UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Recreational projects sponsored by service clubs; a survey of a representative group of recreational… Moore, Catherine Jean 1949

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RECREATIONAL PROJECTS  SPONSORED BY SERVICE CLUBS A survey of a representative group of recreational projects sponsored by Service Clubs i n Greater Vancouver by CATHERINE JEAN MOORE Thesis Submitted i n Partial Fulfilment . of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the Department of Social Work 19h9 The University of British Columbia ABSTRACT RECREATIONAL PROJECTS SPONSORED BY SERVICE CLUBS A survey of a representative group of recreational projects sponsored by service clubs i n Greater Vancouver The ever-increasing interest in recreation and i t s part i n prevent-ing juvenile delinquency has attracted the attention of many service clubs and has offered them an opportunity to turn their efforts towards this new-development. This study was undertaken with a view to ascertaining the extent and type of recreational projects aided or sponsored by such clubs, the role they are playing, and their potential contribution to community recreation. Service clubs have in the past few years grown tremendously i n numbers and membership. They raise large sums of money to be expended on community welfare work and with the increasing complexity of l i v i n g , i t appears important to consider their position and how they can make their best contribution i n this area. Particular emphasis has been placed on the years since the end of the war, which i s a natural dividing line since, during this time, most service clubs spent their energies and funds on some type of war work. Material used i n this study has been gathered by several methods and from several sources. First, simple questionnaires and a covering l e t t e r were sent to a l l service clubs. In some cases these were returned, but i n no case was the information sufficient, so a follow-up was made by telephone. In a l l but two cases personal interviews with officers resulted, varying i n number from one to twenty, depending on the size and number of projects carried out by each particular club. Newspaper accounts, club magazines and reports provided further information. In some instances, where the project developed into an organization i n i t s e l f , was closely a l l i e d to an existing agency or had dealings with the Community Chest and Council, the groups concerned were co-operative in making available correspondence, minutes, reports and records. This survey clearly shows the lack of any overall planning body for public and private recreational agencies in Vancouver. The Group Work Division of the Community Chest and Council offers same opportunity for joint planning and co-ordination, but these are not yet sufficiently used. To f a c i l i t a t e this further, i t i s most important to revise the constitution of the Community Chest and Council to allow for more purposeful representa-tion. There i s considerable lack of knowledge on the part of many service club members of the need for this measure of community planning. The philosophy of social group work and community organization i s generally unfamiliar to them. There i s a broad f i e l d for interpretation open to professional social workers and agencies to enlighten those who are inter-ested i n providing recreational services. Service clubs have made a contribution i n this area, and are able to do so to a greater extent. Citizens participation i s basic, i f recreation i s to be part and parcel of a progressive, democratic society. I f service clubs' interest i n and con-viction about their recreational contributions can be a l l i e d to efficient community planning and organizations, the projects sponsored by them w i l l immeasurably enrich the community. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The writer i s indebted to the many members and employees of the following Service Clubs i n Greater Vancouver who gave l i b e r a l l y of their time and interest to answer the questionnaire and discuss numerous aspects of their club work: Junior League Kiwanis Club Kiwassa Club Lions Club Optimist Club Rotary Club Other clubs obliged by f i l l i n g i n the questionnaire but are not included here since their work does not l i e i n the f i e l d of recreation. Also, appreciation goes to staff and board members of recreational agencies for their cc—operation i n providing information and printed material. In this regard the writer wishes to make special mention of the staff of Community Chest and Council who gave freely of their time, and placed a l l minutes, records and correspondence at her disposal. To Dr. L. C. Marsh goes the writer's particular thanks for his interest and many helpful suggestions. C. Jean Moore TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1. The Background of Service Clubs Factors leading to the pertinence of considering the role of service clubs i n l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s . The development of service clubs and t h e i r philosophy. The financing of recreational projects. Some characteristics of service clubs. Chapter 2 . Youth Organizations The development and administration of Burrard Lions Xouth Centre, Kiwassa G i r l s ' Club, Optimist Boys' Camp and Kiwanis Hobby Shop. Chapter 3. The Vancouver Boys' Club Association A Boys' Club Association develops from the interest and ef f o r t s of service clubs. Kiwanis Boys' Club, Junior G-men, Kimout, Kiview, Ruffus Gibbs. Chapter U. Provision of Building and Equipment A new building f o r Vancouver East Conmranity "Y". Playgrounds receive equipment. Other youth groups and organizations are r e -cipie n t s . Requests from organizations to Service Clubs. The Edmonton Council of Soc i a l Agencies' experiment. Chapter 5 . Monetary Donations Junior League makes possible the establishment of a group work sp e c i a l i z a t i o n at the university, the Volunteer Bureau and aids other organizations. The Camp Referral Project. Donations f o r camping, personnel and community centres. Youth Counselling Service. Other recipients. Chapter 6. Co-operative and Short Term Projects The nature of these projects. The development and operation of the O.K. Hallowe'en Parties, Hallowe'en Shell-Out, Youth Leader-ship Training Courses, Soap Box Derby, S i l v e r Gloves Tournament, and Kiwanis Hobby Show. Other a c t i v i t i e s including Model Aeroplane and Glider Contest, p i c n i c s and sports days. Chapter 7. The Implications of the Study Some d i s t i n c t i v e features of service clubs. How these features effect t h e i r service work. Endeavours towards coordination. Service Clubs relationship to community groups. The s i t u a t i o n i n Vancouver. Appendices: A. Sample of the Letter. B, Sample of the Questionnaire. G. Bibliography. CBARTS IN THE TEXT Fig. 1. Organization of Kiwassa Club upon operation of the Girls' Club. Fig. 2. Proposed Organization for Kiwassa Club RECREATIONAL PROJECTS SPONSORED BY SERVICE CLUBS CHAPTER I THE BACKGROUND OF SERVICE CLUBS Professional people i n the leisure time f i e l d i n Canada are acutely conscious of Service Clubs and their efforts i n "recreational projects", -which reach thousands of individuals. Sometimes, i t i s with appreciation and satisfaction that one of their projects i s mentioned; at other times, i t i s with despair and disgust because of the over-lapping, waste or unsatisfactory operation of activities i t entails. Much of the literature produced by Service Clubs emphasizes, "the coming generation", "the big brother idea" and "character development". "State-ments of purpose vary between those which stress the satisfaction of physical needs on a mass scale and those which give p r i o r i t y to the personal problems of a few individuals. Whatever i t s f i n a l expression, 1 the underlying motive i s definitely one of service." Most projects are organized and promoted locally, and i n the majority of cases service clubs work independently of one another, but occasionally they combine to undertake a large enterprise. In Canada today, both lay and pro-fessional people interested i n the welfare aspect of recreation are giving considerable thought to the part played by service clubs, and how this, can be bettered to contribute to the purpose of providing recrea-tion for a l l people a l l year round. At the Annual Meeting of the Recreation Division of the Canadian Welfare Council, held i n June 19^8, i t was proposed that the Recreation Division should sponsor "a National 1. Tuttle, George, Youth Organizations i n Canada, Ryerson Press, May 192*6, p. 96. - 2 -Conference to study the role of service clubs i n community recreation." Such a conference would help to identify specific types of projects which service clubs might best undertake. A real need i n Canada could be met i n a workshop type of conference i n which service club executives and community recreation leaders discussed ways and means by which these clubs could render maximum help to community recreation. As a result of the thinking and planning of the Executive Committee of the Division and i t s Central Ontario Regional Committee, such a conference i s scheduled to take place i n October of this year, as a part of the Canadian Recreation Congress. The material used i n this study has been gathered by several methods and from several sources. F i r s t , a simple questionnaire and covering le t t e r were sent to each service club, asking for informa-tion concerning i t s recreational projects. A few clubs did not return the questionnaires at a l l ; some of these sent printed or mimeographed reports instead. In many instances the answers were too indefinite. Thus, this method did not prove too effective, although the replies did provide considerable general information. An enlightening incident was the occurrence of discrepancies that appeared when two members of the same club each answered a questionnaire and returned them separately. Obviously there are not two different answers from one source (the club's a c t i v i t i e s ) , but each member had interpreted both the question and the work of his club i n the light of his own understanding. For the above reasons i t was necessary to contact officers of clubs by telephone. In a l l but two cases, personal interviews resulted, - 3 -varying i n number from one to twenty depending on the size and number of projects carried out by a particular club. Newspaper accounts, periodicals, club magazines, reports and the documentary material by Frank H i l l i n his book, "Man Made Culture" provided further information. In some instances, where the project developed into an organization i t s e l f or was closely a l l i e d to an existing agency or had dealings with the Community Chest and Council, the groups concerned were especi-a l l y co-operative i n making available to the writer correspondence, minutes, reports and records. Development of Service Club3 The Service Club, as we know i t today, i s an American develop-ment. However, the basic idea of men's clubs i s as old as c i v i l i z e d man himself. The Athenians, Spartans, Greeks and Romans a l l assembled to discuss various matters. In England during the seventeenth century several prominent l i t e r a r y and p o l i t i c a l clubs flourished, e.g. the Rota, Scribblers and Civic. The la t t e r was composed of "but one person of the same trade or profession" and sx-ated that members should give "preference to one another i n their respective callings." The diversity of interest and purpose multiplied as the eighteenth century advanced and cultural and sports clubs sprang up. This idea of gathering to-gether around a common interest carried over from the old world to the new, with the settlers of the North American colonies. On f i r s t thought one might expect only to find clubs flourishing i n a society that has - ii -attained a significant cultural and social standing and some wealth. However, North America was potentially rich for the growth of clubs. From the very beginning, settlements of men l i v e d less as individuals and more as groups. There were innumerable town meetings and social gatherings. The very lack of tradition i n songs, dances and customs, expressive of the relationship between men and their environment; the lack of established organization, including the Church which represented power and prestige, were influences that drew men together f o r susten-ance from each other's company. However, American clubs of the eighteenth century represented only the f i r s t faltering steps of an activity that broadened and deepened rapidly. New c i t i e s , national independence, growing wealth and a thousand new ideas led to numerous p o l i t i c a l , l i t e r a r y , debating and discussion clubs. In this period the f i r s t germ of a business men's club can be detected i n the New York Chamber of Commerce organized i n 1768. During the nineteenth century the philosophy of the ever increasing number of clubs was blended with and tempered by the earnest efforts of enthusiasts, who advocated broader adult education by such efforts as mechanics institutes and lyceums. Most of the modern men's clubs were born i n the latte r half of the nine-teenth century and are either survivals of strong forces or old activ-i t i e s i n new forms. This i s not to say that the present men's clubs have not their own distinctive characteristics, which would have been unfamiliar to their earlier ancestors. The "internationals" with their enormous membership, operating i n modern offices, f i l l e d with f i l i n g - 5 -cases and purpose charts and staffed by executive directors, organizers and stenographers are d e f i n i t e indications that clubs have become psychologized and streamlined. This i s true of the clubs known as men's Service Clubs, which number about f i f t e e n and have 1,000,000 members throughout the world. The f i r s t of these clubs was founded by a Chicago lawyer, Paul P. Harris, who was disturbed by the loneliness of the c i t y which seemed permeated by the motto, "self-preservation". One evening a f t e r Mr. Harris had experienced a f r i e n d l y atmosphere at a suburban dinner, he wondered why business men could not esta b l i s h friendship clubs to overcome the anonymity and impersonal nature of the c i t y . Thus, one afternoon i n 190f>, Mr. Harris expounded the idea to three acquaintances i n one of t h e i r business o f f i c e s , and t h i s was destined to be the f i r s t meeting of what was soon to be known as the Rotary Club. A few other men from different vocations were selected and meetings were held i n the afternoons or evenings i n one another's o f f i c e s , whence came the name Rotary - rotating from one o f f i c e to another. However, within s i x months the members were meeting weekly, eating together and passing a few enjoyable hours, c a l l i n g one another by their f i r s t names and discussing t h e i r problems. In t h i s informal, f r i e n d l y atmosphere, the idea spread and by 1910, when the national organization was formed, there were sixteen clubs with a membership of eighteen hundred. The chief aim was fellowship and mutual advantage. Gustavus Loehr, one of the o r i g i n a l four members of Rotary, recalled the proposal 1. Aren Arnold, "Clubs are Trumps" C o l l i e r ' s Magazine, January 10, 19^8, p. 11. - 6 -for the club as a plan "by which a man could have a couple of hundred good friends who could be working and boosting for him and for each 1 other." Paradoxically, this self-interest included promoting the interests of fellow members. The founder of the club was an apostle of l i b e r a l i t y , and influential i n many respects. Most important among his ideas, which affected the future of the club, was his insistence that there should be no r a c i a l or religious barriers, and his belief i n the importance of doing some community service work. The l a t t e r idea found few supporters for a time, but was eventually accepted and "Rotary championed as i t s f i r s t cause public comfort stations f o r the 2 Loop Dis t r i c t . " Shortly after, a teacher of salesmanship became a member and advocated the policy, "He profits most who serves best." This idea spread to a l l branches of the Club and was incorporated i n i t s national platform i n 1°H. Coinciding with these enlarged interests was a conscious educational program for i t s members. Rotary clubs developed rapidly and are now established i n eighty countries. The Club's objectives include high ethical standards i n business and pro-fession, an application of the ideal of service to personal, business and community l i f e and the advancement of international understanding, goodwill and peace. Almost simultaneously, other clubs of similar character were developing. The Kiwanis appears to have a more earthy origin. In 1915 Allen S. Browne apparently decided that i t would be "naturally good" to organize some sort of fraternal group. The name Kiwanis i s an American 1. H i l l , . Frank Ernest, Man-Made Culture, American Association for Adult Education, George Grady J^ress, wew York, I 9 3 8 , p. 8 7 . 2 . Ibid., p. 8 7 . Indian word meaning, "To make one's self known". The club's f i r s t motto, "We Trade" was, i n 1919, altered to "We Build"; thus i t l i k e -wise progressed from a relatively s e l f i s h to a broader point of view. The Kiwanis allow for a more generous classification i n that two persons i n each class may be members. "They (the members) promote the adoption and application of higher social, business and professional standards; they look toward friendship, a l t r u i s t i c service and better communities." Each year, Kiwanis International sets forth certain objectives as guides for individual clubs to follow, these being largely i n the realm of boys' and youth work. This club champions the cause of free enterprise, and unlike the Rotary Club which is international, believes i t can best achieve this purpose by limiting i t s sphere to the United States and Canada where this philosophy i s prevalent. The Lions Club, which now has the largest membership, estimated to be 3^0,000 in twenty countries, was founded by Melvin Jones i n 1911*. It seemed feasible to the founder to organize a l l of the then u n a f f i l i a t -ed business men's clubs of America into a national organization. Three years later Lion's International evolved. There seems to be no explana-tion as to why the name "Lions" was chosenj however, after i t had been accepted, the letters were used to form t h e i r motto: "Liberty, I n t e l l i -gence, Our Nations Safety". Its aims are similar to Rotary and Kiwanis, They encourage good citizenship, seek the welfare of l o c a l communities and sponsor forums for " f u l l and free discussion" of public problems 1. Ibid., p. 93. - 8 -though the l a t t e r i s somewhat limited i n practice since i t i s understood that those of a " p o l i t i c a l or sectarian religious nature" are excluded. This club emphasizes the actual doing of community work more than the other clubs, and each month a specific report i s required at the International Office. In 1912 the Gyro Club was formed i n Cleveland as a result of three college friends who were desirous of perpetuating their friend-ship. They gathered around them a few more like-minded men. This post-college fraternity for friendship considered the gyroscope an appropriate symbol since i t depicted balance, and gave steadiness, s t a b i l i t y and direction to a moving body. The club maintains, as i t s primary tenet, the promotion of friendship. I t appears that Gyro International i s less directive than the previously mentioned Inter-nationals; thus each club i s autonomous and acts individually i n selecting the frequency and nature of i t s ac t i v i t i e s within the Gyro Fellowship. In promoting this friendship Gyro members are encouraged to think beyond their own fellowship to include other clubs, commun-i t i e s , nations and the world. Thus, they stress the importance of good citizenship and the facing of national and world issues with understand-ing. One of Vancouver's prominent service clubs, the Kinsmen, i s part of the national organization which i s exclusively Canadian. This club was established i n 1921*, four years after the original club was founded i n Hamilton, Ontario. Mr. Harold Allen Rogers, the founder, moved to Hamilton, where he joined a church organization, but found i n - 9 -i t certain restrictions and conventions which prevented the inclusion of a l l creeds. Mr. Rogers discussed with others the idea of a more inclusive organization, which resulted in three men laying plans to launch a young men's luncheon club. Friends were added and as the club, known as the Young Business Men's Club, grew, i t was invited to join the Junior Chamber of Commerce and the Men's Canadian Club. However, the club preferred to work out its own destiny. Later i t altered its name, choosing "Kinsmen" after a famous old luncheon club that once existed in New York. Also the members liked the connotation of "kin", indicative of relationship. The Kinsmen crest is composed of a St. A n d r Q W t s cross, symbolic of service and personal sacrifice, and a mascle or square, an old symbol for uprightness of l i f e . These two symbols are intertwined so as to be inseparable. Kinsmen recognize the interdependence of one l i f e on another, and their crest stands as a protest against isolation and separation. This club has a more generous classification than most service clubs and allows three persons in each category. In its twenty-eight years i t has grown from one to two hundred and twenty-five clubs, with a membership of eight thousand. Women's Service Clubs The women's clubs generally referred to as Service Clubs seem to be less easily defined than are the men's, and there appears to be a difference of opinion as to which clubs are so classified. One l i s t - 10 -includes the following: Altrusa, Pilot, Soroptimist, Zonta and the National Federation of Business and Professional Women. The la t t e r , however, states that i t i s not a service club. Also recently there has been a development of women's clubs corresponding to each of the men's service clubs. They are composed of "wives" and they may further the efforts of their husbands' clubs or undertake projects of their own. However, the majority of these clubs are not active i n the recreational f i e l d i n Vancouver, and are therefore not included i n this present study. The women's clubs that actually have served i n this f i e l d of community work i n the c i t y are the two Kiwassa Clubs and the Junior League. Since the former clubs are a local development and their history i s closely bound to their projects, they w i l l be discussed later i n relation to these a c t i v i t i e s . It should, perhaps, be men-tioned that scattered over the country are a few other "Lady Kiwanis" groups, but to date they have no national or international organization. The Junior League presents a different story. In 1901 the League was formed by a group of New York debutantes who found time hanging heavy on their hands. They agreed to use some of their p l e n t i f u l leisure for such worthwhile projects as taking flowers to the sick and sewing layettes for the poor. The idea was good and i t spread rapidly. It was not long before a central headquarters was set up i n New York, which was known as the Association of Junior leagues of America. The leisured class of those days has now largely disappeared. However, the -11 -50,000 members i n Canada, United States, Mexico and Hawaii are s t i l l largely of the "upper crust". During the years, the Junior League has attempted to keep abreast of the times, and i t now represents a serious endeavour on the part of a group of young women 18 - 1*0 years of age to become a constructive force i n the community. It obligates each member to f i t herself through training and active work to become an intelligent citizen and to use her education and experience i n an effort to raise community standards and promote human welfare. As one professional social worker declared, '•Without question, the Junior Leaguers are the best trained, most organized volunteer workers we have." This examination of Service Clubs portrays their historical development and something of the philosophy which i s the background for their interest and ac t i v i t y i n community services. In Vancouver the f i r s t clubs were organized within a few years after their establish-ment i n the United States. They were required to meet certain stand-ards prescribed by their "Internationals" i n order to be granted a charter and were thereby influenced i n their programme and a c t i v i t i e s . Traditionally certain clubs have assumed specific areas of service work, for example the Lions take an active interest i n the welfare of the blind and the Kiwanis i n " l i t t l e brothers" and youth work. - 12 -Financing Recreational Projects Involved i n this community service work i s the interesting and v i t a l question of money raising to finance i t . Service Clubs expend large sums, and often the securing of these funds, i s achieved i n such a manner that the money should be considered as a public trust. Many clubs did not answer the inquiry on the questionnaire as to whether the majority of their funds was raised by an established method. But, i n addition to such answers as were given, information gathered through interviews and news items has made i t possible to piece the story together f a i r l y well. Admittedly the question i s somewhat ambiguous for "the majority of your funds" could mean those raised for the club's a c t i v i t i e s as a whole or those raised to support their recreational projects only. However, i n some cases, there would be no distinct division i n these and also clubs may change their methods from time to time. A variety of methods i s used. Carnival's are f a i r l y common and often include as a highlight a "draw" for lucky tickets from those sold previous to the big event. There seems l i t t l e doubt that raffles are the easiest means to raise the most money, i f tickets can be sold i n the downtown business section. Clubs have been reported making as much as #32,000. to #58,000. at one time by this means. Others state that they are not able to do as much service work now because of the restrictions on r a f f l e s . There are a few clubs whose members dis-approve of r a f f l e s , but that i s an individual club matter. For example, one Lion's Club w i l l conduct raf f l e s , while another w i l l not. Nearly - 13 -a l l clubs.make appropriations from general funds fo r their recreation-a l projects. The Junior League, however, i s an exception. Membership dues are used solely for administrative purposes, including expenses of meetings, educational programmes and conferences. A l l monies received from their two money raising projects the Thrifty Shop and the Annual Cabaret are called "community funds" and are spent on community projects. Not uncommon are special drives or canvasses but these are nearly always for one specific project of considerable magnitude, such as the Kiwanis drive for funds to build Kiview. One interesting trend i s that of raising money by sponsoring entertainments. Some of these are the Qymkanas, Boat Shows, Dog Shows, International Police Show, Stampede, Dramatic productions, Garden Parties, Teas and Ice Carnivals. Several clubs sponsor these events annually; others, just on occasion. Some special events are educational as well as entertaining. These include drama festivals, performances by glee clubs and operatic societies, often composed of their own members and the sponsoring of prominent speakers such as Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt and Mr. B. Bairnsfather. Some Characteristics of Service Clubs There are certain characteristics common to most Service Clubs which vary only i n degree. I t i s worthy of note that members of these clubs are predominantly business men and women with some professional people who might be considered the economic "royalists" and among whom the standard of formal education i s relatively high. - Ik -Food seems es sen t i a l as w e l l as p len ty of fun, fel lowship and nonsense. Informal education has i t s place i n the programme' and a l l club mottos give the general connotation of "I Serve". Service c lubs , a l so , have been described as providing an opportunity for character b u i l d i n g , that i s , they have sought to enhance the at t i tude of t he i r members, "to make, them out-looking as w e l l as i n -looking persons, to give them a sense of the importance of co-operation and of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to h i s community and 1 to h is na t ion ." The present study has been made wi th the object of presenting; a general p ic ture of the recreat ional services rendered i n the c i t y of Vancouver by Service Clubs. The emphasis i s p r ima r i l y on the years fo l lowing the conclusion of World War I I , but frequently i t has been necessary to probe further back for a complete understanding, of the project under d iscuss ion . This cannot c la im to be a complete account of a l l t h e i r contr ibutions made i n the recrea t ional f i e l d i n Vancouver though few that came to the w r i t e r ' s a t tent ion have been omitted. A number of omissions i s due to the general f a i l u r e of clubs to keep f u l l records of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , or to the fact that where records were kept some of these were not avai lable to the w r i t e r . Neither i s t h i s an account of the work of a l l service clubs since many of them engage p a r t l y or completely i n work i n other f i e l d s , such as heal th and cu l tu re . Some service clubs are mentioned more 1 . H i l l , Frank Ernest, Man-Made Culture , p . I h 8 . - 15 -often than others, but again this i s due to the fact that their major interest l i e s i n youth and recreation. No mention has been made of fraternities and lodges and of the many local organizations and clubs that include recreational services i n their programme. These are too numerous to bring within the present survey though i n the aggregate they make a considerable contribution i n this f i e l d . Most often these groups supply services for their own members and immediate families, though some enlarge their scope beyond this. For example, the Elks Lodge sponsor a boys club with open membership and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows own and operate a camp .which serves not only children of the members, but others i n need of a camp-ing experience. Due to the large and varied amount of recreational work done i t appeared best to classify the projects under certain headings. This has certain disadvantages i n that the line of demarca-tion i s not always clearly defined and the clubs almost always have projects which f a l l into more than one category and sometimes are inter-related. However, this study i s concerned with service clubs' contribution to recreation more than a general account of money raised and services rendered; and the classification used therefore provides some means of evaluating projects according to types. CHAPTER II YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS A type of project not common to service clubs but nevertheless important i s that of administering youth groups and special youth organizations. This kind of activity brings the sponsoring clubs into close contact with the actual techniques of administration, the p h i l -osophy of group work and recreation, and the f i e l d of programme planning. These projects entail a great range of responsibility i n the procuring and maintenance of physical f a c i l i t i e s , varying from that of West Point Kiwanis Club, which rents a room, to that of Burrard Lions Club, which owns and operates a large plant. The Kiwassa Club which leases an unused f i r e h a l l , and the Optimist Club whose camp si t e i s loaned to i t and upon which i t has erected buildings, f a l l within this wide range. These differences have been influenced by many factors• the length of the service club's existence, i t s purpose, and the needs of the area from which the club draws i t s membership. In a similar manner the program offered has depended on varying special circumstances, which can best be understood by the development of each project. Burrard Lions Youth Centre The Burrard Lions Youth Centre i s the result of a continued interest i n youth work, over a period of years by the Burrard Lions Club. The l a t t e r started i n I939 as the Kitsilano Lions Club and held i t s meetings i n Alexandra Neighbourhood House for the f i r s t two years. This arrangement was accompanied by a verbal understanding that the - 17 -Club's welfare projects would be conducted to a large extent through the Neighbourhood House since this l a t t e r agency had contact with the under-privileged group of that area. The Neighbourhood House found that there was interest i n wood work and a desire to set up a workshop but with i t s limited funds could not provide f a c i l i t i e s for i t . The agency accordingly asked this Lions Club i f i t would l i k e to undertake this important activity. This the Club agreed to do and the building on the Neighbourhood House grounds was made available for this purpose. This building, 30' x hO' i n size, with one large room and a smaller one for office space and storage, provided adequate f a c i l i t i e s . The woodwork project was supervised by a workshop committee of the Lions Club. The committee purchased the necessary equipment which vras valued at l&OO.OO. It also secured and paid instructors, supplied materials and arranged for at least one club member to be present at each class to assist the instructors. Classes were held five nights a week with twenty boys i n each class. A l l boys were required to be members of the Neighbourhood House though there was, at that time, no membership fee. Problems arising i n discipline and the f i l l i n g of vacancies were handled by the agency. The workshop was recognized as an Alexandra Neighbourhood House activity, but at the same time i t was advertised as a project of the Lions Club. As well as t h i s , the Lions Club sponsored two model aeroplane groups with an enrollment of t h i r t y . Other events carried out were a large picnic and sports day and a Christmas party. The Executive Director of the Alexandra Neighbourhood House, also a Lions Club member, when reporting to the Lions International on the club's a c t i v i t i e s , mentioned that i t was often d i f f i c u l t for a small, young group to successfully administer a service project of any size. In summary he said that, "by working i n conjunction with a recognized social agency with a history of successful accomplishments, i t gave s t a b i l i t y to their work and more or less assured success." In the f a l l of I9I4I the Kitsilano Lions Club, on the recommenda-tion of the Lions International, expanded their area and became known as the Burrard Lions Club. Fearing that i t s identity might be lost, the members secured a new meeting place and thus were no longer obliged to do their service work through the Alexandra Neighbourhood House. They were doubtful i f their present project answered the requirements of Lions International, -which was to carry out, unaided and alone, a definite activity with an objective that would be of permanent benefit to the community i n which the club i s located. The club decided to suspend operation of the workshop during the war. The piano and the tables which the club had secured for i t s own use were donated to the House but the club expressed i t s desire to retain the workshop equipment. However, Alexandra Neighbourhood House requested the use of the tools, as i t had secured an instructor for the woodwork shop but could not afford to purchase equipment. This request was granted for a year and the following summer of 191*2 the tools and other equipment were presented to the House by the club. - 19 -Further interest i n youth work was evidenced by a $3,000 contri-bution made to the Alexandra Neighbourhood House Playground and one of $100 to i t s Teen Canteen i n 19^ 5. At this time also the club visualized a youth centre that i t would sponsor and had proceeded as far as having an architect draw the plans. However, i n the spring of 19U6, before ideas on the new scheme had developed very far, the Club took advantage of an opportunity to buy a church building at 12th and F i r . The fact that Alexandra Neighbourhood House i s located within six blocks does not appear to have influenced the decision to establish this centre. The three-storey structure of brick, with a gymnasium, a large woodwork shop and many smaller rooms provides excellent f a c i l i t i e s for youth work. In the f a l l of that -year the centre was opened to the youth of the area and was named the Burrard Lions Youth Centre. The Club considers this type of project of(more value than the traditional short term ones generally sponsored by service clubs. Nevertheless, each year the new executive decides whether or not i t wishes to continue the project, for there i s no binding obligation for the incoming officers to assume this responsi-b i l i t y . A Youth Centre Administrative Committee of the Club supervises the Centre, It engages a paid supervisor, an assistant and a caretaker and i n addition volunteer leaders are found from among the club members and other interested citizens. The centre i s operated on an annual budget of approximately #9,i>00. This amount is comparatively gmgli when - 20 -viewed i n relation to other agencies providing leisure time a c t i v i t i e s , which are members of the Vancouver Community Chest and Council. The fixed expenditure totalling $5,800, which includes salaries and u t i l i t i e s obviously does not allow sufficient to employ professionally trained workers or a large enough staff. Each member joining the Youth Centre f i l l s i n an application form which i s signed by a parent or guardian. On i t i s included a statement that the Club cannot be held responsible for any injuries suffered. Annual membership fees are charged according to the following schedule: Juniors (8 - 12 years). 500 Intermediates ( 1 3 - 1 5 years)..75^ Seniors (16-20 years) $1.00 The centre provides organized activities for youth:in the area extend-ing from Oak Street west, and from False Creek to Fraser River, which is the d i s t r i c t of Burrard Lions Club. There are at present 350 members. Activities are of various types including many sports, handicrafts and other interest groups. However, recently two senior clubs, one for boys and one for g i r l s have developed. The centre also houses several community groups such as the Brownies, G i r l Guides, Boy Scouts and the Kitsilano Teen Town. The emphasis on sports and mass acti v i t i e s and not on small friendship and interest groups i s inevitable with i t s limited staff. The recorded average weekly attendance of 1500 obviously means that l i t t l e attention can be given to the individual needs of members. - 21 -Thus i n three years the Burrard Lions Club, with a membership of only about seventy, has purchased a building and operated a youth centre — no small feat for so small a group. Kiwassa Girls' Club The Kiwassa Club o f f i c i a l l y opened the Kiwassa Girls' Club at 600 Vernon Drive on May 18, 19h9> The story of the development of this club i s unique and worthy of note. The Kiwassa Club (wives of Kiwanis members) was organized i n 193k. The Kiwanians, aware of an atmosphere of unfamiliarity among their wives at their social events believed that these socials could be much more pleasant i f the ladies were acquainted with each other. Thus the president chatted with a few of his fellow members1 wives about the idea of a club for wives of Kiwanians. As a result such a club was formed, which was influenced considerably by i t s founders. The members chose to complement the Kiwanis work with boys by taking an interest i n g i r l s . Kiwassa, the name chosen, i s an Indian word meaning " l i t t l e sister", obviously a suitable companion name to Kiwanis. From i t s inception, u n t i l the beginning of the war, the members attempted " l i t t l e sister" work patterned after the Kiwanis " l i t t l e brother" service. For them the problems seemed greater, for a mother substitute i s necessary to a home and motherless g i r l s are cared for by housekeepers, foster mothers, step-mothers or relatives. For this reason the project did not prove to be a very valid one. Some members had - 22 -visualized that these " l i t t l e sisters", who would number about one hundred, might be formed into a club. Another idea of same of the early executive members was that the club might build an attractive structure to provide l i v i n g quarters and club room f a c i l i t i e s for young g i r l s coming to the c i t y to work. In ly38, with these thoughts i n mind, a Gi r l s ' Trust Fund was established. From year to year amounts of a few hundred dollars were added. The money was invested i n war bonds. During the war the club turned i t s energies and funds to war service work. The Blue Triangle Club, a Y.W.C.A. leave centre for service g i r l s was given #65>0. towards furnishings. For two or three years following the war the club made donations to numerous organiza-tions. The Kiwassa Club's idea of building a club centre was tempered by the change i n the times. The number of appeals for public support had increased greatly, among them drives for a r t h r i t i s , polio, cancer, and crippled children. These numerous appeals,increased building costs, and the continued operation of the Blue Triangle Club, which provides l i v i n g quarters for g i r l s with low incomes, altered the original plans of the Club. At the annual meeting i n 19k7 some members questioned the use being made of certain funds to which the club had contributed. Some of the executive recalled their dreams of a Kiwassa Girls' Club and reminded the members that their purpose was to "help g i r l s " . This return to i t s former purpose was favoured try the membership. The General - 23 -Service Committee was instructed to investigate the po s s i b i l i t i e s of establishing a g i r l s ' club. The $3200 held i n trust was turned over to this committee for the project. In January of l°i*8 the president of Kiwassa contacted Community Chest and Council, stating that the club had substantial funds and some members were anxious to see them used. The members wished the future a c t i v i t i e s of the club to be devoted to some major project rather than to odds and ends. They had i n mind a club for teen age g i r l s under the direction of a trained worker i n some specific area where a store or house could be rented. Thus within a few weeks three Kiwassa members met with Community Chest and Council staff to discuss the project. An area cited as needing recreational services was the East Hastings d i s t r i c t . Community Chest and Council sent letters to a few agencies working i n this area asking their opinion about a g i r l s ' club being established there. The School Board replied that the Boys' Clubs had been valuable and that some activity was needed for the g i r l s . It stressed the importance of strong, adequate leadership. The Board further stated that i t was not i n favor of activities which took elementary school children from their homes after dinner on school evenings. The worker from the Family Welfare Bureau noted i n her reply the lack of recreational f a c i l i t i e s i n social areas 3, k, 5 and also emphasized the "need for good leadership. About this time the Kiwassa Club met with a few Kiwanians seek-ing their advice, based on t h e i r experience with boys' clubs. The men informed them that Junior G would be moving to new quarters and that the - 214. -f i r e h a l l this club had occupied might be available. It was f i r s t thought that the building would be vacated i n March. However, this date had to be postponed many times, because of d i f f i c u l t i e s i n f i n i s h -ing the'Rufus Gibbs Club. The General Service Committee set to work with enthusiasm. Committee members contacted the Department of Social Work at the Uni-versity, and met once with a professional staff member of a recreational agency to discuss the whole project. Volunteers from the general member-ship were added to the committee and several small sub-committees were established. These were, social and entertainment, finance, library, registration and decorating. The committee v i s i t e d the building to enable them to start formulating plans. The social "and entertainment committee wrote for information on how to run g i r l s ' clubs. It decided that the greatest need was to provide g i r l s i n this d i s t r i c t with opportunities to learn the art of homemaking, and with f a c i l i t i e s and leadership for wholesome recreation. The finance committee found l i t t l e to do u n t i l the building was actually i n the club's possession. Much work was done by the decorating committee; i t planned for the use of the rooms, colour schemes and procured donations of suitable furniture. The library committee investigated the p o s s i b i l i t y of establishing a chil d -ren's branch of the public library. As this appeared too expensive i t decided to collect good books and catalogue them. For this the advice and assistance of a retired l i b r a r i a n was secured. The l i b r a r y now stocks about $00 books. The registration committee studied the boys' club method of registration which involves application forms requiring - 25 -the parents' signature, membership cards which are numbered, and each child checking off his number on a sheet provided for this purpose upon entering the building. This system was recommended, but when the club opened i t was not adopted. The Kiwassa Club, upon hearing that the f i r e h a l l would be vacated, wrote to the City Council asking permission to use i t on the same basis and for a similar purpose to that of the Junior G Club. This was granted, subject to the approval of the building inspector and the f i r e marshal. Not u n t i l the middle of December did the club have the keys and a lease for five years on a rental basis of one dollar per year. The delay i n occupancy of the building meant that the g i r l s ' club could not be put into operation while the 19^8 executive was i n office. This change i n officers did not allow for continuity of per-sonnel i n continuing the project. The chairman of the General Service Committee has considerable power to act as she sees f i t . However, much of the ground work which had been done was capitalized upon, while some of i t was supplanted by new ideas. , The Kiwassa Club secured a provincial charter for the Kiwassa G i r l s 1 Club and established a Board of Directors. The lat t e r was appointed by the chairman of the General Service Committee who had asked the club to grant her this power. At present the Board consists of seven members; the Chairman of the General Service Committee i s i t s president, the President of the Kiwassa Club and the li a i s o n officer are members, as well as one person from each of the following categories i n the club: the officers, which number five; the executive, which - 26 -numbers thirteen; the membership-at-large, and the volunteers of sub-committees. The only relationship of this Board to the General Service Committee, which initi a t e d the project i s by virtue of the fact that the same person holds the office of chairman i n each group. The Board of Directors reports directly to the Kiwassa Club, while the sub-committees are not responsible to this Board but only to i t s chairman as chairman of the General Service Committee. This pattern w i l l not necessarily continue; i t was merely a method of getting established to operate the g i r l s ' club. This method as i t developed, i s shown by the following Chart. Figure I Kiwassa Club-Membership 126 Officers 5 elected annually and past president Standing Committees 1 General Service h6 members Function -charity and service work Educational Membership Programme Social Board of . .Directors Kiwassa Girls'Club Executive Officers & Chairman of the Standing Committees. Function - to council with committees and approve a l l b i l l s Sub Committees i i I 1 n — Social Library House and Volunteers Finance Decorating This group i s now i n the throes of working out a constitution. Involved are many v i t a l points, such as a statement of purpose for the g i r l s * - 27 -club, the administrative set-up, including necessary committees, a method of securing some continuity i n the board membership, the relationship of this board to the executive of the club and i t s general membership, budget, personnel practices, and the function of the agency i n the community. The Board of Directors being aware of their numerous problems, has turned to the Group Work Division of the Community Chest and Council for advice. The secretary of the Group Work Division, upon examination of the total organization, discovered several discrepancies and made various suggestions that would f a c i l i t a t e sounder operation of the Girls' Club. The following i s a summary of this report which was given to the Kiwassa Club. It was discovered that the Kiwassa Club had secured a charter enabling them to operate a g i r l s ' club rather than a charter for a Kiwassa Girls ' Club. This makes the Kiwassa Club legally responsible for the operation of the g i r l s ' club and not a Board of Directors. This, as well as the importance of the project, the phenomenal efforts i n money raising and the long weeks of volunteer service which the club gave to this venture, indicates that the group operating the g i r l s ' club should have a closer connection to the Executive Committee and the Kiwassa Club. This group would be a standing committee, the Kiwassa G i r l s 1 Club Committee, responsible to the Club through the Executive Committee. This committee would then be unlike other standing committees which are on the same constitutional level as the Executive Committee. Such a com-mittee would be both operational and advisory; operational i n that i t - 28 -maintains a G i r l s ' Club but advisory i n that i t cannot change i t s general policy, nor employ staff, make major contracts or spend money in excess of the budget, without endorsement from the Club. The functions of the Kiwassa G i r l s 1 Club Committee would be to keep the Kiwassa Club informed of the developments i n this project, as well as attending to such specific matters as i t s day by day opera-tion, the establishment of a general operational policy, the administra-tion of a budget on a yearly basis, recommendations regarding the employment of staff and the setting up of sub-committees and receiving reports from them. At present, sub-committees responsible for the house, library, volunteers, budget and programme would adequately cover the project. The chairman of the G i r l s ' Club Committee would be appointed as are the chairman of other standing committees but the committee w i l l differ i n that i t s membership w i l l be established. It w i l l be composed of the officers of the Club, the chairmen of the sub-committees and the employed director of the Girls' Club. However, the Club's policy of allowing members to volunteer for the committees on which they wish to serve would hold as f a r as the sub-committees are concerned. It would seem practical to have the treasurer of the Club act as chairman of the sub-committee on budget. The following Chart shows these proposed changes. Figure II Kiwassa Club , 11 — , I Executive Committee I . 1 '  1 1 r-1 1 1 1 Educational General Kiwassa Girls' Membership Programme Social Services* Club House Library Budget Volunteers Programme #This committee would be responsible for a l l service work outside of the Kiwassa Girls' Club. - 29 -Ttfhile these matters are being considered, the club started operating i n May under the direction of a supervisor. The building has been made attractive and i s well equipped for crafts, cooking and club meetings. Already about two hundred g i r l s from five to sixteen years are using the building, with members of the Kiwassa Club volunteer-ing as leaders and instructors. The supervisor has made several contacts with the schools, public health nurses and other agencies and workers interested i n the g i r l s of this area. Much of the future success of this project depends upon the a b i l i t y of the Kiwassa Club to comprehend and act upon the professional advice available to them. That the Club i s anxious to take advantage of this, i s indicated by i t s request to become a non-financial participat-ing member of the Community Chest and Council, and this has been granted. Some members at least hope the project w i l l be sufficiently successful that this Girls• Club w i l l eventually become the f i r s t of several such clubs i n Vancouver. Should this development be considered, i t i s hoped that the Kiwassa Club w i l l take cognizance of the fact that these clubs, as i s true with others of limited intake, provide recreation for only a small proportion of the citizens of any community. The Optimist Junior Club and Camp The third service club operating recreational f a c i l i t i e s i s the Vancouver Optimist Club. This branch, a member of the International Optimist was formed only three years ago. The Vancouver Optimist Club, whose main purpose i s to be a friend to boys, handles i t s service work - 30 -through a Boys' Work Committee. At the present time the club sponsors a group of boys known as the East Hastings Junior Optimist Club and operates a summer camp. The Boys' Club had i t s beginnings when an Optimist Club member, form-erly engaged i n youth work, became aware of the number of boys around his home with l i t t l e to do but play on the streets. His interest i n them spread to the Club as a whole and i t adopted them as a Junior Optimist Club, with the originator of the idea as volunteer director. This East Hastings Club i s comprised of about f i f t y boys between the ages of 9 and 16 years. Since clubroom space was not readily available and the boys were interested i n sports, they organized teams i n various sports. As well as the director there are three other men who volunteer as coaches. Equipment i s purchased by the Optimist Club. It also arranges special events for the boys such as sports days, banquets and camp. The Club hopes eventually to follow the American plan of establish-ing Junior Optimist Clubs which entails a suitable building for meetings and program, equipment for a variety of activities and adequate leader-ship. A major project of the Optimist Club i s the operation of a camp at Robson Cove. Members, i n their search for a suitable camp site, found an attractive spot and upon making inquiries discovered that the proprietor was most interested i n their work. Thus he put this property at the disposal of the Club for a boys' camp. It has the advantage of being easily accessible to Vancouver, being a distance of twenty miles and takes only fifteen minutes by boat from Deep Cove. - 31 -In the summer of 1 9 U 8 , the f i r s t year of operation, a dining h a l l and cook house were b u i l t . Tents provide sleeping accommodation for 30 to UO boys. The volunteer director Of the camp i s an honorary member of the Optimist Club and dire c t o r of the Ja-Go-Ben Boys' Club, l a s t year the camp was operated i n two ten day periods. This year i t i s expected that three periods w i l l be necessary to accommodate a l l the boys. Members from the East Hastings Junior Optimist Club, the Ja-Go-Ben Club and t h e i r friends attend. The camp i s absolutely free to the boys, a l l costs being assumed by the Optimist Club. I t employs a cook, but i f possible leaders are procured on a volunteer basis. The camp s i t e i s also made available f o r one period each to the l i i t h A l l Saints Scouts and to the North Vancouver Scout Troop. A Hobby Shop The West Point Kiwanis Club, organized i n February 19u7, made i t s f i r s t contribution to recreation i n the form of a donation, which w i l l be discussed l a t e r . In the autumn the club decided to experiment with a project c a l l e d "Hobby Shop". This i s actually woodwork classes that the club sponsors f o r ooys. ihe Jiiwanis rent, on a pro xata basis, a room i n the Annex of St. Mary's ochool which has been leased to West i'oint Grey Community Centre, i t equipped the room with ten benches and provided excellent tools. The boys' work committee, aware that there were more a c t i v i t i e s f o r older boys i n the neighbourhood, decided to open the shop for boys from 9 to 12 years of age. A few boys were t o l d about the hobby shop who i n turn passed the word along to t h e i r friends and i n t h i s way f o r t y boys, the maximum that can be accommodated were registered. Each boy was given a membership card which his parents must sign indicating their approval of his attendance. There was no charge for membership and a l l materials were provided free. A Kiwanian, particularly s k i l l e d i n this work volunteered to instruct, and other members were on hand each evening to assist. Monday and Wednesday even-ings from 6:30 to 8:30 twenty boys enjoyed their new hobby. The committee tried two methods of work. In the f a l l the boys were allowed to make anything they wished but i t was found that only a few boys had ideas and the rest copied them. After Christmas i t was decided to suggest the construction of bird houses as a specific project. Several plans were prepared and each boy chose the one that appealed to him most. It was considered that this method was more successful than the former one. The Kiwanis Club was satisfied with this experiment, several parents wrote letters of appreciation, and i t i s planned to continue the Hobfcy Shop next f a l l . CHAPTER III THE VANCOUVER BOYS' CLUB ASSOCIATION The Vancouver Boys' Club Association i s an interesting and important development of service clubs' participation i n establishing boys' clubs. There were many factors that influenced the Kiwanis Club i n establishing the Kiwanis Boys' Club i n 1937, which later became the f i r s t unit of the Vancouver Boys' Club. During the years of 1935 and 193° much was being written about the causes and effects of juvenile delinquency, but nothing very constr-uctive was being done. Among citizens i n many walks of l i f e , there was concern over what was happening to youth and an expression of the need for recreation to help alleviate the unhealthy condition created by the depression and unemployment. 4 In 1935 Kiwanis International sent out a memorandum, asking that wherever possible individual clubs should foster Underprivileged Children's Committees as well as carry on their regular work with L i t t l e Brothers. In Vancouver, a committee of this kind was established. Children's work and i t s implications were i n no way new to this Kiwanis Club. Since i t s formation i n 1919, the Club had been actively concerned with the welfare of children, particularly boys, for whom many club mem-bers were Big Brothers. During these years of actual work with children, struggling with the many problems i t presented and evaluating their contri-bution towards the welfare of these children, the members had gained an awareness of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of doing sound work i n this f i e l d . Before proceeding further, therefore, the Chairman of this Kiwanis Committee - 3U-sought the advice and help of Dr. George Davidson, at that time Executive Director of Vancouver Welfare Federation and Council of Social Agencies. Subsequently negotiations led to the formation of a special committee drawn from the Kiwanis Underprivileged Children's Committee, the Children's Committee and the Spare Time Activities Committee of the Council of Social Agencies, to ascertain the unmet needs i n child welfare which might conceivably be considered possible objects of the Club's charitable a c t i v i t i e s . This survey was conducted i n 1 9 3 6 and was divided into various sections including education and vocational guidance, institutions, character building, pre-delinquency, child care, health, camping and recreation. The survey showed that only 8 , 0 0 0 out of 3 8 , 0 0 0 Vancouver school children participated i n "character building programmes" such as those provided by Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., church groups (omitting Sunday Schools), Scouts, GirlcGuides, etc. Accordingly the recreation section made a single recommendation, urging "the real need for the establishment of boys' clubs or community centres i n those areas of the c i t y where delinquency rate is highest as shown by the Juvenile Court". This report pointed out that equipment and building would be needed, but most important was a paid director with good qualifications for this type of work - on such a person would depend the success of the project. The committee f e l t that this type of program was pre-eminently one for private and not public funds, govern-ments so far having been slow to step into the preventive. f i e l d i n any form of social work, at least u n t i l successful pioneering had been carried out by private agencies. - 3 5 -The history of the Kiwanis Club's activities reveals another project which influenced their thinking. This was the need for some organization for many of the " L i t t l e Brothers" when they became 16 years old and were no longer eligible to be " L i t t l e Brothers". In 1927 a Senior Brothers organization developed, which i n 1930 became "Circle K". This was a club providing recreation and some individual help to any graduate " L i t t l e Brother" who wished to join. In addition to these factors, Big Brother;, work i s highly personal and not a l l Kiwanis mem-bers had the time or interest to be a Big Brother. Some members f e l t that to enlarge their program of boys' work would increase the club's participation and provide an interest for a greater percentage of the membership. The club, accordingly put a great deal of effort into studying boys' work, clubs and their values. They made several contacts with various organizations and interested people i n the course of this study. Advice was sought from J. Edgar Hoover of the Federal Bureau of Investigation i n the United States, who suggested that the club make a study of what caused delinquency by endeavouring to find out why some people became useful citizens and others did not. In conducting this study, the Kiwanis Club selected ten people, well known for their contri-bution to society. It was discovered that with one exception they a l l came from small communities and a l l had good family backgrounds. Then the records of ten gangsters were studied i n a similar manner, and i t was revealed that they had grown up i n congested areas of large c i t i e s - 36 -and nearly a l l were from broken homes. These findings indicated among other things the importance of providing recreational f a c i l i t i e s to supplement home l i f e i n congested areas. A glance at the views of the Vancouver Welfare Council at this . time i s enlightening. The annual report of this body, issued i n January 1936, stated that the Spare Time Activities Committee now dignified by the name of "Group Work Division", recommended that Boys' Clubs be established and that the Parks and School Board allow the use of their f a c i l i t i e s and building for these projects. In reply to an inquiry regarding a position with the proposed new boys' club, a council representative stated i n a l e t t e r of March, 1936, that "the question of the establishment of Boys' Clubs i n this c i t y i s s t i l l very much i n the realm of theory. The need undoubtedly exists but i t i s a question, as always, of obtaining backing for a new endeavour and while several clubs are attracted to the idea, i t w i l l be necessary for one of them to commit i t s e l f definitely to the undertaking before anything further can be done." Finally, however, as a result of the Survey of Unmet Needs, the general conditions of the times, the previous interest and experience of Kiwanis Club i n children's work, and the fact that a suitable director was available, the Kiwanis Club committed i t s e l f to the development of boys' clubs. The survey had recommended that boys' clubs be developed i n areas of high delinquency. Juvenile court records for this purpose were not available, but high delinquent areas could be detected from a spot map - 37 -which had been kept for the past-five years. A probation officer, interested i n the boys' club project, invited Mr. George Whiten,who subsequently became director of the club, to look at an unused f i r e h a l l at St. Catherines and 12th Street. It was decided that with alteration the building would make a satisfactory clubhouse. The c i t y council leased the f i r e h a l l to the Kiwanis Club for a ten-year period at a nominal rent of one dollar per year. The cost of carrying the project for two years was estimated at #]i,£00, and this amount was actually spent, iiight hundred and twenty dollars was spent to renovate the f i r e h a l l so that i t could be put into operation. The majority of the labour was voluntary and even before the club opened, a group of boys from the neighbourhood became interested. They helped to transform the f i r e hall into the f i r s t Boys' Club of i t s kind i n Western Canada. It was recognized that thia area did not necessarily have the highest delinquency rate i n the c i t y but there was need for recreational services and a usable building was available. The Kiwanis Boys' Club was opened i n February 1937, a year after the recommendation of the survey. The operation of the club got under way quietly and slowly, since both the director and the Kiwanis Committee, (a sub-committee of the Kiwanis Boys' Work Committee), which was to direct the policies of the club, believed that the boys should be reached individually and not on a mass basis. Lads i n the immediate area were informed that i f they wished to join they might make application and then they would be notified when they could be accepted. At f i r s t only boys 12 to 17 years - 38 -old l i v i n g within a radius of two blocks were allowed to come. When some f i f t y boys had become accustomed to the building and found inter-ests that appealed to them, so that they were well orientated and ad-justed, a few more were allowed to join. This continued u n t i l approx-imately 300 within a radius of five blocks had become members. The age range had meantime been lowered to include 8 to 11 year old boys. The club was opened from 3 to 10 o'clock each day except Sundays, and these hours of operation are s t i l l i n force. The f i r e h a l l as adapted provided a gym with space and equipment for boxing, wrestling, tumbling and volleyball j an efficient kitchen, dark room for photography, a woodwork shop, a large games room, two small rooms for interest or craft groups, and a bathroom with showers and dressing rooms. The many ac t i v i t i e s for which these f a c i l i t i e s provided space were directed by volunteers under the supervision of the director. Part of the philosophy of those directing the policies was a belief that the boys would value their membership more i f they had a part i n i t , so a yearly fee was established. Junior members paid one dollar, Intermediates two dollars and Seniors three. In most cases the boys could not afford the fee but they were allowed to work around the club at 300 an hour to earn their membership, so no boy needed to stay away because he lacked membership dues. In this manner, the club was kept i n good repair, the yard clean and the janitor work done. The boys were not pampered, and an attempt was made to teach them to face l i f e r e a l i s t i c a l l y by giving them opportunities for healthy development of - 39 -their minds and bodies. The objective was to provide the boys with a satisfactory outlet for their energies during leisure hours, and above a l l an opportunity to create things. The Vancouver Sun of March 10,1937, stated, "The v i t a l l y interesting thing about the Kiwanis Boys' Club i s the way i t has captured the imagination of the boys i t i s to serve and the men who are helping them create i t . " This project of the Kiwanis Club was most successful, but the club did not consider i t their role i n the community to sponsor such a project indefinitely; They had developed the idea of a boys' club, piloted the project through i t s beginnings and evolved a successful and valuable community service over a period of three years. During 1938, therefore, the Kiwanis Club took steps to relinquish their responsibil-i t i e s for the club and yet, at the same time provide for i t s continu-ance and growth. A charter for a Vancouver Boys' Association was obtained, and a Board of Directors, largely composed of Kiwanis members, formed a new organization. A constitution was drawn up which stated among other things that the Vancouver Boys' Club Association would take over and operate the Kiwanis Boys' Club, organize and operate other Boys' Clubs and juvenile a c t i v i t i e s . At the same time, negotiations on this subject with the Vancouver Council of Social Agencies resulted i n this new organization being accepted as a member and money was granted for opera -tional expenses. Thus the Kiwanis Boys' Club ceased to exist at the end of I938, and the Vancouver Boys' Club Association came into being i n January 1939. A new name for this club became necessary. Obviously i t could no longer - Uo -be the Kiwanis Boys' Club, and the Vancouver Boys' Club Association anticipated developing other clubs. The boys had had a very real part i n developing the a c t i v i t i e s of the club, and they assumed the job of finding a new name. The Kiwanians were well known to these lads, and they had become their friends. The name they chose was "Kivan", Ki for Kiwanis, Van for Vancouver. It was their tribute to this group of men whose foresight had made i t possible for them to have this club which provided them with so many satisfactions. Another Venture — Junior G-Men Clubs During 1937, the year the Kiwanis Club opened their boys centre, there was another development i n boys' work, which was eventually to become a part of the Vancouver Boys' Club Association. This development was not as smooth and as successful as that experienced by the Kiwanis Club. It was a one man movement without the financial or moral backing of an enthusiastic group of men. A constable who lived i n the v i c i n i t y of the Kiwanis Boys' Club was interested i n youth and had studied and observed some of the main causes of delinquency. The conception of this movement i s vividly portrayed i n a magazine art i c l e , "The spark of inspiration came to him one day when a prowler car f u l l of brother officers dispersed a neighbourhood gang which had broken a windowwiile playing b a l l . These lads, repentant but thoroughly disgusted with the lack of playground f a c i l i t i e s sullenly slunk away murmuring among them-selves, 'Where i n the heck are we going now?1 The constable,feeling as badly as the boys themselves invited them to his home nearby and suggested that he might be able to do something for them i f they would co-operate." 1 The p o s s i b i l i t y of a club and a b a l l f i e l d of their am 1. Woollocott, Arthur, "Youth Salvage", Maclean's Magazine, January 1,1939 - ia -was investigated by seventeen boys of this gang and the constable. A juvenile probation staff member, interested i n this venture also gave considerable time and thought to i t . An unused warehouse at East 6th and UOO block very close to the constable's home was f i n a l l y secured for club headquarters. The building already had excellent equipment for a wood-working shop. The club opened i n April 1937. The boys selected their own name, "Junior G-Men". This decision was undoubtedly influenced by the G-Men movie s e r i a l which was extremely popular with the boys, and by the current comic strip "Dick Tracey's G-Men". One interpretation of the name given was that the boys were indicating that they were tough men but on the side of the law. Actually there was l i t t l e evidence that they considered themselves guardians of the law among other youth. Nevertheless the members took an oath before a constable declaring their intention to be truthful, honest and clean i n speech and habits, a good sportsman, a good example to the cammunityj to honour their parents and to be loyal to .their country. They wore sweat shirts marked with symbols pertaining to the law and with their name "Junior G". The activities pursued were those of an ordinary club, including such things as sports, crafts and interest groups'. This movement mushroomed a l l over the city and within a year there were six clubs with a membership of 2,300. A Dominion Charter for "Junior G-Men of Canada" was obtained and this cites five objectives: "to arouse the interest of the people of Canada i n the training of the youth of Canada for the responsibilities of citizenship; to interest youth i n building better bodies and more efficient brains; to interest service - h2 -clubs and other appropriate bodies i n a l l the provinces i n the problem of Canadian Youth and i n their training for better citizenship; to institute recreational and educational boys and g i r l s clubs; to interest boys and g i r l s in the maintenance of law and order." Branches also sprang up i n other parts of British Columbia and Alberta. There appears to have been l i t t l e co-ordination between the units and the whole move-ment was loosely organized. The founder of the movement spoke to many clubs and organizations emphasizing the anti-delinquent aspect of the program, and financial support was obtained from many sources, including the majority of the Service Clubs. But enthusiasm had carried the move-ment beyond the financial and administrative capacity of those interested, so that re-organization was necessary before the end of the f i r s t year of operation. The constable had secured the names of several prominent busi-ness and professional men who had expressed interest, and these with a representative from each of seven service clubs were considered to be a board of directors. However, this appears to have existed more i n theory than i n practice. In the spring of 1938 a man not formerly associated with Junior G work, but interested i n i t , called some of his business friends together. They agreed that i f the movement could be re-organized to function adequately they would assume responsibility for outstanding debts. The chairman of the non-functioning board was approached, and i t was agreed to dissolve this board. Following this a new and active board of directors was formed. The re-organization resulted i n the clubs at Kitsilano, Marpole and Grandview being closed, the Mount Pleasant - U3 -Club being sponsored by the Gyro Club, the Knight Road Club being taken over by another Service Club and the West End Club by a few business men. The l a t t e r arrangement lasted only a few months and the club dis-banded. Fire destroyed the Mount Pleasant Club building i n the f a l l of 19U0, at which time Gyro withdrew their sponsorship. While these negotiations were taking place, more adequate accommodation was found for the one club this board proposed to direct. An unused f i r e h a l l at Vernon Drive and Keefer was leased from the City at the same nominal rent as that paid for Kivan, Fifteen hundred dollars and a great deal of volunteer labour put the building into shape for use. The original sponsor of the move-ment and the Board operated the club u n t i l the spring of 1939. At this time the founder of the movement withdrew his participation. At no time had he received a salary for his work. The board was able to obtain the services of another volunteer director who continued i n this capacity u n t i l 19U5. During this time the club was financed mostly by donations from the members of the board. There ware donations from others, however, including $1,000. from the Rotary Club, given over a two year period. In 191*1 the Junior G Board approached the Vancouver Boys' Club Association to ascertain whether or not i t could be accepted into the Association. However, at that time the latter was involved i n the establishment of another unit, to be known as Ki-Mount, to replace the former Mount Pleasant Boys' Club. For this reason the Association -hh -decided they could not undertake any more at this time. Two years later the matter was again considered. The Vancouver Council of Social Agencies recommended that the Vancouver Boys' Club Association take over "Junior G" and offered a grant of money for i t s operation, on condition that a f u l l time director be employed. It proved impossible to secure a director u n t i l 19hS when the man who had volunteered his services as director i n the evenings, during these years, agreed to take on the job as a paid f u l l time director. Accordingly "Junior G" became the third unit of the Vancouver Boys' Club Association and i t s operating costs were f i n -anced by the Community Chest. The Charter for "Junior G-Men of Canada" was turned over to the Vancouver Boys' Club Association who returned i t to Ottawa. This club operated under these conditions u n t i l December 19h8, when the Rufus Gibbs unit was completed and Junior G Members and staff moved to new headquarters. This club was the contribution of one man, Rufus Gibbs, who purchased a building at 700 East Pender, renovated, redecorated and equipped i t at a cost of $k0,000. The name "Junior G" has become entwined i n the history of Boys' Clubs of Vancouver. Kimount club The Vancouver Boys' Club Association from i t s inception was aware of the inadequacies of the Mount Pleasant Boys' Club which was housed i n a most unsuitable building. The need for better quarters which could serve a larger number of boys was obvious. An ed i t o r i a l i n one of the 1 local newspapers urged the establishment of more Boys' Clubs. It spoke of the advantages of keeping boys "moving i n the right direction" and suggested that any contribution service clubs could make to accomplish 1. "A Club for Boys", Vancouver Daily Province, August 26, 1939, p.h - 1*5 -this would be a public service. High praise was given to the Kiwanis Club's plan to build and furnish a Boys' Club. When f i r e destroyed the Mount Pleasant Boys' Club, active plans for replacing i t were quickly developed by the Vancouver Boys' Club Association and the Kiwanis Club, which had several members on the Association's Board of Directors. In May 192*0, the Kiwanis approved a plan for a new Boys' club and made a $5,000 donation. The Vancouver Boys' Club Association raised the remaining $60,000. which was necessary. Among the many donors were two other service clubs, the Rotary Club and the Mount Pleasant Lion's Club, contributing a total of approximately $750. Thus early i n 191*2 the second unit of the Vancouver Boys' Club Association, Kimount opened at 395 East 6th Avenue. The same year that Kimount was opened, the Vancouver Boys' Club Association approached the Welfare Federation for an opinion on plans for future expansion and stressed the need for assistants for each supervisor. It was suggested that to determine the need for expansion a survey be conducted. This survey was made i n the spring of 191*1*. As a result the Welfare Council again suggested that "Junior G-Men" be investigated, as a possible addition to the Boys' Club Association which, as previously stated, was accomplished i n 19l*5. They also pointed out the lack of recreational f a c i l i t i e s i n the False Creek or Lower Fairview d i s t r i c t and recommended a community centre for this area. In December 192*1*, the Boys' Club asked Conmunity Chest, previously known as the Welfare Federation, i f i t would grant them financial support to - 1|6 -allow for two additional clubs which the Kiwanis Club proposed to build and turn over to them the following year. The Community Chest replied that they were sympathetic towards the valuable work being done by the Boys' Clubs, but that they could not make a definite committment for the 19h$ Board of Directors. It also suggested that should such a project be carried out>. the site and type of building as well as the new trends i n operation of program be discussed j o i n t l y by the Associa-tion, Kiwanis Club and themselves. Kiview The Kiwanis Club i n January 19h5 opened a campaign to ra i s e $50,000 for youth work. They had several projects i n mind which included building one or two boys' clubs, renovating Kivan or Junior G, providing University scholarships for two of the present supervisors and the establishment of courses to t r a i n youth for leadership. The campaign was endorsed by the Mayor of the city, the president of the Boys' Club Association and other prominent men. The Kiwanis Club made an i n i t i a l donation of $5,000 from their funds. 'The club succeeded i n raising #k8,000. It appears that Community Chest and Council had questioned whether an agency serving one group of people i n an area was the best expenditure of money to provide a neighbourhood with recreational f a c i l i t i e s and suggested that consideration be given to a centre for the whold family. In February lykS i t recommended that a survey and evalua-tion of the recreational f a c i l i t i e s that existed i n Vancouver be made, to ascertain what trends future developments should take, i t was - hi -proposed that experts from outside the c i t y be used. The Rotary Club contributed $1,500 and the Kiwanis Club #1,000 for this purpose which was sl i g h t l y more than half of the cost, the remaining being secured by grants from public funds. During the summer this study, eventually to become well known as the Norrie Report was made. Various sections of the Norrie Report contain recommendations regarding the Boys' Club Association. In the section entitled Vancouver Boys' Club,pages 1*2 and 1*3 the following statement i s made: "The Board of the Boys' Club Association should examine the pos s i b i l i t i e s of opening one more club i n the neighbourhood between the downtown business d i s t r i c t and Hastings East near the needy area at 2f>th and Main. The Board should not seek large expansion of services u n t i l i t secures more appropriate and more adequate f a c i l i t i e s at Kivan." The December 19U5 meeting of the Group Work Division of the Welfare Council was devoted to the consideration of the Kiwanis' pro-posal to build an additional club. Because the present executive's term of office expired i n January they were anxious to have definite plans to present to their Club regarding the use of the money recently raised. The Kiwanis Club believed that the Norrie Report supported |heir wish to build. The staff of the Welfare Council and Community Chest were of the opinion that p r i o r i t y should be given to the improve-ment of present f a c i l i t i e s . However, the Kiwanis Club had raised the money to build a centre; there were areas of need as cited i n the Norrie Report and the Boys' Club Association wished to operate an additional - U8 -club. Thus the Group Work Division at this time approved the building of a boys club, which would be administered by the Boys' Club Association. The site was agreed upon by the Boys' Club Association and the Community Chest and Council, since the Kiwanis did not wish to participate i n this decision. A site at 663 West 8th Avenue was chosen. It was necessary for the Kiwanis to purchase two lots since there was no suitable property owned by the c i t y to be obtained i n this area. The Boys' Club Association supplied the Kiwanis with the requirements for the building. The Kiwanis Club received many con-cessions from both t he architect and the management of the construction company who were Kiwanis members. The name of this club "Kiview" i s derived from Ki-Kiwanis, view - from Fairview, the area where i t i s located. The majority of the $14.8,000 raised was used for this building and i t was necessary to add further amounts from club funds. In October 19l*7 Kiview was o f f i c i a l l y opened. The material as presented i n this chapter i s an important part, but not the whole story of the Boys' Club Association. The Board of Directors of the Association has ;from i t s inception i n 1939,been responsible for the administration and functioning of the clubs as they became a part of the Association. It also raised the majority of the funds needed to build Kimount and purchased a fine camp site at Potlatch Creek which has provided a camping experience for many boys. However, i t was the contribution made by the Service Clubs, particularly the Kiwanis Club which made possible the development of the Boys' Club -k9 -Association. The Kiwanis Club, apart from the Y.M.C.A. made the f i r s t effort to provide recreational centres for boys i n Vancouver. Their thorough study and careful planning during the years 1936 - 1938 pro-duced a successful adventure i n a boys' club and undoubtedly stimulated public opinion to consider the needs and values of recreation for Vancouver citizens. CHAPTER IV PROVISION OF BUILDINGS AND EQUIPMENT The provision of buildings and equipment i s another type of contribution commonly made by service clubs i n the leisure time f i e l d . The extent of these contributions varies from a few large amounts ex-pended for a new building by the Vancouver East Lions Club or for play-ground equipment by the Gyro Club and Junior League to the more frequent practice of spending smaller sums to provide clubroom space, gym and sports equipment or trophies. This assistance rendered by service clubs i s of real value as i t enhances the program by providing space and equip-ment in addition to that made possible by the budgets of organizations or agencies. Vancouver East Lions Club One of the recent, outstanding examples of a service club pro-viding a building for recreational purposes i s that of the Vancouver East Lions. It has erected a building to be operated jointly by the Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Associations. As i s nearly always the case, such projects have tucked away in their background meetings, events and ac t i v i t i e s that influence their development. This project of the Vancouver East Lions Club i s no exception. As far back as 1930 the Grandview Chamber of Commerce worked out plans to provide their d i s t r i c t with a small building and playground space that could be used as a centre for recreation. However, i t came to naught because the City Council found i t s e l f unable to support the scheme. - 51 -During the depression the Co-operative Unemployed Girls' Club had been operated by the Y.W.C.A. i n downtown Vancouver. As the employment situation eased, the need for such a club diminished. However, there were s t i l l some g i r l s attending who were unemployed and others, who, though working, desired the continued assistance and friendliness that the club provided. This was determined by a question-naire, which also showed that many of these g i r l s l i v e d i n the Grandview d i s t r i c t . At this time the government was operating a vocational tr a i n -ing programme for g i r l s i n this area. The Y.W.C.A. participated i n the selection of the g i r l s to be given advantage of this training. Thus, because of these two factors, the Y.W.C.A. established a branch i n Grandview, i n 1938. The Board of Directors secured quarters i n an old store which i t was able to rent. This accommodation was limited and i n many respects not very satisfactory. Late i n the f a l l of 1939 the f i r s t professional staff was appointed. The need for programme for boys was obvious by the number of boys that hung around the building and as a result the Grandview Y.W.C.A. committee approached the Y.M.C.A. asking them to provide leadership for the boys. Thus, i n 19h0 a Y.M.C.A. staff member started a programme for boys one evening a week. About this time a neighbourhood council, composed of a l l the groups i n the area, was organized almost entirely through the efforts of the Y.W.C.A. The council surveyed the recreational needs of the area. It asked the Y.M.C.A. to appoint a f u l l time worker to provide better services for the boys. The Y.M.C.A. agreed to do this i f the - 52 -Council found enough interest i n the community and could show this concretely by raising $$00. This was accomplished and space i n the same building used by the Y.W.C.A. was acquired. Thus, in 191*3, the Y.M.C.A. opened i t s branch i n Grandview with a f u l l time staff member employed. The Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. worked out a policy to allow for joint operation of the building and for over a l l programme planning. It was i n 191*2 that the Vancouver East Lions Club was organized. Several of the members had been on the joint Y.M.C.A. - Y.W.C.A. Board and on the Neighbourhood Council, and T j e r e concerned about the recrea-tional needs of the community. They recognized that the f a c i l i t i e s used by the Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. were most inadequate and unattractive. Thus, the club was influenced by these members and i t became interested i n helping' to provide better f a c i l i t i e s for the well established youth work in the community. With this interest at heart, the conclusion of the war was the signal for the Vancouver East Lions Club to put i t s ideas into action. People i n the area were asked to support the Club's drive for funds, to build a recreational centre as a li v i n g War Memorial. When a sub-stantial amount was raised, the Club approached the joint Y.M.C.A. -Y.W.C.A. Board asking i f i t would operate a building that the Club proposed to build. The Board agreed with the plan i n principle; and many meetings followed to work out numerous details. The Vancouver East Lions Club secured estimates for the building and judged that #30,000. would be sufficient. The architect prepared plans which were submitted to the joint Board. These were worked over - 53 -and many changes ware suggested to provide the best f a c i l i t i e s for various types of programme. The selection of the site was made after consultation with several authorities. The Lions Club was aware of the Norrie Report which stated that i t s area, which was defined as reaching from the water front to Grandview Highway and from Main Street to Boundary Road, needed more recreational f a c i l i t i e s . The site at Commercial and Adanac was considered the most suitable for a community centre as i t was centrally located geographically and vas a focal point of the transportation system. The Town Planning Commission was also asked for advice and i t approved of the above mentioned s i t e . This land was then leased from the c i t y for twenty years at a nominal rent of one dollar per year. In the spring of 19h7, the Club began investigating the possi-b i l i t y of securing materials and the letting of the contract. Materials were scarce and building costs had risen. This necessitated trimming the plans and figuring on the building costs being $10,000 more than the original $30,000. Finally, on July 2l|th, the ceremony for the turning of the sod was held. A year later the Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. moved into the new building, which by then had cost close to $60,000. Even then much was yet to be done i n finishing and furnishing the centre. The joint Y.M.C.A. - Y.W.C.A. Board of Management composed of four Y.M.C.A. and four Y.W.C.A. members and one Lions Club member manages and maintains the building, considers the over-all programme i n the l i g h t of community needs and has the responsibility of fostering good public relations. This Board holds a lease on the building from the Vancouver East Lions Club for fifteen years at one dollar per year. - 5U -Assistance to Boy Scout and Cub Troops The Burrard Lions Club i s another service club vahich owns property and places i t at the disposal of a community group. Since March 19h6, when the Club purchased a h a l l , which was alien property, i n the Marpole d i s t r i c t , the Boy Scouts of that area have had the use of i t . The upkeep of the building i s handled by the Scout Association with the exception of a re-roofing job done by the Burrard Lions Club. Other clubs--provide f a c i l i t i e s and equipment for groups -principally the Scouts. The West Point Kiwanis Club has two members on the Boy Scout Council for that area. They provide equipment and trophies and help run off their leagues. An almost identical situation exists for Point Grey Kiwanis Club and the Scout troops i n their area. The Optimist Club has taken an interest i n the Cubs and the lhth A l l Saints Scout Troop. For these boys the Club has secured the use of a near-by school gymnasium for which i t pays the r ent. In addition they are provided with sports equipment and minor items such as athletic awards. Optimist Club The Optimist Club's interest i n boys groups, i s shown by i t s keen concern for the Ja-Go-Ben Club which deserves mention here. This club was formed i n June, 19^6 by Mr. V. Bennett, present director, with sixteen boys in the South Vancouver area assisting. The director stated that he was aware that the boys around his home had few recreational opportunities and therefore he suggested to a few of them that they might like to form a club. The boys were enthusiastic and membership was opened to boys between the ages of 10 and 16 years, l i v i n g within a radius of - # -five blocks of the director's home, the basement of -which serves as club house. The numbers grew so rapidly that the director decided i t would be necessary to l i m i t the enrollment to HO boys. Names of others interested were placed on a waiting l i s t and called i n turn as vacancies occurred. The club was named i n memory of the director's son who gave his l i f e i n the war. The club rooms are equipped with tools, a piano and an excellent library. The programme offered i n -cludes sports, crafts and discussions, with several men i n the neigh-bourhood acting as volunteers i n various capacities — instructors, club doctor, f i r s t aid man and padre. ... A year following the formation of the Ja-Go-Ben Club, an Optimist member was asked to speak to the boys. He was greatly impressed by them and interested his club i n these boys and their a c t i v i t i e s . As a result, for fifteen months Ja-Go-Ben became a Junior Optimist Club and the senior Club gave small money donations toward i t s operation and supplied certain equipment. However, the Club was not able to give the services, as well as the donations, which the director expected of i t and thus he withdrew i t from i t s position as a Junior Optimist Club. This decision was partly influenced by the fact that the mothers of the neighbourhood had formed a Mothers1 Auxiliary which was giving some financial aid and assistance to the club. Nevertheless, the Optimists continue to follow the Ja-Go-Ben Club with interest and make provision at their camp for any of i t s members wishing to attend to do so free of charge. Approximately forty boys take advantage of ten days at camp. - 56 -It i s understandable that the Optimist Club receives many requests to help with boys' clubs and groups. Each request i s invest-igated and i f the group appears worthy of help some assistance i s given. Generally this i s i n the form of specific things such as sports equip-ment, rather than a cash donation. Gyro Playground Equipment The service club which has made available the most recreational equipment for the children of Vancouver i s undoubtedly the Gyro Club. Since 1°22 the club has maintained an interest i n equipping playgrounds and during the years has spent approximately $35,000 for such equipment. A playground committee of the club handles this project. The most recent playgrounds to receive this benefit are ones i n South Vancouver and at Alexandra Neighbourhood House where $7,000 and $2,500 have been granted respectively. The policy of the Gyro i s to grant the money, i n most cases to the Park Board, or to the Agency involved, such as Alexandra Neighbourhood House, to purchase swings, slides, teeters, etc. The Club takes no responsibility for supervising or maintaining the playgrounds. This i s done by the Park Board, who develop play areas where needed as quickly as the budget allows for i t . The co-operation of the Gyro i n aiding this development i s very much appreciated by the Park Board. - 57 -Junior League Assists In the past year Junior League donated $500 to Gordon House f o r chairs, thus making i t possible f o r them to hold Sunday evening music appreciation concerts. Besides Junior League's interest i n hobbies f o r the School f o r the Deaf and Blind, i t has made two large donations f o r i t s playgrounds. A grant of #3,000 made possible an outdoor r o l l e r skating r i n k . An additional $2,500 was authorized f o r swings, teeters, s l i d e s , etc. The chairman of the Junior League Committee f o r the Deaf and Blind School confers with the p r i n c i p a l of the school to ascertain the requirements and cost of the projects. The p r i n c i p a l purchases equip-ment etc., and hands the b i l l s over to the Junior League Chairman who checks them and sends them to the treasurer to be paid. The school fo r the Deaf and B l i n d provides a most suitable project f o r the Junior League: to be of r e a l service, and at the same time allows f o r v o l -unteer work as w e l l as the expenditure of money. Other Projects The major contribution of Marpole Rotary Club i n the f i r s t year of i t s existence was to help a community a t h l e t i c club. As a r e s u l t , the Marpole A t h l e t i c Club benefitted to the extent of $1,000, which i t received f o r the purchase of equipment. The Rotary Club of Kingsway, since becoming established i n 190-1, has made two contributions f o r equipment to groups i n i t s area. JJ'or each of two years one hundred dolla r s has been donated to the Boys' Town Club f o r equipment, mostly woodworking t o o l s . The Carleton Play School, a co-operative venture - 58 -has also received two hundred dollars from this Club for materials which the fathers have used to build play equipment. Salvation Army and Sea Scouts established i n the Mount Pleasant area received a number of tumbling mats from the Lions Club of this d i s t r i c t . The Kinsmen Club secured the help of several high school students to s e l l apples on i t s Apple Day. A percentage of the sales, amounting to approximately $500, then went to the student organization of these schools for the purchase of sports equipment. Requests from Organizations to Service Clubs The questionnaire showed that service clubs did not appear to be besieged with requests to aid recreational projects since only about one-third of them reported that they had received such requests for financial or other assistance. Most clubs did not attempt to answer the question concerning the number of requests to which they had responded with donations. Of the few who did indicate that they gave aid i n -this manner, only one stated the actual number of i t s responses. This small club, formed i n recent years, reported that i t had responded to thirty-seven requests during the three year period, 19h6-h8. There was l i t e r a l l y no response at a l l to the second part of this question which asked to how many requests they gave assistance other than financial. This failure to give adequate information here can be explained, i n part, by the fact that many clubs function through v arious committees devoted to specific areas of work. Thus the Committees on Youth Services, - 59 -Community Services, or Boys' Work may a l l carry out or aid recreational projects and i t i s seldom that a l l t h e i r activities are compiled into one report. In fact, only i n some instances are complete committee reports for the year prepared. It i s usual for the personnel of the various committees, including the chairman to change from year to year. One or two members, particularly interested i n a certain f i e l d of work, may give continuity to a committee but unless one happens to contact these individuals i t i s impossible to get a true picture of their work over a three year period, on more than one or two of the larger projects. The survey proves that the top executive members are seldom the ones who can give detailed information i n this particular area. On the whole,recreational agencies and organizations have not been too vocal concerning ways and means by which service clubs might contribute to their work. The Edmonton Council of Social Agencies has attempted to assist both the organizations and the service clubs by providing a l i s t outlining some of the recreational needs of both public and private bodies i n that c i t y . This l i s t submitted by the Group Work Division of the Council serves as suggestions for possible projects for the information of service clubs and other interested community organizations. Before undertaking this project the Division consulted service club representatives who assured the Division of the value of such guidance since many clubs found themselves at certain periods of the year with funds to disburse and l i t t l e idea of what the community needed. Also certain clubs were seeking specific projects which they might make a major part of their service programme and suggestions would be welcome. A l l members of the Group Work Division were asked to submit - 60 -suggestions and these were reviewed by the Executive Committee of the Division. Suggestions were divided into four categories according to cost, namely: ( l ) $1,000 or more, (2) $500 - #1,000, (3) $100 - $500, (h) $100 or less. The Division saw merit i n giving some indication of the degree of need and s u i t a b i l i t y and the relative p r i o r i t y attached to the various projects by the recreational agencies themselves. Thus an attempt was made to assign p r i o r i t y to needs i n the f i r s t two c l a s s i -fications; accordingly, they are rated A, B, C and D. The l i s t includes wading pools, buildings for office use, camps, etc., a l l sorts of furnishings and equipment and projects for which a cash donation would be most acceptable. With this l i s t i s a covering letter explaining that the number of inquiries from service clubs had prompted the Council of Social Agencies to ascertain the needs of recreational agencies. It stated that the l i s t would be subject to modifications from time tottime and that i n no case were any of the organizations shown on the l i s t making an appeal through this medium. The opinion of service clubs as to the value of this l i s t , intended as a convenience, was also sought. This appears to be a recognition on the part of a co-ordinating and planning body of the vafeue need f e l t by many service club members to make their contributions count. It i s a positive answer to this desiray accomplished i n a ta c t f u l manner which avoids embarrassment on the part of service clubs or agencies. However, this l i s t i s too recent to evaluate i t s usefulness as service clubs have not had time to give the suggestions consideration and act upon them. Chapter V MONETARY DONATIONS Many service clubs make their greatest contributions to recreational act i v i t i e s i n the c i t y by strengthening the programs of established re-creational organizations. The scope of these contributions vary widely, they may be small or large, occasional or annual. Some of the donations carry no rider as to how they are to be used; others do; and some are given with the understanding that the club w i l l have representation on the committee which plans the project for which their money i s being expended. This method has many advantages for the project has usually been carefully investigated by the agency wishing to sponsor i t , to ascertain i t s value, and the service club members become acquainted with the methods used by the sponsoring group. On the other hand, many clubs give a great deal of money i n small donations to numerous organizations. This i s not necessarily ineffective, but since there i s seldom much investigation or evaluation of such donations, the numerous appeals are more i n the nature of isolated emergency cases, whereas one or two larger donations to a recognized dynamic programme immeasureably enriches the community as well as having educational and participating value for service clubs. However, some clubs contend that since they are composed of members without regard to race, creed, p o l i t i c s or religion, they have an obligation to aid a l l worth while projects i n their area. Junior League Projects No one project of a service club i n the form of a donation f o r a specific purpose has had greater influence on recreational trends i n the city than the Junior League contribution to the University of British - 62 -Columbia. A sum of $3 ,000.00 for each of three years, commencing i n 19h5, was granted for the purpose of establishing a course i n Social Group Work, thus enabling the University to grant the f i r s t Master of Social Work Degree with Group Work specialization i n Canada. In order to understand why this venture was undertaken, i t i s necessary to discuss b r i e f l y Junior League philosophy and another of i t s projects. Junior League, i n order to attain i t s purpose of preparing young women to become useful, intelligent citizens, provides provisional members with an opportunity to become familiar with i t s community work and take a training course. This course i s designed to equip new members with enough information to allow them to participate i n community acti v i t i e s and includes a series of lectures given by professional people i n cultural, ci v i c , recreational and health topics that require community attention. Each member must serve as a volunteer i n some community agency. It was one of these provisional membership groups which, when touring various agencies became v i t a l l y interested i n Alexandra Neighbourhood House. On becoming members of the Junior League, they influenced their organization to give volunteer support and financial assistance to this agency. Thus, since l°ltl, they have provided numerous volunteers i n many capacities, including hostesses, play school assistants, intructors i n arts and crafts, as well as board and committee members. One Junior League representative i s a member of Alexandra Neighbourhood House Board. Junior League realizes that i n order to give valuable volunteer service i n agencies, the latter must have adequate standards of personnel and equipment, thus - 63 -they must be prepared.to give financial assistance to establish these. Hence, at various times over the past eight years, this organization has provided salaries for an executive director, a g i r l s 1 worker, a kindergarten teacher, arts and crafts and dancing instructors; they have redecorated the interior of the building and have made a donation of $2 ,500.00 for the playground. Last year their grant to Alexandra Neighbourhood House amounted to $1 ,100 .00 , apart from the playground donation. When the community takes over a project, thus releasing time and money for the Junior League to pursue a new one, i t sets up a project-finding Committee, representative of various interests i n the club, to make extensive investigations. This was the procedure followed i n 19hB when the offer of #9,000.00 was made to the Department of Social Work of the University. The League's extensive knowledge of recreational agencies made i t aware of the d i f f i c u l t y of securing trained staff, and of the need for providing training i n social group work. The project also stood the test of a series of principles used i n determining suitable fields of service. These are particularly important: Has the League sufficient money to do the job adequately? Has i t sufficient volunteers? Is there a good po s s i b i l i t y that the project w i l l be taken over by some organiza-tion when i t has been proved to be a needed and valuable service? Also, the League attempts to preserve a balance i n the types of projects chosen so that cultural, health and recreational interests are a l l given atten-tion. This grant to the University differed from most major projects i n -6k-i n that i t did not allow for volunteer service. The experiment proved of such value that by the end of the third year the cost of the group work course was assumed by the University. This specialization i n the Depart-ment of Social Work has greatly increased the emphasis on, and the study of leisure time ac t i v i t i e s . It has benefitted both public and private agencies by providing assistance from students through fieldwork place-ments and making available some professionally trained personnel. The Volunteer Bureau of Greater Vancouver i s an example of a project init i a t e d by the Junior League and then, when developed, handed over to a community body to administer. A number of women had f e l t the need for such a Bureau, a central place, where those wishing to volunteer for community work could learn of the many opportunities for worthwhile service. In 19h0, the government plan to bring British children to Canada created a specific need for a central bureau and the Junior League established one, known as the "Information Bureau". The public response was immediate and four hundred citizens offered their services to meet trains, provide transportation and b i l l e t s . This project was handled successfully. However, when the government discontinued the plan of bringing children from England, new a c t i v i t i e s were sought. In May Iyk3> following a suggestion from the Department of National Defence of the Federal Government which encouraged the co-ordination of women's services under, the t i t l e , "Women's Volunteer Service", the Information Bureau altered i t s name and enlarged i t s scope. This organization formed a small governing Board composed of Junior League members and other citizens. For the remaining war years the Women's Volunteer Services provided workers - 65 -for war jobs, which included canteen work, selling war stamps, rivet sorting and hospitality to service personnel. The conclusion of the war brought a considerable l u l l i n a c t i v i t i e s , at which time a special committee of the Board was appointed to ascertain i t s future. This committee reported that there was a demand on the part of volunteers for work, and that while many agencies did not use volunteers to any great extent, they would benefit by this assistance. Other suggestions were made for the operation of such an agency. The Junior League, besides being the strongest advocate of this service, financially supported the Women's Volunteer Services u n t i l January 1947. At this time, after negotiations with the Community Chest and Council i t became a financially participating agency of the Chest and 30on afterwards changed i t s name to the Volunteer Bureau of Greater Vancouver. Hence the need for a new service was demonstrated, and the Bureau now acts as an auxiliary agency which provides volunteers, both men and women, for recreational agencies as well as for other community work. As part of a larger project at the Br i t i s h Columbia School for the Deaf and Blind, the Junior League has, for each of the past two years, made available approximately #500 to develop hobbies for the students. Not only i s the money donated for materials and equipment but members serve as instructors. In consultation with the school staff, the instructors decide on suitable crafts and learn something of the methods of teaching these special students. Classes i n leathercraft, weaving, drawing, soap and wood carving, f e l t craft and knitting are held two evenings a week. - 66 -Camp Referral Project The Camp Referral Project deserves comment here for i t has had important and far-reaching effects i n camping and i n creating greater understanding and co-operation between the agencies and their staffs interested i n the children. Each year from 1937-191*6 Alexandra Fresh Air Camp provided camping f a c i l i t i e s for over 100 boys between ten and fourteen years, for a two week period. These boys were referred from Juvenile Court, Social Agencies and the Metropolitan Health Services. The unsuitability of i t s site for boys camping and the increased demands for family camping made i t necessary for the Alexandra Fresh Air Camp Committee to withdraw i t s f a c i l i t i e s for boys i n 191*7. These facts were presented to the Croup Work Division of Community Chest and Council. The matter was studied by a sub-committee of this division which became known as the Camp Referral Committee. A camp experience for these boys was deemed valuable and the committee recommended that, "when considering the provision of camping services for boys .... we explore f i r s t the pos s i b i l i t y of assimilating them in the regular standardized camps, maintained by reputable agencies and churches i n the community, rather than promote the establishment of new camps with the specific purpose of serving so-called under-privileged boys". Several camp authorities were approached to ascertain whether or not they would accept referrals and most of them agreed to do so. When the committee discussed possible ways of financing this plan, one of i t s members, also an Optimist, suggested that his club might be interested i n providing the necessary - 67 -funds. As a result, a letter requesting assistance i n placing boys i n camp at a cost of $500.00 was sent to the Optimist Club. This request was granted and 83 boys were thus able to attend camp. The committee decided the success of the project j u s t i f i e d i t s continuance, particularly since some improvements i n referral technique were possible. However, the next year the Optimist Club had decided to sponsor i t s own camp and therefore could not f u l l y support the camp referral project. Nevertheless they showed continued interest by covering the $100.00 de f i c i t i n 1948 and contributed $k00.00 for 1949. The committee then had to turn elsewhere for funds and wrote the Rotary Club, asking i f i t would be interested i n sponsoring this worthwhile activity, stating that the amount needed was $500 - $1,000. The Rotary Club responded with $1,000, to be used to send needy boys and g i r l s to camp. In I948, 111 children had an opportunity for a camp experience through the Clubs' generosity. A f u l l report of the project, including an evalua-tion, was presented to the Rotary Club by Community Chest and Council. The Club has agreed to sponsor this project again i n I949 and have made another $1,000. donation, but stated that i f this i s to be an annual need i t should be included i n the regular Community Chest budget. Camping Apart from the Camp Referral Project, camping i s an activity to which many service clubs give varying sums of money annually or occasion-all y . Upon request or as they hear of circumstances justifying the expenditure, they provide needy children with a camping experience. This assistance may take the form of a donation to a camp to he used for persons unable to pay their own way or for equipment or special treats. More often, - 68 -however, clubs know of certain needy children and pay their camp fees and on occasion provide them with clothing and personal items. The Point Grey Kiwanis Club customarily sends twelve children to camp each year. The West Point Kiwanis, the Mount Pleasant Lions Club and the Kiwassa Club have, i n the past three years, made provision for a number of children to attend camp. The Kiwassa Club of Point Grey makes an annual donation of $50 to the Alexandra Fresh Air Camp. In the past three years both the Kinsmen and the Rotary Clubs have made grants to Camps. In I9I4.6 the Boys1 Brigade camp received approximately $UO0 from the former, and i n 191*8 Camp Byng, the Boy Scouts Camp, received #750 from the Rotary for renovations. The Rotary Club also granted the Salvation Army #350 for the purchase of tents for their camp. The contribution made by the Vancouver Kiwanis Club for boys to experience the joys of a holiday at camp, i s an outstanding one. Since 1925 this club has invited each " l i t t l e brother" to take advantage of a period at camp. " L i t t l e brothers" have been the club's major interest and each year between 50 and 110 boys have had a Kiwanian member for a "big brother". The "big brothers" act as counsellors to these fatherless boys, who are between the ages of 10 and 16 years, according to a four point programme of mental, moral, physical and spi r i t u a l welfare. Thus a l l aspects of l i v i n g are considered and these matters are not taken l i g h t l y . The boys' health i s cared for and many a Kiwanian dentist and doctor has given his professional services gratis. Educational grants and loans are made available, clothing i s supplied where necessary and when the occasion demands assistance i s given i n finding employment. -69 -School and Sunday School reports are required i n order that the "big brothers" may have adequate information about the boys' progress. Each " l i t t l e brother" i s dealt with on an individual basis; thus, apart from a few basic principles, plans are made according to each child's need. They are given a Y.M.C.A. membership and many special events such as Christmas parties, Easter luncheons and sports days are provided for them. Since i t s inception k9% boys have had "big brother" service. A l l of these lads have had at least one camping experience and most of them several. At the present time approximately $l,hOO.00 i s spent annually on camping for these boys. A chartered Kiwanis member made this statement i n a summary of the Club's "big brother" work: "Some boys have benefitted i n a most remark-able way; however a l l boys have been helped through the experience of the "Y" camp and "Y" membership, the interest which older men took i n them, and the various sports, health services, clothing, friendly advice, understanding and sympathy provided." The Kiwanis Club i s s t i l l actively interested i n the Vancouver Boys' Club Association and from time to time has made sizeable donations for special items not covered i n the budget granted by Community Chest and Council. One such item, this year, i s the Boys' Club camp at Potlach Creek which received a $500.00 donation from the Kiwanis. - 70 -Donation for Personnel A donation that has affected recreation i n a community i s that of the West Point Kiwanis Club. Shortly after the club was organized i n February 19U7, representatives were asked to attend a meeting called by some citizens to discuss the *Teen Town which was having problems regard-ing leadership and f a c i l i t i e s . The meeting appointed the president of the Kiwanis Club as pro-tern chairman and planned future meetings to discuss the matter. The result ras the organization of West Point Grey Youth Council which was to promote recreation for youth, sponsor already organized groups, and where possible provide f a c i l i t i e s , equipment and leadership for the above. The Council's name i s misleading for i t i s composed, not of youth but of twenty-five adults serving i n a capacity similar to a board of directors. An interested University student offered to be the volunteer director. After a short time he found i t necessary to spend more time on the job than anticipated. Thus the Kiwanis Club provided the money t o employ him on a part time basis for a period of four months. During this time the youth activities increased greatly. The youth council decided that a f u l l tame director was needed and developed plans to canvas the community for funds. This canvas was carried out largely by 'teen-agers. Arrangements were made to take advantage of the grant of $50 per month for salary allowed by Pro-Rec to Community Centres. In spite of the fact that the t o t a l objective was not reached, the Council employed the director on a full-time basis, starting July 1st, 19U8, anticipating that during the year the d e f i c i t could be - 71 -covered. This they have managed to accomplish to date. The West Point Kiwanis Club continues to participate i n the Youth Council through i t s representatives who report back to the club. However, i t has made no further grants to the Youth Council. Donations to Community Centres Two Rotary Clubs, both organized i n 19l*7, have been interested i n the community centre developments in their areas. The ^ arpole Rotary found community centre plans well developed and thus the club joined forces with other community groups and individuals and contributed $1,800 towards the $20,000 fund necessary to take advantage of the Park Board grant. This year i t s major donation w i l l be given for furnishing and equipping the centre now under construction. On the other hand, the community centre association i n the same area as the Rotary Club of Klngsway has not proceeded as far with i t s plans. In 191*8 the club made a small donation toward a centre and this year expects to increase i t to #200. The Mount Pleasant Lions' Club has made two nominal donations to further the work of a committee's preliminary planning to bring people together to discuss a community centre association in t h e i r area. The Kerrisdale Arena i s the recipient of the major recreational grant of the Rotary Club since 191*6. At the time the $25,000 donation was given, i t was understood that the plan was to erect a community centre. In 191*7 the Point Grey Kiwanis also made a substantial donation of $1,000 to the Arena. It has continued to take an interest i n i t s development by - 72 -being represented on a l l deliberations concerning plans for construction. As well as assisting with the raising of funds, the club assumed the responsibility of campaigning for the endorsement of the Civic Plebiscite to Insure public funds for the project through the Local Improvement By-Law, This provides for a sum from the City computed on the population in that area in such a way that i t i s paid back by property owners on the basis of $1.00 a year over a period of twenty years. Youth Counselling Service One service which calls for mention in this chapter is the Rotary Club Youth Counselling Service. While i t i s not recreation, i t i s a valuable service available to recreational agencies. It i s the one exception to the Rotary Club's recent trend to disperse i t s funds through donations rather than using them to carry out i t s own project. In the spring of 1947 the Club, on recommendation of two of i t s committees — Community Service and Youth Service, initiated this new venture. It so happens that some members of the Youth Service Committee are also active i n the Y.M.C.A., -which undoubtedly influenced the establishment of the services i n the Y.M.C.A. building. This meant free office space for the project and an opportunity to interpret the service to a large number of boys. On the other hand, i t was advantageous to the Y.M.C.A. in that i t provided an additional service readily available to i t s younger membership and thus enhanced the "Y'sf work with the boys. The project was set up after consultation with several members of the faculty of the University of British Columbia, directors of various community organizations and other counselling services i n Canada and the - 73 -United States. I t i s directed by the Club's Youth Service Committee which has employed we l l q u a l i f i e d s t a f f to administer i t . The counselling service makes i t s i n i t i a l appeal to youth on the basis of vocational problems, but i t i s also designed to render assistance by counselling i n a l l areas of l i f e . An occupational l i b r a r y has been .established to a s s i s t i n t h i s service. Each boy f i l l s out an application form, is. i n t e r -viewed and completes a battery of psychological t e s t s . Many Rotarians, who are available f o r interviews, are valuable as resource persons to the boys interested i n t h e i r s p e c i f i c f i e l d of work. Thus, through t h i s t o t a l service boys are helped to choose a career i n which they are l i k e l y to succeed. A number of community agencies have co-operated both by making r e f e r r a l s to the Youth Counselling Service and by accepting r e f e r r a l s from i t . A f t e r two years, a survey by questionnaire was conducted to assess the value of the service. Among other things, 95% of the boys who answered the questions r e p l i e d , "Yes" to "Do you f e e l that the counsellors were of help to you generally?" Twenty-four l e t t e r s of evaluation and appreciation were received from agencies who referred young people and several of these urged that the service be continued. To date #li*,500 has been a l l o t t e d by the Rotary Club to finance t h i s project. As i s true of most service clubs when t h e i r projects have been proven to meet a need and to be of value, the Rotary Club i s now investigating ways and means of relinquishing t h i s service to some private or public body. - 71* -Other Recipients Smaller donations given by service clubs to various "worthy causes" are very numerous, but the extent and value of t h i s type of service i s d i f f i c u l t to determine f o r many clubs keep only very meagre records of such. These donations are often given by the secretary on • -i -request from a group, or when a need becomes apparent to a club member who thinks i t i s deserving of immediate attention. Thus, on many occasions, the amount i s small enough that the secretary need not ask the club f o r i t s permission, but i s free to use his own disc r e t i o n . Some donations given i n the l a s t three years which have come to the writer's attention w i l l serve to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s r e l a t i y e l y common type of service. Recently the Youth Symphony received #500 from the Rotary and #250 from the Gyro Club towards i t s development. The Rotary Club, always with the welfare of the Boy Scout movement at heart, has made donations to i t from time to time. One of these was #100 given i n 191*8 f o r leadership t r a i n i n g . Several sports associations receive annual donations from clubs. The Junior Football Association i s granted a small amount by the Mount Pleasant Lions Club while the B. C. Soccer Association i s aided by the Kinsmen Club. These grants range from #15 to #100. The Mount Pleasant Lions Club has also made several donations to the Sisters of Good Shepherd f o r recreational purposes. Many clubs grant donations to agencies and organizations f o r such a c t i v i t i e s as Christmas parties and sports days. Examples of these are the Point Grey Kiwassa's annual grant of #25 to Alexandra Neighbourhood - 75 -House f o r Christmas a c t i v i t i e s , the Kingsway Rotary Club's donation of §100 f o r the O.K. Hallowe'en party at Kilarney Park and the Mount Pleasant Lions Club's contribution to a Cub party. A somewhat di f f e r e n t , though most valuable type i s that of bursaries f o r students of s o c i a l work. The Rotary Club provides one f o r $300, while the Kiwassa Club grants two for $150 each. Chapter VI CO-OPERATIVE AND SHORT TERM PROJECTS Projects i n this chapter are of such a nature that their planning entails considerable participation on the part of service clubs. They are divided into two groups, those that are co-operative ventures and those of short duration sponsored by service clubs themselves. The co-operative projects c a l l for joint participation between the clubs and c i v i c bodies, neighbourhood councils or sports organizations. Activities planned with c i v i c bodies are the Youth Leadership Courses, the Soap Box Derby and the Hallowe'en Shell-Cut. Service clubs work with other voluntary organizations i n sponsoring the 0. K. Hallowe'en Parties and the Silver Gloves Boxing Tournament. The projects that come within the scope of this chapter are i n most cases of particular value since they offer an opportunity for individuals and members of various organizations to participate i n activities of broader scope than would otherwise be possible. The 0. K, Hallowe'en parties are the result of co-operation between two service clubs, the Optimists and Kinsmen, and the Greater Vancouver Community Association. These parties are infants,for the f i r s t one was launched in 1947. However, they are large infants, f o r the one party i n 1947 had 30,000 participants and grew to fifteen parties with 50,000 participants in a period of one year. The name "O.K." i s double-barrelled i n that i t represents the f i r s t letters of the names of the sponsoring clubs and also coins a slang expression describing the nature of the parties. -11 -The Kinsmen c l u b , d i s t u r b e d b y t h e v a n d a l i s m c o n n e c t e d w i t h H a l l o w e ' e n , d e c i d e d t h e y s h o u l d p l a n c e l e b r a t i o n s t h a t w o u l d p r o v i d e t h e f u n a n d p r e v e n t t h e damage t h a t o c c u r s on t h i s o c c a s s i o n . A t t h e same t i m e t h e O p t i m i s t c l u b had s i m i l a r o p i n i o n s . The K i n s m e n h e a r d o f them and s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c l u b s c o - o p e r a t e i n t h i s c o n s t r u c t i v e u n d e r t a k i n g . T h i s was a r r a n g e d a n d O . K . p a r t i e s came i n t o b e i n g . A j o i n t commit tee o f O p t i m i s t s and Kinsmen s t u d i e d m a t e r i a l o n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d c a r r y i n g o u t o f s u c h p a r t i e s i n L o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a . U s i n g t h i s as a b a s i s t h e y c a r e f u l l y l a i d p l a n s f o r one l a r g e p a r t y w h i c h was h e l d on L i t t l e M o u n t a i n . F a v o u r a b l e comments on t h i s v e n t u r e were many. V a n c o u v e r ' s mayor e x p r e s s e d t h e t h a n k s o f t h e c i t i z e n s f o r t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e r e n d e r e d i n p r o v i d i n g a sane a n d s a f e H a l l o w e ' e n , The p o l i c e d e p a r t m e n t s t a t e d t h a t t h e p a r t y was s u c c e s s f u l i n c o m b a t t i n g v a n d a l i s m a n d as a r e s u l t t h e c i t y e x p e r i e n c e d t h e q u i e t e s t H a l l o w e ' e n i n i t s h i s t o r y . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C h i e f F i r e W a r d e n , damages w h i c h had b e e n #3,200 i n 191*6 d r o p p e d t o #li25. A n o t i c e -a b l e d r o p f r o m # 1 , 6 6 0 t o #25 damage was a l s o r e p o r t e d b y t h e C i t y E l e c t -r i c i a n ' s O f f i c e . O t h e r comments on t h e v a l u e o f t h e p a r t y were made b y B . C . E l e c t r i c and r a d i o s t a t i o n s . S p u r r e d on b y t h e s e g r a t i f y i n g r e s u l t s t h e c l u b s i n 1 9 k 8 a g a i n p l a n n e d f o r a s a f e and sane H a l l o w e ' e n . A f t e r e v a l u a t i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e f i r s t y e a r i t was deemed w i s e t o h o l d s m a l l e r p a r t i e s i n v a r i o u s a r e a s o f t h e c i t y w h i c h w o u l d accommodate more p e o p l e , p r o v i d e b e t t e r e n t e r t a i n m e n t and e a s e t h e p r o b l e m o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The Community C e n t r e A s s o c i a t i o n c a l l e d a m e e t i n g o f i t s members and a g r e e d t o work w i t h - 78 -the 0. K. Party Committee i n sponsoring Hallowe'en celebrations. Nine community centres sponsored these parties, aided i n three cases by the local Chambers of Commerce. In addition one party was sponsored solely by a Chamber of Commerce, another by the Mount Pleasant Lions Club and two Chambers of Commerce, a third by the Parks Board and the last by the Vancouver Air Cadet Wing. To cater to the 'teen-agers who wished to dance, the Central Committee arranged and financed dances at Exhibition Park and Bessborough Armouries. The Musicians' Union provided an orchestra for each party from 5'30 to 8:30 and two others were hired to continue the dance from 8:30 to 12 o'clock. The work entailed i n arranging a l l these parties was considerable. A Central Committee composed of chairman and treasurer, chairmen of sub-committees and representatives to community centre associations and other sponsoring groups, had the complete responsibility. Each of the above positions was held jointly by a member of the Optimists and a member of the Kinsmen. The following were the sub-committees: donations and public relations, publicity, entertainment and program, prizes, concessions, fireworks, policing and transportation. The committee set-up was duplic-ated i n community centre associations and other sponsoring groups. The service club representatives were members of the local central committee acting as laison between i t and the O.K. Party Committee. As one could well imagine such detailed organization involved many people. The central committee of Optimists and Kinsmen numbered fifty-two, while i n each community approximately twenty people were engaged i n committee work. Besides the club men serving on committees, seventy more helped with specific jobs on the day of the parties. -19 -Each sponsoring group arranged to plan i t s own program and prepare i t s budget to be submitted to the central committee. This committee re-viewed the budgets and expressed an opinion concerning their adequacy for providing a good party. A statement summarizing a l l budgets was prepared and sent to each organization as a guide. Sponsoring organiza-tions provided the funds to meet their own budgets. The Optimist and Kinsmen Clubs decided they could contribute to the success of these parties i n several specific ways. For each party they provided commercial entertainment for half an hour and fireworks amounting to Jpl00-$l50, depending on the population of the area. Besides these items they arranged for blanket insurance coverage, advertising, publicity, banners for parties, car stickers, arm bands, and the securing of concessions and prizes at wholesale prices. Other than the above items, each group sponsoring a party took care of i t s own expenses. A H data and memoranda from the central committee were issued on colourful stationery appropriate for the occasion. This committee set the opening and closing hours of the parties at 7-7?30 u n t i l 10-10:30 p.m. Also several central sub-committees provided information for the use of local committees. The program committee prepared an excellent and concise statement including basic principles, suitable games and a l i s t of major equipment needed. The committee on fireworks gave explicit and detailed accounts of the arrangements for the delivery of fireworks and instruc-tions for setting them off. They arranged for their members to inspect a l l sites and make the provisions necessary to ensure their readiness for the display. These sites were then to be guarded by lo c a l persons - 80 -u n t i l used. City by-laws regarding fireworks were quoted and arrange-ments were made for a f i r e warden to be present. The 0. K, Committee provided one experienced man to handle the display and asked each local committee to do the same. Thus a l l possible precautions were taken to prevent injury or damage. The central policing committee issued a statement outlining the general objectives. These were set down as: (a) maintaining effective control without regimentation, and (b) elimin-ating a l l possible hazards. It suggested that each local committee appoint an adult to be known as Party Provost Marshall, who would arrange for policing i t s party. Arm bands were provided for a l l Provosts and a meeting of Provosts with a c i t y police officer was held. In addition to receiving the above information, the local committees were asked to f i l l i n a form naming their chairman, identifying their boundaries and l i s t i n g their programme items. They were also asked to state whether arrangements had been made for a stage, public address system, piano, lighting, f i r s t aid and policing. Help i n providing these was offered where necessary. The careful and systematic organization of this enterprise by the Optimist and Kinsmen Clubs provided a good foundation upon which loc a l committees could function. It i s interesting to note that on Hallowe'en Night the central office received not one telephone c a l l of inquiry or request for emergency help, although i t was known that this service was available. The City Council, recognizing the value of such a project, granted $1,250 to the Central Committee towards their t o t a l cost of $5,000. Each club shared equally the remainder of the expenses. - 81 -Hallowe'en Shell-Out The Kinsmen Shell-Out i s not i n the strictest sense a recreational project. However, since i t i s an activity that involves nearly 5,000 children and their leisure time for a short period, and the co-operation of this club with two Civic groups, i t i s worthy of note here. Two weeks before Hallowe'en, children made a door-to-door sale of Kinsmen Shell-Out tickets at one cent per ticket. This money went to Kinsmen charities. On Hallowe'en nighty as children called for their goodies, they also collected these tickets. Prizes were given to a l l children participating i n selling and collecting these tickets. The Kinsmen Club secured the active co-operation of the City's Fire Department i n conducting the Shell-Out scheme. The distribution and collection of tickets was f a c i l i t a t e d by firemen on duty. The club agreed that "no member of the Vancouver Fire Department w i l l be held responsible i n any manner for either money collected or shell-out tickets". The i n i t i a l box of material was delivered from the Kinsmen office the Saturday preceding the opening of the campaign on Monday. One club member was appointed to each f i r e h a l l as laison. He kept i n touch with the f i r e h a l l each day, servicing i t and collecting monies. Careful rules and regulations regarding the sales and collection of tickets were drawn up. Children between the ages of nine and sixteen could s e l l tickets and the maximum value of tickets to be out at one time by any child was $5.00. Children were required to give identifying inform-ation and sign a s l i p which stated the value of tickets they were taking. - 82 -A sheet of instructions and the prize l i s t was given each child. Those collecting tickets on Hallowe'en night were instructed to place them in a special envelope and turn these i n to the f i r e halls not later than 6 P.M. November 1st. They received a theatre ticket v a l i d for any Saturday afternoon show at an Odeon theatre during Novemher. The Kinsmen recognized the p o s s i b i l i t y of a c h i l d turning i n more than one envelope to secure additional theatre tickets. This they pointed out i n a l e t t e r to the firemen and authorized them to use their own discretion i n handl-ing the situation. The s l i p that the children sign was made i n t r i p l i c a t e , the white copy stayed in the book, the blue copy was given to t he child who was requested to bring i t back with him when making returns, and the buff copy was sent immediately to the Kinsmen Office. Upon receipt of the latter, the Kinsmen sent a l e t t e r to each child's parents informing them that their child had undertaken to s e l l shell-out tickets. It further stated that the money collected would go to the Kinsmen charities and that each child would receive a token prize. The l e t t e r concluded by suggesting that the parents would be proud of their child's participa-tion i n such a worthy effort and therefore would, no doubt, lend their approval to the project. The School Board also agreed to co-operate with the Kinsmen Club to the extent that Schools would distribute information. The Kinsmen sent a l e t t e r to each principal stating this and the purpose for which the money would be used. Blotters announcing the scheme were distributed to the children, and prize l i s t s were posted on bulletin boards. A few days before Hallowe'en, letters were again sent to the schools seeking their co-operation and requesting that they hand out special envelopes to the students in which they were to place the tickets collected. During the campaign a tabulating system in the Kinsmen Office daily recorded the value of tickets each child took and the returns made. Thus after Hallowe'en there was an accurate account for each individual salesman. The office mailed a prize order sheet to each child who gave fi r s t and second choices according to one of the t welve categories into which his sales f e l l . When this was returned, the office mailed the prize which varied from balloons to bicycles. Almost 5 , 0 0 0 prizes were used in 19l*8, an increase of approximately 1 , 5 0 0 over 1?1;7. Six special prizes were given to boys and girls according to three age groupings, for the highest collection in each of the twenty-two firehalls participating in the scheme. The winners were notified and were requested to pick up their prizes at the firehall. The net proceeds last year were #6 , 0 0 0 which is the lowest returns the Vanoouver Kinsmen Club have received. This was due to the increased cost of prizes which last year amounted to #3 , 0 0 0 . The first thought was that this scheme, used nationally by Kinsmen, would provide an opportunity for children to help other children by raising funds for food for Britain and polio cases. In addition to achieving this purpose,the Kinsmen dis-covered that indirectly this project can be used to teach children good business practices. - 8k -Youth Leadership Training Courses The Kiwanis Club of Vancouver sponsors two projects i n co-operation with two departments of the City government. One i s the Youth Leadership Training Course and the other the Soap Box Derby. The Youth Leadership Training Course i s indirectly the result of a Kiwanis International meeting held about lyhk. At this time Kiwanis Clubs were encouraged to expand the scope of their boys' work to include older youth. The Vancouver Club, already acquainted with many aspects of boys' work, surveyed youth activities i n the c i t y and discovered that the greatest challenge was to find opportunities f o r youth to engage i n more wholesome leisure time a c t i v i t i e s . They believed theite were enough organizations sponsoring youth work, and that to help develop leadership for these organizations would provide a useful service. Thus, Vancouver Kiwanis developed a different method of assisting i n youth work from that of other Kiwanis clubs who organized youth groups. The Kiwanis Club approached the Vancouver School Board to seek their co-operation i n sponsoring youth leadership courses. Since the School Board could not spend money on adult education, i t was necessary for the Kiwanis Club to finance the project. The School Board agreed to be a joint sponsor of this plan and turned the matter over to their Night School Division to co-operate, with the Kiwanis Club i n putting i t into effect. Meetings of administrative officers of youth organizations were called to obtain their opinions about the courses offered. The f i r s t - 85 -series of courses were held from January 12 to March 29, 1945. The following are the courses offered and the number of persons registered: Understanding Youth 59 Social and Recreational S k i l l s 16 Handicrafts 16 Music 6 Physical Education 6 The cost of this undertaking was approximately $800.00, most of which was devoted to instructors' fees. Following this i n i t i a l course questionnaires were sent to the youth organizations asking, among other things, whether or not their accommodation and leadership were adequate. The results from this enquiry substantiated their belief i n the need for more and better leadership. When the project was launched again i n the f a l l of 19U5, a statement of aims was prepared and= sent with the announcements of courses and regula-tions. At this time the sponsors wished the course to be of immediate value to those leading youth ac t i v i t i e s ; thus they permitted registration only of those recommended by youth organizations. A l l the applicants were to be over 18 years of age unless an organization made a special request for a younger applicant to be included. Later, i n a l e t t e r sent to youth organizations they repeated their desire to assist by sponsoring these courses, emphasizing, however, that the success of the scheme depended largely upon their co-operation. Specific ways mentioned were to encourage their leaders to attend and to send suggestions to make the courses more purposeful and helpful. The courses held from October 1945 to March 19k6 -included: Psychology for Understanding the Behaviour of Youth, Group Work, Social and Recreational,Skills, and Drama. - 86 -In the f a l l of 19^ 7 the following statement was sent to the secretary of the Group Work Division of Community Chest and Council: "It i s our desire to co-operate with a l l youth groups by helping them to organize classes of instruction whenever and wherever most convenient for their leaders. We are not anxious or desirous of isolating leaders of prospective leaders from t h e i r various groups or organizations. Classes may function directly under the organization concerned providing they have sufficient enrollment. We shall, where necessary, provide the instructor but i n any case we w i l l finance the operation of the classes under certain conditions". With this statement was a request that this information and the l i s t of courses offered be forwarded to a l l member organizations and invite them to offer suggestions. Added to the syllabus of the previous year were courses on Bible Study, Square Dancing, and Camping, while Drama was withdrawn. In accordance with the above policy some organizations, including G i r l Guides, Scouts and Cadets held courses for t h e i r own groups. The total registration was 507. The f i f t h session of the Youth Leadership Courses was just completed at the time of writing. The courses have changed slightly to meet, the demands of youth groups i n the city. Registration i n the courses increased to 550. As previously mentioned, these courses have been s ponsored by the Kiwanis Club and the Vancouver School Board with the exception of Bible Study courses, for which the Ministerial Association gave i t s sponsorship. The School Board, through the Night School Division, provides f a c i l i t i e s for these courses including rooms, stenographic help, etc. at a minimum cost, lower than could be arranged elsewhere. Regular Night School Certificates are issued to those attending 80% of the lectures. Kiwanis - 87 -now spends approximately $1,200 on this project each year. Qualified instructors are hired by the Night School, which pays them according to a schedule of wages. Instructors may be recommended by the group requesting or interested i n specific courses. Upon receipt of a state-ment of costs the Kiwanis Club then reimburses the School Board. Classes must have a registration of at least fifteen and the course i s given free to those recommended by youth organizations as competent leaders or immediate potential leaders. Other persons may participate but they are charged a fee of #7.50. The verdict of the Norrie Report was that much benefit might be had from the Leadership Training Course i f i t were given the backing and promotion of the group work agencies. To date, whole-hearted support from these agencies has not been forthcoming, though for the past three years the information has been sent to them through the Group Work Division of the Community Chest and Council. However, church groups, Guides, Scouts and camping organizations have found the scheme most helpful. Soap Box Derby The Soap Box Derby which was originally started by the Parks Board i s now under the joint sponsorship of this Civic body and the Kiwanis Club. It had i t s beginnings i n 1936 when some staff members of the Board became aware of boys running their "bugs" on city streets. From 1936 to 191*0 the Soap Box Derby was the responsibility of the Recreation Department of the Parks Board, with some assistance from David Spencer's and the Vancouver Sun. Then, because of the war and - 88 -the shortage of materials, the event was cancelled. However i n 19hh the Derby was revived with Mr. W. G. Calder, a Parks Board Commissioner taking an active part i n promoting i t . In the following year when he was no longer a Parks Commissioner, he, as a member of the Kiwanis, inter-ested the club i n acting as co-sponsor of the Soap Box Derby. A committee, composed of a Parks Board employee and two Kiwanis members, was i n charge of a l l arrangements. The rules were fashioned after those of the American Soap Box Derby but modified to suit the l o c a l situation. Boys between the ages of ten and sixteen years may enter. There were three age groupings and three divisions based on the type of "bugs". As well as special awards for the winners there were smaller prizes for each participant. The "jalopies" were a l l inspected by a specifications committee the night before the Derby, to see that they complied with the rules. The event took place i n Stanley Park on a stretch of winding road which i s shut off to t r a f f i c f o r the day. This type of runway was not entirely satisfactory for the spectators as they could not follow the race from the beginning to the end. However a winding route with h i l l s and f l a t stretches was the choice of the boys and the event was held more for their pleasure than for that of the spectators. The Kiwanis Club, besides doing committee work, took responsibility for publicity, secured donations for prizes and purchased others, while several members gave assistance the day of the event. The Parks Board saw that the "jalopies" were picked up from various areas i n the city, provided a public address system, kept records, provided lunch for the participants on the day of the Derby, and secured crests f o r each child. - 89 -In addition, they made other arrangements such as having cit y police and St. John's Ambulance men on duty. The annual cost of the Derby, which was approximately #600 was borne equally by the sponsoring groups. The Soap Box Derby seems to be an excellent project for co-sponsorship, as i t allows hoth groups to use their particular f a c i l i t i e s to best advantage. It has grown in popularity with £h entries last year involving 108 boys as compared with the k entries and 8 participants i n 1936. Spectators now number about 2,000. Silver Gloves Since 19k7 the Vancouver Kinsmen Club has sponsored this boxing event. This was a project, not initi a t e d by the club but taken over from a sports organization. In 19hS the B. C. Amateur Boxing Association's Junior Committee inaugurated a boxing tournament for junior, members under sixteen years who were not yet el i g i b l e for the "Golden Gloves". This was termed the "Futurity Boxing Tournament". The response from youngsters was enthusiastic and over sixty entries were received. The following year this tournament was, again, a great success and i t was a foregone conclusion that i t should become an annual event. Thus the Amateur Boxing Association through the Junior Committee set about to secure a sponsor. It so happened that a. ^member of the Committee was also a Kinsmen and as a result his club became interested i n sponsoring this activity. The name was changed to "Silver Gloves" and the tournament has become one of the outstanding amateur sport events of the year. A committee of the Kinsmen Club looked after publicity, f a c i l i t i e s , tickets, prizes and sold programs. The applicants, 121 of them i n 19h9 were received and - 90 -the judging was done by the Amateur Boxing Association. The Kinsmen Club, thus, had the satisfaction of sponsoring a healthy, worthwhile event for sports-minded boys, which, though i t brought no monetary returns, was no expense to the club since proceeds defrayed the cost of operating the tournament. Short Term Projects A few service clubs sponsor short term projects that entail complete responsibility for planning, financing and conducting these a c t i v i t i e s . The largest of these ventures i s the Hobby Show, while others are a Model Aeroplane and Glider Contest, picnics and sports days. Kiwanis Hobby Show In 19U3 a committee of Kiwanis in i t i a t e d plans to hold the f i r s t city-wide Hobby Show which took place the following year. At t h i s time the committee believed such a show would encourage boys to develop a hobby and thus would help to keep them off the streets. Big Brothers took advantage of this activity to interest their " l i t t l e brothers" i n developing hobbies and participating i n the event. The f i r s t year the show was held i n the Georgia Rooms at the Hudson Bay Store with 79 exhibits and an estimated attendance of 1*,000 people, at a cost of $175 to the club. The show quickly grew too big for this space and new quarters were found at Seaforth Armouries. The Committee responsible for the Soap Box Derby now handles this project too. Over the years certain changes have taken place — rules, classes and prizes have been revised. Also two years ago the show was opened to g i r l s . - 91 -Publicity which was composed of application forms containing the rules, regulations, and the classifications of work and posters were sent to a l l seventy-two schools i n Greater Vancouver, to forty-nine youth groups and organizations i n the c i t y and to the Indian Schools i n the Province. Until this year the hobby show prizes were gifts received from merchants. This plan was discontinued because of the varied value of the articles contributed for prizes and for the f i r s t time merchandise certificates valued at three, two and one dollar were purchased for f i r s t , second and third prizes respectively. Importance, however, was given to the award of ribbons presented by the judges for f i r s t , second, third prizes and honorable mention, rather than to the prizes themselves. The judges were not Kiwanians but outside experts i n the numerous class-ifications which include models, technical and mechanical devices, crafts and handiwork, art, photographs, homecrafts' collections, special projects and Indian arts and crafts. Entries i n each class were received for three age groups - fourteen and under, fi f t e e n to eighteen and nineteen to twenty-one years. When the number of entries warrants, the committee and the judges were authorized to create one or more new classes and tbo make awards accordingly. In six years this Hobby Show has grown to take an important place i n the recreational l i f e of many youths. The 19U9 Show had 1,500 entries, among them several from Indian schools. - 92 -Model Aeroplane and Glider Contest Point Grey Kiwanis annually sponsor an aeroplane and glider contest. This event has grown to a point that i t i s assuming major proportions as a feature for the youth i n that community. The contest was held on May 2Uth i n a neighbourhood park. Forty-five entries extended the event throughout the day and attracted three hundred spectators. Fifteen prize winners received four merchandise prizes and fifteen a i r plane flights over Vancouver. The l a t t e r was contributed by Queen Charlotte Airlines and the B. C. Aero Club. School Children Benefit The Mount Pleasant Lions Club takes a special interest i n the school children of Simon Fraser Annex. This interest has developed over a period of years and started one day when a member of the Club was driving past the school on the way to watch his own children participate i n their School sports day. It happened that the children of Simon Fraser were also having their sports events on the school grounds, which i s covered with cinders, and several youngsters had already had their knees bandaged. It seemed unfair that some youngsters should have earth and grass while others had only cinders on which to run their sports events. This member discussed the matter witht he principal, and as a result each following year the children have been transported to a suitable park, with police escort provided, and returned at the close of the event. The club gives assistance i n running their sports events and supplies refreshments as f r u i t , cokes, hot dogs, pop, candy and ice cream. Qn the closing day of school representatives of the Club visited the school, presented two prizes for citizenship to each of the four grades and the prizes won on sports day. Another event Wag the Christmas party, when the students were taken to the Club's headquarters -where entertainment, novelties and refreshments were provided. Enrolment i n the school was about 110. Another short term project the Mount Pleasant Lion Club undertook one year was that of taking sixty school children on their annual picnic. This involved getting a bus to take the children from the school to the boat, and then to Belcarra Park. Two meals and entertainment were pro-vided for the children. This club for the past three years has sponsored a baseball team, twenty-one years and under, in the Junior Board of Trade League. This year the team has out-grown the league and at present the club has not taken on another one. The club members welcomed this opportunity to mix with young chaps and to demonstrate the principles ascribed to by their club. Chapter VII THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY The survey work incidental to the present study brought to l i g h t a number of characteristics of service clubs. A most notable impression was their seemingly undemocratic nature. A member, i f he i s not on the Board of Directors or i n an executive position, i s often unaware of the service work done by the club. Club members merely give their formal approval. The executive is given wide powers to choose projects and expend money. Then, individually, or as a group they may be asked to provide a sum of money or some art i c l e such as a movie projector, and, as one member stated, " i t i s practically a l l your l i f e i s worth not to come through with i t " . Nevertheless, on closer examination this i s not quite the case. The seemingly undemocratic nature of the clubs i s not really so, since the members, for obvious reasons, give their consent readily to this procedure. They are largely business and professional men and women, with considerable responsibility i n their jobs, many belong to other groups, especially the Chamber of Commerce and a large percentage are active i n church work. They reason that with officers i n most club executives being elected annually, each member w i l l have a place on the executive at some time, and therefore v a i l have an opportunity to effect his own particular interests and plans. It i s generally agreed that a president must devote a great many hours to this office — i n fact one member stated that i t requires half one's timej thus a person assuming this position must be able to take considerable time from his business. However, in some clubs certain executive positions seldom have a change of personnel. Thus one can readily s^e that i n larger clubs of 200 to uOO members, some w i l l be well on i n years i f they get into office at a l l . In smaller clubs a member might expect to serve i n some executive capacity about every five years. The large clubs are i n fact big businesses i n themselves. They have offices and employ as many as three people. Why do men join service clubs? The most apparent reasons for men joining service clubs are a desire for prestige, an opportunity to develop friendship, the likelihood of increasing business, and an opport-unity to render service to the community. For most, these desires are blended, for others one or another w i l l predominate. There i s no doubt that i n some instances increased business i s the major issue. One person expressed i t this way — "I can hardly afford to belong to a service club, but again, I can scarcely afford not to join". Limitations of Service Clubs that Affect Their Work The record of achievement of service clubs during the past years i s , on the whole, a creditable one, but i t i s , i n large part, i t must be admitted, a haphazard one of projects springing up spontaneously from time to time with l i t t l e long term or co-ordinated planning. There are many factors i n the service club situation which have contributed to these circumstances. Each club has local autonomy which may or may not be advantageous. Prestige of any service club i s an important element i n i t s policy-building and selection of community service work — the club must be successful. Not only i s the prestige of the club at stake but also that of the executive, and even more directly that of the - 96 -president. He often wishes his year of office to be remembered as the year "such and such" an undertaking was accomplished. This, plus the fact that executives and committees generally change each year, gives l i t t l e continuity to their service work. This can be a handicap i n two respects. First, i f a club does undertake a project of more than one year's duration the continuity may be lost and the same enthusiastic support i s not always forthcoming. Also, energetic clubs often want to undertake an ambitious project which cannot properly be developed i n as short a period as one year, and i t may result i n one which on the surface i s successful, but which has no r o o t 3 to continue to "feed i t " . Sometimes clubs f a i l to obtain favorable public opinion to back their efforts. As i s to be expected, without professional assist-ance, they lack the knowledge of what i s actually involved i n setting up recreational services, such as administrative policies, personnel practices and budget requirements, as well as the knowledge necessary to evaluate their efforts i n terms of individual development. Often, because service clubs are active i n projects which would normally be considered the functions of a public body, local and provincial governments are dis-couraged from accepting their responsibility. One notes a tendency on their part to resist co-operative planning and a failure to recognize i t as a means of preventing overlapping and overlooking. This may often be due to their desire to do unaided and alone something that brings them publicity and fame. There i s a relative lack of involvement of service club representatives i n health and welfare organizations i n an o f f i c i a l capacity. This results i n l i t t l e understanding on their part, of the fields of public and private recreation, and of the particular trends and needs in the community, which is undoubtedly one reason why they remain, as they do, outside existing planning bodies. - 97 -Endeavours toward Go-ordination The growing recognition i n Canada of the importance of recreation for a l l people a l l year round and the increase i n trained group workers and community organizers has stimulated interest i n these problems to the extent that conscious efforts are being made to direct and guide the tremendous energies and wealth of service clubs toward the total recrea-tional needs of the community. One of these endeavours, already mentioned, i s the conference being called by the Canadian Welfare Council to discuss the role of Service Clubs i n community recreation. Recreational surveys of a l l kinds are both popular and numerous at the present time. Un-fortunately they are not always valid or useful because s c i e n t i f i c methods of research have not been employed or they may have been sponsored or conducted by persons or organizations i n which the public has l i t t l e or no faith. Thus, many l i e collecting dust because of their inaccuracy or because the antagonism they arouse among a sufficient number of citizens render them of l i t t l e benefit. The recognition of the need for some sort of overall planning and the part a properly conducted survey necessarily plays i n this, has led to many requests being directed to the Canadian Welfare Council for technical assistance. The Canadian Welfare Council has not been i n a position to supply the communities with this type of specialized information but has, i t s e l f , been giving i t thoughtful dis-cussion. One of these requests was from the Ottawa Recreation Commission asking that a comprehensive survey be made of the capital c i t y . The advice of Professor C. E. Hendry was sought and he recommended that the - 98 -project be based on the following conditions. F i r s t , the survey should be conducted as a p i l o t project, involving citizens and consultants as partners i n planning. Secondly, he asked that a f i e l d seminar be arranged i n conjunction with this survey, under the auspices of a nation-a l organization that would bring together at intervals, possibly for three week-ends; representatives from among the following: recreational specialists, planning technicians from government and national organiza-tions, from a l l Universities i n Ontario and Quebec, and other persons whose advice i s sought i n such matters and those who provide consultant services from the office or through f i e l d v i s i t s . It i s interesting to note that with agreement on these conditions, finances for this project were sought from the Ottawa Lions Club. The Club believed that i t was an appropriate and timely piece of work to support and provided the necessary funds. This got under way with the theme "Partners i n Planning" and an orientation towards "action research" which stresses that results are more important than findings. It i s expected that i t w i l l provide an important part of a "plan for planning" which can be applied to any Canadian community to examine i t s own recreational needs, f a c i l i t i e s and services; and thence to map out a planned program of action. This type of ci t y or community survey should contain an explicit statement of what i s available and what i s needed to provide adequate recreational f a c i l i t i e s . It should develop a total plan showing the need for specific parks, buildings, equipment and leadership and give some indication of the size, extent and cost of providing these. This would be a means by which service clubs, as well as other groups, could choose a project of interest to them and within their budget which would also be acceptable and useful to the community. -99 -Other endeavours have been made to develop plans and co-ordinate the efforts of organizations, including service clubs, so that their contribution w i l l be of greatest value to the leisure time activities of the community. Already discussed i s the material prepared by the Edmonton Council of Social Agencies,which l i s t s projects that could be carried out to advantage. An American example i s instructive at this point. The Community Council of Memphis-Shelby County approached the problem i n an original manner. It recognized that service clubs' community projects, though well meant, were not always beneficial to the community. Thus i t prepared an attractive pamphlet called, "Finding a Club Welfare Project to F i t Community Needs". The whole tone of the booklet i s positive. It states that club projects, large or small, are v i t a l to the community's welfare and asserts that many outstanding programmes could never have materialized without the volunteer time and money given by local clubs. It assumes that a Project Chairman w i l l welcome the knowledge that there i s a place where he can get suggestions for socially useful programmes, that f i l l a need without duplicating the work done by some other club or organization. One page of the pamphlet is devoted to the topic, "Organizing a Project" which contains pertinent points for deliberation. These include taking cognizance of the following factors: the community's needs, the members' interests, the p o s s i b i l i t y of duplication and the advisability of making i t a co-operative effort. The last page informs readers of the characteristics of reputable wel-fare organizations and offers wise counsel to public spirited citizens to investigate projects carefully before giving their prestige, time and money to unknown philanthropic drives. Information to check on these - 100 -i s available through the Community Council, supplied to them by the National Information Bureau's confidential reporting service. This pam-phlet presents, i n brief and concise form, general principles to assist clubs i n a wise choice of projects; and, while i t does not l i s t specific recreational needs, i t encourages members to seek further advice from the community council when ready to launch out on a new programme of service. Service Clubs Relationship to Community Groups Enquiries as to the possible relationships with the Park Board, Community Chest and Council, Community Arts Council and Local Community Councils showed that these were few or negligible. Only the two clubs whose projects involve the Parks Board have any relation to t his ci v i c body. One club stated that i t had connections with Community Chest and Council. In this regard i t is interesting to note that at least six clubs considered i n this study are non-financial participating members i n the Community Chest and Council, yet even the officers of the clubs were unaware of this connection. This can be explained, i n part, by the nature of the constitution of the Community Chest and Council, which w i l l be discussed later. Not one club reports a relationship with the Community Arts Council. The situation regarding an alliance to l o c a l Community Councils is an interesting one. The long established clubs claim no connection with such a body, which i s understandable when one recognizes that they are largely comprised of men having businesses or being i n professions, located i n the downtown section of the c i t y . However, - 101 -newer clubs whose d i s t r i c t i s a more residential area, appear to be v i t a l l y interested i n their particular community centre councils. The clubs that have representation on these councils are Point Grey Kiwanis, West Point Kiwanis, Burrard Lions, Kingsway Rotary and Marpole Rotary. As already mentioned, several of these have made contributions i n various ways to the community councils. In a l l cases these councils have been developed comparatively recently and whether or not the clubs w i l l continue to be as closely related i n the future i s uncertain. As would be expected, generally speaking, these newer clubs with smaller membership have less financial aid to offer, but give valuable support, through committee work, to plans for the welfare of their community, What of the position of service clubs that are not connected to communities and who have large sume of money to spend? This i s an important question for consideration, since i t is only i n the large cit i e s that more than one branch of any club develops. Often a c i t y becomes so large that a l l men interested i n service clubs cannot be assimilated i n the existing ones. Generally new clubs do not spring up un t i l after one club of each "International" has been established. Thus, i t i s easily understood that the clubs f i r s t established, being composed of business and professional men of a whole city, cannot a l l y themselves with any one community association. The growth of service clubs i n the past five years has been spectacular. It is now estimated that throughout the world one million men are service club members, approximately one half of whom are i n Canada and the United States. - 102 -The Situation i n Vancouver In Vancouver, to date, there i s neither a master plan surveying recreational needs, nor a l i s t i n g of specific needs, nor printed material to bring service clubs into contact with overall community planning. This city, the third largest i n Canada has experienced rapid growth bringing with i t complicating factors such as housing shortage, inad-equate zoning, transportation, increased school population and lack of sufficient recreational f a c i l i t i e s . At the same time, new service clubs and other organizations have sprung up quickly, each doing i t s b i t with l i t t l e thought of a total plan. The importance of an overall c i t y plan for recreation i s evident, but the complexity of the situation makes this no easy matter. In 1928 a study of Welfare Agencies led to the formulation of the Community Chest and Welfare Council, and this endeavoured to be the central planning body for private agencies. It suffered from the same handicaps - the depression, the d i f f i c u l t war years and the results of rapid growth i n population - as did a l l other welfare agencies. The constitution of the Community Chest and Council allows for individual and organizational memberships, and the l a t t e r makes pro-vision for those participating financially and those not so participating. The non-financial participating clause makes elig i b l e any non-political association or organization which, though not actually engaged i n any one specific branch of social work, has a general interest i n social problems. In October of 1940 service clubs were invited to the group work division. The minutes of that meeting explain that the reason for - 103 -this action was that "they (the service club members) representing a large section of the general public, particularly that section which was directly or indirectly interested i n the provision of social welfare service, should take a f u l l share with specific group work agencies i n developing and carrying out a c i t y wide plan for those services. The committee (Group Work Division) f e l t that service clubs should be part and parcel of i t and that their contribution to the deliberations would be invaluable i n developing and insuring the carrying out of any compre-hensive city wide plan for recreation". The records are somewhat vague but i t seems that there was l i t t l e follow-up of this idea of bringing service clubs into actual participation. The earliest record of any club becoming a non-financial participating member i s that of Junior League i n 1°U3. Three years later letters were sent to service clubs inviting them to apply for membership i n the Council, A number of clubs responded, including the six mentioned i n this study. They, then, had representation i n the Group Work Division, The minutes of that Division for May 13, 1946 stated the object was "not to dictate but to provide a clearing house for the ideas of those interested i n group work and to keep people up to date i n the progress of recreational and educational trends i n the group work f i e l d " . The constitution does not provide for the annual appointment of these representatives, and thus, once appointed they continue to serve on the Council, though they may have withdrawn from membership i n their clubs or organizations. Such persons then speak as individual members, leaving the clubs involved without representation. This general method also tends to make for poor representation i n that members appointed may rarely attend meetings or may attend them as a matter of course, but have l i t t l e opportunity to report and thus keep the club up to date on community thinking and planning i n recreation. This situation has been recognized - 104-and a study of the constitution i s being made with a view to s t i p u l a t i n g that representatives must be appointed each year, and w i l l be delegated by the Board of Directors of the Chest and Council to an appropriate d i v i s i o n i n the Welfare section, where they w i l l have voting power. I f t h i s change i s effected, i t i s hoped that the necessity of the president bringing the matter before his club each year w i l l r e s u l t i n more v i t a l and continued inte r e s t . Though membership i s voluntary, i t w i l l be important f o r the Community Chest and Council to continue to seek the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of those clubs not now represented. The import-ance of such p a r t i c i p a t i o n can be stressed by an interpretation of the resulting value to both the Council and the Clubs. The strength of the Community Chest and Council i s i n proportion to the degree that i t i s representative of the t o t a l community. From the point of view of the clubs, they benefit by professional advice, an opportunity to share i n planning on a community wide basis, and to secure information about developments i n various parts of the c i t y and unmet needs yet to be tackled. Such a change w i l l be a step forward i n bringing those service clubs, who so desire, w i t h i n the o r b i t of private agency planning. There i s , nevertheless, s t i l l a gap due to the absence of any group which brings together public and private agencies. In Vancouver an active Parks Board and the School Board are both concerned with re-creation. The Norrie Report stated that i n the future, j o i n t planning by these two groups i s imperative and adds that they are financed by the same people and that the f u l l e s t use of the f a c i l i t i e s of both f o r public purposes should be aided by harmonious inter-agency understanding and co-opesation. 1 However, i t appears that there are the three groups — 1. Norrie, L . E. Survey Report of Group Work and Recreation of Greater yancouver. The Community Chest and Welfare Council of Greater Vancouver, 1945, p. H . - 105 -Community Council, the Parks Board and the School Board, each going i t s own way with some regard for the others but without a means of accompl-ishing joint planning. Until there i s such a co-ordinating body, the distinct functions of private and public agencies w i l l not be clearly defined, the t o t a l needs of the community cannot be viewed, and over-lapping and overlooking cannot be prevented. The Norrie Report suggests that i t i s the responsibility of the Community Chest and Council to establish a strong committee with representation from a f f i l i a t e d agencies, public agencies and citizens at large to consciously plan for co-ordination of services. The Community Chest and Council is so consti-tuted that this i s possible and a beginning has been made i n this direction v/ith the recent participation of the Metropolitan Health Committee. To function i n this way as a co-ordinating agency would involve a study of the organizational set-up to determine necessary changes i n structure and staff. The presence of a Provincial Recreation program of physical f i t -ness including games, sports, gymnastics and dancing, needs also to be taken into account when considering the co-ordination of services. At one time i t appeared that this programme was competing with already established agencies and extra-curricular ac t i v i t i e s of the schools. However, due consideration was given the matter, and Provincial Recrea-tion now supplements the work of agencies by providing leadership for activities upon request, and holds classes i n areas where they would otherwise not be available. - 106 -This discussion points up the great lack of total community recreational planning. I f this could be established i t would provide a most suitable means for helping service clubs work for the community to best advantage. This of course implies that service clubs are anxious for such an opportunity. Unfortunately this i s not always the case, most often because of a lack of any knowledge of the importance of such total planning rather than an active antagonism against i t . This indicates the need for a broad, conscious educational process. The writer discovered on several occasions considerable ignorance concerning public and private welfare agencies, the functions of Community Chest and Council and the fact that they, the members, are working i n the realm of a profession, namely, social work. This i s not to suggest, by any means, that service clubs' members are more ignorant than the general public i n this respect; indeed there i s every evidence that the opposite i s true, but greater knowledge i s essential for those participating i n providing community social services. The crux of the problem seems to be that those engaged i n social gropp work and community organization must endeavour to interpret the needs and practices to lay people and secure their participation. This participation brings together, and carries back and forth the experience of the community and the technicians who serve i t . The more the public, i n this instance service club members, understand that social work and recreation as part of i t , i s an on-going part of democracy, .the more they w i l l realize that growth and change is essential. There i s need for a guiding, co-ordinating body to lead the way; on the other hand citizens - 107 -must have a part i n creating a better community climate. Groups of people must be free to act, to pioneer i n and demonstrate new services. It cannot be forgotten that man i s essentially a social being, he has an inner need to help other people, to feel useful and find ways of expressing warmth and sympathy. This deep interest and conviction w i l l be necessary i f social services, including recreation, are to progress. Service clubs are i n a position to augment the recreation opportunities of any community and they have taken advantage of i t . They must make an earnest attempt to increase their understanding of social -welfare matters, to examine and evaluate their a b i l i t y i n this area. At the same time professional social workers and agencies must be willing to share their thinking with them, make suitable suggestions for projects and welcome their aid. I f service clubs' interest i n and convictions about their recreational contributions can be a l l i e d to efficient community planning and organizations, the project sponsored by them w i l l immeasurably enrich the community. - 108 -APPENDIX A SAMPLE OF THE LETTER February , 1949. Dear For my Master's Degree i n Social Work, I am writing a thesis on the subject of "Service Clubs and their contribu-tion to recreational a c t i v i t i e s i n Vancouver". The Canadian Welfare Council, you may be interested to know, i s already co-operating actively with service clubs i n Central Ontario and Quebec i n planning a conference on the subject for this spring. I am anxious to make my Vancouver study as representa-tive as possible, and I am seeking your help i n obtaining i n -formation about recreational services or projects i n which your club i s interested. I am of course aware that service clubs have undertaken various projects of which recreation i s only one. However, i n my particular study I am attempting to focus on what has been done i n recreation and leisure time activities i n Greater Vancouver i n the past three years, both for youth and adult citizens, by the Service Clubs. I realize that this request w i l l entail some of your time, but I am sure you w i l l appreciate the need of including each Service Club to give adequate coverage of the topic. Three questionnaires are enclosed, i n case i t would prove easier to ask the officers of the Club concerned to answer only the questions pertaining to their year of office. Please put the information on either one or three questionnaires, whichever i s most convenient. If i t would help to expedite completion of the question-naire i f I were to x a l l on you, please l e t me know. I can be reached Monday and Wednesday at (office hours); other times at With many thanks for your help, Sincerely, Jean Moore. - 109 -APPENDIX B SAMPLE OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE  RECREATIONAL PROJECTS OF VANCOUVER SERVICE CLUBS Service Club . . . . Branch ( i f necessary) Do you contribute to, or sponsor any of the following. (If you share any of the projects with other clubs, agencies, or government bodies, please ring the item and explain on the back.) Type of Project 1946 1947 19U8 X Grants for general recreational activity x I f any special projects are anticipated for 1949* please tick here, and annotate on the back. Did you receive requests to aid deserving recreational projects How many did you respond to: (a) with donations (b) other assistance Do you raise the majority of your funds by an established method, e.g. bazaars or carnivals ..... appropriation from general funds ..... "drives" or canvasses for particular objects ..... others (specify) ., Does your Club have any special relationship with the Parks Board Community Chest and Council..., Community Arts Council .... Local Community Council(s) (specify) Officer f i l l i n g form (or best person to contact) Telephone - 110 -APPENDIX G BIBLIOGRAPHY Books H i l l , Ernest Frank, Man-Made Cult Tire, American Association f o r Adult Education, New York, lieorge Grady Press, 1938. Tuttle, George, Youth Organizations i n Canada, Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1946. '. Periodicals, Magazines and Newspapers Arnold, Aren, "Clubs are Trumps", C o l l i e r Magazine, January 10, I948. Woollocott, Arthur, "Youth Salvage", Macleans' Magazine, January 1, 1939. "A Club f o r Boys", Vancouver Daily Province, August 26, 1939. Pamphlets "Finding a Club Welfare Project to F i t Community Needs". A service of the Community Council of Memphis-Shelby County, 1948-49. Reports Norrie, L. E., Survey Report of Group Work and Recreation of  Greater Vancouver. The Gommunity Chest and Welfare Council of Greater Vancouver, 194f>. Minutes, Correspondence and Reports i n the f i l e s of the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver. 


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