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Multiple placement of foster children : a preliminary study of causes and effects, based on a sample… Ellis, Vivian Mauretta 1949

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I* Co}  MULTIPLE PLACEMENT OF.FOSTER CHILDREN A preliminary study of causes and e f f e c t s , based on a sample of f i f t y f o s t e r c h i l d r e n i n Vancouver.  by VIVIAN MAURETTA ELLIS  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK In the Department of S o c i a l Work  1949 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  ABSTRACT  This study i s concerned w i t h the problem o f m u l t i p l e placement o f f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , i . e., c h i l d r e n who are placed i n more than one f o s t e r home while they are i n the care o f a p r o t e c t i v e agency.  C h i l d r e n become "wards"  of such s o c i e t i e s i f there i s no p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r l e a d i n g normal, happy, and emotionally secure l i v e s w i t h i n t h e i r own homes.  The agencies provide f o s t e r home care as a sub-  s t i t u t e home t o give them the care they were not able t o obtain i n t h e i r own homes. But frequent replacement prevents many f o s t e r c h i l d r e n from gaining s e c u r i t y and healthy development due t o l a c k o f attachment t o a f a m i l y .  The study shows that  t h i r t y - n i n e out o f the f i f t y c h i l d r e n i n the sample were placed i n more than one f o s t e r home during t h e i r period o f care by a children's aid society.  The average number of f o s t e r homes f o r  the t o t a l group was 3.52 homes per c h i l d , which means that a c h i l d remained i n each f o s t e r home f o r a period of 2.08 y e a r s , on the average. The  study was based on the records of f o s t e r c h i l d -  ren from both o f Vancouver's c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , the sample being selected on a one-in-four b a s i s from a l l c h i l d r e n f a l l i n g w i t h i n c e r t a i n d e f i n i t i o n s : ( l ) c h i l d r e n who had been i n the care of one of the agencies a t l e a s t two years; (2) c h i l d r e n of the white race; (3) c h i l d r e n now i n the  "latency"  stage o f development; i . e. between the ages o f seven and twelve y e a r s .  The m a t e r i a l u t i l i z e d includes the f i l e s kept  by the agencies, regarding each i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d , h i s f a m i l y and the f o s t e r homes. The sample was  grouped i n t o four d i v i s i o n s accord-  i n g to the number of placements the c h i l d r e n have had.  Group •  A w i t h a s i n g l e f o s t e r home placement only, representing  the  i d e a l i n c h i l d placement; Group B w i t h two f o s t e r home p l a c e ments; Group C a c l e a r m u l t i p l e placement problem, w i t h three or four f o s t e r home placements; and Group D the u s u a l l y  serious  s i t u a t i o n where a c h i l d has l i v e d i n f i v e or more f o s t e r homes. The cases were then studied i n terms of the f o s t e r homes i n which the c h i l d r e n were placed; the i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s of  the  c h i l d r e n ; and t h e i r adjustment to the f o s t e r home program.  The  adjustment of the c h i l d i s believed to be the c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n deciding whether f o s t e r home placement has succeeded or f a i l e d . The t h i r d part of the study examines what can be done to  im-  prove the methods of p l a c i n g c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes i n order to l e s s e n the problem of m u l t i p l e placement. There i s evidence that the problem of m u l t i p l e  place-  ment of f o s t e r c h i l d r e n could be reduced by more c a r e f u l prel i m i n a r y observation of the c h i l d and h i s needs, c l o s e r assessment of f o s t e r home.jpotentialities, b e t t e r matching of the . c h i l d and the f o s t e r home, p r o f e s s i o n a l casework s e r v i c e while the c h i l d i s i n the home, and treatment f o r disturbed  children  i n homes which are e s p e c i a l l y equipped f o r t h i s s e r v i c e . study suggests that many c h i l d r e n without f a m i l y t i e s could placed f o r adoption, thus attaching them to one family of f a c i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of repeated replacements.  The be  instead  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  I wish t o express a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dr. Leonard Marsh f o r a i d i n g w i t h research m a t e r i a l , composition of the study, and most o f a l l f o r h i s k i n d l y encouragement throughout the w r i t i n g of t h i s thesis. S p e c i a l thanks are due t o Miss Marie Parr f o r reading the study f o r s o c i a l work content, f o r her s t i m u l a t i n g suggestions, and h e l p f u l i n t e r e s t . Gratitude i s a l s o expressed t o Miss M a r j o r i e Smith and other members o f the S o c i a l Work F a c u l t y f o r p l a n t i n g the seeds o f i n t e r e s t i n the problems of f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , without which t h i s study would not have been made. A p p r e c i a t i o n and acknowledgment are due t o Miss Dorothy Coombe and Miss E l i z a b e t h Flynn f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l co-operation, i n g i v i n g of t h e i r time f o r i n t e r views and f o r p e r m i t t i n g f i l e s t o be read.  TABLE OF CONTENTS PART I  THE PROBLEM  Chapter 1  Page The Problem of M u l t i p l e Placements Foster homes: a s u b s t i t u t e when own homes f a i l . The e f f e c t of m u l t i p l e placement on f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . A u n i v e r s a l problem. M u l t i p l e placement i n Vancouver  1  PART I I THE STUDY 2  The family backgrounds of the c h i l d r e n C h i l d r e n borri t o unmarried mothers. Reasons why c h i l d r e n from f a m i l i e s need f o s t e r home care. Family t i e s bind c h i l d r e n to t h e i r n a t u r a l parents. Should s i b l i n g s be placed together?  3  Finding Foster Homes What t o look f o r i n assessing f o s t e r homes. How w e l l must the family be known? Differences between sample groups  4  37  P r o f e s s i o n a l Use of Foster Homes Matching the needs of f o s t e r parents and f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . Foster fathers are important. Re-assessing f o s t e r homes i s e s s e n t i a l . S k i l l e d casework s e r v i c e . Foster mothers need recognition  5  21  59  Adjustment. I n t e l l i g e n c e and P e r s o n a l i t y Normal latency development—"the golden age f o r parents." How s i g n i f i c a n t are i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients? Adjustment: the determining f a c t o r 74  V TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd.) PART I I I BETTER PT.AnMF.NT Chapter 6  Page Preparation f o r Placement Foster c h i l d r e n are seldom ready f o r placement. Lack of prepara t i o n i n the p a s t . D i f f i c u l t i e s remaining  7  Aids t o B e t t e r Placement Use of the temporary f o s t e r home. Treatment i n s t i t u t i o n s . Play therapy  8  92  112  Conclusions from the Study Conclusions regarding m u l t i p l e placement. How important i s f a m i l y background? Adoption versus f o s t e r f a m i l y care. S k i l l the c r i t e r i o n of P r o f e s s i o n a l S o c i a l Worker. . . .-. . 136  TABLES  Page Table 1  Table 2  Placement experiences o f a 7 - 12 y e a r o l d Sample. (Vancouver, 1948)  . . .  15  Placement i n R e l a t i o n t o sex o f the C h i l d r e n  ,  Table 3  Placement i n R e l a t i o n t o age P l a c e d  Table 4  Placement i n R e l a t i o n t o I n t e l l i g e n c e  Table 5  QuotientPlacement i n R e l a t i o n t o Adjustment o f the C h i l d r e n  16 . .  18  .  82 88  APPENDICES  Appendix 1  (a) A p p l i c a t i o n form used by the Children's A i d Society. (b)  Appendix 2 Appendix 3  A p p l i c a t i o n form used by the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society. I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r f o s t e r home s t u d i e s . (Children's A i d S o c i e t y ) .  (a) Foster home report made by a volunteer worker during the-war. (1941). (b)  Foster home study made by a s k i l l e d homefinder. (1948).  MULTIPLE PLACEMENT OF FOSTER CHILDREN  Chapter 1 PART I . THE  PROBLEM  OF  MULTIPLE PLACEMENTS  John Dewey has s a i d , "What the best and w i s e s t parent wants f o r h i s own c h i l d , t h a t must the community want f o r a l l i t s c h i l d r e n .  0  I t i s recognized t h a t the  p a r e n t a l home i s the n a t u r a l environment f o r the upbringing of c h i l d r e n .  I t provides a p r o t e c t i v e and s t i m u l a t i n g medium  f o r p h y s i c a l , mental and s p i r i t u a l growth, which no other type o f care can e f f e c t i v e l y r e p l a c e .  "Every c h i l d needs t o  f e e l secure i n h i s home, school, and neighbourhood r e l a t i o n ships.  He needs t o f e e l that he i s wanted, loved and under-  stood.  He needs o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r growth and development, 1  f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , achievement, and new experience."  This  i s a statement of b a s i c needs t h a t w i l l be accepted by every s o c i a l worker.  Normally, i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of parents  t o see that t h e i r c h i l d r e n are thus endowed.  Not every c h i l d ,  however, i s so f o r t u n a t e as t o have the advantage o f such s e c u r i t y i n h i s own home.  Some c h i l d r e n come from homes which  are so inadequate f o r t h e i r needs, t h a t they must be removed i n order t o give them the chance t o l i v e happy and healthy lives.  Other c h i l d r e n are born out o f wedlock, and have no  n a t u r a l home.  I n the nineteenth century, neglected, dependent  and i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d r e n were mostly placed i n orphanages 1.  C h i l d Welfare Moves Forward. F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y Agency, U. S. C h i l d r e n ^ Bureau, February, 1947.  and i n s t i t u t i o n s which were not equipped to meet more than p h y s i c a l needs.  I t i s now a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d  f a c t that  c h i l d r e n need intimacy, love and s e c u r i t y i n order t h a t they may develop i n t o emotionally mature and mentally happy i n d i viduals.  I n the old'fashioned orphanage there was not t h i s  p o s s i b i l i t y f o r development.  I n the past f i f t y years, the  trend has been to a b o l i s h " s h e l t e r s " e n t i r e l y , and to place dependent or neglected c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes.  Such homes  g i v e a c h i l d a chance to develop normally, by forming a t t a c h ments w i t h the f o s t e r parents and growing up i n an ordinary home environment. The general p r i n c i p l e accepted by a l l c h i l d welfare agencies i s t h a t no c h i l d should be removed from h i s own home i f there i s any p o s s i b i l i t y f o r normal development w i t h h i s own parents.  Many parents have greater strengths than i s  o f t e n shown i n casual r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; w i t h a reasonable amount of a i d i n the form of moral and f i n a n c i a l support, together w i t h the i n t e r e s t and understanding of the caseworker, much may be achieved.  The c h i l d ' s own home, poor though i t may  be,  i s f r e q u e n t l y b e t t e r than a p h y s i c a l l y f i n e r home i f t h i s i s l a c k i n g i n warmth of f e e l i n g and understanding f o r the c h i l d . The f o s t e r c h i l d , no matter how good h i s placement, must s t a r t again i n f i n d i n g s e c u r i t y and a f f e c t i o n and ways of " f i t t i n g in." C h i l d Placement To be q u i t e r e a l i s t i c , i t has to be recognized t h a t  f o s t e r care o f any k i n d i s abnormal, and that any c h i l d l i v i n g away from home i s a handicapped c h i l d .  Good p h y s i c a l care i s  not s u f f i c i e n t . Children cannot become s o c i a l l y adjusted "by bread alone."  A l l c h i l d r e n require love and s e c u r i t y i n t h e i r  home r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; but f o s t e r c h i l d r e n have extra needs i n t h i s regard, since they have had t o leave t h e i r own homes and parents.  They need s p e c i a l reassurance that they are loved  and wanted i f they are t o o b t a i n any measure o f happiness. Foster parents who do not understand these s p e c i a l needs f i n d d i f f i c u l t y i n accepting the behaviour o f f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , and . frequently  good homes are l o s t because f o s t e r parents d i d n o t  know what t o expect o f f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . C h i l d p l a c i n g agencies have taken on the  responsi-  b i l i t y f o r p l a c i n g f o s t e r c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes, and i t may w e l l be r e a l i z e d that the job i s no sinecure.  I t calls for a  keen i n t e r e s t i n c h i l d r e n , together w i t h s k i l l and f l e x i b i l i t y on the part o f the c h i l d welfare worker.  Her task i s n o t  merely f i n d i n g a home and p l a c i n g a c h i l d there.  She must be  aware o f the damaging r e s u l t s that can f o l l o w poor placement procedure i f a c h i l d i s t o be uprooted from an environment he has known and transplanted i n t o a new one.  She must make the  t r a n s i t i o n as easy as p o s s i b l e i n order t o avoid such trauma. This c o n s t i t u t e s a challenge t o a l l c h i l d placement workers. The c h i l d must be helped t o develop i n t o a healthy, mature and s e l f - r e l i a n t man or woman, able t o meet the o b l i g a t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which s o c i a l l i v i n g  brings.  -  4 -  In order t o know whether a home i s s u i t a b l e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d , the worker must not only understand the c h i l d ; she must a l s o know every member o f the f a m i l y w i t h i n the f o s t e r home.  She must t r y t o determine what the c h i l d  w i l l receive i n terms o f l o v e , i n t e r e s t , s t i m u l a t i o n , secur i t y and understanding.  The home must be such that the  f o s t e r f a m i l y w i l l be able t o give him that i n t a n g i b l e emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n which every young p e r s o n a l i t y r e q u i r e s . The worker must determine, too, whether a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d w i l l meet the needs o f the f o s t e r f a m i l y .  One clue t o the  needs o f the f o s t e r f a m i l y i s expressed i n t h e i r motive f o r t a k i n g the c h i l d , and why they d e s i r e t o have a f o s t e r c h i l d i n t h e i r home.  She must a l s o understand what the members o f  the f a m i l y mean t o each other, and what each i n d i v i d u a l member w i l l mean to the f o s t e r c h i l d .  They must be made aware that  t h i s c h i l d came from a home i n which the s i t u a t i o n was d i f f e r ent from t h e i r own and that i t w i l l take some time before he i s integrated i n t o the f a m i l y .  Because he i s an i n d i v i d u a l , o  he w i l l behave i n h i s own way,  and they must accept t h i s w i t h  as much understanding as p o s s i b l e . Replacement o f Foster  Children  I t i s l i t t l e wonder that f o s t e r placements o f t e n f a i l , when one considers the d i f f i c u l t y i n matching the needs of the f o s t e r parents with the needs o f the c h i l d .  And what  i s the l o t o f the c h i l d who cannot f i t i n t o h i s new f o s t e r family?  He becomes unhappy since h i s needs a r e not met.  He  may behave i n a manner very u p s e t t i n g t o h i s f o s t e r mother.  - 5 -  She may t r y t o cope w i t h h i s problem f o r a time, then decide that f o r the good o f a l l concerned, he should be moved e l s e where.  I f t h i s happens, the c h i l d i s s t i l l more g r e a t l y  handicapped.  He has been i n two homes and both have f a i l e d .  He senses, too, that he has f a i l e d .  H i s chances f o r success  grow l e s s and l e s s w i t h each successive move.  I t i s only  when he f i n d s a home i n which h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s can be more completely understood t h a t he i s able t o s t a r t growing emotiona l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y again.  " C o n t i n u i t y has v a l u e , and  one 'not so good* home i s b e t t e r than a s e r i e s of e x t r a f i n e ones," says E t h e l Verry, Executive Secretary o f the Chicago 2 Orphan Asylum, i n Replacement i n Foster Family. Care.  This  i n v a l u a b l e pamphlet has been s t i m u l a t i n g and h e l p f u l a t many points i n t h i s study.  Dr. Florence C l o t h i e r puts the same  point quite strongly:  "Each time a s o c i a l worker undertakes  to move an i n f a n t or young c h i l d she i s j e o p a r d i z i n g h i s chances f o r forming, h o l d i n g and i n c o r p o r a t i n g love objects. 3 which are f o r him e s s e n t i a l t o normal growth." Of course,no worker i s proud of replacements. E t h e l Verry s t a t e s b l u n t l y :  "A few replacements may be good  planning, a few necessary readjustments, but most of them we admit are evidence of our f a i l u r e s . " 2. V e r r y , E t h e l , Replacements i n F o s t e r Family Care. C h i l d Welfare League of America, B u l l e t i n , A p r i l , 1948. 3. C l o t h i e r , Florence, "The Problem of Replacement o f the Young Dependent C h i l d , " Mental Health. October, 1937, pp. 549 - 558.  - 6 -  She goes on to show what happens t o a c h i l d who must move from one foster.home t o another.  Being a c h i l d , he i s i n a  continuous process o f growth and l e a r n i n g .  A few o f h i s  tasks o f development have been accomplished i n h i s own home or h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home; but, a t whatever age he i s moved, many o f h i s growing-up tasks are s t i l l i n process and, whatever they a r e , they w i l l be i n t e r r u p t e d , confused and s e t back.  I f the young c h i l d i s l e a r n i n g t o feed h i m s e l f o r t o  c o n t r o l h i s t o i l e t h a b i t s , or to use f a m i l i a r words f o r f a m i l i a r o b j e c t s , he w i l l , i n moving t o a strange s i t u a t i o n , probably have to go back and be a baby once more, confused and a f r a i d amidst a more or l e s s d i f f e r e n t set o f words, r o u t i n e s and demands.  A f t e r a w h i l e he w i l l s t a r t once more on the  hard road t o growing up. Having begun t o l e a r n t a b l e manners, how to be h e l p f u l , and what t o expect i n the way o f p r a i s e , blame, l o v e or even r e j e c t i o n from those a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n w i t h whom he has been a s s o c i a t e d , he w i l l have t o s t a r t again and t r y t o accept, understand, and r e l a t e to a new group o f human beings, w i t h d i f f e r e n t ways o f t a l k i n g and responding t o his  overtures. If. he has s t a r t e d school and begun t o make a  place f o r h i m s e l f amongst h i s playmates, he w i l l l o s e t h a t place which he was l e a r n i n g t o use, and must make another place i n a new world.  Budding f r i e n d s h i p s a r e c u t o f f before they  have f u l l y flowered; enmities severed before they have been worked out t o a reasonable s o l u t i o n .  He closes the door on  many u n f i n i s h e d t r i v i a l i t i e s t h a t make up a c h i l d ' s l i f e , iences from which he should have grown and developed.  exper-  -  7  -  I n the change he loses many t h i n g s , unimportant, and important, a l l t i e d t o g e t h e r — p a r t o f h i s c l o t h i n g , the dog he l i k e d , the bed i n which he had begun t o f e e l s a f e , and the s p e c i a l smell o f h i s f a v o u r i t e d i s h cooking f o r supper.  Perhaps he  l o s e s h i s l a s t chance t o pass i n t o the f o u r t h grade along w i t h the r e s t o f h i s group, and o f those things making up the f e e l ing o f having roots i n the world; too o f t e n he may l o s e p a r t of h i s inner confidence o f ever being able t o r e l a t e himself comfortably t o that world.  I f the c h i l d has moved too o f t e n ,  or l i v e d too ,long i n a place where he has had no meaningful connection w i t h h i s world o f people, he w i l l harden more f i r m l y i n t o h i s u n s o c i a l or a n t i s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n .  Change i n i t s e l f i s  bad enough f o r c h i l d r e n , but i t may be worst o f a l l i f the replacement o f f o s t e r c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e s a p a i n f u l w a i t i n g p e r i o d , during which the impatient f o s t e r mother has urged the harassed s o c i a l worker t o "please hurry," and the c h i l d has outstayed h i s welcome, perhaps w a i t i n g w i t h h i s box packed. Other Losses Occasioned by M u l t i p l e Placements I t i s not only from the c h i l d ' s point of view that a replacement represents a l o s s .  The new school t o which he goes  w i l l have t o spend extra time i n g e t t i n g the c h i l d t o f i t i n w i t h the c l a s s .  The case worker might have been able t o give  her time t o c o n s t r u c t i v e assistance w i t h another problem, instead of going through the process o f arranging another placement. Perhaps a good f o s t e r home has been closed because o f the experience the f o s t e r parents had w i t h a c h i l d they d i d not understand, o r who could not f i t i n t o t h e i r home. During the war  - 8 -  p e r i o d f o s t e r homes were very scarce, and c h i l d r e n were placed, i n many cases, i n homes not too s u i t e d t o t h e i r needs j u s t because no other home was a v a i l a b l e f o r them.  The shortage has  continued and the s c a r c i t y of f o s t e r homes being what i t i s t o day, every e f f o r t should be made t o use them c o n s t r u c t i v e l y . Problems o f Placement The reasons c h i l d r e n have to be replaced are u s u a l l y complex: thus they r e f l e c t a s e r i e s of d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h which workers are confronted i n the realm of c h i l d p l a c i n g procedure. I n the past, p r o f e s s i o n a l case workers have been few, and t h e r e f o r e , the caseloads f o r which they were responsible have been too heavy.  Dorothy Hutchinson, i n her h e l p f u l book, points out  t h a t there i s a tendency to p l a c e c h i l d r e n w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t 4 c o n s i d e r a t i o n where a worker i s overburdened w i t h cases.  Most  a u t h o r i t i e s agree that t h i r t y c h i l d r e n i n a caseload i s a l l one can expect a worker t o handle w i t h any degree of s k i l l .  Few  agencies manage t h i s i d e a l , the present caseload of c h i l d p l a c e ment workers i n the Children's A i d Society o f Vancouver i s 65 and t h a t of the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society averages between 80 and 90. At a l l times, board rates have been low, and there i s ground f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t many people i n t e r e s t e d i n c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n are prevented from doing so due to t h i s f a c t .  The agen-  c i e s do attempt to pay f o r the a c t u a l expenses of the c h i l d r e n , 4.  Hutchinson, Dorothy, I n Quest o f Foster Parents. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1943.  -  9 -  but there i s l i t t l e l e f t t o reimburse the f o s t e r parents f o r t h e i r time and energy expended i n c a r i n g f o r the c h i l d r e n . Another problem i n the c h i l d p l a c i n g f i e l d i s the constant change o f workers.  E s p e c i a l l y i f the c h i l d does not  f i n d c o n t i n u i t y i n h i s f o s t e r home placement, i t would be a l l the more valuable as a. source o f s e c u r i t y t o him i f he found that he could depend upon one worker throughout. t h i s does not seem t o be p o s s i b l e i n any agency.  However, Examination  of the s t a f f changes f o r the present sample o f c h i l d r e n showed that on the average each c h i l d had 5.22 workers during h i s wardship, which i s an average o f a new worker every year and a quarter.  This problem i s caused not only by workers l e a v i n g an  agency; the f a c t o r o f replacement causes the c h i l d r e n t o move from one d i s t r i c t t o another, g e t t i n g a d i f f e r e n t worker whenever they f i n d themselves i n a new d i s t r i c t .  I t i s a l l the more  e s s e n t i a l , t h e n , to preserve any f a m i l y t i e which would be i n any way b e n e f i c i a l , since " a l l else i s change." A U n i v e r s a l Problem The problem o f m u l t i p l e placements- i s not one which i s p e c u l i a r t o any p a r t i c u l a r agency o r t e r r i t o r y . Very few d e t a i l e d studies have been made concerning t h i s s p e c i a l problem, but most s  'Studies made on any phase of caring f o r dependent c h i l d r e n give Indications that the problem o f replacements does e x i s t . The report of the recent Care o f C h i l d r e n Committee i n Great B r i t a i n (commonly known as the " C u r t i s Report") r e f e r s t o t h i s problem. The study was made "to i n q u i r e i n t o e x i s t i n g methods o f providing  - 10 -  for  c h i l d r e n who from l o s s of parents or from any cause what-  ever are deprived of a normal home l i f e w i t h t h e i r own parents or r e l a t i v e s ; and to consider what f u r t h e r measures should be taken t o ensure that these c h i l d r e n a r e brought up under cond i t i o n s best c a l c u l a t e d t o compensate them f o r the l a c k of par5 e n t a l care."  The committee surveyed workhouses, separate  schools, c e r t i f i e d schools, voluntary  homes, boarding homes and  i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the care of delinquents, mental d e f e c t i v e s and handicapped c h i l d r e n .  The s e c t i o n on f o s t e r homes contains the  f o l l o w i n g paragraph regarding s t a b i l i t y of f o s t e r homes: The length of stay i n the f o s t e r homes of these c h i l d r e n we saw v a r i e d from four months to t e n years. Some o f these c h i l d r e n had had a p a r t i c u l a r l y disturbed infancy, but the l i a b i l i t y t o change had been quite as marked i n the i n s t i t u . t i o n as i n the f o s t e r home. One c h i l d we saw had been i n f i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s and three f o s t e r homes before she was eleven. Another c h i l d had been i n four i n s t i t u t i o n s and two f o s t e r homes before the age of eight. 6 In 1942 a study was made of 176 c h i l d r e n who had been under the care o f the Michigan Children's  I n s t i t u t e and who came  of age or became s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g between January 1, 1937 and December 1, 1941. The purpose o f the study was " t o a s c e r t a i n i f p o s s i b l e some causative f a c t o r s o f frequent replacement o f c h i l d ren i n f o s t e r homes and to i n d i c a t e wherever p o s s i b l e how improvement can be made."  The f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s are given regard-  i n g m u l t i p l e placement: 5.  Great B r i t a i n , Report on the Care of Children Committee. H.. M. Stationery O f f i c e , London,. 1946, p. A3.  6.  I b i d . , p. 122, sec. 374.  - 11 -  Of the t o t a l group of 176, 93 had from one to f i v e replacements during t h e i r period of f o s t e r care; 53 between f i v e and n i n e ; 19 from nine to t h i r t e e n ; nine from fourteen to seventeen; one between seventeen and twenty-one; and one had twenty-three replacements. The p i c t u r e i s even worse i f we e l i m i n a t e those c h i l d r e n who were f i n a l l y placed i n adoption. Of the remaining 102 c h i l d r e n who grew up i n f o s t e r care from the time o f t h e i r admission, u s u a l l y a t e a r l y school a g e — a l t h o u g h some were y o u n g e r — u n t i l t h e i r discharge as of age or s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , only twenty-seven had f i v e or l e s s r e placements; f o r t y - f i v e had between f i v e and nine homes; nineteen had nine to t h i r t e e n ; nine had t h i r t e e n to seventeen; one had from seventeen to twenty-one and one had twenty-three. 7 The above examples may represent some extremes i n replacements; however, they do i n d i c a t e t h a t the problem i s a common one.  The f i g u r e s quoted i n the 'Michigan study seem  very l a r g e i n comparison w i t h the i n d i c a t i o n of the present Vancouver study.  However, the Michigan group includes c h i l d -  ren up to the age of twenty-one, whereas the present study takes i n t o account only c h i l d r e n between the ages of seven to twelve. The Vancouver Study I n order to get a p i c t u r e . o f the replacement problem i n Vancouver, i t was decided t h a t a sample of f i f t y ren would be a workable group to study.  child-  On checking, i t was  found t h a t there were 183 f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n under the care of the Vancouver Children's A i d S o c i e t i e s who came w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the study.  The f a c t o r s which deter-  mined s e l e c t i o n of the group were those which were r e a d i l y found 7.  Verry, E t h e l , Replacements i n F o s t e r Family Care. C h i l d Welf a r e League of America B u l l e t i n , A p r i l 1948.  - 12 -  from the card index of the agency, namely t h a t the c h i l d has 8 been a ward  of a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y a t l e a s t two y e a r s ,  that he was now i n the age group known as the " l a t e n c y p e r i o d , " and t h a t he was of the white race.  I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t by  t a k i n g only c h i l d r e n who had been i n care a t l e a s t two years a f a i r l y accurate p i c t u r e might be gained of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s i n t h i s c i t y .  The other l i m i -  t a t i o n s were imposed i n an attempt t o omit some of the more d i f f i c u l t groups i n c h i l d placement, i n order t h a t the study could focus on the problem of m u l t i p l e placements i n i t s most s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d form. The d i f f i c u l t y of p l a c i n g c h i l d r e n of the coloured races i n a country predominantly o f the white race i s w e l l known t o c h i l d welfare workers, and hence the study has been confined to white c h i l d r e n .  The l a t e n c y p e r i o d , which i s the  time from approximately seven years o f age t o twelve years of age, i s regarded by a u t h o r i t i e s as being the p e r i o d l e a s t prod u c t i v e of problems i n a c h i l d ' s l i f e ;  Gordon Hamilton r e f e r s  to the l a t e n c y years as 'the golden age f o r parents;' "when the r e s t l e s s , unpredictable s t r i v i n g s seem t o be harnessed."  This  period comes between the d i f f i c u l t pre-school years when a c h i l d 8.  The term "ward" of a s o c i e t y i m p l i e s that f o r some reason guardianship has been removed from parents who a r e guardi a n s by r i g h t , or other l e g a l guardians, and the court has vested t h i s guardianship i n a s o c i e t y f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n . Some of the more common reasons f o r removal of guardianships are: p a r e n t a l n e g l e c t , i n c u r a b l e i l l n e s s , v death of parents or such other f a c t o r s as would make i t seem i n the c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t to have the p r o t e c t i o n of such a s o c i e t y .  - 13-  i s l e a r n i n g how to conform to s o c i a l l i v i n g , and the adolescent p e r i o d , so noted f o r i t s "storm and s t r e s s . " During the l a t e n c y years c h i l d r e n normally play f r e e l y together, r e c e i v ing s t i m u l a t i o n from the school experience, and being f r e e from parental dependence needs.  fairly  Since the l a t e n c y period  i s a more or l e s s quiescent time i n a c h i l d ' s l i f e , there are obviously grounds f o r b e l i e v i n g that i f a c h i l d shows evidences of t e n s i o n i n t h i s p e r i o d , he i s a markedly d i s t u r b e d c h i l d . I n order to include c h i l d r e n who were i n the l a t e n c y p e r i o d , only those born between the years 1936  and 1941 were s e l e c t e d .  I t w i l l be seen that the i n t e r e s t i n g and  significant  f a c t o r s such as m u l t i p l e placement i t s e l f , age at which the c h i l d comes i n t o care, or the i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient of the c h i l d , while l a t e r forming an important p o r t i o n of the were not used i n the a c t u a l s e l e c t i o n of the group.  study,  By s e l e c t -  ing these c h i l d r e n regardless of the number of times placed, i t was believed that a f a i r l y accurate p i c t u r e of the frequency of m u l t i p l e placement i n Vancouver could be a r r i v e d a t .  To  secure a manageable number of cases a one-in-four sample was taken, of a l l c h i l d r e n coming i n t o c h i l d r e n ' s a i d care, w i t h i n the s p e c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s which were s e t . 46 f a m i l i e s .  This gave a t o t a l of  Three of these had more than one c h i l d i n the  l a t e n c y p e r i o d , b r i n g i n g the t o t a l number of the group up to 9 the required f i f t y . 9. The group of 183 f a m i l i e s described above c o n s i s t e d of 140 from the Children's A i d S o c i e t y and 43 from the C a t h o l i c C h i l d ren's A i d Society. The s e l e c t i o n produced 35 C. A. S. f a m i l i e s and 11 C. C. A. S. f a m i l i e s . This made a t o t a l of 38 c h i l d r e n from C. A. S., and 12 from C. C. A. S.  0  - 14 i  The study was made e x c l u s i v e l y from m a t e r i a l r e corded on the agencies  1  f i l e s , and three d i f f e r e n t sets of  f i l e s were used i n order to get as complete a p i c t u r e as possible.  F i r s t of a l l the c h i l d ' s own f i l e was read, which  gave a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the work done w i t h each i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d during h i s period i n agency care.  Next were records o f the  c h i l d ' s f a m i l y , g i v i n g a p i c t u r e of the c h i l d ' s background and h i s experience previous to coming i n t o care.  L a s t l y one hun-  dred f o s t e r home f i l e s were read i n order t o get a p i c t u r e of the type of f o s t e r homes drawn on i n Vancouver.  I n order t o  s e l e c t the 100 f o s t e r home f i l e s f o r t h i s sample, the names o f a l l the f o s t e r homes used by t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group o f c h i l d r e n were placed i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order and the f i r s t hundred o f these 10 were selected f o r the study. The f i f t y c h i l d r e n comprising the study group turned out t o have been i n a t o t a l of 176. f o s t e r homes. This does not i n c l u d e temporary f o s t e r homes i n which a c h i l d remained l e s s than two months; but i t does i n c l u d e , on the other hand, every placement where a c h i l d remained f o r two months, whether or not t h i s placement was intended t o be temporary and i n c l u d i n g the r e c e i v i n g home, i f the stay turned out t o be longer than two months.  The average f o r t h i s group -of c h i l d r e n was t h e r e f o r e  10. The C. A. S. f o s t e r homes were l i s t e d separately from those of C. C. A. S., and a f t e r these had been arranged i n alphabeti c a l order, the f i r s t s e v e n t y - f i v e C. A. S. and twenty-five C. C. A. S . - f o s t e r - f a m i l i e s were s e l e c t e d , making a t o t a l of 100. Out of a t o t a l o f 176 homes used by the 50 c h i l d r e n i n the group, the number was reduced to 127,after d u p l i c a t i o n s were considered and "own homes" and Receiving Homes omitted.  - 15 o  3.52 f o s t e r homes during the time they were i n care.  11  In  other words each c h i l d has remained, on the average, i n a f o s t e r home f o r a period of 2.08 y e a r s . The replacement p i c t u r e f o r the whole sample i s i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , i n which the c h i l d r e n are grouped according t o t h e i r placement experience.  Table 1 Placement Experience of a 7-12 year o l d Sample (Vancouver, 1948) Placement Experience  T o t a l Foster. Homes  Percentage  Total Children  Group A - retained i n one. f o s t e r home  22  11  11  Group B - 2 f o s t e r homes  20  10  20  Group C - 3 f o s t e r homes 4 n n  18 6  9 ;s  27 12  Group D - 5 f o s t e r homes 6 " n 7 " " 8 " " 9 n it 10 n II  14 8 6" 4  7 4 3 •2  35 24 21 16  2  1  10  50  176  T o t a l Sample  100  t  11, I t may be noted that the average placements f o r the 38 C h i l d r e n i n the group who were wards of the Children's A i d Society was 3.74 homes per c h i l d ; while the average f o r the twelve c h i l d r e n who were wards of the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society Was 2.84 homes per c h i l d . Because of the small group of c h i l d r e n from C a t h o l i c Children's A i d , the c h i l d r e n i n the study w i l l be considered throughout as a composite group.  - 16 -  I t w i l l be seen that s l i g h t l y more than o n e - f i f t h of the c h i l d r e n had a s i n g l e placement, while a n o t h e r . f i f t h had two placements.  On the other hand, n e a r l y t h r e e - f i f t h s of the  c h i l d r e n have had more than two placements—which might be r e garded as coming i n t o the u n d e s i r a b l e placement category. I n order to t r y to f i n d the causes of m u l t i p l e p l a c e ment, i t i s necessary to take i n t o account any f a c t o r s which may i n f l u e n c e placement.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between m u l t i p l e  placement and the sex of the c h i l d r e n can be r e a d i l y seen from the next t a b l e .  Table 2 PLACMENT IH RELATION TO SEX OF THE CHILDREN '  Placement Experience  Boys  Girls  Total Children  Group A - retained i n one f o s t e r home  5  6  11  Group B - 2 f o s t e r homes  3  7  10  Group C - 3-4 f o s t e r homes  7  5  12  Group D - 5 or more f o s t e r homes  12  5  17  T o t a l Sample  27  23  50  Eight of the twenty-seven.boys, that i s l e s s than onet h i r d , have had one or two placements,' while more than twot h i r d s o f the boys f e l l i n t o the more serious m u l t i p l e placement category.  On the other hand, t h i r t e e n of the twenty-three g i r l s  - 17 -  have had s i n g l e or double placement experience, .while ten g i r l s , that i s l e s s than h a l f , have been m u l t i p l y placed. I f t h i s sample i s representative of the c h i l d r e n i n care, then i t 0  would appear that there i s considerably more d i f f i c u l t y i n p l a c i n g boys than g i r l s .  The study shows t h a t the average  placement experience f o r boys i s 4.07 have an average of only 2.91 homes.  homes, while the g i r l s S i x of the  twenty-three  g i r l s have had a s i n g l e placement, whereas f i v e of the twenty-, seven boys have had a s i n g l e placement.  This brings up a ques-  t i o n of whether boys f i n d i t more d i f f i c u l t to s e t t l e down i n f o s t e r homes than g i r l s , or whether the m a t r i a r c h i a l type of f a m i l y , which seems to predominate i n f o s t e r home programmes, f i n d s the problems of g i r l s more e a s i l y understood and  accepted ft  than those of boys. I t i s an accepted f a c t that the greater the age a t which c h i l d r e n are placed, the more d i f f i c u l t i t i s f o r them to adjust to l i v i n g w i t h a f o s t e r f a m i l y .  Since older c h i l d r e n  have known l i v i n g i n a home w i t h a f a t h e r and mother, there are strong emotional t i e s w i t h them, which are most d i f f i c u l t to sever.  I t i s a comparatively simple task to present a neglected  or dependent c h i l d before the court and have guardianship of the c h i l d t r a n s f e r r e d from the parents to a p r o t e c t i v e agency, i f i t seems i n the i n t e r e s t of the c h i l d to do so.  But t h i s i s not  the same as saying that he w i l l f o r g e t about the parents  who  have r a i s e d him, even i f they have r e j e c t e d , neglected or abused him.  Always i n the c h i l d ' s heart there i s a longing and hope  - 18 -  t h a t things might c h a n g e — t h a t h i s "own" mother and f a t h e r w i l l come t o love him. The problem i s d i f f e r e n t f o r the c h i l d r e n who have been under the care of an agency a l l t h e i r l i f e , o r who entered i n t o care i n e a r l y infancy.  Here agencies can claim success o r ^  f a i l u r e as being e n t i r e l y t h e i r own, f o r these c h i l d r e n have known no other i n f l u e n c e .  I t i s these c h i l d r e n , one might ex-  pect, who would i n d i c a t e how s u c c e s s f u l l y the agency i s functi o n i n g i n c a r r y i n g o u t i t s f o s t e r home program.  The age o f  placement i s , therefore, p a r t i c u l a r l y important.  Table 5 PLACEMENT IN RELATION TO AGE PLACED  1 Placement Experience  Age a t time o f placement  7 o r To Jnder 5 months 1 year -2-4 y r s .5-6 y r s .oldei a l  Group A - retained i n one f o s t e r home  8  -  2  1  -  11  Group B - 2 f o s t e r homes  3  1  3  1  2  10  Group C - 3-4 f o s t e r homes  2  6  1  2  1  12  Group D - 5 o r more f o s t e r homes  5  1  7  2  2  17  8  13  6  5  50  T o t a l Sample  r  18  - 19 -  I t w i l l be noted t h a t 26 c h i l d r e n , t h a t i s , approximately h a l f of the sample, came i n t o care under the age of two years, yet 14 of them were m u l t i p l y placed.  E i g h t of the  18 c h i l d r e n placed i n e a r l y infancy remained i n t h e i r f i r s t f o s t e r home, while f i v e have been i n more than f i v e f o s t e r homes.  I t would seem, then, t h a t the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a c h i l d  placed i n infancy i n the f o s t e r home program were only s l i g h t l y b e t t e r f o r remaining i n one home than f o r serious m u l t i p l e placement.  For c h i l d r e n placed a f t e r the age of s i x months,  t h e i r chances of remaining i n the f o s t e r home are s m a l l .  The  * c h i l d r e n who were placed a f t e r the age of s i x months and under two years of age i n t h i s sample seem to have had the most unfortunate experience, as a group. for  Perhaps some explanation  t h i s poor showing i s t h a t many of these replacements were  made almost a decade ago when casework s e r v i c e s were much more l i m i t e d than at the present time.  The c h i l d r e n coming  i n t o care a f t e r the age of seven years seems to bear out the theory t h a t the s e r v i c e s at the present time are s u p e r i o r to those of ten years ago.  I n s p i t e of the f a c t that t h i s  age  group of c h i l d r e n i s considered the most d i f f i c u l t of a l l to p l a c e , two have remained i n t h e i r second f o s t e r home, w h i l e three have been m u l t i p l y placed.  However, there i s another  f a c t o r to be noted f o r t h i s o l d e r group. been i n care only a r e l a t i v e l y short time.  These children.have The problem of  m u l t i p l e placement could not p o s s i b l y appear as serious as for  those c h i l d r e n who have been i n care a l l t h e i r l i v e s .  - 20 -  Those coming i n t o care under the age of s i x months have been under agency p r o t e c t i o n from 7 to 12 years; whereas those coming i n t o care a f t e r 7 years of age could only have been under agency p r o t e c t i o n from 2 to 5 years. In summary, c e r t a i n f a c t s are c l e a r about the part i c u l a r sample chosen f o r study,  ( l ) More than h a l f of the  group have been m u l t i p l y placed, t h a t i s , have had more than two f o s t e r homes.  (2) The m u l t i p l e placement p i c t u r e i s more  serious f o r the boys than the g i r l s .  (3) A c h i l d ' s chances of  m u l t i p l e placement increase i f he i s not placed before he i s / s i x months o l d . I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r sample the group having the most d i f f i c u l t y w i t h m u l t i p l e placement are the c h i l d r e n between the ages of s i x months and two years; but there i s a range of examples throughout the e n t i r e age group of the sample.  - 21 -  PART I I .  Chapter• I X  THE FAMILY BACKGROUNDS OF THE CHILDREN  A study of replacements i n f o s t e r care must s t a r t w i t h a thorough understanding o f the c h i l d h i m s e l f , h i s pers o n a l i t y and h i s heeds.  Therefore, the f i r s t step i n g e t t i n g  to know the c h i l d i s t o observe what has been h i s background p r i o r t o h i s coming i n t o care.  I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t an accur-  ate study be made of the f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n from which he - has sprung; the r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the home, and p a r t i c u l a r l y toward the c h i l d h i m s e l f ; and the h a b i t s he developed i n h i s home s i t u a t i o n .  The f i r s t w i l l help the worker to determine  what t i e s there w i l l be binding the c h i l d ; the second w i l l be l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r determining h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , and the t h i r d w i l l be h e l p f u l i n working w i t h f o s t e r parents so t h a t they w i l l know what to expect when the c h i l d enters t h e i r home. The c h i l d r e n i n care are mainly of two d i f f e r e n t f a m i l y backgrounds.  These are the c h i l d r e n born t o unmarried  mothers; and the c h i l d r e n born to n a t u r a l f a m i l y unions.  The  present study includes twenty-six c h i l d r e n who were born out of wedlock.  Twenty-one came from l e g i t i m a t e f a m i l i e s and three - 12 were born t o long-term common-law unions. Two of these 12. The w r i t e r i s using t h i s term i n preference t o " i l l e g i t i mate union" i n order that there w i l l be no confusion as t o c h i l d r e n born t o unmarried mothers, and those t o unmarried parents who l i v e together as a f a m i l y . A c t u a l l y c h i l d r e n o f both categories could be r e f e r r e d t o as i l l e g i t i m a t e , but t h i s term i s being avoided f o r reasons o f c l a r i t y .  - 22 -  unions had been maintained over a period of approximately ten . years each, w h i l e the t h i r d had l a s t e d seventeen years. Regarding the age of placement i n the f i r s t f o s t e r home the f o l l o w i n g f a c t s seem s i g n i f i c a n t .  Seventeen out of  the eighteen c h i l d r e n placed under the age of s i x months and seven of the eight placed between s i x months and one year were born to unmarried mothers.  On the other hand, eleven out of  t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n placed between two and four years of age came from f a m i l y groups; a l l of the c h i l d r e n placed between f i v e and s i x years of age were born to f a m i l i e s .  I n the group placed  over the age of seven years, three came from l e g i t i m a t e f a m i l i e s and two from "common-law unions'I  C h i l d r e n of f a m i l y groups may  come i n t o care at any age, depending whether they are the e l d e s t or youngest i n the f a m i l y .  I n the t o t a l group no c h i l d born to  unmarried mothers was placed a f t e r the age of three years. There are som^examples known to the agencies where c h i l d r e n are placed a f t e r t h i s age, but as t h i s study confirms, i t i s r a t h e r , a rare situation. The C h i l d of the Unmarried Mother I n some respects the l o t of the c h i l d born out of wedl o c k i s more t o l e r a b l e f o r the c h i l d than that of the f a m i l y child.  As has been described, u s u a l l y h i s mother gives him up  e a r l i e r , so that there are few t i e s to be broken l a t e r ; and he comes i n t o a f a m i l y group at an e a r l y age when i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to accept and be accepted i n t o a f a m i l y group. Fourteen of the twenty-six c h i l d r e n born out of wedlock  - 23 -  i n the study, were considered non-adoptable f o r such reasons as l i m i t e d mental capacity of the c h i l d , l i m i t e d mental capa c i t y of the mother, p a t e r n i t y not having been e s t a b l i s h e d . I n one case a c h i l d was considered non-adoptable due to a s l i g h t heart murmur and a h e r n i a , though the l a t t e r was f i e d a t an e a r l y age.  recti-  I n another case there was a h i s t o r y of  Jacksonian epilepsy i n the f a m i l y .  The h e r e d i t a r y f a c t o r i n  e p i l e p s y i s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l t o p i c but a u t h o r i t i e s show f i g u r e s f o r handicaps such as deafness, b l i n d n e s s , mental deficiency:, and ©the* forms of e p i l e p s y i n d i c a t i n g that such defects can only be a t t r i b u t e d to i n h e r i t a n c e i n eleven per cent of the cases where they appear.  This would seem to imply t h a t there  i s an 89 per cent chance that the defect w i l l not appear.  One  c h i l d i n the study suffered from a c l e f t p a l a t e and rated mid-, grade moron i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , w h i l e another c h i l d who  suffered  from p r e - n a t a l s y p h i l i s , had an o v e r s i z e d head, and rated borderline i n intelligence. Seventeen of the twenty-six unmarried mothers whose c h i l d r e n were taken i n t o care placed t h e i r c h i l d r e n permanently w i t h the s o c i e t y , i n four cases requesting adoption. I n these f o u r eases i t appeared that adoption was not b e l i e v e d to be a d v i s a b l e due to the questionable background of the c h i l d r e n . However, i t i s not known why adoption was not kept i n mind and c a r r i e d through a t a l a t e r date when the c h i l d had proved himself.  Records do not i n d i c a t e i n most instances that adoption  was considered during the e a r l y formative y e a r s .  There are some  - 24 -  instances where the present f o s t e r home i s requesting adopt i o n o f the c h i l d .  The f o l l o w i n g summary o f a case record  i s given as an example o f a s i t u a t i o n where such i s the case, and where the worker i s having d i f f i c u l t y i n determining the a d v i s a b i l i t y o f adoption. Jane was born t o an unmarried mother who requested t h a t the c h i l d be placed f o r adoption a t b i r t h . Upon examination o f Jane's mother a t the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c she was found t o be b o r d e r l i n e i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , and i t was not deemed advisable t o place the c h i l d f o r adoption a t that time. Jane's mother was planning to be married and f e l t that since the c h i l d could not be placed f o r adoption she would make an attempt t o care f o r her h e r s e l f , f o l lowing her marriage. She v i s i t e d the c h i l d s e v e r a l times i n the o f f i c e . The marriage d i d not appear t o be too s u c c e s s f u l . The step-father had been imprisoned a t one time f o r breaking and e n t e r i n g . The f a m i l y moved t o a northern town and i t was found that the n a t u r a l c h i l d r e n o f the marriage begged f o r food there. Jane meanwhile was placed w i t h a f a m i l y who gave her love and s e c u r i t y . She developed normally and appeared t o be a b r i g h t l i t t l e g i r l . The record s t a t e s , "she i s given every advantage and much a f f e c t i o n . " The f a m i l y have expressed a d e s i r e to- keep her permane n t l y , and they are a t the present time requesting adoption. She i s now seven years o f age.The record gives the f o l l o w i n g p i c t u r e of the f o s t e r mother: "She plays an a c t i v e r o l e i n the c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s . She i s i n t e r e s t e d i n music and hopes that, ther:.children w i l l e v e n t u a l l y play instruments. She attends parentteacher meetings and v i s i t s the school o f t e n . She was a kindergarten teacher before her marriage." The f a m i l y have adopted two c h i l d r e n . The record continues: " I n many ways t h i s i s not the best f o s t e r home f o r the c h i l d as the f o s t e r parents are i n t h e i r l a t e f o r t i e s , and t h e i r home i s crowded. However, Jane i s happy and secure, t h i s being the only home she-has ever known." Another f a c t o r about which the case worker i s concerned i s that the f o s t e r mother i s i n c l i n e d t o be emotional and i s a member of the E v a n g e l i c a l Tabernacle, a church t o which might'be a t t r i b u t e d emotional p r a c t i c e s .  - 25 -  I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that a t the time o f Jane's b i r t h her mother asked that she be placed f o r adoption. Apparently, as the c h i l d s e t t l e d so w e l l i n t o the home described i n the record i t d i d not appear advisable t o remove her and place her i n a home more e a s i l y recommended f o r adoption. Thus the c h i l d has remained i n the home, y e t she cannot f e e l that she belongs to any f a m i l y .  I t would seem that more f u t u r e s e c u r i t y could  be gained f o r the c h i l d by a f i r m d e c i s i o n as t o whether o r n o t the  home i s s u i t a b l e , and by a c t i o n taken a c c o r d i n g l y .  not an i s o l a t e d case.  This i s  There are a number from each agency where  the  workers seem t o have d i f f i c u l t y i n deciding whether or not  the  place i s s u i t a b l e . The f o l l o w i n g summary i s an example o f a c h i l d coming  ' under the p r o t e c t i o n o f a s o c i e t y a f t e r being cared f o r by h i s unmarried mother.  This case i s an i n t e r e s t i n g study from sev-  e r a l points o f view.  He i s o f l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e , has had  s e v e r a l placements and i n s p i t e of both o f these f a c t o r s seems to be making an e x c e l l e n t adjustment t o h i s l i m i t a t i o n s . Bobby was' taken home by h i s unmarried mother a f t e r h i s b i r t h . Care d i d not seem t o be too adequate as h i s mother was promiscuous. When Bobby was two years o f age his mother died. The p u t a t i v e f a t h e r took an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n the c h i l d but was unable t o care f o r him permanently as h i s mother, w i t h whom he l i v e d , was e l d e r l y and could not have given the c h i l d the care he r e q u i r e d . The c h i l d tested mid-grade moron i n i n t e l l i g e n c e and was handicapped by a c l e f t p a l a t e . The f i r s t f o s t e r home i n which Bobby was placed a f t e r coming i n t o care seemed t o be a f i n e one f o r the c h i l d . However, when the f a m i l y moved away the c h i l d had;Jto be removed. I n the next f o s t e r home he was found to be t i r e d and nervous and the f o s t e r mother requested h i s removal. Bobby presented severe-problems i n the t h i r d  - 26 -  f o s t e r home. He masturbated severely, was a poor eater, d i s p l a y e d temper tantrums, exposed himself and u r i n a t e d on other c h i l d r e n . I n the f o u r t h home the f o s t e r mother became q u i t e attached t o him and d i d not f i n d him a badly behaved c h i l d . However, she d i d f i n d him considerable t r o u b l e since he was d u l l , and so she requested that he be removed. Bobby i s now i n h i s f i f t h f o s t e r home. H i s l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e i s accepted and he" i s found t o be q u i t e good i n c o n s t r u c t i o n work and using t o o l s . He v i s i t s h i s p u t a t i v e f a t h e r and p a t e r n a l grandmother during the h o l i days, but remains w i t h h i s f o s t e r mother during the year. He i s secure and w e l l loved i n the home, and seems t o have made an e x c e l l e n t adjustment t o the home where he i s loved and understood. The present f o s t e r home plan seems t o be working out n i c e l y f o r Bobby.  H i s f o s t e r mother i s a widow, and t h e r e f o r e ,  i t i s most valuable i n t h i s case that the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r has maintained an i n t e r e s t , g i v i n g the c h i l d a male p a t t e r n t o f o l low.  U n l i k e many c h i l d r e n being cared f o r by agencies he i s  not handicapped by concern as t o who he i s . He r e a l i z e s that h i s mother i s dead and that h i s f a t h e r i s unable to care f o r him. The present arrangement seems t o be the best that could be worked out under the circumstances. I t should be pointed out i n passing that f i v e of the twenty-six unmarried mothers whose c h i l d r e n came w i t h i n the scope of t h i s study were themselves former wards, who, according t o the f i n d i n g regarding unmarried mothers, must not have r e c e i v e d normal s a t i s f a c t i o n during t h e i r own ( f o s t e r ) home  experience.  C h i l d r e n From F a m i l i e s U n l i k e most of the c h i l d r e n born t o unmarried mothers, the c h i l d r e n from f a m i l i e s have known what i t i s t o l i v e w i t h i n t h e i r own f a m i l y and as a r e s u l t s u f f e r from being  transplanted  - 27 -  i n t o another home. Whether they have come from a f a m i l y where parents are married or not t h e i r experience i s much the same. They have known f a m i l y l i f e , w i t h two parents f u n c t i o n i n g i n one home—two parents f o r whom they maintain a bond. pointed out i n the booklet "Standards"  It is  so w e l l known to  c h i l d p l a c i n g agencies, t h a t "Every c h i l d who must leave h i s own home and l i v e away from h i s own f a m i l y s u f f e r s a profound emotional and s o c i a l disturbance which can never be a l t o g e t h e r compensated."  I t has been found t h a t c h i l d r e n whose own par-  ents are unable to care f o r them u s u a l l y f e e l that they are unwanted and unloved, and o f t e n t h i n k t h a t they are i n some way responsible f o r the f a c t t h a t t h e i r parents have l e f t them or have given them up.  These c h i l d r e n are always conscious of be-  i n g d i f f e r e n t from those c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n t h e i r own homes. I n a d d i t i o n they may have already been a f f e c t e d unfavourably by those circumstances which have culminated i n the need f o r p l a c e ment, and e s p e c i a l l y by the a t t i t u d e s of parents who may f e e l inadequate, ashamed, g u i l t y , and d i s t u r b e d because of i n a b i l i t y to care f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  I t i s f o r these reasons t h a t every  f o s t e r c h i l d f o r whom f o s t e r care i s necessary shows v a r y i n g degrees of emotional disturbance, which may be expressed simply as concern or even resentment regarding the i n a b i l i t y of h i s parents to care f o r him; or i n the form of severe behaviour or personality disorders. 13. Standards f o r Children's Organizations P r o v i d i n g F o s t e r Family Care. C h i l d Welfare League of America,. March 1941, p. 13.  - 28 -  C h i l d r e n from f a m i l i e s come i n t o the care o f agenc i e s f o r many reasons. ill.  Some o f the parents are p h y s i c a l l y  Some are mentally i l l .  Some parents who are unable t o  face the problems o f t h e i r l i v e s abandon t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Some parents d i e . Some parents, whose own l i v e s as c h i l d r e n , t  were empty of love have t h e r e f o r e , not reached the m a t u r i t y which makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r them to love t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Love i s l i k e a cup_of water. Unless the cup i s f u l l i t cannot run over. Unless the heart i s . f u l l o f love which has been given t o i t , i t cannot run over w i t h love f o r others. 14 Some c h i l d r e n have been so r e j e c t e d by parents who could not love them t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o help the c h i l d t o understand what love i s , and when they do comprehend t o s a t i s f y t h e i r hunger-starved h e a r t s .  Sometimes c h i l d r e n come t o agen-  c i e s where a deprived parent has l a v i s h e d so much " s e l f - d e s i r e d l o v e " upon the c h i l d that he i s not given a chance t o grow emotionally and the agency r e c e i v e s him as a " s p o i l e d , " i n f a n t ilized child.  ( A c t u a l l y t h i s type o f c h i l d i s not given over  to agency care, but i s a common problem o f C h i l d Guidance C l i n ics) .  Sometimes c h i l d r e n come from homes i n which t h e i r par-  ents are c r u e l one minute, and l o v i n g the next.  These c h i l d r e n  need t o l i v e i n a home i n which they see a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f f a m i l y l i f e and a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of people.  They need t o know  that there are a d u l t s who a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y fond of them, whose standards o f r i g h t and wrong are based on i d e a l s r a t h e r than whims, who can be counted on f o r l o v e whether the c h i l d i s "bad or good.  They need t o l i v e w i t h people who a r e secure i n each  14. "Everybody's C h i l d r e n , " Board o f P u b l i c Welfare, D i s t r i c t of Columbia, U. S. A.  - 29 -  other's l o v e .  They need t o understand t h a t not a l l the world  i s i n c o n s i s t e n t l i k e t h e i r parents.  But they need t o l e a r n  t h i s through seeing i t themselves, n o t by hearing t h e i r parents c r i t i c i z e d . I t i s a' common f a u l t o f f o s t e r parents t o resent and c r i t i c i z e n a t u r a l parents.  Foster parents f r e q u e n t l y see  the parents as weak and inadequate, h i n d e r i n g the c h i l d from s e t t l i n g down i n what could be a good f o s t e r home otherwise. Helping f o s t e r parents t o see the needs of n a t u r a l parents, and t o see what even the worst o f parents mean t o f o s t e r c h i l d ren i s one of the most important tasks of the case worker.  The  type of care which i s provided f o r the c h i l d should be based on a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the wishes' o f h i s parents, h i s i n d i v i d u a l needs, and h i s f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n .  I t i s necessary t o study each  c h i l d and h i s f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n i n order t o determine what k i n d of care i s best s u i t e d t o h i s needs.  The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the  parents i n planning i s e s s e n t i a l because o f t h e i r primary r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as parents, unless l e g a l custody has been permanently removed from them.  I t i s important t h a t  removal o f a c h i l d has not a p u n i t i v e appearance. should r e a l i z e that agencies mean t o be h e l p f u l .  Parents Wherever pos-  s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , the parents should be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r i n g i n g the c h i l d t o the agency, so that n e i t h e r parents nor c h i l d have the a t t i t u d e that workers are " c h i l d snatchers."  I n de-  termining how h e l p f u l i t would be t o have a c h i l d maintain a contact w i t h h i s parents, the worker must d e c i d e — n o t i f t i e s  - 30 -  should be broken, but r a t h e r i f t i e s could be broken.  Work-  ers may not r e a l i z e that f r e q u e n t l y parents who cannot g i v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n adequate p h y s i c a l care and p r o t e c t i o n may  be  able to meet the c h i l d ' s need f p r a f f e c t i o n and belonging .quite adequately. Since the f a m i l y i s the b a s i c u n i t of s o c i e t y and the most s i g n i f i c a n t element i n the l i f e of a c h i l d , i t js e s s e n t i a l t h a t everything p o s s i b l e be done to undergird f a m i l y life.  S o c i e t y i s apt to condemn those who are not good par-  ents more than i t condemns any other group of people.  Actu-  a l l y , perhaps no one needs more sympathy and help than those people who have been so badly h u r t , who are so confused by the problems of t h e i r l i v e s , or who have placed problems so severe t h a t they cannot care f o r t h e i r own c h i l d r e n adequately.  It  should be remembered that many people who are "bad" parents to-day were the c h i l d r e n of yesterday who needed help t h a t no one gave.  I t i s v i t a l l y important t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e  the help that was denied to t h e i r parents. F a m i l i e s I n The Study i  The twenty-four c h i l d r e n coming from f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v e d only twenty f a m i l i e s , since one group comprised a f a m i l y of three c h i l d r e n , while two other f a m i l i e s included two c h i l d r e n each.  Ten of the twenty f a m i l y groups  were taken i n t o the care of a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y due to f a m i l y break-up.  M a r i t a l d i s c o r d r e s u l t e d i n the parents sep-  a r a t i n g , u s u a l l y w i t h one parent d e s e r t i n g and the other parent  - 31 being unable to provide f o r the c h i l d r e n .  The f o l l o w i n g sum-  mary i s a t y p i c a l example of such a separation s i t u a t i o n : Mr. and Mrs. Jones had married at an e a r l y age, Mr. Jones being twenty-two and Mrs. Jones being seventeen a t the time. Their f i r s t c h i l d died f o l l o w i n g which three other c h i l d r e n were born to the union. Mr. Jones seemed to be rather an inadequate person who drank a good d e a l and c r i t i c i z e d h i s wife's homemaking e f f o r t s . Whenever there was any disagreement he would r e t u r n to h i s mother's home, complaining about h i s w i f e and spying on her. As Mr. Jones d i d not support h i s f a m i l y adequatel y Mrs. Jones f e l t t h a t she must work and earn a l i v i n g f o r the f a m i l y . Her work as a w a i t r e s s kept her out a l l n i g h t so that she d i d not r e t u r n u n t i l ten o'clock; Consequently the baby went without food u n t i l noon, w h i l e the other c h i l d r e n begged food from the neighbours. Arrangements were made f o r Mrs. Jones to get daytime employment and to place the c h i l d r e n i n a day nursery. Eventually the c h i l d r e n had to be taken i n t o the care of a children's aid society. About t h i s time Mr. Jones j o i n e d the a i r f o r c e and Mrs. Jones began a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h other men. As Mr. Jones was s t a t i o n e d i n Vancouver, he was able to continue spyi n g on h i s w i f e . He requested discharge from the a i r f o r c e i n order to e s t a b l i s h a home f o r h i s f a m i l y . However, t h i s seemed to be a r a t h e r s u p e r f i c i a l d e s i r e , perhaps more to get out of the s e r v i c e than to a c t u a l l y care f o r his' f a m i l y . Both parents v i s i t e d the c h i l d r e n f o r a time, each attempting to play the c h i l d r e n against the other. Neither parent has v i s i t e d the c h i l d r e n i n the past two years. were Four of the twenty f a m i l i e s / t a k e n i n t o care as the r e s u l t of serious neglect s i t u a t i o n s , where parents remained together but could not provide s h e l t e r or nourishment adequate to the needs of t h e i r c h i l d r e n , or even give them warmth and security.  The f o l l o w i n g summary of a case record i s given as  an example of inadequate parents who had t h e i r c h i l d r e n removed from t h e i r care due to gross n e g l e c t : Neighbours complained of the neglect s i t u a t i o n i n the U n d e r h i l l home. The f a m i l y l i v e d above an o l d s t o r e . There was very l i t t l e i n the way of f u r n i t u r e and the  - 32 -  windows were broken and s t u f f e d w i t h newspapers. A s a n i t a r y inspector had declared the abode "not f i t f o r habitation." The c h i l d r e n were pale and s i c k l y l o o k i n g , and had been i n h o s p i t a l a number of times f o r m a l n u t r i t i o n . A l l of the c h i l d r e n begged i n the s t r e e t , s t o l e and used f o u l language. Mr. U n d e r h i l l had a small business and was away from home a good d e a l of the time. Mrs. U n d e r h i l l appeared very l i m i t e d i n i n t e l l i g e n c e . She t o l d one of the workers a t one time that she had been unable to r e t a i n a job as a w a i t r e s s previous to her marriage as she could not remember the orders. While she seemed fond of her c h i l d r e n she was-unable to manage them, y e l l i n g at them at the top of her v o i c e . Mr. U n d e r h i l l i s described as "coarse, demandi n g and bombastic." He created a t e r r i f i c scene at the court when h i s c h i l d r e n were committed and has since t r i e d to regain t h e i r custody. I t was believed that he was hayi n g incestuous r e l a t i o n s r e l a t i o n s w i t h the e l d e s t g i r l . I n her f i r s t f o s t e r home the c h i l d being considered i n t h i s study k i s s e d her mother's p i c t u r e and t o l d her f o s t e r mother how much she loved her mother. However, she s a i d she d i d not wish to return home as the f a t h e r " d i d bad things to them." Because of her t i e to her mother the c h i l d has found placement most d i f f i c u l t . Four of the c h i l d r e n came from homes where one was  parent  i n mental h o s p i t a l and the other parent was unable to pro-  v i d e a home f o r the c h i l d r e n . ren was  dead.  Two  The f a t h e r of one of these c h i l d -  other f a m i l i e s had one parent deceased.  One  of these f a m i l i e s makes an i n t e r e s t i n g study due to c o n f l i c t i n g reports regarding the mother who  was  the s u r v i v i n g parent.  At the age of twenty-two, Mrs. Anderson was l e f t a widow w i t h three small c h i l d r e n . At the time of r e f e r r a l to the agency she was i n an exhausted state and had to be h o s p i t a l i z e d . A p s y c h i a t r i s t examined Mrs. Anderson and described her as being run-down and not i n t e r e s t e d i n her c h i l d r e n . Mentally she was i n the moron c l a s s , he contended, and stated f u r t h e r that the basis of her trouble was obscure and probably n e u r o t i c . The home was described as f i l t h y and poorly f u r n i s h e d , and the c h i l d r e n d e b i l i t a t e d . While Mrs. Anderson was i n the h o s p i t a l a male f r i e n d , whom she l a t e r married looked a f t e r the c h i l d r e n . The record states that he was "hard on the c h i l d r e n , " and d i d not seem i n t e r e s t e d i n them.  - 33 -  The Family Welfare Bureau provided a housekeeper f o r a time and Mother's Allowance was granted. Mrs Anderson asked t h a t her c h i l d r e n be placed w i t h a Children's A i d S o c i e t y as she f e l t she could not care f o r them. She requested t h a t the two o l d e r c h i l d ren be placed together "as they would be l o s t without each other.". As had been requested the c h i l d r e n were placed t o gether, but they moved from one f o s t e r home t o another due to the serious enuretic problem of John, the boy who i s the eldest c h i l d .  F i n a l l y a f t e r f i v e unsuccessful, f o s t e r home  placements arrangements were.made t o have the c h i l d r e n r e t u r n t o t h e i r mother and step-father.. The record now presents an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e . Mrs. Thompson (formerly Mrs. Anderson) ha's now been married s e v e r a l years and gives e x c e l l e n t care t o the two c h i l d r e n of her present marriage. She and Mr. Thompson have a comfortable home, which i s w e l l f u r n i s h e d and kept s p o t l e s s l y c l e a n . Mr. Thompson i s described as a j o v i a l person, who takes an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n the c h i l d ren> p a r t i c u l a r l y John. Mrs. Thompson i s a c t i v e i n church work and, presents a p i c t u r e of a happy, serene person. Previous t o the c h i l d r e n ' s r e t u r n home she was given a mental t e s t a t the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c and found t o be of average i n t e l l i g e n c e . One gets the f e e l i n g of personal b i a s i n reading the f i r s t part of the record.  C e r t a i n l y there i s no r e c o g n i t i o n  of the strengths w i t h i n t h i s mother and s t e p - f a t h e r . The f i r s t p s y c h i a t r i s t was not too h e l p f u l i n working out the d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h i n the f a m i l y . There are instances o f cases i n which a strong f a m i l y t i e e x i s t s , and which i s being preserved by the worker.  This  i s a s i t u a t i o n which always poses a d i f f i c u l t y f o r case workers as the c h i l d r e n f i n d t h e i r l o y a l t y d i v i d e d between t h e i r n a t u r a l  - 34 -  parents and t h e i r f o s t e r parents.  Also standards of parents  and f o s t e r parents d i f f e r , which causes confusion on the p a r t of the c h i l d . Mary's parents seemed to be unstable people. Her .mother deserted the f a m i l y and the f a t h e r , unable to care f o r the four c h i l d r e n , placed them w i t h the C h i l d ren's Aid Society. He j o i n e d the army, but was o f t e n AWOL and at one point deserted. As the mother was most unstable, p s y c h i a t r i c help was sought, and she was h o s p i t a l i z e d f o r a time. Both parents v i s i t e d the c h i l d r e n f r e q u e n t l y , but t h i s was discouraged as i t was f e l t i t was not h e l p f u l to the c h i l d r e n when the parents had no plan f o r them. I t was d e s i r e d that Mary and one of her s i s t e r s would be placed together i n a f o s t e r home, however, t h i s was not f e a s i b l e . Mary was found to be d i s o b e d i ent i n her f o s t e r home. She a l s o suffered from severe enuresis, which made f o s t e r home placement d i f f i c u l t . I t was f e l t she was g r i e v i n g f o r her f a t h e r as she appeared very fond of him, while she d i d not t a l k about her mother a great d e a l . At school the teacher reported that she t r i e d to get a t t e n t i o n by over anxiety to help the teacher and p u p i l s . While" staying at the Receiving Home her p a t e r n a l grandmother held a birthday p a r t y f o r her o l d e r s i s t e r , who has remained w i t h the grandmother. Arrangements were made f o r Mary to attend. Her parents were a l s o there. Mary was d e l i g h t e d to see them again and longed to r e t u r n to them. She r e a l i z e d that t h e i r present home consisted of only one room, and seemed to understand t h a t her parents would not be able to provide a home f o r t h e i r f a m i l y f o r a very long time. She has now moved to another f o s t e r home and v i s i t s to her parents are continuing. However, she seems to have s e t t l e d down w e l l , and i t i s hoped that w i t h understanding f o s t e r parents and opportunity to v i s i t her own f a m i l y o c c a s i o n a l l y that she may develop i n t o a happier and more secure person. Both the Children's A i d Society and the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society have made v a l i a n t attempts to keep brothers and s i s t e r s together.  I n t h i s present study  thirty-  three out of the f i f t y c h i l d r e n have one or more s i b l i n g s .  -  3 5  -  Sixteen o f the t h i r t y - t h r e e w i t h s i b l i n g s have been placed at one time w i t h a s i b l i n g . I n most cases t h i s i s an exc e l l e n t thing f o r the c h i l d r e n as i t gives s e c u r i t y t o them and acts as a s t a b i l i z i n g f a c t o r .  There are cases, however,  where placement together does not seem t o be i n the i n t e r e s t s of the c h i l d r e n . placed throughout.  I n one place a brother and s i s t e r were The brother was a severe enuresis problem  and was moved from f o s t e r home t o f o s t e r home i n order t o attempt t o f i n d one which would give him the s e c u r i t y he seemed t o r e q u i r e .  H i s s i s t e r , on the other hand, was w e l l  l i k e d and could have s e t t l e d down i n any of the f o s t e r homes. Thus instead o f remaining i n her f i r s t f o s t e r home she moved about w i t h her brother i n t o s i x d i f f e r e n t f o s t e r -homes. The study contains another example o f t h i s p r a c t i c e where the procedure of keeping s i b l i n g s together i s questionable. A l i c e and Joan came i n t o the care o f a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d society as the r e s u l t o f m a r i t a l disagreement between t h e i r parents culminating i n separation, w i t h placement of the c h i l d r e n . Both g i r l s showed tendenc i e s of being nervous and h i g h strung, and both were severe enuretic problems. In the f i r s t f o s t e r home Joan, the younger, s i s t e r , was very w e l l l i k e d and was accepted by the f a m i l y i n s p i t e o f her bed wetting h a b i t s . A l i c e , on the other hand was considered t o be "cheeky" and disobedient, and the f o s t e r mother f e l t she could not keep her. The next home was q u i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y and both c h i l d r e n seemed t o get along q u i t e w e l l , b u t t h e f o s t e r parents moved t o another province and had t o give up the c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n were moved from t h e i r f o u r t h and f i f t h homes due t o t h e i r enuretic d i f f i c u l t i e s . How i n the seventh home enuresis s t i l l p e r s i s t s . The f o s t e r mother f i n d s A l i c e a very sweet c h i l d who l i k e s t o help her about the house. But Joan's problems are i n c r e a s i n g . She l i e s , s t e a l s food and i s very high-strung. 1  - 36 -  I n t h i s case and the one described j u s t previous to i t , one might wonder whether i t i s i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the c h i l d r e n to remain together, s i n c e i n both of these f a m i l i e s l i t t l e improvement has r e s u l t e d from the f a c t that the c h i l d r e n d i d remain together. Family background i s an important f a c t o r that must be understood and w e l l considered before arranging a f o s t e r home placement.  The needs of the c h i l d must be met and these  needs can only be estimated by gaining a complete knowledge of the c h i l d ' s l i f e i n the past, the experiences he has gone through, the t i e s that bind him, how ready he i s to l i v e w i t h the f a m i l y which w i l l give him>; the best chance f o r h i s u l t i m a t e i n p h y s i c a l , emotional, i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l development.  Family t i e s must never be overlooked, f o r where  a f o s t e r mother or a case worker sees a f a m i l y as inadequate, i t i s very l i k e l y that the c h i l d i d e a l i z e d h i s parents i n s p i t e of a l l unfavourable c o n d i t i o n s . To him they are the best parents i n the world, and h i s l o t i s hard indeed, i f he must be severed from them.  - 37 -  Chapter I I I  HOMEFINDING  The d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n o f " f o s t e r " i s "to nouri s h , c h e r i s h , a i d , encourage."  When an agency looks f o r  f o s t e r parents, i t i s looking f o r people who are p h y s i c a l l y and emotionally able to give l o v i n g care to a c h i l d .  In  making a homefinding study the worker i s not t r y i n g t o d e t e r mine whether a f a m i l y i s "worthy" o f having a f o s t e r c h i l d , but i f being f o s t e r parents i s something they w i l l enjoy and do w e l l . In studying the problem of m u l t i p l e placement of f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , the f i r s t f a c t o r t o be considered i s the fami l y background from which the c h i l d r e n came. The next f a c t o r to c o n s i d e r , then, should be the homes t o which they moved f o r the care they were not able to r e c e i v e a t home.  In looking at  the question of f o s t e r homes i t i s necessary to determine how the f o s t e r homes are found and how w e l l they are known p r i o r to p l a c i n g a f o s t e r c h i l d t h e r e i n . As a p r e r e q u i s i t e to f o s t e r care i t i s necessary that the p h y s i c a l standards of the home meet a c e r t a i n requirement. Good food, c l e a n l i n e s s , q u i e t sleep, f r e s h a i r , s a f e t y from f i r e and h e a l t h hazards are, o f course, necessary f o r any c h i l d . Foster parents should have s u f f i c i e n t room i n t h e i r house so that the c h i l d w i l l f e e l comfortable, and not have reason to  - 38 -  b e l i e v e that he i s crowding the f a m i l y .  I t i s e s s e n t i a l that  f o s t e r parents should know how c h i l d r e n should be cared f o r and should be w i l l i n g t o l e a r n from s o c i a l workers,  nurses  and doctors whom the agency provides t o help them.  I tis a  r e l a t i v e l y simple matter f o r a worker t o determine whether a home can accommodate a c h i l d , and the worker should s e t t l e t h i s f a c t o r b r i e f l y , devoting-the bulk of her time t o l e a r n i n g about the i n t a n g i b l e s i n the home, so important t o the c h i l d ' s emotional growth. I t should be remembered t h a t many people coming from lowly homes are mature, happy and democratic i n d i v i d u a l s , while the w e a l t h i e s t persons who have lacked love and not known the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f i n t i m a t e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s can never be s e l f - r e l i a n t , secure persons, who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n the welf a r e o f t h e i r community and the world a t l a r g e .  Because o f t h i s  f a c t , emphasis on r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the home should be given greatest c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I t i s b e l i e v e d that agencies always assure t h a t p h y s i c a l standards are adequate since t h i s i s not a d i f f i c u l t matter, e s p e c i a l l y i f the worker i s a novice o r a v o l unteer. sons.  Foster homefinding  i s not work f o r such u n s k i l l e d per-  Assessing f o s t e r parents, i n order that the r i g h t c h i l d  be placed i n a home, c a l l s f o r the f i n e s t s k i l l the p r o f e s s i o n has t o o f f e r . Foster parents, then, must be persons who can love a c h i l d which i s not t h e i r own. They must be persons who respect the i n d i v i d u a l and can accept behaviour d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r own.  - 39 -  They must r e a l i z e that they cannot f o r c e standards upon the child.  The only way he w i l l come to i d e n t i f y w i t h them, and  do as they do w i l l come as the r e s u l t of l o v e , and d e s i r i n g to he a p a r t of the f a m i l y .  A f o s t e r mother who says she  w i l l not t o l e r a t e a c h i l d , f o r example, who t e l l s l i e s i s showing her own l i m i t a t i o n s i n understanding c h i l d r e n .  When  the c h i l d f e e l s loved enough and secure enough he w i l l not need to t e l l l i e s .  Foster parents do not need to be h i g h l y  educated people who have had courses i n c h i l d care.  They need  to be people who have a happy f a m i l y l i f e , who enjoy caring f o r c h i l d r e n , who have patience and a sense of humour.  I t i s not  easy to be f o s t e r parents, but i t can be very s a t i s f y i n g . Consider/^he f a c t o r s necessary i n understanding f o s ter parents^ j,t does seem that the job of the homefinder i s a f u l l time task, and that she cannot help i n the c h i l d p l a c e ment f i e l d as w e l l .  I t i s an easy t h i n g f o r homefinding to get  l o s t among problems which seem more emergent a t the time.  The  homefinder needs to see the f a m i l y more than once i f she i s going  to understand the k i n d of f o s t e r home care they can best  give.  A l l that can be learned i n one i n t e r v i e w i s the more or  less s t a t i s t i c a l  material.  Many workers who f e e l that they can-  not devote a great d e a l of time to homefinding t r y to b r i n g out a l l t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n the one i n t e r v i e w , thus handicapping the f l o w of easy conversation which would be so r e v e a l i n g of the r e a l a t t i t u d e s about the home.  The worker needs to steer the  'conversation to matters concerning the f o s t e r mother's a t t i t u d e toward her home L i t s e l f ,  and homemaking w i t h i n the home.  I f the  - 40 -  f o s t e r mother does not enjoy her home or i f she f i n d s t h a t housework i s drudgery, such a home would not l i k e l y make a s u i t a b l e f o s t e r home. E i t h e r the f o s t e r mother would f i n d h e r s e l f w i t h more work than ever t o do, or on the other hand, she might be requesting that a f o s t e r c h i l d be placed i n her home i n order t o o b t a i n a cheap domestic.  I f a foster  mother does not get along w e l l w i t h members o f her own f a m i l y there i s a danger that she w i l l use the f o s t e r c h i l d f o r her own purposes or t o meet*her own emotional needs. H. S. Lippman, M. D., gives h i s f e e l i n g s regarding workers g e t t i n g t o know f o s t e r mothers w e l l : How can she p o s s i b l y l e a r n enough i n one i n t e r v i e w w i t h the parents, i n one home v i s i t , o r i n two o r three casual contacts. I am convinced that without a planned s e r i e s o f interviews one cannot o b t a i n the answers t o the perplexing questions t h a t must be answered. Several v i s i t s are necessary i f f o r no other reason than t o t e s t the home over varying periods o f s t r e s s and s t r a i n . 15 He s t a t e s that i t i s . h i s opinion t h a t " f a i l i n g t o know the f o s t e r home accounts f o r repeated placements, w i t h r e s u l t i n g l o s s o f anchorage f o r the c h i l d . " In 1925,  the Canadian C o u n c i l o f C h i l d and Family  Welfare (now the Canadian. Welfare Council) made a study o f the types o f f o s t e r homes that were a v a i l a b l e f o r c h i l d r e n . The f o l l o w i n g are l i s t e d : . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 15.  Homes o f middle aged or o l d people whose c h i l d r e n had grown up and gone away. Homes where no c h i l d r e n had been born. Homes where there were only young c h i l d r e n and an older c h i l d was sought. People who had c h i l d r e n o f one sex, and who d e s i r e d the other sex. Homes where they wanted the help a c h i l d could g i v e . Homes where they were w i l l i n g t o pay f o r s e r v i c e rendered by c h i l d .  Lippman, H. S. "Newer trends i n C h i l d Placement" The Family March 1941, V o l . 21, No. 10. p. 323.  - 41 -  %t i s b e l i e v e d that a modern l i s t of a v a i l a b l e f o s t e r homes would i n d i c a t e very s i m i l a r r e s u l t s .  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to  note t h a t a statement i n the document s t a t e s that there i s no hard or f a s t r u l e .  Good and bad homes are to be found i n  a l l these c a t e g o r i e s . The minimum requirements, i t contends, should s t i p u l a t e that f o s t e r parents be respectable, have s u i t a b l e incomes, be of s u i t a b l e ages, and must l i v e h a p p i l y 16 together.  Twenty-five years ago, then, the favourable  i n f l u e n c e of happy r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the f o s t e r homes were not overlooked. The appendix of t h i s chapter contains three i n t e r e s t i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t documents r e l a t i n g to homefinding. The f i r s t i s a copy of the a p p l i c a t i o n form used by each of the two agencies being considered i n t h i s study.  These forms  are given to the prospective f o s t e r parent, to be f i l l e d i n •with s t a t i s t i c a l data.  When the form has been completed i t foster  i s placed i n the f i l e c o n t a i n i n g t h a t particular/home study. The second document i s a copy of a guide of i n s t r u c t i o n s used by the homefinder of the Children's A i d Society i n w r i t i n g up the f o s t e r home r e p o r t . I t w i l l be seen that t h i s guide i s very complete and i f followed should show up not only matters p e r t a i n i n g to the p h y s i c a l . o r t a n g i b l e features of the f o s t e r home, but a l s o some i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the home.  The guide of i n s t r u c t i o n s  allows f o r plenty of scope i n d e s c r i b i n g the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s 16. Canadian C o u n c i l on C h i l d and Family Welfare."Child Placement," September - October, 1925.  - 42 -  of a f o s t e r home. Perhaps the d i f f i c u l t y i s that workers too f r e q u e n t l y f e e l t h a t they must answer most of the  questions  f o l l o w i n g one v i s i t , and thus the r e p o r t sounds very general. Following the two documents described, there w i l l be found copies o f two f o s t e r home s t u d i e s , which w i l l serve as examples of the type o f f o s t e r home study made i n Vancouver. The f i r s t of these was done i n 1941 by a volunteer worker, during  the war when homes were scarce.  by a s k i l l e d homefinder i n 1948.  The second study was made  As the same guide had been  followed i n both s t u d i e s , i t w i l l be seen that the p a t t e r n i s very s i m i l a r f o r both, and that character a n a l y s i s and a d i s cussion of a t t i t u d e s i s l i t t l e more apparent i n one than the other.  One f e e l s that the workers noted a great deal more  about the r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the home than i s i n d i c a t e d i n the report. A f t e r reading these two records i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o observe that the C l i n t o n home was most u n s u i t a b l e , and that the c h i l d who was placed i n the home had to be removed l a t e r .  There  are s e v e r a l suspicious clews i n the study that should have been followed before p l a c i n g a c h i l d i n the home. The f o l l o w i n g ent r y i s made i n the c h i l d ' s f i l e regarding the placement: "Mrs. C l i n t o n was wearing an apron over her housecoat when the worker a r r i v e d . She s a i d she had been anxiously awaiting the c h i l d ' s a r r i v a l . She d i d not appear t o be a t ease w i t h the c h i l d , but kept her distance saying she hoped her husband would know what t o do when he a r r i v e d home. She telephoned her husband and asked him t o come home as soon as p o s s i b l e . She was anxious t o l e a r n when the c h i l d ' s birthday was, since she was i n t e r e s t e d i n numerology." ~~~  The worker attempted t o v i s i t the home a number o f  times a f t e r t h i s , but the f o s t e r mother and c h i l d were always  - 43 -  out when she a r r i v e d .  I t appeared t h a t she took the c h i l d  out every afternoon. The f o s t e r parents gave the c h i l d many t o y s , hut they d i d not care f o r him very w e l l . warmly and was not kept clean.  He was not dressed  The f o s t e r mother d i d not  sees* the heed f o r r o u t i n e . Eventually the f o s t e r parents asked to adopt the child.  However, since t h i s was Impossible they decided to  give him up.  He was removed from the home seven months a f t e r  being placed there.  The c h i l d at t h i s time was two years o l d .  The second f o s t e r home study was made on a home which appears to be a s u c c e s s f u l placement, as the c h i l d  has  f i t t e d w.ell i n t o the f a m i l y and i s secure and w e l l loved. may  be noted that the f o s t e r f a t h e r was not seen during  It  the  study and apparently references were not i n v e s t i g a t e d , since there i s no f u r t h e r entry on the f i l e .  While such f o s t e r homes  o f t e n do t u r n out w e l l , i t would seem that considerable  risk  i s i n v o l v e d i n knowing so l i t t l e about a f o s t e r home. The Vancouver Study As has been stated p r e v i o u s l y , the f i f t y c h i l d r e n i n the study have l i v e d i n a t o t a l of 176 homes.  In order that  some understanding of what has c o n s t i t u t e d favourable and  un-  favourable f o s t e r homes i n Vancouver, i t was decided t h a t a p o r t i o n of these should be read.  A f t e r omitting d u p l i c a t i o n s ,  where a f o s t e r home was.used f o r more than one c h i l d i n the study, and a l s o o m i t t i n g such placements as the r e c e i v i n g homes and the c h i l d s own home, where he was 1  returned- a f t e r being i n  care, the number was reduced to 126 d i f f e r e n t f o s t e r homes.  - 44 -  These were placed I n a l p h a b e t i c a l order and the f i r s t 100 s e l e c t e d f o r s p e c i a l study. One o f the f o s t e r home f i l e s was l a c k i n g the comp l i c a t e d a p p l i c a t i o n form, while another contained the form, but no f o s t e r home study. the form and the study.  The other 98 f i l e s contained both On the whole the f i l e s showed mainly  the work done by the home f i n d e r , and seldom was any f u r t h e r account given o f placement.  However, the names of v a r i o u s  c h i l d r e n placed i n t h a t f o s t e r home were entered as having l i v e d there.  I f the home was l a t e r closed t h i s f a c t was entered  i n the f i l e w i t h a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f the reason f o r the home being c l o s e d . D e s i r a b l e and Undesirable Homes Compared I n order t o a r r i v e a t some method o f comparison, an attempt was made t o c a t e g o r i z e f o s t e r homes as t o whether o r not they had met the needs of the f o s t e r c h i l d placed i n them. Only f i f t y - s i x f a m i l i e s could be considered as "good o r poor, that is d e f i n i t e l y meeting or not meeting the needs o f the f o s t e r children.  The other f o r t y - f o u r f o s t e r homes seemed t o be f a i r l y  adequate, and i t was the personal f e e l i n g o f the w r i t e r t h a t many o f these f o s t e r homes could have met the needs o f the c h i l d ren had a greater attempt been made t o work w i t h the f a m i l i e s before an emergency arose,* o r else t h a t t h i s type o f f o s t e r c h i l d was not acceptable t o them.  Thirty-one f o s t e r homes had t o be  closed due to...such f a c t o r s as death o f f o s t e r parents, s e l l i n g or having t o give up t h e i r home, i l l n e s s of f o s t e r parents, o r a c h i l d being born t o f o s t e r parents.  These closed homes were  - 45 -  were considered as to t h e i r a b i l i t y to meet the p a r t i c u l a r needs of the c h i l d before the time came when the c h i l d had be removed.  The twenty-six f a m i l i e s who  rated "good," meet-  i n g the needs' of the c h i l d adequately, were compared w i t h t h i r t y f a m i l i e s who the c h i l d r e n .  to  rated'poory,"not having met  the  the needs of  A c t u a l l y v a r i a t i o n s between the two groups were  very s l i g h t , and i t i s f e l t that the m a t e r i a l used was not  the  most s i g n i f i c a n t i n determining whether or not a home w i l l meet the needs of a f o s t e r c h i l d , since only tangibles were studied. Age of f o s t e r parents The average age of f o s t e r mothers i n the t o t a l group at the time the o r i g i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s were made was  39.37.  It  appears from t h i s study that f o s t e r mothers from the "good" .' homes are a s l i g h t l y older group than f o r the "poor" f o s t e r homes, as the average age f o r "good" f o s t e r mothers was years, while that of "poor" f o s t e r mothers was  41  34 years.  The  same trend i s shown i n comparing ages of f o s t e r f a t h e r s .  The  average f o r the t o t a l group i s 42.29 years.  The  "good" f o s t e r  f a t h e r s averaged 43 years, while the "poor" f o s t e r f a t h e r s averaged 40. Occupation Occupation of f o s t e r f a t h e r s studied consisted  almost  e n t i r e l y of wage earners, whose occupations were so v a r i e d to permit of no p r a c t i c a l comparison. the p r o f e s s i o n a l group.  One  as  of the fathers was  in  Of the 100 f o s t e r mothers under study,  only 37 stated any previous occupation, s i x of them having been  - 46 -  former school teachers, s i x former f a c t o r y workers, f i v e nurses (three of these "being c h i l d r e n ' s n u r s e s ) , f o u r c l e r k s , three, telephone operators, three, stenographers, three maids, one cook, one w a i t r e s s , one u s h e r e t t e , one one h a i r d r e s s e r ,  physiotherapist,  one bookkeeper and one laundress.  I n com-  paring the "good" and "poor" f o s t e r homes, previous occupat i o n s seem t o have l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e .  Eleven of the twenty-  s i x "good" f o s t e r mothers had worked p r e v i o u s l y riage.  to t h e i r mar-  I n each group there are school teachers, nurses, sten-  ographers and domestic workers. Natural  Children In the t o t a l group there were twenty-four f a m i l i e s  w i t h no c h i l d r e n of t h e i r own, and f i f t e e n f a m i l i e s had c h i l dren grown up and away from home. children.  Two f a m i l i e s had adopted  T h i r t y of the f a m i l i e s had one c h i l d ; twelve had  two c h i l d r e n ; twelve had three c h i l d r e n ; two f a m i l i e s had f o u r c h i l d r e n ; one had f i v e ; one had s i x c h i l d r e n and one f a m i l y had t e n c h i l d r e n , most of whom were grown up and out of the home.  Comparing good and poor f o s t e r homes i t was found that  the 'good f o s t e r home group included  f i v e f a m i l i e s w i t h grown  c h i l d r e n , whereas not a f a m i l y i n the poor group had grown c h i l dren.  Three of the "good" f o s t e r homes had no c h i l d r e n o f t h e i r  own, while eight of the "poor" f a m i l i e s had no c h i l d r e n of t h e i r own.  Eight "good" f o s t e r homes had one c h i l d , and t e n "poor"  homes had one c h i l d .  F i v e "poor"homes had two c h i l d r e n and f o u r  "good" f o s t e r homes had two c h i l d r e n .  F i v e good f o s t e r homes  had three c h i l d r e n , while only two/fos?er homes had three c h i l d r e n .  - 47 -  One "good" f o s t e r home had f o u r c h i l d r e n whereas no"poor"fost e r home had more than three c h i l d r e n . Nationality The n a t i o n a l i t y of "good" and "poor" f o s t e r parents does not seem to be too s i g n i f i c a n t .  Sixteen of the twenty-  s i x "good" f o s t e r mothers were Canadian born; seven were born i n Great B r i t a i n ; one was born i n the United States; one i n Germany; and one i n Poland.  I n the "poor" f o s t e r mother group  t h i r t e e n out of the t h i r t y were Canadian born; t h i r t e e n born i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s ; one was born i n the United States;  two  were German born and one was born i n Hungary. Date of A p p l i c a t i o n Two of the f a m i l i e s i n the t o t a l group made t h e i r o r i g i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n p r i o r to 1930; eight a p p l i e d between 1930 and 1935; eighteen applied between 1935 and 1940; seventeen a p p l i e d between 1940 and 1942; nineteen applied between 1942 and 1944; nineteen applied between 1944 and 1946; and t h i r teen applied a f t e r 1946.  Four a p p l i c a t i o n s were not dated.  The comparison between the "good" and "poor" groups shows a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i n time of a p p l i c a t i o n .  Eleven out of the  twenty-six "good" f o s t e r homes a p p l i e d before 1942, w h i l e twenty out of the t h i r t y "poor" f o s t e r homes applied before 1942.  That  i s approximately one h a l f of the "good" f o s t e r homes were approved before 1942, whereas two-thirds of the "poor" homes were approved before that date.  This may be due to b e t t e r  selecti-  v i t y i n l a t e r years or perhaps i t may be due t o a b e t t e r choice i n the years f o l l o w i n g the war.  Many of the "poor" category of  - 48 -  f o s t e r homes made t h e i r o r i g i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s during the dej  pression years. Accommodation S i z e of f o s t e r home does not seem to be s i g n i f i c a n t . The average f o r the t o t a l group was 5.3 rooms.  The d i f f e r e n c e  i n s i z e of "good" and "poor" f o s t e r homes was only a decimal point apart. Motives The motive given by f o s t e r parents f o r taking c h i l d ren i s always an i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t o r and one which reveals somet h i n g of the a t t i t u d e s of f o s t e r parents. Eighteen of the app l i c a n t s d i d not f i l l i n the space a l l o t t e d f o r motive f o r taking a c h i l d , and one might wonder whether the term "motive" i t s e l f caused some confusion i n t h e i r minds or whether they d i d not understand the term i n some i n s t a n c e s .  T h i r t y of the  eighty-two f o s t e r parents who d i d answer the question, s t a t e d that they d e s i r e d the c h i l d for"companionship"for themselves. Dorothy Hutchison i n her book, I n Quest of Foster Parents i n d i cated that "companionship" i s a poor motive and one which must 17 be c a r e f u l l y watched, panion to an a d u l t .  as no c h i l d can a c t u a l l y a c t as a comI n f a m i l i e s where r e l a t i o n s h i p s are normal,  i t i s not necessary f o r the a d u l t s to have c h i l d r e n as companions . Thirty-two of the f o s t e r f a m i l i e s asked f o r a f o s t e r 17. Hutchinson, Dorothy, I n Quest of Foster Parents. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, New York,' 1943, p. 15.  - 49 -  c h i l d as a companion t o t h e i r own c h i l d .  This too, i s a  d o u b t f u l motive, as i t might mean t h a t the c h i l d would be expected to play a r o l e which f o r him would be impossible.  A  c h i l d as an i n d i v i d u a l can only be h i m s e l f , and t h i s i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t f o r f o s t e r parents t o accept.  Foster parents  often  have i n mind that the c h i l d w i l l a c t as a p a t t e r n f o r t h e i r own c h i l d t o f o l l o w , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e i r own c h i l d has been a disappointment to them.  But i n t h i s way they are not only  r u i n i n g t h e i r own c h i l d ' s chances f o r happy development, but those of the f o s t e r c h i l d as w e l l .  I t has been pointed out  that an i n d i c a t i o n of what a f o s t e r c h i l d may t u r n out t o be may be gained from observing the n a t u r a l c h i l d i n the f a m i l y . 18 The f o s t e r c h i l d w i l l b e " s i m i l a r ; only more so."  That i s ,  i f the n a t u r a l c h i l d i s p o l i t e , then the f o s t e r c h i l d w i l l be expected t o be exceedingly p o l i t e .  I f the n a t u r a l c h i l d goes  without d i s c i p l i n e the f o s t e r c h i l d may be allowed to "run wild."  There are, o f course, instances where f o s t e r c h i l d r e n  are not t r e a t e d the same as n a t u r a l c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y . This i s a very b i t t e r experience f o r the f o s t e r c h i l d . Eight f o s t e r parents i n the study stated that they wished to take a c h i l d f o r f i n a n c i a l reasons and the d e s i r e f o r companionship, together.  Purely f i n a n c i a l motives a r e a l -  ways considered w i t h s u s p i c i o n since the c h i l d may not r e c e i v e adequate care i f the f o s t e r parents wish to make a p r o f i t . 18. Stated a t the i n s t i t u t e on f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , given i n V i c t o r i a , B. C , May 1 - 5, 1949.  - 50 -  However, where there i s frankness i n response as w e l l as a genuine i n t e r e s t i n c h i l d r e n t h i s motive may not be such a bad one.  Perhaps the i n c l u s i o n of the word "companionship"  should give more cause f o r a l e r t n e s s regarding r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the home than the f a c t that f o s t e r parents were open enough to admit that t h e i r s was a f i n a n c i a l need.  Motive  a t any time, should be regarded as only a c l u e ; and because a motive has a s e l f i s h r i n g to i t , t h i s does not mean t h a t the home i s n e c e s s a r i l y a "poor" one.  There were some u n s e l f i s h  motives.given by the f o s t e r parents; however they were i n the minority.  Nine people stated that they wished to give a c h i l d  a home, and nine others wrote simply t h a t they were fond of children.  While these motives cannot be r e l i e d on as a c t u a l  guides as to the a t t i t u d e s of f o s t e r parents, i t would seem that the f o s t e r parents are t h i n k i n g about the c h i l d and h i s needs rather than t h e i r own s e l f i s h d e s i r e s .  There were some  motives given i n i n d i v i d u a l cases where the motive had an unhealthy r i n g t o i t .  One f o s t e r mother s a i d she wished a c h i l d  i n order to keep h e r s e l f occupied, another s a i d she needed somet h i n g to care f o r , another f o s t e r couple who were both ex-wards of a s o c i e t y gave as t h e i r reason f o r requesting a c h i l d : "to give a c h i l d what we missed."  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n such as t h i s i s  somewhat dangerous, and could be a clue to n e u r o t i c needs.  It  i s e s s e n t i a l that the homefinder l e a r n whether such people r e a l l y want a c h i l d .  Another f o s t e r mother stated she was  ested i n dressing l i t t l e g i r l s .  inter-  I n such cases workers must be  aware of the f a c t that t h i s might be the d e s i r e of the "lady  - 51 -  b o u n t i f u l " who helps the "poor orphan" i n order to impress her f r i e n d s , or f o r other n a r c i s s i s t i c reasons.  Such persons do  not a l l o w a c h i l d to develop i t s i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y , but d e s i r e the c h i l d to conform to a p a t t e r n set by the f o s t e r mother.  The f o s t e r c h i l d grows up w i t h a f e e l i n g of worthless-  ness, i n an environment where she i s expected to be g r a t e f u l . One o l d e r f o s t e r f a t h e r a p p l i e d f o r an o l d e r boy s t a t i n g he wished him as farm help.  Many c h i l d r e n were placed on t h i s farm  and i t appears from the f i l e that t h i s was a frank f o s t e r f a t h e r who needed help, but who could and d i d care f o r many f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , proving to be a most valuable f o s t e r home f o r many years.  The motives " c h i l d ' s companion?' f o r "companionship" and  "finance" seem to be f a i r l y evenly d i v i d e d between the "good" and "poor" f o s t e r homes.  For every motive given by "poor" f o s -  t e r parents, there seems to be a matching one on the s i d e o f the  "good" parents. For example, as would be expected, the  motive "to give a c h i l d what we missed" came from one of the "poor" f o s t e r parent groups.  However, one f i n d s among$he "good"  group the motive "to give a c h i l d a h o m e — l o s t own parents." Motives, then, i t appears, can only be regarded as clues to a t t i tudes, and f o s t e r parents can only be s e l e c t e d when they are w e l l known and understood by case worker. Age and Sex of C h i l d Desired Another most i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t of the study was the r e s ponse to the query as to type of c h i l d d e s i r e d . the  F o r t y - t h r e e of  one hundred f a m i l i e s i n the study asked f o r a g i r l to be  placed i n t h e i r home, while nineteen asked f o r a boy.  Twenty-  - 52 -  nine f o s t e r f a m i l i e s stated they would take e i t h e r a boy o r a g i r l , and nine d i d not r e p l y , which would apparently i n d i c a t e that they would take e i t h e r g i r l s or boys.  There i s no s i g -  n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h i s respect between the "good" and "poor" f o s t e r homes.  The r e s u l t s a r e as f o l l o w s :  Thirteen of  the "good" f o s t e r homes requested a g i r l ; two requested a boy; f i v e i n d i c a t e d that they would take e i t h e r a g i r l or boy and s i x d i d not f i l l i n the a l l o t t e d space.  Fourteen of the "poor"  f o s t e r homes requested a g i r l ; s i x requested boys; e i g h t i n d i c a t e d they would take e i t h e r g i r l s or boys, and two d i d not reply. R e l a t i o n s h i p s W i t h i n the Home The most s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i s shown i n the scant paragraphs i n the study by the homefinder d e s c r i b i n g the homemaking e f f o r t s o f ^ f o s t e r parents, r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the home and i n t e r e s t s outside the home.  One gets the impression that  since the small amount of m a t e r i a l presented i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s so s i g n i f i c a n t , a f u l l e r d e s c r i p t i o n of the f a m i l y w i t h i n the home, w i t h a b e t t e r understanding of a l l ' t h e members of the fami l y and w i t h more adequate r e c o r d i n g , a great d e a l more about the needs of the f a m i l y could be understood. Six  out of the t h i t t y / " p o o r " f o s t e r parents kept spot-  l e s s l y c l e a n homes, the f a s t i d i o u s homemaker being more i n t e r ested i n appearance than i n the happiness and comfort o f the occupant.  I n the "good" f o s t e r home category, there are some  references to care o f homes, but they sound l e s s extreme than  -53 the "poor" f o s t e r home group.  One o f these r e f e r s t o the f a c t  that the mother i n the home i s a good housekeeper, one states that the house i s homey and looks l i v e d i n , another states the mother enjoys her home and f a m i l y .  that  Several other f o s t e r  parents i n the "poor" group show r i g i d i t y i n other f a c t o r s . One  f o s t e r mother i n s i s t e d on i n s t a n t obedience from her own  and other c h i l d r e n i n the home, other f o s t e r parents are d e s c r i bed i n the record as demanding, r i g i d , f i r m , c o l d , impatient, tense.  Several o f the "poor" category o f f o s t e r parents showed  evidence o f i l l n e s s .  One f o s t e r f a t h e r suffered from stomach  u l c e r s , two f i l e s showed both parents i n poor h e a l t h .  One  f o s t e r father i n the "poor" group was b l i n d , and one f o s t e r mother was s e n s i t i v e about her hearing a i d .  Three of the "poor"  f o s t e r parents were upset by the f a c t that the f o s t e r  children  d i d not seem t o respond to t h e i r overtures, and they described the c h i l d r e n as " c o l d . "  Persons such as these, and a l s o two  other f a m i l i e s who were annoyed a t the n a t u r a l parents' v i s i t i n g , may not be s u i t a b l e as f o s t e r parents, as they appear t o be unable to share the c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e i r n a t u r a l parents. I f these f o s t e r parents appear t o be adequate persons i n other ways, but need t o receive love as w e l l as t o give i t , perhaps they could be considered as adoptive parents, as they would then be i n a p o s i t i o n t o claim the c h i l d ' s a f f e c t i o n e n t i r e l y f o r themselves. Interests One noteworthy f a c t o r found among f o s t e r parents i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f a c t that i n the "poor" category f i v e out  - 54 -  t h i r t y professed a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n music whereas i n the "good" f o s t e r parent group only one expressed i n t e r e s t i n music.  Perhaps a suggested reason f o r t h i s might be l a c k o f  a t t r i b u t e s i n the "poor" f o s t e r home group made the worker emphasize the musical f a c t o r . F i v e o f the "poor" group have ilno i n t e r e s t s outside of the home," and only i n two cases i s i t mentioned that the parents are i n t e r e s t e d i n church work.  On the other hand,  seven o f the "good" f o s t e r parents- are a c t i v e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r church or community, although there was one home w i t h a f o s t e r mother w i t h no outside i n t e r e s t s . Maternal and Paternal  Qualities  Mention i s made of f o s t e r mothers being  affectionate  or motherly i n eleven o f the twenty-six "good" f o s t e r homes. Only i n three of the "poor" f o s t e r homes are f o s t e r parents described i n t h i s manner.  Instead they are r e f e r r e d t o as  "pleasant, s e n s i b l e , sympathetic."  One f o s t e r home i n each of  the "good" and "poor" categories was described as u n t i d y . I n one of the "good" f o s t e r homes the record showed that the f o s t e r mother domineered her husband.  One would guess that i n the  others the worker d i d not know the homes w e l l enough t o judge whether t h i s was so i n the others.  Since there i s ground f o r  b e l i e v i n g that most f o s t e r homes a r e of the m a t r i a r c h i a l type since i t i s the f o s t e r mother who requests and l a r g e l y cares f o r the c h i l d r e n , perhaps t h i s i s a common f a i l i n g .  One o f  the "poor"foster homes showed the f o s t e r f a t h e r as being "phler." There are several references t o apparently inadequate f o s t e r  - 55 -  fathers i n both "good" and "poor" c a t e g o r i e s .  One f o s t e r  father i n the "good" category i s described as "nervous," another " a n i c e quiet man," i n another the f o s t e r mother feared the f o s t e r f a t h e r would not l i k e the c h i l d r e n , but placement worked out w e l l , since t h i s home came i n the "good" group.  I n the "poor" group there a r e the f o l l o w i n g apparently  inadequate f o s t e r f a t h e r s :  one f o s t e r f a t h e r away; two f o s t e r  f a t h e r s not i n t e r e s t e d i n c h i l d r e n ; one f o s t e r f a t h e r b l i n d ; one f o s t e r f a t h e r i s described as quick tempered, another imp a t i e n t w i t h the c h i l d r e n , and as has been stated, one f o s t e r had stomach u l c e r s .  On the other hand, one f o s t e r f a t h e r i n  the "poor" category i s described as " i n t e l l i g e n t ; " another as being " a t t r a c t i v e ; one as being "easy going;" another "happygo-lucky;" another as'hard-working" and two as " l o v i n g c h i l d ren."  I t would appear that there are v a r i a t i o n s of f o s t e r f a t h -  ers i n both "good" and "poor" homes.  On the whole i t would  seem that the f o s t e r f a t h e r s are not too w e l l known and that l i t t l e i s done to a i d them i n understanding the c h i l d , who i s being cared f o r i i i t h e i r homes. are an untapped resource.  Foster f a t h e r s , i t would seem,  I t i s only f a i r l y r e c e n t l y that the  n e c e s s i t y f o r a good father-person i n a home i s e s s e n t i a l t o the normal development of both boys and g i r l s . Source Whether or not the word "source" on the a p p l i c a t i o n form causes confusion as t o what i s meant by t h i s term i s not known, however, f i f t y - f i v e out o f one hundred a p p l i c a n t s wered the question.  ans-  The greatest number o f r e f e r r a l s came from  - 56 -  f o s t e r mothers.  Nineteen applicants were r e f e r r e d t o the  agencies by other f o s t e r mothers.  F i f t e e n were r e f e r r e d by  r e l a t i v e s or friends, thirteen applied following i n the newspapers or on the r a d i o .  advertising  Three f o s t e r mothers were  r e f e r r e d by t h e i r p r i e s t o r m i n i s t e r , and three by p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s — a V. 0 . N. worker, a Y. W. C. A. worker and one by a s o c i a l worker. was  Comparing the "good" and "poor" f o s t e r homes i t •  found that only t h i r t e e n of the twenty-six r e p l i e d t o the  question^, i n the "good" f o s t e r home group, whereas twenty out of t h i r t y o f the "poor" f o s t e r home group r e p l i e d .  Among t h i r -  teen "good" f o s t e r parents f i v e answered advertisements; four were r e f e r r e d by f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s ; three were r e f e r r e d by f o s t e r mothers and one was r e f e r r e d by the m i n i s t e r o f her church. The d i v i s i o n f o r the "poor" f o s t e r home group i s as f o l l o w s : eleven r e f e r r a l s by f o s t e r mothers; f i v e by a d v e r t i s i n g ; three by f r i e n d s and one by a s o c i a l worker.  I t i s doubtful i f these  f i g u r e s are too s i g n i f i c a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y since so many o f the a p p l i c a n t s d i d not f i l l i n the space i n the q u e s t i o n a i r e . Location of Foster Homes Both the C a t h o l i c Children's  A i d the Children's  i e t y o f Vancouver use mainly c i t y f o s t e r homes.  Soc-  However, the  C a t h o l i c Children's Aid does extend throughout the Fraser V a l l e y as f a r as Agassiz.  The Children's  t e r r i t o r y as f a r as Langley. f o r r u r a l placements.  Aid Society  includes  There i s no hard and f a s t r u l e  Wherever i t i s f e l t t o be i n the c h i l d ' s  i n t e r e s t t o be placed i n the country, t h i s i s done.  R u r a l and  urban placements cannot w e l l be compared, therefore.  Out of  the one hundred f o s t e r homes studied, twenty-seven were considered to be r u r a l placements, w h i l e seventy-three are urban. Foster homes i n Vancouver and New Westminster were considered to be c i t y placements, w h i l e those o u t s i d e these areas were considered t o be r u r a l .  -There might be some c r i t i c i s m of such  d i f f e r e n t a t i o n , since many of the so-cal&ed c i t y placements.:  .'..y.J:  a c t u a l l y are s i t u a t e d some distance from neighbours or on l a r g e l o t s of land.  On the other hand, many of the r u r a l placements  might a c t u a l l y be s i t u a t e d i n one of the smaller c i t i e s or towns i n the Fraser V a l l e y .  As i t was d i f f i c u l t i n so many cases t o  determine when t h i s was so, the present system was devised f o r separating c i t y and r u r a l placements.  The "good" f o s t e r home":  placements consisted of s i x t e e n c i t y placements and t e n r u r a l placements.  While the "poor" f o s t e r home group consisted of  twenty-two c i t y placements and eight r u r a l placements. Reasons f o r C l o s i n g Homes Of the t h i r t y - o n e homes which were closed by the time t h i s study was made, the reason given f o r the c l o s i n g of three of them was that the f o s t e r parents had d i e d ; t e n were closed because a member o f the f o s t e r f a m i l y became i l l ; four f a m i l i e s had moved away, three of the f o s t e r f a m i l i e s had had a c h i l d of t h e i r own, so gave up the f o s t e r c h i l d .  Some homes were closed  by the s o c i a l workers because i n f i v e cases the mothers were not s u i t e d to t h e i r task; while of one  tfefie  f i l e states she was h i g h  strung and emotional; of another n e u r o t i c ; one was " c o l d w i t h the c h i l d r e n ; " and another whipped the c h i l d r e n ; whereas another  - 58 -  became "too attached to the c h i l d r e n , " another decided t o take p r i v a t e placements; two were considered too o l d to cope w i t h the c h i l d r e n while another f o s t e r mother f e l t unequal t o the task as her husband was away; and one f a m i l y had r e l a t i v e s come to stay w i t h them. The f o s t e r home study serves to a i d the homefinder i n determining whether the home should be used a t a l l ; whether the people i n t h a t home r e a l l y want a c h i l d , or have the idea that having a c h i l d i n t h e i r home w i l l solve some of t h e i r problems.  Thus she must know the f a m i l y i n t i m a t e l y .  It is  only through such knowledge t h a t some understanding may come as to what type of c h i l d w i l l be s u i t a b l e f o r t h e i r home, and where they, as f o s t e r parents, may make the g r e a t e s t c o n t r i bution.  c  - 39  -  Chapter IV  PROFESSIONAL USE  OF FOSTER HOMES  A f t e r surveying whether or not a f o s t e r home i s s u i t a b l e , the next step i s to attempt to f i t the r i g h t c h i l d i n t o the r i g h t f o s t e r home.  I n order to do t h i s the  worker must know the c h i l d and f o s t e r f a m i l y so w e l l that she thoroughly knows the needs of each.  There must be some  system whereby the workers know what homes are a v a i l a b l e , and what can be expected from each i n the way of a f f e c t i o n ; what are the standards w i t h i n the f o s t e r home; and whether or not the f o s t e r f a m i l y are able to accept a c h i l d who f a m i l y t i e s or who may date.  has  be removed from t h e i r home a t a l a t e r  I t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y an i n d i c a t i o n of a poor type of  f o s t e r parent when a worker f i n d s that they could not poss i b l y accept a c h i l d ' s f a m i l y .  I t may  be that these f o s t e r  parents would r e a l i z e more happiness f o r themselves and f o r the c h i l d i f they took an adoptable c h i l d , and became adopting parents, since they could not share the c h i l d . way  In t h i s  they would be able to give some c h i l d permanent s e c u r i t y ,  and an opportunity  to f i n d roots i n the world.  I t may  readily  be seen that there would be no point i n attempting to place a c h i l d w i t h n a t u r a l f a m i l y t i e s w i t h such a f a m i l y .  He would  be expected to love h i s new f a m i l y , but he would be unable to do so, since i t was  s t i l l p o s s i b l e to c l i n g to h i s own  f o r a f f e c t i o n . There are f o s t e r parents who  family  can give l o v e ,  y e t demand n e i t h e r love nor g r a t i t u d e i n r e t u r n .  There are  - 60 -  people who are mature enough t h a t they have no need t o make demands upon others.  Thus these parents are able t o g i v e a  c h i l d good p h y s i c a l care and a t t e n t i o n , y e t leave him f r e e f o r h i s own a f f e c t i o n a l t i e s . The problem of f a m i l y t i e s i s given only as an example, and because i t represents one of the more common d i f f i c u l t i e s o f f o s t e r home placement. en§ "is  Another very frequent  of enuresis. Many f o s t e r c h i l d r e n being away  from home, f e e l i n s e c u r e , unloved, and t h e r e f o r e h o s t i l e t o ward s o c i e t y .  I f f o s t e r parents can accept the basis o f such  behaviour, they w i l l be able t o show understanding o f the c h i l d , so that h i s problem may be overcome.  However, i f the  f o s t e r parents cannot t o l e r a t e t h i s c o n d i t i o n , the problem w i l l i n c r e a s e , since the c h i l d w i l l f e e l even l e s s secure i n the f o s t e r home, and unconsciously i n d i c a t e i n thms manner even greater h o s t i l i t y toward a world where he i s not understood. The worker, knowing what f o s t e r parents have t o give and what they want themselves, from a c h i l d , must match t h i s knowledge w i t h a c h i l d who i s i n need of a f o s t e r home. She must understand h i s needs i n order t o determine i f the home can meet them.  Perhaps she may r e a l i z e that a p a r t i c u -  l a r c h i l d may f i t i n t o a home a t a l a t e r date, but could not do so immediately.  The use o f the temporary f o s t e r home f o r  c h i l d r e n who have severe problems, o r who have gone through very traumatic experiences may be helped w i t h these d i f f i c u l -  t i e s i s discussed i n a l a t e r chapter.  The purpose of t h i s  i s that a f t e r what might be c a l l e d a convalescent  period  the c h i l d r e n may be "well! enough t o go i n t o the ordinary o r 1  normal f o s t e r home and become a member of the group.  Fortu-  n a t e l y , there are f o s t e r parents who are able t o help d i s turbed c h i l d r e n i n a " l a y - p r o f e s s i o n a l " manner, and who f i n d the work challenging and s a t i s f y i n g .  They are able t o put up  w i t h the c h i l d r e n through very d i s t u r b e d periods knowing t h a t sometime the c h i l d w i l l go from them a happy i n d i v i d u a l , w i t h a normal opportunity f o r emotional growth. The Role of the Foster Father Because most f o s t e r homes are of the m a t r i a r c h i a l k i n d , the f o s t e r mother t a k i n g on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c a r i n g f o r the c h i l d , s o c i a l workers have tended to overlook the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of f o s t e r f a t h e r s .  I t i s w e l l known t h a t  i n order t o develop normally, a c h i l d must grow i n harmony w i t h both parents.  As an i n f a n t he i s tended almost e x c l u -  s i v e l y by the mother person, i n most i n s t a n c e s . . The " a n a l " or t o i l e t t r a i n i n g period i s mainly t h e ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the mother, as w e l l .  However, f o l l o w i n g t h i s i t i s essen-  t i a l that a c h i l d conquer the "oedipus" stage when he f a l l s i n love w i t h h i s parent o f the opposite sex, using him f o r h i s p a t t e r n f o r growing and maturing.  I t must be recognized  where t h e r e . i s no f o s t e r f a t h e r , or where he i s an inadequate person or f e e l s that he has no part t o play i n b r i n g i n g up the f o s t e r c h i l d , the c h i l d , whether a g i r l or a boy, s u f f e r s as a r e s u l t .  I f she i s a g i r l , she has not the opportunity  - 62 of r e s o l v i n g her oedipus c o n f l i c t , and i f he i s a hoy he has no male p a t t e r n w i t h which t o i d e n t i f y l a t e r . In the 100 f i l e s which were read i n making the f o s t e r home s e c t i o n o f the study, i t was d i f f i c u l t i n most instances t o t e l l whether o r not the f o s t e r f a t h e r was seen by e i t h e r homefinder, or i f the d e s c r i p t i o n o f him i n the record was what the f o s t e r mother t o l d the worker about him. His a t t i t u d e s t o the c h i l d are too important t o be overlooked. Perhaps the c h i l d may represent a t h r e a t t o the f o s t e r f a t h e r , or perhaps the f o s t e r mother i s requesting a c h i l d because she b e l i e v e s her husband would l i k e t o have a c h i l d , when t h i s i s not a c t u a l l y the case.  As has been discussed i n the previous  chapter, i t i s e s s e n t i a l that both parents be' contacted separa t e l y and together i n order t o determine r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e i r mutual d e s i r e t o have a c h i l d i n t h e i r home. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the f o s t e r f a t h e r i s c l e a r l y demonstrated i n the f o l l o w i n g summary o f a case record: Harry's parents separated a f t e r s e v e r a l years of m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t y and s u s p i c i o n a g a i n s t one another. The three c h i l d r e n were placed w i t h the A. f a m i l y . This was a home i n which there were no n a t u r a l c h i l d r e n and where the f o s t e r f a t h e r was a very k i n d l y man, i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s home and very fond o f c h i l d r e n . He and h i s w i f e seemed t o be very happy together and were i n t e r e s t e d i n community l i f e . However, when Mr. A's. mother became i l l , Mrs. A. requested that the c h i l d r e n be removed as i t was necessary f o r her t o care f o r her mother-in-law. At the time the worker f e l t that Mrs. A. was jealous o f the a t t e n t i o n her husband gave the c h i l d r e n . I t w i l l be seen that while Mr. A. i s q u i t e adequate as a f o s t e r f a t h e r , c h i l d r e n I n the home represent a t h r e a t t o the family.  This i s an Instance where there would be some doubt  - 63 as t o whether the family a c t u a l l y ever wanted c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r home.  I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e that a woman such as Mrs. A,  requested a c h i l d b e l i e v i n g her husband desired one. Due t o d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g homes where the three c h i l d r e n could be placed together, i t was decided that Harry should be placed apart from h i s s i s t e r s . The B. f a m i l y w i t h whom he was placed were f i n e f o s t e r parents. They were an easy going type of family and very fond of c h i l d r e n . No reason i s given f o r the c h i l d ' s removal and Harry remained f i v e months. H i s next f o s t e r home was close t o where h i s s i s t e r s were staying. Apparently the placement worked out w e l l , however, the f o s t e r mothers mother was not w e l l and Mrs. C. gave up the c h i l d . Up t o t h i s point he had been a most a f f e c t i o n a t e c h i l d ; however, when he was placed i n the Receiving Home he was very d e s t r u c t i v e . His next placement was a happy one f o r Harry. The f o s t e r mother had a pleasant d i s p o s i t i o n , was good w i t h l i t t l e c h i l d r e n , and belonged t o clubs. The f o s t e r f a t h e r was a q u i e t , hard-working man, who was very fond of Harry. Mrs. D. t o l d the worker that her husband had q u i t e " f a l l e n f o r the c h i l d . " Mrs. D. was k i n d but f i r m w i t h the c h i l d and they had no d i f f i c u l t y w i t h him. Everyone i n the home loved him and they wished t o keep him permanently. Suddenly the f o s t e r f a t h e r died. This was a sad blow f o r Harry and when the worker came t o move the c h i l d r e n he d i d not wish t o leave. He s a i d he would run away and f i n d h i s daddy (the f o s t e r f a t h e r ) . The next f o s t e r home was a fortunate move, f o r again there was a superior f o s t e r f a t h e r , Mr. E. Harry c a l l e d him"Uncle Bob" and " t r a i l e d a f t e r him," to Mr. E's d e l i g h t . The f o s t e r mother was very much i n t e r e s t e d i n c h i l d r e n and the worker f e l t she gave them a f e e l i n g of s e c u r i t y . This pleasant home s i t u a t i o n was not to l a s t long f o r Harry, however, f o r the f o s t e r mother developed a chest c o n d i t i o n and i t was feared there might be a p o s s i b i l i t y of tuberc u l o s i s . Therefore i t was necessary t o remove Harry from the home. The f o s t e r parents were very sorry to have him leave, and asked that they might have him back again when Mrs. E. was b e t t e r . The F. f o s t e r home was one which had been used f o r several f o s t e r c h i l d r e n i n the past. Mrs. F. was a k i n d l y person, i n t e r e s t e d i n her home and f a m i l y , Following so much moving about Harry began wetting the bed. As he was  - 64 s i x years o l d the f o s t e r f a t h e r was very annoyed. He seemed very fond of h i s home and f a m i l y , but showed no acceptance of Harry, and took no i n t e r e s t i n him. This was a hard blow f o r the c h i l d . He developed an i n d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e and when the case worker c a l l e d he asked to be taken away. Harry was moved to the G. f o s t e r home. He i s loved by both, f o s t e r parents and states that he wishes to marry Mrs. ^ G. The worker f e e l s that he i s permanently s e t t l e d i n the home. Enuresis s t i l l p e r s i s t s , but seems to be l e s s e n i n g as he develops s e c u r i t y i n the home. This case shows s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t s . out  the f o s t e r fathers played a prominent r o l e i n the c h i l d ' s  development. the  Through-  However, f o l l o w i n g the unsuccessful placement i n  F. home i t was necessary f o r the c h i l d to regress to the pre-  vious stage where he had received s a t i s f a c t i o n , and so i s " i n love w i t h " h i s f o s t e r mother.  Undoubtedly, when he f e e l s secure  enough i n h i s \ f o s t e r mother's l o v e , he can progress again to the phase of development i n which he w i l l i d e n t i f y w i t h a male f i g ure. This record i s valuable i n showing that"bad l u c k " can. cause the best placements to f a i l as Harry had to leave then and E. f o s t e r homes.  However, i t must a l s o be pointed out, that  there appear to be some apparently c a r e l e s s placements when the true f a m i l y p i c t u r e was not recognized by the worker. Harry's placement i n the F. home i n d i c a t e s what appears to be a common problem i n c h i l d placement.  How o f t e n workers say,  "Hfers. So-and-so i s a wonderful f o s t e r mother; she can take any child."  I t should be pointed out that there i s no guarantee that  because s i x or ten f o s t e r c h i l d r e n have f i t t e d i n t o a p a r t i c u l a r f o s t e r home, that every c h i l d w i l l .  Even i f the f o s t e r mother can  -  65  -  "take every c h i l d , " there i s s t i l l the matter t o he reckoned w i t h that the c h i l d has s p e c i a l needs and t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f o s t e r home may not meet them.  I t i s necessary that "known"  f o s t e r homes he assessed as c a r e f u l l y as new homes, f o r both must meet the needs of the c h i l d .  The matter o f acceptance can  never be taken f o r granted. Another i n t e r e s t i n g observation elsewhere i n thev-flies regarding t h i s f a m i l y i s that Harry's two s i s t e r s who were placed together throughout a l s o had seven placements.  These two g i r l s  were such severe enuretics t h a t f o s t e r mothers found i t d i f f i c u l t t o cope w i t h t h e i r problem.  One might speculate as t o  whether there i s a f a m i l y weakness since a l l three c h i l d r e n were enuretic problems a t one time or another, or whether the i n s t a b i l i t y they had known i n t h e i r own home plus the i n s t a b i l i t y caused from moving so f r e q u e n t l y made them insecure t o the extent that the h a b i t p e r s i s t e d .  There i s a l s o a question of whether o r  not seven placements were required before three c h i l d r e n could become adjusted t o normal home l i v i n g .  Strange as i t may seem,  t h i s i s the reasoning of c e r t a i n workers i n e x p l a i n i n g the problem of m u l t i p l e placement. A home which adequately met the needs o f the c h i l d r e n , given some working out of r e l a t i o n s h i p s regarding t h e i r n a t u r a l f a m i l y , should have made f u r t h e r placement unnecessary.  Perhaps  the two g i r l s i n the f a m i l y should not have been kept together. This i s a matter r e q u i r i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n i n d i v i d u a l cases, and a c t i o n taken in. the best i n t e r e s t s o f the c h i l d r e n i n d i v i d u ally.  As has been pointed out, c e r t a i n f a m i l i e s can accept one  c h i l d , y e t cannot accept another.  - 66 -  HOMES of Widows The study shows that f r e q u e n t l y widows d e s i r e to be f o s t e r mothers and t h a t u s u a l l y the r e s u l t s are q u i t e good, s i n c e so o f t e n widows have time to devote to the f o s ter c h i l d .  However, there i s always the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a  widow, being l o n e l y , may use the c h i l d to meet her emotional needs, almost smothering the c h i l d w i t h a f f e c t i o n so t h a t i t i s not able to grow emotionally. On the other hand, some widows take c h i l d r e n f o r f i n a n c i a l reasons and give only physi c a l care> and the c h i l d r e n are deprived of a f f e c t i o n .  This  appear to have been the case w i t h one f o s t e r mother who looked a f t e r c h i l d r e n , two of whom came w i t h i n the scope of the study. Mrs. Brent i s a widow w i t h a grown-up daughter. She a p p l i e d f o r c h i l d r e n i n 1930 and cared f o r many babies f o r the Children's A i d S o c i e t y f o r many y e a r s . She kept her house s p o t l e s s l y c l e a n and gave the babies i n her charge the best of care. Mrs. B. was 42 years of age at the time t h a t the two g i r l s Sadie and B e t t y came i n t o her care. These were unr e l a t e d c h i l d r e n . However the placement was an unhappy one f o r both c h i l d r e n . Sadie was one year o l d a t the time of placement i n the home. Mrs. B. being very busy, gave her l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n . The c h i l d f o l l o w e d her about the house, whining as she went. Mrs. B. confessed that she did not l i k e the c h i l d , and e v e n t u a l l y the c h i l d was r e moved . While Mrs. B. was able to give good p h y s i c a l care to babies, i t appeared that she had l i t t l e time f o r l o v i n g them and meeting t h e i r emotional needs.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to ob-  serve that she could not accept the one year o l d c h i l d , a time when many f o s t e r mothers f i n d c h i l d r e n to have p a r t i c u l a r charm.  Again, i t may be s t r e s s e d t h a t workers can never take  f o r granted t h a t a c h i l d w i l l f i t i n t o a home known p r e v i o u s l y to the agency.  Betty went to Mrs. B's. home as an infant.and  - 67 -  remained u n t i l she was four years of age.  The f o l l o w i n g  information i s taken d i r e c t l y from the record: At the age of eighteen months "she sucks her thumb i n s p i t e of her arms being put i n cardboard r o l l s . " The f o s t e r mother w i l l t r y m i t t s to break the h a b i t . Betty i s a c h i l d who i s d i f f i c u l t to know and does not make f r i e n d s e a s i l y . She has l a t e l y developed the h a b i t of banging her forehead on the playpen. She does not sleep during the day. Betty's behaviour would seem to i n d i c a t e that she was not r e c e i v i n g s u f f i c i e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n and at eighteen months she was r e a c t i n g i n a manner f r e q u e n t l y used by c h i l dren not r e c e i v i n g a t t e n t i o n and a f f e c t i o n adequate f o r t h e i r needs.  The curbing of the thumb sucking h a b i t was i n accord-  ance w i t h the philosophy of the past decade.  One year l a t e r  there i s l i t t l e evidence of improvement: "Betty i s a very t i d y l i t t l e s o u l . She helps her f o s t e r mother, but i s bossy w i t h other c h i l d r e n . She f i g h t s w i t h a c h i l d a year o l d e r than h e r s e l f . She s t i l l sucks her thumb. She does not sleep w e l l , and l i e s awake n e a r l y three hours a f t e r she i s put to bed." The f o l l o w i n g year there i s f u r t h e r evidence of maladjustment: "Betty w i l l be four years o l d next February-. She has been i n her present f o s t e r home ever since her f i r s t month and i s regarded by the f o s t e r mother as a c h i l d of the home. The worker regrets to say that Betty's behaviour i s not a c r e d i t to the f o s t e r mother. She i s u n s o c i a l , disobedient, h i g h l y e x c i t a b l e and uncooperative. Her only companions have .been a t a l k a t i v e middle-aged f o s t e r mother, the teen-age daughter of the house and various babies placed temporarily on a boarding basis.. Betty i s fond of the babies. r  She sucks a l l four f i n g e r s of e i t h e r hand. When spoken to she hangs her head and hides around her f o s t e r mother's s k i r t s . The f o s t e r mother lunges at her and threatens 'a good spanking' i n the worker's presence. This does not have much e f f e c t . Betty runs l i k e a hare  - 68  -  as soon as she catches s i g h t o f . a C. A. S. car or the worker. The home i s a model of c l e a n l i n e s s and r o u t i n e . " The f o l l o w i n g year Betty was sent away a month f o r the summer holidays and Hrs. B. resented t h i s very much. Upon the c h i l d ' s r e t u r n she was moved to another home.  The .  f o s t e r mother was so upset that the home was closed. Seven widows, a s i n g l e woman and a f o s t e r mother who had had a j u d i c i a l separation were included i n the study. The majority of these women have done very n i c e l y w i t h the c h i l d r e n placed i n t h e i r care.  Perhaps these homes could he  b e t t e r used as temporary f o s t e r homes.  However, i n some  cases the c h i l d has a t i e to the n a t u r a l f a t h e r , as i n the case of Bobby c i t e d i n Chapter I I .  The case of E d i t h i s i n -  t e r e s t i n g because of a t i e to a previous f o s t e r f a t h e r . E d i t h was p r i v a t e l y placed by her mother a t b i r t h w i t h a view to adoption. However, when the adopting parents l a t e r disagreed and separated i t came to the a t t e n t i o n of the a u t h o r i t i e s that Edith's mother who was Roman C a t h o l i c had placed her c h i l d f o r adoption i n a Protestant home. E d i t h was then committed as a ward of the C. C. A. S. and was placed i n the home of Mrs. C , a widow, with four grown daughters. E d i t h was two years of age a t the time of placement and has remained i n t h i s f o s t e r home ever s i n c e . She i s now ten years of age. Her former adopting parents found i t d i f f i c u l t to give up the c h i l d and her adopting father ha maintained • a contact w i t h her, v i s i t i n g f r e q u e n t l y and b r i n g i n g her g i f t s . There i s a strong t i e between him and the child. E d i t h i s very w e l l cared f o r and g r e a t l y loved by the f o s t e r mother and her f a m i l y . She i s sweet-tempered and a f f e c t i o n a t e and the f o s t e r mother f i n d s no r e a l problem i n handling her. The c h i l d does very w e l l i n school. A l l her marks are i n the 90's. She says she wants to be properly t r a i n e d f o r her work i n l i f e . She i s l e a r n i n g piano and a l s o taking tap dancing lessons. She regards her f o s t e r mother, who i s now over s i x t y years of age, as a grandmother.  - 69 Homes such as the one described above have a great d e a l to o f f e r f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . The f a c t that the f o r mer adopting f a t h e r has remained i n the p i c t u r e has  given  f u r t h e r s e c u r i t y to the c h i l d . P r o f e s s i o n a l Assistance The matching of the needs of the c h i l d w i t h the needs of f o s t e r parents c a l l s f o r the keenest s k i l l and judgment on the part of the c h i l d welfare worker.  But perhaps the greatest  s k i l l of the p r o f e s s i o n i s c a l l e d f o r a i n h e l p i n g the c h i l d and the f o s t e r parents to adjust to each other's p a t t e r n of l i v i n g , so that placement i s a pleasant and wholesome e x p e r i ence.  S k i l l e d casework at t h i s time makes the d i f f e r e n c e be-  tween a c h i l d remaining i n the f o s t e r home i n which he placed, and moving to a s e r i e s of homes.  was  I t means the d i f f e r -  ence between being loved, understood and developing f e e l i n g s of s e c u r i t y i n the home, and the absence of these q u a l i t i e s plus d i s t o r t e d f e e l i n g s which l i m i t the c h i l d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and emotionally.  Workers w i t h a moderate caseload should not  need to place c h i l d r e n too f r e q u e n t l y .  Their d a i l y task i s  rather that of helping c h i l d r e n to be a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o f o s t e r homes where they derive s a t i s f a c t i o n from the home s i t u a t i o n which t h e i r own home f o r some reason was not able to give to them.  The guage of good case work w i t h f o s t e r c h i l d r e n might  w e l l be the r e l a t i v e l y small number of her placements, as w e l l as the happy adjustment of c h i l d r e n to l i f e away from the natu r a l home. I t has been already noted that records do not show what q u a l i t y of case work i s being done i n f o s t e r homes.  - 70 -  Workers are more i n c l i n e d to record only the problems r e l a t i n g to the c h i l d i n the home and omit most d e t a i l s of the p a r t they played i n attempting to deal with these problems.  Thus i t i s d i f f i c u l t to show to any great extent the  amount or type of casework that i s being done.  I n the f o l -  lowing record i t w i l l be noted that the worker has missed d i s cussing the a c t u a l problem of d e a l i n g w i t h the c h i l d ' s t i e to h i s own parents, and considered i n s t e a d the more s u p e r f i c i a l problem of t r y i n g to stop the enuresis d i f f i c u l t y ;  that i s ,  she d e a l t w i t h the problem on a surface l e v e l rather than attempting to solve the cause of the d i f f i c u l t y .  The  inter-  view i s taken d i r e c t l y , from the record. 22. 11. 44. C a l l e d at the f o s t e r home. Foster mother i s f i n d i n g i t too d i f f i c u l t to keep A l i c e , as she i s s t i l l wetting the bed. She s a i d t h a t she found that i f A l i c e i s promi s e d something she wants to do the f o l l o w i n g day or to have something she l i k e s she does not wet the bed. She does not wet i t e i t h e r i f she says she won't, ^ b r instance / i f she knows she i s going to v i s i t her f a m i l y she w i l l not ^wet the bed f o r a week. Foster mother i s sure that i t i s pure l a z i n e s s . Discussed t h i s in,some d e t a i l w i t h f o s t e r mother, t r y i n g to l e a r n j u s t what type of r o u t i n e she was f o l l o w i n g w i t h A l i c e . Worker found during the conversat i o n that the f o s t e r mother has not been conforming to any d e f i n i t e hours f o r t a k i n g A l i c e to the bathroom and a l s o that A l i c e has not been f u l l y awake when she does get her up. Foster mother complained that A l i c e was too b i g a g i r l and too heavy to l i f t . Worker s a i d that i t would not do any good to get A l i c e up i f she was not awake and i f she d i d not use the t o i l e t . Suggested that f o s t e r mother place a piece of linoleum beside A l i c e ' s bed and t h a t when she gets up the c o l d w i l l be more apt to wake her up and she w i l l then use the bathroom. Also suggested that f o s t e r mother keep a chart of the times she gets A l i c e up and the times that she i s dry. In t h i s way she could gradually f i n d the r o u t i n e she should f o l l o w w i t h A l i c e to get her before she wets the bed. Stated that perhaps f o s t e r mother gets A l i c e up at eleven o'clock and the bed i s wet. Perhaps then she should get A l i c e up a t 10.30 and she would have a dry bed. Stated that the same t h i n g  - 71 -  a p p l i e s during the n i g h t . F o s t e r mother d i d not seem to complain about g e t t i n g up f o r A l i c e but i s complaining t h a t when she does get up the bed i s already wet. However, f o s t e r mother i s not i n a very accepting mood and s t i l l thinks A l i c e should be moved. Such an example would remind us of Gordon Hamilton's words:  "The only way to understand the behaviour problem i s 19  to understand  him."  Because of the f a i l u r e of workers to record t h e i r own part of i n t e r v i e w s i t has been most d i f f i c u l t to f i n d a case record that shows evidence of good case work having been done.  I n the f o l l o w i n g record the worker shows a greater  awareness of the problems of adjustment i n the home, and i n the l a t t e r part of the" i n t e r v i e w i s able to help the f o s t e r mother to understand the reasons f o r the c h i l d ' s behaviour. V i s i t e d f o s t e r home as f o s t e r mother telephoned requesting a v i s i t as Margaret's behaviour has become q u i t e d i f f i c u l t . Foster mother says that Margaret i s i n s o l e n t and when t o l d to do something by f o s t e r mother o f t e n states " I w i l l t e l l Miss .... (caseworker) on y o u l " She i s very demanding and wants new c l o t h e s , money, e t c . She refuses to get up i n time and f o s t e r mother has a great d e a l of t r o u b l e i n g e t t i n g her to bed at n i g h t . Foster mother seems q u i t e demanding and gets upset over any misdemeanor on Margaret's p a r t . However, she has a genuine a f f e c t i o n f o r the c h i l d , which appears to be mutual. Foster mother s a i d she i s s t i l l untidy although she has improved i n that respect. I s a i d perhaps f o s t e r mother was expecting too much of Margaret. I f the other c h i l d r e n i n the neighbourhood were allowed to play u n t i l nine o'clock i t was n a t u r a l l y hard to be t o l d to come i n at e i g h t . I s a i d that perhaps when school was out during the summer she could stay i n bed l a t e r i n the morning so she could have a longer p l a y hour i n the evening. Foster mother then s t a r t e d t a l k i n g about Margaret's a s s e t s . She emphasized the f a c t t h a t she had not t h r e a t ened her w i t h l e a v i n g the f o s t e r home. When Margaret 19.  Hamilton, Gordon, Psychotherapy i n C h i l d Guidance. York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Pressy 1947 p. 45.  New  - 72 -  returned from the Receiving Home her behaviour improved f o r a time but a f t e r a while she lapsed back i n t o h e r o l d demanding ways. I s a i d t h a t o f t e n c h i l d r e n whose f a m i l i e s had r e j e c t e d them took thi§ way of g e t t i n g back a t the world and kept asking f o r m a t e r i a l things to replace the l o s s o f t h e i r parents. I i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s a t length and f o s t e r mother seemed q u i t e accepting. I n t h i s case the worker recognizes the c h i l d ' s problems and she not only helps the f o s t e r mother to understand the c h i l d , but she sees the c h i l d i n her o f f i c e about once a week as w e l l .  This gives the c h i l d an opportunity t o d i s -  cuss the things that bother her w i t h someone who knows and understands the s i t u a t i o n .  This must help considerably i n  r e l i e v i n g her f e e l i n g s , and f o l l o w i n g t h i s i t should not be necessary t o make so many demands upon her f o s t e r mother. Recognition o f Foster Mothers Foster mothers take and keep c h i l d r e n whose resentment and p a i n a t having been separated from h i s own parents i s almost always projected upon her.  C h i l d r e n who have s u f f e r e d  a t the hands o f t h e i r own parents come t o f o s t e r parents b e l l i g e r a n t and unhappy.  Foster parents must r e c e i v e not only  the c h i l d , but parents and r e l a t i v e s too.  Eventually the f o s -  t e r parents must give up the c h i l d i n whom they invested so much and t o whom they have given so abundantly o f t h e i r care, time, and I n t e r e s t . Workers should be aware o f the f o s t e r parents' need f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the job, which w i l l make i t e a s i e r f o r them t o give love and acceptance t o the c h i l d .  I t i s impor-  t a n t that workers convey r e c o g n i t i o n and encouragement o f the f o s t e r parents' work i n attempting t o b r i n g about such m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n the a t t i t u d e s of the f o s t e r parents as may be necessary f o r them t o d e a l w i t h the c h i l d .  - 73 -  AH  too seldom are f o s t e r mothers given the recog-  n i t i o n they deserve.  Theirs i s a job which cannot be per-  formed by any p r o f e s s i o n a l member of the s t a f f .  A little  encouragement along the way helps to l i g h t e n what can be a heavy burden to c a r r y .  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt from a record  shows the e f f e c t of g i v i n g r e c o g n i t i o n to a conscientious f o s t e r mother: 25. 3. 48. Worker s a i d June seemed t o be so happy and secure w i t h Mrs. Brown i t would seem a shame to move her. Mrs. Brown beamed and s a i d that she thought i t was so and added that June seemed very a p p r e c i a t i v e of the things she d i d f o r her. Worker s a i d she c e r t a i n l y r e a l i z e d t h i s and said she n o t i c e d how t i c k l e d June was to have her shop f o r her. Whereupon Mrs. Brown showed worker the dresses they had purchased and t o l d her she gave the c h i l d r e n as much leeway i n choosing t h e i r dresses as she could. She added t h a t she gave them the chance to choose t h e i r desserts too, and that they got q u i t e a k i c k out of i t . . Worker remarked that she c e r t a i n l y has the knack of making the c h i l d r e n happy.  L.  Dorothy Hutchinson has s a i d that motherhood has been romanticized beyond r e a l i t y , but l i t t l e i s w r i t t e n i n honour of f o s t e r mothers. Yet f o s t e r motherhood c a l l s f o r a l l that i s demanded of motherhood, and more.  To love someone else's c h i l d 20.  c a l l s f o r uncommon q u a l i t i e s of heart and mind.  The rewards  of a f o s t e r mother are i n watching a c h i l d grow more confident, w a i t i n g f o r him t o change i n t o one able to give and t o r e c e i v e love.  " A l l normal motherhood-is a l t r u i s t i c , but f o s t e r mother21 hood, when normal, i s a l t r u i s m a t i t s best."  20.  Hutchinson, Dorothy, I n Quest o f Foster Parents. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, New York, 1943, p. 136.  21.  Loc. c i t .  - 74 -  Chapter  V  ADJUSTMENT, INTELLIGENCE, and PERSONALITY  A u t h o r i t i e s t e l l us that the "latency p e r i o d " i n a c h i l d ' s l i f e represent the years i n which he s t r i v e s to he independent.  The normal c h i l d has passed through a period  of being close to h i s parents and g r e a t l y dependent upon them. When t h i s need has been f u l f i l l e d , he i s able to go to i n t e r ests i n the world outside h i s home.  Beneath the surface he  s t i l l has a great need f o r p a r e n t a l l o v e , but he does not show i t openly.  At t h i s age too, he enters schpol and i s  stimulated by i t , so that h i s i n t e r e s t i s d i v e r s i f i e d i n many channels.  He develops a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y about the  things he f e e l s are important. people who his  t e l l him what to do, since he has incorporated i n t o  t h i n k i n g h i s parents* teachings, and wants to be  responsible.  considered  In t h e i r d e s i r e to be independent, c h i l d r e n i n the  latency period may may  The c h i l d f e e l s impatient w i t h  present a r a t h e r "tough" appearance.  They  go about c a r e l e s s l y dressed, use poor t a b l e manners, and i n  general show a d i s t i n c t change from the "good," l o v i n g c h i l d of a year or two p r e v i o u s l y .  The l a t e n c y c h i l d tends to get along  w e l l w i t h the f r i e n d s he l i k e s , and to f i g h t against those he does not l i k e .  He l i k e s people of h i s own sex, but shows l i t t l e  i n t e r e s t i n the opposite sex.  Because of t h e i r s t r i v i n g s f o r  independence i n t h i s age l e v e l , the home atmosphere should  be  relaxed and agreeable, not making too many demands upon the c h i l d .  - 75 -  And because the school s i t u a t i o n occupies most of the c h i l d ' s daytime a c t i v i t y and i n t e r e s t , i t i s necessary t h a t the curr i c u l u m should not be too r i g i d , but pleasant and s a t i s f y i n g , w i t h a teacher who understands  c h i l d r e n of t h i s age, and  who  i s i n t e r e s t e d i n a i d i n g each c h i l d to become an i n d i v i d u a l can achieve i n some s p e c i a l  who  way.  C h i l d r e n who have to be removed from t h e i r own home, or a home which they have known a long time, thus may l o s e much that has been accomplished i n the past.  U s u a l l y they must r e -  gress again to the point where they f e e l secure i n t h e i r surroundings, before being able to proceed to normal l a t e n c y independence.  On the other hand, many c h i l d r e n from homes where  they have been deprived and neglected have never known s e c u r i t y i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r parents, and removal from t h e i r home seems to them to be complete r e j e c t i o n on the p a r t of t h e i r parents.  These c h i l d r e n have s p e c i a l needs i n experienc-  i n g l o v e , understanding, s t a b i l i t y and achievement f o r t h e i r s e c u r i t y of f e e l i n g and t h e i r emotional growth. The E f f e c t of M u l t i p l e Placement on P e r s o n a l i t y Dr. Florence C l o t h i e r p o i n t s out t h a t where c h i l d r e n have had many replacements i n e a r l y childhood they become confused and cannot develop normally.  They have not had a c o n s i s t -  ent love-object to whom they can r e l a t e .  I t i s only from such  a love r e l a t i o n s h i p that a c h i l d can i d e n t i f y w i t h a parent per22 son, f i n d i n g a p a t t e r n of d e s i r e d emotional growth. 22. C l o t h i e r , Florence, M. D., Mental Hygiene. "The Problem of Frequent Replacement of the Young Dependent C h i l d , " October 1937, pp. 549 - 558.  - 76 -  The case of Peter may be c i t e d as an example of a c h i l d who shows progressive d e c l i n e i n p e r s o n a l i t y through a s e r i e s of eight placements which make up h i s f o s t e r care experience. Peter i s the c h i l d of an unmarried mother who asked f o r wardship since she could not care f o r the c h i l d hers e l f . He came i n t o care at the age .of one month. He remained i n h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home three months. The record shows that he was a l o v e l y l i t t l e boy, very cheerf u l and p l a y f u l , and q u i t e the pet of the f a m i l y . At the end of three months the f o s t e r mother decided t h a t c a r i n g f o r the c h i l d took considerable time and e f f o r t , and she requested h i s removal. In the second f o s t e r home he appeared to be happy and played w e l l w i t h the c h i l d r e n . A f t e r t h i s there i s a gap i n the record, and apparently the c h i l d moved i n t o another home f o r a time, but the f o s t e r mother l a t e r moved away from the province. At three years of age he was i n h i s f i f t h f o s t e r home. He i s described as a "scrawny and rather d e l i c a t e l o o k i n g c h i l d . " The f o s t e r mother was extremely fond of him, and "doesn't know how she ever got along without a l i t t l e boy i n her home bef o r e . " The c h i l d was not so shy and d i d not mind the worker as much as formerly.- The f o s t e r mother was very much attached to the c h i l d , although she found him extremely stubborn. A f t e r a v i s i t to the c l i n i c i t was decided that h i s t o n s i l s and adenoids should be removed. The f o s t e r mother took t h i s opportunity to request t h a t he be removed elsewhere a f t e r h i s discharge from the h o s p i t a l , as she f e l t he was becoming too d i f f i c u l t to manage, and " d i d not f e e l she was g e t t i n g the best out of the c h i l d . " The worker was s u r p r i s e d to hear t h i s as the f o s t e r mother had seemed so fond of the c h i l d . i  A f t e r the operation Peter was placed i n a babies' home f o r awhile, then replaced i n the home of a s i n g l e woman. Peter, at t h i s stage, seemed nervous and high strung.  He  c r i e d when l e a v i n g the babies' home, though he made h i m s e l f r i g h t at home on h i s a r r i v a l a t the f o s t e r home.  The v i s i -  t o r explained that he had had s e v e r a l placements r e c e n t l y and.  77 -  might take some time t o a d j u s t . The f o s t e r mother had a "strenuous time" w i t h the c h i l d . He resented c o r r e c t i o n , c r i e d f o r no apparent reason and had bad temper tantrums. —The f o s t e r mother seemed r a t h e r discouraged, but the worker pointed out t h a t the c h i l d was only three and should not be too d i f f i c u l t t o t r a i n . The f o s t e r mother s a i d she would persevere as she r e a l i z e d frequent changes o f f o s t e r homes were' the worst thing f o r the c h i l d . One month l a t e r the f o s t e r mother s t a t e d t h a t she d i d not t h i n k he was normal due t o h i s strange behaviour. He refused t o p l a y w i t h other c h i l d r e n i n the house, and seemed t o resent any a t t e n t i o n given them. Peter wandered about the house a t night,. and wakened w i t h deep c i r c l e s under h i s eyes. He was d e s t r u c t i v e and broke h i s toys. He had a v i o l e n t temper and would work himself i n t o rages. He was very c r u e l , p i c k i n g the cat up by the t a i l and throwing him i n the water. When moved t o h i s s i x t h home he d i d not seem t o resent the change, although when worker l e f t he was very upset. . His new f o s t e r mother was very pleased w i t h h i s appearance and was not discouraged' a t the prospect o f having a problem c h i l d t o care f o r . They were able t o stop h i s n i g h t ramb l i n g s about the house and the whole f a m i l y f e l t s a t i s f i e d w i t h the progress he was making.  The record s t a t e s a t t h i s  p o i n t : "He i s a very c l e a n c h i l d . "  He seemed very f r a i l and  never s l e p t w e l l , always waking about f i v e i n the morning. At the age o f f i v e he was s t i l l a very d i f f i c u l t c h i l d t o work w i t h , and the f o s t e r mother was worn out t r y i n g t o care f o r him, e s p e c i a l l y when he had measles." She f e l t t h a t h i s behaviour had improved i n some respects but the c h i l d was g e t t i n g beyond her. Unless he got h i s own way he would k i c k and scream. Worker had a t a l k w i t h him and he t o l d her he d i d not l i k e being scolded and corrected a l l the time. He agreed t o obey promptly. The worker pointed out t o the f o s t e r parents that they should not expect too much o f the c h i l d , he was bound t o have lapses o f h i s behaviour.  - 78 -  For the next year things seemed t o he going b e t t e r . Then the f o s t e r mother reported that she d i d not dare t o leave the c h i l d alone.  He had retrogressed i n every way. She found  him w i l f u l and d i f f i c u l t and i n d u l g i n g i n v i o l e n t temper t a n trums.  The f o s t e r mother f e l t she must give him up before he  s t a r t e d school, since i n three years she had accomplished a l most nothing. Peter made a poor s t a r t i n the next f o s t e r home, but the f o s t e r mother f e l t t h a t something must be bothering the c h i l d . She t o l d him 'that h i s own parents were dead, and he seemed t o s e t t l e down f o r a time. When the f a m i l y moved t o another home he t o l d her she would have t o take him w i t h her, since he was a "poor l i t t l e boy who had no mother." This f o s t e r mother found him q u i t e amenable to d i s c i p l i n e , and f e l t t h a t he was q u i t e i n t e l l i g e n t and d i d q u i t e w e l l i n s c h o o l . When the f a m i l y had t o give up t h e i r house i t was necessary f o r Peter t o move. Before p l a c i n g the c h i l d i n the next home the worker went over Peter's problems w i t h the f o s t e r mother. was  t e s t e d a t the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c .  Also he  The f o s t e r mother  agreed t o take him on a temporary b a s i s a t l e a s t and s a i d she would keep him i f things worked out s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The f o l l o w i n g report was received from the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c : "The above-named boy was examined yesterday a t the C l i n i c . He has a c h r o n o l o g i c a l age o f 7 2/12 and a ment a l age o f s i x , which i s an I Q of 84, p l a c i n g him i n the slow normal group o f general i n t e l l i g e n c e . His p h y s i c a l examination showed a c o n g e n i t a l heart at the present and a s l i g h t f l a t n e s s o f the l e f t side o f the face. He was q u i t e a c t i v e , rather submissive, but reacted q u i c k l y and without much thought. He was f a i r l y neat and clean and was co-operative. Because of h i s heart c o n d i t i o n and i r r e g u l a r i t y of h i s t e e t h a blood t e s t was taken, (the- r e s u l t being negative). I n reference t o h i s tantrums we would suggest that no n o t i c e be taken of them, t h a t he be placed i n a room by himself from which a r t i c l e s have been removed."  - 79 -  Instead o f Peter's behaviour improving i n t h i s h i s eighth home i t seems t o have grown worse. The f o s t e r mother f e l t the c h i l d was a bad i n f l u e n c e on the other c h i l d r e n . She found i t necessary t o whip him f o r playing i n the mud, and s e t t i n g f i r e s . Quite f r e q u e n t l y the f o s t e r mother had f e l t he would have t o be removed. A f t e r remaining i n the home three years the f o l l o w ing information i s given: He s o i l s himself and the f o s t e r mother makes him wash h i s own c l o t h e s . He has been caught excreting out of the window. He does not get along w i t h anyone i n the f a m i l y and cannot be depended upon f o r doing any work. He i s careless o f h i s c l o t h i n g . A January,1949 report i n d i c a t e s that there has been no improvement i n h i s behaviour, and the f o s t e r parents s t a t e , "he i s s t i l l a chore." The case of Peter i s not an i s o l a t e d s t o r y , there are s e v e r a l more l i k e i t , and there are a l s o cases i n which a f t e r developing  severe behaviour and nervous habits a home  has been found which meets the c h i l d ' s need, so that the outcome i s happier.  The f o l l o w i n g case of Susan i s an example  of the l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n : Susan's mother gave b i r t h t o two i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d r e n , and placed them I n care, married and moved t o the United States. Susan was then one year o l d . Her f i r s t f o s t e r parents took her "on t r i a l " since they had not had a baby i n t h e i r home f o r several years. The c h i l d ate and s l e p t w e l l and the f o s t e r parents f e l t t h a t she was an unusually good baby. She walked and t a l k e d l a t e , had an enormous a p p e t i t e and sucked her thumb constantly. When she was two years of age her f o s t e r mother r e ported that she c r i e d a l o t , and t h a t she would s i t and s t a r e i n t o space and howl. She d i d not play w e l l w i t h other c h i l d r e n . The record states that the f o s t e r mother i s a l i t t l e older than average, and i t was f e l t the c h i l d would stay i n d e f i n i t e l y . The f o s t e r mother seemed to be co-operative and gave the c h i l d good care. At the age of f i v e the f o s t e r mother noticed t h a t  - 80 -  the c h i l d made queer faces when she could not have her own way or was excited. A C h i l d Guidance appointment was arranged and the f o s t e r mother stated she d i d not know whether or not she would keep the c h i l d . At t h i s time the c h i l d I s described as bright-eyed, pleasant manner and not a t a l l shy. She plays by h e r s e l f as there are no other c h i l d r e n t o play w i t h . She t a l k s t o h e r s e l f and pretends other c h i l d r e n a r e there. She shares w e l l , i s obedient and a good c h i l d . The f o s t e r mother s a i d she was "as p l i a b l e as a j e l l y f i s h and could be pushed around by anyone." She feared f o r her when she grew up. However, she d i d f i n d the c h i l d was a good help i n running errands f o r her. The f o s t e r mother was somewhat deaf and spoke i n a l o u d , harsh voice. The C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c found the c h i l d to have i n t e l l i g e n c e ; however, the f o s t e r mother i n s i s t e d the c h i l d was not normal, and c r i e d and " c a r r i e d on" i n f r o n t of the child.  The c h i l d was then removed from the home.  She had  been i n t h i s one home f o r f i v e and a h a l f years. A f t e r a short stay i n the Receiving Home, Susan was placed i n her second f o s t e r home. She was w e l l l i k e d i n t h i s home., though the f o s t e r parents found her "saucy." The f o s t e r mother scolded her considerably, and i t was observed that the c h i l d d i d not s e t t l e down i n the home. She asked t o return t o her former f o s t e r home or to the Receiving Home. The f o s t e r parents* own c h i l d r e n were t h i n , and whined a good d e a l . Susan q u a r r e l l e d w i t h these c h i l d r e n . She engaged i n some s t e a l i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y food; and her f a c i a l t i c grew worse. The f o s t e r parents resented the f a c t that the c h i l d seemed t o be eavesdropping frequently. Susan was again r e f e r r e d to the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , and the p s y c h i a t r i s t stated that t h i s f o s t e r mother was the coldest person he had ever known. He founfl Susan "not so much of a behaviour problem, as a c h i l d who has not had enough a f f e c t i o n . " The c h i l d was q u i c k l y removed from t h i s s i t u a t i o n and given a summer placement. She could regard i t as a holiday but i f i t worked out w e l l the c h i l d could stay. Susan was very happy i n the home and has remained. Although t h e r e i s some occasional s t e a l i n g , her f a c i a l t i c has disappeared, and the f o s t e r parents are very attached to her. They have r e c e n t l y requested adoption.  - 81 0  s-  I t may be r e c a l l e d that Bobby and Harry are other examples of c h i l d r e n who reacted t o poor f o s t e r home placement by d i s p l a y i n g disturbed behaviour.  I n Bobby's t h i r d f o s t e r  home he ate poorly, had temper tantrums, masturbated exposed himself and urinated on other c h i l d r e n .  severely,  Harry, w h i l e i n  the Receiving Home was very d e s t r u c t i v e , and i n the f o s t e r home displayed an i n d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e and became e n u r e t i c .  For-  tunately f o r these two c h i l d r e n , and also f o r Susan, t h e i r uns a t i s f a c t o r y placements were followed by favourable ones, and since these f o s t e r homes o f f e r e d love and p r o t e c t i o n these c h i l d r e n have adjusted w e l l i n them. I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients Knowledge o f a c h i l d ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e i s obviously  of r e l -  evance i n understanding h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , and therefore, the next step t o be considered i s the range o f i n t e l l i g e n c e o f the f i f t y c h i l d r e n i n the sample.  Not only i s the c h i l d ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e  l e v e l important i n the s e l e c t i o n of a s u i t a b l e home f o r him, but i t should c o n s t i t u t e a v i t a l f a c t o r i n working w i t h him while i n the f o s t e r home. Twenty-three of the c h i l d r e n i n the study were tested at the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c .  The s e r v i c e o f t h i s agency i s given  f r e e of charge t o the children's a i d s o c i e t i e s on a c o n s u l t a t i v e basis f o r any c h i l d f o r whom such t e s t s seem required. present study i t appears that the c h i l d r e n from the  From the  protective  agencies go to the c l i n i c f o r one or a l l of three types of a s s i s tance:  (a) on the a d o p t a b i l i t y of a c h i l d ; (b) on how best t o  meet the needs of c h i l d r e n recognized as d u l l ;  (c) on how t o help  c h i l d r e n showing evidence of disturbed behaviour.  Since the ser-  -82 -  v i s e s of the c l i n i c are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i t might be a f a i r assumption that the twenty-seven c h i l d r e n not tested showed l i t t l e evidence of being d u l l or a behaviour problem, and have not been considered adoptable because of f a m i l y t i e s . I t may be that the assumption i s not e n t i r e l y v a l i d , f o r some a u t h o r i t i e s declare that the s e r v i c e s of such agencies can become a "crutch" f o r workers who f i n d i t e a s i e r t o t u r n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of making d e c i s i o n s t o some outside f o r c e than t o a r r i v e a t a plan themselves.  guiding  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e  i n d i c a t e s the range of i n t e l l i g e n c e f o r the group: Table 4 PLACEMENT IN RELATION TO INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT  Superior AverBorder- Moron Not Slow Under (Over) age t e s - Norml. l i n e (70) C 110) '90-110' ted (80-90) (76-80)  Placement Experience  Total  i  Group A: retained, i n one foster home  1  -  9 1  1  -  Group B: 2 f o s t e r homes  -  2  6  2  -  5  6  Group C: 3-4 f o s ter homes  11  -  1  10  12  Group D: 5 or more foster homes  -  2  6  5  2  2  17  T o t a l Sample  1  9  27  8  3  2  50  I t w i l l be observed that 13 of the c h i l d r e n t e s t e d  - 83 by the C l i n i c were found t o be d u l l , o r having l e s s than average i n t e l l i g e n c e . m u l t i p l e placements.  Ten o f these c h i l d r e n have had serious This undoubtedly i n d i c a t e s that p l a c e -  ment o f d u l l c h i l d r e n i s a d i f f i c u l t task, and r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n as t o the choice of f o s t e r home.  On the other hand,  i t i s pointed out by some a u t h o r i t i e s that when c h i l d r e n are insecure and unhappy they may cease to grow i n t e l l e c t u a l l y as 23 w e l l as emotionally.  I t may w e l l be that some o f the c h i l d -  ren who tested as slow normal might have developed t o average i n t e l l i g e n c e , had t h e i r home l i f e been more s t a b l e .  I t must  be s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the two c h i l d r e n who have had eight p l a c e ments r e g i s t e r e d as slow normal i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , while the c h i l d who has had t e n placements t e s t e d as having b o r d e r l i n e intelligence.  These a r e - c h i l d r e n who have been under the care  of a p r o t e c t i v e agency a l l t h e i r l i v e s . I f the assumption be accepted that the c h i l d r e n not t e s t e d by the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c are o f average or b e t t e r i n t e l l i g e n c e , then i t can be s a i d t h a t eighteen o f the c h i l d ren who have a t l e a s t average i n t e l l i g e n c e had only one or two f o s t e r home placements, whereas nineteen o f these c h i l d r e n had serious m u l t i p l e placement.  This would imply t h a t c h i l d r e n o f  normal I n t e l l i g e n c e have the same p o s s i b i l i t y o f having m u l t i ple placement as one o r two placements. 23. Mrs. Exner, Executive-Director o f the Medina C h i l d r e n ^ s e r v i c e i n S e a t t l e , conducted a "Foster Home" I n s t i t u t e i n V i c t o r i a , B. C , May 1 - 5 , 1949. A t that time i t was pointed out that c h i l d r e n have been known t o increase t h e i r i n t e l l i gence quotient by s e v e r a l p o i n t s under favourable home conditions .  - 84  -  Adjustment How can an assessment of a s a t i s f a c t o r y f o s t e r home placement be made? The opening paragraphs of t h i s chapter i n d i c a t e d what i s considered to be normal behaviour f o r c h i l d ren i n the latency p e r i o d .  But one cannot take any d e v i a t i o n  from t h i s norm and categorize i t simply as good, bad, o r mediocre.  A l l c h i l d r e n d i f f e r to a c e r t a i n degree, and i t i s only  to be expected that f o s t e r c h i l d r e n who have known u p r o o t i n g from t h e i r own homes, or who have had unhappy.experiences i n t h e i r e a r l y childhood, would d i f f e r from c h i l d r e n who have l i v e d i n t h e i r own homes and w i t h t h e i r own parents throughout. A f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t the present study i s dependent on the  records contained i n agency f i l e s r e l a t i n g to these c h i l d -  ren.  I t was found t h a t there was an almost u n i v e r s a l tendency  on the p a r t o f workers to record only t h a t type of behaviour which was considered to be "bad,  n  unwholesome, or d i f f e r e n t .  The negative approach i s not d i f f i c u l t to understand, s i n c e i t social i s w i t h these problems t h a t the/worker must d e a l .  For the  purpose of t h i s study i t was evident t h a t the l e s s t h a t was r e corded about a c h i l d , the more favourable h i s behaviour appears to be.  However, i n the i n t e r e s t s of f u r t h e r research, the need  f o r more adequate recording would seem d e s i r a b l e . In order to make Some progress w i t h a n a l y s i s and comp a r i s o n ^ of s o c i a l adjustment the cases were sorted i n t o three categories on the basis of c a r e f u l judgment.  These cases c i t e d  as examples were mainly taken d i r e c t l y from the case r e c o r d , and are comprised of sections r e f e r r i n g d i r e c t l y to the persona l i t y or adjustment of the c h i l d .  - 85  (1)  -  Appears P o s i t i v e C h i l d r e n , whose f i l e s show no evidence of improper  behaviour, and where there has been nothing of a derogatory nature w r i t t e n about the behaviour of the c h i l d w i t h i n the l a s t year or more, were placed i n t h i s category.  The f o l l o w -  i n g are examples of t h i s group: :~v .  -(a) He i s a f i n e a c t i v e boy, b r i g h t and a t t r a c t i v e . He i s obviously g r e a t l y loved i n the f o s t e r home and has a deep a f f e c t i o n f o r the f o s t e r mother. Although he i s a "mischief" he has been t r a i n e d to obey, and worker noted t h a t he.obeys w i t h good grace and without resentment. He has an easy outgoing manner, and an a t t r a c t i v e personality. (b) This c h i l d hopes to become a telephone opera t o r when she grows up, l i k e her f o s t e r s i s t e r . She i s a l o v e l y l o o k i n g g i r l , and seems happy and secure. She takes tap and b a l l e t dancing lessons. She loves to help f o l k s when they are s i c k . Her parents v i s i t o c c a s i o n a l l y . Her school reports show that her behaviour i s good. I t i s evident from these records t h a t i n the work-  er's o p i n i o n the c h i l d i s a d j u s t i n g w e l l i n the f o s t e r home. The danger i s i n t h i s category that s i n c e the worker f e e l s t h a t t h i n g s are going n i c e l y t h a t v i s i t s are l e s s frequent and recording i s very l i m i t e d .  I t i s t h i s category of c h i l d -  ren, one would b e l i e v e , t h a t workers know l e a s t .  There i s  always the danger t h a t workers may not recognize problems among these c h i l d r e n whose behaviour i s considered to be "good" and t h a t shy or withdrawn c h i l d r e n may be conforming to the f o s t e r home s i t u a t i o n i n a n e u r o t i c manner. (2)  Questionable This category has been used to c l a s s i f y t h a t group  of c h i l d r e n f o r whom i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine how s e r i o u s  - 86 -  i s the behaviour, and where some maladjustment i s i s i n d i cated. ing  I n t h i s group, too, there i s the question o f know-  very l i t t l e about the s i t u a t i o n .  The f o l l o w i n g examples  are g i v e n as being of questionable adjustment: (a) This c h i l d i s happy and secure i n t h i s home. She i s g r a d u a l l y becoming l e s s shy, but i s n o t an outgoing type o f c h i l d , and her glances a r e u s u a l l y i n d i r e c t . She i s w e l l loved and has many t r e a t s together w i t h her f o s t e r b r o t h e r . Foster mother says she i s a "picky eater." She i s sweet and a t t r a c t i v e l o o k i n g and very feminine. Her f o s t e r mother i s very proud o f her, and there i s no 'doubt t h a t she i s r e c e i v i n g every p r i v i l e g e and s e c u r i t y as a member o f t h i s household. There a r e a number o f instances i n which a c h i l d with: .previousibehaviour problems i s moved t o a new F o s t e r home, where there appears t o be l i t t l e evidence o f matching of needs.  I n such s i t u a t i o n s placement f r e q u e n t l y smoothly  at f i r s t , w i t h eventual d i f f i c u l t y presenting i t s e l f l a t e r . The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary o f such a case where the outcome i s d o u b t f u l j and the c h i l d ' s adjustment questionable: (b) This c h i l d moved from h i s former f o s t e r home because the f o s t e r mother f e l t he d i d not f i t i n w i t h t h e i r home. ' She found him hard t o understand. He fought w i t h other c h i l d r e n and was hard on h i s c l o t h i n g . He moved t o h i s present f o s t e r home i n January 1948. Three weeks l a t e r when the worker t a l k e d t o the f o s t e r parents they t o l d her t h a t he was j u s t the r i g h t boy f o r them. They had n o t found him t r y i n g i n any way. Foster f a t h e r s a i d they might wish t o adopt him l a t e r on and wondered i f t h i s would be p o s s i b l e . Worker explained t h a t we would want t o be sure t h a t he f i t t e d i n t o t h e i r home, a l s o t h a t h i s mother's consent would have t o be obtained and t h a t he would have t o be seen a t the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c "as we would seek t h e i r advice as t o whether he would be considered adopta b l e . " Foster f a t h e r pointed out t h a t they had no c h i l d r e n and t h a t one day the farm might be h i s . The c h i l d i s undoubtedly a t t h i s time w e l l accepted and very much wanted i n t h i s home, and worker f e e l s t h a t i t should give him the s e c u r i t y he needs.  -  (3)  87  -  Negative I n t h i s group were i n c l u d e d a l l c h i l d r e n whose be-  haviour i n d i c a t e d serious disturbance. C h i l d r e n , who by the symptom o f e n u r e s i s , express h o s t i l i t y toward a world where they f e e l they are n e i t h e r loved nor understood, were i n cluded i n t h i s group.  A l s o were those, o f course, whose  records i n d i c a t e d nothing but very negative behaviour. F o r t h i s whole group, treatment^from i n t e n s i v e case work t o psy- c h i a t r i c a s s i s t a n c e i s r e q u i r e d . The f o l l o w i n g a r e examples of negative adjustment: (a) Contact w i t h parents has been maintained u n t i l the present time. There i s the problem here o f l e n i e n t parents who a r e over-indulgent w i t h the boy, and on the other hand, the f o s t e r parents who a r e q u i t e s t r i c t . The f o s t e r mother i s a t her w i t s end regarding the boy's enuresis. She can't stand the s m e l l o f h i s room. She t o l d him he would have to move t o the basement. He took the a t t i t u d e t h a t he d i d not care. He engages i n some p e t t y s t e a l i n g He t h i n k s h i s n a t u r a l parents can do no wrong.' The f o s t e r parents are moving out o f the c i t y and a r e t a k i n g the boy w i t h them. The parents r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r own v i s i t i n g has not been too h e l p f u l . A new baby has been born i n t o the f o s t e r home and the boy seems attached t o i t . 1  (b) The f o s t e r mother regards t h i s c h i l d as very d e s t r u c t i v e and a problem. He takes nuts and b o l t s out o f things and l o s e s them. He climbed up on a garage roof and threw l i g h t e d matches t o the ground. He threw p a i n t a t a neighbour's garage. When t e s t e d a t the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c he c o n t i n u a l l y asked the p s y c h i a t r i s t i f he were a l l r i g h t . (c) The c h i l d s o i l s h i m s e l f , and f o s t e r mother made - him wash h i s own c l o t h e s . He has been caught e x c r e t i n g out o f the window. The f o s t e r parents wish t o send him back. They have now had" the c h i l d three y e a r s . They f e e l they have done a l l i n t h e i r power to make a decent person out o f him without success. He does not get along w i t h anyone i n the f a m i l y and does not work w e l l . He i s c a r e l e s s w i t h h i s c l o t h e s and needs a new j a c k e t every week. Worker t a l k e d t o him, "but he took the a t t i t u d e t h a t - s i n c e he cannot f i n d a cause f o r misbehaving there was l i t t l e chance f o r improvement." \  - 88 -  Having thus t r i e d out the categories o f a d j u s t ment i n t h i s manner, the r e s u l t s f o r the t o t a l group are i n t e r e s t i n g , though not by themselves c o n c l u s i v e .  Table 5 BLACEMENT IN RELATION TO THE ADJUSTMENT OF THE CHILDREN  Placement Experience  Appears Positive  Group A - r e t a i n e d i n one f o s t e r home  5  4  2  11  Group B 2 F o s t e r homes  3  5  2  10  Group C - 3 o r 4 f o s t e r homes  1  5  6  12  Group D - 5 or more f o s t e r homes  2  7  8  17  11  21  18  50  T o t a l Sample  Questionable  Negative  Total  I t i s probably s i g n i f i c a n t that f i v e of the c h i l d ren whose adjustment r a t e d "Appears P o s i t i v e " remained i n i. t h e i r f i r s t f o s t e r home.  Only three of the eleven c h i l d r e n  who came w i t h i n t h i s category have had more than two p l a c e ments.  Since twenty-six of the t h i r t y - n i n e c h i l d r e n who came  i n the ".<Juestionable" or "Negative" groups have had more than two placements, i t i s b e l i e v e d t h i s i s evidence o f the f a c t t h a t m u l t i p l e placement has a harmful e f f e c t on the s o c i a l  - 89 -  adjustment of f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . The aim of every f o s t e r home program i s to have s t a b l e , secure and happy c h i l d r e n .  The t e s t of such a pro-  gram would seem to be how w e l l the c h i l d r e n adjust to f o s t e r home care.  I f the c h i l d r e n a d j u s t w e l l , then placement i s  b e l i e v e d to be s u c c e s s f u l ; and conversely i f adjustment to f o s t e r home care i s poor, then placement experience has f a i l e d f o r the c h i l d ,  a summary of the i n f o r m a t i o n already discussed  may prove h e l p f u l i n deciding what f a c t o r s are s i g n i f i c a n t f o r favourable or unfavourable adjustment. (a)  Sex seems to have some importance, s i n c e the  "Negative" group c o n s i s t s of twelve boys and s i x g i r ^ s .  In  the " P o s i t i v e " and "Questionable" c a t e g o r i e s , however, the d i v i s i o n was about even.  I t was pointed out p r e v i o u s l y that  the boys i n the sample have s u f f e r e d from the problem of mult i p l e placement more than the g i r l s , and since boys comprise the greater number i n the "Negative" group, t h i s would seem to bear out the f a c t that m u l t i p l e placement has a d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t on s o c i a l adjustment. (b)  The age a t which c h i l d r e n come i n t o care £•.;.» f a .  appears to be s i g n i f i c a n t .  The "Appears P o s i t i v e " group con-  s i s t e d of nine c h i l d r e n who were placed under the age of two years and two who had been placed, over the age of two y e a r s . However, the "Negative" group c o n s i s t e d of seven c h i l d r e n placed under two and eleven placed over two y e a r s . (C)  Family background shows a s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p  as the time the c h i l d r e n came i n t o care, since those born out of wedlock mainly came i n t o care under the age of two y e a r s .  - 90 -  (d)  I n t e l l i g e n c e a l s o appears t o be a s i g n i f i -  cant f a c t o r , since eleven of the t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n who t e s t e d l e s s than average i n i n t e l l i g e n c e f e l l i n t o the "Questionable" o r "Negative" groups.  I t i s believed that  i n t h i s area there i s greater need'for research, however. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l whether the problem o f m u l t i p l e placement and other adverse f a c t o r s produced a s t a t e o f emot i o n a l blockage, rendering the c h i l d incapable o f a t t a i n i n g the maximum i n i n t e l l e c t u a l development or whether the problem o f l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e causes c h i l d r e n t o be misunderstood and unaccepted,  thus i n t e n s i f y i n g the problem o f mul-  t i p l e placement. (e)  The greatest v a r i a t i o n i n adjustment i s i n  regard t o the problem o f m u l t i p l e placement i t s e l f .  I t -will  be seen t h a t , on the whole, the more favourable the a d j u s t ment the fewer f o s t e r homes the c h i l d has had, and conversely the greater number o f placements the greater evidence there i s of s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d behaviour. I t w i l l be agreed t h a t m u l t i p l e placement works a g a i n s t s u c c e s s f u l experience f o r the c h i l d , but i t i s not the only circumstance t h a t matters.  Everything p o s s i b l e should be  done t o see that the r i g h t choice o f f o s t e r home i s made i n the beginning when the c h i l d comes i n t o care.  I t w i l l have been  observed t h a t even I n the s i n g l e f o s t e r home placement only f i v e o f the eleven c h i l d r e n r a t e d "Appears P o s i t i v e " i n a d j u s t ment, y e t only two o f these eleven c h i l d r e n came i n t o care a f t e r the age o f two, and only one has an i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient  - 91 -  which has been rated l e s s than normal.  This would seem to  i n d i c a t e the need f o r more c a r e f u l assessment of f o s t e r homes.  The reason the f o s t e r parents f e l t the need f o r tak-  i n g c h i l d r e n i n t o t h e i r homes must be thoroughly understood. When these needs are normal and c h i l d r e n are placed i n t o these homes, steps should be taken t o help the c h i l d t o become secure i n the home, and v i s i t s by workers should be frequent enough that unhealthy patterns o f behaviour may be c o r r e c t e d before they become i n t e r n a l i z e d and f i x e d .  -  > PART I I I .  92  -  Chapter VI  PREPARATION FOR PLACEMENT  I t should be the aim of the agency to assure f o r each c h i l d a favourable placement s i t u a t i o n i n which maximum o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r development are present.  The c h i l d , h i s  parents and f o s t e r parents should be a s s i s t e d i n t h e i r a d j u s t ment t o the preparation s i t u a t i o n and to one another on a case work b a s i s , throughout the p e r i o d o f placement, accordi n g to the needs o f each s i t u a t i o n , and u n t i l the time o f d i s charge when the c h i l d and h i s f a m i l y no longer need or wish further assistance. In a d d i t i o n , f o r those c h i l d r e n whose problems are such t h a t they are unable t o use the o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the placement s i t u a t i o n , or t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y helped through the placement experience alone, d i r e c t treatment should be made a v a i l a b l e f o r parents who wish them, i n order t h a t during the placement period they too may be helped to assume greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as parents, o r t o leave the c h i l d f r e e to form new f a m i l y t i e s . ..  The preparation o f each c h i l d and f a m i l y f o r p l a c e -  ment experience should begin during the i n t a k e study and be continuous up t o the p o i n t where the c h i l d i s a c t u a l l y l i v i n g i n a f o s t e r home.  Insofar as the d e c i s i o n t o place the c h i l d  should be based on a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f what i s i n v o l v e d i n placement and o f agency:procedures,  the preparation of parents  -  9 3  -  i s inseparable from the i n t a k e s e r v i c e . their future relationship  I n determining what  to the c h i l d w i l l be, i n terms of  custody, f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and how they may use the case work s e r v i c e s of the agency or other agencies, the parents e should be able to jinfcicj p^tion_the placement experience and t o :  a s s i s t i n the preparation of the c h i l d . Preparation of parents w i l l a i d them i n d e c i d i n g whether or not they can be parted from t h e i r c h i l d , or i f any other p l a n i s f e a s i b l e .  They must face t h e i r own f e e l i n g s t o  the c h i l d and a l s o t h e i r own c a p a b i l i t i e s .  x  I f they are not  going to be able to help the c h i l d by remaining i n the p i c t u r e , or i f i t i s b e l i e v e d that i t i s i n the c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t f o r them to sever a l l t i e s , the break must be made.  The r e a l i z a t i o n  of t h i s f a c t can be gently brought i n t o focus by the case.worker. When a l l connection w i t h parents i s to be broken the c h i l d should be permanently placed, p r e f e r a b l y f o r adoption. s e c u r i t y which must extend u n t i l he i s grown.  He w i l l need The parents who  f i n d t h i s complete severance most d i f f i c u l t , perhaps, are parents who f e e l some g u i l t regarding p l a c i n g t h e i r c h i l d and the f a c t that they are f a i l i n g as parents.  This type of parents needs  even more help than those who give up t h e i r c h i l d because i t i s i n h i s i n t e r e s t to do so. Parents w i t h g u i l t y f e e l i n g s  should be  helped to see t h a t they are being good parents i n g i v i n g up t h e i r child. I t has been said t h a t the obstacle t o c h i l d placement i s - t h a t he i s seldom ready f o r plapement.  Not only i s the c h i l d  f a c i n g the problem of l e a v i n g home and f a m i l y or a f o s t e r home where he has l i v e d f o r some time, but he f e a r s going i n t o a new  - 94 -  unknown s i t u a t i o n .  The removal from h i s own home must he  gently suggested u n t i l he comes to accept the f a c t , f e e l i n g at the same time that he can r e l y on the worker.  The c h i l d  placement worker then, must be a person who can r e l a t e t o c h i l d r e n , who can speak h i s language and can understand how he f e e l s .  He must be given a chance to v e r b a l i z e h i s f e a r s , n i s i  anger a t having to be moved, h i s d i s t r u s t of the new s i t u a t i o n . He must understand that the reason f o r h i s removal i s t h a t h i s parents, whatever t h e i r good q u a l i t i e s , were unable t o provide the type of home f o r him which would help him t o develop norma l l y and to become a mature, s e l f - r e l i a n t c i t i z e n of the f u t u r e . I t i s necessary that he accepts t h i s f a c t , or placement w i l l be a more t e r r i f y i n g experience f o r him. He must know that the worker i s h i s f r i e n d , not a c h i l d - s n a t c h e r , who takes away from t h e i r parents.  children  This s i t u a t i o n presents i t s e l f so o f -  ten and so when the worker c a l l s , the c h i l d hides from her, or screams i n t e r r o r a t the sight of her car.  I t i s a more d i f f i -  c u l t task to help t i n y c h i l d r e n to understand a s i t u a t i o n . However, on the whole i t i s f e l t t h a t workers under-estimate the understanding power of a c h i l d .  Even a t the age of two, when a  c h i l d has very l i m i t e d vocabulary, the worker can t a l k t o the c h i l d and by her kindness and understanding of the s i t u a t i o n help t o make placement more acceptable. The t o p i c of moving t o a new f o s t e r home should be i n troduced when i t i s f e l t the c h i l d i s ready f o r i t . I f he i s not able to discuss i t , the worker can merely introduce the t o p i c and leave the subject u n t i l i t i s more acceptable.  The c h i l d  - 95 -  should understand that on the whole people are k i n d and that the f o s t e r parents w i l l be helped to make him more comfortable i n t h e i r home.  The c h i l d w i l l be t o l d about the v a r i o u s  members of the f a m i l y , and of t h e i r h a b i t s , t h e i r home and s p e c i a l circumstances  any  about the f a m i l y so that when he goes to  see he w i l l know what to expect and they w i l l seem l e s s strange. The c h i l d ' s f i r s t contact w i t h h i s new home should be a brief v i s i t .  He should not remain so long that he i s over-  whelmed by so many new things and people.  The next time some  things w i l l seem f a m i l i a r and he can go f u r t h e r and stay longer. Perhaps at the time of h i s t h i r d v i s i t he might stay w i t h the f a m i l y f o r a meal.  I f the f o s t e r mother knows i n advance what  he l i k e s to eat, or how he l i k e s one c e r t a i n food cooked i t w i l l help him.  And i f he i s made aware that the f o s t e r mother wished  to please him and so made h i s f a v o r i t e dessert, he may f i n d her more, acceptable as a f o s t e r mother.  Within a short time, i f  preparation has been done p r o p e r l y , the c h i l d w i l l not f e e l threatened to t h i n k of moving i n t o the home, and may make h i s own d e c i s i o n as to when he i s ready to go to the home permanently. The f o s t e r mother should be w e l l known before thought of p l a c i n g a c h i l d i n her home i s a r r i v e d a t .  any Not only  should the worker understand her r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h every member of the f a m i l y , and her a t t i t u d e s regarding f o s t e r c h i l d r e n , c h i l d t r a i n i n g and c h i l d care, but she should know something of the routines followed by the f o s t e r mother.  She must know what  to expect of t h i s f o s t e r c h i l d beforehand, so that there i s l e s s danger of the problem of the r i g i d f o s t e r mother who  cannot  - 96 -  t o l e r a t e c e r t a i n modes of behaviour. what t h i s c h i l d due  I f she cannot t o l e r a t e  to h i s previous experience i s almost sure  to do, e s p e c i a l l y at f i r s t , then the c h i l d should not be placed i n that home. As has been suggested the f o s t e r mother w i l l want to a i d the c h i l d ' s t r a n s i t i o n i n t o her home.  Therefore, i t be-  hooves the worker to l e a r n what the c h i l d ' s s p e c i a l pleasures are, and what things he has d i f f i c u l t y with, what foods he does not care f o r . c h i l d who  What an unacceptable thing would i t be f o r the  does not l i k e r i c e pudding, f o r example, to look f o r -  ward to moving i n t o a f o s t e r home, expecting to f i n d l o v i n g , k i n d people; and on h i s f i r s t v i s i t there to be confronted w i t h r i c e pudding.  If,when the c h i l d i s put to bed,  the  foster  mother can go over h i s f a v o r i t e s t o r y , or repeat a w e l l loved nursery rhyme, the c h i l d w i l l know he i s accepted and the s i t u a t i o n w i l l seem more t o l e r a b l e to  him.  The whole f o s t e r f a m i l y should be prepared f o r the c h i l d ' s coming, and the worker should understand the f e e l i n g s  of  the v a r i o u s members of the family toward having a f o s t e r c h i l d i n the home;  There should be an e a r l y d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the  memA  bers of the family i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y regarding the c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y , and how the l i v e s of each member. way  h i s stay i n the home w i l l e f f e c t  They must know what to expect i n the  of h i s b e h a v i o u r — t h a t he w i l l probably be a model c h i l d at  f i r s t , l a t e r perhaps very demanding to determine what l i m i t s i- there are, and f i n a l l y a period when he w i l l d e s i r e to be dependent, and thence to grow i n t o the f o s t e r family's ways gaining  - 97 -  s e c u r i t y as he goes.  The f o s t e r f a m i l y should expect t h a t  i f the c h i l d does regress t o a stage o f dependency, that the f o s t e r parents should a i d him by g i v i n g him the love he so badly needs, a c t i v e l y and openly.  He needs t o know t h a t he  i s loved, and t h a t he i s one o f the f a m i l y , w i t h no t h r e a t o f o  being sent away again. ing  Y e t a l l the time t h a t he i s demand-  l o v e and r e c e i v i n g i t i n f u l l measure he i s being encour-  aged t o achieve, t o do things f o r h i m s e l f and become more independent.  But he should not be f o r c e d i n t o independence.  When he i s ready f o r t h i s , when h i s f e e l i n g o f s e c u r i t y i s adequate h i s development w i l l progress again.  A g i r l i n the  oedipus stage, o r a boy i n the l a t e n c y stage w i l l f e e l the need o f a good f a t h e r and here the f o s t e r f a t h e r must be ready t o take h i s place. child.  He must know what t o expect o f the  I f the c h i l d ' s own f a t h e r was c r u e l t o him, the f o s -  t e r f a t h e r should know that the c h i l d w i l l probably i d e n t i f y him w i t h h i s own f a t h e r , and t h a t he should show patience and understanding and wait u n t i l the c h i l d can accept him. Foster.parents should not expect t h a t the c h i l d w i l l l o v e them immediately.  Even a f t e r he gets over f e e l i n g strange  he w i l l s t i l l f e e l the tug of f a m i l y t i e s . .  I t i s only by  patience and understanding t h a t they may g r a d u a l l y win the c h i l d t o t h e i r way o f doing things and t o becoming a member of the family group. The f o s t e r parents should, know before the c h i l d comes i n t o t h e i r home t h a t i t may take a year before he can wholly accept them.  I f these f o s t e r parents cannot t o l -  erate a c h i l d who does not l o v e them immediately, they w i l l  0  - 98 -  not l i k e l y make good f o s t e r parents f o r any c h i l d , and c e r t a i n l y not f o r the c h i l d w i t h f a m i l y t i e s . Foster parents should not be expected to take whatever c h i l d a case worker brings to t h e i r home.  They  should p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d e c i s i o n f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d to come to t h e i r home.  They should have been given s u f f i c i e n t  information to have some understanding of the p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d , his-needs, and h i s parents.  They should want the c h i l d and  f e e l able t o a n t i c i p a t e and accept the demands which the care of the c h i l d w i l l make on them. The f o s t e r mother who i s t a k i n g her f i r s t c h i l d should be prepared as c a r e f u l l y as the c h i l d , f o r she too may not know what to expect.  Her contacts w i t h shy but normal  secure youngsters are probably l i m i t e d , and she can h a r d l y imagine parents who r e j e c t or n e g l e c t t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  She w i l l  need help before she can give the c h i l d the welcome he needs and accept him as he i s without sentimental over-indulgence or too s t r i n g e n t r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s .  We a l l know f o s t e r par-  ents who f e e l so s o r r y f o r the c h i l d t h a t f o r the f i r s t week he gets everything he wants and then i s e i t h e r so unmanageable he i s returned t o the agency or r e q u i r e s months of r e t r a i n i n g bef o r e one can l i v e w i t h him w i t h any degree of comfort.  On the  other hand much must be overlooked u n t i l the c h i l d i s s u f f i c i e n t l y secure i n h i s new surroundings to be w i l l i n g to t r y new ways t h a t are not e x a c t l y the way h i s own mother d i d t h i n g s . C h i l d r e n cannot be rushed, and the new f o s t e r mother must be  -  99  -  prepared f o r a period i n which the c h i l d may hold her o f f a t arm's l e n g t h while he gets h i s bearing.  Too much excitement,  showing him o f f to r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s , may be d e f i n i t e l y . upsetting.  The c h i l d should f e e l t h a t he i s wanted, t h a t there  i s a place i n the f a m i l y w a i t i n g f o r him, but he should not be expected to f i t i n at once.  The f o s t e r mother w i l l be able to  adjust to the new experience much more adequately i f she knows i n advance that there may be problems and t h a t placement may have a greater s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the c h i l d than on the s u r f a c e . As we i n t e r p r e t the s i t u a t i o n to the c h i l d we must a l s o i n t e r p r e t the c h i l d to the f o s t e r parents and i n t h i s way help them to gain.a deeper understanding of h i s needs. There i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n handling placement and replacement  except that p r e p a r a t i o n i s a longer and more d i f -  f i c u l t process.  I n replacement  there i s a need to evaluate the  r e a l s i t u a t i o n i n the f o s t e r home i n the l i g h t of the c h i l d ' s present and past experiences, and to decide whether placement i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary.  I f i t i s , work must be done w i t h the  c h i l d i n the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y home as would be done i f he were i n h i s own home, t r y i n g to give him i n s i g h t i n t o the nature of h i s defences.  Where i t i s not p o s s i b l e to prepare a c h i l d i n  the home where he i s l i v i n g then, there i s need of a temporary f o s t e r home i n t e r v a l , when t h i s p r e p a r a t i o n may be done. Many workers f e e l they could not devote time such as has been described i n arranging placement and preparing the c h i l d , h i s parents, h i s f o s t e r parents and t h e i r f a m i l y .  , • o  - 100  -  However, t h i s procedure pays dividends.  I t must he remembered  that workers who have studied t h e i r replacements have concluded that e i t h e r they d i d not know the c h i l d or the f o s t e r parents w e l l enough, and therefore made placements which were not suitable. Some c h i l d r e n seem to accept placement.easily.  How-  ever, i t must be r e a l i z e d that there i s danger of r e p r e s s i o n of the r e a l f e e l i n g s at the time of placement.  When t h i s f e e l -  ing b u i l d s up w i t h a l l the l i t t l e misunderstandings which are bound to take place, there may come a time when the c h i l d ' s placement i s a b s o l u t e l y i n t o l e r a b l e , and h i s f e e l i n g s w i l l explode f o r t h . ment. the  Some c h i l d r e n show no emotion at a l l during p l a c e -  Often these c h i l d r e n accept placement, and only e x i s t i n  f o s t e r home, l i v i n g f o r the moment whentheycan r e t u r n t o  •^hiff- parents or 1K£S" former f o s t e r parents again. Where t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e the c h i l d s u f f e r s from t h i s p a s s i v i t y , which i s almost pre-schizophrenic i n character. One cannot cover the t o p i c of preparation f o r p l a c e ment without d i s c u s s i n g the all-too-common s i t u a t i o n where a case "blows up" without warning and the c h i l d must be removed immediately.  I t i s f o r such c h i l d r e n that the agency should see  to i t that there are always a type of temporary f o s t e r homes on hand where there i s a warm, welcoming f o s t e r mother, ready to take c h i l d r e n any time they are brought to her door, and who can accept such c h i l d r e n regardless of t h e i r problem.  Preparation  then can go on the f o s t e r home w i t h the c h i l d aware that he i s  - 101 -  only v i s i t i n g u n t i l permanent placement i s made, and any spec i a l problems can be worked through. the  The worker should see  c h i l d f r e q u e n t l y , as he w i l l f e e l more insecure i n l e a v -  ing what he has known and going i n t o the unknown. P r e p a r a t i o n Procedure i n Vancouver The f i l e s read f o r the study give l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of the amount of preparation procedure that took place.  I n the  records of a few years back there i s p r a c t i c a l l y no evidence of p r e p a r a t i o n of the c h i l d f o r the f o s t e r home, and v i c e versa, at a l l . Tommie was born to an o l d e r unmarried mother who attempted to care f o r him f o r a time. At the age of three he was brought to the agency by h i s uncle who f e l t t h a t the c h i l d was r e c e i v i n g poor care. Tommie was placed i n h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home i n 1942. He progressed w e l l i n t h i s f o s t e r home,however, was removed l a t e r . No reason i s given f o r t h i s removal and placement procedure i s not discussed. The second f a m i l y took him as a companion to t h e i r own c h i l d . "He was k i n d l y received and played w i t h h i s new f o s t e r brother, but when the worker drove away he screamed and kicked i n the f o s t e r mother's arms." I n t h i s f o s t e r home Tommie was blamed f o r every misbehaviour of h i s f o s t e r brother and the worker s t a t e s that " a l t o gether i t was a poor move f o r the c h i l d . " Eventually he was moved to h i s o r i g i n a l f o s t e r home f i v e months l a t e r . The record states that'toe was accepted back i n t o the home but the f o s t e r mother was very r e s e n t f u l that he had ever been taken away.S He has remained i n the f o s t e r home u n t i l the present time. Lack of placement procedure w i l l be noted i n the f o l -  lowing : (*) — J a c k i e came i n t o the care of a p r o t e c t i v e agency as h i s f a t h e r was dead and h i s mother committed to a mental hospital. He was a d i f f i c u l t c h i l d to place, due to h i s d i s t u r b e d behaviour and h i s l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e . He had three uns u c c e s s f u l placements before the two described here took  -  102-  place. The record states that he seemed out of place as the c h i l d r e n i n the home were o l d e r . The f o s t e r mother f i n d i n g him a problem due to h i s low i n t e l l i g e n c e was disappointed t£ t h i n k that the worker had brought them a boy "such as t h i s . " They were disturbed that he s t o l e c i g a r e t t e s and smoked them, and they f e l t he was l o n e l y , t h e r e f o r e , they thought i t would be b e t t e r i f he was placed i n another home. The next f o s t e r parents were t o l d something of h i s behaviour. The f o s t e r mother seemed "quite prepared to cope w i t h anything that might come up." I t was noted that "the c h i l d had p e c u l i a r mannerisms, he sneaked up and scared her, d i d not t a l k at the t a b l e , couldn't greet people as she wished or say 'please,' She and f o s t e r f a t h e r t r i e d to help him to overcome these h a b i t s and they f e l t he would be a l l r i g h t . " L a t e r , however, they became aware that the c h i l d was r e a l l y d u l l . The f o s t e r mother spent a good deal of time on him but was unable to get any p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . The f o s t e r mother s a i d that i f she had known he was so d u l l when he was placed she would not have accepted him. She blamed the former worker, who had promised another c h i l d and then brought J a c k i e without g i v i n g any explanation. Frank i s the youngest c h i l d of a common law union. He was committed to the care of C. A. S. i n f u l l a t one month of age. In h i s f i r s t f o s t e r home he i s described as making good progress and developing normally. He was a n i c e l y behaved l i t t l e boy although the f o s t e r mother f e l t that he had a mind of h i s own. She d i d not f i n d him hard to manage, and he played w e l l w i t h other children. At the age of two years he was walking and t a l k i n g w e l l and enunciating very c l e a r l y . The f o s t e r c h i l d r e n i n the home q u a r r e l l e d considerably and the f o s t e r mother f e l t that she would have to give them a l l up, though she wished that she would be able to keep Frank. She s a i d he was w e l l mannered, happy-go-lucky, and f u l l of l i f e . He was a l s o d e s t r u c t i v e /having broken some windows. He was moved to h i s second f o s t e r home at the age of s i x years. No account of preparation i s given, however, i t was f e l t that the c h i l d s e t t l e d down i n the home q u i t e w e l l . "He went r i d i n g w i t h f o s t e r f a t h e r and c a l l e d h i s f o s t e r •.©other Mummie. He was obedient and played w e l l  - 103 -  w i t h the c h i l d r e n . However, he c o n t i n u a l l y asked when he would be moving back t o h i s former f o s t e r home." Four months l a t e r he was s t i l l asking f o r h i s Mummie, and the worker r e a l i z e d he d i d not f e e l secure. When he had been i n the f o s t e r home seven months the worker observed t h a t he was a"behaviour problem a t home and school." "He was ' d i f f i c u l t t o manage'". He refused t o co-operate w i t h the f a m i l y . He was rough w i t h t h e i r own c h i l d r e n , being jealous of them. They punished him by sending him t o h i s room and were concerned because"he seemed to enjoy t h i s . " The f o s t e r mother wondered whether o r not t h e i r home was s u i t a b l e . Following t h i s the c h i l d was moved s i x more times. His i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient i s given as 82. Very l i t t l e preparation o f f o s t e r c h i l d r e n i s entered i n t o the f i l e s and i t was f e l t that l i t t l e could be gained by studying past placements.  Therefore, the c h i l d r e n who were  replaced i n the year 1948 were studied i n order t o determine what the present q u a l i t y of p r e p a r a t i o n i s l i k e .  Ten of the  p i f t y c h i l d r e n had a 1948 replacement and those have been r e viewed t o determine the present p i c t u r e . Some o f the placements show evidence o f f a i r l y c a r e f u l placement p r e p a r a t i o n .  Others show preparation o f the c h i l d ,  or the prospective f o s t e r mother or the former f o s t e r mother; however, they have only prepared one person and omitted t o prepare the others.  S t i l l other records i n d i c a t e t h a t prepar-  a t i o n has gone on, but do not discuss.the f u l l p r e p a r a t i o n i n the f i l e .  This makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o know what type of prep-  a r a t i o n has been done though i n some instances i t appears that i t must have been f a i r l y adequate. Florence i s the c h i l d o f an unmarried mother who was considered to be so d u l l that the c h i l d was apparently r e garded as unadoptable. She-was placed i n a f o s t e r home a t the age of s i x months and remained there u n t i l she was eleven years of age. Her f o s t e r mother died i n 1947 and Florence remained i n the home f o r a year longer as her <  - 104 -  f o s t e r f a t h e r was so fond of her. A f t e r having a s e r i e s of r a t h e r unsuccessful housekeepers, the f o s t e r f a t h e r decided to marry. Therefore i t was necessary t o g i v e up the c h i l d r e n . The f o l l o w i n g account of the removal from the f o s t e r home she had known so long and the t r a n s f e r i n t o a r e c e i v i n g home i s an exact t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f record m a t e r i a l p e r t a i n i n g tb -placement.  Any omissions are where problems other than  placement are  concerned.  23. 10. 48. I t was decided t h a t i t would be b e t t e r t o put Florence i n the Receiving Home f o r a time u n t i l she i s ready t o accept another f o s t e r home. In d i s c u s s i n g Florence's behaviour f u r t h e r the f o s t e r f a t h e r stated that she had a very nasty temper i f she d i d not get her own way and i f asked t o do anything she seemed to resent i t and c a r r i e d the request out very u n w i l l i n g l y , i f a t a l l . She seems t o want her own way a l l the time and does not respond t o persuasion. 15. 11. 48. V i s i t e d f o s t e r home and took Florence out f o r a d r i v e t o get to know her b e t t e r . We went to the l i b r a r y and changed her l i b r a b y books. She enjoys reading a great d e a l and changes her books f a i t h f u l l y every week She i s an appealing c h i l d but seems q u i t e immature. 4. 12. 48. V i s i t e d f o s t e r home t o t e l l f o s t e r f a t h e r that Florence could be moved the f o l l o w i n g Tuesday. He was very anxious f o r me t o t e l l her about i t and s a i d he was ' so upset about her going that he d i d not l i k e t o say anyt h i n g t o her about i t . L a t e r : I took Florence out f o r a d r i v e and a f t e r c h a t t i n g f o r a few moments I asked her whether she had any i d e a she would be l e a v i n g her f o s t e r home. She s a i d "No" and s t a r t ed t o c r y . Then I explained the s i t u a t i o n t o her and t o l d her that the other c h i l d r e n would be l e a v i n g and t h a t I knew i t would be d i f f i c u l t f o r her, as she had been there such a long time. She continued t o sob but she c o n t r o l l e d h e r s e l f q u i t e w e l l and asked questions about where she would be going and I t o l d her i n d e t a i l about the Receiving Home and how a f t e r a while she would be placed i n another f o s t e r home. I t o l d her she could come out and v i s i t her f a t h e r and could go t o the C a r n i v a l the f o l l o w i n g Sat-  -105 -  urday with the neighbours who had i n v i t e d her. She was q u i t e upset hut soon recovered t o some extent and seemed f a i r l y calm when I l e f t . 9. 14. 48. C a l l e d a t the f o s t e r home t o place Florence i n the Eeceiving Home. She seemed q u i t e happy today and had numerous toys, c l o t h i n g , d o l l ' s f u r n i t u r e , e t c . , a l l ready t o take. She s a i d good-bye t o her f o s t e r f a t h e r q u i t e n i c e l y and there were no t e a r s . The f o s t e r f a t h e r seemed more upset than she was. I t o l d her more about the Receiving Home on the way down. She seemed q u i t e curious to know what i t was l i k e . When we a r r i v e d the matron and I t a l k e d t o Florence about r e g u l a t i o n s and routines o f the Receiving Home. When I l e f t her lower l i p was trembling a l i t t l e and I learned l a t e r that she had seemed q u i t e blue f o r the r e s t of the day. 15. 12. 48. The Foster f a t h e r c a l l e d f o r Florence and took her home\ f o r the week-end. Her behaviour has been e x c e l l e n t . She i s easy t o get along w i t h and seems t o enjoy the r o u t i n e and a l l the g i r l s q u i t e w e l l . This f i l e was read May 30, 1949 and there i s nothing f u r t h e r recorded on the f i l e . The above i n t e r v i e w i s given as a f a i r l y adequate preparation f o r placement.  I t i s t o be observed that t h i s  worker made a determined e f f o r t t o get t o know the c h i l d i n order t o determine her needs. The f o l l o w i n g account o f preparation i s q u i t e good, though not as thorough as was t h a t o f Florence. Donald was born i n 1940 and a f t e r four unsuccessful placements was placed w i t h Mr. and Mrs. F. i n 1947. I t was l a t e r r e a l i z e d that t h i s f o s t e r home was q u i t e uns u i t a b l e as the f o s t e r f a t h e r was b l i n d and both f o s t e r parents rather o l d and i n f i r m . .The f o l l o w i n g i s an exact copy of recording from the f i l e except f o r omission o f excerpts not d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h the placement:  - 106 -  May 1948. Donald continues t o be q u i t e a problem i n the f o s t e r home. I t was evident that f o s t e r f a t h e r ' s a t t i t u d e toward the school was having rather a harmful e f f e c t on Donald. In A p r i l he was admitted t o the h o s p i t a l f o r a tons i l l e c t o m y . A f t e r h i s r e t u r n home he was d e l e r i o u s f o r s e v e r a l nights i n a row. His nightmares again took the form of h i s l o s i n g h i s f a t h e r and mother. Worker l e a r n ed a t t h i s p o i n t f o s t e r parents f e l t they could not c a r r y on l o o k i n g a f t e r Donald. Foster mother had a s e r i e s of i l l n e s s e s since C h r i s t m a s — q u i n z y , c o l d s , and I s now c r i p p l e d w i t h rheumatism. They w i l l always be i n t e r e s t e d i n him but f e e l that they cannot have him i n t h e i r home. When worker suggested she v i s i t them i n order t o prepare Donald f u r t h e r f o r the t r a n s f e r , i t was learned that they had t o l d him about i t before he went t o the h o s p i t a l . However, they could not see t h a t t h i s could make h i s del e r i u m worse. The worker saw f o s t e r parents and Donald s e v e r a l times during A p r i l . ing  She f e l t there was l i t t l e p o i n t i n t r y -  t o keep him i n t h i s home. Foster parents have a c t u a l l y served t h e i r purpose i n showing him that he can r e c e i v e love and a f f e c t i o n but they are too o l d and set i n t h e i r ways t o continue the t r a i n i n g of him. Foster mother's rheumatism became so bad that she was eventually confined t o bed and i t was not p o s s i b l e f o r f o s t e r f a t h e r who i s b l i n d t o look a f t e r Donald. 24. 4. 48. Donald was placed i n the Receiving Home. He had been w e l l prepared f o r t h i s move and knew beforehand the names of the c h i l d r e n i n . t h e home. Worker v i s i t e d the teacher a t . . . . School who f e l t that i n many ways he had improved. He was hot as much o f a b u l l y and seemed to be able t o l e a r n a l i t t l e more. She f e l t he should pass i n t o Grade I I . He was e n r o l l e d a t . . . . School and worker t a l k e d t o the p r i n c i p a l about h i s background and behaviour. Worker has seen Donald r e g u l a r l y every week f o r the past month.. At f i r s t he was unhappy i n the Receiving Home and d i d not l i k e any o f the c h i l d r e n , f i g h t i n g w i t h the boys. He kept saying he would r e t u r n t o h i s former f o s t e r home as soon as f o s t e r mother recovered. Worker explained gradually t o him that although these f o s ter parents w i l l always be i n t e r e s t e d i n him, they w i l l  - 107 -  not be able t o have him l i v e w i t h them again. He now seems more accepting of t h i s . He i s very anxious t o go to another f o s t e r home buts wants t o be sure i t , i s j u s t as n i c e as the one he had. Worker has prepared Donald f o r a new worker. She explained t o him that h i s previous supervisor was h e l p i n g her f i n d him a f o s t e r home. He himself suggested t h a t i f they found him a new f o s t e r home then he would have another supervisor. From t h i s worker discussed w i t h him the f a c t that she was l e a v i n g the agency but that h i s o l d supervisor, Miss . . . . was anxious t o continue l o o k i n g a f t e r him. He was able t o accept t h i s very w e l l . H i s h e a l t h has been p r e t t y good since h i s t o n s i l s were removed. During the month o f June Donald spent a Saturday morning w i t h his- former f o s t e r parents and a l s o spent a week-end w i t h some prospective f o s t e r parents Mr. and Mrs. M a r t i n .  They  had two grown c h i l d r e n and a p p l i e d t o take two boys around the age o f seven or e i g h t . During worker's f i r s t v i s i t t o t h i s home s e v e r a l o f the boys who were i n the Receiving Home were described to the f o s t e r mother. Mrs. M a r t i n seemed i n t e r e s t e d i n Donald and worker f e l t t h a t this home might be s u i t a b l e f o r him,. Mrs. Martin i s around 56 and Mr. M a r t i n 63. •/MrsMSrtin, however, seems a l o t younger than h i s w i f e and i s a very f r i e n d l y and j o l l y person. His w i f e , who i s more s e r i o u s , i s a b i g stout woman, r a t h e r slow i n her movements. Worker i s proceeding rather slowly i n view of the c l i n i c ' s recommendation that the c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n the new home i s the f o s t e r f a t h e r w i t h whom Donald can i d e n t i f y himself. Donald asked i f he could spend the week-end there so t h i s was arranged l a t e r i n the month. They have l o t s o f flowers, a l a r g e back yard and he seemed to enjoy p l a y i n g w i t h the dog and p i c k i n g f l o w e r s . On 2. 7. 48 he went t o v i s i t Mr. and Mrs. M a r t i n again and w i l l spend two or three days there. 23. 7. 48. Telephoned Mrs. M a r t i n and learned that Dona l d seemed.to be enjoying h i s v i s i t . This morning they took him downtown shopping and he was a great help i n c a r r y i n g the p a r c e l s , e t c . (He wanted to cook and f o s t e r mother l e t him help her make doughnuts one day). Worker w i l l telephone or v i s i t Monday to discuss the p o s s i b i l i t y of Donald remaining i n t h i s home f o r a t l e a s t some months.  - 108 -  There has been no f u r t h e r recording from 3. 7. 48 to 3. 6. 49). E v i d e n t l y there i s doubt i n the worker's mind as to whether Donald w i l l remain i n the home, since she hopes he w i l l remain some months.  Undoubtedly t h i s worker has the  well-being of the c h i l d a t heart, but i t would seem that she does not count on placement being permanent. The f o l l o w i n g record shows l e s s evidence of p l a c e ment preparation, although one f e e l s that more preparation may have been done than what shows i n the f i l e . 1. 5. 48. Worker has been i n c o n t i n u a l touch w i t h t h i s f o s t e r home but unfortunately i t i s not a s a t i s f a c t o r y placement as Rebecca and Mae f i g h t c o n t i n u a l l y . There i s not a moment's peace and f o s t e r mother-asked that Rebecca be moved. (More d e t a i l s of the q u a r r e l l i n g f o l l o w , but no information regarding placement). 10. 6. 48. Rebecca was placed w i t h Mr. and Mrs. K e l l y on a boarding basis of . . . a week. Rebecca was very i n terested i n the move and not i n the l e a s t sorry to leave the f o s t e r home. She waved good-bye to f o s t e r mother and shouted out the window t h a t she was sorry she had been a bad g i r l . However, she would not say good-bye to Mae and contented h e r s e l f making faces out the window. Rebecca's new f o s t e r mother i s very experienced having had a great many Children's A i d Society c h i l d r e n . She has been very s u c c e s s f u l as a f o s t e r mother and i s warm, motherly and k i n d . She had been t o l d i n d e t a i l a l l Rebecca's h a b i t s and she was prepared to accept these. Foster mother had another f o s t e r c h i l d a l i t t l e younger than Rebecca and one a l i t t l e o l d e r and she hopes t h a t the c h i l d r e n w i l l play together. Worker t o l d her that i n the past Rebecca had had a great d e a l of trouble i n p l a y i n g w i t h other c h i l d r e n and i s i n c l i n e d to be quarrelsome and wants the l a s t word. I t would probably be easier f o r Rebecca to get along i n a home where she was the only c h i l d . However, worker f e e l s t h a t she i s going to have to l e a r n to adjust to other c h i l d r e n and that i n an easy-going atmosphere l i k e t h i s home she w i l l have a b e t t e r chance t o do t h i s .  - 109 -  10. 7. 48. At f i r s t Rebecca d i d very w e l l i n t h i s home. She q u i c k l y formed q u i t e an attachment, to f o s t e r mother although she i n s i s t e d on arguing every point t h a t came up. Worker saw her o f t e n and she f r e q u e n t l y s a i d how w e l l she l i k e d f o s t e r mother, and how she wanted to stay there u n t i l she was grown up. However, i n s p i t e of . Rebecca's l i k i n g , f o r f o s t e r mother, f o s t e r mother d i d not f e e l she could keep her because of the other c h i l d r e n i n the home. She s a i d that Rebecca Was quarrelsome, d i s o bedient, cheeky and extremely high-strung. She s a i d she could cope w i t h t h i s i f Rebecca was the only c h i l d i n the home, or the only c h i l d around t h i s age.. However, i n f a i r n e s s to the other g i r l s she d i d not f e e l that she could keep her, and suggested a f r i e n d of hers, Mrs. Mack, whQ had three sons and a younger Children*s£Aid S o c i e t y ward aged two. She s a i d that Mrs.' Mack had met Rebecca s e v e r a l times and had seen her at her worst but was s t i l l i n t e r e s t e d i n her. 17.. 7. 48. Rebecca was placed w i t h Mr. and Mrs. Mack. Before p l a c i n g her i n t h i s f o s t e r home worker had three v i s i t s w i t h the f o s t e r mother and f o s t e r f a t h e r and went over Rebecca's good and bad p o i n t s w i t h them i n d e t a i l . These f o s t e r parents, and f o s t e r mother i n p a r t i c u l a r , seem to have a good understanding of c h i l d r e n and are s i n c e r e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n Rebecca. Worker emphasized that i t i s of great importance that she be placed permanently now. Worker purposely d i d not s l u r over Rebecca's i r r i t a t i n g h a b i t s but f o s t e r parents f e l t that they would s t i l l l i k e to give her a home. Foster mother s a i d that where they l i v e there are no stores and Rebecca w i l l not always be whining f o r a n i c k e l . There are no g i r l s her age i n the home and while she can play w i t h the three boys she does not f e e l that they w i l l put up w i t h any nonsense from her and that she w i l l have to play t h e i r way or not at a l l . There are other c h i l d r e n i n the neighbourhood w i t h whom she can play i f she wishes but they have a l a r g e yard i f she wishes to play by herself. Two of the f i l e s contain no placement procedure whatever, and i t i s f e l t that the worker b e l i e v e d the p e c u l i a r c i r cumstances made preparation unnecessary. The A l l e n c h i l d r e n were o r i g i n a l l y taken i n t o care when t h e i r f a t h e r was i n the h o s p i t a l and the mother deserted them. When the f a t h e r was discharged from the h o s p i t a l the c h i l d r e n were returned to him, he having employed a housekeeper to look a f t e r them. However, plans d i d not work and the f o l l o w i n g entry took place when the c h i l d r e n were returned to the agency.  - 110 -  7. 12. 48. Kenneth and h i s s i s t e r and brother were res-apprehended. This was necessary because.of another break-up i n the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n . They were brought to the o f f i c e by t h e i r f a t h e r . A f t e r the c h i l d r e n s a i d good-bye to t h e i r f a t h e r w i t h no apparent emotional r e a c t i o n , we went out f o r a walk and had lunch. The c h i l d r e n were taken f o r a medical check. Kenneth and K e i t h were then placed i n the home of Mrs. Cole at a boarding basis of $4.32 per week. These c h i l d r e n were extremely a c t i v e although Kenneth was the l e a s t so. They ran around and showed a great i n t e r e s t i n everything going on around them. They played together w e l l f o r the most p a r t , though at times Kenneth l i k e d to boss h i s s i s t e r . They seemed to get along b e t t e r when she was not around. There was no d i f f i c u l t y w i t h placement; they took o f f t h e i r coats and s e t t l e d r i g h t down to play w i t h t h e i r f o s t e r brother. Worker explained to the f o s t e r mother that there were a d d i t i o n a l clothes coming f o r the boys and that she would t r y to b r i n g these out i n a few days. Out of the ten records of c h i l d r e n who moved during  1948  only one i s w e l l enough w r i t t e n to t e l l what preparation took place.  There are the two i n which there i s no evidence of place-  ment^ a t a l l .  The other f i l e s show some placement preparation  I t i s b e l i e v e d that while i n some cases f a i r l y adequate prepara t i o n has been made t h i s has not been recorded.  Several of the  f i l e s have been summarized over a long p e r i o d , rather than w r i t t e n up f o l l o w i n g each i n t e r v i e w .  Thus.the record i s not  accurate and d e t a i l e d . The case of Donald i s an example of t h i s k i n d of recording.  Some rather bad instances of recording be-  ing f a r behind came to l i g h t i n t h i s study.  At the time the  f i l e s were read i n January, 194i two hadrhad-no entry since and a number had had no entry since 1947.  1945,  When i t i s considered  that these c h i l d r e n are wards of a s o c i e t y and thus under t h e i r care and p r o t e c t i o n , i t seems unfortunate that they should be  - Ill -  overlooked i n t h i s manner. I t i s f e l t that p r e p a r a t i o n of the c h i l d , the prosp e c t i v e f o s t e r f a m i l y and the present f o s t e r f a m i l y or the own f a m i l y i s immensely important i n preventing confusion and trauma which may form the b a s i s of l a t e r disturbances.  A l l too  o f t e n i t seems that when a c h i l d i s going to a f o s t e r home a l ready known to the agency, very l i t t l e preparation or matching of needs i s done.  And as w i t h c h i l d Rebecca the home and c h i l d  do not meet each other's needs.  I t i s f e l t t h a t proper prepar-  a t i o n would prevent many poor or u n s u i t a b l e placements as the b e t t e r understanding of c h i l d and f o s t e r f a m i l y would be i n v a l uable i n determining the needso.of each.  -  112  -  Chapter V I I AIDS TO BETTER PLACEMENT  S i n g l e placements f o r f o s t e r c h i l d r e n are the cherished dream o f every c h i l d placement worker.  The value  of c o n t i n u i t y i n developing s e c u r i t y w i t h i n the c h i l d has long been recognized i n the placement f i e l d .  Therefore when  a case worker places a c h i l d i n a f o s t e r home she hopes t h a t the move w i l l be more or l e s s permanent.  However, t h i s study  seems t o confirm that s i n g l e placements are the exception r a t h e r than the r u l e .  The present study i s too l i m i t e d to give  any exact i n d i c a t i o n o f how f r e q u e n t l y s i n g l e placements occur, but i t does i n d i c a t e that they are f a r i n the m i n o r i t y .  Only  o n e - f i f t h of the f i f t y c h i l d r e n comprising the study stayed a l l the time w i t h t h e i r f o s t e r parents., while n e a r l y f o u r - f i f t h s • were m u l t i p l y placed to a greater or l e s s e r extent.  I t w i l l be  r e c a l l e d that the l a r g e s t group of c h i l d r e n f a l l i n g Into the A, B, C, and D groups was the D g r o u p — t h e c h i l d r e n who have had more than f i v e placements.  While the a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n may not  be as bad to-day as t h i s would i n d i c a t e , many o f these p l a c e ments having been made f i v e to ten years ago when case loads were even heavier that they a r e a t the present time, there i s some ground f o r b e l i e v i n g that s i n g l e placements would s t i l l be i n the m i n o r i t y .  I t therefore behooves an agency to make a d i f -  f e r e n t k i n d of a t t a c k on the problem of m u l t i p l e placements. I t i s t r u e that a b e t t e r understanding of f o s t e r  parents and c h i l d should reduce the problem c o n s i d e r a b l y . But what o f the c h i l d , who though w e l l understood, i s unsuited a t ordinary the present time t o l i v e i n any/foster home?  One s o l u t i o n t o  t h i s problem t h a t appears t o have been s u c c e s s f u l wherever i t has been t r i e d i s the use of the temporary -foster home. Among o t h e r s , the Jewish C h i l d Care A s s o c i a t i o n of New York have experimented w i t h t h i s system o f f o s t e r home care f o r d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n , o r f o r s h i l d r e n who have r e c e n t l y been removed from t h e i r own home o r a f o s t e r home.  This agency recommends i t as  an admirable way o f g e t t i n g t o know the c h i l d r e n and working out t h e i r problems. The Jewish C h i l d Care A s s o c i a t i o n , l i k e others i n the f i e l d , saw s i n g l e placements as a s h i n i n g goal which was so imp o s s i b l e to a t t a i n i n many i n s t a n c e s . They observed that a l l t o - o f t e n c h i l d r e n d i d not f i t i n t o the o r i g i n a l home i n which they were placed.  They found some c h i l d r e n who, when they l o s t  t h e i r own homes through death, i l l n e s s , or other causes, s u f f e r e d a l o s s of f a i t h i n themselves and i n a d u l t s .  Frequently .  they could not accept the a f f e c t i o n which f o s t e r parents were eager t o give them, while the f o s t e r parents, f o r t h e i r p a r t , could not bear t h e i r withdrawal o r f e a r f u l n e s s .  Under these c i r -  cumstances, p o t e n t i a l l y good f o s t e r homes were l o s t t o the agency upon the f a i l u r e of placement, w h i l e the children, were n o t spared replacement.  There were a l s o the c h i l d r e n whom they replaced  because t h e i r parents were not ready t o accept f o s t e r home care. Having f a i l e d w i t h some they wondered i f they could serve t h i s l a t t e r group of c h i l d r e n a t a l l , but t h e i r need was so great they  - 114 -  had to f i n d a way to meet t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . For these reasons the Jewish Care A s s o c i a t i o n decided to t e s t the v a l i d i t y of. temporary home placement as a planned experimental undertaking.  From the standpoint of the agency,  t h i s experiment was c o s t l y and time-consuming, p a r t i c u l a r l y because i t was c a r r i e d on i n war time w i t h i t s attendant s c a r c i t y of s t a f f .  But t h e i r experiment e s t a b l i s h e d the f a c t t h a t a  temporary home i s a v a l u a b l e asset f o r a c h i l d p l a c i n g agency, both i n i t s conservation of homes t h a t can serve f o r long term 24 care, and i n improved help to c h i l d r e n . Love and sustenance are synonymous to c h i l d r e n and where the parent delegates r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r sustenance to the agency, i t arouses many f e e l i n g s w i t h i n the c h i l d , p o s i t i v e and negative.  Within these f e e l i n g areas, and what i s done w i t h  them, are p o t e n t i a l i t i e s both f o r the development of the  new  r e l a t i o n s h i p , and the g i v i n g up of the o l d . While the c h i l d i s s t r u g g l i n g w i t h g i v i n g up h i s known world, the f o s t e r parent; who wants a c h i l d to. f i l l some need of h i s own, i s t r y i n g to f i n d h i s r o l e .  The f o s t e r parent psycho-  l o g i c a l l y i s a t the p o i n t where he i s seeking to take on a c h i l d , and comes to the agency f o r t h i s .  Because the f o s t e r parent and  the c h i l d are experiencing such d i f f e r e n t f e e l i n g s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y they are p u l l i n g i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s .  I t i s i n the midst  of a l l t h i s t h a t the c h i l d jpist take on a vast new experience. 24. Foster Home Bureau, Jewish C h i l d Care A s s o c i a t i o n of New York, An Experimental Use of the Temporary Home. Russel-Sage Foundation B u i l d i n g , New York.  - 115 -  The s o l u t i o n to the problem should be a way of working which does not make excessive demands on the c h i l d , nor ask too much of the f o s t e r parent.  The c h i l d and the f o s t e r parent are a t  d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s , one l o o k i n g grimly a t separation, the other h o p e f u l l y a t union w i t h a new person i n h i s f a m i l y .  The ques-  t i o n a r i s e s as to the f e a s i b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g some midway p o i n t , where a c h i l d can experience the l o s s of h i s parent, w i t h the very minimum of the other beginning phase.  There i s a  need, too, f o r some place more adaptable than the r e g u l a r f o s t e r home, where the c h i l d can express and work out h i s f e e l i n g s and c o n f l i c t over f i n d i n g himself separated from h i s parent and r e l a t e d to a worker and agency. I t i s not only the c h i l d , however, who r e q u i r e s a t r a n s i t i o n a l experience.  The parent, too, has need f o r t h i s .  Contrary  to what might be expected placement does not go along smoothly from the moment a parent decides to give up h i s c h i l d .  Experience  has shown that there i s a constant emotional s h u t t l i n g forward and back, varying i n i n t e n s i t y w i t h each parent. does not want to place h i s c h i l d .  He both wants and  Each parent who f e e l s t h a t h i s  c h i l d needs placement i s a t the same time b a t t l i n g h i s g u i l t and his* f e a r s .  Up to the present time the parent has had l e g a l r e s -  p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s c h i l d and has made a l l the d e c i s i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to the c h i l d ' s everyday l i v i n g .  The parent struggles  against t u r n i n g over the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the care of h i s c h i l d to an agency.  He wonders about many t h i n g s : whether the community  w i l l t h i n k he i s a bad parent i f he places the c h i l d ; i f he w i l l  i  - 116 -  be able to see the f o s t e r home before h i s c h i l d goes there; why the f o s t e r mother would wish t o take c h i l d r e n ; w i l l he be able to get h i s c h i l d back i f he i s able t o care f o r him; how o f t e n may he v i s i t ?  The worker handles these questions i n terms o f  t h e i r r e a l meaning t o the parent and i n terms o f the r e a l i t i e s that make placement what i t i s .  The parent does not know what  placement w i l l r e a l l y mean t o him o r to the c h i l d u n t i l he can experience i t . I f a temporary f o s t e r home i s used the parent w i l l be comforted t o know that the c h i l d w i l l remain there from two t o s i x months, and during t h i s time d i f f i c u l t i e s can be worked out. The parent w i l l have time t o muster h i s resources t o determine whether or not i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a home o r t o have the c h i l d i n h i s home. He w i l l be able t o see what separation means t o himself and the c h i l d .  He w i l l have a chance t o d e t e r -  mine whether placement can give t o the c h i l d what he was n o t able to g i v e , and do the things he was not able t o do i n h e l p i n g the c h i l d t o become a wholesome, mature i n d i v i d u a l .  That means the  d e c i s i o n i s not f i n a l , and the parent r e a l i z e s that during the temporary home period he w i l l have t o decide whether or n o t p l a c e ment s h a l l continue. The c h i l d does not make the d e c i s i o n , but he i s the one who w i l l l i v e i n a f o s t e r home.  Through h i s behaviour, however,  he expresses h i s f e e l i n g s about placement from the moment he becomes aware of the change.  The c h i l d ' s feelings, are h i s only  - 117 -  means of expression, and through them he p a r t i c i p a t e s i n p l a c e ment. The c h i l d must accept the f a c t t h a t an agency w i l l now provide f o r him the things h i s parents formerly provided, and r e a l i z e that a worker now holds the power to provide a home, sustenance and a new and strange way o f l i f e . ening t o the c h i l d .  This i s u s u a l l y  flight-  Up to the present h i s t o t a l world has been  h i s home, h i s school, and the s t r e e t s he knows.  Who w i l l support  him through the experience o f changing not homes, but worlds? The placement worker has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c a r r y i n g out t h i s part of the job w i t h as much thought as was given i n h e l p i n g the parent t o decide on placement. Going to l i v e i n h i s temporary f o s t e r home i s the f i r s t concrete evidence t o the c h i l d o f what separation from h i s parents really i s .  The worker w i l l have discussed before the day o f  placement, what i t may f e e l l i k e , and what w i l l happen when the c h i l d goes t o h i s temporary home.  This serves to take the edge  o f f the experience but the beginning o f placement s t i l l c a r r i e s w i t h i t a good d e a l of pain r e s u l t a n t from the emotional impact o f the separation. Here he i s i n a completely strange home, w i t h people he never saw before, and even l i t t l e things such as h i s . f a m i l i a r c h a i r and bed, the mother's s t y l e o f cooking, are gone. The young c h i l d i s more dependent on r o u t i n e such as s p e c i a l songs or s t o r i e s to accompany e a t i n g , having a bath, going to bed; and i t i s h e l p f u l to l e a r n these from the parent where p o s s i b l e , s i n c e i t may serve to ease the p a i n . The temporary f o s t e r mother i s i n t e r e s t e d i n doing a j o b  - 118 -  of h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n get used to being away from home, i n cooperation with, the agency, and she does not have need to absorb a c h i l d .  Because she does not have need to i n v e s t i n 0  making the c h i l d what she wants him to be, she can a l l o w the c h i l d to e s t a b l i s h a strong t i e to the worker.  She i s w i l l i n g  to accept any c h i l d needing temporary care, and i s not a f r a i d of the more gross behaviour problems•such as temper tantrums, bed-wetting, e t c .  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important since a c h i l d  who i s going through a l l h i s f e e l i n g s of r e j e c t i o n , p a i n a t separation from h i s parents, resentment to parent-and  worker,  w i l l o f t e n l i v e out these f e e l i n g s through h i s bad behaviour. The temporary f o s t e r mother can l i v e w i t h d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n as she knows these experiences w i l l be ending. One of the most important things i n the temporary p l a c e ment i s the k i n d of help that the worker gives the c h i l d i n handl i n g the problems i n d i c a t e d above.  I n order to accomplish h i s  o b j e c t i v e s , the worker must v i s i t the c h i l d weekly. takes over many of the f u n c t i o n s of the parent.  She a l s o  She may take the  c h i l d to c l i n i c f o r r e g u l a r or check-up examinations, f o r glasses ojr f o r s p e c i a l treatment. shopping f o r new t h i n g s .  She may b r i n g him c l o t h i n g or take him She may enter him i n the new s c h o o l ,  arrange outings f o r him, and do a great d e a l of the going back and f o r t h that was done by the parent when the c h i l d was a t home and that w i l l be done by the f o s t e r mother l a t e r when the c h i l d goes to h i s long-time home.  The worker does these things because  i t i s through t h i s k i n d of a c t i v i t y , r e i n f o r c i n g the d i s c u s s i o n as to how the c h i l d f e e l s about the things t h a t are happening to  - 119 -  him, that the c h i l d begins to r e a l i z e how much and what k i n d of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the parent has given over to the agency.  The  Jewish C h i l d Care A s s o c i a t i o n b e l i e v e s that though i t seems l i k e a time-consuming program, there i s i n i t an e s s e n t i a l economy, since the c h i l d ' s emotions about placement f r e q u e n t l y come out i n connection w i t h these very f u n c t i o n s which the agency has. assumed.  They can be handled then, by the s k i l l e d worker a t the  place and time they a r i s e .  Agencies have d i f f i c u l t y i n h e l p i n g '  c h i l d r e n handle these f e e l i n g s w i t h which they have l i v e d f o r a long time.  They have found t h a t c h i l d r e n who have had the oppor-  t u n i t y of l i v i n g i n a temporary home are c l e a r e r about the r o l e of the agency i n t h e i r l i v e s . The worker, i n her weekly interviews w i t h the c h i l d focusses on how the c h i l d f e e l s about the f o s t e r home, how he i s g e t t i n g used to t h i s new k i n d of l i v i n g , whether i t seems d i f f e r ent to him t h i s week from the way i t d i d l a s t week.  She i s aware  of what the c h i l d i s experiencing, i n the way of g u i l t , anger, and other c o n d i t i o n s .  The c h i l d expresses only l i t t l e b i t s of  emotion at a time, and he w i l l b r i n g up only a part of h i s r e a c t ions about placement, about the worker and about h i s parents, and she l e t s him see t h a t the agency w i l l take care of him even i f he i s angry.  The c h i l d l e a r n s that the worker i s d i f f e r e n t  from other a d u l t s he has known.  The worker can l e t him t a l k about  the negative side of t h i s experience, and w i l l maintain her i n t e r e s t despite the c h i l d ' s expression of h i s anger and aggression. I n f a c t she helps the c h i l d to b r i n g out these f e e l i n g s .  -  120  -  The c h i l d f i n a l l y begins to understand that the worker i s i n t e r e s t e d and he can begin t o t r u s t the worker.  I f a t the time,  the placement was decided upon, the - c h i l d thought that has p a r t i n the p i c t u r e was overlooked, he f i n d s i n the temporary  foster  home t h a t h i s f e e l i n g s are considered. The worker arranges f o r v i s i t i n g between the c h i l d and parent, and has responsible r o l e i n making any necessary changes. V i s i t i n g the parents a f t e r he has gone t o the f o s t e r home i s important t o the c h i l d since he thus begins t o r e a l i z e that he has not l o s t h i s parents.  This helps develop f o r the c h i l d an aware-  ness of the parent's new. and d i f f i c u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o him and consequently o f the meaning and r o l e of the worker i n h i s l i f e . The c h i l d learns t h a t the worker and the f o s t e r mother have r e placed the mother i n many areas. As the c h i l d goes on i n placement, the worker helps him to see the p o s i t i v e elements there are f o r him i n t h i s experience. E s s e n t i a l l y the experience o f being placed i s a negative one. However, as the c h i l d continues i n f o s t e r care he i s able t o f r e e himself of some o f h i s g u i l t and h o s t i l i t y over having been p l a c e d , and i s f r e e r t o r e l a t e to the worker and the f o s t e r parents. begins to r e a l i z e that the agency's care i s good.  He  He begins t o  express warmth to.the f o s t e r parents, t o think t h a t although he misses h i s parents, nonetheless he i s r e c e i v i n g adequate care. Sometimes he r e a l i z e s he i s g e t t i n g more adequate care than he d i d t a t home under the d i s t u r b e d c o n d i t i o n s which made placement necessary.  The c h i l d begins t o want the f o s t e r mother more t o h i m s e l f ,  and he a l s o begins t o want more than the temporary f o s t e r home  \  - 121 -  o f f e r s — h e wants t o become absorbed and become p a r t of the f o s t e r f a m i l y . He has negative f e e l i n g s about remaining on i n the home, too, since i t would be good to be away from t h i s palce where he s u f f e r e d the agony of separation from h i s parents. I t i s a l s o true that no matter how much one wants something there i s some element of holding back, of f e a r of f a c i n g the new. The c h i l d i n temporary placement goes through a c y c l e of f e e l i n g toward h i s worker.  At the beginning he may be q u i e t  and subservient i n h i s f e a r about what h i s powerful worker w i l l do t o him.  As he f e e l s safer he can begin expressing h i s nega-  t i v e f e e l i n g s , which are d i r e c t e d as much against the worker as against the parent.  Frequently the c h i l d w i l l f e e l s a f e r about  expressing these f e e l i n g s against the worker both because she leaves him f r e e t o do so and because of the great s o c i a l pressure against f r e e expression o f h o s t i l i t y to parents.  As the  r e l a t i o n s h i p develops the c h i l d i s able to draw c l o s e r to the worker.  At t h i s p o i n t he may want t o know when the worker w i l l  come again,-may ask to be seen f i r s t , may be angry i f the worker has to change the day of the v i s i t .  This r e l a t i o n s h i p reaches  a peak, and as i t begins t o taper o f f w i t h the c h i l d ' s i n c r e a s ing s e c u r i t y i n the f o s t e r home, the c h i l d begins to t u r n some of h i s f e e l i n g s toward the f o s t e r f a m i l y , and to develop h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h them.  When the c h i l d begins t o express p o s i -  t i v e f e e l i n g s about the placement, the worker again i n d i c a t e s that the c h i l d can have an experience which has these p o s i t i v e "elements when he goes to his.long-time home.  The c h i l d may f e e l  - 122 -  resentment a t being unable t o remain i n the temporary home a f t e r he has begun t o f i n d p o s i t i v e elements i n i t .  He i s  helped t o accept t h a t t h i s r e a l l y i s a temporary home because a l l the c h i l d r e n i n the home are there on a s i m i l a r temporary b a s i s , and he may have watched other c h i l d r e n move on t o longterm homes. the  The worker sometimes brings up the p o s s i b i l i t y o f  c h i l d ' s going t o a place where they want a l i t t l e boy t o  be t h e i r l i t t l e boy, which i s d i f f e r e n t from h i s present home where the f o s t e r mother helps boys get used t o being away from home but doesn't have boys who stay and grow up there.  As he  begins t o accept the n e c e s s i t y f o r going on t o a long-term home, he may himself decide i t w i l l be good t o go on t o a new worker, too,  since the temporary worker represents t o him the p a i n o f  separation and o f taking on the experience of placement. When the c h i l d was placed i n h i s temporary home, he did not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d e c i s i o n , but when he goes t o h i s long-term home, he p a r t i c i p a t e s a c t i v e l y , and the experience no longer holds only negative i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the c h i l d . I t would appear that there are many advantages t o u s i n g temporary homes . I t i s a f i n e opportunity f o r g e t t i n g to know the c h i l d so that one can determine the type of f o s t e r home he would best f i t i n t o .  Then h i s problems are worked  through i n the f o s t e r home. The temporary f o s t e r mother accepts each c h i l d as he i s .  She i s able t o do t h i s s i n c e she i s aware  t h a t t h i s behaviour w i l l l a s t only a short time.  The c h i l d  leaves t h i s temporary home only when he i s able t o face normal  - 123 -  l i v i n g i n a normal home.  I n t h i s way many good f o s t e r homes  are saved f o r the agency's c o n s t r u c t i v e use of them, i n s t e a d of the o l d method of hit-and-miss placement, t r y i n g f o s t e r home a f t e r f o s t e r home i n order to f i n d one which can accept the c h i l d as he i s . I t i s b e l i e v e d by many a u t h o r i t i e s that the use of temporary f o s t e r homes w i l l prevent the misuse of long-term homes.  Temporary homes should new be used as parking  for children.  places  Always they r e q u i r e the support of t h e i r worker.  Replacement of necessity means a c h i l d needs help. Temporary homes should not be used f o r every c h i l d . There i s no need f o r such placement when c h i l d r e n are too young to prepare f o r placement.  However, there i s good reason f o r  b e l i e v i n g that c h i l d r e n cannot take on a f o s t e r home a t the p o i n t of separation from h i s own people except a t very cost to h i m s e l f .  great  I t i s e a s i e r f o r the c h i l d t o work out the  great pain of l e a v i n g h i s parents i f he i s not simultaneously burdened w i t h the n e c e s s i t y f o r l o v i n g new s u b s t i t u t e parents. I t i s b e l i e v e d ay agencies that have used t h i s program that i t i s both p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y sound and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y p r a c t i c a l . Institutions Many a u t h o r i t i e s claim t h a t some c h i l d r e n get along b e t t e r i n i n s t i t u t i o n s than i n f o s t e r homes. C e r t a i n l y i t does not seem l o g i c a l that every c h i l d w i l l f i t best i n t o a f o s t e r home.  I t has been s a i d that f o s t e r f a m i l y care as a s e r v i c e  f o r any or a l l c h i l d r e n has been oversold to the p o i n t of dim25 i n i s h i n g returns. 25.' The Family. "The Parent-Child R e l a t i o n s h i p as a Factor i n C h i l d Placement." A p r i l 1946, V o l 27, No. 2, p. 47.  - 124 -  I t i s agreed that small c h i l d r e n and i n f a n t s develop b e t t e r i n f o s t e r homes than i n i n s t i t u t i o n s , as they need the close r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a l o v i n g person w i t h whom they can 26 identify.  Florence C l o t h i e r  points out the danger i n v o l v e d  where c h i l d r e n do not form strong r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s . Everyone i n the c h i l d w e l f a r e f i e l d has undoubtedly read Anna Freud's War and C h i l d r e n , i n which she describes the behaviour of t i n y c h i l d r e n who had to be parted from t h e i r parents during  the war.  Some experienced workers have gone so f a r as to -  say that an i n f a n t who remains i n an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r three years or more i s mental h o s p i t a l m a t e r i a l . I t i s a l s o agreed that orphans should not be placed in institutions.  Since t h e i r f a m i l y t i e s have been permanently  broken, the c h i l d r e n can be best served by p l a c i n g them i n t o a permanent f a m i l y group where they w i l l be a s s i m i l a t e d by means of adoption. I t would, by the same reasoning, be a d v i s a b l e to place a l l c h i l d r e n born out of wedlock whose mothers have maint a i n e d no contact w i t h them i n adoption homes.  There are  s e v e r a l of the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group who are adopta b l e , being i n good h e a l t h and of sound mind, and where the present f o s t e r parents are most anxious to adopt them.  For the  c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y as they approach t h e i r stormy teens, t h i s would mean s e c u r i t y arid s t a b i l i t y and acceptance.  I n sev-  e r a l of the cases the workers f e e l d o u b t f u l about t h i s p a r t i c u l a r family adopting the c h i l d r e n . However, some of the 26. C l o t h i e r , Florence, M. D., Mental Hygiene. "The Problem of Frequent Replacement of the Young Dependent C h i l d , " October, 1937, pp. 549 - 558.  - 125 -  c h i l d r e n are so f i r m l y rooted any replacement from the home' would be a severe blow to these c h i l d r e n .  There i s reason to  b e l i e v e the c h i l d r e n w i l l remain i n these homes regardless of the  workers' concern regarding the a d v i s a b i l i t y of adoption.  The value of a secure, permanent home to the c h i l d i s w e l l appreciated.  And from the point of view of the agency i t would  seem t o be good business. For the workers i t would mean r e duced caseloads, and f o r the agency i t would reduce t h e i r maintenance costs so that the money expended f o r these c h i l d r e n would be used f o r other purposes.  This would seem to be a  strong f a c t o r i n favour of adoption of these o l d e r c h i l d r e n and e s p e c i a l l y a t a time when there i s a d i f f i c u l t y i n r a i s i n g suff i c i e n t funds through the community chest. I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t any c h i l d r e n who  differ  a p p r e c i a b l y from the normal group should not l i v e i n i n s t i t u tions.  I n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e c a l l s f o r a c e r t a i n amount of regu-  l a t i o n due to greater numbers of c h i l d r e n being accommodated. Therefore, anyone who would have d i f f i c u l t y i n conforming to the  group would not b e n e f i t from i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e .  Among t h i s  group are the hyper a c t i v e c h i l d r e n ; withdrawn, shy c h i l d r e n ; c h i l d r e n w i t h a p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s such as diabetes, heart disease or  epilepsy. Miss Paradise, i n her recent book, makes a summary of  the  k i n d of c h i l d r e n she b e l i e v e s could b e n e f i t from i n s t i -  t u t i o n a l care.  - 126 -  They are: 1.  The c h i l d who has had a succession of f a i l u r e s i n f o s t e r homes and i s i n need of a l e s s personal environment before again attempting f a m i l y l i f e .  2.  The c h i l d who requires a p e r i o d of c l o s e and continuous observation i n order to determine h i s needs.  3.  The c h i l d needing r e g u l a r h a b i t t r a i n i n g i s more e a s i l y helped by the i n s t i t u t i o n *  4.  The c h i l d who requires p r o t e c t i o n from unstable parents.  5.  The c h i l d who has such strong f a m i l y t i e s that h i s acceptance of s u b s t i t u t e parents would be d i f f i c u l t .  6.  The c h i l d who i s unable to form any c l o s e r e l a t i o n ships w i t h a d u l t s , such as are required i n f o s t e r homes 27. Many workers w i l l agree t h a t most of these categories  could be t e s t e d or helped i n a temporary f o s t e r home.  Insti-  t u t i o n s are very c o s t l y to operate and t h e r e f o r e , should be used only where there i s a d e f i n i t e advantage.  Perhaps an i n -  s t i t u t i o n of the school v a r i e t y would meet t h e i r needs of Group f o u r and f i v e .  Where f a m i l y t i e s a r e very strong the c h i l d r e n  might be given the chance to v i s i t t h e i r parents f r e q u e n t l y ; y e t r e c e i v e good care and l e a r n good h a b i t s w h i l e i n the i n s t i tution.  These c h i l d r e n f r e q u e n t l y come from homes where there  i s a great deal of a f f e c t i o n from the parents, but along w i t h i t there i s too much leniency and l a c k of r e g u l a t i o n t o t h e i r l i v e s which does not help a c h i l d t o f i t i n t o normal s o c i e t y .  On the  other hand c h i l d r e n frequently f e e l insecure from l a c k of regul a t i o n or l i m i t s . 27.  This would be gained i n a school s e t t i n g ,  Paradise, V i o l a , Toward P u b l i c Undertaking of Casework. New York, Bussell-Sage Foundation, 1948, p. 188.  - 127 -  y e t the c h i l d r e n would s t i l l have t h e advantage o f s t r o n g family  ties. I n s t i t u t i o n s might be used i n working out prob-  lems o f s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n .  C h i l d r e n who have come  from s e r i o u s n e g l e c t s i t u a t i o n s , o r those having had one or more poor placements may be so s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d as t o r e q u i r e p s y c h i a t r i c h e l p i n an impersonal  atmosphere, where t h e  c h i l d w i l l be r e s t r a i n e d as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e .  Ryther Centre  i n S e a t t l e i s such an i n s t i t u t i o n and i s famous f o r the good work i t i s a b l e t o do w i t h s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . I t would seem t h a t t h e r e i s a p l a c e f o r such an agency.  However,  i f a l l the other f a c i l i t i e s were o p e r a t i n g to advantage, a good many o f these problems c o u l d be d e a l t w i t h i n t h e temporary foster'home. operate.  I n s t i t u t i o n s such as Ryther a r e very c o s t l y t o  I t i s claimed  t h a t $140 p e r day i s expended on every  c h i l d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n .  I t i s imperative  t h e r e f o r e , t o use  such an i n s t i t u t i o n t o i t s b e s t advantage by p l a c i n g only t h e most s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n t h e r e . P l a y Therapy One may be helped  r e c e n t demonstration o f how d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n i s the p l a y therapy  experiment c a r r i e d out under  the auspices o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y .  Playjtherapy  gives  the c h i l d the chance t o l i v e i n a home d u r i n g the p e r i o d i n which a t h e r a p i s t i s f i n d i n g out t h e c h i l d ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s and h e l p i n g him. t o r e s o l v e these d i f f i c u l t i e s and grow beyond them. I f t h e c h i l d cannot remain i n h i s own home d u r i n g t h e treatment  -  128  -  p e r i o d , i t would seem that he might be best accommodated i n the permissive and non-demanding atmosphere o f the temporaryf o s t e r home. Play therapy i s done by s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d t h e r a p i s t s . During the period while the c h i l d i s s e r i o u s l y disturbed the t h e r a p i s t receives p s y c h i a t r i c advice, i n order that the c h i l d may be helped to h i s best advantage.  At f i r s t the c o n s u l t a t i o n  w i t h the p s y c h i a t r i s t almost matches hour f o r hour the a c t u a l play i n t e r v i e w .  However, as soon as the c h i l d shows signs of  d e f i n i t e advancement the t h e r a p i s t w i l l be able to c a r r y along w i t h l e s s p s y c h i a t r i c help. The equipping o f a playroom i s not too expensive. The a c t u a l room needs only to be one where there i s no concern about w a l l s being scratched or painted on, and where the f l o o r s can stand pounding and rougher p l a y .  The Children's A i d Soc-  i e t y has the advantage o f having a s p e c i a l "vue" window, which looks t o the occupant o f the playroom as an ordinary m i r r o r on the w a l l .  However, from a small observation room i n the back  the observer can watch the c h i l d i n a c t i o n w i t h the p l a y therapist.  This window i s i n v a l u a b l e to the p s y c h i a t r i s t during the  f i r s t few i n t e r v i e w s .  He i s able t o determine a great deal,  about the c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y and the extent o f damage done, and a c c o r d i n g l y , i s b e t t e r equipped to make a diagnosis and t o recommend treatment. Toys i n the playroom should be adequate and numerous enough to a l l o w the c h i l d to give expression to h i s f e e l i n g s .  - 129 There should be p a i n t s f o r p a i n t i n g w i t h — t h i s i s so e s s e n t i a l i n so many forms of p l a y . necessary.  Pamper, p e n c i l s and crayons are a l s o  There should be the mechanical toys which so many  c h i l d r e n l i k e — c a r s , aeroplanes, t r u c k s , tanks, boats. and cowboys and other f i g u r e s are used a great d e a l . animals of various types—domestic  and tame.  Indians Also  Dolls, particu-  l a r l y the types that have some therapeutic value, such as "wettum" d o l l s and n a t u r a l f i g u r e s resembling as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e male and female contours a r e i n v a l u a b l e i n the p l a y room.  These l a t t e r may- be obtained made of s o f t p l a s t i c which  are so p l i a b l e they may take any form and a l l o w the c h i l d to d i r e c t h i s h o s t i l i t y against them without damage. A playhouse i s most u s e f u l too.  Frequently i t i s found to s i g n i f y the  c h i l d ' s own home, or other b u i l d i n g s .  The Children's A i d has a  l a r g e sturdy wooden house which may be roughly h a n d l e d — t h e  roof  i s f l a t and the c h i l d r e n may even stand on i t . However, f o r the c h i l d who has the urge t o destroy a house there i s a cardboard house which can be .substituted.  The toys are contained i n l a r g e  drawers which the c h i l d can climb i n t o himself i f he d e s i r e s . Shelves a l s o a l l o w the c h i l d to put things on them and t o climb up on them i f he d e s i r e s . A swing i s provided on the lawn. The purpose o f play therapy i s to diagnose the c h i l d ' s problem and to help him give expression to h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s e i t h e r v e r b a l l y or a c t i v e l y .  Following t h i s the c h i l d regresses  to the stage o f development he was a t when he stopped emotionally.  growing  With the co-operation and warm acceptance of the  t h e r a p i s t the c h i l d i s helped to understand h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s and*  - 130 -  to grow beyond them.  The atmosphere of the playroom, of  n e c e s s i t y i s accepting of the c h i l d as he i s , and permissive of any behaviour he may indulge i n almost to the extreme. The only l i m i t s are that the c h i l d may not hurt himself or the t h e r a p i s t and that he may not damage c e r t a i n f i x t u r e s , break windows, e t c . The t h e r a p i s t wears a smock to p r o t e c t her c l o t h i n g . At f i r s t the t h e r a p i s t merely observes, and helps the c h i l d to become aware of h i s a c t i o n s .  She may help him to  d i s t i n g u i s h between r e a l i t y and fantasy, i f t h i s d i f f i c u l t y exists.  Later she may give some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to the c h i l d  regarding h i s behaviour when i t i s believed that i t w i l l be of value to him. Since most of these c h i l d r e n have known d i s t u r b i n g home c o n d i t i o n s , the t h e r a p i s t aids the c h i l d i n understanding what people are l i k e i n the world outside h i s home.  He learns  t h a t people are not "good" or "bad," but have many c o n t r a s t i n g q u a l i t i e s a t the same time.  She helps the c h i l d to accept him-  s e l f as a c h i l d a t whatever age l e v e l he i s , and i n d i c a t e s that he w i l l grow up and do the things t h a t a d u l t s do then. The problem of sex comes f r e q u e n t l y to the f o r e i n play therapy interviews.  Here too, the t h e r a p i s t must be accepting of a l l  the c h i l d ' s behaviour.  She helps him to see that, i n the play-  room a l l h i s behaviour i s acceptable, whereas i n the r e a l there are many things which may not be done. to b r i n g h i s f e e l i n g s i n t o the open.  world  Here, he i s able  Matters r e l a t i n g to sex  are d e a l t w i t h i n a matter-of-fact way, so that there i s no confusion i n the c h i l d ' s mind regarding the f u n c t i o n s of men and women or the b i r t h of c h i l d r e n .  - 131 -  Two of the c h i l d r e n i n the study have had the benef i t of play therapy, having been s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n previously.  Both of these c h i l d r e n have shown a great d e a l  of improvement a f t e r treatment.  One c h i l d remained i n a r e -  c e i v i n g home while being helped by play therapy.  The  other  c h i l d was placed i n a s p e c i a l l y s e l e c t e d f o s t e r home during treatment.  His record i s discussed below.  I t i s t r a g i c that  such a disturbed c h i l d should.have been subjected to so much p a i n and r i d i c u l e ; and so l i t t l e understanding home w h i l e attending play therapy.  by the f o s t e r  The record i s so long and  i n v o l v e d that only the f o s t e r mother's a t t i t u d e during h i s treatment w i l l be described. Arthur had had nine previous f o s t e r homes and was a very disturbed c h i l d . At the time of placement i n the White f o s t e r home he was described as"emotionally f l a t tened" by the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c . 4. 4. 46. Arthur was placed i n the White home. He seemed to be more i n t e r e s t e d i n the house than the people in i t . 8. 8. 46. Upon telephoning the f o s t e r home i t was learned that so f a r Arthur was doing w e l l . He had had one school l e s s o n during which the f o s t e r mother learned that he could w r i t e h i s name, and could draw a l i t t l e -,. but could not do number work. He had helped f o s t e r mother's elder son to put i n some wood. He was s t i l l wandering about the house and during one of h i s wanderings had found the older son's mouth organ and had to be reprimanded about taking other people's t h i n g s . The c h i l d s t a r t e d t a k i n g play therapy that day. 17. 4. 46. Foster mother i n the o f f i c e . Worker i n terviewed her before seeing Arthur. Mrs. White had w r i t ten down a l i s t of h i s misdoings on a s l i p of paper and s a i d she had had q u i t e a week-end w i t h him. She d i d not seem p a r t i c u l a r l y disconcerted and i n f a c t gave worker the impression of g e t t i n g a c e r t a i n amount of enjoyment out of r e c i t i n g what had occurred; but she d i d d e f i n i t e l y  - 132 -  d i s p l a y more condemnation and l a c k of sympathy towards Arthur's whole a t t i t u d e and d i f f i c u l t i e s . She a s c r i b e d them merely to " s e l f i s h n e s s " and " l a z i n e s s " saying Arthur • was an " e g o t i s t " and'revengeful" by nature. *This charac t e r i s t y p i c a l l y a U k r a i n i a n one." (She i s sure Arthur i s U k r a i n i a n from h i s p h y s i c a l appearance and walk and name). She went on to t e l l of a U k r a i n i a n they had known on the p r a i r i e s who had murdered a man who had i n s u l t e d him about h i s plowing, and threw h i s two small c h i l d r e n i n the c e l l a r . %  Foster mother had had r e l a t i v e s v i s i t i n g i n the house at the week-end and Arthur had seemed to seek a t t e n t i o n by many misdemeanors. He had shut f o s t e r mother's cat i n a box p l a c i n g on i t another box. He had been reprimanded for c r u e l t y by f o s t e r f a t h e r . >The next day he had gone around t a k i n g handles o f f basement f i x t u r e s and washing machines, and had turned on a l l the taps. Foster mother's daughter had given her a c l u e as to some of the things he had been doing and he had been angry and threatened to get even w i t h her. Afterwards, when she had her hand on the f l o o r to p i c k up something Arthur went to jump on her hand w i t h both f e e t . Foster mother grabbed him and administered c o r p o r a l punishment. Worker f e l t i t not wise to disagree too f l a t l y w i t h her methods and a t t i t u d e s as she c e r t a i n l y i s observing Arthur c l o s e l y , and endeavouring to do what she can f o r him. 8. 5. 46. Arthur and f o s t e r mother i n the o f f i c e . Foster mother said he had been q u i t e good a l l week except when her l i t t l e g i r l became i l l w i t h ' f l u and a high temperature l a s t Thursday. I t seemed the f u s s i n g and a t t e n t i o n she needed made Arthur jealous and he spent, h i s time making as much noise as p o s s i b l e , t u r n i n g on the gramophone and r a d i o , marching o u t s i d e the l i t t l e g i r l ' s window, and blowing h i s w h i s t l e , e t c . Foster'mother became very angry and l e c t u r e d him about h i s s e l f i s h n e s s . The f o s t e r mother accepted the f a c t t h a t he  was  "stuck" at some l e v e l and had to be taken back and re-enact experiences. 1. 5. 46. Arthur had been c r u e l to the cat and f o s • t e r mother administered c o r p o r a l punishment, t e l l i n g him i f he hurt things or people he would be hurt i n t u r n . The f a m i l y went to a show which featured Dagwood and Blondie, and a l s o a murder mystery. Arthur was i n t r i g u e d  - 133 -  by the murder s t o r y . Foster f a t h e r got "fed up" and. ' s a i d i f he could not t h i n k about the funny things i n s t e a d of the h o r r i b l e ones they would not take him any more. 15. 5. 46. On Sunday they went t o a p i c n i c t o Bowen I s l a n d and the c h i l d was thoroughly miserable. She t o l d him the n i g h t before t h a t they would have to be up e a r l y and when he came down next morning he was c r y i n g misera b l y . She spoke sharply t o him, saying she had never taken a c r y i n g c h i l d on a p i c n i c y e t and sent him u p s t a i r s t o p u l l himself together. He was completely "poker faced" a l l day and seemed to enjoy nothing i n c l u d i n g the f r e e western p i c t u r e show. Foster mother thought that a l l the arrangements f o r p i c n i c s meant "too much standing on h i s own f e e t " and he "hates" t h a t . I n a crowd she s a i d he i s miserable. He "cannot stand competition." Worker r e l a t e d t h i s to Arthur's i n s e c u r i t y but f o s t e r mother f e e l s very condemnat o r y towards i t and says he "must" l e a r n . When worker suggested that he would do so i f he developed s e l f - c o n f i dence and b e l i e f i n h i s own a c t i v i t i e s f o s t e r mother s a i d she would hate him to get s e l f - c o n f i d e n t . He would be so "cocky" there would be no holding him. Foster mother describes the c h i l d as "nothing but a s t i n k i n g e g o t i s t . " She t o l d him there weren't any supermen on t h i s earth. He was j u s t l i k e everyone e l s e . As long as, he had to go to the t o i l e t every day he was an ordinary human being, and no d i f f e r e n t from the r e s t . There i s a lengthy d i s c u s s i o n of the f a c t that the f o s t e r mother believes the c h i l d t o be a " l a z y p r o s t i t u t e ' s child." One day when he d i d not l i k e the soup he made faces and l e f t the t a b l e to go to the bathroom and "proceeded to scream l i k e a maniac." She a a i d she d i d not go to him because that "would feed h i s ego a l l the more," but when he d i d r e t u r n to the room she t o l d him only l u n a t i c s made a noise i n that way and asked her daughter to look up the address of Essondale i n the telephone d i r e c t o r y , e x p l a i n i n g that was where they sent people who are "funny i n the head." 26. 6. 46. Foster mother f e l t the c h i l d was improvi n g — h e now laughs out loud l i k e any c h i l d and runs out to play spontaneously. 10. 7. 46. Foster mother s a i d the f i n a l straw came when Arthur c a l l e d her l i t t l e g i r l "Pig-face." That made  - 134 -  her mad as they do not a l l o w derogatory nicknames i n the f a m i l y , as they f e e l i t tends to make s e n s i t i v e c h i l d r e n f e e l i n f e r i o r . When he t o l d her he had been c a l l e d p i g face by other c h i l d r e n , she got a book and showed him that was j u s t how he looked at t i m e s — p o i n t i n g out t h a t when he screwed up h i s face i t was l i k e a pig's snout, that he sometimes walked w i t h h i s head down and h i s shoulders hunched l i k e a p i g , and that i t was a l s o l i k e a p i g to go and root i n people's belongings without asking, as he apparently o f t e n does i n other people's houses. She went on to say that jQod made men to hold t h e i r heads up, to t a l k and ask f o r things s t r a i g h t out, e t c . She t h i n k s t h i s had q u i t e an e f f e c t on Arthur. 7. 8. 47. Foster mother and Arthur i n the o f f i c e . Foster f a t h e r i s s t i l l away and f o s t e r mother f e e l s Arthur i s harder to handle when he i s not there. Foster mother s a i d the c h i l d had been l y i n g a l o t l a t e l y , and t h i s she w i l l not stand. Her f a m i l y had been brought up w i t h very s t r i c t ideas on t r u t h and she w i l l not have them l e d a s t r a y . Arthur had been l y i n g a l l week about l i t t l e petty t h i n g s . F i n a l l y , one morning she asked i f he had both garters on and he s a i d "Yes," when he a c t u a l l y had not. He had l o s t one and "was too l a z y to look f o r i t . " Foster mother f e l t t h i s was the l a s t straw and "paddled" him, e x p l a i n i n g that i t was not j u s t f o r one l i e , but f o r a l l those he had been t e l l i n g throughout the week. She had warned him she would spank him i f he continued to l i e , and a l s o t o l d him that i f i t continued he would have to leave at a f o r t n i g h t ' s n o t i c e . There i s abundant evidence here of the poor understanding  l a y people may have of the b a s i s of behaviour, and of what  has been endured by disturbed c h i l d r e n i n the past.  The worker  worked slowly w i t h t h i s f o s t e r mother and the r e s u l t has been most g r a t i f y i n g .  The c h i l d too, has shown considerable im-  provement, which i s i n d i c a t e d by the f i n a l entry i n the January 1949.  file:  Worker c a l l e d at the f o s t e r home on  November 26th, December 1 s t , and January 21st. The 'two f i r s t v i s i t s were casual v i s i t s , b r i n g i n g c l o t h e s . Worker saw Arthur once and he smiled i n g r e e t i n g her. This was the f i r s t time he had done t h i s or given any v o l u n t a r y greeting. On the t h i r d occasion worker had  - 135 -  tea a t the home and v i s i t e d f o r about an hour. Everything i s going w e l l i n the home. Arthur i s a quiet c h i l d but t a l k e d more e a s i l y than he d i d a few years ago. Foster mother suggested he show worker the goat and worker n o t i c e d that he stroked the goat gently and seemed to be very a f f e c t i o n a t e towards i t . He a l s o accompanied worker to the car but t h i s was rather a duty walk suggested by f o s t e r mother. Play therapy i s most u s e f u l i n helping c h i l d r e n who are s e r i o u s l y disturbed.  Every p o s s i b l e means of co-operation  w i t h the t h e r a p i s t s should be given, f o r t h e i r work i s most d e l i c a t e and i n t r i c a t e , and i t s success depends p a r t l y on favourable surroundings where the c h i l d may stay during treatment. Experience shows, that temporary placements where c h i l d r e n need not conform to r i g i d routines are most valuable i n such cases, and when the c h i l d i s ready he can then move on to the n s u a l l demands of the normal home. / Surely w i t h more c a r e f u l placements, p l a y therapy, i n v o l v i n g considerable expense could be reduced to a minimum. Disturbances i n c h i l d r e n , i t i s agreed by most a u t h o r i t i e s are caused by r e a c t i o n to the environment.  I f the c h i l d were placed  i n a home which met h i s needs adequately, and where he was loved and understood, disturbances would be rare indeed.  - 136 -  Chapter V I I I  CONCLUSIONS FROM THE STUDY  This study does not profess t o have covered a l l the p o i n t s regarding the problem o f m u l t i p l e placement.  It i s  hoped, however, t h a t i t w i l l serve as a p r e l i m i n a r y e v a l u a t i o n . In many respects the d i v i s i o n s used i n the study do not show such s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s that conclusive evidence can be reached.  The sample was so small t h a t between the A and B  groups, and between the C and D groups, l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was t o be noted.  However, the variance between the  two major groupings i n t o which the study was d i v i d e d  confirmed  the f a c t that serious m u l t i p l e placement i s detrimental t o healthy emotional development on the part o f f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . The harmful e f f e c t s of m u l t i p l e placement are i n d i c a t e d ^ p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n t o the s o c i a l adjustment of the child.  S o c i a l adjustment i s considered to be the c r u c i a l f a c t  i n deciding whether f o s t e r home placement has succeeded or f a i l e d f o r the c h i l d .  The study shows that the c h i l d r e n w i t h  the fewest f o s t e r home placements are, on the whole, the most favourably adjusted.  F i v e o f the seven c h i l d r e n whose behav-  i o u r i s considered t o be e x c e l l e n t have remained i n t h e i r f i r s t f o s t e r home. On the other hand, only one of the twenty-nine c h i l d r e n who have been i n more than two f o s t e r homes has made as favourable adjustment.  - 137 -  How Important i s Family Background? The importance of family backgrounds and o f f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s has formed a major part o f t h i s study.  I t has  been noted that the f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n from which the c h i l d has'sprung gives an i n d i c a t i o n o f the t i e s that may bind the c h i l d to h i s own f a m i l y .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the home,  and p a r t i c u l a r l y those toward the c h i l d help the worker to understand the c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y .  I t i s these r e l a t i o n s h i p s  that w i l l a i d her i n knowing the amount of love he has e x p e r i enced, the care he has had, and the s e c u r i t y he has gained. Knowledge o f what the c h i l d experienced i n the home, the habits he formed, and the standard o f l i v i n g o f the family w i l l help In determining what the c h i l d w i l l require i n a f o s t e r home, what h i s habits w i l l be, and what the f o s t e r mother can expect of the c h i l d .  His method of response and h i s sense o f s e c u r i t y  and worth w i l l be l a r g e l y dependent upon what he derives i n h i s e a r l y years. Because the i n f a n t has taken on few patterns o f r e s ponse he i s able to be more r e a d i l y a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o a f o s t e r family group and because he w i l l be attached to a f a m i l y he w i l l tend to i d e n t i f y w i t h them.  This f a m i l y background,  appears to be l e s s important f o r the young c h i l d .  therefore,  This has been  i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t that while many of the c h i l d r e n came i n t o the care of a p r o t e c t i v e agency because t h e i r parents were i n adequate to meet t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , the c h i l d r e n on the other hand have shown patterns of adjustment which are equal or  - 138  superior to average a b i l i t y .  -  I t would appear, then, because  good f o s t e r home care can give greater s e c u r i t y , a f f e c t i o n and s t i m u l a t i o n than they would have received i n t h e i r own homes, that the c h i l d r e n are able to develop to t h e i r maximum p o t e n t i ality.  Even mental q u a l i t i e s seem to be influenced by  a fav- .  ourable environment, since the majority of f o s t e r c h i l d r e n seem to have average or b e t t e r i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n s p i t e of the f a c t that many of them were born to parents of l i m i t e d mentality. study i t was  In the  found that t h i r t e e n of the f i f t y c h i l d r e n had  less  than average i n t e l l i g e n c e . However, of t h i s group ten have been m u l t i p l y placed.  This r a i s e s the question as to whether the  c h i l d r e n were replaced from home to home due to t h e i r l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e or i f , on the other hand, the i n s t a b i l i t y caused by the f a c t o r of m u l t i p l e placement prevented t h e i r attainment of t h e i r maximum i n t e l l e c t u a l development.  There i s evidence of  both p o s s i b i l i t i e s being c o r r e c t , depending upon the circumstances of the i n d i v i d u a l case. Adoption versus Foster Family Care Since i n the f o s t e r home program c h i l d r e n face the poss i b i l i t y of considerable change both i n t h e i r f o s t e r homes and also i n regards workers, i t i s e s s e n t i a l that a l l f a m i l y t i e s be maintained i f they are i n any way  b e n e f i c i a l , i n order that .  c h i l d r e n know at l e a s t one constant f a c t o r .  For c h i l d r e n  who  come i n t o care having no b e n e f i c i a l f a m i l y t i e s the r i s k of havi n g no constant f a c t o r i n t h e i r l i v e s i s considerable.  There-  f o r e , i t i s i n the c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t f o r him to be assured of a permanent home, w i t h a family to whom he can become attached and  - 139 -  be regarded as a member of the group.  The surest way of  e s t a b l i s h i n g a c h i l d i n such a home i s by the process of adoption.  The study shows that i n only f i v e cases has a f i r m  attachment t o n a t u r a l parents been maintained.  I n three other  cases doubtful f a m i l y connections have been preserved.  Be-  sides t h i s , f i v e c h i l d r e n are so d u l l that adoption can scarcel y be considered as a p o s s i b i l i t y .  This leaves t h i r t y - s e v e n  f o r whom adoption might have been p o s s i b l e . Twenty-eight o f these c h i l d r e n came i n t o care under the age of two years. I f they had been placed f o r adoption they would now be i n permanent homes, as secure members of f a m i l i e s . The value of such an adoption program would be twofold.  Not only would i t represent normal f a m i l y l i v i n g f o r the  adopted c h i l d , but i t would r e s u l t i n reduced caseloads f o r c h i l d placement workers.  Thus b e t t e r s e r v i c e would be a v a i l -  able f o r those c h i l d r e n , who f o r v a r i o u s reasons, must remain i n the f o s t e r care program.  I n the past i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t  adopting parents should be protected from the p o s s i b i l i t y of adopting c h i l d r e n who would be i n any way i n f e r i o r .  Therefore,  only c h i l d r e n w i t h favourable backgrounds were s e l e c t e d . However, as has been i n d i c a t e d i n t h i s study f a m i l y background does not seem to be as s i g n i f i c a n t as was p r e v i o u s l y b e l i e v e d , p r o v i d i n g the c h i l d came i n t o care a t an e a r l y age. I t i s now agreed that not only should the s u p e r i o r c h i l d be given the opp o r t u n i t y f o r normal home l i v i n g ; i t should be the r i g h t of every c h i l d that can be loved and a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o a f a m i l y group.  - 140 -  The modern emphasis i s l e s s on the needs o f f o s t e r parents and more on what i s i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the children/" f o r ' i t i s these c h i l d r e n who w i l l form to-morrow's adult generation.  If  they grow up t o be mature and happy and responsible they w i l l be able t o play t h e i r part as c i t i z e n s o f a democracy. Skill,  the C r i t e r i o n of P r o f e s s i o n a l S o c i a l Workers. The study o f f o s t e r homes showed that there are no :l: •. • by.  important t a n g i b l e features/which a worker can t e l l a home s u i t able f o r f o s t e r home care from an u n s u i t a b l e one.  I t i s recog-  n i z e d t h a t i t i s the i n t a n g i b l e s which a home has t o o f f e r that cause i t t o be a success or a f a i l u r e as a f o s t e r home. The problem i s that i n t a n g i b l e s are d i f f i c u l t t o measure, and that there are no c r i t e r i a by which t o assess the f o s t e r home potentialities.  Estimating the i n t a n g i b l e s c a l l s f o r s k i l l .  During  the time s o c i a l workers attend u n i v e r s i t y . t h e y are being taught to use the s k i l l demanded o f them as a p r o f e s s i o n a l group.  Just  as the p r a c t i c a l nurse i s able t o do many of the things that a medical doctor can do, so i s the u n s k i l l e d person able t o do a good d e a l o f what the t r a i n e d s o c i a l worker can do.  But .profes-  s i o n a l s k i l l i s necessary f o r s o c i a l workers since casework serv i c e i s p r a c t i c e d i n c i d e n t a l l y along w i t h such tasks as arranging f o r parents t o meet t h e i r c h i l d r e n , g i v i n g c l o t h i n g and m a t e r i a l aid,  and making medical appointments f o r c h i l d r e n . Such casework  should be the worker's primary f u n c t i o n .  Caseloads must not be  so heavy, nor o f f i c e routines so exacting and time-consuming that s k i l l s become neglected.  This s k i l l , w i t h a l l i t s s e n s i t i v i t y ,  warmth and understanding  should be the goal of a l l workers i n the  c h i l d placement f i e l d .  APPENDICES  APPENDICES  Appendix 1  (a)  A p p l i c a t i o n form used by the Children's A i d Society.  (b) • A p p l i c a t i o n form used by the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d S o c i e t y . I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r f o s t e r home s t u d i e s . (Children's A i d Society)  Appendix 2 Appendix 3  (a)  Foster home r e p o r t made by a volunteer worker during the war. 1941.  (b)  Foster home study made by a s k i l l e d homefinder. 1948.  ( 1 a)  THE CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY OF THE CATHOLIC ARCHDIOCESE OF VANCOUVER FOSTER HOME APPLICATION  Date: Vancouver.B.C.  PHONE: 1.  Name i n f u l l :  Date & Place of B i r t h :  Wife:_  Husband:  ti  II  n it  2.  Wife's Maiden Name:  3.  Husband's Occupation:  Occupation previous to Marriage :__^ "Approximate _Annua 1 I n c o'me :  4.  Address:  Telephone: '  5.  Former Address:  6.  Date& Place of M a r r i a g e :  7.  Racial Origin: Husband:  8.  Children's Names & B i r t h d a t e s :  9.  Wife  Others i n household - roomers, b o a r d e r s (Give relationship and''  Occupation:)  10.  Distance to School:  11.  Health of Family:  12.  Name of Doctor:  Address:  13.  Religion:  Parish:  14.  Name of Parish P r i e s t :  Address:  15«  Why are you applying for a c h i l d ?  1(5.  Have you ever taken c h i l d r e n b e f o r e &. f r o m whom?  17.  What type of child do you wish?  18.  Are you offering an a d o p t i o n home or do you wish to be paid?  19.  State whether you r e n t or own your home :  20.  From what source did you hear of our Society?  21.  Please give names and addrysses of t h r e e p e r s o n s , other than Parish Priest or D o c t o r mentioned above - n o t r e l a t i v e s - who have known you for  not  H i g h School:,  l e s s than one y e a r , t o whom we may r e f e r : Addre ss  1.  2.  Addre ss :  •3.  Address:  m  Rent  Applicants- Signature:  ( l b )  TENTH AVENUE WEST  FOSTER H O M E A P P L I C A T I O N Date Woman  Man 1.  Surname  2.  Woman's Maiden Name  Christian Names Date and Place of Birth  3. Children's Names and Ages 4. Present Address  Phone  Former Address  5. Date and Place of Marriage  Any previous marriage of either  6. Racial origin of man  of woman  7. School leaving, age and grade: of man  of woman  8. Occupation of man  Income  9. Occupation of woman previous to marriage 10. Health of Family and Date of Last X-Ray 11. Names of Doctors  Addresses  12. Any serious illness in family 13. How long since seen by Doctor? 14. Religion  Name of Church  15. Name of Minister  Address  16. Relatives of both Man and Woman (Brothers and Sisters) — Name and Address  17. Others in household, roomers, boarders, (Give name, relationship and occupation). 18. Distance to School  and High School  19. Attitude towards use of alcoholic beverages in the home 20. Do you own or rent your home? 21. How many rooms have you?  No. of bedrooms?  22. What is your motive in applying for a child? 23. Have you ever taken children before and from whom? 24.  State age, sex, and number of children desired  25.  Could you accommodate a brother and sister?  26. Are you offering free, or boarding home? 27. From what source did you hear of our Society? 28. Please give names and addresses of three persons other than minister or doctor mentioned above—not relatives — who have known you for not less than one year to whom we may refer: 1  Address  2  Address  3  Address Signature of Man.:  Signature of Woman  INSTRUCTIONS FOR  C. A. S. REPORTS  Name, surname, and f i r s t names Address, house and m a i l , Telephone number, Message number APPLICATION  Date, who a p p l i e d , how f o s t e r home program.  they heard of the  Age and sex of c h i l d r e n d e s i r e d and type of home o f f e r e d . SOCIAL SERVICE EXCHANGE  Registrations.  Note date C. A. S. r e g i s t e r e d .  AGENCIES CONSULTED F o l l o w up of S o c i a l S e r v i c e Exchange r e g i s t r a t i o n s and g i v e b r i e f summary of agency's contact. HOME VISITED  Date, name of worker.  TO REACH  By s t r e e t c a r , bus,  NEIGHBOURHood.  Type of d i s t r i c t ; how t h i c k l y s e t t l e d ; type of homes, o p p o r t u n i t y f o r companionship. Desirable features ( r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , clubs, etc.) and u n d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e s i n the n e i g h bourhood. Names and d i s t a n c e to p u b l i c and h i g h s c h o o l s , and churches.  HOME, DESCRIPTION of HOUSE  Country, water supply and sewage d i s p o s a l . E x t e r i o r : Type, c o n d i t i o n and r e p a i r , garden; p l a y space. Is f r o n t or back garden complet e l y fenced i n f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . Animals and pets k e p t . I n t e r i o r : Number of rooms. S l e e p i n g , p l a y and study space. S l e e p i n g accommodation f o r f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . P h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l standards maintained. Modern conveniences, e.g. i c e box, washing machine. (restrained.) Atmosphere: comfortable, homey, l i v e d - i n , c o l d .  FAMILY HISTORY  MARRIAGE  automobile.  Man: Name, date and p l a c e of b i r t h , e a r l y h i s t o r y , education, o c c u p a t i o n , appearance, pers o n a l i t y , i n t e l l i g e n c e , understanding and liking for children. Woman: Name, i n c l u d i n g maiden name; date and p l a c e of b i r t h . E a r l y h i s t o r y , education, appearance, p e r s o n a l i t y , i n t e l l i g e n c e , housekeeping a b i l i t y , understanding and l i k i n g f o r c h i l d r e n . Date and p l a c e . details.  P r e v i o u s marriage, i f so, g i v e  ( s-^i y  CHILDREN  OTHERS IN HOUSEHOLD  Names, date and place of b i r t h , school attended and grade. I f not i n school give age and date of leaving, reason for doing so. I f working give occupation, personality, behaviour and recreation, companionship and playmates, populari t y , characteristics of leadership, r e l a t i o n ship between children, with one another and with parents. Attitude toward having a foster c h i l d i n the home and influence they l i k e l y have on foster children. Name and age, Social Service Exchange, state i f r e l a t i v e s , boarder or roomer; character persona l i t y , place i n family group; interest i n and l i k i n g for children. Health, chest X-ray.  RELATIVES  Names and addresses of near r e l a t i v e s , Social Service Exchange, Relationship and contact with the family.  HEALTH  Family doctor, school nurse, chest X-ray. Health history of the family, especially i n rel a t i o n to, serious or chronic physical or mental i l l n e s s . Are family too health conscious?  RELIGION  Attitude toward r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g . Name and denomination of church. Do children attend Sunday School and would foster children be encouraged to attend?  FINANCES  Income, source and amount. Expenditures: rent, mortgages, debts such as large hospital and doctor's b i l l s . Assets: property including home, car, insurance, etc. Has the family suff i c i e n t income to maintain their home without supplementation by board of foster child?  INTERESTS  Have foster parents interests outside their home and would they encourage foster children to part i c i p a t e i n clubs and group a c t i v i t i e s ? In what community a c t i v i t i e s do foster parents p a r t i c i pate? Is there opportunity for s o c i a l a c t i v i t y i n the home and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n hobbies and other interests.  MOTIVE  Foster parents underlying motives. This gives insight into how foster children w i l l be used and what needs they are supposed to f u l f i l l i n foster parentis l i v e s . These needs may be loneliness of foslter mother, companionship for own c h i l d , desire; to do good, f i n a n c i a l occupation for spare time. The soundness of foster parents' motives; i s based upon a stronger interest i n children than i n the fulfillment of their own needs.  ( S-b ) o  CHILD  Type of c h i l d best suited for placement i n home. Is this acceptable to foster parents, as i t may not be the type and age requested by them? Are p o l i c i e s and regulations of C. A. S. acceptable to foster parents?  REFERENCES  Professional; Doctor's information re health of family. M i n i s t e r ' s attitude toward and participation i n a c t i v i t i e s of the church. Standing i n community. Family's r e l i g i o n as seen by minister. School-progress and behaviour, health of foster parents' children, teacher's impression of care and training foster parents give t h e i r own children. Non-professional: Type and r e l i a b i l i t y of references. Length of time reference had known and how w e l l . Opinion as to r e l a t i o n ships within family group, p o s s i b i l i t y of foster children f i t t i n g into this group, a b i l i t y of foster parents to care for and t r a i n foster children s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . NOTE: The obtaining of references provides a good opportunity to interpret and publicize the work of the C. A. S. leferences may be a good resource i n homefinding.  RECOMMENDATION  Age, sex and number of children which can be suitably placed i n the home. State s p e c i f i c a l l y type of children foster parents are best equipped to care f o r .  »  ( 3 )  FOSTER HOME INVESTIGATION Clinton, Joyce and John, 16. 1. 41. Mrs. C. i n office to apply for a pre-school c h i l d to board. Her husband i s an insurance man. They have been married twelve years but they have no children. They were thinking of applying for a c h i l d to adopt but a friend persuaded them to t r y boarding one f i r s t . Mrs. C. seems an i n t e l l i g e n t , f a i r l y w e l l educated woman, who w i l l make a good foster mother. She brought up a friend's l i t t l e boy for several years and seems very fond of c h i l dren. SOCIAL SERVICE EXCHANGE No record. C. A. S. registered 16. 1. 41, Home v i s i t e d by D. E. E l l i o t t , volunteer. NeighbourWorking class d i s t r i c t of smaller homes. hood Scott Collegiate i s a few blocks away. HOUSE  Exterior: A small four roomed house, recently painted. The front lawn i s only i n f a i r cond i t i o n . In the back are f r u i t trees. The fence mas f a l l e n down but i s being repaired. I n t e r i o r : Inside are four rooms; l i v i n g room, dining room, bedroom and kitchen. They are small and f a i r l y well furnished. Mrs. C. w i l l turn the dinind room into a bedroom. , Mrs. C. had been i n bed a l l day and the house was rather untidy.  Family HISTORY  Man: John Charles Clinton born 1902 i n Toronto. He attended a private school u n t i l he went overseas at the age of fourteen. After his d i s charge he went to a technical school. He was i n the mounted police for four years. He was i n terested i n engineering and worked at the Pattu l l o Bridge i n New Westminster. For the past two years he has been i n r e a l estate. He owns his own business.. Woman: Joyce Adams born 1908 i n Vancouver. She attended Maple Ridge public school and Douglas Collegiate. She attended the University of B. C. for a year but stopped because her mother died and her father wanted her at home. She looked after the house for a year and then took a business course and worked as stenographer for a packing company for t?ro years. She married i n Vancouver i n 1929. Mrs. C. i s a slim attractive  woman of medium coloring. ceptionally well groomed.  Her hands were ex-  RELATIVES  Mrs. C's father and brother l i v e at Seattle, Washington; while Mr. C's mother l i v e s i n Toronto,.  HEALTH  Mrs. C. had a s l i g h t nervouc breakdown when she worked but i s now i n good health. She had a thorough medical check recently. The doctors cannot determine why she cannot have children.  FINANCE  Mr. C. has his own business at Broadway and Granville. He earns $200 a month. He runs a car and has a gas b i l l of $25. The rent of the house i s $40 per month. Mr. and Mrs. C. plan to buy a home whenever they see a good buy.  RELIGION  Anglican. Mr. and Mrs. C. do not take an active interest i n the church and attend about once a month.  INTERESTS  Mrs. C. i s interested i n hiking. She and Mr. C. often spend their holidays on the island where they can go on long walks. Both Mr. and Mrs. C. are interested i n numerology and take lectures from a Mr. Wilson.  REFERENCES  Mrs. G..Smith, 1885 Smythe St. runs a beauty parlour. Sees Mrs. C. a great deal and does not hesitate to recommend her. She remarked that Mrs. C. i s unable to have children. Mrs. F . Brown, 2040 Nelson St. has known Mrs. C. for ten years. Before Mrs. Brown's marriage she l i v e d i n the upstairs of a house and Mr. and Mrs. C. l i v e d downstairs. Mrs. C. looked after Mrs. Brown's children and was keenly interested i n them. Mrs. C. s t i l l l i k e s to take them out and. arranges outings for them. Dr. Jones cannot rec a l l either Mr. or Mrs. C.  RECOMMENDATION  This would be a nice home for a c h i l d . I t would be advisable to place a boy here as Mrs. C. has had experience with small boys.  FOSTER HOME INVESTIGATION Mary and James P h i l l i p s APPLICATION  Rev. Black of Metropolitan United Church referred the above named as prospective foster parents. Mrs. P. telephoned and a v i s i t was made to the home.  SOCIAL SERVICE INDEX  No r e g i s t r a t i o n . Home v i s i t e d by Miss Ada Howard, homefinder.  TO REACH  Take a No. 5 street ear and get off at the 2300 block. Walk two blocks south. House i s i n the middle of the block.  NEIGHBOURHOOD  This house i s located i n the West End d i s t r i c t . Most of the houses i n this area are large old houses, many of which have been converted into suites. Central School and Metropolitan United Church are within easy reach.  HOME  This i s an old seven room house i n need of paint. The rooms are f a i r l y large, not elaborate but comfortably furnished. There are four bedrooms and a foster c h i l d would have his own bedroom.  FAMILY HISTORY  Man: Born i n London, England, September 1901. He completed grade XII at the age of seventeen. For seventeen years he has been employed as Superintendent of the Engineering Department of the Forestry Commission. Because of the nature of his work he i s out of town a great deal of the time. At present he i s supervising some project at Powell River. Woman: Mary Edith P h i l l i p s , nee Smith, was born i n Vancouver A p r i l 23 1902. After completing grade XII at the age of seventeen she was employed by a bookbinding f i r m . Mrs. P. presents rather a nice appearance. Her hair i s worn upswept with a b r a i d . She ap- • pears to be an a l e r t , efficient woman and one who takes an active interest i n the community. U n t i l recently she has been an executive of the l o c a l parent-teacher's group. However, she stated that her home comes f i r s t and she does not allow her outside interests to interfere with her family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . For instance, she always makes a point of being home i n the afternoon when her boys return from school.  In discussing the various needs of C. A. S. children, Mrs. P. seemed to he quite understanding hut she made i t clear that i t would be most d i f f i c u l t for her husband to accept a c h i l d who was not permanent. Worker was quite frank i n pointing out that most of the children with whom we deal are ones who have one or other parent i n the picture. Also explained to Mrs. P. that i n a few cases our children do return to their homes. Worker did not wish to discourage Mrs. P. but on the other hand, worker f e l t i t was necessary for Mrs. P. to have a clear picture of C. A. S. MARRIAGE  Vancouver, August 1931.  CHILDREN  Jonathan: 15; Donald: 10. Both boys appear normal healthy and well trained. They are very p o l i t e and worker noted that their mother c a l l s them by their f u l l names.  RELATIVES  Man: Brother, Samuel P h i l l i p s , Real Estate Agent, Robson Street.  HEALTH  Good.  RELIGION  Mr. and Mrs. P. are both members of Metropolitan United Church. The boys have group associations with the church.  FINANCE  Mr. P. earns $250 a month.  INTERESTS  Mrs. P. i s interested i n church work and also P.T.A. groups.  MOTIVES  Mr. and Mrs.-P. f e l t that their home would be complete i f they could enjoy the company of a g i r l . The boys are also interested i n having a l i t t l e sister.  CHILD  A g i r l between the ages of four and eight would be most suitable for this home. In view of the ages of Mr. and Mrs. P. a g i r l around eight would actually be more suitable. I t i s advisable that a c h i l d with few family ties be placed here and preferably one who would be quite permanent. Mr. and Mrs. P. are w i l l i n g to wait at least a year, and i f no permanent c h i l d i s available during that time the matter w i l l be dropped. Mrs. P. would prefer references not be v i s i t e d u n t i l C. A. S. d e f i n i t e l y has a c h i l d i n mind for her.  Physician: Dr. West.  B I B L I O G R A P H Y Specific References Clothier, Florence, "The Problem of Frequent Replacement of the Young Dependent C h i l d , " Mental Health, October, 1937. Gass, Gertrude Z . , Study of the Replacement of Children i n Foster Homes, (Thesis) University of Michigan, 1942. Silberpfennig, Judith, and Thornton, Frances E . , "Preparat i o n of Children for Placement and Replacement," The Family, V o l . 23: 146 - 152, June 1942. Verry, Ethel, Replacement i n Child Care, New York, Child Welfare League of America, 1948. General References Camp, Sophie, "A Staff Studies i t s Homes and Faces i t s Home finding Problems," Child Welfare League of America B u l l e t i n , A p r i l 1942. "Child Placement," Canadian Council of Child and Family Welfare, September - October, 1925. "Child Welfare Moves Forward," Social Service Association B u l l e t i n , Washington, United States Children's Bureau, Ferruary, 1947. "Everybody's Children," Board of Public Welfare, D i s t r i c t of Columbia, U . S. A. Great B r i t a i n , Report of the Care of Children, London, H. M. Stationery Office, September, 1946. Hamilton, Gordon, Psychotherapy and Child Guidance, New York, Family Service Association, 1948. Hopkirk, Harry, Institutions Serving Children, New York, Russell sage Foundation, 1944. Hutchinson, Dorothy, In Quest of Foster Parents, New York, Columbia University Press, 1943. Hutchinson, Dorothy, "The Parent-Child Relationships as a factor i n Child Placement," The Family, A p r i l 1948.  B I B L I O G R A P H Y (Continued)  General References Continued. Jewish C h i l d Care A s s o c i a t i o n of New York, An Experimental Use of the Temporary Home. New York, C h i l d Welfare League of America, 1947. J o l o w i c z , Alemeda 1., "A F o s t e r C h i l d Needs His Own Parents," "The C h i l d . " August, 1947. Lundberg, E. 0., Unto the Least of These. New York, AppletonCentury Co., 1947. . v  Paradise, V i o l a , Toward P u b l i c Understanding of Case Work. New York, Russell-Sage Foundation, 1948. P y l e s , Mary L o i s , I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r C h i l d Care and Treatment. New York, C h i l d Welfare League of America, New York, 1947. Richman, Leon H., Problems of Foster Care. Canadian Welfare Council,. Ottawa, 1948. Richman, Leon H., " R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the Use of I n t e r i m and Emergency Placement," S o c i a l Service Review, V o l . 20, September, 1946. Spock, Benjamin, Baby and C h i l d Care. Montreal, Pocket Books of Canada, 1947. Standards f o r Children's Organizations P r o v i d i n g F o s t e r Fami l y Care. New York, C h i l d Welfare League of America, 1941. Thurston, Henry, The Dependent C h i l d . New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1930. Young, Ruth, "As a Foster Mother Sees I t , " Concerning C h i l d r e n , Ottawa, Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , March, 1949.  Note:  As f a r as the w r i t e r was able to determine there i s a dearth of m a t e r i a l on the s p e c i f i c subject of m u l t i p l e placement of f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . Reference to i t i n the general b i b l i o g r a p h y a r i s e s only i n an i n c i d e n t a l way.  

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