, REFERRING TO PERSONS DIS- COM-A EN DE CON SYLL. POUND TOTAL Quien ^ 14 - 10 2 3 - 29 ] E l que f 20 - 22 1 5 1 49 } 4. Used as subjective complement: In this present study, quien was found to be used much more frequently as sub-jective complement than e l que. There were 22 cases of quien, and 13 cases of el que. E l l a era quien desnudaba, vestia y cuidaba al niSo. (Unamuno, La Tia Tula, p. 39) E l segundo Garcilaso es el que se ha desenyuelto a l a vista de los hombres,.. (Azorin, Los Clasicos Redivivos, p. 29) 34. 5. Referring to indefinite persons: Quien was found to refer to indefinite persons more often than el que; i t was used in this way in 53 cases, i n other words, in 54 per cent of a l l cases of quien. E l que referred to an indefinite person in 47 cases, that i s , in 32 per cent of a l l cases of el que. (The remaining 45 cases of quien and the ..102 other cases of el que refer to definite persons.) Mi t r o p i l l a se habla alejado caminando con cautela de quien esta revisando campo para comprar... (Gtiiraldes, Don Segundo Sombra, p. 162) Zoraida, el que dijera que has cambiado conmigo, tendria razon,... (Rivera, La Voragine, p. 239) Keniston does not give comparative figures on this point for contemporary usage. However, he states elsewhere, referring to sixteenth century usage: In general, the forms composed of a demonstrative and a relative [el que, etc.] are regularly used tociindicate specific, definite individuals, while quien regularly refers to indefinite individuals. (Syntax of Castillian Prose, p. 177) This statement would have to be modified to feflect contemporary practice properly. Although quien i s favoured for indefinite persons, i t i s certainly used today to refer to definite persons also as the figures above indicate. E l que on the other hand, although tending to 35. favour specific persons, is used often to refer to indefinite persons. 6 . After como: A definite difference was noticed in the use of quien and el que referring to indefinite persons after como, (meaning "as one who"). No cases of el que were found. Q,uien was used in 15 cases. Examples: Es. porque le hablas como quien no quiere l a cosa. (Unamuno, La Tla Tula, p. 27) Todo se acaba, Senor, hasta "el fruto de la festivida" o, como quien dice, la "pobreza honrada." (Galdos, Misericordia, p. 1926) This follows traditional usage. In his Syntax of  Castillan•. Prose (16th Century), Keniston says: After como, quien is far more frequently used [than el que]^ Keniston again does not give comparative figures for contemporary usage, but for l6th century usage his frequencies are: quien (13-2Z,,); el que (1-1). 3 6 . E l que as a substantive relative used non-personally: 1. Refers to things: There were 70 cases found in which el que was used as a substantive relative referrlhgvto things. La propia espontanea inspiracion es l a que ha de guiarle. (Azorin, Los Clasicos Redivivos, p. 31) Keniston combines his figures for persons and things, and therefore they cannot be used for comparison. 2. Is equivalent to "the fact that": This type of construction is relatively rare. Only five such cases were found: y Tocles comprendio presto, que en medio de todo, no era poca fortuna e l que sus colegas sintiesen con fuerza, a l menos, la ambicion bruta de riquezas. (Reyles, E l Terruno, p. 115) Pero icomo explicarle el que la antigua criada se sentara a l a mesa a comer con los de casa? (Unamuno, La Tia Tula, p. 95) ...,las senoras tomaron a sacrilegio el que la iluminacion fuese de velones como solo se habia visto una vez. (D'Halmar, Cristian y Yo, p. 370) Bello deals with this usage as follows: E l que anunciativo [conjunctive] se junta a veces, segun ya henios notado, con l a terminacion maseulina del articulo, como cuando dice Villanueva "No podia yo mirar con indiferencia el que se infamase mi doctrina." Los dos elementos no forman entonces una palabra indivisible; el articulo adjetivo conserva su naturaleza de t a l , como en el infamar o la infamia; y sin embargo ambos pertenecen a una misma proposicion, como siempre lo hacen el sustantivo y su articulo. (G-ramatica, sect. 326) Lo que as a substantive relative: --• Lo que as a substantive relative contains i t s own antecedent. In this present investigation more than 400 cases were observed. Example: Es que tenia el instinto y la comprension de las cosas grandes; oia lo que otros no oyen. (Araadeo, Vidas Argentinas, p. 160) 38. I I I . C O M P A R I S O N O F T H E R E L A T I V E S A C C O R D I N G T O F U N C T I O N A l t h o u g h t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a g r e e d , o n t h e w h o l e , w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e b e s t g r a m m a r s , t h e r e w e r e o c c a s i o n a l c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e r e w a s v a r i a n c e , a n d i n o t h e r s i t v / a s p o s s i b l e t o s u p p l e m e n t e x i s t i n g g r a m m a r s . T h e d i v i s i o n s h a v e b e e n m a d e a c c o r d i n g t o f u n c t i o n t o b r i n g t o -g e t h e r t h e v a r i o u s r e l a t i v e s u s e d i n e a c h c a t e g o r y . • A . R e s t r i c t i v e a n d n o n - r e s t r i c t i v e r e l a t i v e s 1. A s s u b j e c t o r o b j e c t o f i t s " c l a u s e a . I n r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s : Q u e i s r e g u l a r l y u s e d a s s u b j e c t o r o b j e c t . P r a c t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , i t a l o n e i s u s e d a s s u b j e c t o f a r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e i n c u r r e n t S p a n i s h . F r e q u e n c y : 1337. E x a m p l e s : • V i a j e e n e l e x p r e s o q u e c o r r e d e P a r i s a L i s b o a ; . . . ( R o j a s , R e t a b l o E s p a n o l , p . 14) N a d a m e i m p o r t a n i m e a f l i g e e l r u i n c o n c e p t o q u e f o r m e s d e m i . ( V a l e r a , J u a n i t a L a L a r g a , p . 87) K e n i s t o n ' s f r e q u e n c y : s u b j e c t ( 6 0 - 2 8 2 0 ) ; o b j e c t (60-1224); T o t a l : L.044. A c c o r d i n g t o B e l l o , e l c u a l , o r e l q u e m a y b e u s e d a s s u b j e c t o r o b j e c t o f a r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e i f s o m e 39. circumstance such as distance from the antecedent, necessitates i t . No such cases of e l cual and el que were found in this investigation and Keniston gives none; although rare examples similar to Bello's might occur today. (See II, C, 3,a). Quien i s not used as subject of a restrictive clause. It is used as object only following personal a, which cases have been included under prepositions. b. In non-restrictive clauses: Here there is wider latitude for other relatives, although again que i s by far the most commonly used, for both subject and object. Frequency: 1141. Examples: Acabo de vestirse, y a l s a l i r al huerto hallo a Tasarin que estaba regando los rosales. (Leon, E l Amor de los Amores, p. 125) ... y.pohiendole la mano sobre l a cabeza, que ell a inclino con los claros ojos empafiados, le dijo:... (Unamuno, La Tia Tula, p. 135) ' Keniston's frequency: subject and object (60-1354) In non-restrictive clauses, el cual, and to a much lesser extent, e l que, are used as subject, especially in cases where i t is necessary to refer back to a re-mote antecedent. In the present investigation, e l cual was found used as subject of a non-restrictive clause in thirty cases, twenty of which referred to persons. \J 40. There were only five cases of el que. Examples: Asi existen en el Sudan ciudades de hasta doscientos mil habitantes — Kano, Bida, por ejemplo -- las cuales arrastran ... (Ortega y Gasset, EspaSa Invertebrada, p. 8 2 3 ) Hay guias para los viajeros de Cook, las que, como el excelente Baedeker, han de usarse en tales an&anzas,... (Rojas, Retablo Espanol, p. 11) E l cual and e l que are seldom used as object of a non-restrictive clause. No cases of el que were found, and only one case of e l cual: Julian se sentia incitado por el rencor de su hija violada, l a cual el rey Rodrigo le habia arrebatado arteramente... (Menendez Pidal, Rodrigo, E l Ultimo Godo, p. L) Keniston*s frequency for subject and object combined: e l cual referring to persons (14-22); to things (10-12); total: 34 cases; e l que referring to persons and things (21-26). When the antecedent i s a person, quien i s used some-what less than el cual as subject of a non-restrictive clause. E l cual was used i n twenty such cases, quien in eleven cases.Examples: • .;-entre los hortelanos y verduleras, quienes solian enviar... (Valera, Juanita La Larga. p.9) Ni una chispa de viento movia la arboleda, l a cual proyectaba grandes y f i j a s sombras. (Reyles, E l Terruno. p.8 ) 41. Este Conde de las Escalas se batio muy bien, hasta el punto de merecer elogios especiales de Hernando del Pulgar, quien relata como... (Madariaga, Cristobal Colon, p. 29) Keniston's frequency for quien:(15-28) In circumstances in which the neuter relative i s re-quired, lo cual is used more often than lo que as sub-ject or object of a non-restrictive clause. In the present study, lo cual was used as subject or object in sixteen cases; lo que in nine cases. Examples: Rodillero no es gentil, pero es sublime, lo cual importa mas. (Valdes, Jose, p. 8) Roca..., instalandose en las tierras con-quistadas, lo que no habia podido hacer e l dictador,..T (Amadeo, Vidas Argentinas, p. 19) As object of prepositions. a. As object of the prepositions a, de, en, con: i . In restrictive clauses: Que i s used almost exclusively in restrictive clauses when the ante-cedent' Is 'a. thing. Of such cases, 188 were found in the present study. Example: Una y otra evocaron recuerdos de l a tie r r a andaluza en que habian nacido,... (Galdos, Misericordia, p. 1987) Keniston's frequency: (60-420) When que i s the object of a preposition i t rarely 42. refers to persons. However, contrary to the state-ments of many grammars, que i s used this way occasionally. Two examples which bear this out were found. (See II, A, 2, f.) Quien most frequently replaces que as object of a preposition when the antecedent i s personal. In this study, quien was found used as object of a, en, con, de in 17 cases. Example: La inesperada ocurrencia de aquella mujer, delante de Lituca en quien tenia yo puestos los ojos. (Pereda, Penas Arriba, p. 633) Keniston: quien (23-37); quienes (15-20) Total: 57 cases. E l cual and el que had relatively l i t t l e use in restrictive clauses as object of a, en, con, de. E l cual was used in five cases, .'one • of which re-ferred to persons. ...buscando vanamente, en su feroz ceguera, e l bulto a l que acometia... (Blasco Ibanez, Sangre y Arena, p. 280) ipuedo yo represehtar interests en los cuales no creo? (Reyles, E l Terruno, p. 210) ' i i . In non-restrictive clauses: When referring to things: Que was somewhat the most frequent: 54 cases. A f t e r con, que i s used more t h a n e l c u a l o r e l que i n b o t h t y p e s o f c l a u s e s . T h i s a g a i n i s c o n t r a r y t o t r a d i t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t s . (See II, A, 2, b and II, C, k, d, i i ) . E l c u a l and e l que were used o f t e n a l s o w i t h t h e s e p r o p o s i t i o n s . Frequency: e l c u a l , 37; e l que, 32. When r e f e r r i n g t o p e r s o n s : Quien i s t h e u s u a l c h o i c e , as i n r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s : 68 c a s e s . E l c u a l and e l que a r e a l s o often used: e l c u a l , 10 c a s e s ; e l que, :-9 c a s e s . When r e f e r r i n g t o an i d e a o r statement: Lo que was d e f i n i t e l y f a v o r e d over l o c u a l a f t e r a. A f t e r s i n , p o r and t r a s : When r e f e r r i n g t o t h i n g s : E l c u a l and e l que are u s e d . No cases o f que were f o u n d . When r e f e r r i n g t o p e r s o n s : E l c u a l , e l que o r q u i e n may be used. When r e f e r r i n g t o an i d e a o r sta t e m e n t : Lo c u a l was found much more t h a n l o que a f t e r p o r . ( T h i s cannot be c o n s i d e r e d c o n c l u s i v e , however, because o f the s m a l l number o f case s . ) 44 • c. As object of dissyllabic prepositions: E l cual and el que are used as object of a dissyllabic preposition, referring to either a person, or to a-thing. No cases of quien were found in the present study, and only one case of que after sobre. Bello says that que could be used with less d i f f i c u l t y after sobre, para, bajo and desde. When a neuter relative i s used, lo cual is definitely preferred to lo que* No cases of lo que used as object of a dissyllabic preposition were found in the present study. d. As object of a compound preposition: E l cual is the usual choice referring to both persons and things. In the present study only one case of el que was found, and no cases of quien. Lo cual is definitely preferred to lo que. No such cases of lo que were found in the present investi-gation. Substantive relatives NOTE: This material has already been covered for quien. el que and lo que. (See p. 32-37.) 2,-5. IV OTHER FACTORS: AMBIGUITY AND POSITION In the preceding paragraphs, frequency of occurrence in various categories has been stressed. Other factors w i l l now be considered. When there i s a possibility of alter-natives, why does a writer choose one relative in preference to another? Variety, rhythm and euphony may influence his choice. However, ambiguity and position are the most important factors. A. Ambiguity This study has demonstrated tha,t in spite of frequent care-lessness on the part of many writers, there is a definite pattern of practice in contemporary Spanish to avoid con-fusion in the identity of antecedents. £uien was used in 31 per cent of the total number of i t s occurrences to dis-tinguish a person from a thing among possible antecedents. E l cual and el que were often used to refer back to the more remote of two or more possible antecedents. In the study, el cual referred to a more remote antecedent in 28 per cent of a l l cases (30 instances); el que i n 36 per cent of a l l cases of el que ( 27 instances). Examples: ...entra en la taberna con violencia l a hermana de nuestro marinero, l a que acababa de quedar viuda,.... (Valdes, Jose p. 160) 46. E l centro de propagacion de l a leyenda local de Viseo fue probablemente el monasterio de Lorvan, cerca de Coimbra, gran oficina de falsificaciones legendarias, y en el cual sabeiaos que se escribio... (Menendez Pidal, Rodrigo, Bl Ultimo Godo, p. lxxxv) B. Position Position of relative pronouns has been studied systematically in the. examples gathered for this thesis. It has been demonstrated that in 85 per cent of the examples, que occurred virtually immediately after i t s antecedent, which was non-ambiguous. However, in the remaining 15 per cent of the cases, ambiguity was possible, and actually not uncommon. Writers often depend, not too successfully, on the reader being able to identify one of a number of possible antecedents readily. However, where greater precision i s desired, e l cual (la cual, los cuales, las cuales) and e l que (la que, los que, las que) with their varying forms which indicate gender and number, are often used. This is particularly true where the antecedent i s far removed from the relative, and occurs among a number of possible antecedents. Indeed, the examples collected revealed that both el cual and el que are regularly removed from their antecedent by a comma, and/or one :or•" more:' words. Bello recognized this for el cual. (G-ramatica, sect. 1077). The pause which comes logically and in speech in the use of e l cual and e l que must be considered as a necessary factor in their usage. 48. V CONTEMPORARY USAGE RESTATED A. The following points which have been established in this thesis supplement existing descriptions of the relative pro-nouns by the authorities in some cases, and in others, are at variance with them. 1. Que i s not frequently replaced after the preposition con by el cual (or e l que), to avoid confusion with conque. 2 . Q,ue does not necessarily follow immediately after i t s antecedent. In 15 per cent of a l l cases Observed, que was removed from i t s antecedent in such a way as to make deter-mination of i t s antecedent d i f f i c u l t . 3. Que on occasion as object of a preposition refeuss to a person. Instances are rare. 4. Quien is frequently used to distinguish a person from a thing as antecedent (in 31 per cent of a l l occurrences of quien). 5. Quien as a substantive relative is used more frequently than el que to refer to indefinite persons. 6. Quien as a substantive relative i s used almost exclu-sively after como (meaning "as one who"). No cases of e l que with this meaning after como were found. 7. E l que, as well as e l cual, i s regularly removed from i t s antecedent by a comma (or similar punctuation), and/or one or more words. 4 9 . B. The practice of modern Spanish in regard to the relative pronouns may be summarized as follows: 1. The subject of a restrictive clause is regularly que for both persons and things. 2 . The object of a restrictive clause is usually que for both persons and things. Q.uien may be used with "personal a" 1 (especially to distinguish a person from a thing). A l cual and a l que are rarely so used. The relatives were found used as follows: (3-ue .......100*s of cases a quien... 15 cases a l cual... no cases a l que.... 2 cases 3 . The subject ofi. a non-restrictive clause is usually que, but i t may be quien. E l cual and, to a much lesser extent, el que ( both of which distinguish number and gender) are also used. They were found used as follows: que 100's of cases quien 11 cases el cual... 30 cases el que.... 5 cases 4. The object of a non-restrictive clause is usually que referring to both persons and things. Quien is frequently In sections II and III no distinction was made between "personal a" and other prepositional uses of a, but for purposes of describing usage those cases of "personal a" must be treated separately. Relatives used with "personal a" w i l l be classified here as object of the verb, and not as objects of the preposition a. 5 0 . u s e d w i t h " p e r s o n a l a " . R a r e l y a r e a l c u a l o r a l q u e s o u s e d . T h e f r e q u e n c i e s w e r e a s f o l l o w s : q u e 1 0 0 ' s o f c a s e s a q u i e n . . . /+6 c a s e s a l c u a l . . . 2 c a s e s a l q u e . . . . 8 c a s e s ( A s w a s n o t e d b e f o r e t h e f i g u r e f o r a l q u e i s h i g h e r t h a n n o r m a l b e c a u s e o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e o f B l a s c o I b a i i e z . S e e s e c . I I , 0 , 4 , a ) . 5 . A s o b j e c t o f a , e n , d e a n d c o n a . R e f e r r i n g t o p e r s o n s ( 1 ) I n r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s . T h i s p a t t e r n d o e s n o t o f t e n o c c u r . Q u i e n , e l c u a l , o r e l q u e a r e u s e d . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e y w e r e f o u n d - u s e d a s f o l l o w s : q u i e n 2 c a s e s ( d e 2 c a s e s ) e l c u a l . . • 1 c a s e ( d e 1 c a s e ) e l q u e . . . . 1 c a s e ( c o n 2 c a s e s ) ( T h e s e f i g u r e s d o n o t i n c l u d e t h e c a s e s o f " p e r s o n a l a " w h i c h h a v e b e e n a l r e a d y c l a s s i f i e d a b o v e . ) ( 2 ) I n n o n - r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s , q u i e n i s u s e d m o s t f r e q u e n t l y . E l c u a l i s a l s o u s e d a n d t o a m u c h l e s s e r e x t e n t , e l q u e . F o l l o w i n g a r e t h e s t a t i s t i c s a s f o u n d i n t h e s t u d y . q u i e n . . . . . 2 2 c a s e s ( e _ n 6 c a s e s , d e 7 , c o n 9 ) e l c u a l . . . 8 c a s e s ( d e 8 c a s e s ) e l q u e . . , . 1 c a s e ( d e 1 c a s e ) ( T h e s e f i g u r e s d o n o t i n c l u d e t h e c a s e s o f " p e r s o n a l a " w h i c h h a v e b e e n a l r e a d y c l a s s i f i e d a b o v e . ) Referring to things 51 (1) In restrictive clauses que i s normally used; el cual and el que infrequently. Statistics: que 188 cases (a 10 cases, _en 120, de 12, con 46) e l cual.. 4 cases (a 2 cases, en 2) el que... 11 cases (a 4 cases, en 3, de 3, con l j ~ (2) In non-restrictive clauses,'que i s used slightly morefrequently than e l cual or el que. Statistics: que. 54 cases (a 4, en 33, de 8, con 9) e l cual.. 37 cases (a 9, en 14, de 9, con 5) el que... 32 cases (a 7, en 18, de 4, con 3) Summary Some generalizations can be made regarding the usage of the relatives with the prepositions, a, _en, de and con: Referring to persons quien, el cual or el que are used, but not que (except as was noted i n sect. II, A, 2, f ) . Referring to things que, el cual or el que are used. Q,ue i s normally used in &ee-restrictive clauses; que, e l cual and and el que, in^restrictive clauses. 52 6 . As object of por, sin, and tras Referring to persons, quien, el cual or e l que are used. Referring to things, e l que or el cual. Statistics: quien...... no cases) e l cual.... 1 case ) Referring to persons ' el que 1 case ) el cual.... 5 cases) el que 4 cases) Referring to things 7 . As object of dissyllabic prepositions Normally el cual or el que are used. •Que is-rarely-so used. Statistics: que 1 case (sobre) el cual..... 9 cases el que 7 cases 8. As object of compound prepositions Referring to both persons and things, e l cual is normally used. E l que i s rarely so used. . quien no cases el cual.... 8 cases e l que 1 case NOTE: Where there are choices in the usage indicated through-out Section B to this point, variety, rhythm and euphony are considerations. However, the choice of quien, el cual and el -que to avoid ambiguity must be particularly borne in mind. 9 . Lo cual and lo que [restrictive and non-restrictive]  after prepositions After monosyllabic prepositions either lo cual or lo que are used. Statistics: lo cual... 23 cases (a 1 case, en 2 cases. d_e 3, con 8, p_or"~6r, tras 1) lo que-. .. . 17 cases (a 9 , en 1, de 2, con 3, por 2) After dissyllabic and compound prepositions lo cual is used. ' No cases of lo que were found so used. 10 . Substantive relatives, quien and el que a. As object of a preposition either quien or el que are used but the latter i s more frequent. quien 29 cases (a 14 cases, de .10, con 2, dissyllabic y7, c o mP°und nil) el que.... 49 cases (a 20 cases, de 22, con 1, dissyllabic T7 compound 1) b. Referring to indefinite persons, quien is used more frequently than e l que. Statistics: quien 53 cases, (54 per cent of cases of quien) e l que.... 47 cases, (32 per cent of cases of el que) c. After como (meaning "as one who") quien i s used exclusively. quien 15 cases. el que.... no cases B I B L I O G R A P H Y G r a m m a t i c a l m a t e r i a l s c o n s u l t e d : B e l l o , A n d r e s , G r a m a t i o a d e l a L e n g u a G a s t e l l a n a , P a r i s , A n d r e s B l a t , 193~6~. H a r m e r , L . C . a n d N o r t o n , F . J " . , A . M a n u a l o f M o d e r n S p a n i s h , L o n d o n , U n i v e r s i t y T u t o r i a l P r e s s , 1935. J o n e s , W i l l i s K . , " S p a n i s h R e l a t i v e P r o n o u n s a n d A d j e c t i v e s H i s p a n i a , V o l . X X X I , N o . 4, 1948. K e n i s t o n , H a y w a r d , T h e S y n t a x o f C a s t i l i a n a P r o s e ( T h e S i x t e e n t h C e n t u r y ) , V o l . I I , C h i c a g o , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s . K e n i s t o n , H a y w a r d , S p a n i s h S y n t a x L i s t , N e w Y o r k , H e n r y H o l t a n d C o m p a n y , 1937. R a m s e y , M a r a t h o n M . , A T e x t - b o o k o f M o d e r n S p a n i s h , N e w Y o r k , H e n r y H o l t a n d C o m p a n y , 1946. S p a u l d i n g , R . K . , " N o t e s a n d q u e r i e s o n t h e r e l a t i v e p r o -n o u n s i n m o d e r n S p a n i s h , " H i s p a n i a , V o l . X V I I I , N o . 2, 1935. S o u r c e s o f E x a m p l e s A m a d e o , O c t a v o R . , V i d a s A r g e n t i n a s , B u e n o s A i r e s , R o l d a n , 1934. B l a s c o - I b a n e z , V i c e n t e , S a n g r e y A r e n a , i n O b r a s C o m p l e t a s , V o l . I i , M a d r i d , A g u i l a r , 1949. D ' H a l m a r , A u g u s t o , C r i s t i a n y Y o , S a n t i a g o d e C h i l e , N a s c i m i e n t o , 1946. G a l l e g o s , R o m u l o , D o n a B a r b a r a , N e w Y o r k , F . S . C r o f t s a n d C o . , 1946. G u i r a l d e s , R i c a r d o , D o n - S e g u n d o S o m b r a i n O b r a s , V o l . V I , B u e n o s A i r e s , E s p a s a - C a l p e , A r g e n t i n a , 1937. 55, Icaza, Jorge, Huasi Pungo, Quito, Eduardo Viteri-Guzman, 1940. Leon, Ricardo, E l Amor de los Amores, Madrid, Victoriano Suarez, 1942. Madariaga, Salvador de, Vida del muy magnlfico Sefior don Cristobal, Colon, Buenos Aires', Editorial Sudamericana, iWT. ' Martinez Ruiz, Jose (Azorin), Los Clasicos Redivivos and Los Clasicos Futuros, Buenos Aires, 1945. Menendez Pidal, Ramon, Rodrigo, el Ultimo Godo, Madrid, Espasa-Calpe, 1942. Ortega y Gasset, Jose, Espana Invertebrada in Obras,- Vol. I Madrid, Espasa-Calpe, 1943. Quiroga, Horacio, Anaconda, Buenos Aires, Ediciones Anaconda. Pereda, Jose Maria de, Penas Arriba in Obras Completas, Vol. XV, Madrid, Hijos de Tello, 1 9 I T . Perez Galdos, Benito,' Misericordia in Obras Completas, Vol. V, Madrid,' M. Aquilar, 1942." Reyles, Carlos, E l Terruno, Buenos Aires, Editorial Losada, 1945. Rivera, Jose.Eustacio, La Voragine, Buenos Aires, Editorial Pleamar, 1944. Rojas, Ricardo, Retablo Espanol, Buenos Aires, Editorial Losada, 193"^ Unamuno, Miguel de, La Tia Tula, Buenos Aires, Espasa-Calpe, Argentina, 1946. Valera, Juan, Juanita La Larga, Buenos Aires, Espasa-Calpe, Argentina, 1943. Valdes, Palacio, Jose in Obras Completas, Vol. VIII, Madrid Victoriano Suarez, 1913. 

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