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The contribution of the survey method to the process of community organization as demonstrated by the… Weeks, Donald Joseph 1950

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19 s'o ft £ Cap, / THE CONTRIBUTION OP THE SURVEY METHOD TO THE PROCESS' OP COMMUNITY ORGANIZA-TION AS DEMONSTRATED BY THE ACTIVITIES OP A COUNCIL OP SOCIAL AGENCIES. Thesis presented i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Donald Joseph Weeks . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l 13, 1950. ABSTRACT This study i s concerned with the r o l e of the survey method i n a s s i s t i n g the c i t i z e n s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the planning of community welfare services. It attempts to point out how the survey can be a medium through which professional and non professional agencies and individuals are able to p a r t i c i p a t e , to co-operate and to learn through the group process i n the f i e l d of welfare planning* Because a Council of S o c i a l Agencies is accepted as the obvious channel through which people may come together f o r discussion while attempting to solve t h e i r problems, th i s study shows the contribution which a 6ouncil can make In this regardo The study assumes the premise that any sustained i n t e r e s t i n and planning f o r welfare services must accept the f a c t that the c i t i z e n s being served have a r i g h t to be a part of the o v e r a l l planning f o r these resources i n t h e i r respective communities. Each example of a survey presented f o r discussion Is analysed i n order to show the degree of attention paid to the three c r i t e r i a f o r a s o c i a l survey: co-operation, p a r t i c i p -ation and education. In i t s t h e o r e t i c a l aspect, the study stresses the democratic nature of Canadian and American society and attempts to point up how s o c i a l welfare and democratic p r i n c i p l e s may be co-ordinated i n an e f f o r t to b u i l d a strong society. As s o c i a l work philosophy recognises the d i g n i t y of the individual and his right to plan f o r himself, I t there-fore behooves the professional body to study and to analyse the ways i n which i t is possible to secure a wider and more ef f e c t i v e representation from the community i n the planning f o r welfare services* The study concludes with a summation of democratic and s o c i a l work philosophy as demonstrated by the examples contained i n the thesis and adds some suggestions to the l o c a l planning agency concerning the development of a more e f f e c t i v e programme w i t h i n that agency. TABLE OP CONTENTS Page THE CONTRIBUTION OP THE SURVEY METHOD TO THE PROCESS' OP COMMUNITY ORGANIZA-TION AS DEMONSTRATED BY THE ACTIVITIES . . OP A COUNCIL OP SOCIAL. AGENCIES.. Chapter 1, The Community Chest and C o u n c i l i n a  Modern Community The p l a c e i n a democracy f o r c i t i z e n p l a n n i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e . H i s t o r i c development of o v e r a l l f i n a n c i n g and p l a n n i n g agencies. F u n c t i o n s of a C o u n c i l . D e f i n i t i o n o f Community O r g a n i z a t i o n and the p l a c e of the s o c i a l survey i n t h i s p r o c e s s . Chapter 2. Development of the C o u n c i l i n Vancouver 13 The growth of s o c i a l s e r v i c e resources i n Vancouver. Survey to a s c e r t a i n need to f o r m a Chest and •Council. C o n t r i b u t i o n of the Whit ton Survey of 1927 to the development of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s i n Vancouver and • B r i t i s h Columbia. Chapter 3. The West End Survey. 1940-1941 24 H i s t o r i c a l development of the West End p e n i n s u l a . S o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s p r e c i p i t a t i n g a r e c r e a t i o n a l survey i n t h i s area. O r g a n i z a t i o n of the survey i n 1940. Recommendations made f o r the West E n d , and t h e i r implementations. Chapter 4. The N p r r i e Report - 1945 42 The request f o r a study of community r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s a f f i l i a t e d with the Chest and C o u n c i l . S o c i a l and economic s t a t u s of Vancouver i n 1945. The methods used by the expert f o r studying f a c i l i t i e s and needs i n Vancouver. A t t i t u d e s of r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies to the s t u d y . Recommendations and implementation of the study and e v a l u a t i o n o f c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h i s study to r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . •r age Chapter 5. Alexandra Neighbourhood House Survey. 1948 69 Survey of a s p e c i f i c agency, undertaken by the agency and using' C o u n c i l l e a d e r s h i p . Problem i l l u s t r a t i n g the l a c k of d e f i n i t e p o l i c i e s i n r e g a r d to agency f u n c t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Method of survey, recommendations and implementations. Chapter 6. F a i r v i e w - M O U n t Pleasant Survey 1948 87 Survey of a "neighbourhood requested by a group work agency. S o c i a l and economic components of the area. use of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i t s v a l u e . Degree of implementation. Chapter 7. Cpllingwood Survey. 1949 106 ~ A f u r t h e r '"neighbourhood" survey requested by neighbourhood group. S o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and economic p e c u l i a r i t i e s of: the area. u s e of p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p . E f f o r t s to e n l i s t a s s i s t a n c e of community groups. Recommendations f o r meeting needs of area and reasons why implementations are l a c k i n g . Chapter 8. F i n a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 122 Types of surveys i l l u s t r a t e d . Some p r i n c i p l e s demonstrated by these surveys. Place of the C o u n c i l i n process of Community O r g a n i z a t i o n through the "group". Suggestions to l o c a l p l a n n i n g agency f o r more e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s t concerning g e n e r a l matters. APPENDIX B i b l i o g r a p h y . CHAPTER ONE THE COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL IN A MODERN COMMUNITY During the past few decades two influences have accounted f o r the development of the philosophy of the Chest and Council. A keener awareness has grown of the p r i n c i p l e s of democracy, and with i t the recognition that i n any community in d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s and groups of c i t i z e n s should assume some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r om common welfare. It i s therefore necessary that there should be some medium through which such individuals and groups can a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r needs, study present resources and co-operate i n establishing new welfare services or i n increasing the usefulness of existing agencies. The second influence i s the change i n the philosophy of s o c i a l work. O r i g i n a l l y s o c i a l work was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of well intentioned but u n s k i l l e d volunteers. Over the years i t has gradually and steadily moved to a professional l e v e l , developing a body of knowledge which has been proved useful i n community planning f o r welfare. To spend community money wisely requires planning with v i s i o n , and, as experience has taught many urban centres, opportunity,es need to be opened f o r c i t i z e n s to acquire and use t h i s source of knowledge. This i s what a Welfare Council hopes to accomplish within any given community. The c i t i z e n s can look to such an organization f o r leadership, guidance and technical informa-t i o n from i t s trained professional s t a f f . Trained personnel 2 are by no means numerous even yet, and more are needed. None the l e s s , however well staffed the Chest and Council may be i t i s a recognized f a c t , perhaps more by the trained person than the general public that a major share of the burden of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r getting the job done s t i l l remains with the members of the community. On the North American continent, the Chest and Council movement grew out of the Charity Organization Society and related movements. The r e a l period of expansion, though, came i n the post-war period of the 1920's when the public became concerned about the need f o r common action i n r e l a t i o n to the welfare problems of that time. The depression which engulfed the two major nations on this continent at the end of that decade gave r i s e to the urgent and widespread serious needs f o r e f f e c t i v e welfare services i n many urban centres. The Chest and Council move-ment was established once a substantial number o^ c i t i e s i n Canada and the United States activated by varying experiences, and frequently "comparing notes" and learning from one another recognized these agencies as tiie obvious channels to use. As the movement spread, Chest and Council functions were established i n many places that heretofore had no such f a c i l i t i e s . Another impetus which i n d i r e c t l y affected the general expansion of the Chest and Council idea came with the "War Chests" during 1939-1945 which attempted to meet the demand for specialized s o c i a l services peculiar to the personnel 3 of the armed forces. The War Chests also gave some i n k l i n g of the problems and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which would f a l l upon the various Chests and Councils at the cessation of h o s t i l i -t i e s r e l a t i v e to the short-term and long-term readjustment needs of a post-war world. The post-war readjustment presented problems of r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n which were caused during the period of h o s t i l i t i e s and this stimulated again the a c t i v i t i e s of the Chest and Council i n an e f f o r t to meet increased community needs. The demand was f o r added f a c i l i t i e s ; there were changed attitudes; and there was the in e v i t a b l e period of readjustment on the part of demobilized members of the forces returning to c i v i l i a n l i f e and those who had been l e f t at home. These things would provide ample work on which the Council could concentrate* Perhaps, because of the World War II period relatisra to community services, people were "Volunteer" conscious and the average c i t i z e n carried over h i s i n t e r e s t into the a c t i v i t i e s of the Chest and Council. I t i s a very small step f from USO and Red Cross volunteer work to Cfeest and Council a c t i v i t y , and the t r a n s i t i o n was as easy as i t was natural. It i s generally accepted that the success of a service depends upon the degree to which those being served have shared i n the o r i g i n a l and sustaining planning of the agency or service. Here then, was an i d e a l opportunity f o r the Council to i n i t i a t e a period of education and in t e r p r e t a t i o n . I The problem of keeping the Conmunity conscience aware of existing problems has always been a major concern of a s o c i a l p l a n n i n g agency such as a C o u n c i l . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the t h i n k i n g of the community i n r e l a t i o n t o s o c i a l i l l s does not l a g too f a r b e h i n d t h a t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p . I t i s a l l too common to assume t h a t one of the v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f g o v e r n -ment sh o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n i t i a t i o n and a b s o r p t i o n o f w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s which n o r m a l l y f u n c t i o n a d e q u a t e l y on a p r i v a t e l e v e l , Democracy, to be e f f e c t i v e , demands t h a t i t s r i g h t s , be complemented with the f u l f i l m e n t of t h e d u t i e s which i t imposes. Among o t h e r d u t i e s , t h e r e are two t h a t c o n c e r n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n and t h e y a r e : ( 1 ) to e n q u i r e into and t o c o n s i d e r the problems which are p r e s e n t I n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s community, and ( 2 ) to c o n t r i b u t e something of h i m s e l f to the development of a more w h o l e s a l e and e f f e c t i v e community l i f e . "Community o r g a n i z a t i o n " - any p r o c e d u r e s which h e l p c i t i z e n s to e s t a b l i s h the k i n d of community which they need and want -a f f o r d s c i t i z e n s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o f u l f i l the c r i t e r i a c i t e d above. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , p r o p e r l y the f u n c t i o n of the C o u n c i l to p r o v i d e the means and t h e l e a d e r s h i p , o r i n o t h e r words, the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the members of a s o c i e t y to take an a c t i v e p a r t i n t h i s p r o c e s s . I n an e f f o r t to act as a " l i s t e n i n g p o s t " , to a s s i s t the l o c a l a g e n c i e s I n t h e i r work, and to r e m a i n u p - t o - d a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s t hroughout Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e r e has been s e t up, on an I n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l , a p r i v a t e , v o l u n t e e r o r g a n i z a t i o n known as the Community Chests and C o u n c i l s I n c . This agency has put f o r w a r d e i g h t p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n s of a C o u n c i l which are l i s t e d as follows, and which may be a p p l i e d 5 to any l o c a l area: "A Council should: (a) Provide a means f o r bringing together a l l parties involved or interested i n a s p e c i f i c problem so that j o i n t study can be made. (b) Provide means f o r representatives of the operating agencies to come together, develop mutual understanding and arrive at ef f e c t i v e working r e l a t i o n s h i p s . (c) Operate common services f o r the benefi t of a l l or a group of agencies. (d) Provide a means whereby c i t i z e n s and organiza-tions interested i n and active i n the f i e l d of health and welfare can take j o i n t action to bring about improvements i n the community programme, which can be presented i n other community planning a c t i v i t i e s . (e) Develop relationships with the appropriate Bodies of Community Chest and l o c a l govern-ment whereby t h e i r knowledge and influence have a bearing on decisions regarding health and welfare expenditures. (f) Quicken public awareness and understanding of community health and welfare problems and how agencies are dealing with these problems. (g) Attempt to increase the e f f i c i e n c y and effectiveness of the operating agencies. (h) Act as a clearing house f o r a l l plans and major changes i n health and welfare programmes, or the establishment of new services. (1) The a c t i v i t i e s of Vancouver's Council include some repre-sentation i n a l l categories; however, i t i s pe r f e c t l y natural that some of these functions w i l l be carried out more effec-t i v e l y than others. The Vancouver Council provides services (1) Health and Welfare Planning i n the Smaller Community, New York Community Chests and Councils Inc. 1945, p. 7. to a l l i t s a f f i l i a t e d agencies and i s q u i t e conscious of s e c u r i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from a l l i n t e r e s t e d Community groups i n the d i s c u s s i o n s and s t u d i e s which i t does i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s of a c t i v i t y . Some D i v i s i o n s are more a c t i v e than o t h e r s ; t h i s r f a c t i s due to r e a l i s t i c o b s t a c l e s - f o r one example, a l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f to handle the work. T h i s l i s t o f f e r s a c o n c i s e e v a l u a t i o n of C o u n c i l f u n c -t i o n s . O bviously many of these f u n c t i o n s o v e r l a p . An o r g a n i z a t i o n which undertakes these f u n c t i o n s might be s a i d to be engaged i n Community O r g a n i z a t i o n , which one a u t h o r i t y has d e s c r i b e d as: "a p r o c e s s . . . t o h e l p people to f i n d ways to g i v e e x p r e s s i o n t o . . . i n h e r e n t d e s i r e s to improve the environment i n which they and t h e i r f e l l o w s must c a r r y on t h e i r l i v e s . " and which has as i t s purpose "to h e l p i n d i v i d u a l s and groups to f i n d common o b j e c t i v e s towards which t h e i r e n e r g i e s can be dl r e c t e d . T h i s i n v o l v e s the p r o v i d i n g of means by which i n d i v i d u a l s may i d e n t i f y with groups i n the i n t e r e s t of enhancing the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e i r p e r s o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n . I t a l s o i n v o l v e s the e s t a b l i s h i n g of channels through which groups may communicate and r e a c t upon one another." (2) One of the methods of a s s i s t i n g the p u b l i c to engage i n these things, i s by t a k i n g p a r t i n a s o c i a l survey. One r e s e a r c h a u t h o r i t y has c a l l e d the s o c i a l survey a method of " S o c i a l i n t r o s p e c t i o n " . In i t s s i m p l e s t d e f i n i t i o n , a survey c o n s i s t s of a s c i e n t i f i c s e a r c h i n g out of f a c t s concerning a problem, to the end t h a t some comcrete p l a n can be formulated (2) McMillan, Wayne, Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r S o c i a l Welfare U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1945, pp„ 26-27. 7 to solve the d i f f i c u l t y . Everyone has at some time or other been part of a survey, i f only to provide s t a t i s t i c s f o r a national census, or to determine the best route between two geographical points. The Social Work Year Book, commenting on the s o c i a l survey, states: "The s o c i a l survey has always occupied an important place In s o c i a l work planning and s o c i a l action. One of i t s primary values Is that i t increases the area of knowledge about a given community or problem and provides a f a c t u a l basis f o r important decisions i n administration and i n conmunity organization." (3) The main issue i n any survey besides diagnosing the problem i s to give the community a greater awareness of the area under consideration plus a l l of the factors contributing to the s i t u a t i o n , thus allowing f o r education, p a r t i c i p a t i o n and co-operation of and within the community. Social surveys have been s a i d to concern themselves with (i) current or immediate conditions ( i i ) of a s o c i a l pathological nature ( i i i ) having d e f i n i t e geographical l i m i t s (iv) having d e f i n i t e s o c i a l implications and s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ; (v) being capable of measurement (vi) of com-parison with situations which may be accepted as a model and ( v i i ) being concerned with the formulation of a constructive programme of s o c i a l advance. (4) (3) Fletcher, Ralph Carr, "Research and S t a t i s t i c s i n Social Work Surveys", Social Work Year Book. Russell Sage Foundation, 1949, p. 435 (4) Young, Pauline V., S c i e n t i f i c Social Surveys and Research : ~~~— Prentice-Hall Inc. 1949 p. 55 f f . 8 The social survey of to-day d i f f e r s i n some respects with the survey which was undertaken i n the e a r l i e r development of so c i a l research. Pauline Young's description" of the problems which the social survey studies, e.g. the problem of a ''social pathological" nature does not necessarily apply to-day. The so c i a l survey to-day can study a more normal s i t u a t i o n and have a smaller focus or purpose. Nor does a s o c i a l survey of necessity concern i t s e l f with other situations which "may be accepted as a model". If "standards" i s implied i n the above, then the meaning i s altered and could be accepted as v a l i d . The same author elucidates as follows: "....the s o c i a l survey has been defined as a co-operative undertaking which applies s c i e n t i f i c methods to the study of current r e l a t e d s o c i a l problems and conditions having d e f i n i t e geographical l i m i t s and bearings with a view to arousing public opinion to take a hand inthe s o l u t i o n of the exist i n g problems. (5) This sums up the concern of the social survey and how i t seeks to remedy a s o c i a l condition apparently needing atten-tion , or to improve services already attempted i n part. Over and a bove the c r i t e r i a already mentioned, the writer considers four other elements as necessary f o r a successful s o c i a l survey. In the l i g h t of the f a c t that the survey i s not s o l e l y a mechanical task, and accepting the assumption that a survey i s dealing with human problems and human beings and that i n the f i n a l analysis, the c i t i z e n s concerned must (5) Ibid, p. 55 9 take the burden of providing the solution to the problem, the following elements would necessarily form an important part i n a survey. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true, i t i s contended, f o r surveys which are part of Chest and Council action. The elements to consider are: 1. The effectiveness; of the inter-group process. Part of the study of any problem should make c l e a r to the group doing the study the necessity of co-operation between a l l bodies and individ u a l s who may be able to supply material or ideas to the discussions. Part of the "process" of the survey group or committee i s to bri n g together on a common footing a l l representatives of a l l groups interested or affected by the s i t u a t i o n under study. The degree to which these people are able to think and work together i s a serious test of the strength and v a l i d i t y of the survey^ 2. The method used i n formulating recommendations Recommendations fo r a survey cannot be pre-determined. They must be the outgrowth of the cumulative f a c t s i n the sit u a t i o n . The f i n a l analysis must r e s t on the authority of the information gathered, whether or not i t in t e r f e r e s with the i n t e r e s t s of a minority. The recommendations should be formulated and accepted through the general concensus of the group. 3.. The method of inter p r e t a t i o n to the public To have a survey accepted,^if the end i s to be accomplished, the people concerned to the greatest degree must understand the meaning of the study i n an honest, fa c t u a l way. Explana-t i o n of the f a c t s that have been accumulated, and the way i n which recommendations have been reached are needed. The report should also c l a r i f y the manner i n which the greatest good of the greatest number w i l l be served i n an in t e r e s t i n g but objective way. The matter of p u b l i c i t y must of necessity enter here, and t h i s too involves the playing down of the merely sensational and the use of g r e a t e s t i n t e g r i t y . 4. The degree of public acceptance accorded to the study In most cases this can only be judged at a l a t e r period. If the public considers i t s e l f genuinely involved and con-cerned i n tiae matter and understands the technical analysis, and i n other wards the survey i s competent, i t s effectiveness w i l l show by the actual implementation of the r e s u l t s . In the f i e l d of s o c i a l services there would appear to be at l e a s t three elements i n a successful survey: co-ordination, p a r t i c i p a t i o n and education. A good survey committee w i l l seek assistance from a l l community groups d i r e c t l y concerned with the problem under study i n order to obtain a better perspective of the area r e l a t i v e to p o l i c y and resources. A survey group w i l l attempt to make a l l i t s members responsible f o r some piece of work, both on the professional and l a y l e v e l . The educative process i s the important one f o r the average person* It i s the c i t i z e n who w i l l i n the long run exert the influence to push the study to i t s f u l f i l m e n t . If the c i t i z e n does not recognize a need, then the agency w i l l 11 cease to function,, Kenneth Kindelsperger has defined f i v e types of studies that may he made by an agency, as follows: a. The national s t a f f of the l o c a l agency i s c a l l e d i n to do a p a r t i a l or complete agency study based on the standards and c r i t e r i a established by the national agency. b. An outside consultant, not necessarily of the agency's national s t a f f , i s c a l l e d i n to d i r e c t the study, c. An agency i s reviewed, along with another group of agencies, by an outside s t a f f . d. A loc a l agency, using i t s own resources, does a "self study". i e. A l o c a l agency c a l l s i n the Council of So c i a l Agencies to direc t the study. (6) It would be reasonable to add that any or a l l of these methods be combined. Method of Present Study: In the following chapters, several surveys w i l l be analysed, the studies chosen being representative of three of the above-l i s t e d groups. A l l the surveys were made by, or under the auspices of, the Vancouver Council of Social Agencies, which l a t e r became part of the Community Chest and Council o f Greater Vancouver, Attention i s confined to surveys which were made within the Group Work D i v i s i o n over the period of 1939 to 1949. The B r i t i s h Columbia Child Welfare Survey o f 1927 i s also reviewed because offiitssbasic importance to the development of the welfare services of the Chest and Council. (6) Kindelsperger, Kenneth W., Use of the Group Process i n  Making Agency and Community Studies, Cleveland, National Conference of Social Work, 1949 (mimeographed) The surveys of t h i s d i v i s i o n were chosen on account of the f a c t that a c t i v i t i e s concerned with Group Work are more amenable to c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; also because the idea of recreation i s closer to the average i n d i v i d u a l through his p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n spare-time and recreational programmes at some time i n his experience. CHAPTER TWO THE DEVELOPMENT OP THE COUNCIL IN VANCOUVER Because the material to be discussed i s either the pro-duct of Council action or i n t e r e s t , i t i s necessary to sketch, i f only b r i e f l y , the development of Vancouver's Council of Social Agencies. I t came into being nearly twenty years ago, so that i t s history p a r a l l e l s as much as one-third of Vancouver's s o c i a l h i s t o r y . By normal standards, Vancouver's growth during sixty odd years has been rapid, and even though to-day Vancouver stands as the t h i r d largest c i t y i n th i s Dominion, the P a c i f i c Coast c i t y i s s t i l l a young c i t y . As the s o c i a l and economic l i f e i n the small lumbering centre grew and expanded i n many dir e c t i o n s , new problems followed the changes. I t became increasingly apparent that some thought and planning would have to be undertaken to meet these conditions. In the f i e l d of s o c i a l services t h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y true. In the early days and i n the period up to 1930, both public and private agencies assisted i n providing services as the need arose, without too much thought being given to o v e r a l l planning and co-ordination. The f i r s t step which was taken to study s c i e n t i f i c a l l y what the needs of the c i t y were, and the method of securing more e f f i c i e n t services was taken i n 1927 when the B r i t i s h Columbia Child Welfare Survey was made. This survey was the f i r s t of i t s kind i n t h i s Province and l a i d down the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s upon which to b u i l d 14 the future s o c i a l welfare programme i n Vancouver and B r i t i s h Columbia. (J) In the private f i e l d , the agencies consisted i n the main of c h i l d caring organizations. There were two Children's. Aid Societies, orphanages, homes f o r women and g i r l s and some summer camps sponsored by service clubs f o r young people. Residences and f a c i l i t i e s were av a i l a b l e to working young men and women through the t r a d i t i o n a l national and in t e r n a t i o n a l agencies. Family services were provided by one s p e c i f i c agency. Private charity or r e l i e f was given through various r e l i g i o u s l y sponsored organizations. There were also p r i v a t e l y maintained h o s p i t a l s , r e s t homes and nursing services. In the municipal sphere, R e l i e f (or to-day, Social Assistance) was provided by the City Health Department on a rudimentary scale to the des t i t u t e . The Ci t y also maintained a public h o s p i t a l and i n i t i a t e d the "Creche" which was to be fo s t e r day service to working mothers. This was l a t e r ab-sorbed by the General Hospital and became the Infants Annex on Haro Street, The P r o v i n c i a l Government provided some services which were also on a very minor scale. Pensions to mothers, that i s money grants, were provided to those women with f a m i l i e s i n which the breadwinner was absent through illness:, death, etc. C h i l d Welfare was represented i n l e g i s l a t i o n concerning the protection of children, children's estates, contracts and (1) This survey w i l l be discussed further on i n this chapter. employment. Procedure f o r adoption was set f o r t h i n a special act. L e g i s l a t i o n provided f o r an O f f i c i a l Guardian who was responsible f o r the proper administration of a l l moM^s and estates f a l l i n g to orphaned children. In the realm of health, f a c i l i t i e s were provided f o r a V.C. programme, a mental h o s p i t a l , a public infirmary f o r incurables, and an o l d peoples home. So c i a l assistance was granted to s p e c i a l i z e d classes through the Department of Labour and the Department of the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary. The condition of s o c i a l services i n those days was, to say the l e a s t , somewhat confused. Each agency went i t s own • way and worked i t s own salvation as best i t could. Occasion-a l l y service clubs came to the rescue when some urgent need arose. There was no co-ordination, o v e r a l l planning or joint budgeting. The eventual mushrooming i n the development of s o c i a l services caused many s o c i a l l y conscious c i t i z e n s to r e a l i z e that there was a need to study the s i t u a t i o n with the end i n mind that some plan could be worked out whereby a ground plan f o r future action might be elucidated. Around 1925 one of the service clubs i n the c i t y had raised the amount of $20,000 which was slated to be used f o r some deserving agency. Various agencies forwarded requests f o r f i n a n c i a l assistance. The service club, wishing to spend the money wisely, suggested that a study be done i n t h i s area to determine the best place f o r the money. This i n b r i e f is how the f i r s t concrete attempt was i n i t i a t e d to survey the needs and f a c i l i t i e s i n Vancouver and B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole, with the view to l a y a p l a n f o r f u t u r e e f f i c i e n t expansion. Among the v a r i o u s recommendations of that Report, one i s of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h i s present study, f o r i t was i n c a r r y i n g out t h i s recommendation that the Chest and C o u n c i l came i n t o being: "The Survey f i n d s a l a c k of the u s u a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r j o i n t a c t i o n and development of mutual understanding and a f e e l i n g of comradeship and common purpose among s o c i a l workers, and f o r encouraging and f a c i l i t a t i n g case oo-operation. As a f i r s t step toward f a c i l i t a t i n g c o - o p e r a t i o n i t i s recommended that the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Exchange be r e - o r g a n i z e d f o r continuous s e r v i c e as an autonomous agency, and t h a t the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l Agencies....be kept i n mind f o r f u t u r e development." (2) One of the f i r s t recommendations to be acted upon a f t e r the study had been p u b l i s h e d was t h i s . During the year f o l l o w i n g the Survey, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from p r i v a t e agencies, s e r v i c e c l u b s , m u n i c i p a l and p r o v i n c i a l government o f f i c e s met f r e q u e n t l y under the l e a d e r s h i p o f the Vancouver Board of Trade and the chairmanship of the Mayor to i n v e s t i g a t e the need f o r and the method of i n i t i a t i n g a C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agencies. The records of these meetings are not f u l l enough to permit a d i s c u s s i o n concerning how the group had a r r i v e d at i t s d e c i s i o n . I t i s known th a t the group was r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e of many o r g a n i z a t i o n s working i n the f i e l d o f s o c i a l (2) Whitton. C h a r l o t t e , Report of the B r i t i s h Columbia . C h i l d Welfare Survey, Ottawa, Canadian C o u n c i l on C h i l d Welfare, 1927. welfare. Public and private agencies and i n t e r e s t e d groups met together i n the hope that they could plan f o r the estab-lishment of a central budgeting and planning body. The r e s u l t of these meetings was that Mr. Howard T. Falk, then Director of the Montreal Council of Social Agencies, was i n v i t e d to come to Vancouver f o r the purpose of investigating the s i t u a -t i o n and to report to the Committee- on h i s findings. Mr. Falk, with the consent of his Board, came to Vancouver to undertake this work. Mr. Falk's previous experience f i t t e d him admirably to undertake this new project. He had had wide Experience i n Council work and Community Organization both on this continent and i n England. The report which he presented to the Committee was a Short analysis of the functions of various leading private agencies i n Vancouver, ending with tabulated reasons f o r the need of i n i t i a t i n g a Council i n t h i s area. He went a step further and analysed the role of a central f i n a n c i n g body to a s s i s t the private agencies i n the matter of f i n a n c i a l appeals and i n d i v i d u a l budgeting. There i s l i t t l e material a v a i l a b l e which would permit o f a description of Mr. Falk's methods i n doing-the study which culminated i n the report which he made back to the Committee on November 7, 1929. (@) The group that met was prepared to discuss at length the material which was brought forward. Some thirty-one groups (5) As f a r as the writer knows there i s only one copy o f t h i s . report extant, and that i s on f i l e i n the Community Chest and Council o f f i c e , Vancouver© sent representatives to t h i s meeting which turned out to be an h i s t o r i c one. Mr. Falk's report apparently answered many questions that were i n the minds of the community at large, and i t seems h i s recommendations were well received. The chairman requested discussion of the points r a i s e d . One member moved that the Report be accepted and that plans be l a i d towards i n i t i a t i n g a Chest and Council. However, another member, also i n agreement with the report, requested that the motion be amended, as there was some f e e l i n g that the meeting should determine whether they should plan f o r an amalgamated agency or set up two separate bodies. On reading over the minutes, which are not too informative, one judges that the concensus of the meeting was that planning had a p r i o r i t y over budgeting and campaign. The question was solved when the member suggested that the f i r s t motion be made into two separate motions. The die was cast and i t was therefore decided that they proceed on the basis of separate agencies. The following i s the o f f i c i a l recording of the motion, quoted from the minutes: "Be i t therefore resolved that this meeting go on record as being i n favour of the report of Mr. Palk and that i t proceed forthwith with the formation of a Council of Social Agencies." The second motion followed: "Be i t further resolved that this meeting place i t s e l f on record as favouring the p r i n c i p l e of a F i n a n c i a l Federation and upon the completion of the Council of Social Agencies, an organiza-t i o n be call e d upon to i n t e r e s t c i t i z e n s who w i l l be asked to proceed with the formation of an organization to be known as the Vancouver Fi n a n c i a l Federation. 1 1 The Council, because i t is b a s i c a l l y a body interested i n research and education, should take the lead and precedence over the fund r a i s i n g body. To r a i s e money without suitable planning f o r i t s expenditure i s uneconomical i n time and energy f o r the net r e s u l t i s eventual duplication or neglect of services. From a s t r i c t l y economic point of view, i t i s bad business to use money f o r s o c i a l welfare without due and considerate thought being given to the agencies requesting f i n a n c i a l assistance. Mr. Falk, at a much l a t e r date, i n explaining what a Council does, had t h i s to say: " F i r s t i t i s necessary to emphasize that i t (the Council) functions i n an e n t i r e l y voluntary way. We have no power to compel anyone to do anything -our strength i s i n the f a c t that we reach conclusions by voluntary agreement. Second, a council t r a d i t i o n a l l y operates, by three stages. When we are confronted with a problem or a need, we f i r s t a s c ertain the f a c t s . That may seem to be an easy matter, or i t may require a technical survey. Second, on the basis of the f a c t s , we engage i n co-operative planning, c a l l i n the best profess-ional brains and the most s k i l l e d technical advice available. F i n a l l y , having formulated a plan, we engage i n community organization or the steps necessary to put the plan into e f f e c t . " (XS) "Minutes of a meeting of Social Service Organizations and Public and Semi-Public Associations, held i n the Board of Trade Auditorium, 300 W.Pender St., on Thurs-day, November 7, 1929 at 8 p.m." Council of Social Agencies Special Committees Minute Book, January 1932-1936. ("(£) Annual Report, Vancouver Council of Social Agencies, 1931. It i s the l a s t sentence which is the main concern of this thesis, Community Organization, and one p a r t i c u l a r aspect or technique of t h i s process known as the Survey. Charlotte Whitton's Child Welfare Survey of 1927. Mention has been made herein of Charlotte Whitton's survey of s o c i a l services within the Province 1 of B r i t i s h Columbia i n general and Vancouver i n p a r t i c u l a r during the la t e 1920's, and i t s influence on the development of the l o c a l Council of S o c i a l Agencies. Whether this survey i s good or bad from a professional point of view i s beside the point, however any consideration of the h i s t o r y of the Council and s o c i a l services i n general i n t h i s area must allow f o r some comment on t h i s , Vancouver and B r i t i s h Columbia's f i r s t s o c i a l survey. The Child Welfare Survey of 1927 i s worth note at t h i s point f o r two reasons. F i r s t , i t was the guide post which pointed out the way i n the e a r l y days of Vancouver's and B r i t i s h Columbia's social welfare thinking towards a more e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e future planning. Second, the techni-que which was used i n the survey and the results of the survey are both of i n t e r e s t , because they point up some important d e t a i l s which might be applied to any type of a survey which involves the common good. The survey was undertaken at the request of a body of citizens who were concerned with what constituted good and e f f e c t i v e services. When the survey committee was f i n a l l y chosen, i t included representatives of the churches, agencies, service clubs and interested c i t i z e n s . The study points up as well the process's • of education and how i t develops. This i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f a c t that the study commenced with a s p e c i f i c i s o l a t e d request and ended up by giving a picture of the whole s i t u a t i o n , which permitted the participants to gain a more comprehensive* appreciati on of the needs of the t o t a l community. This was to be expected, intbhat the matter of c h i l d welfare i s i n e v i t a b l y t i e d up with government l e g i s -l a t i o n d i r e c t l y bearing on this subject as well as many side issues, e.g. juvenile and family courts, s o c i a l assistance, mothers' pensions, and so on. This i s also bound to involve private as well as p u b l i c agencies so that i t was not possible to discuss one i s o l a t e d phase of so complex a question, and a f t e r p r e l i m i a r y discussions this was acknow-ledged to be so by the committee. The interesting thing about the study was the f a c t that i t was so well received, and that the recommendations have been carried out almost i n t h e i r entirety. This has been done over a number of years. Some of the recommendations could be termed "advanced" i n t h e i r thinking f o r the time i n which they were made. Some could not be implemented because the time was not ripe; e s p e c i a l l y can this be s a i d concern-ing the role of the government i n various s o c i a l welfare f i e l d s . The province at that time was l i m i t e d i n a greater degree i n i t s budge* than i t i s to-day and many of the r o l e s which were allofeed to i t i n the survey would have to wait to a l a t e r date, when the tax budge* could support the added r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and when the l o c a l agencies were ho longer able to carry on with the job. The f actors that went to make the 1927 study such a success should be noted, because they w i l l again appear i n l a t e r chapters. At the outset, the study was made at the request of c i t i z e n s who recognized a need f o r expert advice. In the study i t s e l f , professional personnel was used wisely and sparingly. The experts directed the actual machinery f o r getting the job done. The c o l l e c t i o n of data was undertaken by the volunteers i n smaller subcommittees. When the material was f i n a l l y gathered together i t was analysed by the pro-f e s s i o n a l personnel and recommendations were brought forward by the experts. An o v e r a l l report was submitted to the committee i n charge of the study and i n d i v i d u a l agency reports were forwarded to the agency i n question concerning questions which were of p a r t i c u l a r importance to themselves and not necessarily of v i t a l i n t e r e s t to the community i n general . The real test of the success and the v a l i d i t y of the thinking contained i n the Report was not the f a c t that i t l a i d down certain t h e o r e t i c a l objectives, but rather that i t has been followed and implemented and not found to be wanting. One reason f o r the success of t h i s study was that the community followed up the report by securing a s t a f f to organize several of the phases of welfare work that needed attention at the time. Three trained and experienced s o c i a l workers were encouraged to come from Eastern Canada to help b u i l d up tiie s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n t h i s C i t y and the P r o v i n c e , according to the p r i n c i p l e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e Survey. CHAPTER THREE: THE WEST END SURVEY, 1940-1941 The f i r s t survey undertaken by the Council of Social Agencies was concerned with a study of a l o c a l area or "neighbourhood" within the City. A study of t h i s kind i l l u s -trates more c l e a r l y , than does a more intensive survey of a l i m i t e d problem, the aspects of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , agency co-operation and the role of professional leadership given by the expert. , This survey would probably be classed by Kenneth Kindersperger as one i n which "the s t a f f of the l o c a l council was c a l l e d upon to d i r e c t . . . . " Although the West End Survey was requested to undertake a study of an a r b i t r a r i l y defined area, i t did not set out to do an evaluation of a s p e c i f i c agency; however, the programme of that agency was studied along with many others as part of the whole neighbourhood picture. In simpla language, the basisccf t h i s study was that b£ most community studies: "what f a c i l i t i e s are available i n the community or area; what interests are being overserved or underserved; and how do the interested c i t i z e n s go about remedying the lacks i n service or avoiding duplication?" The request f o r a survey of the downtown peninsula was i n i t i a t e d by an active and s o c i a l l y conscious group which was seeking a permanent f o c a l point f o r i t s a c t i v i t i e s , which were being hindered at the time by the lack of s u f f i c i -ent space and permanency i n their present quarters. I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e m o t i v a t i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u r v e y c a m e f r o m a m i n o r i t y , b u t i t w a s a m i n o r i t y w h o s e v i s i o n w a s b r o a d e n o u g h t o s e e a c o m m u n i t y r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t y e x i s t i n g a t s o m e t i m e i n t h e f u t u r e w i t h a p o l i c y w h i c h c o u l d s e r v e t h e i r r e s t r i c t e d a c t i v i t i e s a s w e l l a s t h o s e o f t h e a v e r a g e r e s i d e n t . D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e W e s t E n d T h e W e s t E n d p e n i n s u l a h a s h a d a c o l o u r f u l h i s t o r y i n t h e d a y s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f V a n c o u v e r . D u r i n g t h e p a s t f e w d e c a d e s i t h a s b e e n a m o n g r e l area!, n o t b e i n g r e s t r i c t e d e n t i r e l y t o c o m m e r c i a l o r r e s i d e n t i a l u s e . H o w e v e r , i t i s w e l l t o r e t u r n b a c k i n h i s t o r y a f e w y e a r s a n d l o o k a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s s r e a to'Understand a 1 i t t l e b e t t e r t h e p r o b l e m w h i c h d e v e l o p e d a n d r e s u l t e d i n t h i s S u r v e y . T h e a c t u a l p e n i n s u l a l i e s w e s t o f t h e d o w n t o w n a r e a , d i v i d e d f r o m t h e m a i n b u s i n e s s a n d c o m m e r c i a l a r e a b y B u r r a r d S t r e e t , r u n n i n g n o r t h a n d s o u t h . T h i s s t r e t c h o f l a n d , i n c l u d i n g S t a n l e y P a r k , j u t s o u t i n t o " ' B u r r a r d I n l e t , a l l b u t t o u c h i n g t h e N o r t h S h o r e . A s a c o n s e q u e n c e i t i s a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y s u r r o u n d e d b y w a t e r - o n t h e n o r t h b y B u r r a r d I n l e t a n d o n t h e s o u t h b y E n g l i s h B a y a n d F a l s e C r e e k . xn I n t h e e a r l y d e c a d e s , a f t e r t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e C i t y , t h i s a r e a w a s s t r i c t l y a r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t c o n s i s t -i n g o f m a n y f i n e h o m e s . T h e p r o x i m i t y o f t h i s a r e a t o S t a n l e y P a r k a n d t h e w a t e r i n g p l a c e s a r o u n d E n g l i s h B a y m a d e t h e d i s t r i c t v e r y p o p u l a r . I n f a c t t h e W e s t E n d w a s Vancouver's f i r s t b e t t e r - c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . In time, as the C i t y grew l a r g e r , the l i m i t s j d f new s u b d i v i s i o n s were bei n g extended south from E n g l i s h Bay.A As t h i s was o c c u r -r i n g , commercial and i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s were g r a d u a l l y i n f i l -t r a t i n g west of B u r r a r d S t r e e t . In t h i s p e r i o d of expansion many of the o l d e s t a b l i s h e d f a m i l i e s moved away from the peninsta&a, l e a v i n g the grand o l d homes to new owners, who g r a d u a l l y s u b d i v i d e d them i n t o s u i t e s , to be l e t out to working people and t r a n s i e n t s . Then f o l l o w e d the apartment b u i l d i n g booms of the l a t e 1920's and the war p e r i o d of 1939, even to the p r e s e n t time. The b u i l d i n g of so many apartments i n t h i s area would appear to i n d i c a t e t h a t the West End w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be given over to an area of m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s . The reason f o r t h i s i s obvious. I t i s i n a p a r t of the C i t y t h a t i s s t i l l one of the most a t t r a c -t i v e spots i n the C i t y , from the s t a n d p o i n t o f scenery and p r o x i m i t y to the paaHk, beaches and commercial zones. I t i s not more than ten minutes by bus from any p o i n t to o f f i c e s i n the downtown commercial s e c t i o n . Commercial amusements abound east of B u r r a r d S t r e e t , and town p l a n n i n g trends appear to be e s t a b l i s h i n g the hub of the c i t y i n the v i c i n i t y of B u r r a r d S t r e e t , between Pender and Robson S t r e e t s . Con-sequently, t h e r e f o r e , i t s°eems reasonable that the r e s i d e n -t i a l p a r t w i l l always be an area a t t r a c t i v e to s i n g l e persons, newly married couples and those i n r e t i r e m e n t . A l s o , the advent of tiie home-owned apartment i n t h i s d i s t r i c t p o i n t s up the f a c t t h a t there w i l l be an element o f wealth and s t a b i l i t y returning to the d i s t r i c t , a n d that the transient element w i l l be greatly reduced as compared with the present. This i n brief i s a summary of the development of the West End. A further point concerning the Survey to note i s the period during which the study was undertaken; i t was during 1940-1941, when the war was ju s t getting well under way. Many working people came to the area because of low cost housing and proximity to work. I t was also the area that absorbed many unemployed during the l a t e t h i r t i e s . These f o l k s , f o r the most part, had l i v e d i n the area f o r some time, had gone to school i n the peninsula, and being out of work were s t i l l l i v i n g at home. I t was r e a l l y during that period that the f i r s t murmurings of the need f o r a recrea-t i o n a l centre f o r these people was making i t s e l f heard. One must not forget, also, the f a c t that there were many e l d e r l y couples and pensioners l i v i n g here who were housed i n cramped quarters with l i t t l e opportunity available to them f o r recreation and entertainment. It i s obvious that neither group was i n a p o s i t i o n to frequent commercial entertainment, which consisted i n the main of theatres, dance h a l l s , bowling alleys and r o l l e r skating rinks. Most non-commercial recreation existed also i n the commercial area or on the fringe of i t , and catered not to the young adults or senior c i t i z e n s , but rather to the school age c h i l d i n the t r a d i t i o n a l settings - the churches, Scouts, Cadets, etc. The Anglican, Catholic and United Churches i n the business section did o f f e r a teen-age and young adult programme; 28 these, however, are o r d i n a r i l y attended by members i n good standing, and not by the non-church-going family. I t was i n the l a t e t h i r t i e s that several clubs of young people interested i n the Arts formed themselves into i n t e r e s t groups. For a period of time they met i n the homes of th e i r friends and i n crowded rooms f o r practices and! d i s -cussions. However, t h i s soon proved i t s e l f to be inade-quate f o r t h e i r needs, so seeking out the help of some of their interested and i n f l u e n t i a l f r i e n d s , they were able to secure a meeting with the Parks Board, and l a i d t h e i r problem before t h i s organization, i n an attempt to f i n d a solution to t h e i r needs. The Parks Board agreed to loan them an unused section of the English Bay Bath House on Beach Avenue, free of rent. The p o r t i o n a l l o t t e d them had been used f o r a number of years as a store house, and was f i l l e d with lumber, cement and miscellaneous a r t i c l e s . The s t i p u l a -tion was that they could have these quarters i f they would undertake to clean them out and decorate the place to s u i t themselves. These young people, grateful f o r ' t h i s opportun-i t y , did exactly that, and made a success of the endeavour. They did a l l the a l t e r a t i o n s , cleaning, painting and art work, themselves, f o r the sake of the clubroom project and the opportunity to practise t h e i r s k i l l s . After the quarters were refurbished, a Board of Directors was elected, and the organization became known as the West End Community Centre. This Board attempted to provide a programme to meet the needs of a l l ag©saand i n t e r e s t s within the West End peninsula. There i s no doubt that the programme was s u c c e s s f u l and meeting a long f e l t need, f o r t h e demands upon the f a c i l i t i e s were soon g r e a t e r than could be met. I t r a p i d l y became obvious t h a t the q u a r t e r s were f a r too s m a l l . Once a g a i n the group had to look about f o r a s s i s t a n c e f r o m some i n f l u e n t i a l group or person w i t h i n the community. The Centre made r e p r e s e n t a t i o n to the Parks Board to secure some space, and suggested that perhaps t h e y might have one of the houses along Beach Avenue, owned by the Parks Board. T h i s sugges-t i o n , however, was untenable to t h e Parks Board, the r e a s o n b e i n g t h a t a l l the houses were b e i n g used as r e s i d e n c e s and producing revenue f o r the C i t y . The o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e p r e -s e n t i n g i t s e l f a t t h i s point was to appeal to the Community Chest f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r the purchase o f a b u i l d i n g to house the programme. The C o n s t i t u t i o n of the Community. Chest does not p r o v i d e f o r the expenditures of money f o r p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , t h e r e f o r e the Chest could not a s s i s t the West End Community Centre i n t h i s regard. However, they were interestednenough i n the p r o j e c t to t r y to f i n d a s o l u t i o n f o r these people, and requested the C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agencies to study the area i n o r d e r to assess the problem, and to submit a r e p o r t and recommendations, w i t h a view to working out t h i s problem. O r g a n i z a t i o n of Survey The f i r s t step of the C o u n c i l was to c a l l a meeting of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of agencies working w i t h i n the area, or draw-in g t h e i r membership from the West End p e n i n s u l a , as w e l l as interested recreational agencies, case work agencies and municipal o f f i c e s , i n order to set up a committee to under-take the study of this question. Twenty-three persons were named, to the Survey Committees, representing seventeen agencies or organizations. Some of these groups were working within the area, others because of t h e i r vast experience i n community work and their knowledge of the area were i n v i t e d to s i t on the study group. ! The boundaries of the area were established on a larger scale than the actual section known as the West End. They were extended to include a great portion of the downtown area, which was even more congested i n spots than the westerly portion. The boundaries were set as North - Burrard Inlet; East - Abbott and Beatty Streets; South - False Creek and English Bay; West - Stanley Park. Probably the reason why the area was studied i n this p a r t i c u l a r size was due to.the fact that most of the well established agencies were functioning i n the downtown commer-c i a l area. Such groups as the Y.M.C.A. and the Youth Programmes of Christ Church Cathedral and Holy Rosary Cathedral f e l l i n this' larger area. Only St. Andrews-Wesley Church House and the Y.M.C.A., which were just on the technical boundaries between the downtown and the West End areas, could be considered to be physically within the area of the l a t t e r d i s t r i c t . After t#e committee was established and the discussion on the preliminary matters concluded, i t was decided that the group should be broken Into two sub-committees to study two s p e c i f i c problems which seemed to present themselves. The need of in v e s t i g a t i o n i n these two p a r t i c u l a r instances was v i t a l to the success of the study asaawhole. The f i r s t sub-committee undertook an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of f a c t s r e l a t i v e to population and housing within the area; the second sub-committee was to study Group Work f a c i l i t i e s , programme and membership. At a l a t e r date, after due i n v e s t i g a t i o n had been made of the facts a v a i l a b l e , a t h i r d committee was formed to study the possible l o c a t i o n f o r the centre, i f such was needed. This material was also to be included i n the f i n a l report. The committees undertook to investigate such d e t a i l s as school population, housing (location of the "national" areas i f any, etc., congested areas, type of housing, r e s t r i c t i o n s r e l a t i v e to family l i f e ) , indigency, juvenile delinquency, membership i n recreational agencies, church programme and attendance, ages being served, etc. Spot maps were drawn up where deemed necessary r e l a t i v e to each p a r t i c u l a r question. In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r phase of i n v e s t i g a t i o n there i s an absence of any discussion r e l a t i v e to the programmes being c a r r i e d on by the Anglican and Catholic Cathedral parishes i n this area. Nor was there any representation on the- committees from these two r e l i g i o u s bodies. Now t h i s may not have been the f a u l t of the committee planners. I t i s quite possible that neither group wasable to delegate a representative. This i s not the f i r s t study ever done that has been unable to i n t e r e s t the churches i n the problem at hand; however, i t doesppdint up a job that could be undertaken - that i s , to attempt to e n l i s t the support of the churches i n such studies. Some r e l i g i o u s groups have the feeling that non-religious recreational f a c i l i t i e s are a threat to their own programmes. If more interp r e t a t i o n could be done i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , i t would no doubt prove successful when i t was c l e a r l y defined that no one agency can absorb a l l the community's problems, amid that a l l recreational agencies, denominational or otherwise are work-ing as a team. Whatever one does, the other i s affected, whether this f a c t i s accepted or not. The study'showed that the young people i n the school age group were being served well enough, through the church programmes and the t r a d i t i o n a l agencies, such as the Scouts and the "Y". There were seven organizations f o r boys and g i r l s , consisting of thirty-one units, and haying a membership of 1070. The total school population (there were three public schools i n the area - the Catholic parochial school enrollment, which averaged around 300, was not included) amounted to 2157, which means that about 50 per cent of the public school enrollment was engaged i n some agency s e t t i n g . The f i g u r e s f o r the adult programme were more d i f f i c u l t to locate. Two agencies were providing most of the a c t i v i t y f o r this group i n the area, these being the P r o v i n c i a l Recreation and the West End Community Centre. Nevertheless, they were only serving a small percentage of the adult population i n the area. Actually the Community Centre at that time was o p e r a t i n g on borrowed time and i n inadequate space. Because of t h i s , t h e programme was not running a t i t s maximum, nor was there any p o s s i b i l i t y f o r e x t e n s i o n i n s e r v i c e under the set-up as i t e x i s t e d . The Pro-Rec pro-gramme i s l i m i t e d i n i t s i n t e r e s t , t h e r e f o r e i t s i n f l u e n c e would n a t u r a l l y be more c o n f i n e d . Recommendations of the Survey . A f t e r c o m p i l i n g t h e i r s t a t i s t i c s and examining the f a c t s the committee was able t o draw up seven recommendations f o r improvement o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t . These s i d e l i g h t s and analyses were brought b e f o r e the committee f o r d i s c u s s i o n before the true p i c t u r e of the s i t u a t i o n c o u l d be understood, and b e f o r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n c o u l d be g i v e n to f o r m u l a t i n g a s o l u t i o n to the problem. Of the seven recommendations the f i r s t , f o u r t h and f i f t h concerned the f a m i l y - c e n t r e d agency prepared f o r the West End and are as f o l l o w s : 1. The esta b l i s h m e n t of a f a m i l y groups work c e n t r e , of a Settlement o r Neighbourhood Housse type, i f p o s s i b l e between Denman and N i c o l a S t r e e t s and as near the c e n t r e o f t h i s d i s t r i c t on the North and South l i n e as p o s s i b l e . 4. That any f a m i l y c e n t r e programme i n c l u d e a K i n d e r -garten and a Nursery School service,, e i t h e r as a p a r t of the programme or c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d ' w i t h i t . 5. That any f a m i l y c e n t r e o f f e r accommddatinnfcfDr a d u l t groups, i r r e s p e c t i v e o f whether they belong to f a m i l y groups or n o t . The f i r s t recommendation, o f c o u r s e , r e l a t e s immediately to the reason why the Survey was undertaken, that i s whether the d i s t r i c t being s t u d i e d d i d not need the f a c i l i t i e s and services of a community centre. In t h i s respect the Survey Committee i s answering the most important question as f a r as the interested community group i s concerned. In other words, the Survey Committee i s s t a r t i n g from "where the c l i e n t i s " . As f a r as the Community Centre was concerned, i t was a f a i r l y well accepted f a c t that such a f a c i l i t y was needed i n the area as there was no agency then active i n the d i s t r i c t which was giving the service that the Community Centre had i n mind. There was also the f act that the centre f a c i l i t i e s were unable to expand and meet the demand of the area. This was f a i r l y good enough i n d i c a t i o n that there was an outstanding need within the d i s t r i c t f o r the services which would be available f o r a Community Centre. The policy of the Community Centre was avowed to provide "an all-round family programme", and the f acts showed such a p o l i c y to be an important need i n this area. No c r i t i c i s m was made of the services being offered the Community by this agency because the report fr a n k l y stated: "The West End Community Centre o f f e r s a l i m i t e d programme f o r parents, but i t must i n f a i r n e s s be said that the agency has never &ad a chance to provide an adequate programmers s r i t s l i m i t e d premises i n the old Bath House made i t impossible to make provision for more than two or three groups at a time. Services f o r mothers and th e i r children, available every day and at the sametime,which is basic to an adequate family centre, has been impossible" (1) Sentiments of t h i s kind having been expressed, i t was important that the committee make some statement concerning the method of overcoming t h i s marked deficiency. This they (1) Group Work F a c i l i t i e s i n the West End, Vancouver, Council of Social Agencies, 1941. d i d by s t a t i n g the type o f Community Centre which should be pl a c e d w i t h i n the area. Any s e r i o u s d i s c u s s i o n o f how they should go about f i n a n c i n g such an e n t e r p r i s e was omitted. However, they d i d draw a t t e n t i o n to a d e c e n t r a l i z e d community centre as a l e s s expensive way of g i v i n g s e r v i c e s to the p u b l i c . The o n l y agency which i s comparable to t h e i d e a s as expressed i n t h i s study re. d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n evolved i n North Vancouver i n the e a r l y f o r t i e s . I t i s very d o u b t f u l t h a t such a p l a n would have worked i n an area l i k e t he West End, where other agencies were a l s o a c t i v e . I t would seem t h a t such a p l a n works b e t t e r i n suburban communities of the type of North Vancouver, where f a c i l i t i e s are l a c k i n g . The neighbourhood house or community c e n t r e type of agency appears to be the r e a l l y l o g i c a l answer to any p l a n f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s which i s attempting t o meet the.needs of a congested area needing f a c i l i t i e s f o r f a m i l y r e c r e a t i o n . Oibher agencies are u s u a l l y d e d i c a t e d to a d e f i n i t e age or group, or because of the r e l i g i o u s o r i g i n they are unable to accept c e r t a i n members of t h e community. The other recommendations r e f e r e i t h e r to programmes which s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n any o r g a n i z a t i o n s e t t i n g i t s e l f up to meet f a m i l y c e n t r e d r e c r e a t i o n a l needs, asai suggested a c t i v i t i e s f o r oth e r bodies to meet c e r t a i n community l a c k s , as d i s c o v e r e d through the g a t h e r i n g o f the s t a t i s t i c s . The implementation of the r e p o r t i n regard to the Community Centre f o r the West End came s h o r t l y a f t e r the study was completed. Through the e f f o r t s o f the C o u n c i l of Social Agencies, a request was made to some of the e x i s t i n g agencies to explore the p o s s i b i l i t y of ons of themrBnter&ng the West End area, to e s t a b l i s h a centre based on the philosophy and maintaining a programme s i m i l a r to the one set out i n the report. As a r e s u l t , the Alexandra A c t i v i t i e s decided to undertake this expansion and eventually bought property on the corner of Nelson and J e f v i s Streets, the l o c a t i o n of a former g i r l s ' private school. The centre was named Gordon House, after the p r i n c i p a l of the former school, MissGordon. The House consisted of three units, former residences, and a large gymnasium at the rear of the property. These buildings i n turn were c a l l e d "Junior" and "Senior" Houses, to designate the headquarters f o r the two general age groups. This centre has been operating since 1941, and offering to the p u b l i c of this area an all-round programme for every age group. The only eroticism made of the development of the programme i n this centre is that the groups o r i g i n a l l y responsible f o r the i n i t i a t i o n of the Survey were unable to continue t h e i r interests and programmes at Gordon House, Other recommendations of general community i n t e r e s t are as follows: 2. The strengthening of the programme of St. Andrews-Wesley Church House so as to include services f o r adult members of families and family groups and adult single persons. The programme at St. Andrew1s-Wesley has been lessened over the years. L i t t l e i s being done i n the d i r e c t i o n of family centred recreation, and that i s understandable considering the f a c t t h a t there i s an agency a c t i v e i n the area i n t h i s r e g ard. 3. That p r o v i s i o n be made f o r su p e r v i s e d open a i r p l a y spaces i n . . . ( s p e c i f i c ) . . . . l o c a t i o n s . The recommendations to t h e Parks Board concerning super-v i s e d open a i r p l a y spaces can h a r d l y be considered as having been implemented. Some of these suggestions may have been based on the Town Planning Commission's i d e a s , for; they p a r a l l e l c l o s e l y those made by the Commission. However, over the past few y e a r s , the playground at Haro and Bute S t r e e t s has disappeared i n f a v o u r of a f e d e r a l government b u i l d i n g of the o f f i c e type, which s t r a n g e l y enough i s there c o n t r a r y to the C i t y Zoning Laws. However, there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h i s p o i n t was circumvented by l a b e l l i n g the typ e of a c t i v i t y i n t h i s b u i l d i n g as a c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n . As a compromise f o r the l o s s of t b i s p l a y space, so v i t a l i n an x area e n t i r e l y surrounded by apartments and rooming houses, a small space was equipped f o r he younger c h i l d r e n on the corner o f B a r c l a y and Denman S t r e e t s . Beyond t h i s , there i s no s u p e r v i s e d open a i r playground i n the West End. The c l o s e s t p l a y space i s Ceper l e y Park at Second Beach i n Stanley Park. T h i s cannot be c o n s i d e r e d by any s t r e t c h of the i m a g i n a t i o n to be a neighbourhood park. A f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h i s p o i n t was made i n suggest-i n g t h a t the School Board permit the f a m i l y centre agency the p r i v i l e g e of u s i n g t h e school grounds d u r i n g those times when the school was not i n s e s s i o n . This concession has been granted to Gordon House, and the arrangement i s apparently-working out quite successfully. 6. That means be developed f o r close intregation of the programme of the various organizations o f f e r -ing group work services i n this d i s t r i c t , i n order to ensure leadership and continuity, that t h i s be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Group Work D i v i s i o n of the Council of S o c i a l Agencies. Concerning the s i x t h recommendation, that a permanent co-ordinating body of group work agencies within the area be set up under the sponsorship of the Council of Social Agencies to plan programmes ard study trends i n agency a c t i v i t i e s , i t must be noted that t h i s has never come to f r u i t i o n . After the establishment of Gordon House as a community centre, an attempt was made by that agency to c a l l together a committee based on the suggestions of the report. At the time that this was done, there was no employed Secretary of the Group Work Di v i s i o n within the Chest and Council, so the l o c a l community centre considered that the onus f e l l upon them. This committee was active f o r a short while; however, i t appears that the i n t e r e s t of the group work agencies could not be held and gradually the only members attending the meetings were representatives of the various schools i n the area and the case working agencies. Eventually, the committee turned into a case conference group which continued to func-t i o n , or at l e a s t to meet at regular intervals u n t i l 1948. About the same time that the case conference group was becom-ing defunct, a new attempt was made by Gordon House to c a l l together representatives of both group work and case work agencies to f u l f i l the work set forth i n this e a r l i e r report. 39 This e f f o r t too proved to be abortive, f o r a f t e r about two meetings the idea was f i n a l l y abandoned. Go-operative planning i n the areas suggested by th i s report ise a necessity, especially i h an area l i k e the West End, where there i s a di v e r s i t y of agencies and where the problems of youth "shopping" around to choose t h e i r enter-tainment i s an actual f a c t . I t has been found advisable i n many areas, such as the West End, f o r the agencies working i n the area to hold conferences so that the s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s of the agencies w i l l not c o n f l i c t with one another. This would avoid accenting the p o s s i b i l i t y of "shopping". Inter-agency conferences therefore f u l f i l at l e a s t two functions: (i) they f a c i l i t a t e inter-agency co-operation and ( i i ) permit an Inter-change of ideas which stimulates higher standards of programme. Apparently the agencies are s t i l l working with a parochial attitude, and i t w i l l take a few more similar experiences as those noted above to educate the various groups i n the area of the economy of such co-opera-tive planning. 7. That a study be made of the l i v i n g condi tions and general circumstances of the older indigent unattached women l i v i n g within the area. The f i n a l recommendation concerning the study of the older unattached women was undertaken by the Y.W.C.A. a few years l a t e r and culminated i n the report "Conditions of Single Women i n Vancouver". A further study was done i n 1945, under the sponsorship of the Council of Social Agencies, Family Divis i o n , e n t i t l e d "A Study of the Situation of the Aged i n Vancouver". This study has received a further consideration i n Marcia 1948. It is unfortunate that no mention was made i n the Survey Report concerning the programmes ca r r i e d on i n the la r g e r churches i n the area. The two churches, Christ Church and Holy Rosary, were offering an e f f e c t i v e programme f o r the younger.children as well as the teen-agers and young adults. It would have helped greatly to round out the p i c t u r e of services within the area i f t h i s had been included. Con-sidering the t o t a l picture however, the success of the study proved the worth of the i n t e r e s t that went into i t . If i t did nothing more than i n i t i a t e the community centre i n the area, i t would have done a fine piece of work. Reports such as t h i s are seldom carried out a hundred per cent, for i t i s only the exceptional report that can reach those l i m i t s . The d e t a i l s regarding conditions other than recreation i n the area was another service provided by the study. Such d e t a i l s are always valuable and perhaps i t should be the community's concern to study such p e r i o d i c a l l y to determine what new needs are a r i s i n g within the area, and to what degree existing programmes are doing a good job. Each agency can f a i r l y well es t a b l i s h that f o r i t s e l f ; however, i n our general concern f o r the welfare of the whole community, such study would appear to be indicated. In conclusion, the points which have been brought out i n the Survey were concerned, i n the main, with the residents 41 interested i n a problem e x i s t i n g i n t h i s area, and f o r which they took the i n i t i a t i v e to work out a solution. Inter-group co-operation was i l l u s t r a t e d by the f a c t that hot only agencies working i n the area met together, but also' groups with wide experience i n similar situations were asked to co-operate. The study made recommendations concerning the points of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n reference to the Centre, but went further i n pointing up questions which could well be studied i n future. These new channels f o r research would be the natural growth of any study which was concerned with obtain-ing a complete picture of condit/ions i n one p a r t i c u l a r area. CHAPTER POUR THE NORRIE REPORT - 1945 The Norrie Report of 1945 presents an example of another type of study of community a c t i v i t y which a Council i s able to sponsor. I t would i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y belong to the second of Kindelsperger 1 s categories, a survey made by "an outside consultant"....(1) The Norrie Report, i n b r i e f , was undertaken by the Chest and Council in. an attempt to determine the scope of work being done by existing recreational agencies a f f i l i a t e d with the Chest and Council, so that some ground plan f o r future expansion i n the City could be set f o r t h . This survey was to the Group Work agencies, i n some respects, what Dr. Whitton's early study had been to the Case Work agencies, i . e . i t was intended to be a summary and evaluation of agency functions and services. In f a c t , the Norrie Report was very s i m i l a r i n many ways to the pioneer study of 1927, and i n many ways i t was a superior type of study. However, fromitflae point of view of method and technique, i t i s questionable whether i t was as v a l i d a study as that undertaken by Dr. Whitton. The s o c i a l and economic s i t u a t i o n of Vancouver at the time that the Norrie study was c a r r i e d on was such that an evaluation and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g Group Work services should be undertaken. The p r i n c i p l e reason f o r the study was to provide a guide to service clubs and other recreational agencies who would i n the future be requesting permission to (1) Kindelsperger, op. c i t . p. 2 inaugurate services. This guide was to point up needy areas as l i s t e d according to a p r i o r i t y s e t by experts i n the f i e l d of community organization. The philosophy behind the decision to c a l l i n an outside expert appears to be quite sound, considering the amount of work involved i n a Report of the type submitted by Mr. Norrie and his co-workers. Had the Council decided to undertake such a study to evaluate the s t a f f and programme, etc. of a f f i l i -ated agencies, i t would have tended perhaps to s t i r up a certain amount of animosity which could have been detrimental to the general attitude towards a conmunity planning body such as the Council. Likewise, the idea of permitting a s p e c i f i c recreational agency to do the study would i n turn breed prejudice, d i s t r u s t and general non-acceptance of the study. The only solution appears to have been to c a l l i n an outside non-partisan, an expert i n community organization, who, because of his training and experience would be able to see the agencies and t h e i r problem i n a clear, f r e s h l i g h t . No doubt such a person would have run up against s i m i l a r problems elsewhere and would be able to apply the ©Rjperience of other centres to the l o c a l problems i n t h i s c i t y . I t might be well to take time out here i n order to present a short account of the s o c i a l and economic conditions preval-ent i n Vancouver whenthe Study was undertaken. Vancouver i n 1945 The City i n 1945 was going through one of i t s boom periods. The war had brought numerous fa m i l i e s to the West Coast, lured here by the steady employment and high wages of the wartime industries - perhaps, too, the consistent mild weather was an added a t t r a c t i o n . Because of the national emergency that the country had been experiencing during the preceding s i x years, material was more or le s s frozen f o r uses, other than those of speeding up the day of Victory. Housing conditions were strained to the utmost. I t must be said to the c r e d i t of the Federal Government that what accommdda/tdiqn they d i d provide f o r employees of wartime industry was excellent, but even the government cannot perform miracles. Workers and t h e i r f a m i l i e s streamed in t o the C i t y continuously, finding accommodation waerever they were able. Often two f a m i l i e s l i v e d i n quarters that were not s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r even one family; empty stores were rented out and converted into temporary housing which proved inadequate to the extreme -a l l space was at a premium. This was, i n i t s e l f , serious enough, but the lure 6f high wages tempted both parents to go out to seek employment, leav-ing the children to s h i f t as best they could. Often one parent would come home i n time tosee the other one leaving f o r work. In the evening they were t i r e d and cranky, the children were noisy or under-foot, and the general bond of family a f f e c t i o n and understanding was being taxed. Many of the high school aged boys and g i r l s l e f t t h e i r education to f i n d a l i v i n g f o r themselves, which also i n turn i n i t i a t e d a further problem. A l l t h i s , of course, wasdone i n good f a i t h , with the end i n view that the family would be secure enough i n a year or two to b u i l d t h e i r own home and s e t t l e down to a normal home l i f e . In the meantime, however, the c h i l d r e n were l e f t to seek out t h e i r own amusement, and p a r e n t a l watchfulness and concern disappeared f o r the time b e i n g . Community minded c i t i z e n s , though, were becoming v e r y concerned about t h i s s i t u a t i o n , and the problems that would be f o l l o w i n g i n the wake of such c o n d i t i o n s . In an e f f o r t to p r o v i d e a s a f e , s u p e r v i s e d p l a c e f o r the c h i l d r e n to seek out d u r i n g t h e i r non-school hours, many agencies and s e r v i c e clubs s e t about to make pr o p e r plans to meet t h i s new demand from the community. By degrees, these plans and asperations f o r , e x t e n s i o n of e x i s t i n g s e r -v i c e s , or the i n a u g u r a t i o n of new ones, were being v o i c e d i n the C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agencies committee meetings. Money co u l d be had, and the good w i l l of the p u b l i c was there to a s s i s t with the betterment of the c o n d i t i o n s caused by ah emergencyj something had to be done. The f a c t , too, t h a t the end of the war was i n s i g h t was an added impetus to prepare f o r some of the problems that would e v e n t u a l l y be a r i s i n g . During the year 1944, a s e r v i c e club i n the C i t y , which has been i n t e r e s t e d i n boys work over a number o f / y e a r s , requested the C o u n c i l to inform them whether the s i t e they had chosen f o r e x t e n s i o n of t h e i r work was s u i t a b l e or n o t . A f t e r some c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the matter, i t was determined t h a t the Club i n q u e s t i o n wished to expand i n t o an area which would secure the g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t from the s e r v i c e s they had to o f f e r . The q u e s t i o n was brought along f u r t h e r i n the Council's discussions to the point where the agencies agreed that an evaluatioh of the whole Group Work.organization on a public and private l e v e l needed to be undertaken i n Vancouver. At t h i s point a formal recommendation was presented to the Community Chest f o r a budget with which to carry on the Survey. After due consideration, and on the promise of several Service clubs to donate the cost of survey, per-mission wasgranted to the Council to go ahead with the plans f o r the study, which was not to cost over #4,000,'. Wfcth t h i s permission, the Council began i t s search to locate an expert to undetake the work, and the f i n a l choice f e l l upon Mr. L. E. Norrie of Los Angeles. Mr. Norrie had been chosen because of his previous experience with other surveys under-taken i n some of the larger American Centres. For h i s s t a f f , Mr. Norrie chose as Associate Director and S t a t i s t i c a l expert Mr. David DeMarche, and as consultant; i n Public Recreation Mr. George Hjelte and i n Community Organization Mr. Faber Stevenson. A l l these persons came from the United States. Survey Methods The methods used to carry out the survey from a community organization point of view were not of the best professional standards. This is remark abl e,f cOnsideri ng the f a c t that the survey staff were supposedtto be professional people who knew what they were about. A lay committee was set up i n Vancouver with whom the Director was supposed to work; how-ever, this committee consisted i n the main of the members of the Rotary Boys Work Committee, and d i d not include, as f a r as can be ascertained, representatives from the various group work agencies. The part vihich the Community Chest and Council played i n the study was meagre, and consisted of providing the space i n which the work could be done, and i n c a l l i n g the various meetings as they were needed. Only the matter of financing involved the Chest insofar as they received the voluntary contributions from the various agencies to pay the cost of the survey. One service club eventually contributed $1,500, and the remainder of the sum was donated by the Parks Board, P r o v i n c i a l Government and other Service Clubs. The actual survey was done during the months of July and August 1945, and the f i n a l r e p r t was presented i n September that year. Mr. Norrie actually spent only a few weeks i n Vancouver, the g reater amount of work being done i n Los Angeles, over 1500 miles away from uie centre of. the a c t i v i t y . The Wartime Prices & Trade Board, the Town Planning Commission, the Underwriters Association, ahd other interested groups co-operated w i l l i n g l y i n supplying s t a t i s t i c s f o r t h i s study, as well as preparing spot maps, charts ahd graphs. The s t a t i s t i c a l part of the survey i s excellent. In order to secure a picture of the economic and s o c i a l condition of the c i t y , Mr. DeMarche used f i v e i n dices: a. Crowded households (those which have more than one person per room) b. Annual earning l e v e l s c. Low rent areas (less than $20.00 per month) d. Ratio of persons divorced or permanently separated to married e. Juvenile delinquency index. The survey s t a f f , using maps supplied by the Underwriters Association, divided the c i t y into twenty s o c i a l areas, plus North Vancouver and West Vancouver. Each of these areas was rated according to the indices l i s t e d above, with the end i n view of pointing up blighted areas, areas of need and p r i o r i t y l i s t s . The survey staff outlined at the outset what they had attempted to study, and i n a i l f a i r n e s s , the report which they presented was a wonderful piece of work, considering the time i n which i t was done. The study undertook to study geographical,•social, c u l t u r a l and economic components which make up the cit y of Vancouver. The survey personnel studied the youth of the c i t y , their un-met needs, the agencies serving them and the organizational form and other matters concerned with agency p o l i c y and administration. The purposes of the survey were (i) to a s s i s t , with f a c t u a l d e t a i l s , i n the planning process of s o c i a l welfare i n Greater Vancouver, ( i i ) to point up areas of greatest need and assess the want of further services i n these areas, ( i i i ) to serve as a guide f o r ex i s t i n g agencies i n th e i r expansion plans and (iv) to give guidance and service to the ove r a l l planning and financing of agencies. When the f i n a l report was published i t received many compliments f o r the qual i t y of work with regard to analyses of conditions and suggestions presented to the various agencies. However i n the end the Survey was not accepted by the Ghest and Council committees and many of the agencies, even to t h i s day, have not; accepted the d i r e c t i o n given i n the report. Agency attitudes towards the Survey There are some' sound reasons behind this reluctance to give their c o l l e c t i v e blessing to the undertaking. In the f i r s t place the committee; established intlthe City by-passed i n membership selection representatives from group work agencies a f f i l i a t e d with the Chest and Council. The recrea-tional agencies who were being studied and who co-operated i n the venture because they f e l t i t was v i t a l l y needed, had no part i n the actual thinking, analyses and recommendations that were a l l part of the study. Many agencies were c r i t i c a l about the study, because no one from the survey s t a f f came near them, and the recommendations presented i n t h e i r regard were made from figures and information secured out of monthly reports turned into the Chest and Council o f f i c e s . I t i s said that some v i s i t s to agencies consisted of s u p e r f i c i a l ! glance around the grounds and a peek through an ava i l a b l e window. This might be j u s t i f i a b l e toa degree considering that some of the agencies were closed down f o r the Summer months when the survey was actually i n progress. A further c r i t i c i s m of the study concerned the accuracy of the survey s t a f f ' s information, considering the f a c t that the dtaff made an unpardonable e r r o r with regard to the pol i c y and function of one of the Pr o v i n c i a l agencies. In reference to t h i s agency, the survey s t a f f did not understand Its proper function and went forward to make recommendations which were e n t i r e l y out of keeping with the agency's purpose. If a mistake of this kind could be made i n regard to an agency of the stature of the one i n question, then what degree of f a i t h can be placed i n the metiiod of formulating recommenda-tions f o r smaller agencies? Another point often brought up by agencies concerns the fa c t that the survey d i r e c t o r seems to have had a predisposi-tion f o r one agency. The tendency i n the Report to point up one recreational body as a possibly resource innumerous needy areas has s t i r r e d up a degree of d i s t r u s t towards the general philosophy of the study. When these matters are considered together, plus the fa c t that Ifctie experts returned to t h e i r "home" base, which was located many miles away from Vancouver, to study the data, i t i s understandable why there has been the amount of resistance to the f i n a l report as has been shown i n the past. It i s not good technique to set up c r i t e r i a (which may be t h e o r e t i c a l l y sound) at a point where i t i s f a r enough away from tiie centre of the problem for the experts to lose perspective and the r e a l i t y of the situation*which they are attempting to elucidate. I t is hardly understandable how a director of a research project concerned primarily with Community Organization could have been so remiss i n attend-ing to fundamental details which go to make a community survey a success. I t c e r t a i n l y does not speak well of h i s own i n t e g r i t y , nor of his opinion of he people and the community with which he was working. It i s unfortunate that a work which cost the amount which the Norrie study did, and which covered so much t e r r i t o r y and embodied such a great deal of pertinent s o c i o l o g i c a l material, should have neglected to use i n the i n i t i a l phases more community organizational techniques, which would secure a better attitude from a l l concerned at the end of the survey* Had the survey d i r e c t o r practised more c-onsci entiously the ideals of community organization, i . e . the co-operation and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l representative interested groups, he would have made even a f i n e r contribution to the planning of this City's recreational l i f e . Implementation of the Survey However, a l l was not wrong with the Survey. If the work i s only scanned i n a cursory fashion, one w i l l note the amount of technical d e t a i l and thought that r e a l l y went into the Report. The f i n a l report i s a ninety-four page document,, exclusive of appendices of maps, graphs and charts. The body 6£ the report consists of nine chapters covering such items as: history of Group work and recreation i n the City; the theory of p r i v a t e l y and p u b l i c l y sponsored recreation; a d i s -cussion concerning finances and co-ordination; analysis of programmes provided by public agencies; and analyses o f p o l i c i e s and practices i n the public and private agencies. The l a s t category involved discussions r e l a t i v e to personmel standards of Boards and s t a f f s of agencies; summer camping; records and t h e i r use; and the problem of property taxes e 52 Prom this information the survey d i r e c t o r set up c r i t e r i a which pointed up the needy areas within the City and summar-ized the material with a chapter dealing with the recommenda-tions. This work was completed i n the space of three months. Many of the recommendations are v a l i d because they have taken into consideration the physical l o c a t i o n and p e c u l i a r i t y of temperament i n some small areas of the City. Mr. Norris noted that the c i t y was conspicuous by i t s lack of r a c i a l tensions and concentrations, and the f a c t t h a t the City was r i c h l y endowed with outdoor f a c i l i t i e s f o r recreation. On these bases many of the present organizations working i n recreational and spare-time a c t i v i t i e s were encouraged to change t h e i r p o l i c i e s and were discouraged from b u i l d i n g physical f a c i l i t i e s which are not r e a l l y needed. For example, some agencies were of the thinking that swimming pools were a d e f i n i t e asset to any large recreational plant. Mr. Norrie pointed out that such f a c i l i t i e s are f a r too expensive i n upkeep to pay t h e i r way, both i n construction and maintenance. As there are already several public and semi-public indoor pools available i n the City, t h i s should be enough to meet the demand of the public. The Parks Board has provided enough outdoor swironing ,fac i i i t i es f o r the months when the demand f o r t h i s type of sport i s keenest. Another s i m i l a r example of his straight&iward thinking appeared i n h i s discussion concerning a p a r t i c u l a r family-centred agency catering to a s p e c i f i c r a c i a l and c u l t u r a l ( :l group. The recommendation is that this group was not large enough to request assistance from the Chest to carry on t h e i r programme, and that assistance should not be granted unless the doors of the agency were opened up as a community centre to a l l i n the area,where the agency i s located. As i t happens, the agency inquestion i s i n a needy area, which, though served by a number of other specialized agencies, lacks a family-centred agency, neighbourhood or settlement-house. The Survey Staff noted also the f a c t that the q u a l i t y of leadership and trained personnel on many agencies was very low. He was most interested i n r a i s i n g standards," suggesting inter-agency conferences; i n - t r a i n i n g sessions sponsored by indi v i d u a l agencies; close co-operation and co-ordination with the University and Council and Chest; uniformity with regard to recording; broadening of Board membership i n many agencies to include such groups as Parent-Teachers, Labour, etc.; development of community councils and in v e s t i g a t i o n into the p o s s i b i l i t y of a re-adjustment of the property taxation. Mr. Norrie also suggested that some steps could be taken to set up a co-ordinating council or committee composed of the School Board, Parks Board and Provinci al Recreation with the view to extending public f a c i l i t i e s f o r a wider and wiser use. He also saw the value of the Chest and Council merging their i n t e r e s t s to form one agency with a dual pur-pose, having a single administrative head, but composed of int e r l o c k i n g Boards. As an extension of this he would also have the Council sponsor and give d i r e c t i o n to neighbourhood councils, so that a continual flow of information r e l a t i v e to every area or combination of areas would be coming to the over a l l planning agency. A further function f o r such councils, would be that community organization and planning would be going on continually on a lower l e v e l ; on a l e v e l nearer the people and their i n t e r e s t s , thereby g i v i n g the average c i t i z e n a f e e l i n g of contributing something to the l o c a l i t y i n which he i s interested. What a wonderful resource such councils would be f o r the r e c r u i t i n g of agency and Chest Board membership. In the Summary, the Survey l i s t s fifty-two recommendations which may be grouped as follows: Concerning general matters 16 concerning public recreation 14 concerning private recreation agenci es 22 Over and above this was a l i s t of eleven recommended p r i o r i t i e s . The f i r s t category is mainly concerned with the strengthening of the Chest and Council functions. Some of the points which the report stressed have already been discussed. The merging of the two agencies was completed at the time of the publication of the report. His recommendations; concerning the Chest and Council strengthening t h e i r relationships with l o c a l communities through the Community Council i d e a l has not been c a r r i e d out. Such Councils do exist i n many areas; , however, f o r the most part, there i s no. representation on them of the Chest and Council. cThis can be explained i n part by the f a c t that the agency i n question does not have the staff available f o r such a job, and also there i s some doubt i n the minds of the planners that t h i s i s a sound practice, A further implementation-with regard to administrative practices and l i n e s of function wasemade through the Committee' of the Reorganization of the Soc i a l Planning Department of the Chest and Council i n 1949. The suggestions contained i n the report of t h i s group w i l l be presented before the annual meeting of the Chest and Council i n February 1950. If these points are acceptable to the general member-ship, i t wil mean that cons t i t u t i o n a l changes w i l l have to be made. The second category i n r e l a t i o n to public f a c i l i t i e s f o r recreation have r i g h t l y come under discussion i n a report such as t h i s . The Council, because of i t s p o s i t i o n i n the community, should be free to voice the opinions of the experts and the desires of the community f o r the extension of services of those departments maintained by public funds. However, because these same departments are not so f l e x i b l e i n p o l i c y as private agencies, changes i n programme and p o l i c y are always a slower processs. Nor has the Chest and Council the means of enforcing changes; t h e i r strength l i e s e n t i r e l y through education and good w i l l , or through continued representation f o r a l t e r a t i o n s u n t i l the departments i n question are convinced that the changes requested are present-ed with tiie backing of the p u b l i c . The t h i r d category, concerning the private agencies, i s discussed below more f u l l y , because these recommendations have received further study and have been acted upon i n many cases* I t also points up the f a c t once more, that i t is the private agency which i s f l e x i b l e enough to t e s t out theories and experiment and shape ideals to f i t the s i t u a t i o n which the agency f i n d s i t s e l f i n . The following is a preci s of the recommendations to various Red Feather agencies: 1. Each agency study i t s own Board and Committee structure 2. Agencies serving Burnaby and other outside areas should seek support within the area f o r these a c t i v i t i e s 3. A l l agencies adopt standard administrative practices 4. Adopt s i m p l i f i e d but uniform reporting and recording methods 5. Private agencies make more use of schools, churches, parks, community centres, 6. Legal committee study property tax with view to exemption f o r agency property. 7. Greater use of camping f a c i l i t i e s . 8. That Seamen's Agencies pool recources and programmes 9. Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. decentralize 10. Grandview Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. become more nearly a community centred joint operation 11. Develop outdoor play space at Alexandra House. 12. Develop Youth Council at Alexandra House. 13. Neighbourhood Houses should encourage use of house f a c i l i t i e s by Giroup Work Agencies. 14. Augment Boy Scout budget to provide f o r two executives. 15. Augment G i r l Guide budget to provide f o r two group workers. 16. Augment Gordon House budget to provide f o r boys' workers 17. Agencies such as Y.M.C.A. include larger number.of returned men i n Boards and Committees. 18. Agencies working with adults to work more clos e l y with Labour. 19. A l l agencies consider the value of good ref err a l processes. 20. Y.W.C.A. consl der the need for a new bu i l d i n g . 21. Boys' Club Association study present programme, personnel and equipment to sharpen line of r e l a t i o n -ship between Clubs and Community. Provide better f a c i l i t i e s at Kivan and ra i s e standard of supervisors. 22. Fairview especially needy and agencies capable of serving wide age range of both sexes should move into t h i s area. Many of these recommendati ons would have to be c a r r i e d out by the agency i n question, and i t must be s a i d that the greater part of them took the onus upon themselves and worked toward t h e i r own improvement qu i e t l y . Much of the e f f o r t f o r the changes as set f o r t h by the report lay with the professional director of the agency i n question. Many of the recommendations suggested above have been c a r r i e d out since the time of the study, i n reference to the Neighbourhood Houses and the Y f a c i l i t i e s . The Neighbourhood Houses have found the School and Parks Boards very co-operative i n a s s i s t -ing with the use of public f a c i l i t i e s . The "Y" groups have, since the report, made some changes along the l i n e s suggested by Norrie. In the next few paragraphs w i l l be shown the degree to which tiiis report has been implemented with regard to the recommendations made i n the report. Concerning the i n d i v i d u a l agency's evaluation of i t s Board and Committee structure, an attempt was made by the planning agency to i n t e r e s t tiie groups i n this type of int e r n a l study; however, i t was found to be most unpopular on the whole, though some agencies have done i t when an emergency or c r i s i s a r i s e s . This w i l l be discussed f u r t h e r i n a l a t e r chapter. In reference to Burnaby securing i t s own services, the point has not been seriously considered. The Chest and Council includes the phrase "of Greater Vancouver" i n i t s charter, and i n the l i g h t of the f a c t that other Red Feather agencies do work within that Municipality, i t appears strange to l i m i t assistance to that l o c a l i t y on a Recreational b a s i s . A further point of comment may be made that i t was a strange thing to recommend when, at the time of the Report, there were very few recreational agencies i n the Group Work D i v i s i o n However, considering the f a c t that the time w i l l come when that Municipality w i l l be a part of Vancouver proper, and the present boundary i s purely a p o l i t i c a l one, i t would seem wise to ignore the suggestion as put f o r t h . The matter of s i m p l i f i e d and uniform reporting techniques has not been s u b s t a n t i a l l y changed since the report was made, though the methods used to-day are a more s i m p l i f i e d method than were formerly used. Some agenci ess t i l l use t h e i r own method of reporting. Neighbourhood Houses and community centres have found a great deal of help from public boards i n the us e of public f a c i l i t i e s . The trend i n t h i s respect appears to be growing more marked, as note the recent by-law of two years back allowing public bodies to a s s i s t i n the development of the community centre i d e a l . The Buildings and F a c i l i t i e s Committee of the Chest and Council has made frequent representation to the C i t y authorities f o r a r e v i s i o n of property taxation i n r e l a t i o n to recreational agencies without gaining a p o s i t i v e answer. The question i s not s e t t l e d , and plans are being l a i d f o r a further representation. Camping has received i t s share of the attention of the Council, and though a great part of the planning f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y i s sponsored by the Vancouver Camping Association, the §S>uncil has always given whole hearted support to the work of t h i s group. Much of the paper work and s t a t i s t i c a l d e t a i l i s handled by the Council as well as the job of provid-ing a meeting place and a s s i s t i n g i n locating funds to carry on the camping projects. Within recent years the idea of camping f o r young people has been moving noticeably to the fore. In 1949, a q u a l i t a t i v e and quantitative analysis was made of a l l camping f a c i l i t i e s under the Red Featheraagencies on the mainland by a group of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained persons. This analysis w i l l be h e l p f u l to the various agencies i n making their plans f o r the future f o r expansion and elevation of standards of physical and emotional care. The recommendation relevant to the Seamen's Associations, i . e . the idea of pooling resources and co-ordinating a c t i v i -t i e s , combining t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s by the formation of a j o i n t Board and the s e l e c t i o n of an Executive Director s a t i s f a c t o r y to the three groups, has not been implemented. This idea was explored by the agencies i n question and was found to be impractical, owing to the f a c t that some of the agencies were branches of an organization with head-quarters outside of the country, and operating in,part with monies coming from beyond Canada. Consequently these agencies were unable, because of their constitutions, to make any such arrangement. In reference to the two "Y"s decentralization plan, i t w i l l be noted that this suggestion has been.followed through, and the "Y" has sought out opportunities to set up smaller units i n other areas. 3 Both recommendations concerning Alexandra House have be@n followed through. In a l a t e r chapter there w i l l be a discussion concerning the i n t e r n a l study done i n t h i s agency. The Boy Scout movement has asked f o r an increase i n budget and t h i s i n turn has been granted, though the budget has not been'as large as desired. The G i r l Guides have never made a request f o r any assistance with regard to professional leadership,v The matter has been discussed with this agency, but they f e e l they can carry on adequately with th e i r own arrangement. The Boys worker has also been granted to Gordon House. The agencies have not made any attempt as a group to i n t e r e s t themselves i n Labour's problems as outlined i n the Report, The general concensus appears to be that there is no need to make a point of serving a group that i s " d i f f e r e n t Labour i s part of the community and i s e n t i t l e d to use community f a c i l i t i e s l i k e anyone else. One excursion was made i n this regard; however, i t proved unsatisfactory to both groups and the matter was l e f t at that. Referral processes have been considered f o r some time. The Council has a committee set up to study t h i s matter known as the Group-Work — Case Work Committee, Its work has been slow. Arbitrary decisions concerning methods have not worked out, and the committee proceeds along through an educative method. The f a c t that both groups are meeting one another and a s s i s t i n g one another does more to smooth out these problems than long and involved discussions as to method and technique. That may come at a l a t e r date. The Boys Club Association has not followedout the recom-mendation as set forth by Mr. Norrie. Instead, they have erected two new sights i n locations suggested by the Report. It was pointed out i n the report that these s i t e s should be opened up, but only after standards of p r a c t i c e and leadership had been altered, ' The s i t u a t i o n i n Pairview has changed a l i t t l e . The Y.M.C.A. has moved into the area, but has not been able to accomplish the i d e a l asjsBt f o r t h by the Survey, and there appears to be s t i l l a need for a family centred agency f o r this very congested area. Following t h i s l i s t of recommendations, the Report pro-vided a l i s t of areas according to p r i o r i t y f o r those agencies planning an expansi on of service. These are l i s t e d below with a few comments about action which has been taken i n t h e i r regard. 1. There i s a s p e c i a l need, f o r awide variety of youth services f o r boys and g i r l s and younger adults of thB lower eastern section of the Pairview D i s t r i c t . . . 2. The area i n the general v i c i n i t y of Main and Twenty-F i f t h Avenue i s another needy area. There i s , need f o r clubhouse f a c i l i t i e s and good p r o f e s s i o n a l leader-ship, wl th a programme of mass a c t i v i t i e s and group work, and leadership training. Toes e. v-These two p r i o r i t i e s could be discussed together. As has been noted before, the Y.M.C.A. put a decentralized uni t i n the Pairview d i s t r i c t ; however, with the Boys Club Association units i n t h i s area also, some of the Y's a c t i v i t i e s have been c u r t a i l e d . The Boys Club sponsor mixed dancing sessions p e r i o d i c a l l y , and this draws heavily on the neighbourhood© The areas named above have been joined together f o r the purposes of a study which was done i n 1948 on the Mount Pleasant - Fairview d i s t r i c t s . This survey was the r e s u l t of a request from an agency active i n the Pairview d i s t r i c t f o r an evaluation of possible f a c i l i t i e s i n these two areas. This survey w i l l be discussed i n a future chapter, 3, Social Area No. 3, between the downtown business d i s t r i c and Hastings East, there i s another needy area p a r t i c u -l a r l y for a Boys Club or neighbourhood house type of service. I t is an area rating near the top i n terms of evidence of need, A Boys Club did e x i s t i n t h i s area i n very poor f a c i l i t i e s . This was taken over by the Vancouver Boys Club Association and j u s t as r e c e n t l y as 1948 the organization moved into new and larger quarters on East Pender Street, known as the Rufe Gibbs Club. The former quarters of this club were taken over i n 1949 by a g i r l s ' organization which appears to be functioning f a i r l y successfully. However, the family centred agency has not yet arrived In the area. 4, Social Area No. 4 (East Hastings)... i s a crowded area with many s o c i a l problems. I t is suggested that t h e Council activate a community c entre south of Hastings, This area appears to have remained dormant. There has been no o f f i c i a l i n t e r e s t displayed by agencies i n regard to this p a r t i c u l a r area. There has been formed during the l a s t year or two a group of comhunity minded c i t i z e n s who are undertaking i n a quiet manner the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of b u i l d i n g a community centre. However, to date they have not applied formally to the Chest and Council f o r assistance. 5. S o c i a l 'Area No. 16 and No. 19 t o g e t h e r w i t h the e a s t e r n p o r t i o n of No. 15 (Renfrew, Collingwood and V i c t o r i a D rive) are needy area. Augment work b e i n g done by agencies here and develop a contnunity f a c i l i t y ns ar 41st. ..Avenue and Knight Road. ! These areas,' as compared w i t h the other s o c i a l areas o u t l i n e d i n the Report are q u i t e l a r g e , and t h e y c o n t a i n w i t h i n themselves sub-areas based on boundaries which are p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and economic. They have each t r i e d , w i t h v a r y i n g success, t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own community c e n t r e s . Por example, there i s one a t V i c t o r i a D r i v e and 41st. Avenue; Sunset Memorial Centre i s i n Area No. 19. Also i n Area No. 19, Collingwood community undertook a survey w i t h the end i n view of e s t a b l i s h i n g a conmunity c e n t r e . Renfrew r a t e p a y e r s have t h e i r own conmunity p a r t and A s s o c i a t i o n and .are working towards a Community Centre of t h e i r own i n theiroown time. 6. The Jewish Community Centre to develop to i n c l u d e work and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s f o r a l l boys and g i r l s i n the neighbourhood. T h i s agency, s e t up to meet the needs o f t h e Jewish community, has done much to p r o v i d e company and a m i a b i l i t y f o r the Jewish people i n Vancouver. The Board of D i r e c t o r s of the agency has r e c e n t l y brought i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l d i r e c t o r who has t r i e d to implement t h i s recommendation. An e x p e r i -ment was undertaken to i n t e r e s t non-Jewi sh r e s i d e n t s o f the area to use the f a c i l i t i es o f the Centre but t h i s was found to be u n s u c c e s s f u l . The area i n which the Centre i s l o c a t e d has, overthe years s i n c e the r e p o r t , become more and more a f o c a l p o i n t f o r Jewish c u l t u r a l and conmunity l i f e . Not f a r d i s t a n t from the Centre and i n the same s o c i a l area two new synagogues have recently been b u i l t , which would point up the f a c t that the concentrations which Norrie stated did not e x i s t at the time of the survey are beginning to form, 7, At Tenth and Dunbar and a t Trafalgar and Sixteenth Avenue are focal points f o r needed services of a group work and leadership training nature. Nothing concrete has been done i n regard to these areas, p r i n c i p a l l y because there are needier areas to be remedied f i r s t . Most of the young people i n t h i s srea can provide their own entertainment without too much trouble, because th e i r parents are i n a higher economic bracket. This area however i s already served by Alexandra Neighbourhood Housa and the Burrard Lions Youth Centre, In the hear future the K i t s i l a n o Community Centre w i l l be located at Trafalgar and Ninth fivenue, 8, It i s recommended that the West Vancouver Community Centre be rehabilitated"savad that a j o i n t YMCA/YWCA programme be developed therein. -This recommendation has been carried out. The trend now appears to be to make the Community Centre a resource f o r group work agencies i n that l o c a l i t y s i m i l a r to what was recommended for,Gordon House i n the West End, 9, Integrate the North Shore Neighbourhood House into a Community Centre, U n t i l that is an accomplished f a c t , the programme should be enlarged and better f a c i l i t i e s provided. This too has been carried out. The Community Centre has come into being i n another section of North Vancouver, using public and private f a c i l i t i e s arri making use of a decentral-ized programme throughout the community. This experiment has 65 worked out e x c e l l e n t l y i n thi s conmunity. 10. Boys Club Association should improve present f a c i l i t i e s , programme and personnel before expan-sion. When this i s done expansion could be con-sidered i n Areas No. 3 and No. 9 . This recommendation has not been followed through as set f o r t h . The association proceeded to expand t h e i r services. into the needy areas as suggested. Since then the agency has attempted "in-Service" seminars f o r the workers, c a l l i n g on assistance from the Council, School of Social Work and. leaders i n other recreational agencies. 11. The Chinese Y.M.C.A. should be augmented to meet the needs of the entire conmunity. The present f a c i l i t i e s are inadequate. This recommendation has not been', f ollowed through, though an attempt was made t© i n t e r e s t white groups to use the f a c i l i t i e s of the agency. The area i n which the Chinese "Y" i s situat e d i s just on the outskirts of the Oriental business and r e s i d e n t i a l section of the City and i s well patronized by the Chinese people. The area adjacent to the "Y" abounds i n spe c i a l i z e d agencies under recreational sponsorship or r e l i g i o u s bodies, and these are able to serve the non-Chinese population i n the d i s t r i c t . In the l i g h t of t h i s , i t has not been considered necessary to enlarge f a c i l i t i e s to extend ,services to the whole area. Summary Prom the technical point of view, the study is good. The wealth of material contained i n the report, the charts, graphs and mapsare of great assistance i n substantiating the f i n a l recommendations. Perhaps the fact that the Survey Director was "imported" to do an objective analysis of the standards of e f f i c i e n c y of the recreational agencies wassufficient reason f o r not becoming involved too c l o s e l y with i n d i v i d u a l agencies and the i r representatives In committee;. None the l e s s , the f e e l -ing i n some quarters towards Hie study i s one of cautious acceptance or straight non-acceptance. It is somewhat d i f f i c u l t to understand why a study involving so wide a scope as this one d i d , would not have used community co-operation and p a r t i c i p a t i o n to a f a r greater degree. Perhap;atthe survey staff was l i m i t e d with regard to time and f o r this reason some community organiza-tion techniques were omitted for the sake of speeding up the analysis and the f i n a l report. However, the r e s u l t s would seem to indicate that such short cuts do mitigate the f i n a l effectiveness of the report. It i s obvious that any under-taking such as the Norrie Report, whose avowed purpose is to stimulate and improve the operations of a group of agencies serving the p u b l i c , should have shown more consideration for the agencies and organizations which were being studied. An example i n point concerns the board of one recr e a t i o n a l agency. This board had made an appointment with the Director at his request, f o r the purpose of discussing i n greater d e t a i l the p o l i c i e s and administrative problems of that agency. The survey s t a f f arrived some time before the appointed hour, and finding no one to meet with, made a cursory tour of the outside of the agency and departed, s t i l l without seeing the Board of Directors. No further request was made by the Survey Director and h i s s t a f f f o r a new appointment. The Board of the agency d i d a r r i v e eventually to f i n d that their appointment had been broken. In the l i g h t of t h i s , , i t is not unreasonable f o r the agency i n question to f e e l provoked or i n c l i n e d to minimize the accuracy of the report i n general. The point being stressed here i s the lack of attention concerning d e t a i l s and common courtesy on the part of the s t a f f . I t i s this type of organization that jeopardized the effectiveness of the survey f i n d i n g s . A further point which has been r a i s e d i s that the study was l i m i t e d i n i t s scope, that i s i t concerned i t s e l f e n t i r e l y with recreational agencies a f f i l i a t e d with the Community Chest and Council. No doubt some arbitrary decision had to be made concerning the scope of the study, and i n the l i g h t of the f a c t that an agency of the Chest and Council made the request for a study of t h i s type, the l i m i t a t i o n s n a t u r a l l y imposed upon i t would l o g i c a l l y f a l l to the "Red Feather" agencies. On the other hand, c r i t i c s of the study maintain that the study should have concerned i t s e l f with a l l youth and family recreational agencies, i f a v a l i d picture of the s i t u a t i o n was to be gained. Continuing along t h i s t r a i n of thought, recreational agencies a f f i l i a t e d with the Chest and Council have from time to time suggested that a new "Norrie" report be i n i t i a t e d . The culmination of t h i s thinking came during the autumn of 1949 when the problem of juvenile gangs i n the City became a public concern and the "Mayor's Committee on Juvenile Delinquency" was c a l l e d to study the s i t u a t i o n and bring forth recommendations. This committee i s representative of wider in t e r e s t s than was the Norrie Report. I t appears to be aware of the necessity of viewing the whole problem which may or may not involve investigations i n areas beyond the f i e l d of recreation and spare-time a c t i v i t i e s . Representation on t h i s committee includes a l l agencies interested i n youth. Public and private groups have offered t h e i r assistance i n formulating a master plan f o r e f f e c t i v e recreational programmes i n the C i t y of Vancouver. CHAPTER FIVE ALEXANDRA NEIGHBOURHOOD HOUSE SURVEY 1 9 4 8. The Alexandra Neighbourhood House Survey i l l u s t r a t e s another type of S o c i a l Survey which may be undertaken by ah*' C o u n c i l . Kenneth K i n d e l s p e r g e r c a l l s t h i s kind of s t u d y a. " s e l f - s u r v e y " , I t i s a s e l f e v a l u a t i o n o r stock taking o f agency p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s , undertaken with the end i n mind to d i s c o v e r i n what d i r e c t i o n improvements may be made to develop a more e f f i c i e n t and smoother o p e r a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . Such surveys should be undertaken by a l l s o c i a l w e l f a r e agencies p e r i o d i c a l l y , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e maximum of e f f i c i e n c y and s e r v i c e to the conmunity may be maintained. A l l l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s and b u s i n e s s e s , f r o m time to time, take the t r o u b l e to r e - a d j u s t t h e i r thinking- so t h a t they w i l l be able t o secure the most good w i l l and patronage f r o m the public.HoHow much more should s o c i a l agencies, whose avowed purpose i s to a s s i s t the members of s o c i e t y to o b t a i n a f u l l e r and more complete s a t i s f a c t i o n f r o m everyday r e l a t i o n s h i p s , take the extra time and e f f o r t to s i t back and "Examine t h e i r c o n sciences". Such a technique is always h e l p f u l i n r e -determining agency " s i g h t s " a n d r a i s i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l standards i n the s e r v i c e s b e i n g o f f e r e d t o the conmunity a t l a r g e . Role of t h e C o u n c i l i n such s t u d i e s I t would seem reasonable t h a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r such s t u d i e s be a f f o r d e d by the C o u n c i l to i t s member ag e n c i e s . In some urban c e n t r e s such a process or technique i s p r o v i d e d through "review committees". These committees, composed of representatives framtthe Council and the agency concerned, meet at regularly appointed times to have t h e i r work studied, analysed and c r i t i c i z e d . This method of agency study i s one more function which an o v e r a l l planning body should be able to extend over and above the usual opportunities f o r co-operative planning on the wider and better known b a s i s . The Alexandra Neighbourhood House p o l i c y making body recognized the contribution which the Council could make i n any study they might hope to undertake. F i r s t , the agency i s a f f i l i a t e d with the Council and therefore has a r i g h t to c a l l upon the assistance and leadership which i s provided by the central planning agency. Second, the Council maintains an objective and professional attitude towards i t s a f f i l i a t e d agencies and therefore is the l o g i c a l source of informed and unprejudiced d i r e c t i v e material. Alexandra Neighbourhood House and the Community A neighbourhood house i s a recreational agency which attempts to meet the r e c r e a t i o n a l and spare time needs of a l l the members of the area i n which i t exists. I t generally aspires to provide recreation f o r the family i n areas where there i s l i t t l e opportunity f o r the various age and i n t e r e s t l e v e l s of any normal family. Alexandra Neighbourhood House i s one such agency, located i n the north-eastern section of K i t s i l a n o . Its o f f i c i a l boundaries are, North: False Creek and English Bay - East; Oak Street - Soutii: Sixteenth Avenue and West: McDonald Street. On securing more s p e c i f i c information concerning the s o c i a l and economic standards of the area, i t is a noticeable f a c t that the area can i n no way be considered a "neighbourhood" i n the true sense. It i s a mixed area i n nearly every aspect one would l i k e to consider. There are East Indians and white people; there are multiple dwellings and private homes; there are people from the low income bracket as well as i n the high middle class group; there i s a considerably large amount of commercio-industrial a c t i v i t y ; there is a wide representation on the c u l t u r a l and r e l i g i o u s basis; and there are people of a l l ages and i n t e r e s t s anxious to use the services of the House. Many s o c i a l case work agencies have t h e i r main or branch o f f i c e s i n this section, and organized r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s are represented by a large youth centre operated by a service club; and i n the f u t u r e , a large community centre w i l l be b u i l t inthe approximate geographical centre of the area The House provides programmes f o r the "juniors" and the "seniors": sports, hobbies, f r i e n d s h i p and i n t e r e s t groups, c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and s e l f help enterprizes. Age represen-tat i o n ranges from Juniors 1 pre-school a c t i v i t i e s to Grandma's kni t t i n g club. The administrative body of the House is under the d i r e c t i o n of the Alexandra Neighbourhood House Committee, which i n turn i s responsible to'the Board of Directors of Alexandra Neighbourhood A c t i v i t i e s , an agency which undertakes to pro-vide social services to various communities through i t s two neighbourhood houses, a fresh a i r camp and a day nursery. The House Committee concerns i t s e l f with a l l the a c t i v i t i e of the House. A l l problems i n reference to p o l i c y have to be referred to the o v e r a l l Board. An advisory group to the House Committee i s the House Council. This council is composed of house members and s t a f f . Their job i s , t h e o r e t i c a l l y , to maintain an i n t e r e s t i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the House, to a s s i s t i n the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of problems concerning the best use of the space and time afford-ed to the groups; problems arise between groups and they may be settled without going to the higher l e v e l s of administra-t i v e authority. Sometimes, these are the problems that would normally come to the attention of the executive d i r e c t o r . The House Council, therefore, acts i n the capacity of a c l e a r i n g house and thereby leaves the executive director more time to concentrate on the more important problems of administration. In A3i©xandra House, this type of Council does ex i s t ; however, i t s functions are not as active or e f f e c t i v e as could be desired. Reason f o r the Survey The motivation f o r t h i s study l i e s p r i n c i p a l l y i n t h e f act that the administration of the House i n regard to the s t a f f was weak. This s i t u a t i o n precipitated personality clashes that went beyond the control of the administrator, and through the normal course of events came to the attention of the House Committee. Because the issue involved professional and non-professional s t a f f as well as house membership, i t was considered serious enough to necessitate an objective c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the causes f o r such a misunderstanding. The leadership f o r i n i t i a t i n g such a study was to be found i n the Council, with which the agency was a f f i l i a t e d . The basis of the study i s set fort h at the outset of the report: "A request f o r a survey of the operation of Alexandra Neighbourhood House and i t s r e l a -t i o n to the needs of the neighbourhood o r i g i n a l l y came from Alexandra Neighbourhood House Committee: and tentative plans were completed f o r a survey, f i r s t of the neighbour-hood - i t s needs and f a c i l i t i e s - and then of the operation of the House i n r e l a t i o n to the neighbourhood as revealed i n the f i r s t part of the survey. "Owing to delays beyond the control of the Community Chest and Council a point was reached when a survey of the House operations required immediate attention.and...an Interim Survey Committee (was appointed) to report on the following aspects of House operation... (1) F a c i l i t i e s (2) Programme (3) Staff (1) Survey Committee Personnel The Survey Committee worked i n t e n s i v e l y on the work at hand and presented t h e i r findings at the end of a month's study. This was due, no doubt, to the small committee which undertook the study. The Committee was composed of f i v e members, two of whom were representative of the Chest and Council; one representa-tive from the House Committee; one representative of the House Council and one from the group which was involved i n the problem. There was no person to represent the s t a f f , and the Executive Director was not even an e x - o f f i c i o member. (1) Report of the Interim Committee of Alexandra Neighbourhood House, August 1948. This can possibly be explained by the f a c t that there was such a s t r a i n between the two factions that i t was considered more p o l i t i c to leave out the s t a f f and thereby avoid endless discussions which might arise and complicate to a further degree an already serious s i t u a t i o n . I t might be questioned, however, the v a l i d i t y of such thinking and whether such a trend i s h e l p f u l i n securing the best results possible from such meetings. As i t has happened, the persons involved were of s u f f i c i e n t maturity to work through this matter without too much bad feeling,' F a c i l i t i e s The Survey Committee studied various aspects of the physical plant i n order to gain an appreciation of the types of programmes that could be carried on i n the House, The Committee suggested minor a l t e r a t i o n s which might permit of a more rounded programme to the community. It was the concensus of the committee that the physical f a c i l i t i e s would permit of a wider scope i n programme than was being c a r r i e d on at the time of the study. Programme The analysis of the services available to the adjacent neighbourhood was confined to the month of March 1948, on the basis that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r month could be considered an average month. The d e t a i l s studied i n t h i s section concerned the amount of use given the b u i l d i n g by the groups, e.g. the number of hours per day that the house was open to the public; the days per month the house gaves service; average length of meetingsj o f f i c i a l r e g i s t r a t i o n and average attendance i n the groups and at the meetings. Names and addresses of house members were studied, along with names and addresses of participants i n each regularly scheduled group meeting under House sponsorship. This information, of course, was used to note what sections of the neighbourhood used the House f a c i l i t i e s to the greatest degree, as well as to determine i n what d i r e c t i o n the greatest pressures or the greatest demands were made upon the resources of the House. The Committee admitted that i n spite of the material which was available, i t was d i f f i c u l t to assess the true amount of service being provided to the residents of the area. To a s s i s t the committee i n their process of evaluation, the members used as c r i t e r i a f o r e f f e c t i v e neighbourhood house programme six points as set down by Mr. Clyde Murray of Union Settlements. The reason why the Committee used Settlement philosophy as a screen of function was the f a c t that Settlements were the pioneers or the presursors of the Neighbourhood House and Community Centre movements. The standards that have been set down are 1. "A neighbourhood house considers that i s i s responsible f o r a given neighbourhood and t r i e s to have the bulk of i t s membership from that neighbourhood." It appeared, from the analysis of the material at hand, that the greatest number of members i n the House came from the immediately surrounding d i s t r i c t or within walking d i s -tance of the House! Because the K i t s i l a n o area i s not based 76 on as d e f i n i t e boundaries as those of the West, End, the committee; suggested that more d e f i n i t e l i m i t s be established on an arbitrary basis to serve those who would and who do use the House to a greater extent than those from the outlying parts of the area. This was to be based on "walking distance" or an a r b i t r a r i l y set area, equidistant from the north, south, easjb and west. P o l i c i e s such as t h i s are always made with the proviso that exceptions may be made i n certain instances at the d i s c r e t i o n of the Executive Director or the Board. 2. "A neighbourhood house serves a l l ages and both sexes" The number of groups and the o f f i c i a l r e g i s t r a t i o n i n these groups came under analysis i n order to determine what lacks might exist i n the programme. Pour groups were l i s t e d which were being poorly served or not served at all» 3. "A neighbourhood house is multi-functional" The committee agreed that Alexandra House could be judged well i n this regard. Besides the di v e r s i t y of programmes established f o r House members, Alexandra was open to provide f a c i l i t i e s f o r those agencies whose a c t i v i t i e s are f o r the general betterment of the neighbourhood, e.g. Provincial Recreation, Red Cross, Vi c t o r i a n Order of Nurses, etc. After examination of these f a c t s , the committee suggested setting up p r i o r i t i e s , that i s a l i s t of groups and i n d i v i -duals who have f i r s t c a l l on the services of the House. I t i s only natural that those immediately concerned with the House should enjoy primary consideration, and that any spare time or space be then made available to other service organizations. 4. "A neighbourhood house i s i n t e r e s t e d intthe family u n i t . " Having studied the names and addresses, i t appeared that a great many families i n the area were active members of the house; however, the average number of family members attending the programmes was small. I t was agreed none the less that Alexandra House was working i n the d i r e c t i o n of family-centred recreational programmes. Further i n v e s t i g a t i o n along this l i n e was suggested, i n order that some l i g h t might be shed on the reason why there i s so much d i f f i c u l t y i n stimu-l a t i n g the i n t e r e s t of the average family u n i t i n the type of programmes which are provided by the House. Family-centred recreation has become a r e a l i t y i n some sections of Eastern Canada. 5. "A neighbourhood house i s concerned with doing a q u a l i t a t i v e job wherever possible, often at the s a c r i f i c e of large numbers." The committee did not think they could comment j u s t l y con-cerning t h i s , i n the l i g h t of the f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e . The Committee d i d caution serving large numbers to the detriment of a few whose need might be more pronounced. The Committee suggested that a wider use of volunteers could be considered. 6. "A neighbourhood house endeavours to get i t s neighbours to assume more and more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s . " The members of the Committee suggested that every aspect and every function of the House, from the Constitution to the experience of the i n d i v i d u a l members be related to the f a c t that a neigh bourhood house should be an instrument f o r the area to develop i t s e l f i n terms of the neighbourhood and i n terms of the individuals l i v i n g therein. Following this the Committee examined the various tools of administration which are set f o r t h i n the Constitution: The Board of Directors, House Committee and Council and Stand-ing Committees. Suggestions were again made to a s s i s t these groups i n r e l a t i o n to the best means of getting the most out of their a c t i v i t i e s . S t a f f The Survey Committee commented on the lack of adequate staff and noted that the a v a i l a b l e personnel was doing a limited job, but none the l e s s doing i t well. Such matters as home v i s i t i n g , t r a i n i n g of volunteers, etc. could not be undertaken because of the lack of time and experience on the part of the workers. The role of the Executive Director i n the agency was defined and c l a r i f i e d i n regard to administrative r e s p o n s i b i l -i t i e s a l l o t t e d to this office. The administrative functions of this p o s i t i o n were weak at the time of the survey and the f a u l t f o r t h i s lay both with the Director and the Board f o r not studying the s i t u a t i o n and formulating more s p e c i f i c p o l i c y and personnel p r a c t i c e s . The comments outlined i n reference to the Executive Director were made to a s s i s t the professional leader to be aware of the p i t f a l l s i n a s i t u a t i o n where the f u n c t i o n of the director was so loosely defined. Recommendations Following the general analysis of the f a c t s as presented i n the s t a t i s t i c s , the Committee formulated nine recommenda-tions. "That provision be made i n the Constitution and By-Laws of Alexandra Neighbourhood House -(a) For Alexandra Neighbourhood House Committee to be constituted so that i t s h a l l be representative of organizations operating within and f o r the enrichment of the l i f e of the neighbourhood (as may be defined); of the Board of Directors of Alexandra Neighbourhood A c t i v i t i e s Association, and of the membership of Alexandra Neighbourhood Hous e." U n t i l the time of the survey, the membership of the Alexandra Neighbourhood House Committee) was confined s o l e l y to members recruited from the ov e r a l l Board of the Associa-ti o n . I t was the thinking of the Committee, that an agency, such as Alexandra House which was engaged i n providing services to a s p e c i f i c area, should have on i t s House Committee a broader representation of varying i n t e r e s t s drawn from the community or neighbourhood. This recommendation has been followed out to the extent that agencies and organizations, e.g. churches, schools, clubs, etc., working within the area, have a representation on the House Committee, The problem of r e c r u i t i n g suitable members f o r p o l i c y making bodies is often one which involves a great deal of thought. Because of t h i s , frequently the process: of develop-ing such leadership from the community takes a period o f time. However, i t is s u f f i c i e n t to note that the recommendation has received limited implementation, and that the matter i s of permanent i n t e r e s t to the Board and the s t a f f . "(b) For the appointment of sub-committees, by the Alexandra Neighbourhood House Committee, to deal with s p e c i f i c aspects of the operation of the House, p a r t i c u l a r l y items of programme as indicated i n the report. For i n c l u s i o n i n the membership of such sub-committees, appointees from the House Committee and from the neighbourhood, and also f o r association with such sub-committees, members of the programme s t a f f and the Executive-Director. Such sub-committees to render regular reports to the House Committee which s h a l l be dealt with by that Committee as the occasion may demand." The organization has implemented this recommendation i n so f a r as they have established two standing sub-committees, namely Policy and Programme. These o r d i n a r i l y have evening meetings with good attendance. The members enjoy their work and f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n i n an evening's discussion, once a month. The agency uses the practice of s e t t i n g up sub-commit tees on a temporary basis as the need arises. This method has worked out well and to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the Board and the Staff. An arrangement o f this kind tends to increase the enjoyment i n committee work, because the members can tackle a p a r t i c u l a r problem, and when they have completed t h e i r inves-tigations, they can disband. The problem of maintaining committees, when there i s no r e a l nee;d f o r them i s thereby obviated. When sub-commit tees are formed, the agency attempts to give them as much support.as possibly by following out wherever expedient the recommendations of the committees, as s e t f o r t h i n t h e i r r e p o r t s . "(c) F o r the s e t t i n g up o f a House C o u n c i l , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the membership of the House, such r e p r e s e n t a t i o n to be secured by the e l e c t i o n to the C o u n c i l of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from v a r i o u s Teen Age and A d u l t groups o p e r a t i n g under the sponsorship o f the House." The House C o u n c i l was e s t a b l i s h e d ; however, tibje agency f i n d s a problem i n s e c u r i n g enough work to keep the group busy* The C o u n c i l seems to f a l l between the a u t h o r i t y of the D i r e c t o r and the a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y of i t s purpose i n r e l a t i o n to t h e House Committee. The C o u n c i l does f u n c t i o n i n some areas, but i t has n o t been a b l e to perform as adequately as has been suggested the s e r v i c e s f o r which i t was c r e a t e d . I t was the hope o f the Survey Committee t h a t the C o u n c i l would f u n c t i o n as ( i ) a common meeting ground f o r the v a r i e d i n t e r e s t of the house members and ( i i ) an o p p o r t u n i t y whereby house members could have a say i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of house p o l i c i e s . "That the g e o g r a p h i c a l boundaries o f the area to be served by the House s h a l l be e s t a b l i s h e d and t h a t t h e needs and i n t e r e s t s of the a r e a bo d e f i n e d (the neighbourhood) s h a l l be a guide as to programme development." The boundaries of t h e area have beenset f o r t h as those a l r e a d y mentioned above. The House, s i n c e t h e time o f the survey, has concerned i t s e l f p a r t i c u l a r l y with the problems which are f a c i n g i t i n the a r e a immediately surrounding the House. "That the f o l l o w i n g p r i o r i t i e s be e s t a b l i s h e d i n r e g a r d to the use of the p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s of the House: F i r s t ? The membership of the House. Second - Welfare and H e a l t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s and functions within the neighbourhood. Third - Other organizations of a c i t y wide or purely social nature be catefced to as the remaining space and s t a f f time permit. This has been adopted by the Board ad set f o r t h i n ttie Report. ; "That every e f f o r t be made to obtainaand employ an adequately equipped professional s t a f f to head up the major departments, and that these s t a f f members be enabled and encouraged to work through volunteer leaders and committee members under the d i r e c t i o n and with the active assistance of the Executive Director." The professional quality of staJf has improved consider-ably since the time of the survey. The Executive Director and two of the junior s t a f f have had academic t r a i n i n g and either hold Social Work degrees or are completing the requirements fo r these. One staff, member has had t r a i n i n g i n pre-school work and one other member has taken part time t r a i n i n g i n Group Work. The agency i s used for student placements f o r f i r s t and second year candidate^ i n the School of So c i a l Work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. These placements have helped a great deal i n providing professional leadership. The House uses several community resources for volunteers and these are given d i r e c t i o n and leadership by the profess-ional members of staff. "That a l l s t a f f members be enabled and encouraged to develop contacts throughout the neighbourhood and that i t be considered to be the p a r t i c u l a r responsi-b i l i t y of the Executive Director to see that the House Committee i s informed as to the trends and developments within the neighbourhood." This recommendation has been car r i e d out i n a routine manner. The workers do home v i s i t i n g only when a problem manifested by a House member becomes too s e r i o u s to be con-t r o l l e d by the agency, and when i t becomes apparent t h a t p a r e n t a l i n t e r e s t i n the s i t u a t i o n must be s t i m u l a t e d . The House S t a f f has worked s e r i o u s l y on the matter of in t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n and r e f e r r a l s between .agencies. The D i r e c t o r has a l s o p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the staff's o f o u t s i d e agencies to v i s i t the House and to see by f i r s t hand experience what the House i s h o p i n g to accomplish i n the community and neighbourhood. "The d u t i e s of each s t a f f member be. d e f i n e d i n w r i t i n g and that the f u n c t i o n of 1he House sub-committee on Personnel as to s t a f f d u t i e s and morale s h a l l be r e c o g n i z e d as w e l l a s i t s r e spon-s i b i l i t y f o r keeping the House Committee' informed r e g a r d i n g a l l matters r e l a t i n g to s t a f f ; e.g. appointments, p r o g r e s s and r e s i g n a t i o n s " The Board has worked s e r i o u s l y on the matter of s e l e c -t i o n o f personnel and per s o n n e l p r a c t i c e s . One Pamphlet has been compiled which p r e s e n t s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f jobs a v a i l a b l e f o r employed p e r s o n n e l . T h i s brochure has been r e c o g n i z e d by the Board as only a temporary o u t l i n e and a more complete job a n a l y s i s i s being c o n s i d e r e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n d u r i n g the Summer of 1950. The matter of personnel p r a c t i c e s has secured the i n t e r e s t of the Board and s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s b e i n g demoted to the d e f i n i t i o n and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of these p r i n c i p l e s . I t has been the d e s i r e of the p o l i c y making body of Alexandra Neighbourhood House that the p r i n c i p l e s arrived at during the discussions w i l l be incorporated into a p o l i c y manual to be ready f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1951. A manual f o r Volunteers has already been published f o r t the guidance of the non-professional s t a f f . I t contains a l l the material useful to volunteers regarding house r u l e s , membership requirements, personal demeanour while on duty and so on, "That.... the programme of Alexandra Neighbourhood House be changed or extended to include (a) more i n t e r e s t and s e l f determining groups f o r teen age boys and g i r l s , separately or i n mixed groups. (b) s o c i a l , educational and friendship groups f o r young adults (18 to 25 years of age) (c) experimentation inhobby groupsfor men and the extension of the Senior Citizens programme. The seventh recommendation has been accepted by the agency, and the programme of the house has been geared to work through on the advice given i n the report. Much e f f o r t has been made by the leaders to stimulate the teen-age programme. A programme f o r Young Adults has been i n i t i a t e d and extensions have been put into e f f e c t concerning the Senior C i t i z e n age group. "That i n the i n t e r e s t s of economy of s t a f f time and to develop a f l e x i b l e programme, a p o l i c y be established for a periodic review of any groups whose continued attendance f a l l s below s i x . " There has not been much work undertaken i n this regard. The number of groups whose continued attendance i s below the specified number i s small. Those groups which do consist-ently drop below s i x usually have a j u s t i f i a b l e reason f o r being i n that p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . Such small attendance i s not encourgged o r d i n a r i l y j however, there are groups which would not f u n c t i o n a t a l l i f they were expected to i n c r e a s e membership. Groups o f t h i s k i n d o f t e n b e n e f i t by s p e c i a l l e a d e r s h i p and t r a i n i n g , and may r e p r e s e n t a phase t h a t the group i s p a s s i n g through. These groups do d e r i v e a c e r t a i n h e a l t h y s a t i s f a c t i o n from a c l o s e k n i t a s s o c i a t i o n . "SBhat a- s i m i l a r survey of Alexandra Neighbourhood House be made i n May 1949." This l a s t recommendation has not been implemented. However, the Board of Alexandra Neighbourhood A c t i v i t i e s A s s o c i a t i o n has r e c e n t l y put f o r t h a b r i e f to t h e C o u n c i l f o r the inaugur a t i o n , by the l a s t named agency, of Review Committees. E v a l u a t i o n T h i s s u r v e y might be considered one of the most s u c c e s s f u l d i s c u s s e d so f a r , from the p o i n t o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n technique. I t r e p r e s e n t s a c o - o p e r a t i v e s p i r i t between p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p o f the C o u n c i l and an agency. I t i l l u s t r a t e s the acceptance o f the f a c t t h a t the agency had a se r i o u s problem to f a c e and requested a s s i s t a n c e from the C o u n c i l because of the need f o r o b j e c t i v e t h i n k i n g i n the study of the agency. The c h o i c e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r the committee, which was kept small f o r a j u s t i f i a b l e r e ason, was wise, except, perhaps, f o r the f a c t t h a t the s t a f f had no o f f i c i a l delegate s i t t i n g on the committee. The agency Board and House Committee, one would t h i n k , were s t r o n g , i n t h a t they f a c e d the i s s u e t h a t some of the f a u l t f o r the s t a t e of a f f a i r s as they e x i s t e d l a y w i t h them. 8 6 These two groups acknowledged that they were not as conscious of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f a l l i n g on them as they could have been. Perhaps t h i s was due i n part to the lack of c l a r i f i c a t i o n of roles previous to the study© The strength of the House Committee and Board i s furtherddiemon-strated i n t h e i r desire to implement the survey. Perhaps part of the reason f o r the rapid implementation of the report i s due to agency pride, and the l i m i t e d space or area i n which the study was done. The e xtenuating factors i n a report of t h i s kind vary i n great degree from the studies of l o c a l areas that have been described thiis f a r 0 Individual interests or group interests are f a r more l i m i t e d i n scope within a' confined area such as an agency of t h i s type, as compared with a large group seeking a solution to a problem involving a wider sec t i o n of the community. This study points up two important facts - the value of a strong policy-making board and the value of professional leadership and s t a f f to stimulate the implementation of a survey's fi n d i n g s and suggestions e CHAPTER SIX PAIRVIEW - MOUNT PLEASANT SURVEY 1 9 4 8 Once again, as i n the previous study of the West End peninsula, t h i s study i s an example of a community organiza-ti o n process taking place within a de f i n i t e area or a r b i t r a r -i l y set l o c a t i o n within die City. Judging from the number of requests which come to the attention of the Community Chest and Council, asking f o r a survey of various other areas of the City, and i n the l i g h t of the s t e a d i l y r i s i n g population i n Vancouver, i t would appear to indicate that a master plan be outlined to study and set f o r t h recommendations for l o c a l surveys throughout the City. There are many areas which are desperately i n need of an evaluation of recreational f a c i l i -t i e s and f o r whom nothing'1 has'been done by existing organiza-tions; and agencies. Norrie's report, at best, was a s u p e r f i c i a l study, pointing up the outstanding problems and hinting at action which might be taken to establish an o v e r a l l , e f f e c t i v e machinery for keeping r ecreati onal f a c i l i t i e s inthe / City operating at a maximum on the highest l e v e l . The Pairview-Mount Pleasant survey was, to a degree, one of the implementations of Norrie's survey. The areas which he outlined were drawn from a map of the c i t y , and i n d i s -cussing the problems of the section east of Gran v i l l e , i t i s nearly impossible to be arb i t r a r y concerning boundaries. I t i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r the present to say that the Norrie recommendations concerning Pairview and Mount Pleasant were made i n the only possible way and s t i l l maintain brevity and s i m p l i c i t y . The two areas discussed i n t h i s survey are d i f f i c u l t to separate, f o r they melt into one another imperceptibly, and even though there are natural boundaries, the general economic and s o c i a l components of the area are similar,, Pairview, more than Mount Pleasant, is i n the process of change from an area of low cost multiple dwellings to an i n d u s t r i a l section. Mount Pleasant, on the other hand, i s l a r g e l y a r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t , sub-divided into smaller l o c a l i t i e s , such as South Cambie, which i s on a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l economically and so d a l l y . It is a cospopolltan section, d i f f i c u l t to analyse and catagorize, Mout Pleasant was, u n t i l 1927, part of the Municipality of South Vancouver. I t became the airea for the man of moderate means, seeking a permanent residence and property, Pairview, being part of the c i t y of Vancouver, was s e t t l e d e a r l i e r and began i t s period of t r a n s i t i o n sooner and i n a more noticeable fashion. It has always had a f a i r representa-t i o n of commercial and i n d u s t r i a l establishments. Pairview has several s p e c i a l i z e d agencies interested i n boys work. I t is dotted with churches, schools, h a l l s and gymnasia. However, i t i s strangely lacking i n public par& f a c i l i t i e s . This i s probably due to the f a c t that the land available i n the area has been used f o r commercial purposes, which on the whole have done l i t t l e to improve the physical appearance of tiae neighbourhood. A further reason why park f a c i l i t i e s have re ver been developed may l i e i n the f a c t that town planning o f f i c i a l s have considered f o r a number of years the p o s s i b i l i t y of transforming False Creek into a park and outdoor recreational centre* Mount Pleasant, on the other hand, has few established agencies working i n the area, but has a number of good s i z e parks, vihich on the whole are well maintained. The reason f o r the lack of agency representation i n the area might be due to the fact that Mount Pleasant has been f o r the most part a "family" area. U n t i l recently, most of the dwellings were private homes. The number of churches i n the area indicate that there is a very high church attendance rate i n the neighbourhood. The outward appearance of the average home would indicate that most f a m i l i e s i n the Mount Pleasant d i s t r i c t are economically secure. Public transportation l i n e s , u n t i l just r e c e n t l y , were planned to run north and south, which meant that people within the area were able to g e t to and from commercial amusements without a great deal of trouble. The need f o r provi ding services within the community was not so pronounced as i t i s to-day. Reason f o r the Survey The actual request f o r a survey of the area came from a recreational agency operating i n several other d i s t r i c t s i n Vancouver. This request was brought to the Building and F a c i l i t i e s Committee; of the Chest and Council because the agency interested i n entering the area would have to secure f i n a n c i a l assistance f o r t h e i r budget i f the proposed exten-sion of service became a r e a l i t y . I t was the desire of the 90 agency to inaugurate a recreational programme ( i ) f o r boys and ( i i ) a co-educational teen-age club, geared to ,school a c t i v i -t i e s , ,The Council Committee? accepted the assignment because the Chest and Council was aware, from comments made by other agencies, that the recreational opportunities i n t h i s l o c a l i t y were seriously lacking. The agency planning to work within Pair view-Mount Pleasant had stated that tiaey were prepared to carry out their programme within the f a c i l i t i e s availableo-After much discussion and thought within the fiframework of the Chest and Council, i t was decided that the problem was larger than appeared on the surface, and that one agency would not be able to provide services to meet the i n t e r e s t s and needs of a 11 the r e s i d e n t s . I t was therefore agreed that any study of the area that might be undertaken would have to have the support of the c i t i z e n s . Basing the survey technique on t h i s premise, i t was con-cluded that the study which the Council wish@d to make would have to i n t e r e s t the residents, and as f a r as possible, help them to accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of investigating the neighbourhood i n which they l i v e d . I t is easy to see that any research into a l o c a l problem w i l l best be altered by those d i r e c t l y affected by the lacks i n community resources. Acting from t h i s point of view, the Council c a l l e d a meeting i n the Normal School to which over forty organizations were i n v i t e d to send representatives. Of this number thirteen bodies were o f f i c i a l l y present through t h e i r delegates* The plan as formulated i n that meeting was to set up four sub-committees charged w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to study the f o u r main s u b - d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the area under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t a t the c o n c l u s i o n of the study, the survey committee expressed a p p r e c i a t i o n to e i g h t e e n i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups f o r t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n i n the under-t a k i n g . Of t h a t number the m a j o r i t y were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the schools and churches o r bodies a f f i l i a t e d with those o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; t h i s would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t , at l e a s t i n t h i s area, the problem of p r o v i d i n g s u i t a b l e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s was the concern of the groups which are n o r m a l l y those e n t r u s t e d with the development of a good s o c i e t y i n a democratic s t a t e . The a c t u a l survey committee, o r i f one would have i t , the s t e e r i n g committee, was composed of f i v e persons. The c h a i r -man who was chosen was the p r i n c i p a l of one o f the p u b l i c schools i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . The s e c r e t a r y was the employed s e c r e t a r y of the Group Work D i v i s i o n of the Chest and C o u n c i l . Of the three remaining persons, two were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Group Work D i v i s i o n of the Chest and C o u n c i l , and the other was delegated from the agency making the o r i g i n a l request f o r the study. I t was to t h i s committee t h a t a l l the f a c t s and s t a t i s t i c s were c h a n n e l l e d from the sub-committees or the "area groups", and from t h i s committee came the a c t u a l r e p o r t and f i n a l recommendations. The q u e s t i o n of boundaries was the f i r s t and most d i f f i c u l t one to overcome. Prom what i s known of the area, t h i s i s not hard to understand. Requests f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n i n t h i s matter were made to s o c i a l case work agencies working w i t h i n the area, the p o l l i n g d i v i s i o n , the School Board and the M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h Committee. Each o f these groups d i v i d e the c i t y i n v a r y i n g s e c t i o n s having l i t t l e s i m i l a r i t y or u n i f o r m i t y w i t h the ot h e r . A f t e r much thought, the l i m i t s were a r b i t r a r i l y s e t as f o l l o w s : North: F a l s e Creek West: G r a n v i l l e to S i x t e e n t h ; Oak t o 41st. Avenue The need f o r two d i f f e r e n t s t r e e t s running n o r t h and isouth as a western boundary i s due t o the f a c t that the e a s t e r n s e c t i o n of "Shaughnessy" at 16th. Avenue o v e r l a p s i n t o what i s t e c h n i c a l l y P airview. There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t "Shaughnessy" i s a s o c i a l area of i t s own© South: 16th. Avenue ( G r a n v i l l e to Oak and 41st. Avenue (Oak to F r a s e r ) E a s t : F r a s e r t o Kingsway; S c o t t S t r e e t to F a l s e Creek In r e f e r e n c e to e s t a b l i s h i n g an e a s t e r n boundry, some a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n was c a l l e d f o r as t h e r e i s no a c t u a l boundary between Cedar Cottage and Mount P l e a s a n t . In choosing t h i s boundary the survey committee used the School d i s t r i c t l i n e s . In terms o f N o r r i e ' s s o c i a l areas, t h i s "neighbourhood" i n c l u d e s a l l o f areas 9 and 14 and p a r t s of areas 10 and 13. S o c i a l a r e a 9 ( G r a n v i l l e , 16 t h . Avenue, Main and F a l s e Creek) i s reckoned by N o r r i e as one of the f o u r areas i n g r e a t e s t need i n terms of housing, f a m i l y s o l i d a r i t y and i n c i d e n c e of j u v e n i l e delinquency. S o c i a l area 10 to the east of 9 i s ranked among the f i r s t e i g h t areas of the c i t y showing h i g h s o c i a l needs according to c r i t e r i a as noted above© Areas 13 and 14 are ranked i n less need according to the premises outlined. These areas show more home ownership, less commercialization and more s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y . Actually within the survey area as defined, there e x i s t four smaller d i s t r i c t s or i d e n t i t i e s : 1. Mount Pleasant:, Cambie to Scott Street; False Creek to 16th. Avenue. Centred at "The HillL", Broadway and Main Street. 2. South Vancouver: Ontario to Fraser; 16th. to 41st. Centred around the shopping d i s t r i c t at 25th. Avenue and Main Street 3. F a i r view: Cambie to Gra n v i l l e ; False Creek to 16th. Avenue. Centred around the scattered Broadway shopping d i s t r i c t . 4. Cambie: Oak Street to Ontario; 16th. Avenue to 41st. Avenue. Centred about the South Cambie shopping area. On the basis of the above l i s t , the sub-committees were formed to enquire into the r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n i n each smaller l o c a l i t y . The sub-committees were permitted to carry on th e i r investigations as they saw f i t , meeting together whenever i t was deemed necessary and forwarding t h e i r material when acquired on to the steering committee. Two of these groups met several times to discuss t h e i r findings and to formulate th e i r reports. In one of these cases there was duplication of e f f o r t , i n that a school p r i n c i p a l teokiit upon himself to gather his own f a c t s about the neighbourhood and to forward his report on to the survey committee. This was done i n good f a i t h and resulted from the f a c t that the sub-committee i n his d i s t r i c t did not c l a r i f y what the information was that they desired. The degree of a c t i v i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l sub-groups i s i n t e r e s t i n g from the p o i n t of view of the amount of community e f f o r t t h a t was put i n t o the a c t u a l g a t h e r i n g of m a t e r i a l . Two of the sub-committees, those s u f f e r i n g the g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n and c o n g e s t i o n of housing, forwarded s a t i s f a c t o r y r e p o r t s . The o t h e r two sub-committees e i t h e r d i d not meet at a l l , or met o n l y once o r twice. In one of these l a t t e r sub-groups, the l o c a l postman showed extreme good w i l l and eagerness to c o n t r i b u t e to the p r o j e c t . Because he knew the d i s t r i c t so w e l l , he drew up s t a t i s t i c s i n r e g a r d to f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n h i s area. He also submitted m a t e r i a l concerning problems of g e n e r a l concern i n the neighbourhood. In an e f f o r t to secure a t r u e p i c t u r e of the a t t i t u d e s i n h i s d i s t r i c t concerning the matter of r e c r e a t i o n and the survey, he made p e r s o n a l home v i s i t s . In t h i s way he b e l i e v e d t h a t the f a c t s would be c o r r o b o r a t e d with sentiments from the r e s i d e n t s who were most concerned with a s i t u a t i o n i n need of a l t e r a t i o n . As f a r as i s known, t h i s survey was the f i r s t one of i t s k i n d s i n c e the West End Survey, i n which the community was asked, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , what t h e i r o p i n i o n of the matter might be. I t was the f i r s t study a c t u a l l y to use the members of the d i s t r i c t i n the process of d o i n g a neighbourhood sttudy. Even though the 'neighbourhood co-o p e r a t i o n was not a hundred per cent, the basi© p h i l o s o p h y of the method was sound. T h i s premise, i . e . u s i n g the r e s i d e n t s of a d i s t r i c t to do the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e i r 95 v i c i n i t y to the end. that they w i l l t h i n k out a s o l u t i o n bodes w e l l f o r a more democratic use of the p r o c e s s o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n i n making neighbourhood s u r v e y s . The s u r v e y committee undertook to do a reasonably-i n t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the l o c a l conmunity i n every one of i t s d e t a i l s . Above and beyond the u s u a l i n v e s t i g a -t i o n s found i n surveys of t h i s k i n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to the s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and economic a s p e c t s , i t went to c o n s i d e r a b l y e f f o r t to v i s i t and to d i s c u s s the problems o f the area wi th a l l agencies, o r g a n i z a t i o n s , churches, s c h o o l s and t h e i r a f f i l i a t e d groups working w i t h i n and; f o r the area. A l l the programmes being maintained i n the area which were sponsored by t h e i r b odies, e s p e c i a l l y those o f agencies not a f f i l i a t e d w ith the Chest and C o u n c i l were o u t l i n e d i n the r e p o r t . I t was the d e s i r e of the c ormiittee t h a t the p i c t u r e of the c o n d i t i o n s i n the area be as accurate as p o s s i b l e . In an e f f o r t to do t h i s , the committee s e t up t a b l e s l i s t i n g : the s c h o o l s , churches and p u b l i c p a r k s w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t and e l a b o r a t i n g on these w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of the f a c i l i t i e s and an o u t l i n e of the programmes o f f e r e d by these r e s o u r c e s . As c r i t e r i a f o r judging the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s or adequacy of these bodies, the committee used those as s e t f o r t h b^-Joanna C o l c o r d ( l h By,way of demonstrating the i n t e r e s t o f the r e s i d e n t s of the a r e a , an appendix ©£scomments was added. Having s t u d i e d the area i n t h i s manner, the committee se t f o r t h not only a l o n g term p r o p o s a l f o r community U) C o l c o r d , Joanna Your Community, New York. R u s s e l l Saga Foundation, 1939, passim. ' G 96 r e c r e a t i o n , but came to g r i p s with, the r e a l i t y o f the s i t u a t i o n i n s e t t i n g f o r t h suggestions f o r implementing an immediate programme. This l a t t e r s e c t i o n out l i r e d a simple p l a n f o r community o r g a n i z a t i o n that c o u l d be undertaken by i n t e r e s t e d groups or c l u b s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to secure more adequately f u n c t i o n i n g s e r v i c e s i n Mount Pleasant and F a i r v i e w . By way of summary concerning the obvious f acts of the area, the survey committee commented, "Taken as a whole, the d i s t r i c t under r e p o r t i s n o t a dependent area which must look o u t s i d e i t s boundaries f o r f i n a n c i a l support and v o l u n t e e r l e a d e r s h i p . While i t i s not a d i s t r i c t o f h i g h incomes, there i s a strong element of r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s i n r e c e i p t of adequate incomes. Such an a r e a s h o u l d f i n d i t s e l f v o l u n t e e r l e a d e r s h i p and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s adequate to p r o v i d e t r a i n e d p e r sonnel and f a c i l i t i e s f o r the development of a r e c r e a t i o n a l programme, t h a t would e n r i c h the l i v e s of a l l i t s members." (Si) Implementation of t h e Survey To e l u c i d a t e f u r t h e r on the p o i n t s which the committee brought out i n the above summary, the members set f o r t h nine recommendations which i f c a r r i e d but i n t t h e f u t u r e would do much to reduce the needs of the d i s t r i c t , "1. The r e v i s i o n of the C i t y of Vancouver's t a x a t i o n p o l i c y i n r e g a r d to church p r o p e r t y i n such a way as to permit the churches o f the area to make t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l -a ble to the community, i f they wish, at no l o s s to themselves." The p r e s e n t p o l i c y of the C i t y w i t h regard to t a x a t i o n o f church p r o p e r t y permits o f freedom from taxes on the p r o v i s i o n that the church f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be used f o r the purposes of r e l i g i o u s d e v o t i o n o n l y . Some l a t i t u d e i s p e r m i t t e d i n the f a c t t h a t r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes sponsored by churches must (2) Survey of R e c r e a t i o n a l F a c i l i t i e s i n Mount-Pleasant-F a i r v i e w , Vancouver, Community Chest and C o u n c i l 1948,p.15 be an adjunct to r e l i g i o n . In order words, the churches may use t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s tax f r e e as long as the f a c i l i t i e s are used by church o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r the graod o f the congregation or to the b e n e f i t of the church i t s e l f . Because t h e r e are so many r e l i g i o u s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s which have e x c e l l e n t f a c i l i t i e s t h a t c o u l d be a resource to the community f o r p u r s u i t s other tkantthose w i t h a r e l i g i o u s accent, the committee were of the o p i n i o n t h a t these r e s o u r c e s should be opened t o the use of groups working f o r the betterment of the a r e a o r the community as a whole. Prom the p o i n t o f view o f economy, t h i s recommendation appears to be reasonable. The c o s t o f r e n t i n g p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s f o r meetings, banquets, s p o r t s , s o c i a l s , e t c . i s o f t e n q u i t e p r o h i b i t i v e , e s p e c i a l l y f o r those groups which are not p r i n c i p a l l y i n t e r e s t e d I n f i n a n c i a l g a i n . Therefore i t seems reasonable to make use of the re s o u r c e s w i t h i n the community which a r e not being s e v e r e l y burdened i n t h e i r own r e s t r i c t e d use. A l s o , communities are sometimes f o r c e d , f o r the sake o f having a g a t h e r i n g p l a c e f o r community a c t i v i t i e s , to make expenditures of l a r g e sums i n order to p r o v i d e a b u i l d i n g , when i t would be q u i t e p o s s i b l e to c a r r y on a neighbourhood r e c r e a t i o n a l programme1 on a d e - c e n t r a l i z e d b a s i s , u s i n g the b u i l d i n g a l r e a d y p r e s e n t I n the a r e a . Though pressure has been brought on the C i t y i n t h i s matter s e v e r a l times i n the p a s t , no t r u e progress:ha's been made i n implementing t h i s s u g g e s t i o n . " 2 . The p o s s i b i l i t i e s of u t i l i z i n g the schools of the area f o r community recreation to a greater extent than at present," Since th® time of the survey, there has been an e f f o r t on the part of the Greater Vancouver Community Centres Association and the Parentj-Teather Association to bring pressure on the School Board to extend the use1 of the schools beyond the school "day". Some l i t t l e concession has been granted i n some areas; however, as the school budget i s not normally geared to programmes f o r the community i t i s only natural that i t w i l l take a while to secure much progress i n this matter. The miain d i f f i c u l t y to overcome, as the School Board sees i t , i s to secure an appropriate budget f o r j a n i t o r i a l service beyond the demands of a regular day's employment, • This recommendation has been implemented to the degree that recently the School Board has made a small grant to some schools on an experimental b a s i s . "3, The provision by the Park Board of r o l l e r skating surfaces." Because the recreational f a c i l i t i e s i n many of the parks of the area are generally i n need of better equipment, t h i s recommendation has not been followed through, "4, The provision of small playlots f o r pre-school and primary school children," The Mount Pleasant Community Centre Association has, i n the past, been very conscious of the lacks i n f a c i l i t i e s f o r recreation within their area, and i n d i c a t i o n s of press reports suggest that, iiirough the e f f o r t s of t h i s organization some play l o t s w i l l be established by the Parks Board i n the Mount Pleasant area. "5. The establishment, by private agend es, of the neighbourhood houses, offering r e c r e a t i o n a l services to persons of both sexes and a l l ages." To t h i s point, no o f f i c i a l actiion has been taken by arty agency to inaugurate i n t h i s d i s t r i c t a neighbourhood house of the type outlined. There is some i n d i c a t i o n that the Alexandra Neighbourhood A c t i v i t i e s Association would be interested i n going into the area; however, the f i n a n c i a l condition of the Community Chest pr o h i b i t s any extension of service of this kind f o r the present. The Suggestion might be made, considering the fact that K i t s i l a n o w i l l soon have a Community Centre, that the neighbourhood house i n that area move into the Mount Pleasant district!!' This, too, w i l l e n t a i l expense and may prove impossible to carry <thi?ough. "6. The ac q u i s i t i o n by the cit y of approximately two blocks of land i n the v i c i n i t y of Scott and St. Catherine Street, overlooking False Creek F l a t s , f o r park and playground." This p a r t i c u l a r area has been, over a number of years, a vacant space of land where the children from the surrounding v i c i n i t y come t'p play. I t has long been a problem to the residents of the d i s t r i c t because a slough consisting of drainage and sewage was allowed to pass through, the area. Through the e f f o r t s of the Mount Pleasant Community Centre Association pressure has been brought beforetlthe Parks Board on numerous occasions to purchase this land. Already t h i s Association, through t h e i r concern for the ove r a l l welfare of the d i s t r i c t , has been able to persuade the C i t y Engineering Department to remedy the s i t u a t i o n i n this piece of property, "7. Action on the part of the Park Board and the C i t y Council to gain possession, f o r park purposes, of the block bounded by F i f t h and Sixth Avenues, Ontario and Manitoba Streets, as recommended by the Town Planning Commission, supplementing the bequest of the l a t e Jonathan Rogers from the c i t y treasury i f necessary," m No action has been >und ertaken by the Park Boa rd i n -this matter, although this organization i s interested i n acquir-ing the s i t e indicated i n the recommendation. The p r i n c i p l e d i f f i c u l t y i n the way of- Implementing the suggestion i s the matter of razing the buildings covering the property and the f act that t h i s i s not f e a s i b l e , owing to the demand on a l l available housing at the present time, " 8 , The implementation of the proposal of the Town Planning Commission regarding the use of land for r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes within the area.... north of Broadway and.... south of Broadway." In reference to the above, nothing has been done except f o r theaction taken i n regard to the s i x t h suggestion as noted above. The City Council i s contemplating the problem of straightening Kingsway i n the v i c i n i t y of Robson Park. If this comes to pass., i t w i l l necessitate re-routing the street through the present park s i t e . The C i t y has therefore agreed that, i n the event that land i s taken away from the present park, the City w i l l compensate f o r the loss by purchasing the property between Robson Park and Florence Nightingale School, which would mean that the park would extend down to Twelfth Avenue. This tnend i s i n keeping with N o r r i e 1 s suggestion that the property of tiie School Board and Park Board be adjacent, or that the schools occupy.part of the l a n d set a s i d e f o r parks. In the matter of the area south of Broadway, there has been no implementation of the r e p o r t . "9. The implementation of the f o l l o w i n g recommendations as set f o r t h i n the N o r r i e Report of Group Work and Recreations of G r e a t e r Vancouver, 1945: That summer s u p e r v i s i o n be extended to more of the neighbourhood parks, In order to serve a l l neighbourhoods of the c i t y . " The problem of p r o v i d i n g proper s u p e r v i s i o n f o r the c i t y parks d u r i n g the summer months has always been a major con-cern of the Park Board. The onl y reason why e x t e n s i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n s e r v i c e s has not been undertaken has been mainly the r e s u l t of i n s u f f i c i e n t funds f o r s a l a r i e s . "That the most harmonious c o - o p e r a t i o n between School Board and Park Board i s des l i r a b l e i n s e l e c t i n g l o c a t i o n of park and school s i t e s . N e i t h e r agency, without c l e a r a n c e with the other, should a c q u i r e or dispose of park or school p r o p e r t y . The Town Pla n n i n g Board al s o should be i n v o l v e d i n t h i s process,." T h i s s e c t i o n of the n i n t h recommendation c o u l d be c l a s s e d as a re-emphasis of the N o r r i e Report's suggestions of 1945 i n the matter of c l o s e r c o - o p e r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g to a c q u i r e p r o p e r t y f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e purposes. I t would appear t h a t there i s a growing trend of c o - o p e r a t i o n between these two c i v i c boards. T h i s i s n o t i c e a b l e i n the ch o i c e of l o c a t i o n s r e c e n t l y made f o r the f u t u r e expansion of the schools i n Vancouver. As one example, i t has been the p l a n of the School Board to use p a r t of K i l l a r n e y Park when the Board e s t a b l i s h e s the High School f o r the Collingwood area. "The P a i r v i e w d i s t r i c t i s e s p e c i a l l y needy and those agencies capable o f s e r v i n g a wide age range o f b o t h sexes should be encouraged to move i n t o t h i s a r e a a t an e a r l y date." No a c t i o n has been taken to date to act upon t h i s s e c t i o n of the recommendation, a t l e a s t along the l i n e s as here suggested. One agency a c t i v e i n s e v e r a l o t h e r neighbourhood areas has expressed an i n t e r e s t i n implementing t h i s matter. "That the Group Work and R e c r e a t i o n S e c t i o n o f the Welfare C o u n c i l (now the Community Chest and C o u n c i l ) g i v e l e a d e r s h i p to the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the neighbourhood c o - o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the c o n s t r u c t i v e f o r c e s o f neighbourhoods of the c i t y . Welfare agencies should l e n d every support to the success o f such enter p r i z e s . The purpose of such c o u n c i l s would be to promote l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g f o r the b e n e f i t of neighbour-hood c h i l d r e n and youth." Before any a c t i o n c o u l d be s e r i o u s l y undertaken by the C o u n c i l i n the matter c i t e d here, an o r g a n i z a t i o n known as the Mount P l e a s a n t Community Centre A s s o c i a t i o n came i n t o b e i n g . As t h i s group, i n t h e normal f u n c t i o n o f i t s e x i s t -ence, should assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s noted above, there i s no l o n g e r any need on the pa r t of the C o u n c i l to f o r m a new v e h i c l e . Perhaps i f the need should a r i s e , the C o u n c i l might be approached to assume l e a d e r s h i p i n improving the community o r g a n i z a t i o n r o l e s as s e t forth.. However, f o r the present a v e h i c l e f o r these f u n c t i o n s does e x i s t and can q u i t e e a s i l y assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r implementing t h i s s u g g e s t i o n . Besides t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , there are two other Community Centre A s s o c i a t i o n s , those of South Cambie and L i t t l e Mountain Together these agencies should be able to v o i c e sentiments of the r e s i d e n t s of three of the f o u r s e c t i o n s mentioned e a r l i e r i n the Report. There i s s t i l l the need f o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n to r e p r e s e n t the r e s i d e n t s i n the area around 25th. Avenue and Main S t r e e t . Concluding Remarks „ This survey, perhaps more than any o t h e r where the sponsorship of the C o u n c i l has been used, has r e c o g n i z e d the value of s e c u r i n g the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the r e s i d e n t s of the area being e v a l u a t e d . The survey p o i n t s out i n a v e r y c l e a r manner the three p o i n t s which have been the b a s i c premise i n t h i s t h e s i s f o r comparing community o r g a n i z a t i o n s t u d i e s , i . e . c o - o p e r a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n . I t i s obvious from the m a t e r i a l i n c l u d e d i n the Report t h a t many agencies had been approached concerning the data needed b e f o r e a d e l i n i a t i o n of the v a r i o u s l o c a l i t i e s c ould be made. These groups, p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , appear to have giv e n a g r e a t d e a l of i n t e r e s t and i n f o r m a t i o n to the study and those a c t i v e l y engaged i n s e c u r i n g the s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a e I t i s u s u a l l y true that such groups as the churches and the schools are always i n t e r e s t e d i n r a i s i n g the standards and q u a l i t y of performance of spare time r e c r e a t i o n i n the d i s t r i c t s i n which they are p l a c e d . The same i s true concern-i n g s e r v i c e clubs and p h i l a n t h r o p i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I f these agencies can be brought t o g e t h e r along w i t h t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l a f f i l i a t e d a u x i l i a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , a v e r y l a r g e segment of any l o c a l i t y i s r e p r e s e n t e d . There are always many c o n s c i e n -t i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s who welcome the o p p o r t u n i t y to a s s i s t i n a project such as has here been described and i t i s quite possible to include such persons i n the structure of any committee that functions f o r the purpose of improving l o c a l conditions. Such individuals should be cu l t i v a t e d and given training through the vehicles presented to the people of a c i t y , which is engaged i n the f i e l d of community organization* In this study, i t was noted from the remarks made by the residents that there was a need f o r some means of co-operative planning, either through the community centre associations o r the neighbourhood councils. That need was recognized and met with the formation of the several organizations directed to the p r i n c i p l e of furnishing neighbourhood recreational centres. I t would be high impossible,for a number of persons from the area to do a study of their home t e r r i t o r y without seeing accentuated the problems of which they were aware, or of having new problems come to the i r a t t e n t i o n e Neither would i t be possible f o r t h i s same group to come into contact with professional leadership without gathering some i n s t r u c t i o n i n the p r i n c i p l e s which go t o make up a successful spare-time relaxation programme i n a democracy. The democratic premise of our society can be c l e a r l y exemplified i n such area studies i f trained professional leadership can be made available to the organizations or individuals requesting assistance i n community planning. This survey i s s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y new. For t h i s reason, i t i s not v a l i d to make any conclusions as to the degree of success that could be claimed for i t . From information available from the Council o f f i c e , there have been numerous requests from organizations working within the survey area f o r copies of the report-, which would indicate that the study i s s t i l l very much before the minds of those wishing to make some contribution to the welfare of t h e i r neighbourhoods The degree of ra p i d i t y i n which the survey is implemented does not indicate the soundness of i t s philosophy or i t s technique. At this point, i t might be just to s ay that the residents of the area here discussed are planning slowly and soundly. I t has yet to be proven how sustained the in t e r e s t of the neighbourhood i s by the length of time i t w i l l take to implement those things which f a l l to the i r p a r t i c u l a r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . CHAPTER SEVEN ' THE COLLINGWOOD SURVEY - 1949. The study undertaken i n the Collingwood d i s t r i c t o f Vancouver during the l a t t e r p a r t of 1948, c u l m i n a t i n g i n the Report of February 1949, i s too new to d i s c u s s i n terms of success o r f a i l u r e . This survey, g i v e n the t i t l e "347 Collingwood F a m i l i e s Discuss - R e c r e a t i o n " i s , i n i t s p u b l i s h e d form, s i m i l a r i n many i n s t a n c e s to the two p r e c e d i n g surveys done i n other l o c a l areas of Vancouver, namely the West End Survey and the Mount P i e a s a n t - F a i rview Survey. I t w i l l t h e r e f o r e have to s u f f i c e to d i s c u s s the g e n e r a l background of the community, the reasons why the Survey was undertaken, and the methods used i n t h e p r o c e s s of community o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s Survey, too, l i k e the o t h e r s , was done at the r e q u e s t of a l o c a l group of i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s * T h e i r i n t e r e s t as p a r e n t s , teachers and l e a d e r s was to determine what might be the s o l u t i o n to t h e q u e s t i o n of p r o v i d i n g " r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s " . The Collingwood area i s g e n e r a l l y d e s c r i b e d as the south-eastern s e c t i o n of Vancouver C i t y , on the boundary between the C i t y and t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y of Burnaby, s t r e t c h i n g westward to the general d i r e c t i o n of V i c t o r i a Avenue. In the e a r l i e r decades of t h i s century, the d i s t r i c t was the e a s t e r n s e c t i o n of the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f South Vancouver, u n t i l i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n 1927. On the northern boundary i s the Renfrew D i s t r i c t and on the south i s the F r a s e r River. I t i s p r i m a r i l y a r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t , combining s o c i a l areas 16 and 19 i n part, and having one of the highest rates of home ownership i n the City. A main artery, Kingsway, which leads to the Fraser Valley and the United States, approximately cuts through the geographical centre of the area and embodies the greatest part of the commercial a c t i v i t y of the whole area. This street also acts to a degree as a minor b a r r i e r or d i v i s i o n i n the d i s t r i c t . To the north of Kingsway i s the older part of the d i s t r i c t , compactly b u i l t , and i n which the greater number of residents l i v e . South of the Highway i s the newer area opened up during the war and post-war expansion periods. This area i s not so congested. The homes are more modern, brighter and better spaced on the property. There i s s t i l l much v i r g i n land available f o r new home s i t e s . Collingwood has two schools, one public and one Catholic parochial school. The r e l i g i o u s denominations are well represented and the figures show f o r this area a high rate of church attendance. The Parks Board has set aside a number of park sites f o r future development; t h i s speaks well of the foresight i n planning f o r a well ordered community. Collingwood probably has more park land set aside than any . other section of the City of s i m i l a r s i z e . Collingwood i s the average working-man's home, and though not wealthy or ostentatious, i t i s solvent, secure and p r a c t i c a l . The v e r y location has given i t a well balanced combination of country and c i t y atmosphere. However, i n order to understand some of the things which l a t e r happened during the Survey, i t i s important to note a 108 l i t t l e more about the economic and s o c i a l development of t h i s j d i s t r i c t i n the e a r l i e r days. Socio-Economic background of Collingwood Vancouver's population soared up during the war and post-war period. Previous to this boom, the concentration of the polulation lay In the d i s t r i c t s just on the f r i n g e of the main commercial and i n d u s t r i a l sections of the City. Consequently these sections of the City f u r t h e r removed from the centres of a c t i v i t y had more land available at a lower cost for purchase -or r e n t a l . During the depression days, therefore, many of the residents of this area were i n r e c e i p t of some kind of assistance - r e l i e f , pension, maintenance, etc. In f a c t so evident was this condition i n the community that i t developed a general attitude of dependence which has permeated through-out the population. This attitude has become so ingrained that many of the older residents even to-day are unable to accept the fact that the community i s quite capable of b eing independent of outside assistance and that t h e i r own e f f o r t s can secure those things which they desire so much. An in t e r e s t i n g feature of th i s area i s the general attitude of the residents towards such community groups as public and planning agencies - educational bodies as well as educated in d i v i d u a l s . The f i r s t two groups they pester, the l a t t e r two they fear. In the f i r s t instance, this can be understood i n the l i g h t of t h e i r former dependence upon such bodies. In the second instance, i t i s possible to understand t h e i r f e e l i n g i n the l i g h t of the fact that many of the residents are from hard working, p l a i n stock - many of them have had un-glamorous occupations and "their feelings and attachments are i n the realm of s i m p l i c i t y and p r a c t i c a l i t y . The community takes a great pride In the members of the younger generation who have made a success o f themselves and are now professional people - however, i t i s quite noticeable that these same young people are not"a part of the planning i n the community. The need of recreational f a c i l i t i e s f o r the Collingwood area has been recognized by the residents f o r over a number of years. In f a c t , i n 1935 a delegation came before the Welfare Council requesting assistance i n planning f o r and for meeting the spare time needs of the residents of the area. An abortive attempt was made by a large recreational agency to establish a branch i n this d i s t r i c t ; however, because of the p o l i c i e s of the agency and the fact that a budget could not be obtained, the plan had to be dropped eventually. In 1946, one of the Gollihgwood residents was made a charter member of the Group Work Div i s i o n of the Community Chest end Council, and i t was through h i s e f f o r t s , while a s s i s t i n g i n planning f o r the needs of other areas, that the Group Work Divis i o n promised i n June 1948 to conduct a survey of the Collingwood D i s t r i c t . I t would be well to understand here, that the residents of Collingwood were making a request f o r monies with which t o establish, a Community Centre. Of course i t was quite impossible f o r the Chest to accede to t h i s , as the constitution of the Chest and Council s p e c i f i c a l l y states that monies may not be used i n securing the actual plant or 110 f a c i l i t y . The Chest can only a s s i s t with the costs of maintenance and leadership. Thus i t w§s that the Council offered to give the best i t had under the circumstances, that being expert help and guidance i n a study of t h e i r l o c a l i t y and the setting forth of a workable plan to meet the needs as they were shown. Collingwood had, l i k e many other d i s t r i c t s , a Community Association whose primary i n t e r e s t was i n the general betterment of the community. Along the way, the group had espoused the idea that a community centre would solve t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n regard to recreation, f o r strange as i t may seem Collingwood 1 s singularly placed i n i t s lack of physical f a c i l i t i e s or opportunities to develop a community recreational programme. This point was generally conceded even before the survey was begun, and i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r the group to see that such a study should be done when they already knew that the survey was only going to point up the obvious. This, i n b r i e f , i s how the Community Association decided to extend t h e i r o f f i c i a l t i t l e to include the i d e a l of a Community Centre. The word "Memorial" i n the t i t l e of organization also has an int e r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t . The Collingwood and D i s t r i c t Community Association, l i k e other such groups, had heard, at the cessation of h o s t i l i t i e s , that the Federal Government was setting aside certain monies to be donated to those communities planning a recreational centre and dedicating such e d i f i c e s as memorials to the f a l l e n . As this plan I l l offered another possible resource f o r f i n a n c i a l help, the group changed th e i r name to the Collingwood and D i s t r i c t Memorial Centre Community Association, hoping thereby that when the time came to receive a portion of t h i s Dominion largess., they could v a l i d l y put f o r t h t h e i r request. Since that time, the p u b l i c i t y i n regard to this fund has died down, and Collingwood, l i k e other such centres, have s t i l l to learn what became of the money. Development of the Survey A further complication arose concerning the survey. As the body requesting the service of tiie Council was neither a " f i n a n c i a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g " nor a "non-f inanci a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g " member i n the Chest and Council, the planning agency would have been unconstitutional i n permitting i t s paid leaders to go i n t o the area to do the study. The matter was solved when, through the courtesy o f the School of Social Work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, a student was placed with the Chest and Council for f i e l d work experience. As a consultant, t h i s student was to a s s i s t the Community Association i n their study of the area, give d i r e c t i o n i n the compilation of the data and b r i n g forward a f i n a l report f o r the acceptance of the Association, The Association set up a Survey Committee composed e n t i r e l y of members of the executive of the Association, The president selected the personnel a r b i t r a r i l y , and was nominated chairman of the committee i n spite of the f a c t that the chairman had already been decided upon by the Chest and Council as a pre-requisite f o r the study. The man chosen by the Council as chairman was the honorary member of the Group Work Di v i s i o n mentioned above. I t was pointed out several times i n the beginning of the study that the Survey Committee should be implemented by representatives from community organizations such as Service Clubs, Churches, P.T.A., etc., but i n the end these suggestions were ignored. Two persons on the committee, besides being members of the executive, were representative of other groups, one being a f f i l i a t e d with a l o c a l a t h l e t i c group, and the second the manager of the ne ighbourhood press • Beyond t h i s , the group was i n a sense parochial. The di r e c t o r enquired on various occasions i f the executive or committee had made any i n v i t a -tions to the l o c a l community groups concerning sending representatives to the Community Association. The answer received was to the e f f e c t that the groups mentioned had been approached i n the past and had not showed any i n t e r e s t i n the Association's undertakings. I t was l a t e r discovered that many of these groups were v i t a l l y interested i n the idea of the community centre and would have been w i l l i n g to work with the Association i f they had been asked. The only conclusion that might be drawn from t h i s attitude on the part of the Association's executive was (i) they had been turned down once before on another issue and were therefore f e a r f u l l e s t they be turned down again on t h i s issue, or (ii.) they were not r e a l l y community minded, and wished to complete this project on their own, i n the hope that the community would 113 eventually look to them and recognize them when the centre became a r e a l i t y . This attitude d i d not necessarily have to be the f e e l i n g of the whole group - i t could be that of one member of the executive, i f that person's leadership was strong enough to carry the others. However, whatever i t was, the group stayed very much to themselves u n t i l they made th e i r one and only e f f o r t to c a l l on the c i t i z e n s i n 1949. The director of the study formulated a questionnaire, which i t was decided i n committee should be di s t r i b u t e d to a l l school children i n the two l o c a l schools, from Grade III to Grade XII. Those children having brothers and s i s t e r s attending schools outside of the area were instructed to take home copies of the form and return them to the school i n the area by a s p e c i f i c date. The committee was most protective concerning the kind of information which they should request on the form. One member questioned the idea of securing s o c i a l data, as he f e l t t h i s had l i t t l e to do with the matter of f a c i l i t i e s or the desires of the inhabitants concerning recreation. I t had to be explained to the committee why some of this information was necessary to secure, i n that itwas-possible to learn the degree of s t a b i l i t y of the area. They accepted t h i s verbally, but were not convinced of the v a l i d i t y of the whole process u n t i l one member noticed a question concerning the community centre as proposed. The question was phrased i n such a way that the one answering the question had to state his preference of this type of f a c i l i t y over others that were mentioned. The person answering the form was also asked to state what he would l i k e to do i n such a centre. The committee member who noticed this question stated that he thought that was the crux of the whole questionnaire and that a l l the others questions were only to b u i l d up to t h i s . After t h i s discussion, the whole committee was i n agreement that the form should be allowed to go through with a few minor changes. The questionnaire that was f i n a l l y used requested informa-tion about the in d i v i d u a l family, such as how many children were i n the family, where they l i v e d , and how long they had l i v e d there, reguia r i t y of Sunday School attendance, member-ship i n recreational agencies or other groups, arid the reg u l a r i t y of attendance, and f i n a l l y the i n d i v i d u a l was asked to state h i s or her preference of a l i s t of programmes. The children were told to take the form home and to f i l l i t out with t h e i r parents' assistance, because at theiend of the form there was a space l e f t f o r the parents to express t h e i r own views as to what the community was needful of i n the way of recreational f a c i l i t i e s . I t was the thinking of the committee that such a technique would bring the survey to the notice of the adult members of the community and not only learn from them what they thought of the idea of recreation, but also provide some advance p u b l i c i t y on the community centre drive which was to follow i n a few months'- time. Members of the committee who were free during school hours offered to a s s i s t i n c i r c u l a t i n g the questionnaires to the class rooms of the two schools i n the area^ to speak to 115 the children and the explain the questionnaire to them* The schools co-operated w i l l i n g l y and offered to c o l l e c t the forms, so that they could be picked up at one time and place. The actual compilation of the data was l e f t to the director of the study to organize. Besides the information contributed by the people of the area, help was sought from the Parks Board, School Board, agencies working within the area, etc. i n order to secure a more complete picture of the so c i a l and economic development of the community. Prom a l l this information i t was possible to get a f a i r l y c l e a r picture of the conditions which existed i n this l o c a l i t y . When, at l a s t , the report was ready f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n , a draft copy of the findings was forwarded to each member of the Survey committee i n advance of a meeting scheduled to discuss the report. The report was read, discussed and altered i n some places by the committee and was then passed on up to the Association's executive f o r r a t i f i c a t i o n . I t f i n a l l y received the approval of the Association. In order to bring the Survey before the attention of the public, two plans were l a i d . F i r s t , every family who participated i n answering the questionnaire received through the mail from the Association a precis of the f u l l report. Second, i n v i t a t i o n s were sent out to a l l organizations i n the area to send a representative to an open meeting i n the community h a l l , which would feature a discussion of the report by members of the Association's executive and Chest and Council. The discussions held at that meeting concerned the f a c t s as brought out by the figures gathered from the residents themselves, a b r i e f explanation of the recommendations, and some hints as to how to secure the good w i l l of the community and n a t u r a l l y the success of the community centre project. The report which was completed and brought before the public contained the usual type of information which most studies of t h i s kind embody, such as, an account of the back-ground of the study, d e f i n i t i o n of the area surveyed, the objects of the survey, and an outline description of the community taken from a s o c i o l o g i c a l point of view, using the information which was secured through the answers to the questionnaires and from the outside, co-operating groups and agencies. Following the general h i s t o r i c a l part of the survey was a copy of the question forms used throughout the schools, with the s t a t i s t i c a l material presented at the end, and an analysis of this data. Because i t was known that there were few f a c i l i t i e s i n the area, attention was drawn to the number of pupils belonging to organized recreation of any sort, sponsored by public, private, r e l i g i o u s or i n d i v i d u a l groups. The incidence, of travel to the downtown area on the part of the young people, i n order to seek out recreation, was also brought out as an Important way to impress upon the individuals of the community the great, lack of opportunities i n the area, as well as the amount of t r a v e l l i n g to and from home - which i n turn involved a c e r t a i n degree of expense, which might e a s i l y have been put into the community, to improve conditions closer to home. The recommendations of the survey covered awwide variety 117 of subjects. It i s possible to understand here, a f t e r what has been said, that this community did need expert advice on a l l matters related to the success of the undertaking which the Association had i n mind. The Association had only a l i t t l e money i n trust at the time of the study f o r the centre, and could only see, at that time, a building as t h e i r goal. Because they had f a l l e n into the p i t f a l l of so many sim i l a r undertakings, i t was imperative that they understand that the programme come before the b u i l d i n g , even i f i t meant that the programmes i n the area were held i n the homes of the private c i t i z e n s . Some of the suggestions made were as follows: Membership and Public Relations: It was suggested to the Association tljat they personally contact every family that answered the questionnaire i n an e f f o r t to i n t e r e s t these people i n becoming members i n good standing of the Community Association. A l l p u b l i c i t y going out concerning the centre should embody an i n v i t a t i o n to a l l groups to j o i n the Association, and the Constitution should be so amended as to permit group membership i n the Association, plus the fact that public bodies should be permitted representation as co-operating members without a vote. Community Centre Committee: This body would be es s e n t i a l i n any organization whose scope was as large as t h i s Community Association. This community group was interested i n a l l matters which concerned the welfare of t h e i r neighbourhood and as a consequence many subjects came before the general meeting which, being important, did take up a great deal of time from the Centre project which was the main issue at the time of the survey. It was conceded that such a committee should be empowered to consider a l l matters concerning the Centre without having to bring i t before a general meeting f o r r a t i f i c a t i o n . I t was understood that any matters involving Centre policy would have to be brought before the executive. Scope and Location of Community Centre F a c i l i t i e s ; Collingwood being the large area i t i s , the idea of a de-cehtralized centre, similar to that i n North Vancouver, was brought forward. In this way the whole community would have access to the central unit as the need might be, and yet each congested area would have a.subsidiary unit carrying on a more r e s t r i c t e d programme. The concept of a series of units would allow a centre to meet the growing needs of the community i n the future. Suggestions were provided concerning the f a c i l i t i e s which should be included i n the main and subsidiary uni t s . Admini s t r a t i on: General d e t a i l s were given concerning the precepts of good administration of a Community centre, describ-ing the r o l e of the Board of Directors, the Executive Director, composition of the Board, role of the a s s i s t i n g committees, membership p o l i c i e s of the centre, including a l i s t of p r i o r -i t i e s concerning those who should be allowed to use the'centre. These are, b r i e f l y , the main recommendations made i n the report, though actually there were many others, not necessarily of v i t a l importance to t h i s study. I t should be noted, however, that every place where i t was possible,, the Associa-ti o n was urged to extend the membership of the i r group, and to 119 make formal representation to the Community Chest and Council to become "non-financially" p a r t i c i p a t i n g members. A series of short suggestions were made i n reference to other community bodies, and he l p f u l ideas were presented to the Association f o r going about s o l i c i t i n g help which would eventually bring them some monetary assistance i n their undertaking. The f i n a l item outlined to the community an immediate programme which could be undertaken preparatory to the time that the building would become a r e a l i t y . One of the points which was stressed i n the recommendations was the need of securing a programme direc t o r i n the immediate future, to begin the b u i l d i n g up of a recreational programme which would i n turn make the members of the community aware of the needs of the area, and i n time e l i c i t more spontaneous giving during the campaign. Shortly af t e r the survey was completed, the Association launched out on i t s campaign drive f o r funds to b u i l d the centre. The executive planned wisely i n i n s i s t i n g upon volunteer help f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of the monies. However, they d i d secure the help of a paid campaign manager, a resident of the community who was taking courses at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia towards a medical degree. The executive promised this person ten percent of a l l the funds raised through h i s campaign e f f o r t s - this ten percent to be donated by a service club i n the area, so that a l l money colle c t e d within the community f o r t h i s project would go d i r e c t l y into a trust account f o r the b u i l d i n g . This plan was taken on, i n spite of the survey director's advice to spend the money donated by the service club to engage a programme director. The suggestions made i n the report concerning the general meetings of the Association, emphasizing the centre project with guest speakers, movies, and v i s i t s to other centres was followed out f o r a time, but eventually dropped. In f a c t , within a year from the time that the survey was completed, the greater part of the a c t i v i t y sighted f o r the community centre has come to a s t a n d s t i l l * What i s the cause of t h i s seeming f a i l u r e ? I t might l i e i n the f a c t that the community as a whole do not r e a l l y f e e l that they want or need a community centre. There i s also the strong p o s s i b i l i t y that the community as a whole does not. accept the Community Association as representative of t h e i r f e e l i n g s or as voicing t h e i r wishes. It is more than possible that the Association i s merely an outlet f o r the feelings of a few d i s - s a t i s f i e d c i t i z e n s , and that the community as a whole recognizes this and therefore neglects to give any weight/ to their campaigns. I t i s very true that this Association has, i n the past, voiced a great deal of d i s - s a t i s f a c t i o n to numerous c i v i c bodies;concerning conditions i n the area, and i t has been said, on the outside, that l i i t t l e w i l l be done f o r this neighbourhood u n t i l they begin to do some things f o r themselves. This seems to point up the fact more c l e a r l y than anything else that t h i s group, at least, has not yet outgrown i t s deep feelings of dependence* The survey d i r e c t o r ' s a c t i o n s w i t h i n the community were c o n t r o l l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y by the p r o t e c t i v e a t t i t u d e of the A s s o c i a t i o n ; thus the p r o f e s s i o n a l person was not allowed to get out to see the v a r i o u s groups i n the area to l e a r n what the t r u e f e e l i n g was, i n the community, towards the A s s o c i a -t i o n . Perhaps had t h i s been done, the survey would have turned out to be an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t k i n d of document, i n t h a t i t could attempt to solve some of the problems which were more b a s i c and hidden i n the community. Even the pro-gramme d i r e c t o r , had he been employed, c o u l d p o s s i b l y have c o n t r i b u t e d a g r e a t d e a l toward b e t t e r understanding between the community and the A s s o c i a t i o n . A h i n t of t h i s type of f e e l i n g on the p a r t of the A s s o c i a t i o n was n o t i c e d i n the r e c e p t i o n which.the school gave the survey. The survey d i r e c t o r had been l e d to b e l i e v e t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n s as power-f u l as the school had l i t t l e use f o r the A s s o c i a t i o n , y e t , d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the survey forms, i t was found t h a t the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s were behind the p r o j e c t a hundred perce n t , and no doubt would have been o n l y too g l a d to send r e p r e s e n t a t i o n to the A s s o c i a t i o n , had the group made a new i n v i t a t i o n to them. I f t h i s was true about one community minded group, c o u l d i t not also be true of a g r e a t many more l i k e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? Perhaps i n a few y e a r s ' time, a more outgoing e x e c u t i v e w i l l come i n t o o f f i c e , which w i l l be able to secure the i n t e r e s t of the c i t i z e n s of Collingwood, and provide them with the f a c i l i t i e s t h a t the community r e a l l y wishes. CHAPTER EIGHT' PINAL CONSIDERATIONS This study has attempted, i f only i n a b r i e f and cursory way, to outline afew examples, to show how the use of the survey method can be an Important phase i f i the process of community organization. Using the c r i t e r i a as set f o r t h by one authority i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l planning, i t has been possible to i l l u s t r a t e the methods of some of these techniques. As the material discussed herein has been taken from the Vancouver Council of Social Agencies (the Community Chest and Council) i t has only been possible to demonstrate tfieuse of three methods or kinds of so c i a l surveys. However, i t has been possible to i l l u s t r a t e , even i f only i n a lim i t e d sense, that the Council i s capable of great f l e x i b i l i t y , and that i t s philosophy transcends p o l i t i c s , petty r i v a l r i e s , i s o l a t e d grievances to come f o r t h as the exemplar of co-operation, p a r t i c i p a t i o n and education i n order to stimulate s o c i a l action i n t h i s City. I t i s an organization which can help to atta i n unity i n i t s d i v e r s i t y of i n t e r e s t s . Of the f i v e types of surveys as outlined by Kenneth Kindelsperger, the three available studies have i l l u s t r a t e d (1) the study of the whole community or City by c a l l i n g i n an outside expert; ( i i ) an in d i v i d u a l agency doing a self-survey or s e l f - a n a l y s i s and ( i i i ) there have been the examples of l o c a l areas c a l l i n g upon the leadership and guidance of the o v e r a l l planning agency i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to r a i s e standards 123 w i t h i n t h e i r l o c a l i t i e s . Even u s i n g the few examples a v a i l -a b l e , i t has been p o s s i b l e to demonsgratetthe degree to which the three o b j e c t s of such s t u d i e s have been used, and an e f f o r t has been made to show t h e v a l i d i t y o f these techniques by the manner i n which the recommendations have been implemented. The q u e s t i o n which might pose i t s e l f here i s - when i s i t p o s s i b l e to make a d e c i s i o n t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r survey i s a success or f a i l u r e ? There are so many extenuating circum-stances which must be taken i n t o account be f o r e judgment can be passed, as has been shown i n the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s . Some surveys which are g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e to the p u b l i c are not of n e c e s s i t y good surveys: from a community o r g a n i z a t i o n stand-p o i n t as o u t l i n e d h e r e i n . I f , however, the p r o f e s s i o n a l ex-p e r t s do r e c o g n i z e the v a l u e of community p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c o - o p e r a t i o n and educati o n , and i f they have attempted to use these f a c t o r s to the tbest of t h e i r a b i l i t y , then i t might be s a i d t h a t the b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y behind the process of community o r g a n i s a t i o n has been put i n t o p r a c t i c e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to b e l i e v e t h a t any study i n c o r p o r a t i n g these f a c t o r s would not be a success. Some p r i n c i p l e s i l l u s t r a t e d by the surveys. . There appear to be f o u r p o i n t s which come to the su r f a c e when the v a r i o u s surveys are s t u d i e d and compared, which might w e l l be r e - i t e r a t e d here: 1. The p r o f e s s i o n a l d i r e c t o r o r expert must have a b e l i e f i n the soundness of the techniques of h i s p r o f e s s i o n . The N o r r i e Report has demonstrated t h a t the expert d i d 124 not accept the o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f the people with whom he was working. The whole temper o f the study l e a v e s the f e e l i n g t h a t the job was done i n a rush, and t h a t the expert's o p i n i o n o f the community which he was a n a l y z i n g was c e r t a i n l y not a complimentary one. The d i s c r e p a n c i e s e x h i b i t e d i n some of the d e t a i l s ; the treatment accorded to some agencies; the l i t t l e time spent i n the survey area; a l l these and o t h e r s h e l p to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s p o i n t . A s t u d y of t h i s k i n d , on the s c a l e which i t was done, cannot be e n t i r e l y v a l i d when the d i r e c t o r c o u l d not take time to attend to small but r a t h e r important d e t a i l s . One reason why the survey was implemented to the degree i t has been i s the f a c t t h at p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d s t a f f s have been coming i n t o the r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies w i t h i n recent y e a r s . I t i s they who have had the most i n f l u e n c e i n implementing the survey. 2, The p r o f e s s i o n a l person o r expert must have a b e l i e f i n democratic p r i n c i p l e s and acknowledge the worth of the i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h whom he i s working. T h i s p o i n t has been i l l u s t r a t e d through the examples presented, where var i o u s community groups and o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been encouraged to a s s i s t i n the pl a n n i n g of f a c i l i t i e s f o r the C i t y o r a l o c a l i t y . The a t t i t u d e o f the Collingwood Community A s s o c i a t i o n towards o t h e r neighbourhood groups demonstrated the f a c t t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n was unable to be democratic, i n s p i t e o f the e f f o r t s of the survey d i r e c t o r ' s requests t h a t these groups be i n v i t e d to a s s i s t i n the work of the survey. 3. The professional s t a f f , expert or survey committee must have freedom to v i s i t groups and investigate the community, i n an e f f o r t to understand the r e a l temperament of the community i n which they or he works. Unless t h i s freedom i s granted by the group requesting the survey, a t r u l y v a l i d picture of the community i s im-possible to ascertain. The "temperature" of the community has to be evaluated, i n an e f f o r t to bring f o r t h recommenda-tions that w i l l serve the needs of the residents. Gollingwoo i n this instance, also brought out the f a c t that the survey was li m i t e d i n i t s effectiveness: because the director' was not permitted to discuss the survey with the neighbourhood groups 4. The people, agencies of the area being studied must recognize a need f o r the study and request assistance f o r the survey. Once again Collingwood brought t h i s f a c t to l i g h t . Prom the outset, the Community Association was not convinced of the need f o r a survey as a means of helping them to solve t h e i r problem. The need f o r some type of recreational f a c i l i t i e s was recognized by the group. Their main concern was to b u i l d a "centre". Whether they actually needed the f a c i l i t i e s which they had i n mind was not a major considera-t i o n i n their plans. The fact that the d i r e c t o r of the survey was unable to meet with other neighbourhood groups would suggest that the Community Association was f e a r f u l of what the residents r e a l l y did think. These points have been i l l u s t r a t e d i n a negative way, p r i n c i p a l l y because the negative i s more easily;seen; however they can' be proved equally well i n a p o s i t i v e way. The West End Survey and the Alexandra House Survey d i d point up the f a c t that those asking f o r the study honestly recognized a need to a l t e r the conditions which existed within the agency. The in d i v i d u a l s involved i n the matter were open-minded about the question; they were accepting of the roles a l l o t t e d to the groups and the members being studied and doing the study; and they accepted each other's personal a b i l i t y and contribution. There was complete freedom of action i n the c o l l e c t i o n and evaluation of information and attitudes. I t was also brought out that even though a survey might hurt some individual or some group f o r a time, the only real test of the study i s the i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e g r i t y of those doing the study and those being studied. With reference to the role of the Council i n these studies, Kenneth Kindelsperger has summed up the functions rather succinctly. Though t h i s expert i s actually discussing a D i v i s i o n Secretary i n r e l a t i o n to an agency, these terms could be changed to the Council and the Community or agencies respectively. He says: "In the f i r s t place, when...(CounciIs)...are c a l l e d upon to a s s i s t o r d i r e c t agency studies..., t h e i r role can be that of an enabler, to enable the study group to achieve a r e l a t i o n s h i p and understanding of i t s own. In t h i s respect (the representative of the Council) i s akin to the group leader. Secondly, the makeup of the study group that goes into an agency study is highly import-ant and the understanding of the individuals who are a part of i t is j u s t as essential as the understanding of the individuals of a group. Thirdly, the mechanics of the study, such as the constituency analysis and other s t a t i s t i c a l measurements, should be used as a means of enabling the i n d i v i d u a l members of .a study group to more adequately understand people. In the fourth place, the interpretation that can be made to individuals who participate In a small study group i s worth more than 127 any other method of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . It i s the i n t e r -pretation that comes from the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n relationships among people. In the f i f t h place, the w i l l to carry out plans and recommendations of agency studies can come from the i n t e r a c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l study group members who create the. plan. The group process; offers this degree of i n t e r a c t i o n and thereby offers the w i l l and energy to carry out the plan. Sixthly, the success of agency or community planning I n the f i n a l analysis depends upon the understanding that i n d i v i d u a l human beings have of agency function. The group process offers one of the best methods to develop this i n d i v i d u a l understanding." (1) In t h i s , the philosophy of democratic planning i s out-l i n e d . In t h i s , the functions of education, co-operation and p a r t i c i p a t i o n are brought out, and the means stressed bare i s the "group". The experience of planning within a group i s dynamic and i t is creative; i t i s s a t i s f y i n g and i t develops i n d i v i d u a l personality through group discussion, group thinking, the exchange of ideas and the meeting of minds i n a common enterprize© So f a r most of the comments have been directed towards the method of the survey and i t s contribution to community organization. However, i t would be remiss not to mention the assistance which a few other resources could provide, not only toward one d i v i s i o n i n the (Council, but to the general welfare of the Council i n i t s o v e r a l l r o l e of community organi zati on. Staff There i s the perennial problem of i n s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f . This i s one of the chief reasons why the Council i s unable to meet the demand made upon i t s services. There i s more work to be done than there are heads to plan or hands to do, (1) Kindelsperger, Kenneth, op. c i t . p. 13-14 As a r e s u l t , the important things come f i r s t , and what i s deemed secondary may or may not get done. It is agreed on a l l sides that the s i t u a t i o n i s being handled as best as can be under the circumstances; however, this apparently Is not s u f f i c i e n t . This f a c t has been proven by the r e s u l t s of the campaign over the past few years, not only i n this l o c a l i t y but i n many larger centres on the continent. The problem i s a perplexing one. It i s not due to any reason alone but rather--to a co n s t e l l a t i o n of factors. However, the s i t u a t i o n i s ggrave enough to warrant serious study. Every e f f o r t should be made to secure p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained s t a f f to f i l l Divisions which are presently without members of s t a f f . P u b l i c i t y and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Is i t possible that the scope of the s o c i a l work profession is enlarging; so quickly that the general public i s not adjust-ing i n t e l l e c t u a l l y at an equal speed? Perhaps part of the reason why the Chest does not meet i t s f i n a n c i a l committments i s due to the f a c t that there i s some confusion i n the minds of the average c i t i z e n i n regard to the place i n society of the private and the public agency. I t is a f a c t that poor p u b l i c i t y and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s i n one f i eld are detrimental to the success of a programme i n the other f i e l d . To i l l u s t r a t e the point, the social s e c u r i t y tax levied on a l l purchases i n the past few years was poorly interpreted to the layman, with the r e s u l t that private agency appeals were affected adversely. Public relations and p u b l i c i t y i n each sphere areamustsrrln t h i s age of competition and growing enlighteniaemrte. I n d i v i d u a l agencies should see to i t th a t they also have e i t h e r a f u l l time o r p a r t time person r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a year-round p u b l i c i t y campaign. There seem t o be o n l y o c c a s i o n s i n the year when th e r e i s any e f f o r t made to i n t e r p r e t the work: and p o l i c i e s of the i n d i v i d u a l agencies - at the time of the annual meeting and d u r i n g the Chest campaign. I f the p u b l i c was as aware of the work done by the Red Feather Agencies as they are o f the work o f t h e Red Cross, C h i l d r e n ' s H o s p i t a l , e t c . , there would be l i t t l e doubt but t h a t they would make t h e i r quotas, and i f this success i s to be reached, then there must be c o n t i n u a l barrage of i n f o r m a t i o n coming o u t to the p u b l i c about the agencies. The p u b l i c also must be aware of the value of the work which the agencies are doing. The burden of p u b l i c i t y and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s not o n l y l i e s i n p a r t with the Chest and C o u n c i l , but i t l i e s even to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t wl th the i n d i v i d u a l agency a f f i l i a t e d w ith the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g body. One might be tempted to say t h a t the strength of the Chest and C o u n c i l i s o n l y as strong as i t s weakest a f f i l i a t e . The s t r e n g t h o f the i n d i v i d u a l agency i s dependent on a l l those having a d i r e c t concern with the agency, from the v o l u n t e e r Board member down to t h e g i r l on the switchboard. How many i n d i v i d u a l s on the Board of D i r e c t o r s o f an agency r e a l l y have an understanding and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the work of the agency? Go one step f u r t h e r - how many persons working i n an agency, o u t s i d e o f the s o c i a l workers, r e a l l y understand what the agency i s hoping t o accomplish? S o c i a l work, to be e f f e c t i v e , must be team work - team work i n the agency, between agencies and between l e v e l s ; of government •* team work integrated to the leve l of a smoothly operating army, moving forward together toward a co ran on goal. Review Committees The Norrie Report suggested that a l l agencies do a s e l f -analysis survey of Board membership and administration. Could this not be pushed f u r t h e r , i n the in t e r e s t s of a stronger and better integrated agency, to. have regular agency studies of policy and v/ork analysis? This method has been, t r i e d i n another urban centre of comparable size to Vancouver and found to work quite successfully. Technically the process i s carried out by a Review Committee,: composed of s t a f f members from Chest and Council, and the in d i v i d u a l agency Board and sta f f members. This committee; meejjs every three, four or s i x months to discuss the agency b r i e f which outlines the volume of work done over the preceding period, the problems a r i s i n g since the l a s t meeting regarding p o l i c y , s t a f f and other such matters. The committee^ discusses this material, pointing out where improvements may be made or providing p a r t i a l solutions to the problems. • The suggestions made by the committee are t r i e d out and re-evaluated again at the next meeting. The br i e f s are marked or rated, thereby i n j e c t i n g a s p i r i t of competition of "beating your own record". A study of the bri e f s over a time also points up to the agency and i t s Board where the weaknesses i n administration and p o l i c y lie» There are some who might-feel that this method i s l i a b l e to cause d i s t r u s t asffar as the i n d i v i d u a l agency i s concerned, that i s , a general f e a r that the Chest and Council i s usurping a function which does not r i g h t l y f a l l to i t . ' I t has been found that a f t e r experimenting with t h i s method, the agencies f i n d i t more of a help than they r e a l i z e d . These reports are then discussed at the Chest and Council Board meetings, as an educative and i n t e r p r e t i v e measure, that i s to show the lay members of the o v e r a l l planning body how the various agencies function; what the i n d i v i d u a l agency policy i s and how i t is meeting the need of the p a r t i c u l a r community as well as the problems which confront the agency with regard to p o l i c y , budget;?, persbhhel, etc. Public Tours of Social Agencies. In reference to the average c i t i z e n , the Chest and Council -which depends on him for support during the campaign, should be working a l l the time to keep the work of i t s member agencies before h i s consciousness:. One very obvious way of doing this is to provide agency tours. The Chest and Council should be able to provide information and examples of work f o r any one of their member agencies and to anyone interested i n knowing something about an agency's operation. As i n other centres, i t might be well to provide a guide to interested groups of c i t i z e n s who wish to go through one or more s o c i a l agencies. Such groups might be high school students, university students, servicecclubs, unions, church groups, etc. I t i s well not to forget that the actual number of people coming to the doors of an agency i s only a small percentage of the t o t a l population of the community. I t could well be said that very few people coming to the agency f o r assistance r e a l l y understand how that agency operates; why the agency i n s i s t s upon the wealth of material and s t a t i s t i c s that appear so burdensome to the one seeking helpj and what problems actually face that agency i n providing f a c i l i t i e s f o r the community. School of Social Work Placements. What i s the place of the social work traineeiai the general a c t i v i t y which goes on within the Chest and Council? I t i s an undisputed f a c t that placement i n an agency of this kind cannot be underestimated f o r the experience which the student, gets is invaluable. There has been a great deal of thinking along these l i n e s , and at present there appear to be two s p e c i f i c drawbacks i n the matter of placement i n the agency. F i r s t , there i s the lack of s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f , and second, the absence of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y q u a l i f i e d people to undertake super-v i s i o n of students. Even i f the present s t a f f had the necessary q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , the existing s t a f f does not have the time to devote to an add.ed burden of supervision. The agency also i s of the thinking that i n the l i g h t of the f a c t that the available personnel has not the academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , they are unable to give the trainee the advantages that should be his during his placement experience. This i s a r e a l problem and one which w i l l have to b.e overcome before f u l l recognition can be given to the Council as a p o t e n t i a l placement agency. Extension Service If the Council personnel were adequately trained, and the agency was accepted as a placement resource, ishere would seem to fee unlimited p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a student to make a worth-while c o n t r i b u t i o n to h i s own experience as w e l l as to the agency and the conmunity. Many C o u n c i l p r o j e c t s , not normally p e r m i t t e d by the agency's c o n s t i t u t i o n , c o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e through the studenit and therebj^ c r e a t e , as i t were, an "Extension S e r v i c e " . Had the Chest and C o u n c i l had a student a v a i l a b l e a f t e r the Collingwood Survey to " l o a n " out to the community f o r a few months as a r e c r e a t i o n a l planner, perhaps the survey r e s u l t s would have been more dramatic than has been the case. This i s o n l y one example. The same p r i n c i p l e s h o l d true i n any other d i v i s i o n of the Chest and C o u n c i l , ,and should prove t o be an u n l i m i t e d source o f worthwhile j o b s e  L i b r a r y and A r c h i v e s No o r g a n i z a t i o n such as the C o u n c i l can f u n c t i o n without an adequate l i b r a r y and a r c h i v e s . I t might w e l l be suggested here that the l i b r a r v f a c i l i t i e s of the Chest and C o u n c i l be g i v e n f u r t h e r support from the standpoint of p e r s o n n e l and budget, and that the a r c h i v e s be r e - o r g a n i z e d and s e t up. Much m a t e r i a l c o v e r i n g the e a r l y days of S o c i a l Work i n the C i t y of Vancouver i s m i s s i n g , due to the f a c t t h a t the o f f i c e s have been changed s e v e r a l times over the p a s t number of y e a r s , and the weeding and s o r t i n g of m a t e r i a l was r e l e g a t e d to the "back room" o r " u p s t a i r s " , and has been l e f t to i n e x p e r i e n c e d persons. Some very v a l u a b l e s t a t i s t i c s , graphs and c h a r t s have been permanently l o s t t h i s way - m a t e r i a l t h a t can never again be drawn together. Another g r e a t leakage i n the C o u n c i l ' l i b r a r y and a r c h i v e s i s through students and i n d i v i d u a l s who borrow material f o r a p a r t i c u l a r project and never return i t . A f a i r l y accurate record is maintained concerning where th i s material goes; however, i t often disappears and cannot be located. It might be wise f o r the agency to determine a p o l i c y concerning Council material, that i t be read and used on the property and not removed. In spite of the Council's somewhat li m i t e d resources, Vancouver's s o c i a l planning agency nevertheless does maintain a high standard of work. If i t i s possible to improve further on the present f a c i l i t i e s and to add to these, the Council would be able to do an even better job. However, even i f the Council had a l l the f a c i l i t i e s available, i t would not be able to function at a maximum without c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the projects of the Council. The momentum f o r s o c i a l action s t i l l has to come from the people - the Council can only give leadership and guidance. Given adequate stimulation, those being served by social agencies can and w i l l develop a continued i n t e r e s t In and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r a i s i n g the standards and quality of s o c i a l welfare i n the community. The p r i n c i p l e purpose f o r the comments and considerations contained herein have been to define a l i t t l e more c l e a r l y the democratic idea i n s o c i a l welfare trends. Welfare can and has become i n some places authoritarian and a t o o l of the state. I t i s the opposite r e s u l t which s o c i a l welfare planners are s t r i v i n g to a t t a i n on this continent. I t is f o r this end that the roles of education, p a r t i c i p a t i o n and co-operation have been so often stressed throughout these 135 works. In an e f f o r t to sam up this democratic philosophy i n s o c i a l welfare, one authority stated " A l l professions functioning under democratic conditions would remain closer to democratic ideals and practices i f they made proper use of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . Experts and the experiences of the people need to be brought into harmony; only thus can there be established an i n t e g r a l r e l a t i o n between science and democracy... The democratizing process can become e f f e c t i v e only when technicians march forward to t h e i r tasks with c i t i z e n s at th e i r side. Some professions may be able to produce with a r e l a t i v e l y high degree of acceptance without c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , but s o c i a l work is the one profession which cannot afford to go on alone." (2) (2) Lindeman, Eduard, "Democracy and Social Work",National Conference of Social Work Proceedings, 1948, c i t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia's Welfare, V i c t o r i a , Department of Health and Welfare, Social Welfare Branch, June 1949. APPENDIX A BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Colcord, Joanna, Your Oommunity, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1939. Fletcher, Ralph Carr,"Research and S t a t i s t i c s i n S o c i a l Work - Surveys," S o c i a l Work Year Book, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1949, McMillen, Wayne, Community Organization f o r S o c i a l Welfare, Chicago, University of" Chicago Press, 1945. Young, Pauline V., S c i e n t i f i c S o c i a l Surveys and Research, New York, Prentice - H a l l , 1945. A r t i c l e s , Reports and Manuscripts Annual Report, Vancouver, Council of S o c i a l Agencies, 1931 and 1932. 345 Collingwood Families ^ Discuss Recreation, Vancouver, Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, 1949. Group Work F a c i l i t i e s i n the West End, Vancouver, Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, 1941 Health and Welfare Planning l h the Smaller Community, " New York, Community Chests and Councils Inc., 1945. Hendry, Charles, "Action Research," Partners In Planning, Ottawa, Proceedings of the Capital D i s t r i c t Planning Survey, 1948. Kindelsperger, Kenneth W., Use of the Group Process i n  Making Agency and Community Studies, Cleveland, National Conference of S o c i a l Work, 1949. "L. E. J . , " History of the West End Community Centre, Vancouver, 1938. '• ' Liggett, David, Can Councils C l i c k ? , New York, Community Chests and Councils Inc., B u l l e t i n 107^ 1941. '9 Lindeman, Eduard, "Democracyand S o c i a l Work," National Conference of S o c i a l Work Proceedings, as c i t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia's Welfare, V i c t o r i a , Department of Health and Welfare, S o c i a l Welfare Branch, V o l . VI, No. 3, June 1949. McGill, Helen Gregory, The Story of Vancouver S o c i a l  Service, Monograph prepared for the City Archives, Vancouver, 1943. Norrie, L. E., Survey Report of Group Work and Recreation, Vancouver, Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, 1945. P r i n c i p l e s of Community Chest -Agency Relationships, New York, Associated Youth Serving Organizations In 1945 o Report and Recommendations of the Welfare Section  Re-organization Committee, Vancouver, Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, 1949. Report of the Interim Survey Committee of Alexandra NeighbourhoodJHouse, Vancouver, Community Chest and Council.of Greater Vancouver, 1948. Special Committees Minutes Book - 1932 to 1936, Vancouver, Council of S o c i a l Agencies. Survey of Recreational F a c i l i t i e s i n Mount Pleasant - Fairview, Vancouver, Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, 1948. Solkin, William, "Surveying Recreational Needs and F a c i l i t i e s in.the Smaller Community,"' Partners  i n Planning^ Ottawa, Proceedings of the Capital D i s t r i c t Planning Survey, 1948. What Can Councils of S o c i a l Agencies Do?,New York, ~ Community Chests and Councils Inc., 1939• Whitton, Charlotte, Report of the B r i t i s h Columbia Child Welfare Survey, Ottawa, Canadian Council on Child Welfare, 1927. 

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