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The early life and early governorships of Sir Arthur Edward Kennedy Gilliland, Henry Cecil 1951

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THE EARLY LIFE AND EARLY G0VEHN0B3HIPS  OF SIR ARTHUR EDWARD KENNEDY by Henry C e c i l G i l l i l a n d oOo A thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of MASTER OP ARTS i n the Department oOo THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1951 ABSTRACT OF  THE EARLY LITE AND EARLY GOVERNORSHIPS OF SIR ARTHUR EDWARD KENNEDY by Henry C e c i l G i l l i l a n d S i r Arthur Edward Kennedy, G.C.M.G., C.B., was i n many respects a t y p i c a l B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l governor of the nine-teenth century. His family was a branch of the noble Kennedy family headed by the S c o t t i s h E a r l s of C a s s l l l i s . His immediate ancestors were country squires i n long possess-ion of an ample and prosperous estate at Cultra, County Down i n Northern Ireland. They were d i r e c t l y connected by marriage with the families of the Earl s of E n n i s k i l l e n and of Londonderry. Like other great landowners i n t h e i r region, the Kennedys were resident and "improving" landlords, e f f i c i e n t l y conscious of t h e i r obligations to t h e i r dependents. They were a t y p i c a l service family, marked by a high degree of mental and physical vigour. They were members o f the Church of England and Ireland and were intensely l o y a l t o the B r i t i s h connection. The younger sons attained to good rank i n the navy, the army and the c o l o n i a l s e r v i c e . Arthur Edward was born at Cultra on A p r i l 9, 1809. He was brought up by pious and enlightened parents i n a secure and happy home—the f i f t h c h i l d i n a family of eleven c h i l d -ren. He was educated at home by private tutor u n t i l 1823, when at the age of fourteen he went up to T r i n i t y College, Dublin, f o r a year of contact with h i s fellows. His formal eduoation was the t y p i c a l c l a s s i c i s m of the e a r l y nineteenth c e n t u r y — a process decried today, but nevertheless an i n t e g r a l part of a whole system, that was highly e f f e c t i v e f o r h i s c l a s s . The main e f f e c t of h i s youth was by i t s seourity to develop i n him an assurance of the worth of h i s own ideas, a confident and gracious bearing, and a true k i n d l i n e s s . During h i s youth and young manhood, Arthur was influenced by several strong currents of thought that showed p l a i n l y i n h i s l a t e r l i f e . His class assumed that i t was possessed of a monopoly of p o l i t i c a l wisdom. His outlook was therefore never democratic. Bather was i t i n s p i r e d by a b e l i e f that he was responsible f o r the welfare of people placed under h i s care. His region and h i s family were Tory. He became a Conservative i n p o l i t i c s — i n f l u e n c e d by the l i b e r a l i s m of h i s age. The basic Influence of his childhood was the sturdy independence of the country s q u i r e — c a r r i e d down to him from h i s eighteenth century ancestors by o f t -repeated maxims. Arthur always held a f i r m b e l i e f i n the v i r t u e of s e l f - r e l i a n c e . He r e a d i l y absorbed the p o l i c y of l a i s s e z - f a i r e . Another major influence on h i s l i f e was the strong force of Evangelical r e l i g i o n . I t not only reinforoed h i s family t r a i n i n g i n pious, upright and honourable conduct, but also helped to produce a ce r t a i n narrow i n t e n s i t y and an intolerance of other opinion when he was sure that any chosen course of action was b a s i c a l l y r i g h t . I t possibly contributed to h i s habit of blunt statement of his b e l i e f or opinion. The strong humanitarianism predominant i n the United Kingdom during h i s youth joined with Evangel-i c a l i s m to produce i n him a true f e e l i n g o f brotherhood towards subject native peoples, a s o l i c i t u d e f o r the wel-fare o f the African negro, a sincere interest i n prison reform and the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of convicts, a determination to curb the e v i l s of l i q u o r t r a f f i c and a desire to f o s t e r Bible s o c i e t i e s and the Sunday school movement* Yet Arthur Kennedy was a t y p i c a l product of h i s age i n that his ideas were a product of compromise. Though he was never a r a d i c a l i n outlook, i t i s probable that he was influenced t o some extent by Benthamite proposals so vigorously advanced during the period of h i s young man-hood. Certainly h i s attitude toward education was broader than that of the average Evangelical. That attitude was to r e s u l t i n enlightened, p r a c t i c a l and e f f e c t i v e action f o r the establishment o f common non-sectarian schools. He likewise gave strong support to mechanics' i n s t i t u t e s and l i t e r a r y i n s t i t u t e s . One of the f i n e s t produots of the enlightenment of • 4 -h i s childhood home was a sincere r e l i g i o u s tolerance* In 1827 Arthur entered the army as an ensign i n the 27th (or i n n l s k i l l i n g ) Regiment of Foot. In the same year he transferred t o the 11th Regiment of Foot because that unit suddenly had the prospect of active service i n defence of the l i b e r t y of Portugal. The hope was d i s -appointed and h i s regiment spent ten years of garrison duty i n the Ionian i s l e s . At the beginning of 1638, however, i t was hurried to North America to suppress any f u r t h e r out-break of r e b e l l i o n i n the Canadas and to ward o f f any attack from across the American border. At the beginning of 1839 Great B r i t a i n and the United States were brought very close to war over the Maine-New Brunswick boundary. The U t h Regiment was moved into the disputed t e r r i t o r y and was there i n the Madawaska fores t s during t h i s dispute u n t i l i t s settlement i n March. At that time Lieutenant Kennedy returned to B r i t a i n to be married. On the return of the 11th Regiment to the united Kingdom i n 1840, he s o l d out and purchased a captaincy, unattached, on half-pay. For a time he entered imperial p o l i t i c s i n the e l e c t i o n campaign of 1841. However, when i t appeared again that war might break out with the United states, he purchased a captaincy i n a regiment that was being moved to strengthen the B r i t i s h army i n North America, the 68th Regiment of Light i n f a n t r y . He was des-tined, however, to serve t i l l 1844 i n simple garrison duty i n Canada. Kennedy was always interested i n p o l i t i c s . During h i s army service i n New Brunswick and i n Canada, he had h i s one opportunity to observe c o l o n i a l governors i n action before he i n turn became a governor. In the main he observed men-S i r John Harvey, Lord Sydenham and s i r Charles M e t c a l f e — who succeeded i n u n i t i n g the functions of chief minister with that of governor, un the whole he saw successful opposition to the adoption of responsible government. In a l l the governors he observed, except S i r Charles Bagot, he saw men who successfully implemented t h e i r determination that the function of the governor was to govern. I t i s probable that these examples had a d i s t i n c t bearing on h i s own ideas. He was always to prefer the more authoritative forms of government. His army experience was likewise instrumental i n turn-ing his mind toward a b e l i e f i n the value of prompt punish-ment f o r any offence. Yet his o f f i c e r ' s code deepened h i s habit of paternal oare f o r the welfare of those placed under h i s charge. The sum of the influences of h i s army period on Kennedy was to reinforce h i s aptitude f o r c r i s p and e f f i c i e n t action and to deepen hi s tendency toward imperious** ness. I t was on May 18, 1839, that Arthur Kennedy married Geopgina Macartney—daughter of a family very s i m i l a r to h i s own. They had three children, Elizabeth, born i n Montreal i n 184B, Arthur, born i n London i n 1845, and Gearrgina, born i n Ireland i n 1846. In 1846 Captain Kennedy entered the humane service of r e l i e f of d i s t r e s s during the I r i s h famine. E a r l y i n 1847 he was a supervising inspector of r e l i e f measures under S i r John Burgoyne. From the f a l l of 1847 to 1851 he was a Poor Law inspector i n K l l r u s h , County Clare, where he was responsible f o r the welfare of some eighty thousand people* In t h i s service he faced danger of smallpox or fever, threats or actual attack on h i s person with equal i n d i f f e r e n c e . E f f i c i e n t i n the management of his union, he demanded e f f i c i e n c y from his subordinates or r u t h l e s s l y drove them from the system. He was t i r e l e s s and s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g i n the service of the deserving poor. Tet he was determined that a l l able-bodied men should r e l y on t h e i r own exertions. When i t became necessary to give them r e l i e f , he did so only i n the work-house, and there he saw to i t that they gave f u l l return i n hard work. His action was wisely based on h i s f i r m b e l i e f i n the value of s e l f - r e l i a n c e . In t h i s e f f i c i e n t union a larger part of expenditure was made f o r the benefit of those r e a l l y i n need of help than i n any other union i n t h i s most distressed part of Ireland. Thereafter h i s memory was held i n affectionate regard. In 1852 Arthur Kennedy was made governor of the negro colony of S i e r r a Leone. His regime was marked by encouragement of education. I t was notable also f o r the f i r s t organized attention to sanitary reform that the colony had known—minor i n degree but i n advance of the age. The work was c a r r i e d on not by the state, but by a voluntary improvement society under Kennedy 1s leadership. The governor r u t h l e s s l y suppressed the v i c i o u s practice of s e l l i n g apprenticed negro c h i l d r e n to slavers just outside the colony—an abuse that had been the despair of his predecessors. There was some suspicion among his detractors that he had used a r b i t r a r y methods i n achieving t h i s desirable end. S i e r r a Leone depended on trade. Kennedy's management of trade regulations was characterized by a high degree of administrative s k i l l . His handling of finances was likewise admirable. His f l a i r f o r courtly language and ceremony, coupled with a true f e e l i n g of brotherhood with the negro, made him successful i n handling complicated e x t r a - t e r r i t o r i a l r e l a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t of that success a r i c h trading region, the Sherbro country, was brought Into c l o s e r relations with B r i t a i n — a n d i n due course became part of the oolony. While the governor was just and f r i e n d l y i n h i s dealings with nearby native c h i e f s , he was firm i n his demands f o r reparation i n the one instance when a B r i t i s h subject was seriously wronged during his regime. This union of courtesy, just dealing and firmness made h i s handling of relations with nearby t r i b e s a r e a l success. B r i t i s h prestige was thereby increased and trade improved. In s p i t e of the importance of a l l trade r e l a t i o n s , the governor refused to use money from the co l o n i a l treasury to b u i l d a wharf f o r the ships of the African Steamship Company and thereby earned some unpopularity from the ship captains of that powerful company; In S i e r r a Leone as elsewhere. Governor Kennedy was not-able f o r h i s reverent attendance at the services of the Church of England. In t h i s colony he sat with equanimity under a negro clergyman. In t h i s colony the form of government made the governor supreme. He had sole charge of executive a f f a i r s and h i s L e g i s l a t i v e Council was e n t i r e l y appointive, consisting mainly of highly competent negro o f f i c i a l s ; These men were extremely l o y a l id B r i t a i n because of t h e i r gratitude f o r that country's blows against the slave trade. Their tendency was to be almost excessively deferential to the Queen's rep-resentative. The courtesy with which Governor Kennedy treated them, not only i n o f f i c i a l matters but i n s o c i a l a f f a i r s also, must have deepened t h e i r d i s p o s i t i o n to agree with h i s opinions and decisions with l i t t l e debate* S i e r r a Leone proved to be the very type of colony i n which Kennedy could most successfully improve the interests of the people and of the empire. Yet t h i s experience tended to ingrain more deeply into him his early tendencies to dominance and to f o r t h r i g h t statement of h i s opinion on every matter. These q u a l i t i e s of vigorous domination of any s i t u a t i o n were shown as he returned home on the steamship Forerunner. When the ship was wrecked by the master's incompetent handling, the f o r c e f u l governor controlled a panic-stricken crew and saved many l i v e s . In 1855 Captain Kennedy was appointed to the governorship of the struggling colony of Western A u s t r a l i a . Handicapped by a mistaken land p o l i c y at i t s foundation, and further hampered by the ap p l i c a t i o n of the Wakefield land system when i t was too l a t e , t h i s colony had been the scene of continued gloom and economic depression; In 1850 the system of transportation of convicts to t h i s colony had been accepted i n the hopes that the accompanying large imperial expenditures and ass i s t e d free immigration would bring prosperity. However, the £apac% these expenditures, i n the absence of increased production., resulted i n such a high rate of importation that the colony plunged into a new depression. In that s i t u a t i o n the i n f l u x of a s s i s t e d f r e e Immigration was an embarrassment. I t was necessary to esta b l i s h the dole and to ask that Immigration be stopped. The c o l o n i a l treasury was i n as bad shape as the economic condition of the people; In 1855, when Kennedy arrivedj there were no funds a v a i l a b l e to pay the s a l a r i e s - 10 ~ of the o f f i c i a l s , and the colony was deep i n debt. Moreover, the imperial government, i n view of i t s large expenditures i n the colony f o r convicts, had just put Into force a re-duction of grants i n aid of government. Thus the new governor arr i v e d when the people were In a surly mood of anger against a poor land system, an authoritative form of government and the f a i l u r e of heavy imperial expenditures on convicts to cure the f i n a n c i a l i l l s of the colony; Governor Kennedy met the f i n a n c i a l bankruptcy of Western A u s t r a l i a with vigorous ruthlessness. He cut down the number of government employees, reduced expenditures, demanded work i n return f o r the dole, and forced h i s appointive L e g i s l a t i v e Council to agree to measures of greatly increased taxation. Although he was met with hatred f o r these stern measures, he succeeded i n bringing the colony's decline to a h a l t ; Kennedy's unpopularity was increased when he turned h i s attention to the e v i l s of the l i q u o r t r a f f i c ; He saw that one of the most harmful features of t h i s trade was the possession of licences by cond i t i o n a l l y pardoned convicts who used t h e i r position t o draw ticket-of-leave men into trouble and then blackmail them. Although the only condition of t h e i r pardon was that they might not return to the United Kingdom, Kennedy pushed through a law denying conditional pardon men the right to hold l i q u o r l i c e n c e s . In t h i s action he had the support of the leaders of h i s church, but his enemies r i g h t l y marked i t as an a r b i t r a r y withdrawal of the r i g h t s of free men* This feature of the law was not confirmed by the home government. The e f f i c i e n t but unloved governor had i n the meantime turned h i s attention to po s i t i v e measures f o r bringing prosperity. Under h i s c a r e f u l supervision h i s e f f i c i e n t Executive Council worked well and suc c e s s f u l l y to devise a completely new land system* the only one that had ever given general s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h i s colony* In a new s p i r i t of confidence the people began to take up farming and pastoral lands. The governor had i n the meantime been push~ ing forward a systematic p o l i c y of exploration f o r good pastoral land. This p o l i c y was successful. A great new area of suit a b l e land was discovered i n the northwest* Within a decade these vigorous and well-planned measures were to bring to Western A u s t r a l i a the f i r s t prosperity i t had ever known. S t i l l Kennedy was not popular* The reason anger was s t i r r e d so strongly against him was h i s stubborn adherence to any p o l i c y once marked out by c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . He had clashed with vested i n t e r e s t s over l i q u o r l i c e n c e s . He came into c o n f l i c t with vested interests again when he t r i e d to bring lightermen i n the ports under more e f f i c i e n t regulation. His greatest unpopularity was occasioned when he wisely refused to b u i l d a railway f o r the benefit of a private copper mining company. The governor made his decision on the basis of unduly f l u c t u a t i n g prices f o r copper on world markets. However, h i s enemies were able to S t i r up great anger against him because there was now a f a t surplus i n the c o l o n i a l treasury, and his r e f u s a l to b u i l d the railway was regarded as parsimonious; Kennedy had other plans f o r that surplus; Without bothering to consult his L e g i s l a t i v e Council, he spent i t on a great programme of public works; Moreover, he earmarked a l i k e sum from the revenues of the next year, although h i s term of o f f i c e was up. His successor was fcapced to follow along the l i n e s Kennedy had l a i d down and to regularize h i s domineering ac t i o n . Yet the colony i n the new prosperity brought by Kennedy1 s wise measures was well able to a f f o r d these well-planned expenditures. One of the f i n e s t aspects of Kennedy's administration was h i s supervision of the convict system. The c o l o n i s t s did not l i k e h i s p o l i c y because they r i g h t l y charged that he thought f i r s t i n terms of imperial i n t e r e s t ; He refused to use the convict labour to b u i l d many great public buildings f o r the use of the c o l o n i s t s . Instead, he kept the convicts away from the towns* His p o l i c y — i n which he had the close cooperation of a humane and e f f i c i e n t comptroller of convicts--was as quickly as possible to get the convicts out of prison i n t o work on road-building and lamd-elearing, and from there into private employment on ti c k e t - o f - l e a v e . During t h i s period of tioketr-of-leave the men had s t r i c t supervision but were given every encouragement to succeed. This p o l i c y of t r y i n g to r e h a b i l i t a t e men by the healing power of hard work i n the open country was one of true v i s i o n ; Arthur Kennedy's governorship xaf Western A u s t r a l i a was marked by h i s imperious acceptance of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l a i d on h i s shoulders by an authoritative system of govern-ment; His tendency to dominance made him unpopular; Yet t h i s man not only brought the colony into f u l l s t r i d e of the only prosperity i t had ever known, but his wise superinten-dence of the convict system gave to those convicts a greater chance to succeed i n t h e i r new home. That was a g i f t of great worth to the colony. In 1862 Arthur Edward Kennedy was rewarded f o r h i s successful governorship of Western A u s t r a l i a by the order of Companion of the Bath. We see him at that time, s t i l l i n the f i r s t part of his career as a c o l o n i a l governor, enlightened, humane, e f f i c i e n t and upright, but marked by a stubborn ad-herence to h i s own plans and by a tendency to imperipusness that had been deeply ingrained In h i s character by the nature of his early governorships; CORRECTIONS Pi 10 • - n.2 - Change NIcolls to Nichols p. 86 • - n . l * Change Alsbury to Albury p* 100 • - n i l - Change Alsbury to Albury Pi 151 • - 1.15 - Change conformed to confirmed P» 177 : - 1.3 - Change Hubert to Herbert P' 201 -- n.5 - Change Alsbury to Albury p. 203 • - n.3 - Underline Edinburgh Review P« 207 -- n.3 - Change Alsbury to Albury P. 249 • - n.3 - Change Alsbury to Albury P» 284 • - n.2 - St r i k e out apostrophe a f t e r Governor P» 441 r : n.7 - Change Alsbury to Albury P* 442 -- 1.8 - Change Alsbury to Albury P» 452 • - 1.2 - Change Alsbury to Albury P* 459 • - Newspapers - Change Alsbury to Albury TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE Preface I I Family Background 1 II Home Influences 48 I I I Education 62 IV Young Manhood 92 V The Army 143 VI I r i s h Famine Years 203 VII West A f r i c a 251 VIII Western A u s t r a l i a 326 Appendix No. 1 441 Bibliography 443 Sources of I l l u s t r a t i o n s 469 Register of Research Correspondence 470 ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS FACING PAGE 1. S i r Arthur Edward Kennedy, G.C.M.G., G.B., (oa.1880) Frontispiece 2. Map to show the p o s i t i o n of Cultr a 9 3. Cu l t r a 1832 rr a f t e r an engraving by E. K. PIvater 57 4. Map to show the t e r r i t o r y involved i n the Maine-New Brunswick boundary dispute 171 5. The Province of Munster 212 6. West A f r i c a 258 7; Western A u s t r a l i a 327 8; Arthur Edward Kennedy (ca.1862) 393 PREFACE Arthur Edward Kennedy was Governor of Vancouver Island from 1864 to 1866; I t was a period of economic depression and of c o n f l i c t over issues raised before he arrived* An attempt to study that governorship and Kennedy's contribution to the important events of the period, e s p e c i a l l y those l e a d " ing up t o the union of Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1866, showed that a f a i r estimate of Governor Kennedy could not be made without an understending of his early l i f e and career previous to t h i s governorship* This study was undertaken t o make a contribution to that understanding. A major part of the research was done at the P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y and Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia at V i c t o r i a , B. C. Mr. WiUard Ireland, P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n and A r c h i v i s t , and his s t a f f s , have given ready and capable assistance at a l l | times; Miss Madge Wolfenden, Assistant A r c h i v i s t * and Miss Marjorie Holmes, Assistant P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n , have jplaced every f a c i l i t y at the disposal of t h i s study; JMrs. C h r i s t i n e Fox. has given quick, competent and cheerful help over a long period. E s p e c i a l thanks are due to the s t a f f of t h i s l i b r a r y f o r the securing of many books and materials by i n t e r - l i b r a r y loan. Sincere thanks are also extended t o Miss Mabel Lanning and Miss Anne M. Smith of the Library at the Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia; to Dr. W. Kaye Lamb, Dominion. A r c h i v i s t , f o r making invest i g a t i o n at the Public Record O f f i c e i n London on behalf of the wri t e r ; to Major F. V. Longstaff f o r his kindness i n making accessible many sources not available i n public l i b r a r i e s ; to Dr. J . S. Battye, P r i n c i p a l L i b r a r i a n and Secretary of the Public Library of Western A u s t r a l i a , f o r gracious provision of spe c i a l information; and to the many other l i b r a r i a n s who have always been so ready to help. The Kennedy family has been most h e l p f u l and gr a t e f u l thanks are extended to Mrs. F. M. Kennedy, F i l a b n s i , Southern Rhodesia; Mr. Bobert Day Kennedy, Krugersdorp, Union of South A f r i c a ; Miss Maud Kennedy of Cultra; and Mr. Arthur Edward Kennedy Bunnell of Toronto, Ontario* Kindest thanks are extended to Mrs. F. M. Kennedy and to Mr. Bruce A. McKelvie f o r pictures. I f some degree of h i s t o r i c a l balance has been achieved i n t h i s study, i t i s l a r g e l y due to the wise and f r i e n d l y guidance of Dr. Walter N. Sage, Professor and Head of the Department of History at the university of B r i t i s h Columbia; Grateful thanks are extended t o my wife, Katharine, f o r her support and assistance i n t h i s work. H.C.Gf V i c t o r i a , B; C , September 1951. S i r Arthur Edward Kennedy, G.C.M.G., C.B», ca.1880. Frontispiece THE EARLY LIFE AND EARLY GOVERNORSHIPS  OF SIR ARTHUR EDWARD KENNEDY CHAPTER I FAMILY BACKGROUND North-eastern Ireland i s separated from Scotland by-only twenty miles of water, a narrow channel that has offered but s l i g h t b a r r i e r to a movement of Scots into U l s t e r . In t h i s chapter we are going to follow the story of a S c o t t i s h family from the time of i t s seventeenth century migration into County Down. Ideas and values absorbed from country, class, group and changing events w i l l be sought out i n that story and we s h a l l t r y to d i s -cover how they have been passed on from generation to generation. In the end we may hope to disclose the deep group and family roots of thought and action of one of t h i s region's nineteenth century sons, S i r Arthur Edward Kennedy, G.C.M.G., C.B.,—a t y p i c a l c o l o n i a l governor of the V i c t o r i a n era* S c o t t i s h migration Into U l s t e r began to flow vigor-ously during Tudor times. When the f i n a l v i o l e n t period of Elizabeth's conquest was brought to a close, the north-eastern counties of Antrim and Down were quite t h i c k l y 1 s e t t l e d by S c o t t i s h f a m i l i e s . This stream of incoming Scotsmen increased i n the years following the accession of James I to the throne of England. There was place f o r them on the confiscated and war-wasted estates, which 1 Dunlop, Robert, Ireland from the earliest.times  to the present day, London, Oxford University Press, 1922, pp. 43-45, 69-71, and 89-90. could now be dis t r i b u t e d among the Icing's most trusted servants* Such a one was James Hamilton of Bangor, County Down, who had been sent there by the king long before the death of Elizabeth to ascertain what would be the attitude of the I r i s h to hi s succession* Hamilton was rewarded f o r h i s services by being created Viscount Clandeboye and was granted lands along the 1 f e r t i l e southern shores of Belfast Lough. This grant included the lov e l y estate of Cultra, which w i l l present-l y have the centre of our attention because i t was to become the home of the Kennedy family and Arthur Edward's birthplace* These early grants were followed by a steady natural flow of population from Scotland into Antrim and Down* In 1609 there began a c a r e f u l l y organized plantation of the other northern counties* This i n f l u x of people into the whole of U l s t e r was not a mere importation of foreign landlords as were the settlements i n southern Ireland. Here into the north-east, which Is a natural region somewhat separated by geography from the rest of the i s l a n d , there was a movement of every class of society, which resulted i n the establishment of a s e l f -contained community so securely rooted i n the new s o i l 1 Gibbs, the Hon. Vicary, editor, The complete  peerage of England. Scotland. Ireland. Great B r i t a i n  and the United Kingdom, extant, e x t i n c t o r dormant, London, the St* Catherine Press, 1913, 12 volumes, v o l . 3, pp. 222-223. 1 as to survive many p e r i l s and set-backs. At the same time large numbers of Presbyterian ministers, disgusted at the restoration of episcopacy i n Scotland, took refuge i n U l s t e r . Their earnest work discouraged intermarriage with the native I r i s h Roman Catholics and thus the Protestant 2 character of the plantation was f i r m l y f i x e d . This separation of peoples, imposed on the wide con-f i s c a t i o n s of James I, kept open among native Irishmen a wound of resentment. When there was added, i n mid-seventeenth century, a fear that the Puritan Parliament of England was going to suppress the Roman Catholic r e l i g i o n , U l s t e r flamed again into v i o l e n t r e b e l l i o n * This uprising of 1641 soon spread throughout Ireland. Eleven years l a t e r , when b i t t e r s t r i f e was brought to a close by the v i c t o r i e s of Cromwell, the Puritan Parliament determined to dispossess a l l the native population i n Munster, Leinster and U l s t e r . Those I r i s h landowners who could prove that they had not participated i n opposition to Parliamentary forces were allowed to take land i n distant Connaught and Clare. f The only I r i s h Catholics l e f t i n U l s t e r were land-l e s s peasants, who became tenants or labourers on the confiscated lands. Their lands were given to Cromwellian so l d i e r s or s o l d to immigrants from B r i t a i n . This ruthless settlement was followed by an acceleration of Immigration 1 Shearman, Hugh, U l s t e r . London, Robert Hale Limited, 1949, pp. 99-107. -2 Dunlop, Ireland from the e a r l i e s t times to the  present day, pp. 90-91. - 4 -from Scotland into north-eastern Ireland. In course of time a large part of the population i n t h i s region was made up of Protestant Scots, e s s e n t i a l l y B r i t i s h i n t h e i r attachments 1 and ways of thought. I t was during t h i s t h i r d quarter of the seventeenth century, when Sc o t t i s h migration into U l s t e r was going on apace, that the founder of the I r i s h Kennedy family, Hugh Kennedy, M.D., moved from Ayrshire to s e t t l e i n 2 B a l l y c u l t r a , County Down. He was a member of one branch 3 of the noble Kennedy family of Ayrshire, the E a r l s of C a s s i l l l s , who proudly traced t h e i r lineage to that S i r James Kennedy who had married Princess Mary Stewart, 1 Shearman, Hugh, Anglo-Irish r e l a t i o n s , London, Faber and Faber, 1948, p. 19, 2 Mrs.. F. M. Kennedy, to. H.. C. G i l l i l a n d . F i l a b u s i , Southern Rhodesia, February 18, 1949 and A p r i l 17, 1949, enclosure. During a v i s i t to Cultra Manor i n 1948 Mrs. Kennedy made a search through the family records. Her findings show that Dr. Hugh Kennedy moved from Ayrshire to Cultra i n 1668. This date, 1668, i s confirmed by Miss Maud Kennedy of Cultr a i n a note contained i n a l e t t e r , Mr. Robert Day Kennedy to H.C.G., The School of Mines, Canborne, England, May 7, 1949. (B a l l y c u l t r a means t e r r i t o r y or place of Cultra.) 3 Burke, S i r Bernard, A genealogical and heraldic  h i s t o r y of the landed.gentry of Ireland, London, Harrison and Sons, 1912, p. 366. 1 daughter of Robert H I of Scotland. From a study of 2 3 Burke's Peerage and G-ibbs' Complete Peerage i t would appear that Dr. Hugh Kennedy must have been a grandson of S i r Thomas Kennedy of Culzean, County Ayr, who was second son of the t h i r d E a r l of G a s s i l l i s . In 1763 the t i t l e moved into t h i s branch of the family and Hugh's great-- 4 grandson, John, was a claimant f o r the earldom. The coast of Belfast Lough, where Dr. Hugh Kennedy chose to s e t t l e , was by t h i s time t h i c k l y populated with S c o t t i s h f a m i l i e s * He therefore found himself speedily 5 at home. He had married Mary, daughter of Arthur Upton, who was probably that noted Presbyterian leader, the Arthur- Upton of Castle Upton at Carrickfergus, County 1 Gibbs, Complete peerage, v o l . 3, pp. 222r223. 2 Burke, S i r Bernard, Burke's genealogical and  heraldic h i s t o r y o f the_peerage, baronetage-and  Enlghtage..:privy council and order of precedence, London, Shaw Publishing CO. Ltd., 1938, pp. 87-90. 3 v o l . 3, pp. 79-80. 4 See below p.33. 5 Burke, Landed gentry o f Ireland, p. 366. 1 Antrim, just across Belfast Lough from C u l t r a . A sturdy-r o y a l i s t and an outstanding leader of the Presbyterians of h i s area i n r o y a l i s t causes, Upton stubbornly survived both the displeasure of the Cromwelllans and that of the I r i s h Parliament of James I I , the l a t t e r because of h i s active support of William m . Since the Restoration he had been a member of the I r i s h Parliament, where he 2 continued to hold h i s seat f o r f o r t y years. Family influence continuing to be strong, h i s grandson, Glotworthy Upton, became Baron Templetown i n 1776; and In 1806 John Henry Upton was i n turn promoted to the Viscounty of 3 Templetown. 1 Mrs. F. M. Kennedy t o H.C.G-.. F i l a b u s i , Southern Rhodesia, A p r i l 17, 1949, enclosure. Mrs. Kennedy says i t was t h i s Arthur Upton* The family records she consulted at Cultra included an incomplete family tree written by Charles Kennedy, son of Langford Kennedy (who was Arthur Edward's uncle). These family records prove to have more d e t a i l than the general genealogical h i s t o r i e s which give name and marriage d e t a i l s of only the eldest of Arthur Upton's eight sons and show no data concerning h i s ten daughters. (See Stephen, S i r L e s l i e and Lee, S i r Sidney, editors, The dictionary of national biography. London, Oxford University Press, since 1917, 22 volumes, v o l . 20, pp* 38-39.) The time of t h i s Arthur Upton's l i f e , the nearness of h i s home to Cu l t r a and the large number of daughters he had to marry o f f , a l l tend to confirm Mrs. Kennedy's findings• 2 Stephen and Lee, The dictionary of national biography, v o l . 20, pp. 38-39. (hereafter referred to as DNB.) 3 Burke's peerage. 1938, p. 2398 This t h i r d quarter of the seventeenth century, when Dr. Hugh Kennedy was thus e s t a b l i s h i n g a family i n U l s t e r , was a prosperous time f o r that region. I t was prosperous i n s p i t e of the English Parliament's adherence to the current economic theory that the i n t e r e s t s of a dependency must be subordinated to those of England. Even though England re-fused t o admit products of Ireland's pastoral industry and, by her Navigation Aots excluded Ireland from the c o l o n i a l market, Europe was open to I r i s h manufactures* The eastern counties of Ireland therefore saw a great increase of man-ufacturing, which brought employment and prosperity to thou-1 sands of people* That the Kennedys shared In t h i s prosperity i s shown by the f a c t that i n 1671 they were able t o purchase the f e r t i l e estate of C u l t r a from the E a r l of C l a n b r a s s i l 2 (Viscount Clandeboye). They s e t t l e d t h i s property at once on t h e i r young son, John, who was t h e i r t h i r d , h i s brothers 3 having died i n e a r l y childhood* This f i r s t Kennedy of Cultra was Arthur Edward's great^great grandfather* In 1671 the estate of C u l t r a was much l a r g e r than i t 4 i s now. Today the property, s t i l l i n possession of the 1 Lecky, A h i s t o r y of Ireland i n the eighteenth  century. London, Longmans, Green and company, 1902, 5 volumes, v o l . 1, pp. 173-175* 2 Burke, Landed gentry of Ireland. p» 366* 3 Mrs* F* M* Kennedy t o H.C.G.. A p r i l 17, 1949 enclosure* 4 Loe* e l t * Mrs* Kennedy says that a large part of the property was sold to the railway company by S i r Arthur's s i s t e r - i n - l a w a f t e r her husband died. The money was devoted to improvement of the remaining estate* Kennedy family, comprises nine hundred acres, the demesne 1 i t s e l f consisting of one hundred twenty acres. As the map facing page 9 shows, t h i s estate l i e s on the southern shore of Belfast Lough some s i x miles east of Belfast and two miles east of the ancient town of 2 Holywood. The great woods which had formerly clothed t h i s shore had been f e l l e d long before John Kennedy became possessed of Cultra, f o r a l l the r i c h forests of Antrim and Down had been cut i n Elizabethan times and the timber 3 sent to England. Under the competent management of the Kennedys, however, many parts of the property were 4 replanted u n t i l i t again became a b e a u t i f u l l y wooded area. For many miles beyond Holywood t h i s f e r t i l e p l a i n , pleasingly varied by gentle undulations, soon became dotted with other 5 s i m i l a r l y well-managed and b e a u t i f u l estates. With pleasant sunny slopes behind and a f i n e view of the h i l l s of Antrim across the i n l e t , C u l t r a was happily situated on a picturesque coast. 1 Robert Day- Kennedy to H.C.G., Cultr a Manor, Craigavad, County Down, January 10, 1949. Robert Day Kennedy i s the great-grandson of S i r Arthur and is.present head of the family. Mrs. F. M. Kennedy i s his mother. 2 Pronounced "Hollywood*1. 3 Leeky, Ireland i n the eighteenth century, v o l . 1, pp. 333-335. 4 Fraser, James, Handbook, f o r t r a v e l l e r s In Ireland* Dublin, McG-lashan and G i l l , n.d., p. 654. 5 Ibid., pp. 653-654 Along t h i s shore passed the main road from Belfast to Bangor and on to Donaghadee, which was sixteen miles from Belfast and a most Important port because of i t s nearness to Scotland. C u l t r a was consequently well placed both f o r pleasant contact with main centres of population and f o r disposal of the products of i t s farms. I t s nearness to Belfast and i t s easy communications were important factors i n the steady prosperity of the Kennedys. Because of the northern l a t i t u d e and rainy climate of t h i s region, i t s chief grain crop was oats, and oatmeal the main food of the people. Interspersed among oat f i e l d s and pastures were occasional f i e l d s of f l a x , l o v e l y bright green waving f i e l d s starred with d e l i c a t e blue flowers. While f l a x had been c u l t i v a t e d and l i n e n c l o t h made from remote times i n Ireland, i t was not u n t i l t h i s 1 l a t e seventeenth century that i t began to be of importance. A l l t h i s area close to Be l f a s t , because of Its l i g h t f r i a b l e s o i l and equable oceanic climate, was i n the next century to 2 see a great increase i n the production of f l a x . I t was e s s e n t i a l l y a small farmer's crop, hand-sown to get a close growth that would produce t a l l stems and long fibres; and cleaned, pulled, steeped, and even scutched by the farmer, his wife and children, This work was l i g h t and agreeable 1 Charley, William, Flax and i t s products. London, B e l l and Daldy, 1862, p. 1. 2 Praeger, F. L., ''The County of Down" i n U l s t e r , the o f f i c i a l publication of the U l s t e r Tourist i)e^el6pmeh'C Association,' Limited, Belfam, WW. W. Gleland, L t d . 1936, pp* 159 and 168. 1 and the product was of high value • Like t h e i r landlords, the farmers along the southern shore of Belfast Lough were of Sc o t t i s h o r i g i n . Their Ayrshire d i a l e c t , sandy complexions, frequent redheads, tartan shawls and neat well-mended cloth i n g a l l bore testimony to the likeness of t h i s population t o that of 2 the S c o t t i s h lowlands a short distance away; The common S c o t t i s h o r i g i n of many o f the gentry and the f a c t that t h e i r estates were close together, helped to make t h e i r existence an agreeable one. There were v i s i t s and p a r t i e s . Not f a r from C u l t r a Manor was the estate of 3 Mount Stewart, which had been established by Alexander Stewart, son of William Stewart o f B a l l y lawn Castle, County 4 Donegal. I t was probably on a v i s i t to Mount Stewart that John Kennedy met Martha, Alexander's s i s t e r . In a country where family t i e s were close and o f high p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f -5 icance, John's marriage to Martha Stewart was to be of great importance to the Kennedys, i n succeeding generations. The 1 Charley, William, Flax, p. 130. Z H a l l , Mr. and Mrs; S. C , Ireland, i t s scenery. character, and h i s t o r y . Francis Aj NIc o l l s and company, Boston, 1911, s i x volumes, v o l . 4, pp. 274-276. 3 See map facing page 9* 4 Stephen and Lee, DNB.. v o l . 18, pp. 1232-1233. 5 Londonderry, Charles Vane, Marquess of, Memoirs  and correspondence o f Viscount Castlereagh. second  Marquess, of Londonderry, two volumes. London. Henry Colburn, 1848, v o l . 1, p. 2. - 11 -Stewarts were i n f l u e n t i a l throughout the north, and Martha*s nephew was to become f i r s t S a r i of Londonderry, a powerful person i n h i s own r i g h t , but perhaps better 1 known as the father of the famous Viscount Castlereagh. Claiming a proud lineage of t h e i r own, the Kennedys were now link e d by marriage to two other important f a m i l i e s , the Uptons and the Stewarts. These f a m i l i e s were one day to become strong supporters of the I r i s h Government i n troubled p o l i t i c a l times. A basis was thus being l a i d f o r s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l alignments of Kennedys i n years to. come. Meantime, one of the most s t i r r i n g events i n the l i f e of t h i s great-great grandfather of Arthur Edward Kennedy was the sturdy resistance of the U l s t e r gentry to the armies of James II«~-a glorious episode summed up i n the names Londonderry, E n n i s k i l l e n and the Boyne. When William I H landed i n the t r u s t y Upton town of Carrickfergus, j u s t across the i n l e t from Cul t r a Manor, and moved on to Be l f a s t on that night i n 1690 two weeks before the Boyne, Z a l l the l o y a l h i l l s of C u l t r a blazed with welcoming f i r e s . However, the period following the Glorious Revolution was a hard one f o r Ireland, which had already been denied access to the English market f o r some of her products and 1 Stephen and Lee, DNB*» v o l . 16, pp. 1253-1245. 2 Maoaulay, T. B», The h i s t o r y o f England from  the accession of James H . London, Longnan, Brown Green and Longman, 1849,"five volumes, v o l . 3, p.616. - 12 -completely barred from trade with the colonies* Commercial influence, stronger than ever i n the councils of England, was now able to compel a controlled I r i s h Parliament to impose heavy taxes on the export of woollens. English woollen manufacturers were thus protected at the cost of complete r u i n f o r the industry which had been the mainstay 1 of the Protestant population i n Ireland. Meantime, the wealthier and more energetic parts of the Roman Catholic population were broken or forced into e x i l e by penal laws imposed by the I r i s h Parliament--laws which hampered t h e i r ownership of land and had the e f f e c t of discouraging 2 t i l l a g e . The r e s u l t of a l l these forces was to inaugurate a period of great poverty and misery over most of Ireland i n the early part of the eighteenth century* The t h i r d of the I r i s h Kennedys, Arthur Edward's great grandfather, who was c a l l e d Hugh a f t e r h i s grandfather, 3 therefore found h i s l o t cast i n a dark period. And yet h i s part of Ireland was the one section of the country that was not plunged into outright misery. While most of Ireland's land reverted to pasturage, agriculture was kept a l i v e i n 1 Lecky, Ireland i n the eighteenth century, v o l . 1, pp. 176-180. 2 Ibid. , pp. 131-133* 3 He l i v e d from 1711 to 1763. Mrs. F. M. Kennedy  to H.C.G*, November 13, 1949, enclosure. the areas near Belfast by a gradually increasing l i n e n 1 industry. Encouragement of Ireland's linens was England's return f o r protection of her own woollens. I r i s h l i n e n c l o t h was therefore admitted f r e e l y i n t o England and the coarser linens could be exported d i r e c t l y to c o l o n i a l markets. In addition the English Government assisted the industry by giving export bounties. The I r i s h Parliament likewise offered aid* I t fostered settlement i n northern Ireland Of s k i l f u l French refugees, who brought better methods of manufacture. Spinning schools were also opened i n every 2 county and prizes were offered f o r the best l i n e n s . Under the influence of these measures the industry i n the north gradually forged ahead. I t was s t i l l a domestic manufacture ca r r i e d on i n the homes of the peasantry by women and children. I t s income supporting a continuance of t i l l a g e by the men. The cottages of Cultr a and i t s neighbouring estates once again had t h e i r roofs neatly thatched and t h e i r walls made bright with whitewash* By the middle of the eighteenth century a l l the region around Belfast was marked by many improvements, by growing t r a f f i c , and by wealth and 3 prosperity. 1 Lecky, Ireland i n the eighteenth oentury, v o l . 1, pp. 124 and 229; 2 I b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 178-183. 3 I b i d . , p. 338 • 14 -In common with other landlords i n h i s area Hugh Kennedy therefore r e j o i c e d i n a great increase i n the value of h i s property and h i s ineome. In 1741, as times were growing more prosperous, he married Mabel, daughter of John Curtis 1 and s i s t e r of John Curtis of Mount Hanover, County Meath. 2 The e a r l y Kennedys had been Presbyterians and the f i r s t two heads of the I r i s h family had married daughters of Presbyterian f a m i l i e s * However, only a few of the landowning f a m i l i e s i n U l s t e r were of that f a i t h , the groat majority o f the gentry being members o f the established 3 church. Providing that the Kennedys married within the ascendant c l a s s (and they always did) the introduction of a problem o f divided r e l i g i o u s l o y a l t y was i n e v i t a b l e . Now i t i s c l e a r that at some point i n i t s e a r l y h i s t o r y the Kennedy family changed to the established church. Arthur 4 Edward Kennedy himself was an Anglican, and there are baptismal records i n the Anglican Church at Holywood to 5 indicate that h i s father's family were members Of that church. 1 Burke, Landed gentry o f Ireland. p. 366. 2 The B r i t i s h Colonist. V i c t o r i a , Vancouver Island, A p r i l 2, 1864, p. 3. 3 Leeky* Ireland i n the eighteenth century, v o l ; 1, pp. 423^424. 4 The B r i t i s h Colonist. V i c t o r i a , Vancouver Island, A p r i l 4, 1864, p. 3. 5 The Reverend B. S. Barber to the w r i t e r . The Vicarage, Holywood, County Sown, January 22, 1949. The records there begin i n 1808, records of the C u l t r a area before 1806 having been destroyed by f i r e i n Dublin. - 15 -Moreover, an o l d family book, now i n the possession of Mrs. F. M. Kennedy, indicates that the early family tombs were i n S t . Michael*s Church i n Dublin, which belonged to the 1 established f a i t h . I t i s probable that the family change from Presbyterianism to the Church of Ireland was made rather early i n the eight-eenth century. Dissenters were subject to i r r i t a t i n g d i s -a b i l i t i e s i n Ireland. Not only had the operation of the Toleration Act been withheld from Ireland, but i n 1704 a tes t clause i n an I r i s h Act excluded Presbyterians from holding o f f i c e under the Crown and made t h e i r marriages i r r e g u l a r 2 unless celebrated by an Episcopalian clergyman. Although Presbyterians were not prevented from open celebration of t h e i r worship, they were subject to frequent denunciation by the clergymen of the established church. Presbyterian p u l p i t s i n return thundered against the i d o l a t r y of episcopacy. Another f a c t o r that complicated the issue f o r the Kennedys as property holders was the strong influence gained by the Presbyterian ministers and t h e i r l a y elders over the peasantry 1 Mrs. F. M. Kennedy t o H.C.G.. F i l a b u s i , Southern Rhodesia, A p r i l 17, 1949. In 1948 Mrs. F. M. Kennedy and Miss Maud Kennedy of Cultr a went to Dublin to search f o r these family tombs and f o r baptismal records; They found that the early S t. Michael's had been destroyed by f i r e and with i t both tombs and records. Compare the l e t t e r from Rev. E. S. Barber, footnote, p. 14. (There are two Anglican churches of St; Michael i n Dublin today.) 2 Lecky, Ireland i n the eighteenth century, v o l . 1, pp. 425 and 188-190. In t h i s region. This hold now grew so strong that landlords became apprehensive l e s t t h e i r almost p a t r i a r c h a l ascendancy 1 over t h e i r tenants should be undermined. Consideration of family peace and of control over t h e i r tenants were not, however, the main reasons causing many Presbyterians to move into the established church at t h i s time. I t was rather the introduction into the former f a i t h i n many parts of U l s t e r of semi-Arian b e l i e f s which denied the doctrine of the T r i n i t y . When i n 1726 the A n t i -T r i n i t a r i a n New Light Movement caused open schism i n the Presbyterian body, many people who were scandalized at 2 these new doctrines took refuge i n the Church of Ire l a n d i I t seems highly probable, i n view of a l l the above circumr stances, that Hugh Kennedy was a member of t h i s more 3 orthodox group* Certainly the appointment of h i s son and 4 grandson to o f f i c e under the Crown indicates that they attended communion i n the established church, f o r i t was not u n t i l 1780 that abrogation of the Test Clause 1 Lecky, Ireland i n the eighteenth century, v o l , 1, pp. 427-428. 2 I b i d . . p. 438. 3 Stephen and Lee, DNB, v o l . 10, p. 1308. One of the leading Presbyterian ministers who continued to f i g h t the unorthodox doctrine from within that church was a Gilbert Kennedy, author i n 1721 of an able pamphlet, The new l i g h t i n a cl e a r l i g h t . 4 See below, pp .2/ and *+9. 1 permitted dissenters once again to hold public o f f i c e * As we have seen, the Kennedys were not alone i n t h i s t r a n s i t i o n to the established church. Hor i n U l s t e r was i t a t r u l y fundamental change* The Church of Ireland, aside from the fact that i t was episcopal, had i n that province tended to adopt C a l v i n i s t doctrines c l o s e l y 2 approaching those of the Presbyterian Church* In view of the r a d i c a l doctrines now being so widely adopted in the l a t t e r church, the Church of Ireland was a n a t u r a l haven f o r those of more orthodox outlook* Like the members of t h i s family i n general, Hugh and Habel Kennedy probably had several children, but we have records of only two of them* A daughter, Maria, married 3 John Crawford of Grawfordsburn. Crawfordsbum was another be a u t i f u l estate some f i v e miles eastward along the shore from Cultra* When Hugh and Mabel had t h e i r f i r s t son in 1 Maxwell, C. Dublin under the -Georges. 1714-1850. London, George G» Harrap and Co* Ltd., 1936, p. 32* Lecky, Ireland i n the eighteenth century., v o l * 1, pp. 429, 435 and v o l . 2, p. 244* 2 Shearman, Hugh, Anglo-Irish r e l a t i o n s . pp* 25 and 36. 3 Burke, Landed gentry of Ireland, p. 141. - 18 -1 1746, they c a l l e d him John i n the usual a l t e r n a t i o n between two favoured names. This John Kennedy of Cu l t r a , Arthur Edward's grandfather, was a happy, I n t e l l i g e n t and vigorous l a d . In 1763 at the early age of seventeen he came into possession of Cultra, "a clea r and ample estate which he made h i s constant home surrounded by a happy 2 tenantry". 3 Prom the f a c t that the family tombs were i n Dublin, I t i s evident that the Kennedys, l i k e other members of the ascendant class i n the eighteenth century, were beginning to form close t i e s with that busy second c i t y of the empire. However, i t was not u n t i l the beginning of the next century that t h i s family began to send I t s sons to T r i n i t y College, 4 Dublin. In the eighteenth century there was s t i l l too strong a l i n k with the family's ancient homeland. Young 1 Mrs. F. M. Kennedy to H.C.G-.. F i l a b u s i , Southern Rhodesia, A p r i l 17, 1949, enclosure, which gives John's dates as 1746-1801. Burke. Landed gentry of Ireland, p. 366, gives the date of his death as 1802. However, independent records i n another branch of the family confirm Mrs. Kennedy's records: Mr. A. E.-K. Bunnell to.H.C.G.. 880 Bay Street, Toronto, Ontario, October 5, 1950, enclosure (copy of a c l i p p i n g which gives the date of John's death as December 28, 1801.) 2 Mr. A. E. K. Bunnell to H.C.C., l o c . c i t . 3 See above p. 15* 4 See below p. 45. - 19 -John Kennedy therefore went to Glasgow Uni v e r s i t y ; In due course he was graduated with i t s usual degree of Master 1 Of A r t s . At Glasgow Un i v e r s i t y Kennedy must have been brought into contact with Its then prevalent r a t i o n a l i s t i c s p i r i t 2 of r e v o l t against Church authority and Church dogma. That he d i d not accept t h i s r a d i c a l outlook:, but rather chose adherence to the established church, Is evident from h i s acceptance of o f f i c e under the Crown. On h i s return t o Ireland he was made a J u s t i c e of the Peace, and i n 1769, at the e a r l y age of twenty-three, he was appointed High 3 S h e r i f f of County Down; Thus the l i n e of family thought and action was beginning to conform more and more c l o s e l y to the t y p i c a l pattern of Ireland's ascendant c l a s s : membership i n the established church, an awakening inter e s t i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s and a strong readiness to support the B r i t i s h connection i n a l l times of s t r e s s ; I t w i l l be shown i n due course that John Kennedy's entry into public o f f i c e i n 1769 was a highly s i g n i f i c a n t step. This trend of family a f f i l i a t i o n was further strengthened by John Kennedy's marriage to Elizabeth Cole, daughter of the 1 Burke, Landed gentry of Ireland, p. 366. 2 Lecky, Ireland i n the eighteenth century, v o l . 1, pp. 437-438. 3 Burke, op. o i t . . p; 366. 1 Reverend Henry Gole, whose father was member of the I r i s h Parliament f o r . E n n i s k i l l e n , and whose brother, John Cole, had been raised to the peerage as f i r s t Lord Mount Florence 2 on the accession of George I I I i n 1760; The Coles were strong supporters of the hard-pressed government i n Dublin Castle, and E l i z a b e t h Kennedy's f i r s t cousin, William Gole, second Lord Mount Florence, was i n due course to receive two promotions i n the peerage i n recognition of that e f f e c t i v e support. In 1776 he was made Viscount K n n i s k i l l e n 3 and i n 1789 he was elevated to the Earldom of K n n i s k i l l e n . John Kennedy was "p e c u l i a r l y blessed i n h i s wise s e l e c t i o n of merit with beauty". Elizabeth Kennedy, Arthur Edward's grandmother, was ten years younger than her husband. She l i v e d t i l l Arthur Edward was eighteen, deeply loved by her many chi l d r e n and grandchildren f o r her p i e t y and C h r i s t i a n f o r t i t u d e , f o r her bright cheerfulness, her sweetness of d i s p o s i t i o n and her a f f a b i l i t y of manner. She was a woman of remarkable i n t e l l i g e n c e and of great beauty, 4 untarnished by pride or- vanity. This i n t e l l i g e n t and 1 Burke, Landed gentry of Ireland, p. 366* 2 Burke's peerage. 1938, pp. 950-591. 3 Ibid ., p. 951. 4 The Hereford Journal. October 29, 1828—a c l i p p i n g i n the possession of Mr. Arthur Edward Kennedy Bunnell of Toronto, Ontario—copy enclosed i n Mr.. A;- E. K. Bunnell to H.C.G.. October 5, 1950. r- 21 r beautiful woman was an equal mate f o r her able and vigorous busband. I t i s evident that C u l t r a was a place of great happiness under the guidance of t h i s contented and kindly couple. The entry of John Kennedy, M.A., into o f f i c e under the Grown i n 1769 was one of many indications of a new trend i n I r i s h h i s t o r y , an awakening inter e s t among the i n t e l l i g e n t landed gentry i n the p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s of t h e i r country. Hitherto they had had l i t t l e p o l i t i c a l power because two-thi r d s of the seats i n the I r i s h House of Commons were subject to nomination by a few peers i n Whose hands were concentrated the ownership of those small boroughs having 1 r i g h t to representation. I t was t h i s group of dominant boroughrowners that c a r r i e d on the king's business i n Ireland. But now the i n t e l l i g e n t gentry as a whole, l e d by a few great I r i s h f a m i l i e s outside the dominant c i r c l e , began to concern i t s e l f that Ireland should have a parliament more representative of the whole Protestant landowning c l a s s . They wanted i t s duration l i m i t e d to a few years instead of a whole reign. They wanted i t s members to be forced to seek r e - e l e c t i o n on acceptance of place under the Crown. In short, they wanted to make parliamentary control a r e a l i t y , whereby to h a l t the long-continued subordination of I r i s h i n t e r e s t s 2 to those of England. 1 Lecky, Ireland i n the eighteenth century, v o l . 2t. pp. 56, 379. 2 Ib i d . , v o l . 1, p. 465 and v o l . 2, p. 53. ** 22 « Pressure of t h i s great body of a r t i c u l a t e opinion soon forced a reluctant B r i t i s h Government to permit the pla c i n g of an Octennial B i l l before the I r i s h Parliament and likewise forced the nominees of the great borough-owners to pass i t * In return the B r i t i s h Government hoped f o r an enlargement of the I r i s h army and the ri g h t to draw on i t f o r the greater secu r i t y of a troubled empire. On being assured that the bulk of t h i s army would always be retained i n Ireland, the country gentlemen gave t h e i r support and t h i s b i l l also was passed, but only with ungracious acquiescence by the boroughr-owners. The B r i t i s h Government now decided that i t was too dependent on t h i s t i g h t l y - k n i t band of dominant peers* The po l i c y of the Viceroy, Lord Townshend, was therefore to lur e away t h e i r supporters. He bought the votes of some i n f l u e n t i a l members of Parliament by t h e i r elevation to the peerage i n 1768 and by conceding government o f f i c e s to t h e i r f r i e n d s . He now turned to e n l i s t the support of the whole Protestant gentry, and, f o r a va r i e t y of reasons, he was able to gain the backing of many of them. They were happy that the country would not be denuded of those garrisons whieh constituted a bulwark f o r Protestant ascendancy. Of more importance, however, was t h e i r own desire to break the p o l i t i c a l monopoly of the great borough-owners. F i n a l l y , they were grateful f o r the Octennial Act, which was a great m 23 -1 step i n the ri g h t d i r e c t i o n . I t was i n these circumstances that John Kennedy accepted o f f i c e as High S h e r i f f of Down 2 i n 1769. His cousin, Robert Stewart, l a t e r to be f i r s t E a r l of Londonderry, likewise made hi s entry into the p o l i t i c a l f i e l d by winning e l e c t i o n to Parliament i n the 3 b i t t e r l y contested e l e c t i o n of that year. Nor was t h i s to be the l a s t time when the Stewart connection threw i t s 4 weight against the great borough-owners. Townshend's support at the hands of the body of the I r i s h gentry was to be very s h o r t - l i v e d as a r e s u l t of h i s t r i c k i n g of the newly-elected Commons. Having obtained supplies, he suddenly rebuked and prorogued Parliament because i t had not proved subservient. Kennedy's term of o f f i c e as High S h e r i f f expired right at t h i s time* I t seems very evident that he had withdrawn h i s support from Dublin Castle, f o r he accepted no further o f f i c e , although many were to be had at t h i s time, when Townshend was buying support by unexampled corruption i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of 5 peerages, baronetcies and well-paid places. This 1 Lecky, Ireland i n the eighteenth century, v o l . 2, pp. 78-96. 2 Burke, Landed gentry o f Ireland, p. 366. 3 Stephen and Lee, DNB. v o l . 18, p. 1232. 4 Ib i d . , p. 1233. 5 Lecky, pp. c i t . . v o l . 2, pp. 106-115. conclusion finds strong confirmation from a sentence i n an old comment concerning John Kennedy, "He was a man of s t r i c t probity and honour, sought no patronage tho' perhaps 1 within h i s reach 0. I t seems, therefore, that Kennedy's short period i n public o f f i c e was prompted by an i n t e l l i g e n t desire f o r moderate reform, and was terminated both by h i s sturdy independence and by a r e a l i z a t i o n that t h i s avenue would not lead to the desired goal. C r i s i s i n the a f f a i r s of empire, however, soon caused the gentry to r a l l y once again to support the government. Trouble i n the American colonies was rapidly mounting to the danger point and there were many people who declared that Ireland's interests l a y on the American side. Presbyterians i n the north were f i e r c e l y pro-American and strong i n opposition to the government's desire to support the mother 2 country. The Kennedys were undoubtedly at odds with t h e i r Presbyterian neighbours, for l o y a l t y to the B r i t i s h connection was so strong among the gentry that they were ready to subordinate consideration of t h e i r own grievances 3 to support of B r i t a i n i n her time of danger. When war 1 Mr* A.E.K. Bunnell to H.C.G.. October 5, 1950, enclosure. 2 McDowell, R. B., I r i s h public.-opinion..- 1750--1800, London, Faber and Faber, Ltd., 1944, pp* 39-50. Maxwell, C , Dublin under the- Georges, p. 32; 3 Lecky, Ireland i n the eighteenth century, v o l . 2, p. 160. McDowell, on. o i t . . pp; 62 and 117-118* broke out, the I r i s h Parliament speedily committed the country to the struggle; Opposition to the war, however, was s u f f i c i e n t l y strong to make Viceroy Lord Harcourt f e e l the necessity of streng^ thening l o y a l supporters by a s s i s t i n g t h e i r r e - e l e c t i o n i n 1 1776 or by r a i s i n g them to the peerage. While some of these rewards were undoubtedly given f o r new support, i t i s evident from the h i s t o r y o f John Kennedy's family connections that t h e i r promotions were won a f t e r they had been I d e n t i f i e d f o r 2 some time with the p o l i c y of outright support f o r B r i t a i n A S o l i d i t y of family groups i n U l s t e r ' s p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s and, f o r that matter, of the whole Anglican gentry i n County Down, make i t evident that John Kennedy was on the side of the majority i n believing that the i n t e r e s t s of Ireland were inseparable from those of B r i t a i n ; His l o y a l t y was soon to be c a l l e d upon i n a more 1 Lecky, Ireland in.the eighteenth century, v o l . 2, p. 167. 2 Stephen and Lee, DKB. v o l . 18, pp. 1232 and 1253. In 1776 Robert Stewart, l a t e r f i r s t E a r l of Londonderry, (John Kennedy's second cousin) won r e f l e c t i o n i n County Down i n support of Ireland's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the war. Burke's Peerage. 1938, p. 951; In 1776 William Cole, second Lord Mount Florence, (Mrs. John Kennedy's f i r s t cousin) was advanced to the Viscounty of E n n i s k i l l e n . Burke's Peerage. 1938, p. 2398. In 1776 Clptworthy Upton, M;P. f o r Antrim (distant cousin of John Kennedy) was created Baron Tempietown. vigorous way. In 1778 o f f i c i a l news came that the French navy was preparing to attack Be l f a s t , No troops were available f o r i t s defence because the I r i s h regiments were engaged i n the American war* An American squadron under command of John Paul Jones made threat of danger r e a l . He captured a ship of war i n Belfast Lough within sight of Kennedy's home at Cult r a Manor. With danger at t h e i r very door, the whole resident gentry l e d t h e i r tenants to defence of Ireland. They organized t h e i r people into bands of volunteers, armed at f i r s t almost s o l e l y with scythes f i x e d on the ends of 1 poles, but determined to f i g h t any invading force. Under the leadership of great landholders l i k e Kennedy's cousin, Robert Stewart, the Volunteer Movement quickly took 2 organized shape and became a powerful body of armed men; While they stood ready to repel invasion of t h e i r country, they c a r r i e d o n - a l l the ordinary functions required f o r the maintenance of i n t e r n a l order and s e c u r i t y . Ardent-l y l o y a l , the Volunteers were determined nevertheless to maintain independent control of t h e i r organization* While strong i n support of the B r i t i s h connection and of Ireland's steadfast p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the war at her side, these early Volunteers were equally determined that the long subordinr atlon of I r i s h i n t e r e s t s must be brought to an end. Hesitant 1 Lecky, Ireland i n the eighteenth century, vo l * 2, pp. 218-223; 2 Stephen and Lee, DNB. v o l . 18, pp.1232-1233; - 27 -at f i r s t to embarrass the government, they gradually swung into f u l l support of Grattan's insistence that the c r i p p l i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s on I r i s h commerce must be removed and that B r i t a i n must concede to the I r i s h Parliament sole r i g h t to l e g i s l a t e f o r Ireland* Since the Volunteers were now the one e f f e c t i v e armed force i n the country, the B r i t i s h Parliament was eventually forced to bow to t h e i r w i l l * In 1780 commercial r e s t r i c t i o n s were brought to an end, and i n 1782 the B r i t i s h Parliament repealed that act which had 1 declared i t s r i g h t to l e g i s l a t e f o r Ireland* Thus country gentlemen l i k e John Kennedy had not only supplied a strong force f o r the defence of t h e i r country; they had also forced a great measure of reform. The f i r s t step had been won toward that objective which had moved Kennedy and h i s compeers to enter the f i e l d o f p o l i t i c s a decade before. Yet these reformers were quite n a t u r a l l y circumscribed by Interests of t h e i r c l a s s and by ideas common to t h e i r times* Tolerant i n r e l i g i o u s outlook, they h e a r t i l y endorsed removal of a l l the oppressive economic r e s t r i c t i o n s on 2 Roman Catholics. On the other hand, they st e a d f a s t l y opposed giving them the right to vote* I t was a natural p o s i t i o n f o r them to take. They were not democrats. They wanted to gain self-government f o r Ireland and to spread 1 Lecky, Ireland i n the eighteenth century, v o l . 2, pp. 229-308, passim. 2 Ib i d . , pp. 284-285. - 28 -p o l i t i c a l power through the landed classes, but they had no thought of giving the vote to the uneducated landless masses• At that time a great majority of the Catholics were peasants* I t was not to be expected therefore that country l a n d l o r d s — reformers though they were—should support a p o l i t i c a l development so i n i m i c a l to t h e i r own in t e r e s t s and so f a r 1 i n advance of t h e i r times. Another mark of t h e i r d i s t r u s t of democratic ideas became evident when conclusion o f peace t r e a t i e s ended the need f o r a defence f o r c e . Although the whole measure of reform they sbnghfc had not been achieved, most of these sturdy U l s t e r l a n d l o r d s - r r e a l founders of the Volunteers—were now f i r s t to withdraw from that movement* They had become alarmed at the s p i r i t of democracy that was 2 beginning to permeate i t s ranks* Fear of increasing radicalism and gratitude f o r concession of l e g i s l a t i v e independence to Ireland gradually brought most of the great independent f a m i l i e s and most of the gentry c l o s e r to the government. During the Regency dispute, the family groups t o which the Kennedys were so c l o s e l y a l l i e d supported the government against proposals which seemed to them l i k e l y to endanger the connection between B r i t a i n and Ireland. Kennedy's cousin, Robert Stewart, took a place i n the I r i s h P r i v y Council to replace 1 Shearman, Hugh, Anglo-Irish r e l a t i o n s . London, Faber and Faber, 1948, p* 54. 2 Lecky, Ireland In the, eighteenth century, v o l . 2, pp. 246 and 395. - 29 -a borough-owner who had scurried o f f at the prospect of a change i n government. When the c r i s i s was weathered, due to the sudden recovery of George m , Stewart was rewarded 1 by being made Baron Londonderry* At the same time Mrs.-Kennedy's cousin, William Cole, Viscount E n n i s k i l l e n , 2 was promoted to the Earldom of E n n i s k i l l e n . These men had now come into close association with John Fitzgibbon, who, l i k e them, had up t i l l recently shown Whig tendencies. But as a r i s i n g power i n the government he was rapi d l y to become more and more conservative and reactionary. The Stewarts, however * f o r a while yet were to be found on the side of parliamentary reform. These twenty years since John Kennedy, Arthur Edward's grandfather, had come home from college had been s t i r r i n g times i n U l s t e r . I n t e l l i g e n t i n t e r e s t * immediate danger* and family a f f i l i a t i o n had drawn him into the current of c o n f l i c t i n g opinion of the times and had even caused him to take a small part i n public a f f a i r s . However, these years had kept him busier s t i l l In r a i s i n g and providing f o r a vary large family. John and E l i z a b e t h Kennedy had twelve 3 ch i l d r e n , two daughters and ten sons. To feed and clothe 1 Stephen and Lee, DNB. v o l . 18, pp. 1232-1233. 2 Burke's peerage. 1938, p. 951. 3 Burke, Landed gentry of. -Ireland, p. 366; But Mr. .A.E.K. Bunnell to H.C.G.. October 5* 1950, enclosure: t h i s item says there were t h i r t e e n children* and educate t h i s large family kept Mm very close to the management of h i s estates and to the farming of h i s own f i e l d s . He was fortunate that t h i s second h a l f of the eighteenth century was a period of mounting prosperity f o r the country as a whole. U l s t e r was e s p e c i a l l y fortunate because i t s s t e a d i l y increasing l i n e n industry served as 1 a basis f o r a prosperous farming i n general. F e r t i l e Gultra l y i n g r i ght i n the heart of t h i s most-favoured area therefore supplied ample means f o r a f u l l share i n the prosperous and agreeable l i f e that characterized the gentry 2 at t h i s period. Yet, as we have seen, Gultra Manor would be more than just a gay and comfortable home. Both parents were noted f o r t h e i r uprightness and piety and both were interested i n the careful i n s t r u c t i o n of t h e i r children; Of the father i t was said: ...the education of t h i r t e e n children became the persevering and pleasing duty of the domestic scene..;• He taught h i s numerous family v i r t u e . (3) 1 Maxwell, C., Dublin under the Georges. 1714rI850. London, George G. Harrap and Co. Ltd., 1936, p, 25, Lecky, Ireland i n the eighteenth .century, v o l . 1, p. 224, v o l . 2, pp. 153, 385-387, 390-392, 409, and 489-496, 2 Maxwell, Op. c l t . . p; 21. Mr.- A«B.K.. Bunnell to H.C.G.. October 5, 1950, enclosure: John Kennedy "was so prosperous as to be able to leave a l l of his c h i l d r e n independent; 3 Mr. A.B.g. Bunnell .to H..C>G.. October 5, 1950, enclosure; Moreover, Cultra had easy geographical access to the news of the day, and the family was cl o s e l y related to the most powerful p o l i t i c a l f a m i l i e s . The children were therefore brought up i n an atmosphere of l i v e l y and we l l -info med discussion of the great s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l issues at the turn of the century. In consequence of the enlightenment that prevailed i n t h i s home, the opinions and the inevitable prejudices that were formed i n the minds of the children were by no means so harsh and so b i t t e r as was common to members of t h e i r class i n some parts of Ireland* The l o y a l t i e s that were implanted and strengthened were those common to the Protestant land-owning classes throughout the c o u n t r y — c h i e f among them a determination to cherish Ireland's connection with B r i t a i n * For the rest, there were probably two or three main lessons inculcated by these parents i n the minds of t h e i r children: .piety, the uprightness and dignity demanded of members of an ancient family, and above a l l the tenets of sturdy eighteenth century i n d i v i d u a l i s m — love of l i b e r t y and r e a l i z a t i o n of the vi r t u e of s e l f -help. These attitudes the Kennedy children c a r r i e d into t h e i r several spheres o f l i f e . Most important of a l l , they ca r r i e d with them.the security of mind engendered by a happy home where mutual respect and love characterized the attitude of t h e i r parents* I t i s not surprising, therefore, that John Kennedy's children were to be highly successful i n l i f e * The g i r l s f 32 -married w e l l , one to William Unet, D.L., and the other to McCausland of Drenagh. The sons attained to wealth or influence i n many widely separated parts of the empire. Hugh, the eldest son (and Arthur Edward's father) became the Kennedy of Cultra* Henry went to India, probably l i k e several other members of the family into the service of the Honourable East India Company. John established the estate of Dunbrody i n County Wexford, where he was a J u s t i c e of the Peace. Arthur, a f t e r distinguished service i n the 18th Regiment of Light Dragoons (Hussars), rose to rank of lieutenant-colonel i n the army. Langford went into the employ of the Honourable East India Company, where he rose i n the service and became a shareholder. William was Deputy M i l i t a r y Auditor-General of Bengal. Alexander rose to the rank of captain i n the Royal Navy. Charles was P o l i t i c a l Agent at Simla. Robert became Coloni a l Secretary of Bermuda. Concerning the career of only one of these sons of John Kennedy has Burke's 1 Landed Gentry of Ireland nothing to say. That was Thomas, who d i d not follow a service career but chose instead to 2 migrate to the United States and marry an American. These men were Arthur Edward's uncles. Their l e t t e r s and t h e i r v i s i t s when on leave brought to Cultra a wealth of 1 p. 366 2 Mr. A*B*K. Bunnell-to H.C.G.. October 5, 1950, enclosure. - 33 -i n t e r e s t i n g news not only from other parts of Ireland but from the f a r corners of the empire. Cult r a more than ever became a centre of well-informed i n t e r e s t i n a wide-spaced v a r i e t y of places and problems. In 179S, when Hugh and his brothers were s t i l l i n t h e i r teens, an e x c i t i n g family event took attention away from public a f f a i r s . Had i t perhaps irked t h e i r vigorous and ambitious father that his cousins were r i s i n g In p o l i t i c a l power and rank while he but waxed prosperous on h i s f e r t i l e acres? He had not forgotten h i s own proud lineage. Back at the time of h i s a r r i v a l at Glasgow Un i v e r s i t y he had been brought into closer touch with the fortunes of the senior branch of h i s family, which were then creating quite a s t i r of i n t e r e s t * The eighth E a r l of C a s s i l l i s , John Hampton Kennedy, had died i n 1759 with succession i n dispute. I t i s indeed recorded that at t h i s time our John Kennedy of 1 C u l t r a had entered h i s claim to the t i t l e . I t i s more l i k e l y , however, that he simply had h i s attention drawn to the disputed succession at that time and had checked up on his own p o s i t i o n i n the lineage; f o r according to family t r a d i t i o n h i s attempt to win the earldom was made at the l a t e r period i n his l i f e that we have now reached. In 1792 the tenth e a r l died unmarried and succession had to be 2 determined by reaching f a r back among the family l i n e s ; 1 Burke, Landed gentry of Ireland, p* 366* 2 Gibbs, Complete peerage, v o l * 3, p. 80; Let us now follow the story In a note written by Charles Kennedy, one of John's grandsons (and Arthur Edward's f i r s t cousin). I t says of John Kennedy: At the end of the l a s t century he heard of the demise of the E a r l of C a s s i l i s and that a female branch of the family then i n America had taken I t up f o r her s o n — UpOn which he set o f f f o r London to dispute the t i t l e and recover i t - - He passed i t through one of the houses (Committee of p r i v i l e g e s ) — To pass i t through the other required £40,000 down I Had he been sure of the £20,000 a year with the t i t l e he would have paid i t — He l e f t i t to return to h i s turnips with the proviso that any of h i s descendants might pay the money and renew the s u i t - - The present Ea r l ' s Father 185« said that at any time the Kennedy's of Cu l t r a might take the t i t l e of C a s s i l i s from him, therefore he had secured the Marquisate of A i l s a to himself. (1) While John Kennedy was returning disappointed to h i s 2 turnips at Cu l t r a and h i s son Hugh was coming to manhood 3 i n that spring of 1793, t h e i r world was plunging into 1 Mrs. F. M.- Kennedy, t o H.C.G*, A p r i l 17, 1949, enclosure. ' Gibbs' Complete peerage, v o l . 3, p. 80, shows that the wealthy American claimant was son of Archibald Kennedy, C o l l e c t o r of Customs i n New York, who was descended through second sons from S i r Thomas Kennedy of Culzean, who was i n turn second son of the t h i r d E a r l of C a s s i l l i s . 2 Although turnips had been introduced i n t o the scheme of crop rotation e a r l i e r i n the century, Kennedy's use of them i s evidence that he was well abreast of p r o g r e s s — f u r t h e r evidence that he was an "improving landlord". .3 A note written by Miss Maud Kennedy of Cu l t r a Manor gives the date of h i s b i r t h as 1775. This note i s enclosed i n Robert Day Kennedy to.H.C.G.. The School of Mines, Canborne, Cornwall, England, May 7, 1949. Mrs. F.M. Kennedy to H.C.G.. F i l a b u s i , Southern Rhodesia, A p r i l 17, 1949, enclosure, gives h i s dates as 1775-1852. - 35 -tur m o i l i In the I r i s h Parliament t h e i r party, though s t i l l hoping f o r reform of representation, was standing f i r m behind the government against a move to concede complete Catholic emancipation* I t i s true that they spoke and voted i n favour o f a b i l l to give the vote to the Catholics* But i t had been forced on them by the B r i t i s h Government and i n t h e i r hearts they were opposed to i t . They supported i t •': only because i t was a l e s s e r e v i l ; to the proposed a d d i t i o n a l concession to the Catholics of representation i n Parliament they presented an adamant f r o n t . And once again t h e i r attitude was rooted not i n r e l i g i o u s intolerance but i n concern f o r t h e i r own minority p o s i t i o n i n Ireland, I f the majority group were to be given both the vote and represent-ation i n Parliament, Protestant ascendancy would speedily be ended, and with i t the established church and perhaps eventually the B r i t i s h connection. This p o s i t i o n was c l e a r l y disclosed, f o r example, i n a l e t t e r written to a f r i e n d i n 1 B r i t a i n by Robert Stewart (soon to be Castlereaghfr. As h i s l e t t e r shows, Stewart was already beginning to believe that the only way to protect Protestant interests was by l e g i s l a t i v e union with B r i t a i n . After concession of the 1 R. Stewart to Lord C [probably Camden] , Dublin, 26 January 1793, i n Alison, Sir Archibald, Lives of  Lord Castlereagh and S i r Charles Stewart, second and  t h i r d Marquesses of Londonderry, with annals oF  contemporary .events i n which they bore a part, three volumes, Edinburgh, William Blackwood and Sons, 1861, vo l * 1, pp. 12 to 14. - 36 -vote to Catholics i n 1793, he announced that thenceforward 1 he would not vote f o r any measure of Parliamentary reform. From now on he was w i l l i n g to support the system he had fought--a system of rotten boroughs that concentrated p o l i t i c a l control i n a few hands—rather than to work f o r a process of reform that now would i n e v i t a b l y lead to Roman Catholic predominance. He was not alone among the Protestant landed classes i n t h i s defection from l i b e r a l views a f t e r 1793. A s t r i k i n g example was the case of S i r Edward Newenham, whose granddaughter Hugh Kennedy was 2 to marry; Newenham, who had been i n the forefront of 3 reform, was now turning away from i t * The s t e a d i l y increasing f e r o c i t y of the French Revolution had i n s p i r e d a dread of reform i n the minds of a great majority of the gentry. The cause of reform was consequently f a l l i n g r a p i d l y into keeping of r a d i c a l and vehement elements. The nineties i n Ireland were therefore marked by a descent into violence; Like t h e i r neighbouring landlords, 1 Londonderry, Charles Vane, Marquess of, Memoirs  and correspondence of Viscount Castlereagh. second  Marquess of Londonderry, v o l . 1, p. 8. 2 Burke, Landed gentry of Ireland, p* 366; 3 Lecky. Ireland i n the eighteenth century, v o l * 3, pp. 60 and 85. - 37 -John Kennedy and h i s eldest son, Hugh, must have watched with concern those excesses of enthusiasm f o r Jacobin ideas that dominated t h e i r own area. They saw the formation of the United Irishmen; They saw the increase o f lawlessness i n that group. To the northern gentry as a whole i t was a matter f o r great alarm when they r e a l i z e d that the United Irishmen were bringing together r a d i c a l dissenters and refr a c t o r y elements from the disappointed Catholic group* The gentry struggled with increasing dread against the frenzy of Protestant Peep-ofT.Day Boys and Catholic Defenders. They supported the enforced disbanding of the volunteers, now i n the hands of "low men" and l i k e l y to be "led into any 1 excesses by t h e i r Jacobin leaders"; In place of the volunteers the government established an o f f i c i a l m i l i t i a , to which the Protestant gentry gave l o y a l support. Time was lacking, however, f o r the building of proper control over t h i s force, and bitterness was too strong. When t h i s i l l -d i s c i p l i n e d m i l i t i a was set to searching out weapons among the reb e l l i o u s Catholic peasantry, outrages were committed that provoked redoubled fury among the Defenders and United Irishmen; Into the midst of t h i s sequence of outrage and savage r e t a l i a t i o n there was thrust another element of turbulence* In defence of t h e i r homes, t h e i r r e l i g i o n and t h e i r l i v e s , IXord Castlereagh to E a r l Camden. A p r i l 3, 1793, i n A l i s o n . Lives of Lord Castlereagh and S i r Charles  Stewart. v o l * 1, p. 20. - 38 -U l s t e r Anglicans of the tenant class formed the secret Orange Society. I t s f i e r c e r e t a l i a t i o n s against Defenders and United Irishmen added f u e l to the Intense r e l i g i o u s animosity and p o l i t i c a l bitterness that now raged throughput the country. As revolutionary a c t i v i t y of the United Irishmen was made more menacing by a l l i a n c e with France, many great U l s t e r landlords and a large part of the gentry joined the Orange Society. They brought to i t s counsels more r e s t r a i n t but no diminution of anti-Catholic f e e l i n g ; f o r the vehemence of republican and rebellious a c t i v i t y i n the north; convinced them that Protestant ascendancy, B r i t i s h connection 1 and monarchial constitution were a l l i n great danger. Cu l t r a was right i n the heart o f the region of greatest d i s a f f e c t i o n , d i s l o y a l t y and violence. The minds of John Kennedy's boys were in e v i t a b l y directed, by the excesses they witnessed among the lower orders, into anti-democratic channels, which indeed was the way the minds of most members of the p r i v i l e g e d classes i n the north were being turned by the f r i g h t e n i n g course of events i n France and 2 Ireland* Many people were also becoming v i o l e n t l y a n t i -C a t h o l i c . In the h o r r i b l e times of v i s i t a t i o n , the 3 Kennedys neither gave nor received offence, and the pious 1 Lecky, Ireland i n the eighteenth .century, v o l * 3, pp; 421-473, v o l * 4, pp. 47-50, passim* 2 Ibid . , v o l * 4, pp. 233-237* 3 Mr. A.E.K.. Bunnell to K*C.G.. October 18, 1950, enclosure* and tolerant parents taught t h e i r children to view the scenes of r e l i g i o u s s t r i f e with sorrow rather than b i t t e r -ness. Turmoil and danger were soon to increase. Fear and determination to f i g h t f i e r c e l y f o r t h e i r l i v e s and t h e i r country were i n t e n s i f i e d among the gentry by the threat of French invasion i n the*nineties. Wolfe Tone and Lord Edward F i t z g e r a l d , leaders of the United Irishmen, had arranged an a l l i a n c e with France. In accordance with that arrangement a French naval force appeared at Bantry Bay i n 1796. I t was driven o f f by a great storm; When the next Invasion was ready, a B r i t i s h naval v i c t o r y at Camperdown ruined i t s chances of success; Yet i n a l l minds, the threat of a French invasion; that would touch o f f i n t e r n a l r e b e l l i o n was an ever-present danger. This f e a r increased bitterness and r e l i g i o u s passion; but from them the gentry derived new energy f o r defence of t h e i r homeland. Robert Stewart, Lord Castlereagh, cousin of the Kennedys, was now Acting Chief Secretary and therefore key person i n the government. I t was due mainly-/ to the grim e f f i c i e n c y of h i s organization that the long-threatened r e b e l l i o n was la r g e l y defeated i n advance by the discovery and arrest of i t s leaders. When, bereft of i t s central d i r e c t i o n , the revolt went ahead on the date planned, the minor northern outbreaks were quickly broken; In defiance of the pleading of t h e i r bishops, Catholic peasants of Wexford c a r r i e d on the insurrection with savage massacres, and the south f l a r e d into r e b e l l i o n . But with the a i d of troops hurried from 1 B r i t a i n i t was quickly crushed with ruthless s e v e r i t y . The Rebellion of 1798 made I t imperative f o r the B r i t i s h Government to attempt some drastic solution f o r the unhappy state of a f f a i r s i n Ireland. P i t t therefore det-ermined to bring about a l e g i s l a t i v e union of the two countries, thereby to give to Irishmen a l l the l i b e r t i e s and advantages possessed by the people of B r i t a i n . The task was entrusted to Viceroy Cornwallis and to Chief Secretary Castlereagh, both of whom were s i n c e r e l y i n accord with the plan. Castlereagh favoured the granting of complete p o l i t i c a l equality to Catholics a f t e r union was achieved, since the merger would remove any chance of t h e i r becoming the dominant group. In the t a c i t understanding that eman-cipation would speedily follow union, the Catholic leaders gave t h e i r support to the proposal. There was also a great measure of support from the area around Belfast, where i t was confidently expected that a f r e e r trade following union would give a great impetus to the manufacture of 2 l i n e n . On the other hand, great borough owners* foreseeing the end of t h e i r monopoly of power, were In v i o l e n t opposition. Lord Downshire, whose influence was predominant i n County Down, was e s p e c i a l l y active i n s t i r r i n g up opposition there. However, some of the independent gentlemen were adherents 1 Lecky, Ireland In the eighteenth century, v o l . 4, pp* 250-473 and v o l ; 5, pp. 1-118, passim* 2 Ibid., v o l . 5, p. 171. * 41 « of the Londonderrys i n general opposition to that great borough owner. Among that group Hugh Kennedy, as a kinsman of Castlereagh, was almost c e r t a i n l y to be found. Never-theless, the general f e e l i n g towards union among Protestants of the p o l i t i c a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l classes was either one of languid acquiescence or outright h o s t i l i t y . Both B r i t i s h and I r i s h governments were r i g h t l y convinced that there was no practicable alternative to union* Resort was therefore had to the usual eighteenth century method of purchasing support i n the I r i s h Parliament by promises of peerages or places. Castlereagh carried through t h i s business with his usual forthright directness. .Union was effected* Disastrously, however, P i t t now discovered that George I H , convinced that his assent to complete Catholic emancipation would be a v i o l a t i o n o f his coronation oath, was f i r m i n opposition to any such measure. Although P i t t resigned, and was followed i n that course of action by Cornwallis and Castlereagh i n Ireland, t h i s f a i l u r e to meet the reasonable expectations of the Catholics was disastrous. Union bereft of i t s necessary complement f a i l e d to achieve that widespread measure of healing which had prompted i t s conception. I r i s h a f f a i r s therefore continued to be blighted by bitterness of s p i r i t . On the material side the f i r s t e f f e c t s of union were highly p r o f i t a b l e f o r Ireland. In the f i r s t quarter of the nineteenth century the t o t a l value of her trade was nearly 1 doubled. B i s t e r bad more than i t s snare of tbat prosperity; I t s l i n e n industry which had been climbing r a p i d l y since 1780 now spurted forward to monopolize the B r i t i s h market. P r a c t i c a l l y every farmer i n the four counties around Belfast grew some f l a x ( i n addition to his oat crop, which was also f i n d i n g a p r o f i t a b l e market) and the women spun i t into 2 yarn. Fortunate Cul t r a therefore continued to f l o u r i s h . We are now able to assess those roots of thought and action which i t was determined at the outset of t h i s chapter to discover. I t i s evident that the Kennedys were t y p i c a l members of a very s p e c i a l group of p e o p l e — d i f f e r e n t i n many respects from the landed classes both of B r i t a i n and of the rest of Ireland. These S c o t t i s h immigrants had securely rooted themselves, a t i g h t l y - k n i t group, i n U l s t e r ' s best lands, which they had progressively absorbed as the native Irishmen were displaced from them. During two centuries of hardship and violence t h e i r industry and det-ermination made these lands to f l o u r i s h . The grim experiences and frequent threat to t h e i r tenure i n those centuries tended to make them sober, s e l f - r e l i a n t and highly i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c . The mark of an Ulsterman came to be intensiveness, f o r he pursued h i s major objective with a doggedness that q u i e t l y 1 Maxwell, Dublin under the Georges, p. 242; 2 Rogers, B. F., "The mist and sunshine of U l s t e r " i n The National Geographic Magazine. November 1935, v o l . 68,'p. 602; - 43 -1 ignored other issues* Yet despite t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c nature, these people by vi r t u e of t h e i r o r i g i n were strongly B r i t i s h i n attachment and outlook. They were made the more so both by continual reinforcement of immigration from Scotland and by r e a l i z a t i o n that t h e i r tenure was guaranteed only by preservation of the B r i t i s h connection. Two centuries of constant threat and b i t t e r s t r i f e had hardened that r e a l i z a t i o n into a bedrock of conviction* For the Kennedys t h i s group attachment to the B r i t i s h connection was deepened by t h e i r careers of service to the empire • Sprung from an ancient and noble lineage In the B r i t i s h peerage-rand very conscious of that f a c t — t h e Kennedys had become linked by marriage to several powerful p o l i t i c a l f a m i l i e s i n the northern I r i s h peerage; In a country where family a l l i a n c e was of high p o l i t i c a l s i g -n i f i c a n c e , they had been drawn into the current of I r i s h p o l i t i c a l l i f e . Their group was opposed to the reactionary band of dominant borough owners and was therefore i n the forefront of the battle f o r parliamentary reform. We have seen that John Kennedy, M.A., was t y p i c a l of i n t e l l i g e n t , independent country gentlemen, as well i n support of t h i s movement as i n h i s determination not to be swayed by corruption. We have seen that i t was h i s group i n County Down that sprang f i r s t to the leadership of the great 1 Shearman, Hugh* Northern -Ireland., i t s h i s t o r y . resources and people, pp* 11 and 31. Volunteer Movement f o r the defence of Ireland; I t was h i s class also that used the power of that body to win l e g i s l a t i v e independence f o r Ireland* We have noted also that i t was t h i s same group of sturdy northern squires who were f i r s t to withdraw from the Volunteer Movement when It tended to swing towards r a d i c a l democracy. The Kennedys and t h e i r class were not democrats. On the contrary, they opposed democracy; t h e i r ideas of reform were simply to spread p o l i t i c a l power more evenly through the landed classes. From that opposition to democracy grew t h e i r r e f u s a l to concede p o l i t i c a l equality to Roman Catholics In the period before the Union; In other respects they were tolerant i n r e l i g i o u s matters; We have seen also that the violent course of events during the l a s t decade of the eighteenth century, both i n t h e i r own country and i n France, turned t h i s whole ascendant class into revulsion against change and reform; And we have seen how the Rebellion of 1798 and the events leading up to I t revived i n t h i s group o l d bitternesses and prejudices at the same time as i t strengthened l o y a l t i e s to Protestant ascend-ancy, to the established church and to the B r i t i s h connection; Such were the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the landed gentry i n County Down. That s t r a i n of stubborn independence, which we noted i n John Kennedy (Arthur's grandfather) when he withdrew support from a government of corruption, tended to keep the family from f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . The necessity imposed by large f a m i l i e s of s t i c k i n g close to - 45 -the management of t h e i r f e r t i l e acres also kept them from forging into the p o l i t i c a l leadership that might e a s i l y have res u l t e d from t h e i r powerful family a f f i l i a t i o n s -closest of which was the Stewart connection headed by the E a r l o f Londonderry and h i s famous son, Viscount Castlereagh* By v i r t u e of t h i s kinship with outstanding leaders of state and by v i r t u e of t h e i r own informed and i n t e l l i g e n t i n t e r e s t , the Kennedys were drawn always into the stream of p o l i t i c a l thought and forthright opinion, sometimes into action; On the whole, however, they remained country squires and tended to conform to the habits of t h e i r s tation* I t i s true that t h e i r heads of f a m i l i e s tended to have a higher measure of academic t r a i n i n g than was usual; two out o f the four heads of the family whom we have studied were u n i v e r s i t y graduates, a t r a i n i n g u s u a lly reserved f o r those younger sons who were . destined f o r the Church* True also-that t h i s family was unusual among the gentry i n that i t dedicated none of i t s sons to the Church. Yet the Kennedys' conformity to the ways of t h e i r class had been shown by t h e i r transference from Presbyterianism to the established church, when the introduction of r a d i c a l doctrines into the former body had made the rather C a l v i n i s t i c state church a haven f o r t h e i r orthodoxy. As country squires also they assumed t h e i r proper places as Justices of the Peace* At times they attained to the important o f f i c e of High S h e r i f f of County Down. Their younger sons forged ahead to high rank i n navy, army or c o l o n i a l s e rvice. Heads of the family, however, remained close to the s o i l at Cultra, to the a f f a i r s of t h e i r tenants and to the farming of t h e i r own demesne. Yet l i f e at C u l t r a Manor was by no means a backward or i s o l a t e d existence. The estate was f e r t i l e and highly f o r -tunate i n i t s l o c a t i o n . In the very heart of the great l i n e n area and close to B e l f a s t , where i t s produce could be sold e a s i l y , t h i s property under able management maintained a high degree of prosperity even i n times when most of Ireland was i n poverty. Means- of a comfortable and pleasant existence were therefore supplied to the Kennedys i n abundant measure. Richness was added t o t h e i r l i f e both by the l o v e l i n e s s of t h e i r countryside and by the great care devoted to trimness and beauty?of the estate, not an unusual thing i n t h i s region of resident landlords. Happy s o c i a l times were common because homes of other landowners were near at hand and t i e s between them were exceptionally close; Moreoverj Cultra was well-placed f o r broadening contact with great pentres of population. Consequently we have noted v i s i t s by the Kennedys not only to Belfast and Dublin but also to Glasgow and London. There were other contacts with these centres. In t h i s home, where a Glasgow Master of Arts presided, there was c e r t a i n l y a f u l l measure of that great i n t e r e s t i n reading that characterized the country gentlemen of Ireland towards the end of the eighteenth and into the nineteenth century. In t h e i r homes - 47 -the merits of Byron and Scott were eagerly discussed—at Cult r a with a decided preference f o r the views of the l a t t e r . Many of them are recorded to have taken the 1 London, reviews. C u l t r a must also have been well-supplied with newspapers: i n addition to the many papers coming from Dublin, they had available three from Belfast, the Belfast Mercury, the Belfast News Letter, and the Northern  Star, the l a t t e r two of which undoubtedly s t i r r e d the 2 Kennedys to anger by t h e i r support of revolutionary ideas* I n t e l l i g e n t i n t e r e s t i n the momentous events of the t u r n of the century was undoubtedly deepened and made more personal as the children began to grow up and be scattered L.V across the country and the empire. We have seen that they not only established estates In othe'r parts of Ireland, but also went into service of the navy, the army, the colonies and the East India Company. In these s t i r r i n g times, when French Revolutionary wars took the armed forces to the f a r corners of the world and the a f f a i r s of Indian and c o l o n i a l empires were of high public i n t e r e s t , Cultra*s horizons of thought were as wide as the world* 1 Maxwell, Dublin under the Georges, pp. 167-168. 2 McDowell, I r i s h public opinion-.--175Q.r1800. pp. 143, 152, 155-157, 204* CHAPTER I I — . HOME INFLUENCES - 48 -At the beginning of the new century, when the war with France was dragging toward the Peace of Amiens, Arthur Edward's amiable grandfather died. Possession of the comfortable acres of Cultra passed to h i s eldest son, Hugh, 1 then i n h i s twenty-sixth year* Two years e a r l i e r , i n 1799, Hugh Kennedy had married Grace Dorothea, only daughter of 2 Thomas and Dorothea Hughes of County Tipperary. Her maternal grandfather, S i r Edward Newenham, a notable member of the I r i s h Parliament, had been foremost i n the ranks of the movement f o r reform of that p a r l i a m e n t — i n no s p i r i t of democracy, i t w i l l be remembered, but i n a desire to spread control of h i s country's government more widely over his own class* We have already seen how he had turned sharply back from the path of change when i t began to veer 5 toward r a d i c a l democracy- At the time of h i s grand-daughter's marriage to Hugh Kennedy, S i r Edward was s t i l l an important figu r e i n p o l i t i c a l l i f e . He had many years yet to watch the 4 fortunes of her familyv 1 Mrs. F. M. Kennedy- to H.C.G.. November 13, 1949, enclosure. Hugh Kennedy of Cul t r a (Arthur Edward's father) l i v e d from 1775 to 1852. 2 Burke, Landed gentry of Ireland, p. 366. 3 See above p. 36. 4 Lee, S., Dictionary of national biography, since 1885, v o l . 40, pp; 333-334. He l i v e d from 1732 to 1814. In 1799 he was advocating union. - 49 -On her father's side, Grace Dorothea was grand-daughter of Elizabeth Annesley, member of an Anglo-Irish family we 11-1 known f o r i t s s t r o i g l o y a l t y to the Stuarts* The Annesleys had taken an early part i n the colonization of U l s t e r with a vigour of mind and action that had won them three earldoms —Anglesey, Annesley and Mountnorris. One of the most notable members of the English branch of t h i s family was that s p i r i t e d Susannah Annesley, who married Dr. Samuel Wesley and 2 became the mother of Charles and John Wesley. Thus Hugh Kennedy had chosen a bride whose background was as i l l u s t r i o u s as h i s own. Grace Dorothea brought to Cultr a her equal share of mental and physical vigour. With Hugh's assumption of the headship of the family and i t s attendant r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s at the beginning of 1802, he was quickly absorbed into the busy pattern of h i s new r o l e ; He was Immediately made a J u s t i c e of the Peace and High 3 S h e r i f f of County Down. In 1802 the whole family connection was high i n influence throughout t h i s area: the E a r l of 1 Mrs.. E. M* Kennedy to H.C.G.. A p r i l 17, 1949, enclosure 2 Lee, S., op* c i t . , v o l * 2, pp; 2-4. Bready, J.'Tflf., England before and a f t e r Wesley, the  Evangelical Revival, and s o c i a l reform. London> Hodder and Stoughton, Ltd., 1940, pp* 25 and 185-186; 3 Burke, Landed gentry, o f Ireland, p. 366* Londonderry was governor of the county, and h i s son, 1 Castlereagh, was i t s member i n the Imperial Parliament. At home the young squire had many r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . We have already noticed the f i n a l outcome of h i s brothers* careers, but i n 1802 four of h i s brothers and s i s t e r s were s t i l l young children, and another four had just reached the age when they must be launched on t h e i r careers. In 1803, as war was breaking out again, Arthur wanted to j o i n the army. A cornetcy was therefore purchased f o r him i n the 18th Regiment of Light Dragoons, which had recently d i s -tinguished i t s e l f i n the campaign i n the north of Ireland under the leadership of that dashing s o l d i e r , Lieutenant-3 Colonel the Honourable Charles Stewart. Langford and William were eager to be o f f to India, probably drawn there by l e t t e r s from t h e i r brother, Henry, bringing s t o r i e s of glorious conquests under the leadership of the Wellesleys. Young Alexander, determined to be i n the f i g h t somehow, entered the Royal Navy as a F i r s t Class Volunteer on board the Tonnant. eighty guns, Captain S i r Edward Pellew, 1 Stephen and Lee, DNB, since 1917, v o l . 18, pp. 1233-1235. 2 See above, p. 32. 3 Chichester, H. M. and Burges-Short, G., The records  and badges of every regiment and corns i n the. B r i t i s h  Army. London, Gale and Polden, ca. 1895, p;123. 1 employed o f f the coast of Spain* But the care of h i s father's family d i d not deter Hugh Kennedy from establishment of h i s own. Both he and h i s wife came from f a m i l i e s accustomed to have many children: Hugh's father and mother had had twelve c h i l d r e n and Grace 2 Dorothea's mother was one of eighteen c h i l d r e n . By t h i s f i r s t marriage with Grace Dorothea Hughes, Hugh Kennedy had 3 eleven children, s i x boys and f i v e g i r l s . The f i r s t c h i l d 4 was a daughter, Dorothy, born i n Dublin i n August, 1800— named a f t e r her mother and her grandmother, Dorothea Newenham. The f i r s t boy was of course c a l l e d John. Then followed Robert Stewart, quite obviously named i n honour of h i s kinsmanj Robert Stewart, E a r l of Londonderry. The next boy was c a l l e d Thomas, evidence that that young uncle 1 0*Byrne, William R., A naval biographical d i c t i o n a r y  comprising the l i f e and services of every l i v i n g o f f i c e r  i n Her Majesty's Navy from the rank of Admiral o f the Fle e t to that of Lieutenant. I n c l u s i v e , London, John Murray, 1849. For an accurate idea of his l i f e with S i r Edward Pellew o f f the coast of Spain see C. S. Forester's excellent novel, Mr. Midshipman Hornblower, Boston, L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1950. 2 Lee, Dictionary of national biography, since 1885, v o l . 40, p. 334. 3 Burke, Landed gentry of Ireland, p. 366. By a second marriage he had seven more c h i l d r e n — a t o t a l of eighteen. 4 Mr. A.E.K. Bunnell to H.C.G.. October 18, 1950, enclosure* had not yet become the ''black sheep" of the family by moving 1 to the United States. There followed a daughter, Elizabeth, named a f t e r her great-grandmother, Elizabeth Annesley. Arthur Edward, the s i x t h c h i l d of Hugh and Grace Dorothea 2 Kennedy, was born at Cult r a on A p r i l 9, 1809, He was named a f t e r his uncle Arthur, then a dashing young cavalry lieutenant, who was just back from Corunna with the 18th Hussars a f t e r that disastrous^ but glorious campaign by which 3 S i r John Moore had saved Portugal from Napoleon; The second name, Edward, a new one i n the Kennedy family, was given In honour of h i s mother's famous grandfather, S i r Edward Newenham, Both names came from men of whom he could be proud And indeed he was always to be conscious of the strength of h i s whole family background. In Old age he was often to t e l l h i s young f r i e n d s , when he addressed them, that although he was not born with a s i l v e r spoon i n h i s mouth and had always to work f o r h i s bread, he had the happy fortune to come of good f o l k who had proved that they were made of s t e r l i n g 4 s t u f f . 1 Reverend E.. S. Barber t o B.C.G.. the Vicarage, Holywood, County Down, January 22, 1949. The date of her baptism was November 27, 1808; 2 See Appendix No. 1. 3 Chichester and Burges-Short, The records and badges  of every regiment and corps In the B r i t i s h Army, p; 123, 4 The Courier, Brisbane (Queensland), May 4, 1883,— Ca c l i p p i n g i n an o l d family book now i n the possession of Mrs; E. M. Kennedy, F i l a b u s i , Southern Rhodesia.) - 53 -Arthur Edward's family background has been shown with great care because hi s forbears were indeed of " s t e r l i n g s t u f f " , which f a c t i n i t s e l f gives us insight into h i s nature. Stress has likewise been l a i d on the a r i s t o c r a t i c q u a l i t y of h i s o r i g i n . As we have seen the Kennedys were thoroughly conscious of that f a c t o r , f o r although we t o -day may choose to regard such an i n t e r e s t as snobbish, i t was a matter of r e a l importance i n the period of Arthur's 1 boyhood and youth. For him t h i s pride i n family roots reaching back into an ancient past c a r r i e d with i t a c l e a r consciousness of the obligations of his order. Moreover, since society regarded h i s o r i g i n as of major moment--since at that time there was an exaggerated respect f o r an a r i s t o c r a t i c originr-he grew up i n the assurance of complete acceptance. That f e e l i n g of security helped to esta b l i s h i n him the q u a l i t i e s of confidence, a f f a b i l i t y and poise that were to mark him throughout l i f e . Here perhaps was the root of an assurance that h i s was an opinion to be valued—an assurance that made him speak out frankly and f o r t h r i g h t l y i n l a t e r years regardless often of the r e s u l t . Or would i t be correct to assume that that c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was just a proof that he was a true 2 son of Ul s t e r ? 1 Bryant, Arthur, The age of elegance. 1812^-1822. C o l l i n s , London, 1950, pp. 369 and 322-323. 2 Cf. Shearman, U l s t e r , pp. 163-166. - 54 -In that April of 1809 when Arthur Edward was born, S i r Arthur Wellesley was setting out for the Peninsula to start the dogged campaign that broke Napoleon. When the war was over, Arthur Edward was six years old, old enough to be very proud of his warrior uncles when they came home on leave. His uncle Alexander was now a lieutenant in the 1 2 navy. His uncle Arthur was a captain in the 18th Hussars, resplendent in his silver-laced, dark blue uniform with i t s sable trimmings and i t s great busby with scarlet and white 3 plumes—a glorious figure in a youngster's eyes. It i s entirely probably that during his boyhood Arthur Edward had opportunity to lis t e n eagerly to his uncle Alexander's stories of the long, storm-tossed blockade of the Spanish coast in the eighty-gunned Tonnant under her dashing captain, S i r Edward Pellew; of cutting-out expeditions; of scrambling up the chains to board a prize. In his imagination he returned with his uncle in the Culloden to the far-off island of Java, there to witness the flaming dockyard at Griesse and the destruction of a l l the Dutch men-of-war. Again he t h r i l l e d with pride when Alexander described how he took the boats of the Rainbow 1 The Navy Li s t corrected to the end of November 1817. London, John Murray, 1817, p. 10: Alexander Kennedy lb), Lieutenant, 25 July 1811. 2 The Army L i s t for December 1817. London, John Murray, 1817, p. 20: A. Kennedy, m, Captain In the 18th Light Dragoons (Hussars), 11 July 1811. 3 Chichester and Surges-Short, The records and badges  of every regiment and corps in the" British Army. p» 124. through, blue Mediterranean waters to capture a swift lateen-1 rigged vessel with i t s r i c h cargo of oaken planks. Perhaps i t was h i s uncle Arthur, home frequently from his duties with the anny of occupation i n France, who had the more t h r i l l i n g s t o r i e s to t e l l : how the cavalry formed the dangerous van of Moore's thrust into Spain to tempt Napoleon from h i s prey; how they drew o f f h i s mighty amy and covered the rear i n that grim, disastrous retreat to Corunna;;-and how they had t h e i r revenge i n 1813 as they swept through the Peninsula to t h e i r honours at V i t t o r i a , the Nive, Orthes and ToulouseT-finally engaging the Imperial c u i r a s s i e r s i n triumphant charges at Quatre Bras 2 and Waterloo. The youngster exulted i n these ta l e s of glory and determined that he too would be a s o l d i e r * The boy's imagination must have been s t i r r e d and h i s understanding widened through the l e t t e r s from h i s uncles In India and t h e i r v i s i t s when home on l e a v e — f o r they were as yet unmarried and Cult r a continued to be t h e i r home. They1 could t e l l how B r i t a i n was forced into the conquest of India; how Lord Moira's three campaigns into the high Himalayas had brought the f i e r c e Gurkhas into admiring and peaceful a l l i a n c e ; how the murderous Pin d a r i bands were broken and the treacherous Mahrattas subdued; and how the Burmese had been thrown back from t h e i r attack 1 0»Byrne, A naval biographical dictionary, pp. 605-606. 2 Chichester and Burges-Short, op. c i t . , pp. 123-124. - 56 -on Bengal^-until at l a s t a l l eastern India had been conquered and trade was secure. That s t a t e l y home at Cultr a must have been the scene of frequent discussions of these s t i r r i n g events and of well-informed debate on imperial p o l i c y . Withr out r e a l i z i n g i t , the growing youngsters were absorbing f i r m opinions* often prejudiced Qf course, but more frequently based on f i r s t - h a n d knowledge of event and p o l i c y * The o l d manor house of Gultra, i n which Arthur Edward spent h i s boyhood, has since been pulled down and replaced 1 by an even f i n e r one* However, there i s s t i l l i n the family possession a picture of the o l d home; I t was drawn by Joseph Molloy and engraved by Edward K. Pivater i n 1832, when i t was presented to Arthur Edward's father; I t bears the following i n s c r i p t i o n , "Presented to Hugh Kennedy, Esq;, to whom t h i s plate i s r e s p e c t f u l l y inscribed by 2 Edw. K. Pivater". This engraving shows that the old house was ri g h t down on the banks of Belfast Lough, very much 3 lower on the estate than the present C u l t r a House. At the 1 Mrs.- E. M. Kennedy, to H.C.G.. A p r i l 17, 1949, enclosure* The new Gultra House was b u i l t by Arthur Edward's nephew, S i r Robert Kennedy, C*M.G., M*A., D*L., F*R*G*S. 2 Published by E. K. Pivater, London, Morgan J e l l e t t , B e lfast, 1832; 3 Mrs.; F-*. M. Kennedy to H.C.G.. A p r i l 17, 1949. CULTRA 1832 - A f t e r an engraving by E. K. Pivater To face page 57 - 57 -foot of the Antrim h i l l s on the f a r side of the estuary many v i l l a g e s and estates crowded the busy shoreline. Sailboats dotted the p l a c i d maters of the iough. On i t s south bank l a y the extensive parkland of Cultra, the pattern of i t s open spaces and groups of trees giving evidence of that c a r e f u l landscaping which was beginning to be so common i n large estates. On t h i s l e v e l parkland, amid the rounded forms of oak and beech trees* rose the handsome two-storied manorrhouse, Its v e r t i c a l l i n e s g i v i n g a pleasant sense of contrast. This house was very p l a i n l y of S c o t t i s h i n s p i r a t i o n . Steep-l y pitched and slated roof, large chimney stacks, square-headed doors and windows-—all these indicated the wholesome Sco t t i s h vernacular t r a d i t i o n . Yes, and those f a m i l i a r l i t t l e crowsteps on the near gable-end had marked S c o t t i s h 1 houses during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries* The amusingly incongruous pairing of t h i s crowstepping on one gable-end and a straight skew on the other, suggests that t h i s house had been b u i l t sometime i n the eighteenth century when the rougher crowstep construction was being relinquished—but with l i n g e r i n g regret. Another mark of recent building was the smooth ashlar construction instead of rubble and rough-cast; However, the building had been whitewashed i n t r a d i t i o n a l S c o t t i s h fashion* although i t 1 Lindsay, Ian G., "The Scot t i s h burgh" i n The stones  of. Scotland edited by George Scott-Moncrleff,.London, B.'T, Batsford, Ltd., 1938, p; 97, - 58 -i s possible that light-coloured stone was used; i n any case i t was cheerful and pleasant to look upon. Apart from i t s bright colour, the building won I t s pleasing e f f e c t by the simple functional l i n e s and eseelient proportions of i t s roof, windows and doors, which were p l a i n rectangular openings, destitute of ornament* However, there were two devices that added richness to the structure:;— the s l i g h t l y advanced central tower and the crenellated parapet along the whole front wailhead* Perhaps these devices were ornamental assertions of the Kennedy family's ancient feudal o r i g i n ; i t Is just possible, however, that i n turbulent U l s t e r they were b u i l t f o r actual use--a consideration that i s given support by the narrowness of doors and windows. Back of t h i s main block appeared the roof and chimneys of a wing facing the water. The whole ef f e c t was one of functional symmetry and r e g u l a r i t y . House and park a l i k e gave c l e a r evidence that c a r e f u l attention had been given to maintenance of the beauty and value of t h i s estate; Indeed i t i s surely Arthur Edward's father, Hugh* who Is depicted i n the foreground of Piyater's etching giving consideration with h i s steward to some further improvement. Everything about t h i s b e a u t i f u l home sent into the youngster's mind i t s message of security and serenity. The whole l o v e l y v a l l e y stored the mind of the growing lad with many r i c h g i f t s of beauty: the wooded p l a i n , i t s s t a t e l y homes and thatched white-washed cottages i n t e r -- 59 ** spersed with ancient churches and ruined towers remindful of a s t o r i e d past; the soft green texture of planted f i e l d s ; the azure blue of f l a x ; the h i l l s of Antrim across a misty lough* When Arthur Edward and h i s brothers t i r e d of t h e i r demesne and i t s tenant farms, they sometimes climbed up the v a l l e y of a l i t t l e stream to the sunny c u l t i v a t e d Slopes of the h i l l s behind C u l t r a . They could look right down into Holywood, t h e i r eyes drawn to i t s ancient I r i s h church. Farther west, past the wide straight streets and handsome brick buildings of Belfast, rose a bold range of h i l l s on the f a r side of the River Lagan* Down i n the v a l l e y large white patches everywhere caught t h e i r eyes* These were bleachfields, t h i s region's v i s i b l e badge of an everrgrowing l i n e n industry, that i n these post-war dep-ression years somewhat lessened the heavy blow dealt to a l l classes by low prices f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l products and by f a l l i n g rents. Yet, when the boys looked down from the h i l l s into t h e i r own farmlands during ploughing season they saw the farmers using the new Sc o t t i s h plough and 1 improved harrows * They did not r e a l i z e that they were l i v i n g i n the dawn of a new a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l age. Boylike, they had already turned to watch a s a i l onlbusy t i d a l waters, or to dream of old battles in the bold towers of ancient Garrickfergus Castle across the bay. 1 Maxwell, C., Country- and town In Ireland- under the Georges, pp. 219, 220, 240 and 274; - 60 -Along t h e i r own shGre-line there were many things f o r boys to do during U l s t e r ' s long summer days; Arthur Edward became a strong swimmer; and one night many years l a t e r he was to be glad of that a b i l i t y , f o r i t was the means of saving him 1 i n a shipwreck when many others were l o s t ; And, of course, from early childhood the Kennedy boys must have spent as many hours on the water as i n i t . Here i t was that Arthur Edward learned to s a i l . Probably he perfected h i s s k i l l i n the better s a i l i n g waters just o f f nearby Bangor and Helen's Bay. His cousins* the Sherman-Crawfords, owned the estate of Crawfordsburn which ran down to the sandy shores of Helen's Bay. I t i s probable that Arthur Edward and John Sharman-2 Crawford, who were the same age, spent many an hour on these pleasant yachting waters. Certain i t i s that Arthur Edward at a l a t e r time showed a most competent knowledge of the proper management of a s a i l i n g ship and could say, "I have 3 s a i l e d a good deal i n my time;" Most of t h e i r play was rough. There were no organized team games. There was l i t t l e supervision* There was even much unconscious approval among h i s class of rough and vigorous play where a boy learned to take h i s knocks without complaint. Arthur therefore spent much time i n rowdy play with h i s brothers and the sons of his father's tenants, i n hiking, bird-nesting, running, hard r i d i n g on horseback and 1 See below* p; 3'9 . 2 Burke* Landed gentry, of Ireland, pp. 366 and 141. 3 See below* p; 3i2.. 1 f i g h t i n g . Thus he learned to face up to trouble with bold-ness. St e a d i l y he developed those q u a l i t i e s of leadership that were demanded of h i s c l a s s . Thus Arthur Edward grew i n confidence i n the s e c u r i t y of a gracious family l i f e , a beautiful home, and the rough freedom of a f r i e n d l y band of demesnes that stretched from Holywcai to Helen's Bay—a l o v e l y f e r t i l e land dotted with lakes and wooded h i l l s and owned by friends and r e l a t i v e s of h i s family. That h i s was a happy childhood Is attested by Malcolm Sproat 1 s story concerning a dinner party a h a l f century l a t e r . Sproat t e l l s how Kennedy engaged i n b r i l l i a n t and eager conversation with the celebrated I r i s h actor, Charles Keen, each r e c a l l i n g with joy h i s own 2 youthful experiences and pranks. 1 Bryant, Arthur, The age of elegance* p* 263. 2 Sproat, G i l b e r t Malcolm, Memoranda on various  sub . jects. MS., Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B. C. (hereafter referred to as Sproat, Memoranda). CHAPTER I I I -.- EDUCATION - 62 -Eor sons of the gentry i n the e a r l y nineteenth century hiking, swimming, s a i l i n g , horse-back r i d i n g , and rough play had t h e i r important function of developing q u a l i t i e s of sturdiness and leadership* These things, however, were f o r l e i s u r e and holiday hours; the boys also had serious work to d o — t h e i r study. The aim of education i n t h e i r day and f o r t h e i r class was to make them into polished gentle-. 1 men; By t h e i r studies they were to be prepared f o r the l i f e they would lead. They were to be developed into w e l l -mannered lads who had obtained a good knowledge of adult buman l i f e and i n s t i t u t i o n s , and of the opportunities that would be t h e i r s . They were to be d i s c i p l i n e d into habits of s e l f - r e l i a n c e and a s p i r i t of devotion to t h e i r country, and t h e i r mental powers were to be developed by the d i s c i p l i n e of t h e i r studies* In t h i s early nineteenth century, when humanism s t i l l dominated educational theory, i t was held that these ends of us e f u l knowledge and of d i s c i p l i n e d f a c u l t i e s were to be achieved mainly through 2 the study of c l a s s i c a l languages and l i t e r a t u r e . 1 Maxwell * C., Country and town i n Ireland under  the Georges, p. 192. 2 Stanford, W. B., " C l a s s i c a l studies i n T r i n i t y College, Dublin, slnce~"the foundation"^ linlJBrmatgena, a ser i e s of papers i n l i t e r a t u r e , science, and  philosophy. Dublin, Hodges, Eigges and Co*, London, Longmans, Green and Co., May 1941, v o l . 58, p. 14* One of Arthur Edward's older brothers, Robert Stewart Kennedy, had been sent o f f to Dr. George M i l l e r ' s school i n 1 Armagh, perhaps because i t was the school to which h i s famous namesake, Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh* had 2 gone* But the more usual course was followed f o r Arthur -Edward, who was kept at home to be given his elementary education by a private tu t o r . Since he was going to t r y f o r entrance to T r i n i t y College, Dublin, where the standard of admission i n the c l a s s i c s was high, h i s preparation 3 would have to be through. This matriculation course demanded no Engl i s h composition, no English l i t e r a t u r e and no mathematics. I t i s therefore highly probable that the youngster, i n usual fashion, was kept busy f o r the whole of his study time at learning Greek and L a t i n grammar, at writing prose composition i n both languages and verse i n L a t i n , and at the careful t r a n s l a t i o n and dis s e c t i o n of the 1 Burtchaell, G. D. and Sa d l e i r , T. U., Alumni  Dublinenses. a,register of the students, graduates, professors, and provosts of T r i n i t y college.; i n the Un i v e r s i t y o f Dublin. London. Williams and Norgate, 1924, pp; 461 and 576. Future references w i l l be made in. the form Alumni Dublinenses. 2 A l i s o n , Lives of Lord.Castlereagh and S i r Charles  Stewart. v o l . 1, p. 8. 3 Stanford, W. B.. op. c l t ; . p. 11; * 64 -prescribed texts; The course f o r matriculation into T r i n i t y College, Dublin, at t h i s time was as follows: Homer's I l i a d , eight books; Murphy's Lucian; Xenophon's Cyropaedia. three books; Greek Testament, four Gospels and Acts; Epictetus; Tabula Cebetis; V e r g i l ' s Georgics and AEneid, s i x books; Terence, three plays; Horace, Odes, S a t i r e s , and E p i s t l e s ; Juvenal, S a t i r e s , 3, 10, 13, and 14. {sicj CD I t was i n these and i n s i m i l a r Greek and L a t i n books that a dominant cl a s s i c i s m held that a boy would f i n d the truest appreciation of human l i f e and i n s t i t u t i o n s , most c l e a r l y and b e a u t i f u l l y expressed. I t was by means of a rigorous study of the p e r f e c t l y ordered c l a s s i c a l languages, during a l l the years of hi s boyhood and ear l y adolescence, that h i s mental f a c u l t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y his powers of reasoning and h i s memory, were to be developed. What part t h i s formal side of hi s education played i n Arthur Edward's whole upbringing we cannot say f o r sure--probably l e s s than warranted by the e f f o r t put f o r t h ; 1 Report of Her- Majesty's Commissioners appointed  to Inquire Into the, state, d i s c i p l i n e , studies and  revenues Of the University, of Dublin and of T r i n i t y  College;- together with appendices, containing  evidence, suggestions, and correspondence. Presented to both houses of Parliament by command of Her Majesty, Dublin, Alexander Thorn, 1853; Report, pp; 64-65. This report w i l l be referred to from now on as Report of the Dublin University Commission. 1855. - 65 -However, i t was part of a whole system of upbringing which we cannot dismiss l i g h t l y . Many influences aiming at common objectives were brought to bear on the youngster: family t r a d i t i o n , h i s home, his friends and the whole order of which he was a member, and In which he would carry on his work* Although many other fact o r s were yet to play t h e i r part In his development, these early years must have l a i d the foundation f o r many of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s he was to show l a t e r ; and from them we may judge that he had now developed into a well-mannered, courteous, prompt and kindly youngster—confident, h i g h - s p i r i t e d and not too borne down by the weight of h i s studies* Already two of h i s older brothers had preceded him to 1 T r i n i t y College, Dublin. The records of the un i v e r s i t y carry the name of a John Kennedy who graduated i n 18£2 and 2 took h i s Master of Arts degree i n 1832; Other d e t a i l s are missing, a frequent occurrence i n the record of graduates because the f i r s t data concerning a student were written on s l i p s of paper* from which the Senior Lecturer i n due 3 course compiled the Matriculation Books. From the f a c t that t h i s John Kennedy would be the rig h t age and that two 1 Re-port, o f the- Dublin University. Commission.. 1853. p. 3. T r i n i t y College, Dublin, was established with , complete u n i v e r s i t y powers of granting degrees i n a l l f a c u l t i e s . 2 Burtchaell and SadieIr, Alumni Dublinenses, pi 460 3 Ib i d . , p* X . - 66 -others of the family went to T r i n i t y College, Dublin, i t would appear that he was Arthur Edward's eldest brother, who must have entered the college when he was about sixteen years old^-a very usual age f o r matriculation i n the early 1 years of the nineteenth century* The records of the next brother are complete: Robert Stewart Kennedy entered the college on November 6, 1820, took h i s Bachelor of Arts degree i n the summer of 1824 and h i s Master of Arts degree at the same time as John i n November of 1832, having 2 already been admitted to the I r i s h Bar i n 1830* The Master's degree was obtained simply by keeping one's name on the books of the u n i v e r s i t y f o r three years a f t e r graduation and paying the necessary fees; there was no course and no exam-3 in a t i o n and the f i n a l exercises were merely formal. Why the Kennedys waited so long to take t h e i r Master's degrees i s not evident; When Robert was about to enter h i s f i n a l year at the un i v e r s i t y , and Arthur Edward was fourteen and a h a l f years ol d , h i s parents decided to send him up to college. Now, while that age was d i s t i n c t l y younger than the average f o r 1 Burtchaell and S a d l e i r , Alumni Dublinenses, p; X. 2 I b i d . , p. 461. 3 Report o f the Dublin U n i v e r s i t y Commission 1855.. p. 58. matriculation, i t was not uncommon; there were even cases of 1 lads who entered at a younger age* I t was considered d e s i r -able to send boys to u n i v e r s i t y at an early age i n order that they might gain knowledge of the ways of t h e i r fellows by immediate contact with them—^especially i f an older person of good character was there to guide the process* So f a r as the parents of Arthur's class were concerned that was the major purpose of a short period at college. I f the l a d wanted to make the e f f o r t needed to add a f i n a l p o l i s h to his knowledge of the c l a s s i c s , so much the better, but the r e a l purpose would be served i f he absorbed the culture of hi s c l ass i n society. Now Arthur undoubtedly was very young and i t i s possible that h i s father intended that the youngster should spend only that one year at u n i v e r s i t y while. Robert was there. For, i n s p i t e of the f a c t that general accounts 2 of h i s l i f e imply that he completed the course, the records of the u n i v e r s i t y do not show that he attended a f t e r that f i r s t year, and h i s name does not appear i n the Catalogue 3 of Graduates* I t i s true that the gaps i n the records f o r 1 Maxwell, A history, of Trinity. College. Dublin, p. 150 2 Stephen and Lee, DNB. v o l * 10, p. 1301. Other biographical d i c t i o n a r i e s follow t h i s one. I t seems to have been a normal procedure to enter "educated at T r i n i t y College, Dublin" f o r a year's stay. 3 %. Olive Smith, f o r Assistant Registrar, to H.C.G.. Assistant Registrar's O f f i c e , T r i n i t y College, Dublin, September 21, 1948. - 68 -1 the years around 1824 are more than usually severe, and the Catalogue off Graduates i s also notable f o r an amazing 2 number off errors and omissions around that time. But the ffact remains that there i s no p o s i t i v e evidence that Arthur stayed at T r i n i t y College, Dublin, f o r more than the academic year off 1823-1824; Whatever t h e i r reason f o r sending him to u n i v e r s i t y at such an early age, the family thought i t wise to enter him as sixteen instead of fourteen* Such overstatement of age appears to have been a f a i r l y common occurrence; with reference to t h i s practice Burtchaell and S a d l e i r ask, "Is i t possible that our ancestors computed the ages of t h e i r sons as we do those of our horses, and described the 3 undergraduate as ' r i s i n g sixteen*?" Entrance examinations were conducted four times a y e a r — 4 i n January, J u l y , October and November; Arthur went up on 5 October 20, 1813; Each candidate was examined by one of the Junior Fellows, the men who c a r r i e d on most of the education-1 Alumni Dublinenses, p; ¥LT. 2 Ibid.,-. p. XI. The Catalogue of. Graduates was published i n 1866 by Dr. J . H. Todd* 3 Alumni Dublinenses, p. X. 4 Report of the Dublin University Commission. 1855^ p. 64, 5 Alumni Dublinenses. p. 460. 1 a l work at the college; The examination consisted of a searching o r a l exploration of the candidate's knowledge of two or three Greek and L a t i n texts chosen from the prescribed 2 l i s t ; Young Arthur's success i n passing t h i s d i f f i c u l t examination was perhaps as much due to having had a t u t o r who was a good teacher as i t was to h i s own a b i l i t y . A f t e r he had paid h i s entry fee, signed a declaration promising to obey the statufes of the u n i v e r s i t y and taken the Oath of Abjuration (against descendants of James H ) , he was duly entered i n the Matriculation books as follows: Kennedy, Arthur, son of Hugh, Gentleman, entered October 20th, 1823, aged 16, born Down, Fellow Commoner, educated Private Tutor, James Kennedy, F., T.C.D; (3) The term, "Fellow Commoner;* Indicated the rank he was to have as a student. For, depending on the amount of fee paid, there were several grades of students, each rank permitting a d i f f e r e n t duration of undergraduate course. A majority of the students belonged to the class c a l l e d Bensloners (because they o r i g i n a l l y paid a f i x e d sum annually}. They took from three and h a l f to four and a h a l f years to complete t h e i r course, the longer term being by f a r the more usual. Sons of noblemen, who paid fees four times as great as those of Pensioners, were permitted to complete t h e i r work i n from 1 Report of the Dublin U n i v e r s i t y Commission. 1853j p; 64. 2 See above, p. 64. 3 Olive Smith, f o r Assistant Registrar., to H.C.G.. Assistant Registrar's O f f i c e , T r i n i t y College, Dublin, September 21, 1948. See also Alumni Dubllnenses. p* 46©. - 70 -one and n a i f to two and a h a l f years* In consequence of t h i s shortened time, they were allowed to omit many of the most important parts of the course* Fellow Commoners, sor c a l l e d because they dined at the same table as the Fellows, paid fees double those of Pensioners and were allowed to f i n i s h i n three to four years, u s u a l l y answering f o r the 1 Degree of A.B. i n the middle of t h e i r fourth, year. This hurrying through college i n a less, than average time was not l i k e l y to encourage a high standard of work. Having obtained a Fellow Commoner's gown, with i t s long sleeves and velvet c o l l a r , and having arranged f o r chambers within the college walls (consisting of a l i v i n g r 2 room, a bedroom and a c l o s e t ) , Arthur could now take time to look around h i s new home; Despite h i s youth he must have been aware of the austere beauty of the rectangular c l a s s i c forms of the college buildings--the proud Corinthian facade of the West Front, the s t a t e l y matching porticoes of Examination H a l l and Chapel facing each other across College greenj and the g r a c e f u l l y proportioned Dining H a l l with i t s 3 lo v e l y Ionic p i l l a r s ; He was B o o n to know the i n t e r i o r of 1 Report of the Dublin U n i v e r s i t y Commission. 1853, p. 57. The degree i s ref e r r e d to i n the report sometimes as B.A. and sometimes as A.B; 2 I b i d . , p. 63 and Appendices, p; 260. Students from outside, who did not have r e l a t i v e s i n Dublin, usually l i v e d i n the College. I t i s quite possible, however, that Arthur l i v e d with friends or r e l a t i v e s . There i s no record at the un i v e r s i t y of where he l i v e d . 3 Maxwell, C , a h i s t o r y of -Trinity. College. Dublin, pp. 171*176; - 71 -t i l l s b e a u t i f u l building very w e l l , f o r he sat at the Fellows' table at the top end under a great Venetian window. His admiration of the h a l l ' s beauty and si z e was perhaps some-what obscured as i t was borne home to him that he was dining 1 i n "the coldest room i n Europe". But he was young, and was probably too interested i n watching the e x c i t i n g rough fun at the lower tables to be much bothered by the cold. Nor, when he saw the Library, was a youngster of h i s age l i k e l y to be greatly worried because he was not allowed to use i t . For fear that they would read i n j u d i c i o u s l y , undergraduates were not permitted to consult or to use i t s great c o l l e c t i o n 2 of books i n any way* Beyond the college walls there were the wonders of the c i t y to s e e — t h e splendid Bank of Ireland (formerly the Parliament Buildings], the Royal Exchange, Gandon's Custom House and many other f i n e buildings. "Dublin i s splendid beyond my expectation," sai d S i r Walter 3 Scott when he viewed i t two years l a t e r , In 1825. Arthur was probably just as much impressed, but perhaps he was 1 Furlong, E. J . j "The study of l o g i c i n T r i n i t y College, Dublin", i n Hermathena. v o l . 60, November 1942, p. 43. 2 Report of the Dublin Uni v e r s i t y Commission. 1855. pp. 75-76. 3 Maxwell, C., Dublin under the Georges.. 1714-1850, p. 255. l e s s interested i n f i n e buildings than he was i n Dame 1 Street's bustle of l i f e and t r a f f i c . In Arthur Kennedy's time T r i n i t y College, Dublin, was headed by Provost Samuel Kyle, who was assisted i n the 2 management of the u n i v e r s i t y by seven Senior Fellows; Most of the educational work was c a r r i e d on by twelve Junior Fellows, whose duties included teaching, examining, guiding 3 and giving r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n to the undergraduates. Religious i n s t r u c t i o n had been one of the e s s e n t i a l parts of the work of t h i s college since i t s founding by Queen E l i z a b e t h i n 1592 at request of the heads of the 4 Established Church i n Ireland. The Fellows of the u n i v e r s i t y were under obligation of celibacy and were required to take 5 Holy Orders within three years of e l e c t i o n ; Each Junior Fellow had charge of the moral and r e l i g i o u s guidance of h i s own group of students, that i s i f they were members of the Established Church; Roman Catholics, who had been admitted f r e e l y since 1793, and Protestant Dissenters, were excused 6 r e l i g i o u s duties. In 1807 Catechetical Lectures on the 1 Maxwell, C , Dublin under the Georges.. 1714-1850, p. 253. 2 Report o f the Dublin U n i v e r s i t y •Commission. 1855, p.6 3 I b i d . . pp. 3,4,6,10, 17; 4 I b i d . , p. 2; 5 I b i d . . Appendices, p. 113. 6 I b i d . . pp. 62 and 53; - 73 -Bible and on portions of Seeker's Lectures on Church Catechism had been established. These lectures were held every Saturday. I t was compulsory f o r a l l students i n the f i r s t two years, being members of the Established Church, to attend these lectures,or else to pass examinations on 1 the topics concerned, on penalty of l o s i n g t h e i r c l a s s . Members of the Established Church had likewise to attend 2 Holy Communion i n the College Chapel. They were also required to attend service every day i n that chapel, there 5 being three services a day. A c a r e f u l check of the atten-dance was made and f i n e s were l e v i e d f o r even occasional non-compliance. The students of the college were regarded as members of one family who attended worship together--regular attendance a condition of continuance at the 4 i n s t i t u t i o n . Services were conducted by the Fellows of the c o l l e g e i one of the most notable at ArthurJs time being Franc S a d l e i r , who preached In the chapel between 1821 and 5 1824. He was deeply interested i n the welfare of the poor 1 Report of the Dublin University. Commission. 1855.. pp. 20, 70 and Appendices, pp. 113-114• 2 I b i d ; , pp. 53, 63. 5 I b i d ; . Appendices, p; 264; 4 Ib i d . , p; 63; 5 Maxwell, A h i s t o r y of Tr i n i t y . College.. Dublin, p. 215; a f a c t which i s mentioned as possibly i n d i c a t i n g one source of Arthur*s own s i m i l a r concern i n l a t e r years. This intensive programme of r e l i g i o u s education was a d e f i n i t e part of the function of t h i s e s s e n t i a l l y Protestant i n s t i t u t i o n founded to strengthen the position o f the Established Church and to promote "the c u l t i v a t i o n of v i r t u e 1 and r e l i g i o n " . In the earnestly moral early nineteenth century such Instruction was approved more than ever. Since Arthur came from a family that was closely i n contact with the Church, It might be expected that he found the programme a reasonably natural procedure; Yet, f o r a h i g h - s p i r i t e d l a d of fourteen, attendance at chapel every day was a great deal to expect; Moreover, the element of compulsion,with i t s elaborate machinery of checking attendance, acted as a challenge to the ingenuity of a young fellow to devise means of escape without too often being caught and f i n e d . As f o r the Saturday Catechetical Lectures, they alternated between the boredom of waiting f o r one's turn to be questioned on some days, and ©n-other days the greater boredom of copying questions and answers. The no v e l i s t , Lever, who attended , 2 "Old T r i n i t y " at the same time as Arthur €k**j described a student i n h i s Charles 0'Malley, who "voted morning chapels arbpre;..and pronounced the statute-book, with i t s 1 Maxwell, A hist o r y of. T r i n i t y College. Dublin. p. 5 -2 Alumni Dublinenses. p. 499; - 75 -1 attendant t r a i n of f i n e s and punishment, an 'unclean thing*." ArthurlEennedy's own blunt verdict given i n l a t e r years was: He had been at school himself, and he had not found that attending chapel and lectures had done him much goodj or indeed anyone e l s e . (2) One e f f e c t of t h i s experience on Arthur's mind was to convince him, when he looked back i n l a t e r l i f e , that school was not the r i g h t place to i n s t i l r e l i g i o u s doctrines. That was a task f o r the parents i n the home, f o r the Church and f o r the 5 Sunday School. In spite of the shortness of h i s time there, T r i n i t y made another contribution to Arthur Edward's attitudes of which he was probably unaware at the time. That contribution was a reinforcement of the l i b e r a l Influence of h i s home i n r e l a t i o n to r e l i g i o u s tolerance. A true s p i r i t of generosity marked that very Protestant u n i v e r s i t y ; Highly controversial centre though i t was, T r i n i t y College, Dublin, had admitted Roman Catholics i n 1793, free of a l l r e l i g i o u s t e s t s , and i t allowed them to go on to t h e i r degrees unhampered by mean interference f o r h a l f a century before the older English u n i v e r s i t i e s 4 followed s u i t . This generous code i n the midst of clashing creeds would make a strong impression on the mind of a 1 Lever, Charles, Charles O'Malley.. the I r i s h Dragoon, new ed i t i o n , with autobiographical introduction, London, Ward Lock and Co., n;d., Chapter 15, p. 73; 2 The B r i t i s h Colonist. V i c t o r i a , Vancouver Island, A p r i l 13, 1864, p. 3. 3 I b i d . . A p r i l 4, 1864, p. 3; A p r i l 5, 1864, p; 3; A p r i l 13, 1864, p. 3. 4 Maxwell, A history of T r i n i t y College. Dublin, p. 191 - 76 -fourteen-year-old. Although new ideas were beginning to make headway i n education, they had not begun e f f e c t i v e l y to influence the curriculum or teaching methods of the u n i v e r s i t i e s . Provost Kyle*s period from 1821 to 1830 was a time of slack water just before a new t i d e of reform came i n with Prov6at Lloyd i n the 1830»s. Thus Arthur Kennedy went to Dublin during a time when courses, methods of i n s t r u c t i o n and the system of examination were a l l i n great need of improve-1 ment. The f i n a l year of h i s formal education was, therefore, to be completed i n an uninspired period when an o l d system was dragging to i t s close. Like Oxford and Cambridge at t h i s time, T r i n i t y College, Dublin, was dominated by the old c l a s s i c a l system* No provision was made i n the under-graduate course f o r study of a modern foreign language, f o r modern h i s t o r y or economics, f o r p o l i t i c a l economy, or 2 f o r Inglisfc* The chief subject was C l a s s i c s , i t s ancient dominance buttressed by the theory of formal d i s c i p l i n e . In the Junior and Senior Freshmen years the courses comr 3 pris e d Logic, Mathematics and C l a s s i c s . To these i n the 1 Report off the Dublin u n i v e r s i t y Commission. 1853. Appendices p. 333, evidence and suggestions by Reverend Richard Townsend, Junior Fellow* 2 Maxwell, A h i s t o r y of T r i n i t y College. Dublin. p;182. Report off the Dublin University Commission 1855. appendices p..333. P o l i t i c a l economy was introduced to the under-graduate course i n 1833; 3 Furlong* Hermathena. v o l . 60, November 1942, pp*45-46 Stanford, Hermathena, v o l * 57, May 1941, p; 14; Maxwell, A h i s t o r y of T r i n i t y College. Dublin, pp;149-150. - 77 -Junior Sophister years were added Mathematical Physics, 1 Astronomy and Moral Philosophy. Arthur appears to have followed the ordinary undergraduate 2 course in his Junior Freshman year. The f i r s t subject to which he was introduced was Logic, his text-book the famous Murray's 3 Logic. A second text-book in use at this time was John 4 Locke's Essay concerning human understanding. The youngsters were set to disputation, one member defending a given theme 5 while two others attacked i t with the aid of syllogisms, the whole proceeding being carried on in Latin in such barren fashion as to cause one alumnus to report, "Students were examined on Locke on the Human Understanding before their 1 Report of the Dublin University Commission. 1855. pp. 65-66, 67, 125. Appendices pp. 213, 333. 2 T. Olive Smith, for Assistant Registrar, to H.C.G., Assistant Registrar's Office, Trinity College, Dublin, September 21, 1948. 3 Furlong, E. J., Loc. c l t . 4 Maxwell, A history of Trinity College, Dublin, pp. 149-150. Report of the Dublin University Commission. 1853. p. 67 and Appendices p. 125. This text was moved into the second and third year by the reforms of 1833. 5 Furlong, Op. c l t . , p. 38. 1 own had arrived at the f i r s t stage of maturity;" Dr. Richard Murray, author of the l o g i c text, was also the founder of the great mathematical school at T r i n i t y at the end of the eighteenth century, when mathematics became an important 2 part of the undergraduate course* The f i r s t year course i n mathematics comprised Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry and 3 Trigonometry. One noted text-book was Erlington*s E u c l i d . Barrington*s s t r i c t u r e that, "Euclid was pressed upon t h e i r reason before any one of them could comprehend a single 4 problem"* seems rather far-fetched, because most boys i n t h e i r middle teens are able to understand Geometry, even i f i t s study does not produce the expected general increase i n reasoning power. Dublin University was producing many famous mathematicians at t h i s time, one of the greatest of whom, William Rowan Hamilton, matriculated i n the same year as the 5 much younger Arthur Kennedy. The close association of l o g i c 1 Maxwell, A h i s t o r y of. Trinity. College.. Dublin, p. 150, quoting S i r Jonah Barringtbh.' 2 Furlong, op. c l t . . p; 45* See also Report of the  Dublin U n i v e r s i t y Commission. 1853. p; 66. 3 Furlong, op. c i t . * p* 44. The Report of the Dublin  U n i v e r s i t y Commission.-1855. evidence, p. 213, shows that i n 1853 Erlington was s t i l l i n use* 4 Maxwell, A h i s t o r y of T r i n i t y College. Dublin, p. 150; 5 I b i d . . p. 198* Hamilton was f i v e years older than Kennedy on entry. - 79 -and mathematics i n the f i r s t year course held some educational promise. In theory there was to be a concurrent examination of the basic p r i n c i p l e s of r e f l e c t i v e thinking and a conscious p r a c t i c a l application of those p r i n c i p l e s In the hope of developing some a b i l i t y i n reasoning. In a c t u a l i t y that hope was l o s t i n a s t e r i l e emphasis on p r a c t i s i n g the mere forms of reasoning. As we have seen, the most prominent subject at Arthur's time was C l a s s i c s , the most important part of his work to obtain a "gentleman's knowledge" of p o l i t e ancient l i t e r a t u r e . The course i n h i s Junior Freshman year comprised: Homer's I l i a d , I - XTT; selections from Lucian; V e r g i l ' s AEneid, " ' 1 I - XI; S a l l u s t and Terence; In addition to studying c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , h e had each week to make a summary, with comment, on what he had learned from h i s tutor during that week* He had also to write another L a t i n composition i n prose 2 or verse; Thus by the d i s c i p l i n e of studying t h i s w e l l -1 Stanford, W. B;, " C l a s s i c a l studies i n T r i n i t y College, Dublin, since the foundation", Hermathena. v o l ; 57, May 1941, pp,. 14, 5 and 6. The Report of the Dublin U n i v e r s i t y Commission, 1855, Appendices, p* 125, shows the Junion Freshman course a r i s i n g from the changes of 1833 to comprise: selections from Lucian, Demosthenes, L i v y and the Orations of Cicero; (This was the course i n 1850.) 2 Maxwell, A h i s t o r y of T r i n i t y College, Dublin, p; 149. * 80 ordered c l a s s i c a l language, i t was hoped, he would develop the higher f a c u l t i e s of h i s mind; In summary we may note that Arthur's courses consisted of Logic, Mathematics and C l a s s i c s . Logic and Mathematics were new subjects. C l a s s i c s , the dominant subject* was a continuation and completion of the study that had occupied the working hours of h i s boyhood. Methods of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the 1820?s at T r i n i t y College, Dublin, had a few good points, but on the whole they were i n e f f i c i e n t ; Each student was assigned by the Provost to one of the Junior Fellows who was thenceforward to be h i s Tutor, that i s , h i s guardian, counsellor and teacher; A t u t o r received h i s income from the fees paid to him by h i s own p u p i l s ; Normally he taught these pupils only and he taught them a l l t h e i r subjects. The main advantage of t h i s system was that a tutor could get to know his p u p i l 1 well and a f r i e n d l y s p i r i t could grow up between them. However, i t was a heavy load to teach a l l subjects through a l l the years. A tutor was expected t o devote one hour a day to each of the f i r s t three classes, the Junior Freshmen, the Senior Freshmen and the Junior Sophister3. No record was kept of attendance, and, except i n the Junior Freshman year, very few students bothered to put 1 Report of the Dublin U n i v e r s i t y Commission, 1855, p; 13; (p. 89: The average income f o r a Junior ~~ Fellow was £600 but there were great i n e q u a l i t i e s . ) i n regular attendance at t h e i r tutor's lecture-room* There were many Instances also of serious neglect of t h e i r teach-•1 ing duties on the part of the Fellows. In. h i s Charles D'Malle.y Lever gives a derisive picture of the t u t o r i a l methods used i n Arthur's time* He t e l l s how the students were expected to be at the lodgings of t h e i r t u t o r at s i x o'clock i n the morning and to stand shivering around the walls while he conducted h i s lessons l y i n g snug i n bed. He t e l l s how they frequently found a notice on the door ca n c e l l i n g the lecture because t h e i r t u t o r was v i s i t i n g f r i e n d s ; On one such occasion an early student removed the sign, entered the rooms and succe s s f u l l y Impersonated the l e c t u r e r from the curtained recesses of his bed; When our prankster recounted t h i s t a l e to a j o y f u l student body, some of them were wise enough to r e a l i z e that, " i f such were the nature of our morning orisons, we might 2 nearly as p r o f i t a b l y have remained i n bed." During the hour that he had to devote to the students i n h i s Junior Freshman class, a tutor spent one h a l f h i s time on C l a s s i c s ; the other h a l f was devoted to Logic and 3 Mathematics. Very often much of his time was taken up i n 1 Report of- the Dublin University Commission, 1853* Appendices, p. 127. 2 Chapter 17, pp; 87-89. 3 Report of the Dublin U n i v e r s i t y Commission, 1855, Appendices,'p; 127. - 82 -giving i n s t r u c t i o n i n Mathematics to those who had none; the other youngsters, who had been prepared i n good schools where Algebra and Geometry were taught* were encouraged i n 1 habits of Idleness while they waited. In most of the t u t o r i a l lectures the procedure was question and answer, both of which were frequently dictat e d by the l e c t u r e r and copied by the students. A l l t o l d , i t was i n e f f i c i e n t i n s t r u c t i o n notably lacking i n thoroughness, "a want 2 p a i n f u l l y f e l t " . Now, although Arthur's t u t o r had an outstanding record as a scholar, he was i n many ways unsuited as a teacher f o r a h i g h - s p i r i t e d youngster* This man was the Reverend 3 James Kennedy, M.A., B.D. ( l a t e r D.D., Rector off Ardtrea). His father, the Reverend Nicholas Ward Kennedy, had been 4 born i n County Down and may have been a distant r e l a t i v e of Arthur's father. It i s quite possible that James Kennedy sought the p o s i t i o n as Arthur's tutor, f o r the assignment was frequently made on the basis of family friend' 5 ship or rel a t i o n s h i p , and James was very anxious to have i t 1 Report off the Dublin University. Commission. 1855. p. 65V ' " • ' ' 2 I b i d . , Appendices, p. 336. 3 T... Olive. Smith, for. Assistant- Registrar., to H.C.G... Assistant Registrar's O f f i c e , T r i n i t y College, Dublin, September 21, 1948; 4 Alumni Dublinenses, p. 461; 5 Report o f the. Dublin U n i v e r s i t y Commission, 1855. p.16 - 83 -known that h i s was an ancient and noble lineage. He a f t e r -wards asserted t h i s relationship to the E a r l of C a s s i l l i s , but the l a t t e r refused to admit the connection i n s p i t e of the great scholar's o f f e r to make him his h e i r i f the relationship were acknowledged. In another search f o r prestige James Kennedy changed his surname to Kennedy-1 B a i l i e . He was vain and pompous i n manner. I t was a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c certain to m i l i t a t e against h i s success i n teaching t h i s l i v e l y boy, who had a quick a b i l i t y to detect a f f e c t a t i o n ; There can be no doubt, however, of James Kennedy's b r i l l i a n c e as a c l a s s i c a l scholar; He had indeed so many irons i n the f i r e , i n addition to the ordinary heavy teach-ing load of a Junior Fellow, that he may have been as prone to neglect h i s students as many other tutors were i n t h i s poorly organized period. Entering T r i n i t y College, Dublin, as a pensioner i n 1807, at the same youthful age of fourteen as d i d Arthur, he had moved s t e a d i l y onward: to the p o s i t i o n of Scholar i n 1810, to h i s Bachelor of Arts degree i n 1812, to the rank of Fellow of the U n i v e r s i t y i n 1817 and to h i s Master of Arts degree i n 1819. During t h i s steady progress i n h i s academic career, he had brought l u s t r e to his u n i v e r s i t y by the publication of three notable books: 1 Stephen and Lee* editors, The dictionary- of national  biography, since 1917, v o l ; 10, pp* 1310-1311; 6f. Bryant, The, age of. elegance, pp; 322-323. Lachrymae. Aeademicae, a volume of stanzas i n English and Greek; Select Speeches o f Demosthenes, with t r a n s l a t i o n and notes; and an e d i t i o n of Homer's I l i a d , with L a t i n notes. Several other books were to come from h i s able pen—^works remarkable f o r t h e i r depth of research* Perhaps he had already begun h i s studies f o r the next two. In 1829 he was to publish an e d i t i o n of Aeschylus' Agamemnon from the text of Blomfield, with Vpss's German version and an o r i g i n a l rendering into English blank verse, and f u l l notes. Then followed i n 1834 Preelections, on the. Language and Literature of Ancient. Greece, delivered i n the University of, Dublin. Between 1842 and 1849 he published the three volumes of h i s Fasciculus Inscrlptionum Graecarum. the product of many 1 years of research. While one wonders whether t h i s great c l a s s i c a l scholar might have been impatient with the nec-r e s s i t y of teaching elementary Mathematics and Logic, surely the v i r i l i t y and a c t i v i t y of h i s mind must have enriched h i s pupil's understanding of c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i n s p i t e of any ostentation of manner. In the year that he was Arthur's tutor James Kennedy had yet another preoccupation; In 1823 he had just com-pleted the Testimonium of the D i v i n i t y School and had received ordination i n the United Church of England and Ireland; His work had evidently been of a high standard f o r he had been elected Donnellan Lecturer f o r the year 1 Stephen and Lee, editors, The dictionary of national  biography, since 1917, v o l ; 10, pp. 1310-1311; 1 1823 - 1824. This honour c a r r i e d with i t the duty of d e l i v e r -ing at l e a s t s i x sermons—Kennedy gave t e n — i n the College Chapel on c e r t a i n Sundays a f t e r morning service. The s e r i e s started on or about November 20, 1823, and had to be completed within a year. One part of the interest on twelve hundred pounds was to be paid to the l e c t u r e r as soon as he had delivered a l l the sermons and the remainder when he had 2 published at least four of the l e c t u r e s . In due course they were published i n two volumes under the t i t l e , Ten 3 l e c t u r e s on the philosophy of the Mosaic record of creation. The preparation of these ten sermons must have occupied a considerable part of James Kennedy's time during t h i s year. Altogether h i s a c t i v i t i e s of preaching, of research and of publishing, when added to the overburdensome teaching loart of a Junior Fellow, made i t impossible for him to discharge those wide duties as guardian, counsellor and Instructor that were expected of him on Arthur's behalf. 1 Alumni Dubllnenses, p. 460, gives the year of e l e c t i o n , 1823. Stephen and Lee, The dictionary of national biography, since 1917, v o l . 10, p. 1310, gives the year of the delivery of most of h i s lectures, 1824. 2 Report of the Dublin University Commission, 1855. Appendicesj p. 265. 3 Stephen and Lee, l o c . c i t . - 86 -While his t u t o r was busy and his brother was immersed i n h i s Senior Sophister year, young