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Pre-delinquency: its recognition in school Myers, Gerard George 1949

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PRE-DELINQUENCY : ITS RECOGNITION IN SCHOOL  Thesis presented i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Gerard George Myers University of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l 15, 1949.  ABSTRACT  This study i s primarily concerned with the early recognition of symptomatic behaviour i n school, and subsequent treatment of the child who may become delinquent. I t i s based upon the premise that the only effective method of control of juvenile delinquency l i e s i n prevention. The findings are based upon investigation of a sample group of delinquents from the Vancouver Juvenile Court, and a smaller group of delinquents from the same sample, studied i n the city schools. The progressive development of delinquency i s traced, from i t s origin i n emot i o n a l factors, through the school years, to the ultimate conflict with the law. The study indicates the behaviour characteristics of many pre-delinquent children i n school, and the extent to which these attributes are recognizable as symptomatic patterns. The attitudes of teachers toward troublesome behaviour i n school are discussed with reference to the f e a s i b i l i t y of a collaborative approach, between the s o c i a l worker and the teacher, to the problem of prevention. In i t s theoretical aspects, the study draws from reports of current programs i n delinquency control, with emphasis upon their preventive content. The analysis of the various control measures shows their limited recognit i o n of the deeper-lying emotional basis of delinquent behaviour. An outline for a preventive program i s presented. I t i s based upon the conditions indicated by the study, and the resources available to such a program i n the city of Vancouver. The outline suggests how a preventive program may be launched on an experimental basis, through a reorganization of existing agencies and services.  TABLE OP CONTENTS PRE-DELINQUENCY : ITS RECOGNITION IN SCHOOL Chapter 1.  The Basic Problem The roots of delinquent behaviour i n early emotional development. New trends i n treatment based upon the fundamental nature of delinquency. Treatment of i n d i v i d u a l needs early i n the developmental sequence.  Chapter 2. Delinquent Behaviour During the School Years The development of the delinquent pattern from elementary forms to higher levels of juvenile crime. The school as an aggravating factor. The role of the teacher i n early treatment.  Page 1  13  Chapter 3.  The Relationship Between Delinquency and School Behaviour Types of behaviour problems i n school, characteristic of many delinquents. The i n cidence of troublesome school behaviour among the delinquents.  Chapter 4,  Early Recognition i n School The behaviour problems i n d e t a i l . The f e a s i b i l i t y of finding the pre-delinquent c h i l d . P o t e n t i a l treatment i n t e r v a l i n terms of years elapsing between outbreak of problem behaviour and f i r s t delinquency.  48  Chapter 5.  The Problem of the Academic Approach Some inadequacies of teaching personn e l i n recognizing certain behaviour as symptomatic. Anticipated d i f f i c u l t i e s i n recognition, r e f e r r a l , and treatment of the pre-delinquent c h i l d .  65  Chapter 6.  Current Experiments i n Delinquency Control Review and c r i t i c i s m of recent developments. The experimental background for a preventive program.  83  34  Chapter 7 .  A Program Outline for Vancouver Organization of personnel and services to begin preventive work on an experimental basis. An outline of recommendations.  Page 105  APPENDICES A, General Questionnaire B. Case Questionnaire C. Bibliography  LIST OP TABLES Table 1.  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of Delinquents.  Table 2.  Types of Offences Classified by Age Groups.  18  Table 3.  Delinquents Classified by School Grades.  24  Table 4.  F i r s t Offences Classified by Month During Which Offence was Committed. Types of Problem Behaviour Reported by Schools. Types as reported by teachers. Consolidation of types for analysis.  37 42  Table 6.  Delinquents Classified by Age and Grade.  50  Table 7.  Interim Period Between Outbreak of Problem Behaviour i n School and F i r s t Delinquency. Numbers of Truants and Problem Children i n School.  Table 5. (a| (b)  Table 8.  *  16  26  62 69  A CKUOWLEDGEMENTS I wish, to acknowledge indebtedness to the following whose co-operation and assistance greatly f a c i l i t a t e d the preparation of this thesis Mr. Gordon Stevens, Chief Probation Officer, Vancouver Juvenile Court; Miss Dorothy L. Coorabe, Executive Director of the Vancouver Children's Aid Society; Miss M. Campbell and Mr. Howard Adams, Attendance Off i c e r s , Vancouver Schools; Principals and teachers of the Vancouver Elementary Schools who gave generously of their time and counsel. I take particular pleasure i n acknowledging the continuous helpfulness and trenchant c r i t i c i s m , and above a l l , the u n f a i l i n g good humour of Dr. Leonard Marsh of the Department of Social Work.  PRE-DELINQ.UEUCY : ITS RECOGNITION IN SCHOOL  CHAPTER  ONE  THE BASIC PROBLEM Juvenile delinquency today has become a hackneyed phrase to the general public.  P o l i t i c i a n s speak with ap-  parent authority on causation, and sweeping cures for this alleged threat to s o c i a l order.  Every service club and  women's a u x i l i a r y , sooner or later arranges to hear an "expert," genuine or otherwise, propound imposing theories and solutions.  The newspapers, large and small, produce  a substantial volume of news and information intended to impress the reading public with the importance of this phenomenon.  To those who speak and to those who l i s t e n ,  delinquency apparently means many things.  The preacher  c a l l s i t s i n ; to the harassed business man i t i s a nuisances; the placid suburbanite regards i t as "something which cannot happen here."  Whatever i t may be termed or however i t  may be analyzed, i t i s , obviously, of universal interest. The great d i v e r s i t y of opinion regarding the causes of delinquency and remedial measures, suggests that most people are too baffled to offer any help at a l l , except punishment. The term i t s e l f i s used, i n common parlance, a l most exclusively i n the legal sense.  Delinquency begins  with a court appearance and subsequent conviction for one or more infractions of the law.  A child i s not a delinquent  2 i f , having committed one or more offences, he has not been apprehended and found guilty by a court.  I f delinquency  were defined as any offence against the law, whether the offender i s apprehended or not, i t i s probable that at least 95 per cent of the population would be termed delinquent. As a type of behaviour, delinquency i s thus an arbitrary division on a hypothetical scale, which includes the entire population.  When behaviour becomes s u f f i c i e n t l y  extreme to be considered inimical to public safety,  the  individual concerned may be examined by a designated authority, whose finding of g u i l t automatically a d e f i n i t i o n of delinquency.  constitutes  Below this upper extreme of  the scale, behaviour gradually shades off to generally acceptable patterns of l i v i n g which are termed "normal." Traffic violations may be used as an example.  Few drivers  are innocent of deliberate infractions of the laws governing t r a f f i c ! the majority are not above ignoring stop signs or red l i g h t s , when a policeman i s not present to enforce observance.  Speeds i n excess of legal l i m i t s are condoned  unless extreme.  However, when a motorist d r i v i n g at an  excessive speed, ignores a red l i g h t , and injures a pedest r i a n i n a safety zone, he i s arrested and charged with a l l offences contributing to the culminating incident.  The  difference between this motorist and countless others i s a matter of degree.  The same difference may be i l l u s t r a t e d  i n terms of theft, and other infractions of the Criminal  3 Code.  I t would be possible to v i s u a l i z e a normal curve dis-  t r i b u t i o n of delinquent tendencies for the t o t a l population. I f so, i t i s probable that the curve would be somewhat skewed to the l e f t , as non-delinquents may be considered a minority relative to the delinquent group at the other end of the scale. I t follows, then, that delinquents are not unique as a group.  The behaviour for which they are labelled dif-  fers from the normal only i n degree.  Therefore, i n at-  tempting to trace the problem of delinquency to i t s o r i g i n , the search must recognize that the cause, or causes, of delinquent behaviour are also generally present i n the normal population.  The question must eventually focus  upon the apparent anomaly of one child running afoul of the law, when others of his family or group, subject to more or less similar circumstances, do not. The Roots of Delinquent Behaviour The popular concept of delinquency, as indicated by press and radio p u b l i c i t y from a variety of unrelated sources, suggests a generally uniform idea of "the delinquent" as a unique type.  This misunderstanding, and the  obvious need for control measures, has led to an endless quest for s p e c i f i c causes..  The r e l a t i v e l y few authorities  i n the f i e l d of juvenile delinquency do not speak so freely of causes, but have isolated a number of environmental factors which are closely associated with delinquency.  4 Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck, i n their study of one thousand delinquents, found seven major factors which were common to a large percentage of their sample. ^  Briefly,  these are defined as culture c o n f l i c t , inadequate parental education, poor economic condition, unfavourable home relationships, broken homes, mental or personality defects i n f a m i l i a l backgrounds and, f i n a l l y , low moral standards i n These factors are not described as causes b y the  the home.  Glueeks, but they have been widely considered as such i n other areas.  I t w i l l be noted that these conditions are  not peculiar to delinquents or their f a m i l i e s ! one or more may be present in the environments of most apparently normal people. There are two significant features i n these findings. -The highest incidence of any one factor was found to be broken or poorly disciplined homes, that i s , homes i n which one parent was either dead, deserted or divorced, or where evidence of neglect was pronounced. Secondly, these factors were usually present i n the immediate environments of the delinquents as a pattern, rather than as isolated characteristics.  These points are  significant because they suggest why some individuals break out into rebellious or i l l e g a l behaviour whereas the remainder of the population, who are exposed to similar con-  1 Glueck, Sheldon a'nd Eleanor, One Thousand Juvenile Delinquents. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1934, pp. 81-83.  5  ditions,*. though admittedly i n less intense form, do not. The Gluecks offered further enlightenment i n their analysis of the same study. The degree to which any or a l l of the handicaps and weaknesses of our boys may be regarded as causative of their delinquency cannot be stated with assurance. . . . A l l we can say i s that the experience of social workers and others having to do with problems of delinquency and criminality, indicates that the more numerous the handicaps of the kind above reviewed, the more d i f f i c u l t i t i s for the individual to adapt himself to s o c i a l l y acceptable ways. 1  I t i s clear that a v a l i d approach to the cause of delinquent behaviour must concern i t s e l f primarily with the i n d i v i d u a l delinquent.  The environmental factors isolated  by the Gluecks, though important, are not basic issues! exposure to them generally results i n delinquency only because of some weakness i n the person concerned. The same conclusion i s evident i n the results of a study conducted i n England by A.E. Jones, a member of the l e g a l profession.  Interested i n the problem, and unsatis-  fied by the profusion of c o n f l i c t i n g theories a r i s i n g from inadequate analyses, he decided to seek facts.  His findings  arise from a dispassionate and disciplined evaluation of data gleaned from study of case h i s t o r i e s of delinquent boys and g i r l s , over a period of twenty years: The psychiatrist can, i n his own outlandish jargon, refer the offences committed to some deep-seated disturbance of the emotions following on a peculiar i t y i n the home circumstances or parental r e l a t i o n -  1 I b i d . , p. 230.  6  ships. But who can say why another child with an apparently similar domestic background remains honest? I f the answer i s , as i t probably i s , that no two cases are exactly the same, then the only conclusion to be drawn i s that each young developing individual i t y i s a law to himself. ^ Mr. Jones' conclusion undoubtedly adds force to the argument, but merely to state that the individual pers o n a l i t y i s the basis of delinquency, i s not highly enlightening.  A further clue i s offered by a statement from a  report on the subject made by the Welfare Council of Toronto and d i s t r i c t . I t i s conceded by people familiar with the question, that juvenile delinquents are made and not born. A child or young person becomes delinquent through l o s i n g that sense of security i n his environment, and confidence i n his own value as a person, on which s o c i a l l y approved behaviour i s based. 2 The theme of the Toronto report goes beyond the individual personality to emotional values.  I f i t s premise i s v a l i d ,  delinquency must arise as a consequence of an emotional difference between the offender, and his more normal counterpart.  This idea i s i n close harmony with the Glueck findings  which noted the prevalence of broken homes i n the backgrounds of the delinquents they studied.  1 Jones, A.E. , Juvenile Delinquency and the Law. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England, 1945, p. 34. 2 A Plan for the Reduction of Juvenile Delinquency i n Toronto, submitted by .the Welfare Council of Toronto and D i s t r i c t , 1943.  7 The Emotional Basis of Delinquent Behaviour Healy and Bronner, i n one of their many research studies on delinquency, attempted to determine the basic differences between delinquents and non-delinquents.  Their  findings may "be summed up i n the following excerpt from their report  '*  Prom our present study there i s clear evidence that i n the lives of delinquents the ever flowing stream of urges and wishes, which i n general follow the broader channels of s o c i a l l y acceptable behaviour, has met obstructions or frustrations that cause part of the stream to be deflected into currents that sooner or later show the characteristics which we term delinquency. 1  The urges and wishes, to which Healy and Bronner refer, have been described i n many ways, but a l l of them hinge upon the basic drive for affection.  The infant child desires but one  thing i n addition to satisfaction for i t s organic needs, and that i s love.  As the child grows, this desire broadens to  include many things within i t s s o c i a l orbit.  Siblings must  be accepted, and also persons external to the family group. A multitude of progressively more d i f f i c u l t habits and s k i l l s must be mastered.  In addition to a l l these new and trying \  experiences, the child must acquire the many inhibitions ess e n t i a l to social l i v i n g ; : he must learn to control his organic functions, his desires for the possessions of others, h i s wishes to be the hub of his own l i t t l e universe? and he  1 Healy W. , and Bronner, A.P. , New Light on Delinquency and i t s Treatment, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1936, p. 200.  8 must learn to share the things he values with others. A l l these demands are contrary to his natural p r o c l i v i t i e s . The normal child learns to accept inevitable res t r i c t i o n s without too much r e b e l l i o n , because of the emot i o n a l value which accompanies their exercise.  Love makes  the process palatable to him. He accepts the ideals of conduct which develop into his personal philosophy of l i f e , not because of any i n t r i n s i c value they may have, but because of the emotional bond which exists between him and the parent or person who symbolizes and teaches these ideals. The process i s exemplified i n the common phenomenon of heroworship, which may result i n the formation of good or bad values depending upon the "hero", but the significance of the relationship as a c a t a l y t i c agent i s obvious. The rejected child, or the one who experiences casual or temperamental relationships with his parents and others near to him, lacks the incentive to follow an acceptable pattern of conduct. self i s imperfect or bad.  In many cases the pattern i t -  Such a child may conform to rules  of behaviour under threat of punishment, but the conflict between his balked desire for love and the demands made upon him, Jceep aggression and rebellion near the surface. In many cases this aggression finds an outlet i n behaviour which breaks a l l the rules, set by those who are identifiedwith the c h i l d ' s rejecting parents.  The child i s then a  delinquent. There are others who retreat within themselves,  9  lacking the strength to s t r i k e back, and "become s u l l e n , moody, and alone.  Many of these f a l l into delinquency, which  seems to constitute a substitute satisfaction for their uns a t i s f i e d emotional needs.  Many find their various ways to  mental i n s t i t u t i o n s , and allow themselves to d r i f t into a colourless apathy divorced from r e a l i t y and hurt.  They l i v e  i n a dismal, u t t e r l y useless, gray i s o l a t i o n , which i s a l l too seldom penetrated "by the s k i l l s of psychiatry. There are also a few delinquents who make a perf e c t l y satisfactory adjustment to a family environment which may not only condone such "behaviour, "but may encourage it.  Their emotional relationships are good.  The only dif-  f i c u l t y i s that they have been conditioned to behave i n a manner which i s not acceptable elsewhere than i n their own family or group c i r c l e .  These children are r e - t r a i n i n g pro-  blems, and i n many circumstances may prove as unresponsive to remedial treatment as the most emotionally disturbed child. These-types of delinquent behaviour have been explained i n general terms.  There are many variations i n each  type, and the types overlap to produce different emotional conditions; these may lead to delinquency of themselves, or i n conjunction with aggravating environmental factors. A l l children of unsatisfactory emotional development obviously do not become delinquent; delinquency i s only one of the many repercussions attendant upon stunted emotional growth. However, most delinquents have experienced frustration i n seeking satisfaction for their emotional needs.  The salient  10  point i s that, i n seeking ways and means to deal with delinquency as a s o c i a l problem, i t i s essential to recognize the basic importance, not only of the individual personality, but of the emotional experiences which have moulded i t . The Solution Attempts to deal with delinquency have not been lacking, at least i n number and variety.  However, there i s  l i t t l e doubt, even i n the casual observer, that success has been  3 a d l y  limited thus far.  There i s no doubt that much of  the f a i l u r e attendant upon the majority of past and current control programs, has resulted from the tendency to attack the problem after i t has f u l l y developed.  It is traditional  to wait upon the declaration of the court that an individual i s delinquent, before corrective measures are invoked. By that time, the emotional and environmental factors which produced the delinquent behaviour, have been reinforced by habit formation.  Thus the problem i s rendered i n f i n i t e l y more dif-  f i c u l t , and often impossible.  In addition, i t i s often too  late at that stage to make any effective adjustments i n those relationships between the child and his parents or guardians which may have led to the delinquent behaviour. The Archambault Report, one of the most progressive documents i n the f i e l d of delinquency and crime, pointed the way toward a more effective treatment approach! If society w i l l devote i t s best efforts to correcting the factors which influence toward crime, and to removing pernicious influences from young children and adolescents, i t w i l l destroy incipient criminality  11 before i t has gained resistant strength, and w i l l thus succeed i n l i m i t i n g crime at i t s source, with a consequent saving of money and i n humanity. The discovery and treatment of "problem children" should be effected before they have become seriously d e l i n quent. 1 Further evidence of a new concept i n treatment i s s  contained i n the report of the Washington State Legislative Committee on Juvenile Delinquency' Adult correctional i n s t i t u t i o n s are f i l l e d with men and women whose problems as children went unresolved. Many of them are there because at the early point of their delinquency, society f a i l e d to determine causes, and because i t attempted to deal with symptoms i n stead of to correct causes. 2 Elaboration of these statements i s unnecessary. with emphatic c l a r i t y , the  need  They express  for treatment to go beyond  the stage of developed delinquency, to i t s origin i n the personality of the child and his environment. However admirable a statement of purpose may be, i t does not provide ways and means for i t s f u l f i l l m e n t .  The  task of seeking out the "problem children" or predelinquents, as they may be termed, imposes a substantial obstacle.  Ob-  viously, i t would be sheer f o l l y to attempt an examination of the entire child population, to find a r e l a t i v e l y small number of predelinquents.  The search must be restricted to  an area of manageable dimensions, one which, i t i s hoped,  1 Report of the Royal Commission to Investigate the Penal System of Canada, King's P r i n t e r . Ottawa. 1938. p. 17 6. 2 Preliminary Report of the Washington State Legisla' t i v e Interim Committee on Juvenile Delinquency; prepared i n conjunction with the National Probation Association, State P r i n t i n g Office, Olympia, 1945.  w i l l s t i l l include the majority of those children who display troublesome "behaviour, of a type which may eventually develop into delinquency.  The elementary schools seem to  provide an answer to this problem.  A l l children have to at-  tend school, so the school may offer an opportunity for finding and treating those who may become delinquent.  The  potential value of the schools i n a preventive program was suggested recently by Professor Whitney of Brown U n i v e r s i t y : There are few American communities that seriously attempt to reach predelinquent children. We f o o l i s h l y wait u n t i l a n t i - s o c i a l habits are well established. Then we attempt to correct them with tools which are inadequate and too few. Perhaps our greatest need i s to reach children early. We are missing a r e a l opportunity i n our public schools... I t i s the purpose of this study to show more f u l l y how delinquency develops through the school years, and to demonstrate how predelinquent children may be recognized by school teachers, before their behaviour reaches the-stage of outright breaking of the law.  I t i s also intended to  examine how these cases may be referred for treatment, to appropriate agencies organized s p e c i f i c a l l y for the function of prevention.  1 Whitney, Vincent H. , "Tough Guys are Made Coronet, A p r i l , 1948, New York, p. 165.  Not Born,  CHAPTER TWO DELINQUENT BEHAVIOUR DURING THE SCHOOL YEARS Delinquency i s generally the result of a long process of development.  I t i s l o g i c a l to assume that the  school, with a l l i t s new and varied experiences, w i l l exert profound influences upon the c h i l d .  The young hoy or g i r l ,  on entering school, must learn new d i s c i p l i n e s ; adjustments must be made to the new and different authoritative personal i t i e s of teachers; a larger, more varied group than the family makes i t s own unique demands upon the bewildered child.  A l l these things exert varying degrees of emotional  stress. For youngsters who approach these new experiences with an emotional handicap, r e s u l t i n g from poor r e l a t i o n ships within the family c i r c l e , the load i s rendered proportionately greater.  These are the children who are dragged  to school, suspicious, resentful, unhappy or f e a r f u l ; or, i f they present themselves w i l l i n g l y , they do so with a morbid desire to be troublesome; perversely, they i n v i t e the abuse they expect.  Their reactions to the school  teachers who may meet them with understanding or r i g i d i t y may determine, to a great extent, their behaviour through the following school years.  Juvenile Court Data At this point i t i s essential to examine the nature of the development of delinquent "behaviour, and the influences exerted upon i t "by school experience.  The data  for this phase of the study was drawn from the records of the  Vancaiver  Juvenile Court, covering a period of one year.  Only those cases were selected which resulted from offences s u f f i c i e n t l y serious to warrant a terra on probation, or more d r a s t i c treatment.  Others, such as the boys #10 appeared i n  court for infractions of the Bicycle By-Law, were rejected, as unrepresentative of delinquent behaviour.  The offences  i n these cases were minor infractions of city by-laws, and were considered indicative of simple mischief rather than delinquency. There were 243 entries i n the court calendar for probation or committal to the I n d u s t r i a l Schools.  This  number was subsequently reduced by the subtraction of twenty-two duplicate entries, representing repeaters within the sample year, fourteen truancy cases, nineteen referrals to other agencies and twenty-four for which no useful information could be found.  The truancy cases were  omitted to avoid obvious weighting i n the attempt to estab l i s h a relationship between delinquency and school behaviour.  The nineteen referrals to other agencies were ex-  cluded for much the same reason! the majority of those cases, A Delinquents appearing i n court two or more times because of f a i l u r e on probation or new offences.  as wards of protection agencies, could be expected to have had emotional problems above those normally anticipated i n an unselected group.  The remainder, 164, comprised the  sample for study. I t was o r i g i n a l l y intended to make a detailed study of each case, i n addition to extracting data pertinent to the school, with the intention of r e l a t i n g findings of other studies to the Vancouver area.  However, this was.  found to be impossible owing to the meagreness of data, common to even a small percentage of the cases.  Only 15 per  cent of the 164 case records included social h i s t o r i e s , and the remainder varied from running records, dealing with supervisory a c t i v i t i e s , to incomplete face sheets.  Facts  which were entered i n a substantial majority of the records included age, school attended, grade, truancy i f there, had been any, school behaviour, and academic performance. A l l of the records included the type of offence, number of court appearances and the date of the f i r s t delinquency.^ The age range of ten to seventeen shown i n Table 1 i s not s i g n i f i c a n t .  Since seventeen i s the terminal juvenile  age, cases above that l e v e l are automatically dealt with i n the adult courts.  The age of ten, as the earliest reported  for this group, i s not considered significant either, as far as this study i s concerned.  I t i s probable that these delin-  k Di s crepanci es between t o t a l figures i n the following tables and sample t o t a l s , are due to incomplete records.  16  Table 1. Ag e D i s t r i b u t i o n of Delinquents Sample Gr oup, Vancouver Juvenile Court, 1947-8. Industrial School (a)  Total  0  8  1  2  9  5  0  2  7  13  14  1  0  15  14  11  1  2  14  15  20  6  5  31  16  20  6  5  31  17  5  5  2  12  87  22  18  127  Age 10  First Offenders 6  Repeaters .2  11  6  12  Totals  (a) Cases committed to Boys ' Industrial School.  quents are s i m i l a r , i n this respect, to those studied by Healy and Bronner, among whom a court appearance represented a f i r s t offence i n only 5 per cent of the cases. ^ The concentration of cases i n the fifteen to sixteen range, and the abrupt increase at fifteen, warrants some comment.  This phenomenon has been noted i n other  1 Healy W. , and Bronner A.F. , New Light on Delinquency and Its Treatment, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1946, p. 37.  studies, though i t i s not quite as pronounced as i n this i n ance.  The increase i n the incidence of delinquency from the  age of ten, to a concentration of 50 per cent of the cases i n a two year range, may he explained as the result of a cumulative learning process.  The delinquent a c t i v i t i e s  available to a ten year old, are obviously more limited than those available to an adolescent, who i s subject to fewer r e s t r i c t i o n s and has the advantage, i f i t may be termed such, of superior mental and physical a b i l i t i e s .  In addition to  broader scope for delinquent behaviour, the so-called teenager i s subject to the additional aggravation of forces associated with adolescence! these two factors, combined with the earlier emotional predisposition to delinquent conduct, seem to produce a maximum incidence of delinquency between the ages of fourteen to sixteen. The abrupt drop after sixteen may be explained on the same basis.  The majority of the children who become  delinquent, usually seek satisfaction for their peculiar needs before or during the peak adolescent period.  This may  be the culmination of a r e l a t i v e l y long career of experimentation i n juvenile crime or, as i n some cases, may be a f a i l u r e to adjust to the additional demands of adolescence. Adolescence represents the f i n a l frustrating experience, which appears to c r y s t a l l i z e the gradually developing d e l i n quent pattern. The d i s t r i b u t i o n found i n Table 1 seems to verify the assumption that delinquency develops cumulatively i n a  learning process.  Therefore, the point at which treatment  should he applied i s certainly not at the peak, hut at the lower end of the d i s t r i b u t i o n  before troublesome behaviour  becomes habitual. Table 2. Types of Offences Classified by Age Groups. Sample Group, Vancouver Juvenile Court, 1947-8.  Age  Theft  Breaking Entering  Car Theft  10  3  4  0  2  9  11  3  5  0  1  9  12  4  4  0  0  8  13  8  6  1  0  15  14  3  4  5  4  16  15  • 4  13  5  11  33  16  4  7  13  7  31  17  2  2  5  4  13  Total  31  45  29  29  Others  Total  134  Further evidence of the progressive development of delinquent behaviour, appears i n the data presented i n -Table 2.  The f i r s t category, theft, includes offences i n -  volving amounts or values both under and over $25.00, a l though the court makes a d i v i s i o n at this point on the premise that a theft of over $25.00 constitutes a more  19 serious offence.  Prom a legal point of view, this practice  may he tenable, but as far as treatment i s concerned, the d i v i s i o n i s meaningless.  These thefts, as reported, ranged  from milk bottle looting to stealing from purses ', those i n volving amounts over $25.00 were i n a minority.  Offences  grouped under "others" include i n t o x i c a t i o n , bicycle theft, possession of burglar tools, infractions of the Highway Act, attempted arson, sex offences, and i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y ,  None of  these categories included a sufficient number to be c l a s s i fied  separately. The f i r s t two  are the most s i g n i f i c a n t .  theft, and breaking and entering It w i l l be noted that the point  of highest frequency for theft i s at age thirteen, followed by a tapering off to two at seventeen.  It i s common to say  that adolescent boys steal because of economic need.  However,  most of the cases examined showed clearly that the boys were not subject to any outstanding need i n a material sense. Moreover, i f actual need was the basic motive i n juvenile theft,  the frequency with which these offences occur should  increase with age I the older juvenile not only has wider needs but also has greater physical and mental resources to meet them, whether by means of theft or otherwise.  However,  the figures found i n Table 2 do not indicate an increase with age! rather, the reverse i s suggested.  The argument  may be raised that the older boys go to work more frequently. However, school attendance i s compulsory u n t i l the age of fifteen, and the abrupt drop i n the incidence of theft occurs  at fourteen, with the subsequent frequencies more or less constant up to the age of seventeen. In preference to material need as the major motive, i t appears that theft, as one of the more elementary delinquencies, tends to lose i t s capacity for satisfaction of needs which are largely emotional; these may he related to the desire for stimulating experience, for status i n a certain group, or may he expressions of aggression.  Those de-  linquents who are not given treatment at this point, or do not respond to such treatment as may he given, tend to graduate to a higher level of delinquent behaviour, i n the same manner as they graduate from one academic l e v e l to another i n school.  With increased experience, and the added  stimulus of emotional factors contingent upon the onset of puberty, experimentation with the more elementary aspects of delinquency ceases to offer sufficient satisfaction.  The  process i s not peculiar to delinquent behaviour by any means. The desire for new and more stimulating experience i s univ e r s a l , and constitutes one of the basic motives for learning. The only difference with respect to delinquent behaviour i s that this same motivation has been directed into a n t i - s o c i a l ' channels ; once begun, the process seems to develop i n a manner closely similar to that which i s manifested by s o c i a l l y acceptable behaviour. Hence i t follows that the delinquent whose needs remain unsatisfied, must seek a more challenging l e v e l of delinquent behaviour than that which offered i n i t i a l satis-  21  faction.  I t i s true that a number of the less enterprising  delinquents remain at the elementary l e v e l , but these are i n a minority and, as a group, are analagous to the sub-normals found i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the general population.  An at-  tempt was made to determine the relationship between l e v e l of i n t e l l i g e n c e and the "graduation" from theft to other forms of delinquency, but recorded I.Q,'s were not available i n a number sufficient to provide any significant differences. The fact that a l l delinquents do not progress from theft to breaking and entering and beyond, does not detract from the v a l i d i t y of the argument that delinquency develops progressively i n a learning process.  Individual differences  alone would account for the fact that many emotionally frustrated children resort to introverted and less aberrant behaviour, i n preference to the more aggressive t r i a l and error manifestations of delinquency.  Many delinquents respond to  treatment of courts, schools and other i n s t i t u t i o n s , i f they have been s u f f i c i e n t l y active to have become e l i g i b l e for such treatment I and they cease to be delinquents i n the more obvious sense. The focus of the moment i s upon those individuals who, having begun a delinquent career at an early age, develop as delinquents to the point where they must be isolated from society.  Theoretically the i s o l a t i o n i s for the  welfare of the i n d i v i d u a l , and the protection of society, but i n practice the l a t t e r point i s almost exclusively dominant.  Some reach the terminal stage unhindered by any at-  tempt to halt or redirect the process; others, and their numbers are not few, have been treated ineffectually by a variety of methods, based upon principles ranging from the extremely primitive, to the hyper-sentimental.  The extent  of the problem i s evident by the current j a i l population. Those who were treated and f a i l e d to respond, did so because their behaviour patterns had become fixed to varying degrees through habitual use, and no acceptable alternative, offering similar satisfactions, could be provided for them. They are the delinquents who graduate from petty theft,  to  breaking and entering and beyond, reaching a climax at age fifteen or sixteen. The concentration of car theft cases at age sixteen requires some q u a l i f i c a t i o n .  A few of these cases were  found to be f i r s t offenders, from environments tshich appeared to be somewhat superior, i n most respects, to those involved i n the preceding categories.  However, this percentage i s  actually smaller than might be expected, since many of these casual offences are not reported by the police.  Those which  do reach the court records, are cases which are known for previous offences, or are doubtful to the point that a formal charge i s made.  Therefore, the r e l a t i v e l y high frequency at  age sixteen, cannot be modified to the extent whi ch might be indicated by an assumption that the majority of car thefts are committed by over-exuberant adolescents, i n search of excitement.  The fact remains, that reasonably well adjusted or  emotionally stable adolescents simply do not steal cars ; those  23 of the normal group who do, are i n a d i s t i n c t l y small minority. This type of offence may be considered as much a part of the developing delinquent pattern, as the two previously dealt with. The remaining offences c l a s s i f i e d i n Table 2 offer l i t t l e of significance, other than the usual concentration at the fifteen and sixteen year l e v e l .  They may be con-  sidered as variants i n the developmental sequence, with the exception that there i s a greater cleavage between the l e g a l definition and the s o c i a l implications with respect to sexual offences, i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y and vagrancy.  There appears to be  some indication that the law should be modified, to some extent, p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to i t s d e f i n i t i o n of what constitutes immorality.  I n c o r r i g i b i l i t y appears to repre-  sent for the court, that which the term "psychopath" offers to psychiatry; i t i s a last resort c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , placing f i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for f a i l u r e of treatment upon the c l i e n t . Both terms have their place! but their use implies an element of retreat from an apparently impossible situation which may be dangerous, i f there i s not an acute awareness of their t o t a l meaning.  To the s o c i a l worker these offences, vagrancy  and others of this type, are not significant from a definit i v e point of view, but only as symptoms of underlying emotional disorder. The Delinquents i n School The data found i n Table 3 emphasizes the cumulative nature of delinquency, as i t parallels the school progress of  24 the delinquents.  However, the incidence of delinquency does  not follow the same arithmetic progression as the school grades.  The increase i n numbers of delinquents i s more or  less even to grade 7; the concentration of cases i n grades seven, eight and nine, amounts, to 59.2 per cent of the t o t a l number for the twelve grades. Table 3. Delinquents Classified by School Grade (At Time of Offence) Sample Group, Vancouver Juvenile Court, 1947-8.  Grade Special  No.  2  2  9  31  3  1  10  14  4  8  11  4  5  9  12  0  6  12  7  24  3  Grade 8  Total  No. 22  130  In Vancouver, the school system provides for Junior High Schools comprising grades seven, eight and nine.  The  change from an elementary school to a junior high school, constitutes an emotional hazard of no small consequence,  to  an individual assumed to be predisposed toward delinquent behaviour, as a result of emotional needs.  Such a t r a n s i t i o n  demands readjustment to new teachers, new school-mates and a new atmosphere, which may well prove d i f f i c u l t stable child.  even to the  This i s not intended as a c r i t i c i s m of the  school system, since i t i s quite obvious that the use of an intermediate stage between the elementary and high schools, should be an improvement over the old system.  However, the  boys and g i r l s who run afoul of the law, apparently find the junior high school a rather d i f f i c u l t hurdle i n the academic marathon. The fact that the incidence of delinquency doubles from grade six to grade seven, and increases through grade eight to a high point i n grade nine, suggests that the pattern evident i n the previous tables i s not only unchecked, but i s accelerated to some degree.  The extent to which  school studies and d i s c i p l i n e s actually aggravate delinquent behaviour, i s not known nor can i t be estimated on the strength of the data available at this time.  In any case,  the fact that comparatively few delinqtients reach high school, i n spite of having generally average i n t e l l i g e n c e and the opportunity to do so, certainly suggests that they find their school experiences far from satisfactory.  The  argument might be made that the decrease i n numbers of delinquents reported as attending high schools, i s due to the effect of higher education and maturation.  However, the  junior high school operates, i n some respects, as a weedingout process.  The majority of the confirmed delinquents drop  out of school during their junior high years, after having  attained the required leaving age of fifteen.  I t w i l l he  noted again that f i f t e e n , i n addition to being the legal school leaving age, i s also a c r i t i c a l age i n the development of delinquent behaviour.  The drop i n frequency  after  grade ten may, more correctly, be interpreted as an indication of withdrawal rather than reform, on the part of those either delinquent or disposed toward delinquent behaviour. Some further indication of the effects of school attendance on the delinquent or predelinquent c h i l d , i s given by the figures i n Table 4.  The figures for July and  August are of immediate significance.  Various arguments  might be raised to suggest that the marked difference between the frequencies found for these two months and those for the remainder, i s due to the influence of such factors as summer employment, holidays away from the c i t y , summer camps, and so forth. Table 4. F i r s t Offences Classified by Month During which Offence was Committed Sample Group, Vancouver Juvenile Court, 1947-8. Month  No.  Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May' June July  Month  No.  12 15 13 19 10  . Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.  4 15 12 14 10  9 8  Total  141  27  Employment, or the allegedly therapeutic effect of work, i s an almost universally applied s u p e r f i c i a l antidote for delinquency, and for other behaviour problems.  I t i s not  known how many of these delinquents worked during the summer months, but i t i s doubtful i f their hours were a great deal longer than those spent i n school during the year.  In any  case, those inclined toward employment have ample opportunity to work for spending money during after-school hours and on Saturdays.  I t i s probable that those who do work during the  summer months, continue to do so on a part-time basis for the remainder of the year.  Juvenile employment i n periods such  as the present, when suitable types of work are available, i s not a preventive measure! unemployment, i n an age group where part-time work i s the r u l e , seems to be symptomatic as part of the t o t a l delinquent pattern.  Work might con-  ceivably prevent delinquency i n a few cases where economic need i s the prime factor, but such cases are rare. Holidays away from the c i t y might possibly account for a small fraction of those who would otherwise be exposed to idleness, and opportunity to break the law, but that fraction i s very small.  The majority of the cases examined  i n this sample were i n no position to indulge i n a family excursion to a summer resort.  Organized summer camps pro-  bably take care of an equally small minority of the potent i a l l y delinquent group.  In the f i r s t place, these camps  handle only a small percentage of the t o t a l child population. In addition, many of the applicants for the organized camps  28 are handled through various welfare organizations who are concerned with their own c l i e n t e l e .  Secondly, a child i s i n the  camp for only two weeks, as a rule.  An incurable optimist  might suggest that the influence of two weeks i n an outdoor group s i t u a t i o n , would be sufficient to remove any i n c l i n a t i o n toward delinquent behaviour.  I t i s extremely doubtful i f the  camping experiences available i n Vancouver, have an effect of any consequence on the pre-delinquent or delinquent child. The large number of delinquents i n this sample who had, at some time, attended one or more organized camps, lends credence to this assumption. I t appears that the only major difference between the delinquent of school age i n July and August, compared with any other time of the year, i s the fact that he i s not i n school.  In addition to the r e l a t i v e l y low incidence of  delinquency during the summer months, there i s the sharp i n crease i n September, coincidental upon the reopening of school, to suggest further the emotional implications of the demands made upon the child by his teachers and studies. The remaining figures i n Table 4 do not appear to be p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t , with the possible exception of the number of delinquents for A p r i l .  Seasonal changes may  have some bearing upon the high rate for this month, or i t may be that A p r i l constitutes a climactic period i n the school year.  I t i s probable that both factors contribute  to this increase, which i s followed by a gradual decline to the extreme low i n August.  This decline may be explained as  29 r e s u l t i n g from a gradual decrease i n general tension, owing t  to anticipation of the approaching release from school and a l l i t s frustrations. The interpretation of Table 4 i s not intended to suggest that the school i s a causal factor i n delinquent behaviour, although i t may be for youngsters of very low i n tellectual ability.  Rather, the school i s regarded as a pre-  c i p i t a t i n g factor i n the formation of delinquent behaviour patterns, which have their roots elsewhere, usually i n home relationships.  Whether or not this i s primarily a fault of  the current educational system, i s a problem of considerable magnitude and one which cannot be discussed here.  The evi-  dence suggests the contrary,, since the majority of school children are s t i l l more or less non-delinquent. I t i s probable that the school, representing the i n d i v i d u a l s ' f i r s t major contact with an organized social i n s t i t u t i o n , would produce the same effect regardless of i t s educational program, or the nature of the material offered. Frustrations are inevitable i f the school i s to continue as a training institution.  There i s an irreduceable minimum  to the demands which must be made, on the i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional resources of the individual student.  The same  "principle i s applicable i n the home, where t r a i n i n g from infancy involves a gradual introduction to frustrating experiences.  The child with reasonably satisfying home re-  lationships, learns through encouragement, and derives strength from a secure emotional environment to cope with  30 progressively more d i f f i c u l t l i v i n g problems.  To the normal  c h i l d , the school constitutes a further step i n a learning process for which he has been prepared, through previously satisfying experience. The delinquent or pre-delinquent child, on the other hand, i s not so fortunate.  Healy and Bronner reported  that 92 per cent of the children i n one sample, came to the school with major emotional disturbances, r e s u l t i n g from a variety of factors; a l l of tnese were associated with poor or indifferent relationships within the home environment. ^ The delinquents, therefore, tend to begin school after an infancy and early childhood marked by experiences • lacking the emotional support essential to the successful handling of frustration.  The young child i s l e f t to his own resources  i n the face of increasingly d i f f i c u l t problems, and lacks the incentive a r i s i n g from the desire for recognition of achievement.  He responds by retreating from the problem or  by f i g h t i n g i t .  The former reaction often produces the  child with the apparent low I.Q. and the l a t t e r often becomes the delinquent typified by the present study.  These  two patterns, or many combinations of the two, approach the school as a new d i f f i c u l t y from which they withdraw, or which they meet with aggression.  In either case, the complexity of  1 Healy, W. , and Bronner A . P . , New Light on Delinquency and- Its Treatment. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1946, p. 49.  factors responsible for the behaviour pattern must be discovered and the child treated accordingly; otherwise, the process of development continues, with some capitulation to superior force, u n t i l the pattern becomes more or less fixed. At some point i n their careers, a certain percentage of these emotionally handicapped children find satisfaction i n delinquent behaviour; this becomes absorbed into the pattern and develops, as indicated i n this study, u n t i l the point of overt conflict i s reached and the child runs afoul of the law. The delinquents concerned i n this study, whether f i r s t offenders or repeaters, probably represent a r e l a t i v e l y small percentage of those who enter school with varying degrees of emotional disturbance.  Many, apparently, work out  an acceptable adjustment for themselves, though i t i s often d i f f i c u l t to understand why many more do not become delinquents.  School teachers and counsellors undoubtedly assist  many to l i v e with their troubles,' through achievement i n school work, assisted by sound relationships within the classroom and on the playground.  Those who do manage to  effect a healthier adjustment to school, and society i n general, do so largely through chance.  There i s no plan as  yet i n effect whereby children who are handicapped by emot i o n a l disturbances may be i d e n t i f i e d and their problems treated, before the more serious cases find their way into the transiently satisfying f i e l d of delinquency. The data presented i n the preceding tables has i n dicated the development of the delinquent pattern through the  32 school years, to the point where the majority of the more troublesome youngsters withdraw.  To these i n d i v i d u a l s , the  school seems to he an aggravating factor i n the development and f i n a l outbreak of delinquent behaviour.  Very l i t t l e has  been said about those emotionally disturbed children, who have adopted introversion as a reaction to frustration.  Both  the introvert and the aggressive pre-delinquent, the former a convenience i n the school and the l a t t e r a nuisance, spend their required number of years and then retreat to become incompetents or criminals.  I t i s obvious at this point, that  school teachers bear a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward these children beyond that of a minimum academic l e v e l .  This idea was ad-  mirably expressed by W.C. Kvaraceus, Assistant Superintendent of Schools i n Passaic, New Jersey  :  "Until schools begin to  evaluate their influence upon children i n terms of bringing about desirable changes i n behaviour, they w i l l continue to have l i t t l e , i f any, r e a l effect i n f o r e s t a l l i n g delinquent and pre-delinquent behaviour i n individual p u p i l s . " ^ Delinquent behaviour tends to develop progressively, from r e l a t i v e l y minor infractions of the law to more extreme levels.  This development, based upon i n i t i a l emotional dis-  turbance, appears to result from a learning process and the desire for more stimulating and challenging experiences.  The  significance of this phenomenon rests i n treatment; attention 1 Kvaraceus, W. C. , Juvenile Delinquency and the School. Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, World Book Company, 1945, p.299.  to isolated delinquencies without due regard for the t o t a l pattern, seems to he f u t i l e .  Treatment should he applied at  the earliest possible point i n the developmental process. The experiences of the delinquents i n school suggests that contact with teachers, school d i s c i p l i n e s , and the d i f f i c u l t i e s of studies, may he aggravations i n the growth of troublesome behaviour. undoubtedly has this effect.  In many cases school l i f e  The increase i n the incidence  of delinquency i n the higher grades suggests a p a r a l l e l with the cumulative development of delinquency i t s e l f .  This  relationship suggests that schools should not seek merely to adjust their demands to the capacities of students; they are also i n a position to render positive service, i n the treatment of the emotional conditions basic to the d i f f i c u l t behaviour of many children now delinquent or pre-delinquent.  34  CHAPTER THREE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DELINQUENCY AND SCHOOL BEHAVIOUR The idea that the "best cure for delinquency l i e s i n prevention, i s not o r i g i n a l to this study.  The Archarabault  Report quoted Sheldon Glueck i n words which are well worth repeating here  :  The policy of c o n t r o l l i n g f i r e s by merely putting out the flames and s i t t i n g back to await more f i r e s i s rapidly being abandoned as shortsighted and wasteful. Study of the causes of f i r e s and the development of preventive programs are becoming essential a c t i v i t i e s of the modern f i r e department. In r e l a t i o n to the control of delinquency and crime, however, society has not progressed much beyond the stage of putting out the flames. I t has waited for violations of the law and then bends i t s efforts to arrest, pursue and punish the offenders without giving much thought to the elimination of the forces that produce them and continue to produce thousands l i k e them. 1 The argument for prevention i s admirably expressed, but does not include any suggestion of ways and means.  The school  has been recommended as a l o g i c a l place i n which to begin treatment.  Most children, among them the pre-delinquents,  attend school for approximately ten months of every year! why not simply find the troublesome boys and g i r l s , and treat them there?  1 Report of the Royal Commission to Investigate the Penal System of Canada, King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1938, p. 176.  35 The problem of identifying these children from among the thousands attending school, i s the immediate concern of this study.  I t was necessary, i n the "beginning, to  find some form of school behaviour s u f f i c i e n t l y concrete to be easily recognized, which was also related to delinquency. A brief review of other studies concerned with delinquency and the school suggested the use of truancy as a school behaviour c r i t e r i o n , which might bear a close relationship with delinquency.  However, examination of the 164 cases  selected from the Juvenile Court records proved to be disappointing.  I t was found that only 32.9 per cent of the  t o t a l number could accurately be considered as having been truant at some time i n their past'school careers.  This  percentage may actually be higher since a number of poss i b l e truants were rejected, owing to some variation i n the d e f i n i t i o n of what constitutes truancy among the several s chools. The Attendance Officers accept as truant, a child who i s reported as such by a school p r i n c i p a l . many principals refer their absentees only after  However, attempting  to deal with the problem themselves, and then as a last resort.  Other schools may refer as truants, children who are  absent without excuse once, or possibly several times, within a r e l a t i v e l y brief period.  Therefore, a truant as  reported by a school p r i n c i p a l i n a Juvenile Court record, may be an absentee to varying degrees.  For that reason,  only those cases were considered truant, which showed a  record of persistent absenteeism I the t o t a l number was not sufficient to be considered as a useful c r i t e r i o n of potent i a l delinquency.  A further d i f f i c u l t y , and one which has  been mentioned before, was the inadequacy of a number of court records, which included either very brief school reports or none at a l l . I t was noted i n examination of the records, that a substantial number carried brief but specific comments from teachers and p r i n c i p a l s , regarding problem behaviour within the school.  School teachers tend to make a d i s t i n c t i o n  between truancy as a form of conduct and other troublesome behaviour i n the school, but the two were combined to form a possible c r i t e r i o n of pre-delinquency, instead of truancy alone.  In effect, truancy as a physical withdrawal from a  d i f f i c u l t situation may certainly be considered problem behaviour, and i t obviously meets the test of eognizability i n the school.  In addition to clear evidence of truancy,  problem behaviour was defined as including any kind of persistent atypical behaviour, by virtue of which the child attracted the attention and concern of his teacher.  The de-  ciding factor i n a l l cases was persistence I the behaviour was not considered a problem i f i t was of a transient nature, or responded favorably to classroom treatment. The Nature of Problem Behaviour i n School The probation officers of the Juvenile Court attempt to obtain reports on the school behaviour of delinquents who are charged with offences s u f f i c i e n t l y serious to  37 warrant probation, or more drastic treatment.  This informa-  tion i s usually given by the principals of the schools concerned; i t may be based upon their own contact with the case, or upon a complaint from the classroom teacher.  The various  types of behaviour reported by principals and teachers i n the court records, are l i s t e d i n Table 5(a) ; some explanation i s necessary to account for variations i n d e f i n i t i o n . Table 5(a). Types of Problem Behaviour Reported by Schools Sample Group, Van couver Juvenile Court, 1947-8. Type of Behavi our  Industrial School(a) Total  First Offenders  Repeaters  1 Low mentality  6  1  1  8  2 Poor application  4  2  1  7  3 Aggression  3  2  2  7  4 Withdrawal  4  0  1  5  5 Backwardness  1  1  1  3  6 Incorrigibility  2  1  0  3  7 Theft i n school  2  1  0  3  8 Nervous disorders  1  0  1  2  9 Low mentality with aggression  0  0  2  2  10 Sex problems  0  0  1  1  23  8  10  41  Total  (a) Cases committed to I n d u s t r i a l Schools.  38  "Low mentality" i s self-explanatory and i s i n cluded as a behaviour problem, owing to the current inadequacy of special class treatment.  I t may be more accurate to  consider this type an educational problem, with high potent i a l emotional implications.  However, the limited resources  available to meet the special needs of the child with a low I.Q. , and the somewhat haphazard use of existing resources, suggests that this type may be safely included as a behaviour problem. The second type, "poor application", or "not working to capacity", as i t i s often described, offered considerable d i f f i c u l t y owing to some confusion as to the true nature of individual capacity.  Only those cases are entered  which had at least average or high I.Q. ratings, and yet showed an academic performance well below the a b i l i t y l e v e l , for reasons other than prolonged absence o:r i l l n e s s .  Since  an I.Q. coefficient must be used with considerable reserve, as a measurement of doubtful accuracy, the margin between the I.Q,. and performance must be substantial, before the subject can be truly described as working below capacity.  Most  of the seven reported for this type had attitudes concomitant with their performance, which rendered the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n more valid than would be the case on the basis of performance alone.  There appears to be considerable s i m i l a r i t y between  this type and the f i r s t , but a d i s t i n c t i o n was made on the strength of a difference i n motivation.  The term "backward-  ness" implies a lack of achievement i n spite of effort which,  39  for emotional reasons, i s i n e f f e c t u a l ; poor application i n cludes an apparent absence of motivation, and the i n d i v i d u a l appears to lack interest or incentive to work. "Aggression", a general and somewhat unsatisfactory term, i s used to cover behaviour of a destructive or rebellious nature i n the classroom.  Several cases concerning  playground brawls, whi ch were reported as aggressive, were considered unsatisfactory; f i g h t i n g among children and adolescents cannot, necessarily, be considered symptomatic of anything other than good health.  These cases were neither ex-  treme nor persistent. "Withdrawal" i s treated with some caution as i t was used with an obvious variety of meanings.  In a psycho-  l o g i c a l sense, the term seemed- to have l i t t l e significance to the average teacher.  I t appears that teachers tend to  accept such behaviour with g r a t i f i c a t i o n , rather than with concern.  Whether this i s due to lack of appreciation of  the possible significance of such behaviour, or to pressure of overcrowded classrooms, i s not known at the moment; i t i s possible that both factors enter the situation.  The five  boys appearing i n the table were mentioned s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the court records, as having been unduly sensitive to pressure or d i s c i p l i n e , with resultant emotional retreat. "Backwardness" includes the d i f f i c u l t i e s of children who, for some reason other than mental incapacity, are unable to cope with their academic work.  There i s a difference be-  tween this term and "retardation."  The l a t t e r i s commonly  40 used to mean i n f e r i o r mental a b i l i t y .  "Backwardness" does not  include those individuals who have f a i l e d to keep pace with their p a r t i c u l a r age group, owing to i l l n e s s or similar reasons. " I n c o r r i g i b i l i t y " , constitutes an admission of f a i l u r e by the school and should, perhaps, be combined with aggression.  However, two cases were reported as beyond con-  t r o l for behaviour which was somewhat more d i f f i c u l t than that embraced by the term "aggression", as i t i s used here. In a sense, the term " i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y " implies an advanced form of aggressive behaviour, applied generally and indiscriminately; i t i s therefore indicative of a greater degree of emotional disturbance. The seventh type requires l i t t l e elaboration here, except that the three boys reported, had been committing minor thefts for some time within the school, as a means of achieving attention and status. "Nervous disorders", refers to those characterist i c s generally associated with emotional disturbance, such as n a i l b i t i n g , hyperactivity, t i c s and so forth. "Low mentality with aggression" i s c l a s s i f i e d separately from "aggression" and "low mentality", owing to the significant association between the two attributes.  The  two boys l i s t e d were of borderline mentality, and had a h i s tory of d i f f i c u l t behaviour both i n the classroom and on the playground. The tenth type, "sex problems" i s r e l a t i v e l y rare!  41 the one case entered i n the table was described as such owing to a tendency to indulge i n elementary sex play with the younger children on the playground. The table i s not considered significant for analyt i c a l purposes.  I t i s presented merely to indicate the  nature and extent of the type of school behaviour which was characteristic of certain delinquents.  The numbers tabulated  i n each type indicate the more extreme examples, whose school behaviour was s u f f i c i e n t l y troublesome to merit specific mention and description i n court records.  Less precise des-  criptions of behaviour characteristics r e l a t i v e to other cases, were rejected as doubtful.  In addition, i t i s extreme-  l y l i k e l y that a good many cases for whom no school problems were reported, nevertheless had h i s t o r i e s of d i f f i c u l t behaviour i n school; these, being less violent and disturbing, escaped attention.  Therefore, the number of problems l i s t e d  constitutes a very conservative enumeration, and any possible relationship with delinquent behaviour a r i s i n g therefrom can only err on the safe side. The five types of behaviour l i s t e d i n Table 5(b) comprise a consolidation of the ten described above, with truancy added as the f i f t h  type.  I t i s unfortunate that a similar analysis for a sample of the non-delinquent population i s not available to afford a comparison with the f i r s t offenders.  As i t i s , the  numbers l i s t e d i n the f i r s t column are of l i t t l e value, beyond the obvious fact that the behaviour problems described  42 as such, and the truants, are evenly distributed.  The second  and third categories show a s i m i l a r i t y i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of problem types, with 50 per cent included i n aggression i n both instances.  However, those cases included i n aggression  among the repeaters,  constitute only 17 per cent of the t o t a l ,  whereas among the I n d u s t r i a l School cases the number rises to 33 per cent.  The reason for this difference results from the  fact that 65 per cent of the repeaters who had been troublesome i n school, were truants; this i s true of only 33 per cent of the I n d u s t r i a l School cases. Table 5(b) Type of Behaviour  Jj'irst Offenders  Repeaters  Industrial School Cases  Total  Aggressi on  7  4  5  16  Wi thdrawal  9  3  3  15  Nervous disorders  1  0  1  2  Low I.Q,.  6  1  1  8  Truancy  23  15  5  43  Total  46  23  15  84  These percentages indicate that' the I n d u s t r i a l School cases, i n addition to showing the highest percentage of school problems, also produce the highest percentage of aggressive reactions.  I t i s probable that these are the  cases which, lacking adequate treatment,  continue the pro-  cess of progressive development to more extreme levels of  43 delinquency.  I t i s not known why any given individual re-  sorts to one form of behaviour,, i n preference to another, as a means of satisfying emotional needs I but i t i s l o g i c a l to assume t W , aberrant behaviour being largely the result of emotional c o n f l i c t , the more violent behaviour indicates the greater c o n f l i c t .  I t then follows that the children showing  the more aggressive reactions are generally more disturbed, than those who resort to withdrawing reactions, or to other patterns.  There appears to be a gradation of emotional dis-  turbance, which follows the same l i n e of progressive development as delinquency and school behaviour.  In other words,  the seriously unhappy or emotionally disturbed child i s l i k e l y to be excessively aggressive i n school; i n early adolescence he i s l i k e l y to begin a pattern of delinquent behaviour, which i n turn i s l i k e l y to develop into a clearly defined criminal pattern. The Relationship with Delinquency. There were 133 records out of the t o t a l 164, which included school information of any consequence; of these cases, 51.2 per cent were found to have been behaviour problems at some time i n their school careers.  The majority of  the school reports were given by p r i n c i p a l s , who are generall y aware only of the more serious d i f f i c u l t i e s .  This i s par-  t i c u l a r l y true of the larger schools and the majority of the delinquents studied, came from schools having an enrollment of over 300, several over 500 and one over 900.  Therefore,  the figure of 51.2 per cent, substantial as i t may be, must  44 be considered as somewhat lower than might be expected, with more thorough school study.  This assumption i s borne out by  the results of a study quoted by Garrison, in which he states that, "school f a i l u r e appears to be more highly correlated with the incidence of delinquency than i s any other condition, including poverty, broken homes, absence of religious association or truancy." 1 In this instance school f a i l u r e connotes f a i l u r e i n emotional adjustment, as well as academically.  It  conforms closely to the d e f i n i t i o n of problem behaviour given above, except that a d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between f a i l u r e and truancy. The percentage of school problems among the delinquents i n this study, increases d i r e c t l y with the degree of delinquency, as defined by numbers of court appearances and increasing severity of court disposition.  Whereas 45.1 per  cent of the f i r s t offenders had school records involving problem behaviour, this percentage increases to 59.6 per cent for the repeaters, and 71.4 per cent for those having been committed to I n d u s t r i a l Schools.  Once again these figures  may be considered to be too low.  I t i s probable that the  percentages would be considerably higher, i f there were more detailed investigation.  This i s further indicated by the  fact that i n a l l the records of the repeaters and I n d u s t r i a l School cases which included s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s , there was speci-  1 Garrison, K a r l C. , The Psychology of Adolescence. New York, P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1946, p. 24.  45 f i c mention of one or more types of problem behaviour. Unfortunately, only 17 per cent of the repeaters' records, and 24 per cent of the I n d u s t r i a l School cases, carried s o c i a l h i s t o r i es. Consideration of the actual percentages derived from this study, appears to indicate a s u f f i c i e n t l y positive relationship between delinquency and school behaviour, to warrant further study.  More than two-thirds of the ex-  treme delinquent group could have been i d e n t i f i e d as poss i b l e pre-delinquents, at some time prior to the point of overt conflict with the law.  At least half of a l l the de-  linquents, repeaters or otherwise, could probably have been recognized, studied, and treated where necessary.  I t must  be borne i n mind that such recognition i s dependent upon the a b i l i t i e s of school personnel; i t would be much more effective under the direction of people trained to recognize and cope with emotional problems. With f i r s t offenders, among whom the relationship between delinquency and d i f f i c u l t  behaviour i n school drops  to 45 per cent, the need for e a r l i e r treatment, though obviously important, i s somewhat less urgent than for the more extreme delinquent group; with the l a t t e r , corrective measures have thus far proven to be of l i t t l e effect.  A sub-  s t a n t i a l number of the delinquents appearing i n court for the f i r s t time, are awarded a term on'probation; this treatment i s considered successful i f the offender carries out the conditions of probation, and refrains from further  offences  46 for that period.  The permanence of this success i s a matter  for conjecture at this point, since no follow-up studies for this area are available.  I f probation, as a form of treat-  ment, i s less successful than i t appears to be at the moment, then early recognition and treatment i s equally as urgent for a l l delinquents, regardless of the extremity of their behaviour.  In any case, i t would be preferable, more ef-  fective, and more economical, to apply treatment before the c h i l d ' s behaviour has become so serious that the court must -  intervene.  The economy of prevention, as expressed i n terras  of dollars and cents, may be the strongest argument for i t s adoption i n present day society! the economy i n salvaged human resources should nevertheless be i t s prime, motivation.  The f e a s i b i l i t y of prevention, as an effective method of dealing with juvenile delinquency, depends of course upon early recognition and treatment.  The elementary  school offers great p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n finding troublesome children before they become delinquent, i f a program and i t s f a c i l i t i e s can be brought down to the school l e v e l . How to recognize the pre-delinquents i n the mass,of children attending school, constitutes the f i r s t major problem i n prevention.  The results of the present enquiry show  that d i f f i c u l t or troublesome behaviour, including truancy, i s related to delinquency.  Many of the delinquents studied,  were described by their school principals and teachers,  as  having been behaviour problems i n school! this category i n -  47 eludes a number of characteristics a l l of which were d i s t i n c t and easily recognizable. In examining the extent of problem behaviour i n the school backgrounds of the delinquents, i t was found that 51.2 per cent of the t o t a l sample had been reported i n the court records for such behaviour.  This percentage increases  to 59.6 for repeaters, and reaches 71.4 per cent i n those cases whi ch were sent to the I n d u s t r i a l School.  I t appears  evident that the incidence of past troublesome school behaviour increases d i r e c t l y with the degree of delinquency. Judging from these figures, and i f appropriate measures are taken, i t may be possible to find and treat more than twothirds of the extreme cases before they actually become delinquent, and more than half of a l l the children who are brought before the Juvenile Court.  48  CHAPTER FOUR EARLY RECOGNITION IN SCHOOL Many of the delinquents with which t h i s study i s concerned, were described by t h e i r teachers as having been behaviour problems i n school.  This term includes a number  of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which set the c h i l d , thus l a b e l l e d , apart from h i s c l a s s .  The d e s c r i p t i o n s of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  or types of behaviour, i n the court records, were adequate enough to suggest some connection between troublesome behaviour i n school and subsequent delinquency.  However, they  are not s u f f i c i e n t l y d e t a i l e d to provide an understanding  of  causes and e f f e c t s J the elements of behaviour, as they were mentioned, could e a s i l y be a set of unrelated a t t r i b u t e s . The v a l i d i t y of the preventive argument i n t h i s study depends upon evidence that the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which comprise "problem behaviour" are not only recognizable as such, but are i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a p a t t e r n ; the p a t t e r n must be established as part of the developmental sequence of delinquency, from i t s source i n emotional disturbances, to the u l t i m a t e clash with the law. k i n d of school behaviour  I t must be shown that the  t y p i c a l of many delinquents, springs  from the same base as delinquency i t s e l f . reasoning f u r t h e r , i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  Pursuing t h i s  c a r r i e d i n t o the elemen-  t a r y schools. To begin w i t h , a sample of twenty oases was  49  s e l e c t e d from those court records which made some reference to d i f f i c u l t school behaviour.  The s e l e c t i o n was based upon  age and present school attendance.  I t was decided to o b t a i n  the necessary i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the youngest delinquents, and those s t i l l i n s c h o o l , i n order to avoid excessive r e l i a n c e upon f a c t s r e c a l l e d by teachers from past experience! the s e l e c t i o n was also designed to concentrate the study at the e a r l i e s t stages of the boys' careers. The twenty cases were traced to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e schools, thanks to the co-operation of the Bureau of Measurements.  C h i l d r e n who had been t r a n s f e r r e d r e c e n t l y were  traced to t h e i r former schools.  Several came from very  mobile f a m i l i e s and had attended as many as s i x d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s ; i n these cases, one year's acquaintance with the c h i l d by a teacher, was set as the minimum period necessary to an acceptable assessment of behaviour.  The number of  c h i l d r e n from any one school d i d not exceed four.  This  small sampling of cases was a c t u a l l y widely s c a t t e r e d , geog r a p h i c a l l y ; no l e s s than t h i r t e e n schools, r e p r e s e n t i n g most of the s o c i a l areas i n the c i t y , were included i n the sample. A q u e s t i o n n a i r e , supplemented  by i n t e r v i e w s , was  used to obtain d e t a i l s of the problem behaviour mentioned i n the court records.  This i n f o r m a t i o n was not accepted as  v a l i d unless i t described c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which were c l e a r l y ft Appendix A.  50 a t y p i c a l to the group concerned, and p e r s i s t e n t .  Atypical  "behaviour which was not p e r s i s t e n t , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e over a period of at l e a s t one year, was not accepted as a problem type.  Table 6.  Delinquents C l a s s i f i e d by Age and Grade  Sample Group, Vancouver Elementary Schools, November, 1948. Grade Age  3  4  10  1  1  5  6  7(b)  3  12  1  1  13  1  2  14  1  1  10(a)  Total  3 2 1 2  15* 1  9(a)  2  11  Total  8  6  3  2  4 5  1  1  1  2  1  4  3  3  1  20  A Includes two cases aged sixteen. These were included owing to an i n s u f f i c i e n t number being a v a i l a b l e at the lower age levels. (a) Information obtained from the elementary schools p r e v i o u s l y attended. (b) The oases i n the J u n i o r High grades seven and eight were i n schools combining these, and the elementary grades. This i s a s m a l l experimental sample, and i t s purpose i s to i l l u s t r a t e the nature of the problem i n i n d i v i -  51 d u a l terms.  I t w i l l be most h e l p f u l to separate the oases by-  reference; to t h e i r l e v e l s of i n t e l l i g e n c e . i s , broadly, what might be expected.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  There were f i v e cases  with low i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t i n g s , t e n o f average a b i l i t y , and f i v e v a r y i n g from s l i g h t l y above average to high.  The f i r s t  f i v e were o r i g i n a l l y considered behaviour problems on the basis of low I.Q. alone, and the need f o r more d e t a i l e d d i s cussion was i n d i c a t e d f o r t h i s reason.  The f i v e cases a t  the h i g h l e v e l are a l s o presented i n some d e t a i l , as s p e c i a l problems of adjustment may be present here as w e l l as w i t h the low group.  The remaining ten cases are discussed as a  more t y p i c a l group, but some emphasis i a placed upon except i o n a l points. Problems of Low M e n t a l i t y Two of the f i v e boys w i t h low i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t i n g s were not described, i n the court reoords, as having been troublesome i n t h e i r school behaviour.  F o r the purposes of  t h i s study, they were considered p o t e n t i a l behaviour problems when forced to compete academically i n normal c l a s s e s . More d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n tends to support t h i s  assumption.  John A., a boy of t h i r t e e n , i n grade s i x , had an I.Q. of 88, H i s p h y s i c a l appearance was s l o v e n l y and d i r t y , to the point of being o f f e n s i v e . I t was s a i d that he was not working to c a p a c i t y , but w i t h an I.Q. of 88 i t i s d i f f i c u l t to estimate what h i s capacity should be. He was l a z y , dishonest, u n i n t e r e s t e d and c a r e l e s s . His teacher mentioned that he often t r i e d to be helpf u l i n classroom d u t i e s , but oould not be t r u s t e d to accomplish anything unless c l o s e l y supervised. I n contrast to these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , he was described as an e n t h u s i a s t i c p a r t i c i p a n t i n music c l a s s e s , and appeared to enjoy the s i n g i n g .  *  52 The problem i n t h i s case appears to be an ordinary example of academic f r u s t r a t i o n .  Paced with excessive demands upon  l i m i t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l resources, the boy responded by withdrawing emotionally, and o c c a s i o n a l l y p h y s i c a l l y , from the area of c o n f l i c t .  He attempted to d e r i v e some s a t i s f a c t i o n  from achievement i n l e s s d i f f i c u l t p u r s u i t s , such as c l a s s room duties and music periods.  The former was not h i g h l y  rewarding, but apparently the music provided an o u t l e t f o r accumulated tension.  I t was  easy f o r him to j o i n with the  group i n the simple classroom melodies, and compete on the same l e v e l as those about him.  I t was the one point i n the  day's work i n which he could claim the status of e q u a l i t y ! h i s enthusiasm t e s t i f i e d to the enjoyment he  experienced.  His unfavourable p h y s i c a l appearance may be i n d i c a t i v e of p a r e n t a l neglect, but according to the teacher t h i s was the case.  not  I t may be that the boy was not able to appreciate  the s o o i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of personal c l e a n l i n e s s and, i n add i t i o n , lacked the i n c e n t i v e to emulate the standards  of h i s  classmates. W i l l i a m B. , a boy of s i x t e e n , with an I.Q,. of 7 9 , was reported i n the court record as a truant. School i n v e s t i g a t i o n revealed that h i s mental handicap was aggravated by a c u l t u r a l f a c t o r . The school p r i n c i p a l was f a m i l i a r with h i s f a m i l y background, and placed considerable emphasis upon the i n f l u e n c e of a grandmother who was reputed to be of German e x t r a c t i o n , and " a n t i - B r i t i s h " i n her a t t i t u d e s . I n a d d i t i o n to the p o s s i b i l i t y of c u l t u r e c o n f l i c t , the s i t u a t i o n was f u r t h e r complicated by the parents' d i v o r c e ! the mother was s a i d to be contemplating remarriage to a man who promised to "make the boy toe the mark." The boy's school behaviour was described as a n t i s o c i a l , i n that he c o n s i s t e n t l y ignored r u l e s and refused to conform to the standards observed by the  53 class as a whole. He was r e b e l l i o u s , and i n c l i n e d to be i n s o l e n t , although the l a t t e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was said to be l e s s evident than i n 1945, when he f i r s t a r r i v e d i n Vancouver. His academic record was poor. I t i s to the school's c r e d i t that v i s i t s were made to the home as a r e s u l t of t h i s oonduct, but the s i t u a t i o n at the time of the enquiry remained unchanged. F r u s t r a t i o n i s evident again, but here with a d i f f e r e n t response.  The c o n f l i c t between i n t e l l e c t u a l i n c a p a c i t y and  normal study requirements,  enhanced by an apparently adverse  s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n i n g by the grandmother, r e s u l t e d i n sharply aggressive conduct. measures.  This was not improved by suppressive  I t i s not s u r p t i s i n g that the v i s i t s made by the  teacher to the home were i n e f f e c t u a l .  The problem suggests  r a m i f i c a t i o n s which are not w i t h i n the province of a school teacher, nor could they be expected to improve with one or two v i s i t s . The t h i r d case shows a somewhat s i m i l a r p a t t e r n of academic f r u s t r a t i o n and consequent aggressive  response.  I t i s that of George M. , a .twelve year o l d boy w i t h an  I.Q.  of 86. He was noted as being moody and according to the p r i n c i p a l of t h i s s c h o o l , h i s moods were d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to home d i f f i c u l t i e s . He was i n c l i n e d to be domineering i n games, extremely quick-tempered and v i o l e n t i n the face of competitive o p p o s i t i o n . He was e x c e s s i v e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n morbid s t o r i e s of crime and v i o l e n c e ; i t was apparent that he used h i s acquired knowledge i n t h i s f i e l d as a means of a c h i e v i n g s t a t u s , through posturing.as a would-be gangster. I n h i s studies he was described as a " d e f e a t i s t , " e a s i l y upset by d i f f i c u l t i e s and unable to concentrate. The term " c a p a c i t y " was used, with the i m p l i c a t i o n that more achievement was demanded of the boy than he was mentally capable of producing. This problem requires l i t t l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n regarding the  54  displacement  of the aggressive r e a o t i o n , from i t s source i n  the classroom, to the p h y s i c a l o u t l e t s of the  playground.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e a c t i o n s evident i n both areas i s obvious, the eruption o c c u r r i n g i n the l e s s i n h i b i t e d environment. Mike A., was s i x t e e n years of age with an I.Q.. of 83. The problem here was a t r i f l e more extreme i n i t s overt manifestations. Evidence of emotional d i s t u r bance was obvious i n p e r s i s t e n t tension, v i o l e n t temper and sporadic f a c i a l t i c s . He was unable to cope with any k i n d of study, without a great deal of i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n . He was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a f a i r l y consistent depression, vAiich was o c c a s i o n a l l y broken by excessive e l a t i o n over minor achievements on the p l a y i n g f i e l d . S u r p r i s i n g l y enough, he was often truant from manual, t r a i n i n g classes. .. A home v i s i t made by the teacher i n t h i s case contributed nothing i n the way of improvement, but added the s i g n i f i c a n t information that the boy had an a l c o h o l i c f a t h e r , and a mother who was bemused with her own troubles. The p a t t e r n here i s l e s s obvious and should not be i n t e r preted too f r e e l y on the b a s i s of the a v a i l a b l e information. The same c o n d i t i o n of f r u s t r a t i o n i s evident but the r e a c t i o n s are l e s s uniform than i n other cases; there are aggressive and withdrawing  tendencies, with the suggestion of a form of  anxiety neurosis.  No explanation i s a v a i l a b l e f o r h i s f e a r  or d i s t a s t e of manual t r a i n i n g , which seemed to be the only source of truancy.  On the whole, the case warrants some  concern, and with f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n may  be found to re-  q u i r e p s y c h i a t r i c help. Jack R., a boy of twelve, had an I.Q. of 78. I n appearance he was-unkempt and poorly dressed, although there was no evidenoe of economic d i f f i c u l t y i n the home. H i s academic record was poor. I n the c l a s s room he was e x c e s s i v e l y shy, l i k e d to day-dream much of the time, was moody and rather stubborn when c r i t i -  o  55  oized. He waa often absent from school, but since he had excuse notes from h i s mother, he was not t e c h n i c a l l y a truant. An u n v e r i f i e d report described him as a " b u l l y " and "show-off on the playground but h i s teachers could not vouch f o r t h i s . His behaviour was never s u f f i c i e n t l y troublesome to warrant concern i n the school and one teacher stated t h a t , " c o n s i d e r i n g h i s background and I.Q,. we f i n d he i s more to be p i t i e d than censured too h a r s h l y . " H i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were not considered s i g n i f i c a n t . This i s another example of a withdrawing r e a c t i o n to the extreme f r u s t r a t i o n suffered by those whose mental capacity i s not equal to normal demands i n school.  The pattern i s  c l e a r enough to d e l i n e a t e the problem, but the most i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of t h i s b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n i s the a t t i t u d e of the t e a c h e r s ; i t i s one ishich o f f e r s sympathy i n the guise of understanding, but leaves the basic i s s u e untouched. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the behaviour disorders outl i n e d i n these f i v e cases i s obvious w i t h a d i a g n o s t i c approach.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the f i r s t two were  not s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned i n the court records as behaviour problems ; none of the f i v e were considered s u f f i c i e n t l y 8erious to warrant r e f e r r a l  elsewhere.  The High M e n t a l i t y Group The f i r s t of t h i s group, M a r t i n L., was a fourteen year o l d boy w i t h an I.Q. of 114.  This case was found to be  a t r i f l e more complicated than the m a j o r i t y , owing to a severe p h y s i c a l handicap. M a r t i n was described as a boy of s l i g h t physique. He waa a f f l i . c t e d w i t h an osteopathic condition which l e d to h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n some time a f t e r h i s court appearance. In a d d i t i o n , there were traces of epilepsy i n the f a m i l y .  56  At the time of the enquiry, the c h i l d was under treatment f o r t h i s d i s o r d e r which was diagnosed as a r e l a t i v e l y minor p e t i t mal. H i s school behaviour was not s a t i s f a c t o r y and h i s academic work was considered w e l l below h i s a b i l i t y . He was a day-dreamer and c o n s i s t e n t l y tended to consort with younger c h i l d r e n . The p h y s i c a l f a c t o r was probably b a s i c to the emotional cond i t i o n which blocked t h i s c h i l d ' s school progress, toward achievement i n l i n e with h i s a b i l i t y .  This i s c e r t a i n l y  i n d i c a t e d by h i s behaviour symptoms i n the classroom and h i s conduct on the playground.  However, regardless of the pre-  dominance of h i s p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s , the f a c t remains that there was an emotional c o n f l i c t which produced d e f i n i t e symptoms w i t h i n the school. W i l l i a m D.,  a boy of f i f t e e n with an I.Q.  111,  of  was a more d i f f i c u l t problem. William's academic record verged upon f a i l u r e from grade s i x . At that time he began to neglect h i s home-work, refused to apply himself i n school and was f r e q u e n t l y l a t e . There was some truancy. He was impertinent to h i s teachers and appeared to make a conscious e f f o r t to be obnoxious. The school counsellor was of the opinion that "the boy was t r y i n g to a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n H e described him as a " s c r e w b a l l " because he could f i n d no reasons f o r the boy's behaviour. P h y s i c a l l y he was p a l e , underweight and generally under-developed. L i t t l e was known of t h i s boy's f a m i l y or background, which might have explained the behaviour so bewildering to the ' counsellor.  The f a c t that the present p a t t e r n developed  q u i t e suddenly, immediately • d i s t u r b i n g f a c t o r which was  suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y of a extraneous to the school.  The  shock which p r e c i p i t a t e d the e r r a t i c a l l y aggressive behaviour probably occurred w i t h i n the boy's f a m i l y r e l a t i o n -  57  ships.  Whatever the b a s i c causes, nothing was done e i t h e r to  diagnose or to t r e a t the t o t a l problem. The t h i r d case i s i n t e r e s t i n g .  The boy's teacher,  aware of negative home i n f l u e n c e s , minimized the evident problem beoause there was no d i s c i p l i n a r y f a c t o r involved. A l l a n S., had a reputation among h i s teachers of being " b r i g h t . " Apparently he evinced an i n t e r e s t i n h i s work, but was noted f o r a tendency to wander from any p o i n t under d i s c u s s i o n , i n t o w i l d l y exaggerated and h i g h l y imaginative s t o r i e s . H i s teacher recognized t h i s , as w e l l as a tendency to be excess i v e l y generous, as a t t e n t i o n - g e t t i n g mechanisms* he was of the opinion that attempts to suppress these p r o c l i v i t i e s were showing some success. There was no improvement i n the boy's work. The symptoms i n t h i s case are l e s s w e l l defined than i n the m a j o r i t y of those studied, and might e a s i l y escape the a t t e n t i o n of a teacher, p a r t i c u l a r l y since the boy was not troublesome i n c l a s s . v  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s displayed are of  l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e by themselves but when analyzed as a p a t t e r n , i n conjunction with known adverse features i n the home, they become s i g n i f i c a n t . The case of Lawrence T., eleven years o l d with an I.Q,. of 1 0 1 , was l e s s c l e a r l y defined. I n p h y s i c a l appearance, Lawrence was rather p a l e and obese! there was no reference to the p o s s i b i l i t y of glandular disorder. H i s academic record was average. There was no d i s c e r n i b l e problem i n the classroom, but h i s behaviour on the playground seemed s i g n i f i cant. He was noticed to be consciously s o c i a b l e , but waa not l i k e d by the c h i l d r e n to whom h i s overtures were extended. Hia teachers d i d not know why t h i s boy waa not accepted by h i a claasmates, but thought that he was over-eager to make f r i e n d s . Apparently h i s own enthusiasm was h i s downfall. H i s studies were not a f f e c t e d to any e x t e n t ; he waa d i f f e r e n t i n the classroom only as he was thought to be t r y i n g to a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n to h i m s e l f q u i t e often.  Information i n t h i s case was l i m i t e d and therefore i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would he premature.  The d e t a i l s a v a i l a b l e here, point  to a poor s o c i a l adjustment which might hinge upon a number of f a c t o r s , many of them rooted elsewhere than i n the school. Such a problem may he d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y i n the s c h o o l , but i t i s not l e s s worthy of ooncern because i t i s nonacademic i n character.  Greater a n a l y t i c a l awareness on the  p a r t of teachers would render such problems both s i g n i f i c a n t and recognizable. The f i n a l case i n t h i s group was not reported i n the court record as a behaviour problem of any k i n d . Gordon R. , eleven years of age with an I.Q,. of 108, had an average academic standing. His work i n school was careless and haphazard. He was described as egot i s t i c a l and immune to ordinary d i s c i p l i n e . His teacher was concerned about him as a boy who was a l e r t to every opportunity to "get away with somet h i n g ; " when caught he was extremely g l i b i n h i s excuses. He was aware of the " d i f f e r e n c e between r i g h t and wrong" but the concept had no meaning f o r him as i t has with the average c h i l d . He was described as " a law unto h i m s e l f " with few moral s c r u p l e s , i f such a term may be applied to a c h i l d of eleven. This p a t t e r n i s suggestive of a deeply-rooted emotional disturbance which cannot be elaborated without f u r t h e r i n f o r mation.  I t i s s u f f i c i e n t to emphasize that the behaviour  p a t t e r n o u t l i n e d here has grave i m p l i c a t i o n s , school opinion notwithstanding. The Average Group The remaining ten cases f o l l o w a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n w i t h i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s ; they do not c o n t r i b u t e s u f f i c i e n t l y to the theme of the present study to warrant  specific  5 9  recounting.  Without exception, a l l twenty cases i n the  sample e x h i b i t e d behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which were c l e a r l y atypical.  Some of these were obvious, and s e v e r a l were re-  cognized as symptomatic by the teachers concerned, but under the circumstances l i t t l e could be done.  Other cases of l e s s  apparent d i s o r d e r were e i t h e r m i s i n t e r p r e t e d , or rated as nuisances and endured as such. An example of m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of behaviour i s o f f e r e d by the case of Tommy J . , a fourteen year o l d boy who l o s t a l e g i n an accident, s e v e r a l years ago. Tommy's parents were described as co-operative but a c c e p t i n g of the school only as a n e c e s s i t y ; they were, apparently, co-operative w i t h i n the l i m i t s p r e s c r i b e d by the School Attendance Act. The f a m i l y a t t i t u d e toward the s c h o o l , and s o c i e t y i n general, was s a i d to be based on pride, and concomitant r e j e c t i o n of outside help. The boy hims e l f , an average student, was described as "brave" and was s i n c e r e l y admired by the teachers who knew him. The p r i n c i p a l s a i d that he "faced and conquered h i s handicap" without a s s i s t a n c e , ^apparently i n the family tradition. But the evidence implied by h i s behaviour suggests otherwise. He was u s u a l l y quiet and reserved, but showed b r i g h t anger i n response to sympathy. He c r i e d when given or offered concessions because of h i s handicap. When h i s emotions were roused he stammered, and i n c e r t a i n instances became temporarily i n a r t i c u l a t e . I n the presence of others he was n o t i c e a b l y shy. h i s apparent independence and r e f u s a l of sympathy or a s s i s tance were i n t e r p r e t e d as evidence of courage! e x p l a i n i n g t h i s a n a l y s i s , the p r i n c i p a l remarked that the boy's a t t i tude, unless understood, could e a s i l y be taken f o r stubbornness.  There was no reference to the deep f e e l i n g of inade-  quacy, i n d i c a t e d by h i s shyness, and h i s h a b i t u a l tendency  60 to withdraw from the group.  The p h y s i c a l handicap a c t u a l l y  appears secondary to i t s emotional accompaniment.  There i s  no doubt that t h i s boy was deeply disturbed by h i s f e e l i n g s of p h y s i c a l i n f e r i o r i t y , but he was experiences  to contain h i s emotions.  conditioned by h i s f a m i l y Occasionally the ten*  s i o n burst h i s defences, when sympathetic overtures brought h i s f e e l i n g s to the surface.  The emotional  c o n f l i c t between  h i s constantly reinforoed c o n v i c t i o n of i n f e r i o r i t y , and  the  d r i v e toward s o c i a l s t a t u s , eventually found an o u t l e t i n delinquent  behaviour. At the moment the prognosis i s none too good.  This  case i s one which, from any point of view, i s charged with pathos; even t h i s b r i e f e x p o s i t i o n includes r a t h e r poignant i m p l i c a t i o n s of what might have been done, to a s s i s t t h i s boy toward a more e f f e c t i v e understanding h i s p h y s i c a l handicap.  and acceptance of  Unfortunately, he was not a problem  u n t i l ttie court so decreed.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to avoid the  r e f l e c t i o n that r e a l i z a t i o n may have come too l a t e . The only case i n the e n t i r e sample which appeared to be of doubtful s i g n i f i c a n c e as a behaviour problem was that of Danny, a t h i r t e e n year o l d boy, with an I.Q.  of 99,  i n grade f i v e . Although Danny was not stated to be working below c a p a c i t y , the age-grade r e l a t i o n s h i p c e r t a i n l y points i n that d i r e c t i o n . I n v e s t i g a t i o n showed that the bioy's mother was an Immature woman who f r e q u e n t l y kept the c h i l d away from school, on the s l i g h t e s t provocation, when i n school he was poorly dressed and h a b i t u a l l y f i l t h y . His behaviour was generally q u i t e good, except that h i s teachers were concerned about h i s manners. He was considered very s o c i a b l e , w i t h a charming manner; t h i s tended to o f f s e t h i s  unsavoury appearance to some extent. The case suggests neglect i n the home, with a lack of incent i v e i n the school and, perhaps, a trace of compensatory act i v i t y i n h i s energetic s o c i a l approach.  I n any case, the  i n d i c a t i o n s of neglect are s u f f i c i e n t l y concrete t o warrant some apprehension  regarding p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  There appears to be l i t t l e doubt that the problem behaviour e x h i b i t e d i n school by these delinquents was w e l l defined.  I t i s equally evident that these symptoms of under-  l y i n g emotional c o n f l i c t were, i n a l l cases, allowed to develop unchecked by any coherent attempt a t treatment; eventually they found an o u t l e t i n delinquency.  However, the c r u c i a l  i s s u e i s , whether t h i s behaviour i s co-existent with d e l i n quency, or manifests i t s e l f before the c h i l d r e s o r t s to a c t i v e law-breaking.  There i s l i t t l e to be gained by r e c o g n i t i o n of  delinquent symptoms, i f there i s not s u f f i c i e n t time f o r app l i c a t i o n of i n t e n s i v e treatment p r i o r to a c t i v e delinquency. The Treatment I n t e r v a l The average p e r i o d between the appearance of def i n i t e problem behaviour i n the school, and the f i r s t known delinquency, i s four years.  Many of the delinquents i n t h i s  sample had displayed the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s considered as problem behaviour, throughout t h e i r school careers.  With the  exception of one case, they were known to be d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r classmates, i n behaviour and a t t i t u d e s , f o r two or more years, the m a j o r i t y f o r three years or more.  Two of the  cases were r e f e r r e d to the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c at some time  p r i o r to t h e i r appearance i n court but, as f a r as could be determined, the treatment was l a r g e l y d i a g n o s t i c .  The re-  mainder were c o n t r o l l e d d u r i n g t h e i r school hours, and were not considered serious d i s c i p l i n a r y problems.  No one can  p r e d i c t e x a c t l y , what might have f o l l o w e d e a r l y treatment i n these cases, but i t i s quite probable that few of them would have found t h e i r way i n t o the J u v e n i l e Court.  Table 7.  I n t e r i m P e r i o d Between Outbreak of Problem Behaviour i n School and F i r s t Delinquency  Sample Group, Vancouver Elementary Schools, November, 1948. Outbreak of Problem Behaviour  1939  Date of F i r s t Offence "Average Interirr P e r i o d i n Tears 1946 1947 1948  1  7.0  1940  1  8.0  1942  1  2  3.6  1943  1  4  4.B  1944  2  1  3. 3  1945  1  3  2.8  1946  2  2.0  1947  1  *  Average I n t e r i m P e r i o d f o r Sample 4.05  1.0 years.  it Two boys were t r a n s f e r r e d to Vancouver schools from other areas i n the province. D i f f i c u l t behaviour was evident i n school upon a r r i v a l .  63 With the p o s s i b l e exception of two, a l l the cases i n the experimental sample were w i t h i n the treatment area of case work.  These two boys showed evidence of marked d i s -  turbance, and should have had p s y c h i a t r i c a s s i s t a n c e w i t h supportive case work treatment.  I t i s often claimed that  d i a g n o s t i c and treatment resources are too l i m i t e d to be used f o r problems such as these.  I t appears somewhat r i d i -  culous that they are ignored during the period when they may be considered most amenable to treatment.  When a t t e n t i o n to  these c h i l d r e n i s f i n a l l y made mandatory by the court, t r e a t ment i s not only rendered more d i f f i c u l t and c o s t l y J the d r a i n upon the same l i m i t e d resources i s greater than i f the problems had been d e a l t w i t h at t h e i r i n c e p t i o n .  I t i s f a i r l y evident that troublesome  behaviour  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n school, t y p i c a l of many delinquents, can be recognized.  Many of them are, i n f a c t , noted by teachers.  However, r e l a t i v e l y few of these problems are considered from a d i a g n o s t i c p o i n t of view! teachers tend to accept them a t t h e i r face value, unless the c h i l d r e n concerned are s u f f i c i e n t l y r e b e l l i o u s or d i f f i c u l t , to be considered as d i s c i p l i n a r y problems.  The r e s u l t i s that school behaviour d i s -  orders, which are a c t u a l l y of a symptomatic nature, remain more or less untreated. A l l of the cases s t u d i e d , showed c l e a r l y defined patterns of problem behaviour i n school a year, or more, before committing t h e i r f i r s t offence against the law.  The  64 average period between the r e c o g n i t i o n of such behaviour and the f i r s t delinquency was four years ; there appears to be l i t t l e doubt that t h i s i s s u f f i c i e n t time f o r thorough diagnosis and i n t e n s i v e treatment.  65  CHAPTER FIVE THE PROBLEM OP THE ACADEMIC APPROACH "Teachers should he s e n s i t i v e to p u p i l s who  ex-  perience f r u s t r a t i o n such as economic need, inadequate home surroundings, broken f a m i l i e s , l i m i t e d academic a p t i t u d e , low or f a i l i n g marks, school r e t a r d a t i o n , c o n f l i c t i n g c u l tures and f a m i l y m o b i l i t y .  The ones who should be r e f e r r e d  are those who r e a c t to these circumstances or aggravating conditions i n a manner which does not have s o c i a l a p p r o v a l ; those who do not belong to any supervised s o c i a l or recreat i o n a l groups, bothersome gangs, those who t r u a n t , l i e ,  cheat,  destroy property, h i t other c h i l d r e n , f a i l i n t h e i r school work or who  turn t h e i r aggression inwardly upon  and become s u l l e n , s e c l u s i v e and unhappy." from W. C. Kvaraceus'  1  themselves  This quotation  study w e l l expresses the r o l e a teacher  might be able to play i n the prevention of delinquency. However, the extent to which teachers f u l f i l t h i s f u n c t i o n , i s a matter of t r a i n i n g and opportunity.  I n the l i g h t of the  f a c t s so f a r reviewed, i t i s important to examine i t f u r t h e r at this point. The teacher i n the elementary school c l e a r l y occupies a p o s i t i o n of s t r a t e g i c importance i n the r e c o g n i t i o n  1 Kvaraceus, W. C. , J u v e n i l e Delinquency and the School. World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, 1945, p. 278.  66 of symptomatic behaviour and i n treatment.  The f a c t s so f a r  assembled tend to suggest that treatment of behaviour problems i n the school has been l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d to suppress i o n i n the i n t e r e s t s of " d i s c i p l i n e . "  Education s t i l l seems  to be a predominantly academic f u n c t i o n ; problem  behaviour  i s of i n c i d e n t a l importance, unless i t c o n s t i t u t e s a threat to  classroom c o n t r o l .  F u r t h e r , the problems are recognized  by v i r t u e of s p e c i f i c a t y p i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; t h e i r emot i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s are l a r g e l y ignored.  Those which are re-  garded w i t h appropriate concern, are given inadequate a t t e n t i o n because of i n s u f f i c i e n t time, lack of f a c i l i t i e s f o r treatment, and l i m i t e d s k i l l s and techniques. The i n d i v i d u a l teacher can h a r d l y be c r i t i o i z e d f o r f a i l u r e to e x p l o i t her p o t e n t i a l i t i e s i n the prevention, not only of delinquency, but of other expressions of emotional maladjustment which f a l l w i t h i n the general province of mental hygiene.  A teacher who i s charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  guiding from twenty to f o r t y c h i l d r e n through an average school curriculum, cannot be expected to t r e a t emotional problems as w e l l .  She has n e i t h e r the time nor the r e q u i s i t e  s k i l l to cope with them.  She can, however, recognize t h e i r  symptoms from classroom behaviour, and she may l e a r n to appreciate their implications. i n v a l u a b l e source of r e f e r r a l .  Therefore she c o n s t i t u t e s an The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t r e a t -  ment, on a c o l l a b o r a t i v e basis, must be c a r r i e d by s p e c i a l i s t s . The major f u n c t i o n of school teachers i n a prevent i v e program, then, i s one of r e c o g n i t i o n and subsequent re-  67  f e r r a l of b e h a v i o u r  problems, to a treatment  to d e a l comprehensively w i t h them.  agency competent  However, r e f e r r a l  should  n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e s c h o o l ' s i n t e r e s t i n t h e c a s e ! on t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s r e c o g n i t i o n t o s u c c e s s f u l treatment, borative basis.  from  s h o u l d be on a c o l l a -  Thus i t i s p o s s i b l e t o make t h e most e f -  f e c t i v e use of the resources a v a i l a b l e i n the s c h o o l , the treatment  agency and t h e community.  Such an approach, i n  which t h e s o c i a l worker c a r r i e s t h e dominant r o l e , i m p l i e s e e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s which a r i s e i n t h e f u n c t i o n a l sequence of r e c o g n i t i o n , through r e f e r r a l , t o u l t i m a t e  treatment.  R e c o g n i t i o n o f B e h a v i o u r Problems As p a r t of t h e method of t h i s s t u d y , a b r i e f quest i o n n a i r e , d e a l i n g w i t h problem b e h a v i o u r ,  was u s e d .  I t was  sent t o t e n s c h o o l s i n v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h e c i t y , acc o r d i n g t o a rough e c o l o g i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n .  The q u e s t i o n -  n a i r e ^ asked f o r numbers o f t r u a n t s and b e h a v i o u r f o u n d i n grades one t o s i x , i n c l u s i v e . r e f e r r e d f o r a d v i c e o r treatment quested as w e l l . "behaviour  problems  The number o f p u p i l s  out o f t h e s c h o o l , was r e -  The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between " t r u a n c y " and  problems" was made a r b i t r a r i l y ,  d i s t i n c t i o n observed i n t h e s c h o o l s .  t o conform t o t h e  The purpose o f t h e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was to make a p r e l i m i n a r y e s t i m a t e of t h e ext e n t o f problem b e h a v i o u r  as c o n c e i v e d  by t e a c h i n g  personnel,  t h e v a r i a t i o n between s c h o o l s i n t h i s r e s p e c t , and t h e u s e of ft A p p e n d i x B.  68 r e f e r r a l to e x i s t i n g agencies. The r e s u l t s were d i s a p p o i n t i n g , even w i t h i n the l i m i t e d scope of the questionnaire.  Three were not returned  and subsequent i n t e r v i e w s e l i c i t e d the i m p l i c a t i o n that truancy and problem behaviour were non-existent i n these schools.  The remaining seven i n d i c a t e d such wide v a r i a t i o n  between schools, which were not g r e a t l y d i s s i m i l a r - i n the nature of t h e i r populations, that t h e i r v a l i d i t y appeared doubtful. For purposes of a n a l y s i s , the schools are grouped i n Table 8, according to the s i m i l a r i t y of the d i s t r i c t s from which t h e i r attendance i s drawn.  Area 1, the c e n t r a l  business s e c t i o n and i t s adjacent r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s , i s noted f o r i t s high delinquency r a t e s * schools A and B are attended by c h i l d r e n l i v i n g d i r e c t l y i n t h i s area.  School C,  i n a more p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n , draws part of i t s attendance from more o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s .  The remaining areas reach  outwards c o n c e n t r i c a l l y from Area 1, to d i s t r i c t s t y p i f i e d by more s u b s t a n t i a l , s i n g l e u n i t dwellings and g e n e r a l l y higher economic l e v e l s .  On the basis of the  environmental  f a c t o r i n delinquency, each school could be expected to report f i g u r e s f o r behaviour disorders s i m i l a r to the others i n i t s group, at l e a s t with minor d i s c r e p a n c i e s . The reverse i s true f o r Areas 1 and 3, where the schools with the l e s s e r attendance r o l l s reported f a r greater numbers of problem cases.  69 Table 8. Numbers of Truants and Problem Children i n School Sample of Ten Elementary Schools, Vancouver, October, 1948,  Behaviour Problems Totals Schools Truants Area * Attendance Noted Referred Noted Referred in Grades 1-6 1  2  3  A (583) B (7 44) C (258)  3 12 2  2 0 0  62 16 5  13 7 1  80 35 8  D  (335)  0  0  1  0  1  E  (647)  0  0  1  0  1  P (638) G (317)  0 1  0 1  0 13  0 6  0 21  3  98  27  146  Totals it Area 1  1  —  8  \  High delinquency area i n c l u d i n g c e n t r a l business s e c t i o n and adjacent d i s t r i c t s .  Area 2 --- Working c l a s s d i s t r i c t extending from Area 1, outwards. Area 3 --- Largely middle class area, but School G draws from a d i s t r i c t which includes a s u b s t a n t i a l working c l a s s element. The r e f e r r a l s which are noted i n the t a b l e , were made to the Children's A i d S o c i e t i e s , the p r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , or to the M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h Committee. The l a t t e r , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the school system,  operates a guidance c l i n i c under the d i r e c t i o n of the school psychiatrist.  Most of the r e f e r r a l s f o r p s y c h i a t r i c diag-  nosis are made to t h i s c l i n i c . Of course a number of f a c t o r s enter the s i t u a t i o n here.  The p r i n c i p a l s of schools A and G were found to be  somewhat over-enthusiast!c i n t h e i r r a t i n g of behaviour problems, and the f i g u r e s reported must be treated with some reservation.  The report from school B was  f a i r l y good estimate.  considered to be a  The p a u c i t y of the r e s u l t s tabulated  f o r the remainder of the schools, i s a t t r i b u t e d to the f a i l ure of the school s t a f f s to recognize behaviour problems, unless they have d i s c i p l i n a r y s i g n i f i c a n c e .  For example,  f o u r of the cases included i n the sample of twenty previousl y i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the schools, are a t t e n d i n g school D. w r i t e r discovered at l e a s t two more cases of d i f f i c u l t haviour, i n a d i s c u s s i o n with the p r i n c i p a l .  The be-  Only one of  these s i x cases was reported as a behaviour problem and only f o r d i s c i p l i n a r y reasons; the remaining f i v e were considered annoying, but not e x c e s s i v e l y troublesome.  I t i s probable  that more d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n would r e v e a l many more problem cases i n t h i s school, and i n those f o r which very few were reported. The p r i n c i p a l of school G was found to be unusuall y aware of the symptomatic nature of the type of behaviour discussed, and was extremely co-operative i n assembling data required.  the  The 21 cases reported f o r t h i s school are  t h e r e f o r e considered a more accurate estimate of the a c t u a l  number.  This f i g u r e , used as a rough c r i t e r i o n to evaluate  the reports of the other schools, c e r t a i n l y throws doubt on the reports from schools D, E and F and, to a c e r t a i n ext e n t , school C.  I n t e r v i e w s , subsequent to the r e t u r n of the  questionnaires, i n d i c a t e d a very l i m i t e d understanding of the emotional aspects of troublesome behaviour i n these scliooIs.  This was a l s o t r u e , but to a l e s s e r extent, i n  those which reported a r e l a t i v e l y greater number of d i f f i cult pupils.  The m a j o r i t y of the cases which were reported  were rated as d i f f i c u l t , odd or annoying, with l i t t l e t o suggest r e a l awareness of the p r o b a b i l i t y of maladjustment. In  general, the schools tended t o define problem  behaviour i n d i s c i p l i n a r y terms.  I t i s true that a substan-  t i a l number of problem cases, which d i d not i n c l u d e a d i s c i p l i n a r y element, were reported i n the questionnaires. However, many of these were l i s t e d i n response to the i n cluded d e f i n i t i o n of problem behaviour.  Further i n v e s t i g a -  t i o n suggested a general lack, of c o n v i c t i o n on the p a r t of school p r i n c i p a l s , regarding the a c t u a l seriousness of the cases thus rated.  This was p a r t i c u l a r l y true of the numerous  c h i l d r e n who showed withdrawal symptoms r e s u l t i n g from lack of a b i l i t y , lack of i n c e n t i v e , or both. were described as troublesome,  Few of these  cases  and were not considered as  " r e a l " problems d e s p i t e t h e i r being enumerated on the questionnaires. The m a j o r i t y of the p r i n c i p a l s consulted d i d not concede the p o s s i b i l i t y of there being emotional problems  present, to the extent of complying with the questionnaire definition.  They refused to enter any hut the most "blatantly  obvious examples of maladjustment.  Therefore, the question-  n a i r e s are almost c e r t a i n l y unrepresentative of the number of behaviour problems e x i s t e n t i n the Vancouver Elementary Schools* but they do i n d i c a t e the f a i l u r e of school s t a f f to recognize symptomatic behaviour, except i n the most advanced cases. The treatment of p u p i l s with low i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t i n g s o f f e r s a s t r i k i n g example of the l i m i t e d extent of r e c o g n i t i o n i n r e a l , and p o t e n t i a l , behaviour problems,.  The  example i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t , s i n c e cases of t h i s type should be of v i t a l ooncern to the teacher because of the manifest educational problem, aside from the emotional implications.  There was an obvious r e l a t i o n s h i p between be-  haviour and mental inadequacy evident i n many cases, p a r t i c u l a r l y the f i v e who were studied i n the s c h o o l s ; i n s p i t e of t h i s , there was no i n d i c a t i o n that the high degree of f r u s t r a t i o n experienced by these p u p i l s was appreciated to any extent.  None of these f i v e was i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s .  Three of the t o t a l sample of 164 court cases were enrolled i n special classes.  I n t e l l i g e n c e r a t i n g s were not  a v a i l a b l e f o r the t o t a l number, but i t i s h i g h l y probable that there were more than f i v e c h i l d r e n i n the sample, who were e l i g i b l e f o r s p e c i a l class treatment.  Discussions with  the Attendance O f f i c e r s and the school p s y c h o l o g i s t , suggested that some p u p i l s of low i n t e l l i g e n c e cannot be placed  i n these classes because of overcrowding.  I t seems apparent  that those, who are l e f t to s t r u g g l e along i n normal classes are  the l e a s t troublesome of the t o t a l group, as f a r as'  t h e i r behaviour i s concerned.  I f overcrowding i s a v a l i d  reason f o r inadequate s p e c i a l class treatment, then select i o n of candidates on such a basis may be tenable. However, i t should not mean that the c h i l d r e n l e f t behind by the s e l e c t i o n should t h e r e a f t e r be more or l e s s ignored. Another reason f o r f a i l u r e to place some of the mentally handicapped c h i l d r e n i n classes designed to meet t h e i r needs, i s that parents often refuse to grant permiss i o n f o r such placement.  This i s a frequent r e a c t i o n of  parents who are often too proud to have t h e i r c h i l d i n a s p e c i a l class.  This may w e l l be so, but i t leaves unanswered  the question of p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n such a s i t u a t i o n , and the need of a s e r v i c e which might be able to eff e c t a readjustment i n p a r e n t a l understanding and a t t i t u d e s . This problem of r e c o g n i t i o n was not u n a n t i c i p a t e d , by any means, and the reasons are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e .  Des-  p i t e the growing emphasis i n p r o f e s s i o n a l education c i r c l e s upon i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n , the teacher i s s t i l l concerned largel y with a heavy syllabus of s t u d i e s ; and, f o r that matter, w i t h a system of d i s c i p l i n e s designed to insure mass progress toward a pre-determined academic goal.  The c h i l d must absorb  a c e r t a i n quantity of l e a r n i n g i n a given time; and i n the process, he must conform to a number of r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s intended to f a c i l i t a t e i t .  Non-conformity must f r e q u e n t l y be  suppressed i n the i n t e r e s t of the group progress toward a minimum standard of academic achievement.  The teacher's r e -  p u t a t i o n hinges upon her a b i l i t y to advance the bulk of her class beyond t h i s standard a t the end of each year.  Unfor-  t u n a t e l y , her success as a teacher i s s t i l l measured l a r g e l y i n terms of academic success or f a i l u r e .  Whether those suc-  cesses are a l s o w e l l - a d j u s t e d p e r s o n a l i t i e s i s I n c i d e n t a l . F a i l u r e s are of no great consequence except i n numerical terms, when they exceed the acceptable quota. There are exceptions among both p r i n c i p a l s and teachers of course, but the m a j o r i t y appear to be c a r r y i n g on w i t h a streamlined v e r s i o n of the system which, years ago, was devoted to the three R's." M  I n classroom p r a c t i c e ,  the concept of p e r s o n a l i t y dynamics i s not f o l l o w e d to any appreciable extent.  The s i t u a t i o n i s due, i n great p a r t ,  to i n s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g i n psychology and a l s o to the funct i o n a l i n e r t i a which i s common to a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s .  The i n -  adequacy may be overcome by greater emphasis upon dynamic psychology i n teacher t r a i n i n g ; but t h i s must undoubtedly be supplemented  i n p r a c t i c e by demonstration of the c o n s t r u c t i v e  e f f e c t s of treatment, i n cases which are now e i t h e r ignored or suppressed. R e f e r r a l of Behaviour Problems I t may seem anomalous that r e f e r r a l should be d i s cussed, a f t e r d i s c o u n t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of school teachers i n the r e c o g n i t i o n of these cases.  However, s e v e r a l schools  reported r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e numbers of d i f f i c u l t c h i l d r e n , w i t h  the a s s i s t a n c e of the d e f i n i t i o n of problem behaviour  included  i n the questionnaire.  The same method may be used to encour-  age i n i t i a l r e f e r r a l s .  I t i s true that r e f e r r a l s w i l l leave  much to be d e s i r e d , i f they are based only on c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , without any depth of understanding. However, pending the development of greater i n s i g h t by the teachers, i t seems to be the only e f f e c t i v e s u b s t i t u t e . Otherwise, a treatment program may be delayed, f o r the sake of p r e l i m i n a r y education of school s t a f f s , with l i t t l e assurance that i n t e r p r e t i v e p u b l i c i t y would produce concrete results. I t would be of great advantage to make a thorough i n i t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s o c i a l worker's r o l e .  The  teachers could then be conditioned to i n s i g h t and understanding,, through a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the treatment cess.  pro-  R e f e r r a l made simply according to d e f i n i t i o n might  w e l l produce i n f l a t e d responses,  s i m i l a r to that of school A,  which would r e q u i r e considerable screening.  This minor  hazard must be accepted u n t i l r e f e r r i n g teachers develop suff i c i e n t understanding, t h e i r own screening.  through s u c c e s s f u l p r a c t i c e , to do A t any r a t e , an excessively i n c l u s i v e  volume of r e f e r r a l would be a p o s i t i v e r a t h e r than a negative f a u l t ; i t would a t l e a s t ensure r e c o g n i t i o n of the serious cases. The major o p e r a t i o n a l problems to be encountered i n r e f e r r a l are l a r g e l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l although i t must be admitted that time i s an important f a c t o r ; curriculum pressure  i s generally q u i t e heavy upon the teacher.  F a i l u r e to ap-  p r e c i a t e the emotional i m p l i c a t i o n s of problem behaviour, often precludes r e c o g n i t i o n by the school a u t h o r i t i e s , of the need f o r r e f e r r a l to treatment agencies.  I f i n i t i a l re-  f e r r a l s may be encouraged on the basis of a broad d e f i n i t i o n of problem behaviour, s u c c e s s f u l expansion, and perhaps even the continued existence of a treatment program, must wait upon proof of e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Several p r i n c i p a l s who were consulted on t h i s point d i d not appear to be g r e a t l y impressed with the r e s u l t s achieved through some r e f e r r a l s already made* these c h i l d r e n had been sent to various s o c i a l  agencies  and the p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c s of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Health Committee, and the p r o v i n c i a l government.  I t must be pointed  out that these cases were generally extreme problems with long developmental h i s t o r i e s .  Successful treatment  depends,  to a great extent, upon e a r l y contact. S o c i a l workers may o f f e r the t r a d i t i o n a l reason of i n s u f f i c i e n t time and resources to cope with such r e f e r r a l s , and the c l i n i c s may suggest a lack of workers to carry out recommended treatment» but some s c e p t i c i s m appears to e x i s t i n the schools regarding the use of r e f e r r a l f o r case work treatment.  Some i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s appears i n the d i s c r e -  pancies between numbers of problems and r e f e r r a l s , reported, i n the questionnaire.  An a d d i t i o n a l reason i s that teachers,  as w e l l as other groups, tend to expect r a p i d and spectacul a r r e s u l t s from r e f e r r a l s , without due a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the complexities of the problems involved.  77 A f u r t h e r problem to be considered, a r i s e s from a f a i r l y general a t t i t u d e among p r i n c i p a l s which may be described as a "vested i n t e r e s t " i n t h e i r schools.  This problem  i s a common a d m i n i s t r a t i v e phenomenon wherever departmentalization exists.  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s case, only as i t  hinders r e f e r r a l of problems and subsequent treatment.  For  example, p r i n c i p a l s are r e l u c t a n t to r e f e r cases of truancy to the attendance o f f i c e r s , because they wish to cope with t h e i r own problems w i t h i n the s c h o o l ; there i s the a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r of the monthly s t a t i s t i c a l report which may be misconstrued as uncomplimentary to the school a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i f too many cases are r e f e r r e d f o r treatment. The same a t t i t u d e appears to obtain with respect to the few r e f e r r a l s of behaviour problems which are c u r r e n t l y made to the c l i n i c s , and Children's A i d S o c i e t i e s , a f t e r the school has f a i l e d to e f f e c t an improvement.  R e f e r r a l s are  generally made as a measure of l a s t r e s o r t and not on the basis of d i a g n o s i s , and need f o r i n t e n s i v e treatment.  The  same phenomenon appears to be evident on a reduced s c a l e , i n the classroom.  R e f e r r a l s which should proceed from the  source of t r o u b l e , to the p r i n c i p a l and then f o r treatment, may be blocked by the teacher who prefers to dispose of her own problems; a t l e a s t u n t i l they become unmanageable.  Be-  cause there i s l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n of the emotional b a s i s of problem behaviour, and the need f o r s p e c i a l i z e d a t t e n t i o n , the problem i s considered an educational one, and i s retained by the teacher concerned.  Many f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s  78  a t t i t u d e , most of them a r i s i n g from usage and the t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the school.  None of them  are insurmountable; nor need they occasion undue concern. Treatment The problems examined i n t h i s study, and others which may be a n t i c i p a t e d , f a l l w i t h i n the treatment area of case work; p s y c h i a t r i c a s s i s t a n c e i s recognized as e s s e n t i a l f o r the r e l a t i v e l y small percentage of cases which may expected to r e q u i r e such treatment.  be  This report i s not i n -  tended to deal with the case work process, but rather with the major problems which might be encountered i n i t s a p p l i c a tion.  Once a case of d i f f i c u l t behaviour has been i d e n t i f i e d  and r e f e r r e d f o r case work treatment, the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e s t s with the case worker.  The degree of c o l l a b o r a t i o n be-  tween the worker and the teacher which may be required i n treatment, depends upon the nature of the case; but i t must e x i s t to some extent i n a l l cases r e f e r r e d . The problem here i s the impact of p e r s o n a l i t i e s , both concerned with a common problem, but from d i f f e r e n t approaches.  Once again the onus i s upon the s o c i a l worker, as  a s p e c i a l i s t invading the h i t h e r t o undisputed j u r i s d i c t i o n of another profession.  The task c a l l s f o r understanding and  t a c t of the highest order, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n those cases of problem behaviour i n which the teacher h e r s e l f may part of the problem.  constitute  This d i f f i c u l t y , and others which may  be encountered i n treatment, are too i n t i m a t e l y concerned with p r a c t i c e , i n a l l i t s v a r i a t i o n s and m o d i f i c a t i o n s , to be d i s -  79 cussed a t length, here.  They must he met and d e a l t with as  they a r i s e , i n a developing treatment program. Perhaps a l l the o b s t a c l e s , those stated and others i m p l i e d , might be included i n the broad problem of i n t e r p r e tation.  School teachers, as w e l l as other p r o f e s s i o n a l groups  are not s u f f i c i e n t l y aware of the f u n c t i o n s , the objectives and the s k i l l s of case work, to o f f e r any degree of acceptance without a good deal of p r e l i m i n a r y education. job  A capable  of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r i o r t o , and i n the course of a pre-  ventive treatment program, i s e s s e n t i a l to assure e f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g ! without tnorough understanding of such a program, school co-operation cannot be expected, at l e a s t to the extent required i n i n t e n s i v e treatment.  R e f e r r a l s and  subsequent p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n treatment by school teachers, must be made v o l u n t a r i l y , on the basis of confidence i n the program.  A study of treatment f o r truancy conducted at  Smith College i n 1945, found that r e f e r r a l s made v o l u n t a r i l y rather than a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y , were s u c c e s s f u l much more f r e quently owing to the more spontaneous co-operation of the teacher concerned. ^  The same study also proved the greater  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of e a r l i e r r e f e r r a l s . I n i t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , followed by demonstration, must be r e i n f o r c e d by a prolonged educational e f f o r t by case workers.  School resources must be developed to the p o i n t  1 Jerech, M. , "Some Factors i n the Treatment Outcome of Adolescent Truants Referred to a C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , " Smith College Studies i n S o c i a l Work, v o l . 16, Sept., 1945june, xy-a©, smitn u c i i e g e , Mass.  80 where teachers may l y t i c a l basis.  i d e n t i f y and  r e f e r problems on a more ana-  A p r e v e n t i v e program f u n c t i o n i n g i n the school  system of P a s s a i c , New  J e r s e y , i n c l u d e s "a s e r v i c e - t r a i n i n g  program to acquaint teachers with a mental hygiene p o i n t of view and  to b u i l d a common philosophy of education  around the i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l . " prove more d i f f i c u l t for It in  1  centered  Such a task might w e l l  than the treatment  whom the program i s designed,  of the p r e d e l i n q u e n t s  but i t cannot be i g n o r e d .  becomes more and more evident that the key  to success  lies  demonstration. The a l l e g e d emphasis upon i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of ap-  proach  and  the study  of p e r s o n a l i t y i n e d u c a t i o n a l theory,  a p p a r e n t l y has not produced marked r e s u l t s ; nor has  the  b a s i c philosophy of the average teacher changed to any p r e c i a b l e extent.  The  ap-  c r i t e r i o n of success i n education i s  s t i l l l a r g e l y on academic standards, with other values i n cidental.  Kvaraceus s t a t e d i n the r e p o r t of the P a s s a i c  study t h a t , "very l i t t l e progress has been made i n the d i r e c t i o n of e v a l u a t i n g l e a r n i n g i n terms of d e s i r a b l e changes i n behaviour."  ^  Perhaps the attempts to make such  progress have been too a b o r t i v e , and  too t h e o r e t i c a l , to  have had much e f f e c t on teachers a l r e a d y absorbed c h a l l e n g i n g task.  i n a highly  When the t e a c h e r i s given the o p p o r t u n i t y  1 Kvaraceus, W, C, , J u v e n i l e Delinquency and the S c h o o l . World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, 1945, p. 205. 2 I b i d . . p.  299.  81 t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e t r e a t m e n t of the problem  c h i l d she  has  r e l u c t a n t l y r e f e r r e d , and has w i t n e s s e d t h e r e s u l t s of success w i t h the u n d e r s t a n d i n g i m p a r t e d by thorough t i o n , wholehearted  interpreta-  c o - o p e r a t i o n w i l l be a s s u r e d .  The f e a s i b i l i t y of such an approach has been r e c o g n i z e d elsewhere.  A r e p o r t c o n c e r n i n g experiments  C a l i f o r n i a , g i v e n b e f o r e t h e 1947 N a t i o n a l Conference  in of  S o c i a l Work s t a t e s ! We have encouraged s c h o o l p e o p l e everywhere t o t a k e t h i s s t e p , since-we b e l i e v e t h a t the s c h o o l must a c t as a " f i n d i n g " agency f o r those c h i l d r e n who show maladjustment i n the e a r l y y e a r s , and t h a t i t must t a k e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y p l a n of adjustment so t h a t c h i l d r e n do not have t o break i n t o j a i l i n o r d e r to have t h e i r problems r e cognized. 1 I t i s not n e c e s s a r y to agree t h a t the s c h o o l s h o u l d be a l o n e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g p l a n s of adjustment,  but t h e p r i n -  c i p l e of the r e p o r t i s c l e a r l y i n o r d e r .  The  elementary  s c h o o l o f f e r s tremendous p o s s i b i l i -  t i e s as a s o u r c e of r e f e r r a l of c h i l d r e n w i t h b e h a v i o u r problems.  I t a l s o constitutes a valuable p o t e n t i a l resource i n  c o l l a b o r a t i v e treatment.  However, t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n i n a d e -  q u a c i e s i n t h e s c h o o l which must be c o n s i d e r e d , p r i o r t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of a treatment program.  The major problem i s  1 S t a r k , H.G., " P r e v e n t i o n and C o n t r o l of D e l i n q u e n c y i n C a l i f o r n i a , " P r o c e e d i n g s of the N a t i o n a l Conference,. of S o c i a l Work. A p r i l . 1947. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1948, p. 390. n  82  concerned with the present f a i l u r e of school staff to recognize problem behaviour as symptomatic of emotional maladjustment, or worthy of concern, u n t i l i t becomes extremely disturbing.  Referrals of these cases to guidance c l i n i c s and  s o c i a l agencies are generally made as a last resort,  after  the school has f a i l e d to effect any improvement by haphazard treatment.  The inadequacy of recognition i s often supple-  mented by an administrative reluctance to refer an obvious problem outside of the school i t s e l f . The d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with recognition, ref e r r a l and subsequent treatment, are largely the result of limited understanding, not only of the behaviour problems, but of the functions and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of s o c i a l case work. A l l of these can be dealt with constructively by preliminary interpretation of an educational nature, with emphasis upon the need for a collaborative approach.  Interpretation must  be supplemented, i n the long run, by demonstration of success f u l treatment i n which the referring teacher has participated.  83  CHAPTER SIX CURRENT EXPERIMENTS IN DELINQUENCY CONTROL Recent years have produced a l a r g e v a r i e t y of t h e o r i e s , plans and programs, designed to deal with J u v e n i l e delinquency.  P e r i o d i c "waves" of y o u t h f u l crime, whether  r e a l or imaginary, have never f a i l e d to s t i m u l a t e wide d i s cussion of ways and means to curb these trends.  The solu-  t i o n s which have been advocated, from time to time, have not always heen sound i n theory; many which have been put i n t o p r a c t i c e , have f a i l e d to produce r e s u l t s commensurate w i t h t h e i r objectives.  However, they a l l add to an extensive ex-  perimental background f o r t h i s study. A number of the most widely favoured programs have been s e l e c t e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n at t h i s p o i n t .  I t i s not pos-  s i b l e to d e a l with a l l the proposals which have a t t r a c t e d public interest.  However, the programs which have endured  on the b a s i s of l i m i t e d success, and those which are curr e n t l y i n favour, f a l l i n t o one or more of the types outl i n e d below.  These are evaluated l a r g e l y i n terms of t h e i r  preventive content, although other aspects are not e n t i r e l y ignored. The m a j o r i t y of c o n t r o l measures, those proposed and those now f u n c t i o n i n g , place heavy emphasis upon, probation and group treatment, or combinations of these two methods.  Some of the more elaborate programs attempt to  84  co-ordinate probation and community group a c t i v i t y , with a region-wide system of i n s t i t u t i o n a l treatment for the more serious cases.  A l l the schemes examined purported to be  either preventive i n character, or had formulated preventive objectives.  I t seems evident that prevention i s now a major  issue i n the f i e l d of delinquency control. Probation The Saskatchewan Penal Commission defined probat i o n as a form of disposition of accused persons by the m  court.  I t suspends f i n a l judgment and instead of commitment  to a penal or correctional i n s t i t u t i o n , i t provides treatment while the offender continues to l i v e i n the community under conditions imposed by the court and under the superv i s i o n of a probation officer.  I f the offender f a i l s while  on probation to meet the conditions l a i d down by the court, he i s subject to return to the court for further d i s p o s i t i o n . ' " l One of the major reasons for the continued existence of probation i n i t s t r a d i t i o n a l form, i s i t s status as an adjunct of the court.  Society i s s t i l l generally primitive i n  i t s approach to a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour.  The court constitutes  an instrument through which that attitude i s implemented; probation, as a creation of the court, i s accepted by society as the l o g i c a l agency to administer correction on an authoritative basis.  Theoretically, i t s effectiveness as a means of  1 Report of the Saskatchewan Penal Commission. King's P r i n t e r , Regina, 1946, p. 31.  85 c o n t r o l i s open to serious q u e s t i o n ; i t i s only invoked a f t e r c o n v i c t i o n f o r one or more offences. I n p r a c t i c e , success i n 80 per cent of a selected c l i e n t e l e i s generally claimed, out t h i s f i g u r e i s based upon success f o r the period of probation. The w r i t e r i s not aware of any studies which have attempted to assess the long-run e f f e c t i v e n e s s of probation on t h i s cont i n e n t ; but E n g l i s h experience w i t h parole, shows a r a t e of r e c i d i v i s m which increases d i r e c t l y with the time i n t e r v a l a f t e r discharge from treatment.^*  Success under treatment i s  c e r t a i n l y not synonymous with success i n a more permanent sense. Probation i s not e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y as an eff e c t i v e method of delinquency c o n t r o l , because i t a r b i t r a r i l y waits f o r f u l l development  of delinquent behaviour.  I t has  been evaluated by Healy and Bronner i n p o s i t i v e terms; ,., w  i t has been so amply proven that attempts to curb delinquent careers by j u v e n i l e court procedure i s , i n general, extremely disappointing i n results." 2  A s i m i l a r opinion was expressed  more r e c e n t l y by Kvaraceus i n h i s report of the P a s s a i c experiment i n preventive work; The J u v e n i l e court serves a r e a l f u n c t i o n i n the community. I t has not, however, demonstrated any s u p e r i o r i t y i n the f i e l d of case study and t r e a t ment when working by i t s e l f , or i n co-operation w i t h c l i n i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , which has not been matched or improved upon by agencies working through channels  1 Healy, W., and A l p e r , B.S. , Criminal Youth and the B o r s t a l System. The Commonwealth Pund, New York, 1941, p.222. 2 Healy W. , and Bronner, A.P. , New L i g h t on Delinquency and I t s Treatment. Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Haven, 1936,p.141,  86 other than those of the p o l i c e and the j u r i d i c agency. 1  This study, though not concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h an evaluat i o n of p r o b a t i o n , tends to show that i t i s l a r g e l y f u t i l e i n treatment of the more serious cases, which show a l o n g h i s t o r y of emotional disturbance. In favour of p r o b a t i o n , i t must be granted that much of the impetus gained by e f f o r t s concerned w i t h prevention has, p a r a d o x i c a l l y enough, sprung from t h i s method which, by d e f i n i t i o n , must wait f o r a c h i l d to become d e l i n quent before treatment i s applied.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the major-  i t y of the plans a l l e g e d l y aimed at p r e v e n t i o n , have not yet developed beyond the p o i n t of improving upon methods of control.  They have l e f t genuinely preventive e f f o r t to annual  statements of f u t u r e goals.  However, the process of evolu-  t i o n toward prevention has r e s u l t e d i n various improvements i n the treatment of delinquency and crime which warrant some comment. Healy and Bronner recommended the establishment of a n o n - j u d i c i a l t r i b u n a l , to p r e s c r i b e treatment a f t e r adjudio  c a t i o n of the f a c t of delinquency by a court.  . Such a mea-  sure was designed to remove d i s p o s i t i o n of cases from the a u t h o r i t a r i a n and p u n i t i v e atmosphere of the c o u r t ! though i t 1 Kvaraceus, W. C. , J u v e n i l e Delinquency and the School. World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, 1945, p.195. 2 Healy W., and Bronner, A.P. , New L i g h t on Delinquency and I t s Treatment. Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Haven, 1936, p. 223.  87 d i d not preclude the use of probation, i t d i d provide f o r i t s use on a treatment b a s i s .  Since 1936, ishen Healy and Bronner  endorsed t h i s i d e a , i t has been implemented to some extent, and i s now i n operation i n s e v e r a l areas of the United States. The plan i s best exemplified by the programs now f u n c t i o n i n g i n the States of C a l i f o r n i a and Minnesota. The C a l i f o r n i a Youth A u t h o r i t y This plan - was e s t a b l i s h e d by l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1941, w i t h the avowed o b j e c t i v e to "prevent among youths."  or decrease delinquency  The a u t h o r i t y i s a commission of three mem-  bers, appointed by the Governor of the State with the app r o v a l of the senate, who are s o l e l y responsible f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , segregation, and parole of persons committed to i t . By law i t "has j u r i s d i c t i o n over a l l persons under 21 who are g u i l t y of p u b l i c offences, and i n the opinion of the court, need some k i n d of treatment and t r a i n i n g beyond the f a c i l i t i e s of the l o c a l community."  I t has a state-wide or-  g a n i z a t i o n i n c l u d i n g d i a g n o s t i c f a c i l i t i e s , a v a r i e t y of treatment i n s t i t u t i o n s , and research sections devoted to prevention, probation, and parole.  The l a t t e r i n c l u d e advisory  f u n c t i o n s a v a i l a b l e to l o c a l probation and parole agencies. In operation the Youth A u t h o r i t y i 3 concerned l a r g e l y with i n s t i t u t i o n a l treatment  of offenders committed  1 The Youth A u t h o r i t y . "Organization and Program." State of C a l i f o r n i a , C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Sacramento, 1945.  88  to i t s care by the courts. under which i t was  In s p i t e of the broad powers  e s t a b l i s h e d , i t has l e f t much of the pro-  b a t i o n services to e s t a b l i s h e d court organizations.  Thus  f a r i t has r e s t r i c t e d i t s probation a c t i v i t i e s l a r g e l y to advisory and s t a n d a r d - s e t t i n g f u n c t i o n s .  In e f f e c t , i t i s  an attempt to co-ordinate i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o r r e c t i o n on a treatment, rather than a p u n i t i v e b a s i s , and i n that i t has r e g i s t e r e d considerable  respect  sucoess.  The work of the preventive s e c t i o n of the A u t h o r i t y has stressed community organization f o r the c r e a t i o n , or improvement, of group a c t i v i t i e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s through community c o u n c i l s .  This s e c t i o n i s intended to work  toward one of the major purposes of the A u t h o r i t y which i s , "to attack delinquency and crime as t o t a l s o c i a l problems, through co-ordination of l o c a l communities i n understanding and d e a l i n g w i t h the conditions that produce orime at t h e i r source."  The p o t e n t i a l merits of t h i s approach w i l l be d i s -  cussed below, i n conjunction with the "group a c t i v i t y " i d e a in  prevention.  The Minnesota Youth Conservation  Commission  The Commission i s s i m i l a r i n o b j e c t i v e s to the C a l i f o r n i a Youth A u t h o r i t y , but v a r i e s i n s e v e r a l administrat i v e respects.  1  The p r o v i s i o n s of the Youth  Conservation  Act s t a t e : 1 The Youth Conservation Commission. State of Minnesota, State O f f i c e Bldg., St. P a u l , Minnesota, Oct., 1947.  89  The Commission s h a l l be charged with the duty of developing c o n s t r u c t i v e programs f o r the prevent i o n and decrease of delinquency and crime among youth, and to that end s h a l l co-operate w i t h existing'agencies, and encourage the establishment of new agencies, both l o c a l and state-wide, having as t h e i r object the prevention and decrease of delinquency and crime among youth; the commission s h a l l a s s i s t l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s of any county or m u n i c i p a l i t y , when so requested by the governing body thereof, i n planning, developing, and coo r d i n a t i n g t h e i r educational, welfare, r e c r e a t i o n a l and h e a l t h a c t i v i t i e s , or other c o n s t r u c t i v e community programs, which have as t h e i r object the Conservation of Youth. The Commission consists of f i v e appointed members, two of whom must be the D i r e c t o r of P u b l i c I n s t i t u t i o n s , and the Chairman of the State Board of P a r o l e ; one of the remaining three must be a judge of a J u v e n i l e or probate court. I t s program o b j e c t i v e s are s i m i l a r to the C a l i f o r n i a Youth A u t h o r i t y regarding diagnosis, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and treatment, but the membership of the commission required by law, i m p l i e s a l e s s progressive approach.  I n operation the plan i s l e s s  coherent than i t s C a l i f o r n i a counterpart; j u r i s d i c t i o n i s subject to acceptance of cases by the Commission, and concurrence by the courts.  A court may commit a case to the  Commission i f i t so d e s i r e s , p r o v i d i n g the Commission has s i g n i f i e d i t s w i l l i n g n e s s to acoept committal.  The law does  not provide f o r mandatory j u r i s d i c t i o n as i n C a l i f o r n i a , where the Youth A u t h o r i t y must accept i n s t i t u t i o n a l committ a l s and has the organization to deal w i t h them.  The Minne-  sota p l a n , instead of e s t a b l i s h i n g a super-imposed treatment a u t h o r i t y over the e x i s t i n g l e g a l s t r u c t u r e , has merely drawn together, on a permissive b a s i s , e x i s t i n g c o r r e c t i o n a l func-  90 t i o n s and agencies.  As an advisory and co-ordinating body i t  undoubtedly has m e r i t , but i t s s t r u c t u r e c e r t a i n l y suggests a l e s s progressive element than the C a l i f o r n i a plan.  In  general i t amounts t o a r e - s h u f f l i n g of e x i s t i n g agencies with l i t t l e added to i n s p i r e c o n s t r u c t i v e d e v i a t i o n from the "status quo." F o r example, s u b d i v i s i o n 24 of the Youth Cons e r v a t i o n Act s t a t e s ' This A c t s h a l l not be construed to give the Commission c o n t r o l over e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t i t u t i o n s or agencies; or t o r e q u i r e them to serve the Commission i n c o n s i s t e n t l y with t h e i r functions or with the authori t y of t h e i r o f f i c e r s or with the laws and r e g u l a t i o n s governing t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . The Minnesota plan proposes a preventive approach g e n e r a l l y s i m i l a r to the C a l i f o r n i a Youth A u t h o r i t y ; the greater emphasis i s on group a c t i v i t i e s and community planning/  Reference i s made to education against crime, without  d e f i n i n g or e x p l a i n i n g t h i s somewhat nebulous o b j e c t i v e . The Newport Hews P r o j e c t A more l o c a l i z e d approach t o prevention on an exc l u s i v e , rather than an adjunctive b a s i s , i s being conducted i n Newport Newp,Virginia.  1  I t s purpose i s to b r i n g together  a l l f e d e r a l , s t a t e , and l o c a l agencies to plan toward prevention and c o n t r o l of delinquency;  the f e d e r a l and s t a t e  f u n c t i o n s are l a r g e l y f i n a n c i a l and advisory, with the conduct  1 A Community Plans f o r i t s Children," Newport News, V i r g i n i a , P r o j e c t , U.S. Children's Bureau. Federal S e c u r i t y Agency, 1947. M  of the p r o j e c t l e f t to l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  I t i s proce-  eding on a premise s i m i l a r to those of the C a l i f o r n i a and Minnesota plans, namely, that the s o l u t i o n to the problem r e s t s with community s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l programs.  The  need f o r i n d i v i d u a l s e r v i c e s i s granted r e c o g n i t i o n , but the i m p l i c a t i o n of the stated o b j e c t i v e s i s that improved and modified group programs c o n s t i t u t e the answer to the problem.  The plan has not been i n operation long enough to  permit evaluation. The Group Approach The preventive aspects of many programs of d e l i n quency c o n t r o l a r e based upon group a c t i v i t y , l a r g e l y i n the form of r e c r e a t i o n . The trend appears to be toward the formation of community c o u n c i l s f o r the purpose of prov i d i n g more, and b e t t e r , agencies designed to provide stimul a t i n g l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s .  The present study does not  deny the obvious merit of such plans i n a long term program of community e f f o r t , i n the gradual improvement of many environmental f a c t o r s which often contribute d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , to c e r t a i n forms of delinquent behaviour. the value of a program predominantly  However,  concerned w i t h r e -  c r e a t i o n , as a preventive i n f l u e n c e i n delinquency, i s open to question. An i n d i v i d u a l , predisposed toward delinquent behaviour f o r emotional reasons, i s not l i k e l y to be a-member of an organized s o c i a l group,  Kvaraceus found i n h i s study  that 40 per cent of the general c h i l d population p a r t i c i p a t e d  1  92 i n the a c t i v i t i e s of youth o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; only 8 per cent of the delinquents belonged to such groups. these organizations may  1  Non-membership i n  be considered a symptom of the same  condition which i s i n d i c a t e d by c e r t a i n forms of troublesome behaviour i n s c h o o l ; i t i s not an i n d i c a t i o n that membership i s a preventive.  To many delinquents, and to most of the  more extreme group, the s o c i a l pressures  of the group pro-  bably c o n s t i t u t e more of a threat than an a i d .  These c h i l d -  ren have never known the s e c u r i t y of genuine r e l a t i o n s h i p s at the f a m i l y l e v e l .  The c h i l d must l e a r n to walk before  he can run, emotionally as w e l l as p h y s i c a l l y . f u l i f the youth organizations can reach  I t i s doubt-  pre-delinquent  c h i l d r e n on a s u f f i c i e n t l y i n c l u s i v e basis to be  considered  as preventive agencies; i n a d d i t i o n , they are not equipped to deal with the emotional f a c t o r s from which the  delinquent  motivation a r i s e s . There i s a f u r t h e r aspect to the group approach which warrants d i s c u s s i o n at t h i s p o i n t ; i t i s the idea of group treatment.  Kenneth Wollan, d i r e c t o r of the C i t i z e n -  ship T r a i n i n g Program of the Boston J u v e n i l e Court, a h i g h l y 2 organized  group a c t i v i t y p r o j e c t ,  this f i e l d .  has done a great deal i n  In d i s c u s s i n g the theory of group a c t i v i t y i n  1 Kvaraceus, W. C. , J u v e n i l e Delinquency and the School. World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, 1945, p.119. 2 Wollan, K.I., "The C i t i z e n s h i p T r a i n i n g Program of the Boston J u v e n i l e Court," N a t i o n a l Probation A s s o c i a t i o n Yearbook, 1941, Ed., M a r j o r i e B e l l , Nat. Prob. Ass., New York, p. 386.  93  r e l a t i o n to delinquency, he stated t h a t , "we can more-over look, to group a c t i v i t y , i f widely a p p l i e d , as a promising preventive i n supplying that enrichment of l i f e , the absence of which i s causing delinquent behaviour." ^  Wollan's  be-  l i e f i n group a c t i v i t y as a p r e v e n t i v e , i s based upon a concept of delinquency as s o c i a l immaturity; the delinquent "has not developed the t y p i c a l s o c i a l i n h i b i t i o n s and i s s e l f - c e n t r e d , p r i m i t i v e , and aggressive."  2  Through t r a i n e d  l e a d e r s h i p and the i n f l u e n c e of the group, such an i n d i v i d u a l presumably learns to develop a more acceptable p a t t e r n of s o c i a l behaviour. The subject of group treatment i s being studied c u r r e n t l y by G.F. Hamilton i n h i s work with a delinquent gang i n Vancouver.^  The gang i s accepted as a group and t r e a t -  ment i s based upon the p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s i m p l i c i t i n the rel a t i o n s h i p s between i t s members.  Treatment seeks to e f f e c t  a c o n s t r u c t i v e r e - d i r e c t ! o n of the gang mores and l o y a l t i e s . Wollan's concept of the delinquent as a s o c i a l l y immature i n d i v i d u a l appears to be a p p l i c a b l e i n Hamilton's study as well.  1 I b i d . 1 9 3 8 Yearbook, p.  245.  2 I b i d , p. 244, 3 Hamilton, G.F., The Delinquent Gang i n the Community. Thesis presented i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 4 9 .  94  There i s no doubt that many delinquents may he considered s o c i a l l y immature I they might he termed u n t r a i n e d with equal accuracy, or may he considered as inadequately socialized.  For such i n d i v i d u a l s the group treatment i d e a  undoubtedly has great p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  However, the present  study i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the hard core of d e l i n quency which has thus f a r f a i l e d to respond to the many forms of treatment i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y a p p l i e d , i n c l u d i n g the group i d e a ; tne delinquents w i t h backgrounds marked by emot i o n a l disturbance of v a r y i n g degrees, who r e s o r t to d e l i n quent behaviour as aggressive r e t a l i a t i o n or as an unconscious means of s a t i s f y i n g emotional needs. cannot and w i l l not accept the group.  These c h i l d r e n  They must be treated  on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . It must be granted that group treatment recognizes fl  i n d i v i d u a l needs and seeks to t r e a t them.  The s k i l l e d  group  leader, aware of a c h i l d ' s i n a b i l i t y to meet the s o c i a l demands of the group, may develop a closer r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h him; through that medium he may work toward a more s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l adjustment f o r the c h i l d d i r e c t l y w i t h i n the group.  The treatment process then depends upon a case work  approach w i t h i n the group s e t t i n g .  I t seems more l o g i c a l to  apply i n d i v i d u a l i z e d treatment f i r s t , w i t h the object of encouraging voluntary group p a r t i c i p a t i o n a f t e r the c h i l d i s ready to accept i t .  The group process may then be used as  a supplement, to a s s i s t the c h i l d toward a more e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l adjustment.  Such a plan i s based upon the same p r i n -  c i p l e of s o c i a l i z a t i o n which obtains i n the normal development of a c h i l d , from h i s primary relationships i n the family, through immediate neighborhood expansion, to broader community contacts.  The group treatment idea seems to be,  to some extent at least, a reversal of this p r i n c i p l e . A comprehensive preventive program should recognize that delinquents vary i n d i v i d u a l l y i n the same manner as more normal children.  A systematic method of finding the  child who, by virtue of his behaviour or circumstances, may be considered a pre-delinquent, should be followed by select i v e treatment based upon careful diagnosis.  In many cases  group treatment may be indicated as the most l o g i c a l solution to the problem! i n other cases a collaborative technique involving combined individual and group treatment may be the best course to follow; many cases would require intensive individualized treatment followed, when necessary, by group participation as a s o c i a l i z i n g influence.  Treatment of the  pre-delinquent implies the utmost use of a l l community resources, but on a discriminating basis.  The child who might  become a delinquent must be found, examined, and treatment prescribed on the basis of individual needs.  The group ap-  proach does not take sufficient account of systematic finding, and of variations i n individual needs, to be accepted as an effective method of prevention, except on a supplementary basis.  Simply to state that a child i s social-  l y immature does not indicate the need for group treatment. The reasons for such immaturity must determine the nature of  96 subsequent treatment and these reasons can only be discovered through individual study. There i s some reason, then, to doubt the efficacy of the group treatment idea as a preventive influence i n delinquency.  The community organization concept, which often  erupts i n the form of group a c t i v i t y programs, has been considered i n similar terms, but this may not be entirely f a i r . This study i s concerned with the immediate problem of prevention; the problem which demands effective action i n the next f i v e , ten or twenty years.  On the other hand, the com-  munity planners may be thinking i n long range terms; i f so, their arguments may be accepted, insofar as their plans are concerned with the gradual amelioration of the environmental factors i n delinquency.  I f community organization, through  the creation of community councils, intends to work for better housing, higher levels of s o c i a l security, better leisuretime a c t i v i t i e s and a gradual adjustment i n s o c i a l inequalities r e l a t i v e to race, r e l i g i o n , economic levels and so forth, then i t may be considered a preventive measure.  Such was the  theme of the recommendations made by the Saskatchewan Penal Commission i n i t s report of 1946.  1  However, i t i s one which can only take effect over a long period of time and i s actually i n the process of development now.  I t has been considered by this study as inef-  1 Report of the Saskatchewan Penal Commission. King's P r i n t e r , Regina, 1946, p. 4.  97  f e c t i v e f o r the immediate f u t u r e ; but as a  complementary-  measure, and one to add permanency to short-run plans, i t i s indispensable. In accordance with the p r i n c i p l e s o u t l i n e d by the Archambault Report, those programs concerned with treatment of delinquency a f t e r i t has developed, must be r e j e c t e d as inadequate.  The j u v e n i l e court, and co-ordinated i n s t i t u -  t i o n a l programs, have a d e f i n i t e f u n c t i o n to perform i n those cases which require more d r a s t i c treatment; t h i s should be a r e s i d u a l , not a major f u n c t i o n of a comprehensive prograrn^  There are s e v e r a l objections to the methods l a r g e l y  concerned with group a c t i v i t y .  Experience has shown that  those c h i l d r e n whose emotional development has been inadequate, are not a t t r a c t e d to organized s o c i a l groups.  Also,  the group concept i s a d e t e r m i n i s t i c approach to a problem of many f a c e t s , of which the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y appears to be the only common denominator. The only genuinely preventive programs c u r r e n t l y i n e f f e c t , are those which are connected with the school, and attempt to f i n d and t r e a t the c h i l d who gives evidence of some form of maladjustment, before he begins breaking the law. The V i s i t i n g Teacher A number of communities i n C a l i f o r n i a have made ext e n s i v e use of the v i s i t i n g teacher i n an attempt to estab l i s h preventive measures i n the c o n t r o l of delinquency.  98 The v i s i t i n g teacher, t r a i n e d i n s o c i a l case work and educat i o n , "brings together the two professions i n an attempt to recognize and t r e a t emotional problems i n school.  1  This i s  undoubtedly a progressive step i n the f i e l d of mental hygiene, as w e l l as i n education, but there appears to be some reason to doubt i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the prevention of j u v e n i l e delinquency.  This i s not to say that the i d e a i s not sound;  i t has produced promising r e s u l t s and holds great promise f o r the f u t u r e . may  The question at t h i s p o i n t i s whether i t  be considered adequate to the problem of prevention, of  which the school i s only one aspect. The i d e a i s e x c e l l e n t , from an eduoational p o i n t of view.  C h i l d r e n rcho are unable to adjust to the s c h o o l ,  the teachers, or t h e i r s t u d i e s , f o r emotional reasons, should have the b e n e f i t of t r a i n e d s e r v i c e s to help them meet these problems.  However, the prime f u n c t i o n of the v i s i t i n g teacher  l i e s w i t h i n the school, and i s l a r g e l y concerned with ass i s t i n g the c h i l d toward a b e t t e r academic adjustment.  The  present study views the school as an important part of the c h i l d ' s l i f e , but at the same time i t recognizes the f a c t  1 Stark, H. G., "Prevention and Control of Delinquency i n C a l i f o r n i a , " Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work. A p r i l , 1947, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, New York, 1948. 2 Thomson, Mary, The S o c i a l Worker i n the School. Thesis presented i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the Degree of Master of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1948.  99 t h a t the school i s only one of many areas of p o t e n t i a l conflict.  The emotional p a t t e r n of the pre-delinquent c h i l d ,  which often manifests i t s e l f i n many forms of a t y p i c a l school behaviour, almost i n v a r i a b l y has i t s roots i n the c h i l d ' s primary r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  The d i f f i c u l t i e s manifested i n the  classroom and on the p l a y i n g f i e l d a r e symptoms of c o n f l i c t which a r i s e s outside of the school. I t i s probable that treatment of emotional problems, f o r the purpose of improving school performance,  w i l l have  a s a l u t a r y e f f e c t i n other areas as w e l l as the school, i n many cases,  where diagnosis i n d i c a t e s a f a m i l y problem, i n  a d d i t i o n to the school symptoms, the v i s i t i n g teacher depends upon r e f e r r a l s to outside agencies f o r treatment not d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d with the school problem.  A substantial  number of the pre-delinquents have u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f a m i l y relationships.  Therefore, i n r e l a t i o n to the problem of pre-  delinquency, the v i s i t i n g teacher appears to be another l i n k i n the chain of p a r t i a l l y c o r r e l a t e d agencies which have, thus f a r , f a i l e d to achieve r e s u l t s of any great magnitude. As an improvement upon educational techniques, the v i s i t i n g teacher program i s e x c e l l e n t .  As a method of pre-  vention, i n j u v e n i l e delinquency, i t seems to lack comprehensiveness and i s dominated by the philosophy, and the academic demands of the school.  I t i s , i n e f f e c t , a piecemeal ap-  proach to the problem of the pre-delinquent c h i l d ; a problem which i s concerned with h e l p i n g a c h i l d to make the best use of h i s mental, p h y s i c a l , and emotional resources i n a l l spheres  of a c t i v i t y , not only i n the school.  The v i s i t i n g teacher  can be an i n v a l u a b l e a i d i n f i n d i n g and t r e a t i n g the predelinquent c h i l d ; but her major f u n c t i o n l i m i t s her e f f e c t i v e ness i n a program which must view the school as one part of the.child's s o c i a l pattern. The P a s s a i c P l a n Perhaps the most e f f e c t i v e plan of prevention a v a i l a b l e f o r study, i s the one c u r r e n t l y i n operation i n 1 P a s s a i c , Hew  Jersey.  The present study owes much to the  Kvaraceus report of the P a s s a i c p r o j e c t .  O r i g i n a l l y organi-  zed to deal with delinquency, the program has branched i n t o prevention, with r e s u l t s which appear to be encouraging. treatment bureau was  A  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1940 under the admini-  s t r a t i o n of the A s s i s t a n t Superintendent  of Schools.  The  s t a f f included a p o l i c e c a p t a i n , a p o l i c e woman, two a t t e n dance o f f i c e r s with case work experience, a f u l l time psyc h o l o g i s t , a p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l worker, and a p s y c h i a t r i s t available f o r consultation. The Bureau receives r e f e r r a l s from the P a s s a i c Schools, and a l s o from s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies. Prom that p o i n t , the process f o l l o w s the orthodox r o u t i n e of medical and p s y c h o l o g i c a l examination  of the r e f e r e e ,  s o c i a l h i s t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n and case conference.  The  con-  Kvaraceus, W. C. , J u v e n i l e Delinquency and the School. World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, 1945.  101 ference i s attended by a l l concerned i n treatment, i n c l u d i n g the p r i n c i p a l and teacher, i f the school has made the r e f e r ral.  Conference recommendations give due r e c o g n i t i o n to the  n e c e s s i t y f o r an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d approach, and base treatment upon the s p e c i f i c needs of the c h i l d r e f e r r e d . P u l l use of a v a r i e t y of community resources lends v a r i a b i l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y <to the treatment program. agent  The school i s an a c t i v e  throughout. During the past s e v e r a l years, greater emphasis  has been placed on prevention.  Teachers have been encouraged  not only to recognize symptomatic behaviour, but to keep cumulative records of problem cases.  Consistent e f f o r t has  been maintained to s t i m u l a t e e a r l i e r r e f e r r a l s to f u r t h e r ensure success i n treatment.  A committee of teachers has  been set up to study s p e c i f i c problems of academic d i f f i c u l t i e s , and to arrange curriculum r e v i s i o n s where necessary* The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the P a s s a i c program i s i n d i c a ted  by a marked decrease i n the delinquency and crime r a t e ,  as reported i n p o l i c e s t a t i s t i c s during the f i v e years f o l lowing i t s establishment.  The most encouraging  indication  i s that repeaters are comparatively r a r e , and the m a j o r i t y of cases were handled not more than twice.  Unfortunately,  no Bureau s t a t i s t i c s are a v a i l a b l e to provide f o r an object i v e assessment of the program's value, but the conclusions based upon p o l i c e reports c e r t a i n l y suggest that the plan has j u s t i f i e d i t s existence. There are s e v e r a l objections to the Passaic plan.  102 The f a c t that i t i s administered by the A s s i s t a n t Superintendent of Schools i m p l i e s the same c r i t i c i s m s made i n connect i o n w i t h the v i s i t i n g teacher.  A preventive program i n v o l -  ves s p e c i a l i z e d treatment s k i l l s and techniques.  I t should  be administered by a person competent i n that f i e l d .  It is  d i f f i c u l t to see how such a program can develop to i t s maximum p o t e n t i a l under an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l a r g e l y concerned with academic o b j e c t i v e s . The i n c l u s i o n of p o l i c e personnel on the s t a f f of the P a s s a i c Bureau, while o f f e r i n g some advantage, a l s o r a i s e s - t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l issue.  I t i s true that such an a r -  rangement permits a treatment c o n d i t i o n i n g f o r the p o l i c e s t a f f , otherwise concerned with d e t e c t i o n and apprehension, but the c o n d i t i o n i n g i s a r e c i p r o c a l process; i t might tend to decrease the emphasis upon a purely treatment approach, i n the i n t e r e s t s of p r o t e c t i o n .  The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s  p o s s i b i l i t y i s evident i n the f a c t that the p o l i c e personnel are responsible to the mayor, rather than to the D i r e c t o r of the Bureau. The P a s s a i c plan combines work w i t h delinquents and pre-delinquents as w e l l , although the emphasis i s being placed i n c r e a s i n g l y on the l a t t e r category.  While t h i s ob-  j e c t i o n may he v a l i d i n i t s e l f , on the grounds that a dual f u n c t i o n tends to impair e f f i c i e n c y i n both p a r t s , i t i s considered i n conjunction with the point made above, regarding the i n c l u s i o n of p o l i c e o f f i c e r s .  I t i s p o s s i b l e that a  t r a i n e d policeman may be s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e to f u n c t i o n  as a law o f f i c e r and a case worker simultaneously, granted t r a i n i n g i n both areas! but the s i t u a t i o n o f f e r s grave doubts regarding, the l a t t e r f u n c t i o n . The p o t e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e of the " p o l i c e a t t i t u d e " on the t o t a l program warrants some concern as w e l l .  The p o l i c e are concerned  essentially with  p r o t e c t i o n , and bear a d i s t i n c t o b l i g a t i o n i n that respect to the community.  The case worker's prime r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s  centered upon the i n d i v i d u a l .  The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a r o l e  r e q u i r i n g a compromise between the two f u n c t i o n s may  be  questioned.  A review of current methods of delinquency  control  shows that the m a j o r i t y conoentrate upon the delinquent c h i l d ! few seek to reach c h i l d r e n before they become d e l i n quent.  The only programs which have a p p l i e d genuinely pre-  ventive measures, are associated with the school. A number of plans which purport to be preventive, base t h e i r approach upon community o r g a n i z a t i o n of recreat i o n a l and l e i sure-time resources.  These have been described  as group a c t i v i t i e s ! they i n c l u d e programs c u r r e n t l y offered by group work agencies, and those planned to provide cons t r u c t i v e o u t l e t s f o r the energies of the l e s s p r i v e l e g e d children.  The trend of o r g a n i z a t i o n i s toward the forma-  t i o n of community councils to expand and co-ordinate these efforts. The group a c t i v i t y concept i s r e j e c t e d by t h i s  104  study as a preventive measure, except i n long run terms. The community must organize i t s resources to attack the b a s i c environmental f a c t o r s i n delinquency but t h i s i s a slow process; i t can only be preventive i n terms of many years.  This study i s concerned with the formulation of a  preventive p l a n to meet the immediate problem; the problem of the hundreds of young people who enter j a i l s and penit e n t i a r i e s every year to complete t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n crime; the tragedy of the boys and g i r l s who were neglected d u r i n g the period i n t h e i r l i v e s when treatment might have had some effect.  This problem requires c o n s t r u c t i v e a c t i o n now, not  i n f i f t y or a hundred years.  105  CHAPTER SEVEN A PROGRAM OUTLINE FOR VANCOUVER The establishment of a program designed to offer preventive services to the pre-delinquent c h i l d , poses a vast array of problems with which this study cannot presume to deal.  Many questions of v i t a l importance must be worked  out i n actual operations, during the experimental phase of the program.  Others, which are largely administrative, must  be considered at this point.  The present study has indicated  the urgent need for e a r l i e r treatment of the child who becomes delinquent; i t has also suggested how the pre-delinquent child may be found before he breaks the law.  The next step  must offer concrete proposals regarding the organization of services to implement a comprehensive preventive program. Several assumptions which arise from the study appear to be basic to program organization.  The preventive  treatment service should be divorced administratively from the Juvenile Court, and also from the school.  The treat-  ment agency should be i n a position to make the greatest possible use of community resources, to meet the variable needs of the pre-delinquent child more effectively.  Since  the school, and i t s staff, should be active agents i n the treatment process, the school should be i n a strong advisory position i n the formulation of operating p o l i c y .  The nature  of the work to be done, and the quality of services essential  106 to effective operation, place i n i t i a l operation on an experimental basis. It follows that delinquency prevention should be a private agency function.  The immediate problem i s whether  a specialized agency should be created to work i n close conjunction with the schools, or whether existing services may be rendered adequate to the problem, through reorganization or r e - d i r e c t i o n .  The creation of an entirely new agency  raises a number of issues, of which financing i s not the least disturbing.  Established agencies, engaged i n work of  great importance to the community, have never been vexed with the problem of surplus funds; a new agency might possibly aggravate an already grave f i n a n c i a l situation.  A further  problem l i e s i n functional over-lap; i t i s possible that a new agency, created to accept referrals from the schools for case work treatment, might be duplicating services already i n existence.  This p o s s i b i l i t y becomes a v i r t u a l certainty  i n Vancouver, where the Children's A i d Society and the Family Welfare Bureau offer the services required i n a preventive program. Both of these agencies have been performing a limited preventive function for some time; the Children's Aid Society has rendered effective service to children referred from the schools, and the Family Welfare Bureau has done s i m i l a r l y i n the f i e l d of family services.  Unfortunately,  these referrals have not been made on a systematic basis. The schools have generally sought aid i n cases which show a  107  long history of development.  When they f i n a l l y reach the  agencies, success i n treatment i s often rendered somewhat problematical. .Referrals have not been made as-part of a comprehensive treatment program, but rather as a measure of last resort.  Certain referrals involving treatment for  the child, and family services as w e l l , have resulted i n administrative confusion between the two agencies regarding functional j u r i s d i c t i o n . There i s no doubt that the necessary resources and services are i n existence; the problem becomes one of co-ordination.  The school with i t s functions  of recognition and r e f e r r a l must be linked with the two agencies! the case work services must then be made available on a coherent basis, within one broad functional j u r i s d i c tion. Organization As a f i r s t step i n the provision of a broad treatment program, i t appears that the Children's A i d Society and the Family Welfare Bureau should be amalgamated under a single administration, with functional d i v i s i o n maintained on a departmental basis.  Services could then be made available to  the pre-delinquent child on a much more f l e x i b l e basis.  Uni-  f i c a t i o n of services would permit greater ease of r e f e r r a l from the schools, a more comprehensive intake process, and the provision of specialized services without the former frustrations involved i n crossing functional l i n e s . The present study does not propose to outline the details of amalgamation, or to suggest a s p e c i f i c type of  108 administrative structure.  However, there are two changes  which might he suggested at this point.  The Children's Aid  Society i s operating a foster home and adoption program, through i t s Child Placing Department, which has long been established as an essential child welfare service.  Poster  home placement and adoption, can no longer be regarded as essentially private agency functions.  Therefore, i t i s  suggested that these functions be transferred, to some extent at least, to the provincial Child Welfare D i v i s i o n . I t i s doubtful i f t o t a l transfer of services should be contemplated at this time.  I t i s true that the standards  of service of the provincial department, as measured by quality of personnel, have improved to the point where transfer would probably involve l i t t l e , i f any, loss.  However,  there i s s t i l l ample room for experimentation i n these f i e l d s , and for that reason the Society should retain a subs t a n t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n both areas.  Limited curtailment  of services, rather than complete transfer, would also permit the Society to retain i t s charter under the Protection of Children A c t , with the authority and scope of operations essential to effective functioning of a preventive program. The r e s t r i c t i o n i n the Society's foster home and adoption a c t i v i t i e s , would permit a re-direction of administrative and personnel energy toward experimentation i n i n tensive case study and treatment of the pre-delinquent within the t o t a l program.  child,  This might be extended i n the  direction of psycho-therapeutic treatment under psychiatric  109  d i r e c t i o n , not only for the more disturbed cases, but as a definite treatment technique for the majority of the children requiring individual attention. to this study, by any means.  This idea i s not o r i g i n a l  The Society has already  launched an experiment i n the use of play therapy l o r disturbed children, s>nd has produced some gratifying r e s u l t s . I t i s also aware of the need for more intensive case work treatment for children suffering from varying degrees of emotional disturbance. The second change which seems to be indicated at t h i s point i s concerned with staff.  There should be a  larger number of male workers available for work with predelinquent children; the present study and many others have shown that the majority of delinquents are boys.  The family  work department should have a greater number of male workers as w e l l , to meet the needs of those cases where a more effective working relationship with the client may be established by a male case worker. Agency-School Liaison The functions of early recognition and referral of pre-delinquent children by the school, are basic to the success of the whole enterprise.  Therefore, the development  of a keen awareness of the emotional implications of certain forms of school behaviour by school staffs i s essential.  In  addition, the school p r i n c i p a l s , teachers, and counsellors, should be active participants i n the treatment process.  110  These aspects of the program may he developed through cooperation between workers and teachers i n the operation of the program, but the cultivation of systematic recognition and r e f e r r a l from the school requires some guidance from a higher l e v e l . I t i s suggested that a committee of the Board could be formed, to study the many problems associated with the t r a i n i n g of teaching personnel i n the emotional implications of behaviour, and with the f a c i l i t a t i o n of referrals from the school to the agency.  Recommendations could then  be made to the Board, to be implemented through the formulat i o n of working p o l i c i e s .  Since the program should be closely  geared to the school system, the committee should include substantial representation from the school administration, and from teaching staffs as w e l l .  This does not constitute  a departure from accepted practice and therefore should not be d i f f i c u l t to achieve; several members of the c i t y ' s teaching staff are already active on the Board of Directors of the Children's A i d Society.  Further representation from  the Board of School Trustees and the schools should be encouraged, and concentrated i n the membership of a Delinquency Prevention Committee. The Committee might include a representative from the supervisory staffs of both agencies, or departments, they would be termed i n an amalgamated structure.  as  This ap-  pears to be a somewhat unorthodox suggestion, but deviations from accepted administrative practice are not necessarily  Ill  unsound.  The purpose of such a step would he to create a  tangible l i n k between policy and service, as i t affects client.  the  I t i s granted that the Director of the agency, as  an ex offi clo member of a l l committees formed by the Board, may f u l f i l l this function.  However, the Director i s s t i l l  too far removed from client service i n the administrative hierarchy, to exert the desired effeot.  A supervisor, more  d i r e c t l y responsible for the quality of services rendered, i s i n a position to exert constructive influence upon policy to this end. I t seems advisable at this point to suggest a membership i n the Committee, i n which the school representatives have the balance of power.  This idea may have some  merit i n d i r e c t i n g a good deal of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for a preventive program toward the schools; i t may result i n greater interest and a c t i v i t y by the teachers.  With representation  from the School Ejoard, from school principals and teachers, the Committee would bring together representatives of a l l administrative levels i n the school system and the agency. Thus i t would be enabled to work out sound compromise recommendations for p o l i c i e s which would not only recognize the broad issues, but would be linked d i r e c t l y with the needs of the child for whom the program i s being created. The proposed amalgamated agency has been discussed with heavy emphasis upon the Children's Aid Society. the point of view of services to the pre-delinquent  Prom child,  this agency would bear the greater load of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  1 1 2  and includes a wider range of r e a l and potential services. The maximum use of family services has heen implied throughout, as part of the integrated service program. Psychiatric Services Extensive use has heen made by the agencies concerned i n this plan, of the psychiatric services offered by the P r o v i n c i a l Child Guidance C l i n i c , and the Vancouver General Hospital.  The schools have had access to a psychia-  t r i s t on the staff of the Metropolitan Health Committee's School Health Service.  Since psychiatric aid i s indispen-  sable to a comprehensive treatment program, and i s obviously l i m i t e d , maximum use should be made of a l l available resources.  I f possible, psychiatric assistance should extend  to treatment, as well as diagnosis. Unfortunately, the psychiatrist of the Metropolitan Health Committee i s also Director of the School Health Services.  The Director i s the chief administrative person  of this branch, and as such i s burdened with a number of routine duties, which preclude effective functioning as a psychiatrist.  I t i s not known why a s p e c i a l i s t should have  been appointed as administrator of the health program when his services are subject to heavy demand; i n view of the extreme scarcity of trained psychiatrists, this arrangement does not appear to be too sound. Ready access to a psychiatrist for diagnosis, and treatment when necessary, for the more disturbed children,  113 i s absolutely essential i n a preventive program.  The type  of service generally offered by psychiatric c l i n i c s thus f a r , i s not good enough.  An intensive case work job demands  something more than a casual.diagnosis based upon a fifteen minute interview, for cases which are considered beyond the s k i l l s of the case worker.  A p s y c h i a t r i s t , whose major func-  tion appears to be administration, cannot offer the necessary time and attention to the children who require services of the highest order. I t i s suggested that the psychiatrist might be relieved of his administrative duties completely.  He could  then function exclusively i n the capacity of a staff psychiatrist.  Thus enabled to devote his entire time to this  specialized function, he could be enabled to render services which are indispensable i n a comprehensive program. In order to u t i l i z e the obviously limited services of one psychiatrist to the f u l l e s t extent, referrals should be made by the agency on a discriminating basis.  Routine  referrals to corroborate an already careful diagnosis by a case worker, are inexcusable and wasteful.  Children should  be sent to the psychiatrist only when the case worker i s unable to deal with the problem herself; and once the child has been referred, the psychiatrist should be prepared to offer treatment when i t i s indicated by his own diagnosis. The Schools The degree of co-operation which may be developed between the case workers and the teachers depends, i n great  114 p a r t , upon the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of school p r i n c i p a l s . Under the present system of school a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i t i s often q u i t e d i f f i c u l t f o r a p r i n c i p a l to devote much time to anything other than r o u t i n e d u t i e s .  Schools having atten-  dance r o l l s i n excess of 450 p u p i l s , have a v i c e - p r i n c i p a l who a s s i s t s with a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s . pointment has i t s l i m i t a t i o n s .  However, t h i s ap-  The v i c e - p r i n c i p a l i s re-  quired to carry a s u b s t a n t i a l teaching load which reduces his  capacity as an a s s i s t a n t a d m i n i s t r a t o r to a more or  l e s s r e s i d u a l b a s i s ; he tends to do those things which the p r i n c i p a l has neither the time nor the i n c l i n a t i o n to perform. Some of the p r i n c i p a l s v i s i t e d i n the course of t h i s study, appeared to be overloaded with minor d u t i e s , such as checking excuse notes f o r tardy p u p i l s , r i n g i n g b e l l s f o r r e c r e a t i o n periods, and s u p e r v i s i n g arrangements f o r milk issues or hot lunches.  I t i s not w i t h i n the pro-  vince of t h i s study to recommend changes i n school administration.  However, the School Board might be w e l l advised  to study the whole s i t u a t i o n f o r the purpose of suggesting improvements ; p r i n c i p a l s should be enabled t o f i n d more time f o r supervision and c o n s u l t a t i o n with t h e i r s t a f f s . No p r i n c i p a l should be expected to administer the a f f a i r s of h i s school and teach as w e l l . E f f e c t i v e use should be made of school counsellors, not only i n diagnosis and treatment, but i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of program as w e l l .  I t i s probable that the c o u n s e l l o r , by  115 virtue of his t r a i n i n g and experience, i s more aware of problems of adjustment than the teachers.  He may constitute a  helpful link i n the i n i t i a l job of encouraging acceptance of the program. Referral This brief discussion of r e f e r r a l follows the assumption that considerable interpretation of the agency's function has been made i n the schools.  Much of i t may be  done through the work of the Delinquency Prevention Committee, but the major effort must be expended among teaching personnel.  The usual media may be used; brief talks i n the  schools, at meetings of teachers' organizations, and with principals.  These may be supplemented by appropriate printed  material. The r e f e r r a l process i t s e l f should be simple i n the early stages of the program.  When teachers have become more  familiar with the work of the agency, and have developed some understanding of types of behaviour problems, a f a i r l y comprehensive r e f e r r a l blank may be used to advantage. Early referrals need be no more complicated than a telephone call. Consultation between the case worker and the referr i n g teacher should follow d i r e c t l y after the r e f e r r a l , to determine whether the problem warrants intensive treatment. Certain minor problems may not require intensive investigat i o n ; the time and effort of the case worker should not be expended indiscriminately. Many of these may well centre  116 about the teacher rather than the c h i l d ; i n any case, select i v i t y must be exercised at this point. The quality of service which reaches the i n d i v i dual child, should be held i n immediate focus i n the selection of cases to be accepted.  I f the attentions of a limited  number of case workers were to be spread over a very large case-load, the net result would be a r e l a t i v e l y minor gain. The child i n need of these services must receive a l l the attention his problems warrant.  I t seems preferable, i n a pro-  gram such as t h i s , to treat a small number of cases intensively with greater promise of success, than to follow the widely accepted pattern of attenuated services, which cannot produce the desired r e s u l t s . Treatment This study does not propose to define or elaborate upon the treatment process i n case work.  This discussion of  treatment i s intended merely to emphasize the need for collaboration between the case worker, the teacher, and others who may be involved i n the treatment plan. Constructive use of the case conference i s suggested.  I t should be held soon after the case worker has  completed her s o c i a l history investigation, and has prepared a detailed report of her findings.  Discussion of the  case, the diagnosis, the recommendations for treatment, and the resouroes available i n the school and the community, should include the case worker, the p r i n c i p a l of the school, the child's teacher, the school nurse and the school coun-  117 s e l l o r when available*  Prom that point, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  rests largely with the case worker, but a l l concerned should be brought into the process whenever possible.  Periodic  progress conferences should follow, i f circumstances permit. The psychiatrist should be brought into the conference when the case under discussion suggests a need for a higher l e v e l of treatment.  In the i d e a l situation, psy-  c h i a t r i c advice, should be available for a l l discussions I under the present circumstances, the p s y c h i a t r i s t ' s time should be used with the utmost discretion. The preventive program has been presented i n broad outline form. and experiment.  Much of the d e t a i l must wait upon application Ultimate success of the program depends,  to a great extent, upon the quality of the s o c i a l work personnel who put the plan into operation.  E f f i c i e n t workers,  functioning i n close collaboration with a l l the resources available i n the schools and the community, and under a clearly defined policy focussed upon the welfare of the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d , should produce gratifying results.  APPENDIX A General Questionnaire Name of School: Note* A l l questions refer to month of October.  Gr. 1 Gr. 2 Gr. 3 Gr. 4 Gr. 5 Gr. 6 Total Enrolment '< No. Truants: ,.  No. truants referred to Attendance Officers:  -—~-—  No. behaviour problem children: Behaviour problems referred elsewhere'  Notes.: The d i s t i n c t i o n between truant and behaviour problem i s purely arbitrary. Truant: Any child absent two or more times without acceptable reason or v a l i d excuse. Behaviour Problem: Include those f e l t to be ment a l l y retarded, those d e f i n i t e l y not working to normal capacity, excessively aggressive or excessively withdrawn, persistent sleepers or day-dreamers and the more obvious t i c s , motor disorders, etc. C r i t e r i a for behaviour problem may be those who by virtue of certain behaviour characteristics stand out i n the class and who do not respond favourably and reasonably promptly to remedial action. When i n doubt, specify on reverse side of questionnaire. Include apparently minor d i s c i p l i n a r y problems i f these are persistent.  APPENDIX B  /'7  Case Questionnaire * 1. Name 2. School 3. Age 4. Grade 5. I.Q. 6. Scholastic Record (Good, average or poor--~do not consider I.Q. here! i f child kept pace with h i s or her age group, consider average. I f a late starter i n f i r s t grade, please specify). 7. Parents i f known (Both living? Step-father or mother? Other? Attitude of parents to school? Other factors?) 8. Physical appearance of child. 9. Personality (Shy, seclusive, day-dreamer, sociable, stubborn, jealous, moody, etc.) 10. Current problems i f any. (Truancy or any other behaviour problem by virtue of which the child has attracted extra attention and concern. Include such things as retardation, not working to capacity, aggressiveness,etc. , as well as d i s c i p l i n a r y problems i f these are persistent. This section and No. 9 may overlap.) 11. I f child i s no longer i n this school, please describe his behaviour, according to question 10, as i t was during his attendance. 12. Development of problem (Refers to 10, 11 or both-— when did this c h i l d ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s begin— what grade? Was any remedial action taken and i f so, what was the result?) 13. Remarks (Anything further which may assist i n understanding the child and his problem.)  ft Questions o r i g i n a l l y distributed over three pages.  APPENDIX C  BIBLIOGRAPHY Books C a t t e l l , Raymond B . , Crooked Personalities In ChiIdhood and After. D. Appleton-Century, New York, 1938. Garrison, K a r l C. , The Psychology of Adolescence. Prentice-Hall, New York, 1946. Glueck, Sheldon and Eleanor, One Thousand Juvenile Delinquents. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1934. Hamilton, G.P. , The Delinquent Gang i n the Community. Thesis presented i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of requirements for degree of Master of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1949. Healy W. , and Alper, B . S . , Criminal Youth and the Borstal System. The Commonwealth Fund, New York, 1941. Healy W., and Bronner, A . P . , New Light on Delinquency and Its Treatment. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1936. Jones, A . E . , Juvenile Delinquency and the Law. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England, 1945. Kvaraceus, W. C., Juvenile Delinquency and the School. World Book Company, New York, 1945. Thomson, Mary, The S o c i a l Worker i n the School. Thesis presented i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of requirements for degree of Master of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1948. A r t i c l e s and Reports "A Community Plans for i t s Children," Newport News V a . , Project, U.S. Children's Bureau. Federal Security Agency, 1947. Jerech, M. , "Some Factors i n the Treatment Outcome of Adolescent Truants Referred to a Child Guidance C l i n i c , " Smith College Studies i n Social Work, v o l . 16, Sept., 1945-June, 1946, Smith College, Mass.  Stark, H. G. , "Prevention and Control of Delinquency i n C a l i f o r n i a . " Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work, A p r i l . 1947. Columbia University Press, New York, 1948. Whitney, Vincent H. , "Tough Guys are Made*—Not Born," Coronet. A p r i l , 1948, New York. Wollan, K . I . , "The Use of Group A c t i v i t y i n Probation Work," National Probation Association Yearbook. E d . , Marjorie B e l l , Nat. Prob. A s s . , New York, 1938. Wollan, K . I . , "The Citizenship Training Program of the Boston Juvenile Court," National Probation Yearbook. E d . , Marjorie B e l l , Nat. Prob. A s s . , New York, 1941. A Plan for the Reduction of Juvenile Delinquency i n Toronto, submitted by the Welfare Council of Toronto and D i s t r i c t , 1943. Government Pabllcations Preliminary Report of the Washington State Legislative Interim Committee on Juvenile Delinquency: prepared i n conjunction with the National Probation Association, State P r i n t i n g Office, Olympia,1945. Report of the Saskatchewan Penal Commission. King's P r i n t e r , Regina, 1946. Report of the Royal Commission to Investigate the Penal System of Canada. King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa,1938. The Youth Authority. "Organization and Program." State of C a l i f o r n i a , State P r i n t i n g Office, Sacramento, 1945. The Youth Conservation Commission. State of Minnesota, State Office Bldg. , St. Paul, Oct., 1947.  

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