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The economic soundness and possibilities of operating a dairy farm within the city limits of Vancouver Logan, Harry Fitzgerald McCleery 1947

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THE ECONOMIC SOUNDNESS AND POSSIBILITIES OF  OPERATING A DAIRY FARM WITHIN  THE CITY LIMITS OF VANCOUVER. -by- • Harry F i t z g e r a l d McCleery Logan A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t • of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE i n the DEPARTMENT OF•ANIMAL HUSBANDRY The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1947. - i -ACKNOWIEDGmiMT The w r i t e r wishes to thank s i n c e r e l y P r o f e s s o r H.M. Kin g , Head of the Department of Animal Husbandry, f o r h i s c r i t i c i s m and help i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s study. C r e d i t i s a l s o due to Dr. S.N. Wood, and Dr. A.J. Wood of the Department of. Animal Husbandry. The w r i t e r a l s o wishes to express a p p r e c i a t i o n to the A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics D i v i s i o n at The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e i r w i l l i n g co-operation i n supplying h e l p f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . - i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i FRONTISPIECE i v -INTRODUCTION 1 A. STUDY OF MILK PRODUCTION IN THE FRASER VALLEY INCLUDING A COMPARISON WITH THAT OF LOS ANGELES AND AN INVESTIGATION OF A NSW METHOD OF DAIRY FARM OPERATION v 3 I . Study of Fraser V a l l e y Conditions and Trends i n Dairy P r o d u c t i o n 3 (a) Present trends a f f e c t i n g Vancouver m i l k production area 3 (b) R e l a t i o n s h i p between supply and demand.. 3 (c) A v a i l a b l e land resources f o r immediate f u t u r e 8 I I . Comparison! of Fr a s e r V a l l e y and Los Angeles Milkshed With Reference to Fraser V a l l e y A p p l i c a t i o n 11 I I I . I n v e s t i g a t i o n of a Trend and New Method of Dai r y Farm Operation and M i l k P r o d u c t i o n — L o a f i n g Shed-Milking P a r l o u r System 17 Review of L i t e r a t u r e 17 Personal I n v e s t i g a t i o n 24 IV. Summary of Information as Obtained From the Preceding Studies 32 . B. APPLICATION OF INFORMATION AND CONCLUSIONS OBTAINED THUS FAR TO A SELECTED FRASER VALLEY FARM NOW COMING WITHIN THE CITY LIMITS OF VANCOUVER 33 •tr I . D e s c r i p t i o n of the Farm Selected f o r Study (Appendix A) 33 - i i i - Page No. I I . O u t l i n e of a P o s s i b l e D a i r y U n i t 35 Appendix A. TOPOGRAPHY, SOIL TYPES AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF SELECTED FARM 39 Appendix B. DETAILS OF PROPOSED DAIRY UNIT 46 Appendix C. DETAILS OF FEED HEQUIREtJEWTS AND COSTS 56 APPENDIX D. DETAILS ON YEARLY RECEIPTS,, FIXED COSTS • AND OPERATING COSTS 62 ABSTRACT 64 BIBLIOGRAPHY 65 Abstract on p.64 i .1 , i INTRODUCTION Today, l a r g e and growing c i t i e s w i t h adjacent r e -s t r i c t e d farming areas are experiencing a r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n of these farm, lands. This s i t u a t i o n presents a problem d i r -e c t l y concerned w i t h the supply of f r e s h d a i r y products i n many cases, and has been s e l e c t e d f o r study as a p p l i e d to Vancouver and v i c i n i t y . Probably the most p r a c t i c a l way to approach a study of t h i s problem i s to take as an example a s p e c i f i c farm i n such a l o c a l i t y . The farm to be d e a l t w i t h i s an 80-acre block of land which, since i t s pre-emption i n 1862, has become enclosed w i t h i n the c i t y l i m i t s of Vancouver. Present r e s t r i c t i o n s on new s u b d i v i s i o n s prevent the opening up of t h i s property f o r b u i l d i n g l o t s , and, as a r e s u l t , the farm must be converted to some l i n e of p r o d u c t i o n which w i l l . r e t u r n the operator s u f f i c i e n t income to cover the. heavy taxes and s t i l l leave a f a i r margin of p r o f i t . The farm chosen as an example i l l u s t r a t e s the e f f e c t of u r b a n i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l lands as i t i s o c c u r r i n g throughout the Lower Fr a s e r V a l l e y . The' s i t u a t i o n i s not so serio u s i n the more r u r a l areas; however, high l a n d v a l u e s , high taxes and the r e s u l t i n g high p r o d u c t i o n costgare c r e a t i n g a problem not u n l i k e the one being s t u d i e d . As the Greater Vancouver and Fraser V a l l e y areas increase i n p o p u l a t i o n and expand i n d u s t r i a l l y , lands now used as d a i r y farms w i l l be -2-i n demand f o r i n d u s t r i a l use as w e l l as f o r r e s i d e n t i a l areas. This competition f o r land u t i l i z a t i o n w i l l f u r t h e r increase land values. Already farmers are f e e l i n g the need of i n -creased e f f i c i e n c y i n operation' i n order to o b t a i n d e s i r a b l e r e t u r n s on t h e i r investment. I t may even be necessary to make changes i n o p e r a t i o n a l methods — changes s i m i l a r to those o c c u r r i n g i n other areas which have i n the past exper-ienced c o n d i t i o n s that are developing i n the Fraser V a l l e y today. One such area i s the Los Angeles milkshed. The data i n t h i s t h e s i s are c o l l e c t e d under two main s e c t i o n s : A. A Study of M i l k Production i n the Fraser V a l l e y , I n c l u d i n g a Comparison w i t h that of Los Angeles and an I n v e s t i g a t i o n of a New Method of Dai r y Farm Operation. B. A p p l i c a t i o n of the Information and Conclusions Obtained.Thus Far to a Selected Fraser V a l l e y Farm now Coming VJithin the C i t y L i m i t s of Van-couver. ( I n c l u d i n g an O u t l i n e of a P o s s i b l e D a i r y U n i t on the Selected Farm.) From t h i s i nformation the. w r i t e r hopes to draw some .conclusions as to the p o s s i b i l i t y of u t i l i z i n g the s e l e c t e d farm f o r m i l k production. -3-A. A STUDY OF MILK PRODUCTION IN THE FRASER VALLEY INCLUDING A COMPARISON WITH THAT OF LOS ANGELES AND AN INVESTIGATION OF A NEW METHOD OF DAIRY FARM OPERATION.  I . Study of Fraser V a l l e y Conditions and Trends i n  D a i r y Production. (a) Present trends a f f e c t i n g Vancouver m i l k p r o d u c t i o n area. A dairyman i n the Vancouver area i s confronted w i t h two main problems today. F i r s t , the extremely' r a p i d expansion of the c i t y of Vancouver i s b r i n g i n g about a c o n s i -derable u r b a n i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l lands. High l a n d values and subsequent high t a x a t i o n w i t h i n the c i t y are encouraging many c i t y workers to seek homes i n areas adjacent to the c i t y where overhead costs are lower. Emergency housing u n i t s , e s t a b l i s h e d during the war to house i n d u s t r i a l workers, have also c o n t r i b u t e d i n no small manner.to t h i s u r b a n i z a t i o n . Secondly, the u r b a n i z a t i o n trend a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d t o , i s f o r c i n g the farmers close i n t o the c i t y to adopt a degree of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n h i t h e r t o unnecessary. Competition f o r l a n d s , p r e v i o u s l y used only f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes, i s r a i s i n g f i x e d p roduction costs to a p o i n t where d i v e r s i f i e d farming i s no longer economically sound.- For example, the l o c a l dairymen can no longer main-t a i n complementary e n t e r p r i s e s to add to the farm income. In other words, the day of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s approaching. (b) R e l a t i o n s h i p between supply and demand. At present the farmers producing m i l k i n the Fraser V a l l e y are i n the d e s i r a b l e p o s i t i o n of having a ready market f o r a l l the m i l k they can produce. This con-d i t i o n e x i s t s even though greater production has been en-couraged by the p r e v a i l i n g h i g h p r i c e s which have developed during the war years. Since 1939 both p o p u l a t i o n and con-sumer income have shown a marked i n c r e a s e ; these two f a c t o r s have been the main i n f l u e n c e s a f f e c t i n g the increased demand f o r farm produce i n general. . Now tha t the war i s over, i t i s expected t h a t p r i c e s w i l l g r a d u a l l y d e c l i n e as a r e s u l t of increased m i l k p r o d u c t i o n , unemployment, and a r e d u c t i o n of the consumers' • incomes. This i s a f a c t t h a t must be c a r e f u l l y considered by the farmer as he i s the f i r s t to f e e l the e f f e c t of a depression p e r i o d . The government p r i c e c o n t r o l s employed should a i d considerably i n avoid i n g the d i s a s t r o u s p r i c e drops that occurred f o l l o w i n g the war of 1914-18. I n f l a t i o n has been checked and held down to some extent. Another f a c t o r which deserves a t t e n t i o n i s the problem of absorbing wartime increases i n m i l k production brought about by increased p o p u l a t i o n (war i n d u s t r i e s ) , high wages, and m i l i t a r y requirements. These i n c r e a s e s , which may tend to lower p r i c e s on a normal market, might be absorbed by the f o l l o w i n g means: 1. P o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s . 2. Exporting c a t t l e . .3. C u l l i n g of d a i r y cows. 4. Expanding markets f o r manu-fa c t u r e d d a i r y products. 5. O u t l e t s f o r market m i l k and cream. - 5 -These p o i n t s would a l s o serve as a means of warding o f f the e f f e c t of a post-war depression i n the d a i r y i n d u s t r y . In c o n s i d e r i n g j u s t how the F r a s e r V a l l e y area might absorb the wartime surplus of m i l k and at the same time avoid p r i c e d e c l i n e s , each of the above p o i n t s may be s t u d i e d s e p a r a t e l y . 1. P opjilat i o n_ i n cr ea s^s^_ W i t h i n the l a s t few years, there has been a very r a p i d increase i n p o p u l a t i o n throughout the whole of the Fraser V a l l e y . The most important f a c t o r , however, i s the growth of the Greater Vancouver area. Since 1939 the popula-t i o n has increased approximately from 300,000 to 400,000. As t h i s area i s the c h i e f market f o r f l u i d m i l k produced i n the Fraser V a l l e y , the p o p u l a t i o n increase of approximately 100,000 p l a y s an important r o l e i n r e l i e v i n g any surplus that might occur on the f l u i d m i l k market. The Greater Vancouver area i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g : Vancouver New Westminster North Vancouver D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver M u n i c i p a l i t y of West Vancouver Burnaby 2. F x p o r t i n g j J a j t t l e ^ Both grade and purebred c a t t l e are exported to f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s . The p r i n c i p a l markets appear to be the U.S.A., and the O r i e n t ; other c o u n t r i e s such as Mexico take the o c c a s i o n a l shipment. There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y of a new - 6 -market's a r i s i n g i n t h e . B r i t i s h I s l e s where breeders are l o o k i n g f o r reserves to b u i l d up herds which s u f f e r e d s e t -backs during the war. B r i t i s h agents have r e c e n t l y t r a v e l l e d across Canada i n s p e c t i n g the d a i r y herds. The demand f o r d a i r y c a t t l e i s i n c r e a s i n g s i n c e t r a n s p o r t r e s t r i c t i o n s have been removed,and there should be a ready market f o r any sur-p l us t h a t might occur. 3. C_ulljLn£ of_dairy_cows. This i s a p r a c t i c e which i s e n t i r e l y up to the i n d i v i d u a l farmer. C u l l i n g cannot be f o r c e d , but can only be encouraged by breed o r g a n i z a t i o n s or government propaganda. Farmers are not p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f i c i e n t i n c u l l i n g and tend to ignore the p r a c t i c e more than they should. This f a c t a p p l i e s t o breeders of purebreds as w e l l as to those who r a i s e grade c a t t l e . The average farmer f e e l s t h a t as long as an animal i s producing m i l k which c o n t r i b u t e s to the t o t a l volume, he cannot a f f o r d to c u l l out that animal or other s i m i l a r ' o n e s . With the pressure of g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y requirements i n pr o d u c t i o n , however, there w i l l probably be an increase i n the amount of c u l l i n g p r a c t i s e d . 4. Expanding markets f o r manufactured d_ajLry_ pjroducts^ There i s a good demand f o r manufactured d a i r y products on the l o c a l markets. B r i t i s h Columbia i s an im-p o r t e r of d a i r y products; the excess of imports over exports - 7 -during the p e r i o d 1926 to 1940 was "?2,841,368.00 annually. Creamery b u t t e r imports amount to 68% and cheese to 52^ of In \ t o t a l consumption/ Evaporated m i l k i s the o n l y manufactured d a i r y product i n which we are s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . The d a i r y products produced are as f o l l o w s : Primary B u t t e r Cheese Evaporated m i l k Condensed m i l k Secondary Cottage cheese Farm cheese Condensed b u t t e r m i l k TVhole m i l k powder Skim m i l k powder B u t t e r m i l k Casein. Ice cream and i c e cream mix The only m i l k product exported from the Fraser V a l l e y i s evaporated m i l k . At present t h i s commodity i s d e f i c i e n t i n q u a n t i t y and there i s no danger of a s u r p l u s . As f o r f u t u r e markets, the European c o u n t r i e s , and the pre-war O r i e n t a l markets w i l l a i d i n r e l i e v i n g any surplus t h a t might e x i s t . 5. Outlet s_ f o r marke_t_milk and. _cream. T h i s , again, i s a p o i n t which i s not important- at -8-present but may have a bearing on the f u t u r e . Today there i s an ample market f o r m i l k arid cream. As f o r m i l k , ad-v e r t i s i n g and h e a l t h programs encouraging i t s use are the only present-day methods of i n c r e a s i n g consumption. There are apparently enough d i s t r i b u t o r s to handle the m i l k ; the problem here i s the method and o r g a n i z a t i o n of d i s t r i b u t i o n . I t would appear that the problem i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y i s not going to be one of demand, but r a t h e r one of supply; So f a r , any wartime increases i n the m i l k production have been handled s u c c e s s f u l l y * More than a year has passed si n c e the war ended, and there i s s t i l l a good market f o r m i l k , i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t f l u i d m i l k p r i c e s have been increased. I t i s q u i t e probable t h a t p o p u l a t i o n increases have been the main i n f l u e n c e i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h i s demand. Even though wartime, surpluses are s u c c e s s f u l l y absorbed, another problem s t i l l e x i s t s . I f consumer incomes are lowered the p u b l i c w i l l demand cheaper m i l k , and thus create a s i t u a t i o n which w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e the lowering of e i t h e r production or d i s t r i b u t i o n c o s t s , or both. (c) A v a i l a b l e land resources f o r immediate f u t u r e . The Fraser V a l l e y i s very p e c u l i a r l y s i t u a t e d , i n f a c t , there i s no other area w i t h q u i t e the same topographical f e a t u r e s . The s e c t i o n of the v a l l e y which forms the milkshed f o r the Greater Vancouver area, namely -9-the Lower Fraser .Valley, i s about 75 miles l o n g , beginning-i n the Bast at Agassiz and continuing westward to Vancouver, which borders on the S t a i t s of Georgia. The t o t a l area covered i s approximately 545,000 acres. The mountain ranges on the Fast and North sides of the v a l l e y , the ocean at the West end, and the American b o r d e r l i n e (49th p a r a l l e l ) on the South s i d e , form a closed area i n which expansion i s neces-s a r i l y l i m i t e d by n a t u r a l boundaries. I t can he seen how the Greater Vancouver area i s dependent on a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l milkshed f o r i t s supply. I t i s t r u e that o n l y a small percentage of the a r a b l e land i n (7) the Fraser V a l l e y i s now under c u l t i v a t i o n . • The remainder, however, which c o n s i s t s mainly of the upland r e g i o n s , i s h e a v i l y timbered, and as a r e s u l t , very expensive to c l e a r . The l o w - l y i n g lands which could be c u l t i v a t e d w i t h l i t t l e or no c l e a r i n g have a l l been taken up. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e d ) gives some idea of j u s t what land resources do e x i s t . This i s a broad c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A r able areas 317,926 acres 58.4$ Lands w i t h adverse topo-graphy, excessive sub-drainage, e t c . 175,881 acres 32.1% U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d peat 50.890 acres 9.5$ 544,697 acres 100.0% Of the t o t a l area approximately o n l y 317,926 acres or 58.4% i s a r a b l e . -10-Another f a c t o r becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y important i s the way i n which the urban p o p u l a t i o n of Greater Vancouver i s spreading out i n t o the farming areas. Some of the best a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s being subdivided and s o l d as b u i l d i n g l o t s . This i s e s p e c i a l l y evident on Sea I s l a n d and L u l u I s l a n d which have some of the r i c h e s t farm, lands i n the world. Such a s i t u a t i o n i s f i n e f o r the r e a l estate agents but w i l l soon prove -to be a seriou s problem i f the p o p u l a t i o n i n Vancouver and throughout the whole F r a s e r V a l l e y increases to the extent t h a t present i n d i c a t i o n s f o r e c a s t . There i s an ample supply of n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l b u i l d i n g land c l o s e to the c i t y without crowding i n t o the farming communities. I t may p o s s i b l y be necessary to r e s t r i c t t h i s present tendency to migrate to the country. R e s t r i c t i o n s could be imposed to f o r c e the u t i l i z a t i o n of lands other than a g r i c u l t u r a l f o r b u i l d i n g purposes. I f some people, however, d e s i r e s m a l l h o l d i n g s , these could be allowed i f c e r t a i n minimum acreage requirements were necessary before purchases of l a n d could be made. This would f o r c e the i n d i v i d u a l buyers to make some use of the land they own i n order to have some r e t u r n on t h e i r investment. Summing up the s i t u a t i o n , probably the surest way of mai n t a i n i n g farms i s to make sure the farmers get s u f f i c i e n t r e t u r n s to make i t worth w h i l e t h e i r s t a y i n g on the farms r a t h e r than s e l l i n g out. -11-Th i s d i s c u s s i o n of land resources has been included i n t h i s study mainly as a p o i n t of i n t e r e s t p e r t a i n i n g to the s u b j e c t . The w r i t e r does not intend t o enter the economic study of these problems. The d e p l e t i o n of farm land i s , however, becoming a s e r i o u s menace to the supply of f r e s h d a i r y products f o r the Greater Vancouver market. I I . Comparison of Fraser V a l l e y and Los Angeles Milkshed  With Reference to Fraser V a l l e y A p p l i c a t i o n . Probably the area most comparable to the Fraser V a l l e y i s the Los Angeles milkshed. The Los Angeles area has experienced c o n d i t i o n s quite s i m i l a r to those developing • i n the Fraser V a l l e y today. (2?) D a i r y i n g i n Southern C a l i f o r n i a i s devoted e n t i r e l y to the production of market m i l k , although when production exceeds the e f f e c t i v e demand, the surplus i s u t i l i z e d f o r manufacturing other d a i r y products. This area i s c h a r a c t e r i -zed by high land values and high water c o s t s . A very important p a r t of d a i r y i n g i s t h a t done around the Los Angeles m e t r o p o l i t a n area, which i s r e f e r r e d t o as " d r y - l o t " d a i r y i n g . This term i s a p p l i e d .to the p r a c t i c e of keeping cows i n c o r r a l s and feeding them almost e n t i r e l y on purchased feeds produced outside of the immediate v i c i n i t y . The operators thus need to own or. rent only an acre or two of land f o r b u i l d i n g s and c o r r a l s o r feed l o t s . The b u i l d i n g s u s u a l l y c o n s i s t of a m i l k i n g barn, m i l k house, and perhaps -12-a s h e l t e r shed i n the feeding or h o l d i n g c o r r a l . Many of these small p l a c e s are rented, s i n c e i t i s easy f o r the dairy-man to move h i s cows and d a i r y equipment. Frequently there are small f i e l d s nearby that can be rented or pastured f o r short p e r i o d s . Some of the f i e l d s are used f o r green-feed p r o d u c t i o n which thus makes p o s s i b l e an improvement i n the feeds used by i n c l u d i n g some succulence. V-Jhere d a i r i e s are l o c a t e d i n t r u c k or f i e l d - c r o p areas, they can a l s o purchase and use such crop residues as c u l l l e t t u c e , beet tops, and some temporary pasturage of f i e l d s a f t e r o r between crops. D r y - l o t farming d i f f e r s from the o r d i n a r y type of farm-ing i n other l i n e s besides feed sources. One of the most important d i f f e r e n c e s i s i n the purchase of replacement cows r a t h e r than the r a i s i n g of them. Since calves .are not r a i s e d i n the herds l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d to the q u a l i t y of the b u l l . B u l l s are sometimes only kept during the p a r t s of the year when needed to breed those cows t h a t are being kept over f o r another l a c t a t i o n p e r i o d . Production per cow i s h i g h i n t h i s k i n d of d a i r y i n g . In 1938 the average pro d u c t i o n per cow. f o r 7,943 cows on t e s t by the Los Angeles County Cow-Testing A s s o c i a t i o n was 425.61bs. of m i l k f a t . This high p r o d u c t i o n i s a t t a i n e d through the heavy feeding of concentrates i n a d d i t i o n to the usual amount of good a l f a l f a hay. The hay used i n the area i s l a r g e l y trucked i n from Imperial V a l l e y , Antelope V a l l e y , and San -13-Joaquin V a l l e y , where l a n d values and water costs are more favourable to i t s p r o d u c t i o n than i n the area around Los Angeles. About f i v e tons of hay, one and one-half tons of con-c e n t r a t e s , a h a l f - t o n of green feed (9.4% of t o t a l r a t i o n ) and a very small amount of pasture ( 1 . 5 $ of t o t a l r a t i o n ) i s the average y e a r l y feed per cow.. In some herds concentrate feeding i s s a i d to go above two tons per cow f o r the year. Since feed, p a r t i c u l a r l y a l f a l f a hay, costs more i n t h i s area than i n areas where.it i s produced, the cost per pound of m i l k f a t i s bound to be higher. The question f r e q u e n t l y a r i s e s regarding the r e l a t i v e economy of producing m i l k f o r the Los Angeles m e t r o p o l i t a n area i n the feed-growing areas and h a u l i n g the m i l k a con-s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e , as compared with h a u l i n g the feed to the v i c i n i t y of Los Angeles and producing the m i l k there under d r y - l o t f e e d i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The answer to t h i s question w i l l i n d i c a t e the f u t u r e of d a i r y i n g under the high cost c o n d i t i o n s i n the v i c i n i t y of Los Angeles. More1 i s i n v o l v e d than a .sim-p l e comparison of the cost of t r a n s p o r t i n g the feed or t r a n s -p o r t i n g the m i l k . I r r i g a t e d pasture which i s the cheapest k i n d of feed i n the outer areas cannot be tr a n s p o r t e d . Some of the concentrates, however, are as cheap at Los Angeles as i n the i n t e r i o r v a l l e y s , although the average cost of a l l i s higher. Wage r a t e s , hence labour c o s t s , are a l i t t l e h i g her -14-i n t h i s area than In the more-distant competing areas. Mis-cellaneous costs a l s o are higher i n the Los Angeles area. These g e n e r a l l y higher costs tend to r a i s e the cost per pound b u t t e r f a t from f0.159 to $0,237 above that of the out-l y i n g areas. This higher cost per pound b u t t e r f a t , combined w i t h the f a c t that the cost to haul m i l k i s about the same as to haul hay would seem to i n d i c a t e no advantage i n the d r y - l o t type of d a i r y i n g . However, i n s p i t e o f t h i s , d r y - l o t d a i r y i n g has been i n c r e a s i n g i n recent years, .even when b u t t e r f a t p r i c e s were low. The main s i m i l a r i t y between the Los Angeles area and the Fraser V a l l e y i s the high land values and the high taxes which e x i s t i n both areas. The Los Angeles area s u f f e r s a l s o from high water c o s t s . These c o n d i t i o n s were undoubtedly the main reasons f o r the development of d r y - l o t farming as i t i s c a r r i e d on today. The F r a s e r V a l l e y i s at present experiencing c o n d i t i o n s s i m i l a r to those occuring i n the Los Angeles area before d r y - l o t farming came i n t o being. High land values and high taxes are g r e a t l y i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n costs of F r a s e r V a l l e y d a i r y farmers. This i s even more t r u e i n the case of the farm under question where taxes and l a n d values are the h i g h e s t . I t may be that a change i n o p e r a t i v e methods, not e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t to t h a t occuring i n the Los Angeles area, w i l l be the s o l u t i o n to the problem. That i s , d a i r y farmers may f i n d i t necessary to adopt the p r a c t i c e of " d r y - l o t " , -15-farming or at l e a s t some m o d i f i c a t i o n of i t . C l i m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between Southern C a l i f o r n i a and the Fraser V a l l e y would have to b e . c a r e f u l l y considered before one attempted " d r y - l o t " d a i r y i n g . The climate i n Southern C a l i -f o r n i a i s more s u i t e d f o r such a system than that i n the Fraser V a l l e y where winter temperatures are more severe. M i l d e r w i n t e r s a l l o w the u t i l i z a t i o n of year-round pastures ' where a v a i l a b l e , and make-shift s h e l t e r s or c o r r a l s . A l s o a greater number of forage crops can be harvested per year. In the Fraser V a l l e y one would have to f i g u r e on a s h o r t e r pasture season and more expensive s h e l t e r s . Our hay product-i o n season being s h o r t e r , good hay i s much more expensive than t h a t grown i n C a l i f o r n i a where c o n d i t i o n s are more favourabl e , e x p e c i a l l y f o r a l f a l f a . A l f a l f a hay i n 1940 was $15.00 per ton i n the Los Angeles area; i n .the F r a s e r V a l l e y the p r i c e would be $15.00-$20.00 more per to n . Even the mixed hay produced i n the Fraser V a l l e y would be approximately $10.00 more per ton than the corresponding a l f a l f a p r i c e s i n C a l i f o r n i a . These higher roughage costs could p o s s i b l y be o f f s e t by using more s i l a g e and succulent crops than are used i n C a l i f o r n i a . This could be done as the high water costs of the Southern area are not a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r here. A l s o the increased use of by-products such as pea v i n e s , brewers' g r a i n , and waste products of the f r u i t i n d u s t r y might o be used to reduce roughage c o s t s . -16-Th e average production per cow i n the f r a s e r V a l l e y during 1940 was 359 l b s . ( 7 ) o f m i l k f a t , while i n the Los Angeles area during the p e r i o d 1932-1938 the average pro-duction was 405 l b s . of m i l k f a t . This d i f f e r e n c e may be p a r t l y due to the heavy feeding of. concentrates and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a l f a l f a hay i n C a l i f o r n i a . • During the l a s t few years l a r g e r farms c l o s e to the Van-couver area have shown a trend towards reducing farm acreages and i n c r e a s i n g the purchases of feeds from ou t s i d e sources. That i s , the p r i n c i p l e of ""dry-lot" farming i s being i n t r o -duced to some extent. Although these farms g e n e r a l l y u t i l i z e farm pastures, roughages and g r a i n s as a p a r t of the r a t i o n s f e d , considerable- feed i s bought. A few operators own a u x i -l i a r y farms f a r t h e r from the c i t y where land values and taxes are more favourable f o r crop production. " D r y - l o t " farming i n the Fraser V a l l e y would d i f f e r some-what from that p r a c t i s e d i n C a l i f o r n i a . Such a farm i n t h i s northern area would be a more s t a b l e u n i t than those t h a t are found around Los Angeles. C l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s i n the Fraser V a l l e y n e c e s s i t a t e the p r o v i s i o n of a more elaborate and permanent housing system., r a t h e r than a temporary c o r r a l or s h e l t e r accompanying a m i l k i n g barn. Larger areas would be operated by the i n d i v i d u a l farmers i n the Fr a s e r V a l l e y as compared with the Los Angeles area where " d r y - l o t " f e e d i n g u n i t s are set up' on one or two acre l o t s . As the F r a s e r -17-V a l l e y i s a n a t u r a l pasture area, s u p p l i e d w i t h cheap water, i t would he sound p r a c t i c e to provide p a s t u r e , and i n some cases crops f o r s i l a g e . A well-managed pasture i s considered ( 3 6 ) the cheapest source of feed. Another f a c t o r encouraging the usage of'pasture i s the high f r e i g h t charge on feeds shipped from -the Okanagan and P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s . I f pasture i s provided, cash o u t l a y f o r purchased feeds can be substan-t i a l l y reduced. I I I . I n v e s t i g a t i o n of a Trend and New Method of D a i r y  Farm Operation and M i l k Production — L o a f i n g  Shed-Milking P a r l o u r System. Review of L i t e r a t u r e . Every d a i r y farmer i s i n t e r e s t e d i n an inexpensive, convenient, a c c e s s i b l e barn which i s adequately arranged f o r the.health and comfort of the animals and f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of high q u a l i t y m i l k . For many years the conventional stanchion type barn has been the accepted housing system. Another type of barn that has gained p o p u l a r i t y i n many d a i r y areas, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n p a r t s of the United States of America, i s the "pen barn," a l s o known as the " l o a f i n g barn," i n which the cows run loose i n a l a r g e barn, shed, or pen. The cows are milked i n a s m a l l , a d j o i n i n g room. This system enjoyed considerable p o p u l a r i t y a number of years ago i n the Fraser V a l l e y , but due t o the increased incidence, of contagious a b o r t i o n i t r a p i d l y f e l l i n t o disuse. With the advent of calfhood v a c c i n a t i o n , however, the -18- • prevalence of Bang's disease has been reduced. Hence the advantages of t h i s system again become apparent. There are two main m o d i f i c a t i o n s of the system. One i n which a " m i l k i n g p a r l o u r " i s used i n conjunction with the pen barn, the other i n which a " m i i k i n g barn" i s used along with the pen barn. In the l a t t e r , management d i f f e r s some-what i n feeding and m i l k i n g p r a c t i c e s . The m i l k i n g barn i s g e n e r a l l y l a r g e enough to house the whole herd at one time f o r m i l k i n g , and i n some instances roughage as w e l l as g r a i n i s fed there. In the m i l k i n g p a r l o u r , on the other hand, only g r a i n i s fed and the c a t t l e are milked i n small u n i t groups o according to the s i z e of the p a r l o u r , which may range from two to s i x t e e n stanchions. l a c h type, however, has the funda-mental s i m i l a r i t y of s e p a r a t i n g m i l k i n g from housing. The advantages of the l o a f i n g shed are: 1. Greater economy of c o n s t r u c t i o n . 2. Improved s a n i t a t i o n . 3. Cleaner m i l k production. 4. Less labour r e q u i r e d i n handling o l d e r animals of the herd. 5. More animal comfort. 6. Fewer i n j u r i e s to animals. 7. Conservation and s i m p l i f i e d handling of manure. 8. Greater f l e x i b i l i t y , p e r m i t t i n g considerable increase i n s i z e of herd without changes i n barn c o n s t r u c t i o n and a d d i t i o n s i n equipment. 9. "Pen barn" e a s i l y adapted to other types of l i v e s t o c k . 10. F a c i l i t a t i o n of feeding i n many cases. , The disadvantages are: 1. More bedding r e q u i r e d . 2. "Boss" cows may"be troublesome. 3. Cows should be dehorned. -19-4. More space r e q u i r e d per cow. 5. More of a chore to m i l k i n g . 6. Herd doesn't show o f f to the same advantage as when i n stanchions. 7. Greater d i f f i c u l t y i n handling calves and young stock. The L o a f i n g Barn S i z e : Although there i s some v a r i a t i o n i n f l o o r space per cow i n e s t a b l i s h e d l o a f i n g barns, i t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed that a minimum of 75 square f e e t , e x c l u s i v e of manger space, i s adequate i f the pen i s w e l l bedded. In the case of l a r g e high producing cows, 100 square f e e t per cow i s more ad-v i s a b l e . I t should be remembered that i n c r e a s i n g the f l o o r area i s not, however, a s u b s t i t u t e f o r proper care and manage-ment. A dry and w e l l - p r o t e c t e d barnyard i s a l s o very desirable i n connection w i t h a pen barn as t h i s increases the amount of r e s t i n g space. Bedding requirements: The amount of bedding r e q u i r e d v a r i e s according to management p r a c t i c e s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y considered that a minimum of one and one-half tons of straw per cow per year should be provided. Since i t i s a v a i l a b l e i n most areas, straw i s the common bedding m a t e r i a l used. Although sawdust and shavings do not possess the same absorptive power as straw, they may s u b s t i t u t e as bedding where roughage i s l e s s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . Furthermore, i t has been concluded that- sawdust and shavings are not d e t r i -mental when added to the l a n d . ^ -20-Chopped straw should be used f o r bedding i f p o s s i b l e . Chopping increases the a b s o r p t i o n and f a c i l i t a t e s handling the manure. Uncut straw used as bedding, makes f o r d i f f i c u l t removal of manure. There i s much unfounded c r i t i c i s m of the l o a f i n g barn system where i t i s s a i d that the c a t t l e cannot be kept clean. P r a c t i c e has shown t h a t , i f s u f f i c i e n t bedding i s •supplied, animals housed under t h i s system can be kept c l e a n w i t h l e s s work than animals housed i n a stanchion barn. Type of F l o o r : The amount of bedding, and the f l o o r area per cow, are more important i n keeping the cows clean than 1 i s the type of f l o o r . A concrete f l o o r i s not necessary, but a concrete apron around the water tank and barn doors i s d e s i r a b l e . D i r t f l o o r s , which are used e x t e n s i v e l y , prove to be economical and quite s a t i s f a c t o r y . Many operators p r e f e r t h i s type of f l o o r because i t g i v e s a s o f t f o o t i n g and f a c i l i t a t e s the absorption of l i q u i d s . I t should be noted t h a t , when a d i r t f l o o r i s used the barn must be s i t u a t e d on a w e l l - d r a i n e d area. A t h i c k l a y e r of bedding m a t e r i a l should be a p p l i e d a f t e r each c l e a n i n g i n order to provide an a b s o r p t i v e mat. The use of l o a f i n g pens e l i m i n a t e s the e v i l s of stanchion barns by a l l o w -ing the animals t o move about f r e e l y and by keeping them o f f cold concrete f l o o r s . I n j u r i e s : The danger of i n j u r i e s i s l a r g e l y obviated through -21-the p r a c t i c e of dehorning. Animals may be f u r t h e r prevented from " b u t t i n g " each other by p i n c h i n g three or four hog r i n g s through the s k i n of the head between the horn buttons. • Labour; Operators i n general agree t h a t the labour r e q u i r e -ments are c o n s i d e r a b l y reduced u s i n g the pen type.barn. The chore of cleaning out the s t a b l e s becomes a monthly task r a t h e r than a d a i l y one. The time and labour of feeding roughages i s a l s o reduced. The moving of the cows from the l o a f i n g barn i n t o the l o a f i n g p a r l o u r i s somewhat inconvenient and may r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l l a b o u r . Feeding arrangement: In most cases a l l roughage i s f e d i n the l o a f i n g barn, by the use of hay racks and mangers. . The important con-s i d e r a t i o n i s to arrange these racks and mangers so they can be most conveniently f i l l e d through hay chutes d i r e c t l y over them, or from the f r o n t i n the case of s i l a g e . The type of manger w i l l depend on whether the hay i s chopped, baled, or loose. Where s i l a g e i s o n l y moderately f e d , c e n t r a l feed racks are more d e s i r a b l e . S e l f feeder racks are e a s i l y kept f u l l from the l o f t . Wall type mangers tend to block out windows and r e q u i r e more chutes. They do, however, provide a l a r g e open f l o o r space. 'When hay and s i l a g e are fed at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , rack and manger space, should be provided at the r a t e of two and one-half f e e t per animal. I f -22-s e l f feeding i s used the rack space per cow' can be consider-ably l e s s , p r o v i d i n g the racks are kept f u l l at a l l times. Management of young stock: Experience w i t h pen barns i n d i c a t e s that i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s i r a b l e to r a i s e herd replacements on the farm, and t o l e t the h e i f e r s run w i t h the m i l k i n g herd. In t h i s way the h e i f e r s become accustomed to the m i l k i n g arrangement. This means that some space must be provided f o r calves and young stock. I t i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t to arrange permanent c a l f pens without i n t e r f e r i n g with the most convenient method of removing manure. By c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g , however, i t is,-u s u a l l y p o s s i b l e to provide necessary pens by i n s t a l l i n g temporary gates at one end or corner of the barn. For l a r g e herds a separate barn f o r dry cows, calves and young stock i s d e s i r a b l e . M i l k i n g p a r l o u r s : The m i l k i n g p a r l o u r i s the most important u n i t of the pen barn system. E s s e n t i a l l y they are s m a l l , w e l l - l i g h t e d rooms, p r o v i d i n g accommodation at m i l k i n g time f o r a u n i t s t r i n g of cows. The s i z e of the m i i k i n g room depends on the number of m i l k i n g s t a l l s and other f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d . The number of s t a l l s i s determined by the s i z e of the herd, the number of m i l k e r s and the m i l k i n g procedure. There are v a r i o u s types of c o n s t r u c t i o n according to i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r -ences and governmental r e g u l a t i o n s . They a l l , however, -23-operate on the same p r i n c i p l e - the p r o v i s i o n of a c l e a n , s a n i t a r y room,'equipped f o r the production of high q u a l i t y m i l k . The m i l k i n g p a r l o u r should he arranged f o r the e f f i -c i e n t handling of cows at m i l k i n g time. I f i t i s under the same roof as the l o a f i n g barn, i t should be sealed o f f by a t i g h t p a r t i t i o n and t i g h t f i t t i n g doors. As i t i s general p r a c t i c e to feed g r a i n during m i l k i n g , the g r a i n supply-should be e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e . There are two general types of m i l k i n g p a r l o u r s , the conventional type, with l e v e l f l o o r s , g u t t e r s , and stand-ard stanchion arrangement, and the walk-through type. The l a t t e r i s g e n e r a l l y operated i n conjunction w i t h elevated s t a l l s o r depressed alleyways which f a c i l i t a t e m i l k i n g . Much bending and stooping i s e l i m i n a t e d w i t h t h i s system as the cows' "udders are at shoulder l e v e l . In the walk-through type, the stanchions are so b u i l t that one end or side swings back when m i l k i n g i s f i n i s h e d , and the cow can be released without backing out. W i t h i n these two general types there are many m o d i f i c a t i o n s which vary according to the i n d i v i d u a l operator's d e s i r e s . Some more elaborate m i l k i n g p a r l o u r s have the m i l k i n g machines separated from the cows by a w a l l . The machines are attached through an opening,in the w a l l , and pipes carry the m i l k to the m i l k room f o r c o o l i n g . This type of arrangement i s used w i t h some of the l a r g e r herds where labour and c a p i t a l are not l i m i t i n g -24-1 a c t o r s . In many cases, h o l d i n g a l l e y s and f o o t baths f o r the c a t t l e are included i n the l a y o u t . When g r a i n i s fed i n the m i l k i n g p a r l o u r , i t i s necessary to hold the cows there f o r approximately eight minutes, i n order t o al l o w time to consume a normal r a t i o n of e i g h t to ten pounds. Personal I n v e s t i g a t i o n : .In order to ob t a i n a more comprehensive id e a of how the l o a f i n g barn and m i l k i n g p a r l o u r system i s f i t t i n g i n t o p r a c t i c e , a one-day trip'was taken to Whatcom and Skagit Counties i n Washington. In t M s area l o a f i n g barns and m i l k i n g p a r l o u r s are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y popular. The o b j e c t i v e was to v i s i t as many farms as p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a general idea of the method of op e r a t i o n . The system was found to be w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n Skagit County and r a p i d l y g a i n i n g p o p u l a r i t y i n Whatcom County. The w r i t e r r e a l i z e s that the data c o l l e c t e d are i n s u f f i c i e n t i n scope to be con-sidered e n t i r e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . Some of the obs e r v a t i o n s , however, are worth mentioning and comparing to the Fra s e r V a l l e y area. The s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e between the two areas i s the way i n which the c a t t l e are housed, fed and milked. In the Fraser V a l l e y the common custom i s t o b u i l d a l a r g e barn to house the whole herd. I f an attempt i s made to meet "Grade A" requirements i n such a b u i l d i n g , the expense i s high. -25-In the area v i s i t e d , i t was obvious t h a t the emphasis had been placed not on b u i l d i n g a l a r g e Grade A barn, but instead on b u i l d i n g a small m i l k i n g p a r l o u r i n conjunction w i t h a low cost l o a f i n g shed. This system i s f a r l e s s expensive but provides a very d e s i r a b l e housing u n i t f o r m i l k i n g . Very l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o keeping the animals warm and f r e e from draughts. L o a f i n g sheds vary i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , some having open doors and windows, others being completely open on one s i d e or end. G r a i n was fed i n the m i l k i n g p a r l o u r s on the farms v i s i t e d . S i l a g e and roughage were commonly fed i n the l o a f i n g shed, although, i n some cases, o u t s i d e feeding racks were used. These out s i d e feeding racks 'were used to reduce tr a m p l i n g , and so cut down the amount of bedding r e q u i r e d . The operators v i s i t e d were a l l s a t i s f i e d w i t h the system. They agreed t h a t i t r e s u l t e d i n the production o f a b e t t e r q u a l i t y m i l k and poi n t e d out tha t labour c o s t s were reduced. Because of f r e e calfhood v a c c i n a t i o n , Bang's disease, which was at one time the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n the l o a f i n g barn set-up, appeared t o be l a r g e l y c o n t r o l l e d . Three of the farms v i s i t e d best i l l u s t r a t e d the p r i n c i p l e of using a l o a f i n g barn i n combination w i t h a m i l k i n g p a r l o u r , each w i t h a d i f f e r e n t arrangement. A l l three farms were w e l l organized and appeared to be ope r a t i n g e f f i c i e n t l y . They were as f o l l o w s : The G. Bossenbruck Farm (Located In the B e l l i . -ham area of VThatcom County) This farm i s a very compact u n i t , c o n s i s t i n g of a m i l k i n g room, a twelve cow l o a f i n g shed and outside feeding racks. The feeding racks are of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t . They are b u i l t on concrete, and are f i l l e d from overhead walks running from the h a y l o f t above the main barn, and a s m a l l storage shed. The m i l k i n g room and l o a f i n g shed are b u i l t i n an o l d barn. Due to the absence of the operator, f u r t h e r data on management could not be obtained. OutR i d e feed area on Bossenbruck farm. The feed racks and overhead walks on Bossenbruck farm. -27-Th e B. Krangnes Farm (Located i n the Mount Vernon area of Skagit County) This i s an 18 cow set-up u t i l i z i n g a m i l k i n g barn ( i n place of a m i l k i n g p a r l o u r ) and a newly b u i l t l o a f i n g shed. This l a t t e r i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . The l o a f i n g barn i s equipped with i n s i d e feeding ra c k s , water trough and s a l t l i c k . The s a l t l i c k and water trough are a c c e s s i b l e from both i n s i d e and outside the barn. A c a l f pen f o r four calves has been p a r t i t i o n e d o f f i n one corner and a b u l l pen b u i l t on one end. The b u i l d i n g has a w e l l - d r a i n e d d i r t f l o o r covered w i t h shavings. This provides dry and clean accommodation. The m i l k i n g barn i s l a r g e enough to handle a l l the m i l k i n g cows at one time. The animals spend s i x to seven hours a day i n the m i l k i n g barn, during Which time they are fed g r a i n and roughage. They spend the r e s t of the day i n the l o a f i n g barn and o b t a i n f u r t h e r feed from the hay racks t h e r e . The alleyway between the two barns i s of concrete, as shown below. - 2 8 -PICTU^a O F K R A N C r K E S F A R M i l k i n g barn and l o a f i n g barn ( i n foreground) B u l l pen on end of l o a f i n g shed L o a f i n g shed -30-Th e F. F r e d e r i c k s Farm (Located i n the Mount Vernon area of Skagit County) This farm u t i l i z e s an old barn f o r a l o a f i n g shed. The m i l k i n g p a r l o u r i s a new b u i l d i n g of plywood c o n s t r u c t i o n This 10 cow, s i n g l e storey m i l k i n g p a r l o u r i s the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g feature of the farm. B r i g h t aluminum p a i n t and f l u o r e s c e n t l i g h t i n g give i t an appearance that would please any v i s i t o r or i n s p e c t o r . Only g r a i n i s fed i n t h i s m i l k i n g p a r l o u r . Next to the m i l k i n g room i s a g r a i n storage room, and a d j o i n i n g t h i s i s the d a i r y . The complete b u i l d i n g i s 55 f t . x 20 f t . , the m i l k i n g p a r l o u r being 39 f t . x 20 f t . In the l o a f i n g barn there are two ten-stanchion rows equipped w i t h v/ater bowls, f a c i n g a c e n t r a l feeding a l l e y . The space behind each row of stanchions serves as a l o a f i n g area. The hay i s dropped from the l o f t to the feeding a l l e y . The cows are stanchioned only during the feeding p e r i o d . Oat straw i s used as bedding, and the droppings picked up twice d a i l y . A separate b u i l d i n g i s used to house the c a l v e s . The plywood m i l k i n g p a r l o u r next to the l o a f i n g barn on the F r e d e r i c k s farm. The d a i r y i s i n the foreground, the m i l k i n g room i n the background. -31-I t — • ±*»-. ! E x t e r i o r and i n t e r i o r views of the l o a f i n g shed on the G. Dynes farm. This shed i s b u i l t against the s i d e of the m i l k i n g barn. ITo m i l k i n g p a r l o u r i s used on t h i s farm. -32-Conclusions: In summarizing t h i s study of l o a f i n g barns and m i l k i n g p a r l o u r s , i t appears that the system adequately meets the requirements'of cheap housing, m i l k i n g , and s a n i t a t i o n , as w e l l as reducing labour requirements. Furthermore, when i t comes to the question of s a n i t a t i o n and consumer appeal, there seems to be no argument against s e p a r a t i n g the job of m i l k i n g from that of housing. In view of the s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n of the system i n the North Western States and c o n s i d e r i n g the s i m i l a r i t y be-tween t h a t area and the Fraser V a l l e y , there i s no apparent reason why t h i s system should not be s u i t a b l e to the l a t t e r area. The c h i e f problem confonting o l d e r d a i r y farms i n the use of l o a f i n g barns and m i l k i n g p a r l o u r s i s that the• d a i r y p l a n t i s already b u i l t and o p e r a t i n g on a s a t i s f a c t o r y b a s i s . To change over' under such c o n d i t i o n s seems unnecessary and of questionable economy. As a long-time adjustment i n housing and m i l k i n g procedure, however, t h i s system should not be overlooked. IV. Summary of Information as Obtained From the  Preceding Studies. I t i s evident, from the preceding s t u d i e s that the . Greater Vancouver area i s e n t i r e l y dependent upon the F r a s e r V a l l e y f o r i t s supply of f r e s h d a i r y produce, and that the Fraser V a l l e y i s an area of l i m i t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l development, -33-c h a r a c t e r i z e d by high costs o f production. On comparison of the Fraser V a l l e y w i t h the Los Angeles m i l k shed, where the " d r y - l o t " system of d a i r y i n g i s p r a c t i s e d e x t e n s i v e l y , s e v e r a l s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s are evidenced which suggest a p o s s i b l e f u t u r e change of operative methods i n the Fraser V a l l e y . These changes w i l l l i k e l y f o l l o w the general t r e n d now i n operation throughout the Los Angeles area. Further i n v e s t i g a -t i o n of operative methods seems to show no apparent reason why the l o a f i n g shed-milking.parlour system could not be used e x t e n s i v e l y i n the Fraser V a l l e y area. B. APPLICATION OF THE INFORMATION AND CONCLUSIONS OBTAINED THUS FAR TO A SELECTED FRASER VALLEY FARM NOW COMING WITHIN THE CITY LIMITS OF VANCOUVER.  I . D e s c r i p t i o n of the Farm Selected f o r Study  (Appendix A). The farm selected- f o r t h i s study i s an 80 acre t r a c t of land s i t u a t e d on the banks of the North Arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r , w i t h i n the c i t y l i m i t s of Vancouver. On the c i t y p l a n n i n g map i t i s l a b e l l e d a s " P a r c e l B of D i s t r i c t Lot 315." Macdonald S t r e e t borders the west s i d e , Marine Drive Golf Course the east s i d e , and a row-of r e s i d e n t i a l homes form the boundary l i n e on the north s i d e . (a) Present c o n d i t i o n of the farm. The farm i s at present i n a run-down c o n d i t i o n . The b u i l d i n g s (with the exception of a new barn), the fences and drains should be replaced or r e p a i r e d . Machinery on the farm -34-i s i n f a i r c o n d i t i o n and i s adequate f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y opera-t i o n ; however, seve r a l replacements and a d d i t i o n s could and should he made. S o i l f e r t i l i t y has been maintained f a i r l y w e l l (Appendix A ) , but there i s an immediate need of lime a p p l i c a t i o n s . The l i v e s t o c k owned by the farm operator are few i n number, only f i v e head of c a t t l e and a team of work horses being maintained at present. The present farm business i s d i v i d e d between two main e n t e r p r i s e s : crop p r o d u c t i o n , and boarding l i g h t horses. The poor c o n d i t i o n of the b u i l d i n g s and the d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r replacements combined to prevent the op e r a t i o n of the farm as a m i l k production u n i t i n recent years. (b) Required changes on the farm. To operate s u c c e s s f u l l y a d a i r y e n t e r p r i s e on t h i s •farm some changes, r e q u i r i n g c a p i t a l outlay,would be neces-sary. These changes would i n v o l v e the p r o v i s i o n of new b u i l d i n g s , fences and d r a i n s , the c o r r e c t i o n of s o i l a c i d i t y through l i m i n g , and the r e - s t o c k i n g of the farm. These improvements are shown i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n o u t l i n i n g a p o s s i b l e d a i r y u n i t . -35-I I . O u t l i n e of a P o s s i b l e D a i r y U n i t . (a) Proposed u n i t and approximate c a p i t a l investment r e q u i r e d (Appendix B ) . (Items l i s t e d below i n c l u d e some equip-ment, etc. already on the farm.) Land (assessed value) •. $13,690.00 L i v e s t o c k (60 m i l k cows) 10,500.00 B u i l d i n g s 12,050.00 Farm machinery , 3,280 s00 Da i r y equipment 5,325.00 Pasture establishment 1,000.00 TOTAL INVESTMENT $45,845.50 (b) Y e a r l y feed requirements and cost s (Appendix C ) . Grains $ 2,773.68 Roughage ( a l f a l f a ) 1,650.00 S i l a g e (pea vines) 396.00 M i n e r a l supplement 60.00 Bedding 1,800.00. Pasture maintenance (Appendix B) 600.00 TOTAL FEED COSTS § 7,279.68 (c) Estimate of y e a r l y r e c e i p t s , f i x e d c o s t s , and operating c o s t s (Appendix D). Receipts from m i l k s a l e s of 425 q t s . per day © $ .16 per qt $24,820.00 Fixed Costs 5fo I n t e r e s t charges on $40,520.00 i n -vestment,(exclusive of d a i r y equip.) $ 2,026.00 5% D e p r e c i a t i o n charges on $15,330.00 (farm machinery and b u i l d i n g s , ex-c l u s i v e of d a i r y equipment) 756.50 TOTAL 0 2,-782.50 Operating Costs Gas, o i l and r e p a i r s f o r t r a c t o r 3 50.00 Taxes 800.00 3?eed requirements (plus bedding) 7 ,279.68 Labour (2 h i r e d men) 2,400.00 FORWARD $10,529.68 -36-F0RWARD...$10,529.68 Operating Costs (contd.) Processing and d i s t r i b u t i n g 8,160..00 Replacements ( c a t t l e ) 500.00 General expense 500.00 TOTAL $19.j689.68 (d) Estimate of y e a r l y r e t u r n s . Cash r e c e i p t s from m i l k s a l e s ... $24,820.00 Fixed costs 2,782.50 Operating costs 19,689.68 Gross p r o f i t ( i n c l u d i n g operator's labour income) $ 2.,347.82 - 3 7 -C0NCLUSI0N3 The proposed d a i r y u n i t f a i l s to show a very s a t i s -f a c t o r y r e t u r n on the investment. The study, however, does i n d i c a t e a f a i r labour income to the operator, and o f f e r s a d e f i n i t e challenge to anyone whose i n t e r e s t s l i e i n d a i r y farming. Several f a c t o r s enter the c a l c u l a t i o n s which perhaps make the'above c o n c l u s i o n too conservative. Among these f a c t o r s are the f o l l o w i n g : (a) A l l estimated costs are shown at a high l e v e l . (b) The production estimates are at best, moderate. (c) A d d i t i o n a l income p o s s i b i l i t i e s (e.g. through custom work) have not been mentioned. Costs could be reduced by improved management prac-t i c e s , i n c l u d i n g : (a) Purchasing feeds from primary producers. (b) I n c r e a s i n g the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of pasture. (c) Increasing p r o d u c t i o n per cow through c a r e f u l breeding and s e l e c t i o n . (d) U t i l i z a t i o n of surplus produce i n . t h e most p r o f i t a b l e manner. The supply of f r e s h d a i r y produce i s now, and d e f i n i t e -l y w i l l continue to be, an important problem i n the Vancouver area. A d a i r y u n i t such as the one studi e d would not there-f o r e be a p u r e l y s e l f i s h business e n t e r p r i s e , but might serve as an example to be fol l o w e d i n the a l l e v i a t i o n of an impor-tant food problem. Operation of t h i s type of d a i r y u n i t might w e l l encourage a l s o the use of a system of a g r i c u l t u r a l zoning, under which only land u n f i t : f o r s p e c i a l i z e d farming would be made a v a i l a b l e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l or commercial b u i l d i n g . -38-APFSNDI0E3 Appendix A: Topography, s o i l types, and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n of s e l e c t e d farm. Appendix B: D e t a i l s of proposed d a i r y u n i t . 1. L i v e s t o c k . 2. B u i l d i n g s . 3. Machinery and equipment. 4. Pasture l a y o u t . Appendix C: D e t a i l s of y e a r l y feed requirements and c o s t s . 1. Purchased feeds. 2. Feed and bedding requirements. 3. T o t a l cost of feed and bedding. Appendix D: D e t a i l s of y e a r l y r e c e i p t s , f i x e d c o s t s , and operating c o s t s . -39-Appendix A. TOPOGRAPHY, SOIL TYPES, AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF SELECTED FARM.  1. Topography and S o i l Types The c u l t i v a t e d acreage of the farm (72^ acres) i s a l l l e v e l bottomland w i t h an e l e v a t i o n of approximately 10 f e e t above sea l e v e l . The u n c u l t i v a t e d area, which i n c l u d e s the farmstead (2^- acres) and 5 acres of bushland, i s s i t u a t e d on a slope of about 25 degrees. Such a set-up i s i d e a l as i t provides a w e l l - d r a i n e d l o c a t i o n f o r the b u i l d i n g s . The b a s i c s o i l type i s loam, v a r y i n g s l i g h t l y to i n c l u d e peaty and s i l t y loams. The s o i l map on page (44) shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o i l types. The a n a l y s i s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l samples, taken i n October, 1946, i n d i c a t e a d e f i n i t e need f o r l i m i n g ( i l l u s -t r a t e d on page (45). An a p p l i c a t i o n of 3 tons per acre of ground limestone would do much to improve the a c i d c o n d i t i o n of the s o i l . Although ground limestone i s slower r e a c t i n g than hydrated l i m e , i t would be used because of i t s greater l a s t i n g e f f e c t and lower cost. As f a r as legume crops are concerned, the a p p l i c a t i o n of lime i s a n e c e s s i t y before p r o f i t a b l e crops can be grown. Potassium i s the only m i n e r a l i n d i c a t i n g a d e f i c i e n c y which r e q u i r e s immediate a t t e n t i o n . I t i s not a d v i s a b l e , however, to make heavy a p p l i c a t i o n s of (8) potash f e r t i l i z e r s . o n loam s o i l s . L i g h t a p p l i c a t i o n s could be made on ground used f o r legumes or barley,- and i f any im-provement was noted f u r t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n s could be made. The -40-c e r e a l crops are not u s u a l l y a f f e c t e d by a potash d e f i c i e n c y . 2. C l i m a t i c C o n d i t i o n s ^ ) C l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s i n the Vancouver area are g e n e r a l l y the same as those e x i s t i n g throughout the Fr a s e r V a l l e y , except f o r the f a c t t h a t they tend to be l e s s extreme. Terap_erature_sj_ The climate i s q u i t e moderate, and the temperatures are comparatively uniform throughout the year, January being the col d e s t month w i t h an average temperature of 36°F, and J u l y the warmest w i t h an average temperature of 63°F. There i s the o c c a s i o n a l extreme c o n d i t i o n when the temperatures may go down to around 0°F and as high as 85°F.• These extremes, however, are not common. F a r l y and l a t e f r o s t s are not l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s on the average d a i r y farm. The f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d ranges from about A p r i l 1 to November 1, t o t a l l i n g approximately 220 days. Sunshinej_ The amount of sunshine received i n the wi n t e r i s c o n s i -derably l e s s than i n summer. At Vancouver, during January, sunshine averages 49 hours f o r the month, or s l i g h t l y more than 1^ - hours per day. In J u l y , however, the average i s 291 hours of sunshine or 9.3 hours per day. The t o t a l f o r the year at t h i s l o c a t i o n i s 1,847 hours of sunshine. With the sunshine amounting to 9.3 and 8.6 hours d a i l y i n J u l y and August, i t i s apparent that these two months are comparatively warm and dry. This f a c t o r i s important i n the -41-management of s o i l s w i t h low drought r e s i s t a n c e . E a r l y maturing crops are grown .on such lands f o r harvest during the dry p e r i o d . Pr e_c i.pj. t a t i.on: The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of the P a c i f i c Coast p r e c i p i t a -t i o n i s the heavy winter r a i n f a l l succeeded by summer dryness. The r a i n y season begins i n October w i t h about 6 inches of r a i n . In .November the average r i s e s to 8 inches, w i t h s l i g h t l y more than 8 inches i n December. In January t h i s i s reduced to about 7 inches, followed by 5 inches i n February and 5 inches i n March. About 2/3 of the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n occurs during the s i x colder months. The farmer i s mostl?r concerned w i t h r a i n f a l l between A p r i l and September, the crop growing season. In A p r i l arid May p r e c i p i t a t i o n amounts to between 3 and 4 inches f o r each month. In June i t f a l l s t o between 2 and 3 inches, while J u l y and August, the dry months, average l e s s than 2 inches. September i s the beginning of the r a i n y season again w i t h about 4 inches p r e c i p i t a t i o n . T o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n v a r i e s ' from 50-70 inches annually. Only a small amount of the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s i n the form of snow. At Vancouver (Brockton P o i n t S t a t i o n ) the annual average i s 10.7 inches. Snov; remains on the ground f o r only a short time and has l i t t l e e f f e c t on v e g e t a t i o n or c l i -mate. -42-Humidity_: The humidity i s r e l a t i v e l y high throughout the whole year ( s l i g h t l y higher during the w i n t e r ) . This high humidity causes heavy dews which must be considered during the haying and h a r v e s t i n g season. Fog i s a l s o produced by the high humidity. Between September and March there are 20-30 foggy days, some of which t i e up t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i -t i e s . -43-Sloping bush area SOIL ANALYSIS (1946) SAMPLE TES-- TURE • COLOUR PH . HO-N o P K Ca Mg No. 1 Loam Gray 5.3 Very High High Very Low High High No. 2 Peaty-Loam Grayish Dark Brown 4.7 Very High High Very Low High Medium ' High No. 3 L i g h t Loam Gray 4.0 Med ium Low Low Very Low Medium Medium No. 4 Heavy-Loam (Slightly S i l t y ) L i g h t Gray 4.02 Medium Low Very Low Low Medium No. 5 Heavy Loam Gray 4.9 High Low Very Low Medium Medium High ' No. 6 Loam S l i g h t l y Dark Gray 4.42 Medium Medium High Very Low Low Medium High a -46-Appendix B. DETAILS OF PROPOSED DAIRY UNIT. The m i l k production u n i t i s based on the f o l l o w i n g three p o i n t s : (1) Taking maximum advantage of the l o c a t i o n of the farm.. (2) U t i l i z i n g the acreage i n the most p r o f i t a b l e manner. • (3) Meeting the s i t u a t i o n of changing c o n d i t i o n s and o p e r a t i v e methods. The proposed farm v / i l l operate on the " d r y - l o t " p r i n c i -p l e i n t h a t pasture w i l l be the only home-grown feed; a l l other feeds w i l l be purchased from o u t s i d e sources. The l o a f -ing shed-milk p a r l o u r system w i l l be employed f o r housing and m i l k i n g f a c i l i t i e s , and i t i s intended to s e l l the m i l k pro-duced on a r e t a i l market e x i s t i n g i n a l i m i t e d area surround-ing the farm. 1. L i v e s t o c k I t i s assumed th a t a herd of 60 m i l k i n g Jersey cows, grades and pure-breds, v / i l l be maintained. No young stock are to be r a i s e d on the farm; i n s t e a d , a replacement system -will be employed. Replacements w i l l be purchased from a reputable farmer outside the v i c i n i t y , who w i l l , i n t u r n , purchase a l l calves born on the proposed farm. On the b a s i s of each cow's m i l k i n g an average of 9 months a year, i t i s assumed th a t 45 cows w i l l be m i l k i n g at a l l times. Breeding w i l l be done by means of a r t i f i c i a l insemination, thus e l i m i n a t i n g the n e c e s s i t y of m a i n t a i n i n g b u l l s . -47-Approximate investment i n c a t t l e w i l l be: 60 m i l k i n g cows at $175.00 per head .... $10,500.00 Replacements w i l l be made at the r a t e of 5 animals per year. The estimated cost i s $100.00 per cow ($175.00 - . (value of butchered animal •+. value of c a l v e s ) ) , thus the y e a r l y cost f o r replacements w i l l be $500.00. A l l animals purchased w i l l be c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d f o r production, and freedom from disease. 2. B u i l d i n g s The proposed u n i t w i l l i n c l u d e a l o a f i n g shed and a m i l k i n g p a r l o u r . This system of handling the cows i s used on the grounds that i t r e q u i r e s a low c a p i t a l investment and r e s u l t s i n no l o s s i n e f f i c i e n c y of o p e r a t i o n . The a t t r a c t i v e appearance of a c l e a n m i l k i n g p a r l o u r w i l l p l a y an important r o l e i n regard to consumer appeal; a farm so s i t u a t e d i n the c i t y w i l l have numerous c r i t i c a l v i s i t o r s . The b u i l d i n g s w i l l be as f o l l o w s : L o a f i n g _she_d^ _• The l o a f i n g shed w i l l • b e an L-shaped s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t i n g of two wings, one measuring 40* x 70', the other 40' x 50*. This b u i l d i n g provides a t o t a l of 4,950 sq. f t . of f l o o r space; a l l o w i n g 4,500 sq. f t . f o r the cows (75 sq. f t . / c o w ) , and 400 sq. f t . f o r water troughs and boarded-off corners. One side of the l o a f i n g shed w i l l be completely open, f a c i n g an outside feeding rack. The feeding rack v / i l l be 120' i n -48-l e n g t h , p r o v i d i n g 2' of feeding space per cow. S i l a g e and hay w i l l be fed i n the rack. M i l k i n g p_arl£ur: The m i l k i n g p a r l o u r , measuring 75' x 18' w i l l be a one-storey c o n s t r u c t i o n b u i l t to accommodate a s t r i n g of 15 cows at one time. One end of the b u i l d i n g w i l l be u t i l i z e d as feed storage space. Only g r a i n w i l l be fed. i n the m i l k i n g p a r l o u r . - Dairy.: The d a i r y w i l l c o n s i s t of two rooms, a washing room, 20' x 10', and a processing room 20 f x 25'. O v e r - a l l measure-ments w i l l be 20' x 35'. ^omb_ined_ho_sp_i_tal and sto_rag_e jbarnj_ This barn i s a new 34' x 57* b u i l d i n g already on the farm. I t w i l l be provided w i t h box s t a l l s f o r freshening or s i c k cows. The l o f t above w i l l be used f o r s t o r i n g baled hay and straw. P a r t of the main f l o o r can a l s o be u t i l i z e d as storage space. Mach_ine shed^_ A machine shed 15' x 50' w i l l be b u i l t to accommodate the farm implements. Silos.: There w i l l have to be three s i l o s c o n s t r u c t e d , each s i l o measuring 12' x 22', and having a capacity of approximately 47 tons ( t o t a l c a p a c i t y , 141 t o n s ) . - 4 9 -Approximate investment i n b u i l d i n g s i s as f o l l o w s : L o a f i n g shed $3,000.00 M i l k i n g p a r l o u r 3,000.00 Dairy 1,500.00^ Combined h o s p i t a l & storage barn 3,500.00 Machine shed 30.0.00 3 S i l o s ($850 each).. 750.00 TOTAL $12,050.00 The b u i l d i n g arrangement i s shown on page (50). -50-BUILDING ARRANGEMENT Coo WflLK / / / / / / Or PffOC. Poor* V17/9SM. floor* A/ s -51-3. Machinery and equipment The farm machinery maintained'need not be extensive as there w i l l be no cropping other than pasture p r o d u c t i o n . The main o u t l a y of c a p i t a l w i l l be involved i n the purchasing of d a i r y equipment. • • Approximate Investment i n Machinery (Some of t h i s mach-i n e r y i s already on the farm, i n which case an es-timated value i s given. ) ;. - .  Small t r a c t o r w i t h attachments, i n c l u d i n g plow, d i s c , harrows,'mower, rake and manure l o a d e r $2,500.00 Rubber t i r e d wagon 230.00 E n s i l a g e c u t t e r 250.00 Forage c u t t e r 25..00 Grain crusher 25.00 Seed d r i l l 150.00 Sundry equipment 100.00 TOTAL $3,280.00 Approximate Investment i n D a i r y Equipment Based on Requirements f o r Handling 125 g a l s , of M i l k per Day. P a s t e u r i z e r $1,305.00 Cooler 540.00 B o t t l e r 425.00 Sinks 56.50 B o t t l e washer ( e l e c t r i c ) 15.00 R e f r i g e r a t o r 667.00 M i l k i n g machine (3 u n i t s ) . . ' . 567.00 Small steam b o i l e r 150.00 Miscellaneous equipment ( b o t t l e s , etc.) 100.00 D e l i v e r y truck f-| ton) 1,500.00 TOTAL $5,325.50 4. Pasture layout Pasture w i l l be the only crop grown on the farm. Mor-r i s o n ^ s t a t e s that good pasture g e n e r a l l y s u p p l i e s the cheapest and most economical feed f o r c a t t l e . The d i f f e r e n c e 4 -52-i n y i e l d i s much more than o f f s e t by the g r e a t e r expenses f o r labour, seed, and machinery i n p l a n t i n g , t i l l i n g , and har-v e s t i n g forage crops. In a well-managed permanent pasture the annual expense i s reduced to a minimum. On the high-p r i c e d l a n d of t h i s farm, pasture i s probably the most p r o f i t -able feed crop that can be grown. The t o t a l pasture area w i l l c o n s i s t of 60 acres, a l l o w i n g one acre per cow. The assumed c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of one cow per a c r e ^ i s a conservative f i g u r e . The t o t a l farm acreage w i l l be d i v i d e d as f o l l o w s : Farmstead 2^ acres Bush area 5 acres U n c u l t i v a t e d yards 12^ acres Pastures 60 acres 80 acres Fencing: The.fencing system as i t e x i s t s on the farm would not be s a t i s f a c t o r y i n the proposed l a y o u t and w i l l have to be changed and replaced. E l e c t r i c fences w i l l be used extensively as there are no crops to be damaged i n case of f a i l u r e . The e x i s t i n g and proposed f e n c i n g systems are shown on pages (54) and ( 55) r e s p e c t i v e l y . Drainage^ E f f i c i e n t drainage on low, l e v e l , bottom land such as i n t h i s case, i s d i f f i c u l t and- c o s t l y but very necessary. The e x i s t i n g drainage system f u n c t i o n s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y on the lower h a l f of the farm but the upper h a l f nearest the b u i l d i n g s -53-i s subject to excess surface water during the wi n t e r months. This excess surface water i s due to a blockage of underdrains (drains A and B as shown on the drainage map on page ( 5 4 ) ) . The farm was surveyed i n 1946 to determine the d r a i n r e q u i r e -ments. The recommendations r e s u l t i n g from the survey are shown on the map, page (55), which i l l u s t r a t e s the proposed d r a i n improvements. Pasture, managementjrajjticjesj_ These w i l l be as f o l l o w s : R o t a t i o n - every two weeks. I r r i g a t i o n - when necessary pastures w i l l be s u b - i r r i g a -ted by f l o o d i n g the drains and d i t c h e s . This can be c o n t r o l l e d by the f l o o d gates. SippXr! - a f t e r e a c h r o t e t i ° n -F e r t i l i z a t i o n - y e a r l y a p p l i c a t i o n s of.phosphates, farm manure and l i q u i d manure a p p l i e d when a v a i l a b l e . Re-seeding - when necessary. The cost of mai n t a i n i n g the pastures i s estimated at $10.00 per a c r e ^ p e r year. This cost i n c l u d e s f e n c i n g , drainage, reseeding, i r r i g a t i o n and c u l t i v a t i o n . The estima-ted cost of e s t a b l i s h i n g the pastures ( f o r seeding, f e n c i n g and-drainage) i s §1,000.00. F o r t y acres of the pasture area are already seeded down. -54-PRESENT FENCING AND DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 2% tfc/res 5 /we**?*-4/ 4 i Q - < f ^ y/^ i/ I S f/nrt.0 « fewes /.we 4/a/0£* />^/lbs PROPOSED FE1TCING /^/fA* s re #p I S /t exes r — -He if si UrlcvL-t'lS /?t/t£ Fiet,0 /•tee v'bsr Mwni/ 1 >S /7c/f& Fit-^o \ nrec> y/t<to<,\ s, s 7 -5 /?C/f£ Fl£/.0 IV Fftffsrx ft/rex -56-Appendix C. DETAILS OF FEED REQJJIRSMSNTS M P COSTS. • 1. Purchased Feeds A l l feeds other than pasture w i l l have to be purchased from outside sources. These feeds w i l l i n c l u d e a l f a l f a hay, g r a i n (oats, b a r l e y and bran), pea vines f o r s i l a g e , and mineral supplements. Bedding v / i l l a l s o have to be purchased. A l f a l f a hay and b a r l e y w i l l be bought i n the I n t e r i o r of B.C. and shipped to Vancouver i n carl o a d l o t s . Oats, straw and pea vines w i l l be purchased i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y area. Considerable saving w i l l be made by purchasing these feeds d i r e c t from the producer; however, the r e t a i l p r i c e s (except f o r a l f a l f a and straw) are used f o r the purpose of c a l c u l a t i n g feed c o s t s . Bran and mineral supplements w i l l be purchased from a l o c a l feed dealer. In the l a s t few years there has been an.increase i n the use of pea vines f o r s i l a g e . This i s a p r a c t i c e that c o i n -cides w e l l w i t h the r e d u c t i o n of home-grown feeds. The growing of peas as a cash crop has become an important enter-p r i s e i n the D e l t a area of the Fraser V a l l e y . The vin e s and pods (cannery waste) remaining a f t e r the peas have been removed, are r e l a t i v e l y high i n p r o t e i n , and i f p r o p e r l y pre-served, produce a good form of silage.. Although the T.D.N.'s of pea vine s i l a g e are s l i g h t l y l e s s than those of corn s i l a g e , the p r o t e i n content i s higher, and the p a l a t a b i l i t y seems t o compare favourably. There has been l i t t l e experimental work i n v e s t i g a t i n g the comparative feeding value of pea v i n e ; -57-(18) however, the f o l l o w i n g data from Morrison gives some idea of i t s comparative feeding value. SILAGE TOTAL DRY MATTER • DIG. PRO-TEIN T.D.N.. N.R. 1: % % Clover (Red)' 2.0 13.4 5.7 Corn (Dent, w e l l -matured a l l a n a l y s i s ) " 28.3 1.3 18.7 13.4 Pea Vine from canneries 27.9 2.6 17.8 5.8 ' With the present tendency t o increase f i e l d purchases, pea vine s i l a g e should p l a y an .important r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g a source of economical s i l a g e . The only l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n the use of pea vi n e s i l a g e i s the h a u l i n g charge from the cannery to the farm. The i n i t i a l purchasing p r i c e of pea vines i s only $ .75 per ton (1946). The estimated cost of pea vines d e l i v e r e d at the s e l e c t e d farm i s $3.00 per ton. -58-ANALYSIS OF FEEDS USED - Mor r i s o n (IS) FEEDS USED |T. DRY M. D.P, T.D.N. N. RATIO Cone. Mix: P a c i f i c Coast Oats Common B a r l e y Bran 91.2 90.-4 90.6 7.0 9.3 13.1 72.2 78.7. 70.2 Roughage: A l f a l f a S i l a g e : Pea Vine Pasture: 90.4 27.9 10.6 2.6 50.3 17.8 Grasses, clover|s mixed, from c l o s e l y - g r a z e d f e r t i l e pasture 28.7 4.4 20.6 9.3 7.5 4.4 3.7 5.8 3.7 2. Feed and Bedding-Requirements • T o t a l requirements are based on the assumption t h a t a herd of 60 m i l k i n g cows, averaging 25 l b s . of 4.5$ m i l k d a i l y (7625 m i l k and 343.13 B.F. per y e a r ) , w i l l be maintained. There v / i l l not be 60 cows m i l k i n g at a l l times;. however, to provide f o r a s a f e t y margin i n feed requirements no allowance • i s made f o r reduced r a t i o n s fed to dry cows. Y e a r l y feed requirements are c a l c u l a t e d f o r two separate I -59-feeding p e r i o d s , (1) wi n t e r feeding p e r i o d , and (2) summer feeding p e r i o d . (1) Winter feeding p e r i o d : October 15to A p r i l 15 - approximately 183 days. Ration: concentrate mix pea vi n e s i l a g e a l f a l f a hay (2) Summer feeding p e r i o d : A p r i l 15 to October 15 - approximately 182 days. Ration: concentrate mix pasture A d i f f e r e n t concentrate mix w i l l be used f o r each p e r i o d . (a) Winter mix: „ » D.P. 8.95$ Oats 1050# T.D.N.90.9 '% B a r l e y 500# D.M. 73.4 % Bran 450$ ) N.R. ' 1:9.1 2000# (b) Summer mix: . D.P. 7.6% Oats 1500# ) T.D.N.91.0% Ba r l e y 500# ) D.M. 73.8% 2000# N.R. 1:10.9 D a i l y Recommended Requirements of P.P. and T.D.N. ( f o r 900# cow producing 25# of 4.5% m i l k dailyQ-8)} .D.P. T.D.N. Maintenance .59 7.23 Pro d u c t i o n 1.30 8.75 TOTAL 1 .89#' 15.96# -60-REQUIREMENTS FOR OTTER FEEDING PERIOD DALLY ] RAT ION/COW TOTAL Dry REQUIREMENT Feed Lbs. D.P. T.D.N. N.R. Matt er FOR Fed l b s . l b s . l b s . iVINTER PERIOD Nutr. Re-L0# x 183 x quirem'ts. 1.89 15.96 1: • • 3.7 60 = 55T. A l f a l f a io# 1.06 5.03 9.12 Di f f . - .83 10.93 Pea Vine 24# x 183 x S i l a g e 24# .62 4.27 5.8 6.7 60 = 132T. D i f f . .21 5.66 7# 7# x 183 x Cone. Mix .63 5.14 9.1 6.4 ^60 = 38iT. + .42 -. 52 • 22.22 T h i s - r a t i o n i s based on recommended requirements f o r good cows, r a t h e r than minimum requirements, uS)therefore the f a i l u r e to meet T.D.N, requirements (as above) by .52 l b s . can be disregarded. N.R. of complete r a t i o n - 1:5.68 REQUIREMENTS FOR SUMMER FEEDING PERIOD DAILY RAT ION/COW TOTAL Feed • Lbs. Fed D.P. l b s . T.D.N. l b s . N'.R. Dry Matter l b s . REQUIREMENT FOR SUMMER PERIOD Nutr.Re-quirem'ts. 1.89 15.96 1: Pasture 40# 1.76 8.24 3.7 11.48 D i f f . Cone. Mix 8# .13 .61 7.72 5.9 7.3 8# x 182 x 60 - 44T. + .48 -1.82 10.9 18.78 In view of the f a c t that e x c e l l e n t pasture i s to be provided, the shortage of T.D.N.'s by 1.82# i s not serious, N.R. of whole r a t i o n - 1:4.97 -61-A m i n e r a l supplement w i l l be added t o the concentrate mix at the r a t e of 20# of supplement (1%) per ton of mix. The t o t a l mix requirements are 82.5T., t h e r e f o r e one ton of min e r a l supplement w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t t o cover the year's needs. Bedding requirements w i l l be heavy. When animals are housed i n a l o a f i n g shed at l e a s t 1^ tons per animal should be provided per year. ^  At the r a t e of l-g- tons per animal there W i l l be a t o t a l requirement of 90 tons. Mix component requirements are as f o l l o w s : Winter Mix: 38.5T. Oats (52.5% of mix) 20.22T. B a r l e y (25^ of mix) .... 9.62T. Bran (22.5% of mix) .... 8.66T. 38.5 T. Summer Mix: 44T. Oats . (75% of mix) 33T. Bar l e y (25% of mix) 11T. 44T. T o t a l oats - 53.22T. T o t a l b a r l e y - 20.62T. T o t a l bran - 8.66T. TOTAL COST OF FEED AND BIDDING A l f a l f a - 55T. O |30.00 $1,650.00 Pea v i n e s - 132T. @ $3.00 396.00 Oats - 53.22T. @ $35.00 1,862.00 Ba r l e y - 20.62T. O $32.00 659.00 Bran - 8.66T. © $29.00 251.00 M i n e r a l Sunpl.-IT. y $60.00 ... 60.00 Bedding - 90T, tt $20.00 1,800.00 Pasture maintenance (App. B)... 600.00 TOTAL $7,279.68 -62-Appendix D. DETAILS ON YEARLY RECEIPTS, FIXED COSTS AND OPERATING COSTS.  Re_ceiptsj_ The only r e c e i p t s accounted f o r i n t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n w i l l be those received from the s a l e of m i l k . The m i l k produced d a i l y by 45 cows g i v i n g 25 l b s . of 4.5% m i l k w i l l be 112.5 g a l s , or 450 qts . The estimated average d a i l y sale, w i l l be 425 q t s . s o l d at a minimum p r i c e of 16cjf per qt. D a i l y r e t u r n s - 425 q t s . © .16 .... $ 68.00 Y e a r l y r e t u r n s - $68.00 x 365 $24,820.00 In t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n of y e a r l y r e c e i p t s , surplus m i l k i s w r i t t e n o f f as a dead l o s s ; however, i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e i t v/ould e i t h e r be sold wholesale on the f l u i d market or be converted to some s a l e a b l e product. Fixed. _cost_s: The f i x e d costs c o n s i s t of a 5% i n t e r e s t charge and a 5% d e p r e c i a t i o n charge on the .farm machinery and b u i l d i n g s . I n t e r e s t and d e p r e c i a t i o n charges on d a i r y equipment are included i n the processing and d i s t r i b u t i n g c o s t s . T o t a l f ixeci _cost_s: I n t e r e s t of 5ft on $40,520.00 $2,026.00 De p r e c i a t i o n of 5% on ?15,330.00 756.50 $2,782.50 PJ? era t i n g posits:. Cost of gas, o i l , and r e p a i r s f o r the t r a c t o r i s estima-ted at $50.00 per year. These expenses cover the cost of -63-f i l l i n g the s i l o s , and crushing g r a i n s f o r the mix. A l l machinery expenses in v o l v e d i n pasture maintenance are i n -cluded i n the feed costs (Appendix C). Taxes are $10.00 per acre, or $800.00 per year on the t o t a l farm area. Feed requirements - $7,279.68 .(Appendix C). Labour costs are based on the s a l a r i e s of two h i r e d men each r e c e i v i n g $100.00 per.month. Processing and d i s t r i b u t i n g costs are charged at the rat e of 5.26$!fper qt. of m i l k s o l d . This cost was determined by an enquiry of the m i l k p r o c e s s i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g costs (31) at Winnipeg, Manitoba. $ Receiving 07 D e l i v e r y -3.15 Pro c e s s i n g 1.26 A d v e r t i s i n g 10 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 38 De p r e c i a t i o n 19 Return on c a p i t a l .11 • 5.26 # per qt. D a i l y cost - 425 x 5.26pf $22,355 Y e a r l y cost - 365 x $22,355 ....$8160.00 Replacements - $500.00 (Appendix C) . General expense - $500.00. This i n c l u d e s V e t e r i n a r y f e e s , animal r e g i s t r a t i o n , telephone, e l e c t r i c i t y , water,, insurance, e t c . -64-ABSTRACT An i n v e s t i g a t i o n regarding the operation of a s e l e c t e d d a i r y farm i n an area where u r b a n i z a t i o n presents a problem a f f e c t i n g the supply of f r e s h d a i r y produce, i s here-w i t h presented. Large and growing c i t i e s w i t h adjacent r e -s t r i c t e d farming areas are experiencing a r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n of these farm lands; hence, s e r i o u s d e p l e t i o n of l a n d resources f o r d a i r y e n t e r p r i s e s i s r e s u l t i n g . The problem has been a p p l i e d to a.farm w i t h i n the c i t y l i m i t s of Vancouver. This land i s u n a v a i l a b l e f o r use other than a g r i c u l t u r a l , and, as a r e s u l t , i t i s expedient t h a t i t be adapted to a p r o f i t a b l e farm e n t e r p r i s e . The farm has been o u t l i n e d as a d a i r y pro- . duction u n i t , o p e r a t i n g on the " d r y - l o t " p r i n c i p l e . The r e s u l t s of the study i n d i c a t e t h a t the unit- would provide a f a i r labour income to the operator, but would o f f e r a d e f i n i t e challenge to anyone whose i n t e r e s t s l i e i n d a i r y farming. -65-* BIBLIOGRAPHY * 1 . B a r t l e t t , R.V/. THE MILK INDUSTRY. 1946. 2. B.C. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e . SILOS AND SILAGE. Bull.'' 66, 1941. 3. B.C. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e . FARM DRAINAGE. F i e l d Crops C i r c . 14, 1945. 4. Bendixen, H.A. & Smith, L . J . APPROVED MILKING PARLORS FOR THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. B u l l . 461, 1945. State C o l l . of Wash., Agr. Exp. S t a . , Pullman, Wash. 5. Bla c k , P.C. SOIL FERTILITY. B.C. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , F i e l d Crops C i r c . No. 11, 1942. 6. Bradt, C.G. MILKING PARLORS IN THE NORTHWEST.'Hoard's Dairyman, Nov. 25, 1946. *7. Clement, F.M. & Foreshaw, R.P. A FACTUAL SURVEY OF THE FRASER VALLFZ" DAIRY INDUSTRY AND THE GREATER VANCOUVER FLUID MILK MARKET, p. 4, 1942. "8. Dom. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , MANURES, FERTILIZERS AND SOIL AMENDMENTS THEIR NATURE, FUNCTION AND USE.. Pub. 585, p. 39, 1940. 9. F o r s t e r , G.W., FARM ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT. P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., New York, 1947. 10. Gorton, W.W. , COST AND EFFICIENCY OF IRRIGATED FARM PASTURES IN EASTERN OREGON. B u l l . 391,' pp. 5-9, 1941; Agr. Exp. St a . ; Ore. State "Coll. , C o r v a l l i s , Ore. 11. J e f f e r s o n , C.H. & Weaver, E., THE PEN BARN AND MILKING ROOM IN MICHIGAN. B u l l . 195, p. 7, 1945; Mich. State C o l l . Agr. Exp. St a . , E. Lansing. 12. J e f f e r s o n , C.H., THE PEN-TYPE DAIRY STABLE. Hoard's Dairyman, Mar. 28, 1946. ^ S p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n c i t e d . - e e -l s . Johnston, C.I. & Hopper, W.C., AN ECONOMIC STUDY OF THE CONSUMPTION OE MILK AND CREAM BI VANCOUVER. Dom. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , Pub. 678, 1940. 14. Johnston, E., P o r t e r , A.R., A r n o l d , F.J., FEEDING DAIRY COWS. Ext. C i r c . 253, 1940; Iowa State C o l l . of A g r i c u l t u r e & Mechanic A r t s , Ames, Iowa. *15. K e l l e y , C.C. & S p i l s b u r y , R.H., SOIL SURVEY OF THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY. Dom. Dept. of A g r i -c u l t u r e , Pub. 650, pp. 9-15, 1939. 16. Kentucky A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment S t a t i o n , REPRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY IN DAIRY CATTLE. Univ. of Ken-tucky, Lexington, Kentucky, B u l l . 402, 1940. 17. McColly, H.F. fc'Dice, J.R., THE PEN BARN AND SEPARATE MILKING ROOM. B u l l . 283, 1935; Agr. Exp. Sta., N. Dakota Agr. C o l l . , Fargo, N.Dakota. *18. M o r r i s o n , F.B., FEEDS AND FEEDING. 20th E d i t i o n , 7th P r i n t i n g , 1941. The Mor r i s o n Pub. Co.., Ith a c a , New York. 19. Myers, W.I., HOW TO PLAIT THE FARM LAYOUT. Ext. B u l l . 55, 1922. New York State C o l l . of A g r i c u l t u r e , C o r n e l l Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. *20. Odland, T.E. & Knoblauch, H.C., A COMPARATIVE TEST OF DIFFERENT BEDDING MATERIALS AND CHEMICAL SUPPLEMENTS WITH COW MANURE APPLIED IDT A THREE-YEAR ROTATION. B u l l . 251, p. 2, 1935, Agr. Exp. Sta. of Rhode I s l a n d State C o l l . , K i n g ston R.I., U.S.A. 21. O t i s , C.E., Morse, R.W., Huber, M.G., MAKING AND FEEDING GRASS AND LEGUME SILAGE IN WESTERN OREGON. Ex t . B u l l . 669, 1946, Ore. State C o l l . , C o r v a l l i s , Ore. *22. S h u l t l s , A., DAIRY MANAGEMENT IN CALIFORNIA. B u l l . 640, pp. 28-34, 1940. Univ. of C a l i f . , B e r k l e y , C a l i f . 23. State C o l l . of Washington, AN APPROVED WASHINGTON MILK-HOUSE. Ext. B u l l . 318, (Revised) 1946. Pullman, Wash. ^ S p e c i f i c information c i t e d . -67- " 24. State C o l l . of Washington, FARMSTEAD PLANNING-BUILDING ARRANGEMENT. Ext. B u l l . 337, 1946. P u l l -man, Wash. 25. U.S.D.A. Yearbook, SOILS AND MEN. 1938. 26. U.S.D.A., FEEDING THIS DAIRY HERD. E x t . B u l l . 2 1 8 , 1941. 27. U.S.D.A., IRRIGATED PASTURES FOR FORAGE PRODUCTION AND SOIL CONSERVATION. Farmers'Bull. 1973, 1945. 28. U.S.D.A., THE MAKING AND FEEDING'OF SILAGE. Farmers' B u l l . 578, 1941. 29. Woodworth, H.C;, H a r r i s , C.W. , & Rauchenstein, E., EFFICIENCY STUDIES IN DAIRY FARMING. B u l l . 275, 1933." Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, N.H. 30. Wright, K.T. & B a l t z e r , A.C., PROFITABLE DAIRY MANAGE-MENT . S p e c i a l B u l l . 297, 1939. Mich. State C o l l . Agr. Exp. S t a . , E. Lansing, Mich. 31. Interview w i t h E.C. Carr, M i l k 3oard, Vancouver, 1947. '•'Specific i n f o r m a t i o n c i t e d . 

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