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Colour pattern in auto-sexing redbar chicks Hill, Arthur Thomas 1947

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ue^&-) {fi-ll*-} fi4 ^ COLOUR PATTERN IN AUTO-SEXING REDBAR CHICKS by Arthur T . H i l l A Thesis submitted for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN,AGRICULTURE in the Department of Poultry Husbandry The University of Brit i s h Columbia July, 19^7. ABSTRACT OF THESIS H i l l , A, T. Colour pattern i n auto-sexing Redbar chicks. Thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Science i n Agriculture. July 1947. tfadversity of B r i t i s h Columbia. A study of the colour pattern of Redbar chicks was undertaken to ascertain i f the male and female chicks could be distinguished and i f so, to devise a system of auto-sexing them. During the 1946 season, 1080 chicks from 36 female and 4 male parents were handled* Seventeen characteristics were described on each parental bird and forty-one on each chick. Down colour differences were found and the auto-sexing accuracy was improved from 62.1$ to 94.0$ with 80.0$ for the'whole season. During the 1947 season, 542 chicks from 38 female and 6 male parents and 345 non-pedigreed pure Redbar chicks were handled. Twenty-two characteristics were described on each parental bird and eleven on each chick. Auto-sexing accuracy varied from 91.4$ to 98.5$ with 93.6$ for the whole season. Characteristics of the heads and bodies of the chicks used to obtain these accuracies were as follows: Females - uniform brown colour, brown head stripes, brown back stripes. Males - mottled heads and backs, white head spots, very light heads and backs, short T or I shaped brown head stripe, two whitish back stripes. Table of Contents Page I I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I I Review of L i t e r a t u r e 2 I I I M a t e r i a l (19^6) ' 5 IV Procedure (19^6) 6 V R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n (19^6) 19 VI M a t e r i a l Q9>+7) 30 V I I Procedure (19^7) 31 V I I I R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n (19^7) 39 IX Conclusions ^5 X Summary ^6 References 52 Acknowledgements 51* Appendix. I l l u s t r a t i o n s Kodachrome i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the key f o r the auto-sexing of female Redbar chicks — f a c i n g p. Kodachrome i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the key f o r the auto-sexing of male Redbar c h i c k s — f a c i n g p. ^1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The o r i g i n and development of the Redbar breed has been described by Munro and Hagedoorn (19^6). In the f a l l of 19*+5 the author began a study of the down colours of Redbar c h i c k s . On t h i s work a p r e l i m i n a r y paper by L l o y d and H i l l , was presented by the se n i o r author at the 35th Annual Meeting of the P o u l t r y Science A s s o c i a t i o n , S t . L o u i s , M i s s o u r i , J u l y 22-23rd, 19^6. In t h i s study the f i r s t step was t o become f a m i l i a r w i t h the various down c o l o u r s . The next step was t o determine whether or not there were c o n s i s t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the male and female c h i c k s . Afterwards when i t became evident t h a t these d i f f e r e n c e s d i d e x i s t an attempt was made t o devise a key f o r the sexing of Redbars which would be easy to understand and to operate. Though the breed i s not of commercial importance as y e t , the data have been compiled and are presented i n the b e l i e f t h a t they may come t o have p r a c t i c a l value e i t h e r i n t h i s breed or i n other breeds of l i g h t down c o l o u r . I t w i l l be observed upon examination of the work done f o r t h i s t h e s i s over the past two breeding seasons t h a t numerous observations have been made on the ch i c k s t h a t have si n c e proved v a l u e l e s s . Many were made i n the b e l i e f t h a t - 2 -they would prove t o be of a s s i s t a n c e i n sexing the b i r d s w h i l s t o t h e r s , f o r example, r a t e of f e a t h e r i n g , were made i n order t o a s s i s t i n the development of a breeding program. The l a t t e r has r e s u l t e d i n an improvement i n the breed. Furthermore, i t was considered t h a t s i m i l a r r e s u l t s might ,be obtained to those of Jaap who i n experiments conducted at the Oklahoma A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment S t a t i o n demonstrated that i t was p o s s i b l e t o g r e a t l y improve the accuracy of sexing by proper s e l e c t i o n of c h i c k s f o r the breeding f l o c k . Review of L i t e r a t u r e Comparatively l i t t l e has been published on the sexing of Redbars. However, con s i d e r a b l e data t h a t are u s e f u l i n working w i t h t h i s breed have been published by v a r i o u s t a u t h o r i t i e s about Rhode I s l a n d Reds, Brown Leghorns, Cambars, Legbars, Ancobars and the Barred Plymouth Rocks. Munro (1939) commenting on work done a t the A g r i c u l t u r a l Research center a t B e l t s v i l l e on the auto-sexing of Rhode I s l a n d Reds, s t a t e d t h a t the female c h i c k s g e n e r a l l y have one or more spots or s t r i p e s of black on the head or back while the males g e n e r a l l y possess no black down. On t h i s b a s i s an accuracy of 80-88$ was obtained. . Hagedoorn (19^6) observed t h a t i n h i s auto-sexing - 3 -Rhode I s l a n d Reds the-cockerels were born white and the p u l l e t s b u f f . I n the a d u l t b i r d s the males were red and white barred while the females were very l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t from o r d i n a r y Rhode I s l a n d Reds. . Hays (19^0) noted that both male and female Rhode I s l a n d Reds had brown and black pigment areas but a f t e r examining ei g h t thousand seven hundred and t h i r t e e n c h i c k s , stated t h a t colour markings had no commercial value as an i n d i c a t i o n of sex i n the s t r a i n he s t u d i e d . Hays and K l e i n (19^3) reported on an improved method f o r sex i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Rhode I s l a n d Red c h i c k s as developed by Homer Rowell of Massachusetts. They l a i d s t r e s s upon the u n i f o r m i t y of the colour of the females as opposed to the more v a r i e d degrees of redness over the v a r i o u s p a r t s of the down of the males. Jaap (19^6) elaborated a system whereby on three hundred and f i f t e e n Rhode I s l a n d Red c h i c k s an accuracy of 9k,9% was obtained. This a u t h o r i t y used the white wing web spot t o i d e n t i f y the males but s t r e s s e d t h a t , f o r breeding purposes, o n l y those of both sexes which had a uniform colour tone over the whole surface and the male c h i c k s t h a t had a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e white spot i n the web margin of the d o r s a l wing.surface should be kept. B y e r l e y and Quinn (1936) reported t h a t h?.5% of the baby c h i c k s i n t h e i r s t r a i n of Rhode I s l a n d Reds showed a - 1+ -small "black spot or dark coloured s t r i p e s on the head or d o r s a l s u r f a c e . Approximately 85$ of b i r d s having these spots of i n t e n s i f i e d melanic pigment were females. Quinn and Knox (1939) i n t h e i r work w i t h sex i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n h y b r i d c h i c k s f o r Barred Plymouth Rock males crossed w i t h Rhode I s l a n d Red females presumed t h a t the c h i c k s w i t h s i l v e r y back down and y e l l o w i s h shanks would probably be males, and chi c k s w i t h intense black down and black shanks would be females, as was found i n the standard bred Barred Plymouth Rock c h i c k s . Shank pigment was found to be of no h e l p . MacArthur and M a c l l r a i t h (19^6) reported t h a t i n colour sexing Brown Leghorns, there were marked sexual d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w i l d type down p a t t e r n of the s t r i p e on the crown, neck, back, face and a l s o upon the down colour along the edge and below the wing f r o n t . These d i f f e r e n c e s were more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n p u l l e t s than i n c o c k e r e l s . Furthermore, they s t a t e d t h a t these sex co n t r a s t s were f u l l y as marked on a s i l v e r down as on a gold ground c o l o u r . Punnett (191+0) found i n Legbars t h a t the males had a b l u r r i n g of the l i g h t rump s t r i p e s besides a l i g h t head patch which aided i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g them from the females. He a l s o found t h a t i n the shank colour t h e r e was an i n h i b i t -i n g f a c t o r t i e d i n w i t h the b a r r i n g one, w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t - 5 -no d i f f e r e n c e s appeared between the males and females. Punnett and Pease (1930) working w i t h Cambars found that the male c h i c k s were a pale b l o t c h y c o l o u r , whereas the females were darker, showing the t y p i c a l Campine down co l o u r . They pointed out tha t the Cambar had both the b a r r i n g of the Barred, Plymouth Rock and of the Campine, the one being s e x - l i n k e d and dominant to s e l f colour and the second being autosomal and r e c e s s i v e t o s e l f c o l o u r . Lamoreux (19*+1) i n auto-sexing h i s Ancobars used the presence and absence of black head spots and the d e n s i t y of the pigment on the backs of h i s c h i c k s to d i s t i n g u i s h the sex of the b i r d s . F i n a l l y , i n the "Autosexlinkage i n the Barred Plymouth Rocks", Jerome (1939) described the white head spots c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the males and females. Again i t was s i g n i f i c a n t to note t h a t the emphasis was upon the head t markings. M a t e r i a l (19*+6) There were f o r t y - s i x female and fo u r t e e n male Redbars a v a i l a b l e f o r breeding m a t e r i a l . The m a j o r i t y were approximately nine months o l d though a few were two and three years of age. Records of t h e i r breeding were not a v a i l a b l e . In s e t t i n g about t h i s p r o j e c t i t was immediately evident t h a t the p a r e n t a l stock were f a r from u n i f o r m l y coloured as described l a t e r under the s e l e c t i o n of the l breeding stock. Hence i t was a n t i c i p a t e d that t h e i r o f f s p r i n g would be s i m i l a r l y v a r i a b l e i n down c o l o u r s . Since i n i t i a l l y i t was not known whether the c h i c k s could be auto-sexed or not, the p o l i c y of producing as : wide a range of colour-downed ch i c k s as p o s s i b l e was f o l l o w e d . Furthermore i f the c h i c k s were to become auto-sexable i t would be done on colour d i f f e r e n c e s . Thus a breeding program was set up to provide m a t e r i a l t o study the i n h e r i t a n c e of the colour d i f f e r e n c e s and t h e i r p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n i n sexing the c h i c k s . The p a r e n t a l stock, both male and female, were d i v i d e d i n t o three groups, and the p u l l e t s were trapnested i n small breeding houses c o n t a i n i n g s i n g l e males. A. Objects of the breeding plans 1. To produce a wide range of colour i n t e n s i t i e s and colour markings i n the c h i c k s . 2. Assuming th a t sex d i f f e r e n c e s would appear, to s e l e c t s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which could be used to d i s t i n g u i s h the males and the females. Sex d i f f e r e n c e s might apply to a l l chicks but at the same time i t was appreciated t h a t t h i s might not prove to be the case. 3. To keep records of the parents and o f f s p r i n g so t h a t those parents g i v i n g the most e a s i l y "auto-sexable 1 1 c h i c k s could be bred from i n the f u t u r e . h. To keep records of the economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the parents and t h e i r o f f s p r i n g , e.g. meat q u a l i t i e s , egg production, egg s i z e , f e r t i l i t y and h a t c h a b i l i t y , so t h a t b i r d s w i t h the d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s could be produced i n f u t u r e generations, i n conjunction w i t h the sexable c o l o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 5. Having drawn some conclusions as a r e s u l t of k i l l i n g the c h i c k s i n the f i r s t two hatches, t o o b t a i n more chic k s from those parents that have given e a s i l y sexable c h i c k s . At the same time c h i c k s w i t h i n a narrower colour range could be s e l e c t e d . 6. To save r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c h i c k s from t h e i n i t i a l crosses to see the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h i c k and a d u l t c o l o u r s . Among other th i n g s t h i s w i l l h e l p when i t i s necessary to introduce d e s i r a b l e coloured b i r d s of new blood from the Redbar males crossed w i t h Rhode I s l a n d Red females. 7. To change the males from one pen of p u l l e t s t o another so t h a t the t r a n s m i s s i o n of c e r t a i n ^  outstanding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as smokiness or mousiness i n the undercover, could be s t u d i e d . 8. To cross pure Redbar males w i t h Record of Performance, Rhode I s l a n d Red females to permit the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new blood i n t o the s t r a i n of Redbars and thereby concentrate the economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the breed. B. S e l e c t i o n of breeding stock: 1. Females. By January ^ t h a l l the Redbar b i r d s on the P o u l t r y Farm had been handled. Among other t h i n g s notes were taken on the colour of t h e i r plumage. From these r e s u l t s i t was evident t h a t the b i r d s could be d i v i d e d i n t o three colour groups as f o l l o w s : a. L i g h t i s h red b i r d s w i t h white b a r r i n g . Smokiness was noted i n three of the b i r d s . Though not considered t y p i c a l , of the group two of these were used i n the breeding pens. b. Medium red b i r d s w i t h white b a r r i n g . Again smokiness was avoided though b l a c k t i c k i n g on the h a c k l e was permitted. c. Medium to dark b i r d s . Those wi t h the smokiness of the undercover f e l l i n t o t h i s group. • ' • Even w i t h the b i r d s being d i v i d e d i n t o the above three groups, considerable v a r i a t i o n s could be seen i n b i r d s of the same group, the d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l a r i t y o f b a r r i n g being the most obvious. Using the above method of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i t was found that 18, 15 and 13 b i r d s f e l l i n t o the l i g h t , medium and medium to dark groups, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Provided that the h e a l t h , v i g o u r , weight and meat q u a l i t i e s were s a t i s f a c t o r y , four b i r d s from each - 9 -group were put together i n each of three pens. From the remainder, four b i r d s were s e l e c t e d to make up the f o u r t h pen. To secure f u r t h e r data f o r a breeding p l a n i n the f u t u r e , notes on egg weight, t e x t u r e of s h e l l and number of eggs l a i d during the next f o u r months were taken. 2. Males. . ' ° The f o u r t e e n males were d i v i d e d up i n t o the three groups i n a s i m i l a r manner to the females. C l a r i t y of colour markings and meat q u a l i t i e s were weighed e q u a l l y i n s e l e c t i n g the best b i r d from each of the three groups. A f o u r t h male was s e l e c t e d from the medium colour group to put w i t h the f o u r t h pen of p u l l e t s . The best f o u r of the remaining males were s e l e c t e d to be put w i t h the Rhode I s l a n d Red p u l l e t s i n the Record of Performance pen. I t w i l l be noted t h a t the medium to dark male was an o l d b i r d . There was a. chance of inbreeding but the greater l o n g e v i t y thereby obtained weighed i n h i s favour. P a r t i c u l a r l y was t h i s worth w h i l e because of the f a c t t h a t any other male used might e a s i l y have been a brother to some of the p u l l e t s , s i n c e In the mass matings of the previous years, the records d i d not show pedigrees. The medium coloured male outwardly had c l e a r white b a r r i n g but at the time he was put i n t o the breeding pen i t was noted t h a t he had some smokiness - 1 0 -i n the undercover. This smokiness was about two-t h i r d s of the way up the f e a t h e r s and d i d not show on the surface of. the. plumage of the b i r d nor d i d i t extend below h a l f way down the f e a t h e r s . Movement of the b i r d s during the breeding season: The p u l l e t s were l e f t i n the same pens f o r the whole season. On the other hand, the males, f i r s t of a l l the three and l a t e r the f o u r , were r o t a t e d using the f o l l o w -in g system; the i n i t i a l c o l l e c t i o n of hatching eggs was s t a r t e d a f t e r the males had been i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e pens f o r two weeks. A f t e r twelve days c o l l e c t i n g , the f i r s t hatch was set and s i m i l a r l y at the end of the twenty-f o u r t h day a second hatch was put i n the i n c u b a t o r s . I n the meantime on the nineteenth day a l l males were removed from t h e i r pens. On the morning of the twenty-f i f t h day they were r o t a t e d and put back w i t h the p u l l e t s then on the t h i r t y - s e c o n d day hatching eggs f o r the t h i r d hatch were c o l l e c t e d . S i m i l a r l y on the f i f t y - f i r s t day the males were once again removed, egg c o l l e c t i n g being continued u n t i l the f i f t y - s i x t h day, at which time the males were once again r o t a t e d and returned to the breeding pens. Eggs f o r the f i f t h and s i x t h hatches i n c l u d i n g eggs from the f o u r t h pen of odd b i r d s , were then c o l l e c t e d from the s i x t y - f o u r t h day u n t i l the e i g h t y - e i g h t h day. On the e i g h t y - t h i r d , day the males were removed from a l l four pens being r o t a t e d and returned t o t h e i r new - 11 -pens on the e i g h t y - n i n t h day. Egg c o l l e c t i o n f o r the non-pedigreed seventh hatch was s t a r t e d on the e i g h t y -n i n t h day and f o r the pedigreed e i g h t h hatch on the hundredth day. On the hundred and t w e l f t h day hatching eggs ceased to be saved. D. Estimated number of c h i c k s that t h i s , system should produce: On the b a s i s of four chicks.from each female parent, t h i r t y - s i x p u l l e t s might be expected to give one hundred and f o r t y - f o u r c h i c k s per hatch or a t o t a l of ei g h t hundred and s i x t y - f o u r c h i c k s from the f i r s t s i x hatches. B i r d s from these hatches were considered e a r l y enough to be worth saving. ' From the seventh and eig h t h hatches two hundred and e i g h t y - e i g h t c h i c k s plus an a d d i t i o n a l s i x t y - f o u r from the f o u r hatches from the f o u r t h pen were expected. Since most o f these would be l a t e , they were produced • with the i n t e n t i o n of t e s t i n g the accuracy of any auto-sexing key t h a t might be developed e a r l i e r i n the season and were k i l l e d immediately afterward. I n a l l , p r e p a r a t i o n was made to handle approximately twelve hundred c h i c k s . E. S i g n i f i c a n c e of the three colour groups of p u l l e t s i n each breeding pen: To el a b o r a t e , where L Z l i g h t , M = medium and M-D - medium to dark colour types, the nine crosses were: Pen 1. L male X (1)L females, (2)M. females, (3)M-D females. - 12 -Pen 2. M male X. (*f)L females, (5)M females, (6)M-D females. Pen 3 . M-D male X (7)L females, (8)M females, (9)M-D females. By t h i s means the r e s u l t s of the nine crosses were obtained at the time the f i r s t hatch came o f f , r a t h e r than having t o wait u n t i l the f i f t h one was hatched which would have been the case i f the three colour groups of p u l l e t s had been put i n three separate pens. Furthermore, there was a p o s s i b i l i t y that when the nine groups of ch i c k s were set out s i d e by side i n boxes, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between males and females common to a l l or at l e a s t s e v e r a l groups might become evident. I f a l l the l i g h t , medium, and medium t o dark p u l l e t s had been put i n separate pens then only three groups would have hatched each time and i t would have been much harder t o make the same observations by ^ examination of the note's, at the end o f the season. F. Other breeding plans: So t h a t some new blood could be brought i n t o the s t r a i n of Redbars, f o u r Redbar males were put w i t h a pen of Rhode I s l a n d Red p u l l e t s t h a t were q u a l i f y i n g f o r Record of Performance. No i n d i v i d u a l pedigreelng was c a r r i e d out and few notes were taken on the ch i c k s obtained from t h i s c r o s s . These b i r d s were mated up before the r e g u l a r Record of Performance breeding work f o r the year was s t a r t e d on the farm. - 13 -G. Data c o l l e c t e d : The d e t a i l s regarding the p a r e n t a l stock were recorded w i t h a s e r i e s of n o t a t i o n s on each of the b i r d s . A d d i t i o n a l remarks on such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as f e r t i l i t y , h a t c h a b i l i t y and egg l a y i n g were added as the breeding season advanced. Though t h i s method of n o t e - t a k i n g made the a n a l y s i s of the data d i f f i c u l t , the numbers were so small t h a t the development of a new system d i d not appear to be warranted. ^ , ' This same procedure was f o l l o w e d i n d e s c r i b i n g the f i r s t hatch of c h i c k s . The data proved so hard to i n t e r p r e t however, th a t a hew method whereby one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was recorded i n each column was d e v i s e d . As f u r t h e r hatches were handled, c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s proved v a l u e l e s s while others t h a t had not p r e v i o u s l y • • v -been described were discovered and i n c l u d e d . A l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s used.one time or another were i n c l u d e d i n the t a b l e below, a. On p a r e n t a l stock. 1. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n number or numbers. 2. Date hatched when known. 3. Sex.' h. Weight a t m a t u r i t y . 5. Heat grade. 6. Colour group of b i r d — l i g h t , medium or medium to dark. 7. C l a r i t y of b a r r i n g over h a c k l e , back, and wings. - -iif -8. Presence of smokiness i n the hackle and on the back. 9. Presence of black f l e c k s i n h a c k l e . 10. Colour of p r i m a r i e s , secondaries and c o v e r t s . 11. S u i t a b i l i t y f o r breeding s t o c k — v i g o u r and. h e a l t h . 12. F e r t i l i t y r e s u l t s . . 13. H a t c h a b i l i t y r e s u l t s . lh. Laying r e s u l t s . 15. S i z e o f egg. " 16. Strength of s h e l l . 17. Egg c o l o u r . 18. Shape of egg. 19. " A u t o - s e x a b i l i t y " of c h i c k s hatched. 20. L i v a b i l i t y of chicks hatched. 21. Transmission of smokiness. On c h i c k s hatched. 1. Chick l e g and wing band numbers and parents' numbers where known. 2. General colour grouping of the e n t i r e down of the c h i c k from the d o r s a l v i e w — l i g h t , medium, or dark. 3. Beak c o l o u r — f l e s h , brown or l i g h t . k. Colour of beak t i p — y e l l o w , white or brown. 5. Notching of the beak present or not. 6. General colour of h e a d — l i g h t , medium or dark. 7. White head spot present or not. - 15 -8. Small spots present or not. I f so colour and number—refers to black and brown spots. 9. Large spots and s t r i p e s present or not. I f so co l o u r , number and whether c a r r i e d down the neck or n o t - - r e f e r s t o black and brown spots and . s t r i p e s . 10. C o l l a r present or not. I f present c o l o u r . 11. Presence or absence of head m o t t l i n g — a b s e n t , t r a c e , l i t t l e or c l e a r . 12. I n c i d e n t a l remarks on h e a d — c l a r i t y o f marking. 13. General body c o l o u r — l i g h t , medium or dark. ih. Colour between wings—^Ridgeway 1s c o l o u r c h a r t . 15. Colour down center of back—^Ridgeway's colour c h a r t . 16. Colour of two h i p s t r i p e s — ^ R i d g e w a y ' s colour , c h a r t . 17. Colour between c e n t r a l s t r i p e and two h i p s t r i p e s —^Ridgeway's colour c h a r t . 18. Colour o u t s i d e two h i p stripes-v-^Ridgeway 1 s colour c h a r t . 19. Smokiness present or not. I f present where? 20. Colour of down on u n d e r s i d e — w h i t e , t i n t e d or yel l o w . , 21. Colour of margins of the s c a l e s of the f e e t — . y e l l o w or white. 22. General colour of f e e t — f l e s h , or y e l l o w c a s t . 23. Black pigment on f e e t present or not. 2h. Colour of t o e s — f a i n t y e l l o w , y e l l o w or f l e s h . 25. Colour under f e e t — f l e s h or l i g h t y e l l o w . 26. Colour of pr i m a r i e s ^ - w h i t e , mauve, brown or black. 27. Colour of s e c o n d a r i e s — a s above. 28. Colour of c o v e r t s — a s above. 29. Rate of f e a t h e r i n g — s l o w , medium and f a s t . 30. Colour of wings—^Ridgeway's colour c h a r t . 31. L i g h t wing web present or not. 32. Colour of v e n t r a l surface of the w i n g — w h i t e , t i n t , or l i g h t y e l l o w . 33. S i z e of shank i n m.m.—side view arid a t the narrowest p o i n t . 3*+. Weight of chick i n grams. 35. Presence or absence of black spots behind the eyes. 36. Miscellaneous r e m a r k s — c l a r i t y of marking and d e s c r i p t i o n of some odd coloured c h i c k s not adequately covered by t h i s t a b l e . 37. Suggested sex of the chick when i n a group w i t h i t s brothers and s i s t e r s . 38. Suggested sex of the ch i c k when mixed i n w i t h a l l the other c h i c k s i n the hatch. 39. A c t u a l s e x — a s determined upon death or when the b i r d was mature. *f0. C a t e g o r y — r e f e r s to the grouping of the ch i c k i n the sexing key t h a t was being developed. - 17 -*+l. D i s p o s a l of the c h i c k . ^ See page 6 i n the appendix. With the f i r s t hatch of c h i c k s , the colours were described without the use of a t a b u l a r c h a r t . The l a t t e r system was decided upon when i t was found t o be d i f f i c u l t to analyse the r e s u l t s . For ease i n a n a l y s i s at the end of the year the notes on the ch i c k s from each hen were put on separate pages. For both the p a r e n t a l stock and t h e i r progeny, a day by day account was kept of the h e a l t h , m o r t a l i t y , movement of the b i r d s , l o s t and changed bands, s i g n i f i c a n t i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the brooding or management i n general and any other f a c t o r s t h a t might be considered a f f e c t i n g the pedigree or general w e l l - b e i n g of the b i r d s . H. S i g n i f i c a n c e of the two methods of auto-sexing the c h i c k s : I t w i l l be noted that an attempt was made t o sex the c h i c k s , f i r s t , when they were i n groups, from i n d i v i d u a l hens, and second, when they were a l l mixed i n w i t h the r e s t of the c h i c k s i n the hatch. In t h e . f i r s t year the primary aim was to d i s c o v e r i f there, were auto-sexing d i f f e r e n c e s between the c h i c k s , and i f so, a method t o descr i b e them. The auto-sexing was performed i n f a m i l y groups i n order t o l i m i t some of the c o n f l i c t i n g types and thereby s i m p l i f y d i s t i n c t i o n . The auto-s.exing : d i f f e r e n c e s , , i f they were t o appear, would be f a r more evident i n the s m a l l , more -uniform f a m i l y groups than where the chi c k s were a l l mixed up and of widely-d i v e r s i f i e d c o l o u r s . Since the u l t i m a t e aim was to auto-sex a l l of the chicks i n the breed, the c h i c k s a f t e r f i r s t being described and auto-sexed i n f a m i l i e s , were mixed up and again auto-sexed. I n t h i s way an i n d i c a t i o n of progress was obtained. Objectives i n t a k i n g colour p i c t u r e s of the Redbars: 1. To demonstrate and record the appearance of the down and plumage on a b i r d at a day o l d and at m a t u r i t y , r e s p e c t i v e l y . When t h i s work was complete i t helped i n the s e l e c t i o n of c h i c k s that grew i n t o d e s i r a b l y marked b i r d s . 2. To show the colour of the p a r e n t a l stock and t h e i r o f f s p r i n g . By t h i s means-the p a r e n t a l stock could be s e l e c t e d that gave e a s i l y auto-sexable c h i c k s , and chic k s t h a t themselves grew i n t o d e s i r a b l y coloured b i r d s . 3. To record the various c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t h e l p e d - i n the auto-sexing of the c h i c k s . . k. To i l l u s t r a t e the very d i v e r s i f i e d down "colours-'to be found on the chicks i n a hatch. 5. To show the more u n i f o r m l y coloured chicks' t o be found i n the f a m i l y groups. 6. To have a l a s t i n g record of the auto-sexing key, i f and when f i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d . - 19 -R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n (-19^6) F i r s t hatch: Upon a n a l y s i s of the data taken on t h i s hatch of f o r t y -three c h i c k s which were k i l l e d , i t was evident t h a t there were colour d i f f e r e n c e s on some of the male and female: c h i c k s . These i n c l u d e d : a. Many female c h i c k s had brown head and body s t r i p e s . b. S t i l l other female c h i c k s were medium to dark i n c o l o u r . c. A few female c h i c k s had g r a y i s h brown backs. d. A good percentage of the males had l i g h t heads or bodies and sometimes both. White spots seemed to be i n d i c a t i v e of males but two exceptions were i n evidence. Thus, a t t h i s time, t h i s marking could not be included as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of males. L a t e r evidence has proved t h a t c h i c k s w i t h white head spots are i n v a r i a b l y males. That the two white spotted c h i c k s were sexed as females can be explained on the b a s i s t h a t when the c h i c k s from the f i r s t hatch were k i l l e d , considerable d i f f i c u l t y was experienced i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the gonads of a few of the b i r d s . I n the past" a white or l i g h t i s h coloured c o l l a r over the back of the neck has been considered i n d i c a t i v e of a male. However the evidence drawn from the four c h i c k s from hen 70(L) would seem to r e f u t e t h i s . Her two female c h i c k s had the - 20 -c o l l a r w h i l e the two males d i d not. In seeking f o r an expl a n a t i o n of the h i g h percentage of s t r i p e d b i r d s , i t was found upon examination of the pedigree of these c h i c k s , t h a t they were very l a r g e l y from parents that had smokiness i n the undercover on t h e i r backs and. hac k l e s . Second hatch! Using the observations made upon the f i r s t h atch, as shown i n Table I , an auto-sexing accuracy of only 62.1$ was reached when the c h i c k s were a l l mixed. Twenty-seven Percent of the chi c k s had brown head and body s t r i p e s , 7% were medium to dark brown i n c o l o u r , 15% had g r e y i s h brown backs and 51% had l i g h t i s h heads or bodies or both. T h i r t e e n of the nineteen g r e y i s h brown c h i c k s were found to be males. These b i r d s were of such an u n d e s i r a b l e colour t h a t they were c u l l e d from the f l o c k and no p a r t i c u l a r attempt was made to improve on the technique i n auto-sexing them. L a t e r evidence showed t h a t the e r r o r s had been made because the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the white s t r i p e s on t h e i r backs had not been appreciated. However, most of the e r r o r s were made w i t h the l i g h t down coloured c h i c k s , twenty-four of the f i f t y - o n e being females. T h i r d hatch: I n an attempt to f i n d out where the mistakes were being made wit h these l i g h t coloured b i r d s , they were d i v i d e d up i n t o the f o l l o w i n g groups: a. Those w i t h white head spots. b. Those w i t h very l i g h t bodies and heads. c. Those w i t h l i g h t heads and medium coloured bodies. d. Those with l i g h t bodies and medium coloured heads. e. Those of uniform l i g h t brown c o l o u r . The g r e y i s h brown ch i c k s were c l a s s i f i e d as males. With a somewhat improved auto-sexing accuracy of 68.8$, as shown i n Table I , 30% of the ch i c k s had head and body s t r i p i n g , 6% were medium t o dark brown i n c o l o u r , 10% had g r e y i s h brown heads, 10% had white head spots, 19% had very l i g h t heads and bodies, 17% had l i g h t i s h coloured heads and medium bodies, none had medium coloured heads and l i g h t bodies and Q% were a l i g h t brown c o l o u r . The greatest percentage of e r r o r s occurred w i t h the medium or dark brown s t r i p e d c hicks and those w i t h the l i g h t heads and medium coloured bodies. An explanation of the f a c t t h a t some of the b i r d s w i t h head and body s t r i p e s were males was not immediately forthcoming, so before the next hatch came o f f , a key w i t h the s t r i p e d b i r d s subdivided, was devised. At the same time there was no apparent reason why some of the c h i c k s w i t h l i g h t heads and medium brown bodies were males and others were females. The idea of the l i g h t e r c o l l a r on the back of the neck was again considered but i t o f f e r e d no s o l u t i o n . On the other hand, a l l of the l i g h t e r c h i c k s w i t h two white s t r i p e s seemed to have been males. Thus i n the next hatch s p e c i a l note was made of b i r d s t h a t had t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . These s t r i p e s occurred immediately next to and j u s t i n s i d e of - 22 -where the brown or black h i p s t r i p e s are t o be found i f : present. Unless the colour i s s p e c i f i e d , back s t r i p i n g r e f e r s to these two brown or black h i p s t r i p e s together w i t h a s i m i l a r coloured c e n t r a l back s t r i p e . Fourth hatch: Using these a d d i t i o n a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n d i v i d i n g the chi c k s i n t o groups, the sexing accuracy as shown i n Table I , was f u r t h e r improved to 76.3$. These groups,including the sex and percentage of b i r d s f a l l i n g i n t o them, were: 1. One or two head spots w i t h c l e a r back s t r i p i n g - -(females)-11$. 2. One or two head spots without c l e a r body s t r i p i n g - -(males)-9$. 3. No spots w i t h c l e a r back s t r i p i n g — ( f e m a l e s ) - l # . h. Medium to dark brown coloured down—(females ) -3#« 5. Greyish brown coloured down—(males)-0. 6. White head spots—(males)-17$* 7. L i g h t coloured head and back--(males ) - l 8 # . 8. L i g h t head and medium coloured b a c k — ( f e m a l e s ) - 1 0 $ . 9. L i g h t coloured head and body with two white back s t r i p e s — ( m a l e s ) - 7 $ . 10. L i g h t brown down colour--(females ) - l 5 # . 11. L i g h t head w i t h some yellowness i n c l u d e d w i t h medium coloured body—(females)-9%. In t h i s hatch no c h i c k s were put i n the g r e y i s h group. The two reasons were, f i r s t l y , t h a t w i t h the male parents r o t a t e d i n t o new pens there were not so many of t h i s type - 23 -hatched and secondly, an attempt was made to put a l l those that were found i n t o one of the other e x i s t i n g groups. The most numerous e r r o r s occurred i n groups 2, 7» 10, and 11. In the case of those c h i c k s where the brown or black s t r i p i n g was not d i s t i n c t , the use of the presence or absence of the two white s t r i p e s j u s t i n s i d e the above h i p s t r i p e s showed promise of h e l p i n g t o d i s t i n g u i s h the males from the females. In the three other groups, ei g h t females were found i n twenty-six of the l i g h t down coloured c h i c k s , f i v e males i n the twenty-two l i g h t browns, and s i x of the t h i r t e e n c h i c k s w i t h l i g h t f a i n t l y y e l l o w i s h heads w i t h medium coloured backs were males. Common to a l l three of these l i g h t groups where the e r r o r s were found, the females were comparatively uniform while many of the males were mottled. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s p o i n t became more apparent as f u r t h e r hatches were handled and an a d d i t i o n a l group f o r the mottled males was added.. F i f t h hatch: With an o v e r a l l auto-sexing accuracy of 82.2$, as shown i n Table I , the same groupings were again used. As mentioned above more emphasis was placed on the u n i f o r m i t y of the females as contrasted w i t h m o t t l i n g and the white back s t r i p e of the males. Some n o t i c e was a l s o . t a k e n of the l e n g t h of the brown head s t r i p e on some of the brown c h i c k s . The sex and percentage of c h i c k s f a l l i n g i n t o each group was as f o l l o w s : 1. One or two head spots w i t h c l e a r back s t r i p i n g — (females) - 1 6 $ . 2. One or two head s p o t s x w i t h o u t c l e a r body s t r i p i n g — ( m a l e s ) - 8 % , 3. -No .spots w i t h c l e a r back s t r i p i n g — ( f e m a l e s ) - O . h. Medium to dark brown coloured down—(females)-9%* 5. Greyish brown coloured down—(males)-O. 6. White head spots—(males)-9%> 7. L i g h t coloured head and b a c k — ( m a l e s ) - ! ^ . 8. L i g h t head and medium coloured back—(females) - 1 2 $ . 9. L i g h t coloured head and body wi t h two white back s t r i p e s — ( m a l e s ) - 2 0 # . 10. L i g h t brown down c o l o u r — ( f e m a l e s ) - 3 $ . 11. L i g h t head with some yellowness i n c l u d e d w i t h medium coloured body--(females) - 9 $ . * Again most of the e r r o r s occurred i n groups 2, 10 and 11 w i t h 8 being s u b s t i t u t e d f o r 7. In group 2 only f i v e of the twelve c h i c k s were males, i n 8 o n l y ^ t h i r t e e n of the nineteen were females, i n 10 there were two of each sex and i n 11 only eleven of the fourteen were females. In both groups.7 and .8 there was some d i f f i c u l t y i n auto-sexing t h e , l i g h t e r c h i c k s though the presence of m o t t l i n g helps the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of many of the males i n group 7» Again from observations made on t h i s hatch i t was noted t h a t many of the female medium and l i g h t brown c h i c k s i n groups 8, 10 and 11 had a "T" or an " I " shaped head s t r i p e . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was added t o the grouping system f o r the - 25 -next hatch, being s u b s t i t u t e d f o r groups 8 and 11, and minor m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made on the others. S i x t h hatch: The auto-sexing accuracy f o r t h i s hatch was QO.U-%, as shown i n Table I . D e t a i l s of the grouping w i t h the sex and percentage of chicks f a l l i n g i n t o each group were as f o l l o w s : 1, One or two head spots, with c l e a r back s t r i p i n g — • (females) - 8 $ . 2. One or two head spots w i t h a medium brown b a c k — , (females) - 6 $ . 3« No spots w i t h c l e a r back s t r i p i n g — ( f e m a l e s ) - * f $ . Medium t o dark brown coloured down—(females) - 8 $ . 5. Greyish brown coloured down—(males ) - 0 . 6. White head s p o t s — ( m a l e s ) - 1 2 $ . 7. L i g h t coloured head and back,' o f t e n m o t t l e d — (males) - 3 1 $ . 8. T- or I-shaped head s t r i p e w i t h a medium coloured b a c k — ( f e m a l e s ) - 7 $ . . 9. L i g h t coloured head and back w i t h two white back s t r i p e s — ( m a l e s ) - 8 $ . 10. Uniform medium or l i g h t brown down c o l o u r — (females) - 1 6 $ . The greatest number of e r r o r s occurred i n groups 2, 7 and 10, though most of them were s t i l l among the medium and l i g h t brown c h i c k s . No new observations were made upon t h i s hatch which would r e s u l t i n the improvement i n the auto-sexing q u a l i t i e s of the' breed, though the twelve c h i c k s w i t h the - 26 -T- and I-shaped head s t r i p e s were a l l females. Up to and i n c l u d i n g the f i f t h hatch i t was the p r a c t i c e to put the chicks t h a t were s i m i l a r i n t o groups and then t o a t t a c h a sex to the group. This system proved s a t i s f a c t o r y where the emphasis was upon the d i s c o v e r y of the major auto-sexing d i f f e r e n c e s . To d i s c o v e r the f i n e r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s , the chicks i n t h i s s i x t h and f o l l o w i n g hatches were f i r s t of a l l sexed i n t o males and females and were then d i v i d e d i n t o the groups which were i n t u r n modified when necessary. By t h i s means the auto-sexing key was developed. Seventh hatch: With a g r e a t l y improved auto-sexing accuracy of 89.2$, as shown i n T a b l e , I , the f o l l o w i n g data on the grouping system were obtained: 1. One or two head spots w i t h c l e a r back s t r i p i n g — (females)-20$. 2. One or two head spots w i t h a.meduim brown b a c k — (females) - 3 $ . 3 . No spots w i t h c l e a r back s t r i p i n g — ( f e m a l e s ) - O . h. Medium to dark brown coloured d o w n — ( f e m a l e s ) - ^ . • 5.-Greyish brown coloured down—(males)-l$. 6. White head s p o t s — ( m a l e s ) - 8 $ . 7. L i g h t coloured head and back, o f t e n m o t t l e d — (males)-37#. 8. T- or I-shaped head s t r i p e w i t h a medium coloured back—(females)-22$. 9. L i g h t coloured head and body w i t h two white back - 27 -s t r i p e s — ( m a l e s ) - 5 $ . 10. Uniform.medium or l i g h t brown down c o l o u r — ( f e m a l e s ) - O The three c h i c k s c l a s s i f i e d i n group 2 were a l l males and s i x of the f o r t y - n i n e put i n group 6 were females, thus accounting f o r nine of the twelve e r r o r s . From t h i s case of the three males w i t h two b l a c k head spots w i t h i n d i s t i n c t medium brown back s t r i p i n g , a s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t was i l l u s t r a t e d . In a d d i t i o n t o the i n d i s t i n c t brown s t r i p e s there were a l s o two white s t r i p e s j u s t i n s i d e the l a t t e r . Thus when both the i n d i s t i n c t medium brown and white s t r i p i n g occurred together the c h i c k i n v o l v e d was a male. . In the case of the s i x female c h i c k s i n c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d , they had uniform backs. Two had f a i n t l y mottled heads while the other f o u r had very f a i n t brown head s t r i p e s . I t was a l s o worthy of note t h a t i n t h i s hatch no c h i c k s were put i n t o group 10. I t seemed th a t as more was learned about the T and I head s t r i p e on the female c h i c k s , fewer c h i c k s had to be put i n t o t h i s group. E i g h t h hatch: This f i n a l hatch f o r the year was auto-sexed w i t h the accuracy of 9k.0% as shown i n Table I . D e t a i l s on the grouping were as f o l l o w s : 1. One or two head spots w i t h c l e a r back s t r i p i n g — (females) - 1 3 $ . 2. One or two head spots w i t h a medium brown b a c k — (females ) - 0 . - 28 -3. No spots w i t h c l e a r back s t r i p i n g — ( f e m a l e s ) - 7 $ . k. Medium to dark brown coloured down—(females )-1+$. 5. Greyish brown coloured down—(males)-O. 6. White head s p o t s — ( m a l e s ) - l 8 $ . 7. L i g h t coloured head and back, o f t e n m o t t l e d — (males) -ikfo. 8. T- or I-shaped head s t r i p e w i t h a medium coloured b a c k — (females)-27%. 9. L i g h t coloured head and body w i t h two back white s t r i p e s — ( m a l e s ) - 1 7 $ « 10. Uniform medium or l i g h t brown down c o l o u r — (females)-O. Three of the s i x males i n c o r r e c t l y sexed had d e f i n i t e head s t r i p e s which were somewhat sh o r t e r than s i m i l a r female s t r i p e s . The e r r o r s made on the remaining three males and s i x females could be understood, and were not confined t o any p a r t i c u l a r group. A l l hatches i n 19^6: For the whole year the auto-sexing accuracy was 78.9$ as shown i n Table I . I n esti m a t i n g the percentage of c h i c k s f a l l i n g i n t o each group only the l a s t three hatches were considered, s i n c e j u s t p r i o r t o the s i x t h hatch, s e v e r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made i n the system. The f i n a l grouping with sex and percentages f a l l i n g i n t o each one were as f o l l o w s : 1. One or two head spots w i t h c l e a r back s t r i p i n g — - 29 -(females) - 1 3 $ . 2. One or two head spots w i t h a medium brown b a c k — (females) - 3 $ . 3. No spots w i t h c l e a r back s t r i p i n g — ( f e m a l e s ) - 5 $ . h. Medium to dark brown coloured down—(females) - 5 $ . 5. Greyish brown coloured down—(males) - 0 . 6. White head s p o t s — ( m a l e s j - l ^ . 7. L i g h t coloured head and back, o f t e n m o t t l e d — (males) - 2 5 $ . 8. T- or I-shaped head s t r i p e w i t h a medium coloured b a c k — ( f e m a l e s ) - 1 8 $ . 9. L i g h t coloured head and body w i t h two white back s t r i p e s — ( m a l e s ) - l l $ . 10. Uniform medium or l i g h t brown dpwn c o l o u r — (females) - 6 $ . The auto-sexing accuracy was n o t i c e a b l y increased as the number of c h i c k s i n groups 2, \0 and t o a les s , extent 7, were u >* reduced and those i n the more e a s i l y auto-sexable groups 3» 6, 8, and 9 were incre a s e d . This regrouping was not due t o any s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the breeding program but r a t h e r the changes seemed to be made as the author became more f a m i l i a r w i t h the colour p a t t e r n s . The three t a b l e s f o r the 19^6 breeding season, to be found i n the appendix, are p r i m a r i l y used to show the development of the technique used i n auto-sexing the c h i c k s . Though on the chicks from the v a r i o u s p a r e n t a l males there were some d i f f e r e n c e s i n the auto-sexing accuracy, these - 30 -cannot be regarded as s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e not a l l the males had chicks, hatched from them a l l through the season when the accuracy was being improved. On the other hand i t was note-worthy that the auto-sexing accuracy from the medium and medium to dark females which had c h i c k s a l l through the year was p r a c t i c a l l y the same. Thus d e s p i t e the impression given at the beginning of the year t h a t those c h i c k s w i t h head and back brown or black s t r i p e s were e a s i e r t o sex than the brown c h i c k s , the f i g u r e s i n Table I I I "By c o l o u r group of female parent", do not bear t h i s out. The percentage of accuracy wi t h the c h i c k s from the l i g h t females was lower but t h i s was l i k e l y due to the r a t h e r l a t e d i s c o v e r y of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the female brown head s t r i p e f o r separating the l i g h t brown c h i c k s . No p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e could be attached t o the f a c t t h a t there was some d i f f e r e n c e i n the auto-sexing a c c u r a c i e s between the pens except pen 17 where the f i f t h hatch was the f i r s t one handled. M a t e r i a l (19^7) In January 19^7 among the hundred and f i v e p u l l e t s , there were e i g h t y - e i g h t b i r d s of known parents, four whose dams were known and t h i r t e e n of unknown ancestry from pure Redbar males crossed w i t h Record of Performance, Rhode I s l a n d Red females. Twelve hens wi t h the best breeding and l a y i n g records from the •7 - 31 -previous year were kept over and i n c l u d e d i n the breeding stock. Out of t h i r t y - s i x c ockerels kept u n t i l eight months of age, ten were s e l e c t e d f o r breeding. No males from the , lf6 season were kept. Procedure (19^7) , I n the second year of the study (19^7), the task was t o improve upon the technique of d i s t i n c t i o n between the colour p a t t e r n of the sexes i n order to develop a more accurate key i f p o s s i b l e . The medium and l i g h t brown ch i c k s f o r example were sometimes among those t h a t were d i f f i c u l t t o sex. Furthermore, i t was not known j u s t what c o n s t i t u t e d a female head s t r i p e and when i t was short enough to d i s t i n g u i s h the chick as a male. ' At the same time t h a t these problems were being attacked, a program f o r the improvement of the breed was c a r r i e d on. Since t h i s year the b i r d s were entered under the Record of Performance p o l i c y , t h i s p l a n conformed with the Dominion Government r e g u l a t i o n s . Besides a pen of the twelve best b i r d s from l a s t year, three more pens of p u l l e t s were s e l e c t e d and mated to i n d i v i d u a l males. Further s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s on the procedure are given below. A, Objects of the breeding plan: 1. To concentrate upon the use of p a r e n t a l stock which - 32 -produce d e s i r a b l y c oloured, and e a s i l y auto-sexed c h i c k s . Thus the three colour groupings, l i g h t , medium and medium to dark .were dropped. 2. To o b t a i n a s u f f i c i e n t number of chicks from at l e a s t four males f o r f u r t h e r m u l t i p l i c a t i o n w i t h i n the f l o c k , without breeding too c l o s e l y . 3. To concentrate upon the study of the i n h e r i t a n c e of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which i n the f i r s t year's work had been shown to be important i n sexing the c h i c k s . k. To again r o t a t e the males so t h a t the poor male and i female breeders might be e l i m i n a t e d . This has the advantage t h a t at the end of the year, o f f s p r i n g from a l l of the best breeders w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r next year. Furthermore, the t r a n s m i s s i o n of such i n d i v i d u a l characters as smokiness and l i v a b i l i t y can be s t u d i e d . A r e d u c t i o n i n the number of pedigree chicks i s i n v o l v e d but: the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. 5. To t r y to increase the s i z e of the f a m i l i e s over the f i r s t year by c o l l e c t i n g eggs f o r three hatches r a t h e r than only two, before moving the males. 6. To use a v i g o r o u s , f a s t f e a t h e r i n g , w e l l barred, Grade A blocky male Redbar f r e e from smokiness, on a pen of proven Record of Performance,.Rhode I s l a n d Red hens. The o f f s p r i n g would be i n d i v i d u a l l y pedigreed and then should the Redbars prove t o be d e f i c i e n t i n c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t t h i s new blood could - 33 -improve, t h i s m a t e r i a l can be introduced i n the 19^8 breeding program. 7. To e l i m i n a t e the use of Ridgeway's Colour Standard now th a t the shape of the spots and s t r i p e s have proved .to be more important than the colour i n sexing the c h i c k s . B. S e l e c t i o n of the breeding stock: 1. Females. In s e l e c t i n g the best twelve b i r d s f o r pen 9 from l a s t year's breeding p u l l e t s , the more important f a c t o r s u t i l i z e d were l a s t year's h a t c h a b i l i t y and charact-e r i s t i c s of the progeny with regard t o e a r l y f e a t h e r i n g and auto-sexing. Furthermore, the b i r d s had t o be Grade A meat type and f r e e of smokiness though black t i c k i n g on the hackle was permitted. A l s o preference was given to good l a y e r s of l a r g e t i n t e d eggs. In the three p u l l e t pens the o b j e c t i v e was t o ob t a i n the best r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from as many of l a s t year's f a m i l i e s as p o s s i b l e . Since those t h a t were not se l e c t e d would be kept under Record of Performance they would not be l o s t and i f t h e i r s i s t e r or s i s t e r s proved to have e x c e p t i o n a l breeding q u a l i t i e s , they could be used the f o l l o w i n g year. Owing t o the f a c t that the egg records of the hundred and f i v e p u l l e t s were very meagre, the s e l e c t i o n had to be made upon the b a s i s of the morphological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p u l l e t s themselves and where p o s s i b l e upon the records of t h e i r parents. Where a p p l i c a b l e the morphological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were the same as those used i n the s e l e c t i o n of the hens i n pen 9, though where p o s s i b l e more s t r e s s was l a i d on the c l a r i t y of the b a r r i n g . The one exception was that of smokiness which was allowed on those b i r d s i n pen 20. Again the a n c e s t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of both the males and the females were s i m i l a r to those used i n the s e l e c t i o n of the hens f o r pen 9. Where p a r t i c u l a r l y poor auto-sexing q u a l i t i e s , or small numbers of mature b i r d s per f a m i l y were i n evidence, t h e i r o f f s p r i n g were avoided. I n t h i s connection s i n c e f i f t y of the n i n e t y -two pedigreed p u l l e t s came from the male L.B. 798, h i s progeny was very l a r g e l y used, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t he was t r a n s m i t t i n g some smokiness. A f t e r thus p l a c i n g t h i r t e e n , twelve and twelve b i r d s r e s p e c t i v e l y i n pens 20, 22 and 25, the remaining s i x t y -e i g h t p u l l e t s were l e f t i n pen 27. They were trapped f o r egg production but no attempt was made to i n d i v i d -u a l l y pedigree t h e i r progeny. 2. Males. On December 13th, 19^6 when the b i r d s were seven t o nine months o l d , a l l of the c o c k e r e l s on the farm were handled. On the b a s i s of good weight, v i g o u r , body conformation and c o l o u r i n g , the best twenty-one from the s i x t y b i r d s were taken. A f t e r examination of the records of the parents and - 35 -using the same technique as f o r the p u l l e t s , these were again reduced by s e l e c t i o n to n i n e . To av o i d f u r t h e r unnecessary i n b r e e d i n g , the males to be put i n t o pens 9, 20, 22 and 25, were not s e l e c t e d u n t i l a l l the p u l l e t s had been assigned t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r breeding pens. By January 30th the four males were i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e pens and the remaining f i v e t o be used as s p a i r s were i n pen 27. I t i s important to note that at t h i s p o i n t i n the development of the Redbars, only a l i m i t e d emphasis can j u s t i f i a b l y be put on the colour markings of the male and female breeding stock. Otherwise, other q u a l i t i e s such as egg l a y i n g and h a t c h a b i l i t y are l i a b l e to d e t e r i o r a t e t o the extent t h a t the b i r d s are not worth keeping. C. Movement of the b i r d s during the breeding season: A s i m i l a r p r a c t i c e to l a s t year was f o l l o w e d , s u b j e c t to m o d i f i c a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from the b i r d s being entered under the Record of Performance p o l i c y . Since two hatches from each mating had not given l a r g e enough f a m i l i e s l a s t year, the males were not moved u n t i l eggs had been c o l l e c t e d f o r three fourteen-day periods t h i s season. A l s o the c o l l e c t i o n i of i n d i v i d u a l l y pedigreed eggs was stopped f o r fourteen days a f t e r the males were moved around. Nevertheless f o r a d d i t i o n a l data i n auto-sexing the c h i c k s , these eggs were hatched. Thus f o r forty-two days, s t a r t i n g from February 10th, • - 36 -pedigreed eggs were c o l l e c t e d . At t h i s time the males L.B. 82285 and L.B. 82*fl0 were moved around, wh i l e L.B. 82267 because of i n f e r t i l i t y and L.B. 82527 because of the t r a n s m i s s i o n of considerable slow f e a t h e r i n g , were returned t o pen 27. L.B. 82286 and L.B. 8253^ were s u b s t i t u t e d . On the f i f t y - s i x t h day the eggs were again pedigreed. This season due to the greater i n t e r v a l between the movement of the males, a second movement of the males was not p o s s i b l e . D. Estimated.number of c h i c k s t h a t t h i s system should produce: Again on the b a s i s of four c h i c k s per hatch from each female, f o r t y - n i n e b i r d s should produce one hundred and n i n e t y - s i x c h i c k s per hatch. Thus from the f i v e pedigreed hatches, nine hundred and e i g h t y c h i c k s might be expected. Since t h i s year incubator space was a t a premium non-pedigreed Redbar eggs could only be hatched when space was a v a i l a b l e . Hence an estimate of the number of ch i c k s from these eggs was i m p o s s i b l e . As i t was, poor weather i n January l e d to an over-estimate of the number of pedigree c h i c k s t h a t would be hatched. E. Other breeding plans: This year i n c o n t r a s t to the season j u s t p ast, i n order to introduce some new blood, i t seemed a d v i s a b l e to mate a good Redbar male, w i t h Rhode I s l a n d Red hens th a t had q u a l i f i e d as Record of Performance b i r d s . By t h i s means the egg l a y i n g q u a l i t i e s of the Redbars might be improved without l o s i n g the b a r r i n g of the female o f f s p r i n g . - 37 -U n f o r t u n a t e l y the movement of the breeding houses and inclement weather i n January made the breeding season so l a t e t hat t h i s p l a n could not be c a r r i e d out a t the end of the season. F. Data c o l l e c t e d : On account of the l a r g e r number of good b i r d s a v a i l a b l e i n 19^7, from the s t a r t , the notes, on both the c o c k e r e l s and p u l l e t s had t o be l a i d out s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . Since there was a l s o a considerable r e d u c t i o n , w i t h a few modification's, i n the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the p a r e n t a l stock, the notes taken are again l i s t e d below. I n d e s c r i b i n g the chicks., w i t h the exception of the f i r s t hatch, there were many fewer d e t a i l s noted. Since the previous year's work had shown that there were d i f f e r e n c e s between male and female c h i c k s , i t was not considered necessary to continue auto-sexing on a f a m i l y b a s i s . A c c o r d i n g l y the sexing was conducted w i t h the c h i c k s a l l mixed up. Those used f o r the second and ensuing hatches were give n ; a. On p a r e n t a l stock. 1. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n number or numbers. 2. Date hatched. 3. Male and female parents where known. h. Sex. 5. Weight at m a t u r i t y . 6. Meat grade. 7. General shade of c o l o u r i n g . - 38 -8. C l a r i t y of b a r r i n g . 9. Presence of smokiness i n the hackle and on the back. 10. Presence of b l a c k t i c k i n g on t h e h a c k l e . 11. Rate of f e a t h e r i n g from the growing p e r i o d . 12. S u i t a b i l i t y f o r breeding s t o c k — v i g o u r and h e a l t h . N 13. F e r t i l i t y r e s u l t s . 1*+. H a t c h a b i l i t y r e s u l t s . 15. Laying r e s u l t s . 16. S i z e of egg. 17. Strength of s h e l l . 18. Egg c o l o u r . 19. Shape of egg. 20. M A u t o ^ s e x a b i l i t y n of c h i c k s hatched. 21. L i v a b i l i t y of c h i c k s hatched. 22. Transmission of smokiness. b. On ch i c k s hatched. 1. Chick wing band number. 2. Male and female parents, where known. . 3» Date hatched. ^ . C a t e g o r y — r e f e r s t o the group the ch i c k f a l l s i n t o i n the sexing key. 5. Presence or absence of smokiness i n the hackle and back. 6. Rate of f e a t h e r i n g . 7. Presence or absence of a l i g h t wing web. - 39 -8i Suggested sex of ch i c k when mixed i n w i t h the r e s t of the c h i c k s i n the hatch. 9. A c t u a l sex as determined upon death or when mature. 10. D i s p o s a l of the ch i c k . 11. Miscellaneous remarks f o r any unusual markings on the p a r t i c u l a r c h i c k . Again f o r ease i n a n a l y s i s , the data were taken down i n separate columns. However, i n s t e a d of keeping the records of the c h i c k s from each female parent on separate pages, a l l notes were made i n sequence so t h a t a hatch was covered i n four to s i x pages, each chick being assigned to a l i n e . I n 19^6 the c h i c k s were both l e g and wing-banded w i t h numbers r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n d i f f e r e n t s e r i e s . To s i m p l i f y the system of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n 19*+7 a s e r i e s of a thousand wing bands was obtained i n d u p l i c a t e thus a v o i d i n g the use of the round type of l e g bands t h a t had. t o be t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o the wings of the b i r d s as they grew. R e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n (19^7) On a l l hatches. On the b a s i s of the a n a l y s i s of the data obtained i n 19^6, the auto-sexing key was again modified a t the beginning of the 19^7 breeding season. No f u r t h e r changes were found t o be necessary except a f t e r the f i f t h hatch, a t - 1+0 -which time two of the groups were found to be superfluous since the chicks in these groups could be classified equally as well in those of " l a " and "3a" respectively. The down colours of the groups in this f i n a l key, with the sex, the percentage of chicks classified in each group and the number of errors in brackets after each one, were as follows: Females. 1. Head with uniform and unbroken light, medium or medium to dark brown colour with one of the following: a. Back of a uniform light, medium or medium to dark brown colour—7 $ , (11). b. Back with a broad, central medium to dark brown back stripe with or without two marrower parallel hip stripes. A l l three stripes may have margins that are black— . 2 $ , ( 0 ) . 2. Head with a faint to distinct light, medium or dark brown stripe passing over the crown of the chick with one of the following: a. Back of a uniform light, medium or medium to dark brown colour—:26$, (10). b. Back with a broad, medium to dark brown central back stripe with or without two narrower parallel hip stripes, with or without black margins—16$, (k). Males. 3. Generally lighter head and back down colour, the darkest showing light to medium brown with one or - hi -many of the following characteristics: a. White spot on the head—12$, ( 6 ) . b. Mottled head—h%, (k). c. Mottled back—6$, ( 5 ) . d. Two whitish back stripes that are lighter than the ground colour over the hips, to be found just inside the position of the hip stripes seen on females—16$, ( 8 ) . h. Faint to distinct, diffuse and light to medium brown head stripe, ( v i z — l i n e a r T- or I-shaped) broken off on the crown of the head of the chick and often in the form of a horseshoe at this point. The rest of the head with a comparatively uniform light or light to medium ground colour or mottled. The down colours on the backs include one or more of the following: a. Mottled down—3$, (*0 . b. Two whitish back stripes that are lighter than the ground colour over the hips, to be found just inside the position of the hip stripes seen on females—2$, ( 0 ) . c. Comparatively uniform light or light to medium brown down colour—2 $ , (*+). 5. Very light coloured chick with no clear markings— 6$, (1) . • Note: 1. No notice was taken of one or two black head spots on a chick since other characteristics about i t - h2 -determined i t s sex. 2. A female head s t r i p e took precedence over a w h i t i s h head spot forward of t h i s s t r i p e , a mottled head, or a back w i t h two w h i t i s h s t r i p e s . 3. A back w i t h a broad, c e n t r a l , medium to dark brown back s t r i p e w ith or without two narrower p a r a l l e l h i p s t r i p e s , took precedence over two w h i t i s h back s t r i p e s . In the case of group 3» *+$ of the chi c k s had white head spots and mottled backs, 10$ had white head spots and two w h i t i s h head s t r i p e s , 2% had mottled heads and mottled backs and 2% had mottled heads and two w h i t i s h head s t r i p e s . m To in c l u d e these i n the above t a b l e the percentages were halved and were c r e d i t e d t o the percentages of the two sub groups concerned. Thus i n the case of the 10$ w i t h white head spots and two w h i t i s h back s t r i p e s , 5$ was added t o the t o t a l of the males w i t h the white head spots and 5$ was added t o those w i t h the two w h i t i s h back s t r i p e s . Using t h i s key, the auto-sexing accuracy f o r the second, t h i r d , f o u r t h , f i f t h and s i x t h hatches, as shown i n t a b l e IV i n the appendix were 91.^$, 98.5$, 9^.*+$, 91.5$, and 93.7$ r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n the f i r s t hatch 92.2$ of the c h i c k s were c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d f o r an accuracy of 93*6$ f o r the eigh t hundred and eighty-seven c h i c k s of known sexes. A l l hatches were s i m i l a r l y handled except f o r those of three and f i v e . I n the case of the t h i r d hatch another person was being shown how to use the key i n auto-sexing the c h i c k s . Thus i t - U,3 -was q u i t e probable t h a t the greater a t t e n t i o n thereby p a i d to each i n d i v i d u a l c h i c k , r e s u l t e d i n the greater auto-sexing accuracy. On the other hand, hatch f i v e was the only one handled out i n the brooder house, the remainder having been auto-sexed i n the incubator room under a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t . I t was no t i c e d afterward t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l who was t a k i n g the notes f o r the author, had i n a d v e r t e n t l y been b l o c k i n g o f f the sun-l i g h t . This had the tendency of making the mottled male chicks harder t o p i c k out. F i v e of the nine e r r o r s made i n t h i s hatch have si n c e been a t t r i b u t e d t o t h i s cause. The f i g u r e s given i n brackets a f t e r each group i n the key described above, i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t the number of e r r o r s were not confined to one group and occurred approximately i n pr o p o r t i o n to the percentage of the b i r d s c l a s s i f i e d i n the p a r t i c u l a r group. Thus these f i g u r e s would seem t o i n d i c a t e that no s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c used to auto-sex the c h i c k was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e r r o r s . This year p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was given t o the wings of the Redbar c h i c k s . Dr. R. George Jaap had reported t h a t , depending on the s t r a i n of Rhode I s l a n d Red c h i c k s , they could be colour sexed w i t h an accuracy of 90 t o 95$ by h i s wing-spot method. This i d e n t i f i c a t i o n mark c o n s i s t e d of a white or y e l l o w i s h white spot on top of the wing i n the margin of the wing web i n the baby c o c k e r e l s . Among the nine hundred and s i x t y - n i n e Redbar ch i c k s handled t h i s year twenty-seven male and two female chicks had t h i s white wing-spot. - ¥f -A l s o the wing webs on seventy-seven males and s i x t y - f i v e females were too l i g h t t o d i s t i n g u i s h the white wing-spot i f i t were present i n the wing web. Thus I t was concluded t h a t unless the wing web-spot was c l e a r l y present t h a t t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was of no help i n auto-sexing the Redbar c h i c k s . As shown i n t a b l e V i n the appendix, there was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the males i n regard t o the auto-sexing q u a l i t i e s of t h e i r c h i c k s . L.B. 82286 and L.B. 82531+ represented the two extremes and w i t h the small numbers of t h i r t y - s i x and forty-two c h i c k s r e s p e c t i v e l y , there was on l y 7*5% accuracy d i f f e r e n c e between them. Th i s year one of the o b j e c t i v e s was t o o b t a i n f u r t h e r data on the d i f f e r e n c e between the female and male brown head s t r i p e . While the author i s s t i l not convinced t h a t a l l has been learned about t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s , reference to the co l o u r p r i n t s to be found i n these r e s u l t s , i l l u s t r a t e some of them. For example the t h i r d c h i c k from the l e f t i n "2a" showed a t y p i c a l female brown head s t r i p e w h i l e the second c h i c k i n "he" showed a t y p i c a l male head s t r i p e . Whereas the female brown head s t r i p e was narrow, l o n g , T-shaped and u s u a l l y reasonably c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , the male brown head s t r i p e had a tendency to be f a i n t e r , broader, more d i f f u s e , s h o r t e r and tended t o end i n the form of a horseshoe. With the exception of the two w h i t i s h back s t r i p e s , the remainder of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s show q u i t e c l e a r l y i n the colour p r i n t s . The two w h i t i s h back s t r i p e s are best seen on - if5 -the back of the second male i n "3c". Conclusions, 1. At the beginning of the 19*+6 breeding season i t was discovered that there were d i f f e r e n c e s i n the down colour of Redbar c h i c k s . 2. By the end of the 19^6 breeding season, the females were found to have one or more of the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : u n i f o r m i t y of c o l o u r , brown head s t r i p e and a back s t r i p e or s t r i p e s . The males on the other hand had one or more of the f o l l o w i n g : a very l i g h t down c o l o u r , a white head spot, a mottled head, two w h i t i s h back s t r i p e s , a :mottled back and a shortened form of the female head s t r i p e . 3. At the beginning of the 19*+6 breeding season the auto-sexing accuracy was only 62.1$. With the second, t h i r d and succeeding hatches the improvements were 68.8$, 76.3$, 82.2$, 80.*f$ and f i n a l l y on the b a s i s of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s given i n '2' above, the l a s t hatch f o r the 191+6 season was auto-sexed w i t h an accuracy of 9l+.0$ The auto-sexing accuracy f o r the whole of the 19*+6 season on the b a s i s of the one thousand and twenty-nine c h i c k s handled was 80.0$. 5. Chicks from the parents w i t h smokiness i n the undercover of t h e i r f e a t h e r s were not e a s i e r to auto-sex than those - »+6 -from the parents without the smokiness. 6. During the 19*+7 breeding season the key used t o auto-sex the c h i c k s contained the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as those i n '2' above with a m o d i f i c a t i o n t o the male brown head s t r i p e . T y p i c a l l y the l a t t e r appeared to be r a t h e r i n d i s t i n c t , broad, d i f f u s e , s h o r t and t o end i n the form of a horseshoe. This p o i n t emphasized the f a c t t h a t the shape of a s t r i p e was as important as or o f t e n more important than the c o l o u r . 7. Using the key c o n t a i n i n g the above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , during the 19^7 breeding season on the eight hundred and eighty-seven c h i c k s w i t h completed r e s u l t s , the auto-sexing accuracy was 93.6$. 8. The f i f t y - s e v e n e r r o r s which were made during the 19*+7 season i n auto-sexing the c h i c k s occurred approximately i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the percentage of the b i r d s c l a s s i f i e d i n the p a r t i c u l a r group. 9. Good l i g h t i n g was shown to be e s s e n t i a l f o r the accurate auto-sexing- of the c h i c k s . 10. Except where c l e a r l y present, the white wing-spot found on some of the males, was of no help i n the auto-sexing of the Redbar c h i c k s . Summary The study on the colour p a t t e r n of the Redbar c h i c k s was - h? -s t a r t e d i n the f a l l of 19^5. The o b j e c t s were p r i m a r i l y to a s c e r t a i n i f the male and female chicks could be d i s t i n g u i s h e d and i f so, to devise a system to auto-sex them. At the same time a breeding program was undertaken with i n d i v i d u a l pedigreeing to improve the economic q u a l i t i e s of the breed as w e l l as t o t r y and d i s c o v e r the i n h e r i t a n c e of any of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t might help i n the auto-sexing of the c h i c k s . During the 19^6 breeding season, one thousand and ei g h t y c h i c k s from t h i r t y - s i x female and four male parents i n four pens were handled. The parents were sub-divided e q u a l l y i n t o l i g h t , medium and medium t o dark brown groups depending on the d e n s i t y of the brown colour and the presence or absence of smokiness i n the undercolour. Seventeen c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were described on each p a r e n t a l b i r d and forty-one on each i n d i v i d u a l c h i c k . I t was found that there were d i f f e r e n c e s between the down colour of the males and females and the auto-sexing accuracy was improved from the i n i t i a l 62.1$ f o r the f i r s t hatch to 9^.0$ f o r the l a s t hatch w i t h an accuracy of 80.0$ f o r the whole season. C e r t a i n f a m i l i e s were auto-sexed w i t h greater accuracy than others w h i l e the chicks from those parents w i t h smokiness i n the undercolour were found t o be no e a s i e r t o auto-sex than the c h i c k s from the parents of l i g h t e r undercolour. The shape of the male and female head s t r i p e s were shown to be more important than the c o l o u r . During the 19^7 breeding season the o b j e c t i v e s were to - 1+8 -c a r r y on the breeding work of the previous season and t o attempt to improve the auto-sexing accuracy by studying the more complicated c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as the shortened head s t r i p e of the male. Records were completed on f i v e hundred and forty-two pedigreed chicks from t h i r t y - e i g h t female and s i x male parents i n four pens and on three hundred and f o r t y -f i v e non rpedigreed c h i c k s from pure Redbars i n a f i f t h pen. The parents were not sub-divided t h i s year. Twenty-two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were described on each p a r e n t a l b i r d w h i l e the number on the c h i c k s was reduced to eleven. Using the key given below, the auto-sexing accuracy v a r i e d from 9l*h% to 98.5$ w i t h 93.6$ accuracy f o r the whole season. The f i f t y - s e v e n e r r o r s made on the t o t a l of eigh t hundred and eighty-seven c h i c k s were evenly d i s t r i b u t e d and i n d i c a t e d that no p a r t i c u l a r sub-group i n the key was a t f a u l t . Good l i g h t i n g was shown to be p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n p i c k i n g out the mottled males as opposed to the l i g h t u n i f o r m l y coloured brown females. Only twenty-seven males of the eight hundred and eighty-seven chicks had a d e f i n i t e white wing-spot so i t was concluded t h a t t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c unless c l e a r l y d e f i n e d was of l i t t l e h e l p i n auto-sexing the c h i c k s . The male brown head s t r i p e was shown to be f a i n t , broad, d i f f u s e and short and tended t o end i n the form of a horse-shoe. In the f u t u r e i t may be p o s s i b l e t o improve the accuracy of the key by f u r t h e r study and t e s t i n g of the b i r d s . F urther experimentation w i l l be necessary to show - h9 -whether the auto-sexing accuracy can be improved or not by breeding from s e l e c t e d f a m i l i e s . The key f o r auto-sexing the Redbar ch i c k s f i n a l l y decided upon was as f o l l o w s : Females. 1. Head wi t h uniform and unbroken l i g h t , medium or medium to dark brown colour w i t h one of the f o l l o w i n g : a. Back of a uniform l i g h t , medium or medium t o dark brown c o l o u r . b. Back wi t h a broad, c e n t r a l medium t o dark brown back s t r i p e w i t h or without two narrower p a r a l l e l h i p s t r i p e s . A l l three s t r i p e s may have margins t h a t are bl a c k . 2. Head with a f a i n t to d i s t i n c t , l i g h t , medium or dark brown s t r i p e passing over the crown of the ch i c k with one of the f o l l o w i n g : a. Back of a uniform l i g h t , medium or medium t o dark brown c o l o u r . b. Back w i t h a broad, medium to dark brown, c e n t r a l back s t r i p e w i t h or without two narrower p a r a l l e l h i p s t r i p e s , w i t h or without black margins. Males. 3. Ge n e r a l l y l i g h t e r head and back down c o l o u r , the darkest showing l i g h t t o medium brown w i t h one or many of the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : a. White spot on the head. - 50 -b. Mottled head. c. Mottled back. d. Two w h i t i s h back s t r i p e s t h a t are l i g h t e r than the ground colour over the h i p s , to be found j u s t i n s i d e the p o s i t i o n o f the h i p s t r i p e s seen on females. l f . F a i n t to d i s t i n c t , d i f f u s e and l i g h t to medium brown head s t r i p e , ( v i z — l i n e a r T- or I-shaped) broken o f f on the crown of the head of the chick and o f t e n i n the form of a horseshoe at t h i s p o i n t . The r e s t of the head wi t h a comparatively uniform l i g h t or l i g h t to medium ground colour or mottled. The down colours on the backs i n c l u d e one or more of the f o l l o w i n g : a. Mottled down. b. Two w h i t i s h back s t r i p e s t h a t are l i g h t e r than the ground colour over the h i p s , t o be found j u s t i n s i d e the p o s i t i o n of the h i p s t r i p e s seen on females. c. Comparatively uniform l i g h t or l i g h t to medium brown down co l o u r . 5. Very l i g h t coloured chick w i t h no c l e a r markings. Note: 1. No n o t i c e was taken of one or two black head spots on a chick s i n c e other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s about i t determined i t s sex. 2. A female head s t r i p e took precedence over a w h i t i s h head spot forward of t h i s s t r i p e , a mottled head or - 51 -a back w i t h two w h i t i s h s t r i p e s . 3. A back w i t h a broad c e n t r a l medium t o dark brown back s t r i p e w i t h or without two narrower p a r a l l e l h i p s t r i p e s took precedence over two w h i t i s h back s t r i p e s . - 52 -References 1. Agar, W.E.,192lf. Experiments wi t h c e r t a i n plumage colour and p a t t e r n f a c t o r s i n p o u l t r y . J . Gen. I1*-: 265-272. 2. B y e r l e y , T.C. and Quinn, J.P.,1936. Sexual Dimorphism i n S i n g l e Comb Rhode I s l a n d Red down c o l o u r . J . Hered. 27:319-322. 3. Dunn, L.C.,1922. I n h e r i t a n c e of plumage colour i n crosses of Buff and Columbian f o w l s . Amer. Nat. 56:2^-2-255. h. Dunn, L.C.,1922. A gene f o r the extension of bl a c k pigment i n domestic f o w l s . Amer. Nat. 56:*+6W+66. 5. Goodwin, C.R.,19 1^. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Autosexing p r o p e r t i e s of the Barred Red (Redbar) by down p a t t e r n . Unpublished.Research Essay at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 6. Hagedoorn, A.L.,1936. The autosexing Barnevelder and the autosexing Leghorn, two new breeds. Proceeds VI World's P o u l t r y Congress, L e i p z i g , 1936. 7. Hagedoorn, A.L.,19!+6. P o u l t r y Farmer, London, England. March 3> 19^6 i s s u e . 8. Hagedoorn, A.L.,19^6. Animal Breeding, p. 6 l . 9. Hays, F.A.,191+0. Colour markings of Rhode I s l a n d Red chicks as r e l a t e d t o sex and a d u l t c o l o u r . J . A g r i e . Res. 61:69-7*+. 10. Hays, F.A. and K l e i n , G.T.,19^3. P o u l t r y Breeding A p p l i e d , p. 112-116. 11. Jaap, R. George,191+0. Methods f o r producing autosexing v a r i e t i e s of c h i c k s . U.S. Egg and P o u l t r y Mag. if6:36-39. I l l u s . 12. Jaap, R. George,19^6. Sex i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n baby chicks of red v a r i e t i e s . P o u l t . S c i . 2 5 : l 8 5 - l 8 6 . 13. Jaap, R. George,191+6. The wing-spot method f o r colour sexing Rhode I s l a n d Red and New Hampshire c h i c k s . C i r c u l a r C-121, Oklahoma A g r i c . Exp. S t a t i o n . Ik. Jerome, F.N.,1939. Autosexlinkage i n the Barred Plymouth Rock. P o u l t . 801.18:^37 -1+^0. 15. J u l l , M.A.,19^0. P o u l t r y Breeding, p. 180-181. - 53 -16. Lamoreux, W.F.,19^1. The autosexing Ancobar. J . Hered. 32:221-226. I l l u s . 17. L i p p i n c o t t , W.A.,1923. Genes f o r extension of black pigment i n the chicken. Amer. Nat. 57:28^-287. 18. L l o y d , E.A. and H i l l , A.T.,19^6. The development of the" Autosexing Redbars (Barred Reds). P o u l t . S c i . 25:^05. 19. MacArthur, J.W. and M a c l l r a i t h , J.J.,19*+6. Colour sexing of Day Old Brown Leghorns. P o u l t . S c i . 25:180-183. 20. Munro, S.S.,1939. The G e n e t i c a l Approach to Production Problems—Autosexing. C.S.T.A. Review 21:M+-5l. 21. Munro, S.S.,191+1. S i g h t sexing Barred Rock baby c h i c k s . B u i . 718, Farmers B u i . No. 102, Dom. of Canada, Dept. of A g r i c , Ottawa. 22. Punnett, R.C. and Pease, M.S.,1930. Genetic s t u d i e s i n P o u l t r y V I I I . On a case of Sex-Linkage w i t h i n a breed. Jour. Gen. 22 p. 395-397. I l l u s . 23. Punnett, R.C.,19^0. Genetic s t u d i e s i n P o u l t r y X I . The Legbar. J . Gen. *+l:l - 8 . I l l u s . 2*+. Quinn, J.P. and B y e r l e y , T.C.,1937. S p o t t i n g and s t r i p i n g i n e x h i b i t i o n c l a s s e s of Rhode I s l a n d Red and New Hampshire Baby Chicks. P o u l t . S c i . l6:*+22-i+25. 25. Quinn, J.P. and Knox, C.W.,1939. Sex i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Barred Plymouth Rock Chicks by Down, Shank and Beak C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . P o u l t . S c i . 18:259-26^. 26. Quinn, J.P. and Knox, C.W.,1939. Sex i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n Hybrid Chicks f o r Barred Plymouth Rock male X Rhode I s l a n d Red female. P o u l t . S c i . 18:265-267. 27. Warren, D.C.,1929. The i n h e r i t a n c e of Rhode I s l a n d Red chi c k down-colour v a r i a t i o n s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to colour v a r i a t i o n s i n a d u l t plumage. Jour. A g r i c . Res. 39:781-79^. 28. Warren, D.C. and Gordon, CD.,1933. Plumage and eye c o l -our i n h e r i t a n c e i n the S i n g l e Comb Rhode I s l a n d Red f o w l . J . Agr. Res. ^+7:897-910. 29. Warren, D.C,19^2. D i s t i n g u i s h i n g sex of c h i c k s at hatching. Kans. A g r i c . Exp. S t a . B u i . 307. - 5h -Acknowledgements The w r i t e r wishes to express h i s indebtedness to Professor E.A. L l o y d , under whose guidance t h i s t h e s i s was w r i t t e n , f o r making a v a i l a b l e the Redbar m a t e r i a l to work w i t h over the past two, y e a r s , f o r h e l p f u l suggestions, c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s and h i s constant source of i n s p i r a t i o n . He a l s o wishes t o express h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Mr. N. Barton whose co-operation i n t a k i n g both black and white as w e l l as coloured p i c t u r e s of the c h i c k s and the mature b i r d s , when they were wanted, has g r e a t l y helped i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . Appendix - I I -m m 88!88S8S*88'• Until1 fl B! '1 g hit JP28 S'S'SSSXSS ssHssaa'ss'-"- - a s k r-|M S^ BSSSSS sassafras-"" S«KJ!,03S3B"', 8 5*S 'BSJSJS *3833OT"asr'* ftS8S'""SJ8H-' » a a r' J u * • l l i B N H ^ i . I O N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 m««-t« * an • i a "a- 'asaas MOjonjrHi lYnf i as^ s^ aa*1 • * 'a1 '•af-a» • £«tf>C^H ' 1 * ,• • aa""",naa* • • . j »> 3 c a a '3-"i3s-aa 3S"3"S8* ' 1 a „ »? W HI B^AAQHr- iripjn i N A M O maao t i •4,4 rt Mr* i.« a"a '8*as8a MA t n* cjr»te • tmt •••a ! HI gwa 'a*3saa N n | H«Q«f« 1 1 1 • \w «a- t r.>ooh-'vr < i r* 3 23* * * S IS 3f J *"* • • - a 1 ' 1 JrJS •"3 '8*3838 . F 1 • *-.-r.< 1 1 1 M t- o r-« « »• H « •t,a-"a3383 saaa-'-ass1 , . , ; • «• "ssaaa CMr- ao* oi r-"i i »r- i r* O O r J D | H K ^ 1 1 •"a^ 'aatsaa *je-«ofjo* • ••J SHI •"S'^ assaa r)Ct4! •«••' >* j I h ' ; - liliilllll s ESSE* rs-glgifitti I S333e8JMe] f • - I l l --IV-TABLE V SEXINS ACCUHACY FOR REDBABS(1947) (By Pedigree) Male Parent L . B . 8 2 2 6 7 L.B. 8 2 2 8 5 L.B. 8 2 5 2 7 L.B. 8 2 ! S 6 L.B. 821 •34 Tota ls Female Parent L .B . Mo. • V o . Sexed i n hatch correct Tota l sexed In hatch Sexed in hatch correct Tota l sexed in hatch Sexed In hatch cor rect Tota l aexed ill hatch Sexed i n hatch correct aexed in hatch Sexed in hatch correct To ta l aexed in hatch Sexed in hatch correct T c t a l sexed In hatch Sexed in hatchea cor rect Tota l aexed In hatchea 9 9 9 4 5 1 3 14 67 2 3 3 6 5 9 72 1 5 15 3 3 1 8 1 8 74 _ _ _ _ — a» 77 25 26 3 3 2 8 2 9 9 2 10 13 4 4 14 1 7 100 2 7 28 6 6 3 3 34 1 9 1 7 7 . _ 7 7 4 9 1 (g l ) 1 6 17 2 2 1 8 1 9 4 9 9 p i ) 22 25 2 2 24 2 7 p 5 1 1 1 1 20 - 4 - 4 i 7 0 3 3 2 _ - 1 1 1 1 7 0 3 4 3 4 4 4 e 8 9 70344 6 7 2 3 8 1 0 7 0 3 5 3 _ _ 1 I 1 1 70359 11 12 7 7 IB 1 9 71362 14 14 4 4 IB 1 8 70394 12 1 3 6 6 1 8 1 9 2 4 5 6 7 1 35 s 9 9 15 l b 7 0 3 0 1 34 2 5 3 3 2 7 28 70304 6 7 1 1 7 8 7 0 3 2 6 16 18 7 7 2 3 2 5 7 0 3 3 1 6 6 6 5 1 1 1 1 70334 22 24 4 4 2 6 28 70374 S 5 3 3 8 8 70378 7 8 8 8 IS 1 6 7 0 3 9 1 1 3 1 3 2 2 1 5 1 5 12 12 _ 1 2 1 2 25 2 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 7 0 3 1 0 3 4 9 1 0 1 2 14 7 0 3 1 6 6 6 18 1 8 24 24 7 0 3 2 1 8 8 26 27 3 4 3 6 70372 1 1 - - 1 1 7 0 3 8 0 1 1 3 3 4 4 7 0 3 8 3 1 1 1 2 3 7 0 3 9 2 4 - - 4 4 Tota ls 16& 17-/ 52 7P 7 5 33 36 4A 4 2 5 1 0 5 4 2 Accuracy 9 3 9 3 d 9 6 . 0 9 2 . 5 1 0 0 . 0 9 4 1 ? 1 - V I -COLOURS USED IN DESCRIBING THE CHICKS FROM RIDGSWAY'S COLOUR STANDARD (1) Deep Chrome (2) Amber Yel l o w (3) Orange Rufus (4: Ochraceous Orange (5) L i g h t Cadmium (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) Ferruginous Mars Mahogany Bay Orange Yellow Brown Rufus (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) E n g l i s h K a i s e r Hazel Dragon's Hessian Red Brown Brown Blood Red Brown (16) Hazel Russet (19) Vinaceous Tawny (20) Chocolate T e r r a L i g h t Deep Mouse Dark Quaker Black C o t t a Quaker Gray Drab Drab 

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