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Parental attitudes and how they affect the behaviour of children : a study of Provincial Child Guidance… Trasov, George Edward 1950

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PARENTAL ATTITUDES AND HOW THEY AFFECT THE BEHAVIOUR OF CHILDREN .- r ~ — — — — — — — — — — A Study of P r o v i n c i a l Child Guidance C l i n i c Cases. - by GEORGE EDWARD TRASOV Thesis submitted_iri P a r t i a l Fulfilment of. the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the Department of Social Work ' 1950 University of B r i t i s h Columbia ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study i s t h r e e f o l d : ( l ) to a n a l y z e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n the records r e g a r d i n g the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of behaviour d i s o r d e r s i n the c h i l d r e n and the background of the parents, (2) to make a t e n t a t i v e d i a g n o s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the parents to t h e i r c h i l d -ren, and (3) to examine the degree of c o r r e l a t i o n , e x i s t i n g between the" p a r e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s and the c h i l d m a n i f e s t i n g the behaviour problem. This i s , t h e r e f o r e , an e x p l o r a t o r y study on the f a m i l i a r t o p i c of p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and how they a f f e c t the behaviour of c h i l d r e n . The s e l e c t i o n of cases f o r study (40 i n number) were a l l those accepted f o r treatment by the P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c i n an 18 month p e r i o d , " 1948-49. The c h i l d r e n were e i t h e r of p r e - s c h o o l age or t h e i r problems manifested themselves b e f o r e they entered s c h o o l . C e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s were se t up. A l l the c h i l d r e n were of at l e a s t normal i n t e l l i g e n c e , a l l came from homes where there was a normal f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n , I.e., both parents were a l i v e and l i v i n g a t home. No d i s t i n c t i o n was made between sexes, o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n of the c h i l d i n the f a m i l y , r e l i g i o n and n a t i o n a l i t y , and economic s t a t u s . These cases were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o three groups on t h e - b a s i s of "problems" of symptoms of maladjustment which l e d the parents to seek the s e r v i c e s of the P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n adopted d i s t i n g u i s h e d ( l ) d i s t u r b a n c e s of s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n , (2) h a b i t d i s o r d e r s , and (3) p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r s . The emphasis of t h i s study i s based on the hypo-t h e s i s t h a t p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s i n f l u e n c e the behaviour of c h i l d r e n . I t seemed l o g i c a l , t h e r e f o r e , to focus s p e c i f i c a t t e n t i o n on a t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t e d and expressed by the parent i n the case work s i t u a t i o n . The sample o f -cases i n c l u d e d parents e x h i b i t i n g r e j e c t i n g , dominating and other d e v i a n t a t t i t u d e s . — The g r e a t e s t number of c h i l d r e n i n t h i s group of c l i n i c a l cases were those who were a f f e c t e d by the combined a t t i t u d e s of mother and f a t h e r . The d e v i a n t t r a i t was the predominating parental inadequacy contributing to the be-haviour problem. Fext i n importance were the attitudes expressed by the mothers, rejection being the outstanding t r a i t . Fathers, on the whole, affected a smaller number of children than the mothers. In this group domination was the main contributing defect. Regardless of the adequacy of one parent, i f the other parent f a i l e d to f u l f i l the par-ental role, the f a i l i n g s were r e f l e c t e d in the behaviour of the c h i l d . Though parental attitudes influenced the behaviour of a l l the children, d i f f e r e n t children reacted d i f f e r e n t l y and in varying degrees to sim i l a r experiences. The behav-; iour manifestation appeared to show i t s e l f i n a manner peculiar to the make-up of the p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d . A C E N 0 W L E D G E 1 I E W T S I wish to acknowledge indebtedness to Miss -J.F. K i l b u r n , P r o v i n c i a l S u p e r v i s o r o f P s y c h i a t r i c Social,.Work f o r her permission' to u t i l i z e the c l i n i c r ecords f o r r e s e a r c h purposes. I am a l s o indebted to the c l i n i c s t a f f f o r t h e i r h e l p i n .'.discussing the v a r i o u s cases used i n t h i s study. S p e c i a l acknowledgement i s made of the h e l p f u l n e s s of Br._L.C. Marsh and Mr. and Mrs. T. Exner, of the" Depart-ment of "Social Work who gave generously of t h e i r time and p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v i c e d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s study. TABLE Off CONTENTS Chapter 1. Children's Behaviour Problems 1 Behaviour problems as presented by the parents. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of symptoms represented i n the sample group. Case i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Chapter 2. Parental Attitudes 16 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of parental attitudes having unfavourable influence on c h i l d behaviour. Cases i l l u s t r a t i n g the parental attitudes which affected the greatest number of children i n thi s group of c l i n i c a l cases. Chapter 3. Maternal Attitudes 37 The r o l e of the mother i n the home. Maternal attitudes a f f e c t i n g a larger number of children than paternal attitudes. D i s t r i b u t i o n of these attitudes. Cases i l l u s t r a t i n g maternal attitudes and the res u l t i n g unfavourable behaviour of the c h i l d . Chapter 4. Paternal Attitudes. 53 The role of the father i n the home. Dis t r i b u t i o n of paternal attitudes having unfavourable influence on c h i l d behaviour. Cases i l l u s t r a t i n g these attitudes and the re s u l t i n g maladjust-ment of the c h i l d . Chapter 5. Childhood Experiences of the Parents 66 Childhood experiences in the l i v e s of the fathers and mothers whose children pres-ented symptoms of maladjustment. Inade-quacy of the parents. Marriage and type of adjustment. Case i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Gaps in s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s . Chapter 6. I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Study 85 P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c . Plan of treatment. F a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to c h i l d r e n ' s behaviour problems. Causal' connections between p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and c h i l d r e n ' s behaviour m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . Recommendations. Suggestion f o r f u r t h e r study. Appendix: B i b l i o g r a p h y 91 ii TABLES IN THE TEXT Tabl e 1. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s behaviour -problems re p r e s e n t e d i n the sample group 8 T a b l e 2. D i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s 24 T a b l e 3. Deviant t r a i t s . 26 - Table 4. F a c t o r s in-mothers' backgrounds 71 T a b l e 5. F a c t o r s i n f a t h e r s * backgrounds 76 PARENTAL ATTITUDES  AND HOW THEY AFFECT THE BEHAVIOUR OF CHILDREN A Study of P r o v i n c i a l Child Guidance C l i n i c Cases. (1) CHAPTER 1. •i CHILDREN'S BEHAVIOUR PROBLEMS AS PRESENTED BY THE PARENTS What i s a behaviour problem? What i d e n t i f i e s a problem c h i l d ? Who determines that a c h i l d i s w e l l a d justed, or maladjusted? What ki n d s of behaviour a r e u n d e s i r a b l e ? How 'normal' or'abnormal' i s "misbehaviour 1 1 i n c h i l d r e n ? These a r e p e r p l e x i n g q u e s t i o n s and n e c e s s i t a t e d e f i n i t e answers. The answers a r e f r e q u e n t l y found i n the d i r e c t responses of the parents concerned about the behaviour of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Some of these responses to c h i l d behaviour have l a t e l y been c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n and s u b j e c t e d to c a r e f u l examination. They a r e being m o d i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to the growing knowledge of c h i l d l i f e and c h i l d needs. The problem of c h i l d behaviour must take on a new s i g n i f i c a n c e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of c h i l d r e n ' s behaviour to the a t t i t u d e s of t h e i r parents i n v i t e s c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n . The importance of the emotional development of c h i l d r e n needs g r e a t e r r e c o g n i t i o n than the need of t h e i r i n t e l l -e c t u a l t r a i n i n g ; though education must f o r e v e r turn a t t e n -t i o n to p r e p a r i n g the c h i l d f o r l i f e . S i n c e the concepts of c h i l d needs and c h i l d problems are uppermost i n the minds of many people, i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e to i n q u i r e at what (2) p o i n t we have a r r i v e d i n d e f i n i n g the i s s u e s of c h i l d be-h a v i o u r i n every-day p r a c t i c e s . The p r e s e n t study i s concerned w i t h the p a r e n t s ' viewpoints on these q u e s t i o n s . . F a c t u a l data on behaviour-problem c h i l d r e n i s important but the a t t i t u d e s of parents a r e fundamental to any study of the b e h a v i o u r - d i s o r d e r s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . P e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s a r e important f a c t o r s i n the s o l u t i o n of any human problem. When p h y s i c a l a i l m e n t s were co n s i d e r e d the a f f l i c t i o n of e v i l s p i r i t s , medical s c i e n c e was precluded. So l o n g as i n s a n i t y was regarded as demonia-c a l p o s s e s s i o n or punishment from God, people s u f f e r i n g from mental derangements were banished or abused. I f be-h a v i o u r problems of c h i l d r e n a r e d e f i n e d i n terms of "bad"', " e v i l " , or "wrong" behaviour, t h e i r n a t u r a l 'causation can-r not be appreciated.. F o r t u n a t e l y , people are b e g i n n i n g to th i n k more o b j e c t i v e l y about c o n d u c t - d i s o r d e r s and to ev-a l u a t e c h i l d behaviour i n terms of c h i l d w e l f a r e : u n f o r t u n -a t e l y , the w e l f a r e of the c h i l d s t i l l seems f r e q u e n t l y to be confused w i t h the convenience of the a d u l t . Whereas the i n f l u e n c e of a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l and mental d i s o r d e r s a f f e c t s c h i e f l y the treatment of those d i s e a s e s , a t t i t u d e s toward behaviour a r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t (3) of behaviour d i s o r d e r s . Behaviour, i n the s o c i a l sense i n which i t i s here employed, i s a s o c i a l l y evaluated and s o c i a l l y r e g u l a r i z e d product; and behaviour problems re p r e -sent c o n f l i c t s between i n d i v i d u a l behaviour and s o c i a l r e -quirements f o r behaviour. d ) i I t i s to be noted that the very e x i s t e n c e of a behaviour problem i s designated by p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s i n a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l s e t t i n g . There can be no problems i n be-havio u r , i n the a c t i v e s o c i a l sense, unless someone r e a c t s to them as such. Moreover, any form of conduct i n a c h i l d or a d u l t may become a problem i f i t i s regarded and t r e a t e d as u n d e s i r a b l e behaviour by the s o c i a l group i n which the i n d i v i d u a l happens to l i v e . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n of behaviour problems i n terms of p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s i s f o r c e d upon one as soon as a system-a t i c study of s o c i a l maladjustments i n c h i l d r e n i s under-taken. Here t h e r e - i s such a l a c k of c o n s i s t e n t standards of behaviour e v a l u a t i o n that i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to e s t a b l i s h any c r i t e r i a which w i l l be s e r v i c e a b l e i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s . What i s a c c e p t a b l e behaviour to some parents i s unacceptable to o t h e r s . No two f a m i l i e s m a i n tain e x a c t l y the same r e -quirements f o r the behaviour of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . R a c i a l , ( l ) Wickman, E.K., C h i l d r e n ' s Behaviour and Teachers' A t t i t u d e s . New York, The Commonwealth Fund, 1928, p.3. ( 4 ) r e l i g i o u s , and e d u c a t i o n a l customs and p r a c t i c e s c o n t r i b u t e h e a v i l y to d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s toward i n d i v i d u a l be-h a v i o u r . In so f a r as parents have had d i f f e r e n t u p b r i n g i n g t h e r e w i l l be d i f f e r e n c e s i n the requirements they demand of and the responses they make to the behaviour of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . What c o n s t i t u t e s a behaviour d i s o r d e r and why c e r t a i n forms of behaviour a r "problems" a r e thus q u e s t i o n s of p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . Here they a r e l i m i t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to the p a r e n t s . However w i s e l y or unwisely a parent may d e s i g n a t e a behaviour problem i n a c h i l d , t h a t d e s i g n a t i o n must be the s t a r t i n g p o i n t of any study of the c h i l d ' s behaviour d i s o r d e r . The problem i s the maladjustment between the c h i l d and those who seek to r e g u l a r i z e h i s be-h a v i o u r . The very d e s i g n a t i o n of u n d e s i r a b l e conduct and the a t t i t u d e s toward the c h i l d i n consequence of t h i s be-come a stimulus f o r the c h i l d and a determinant of h i s be-h a v i o u r . Obviously, not a l l of the many c h i l d r e n who a r e r e f e r r e d to as " p r o b l e m - c h i l d r e n " by t h e i r parents event-u a l l y come to the a t t e n t i o n of the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c ; any more than do a l l of the c h i l d r e n who have committed de l i n q u e n t a c t s i n e v i t a b l y appear b e f o r e the J u v e n i l e Court. N e v e r t h e l e s s , those c h i l d r e n who a r e r e f e r r e d to the C h i l d (5\ Guidance C l i n i c p r obably represent a f a i r c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f a l l s o - c a l l e d " problem-children". There i s always some reason f o r r e f e r r i n g a c h i l d to a guidance c l i n i c . In some in s t a n c e s the reason may be only that the person r e f e r r i n g him wants a d v i c e f o r e d u c a t i o n a l guidance. Except f o r cases of t h i s type a l l persons r e f e r r e d to the P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c have e x h i b i t e d behaviour, w i t h or without a. p h y s i c a l maladjustment, to which someone has o b j e c t e d or over which someone i s concerned. The cases r e f e r r e d to the P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Guid-ance C l i n i c a t Vancouver between A p r i l 1,1947 and September 30,1949 f o r a d v i c e r e g a r d i n g school p l a n n i n g , s u i t a b i l i t y f o r adoption, p u r e l y p h y s i c a l problems w i t h b i o l o g i c a l causes, ^  ^mentally d e f i c i e n t p a t i e n t s , and cases where there was i n s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l about the background o f the parents were among those a r b i t r a r i l y excluded from the samples used i n t h i s study. T h e r e f o r e the remaining f o r t y cases ^ ) s e l -ected f o r a n a l y s i s a l l r e p r e s e n t c h i l d r e n whose behaviour has been d i s t u r b i n g to the parents and was deemed harmful to the c h i l d h i m s e l f , to other persons, or to the system of c h e r i s h e d values and standards of conduct h e l d by the (1) These c h i l d r e n were e i t h e r examined by p r i v a t e d octors or by the P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c . (2) The c h o i c e and l i m i t a t i o n s are s e t f o r t h i n the :''.: • A b s t r a c t " ( 6 ) parent. These c h i l d r e n a r e r e f e r r e d to as "problem c h i l d r e n f o r l a c k of a b e t t e r d e s i g n a t i o n . A c t u a l l y i t must be ad-m i t t e d that i n many cases the term i s h a r d l y adequate to d i s t i n g u i s h the group of c h i l d r e n as a c l a s s , s i n c e some of these c h i l d r e n may d i f f e r l i t t l e i n g e n e r a l from other c h i l d ren. The d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n the degree to which t h e i r a c t s a r e d i s t u r b i n g to the parents and i n the f o r t u i t o u s c i r -cumstances which have l e d to the r e f e r r a l proceedings by the parent or p a r e n t s . The problems which brought the c h i l d r e n to the c l i n i c range a l l the way from minor h a b i t s and conduct d i s -turbances to pronounced a n t i - s o c i a l a c t s and behaviour symptomatic of mental i l l n e s s . The behaviour of most of the c h i l d r e n was marked by e x t e r n a l h o s t i l i t y and a g g r e s s i o n . The o u t s t a n d i n g p a r e n t a l complaint was that of the c h i l d r e n 1 u n c o n t r o l l a b l e or i m p u l s i v e behaviour. T h i s a p p l i e d to the m a j o r i t y of the cases and i n c l u d e d c h i l d r e n whose behaviour a t home was h o s t i l e , quarrelsome, d e s t r u c t i v e , d i s o b e d i e n t , stubborn, abusive, demanding, or i r r i t a b l e and who were given to temper tantrums, l y i n g , s t e a l i n g , or running away from home. The p a r e n t a l complaints next i n frequency were such d i s o r d e r s ' a s s e i z u r e s , eczema, t i c s , speech d e f e c t s , e n u r e s i s , slow development, and underweight. Fears of ( 7 ) various kinds occurred in many of the cases, n a i l b i t i n g was quite frequent, while stealing was less frequent. Next in frequency was the c h i l d who had d i f f i c u l t y i n making s o c i a l relationships within- or outside the family. Manifestations such as sleep disturbances and feeding pro-blems were quite common. Less common were crying s p e l l s and excessive day dreaming. Problem behaviour i n childhood represents an attempt at a solution of a c o n f l i c t . What determines the emergence of one or another symptom depends upon a va r i e t y of causes in the child's environment. The c h i l d may try to resolve his c o n f l i c t through day dreaming, projection, com-pensation or regression. Aggressive behaviour i n one c h i l d and withdrawing behaviour in another may serve the same pur-pose. Every organ of the body and a l l bodily functions are the means through which emotional need i s manifested and emotional release secured. I t i s not surprising, therefore, to f i n d that i n the f o r t y cases a t o t a l of eighty-six different. symptoms were l i s t e d . An attempt to c l a s s i f y these symptoms soon showed that there v/as considerable -overlapping. Since a behaviour manifestation i s a reaction to a problem, not (8) o n l y d i d every i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d have numerous symptoms, hut the c a t e g o r i e s under which these symptoms f e l l f r e q u e n t l y overlapp-ed. The v a r i o u s problems a r e reduced to three main c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , namely, d i s t u r b a n c e s of s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n , p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r s , and d i s o r d e r s of h a b i t formation. This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a ge n e r a l grouping based on the w r i t e r ' s own assessment. The problems a r e not f o r m a l l y c l a s s i f i e d by the workers i n the c l i n i c except f o r s t a t i s t -i c a l purposes. \ T a b l e 1 DISTRIBUTION OF PROBLEMS REPRESENTED IN THE SAMPLE GROUP A t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i , X Numb er Per cent Disturbances of S o c i a l Adaptation 15 38 U n d e s i r a b l e H a b i t Formation 13 32 P e r s o n a l i t y D i s o r d e r s 12 30 T o t a l 40 100 As has been pointed'out p r e v i o u s l y , c h i l d r e n f r e q u e n t l y m a n i f e s t symptoms which may be c l a s s i f i e d under two or t h r e e of the c a t e g o r i e s d e s c r i b e d above. E-or ex-ample, a boy who r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , he,d (9) temper tantrums, and.was d e s t r u c t i v e would be i n c l u d e d w i t h the group showing d i s t u r b a n c e s of s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n , a l -though he may a l s o present a h a b i t d i s o r d e r such as bed-wet t i n g . Symptoms of maladjustment which may be c l a s s i f i e d as " d i s t u r b a n c e s of s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n " a r e numerous. Some of these a re temper tantrums, r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t a u t h o r i t y , c r u e l t y , d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s , b u l l y i n g , t e a s i n g , l y i n g , and s t e a l i n g . F i f t e e n of the f o r t y c h i l d r e n examined ( t h i r t y -e i g h t per cent), presented symptoms of t h i s k i n d . The case of G e o r g e ^ ) be s t i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n . George's parents contacted the c l i n i c on the a d v i c e of, Dr. S. because*they were having d i f f i c u l t y i n ha n d l i n g the boy. They s t a t e d that George was an extreme behaviour problem, would not obey h i s parents, screamed and c r i e d whenever c o r r e c t e d , and would throw t h i n g s out of the window or over the banks of the canyon. This behaviour, the explained, had continued ever s i n c e George was a small boy and no amount of d i s c i p l i n e c o u l d change him. When the s o c i a l worker asked f o r f u r t h e r symptoms the mother explaine that though George was t o i l e t t r a i n e d a t about t h r e e years of age he f r e q u e n t l y wets the bed durin g the n i g h t . George ( l ) A l l names a r e f i c t i t i o u s . ( 1 0 ) has symptoms of maladjustment which could he c l a s s i f i e d i n at least two of the categories .mentioned above, but since the majority of them are.those which are of s o c i a l adaptation the case i s c l a s s i f i e d as such. Problems of "habit formation" include n a i l - b i t i n g , thumb sucking, bed-wetting, s o i l i n g , sleeping and eating d i f f i c u l t i e s , and speech disturbances. Thirteen of the children examined (thirty-two per;cent)were referred because they had d i f f i c u l t i e s of this kind. Ian i s a feeding problem. He refuses"food on being asked i f he •wishes i t and l a t e r w i l l request the same food. Occasionally he w i l l knock food to the f l o o r . The parents are worried because they fear the c h i l d does not eat enough s o l i d food and w i l l become undernourished. The patient displays many nervous symptoms. He bites his n a i l s , becomes excited, i s d i f f i c u l t to manage, and generally d i s -plays a good deal of negativism, frequently exhibiting tem-per tantrums. His sleep i s often disturbed and of l a t e he has been waking up two or three times i n the evening asking .to go to the bathroom. He then requests to come to bed with his mother and father. Ian does not play, well with other children. At kindergarten he usually refuses to p a r t i c i p a t e in group (11) a c t i v i t i e s . In the neighborhood he has attempted to p l a y w i t h the c h i l d r e n , most of whom a r e o l d e r than h i m s e l f . T h i s p l a y has not proved too s a t i s f a c t o r y as these c h i l d r e n a r e i n c l i n e d to take advantage of the p a t i e n t , f r e q u e n t l y h i t t i n g him and pushing him to the ground. Ian w i l l not r e t a l i a t e . H i s parents say that he i s regarded as a "nuis -ance" i n the neighborhood. He has been found "snooping" i n the neighbors' garages and yards. In the t h i r d category a r e " p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r s " the c h i e f of which can be l i s t e d as nervousness, c r y i n g , seclus-iveness, t i m i d i t y , s e l f i s h n e s s , o v e r a c t i v i t y , and un-p o p u l a r i t y w i t h other c h i l d r e n . Twelve of the c h i l d r e n who were examined ( t h i r t y per cent) were r e f e r r e d because of symptoms of t h i s nature. Mrs. W.'s complaint when she sought c l i n i c a d v i c e about B a r r y was as f o l l o w s . B a r r y has been a d i s c o n t e n t e d c h i l d s i n c e the age of three years. He i s n e g a t i v i s t i c , r e f u s e s to a p o l o g i z e and w i l l not p r a c t i c e h i s piano l e s s o n . He i s very shy and p o l i t e o u t s i d e , but f u s s e s from morning u n t i l n i g h t a t home. Mrs. W. says they ha-ve a t e r r i b l e time a t meals. There-are so many foods B a r r y r e f u s e s to eat. He has nightmares, i s a f r a i d of the dark, has t r o u b l e going to s l e e p a t n i g h t , and wakes up too e a r l y every morning. ( 1 2 ) '•He just wants to be the whole chees.1* The s o c i a l worker observed that Barry was an ex-tremely anxious c h i l d . His conversation was often about hi s fears. He showed a lack of self-confidence and said that he did not f e e l sure of himself because his mother did not think he could do .things well. He remarked, "She even talks at bridge parties about what a bad boy I am. n. Barry presents various problems of -maladjustment, though the majority of them.are those of personality disor-ders such as shyness, fears, anxiety, and lack of s e l f con-fidence. The problem of diagnostic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a d i f f i c u l t one at best." Any discriminating thinking about the disorders, their genesis or their treatment, i s necess-a r i l y dependent upon the recognition of more or less c l e a r and d e f i n i t e types or groupings of disorders. The problem of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t where many problems are f l u i d and changeable and represent maladjust-ments rather than disorders. In dealing with children in a casework r e l a t i o n -ship i t i s necessary to know the underlying causes f o r the i r behaviour. In children we see the development of a pattern ( 1 3 ) of behaviour which i s being modified and i n t e n s i f i e d i n diffe r e n t areas as they continue to adulthood. Their a t t -itudes and behaviour are to a very marked degree derived from early experiences i n t h e i r environment. Their p a r t i c -ular environment takes into consideration a l l manner of events, persons and places of which they are aware and which have meaning for them. Throughout this environment the parental attitudes have constituted a large part of i t and are therefore of extreme significance. The f i r s t few years the c h i l d i s wholly dependent upon his parents for his physical and emotional needs. The attitudes and feelings on the part of those administering to his needs constitute a profound influence i n the g r a t i f -i c a t i o n of these needs and play an important part in his behaviour. There i s harmony or i i s c o r d i n the child-parent relationship depending upon the effect produced by the child's behaviour on the parents' own unresolved emotional c o n f l i c t s . The worker i n a Child Guidance C l i n i c , such as that i n Vancouver, has opportunities to observe many fundamental needs of children and the f r u s t r a t i n g exper-iences that may be involved for both the parent and the c h i l d due to a lack of understanding and insight into the causes of these f r u s t r a t i o n s . (14) The C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c to which the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s study were r e f e r r e d because of some behaviour pro-blem i s a p r o v i n c i a l agency and accepts any c h i l d f o r study, guidance, and treatment. In the r e f e r r a l i n t e r v i e w the parent presents the problem as he sees i t . The case i s then assi g n e d to a s o c i a l worker who i n t e r v i e w s the parents and the c h i l d to work "through" the problem and a t the same time gather f a c t s concerning the environmental s i t u a t i o n ; such r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l i n the developmental h i s t o r y of the c h i l d p e r t a i n i n g to e a r l y f e e d i n g , weaning, and t o i l e t t r a i n -i n g , the age at-which he began to walk and t a l k , the n a t u r e of any i l l n e s s e s or i n j u r i e s and a d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s r e -l a t i o n s h i p among h i s s i b l i n g s as they have been observed by the parent. In these i n t e r v i e w s i n f o r m a t i o n i s secured concerning the p a r e n t s ' own c h i l d h o o d experiences, s i b l i n g • r e l a t i o n s h i p , and m a r i t a l adjustment. The c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e and behaviour i s evaluated through casework i n t e r v i e w s and p l a y techniques. During the c l i n i c a l examination the c h i l d i s examined to determine what p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s he may have which may c o n t r i b u t e to h i s behaviour problems. Psy-c h o l o g i c a l examinations are given -in order to a r r i v e a t some e v a l u a t i o n of h i s a b i l i t y and c a p a c i t y to work accord-i n g to h i s age l e v e l . The c h i l d and the parents are i n t e r -( l ) Roberts, Evelyn, Marie. Mental H e a l t h C l i n i c a l 'Q S e r v i c e s . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia t h e s i s , 1949. ( 1 5 ) viewed by the p s y c h i a t r i s t . The s o c i a l h i s t o r y i s l a t e r presented to a c l i n i c a l team - a p s y c h i a t r i s t , s o c i a l worker, p s y c h o l o g i s t , and nurse - to h e l p diagnose the problem and to a s s i s t the s o c i a l worker i n h e l p i n g the parent and the c h i l d to s o l v e t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s . CHAPTER 2 (16) PARENTAL ATTITUDES Parents p r a c t i c e on th e i r children a type of men-t a l hygiene that i s influenced by the kind of tra i n i n g which t h e i r parents practiced on them. Every c h i l d r e f l e c t s i n his behaviour, to a greater or less degree, the unsolved emotional problems of his father and mother with whom he comes into intimate d a i l y contact. The c h i l d i n s t i n c t i v e l y seeks, i n the parental relationship, security, a f f e c t i o n , recognition, and approval. When parents, because of the i r own unsolved problems and inner c o n f l i c t s , cannot s a t i s f y these deep cravings i n the c h i l d , he expresses his unsatis-f i e d need i n unacceptable behaviour. P s y c h i a t r i s t s and s o c i a l workers are able to t e s t i f y that the problems suggest-ed by the child's harmful reactions to l i f e situations re-side more i n his parents than i n himself. Most s o c i a l workers dealing with children w i l l declare that they never dealt with a problem c h i l d whose d i f f i c u l t i e s could not be traced back, step by step, to unsatisfactory relationships existing between the members of his family, to unresolved parental c o n f l i c t s , and to the atmosphere of his home. To create within the home an atmosphere of affec-tion, f a i r play, mutual•consideration, and harmony i s , then, (17) the primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the parents. Training the c h i l d to conform to reasonable rules, to form regular habits of sleeping and eating, and to be well-mannered and neat are important, but the a c q u i s i t i o n of attitudes of love, sym-pathy, contentment, and consideration of others are even more so. These attitudes, so basic to happy adjusted l i v i n g , are not acquired through parental training but are "absorbed" by the c h i l d from the s p i r i t u a l atmosphere of his home. I f th i s atmosphere i s not created by parents i n the early years of the child's l i f e , when hi s emotional patterns are being formed, the loss to the c h i l d can never be compensated. The c h i l d i s brought to the P r o v i n c i a l Child Guidance C l i n i c f o r treatment by the parents because of dis-s a t i s f a c t i o n with his behaviour. Prom the form of d i s s a t i s -f a ction a preliminary understanding of the genesis of the child ' s problem Is usually easy to obtain. I t may also pro-vide a basis f o r prognosticating the cooperation or r e s i s t -ance which w i l l be forthcoming from the chief f i g u r e with whom both the s o c i a l worker and the c h i l d have to deal. For example one group of parents has become aware, either through personal observation or because others have i n s i s t -ently brought i t to th e i r attention, that t h e i r c h i l d i s un-happy. They have come to a r e a l i z a t i o n that the youngster has developed patterns of thought and behaviour which make ( 1 8 ) him incapable of harmonious l i v i n g within his family c i r c l e and deprive him of the a b i l i t y to develop i n accordance with his i n t e l l e c t u a l capacity and creative s k i l l . In sharp contrast are those sit u a t i o n i n which the parents are disturbed over the child's symptoms, yet are not fundamentally concerned with the c h i l d as a human being. They are worried over the compulsive masturbation, the t i c s , the embarrassing scenes. They see these manif-estations as r e f l e c t i o n s upon t h e i r competence as parents rather than as indications of profound c o n f l i c t s leading to greater and greater incapacity of the c h i l d to develop into a happy, well adjusted i n d i v i d u a l and to grow into a mature adult. The c h i l d who i s an overt behaviour problem or who i s shy, f e a r f u l , or already displaying neurotic patterns of behaviour, i s usually within the s o c i a l atmosphere in reaction to which the personality d i f f i c u l t y has evolved. As a c h i l d , this s o c i a l atmosphere i s l a r g e l y composed of parents and s i b l i n g s . The parents bring to bear certain constant attitudes, and as a r e s u l t certain demands f o r conformity to their own standards of achievement, which the c h i l d must meet in order to gain acceptance and a f f e c t i o n . Problems such as s i b l i n g r i v a l r y , r e j e c t i o n , over-protection (19) are i n themselves both constant f a m i l i a l influences and the re s u l t of the impact of contradictory s o c i a l ideals and demands upon the parents. For example, s i b l i n g r i v a l r y as an entity i s an i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t of having more than one c h i l d in a household. S i b l i n g r i v a l r y as a destructive force d i s t o r t i n g the behaviour and thought processes of the c h i l d i s an outgrowth of i r r a t i o n a l or unfavourable a t t i t -udes expressed toward him; the basis of which may be i n the parents' own childhood experiences. In comparison, the i d e a l parental approach to a newborn c h i l d i s one of awaiting indications of p o t e n t i a l -i t i e s and personality type on the part of the offspring, accepting these with enthusiasm^ and encouraging t h e i r f u l l -est development at the pace set by the c h i l d himself. Be-haviour problems and neurotic manifestations may be a n t i c i -pated where the parents have a preconceived idea of the person t h e i r c h i l d i s to be. In such cases the c h i l d i s designed to be a l i v i n g monument to the pride of the parents. The demands which are made upon children are a r e f l e c t i o n of the demands of the society in which they l i v e , modified by the p a r t i c u l a r needs of the parents through whom they are transmitted. The types of conformity demanded of the c h i l d i n the Victorian era, f o r example, are widely ( 2 0 ) divergent from the types of conformity demanded by parents in our own highly competitive and, at the same time, en-lightened society. The parent of today tends to desire h i s c h i l d to he i n t e l l i g e n t and p h y s i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e . I f the c h i l d cannot he unusually bright, an outstanding talent w i l l be an adequate substitute, but mediocrity or dullness are taken as personal affronts. The demand fo r obedience and obvious expressions of love and a f f e c t i o n may be i n the forefront. On the other hand, those parents who have done much reading and enquiring into c h i l d psychology, place great emphasis on the f r e e reign of impulses, the absence of repression, or the outward expression of h o s t i l i t y . One c h i l d finds himself in a family which places a premium on serious-mindedness, and signs of quiet profundity. Another i s impelled toward rough and tumble behaviour as a method of gaining approval. In a l l of these divergent patterns the parents are seeking reassurance from the children, and are using them as a means of gaining security rather than accepting them as individuals i n t h e i r own r i g h t . The child's separate i d e n t i t y must be accepted i f the f u l l e s t and happiest development of both the c h i l d and the parent-c h i l d relationship i s to be assured. Of prime importance in the child's behaviour i s . the type of relationship that the c h i l d establishes with (21) his parents, for out of this relationship are molded a t t i t -udes towards others and toward himself, values, goals, and techniques of adjustment. The "biological helplessness of the human infant and his utter dependency on the adults around him make i t necessary for him to incorporate envir-onmental prohibitions and injunctions, as contained i n parental d i s c i p l i n e s , in order to retain the love of those on whom his very l i f e depends. The child-parent r e l a t i o n -ship i s thus the womb that nurtures ego growth, channelling the chil d ' s energies in h i s dealing with the world. D i s c i p l i n e s imposed on the inf a n t and the r e s t r i c t -ions placed on his pri m i t i v e pleasure s t r i v i n g s are dictated to some extent by the mores and standards of the culture that have been incorporated by the parents in th e i r own character structure. The parent i s thus the chief agent for the transmission of c u l t u r a l attitudes, and under ordin-ary circumstances the c h i l d w i l l imbibe these attitudes and pattern h i s l i f e around them. There are, however, import-ant taboos and incentives, dictated to the c h i l d by the per-sonal idiosyncrasies of the parents, which may be at var-iance with the c u l t u r a l norm. These, depending on th e i r nature, w i l l counteract or reinforce c u l t u r a l influences. Which "conditionings" contribute to a character structure consistent with mental health, and which encourage (22) abnormal or neurotic t r a i t s , are questions not entirely-resolved. However, experience has shown that where a c h i l d f e e l s unloved, rejected, overprotected, or dominated by the parents, he i s bound to react catastrophically. Work with such children 'demonstrates that they develop character patterns that handicap them severely in their relationships with people and i n th e i r general adjustments to l i f e . P s y c h i a t r i s t s , s o c i a l workers and teachers recog-nize that a chil d ' s problems can often be a t t r i b u t e d to f a u l t y parental attitudes, whether s o c i a l or c u l t u r a l . Many ps y c h i a t r i s t s believe that most love relationships are mixed and that aggressions and h o s t i l i t i e s are manifest even i n the happiest of unions. The love of a parent f o r i t s c h i l d i s no exception; even the most loving and non-neurotic parent i s at times i r r i t a t e d and h o s t i l e toward the c h i l d . But the c h i l d of this parent senses that he i s loved f a r more than he i s hated and that h i s parents' love i s perm-anent and the h o s t i l i t y i s transient. Occasional c r i t i c i s m and punishment are accepted as the normal thing by parents, and this i s not recognized as a sympton of underlying host-i l i t y and d i s l i k e of the child-. A parent can be said to have a derogatory influence on the c h i l d only when negative elements dominate. The ensuing frank rejection, neglect, domination, or acceptance w i l l depend on the parents' super-(23) ego and sense of g u i l t . The essence of the Freudian theory i s that the child's i n s t i n c t u a l drives of love and hate (sex and aggress-ion, l i f e and death) provide the motive force f o r the building of his personality, and that the parents' behaviour and attitudes toward him are the primary elements in fur-nishing the environment within which his basic adjustments are worked out. The parents provide many of the important stimuli to the child's development, the f r u s t r a t i o n s , as well as the a f f e c t i o n , which makes his progress possible. In maintaining, within his psyche, the s h i f t i n g equilibrium between the forces of love and hate, the attitudes of the parents are all-important to the c h i l d . The extent to which they can provide the proper balance of love and d i s c i p l i n e l a r g e l y determines his a b i l i t y to progress from one level, of adjustment to the next. The process i s one i n which emotional factors f a r outweigh i n t e l l e c t u a l ones. The parent gains l i t t l e by taking thought alone about his behaviour toward the c h i l d , and the c h i l d i s enabled to use his i n t e l l -ect at a l l , only by reason of his previous emotional devel-opment and the resolution of some of his e a r l i e s t fears. It i s necessary f o r the social; worker to know what i s involved because the f i r s t step i n the treatment of the young : c h i l d and the parent i s an evaluation of the mod-(24) i f i a b i l i t y of parental attitudes toward him. Treatment of the parent becomes a prerequisite to treatment of the c h i l d . Parental attitudes toward t h e i r children may be roughly divided into three types, namely, rejecting, domin-ating, and other deviant attitudes. Though acceptance of the c h i l d by either the father or the mother i s often obser-ved i n the casework relationship, i t i s not the predomin-ating t r a i t and therefore does not lend i t s e l f to this study. At the outset the writer wishes to c l a r i f y the f a c t : that these attitudes are not usually found in t h e i r pure form i n the cases studied as the d e f i n i t i o n s appear to indicate. There i s always a certain amount of overlapping. On the basis of the f o r t y cases studied the parents presented various attitudes i n the relationships with t h e i r children. In some situations both parents had equal i n f l u -ence on the personality of the c h i l d , in others, the mother was the most i n f l u e n t i a l , while i n others, the father. Table 2, DISTRIBUTION OF ATTITUDES j « C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Parental Maternal Pat ernal Deviant 9 2 1 Rej ection 7 6 2 Domination 5 5 3 Total 21 13 6 ( This chapter deals with cases where both parents had approximately equal influence upon the c h i l d . Twenty-one cases may be said to f a l l in this group. In the category "deviant a t t i t u d e s " were included parents who cannot be s t r i c t l y c l a s s i f i e d as re j e c t i n g or dominating but nevertheless did display some deviation from what may be c a l l e d the mental hygiene i d e a l . Some were i n -dulgent and lenient. Others s l i g h t l y neglected the older c h i l d and favoured the baby. Some were unduly concerned about physical ailments or the p o s s i b i l i t y of bad mental heredity. S t i l l others deprived the c h i l d of those needs which he required for his growth and development, either through ignorance or c u l t u r a l f a c tors. Nine of the twenty-one cases (forty-four per cent) presented f a i l u r e s of thi s kind. Since the number of parents in this category i s large i t was found necessary to summarize the evidence and tabulate the frequency of the various defects. The parents in this group present various defects. They may be indu l -ging at one moment and nagging at the next, or loving the c h i l d at one time and punishing him another time, etc. Or again, the mother may allow the c h i l d complete freedom whilst the father either punishes or indulges. I t i s not (26) surprising, therefore, to f i n d that in the nine cases a t o t a l of forty-two factors are l i s t e d f o r both the mother and father. Table 3 DEVIANT ATTITUDES Defects Mother Father 1. Ignorance of child' s needs of growth and development 5 3 2. Inconsistency i n d i s c i p l i n e 5 2 3. Setting high standards 4 1 4. Nagging 4 1 5. Lack of control 4 2 6. Indulging parents 3 2 7. Favouring s i b l i n g or s i b l i n g s 2 2 8. Unduly concerned about physical ailments 2 2 Total 29 15 I t i s these various defects which contributed to the maladjustment of the c h i l d to the extent that the o {27) parents were unable to adequately cope with the s i t u a t i o n . The outstanding defect was the mother's lack of control over the c h i l d and the father's evasion of parental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , blaming the mother f o r her inadequacy. Both the father and the mother were thus equally responsible f o r the child's behaviour problem. The mother, through in d u l -gence, inconsistency i n d i s c i p l i n e , and nagging created a si t u a t i o n in which the father wished to take no part. Mr. F. says "Mother carries her heart on her sleeve. She spanks the c h i l d and then c r i e s over i t . I t i s mother who needs a psy-c h i a t r i s t and not the c h i l d . I have completely stepped out of the picture to avoid the problem." These are t y p i c a l ex-pressions of the fathers. Mothers have often complained about the fathers being too lenient. Two mothers state that whatever they do during the day the fathers undo at night. One mother states, "I may as well give up the idea of teach-ing the c h i l d any table manners fo r the father allows her to do anything she wishes. If she doesn't want to eat what i s placed before her, her father gives her something else. If she wants two helpings of dessert, her father gives i t to her. Everything i s a l l right u n t i l the father comes home and then he has the audacity to blame me for the way the c h i l d acts." ( 2 8 ) In two cases both the father and the mother seek vicarious s a t i s f a c t i o n in t h e i r children, attempting to r e a l i z e certain attainments and sa t i s f a c t i o n s which they themselves f a i l e d to enjoy during th e i r own youth. I t i s th children of these parents who meekly reply "Yes, s i r , No, s i r , " They have been taught to be perfect ladies and gentle men and any deviation from that standard does not receive approval of the parents. In another situation the g i r l who has been "the apple of the mother's eye" has now become the father's fav-ourite. The father showers her with l i t t l e g i f t s . The c h i l d ignores the mother completely not only i n :af fee tion but also in d i s c i p l i n e . An e n t i r e l y opposite s i t u a t i o n exists between the mother, father, and son. Here the father blameB the mother for the situ a t i o n , especially since the boy de-mands more and more from the mother as time goes on. In almost every situation the father and mother work at cross-purposes in the i r responses and behaviour to-ward the c h i l d . The parents are not mature individuals and this immaturity i s r e f l e c t e d i n the behaviour of their children. Proficiency in c h i l d rearing ized and complicated occupation and i s i s a very special-not conferred on a (*29) couple when they get married. Parents who are themselves immature and unstable w i l l i n e v i t a b l y have problem behaviour in t h e i r children, while parents who may be mature i n most ways may have, f o r psychological reasons a r i s i n g out of thei r own experiences, unfortunate attitudes of antagonism and intolerance towards the "annoyances"; of normal c h i l d be-haviour, or misconceptions and distorted theories about how to rear children. How frequently the opportunity of rearing children i s muffed through parental ignorance i s attested by the high incidence of emotional maladjustment, delinquency, and mental i l l n e s s in our youth. Fathers who use a high grade of i n t e l l i g e n c e and judgment in their occupations display an amazing lack of awareness of and i n c a p a b i l i t y for hand-l i n g the human psychological problems of t h e i r children. Mothers who are excellent home managers become b a f f l e d by the behaviour reactions of the i r sons and daughters. A clear cut d e f i n i t i o n of parental "rejection 1 1 i s d i f f i c u l t because an ind i v i d u a l i s not a c l i n i c a l entity and because i t i s a matter of degree. Psychoanalysts say • that a l l love relationships have an ambivalent quality, that i s , that there i s always some h o s t i l i t y associated with them. The attitude M r e j e c t i o n " i s accepted when i t means the c h i l d i s unwanted, consciously or unconsciously, by ( 3 0 ) either the mother or the father. The parents f a i l to give the c h i l d protection or aff e c t i o n , or they i n v i d i o u s l y con-tra s t him with other children in the family or with c h i l d -ren outside the family. In general, the c h i l d i s neglected in one or more ways. Sometimes the mother or father com-pensates for the g u i l t which she or he f e e l s f o r this re-jecti o n by lav i s h i n g a f f e c t i o n on the c h i l d or overprotecting i t . Since i t i s d i f f i c u l t to know when thi s i s r e a l l y a compensation f o r rejection, cases are selected only when there i s strong evidence of rejection as assessed by the ps y c h i a t r i s t and s o c i a l workers within the agency. Rejec-tion with varying degrees of ambivalence i s the next most frequently noted negative attitude^of both parents. Of the twenty-one cases studied, seven come under th i s category. In f i v e of the cases both the father and the mother indicated that they did not want the c h i l d . Their be-haviour toward the c h i l d confirmed this a ttitude of which the c h i i d was well aware. In three of these cases the parents were not prepared to assume family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and i n one case the parents preferred a g i r l instead of a boy. In one case, the mother was overprotective and the father was very punitive toward the c h i l d . In another, both parents lavished the c h i l d with material things but ( 3 1 ) deprived i t of any a f f e c t i o n . Sometimes the parents were openly antagonistic. They scolded the c h i l d , punished him severely, said they d i s l i k e d him, wished they could be r i d of him, and frequently threatened to "put him away." They expressed decided preference for th e i r other children, with whom they compared the patient most unfavourably. In nearly a l l these cases, the parents continually nagged and bickered with each other. The atmosphere of the home varied from tenseness to open h o s t i l i t y . In some cases the parents were over-ambitious f o r the chil d ' s success. There were other cases where a c h i l d , greatly indulged and petted in early l i f e , had been supp-lanted i n his parents' affections by another c h i l d . Then again, one finds cases in which one parent overtly rejected the patient while the other parent was either fond of him and tolerant of h i s behaviour or d e f i n i t e l y Over-indulged and spoiled him. In every case, the parents seem to have f a i l e d from the f i r s t to understand the c h i l d as an indiv-i d u a l . In most of the cases the rejection was obvious, but sometimes i t was more subtle. For a time the c h i l d may be a source of great joy and unconscious s a t i s f a c t i o n . It i s a l i t t l e animal l i v i n g beyond the confines of any moral or written laws; the whole world serves the helpless baby and permits him the complete (32) g r a t i f i c a t i o n of a l l i t s i n f a n t i l e impulses. The parents by-way of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the baby l i v e out v i c a r i o u s l y t h e i r own i n f a n t i l i s m , but this can go on only f o r a time. The golden period when the c h i l d i s a fascinating plaything i s soon succeeded by a period when the demands of c i v i l i z e d l i f e assert themselves. The parents at this time begin to assert the voice of the i r own s o c i a l conscience and moral r e s t r i c t i o n s while the c h i l d gradually becomes a sort of l i v i n g symbol of what once was permitted to the parents and then became forbidden. The whole mass of forbidding, re-s t r i c t i n g , c r i t i c a l impulses making up the s i l e n t code of c i v i l i z a t i o n i s then hurled upon the c h i l d : the stronger the parents' "conscience," that i s , the stronger t h e i r i n h i b i -tions, the greater w i l l be t h e i r h o s t i l i t y and domination against the child's freedom. By "dominating" parents i s meant those who exer-c i s e a great deal of control over the c h i l d by being very s t r i c t and autho r i t a t i v e with him and who punish or threaten to punish him. They are hard on the c h i l d and hold him to standards which are not suited to his age and development. They c r i t i c i z e the c h i l d , unnecessarily frighten and plan extensively for him. In some cases the parents seek to est-a b l i s h dominion over some special portion of the child' s l i f e . In other instances, mothers and fathers attempt to (33) set up a dictatorship over the child's entire experience. Parental dominance thus ranges a l l the way from the p a r t i a l to the complete. Five of the twenty-one parents presented an a t t i t u d e of this kind. Three of these parents were p e r f e c t i o n i s t s and made every attempt to r e a l i z e i n t h e i r children certain attainments and s a t i s f a c t i o n s which they themselves f a i l e d to enjoy during their own youth. Three of the mothers and two of the fathers were interested to know whether t h e i r children were "university material."- In the remaining two cases the parents were unreasonable in t h e i r demands towards obedience and subjected the children to stern d i s c i p l i n e , usually in the form of corporal punishment. A l l studies of parental attitudes are handicapped by the fact that rarely are the attitudes i n a pure form. Most often they are tinctured with ovew.ndulgence or dom-ination. Compensatory over-indulgence may be a cover f o r h o s t i l e feelings on the part of the parent toward the c h i l d . The attitudes to which the c h i l d w i l l be subjected w i l l fluctuate between rejection and over-indulgence. The c h i l d who i s dominated to excess may suffer rejection to a l i m i t e d degree but may also experience a crushing self-assertiveness. The c h i l d may be deprived as regards certain needs and sat-iated as regards others. He may, for instance, get physical (34) comfort and food while at the same time he i s deprived of companionship: and love. The c h i l d may he affected "by exposure to incon-sis t e n t and contradictory d i s c i p l i n e s . He may he smothered with love on one occasion and exposed to b r u t a l i t y on an-other. He may be granted his s l i g h t e s t whim and then f o r l i t t l e reason denied, a most legitimate demand. He may be praised l a v i s h l y , depreciated at d i f f e r e n t times, or ignored in accordance with the p r e v a i l i n g mood of the parent. He may be punished for l y i n g when he knows that the parent him-s e l f i s untruthful. He may be goaded to defiance and then intimidated f o r being truculent. These inconsistencies are very confusing to the c h i l d and make i t impossible f o r him to develop a sense of values. Anything in the: home s i t -uation which tends to destroy the child's sense of personal adequacy or gives him the idea of being unwanted or unduly c r i t i c i z e d , thereby impairing his sense of group security, w i l l tend to produce personality d i f f i c u l t i e s . The ways in which such results may eventuate are often very subtle. A mother finds her husband f a l l s f a r short of her ideals, i s economically i n e f f i c i e n t , and em-o t i o n a l l y aloof. One of her children, a son, resembles the father very cl o s e l y . That son she cannot tolerate, "I can-(35) not stand to hare him k i s s me." Yet she knows, or so she says, that he i s not to blame and that he needs her- love and care. Many mothers, on the contrary, finding t h e i r husbands inadequate to meet t h e i r emotional needs, turn to the f i r s t son f o r outlet. Meantime, these same fathers are frequently jealous of the mother's concentration upon the baby. The r e s u l t i s c o n f l i c t , with the c h i l d as an unwilling and un-witting centre. Fathers too, turn to the children f o r out-l e t s when mothers do not s a t i s f y . Worse s t i l l , both being u n s a t i s f i e d in their relations with each other, they try to solve the problem through the c h i l d , by s t r i v i n g f o r his attention and a f f e c t i o n . Children may become the repositories of the parents drives f o r perfection. The parents usually have d i f f e r e n t ideas. Each parent i s l i k e l y to try to cast out of the c h i l d the imperfections which he has inherited from the "other side of the family.". Each s t r i v e s to protect the c h i l d from per-sonal experiences which the parent found unfortunate. Am-b i t i o n s , often c o n f l i c t i n g , are projected on the c h i l d . Revenge may be taken f o r a l l the things missed, especially i f the c h i l d i s the favourite of the other parent. A l l human passions may be, and not infrequently are, vented upon the c h i l d . The parent i s not always con-scious of t h i s . In view of the multiple adjustments that ( 3 6 ) have to be made i n c h i l d h o o d , adulthood, marriage, and parenthood, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that c o n f l i c t s should dev-elop. Once they get beyond c o n t r o l , some warping i n the p e r s o n a l i t y development of the c h i l d r e n r e s u l t s . T h i s may take the form of e n u r e s i s , food d i f f i c u l t i e s , bad s l e e p i n g ' h a b i t s , s i b l i n g r i v a l r y , e t c . , maladjustments to which f a u l t y p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i s an important c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r . T h i s d e f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s the outcome of the p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s - deviant, r e j e c t i o n , and domination. Of the f o r t y cases s t u d i e d , i t was found that over h a l f of them presented a s i t u a t i o n i n which both the f a t h e r and the mother p l a y e d an e q u a l l y important r o l e i n c o n t r i b u t i n g to the maladjustment of the c h i l d . CHAPTER 3 (37) MATERIAL ATTITUDES I t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t the most potent of a l l i n f l u e n c e s on s o c i a l behaviour i s d e r i v e d from the s o c i a l experiences w i t h the mother. F o r the young c h i l d the world i s h i s mother, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the c h i l d to the l a r g e r world i s permanently c o l o u r e d by the e a r l y r e l a t i o n s h i p to the mother. When the c h i l d senses, i n the very core of h i s being, that h i s mother, h i s world, does not accept him, then he cannot accept the s a c r i f i c e s and the l i m i t a t i o n s of the p u r s u i t of p l e a s u r e which a r e normally r e q u i r e d of him i f he i s to become s o c i a l i z e d . The p r i m i t -i v e , u n s o c i a l p l e a s u r e s of i n f a n c y - being f e d , cared f o r , and given a t t e n t i o n to the l i m i t of need - remain h i s un-r e a l i s t i c g o a l . The c h i l d who i s not l o v e d and cannot l o v e has no motive f o r s o c i a l development. E m o t i o n a l l y and s o c i a l * l y he remains a t an i n f a n t i l e , n a r c i s s i s t i c l e v e l , domin-ate d by the "pleasure p r i n c i p l e , " . R e a l i t y , which has not met h i s need to be a p p r e c i a t e d , i s r e j e c t e d by him as u n s a t i s -f a c t o r y , and so he t r i e s to h o l d on to those sources of p l e a s u r e which brought him s a t i s f a c t i o n i n i n f a n c y . I t i s w e l l known, both i n c h i l d a n a l y s i s and i n c h i l d guidance, that an understanding of the mother's (38) problems i s of great dmportanee i n treatment of the c h i l d . Freud has drawn attention- to the ro l e a c h i l d plays in a woman's l i f e . He says that even n a r c i s s i s t i c women who remain cool in relation, to their husbands f i n d a way to f u l l object-love when a part of th e i r own bodies presents i t s e l f to them i n the c h i l d they have born. Many authors have discussed the decisive influence which the expectation of a c h i l d in the future has on the development of the l i t t l e g i r l . In the female development, the c h i l d i s a solution to the problem of how to accept the r e a l i t y of being a woman. The way in which the idea of a c h i l d has been used in t h i s connection affects the r e l a t i o n between mother and c h i l d . Mother-child unity i s normal during pregnancy and per s i s t s psychologically to some extent a f t e r the b i r t h of the c h i l d . The close relationship between mother and c h i l d decreases i n in t e n s i t y as the c h i l d grows older i n normal sit u a t i o n . Where the close mother-child relationship i s overemphasized and taken advantage of to solve the mother's own problems, this relationship becomes a problem in the treatment si t u a t i o n . These relationships vary. Sometimes a l l the children in a family, sometimes only one c h i l d , are treated i n a special way. The c h i l d may be used to express his mother's (39) h o s t i l i t y against an adult member of the family whom she cannot reach. The c h i l d may be regarded so strongly as a part of the mother's body that she fe e l s free to use him in order to solve her own problems. In some cases the problems a r i s e when the mother-child relationship i s reversed to the point of estrangement. The c h i l d observes his mother's behaviour and reacts to i t . He concludes from his observation the nature of the mother's conscious and unconscious wishes i n re-l a t i o n to him and others, and he reacts to them. The younger the c h i l d the more apt he i s to endeavour to keep close relationship with his mother by reacting i n the way his mother unconsciously wishes him to. The idea suggests i t s e l f that in the i r own c h i l d -hood these mothers have attempted to solve t h e i r problems by means of phantasj'-. ?/hen they w i l l have t h e i r own c h i l d -ren, t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s w i l l vanish. The lenient, indulging mother may have f e l t that she would treat her children much better than she herself had been treated i n childhood. As a r e s u l t she has gone to the extreme in allowing her c h i l d -ren complete freedom with l i t t l e guidance, or she may have allowed considerable freedom but v a c i l l a t e d between indul-gence and punishment because of her immaturity. This same -l i n e of reasoning i s applied to the rejecting and dominating ( 4 0 ) mothers. Of the f o r t y cases studied, i t was found that thirteen mothers are considered to have more influence on the behaviour of their children than the fathers. I t i s not to he assumed that,the fathers were adequate hut t h e i r inadequacy was f a r out-balanced by the mother's unfavourable attitude toward the c h i l d . Since paternal attitudes i n these cases had less effect on the behaviour of the c h i l d , the maternal attitudes appear in a more pure form. The same c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s used for the mothers as has been used for the parental attitudes, namely, deviant, rejection, domination. Of the thirteen mothers i n this group two present deviant attitudes, s i x rej e c t i n g and f i v e dominating, ( l ) It i s the mother who spends the greater part of her time and energy in actual care and supervision of the c h i l d . Interest and love on her part, while of supreme importance, are not enough to assure success in handling the innumerable problems that she meets. Her very love f o r her c h i l d may be the stumbling block that prevents her from f u l f i l l i n g the obligations of her parenthood successfully. This love i s very frequently associated with excessive (l) To avoid confusion, the same sequence i s used f o r both mothers and fathers as for parental attitudes. (41) worry, anxiety, and, at times, d e f i n i t e fear, preventing the most i n t e l l i g e n t approach to many problems of childhood. Only two of the thirteen mothers presented a t t i t -udes which can be classed under the category of deviant. These f a i l e d completely to provide the c h i l d with the psy-chological necessities f o r proper growth and development. One of these mothers, Mrs. W. was inconsistent i n her d i s c i p l i n e toward the child." Her attitude depended on her mood. She would either severely punish the c h i l d over some misdemeanor, incarcerate her, or completely ignore the deed. The c h i l d never knew what to expect and l i v e d i n con-ti n u a l anxiety over what the mother might do i n a certain s i t u a t i o n . As a r e s u l t the c h i l d was overtly a c t i v e at one time and very passive and seclusive at another. The father contributed l i t t l e to the child's growth. He was a busy man and had l i t t l e time to give either to his c h i l d or wife. Mrs. Y., i n the second case, provided no controls for the c h i l d during the f i r s t few years of his l i f e . She said she was well versed i n c h i l d psychology and was deter-mined to give the c h i l d complete freedom. She describes the c h i l d as being charming up to the age of three. At the age of f i v e the c h i l d became n e g a t i v i s t i c , stubborn, and unpleasant to the other children. At the time the mother (42) thought t h i s was simply a passing phase. However, the child' s behaviour became worse and Mrs. Y. says she f e e l s rather desperate as she cannot account f o r t h i s behaviour nor does she f e e l she can adequately cope with the s i t u a t i o n . The father remained out of the picture u n t i l home-life became unbearable. He then advised, the wife to seek advice at the c l i n i c . The r e s u l t of the mothers' f a i l i n g s - i n s t a b i l i t y , conceit, and f r u s t r a t i o n - are i l l u s t r a t e d in these two cases where i t became necessary, f i n a l l y , f o r the children to be referred to the c l i n i c . No c h i l d can develop normally i n such an atmos-phere of continued suspense as that which Mrs. W. afforded. S i m i l a r l y , no c h i l d can develop normally where there are no simple standards set, by which to measure hi s actions and no firm foundation from which to b u i l d his character. Once again, one i s obliged to look f o r the i l l s of the c h i l d in the f a u l t s of the parent, the mother in this p a r t i c u l a r setting. Six of the thirteen mothers in the second group portrayed feelings of r e j e c t i o n . In most of the cases the rejection was overt. In others i t was compensated by over-protection and over-affection. The nature of rejection i s much more complicated than one would suppose. In the c l i n i c (43) one becomes aware that one i s dealing with very mixed types, much ambivalence, and a l l degrees of maternal capacity. Mrs. A. was nauseated and i l l throughout pregnancy. As a r e s u l t of t h i s , she took a great deal of medicine. According to her she has never been very strong. She had a long period of labour l a s t i n g for twenty-seven hours. Be-cause of the formation of the mother's p e l v i s i t was necess-ary to use instruments, which resulted in malformation of the patient's head. Mrs. A. was extremely worried a f t e r the b i r t h because of the patient's ugly appearance. She refused to "show her o f f . She so d i s l i k e d the c h i l d that she would have nothing to do with her - never bathed her or washed the diapers for f i v e months af t e r the c h i l d was born. This work was undertaken by the patient's grandmother. The patient had a very loud cry at b i r t h and c r i e d a good deal of the time. Mrs. A. states that she c r i e d incessantly u n t i l she was three years of age. T o i l e t t r a i n i n g started at seven months. It consisted of watching the c h i l d and spanking her when a mistake was made. Here i s a case where the patient was probably rejected from the time of conception. "The expectant mother who has repressed feelings of not wanting a baby may be f u l l of anxiety. She may be excessively nauseated and suffe r (44) from headaches or simulated labour pains. w (1) I t i s possible for these symptoms to have a physical basis, but the import-ant thing to recognize i s that they can also be psycholog-i c a l i n o r i g i n . The f a c t that the patient was misformed at b i r t h further augmented the trouble. Mrs. A.'s mother was re-quired to do most of the work connected with the c h i l d . Furthermore, t r a i n i n g was begun at an age when the patient was not p h y s i c a l l y able to carry through the demands which were made upon her. Then there i s the case of Mrs. B.'s c h i l d . He was also an unwanted baby. Mrs. B. was disappointed i n the fa c t that she became pregnant about a year a f t e r the b i r t h of the patient*s s i s t e r . She remarked that she was f e a r f u l of "the pain you have to go through in the end M. She said, "The pain was the f i r s t thing I thought of when I became pregnant-.J!. Mrs. B. states that she did not l i k e Dr. V. who attended her because he was not understanding about her fears. The b i r t h was normal with labour l a s t i n g about j f i v e hours. No instruments were used. The patient was (l) Baruch, Dorothy, W. Parents Can Be People. New York. Century-Crofts, Inc. pp. 19-20. (45) breast-fed f o r two weeks, then "my milk turned sour*. Mrs. B. intensely d i s l i k e d nursing the c h i l d and said, "Some-times I f e l t as i f I could choke him.*? She remarked that she f e l t this way p a r t i c u l a r l y because nursing was disgust-ing to her, as were most sexual ideas. Also, the f a c t that she had to spend so much time with the c h i l d frustrated her. The r e s u l t of this a t t i t u d e of rejection i s appar-ent i n the hi s t o r y of the c h i l d . The patient, i n the f i r s t two years of his l i f e , showed extreme f r u s t r a t i o n i n his play. " I f things didn't go just the way he wanted them to he would become so angry he would lose his breath, go blue i n the face, and begin to rock backwards and forwards." Mrs. B. consulted a doctor because of this behaviour, and was to l d to throw cold water on the c h i l d and then spank him. She did this for two months and says he improved. "He got to know when I was going for the cold water and would stop." Following t h i s , the patient s t i l l had temper tantrums, the nature of which were less v i o l e n t . He s t i l l showed f r u s t -ration i n play and would either give up or become v i o l e n t l y angry. He occasionally st o l e money from Mrs. B.'s purse and has taken a r t i c l e s , such as chocolate bars , which did not belong to him. When questioned he always denies the theft. Mrs. F. i s another mother who was disappointed (46) when she became pregnant and who suffered a further sense of defeat when the unwanted c h i l d was another boy and not a g i r l . Her health during pregnancy was not good, her l e f t hip being extremely p a i n f u l . The b i r t h was d i f f i c u l t , labour l a s t i n g from seven a.m. u n t i l nine p.m. The patient was breat-fed f o r the f i r s t few days. As the mother's milk did not agree with him, he was weaned and given a formula of l a c t i c acid milk. His t o i l e t t r a i n i n g period was of long duration.- At the age of three and one h a l f he was not f u l l y trained. After that age every time he had an accident he would stand, scream and intimate great anxiety. Some parents frankly say that the b i r t h of the c h i l d was an accident; others that they would have much preferred a c h i l d of the opposite sex. While such prefer-ences are normal, the in t e n s i t y and duration of f e e l i n g i s suggestive. Many parents do not say these things openly, but express t h e i r anger and disappointment i n d i r e c t l y through complaints or emotionally charged accounts of c h i l d -b i r t h and early sufferings. The rejected c h i l d , whether he be one who has suffered from frank rejec t i o n , including actual neglect and even physical abuse, or whether he be one who has been smothered and frustrated by an avalanche of overprotection (47) and demonstration of love, i s not a lovable c h i l d . Because he has not experienced, passively and ac t i v e l y , a love relationship with maternal love objects, he cannot give himself to deep and meaningful relationships. The remaining f i v e mothers in this group of cases show c l e a r l y a pattern of domination, as well as aggression destructively directed against the c h i l d or against the c h i l d and husband. Some of the mothers seemed incapable of forming a p o s i t i v e child-mother relationship; others formed relationships that were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y ambivalent, dependence and a f f e c t i o n finding a reactive expression in attack.' In every case the mother's e f f o r t was to crush the c h i l d , whether son or daughter, into compliance and sub-mission. Nearly every mother expressed some distress about her domination and said frankly that she considered her own aggressiveness the problem i n the family. Others hinted at t h i s concern. Some were i n f u r i a t e d by the father's reluctance to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or were resentful of sharing the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c h i l d up-bringing. Some of the mothers constantly provoked aggressive behaviour from the c h i l d . I f the c h i l d could be stimulated to provocative behaviour tiie mother need f e e l l ess g u i l t y ( 4 8 ) about her attacks on the c h i l d . In some situations mothers of a very passive c h i l d complained of the child's aggressive behaviour. These mothers appeared to phantasy the c h i l d as being aggressive and dominating, especially in situations where they looked to the c h i l d , p a r t i c u l a r l y the boy, to make up f o r the inadequacies of a passive husband. However, the r e s u l t i n g aggression, provoked by the mother, could not be tolerated once i t was aroused. F i r s t , consider the c h i l d of whom absolute con-formity i s demanded. Such a c h i l d tends to be kept to a r i g i d schedule in infancy, feeding arid sleeping being deter-mined by the clock rather than by the chil d ' s needs. Intro-duction of new foods i s applied r i g i d l y with l i t t l e or no i n d i v i d u a l variation permitted the c h i l d . Freedom of motor a c t i v i t y may be greatly r e s t r i c t e d and i n i t i a t i v e in a l l behaviour severely c u r t a i l e d . In interviews, much stress i s usually placed on the r i g i d i t y with which t o i l e t t r a i n -ing i s i n s t i t u t e d . This type of c h i l d develops a variety of responses. One may have an insistence of his own upon cleanliness and conformity. Because of the constant en-croachment upon his personal l i b e r t y , personal possessions and routines of l i v i n g become things to value f o r them-selves rather than f o r the uses to which they can be put. On the other hand, or in addition, the c h i l d may present (49) the picture of the i n h i b i t e d , apprehensive c h i l d whose every a c t i v i t y must receive the seal of adult approval before i t can be car r i e d into e f f e c t . This may be the c h i l d with phobias, such as fears of coming into contact with others unless the situation i s a r i g i d l y controlled one which he can predict or manipulate at every turn. Mrs. P. i s a very anxious mother. She describes her d i f f i c u l t i e s with Robert, aged six, i n great d e t a i l . She says she i s helpless, yet she i s r i g i d in her own ideas of handling the c h i l d . In her f i r s t interview she complains that Robert finds i t d i f f i c u l t to make friends, i s always alone, does not know what to do with his time, bosses the other children, and i s stubborn. Mrs. P. states that " i t i s hard to break his w i l l s ' . ' He cannot get along with any-body f o r he always wants his own way. The mother i s forced "to l i c k him". As a small c h i l d he was well behaved. Now he t r i e s to antagonize his mother at every turn. He does not want to go to bed and yet he awakens early each morn-ing demanding immediate attention. He needs assistance i n his dressing. He refuses to eat what i s prepared for him. Mrs. P.'s f e e l i n g of helplessness induces her to use violence. Although she f a i l s to secure compliance, she stimulates Robert to force her hand. In the parent-child relationship the threat of ignominy always stands very (50) close. Pear of f a i l u r e pushes the mother into an excessive struggle f o r ascendency r i g h t from the beginning of a child's l i f e . However, as can be seen i n the case of Mrs. P. and Robert, too heavy a load of imposed rules and regulations s p e l l s defeat f o r parent as well as for c h i l d . Too heavy a load of imposed rules and regulations a f f e c t s the c h i l d i n a multiple number of ways. His temper increases, h i s disobedience mounts, and aggression i s augmented. He i s less able to regulate and rul e himself. His c a p a b i l i t i e s decrease. Further punishment i s applied, which only i n -creases resentment. When the child' s protest i s no longer f a i r or reasonable, but has grown to a point of open revolt, he i s referred to the c l i n i c . Instead of developing into a useful c i t i z e n , he i s becoming a poten t i a l delinguent. Conversely Mrs. S. has t r i e d to rear her c h i l d " s c i e n t i f i c a l l y ' ' . This involved a minimum of handling during infancy. Later, when refusal to eat occurred, the boy was given corporal punishment, even at the age of two years. Mrs. S. who i s a tense woman seemed to set too high a standard f o r her c h i l d . The father's a t t i t u d e was better, but up to the time of the child's examination at the c l i n i c he had not spent much time with the boy. Obviously Mrs. S. has carr i e d her s c i e n t i f i c ideas of bringing up a c h i l d beyond a l l l i m i t s of commonsense. As (51) a p e r f e c t i o n i s t she, l i k e Mrs. P., has imposed too heavy a load upon her c h i l d , and has set the standard by which he must.pattern his l i f e f a r too high. Instead of relaxing and giving her c h i l d a peaceful atmosphere in which to develop she i s continually beset by her own fears of inadequacy, r e s u l t i n g i n domination of the c h i l d . If a c h i l d bows down in submission, i f he i s f o r -ever the good l i t t l e boy, then he w i l l continue a l l h i s l i f e to need someone to show him what course to steer, what sort of things he should do. Children, who l e t protest against domination p i l e up insi d e them, become so dependent that they are w i l l i n g to follow any leader, or any kind of p r i n c i p l e . The person who suffers domination as a c h i l d w i l l f e e l the need of ascendency as an adult in order to f e e l adequate to cope with l i f e ' s demands. In our culture, dominance and adequacy are almost inseparable. Thus i s form-ed a vicious c i r c l e out of the parent-child r e l a t i o n s h i p . The parent seeks to dominate the c h i l d , and the c h i l d , i n turn, seeks to dominate other people in order to prove his own adequacy. Most of the mothers who come to the c l i n i c with their children are disturbed, frustrated, nervous, anxious, and tense. Some have masculine drives; some very l i t t l e love or respect f o r the husband. Snotional rea,diness f o r (52) parental partnership i s l i m i t e d . There i s often marked parental f r i c t i o n and disagreement, not only i n the care and upbringing of the children but also i n other matters. Take, for instance, the anxious mother who has a problem c h i l d and who comes to the c l i n i c with the sincere intention of seek-ing and following the advice given, l b matter how sound the advice and no matter how i n t e l l i g e n t the mother, the sense of g u i l t or her h o s t i l i t y towards the c h i l d , or both, make her a c t i v e l y unwilling to see the c h i l d well and adjusted. By means of the subtle and evasive set of methods commonly c a l l e d " r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n " she w i l l cover up her own inner c o n f l i c t and her interference with the chil d ' s psy-chological welfare. I t might become almost impossible f o r her or even f o r the c l i n i c to see c l e a r l y the treacherous game of the unconscious forces at work. In t h i s group of thirteen cases, i t was found that the strongest detrimental maternal attitude proved to be rejection, with dominating and deviant attitudes being next in importance. I t would seem therefore that the old truism, "you must treat the parent i f you treat the c h i l d n , needs not only greater emphasis but i t s meaning also needs broadening and deep-ening. (53) CHAPTER 4 PATERNAL ATTITUDES In past generations the father of a household spent more time with his family and came to know hi s c h i l d -ren better than seems possible in our bustling modern age. In these days of intense competition in business and con-stant e f f o r t s to "get ahead", the father leaves his home i n the morning and rar e l y returns much before h i s younger c h i l d -ren are i n bed. On holidays and week-ends he seeks recrea-tion or complete rest. The physical care and the mental and moral guidance of h i s children he cheerfully leaves to h i s wife. "Ask your mother," or "No, I can't come with you, I'm busy," are frequent remarks when his .children come to him for advice or seek his companionship. The children look upon the i r father c h i e f l y as the family provider, not as an active p a r t i c i p a n t i n the plans, hopes, joys, and small achievements of family l i f e . The children f e e l they hardly know this busy parent, occupied everyday with Concerns that seem remote from the a c t i v i t i e s of the home. What the children lose i s the companionship of t h e i r father, the d i f f e r e n t outlook on l i f e he brings, the somewhat d i f f e r e n t scale of values he upholds, and above a l l h i s da i l y interests in t h e i r development, and h i s (54) e n j o y m e n t o f t h e i r s o c i e t y . " E v e r y c h i l d n e e d s t w o p a r e n t s " m a y s o u n d l i k e a t r u i s m b u t i t i s r o o t e d i n f a c t . N o m o t h e r , n o m a t t e r h o w u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d c o m p a n i o n a b l e s h e m a y b e , c a n , m a k e u p t o a c h i l d f o r t h e l o s s o f c o m p a n i o n -s h i p w i t h h i s f a t h e r a n d f o r t h e c o m p r e h e n d i n g g u i d a n c e h e c a n s o m e t i m e s g i v e b e t t e r t h a n t h e m o t h e r . O u t o f h i s w i d e a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h " f a t h e r l e s s h o u s e h o l d s " , h o m e s w h e r e t h e f a t h e r i s t o o p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h b u s i n e s s a n d s p o r t s t o n o t i c e h i s c h i l d r e n , D r . T h o r n d e c l a r e s t h i s t o b e " o n e o f t h e m o s t p a t h e t i c s i t u a t i o n s i n f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , w h i c h w o r k s p e c u l i a r h a r d s h i p o n b o y s a f t e r t h e a g e o f f i v e . I f t h e f a t h e r n e g l e c t s t o e s t a b l i s h s y m p a t h e t i c i n t e r e s t b e -t w e e n h i m s e l f a n d h i s c h i l d a n d t o m a k e h i m s e l f n e c e s s a r y t o t h e c h i l d d u r i n g h i s f i r s t f i v e y e a r s , t h e c h a n c e s a r e t h a t h e w i l l n e v e r d o s o . • ( 1 ) T h e f a t h e r i s u s u a l l y r e l u c t a n t t o t a k e a n y r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e u p b r i n g i n g o f h i s c h i l d r e n . I t i s t h e w o m e n w h o f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t t h e c l i n i c . I t i s a r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t t a s k t o g e t t h e f a t h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e t r e a t -m e n t o f f e r e d b y t h e c l i n i c , t h o u g h e v e r y a t t e m p t i s m a d e t o d o s o . T h i s m a s c u l i n e b e h a v i o u r s e e m s t o b e p a r t o f a ( 1 ) T h o r n , D o u g l a s , A. E v e r y d a y P r o b l e m s o f t h e E v e r y d a y  C h i l d . N e w Y o r k . D . A p p l e t o n & C o . 1 9 3 1 . p . 4 7 . (55) bigger problem, as i t coincides with an obvious masculine tendency to y i e l d a l l i n t e r e s t i n art, l i t e r a t u r e , and rearing children to women. The average American man t r i e s to maintain his superiority by r e s t r i c t i n g his a c t i v i t y to business and p o l i t i c s and by regarding the support of his family as his main duty to the home. The father has, however, a d e f i n i t e function in the development of his children," even in families where the mother t r i e s to occupy a t y p i c a l man's pos i t i o n . He i s s t i l l the wielder of masculine "authority" in the family, the main wage-earner, and chief provider. His foremost char-a c t e r i s t i c , in the eyes of the c h i l d , i s his q u a l i t y as a worker, as a member of a trade or profession. The influence of the father i s often r e f l e c t e d i n the child's a t t i t u d e toward work and p r a c t i c a l achievement. I t i s the father who i s best equipped to spur him on to make something of himself. Conversely, i t i s also the father who can easily discourage him so that a boy doubts whether he can ever be a "real man", and a g i r l assumes that her ef f i c i e n c y w i l l never amount to anything. To the children, his behaviour s i g n i f i e s masculinity. For this reason, his pastimes and pleasures take on importance beyond th e i r actual significance. He i s "the man" around the house, the f i r s t pal of the boys, the f i r s t sweatheart of the g i r l s . Owing (56) to h i s l i m i t e d time at home, he can best serve as an i d e a l and a pattern f o r his children to copy. Esp e c i a l l y important f o r the children are the accord or discord between father and mother and the char-acter of t h e i r relationship. These not only set the atmos-phere of the entire family and lead either to harmony or disunity, but also give the c h i l d his f i r s t and most v i v i d impression of the relations of the sexes. Both parents have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a s s i s t i n g the c h i l d i n the devel-opment of a harmonious personality, and of guiding and stimulating his physical, i n t e l l e c t u a l , and emotional growth through his s o c i a l adjustment. Margaret Mead describes the American father as one who i s w i l l i n g to withdraw hi s supervision when the c h i l d shows the desire to test things for himself, who allows children to formulate t h e i r own opinions, and who maintains confidence in them in spite of mistakes. She pictures a t y p i c a l father as one who i s able to show guid-ance and leadership, but leadership that i s free from the need to dominate the c h i l d . (l) Mead, Margaret. And Keep Your Powder Dry. New York. W. Morrow and Co. 1943. p.43. (57) Thus i t appears that the time-honoured concept of the family as composed of a stern, respected father, a kind, loving mother, and obedient children, no longer f i t s the American scene. Prom the point of view of that concept the American father i s dispossessed. In his modified role, he can s t i l l contribute to the emotional growth and s t a b i l i t y of the family. As Folsom so aptly puts i t , " I f a test of a 'good' culture i s the way i t functions for the maximum sa t i s f a c t i o n of most i n d i v i d u a l beings i n it,then the same test might be applied to the family. t t(1) This concept of the American family and the r o l e of the father in i t i s used as the norm to judge that the majority of the fathers i n this study deviated from these expectation. There are many punishing and r e j e c t i n g fathers and many recessive, i n -e f f e c t i v e ones, but since men usually are at work during the day, the pressure upon the c h i l d i s not so continuous as that of the mother. Of the six inadequate fathers whose attitudes were more detrimental to the child's growth and development than those of the mother, only one i s c l a s s i f i e d as deviant, two are rejecting, and three dominating. (l) Polsom, Joseph Kirk. The Pamily; Its S o c i o l o g i c a l and  Social Psychiatry. New York. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. ' 19*34. p. 175. (58) English and Pearson point out that there are two types of fathers whose attitudes cause d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e i r son's psychosexual development, the cruel, severe father, and the weak father. In the face of the father's cruel, severe attitude the hoy i s unable to express any antagonism or aggression. I t becomes necessary f o r him to suppress a l l aggressive manifestations. The constant tension of h i s i n h i b i t e d aggression forces him to erect defenses. He either becomes passive and non-aggressive or t r i e s to extract pleasure from his father's cruelty by trying to obtain the father's i n t e r e s t through punishment. The weak father produces the same result; at every turn the c h i l d finds him-s e l f hampered by his father's devotion. In the face of such devotion a l l aggression must be suppressed, Mr. D. may be described as a father whose det-rimental attitude i s c l a s s i f i e d as deviant. He i s a timid person and admits being withdrawn. He states that i t i s t y p i c a l of him to evade unpleasant situations. He knows that t h i s i s not as i t should be but "accepts h i s inade-quacy". He i s methodical and l i k e s "things i n order". He r a t i o n a l i z e s considerably. He says he has h i s job to worry about and therefore has no time to spend with his children. His wife paints a most negative picture of him and says he (l) English, Spurgeon, 0. and Pearson, G.HiJ. Common Neuroses of Children and Adults. New York. W.W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1937. p. 56. i s "repressed, never makes any f r i e n d s , w i l l go on a h o l -i d a y alone and w i l l sometimes go f o r a whole day without sa y i n g a word,?. T h i s i m p l i e s that the f a t h e r i s too busy wi t h h i s own thoughts to be a b l e to concern ""himself w i t h h i s c h i l d r e n . I t i s to be doubted, however, i f mere l a c k o f time can account e n t i r e l y f o r the absence of p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p . The records show that what matters to the c h i l d i s the use h i s f a t h e r and mother make of the l e i s u r e time that i s a v a i l a b l e to them. Few c h i l d r e n blame thTeir parents f o r b e i n g so taken up w i t h the s t r u g g l e f o r e x i s t -ence t h a t they have l i t t l e time l e f t f o r f a m i l y fun. I f parents evince s t r o n g r e g r e t that they a r e denied such companionship and s e i z e every p o s s i b l e o c c a s i o n f o r compan-i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n , i t i s q u i t e u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i l l show any t h i n g but sympathy f o r the r i g o r of t h e i r p a r e n t s ' r o u t i n e . The r e j e c t i n g f a t h e r s a r e not as common as the r e j e c t i n g mothers but i n the cases where t h i s a t t i t u d e appears the r e j e c t i o n i s not any l e s s d e t r i m e n t a l to the c h i l d ' s growth and development than was the maternal r e j e c t i o n . , In the f a m i l y o f Mr. H. the r e has always been a f e e l i n g o f h o s t i l i t y between Barbara and her f a t h e r . Mrs. H. s t a t e s that she i s c o n t i n u a l l y t r y i n g to keep peace between them. She claims t h a t Mr. H. has always resented B a r b a r a b e c a u s e h e w a s d i s a p p o i n t e d t h a t s h e w a s b o r n a g i r l . W h e n B a r b a r a w a s s e v e n m o n t h s o l d , h e r f a t h e r s p a n k e d h e r s o h a r d t h a t h e l e f t r e d m a r k s o n h e r b o d y . T h i s p u n i s h -i n g a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s B a r b a r a h a s p e r s i s t e d . T h e l a s t f e w m o n t h s h e h a s r e f r a i n e d f r o m u s i n g c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t . T h e p a t i e n t ' s m o t h e r t h i n k s t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t B a r b a r a a n g e r s h i m s o i n t e n s e l y t h a t h e i s a f r a i d h e m i g h t i n j u r e h e r i f h e e v e r g a v e w a y t o h i s f e e l i n g . B a r b a r a d e l i g h t s i n a n t a g o n i z i n g h e r f a t h e r . B a r b a r a ' s p r o b l e m s h a v e p e r s i s t e d f o r s o m e t i m e . S h e i s e n u r e t i c a n d l a t e l y h a s b e e n s o i l i n g p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y d a y . W h e n s h e s o i l s h e r p a n t i e s s h e i n v a r i a b l y h i d e s t h e m a n d b e c o m e s i n d i g n a n t w h e n h e r m o t h e r r e q u e s t s h e r t o w a s h t h e m . B a r b a r a i s d i s o b e d i e n t a n d d e f i a n t a n d i s s u b -j e c t t o o u t b u r s t s o f t e m p e r . S h e s w e a r s a n d f i g h t s . H e r e i s a c a s e w h e r e t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p h a s d e t e r i o r a t e d t o s u c h a n e x t e n t t h a t t h e m a l a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e c h i l d i s e v i n c e d i n e n u r e s i s a n d t e m p e r t a n t r u m s . I t i s a n a c c e p t e d f a c t t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e i n f l u e n c e d b y p a r e n t s ' f e e l i n g s . I f o n e p a r e n t h o l d s b i t t e r n e s s , t u r b u l e n c e , a n d d i s a p p o i n t m e n t a b o u t t h e s e x o f h i s c h i l d w i t h i n h i m s e l f , n o m a t t e r h o w h e m a y t r y t o h i d e i t , h i s c h i l d w i l l r e c o g -n i z e i t a n d w i l l i n t e r p r e t i t a s a n a t t i t u d e o f r e j e c t i o n . (61) Mr. H.'s rejecti o n was at f i r s t overt. When l a t e r he t r i e d to mask his feelings, Barbara s t i l l sensed his true feel i n g s . What followed was a l o g i c a l development. She t r i e d to ex-trac t pleasure from her father's cruelty and to obtain h i s int e r e s t through punishment. "The person who has a benign, s a t i s f y i n g infancy and early childhood i s the person who develops security within, and a sense of greater adequacy, "(l) What occurs when infancy and childhood are disturbed and un-happy? Barbara has barely passed infancy, yet she i s becom-ing a p o t e n t i a l l y inadequate and domineering adult. Her father's reje c t i o n has resulted in a loss of that security so necessary to normal development, and in the growth of be-haviour t o t a l l y unacceptable to the society i n which she must l i v e . In the second case, according to Mrs. M. her hus-band refuses to see the s o c i a l worker from the c l i n i c . The wife paints a very pathetic picture of her husband. This i s his second marriage. His f i r s t wife secured a divorce and the custody of t h e i r three children. There are two c h i l d -ren in the present marriage. Mr. M.'s at t i t u d e toward these children i s the same as i t was toward the children by the (l) Baruch, Dorothy, H. "Parents Can Be People." New York. Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc. p. 116. (62) f i r s t marriage, namely, that of rejection. He ignores the children completely unless i t i s f o r the purpose of punish-ment a f t e r being provoked by their behaviour. Mr. M. has never taken an inte r e s t i n the children, even when they were babies. They are now six and four res-pectively. He has, on occasions, t i e d the children in t h e i r c r i b because of th e i r behaviour. Mrs. M. referred the chi l d -ren because of disturbances of s o c i a l adaptation. She can-not cope with th e i r behaviour. The husband w i l l not coop-erate i n the treatment of the problem nor w i l l he t o l e r a t e t h e i r behaviour. Another type of father whose relationships with his children are often harmful i s the one with an urgent " w i l l to power". Such a father attaches an i n f l a t e d value to obedience and rules through fear. In his childhood the father may himself have been subjected to stern d i s c i p l i n e which made him f e e l humiliated and i n f e r i o r ; when his time comes he takes out his sense of inadequacy on his c h i l d . There are parents who love authority f o r i t s own sake and who get genuine s a t i s f a c t i o n out of making others conform to t h e i r w i l l . When a father of this type enters the family c i r c l e , i t s atmosphere changes. The happy, carefree a c t i v -i t i e s of the children, t h e i r sympathetic interchange of . ideas and experiences become tinged with anxiety and tension. ( 6 3 ) Who w i l l he the f i r s t to he scolded or punished or at the l e a s t rebuked? What w i l l go wrong? Of such parents Thorn writes: HWe f i n d that this type of parent i s merely compen-sating in the home for h i s own i n f e r i o r i t y , which he f e e l s keenly in his professional and s o c i a l s truggle. w Mrs. L. states that her husband was the youngest in a family of three and f e e l s that he was much indulged by h i s mother and older brother and s i s t e r . His father was a stubborn d i s c i p l i n a r i a n and Mrs. L. f e e l s that Mr. L. i s stern with the patient in l i k e manner. She f e e l s that the father i s not giving h i s children the love and a f f e c t i o n they need. He i s too s t r i c t with them and demands more adult be-haviour from them than they are capable of showing. She fe e l s that perhaps i t i s necessary f o r him to maintain a stern outward at t i t u d e with the children as a cover-up f o r an i n f e r i o r i t y complex, and that he cannot " l e t down" at a l l im.case the children walk over him. This would be a blow to his pride. Mr. G. maintains a very r i g i d , severe manner to-ward his son unconsciously resenting his attachment to the mother. He i s unable to control his disappointment i n the boy's passive attitude toward him. He loves the c h i l d and cherishes the greatest ambitions f o r him, but so strong i s (l) Thorn, Douglas, A. Everyday Problems of the Everyday Child. New York. D. Appleton & Co. 1931. pp. 36-37. (64) h i s unconscious jealousy of him that his demands for per-fect i o n become excessive. Mr. IT. i s another dominating father. He f e e l s that he has to exert rigorous d i s c i p l i n e over his son to compensate fo r Mrs. IT. 's lax example. He i s c r i t i c a l of his wife and states that he has to make constant e f f o r t s to stimulate her to do her duty as a housewife and a mother. In a l l of these cases, the dominance of the father of f s e t s any more "saving" q u a l i t i e s of either the father or the mother. It i s apparent that the fathers, in order to compensate fo r a feeling, of inadequacy, become the dominat-ing figures in t h e i r family relationships. In each case this c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s evidenced i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t attitudes toward t h e i r children, but the r e s u l t in a l l the cases i s similar, namely that of maladjustment. From the data co l l e c t e d i t may be deduced that the father i s an important factor in the C h i l d Guidance treat-ment. The fact that the mother i s the person most often involved and also most accessible i n terms of her own time tends to focus attention on her, both in diagnostic and treatment consideration. This f a l l a c y i s a g l a r i n g one. Any person of factor which leaves an impression on the formation of the c h i l d ' s personality must not be neglected. (65) Present day practice recognizes the fac t that the father cannot he en t i r e l y disregarded in h i s ro l e in the treat-ment situation, therefore every attempt i s made to contact him. He i s often in the background at the time of r e f e r r a l . Later he may come forward either to support the mother or to champion the c h i l d . In many cases his attitude has a di r e c t bearing upon the problems of the c h i l d . Inasmuch as "every •child needs two parents", then every case of childhood mal-adjustment must embrace the attitudes of both parents. In this group of six cases i t was found that the strongest det-rimental paternal at t i t u d e proved to be domination. Again, as in the case of parental and maternal attitudes, the be-haviour .manifestation of the c h i l d i s an attempt at the solution of a problem r e s u l t i n g from f a u l t y parent-child relationship. / ( 6 6 ) CHAPTER 5 CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES OF THE PARENTS Studies in human behaviour have invariably pointed to the conclusion that the family constellation i s of para-mount importance in influencing attitudes, behaviour, and adjustments in both the normal and pathological f i e l d s . The di f f e r e n t schools of psychology, while disputing other elements in each other's philosophy, agree on the funda-mental importance of the effects of family l i f e upon the development of the i n d i v i d u a l . In a l l of these, the family relationship occupies a central and commanding position. "An individual's outlook and point of view in dealing with many of the most important questions of human existence can be expressed in terms of the position he has taken up with regard to the problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g within the r e l a t i v e ^ narrow world of the family. "(1) The importance of the family relationship having been admitted, the next step leads to a search for possible causes of these problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s . For a long time the question occupying the centre of the stage was the problem of whether heredity or environment played the most (l) Flugel, J.C. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Family. London. Leonard and V i r g i n i a Wolf. -Hogarth Press. 1935. p.4. (6?) important role. Leaving out of the discussion the j u s t i c e of the claims of the eugenics group, the obvious d i f f i c u l -t i e s i n the modification of heredity factors made i t nec-essary to centre on environmental factors which could be more easily manipulated and changed. This environment includes both the larger s o c i a l group and the more intimate family c i r c l e . With the s c i e n t i f i c search centred upon these, research workers are finding tools for the recog-n i t i o n and manipulation of the factors involved. "The important school of character, the family group, depends f o r i t s success, much more than does the more formal school of the classroom upon 'atmosphere 1, upon the subtle and intangible forces f o r good or e v i l which are i m p l i c i t on the situ a t i o n created by the human beings who compose i t . It i s recognized more and more that what i s to be dealt with i s problem environments and problem parents rather than problem children. Most of the problems of childhood are conditioned by the behaviour of adults, the children's behaviour being but a response to the stimuli they receive from t h e i r home setting. The parents' exper-iences, t h e i r attitudes, and behaviour influence the charac-ter and behaviour of the children. They, in turn, carry (l ) Glueck, B. "The Significance of Parental Attitudes for the Destiny of the Individual." Mental Hygiene. 12:4 Oct. 1928. p.723. (68) over these attitudes into t h e i r l a t e r l i v e s , t h e i r marital adjustments, and t h e i r own f a m i l i e s . Thus a vicious c i r c l e i s created. It i s not s u f f i c i e n t to say that the responsib-i l i t y for the children's maladjustments l i e s within the parents, f o r the parents themselves are but the product of e a r l i e r influences. Though from parents as a group we do expect cer-tain c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t r a i t s i t i s important to remember that they are l i v i n g human beings with t h e i r own hopes, aspir-' ations, and drives. Into the parental rel a t i o n s h i p they bring "more or less deeply ingrained attitudes r e l a t i n g to t h e i r own childhood, t h e i r own r e l a t i o n to parents, brothers and s i s t e r s , which may i n t e r f e r e with the conscious, d e l i b -erate exercise of such wisdom as they may have concerning the child-parent relationship". (1) These a t t i tudes, rather than anything the parents may do, are responsible f o r the development of the child's character, for i t has been recognized that, outside the organic defect, the most important contributary factor in the child's development i s the parent-child r e l a t i o n s h i p . The establishment and maintenance of healthy a f f e c t i o n a l relationships between parents and children i s one of the essential features in the evolution of a healthy personality. (1) Glueck, op.cit. p.723 (69) Therefore any account of the personal interplay between a c h i l d and h i s parents should not ignore the f a c t that the parents themselves are the products of t h e i r own home environments, parental influences, and attitudes. When maladjusted children are taken to a guidance c l i n i c , the s o c i a l worker, more often than not, finds evidences in the parent of unhappy childhood relationships and experiences. These are r e f l e c t e d unconsciously in the parents' treatment of the c h i l d . ^ Maternal Background The mother's personality i s admittedly an import-ant factor in understanding both her attitude to the c h i l d and the child's reaction to her attitude. In order to understand the mother's personality, however, i t i s import-ant to know what contributes to i t s development. The whole parent-child relationship i s considerably modified and influenced by the parent-parent s i t u a t i o n . A thorough evaluation of this background, consid-ering i t s importance, i s very d i f f i c u l t . R e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i s recorded regarding the early l i f e of the parents, t h e i r childhood, and the forces that have gone into the making of them as in d i v i d u a l s . By the time the parents are old ( l ) Goodsell, W. Problems of the Family. New York. 0.Appleton-Century Co. p.460. (70) enough to have children of t h e i r own, the o r i g n i a l family has usually broken up, or at l e a s t undergone r a d i c a l changes. There i s no opporunity f o r objective evaluation. The sub-j e c t i v e picture as given by the parents has been altered by a l l the events that have occurred since. Prejudice, inhib-i t i o n , g u i l t f e e lings, and projection have a l l played t h e i r part in the process. However, the f e e l i n g tone associated with r e c o l l e c t i o n s of childhood, whether j u s t i f i e d by facts or not, i s the important factor i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the parent i n his functioning as a parent. I f to t h i s be added such ascertainable facts as death of a parent at an early age, desertion, economic insecurity, or r e j e c t i o n , we are bound to get a t o t a l p icture which w i l l be true in i t s main out-l i n e insofar as i t i s a dynamic force i n the handling of l i f e s i t u a t i o n . In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate whatever factual information was available, as well as the way the mother f e l t about her early l i f e and the o r i g i n a l family group. (71) Table 4. Factors of Bothers' Backgrounds Factors Number 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Death of mother at an early age. Death of father at an early age. Desertion by father Broken homes Early assumption of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . . Happy childhood experiences Unhappy childhood experiences Domineering and stern father Domineering and stern mother Prolonged over-dependence on mother. Prolonged over-dependence on father. Over-indulging mother. Sympathetic father. Sympathetic mother Favourite of father Favourite of mother Good relationship with s i b l i n g s Poor relationship with s i b l i n g s . . . . . 6 8 4 5 9 3 6 5 11 4 8 7 8 5 6 3 8 12 These factors do not appear singly but in d i f f e r s ent combinations. The general picture i s one of "bleakness" and-"unhappiness". ]Rv'rh in instances where some s a t i s f a c -(72) t o r y q u a l i t y i s mentioned, t h e r e a r e other u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f e a t u r e s combined w i t h i t , so t h at i n o n l y t h r e e i n s t a n c e s do we have mothers who express t h e i r f e e l i n g s about t h e i r c h i l d h o o d i n completely s a t i s f a c t o r y terms. Except f o r these t h r e e exceptions, an unhappy c h i l d h o o d of the mother stands out as an important f a c t o r i n the maternal background. I t i s d e s c r i b e d i n v a r i o u s ways such as "unhappy", " s o r d i d " , b e i n g "unloved" or "thwarted". T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e i n t h i r t y - t w o out of the f o r t y cases and r e v e a l e d many d i f f e r e n t combinations of these f a c t o r s . F i v e mothers were non-committal. From t h i s group of f a c t o r s making f o r an unhappy chi l d h o o d , the o u t s t a n d i n g one i s the absence of a parent, o c c u r r i n g as i t does i n eighteen i n s t a n c e s . Whenever t h i s f a c t o r appears, we f i n d other i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the mother co n s i d e r e d her c h i l d h o o d unhappy, thus i n d i c a t i n g the im-p o r t a n t p a r t the parents p l a y . The parent i s the c h i l d ' s c e n t r e of s e c u r i t y ; he s u f f e r s when t h i s i s suddenly removed. When the l o s s i s o c c a s s i o n e d by d e s e r t i o n , the sense of l o s s i s f u r t h e r aggravated by the f e e l i n g of l o s s of the parent*s l o v e . The c h i l d may compensate f o r t h i s l o s s by d e v e l o p i n g over-dependence and over-attachment to the remaining parent, a t i e which i s not e a s i l y abandoned i n l a t e r l i f e . (73) There were additional indications of an unsatis-factory family background. In eleven instances, the mother was mentioned as dominating the home si t u a t i o n . In f i v e of these, the effects of this domination were somewhat m i t i -gated by the fact that the father was thought to be a "sym-pathetic parent", the c h i l d apparently having received a s u f f i c i e n t amount of love and security. In the other six, the combination of a dominant mother and i n e f f e c t u a l father appears with the c h i l d not being able to get any s a t i s f y i n g response from either parent. This attempt at c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , though sketchy, was made to discover i f any p a r t i c u l a r trend could be re-vealed. I t can be said with conviction that this p a r t i c u l a r group of mothers had f a i r l y unsatisfactory early exper-iences. The following cases throw some l i g h t on the parent-parent relationship existing during the childhood of two of the mothers. Mrs. W. was dominated by her father during c h i l d -hood. Following the pattern of her mother and s i b l i n g s she always gave i n to the father to preserve peace. She resented doing this and hated her father. At f i r s t , she f e l t g u i l t y aboiit admitting this but gradually recognized that, under the circumstances, i t was natural to f e e l that way about him. Mrs. W. stated that she had a d i f f i c u l t l i f e (74) as a c h i l d because of her father's s t r i c t rule and fiery-temper. He would give the children no money for entertain-ment or recreation; when they wanted to go anywhere or do anything, they had to earn i t themselves. This unhappy parent-child relationship was, in a l l pro b a b i l i t y , c a r r i e d over into Mrs. W.'s own family l i f e . Her son becomes the unhappy c h i l d , beset by fear, and anxiety, undermined by lack of self-confidence, and tortured by his mother's continual c r i t i c i s m . Mrs. P. was the youngest in a family of three g i r l s and two boys. Her mother died when she was six years of age, and her father employed a number of housekeepers. From that time on, the mother stated that she could not get along with these housekeepers and thus was unable to form a close attachment to any one of them. Her memory of her childhood was one of " f e e l i n g lonely most of the time". When Mrs. P. was sixteen, she l e f t home to get married. The housekeeper employed i n the home at that time was one whom she a c t u a l l y hated. In an argument over some t r i v i a l matter the housekeeper's manner i r r i t a t e d Mrs. P. so much that Mrs. P. f e l t she could have k i l l e d her. This housekeeper i s said to have spread tales around the neighborhood saying that Mrs. P. was no good. Her father maintained a passive position in these arguments between the housekeeper and his (75) children, never taking sides with the children. The re-latio n s h i p between this mother and her c h i l d i s anything hut happy. The two preceding cases i l l u s t r a t e the general parent-parent relationship of the cases studied. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that among the whole group of f o r t y mothers there was not a single well-integrated i n d i v i d u a l , function-ing adequately as a member of the family group and dis -charging her duties as wife and mother in an adult fashion. Paternal Background The importance of the father in the family con-s t e l l a t i o n cannot be minimized. The information in the records about the father i s secured primarily from material supplied by the mother, and i s , consequently, sketchy and inadequate. As was done with the mothers', an attempt has been made to chart the a v a i l a b l e factors in the fathers' backgrounds. i Table 5 Factors of Fathers' Backgrounds Factors Number 1. 6 2. 7 3. 3 4. 8 5. 3 6. 5 7. 4 8. 7 9. 11 10. 4 11. 7 12. 3 13. 5 14. 9 15. 4 16. 5 17. 4 18. 8 In reviewing the picture of the paternal back-ground some sharp d i s t i n c t i o n s appear, as contrasted with the maternal background. Though the absence of one or the (77) other parent occurs in sixteen instances, i t i s not associ-ated, as was the case with the mothers, with an unhappy childhood, as expressed by" either; the mother or the father. However, in a l l ten cases where the father was absent from the home, the bo3r was unable to make a masculine. i d e n t i f i c -ation and was probably over-indulged by the mother." An early assumption of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y plays p r a c t i c a l l y no r o l e i n creating a fe e l i n g of an unhappy childhood, as i t did in the case of the mothers. This may be due to the fact that early assumption of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by the male i s more commonly accepted, more i n accordance with the more of the group and therefore less resented by him. I t i s also possible that in thus assuming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the male c h i l d feels he i s f u l -f i l l i n g h is function and gets a certain amount of sa t i s f a c -tion in taking over the father r o l e . D i s t i n c t r e collections of unhappy childhood occur in only four instances. For three individuals t h i s i s assoc-iated with the picture of. a stern father against whom the submissive mother was u t t e r l y i n e f f e c t u a l , and, for one, with q u a r r e l l i n g i n the home and the father's abuse of the mother. These instances of unhappiness were associated with recollec-tions of the maternal unhappiness rather than the individual's own. In f i v e cases the father spoke of his l i f e as sat i s f a c -tory, giving indications that he was loved and that the child-hood was a happy period. Three of these fathers were said (78) to be emotionally well integrated and adjusted. While th i s number i s small i t i s nevertheless s i g n i f i c a n t that this group, which produced at lea s t three adequate ind i v i d u a l s , shows less stress on unhappy childhood. On the whole, the f e e l i n g tone connected with the fathers' childhood appears to be more stable and s a t i s f y i n g than that of the mothers'. There i s more frequent mention of a kind parent, and the stern father i s not so keenly resented by the fathers as he was by the mothers. Perhaps once again the mores of the community, sanctioning s t r i c t e r upbringing of a g i r l , may have a bearing upon this point. Also, the boy, l i v i n g in an atmosphere where there are marital d i f f i c u l t i e s , i s l i k e l y to become a repository of the mother's affections, i f the father i s stern and domineering. In spite of the more favourable home background, the personality of the father emerges no better equipped for adult relationships than did that of the mother. One questions, f i r s t , the r e l i a b i l i t y of the data and secondly, whether the fact that the childhood which appears in a comparatively s a t i s f a c t o r y l i g h t a f t e r an i n t e r v a l of many years, may not have contained other elements m i l i t a t i n g against the establishment of a well adjusted, stable personality. In both the following cases the parent-parent (79) relationship i s most unhappy. This may serve to illumine the causes of the regrettable parent-child relationship following in natural sequence. Mr. R. was the middle c h i l d i n a family of three and had an unhappy childhood. His father was described as a cruel man who beat h i s wife continually. On two or three occasions she was taken to the hospital a f t e r being beaten. When Mr. R. was si x ' h i s mother l e f t the family, running away with another man. Since that time Mr. R. l i v e d in various f o s t e r homes and at one time spent some "time in an orphanage. Mr. L. was the youngest of a family of four. Both of h i s parents died before he was f i v e years of age. He was brought up in a foster home. He indicated that h i s l i f e with the foster parents was not emotionally s a t i s f y i n g . They gave him good physical care but otherwise seemed to be demanding and unloving. Mr. L. stated that the fos t e r father often c r i t i c i z e d him because n I was so slow, and he was always a f r a i d I would make mistakes". U n t i l fourteen or f i f t e e n years of age he suffered from enuresis. The effects of these early experiences are r e f l e c -ted in the fathers' own per s o n a l i t i e s , and, in turn, have a great bearing on the pe r s o n a l i t i e s of the i r children. (80) Marriage Both the parents' attachment to the i r childhood and t h e i r adjustment to the marital s i t u a t i o n i s conditioned by the to t a l , integration of t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Success-f u l marriage implies a mature relationship, a mutual give and take, with eoncessions on both sides. An immature in d i v i d u a l , i n s u f f i c i e n t l y weaned from h i s dependence, may seek in. the marital relationship a father or mother sub-s t i t u t e . Should he f i n d i t , an adjustment i s possible, though perhaps not en t i r e l y on a mature l e v e l . Omitting the three cases where the parents' own evaluation of the i r marriage was not indicated, we f i n d that marriage was not considered s a t i s f a c t o r y by either father or mother i n seventeen cases and was thought to be sat i s f a c t o r y by both i n twelve cases. In eight cases where the fathers' evaluation of the marriage was not indicated, only f i v e mothers considered the marriage s a t i s f a c t o r y . A thorough analysis of marital adjustment i s out-side the scope of this study, though some evaluation i s necessary to shed l i g h t upon the type of mate chosen and the l e v e l of adjustment made in the marriage. Some of the reasons given to elucidate why the marriage i s thought to be successful are highly s i g n i f i c a n t . (81) In some instances, the husband i s said to have come up to expectations. In a number of cases the woman l o s t her father when she was very young and assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the household at an early age. In her adult l i f e she devel-oped numerous neurotic t r a i t s , and her husband, a quiet, submissive i n d i v i d u a l , found i t easy to submit to her dom-inatio n . The woman carr i e d over her sense of responsib-i l i t y to her married l i f e , and the husband was w i l l i n g to have her do so. For the husband too, the relationship proved s a t i s f a c t o r y since his own background included the lack of a father and complete submission to the mother. To the marital s i t u a t i o n he brought a pattern of sub-mission, a willingness to do what the wife, who assumed the r o l e of the mother, expected him to do. Some women consider t h e i r husbands as father substitutes. This i s especially the situ a t i o n where the father died, the mother remarried, and the c h i l d was not welcome i n the new household. Hungry f o r a father's affec-tion she found a sa t i s f a c t o r y substitute in the husband, a stable, well balanced i n d i v i d u a l who was able to supply the needs of the immature wife. To others the husband i s "another child 1" 1. This i s usually found where the mother was domineering but kind, the father submissive. The wife derives considerable (82) s a t i s f a c t i o n from o v e r - s o l i c i t o u s l y nagging her husband. To the husband t h i s m a r i t a l adjustment i s s a t i s f a c t o r y because the w i f e i s r e p e a t i n g the p a t t e r n to which he was accustomed i n h i s own home, and p r o v i d e s the same k i n d of o v e r - s o l i c i t u d e h i s mother gave him. In some cases the f a t h e r a s c r i b e s h i s s u c c e s s f u l marriage to the f a c t that the w i f e resembles the mother, e s p e c i a l l y i f h i s own f a t h e r d i e d a t an e a r l y age and the mother was a domineering woman. In these s i t u a t i o n s i t appears t h a t there was no o p p o r t u n i t y to make a masculine i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; the wife, w i t h her a g g r e s s i v e char a c t er is -r -t i c s , p e r s o n i f i e s the type of woman the man had known and l o v e d . Among the mothers who co n s i d e r e d t h e i r m a r i t a l ad-justment unsatisfactory^.were some who were d i s a p p o i n t e d i n marriage, others who d i d not f i n d f a t h e r s u b s t i t u t e s , and s t i l l o t h e r s who had to assume a dominant r o l e i n the home because of an i n e f f e c t u a l husband. In some cases t h e r e was a c l a s h o f w i l l s , i n some, the husband resembled the f a t h e r who was s t r i c t . In a few cases the husband appeared to r e -f u s e M t o bend knee" to the w i f e . In most cases the d i s s a t -i s f a c t i o n v/as based, not upon the mate's o b j e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s , but upon h i s i n a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f w i t h the wi f e ' s i d e a l of a husband. (83) The fathers gave as t h e i r reasons for d i s s a t i s -faction with marriage the following: the wife went to her own family f o r advice, the father was tricked into marriage, he was unable to please the wife, and he looked f o r a mother substitute, a r o l e which hi s wife refused to assume. It i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to note how the mothers and fathers who had a happy childhood, adjusted to t h e i r marriage. Mothers, whose childhood was said to have been happy, had developed into inadequate Individuals and therefore t h e i r adjustment to marriage was not a s a t i s -factory one. 0f the f i v e fathers who reported t h e i r c h i l d -hood as s a t i s f a c t o r y , two do not emerge as adequate i n d i v -iduals, three are said to be s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r marriage. Once.again, one questions whether the childhood regarded as s a t i s f a c t o r y by the person involved i s necessarily such as to produce mature,well integrated individuals, or whether more objective c r i t e r i a would be necessary, c r i t e r i a which i s not a v a i l a b l e in the present records. The personality pattern, shaped by the family and the s o c i a l c i r c l e in which he moves, determines the r o l e which each spouse w i l l play in the marital relationship, and in turn this influences each one's a t t i t u d e toward th e i r children. The parent who suffers from a chronic state of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and f r u s t r a t i o n because of unsatisfactory (84) childhood experiences and marital maladjustment, i s apt to have d i f f i c u l t y i n providing those needs which the c h i l d requires for his emotional growth and development. He can give neither f r e e l y nor i n t e l l i g e n t l y , nor can he r e s t r a i n wisely and adequately. The r e s u l t i n g trauma as shown by the starved c h i l d , the over-protected c h i l d , the spoiled c h i l d , the rebel, etc., are well known c l i n i c a l manifestations. When healthy development i s being thwarted in the c h i l d by excessive parental anxiety, dependence, or domin-ation, the sources of these unhealthy c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are seldom found in the parents' current l i v e s . The most im-portant sources f o r these d i f f i c u l t i e s are to be sought i n the childhood of the parents themselves, in t h e i r own dev-elopmental' experiences which were formed by t h e i r own family setting. The effects, good or bad, of these early experiences are inescapably r e f l e c t e d in t h e i r own person-a l i t i e s , the equipment with which they in turn must meet the d i f f i c u l t adjustments i n marriage and parenthood. (85) CHAPTER 6 IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY The P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c i s a s o c i a l agency i n which p s y c h i a t r i s t , s o c i a l workers, p s y c h o l o g i s t s , and nurses cooperate i n h e l p i n g parents and c h i l d r e n r e s o l v e the d i f f i c u l t i e s they encounter i n t h e i r f a m i l i a l s e t t i n g . The p l a n s f o r treatment a r e based on the c h i l d and the parents as i n d i v i d u a l s and as members of the f a m i l y group. The s e l e c t i o n of cases f o r study ( f o r t y p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ) r e p r e s e n t s a f a i r c r o s s - s e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n who e x h i b i t behaviour problems. F r e q u e n t l y , d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n a r e not brought to the c l i n i c f o r help unless d i s t u r b a n c e s a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y acute to warrant the p a r e n t s ' concern. Many aspects of c h i l d r e n ' s needs are r e c o g n i z e d i n the c l i n i c ' s e f f o r t to f a c i l i t a t e the adjustment of the c h i l d and the parents. A l l c l i n i c a l recommendations i n the cases s t u d i e d i n v o l v e work w i t h the c h i l d r e n ' s f a m i l i e s . Frequent-l y the p l a n i s not c a r r i e d beyond the c h i l d and the mother. In the preceding chapters s t a t i s t i c a l data and case i l l u s -t r a t i o n s have demonstrated the f a u l t y r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t s between the parents and the c h i l d r e n m a n i f e s t i n g be-hav i o u r problems. T h i s would n e c e s s i t a t e a pl a n of t r e a t -ment which r e c o g n i z e s the importance of the f a t h e r as w e l l (86) as the mother i n i n f l u e n c i n g the l i v e s of the c h i l d r e n . D i a g n o s i s alone i s i n s u f f i c i e n t . D e f i n i t e c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t s must be made to a l l e v i a t e the s t r e s s e s which have c r e a t e d unhealthy symptoms and d i s r u p t e d f a m i l y l i f e . A "healthy f a m i l y " i s one i n which the f a t h e r i s a k i n d and g e n t l e man and the mother i s a happy, contented woman: where both parents g e n u i n e l y l o v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n , seek to enjoy t h e i r company, understand them, and have r e s p e c t f o r t h e i r u n f o l d i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s . The "healthy home" permits the growth of the p e r s o n a l i t y of a l l i t s members. I t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h i s based on the emer-gence of the c h i l d as an i n d i v i d u a l and the m a t u r i t y of the f a t h e r and mother as p a r e n t s . I f these d e f i n i t i o n s a r e a c c e p t a b l e , then one must conclude t h a t the homes from which came the c h i l d r e n d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s study are not h e a l t h y homes. For the purpose of the present study o n l y one a s p e c t of the c h i l d ' s background has been chosen f o r c o n s i d -e r a t i o n , namely p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s . Yet p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s , important as they may be, are not the o n l y f a c t o r s . Numer-ous other f o r c e s have t h e i r share i n shaping the p e r s o n a l i t y and r e a c t i o n s of the c h i l d . In the cases s t u d i e d there appears to be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the conscious, or un-(87) conscious expressed a t t i t u d e s of the parent and the behaviour of the c h i l d . There a r e d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s to c o n s i d e r , s i n c e each parent b r i n g s to each c h i l d h i s own s e t of circum-stances which impinge upon h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y , and which may or may not be a c c e p t a b l e to the c h i l d . The c h i l d and parent a r e e q u a l l y dependent on each other i n a l l t h e i r f e e l i n g s of l o v e and hate, g u i l t and innocence, and s e c u r i t y and i n s e c -u r i t y . I t would appear that i n each case the p s y c h o l o g i c a l atmosphere i n the home p l a y s an important p a r t i n the de v e l -opment of the behaviour problem m a n i f e s t e d by the c h i l d . Evidences o f d i f f i c u l t i e s other than those presen-ted i n the i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w appear to r e l a t e to the p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e and i t s e f f e c t on the c h i l d . In the i n i t i a l i n t e r -view the parents a r e o f t e n d e f e n s i v e of t h e i r r o l e i n the problem, but as g r e a t e r s e c u r i t y i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the s o c i a l worker i s e s t a b l i s h e d they d i v u l g e many s i g n i f -i c a n t f a c t s . The p a r e n t s ' own e a r l i e r d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h f e e l i n g s of r e j e c t i o n , s i b l i n g r i v a l r y , and f e a r of h o s t i l e or a g g r e s s i v e a t t a c k or r e t a l i a t i o n a l l seem.to be r e l a t e d i n v a r y i n g degrees to the p a r e n t s ' d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the c h i l d and a r e expressed i n behaviour by the c h i l d . In each case there i s a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t aspect of d i f f i c u l t y depending on the g r e a t e r or l e s s e r degree of u n r e s o l v e d c o n f l i c t s i n the areas of the parents* own development. (88) I t would appear that each parent uses the c h i l d to a l l e v i a t e h i s own c h i l d h o o d d i f f i c u l t i e s by c o n s c i o u s l y or unconscious-l y p r o j e c t i n g or i n j e c t i n g those f e e l i n g s which he had t o -ward h i s own parents. In t h i s study the c l i n i c r e c o r d s l a c k s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the p a r e n t s ' e a r l y experiences and m a r i t a l adjustment. T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l i n a thorough exam-i n a t i o n of the problems presented by the parents and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . A good s o c i a l case h i s t o r y would supply to the c l i n i c s t a f f a r e v e a l i n g s t o r y of the c h i l d i n h i s f a m i l y s e t t i n g . The p l o t c e n t r e s around h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s , which develop because of f r i c t i o n between h i s gro?/th process and the d e f e c t i v e p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s ; In t h i s study a few trends stand out w i t h s u f f -i c i e n t c l a r i t y to j u s t i f y the c o n c l u s i o n that p a r e n t a l a t t i t -udes a r e of importance i n the l i f e of the c h i l d r e n in_ t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group. There i s d e f i n i t e i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the ch i l d h o o d of ninety-two per cent of the mothers and eighty-seven per cent of the f a t h e r s has been unhappy and unsat-' i s f a c t o r y . M a r i t a l adjustment on the whole was poor, owing to the f a c t that e i t h e r the f a t h e r or the mother or bot h were inadequate and immature i n d i v i d u a l s . The combined a t t i t u d e s of both parents i n f l u e n c e d the g r e a t e s t number of (89) c h i l d r e n , f o l l o w e d by that of the mother, and f i n a l l y t h a t of the f a t h e r . In the f i r s t group i t was found that d e v i a n t a t t i t u d e s (other than r e j e c t i o n and domination) were f o r e -most i n importance, then r e j e c t i o n as such, w i t h domination l e a s t f r e q u e n t . In maternal a t t i t u d e s r e j e c t i o n was the l e a d i n g f a c t o r , f o l l o w e d by domination and d e v i a t i o n , w h i l s t p a t e r n a l a t t i t u d e s presented more cases of domination than r e j e c t i o n or d e v i a t i o n . A l l the c h i l d r e n r e a c t e d to these a t t i t u d e s i n a manner not a c c e p t a b l e to the parents; but d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n r e a c t e d d i f f e r e n t l y and i n v a r y i n g degrees to s i m i l a r experiences. The behaviour m a n i f e s t a t i o n appears to show i t s e l f i n a manner p e c u l i a r to the make-up of the c h i l d . A g r e a t e r number of cases might make i t p o s s i b l e to a n a l y z e the s i t u a t i o n s i n which d i s t u r b a n c e s of s o c i a l adap-t a t i o n , u n d e s i r a b l e h a b i t formation, and p e r s o n a l i t y d i s -o r ders appear and to d i s c o v e r the exact type of c o r r e l a t i o n which e x i s t s between these d i f f i c u l t i e s and p a r e n t a l a t t i t -udes. The l i v e s of parents and c h i l d r e n a r e e m o t i o n a l l y i n t e r t w i n e d . The f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s of parents, which a r e regarded as the c h i e f determinants of c h i l d r e n ' s d i f f i c -u l t i e s , a r e i n turn" dependent upon the p a r e n t s ' own e a r l y emotional experiences. Work w i t h parents should be d i r e c t e d toward r e s o l v i n g some of t h e i r own emotional c o n f l i c t s , f o r (90) otherwise they w i l l c o n t i n u e to a c t toward t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r accustomed manner. The most needed adjustment i n a c h i l d ' s environ-ment i s .that of a changed a t t i t u d e on the p a r t of a parent. -It w i l l he d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e , for. the s o c i a l worker who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r treatment to help parents e f f e c t t h i s change, i f she h e r s e l f has no knowledge of the e t i o l o g y of t h e i r present a t t i t u d e s . I t would seem, th e r e -f o r e , t h at the o l d truism, "you must t r e a t the parent i f you t r e a t the c h i l d " , needs not o n l y g r e a t e r emphasis but i t s meaning a l s o needs broadening and deepening. i. ( 9 1 ) BIBLIOGRAPHY SPECIFIC REFERENCES Books ~ Ackerson, Luton, Chi 1 dr en 1 s B ehavi o r Probl erne. The Uni-v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1931. Baruch, Dorothy W. ^  Parents Can Be People. Appleton-Cen-tury-Crofts, Inc., New York, 1944. Dreikurs, Rudolf. The iChallenge of Parenthood. Duell, Sloan and Pearce, New Yor, 1948. English, 0. Spurgeon and Pearson, Gerald H.J., Common  Neuroses of Children and Adults. W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., New York, 1937. Flugel, J.C., The Psycho-Analytic Study of the Family. Published-by Leonard and V i r g i n i a Wolf, Hogarth Press, London, 1931. Hamilton, Gordon, Psychotherapy i n Ch i l d Guidance, Columbia University Press, New York, 1947. Levine, Maurice, Psychotherapy i n Medical Practice. The MacMillan Co., New York, 1947. Levy, David M., Maternal 0verpro t ec t i on, Columbia Uni-v e r s i t y Press, New York, 1947. Mead, Margaret, And Keep Your Powder Dry, William Morrow and Co., New York, 1943. Moodie, William, The Doctor and the D i f f i c u l t Child. The Commonwealth Fund, New York, 1947. Radke, Marian J. The Relation of Parental Authority to  Children's Behaviour and Attitudes. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1946. Sayles, Mary B., and Nudd, Howard W., The Problem Child  in School, The Commonwealth Fund, New York, 1925. Thorn, Douglas A., Everyday Problems of the Everyday C h i l d f D. Appleton & Company,'' New York, 1931. (92) Watson, Maud E., Children and Their Parents. F.S. Crofts & Co., Few York, 1932. Wi.ckman, E.K., Children's Behavior and Teachers' Attitudes The Commonwealth Fund, Sew York, 1928. 1:1 A r t i c l e s and Reports Beron, L i l l i a n , "Fathers As Clie n t s of a Child Guidance C l i n i c " Smith College Studies in Social Work, XIV:3 March 1941, pp. 530-534. Boll e s , M. Marjorie, Metzger, Harriet.F., and P i t t s , Marjorie Wallace, "Early Home Backgrounds & Personal Adjustment " American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, XI:3, July 1941, pp. 530-534. Burgun, Mildred, "The Father Gets Worse: A Chi l d Guidance Problem" American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, X l l . July 1942. pp. 474-485. Chess, S t e l l a , "The Decisive Influence of Parental A Attitudes" The Nervous Child. V:2, A p r i l 1946, pp.165-171 Glueck, Bernard, "The Significance of Parental Attitudes f o r the Destiny of the Individual" Mental Hygiene, X l l : 4 , October 1928, pp. 722-741. H i l l , Lewis B.,"A Contribution from Psychology to the Understanding of Family L i f e Today" The Family. July 1938 pp. 143-149. Newel, H.W. ^Psycho-dynamics of Rejection" American  Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 1V:3, July 1934, pp., 387-401." Neumann, Frederika, "The Eff e c t s on the Child of an Unstable Home Situation" Mental Hygiene. X l l : 4 , Oct. 1928 pp. 742-750. -Rosenheim, Frederick, "Parental Attitudes as Observed in C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c s ^ P s y c h i a t r i c Quarterly, IX:2, A p r i l 1935, pp. 279-286. Staver, Nancy, "The Use of a Chi l d Guidance C l i n i c by Mother-Dominant Families" American Journal of Ortho- psychiatry, December 1943, pp. 367-388. (93) Symonds, Percival,. "A Study of Parental Acceptance and Rejection" American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, V l l l : 4 , October, 1938, pp. 679-688. ' ~ ~ Urle, Ira S., ;and Rose, Davis, "The Relation of B i r t h to Behavior" American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 11:2, A p r i l 1941, pp. 320-334. Witmer, Helen L e i and, "The Influence of Parental Attitudes on the So c i a l Adjustment of the Individual" American  Soc i o l o g i c a l Review. 11: 1937, pp. 756-763. Witmer, Helen Leland, "Parental Behavior as an Index to the Probable Outcome of Treatment in a Child Guidance C l i n i c " American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 111:2, October 1933, pp. 431-444. Zilboorg, Gregory, "Sidelights on Parent Child Antago-nism" American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 11:1, January 1932, pp. 35-43. GENERAL REFERENCES Books Aichhorn, August, Wayward Youth, The Viking Press, New York, 1947. Carter, Jean, Parents in Perplex!ty, American Association for Adult Education, New York, 1938. Dodd, F.H. Commonsense Psychology and the Home, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., London, 1933. English, 0. Spurgeon and Pearson, Gerald, H.J. Emotional  Problems of L i v i n g . W.W. Norton & Co., Inc., New York,1937 Fisher, Dorothy and Gruenberg, Sidonie, (editors) Our  Children: A Handbook f o r Parents, The Viking Press, New York, 1936. Hamilton, Gordon, Theory and Pract i c e of Social Case Work;, Columbia University l?ress, New York, 1947. n Nimkoff, Meyer F., The Child, J.P. Lippencott Co., Chicago, 1934. (94) Sayles, Mary B. The Problem Child at Home. The Common-Wealth Fund, New York, 1932. Richards, Esther Loring, Behaviour Aspects of Child  Conduct. The MacMillan Company, New York, 1932. A r t i c l e s and Reports Childers, A.T. and Hamel, B.M., "Emotional Problems i n Children as.Related to Duration of Breast Feeding i n Infancy" American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 11:2, A p r i l 1932, pp.134-142. Latimer, R.H. "The Parent-Child Relationships i n Children A f f l i c t e d with T i c s " The Nervous Child, IV;4, July 1945, pp. 350-358. Other Studies Roberts, Evelyn Marie, Mental Health C l i n i c a l Services, University of B r i t i s h Columbia thesis, 1949. Thompson, Mary A., The Soc i a l Worker i n the School, University of B r i t i s h Columbia thesis, 1948<» 

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