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The economic soundness and possibilities of operating a dairy farm within the city limits of Vancouver Logan, Harry Fitzgerald McCleery 1947

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THE ECONOMIC SOUNDNESS AND POSSIBILITIES OF OPERATING A DAIRY FARM WITHIN THE CITY LIMITS OF VANCOUVER. -by- • H a r r y F i t z g e r a l d M c C l e e r y Logan  A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l  Fulfilment  • o f t h e Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE i n the DEPARTMENT OF•ANIMAL HUSBANDRY  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h A p r i l , 1947.  Columbia  -i-  ACKNOWIEDGmiMT  The w r i t e r w i s h e s t o thank s i n c e r e l y P r o f e s s o r H.M. K i n g , Head o f t h e Department  o f A n i m a l Husbandry, f o r  h i s c r i t i c i s m and h e l p i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s  study.  C r e d i t i s a l s o due t o Dr. S.N. Wood, and Dr. A . J . Wood o f the Department  of. A n i m a l  Husbandry.  The w r i t e r a l s o w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics D i v i s i o n a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e i r w i l l i n g c o - o p e r a t i o n helpful information.  i n supplying  -iiTABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  i  FRONTISPIECE  iv-  INTRODUCTION  1  A. STUDY OF MILK PRODUCTION IN THE FRASER VALLEY INCLUDING A COMPARISON WITH THAT OF LOS ANGELES AND AN INVESTIGATION OF A NSW METHOD OF DAIRY FARM OPERATION v  3  I . Study o f F r a s e r V a l l e y C o n d i t i o n s and Trends i n D a i r y P r o d u c t i o n  3  (a) P r e s e n t t r e n d s a f f e c t i n g Vancouver m i l k production area  3  (b) R e l a t i o n s h i p between s u p p l y and demand..  3  (c) A v a i l a b l e l a n d r e s o u r c e s f o r immediate future  8  I I . Comparison! o f F r a s e r V a l l e y and L o s Angeles Milkshed With Reference t o F r a s e r Valley Application  11  I I I . I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a Trend and New Method o f D a i r y Farm O p e r a t i o n and M i l k P r o d u c t i o n — L o a f i n g S h e d - M i l k i n g P a r l o u r System  17  Review o f L i t e r a t u r e  17  Personal Investigation  24  IV. Summary o f I n f o r m a t i o n as Obtained the P r e c e d i n g S t u d i e s  From  . B. APPLICATION OF INFORMATION AND CONCLUSIONS OBTAINED THUS FAR TO A SELECTED FRASER VALLEY FARM NOW COMING WITHIN THE CITY LIMITS OF VANCOUVER  32  33  •tr  I . D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Farm S e l e c t e d f o r Study (Appendix A)  33  -iiiI I . Outline of a Possible Dairy Unit  Page No. 35  Appendix A. TOPOGRAPHY, SOIL TYPES AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF SELECTED FARM  39  Appendix B. DETAILS OF PROPOSED DAIRY UNIT  46  Appendix C. DETAILS OF FEED HEQUIREtJEWTS AND COSTS  56  APPENDIX D. DETAILS ON YEARLY RECEIPTS,, FIXED COSTS • AND OPERATING COSTS  62  ABSTRACT  64  BIBLIOGRAPHY  65  Abstract on p.64  i .1  i  ,  INTRODUCTION Today, l a r g e and growing  c i t i e s with adjacent r e -  s t r i c t e d farming areas are e x p e r i e n c i n g a r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s e farm, l a n d s .  T h i s s i t u a t i o n p r e s e n t s a problem  dir-  e c t l y concerned w i t h the s u p p l y o f f r e s h d a i r y p r o d u c t s i n many c a s e s , and has been s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y as a p p l i e d t o Vancouver and v i c i n i t y . P r o b a b l y the most p r a c t i c a l way study of t h i s problem  t o approach  a  i s t o take as an example a s p e c i f i c  farm i n such a l o c a l i t y .  The f a r m t o be d e a l t w i t h i s an  80-acre block of l a n d which, since i t s pre-emption  i n 1862,  has become e n c l o s e d w i t h i n t h e c i t y l i m i t s o f Vancouver. P r e s e n t r e s t r i c t i o n s on new  s u b d i v i s i o n s prevent the  opening  up o f t h i s p r o p e r t y f o r b u i l d i n g l o t s , and, as a r e s u l t ,  the  farm must be c o n v e r t e d t o some l i n e o f p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h w i l l . r e t u r n the o p e r a t o r s u f f i c i e n t income t o cover the. heavy t a x e s and s t i l l l e a v e a f a i r m a r g i n of p r o f i t . The farm chosen as an example i l l u s t r a t e s the  effect  o f u r b a n i z a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s as i t i s o c c u r r i n g throughout  t h e Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y .  The' s i t u a t i o n  i s not  so  s e r i o u s i n the more r u r a l a r e a s ; however, h i g h l a n d v a l u e s , h i g h t a x e s and t h e r e s u l t i n g  high production costgare creating  a problem not u n l i k e t h e one b e i n g s t u d i e d .  As the G r e a t e r  Vancouver and F r a s e r V a l l e y areas i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n and expand i n d u s t r i a l l y , l a n d s now used as d a i r y farms w i l l  be  -2i n demand f o r i n d u s t r i a l use as w e l l as f o r r e s i d e n t i a l  areas.  This competition f o r land u t i l i z a t i o n w i l l f u r t h e r increase land values. creased  A l r e a d y f a r m e r s a r e f e e l i n g the need o f i n -  e f f i c i e n c y i n operation' i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n d e s i r a b l e  r e t u r n s on t h e i r investment.  I t may  make changes i n o p e r a t i o n a l methods —  even be n e c e s s a r y  changes s i m i l a r t o  those o c c u r r i n g i n o t h e r a r e a s which have i n the p a s t ienced c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a r e d e v e l o p i n g today.  One  to  exper-  i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y  such a r e a i s the Los A n g e l e s m i l k s h e d .  The  d a t a i n t h i s t h e s i s are c o l l e c t e d under  two  main s e c t i o n s : A. A Study o f M i l k P r o d u c t i o n i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y , I n c l u d i n g a Comparison w i t h t h a t of Los A n g e l e s and an I n v e s t i g a t i o n of a New Method o f D a i r y Farm O p e r a t i o n . B. A p p l i c a t i o n o f the I n f o r m a t i o n and C o n c l u s i o n s Obtained.Thus F a r t o a S e l e c t e d F r a s e r V a l l e y Farm now Coming V J i t h i n the C i t y L i m i t s o f Vancouver. ( I n c l u d i n g an O u t l i n e of a P o s s i b l e D a i r y U n i t on the S e l e c t e d Farm.) From t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n the. w r i t e r hopes t o draw some .conclusions as t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of u t i l i z i n g s e l e c t e d farm f o r m i l k  production.  the  -3-  A.  A STUDY OF MILK PRODUCTION IN THE FRASER VALLEY INCLUDING A COMPARISON WITH THAT OF LOS ANGELES AND AN INVESTIGATION OF A NEW METHOD OF DAIRY FARM OPERATION. I . S t u d y o f F r a s e r V a l l e y C o n d i t i o n s and Trends i n Dairy Production. (a) P r e s e n t t r e n d s a f f e c t i n g Vancouver m i l k area.  production  A dairyman i n t h e Vancouver area i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h two main problems t o d a y .  F i r s t , the extremely' r a p i d  e x p a n s i o n of the c i t y of Vancouver i s b r i n g i n g about a c o n s i d e r a b l e u r b a n i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s . and  High land  subsequent h i g h t a x a t i o n w i t h i n the c i t y are  encouraging  many c i t y workers t o seek homes i n a r e a s a d j a c e n t where overhead c o s t s a r e l o w e r .  values  t o the  Emergency h o u s i n g  city  units,  e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the war to house i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s , have a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d i n no s m a l l manner.to t h i s u r b a n i z a t i o n . Secondly, the u r b a n i z a t i o n trend already r e f e r r e d t o , i s f o r c i n g the f a r m e r s c l o s e i n t o t h e c i t y to adopt a degree o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n h i t h e r t o unnecessary. Competition  f o r l a n d s , p r e v i o u s l y used o n l y f o r  a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r p o s e s , i s r a i s i n g f i x e d p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s to a p o i n t where d i v e r s i f i e d f a r m i n g i s no l o n g e r sound.-  economically  For example, the l o c a l dairymen can no l o n g e r main-  t a i n complementary e n t e r p r i s e s t o add to the farm income. I n o t h e r words, t h e day o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s (b) R e l a t i o n s h i p between s u p p l y and  approaching.  demand.  A t p r e s e n t the farmers p r o d u c i n g m i l k i n t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y are i n the d e s i r a b l e p o s i t i o n of h a v i n g  a  ready market f o r a l l t h e m i l k t h e y can produce.  T h i s con-  d i t i o n e x i s t s even though g r e a t e r p r o d u c t i o n has been encouraged by t h e p r e v a i l i n g h i g h p r i c e s w h i c h have developed d u r i n g t h e war y e a r s .  S i n c e 1939 b o t h p o p u l a t i o n and con-  sumer income have shown a marked i n c r e a s e ;  t h e s e two  f a c t o r s have been t h e main i n f l u e n c e s a f f e c t i n g t h e i n c r e a s e d demand f o r farm produce i n g e n e r a l . . Now t h a t t h e war i s o v e r , i t i s expected t h a t p r i c e s w i l l g r a d u a l l y d e c l i n e as a r e s u l t o f i n c r e a s e d m i l k p r o d u c t i o n , unemployment, and a r e d u c t i o n o f t h e consumers' • incomes.  T h i s i s a f a c t t h a t must be c a r e f u l l y  considered  by t h e f a r m e r as he i s t h e f i r s t t o f e e l t h e e f f e c t o f a depression period.  The government p r i c e c o n t r o l s employed  should a i d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n a v o i d i n g t h e d i s a s t r o u s p r i c e drops t h a t o c c u r r e d f o l l o w i n g t h e war o f 1914-18.  Inflation  has been checked and h e l d down t o some e x t e n t . A n o t h e r f a c t o r which deserves a t t e n t i o n i s t h e problem o f absorbing wartime increases i n m i l k  production  brought about by i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n (war i n d u s t r i e s ) , h i g h wages, and m i l i t a r y r e q u i r e m e n t s .  These i n c r e a s e s , w h i c h may  t e n d t o lower p r i c e s on a normal m a r k e t , might be absorbed by the f o l l o w i n g means: 1. 2. .3. 4. 5.  Population increases. Exporting c a t t l e . C u l l i n g o f d a i r y cows. Expanding markets f o r manufactured dairy products. O u t l e t s f o r market m i l k and cream.  -5-  These p o i n t s would a l s o s e r v e as a means o f w a r d i n g off  t h e e f f e c t o f a post-war d e p r e s s i o n I n c o n s i d e r i n g j u s t how  i n the d a i r y i n d u s t r y .  the F r a s e r V a l l e y a r e a  might absorb the wartime s u r p l u s o f m i l k and a t t h e same time a v o i d p r i c e d e c l i n e s , each o f t h e above p o i n t s may  be  studied separately. 1. P o p j i l a t i o n_ i n cr ea s^s^_ W i t h i n the l a s t few y e a r s , t h e r e has been a v e r y r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e whole of t h e Fraser V a l l e y .  The most i m p o r t a n t  f a c t o r , however, i s t h e  growth o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a . t i o n has  increased approximately  S i n c e 1939  the  popula-  from 300,000 t o 400,000.  As t h i s area i s t h e c h i e f market f o r f l u i d m i l k produced i n t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y , the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e of 100,000 p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t  approximately  r o l e i n r e l i e v i n g any  surplus  t h a t might o c c u r on the f l u i d m i l k market. The G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g : Vancouver New Westminster N o r t h Vancouver D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver M u n i c i p a l i t y of West Vancouver Burnaby 2.  Fxporting jJajttle^  Both grade and p u r e b r e d c a t t l e a r e exported foreign countries.  The  p r i n c i p a l markets appear t o be  U.S.A., and t h e O r i e n t ; o t h e r c o u n t r i e s s u c h as Mexico the o c c a s i o n a l shipment.  There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y o f a  to the take new  -6-  market's a r i s i n g i n t h e . B r i t i s h I s l e s where b r e e d e r s a r e l o o k i n g f o r r e s e r v e s t o b u i l d up herds which s u f f e r e d backs d u r i n g t h e war.  set-  B r i t i s h agents have r e c e n t l y t r a v e l l e d  a c r o s s Canada i n s p e c t i n g t h e d a i r y h e r d s .  The demand f o r  d a i r y c a t t l e i s i n c r e a s i n g s i n c e t r a n s p o r t r e s t r i c t i o n s have been removed,and t h e r e s h o u l d be a r e a d y market f o r any s u r p l u s t h a t might o c c u r . 3. C_ulljLn£ o f _ d a i r y _ c o w s . T h i s i s a p r a c t i c e which i s e n t i r e l y up t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l farmer.  C u l l i n g cannot be f o r c e d , but can o n l y  be encouraged by breed o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r government propaganda. Farmers a r e not p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f i c i e n t i n c u l l i n g and t e n d to  i g n o r e t h e p r a c t i c e more t h a n t h e y s h o u l d .  This fact  a p p l i e s t o b r e e d e r s o f p u r e b r e d s as w e l l as t o t h o s e who r a i s e grade c a t t l e .  The average farmer f e e l s t h a t as l o n g  as an a n i m a l i s p r o d u c i n g m i l k w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e t o t a l volume, he cannot a f f o r d t o c u l l out t h a t a n i m a l o r o t h e r similar'ones.  With the pressure o f greater  efficiency  r e q u i r e m e n t s i n p r o d u c t i o n , however, t h e r e w i l l p r o b a b l y be an i n c r e a s e i n t h e amount o f c u l l i n g p r a c t i s e d . 4. Expanding markets f o r manufactured d_ajLry_ p j r o d u c t s ^ There i s a good demand f o r manufactured p r o d u c t s on t h e l o c a l markets.  dairy  B r i t i s h Columbia i s an im-  p o r t e r o f d a i r y p r o d u c t s ; t h e excess o f i m p o r t s o v e r e x p o r t s  -7-  d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1926  t o 1940  was  "?2,841,368.00 a n n u a l l y .  Creamery b u t t e r imports amount t o 68% and In  cheese t o 52^ o f  \  t o t a l c o n s u m p t i o n / E v a p o r a t e d m i l k i s t h e o n l y manufactured d a i r y product  i n w h i c h we  are s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t .  The  dairy  p r o d u c t s produced are as f o l l o w s : Primary Butter Cheese Evaporated m i l k Condensed m i l k  Secondary Cottage cheese Farm cheese Condensed b u t t e r m i l k TVhole m i l k powder Skim m i l k powder Buttermilk Casein. Ice cream and i c e cream mix The o n l y m i l k p r o d u c t V a l l e y i s evaporated m i l k .  exported  from the  Fraser  A t p r e s e n t t h i s commodity i s  d e f i c i e n t i n q u a n t i t y and t h e r e i s no danger of a s u r p l u s . As f o r f u t u r e m a r k e t s , the European c o u n t r i e s , and t h e p r e war O r i e n t a l markets w i l l a i d i n r e l i e v i n g any s u r p l u s t h a t might e x i s t . 5. O u t l e t s_ f o r marke_t_milk and. _cream. T h i s , a g a i n , i s a p o i n t which i s not important- a t  -8-  p r e s e n t but may  have a b e a r i n g on t h e f u t u r e .  i s an ample market f o r m i l k arid cream.  Today t h e r e  As f o r m i l k ,  ad-  v e r t i s i n g and h e a l t h programs e n c o u r a g i n g i t s use a r e o n l y p r e s e n t - d a y methods o f i n c r e a s i n g consumption.  the There  are a p p a r e n t l y enough d i s t r i b u t o r s t o h a n d l e the m i l k ;  the  problem here i s the method and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n . I t would appear t h a t t h e p r o b l e m i n t h e  Fraser  V a l l e y i s not g o i n g t o be one o f demand, but r a t h e r one supply;  So f a r , any wartime i n c r e a s e s i n the m i l k  of  production  have been handled s u c c e s s f u l l y * More t h a n a y e a r has passed s i n c e t h e war  ended, and t h e r e i s s t i l l a good market f o r  m i l k , i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t f l u i d m i l k p r i c e s have been increased.  I t i s quite probable  that population  increases  have been the main i n f l u e n c e i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h i s demand. Even though wartime, s u r p l u s e s are s u c c e s s f u l l y absorbed, a n o t h e r problem s t i l l  exists.  I f consumer incomes  are l o w e r e d t h e p u b l i c w i l l demand cheaper m i l k , and  thus  c r e a t e a s i t u a t i o n which w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e the l o w e r i n g o f e i t h e r p r o d u c t i o n o r d i s t r i b u t i o n c o s t s , or  both.  (c) A v a i l a b l e l a n d r e s o u r c e s f o r immediate f u t u r e . The  Fraser V a l l e y i s very p e c u l i a r l y s i t u a t e d ,  i n f a c t , t h e r e i s no o t h e r a r e a w i t h q u i t e the same topographical features. forms t h e m i l k s h e d  The  s e c t i o n of t h e v a l l e y w h i c h  f o r t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a , namely  -9t h e Lower F r a s e r . V a l l e y , i s about 75 m i l e s l o n g , beginningi n the Bast a t A g a s s i z and c o n t i n u i n g westward t o Vancouver, which b o r d e r s on t h e S t a i t s o f G e o r g i a .  The  total  area  covered i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 545,000 a c r e s .  The mountain ranges  on t h e F a s t and N o r t h s i d e s o f t h e v a l l e y , t h e ocean a t t h e West end, and t h e A m e r i c a n b o r d e r l i n e ( 4 9 t h p a r a l l e l ) on t h e South s i d e , form a c l o s e d a r e a i n which e x p a n s i o n i s necess a r i l y l i m i t e d by n a t u r a l b o u n d a r i e s . I t can he seen how t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a i s dependent on a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l m i l k s h e d f o r i t s s u p p l y . i s t r u e t h a t o n l y a small percentage  It  o f the a r a b l e l a n d i n (7)  the F r a s e r V a l l e y i s now under c u l t i v a t i o n .  •  The  remainder,  however, w h i c h c o n s i s t s m a i n l y o f t h e u p l a n d r e g i o n s , i s h e a v i l y t i m b e r e d , and as a r e s u l t , v e r y e x p e n s i v e t o c l e a r . The l o w - l y i n g l a n d s which c o u l d be c u l t i v a t e d w i t h l i t t l e no c l e a r i n g have a l l been t a k e n up.  The f o l l o w i n g  tabled)  g i v e s some i d e a o f j u s t what l a n d r e s o u r c e s do e x i s t . i s a broad  This  classification.  A r a b l e areas Lands w i t h adverse t o p o graphy, e x c e s s i v e subdrainage, etc. U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d peat  o r 58.4%  or  317,926 a c r e s  58.4$  175,881 a c r e s 50.890 a c r e s  32.1% 9.5$  544,697 a c r e s  100.0%  Of t h e t o t a l a r e a a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n l y 317,926 a c r e s i s arable.  -10Another f a c t o r becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t i s t h e way i n w h i c h t h e urban p o p u l a t i o n o f G r e a t e r Vancouver i s spreading out i n t o the farming areas.  Some o f t h e b e s t  a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s b e i n g s u b d i v i d e d and s o l d a s b u i l d i n g lots.  T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t on Sea I s l a n d and L u l u  I s l a n d which have some o f t h e r i c h e s t farm, l a n d s i n t h e world.  Such a s i t u a t i o n i s f i n e f o r t h e r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t s  but w i l l soon p r o v e -to be a s e r i o u s problem  i f the population  i n Vancouver and t h r o u g h o u t t h e whole F r a s e r V a l l e y i n c r e a s e s to t h e e x t e n t t h a t p r e s e n t i n d i c a t i o n s f o r e c a s t .  There i s  an ample s u p p l y o f n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l b u i l d i n g l a n d c l o s e t o the c i t y w i t h o u t crowding i n t o t h e f a r m i n g communities. may p o s s i b l y be n e c e s s a r y t o r e s t r i c t t h i s p r e s e n t to m i g r a t e t o t h e c o u n t r y .  It  tendency  R e s t r i c t i o n s c o u l d be imposed  to f o r c e t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f l a n d s o t h e r t h a n a g r i c u l t u r a l f o r b u i l d i n g purposes.  I f some p e o p l e , however, d e s i r e s m a l l  h o l d i n g s , t h e s e c o u l d be a l l o w e d i f c e r t a i n minimum acreage r e q u i r e m e n t s were n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e purchases o f l a n d c o u l d be made.  T h i s would f o r c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l b u y e r s t o make  some use o f t h e l a n d t h e y own i n o r d e r t o have some r e t u r n on t h e i r  investment.  Summing up t h e s i t u a t i o n , p r o b a b l y t h e s u r e s t way o f m a i n t a i n i n g farms i s t o make sure t h e f a r m e r s g e t s u f f i c i e n t r e t u r n s t o make i t w o r t h w h i l e t h e i r s t a y i n g on t h e farms r a t h e r than s e l l i n g out.  -11Th i s d i s c u s s i o n of l a n d r e s o u r c e s has been i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y m a i n l y as a p o i n t o f i n t e r e s t p e r t a i n i n g t o the s u b j e c t .  The w r i t e r does not i n t e n d t o e n t e r the  economic study o f t h e s e problems.  The  d e p l e t i o n of f a r m  l a n d i s , however, becoming a s e r i o u s menace to the s u p p l y of f r e s h d a i r y p r o d u c t s f o r t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver market. I I . Comparison o f F r a s e r V a l l e y and Los A n g e l e s M i l k s h e d W i t h R e f e r e n c e to F r a s e r V a l l e y A p p l i c a t i o n . P r o b a b l y the a r e a most comparable t o the F r a s e r V a l l e y i s the Los A n g e l e s m i l k s h e d . experienced  The Los A n g e l e s a r e a  has  c o n d i t i o n s q u i t e s i m i l a r to t h o s e d e v e l o p i n g •  i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y today. (2?)  D a i r y i n g i n Southern C a l i f o r n i a  i s devoted  entirely  to t h e p r o d u c t i o n of market m i l k , a l t h o u g h when p r o d u c t i o n exceeds t h e e f f e c t i v e demand, the s u r p l u s i s u t i l i z e d f o r manufacturing  other dairy products.  This area i s c h a r a c t e r i -  zed by h i g h l a n d v a l u e s and h i g h water c o s t s . A v e r y i m p o r t a n t p a r t of d a i r y i n g i s t h a t done around the Los A n g e l e s m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , which i s r e f e r r e d t o as "dry-lot" dairying. keeping  T h i s term i s a p p l i e d .to the p r a c t i c e of  cows i n c o r r a l s and f e e d i n g them almost e n t i r e l y  on  purchased f e e d s produced o u t s i d e o f the immediate v i c i n i t y . The o p e r a t o r s t h u s need to own o f l a n d f o r b u i l d i n g s and  or. r e n t o n l y an a c r e o r  c o r r a l s or feed l o t s .  two  The b u i l d i n g s  u s u a l l y c o n s i s t o f a m i l k i n g b a r n , m i l k house, and p e r h a p s  -12a s h e l t e r shed i n the f e e d i n g or h o l d i n g c o r r a l .  Many o f  t h e s e s m a l l p l a c e s a r e r e n t e d , s i n c e i t i s easy f o r the d a i r y man  t o move h i s cows and  d a i r y equipment.  Frequently  there  are s m a l l f i e l d s nearby t h a t can be r e n t e d o r p a s t u r e d f o r short p e r i o d s .  Some o f the f i e l d s a r e used f o r  green-feed  p r o d u c t i o n which t h u s makes p o s s i b l e an improvement i n t h e feeds used by i n c l u d i n g some s u c c u l e n c e .  V-Jhere d a i r i e s  are  l o c a t e d i n t r u c k o r f i e l d - c r o p a r e a s , t h e y can a l s o p u r c h a s e and use such crop r e s i d u e s as c u l l l e t t u c e , beet t o p s , some temporary p a s t u r a g e  and  o f f i e l d s a f t e r o r between c r o p s .  D r y - l o t f a r m i n g d i f f e r s f r o m the o r d i n a r y t y p e o f farming i n other l i n e s besides feed sources. important  One  o f the most  d i f f e r e n c e s i s i n the p u r c h a s e o f replacement cows  r a t h e r t h a n the r a i s i n g o f them.  S i n c e c a l v e s .are not  r a i s e d i n the herds l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o t h e of the b u l l .  quality  B u l l s are sometimes o n l y kept d u r i n g the p a r t s  of the y e a r when needed to breed those cows t h a t are kept over f o r another  being  lactation period.  P r o d u c t i o n per cow i s h i g h i n t h i s k i n d o f d a i r y i n g . I n 1938  the average p r o d u c t i o n p e r cow. f o r 7,943 cows on  by t h e Los A n g e l e s County Cow-Testing A s s o c i a t i o n was of m i l k f a t .  T h i s h i g h p r o d u c t i o n i s a t t a i n e d through  test  425.61bs. the  heavy f e e d i n g o f c o n c e n t r a t e s i n a d d i t i o n to t h e u s u a l amount o f good a l f a l f a hay.  The hay used i n the a r e a i s l a r g e l y  t r u c k e d i n f r o m I m p e r i a l V a l l e y , A n t e l o p e V a l l e y , and  San  -13J o a q u i n V a l l e y , where l a n d v a l u e s and water c o s t s a r e more f a v o u r a b l e t o i t s p r o d u c t i o n t h a n i n t h e a r e a around L o s Angeles. About f i v e tons o f hay, one and o n e - h a l f tons o f conc e n t r a t e s , a h a l f - t o n o f green f e e d ( 9 . 4 % o f t o t a l r a t i o n ) and a v e r y s m a l l amount o f p a s t u r e ( 1 . 5 $ o f t o t a l r a t i o n ) i s the average y e a r l y f e e d p e r cow.. I n some h e r d s  concentrate  f e e d i n g i s s a i d t o go above two t o n s p e r cow f o r t h e y e a r . S i n c e f e e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y a l f a l f a hay, c o s t s more i n t h i s  area  t h a n i n a r e a s w h e r e . i t i s p r o d u c e d , t h e c o s t p e r pound o f m i l k f a t i s bound t o be h i g h e r . The q u e s t i o n f r e q u e n t l y a r i s e s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i v e economy o f p r o d u c i n g m i l k f o r t h e L o s A n g e l e s m e t r o p o l i t a n area i n the feed-growing  areas and h a u l i n g t h e m i l k a con-  s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e , as compared w i t h h a u l i n g t h e feed t o t h e v i c i n i t y o f L o s A n g e l e s and p r o d u c i n g t h e m i l k t h e r e under dry-lot feeding conditions.  The answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n w i l l  i n d i c a t e t h e f u t u r e o f d a i r y i n g under t h e h i g h c o s t c o n d i t i o n s i n the v i c i n i t y o f Los Angeles.  More i s i n v o l v e d than a .sim1  p l e comparison o f t h e c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t i n g t h e f e e d o r t r a n s p o r t i n g the milk.  I r r i g a t e d p a s t u r e w h i c h i s t h e cheapest  k i n d o f feed i n t h e o u t e r a r e a s cannot be t r a n s p o r t e d .  Some  o f t h e c o n c e n t r a t e s , however, a r e as cheap a t L o s A n g e l e s as i n t h e i n t e r i o r v a l l e y s , a l t h o u g h t h e average cost o f a l l i s higher.  Wage r a t e s , hence l a b o u r c o s t s , a r e a l i t t l e  higher  -14i n t h i s a r e a t h a n In the m o r e - d i s t a n t  competing a r e a s .  c e l l a n e o u s c o s t s a l s o a r e h i g h e r i n the Los A n g e l e s  Mis-  area.  These g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r c o s t s tend t o r a i s e the c o s t p e r pound b u t t e r f a t f r o m f0.159 t o $0,237 above t h a t o f the o u t l y i n g areas.  T h i s h i g h e r c o s t p e r pound b u t t e r f a t , combined  w i t h the f a c t t h a t t h e c o s t t o h a u l m i l k i s about t h e same as t o h a u l hay would seem t o i n d i c a t e no advantage i n t h e d r y - l o t type o f d a i r y i n g .  However, i n s p i t e o f t h i s ,  dry-lot  d a i r y i n g has been i n c r e a s i n g i n r e c e n t y e a r s , .even when b u t t e r f a t p r i c e s were l o w . The main s i m i l a r i t y between t h e Los Angeles  a r e a and  the  F r a s e r V a l l e y i s t h e h i g h l a n d v a l u e s and t h e h i g h t a x e s which e x i s t i n b o t h a r e a s . from high water c o s t s .  The Los Angeles  area s u f f e r s a l s o  These c o n d i t i o n s were u n d o u b t e d l y  the  main r e a s o n s f o r t h e development o f d r y - l o t f a r m i n g as i t i s c a r r i e d on today.  The F r a s e r V a l l e y i s a t p r e s e n t e x p e r i e n c i n g  c o n d i t i o n s s i m i l a r to t h o s e o c c u r i n g i n t h e Los A n g e l e s b e f o r e d r y - l o t f a r m i n g came i n t o b e i n g .  area  High land values  and  high taxes are g r e a t l y i n c r e a s i n g production costs of F r a s e r V a l l e y d a i r y farmers.  T h i s i s even more t r u e i n the case  of  the farm under q u e s t i o n where t a x e s and l a n d v a l u e s a r e the highest.  I t may  be t h a t a change i n o p e r a t i v e methods, not  e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t to t h a t o c c u r i n g i n t h e Los Angeles w i l l be the s o l u t i o n t o the p r o b l e m . may  area,  That i s , d a i r y f a r m e r s  f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o adopt the p r a c t i c e o f " d r y - l o t "  , -15f a r m i n g o r a t l e a s t some m o d i f i c a t i o n o f i t . C l i m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a and t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y would have t o b e . c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e one attempted " d r y - l o t " d a i r y i n g .  The c l i m a t e i n S o u t h e r n C a l i -  f o r n i a i s more s u i t e d f o r such a system than t h a t i n t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y where w i n t e r t e m p e r a t u r e s a r e more s e v e r e . M i l d e r w i n t e r s a l l o w the u t i l i z a t i o n of year-round pastures ' where a v a i l a b l e , and m a k e - s h i f t  shelters or corrals.  Also a  g r e a t e r number o f f o r a g e crops can be h a r v e s t e d p e r y e a r . I n the F r a s e r V a l l e y one would have t o f i g u r e on a s h o r t e r pasture  season and more expensive  shelters.  Our hay p r o d u c t -  i o n season b e i n g s h o r t e r , good hay i s much more  expensive  than t h a t grown i n C a l i f o r n i a where c o n d i t i o n s a r e more favourable, expecially f o r a l f a l f a .  A l f a l f a hay i n 1940 was  $15.00 p e r t o n i n t h e Los A n g e l e s a r e a ; i n .the F r a s e r V a l l e y the p r i c e would be $15.00-$20.00 more p e r t o n . mixed hay produced i n t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y would be $10.00 more p e r t o n t h a n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g in California.  Even t h e approximately  alfalfa prices  These h i g h e r roughage c o s t s c o u l d p o s s i b l y  be o f f s e t by u s i n g more s i l a g e and s u c c u l e n t crops t h a n a r e used i n C a l i f o r n i a .  T h i s c o u l d be done as t h e h i g h w a t e r  c o s t s o f t h e S o u t h e r n a r e a a r e not a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r h e r e . A l s o t h e i n c r e a s e d use o f b y - p r o d u c t s such as p e a v i n e s , brewers' g r a i n , and waste p r o d u c t s o  be used t o reduce roughage c o s t s .  o f t h e f r u i t i n d u s t r y might  -16Th e average p r o d u c t i o n p e r cow i n t h e f r a s e r V a l l e y d u r i n g 1940 was 359 l b s . ( ) o f m i l k f a t , w h i l e i n t h e L o s 7  A n g e l e s a r e a d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1932-1938 t h e average p r o d u c t i o n was 405 l b s . o f m i l k f a t .  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e may be  p a r t l y due t o t h e heavy f e e d i n g of. c o n c e n t r a t e s  and t h e  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a l f a l f a hay i n C a l i f o r n i a . • During  t h e l a s t few y e a r s l a r g e r farms c l o s e t o t h e Van-  couver a r e a have shown a t r e n d towards r e d u c i n g f a r m acreages and i n c r e a s i n g t h e p u r c h a s e s o f feeds f r o m o u t s i d e That i s , t h e p r i n c i p l e of " " d r y - l o t " f a r m i n g duced t o some e x t e n t .  Although  sources.  i s being  intro-  these farms g e n e r a l l y u t i l i z e  f a r m p a s t u r e s , roughages and g r a i n s as a p a r t o f t h e r a t i o n s f e d , c o n s i d e r a b l e - f e e d i s bought.  A few o p e r a t o r s own a u x i -  l i a r y farms f a r t h e r f r o m t h e c i t y where l a n d v a l u e s and t a x e s are more f a v o u r a b l e f o r crop " D r y - l o t " farming  production.  i n t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y would d i f f e r some-  what from t h a t p r a c t i s e d i n C a l i f o r n i a .  Such a farm i n t h i s  n o r t h e r n a r e a would be a more s t a b l e u n i t t h a n those t h a t a r e found around L o s A n g e l e s .  C l i m a t i c conditions i n the Fraser  V a l l e y n e c e s s i t a t e t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a more e l a b o r a t e and permanent h o u s i n g  system., r a t h e r t h a n a temporary c o r r a l o r  s h e l t e r accompanying a m i l k i n g barn. operated  L a r g e r a r e a s would be  by t h e i n d i v i d u a l f a r m e r s i n t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y as  compared w i t h t h e L o s A n g e l e s area where " d r y - l o t " u n i t s a r e s e t up' on one o r two a c r e l o t s .  feeding  As the F r a s e r  -17V a l l e y i s a n a t u r a l p a s t u r e a r e a , s u p p l i e d w i t h cheap w a t e r , i t would he sound p r a c t i c e t o p r o v i d e p a s t u r e , and cases crops f o r s i l a g e .  i n some  A well-managed p a s t u r e i s c o n s i d e r e d ( 3 6 )  t h e cheapest s o u r c e of f e e d .  Another f a c t o r  encouraging  the usage o f ' p a s t u r e i s the h i g h f r e i g h t charge on shipped from -the Okanagan and P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s .  feeds I f pasture  i s p r o v i d e d , cash o u t l a y f o r p u r c h a s e d feeds can be  substan-  t i a l l y reduced. I I I . I n v e s t i g a t i o n of a Trend and New Method o f D a i r y Farm O p e r a t i o n and M i l k P r o d u c t i o n — L o a f i n g S h e d - M i l k i n g P a r l o u r System. Review o f L i t e r a t u r e . E v e r y d a i r y farmer i s i n t e r e s t e d i n an  inexpensive,  convenient, a c c e s s i b l e barn which i s adequately t h e . h e a l t h and  comfort  of high q u a l i t y m i l k .  arranged  for  o f t h e a n i m a l s and f o r the p r o d u c t i o n For many y e a r s the c o n v e n t i o n a l  s t a n c h i o n t y p e b a r n has been the a c c e p t e d  housing  system.  A n o t h e r t y p e o f b a r n t h a t has g a i n e d p o p u l a r i t y i n many d a i r y a r e a s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n p a r t s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , i s t h e "pen  b a r n , " a l s o known as the " l o a f i n g b a r n , "  t h e cows run l o o s e i n a l a r g e b a r n , shed, o r pen.  i n which  The  cows  are m i l k e d i n a s m a l l , a d j o i n i n g room. T h i s system enjoyed o f y e a r s ago  c o n s i d e r a b l e p o p u l a r i t y a number  i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y , but due t o t h e i n c r e a s e d  incidence, of contagious a b o r t i o n i t r a p i d l y f e l l  into disuse.  W i t h the advent of c a l f h o o d v a c c i n a t i o n , however, the  -18- • p r e v a l e n c e of Bang's d i s e a s e has been reduced.  Hence the  advantages o f t h i s system a g a i n become a p p a r e n t . There a r e two main m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f the system. i n w h i c h a " m i l k i n g p a r l o u r " i s used i n c o n j u n c t i o n pen  One  with  b a r n , the o t h e r i n w h i c h a " m i i k i n g b a r n " i s used  w i t h t h e pen b a r n .  The m i l k i n g b a r n i s  g e n e r a l l y l a r g e enough t o house the whole h e r d at one  i s fed there.  along  I n the l a t t e r , management d i f f e r s some-  what i n f e e d i n g and m i l k i n g p r a c t i c e s .  f o r m i l k i n g , and  the  time  i n some i n s t a n c e s roughage as w e l l as g r a i n  I n the m i l k i n g p a r l o u r , on the o t h e r hand, o n l y  g r a i n i s f e d and  the c a t t l e are m i l k e d  i n s m a l l u n i t groups o  according two  t o the s i z e o f the p a r l o u r , w h i c h may  to sixteen stanchions.  range from  l a c h t y p e , however, has the  mental s i m i l a r i t y of s e p a r a t i n g m i l k i n g f r o m h o u s i n g .  fundaThe  advantages o f the l o a f i n g shed are: 1. G r e a t e r economy o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . 2. Improved s a n i t a t i o n . 3. C l e a n e r m i l k p r o d u c t i o n . 4. L e s s l a b o u r r e q u i r e d i n h a n d l i n g o l d e r a n i m a l s o f the h e r d . 5. More a n i m a l comfort. 6. Fewer i n j u r i e s to a n i m a l s . 7. C o n s e r v a t i o n and s i m p l i f i e d h a n d l i n g of manure. 8. G r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y , p e r m i t t i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n s i z e of h e r d w i t h o u t changes i n b a r n c o n s t r u c t i o n and a d d i t i o n s i n equipment. 9. "Pen b a r n " e a s i l y adapted t o o t h e r t y p e s o f livestock. 10. F a c i l i t a t i o n o f f e e d i n g ,  The  i n many c a s e s .  disadvantages are:  1. More bedding r e q u i r e d . 2. "Boss" cows may"be t r o u b l e s o m e . 3. Cows s h o u l d be dehorned.  -194. More space r e q u i r e d p e r cow. 5. More o f a chore t o m i l k i n g . 6. Herd doesn't show o f f t o t h e same advantage as when i n s t a n c h i o n s . 7. G r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y i n h a n d l i n g c a l v e s and young s t o c k . The L o a f i n g Barn Size: p e r cow  A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s some v a r i a t i o n i n f l o o r  space  i n e s t a b l i s h e d l o a f i n g b a r n s , i t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed  t h a t a minimum o f 75 square f e e t , e x c l u s i v e of manger s p a c e , i s adequate i f the pen i s w e l l bedded.  I n t h e case o f l a r g e  h i g h p r o d u c i n g cows, 100 square f e e t p e r cow i s more advisable.  I t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t i n c r e a s i n g the f l o o r  a r e a i s n o t , however, a s u b s t i t u t e f o r p r o p e r c a r e and management.  A dry and w e l l - p r o t e c t e d b a r n y a r d i s a l s o v e r y d e s i r a b l e  i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a pen b a r n as t h i s i n c r e a s e s t h e amount o f resting  space. Bedding r e q u i r e m e n t s :  The amount o f bedding r e q u i r e d  v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o management p r a c t i c e s .  I t i s generally  c o n s i d e r e d t h a t a minimum o f one and o n e - h a l f t o n s o f s t r a w p e r cow p e r y e a r s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d .  Since i t i s a v a i l a b l e  i n most a r e a s , s t r a w i s t h e common bedding m a t e r i a l  used.  A l t h o u g h sawdust and s h a v i n g s do not p o s s e s s t h e same a b s o r p t i v e power as s t r a w , t h e y may  s u b s t i t u t e as  where roughage i s l e s s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e .  bedding  Furthermore, i t  has been concluded that- sawdust and s h a v i n g s a r e not m e n t a l when added t o t h e l a n d . ^  detri-  -20Chopped s t r a w s h o u l d be used f o r bedding i f p o s s i b l e . Chopping i n c r e a s e s t h e a b s o r p t i o n and f a c i l i t a t e s h a n d l i n g the manure.  Uncut s t r a w used as b e d d i n g , makes f o r d i f f i c u l t  removal o f manure. There i s much unfounded c r i t i c i s m o f t h e l o a f i n g barn system where i t i s s a i d t h a t t h e c a t t l e cannot be k e p t clean.  P r a c t i c e has shown t h a t , i f s u f f i c i e n t bedding i s  • s u p p l i e d , a n i m a l s housed under t h i s system can be k e p t c l e a n w i t h l e s s work t h a n a n i m a l s housed i n a s t a n c h i o n b a r n . Type o f F l o o r : The amount of b e d d i n g , and t h e f l o o r a r e a p e r  cow,  are more i m p o r t a n t i n k e e p i n g t h e cows c l e a n than i s t h e t y p e 1  of f l o o r .  A c o n c r e t e f l o o r i s not n e c e s s a r y , but a c o n c r e t e  apron around the water tank and b a r n doors i s d e s i r a b l e . f l o o r s , w h i c h a r e used e x t e n s i v e l y , prove t o be and q u i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y .  Dirt  economical  Many o p e r a t o r s p r e f e r t h i s t y p e o f  f l o o r because i t g i v e s a s o f t f o o t i n g and f a c i l i t a t e s t h e a b s o r p t i o n of l i q u i d s .  I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t , when a d i r t  f l o o r i s used the b a r n must be s i t u a t e d on a w e l l - d r a i n e d a r e a . A t h i c k l a y e r o f bedding m a t e r i a l s h o u l d be a p p l i e d a f t e r c l e a n i n g i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e an a b s o r p t i v e mat.  each  The use of  l o a f i n g pens e l i m i n a t e s t h e e v i l s o f s t a n c h i o n barns by a l l o w i n g the a n i m a l s t o move about f r e e l y and by k e e p i n g them o f f cold concrete f l o o r s . Injuries: The danger o f i n j u r i e s i s l a r g e l y o b v i a t e d t h r o u g h  -21the p r a c t i c e o f d e h o r n i n g .  A n i m a l s may  be f u r t h e r p r e v e n t e d  from " b u t t i n g " each o t h e r by p i n c h i n g t h r e e o r f o u r hog r i n g s through the s k i n o f t h e head between the h o r n b u t t o n s . • Labour; Operators  i n g e n e r a l agree t h a t the l a b o u r r e q u i r e -  ments a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y reduced The  u s i n g t h e pen  type.barn.  chore o f c l e a n i n g out the s t a b l e s becomes a m o n t h l y t a s k  r a t h e r t h a n a d a i l y one. roughages i s a l s o reduced.  The time and l a b o u r of f e e d i n g The moving o f the cows from the  l o a f i n g barn i n t o t h e l o a f i n g p a r l o u r i s somewhat i n c o n v e n i e n t and may  require additional labour. Feeding arrangement: In most cases a l l roughage i s f e d i n the  b a r n , by t h e use of hay r a c k s and mangers. . The  loafing  important  s i d e r a t i o n i s t o arrange t h e s e r a c k s and mangers so t h e y  concan  be most c o n v e n i e n t l y f i l l e d through hay chutes d i r e c t l y over them, o r from t h e f r o n t i n the case o f s i l a g e . The  type of manger w i l l  chopped, b a l e d , o r l o o s e . fed,  depend on whether t h e hay i s  Where s i l a g e i s o n l y  c e n t r a l f e e d r a c k s a r e more d e s i r a b l e .  are e a s i l y kept f u l l f r o m t h e l o f t .  fed  S e l f feeder racks  W a l l t y p e mangers tend  to b l o c k out windows and r e q u i r e more c h u t e s . p r o v i d e a l a r g e open f l o o r space.  moderately  They do, however,  'When hay and s i l a g e a r e  a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , r a c k and manger space, should  be  p r o v i d e d a t the r a t e of two and o n e - h a l f f e e t p e r a n i m a l .  If  -22s e l f feeding  i s used the r a c k space p e r  cow' can be  consider-  a b l y l e s s , p r o v i d i n g t h e r a c k s are k e p t f u l l a t a l l t i m e s . Management of young s t o c k : E x p e r i e n c e w i t h pen  barns i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s i r a b l e to r a i s e herd r e p l a c e m e n t s on t h e f a r m , and t o l e t t h e h e i f e r s run w i t h the m i l k i n g h e r d . way  In t h i s  t h e h e i f e r s become accustomed t o the m i l k i n g arrangement.  T h i s means t h a t some space must be p r o v i d e d young s t o c k .  f o r calves  and  I t i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t to a r r a n g e permanent  c a l f pens w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e most c o n v e n i e n t method o f removing manure.  By c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g , however, i t i s , -  u s u a l l y p o s s i b l e to p r o v i d e temporary g a t e s a t one  n e c e s s a r y pens by  end o r c o r n e r  installing  of t h e b a r n .  For  large  herds a s e p a r a t e b a r n f o r dry cows, c a l v e s and young s t o c k i s desirable. Milking parlours: The m i l k i n g p a r l o u r i s the most i m p o r t a n t u n i t o f pen  b a r n system.  the  E s s e n t i a l l y t h e y are s m a l l , w e l l - l i g h t e d  rooms, p r o v i d i n g accommodation a t m i l k i n g t i m e f o r a u n i t s t r i n g o f cows.  The  s i z e o f the m i i k i n g room depends on  number of m i l k i n g s t a l l s and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d . number of s t a l l s i s determined by the s i z e of the h e r d , number of m i l k e r s and t h e m i l k i n g p r o c e d u r e . v a r i o u s t y p e s of c o n s t r u c t i o n a c c o r d i n g ences and governmental r e g u l a t i o n s .  the The the  There a r e  to i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r -  They a l l ,  however,  -23o p e r a t e on t h e same p r i n c i p l e - t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a c l e a n , s a n i t a r y room,'equipped f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f h i g h q u a l i t y milk.  The m i l k i n g p a r l o u r should he a r r a n g e d  c i e n t h a n d l i n g o f cows a t m i l k i n g t i m e .  f o r the e f f i -  I f i t i s under t h e  same r o o f as t h e l o a f i n g b a r n , i t s h o u l d be s e a l e d o f f by a t i g h t p a r t i t i o n and t i g h t f i t t i n g d o o r s .  As i t i s g e n e r a l  p r a c t i c e t o f e e d g r a i n d u r i n g m i l k i n g , t h e g r a i n supplys h o u l d be e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e . There a r e two g e n e r a l t y p e s o f m i l k i n g p a r l o u r s , t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l t y p e , w i t h l e v e l f l o o r s , g u t t e r s , and s t a n d a r d s t a n c h i o n arrangement, and t h e w a l k - t h r o u g h  type.  The  l a t t e r i s g e n e r a l l y operated i n conjunction w i t h elevated s t a l l s o r depressed bending  alleyways which f a c i l i t a t e m i l k i n g .  Much  and s t o o p i n g i s e l i m i n a t e d w i t h t h i s system as t h e  cows' "udders a r e a t s h o u l d e r l e v e l .  In the walk-through  t y p e , t h e s t a n c h i o n s a r e so b u i l t t h a t one end o r s i d e swings back when m i l k i n g i s f i n i s h e d , and t h e cow can be released without backing out.  W i t h i n these two g e n e r a l t y p e s  t h e r e a r e many m o d i f i c a t i o n s w h i c h v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l operator's d e s i r e s .  Some more e l a b o r a t e m i l k i n g  p a r l o u r s have t h e m i l k i n g machines s e p a r a t e d from t h e cows by a w a l l .  The machines a r e a t t a c h e d t h r o u g h an o p e n i n g , i n  the w a l l , and p i p e s c a r r y t h e m i l k t o t h e m i l k room f o r cooling.  T h i s type o f arrangement i s used w i t h some o f t h e  l a r g e r herds where l a b o u r and c a p i t a l a r e n o t l i m i t i n g  -241a c t o r s .  I n many c a s e s , h o l d i n g a l l e y s and f o o t b a t h s f o r  the c a t t l e a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e l a y o u t . When g r a i n i s f e d i n t h e m i l k i n g p a r l o u r , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o h o l d t h e cows t h e r e f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y  eight  m i n u t e s , i n o r d e r t o a l l o w time t o consume a normal r a t i o n of e i g h t t o t e n pounds. Personal  Investigation:  .In o r d e r t o o b t a i n a more comprehensive i d e a of how t h e l o a f i n g b a r n and m i l k i n g p a r l o u r system i s f i t t i n g  into  p r a c t i c e , a one-day t r i p ' w a s t a k e n t o Whatcom and S k a g i t C o u n t i e s i n Washington.  I n t M s a r e a l o a f i n g b a r n s and  m i l k i n g p a r l o u r s a r e becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r .  The  o b j e c t i v e was t o v i s i t as many farms as p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a general  i d e a o f t h e method o f o p e r a t i o n .  The system was  found t o be w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n S k a g i t County and r a p i d l y g a i n i n g p o p u l a r i t y i n Whatcom County.  The w r i t e r r e a l i z e s  t h a t t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t i n scope t o be considered e n t i r e l y representative.  Some of t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  however, a r e w o r t h m e n t i o n i n g and comparing t o t h e F r a s e r Valley  area. The  s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two areas i s t h e  way i n w h i c h t h e c a t t l e a r e housed, f e d and m i l k e d .  In the  F r a s e r V a l l e y t h e common custom i s t o b u i l d a l a r g e b a r n t o house t h e whole h e r d .  I f an attempt i s made t o meet "Grade  A" r e q u i r e m e n t s i n such a b u i l d i n g , t h e expense i s h i g h .  -25I n t h e a r e a v i s i t e d , i t was o b v i o u s t h a t t h e emphasis had been p l a c e d not on b u i l d i n g a l a r g e Grade A b a r n , but i n s t e a d on b u i l d i n g a s m a l l m i l k i n g p a r l o u r i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a low cost l o a f i n g shed.  T h i s system i s f a r l e s s  but p r o v i d e s a v e r y d e s i r a b l e h o u s i n g  expensive  unit for milking.  Very  l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o k e e p i n g t h e animals warm and f r e e from draughts.  L o a f i n g sheds v a r y i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , some  h a v i n g open doors and windows, o t h e r s b e i n g c o m p l e t e l y  open  on one s i d e o r end. G r a i n was f e d i n t h e m i l k i n g p a r l o u r s on t h e farms visited.  S i l a g e and roughage were commonly f e d i n t h e  l o a f i n g shed, a l t h o u g h , were used.  i n some c a s e s , o u t s i d e f e e d i n g  racks  These o u t s i d e f e e d i n g r a c k s 'were used t o reduce  t r a m p l i n g , and so c u t down t h e amount of b e d d i n g r e q u i r e d . The system.  o p e r a t o r s v i s i t e d were a l l s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e  They agreed t h a t i t r e s u l t e d i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f  a b e t t e r q u a l i t y m i l k and p o i n t e d out t h a t l a b o u r were reduced.  costs  Because o f f r e e c a l f h o o d v a c c i n a t i o n , Bang's  d i s e a s e , w h i c h was a t one time t h e l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n t h e l o a f i n g b a r n s e t - u p , appeared t o be l a r g e l y c o n t r o l l e d . Three o f t h e farms v i s i t e d best i l l u s t r a t e d t h e p r i n c i p l e of u s i n g a l o a f i n g barn i n combination  with a  m i l k i n g p a r l o u r , each w i t h a d i f f e r e n t arrangement. A l l t h r e e farms were w e l l o r g a n i z e d efficiently.  and appeared t o be o p e r a t i n g  They were a s f o l l o w s :  The G. Bossenbruck Farm (Located In t h e B e l l i . -ham area o f VThatcom County) T h i s farm i s a v e r y compact u n i t , c o n s i s t i n g o f a m i l k i n g room, a t w e l v e cow l o a f i n g shed and o u t s i d e f e e d i n g racks.  The f e e d i n g r a c k s a r e o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t .  They a r e  b u i l t on c o n c r e t e , and a r e f i l l e d f r o m overhead w a l k s r u n n i n g from t h e h a y l o f t above the main b a r n , and a s m a l l s t o r a g e shed.  The m i l k i n g room and l o a f i n g shed a r e b u i l t i n an o l d  barn.  Due t o the absence o f t h e o p e r a t o r , f u r t h e r d a t a on  management c o u l d not be o b t a i n e d .  O u t R i d e f e e d a r e a on Bossenbruck farm.  The feed r a c k s and overhead w a l k s on Bossenbruck farm.  -27-  Th e B. Krangnes Farm (Located i n the Mount Vernon area o f S k a g i t County) T h i s i s an 18 cow  set-up u t i l i z i n g a m i l k i n g b a r n  ( i n p l a c e o f a m i l k i n g p a r l o u r ) and a newly b u i l t shed.  T h i s l a t t e r i s of p a r t i c u l a r The  interest.  l o a f i n g barn i s equipped  r a c k s , water t r o u g h and  salt l i c k .  loafing  with inside feeding  The  s a l t l i c k and  water  t r o u g h are a c c e s s i b l e from b o t h i n s i d e and o u t s i d e t h e b a r n . A c a l f pen f o r f o u r c a l v e s has been p a r t i t i o n e d o f f i n one c o r n e r and a b u l l pen b u i l t on one  end.  The b u i l d i n g has  w e l l - d r a i n e d d i r t f l o o r covered w i t h s h a v i n g s . dry and c l e a n accommodation. to handle  a  This provides  The m i l k i n g b a r n i s l a r g e enough  a l l t h e m i l k i n g cows at one time.  The  animals  spend s i x t o seven hours a day i n the m i l k i n g b a r n , d u r i n g Which time t h e y are f e d g r a i n and roughage. r e s t o f the day  They spend the  i n the l o a f i n g barn and o b t a i n f u r t h e r feed  from the hay r a c k s t h e r e .  The  i s of c o n c r e t e , as shown below.  a l l e y w a y between the two  barns  PICTU^a  -  2  O  F  8  -  K  R  A  N  C  r  K  E  S  F  A  R  M i l k i n g b a r n and l o a f i n g barn ( i n f o r e g r o u n d )  B u l l pen on end o f l o a f i n g shed  L o a f i n g shed  (Located  -30Th e F. F r e d e r i c k s Farm i n t h e Mount Vernon a r e a of S k a g i t  County)  T h i s farm u t i l i z e s an o l d b a r n f o r a l o a f i n g shed. The m i l k i n g p a r l o u r i s a new T h i s 10 cow,  b u i l d i n g of plywood  s i n g l e s t o r e y m i l k i n g p a r l o u r i s the  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e of the farm. and  construction  B r i g h t aluminum p a i n t  f l u o r e s c e n t l i g h t i n g g i v e i t an appearance t h a t would  please  any v i s i t o r o r i n s p e c t o r .  milking parlour. room, and  Only g r a i n i s fed i n t h i s  Next t o the m i l k i n g room i s a g r a i n  a d j o i n i n g t h i s i s the d a i r y .  The  complete b u i l d i n g  i s 55 f t . x 20 f t . , the m i l k i n g p a r l o u r b e i n g I n the l o a f i n g barn t h e r e are two  39 f t . x 20 f t .  ten-stanchion  equipped w i t h v/ater bowls, f a c i n g a c e n t r a l f e e d i n g The  space b e h i n d each row of s t a n c h i o n s  area. The  The  hay  s e r v e s as a l o a f i n g alley.  o n l y d u r i n g the f e e d i n g p e r i o d .  s t r a w i s used as b e d d i n g , and daily.  rows  alley.  i s dropped from the l o f t t o t h e f e e d i n g  cows are s t a n c h i o n e d  storage  the d r o p p i n g s p i c k e d up  A s e p a r a t e b u i l d i n g i s used t o house the  Oat  twice  calves.  The plywood m i l k i n g p a r l o u r next t o the l o a f i n g barn on the F r e d e r i c k s farm. The d a i r y i s i n the f o r e g r o u n d , the m i l k i n g room i n the background.  -31-  I t —  •  ±*»-.  !  E x t e r i o r and i n t e r i o r v i e w s o f the l o a f i n g shed on the G. Dynes farm. T h i s shed i s b u i l t a g a i n s t the s i d e o f the m i l k i n g b a r n . ITo m i l k i n g p a r l o u r i s used on t h i s farm.  -32Conclusions: I n summarizing t h i s study o f l o a f i n g barns and m i l k i n g p a r l o u r s , i t appears t h a t the system a d e q u a t e l y the r e q u i r e m e n t s ' o f  cheap h o u s i n g , m i l k i n g , and  as w e l l as r e d u c i n g l a b o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s . i t comes t o the q u e s t i o n of s a n i t a t i o n and  meets  sanitation,  F u r t h e r m o r e , when consumer a p p e a l ,  t h e r e seems t o be no argument a g a i n s t s e p a r a t i n g t h e job o f m i l k i n g from t h a t of  housing.  I n v i e w o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n o f t h e system i n the N o r t h Western S t a t e s and c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s i m i l a r i t y  be-  tween t h a t a r e a and the F r a s e r V a l l e y , t h e r e i s no apparent reason why  t h i s system s h o u l d not be s u i t a b l e t o the  latter  area. The  c h i e f p r o b l e m c o n f o n t i n g o l d e r d a i r y farms i n  the use of l o a f i n g b a r n s and m i l k i n g p a r l o u r s i s t h a t the• d a i r y p l a n t i s a l r e a d y b u i l t and o p e r a t i n g on a s a t i s f a c t o r y basis.  To change over' under such c o n d i t i o n s seems unnecessary  and o f q u e s t i o n a b l e economy. housing not be  and m i l k i n g p r o c e d u r e ,  As a l o n g - t i m e adjustment i n however, t h i s system s h o u l d  overlooked. IV. Summary o f I n f o r m a t i o n as Obtained Preceding Studies.  From the  I t i s evident, f r o m the p r e c e d i n g s t u d i e s t h a t t h e . G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a i s e n t i r e l y dependent upon the F r a s e r V a l l e y f o r i t s s u p p l y o f f r e s h d a i r y p r o d u c e , and t h a t t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y i s an a r e a o f l i m i t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l development,  -33c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h c o s t s o f p r o d u c t i o n .  On comparison o f  t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y w i t h the Los A n g e l e s m i l k shed, where t h e " d r y - l o t " system of d a i r y i n g i s p r a c t i s e d e x t e n s i v e l y , s e v e r a l s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e evidenced  which suggest a p o s s i b l e  f u t u r e change of o p e r a t i v e methods i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y . These changes w i l l l i k e l y f o l l o w the g e n e r a l t r e n d now o p e r a t i o n throughout t h e Los Angeles a r e a .  in  Further i n v e s t i g a -  t i o n o f o p e r a t i v e methods seems t o show no apparent r e a s o n why  the l o a f i n g shed-milking.parlour  system c o u l d not be used  e x t e n s i v e l y i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y area. B. APPLICATION OF THE INFORMATION AND CONCLUSIONS OBTAINED THUS FAR TO A SELECTED FRASER VALLEY FARM NOW COMING WITHIN THE CITY LIMITS OF VANCOUVER. I . D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e Farm S e l e c t e d f o r S t u d y (Appendix A ) . The  farm s e l e c t e d - f o r t h i s s t u d y i s an 80 acre  of l a n d s i t u a t e d on t h e banks o f the N o r t h Arm R i v e r , w i t h i n the c i t y l i m i t s of Vancouver. p l a n n i n g map  o f the  On the  Fraser  city  i t i s l a b e l l e d a s " P a r c e l B of D i s t r i c t Lot  Macdonald S t r e e t borders  tract  315."  the west s i d e , M a r i n e D r i v e G o l f  Course the east s i d e , and a row-of r e s i d e n t i a l homes f o r m the boundary l i n e on the n o r t h s i d e . (a) P r e s e n t  c o n d i t i o n o f t h e farm.  The f a r m i s at p r e s e n t  i n a run-down c o n d i t i o n .  b u i l d i n g s ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of a new d r a i n s s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d or r e p a i r e d .  barn), the fences  The and  M a c h i n e r y on t h e farm  -34-  i s i n f a i r c o n d i t i o n and i s adequate f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y o p e r a t i o n ; however, s e v e r a l r e p l a c e m e n t s and a d d i t i o n s s h o u l d he made.  c o u l d and  S o i l f e r t i l i t y has been m a i n t a i n e d  fairly  w e l l (Appendix A ) , but t h e r e i s an immediate need o f l i m e applications. few  The l i v e s t o c k owned b y t h e f a r m o p e r a t o r a r e  i n number, o n l y f i v e head o f c a t t l e and a team o f work  horses being maintained a t present. The p r e s e n t f a r m b u s i n e s s i s d i v i d e d between two main e n t e r p r i s e s :  crop p r o d u c t i o n ,  and b o a r d i n g l i g h t h o r s e s .  The p o o r c o n d i t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g s and t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r r e p l a c e m e n t s combined t o prevent the operation i n recent  o f t h e farm as a m i l k p r o d u c t i o n  unit  years. (b) R e q u i r e d changes on t h e farm. To o p e r a t e s u c c e s s f u l l y a d a i r y e n t e r p r i s e on t h i s  •farm some changes, r e q u i r i n g c a p i t a l o u t l a y , w o u l d be necessary.  These changes would i n v o l v e t h e p r o v i s i o n o f new  b u i l d i n g s , f e n c e s and d r a i n s , t h e c o r r e c t i o n o f s o i l  acidity  through l i m i n g , and t h e r e - s t o c k i n g o f t h e farm. These improvements a r e shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g outlining a possible dairy unit.  section  -35I I . O u t l i n e of a P o s s i b l e D a i r y U n i t . (a) Proposed u n i t and approximate c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t r e q u i r e d (Appendix B ) . (Items l i s t e d below i n c l u d e some e q u i p ment, e t c . a l r e a d y on t h e farm.) Land ( a s s e s s e d v a l u e ) L i v e s t o c k (60 m i l k cows) Buildings Farm machinery , D a i r y equipment Pasture establishment TOTAL INVESTMENT  •.  $13,690.00 10,500.00 12,050.00 3,280 00 5,325.00 1,000.00 s  $45,845.50  (b) Y e a r l y f e e d r e q u i r e m e n t s and c o s t s (Appendix C ) . Grains Roughage ( a l f a l f a ) S i l a g e (pea v i n e s ) M i n e r a l supplement Bedding P a s t u r e maintenance  (Appendix B)  TOTAL FEED COSTS  $ 2,773.68 1,650.00 396.00 60.00 1,800.00. 600.00 § 7,279.68  (c) E s t i m a t e o f y e a r l y r e c e i p t s , f i x e d c o s t s , and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s (Appendix D). R e c e i p t s from m i l k s a l e s o f 425 q t s . p e r day © $ .16 p e r q t Fixed Costs 5fo I n t e r e s t charges on $40,520.00 i n v e s t m e n t , ( e x c l u s i v e o f d a i r y equip.) 5% D e p r e c i a t i o n charges on $15,330.00 (farm machinery and b u i l d i n g s , exc l u s i v e o f d a i r y equipment) TOTAL Operating Costs Gas, o i l and r e p a i r s f o r t r a c t o r Taxes 3?eed r e q u i r e m e n t s ( p l u s bedding) Labour (2 h i r e d men) FORWARD  $24,820.00  $ 2,026.00 756.50 0 2,-782.50  3  50.00 800.00 7 ,279.68 2,400.00  $10,529.68  -36F0RWARD...$10,529.68 O p e r a t i n g Costs (contd.) P r o c e s s i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g Replacements ( c a t t l e ) G e n e r a l expense TOTAL  8,160..00 500.00 500.00 $19.j689.68  (d) E s t i m a t e o f y e a r l y r e t u r n s . Cash r e c e i p t s from m i l k s a l e s Fixed costs Operating costs Gross p r o f i t ( i n c l u d i n g o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o u r income)  ... $24,820.00 2,782.50 19,689.68 $ 2.,347.82  -37-  C0NCLUSI0N3 The proposed d a i r y u n i t f a i l s t o show a v e r y f a c t o r y r e t u r n on t h e i n v e s t m e n t .  satis-  The s t u d y , however, does  i n d i c a t e a f a i r l a b o u r income t o t h e o p e r a t o r , and o f f e r s a d e f i n i t e c h a l l e n g e t o anyone whose i n t e r e s t s l i e i n d a i r y farming. S e v e r a l f a c t o r s e n t e r t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s which perhaps make the'above c o n c l u s i o n t o o c o n s e r v a t i v e .  Among t h e s e  factors are the following: (a) A l l e s t i m a t e d c o s t s a r e shown a t a h i g h l e v e l . (b) The p r o d u c t i o n e s t i m a t e s a r e a t b e s t , moderate. (c) A d d i t i o n a l income p o s s i b i l i t i e s ( e . g . t h r o u g h custom work) have n o t been mentioned. tices,  C o s t s c o u l d be reduced including:  by improved management p r a c -  (a) P u r c h a s i n g f e e d s from p r i m a r y p r o d u c e r s . (b) I n c r e a s i n g t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f p a s t u r e . (c) I n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n p e r cow t h r o u g h c a r e f u l b r e e d i n g and s e l e c t i o n . (d) U t i l i z a t i o n o f s u r p l u s produce i n . t h e most p r o f i t a b l e manner. The  s u p p l y o f f r e s h d a i r y p r o d u c e i s now, and d e f i n i t e -  l y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be, an i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m i n t h e Vancouver area.  A d a i r y u n i t such as t h e one s t u d i e d would not t h e r e -  f o r e be a p u r e l y s e l f i s h b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e , but might s e r v e as an example t o be f o l l o w e d i n t h e a l l e v i a t i o n of an import a n t food problem. O p e r a t i o n o f t h i s type o f d a i r y u n i t might w e l l encourage a l s o t h e use o f a system o f a g r i c u l t u r a l  zoning,  under which o n l y l a n d u n f i t : f o r s p e c i a l i z e d f a r m i n g would be made a v a i l a b l e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l o r commercial b u i l d i n g .  -38APFSNDI0E3 Appendix A:  Topography, s o i l t y p e s , o f s e l e c t e d farm.  and  climatic condition  Appendix B:  D e t a i l s of proposed d a i r y u n i t . 1. L i v e s t o c k . 2. B u i l d i n g s . 3. M a c h i n e r y and equipment. 4. P a s t u r e l a y o u t .  Appendix C:  D e t a i l s of y e a r l y feed r e q u i r e m e n t s and  costs.  1. Purchased f e e d s . 2. Feed and b e d d i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s . 3. T o t a l cost of f e e d and bedding. A p p e n d i x D:  D e t a i l s of yearly r e c e i p t s , f i x e d costs, operating costs.  and  -39Appendix A. TOPOGRAPHY, SOIL TYPES, AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF SELECTED FARM. 1.  Topography and S o i l Types  The c u l t i v a t e d acreage o f t h e farm (72^ a c r e s ) i s a l l l e v e l bottomland w i t h an e l e v a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 f e e t above s e a l e v e l .  The u n c u l t i v a t e d a r e a , which i n c l u d e s t h e  f a r m s t e a d (2^- a c r e s ) and 5 a c r e s o f b u s h l a n d , i s s i t u a t e d on a s l o p e o f about 25 degrees.  Such a set-up i s i d e a l as i t  provides a w e l l - d r a i n e d l o c a t i o n f o r the b u i l d i n g s . The b a s i c s o i l type i s loam, v a r y i n g s l i g h t l y t o i n c l u d e p e a t y and s i l t y loams.  The s o i l map on page (44) shows t h e  d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o i l types. The a n a l y s i s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s o i l samples, i n O c t o b e r , 1946, i n d i c a t e a d e f i n i t e need f o r l i m i n g t r a t e d on page (45).  the s o i l .  (illus-  An a p p l i c a t i o n o f 3 t o n s p e r a c r e o f  ground l i m e s t o n e would do much t o improve t h e a c i d of  taken  condition  A l t h o u g h ground l i m e s t o n e i s slower r e a c t i n g  than h y d r a t e d l i m e , i t would be used because o f i t s g r e a t e r l a s t i n g e f f e c t and l o w e r c o s t .  As f a r as legume c r o p s a r e  concerned, t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of l i m e i s a n e c e s s i t y b e f o r e p r o f i t a b l e crops can be grown.  Potassium i s the only mineral  i n d i c a t i n g a d e f i c i e n c y which r e q u i r e s immediate a t t e n t i o n . I t i s not a d v i s a b l e , however, t o make heavy a p p l i c a t i o n s o f (8)  p o t a s h f e r t i l i z e r s . o n loam s o i l s .  Light applications could  be made on ground used f o r legumes o r barley,- and i f any improvement was noted f u r t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n s c o u l d be made.  The  -40c e r e a l c r o p s a r e n o t u s u a l l y a f f e c t e d by a p o t a s h d e f i c i e n c y . 2.  Climatic C o n d i t i o n s ^ )  C l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e Vancouver  area are generally  t h e same as t h o s e e x i s t i n g throughout t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y , except f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y t e n d t o be l e s s  extreme.  Terap_erature_sj_ The c l i m a t e i s q u i t e moderate, and t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y u n i f o r m throughout t h e y e a r , J a n u a r y b e i n g t h e c o l d e s t month w i t h an average temperature of 36°F, and J u l y t h e warmest w i t h an average temperature o f 63°F.  There i s  the o c c a s i o n a l extreme c o n d i t i o n when t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s may go down t o around 0°F and as h i g h as 85°F.• These extremes, however, a r e n o t common. F a r l y and l a t e f r o s t s a r e not l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s on t h e average d a i r y farm.  The f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d ranges from about  A p r i l 1 t o November 1, t o t a l l i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 220 days. Sunshinej_ The amount o f s u n s h i n e r e c e i v e d i n t h e w i n t e r i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s t h a n i n summer.  A t Vancouver,  during January,  s u n s h i n e averages 49 hours f o r t h e month, o r s l i g h t l y more t h a n 1^- hours p e r day.  I n J u l y , however, t h e average i s 291  hours o f s u n s h i n e o r 9.3 hours p e r day.  The t o t a l f o r t h e  year a t t h i s l o c a t i o n i s 1,847 hours o f s u n s h i n e . With t h e s u n s h i n e amounting  t o 9.3 and 8.6 hours d a i l y  i n J u l y and August, i t i s apparent t h a t t h e s e two months a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y warm and d r y . T h i s f a c t o r i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h e  -41management of s o i l s w i t h low drought r e s i s t a n c e .  Early  m a t u r i n g crops are grown .on such l a n d s f o r h a r v e s t d u r i n g  the  dry p e r i o d . P r e_c i.pj. t a t i.on: The  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of t h e P a c i f i c Coast p r e c i p i t a -  t i o n i s the heavy w i n t e r r a i n f a l l succeeded by summer The  r a i n y season b e g i n s  dryness.  i n October w i t h about 6 i n c h e s o f r a i n .  I n .November the average r i s e s to 8 i n c h e s , w i t h s l i g h t l y more t h a n 8 i n c h e s i n December.  I n J a n u a r y t h i s i s reduced t o  about 7 i n c h e s , f o l l o w e d by 5 i n c h e s i n F e b r u a r y and 5 i n c h e s i n March.  About 2/3  o f the a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n o c c u r s  during  t h e s i x c o l d e r months. The  farmer i s mostl?r concerned w i t h r a i n f a l l between  A p r i l and May  September, the crop growing season.  I n A p r i l arid  p r e c i p i t a t i o n amounts to between 3 and 4 i n c h e s f o r each  month.  I n June i t f a l l s t o between 2 and 3 i n c h e s , w h i l e  J u l y and August, t h e dry months, average l e s s than 2 i n c h e s . September i s the b e g i n n i n g of t h e r a i n y season a g a i n w i t h about 4 i n c h e s p r e c i p i t a t i o n . from 50-70 i n c h e s  Total precipitation  varies'  annually.  Only a s m a l l amount of t h e annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s i n the form o f snow.  A t Vancouver ( B r o c k t o n P o i n t S t a t i o n ) the  annual average i s 10.7  inches.  Snov; remains on the ground f o r  o n l y a s h o r t t i m e and has l i t t l e e f f e c t on v e g e t a t i o n o r mate.  cli-  -42Humidity_: The h u m i d i t y i s r e l a t i v e l y  h i g h throughout  year ( s l i g h t l y h i g h e r d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r ) .  t h e whole  This high  h u m i d i t y causes heavy dews w h i c h must be c o n s i d e r e d d u r i n g the h a y i n g and h a r v e s t i n g season. the high humidity.  Fog i s a l s o produced by  Between September and March t h e r e a r e  20-30 foggy days, some o f w h i c h t i e up t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i ties.  -43-  S l o p i n g bush a r e a  SOIL ANALYSIS (1946)  SAMPLE  TESCOLOUR - TURE •  No. 1  Loam  No. 2  PeatyLoam  No. 3  Light Loam  No. 4  No. 5  ' No. 6 Loam  HO-N o  P  K  Ca  Mg  Gray  5.3  V e r y High  High  V e r y Low  High  High  Grayish Dark Brown  4.7  V e r y High  High  V e r y Low  High  Medium ' High  Gray  4.0  Med ium Low  Low  V e r y Low  Medium  Medium  4.02  Medium  Low  V e r y Low  Low  Medium  Gray  4.9  High  Low  V e r y Low  Medium  Medium High  Slightly Dark Gray  4.42  Medium  Medium High  V e r y Low  Low  HeavyLoam L i g h t (Slightly Gray Silty) Heavy Loam  PH .  Medium High  a -46Appendix B. DETAILS OF PROPOSED DAIRY UNIT. The m i l k p r o d u c t i o n u n i t i s based on t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e points: (1) T a k i n g maximum advantage of t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e farm.. (2) U t i l i z i n g the acreage i n the most p r o f i t a b l e manner. • (3) M e e t i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n of changing c o n d i t i o n s and o p e r a t i v e methods. The proposed f a r m v / i l l o p e r a t e on t h e " d r y - l o t " ple  i n t h a t p a s t u r e w i l l be t h e o n l y home-grown f e e d ; a l l  o t h e r f e e d s w i l l be purchased from o u t s i d e s o u r c e s . ing  princi-  The  loaf-  s h e d - m i l k p a r l o u r system w i l l be employed f o r h o u s i n g and  m i l k i n g f a c i l i t i e s , and i t i s i n t e n d e d t o s e l l t h e m i l k p r o duced on a r e t a i l market e x i s t i n g i n a l i m i t e d a r e a s u r r o u n d ing  t h e farm. 1. L i v e s t o c k It  i s assumed t h a t a h e r d o f 60 m i l k i n g J e r s e y cows,  grades and p u r e - b r e d s , v / i l l be m a i n t a i n e d . are  No young s t o c k  t o be r a i s e d on t h e farm; i n s t e a d , a r e p l a c e m e n t  -will be employed.  system  Replacements w i l l be p u r c h a s e d from a  r e p u t a b l e farmer o u t s i d e t h e v i c i n i t y , who p u r c h a s e a l l c a l v e s b o r n on t h e proposed  w i l l , i n turn,  farm.  On t h e b a s i s o f each cow's m i l k i n g an average o f 9 months a y e a r , i t i s assumed t h a t 45 cows w i l l be m i l k i n g at  a l l times. B r e e d i n g w i l l be done by means o f a r t i f i c i a l i n s e m i n a t i o n ,  thus e l i m i n a t i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y o f m a i n t a i n i n g b u l l s .  -47Approximate i n v e s t m e n t i n c a t t l e w i l l  be:  60 m i l k i n g cows a t $175.00 p e r head ....  $10,500.00  Replacements w i l l be made at t h e r a t e o f 5 a n i m a l s year.  The  estimated  ( v a l u e o f butchered  c o s t i s $100.00 p e r cow  per  ($175.00 - .  a n i m a l •+. v a l u e o f c a l v e s ) ) , thus t h e  y e a r l y c o s t f o r r e p l a c e m e n t s w i l l be $500.00. A l l animals p u r c h a s e d w i l l be c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d f o r p r o d u c t i o n , and freedom f r o m d i s e a s e . 2. B u i l d i n g s The proposed u n i t w i l l i n c l u d e a l o a f i n g shed and milking parlour.  a  T h i s system o f h a n d l i n g the cows i s used  on t h e grounds t h a t i t r e q u i r e s a low c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t r e s u l t s i n no l o s s i n e f f i c i e n c y of o p e r a t i o n .  The  appearance o f a c l e a n m i l k i n g p a r l o u r w i l l p l a y an  and  attractive important  r o l e i n r e g a r d t o consumer a p p e a l ; a farm so s i t u a t e d i n t h e c i t y w i l l have numerous c r i t i c a l  visitors.  The b u i l d i n g s w i l l be as f o l l o w s : L o a f i n g _she_d^_• The  l o a f i n g shed w i l l • b e an L-shaped s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t i n g  o f two w i n g s , one m e a s u r i n g 40* x 70', t h e o t h e r 40' x  50*.  T h i s b u i l d i n g p r o v i d e s a t o t a l of 4,950 sq. f t . of f l o o r space; a l l o w i n g 4,500 sq. f t . f o r the cows (75 sq. f t . / c o w ) , and 400 One  sq. f t . f o r w a t e r t r o u g h s and b o a r d e d - o f f  corners.  s i d e of the l o a f i n g shed w i l l be c o m p l e t e l y open, f a c i n g  an o u t s i d e f e e d i n g r a c k .  The  f e e d i n g r a c k v / i l l be 120'  in  -48l e n g t h , p r o v i d i n g 2' o f f e e d i n g space p e r cow.  S i l a g e and  hay w i l l be f e d i n t h e r a c k . M i l k i n g p_arl£ur: The m i l k i n g p a r l o u r , measuring 75' x 18' w i l l be a ones t o r e y c o n s t r u c t i o n b u i l t t o accommodate a s t r i n g at one t i m e .  o f 15 cows  One end o f t h e b u i l d i n g w i l l be u t i l i z e d as  f e e d s t o r a g e space.  Only g r a i n w i l l be fed. i n the m i l k i n g  parlour. - Dairy.: The d a i r y w i l l c o n s i s t o f two rooms, a washing room, 20' x 10', and a processing room 20  f  x 25'.  O v e r - a l l measure-  ments w i l l be 20' x 35'. ^omb_ined_ho_sp_i_tal  and sto_rag_e jbarnj_  T h i s b a r n i s a new 34' x 57* b u i l d i n g a l r e a d y on t h e farm.  I t w i l l be p r o v i d e d w i t h box s t a l l s f o r f r e s h e n i n g  or s i c k cows. hay and s t r a w .  The l o f t above w i l l be used f o r s t o r i n g b a l e d P a r t o f t h e main f l o o r  can a l s o be u t i l i z e d  as s t o r a g e space. Mach_ine shed^_ A machine shed 15' x 50' w i l l be b u i l t t o accommodate the f a r m implements. Silos.: There w i l l have to be t h r e e s i l o s c o n s t r u c t e d , each s i l o measuring 12' x 22', and h a v i n g a c a p a c i t y o f 47 tons ( t o t a l c a p a c i t y , 141 t o n s ) .  approximately  -49-  Approximate i n v e s t m e n t i n b u i l d i n g s  L o a f i n g shed  i s as f o l l o w s :  $3,000.00  Milking parlour  3,000.00  Dairy  1,500.00^  Combined h o s p i t a l & storage barn  3,500.00  Machine shed  30.0.00  3 S i l o s ($850 e a c h ) . .  750.00  TOTAL The b u i l d i n g arrangement  $12,050.00 i s shown on page ( 5 0 ) .  -50BUILDING ARRANGEMENT  Or  PffOC.  Coo  Poor*  WflLK  / / / / / / V17/9SM.  floor*  A/  s  -51-  3. M a c h i n e r y and equipment The f a r m m a c h i n e r y m a i n t a i n e d ' n e e d n o t be e x t e n s i v e as t h e r e w i l l be no c r o p p i n g o t h e r than p a s t u r e p r o d u c t i o n .  The  main o u t l a y o f c a p i t a l w i l l be i n v o l v e d i n t h e p u r c h a s i n g o f d a i r y equipment. •  •  Approximate Investment i n M a c h i n e r y (Some o f t h i s machi n e r y i s a l r e a d y on t h e f a r m , i n w h i c h case an e s timated value i s given. ) ;. - . Small t r a c t o r w i t h attachments, i n c l u d i n g p l o w , d i s c , harrows,'mower, rake and manure l o a d e r Rubber t i r e d wagon Ensilage cutter Forage c u t t e r Grain crusher Seed d r i l l Sundry equipment TOTAL  $2,500.00 230.00 250.00 25..00 25.00 150.00 100.00 $3,280.00  Approximate Investment i n D a i r y Equipment Based on Requirements f o r H a n d l i n g 125 g a l s , o f M i l k p e r Day. Pasteurizer Cooler Bottler Sinks B o t t l e washer ( e l e c t r i c ) Refrigerator M i l k i n g machine ( 3 u n i t s ) . . ' . S m a l l steam b o i l e r M i s c e l l a n e o u s equipment ( b o t t l e s , e t c . ) D e l i v e r y t r u c k f-| t o n ) TOTAL 4. P a s t u r e  $1,305.00 540.00 425.00 56.50 15.00 667.00 567.00 150.00 100.00 1,500.00 $5,325.50  layout  P a s t u r e w i l l be t h e o n l y crop grown on t h e f a r m .  Mor-  r i s o n ^ s t a t e s t h a t good p a s t u r e g e n e r a l l y s u p p l i e s t h e cheapest and most economical  feed f o r c a t t l e .  The d i f f e r e n c e  4  -52i n y i e l d i s much more than o f f s e t by t h e g r e a t e r expenses f o r l a b o u r , seed, and m a c h i n e r y i n p l a n t i n g , t i l l i n g , and v e s t i n g forage crops.  har-  I n a well-managed permanent p a s t u r e  the annual expense i s reduced t o a minimum.  On t h e h i g h -  p r i c e d l a n d of t h i s farm, p a s t u r e i s p r o b a b l y the most p r o f i t a b l e f e e d crop t h a t can be grown. The t o t a l p a s t u r e a r e a w i l l c o n s i s t o f 60 a c r e s , a l l o w i n g one a c r e per cow. per a c r e ^ i s  The assumed c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of one  cow  a conservative figure.  The t o t a l farm acreage w i l l be d i v i d e d as f o l l o w s : Farmstead 2^ a c r e s Bush a r e a 5 acres U n c u l t i v a t e d y a r d s 12^ a c r e s Pastures 60 acres 80 acres Fencing: T h e . f e n c i n g system as i t e x i s t s on t h e farm would not be s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t h e proposed changed and r e p l a c e d .  l a y o u t and w i l l have t o be  E l e c t r i c f e n c e s w i l l be used e x t e n s i v e l y  as t h e r e are no crops t o be damaged i n case of f a i l u r e . e x i s t i n g and proposed and  f e n c i n g systems a r e shown on pages  The (54)  ( 55) r e s p e c t i v e l y . Drainage^ E f f i c i e n t d r a i n a g e on low, l e v e l , bottom l a n d such as i n  t h i s case, i s d i f f i c u l t and- c o s t l y but v e r y n e c e s s a r y .  The  e x i s t i n g d r a i n a g e system f u n c t i o n s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y on t h e lower h a l f of the farm but t h e upper h a l f n e a r e s t the b u i l d i n g s  -53i s s u b j e c t t o excess s u r f a c e water d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r months. T h i s excess  s u r f a c e water i s due t o a b l o c k a g e  of underdrains  ( d r a i n s A and B as shown on t h e d r a i n a g e map on page ( 5 4 ) ) . The farm was surveyed ments.  i n 1946 t o determine t h e d r a i n r e q u i r e -  The recommendations r e s u l t i n g from t h e s u r v e y a r e  shown on t h e map, page ( 5 5 ) , which i l l u s t r a t e s t h e proposed d r a i n improvements. Pasture, m a n a g e m e n t j r a j j t i c j e s j _ These w i l l be as f o l l o w s : R o t a t i o n - every two weeks. I r r i g a t i o n - when n e c e s s a r y p a s t u r e s w i l l be s u b - i r r i g a ted by f l o o d i n g t h e d r a i n s and d i t c h e s . T h i s can be c o n t r o l l e d by t h e f l o o d g a t e s .  SippXr! -  a f t e r e a c h  r o t e t i  ° n  F e r t i l i z a t i o n - y e a r l y a p p l i c a t i o n s o f . p h o s p h a t e s , farm manure and l i q u i d manure a p p l i e d when available. R e - s e e d i n g - when The  necessary.  cost o f maintaining the pastures i s estimated at  $10.00 p e r a c r e ^ p e r  year.  This cost includes f e n c i n g ,  d r a i n a g e , r e s e e d i n g , i r r i g a t i o n and c u l t i v a t i o n . ted  cost of e s t a b l i s h i n g the pastures  and-drainage) i s §1,000.00. a r e a l r e a d y seeded down.  The e s t i m a -  ( f o r seeding, f e n c i n g  Forty acres of the pasture  area  -54PRESENT FENCING AND DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 2%  tfc/res  5 /we**?*-  4i  4/  f ^y/^i/  - <  I S  f/nrt.0  Q  «  fewes  /.we  4/a/ * />^ 0£  /lbs  PROPOSED FE1TCING /^/fA* s re #p  I S /t exes  r — -  He if si \  UrlcvL-  nrec>  y/t<to<,\  t'lS /?t/t£ Fiet,0 /•tee v'bsr Mwni/  1 >S /7c/f&  Fit-^o  s, s  7 -5 /?C/f£  Fl£/.0  IV  Fftffsrx  ft/rex  -56Appendix C. DETAILS OF FEED REQJJIRSMSNTS M P  COSTS.  • 1. P u r c h a s e d Feeds A l l f e e d s o t h e r than p a s t u r e w i l l have t o be purchased from o u t s i d e s o u r c e s .  These f e e d s w i l l i n c l u d e a l f a l f a hay,  g r a i n ( o a t s , b a r l e y and b r a n ) , p e a v i n e s f o r s i l a g e , and m i n e r a l supplements.  Bedding v / i l l a l s o have t o be p u r c h a s e d .  A l f a l f a hay and b a r l e y w i l l be bought i n t h e I n t e r i o r o f B.C. and shipped  t o Vancouver i n c a r l o a d l o t s .  Oats,  s t r a w and pea v i n e s w i l l be p u r c h a s e d i n t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y area.  Considerable  s a v i n g w i l l be made by p u r c h a s i n g  feeds d i r e c t f r o m t h e p r o d u c e r ;  these  however, t h e r e t a i l p r i c e s  ( e x c e p t f o r a l f a l f a and straw) a r e used f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c a l c u l a t i n g feed c o s t s .  B r a n and m i n e r a l supplements w i l l be  purchased from a l o c a l f e e d d e a l e r . In t h e l a s t few y e a r s t h e r e has been a n . i n c r e a s e use o f p e a v i n e s f o r s i l a g e .  i n the  This i s a p r a c t i c e that c o i n -  c i d e s w e l l w i t h t h e r e d u c t i o n o f home-grown f e e d s .  The  growing o f peas as a cash crop has become an i m p o r t a n t p r i s e i n t h e D e l t a area o f t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y .  enter-  The v i n e s and  pods (cannery waste) r e m a i n i n g a f t e r t h e peas have been removed, a r e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i n p r o t e i n , and i f p r o p e r l y p r e s e r v e d , produce a good form o f s i l a g e . .  Although  t h e T.D.N.'s  o f pea v i n e s i l a g e a r e s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n t h o s e o f c o r n s i l a g e , the p r o t e i n content compare f a v o u r a b l y .  i s h i g h e r , and t h e p a l a t a b i l i t y seems t o There has been l i t t l e e x p e r i m e n t a l  i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e comparative  f e e d i n g v a l u e o f pea v i n e ;  work  -57however, t h e f o l l o w i n g data from M o r r i s o n  (18)  g i v e s some i d e a  o f i t s comparative f e e d i n g v a l u e .  SILAGE  Clover  TOTAL DRY MATTER  • DIG. PROTEIN  %  %  (Red)'  T.D.N..  2.0  13.4  5.7  13.4  Corn (Dent, w e l l matured a l l analysis) "  28.3  1.3  18.7  Pea V i n e from canneries  27.9  2.6  17.8  With the present  N.R. 1:  5.8 '  tendency t o i n c r e a s e f i e l d p u r c h a s e s ,  pea v i n e s i l a g e s h o u l d p l a y an .important  role i n providing a  source o f e c o n o m i c a l s i l a g e . The o n l y l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n t h e u s e o f p e a v i n e i s t h e h a u l i n g charge from t h e cannery t o t h e farm.  silage The  i n i t i a l p u r c h a s i n g p r i c e o f p e a v i n e s i s o n l y $ .75 p e r t o n (1946). The estimated  c o s t o f pea v i n e s d e l i v e r e d a t t h e s e l e c t e d  farm i s $3.00 p e r t o n .  -58ANALYSIS OF FEEDS USED - M o r r i s o n (IS) |T. DRY M.  D.P,  T.D.N.  N. RATIO  91.2  7.0  72.2  9.3  Common B a r l e y  90.-4  9.3  78.7.  7.5  Bran  90.6  13.1  70.2  4.4  90.4  10.6  50.3  3.7  FEEDS USED Cone. M i x : Pacific Oats  Coast  Roughage: Alfalfa Silage: Pea V i n e  27.9  2.6  17.8  5.8  G r a s s e s , clover|s m i x e d , from closely-grazed f e r t i l e p a s t u r e 28.7  4.4  20.6  3.7  Pasture:  2. Feed and Bedding-Requirements  •  T o t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e based on t h e assumption t h a t a h e r d o f 60 m i l k i n g cows, a v e r a g i n g 25 l b s . o f 4.5$ m i l k d a i l y (7625 m i l k and 343.13 B.F. p e r y e a r ) , w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d . There v / i l l n o t be 60 cows m i l k i n g a t a l l t i m e s ; . however, t o p r o v i d e f o r a s a f e t y m a r g i n i n f e e d r e q u i r e m e n t s no a l l o w a n c e • i s made f o r reduced r a t i o n s f e d t o d r y cows. Y e a r l y f e e d r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e c a l c u l a t e d f o r two s e p a r a t e  I  -59f e e d i n g p e r i o d s , (1) w i n t e r f e e d i n g p e r i o d , and (2) summer feeding  period.  (1) W i n t e r f e e d i n g p e r i o d : October 1 5 t o A p r i l 15 - a p p r o x i m a t e l y Ration:  concentrate mix pea v i n e s i l a g e a l f a l f a hay  (2) Summer f e e d i n g p e r i o d : A p r i l 15 t o October 15 - a p p r o x i m a t e l y Ration:  183 days.  182 days.  c o n c e n t r a t e mix pasture  A d i f f e r e n t concentrate  m i x w i l l be used f o r each p e r i o d .  (a) W i n t e r mix: „ » D.P. 8.95$ Oats 1050# T.D.N.90.9 B a r l e y 500# D.M. 73.4 % Bran 450$ ) N.R. ' 1:9.1 2000# (b) Summer mix:  . Oats 1500# ) B a r l e y 500# ) 2000#  D.P. 7.6% T.D.N.91.0% D.M. 73.8% N.R. 1:10.9  D a i l y Recommended Requirements o f P.P. and T.D.N. ( f o r 900# cow p r o d u c i n g 25# o f 4.5% m i l k dailyQ-8)} .D.P. Maintenance Production TOTAL  T.D.N.  .59  7.23  1.30  8.75  1.89#'  15.96#  '%  -60REQUIREMENTS FOR OTTER FEEDING PERIOD DALLY ]RAT ION/COW Feed  Lbs. Fed  N u t r . Requirem'ts.  D.P. lbs.  T.D.N. lbs.  1.89  15.96  N.R.  1: • 3.7  •  Alfalfa Diff.-  io#  1.06 .83  5.03 10.93  Pea V i n e Silage Diff.  24#  .62 .21  4.27 5.66  5.8  Dry Matt e r lbs.  9.12  6.7  TOTAL REQUIREMENT FOR iVINTER PERIOD L0# x 183 x 60 = 55T.  24# x 183 x 60 = 132T.  7# x 183 x .63 5.14 9.1 6.4 ^60 = 38iT. 7# • 22.22 + .42 -. 52 T h i s - r a t i o n i s based on recommended r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r good cows, r a t h e r t h a n minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s , u S ) t h e r e f o r e t h e f a i l u r e t o meet T.D.N, r e q u i r e m e n t s ( a s above) by .52 l b s . can be d i s r e g a r d e d . N.R. o f complete r a t i o n - 1:5.68 Cone. M i x  REQUIREMENTS FOR SUMMER FEEDING PERIOD DAILY RAT ION/COW Feed  • Lbs. Fed  Nutr.Requirem'ts. Pasture  40#  Diff. Cone. Mix  8#  D.P. lbs.  T.D.N. lbs.  1.89  15.96  1.76  8.24  .13  7.72  .61  5.9  + .48  -1.82  N'.R.  Dry Matter lbs.  TOTAL REQUIREMENT FOR SUMMER PERIOD  1: 3.7  11.48  7.3 10.9  8# x 182 x 60 - 44T.  18.78  I n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t e x c e l l e n t p a s t u r e i s t o be p r o v i d e d , t h e s h o r t a g e o f T.D.N.'s by 1.82# i s n o t s e r i o u s , N.R. o f whole r a t i o n - 1:4.97  -61A m i n e r a l supplement  will  be added t o t h e c o n c e n t r a t e  mix a t t h e r a t e o f 20# o f supplement  (1%) p e r t o n o f m i x .  The t o t a l m i x r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e 82.5T., t h e r e f o r e one t o n o f m i n e r a l supplement  w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t t o cover t h e y e a r ' s  needs. Bedding r e q u i r e m e n t s w i l l be heavy.  When a n i m a l s a r e  housed i n a l o a f i n g shed a t l e a s t 1^ tons p e r a n i m a l s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d p e r y e a r . ^  A t t h e r a t e o f l-g- tons p e r a n i m a l  t h e r e W i l l be a t o t a l requirement o f 90 t o n s . M i x component r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e as f o l l o w s : Winter Mix:  38.5T.  Oats (52.5% o f m i x ) 20.22T. B a r l e y ( 2 5 ^ o f mix) .... 9.62T. B r a n (22.5% o f mix) .... 8.66T. 38.5 T. Summer M i x : 44T. Oats . ( 7 5 % o f mix) B a r l e y ( 2 5 % o f mix) Total oats Total barley T o t a l bran  33T. 11T. 44T.  - 53.22T. - 20.62T. - 8.66T.  TOTAL COST OF FEED AND BIDDING A l f a l f a - 55T. O |30.00 $1,650.00 Pea v i n e s - 132T. @ $3.00 396.00 Oats - 53.22T. @ $35.00 1,862.00 B a r l e y - 20.62T. O $32.00 659.00 Bran - 8.66T. © $29.00 251.00 M i n e r a l S u n p l . - I T . y $60.00 ... 60.00 Bedding - 90T,tt$20.00 1,800.00 P a s t u r e maintenance (App. B ) . . . 600.00 TOTAL $7,279.68  -62Appendix D.  DETAILS ON YEARLY RECEIPTS, FIXED COSTS AND OPERATING COSTS.  Re_ceiptsj_ The o n l y r e c e i p t s accounted f o r i n t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n w i l l be those r e c e i v e d  from t h e s a l e o f m i l k .  The m i l k produced d a i l y by 45 cows g i v i n g 25 l b s . o f 4.5% m i l k w i l l be 112.5 g a l s , o r 450 q t s .  The e s t i m a t e d  average d a i l y sale, w i l l be 425 q t s . s o l d a t a minimum p r i c e o f 16cjf p e r q t . D a i l y r e t u r n s - 425 q t s . © .16 Y e a r l y r e t u r n s - $68.00 x 365  ....  $ 68.00 $24,820.00  In t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n of y e a r l y r e c e i p t s , surplus  milk  i s w r i t t e n o f f as a dead l o s s ; however, i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e i t v/ould e i t h e r be s o l d w h o l e s a l e on t h e f l u i d market o r be c o n v e r t e d t o some s a l e a b l e p r o d u c t . Fixed. _cost_s: The f i x e d c o s t s c o n s i s t o f a 5% i n t e r e s t charge and a 5% d e p r e c i a t i o n  charge on t h e .farm m a c h i n e r y and b u i l d i n g s .  I n t e r e s t and d e p r e c i a t i o n included  charges on d a i r y equipment a r e  i n the processing  and d i s t r i b u t i n g c o s t s .  T o t a l f ixeci _cost_s: I n t e r e s t o f 5ft on $40,520.00 D e p r e c i a t i o n o f 5% on ?15,330.00  $2,026.00 756.50 $2,782.50  PJ? e r a t i n g posits:. Cost o f gas, o i l , and r e p a i r s f o r t h e t r a c t o r i s e s t i m a ted a t $50.00 p e r y e a r .  These expenses cover t h e c o s t o f  -63f i l l i n g t h e s i l o s , and c r u s h i n g g r a i n s f o r t h e mix. A l l machinery expenses i n v o l v e d i n p a s t u r e maintenance a r e i n cluded i n t h e f e e d c o s t s (Appendix C ) . Taxes a r e $10.00 p e r a c r e , o r $800.00 p e r y e a r on t h e t o t a l farm a r e a . Feed r e q u i r e m e n t s - $7,279.68 .(Appendix C ) . Labour c o s t s a r e based on t h e s a l a r i e s o f two h i r e d men each r e c e i v i n g $100.00 per.month. Processing and d i s t r i b u t i n g c o s t s a r e charged at t h e r a t e o f 5.26$!fper q t . of m i l k s o l d .  T h i s c o s t was determined  by an e n q u i r y o f t h e m i l k p r o c e s s i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g (31) at Winnipeg, Manitoba. $ Receiving Delivery Processing Advertising Administration. Depreciation R e t u r n on c a p i t a l  costs  07 -3.15 1.26 10 38 19 .11 • 5.26 # p e r q t .  D a i l y c o s t - 425 x 5.26pf  $22,355  Y e a r l y c o s t - 365 x $22,355 ....$8160.00 Replacements - $500.00 (Appendix C) . General  expense - $500.00.  This includes V e t e r i n a r y  f e e s , animal r e g i s t r a t i o n , telephone, insurance, e t c .  e l e c t r i c i t y , water,,  -64-  ABSTRACT An i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e g a r d i n g  the o p e r a t i o n of a  s e l e c t e d d a i r y f a r m i n an a r e a where u r b a n i z a t i o n p r e s e n t s  a  problem a f f e c t i n g t h e s u p p l y o f f r e s h d a i r y p r o d u c e , i s h e r e with presented.  L a r g e and growing c i t i e s w i t h a d j a c e n t r e -  s t r i c t e d f a r m i n g a r e a s are e x p e r i e n c i n g  a rapid urbanization  of t h e s e farm l a n d s ; hence, s e r i o u s d e p l e t i o n o f l a n d for dairy enterprises i s r e s u l t i n g .  The p r o b l e m has  resources been  a p p l i e d t o a.farm w i t h i n t h e c i t y l i m i t s o f Vancouver.  This  l a n d i s u n a v a i l a b l e f o r use o t h e r than a g r i c u l t u r a l , and,  as  a r e s u l t , i t i s e x p e d i e n t t h a t i t be adapted t o a p r o f i t a b l e farm e n t e r p r i s e .  The  farm has been o u t l i n e d as a d a i r y p r o - .  d u c t i o n u n i t , o p e r a t i n g on the " d r y - l o t " p r i n c i p l e .  The  r e s u l t s o f the s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e u n i t - would p r o v i d e f a i r l a b o u r income t o the o p e r a t o r ,  a  but would o f f e r a d e f i n i t e  c h a l l e n g e t o anyone whose i n t e r e s t s l i e i n d a i r y  farming.  -65*  BIBLIOGRAPHY *1. Bartlett,  R.V/.  THE MILK INDUSTRY. 1946.  2. B.C. Dept. o f A g r i c u l t u r e . SILOS AND SILAGE. Bull.'' 66, 1941. 3. B.C. Dept. o f A g r i c u l t u r e . FARM DRAINAGE. F i e l d C i r c . 14, 1945.  Crops  4. B e n d i x e n , H.A. & S m i t h , L . J . APPROVED MILKING PARLORS FOR THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. B u l l . 461, 1945. S t a t e C o l l . o f Wash., A g r . Exp. S t a . , P u l l m a n , Wash. 5. B l a c k , P.C.  SOIL FERTILITY. B.C. Dept. o f A g r i c u l t u r e , F i e l d Crops C i r c . No. 1 1 , 1942.  6. B r a d t , C.G.  MILKING PARLORS IN THE NORTHWEST.'Hoard's Dairyman, Nov. 25, 1946.  *7.  Clement, F.M. & Foreshaw, R.P. A FACTUAL SURVEY OF THE FRASER VALLFZ" DAIRY INDUSTRY AND THE GREATER VANCOUVER FLUID MILK MARKET, p. 4, 1942.  "8. Dom. Dept. o f A g r i c u l t u r e , MANURES, FERTILIZERS AND SOIL AMENDMENTS THEIR NATURE, FUNCTION AND USE.. Pub. 585, p. 39, 1940. 9. F o r s t e r , G.W., FARM ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT. P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , New Y o r k , 1947. 10.  G o r t o n , W.W. , COST AND EFFICIENCY OF IRRIGATED FARM PASTURES IN EASTERN OREGON. B u l l . 391,' pp. 5-9, 1941; A g r . Exp. S t a . ; Ore. S t a t e " C o l l . , C o r v a l l i s , Ore.  11. J e f f e r s o n , C.H. & Weaver, E., THE PEN BARN AND MILKING ROOM IN MICHIGAN. B u l l . 195, p. 7, 1945; M i c h . S t a t e C o l l . A g r . Exp. S t a . , E. L a n s i n g . 12.  J e f f e r s o n , C.H., THE PEN-TYPE DAIRY STABLE. Dairyman, Mar. 28, 1946.  ^ S p e c i f i c information  cited.  Hoard's  -ee-  ls.  J o h n s t o n , C . I . & Hopper, W.C., AN ECONOMIC STUDY OF THE CONSUMPTION OE MILK AND CREAM B I VANCOUVER. Dom. Dept. o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Pub. 678, 1940.  14.  J o h n s t o n , E., P o r t e r , A.R., A r n o l d , F . J . , FEEDING DAIRY COWS. E x t . C i r c . 253, 1940; Iowa S t a t e C o l l . o f A g r i c u l t u r e & Mechanic A r t s , Ames, Iowa.  *15.  K e l l e y , C.C. & S p i l s b u r y , R.H., SOIL SURVEY OF THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY. Dom. Dept. o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Pub. 650, pp. 9-15, 1939.  16. K e n t u c k y A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n , REPRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY IN DAIRY CATTLE. U n i v . o f Kent u c k y , L e x i n g t o n , K e n t u c k y , B u l l . 402, 1940. 17. M c C o l l y , H.F. fc'Dice, J.R., THE PEN BARN AND SEPARATE MILKING ROOM. B u l l . 283, 1935; A g r . Exp. Sta., N. Dakota Agr. C o l l . , F a r g o , N.Dakota. *18. M o r r i s o n , F.B., FEEDS AND FEEDING. 20th E d i t i o n , 7 t h P r i n t i n g , 1941. The M o r r i s o n Pub. Co.., I t h a c a , New Y o r k . 19. Myers, W.I., HOW TO PLAIT THE FARM LAYOUT. E x t . B u l l . 55, 1922. New Y o r k S t a t e C o l l . o f A g r i c u l t u r e , C o r n e l l U n i v . , I t h a c a , N.Y. *20.  Odland, T.E. & K n o b l a u c h , H.C., A COMPARATIVE TEST OF DIFFERENT BEDDING MATERIALS AND CHEMICAL SUPPLEMENTS WITH COW MANURE APPLIED IDT A THREE-YEAR ROTATION. B u l l . 251, p. 2, 1935, Agr. Exp. S t a . o f Rhode I s l a n d S t a t e C o l l . , K i n g s t o n R.I., U.S.A.  21. O t i s , C.E., Morse, R.W., Huber, M.G., MAKING AND FEEDING GRASS AND LEGUME SILAGE I N WESTERN OREGON. E x t . B u l l . 669, 1946, Ore. S t a t e C o l l . , C o r v a l l i s , Ore. *22.  S h u l t l s , A., DAIRY MANAGEMENT IN CALIFORNIA. B u l l . 640, pp. 28-34, 1940. U n i v . o f C a l i f . , B e r k l e y , Calif.  23. S t a t e C o l l . o f Washington, AN APPROVED WASHINGTON MILKHOUSE. E x t . B u l l . 318, ( R e v i s e d ) 1946. P u l l m a n , Wash. ^ S p e c i f i c information cited.  -67- " 24. S t a t e C o l l . o f Washington, FARMSTEAD PLANNING-BUILDING ARRANGEMENT. E x t . B u l l . 337, 1946. P u l l man, Wash. 25. U.S.D.A. Yearbook, SOILS AND MEN. 1938. 26. U.S.D.A., FEEDING THIS DAIRY HERD.  E x t . B u l l . 2 1 8 , 1941.  27. U.S.D.A., IRRIGATED PASTURES FOR FORAGE PRODUCTION AND SOIL CONSERVATION. F a r m e r s ' B u l l . 1973, 1945. 28. U.S.D.A., THE MAKING AND FEEDING'OF SILAGE. B u l l . 578, 1941.  Farmers'  29. Woodworth, H.C;, H a r r i s , C.W. , & R a u c h e n s t e i n , E., EFFICIENCY STUDIES I N DAIRY FARMING. B u l l . 275, 1933." U n i v . o f New Hampshire, Durham, N.H. 30. W r i g h t , K.T. & B a l t z e r , A.C., PROFITABLE DAIRY MANAGEMENT . S p e c i a l B u l l . 297, 1939. M i c h . S t a t e C o l l . A g r . Exp. S t a . , E. L a n s i n g , M i c h . 31. I n t e r v i e w w i t h E.C. C a r r , M i l k 3 o a r d , Vancouver, 1947. '•'Specific i n f o r m a t i o n c i t e d .  

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