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Pre-delinquency: its recognition in school Myers, Gerard George 1949

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PRE-DELINQUENCY : ITS RECOGNITION IN SCHOOL Thesis presented i n pa r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Gerard George Myers University of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l 15, 1949. ABSTRACT This study i s primarily concerned with the early recognition of symptomatic behaviour i n school, and sub-sequent treatment of the child who may become delinquent. I t i s based upon the premise that the only effective method of control of juvenile delinquency l i e s in prevention. The findings are based upon investigation of a sample group of delinquents from the Vancouver Juvenile Court, and a smaller group of delinquents from the same sample, studied i n the city schools. The progressive deve-lopment of delinquency i s traced, from i t s or igin i n emo-t ional factors, through the school years, to the ultimate confl ict with the law. The study indicates the behaviour characteristics of many pre-delinquent children i n school, and the extent to which these attributes are recognizable as symptomatic patterns. The attitudes of teachers toward troublesome behaviour i n school are discussed with refer-ence to the f e a s i b i l i t y of a collaborative approach, be-tween the socia l worker and the teacher, to the problem of prevention. In i t s theoretical aspects, the study draws from reports of current programs i n delinquency control, with emphasis upon their preventive content. The analysis of the various control measures shows their limited recogni-t ion of the deeper-lying emotional basis of delinquent behaviour. An outline for a preventive program i s presented. I t i s based upon the conditions indicated by the study, and the resources available to such a program i n the ci ty of Vancouver. The outline suggests how a preventive pro-gram may be launched on an experimental basis, through a reorganization of existing agencies and services. TABLE OP CONTENTS PRE-DELINQUENCY : ITS RECOGNITION IN SCHOOL Chapter 1. The Basic Problem Page 1 Chapter 2. Chapter 3. The roots of delinquent behaviour i n early emotional development. New trends i n treatment based upon the fundamental nature of delinquency. Treatment of individual needs early i n the developmental sequence. Delinquent Behaviour During the School Years 13 The development of the delinquent pat-tern from elementary forms to higher levels of juvenile crime. The school as an aggra-vating factor. The role of the teacher i n early treatment. The Relationship Between Delinquency and  School Behaviour 34 Types of behaviour problems i n school, characteristic of many delinquents. The i n -cidence of troublesome school behaviour among the delinquents. Early Recognition i n School 48 The behaviour problems i n de t a i l . The f e a s i b i l i t y of finding the pre-delinquent ch i ld . Potential treatment interval i n terms of years elapsing between outbreak of problem behaviour and f i r s t delinquency. Chapter 5. The Problem of the Academic Approach 65 Some inadequacies of teaching person-nel in recognizing certain behaviour as symptomatic. Anticipated d i f f i cu l t i e s in recognition, referra l , and treatment of the pre-delinquent chi ld . Chapter 6. Current Experiments i n Delinquency Control 83 Review and cr i t ic ism of recent develop-ments. The experimental background for a preventive program. Chapter 4, Chapter 7 . A Program Outline for Vancouver Organization of personnel and services to begin preventive work on an experimental basis. An outline of recommendations. Page 105 APPENDICES A, General Questionnaire B. Case Questionnaire C. Bibliography LIST OP TABLES Table 1. Age Distr ibut ion of Delinquents. * 16 Table 2. Types of Offences Classified by Age Groups. 18 Table 3. Delinquents Classif ied by School Grades. 24 Table 4. F i r s t Offences Classif ied by Month During Which Offence was Committed. 26 Table 5. Types of Problem Behaviour Reported by Schools. (a| Types as reported by teachers. 37 (b) Consolidation of types for analysis. 42 Table 6. Delinquents Classified by Age and Grade. 50 Table 7. Interim Period Between Outbreak of Problem Behaviour in School and F i r s t Delinquency. 62 Table 8. Numbers of Truants and Problem Children i n School. 69 A CKUOWLEDGEMENTS I wish, to acknowledge indebtedness to the following whose co-operation and assistance greatly fac i l i t a t ed the preparation of this thesis Mr. Gordon Stevens, Chief Probation Officer, Vancouver Juvenile Court; Miss Dorothy L. Coorabe, Executive Director of the Vancouver Children's Aid Society; Miss M. Campbell and Mr. Howard Adams, Attendance Of-f i ce r s , Vancouver Schools; Principals and teachers of the Vancouver Elementary Schools who gave generously of their time and counsel. I take particular pleasure i n acknowledging the continuous helpfulness and trenchant c r i t ic i sm, and above a l l , the unfai l ing good humour of Dr. Leonard Marsh of the Department of Social Work. PRE-DELINQ.UEUCY : ITS RECOGNITION IN SCHOOL CHAPTER ONE THE BASIC PROBLEM Juvenile delinquency today has become a hackneyed phrase to the general public. Po l i t i c ians speak with ap-parent authority on causation, and sweeping cures for this alleged threat to social order. Every service club and women's auxi l ia ry , sooner or later arranges to hear an "expert," genuine or otherwise, propound imposing theories and solutions. The newspapers, large and small, produce a substantial volume of news and information intended to impress the reading public with the importance of this phenomenon. To those who speak and to those who l i s t en , delinquency apparently means many things. The preacher ca l ls i t s i n ; to the harassed business man i t i s a nuisances; the placid suburbanite regards i t as "something which can-not happen here." Whatever i t may be termed or however i t may be analyzed, i t i s , obviously, of universal interest. The great diversi ty of opinion regarding the causes of de-linquency and remedial measures, suggests that most people are too baffled to offer any help at a l l , except punish-ment. The term i t s e l f i s used, in common parlance, a l -most exclusively in the legal sense. Delinquency begins with a court appearance and subsequent conviction for one or more infractions of the law. A child i s not a delinquent 2 i f , having committed one or more offences, he has not been apprehended and found guilty by a court. I f delinquency were defined as any offence against the law, whether the offender i s apprehended or not, i t i s probable that at least 95 per cent of the population would be termed delin-quent. As a type of behaviour, delinquency i s thus an arbitrary division on a hypothetical scale, which includes the entire population. When behaviour becomes suff ic ient ly extreme to be considered inimical to public safety, the individual concerned may be examined by a designated authority, whose finding of guil t automatically constitutes a def ini t ion of delinquency. Below this upper extreme of the scale, behaviour gradually shades off to generally ac-ceptable patterns of l i v i n g which are termed "normal." Traffic violations may be used as an example. Few drivers are innocent of deliberate infractions of the laws govern-ing t r a f f i c ! the majority are not above ignoring stop signs or red l igh t s , when a policeman i s not present to enforce observance. Speeds i n excess of legal l imi ts are condoned unless extreme. However, when a motorist dr iving at an excessive speed, ignores a red l i gh t , and injures a pedes-t r ian i n a safety zone, he i s arrested and charged with a l l offences contributing to the culminating incident. The difference between this motorist and countless others i s a matter of degree. The same difference may be i l lus t ra ted i n terms of theft, and other infractions of the Criminal 3 Code. I t would be possible to visualize a normal curve dis-t r ibut ion of delinquent tendencies for the total population. I f so, i t i s probable that the curve would be somewhat skewed to the l e f t , as non-delinquents may be considered a minority relat ive to the delinquent group at the other end of the scale. I t follows, then, that delinquents are not unique as a group. The behaviour for which they are labelled dif-fers from the normal only in degree. Therefore, in at-tempting to trace the problem of delinquency to i t s or ig in , the search must recognize that the cause, or causes, of delinquent behaviour are also generally present i n the normal population. The question must eventually focus upon the apparent anomaly of one child running afoul of the law, when others of his family or group, subject to more or less similar circumstances, do not. The Roots of Delinquent Behaviour The popular concept of delinquency, as indicated by press and radio publ ic i ty from a variety of unrelated sources, suggests a generally uniform idea of "the delin-quent" as a unique type. This misunderstanding, and the obvious need for control measures, has led to an endless quest for specif ic causes.. The re la t ive ly few authorities i n the f i e l d of juvenile delinquency do not speak so freely of causes, but have isolated a number of environmental fac-tors which are closely associated with delinquency. 4 Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck, in their study of one thousand delinquents, found seven major factors which were common to a large percentage of their sample. ^ B r i e f l y , these are defined as culture confl ic t , inadequate parental education, poor economic condition, unfavourable home re-lationships, broken homes, mental or personality defects in f a m i l i a l backgrounds and, f i n a l l y , low moral standards i n the home. These factors are not described as causes b y the Glueeks, but they have been widely considered as such i n other areas. I t w i l l be noted that these conditions are not peculiar to delinquents or their famil ies! one or more may be present in the environments of most apparently nor-mal people. There are two significant features i n these findings. -The highest incidence of any one factor was found to be broken or poorly disciplined homes, that i s , homes i n which one parent was either dead, deserted or divorced, or where evidence of neglect was pronounced. Secondly, these factors were usually present in the im-mediate environments of the delinquents as a pattern, rather than as isolated characteristics. These points are significant because they suggest why some individuals break out into rebellious or i l l e g a l behaviour whereas the re-mainder of the population, who are exposed to similar con-1 Glueck, Sheldon a'nd Eleanor, One Thousand Juvenile  Delinquents. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1934, pp. 81-83. 5 ditions,*. though admittedly in less intense form, do not. The Gluecks offered further enlightenment in their analysis of the same study. The degree to which any or a l l of the handicaps and weaknesses of our boys may be regarded as causative of their delinquency cannot be stated with assurance. . . . A l l we can say i s that the experience of social workers and others having to do with problems of de-linquency and criminali ty, indicates that the more numerous the handicaps of the kind above reviewed, the more d i f f i c u l t i t i s for the individual to adapt himself to socia l ly acceptable ways. 1 I t i s clear that a val id approach to the cause of delinquent behaviour must concern i t s e l f primarily with the individual delinquent. The environmental factors isolated by the Gluecks, though important, are not basic issues! exposure to them generally results i n delinquency only be-cause of some weakness in the person concerned. The same conclusion i s evident i n the results of a study conducted in England by A.E. Jones, a member of the legal profession. Interested i n the problem, and unsatis-fied by the profusion of confl ic t ing theories ar is ing from inadequate analyses, he decided to seek facts. His findings arise from a dispassionate and discipl ined evaluation of data gleaned from study of case histories of delinquent boys and g i r l s , over a period of twenty years: The psychiatrist can, in his own outlandish jargon, refer the offences committed to some deep-seated disturbance of the emotions following on a peculia-r i t y i n the home circumstances or parental relat ion-1 Ib id . , p. 230. 6 ships. But who can say why another child with an ap-parently similar domestic background remains honest? I f the answer i s , as i t probably i s , that no two cases are exactly the same, then the only conclusion to be drawn i s that each young developing individua-l i t y i s a law to himself. ^ Mr. Jones' conclusion undoubtedly adds force to the argument, but merely to state that the individual per-sona l i ty i s the basis of delinquency, i s not highly enlight-ening. A further clue i s offered by a statement from a report on the subject made by the Welfare Council of Toronto and d i s t r i c t . I t i s conceded by people familiar with the question, that juvenile delinquents are made and not born. A chi ld or young person becomes delinquent through losing that sense of security in his environment, and confidence i n his own value as a person, on which soc ia l ly approved behaviour i s based. 2 The theme of the Toronto report goes beyond the individual personality to emotional values. I f i t s premise i s va l id , delinquency must arise as a consequence of an emotional difference between the offender, and his more normal counter-part. This idea i s i n close harmony with the Glueck findings which noted the prevalence of broken homes i n the backgrounds of the delinquents they studied. 1 Jones, A.E. , Juvenile Delinquency and the Law. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England, 1945, p. 34. 2 A Plan for the Reduction of Juvenile Delinquency  i n Toronto, submitted by .the Welfare Council of Toronto and D i s t r i c t , 1943. 7 The Emotional Basis of Delinquent Behaviour Healy and Bronner, i n one of their many research studies on delinquency, attempted to determine the basic differences between delinquents and non-delinquents. Their findings may "be summed up in the following excerpt from their report '* Prom our present study there i s clear evidence that in the l ives of delinquents the ever flowing stream of urges and wishes, which i n general follow the broader channels of socia l ly acceptable behaviour, has met obstructions or frustrations that cause part of the stream to be deflected into currents that sooner or later show the characteristics which we term delinquency. 1 The urges and wishes, to which Healy and Bronner refer, have been described in many ways, but a l l of them hinge upon the basic drive for affection. The infant child desires but one thing in addition to satisfaction for i t s organic needs, and that i s love. As the child grows, this desire broadens to include many things within i t s social orbit . Siblings must be accepted, and also persons external to the family group. A multitude of progressively more d i f f i c u l t habits and s k i l l s must be mastered. In addition to a l l these new and trying \ experiences, the child must acquire the many inhibit ions es-sent ial to social l i v i n g ; : he must learn to control his organic functions, his desires for the possessions of others, his wishes to be the hub of his own l i t t l e universe? and he 1 Healy W. , and Bronner, A.P. , New Light on Delinquency  and i t s Treatment, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1936, p. 200. 8 must learn to share the things he values with others. A l l these demands are contrary to his natural p roc l i v i t i e s . The normal child learns to accept inevitable re-s t r ic t ions without too much rebel l ion, because of the emo-t ional value which accompanies their exercise. Love makes the process palatable to him. He accepts the ideals of conduct which develop into his personal philosophy of l i f e , not because of any i n t r i n s i c value they may have, but be-cause of the emotional bond which exists between him and the parent or person who symbolizes and teaches these ideals. The process i s exemplified in the common phenomenon of hero-worship, which may result in the formation of good or bad values depending upon the "hero", but the significance of the relationship as a catalytic agent i s obvious. The rejected chi ld, or the one who experiences casual or temperamental relationships with his parents and others near to him, lacks the incentive to follow an ac-ceptable pattern of conduct. In many cases the pattern i t -self i s imperfect or bad. Such a child may conform to rules of behaviour under threat of punishment, but the conflict between his balked desire for love and the demands made upon him, Jceep aggression and rebellion near the surface. In many cases this aggression finds an outlet in behaviour which breaks a l l the rules, set by those who are identified-with the child 's rejecting parents. The child i s then a delinquent. There are others who retreat within themselves, 9 lacking the strength to s t r ike back, and "become sullen, moody, and alone. Many of these f a l l into delinquency, which seems to constitute a substitute satisfaction for their un-sat isf ied emotional needs. Many find their various ways to mental ins t i tu t ions , and allow themselves to dr i f t into a colourless apathy divorced from rea l i ty and hurt. They l i v e i n a dismal, u t ter ly useless, gray i so la t ion , which i s a l l too seldom penetrated "by the s k i l l s of psychiatry. There are also a few delinquents who make a per-fec t ly satisfactory adjustment to a family environment which may not only condone such "behaviour, "but may encourage i t . Their emotional relationships are good. The only dif-f i c u l t y i s that they have been conditioned to behave i n a manner which i s not acceptable elsewhere than in their own family or group c i rc le . These children are re- training pro-blems, and i n many circumstances may prove as unresponsive to remedial treatment as the most emotionally disturbed chi ld . These-types of delinquent behaviour have been ex-plained i n general terms. There are many variations in each type, and the types overlap to produce different emotional conditions; these may lead to delinquency of themselves, or i n conjunction with aggravating environmental factors. A l l children of unsatisfactory emotional development obviously do not become delinquent; delinquency i s only one of the many repercussions attendant upon stunted emotional growth. However, most delinquents have experienced frustration i n seeking satisfaction for their emotional needs. The salient 10 point i s that, i n seeking ways and means to deal with delin-quency as a social problem, i t i s essential to recognize the basic importance, not only of the individual personality, but of the emotional experiences which have moulded i t . The Solution Attempts to deal with delinquency have not been lacking, at least i n number and variety. However, there i s l i t t l e doubt, even in the casual observer, that success has been 3 a d l y l imited thus far. There i s no doubt that much of the fa i lure attendant upon the majority of past and current control programs, has resulted from the tendency to attack the problem after i t has fu l ly developed. I t i s t radi t ional to wait upon the declaration of the court that an individual i s delinquent, before corrective measures are invoked. By that time, the emotional and environmental factors which pro-duced the delinquent behaviour, have been reinforced by habit formation. Thus the problem is rendered i n f i n i t e l y more dif-f i c u l t , and often impossible. In addition, i t i s often too late at that stage to make any effective adjustments i n those relationships between the child and his parents or guardians which may have led to the delinquent behaviour. The Archambault Report, one of the most progres-sive documents in the f i e l d of delinquency and crime, pointed the way toward a more effective treatment approach! If society w i l l devote i t s best efforts to correcting the factors which influence toward crime, and to re-moving pernicious influences from young children and adolescents, i t w i l l destroy incipient criminali ty 11 before i t has gained resistant strength, and w i l l thus succeed in l imi t ing crime at i t s source, with a consequent saving of money and in humanity. The discovery and treatment of "problem children" should be effected before they have become seriously del in-quent. 1 Further evidence ofs a new concept i n treatment i s contained i n the report of the Washington State Legislat ive Committee on Juvenile Delinquency' Adult correctional inst i tut ions are f i l l e d with men and women whose problems as children went unresolved. Many of them are there because at the early point of their delinquency, society fai led to determine causes, and because i t attempted to deal with symptoms in -stead of to correct causes. 2 Elaboration of these statements i s unnecessary. They express with emphatic c l a r i ty , the need for treatment to go beyond the stage of developed delinquency, to i t s or igin i n the personality of the child and his environment. However admirable a statement of purpose may be, i t does not provide ways and means for i t s fulf i l lment . The task of seeking out the "problem children" or predelinquents, as they may be termed, imposes a substantial obstacle. Ob-viously, i t would be sheer f o l l y to attempt an examination of the entire child population, to find a re la t ively small number of predelinquents. The search must be restr icted to an area of manageable dimensions, one which, i t i s hoped, 1 Report of the Royal Commission to Investigate the  Penal System of Canada, King's Printer . Ottawa. 1938. p. 17 6. 2 Preliminary Report of the Washington State Legisla-' t i v e Interim Committee on Juvenile Delinquency; prepared i n conjunction with the National Probation Association, State Pr in t ing Office, Olympia, 1945. w i l l s t i l l include the majority of those children who dis-play troublesome "behaviour, of a type which may eventually develop into delinquency. The elementary schools seem to provide an answer to this problem. A l l children have to at-tend school, so the school may offer an opportunity for finding and treating those who may become delinquent. The potential value of the schools i n a preventive program was suggested recently by Professor Whitney of Brown Universi ty: There are few American communities that seriously attempt to reach predelinquent children. We fool ishly wait u n t i l ant i -socia l habits are well established. Then we attempt to correct them with tools which are inadequate and too few. Perhaps our greatest need i s to reach children early. We are missing a real opportunity i n our public schools. . . I t i s the purpose of this study to show more fu l ly how delinquency develops through the school years, and to demonstrate how predelinquent children may be recognized by school teachers, before their behaviour reaches the-stage of outright breaking of the law. I t i s also intended to examine how these cases may be referred for treatment, to appropriate agencies organized speci f ica l ly for the function of prevention. 1 Whitney, Vincent H. , "Tough Guys are Made Not Born, Coronet, A p r i l , 1948, New York, p. 165. CHAPTER TWO DELINQUENT BEHAVIOUR DURING THE SCHOOL YEARS Delinquency i s generally the result of a long process of development. I t i s logica l to assume that the school, with a l l i t s new and varied experiences, w i l l exert profound influences upon the chi ld . The young hoy or g i r l , on entering school, must learn new d i sc ip l ines ; adjustments must be made to the new and different authoritative persona-l i t i e s of teachers; a larger, more varied group than the family makes i t s own unique demands upon the bewildered chi ld . A l l these things exert varying degrees of emotional stress. For youngsters who approach these new experiences with an emotional handicap, result ing from poor relat ion-ships within the family c i rc le , the load i s rendered propor-tionately greater. These are the children who are dragged to school, suspicious, resentful, unhappy or fear fu l ; or, i f they present themselves w i l l i n g l y , they do so with a morbid desire to be troublesome; perversely, they invi te the abuse they expect. Their reactions to the school teachers who may meet them with understanding or r i g id i t y may determine, to a great extent, their behaviour through the following school years. Juvenile Court Data At this point i t i s essential to examine the nature of the development of delinquent "behaviour, and the influences exerted upon i t "by school experience. The data for this phase of the study was drawn from the records of the Vancaiver Juvenile Court, covering a period of one year. Only those cases were selected which resulted from offences suff ic ient ly serious to warrant a terra on probation, or more drastic treatment. Others, such as the boys #10 appeared in court for infractions of the Bicycle By-Law, were rejected, as unrepresentative of delinquent behaviour. The offences i n these cases were minor infractions of city by-laws, and were considered indicative of simple mischief rather than delinquency. There were 243 entries i n the court calendar for probation or committal to the Industrial Schools. This number was subsequently reduced by the subtraction of twenty-two duplicate entries, representing repeaters within the sample year, fourteen truancy cases, nineteen referrals to other agencies and twenty-four for which no useful information could be found. The truancy cases were omitted to avoid obvious weighting in the attempt to esta-b l i sh a relationship between delinquency and school be-haviour. The nineteen referrals to other agencies were ex-cluded for much the same reason! the majority of those cases, A Delinquents appearing i n court two or more times because of fa i lure on probation or new offences. as wards of protection agencies, could be expected to have had emotional problems above those normally anticipated in an unselected group. The remainder, 164, comprised the sample for study. I t was or ig ina l ly intended to make a detailed study of each case, in addition to extracting data pertinent to the school, with the intention of relat ing findings of other studies to the Vancouver area. However, this was. found to be impossible owing to the meagreness of data, com-mon to even a small percentage of the cases. Only 15 per cent of the 164 case records included social h is tor ies , and the remainder varied from running records, dealing with supervisory ac t i v i t i e s , to incomplete face sheets. Facts which were entered i n a substantial majority of the records included age, school attended, grade, truancy i f there, had been any, school behaviour, and academic performance. A l l of the records included the type of offence, number of court appearances and the date of the f i r s t delinquency.^ The age range of ten to seventeen shown i n Table 1 i s not significant . Since seventeen i s the terminal juvenile age, cases above that leve l are automatically dealt with in the adult courts. The age of ten, as the earliest reported for this group, i s not considered significant either, as far as this study i s concerned. I t i s probable that these delin-k Di s crepanci es between to ta l figures in the following tables and sample totals , are due to incomplete records. 16 Table 1. Ag e Distr ibut ion of Delinquents Sample Gr oup, Vancouver Juvenile Court, 1947-8. F i r s t Age Offenders Repeaters Industr ial School (a) Total 10 6 .2 0 8 11 6 1 2 9 12 5 0 2 7 13 14 1 0 15 14 11 1 2 14 15 20 6 5 31 16 20 6 5 31 17 5 5 2 12 Totals 87 22 18 127 (a) Cases committed to Boys ' Industr ial School. quents are s imilar , i n this respect, to those studied by Healy and Bronner, among whom a court appearance represented a f i r s t offence i n only 5 per cent of the cases. ^ The concentration of cases i n the fifteen to sixteen range, and the abrupt increase at fifteen, warrants some comment. This phenomenon has been noted i n other 1 Healy W. , and Bronner A.F. , New Light on Delinquency  and Its Treatment, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1946, p. 37. studies, though i t i s not quite as pronounced as i n this i n -ance. The increase i n the incidence of delinquency from the age of ten, to a concentration of 50 per cent of the cases i n a two year range, may he explained as the result of a cumulative learning process. The delinquent ac t iv i t i e s available to a ten year old, are obviously more limited than those available to an adolescent, who i s subject to fewer restr ict ions and has the advantage, i f i t may be termed such, of superior mental and physical a b i l i t i e s . In addition to broader scope for delinquent behaviour, the so-called teen-ager i s subject to the additional aggravation of forces associated with adolescence! these two factors, combined with the earlier emotional predisposition to delinquent con-duct, seem to produce a maximum incidence of delinquency between the ages of fourteen to sixteen. The abrupt drop after sixteen may be explained on the same basis. The majority of the children who become delinquent, usually seek satisfaction for their peculiar needs before or during the peak adolescent period. This may be the culmination of a re la t ive ly long career of experimen-tation i n juvenile crime or, as i n some cases, may be a fa i lure to adjust to the additional demands of adolescence. Adolescence represents the f i n a l frustrating experience, which appears to c rys ta l l i ze the gradually developing del in-quent pattern. The dis t r ibut ion found i n Table 1 seems to verify the assumption that delinquency develops cumulatively i n a learning process. Therefore, the point at which treatment should he applied i s certainly not at the peak, hut at the lower end of the dis t r ibut ion before troublesome behaviour becomes habitual. Table 2. Types of Offences Classified by Age Groups. Sample Group, Vancouver Juvenile Court, 1947-8. Breaking Car Age Theft Entering Theft Others Total 10 3 4 0 2 9 11 3 5 0 1 9 12 4 4 0 0 8 13 8 6 1 0 15 14 3 4 5 4 16 15 • 4 13 5 11 33 16 4 7 13 7 31 17 2 2 5 4 13 Total 31 45 29 29 134 Further evidence of the progressive development of delinquent behaviour, appears i n the data presented i n -Table 2. The f i r s t category, theft, includes offences in -volving amounts or values both under and over $25.00, a l -though the court makes a d iv is ion at this point on the premise that a theft of over $25.00 constitutes a more 19 serious offence. Prom a legal point of view, this practice may he tenable, but as far as treatment i s concerned, the divis ion i s meaningless. These thefts, as reported, ranged from milk bottle looting to stealing from purses ', those i n -volving amounts over $25.00 were i n a minority. Offences grouped under "others" include intoxicat ion, bicycle theft, possession of burglar tools, infractions of the Highway Act, attempted arson, sex offences, and i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y , None of these categories included a sufficient number to be c lass i -fied separately. The f i r s t two theft, and breaking and entering are the most s ignif icant . I t w i l l be noted that the point of highest frequency for theft i s at age thirteen, followed by a tapering off to two at seventeen. It i s common to say that adolescent boys steal because of economic need. However, most of the cases examined showed clearly that the boys were not subject to any outstanding need i n a material sense. Moreover, i f actual need was the basic motive i n juvenile theft, the frequency with which these offences occur should increase with age I the older juvenile not only has wider needs but also has greater physical and mental resources to meet them, whether by means of theft or otherwise. However, the figures found i n Table 2 do not indicate an increase with age! rather, the reverse i s suggested. The argument may be raised that the older boys go to work more frequently. However, school attendance i s compulsory u n t i l the age of f if teen, and the abrupt drop i n the incidence of theft occurs at fourteen, with the subsequent frequencies more or less constant up to the age of seventeen. In preference to material need as the major motive, i t appears that theft, as one of the more elementary delin-quencies, tends to lose i t s capacity for satisfaction of needs which are largely emotional; these may he related to the desire for stimulating experience, for status i n a cer-tain group, or may he expressions of aggression. Those de-linquents who are not given treatment at this point, or do not respond to such treatment as may he given, tend to graduate to a higher level of delinquent behaviour, i n the same manner as they graduate from one academic leve l to another i n school. With increased experience, and the added stimulus of emotional factors contingent upon the onset of puberty, experimentation with the more elementary aspects of delinquency ceases to offer sufficient satisfaction. The process i s not peculiar to delinquent behaviour by any means. The desire for new and more stimulating experience is uni-versal , and constitutes one of the basic motives for learning. The only difference with respect to delinquent behaviour i s that this same motivation has been directed into an t i - soc ia l ' channels ; once begun, the process seems to develop in a man-ner closely similar to that which i s manifested by soc ia l ly acceptable behaviour. Hence i t follows that the delinquent whose needs remain unsatisfied, must seek a more challenging level of delinquent behaviour than that which offered i n i t i a l satis-21 faction. I t i s true that a number of the less enterprising delinquents remain at the elementary leve l , but these are in a minority and, as a group, are analagous to the sub-normals found in the dis tr ibut ion of the general population. An at-tempt was made to determine the relationship between leve l of intel l igence and the "graduation" from theft to other forms of delinquency, but recorded I.Q,'s were not available i n a number sufficient to provide any significant differences. The fact that a l l delinquents do not progress from theft to breaking and entering and beyond, does not detract from the va l id i ty of the argument that delinquency develops progressively i n a learning process. Individual differences alone would account for the fact that many emotionally frus-trated children resort to introverted and less aberrant be-haviour, in preference to the more aggressive t r i a l and error manifestations of delinquency. Many delinquents respond to treatment of courts, schools and other ins t i tu t ions , i f they have been suff ic ient ly active to have become e l ig ib le for such treatment I and they cease to be delinquents i n the more obvious sense. The focus of the moment i s upon those individuals who, having begun a delinquent career at an early age, develop as delinquents to the point where they must be iso-lated from society. Theoretically the i so la t ion i s for the welfare of the individual , and the protection of society, but i n practice the lat ter point i s almost exclusively domi-nant. Some reach the terminal stage unhindered by any at-tempt to halt or redirect the process; others, and their numbers are not few, have been treated ineffectually by a variety of methods, based upon principles ranging from the extremely primitive, to the hyper-sentimental. The extent of the problem i s evident by the current j a i l population. Those who were treated and fai led to respond, did so because their behaviour patterns had become fixed to varying degrees through habitual use, and no acceptable alternative, of-fering similar satisfactions, could be provided for them. They are the delinquents who graduate from petty theft, to breaking and entering and beyond, reaching a climax at age fifteen or sixteen. The concentration of car theft cases at age six-teen requires some qual i f icat ion. A few of these cases were found to be f i r s t offenders, from environments tshich appeared to be somewhat superior, in most respects, to those involved i n the preceding categories. However, this percentage is actually smaller than might be expected, since many of these casual offences are not reported by the police. Those which do reach the court records, are cases which are known for previous offences, or are doubtful to the point that a formal charge i s made. Therefore, the re la t ive ly high frequency at age sixteen, cannot be modified to the extent whi ch might be indicated by an assumption that the majority of car thefts are committed by over-exuberant adolescents, i n search of ex-citement. The fact remains, that reasonably well adjusted or emotionally stable adolescents simply do not steal cars ; those 23 of the normal group who do, are i n a d i s t inc t ly small minority. This type of offence may be considered as much a part of the developing delinquent pattern, as the two previously dealt with. The remaining offences classif ied i n Table 2 offer l i t t l e of significance, other than the usual concentration at the fifteen and sixteen year l eve l . They may be con-sidered as variants i n the developmental sequence, with the exception that there i s a greater cleavage between the legal defini t ion and the social implications with respect to sexual offences, i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y and vagrancy. There appears to be some indication that the law should be modified, to some ex-tent, par t icular ly with respect to i t s def ini t ion of what constitutes immorality. I n c o r r i g i b i l i t y appears to repre-sent for the court, that which the term "psychopath" offers to psychiatry; i t i s a last resort c lass i f ica t ion , placing f i n a l responsibi l i ty for fa i lure of treatment upon the cl ient . Both terms have their place! but their use implies an element of retreat from an apparently impossible si tuation which may be dangerous, i f there i s not an acute awareness of their to ta l meaning. To the social worker these offences, vagrancy and others of this type, are not significant from a defini-t ive point of view, but only as symptoms of underlying emo-tional disorder. The Delinquents in School The data found i n Table 3 emphasizes the cumulative nature of delinquency, as i t parallels the school progress of 24 the delinquents. However, the incidence of delinquency does not follow the same arithmetic progression as the school grades. The increase i n numbers of delinquents i s more or less even to grade 7; the concentration of cases in grades seven, eight and nine, amounts, to 59.2 per cent of the to ta l number for the twelve grades. Table 3. Delinquents Classified by School Grade  (At Time of Offence) Sample Group, Vancouver Juvenile Court, 1947-8. Grade No. Grade No. Special 3 8 22 2 2 9 31 3 1 10 14 4 8 11 4 5 9 12 0 6 12 Total 130 7 24 In Vancouver, the school system provides for Junior High Schools comprising grades seven, eight and nine. The change from an elementary school to a junior high school, constitutes an emotional hazard of no small consequence, to an individual assumed to be predisposed toward delinquent behaviour, as a result of emotional needs. Such a transi t ion demands readjustment to new teachers, new school-mates and a new atmosphere, which may well prove d i f f i c u l t even to the stable chi ld . This i s not intended as a cr i t ic i sm of the school system, since i t i s quite obvious that the use of an intermediate stage between the elementary and high schools, should be an improvement over the old system. However, the boys and gi r l s who run afoul of the law, apparently find the junior high school a rather d i f f i c u l t hurdle in the academic marathon. The fact that the incidence of delinquency doubles from grade six to grade seven, and increases through grade eight to a high point in grade nine, suggests that the pat-tern evident i n the previous tables i s not only unchecked, but i s accelerated to some degree. The extent to which school studies and disciplines actually aggravate delinquent behaviour, i s not known nor can i t be estimated on the strength of the data available at this time. In any case, the fact that comparatively few delinqtients reach high school, in spite of having generally average intel l igence and the opportunity to do so, certainly suggests that they find their school experiences far from satisfactory. The argument might be made that the decrease i n numbers of de-linquents reported as attending high schools, i s due to the effect of higher education and maturation. However, the junior high school operates, i n some respects, as a weeding-out process. The majority of the confirmed delinquents drop out of school during their junior high years, after having attained the required leaving age of fifteen. I t w i l l he noted again that f if teen, in addition to being the legal school leaving age, i s also a c r i t i c a l age i n the develop-ment of delinquent behaviour. The drop in frequency after grade ten may, more correctly, be interpreted as an indica-tion of withdrawal rather than reform, on the part of those either delinquent or disposed toward delinquent behaviour. Some further indication of the effects of school attendance on the delinquent or predelinquent chi ld , is given by the figures i n Table 4. The figures for July and August are of immediate significance. Various arguments might be raised to suggest that the marked difference be-tween the frequencies found for these two months and those for the remainder, i s due to the influence of such factors as summer employment, holidays away from the c i ty , summer camps, and so forth. Table 4. F i r s t Offences Classified by Month  During which Offence was Committed Sample Group, Vancouver Juvenile Court, 1947-8. Month No. Month No. Jan. 12 . Aug. 4 Feb. 15 Sept. 15 Mar. 13 Oct. 12 Apr. 19 Nov. 14 May' 10 Dec. 10 June 9 July 8 Total 141 27 Employment, or the allegedly therapeutic effect of work, i s an almost universally applied superf icial antidote for delinquency, and for other behaviour problems. I t i s not known how many of these delinquents worked during the summer months, but i t i s doubtful i f their hours were a great deal longer than those spent in school during the year. In any case, those incl ined toward employment have ample opportunity to work for spending money during after-school hours and on Saturdays. I t i s probable that those who do work during the summer months, continue to do so on a part-time basis for the remainder of the year. Juvenile employment in periods such as the present, when suitable types of work are available, i s not a preventive measure! unemployment, in an age group where part-time work i s the rule, seems to be symptomatic as part of the to ta l delinquent pattern. Work might con-ceivably prevent delinquency i n a few cases where economic need i s the prime factor, but such cases are rare. Holidays away from the ci ty might possibly account for a small fraction of those who would otherwise be exposed to idleness, and opportunity to break the law, but that fraction i s very small. The majority of the cases examined i n this sample were i n no position to indulge in a family excursion to a summer resort. Organized summer camps pro-bably take care of an equally small minority of the poten-t i a l l y delinquent group. In the f i r s t place, these camps handle only a small percentage of the total child population. In addition, many of the applicants for the organized camps 28 are handled through various welfare organizations who are con-cerned with their own cl ientele. Secondly, a child i s i n the camp for only two weeks, as a rule. An incurable optimist might suggest that the influence of two weeks in an outdoor group si tuation, would be sufficient to remove any incl inat ion toward delinquent behaviour. I t i s extremely doubtful i f the camping experiences available i n Vancouver, have an effect of any consequence on the pre-delinquent or delinquent chi ld. The large number of delinquents in this sample who had, at some time, attended one or more organized camps, lends cre-dence to this assumption. I t appears that the only major difference between the delinquent of school age i n July and August, compared with any other time of the year, i s the fact that he i s not i n school. In addition to the re la t ive ly low incidence of delinquency during the summer months, there i s the sharp i n -crease in September, coincidental upon the reopening of school, to suggest further the emotional implications of the demands made upon the child by his teachers and studies. The remaining figures i n Table 4 do not appear to be par t icular ly s ignif icant , with the possible exception of the number of delinquents for A p r i l . Seasonal changes may have some bearing upon the high rate for this month, or i t may be that A p r i l constitutes a climactic period in the school year. I t i s probable that both factors contribute to this increase, which i s followed by a gradual decline to the extreme low in August. This decline may be explained as 29 resul t ing from a gradual decrease in general tension, owing t to anticipation of the approaching release from school and a l l i t s frustrations. The interpretation of Table 4 i s not intended to suggest that the school i s a causal factor in delinquent be-haviour, although i t may be for youngsters of very low in -te l lec tua l a b i l i t y . Rather, the school i s regarded as a pre-c ip i ta t ing factor in the formation of delinquent behaviour patterns, which have their roots elsewhere, usually in home relationships. Whether or not this i s primarily a fault of the current educational system, i s a problem of considerable magnitude and one which cannot be discussed here. The evi-dence suggests the contrary,, since the majority of school children are s t i l l more or less non-delinquent. I t i s probable that the school, representing the individuals ' f i r s t major contact with an organized social i n s t i tu t ion , would produce the same effect regardless of i t s educational program, or the nature of the material offered. Frustrations are inevitable i f the school i s to continue as a t raining ins t i tu t ion . There i s an irreduceable minimum to the demands which must be made, on the in te l lec tua l and emotional resources of the individual student. The same "principle i s applicable i n the home, where t raining from infancy involves a gradual introduction to frustrating ex-periences. The child with reasonably satisfying home re-lationships, learns through encouragement, and derives strength from a secure emotional environment to cope with 30 progressively more d i f f i c u l t l i v i n g problems. To the normal ch i ld , the school constitutes a further step in a learning process for which he has been prepared, through previously satisfying experience. The delinquent or pre-delinquent chi ld, on the other hand, i s not so fortunate. Healy and Bronner reported that 92 per cent of the children i n one sample, came to the school with major emotional disturbances, result ing from a variety of factors; a l l of tnese were associated with poor or indifferent relationships within the home environment. ^ The delinquents, therefore, tend to begin school after an infancy and early childhood marked by experiences • lacking the emotional support essential to the successful handling of frustration. The young child i s le f t to his own resources i n the face of increasingly d i f f i c u l t problems, and lacks the incentive ar is ing from the desire for recognition of achievement. He responds by retreating from the problem or by f ighting i t . The former reaction often produces the child with the apparent low I.Q. and the la t ter often be-comes the delinquent typified by the present study. These two patterns, or many combinations of the two, approach the school as a new d i f f i cu l ty from which they withdraw, or which they meet with aggression. In either case, the complexity of 1 Healy, W. , and Bronner A . P . , New Light on Delinquency  and- I ts Treatment. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1946, p. 49. factors responsible for the behaviour pattern must be dis-covered and the child treated accordingly; otherwise, the process of development continues, with some capitulation to superior force, u n t i l the pattern becomes more or less f ixed. At some point i n their careers, a certain percentage of these emotionally handicapped children find satisfaction i n delin-quent behaviour; this becomes absorbed into the pattern and develops, as indicated in this study, u n t i l the point of overt conflict i s reached and the child runs afoul of the law. The delinquents concerned in this study, whether f i r s t offenders or repeaters, probably represent a re la t ive ly small percentage of those who enter school with varying de-grees of emotional disturbance. Many, apparently, work out an acceptable adjustment for themselves, though i t i s often d i f f i c u l t to understand why many more do not become delin-quents. School teachers and counsellors undoubtedly assist many to l i v e with their troubles, ' through achievement in school work, assisted by sound relationships within the classroom and on the playground. Those who do manage to effect a healthier adjustment to school, and society in general, do so largely through chance. There i s no plan as yet in effect whereby children who are handicapped by emo-t ional disturbances may be identif ied and their problems treated, before the more serious cases find their way into the transiently satisfying f i e ld of delinquency. The data presented in the preceding tables has i n -dicated the development of the delinquent pattern through the 32 school years, to the point where the majority of the more troublesome youngsters withdraw. To these individuals , the school seems to he an aggravating factor i n the development and f i n a l outbreak of delinquent behaviour. Very l i t t l e has been said about those emotionally disturbed children, who have adopted introversion as a reaction to frustration. Both the introvert and the aggressive pre-delinquent, the former a convenience i n the school and the la t ter a nuisance, spend their required number of years and then retreat to become incompetents or criminals. I t i s obvious at this point, that school teachers bear a responsibi l i ty toward these children beyond that of a minimum academic l eve l . This idea was ad-mirably expressed by W.C. Kvaraceus, Assistant Superintendent of Schools in Passaic, New Jersey : "Unt i l schools begin to evaluate their influence upon children in terms of bringing about desirable changes i n behaviour, they w i l l continue to have l i t t l e , i f any, real effect i n fores ta l l ing delinquent and pre-delinquent behaviour i n individual pupi ls ." ^ Delinquent behaviour tends to develop progressively, from re la t ive ly minor infractions of the law to more extreme levels . This development, based upon i n i t i a l emotional dis-turbance, appears to result from a learning process and the desire for more stimulating and challenging experiences. The significance of this phenomenon rests i n treatment; attention 1 Kvaraceus, W. C. , Juvenile Delinquency and the School. Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, World Book Company, 1945, p.299. to isolated delinquencies without due regard for the to ta l pattern, seems to he fu t i l e . Treatment should he applied at the earl iest possible point i n the developmental process. The experiences of the delinquents i n school sug-gests that contact with teachers, school d isc ip l ines , and the d i f f i cu l t i e s of studies, may he aggravations i n the growth of troublesome behaviour. In many cases school l i f e undoubtedly has this effect. The increase in the incidence of delinquency i n the higher grades suggests a pa ra l l e l with the cumulative development of delinquency i t s e l f . This relationship suggests that schools should not seek merely to adjust their demands to the capacities of students; they are also i n a position to render posit ive service, in the treatment of the emotional conditions basic to the d i f f i c u l t behaviour of many children now delinquent or pre-delinquent. 34 CHAPTER THREE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DELINQUENCY AND SCHOOL BEHAVIOUR The idea that the "best cure for delinquency l ies i n prevention, i s not or iginal to this study. The Archarabault Report quoted Sheldon Glueck in words which are well worth repeating here : The policy of controll ing f i res by merely putting out the flames and s i t t i n g back to await more f i res i s rapidly being abandoned as shortsighted and wasteful. Study of the causes of f ires and the development of preventive programs are becoming essential ac t iv i t i e s of the modern f i r e department. In relat ion to the control of delinquency and crime, however, society has not progressed much beyond the stage of putting out the flames. I t has waited for violations of the law and then bends i t s efforts to arrest, pursue and punish the offenders without giving much thought to the elimination of the forces that produce them and continue to produce thousands l i ke them. 1 The argument for prevention i s admirably expressed, but does not include any suggestion of ways and means. The school has been recommended as a log ica l place in which to begin treatment. Most children, among them the pre-delinquents, attend school for approximately ten months of every year! why not simply find the troublesome boys and g i r l s , and treat them there? 1 Report of the Royal Commission to Investigate the  Penal System of Canada, King's Printer , Ottawa, 1938, p. 176. 35 The problem of identifying these children from among the thousands attending school, i s the immediate con-cern of this study. I t was necessary, in the "beginning, to find some form of school behaviour suff ic ient ly concrete to be easily recognized, which was also related to delinquency. A brief review of other studies concerned with delinquency and the school suggested the use of truancy as a school be-haviour c r i te r ion , which might bear a close relationship with delinquency. However, examination of the 164 cases selected from the Juvenile Court records proved to be dis-appointing. I t was found that only 32.9 per cent of the to ta l number could accurately be considered as having been truant at some time i n their past'school careers. This percentage may actually be higher since a number of pos-sible truants were rejected, owing to some variation i n the def ini t ion of what constitutes truancy among the several s chools. The Attendance Officers accept as truant, a child who i s reported as such by a school pr incipal . However, many principals refer their absentees only after attempting to deal with the problem themselves, and then as a last re-sort. Other schools may refer as truants, children who are absent without excuse once, or possibly several times, within a re la t ive ly brief period. Therefore, a truant as reported by a school pr incipal in a Juvenile Court record, may be an absentee to varying degrees. For that reason, only those cases were considered truant, which showed a record of persistent absenteeism I the to ta l number was not sufficient to be considered as a useful cr i ter ion of poten-t i a l delinquency. A further d i f f i cu l t y , and one which has been mentioned before, was the inadequacy of a number of court records, which included either very brief school re-ports or none at a l l . I t was noted i n examination of the records, that a substantial number carried brief but specific comments from teachers and principals , regarding problem behaviour within the school. School teachers tend to make a d is t inc t ion between truancy as a form of conduct and other troublesome behaviour i n the school, but the two were combined to form a possible cr i ter ion of pre-delinquency, instead of truancy alone. In effect, truancy as a physical withdrawal from a d i f f i c u l t si tuation may certainly be considered problem be-haviour, and i t obviously meets the test of eognizability i n the school. In addition to clear evidence of truancy, problem behaviour was defined as including any kind of per-sistent atypical behaviour, by virtue of which the child attracted the attention and concern of his teacher. The de-ciding factor i n a l l cases was persistence I the behaviour was not considered a problem i f i t was of a transient nature, or responded favorably to classroom treatment. The Nature of Problem Behaviour i n School The probation officers of the Juvenile Court at-tempt to obtain reports on the school behaviour of delin-quents who are charged with offences suff ic ient ly serious to 37 warrant probation, or more drastic treatment. This informa-tion i s usually given by the principals of the schools con-cerned; i t may be based upon their own contact with the case, or upon a complaint from the classroom teacher. The various types of behaviour reported by principals and teachers i n the court records, are l i s t ed i n Table 5(a) ; some explanation i s necessary to account for variations in def ini t ion. Table 5(a). Types of Problem Behaviour Reported by Schools Sample Group, Van couver Juvenile Court, 1947-8. Type of Behavi our F i r s t Offenders Industrial Repeaters School(a) Total 1 Low mentality 6 1 1 8 2 Poor application 4 2 1 7 3 Aggression 3 2 2 7 4 Withdrawal 4 0 1 5 5 Backwardness 1 1 1 3 6 I n c o r r i g i b i l i t y 2 1 0 3 7 Theft in school 2 1 0 3 8 Nervous disorders 1 0 1 2 9 Low mentality with aggression 0 0 2 2 10 Sex problems 0 0 1 1 Total 23 8 10 41 (a) Cases committed to Industr ial Schools. 38 "Low mentality" i s self-explanatory and i s in -cluded as a behaviour problem, owing to the current inade-quacy of special class treatment. I t may be more accurate to consider this type an educational problem, with high poten-t i a l emotional implications. However, the limited resources available to meet the special needs of the child with a low I.Q. , and the somewhat haphazard use of existing resources, suggests that this type may be safely included as a behaviour problem. The second type, "poor application", or "not working to capacity", as i t i s often described, offered con-siderable d i f f i cu l ty owing to some confusion as to the true nature of individual capacity. Only those cases are entered which had at least average or high I.Q. ratings, and yet showed an academic performance well below the a b i l i t y l eve l , for reasons other than prolonged absence o:r i l l n e s s . Since an I.Q. coefficient must be used with considerable reserve, as a measurement of doubtful accuracy, the margin between the I.Q,. and performance must be substantial, before the sub-ject can be truly described as working below capacity. Most of the seven reported for this type had attitudes concomitant with their performance, which rendered the c lass i f ica t ion more val id than would be the case on the basis of performance alone. There appears to be considerable s imi la r i ty between this type and the f i r s t , but a d is t inct ion was made on the strength of a difference i n motivation. The term "backward-ness" implies a lack of achievement i n spite of effort which, 39 for emotional reasons, i s ineffectual; poor application i n -cludes an apparent absence of motivation, and the individual appears to lack interest or incentive to work. "Aggression", a general and somewhat unsatisfac-tory term, i s used to cover behaviour of a destructive or rebellious nature i n the classroom. Several cases concerning playground brawls, whi ch were reported as aggressive, were considered unsatisfactory; f ighting among children and adole-scents cannot, necessarily, be considered symptomatic of any-thing other than good health. These cases were neither ex-treme nor persistent. "Withdrawal" i s treated with some caution as i t was used with an obvious variety of meanings. In a psycho-log ica l sense, the term seemed- to have l i t t l e significance to the average teacher. I t appears that teachers tend to accept such behaviour with gra t i f ica t ion, rather than with concern. Whether this i s due to lack of appreciation of the possible significance of such behaviour, or to pressure of overcrowded classrooms, i s not known at the moment; i t i s possible that both factors enter the si tuation. The five boys appearing in the table were mentioned spec i f ica l ly in the court records, as having been unduly sensitive to pres-sure or d i sc ip l ine , with resultant emotional retreat. "Backwardness" includes the d i f f i cu l t i e s of children who, for some reason other than mental incapacity, are unable to cope with their academic work. There i s a difference be-tween this term and "retardation." The la t ter i s commonly 40 used to mean infer ior mental a b i l i t y . "Backwardness" does not include those individuals who have fa i led to keep pace with their part icular age group, owing to i l lness or similar rea-sons. " Inco r r ig ib i l i t y" , constitutes an admission of fa i lure by the school and should, perhaps, be combined with aggression. However, two cases were reported as beyond con-t r o l for behaviour which was somewhat more d i f f i c u l t than that embraced by the term "aggression", as i t i s used here. In a sense, the term " i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y " implies an advanced form of aggressive behaviour, applied generally and indis-criminately; i t i s therefore indicative of a greater degree of emotional disturbance. The seventh type requires l i t t l e elaboration here, except that the three boys reported, had been committing minor thefts for some time within the school, as a means of achieving attention and status. "Nervous disorders", refers to those characteris-t ics generally associated with emotional disturbance, such as n a i l b i t ing , hyperactivity, t ics and so forth. "Low mentality with aggression" i s classif ied separately from "aggression" and "low mentality", owing to the significant association between the two attributes. The two boys l i s ted were of borderline mentality, and had a his-tory of d i f f i c u l t behaviour both in the classroom and on the playground. The tenth type, "sex problems" i s re la t ive ly rare! 41 the one case entered i n the table was described as such owing to a tendency to indulge in elementary sex play with the younger children on the playground. The table i s not considered significant for analy-t i c a l purposes. I t i s presented merely to indicate the nature and extent of the type of school behaviour which was characteristic of certain delinquents. The numbers tabulated i n each type indicate the more extreme examples, whose school behaviour was suff icient ly troublesome to merit specific mention and description in court records. Less precise des-criptions of behaviour characteristics relat ive to other cases, were rejected as doubtful. In addition, i t is extreme-l y l i k e l y that a good many cases for whom no school problems were reported, nevertheless had histories of d i f f i c u l t behav-iour in school; these, being less violent and disturbing, escaped attention. Therefore, the number of problems l i s t ed constitutes a very conservative enumeration, and any possible relationship with delinquent behaviour ar is ing therefrom can only err on the safe side. The five types of behaviour l i s t ed in Table 5(b) comprise a consolidation of the ten described above, with truancy added as the f i f t h type. I t i s unfortunate that a similar analysis for a sample of the non-delinquent population i s not available to afford a comparison with the f i r s t offenders. As i t i s , the numbers l i s t ed in the f i r s t column are of l i t t l e value, be-yond the obvious fact that the behaviour problems described 42 as such, and the truants, are evenly distributed. The second and third categories show a s imi la r i ty in the distr ibut ion of problem types, with 50 per cent included in aggression in both instances. However, those cases included in aggression among the repeaters, constitute only 17 per cent of the to ta l , whereas among the Industr ial School cases the number rises to 33 per cent. The reason for this difference results from the fact that 65 per cent of the repeaters who had been trouble-some in school, were truants; this i s true of only 33 per cent of the Industr ial School cases. Table 5(b) Type of Behaviour Jj'irst Offenders Repeaters Industrial School Cases Total Aggressi on 7 4 5 16 Wi thdrawal 9 3 3 15 Nervous disorders 1 0 1 2 Low I.Q,. 6 1 1 8 Truancy 23 15 5 43 Total 46 23 15 84 These percentages indicate that' the Industr ial School cases, i n addition to showing the highest percentage of school problems, also produce the highest percentage of aggressive reactions. I t i s probable that these are the cases which, lacking adequate treatment, continue the pro-cess of progressive development to more extreme levels of 43 delinquency. I t i s not known why any given individual re-sorts to one form of behaviour,, in preference to another, as a means of satisfying emotional needs I but i t i s logica l to assume t W , aberrant behaviour being largely the result of emotional confl ic t , the more violent behaviour indicates the greater confl ic t . I t then follows that the children showing the more aggressive reactions are generally more disturbed, than those who resort to withdrawing reactions, or to other patterns. There appears to be a gradation of emotional dis-turbance, which follows the same l ine of progressive develop-ment as delinquency and school behaviour. In other words, the seriously unhappy or emotionally disturbed child i s l ike -l y to be excessively aggressive in school; i n early adoles-cence he i s l i k e l y to begin a pattern of delinquent behaviour, which in turn i s l i k e l y to develop into a clearly defined criminal pattern. The Relationship with Delinquency. There were 133 records out of the to ta l 164, which included school information of any consequence; of these cases, 51.2 per cent were found to have been behaviour pro-blems at some time i n their school careers. The majority of the school reports were given by principals , who are general-ly aware only of the more serious d i f f i c u l t i e s . This i s par-t i cu l a r ly true of the larger schools and the majority of the delinquents studied, came from schools having an enrollment of over 300, several over 500 and one over 900. Therefore, the figure of 51.2 per cent, substantial as i t may be, must 44 be considered as somewhat lower than might be expected, with more thorough school study. This assumption i s borne out by the results of a study quoted by Garrison, in which he states that, "school fa i lure appears to be more highly correlated with the incidence of delinquency than i s any other condition, including poverty, broken homes, absence of religious associa-tion or truancy." 1 In this instance school fa i lure connotes fa i lure i n emotional adjustment, as well as academically. I t conforms closely to the defini t ion of problem behaviour given above, except that a dis t inct ion i s made between fai lure and truancy. The percentage of school problems among the delin-quents in this study, increases di rect ly with the degree of delinquency, as defined by numbers of court appearances and increasing severity of court disposition. Whereas 45.1 per cent of the f i r s t offenders had school records involving pro-blem behaviour, this percentage increases to 59.6 per cent for the repeaters, and 71.4 per cent for those having been committed to Industr ial Schools. Once again these figures may be considered to be too low. I t i s probable that the percentages would be considerably higher, i f there were more detailed investigation. This i s further indicated by the fact that in a l l the records of the repeaters and Industr ial School cases which included social h is tor ies , there was speci-1 Garrison, Ka r l C. , The Psychology of Adolescence. New York, Prentice-Hall , 1946, p. 24. 45 f i c mention of one or more types of problem behaviour. Un-fortunately, only 17 per cent of the repeaters' records, and 24 per cent of the Industrial School cases, carried socia l h i s to r i es. Consideration of the actual percentages derived from this study, appears to indicate a suff ic ient ly posi-tive relationship between delinquency and school behaviour, to warrant further study. More than two-thirds of the ex-treme delinquent group could have been identif ied as pos-s ible pre-delinquents, at some time prior to the point of overt conflict with the law. At least half of a l l the de-linquents, repeaters or otherwise, could probably have been recognized, studied, and treated where necessary. I t must be borne in mind that such recognition i s dependent upon the a b i l i t i e s of school personnel; i t would be much more ef-fective under the direction of people trained to recognize and cope with emotional problems. With f i r s t offenders, among whom the relationship between delinquency and d i f f i c u l t behaviour in school drops to 45 per cent, the need for earl ier treatment, though ob-viously important, i s somewhat less urgent than for the more extreme delinquent group; with the la t te r , corrective mea-sures have thus far proven to be of l i t t l e effect. A sub-s tant ia l number of the delinquents appearing i n court for the f i r s t time, are awarded a term on'probation; this treat-ment i s considered successful i f the offender carries out the conditions of probation, and refrains from further offences 46 for that period. The permanence of this success i s a matter for conjecture at this point, since no follow-up studies for this area are available. I f probation, as a form of treat-ment, i s less successful than i t appears to be at the moment, then early recognition and treatment i s equally as urgent for a l l delinquents, regardless of the extremity of their behaviour. In any case, i t would be preferable, more ef-fective, and more economical, to apply treatment before the chi ld ' s behaviour has become so serious that -the court must intervene. The economy of prevention, as expressed i n terras of dollars and cents, may be the strongest argument for i t s adoption i n present day society! the economy in salvaged human resources should nevertheless be i t s prime, motivation. The f e a s i b i l i t y of prevention, as an effective method of dealing with juvenile delinquency, depends of course upon early recognition and treatment. The elementary school offers great poss ib i l i t i e s in finding troublesome children before they become delinquent, i f a program and i t s f a c i l i t i e s can be brought down to the school l eve l . How to recognize the pre-delinquents i n the mass,of children attending school, constitutes the f i r s t major pro-blem i n prevention. The results of the present enquiry show that d i f f i c u l t or troublesome behaviour, including truancy, i s related to delinquency. Many of the delinquents studied, were described by their school principals and teachers, as having been behaviour problems in school! this category in -47 eludes a number of characteristics a l l of which were dis t inct and easily recognizable. In examining the extent of problem behaviour in the school backgrounds of the delinquents, i t was found that 51.2 per cent of the to ta l sample had been reported in the court records for such behaviour. This percentage increases to 59.6 for repeaters, and reaches 71.4 per cent in those cases whi ch were sent to the Industr ial School. I t appears evident that the incidence of past troublesome school be-haviour increases di rect ly with the degree of delinquency. Judging from these figures, and i f appropriate measures are taken, i t may be possible to find and treat more than two-thirds of the extreme cases before they actually become de-linquent, and more than half of a l l the children who are brought before the Juvenile Court. 48 CHAPTER FOUR EARLY RECOGNITION IN SCHOOL Many of the delinquents with which t h i s study i s concerned, were described by t h e i r teachers as having been behaviour problems i n school. This term includes a number of cha r a c t e r i s t i c s which set the c h i l d , thus l a b e l l e d , apart from h i s class. The descriptions of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , or types of behaviour, i n the court records, were adequate enough to suggest some connection between troublesome be-haviour i n school and subsequent delinquency. However, they are not s u f f i c i e n t l y detailed to provide an understanding of causes and effects J the elements of behaviour, as they were mentioned, could easily be a set of unrelated a t t r i b u t e s . The v a l i d i t y of the preventive argument i n this study depends upon evidence that the characteristics which comprise "problem behaviour" are not only recognizable as such, but are integrated into a pattern; the pattern must be established as part of the developmental sequence of delinquency, from i t s source i n emotional disturbances, to the ultimate clash with the law. I t must be shown that the kind of school behaviour t y p i c a l of many delinquents, springs from the same base as delinquency i t s e l f . Pursuing this reasoning further, investigation was carried into the elemen-tary schools. To begin with, a sample of twenty oases was 49 selected from those court records which made some reference to d i f f i c u l t school behaviour. The selection was based upon age and present school attendance. I t was decided to obtain the necessary information f o r the youngest delinquents, and those s t i l l i n school, i n order to avoid excessive reliance upon facts r e c a l l e d by teachers from past experience! the selection was also designed to concentrate the study at the e a r l i e s t stages of the boys' careers. The twenty cases were traced to t h e i r respective schools, thanks to the co-operation of the Bureau of Measure-ments. Children who had been transferred recently were traced to t h e i r former schools. Several came from very mobile fa m i l i e s and had attended as many as s i x di f f e r e n t schools; i n these cases, one year's acquaintance with the chil d by a teacher, was set as the minimum period necessary to an acceptable assessment of behaviour. The number of children from any one school did not exceed four. This small sampling of cases was ac t u a l l y widely scattered, geo-graph i c a l l y ; no less than thirteen schools, representing most of the s o c i a l areas i n the c i t y , were included i n the sample. A questionnaire, supplemented by interviews, was used to obtain d e t a i l s of the problem behaviour mentioned i n the court records. This information was not accepted as v a l i d unless i t described characteristics which were c l e a r l y ft Appendix A. 50 a t y p i c a l to the group concerned, and persistent. A t y p i c a l "behaviour which was not persistent, i n this instance over a period of at least one year, was not accepted as a problem type. Table 6. Delinquents C l a s s i f i e d by Age and Grade Sample Group, Vancouver Elementary Schools, November, 1948. Age Grade Total 3 4 5 6 7(b) 8 9(a) 10(a) 10 1 1 2 11 3 3 12 1 1 2 13 1 2 1 4 14 1 2 1 1 5 1 5 * 1 2 1 4 Total 1 1 6 3 2 3 3 1 20 A Includes two cases aged sixteen. These were included owing to an i n s u f f i c i e n t number being available at the lower age l e v e l s . (a) Information obtained from the elementary schools previously attended. (b) The oases i n the Junior High grades seven and eight were i n schools combining these, and the elementary grades. This i s a small experimental sample, and i t s pur-pose i s to i l l u s t r a t e the nature of the problem i n i n d i v i -51 dual terms. I t w i l l be most h e l p f u l to separate the oases by-reference; to t h e i r l e v e l s of i n t e l l i g e n c e . The d i s t r i b u t i o n i s , broadly, what might be expected. There were f i v e cases with low i n t e l l i g e n c e ratings, ten of average a b i l i t y , and f i v e varying from s l i g h t l y above average to high. The f i r s t f i v e were o r i g i n a l l y considered behaviour problems on the basis of low I.Q. alone, and the need f o r more detailed d i s -cussion was indicated f o r this reason. The f i v e cases at the high l e v e l are also presented i n some d e t a i l , as special problems of adjustment may be present here as we l l as with the low group. The remaining ten cases are discussed as a more t y p i c a l group, but some emphasis i a placed upon excep-t i o n a l points. Problems of Low Mentality Two of the f i v e boys with low i n t e l l i g e n c e ratings were not described, i n the court reoords, as having been troublesome i n th e i r school behaviour. For the purposes of thi s study, they were considered p o t e n t i a l behaviour pro-blems when forced to compete academically i n normal classes. More detailed investigation tends to support t h i s assumption. John A., a boy of thirte e n , i n grade s i x , had an I.Q. of 88, His physical appearance was slovenly and d i r t y , to the point of being offensive. I t was said that he was not working to capacity, but with an I.Q. of 88 i t i s d i f f i c u l t to estimate what h i s capacity should be. He was lazy, dishonest, uninterested and careless. His teacher mentioned that he often t r i e d to be help-f u l i n classroom duties, but oould not be trusted to accomplish anything unless closely supervised. In contrast to these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , he was described as an enthusiastic partic i p a n t i n music classes, and appeared to enjoy the singing. * 52 The problem i n this case appears to be an ordinary example of academic f r u s t r a t i o n . Paced with excessive demands upon li m i t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l resources, the boy responded by with-drawing emotionally, and occasionally p h y s i c a l l y , from the area of c o n f l i c t . He attempted to derive some s a t i s f a c t i o n from achievement i n less d i f f i c u l t pursuits, such as class-room duties and music periods. The former was not highly rewarding, but apparently the music provided an outlet f o r accumulated tension. I t was easy for him to j o i n with the group i n the simple classroom melodies, and compete on the same l e v e l as those about him. I t was the one point i n the day's work i n which he could claim the status of equality! h i s enthusiasm t e s t i f i e d to the enjoyment he experienced. His unfavourable physical appearance may be i n d i c a t i v e of parental neglect, but according to the teacher t h i s was not the case. I t may be that the boy was not able to appreciate the s o o i a l s ignificance of personal cleanliness and, i n ad-d i t i o n , lacked the incentive to emulate the standards of h i s classmates. William B. , a boy of sixteen, with an I.Q,. of 7 9 , was reported i n the court record as a truant. School i n -vestigation revealed that h i s mental handicap was ag-gravated by a c u l t u r a l factor. The school p r i n c i p a l was f a m i l i a r with h i s family background, and placed considerable emphasis upon the influence of a grand-mother who was reputed to be of German extraction, and " a n t i - B r i t i s h " i n her attitudes. In addition to the p o s s i b i l i t y of culture c o n f l i c t , the s i t u a t i o n was further complicated by the parents' divorce! the mother was said to be contemplating remarriage to a man who promised to "make the boy toe the mark." The boy's school behaviour was described as a n t i -s o c i a l , i n that he consistently ignored rules and refused to conform to the standards observed by the 53 class as a whole. He was r e b e l l i o u s , and i n c l i n e d to be insolent, although the l a t t e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was said to be less evident than i n 1945, when he f i r s t arrived i n Vancouver. His academic record was poor. I t i s to the school's credit that v i s i t s were made to the home as a r e s u l t of this oonduct, but the s i t u a t i o n at the time of the enquiry re-mained unchanged. Frustration i s evident again, but here with a d i f f e r e n t response. The c o n f l i c t between i n t e l l e c t u a l incapacity and normal study requirements, enhanced by an apparently adverse s o c i a l conditioning by the grandmother, resulted i n sharply aggressive conduct. This was not improved by suppressive measures. I t i s not s u r p t i s i n g that the v i s i t s made by the teacher to the home were i n e f f e c t u a l . The problem suggests ramifications which are not within the province of a school teacher, nor could they be expected to improve with one or two v i s i t s . The t h i r d case shows a somewhat s i m i l a r pattern of academic f r u s t r a t i o n and consequent aggressive response. I t i s that of George M. , a .twelve year old boy with an I.Q. of 86. He was noted as being moody and according to the p r i n c i p a l of this school, h i s moods were d i r e c t l y related to home d i f f i c u l t i e s . He was i n c l i n e d to be domineering i n games, extremely quick-tempered and violent i n the face of competitive opposition. He was excessively interested i n morbid stori e s of crime and violence; i t was apparent that he used h i s acquired knowledge i n this f i e l d as a means of achieving status, through posturing.as a would-be gangster. In h i s studies he was described as a "defeatist," e a s i l y upset by d i f f i c u l t i e s and unable to concentrate. The term "capacity" was used, with the implication that more achievement was demanded of the boy than he was mentally capable of producing. This problem requires l i t t l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n regarding the 54 displacement of the aggressive reaotion, from i t s source i n the classroom, to the physical outlets of the playground. The relationship between the reactions evident i n both areas i s obvious, the eruption occurring i n the less i n h i b i t e d en-vironment. Mike A., was sixteen years of age with an I.Q.. of 83. The problem here was a t r i f l e more extreme i n i t s overt manifestations. Evidence of emotional distur -bance was obvious i n persistent tension, violent temper and sporadic f a c i a l t i c s . He was unable to cope with any kind of study, without a great deal of i n d i v i d u a l attention. He was characterized by a f a i r l y consistent depression, vAiich was occasionally broken by excessive e l a t i o n over minor achievements on the playing f i e l d . Surprisingly enough, he was often truant from manual, t r a i n i n g classes. .. A home v i s i t made by the teacher i n t h i s case contributed nothing i n the way of improvement, but added the s i g n i f i c a n t information that the boy had an a l c o h o l i c father, and a mother who was bemused with her own troubles. The pattern here i s less obvious and should not be i n t e r -preted too f r e e l y on the basis of the available information. The same condition of f r u s t r a t i o n i s evident but the reactions are less uniform than i n other cases; there are aggressive and withdrawing tendencies, with the suggestion of a form of anxiety neurosis. No explanation i s available for h i s fear or d i s t a s t e of manual t r a i n i n g , which seemed to be the only source of truancy. On the whole, the case warrants some concern, and with further i n v e s t i g a t i o n may be found to re-quire p s y c h i a t r i c help. Jack R., a boy of twelve, had an I.Q. of 78. In ap-pearance he was-unkempt and poorly dressed, although there was no evidenoe of economic d i f f i c u l t y i n the home. His academic record was poor. In the class-room he was excessively shy, l i k e d to day-dream much of the time, was moody and rather stubborn when c r i t i -o 55 oized. He waa often absent from school, but since he had excuse notes from h i s mother, he was not t e c h n i c a l l y a truant. An unverified report des-cribed him as a " b u l l y " and "show-off on the play-ground but h i s teachers could not vouch f o r t h i s . His behaviour was never s u f f i c i e n t l y troublesome to warrant concern i n the school and one teacher stated that, "considering h i s background and I.Q,. we f i n d he i s more to be p i t i e d than censured too harshly." His behaviour characteristics were not considered s i g n i f i c a n t . This i s another example of a withdrawing reaction to the extreme f r u s t r a t i o n suffered by those whose mental capacity i s not equal to normal demands i n school. The pattern i s clear enough to delineate the problem, but the most i n -t e r e s t i n g aspect of t h i s b r i e f description i s the attitude of the teachers; i t i s one ishich offers sympathy i n the guise of understanding, but leaves the basic issue untouched. The significance of the behaviour disorders out-li n e d i n these f i v e cases i s obvious with a diagnostic ap-proach. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the f i r s t two were not s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned i n the court records as behaviour problems ; none of the f i v e were considered s u f f i c i e n t l y 8erious to warrant r e f e r r a l elsewhere. The High Mentality Group The f i r s t of this group, Martin L., was a fourteen year old boy with an I.Q. of 114. This case was found to be a t r i f l e more complicated than the majority, owing to a severe physical handicap. Martin was described as a boy of s l i g h t physique. He waa affli.cted with an osteopathic condition which led to h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n some time af t e r h i s court appearance. In addition, there were traces of epilepsy i n the family. 56 At the time of the enquiry, the ch i l d was under treatment for t h i s disorder which was diagnosed as a r e l a t i v e l y minor p e t i t mal. His school be-haviour was not s a t i s f a c t o r y and h i s academic work was considered w e l l below hi s a b i l i t y . He was a day-dreamer and consistently tended to consort with younger children. The physical f a c t o r was probably basic to the emotional con-d i t i o n which blocked t h i s child's school progress, toward achievement i n l i n e with h i s a b i l i t y . This i s c e r t a i n l y indicated by h i s behaviour symptoms i n the classroom and h i s conduct on the playground. However, regardless of the pre-dominance of h i s physical d i s a b i l i t i e s , the fact remains that there was an emotional c o n f l i c t which produced d e f i n i t e symptoms within the school. William D., a boy of f i f t e e n with an I.Q. of 111, was a more d i f f i c u l t problem. William's academic record verged upon f a i l u r e from grade s i x . At that time he began to neglect h i s home-work, refused to apply himself i n school and was frequently l a t e . There was some truancy. He was impertinent to h i s teachers and appeared to make a conscious e f f o r t to be obnoxious. The school counsellor was of the opinion that "the boy was t r y i n g to a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n H e described him as a "screwball" because he could f i n d no reasons for the boy's behaviour. P h y s i c a l l y he was pale, under-weight and generally under-developed. L i t t l e was known of this boy's family or background, which might have explained the behaviour so bewildering to the ' counsellor. The fact that the present pattern developed quite suddenly, immediately suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y of a • disturbing factor which was extraneous to the school. The shock which precipitated the e r r a t i c a l l y aggressive be-haviour probably occurred within the boy's family r e l a t i o n -57 ships. Whatever the basic causes, nothing was done either to diagnose or to treat the t o t a l problem. The t h i r d case i s i n t e r e s t i n g . The boy's teacher, aware of negative home influences, minimized the evident problem beoause there was no d i s c i p l i n a r y f actor involved. A l l a n S., had a reputation among hi s teachers of being "bright." Apparently he evinced an interest i n h i s work, but was noted for a tendency to wander from any point under discussion, into w i l d l y exag-gerated and highly imaginative s t o r i e s . His teacher recognized t h i s , as well as a tendency to be exces-s i v e l y generous, as attention-getting mechanisms* he was of the opinion that attempts to suppress these p r o c l i v i t i e s were showing some success. There was no improvement i n the boy's work. The symptoms i n t h i s case are less well defined than i n the majority of those studied, and might e a s i l y escape the at-tention of a teacher, p a r t i c u l a r l y since the boy was not troublesome i n class. The characteristics displayed are of v l i t t l e significance by themselves but when analyzed as a pattern, i n conjunction with known adverse features i n the home, they become s i g n i f i c a n t . The case of Lawrence T., eleven years old with an I.Q,. of 1 0 1 , was less c l e a r l y defined. In physical appearance, Lawrence was rather pale and obese! there was no reference to the p o s s i b i l i t y of glandular disorder. His academic record was average. There was no discernible problem i n the classroom, but h i s behaviour on the playground seemed s i g n i f i -cant. He was noticed to be consciously sociable, but waa not l i k e d by the children to whom his over-tures were extended. Hia teachers did not know why t h i s boy waa not accepted by hia claasmates, but thought that he was over-eager to make friends. Ap-parently h i s own enthusiasm was h i s downfall. His studies were not affected to any extent; he waa d i f -ferent i n the classroom only as he was thought to be t r y i n g to a t t r a c t attention to himself quite often. Information i n this case was limited and therefore interpre-t a t i o n would he premature. The d e t a i l s available here, point to a poor s o c i a l adjustment which might hinge upon a number of factors, many of them rooted elsewhere than i n the school. Such a problem may he d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y i n the school, but i t i s not less worthy of ooncern because i t i s non-academic i n character. Greater a n a l y t i c a l awareness on the part of teachers would render such problems both s i g n i f i c a n t and recognizable. The f i n a l case i n this group was not reported i n the court record as a behaviour problem of any kind. Gordon R. , eleven years of age with an I.Q,. of 108, had an average academic standing. His work i n school was careless and haphazard. He was described as ego-t i s t i c a l and immune to ordinary d i s c i p l i n e . His teacher was concerned about him as a boy who was a l e r t to every opportunity to "get away with some-thing;" when caught he was extremely g l i b i n h i s ex-cuses. He was aware of the "difference between right and wrong" but the concept had no meaning f o r him as i t has with the average child. He was described as "a law unto himself" with few moral scruples, i f such a term may be applied to a ch i l d of eleven. This pattern i s suggestive of a deeply-rooted emotional dis-turbance which cannot be elaborated without further i n f o r -mation. I t i s s u f f i c i e n t to emphasize that the behaviour pattern outlined here has grave implications, school opinion notwithstanding. The Average Group The remaining ten cases follow a s i m i l a r pattern with i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s ; they do not contribute s u f f i c i e n t l y to the theme of the present study to warrant s p e c i f i c 5 9 recounting. Without exception, a l l twenty cases i n the sample exhibited behaviour characteristics which were cl e a r l y a t y p i c a l . Some of these were obvious, and several were re-cognized as symptomatic by the teachers concerned, but under the circumstances l i t t l e could be done. Other cases of less apparent disorder were either misinterpreted, or rated as nuisances and endured as such. An example of misinterpretation of behaviour i s offered by the case of Tommy J . , a fourteen year old boy who l o s t a leg i n an accident, several years ago. Tommy's parents were described as co-operative but accepting of the school only as a necessity; they were, apparently, co-operative within the l i m i t s prescribed by the School Attendance Act. The family attitude toward the school, and society i n general, was said to be based on pride, and con-comitant rejection of outside help. The boy him-s e l f , an average student, was described as "brave" and was sincerely admired by the teachers who knew him. The p r i n c i p a l said that he "faced and conquered h i s handicap" without assistance, ^apparently i n the family t r a d i t i o n . But the evidence implied by his behaviour suggests otherwise. He was usually quiet and reserved, but showed bright anger i n response to sympathy. He cried when given or offered concessions because of his handicap. When h i s emotions were roused he stammered, and i n certain instances became temporarily i n a r t i c u l a t e . In the presence of others he was noticeably shy. hi s apparent independence and refusa l of sympathy or assis-tance were interpreted as evidence of courage! explaining t h i s analysis, the p r i n c i p a l remarked that the boy's a t t i -tude, unless understood, could easily be taken for stubborn-ness. There was no reference to the deep f e e l i n g of inade-quacy, indicated by h i s shyness, and his habitual tendency 60 to withdraw from the group. The physical handicap ac t u a l l y appears secondary to i t s emotional accompaniment. There i s no doubt that t h i s boy was deeply disturbed by h i s feelings of physical i n f e r i o r i t y , but he was conditioned by h i s family experiences to contain h i s emotions. Occasionally the ten* sion burst h i s defences, when sympathetic overtures brought h i s feelings to the surface. The emotional c o n f l i c t between h i s constantly reinforoed conviction of i n f e r i o r i t y , and the drive toward s o c i a l status, eventually found an outlet i n delinquent behaviour. At the moment the prognosis i s none too good. This case i s one which, from any point of view, i s charged with pathos; even t h i s b r i e f exposition includes rather poignant implications of what might have been done, to a s s i s t this boy toward a more e f f e c t i v e understanding and acceptance of h i s physical handicap. Unfortunately, he was not a problem u n t i l ttie court so decreed. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to avoid the r e f l e c t i o n that r e a l i z a t i o n may have come too l a t e . The only case i n the entire sample which appeared to be of doubtful significance as a behaviour problem was that of Danny, a thirteen year old boy, with an I.Q. of 99, i n grade f i v e . Although Danny was not stated to be working below capacity, the age-grade relationship c e r t a i n l y points i n that d i r e c t i o n . Investigation showed that the bioy's mother was an Immature woman who frequently kept the child away from school, on the s l i g h t e s t provocation, when i n school he was poorly dressed and habitually f i l t h y . His behaviour was generally quite good, except that h i s teachers were concerned about h i s manners. He was considered very sociable, with a charming manner; th i s tended to offset h i s unsavoury appearance to some extent. The case suggests neglect i n the home, with a lack of incen-t i v e i n the school and, perhaps, a trace of compensatory ac-t i v i t y i n h i s energetic s o c i a l approach. In any case, the indications of neglect are s u f f i c i e n t l y concrete to warrant some apprehension regarding parent-child relationships. There appears to be l i t t l e doubt that the problem behaviour exhibited i n school by these delinquents was well defined. I t i s equally evident that these symptoms of under-l y i n g emotional c o n f l i c t were, i n a l l cases, allowed to deve-lop unchecked by any coherent attempt at treatment; eventually they found an outlet i n delinquency. However, the c r u c i a l issue i s , whether th i s behaviour i s co-existent with de l i n -quency, or manifests i t s e l f before the chi l d resorts to active law-breaking. There i s l i t t l e to be gained by recognition of delinquent symptoms, i f there i s not s u f f i c i e n t time f o r ap-p l i c a t i o n of intensive treatment p r i o r to active delinquency. The Treatment In t e r v a l The average period between the appearance of de-f i n i t e problem behaviour i n the school, and the f i r s t known delinquency, i s four years. Many of the delinquents i n t h i s sample had displayed the characteristics considered as pro-blem behaviour, throughout t h e i r school careers. With the exception of one case, they were known to be di f f e r e n t from t h e i r classmates, i n behaviour and attitudes, f o r two or more years, the majority for three years or more. Two of the cases were referred to the Child Guidance C l i n i c at some time p r i o r to t h e i r appearance i n court but, as far as could be determined, the treatment was largely diagnostic. The re-mainder were controlled during t h e i r school hours, and were not considered serious d i s c i p l i n a r y problems. No one can predict exactly, what might have followed early treatment i n these cases, but i t i s quite probable that few of them would have found t h e i r way into the Juvenile Court. Table 7. Interim Period Between Outbreak of Problem  Behaviour i n School and F i r s t Delinquency Sample Group, Vancouver Elementary Schools, November, 1948. Outbreak of Problem Behaviour Date of F i r s t Offence "Average Interirr Period i n Tears 1946 1947 1948 1939 1 7.0 1940 1 8.0 1942 1 2 3.6 1943 1 4 4.B 1944 2 1 3. 3 1945 1 3 2.8 1946 2 2.0 1947 1 * 1.0 Average Interim Period for Sample 4.05 years. it Two boys were transferred to Vancouver schools from other areas i n the province. D i f f i c u l t behaviour was evident i n school upon a r r i v a l . 63 With the possible exception of two, a l l the cases i n the experimental sample were within the treatment area of case work. These two boys showed evidence of marked dis-turbance, and should have had p s y c h i a t r i c assistance with supportive case work treatment. I t i s often claimed that diagnostic and treatment resources are too limited to be used f o r problems such as these. I t appears somewhat r i d i -culous that they are ignored during the period when they may be considered most amenable to treatment. When attention to these children i s f i n a l l y made mandatory by the court, treat-ment i s not only rendered more d i f f i c u l t and cos t l yJ the drain upon the same limited resources i s greater than i f the problems had been dealt with at t h e i r inception. I t i s f a i r l y evident that troublesome behaviour characteristics i n school, t y p i c a l of many delinquents, can be recognized. Many of them are, i n f a c t , noted by teachers. However, r e l a t i v e l y few of these problems are considered from a diagnostic point of view! teachers tend to accept them at t h e i r face value, unless the children concerned are s u f f i c i -ently rebellious or d i f f i c u l t , to be considered as d i s c i p -l i n a r y problems. The re s u l t i s that school behaviour dis-orders, which are ac t u a l l y of a symptomatic nature, remain more or less untreated. A l l of the cases studied, showed clearly defined patterns of problem behaviour i n school a year, or more, before committing th e i r f i r s t offence against the law. The 64 average period between the recognition of such behaviour and the f i r s t delinquency was four years ; there appears to be l i t t l e doubt that t h i s i s s u f f i c i e n t time f o r thorough diag-nosis and intensive treatment. 65 CHAPTER FIVE THE PROBLEM OP THE ACADEMIC APPROACH "Teachers should he sensitive to pupils who ex-perience f r u s t r a t i o n such as economic need, inadequate home surroundings, broken f a m i l i e s , l i m i t e d academic aptitude, low or f a i l i n g marks, school retardation, c o n f l i c t i n g cul-tures and family mobility. The ones who should be referred are those who react to these circumstances or aggravating conditions i n a manner which does not have s o c i a l approval; those who do not belong to any supervised s o c i a l or recrea-t i o n a l groups, bothersome gangs, those who truant, l i e , cheat, destroy property, h i t other children, f a i l i n t h e i r school work or who turn their aggression inwardly upon themselves and become s u l l e n , seclusive and unhappy." 1 This quotation from W. C. Kvaraceus' study we l l expresses the ro l e a teacher might be able to play i n the prevention of delinquency. However, the extent to which teachers f u l f i l t h i s function, i s a matter of t r a i n i n g and opportunity. In the l i g h t of the facts so f a r reviewed, i t i s important to examine i t further at t h i s point. The teacher i n the elementary school cl e a r l y oc-cupies a position of stra t e g i c importance i n the recognition 1 Kvaraceus, W. C. , Juvenile Delinquency and the School. World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, 1945, p. 278. 66 of symptomatic behaviour and i n treatment. The facts so f a r assembled tend to suggest that treatment of behaviour pro-blems i n the school has been largely r e s t r i c t e d to suppres-sion i n the interests of " d i s c i p l i n e . " Education s t i l l seems to be a predominantly academic function; problem behaviour i s of i n c i d e n t a l importance, unless i t constitutes a threat to classroom control. Further, the problems are recognized by virtue of s p e c i f i c a t y p i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; t h e i r emo-t i o n a l implications are largely ignored. Those which are re-garded with appropriate concern, are given inadequate atten-t i o n because of i n s u f f i c i e n t time, lack of f a c i l i t i e s f o r treatment, and li m i t e d s k i l l s and techniques. The i n d i v i d u a l teacher can hardly be c r i t i o i z e d f o r f a i l u r e to exploit her p o t e n t i a l i t i e s i n the prevention, not only of delinquency, but of other expressions of emotional maladjustment which f a l l within the general province of mental hygiene. A teacher who i s charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of guiding from twenty to fo r t y children through an average school curriculum, cannot be expected to treat emotional pro-blems as we l l . She has neither the time nor the r e q u i s i t e s k i l l to cope with them. She can, however, recognize t h e i r symptoms from classroom behaviour, and she may learn to ap-preciate t h e i r implications. Therefore she constitutes an invaluable source of r e f e r r a l . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for treat-ment, on a collaborative basis, must be carried by s p e c i a l i s t s . The major function of school teachers i n a preven-t i v e program, then, i s one of recognition and subsequent re-67 f e r r a l of behaviour problems, to a treatment agency competent to d e a l comprehensively w i t h them. However, r e f e r r a l should not be i n t e r p r e t e d to mean termination of the school's i n -t e r e s t i n the case! on the contrary, the e n t i r e process from r e c o g n i t i o n to s u c c e s s f u l treatment, should be on a c o l l a -b o r a t i v e b a s i s . Thus i t i s p o s s i b l e to make the most ef-f e c t i v e use of the resources a v a i l a b l e i n the sc h o o l , the treatment agency and the community. Such an approach, i n which the s o c i a l worker c a r r i e s the dominant r o l e , i m p l i e s e e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s which a r i s e i n the f u n c t i o n a l sequence of r e c o g n i t i o n , through r e f e r r a l , to u l t i m a t e treatment. Recognition of Behaviour Problems As part of the method of t h i s study, a b r i e f ques-t i o n n a i r e , d e a l i n g w i t h problem behaviour, was used. I t was sent to ten schools i n various s e c t i o n s of the c i t y , ac-cording to a rough e c o l o g i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . The question-n a i r e ^ asked f o r numbers of truants and behaviour problems found i n grades one to s i x , i n c l u s i v e . The number of p u p i l s r e f e r r e d f o r advice or treatment out of the s c h o o l , was re-quested as w e l l . The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between "truancy" and "behaviour problems" was made a r b i t r a r i l y , to conform to the d i s t i n c t i o n observed i n the schools. The purpose of the que s t i o n n a i r e was to make a p r e l i m i n a r y estimate of the ex-tent of problem behaviour as conceived by teaching personnel, the v a r i a t i o n between schools i n t h i s respect, and the use of ft Appendix B. 68 r e f e r r a l to e x i s t i n g agencies. The results were disappointing, even within the l i m i t e d scope of the questionnaire. Three were not returned and subsequent interviews e l i c i t e d the implication that truancy and problem behaviour were non-existent i n these schools. The remaining seven indicated such wide v a r i a t i o n between schools, which were not greatly d i s s i m i l a r - i n the nature of t h e i r populations, that t h e i r v a l i d i t y appeared doubtful. For purposes of analysis, the schools are grouped i n Table 8, according to the s i m i l a r i t y of the d i s t r i c t s from which t h e i r attendance i s drawn. Area 1, the central business section and i t s adjacent r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s , i s noted f o r i t s high delinquency rates* schools A and B are attended by children l i v i n g d i r e c t l y i n this area. School C, i n a more peripheral l o c a t i o n , draws part of i t s attendance from more outlying d i s t r i c t s . The remaining areas reach outwards concentrically from Area 1, to d i s t r i c t s t y p i f i e d by more substantial, single u n i t dwellings and generally higher economic l e v e l s . On the basis of the environmental factor i n delinquency, each school could be expected to re-port figures f o r behaviour disorders s i m i l a r to the others i n i t s group, at least with minor discrepancies. The re-verse i s true f o r Areas 1 and 3, where the schools with the les s e r attendance r o l l s reported f a r greater numbers of pro-blem cases. 69 Table 8. Numbers of Truants and Problem Children i n School Sample of Ten Elementary Schools, Vancouver, October, 1948, Schools Truants Behaviour Problems Totals Area * Attendance i n Grades 1-6 Noted Referred Noted Referred 1 A (583) B (7 44) C (258) 3 12 2 2 0 0 62 16 5 13 7 1 80 35 8 2 D (335) E (647) 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 3 P (638) G (317) 0 1 0 1 0 13 0 6 0 21 Totals 1 8 \ 3 98 27 146 it Area 1 — High delinquency area including central business section and adjacent d i s t r i c t s . Area 2 --- Working class d i s t r i c t extending from Area 1, outwards. Area 3 --- Largely middle class area, but School G draws from a d i s t r i c t which includes a substantial working class element. The r e f e r r a l s which are noted i n the table, were made to the Children's Aid So c i e t i e s , the p r o v i n c i a l Child Guidance C l i n i c , or to the Metropolitan Health Committee. The l a t t e r , administratively related to the school system, operates a guidance c l i n i c under the d i r e c t i o n of the school p s y c h i a t r i s t . Most of the r e f e r r a l s f or p s y c h i a t r i c diag-nosis are made to this c l i n i c . Of course a number of factors enter the s i t u a t i o n here. The p r i n c i p a l s of schools A and G were found to be somewhat over-enthusiast!c i n t h e i r r a t i n g of behaviour pro-blems, and the figures reported must be treated with some re-servation. The report from school B was considered to be a f a i r l y good estimate. The paucity of the results tabulated f o r the remainder of the schools, i s attributed to the f a i l -ure of the school s t a f f s to recognize behaviour problems, unless they have d i s c i p l i n a r y significance. For example, four of the cases included i n the sample of twenty previous-l y investigated i n the schools, are attending school D. The writer discovered at least two more cases of d i f f i c u l t be-haviour, i n a discussion with the p r i n c i p a l . Only one of these s i x cases was reported as a behaviour problem and only f o r d i s c i p l i n a r y reasons; the remaining f i v e were considered annoying, but not excessively troublesome. I t i s probable that more detailed investigation would reveal many more pro-blem cases i n this school, and i n those f o r which very few were reported. The p r i n c i p a l of school G was found to be unusual-l y aware of the symptomatic nature of the type of behaviour discussed, and was extremely co-operative i n assembling the data required. The 21 cases reported for t h i s school are therefore considered a more accurate estimate of the actual number. This f i g u r e , used as a rough c r i t e r i o n to evaluate the reports of the other schools, certainly throws doubt on the reports from schools D, E and F and, to a certain ex-tent, school C. Interviews, subsequent to the return of the questionnaires, indicated a very li m i t e d understanding of the emotional aspects of troublesome behaviour i n these scliooIs. This was also true, but to a lesser extent, i n those which reported a r e l a t i v e l y greater number of d i f f i -cult pupils. The majority of the cases which were reported were rated as d i f f i c u l t , odd or annoying, with l i t t l e to sug-gest r e a l awareness of the p r o b a b i l i t y of maladjustment. In general, the schools tended to define problem behaviour i n d i s c i p l i n a r y terms. I t i s true that a substan-t i a l number of problem cases, which did not include a dis-c i p l i n a r y element, were reported i n the questionnaires. However, many of these were l i s t e d i n response to the i n -cluded d e f i n i t i o n of problem behaviour. Further investiga-t i o n suggested a general lack, of conviction on the part of school p r i n c i p a l s , regarding the actual seriousness of the cases thus rated. This was p a r t i c u l a r l y true of the numerous children who showed withdrawal symptoms r e s u l t i n g from lack of a b i l i t y , lack of incentive, or both. Few of these cases were described as troublesome, and were not considered as " r e a l " problems despite t h e i r being enumerated on the ques-tionnaires. The majority of the pr i n c i p a l s consulted did not concede the p o s s i b i l i t y of there being emotional problems present, to the extent of complying with the questionnaire d e f i n i t i o n . They refused to enter any hut the most "blatantly obvious examples of maladjustment. Therefore, the question-naires are almost certainly unrepresentative of the number of behaviour problems existent i n the Vancouver Elementary Schools* but they do indicate the f a i l u r e of school s t a f f to recognize symptomatic behaviour, except i n the most advanced cases. The treatment of pupils with low i n t e l l i g e n c e ratings offers a s t r i k i n g example of the l i m i t e d extent of recognition i n r e a l , and p o t e n t i a l , behaviour problems,. The example i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t , since cases of t h i s type should be of v i t a l ooncern to the teacher because of the manifest educational problem, aside from the emotional im-p l i c a t i o n s . There was an obvious relationship between be-haviour and mental inadequacy evident i n many cases, p a r t i -c u l a r l y the f i v e who were studied i n the schools; i n spite of t h i s , there was no i n d i c a t i o n that the high degree of f r u s t r a t i o n experienced by these pupils was appreciated to any extent. None of these f i v e was i n a special class. Three of the t o t a l sample of 164 court cases were enrolled i n special classes. In t e l l i g e n c e ratings were not ava i l a b l e f o r the t o t a l number, but i t i s highly probable that there were more than f i v e children i n the sample, who were e l i g i b l e f o r s p e c i a l class treatment. Discussions with the Attendance Officers and the school psychologist, sug-gested that some pupils of low i n t e l l i g e n c e cannot be placed i n these classes because of overcrowding. I t seems apparent that those, who are l e f t to struggle along i n normal classes are the least troublesome of the t o t a l group, as f a r as' t h e i r behaviour i s concerned. I f overcrowding i s a v a l i d reason f o r inadequate sp e c i a l class treatment, then selec-t i o n of candidates on such a basis may be tenable. However, i t should not mean that the children l e f t behind by the sele c t i o n should thereafter be more or less ignored. Another reason f o r f a i l u r e to place some of the mentally handicapped children i n classes designed to meet t h e i r needs, i s that parents often refuse to grant permis-sion f o r such placement. This i s a frequent reaction of parents who are often too proud to have t h e i r c h i l d i n a s p e c i a l class. This may well be so, but i t leaves unanswered the question of parent-child relationships i n such a situa-t i o n , and the need of a service which might be able to ef-fe c t a readjustment i n parental understanding and at t i t u d e s . This problem of recognition was not unanticipated, by any means, and the reasons are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . Des-p i t e the growing emphasis i n professional education c i r c l e s upon i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n , the teacher i s s t i l l concerned large-l y with a heavy syllabus of studies; and, for that matter, with a system of d i s c i p l i n e s designed to insure mass progress toward a pre-determined academic goal. The c h i l d must absorb a certain quantity of learning i n a given time; and i n the process, he must conform to a number of rules and regulations intended to f a c i l i t a t e i t . Non-conformity must frequently be suppressed i n the interest of the group progress toward a minimum standard of academic achievement. The teacher's re-putation hinges upon her a b i l i t y to advance the bulk of her class beyond t h i s standard a t the end of each year. Unfor-tunately, her success as a teacher i s s t i l l measured larg e l y i n terms of academic success or f a i l u r e . Whether those suc-cesses are also well-adjusted personalities i s Incidental. F a i l u r e s are of no great consequence except i n numerical terms, when they exceed the acceptable quota. There are exceptions among both p r i n c i p a l s and teachers of course, but the majority appear to be carrying on with a streamlined version of the system which, years ago, was devoted to the three MR's." In classroom practice, the concept of personality dynamics i s not followed to any appreciable extent. The s i t u a t i o n i s due, i n great part, to i n s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g i n psychology and also to the func-t i o n a l i n e r t i a which i s common to a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The i n -adequacy may be overcome by greater emphasis upon dynamic psychology i n teacher t r a i n i n g ; but t h i s must undoubtedly be supplemented i n practice by demonstration of the constructive effects of treatment, i n cases which are now either ignored or suppressed. Ref e r r a l of Behaviour Problems I t may seem anomalous that r e f e r r a l should be dis-cussed, af t e r discounting the effectiveness of school teachers i n the recognition of these cases. However, several schools reported r e l a t i v e l y large numbers of d i f f i c u l t children, with the assistance of the d e f i n i t i o n of problem behaviour included i n the questionnaire. The same method may be used to encour-age i n i t i a l r e f e r r a l s . I t i s true that r e f e r r a l s w i l l leave much to be desired, i f they are based only on certain speci-f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , without any depth of understanding. However, pending the development of greater i n s i g h t by the teachers, i t seems to be the only e f f e c t i v e substitute. Otherwise, a treatment program may be delayed, f o r the sake of preliminary education of school s t a f f s , with l i t t l e as-surance that i n t e r p r e t i v e p u b l i c i t y would produce concrete r e s u l t s . I t would be of great advantage to make a thorough i n i t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s o c i a l worker's ro l e . The teachers could then be conditioned to insight and under-standing,, through active p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the treatment pro-cess. Referral made simply according to d e f i n i t i o n might w e l l produce i n f l a t e d responses, s i m i l a r to that of school A, which would require considerable screening. This minor hazard must be accepted u n t i l r e f e r r i n g teachers develop suf-f i c i e n t understanding, through successful practice, to do th e i r own screening. At any rate, an excessively i n c l u s i v e volume of r e f e r r a l would be a p o s i t i v e rather than a negative f a u l t ; i t would at least ensure recognition of the serious cases. The major operational problems to be encountered i n r e f e r r a l are largely psychological although i t must be ad-mitted that time i s an important f a c t o r ; curriculum pressure i s generally quite heavy upon the teacher. F a i l u r e to ap-preciate the emotional implications of problem behaviour, often precludes recognition by the school a u t h o r i t i e s , of the need for r e f e r r a l to treatment agencies. I f i n i t i a l re-f e r r a l s may be encouraged on the basis of a broad d e f i n i t i o n of problem behaviour, successful expansion, and perhaps even the continued existence of a treatment program, must wait upon proof of effectiveness. Several p r i n c i p a l s who were consulted on th i s point did not appear to be greatly impres-sed with the results achieved through some r e f e r r a l s already made* these children had been sent to various s o c i a l agencies and the ps y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c s of the Metropolitan Health Com-mittee, and the p r o v i n c i a l government. I t must be pointed out that these cases were generally extreme problems with long developmental h i s t o r i e s . Successful treatment depends, to a great extent, upon early contact. S o c i a l workers may offer the t r a d i t i o n a l reason of i n s u f f i c i e n t time and resources to cope with such r e f e r r a l s , and the c l i n i c s may suggest a lack of workers to carry out recommended treatment» but some scepticism appears to exist i n the schools regarding the use of r e f e r r a l f or case work treatment. Some ind i c a t i o n of this appears i n the discre-pancies between numbers of problems and r e f e r r a l s , reported, i n the questionnaire. An additional reason i s that teachers, as well as other groups, tend to expect rapid and spectacu-l a r results from r e f e r r a l s , without due appreciation f o r the complexities of the problems involved. 77 A further problem to be considered, arises from a f a i r l y general attitu d e among pr i n c i p a l s which may be des-cribed as a "vested i n t e r e s t " i n the i r schools. This problem i s a common administrative phenomenon wherever departmentali-zation exists. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n this case, only as i t hinders r e f e r r a l of problems and subsequent treatment. For example, p r i n c i p a l s are reluctant to refer cases of truancy to the attendance o f f i c e r s , because they wish to cope with the i r own problems within the school; there i s the addi t i o n a l factor of the monthly s t a t i s t i c a l report which may be mis-construed as uncomplimentary to the school administration, i f too many cases are referred f o r treatment. The same attitude appears to obtain with respect to the few r e f e r r a l s of behaviour problems which are currently made to the c l i n i c s , and Children's Aid Societies, a f t e r the school has f a i l e d to effect an improvement. Referrals are generally made as a measure of l a s t resort and not on the basis of diagnosis, and need f o r intensive treatment. The same phenomenon appears to be evident on a reduced scale, i n the classroom. Referrals which should proceed from the source of trouble, to the p r i n c i p a l and then f o r treatment, may be blocked by the teacher who prefers to dispose of her own problems; at least u n t i l they become unmanageable. Be-cause there i s l i t t l e recognition of the emotional basis of problem behaviour, and the need f o r specialized attention, the problem i s considered an educational one, and i s retained by the teacher concerned. Many factors contribute to this 78 a t t i t u d e , most of them a r i s i n g from usage and the t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of function within the school. None of them are insurmountable; nor need they occasion undue concern. Treatment The problems examined i n t h i s study, and others which may be anticipated, f a l l within the treatment area of case work; ps y c h i a t r i c assistance i s recognized as essential for the r e l a t i v e l y small percentage of cases which may be expected to require such treatment. This report i s not i n -tended to deal with the case work process, but rather with the major problems which might be encountered i n i t s applica-t i o n . Once a case of d i f f i c u l t behaviour has been i d e n t i f i e d and referred f o r case work treatment, the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y rests with the case worker. The degree of collaboration be-tween the worker and the teacher which may be required i n treatment, depends upon the nature of the case; but i t must exist to some extent i n a l l cases referred. The problem here i s the impact of p e r s o n a l i t i e s , both concerned with a common problem, but from di f f e r e n t ap-proaches. Once again the onus i s upon the s o c i a l worker, as a s p e c i a l i s t invading the hitherto undisputed j u r i s d i c t i o n of another profession. The task c a l l s f o r understanding and tact of the highest order, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n those cases of problem behaviour i n which the teacher herself may constitute part of the problem. This d i f f i c u l t y , and others which may be encountered i n treatment, are too intimately concerned with practice, i n a l l i t s variations and modifications, to be dis-7 9 cussed at length, here. They must he met and dealt with as they a r i s e , i n a developing treatment program. Perhaps a l l the obstacles, those stated and others implied, might be included i n the broad problem of interpre-t a t i o n . School teachers, as wel l as other professional groups are not s u f f i c i e n t l y aware of the functions, the objectives and the s k i l l s of case work, to offer any degree of accep-tance without a good deal of preliminary education. A capable job of int e r p r e t a t i o n p r i o r to, and i n the course of a pre-ventive treatment program, i s essential to assure e f f e c t i v e functioning! without tnorough understanding of such a pro-gram, school co-operation cannot be expected, at least to the extent required i n intensive treatment. Referrals and subsequent p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n treatment by school teachers, must be made v o l u n t a r i l y , on the basis of confidence i n the program. A study of treatment for truancy conducted at Smith College i n 1945, found that r e f e r r a l s made v o l u n t a r i l y rather than a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y , were successful much more f r e -quently owing to the more spontaneous co-operation of the teacher concerned. ^ The same study also proved the greater effectiveness of e a r l i e r r e f e r r a l s . I n i t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , followed by demonstration, must be reinforced by a prolonged educational e f f o r t by case workers. School resources must be developed to the point 1 Jerech, M. , "Some Factors i n the Treatment Outcome of Adolescent Truants Referred to a Child Guidance C l i n i c , " Smith College Studies i n S o c i a l Work, vol . 16, Sept., 1945-june, xy-a©, smitn uciiege, Mass. 80 where teachers may i d e n t i f y and refer problems on a more ana-l y t i c a l basis. A preventive program functioning i n the school system of Passaic, New Jersey, includes "a servi ce-training program to acquaint teachers with a mental hygiene point of view and to b u i l d a common philosophy of education centered around the i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l . " 1 Such a task might well prove more d i f f i c u l t than the treatment of the predelinquents f o r whom the program i s designed, but i t cannot be ignored. I t becomes more and more evident that the key to success l i e s i n demonstration. The alleged emphasis upon i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of ap-proach and the study of personality i n educational theory, apparently has not produced marked results ; nor has the basic philosophy of the average teacher changed to any ap-preciable extent. The c r i t e r i o n of success i n education i s s t i l l l a r g e l y on academic standards, with other values i n -cidental. Kvaraceus stated i n the report of the Passaic study that, "very l i t t l e progress has been made i n the d i r e c t i o n of evaluating learning i n terms of desirable changes i n behaviour." ^ Perhaps the attempts to make such progress have been too abortive, and too t h e o r e t i c a l , to have had much effect on teachers already absorbed i n a highly challenging task. When the teacher i s given the opportunity 1 Kvaraceus, W, C, , Juvenile Delinquency and the School. World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, 1945, p. 205. 2 I b i d . . p. 299. 81 to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the treatment of the problem c h i l d she has r e l u c t a n t l y r e f e r r e d , and has witnessed the r e s u l t s of suc-cess w i t h the understanding imparted by thorough i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n , wholehearted co-operation w i l l be assured. The f e a s i b i l i t y of such an approach has been re-cognized elsewhere. A report concerning experiments i n C a l i f o r n i a , given before the 1947 N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work s t a t e s ! We have encouraged school people everywhere to take t h i s step, since-we b e l i e v e that the school must act as a " f i n d i n g " agency f o r those c h i l d r e n who show maladjustment i n the e a r l y years, and that i t must take the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y p l a n of adjustment so that c h i l d r e n do not have to break i n t o j a i l i n order to have t h e i r problems re-cognized. 1 I t i s not necessary to agree that the school should be alone r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g plans of adjustment, but the p r i n -c i p l e of the r e p o r t i s c l e a r l y i n order. The elementary school o f f e r s tremendous p o s s i b i l i -t i e s as a source of r e f e r r a l of c h i l d r e n w i t h behaviour pro-blems. I t a l s o c o n s t i t u t e s a valuable p o t e n t i a l resource i n c o l l a b o r a t i v e treatment. However, there are c e r t a i n inade-quacies i n the school which must be considered, p r i o r to the f o r m u l a t i o n of a treatment program. The major problem i s 1 S t a r k , H.G., "Prevention and Control of Delinquency i n C a l i f o r n i a , " Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Conference,.nof  S o c i a l Work. A p r i l . 1947. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1948, p. 390. 82 concerned with the present fai lure of school staff to recog-nize problem behaviour as symptomatic of emotional maladjust-ment, or worthy of concern, u n t i l i t becomes extremely dis-turbing. Referrals of these cases to guidance c l in ics and social agencies are generally made as a last resort, after the school has fa i led to effect any improvement by haphazard treatment. The inadequacy of recognition i s often supple-mented by an administrative reluctance to refer an obvious problem outside of the school i t s e l f . The d i f f i cu l t i e s associated with recognition, re-fe r ra l and subsequent treatment, are largely the result of l imited understanding, not only of the behaviour problems, but of the functions and potent ia l i t ies of social case work. A l l of these can be dealt with constructively by preliminary interpretation of an educational nature, with emphasis upon the need for a collaborative approach. Interpretation must be supplemented, i n the long run, by demonstration of succes-sful treatment i n which the referring teacher has participated. 83 CHAPTER SIX CURRENT EXPERIMENTS IN DELINQUENCY CONTROL Recent years have produced a large variety of theories, plans and programs, designed to deal with Juvenile delinquency. Periodic "waves" of youthful crime, whether r e a l or imaginary, have never f a i l e d to stimulate wide dis-cussion of ways and means to curb these trends. The solu-tions which have been advocated, from time to time, have not always heen sound i n theory; many which have been put into practice, have f a i l e d to produce results commensurate with t h e i r objectives. However, they a l l add to an extensive ex-perimental background for this study. A number of the most widely favoured programs have been selected f o r discussion at t h i s point. I t i s not pos-s i b l e to deal with a l l the proposals which have attracted public i n t e r e s t . However, the programs which have endured on the basis of l i m i t e d success, and those which are cur-rently i n favour, f a l l into one or more of the types out-l i n e d below. These are evaluated largely i n terms of t h e i r preventive content, although other aspects are not e n t i r e l y ignored. The majority of control measures, those proposed and those now functioning, place heavy emphasis upon, pro-bation and group treatment, or combinations of these two methods. Some of the more elaborate programs attempt to 84 co-ordinate probation and community group ac t iv i ty , with a region-wide system of ins t i tu t iona l treatment for the more serious cases. A l l the schemes examined purported to be either preventive i n character, or had formulated preventive objectives. I t seems evident that prevention i s now a major issue i n the f i e l d of delinquency control. Probation The Saskatchewan Penal Commission defined proba-t ion as a form of disposition of accused persons by the m court. I t suspends f i n a l judgment and instead of commitment to a penal or correctional ins t i tu t ion , i t provides treat-ment while the offender continues to l i v e i n the community under conditions imposed by the court and under the super-vis ion of a probation officer. I f the offender f a i l s while on probation to meet the conditions l a i d down by the court, he i s subject to return to the court for further disposit ion. '" l One of the major reasons for the continued existence of probation in i t s t radi t ional form, i s i t s status as an ad-junct of the court. Society i s s t i l l generally primitive i n i t s approach to an t i - soc ia l behaviour. The court constitutes an instrument through which that attitude i s implemented; probation, as a creation of the court, i s accepted by society as the log ica l agency to administer correction on an authori-tative basis. Theoretically, i t s effectiveness as a means of 1 Report of the Saskatchewan Penal Commission. King's Pr inter , Regina, 1946, p. 31. 85 control i s open to serious question; i t i s only invoked a f t e r conviction f o r one or more offences. In practice, success i n 80 per cent of a selected c l i e n t e l e i s generally claimed, out this f igure i s based upon success f o r the period of probation. The writer i s not aware of any studies which have attempted to assess the long-run effectiveness of probation on t h i s con-ti n e n t ; but English experience with parole, shows a rate of recidivism which increases d i r e c t l y with the time i n t e r v a l a f t e r discharge from treatment.^* Success under treatment i s ce r t a i n l y not synonymous with success i n a more permanent sense. Probation i s not e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y as an ef-f e c t i v e method of delinquency control, because i t a r b i t r a r i l y waits f o r f u l l development of delinquent behaviour. I t has been evaluated by Healy and Bronner i n p o s i t i v e terms; w,., i t has been so amply proven that attempts to curb delinquent careers by juvenile court procedure i s , i n general, extremely disappointing i n r e s u l t s . " 2 A s i m i l a r opinion was expressed more recently by Kvaraceus i n h i s report of the Passaic ex-periment i n preventive work; The Juvenile court serves a r e a l function i n the community. I t has not, however, demonstrated any superiority i n the f i e l d of case study and treat-ment when working by i t s e l f , or i n co-operation with c l i n i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , which has not been matched or improved upon by agencies working through channels 1 Healy, W., and Alper, B.S. , Criminal Youth and the  Borstal System. The Commonwealth Pund, New York, 1941, p.222. 2 Healy W. , and Bronner, A.P. , New Light on Delinquency  and I t s Treatment. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1936,p.141, 86 other than those of the police and the j u r i d i c agency. 1 This study, though not concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y with an evalua-t i o n of probation, tends to show that i t i s largely f u t i l e i n treatment of the more serious cases, which show a long h i s t o r y of emotional disturbance. In favour of probation, i t must be granted that much of the impetus gained by ef f o r t s concerned with pre-vention has, paradoxically enough, sprung from this method which, by d e f i n i t i o n , must wait f o r a c h i l d to become d e l i n -quent before treatment i s applied. Unfortunately, the major-i t y of the plans allegedly aimed at prevention, have not yet developed beyond the point of improving upon methods of con-t r o l . They have l e f t genuinely preventive e f f o r t to annual statements of future goals. However, the process of evolu-t i o n toward prevention has resulted i n various improvements i n the treatment of delinquency and crime which warrant some comment. Healy and Bronner recommended the establishment of a non-judicial t r i b u n a l , to prescribe treatment a f t e r adjudi-o cation of the fact of delinquency by a court. . Such a mea-sure was designed to remove d i s p o s i t i o n of cases from the authoritarian and punitive atmosphere of the court! though i t 1 Kvaraceus, W. C. , Juvenile Delinquency and the School. World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, 1945, p.195. 2 Healy W., and Bronner, A.P. , New Light on Delinquency  and I t s Treatment. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1936, p. 223. 87 d i d not preclude the use of probation, i t did provide f o r i t s use on a treatment basis. Since 1936, ishen Healy and Bronner endorsed t h i s idea, i t has been implemented to some extent, and i s now i n operation i n several areas of the United States. The plan i s best exemplified by the programs now functioning i n the States of C a l i f o r n i a and Minnesota. The C a l i f o r n i a Youth Authority This plan - was established by l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1941, with the avowed objective to "prevent or decrease delinquency among youths." The authority i s a commission of three mem-bers, appointed by the Governor of the State with the ap-proval of the senate, who are solely responsible f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , segregation, and parole of persons committed to i t . By law i t "has j u r i s d i c t i o n over a l l persons under 21 who are g u i l t y of public offences, and i n the opinion of the court, need some kind of treatment and t r a i n i n g beyond the f a c i l i t i e s of the l o c a l community." I t has a state-wide or-ganization including diagnostic f a c i l i t i e s , a variety of treatment i n s t i t u t i o n s , and research sections devoted to pre-vention, probation, and parole. The l a t t e r include advisory functions available to l o c a l probation and parole agencies. In operation the Youth Authority i 3 concerned large l y with i n s t i t u t i o n a l treatment of offenders committed 1 The Youth Authority. "Organization and Program." State of C a l i f o r n i a , C a l i f o r n i a State P r i n t i n g Office, Sacramento, 1945. 8 8 to i t s care by the courts. In spite of the broad powers under which i t was established, i t has l e f t much of the pro-bation services to established court organizations. Thus f a r i t has r e s t r i c t e d i t s probation a c t i v i t i e s l a r g e l y to advisory and standard-setting functions. In e f f e c t , i t i s an attempt to co-ordinate i n s t i t u t i o n a l correction on a treatment, rather than a punitive basis, and i n that respect i t has registered considerable sucoess. The work of the preventive section of the Authority has stressed community organization f o r the creation, or improvement, of group a c t i v i t i e s and recreational f a c i l i t i e s through community councils. This section i s intended to work toward one of the major purposes of the Authority which i s , "to attack delinquency and crime as t o t a l s o c i a l problems, through co-ordination of l o c a l communities i n understanding and dealing with the conditions that produce orime at t h e i r source." The p o t e n t i a l merits of t h i s approach w i l l be dis-cussed below, i n conjunction with the "group a c t i v i t y " idea i n prevention. The Minnesota Youth Conservation Commission The Commission i s s i m i l a r i n objectives to the C a l i f o r n i a Youth Authority, but varies i n several administra-t i v e respects. 1 The provisions of the Youth Conservation Act s t a t e : 1 The Youth Conservation Commission. State of Minnesota, State Office Bldg., St. Paul, Minnesota, Oct., 1947. 89 The Commission s h a l l be charged with the duty of developing constructive programs for the preven-t i o n and decrease of delinquency and crime among youth, and to that end s h a l l co-operate with existing'agencies, and encourage the establishment of new agencies, both l o c a l and state-wide, having as t h e i r object the prevention and decrease of de-linquency and crime among youth; the commission s h a l l a s s i s t l o c a l authorities of any county or municipality, when so requested by the governing body thereof, i n planning, developing, and co-ordinating their educational, welfare, recreational and health a c t i v i t i e s , or other constructive com-munity programs, which have as t h e i r object the Conservation of Youth. The Commission consists of f i v e appointed members, two of whom must be the Director of P u b l i c I n s t i t u t i o n s , and the Chairman of the State Board of Parole; one of the re-maining three must be a judge of a Juvenile or probate court. I t s program objectives are s i m i l a r to the C a l i f o r n i a Youth Authority regarding diagnosis, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and treatment, but the membership of the commission required by law, implies a less progressive approach. In operation the plan i s less coherent than i t s C a l i f o r n i a counterpart; j u r i s d i c t i o n i s subject to acceptance of cases by the Commission, and con-currence by the courts. A court may commit a case to the Commission i f i t so desires, providing the Commission has s i g n i f i e d i t s willingness to acoept committal. The law does not provide f o r mandatory j u r i s d i c t i o n as i n C a l i f o r n i a , where the Youth Authority must accept i n s t i t u t i o n a l commit-t a l s and has the organization to deal with them. The Minne-sota plan, instead of establishing a super-imposed treatment authority over the e x i s t i n g l e g a l structure, has merely drawn together, on a permissive basis, e x i s t i n g correctional func-90 tions and agencies. As an advisory and co-ordinating body i t undoubtedly has merit, but i t s structure c e r t a i n l y suggests a less progressive element than the C a l i f o r n i a plan. In general i t amounts to a r e - s h u f f l i n g of e x i s t i n g agencies with l i t t l e added to ins p i r e constructive deviation from the "status quo." For example, subdivision 24 of the Youth Con-servation Act states ' This Act s h a l l not be construed to give the Commission control over e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t i t u t i o n s or agencies; or to require them to serve the Commission inconsistently with t h e i r functions or with the author-i t y of t h e i r o f f i c e r s or with the laws and regulations governing t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . The Minnesota plan proposes a preventive approach generally s i m i l a r to the C a l i f o r n i a Youth Authority; the greater emphasis i s on group a c t i v i t i e s and community plan-ning/ Reference i s made to education against crime, without de f i n i n g or explaining t h i s somewhat nebulous objective. The Newport Hews Project A more l o c a l i z e d approach to prevention on an ex-clu s i v e , rather than an adjunctive basis, i s being conducted i n Newport Newp,Virginia. 1 I t s purpose i s to bring together a l l f e d e r a l , state, and l o c a l agencies to plan toward pre-vention and control of delinquency; the federal and state functions are largely f i n a n c i a l and advisory, with the conduct 1 MA Community Plans for i t s Children," Newport News, V i r g i n i a , Project, U.S. Children's Bureau. Federal Security Agency, 1947. of the project l e f t to l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t i s proce-eding on a premise sim i l a r to those of the C a l i f o r n i a and Minnesota plans, namely, that the solution to the problem rests with community s o c i a l and recreational programs. The need for i n d i v i d u a l services i s granted recognition, but the implication of the stated objectives i s that improved and modified group programs constitute the answer to the problem. The plan has not been i n operation long enough to permit evaluation. The Group Approach The preventive aspects of many programs of de l i n -quency control are based upon group a c t i v i t y , l a r g e l y i n the form of recreation. The trend appears to be toward the formation of community councils for the purpose of pro-v i d i n g more, and better, agencies designed to provide stimu-l a t i n g l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s . The present study does not deny the obvious merit of such plans i n a long term program of community e f f o r t , i n the gradual improvement of many en-vironmental factors which often contribute d i r e c t l y or i n -d i r e c t l y , to certain forms of delinquent behaviour. However, the value of a program predominantly concerned with re-creation, as a preventive influence i n delinquency, i s open to question. An i n d i v i d u a l , predisposed toward delinquent be-haviour f o r emotional reasons, i s not l i k e l y to be a-member of an organized s o c i a l group, Kvaraceus found i n h i s study that 40 per cent of the general c h i l d population participated 1 92 i n the a c t i v i t i e s of youth organizations; only 8 per cent of the delinquents belonged to such groups. 1 Non-membership i n these organizations may be considered a symptom of the same condition which i s indicated by certain forms of troublesome behaviour i n school; i t i s not an i n d i c a t i o n that membership i s a preventive. To many delinquents, and to most of the more extreme group, the s o c i a l pressures of the group pro-bably constitute more of a threat than an aid. These c h i l d -ren have never known the security of genuine relationships at the family l e v e l . The c h i l d must learn to walk before he can run, emotionally as well as physically. I t i s doubt-f u l i f the youth organizations can reach pre-delinquent children on a s u f f i c i e n t l y i n c l u s i v e basis to be considered as preventive agencies; i n addition, they are not equipped to deal with the emotional factors from which the delinquent motivation arises. There i s a further aspect to the group approach which warrants discussion at t h i s point; i t i s the idea of group treatment. Kenneth Wollan, director of the Ci t i z e n -ship Training Program of the Boston Juvenile Court, a highly 2 organized group a c t i v i t y project, has done a great deal i n th i s f i e l d . In discussing the theory of group a c t i v i t y i n 1 Kvaraceus, W. C. , Juvenile Delinquency and the School. World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, 1945, p.119. 2 Wollan, K.I., "The Citizenship Training Program of the Boston Juvenile Court," National Probation Association Year-book, 1941, Ed., Marjorie B e l l , Nat. Prob. Ass., New York, p. 386. 9 3 r e l a t i o n to delinquency, he stated that, "we can more-over look, to group a c t i v i t y , i f widely applied, as a promising preventive i n supplying that enrichment of l i f e , the absence of which i s causing delinquent behaviour." ^ Wollan's be-l i e f i n group a c t i v i t y as a preventive, i s based upon a con-cept of delinquency as s o c i a l immaturity; the delinquent "has not developed the t y p i c a l s o c i a l i n h i b i t i o n s and i s self-centred, p r i m i t i v e , and aggressive." 2 Through trained leadership and the influence of the group, such an i n d i v i d u a l presumably learns to develop a more acceptable pattern of s o c i a l behaviour. The subject of group treatment i s being studied currently by G.F. Hamilton i n h i s work with a delinquent gang i n Vancouver.^ The gang i s accepted as a group and treat-ment i s based upon the po s i t i v e factors i m p l i c i t i n the re-lationships between i t s members. Treatment seeks to effect a constructive re-direct!on of the gang mores and l o y a l t i e s . Wollan's concept of the delinquent as a s o c i a l l y immature i n d i v i d u a l appears to be applicable i n Hamilton's study as wel l . 1 I b i d . 1 9 3 8 Yearbook, p. 245. 2 I b i d , p. 244, 3 Hamilton, G.F., The Delinquent Gang i n the Community. Thesis presented i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 4 9 . 94 There i s no doubt that many delinquents may he con-sidered s o c i a l l y immature I they might he termed untrained with equal accuracy, or may he considered as inadequately so c i a l i z e d . For such individuals the group treatment idea undoubtedly has great p o s s i b i l i t i e s . However, the present study i s primarily concerned with the hard core of d e l i n -quency which has thus f a r f a i l e d to respond to the many forms of treatment indiscriminately applied, including the group idea; tne delinquents with backgrounds marked by emo-t i o n a l disturbance of varying degrees, who resort to de l i n -quent behaviour as aggressive r e t a l i a t i o n or as an uncon-scious means of s a t i s f y i n g emotional needs. These children cannot and w i l l not accept the group. They must be treated on an i n d i v i d u a l basis. It f lmust be granted that group treatment recognizes i n d i v i d u a l needs and seeks to treat them. The s k i l l e d group leader, aware of a child's i n a b i l i t y to meet the s o c i a l de-mands of the group, may develop a closer relationship with him; through that medium he may work toward a more s a t i s -factory s o c i a l adjustment f o r the c h i l d d i r e c t l y within the group. The treatment process then depends upon a case work approach within the group setting. I t seems more l o g i c a l to apply in d i v i d u a l i z e d treatment f i r s t , with the object of en-couraging voluntary group p a r t i c i p a t i o n a f t e r the c h i l d i s ready to accept i t . The group process may then be used as a supplement, to a s s i s t the c h i l d toward a more ef f e c t i v e s o c i a l adjustment. Such a plan i s based upon the same prin-ciple of social izat ion which obtains i n the normal develop-ment of a chi ld , from his primary relationships i n the family, through immediate neighborhood expansion, to broader community contacts. The group treatment idea seems to be, to some extent at least , a reversal of this pr inciple . A comprehensive preventive program should recog-nize that delinquents vary individual ly i n the same manner as more normal children. A systematic method of finding the child who, by virtue of his behaviour or circumstances, may be considered a pre-delinquent, should be followed by selec-t ive treatment based upon careful diagnosis. In many cases group treatment may be indicated as the most log ica l solu-tion to the problem! i n other cases a collaborative technique involving combined individual and group treatment may be the best course to fol low; many cases would require intensive individualized treatment followed, when necessary, by group part icipation as a soc ia l iz ing influence. Treatment of the pre-delinquent implies the utmost use of a l l community re-sources, but on a discriminating basis. The child who might become a delinquent must be found, examined, and treatment prescribed on the basis of individual needs. The group ap-proach does not take sufficient account of systematic f inding, and of variations i n individual needs, to be ac-cepted as an effective method of prevention, except on a supplementary basis. Simply to state that a child i s social-ly immature does not indicate the need for group treatment. The reasons for such immaturity must determine the nature of 96 subsequent treatment and these reasons can only be discovered through individual study. There i s some reason, then, to doubt the efficacy of the group treatment idea as a preventive influence i n delinquency. The community organization concept, which often erupts i n the form of group ac t iv i ty programs, has been con-sidered i n similar terms, but this may not be entirely f a i r . This study i s concerned with the immediate problem of pre-vention; the problem which demands effective action i n the next f i ve , ten or twenty years. On the other hand, the com-munity planners may be thinking i n long range terms; i f so, their arguments may be accepted, insofar as their plans are concerned with the gradual amelioration of the environmental factors i n delinquency. I f community organization, through the creation of community councils, intends to work for bet-ter housing, higher levels of socia l security, better leisure-time ac t iv i t i e s and a gradual adjustment i n socia l inequali-ties relat ive to race, re l ig ion , economic levels and so forth, then i t may be considered a preventive measure. Such was the theme of the recommendations made by the Saskatchewan Penal Commission i n i t s report of 1946. 1 However, i t i s one which can only take effect over a long period of time and i s actually i n the process of deve-lopment now. I t has been considered by this study as inef-1 Report of the Saskatchewan Penal Commission. King's Pr inter , Regina, 1946, p. 4. 97 f e c t i v e f o r the immediate future; but as a complementary-measure, and one to add permanency to short-run plans, i t i s indispensable. In accordance with the p r i n c i p l e s outlined by the Archambault Report, those programs concerned with treatment of delinquency a f t e r i t has developed, must be rejected as inadequate. The juvenile court, and co-ordinated i n s t i t u -t i o n a l programs, have a d e f i n i t e function to perform i n those cases which require more d r a s t i c treatment; this should be a r e s i d u a l , not a major function of a comprehensive pro-grarn^ There are several objections to the methods larg e l y concerned with group a c t i v i t y . Experience has shown that those children whose emotional development has been inade-quate, are not attracted to organized s o c i a l groups. Also, the group concept i s a deterministic approach to a problem of many facets, of which the i n d i v i d u a l personality appears to be the only common denominator. The only genuinely preventive programs currently i n e f f e c t , are those which are connected with the school, and attempt to f i n d and treat the c h i l d who gives evidence of some form of maladjustment, before he begins breaking the law. The V i s i t i n g Teacher A number of communities i n C a l i f o r n i a have made ex-tensive use of the v i s i t i n g teacher i n an attempt to esta-b l i s h preventive measures i n the control of delinquency. 98 The v i s i t i n g teacher, trained i n s o c i a l case work and educa-t i o n , "brings together the two professions i n an attempt to recognize and treat emotional problems i n school. 1 This i s undoubtedly a progressive step i n the f i e l d of mental hygiene, as w e l l as i n education, but there appears to be some reason to doubt i t s effectiveness i n the prevention of juvenile de-linquency. This i s not to say that the idea i s not sound; i t has produced promising results and holds great promise fo r the future. The question at this point i s whether i t may be considered adequate to the problem of prevention, of which the school i s only one aspect. The idea i s excellent, from an eduoational point of view. Children rcho are unable to adjust to the school, the teachers, or t h e i r studies, f o r emotional reasons, should have the benefit of trained services to help them meet these problems. However, the prime function of the v i s i t i n g teacher l i e s within the school, and i s largely concerned with as-s i s t i n g the ch i l d toward a better academic adjustment. The present study views the school as an important part of the child's l i f e , but at the same time i t recognizes the fact 1 Stark, H. G., "Prevention and Control of Delinquency i n C a l i f o r n i a , " Proceedings of the National Conference of S o c i a l  Work. A p r i l , 1947, Columbia University Press, New York, 1948. 2 Thomson, Mary, The S o c i a l Worker i n the School. Thesis presented i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for the Degree of Master of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1948. 99 that the school i s only one of many areas of p o t e n t i a l con-f l i c t . The emotional pattern of the pre-delinquent c h i l d , which often manifests i t s e l f i n many forms of a t y p i c a l school behaviour, almost invariably has i t s roots i n the child's primary relationships. The d i f f i c u l t i e s manifested i n the classroom and on the playing f i e l d are symptoms of c o n f l i c t which arises outside of the school. I t i s probable that treatment of emotional problems, f o r the purpose of improving school performance, w i l l have a salutary effect i n other areas as we l l as the school, i n many cases, where diagnosis indicates a family problem, i n addition to the school symptoms, the v i s i t i n g teacher de-pends upon r e f e r r a l s to outside agencies for treatment not d i r e c t l y associated with the school problem. A substantial number of the pre-delinquents have unsatisfactory family re-lationships. Therefore, i n r e l a t i o n to the problem of pre-delinquency, the v i s i t i n g teacher appears to be another l i n k i n the chain of p a r t i a l l y correlated agencies which have, thus f a r , f a i l e d to achieve results of any great magnitude. As an improvement upon educational techniques, the v i s i t i n g teacher program i s excellent. As a method of pre-vention, i n juvenile delinquency, i t seems to lack comprehen-siveness and i s dominated by the philosophy, and the academic demands of the school. I t i s , i n effect, a piecemeal ap-proach to the problem of the pre-delinquent c h i l d ; a problem which i s concerned with helping a child to make the best use of h i s mental, physical, and emotional resources i n a l l spheres of a c t i v i t y , not only i n the school. The v i s i t i n g teacher can be an invaluable aid i n f i n d i n g and t r e a t i n g the pre-delinquent c h i l d ; but her major function l i m i t s her effective-ness i n a program which must view the school as one part of the.child's s o c i a l pattern. The Passaic Plan Perhaps the most ef f e c t i v e plan of prevention available f o r study, i s the one currently i n operation i n 1 Passaic, Hew Jersey. The present study owes much to the Kvaraceus report of the Passaic project. O r i g i n a l l y organi-zed to deal with delinquency, the program has branched into prevention, with results which appear to be encouraging. A treatment bureau was established i n 1940 under the admini-s t r a t i o n of the Assistant Superintendent of Schools. The s t a f f included a p o l i c e captain, a police woman, two atten-dance o f f i c e r s with case work experience, a f u l l time psy-chologist, a p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l worker, and a p s y c h i a t r i s t available f o r consultation. The Bureau receives r e f e r r a l s from the Passaic Schools, and also from s o c i a l and recreational agencies. Prom that point, the process follows the orthodox routine of medical and psychological examination of the referee, s o c i a l h i s t o r y investigation and case conference. The con-Kvaraceus, W. C. , Juvenile Delinquency and the School. World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, 1945. 101 ference i s attended by a l l concerned i n treatment, including the p r i n c i p a l and teacher, i f the school has made the refer-r a l . Conference recommendations give due recognition to the necessity f o r an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d approach, and base treatment upon the s p e c i f i c needs of the c h i l d referred. P u l l use of a variety of community resources lends v a r i a b i l i t y and f l e x i -b i l i t y <to the treatment program. The school i s an active agent throughout. During the past several years, greater emphasis has been placed on prevention. Teachers have been encouraged not only to recognize symptomatic behaviour, but to keep cumulative records of problem cases. Consistent e f f o r t has been maintained to stimulate e a r l i e r r e f e r r a l s to further ensure success i n treatment. A committee of teachers has been set up to study s p e c i f i c problems of academic d i f f i -c u l t i e s , and to arrange curriculum revisions where necessary* The effectiveness of the Passaic program i s indica-ted by a marked decrease i n the delinquency and crime rate, as reported i n police s t a t i s t i c s during the f i v e years f o l -lowing i t s establishment. The most encouraging i n d i c a t i o n i s that repeaters are comparatively rare, and the majority of cases were handled not more than twice. Unfortunately, no Bureau s t a t i s t i c s are available to provide f o r an objec-t i v e assessment of the program's value, but the conclusions based upon police reports certainly suggest that the plan has j u s t i f i e d i t s existence. There are several objections to the Passaic plan. 102 The f a c t that i t i s administered by the Assistant Superinten-dent of Schools implies the same c r i t i c i s m s made i n connec-t i o n with the v i s i t i n g teacher. A preventive program i n v o l -ves specialized treatment s k i l l s and techniques. I t should be administered by a person competent i n that f i e l d . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to see how such a program can develop to i t s maxi-mum p o t e n t i a l under an administration largely concerned with academic objectives. The i n c l u s i o n of po l i c e personnel on the s t a f f of the Passaic Bureau, while o f f e r i n g some advantage, also raises-the philosophical issue. I t i s true that such an ar-rangement permits a treatment conditioning f o r the po l i c e s t a f f , otherwise concerned with detection and apprehension, but the conditioning i s a re c i p r o c a l process; i t might tend to decrease the emphasis upon a purely treatment approach, i n the interests of protection. The significance of t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s evident i n the fa c t that the po l i c e personnel are responsible to the mayor, rather than to the Director of the Bureau. The Passaic plan combines work with delinquents and pre-delinquents as w e l l , although the emphasis i s being placed increasingly on the l a t t e r category. While t h i s ob-j e c t i o n may he v a l i d i n i t s e l f , on the grounds that a dual function tends to impair e f f i c i e n c y i n both parts, i t i s con-sidered i n conjunction with the point made above, regarding the i n c l u s i o n of po l i c e o f f i c e r s . I t i s possible that a trained policeman may be s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e to function as a law o f f i c e r and a case worker simultaneously, granted t r a i n i n g i n both areas! but the s i t u a t i o n offers grave doubts regarding, the l a t t e r function. The p o t e n t i a l influence of the "police a t t i t u d e " on the t o t a l program warrants some concern as well. The police are concerned e s s e n t i a l l y with protection, and bear a d i s t i n c t obligation i n that respect to the community. The case worker's prime r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s centered upon the i n d i v i d u a l . The effectiveness of a r o l e r e q u i r i n g a compromise between the two functions may be questioned. A review of current methods of delinquency control shows that the majority conoentrate upon the delinquent c h i l d ! few seek to reach children before they become d e l i n -quent. The only programs which have applied genuinely pre-ventive measures, are associated with the school. A number of plans which purport to be preventive, base t h e i r approach upon community organization of recrea-t i o n a l and l e i sure-time resources. These have been described as group a c t i v i t i e s ! they include programs currently offered by group work agencies, and those planned to provide con-s t r u c t i v e outlets f o r the energies of the less priveleged children. The trend of organization i s toward the forma-t i o n of community councils to expand and co-ordinate these e f f o r t s . The group a c t i v i t y concept i s rejected by this 104 study as a preventive measure, except i n long run terms. The community must organize i t s resources to attack the basic environmental factors i n delinquency but th i s i s a slow process; i t can only be preventive i n terms of many years. This study i s concerned with the formulation of a preventive plan to meet the immediate problem; the problem of the hundreds of young people who enter j a i l s and peni-t e n t i a r i e s every year to complete t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n crime; the tragedy of the boys and g i r l s who were neglected during the period i n t h e i r l i v e s when treatment might have had some effect. This problem requires constructive action now, not i n f i f t y or a hundred years. 105 CHAPTER SEVEN A PROGRAM OUTLINE FOR VANCOUVER The establishment of a program designed to offer preventive services to the pre-delinquent ch i ld , poses a vast array of problems with which this study cannot presume to deal. Many questions of v i t a l importance must be worked out i n actual operations, during the experimental phase of the program. Others, which are largely administrative, must be considered at this point. The present study has indicated the urgent need for earl ier treatment of the child who be-comes delinquent; i t has also suggested how the pre-delinquent child may be found before he breaks the law. The next step must offer concrete proposals regarding the organization of services to implement a comprehensive preventive program. Several assumptions which arise from the study ap-pear to be basic to program organization. The preventive treatment service should be divorced administratively from the Juvenile Court, and also from the school. The treat-ment agency should be i n a posit ion to make the greatest possible use of community resources, to meet the variable needs of the pre-delinquent chi ld more effectively. Since the school, and i t s staff, should be active agents i n the treatment process, the school should be i n a strong advisory position i n the formulation of operating pol icy. The nature of the work to be done, and the quality of services essential 106 to effective operation, place i n i t i a l operation on an experi-mental basis. I t follows that delinquency prevention should be a private agency function. The immediate problem i s whether a specialized agency should be created to work i n close con-junction with the schools, or whether existing services may be rendered adequate to the problem, through reorganization or re-direction. The creation of an entirely new agency raises a number of issues, of which financing i s not the least disturbing. Established agencies, engaged i n work of great importance to the community, have never been vexed with the problem of surplus funds; a new agency might possibly aggravate an already grave f inancia l s i tuation. A further problem l i es i n functional over-lap; i t i s possible that a new agency, created to accept referrals from the schools for case work treatment, might be duplicating services already i n existence. This poss ib i l i t y becomes a v i r tua l certainty i n Vancouver, where the Children's Aid Society and the Family Welfare Bureau offer the services required i n a pre-ventive program. Both of these agencies have been performing a l imited preventive function for some time; the Children's Aid Society has rendered effective service to children referred from the schools, and the Family Welfare Bureau has done s imi la r ly i n the f i e l d of family services. Unfortunately, these referrals have not been made on a systematic basis. The schools have generally sought aid i n cases which show a 107 long history of development. When they f i na l l y reach the agencies, success i n treatment i s often rendered somewhat problematical. .Referrals have not been made as-part of a comprehensive treatment program, but rather as a measure of last resort. Certain referrals involving treatment for the chi ld , and family services as we l l , have resulted i n administrative confusion between the two agencies regarding functional ju r i sd ic t ion . There i s no doubt that the neces-sary resources and services are i n existence; the problem becomes one of co-ordination. The school with i t s functions of recognition and referral must be linked with the two agencies! the case work services must then be made available on a coherent basis, within one broad functional jur i sd ic-t ion . Organization As a f i r s t step i n the provision of a broad treat-ment program, i t appears that the Children's Aid Society and the Family Welfare Bureau should be amalgamated under a single administration, with functional d iv is ion maintained on a de-partmental basis. Services could then be made available to the pre-delinquent child on a much more f l ex ib le basis. Uni-f ica t ion of services would permit greater ease of referral from the schools, a more comprehensive intake process, and the provision of specialized services without the former frustrations involved i n crossing functional l ines . The present study does not propose to outline the details of amalgamation, or to suggest a specif ic type of 108 administrative structure. However, there are two changes which might he suggested at this point. The Children's Aid Society i s operating a foster home and adoption program, through i t s Child Placing Department, which has long been established as an essential child welfare service. Poster home placement and adoption, can no longer be regarded as essentially private agency functions. Therefore, i t i s suggested that these functions be transferred, to some ex-tent at least, to the provincial Child Welfare Divis ion . I t i s doubtful i f total transfer of services should be contemplated at this time. I t i s true that the standards of service of the provincial department, as measured by quality of personnel, have improved to the point where trans-fer would probably involve l i t t l e , i f any, loss. However, there i s s t i l l ample room for experimentation i n these f i e l d s , and for that reason the Society should retain a sub-s tant ia l responsibi l i ty i n both areas. Limited curtailment of services, rather than complete transfer, would also per-mit the Society to retain i t s charter under the Protection of Children Act , with the authority and scope of operations essential to effective functioning of a preventive program. The res t r i c t ion i n the Society's foster home and adoption a c t i v i t i e s , would permit a re-direction of admini-strat ive and personnel energy toward experimentation i n i n -tensive case study and treatment of the pre-delinquent ch i ld , within the to ta l program. This might be extended in the direction of psycho-therapeutic treatment under psychiatric 109 direct ion, not only for the more disturbed cases, but as a definite treatment technique for the majority of the children requiring individual attention. This idea i s not or ig ina l to this study, by any means. The Society has already launched an experiment i n the use of play therapy lo r dis-turbed children, s>nd has produced some gratifying results . I t i s also aware of the need for more intensive case work treatment for children suffering from varying degrees of emotional disturbance. The second change which seems to be indicated at this point i s concerned with staff. There should be a larger number of male workers available for work with pre-delinquent children; the present study and many others have shown that the majority of delinquents are boys. The family work department should have a greater number of male workers as wel l , to meet the needs of those cases where a more ef-fective working relationship with the client may be esta-blished by a male case worker. Agency-School Liaison The functions of early recognition and referral of pre-delinquent children by the school, are basic to the suc-cess of the whole enterprise. Therefore, the development of a keen awareness of the emotional implications of certain forms of school behaviour by school staffs i s essential. In addition, the school pr incipals , teachers, and counsellors, should be active participants i n the treatment process. 110 These aspects of the program may he developed through co-operation between workers and teachers i n the operation of the program, but the cult ivation of systematic recognition and referral from the school requires some guidance from a higher l eve l . I t i s suggested that a committee of the Board could be formed, to study the many problems associated with the t raining of teaching personnel i n the emotional impli -cations of behaviour, and with the f a c i l i t a t i o n of referrals from the school to the agency. Recommendations could then be made to the Board, to be implemented through the formula-t ion of working pol ic ies . Since the program should be closely geared to the school system, the committee should include substantial representation from the school administration, and from teaching staffs as wel l . This does not constitute a departure from accepted practice and therefore should not be d i f f i c u l t to achieve; several members of the c i ty ' s teaching staff are already active on the Board of Directors of the Children's Aid Society. Further representation from the Board of School Trustees and the schools should be en-couraged, and concentrated i n the membership of a Delinquency Prevention Committee. The Committee might include a representative from the supervisory staffs of both agencies, or departments, as they would be termed i n an amalgamated structure. This ap-pears to be a somewhat unorthodox suggestion, but deviations from accepted administrative practice are not necessarily I l l unsound. The purpose of such a step would he to create a tangible l ink between policy and service, as i t affects the cl ient . I t i s granted that the Director of the agency, as an ex offi clo member of a l l committees formed by the Board, may f u l f i l l this function. However, the Director i s s t i l l too far removed from client service i n the administrative hierarchy, to exert the desired effeot. A supervisor, more d i rec t ly responsible for the quality of services rendered, i s i n a position to exert constructive influence upon policy to this end. I t seems advisable at this point to suggest a mem-bership i n the Committee, i n which the school representa-tives have the balance of power. This idea may have some merit i n directing a good deal of responsibi l i ty for a pre-ventive program toward the schools; i t may result i n greater interest and ac t iv i ty by the teachers. With representation from the School Ejoard, from school principals and teachers, the Committee would bring together representatives of a l l administrative levels i n the school system and the agency. Thus i t would be enabled to work out sound compromise re-commendations for policies which would not only recognize the broad issues, but would be linked d i rec t ly with the needs of the child for whom the program i s being created. The proposed amalgamated agency has been discussed with heavy emphasis upon the Children's Aid Society. Prom the point of view of services to the pre-delinquent chi ld , this agency would bear the greater load of responsibi l i ty , 1 1 2 and includes a wider range of real and potential services. The maximum use of family services has heen implied through-out, as part of the integrated service program. Psychiatric Services Extensive use has heen made by the agencies con-cerned i n this plan, of the psychiatric services offered by the Provincia l Child Guidance C l i n i c , and the Vancouver General Hospital. The schools have had access to a psychia-t r i s t on the staff of the Metropolitan Health Committee's School Health Service. Since psychiatric aid i s indispen-sable to a comprehensive treatment program, and i s obviously l imited, maximum use should be made of a l l available re-sources. I f possible, psychiatric assistance should extend to treatment, as wel l as diagnosis. Unfortunately, the psychiatrist of the Metropolitan Health Committee i s also Director of the School Health Services. The Director i s the chief administrative person of this branch, and as such i s burdened with a number of routine duties, which preclude effective functioning as a psychiatr is t . I t i s not known why a special is t should have been appointed as administrator of the health program when his services are subject to heavy demand; i n view of the extreme scarcity of trained psychiatr ists , this arrangement does not appear to be too sound. Ready access to a psychiatrist for diagnosis, and treatment when necessary, for the more disturbed children, 113 i s absolutely essential i n a preventive program. The type of service generally offered by psychiatric c l in i c s thus far , i s not good enough. An intensive case work job demands something more than a casual.diagnosis based upon a fifteen minute interview, for cases which are considered beyond the s k i l l s of the case worker. A psychiatr is t , whose major func-t ion appears to be administration, cannot offer the necessary time and attention to the children who require services of the highest order. I t i s suggested that the psychiatrist might be re-lieved of his administrative duties completely. He could then function exclusively i n the capacity of a staff psychia-t r i s t . Thus enabled to devote his entire time to this specialized function, he could be enabled to render services which are indispensable i n a comprehensive program. In order to u t i l i z e the obviously limited services of one psychiatrist to the fu l les t extent, referrals should be made by the agency on a discriminating basis. Routine referrals to corroborate an already careful diagnosis by a case worker, are inexcusable and wasteful. Children should be sent to the psychiatrist only when the case worker i s unable to deal with the problem herself; and once the child has been referred, the psychiatrist should be prepared to offer treatment when i t i s indicated by his own diagnosis. The Schools The degree of co-operation which may be developed between the case workers and the teachers depends, i n great 114 part, upon the active p a r t i c i p a t i o n of school p r i n c i p a l s . Under the present system of school administration, i t i s often quite d i f f i c u l t f or a p r i n c i p a l to devote much time to anything other than routine duties. Schools having atten-dance r o l l s i n excess of 450 pu p i l s , have a v i c e - p r i n c i p a l who a s s i s t s with administrative duties. However, this ap-pointment has i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . The vi ce-principal i s re-quired to carry a substantial teaching load which reduces hi s capacity as an assistant administrator to a more or less residual basis; he tends to do those things which the p r i n c i p a l has neither the time nor the i n c l i n a t i o n to per-form. Some of the p r i n c i p a l s v i s i t e d i n the course of th i s study, appeared to be overloaded with minor duties, such as checking excuse notes f o r tardy pupils, ringing b e l l s f o r recreation periods, and supervising arrangements f o r milk issues or hot lunches. I t i s not within the pro-vince of t h i s study to recommend changes i n school admini-s t r a t i o n . However, the School Board might be well advised to study the whole s i t u a t i o n f o r the purpose of suggesting improvements ; p r i n c i p a l s should be enabled to f i n d more time f o r supervision and consultation with t h e i r s t a f f s . No p r i n c i p a l should be expected to administer the a f f a i r s of h i s school and teach as we l l . E f f e c t i v e use should be made of school counsellors, not only i n diagnosis and treatment, but i n interpretation of program as well. I t i s probable that the counsellor, by 115 virtue of his t raining and experience, i s more aware of pro-blems of adjustment than the teachers. He may constitute a helpful l ink i n the i n i t i a l job of encouraging acceptance of the program. Referral This brief discussion of referral follows the as-sumption that considerable interpretation of the agency's function has been made i n the schools. Much of i t may be done through the work of the Delinquency Prevention Commit-tee, but the major effort must be expended among teaching personnel. The usual media may be used; brief talks i n the schools, at meetings of teachers' organizations, and with pr incipals . These may be supplemented by appropriate printed material. The referral process i t s e l f should be simple i n the early stages of the program. When teachers have become more familiar with the work of the agency, and have developed some understanding of types of behaviour problems, a f a i r l y comprehensive referral blank may be used to advantage. Early referrals need be no more complicated than a telephone c a l l . Consultation between the case worker and the refer-r ing teacher should follow di rec t ly after the referra l , to determine whether the problem warrants intensive treatment. Certain minor problems may not require intensive investiga-t ion ; the time and effort of the case worker should not be expended indiscriminately. Many of these may well centre 116 about the teacher rather than the ch i ld ; i n any case, selec-t i v i t y must be exercised at this point. The quality of service which reaches the i n d i v i -dual child, should be held in immediate focus i n the selec-tion of cases to be accepted. I f the attentions of a l imited number of case workers were to be spread over a very large case-load, the net result would be a re la t ive ly minor gain. The child i n need of these services must receive a l l the at-tention his problems warrant. I t seems preferable, i n a pro-gram such as this , to treat a small number of cases inten-sively with greater promise of success, than to follow the widely accepted pattern of attenuated services, which cannot produce the desired results. Treatment This study does not propose to define or elaborate upon the treatment process i n case work. This discussion of treatment i s intended merely to emphasize the need for col-laboration between the case worker, the teacher, and others who may be involved i n the treatment plan. Constructive use of the case conference i s sug-gested. I t should be held soon after the case worker has completed her socia l history investigation, and has pre-pared a detailed report of her findings. Discussion of the case, the diagnosis, the recommendations for treatment, and the resouroes available i n the school and the community, should include the case worker, the pr incipal of the school, the child 's teacher, the school nurse and the school coun-117 se l lor when available* Prom that point, responsibi l i ty rests largely with the case worker, but a l l concerned should be brought into the process whenever possible. Periodic progress conferences should follow, i f circumstances permit. The psychiatrist should be brought into the con-ference when the case under discussion suggests a need for a higher level of treatment. In the ideal si tuation, psy-chia t r ic advice, should be available for a l l discussions I under the present circumstances, the psychiatr is t ' s time should be used with the utmost discretion. The preventive program has been presented i n broad outline form. Much of the de ta i l must wait upon application and experiment. Ultimate success of the program depends, to a great extent, upon the quality of the socia l work per-sonnel who put the plan into operation. Eff ic ient workers, functioning i n close collaboration with a l l the resources available i n the schools and the community, and under a clearly defined policy focussed upon the welfare of the i n -dividual ch i ld , should produce gratifying results. APPENDIX A General Questionnaire Name of School: Note* A l l questions refer to month of October. Gr. 1 Gr. 2 Gr. 3 Gr. 4 Gr. 5 Gr. 6 Total Enrolment '< No. Truants: ,. -—~-— No. truants referred to Attendance Officers: No. behaviour problem children: Behaviour problems refer-red elsewhere' Notes.: The dis t inct ion between truant and behaviour problem i s purely arbitrary. Truant: Any child absent two or more times without acceptable reason or val id excuse. Behaviour Problem: Include those f e l t to be men-t a l l y retarded, those defini tely not working to normal capacity, excessively aggressive or excessively withdrawn, per-sistent sleepers or day-dreamers and the more obvious t i c s , motor disorders, etc. Cr i te r ia for behaviour problem may be those who by virtue of certain behaviour characteristics stand out i n the class and who do not respond favourably and reasonably promptly to remedial action. When i n doubt, specify on reverse side of questionnaire. Include apparently minor discipl inary problems i f these are per-sistent. /'7 APPENDIX B Case Questionnaire * 1. Name 2. School 3. Age 4. Grade 5. I.Q. 6. Scholastic Record (Good, average or poor--~do not consider I .Q. here! i f child kept pace with his or her age group, consider average. I f a late starter i n f i r s t grade, please specify). 7. Parents i f known (Both l iving? Step-father or mother? Other? Attitude of parents to school? Other factors?) 8. Physical appearance of chi ld. 9. Personality (Shy, seclusive, day-dreamer, sociable, stubborn, jealous, moody, etc.) 10. Current problems i f any. (Truancy or any other behav-iour problem by virtue of which the child has attracted extra attention and concern. Include such things as retardation, not working to capacity, aggressiveness,etc. , as well as discipl inary problems i f these are persistent. This section and No. 9 may overlap.) 11. I f child i s no longer i n this school, please describe his behaviour, according to question 10, as i t was during his attendance. 12. Development of problem (Refers to 10, 11 or both-— when did this chi ld ' s d i f f i cu l t i e s begin— what grade? Was any remedial action taken and i f so, what was the result?) 13. Remarks (Anything further which may assist i n under-standing the child and his problem.) ft Questions or ig inal ly distributed over three pages. APPENDIX C BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Cat te l l , Raymond B . , Crooked Personalities In ChiId- hood and After. D. Appleton-Century, New York, 1938. Garrison, K a r l C. , The Psychology of Adolescence. Prentice-Hall , New York, 1946. Glueck, Sheldon and Eleanor, One Thousand Juvenile Delinquents. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1934. Hamilton, G.P. , The Delinquent Gang i n the Community. Thesis presented i n pa r t i a l fulfilment of re-quirements for degree of Master of Social Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1949. Healy W. , and Alper, B . S . , Criminal Youth and the Borstal System. The Commonwealth Fund, New York, 1941. Healy W., and Bronner, A . P . , New Light on Delinquency  and Its Treatment. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1936. Jones, A . E . , Juvenile Delinquency and the Law. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England, 1945. Kvaraceus, W. C., Juvenile Delinquency and the School. World Book Company, New York, 1945. Thomson, Mary, The Social Worker i n the School. Thesis presented i n pa r t i a l fulfilment of re-quirements for degree of Master of Social Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1948. Ar t i c les and Reports "A Community Plans for i t s Children," Newport News V a . , Project, U.S. Children's Bureau. Federal Security Agency, 1947. Jerech, M. , "Some Factors i n the Treatment Outcome of Adolescent Truants Referred to a Child Guidance C l i n i c , " Smith College Studies i n Social Work, vol . 16, Sept., 1945-June, 1946, Smith College, Mass. Stark, H. G. , "Prevention and Control of Delinquency in Cal i fornia ." Proceedings of the National  Conference of Social Work, A p r i l . 1947. Columbia University Press, New York, 1948. Whitney, Vincent H. , "Tough Guys are Made*—Not Born," Coronet. A p r i l , 1948, New York. Wollan, K . I . , "The Use of Group Ac t iv i t y i n Probation Work," National Probation Association Yearbook. Ed . , Marjorie B e l l , Nat. Prob. Ass . , New York, 1938. Wollan, K . I . , "The Citizenship Training Program of the Boston Juvenile Court," National Probation Year- book. E d . , Marjorie B e l l , Nat. Prob. Ass . , New York, 1941. A Plan for the Reduction of Juvenile Delinquency i n  Toronto, submitted by the Welfare Council of Toronto and D i s t r i c t , 1943. Government Pabllcations Preliminary Report of the Washington State Legislative  Interim Committee on Juvenile Delinquency: pre-pared i n conjunction with the National Probation Association, State Pr int ing Office, Olympia,1945. Report of the Saskatchewan Penal Commission. King's Pr inter , Regina, 1946. Report of the Royal Commission to Investigate the Penal System of Canada. King's Pr inter , Ottawa,1938. The Youth Authority. "Organization and Program." State of Cal i fornia , State Pr in t ing Office, Sacramento, 1945. The Youth Conservation Commission. State of Minnesota, State Office Bldg. , St. Paul, Oct., 1947. 

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