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Multiple placement of foster children : a preliminary study of causes and effects, based on a sample… Ellis, Vivian Mauretta 1949

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I* Co} MULTIPLE PLACEMENT OF.FOSTER CHILDREN A preliminary study of causes and eff e c t s , based on a sample of f i f t y f o s t e r children i n Vancouver. by VIVIAN MAURETTA ELLIS Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK In the Department of S o c i a l Work 1949 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia ABSTRACT This study i s concerned with the problem of multiple placement of foster children, i . e., children who are placed i n more than one foster home while they are i n the care of a protective agency. Children become "wards" of such societies i f there i s no p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r lead-ing normal, happy, and emotionally secure l i v e s within t h e i r own homes. The agencies provide f o s t e r home care as a sub-s t i t u t e home to give them the care they were not able to obtain i n t h e i r own homes. But frequent replacement prevents many foster children from gaining security and healthy development due to lack of attachment to a family. The study shows that t h i r t y - n i n e out of the f i f t y children i n the sample were placed i n more than one foster home during t h e i r period of care by a children's aid society. The average number of foster homes f o r the t o t a l group was 3.52 homes per c h i l d , which means that a c h i l d remained i n each foster home f o r a period of 2.08 years, on the average. The study was based on the records of foster c h i l d -ren from both of Vancouver's children's a i d s o c i e t i e s , the sample being selected on a one-in-four basis from a l l children f a l l i n g w i t h i n certain d e f i n i t i o n s : ( l ) children who had been i n the care of one of the agencies at le a s t two years; (2) children of the white race; (3) children now i n the "latency" stage of development; i . e. between the ages of seven and twelve years. The material u t i l i z e d includes the f i l e s kept by the agencies, regarding each i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d , his family and the foster homes. The sample was grouped into four d i v i s i o n s accord-ing to the number of placements the children have had. Group • A with a single foster home placement only, representing the i d e a l i n c h i l d placement; Group B with two foster home place-ments; Group C a clear multiple placement problem, with three or four foster home placements; and Group D the usually serious s i t u a t i o n where a c h i l d has l i v e d i n f i v e or more foster homes. The cases were then studied i n terms of the foster homes i n which the children were placed; the i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s of the children; and t h e i r adjustment to the foster home program. The adjustment of the c h i l d i s believed to be the c r u c i a l f actor i n deciding whether foster home placement has succeeded or f a i l e d . The t h i r d part of the study examines what can be done to im-prove the methods of placing children i n foster homes i n order to lessen the problem of multiple placement. There i s evidence that the problem of multiple place-ment of foster children could be reduced by more ca r e f u l pre-liminary observation of the c h i l d and his needs, closer assess-ment of foster home.jpotentialities, better matching of the . c h i l d and the foster home, professional casework service while the c h i l d i s i n the home, and treatment f o r disturbed children i n homes which are especially equipped f o r t h i s service. The study suggests that many children without family t i e s could be placed f o r adoption, thus attaching them to one family instead of facing the p o s s i b i l i t y of repeated replacements. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I wish to express appreciation to Dr. Leonard Marsh f o r aiding with research material, composition of the study, and most of a l l f o r his kindly encouragement throughout the wri t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . Special thanks are due to Miss Marie Parr f o r reading the study f o r s o c i a l work content, f or her stimulating suggestions, and h e l p f u l i n t e r e s t . Gratitude i s also expressed to Miss Marjorie Smith and other members of the Soc i a l Work Faculty f o r planting the seeds of in t e r e s t i n the problems of fo s -t e r children, without which t h i s study would not have been made. Appreciation and acknowledgment are due to Miss Dorothy Coombe and Miss Elizabeth Flynn for t h e i r h e l p f u l co-operation, i n giving of t h e i r time for i n t e r -views and fo r permitting f i l e s to be read. TABLE OF CONTENTS  PART I THE PROBLEM Chapter Page 1 The Problem of Multiple Placements Foster homes: a substitute when own homes f a i l . The effect of multiple placement on foster children. A u n i -v e r s a l problem. Multiple placement i n Vancouver 1 PART I I THE STUDY 2 The family backgrounds of the children Children borri to unmarried mothers. Reasons why children from families need foster home care. Family t i e s bind children to t h e i r natural par-ents. Should s i b l i n g s be placed together? 21 3 Finding Foster Homes What to look f o r i n assessing foster homes. How well must the family be known? Differences between sample groups 37 4 Professional Use of Foster Homes Matching the needs of foster parents and foster children. Foster fathers are important. Re-assessing foster homes i s ess e n t i a l . S k i l l e d casework service. Foster mothers need recogni-t i o n 59 5 Adjustment. Intelligence and Personality Normal latency development—"the gold-en age for parents." How s i g n i f i c a n t are i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients? Adjustment: the determining factor 74 V TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd.) PART I I I BETTER PT.AnMF.NT Chapter Page 6 Preparation f o r Placement Foster children are seldom ready f o r placement. Lack of prepar-ation i n the past. D i f f i c u l t i e s remaining 92 7 Aids to Better Placement Use of the temporary foster home. Treatment i n s t i t u t i o n s . Play therapy 112 8 Conclusions from the Study Conclusions regarding multiple placement. How important i s family background? Adoption versus foster family care. S k i l l the c r i t e r i o n of Professional S o c i a l Worker. . . .-. . 136 TABLES Page Table 1 Placement experiences of a 7 - 12 year old Sample. (Vancouver, 1948) . . . 15 Table 2 Placement i n Relation to sex of the Children , 16 Table 3 Placement i n Relation to age Placed . . 18 Table 4 Placement i n Relation to Intelligence Quotient- . 82 Table 5 Placement i n Relation to Adjustment of the Children 88 APPENDICES Appendix 1 (a) Application form used by the Children's Aid Society. (b) Application form used by the Catholic Children's Aid Society. Appendix 2 Instructions f o r foster home studies. (Children's Aid Society). Appendix 3 (a) Foster home report made by a volunteer worker during the-war. (1941). (b) Foster home study made by a s k i l l e d homefinder. (1948). MULTIPLE PLACEMENT OF FOSTER CHILDREN Chapter 1 PART I . THE PROBLEM OF MULTIPLE PLACEMENTS John Dewey has said, "What the best and wisest parent wants for h i s own c h i l d , that must the community want f o r a l l i t s c h i l d r e n . 0 I t i s recognized that the parental home i s the natural environment f o r the upbringing of children. I t provides a protective and stimulating medium f o r physical, mental and s p i r i t u a l growth, which no other type of care can e f f e c t i v e l y replace. "Every c h i l d needs to f e e l secure i n h i s home, school, and neighbourhood r e l a t i o n -ships. He needs to f e e l that he i s wanted, loved and under-stood. He needs opportunities f o r growth and development, 1 f o r self-expression, achievement, and new experience." This i s a statement of basic needs that w i l l be accepted by every s o c i a l worker. Normally, i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of parents to see that t h e i r children are thus endowed. Not every c h i l d , however, i s so fortunate as to have the advantage of such security i n his own home. Some children come from homes which are so inadequate f o r t h e i r needs, that they must be removed i n order to give them the chance to l i v e happy and healthy l i v e s . Other children are born out of wedlock, and have no natura l home. In the nineteenth century, neglected, dependent and i l l e g i t i m a t e children were mostly placed i n orphanages 1. Child Welfare Moves Forward. Federal Security Agency, U. S. C h i l d r e n ^ Bureau, February, 1947. and i n s t i t u t i o n s which were not equipped to meet more than physical needs. I t i s now a well-established f a c t that children need intimacy, love and security i n order that they may develop into emotionally mature and mentally happy i n d i -v i d u a l s . In the old'fashioned orphanage there was not t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y f o r development. In the past f i f t y years, the trend has been to abolish "shelters" e n t i r e l y , and to place dependent or neglected children i n foster homes. Such homes give a c h i l d a chance to develop normally, by forming attach-ments with the foster parents and growing up i n an ordinary home environment. The general p r i n c i p l e accepted by a l l c h i l d welfare agencies i s that no c h i l d should be removed from his own home i f there i s any p o s s i b i l i t y f o r normal development with his own parents. Many parents have greater strengths than i s often shown i n casual re l a t i o n s h i p s ; with a reasonable amount of a i d i n the form of moral and f i n a n c i a l support, together with the i n t e r e s t and understanding of the caseworker, much may be achieved. The child's own home, poor though i t may be, i s frequently better than a p h y s i c a l l y f i n e r home i f t h i s i s lacking i n warmth of f e e l i n g and understanding f o r the c h i l d . The foster c h i l d , no matter how good his placement, must s t a r t again i n finding security and a f f e c t i o n and ways of " f i t t i n g i n . " C h ild Placement To be quite r e a l i s t i c , i t has to be recognized that f o s t e r care of any kind i s abnormal, and that any c h i l d l i v i n g away from home i s a handicapped c h i l d . Good physical care i s not s u f f i c i e n t . Children cannot become s o c i a l l y adjusted "by bread alone." A l l children require love and security i n t h e i r home relati o n s h i p s ; but foster children have extra needs i n t h i s regard, since they have had to leave t h e i r own homes and parents. They need special reassurance that they are loved and wanted i f they are to obtain any measure of happiness. Foster parents who do not understand these sp e c i a l needs f i n d d i f f i c u l t y i n accepting the behaviour of foster children, and . frequently good homes are l o s t because foster parents d i d not know what to expect of foster children. Child placing agencies have taken on the responsi-b i l i t y f o r placing foster children i n f o s t e r homes, and i t may we l l be re a l i z e d that the job i s no sinecure. I t c a l l s f o r a keen i n t e r e s t i n children, together with s k i l l and f l e x i b i l i t y on the part of the c h i l d welfare worker. Her task i s not merely finding a home and placing a c h i l d there. She must be aware of the damaging results that can follo w poor placement procedure i f a c h i l d i s to be uprooted from an environment he has known and transplanted into a new one. She must make the t r a n s i t i o n as easy as possible i n order to avoid such trauma. This constitutes a challenge to a l l c h i l d placement workers. The c h i l d must be helped to develop into a healthy, mature and s e l f - r e l i a n t man or woman, able to meet the obligations and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which s o c i a l l i v i n g brings. - 4 -In order to know whether a home i s suitable f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d , the worker must not only understand the c h i l d ; she must also know every member of the family within the foster home. She must t r y to determine what the c h i l d w i l l receive i n terms of love, i n t e r e s t , stimulation, secu-r i t y and understanding. The home must be such that the fo s t e r family w i l l be able to give him that intangible emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n which every young personality requires. The worker must determine, too, whether a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d w i l l meet the needs of the fos t e r family. One clue to the needs of the foster family i s expressed i n t h e i r motive f o r taking the c h i l d , and why they desire to have a foster c h i l d i n t h e i r home. She must also understand what the members of the family mean to each other, and what each i n d i v i d u a l member w i l l mean to the foster c h i l d . They must be made aware that t h i s c h i l d came from a home i n which the s i t u a t i o n was d i f f e r -ent from t h e i r own and that i t w i l l take some time before he i s integrated into the family. Because he i s an i n d i v i d u a l , o he w i l l behave i n his own way, and they must accept t h i s with as much understanding as possible. Replacement of Foster Children I t i s l i t t l e wonder that foster placements often f a i l , when one considers the d i f f i c u l t y i n matching the needs of the foster parents with the needs of the c h i l d . And what i s the l o t of the c h i l d who cannot f i t into h i s new foster family? He becomes unhappy since h i s needs are not met. He may behave i n a manner very upsetting to his foster mother. - 5 -She may t r y to cope with h i s problem f o r a time, then decide that f o r the good of a l l concerned, he should be moved else-where. I f t h i s happens, the c h i l d i s s t i l l more greatly handicapped. He has been i n two homes and both have f a i l e d . He senses, too, that he has f a i l e d . His chances f o r success grow less and less with each successive move. I t i s only when he finds a home i n which his d i f f i c u l t i e s can be more completely understood that he i s able to s t a r t growing emotion-a l l y and psychologically again. "Continuity has value, and one 'not so good* home i s better than a series of extra f i n e ones," says Ethel Verry, Executive Secretary of the Chicago 2 Orphan Asylum, i n Replacement i n Foster Family. Care. This invaluable pamphlet has been stimulating and h e l p f u l at many points i n t h i s study. Dr. Florence Clothier puts the same point quite strongly: "Each time a s o c i a l worker undertakes to move an infant or young c h i l d she i s jeopardizing h i s chances f o r forming, holding and incorporating love objects. 3 which are f o r him essential to normal growth." Of course,no worker i s proud of replacements. Ethel Verry states b l u n t l y : "A few replacements may be good planning, a few necessary readjustments, but most of them we admit are evidence of our f a i l u r e s . " 2. Verry, Ethel, Replacements i n Foster Family Care. Child Welfare League of America, B u l l e t i n , A p r i l , 1948. 3. Cl o t h i e r , Florence, "The Problem of Replacement of the Young Dependent C h i l d , " Mental Health. October, 1937, pp. 549 - 558. - 6 -She goes on to show what happens to a c h i l d who must move from one foster.home to another. Being a c h i l d , he i s i n a continuous process of growth and learning. A few of his tasks of development have been accomplished i n his own home or his f i r s t foster home; but, at whatever age he i s moved, many of his growing-up tasks are s t i l l i n process and, what-ever they are, they w i l l be interrupted, confused and set back. I f the young c h i l d i s learning to feed himself or to control his t o i l e t habits, or to use f a m i l i a r words f o r f a m i l -i a r objects, he w i l l , i n moving to a strange s i t u a t i o n , prob-ably have to go back and be a baby once more, confused and a f r a i d amidst a more or less d i f f e r e n t set of words, routines and demands. After a while he w i l l s t a r t once more on the hard road to growing up. Having begun to learn table manners, how to be h e l p f u l , and what to expect i n the way of praise, blame, love or even r e j e c t i o n from those adults and childr e n with whom he has been associated, he w i l l have to s t a r t again and t r y to accept, understand, and r e l a t e to a new group of human beings, with d i f f e r e n t ways of t a l k i n g and responding to his overtures. If. he has started school and begun to make a place f o r himself amongst his playmates, he w i l l lose that place which he was learning to use, and must make another place i n a new world. Budding friendships are cut o f f before they have f u l l y flowered; enmities severed before they have been worked out to a reasonable solution. He closes the door on many unfinished t r i v i a l i t i e s that make up a child's l i f e , exper-iences from which he should have grown and developed. - 7 -In the change he loses many things, unimportant, and import-ant, a l l t i e d together—part of his clothing, the dog he l i k e d , the bed i n which he had begun to f e e l safe, and the sp e c i a l smell of his favourite d i s h cooking f o r supper. Perhaps he loses h i s l a s t chance to pass into the fourth grade along with the rest of his group, and of those things making up the f e e l -ing of having roots i n the world; too often he may lose part of his inner confidence of ever being able to relate himself comfortably to that world. I f the c h i l d has moved too often, or l i v e d too ,long i n a place where he has had no meaningful connection with his world of people, he w i l l harden more f i r m l y into h i s unsocial or a n t i s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . Change i n i t s e l f i s bad enough f o r children, but i t may be worst of a l l i f the replacement of foster children involves a painful waiting period, during which the impatient foster mother has urged the harassed s o c i a l worker to "please hurry," and the c h i l d has outstayed his welcome, perhaps waiting with h i s box packed. Other Losses Occasioned by Multiple Placements I t i s not only from the ch i l d ' s point of view that a replacement represents a l o s s . The new school to which he goes w i l l have to spend extra time i n getting the c h i l d to f i t i n with the cl a s s . The case worker might have been able to give her time to constructive assistance with another problem, instead of going through the process of arranging another placement. Perhaps a good foster home has been closed because of the exper-ience the foster parents had with a c h i l d they did not under-stand, or who could not f i t into t h e i r home. During the war - 8 -period foster homes were very scarce, and children were placed, i n many cases, i n homes not too suited to t h e i r needs just because no other home was available f or them. The shortage has continued and the scar c i t y of fos t e r homes being what i t i s to-day, every e f f o r t should be made to use them constructively. Problems of Placement The reasons children have to be replaced are usually complex: thus they r e f l e c t a series of d i f f i c u l t i e s with which workers are confronted i n the realm of c h i l d placing procedure. In the past, professional case workers have been few, and there-fore, the caseloads f o r which they were responsible have been too heavy. Dorothy Hutchinson, i n her h e l p f u l book, points out that there i s a tendency to place children with i n s u f f i c i e n t 4 consideration where a worker i s overburdened with cases. Most au t h o r i t i e s agree that t h i r t y c h i l d r e n i n a caseload i s a l l one can expect a worker to handle with any degree of s k i l l . Few agencies manage t h i s i d e a l , the present caseload of c h i l d place-ment workers i n the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver i s 65 and that of the Catholic Children's Aid Society averages between 80 and 90. At a l l times, board rates have been low, and there i s ground f o r believing that many people interested i n caring f o r children are prevented from doing so due to t h i s f a c t . The agen-cies do attempt to pay f o r the actual expenses of the children, 4. Hutchinson, Dorothy, In Quest of Foster Parents. Columbia University Press, 1943. - 9 -but there i s l i t t l e l e f t to reimburse the foster parents f o r t h e i r time and energy expended i n caring f o r the children. Another problem i n the c h i l d placing f i e l d i s the constant change of workers. Espec i a l l y i f the c h i l d does not f i n d continuity i n his foster home placement, i t would be a l l the more valuable as a. source of security to him i f he found that he could depend upon one worker throughout. However, t h i s does not seem to be possible i n any agency. Examination of the s t a f f changes f o r the present sample of children showed that on the average each c h i l d had 5.22 workers during h i s ward-ship, which i s an average of a new worker every year and a quar-t e r . This problem i s caused not only by workers leaving an agency; the factor of replacement causes the children to move from one d i s t r i c t to another, getting a d i f f e r e n t worker when-ever they f i n d themselves i n a new d i s t r i c t . I t i s a l l the more essential,then, to preserve any family t i e which would be i n any way b e n e f i c i a l , since " a l l else i s change." A Universal Problem The problem of multiple placements- i s not one which i s peculiar to any p a r t i c u l a r agency or t e r r i t o r y . Very few detailed studies have been made concerning t h i s special problem, but most s 'Studies made on any phase of caring f o r dependent children give Indications that the problem of replacements does e x i s t . The report of the recent Care of Children Committee i n Great B r i t a i n (commonly known as the "Curtis Report") refers to t h i s problem. The study was made "to inquire into e x i s t i n g methods of providing - 10 -for children who from loss of parents or from any cause what-ever are deprived of a normal home l i f e with t h e i r own parents or r e l a t i v e s ; and to consider what further measures should be taken to ensure that these children are brought up under con-d i t i o n s best calculated to compensate them for the lack of par-5 ental care." The committee surveyed workhouses, separate schools, c e r t i f i e d schools, voluntary homes, boarding homes and i n s t i t u t i o n s for the care of delinquents, mental defectives and handicapped children. The section on foster homes contains the following paragraph regarding s t a b i l i t y of foster homes: The length of stay i n the foster homes of these children we saw varied from four months to ten years. Some of these children had had a pa r t i c u -l a r l y disturbed infancy, but the l i a b i l i t y to change had been quite as marked i n the i n s t i t u -. t i o n as i n the foster home. One c h i l d we saw had been i n f i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s and three f o s t e r homes before she was eleven. Another c h i l d had been i n four i n s t i t u t i o n s and two foster homes before the age of eight. 6 In 1942 a study was made of 176 children who had been under the care of the Michigan Children's I n s t i t u t e and who came of age or became self-supporting between January 1, 1937 and December 1, 1941. The purpose of the study was "to ascertain i f possible some causative factors of frequent replacement of c h i l d -ren i n foster homes and to indicate wherever possible how im-provement can be made." The following figures are given regard-ing multiple placement: 5. Great B r i t a i n , Report on the Care of Children Committee. H.. M. Stationery O f f i c e , London,. 1946, p. A3. 6. I b i d . , p. 122, sec. 374. - 11 -Of the t o t a l group of 176, 93 had from one to f i v e replacements during t h e i r period of foster care; 53 between f i v e and nine; 19 from nine to thir t e e n ; nine from fourteen to seventeen; one between seventeen and twenty-one; and one had twenty-three replacements. The picture i s even worse i f we eliminate those children who were f i n a l l y placed i n adoption. Of the remaining 102 children who grew up i n foster care from the time of t h e i r admission, usually at early school age—although some were y o u n g e r — u n t i l t h e i r discharge as of age or self-supporting, only twenty-seven had f i v e or less re-placements; f o r t y - f i v e had between f i v e and nine homes; nineteen had nine to t h i r t e e n ; nine had th i r t e e n to seven-teen; one had from seventeen to twenty-one and one had twenty-three. 7 The above examples may represent some extremes i n replacements; however, they do indicate that the problem i s a common one. The figures quoted i n the 'Michigan study seem very large i n comparison with the i n d i c a t i o n of the present Vancouver study. However, the Michigan group includes c h i l d -ren up to the age of twenty-one, whereas the present study takes into account only children between the ages of seven to twelve. The Vancouver Study In order to get a picture.of the replacement pro-blem i n Vancouver, i t was decided that a sample of f i f t y c h i l d -ren would be a workable group to study. On checking, i t was found that there were 183 families with children under the care of the Vancouver Children's Aid Societies who came within the l i m i t a t i o n s established for the study. The factors which deter-mined selection of the group were those which were r e a d i l y found 7. Verry, Ethel, Replacements i n Foster Family Care. Child Wel-fare League of America B u l l e t i n , A p r i l 1948. - 12 -from the card index of the agency, namely that the c h i l d has 8 been a ward of a children's aid society at le a s t two years, that he was now i n the age group known as the "latency period," and that he was of the white race. I t was believed that by taking only children who had been i n care at le a s t two years a f a i r l y accurate picture might be gained of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the children's a i d societies i n t h i s c i t y . The other l i m i -tations were imposed i n an attempt to omit some of the more d i f f i c u l t groups i n c h i l d placement, i n order that the study could focus on the problem of multiple placements i n i t s most straightforward form. The d i f f i c u l t y of placing children of the coloured races i n a country predominantly of the white race i s w e l l known to c h i l d welfare workers, and hence the study has been confined to white children. The latency period, which i s the time from approximately seven years of age to twelve years of age, i s regarded by authorities as being the period l e a s t pro-ductive of problems i n a child's l i f e ; Gordon Hamilton refers to the latency years as 'the golden age f o r parents;' "when the r e s t l e s s , unpredictable s t r i v i n g s seem to be harnessed." This period comes between the d i f f i c u l t pre-school years when a c h i l d 8. The term "ward" of a society implies that f o r some reason guardianship has been removed from parents who are guard-ians by r i g h t , or other l e g a l guardians, and the court has vested t h i s guardianship i n a society for the protection of children. Some of the more common reasons f o r removal of guardianships are: parental neglect, incurable i l l n e s s , v death of parents or such other factors as would make i t seem i n the child ' s i n t e r e s t to have the protection of such a society. - 13-i s learning how to conform to s o c i a l l i v i n g , and the adoles-cent period, so noted f o r i t s "storm and stress." During the latency years children normally play f r e e l y together, receiv-ing stimulation from the school experience, and being f a i r l y free from parental dependence needs. Since the latency period i s a more or less quiescent time i n a child's l i f e , there are obviously grounds f o r believing that i f a c h i l d shows eviden-ces of tension i n t h i s period, he i s a markedly disturbed c h i l d . In order to include children who were i n the latency period, only those born between the years 1936 and 1941 were selected. I t w i l l be seen that the i n t e r e s t i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t factors such as multiple placement i t s e l f , age at which the c h i l d comes into care, or the i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient of the c h i l d , while l a t e r forming an important portion of the study, were not used i n the actual s e l e c t i o n of the group. By s e l e c t -ing these children regardless of the number of times placed, i t was believed that a f a i r l y accurate picture of the frequency of multiple placement i n Vancouver could be arrived at. To secure a manageable number of cases a one-in-four sample was taken, of a l l children coming into children's a i d care, within the s p e c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s which were set. This gave a t o t a l of 46 f a m i l i e s . Three of these had more than one c h i l d i n the latency period, bringing the t o t a l number of the group up to 9 the required f i f t y . 9. The group of 183 families described above consisted of 140 from the Children's Aid Society and 43 from the Catholic C h i l d -ren's Aid Society. The selection produced 35 C. A. S. families and 11 C. C. A. S. f a m i l i e s . This made a t o t a l of 38 children from C. A. S., and 12 from C. C. A. S. 0 - 14 -i The study was made exclusively from material re-corded on the agencies 1 f i l e s , and three d i f f e r e n t sets of f i l e s were used i n order to get as complete a picture as possible. F i r s t of a l l the ch i l d ' s own f i l e was read, which gave a description of the work done with each i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d during h i s period i n agency care. Next were records of the chi l d ' s family, giving a picture of the child's background and his experience previous to coming into care. Lastly one hun-dred foster home f i l e s were read i n order to get a picture of the type of foster homes drawn on i n Vancouver. In order to select the 100 foster home f i l e s f o r t h i s sample, the names of a l l the foster homes used by t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group of children were placed i n alphabetical order and the f i r s t hundred of these 10 were selected f o r the study. The f i f t y children comprising the study group turned out to have been i n a t o t a l of 176. f o s t e r homes. This does not include temporary foster homes i n which a c h i l d remained less than two months; but i t does include, on the other hand, every placement where a c h i l d remained f o r two months, whether or not t h i s placement was intended to be temporary and including the receiving home, i f the stay turned out to be longer than two months. The average f o r t h i s group -of children was therefore 10. The C. A. S. foster homes were l i s t e d separately from those of C. C. A. S., and af t e r these had been arranged i n alphabet-i c a l order, the f i r s t seventy-five C. A. S. and twenty-five C. C. A. S.-foster-families were selected, making a t o t a l of 100. Out of a t o t a l of 176 homes used by the 50 children i n the group, the number was reduced to 127,after duplications were considered and "own homes" and Receiving Homes omitted. - 15 -o 11 3.52 foster homes during the time they were i n care. In other words each c h i l d has remained, on the average, i n a fost e r home fo r a period of 2.08 years. The replacement picture f o r the whole sample i s i n -dicated i n the following table, i n which the children are grouped according to t h e i r placement experience. Table 1 Placement Experience of a 7-12 year old Sample (Vancouver, 1948) Placement Experience Percentage Total Children Total Foster. Homes Group A - retained i n one. foster home Group B - 2 foster homes 22 20 11 10 11 20 Group C - 3 foster homes 4 n n Group D - 5 foster homes 6 " n 7 " " 8 " " 9 n it 10 n II 18 6 14 8 6" 4 2 9 t;s 7 4 3 •2 1 27 12 35 24 21 16 10 Total Sample 100 50 176 11, I t may be noted that the average placements f o r the 38 Children i n the group who were wards of the Children's Aid Society was 3.74 homes per c h i l d ; while the average f o r the twelve children who were wards of the Catholic Children's Aid Society Was 2.84 homes per c h i l d . Because of the small group of children from Catholic Children's Aid, the children i n the study w i l l be considered throughout as a composite group. - 16 -I t w i l l be seen that s l i g h t l y more than o n e - f i f t h of the children had a single placement, while a n o t h e r . f i f t h had two placements. On the other hand, nearly t h r e e - f i f t h s of the children have had more than two placements—which might be re-garded as coming into the undesirable placement category. In order to t r y to f i n d the causes of multiple place-ment, i t i s necessary to take into account any factors which may influence placement. The relationship between multiple placement and the sex of the children can be read i l y seen from the next table. Table 2 PLACMENT IH RELATION TO SEX OF THE CHILDREN ' Placement Experience Boys G i r l s Total Children Group A - retained i n one foster home 5 6 11 Group B - 2 foster homes 3 7 10 Group C - 3-4 foster homes 7 5 12 Group D - 5 or more foster homes 12 5 17 Total Sample 27 23 50 Eight of the twenty-seven.boys, that i s less than one-t h i r d , have had one or two placements,' while more than two-thi r d s of the boys f e l l into the more serious multiple placement category. On the other hand, t h i r t e e n of the twenty-three g i r l s - 17 -have had single or double placement experience, .while ten g i r l s , that i s less than h a l f , have been multiply placed. I f t h i s sample i s representative of the children i n care, then i t 0 would appear that there i s considerably more d i f f i c u l t y i n placing boys than g i r l s . The study shows that the average placement experience f o r boys i s 4.07 homes, while the g i r l s have an average of only 2.91 homes. Six of the twenty-three g i r l s have had a single placement, whereas f i v e of the twenty-, seven boys have had a single placement. This brings up a ques-t i o n of whether boys f i n d i t more d i f f i c u l t to s e t t l e down i n foster homes than g i r l s , or whether the matriarchial type of family, which seems to predominate i n foster home programmes, finds the problems of g i r l s more e a s i l y understood and accepted ft than those of boys. I t i s an accepted f a c t that the greater the age at which children are placed, the more d i f f i c u l t i t i s f o r them to adjust to l i v i n g with a f o s t e r family. Since older children have known l i v i n g i n a home with a father and mother, there are strong emotional t i e s with them, which are most d i f f i c u l t to sever. I t i s a comparatively simple task to present a neglected or dependent c h i l d before the court and have guardianship of the c h i l d transferred from the parents to a protective agency, i f i t seems i n the i n t e r e s t of the c h i l d to do so. But t h i s i s not the same as saying that he w i l l forget about the parents who have raised him, even i f they have rejected, neglected or abused him. Always i n the child's heart there i s a longing and hope - 18 -that things might change—that his "own" mother and father w i l l come to love him. The problem i s d i f f e r e n t f o r the children who have been under the care of an agency a l l t h e i r l i f e , or who entered in t o care i n early infancy. Here agencies can claim success or ^ f a i l u r e as being e n t i r e l y t h e i r own, f o r these children have known no other influence. I t i s these children, one might ex-pect, who would indicate how successfully the agency i s funct-ioning i n carrying out i t s foster home program. The age of placement i s , therefore, p a r t i c u l a r l y important. Table 5 PLACEMENT IN RELATION TO AGE PLACED 1 Age at time of placement Placement Experience Jnder 5 months 1 year -2-4 y r s . 5-6 y r s . 7 or oldei To a l Group A - retained i n one foster home 8 - 2 1 - 11 Group B - 2 foster homes 3 1 3 1 2 10 Group C - 3-4 foster homes 2 6 1 2 1 12 Group D - 5 or more foster homes 5 r 1 7 2 2 17 Total Sample 18 8 13 6 5 50 - 19 -I t w i l l be noted that 26 children, that i s , approx-imately h a l f of the sample, came into care under the age of two years, yet 14 of them were multiply placed. Eight of the 18 children placed i n early infancy remained i n t h e i r f i r s t f oster home, while f i v e have been i n more than f i v e f o s t e r homes. I t would seem, then, that the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a c h i l d placed i n infancy i n the foster home program were only s l i g h t -l y better f o r remaining i n one home than f o r serious multiple placement. For children placed a f t e r the age of s i x months, t h e i r chances of remaining i n the foster home are small. The * children who were placed a f t e r the age of s i x months and under two years of age i n t h i s sample seem to have had the most unfortunate experience, as a group. Perhaps some explanation f o r t h i s poor showing i s that many of these replacements were made almost a decade ago when casework services were much more l i m i t e d than at the present time. The children coming into care a f t e r the age of seven years seems to bear out the theory that the services at the present time are superior to those of ten years ago. In spite of the f a c t that t h i s age group of children i s considered the most d i f f i c u l t of a l l to place, two have remained i n t h e i r second fo s t e r home, while three have been multiply placed. However, there i s another factor to be noted for t h i s older group. These children.have been i n care only a r e l a t i v e l y short time. The problem of multiple placement could not possibly appear as serious as f o r those children who have been i n care a l l t h e i r l i v e s . - 20 -Those coming into care under the age of s i x months have been under agency protection from 7 to 12 years; whereas those coming into care a f t e r 7 years of age could only have been under agency protection from 2 to 5 years. In summary, certain facts are clear about the par-t i c u l a r sample chosen f o r study, ( l ) More than h a l f of the group have been multiply placed, that i s , have had more than two foster homes. (2) The multiple placement picture i s more serious f o r the boys than the g i r l s . (3) A c h i l d ' s chances of multiple placement increase i f he i s not placed before he i s / s i x months ol d . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r sample the group having the most d i f f i c u l t y with multiple placement are the children between the ages of s i x months and two years; but there i s a range of examples throughout the entire age group of the sample. - 21 -PART I I . Chapter• IX THE FAMILY BACKGROUNDS OF THE CHILDREN A study of replacements i n foster care must s t a r t with a thorough understanding of the c h i l d himself, his per-sonal i t y and h i s heeds. Therefore, the f i r s t step i n getting to know the c h i l d i s to observe what has been h i s background p r i o r to h i s coming into care. I t i s ess e n t i a l that an accur-ate study be made of the family c o n s t e l l a t i o n from which he - has sprung; the relationships within the home, and p a r t i c u l a r l y toward the c h i l d himself; and the habits he developed i n h i s home s i t u a t i o n . The f i r s t w i l l help the worker to determine what t i e s there w i l l be binding the c h i l d ; the second w i l l be la r g e l y responsible f or determining his personality, and the t h i r d w i l l be h e l p f u l i n working with foster parents so that they w i l l know what to expect when the c h i l d enters t h e i r home. The children i n care are mainly of two d i f f e r e n t family backgrounds. These are the children born to unmarried mothers; and the children born to natural family unions. The present study includes twenty-six children who were born out of wedlock. Twenty-one came from legitimate families and three - 12 were born to long-term common-law unions. Two of these 12. The wr i t e r i s using t h i s term i n preference to " i l l e g i t i -mate union" i n order that there w i l l be no confusion as to children born to unmarried mothers, and those to unmarried par-ents who l i v e together as a family. Actually children of both categories could be referred to as i l l e g i t i m a t e , but t h i s term i s being avoided f or reasons of c l a r i t y . - 22 -unions had been maintained over a period of approximately ten . years each, while the t h i r d had lasted seventeen years. Regarding the age of placement i n the f i r s t f o s t e r home the following facts seem s i g n i f i c a n t . Seventeen out of the eighteen children placed under the age of s i x months and seven of the eight placed between s i x months and one year were born to unmarried mothers. On the other hand, eleven out of t h i r t e e n children placed between two and four years of age came from family groups; a l l of the children placed between f i v e and s i x years of age were born to f a m i l i e s . In the group placed over the age of seven years, three came from legitimate families and two from "common-law unions'I Children of family groups may come in t o care at any age, depending whether they are the eldest or youngest i n the family. In the t o t a l group no c h i l d born to unmarried mothers was placed a f t e r the age of three years. There are som^examples known to the agencies where children are placed a f t e r t h i s age, but as t h i s study confirms, i t i s rather, a rare s i t u a t i o n . The Child of the Unmarried Mother In some respects the l o t of the c h i l d born out of wed-lock i s more tolerable f o r the c h i l d than that of the family c h i l d . As has been described, usually his mother gives him up e a r l i e r , so that there are few t i e s to be broken l a t e r ; and he comes into a family group at an early age when i t i s not d i f f i -c u l t to accept and be accepted into a family group. Fourteen of the twenty-six children born out of wedlock - 23 -i n the study, were considered non-adoptable f o r such reasons as l i m i t e d mental capacity of the c h i l d , l i m i t e d mental cap-a c i t y of the mother, paternity not having been established. In one case a c h i l d was considered non-adoptable due to a s l i g h t heart murmur and a hernia, though the l a t t e r was r e c t i -f i e d at an early age. In another case there was a hi s t o r y of Jacksonian epilepsy i n the family. The hereditary factor i n epilepsy i s a controversial topic but authorities show figures f o r handicaps such as deafness, blindness, mental deficiency:, and ©the* forms of epilepsy i n d i c a t i n g that such defects can only be attributed to inheritance i n eleven per cent of the cases where they appear. This would seem to imply that there i s an 89 per cent chance that the defect w i l l not appear. One c h i l d i n the study suffered from a c l e f t palate and rated mid-, grade moron i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , while another c h i l d who suffered from pre-natal s y p h i l i s , had an oversized head, and rated bord-e r l i n e i n i n t e l l i g e n c e . Seventeen of the twenty-six unmarried mothers whose children were taken i n t o care placed t h e i r children permanently with the society, i n four cases requesting adoption. In these four eases i t appeared that adoption was not believed to be advisable due to the questionable background of the children. However, i t i s not known why adoption was not kept i n mind and carried through at a l a t e r date when the c h i l d had proved him-s e l f . Records do not indicate i n most instances that adoption was considered during the early formative years. There are some - 24 -instances where the present foster home i s requesting adop-t i o n of the c h i l d . The following summary of a case record i s given as an example of a s i t u a t i o n where such i s the case, and where the worker i s having d i f f i c u l t y i n determining the a d v i s a b i l i t y of adoption. Jane was born to an unmarried mother who requested that the c h i l d be placed f o r adoption at b i r t h . Upon examination of Jane's mother at the Child Guidance C l i n i c she was found to be borderline i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , and i t was not deemed advisable to place the c h i l d f o r adoption at that time. Jane's mother was planning to be married and f e l t that since the c h i l d could not be placed f o r adoption she would make an attempt to care f o r her herse l f , f o l -lowing her marriage. She v i s i t e d the c h i l d several times i n the o f f i c e . The marriage did not appear to be too successful. The step-father had been imprisoned at one time f o r breaking and entering. The family moved to a northern town and i t was found that the natural children of the marriage begged f o r food there. Jane meanwhile was placed with a family who gave her love and security. She developed normally and ap-peared to be a bright l i t t l e g i r l . The record states, "she i s given every advantage and much a f f e c t i o n . " The family have expressed a desire to- keep her perman-ently, and they are at the present time requesting adoption. She i s now seven years of age.-The record gives the following picture of the f o s t e r mother: "She plays an active r o l e i n the children's l i v e s . She i s interested i n music and hopes that, ther:.children w i l l eventually play instruments. She attends parent-teacher meetings and v i s i t s the school often. She was a kindergarten teacher before her marriage." The family have adopted two children. The record continues: "In many ways t h i s i s not the best foster home fo r the c h i l d as the foster parents are i n t h e i r l a t e f o r t i e s , and t h e i r home i s crowded. However, Jane i s happy and secure, t h i s being the only home she-has ever known." Another factor about which the case worker i s concerned i s that the foster mother i s i n c l i n e d to be emotional and i s a member of the Evangelical Tabernacle, a church to which might'be attributed emotional practices. - 25 -I t w i l l be recalled that at the time of Jane's b i r t h her mother asked that she be placed for adoption. Apparently, as the c h i l d s e t t l e d so well i n t o the home described i n the record i t did not appear advisable to remove her and place her i n a home more e a s i l y recommended f o r adoption. Thus the c h i l d has remained i n the home, yet she cannot f e e l that she belongs to any family. I t would seem that more future security could be gained f o r the c h i l d by a fi r m decision as to whether or not the home i s suita b l e , and by action taken accordingly. This i s not an isolat e d case. There are a number from each agency where the workers seem to have d i f f i c u l t y i n deciding whether or not the place i s suitable. The following summary i s an example of a c h i l d coming ' under the protection of a society a f t e r being cared f o r by hi s unmarried mother. This case i s an in t e r e s t i n g study from sev-e r a l points of view. He i s of l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e , has had several placements and i n spite of both of these factors seems to be making an excellent adjustment to his l i m i t a t i o n s . Bobby was' taken home by his unmarried mother a f t e r his b i r t h . Care did not seem to be too adequate as hi s mother was promiscuous. When Bobby was two years of age his mother died. The putative father took an active i n -terest i n the c h i l d but was unable to care for him per-manently as his mother, with whom he l i v e d , was el d e r l y and could not have given the c h i l d the care he required. The c h i l d tested mid-grade moron i n i n t e l l i g e n c e and was handicapped by a c l e f t palate. The f i r s t foster home i n which Bobby was placed a f t e r coming into care seemed to be a f i n e one f o r the c h i l d . However, when the family moved away the c h i l d had;Jto be removed. In the next foster home he was found to be t i r e d and nervous and the foster mother requested his removal. Bobby presented severe-problems i n the t h i r d - 26 -foster home. He masturbated severely, was a poor eater, displayed temper tantrums, exposed himself and urinated on other children. In the fourth home the foster mother became quite attached to him and did not f i n d him a badly behaved c h i l d . However, she did f i n d him considerable trouble since he was d u l l , and so she requested that he be removed. Bobby i s now i n his f i f t h f oster home. His l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e i s accepted and he" i s found to be quite good i n construction work and using t o o l s . He v i s i t s h i s putative father and paternal grandmother during the h o l i -days, but remains with his f o s t e r mother during the year. He i s secure and we l l loved i n the home, and seems to have made an excellent adjustment to the home where he i s loved and understood. The present foster home plan seems to be working out ni c e l y f o r Bobby. His foster mother i s a widow, and therefore, i t i s most valuable i n t h i s case that the putative father has maintained an i n t e r e s t , giving the c h i l d a male pattern to f o l -low. Unlike many children being cared f o r by agencies he i s not handicapped by concern as to who he i s . He r e a l i z e s that his mother i s dead and that h i s father i s unable to care f o r him. The present arrangement seems to be the best that could be worked out under the circumstances. I t should be pointed out i n passing that f i v e of the twenty-six unmarried mothers whose children came within the scope of t h i s study were themselves former wards, who, according to the finding regarding unmarried mothers, must not have received nor-mal s a t i s f a c t i o n during t h e i r own (foster) home experience. Children From Families Unlike most of the children born to unmarried mothers, the children from families have known what i t i s to l i v e within t h e i r own family and as a r e s u l t suffer from being transplanted - 27 -into another home. Whether they have come from a family where parents are married or not t h e i r experience i s much the same. They have known family l i f e , with two parents functioning i n one home—two parents for whom they maintain a bond. I t i s pointed out i n the booklet "Standards" so w e l l known to c h i l d placing agencies, that "Every c h i l d who must leave his own home and l i v e away from h i s own family suffers a profound emotional and s o c i a l disturbance which can never be altogether compensated." I t has been found that children whose own par-ents are unable to care f o r them usually f e e l that they are unwanted and unloved, and often think that they are i n some way responsible f o r the fact that t h e i r parents have l e f t them or have given them up. These children are always conscious of be-ing d i f f e r e n t from those children l i v i n g i n t h e i r own homes. In addition they may have already been affected unfavourably by those circumstances which have culminated i n the need f o r place-ment, and especially by the attitudes of parents who may f e e l inadequate, ashamed, g u i l t y , and disturbed because of i n a b i l i t y to care f o r t h e i r children. I t i s f o r these reasons that every foster c h i l d f o r whom foster care i s necessary shows varying degrees of emotional disturbance, which may be expressed simply as concern or even resentment regarding the i n a b i l i t y of h i s parents to care for him; or i n the form of severe behaviour or personality disorders. 13. Standards f o r Children's Organizations Providing Foster  Family Care. Child Welfare League of America,. March 1941, p. 13. - 28 -Children from f a m i l i e s come into the care of agen-cies f o r many reasons. Some of the parents are phy s i c a l l y i l l . Some are mentally i l l . Some parents who are unable to face the problems of t h e i r l i v e s abandon t h e i r children. Some parents d i e . t Some parents, whose own l i v e s as child r e n , were empty of love have therefore, not reached the maturity which makes i t possible f o r them to love t h e i r children. Love i s l i k e a cup_of water. Unless the cup i s f u l l i t cannot run over. Unless the heart i s . f u l l of love which has been given to i t , i t cannot run over with love f o r others. 14 Some children have been so rejected by parents who could not love them that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to help the c h i l d to under-stand what love i s , and when they do comprehend to s a t i s f y t h e i r hunger-starved hearts. Sometimes children come to agen-cies where a deprived parent has lavished so much "self-desired love" upon the c h i l d that he i s not given a chance to grow emotionally and the agency receives him as a "spoiled," i n f a n t -i l i z e d c h i l d . (Actually t h i s type of c h i l d i s not given over to agency care, but i s a common problem of Child Guidance C l i n -i c s ) . Sometimes children come from homes i n which t h e i r par-ents are cruel one minute, and loving the next. These children need to l i v e i n a home i n which they see a d i f f e r e n t kind of family l i f e and a di f f e r e n t kind of people. They need to know that there are adults who are consistently fond of them, whose standards of r i g h t and wrong are based on ideals rather than whims, who can be counted on f o r love whether the c h i l d i s "bad or good. They need to l i v e with people who are secure i n each 14. "Everybody's Children," Board of Public Welfare, D i s t r i c t of Columbia, U. S. A. - 29 -other's love. They need to understand that not a l l the world i s inconsistent l i k e t h e i r parents. But they need to learn t h i s through seeing i t themselves, not by hearing t h e i r par-ents c r i t i c i z e d . I t i s a' common f a u l t of foster parents to resent and c r i t i c i z e natural parents. Foster parents frequently see the parents as weak and inadequate, hindering the c h i l d from s e t t l i n g down i n what could be a good fo s t e r home otherwise. Helping foster parents to see the needs of natural parents, and to see what even the worst of parents mean to foster c h i l d -ren i s one of the most important tasks of the case worker. The type of care which i s provided f o r the c h i l d should be based on a consideration of the wishes' of his parents, his i n d i v i d u a l needs, and his family s i t u a t i o n . I t i s necessary to study each c h i l d and his family s i t u a t i o n i n order to determine what kind of care i s best suited to his needs. The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the parents i n planning i s es s e n t i a l because of t h e i r primary rights and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as parents, unless l e g a l custody has been permanently removed from them. I t i s important that removal of a c h i l d has not a punitive appearance. Parents should r e a l i z e that agencies mean to be h e l p f u l . Wherever pos-s i b l e , therefore, the parents should be responsible for bring-ing the c h i l d to the agency, so that neither parents nor c h i l d have the attitude that workers are " c h i l d snatchers." In de-termining how help f u l i t would be to have a c h i l d maintain a contact with his parents, the worker must decide—not i f t i e s - 30 -should be broken, but rather i f t i e s could be broken. Work-ers may not r e a l i z e that frequently parents who cannot give t h e i r children adequate physical care and protection may be able to meet the child's need fpr a f f e c t i o n and belonging .quite adequately. Since the family i s the basic u n i t of society and the most s i g n i f i c a n t element i n the l i f e of a c h i l d , i t js essential that everything possible be done to undergird family l i f e . Society i s apt to condemn those who are not good par-ents more than i t condemns any other group of people. Actu-a l l y , perhaps no one needs more sympathy and help than those people who have been so badly hurt, who are so confused by the problems of t h e i r l i v e s , or who have placed problems so severe that they cannot care f o r t h e i r own children adequately. I t should be remembered that many people who are "bad" parents to-day were the children of yesterday who needed help that no one gave. I t i s v i t a l l y important that t h e i r children receive the help that was denied to t h e i r parents. Families In The Study i The twenty-four children coming from family s i t u a -tions involved only twenty f a m i l i e s , since one group compris-ed a family of three children, while two other families included two children each. Ten of the twenty family groups were taken into the care of a children's a i d society due to family break-up. M a r i t a l discord resulted i n the parents sep-arating, usually with one parent deserting and the other parent - 31 -being unable to provide for the children. The following sum-mary i s a t y p i c a l example of such a separation s i t u a t i o n : Mr. and Mrs. Jones had married at an early age, Mr. Jones being twenty-two and Mrs. Jones being seventeen at the time. Their f i r s t c h i l d died following which three other children were born to the union. Mr. Jones seemed to be rather an inadequate person who drank a good deal and c r i t i c i z e d his wife's homemaking e f f o r t s . Whenever there was any disagreement he would return to his mother's home, complaining about his wife and spying on her. As Mr. Jones did not support his family adequate-l y Mrs. Jones f e l t that she must work and earn a l i v i n g f or the family. Her work as a waitress kept her out a l l night so that she did not return u n t i l ten o'clock; Con-sequently the baby went without food u n t i l noon, while the other children begged food from the neighbours. Arrangements were made fo r Mrs. Jones to get daytime em-ployment and to place the children i n a day nursery. Eventually the children had to be taken into the care of a children's aid society. About t h i s time Mr. Jones joined the a i r f o r c e and Mrs. Jones began associating with other men. As Mr. Jones was stationed i n Vancouver, he was able to continue spy-ing on his wife. He requested discharge from the a i r f o r c e i n order to establish a home f o r his family. However, t h i s seemed to be a rather s u p e r f i c i a l desire, perhaps more to get out of the service than to actually care f o r his' family. Both parents v i s i t e d the children f o r a time, each attempting to play the children against the other. Neither parent has v i s i t e d the children i n the past two years. were Four of the twenty families/taken into care as the r e s u l t of serious neglect s i t u a t i o n s , where parents remained together but could not provide shelter or nourishment adequate to the needs of t h e i r children, or even give them warmth and security. The following summary of a case record i s given as an example of inadequate parents who had t h e i r children remov-ed from t h e i r care due to gross neglect: -Neighbours complained of the neglect s i t u a t i o n i n the Underhill home. The family l i v e d above an old store. There was very l i t t l e i n the way of f u r n i t u r e and the - 32 -windows were broken and stuffed with newspapers. A sani-tary inspector had declared the abode "not f i t f o r habi-t a t i o n . " The children were pale and s i c k l y looking, and had been i n hospital a number of times for malnutrition. A l l of the children begged i n the s t r e e t , stole and used f o u l language. Mr. Underhill had a small business and was away from home a good deal of the time. Mrs. Underhill appeared very l i m i t e d i n i n t e l l i g e n c e . She t o l d one of the workers at one time that she had been unable to r e t a i n a job as a waitress previous to her marriage as she could not remem-ber the orders. While she seemed fond of her children she was-unable to manage them, y e l l i n g at them at the top of her voice. Mr. Underhill i s described as "coarse, demand-ing and bombastic." He created a t e r r i f i c scene at the court when his children were committed and has since t r i e d to regain t h e i r custody. I t was believed that he was hay-ing incestuous rela t i o n s r e l a t i o n s with the eldest g i r l . In her f i r s t foster home the c h i l d being considered i n t h i s study kissed her mother's picture and t o l d her foster mother how much she loved her mother. However, she said she did not wish to return home as the father "did bad things to them." Because of her t i e to her mother the c h i l d has found placement most d i f f i c u l t . Four of the children came from homes where one parent was i n mental h o s p i t a l and the other parent was unable to pro-vide a home for the children. The father of one of these c h i l d -ren was dead. Two other families had one parent deceased. One of these families makes an i n t e r e s t i n g study due to c o n f l i c t i n g reports regarding the mother who was the surviving parent. At the age of twenty-two, Mrs. Anderson was l e f t a widow with three small children. At the time of r e f e r r a l to the agency she was i n an exhausted state and had to be h o s p i t a l i z e d . A p s y c h i a t r i s t examined Mrs. Anderson and described her as being run-down and not interested i n her children. Mentally she was i n the moron class, he contend-ed, and stated further that the basis of her trouble was obscure and probably neurotic. The home was described as f i l t h y and poorly furnished, and the children d e b i l i t a t e d . While Mrs. Anderson was i n the h o s p i t a l a male f r i e n d , whom she l a t e r married looked aft e r the children. The record states that he was "hard on the children," and did not seem interested i n them. - 33 -The Family Welfare Bureau provided a housekeeper f o r a time and Mother's Allowance was granted. Mrs Anderson asked that her children be placed with a Children's Aid Society as she f e l t she could not care f o r them. She requested that the two older c h i l d -ren be placed together "as they would be l o s t without each other.". As had been requested the children were placed to-gether, but they moved from one fos t e r home to another due to the serious enuretic problem of John, the boy who i s the eldest c h i l d . F i n a l l y a f t e r f i v e unsuccessful, foster home placements arrangements were.made to have the children re-turn to t h e i r mother and step-father.. The record now presents an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t picture. Mrs. Thompson (formerly Mrs. Anderson) ha's now been married several years and gives excellent care to the two children of her present marriage. She and Mr. Thomp-son have a comfortable home, which i s well furnished and kept spotlessly clean. Mr. Thompson i s described as a j o v i a l person, who takes an active i n t e r e s t i n the c h i l d -ren> p a r t i c u l a r l y John. Mrs. Thompson i s active i n church work and, presents a picture of a happy, serene person. Previous to the children's return home she was given a mental t e s t at the Child Guidance C l i n i c and found to be of average i n t e l l i g e n c e . One gets the f e e l i n g of personal bias i n reading the f i r s t part of the record. Certainly there i s no recognition of the strengths within t h i s mother and step-father. The f i r s t p s y c h i a t r i s t was not too h e l p f u l i n working out the d i f f i c u l t i e s within the family. There are instances of cases i n which a strong family t i e e x i s t s , and which i s being preserved by the worker. This i s a s i t u a t i o n which always poses a d i f f i c u l t y f o r case workers as the children f i n d t h e i r l o y a l t y divided between t h e i r natural - 34 -parents and t h e i r foster parents. Also standards of parents and foster parents d i f f e r , which causes confusion on the part of the c h i l d . Mary's parents seemed to be unstable people. Her .mother deserted the family and the father, unable to care for the four children, placed them with the C h i l d -ren's Aid Society. He joined the army, but was often AWOL and at one point deserted. As the mother was most unstable, psychiatric help was sought, and she was hospi-t a l i z e d f o r a time. Both parents v i s i t e d the children frequently, but t h i s was discouraged as i t was f e l t i t was not h e l p f u l to the children when the parents had no plan f o r them. I t was desired that Mary and one of her s i s t e r s would be placed together i n a foster home, however, t h i s was not f e a s i b l e . Mary was found to be disobedi-ent i n her foster home. She also suffered from severe enuresis, which made foster home placement d i f f i c u l t . I t was f e l t she was grieving f o r her father as she appeared very fond of him, while she did not t a l k about her mother a great deal. At school the teacher reported that she t r i e d to get attention by over anxiety to help the teacher and pupils. While" staying at the Receiving Home her paternal grandmother held a birthday party for her older s i s t e r , who has remained with the grandmother. Arrangements were made for Mary to attend. Her parents were also there. Mary was delighted to see them again and longed to return to them. She r e a l i z e d that t h e i r present home consisted of only one room, and seemed to understand that her par-ents would not be able to provide a home for t h e i r family fo r a very long time. She has now moved to another foster home and v i s i t s to her parents are continuing. However, she seems to have settled down w e l l , and i t i s hoped that with under-standing foster parents and opportunity to v i s i t her own family occasionally that she may develop into a happier and more secure person. Both the Children's Aid Society and the Catholic Children's Aid Society have made v a l i a n t attempts to keep brothers and s i s t e r s together. In t h i s present study t h i r t y -three out of the f i f t y children have one or more s i b l i n g s . - 3 5 -Sixteen of the thirty- t h r e e with s i b l i n g s have been placed at one time with a s i b l i n g . In most cases t h i s i s an ex-ce l l e n t thing for the children as i t gives security to them and acts as a s t a b i l i z i n g f a c t o r . There are cases, however, where placement together does not seem to be i n the interests of the children. In one place a brother and s i s t e r were placed throughout. The brother was a severe enuresis problem and was moved from foster home to foster home i n order to attempt to f i n d one which would give him the security he seemed to require. His s i s t e r , on the other hand, was we l l l i k e d and could have settled down i n any of the foster homes. Thus instead of remaining i n her f i r s t foster home she moved about with her brother into s i x d i f f e r e n t foster -homes. The study contains another example of t h i s practice where the procedure of keeping s i b l i n g s together i s questionable. A l i c e and Joan came into the care of a children's a i d society as the result of mari t a l disagreement be-tween t h e i r parents culminating i n separation, with placement of the children. Both g i r l s showed tenden-cies of being nervous and high strung, and both were severe enuretic problems. In the f i r s t foster home Joan, the younger, s i s t e r , was very wel l l i k e d and was accepted by the family i n spite of her bed wetting habits. A l i c e , on the other hand was considered to be "cheeky" and disobedient, and the foster mother f e l t she could not keep her. The next home was quite s a t i s f a c t o r y and both children seemed to get along quite w e l l , but 1the foster parents moved to another province and had to give up the children. The children were moved from t h e i r fourth and f i f t h homes due to t h e i r enuretic d i f f i c u l t i e s . How i n the seventh home enuresis s t i l l p e r s i s t s . The foster mother finds A l i c e a very sweet c h i l d who l i k e s to help her about the house. But Joan's problems are increas-ing. She l i e s , steals food and i s very high-strung. - 36 -In t h i s case and the one described just previous to i t , one might wonder whether i t i s i n the interests of the children to remain together, since i n both of these families l i t t l e improvement has resulted from the fact that the children did remain together. Family background i s an important factor that must be understood and well considered before arranging a foster home placement. The needs of the c h i l d must be met and these needs can only be estimated by gaining a complete knowledge of the child ' s l i f e i n the past, the experiences he has gone through, the t i e s that bind him, how ready he i s to l i v e with the family which w i l l give him>; the best chance f o r h i s ultimate i n physical, emotional, i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l de-velopment. Family t i e s must never be overlooked, for where a foster mother or a case worker sees a family as inadequate, i t i s very l i k e l y that the c h i l d i d e a l i z e d his parents i n spite of a l l unfavourable conditions. To him they are the best parents i n the world, and his l o t i s hard indeed, i f he must be severed from them. - 37 -Chapter I I I HOMEFINDING The dictionary d e f i n i t i o n of "foster" i s "to nour-i s h , cherish, a i d , encourage." When an agency looks f o r foster parents, i t i s looking for people who are phy s i c a l l y and emotionally able to give loving care to a c h i l d . In making a homefinding study the worker i s not try i n g to deter-mine whether a family i s "worthy" of having a foster c h i l d , but i f being foster parents i s something they w i l l enjoy and do w e l l . In studying the problem of multiple placement of foster children, the f i r s t factor to be considered i s the fam-i l y background from which the children came. The next factor to consider, then, should be the homes to which they moved for the care they were not able to receive at home. In looking at the question of foster homes i t i s necessary to determine how the foster homes are found and how w e l l they are known p r i o r to placing a foster c h i l d therein. As a prerequisite to foster care i t i s necessary that the physical standards of the home meet a certain requirement. Good food, cleanliness, quiet sleep, fresh a i r , safety from f i r e and health hazards are, of course, necessary f o r any c h i l d . Foster parents should have s u f f i c i e n t room i n t h e i r house so that the c h i l d w i l l f e e l comfortable, and not have reason to - 38 -believe that he i s crowding the family. I t i s e s s e n t i a l that foster parents should know how children should be cared f o r and should be w i l l i n g to learn from s o c i a l workers, nurses and doctors whom the agency provides to help them. I t i s a r e l a t i v e l y simple matter for a worker to determine whether a home can accommodate a c h i l d , and the worker should s e t t l e t h i s factor b r i e f l y , devoting-the bulk of her time to learning about the intangibles i n the home, so important to the child's emotional growth. I t should be remembered that many people coming from lowly homes are mature, happy and democratic i n d i v i d u a l s , while the wealthiest persons who have lacked love and not known the s a t i s f a c t i o n of intimate family relationships can never be s e l f - r e l i a n t , secure persons, who are interested i n the wel-fare of t h e i r community and the world at large. Because of t h i s f a c t , emphasis on relationships w i t h i n the home should be given greatest consideration. I t i s believed that agencies always assure that physical standards are adequate since t h i s i s not a d i f f i c u l t matter, especially i f the worker i s a novice or a v o l -unteer. Foster homefinding i s not work for such u n s k i l l e d per-sons. Assessing foster parents, i n order that the r i g h t c h i l d be placed i n a home, c a l l s f or the f i n e s t s k i l l the profession has to o f f e r . Foster parents, then, must be persons who can love a c h i l d which i s not t h e i r own. They must be persons who respect the i n d i v i d u a l and can accept behaviour d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r own. - 39 -They must r e a l i z e that they cannot force standards upon the c h i l d . The only way he w i l l come to i d e n t i f y with them, and do as they do w i l l come as the r e s u l t of love, and desiring to he a part of the family. A f o s t e r mother who says she w i l l not tolerate a c h i l d , for example, who t e l l s l i e s i s showing her own l i m i t a t i o n s i n understanding children. When the c h i l d feels loved enough and secure enough he w i l l not need to t e l l l i e s . Foster parents do not need to be highly educated people who have had courses i n c h i l d care. They need to be people who have a happy family l i f e , who enjoy caring f o r children, who have patience and a sense of humour. I t i s not easy to be foster parents, but i t can be very s a t i s f y i n g . Consider/^he factors necessary i n understanding fos-ter parents^ j,t does seem that the job of the homefinder i s a f u l l time task, and that she cannot help i n the c h i l d place-ment f i e l d as w e l l . I t i s an easy thing for homefinding to get l o s t among problems which seem more emergent at the time. The homefinder needs to see the family more than once i f she i s go-ing to understand the kind of f o s t e r home care they can best give. A l l that can be learned i n one interview i s the more or less s t a t i s t i c a l material. Many workers who f e e l that they can-not devote a great deal of time to homefinding t r y to bring out a l l t h i s information i n the one interview, thus handicapping the flow of easy conversation which would be so revealing of the r e a l attitudes about the home. The worker needs to steer the 'conversation to matters concerning the foster mother's attitude toward her home L i t s e l f , and homemaking within the home. I f the - 40 -fost e r mother does not enjoy her home or i f she finds that housework i s drudgery, such a home would not l i k e l y make a suitable foster home. Either the foster mother would f i n d h erself with more work than ever to do, or on the other hand, she might be requesting that a foster c h i l d be placed i n her home i n order to obtain a cheap domestic. I f a foster mother does not get along w e l l with members of her own family there i s a danger that she w i l l use the foster c h i l d f o r her own purposes or to meet*her own emotional needs. H. S. Lippman, M. D., gives his feelings regarding workers getting to know foster mothers w e l l : How can she possibly learn enough i n one interview with the parents, i n one home v i s i t , or i n two or three casual contacts. I am convinced that without a planned series of interviews one cannot obtain the answers to the perplexing questions that must be answered. Several v i s i t s are necessary i f f o r no other reason than to test the home over varying periods of stress and s t r a i n . 15 He states that i t i s . h i s opinion that " f a i l i n g to know the fost e r home accounts f o r repeated placements, with r e s u l t i n g loss of anchorage f o r the c h i l d . " In 1925, the Canadian Council of Child and Family Welfare (now the Canadian. Welfare Council) made a study of the types of foster homes that were available f o r children. The following are l i s t e d : . 1. Homes of middle aged or old people whose children had grown up and gone away. 2. Homes where no children had been born. 3. Homes where there were only young children and an older c h i l d was sought. 4. People who had children of one sex, and who desired the other sex. 5. Homes where they wanted the help a c h i l d could give. 6. Homes where they were w i l l i n g to pay for service rendered by c h i l d . 15. Lippman, H. S. "Newer trends i n Child Placement" The Family March 1941, Vol. 21, No. 10. p. 323. - 41 -%t i s believed that a modern l i s t of available foster homes would indicate very s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that a statement i n the document states that there i s no hard or f a s t r u l e . Good and bad homes are to be found i n a l l these categories. The minimum requirements, i t contends, should s t i p u l a t e that foster parents be respectable, have suitable incomes, be of suitable ages, and must l i v e happily 16 together. Twenty-five years ago, then, the favourable influence of happy relationships w i t h i n the foster homes were not overlooked. The appendix of t h i s chapter contains three i n t e r -esting and s i g n i f i c a n t documents r e l a t i n g to homefinding. The f i r s t i s a copy of the a p p l i c a t i o n form used by each of the two agencies being considered i n t h i s study. These forms are given to the prospective foster parent, to be f i l l e d i n •with s t a t i s t i c a l data. When the form has been completed i t f o s t e r i s placed i n the f i l e containing that particular/home study. The second document i s a copy of a guide of i n -structions used by the homefinder of the Children's Aid Society i n writing up the foster home report. I t w i l l be seen that t h i s guide i s very complete and i f followed should show up not only matters pertaining to the physical.or tangible features of the foster home, but also some i n d i c a t i o n of the relationships within the home. The guide of instr u c t i o n s allows f o r plenty of scope i n describing the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s 16. Canadian Council on Child and Family Welfare."Child Placement," September - October, 1925. - 42 -of a foster home. Perhaps the d i f f i c u l t y i s that workers too frequently f e e l that they must answer most of the questions following one v i s i t , and thus the report sounds very general. Following the two documents described, there w i l l be found copies of two foster home studies, which w i l l serve as examples of the type of foster home study made i n Vancouver. The f i r s t of these was done i n 1941 by a volunteer worker, dur-ing the war when homes were scarce. The second study was made by a s k i l l e d homefinder i n 1948. As the same guide had been followed i n both studies, i t w i l l be seen that the pattern i s very s i m i l a r for both, and that character analysis and a d i s -cussion of attitudes i s l i t t l e more apparent i n one than the other. One feels that the workers noted a great deal more about the relationships within the home than i s indicated i n the report. After reading these two records i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to observe that the Clinton home was most unsuitable, and that the c h i l d who was placed i n the home had to be removed l a t e r . There are several suspicious clews i n the study that should have been followed before placing a c h i l d i n the home. The following en-tr y i s made i n the child's f i l e regarding the placement: "Mrs. Clinton was wearing an apron over her housecoat when the worker arr i v e d . She said she had been anxiously awaiting the child's a r r i v a l . She did not appear to be at ease with the c h i l d , but kept her distance saying she hoped her husband would know what to do when he arrived home. She telephoned her husband and asked him to come home as soon as possible. She was anxious to learn when the child's birthday was, since she was interested i n numerology." ~~~ The worker attempted to v i s i t the home a number of times a f t e r t h i s , but the foster mother and c h i l d were always - 43 -out when she arrived. I t appeared that she took the c h i l d out every afternoon. The foster parents gave the c h i l d many toys, hut they did not care f o r him very w e l l . He was not dressed warmly and was not kept clean. The foster mother did not sees* the heed for routine. Eventually the foster parents asked to adopt the c h i l d . However, since t h i s was Impossible they decided to give him up. He was removed from the home seven months a f t e r being placed there. The c h i l d at t h i s time was two years old. The second foster home study was made on a home which appears to be a successful placement, as the c h i l d has f i t t e d w.ell into the family and i s secure and w e l l loved. I t may be noted that the foster father was not seen during the study and apparently references were not investigated, since there i s no further entry on the f i l e . While such foster homes often do turn out w e l l , i t would seem that considerable r i s k i s involved i n knowing so l i t t l e about a foster home. The Vancouver Study As has been stated previously, the f i f t y children i n the study have l i v e d i n a t o t a l of 176 homes. In order that some understanding of what has constituted favourable and un-favourable foster homes i n Vancouver, i t was decided that a portion of these should be read. A f t e r omitting duplications, where a foster home was.used f o r more than one c h i l d i n the study, and also omitting such placements as the receiving homes and the c h i l d 1 s own home, where he was returned- a f t e r being i n care, the number was reduced to 126 d i f f e r e n t foster homes. - 44 -These were placed In alphabetical order and the f i r s t 100 selected f o r special study. One of the fos t e r home f i l e s was lacking the com-pli c a t e d application form, while another contained the form, but no foster home study. The other 98 f i l e s contained both the form and the study. On the whole the f i l e s showed mainly the work done by the home finder, and seldom was any further account given of placement. However, the names of various children placed i n that foster home were entered as having l i v e d there. I f the home was l a t e r closed t h i s f a c t was entered i n the f i l e with a b r i e f description of the reason f o r the home being closed. Desirable and Undesirable Homes Compared In order to a r r i v e at some method of comparison, an attempt was made to categorize foster homes as to whether or not they had met the needs of the foster c h i l d placed i n them. Only f i f t y - s i x families could be considered as "good or poor, that is d e f i n i t e l y meeting or not meeting the needs of the foster children. The other forty-four foster homes seemed to be f a i r l y adequate, and i t was the personal f e e l i n g of the wr i t e r that many of these foster homes could have met the needs of the c h i l d -ren had a greater attempt been made to work with the fa m i l i e s before an emergency arose,* or else that t h i s type of fos t e r c h i l d was not acceptable to them. Thirty-one foster homes had to be closed due to...such factors as death of foster parents, s e l l i n g or having to give up t h e i r home, i l l n e s s of foster parents, or a c h i l d being born to foster parents. These closed homes were - 45 -were considered as to t h e i r a b i l i t y to meet the p a r t i c u l a r needs of the c h i l d before the time came when the c h i l d had to be removed. The twenty-six f a m i l i e s who rated "good," meet-ing the needs' of the c h i l d adequately, were compared with the t h i r t y families who rated'poory,"not having met the needs of the children. Actually variations between the two groups were very s l i g h t , and i t i s f e l t that the material used was not the most s i g n i f i c a n t i n determining whether or not a home w i l l meet the needs of a foster c h i l d , since only tangibles were studied. Age of foster parents The average age of foster mothers i n the t o t a l group at the time the o r i g i n a l applications were made was 39.37. I t appears from t h i s study that foster mothers from the "good" .' homes are a s l i g h t l y older group than f o r the "poor" foster homes, as the average age f o r "good" foster mothers was 41 years, while that of "poor" foster mothers was 34 years. The same trend i s shown i n comparing ages of foster fathers. The average for the t o t a l group i s 42.29 years. The "good" foster fathers averaged 43 years, while the "poor" foster fathers averaged 40. Occupation Occupation of foster fathers studied consisted almost e n t i r e l y of wage earners, whose occupations were so varied as to permit of no p r a c t i c a l comparison. One of the fathers was i n the professional group. Of the 100 foster mothers under study, only 37 stated any previous occupation, s i x of them having been - 46 -former school teachers, s i x former factory workers, f i v e nur-ses (three of these "being children's nurses), four c l e r k s , three, telephone operators, three, stenographers, three maids, one cook, one waitress, one usherette, one physiotherapist, one hairdresser, one bookkeeper and one laundress. In com-paring the "good" and "poor" foster homes, previous occupa-tions seem to have l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e . Eleven of the twenty-s i x "good" foster mothers had worked previously to t h e i r mar-riage. In each group there are school teachers, nurses, sten-ographers and domestic workers. Natural Children In the t o t a l group there were twenty-four fa m i l i e s with no children of t h e i r own, and f i f t e e n f a milies had c h i l -dren grown up and away from home. Two fam i l i e s had adopted children. Thirty of the fam i l i e s had one c h i l d ; twelve had two children; twelve had three children; two families had four children; one had f i v e ; one had s i x children and one family had ten children, most of whom were grown up and out of the home. Comparing good and poor foster homes i t was found that the 'good foster home group included f i v e f a m i l i e s with grown children, whereas not a family i n the poor group had grown c h i l -dren. Three of the "good" foster homes had no children of t h e i r own, while eight of the "poor" f a m i l i e s had no children of t h e i r own. Eight "good" foster homes had one c h i l d , and ten "poor" homes had one c h i l d . Five "poor"homes had two children and four "good" foster homes had two children. Five good foster homes had three children, while only two/fos?er homes had three chi l d r e n . - 47 -One "good" foster home had four children whereas no"poor"fos-te r home had more than three children. Nationality The n a t i o n a l i t y of "good" and "poor" foster parents does not seem to be too s i g n i f i c a n t . Sixteen of the twenty-s i x "good" foster mothers were Canadian born; seven were born i n Great B r i t a i n ; one was born i n the United States; one i n Germany; and one i n Poland. In the "poor" foster mother group th i r t e e n out of the t h i r t y were Canadian born; thi r t e e n born i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s ; one was born i n the United States; two were German born and one was born i n Hungary. Date of Application Two of the families i n the t o t a l group made t h e i r o r i g i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n p r i o r to 1930; eight applied between 1930 and 1935; eighteen applied between 1935 and 1940; seventeen applied between 1940 and 1942; nineteen applied between 1942 and 1944; nineteen applied between 1944 and 1946; and t h i r -teen applied a f t e r 1946. Four applications were not dated. The comparison between the "good" and "poor" groups shows a s l i g h t difference i n time of a p p l i c a t i o n . Eleven out of the twenty-six "good" foster homes applied before 1942, while twenty out of the t h i r t y "poor" foster homes applied before 1942. That i s approximately one half of the "good" foster homes were appro-ved before 1942, whereas two-thirds of the "poor" homes were approved before that date. This may be due to better s e l e c t i -v i t y i n l a t e r years or perhaps i t may be due to a better choice i n the years following the war. Many of the "poor" category of - 48 -foster homes made t h e i r o r i g i n a l applications during the de-pression years. j Accommodation Size of foster home does not seem to be s i g n i f i c a n t . The average f o r the t o t a l group was 5.3 rooms. The difference i n size of "good" and "poor" foster homes was only a decimal point apart. Motives The motive given by foster parents f o r taking c h i l d -ren i s always an in t e r e s t i n g factor and one which reveals some-thing of the attitudes of f o s t e r parents. Eighteen of the ap-pl i c a n t s did not f i l l i n the space a l l o t t e d f o r motive f o r taking a c h i l d , and one might wonder whether the term "motive" i t s e l f caused some confusion i n t h e i r minds or whether they did not understand the term i n some instances. Thirty of the eighty-two foster parents who did answer the question, stated that they desired the c h i l d for"companionship"for themselves. Dorothy Hutchison i n her book, In Quest of Foster Parents i n d i -cated that "companionship" i s a poor motive and one which must 17 be c a r e f u l l y watched, as no c h i l d can a c t u a l l y act as a com-panion to an adult. In f a m i l i e s where relationships are normal, i t i s not necessary f o r the adults to have children as compan-ions . Thirty-two of the foster f a m i l i e s asked for a foster 17. Hutchinson, Dorothy, In Quest of Foster Parents. Columbia University Press, New York,' 1943, p. 15. - 49 -c h i l d as a companion to t h e i r own c h i l d . This too, i s a doubtful motive, as i t might mean that the c h i l d would be ex-pected to play a role which f o r him would be impossible. A c h i l d as an i n d i v i d u a l can only be himself, and t h i s i s often d i f f i c u l t f o r foster parents to accept. Foster parents often have i n mind that the c h i l d w i l l act as a pattern f o r t h e i r own c h i l d to follow, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e i r own c h i l d has been a disappointment to them. But i n t h i s way they are not only ruining t h e i r own child's chances f o r happy development, but those of the foster c h i l d as w e l l . I t has been pointed out that an i n d i c a t i o n of what a foster c h i l d may turn out to be may be gained from observing the natural c h i l d i n the family. 18 The foster c h i l d w i l l be"similar; only more so." That i s , i f the natural c h i l d i s p o l i t e , then the foster c h i l d w i l l be expected to be exceedingly p o l i t e . I f the natural c h i l d goes without d i s c i p l i n e the foster c h i l d may be allowed to "run wi l d . " There are, of course, instances where foster children are not treated the same as natural children i n the family. This i s a very b i t t e r experience f o r the foster c h i l d . Eight foster parents i n the study stated that they wished to take a c h i l d f o r f i n a n c i a l reasons and the desire fo r companionship, together. Purely f i n a n c i a l motives are a l -ways considered with suspicion since the c h i l d may not receive adequate care i f the foster parents wish to make a p r o f i t . 18. Stated at the i n s t i t u t e on foster children, given i n V i c t o r i a , B. C , May 1 - 5, 1949. - 50 -However, where there i s frankness i n response as w e l l as a genuine i n t e r e s t i n children t h i s motive may not be such a bad one. Perhaps the i n c l u s i o n of the word "companionship" should give more cause f o r alertness regarding relationships within the home than the fact that f o s t e r parents were open enough to admit that t h e i r s was a f i n a n c i a l need. Motive at any time, should be regarded as only a clue; and because a motive has a s e l f i s h r i n g to i t , t h i s does not mean that the home i s necessarily a "poor" one. There were some u n s e l f i s h motives.given by the foster parents; however they were i n the minority. Nine people stated that they wished to give a c h i l d a home, and nine others wrote simply that they were fond of children. While these motives cannot be r e l i e d on as actual guides as to the attitudes of foster parents, i t would seem that the foster parents are thinking about the c h i l d and h i s needs rather than t h e i r own s e l f i s h desires. There were some motives given i n i n d i v i d u a l cases where the motive had an un-healthy r i n g to i t . One foster mother said she wished a c h i l d i n order to keep herself occupied, another said she needed some-thing to care f o r , another foster couple who were both ex-wards of a society gave as t h e i r reason f o r requesting a c h i l d : "to give a c h i l d what we missed." I d e n t i f i c a t i o n such as t h i s i s somewhat dangerous, and could be a clue to neurotic needs. I t i s essential that the homefinder learn whether such people r e a l -l y want a c h i l d . Another fo s t e r mother stated she was i n t e r -ested i n dressing l i t t l e g i r l s . In such cases workers must be aware of the f a c t that t h i s might be the desire of the "lady - 51 -bo u n t i f u l " who helps the "poor orphan" i n order to impress her friends, or f o r other n a r c i s s i s t i c reasons. Such persons do not allow a c h i l d to develop i t s i n d i v i d u a l personality, but desire the c h i l d to conform to a pattern set by the fo s t e r mother. The foster c h i l d grows up with a f e e l i n g of worthless-ness, i n an environment where she i s expected to be g r a t e f u l . One older foster father applied f o r an older boy stating he wished him as farm help. Many children were placed on t h i s farm and i t appears from the f i l e that t h i s was a frank f o s t e r father who needed help, but who could and did care for many fos t e r children, proving to be a most valuable foster home f o r many years. The motives "child's companion?' f o r "companionship" and "finance" seem to be f a i r l y evenly divided between the "good" and "poor" foster homes. For every motive given by "poor" fos-te r parents, there seems to be a matching one on the side of the "good" parents. For example, as would be expected, the motive "to give a c h i l d what we missed" came from one of the "poor" foster parent groups. However, one finds among$he "good" group the motive "to give a c h i l d a home—lost own parents." Motives, then, i t appears, can only be regarded as clues to a t t i -tudes, and foster parents can only be selected when they are w e l l known and understood by case worker. Age and Sex of Child Desired Another most in t e r e s t i n g part of the study was the res-ponse to the query as to type of c h i l d desired. Forty-three of the one hundred families i n the study asked for a g i r l to be placed i n t h e i r home, while nineteen asked f o r a boy. Twenty-- 52 -nine f o s t e r families stated they would take either a boy or a g i r l , and nine did not reply, which would apparently indicate that they would take either g i r l s or boys. There i s no s i g -n i f i c a n t difference i n t h i s respect between the "good" and "poor" foster homes. The results are as follows: Thirteen of the "good" foster homes requested a g i r l ; two requested a boy; f i v e indicated that they would take either a g i r l or boy and s i x did not f i l l i n the a l l o t t e d space. Fourteen of the "poor" foster homes requested a g i r l ; s i x requested boys; eight i n -dicated they would take either g i r l s or boys, and two did not reply. Relationships Within the Home The most s i g n i f i c a n t difference i s shown i n the scant paragraphs i n the study by the homefinder describing the home-making e f f o r t s of^foster parents, relationships within the home and int e r e s t s outside the home. One gets the impression that since the small amount of material presented i n t h i s section i s so s i g n i f i c a n t , a f u l l e r description of the family w i t h i n the home, with a better understanding of a l l ' t h e members of the fam-i l y and with more adequate recording, a great deal more about the needs of the family could be understood. Six out of the thitty/"poor" foster parents kept spot-l e s s l y clean homes, the fastidious homemaker being more i n t e r -ested i n appearance than i n the happiness and comfort of the occupant. In the "good" foster home category, there are some references to care of homes, but they sound less extreme than -53 -the "poor" foster home group. One of these refers to the f a c t that the mother i n the home i s a good housekeeper, one states that the house i s homey and looks l i v e d i n , another states that the mother enjoys her home and family. Several other foster parents i n the "poor" group show r i g i d i t y i n other f a c t o r s . One foster mother i n s i s t e d on instant obedience from her own and other children i n the home, other foster parents are d e s c r i -bed i n the record as demanding, r i g i d , firm, cold, impatient, tense. Several of the "poor" category of foster parents showed evidence of i l l n e s s . One foster father suffered from stomach u l c e r s , two f i l e s showed both parents i n poor health. One foster father i n the "poor" group was b l i n d , and one foster mother was sensitive about her hearing aid. Three of the "poor" foster parents were upset by the f a c t that the foster children did not seem to respond to t h e i r overtures, and they described the children as "cold." Persons such as these, and also two other families who were annoyed at the natural parents' v i s -i t i n g , may not be suitable as foster parents, as they appear to be unable to share the children with t h e i r natural parents. I f these foster parents appear to be adequate persons i n other ways, but need to receive love as w e l l as to give i t , perhaps they could be considered as adoptive parents, as they would then be i n a po s i t i o n to claim the child's a f f e c t i o n e n t i r e l y f o r themselves. Interests One noteworthy factor found among foster parents i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the fact that i n the "poor" category f i v e out - 54 -t h i r t y professed a special i n t e r e s t i n music whereas i n the "good" foster parent group only one expressed i n t e r e s t i n music. Perhaps a suggested reason f o r t h i s might be lack of attri b u t e s i n the "poor" foster home group made the worker emphasize the musical fac t o r . Five of the "poor" group have ilno interests outside of the home," and only i n two cases i s i t mentioned that the parents are interested i n church work. On the other hand, seven of the "good" foster parents- are a c t i v e l y interested i n t h e i r church or community, although there was one home with a f o s t e r mother with no outside i n t e r e s t s . Maternal and Paternal Qualities Mention i s made of foster mothers being affectionate or motherly i n eleven of the twenty-six "good" foster homes. Only i n three of the "poor" foster homes are foster parents described i n t h i s manner. Instead they are referred to as "pleasant, sensible, sympathetic." One foster home i n each of the "good" and "poor" categories was described as untidy. In one of the "good" foster homes the record showed that the fos-ter mother domineered her husband. One would guess that i n the others the worker did not know the homes well enough to judge whether t h i s was so i n the others. Since there i s ground f o r believing that most foster homes are of the m a t r i a r c h i a l type since i t i s the foster mother who requests and lar g e l y cares for the children, perhaps t h i s i s a common f a i l i n g . One of the "poor"foster homes showed the f o s t e r father as being "phler." There are several references to apparently inadequate foster - 55 -fathers i n both "good" and "poor" categories. One fo s t e r father i n the "good" category i s described as "nervous," another " a nice quiet man," i n another the foster mother feared the foster father would not l i k e the children, but placement worked out w e l l , since t h i s home came i n the "good" group. In the "poor" group there are the following apparently inadequate foster fathers: one foster father away; two foster fathers not interested i n children; one foster father b l i n d ; one f o s t e r father i s described as quick tempered, another im-patient with the children, and as has been stated, one foster had stomach ulcers. On the other hand, one foster father i n the "poor" category i s described as " i n t e l l i g e n t ; " another as being " a t t r a c t i v e ; one as being "easy going;" another "happy-go-lucky;" another as'hard-working" and two as "loving c h i l d -ren." I t would appear that there are variations of fos t e r f a t h -ers i n both "good" and "poor" homes. On the whole i t would seem that the foster fathers are not too w e l l known and that l i t t l e i s done to aid them i n understanding the child, who i s be-ing cared f o r i i i t h e i r homes. Foster fathers, i t would seem, are an untapped resource. I t i s only f a i r l y recently that the necessity f o r a good father-person i n a home i s e s s e n t i a l to the normal development of both boys and g i r l s . Source Whether or not the word "source" on the a p p l i c a t i o n form causes confusion as to what i s meant by t h i s term i s not known, however, f i f t y - f i v e out of one hundred applicants ans-wered the question. The greatest number of r e f e r r a l s came from - 56 -foster mothers. Nineteen applicants were referred to the agencies by other foster mothers. F i f t e e n were referred by re l a t i v e s or friends, thirteen applied following advertising i n the newspapers or on the radio. Three foster mothers were referred by t h e i r p r i e s t or minister, and three by professional persons—a V. 0 . N. worker, a Y. W. C. A. worker and one by a s o c i a l worker. Comparing the "good" and "poor" foster homes i t • was found that only thirteen of the twenty-six r e p l i e d to the question^, i n the "good" foster home group, whereas twenty out of t h i r t y of the "poor" foster home group re p l i e d . Among t h i r -teen "good" foster parents f i v e answered advertisements; four were referred by friends or r e l a t i v e s ; three were referred by foster mothers and one was referred by the minister of her church. The d i v i s i o n for the "poor" foster home group i s as follows: eleven r e f e r r a l s by foster mothers; f i v e by advertising; three by friends and one by a s o c i a l worker. I t i s doubtful i f these figures are too s i g n i f i c a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y since so many of the applicants did not f i l l i n the space i n the questionaire. Location of Foster Homes Both the Catholic Children's Aid the Children's Soc-i e t y of Vancouver use mainly c i t y f o ster homes. However, the Catholic Children's Aid does extend throughout the Fraser Val-ley as fa r as Agassiz. The Children's Aid Society includes t e r r i t o r y as f a r as Langley. There i s no hard and f a s t rule f o r r u r a l placements. Wherever i t i s f e l t to be i n the child's i n t e r e s t to be placed i n the country, t h i s i s done. Rural and urban placements cannot wel l be compared, therefore. Out of the one hundred foster homes studied, twenty-seven were con-sidered to be r u r a l placements, while seventy-three are urban. Foster homes i n Vancouver and New Westminster were considered to be c i t y placements, while those outside these areas were considered to be r u r a l . -There might be some c r i t i c i s m of such d i f f e r e n t a t i o n , since many of the so-cal&ed c i t y placements.: .'..y.J: a c t u a l l y are situated some distance from neighbours or on large l o t s of land. On the other hand, many of the r u r a l placements might a c t u a l l y be situated i n one of the smaller c i t i e s or towns i n the Fraser Valley. As i t was d i f f i c u l t i n so many cases to determine when t h i s was so, the present system was devised for separating c i t y and r u r a l placements. The "good" foster home": placements consisted of sixteen c i t y placements and ten r u r a l placements. While the "poor" foster home group consisted of twenty-two c i t y placements and eight r u r a l placements. Reasons for Closing Homes Of the thirty-one homes which were closed by the time t h i s study was made, the reason given for the closing of three of them was that the foster parents had died; ten were closed because a member of the foster family became i l l ; four f a m i l i e s had moved away, three of the foster families had had a c h i l d of th e i r own, so gave up the foster c h i l d . Some homes were closed by the s o c i a l workers because i n f i v e cases the mothers were not suited to t h e i r task; while of one tfefie f i l e states she was high strung and emotional; of another neurotic; one was "cold with the children;" and another whipped the children; whereas another - 58 -became "too attached to the children," another decided to take private placements; two were considered too old to cope with the children while another foster mother f e l t un-equal to the task as her husband was away; and one family had r e l a t i v e s come to stay with them. The foster home study serves to aid the homefinder i n determining whether the home should be used at a l l ; whether the people i n that home r e a l l y want a c h i l d , or have the idea that having a c h i l d i n t h e i r home w i l l solve some of t h e i r problems. Thus she must know the family intimately. I t i s only through such knowledge that some understanding may come as to what type of c h i l d w i l l be suitable f o r t h e i r home, and where they, as foster parents, may make the greatest c o n t r i -bution. c - 39 -Chapter IV PROFESSIONAL USE OF FOSTER HOMES After surveying whether or not a foster home i s suit a b l e , the next step i s to attempt to f i t the r i g h t c h i l d i n t o the r i g h t foster home. In order to do t h i s the worker must know the c h i l d and foster family so w e l l that she thoroughly knows the needs of each. There must be some system whereby the workers know what homes are a v a i l a b l e , and what can be expected from each i n the way of a f f e c t i o n ; what are the standards within the f o s t e r home; and whether or not the foster family are able to accept a c h i l d who has family t i e s or who may be removed from t h e i r home at a l a t e r date. I t i s not necessarily an i n d i c a t i o n of a poor type of foster parent when a worker finds that they could not pos-s i b l y accept a child's family. I t may be that these f o s t e r parents would r e a l i z e more happiness f o r themselves and f o r the c h i l d i f they took an adoptable c h i l d , and became adopt-ing parents, since they could not share the c h i l d . In t h i s way they would be able to give some c h i l d permanent security, and an opportunity to f i n d roots i n the world. I t may r e a d i l y be seen that there would be no point i n attempting to place a c h i l d with natural family t i e s with such a family. He would be expected to love h i s new family, but he would be unable to do so, since i t was s t i l l possible to c l i n g to his own family f o r a f f e c t i o n . There are foster parents who can give love, yet demand neither love nor gratitude i n return. There are - 60 -people who are mature enough that they have no need to make demands upon others. Thus these parents are able to give a c h i l d good physical care and attention, yet leave him free f o r h i s own a f f e c t i o n a l t i e s . The problem of family t i e s i s given only as an example, and because i t represents one of the more common d i f f i c u l t i e s of foster home placement. Another very frequent en§ "is of enuresis. Many foster children being away from home, f e e l insecure, unloved, and therefore h o s t i l e to-ward society. I f foster parents can accept the basis of such behaviour, they w i l l be able to show understanding of the c h i l d , so that his problem may be overcome. However, i f the foster parents cannot tolerate t h i s condition, the problem w i l l increase, since the c h i l d w i l l f e e l even less secure i n the fo s t e r home, and unconsciously indicate i n thms manner even greater h o s t i l i t y toward a world where he i s not under-stood. The worker, knowing what f o s t e r parents have to give and what they want themselves, from a c h i l d , must match t h i s knowledge with a c h i l d who i s i n need of a foster home. She must understand h i s needs i n order to determine i f the home can meet them. Perhaps she may r e a l i z e that a p a r t i c u -l a r c h i l d may f i t into a home at a l a t e r date, but could not do so immediately. The use of the temporary foster home f o r children who have severe problems, or who have gone through very traumatic experiences may be helped with these d i f f i c u l -t i e s i s discussed i n a l a t e r chapter. The purpose of t h i s i s that a f t e r what might be c a l l e d a convalescent period the children may be "well! 1 enough to go into the ordinary or normal foster home and become a member of the group. Fortu-nately, there are foster parents who are able to help d i s -turbed children i n a "lay-professional" manner, and who f i n d the work challenging and s a t i s f y i n g . They are able to put up with the children through very disturbed periods knowing that sometime the c h i l d w i l l go from them a happy i n d i v i d u a l , with a normal opportunity f o r emotional growth. The Role of the Foster Father Because most foster homes are of the m a t r i a r c h i a l kind, the foster mother taking on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of caring f o r the c h i l d , s o c i a l workers have tended to overlook the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of foster fathers. I t i s w e l l known that i n order to develop normally, a c h i l d must grow i n harmony with both parents. As an infant he i s tended almost exclu-s i v e l y by the mother person, i n most instances. . The "anal" or t o i l e t t r a i n i n g period i s mainly t h e ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the mother, as w e l l . However, following t h i s i t i s essen-t i a l that a c h i l d conquer the "oedipus" stage when he f a l l s i n love with his parent of the opposite sex, using him f o r his pattern f o r growing and maturing. I t must be recognized where there.is no foster father, or where he i s an inadequate person or f e e l s that he has no part to play i n bringing up the foster c h i l d , the c h i l d , whether a g i r l or a boy, suffers as a r e s u l t . I f she i s a g i r l , she has not the opportunity - 62 -of resolving her oedipus c o n f l i c t , and i f he i s a hoy he has no male pattern with which to i d e n t i f y l a t e r . In the 100 f i l e s which were read i n making the foster home section of the study, i t was d i f f i c u l t i n most instances to t e l l whether or not the foster father was seen by either homefinder, or i f the description of him i n the record was what the foster mother t o l d the worker about him. His attitudes to the c h i l d are too important to be overlooked. Perhaps the c h i l d may represent a threat to the foster father, or perhaps the foster mother i s requesting a c h i l d because she believes her husband would l i k e to have a c h i l d , when t h i s i s not actually the case. As has been discussed i n the previous chapter, i t i s essential that both parents be' contacted separ-a t e l y and together i n order to determine relationships and th e i r mutual desire to have a c h i l d i n t h e i r home. The s i g -n i f icance of the foster father i s c l e a r l y demonstrated i n the following summary of a case record: Harry's parents separated a f t e r several years of m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t y and suspicion against one another. The three children were placed with the A. family. This was a home i n which there were no natural children and where the foster father was a very kindly man, interested i n h i s home and very fond of children. He and his wife seemed to be very happy together and were interested i n community l i f e . How-ever, when Mr. A's. mother became i l l , Mrs. A. requested that the children be removed as i t was necessary f o r her to care for her mother-in-law. At the time the worker f e l t that Mrs. A. was jealous of the attention her husband gave the children. I t w i l l be seen that while Mr. A. i s quite adequate as a fos-te r father, children In the home represent a threat to the family. This i s an Instance where there would be some doubt - 63 -as to whether the family a c t u a l l y ever wanted children i n t h e i r home. I t i s quite possible that a woman such as Mrs. A, requested a c h i l d believing her husband desired one. Due to d i f f i c u l t y i n findin g homes where the three children could be placed together, i t was decided that Harry should be placed apart from his s i s t e r s . The B. family with whom he was placed were f i n e foster parents. They were an easy going type of family and very fond of children. No reason i s given f o r the child's removal and Harry remained f i v e months. His next foster home was close to where his s i s t e r s were staying. Apparently the placement worked out w e l l , however, the foster mothers mother was not we l l and Mrs. C. gave up the c h i l d . Up to t h i s point he had been a most affectionate c h i l d ; however, when he was placed i n the Receiving Home he was very destructive. His next placement was a happy one fo r Harry. The fost e r mother had a pleasant d i s p o s i t i o n , was good with l i t t l e children, and belonged to clubs. The foster father was a quiet, hard-working man, who was very fond of Harry. Mrs. D. t o l d the worker that her husband had quite " f a l l e n f o r the c h i l d . " Mrs. D. was kind but firm with the c h i l d and they had no d i f f i c u l t y with him. Everyone i n the home loved him and they wished to keep him permanently. Suddenly the foster father died. This was a sad blow f o r Harry and when the worker came to move the children he did not wish to leave. He said he would run away and f i n d his daddy (the foster f a t h e r ) . The next foster home was a fortunate move, for again there was a superior foster father, Mr. E. Harry c a l l e d him"Uncle Bob" and " t r a i l e d a f t e r him," to Mr. E's del i g h t . The foster mother was very much interested i n children and the worker f e l t she gave them a f e e l i n g of security. This pleasant home s i t u a t i o n was not to l a s t long f o r Harry, however, f o r the foster mother developed a chest condition and i t was feared there might be a p o s s i b i l i t y of tuber-c u l o s i s . Therefore i t was necessary to remove Harry from the home. The foster parents were very sorry to have him leave, and asked that they might have him back again when Mrs. E. was better. The F. foster home was one which had been used f o r several foster children i n the past. Mrs. F. was a kindly person, interested i n her home and family, Following so much moving about Harry began wetting the bed. As he was - 64 -s i x years old the foster father was very annoyed. He seemed very fond of his home and family, but showed no acceptance of Harry, and took no in t e r e s t i n him. This was a hard blow for the c h i l d . He developed an i n d i f f e r e n t attitude and when the case worker c a l l e d he asked to be taken away. Harry was moved to the G. foster home. He i s loved by both, foster parents and states that he wishes to marry Mrs. ^ G. The worker feels that he i s permanently settled i n the home. Enuresis s t i l l p e r s i s t s , but seems to be lessening as he develops security i n the home. This case shows several s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t s . Through-out the foster fathers played a prominent r o l e i n the c h i l d ' s development. However, following the unsuccessful placement i n the F. home i t was necessary f o r the c h i l d to regress to the pre-vious stage where he had received s a t i s f a c t i o n , and so i s " i n love with" his foster mother. Undoubtedly, when he f e e l s secure enough i n h i s \ f o s t e r mother's love, he can progress again to the phase of development i n which he w i l l i d e n t i f y with a male f i g -ure. This record i s valuable i n showing that"bad luck" can. cause the best placements to f a i l as Harry had to leave then and E. foster homes. However, i t must also be pointed out, that there appear to be some apparently careless placements when the true family picture was not recognized by the worker. Harry's placement i n the F. home indicates what appears to be a common problem i n c h i l d placement. How often workers say, "Hfers. So-and-so i s a wonderful foster mother; she can take any c h i l d . " I t should be pointed out that there i s no guarantee that because s i x or ten foster children have f i t t e d into a p a r t i c u l a r foster home, that every c h i l d w i l l . Even i f the foster mother can - 65 -"take every c h i l d , " there i s s t i l l the matter to he reckoned with that the c h i l d has sp e c i a l needs and that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r foster home may not meet them. I t i s necessary that "known" foster homes he assessed as c a r e f u l l y as new homes, for both must meet the needs of the c h i l d . The matter of acceptance can never be taken f o r granted. Another interesting observation elsewhere i n thev-flies regarding t h i s family i s that Harry's two s i s t e r s who were placed together throughout also had seven placements. These two g i r l s were such severe enuretics that foster mothers found i t d i f -f i c u l t to cope with t h e i r problem. One might speculate as to whether there i s a family weakness since a l l three children were enuretic problems at one time or another, or whether the i n s t a -b i l i t y they had known i n t h e i r own home plus the i n s t a b i l i t y caused from moving so frequently made them insecure to the extent that the habit persisted. There i s also a question of whether or not seven placements were required before three children could become adjusted to normal home l i v i n g . Strange as i t may seem, t h i s i s the reasoning of cer t a i n workers i n explaining the prob-lem of multiple placement. A home which adequately met the needs of the children, given some working out of relationships regarding t h e i r natural family, should have made further placement unnecessary. Perhaps the two g i r l s i n the family should not have been kept together. This i s a matter requiring consideration i n i n d i v i d u a l cases, and action taken in. the best interests of the children i n d i v i d u -a l l y . As has been pointed out, certain families can accept one c h i l d , yet cannot accept another. - 66 -HOMES of Widows The study shows that frequently widows desire to be foster mothers and that usually the result s are quite good, since so often widows have time to devote to the fos-ter c h i l d . However, there i s always the p o s s i b i l i t y that a widow, being lonely, may use the c h i l d to meet her emotional needs, almost smothering the c h i l d with a f f e c t i o n so that i t i s not able to grow emotionally. On the other hand, some widows take children f o r f i n a n c i a l reasons and give only phys-i c a l care> and the children are deprived of a f f e c t i o n . This appear to have been the case with one foster mother who looked a f t e r children, two of whom came wi t h i n the scope of the study. Mrs. Brent i s a widow with a grown-up daughter. She applied for children i n 1930 and cared f o r many babies fo r the Children's Aid Society f o r many years. She kept her house spotlessly clean and gave the babies i n her charge the best of care. Mrs. B. was 42 years of age at the time that the two g i r l s Sadie and Betty came into her care. These were un-related children. However the placement was an unhappy one for both children. Sadie was one year old at the time of placement i n the home. Mrs. B. being very busy, gave her l i t t l e attention. The c h i l d followed her about the house, whining as she went. Mrs. B. confessed that she did not l i k e the c h i l d , and eventually the c h i l d was re-moved . While Mrs. B. was able to give good physical care to babies, i t appeared that she had l i t t l e time f o r loving them and meeting t h e i r emotional needs. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to ob-serve that she could not accept the one year old c h i l d , a time when many foster mothers f i n d children to have p a r t i c u l a r charm. Again, i t may be stressed that workers can never take fo r granted that a c h i l d w i l l f i t i n t o a home known previously to the agency. Betty went to Mrs. B's. home as an infant.and - 67 -remained u n t i l she was four years of age. The following information i s taken d i r e c t l y from the record: At the age of eighteen months "she sucks her thumb i n spite of her arms being put i n cardboard r o l l s . " The foster mother w i l l t r y mitts to break the habit. Betty i s a c h i l d who i s d i f f i c u l t to know and does not make friends e a s i l y . She has l a t e l y developed the habit of banging her forehead on the playpen. She does not sleep during the day. Betty's behaviour would seem to indicate that she was not receiving s u f f i c i e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n and at eighteen months she was reacting i n a manner frequently used by c h i l -dren not receiving attention and a f f e c t i o n adequate f o r t h e i r needs. The curbing of the thumb sucking habit was i n accord-ance with the philosophy of the past decade. One year l a t e r there i s l i t t l e evidence of improvement: "Betty i s a very ti d y l i t t l e soul. She helps her foster mother, but i s bossy with other children. She f i g h t s with a c h i l d a year older than herself. She s t i l l sucks her thumb. She does not sleep w e l l , and l i e s awake nearly three hours a f t e r she i s put to bed." The following year there i s further evidence of maladjustment: "Betty w i l l be four years old next February-.r She has been i n her present foster home ever since her f i r s t month and i s regarded by the foster mother as a c h i l d of the home. The worker regrets to say that Betty's behaviour i s not a c r e d i t to the foster mother. She i s unsocial, disobedient, highly excitable and un-cooperative. Her only companions have .been a t a l k a t i v e middle-aged foster mother, the teen-age daughter of the house and various babies placed temporarily on a board-ing basis.. Betty i s fond of the babies. She sucks a l l four fingers of either hand. When spoken to she hangs her head and hides around her fos-ter mother's s k i r t s . The foster mother lunges at her and threatens 'a good spanking' i n the worker's presence. This does not have much effe c t . Betty runs l i k e a hare - 68 -as soon as she catches sight of.a C. A. S. car or the worker. The home i s a model of cleanliness and routine." The following year Betty was sent away a month f o r the summer holidays and Hrs. B. resented t h i s very much. Upon the child's return she was moved to another home. The . foster mother was so upset that the home was closed. Seven widows, a single woman and a foster mother who had had a j u d i c i a l separation were included i n the study. The majority of these women have done very n i c e l y with the children placed i n t h e i r care. Perhaps these homes could he better used as temporary foster homes. However, i n some cases the c h i l d has a t i e to the natural father, as i n the case of Bobby cit e d i n Chapter I I . The case of Edith i s i n -teresting because of a t i e to a previous foster father. Edith was p r i v a t e l y placed by her mother at b i r t h with a view to adoption. However, when the adopting parents l a t e r disagreed and separated i t came to the attention of the authorities that Edith's mother who was Roman Catholic had placed her c h i l d f o r adoption i n a Protestant home. Edith was then committed as a ward of the C. C. A. S. and was placed i n the home of Mrs. C , a widow, with four grown daughters. Edith was two years of age at the time of placement and has remained i n t h i s foster home ever since. She i s now ten years of age. Her former adopting parents found i t d i f f i c u l t to give up the c h i l d and her adopting father ha maintained • a contact with her, v i s i t i n g frequently and bringing her g i f t s . There i s a strong t i e between him and the c h i l d . Edith i s very well cared f o r and greatly loved by the foster mother and her family. She i s sweet-temp-ered and affectionate and the foster mother finds no r e a l problem i n handling her. The c h i l d does very w e l l i n school. A l l her marks are i n the 90's. She says she wants to be properly trained f or her work i n l i f e . She i s learning piano and also taking tap dancing lessons. She regards her foster mother, who i s now over s i x t y years of age, as a grandmother. - 69 -Homes such as the one described above have a great deal to of f e r foster children. The f a c t that the f o r -mer adopting father has remained i n the picture has given further security to the c h i l d . Professional Assistance The matching of the needs of the c h i l d with the needs of foster parents c a l l s f or the keenest s k i l l and judgment on the part of the c h i l d welfare worker. But perhaps the greatest s k i l l of the profession i s c a l l e d f o r a i n helping the c h i l d and the foster parents to adjust to each other's pattern of l i v i n g , so that placement i s a pleasant and wholesome experi-ence. S k i l l e d casework at t h i s time makes the difference be-tween a c h i l d remaining i n the foster home i n which he was placed, and moving to a series of homes. I t means the d i f f e r -ence between being loved, understood and developing feelings of security i n the home, and the absence of these q u a l i t i e s plus distorted feelings which l i m i t the c h i l d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and emotionally. Workers with a moderate caseload should not need to place children too frequently. Their d a i l y task i s rather that of helping children to be assimilated into f oster homes where they derive s a t i s f a c t i o n from the home s i t u a t i o n which t h e i r own home fo r some reason was not able to give to them. The guage of good case work with foster children might well be the r e l a t i v e l y small number of her placements, as well as the happy adjustment of children to l i f e away from the nat-u r a l home. I t has been already noted that records do not show what q u a l i t y of case work i s being done i n foster homes. - 70 -Workers are more i n c l i n e d to record only the prob-lems r e l a t i n g to the c h i l d i n the home and omit most d e t a i l s of the part they played i n attempting to deal with these prob-lems. Thus i t i s d i f f i c u l t to show to any great extent the amount or type of casework that i s being done. In the f o l -lowing record i t w i l l be noted that the worker has missed d i s -cussing the actual problem of dealing with the child's t i e to hi s own parents, and considered instead the more s u p e r f i c i a l problem of trying to stop the enuresis d i f f i c u l t y ; that i s , she dealt with the problem on a surface l e v e l rather than attempting to solve the cause of the d i f f i c u l t y . The i n t e r -view i s taken d i r e c t l y , from the record. 22. 11. 44. Called at the foster home. Foster mother i s find i n g i t too d i f f i c u l t to keep A l i c e , as she i s s t i l l wetting the bed. She said that she found that i f A l i c e i s prom-ised something she wants to do the following day or to have something she l i k e s she does not wet the bed. She does not wet i t either i f she says she won't, ^ b r instance / i f she knows she i s going to v i s i t her family she w i l l not ^wet the bed f o r a week. Foster mother i s sure that i t i s pure la z i n e s s . Discussed t h i s in,some d e t a i l with foster mother, tr y i n g to learn ju s t what type of routine she was following with A l i c e . Worker found during the conversa-t i o n that the foster mother has not been conforming to any d e f i n i t e hours f o r taking A l i c e to the bathroom and also that A l i c e has not been f u l l y awake when she does get her up. Foster mother complained that A l i c e was too big a g i r l and too heavy to l i f t . Worker said that i t would not do any good to get A l i c e up i f she was not awake and i f she did not use the t o i l e t . Suggested that foster mother place a piece of linoleum beside A l i c e ' s bed and that when she gets up the cold w i l l be more apt to wake her up and she w i l l then use the bathroom. Also suggested that foster mother keep a chart of the times she gets A l i c e up and the times that she i s dry. In t h i s way she could gradually f i n d the routine she should follow with A l i c e to get her before she wets the bed. Stated that perhaps foster mother gets A l i c e up at eleven o'clock and the bed i s wet. Perhaps then she should get A l i c e up at 10.30 and she would have a dry bed. Stated that the same thing - 71 -applies during the night. Foster mother did not seem to complain about getting up f o r A l i c e but i s complaining that when she does get up the bed i s already wet. How-ever, foster mother i s not i n a very accepting mood and s t i l l thinks A l i c e should be moved. Such an example would remind us of Gordon Hamilton's words: "The only way to understand the behaviour problem i s 19 to understand him." Because of the f a i l u r e of workers to record t h e i r own part of interviews i t has been most d i f f i c u l t to f i n d a case record that shows evidence of good case work having been done. In the following record the worker shows a greater awareness of the problems of adjustment i n the home, and i n the l a t t e r part of the" interview i s able to help the foster mother to understand the reasons f o r the child's behaviour. V i s i t e d foster home as f o s t e r mother telephoned requesting a v i s i t as Margaret's behaviour has become quite d i f f i c u l t . Foster mother says that Margaret i s insolent and when t o l d to do something by foster mother often states " I w i l l t e l l Miss .... (caseworker) on youl" She i s very demanding and wants new clothes, money, etc. She refuses to get up i n time and foster mother has a great deal of trouble i n getting her to bed at night. Foster mother seems quite demanding and gets upset over any misdemeanor on Margaret's part. However, she has a genuine a f f e c t i o n f o r the c h i l d , which appears to be mutual. Foster mother said she i s s t i l l untidy although she has improved i n that respect. I said perhaps foster mother was expecting too much of Margaret. I f the other children i n the neighbourhood were allowed to play u n t i l nine o'clock i t was n a t u r a l l y hard to be t o l d to come i n at eight. I said that perhaps when school was out dur-ing the summer she could stay i n bed l a t e r i n the morn-ing so she could have a longer play hour i n the evening. Foster mother then started t a l k i n g about Margaret's assets. She emphasized the f a c t that she had not threat-ened her with leaving the foster home. When Margaret 19. Hamilton, Gordon, Psychotherapy i n Child Guidance. New York, Columbia University Pressy 1947 p. 45. - 72 -returned from the Receiving Home her behaviour improved f o r a time but a f t e r a while she lapsed back i n t o her old demanding ways. I said that often children whose fami l i e s had rejected them took thi§ way of getting back at the world and kept asking f o r material things to replace the loss of t h e i r parents. I interpreted t h i s at length and foster mother seemed quite accepting. In t h i s case the worker recognizes the child ' s prob-lems and she not only helps the foster mother to understand the c h i l d , but she sees the c h i l d i n her o f f i c e about once a week as w e l l . This gives the c h i l d an opportunity to d i s -cuss the things that bother her with someone who knows and understands the s i t u a t i o n . This must help considerably i n r e l i e v i n g her fee l i n g s , and following t h i s i t should not be necessary to make so many demands upon her foster mother. Recognition of Foster Mothers Foster mothers take and keep children whose resent-ment and pain at having been separated from his own parents i s almost always projected upon her. Children who have suffered at the hands of t h e i r own parents come to foster parents b e l -l i g e r a n t and unhappy. Foster parents must receive not only the c h i l d , but parents and r e l a t i v e s too. Eventually the fos-ter parents must give up the c h i l d i n whom they invested so much and to whom they have given so abundantly of t h e i r care, time, and Interest. Workers should be aware of the f o s t e r par-ents' need f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the job, which w i l l make i t easier f o r them to give love and acceptance to the c h i l d . I t i s impor-tant that workers convey recognition and encouragement of the fost e r parents' work i n attempting to bring about such modifi-cations i n the attitudes of the foster parents as may be neces-sary f o r them to deal with the c h i l d . - 73 -A H too seldom are foster mothers given the recog-n i t i o n they deserve. Theirs i s a job which cannot be per-formed by any professional member of the s t a f f . A l i t t l e encouragement along the way helps to l i g h t e n what can be a heavy burden to carry. The following excerpt from a record shows the effect of giving recognition to a conscientious f o s t e r mother: 25. 3. 48. Worker said June seemed to be so happy L. and secure with Mrs. Brown i t would seem a shame to move her. Mrs. Brown beamed and said that she thought i t was so and added that June seemed very appreciative of the things she did f o r her. Worker said she c e r t a i n l y r e a l -ized t h i s and said she noticed how t i c k l e d June was to have her shop for her. Whereupon Mrs. Brown showed worker the dresses they had purchased and t o l d her she gave the children as much leeway i n choosing t h e i r dres-ses as she could. She added that she gave them the chance to choose t h e i r desserts too, and that they got quite a kic k out of i t . . Worker remarked that she c e r t a i n l y has the knack of making the children happy. Dorothy Hutchinson has said that motherhood has been romanticized beyond r e a l i t y , but l i t t l e i s written i n honour of fos t e r mothers. Yet foster motherhood c a l l s f o r a l l that i s demanded of motherhood, and more. To love someone else's c h i l d 20. c a l l s f o r uncommon q u a l i t i e s of heart and mind. The rewards of a foster mother are i n watching a c h i l d grow more confident, waiting f o r him to change into one able to give and to receive love. " A l l normal motherhood-is a l t r u i s t i c , but foster mother-21 hood, when normal, i s altruism at i t s best." 20. Hutchinson, Dorothy, In Quest of Foster Parents. Columbia University Press, New York, 1943, p. 136. 21. Loc. c i t . - 74 -Chapter V ADJUSTMENT, INTELLIGENCE, and PERSONALITY Authorities t e l l us that the "latency period" i n a c h i l d ' s l i f e represent the years i n which he s t r i v e s to he independent. The normal c h i l d has passed through a period of being close to h i s parents and greatly dependent upon them. When t h i s need has been f u l f i l l e d , he i s able to go to i n t e r -ests i n the world outside his home. Beneath the surface he s t i l l has a great need for parental love, but he does not show i t openly. At t h i s age too, he enters schpol and i s stimulated by i t , so that his i n t e r e s t i s d i v e r s i f i e d i n many channels. He develops a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y about the things he f e e l s are important. The c h i l d f e e l s impatient with people who t e l l him what to do, since he has incorporated into his thinking h i s parents* teachings, and wants to be considered responsible. In t h e i r desire to be independent, children i n the latency period may present a rather "tough" appearance. They may go about carelessly dressed, use poor table manners, and i n general show a d i s t i n c t change from the "good," loving c h i l d of a year or two previously. The latency c h i l d tends to get along w e l l with the friends he l i k e s , and to f i g h t against those he does not l i k e . He l i k e s people of h i s own sex, but shows l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the opposite sex. Because of t h e i r s t r i v i n g s f o r independence i n t h i s age l e v e l , the home atmosphere should be relaxed and agreeable, not making too many demands upon the c h i l d . - 75 -And because the school s i t u a t i o n occupies most of the chil d ' s daytime a c t i v i t y and i n t e r e s t , i t i s necessary that the cur-riculum should not be too r i g i d , but pleasant and s a t i s f y i n g , with a teacher who understands children of t h i s age, and who i s interested i n aiding each c h i l d to become an i n d i v i d u a l who can achieve i n some special way. Children who have to be removed from t h e i r own home, or a home which they have known a long time, thus may lose much that has been accomplished i n the past. Usually they must re-gress again to the point where they f e e l secure i n t h e i r sur-roundings, before being able to proceed to normal latency inde-pendence. On the other hand, many children from homes where they have been deprived and neglected have never known security i n t h e i r relationships with t h e i r parents, and removal from t h e i r home seems to them to be complete r e j e c t i o n on the part of t h e i r parents. These children have special needs i n experienc-ing love, understanding, s t a b i l i t y and achievement f o r t h e i r security of f e e l i n g and t h e i r emotional growth. The Effect of Multiple Placement on Personality Dr. Florence Clothier points out that where children have had many replacements i n early childhood they become con-fused and cannot develop normally. They have not had a consist-ent love-object to whom they can r e l a t e . I t i s only from such a love relationship that a c h i l d can i d e n t i f y with a parent per-22 son, finding a pattern of desired emotional growth. 22. C l o t h i e r , Florence, M. D., Mental Hygiene. "The Problem of Frequent Replacement of the Young Dependent Child," October 1937, pp. 549 - 558. - 76 -The case of Peter may be c i t e d as an example of a c h i l d who shows progressive decline i n personality through a series of eight placements which make up his foster care experience. Peter i s the c h i l d of an unmarried mother who asked for wardship since she could not care f o r the c h i l d her-s e l f . He came into care at the age .of one month. He remained i n his f i r s t foster home three months. The record shows that he was a lovely l i t t l e boy, very cheer-f u l and p l a y f u l , and quite the pet of the family. At the end of three months the foster mother decided that caring for the c h i l d took considerable time and e f f o r t , and she requested his removal. In the second foster home he appeared to be happy and played well with the children. After t h i s there i s a gap i n the record, and apparently the c h i l d moved into another home for a time, but the foster mother l a t e r moved away from the province. At three years of age he was i n his f i f t h foster home. He i s described as a "scrawny and rather d e l i c a t e looking c h i l d . " The foster mother was extremely fond of him, and "doesn't know how she ever got along without a l i t t l e boy i n her home be-fore." The c h i l d was not so shy and did not mind the worker as much as formerly.- The foster mother was very much attached to the c h i l d , although she found him ex-tremely stubborn. After a v i s i t to the c l i n i c i t was decided that his t o n s i l s and adenoids should be removed. The foster mother took t h i s opportunity to request that he be removed elsewhere a f t e r his discharge from the h o s p i t a l , as she f e l t he was becoming too d i f f i c u l t to manage, and "did not f e e l she was getting the best out of the c h i l d . " The worker was surprised to hear t h i s as the foster mother had seemed so fond of the c h i l d . i After the operation Peter was placed i n a babies' home fo r awhile, then replaced i n the home of a single woman. Peter, at t h i s stage, seemed nervous and high strung. He cried when leaving the babies' home, though he made himself r i g h t at home on his a r r i v a l at the foster home. The v i s i -tor explained that he had had several placements recently and. 77 -might take some time to adjust. The foster mother had a "strenuous time" with the c h i l d . He resented correction, c r i e d f o r no apparent reason and had bad temper tantrums. —The fos t e r mother seemed rather discouraged, but the worker pointed out that the c h i l d was only three and should not be too d i f f i c u l t to t r a i n . The fos t e r mother said she would persevere as she real i z e d frequent changes of foster homes were' the worst thing f o r the c h i l d . One month l a t e r the foster mother stated that she did not think he was normal due to his strange behaviour. He refused to play with other children i n the house, and seemed to resent any attention given them. Peter wand-ered about the house at night,. and wakened with deep c i r c l e s under his eyes. He was destructive and broke h i s toys. He had a vi o l e n t temper and would work himself i n t o rages. He was very c r u e l , picking the cat up by the t a i l and throwing him i n the water. When moved to his s i x t h home he did not seem to resent the change, although when worker l e f t he was very up-set. . His new foster mother was very pleased with h i s appear-ance and was not discouraged' at the prospect of having a prob-lem c h i l d to care f o r . They were able to stop h i s night ram-b l i n g s about the house and the whole family f e l t s a t i s f i e d with the progress he was making. The record states at t h i s point: "He i s a very clean c h i l d . " He seemed very f r a i l and never slept w e l l , always waking about f i v e i n the morning. At the age of f i v e he was s t i l l a very d i f f i c u l t c h i l d to work with, and the f o s t e r mother was worn out try i n g to care f o r him, especially when he had measles." She f e l t that his behaviour had improved i n some respects but the c h i l d was getting beyond her. Unless he got h i s own way he would k i c k and scream. Worker had a t a l k with him and he t o l d her he did not l i k e being scolded and corrected a l l the time. He agreed to obey promptly. The worker pointed out to the foster parents that they should not expect too much of the c h i l d , he was bound to have lapses of his behaviour. - 78 -For the next year things seemed to he going better. Then the foster mother reported that she did not dare to leave the c h i l d alone. He had retrogressed i n every way. She found him w i l f u l and d i f f i c u l t and indulging i n v i o l e n t temper tan-trums. The foster mother f e l t she must give him up before he started school, since i n three years she had accomplished a l -most nothing. Peter made a poor s t a r t i n the next foster home, but the foster mother f e l t that something must be bothering the c h i l d . She t o l d him 'that h i s own parents were dead, and he seemed to s e t t l e down f o r a time. When the family moved to another home he t o l d her she would have to take him with her, since he was a "poor l i t t l e boy who had no mother." This foster mother found him quite amenable to d i s c i p l i n e , and f e l t that he was quite i n t e l l i g e n t and did quite well i n school. When the family had to give up t h e i r house i t was necessary for Peter to move. Before placing the c h i l d i n the next home the worker went over Peter's problems with the foster mother. Also he was tested at the Child Guidance C l i n i c . The foster mother agreed to take him on a temporary basis at le a s t and said she would keep him i f things worked out s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The following report was received from the Child Guidance C l i n i c : "The above-named boy was examined yesterday at the C l i n i c . He has a chronological age of 7 2/12 and a men-t a l age of s i x , which i s an I Q of 84, placing him i n the slow normal group of general i n t e l l i g e n c e . His physical examination showed a congenital heart at the present and a s l i g h t flatness of the l e f t side of the face. He was quite a c t i v e , rather submissive, but reacted quickly and without much thought. He was f a i r l y neat and clean and was co-operative. Because of his heart condition and i r r e g u l a r i t y of his teeth a blood test was taken, (the- r e s u l t being negative). In reference to his tantrums we would suggest that no notice be taken of them, that he be placed i n a room by himself from which a r t i c l e s have been removed." - 79 -Instead of Peter's behaviour improving i n t h i s his eighth home i t seems to have grown worse. The foster mother f e l t the c h i l d was a bad influence on the other children. She found i t necessary to whip him f o r playing i n the mud, and setting f i r e s . Quite frequently the foster mother had f e l t he would have to be removed. After remaining i n the home three years the follow-ing information i s given: He s o i l s himself and the f o s t e r mother makes him wash h i s own clothes. He has been caught excreting out of the window. He does not get along with anyone i n the family and cannot be depended upon f o r doing any work. He i s careless of his clothing. A January,1949 report indicates that there has been no improvement i n h i s behaviour, and the foster parents state, "he i s s t i l l a chore." The case of Peter i s not an is o l a t e d story, there are several more l i k e i t , and there are also cases i n which afte r developing severe behaviour and nervous habits a home has been found which meets the chil d ' s need, so that the out-come i s happier. The following case of Susan i s an example of the l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n : Susan's mother gave b i r t h to two i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d -ren, and placed them In care, married and moved to the United States. Susan was then one year o l d . Her f i r s t f o s ter parents took her "on t r i a l " since they had not had a baby i n t h e i r home for several years. The c h i l d ate and slept w e l l and the foster parents f e l t that she was an unusually good baby. She walked and talked l a t e , had an enormous appetite and sucked her thumb constantly. When she was two years of age her foster mother re-ported that she cried a l o t , and that she would s i t and stare into space and howl. She did not play w e l l with other children. The record states that the foster mother i s a l i t t l e older than average, and i t was f e l t the c h i l d would stay i n d e f i n i t e l y . The foster mother seemed to be co-operative and gave the c h i l d good care. At the age of f i v e the foster mother noticed that - 80 -the c h i l d made queer faces when she could not have her own way or was excited. A Child Guidance appointment was arranged and the foster mother stated she did not know whether or not she would keep the c h i l d . At t h i s time the c h i l d Is described as bright-eyed, pleasant manner and not at a l l shy. She plays by herself as there are no other children to play with. She talks to herself and pretends other children are there. She shares w e l l , i s obedient and a good c h i l d . The foster mother said she was "as p l i a b l e as a j e l l y f i s h and could be pushed around by anyone." She feared f o r her when she grew up. However, she did f i n d the c h i l d was a good help i n running errands f o r her. The foster mother was somewhat deaf and spoke i n a loud, harsh voice. The Child Guidance C l i n i c found the c h i l d to have i n t e l l i g e n c e ; however, the foster mother i n s i s t e d the c h i l d was not normal, and cried and "carried on" i n front of the c h i l d . The c h i l d was then removed from the home. She had been i n t h i s one home for f i v e and a ha l f years. After a short stay i n the Receiving Home, Susan was placed i n her second fo s t e r home. She was well l i k e d i n t h i s home., though the foster parents found her "saucy." The foster mother scolded her considerably, and i t was observed that the c h i l d did not s e t t l e down i n the home. She asked to return to her former foster home or to the Receiving Home. The fos t e r parents* own children were t h i n , and whined a good deal. Susan quarrelled with these children. She engaged i n some steal i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y food; and her f a c i a l t i c grew worse. The foster parents resented the fa c t that the c h i l d seemed to be eavesdropping frequently. Susan was again referred to the Child Guidance C l i n i c , and the p s y c h i a t r i s t stated that t h i s foster mother was the coldest person he had ever known. He founfl Susan "not so much of a behaviour problem, as a c h i l d who has not had enough a f f e c t i o n . " The c h i l d was quickly removed from t h i s s i t u a t i o n and given a summer placement. She could regard i t as a holiday but i f i t worked out we l l the c h i l d could stay. Susan was very happy i n the home and has remained. Although thereis some occasional s t e a l i n g , her f a c i a l t i c has disappeared, and the foster parents are very attached to her. They have recently requested adoption. - 81 -0 s-I t may be recalled that Bobby and Harry are other examples of children who reacted to poor foster home place-ment by displaying disturbed behaviour. In Bobby's t h i r d f o s t e r home he ate poorly, had temper tantrums, masturbated severely, exposed himself and urinated on other children. Harry, while i n the Receiving Home was very destructive, and i n the foster home displayed an i n d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e and became enuretic. For-tunately for these two children, and also f o r Susan, t h e i r un-satisfactory placements were followed by favourable ones, and since these foster homes offered love and protection these children have adjusted we l l i n them. Intelligence Quotients Knowledge of a child' s i n t e l l i g e n c e i s obviously of r e l -evance i n understanding his personality, and therefore, the next step to be considered i s the range of i n t e l l i g e n c e of the f i f t y children i n the sample. Not only i s the child's i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l important i n the selection of a suitable home fo r him, but i t should constitute a v i t a l factor i n working with him while i n the foster home. Twenty-three of the children i n the study were tested at the Child Guidance C l i n i c . The service of t h i s agency i s given free of charge to the children's a i d societies on a consultative basis for any c h i l d for whom such tests seem required. From the present study i t appears that the children from the protective agencies go to the c l i n i c for one or a l l of three types of a s s i s -tance: (a) on the adoptability of a c h i l d ; (b) on how best to meet the needs of children recognized as d u l l ; (c) on how to help children showing evidence of disturbed behaviour. Since the ser--82 -vises of the c l i n i c are read i l y available i t might be a f a i r assumption that the twenty-seven children not tested showed l i t t l e evidence of being d u l l or a behaviour problem, and have not been considered adoptable because of family t i e s . I t may be that the assumption i s not e n t i r e l y v a l i d , f o r some authorities declare that the services of such agencies can become a "crutch" f o r workers who f i n d i t easier to turn the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of making decisions to some outside guiding force than to a r r i v e at a plan themselves. The following table indicates the range of i n t e l l i g e n c e f or the group: Table 4 PLACEMENT IN RELATION TO INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT Placement Experience Superior (Over) C 110) Aver-age '90-110' Not tes-ted Slow Norml. (80-90) Border-l i n e (76-80) Moron Under (70) Total Group A: retained, i n one foster home 1 - 9 1 1 -i 11 Group B: 2 foster homes - 2 6 2 - - 10 Group C: 3-4 fos-ter homes 5 6 1 12 Group D: 5 or more foster homes - 2 6 5 2 2 17 Total Sample 1 9 27 8 3 2 50 I t w i l l be observed that 13 of the children tested - 83 -by the C l i n i c were found to be d u l l , or having l e s s than average i n t e l l i g e n c e . Ten of these children have had serious multiple placements. This undoubtedly indicates that place-ment of d u l l children i s a d i f f i c u l t task, and requires special attention as to the choice of foster home. On the other hand, i t i s pointed out by some au t h o r i t i e s that when children are insecure and unhappy they may cease to grow i n t e l l e c t u a l l y as 23 w e l l as emotionally. I t may w e l l be that some of the c h i l d -ren who tested as slow normal might have developed to average i n t e l l i g e n c e , had t h e i r home l i f e been more stable. I t must be s i g n i f i c a n t that the two children who have had eight place-ments registered as slow normal i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , while the c h i l d who has had ten placements tested as having borderline i n t e l l i g e n c e . These are-children who have been under the care of a protective agency a l l t h e i r l i v e s . I f the assumption be accepted that the children not tested by the Child Guidance C l i n i c are of average or better i n t e l l i g e n c e , then i t can be said that eighteen of the c h i l d -ren who have at l e a s t average i n t e l l i g e n c e had only one or two fos t e r home placements, whereas nineteen of these children had serious multiple placement. This would imply that children of normal Intelligence have the same p o s s i b i l i t y of having m u l t i -ple placement as one or two placements. 23. Mrs. Exner, Executive-Director of the Medina C h i l d r e n ^ service i n Seattle, conducted a "Foster Home" I n s t i t u t e i n V i c t o r i a , B. C , May 1 - 5 , 1949. At that time i t was pointed out that children have been known to increase t h e i r i n t e l l i -gence quotient by several points under favourable home condi-tions . - 84 -Adjustment How can an assessment of a sa t i s f a c t o r y f o s t e r home placement be made? The opening paragraphs of t h i s chapter indicated what i s considered to be normal behaviour f o r c h i l d -ren i n the latency period. But one cannot take any deviation from t h i s norm and categorize i t simply as good, bad, or medi-ocre. A l l children d i f f e r to a c e r t a i n degree, and i t i s only to be expected that f o s t e r children who have known uprooting from t h e i r own homes, or who have had unhappy.experiences i n t h e i r early childhood, would d i f f e r from children who have l i v e d i n t h e i r own homes and with t h e i r own parents throughout. A further d i f f i c u l t y i s that the present study i s dependent on the records contained i n agency f i l e s r e l a t i n g to these c h i l d -ren. I t was found that there was an almost universal tendency on the part of workers to record only that type of behaviour which was considered to be "bad, n unwholesome, or d i f f e r e n t . The negative approach i s not d i f f i c u l t to understand, since i t s o c i a l i s with these problems that the/worker must deal. For the purpose of t h i s study i t was evident that the less that was re-corded about a c h i l d , the more favourable h i s behaviour appears to be. However, i n the interests of further research, the need fo r more adequate recording would seem desirable. In order to make Some progress with analysis and com-parison^ of s o c i a l adjustment the cases were sorted i n t o three categories on the basis of caref u l judgment. These cases c i t e d as examples were mainly taken d i r e c t l y from the case record, and are comprised of sections r e f e r r i n g d i r e c t l y to the person-a l i t y or adjustment of the c h i l d . - 85 -(1) Appears P o s i t i v e Children, whose f i l e s show no evidence of improper behaviour, and where there has been nothing of a derogatory nature written about the behaviour of the c h i l d within the l a s t year or more, were placed i n t h i s category. The f o l l o w -ing are examples of t h i s group: -(a) He i s a f i n e active boy, bright and a t t r a c t -:~v . i v e . He i s obviously greatly loved i n the f o s t e r home and has a deep a f f e c t i o n f o r the foster mother. Although he i s a "mischief" he has been trained to obey, and worker noted that he.obeys with good grace and without resentment. He has an easy outgoing manner, and an a t t r a c t i v e per-sonality. (b) This c h i l d hopes to become a telephone oper-ator when she grows up, l i k e her foster s i s t e r . She i s a l o v e l y looking g i r l , and seems happy and secure. She takes tap and b a l l e t dancing lessons. She loves to help f o l k s when they are s i c k . Her parents v i s i t occasionally. Her school reports show that her behaviour i s good. I t i s evident from these records that i n the work-er's opinion the c h i l d i s adjusting w e l l i n the foster home. The danger i s i n t h i s category that since the worker f e e l s that things are going n i c e l y that v i s i t s are less frequent and recording i s very l i m i t e d . I t i s t h i s category of c h i l d -ren, one would believe, that workers know l e a s t . There i s always the danger that workers may not recognize problems among these children whose behaviour i s considered to be "good" and that shy or withdrawn children may be conforming to the foster home si t u a t i o n i n a neurotic manner. (2) Questionable This category has been used to c l a s s i f y that group of children f o r whom i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine how serious - 86 -i s the behaviour, and where some maladjustment i s i s i n d i -cated. In t h i s group, too, there i s the question of know-ing very l i t t l e about the s i t u a t i o n . The following examples are given as being of questionable adjustment: (a) This c h i l d i s happy and secure i n t h i s home. She i s gradually becoming less shy, but i s not an outgoing type of c h i l d , and her glances are usually i n d i r e c t . She i s w e l l loved and has many treats together with her foster brother. Foster mother says she i s a "picky eater." She i s sweet and at t r a c t i v e looking and very feminine. Her fo s t e r mother i s very proud of her, and there i s no 'doubt that she i s receiving every p r i v i l e g e and sec u r i t y as a member of t h i s household. There are a number of instances i n which a c h i l d with: .previous ibehaviour problems i s moved to a new Foster home, where there appears to be l i t t l e evidence of matching of needs. In such situations placement frequently smoothly at f i r s t , with eventual d i f f i c u l t y presenting i t s e l f l a t e r . The following i s a summary of such a case where the outcome i s doubtfulj and the chi l d ' s adjustment questionable: (b) This c h i l d moved from h i s former fo s t e r home because the foster mother f e l t he did not f i t i n with t h e i r home. ' She found him hard to understand. He fought with other children and was hard on h i s clothing. He moved to his present foster home i n January 1948. Three weeks l a t e r when the worker talked to the foster parents they t o l d her that he was just the r i g h t boy for them. They had not found him t r y i n g i n any way. Foster father said they might wish to adopt him l a t e r on and wondered i f t h i s would be possible. Worker explained that we would want to be sure that he f i t t e d i n t o t h e i r home, also that his mother's consent would have to be obtained and that he would have to be seen at the Child Guidance C l i n i c "as we would seek t h e i r advice as to whether he would be considered adopt-able." Foster father pointed out that they had no children and that one day the farm might be h i s . The c h i l d i s undoubtedly at t h i s time w e l l accepted and very much wanted i n t h i s home, and worker f e e l s that i t should give him the security he needs. - 8 7 -(3) Negative In t h i s group were included a l l c hildren whose be-haviour indicated serious disturbance. Children, who by the symptom of enuresis, express h o s t i l i t y toward a world where they f e e l they are neither loved nor understood, were i n -cluded i n t h i s group. Also were those, of course, whose records indicated nothing but very negative behaviour. For t h i s whole group, treatment^from intensive case work to psy- -c h i a t r i c assistance i s required. The following are examples of negative adjustment: (a) Contact with parents has been maintained u n t i l the present time. There i s the problem here of l e n -i e n t parents who are over-indulgent with the boy, and on the other hand, the foster parents who are quite s t r i c t . The fos t e r mother i s at her w i t s 1 end regarding the boy's enuresis. She can't stand the smell of hi s room. She t o l d him he would have to move to the basement. He took the attitude that he did not care. He engages i n some petty st e a l i n g He thinks his natural parents can do no wrong.' The fo s t e r parents are moving out of the c i t y and are taking the boy with them. The parents r e a l i z e that t h e i r own v i s i t i n g has not been too h e l p f u l . A new baby has been born i n t o the foster home and the boy seems attached to i t . (b) The foster mother regards t h i s c h i l d as very destructive and a problem. He takes nuts and bolts out of things and loses them. He climbed up on a garage roof and threw l i g h t e d matches to the ground. He threw paint at a neighbour's garage. When tested at the Child Guidance C l i n i c he continually asked the ps y c h i a t r i s t i f he were a l l r i g h t . (c) The c h i l d s o i l s himself, and foster mother made - him wash his own clothes. He has been caught excret-ing out of the window. The fos t e r parents wish to send him back. They have now had" the c h i l d three years. They f e e l they have done a l l i n t h e i r power to make a decent person out of him without success. He does not get along with anyone i n the family and does not work w e l l . He i s careless with h i s clothes and needs a new jacket every week. Worker talked to him, "but he took the at t i t u d e that-since he cannot f i n d a cause f o r misbehaving there was l i t t l e chance fo r improvement." \ - 88 -Having thus t r i e d out the categories of adjust-ment i n t h i s manner, the results f o r the t o t a l group are in t e r e s t i n g , though not by themselves conclusive. Table 5 BLACEMENT IN RELATION TO THE ADJUSTMENT OF THE CHILDREN Placement Experience Appears P o s i t i v e Question-able Nega-t i v e Total Group A - re-tained i n one fos t e r home 5 4 2 11 Group B -2 Foster homes 3 5 2 10 Group C - 3 or 4 fo s t e r homes 1 5 6 12 Group D - 5 or more foster homes 2 7 8 17 Total Sample 11 21 18 50 I t i s probably s i g n i f i c a n t that f i v e of the c h i l d -ren whose adjustment rated "Appears P o s i t i v e " remained i n i. t h e i r f i r s t foster home. Only three of the eleven children who came within t h i s category have had more than two place-ments. Since twenty-six of the t h i r t y - n i n e children who came i n the ".<Juestionable" or "Negative" groups have had more than two placements, i t i s believed t h i s i s evidence of the fa c t that multiple placement has a harmful effect on the s o c i a l - 89 -adjustment of foster children. The aim of every foster home program i s to have stable, secure and happy children. The test of such a pro-gram would seem to be how w e l l the children adjust to f o s t e r home care. I f the children adjust w e l l , then placement i s believed to be successful; and conversely i f adjustment to foster home care i s poor, then placement experience has f a i l e d f o r the c h i l d , a summary of the information already discussed may prove h e l p f u l i n deciding what factors are s i g n i f i c a n t f o r favourable or unfavourable adjustment. (a) Sex seems to have some importance, since the "Negative" group consists of twelve boys and s i x g i r ^ s . In the " P o s i t i v e " and "Questionable" categories, however, the d i v i s i o n was about even. I t was pointed out previously that the boys i n the sample have suffered from the problem of mul-t i p l e placement more than the g i r l s , and since boys comprise the greater number i n the "Negative" group, t h i s would seem to bear out the f a c t that multiple placement has a deleterious ef f e c t on s o c i a l adjustment. (b) The age at which children come into care £•.;.» f a . appears to be s i g n i f i c a n t . The "Appears P o s i t i v e " group con-si s t e d of nine children who were placed under the age of two years and two who had been placed, over the age of two years. However, the "Negative" group consisted of seven children placed under two and eleven placed over two years. (C) Family background shows a s i m i l a r relationship as the time the children came into care, since those born out of wedlock mainly came into care under the age of two years. - 90 -(d) Intelligence also appears to be a s i g n i f i -cant f a c t o r , since eleven of the t h i r t e e n children who tested less than average i n i n t e l l i g e n c e f e l l i n t o the "Questionable" or "Negative" groups. I t i s believed that i n t h i s area there i s greater need'for research, however. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to t e l l whether the problem of multiple placement and other adverse factors produced a state of emo-t i o n a l blockage, rendering the c h i l d incapable of at t a i n i n g the maximum i n i n t e l l e c t u a l development or whether the prob-lem of l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e causes children to be misunder-stood and unaccepted, thus i n t e n s i f y i n g the problem of mul-t i p l e placement. (e) The greatest v a r i a t i o n i n adjustment i s i n regard to the problem of multiple placement i t s e l f . I t - w i l l be seen that, on the whole, the more favourable the adjust-ment the fewer foster homes the c h i l d has had, and conversely the greater number of placements the greater evidence there i s of seriously disturbed behaviour. I t w i l l be agreed that multiple placement works against successful experience f o r the c h i l d , but i t i s not the only circumstance that matters. Everything possible should be done to see that the r i g h t choice of foster home i s made i n the beginning when the c h i l d comes into care. I t w i l l have been observed that even In the single f o s t e r home placement only f i v e of the eleven children rated "Appears P o s i t i v e " i n adjust-ment, yet only two of these eleven children came into care a f t e r the age of two, and only one has an i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient - 91 -which has been rated less than normal. This would seem to indicate the need f o r more careful assessment of fos t e r homes. The reason the foster parents f e l t the need f o r tak-ing children into t h e i r homes must be thoroughly understood. When these needs are normal and children are placed into these homes, steps should be taken to help the c h i l d to be-come secure i n the home, and v i s i t s by workers should be frequent enough that unhealthy patterns of behaviour may be corrected before they become i n t e r n a l i z e d and f i x e d . - 92 -> PART I I I . Chapter VI PREPARATION FOR PLACEMENT I t should be the aim of the agency to assure f o r each c h i l d a favourable placement s i t u a t i o n i n which maximum opportunities for development are present. The c h i l d , h i s parents and foster parents should be assisted i n t h e i r adjust-ment to the preparation s i t u a t i o n and to one another on a case work basis, throughout the period of placement, accord-ing to the needs of each s i t u a t i o n , and u n t i l the time of d i s -charge when the c h i l d and his family no longer need or wish further assistance. In addition, for those children whose problems are such that they are unable to use the opportunities i n the placement s i t u a t i o n , or to be s u f f i c i e n t l y helped through the placement experience alone, d i r e c t treatment should be made available for parents who wish them, i n order that during the placement period they too may be helped to assume greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as parents, or to leave the c h i l d free to form new family t i e s . .. The preparation of each c h i l d and family f o r place-ment experience should begin during the intake study and be continuous up to the point where the c h i l d i s ac t u a l l y l i v i n g i n a foster home. Insofar as the decision to place the c h i l d should be based on a consideration of what i s involved i n placement and of agency:procedures, the preparation of parents - 9 3 -i s inseparable from the intake service. In determining what t h e i r future relationship to the c h i l d w i l l be, i n terms of custody, f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and how they may use the case work services of the agency or other agencies, the parents e should be able to jinfcicj :p^tion_the placement experience and to a s s i s t i n the preparation of the c h i l d . Preparation of parents w i l l a id them i n deciding whether or not they can be parted from t h e i r c h i l d , or i f any other plan i s f e a s i b l e . They must face t h e i r own feelings to the c h i l d and also t h e i r own c a p a b i l i t i e s . x I f they are not going to be able to help the c h i l d by remaining i n the picture, or i f i t i s believed that i t i s i n the child's i n t e r e s t f or them to sever a l l t i e s , the break must be made. The r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s fact can be gently brought into focus by the case.worker. When a l l connection with parents i s to be broken the c h i l d should be permanently placed, preferably f o r adoption. He w i l l need security which must extend u n t i l he i s grown. The parents who f i n d t h i s complete severance most d i f f i c u l t , perhaps, are parents who f e e l some g u i l t regarding placing t h e i r c h i l d and the fa c t that they are f a i l i n g as parents. This type of parents needs even more help than those who give up t h e i r c h i l d because i t i s i n his interest to do so. Parents with g u i l t y feelings should be helped to see that they are being good parents i n giving up t h e i r c h i l d . I t has been said that the obstacle to c h i l d placement i s - t h a t he i s seldom ready f o r plapement. Not only i s the c h i l d facing the problem of leaving home and family or a foster home where he has l i v e d f or some time, but he fears going into a new - 94 -unknown s i t u a t i o n . The removal from his own home must he gently suggested u n t i l he comes to accept the f a c t , f e e l i n g at the same time that he can r e l y on the worker. The c h i l d placement worker then, must be a person who can rel a t e to children, who can speak his language and can understand how he f e e l s . He must be given a chance to verbalize his fears, n i s i anger at having to be moved, h i s d i s t r u s t of the new s i t u a t i o n . He must understand that the reason f o r his removal i s that h i s parents, whatever t h e i r good q u a l i t i e s , were unable to provide the type of home f o r him which would help him to develop norm-a l l y and to become a mature, s e l f - r e l i a n t c i t i z e n of the future. I t i s necessary that he accepts t h i s f a c t , or placement w i l l be a more t e r r i f y i n g experience f o r him. He must know that the worker i s his f r i e n d , not a child-snatcher, who takes children away from t h e i r parents. This s i t u a t i o n presents i t s e l f so of-ten and so when the worker c a l l s , the c h i l d hides from her, or screams i n terror at the sight of her car. I t i s a more d i f f i -c u l t task to help t i n y children to understand a s i t u a t i o n . However, on the whole i t i s f e l t that workers under-estimate the understanding power of a c h i l d . Even at the age of two, when a c h i l d has very l i m i t e d vocabulary, the worker can t a l k to the c h i l d and by her kindness and understanding of the s i t u a t i o n help to make placement more acceptable. The topic of moving to a new foster home should be i n -troduced when i t i s f e l t the c h i l d i s ready for i t . I f he i s not able to discuss i t , the worker can merely introduce the topic and leave the subject u n t i l i t i s more acceptable. The c h i l d - 95 -should understand that on the whole people are kind and that the foster parents w i l l be helped to make him more comfort-able i n t h e i r home. The c h i l d w i l l be t o l d about the various members of the family, and of t h e i r habits, t h e i r home and any special circumstances about the family so that when he goes to see he w i l l know what to expect and they w i l l seem less strange. The child's f i r s t contact with his new home should be a b r i e f v i s i t . He should not remain so long that he i s over-whelmed by so many new things and people. The next time some things w i l l seem f a m i l i a r and he can go further and stay longer. Perhaps at the time of his t h i r d v i s i t he might stay with the family for a meal. I f the foster mother knows i n advance what he l i k e s to eat, or how he l i k e s one certain food cooked i t w i l l help him. And i f he i s made aware that the foster mother wished to please him and so made his f a v o r i t e dessert, he may f i n d her more, acceptable as a foster mother. Within a short time, i f preparation has been done properly, the c h i l d w i l l not f e e l threatened to think of moving into the home, and may make his own decision as to when he i s ready to go to the home permanently. The foster mother should be w e l l known before any thought of placing a c h i l d i n her home i s arrived at. Not only should the worker understand her relationships with every mem-ber of the family, and her attitudes regarding foster children, c h i l d t r a i n i n g and c h i l d care, but she should know something of the routines followed by the foster mother. She must know what to expect of t h i s foster c h i l d beforehand, so that there i s less danger of the problem of the r i g i d f o ster mother who cannot - 96 -t o l e r a t e certain modes of behaviour. I f she cannot tolerate what t h i s c h i l d due to his previous experience i s almost sure to do, especially at f i r s t , then the c h i l d should not be placed i n that home. As has been suggested the foster mother w i l l want to a i d the child's t r a n s i t i o n into her home. Therefore, i t be-hooves the worker to learn what the child's special pleasures are, and what things he has d i f f i c u l t y with, what foods he does not care f o r . What an unacceptable thing would i t be f o r the c h i l d who does not l i k e r i c e pudding, for example, to look f o r -ward to moving into a foster home, expecting to f i n d loving, kind people; and on his f i r s t v i s i t there to be confronted with r i c e pudding. If,when the c h i l d i s put to bed, the foster mother can go over hi s f a v o r i t e story, or repeat a w e l l loved nursery rhyme, the c h i l d w i l l know he i s accepted and the s i t u a -t i o n w i l l seem more tolerable to him. The whole foster family should be prepared for the c h i l d ' s coming, and the worker should understand the feelings of the various members of the family toward having a foster c h i l d i n the home; There should be an early discussion with the mem-A bers of the family i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y regarding the child's personality, and how h i s stay i n the home w i l l e f f e c t the l i v e s of each member. They must know what to expect i n the way of his behaviour—that he w i l l probably be a model c h i l d at f i r s t , l a t e r perhaps very demanding to determine what l i m i t s i- there are, and f i n a l l y a period when he w i l l desire to be depen-dent, and thence to grow into the foster family's ways gaining - 97 -security as he goes. The foster family should expect that i f the c h i l d does regress to a stage of dependency, that the foster parents should aid him by giving him the love he so badly needs, a c t i v e l y and openly. He needs to know that he i s loved, and that he i s one of the family, with no threat of o being sent away again. Yet a l l the time that he i s demand-ing love and receiving i t i n f u l l measure he i s being encour-aged to achieve, to do things for himself and become more independent. But he should not be forced into independence. When he i s ready for t h i s , when his f e e l i n g of security i s adequate h i s development w i l l progress again. A g i r l i n the oedipus stage, or a boy i n the latency stage w i l l f e e l the need of a good father and here the foster father must be ready to take h i s place. He must know what to expect of the c h i l d . I f the child's own father was crue l to him, the fos-ter father should know that the c h i l d w i l l probably i d e n t i f y him with h i s own father, and that he should show patience and understanding and wait u n t i l the c h i l d can accept him. Foster.parents should not expect that the c h i l d w i l l love them immediately. Even a f t e r he gets over f e e l i n g strange he w i l l s t i l l f e e l the tug of family ties.. I t i s only by patience and understanding that they may gradually win the c h i l d to t h e i r way of doing things and to becoming a member of the family group. The fos t e r parents should, know before the c h i l d comes into t h e i r home that i t may take a year before he can wholly accept them. I f these foster parents cannot t o l -erate a c h i l d who does not love them immediately, they w i l l 0 - 98 -not l i k e l y make good foster parents f or any c h i l d , and c e r t -a i n l y not f o r the c h i l d with family t i e s . Foster parents should not be expected to take whatever c h i l d a case worker brings to t h e i r home. They should p a r t i c i p a t e i n the decision f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d to come to t h e i r home. They should have been given s u f f i c i e n t information to have some understanding of the pa r t i c u l a r c h i l d , his-needs, and his parents. They should want the c h i l d and f e e l able to anticipate and accept the demands which the care of the c h i l d w i l l make on them. The foster mother who i s taking her f i r s t c h i l d should be prepared as c a r e f u l l y as the c h i l d , f o r she too may not know what to expect. Her contacts with shy but normal secure youngsters are probably l i m i t e d , and she can hardly im-agine parents who reject or neglect t h e i r children. She w i l l need help before she can give the c h i l d the welcome he needs and accept him as he i s without sentimental over-indulgence or too stringent rules and regulations. We a l l know foster par-ents who f e e l so sorry f or the c h i l d that f or the f i r s t week he gets everything he wants and then i s either so unmanageable he i s returned to the agency or requires months of r e t r a i n i n g be-fore one can l i v e with him with any degree of comfort. On the other hand much must be overlooked u n t i l the c h i l d i s s u f f i c i -ently secure i n his new surroundings to be w i l l i n g to t r y new ways that are not exactly the way h i s own mother did things. Children cannot be rushed, and the new foster mother must be - 9 9 -prepared f o r a period i n which the c h i l d may hold her o f f at arm's length while he gets h i s bearing. Too much excitement, showing him o f f to r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s , may be d e f i n i t e l y . upsetting. The c h i l d should f e e l that he i s wanted, that there i s a place i n the family waiting f o r him, but he should not be expected to f i t i n at once. The foster mother w i l l be able to adjust to the new experience much more adequately i f she knows i n advance that there may be problems and that placement may have a greater significance f o r the c h i l d than on the surface. As we interpret the s i t u a t i o n to the c h i l d we must also i n t e r -pret the c h i l d to the foster parents and i n t h i s way help them to gain.a deeper understanding of h i s needs. There i s l i t t l e difference i n handling placement and replacement except that preparation i s a longer and more d i f -f i c u l t process. In replacement there i s a need to evaluate the r e a l s i t u a t i o n i n the foster home i n the l i g h t of the child's present and past experiences, and to decide whether placement i s absolutely necessary. I f i t i s , work must be done with the c h i l d i n the unsatisfactory home as would be done i f he were i n his own home, tr y i n g to give him in s i g h t into the nature of hi s defences. Where i t i s not possible to prepare a c h i l d i n the home where he i s l i v i n g then, there i s need of a temporary foster home i n t e r v a l , when t h i s preparation may be done. Many workers f e e l they could not devote time such as has been described i n arranging placement and preparing the c h i l d , his parents, his foster parents and t h e i r family. , • o - 100 -However, t h i s procedure pays dividends. I t must he remembered that workers who have studied t h e i r replacements have conclud-ed that either they did not know the c h i l d or the foster par-ents w e l l enough, and therefore made placements which were not sui t a b l e . Some children seem to accept placement.easily. How-ever, i t must be r e a l i z e d that there i s danger of repression of the r e a l feelings at the time of placement. When t h i s f e e l -ing builds up with a l l the l i t t l e misunderstandings which are bound to take place, there may come a time when the child's placement i s absolutely i n t o l e r a b l e , and his feelings w i l l ex-plode f o r t h . Some children show no emotion at a l l during place-ment. Often these children accept placement, and only e x i s t i n the foster home, l i v i n g f o r the moment whentheycan return to •^hiff- parents or 1K£S" former foster parents again. Where t h i s i s not possible the c h i l d suffers from t h i s p a s s i v i t y , which i s almost pre-schizophrenic i n character. One cannot cover the topic of preparation f o r place-ment without discussing the all-too-common s i t u a t i o n where a case "blows up" without warning and the c h i l d must be removed immediately. I t i s for such child r e n that the agency should see to i t that there are always a type of temporary foster homes on hand where there i s a warm, welcoming foster mother, ready to take children any time they are brought to her door, and who can accept such children regardless of t h e i r problem. Preparation then can go on the foster home with the c h i l d aware that he i s - 101 -only v i s i t i n g u n t i l permanent placement i s made, and any spe-c i a l problems can be worked through. The worker should see the c h i l d frequently, as he w i l l f e e l more insecure i n leav-ing what he has known and going into the unknown. Preparation Procedure i n Vancouver The f i l e s read for the study give l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of the amount of preparation procedure that took place. In the records of a few years back there i s p r a c t i c a l l y no evidence of preparation of the c h i l d f o r the foster home, and vic e versa, at a l l . Tommie was born to an older unmarried mother who attempted to care f o r him for a time. At the age of three he was brought to the agency by his uncle who f e l t that the c h i l d was receiving poor care. Tommie was placed i n his f i r s t foster home i n 1942. He progressed w e l l i n t h i s foster home,however, was removed l a t e r . No reason i s given for t h i s removal and placement procedure i s not discussed. The second family took him as a companion to t h e i r own c h i l d . "He was kindly received and played with his new foster brother, but when the worker drove away he screamed and kicked i n the foster mother's arms." In t h i s foster home Tommie was blamed for every misbehaviour of his foster brother and the worker states that " a l t o -gether i t was a poor move f o r the c h i l d . " Eventually he was moved to his o r i g i n a l f oster home f i v e months l a t e r . The record states that'toe was accepted back into the home but the foster mother was very resentful that he had ever been taken away.S He has remained i n the foster home u n t i l the present time. Lack of -placement procedure w i l l be noted i n the f o l -lowing : (*) — Jackie came into the care of a protective agency as his father was dead and his mother committed to a mental h o s p i t a l . He was a d i f f i c u l t c h i l d to place, due to his disturbed behaviour and his l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e . He had three un-successful placements before the two described here took - 1 0 2 -place. The record states that he seemed out of place as the children i n the home were older. The foster mother fi n d i n g him a problem due to his low i n t e l l i g e n c e was disappointed t£ think that the worker had brought them a boy "such as t h i s . " They were disturbed that he stole cigarettes and smoked them, and they f e l t he was lonely, therefore, they thought i t would be better i f he was placed i n another home. The next foster parents were t o l d something of his behaviour. The foster mother seemed "quite prepared to cope with anything that might come up." I t was noted that "the c h i l d had peculiar mannerisms, he sneaked up and scared her, did not t a l k at the table, couldn't greet people as she wished or say 'please,' She and foster father t r i e d to help him to overcome these habits and they f e l t he would be a l l r i g h t . " Later, however, they became aware that the c h i l d was r e a l l y d u l l . The f o s t e r mother spent a good deal of time on him but was unable to get any p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . The foster mother said that i f she had known he was so d u l l when he was placed she would not have accepted him. She blamed the former worker, who had promised another c h i l d and then brought Jackie without giving any explan-ation. Frank i s the youngest c h i l d of a common law union. He was committed to the care of C. A. S. i n f u l l at one month of age. In his f i r s t f o s ter home he i s described as making good progress and developing normally. He was a n i c e l y behaved l i t t l e boy although the foster mother f e l t that he had a mind of his own. She did not f i n d him hard to manage, and he played w e l l with other children. At the age of two years he was walking and t a l k i n g w e l l and enunciating very c l e a r l y . The foster children i n the home quarrelled considerably and the foster mother f e l t that she would have to give them a l l up, though she wished that she would be able to keep Frank. She said he was w e l l mannered, happy-go-lucky, and f u l l of l i f e . He was also destructive /having broken some windows. He was moved to his second foster home at the age of s i x years. No account of preparation i s given, however, i t was f e l t that the c h i l d s e t t l e d down i n the home quite w e l l . "He went r i d i n g with foster father and c a l l e d his foster •.©other Mummie. He was obedient and played w e l l - 103 -with the children. However, he continually asked when he would be moving back to his former fo s t e r home." Four months l a t e r he was s t i l l asking for h i s Mummie, and the worker r e a l i z e d he did not f e e l secure. When he had been i n the foster home seven months the worker observed that he was a"behaviour problem at home and school." "He was ' d i f f i c u l t to manage'". He refused to co-operate with the family. He was rough with t h e i r own children, being jealous of them. They punished him by sending him to his room and were concerned because"he seemed to enjoy t h i s . " The foster mother wondered whether or not t h e i r home was suitab l e . Following t h i s the c h i l d was moved s i x more times. His i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient i s given as 82. Very l i t t l e preparation of fos t e r children i s entered i n t o the f i l e s and i t was f e l t that l i t t l e could be gained by studying past placements. Therefore, the children who were replaced i n the year 1948 were studied i n order to determine what the present q u a l i t y of preparation i s l i k e . Ten of the p i f t y children had a 1948 replacement and those have been re-viewed to determine the present picture. Some of the placements show evidence of f a i r l y c a r e f u l placement preparation. Others show preparation of the c h i l d , or the prospective foster mother or the former foster mother; however, they have only prepared one person and omitted to prepare the others. S t i l l other records indicate that prepar-at i o n has gone on, but do not discuss.the f u l l preparation i n the f i l e . This makes i t d i f f i c u l t to know what type of prep-aration has been done though i n some instances i t appears that i t must have been f a i r l y adequate. Florence i s the c h i l d of an unmarried mother who was con-sidered to be so d u l l that the c h i l d was apparently re-garded as unadoptable. She-was placed i n a foster home at the age of s i x months and remained there u n t i l she was eleven years of age. Her fos t e r mother died i n 1947 and Florence remained i n the home fo r a year longer as her < - 104 -foster father was so fond of her. After having a series of rather unsuccessful housekeepers, the foster father decided to marry. Therefore i t was necessary to give up the children. The following account of the removal from the f o s t e r home she had known so long and the transfer into a receiving home i s an exact t r a n s c r i p t i o n of record material pertaining tb -placement. Any omissions are where problems other than placement are concerned. 23. 10. 48. I t was decided that i t would be better to put Florence i n the Receiving Home fo r a time u n t i l she i s ready to accept another foster home. In discussing Florence's behaviour further the foster father stated that she had a very nasty temper i f she did not get her own way and i f asked to do anything she seemed to resent i t and carried the request out very u n w i l l i n g l y , i f at a l l . She seems to want her own way a l l the time and does not respond to persuasion. 15. 11. 48. V i s i t e d foster home and took Florence out for a drive to get to know her better. We went to the l i b r a r y and changed her libraby books. She enjoys reading a great deal and changes her books f a i t h f u l l y every week She i s an appealing c h i l d but seems quite immature. 4. 12. 48. V i s i t e d foster home to t e l l foster father that Florence could be moved the following Tuesday. He was very anxious for me to t e l l her about i t and said he was ' so upset about her going that he did not l i k e to say any-thing to her about i t . Later: I took Florence out f o r a drive and af t e r chatting fo r a few moments I asked her whether she had any idea she would be leaving her foster home. She said "No" and s t a r t -ed to cry. Then I explained the s i t u a t i o n to her and t o l d her that the other children would be leaving and that I knew i t would be d i f f i c u l t f o r her, as she had been there such a long time. She continued to sob but she controlled herself quite we l l and asked questions about where she would be going and I t o l d her i n d e t a i l about the Receiv-ing Home and how af t e r a while she would be placed i n an-other foster home. I t o l d her she could come out and v i s i t her father and could go to the Carnival the following Sat--105 -urday with the neighbours who had in v i t e d her. She was quite upset hut soon recovered to some extent and seemed f a i r l y calm when I l e f t . 9. 14. 48. Called at the f o s t e r home to place Florence i n the Eeceiving Home. She seemed quite happy today and had numerous toys, clothing, d o l l ' s f u r n i t u r e , etc., a l l ready to take. She said good-bye to her foster father quite n i c e l y and there were no tears. The foster father seemed more upset than she was. I to l d her more about the Receiving Home on the way down. She seemed quite curious to know what i t was l i k e . When we arrived the matron and I talked to Florence about regulations and routines of the Receiving Home. When I l e f t her lower l i p was trembling a l i t t l e and I learned l a t e r that she had seemed quite blue f or the rest of the day. 15. 12. 48. The Foster father c a l l e d f or Florence and took her home\ f o r the week-end. Her behaviour has been excellent. She i s easy to get along with and seems to enjoy the routine and a l l the g i r l s quite w e l l . This f i l e was read May 30, 1949 and there i s nothing further recorded on the f i l e . The above interview i s given as a f a i r l y adequate preparation for placement. I t i s to be observed that t h i s worker made a determined e f f o r t to get to know the c h i l d i n order to determine her needs. The following account of preparation i s quite good, though not as thorough as was that of Florence. Donald was born i n 1940 and aft e r four unsuccessful placements was placed with Mr. and Mrs. F. i n 1947. I t was l a t e r r e a l i z e d that t h i s f o s t e r home was quite un-suitable as the foster father was bl i n d and both foster parents rather old and i n f i r m . .The following i s an exact copy of recording from the f i l e except f or omission of excerpts not d i r e c t l y con-cerned with the placement: - 106 -May 1948. Donald continues to be quite a problem i n the foster home. I t was evident that foster father's a t t i t u d e toward the school was having rather a harmful effect on Donald. In A p r i l he was admitted to the h o s p i t a l for a ton-sillectomy. After his return home he was delerious for several nights i n a row. His nightmares again took the form of his lo s i n g his father and mother. Worker learn-ed at t h i s point foster parents f e l t they could not carry on looking a f t e r Donald. Foster mother had a series of i l l n e s s e s since Christmas—quinzy, colds, and Is now crippled with rheumatism. They w i l l always be interested i n him but f e e l that they cannot have him i n t h e i r home. When worker suggested she v i s i t them i n order to prepare Donald further f o r the transfer, i t was learned that they had t o l d him about i t before he went to the h o s p i t a l . However, they could not see that t h i s could make his de-lerium worse. The worker saw foster parents and Donald several times during A p r i l . She f e l t there was l i t t l e point i n t r y -ing to keep him i n t h i s home. Foster parents have a c t u a l l y served t h e i r purpose i n showing him that he can receive love and a f f e c t i o n but they are too old and set i n t h e i r ways to continue the tr a i n i n g of him. Foster mother's rheumatism became so bad that she was eventually confined to bed and i t was not possible f o r foster father who i s b l i n d to look a f t e r Donald. 24. 4. 48. Donald was placed i n the Receiving Home. He had been well prepared for t h i s move and knew beforehand the names of the children in.the home. Worker v i s i t e d the teacher at . . . . School who f e l t that i n many ways he had improved. He was hot as much of a b u l l y and seemed to be able to learn a l i t t l e more. She f e l t he should pass into Grade I I . He was enrolled at . . . . School and worker talked to the p r i n c i p a l about his background and behaviour. Worker has seen Donald regularly every week for the past month.. At f i r s t he was unhappy i n the Receiv-ing Home and did not l i k e any of the children, f i g h t i n g with the boys. He kept saying he would return to his former foster home as soon as fos t e r mother recovered. Worker explained gradually to him that although these fos-ter parents w i l l always be interested i n him, they w i l l - 107 -not be able to have him l i v e with them again. He now seems more accepting of t h i s . He i s very anxious to go to another foster home buts wants to be sure i t , i s j ust as nice as the one he had. Worker has prepared Donald for a new worker. She explained to him that his previous supervisor was helping her f i n d him a foster home. He himself suggested that i f they found him a new foster home then he would have another supervisor. From t h i s worker discussed with him the f a c t that she was leaving the agency but that h i s old supervisor, Miss . . . . was anxious to continue looking a f t e r him. He was able to accept t h i s very w e l l . His health has been pretty good since his t o n s i l s were removed. During the month of June Donald spent a Saturday morn-ing with his- former foster parents and also spent a week-end with some prospective foster parents Mr. and Mrs. Martin. They had two grown children and applied to take two boys around the age of seven or eight. During worker's f i r s t v i s i t to t h i s home several of the boys who were i n the Receiving Home were described to the foster mother. Mrs. Martin seemed interested i n Donald and worker f e l t that this home might be suitable f o r him,. Mrs. Martin i s around 56 and Mr. Martin 63. •/MrsMSrtin, however, seems a l o t younger than his wife and i s a very f r i e n d l y and j o l l y person. His wife, who i s more serious, i s a big stout woman, rather slow i n her movements. Worker i s proceeding rather slowly i n view of the c l i n i c ' s recommendation that the central figure i n the new home i s the foster father with whom Donald can id e n t i f y himself. Donald asked i f he could spend the week-end there so t h i s was arranged l a t e r i n the month. They have l o t s of flowers, a large back yard and he seemed to enjoy playing with the dog and picking flowers. On 2. 7. 48 he went to v i s i t Mr. and Mrs. Martin again and w i l l spend two or three days there. 23. 7. 48. Telephoned Mrs. Martin and learned that Don-ald seemed.to be enjoying h i s v i s i t . This morning they took him downtown shopping and he was a great help i n carrying the parcels, etc. (He wanted to cook and foster mother l e t him help her make doughnuts one day). Worker w i l l telephone or v i s i t Monday to discuss the p o s s i b i l i t y of Donald remaining i n t h i s home for at least some months. - 108 -There has been no further recording from 3. 7. 48 to 3. 6. 49). Evidently there i s doubt i n the worker's mind as to whether Donald w i l l remain i n the home, since she hopes he w i l l remain some months. Undoubtedly t h i s worker has the well-being of the c h i l d at heart, but i t would seem that she does not count on placement being permanent. The following record shows less evidence of place-ment preparation, although one f e e l s that more preparation may have been done than what shows i n the f i l e . 1. 5. 48. Worker has been i n continual touch with t h i s f o s t e r home but unfortunately i t i s not a s a t i s f a c t o r y placement as Rebecca and Mae f i g h t continually. There i s not a moment's peace and foster mother-asked that Rebecca be moved. (More d e t a i l s of the quarrelling follow, but no information regarding placement). 10. 6. 48. Rebecca was placed with Mr. and Mrs. K e l l y on a boarding basis of . . . a week. Rebecca was very i n -terested i n the move and not i n the l e a s t sorry to leave the foster home. She waved good-bye to foster mother and shouted out the window that she was sorry she had been a bad g i r l . However, she would not say good-bye to Mae and contented herself making faces out the window. Rebecca's new foster mother i s very experienced having had a great many Children's Aid Society children. She has been very successful as a foster mother and i s warm, motherly and kind. She had been t o l d i n d e t a i l a l l Rebecca's habits and she was prepared to accept these. Foster mother had another foster c h i l d a l i t t l e younger than Rebecca and one a l i t t l e older and she hopes that the children w i l l play together. Worker t o l d her that i n the past Rebecca had had a great deal of trouble i n playing with other children and i s i n c l i n e d to be quarrelsome and wants the l a s t word. I t would probably be easier f o r Rebecca to get along i n a home where she was the only c h i l d . However, worker fee l s that she i s going to have to learn to adjust to other children and that i n an easy-going atmosphere l i k e t h i s home she w i l l have a better chance to do t h i s . - 109 -10. 7. 48. At f i r s t Rebecca did very w e l l i n t h i s home. She quickly formed quite an attachment, to foster mother although she i n s i s t e d on arguing every point that came up. Worker saw her often and she frequently said how w e l l she l i k e d foster mother, and how she wanted to stay there u n t i l she was grown up. However, i n spite of . Rebecca's l i k i n g , f or foster mother, fo s t e r mother did not f e e l she could keep her because of the other children i n the home. She said that Rebecca Was quarrelsome, diso-bedient, cheeky and extremely high-strung. She said she could cope with t h i s i f Rebecca was the only c h i l d i n the home, or the only c h i l d around t h i s age.. However, i n fairness to the other g i r l s she did not f e e l that she could keep her, and suggested a f r i e n d of hers, Mrs. Mack, whQ had three sons and a younger Children*s£Aid Society ward aged two. She said that Mrs.' Mack had met Rebecca several times and had seen her at her worst but was s t i l l interested i n her. 17.. 7. 48. Rebecca was placed with Mr. and Mrs. Mack. Before placing her i n t h i s foster home worker had three v i s i t s with the foster mother and foster father and went over Rebecca's good and bad points with them i n d e t a i l . These foster parents, and foster mother i n p a r t i c u l a r , seem to have a good understanding of children and are sincerely interested i n Rebecca. Worker emphasized that i t i s of great importance that she be placed permanently now. Work-er purposely did not s l u r over Rebecca's i r r i t a t i n g habits but foster parents f e l t that they would s t i l l l i k e to give her a home. Foster mother said that where they l i v e there are no stores and Rebecca w i l l not always be whining f o r a n i c k e l . There are no g i r l s her age i n the home and while she can play with the three boys she does not f e e l that they w i l l put up with any nonsense from her and that she w i l l have to play t h e i r way or not at a l l . There are other children i n the neighbourhood with whom she can play i f she wishes but they have a large yard i f she wishes to play by herself. Two of the f i l e s contain no placement procedure what-ever, and i t i s f e l t that the worker believed the peculiar c i r -cumstances made preparation unnecessary. The A l l e n children were o r i g i n a l l y taken into care when t h e i r father was i n the h o s p i t a l and the mother desert-ed them. When the father was discharged from the h o s p i t a l the children were returned to him, he having employed a housekeeper to look a f t e r them. However, plans did not work and the following entry took place when the children were returned to the agency. - 110 -7. 12. 48. Kenneth and his s i s t e r and brother were res-apprehended. This was necessary because.of another break-up i n the family s i t u a t i o n . They were brought to the o f f i c e by t h e i r father. After the children said good-bye to t h e i r father with no apparent emotional reaction, we went out f o r a walk and had lunch. The children were taken for a medical check. Kenneth and Keith were then placed i n the home of Mrs. Cole at a boarding basis of $4.32 per week. These children were extremely active although Kenneth was the least so. They ran around and showed a great i n -terest i n everything going on around them. They played together well for the most part, though at times Kenneth l i k e d to boss his s i s t e r . They seemed to get along better when she was not around. There was no d i f f i c u l t y with placement; they took off t h e i r coats and s e t t l e d r i g h t down to play with t h e i r fos-te r brother. Worker explained to the foster mother that there were addit i o n a l clothes coming for the boys and that she would t r y to bring these out i n a few days. Out of the ten records of children who moved during 1948 only one i s w e l l enough written to t e l l what preparation took place. There are the two i n which there i s no evidence of place-ment^ at a l l . The other f i l e s show some placement preparation I t i s believed that while i n some cases f a i r l y adequate prepar-ation has been made t h i s has not been recorded. Several of the f i l e s have been summarized over a long period, rather than written up following each interview. Thus.the record i s not accurate and detailed. The case of Donald i s an example of t h i s kind of recording. Some rather bad instances of recording be-ing f a r behind came to l i g h t i n t h i s study. At the time the f i l e s were read i n January, 194i two hadrhad-no entry since 1945, and a number had had no entry since 1947. When i t i s considered that these children are wards of a society and thus under t h e i r care and protection, i t seems unfortunate that they should be - I l l -overlooked i n t h i s manner. I t i s f e l t that preparation of the c h i l d , the pros-pective foster family and the present foster family or the own family i s immensely important i n preventing confusion and trauma which may form the basis of l a t e r disturbances. A l l too often i t seems that when a c h i l d i s going to a foster home a l -ready known to the agency, very l i t t l e preparation or matching of needs i s done. And as with c h i l d Rebecca the home and c h i l d do not meet each other's needs. I t i s f e l t that proper prepar-ation would prevent many poor or unsuitable placements as the better understanding of c h i l d and fos t e r family would be i n v a l -uable i n determining the needso.of each. - 1 1 2 -Chapter VII AIDS TO BETTER PLACEMENT Single placements f o r foster children are the cherished dream of every c h i l d placement worker. The value of continuity i n developing security within the c h i l d has long been recognized i n the placement f i e l d . Therefore when a case worker places a c h i l d i n a foster home she hopes that the move w i l l be more or less permanent. However, t h i s study seems to confirm that single placements are the exception rather than the r u l e . The present study i s too li m i t e d to give any exact i n d i c a t i o n of how frequently single placements occur, but i t does indicate that they are f a r i n the minority. Only o n e - f i f t h of the f i f t y children comprising the study stayed a l l the time with t h e i r foster parents., while nearly f o u r - f i f t h s • were multiply placed to a greater or lesser extent. I t w i l l be rec a l l e d that the largest group of children f a l l i n g Into the A, B, C, and D groups was the D group—the children who have had more than f i v e placements. While the actual s i t u a t i o n may not be as bad to-day as t h i s would in d i c a t e , many of these place-ments having been made f i v e to ten years ago when case loads were even heavier that they are at the present time, there i s some ground for believing that single placements would s t i l l be i n the minority. I t therefore behooves an agency to make a d i f -ferent kind of attack on the problem of multiple placements. I t i s true that a better understanding of foster parents and c h i l d should reduce the problem considerably. But what of the c h i l d , who though w e l l understood, i s unsuited at ordinary the present time to l i v e i n any/foster home? One solution to t h i s problem that appears to have been successful wherever i t has been t r i e d i s the use of the temporary -foster home. Among others, the Jewish Child Care Association of New York have ex-perimented with t h i s system of foster home care f o r disturbed children, or f o r shildren who have recently been removed from t h e i r own home or a foster home. This agency recommends i t as an admirable way of getting to know the children and working out t h e i r problems. The Jewish Child Care Association, l i k e others i n the f i e l d , saw single placements as a shining goal which was so im-possible to a t t a i n i n many instances. They observed that a l l to-often children did not f i t into the o r i g i n a l home i n which they were placed. They found some children who, when they l o s t t h e i r own homes through death, i l l n e s s , or other causes, suf-fered a loss of f a i t h i n themselves and i n adults. Frequently . they could not accept the a f f e c t i o n which foster parents were eager to give them, while the foster parents, f o r t h e i r part, could not bear t h e i r withdrawal or fearfulness. Under these c i r -cumstances, p o t e n t i a l l y good foster homes were l o s t to the agency upon the f a i l u r e of placement, while the children, were not spared replacement. There were also the children whom they replaced because t h e i r parents were not ready to accept foster home care. Having f a i l e d with some they wondered i f they could serve t h i s l a t t e r group of children at a l l , but t h e i r need was so great they - 114 -had to f i n d a way to meet t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . For these reasons the Jewish Care Association decided to test the v a l i d i t y of. temporary home placement as a planned experimental undertaking. From the standpoint of the agency, t h i s experiment was costly and time-consuming, p a r t i c u l a r l y be-cause i t was carried on i n war time with i t s attendant s c a r c i t y of s t a f f . But t h e i r experiment established the f a c t that a temporary home i s a valuable asset f o r a c h i l d placing agency, both i n i t s conservation of homes that can serve f o r long term 24 care, and i n improved help to ch i l d r e n . Love and sustenance are synonymous to children and where the parent delegates r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f or sustenance to the agency, i t arouses many feelings w i t h i n the c h i l d , p o s i t i v e and negative. Within these f e e l i n g areas, and what i s done with them, are p o t e n t i a l i t i e s both for the development of the new r e l a t i o n s h i p , and the giving up of the o l d . While the c h i l d i s struggling with giving up his known world, the foster parent; who wants a c h i l d to. f i l l some need of hi s own, i s t r y i n g to f i n d his r o l e . The foster parent psycho-l o g i c a l l y i s at the point where he i s seeking to take on a c h i l d , and comes to the agency for t h i s . Because the foster parent and the c h i l d are experiencing such d i f f e r e n t f e e l i n g s , psychologi-c a l l y they are p u l l i n g i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s . I t i s i n the midst of a l l t h i s that the c h i l d jpist take on a vast new experience. 24. Foster Home Bureau, Jewish Child Care Association of New York, An Experimental Use of the Temporary Home. Russel-Sage Foundation Building, New York. - 115 -The solution to the problem should be a way of working which does not make excessive demands on the c h i l d , nor ask too much of the foster parent. The c h i l d and the foster parent are at d i f f e r e n t places, one looking grimly at separation, the other hopefully at union with a new person i n his family. The ques-t i o n arises as to the f e a s i b i l i t y of establishing some midway point, where a c h i l d can experience the loss of h i s parent, with the very minimum of the other beginning phase. There i s a need, too, f o r some place more adaptable than the regular foster home, where the c h i l d can express and work out his feelings and c o n f l i c t over f i n d i n g himself separated from his parent and re-lated to a worker and agency. I t i s not only the ch i l d , however, who requires a trans-i t i o n a l experience. The parent, too, has need f o r t h i s . Contrary to what might be expected placement does not go along smoothly from the moment a parent decides to give up his c h i l d . Experience has shown that there i s a constant emotional s h u t t l i n g forward and back, varying i n i n t e n s i t y with each parent. He both wants and does not want to place h i s c h i l d . Each parent who feels that his c h i l d needs placement i s at the same time b a t t l i n g his g u i l t and his* fears. Up to the present time the parent has had l e g a l res-p o n s i b i l i t y f or h i s c h i l d and has made a l l the decisions i n re-l a t i o n to the child's everyday l i v i n g . The parent struggles against turning over the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f or the care of his c h i l d to an agency. He wonders about many things: whether the community w i l l think he i s a bad parent i f he places the c h i l d ; i f he w i l l i - 116 -be able to see the foster home before his c h i l d goes there; why the foster mother would wish to take children; w i l l he be able to get his c h i l d back i f he i s able to care f o r him; how often may he v i s i t ? The worker handles these questions i n terms of th e i r r e a l meaning to the parent and i n terms of the r e a l i t i e s that make placement what i t i s . The parent does not know what placement w i l l r e a l l y mean to him or to the c h i l d u n t i l he can experience i t . I f a temporary foster home i s used the parent w i l l be comforted to know that the c h i l d w i l l remain there from two to s i x months, and during t h i s time d i f f i c u l t i e s can be worked out. The parent w i l l have time to muster his resources to determine whether or not i t w i l l be possible to es t a b l i s h a home or to have the c h i l d i n his home. He w i l l be able to see what separation means to himself and the c h i l d . He w i l l have a chance to deter-mine whether placement can give to the c h i l d what he was not able to give, and do the things he was not able to do i n helping the c h i l d to become a wholesome, mature i n d i v i d u a l . That means the decision i s not f i n a l , and the parent r e a l i z e s that during the temporary home period he w i l l have to decide whether or not place-ment s h a l l continue. The c h i l d does not make the decision, but he i s the one who w i l l l i v e i n a foster home. Through h i s behaviour, however, he expresses his feelings about placement from the moment he becomes aware of the change. The child's feelings, are h i s only - 117 -means of expression, and through them he participates i n place-ment. The c h i l d must accept the fact that an agency w i l l now provide for him the things his parents formerly provided, and r e a l i z e that a worker now holds the power to provide a home, sus-tenance and a new and strange way of l i f e . This i s usually f l i g h t -ening to the c h i l d . Up to the present his t o t a l world has been his home, his school, and the streets he knows. Who w i l l support him through the experience of changing not homes, but worlds? The placement worker has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of carrying out t h i s part of the job with as much thought as was given i n helping the parent to decide on placement. Going to l i v e i n h i s temporary f o s t e r home i s the f i r s t concrete evidence to the c h i l d of what separation from h i s parents r e a l l y i s . The worker w i l l have discussed before the day of placement, what i t may f e e l l i k e , and what w i l l happen when the c h i l d goes to hi s temporary home. This serves to take the edge off the experience but the beginning of placement s t i l l c a rries with i t a good deal of pain resultant from the emotional impact of the separation. Here he i s i n a completely strange home, with people he never saw before, and even l i t t l e things such as his . f a m i l i a r chair and bed, the mother's s t y l e of cooking, are gone. The young c h i l d i s more dependent on routine such as spe c i a l songs or stories to accompany eating, having a bath, going to bed; and i t i s h e l p f u l to learn these from the parent where possible, since i t may serve to ease the pain. The temporary foster mother i s interested i n doing a job - 118 -of helping children get used to being away from home, i n co-operation with, the agency, and she does not have need to ab-sorb a c h i l d . Because she does not have need to invest i n 0 making the c h i l d what she wants him to be, she can allow the c h i l d to estab l i s h a strong t i e to the worker. She i s w i l l i n g to accept any c h i l d needing temporary care, and i s not a f r a i d of the more gross behaviour problems•such as temper tantrums, bed-wetting, etc. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important since a c h i l d who i s going through a l l his feelings of r e j e c t i o n , pain at separation from his parents, resentment to parent-and worker, w i l l often l i v e out these feelings through his bad behaviour. The temporary foster mother can l i v e with disturbed children as she knows these experiences w i l l be ending. One of the most important things i n the temporary place-ment i s the kind of help that the worker gives the c h i l d i n hand-l i n g the problems indicated above. In order to accomplish his objectives, the worker must v i s i t the c h i l d weekly. She also takes over many of the functions of the parent. She may take the c h i l d to c l i n i c f o r regular or check-up examinations, f o r glasses ojr f or special treatment. She may bring him clothing or take him shopping for new things. She may enter him i n the new school, arrange outings f o r him, and do a great deal of the going back and f o r t h that was done by the parent when the c h i l d was at home and that w i l l be done by the foster mother l a t e r when the c h i l d goes to his long-time home. The worker does these things because i t i s through t h i s kind of a c t i v i t y , reinforcing the discussion as to how the c h i l d feels about the things that are happening to - 119 -him, that the c h i l d begins to r e a l i z e how much and what kind of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the parent has given over to the agency. The Jewish Child Care Association believes that though i t seems l i k e a time-consuming program, there i s i n i t an essential economy, since the child's emotions about placement frequently come out i n connection with these very functions which the agency has. as-sumed. They can be handled then, by the s k i l l e d worker at the place and time they a r i s e . Agencies have d i f f i c u l t y i n helping' children handle these feelings with which they have l i v e d f o r a long time. They have found that children who have had the oppor-tunity of l i v i n g i n a temporary home are clearer about the r o l e of the agency i n t h e i r l i v e s . The worker, i n her weekly interviews with the c h i l d focusses on how the c h i l d f e e l s about the foster home, how he i s getting used to t h i s new kind of l i v i n g , whether i t seems d i f f e r -ent to him t h i s week from the way i t did l a s t week. She i s aware of what the c h i l d i s experiencing, i n the way of g u i l t , anger, and other conditions. The c h i l d expresses only l i t t l e b i t s of emotion at a time, and he w i l l bring up only a part of his react-ions about placement, about the worker and about his parents, and she l e t s him see that the agency w i l l take care of him even i f he i s angry. The c h i l d learns that the worker i s d i f f e r e n t from other adults he has known. The worker can l e t him t a l k about the negative side of t h i s experience, and w i l l maintain her i n -terest despite the child's expression of his anger and aggression. In f a c t she helps the c h i l d to bring out these feelings. - 1 2 0 -The c h i l d f i n a l l y begins to understand that the worker i s i n -terested and he can begin to t r u s t the worker. I f at the time, the placement was decided upon, the -child thought that has part i n the picture was overlooked, he finds i n the temporary foster home that h i s feelings are considered. The worker arranges f o r v i s i t i n g between the c h i l d and parent, and has responsible r o l e i n making any necessary changes. V i s i t i n g the parents af t e r he has gone to the foster home i s im-portant to the c h i l d since he thus begins to r e a l i z e that he has not l o s t his parents. This helps develop f o r the c h i l d an aware-ness of the parent's new. and d i f f i c u l t relationship to him and consequently of the meaning and ro l e of the worker i n h i s l i f e . The c h i l d learns that the worker and the foster mother have re-placed the mother i n many areas. As the c h i l d goes on i n placement, the worker helps him to see the p o s i t i v e elements there are for him i n t h i s experience. E s s e n t i a l l y the experience of being placed i s a negative one. However, as the c h i l d continues i n foster care he i s able to free himself of some of his g u i l t and h o s t i l i t y over having been placed, and i s freer to rel a t e to the worker and the foster parents. He begins to r e a l i z e that the agency's care i s good. He begins to express warmth to.the foster parents, to think that although he misses his parents, nonetheless he i s receiving adequate care. Some-times he rea l i z e s he i s getting more adequate care than he did t at home under the disturbed conditions which made placement neces-sary. The c h i l d begins to want the foster mother more to himself, and he also begins to want more than the temporary foster home \ - 121 -o f f e r s — h e wants to become absorbed and become part of the foster family. He has negative feelings about remaining on i n the home, too, since i t would be good to be away from t h i s palce where he suffered the agony of separation from his parents. I t i s also true that no matter how much one wants something there i s some element of holding back, of fear of facing the new. The c h i l d i n temporary placement goes through a cycle of f e e l i n g toward his worker. At the beginning he may be quiet and subservient i n his fear about what his powerful worker w i l l do to him. As he feels safer he can begin expressing his nega-t i v e f e e l i n g s , which are directed as much against the worker as against the parent. Frequently the c h i l d w i l l f e e l safer about expressing these feelings against the worker both because she leaves him free to do so and because of the great s o c i a l pres-sure against free expression of h o s t i l i t y to parents. As the relat i o n s h i p develops the c h i l d i s able to draw closer to the worker. At t h i s point he may want to know when the worker w i l l come again,-may ask to be seen f i r s t , may be angry i f the worker has to change the day of the v i s i t . This relationship reaches a peak, and as i t begins to taper o f f with the child's increas-ing security i n the foster home, the c h i l d begins to turn some of his feelings toward the foster family, and to develop his relationship with them. When the c h i l d begins to express posi-t i v e feelings about the placement, the worker again indicates that the c h i l d can have an experience which has these p o s i t i v e "elements when he goes to his.long-time home. The c h i l d may f e e l - 122 -resentment at being unable to remain i n the temporary home aft e r he has begun to f i n d p o s i t i v e elements i n i t . He i s helped to accept that t h i s r e a l l y i s a temporary home because a l l the children i n the home are there on a s i m i l a r temporary basis, and he may have watched other children move on to long-term homes. The worker sometimes brings up the p o s s i b i l i t y of the child's going to a place where they want a l i t t l e boy to be t h e i r l i t t l e boy, which i s d i f f e r e n t from his present home where the foster mother helps boys get used to being away from home but doesn't have boys who stay and grow up there. As he begins to accept the necessity f o r going on to a long-term home, he may himself decide i t w i l l be good to go on to a new worker, too, since the temporary worker represents to him the pain of separation and of taking on the experience of placement. When the c h i l d was placed i n his temporary home, he did not part i c i p a t e i n the decision, but when he goes to his long-term home, he participates a c t i v e l y , and the experience no longer holds only negative implications f or the c h i l d . I t would appear that there are many advantages to using temporary homes . I t i s a f i n e opportunity f o r getting to know the c h i l d so that one can determine the type of foster home he would best f i t i n t o . Then h i s problems are worked through i n the foster home. The temporary foster mother accepts each c h i l d as he i s . She i s able to do th i s since she i s aware that t h i s behaviour w i l l l a s t only a short time. The c h i l d leaves t h i s temporary home only when he i s able to face normal - 123 -l i v i n g i n a normal home. In t h i s way many good foster homes are saved f o r the agency's constructive use of them, instead of the old method of hit-and-miss placement, trying foster home after foster home i n order to f i n d one which can accept the c h i l d as he i s . I t i s believed by many authorities that the use of temporary foster homes w i l l prevent the misuse of long-term homes. Temporary homes should new be used as parking places f o r children. Always they require the support of t h e i r worker. Replacement of necessity means a c h i l d needs help. Temporary homes should not be used f o r every c h i l d . There i s no need for such placement when children are too young to prepare f o r placement. However, there i s good reason f o r believing that children cannot take on a foster home at the point of separation from his own people except at very great cost to himself. I t i s easier for the c h i l d to work out the great pain of leaving his parents i f he i s not simultaneously burdened with the necessity f o r loving new substitute parents. I t i s believed ay agencies that have used t h i s program that i t i s both psychologically sound and administratively p r a c t i c a l . I n s t i t u t i o n s Many authorities claim that some children get along better i n i n s t i t u t i o n s than i n foster homes. Certainly i t does not seem l o g i c a l that every c h i l d w i l l f i t best into a foster home. I t has been said that foster family care as a service for any or a l l children has been oversold to the point of dim-25 i n i s h i n g returns. 25.' The Family. "The Parent-Child Relationship as a Factor i n Child Placement." A p r i l 1946, Vol 27, No. 2, p. 47. - 124 -I t i s agreed that small children and infants develop better i n foster homes than i n i n s t i t u t i o n s , as they need the close relationship with a loving person with whom they can 26 i d e n t i f y . Florence Clothier points out the danger involved where children do not form strong relationships with adults. Everyone i n the c h i l d welfare f i e l d has undoubtedly read Anna Freud's War and Children, i n which she describes the behaviour of t i n y children who had to be parted from t h e i r parents dur-ing the war. Some experienced workers have gone- so f a r as to say that an infant who remains i n an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r three years or more i s mental ho s p i t a l material. I t i s also agreed that orphans should not be placed i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . Since t h e i r family t i e s have been permanently broken, the children can be best served by placing them into a permanent family group where they w i l l be assimilated by means of adoption. I t would, by the same reasoning, be advisable to place a l l children born out of wedlock whose mothers have main-tained no contact with them i n adoption homes. There are several of the children i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group who are adopt-able, being i n good health and of sound mind, and where the present foster parents are most anxious to adopt them. For the children, p a r t i c u l a r l y as they approach t h e i r stormy teens, t h i s would mean security arid s t a b i l i t y and acceptance. In sev-e r a l of the cases the workers f e e l doubtful about t h i s p a r t i -cular family adopting the children. However, some of the 26. C l o t h i e r , Florence, M. D., Mental Hygiene. "The Problem of Frequent Replacement of the Young Dependent Chi l d , " Octo-ber, 1937, pp. 549 - 558. - 125 -children are so f i r m l y rooted any replacement from the home' would be a severe blow to these children. There i s reason to believe the children w i l l remain i n these homes regardless of the workers' concern regarding the a d v i s a b i l i t y of adoption. The value of a secure, permanent home to the c h i l d i s w e l l ap-preciated. And from the point of view of the agency i t would seem to be good business. For the workers i t would mean re-duced caseloads, and for the agency i t would reduce t h e i r main-tenance costs so that the money expended f o r these children would be used f o r other purposes. This would seem to be a strong factor i n favour of adoption of these older children and espe c i a l l y at a time when there i s a d i f f i c u l t y i n r a i s i n g suf-f i c i e n t funds through the community chest. I t i s generally agreed that any children who d i f f e r appreciably from the normal group should not l i v e i n i n s t i t u -t i o n s . I n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e c a l l s f o r a certain amount of regu-l a t i o n due to greater numbers of children being accommodated. Therefore, anyone who would have d i f f i c u l t y i n conforming to the group would not benefit from i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e . Among t h i s group are the hyper active children; withdrawn, shy children; children with a physical i l l n e s s such as diabetes, heart disease or epilepsy. Miss Paradise, i n her recent book, makes a summary of the kind of children she believes could benefit from i n s t i -t u t i o n a l care. - 126 -They are: 1. The c h i l d who has had a succession of f a i l u r e s i n foster homes and i s i n need of a less personal environment before again attempting family l i f e . 2. The c h i l d who requires a period of close and con-tinuous observation i n order to determine his needs. 3. The c h i l d needing regular habit t r a i n i n g i s more easily helped by the i n s t i t u t i o n * 4. The c h i l d who requires protection from unstable parents. 5. The c h i l d who has such strong family t i e s that his acceptance of substitute parents would be d i f f i c u l t . 6. The c h i l d who i s unable to form any close r e l a t i o n -ships with adults, such as are required i n foster homes 27. Many workers w i l l agree that most of these categories could be tested or helped i n a temporary foster home. I n s t i -tutions are very costly to operate and therefore, should be used only where there i s a d e f i n i t e advantage. Perhaps an i n -s t i t u t i o n of the school variety would meet t h e i r needs of Group four and f i v e . Where family t i e s are very strong the children might be given the chance to v i s i t t h e i r parents frequently; yet receive good care and learn good habits while i n the i n s t i -t u t i o n . These children frequently come from homes where there i s a great deal of af f e c t i o n from the parents, but along with i t there i s too much leniency and lack of regulation to t h e i r l i v e s which does not help a c h i l d to f i t into normal society. On the other hand children frequently f e e l insecure from lack of regu-l a t i o n or l i m i t s . This would be gained i n a school s e t t i n g , 27. Paradise, V i o l a , Toward Public Undertaking of Casework. New York, Bussell-Sage Foundation, 1948, p. 188. - 127 -yet the children would s t i l l have the advantage of strong family t i e s . I n s t i t u t i o n s might be used i n working out prob-lems of seriously disturbed c h i l d r e n . Children who have come from serious neglect situations, or those having had one or more poor placements may be so seriously disturbed as to re-quire psychiatric help i n an impersonal atmosphere, where the c h i l d w i l l be restrained as l i t t l e as possible. Ryther Centre i n Seattle i s such an i n s t i t u t i o n and i s famous f o r the good work i t i s able to do with seriously disturbed children. I t would seem that there i s a place f o r such an agency. However, i f a l l the other f a c i l i t i e s were operating to advantage, a good many of these problems could be dealt with i n the temporary foster'home. I n s t i t u t i o n s such as Ryther are very costly to operate. I t i s claimed that $140 per day i s expended on every c h i l d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . I t i s imperative therefore, to use such an i n s t i t u t i o n to i t s best advantage by placing only the most seriously disturbed children there. Play Therapy One recent demonstration of how disturbed children may be helped i s the play therapy experiment carried out under the auspices of the Children's Aid Society. Playjtherapy gives the c h i l d the chance to l i v e i n a home during the period i n which a therapist i s finding out the child's d i f f i c u l t i e s and helping him. to resolve these d i f f i c u l t i e s and grow beyond them. I f the c h i l d cannot remain i n his own home during the treatment - 128 -period, i t would seem that he might be best accommodated i n the permissive and non-demanding atmosphere of the temporary-foster home. Play therapy i s done by s p e c i a l l y trained therapists. During the period while the c h i l d i s seriously disturbed the therapist receives psychiatric advice, i n order that the c h i l d may be helped to his best advantage. At f i r s t the consultation with the p s y c h i a t r i s t almost matches hour for hour the actual play interview. However, as soon as the c h i l d shows signs of d e f i n i t e advancement the therapist w i l l be able to carry along with less psychiatric help. The equipping of a playroom i s not too expensive. The actual room needs only to be one where there i s no concern about walls being scratched or painted on, and where the f l o o r s can stand pounding and rougher play. The Children's Aid Soc-i e t y has the advantage of having a s p e c i a l "vue" window, which looks to the occupant of the playroom as an ordinary mirror on the w a l l . However, from a small observation room i n the back the observer can watch the c h i l d i n action with the play thera-p i s t . This window i s invaluable to the p s y c h i a t r i s t during the f i r s t few interviews. He i s able to determine a great deal, about the child's personality and the extent of damage done, and accordingly, i s better equipped to make a diagnosis and to recommend treatment. Toys i n the playroom should be adequate and numerous enough to allow the c h i l d to give expression to his f e e l i n g s . - 129 -There should be paints f o r painting w i t h — t h i s i s so es s e n t i a l i n so many forms of play. Pamper, pencils and crayons are also necessary. There should be the mechanical toys which so many children l i k e — c a r s , aeroplanes, trucks, tanks, boats. Indians and cowboys and other figures are used a great deal. Also animals of various types—domestic and tame. Do l l s , p a r t i c u -l a r l y the types that have some therapeutic value, such as "wettum" d o l l s and natural figures resembling as cl o s e l y as possible male and female contours are invaluable i n the play-room. These l a t t e r may- be obtained made of soft p l a s t i c which are so p l i a b l e they may take any form and allow the c h i l d to di r e c t his h o s t i l i t y against them without damage. A playhouse i s most useful too. Frequently i t i s found to s i g n i f y the child's own home, or other buildings. The Children's Aid has a large sturdy wooden house which may be roughly handled—the roof i s f l a t and the children may even stand on i t . However, f o r the c h i l d who has the urge to destroy a house there i s a cardboard house which can be .substituted. The toys are contained i n large drawers which the c h i l d can climb into himself i f he desires. Shelves also allow the c h i l d to put things on them and to climb up on them i f he desires. A swing i s provided on the lawn. The purpose of play therapy i s to diagnose the child's problem and to help him give expression to his d i f f i c u l t i e s either verbally or a c t i v e l y . Following t h i s the c h i l d regresses to the stage of development he was at when he stopped growing emotionally. With the co-operation and warm acceptance of the therapist the c h i l d i s helped to understand his d i f f i c u l t i e s and* - 130 -to grow beyond them. The atmosphere of the playroom, of necessity i s accepting of the c h i l d as he i s , and permissive of any behaviour he may indulge i n almost to the extreme. The only l i m i t s are that the c h i l d may not hurt himself or the therapist and that he may not damage certain f i x t u r e s , break windows, etc. The therapist wears a smock to protect her clothing. At f i r s t the therapist merely observes, and helps the c h i l d to become aware of his actions. She may help him to d i s t i n g u i s h between r e a l i t y and fantasy, i f t h i s d i f f i c u l t y e x i s t s . Later she may give some int e r p r e t a t i o n to the c h i l d regarding his behaviour when i t i s believed that i t w i l l be of value to him. Since most of these children have known disturbing home conditions, the therapist aids the c h i l d i n understanding what people are l i k e i n the world outside his home. He learns that people are not "good" or "bad," but have many contrasting q u a l i t i e s at the same time. She helps the c h i l d to accept him-s e l f as a c h i l d at whatever age l e v e l he i s , and indicates that he w i l l grow up and do the things that adults do then. The problem of sex comes frequently to the fore i n play therapy interviews. Here too, the therapist must be accepting of a l l the child's behaviour. She helps him to see that, i n the play-room a l l his behaviour i s acceptable, whereas i n the r e a l world there are many things which may not be done. Here, he i s able to bring his feelings into the open. Matters r e l a t i n g to sex are dealt with i n a matter-of-fact way, so that there i s no confusion i n the chil d ' s mind regarding the functions of men and women or the b i r t h of children. - 131 -Two of the children i n the study have had the bene-f i t of play therapy, having been seriously disturbed children previously. Both of these children have shown a great deal of improvement a f t e r treatment. One c h i l d remained i n a re-ceiving home while being helped by play therapy. The other c h i l d was placed i n a s p e c i a l l y selected foster home during treatment. His record i s discussed below. I t i s trag i c that such a disturbed c h i l d should.have been subjected to so much pain and r i d i c u l e ; and so l i t t l e understanding by the foster home while attending play therapy. The record i s so long and involved that only the foster mother's attitude during his treatment w i l l be described. Arthur had had nine previous foster homes and was a very disturbed c h i l d . At the time of placement i n the White foster home he was described as"emotionally f l a t -tened" by the Child Guidance C l i n i c . 4. 4. 46. Arthur was placed i n the White home. He seemed to be more interested i n the house than the people i n i t . 8. 8. 46. Upon telephoning the foster home i t was learned that so f a r Arthur was doing w e l l . He had had one school lesson during which the foster mother learned that he could write his name, and could draw a l i t t l e -,. but could not do number work. He had helped foster mother's elder son to put i n some wood. He was s t i l l wandering about the house and during one of his wanderings had found the older son's mouth organ and had to be reprimanded about taking other people's things. The c h i l d started taking play therapy that day. 17. 4. 46. Foster mother i n the o f f i c e . Worker i n -terviewed her before seeing Arthur. Mrs. White had w r i t -ten down a l i s t of his misdoings on a s l i p of paper and said she had had quite a week-end with him. She did not seem p a r t i c u l a r l y disconcerted and i n fact gave worker the impression of getting a c e r t a i n amount of enjoyment out of r e c i t i n g what had occurred; but she did d e f i n i t e l y - 132 -display more condemnation and lack of sympathy towards Arthur's whole attitude and d i f f i c u l t i e s . She ascribed them merely to "selfishness" and "laziness" saying Arthur • was an "egotist" and'revengeful" by nature. %*This chara-cter i s t y p i c a l l y a Ukrainian one." (She i s sure Arthur i s Ukrainian from his physical appearance and walk and name). She went on to t e l l of a Ukrainian they had known on the p r a i r i e s who had murdered a man who had insulted him about his plowing, and threw his two small children i n the c e l l a r . Foster mother had had r e l a t i v e s v i s i t i n g i n the house at the week-end and Arthur had seemed to seek attention by many misdemeanors. He had shut foster mother's cat i n a box placing on i t another box. He had been reprimanded for cruelty by foster father. >The next day he had gone around taking handles off basement f i x t u r e s and washing machines, and had turned on a l l the taps. Foster mother's daughter had given her a clue as to some of the things he had been doing and he had been angry and threatened to get even with her. Afterwards, when she had her hand on the f l o o r to pick up something Arthur went to jump on her hand with both feet. Foster mother grabbed him and administered corporal punishment. Worker f e l t i t not wise to disagree too f l a t l y with her methods and attitudes as she c e r t a i n l y i s observing Arthur c l o s e l y , and endeavouring to do what she can for him. 8. 5. 46. Arthur and f o s t e r mother i n the o f f i c e . Foster mother said he had been quite good a l l week except when her l i t t l e g i r l became i l l with ' f l u and a high tem-perature l a s t Thursday. I t seemed the fussing and atten-t i o n she needed made Arthur jealous and he spent, his time making as much noise as possible, turning on the gramo-phone and radio, marching outside the l i t t l e g i r l ' s win-dow, and blowing his whistle, etc. Foster'mother became very angry and lectured him about his selfishness. The foster mother accepted the fact that he was "stuck" at some l e v e l and had to be taken back and re-enact ex-periences. 1. 5. 46. Arthur had been cruel to the cat and fos-• ter mother administered corporal punishment, t e l l i n g him i f he hurt things or people he would be hurt i n turn. The family went to a show which featured Dagwood and Blondie, and also a murder mystery. Arthur was intrigued - 133 -by the murder story. Foster father got "fed up" and. ' said i f he could not think about the funny things instead of the h o r r i b l e ones they would not take him any more. 15. 5. 46. On Sunday they went to a picnic to Bowen Island and the c h i l d was thoroughly miserable. She t o l d him the night before that they would have to be up early and when he came down next morning he was crying miser-ably. She spoke sharply to him, saying she had never taken a crying c h i l d on a p i c n i c yet and sent him upstairs to p u l l himself together. He was completely "poker faced" a l l day and seemed to enjoy nothing including the free western picture show. Foster mother thought that a l l the arrange-ments f o r picnics meant "too much standing on hi s own feet" and he "hates" that. In a crowd she said he i s miserable. He "cannot stand competition." Worker related t h i s to Arthur's insecurity but foster mother feel s very condemna-tory towards i t and says he "must" lea r n . When worker suggested that he would do so i f he developed s e l f - c o n f i -dence and b e l i e f i n his own a c t i v i t i e s foster mother said she would hate him to get self-confident. He would be so "cocky" there would be no holding him. Foster mother describes the c h i l d as "nothing but a stinking egotist." She t o l d him there weren't any super-men on t h i s earth. He was just l i k e everyone else. As long as, he had to go to the t o i l e t every day he was an ordinary human being, and no d i f f e r e n t from the r e s t . There i s a lengthy discussion of the fact that the foster mother believes the c h i l d to be a "lazy prostitute's c h i l d . " One day when he did not l i k e the soup he made faces and l e f t the table to go to the bathroom and "proceeded to scream l i k e a maniac." She aaid she did not go to him because that "would feed his ego a l l the more," but when he did return to the room she t o l d him only l u n a t i c s made a noise i n that way and asked her daughter to look up the address of Essondale i n the telephone directory, explaining that was where they sent people who are "funny i n the head." 26. 6. 46. Foster mother f e l t the c h i l d was improv-i n g — h e now laughs out loud l i k e any c h i l d and runs out to play spontaneously. 10. 7. 46. Foster mother said the f i n a l straw came when Arthur called her l i t t l e g i r l "Pig-face." That made - 134 -her mad as they do not allow derogatory nicknames i n the family, as they f e e l i t tends to make sensitive children f e e l i n f e r i o r . When he t o l d her he had been ca l l e d p i g -face by other children, she got a book and showed him that was just how he looked at times—pointing out that when he screwed up h i s face i t was l i k e a pig's snout, that he sometimes walked with his head down and his should-ers hunched l i k e a pig, and that i t was also l i k e a pig to go and root i n people's belongings without asking, as he apparently often does i n other people's houses. She went on to say that jQod made men to hold t h e i r heads up, to t a l k and ask for things s t r a i g h t out, etc. She thinks t h i s had quite an effect on Arthur. 7. 8. 47. Foster mother and Arthur i n the o f f i c e . Foster father i s s t i l l away and foster mother feel s Arthur i s harder to handle when he i s not there. Foster mother said the c h i l d had been l y i n g a l o t l a t e l y , and t h i s she w i l l not stand. Her family had been brought up with very s t r i c t ideas on t r u t h and she w i l l not have them led astray. Arthur had been l y i n g a l l week about l i t t l e petty things. F i n a l l y , one morning she asked i f he had both garters on and he said "Yes," when he a c t u a l l y had not. He had l o s t one and "was too lazy to look f o r i t . " Foster mother f e l t t h i s was the l a s t straw and "paddled" him, explaining that i t was not just for one l i e , but for a l l those he had been t e l l i n g throughout the week. She had warned him she would spank him i f he continued to l i e , and also t o l d him that i f i t continued he would have to leave at a fortnight's notice. There i s abundant evidence here of the poor understand-ing lay people may have of the basis of behaviour, and of what has been endured by disturbed children i n the past. The worker worked slowly with t h i s foster mother and the r e s u l t has been most g r a t i f y i n g . The c h i l d too, has shown considerable im-provement, which i s indicated by the f i n a l entry i n the f i l e : January 1949. Worker c a l l e d at the foster home on November 26th, December 1st, and January 21st. The 'two f i r s t v i s i t s were casual v i s i t s , bringing clothes. Worker saw Arthur once and he smiled i n greeting her. This was the f i r s t time he had done t h i s or given any voluntary greeting. On the t h i r d occasion worker had - 135 -tea at the home and v i s i t e d f o r about an hour. Every-thing i s going wel l i n the home. Arthur i s a quiet c h i l d but talked more ea s i l y than he did a few years ago. Foster mother suggested he show worker the goat and worker noticed that he stroked the goat gently and seemed to be very affectionate towards i t . He also accompanied worker to the car but t h i s was rather a duty walk suggest-ed by foster mother. Play therapy i s most useful i n helping children who are seriously disturbed. Every possible means of co-operation with the therapists should be given, for t h e i r work i s most del i c a t e and i n t r i c a t e , and i t s success depends partly on favour-able surroundings where the c h i l d may stay during treatment. Experience shows, that temporary placements where children need not conform to r i g i d routines are most valuable i n such cases, and when the c h i l d i s ready he can then move on to the n s u a l l demands of the normal home. / Surely with more carefu l placements, play therapy, involving considerable expense could be reduced to a minimum. Disturbances i n children, i t i s agreed by most authorities are caused by reaction to the environment. I f the c h i l d were placed i n a home which met his needs adequately, and where he was loved and understood, disturbances would be rare indeed. - 136 -Chapter VIII CONCLUSIONS FROM THE STUDY This study does not profess to have covered a l l the points regarding the problem of multiple placement. I t i s hoped, however, that i t w i l l serve as a preliminary evaluation. In many respects the d i v i s i o n s used i n the study do not show such substantial differences that conclusive evidence can be reached. The sample was so small that between the A and B groups, and between the C and D groups, l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n t difference was to be noted. However, the variance between the two major groupings into which the study was divided confirmed the f a c t that serious multiple placement i s detrimental to healthy emotional development on the part of foster children. The harmful effects of multiple placement are i n d i -cated^particularly i n r e l a t i o n to the s o c i a l adjustment of the c h i l d . Social adjustment i s considered to be the c r u c i a l f a c t i n deciding whether foster home placement has succeeded or f a i l e d f or the c h i l d . The study shows that the children with the fewest foster home placements are, on the whole, the most favourably adjusted. Five of the seven children whose behav-iour i s considered to be excellent have remained i n t h e i r f i r s t f oster home. On the other hand, only one of the twenty-nine children who have been i n more than two foster homes has made as favourable adjustment. - 137 -How Important i s Family Background? The importance of family backgrounds and of family relationships has formed a major part of t h i s study. I t has been noted that the family c o n s t e l l a t i o n from which the c h i l d has'sprung gives an i n d i c a t i o n of the t i e s that may bind the c h i l d to his own family. The relationships within the home, and p a r t i c u l a r l y those toward the c h i l d help the worker to understand the child's personality. I t i s these relationships that w i l l aid her i n knowing the amount of love he has experi-enced, the care he has had, and the security he has gained. Knowledge of what the c h i l d experienced i n the home, the habits he formed, and the standard of l i v i n g of the family w i l l help In determining what the c h i l d w i l l require i n a foster home, what his habits w i l l be, and what the foster mother can expect of the c h i l d . His method of response and his sense of security and worth w i l l be l a r g e l y dependent upon what he derives i n h i s early years. Because the infant has taken on few patterns of res-ponse he i s able to be more readily assimilated into a foster family group and because he w i l l be attached to a family he w i l l tend to i d e n t i f y with them. This family background, therefore, appears to be less important for the young c h i l d . This has been indicated by the fact that while many of the children came into the care of a protective agency because t h e i r parents were i n -adequate to meet th e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , the children on the other hand have shown patterns of adjustment which are equal or - 138 -superior to average a b i l i t y . I t would appear, then, because good fo s t e r home care can give greater security, a f f e c t i o n and stimulation than they would have received i n t h e i r own homes, that the children are able to develop to t h e i r maximum potenti-a l i t y . Even mental q u a l i t i e s seem to be influenced by a fav- . ourable environment, since the majority of foster children seem to have average or better i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n spite of the fact that many of them were born to parents of l i m i t e d mentality. In the study i t was found that thirteen of the f i f t y children had less than average i n t e l l i g e n c e . However, of t h i s group ten have been multiply placed. This raises the question as to whether the children were replaced from home to home due to t h e i r l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e or i f , on the other hand, the i n s t a b i l i t y caused by the factor of multiple placement prevented t h e i r attainment of t h e i r maximum i n t e l l e c t u a l development. There i s evidence of both p o s s i b i l i t i e s being correct, depending upon the circumstanc-es of the i n d i v i d u a l case. Adoption versus Foster Family Care Since i n the foster home program children face the pos-s i b i l i t y of considerable change both i n t h e i r foster homes and also i n regards workers, i t i s e s s e n t i a l that a l l family t i e s be maintained i f they are i n any way b e n e f i c i a l , i n order that . children know at l e a s t one constant fac t o r . For children who come into care having no b e n e f i c i a l family t i e s the r i s k of hav-ing no constant factor i n t h e i r l i v e s i s considerable. There-fore, i t i s i n the child's i n t e r e s t f o r him to be assured of a permanent home, with a family to whom he can become attached and - 139 -be regarded as a member of the group. The surest way of establishing a c h i l d i n such a home i s by the process of adop-t i o n . The study shows that i n only f i v e cases has a firm attachment to natural parents been maintained. In three other cases doubtful family connections have been preserved. Be-sides t h i s , f i v e children are so d u l l that adoption can scarce-l y be considered as a p o s s i b i l i t y . This leaves thirty-seven f o r whom adoption might have been possible. Twenty-eight of these children came into care under the age of two years. I f they had been placed f o r adoption they would now be i n permanent homes, as secure members of f a m i l i e s . The value of such an adoption program would be two-f o l d . Not only would i t represent normal family l i v i n g f o r the adopted c h i l d , but i t would r e s u l t i n reduced caseloads f o r c h i l d placement workers. Thus better service would be a v a i l -able f o r those children, who f o r various reasons, must remain i n the foster care program. In the past i t was believed that adopting parents should be protected from the p o s s i b i l i t y of adopting children who would be i n any way i n f e r i o r . Therefore, only children with favourable backgrounds were selected. How-ever, as has been indicated i n t h i s study family background does not seem to be as s i g n i f i c a n t as was previously believed, providing the c h i l d came into care at an early age. I t i s now agreed that not only should the superior c h i l d be given the op-portunity for normal home l i v i n g ; i t should be the r i g h t of every c h i l d that can be loved and assimilated into a family group. - 140 -The modern emphasis i s less on the needs of foster parents and more on what i s i n the interests of the children/" f o r ' i t i s these children who w i l l form to-morrow's adult generation. I f they grow up to be mature and happy and responsible they w i l l be able to play t h e i r part as c i t i z e n s of a democracy. S k i l l , the C r i t e r i o n of Professional Social Workers. The study of foster homes showed that there are no :l: •. • by. important tangible features/which a worker can t e l l a home s u i t -able f o r foster home care from an unsuitable one. I t i s recog-nized that i t i s the intangibles which a home has to o f f e r that cause i t to be a success or a f a i l u r e as a foster home. The problem i s that intangibles are d i f f i c u l t to measure, and that there are no c r i t e r i a by which to assess the foster home poten-t i a l i t i e s . Estimating the intangibles c a l l s f or s k i l l . During the time s o c i a l workers attend university.they are being taught to use the s k i l l demanded of them as a professional group. Just as the p r a c t i c a l nurse i s able to do many of the things that a medical doctor can do, so i s the u n s k i l l e d person able to do a good deal of what the trained s o c i a l worker can do. But .profes-sional s k i l l i s necessary for s o c i a l workers since casework ser-vice i s practiced i n c i d e n t a l l y along with such tasks as arranging fo r parents to meet t h e i r children, giving clothing and material aid , and making medical appointments f o r children. Such casework should be the worker's primary function. Caseloads must not be so heavy, nor o f f i c e routines so exacting and time-consuming that s k i l l s become neglected. This s k i l l , with a l l i t s s e n s i t i v i t y , warmth and understanding should be the goal of a l l workers i n the c h i l d placement f i e l d . APPENDICES APPENDICES Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 (a) Application form used by the Children's Aid Society. (b) • Application form used by the Catholic Children's Aid Society. Instructions f o r foster home studies. (Children's Aid Society) (a) Foster home report made by a volunteer worker during the war. 1941. (b) Foster home study made by a s k i l l e d homefinder. 1948. ( 1 a) THE CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY  OF THE CATHOLIC ARCHDIOCESE OF VANCOUVER FOSTER HOME APPLICATION Date: PHONE: Vancouver.B.C. 1. 2 . 3 . 4 . 5. 6. 7. 8. Name in f u l l : Wife:_ Husband: Wife's Maiden Name: Date & Place of B i r th : ti II n it Husband's Occupation: Address: Occupation previous to Marriage :__^  "Approximate _Annua 1 I n c o'me : Telephone: ' Former Address: Date& Place of Marriage: Racial Origin: Husband: Wife Children's Names & B i r t h d a t e s : 9. Others in household - roomers, boarders (Give relationship and'' Occupation:) 1 0 . Distance to School: 1 1 . Health of Family: 1 2 . Name of Doctor: 1 3 . Rel igion: High School:, Address: P a r i s h : 14 . Name of Parish Pr ies t : Address: 15« Why are you applying for a c h i l d ? 1(5. Have you ever taken c h i l d r e n before &. from whom? 17. What type of chi ld do you wish? 18. Are you offering an adoption home or do you wish to be paid? 1 9 . 2 0 . 2 1 . State whether you r e n t or own your home : Rent From what source did you hear of our Society? Please give names and addrysses of three persons, other than Parish Priest or Doctor mentioned above - not r e l a t i v e s - who have known you for not l e s s than one year, to whom we may refer: 1. Addre ss 2.m •3 . Addre ss : Address: A p p l i c a n t s - Signature: ( l b ) T E N T H A V E N U E W E S T FOSTER H O M E A P P L I C A T I O N Date Man 1. Surname Christian Names 2. Woman's Maiden Name Date and Place of Birth 3. Children's Names and Ages Woman 4. Present Address Phone Former Address 5. Date and Place of Marriage Any previous marriage of either 6. Racial origin of man of woman 7. School leaving, age and grade: of man of woman 8. Occupation of man Income 9. Occupation of woman previous to marriage 10. Health of Family and Date of Last X-Ray 11. Names of Doctors Addresses 12. Any serious illness in family 13. How long since seen by Doctor? 14. Religion Name of Church 15. Name of Minister Address 16. Relatives of both Man and Woman (Brothers and Sisters) — Name and Address 17. Others in household, roomers, boarders, (Give name, relationship and occupation). 18. Distance to School and High School 19. Attitude towards use of alcoholic beverages in the home 20. Do you own or rent your home? 21. How many rooms have you? No. of bedrooms? 22. What is your motive in applying for a child? 23. Have you ever taken children before and from whom? 24. State age, sex, and number of children desired 25. Could you accommodate a brother and sister? 26. Are you offering free, or boarding home? 27. From what source did you hear of our Society? 28. Please give names and addresses of three persons other than minister or doctor mentioned above—not rela-tives — who have known you for not less than one year to whom we may refer: 1 Address 2 Address 3 Address Signature of Man.: Signature of Woman INSTRUCTIONS FOR C. A. S. REPORTS Name, surname, and f i r s t names Address, house and mail, Telephone number, Message number APPLICATION Date, who applied, how they heard of the foster home program. Age and sex of children desired and type of home offered. SOCIAL SER- Registrations. Note date C. A. S. registered. VICE EXCHANGE AGENCIES CONSULTED Follow up of Social Service Exchange r e g i s t r a -tions and give b r i e f summary of agency's con-tact. HOME VISITED TO REACH NEIGHBOUR-Hood. HOME, DESCRI-PTION of HOUSE FAMILY HISTORY Date, name of worker. By streetcar, bus, automobile. Type of d i s t r i c t ; how t h i c k l y settled; type of homes, opportunity f o r companionship. Desir-able features (recreational f a c i l i t i e s , clubs, etc.) and undesirable features i n the neigh-bourhood. Names and distance to public and high schools, and churches. Country, water supply and sewage disposal. Exterior: Type, condition and repair, garden; play space. Is front or back garden comple-tely fenced i n for pre-school children. Animals and pets kept. I n t e r i o r : Number of rooms. Sleeping, play and study space. Sleeping accommodation f o r fos-ter children. Physical and c u l t u r a l standards maintained. Modern conveniences, e.g. i c e box, washing machine. (restrained.) Atmosphere: comfortable, homey, l i v e d - i n , cold. Man: Name, date and place of b i r t h , early h i s -tory, education, occupation, appearance, per-sonality, i n t e l l i g e n c e , understanding and l i k i n g f o r children. Woman: Name, including maiden name; date and place of b i r t h . Early history, education, appear-ance, personality, i n t e l l i g e n c e , housekeeping a b i l i t y , understanding and l i k i n g f o r children. MARRIAGE Date and place. Previous marriage, i f so, give d e t a i l s . ( s-^i y CHILDREN OTHERS IN HOUSEHOLD RELATIVES HEALTH RELIGION Names, date and place of b i r th , school attended and grade. I f not i n school give age and date of leaving, reason for doing so. I f working -give occupation, personality, behaviour and re-creation, companionship and playmates, popular-i t y , characteristics of leadership, re la t ion-ship between children, with one another and with parents. Attitude toward having a foster chi ld i n the home and influence they l i k e l y have on foster children. Name and age, Social Service Exchange, state i f re la t ives , boarder or roomer; character person-a l i t y , place i n family group; interest i n and l i k i n g for children. Health, chest X-ray. Names and addresses of near relat ives, Social Service Exchange, Relationship and contact with the family. Family doctor, school nurse, chest X-ray. Health history of the family, especially i n re-la t ion to, serious or chronic physical or mental i l l n e s s . Are family too health conscious? Attitude toward rel igious t raining. Name and denomination of church. Do children attend Sunday School and would foster children be en-couraged to attend? FINANCES INTERESTS Income, source and amount. Expenditures: rent, mortgages, debts such as large hospital and doctor's b i l l s . Assets: property including home, car, insurance, etc. Has the family suf-f i c ien t income to maintain their home without supplementation by board of foster child? Have foster parents interests outside their home and would they encourage foster children to par-t ic ipate i n clubs and group ac t iv i t i es? In what community ac t iv i t i e s do foster parents p a r t i c i -pate? Is there opportunity for social ac t iv i ty i n the home and part icipat ion i n hobbies and other interests. MOTIVE Foster parents underlying motives. This gives insight into how foster children w i l l be used and what needs they are supposed to f u l f i l l i n foster parentis l i v e s . These needs may be lone-liness of foslter mother, companionship for own ch i ld , desire; to do good, f inancial occupation for spare time. The soundness of foster par-ents' motives; i s based upon a stronger interest i n children than i n the fulfi l lment of their own needs. ( S-b ) o CHILD REFERENCES Type of chi ld best suited for placement i n home. Is this acceptable to foster parents, as i t may not be the type and age requested by them? Are pol ic ies and regulations of C. A. S. acceptable to foster parents? Professional; Doctor's information re health of family. Minis ter ' s attitude toward and part icipation i n ac t i v i t i e s of the church. Standing i n community. Family's re l ig ion as seen by minister. School-progress and be-haviour, health of foster parents' children, teacher's impression of care and training foster parents give their own children. Non-professional: Type and r e l i a b i l i t y of references. Length of time reference had known and how w e l l . Opinion as to re la t ion-ships within family group, poss ib i l i ty of foster children f i t t i n g into this group, a b i l i t y of foster parents to care for and train foster children sa t i s fac tor i ly . NOTE: The obtaining of references provides a good opportunity to interpret and publicize the work of the C. A. S. leferences may be a good resource i n homefinding. RECOMMEND-ATION Age, sex and number of children which can be suitably placed i n the home. State spec i f i -ca l ly type of children foster parents are best equipped to care for . » ( 3 ) FOSTER HOME INVESTIGATION Clinton, Joyce and John, 16. 1. 41. Mrs. C. i n office to apply for a pre-school ch i ld to board. Her husband i s an insurance man. They have been married twelve years but they have no children. They were thinking of applying for a ch i ld to adopt but a friend persuaded them to try boarding one f i r s t . Mrs. C. seems an in te l l igen t , f a i r l y we l l -educated woman, who w i l l make a good foster mother. She brought up a friend's l i t t l e boy for several years and seems very fond of c h i l -dren. SOCIAL SERVICE EXCHANGE Neighbour-hood HOUSE Family HISTORY No record. C. A. Home v i s i t ed by D. S. registered 16. 1. 41, E. E l l i o t t , volunteer. Working class d i s t r i c t of smaller homes. Scott Collegiate i s a few blocks away. Exterior: A small four roomed house, recently painted. The front lawn i s only i n f a i r con-d i t i on . In the back are f ru i t trees. The fence mas fa l len down but i s being repaired. Interior: Inside are four rooms; l i v i n g room, dining room, bedroom and kitchen. They are small and f a i r l y well furnished. Mrs. C. w i l l turn the dinind room into a bedroom. , Mrs. C. had been i n bed a l l day and the house was rather untidy. Man: John Charles Clinton born 1902 i n Toronto. He attended a private school u n t i l he went over-seas at the age of fourteen. After his d i s -charge he went to a technical school. He was i n the mounted police for four years. He was i n -terested i n engineering and worked at the Patt-u l l o Bridge i n New Westminster. For the past two years he has been i n real estate. He owns his own business.. Woman: Joyce Adams born 1908 i n Vancouver. She attended Maple Ridge public school and Douglas Collegiate. She attended the University of B. C. for a year but stopped because her mother died and her father wanted her at home. She looked after the house for a year and then took a busi-ness course and worked as stenographer for a packing company for t?ro years. She married i n Vancouver i n 1929. Mrs. C. i s a slim attractive woman of medium coloring. Her hands were ex-ceptionally well groomed. RELATIVES Mrs. C's father and brother l i v e at Seattle, Washington; while Mr. C's mother l ives i n Toronto,. HEALTH Mrs. C. had a s l ight nervouc breakdown when she worked but i s now i n good health. She had a thorough medical check recently. The doctors cannot determine why she cannot have children. FINANCE RELIGION Mr. C. has his own business at Broadway and Granvi l le . He earns $200 a month. He runs a car and has a gas b i l l of $25. The rent of the house i s $40 per month. Mr. and Mrs. C. plan to buy a home whenever they see a good buy. Anglican. Mr. and Mrs. C. do not take an active interest i n the church and attend about once a month. INTERESTS Mrs. C. i s interested i n hiking. She and Mr. C. often spend their holidays on the island where they can go on long walks. Both Mr. and Mrs. C. are interested i n numerology and take lectures from a Mr. Wilson. REFERENCES Mrs. G..Smith, 1885 Smythe St. runs a beauty parlour. Sees Mrs. C. a great deal and does not hesitate to recommend her. She remarked that Mrs. C. i s unable to have children. Mrs. F . Brown, 2040 Nelson St. has known Mrs. C. for ten years. Before Mrs. Brown's marriage she l ived i n the upstairs of a house and Mr. and Mrs. C. l ived downstairs. Mrs. C. looked after Mrs. Brown's children and was keenly interested i n them. Mrs. C. s t i l l l ikes to take them out and. arranges outings for them. Dr. Jones cannot re-c a l l either Mr. or Mrs. C. RECOMMEND-ATION This would be a nice home for a c h i l d . I t would be advisable to place a boy here as Mrs. C. has had experience with small boys. FOSTER HOME INVESTIGATION Mary and James P h i l l i p s APPLICATION SOCIAL SER-VICE INDEX TO REACH NEIGHBOUR-HOOD HOME FAMILY HISTORY Rev. Black of Metropolitan United Church re-ferred the above named as prospective foster parents. Mrs. P. telephoned and a v i s i t was made to the home. No registrat ion. Home v is i ted by Miss Ada Howard, homefinder. Take a No. 5 street ear and get off at the 2300 block. Walk two blocks south. House i s i n the middle of the block. This house i s located i n the West End d i s t r i c t . Most of the houses i n this area are large old houses, many of which have been converted into suites. Central School and Metropolitan United Church are within easy reach. This i s an old seven room house i n need of paint. The rooms are f a i r l y large, not elaborate but comfortably furnished. There are four bedrooms and a foster chi ld would have his own bedroom. Man: Born i n London, England, September 1901. He completed grade XII at the age of seventeen. For seventeen years he has been employed as Superintendent of the Engineering Department of the Forestry Commission. Because of the nature of his work he i s out of town a great deal of the time. At present he i s supervising some project at Powell River. Woman: Mary Edith P h i l l i p s , nee Smith, was born i n Vancouver A p r i l 23 1902. After completing grade XII at the age of seventeen she was employ-ed by a bookbinding f i rm. Mrs. P. presents rather a nice appearance. Her hair i s worn upswept with a braid. She ap- • pears to be an a ler t , efficient woman and one who takes an active interest i n the community. U n t i l recently she has been an executive of the loca l parent-teacher's group. However, she stated that her home comes f i r s t and she does not allow her outside interests to interfere with her family responsib i l i t ies . For instance, she always makes a point of being home i n the after-noon when her boys return from school. In discussing the various needs of C. A. S. children, Mrs. P. seemed to he quite under-standing hut she made i t clear that i t would be most d i f f i c u l t for her husband to accept a chi ld who was not permanent. Worker was quite frank i n pointing out that most of the children with whom we deal are ones who have one or other parent i n the picture. Also explained to Mrs. P. that i n a few cases our children do return to their homes. Worker did not wish to discourage Mrs. P. but on the other hand, worker f e l t i t was necessary for Mrs. P. to have a clear picture of C. A. S. MARRIAGE Vancouver, August 1931. CHILDREN Jonathan: 15; Donald: 10. Both boys appear nor-mal healthy and well trained. They are very pol i te and worker noted that their mother cal ls them by their f u l l names. RELATIVES Man: Brother, Samuel P h i l l i p s , Real Estate Agent, Robson Street. HEALTH RELIGION Good. Physician: Dr. West. Mr. and Mrs. P. are both members of Metropolitan United Church. The boys have group associations with the church. FINANCE INTERESTS MOTIVES Mr. P. earns $250 a month. Mrs. P. i s interested i n church work and also P.T.A. groups. Mr. and Mrs.-P. f e l t that their home would be complete i f they could enjoy the company of a g i r l . The boys are also interested i n having a l i t t l e s i s te r . CHILD A g i r l between the ages of four and eight would be most suitable for this home. In view of the ages of Mr. and Mrs. P. a g i r l around eight would actually be more suitable. I t i s advisable that a chi ld with few family ties be placed here and preferably one who would be quite permanent. Mr. and Mrs. P. are w i l l i n g to wait at least a year, and i f no permanent chi ld i s available during that time the matter w i l l be dropped. Mrs. P. would prefer references not be v i s i t ed u n t i l C. A. S. defini tely has a ch i ld i n mind for her. B I B L I O G R A P H Y Specific References Clothier, Florence, "The Problem of Frequent Replacement of the Young Dependent Chi ld , " Mental Health, October, 1937. Gass, Gertrude Z . , Study of the Replacement of Children i n  Foster Homes, (Thesis) University of Michigan, 1942. Silberpfennig, Judith, and Thornton, Frances E . , "Prepara-t ion of Children for Placement and Replacement," The Family, Vo l . 23: 146 - 152, June 1942. Verry, Ethel, Replacement in Child Care, New York, Child Welfare League of America, 1948. General References Camp, Sophie, "A Staff Studies i t s Homes and Faces i t s Home finding Problems," Child Welfare League of America Bu l l e t in , A p r i l 1942. "Child Placement," Canadian Council of Child and Family Wel-fare, September - October, 1925. "Child Welfare Moves Forward," Social Service Association  Bul le t in , Washington, United States Children's Bureau, Fer-ruary, 1947. "Everybody's Children," Board of Public Welfare, Dis t r i c t of Columbia, U. S. A. Great Br i t a in , Report of the Care of Children, London, H. M. Stationery Office, September, 1946. Hamilton, Gordon, Psychotherapy and Child Guidance, New York, Family Service Association, 1948. Hopkirk, Harry, Institutions Serving Children, New York, Russell sage Foundation, 1944. Hutchinson, Dorothy, In Quest of Foster Parents, New York, Columbia University Press, 1943. Hutchinson, Dorothy, "The Parent-Child Relationships as a factor i n Child Placement," The Family, A p r i l 1948. B I B L I O G R A P H Y (Continued) General References Continued. Jewish Child Care Association of New York, An Experimental  Use of the Temporary Home. New York, Child Welfare League of America, 1947. Jolowicz, Alemeda 1., "A Foster Child Needs His Own Parents," "The C h i l d . " August, 1947. Lundberg, E. 0., Unto the Least of These. New York, Appleton-Century Co., 1947. v . Paradise, V i o l a , Toward Public Understanding of Case Work. New York, Russell-Sage Foundation, 1948. Pyles, Mary Lois, I n s t i t u t i o n s f or Child Care and Treatment. New York, Child Welfare League of America, New York, 1947. Richman, Leon H., Problems of Foster Care. Canadian Welfare Council,. Ottawa, 1948. Richman, Leon H., "Responsibility f o r the Use of Interim and Emergency Placement," S o c i a l Service Review, Vol. 20, Sep-tember, 1946. Spock, Benjamin, Baby and Child Care. Montreal, Pocket Books of Canada, 1947. Standards for Children's Organizations Providing Foster Fam- i l y Care. New York, Child Welfare League of America, 1941. Thurston, Henry, The Dependent Ch i l d . New York, Columbia University Press, 1930. Young, Ruth, "As a Foster Mother Sees I t , " Concerning Children, Ottawa, Canadian Welfare Council, March, 1949. Note: As f a r as the writer was able to determine there i s a dearth of material on the s p e c i f i c subject of multiple placement of foster children. Reference to i t i n the general bibliography arises only i n an i n c i d e n t a l way. 

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