Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Recidivism in unmarried mothers; problems of the social work approach McCrae, Helen Dalrymple 1949

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1949_A5 M17 R3.pdf [ 7.64MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106889.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106889-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106889-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106889-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106889-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106889-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106889-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106889-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106889.ris

Full Text

.vRECIDIvTSM IN UNMARRIED MOTHERS: PROBLEMS OF THE SOCIAL WORK APPROACH  by HELEN DALRYMPLE McCRAE  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the Department of S o c i a l Work  1949 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  ABSTRACT The accompanying t h e s i s , w r i t t e n as p a r t o f the r e quirements f o r the Degree of Master of S o c i a l Work, and e n t i t l ed "Recidivism i n Unmarried Mothers: Problems o f the S o c i a l Work Approach", i s designed to make the general p u b l i c conscious of the p a r t i t should p l a y i n the p r e v e n t i o n and t r e a t ment of unmarried motherhood. I t i s taken as axiomatic that unmarried motherhood, i n our c u l t u r e , i s but one presenting facet of a g i r l ' s d i s t u r b e d p e r s o n a l i t y . S o c i a l Casework w i t h the unmarried mother i s seen to be a l l the more important, because, i f the p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f i c u l t i e s of the mother are unresolved o r heightened by unmarried parenthood, they can tend to produce a r e p e t i t i o n of the experience which l e d to the f i r s t pregnancy. The degree of the unmarried mother's i n t e l l i g e n c e , and the time of her r e f e r r a l to the s o c i a l agency, are seen as the c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s which determine whether o r not the caseworker i s able to form a c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h her. With t h i s i n mind, cases of r e c i d i v i s t s known t o the Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y during the year 1946 are examined, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r reference t o (1) the i n t e l l i g e n c e o f the g i r l s concerned, and (2) whether o r not they were r e f e r r e d to the agency before, o r a f t e r the b i r t h of the c h i l d . The conclusion i s reached that> i n p r a c t i c e , the degree of the unmarried mother's i n t e l l i g e n c e I s not the major issue f a c i n g the s o c i a l worker, but t h a t the d i f f i c u l t y l i e s b a s i c a l l y i n the weakness of her a c t u a l contact w i t h the mother. T h i s weakness i s shown to be due t o a number o f f a c t o r s : delayed r e f e r r a l ; " p e c u l i a r p e r s o n a l i t y " o f the unmarried mother; emphasis on e a r l y establishment of p a t e r n i t y ; pressure o f work, and l a c k of p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n . I t i s pointed out that the p u b l i c , while i t has come a long way i n modifying i t s cfitfsorious a t t i t u d e t o i l l e g i t i m a c y , has not yet achieved f u l l understanding o f i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s . The resources i n the community f o r the treatment and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f the unmarried mother are d e f i n i t e l y . l i m i t e d , and a t present, the s o c i a l agency i s bearing the f u l l weight o f the problem. Various suggestions are made as to the ways and means of mmedying the s i t u a t i o n . The experience w i t h unmarried mothers on which t h i s study i s based, has been obtained p r i m a r i l y while the w r i t e r was employed as a s o c i a l worker f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia Provi n c i a l F i e l d S e r v i c e . I t has been done w i t h f u l l awareness of i t s d e f i c i e n c i e s , and i t i s hoped t h a t t h i s study w i l l f o r e shadow f u r t h e r ones which w i l l add the s p e c i a l i z e d experience of the p r i v a t e agencies t o the knowledge which one worker has gained from the more general f i e l d of a p u b l i c agency.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Part I . Chapter 1. The A t t i t u d e o f S o c i e t y An h i s t o r i c a l resume o f the s t a t u s o f the unmarried mother and h e r c h i l d . S o c i a l and l e g a l aspects. Methods o f care. Future trends. Chapter 2. The Causes A general d i s c u s s i o n o f the t h e o r i e s regarding the causes o f unmarried motherhood. The i n f l u e n c e o f h e r e d i t y and environment. The emotional component. Chapter 3. Attempts t o Face Facts A review o f a l l i e d s t u d i e s on the unmarried mother. f i r s t case s t u d i e s . The i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f r e s u l t s . The " P e c u l i a r Personal Equation" o f the unmarried mother.  The  Part I I . Chapter 4.  The Current S i t u a t i o n  The scope of the problem. General aspects of the s i t u a t i o n i n Canada, B r i t i s h Columbia, and Vancouver. The s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Vancouver Children's A i d S o c i e t y . Chapter 5.  The F a c i l i t i e s  Vancouver Children's A i d S o c i e t y — i t s h i s t o r y and c l i e n t e l e . The s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e ; p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c ; maternity home care; f i n a n c i a l and l e g a l aspects; s p e c i a l i z e d resources. Chapter 6.  Casework Concepts  A "new" o r i e n t a t i o n i n casework. The need f o r a "conf i d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p " w i t h the unmarried mother. D i f f i c u l t i e s encountered and how t o overcome them by the p r o f e s s i o n a l approach. The therapeutic process defined.  Part I I I . Chapter 7.  The Presenting Problem  The unmarried mother approaches the s o c i a l agency. T y p i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y patterns. Non-resolution o f the mother's p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f i c u l t i e s may p r e c i p i t a t e another pregnancy. (Queries as to assessment of f a c t o r s involved. B a s i s of a n a l y s i s f o r t h i s assessment. Chapter 8.  Special D i f f i c u l t i e s  The unmarried mother of "below average" i n t e l l i g e n c e . Fundamentally a " d i f f i c u l t " person. L i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e only one f a c e t of her d i f f i c u l t i e s . Need f o r s e n s i t i v e approach to problem. D i f f i c u l t y of making adequate plans. E a r l y r e f e r r a l imperative. R e l a t i o n s h i p s e s t a b l i s h a b l e only w i t h long-term contact. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n necessary f o r cons t r u c t i v e community planning. Chapter 9.  Case Differences  Cases Referred A f t e r C h i l d b i r t h Outlook more hopeful f o r casework with unmarried mothers of average or g r e a t e r than average i n t e l l i g e n c e . The " c l i e n t worker" r e l a t i o n s h i p . P r o f e s s i o n a l approach of the worker. Time of r e f e r r a l again seen as c r i t i c a l point i n e s t a b l i s h ment of c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . Chapter 10.  Case D i f f e r e n c e s  Cases Referred Before C h i l d b i r t h The worker " o f f base". S u c c e s s f u l r e t r i e v e of a bad s i t u a t i o n . Pathology too great f o r treatment. A " p r i v a t e " placement that m i s f i r e d . Cases .suggestive of prognostic value. P a r a l l e l s i t u a t i o n s found i n oases r e f e r r e d before the b i r t h of the c h i l d . More reeent r e c i d i v i s t s present t y p i c a l p i c t u r e of l a t e r e f e r r a l and d i f f i c u l t i e s unresolved. P a r t IV. Chapter 11.  E v a l u a t i o n and Conclusion  The "common denominator". Weakness i n casework t r e a t ment l i e s i n a c t u a l contact w i t h worker. A n a l y s i s of the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to t h i s weakness; delayed r e f e r r a l ; " p e c u l i a r p e r s o n a l i t y " of unmarried mother; e a r l y e s t a b l i s h ment of p a t e r n i t y ; pressure of work and l a c k of p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n , defects i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n . Needs f o r prevention and treatment. Appendix: Bibliography.  RECIDIVISM IN UNMARRIED MOTHERS: PROBLEMS OF THE SOCIAL WORK APPROACH.  Part I .  Chapter 1.  The A t t i t u d e of S o c i e t y .  Chapter 2.  The Causes.  Chapter 3.  Attempts to Face F a c t s .  1. Chapter 1. The A t t i t u d e of S o c i e t y . A problem as o l d and unresolved as human e x i s t e n c e i t s e l f . Through the ages, i t has remained a matter of morals and p o l i c y , rather than s c i e n t i f i c theory. I t has been viewed as an e v i l occurrence c a l l i n g f o r a d i s t r i b u t i o n of blame, a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f repentance, and an a d j u d i c a t i o n of r i g h t s and d u t i e s . " (Kingsley Davis: " I l l e g i t i m a c y and the S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e " , American J o u r n a l of Sociology. Sept. 1939, p.215.) n  Before concentrating a t t e n t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y on r e c i d i v i s m i n unmarried mothers, a p r e l i m i n a r y reconnaissance of the 0  general aspects of her s i t u a t i o n through the years seems necessary to Increase our knowledge and deepen our understanding.  I t i s t r i t e but true to say t h a t " i l l e g i t i m a c y i s as o l d  as m a r i t a l law, and, In one form or another, I t has been a u n i v e r s a l s o c i a l phenomen."l  U n i v e r s a l though i t i s , the prob-  lem of the unmarried mother has been accorded v a r y i n g degrees o f acceptance by s o c i e t y , according to the sex mores and m a r i t a l r e g u l a t i o n s of the time.  P r i m i t i v e women i n some c u l t u r e s  f i n d t h e i r marriage value Increased because they have demons t r a t e d t h e i r f e r t i l i t y , and they and t h e i r c h i l d r e n are given reiady acceptance i n t o the t r i b e .  By c o n t r a c t , unmarried mother-  hood has, i n other s o c i e t i e s , meant death f o r the mother, o r the c h i l d ; sometimes i t has meant death f o r both, according t o the t r i b a l  customs. I r o n i c a l l y , e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y worsened the status  of the unmarried mother.  I n g l o r i f y i n g the family and attempt-  i n g to put an end t o u n c h a s t i t y , i t p l a c e d emphasis on the 1 Ruth D. Nottingham: "A P s y c h o l o g i c a l Study of 40 Unmarried Mothers", Genetic Psychology Monograph. Aug. 1937, Vol.19,No.3.  " s i n " of extra-marital relationships.  N a t u r a l l y , condemnation  f e l l most e a s i l y on the i l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnant woman, whose " s i n " was s e l f - e v i d e n t .  She had t o "confess" before the con-  gregation, and was forced t o endure the h u m i l i a t i o n o f p u b l i c castigation.  Her c h i l d was neglected, and was made the  of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  object  These repressive measures, as so o f t e n i n  other f i e l d s o f human welfare, d i d not have the  desired  c u r a t i v e e f f e c t , but only r e s u l t e d , as one w r i t e r has s a i d , i n "concealment, abortion, maternal m o r t a l i t y and i n f a n t i c i d e " . Indeed, i n f a n t i c i d e became so prevalent, that the church had to take cognizance o f i t , and assume a more r e a l i s t i c approach. Thus the s i x t h century saw the establishment o f the  first  foundling home. However, the church d i d not modify i t s censure of the mother, and she and h e r c h i l d were s t i l l p u b l i c l y condemned. The  e a r l y s e t t l e r s t o America brought with them t h e i r  o l d a t t i t u d e and b e l i e f s , but women were few and h i g h l y p r i z e d i n the new land, hence the pioneer woman d i d not f i n d h e r s e l f m a t e r i a l l y handicapped by having a c h i l d out of wedlock. However, as the settlements became more f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d , t h i s t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e changed. t h e s i s elaborated  This i s i n keeping w i t h the  by K i n g s l e y Davis, that "the stronger the  f a m i l y t i e s i n the mores o f s o c i e t y , the more d i s t i n c t i s the status o f the i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d (and i t s mother) . 1  2  1 Frank H. Hankins: " I l l e g i t i m a c y " , Encyclopedia o f the S o c i a l Sciences. V o l . 7, p. 579. 2 " I l l e g i t i m a c y and the S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e " , The American Journal o f Sociology. Sept. 1939, pp. 215-233.  3. Varying d i s t i n c t i o n s i n the l e g a l status of t h e unmarried mother and h e r c h i l d have always been apparent.  Frank  H. Hankins, the w r i t e r p r e v i o u s l y quoted, p o i n t s out the ancient Roman Law was f i r s t based on the p r i n c i p l e o f agnation, and hence the i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d had n e i t h e r f a t h e r nor mother.^ L a t e r , k i n s h i p became based on the broader concept o f cognation, and then the i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d had r i g h t s of support and succession from i t s mother.  The Roman Law was superseded by  that o f the C h r i s t i a n i z e d Empire, and the r i g h t s o f a l l i l l e g i t i m a t e childrem against t h e i r mothers were suppressed—except i n the case o f those born i n concubinage. deepened the " s i n "  C h r i s t i a n i t y , which  o f the unmarried mother, c l a s s i f i e d her  c h i l d according t o her " g u i l t " .  The degree of t h i s guild; was  measured by the type o f union which produced the c h i l d , and the i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d ' s p r o p e r t y r i g h t s depended upon whether he was ex damnato ooitu o r l i b e r i n a t u r a l e .  8  In the Middle Ages, though l e g a l theory maintained that the i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d had a r i g h t t o support, he was o f t e n t r e a t e d as a s e r f , and the combination o f harsh punishment f o r the  mother, and d e n i a l o f l e g a l r i g h t s t o t h e c h i l d , was  universal. (so  3  E n g l i s h common-law had no gradations; the bastard  c a l l e d ) was f l l i u s n u l l i u s . and the mother h e r s e l f could be  punished as a "lewd woman".  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, i t was the  very f a c t that the c h i l d here had no one t o support i t , and was 1 2 3  I b i d , p. 580 et seq. Frank H. Hankins, op. c i t . p. 581. Grace Abbott: The C h i l d and the S t a t e . V o l . 2, p. 494.  thus t h r u s t upon the u n w i l l i n g p a r i s h f o r maintenance, that e v e n t u a l l y won f o r i t the r i g h t to l e g a l support from i t s parents. The c o l o n i z a t i o n of America by E n g l i s h s e t t l e r s i n the seventeenth and eighteenth c e n t u r i e s meant that the b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s , and p r a c t i c e s of the common law of England were transplanted w i t h them, and took f i r m root i n the new  land.  Thus t h e r e , too, the emphasis was not on the welfare of the mother and her c h i l d , but on the determination o f the b a s i s of support. There was an attempt during the French Revolution t o e f f e c t a r a d i c a l change i n the r i g h t s of the i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d , but i t proved a b o r t i v e , and the Code Napoleon ( a r t i c l e  340)  f l a t l y declared " l a recherche de l a p a t e r n i t e est i n t e r d i t e " . ^ Thus n e i t h e r the unmarried mother nor her c h i l d had any r i g h t s . I t was not u n t i l the general s o c i a l awakening of the l a t e nineteenth and e a r l y twentieth centuiLes that there was "a more i n t e l l i g e n t and humane approach t o the problem of i l l e g i t i m a c y " .  2  Then the t r a i l was blazed by Norway, which enacted the famous Castberg Law i n 1915.  This was the f i r s t r a d i c a l  departure  from the o l d morass which had mired both mother and c h i l d . recognized c l e a r l y and r a t i o n a l l y that the c h i l d had two  It  parents,  declared that they were e q u a l l y responsible f o r i t s upbringing (thus i n d i r e c t l y decreasing the stigma which had formerly been attached to the mother), and placed on the State the " s i b i l i t y for establishing paternity. 1  I b i d , p. 494.  2  I b i d , p.  498.  respon-  5.  The Castberg Law was given considerable publicity, and was discussed i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y ; but, i n general, there was l i t t l e government care and planning f o r the unmarried mother and c h i l d u n t i l a f t e r t h e f i r s t World War.  People appeared t o become  conscious of the value o f these, c h i l d r e n as f u t u r e c i t i z e n s and p o t e n t i a l w a r r i o r s , and governments veered from the o r i g i n a l purpose o f p r o t e c t i n g p u b l i c funds, to attempt i n s t e a d the b e t t e r s e r v i c e of the i n t e r e s t s o f mother and c h i l d .  Evidence  of t h i s change i n p u b l i c a t t i t u d e can be seen i n the now growing tendency i n many c o u n t r i e s to place r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e maintenance of the unmarried mother and her c h i l d on l o c a l p u b l i c welfare departments. Over the years, the s o c i a l and l e g a l s t a t u s accorded by s o c i e t y t o t h e unmarried mother and here- c h i l d has been i n v a r i a b l y r e f l e c t e d by the various methods developed t o care f o r them.  F o r example, t h e f i r s t organized method o f care was  the Foundling Home, the o r i g i n o f which i s t r a c e a b l e t o the Church i n I t a l y , during the s i x t h century.  T h i s p l a n d i d not  stem so much from an enlightened attempt t o help the mother h e r s e l f , as i t d i d from a d e s i r e t o curb the r i s i n g t i d e o f i n f a n t i c i d e brought on by the p r e v a i l i n g r e p r e s s i v e measures against i l l e g i t i m a c y .  These homes spread f i r s t t o France, and  eventually throughout Europe.  I n the t w e l f t h oentury, as an  a d d i t i o n a l inducement to women t o use t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s , the " t o u r " , o r t u r n box, was evolved, and so constructed t h a t the c h i l d could be l e f t a t the home without the mother's i d e n t i t y  6.  being revealed.^ I n England, the Foundling Homes were supplanted l a t e r by the infamous almshouses.  E v e n t u a l l y , t h i s p r o v i s i o n too was  c a r r i e d t o America by the c o l o n i s t s .  Into the almshouse the  unmarried mother was throyfwn, along w i t h t h e o l d and the young, the diseased and the insane.  Stigmatized, never given a chance  t o improve her p o s i t i o n , she was u s u a l l y pushed down t o f u r t h e r degradation.  I t took a long time, even w i t h the general s o c i a l  awakening during the nlnetwenth century, f o r s u f f i c i e n t people t o c r y out against such a barbarous method o f "care" t o get i t changed.  The reform was begun by groups o f i n d i v i d u a l s who  e s t a b l i s h e d p r i v a t e "rescue homes" and " s h e l t e r s " f o r t h e unmarried mother. I n the course o f the nineteenth century, these materni t y homes, though uniform i n t h e i r purpose o f s h e l t e r i n g the unmarried mother from the scorn o f the p u b l i c , came t o be d i v i d e d i n t o two groups i n t h e i r p o l i c y regarding h e r c h i l d . One, which concentrated on missionary work w i t h the mother, b e l i e v e d the "the c h i l d would be a potent f a c t o r I n h o l d i n g the mother t o new i d e a l s acquired through the i n f l u e n c e o f the home; that he would completely f i l l her l i f e and leave no v o i d or d e s i r e f o r her former associates"* 2  They t h e r e f o r e r o u t i n e -  l y discharged a l l babies along w i t h t h e i r mothers.  The other  1 The " t o u r " was a box b u i l t on a p i v o t , i n the door o f the home. The mother could p i v o t the box round toward her, p l a c e her c h i l d i n i t , t u r n i t so t h a t the c h i l d would face i n t o t h e home, p u l l the b e l l and f l e e i n t o t h e n i g h t . 2 S.M. Donahue: " C h i l d r e n Born out of Wedlock", Annals o f t h e American Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Science. Sept., 1930.  group was motivated s o l e l y by a d e s i r e t o s h i e l d t h e mother and "keep her seore"bS; a c c o r d i n g l y , they developed a p o l i c y o f d i s c h a r g i n g the mother while keeping her baby i n care. These homes a c t u a l l y d i d very l i t t l e f o r t h e unmarried mother except give her s h e l t e r and care during confinement, though i f i t was t h e i r p o l i c y to "keep h e r s e c r e t " , they sometimes arranged adoption f o r h e r c h i l d . f o r the mother's a f t e r - c a r e .  They made no p r o v i s i o n  I f a woman were l u c k l e s s enough  to have a second i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d she was looked upon as so hopelessly, degraded, t h a t a p r i v a t e rescue home r e c e i v i n g her was thereby somewhat d i s c r e d i t e d . ! T h i s same p e r i o d saw the development o f the commerc i a l maternity home, many of which are s t i l l i n existence i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of t h e United S t a t e s and Canada. profit-making e n t e r p r i s e s .  These are  They are not kept under c o n t r o l by  Welfare L i c e n c i n g A c t s , and they make a good business o f p r i v a t e l y p l a c i n g babies f o r adoption. As Mary F. Smith p o i n t s out, s o c i a l work was j u s t i n i t s infancy (1890 - 1910), and t h e few workers who came i n contact w i t h the unmarried mother had an almost unquestioned a u t h o r i t y to undertake t h e task o f r e c l a i m i n g the " f a l l e n woman" t o " r i g h t standards".  2  Opinion, however, was d i v i d e d  as. t o whether the mother should.or should not keep her c h i l d . I f she d i d , the worker u s u a l l y accepted w i t h out question''that 1 Mary S. Richmond: S o c i a l D i a g n o s i s , p. 95. 2 Mary F. Smith: "Changing Emphasis i n Case Work with. Unmarried Mothers", The Family, Jan., 1934.  8. "a h e a l t h y young woman can u s u a l l y maintain h e r s e l f and h e r c h i l d i n a home with good people o f moderate means who cannot pay high wages".  1  I n the United S t a t e s , i t was the then r e c e n t l y - o r g anized Children's Bureau that f i r s t c a l l e d p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n t o the s o c i a l r e s u l t s o f the current treatment accorded t o unmarried mother and her c h i l d .  I t published an E n g l i s h t r a n s -  l a t i o n of the Castberg Law,, and l a t e r published a r e p o r t on i l l e g i t i m a c y laws o f the United States and other c o u n t r i e s . I n 1920, i t organized a r e g i o n a l conference York t o study i l l e g i t i m a c y . ' '  i n Chicago and New  Though t h i s p r i m a r i l y c a l l e d  a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h and c h i l d welfare aspects o f the s i t u a t i o n , i t was the f i r s t r e a l e f f o r t t o give t h o u g h t f u l study t o the s i t u a t i o n o f the unmarried mother.  L a t e r i t pub-  l i s h e d a report on the r e g i o n a l conferences and the I n t e r - C i t y conference on i l l e g i t i m a c y .  3  This brought about widespread  i n t e r e s t i n the problems surrounding the unmarried mother and the c h i l d born out o f wedlock.  A number o f research p r o j e c t s  were set i n motion, notably Percy G. Kammerer' s The Unmarried Mother, which was published i n 1918 and showed the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l case s t u d i e s . With the new i n t e r e s t aroused by Mary S. Richmond i n her book S o c i a l Diagnosis, and t h e stimulus given by the r e search s t u d i e s t o l e a r n i n g more about cause and e f f e c t , 1 2 3  Ibid. Grace Abbott: The C h i l d and the S t a t e . V o l . 2, p. 500. U.S. C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau P u b l i c a t i o n , No. 77, 1921.  9. emphasis began t o be l a i d on seouring an adequate s o c i a l h i s t o r y on the unmarried mother.  I n other words, she had  moved from being lumped together w i t h other women and t h e i r c h i l d r e n as a " s o c i a l problem", t o the realm where she at l a s t was being seen as a human being.  Now i t began to be r e a l i z e d  that plans f o r her care should be made, and should be made on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . T h i s t h i n k i n g was o u t l i n e d i n V i r g i n i a Robinson*s book, A Changing Psychology i n S o c i a l Case Work, which was published i n 1930.  From t h i s p o i n t on, s o c i a l workers  t r i e d t o seek an understanding o f t h e c l i e n t s s p e r s o n a l i t y . 1  They began t o see t h a t the unmarried mother had the r i g h t t o decide whether o r not she wished t o keep her baby, c e r t a i n l y a r a d i c a l departure from a few years p r e v i o u s , when i t was r i g h t e o u s l y f e l t t h a t the unmarried mother should keep her c h i l d t o ensure i t s proper care, and so t h a t i t should help t o " s t a b i l i z e her". S o c i a l workers soon became so concerned w i t h the unmarried mother's " r i g h t s " to come t o h e r d e c i s i o n without pressure, t h a t they leaned over backwards t o ensure t h a t they would not i n f l u e n c e her i n any way. As a r e s u l t , the a l l - t o o f a m i l i a r instance became evident, of the c h i l d trundled from f o s t e r home t o f o s t e r home, while the mother was i n the process of coming t o h e r d e c i s i o n . Workers everywhere, as w e l l as c l i e n t s , were caught i n t h i s dilemma.  During the depression  years, s o c i a l workers were p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h a d m i n i s t e r i n g a c t u a l " r e l i e f i n k i n d " ; but towards t h e close of t h a t p e r i o d there was a r e v i v a l i n s t u d i e s of t h e unmarried mother.  10. Two o f the most i n t e r e s t i n g ones, r e f e r r e d t o l a t e r , recommend** ed the establishment of s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s f o r them.' I t was f e l t that " a f t e r . . . years o f concentrated e f f o r t and study (a worker would be) more responsive to the problems of unmarried mothers, i n much the way any s p e c i a l i s t becomes s e n s i t i z e d t o and steeped i n a problem t o which he has given h i s whole a t t e n t i o n f o r a t i m e " . l From these s t u d i e s came a f i r m c o n v i c t i o n t h a t fundamentally the unmarried mother was s t r u g g l i n g w i t h problems s i m i l a r t o those of other d i s t u r b e d g i r l s , and that i t was merely her "presenting problem" t h a t was unique. Emphasis was l a i d on the warm, s u s t a i n i n g r o l e o f the worker which, i t was f e l t , should supply the d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the g i r l ' s own mother. To t h i s view has l a t e l y been added the 2  c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the worker has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a s s i s t the unmarried mother i n coming t o a d e c i s i o n : that she should not l e t t h e g i r l flounder i n an e f f o r t to make h e r own judgments, but should s u s t a i n and r e - l n f o r c e those which are healthy. A recent method of care, developed- w i t h i n the f i e l d of casework, i s the use of supervised p r i v a t e work homes where the mother may go p r i o r t o confinement.  L i k e other approaches,  t h i s cannot be used as a "blanket s o l u t i o n " ; i t must depend on the i n d i v i d u a l g i r l .  Many g i r l s who cannot accept t h e regiment-  a t i o n o f a M a t e r n i t y Home, respond w e l l i n the p r i v a t e home. 1 "Case Work Services f o r Unmarried Mothers" (the r e p o r t o f a Seminar o f S t . Louis C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y and the S t . L o u i s Provident A s s o c i a t i o n ) , The Famiily. Nov., 1941. 2 Babette Black: "The Unmarried M o t h e r — I s She D i f f e r e n t ? " , The Family. J u l y , 1945, p. 168.,  11. Of course, much depends on the g i r l and even more on the character and m a t u r i t y o f her employer. Some communities have developed as a resource the l i c e n s e d p r i v a t e boarding home f o r c h i l d r e n , which makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e unmarried mother t o leave her c h i l d . i n good care while she goes out to work.  These  homes, t o o , have t o be c a r e f u l l y screened, as j e a l o u s i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s are l i a b l e t o a r i s e between the n a t u r a l mother and the f o s t e r mother over the care o f the c h i l d .  I t i s interest-  i n g to read i n a recent B r i t i s h report on the subject t h a t , "homes f o r unmarried mothers and t h e i r babies from which the mother can go out t o work" are advocated.!  The report goes on  to say "such homes might w e l l be s u i t a b l e f o r widowed o r d e s e r t ed mothers as w e l l as f o r unmarried mothers and would help t o make the c h i l d born out o f wedlock l e s s conspicuous since he would be merely one o f the other f a t h e r l e s s c h i l d r e n " .  A type  of home has a c t u a l l y been e s t a b l i s h e d i n Russia, which i s somewhat l i k e the o l d maternity home, but which i s intended f o r unmarried mothers and widows'' "who may remain with t h e i r c h i l d r e n f o r three months before, and three months a f t e r c h i l d birth".  2  I t i s a f a r ery from the days of the o l d foundling home, where t h e mother t h r u s t her baby over the t h r e s h o l d and f l e d t o preserve her anonymity, t o the present era o f persona l i z e d casework s e r v i c e f o r the unmarried mother.  Nowadays i t  1 " B r i t i s h Report on C h i l d r e n Born out of Wedlock", The C h i l d , Sept. 1945, V o l . 10, No. 3. 2 Anna K a l e t Smith: "Recent Developments i n Maternal C h i l d Health Work i n the U.S.S.R.*, The C h i l d . A p r i l 1946, V o l . 10,No.l0.  12.  i s f e l t t h a t there i s no "blanket" care f o r the c h i l d o r i t s mother.  Instead, the s o c i a l worker, w i t h the co-operation o f  the mother, assesses each i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n and makes use of whatever community resources seem i n d i c a t e d .  Perhaps i t i s  a p r i v a t e work home t h a t i s r e q u i r e d , where the unmarried mother may share t o some extent i n the f a m i l y l i f e :  o r , again,  the s h e l t e r e d care of the maternity home may best be s u i t e d t o her needs.  L a t e r on, p u b l i c funds may a s s i s t the mother t o  maintain her c h i l d I f she so d e s i r e s , o r she may wish t o make use o f the day nursery o r boarding home t o care f o r her c h i l d w h i l e she works t o maintain i t .  I f the g i r l decides t h a t she  does not wish t o keep h e r c h i l d , the s k i l l e d s o c i a l worker a s s i s t s her w i t h adoption home, o r f o s t e r home placement as the case may be.  However, there i s s t i l l much f o r which t o aim.  Some o f the goals t o which people should be s t r i v i n g f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f the unmarried mother and h e r c h i l d have been defined.  F i r s t , i t i s now g e n e r a l l y recognized t h a t a l l  c h i l d r e n should be issued a " s h o r t " b i r t h c e r t i f i c a t e , c o n t a i n i n g only the name, date and p l a c e o f b i r t h , Instead o f one g i v i n g a l l the d e t a i l s o f b i r t h and parentage.  This would do  much t o prevent the i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d from being "set a p a r t " from other c h i l d r e n .  Again, though so f a r public, o p i n i o n has  continued, f o r the most p a r t , t o censure the mother and hold her responsible f o r the care and support o f h e r c h i l d , the f e e l i n g i s becoming more prevalent that a man should be considered e q u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s c h i l d r e n , whether they be born i n o r out o f wedlock.  Therefore the law should contain  13.  p r o v i s i o n f o r e i t h e r the unmarried mother o r the s t a t e t o take l e g a l a c t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h p a t e r n i t y f o r the c h i l d .  Once  p a t e r n i t y i s e s t a b l i s h e d , the c h i l d should have the r i g h t t o the f a t h e r s name and have t h e same i n h e r i t a n c e r i g h t s from 1  him as a l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d .  However, the establishment o f  p a t e r n i t y does not l e g i t i m i z e a c h i l d ; and there i s a l s o need f o r p r o v i s i o n t h a t i f the parents subsequently marry, the c h i l d a u t o m a t i c a l l y becomes l e g i t i m i z e d . I t i s a l s o b e l i e v e d by C h i l d Welfare a u t h o r i t i e s , t h a t the s t a t e should have some c o n t r o l over the unmarried mother, so t h a t she cannot place her c h i l d i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y , and that the court should have continuing j u r i s d i c t i o n during the m i n o r i t y o f the c h i l d both o f custody and support.  F i n a l l y , there would seem t o be evidence  that casework with the mother h e r s e l f i s o f t e n broken o f f too abruptly; i t would appear that she i s i n need o f as much support and guidance f o r a considerable period a f t e r the b i r t h of the c h i l d , as she i s before i t . I t seems i n e v i t a b l e , since marriage i s the recognized s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h i n which to r e a r a c h i l d , that the unmarried mother and her c h i l d w i l l always have t o bear c e r t a i n handicaps:  at t h e l e a s t , that of nonconformity; a t the worst,  a c r i p p l i n g s o c i a l stigma.  The f a c t remains t h a t j u s t l e g i s -  l a t i o n , as o u t l i n e d above, complemented by enlightened p u b l i c o p i n i o n , can do much t o give the unmarried mother and her c h i l d the chance f o r the happy, u s e f u l l i f e which i s the r i g h t of every i n d i v i d u a l .  14* Chapter 2. The Causes. " I n general, those ideas which are s t i l l almost u n i v e r s a l l y accepted i n regard t o man's nature, h i s proper conduct and h i s r e l a t i o n s t o God and h i s f e l l o w s , are f a r more ancient, and f a r l e s s c r i t i c a l , than those which have t o do w i t h the movement o f the s t a r s , t h e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e rocks, and the l i f e o f p l a n t s and animals." (James Harvey Robinson: The Mind i n the Making. Chapter 6, p. 7.). There was no t h e o r i z i n g a t one time as t o the causes of unmarried motherhood.  Under the i n f l u e n c e o f C h r i s t i a n  t h i n k i n g , i t was taken f o r granted that u n c h a s t i t y was a l l due to " o r i g i n a l s i n " . As long as people were dogmatically convinced o f t h i s and o f the n e c e s s i t y f o r e n f o r c i n g " r i g h t " standards o f l i v i n g , there were no doubts i n t h e i r minds t o state t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n s . As has been noted, i t was only I n the general s o c i a l awakening o f the nineteenth century that people began t o decry the customary a t t i t u d e t o t h e unmarried mother as " u n c h r i s t i a n " . Then followed the period when e f f o r t s were made t o redeem the unmarried mother as a " g a l l o n " woman. These e f f o r t s extended, however, only t o t h e f i r s t c h i l d .  The  mother's f i r s t "offence" could be f o r g i v e n , but i f she t r a n s gressed more than once, she was an object of hopeless  depravity.  There was s t i l l no doubt as t o what "oaused" h e r " s i n " . "weakness o f t h e f l e s h " .  I t was  I t was only as s o c i e t y was made aware  of the tremendous s o c i a l costs o f unmarried motherhood I n s u f f e r i n g and i n l i f e i t s e l f , that c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g began t o be f o c u s B d on these o l d i d e a s .  I n a book, Das H a l t e k i n d e r  wesen, published i n B e r l i n i n 1899, one w r i t e r stated h i s bel i e f that t h e average mother of an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d was l e d  15.  .  only by. her emotions, without any c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the f u t u r e , and without the s l i g h t e s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c h i l d ' s welfare.  For t h i s reason he advocated p r o f e s s i o n a l guardians  appointed by the state t o supervise the c h i l d . !  One o f the  f i r s t systematic s t u d i e s o f the mother as a person was made by P.G. Eammerer i n 1918.  From 500 oases of unmarried mothers, he  p a i n s t a k i n g l y analysed the apparent "causes" of each woman* s mis-step.  E x c l u s i v e of cases i n v o l v i n g mental d e f i c i e n c y , he  l i s t e d bad environment, bad companions, r e c r e a t i o n a l disadvantages, educational disadvantages, bad home c o n d i t i o n s , e a r l y sexual experiences,  sexual s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , mental c o n f l i c t ,  h e r e d i t y , a s s a u l t , i n c e s t , and rape, as amongst the causative factors.  He emphasized that none o f the f a c t o r s operated  s i n g l y i n a given case, but that r a t h e r there was a " c l u s t e r " of causes.  2  S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s , another researcher substan-  t i a t e d much o f Hammerer's f i n d i n g but added the  observation  t h a t "Frequently, i f not u s u a l l y , the mother of two i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d r e n i s feeble minded o r otherwise abnormal and therefore i n need o f a s p e c i a l form o f care".^  Another r e p o r t ,  4  published  about t h e same time, stated that none o f the mothers given s e r v i c e had had another c h i l d but that " a l l o f those who have had a second o r t h i r d c h i l d , have been those who were t r y i n g to support t h e i r i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d , whether i t was the  first,  1 C i t e d i n Percy G. Kammerer: The Unmarried Mother, p. 17. 2 Ibid. 3 George G. Mangold: " C h i l d r e n Born out o f Wedlock", U n i v e r s i t y of M i s s o u r i Studies. V o l . 3, No. 3, p. 112, June, 1921. 4 . Miss. Plows-Day: "Reasons f o r Advocating Adoption o f I l l e g i t i m a t e C h i l d r e n " , London Dec. 1920, c i t e d i n A l b e r t a Guibord and Ida Parker, What Becomes o f the Unmarried Mother, Boston Research Bureau on S o c i a l Case Work, 1922, p. 23.  16. second or t h i r d " .  So i t was b e l i e v e d by i n f e r e n c e , that keep-  i n g the c h i l d was a f a c t o r i n r e c i d i v i s m . The Encyclopedia  of S o c i a l Reform, published i n  1910,  casts an i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e - l i g h t on another theory as to the oause of unmarried motherhood.  I n an a r t i c l e on i l l e g i t i m a c y ,  i t l i s t s a l l the f a c t o r s which cannot be proven to cause illegitimacy.  For example, i t s t a t e s that i l l e g i t i m a c y cannot  be due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e l i g i o u s f a i t h , as one C a t h o l i c or Protestant country, as the case may  be, w i l l have a high r a t e  of i l l e g i t i m a c y , while another w i l l have a low one. f i g u r e s are quoted to support t h i s statement.  Census  Again, i t s t a t e s  that i t cannot be due t o crowded conditions i n the c i t y , as o f t e n the r a t e of i l l e g i t i m a c y i s higher i n the country i n large c i t i e s . point.  than  Census f i g u r e s are again quoted t o prove t h i s  F i n a l l y , i t s t a t e s t h a t i l l e g i t i m a c y cannot be due  poverty o r chronic want, as a comparison of s t a t i s t i c s  to  obtained  f o r the years 1901-1905, show that the p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n East End of London i s l e s s a f f e c t e d by i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h than the fashionable West End.  So i t concludes "For the r e a l c a u s e s —  one must look to c e r t a i n h e r e d i t a r y i n f l u e n c e s " . i n t e r e s t i n g but not convincing conclusion.  1  This i s an  Too much weight  has been placed here on simple negative c o r r e l a t i o n s , and  no  attempt has been made to enumerate o r prove the " c e r t a i n h e r e d i t a r y f a c t o r s " t h a t are presumed t o be the cause of i l l e g itimacy. 1 A l b e r t L i f f i n g w e l l : " I l l e g i t i m a c y " , Encyclopedia Reform.  of S o c i a l  17. I f there was one t h i n g that these various studies r e vealed, i t was the f a c t that there are no known c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are p e c u l i a r only t o the g i r l who becomes an unmarried mother.  More and more i t became evident t h a t each g i r l had h e r  own c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f causes, and that t h e apparent f a c t o r s which influenced her i n becoming i l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnant, could appear as e i t h e r very obvious, o r very obscure. Grace Abbott,^  summed up the current t h i n k i n g thus?  "... .. a study (of i l l e g i t i m a c y ) . . . would have involved . . . such personal f a c t o r s i n the unmarried mothers as f e e b l e mindedness, ignorance o f the b i o l o g i c a l f a c t s of l i f e , high sexual s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , l a c k of i n d u s t r i a l p r o f i c i e n c y and p e r s o n a l i t y development . . . .  The i n f l u e n c e o f f a m i l y  standards and i d e a l s , poverty i n the home, and immoral and unsympathetic parents.  Education, e a r l y employment, and the  type of employment . . . .  The pressure o f a s o c i a l l y i n f e r i o r  race, the p o s i t i o n o f women, and the community a t t i t u d e t o p r e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r b e t r o t h a l , would a l s o have been found t o influence t h e i l l e g i t i m a c y r a t e o f a n a t i o n . " One f a c t o r which had appeared with monotonous regu l a r i t y i n the s o c i a l h i s t o r y o f the unmarried mother, was that o f t h e "broken" home. T h i s appeared t o give emphasis t o the .importance of the emotional component of f a m i l y r e l a t i o n ships i n the e a r l y years of childhood  as a determinant o f the  p e r s o n a l i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l . This theory had been taught 1  Grace Abbott:  The C h i l d and the S t a t e . V o l . 2, p. 493.  18. by French and f u r t h e r expounded by F l u g e l .  1  Inconsistency o f  r e s u l t s i n the other studies of the causes o f i l l e g i t i m a c y , brought about a swing to the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the " p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s " i n unmarried motherhood. Kasanin and Handschin,  2  I n a most I n t e r e s t i n g paper  published i n 1941, point out that one a u t h o r i t y as e a r l y as 1927 stated " . . .  approaching the problem (of i l l e g i t i m a c y ) i n  a s c i e n t i f i c way, one at once seeks the causes w i t h i n the individual herself".  This aspect however was not much e l a b o r a t -  ed u n t i l the l a t e 1930's and e a r l y 1940*s when there grew more and more i n t e r e s t i n t h i s viewpoint. Helene Deutsch and F l o r e n c e C l o t h i e r were notable I n d i s c u s s i o n s of the psycho-dynamics of unmarried motherhood. ant  Miss C l o t h i e r made the f o l l o w i n g t r e n c h -  statement which gives the essence of t h i s school of thought:  "Unmarried motherhood i n our c u l t u r e , represents a d i s t o r t e d and u n r e a l i s t i c way out of inner d i f f i c u l t i e s and i s thus comparable to n e u r o t i c symptoms on the one hand and delinquent behaviour on the o t h e r " .  3  Another w r i t e r goes on to state that i f the " i n n e r d i f f i c u l t i e s " from which the o r i g i n a l pregnancy arose are unresolved o r heightened by motherhood, r e c i d i v i s m may f o l l o w i n a continued attempt t o reduce i n n e r t e n s i o n . ^ 1 J.G. F l u g e l : The Psycho-Analytic Study of t h e Family. Hogarth P r e s s , London, England, 1921. 2 J". Kasanin and S. Handschin: "Psychodynamic F a c t o r s i n I l l e g i t i m a c y " , American J o u r n a l o f Orthopsychiatry. Jan. 1941. 3 Florence C l o t h i e r : " P s y c h o l o g i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f Unmarried Parenthood", American J o u r n a l of Orthopsychiatry, J u l y 1943,p.531. 4 V i o l a Bernard: Psychodynamics of Unmarried Motherhood i n E a r l y Adolescence", The Nervous C h i l d . Oct. 1944, p. 26.  19. Today i t i s accepted more and more that there _Ls no one answer t o t h e cause of i l l e g i t i m a c y .  The viewpoint which  i s becoming g e n e r a l l y acceptable i s simply and c l e a r l y enunciated i n the f o l l o w i n g statement: The cause o f t h e behaviour t h a t n  r e s u l t s i n unmarried motherhood may be f a i r l y simple o r extremel y complex.  Many (mothers) come from underpriviledged homes  of f i n a n c i a l want, crowded housing, l a c k o f wholesome r e c r e a t i o n , family discord.  Many f e e l they never had l o v e and s e c u r i t y  from t h e i r parents.. They have been denied t h i s b i r t h - r i g h t of normal childhood.  Under these c o n d i t i o n s , i l l e g i t i m a t e  pregnancy should not be looked upon merely as a sex experience and a v i o l a t i o n of the moral code o f the community, but as a symptom of behaviour, expressing t h e needs o f the i n d i v i d u a l " . 1 It i s interesting  t o note the g r a d u a l e v o l u t i o n from  the m o r a l i s t i c theory of o r i g i n a l s i n , through the attempt t o s c i e n t i f i c a l l y t a b u l a t e external f a c t o r s t o t h e present day concept t h a t i l l e g i t i m a c y i s merely one presenting form o f a behaviour d i f f i c u l t y on. the p a r t of the i n d i v i d u a l concerned. In the next chapter, t h i s change i n thought i s explored i n more d e t a i l through d i s c u s s i o n of the various s t u d i e s on the unmarried mother.  1 Maud Morlock: "Some Aspects of I l l e g i t i m a c y " , Proceedings of the Canadian Conference on S o c i a l Work. H a l i f a x , 1946.  20. Chapter 3. Attempts to Understand the F a c t s " I t I s unmistakable now, i n contrast t o the e a r l y years of the (present) century, that the main o r i e n t a t i o n of s o c i a l work i s not a u t h o r i t a t i v e and m o r a l i s t i c but s c i e n t i f i c and r e l a t e d t o the modern world." (Bertha Capen Reynolds: Learning and Teaching I n the P r a c t i c e o f S o c i a l Work, p. 20.) While over the years t h e r e was much d i s c u s s i o n r e garding the various aspects of unmarried motherhood, there was r e a l l y no s c i e n t i f i c attempt t o face up t o the s i t u a t i o n and understand i t , u n t i l the beginning o f t h i s century. From 1918 on however, there are d i v e r s studies on the subject, although i t has been p o s s i b l e to l o c a t e only one which d e a l s w i t h r e c i divism i n unmarried mothers.1 the  These s t u d i e s , w h i l e varying i n  i n d i v i d u a l approach, are a l l representative of the changing  casework emphasis of t h i s p e r i o d . The f i r s t study noted i s the one of Percy G. Kammerer which was mentioned p r e v i o u s l y . was twofold.  The emphasis of t h i s study  P r i m a r i l y Kammerer was i n t e r e s t e d i n the causative  f a c t o r s , but he was a l s o concerned with the mother's ship to her c h i l d .  relation-  H i s work was s c h o l a r l y and thorough and was  r e a l l y the f i r s t t o show the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f case s t u d i e s . Three years l a t e r , Mangold made a s o c i o l o g i c a l study o f illegitimacy. the  He devoted some time t o s t u d y i n g the f a t h e r of  c h i l d born out of wedlock, p o i n t i n g out t h a t they had r e -  ceived but scant a t t e n t i o n from the workers.  He cameto the  1 Ruth Riaborg: " P r e d i c t i o n o f R e c i d i v i s m i n Unmarried Mothers", Smith College S t u d i e s of S o c i a l Work. 1943.  31, i n t e r e s t i n g c o n c l u s i o n that the m e n t a l i t y of the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r i s d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r than that of the mother.  T h i s was  not c o n c l u s i v e l y proven, but drawn as a c o r o l l a r y t o h i s s t a t e ment that " I t i s not probable t h a t very many are feeble minded as the subnormal male I s more l i k e l y to use v i o l e n c e and come to g r i e f " .  1  He l a t e r mentioned t h a t " f r e q u e n t l y , i f not  u s u a l l y , the mother o f two (or more) i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d r e n i s feeble minded o r otherwise abnormal and t h e r e f o r e i n need o f a s p e c i a l form of c a r e " .  2  In a study made a year l a t e r , the emphasis i s d i f f e r e n t , and attempt being made to d i s c o v e r the outcome of unmarried motherhood.  Dr. Guibord, a p s y c h i a t r i s t at the  Church Home S o c i e t y , Boston, Mass., and Ida P a r k e r , the a s s o c i a t e d i r e c t o r of the Boston Research Bureau on S o c i a l Case Work, studied the cases of 82 unmarried mothers. d i v i d e d t h e i r work i n t o two p a r t s .  3  They  The f i r s t consisted of an  i n i t i a l study o f the mothers, comprising a s o c i a l h i s t o r y p l u s a mental examination.  The second, a follow-up study, s c r u t i n -  i z e d f i r s t the treatment given the mothers by s o c i a l agencies (I.e.  casework), and next t h e i r h i s t o r i e s subsequent to care  by the agencies. At t h i s time, caseworkers were d i v i d e d as to whether or not the mother should keep her baby.  Some argued i t was  the mother's duty to do so, and r e l i e d on the maternal i n s t i n c t 1 George B. Mangold: "Children Born Out of Wedlock", U n i v e r s i t y of M i s s o u r i S t u d i e s . V o l . 3, No. 3, 1921. 2 Loco c i t . 3 What Becomes of the Unmarried Mother. Research Bureau of S o c i a l Case Work, Boston, Mass., 1922.  22. to develop and strengthen her character. Others maintained permanent s e p a r a t i o n removed the stigma o f i l l e g i t i m a c y from the c h i l d and gave the mother a chance t o " l i v e down" her mistake.  The authors o f t h i s study t h e r e f o r e attempted t o see  which mothers kept t h e i r c h i l d r e n and which gave them pp, w i t h a view t o determining the ones t h a t made the best s o c i a l a d j u s t ment.  They concluded that the theory t h a t keeping the c h i l d  " s t a b a l i z e s the mother" was not n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e , since among the group who kept t h e i r c h i l d r e n , more than one quarter hade i l l i c i t sex r e l a t i o n s .  Almost one quarter o f the t o t a l cases  studied were repeaters, and cases occurred w i t h equal incidence amongst the mothers who kept the c h i l d and those who gave i t up. Their general conclusion was t h a t , since l e s s than one f i f t h o f the group occupied a s o c i a l p o s i t i o n worse than a t the time o f motherhood, "motherhood without marriage, f o r t h i s group a t l e a s t , had a more d i s a s t r o u s import f o r s o c i e t y than f o r the mother h e r s e l f " . Some o f the studies made i n the l a t e 1930's and e a r l y 1940's show the d i r e c t movement away from l o o k i n g f o r causes i n the environment, t o looking f o r them i n the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the girl.  A p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g one was made by L a u r e t t a  Bender and Ruth Nottingham i n 1937.  1  T h i s a p p l i e d t o 40 un-  married pregnant g i r l s who were r e s i d e n t s o f a Florence C r i t t e n t o n "Rescue Home", i n Columbia, Ohio.  Each g i r l was  1 L a u r e t t a Bender and Ruth Nottingham: "A P s y c h o l o g i c a l Study of 40 Unmarried Mothers", Genetic Psychology Monograph. May, 1937, V o l . 19, No. 2. .  23. given a set of t e s t s about one week a f t e r her admission t o the Home, the purpose of the t e s t s being two-fold.  I t was  attempt-  ed to g a i n a complete p i c t u r e of the g i r l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y ; and the same time to assess her c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r future training.  I t was  at  vocational  hoped that some of the t e s t s would show r e -  s u l t s that were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r t h i s group and thms "have prognostic value i n s e l e c t i n g the g i r l who t h i s type of delinquency".  had tendencies toward  But the hope that personal character-  i s t i c s p e c u l i a r to t h i s group would be found was The  not  realized.  reports f o r i n d i v i d u a l g i r l s , however, were of p r a c t i c a l  value, and a s s i s t e d the court i n making b e t t e r d i s p o s i t i o n of some cases which came under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n , They were a l s o able to r e - a f f i r m that the broken home and the u n s k i l l e d occupation were notable and  recurring correlations i n t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r type of delinquency, but that there was of c e r t a i n separate p e r s o n a l i t y  no evidence  traits.  Another study that endeavoured to assess p a r t i c u l a r personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the unmarried mother, was of a t h e s i s by Ruth Rome.! _ i f there was  n  the  basis  t h i s an attempt was made to  see  any c o r r e l a t i o n between c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of the mother and her d e c i s i o n regarding her c h i l d . c l u s i o n reached was  that she was  The  con-  best f i t t e d to keep her c h i l d  i f she seemed a " w e l l - a d j u s t e d " person, i f she had had a love r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the f a t h e r of her c h i l d , i f she expected to marry him,  or i f she had a " f a i r l y mature" a t t i t u d e t o her  state.  1 Ruth Rome: "A Method of P r e d i c t i n g the Probable D i s p o s i t i o n of t h e i r C h i l d r e n by Unmarried Mothers", Smith College Studies of S o c i a l Work, Aug., 1939.  24. I n a study made i n the f o l l o w i n g year, Kasanin and Handschin pointed out the i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f r e s u l t s shown I n many studies o f the unmarried mother and questioned whether there was any way o f p r o v i n g i f the f a c t o r s which occurred so f r e q u e n t l y , f o r example, the broken home, bad companions, et cetera, were causative o r merely c o n t r i b u t i v e .  1  They i s o l a t e d ,  as f a r as p o s s i b l e , the p s y c h o l o g i c a l problem o r the " p e c u l i a r personal equation" o f the g i r l h e r s e l f .  F o r t h i s purpose, they  made a c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f 20 cases, making sure t o exclude the feeble-minded, b o r d e r l i n e , o r psychotic and t h o s e . f o r whom there seemed to be no "outer r e a l i t y " reasons t o account f o r t h e i r behaviour.  The group s e l e c t e d included a l l cases o f  m u l t i p l e i l l e g i t i m a c y and a random sample o f s i n g l e I l l e g i t i m a c y cases.  T h e i r study was centered around the g i r l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p  to h e r c h i l d , t o the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r and t o h e r f a m i l y . I n 81 percent they noted a " f l a t t e n e d e f f e c t " , a bland  acceptance  of pregnancy, b r i e f unstable r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r , and no d e s i r e t o have anything more t o do w i t h him.  The  girls.showed a great deal o f f a n t a s y and the need t o "act out" and dramatize.  Kasanin and Handschin t h e r e f o r e put f o r t h the  hypothesis t h a t "Pregnancy i n t h e i r case represented a h y s t e r i c a l d i s - a s s o o i a t i o n s t a t e i n which they acted out t h e i r i n c e s t f a n t a s i e s as an expression o f the Oedipus s i t u a t i o n " . One small but I n t e n s i v e study has been made by Jane 1 M.D. Kasanin and S. Handschin: Psychodynamic Factors i n I l l e g i t i m a c y " , American Journal o f Orthopsychiatry. Jan.,1941.  25. S. Hosmer i n an attempt t o a r r i v e a t a formula f o r p r e d i c t i n g the probable outcome o f a mother's plan t o keep h e r c h i l d .  In  a case-study o f 26 unmarried mothers who r e t a i n e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n , she r e - a f f i r m s the f i n d i n g s of Ruth Rome and concludes t h a t : " I t would seem t h a t judgments about the l i k e l i h o o d o f success i n the plan o f keeping an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d and mother together should be based on . . . the g i r l ' s personal adjustment p r i o r to pregnancy, the p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h i n e s s of her home cond i t i o n s , and the degree o f m a t u r i t y i n her a t t i t u d e t o h e r pregnancy".^ I n 1943, Ruth Riaborg studied comparative groups o f r e c i d i v i s t s and n o n - r e c i d i v i s t s , choosing mothers who were n e i t h e r feeble-minded nor psychotic and who had been know t o the Agency during t h e i r f i r s t pregnancy.  2  She concludes  a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f r e c i d i v i s t s have an extremely  that  casual  r e l a t i o n w i t h the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r and l a c k emotional concern about t h e i r pregnancy.  She a l s o concludes, that i n the e n t i r e  group o f r e c i d i v i s t s studied only three g i r l s had lacked i n i t i a l casework treatment  i n the agency and t h a t i n the remainder,  t h e i r problems had been too deep-seated f o r such treatment. I n a study d i r e c t e d t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s , Florence C l o t h i e r has discussed the r o l e s that three adolescent f a n t a s i e s , rape, p r o s t i t u t i o n and immaculate conception, may p l a y i n producing i l l e g i t i m a c y .  She prefaced h e r study by a d i s c u s s i o n  1 June S. Hosmer: "Unmarried Mothers Who Kept Their C h i l d r e n " , Smith College Studies of S o c i a l Work. 1941. 2 Ruth Riaborg: " P r e d i c t i o n o f R e c i d i v i s m o f Unmarried Mothers", Smith College Studies of S o c i a l Work. 1943. .  26. of the normal r o l e o f motherhood and fatherhood  i n an i n d i v i d u a l ,  and suggested that normally, motherhood was a gateway to maturi t y i n a woman. The f o l l o w i n g i s a d i r e c t quotation:  "Marriage  and motherhood per se do not n e c e s s a r i l y lead t o a happy s o l u t i o n o f a woman's childhood and adolescent  conflicts . . . .  Being loved e x c l u s i v e l y by the husband and bearing a baby by him however, have inherent i n them, the most d i r e c t s o l u t i o n of i n f a n t i l e c o n f l i c t s which c o n s t i t u t e the neuroses o f adult women . . . and have the p o s s i b i l i t y . . . o f b r i n g i n g her t o a satisfying l i f e goal."  1  She argues t h a t , on the other hand, p a t e r n i t y has quite a d i f f e r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l value f o r a man as p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y h i s i n d i v i d u a l l i f e i s complete whether o r not h i s sexual a c t i v i t y leads t o the b i r t h o f c h i l d r e n .  2  Unmarried mother-  hood, t o her way of t h i n k i n g , solves no c o n f l i c t w i t h i n t h e mother and produces more complications f o r her. married fatherhood  Nor i s un-  conducive, as i s marriage, t o the develop-  ment of warm f a t h e r l y f e e l i n g s f o r the c h i l d .  She concludes  with the view p r e v i o u s l y mentioned that "Unmarried motherhood . . . i s comparable . . . on the one hand t o n e u r o t i c symptoms, and on the other, t o delinquent behaviour". The f i n a l study warrants p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n , cons i d e r i n g as i t does the g i r l who i s a t the very t h r e s h o l d o f woman hood.  I t p i c k s up C l o t h i e r ' s conclusion and t e s t s I t on  1 Florence C l o t h i e r : " P s y c h o l o g i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f Unmarried Parenthood" (New England Home f o r L i t t l e Wanderers), American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. J u l y , 1943, p. 531. 2 loc. c i t .  27. a very small number of unmarried mothers.  These g i r l s were  a l l young, none being o l d e r than 16 years of age.  They were  not psychotic or mentally d e f i c i e n t but had a l l come t o the a t t e n t i o n of a p s y c h i a t r i s t .  Predisposing, p r e c i p i t a t i n g  and  e x c i t i n g causes of the i l l e g i t i m a t e pregnancies were studied. The major predisposing cause was  stated to be inadequate  p a r e n t a l care which was conducive to excess anxiety and ed ego growth.  P r e c i p i t a t i n g causes were believed t o be  impairrecent  p u b e r t a l maturation o r any recent trauma that struck at the g i r l s ' s e c u r i t y , self-esteem o r s e x u a l i t y .  E x c i t i n g causes  might be environmental o p p o r t u n i t i e s and pressures such as might occur during wartime.^  1 VJotika Bernard: "Psychodynamics of Unmarried Motherhood i n E a r l y Adolescence", The Nervous C h i l d , Oct., 1944, p. 44.  Part I I .  Chapter  4.  The Current S i t u a t i o n .  Chapter  5.  The F a c i l i t i e s .  Chapter  6.  Casework Concepts.  28. Chapter  4.  The Current S i t u a t i o n . "So l i t t l e done, so much t o do." of C e c i l Rhodes.)  (A famous remark  The m a t e r i a l o u t l i n e d i n the previous chapters throws i n t o r e l i e f the current s i t u a t i o n i n Canada; the problems of the unmarried mother have never been adequately met, and on the whole they are i n c r e a s i n g , even though the r a t i o of i l l e g i t i m a t e l i v e b i r t h s to the t o t a l number of l i v e b i r t h s i t s e l f has not risen. I n 1946 the United States Census reported approximatel y 83,000 i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s .  1  T h i s f i g u r e i s an underestimate  of t h e t o t a l number of such b i r t h s because a l l s t a t e s do not have uniform r e g i s t r a t i o n .  I n Canada, there were approximate-  l y 13,000 i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s i n 1945, which was approximately 4.48% of the t o t a l number o f l i v e b i r t h s .  I n B r i t i s h Columbia,  there were 1,121 i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s r e g i s t e r e d or.5.9% o f t h e t o t a l number of l i v e b i r t h s f o r the province.  I n 1946, 40  per cent of the new cases r e f e r r e d t o t h e Yancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y were r e f e r r e d f o r s e r v i c e because of i l l e g i t i m a c y , and, i n a l l , 700 unmarried mothers received casewwrk s e r v i e e during t h a t year.  There are no s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e regarding  the percentage o f r e c i d i v i s t s as t h i s f a c t o r has never been s p e c i f i c a l l y i s o l a t e d by the S o c i e t y .  From these f i g u r e s , i t  can be seen that the task of p r o v i d i n g adequate s o c i a l as w e l l as medical s e r v i c e s f o r the unmarried mother i n Caaada, con1 U.S. C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau P u b l i c a t i o n No. 310, A p r i l 1945. 2 Canada Year Book. 1946.  29. s t i t u t e s a major problem.  P a r t i c u l a r l y i s t h i s so i n view of  the shortage of q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers.^ O r i g i n a l l y , no s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n at a l l was made f o r the unmarried mother i n Canada.  Welfare work had begun w i t h  the oare of the most needy, the Maritimes reproducing the pattern of the New  England s t a t e s and the e a r l y E n g l i s h poor  law i n s t i t u t i o n s already r e f e r r e d t o . e s t a b l i s h e d i n H a l i f a x i n 1752,  The f i r s t almshouse  f o r the care of the  indigent,  aged and i n f i r m , and the unmarried mother, i f necessary, also housed t h e r e i n .  was  was  Indeed, she and her c h i l d continued to  be cared f o r i n such i n s t i t u t i o n s u n t i l w e l l i n t o the nineteent h century. Conditions were s i m i l a r throughout Eastern Canada before Confederation.  By the B r i t i s h North America Act  (1867),  the laws governing c i v i l r e l a t i o n s and the s t a t u s , guardianship and p r o t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n , were placed almost e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n .  2  As a r e s u l t , "there are  nine sets of laws, r e g u l a t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s dealing w i t h the care and p r o t e c t i o n of unmarried mothers and  children.  These  laws range from good to bad, depending on the wealth, t r a d i t i o n s , customs and a t t i t u d e s of the c i t i z e n s of the province concerned? 1 According to the S o c i a l W o r k e r ( o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n of ..the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers), there were only 846 of t h e i r members known to be employed i n Canada and only p a r t of these workers dealt w i t h f a m i l y and c h i l d welfare. (Dec.1947.). 2 L e g i s l a t i o n of Canada and HerPProvinces A f f e c t i n g the Status and P r o t e c t i o n of the C h i l d o f Unmarried Parents, Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Pub'h. No. 46, June 1945. 3 Max B r a i t h w a i t e : "Born out of Wedlock", McLean's Magazine-; Nov. 15, 1947, p.16. The number of provinces i s now, of course, ten. The t e x t which f o l l o w s , however, makes no reference to Newfoundland. :  3  30. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to look at some of these p r o v i s i o n s of the various provinces.  Every province acknowledges t h a t  subsequent intermarriage of the parent l e g i t i m i z e s the c h i l d born out of wedlock, but only four provinces (Ontario, A l b e r t a , B r i t i s h Columbia, and New Brunswick) i s s u e " s h o r t " b i r t h c e r t i f i c a t e s to p r o t e c t the c h i l d from the stigma of having " i l l e g i t i m a t e " entered on h i s b i r t h c e r t i f i c a t e .  There i s no  b a r r i e r i n any province, only long years of custom, t o prevent the i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d from assuming i t s f a t h e r ' s name, prov i d i n g p a t e r n i t y has been e s t a b l i s h e d .  I n o n l y f i v e provinces  i s equal guardianship r i g h t s of parents recognized.  In s i x  provinces, the i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d i n h e r i t s from i t s mother as i f l e g i t i m a t e , and I n a l l provinces except Quebec, the mother may  i n h e r i t from t h e . c h i l d born out of wedlock.  In only four  provinces i s maintenance f o r the unmarried mother and her c h i l d p o s s i b l e ( i n c e r t a i n circumstances) under t h e Mother's Allowance Legislation.  In a l l provinces, the mother may  seek an a f f i l i a -  t i o n order from the Court. Throughout Canada, h o s p i t a l s e r v i c e s are a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l unmarried mothers on a p r i v a t e o r " s t a f f bass.is", the h o s p i t a l s i n t u r n being s u b s i d i z e d by an " i n d i g e n t grant" from the p r o v i n c e .  1  There are a l s o , throughout the country,  numerous maternity homes, c h i l d r e n ' s homes and adoption centres organized under p r i v a t e or r e l i g i o u s auspices.  I n most of the  l a r g e r c i t i e s , p r i v a t e agencies provide casework s e r v i c e s to 1 B y . " s t a f f p a t i e n t " i s meant one who weceives f r e e s e r v i c e i n the p u b l i c ward of a h o s p i t a l .  31. the unmarried mother.  Each province has a C h i l d r e n ' s P r o t e c t i o n  A c t , and i n n e a r l y a l l the provinces, Children's A i d S o c i e t i e s have been organized under the Acts and render p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s t o the unmarried mother and c h i l d . ever, there i s a great v a r i a t i o n .  Here again, how-  P o r example i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, there are o n l y three such s o c i e t i e s . none, and Ontario has f o r t y - s i x .  A l b e r t a has  Each province has a Depart-  ment o f Welfare o r i t s equivalent, and these take over t h e work where there are no Children's A i d S o c i e t i e s . I f the unmarried mother decides t o g i v e up her c h i l d , i t may be placed f o r adoption, o r , i f t h i s i s not a d v i s a b l e , made a ward o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o r the p r o v i n c i a l government.  U s u a l l y the c h i l d i s then placed i n a supervised  f o s t e r home; but i n Quebec, the p r a c t i c e i s s t i l l t o place these c h i l d r e n i n l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s . ^ Thus i t i s seen that there i s wide divergence i n the q u a l i t y o f the casework s e r v i c e o f f e r e d i n Canada t o t h e unmarried mother and h e r c h i l d .  This i s due i n p a r t t o the  varying laws i n the province, t o the extent of the t e r r i t o r y to be covered, and t o the s m a l l number o f q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers.  The general trend o f casework throughout the Dominion,  however, i s becoming more homogeneous i n that i t s o r i e n t a t i o n i s f o l l o w i n g c l o s e l y t h a t t»f the United S t a t e s , and i n t h i s area, the two countries have an almost uniform approach. 1 According t o B r a i t h w a i t e , i n the Y o u v i l l e Creche, near Montreal, there are some 700 c h i l d r e n , most o f whom a r e i l l e g i t i m a t e and under f i v e years o f age.  32. . I n B r i t i s h Columbia, l e g a l p r o v i s i o n f o r the unmarried mother and h e r c h i l d i s contained p r i m a r i l y I n f o u r s t a t u t e s : the C h i l d r e n o f Unmarried Parents A c t , the P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t , the L e g i t i m a t i o n A c t , and the Equal Guardianship of I n f a n t s A c t . The Unmarried Parents Act makes p r o v i s i o n t h a t a l l i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s must be reported t o the Superintendent o f of C h i l d Welfare who then through the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s o n , or by d e l e g a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y to a C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , o f f e r s casework services t o the unmarried mother.  The A c t  gives the p r i v i l e g e o f i n i t i a t i n g a c t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h paterni t y t o the mother, her next f r i e n d , o r guardian, the guardian of the c h i l d o r the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare.  Provision  i s made f o r an agreement out of court., F o r the mother's prot e c t i o n , the Superintendent of Child.Welfare must be made a p a r t y to t h i s agreement.  Use i s made o f the P r o t e c t i o n o f  C h i l d r e n A c t , p r i m a r i l y i n those cases i n which, f o r s o c i a l reasons, the unmarried mother wishes t o give up h e r c h i l d . Then evidence can be brought forward t o show t h a t the mother i s "not capable" of g i v i n g the c h i l d proper care:  the e h i l d ,  hence being i n need o f p r o t e c t i o n , i s made a ward o f the Children's A i d , o r of the Superintendent o f C h i l d Welfare as the case may be.  I n t h i s Instance, p r o v i s i o n f o r maintenance  of the c h i l d i s a l s o made by the Act and i s determined by the residence o f the mother.  I n many i n s t a n c e s , the determination  of residence i s long and i n v o l v e d , and m a t e r i a l l y hampers e f f e c t i v e placement o f the c h i l d i n question.  33. The L e g i t i m a t i o n Act provides f o r l e g i t i m a t i o n of the c h i l d born out o f wedlock by the subsequent inter-marriage o f i t s parents, and the Equal Guardianship o f I n f a n t s A c t provides that both parents share e q u a l l y i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f parenthood and have equal r i g h t s o f guardianship. „If the unmarried mother keeps her c h i l d , and i s judged unable to work, she may o b t a i n s o c i a l allowance, o r i f she l i v e d w i t h the c h i l d ' s f a t h e r i n the mistaken b e l i e f that she was married'to him, she may r e c e i v e Mother's Allowance.  I n any .  case, she w i l l r e c e i v e the f e d e r a l Family Allowance f o r her c h i l d i n the same way as any other mother. The S o c i a l Welfare Branch o f the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Health and Welfare operates throughout the f i v e regions of the province, and s o c i a l workers are empowered through the Superintendent o f C h i l d Welfare t o o f f e r t h e i r s e r v i c e s t o the unmarried mother.  These comprise casework s e r v i c e and any  l e g a l a s s i s t a n c e she may r e q u i r e .  S e r v i c e may a l s o e n t a i l  f o s t e r home care, adoption placement, o r wardship f o r the c h i l d , as the case may be. I n Vancouver, the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare delegates a u t h o r i t y to the two C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t i e s ( C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t ) , who are then empowered t o render p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s under the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n A c t .  In  the year 1946, the Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y rendered casework s e r v i c e t o 700 unmarried.  F o r t y per cent of the new  cases.referred to i t during that year came t o i t because of illegitimacy.  The scope o f the problem had increased from the  34. 300 unmarried mothers who received s e r v i c e s i n 1939, to the 700 who received them i n 1946.  I n view of the mounting case l e a d ,  workers were becoming more and more concerned as to the q u a l i t y of the casework s e r v i c e they were g i v i n g to the unmarried mother. With t h i s question i n mind, i t was o r i g i n a l l y planned to study the case h i s t o r i e s of unmarried mothers known to the Vancouver Children's A i d S o c i e t y d u r i n g 1946 w i t h a view to d e l i n e a t i n g and r e f i n i n g the casework techniques i n v o l v e d t h e r e in.  However, from a p r e l i m i n a r y review of a sampling o f these  cases, i t soon became evident that the recording (due t o l a r g e case loads and r e s u l t a n t pressure o f work) was too synopsized t o provide s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l s of the required casework processes. I n the b e l i e f that the more conspicuous and intense cases would meet the o b j e c t i v e of the study, i t was then decided t o examine the case h i s t o r i e s of the r e c i d i v i s t s among the unmarried mothers l i s t e d .  A s s i s t a n c e was gained at t h i s p o i n t from a  l i s t of "repeaters" obtained by a v o l u n t e e r worker, from a survey made of new admissions i n 1946.1 These records were much more f u l l y recorded, Including, i n may i n s t a n c e s , complete s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s prepared f o r the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c .  The C h i l d r e n ' s  A i d S o c i e t y was i n t e r e s t e d i n a study o f r e c i d i v i s m because of the question which i t r a i s e d , among others, of the e f f i c a c y of the casework contacts, and t h i s was an added reason f o r f o l l o w i n g up t h i s l i n e of i n q u i r y .  1  Mrs. R. Johnston (C.A.S. v o l u n t e e r ) , unpublished survey.  35 Chapter The  5.  Facilities.  I n consequence of p u b l i c a g i t a t i o n f o r some p r o t e c t i o n of young c h i l d r e n , the L e g i s l a t u r e of the Province o f B r i t i s h Colujnbia i n 1901 passed the Children's P r o t e c t i o n Act, and  on  J u l y 17th of the same year, the Vancouver Children's A i d S o c i e t y was incorporated under the Act.  At the f i r s t annual  meeting, i t was reported 29 c h i l d r e n had already been made over by law to .the care of the S o c i A y . l -Since t h a t time, the work of the S o c i e t y has grown apace w i t h the growth of the C i t y . At present, i n conjunction w i t h the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d S o c i e t y , i t discharges two f u n c t i o n s .  I t f i r s t f u n c t i o n s as a  p r i v a t e agency, i n which c a p a c i t y i t : 1.  "Offers preventive s e r v i c e s to f a m i l i e s who, f o r v a r i o u s reasons, f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to r e a r t h e i r c h i l d r e n according to accepted minimum standards of c h i l d care.  2.  Provides counsel and guidance and t a n g i b l e a s s i s t ance f o r unmarried mothers who need help persona l l y , and on behalf of t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  3.  Accepts c h i l d r e n f o r adoption and makes adoption placements a f t e r c a r e f u l study.  4.  Accepts c h i l d r e n f o r temporary placement as nonwards and supervises them i n s e l e c t e d f o s t e r homes."  2  Secondly, i t has a u t h o r i t y delegated from the Superintendent  of C h i l d Welfare, t o commit as wards of the  S o c i e t y , c h i l d r e n who are neglected and i n need of p r o t e c t i o n 1 Annual Report of Sept. 30, 1902, pp. 2 Annual Report o f f o r the year ending  the Vancouver Children's A i d S o c i e t y , 8 & 9. the Children's A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver.B.C. Dec. 31, 1947.  .36. as s p e c i f i e d by the P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n Act.  "Since i t s  e a r l i e s t i n c e p t i o n , the S o c i e t y has stressed that "each and every c h i l d s h a l l be d e a l t w i t h i n accordance w i t h i t s i n d i v i d u a l i t y both i n temperament and a d o p t a b i l i t y . . . ."^ However, i t s o r i g i n a l a t t i t u d e t o the unmarried mother was not so f a r - s e e i n g .  An e a r l y r e p o r t  2  reads:  " A p p l i c a t i o n s are being made t o make c h i l d r e n over t o the S o c i e t y , and the request, and sometimes the demand, i s made f o r most unheard o f reasons;  but too o f t e n the request i s made t o  cover up the crime o f b r i n g i n g a c h i l d i n t o the world without a name and permit the mother and the a l l e g e d f a t h e r t o pass through the world as being without a s t a i n upon t h e i r character". Today, however, the S o c i e t y r e a l i z e s that "unmarried mothers are i n urgent need o f wise and understanding a s s i s t a n c e at t h i s c r i t i c a l time o f t h e i r l i v e s , i n order that they may p l a n adequately f o r t h e i r f u t u r e s and f o r the futures o f t h e i r children".  3  The number o f unmarried mothers r e f e r r e d t o the S o c i e t y has been i n c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y each year and i n 1946, a t o t a l o f 700 unmarried mothers were c a r r i e d by the case workers of the S o c i e t y .  Of these perhaps 10% were r e c i d i v i s t s .  Work w i t h the unmarried mother i s c e n t r a l i z e d w i t h i n the Family Work Department o f the S o c i e t y .  Each case worker  operates w i t h i n a s p e c i f i e d area i n the c i t y , and the unmarried mother i s assigned t o the worker i n the area where she l i v e s . Each case worker gives the i l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnant 1 2 3  girl  Annual Report of the Children's A i d S o c i e t y f o r Vancouver, 1903.pJL( Children's A i d S o c i e t y Annual Report. 1912, p.11. Annual Report o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y f o r Vancouver.1947.  3 7 .  .  i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , s e r v i c e , m a k i n g u s e i f n e e d be o f t h e v a r i o u s r e sources which are at h e r d i s p o s a l i n the ers are assigned s p e c i f i c a l l y two P r o t e s t a n t  community.  Two w o r k -  t o g i v e casework s e r v i c e i n  m a t e r n i t y homes i n t h e c i t y ,  the  one o f w h i c h i s  run  b y t h e S a l v a t i o n Army, and t h e o t h e r by t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h o f Canada.  One o f t h e s e w o r k e r s i s a l s o i n c h a r g e o f a l i s t  of  a p p r o v e d w o r k homes, w h e r e u n m a r r i e d m o t h e r s may w o r k u n t i l they are  s e v e n months p r e g n a n t ,  at which time they then  enter  one o f t h e m a t e r n i t y homes. P o l l w w i n g d i s c h a r g e from the h o s p i t a l a f t e r of the  child,  the  birth  t h e m o t h e r may r e t u r n t o t h e m a t e r n i t y home  until  such time as p l a n s a r e completed f o r h e r s e l f and h e r If  child.  t h e u n m a r r i e d m o t h e r d e c i d e s t o k e e p h e r b a b y , s h e may be  r e f e r r e d t o one o f t h e p r i v a t e b o a r d i n g homes w h i c h i s v i s e d by a C h i l d r e n ' s A i d worker. w h i l e she w o r k s .  In this instance,  H e r e she may l e a v e h e r t h e m o t h e r makes  m e n t s p r i v a t e l y w i t h t h e b o a r d i n g home m o t h e r , ance d i r e c t l y t o h e r f o r t h e  child.  super-  Again,  the  child  arrange-  paying maintenc h i l d may be  c a r e d f o r by t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y on a t e m p o r a r y  basis  a s a n o n - w a r d u n t i l t h e m o t h e r i s a b l e h e r s e l f t o make a permanent p l a n .  T h i s p l a n i s now b e i n g u s e d much l e s s  l y t h a n f o r m e r l y , a s a l l t o o ofteB: t h e been c o n t i n u e d i n d e f i n i t e l y ,  frequent  "temporary" plans  to the detriment o f the  have  child  concerned. Should the unmarried mother decide to child,  adoption i s the usual procedure.  worker then arranges  the  g i v e up  The m o t h e r ' s  her  case  d e t a i l s w i t h t h e A d o p t i o n S e c t i o n and  38. describes the proposed home and adoption procedure to t h e mother.  I f adoption i s not p o s s i b l e , the c h i l d can be given  s e c u r i t y by being made a ward o f the S o c i e t y under one of the clauses o f the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n A c t ;  i t may then be  placed e i t h e r on a long-term adoption b a s i s , o r i n a " f r e e " home."'" Resources Used i n Planning.. The P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c was s t a r t e d on J u l y 15, 1932 i n a small house owned by the P r o v i n c i a l Government.  I n the beginning, the c l i n i c was held once a week, f o r  a h a l f day only.  L a t e r i t was increased to twice a week; today  i t i s running s i x days a week to f u l l capacity. The c l i n i c a l s e r v i c e i s t h e combined e f f o r t a f a team c o n s i s t i n g of a p s y c h i a t r i s t , a p s y c h o l o g i s t , two s o c i a l workers, a p u b l i c h e a l t h nurse and stenographic s t a f f . The C i t y S o c i a l Service Department was formed as f a r back as 1896, when the L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women organized a group known as the " f r i e n d l y A i d " t o administer some form o f Poor R e l i e f i n Vancouver.  They gave f i n a n c i a l a i d from p r i v a t e  funds u n t i l 1908 when the C i t y made a grant of f i f t e e n hundred d o l l a r s to them f o r t h e i r work.  I n 1909 the " F r i e n d l y A i d "  merged i n t o a l a r g e r group known as the A s s o c i a t e d C h a r i t i e s , 1 The term "long-term" adoption placement i s used t o describe the placement of c h i l d r e n i n homes where the adoption i s not l e g a l l y completed u n t i l the c h i l d i s o l d enough t o be judged adoptable On i t s development, u s u a l l y a t about two years of age. "Free" home means a home where the c h i l d i s accepted without any remuneration by f o s t e r parents who wish t o consider i t as t r u l y one of the f a m i l y as p o s s i b l e without l e g a l adoption procedure.  39. the C i t y continuing i t s annual grant u n t i l 1912 when t h e y decided to do t h e i r own r e l i e f work.  1  Today the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department i n Vancouver administers the " S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Act".  The purpose o f t h i s  Act i s t o provide f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s s u f f e r i n g from l o s s of income from i l l n e s s , accident, death of the breadwinner, i n f i r m i t y , o r other d i s a b l i n g causes.  Thus, i f the unmarried  mother i s without funds, she i s r e f e r r e d t o one of these o f f i c e s f o r f i n a n c i a l assistance.  A co-operative basis has been worked  out by the C i t y and the Children's A i d workers so that the unmarried mother i s given as much c o n s i d e r a t i o n as p o s s i b l e .  If  the mother does not have residence i n the c i t y , assistance i s granted on a compassionate basis and the charge placed on the responsible m u n i c i p a l i t y .  I n the event that a c h i l d i s deemed  to be a permanent charge, but i s not a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, r e p a t r i a t i o n t o the place of l e g a l residence can be authorized. Maternity Home care i s a v a i l a b l e i n two Homes f o r the Protestant unmarried mother who Children's A i d S o c i e t y .  Maternity  i s known t o the  One of these, the United Church Home,  was begun i n 1913 under the leadership of the l a t e Rev.  J.G.  Shearer, Secretary of the Board of S o c i a l S e r v i c e and Moral Reform of the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church of Canada. take up to twenty g i r l s .  2  The home can  The fee i s f i f t e e n d o l l a r s per month  1 Information from a paper given at the Annual Meeting of the S o c i a l Worker's Club on May 18, 1934 by L i l i a n M. Nelson, forme r l y of the C i t y R e l i e f Department. 2 O r i g i n a l l y two houses were leased on Gladstone Avenue, but In a few months the Home was moved t o Cambie S t r e e t , and t e n years l a t e r to the present s i t e on Sussex Avenue.  40. f o r board and' room, i f the g i r l s can a f f o r d t o pay.  I f not, t h e  care i s f r e e . The Out-patient  g i r l s a r e taken r e g u l a r l y from t h e home to t h e  C l i n i c a t t h e Vancouver General H o s p i t a l .  I n the  home i s a r e s i d e n t r e g i s t e r e d nurse, who i s i n charge o f the nursery,  and a r e s i d e n t matron, a cook, and a gardener.  f e r r a l s u s u a l l y come t o t h e home, through t h e C h i l d r e n ' s S o c i e t y , but may come from any source.  ReAid  I f t h e unmarried mother  does not wish t o see a s o c i a l worker she does not have t o , unl e s s she i s r e q u e s t i n g a d o p t i o n placement o f h e r c h i l d . purpose o f the home i s t o p r o v i d e mother.  s e c l u s i o n and q u i e t f o r the  She has h e r a l l o t t e d t a s k s which a r e performed i n the  morning w i t h a r e s t p e r i o d i n t h e a f t e r n o o n . the home i s r e l i g i o u s and redemptive. before  The  l e a v i n g the b r e a k f a s t  The atmosphere o f  A B i b l e l e s s o n i s read  t a b l e , and t h e r e i s a sing-song o f  hymns and a B i b l e s t o r y a t n i g h t with a mid-week p r a y e r The  service.  g i r l s a r e admitted when they a r e about s i x o r  seven months pregnant, and may r e t u r n t o the home f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h o f the c h i l d u n t i l p l a n s a r e made. ed t o r e l a t i v e s o r one s p e c i a l f r i e n d .  Visiting i s restrict-  F o r a l o n g time t h e  work o f t h e home was c a r r i e d on i n a f r e e - l a n c e f a s h i o n ;  but  w i t h the growth o f t h e S o c i a l A g e n c i e s , t h e home was l i c e n s e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government and i s now i n s p e c t e d The  annually.  o t h e r u n i t i s t h e S a l v a t i o n Army Home.  The  S a l v a t i o n Army i n Canada i s , o f course, p a r t o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o p e r a t i n g p l a c e s o f worship and s o c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n 9 7 d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s and t e r r i t o r i e s i n t h e world.  41.  The major p o r t i o n of the work of the Army i s e v a n g e l i c a l . Founded o r i g i n a l l y f o r the r e l i g i o u s enlightenment of the masses, i t s primary aim i s s t i l l to "proclaim through song, word and deed, the message of the s c r i p t u r e s " .  I t s s o c i a l s e r v i c e work  embraces s h e l t e r h o s t e l s and food depots;  men's i n d u s t r i a l  i n s t i t u t i o n s , employment bureaus, c h i l d r e n ' s homes, maternity homes, and h o s p i t a l s . The S a l v a t i o n Army came f i r s t from V i c t o r i a to Vancouver i n 1886. for g i r l s .  Two  years l a t e r they opened a Rescue Home  The present Maternity Home i s known as the Maywood  Home. I t was o r i g i n a l l y at the s i t e of the o l d Grace H o s p i t a l and run i n conjuhotion w i t h i t . When the new h o s p i t a l was b u i l t , the o l d b u i l d i n g was maintained as a Maternity Home. i s l i c e n s e d f o r a maximum of 26 g i r l s . and do not have much p r i v a c y .  It  The g i r l s share rooms  The atmosphere of the home i s  r e l i g i o u s but not so much so as the United Church Home.  The  g i r l s r i s e by the b e l l , and have a l l o t t e d household tasks t o perform.  There i s a short d e v o t i o n a l s e r v i c e every morning,  and on Wednesday night and Sunday afternoon they have a short meeting. The Home a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r e f e r g i r l s to be admitted at l e a s t two mbnths before the baby i s due, and requires them to stay f o r one month afterwards p h y s i c a l recuperation.  i n order to ensure t h e i r  When the g i r l i s admitted to the Home,  she has to s i g n i f y that she i s w i l l i n g t o use the s e r v i c e s o f a s o c i a l agency, even i f she has made p r i v a t e arrangements f o r the care of her c h i l d .  The g i r l s are taken t o weekly p r e - n a t a l  48. c l i n i c s a t the Grace H o s p i t a l .  The fee f o r the Home i s $15.00  per month and, f o r confinement a t the H o s p i t a l , $40.  However,  i f a g i r l i s unable t o pay, she i s not required to do so. I n the home a nurse i s i n charge o f the nursery, but the g i r l s take turns on nursery duty.  Each g i r l i s r e q u i r e d t o feed h e r  own c h i l d , do i t s own personal washing, and other general d u t i e s . The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d worker i s permitted to i n t e r v i e w the g i r l s p r i v a t e l y and a very workable arrangement seems t o have been evolved between the Home and the Agency.  The c h i e f  d i f f e r e n c e between the two Homes i s that the United Church Home can refuse admission t o a g i r l w i t h decided p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f i c u l t i e s , and has done so on occasion.  The S a l v a t i o n Army Home,  on the other hand, i s o b l i g e d t o take i n any g i r l who comes f o r a s s i s t a n c e and care. The C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n administers the province's c h i l d welfare l e g i s l a t i o n which i n a l l instances i s p r o t e c t i v e i n nature.  I n p a r t i c u l a r , i t i s responsible f o r the a d m i n i s t r -  a t i o n o f the " C h i l d r e n o f Unmarried Parents A c t " .  This provides  that the unmarried mother may l a y a charge against the f a t h e r of the c h i l d i n order to o b t a i n a Court order f o r the support of the c h i l d .  U n t i l 1947, i t was the p o l i c y o f the C h i l d  Welfare D i v i s i o n to i n t e r v i e w p e r s o n a l l y a l l unmarried mothers resident i n Vancouver t o determine p a t e r n i t y and o b t a i n the maintenance f o r the c h i l d .  I t was recognized t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e  was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , and t h a t such information could be obtained much more e a s i l y and n a t u r a l l y by the worker at the C h i l d r e n ' s Aid who was h e l p i n g the mother w i t h plans f o r h e r s e l f and c h i l d .  43. This p r a c t i c e was t h e r e f o r e discontinued i n 1947. W i t h i n the Children's A i d S o c i e t y i t s e l f there are some s p e c i a l i z e d resources.  There i s a small "preventive" fund,  out of which the unmarried mother may be provided w i t h p e t t y cash f o r a temporary p e r i o d .  I f t h e need f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t -  ande i s continuous, r e f e r r a l i s made t o the C i t y f o r s o c i a l allowance.  Sometimes the Agency makes use of work homes f o r  g i r l s who are known to them e a r l y i n pregnancy: these homes are known to the Agency.  about SO o f  The worker i n t e r v i e w s the  would-be employer, but no d e f i n i t e study i s made o f t h e home, nor are references contacted.  The usual wage i s ^10.00 p e r  month and the g i r l s are required t o do l i g h t housework. I f a g i r l wishes t o keep her baby a f t e r b i r t h , she may be r e f e r r e d to a p r i v a t e boarding home.  As o f the end o f  1947, the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d had 113 of these homes.  The homes are  i n v e s t i g a t e d by a Children's A i d worker, who recommends i t t o the C i t y f o r a l i c e n s i n g permit i f she f i n d s i t s u i t a b l e .  The  mother assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a c i n g the c h i l d i n the p r i v a t e boarding home, and a l s o makes the necessary arrangements d i r e c t l y w i t h t h i s home.  financial  The M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h  nurse i s n o t i f i e d a f t e r the mother has placed her child.and supervises the h e a l t h of the home. This C.A.S.  servicerhas"ea^ahdedT^eryirapidly•"'from-'  about SO homes i n 1944 to over a hundred more three years l a t e r . At present the S o c i e t y i s l o o k i n g f o r homes t h a t would enable a working mother t o become part of the c h i l d ' s every-day l i f e i n s t e a d o f an o c c a s i o n a l v i s i t o r as i n the u s u a l arrangement.  44. In a d d i t i o n t o these boardinghomes, there are f o s t e r homes approved by the Agency i n which c h i l d r e n may be placed on a non-ward o r ward basis,, and adoption homes which enable t h e c h i l d to become a permanent p a r t o f a new f a m i l y .  45 Chapter Casework  6.  Concepts.  " S o c i a l casework . . . deals w i t h and depends on (the) r e l a t i o n s h i p s (between c l i e n t and worker) . . . and every e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p contains a nucleus o f therapy." (Helen Hoss and A d e l a i d Johnson: "The Crowing Science o f Casework", The J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Casework. Nov. 1946, p. 274.) I t i s . not so l o n g ago since the term " s o c i a l work" brought, t o mind the p i c t u r e o f the d e s t i t u t e , poor and s i c k who had t o be f e d , clothed and housed, Or the "unfortunate" g i r l who had t o be "redeemed".  Some people may s t i l l r e t a i n  t h i s i d e a , but, g e n e r a l l y speaking, the p u b l i c now accepts t h a t s o c i a l work today i s not concerned merely w i t h the poor and unf o r t u n a t e , but i s a c t i v e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the needs, adjustments and adaptations o f human beings i n t h e i r v a r i o u s l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . As the conception o f the scope o f s o c i a l work has g r a d u a l l y enlarged, so too has the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the p r a c t i c e o f s o c i a l casework.  S o c i a l casework has been very simply defined as t h e  a r t o f helping' people t o help themselves.  As one a u t h o r i t y  p o i n t s out, I t has always been based on the assumption that each person d i f f e r s from others and so i t has always attempted to  help people I n terms o f t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s .  2  However, u n t i l the l a s t f i v e o r ten years, i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r ences i n people have been a t t r i b u t e d l a r g e l y t o the force o f e x t e r n a l circumstances and there was l i t t l e i n s i g h t i n t o the 1 Gordon Hamilton: P r i n c i p l e s o f S o c i a l Case Recording, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1946, p.2. 2 C h a r l o t t e Towle: "Psycho-Analytic O r i e n t a t i o n i n F a m i l y Case Work", American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry, Jan. 1943.  1  46. motivation of human behaviour.  Today, "the case worker i s  educated t o understand not o n l y the e x t e r n a l o b j e c t i v e f a c t s i n a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n but also the person's behaviour toward h i s s i t u a t i o n and h i s f e e l i n g s about himself i n h i s s i t u a t i o n " .  1  As i n s i g h t i n t o the development o f p e r s o n a l i t y and the motivation of human behaviour has increased, the tendency t o c l a s s i f y people according t o t h e i r "presenting problem" i n t o various categories f o r s p e c i a l treatment has diminished.  Thus  i t i s now g e n e r a l l y accepted that casework i n generic, i . e . , i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i s b a s i c to a l l s i t u a t i o n s , and that the unmarried mother does not require any d i f f e r e n t treatment from that accorded any other i n d i v i d u a l i n t r o u b l e , though she may require a greater depth o f treatment. To appreciate how s o c i a l casework f u n c t i o n s , i t must f i r s t be r e a l i z e d that i t i s not a s e r v i c e that i s superimposed on the c l i e n t by the workers.  I t i s a shared e n t e r p r i s e .  2  Thus  i n order t o be of any help, the s o c i a l worker must f i r s t be able t o f o s t e r a c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e r s e l f and her c l i e n t .  I t I s imperative t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p be  e s t a b l i s h e d as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e ;  indeed i t should s t a r t t o  germinate i n the unmarried mother's very f i ^ s t contact w i t h the agency.  As can w e l l be Imagined, t h i s I s much e a s i e r s a i d than  done, and the case worker u s u a l l y f i n d s i t an extremely  difficult  task. . This i s due to the " p e c u l i a r p e r s o n a l i t y " o f these g i r l s . Experience makes i t c l e a r that t h e unmarried mother i s notably a p o o r l y adjusted person and has d i f f i c u l t y  i n her i n t e r p e r s o n -  a l r e l a t i o n s . Sometimes, indeed, the p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e 1 G-ordon Hamilton, l o c . c i t . 2 I b i d .  47. unmarried mother has been so damaged, or she i s so d i s t u r b e d , t h a t she appears to be incapable of d i s p l a y i n g any a f f e c t , and thus apparently i s incapable o f p l a c i n g any confidence i n the worker.  Most commonly, the unmarried mother i s very immature,  w i t h a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n of " g e t t i n g " and "hanging on t o " t h i n g s i n s t e a d of the more adult p a t t e r n of " g i v i n g and t a k i n g " . ! Often she i s s t i l l i n the throes of adolescence, and very jealous of her s o - c a l l e d independence. infantile;  Again, she may be very  demanding i n many ways, and u t t e r l y dependent.  It  i s important to r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s the weaker o r more disturbed g i r l s who come to the agencies.  Of course, there are exceptions,  but u s u a l l y the unmarried mother w i t h a b e t t e r i n t e g r a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y i s able to work out some arrangements f o r t h i s problem without seeking the a s s i s t a n c e of a s o c i a l agency; o r of course, she may avoid pregnancy a l t o g e t h e r by the use of contraceptives, o r by a b o r t i o n s .  2  I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n ship between the worker and the unmarried mother who has "been through a l l t h i s before".  The f e e l i n g s engendered towards the  worker and the agency i n her f i r s t pregnancy are now a l l r e activated.  Some of the comments of workers on the p e r s o n a l i t y  of these g i r l s are s i g n i f i c a n t : g i r l who  "Mother i s a q u i e t , reserved  says very l i t t l e " ; " M . i s s u l k y , w i l f u l , u n t r u t h f u l and  i n c l i n e d to be stubborn and d i f f i c u l t " ; "D. has a v e r y r e t i c e n t 1 "Case-work S e r v i c e f o r Unmarried Mothers": (Report of a Semi n a r of S t . Louis C h i l d r e n ^ A i d S o c i e t y and the St. Louis Provident A s s o c i a t i o n ) , The Family, Nov. 1941. 2 loc. c i t .  48. manner and i s h e s i t a n t about d i s c u s s i n g her a f f a i r s " ;  o r again,  "A. was tense and s e c r e t i v e , and d i d not volunteer information willingly";  "B. i s depressed and moody, but w i t h wide swings  i n mood o f t e n becoming h y s t e r i c a l " .  And so i t goes.  I t must be granted that sometimes i t appears v i r t u a l l y impossible f o r the s o c i a l worker to "get through" to the mother.  However, there are other occasions when the s i t u a t i o n  i s not so hopeless. A confident r e l a t i o n s h i p between the g i r l and the worker can never be forced; but i t can be encouraged. One way t o do t h i s i s t o see t h a t , from the very f i r s t moment of contact, the mother gets the f e e l i n g t h a t the case worker has a "warm" genuine i n t e r e s t i n her and her d i f f i c u l t i e s .  This  can best be expressed by the worker i n doing the n a t u r a l k i n d l y things f o r the c l i e n t , and meeting her at the l e v e l of her f a c t u a l requests.  Too o f t e n i n the past, i n f l u e n c e d by a l l the  s p e c u l a t i o n and i n t e r e s t aroused i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s of unmarried motherhood, the worker, i n mistaken z e a l , has immediately attempted to f i n d out " a l l the f a c t s " .  This  questioning about the g i r l ' s i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p n a t u r a l l y aroused h o s t i l i t y and d i s t r u s t and o f t e n brought f o r t h evasions i n response. Thus we read a worker recording, "Dorothy was i n t e r e s t e d i n d i s c u s s i n g her plans w i t h v i s i t o r , but not anxious t o give information regarding the maternal r e l a t i v e s , o r the f a t h e r of her c h i l d " .  I t i s now r e a l i z e d t h a t , i f the  worker shows genuine warmth and concern f o r the mother's immediate needs, she w i l l be much more l i k e l y t o " r e l a t e " t o the worker, i . e . , to accept her as someone she can t r u s t and i n  49. whom she can confide. This of course i m p l i e s t h a t the worker, as w e l l as the mother, must be f r e e from undue pressure, whether of time, shortage of workers, o r agency p o l i c y .  They both need  to be permitted t o work out t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h each other at t h e i r own pace.  As one w r i t e r phrases i t :  "We must be  s e n s i t i v e to the f o r c e s t h a t press i n upon the g i r l , and must use both imagination and i n t u i t i o n i n our f i r s t contact w i t h her.  I f we are h e s i t a n t or u n c e r t a i n , o r are slow o r f a i l to  respond to the undercurrents or sources of her a n x i e t y , we f a i l to reach her.  may  On the other hand, i f from the beginning,  we l e t her f e e l our understanding of her t e n s i o n and a n x i e t y and our acceptance of her, she w i l l undoubtedly respond, f o r her need i s g r e a t " . ! Sometimes the s o c i a l worker i s a f r a i d to "do too much" f o r her c l i e n t l e s t she f o s t e r dependency and take away the client's initiative.  This a t t i t u d e on the part of a worker can  be very damaging t o the establishment of any " r e l a t i o n s h i p " . Pregnancy normally i m p l i e s a c e r t a i n amount o f dependency; the case worker should be aware of t h i s , and should not be a f r a i d to permit the unmarried mother to be dependent on her. Sympathetic understanding and support may be a l l t h a t i s necessary t o enable the g i r l t o carry on w i t h her plans; though u s u a l l y the worker w i l l have t o take a more a c t i v e r o l e , and l i t e r a l l y emulate the part of the "good" mother i n oaring f o r . her.  The n i c e poi&t i s to handle the s i t u a t i o n so that the  1 M i l d r e d Corner: "Importance of the I n i t i a l I n t e r v i e w w i t h the Unmarried Mother", Developing I n s i g h t i n I n i t i a l Interviews. Family S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n of America, New York, 1947.  50. g i r l i s permitted to shoulder as much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as she can. I t i s r e a d i l y understandable that the e a r l i e r the s o c i a l worker comes i n contact w i t h the unmarried mother, the greater i s the worker's opportunity t o f o s t e r a f e e l i n g of mutual acceptance.  The worker to whom the mother comes i n l a t e  pregnancy i s obviously handicapped i n t h i s regard.  I n the l a t t e r  instance, the worker i s "pressured" by the imminent approach of the c h i l d , and thus sometimes l o s e s s i g h t of the c l i e n t i n her a n x i e t y to have an adequate plan made f o r the c h i l d .  Thus i t  i s apparent that there should be continuous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the community o f the a d v i s a b i l i t y of e a r l y r e f e r r a l of the unmarried mother to the s o c i a l agency. Sometimes i t may be that the deterrent to the establishment of a confident r e l a t i o n s h i p between the worker and mother l i e s p a r t l y i n the p e r s o n a l i t y of the s o c i a l worker as w e l l as that o f the mother.  The unmarried mother i s u s u a l l y h o s t i l e  and wary of women, and the case worker has t o be very aware of her own f e e l i n g s l e s t she h e r s e l f respond t o some of the g i r l ' s l a t e n t h o s t i l i t y , by f e e l i n g h u r t , inadequate or a n t a g o n i s t i c . This of course i m p l i e s that the " r e l a t i o n s h i p " being engendered between the worker and the g i r l i s used i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l manner.  As one a u t h o r i t y says:"(The s o c i a l worker) must be i n  the s i t u a t i o n , but above i t enough to use f o r e s i g h t i n gauging the probable outcome of what she does.  She must watch what she  Is doing enough t o be able t o change I f something I s going wrong.  She must have some n o t i o n o f how her own f e e l i n g s are  complicating the s i t u a t i o n , and be able to make allowance  51. for  them".^  T h i s s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e does not mean that the worker  has her emotions so i n c o n t r o l that she i s a " c o l d " remote person.  On the c o n t r a r y , she must respect her c l i e n t as an  i n d i v i d u a l , and have such aniijgrained sense of "responsible c a r i n g " f o r her, t h a t the mother i s helped towards the best p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n of her d i f f i c u l t i e s . What does the case worker hope t o accomplish a f t e r a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f mutual acceptance and confidence has been b u i l t between h e r s e l f and the unmarried mother? she has t o work w i t h .  That depends on what  I t must be admitted that sometimes t h e  mother i s so disturbed t h a t she i s beyond the helping s k i l l o f the s o c i a l worker.  I f so, i t i s at t h i s p o i n t that i t i s im-  portant f o r the worker t o "take stock" and assess the mother's degree of adjustment t o r e a l i t y .  Clues t o t h i s can be picked  up by c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y o f her mode o f r e a c t i o n t o h e r s i t u a t i o n .  2  Does the mother, f o r example, cover up w i t h a "don't care" a t t i t u d e ; o r does she completely deny the pregnancy?  Does she  p r o j e c t a l l t h e blame, o r l i v e i n a l i t t l e dream world o f f a n t a s y , o r does she take a r e a l i s t i c view o f the s i t u a t i o n ? I f the mother i s not too f a r divorced from r e a l i t y and t h e case worker has i n s t i l l e d confidence i n her, the worker's goal i s to make the whole experience  c o n s t r u c t i v e , so that the g i r l may  emerge from motherhood w i t h a more i n t e g r a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y and -hence be able t o make a b e t t e r future adjustment t o l i f e . 1 Bertha Capen Reynolds: Learning and Teaching i n the P r a c t i c e of S o c i a l Work. F a r r a r and Rinehart, New York, 1942, p. 262. 2 M i l d r e d Corner: "Importance o f the I n i t i a l Interview with the Unmarried Mother", Developing I n s i g h t i n I n i t i a l Interviews, Family S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, New York, 1947.  52. How does the case worker accomplish t h i s ?  As Franz  Alexander p o i n t s out, i t i s because o f a n x i e t y and preoccupation w i t h her symptoms ( i n t h i s case an i l l e g i t i m a t e pregnancy), t h a t the c l i e n t i s unable t o handle her problem and seeks help. The case worker gives emotional support i n order t o ease the mother's tension.  She consciously implements t h i s by an  " o b j e c t i v e , understanding a t t i t u d e " , which has the purpose o f g i v i n g the mother ."an opportunity t o get a b e t t e r perspective of her d i f f i c u l t i e s " . " " 1  A l l t h i s has the purpose o f making the  c l i e n t f e e l more adequate t o face h e r a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n and her own p a r t i n i t .  As the mother i s thus supported and strengthen-  ed by the worker, she i s encouraged to t a l k about h e r s e l f , her f a m i l y , her f r i e n d s , her f e e l i n g s about l i f e i n general. does she f e e l about the f a t h e r o f her c h i l d ?  How  How would she  f e e l i f she kept her baby; o r i f she gave i t up? This again r e l i e v e s emotional t e n s i o n and prepares t h e way f o r the worker to g i v e the mother i n s i g h t i n t o some o f h e r behaviour patterns. Formerly i t was common f o r the worker t o plunge i n t o i n t i m a t e d e t a i l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n order to e s t a b l i s h p a t e r n i t y as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e .  I t i s now recognized t h a t t h i s i s an un-  u s u a l l y p a i n f u l area t o explore, and that the mother w i l l only be freed t o t a l k about i t when she has acquired f a i t h i n her worker.  While workers are becoming more and more aware o f the  mother's need to t a l k about h e r s e l f and the father o f her c h i l d when the time i s r i p e t o do so, they s t i l l do not wholly r e a l i z e 1 Franz Alexander: Fundamentals of Psychoanalysis. W.W.Norton & Co., New York, 1948, p. 274.  53. . the f u l l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n with regard t o t h e putative father.  One a u t h o r i t y states:  "Most people f o r g e t  the unmarried f a t h e r ' s side o f the story.  Our sympathy has  always been asked f o r the poor unfortunate mother.  Yet the un-  married f a t h e r ' s emotional problems are o f t e n as great as the girlte and i n some instances even g r e a t e r " . ^  The same a u t h o r i t y  goes on t o point out that "the biggest s o c i a l problem i s to change our t h i n k i n g so t h a t an unmarried f a t h e r can admit p a t e r n i t y without f e a r and provide f o r the w e l l - b e i n g of the child.  Under present laws, the unmarried f a t h e r i s made t o  f e e l l i k e a c r i m i n a l and the important t h i n g i s f o r him not t o g get caught". I n d i s c u s s i n g the same t o p i c , Dr. Norman Reider p o i n t s out t h a t i n Sweden, where a t o l e r a n t and non-primitive  tradition  has evolved over the past t h i r t y years, i t i s a rare t h i n g f o r a man t o deny p a t e r n i t y .  T h i s same a u t h o r i t y , while s t r e s s i n g  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f unmarried fatherhood,  believes  that the conscious o r unconscious d e s i r e t o have a c h i l d i s much l e s s frequent among unmarried men than among unmarried women.  3  As workers are becoming more aware of t h e f a c t . t h a t unmarried fathers have unresolved  emotional problems, t h e con-  v i c t i o n , i s growing that they would welcome an opportunity t o 1 I . L. H a r r i s , Judge of the J u v e n i l e Court, San F r a n c i s c o , c i t e d i n Eugene Burns: "What about the unmarried f a t h e r ? " Cosmopolitan Magazine, J u l y 1948, p. 68. 2 i b i d , p. 69. 3 Norman Reider: "The Unmarried Father", Proceedings o f t the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work. A p r i l 16, 1947.  54.. t e l l t h e i r -story, p r e f e r a b l y t o a male s o c i a l worker.  1  However,  whether by male o r female worker, he should be approached i n an atmosphere of o b j e c t i v i t y , f a i r n e s s and understanding. When the c h i l d i s born, and the unmarried mother i s faced w i t h t h e need t o come t o a d e c i s i o n about i t s care, the s o c i a l worker must continue w i t h her supportive, i n t e r p r e t i v e role.  At t h i s p o i n t , the worker needs to be on guard l e s t her  a n x i e t y f o r the u l t i m a t e f a t e o f the c h i l d overshadows her concern f o r the mother.  Yet she cannot s i t on the fence" . n  w h i l e the g i r l struggles t o come t o a d e c i s i o n .  There i s a  p a r t o f every g i r l that wants t o keep her baby; but whether she keeps i t o r gives i t up, the experience involves s u f f e r i n g and r e n u n c i a t i o n f o r her.  The case worker therefore attempts t o  help the g i r l t o r e a l i z e i t i s her baby; t h a t whe has a r i g h t to make a d e c i s i o n about i t , and that she can use the help o f the case worker i n a r r i v i n g a t that d e c i s i o n .  The case worker's  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y at t h i s time i s t o p o i n t out the r e a l i t y o f the s i t u a t i o n p l a i n l y and h o n e s t l y t o the mother.  The g i r l i s s t i l l  i n a dependent p o s i t i o n and needs mature c o u n s e l l i n g a t t h i s p o i n t , so the case worker should r e i n f o r c e that part o f h e r t h i n k i n g which i s healthy and sound.  I f t h e g i r l does decide  to give up her c h i l d , she then can give i t up t o a person she b e l i e v e s to be h e l p i n g her t o make the best p o s s i b l e p l a n f o r i t . 1 of 2 Her  Opal Jacobs: "What About the Unmarried Father?", Proceedings the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work. A p r i l 16, 1947. Leontine R. Young: "The Unmarried Mother's D e c i s i o n About Baby", Journal o f S o c i a l Case Work, Jan. 1947, p. 29.  55. U s u a l l y , termination o f agency s e r v i c e i s made a f t e r the mother has borne her c h i l d and completed her plans f o r i t s care.  However, the worker should maintain contact w i t h her i f  i t i s humanly p o s s i b l e t o do so.  The mother has come through a  period of great s t r e s s and s t r a i n , both p h y s i c a l l y and emotionally.  Often she i s l o n e l i e r and more remote from people than  she was when she was vulnerable.  c a r r y i n g her c h i l d , and thus even more  T h i s , t h e r e f o r e , i s the time when aptitude t e s t s  and v o c a t i o n a l guidance could be used t o a s s i s t i n g e t t i n g the mother i n t o more s a t i s f a c t o r y work and b e t t e r contacts w i t h people.  I f the g i r l has kept her c h i l d , there w i l l be need.for  a d d i t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g as to the manner i n which she i s going to t e l l the c h i l d about h i s i d e n t i t y .  Final-  l y , as the mother becomes more s e l f - r e l i a n t , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between her and the worker should be g r a d u a l l y diminished,  until  such time as the mother i s able to f u n c t i o n by h e r s e l f . C l e a r l y , s o c i a l casework today i s a studied a r t . may t r u l y be s a i d that:  It  " I t i s focused upon a d i a g n o s t i c under-  standing of the people and s i t u a t i o n s w i t h which i t deals.  It  sees people as dynamic forces i n the s i t u a t i o n s i n which they are, and expects to i n f l u e n c e them o n l y by becoming a part of the s i t u a t i o n , as a person with p r o f e s s i o n a l awareness and perience.  ex-  I t uses the i n v i g o r a t i n g power of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between the p e r s o n a l i t y of the s o c i a l worker and that of the persons worked w i t h , and uses i t i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l wa-y,  that i s ,  w i t h mutual confidence and co-operation, w i t h conscious upb u i l d i n g of s e l f - r e s p e c t , w i t h rigorous d i s c i p l i n e of the  56. worker's she  may  self give  i n her  order best  that, s k i l l s  freed i n  from  1  Bertha  Capen Reynolds:  L e a r n i n g and  S o c i a l  Work.  Rinehart,  and  preoccupations,  s e r v i c e . " !  of  Farrar  personal  New  Teaching York,  In  the  1 9 4 £ , p.  P r a c t i c e 30.  Part  ill.  Chapter  7.  The Presenting Problem.  Chapter  8.  Special D i f f i c u l t i e s .  Chapter  9.  Case D i f f e r e n c e s : Cases Referred A f t e r C h i l d b i r t h .  Chapter 10.  Case D i f f e r e n c e s : Cases Referred Before C h i l d b i r t h .  57 Chapter  7.  The Presenting Problem. Sooial work i s concerned t o understand the . . . r e l a t i o n s h i p o f human beings t o t h e i r world o f other persons and s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . " (Bertha Capen Reynolds: Learning and Teaching i n t h e P r a c t i c e of S o c i a l Work, p. 22.) tt  Unmarried mothers range i n age from e a r l y adolescense to l a t e maturity. life.  They can be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l walks i n  But the one who comes to the s o c i a l agency i s u s u a l l y i n  her l a t e 'teens o r e a r l y twenties, and commonly has behind her a h i s t o r y of both emotional and f i n a n c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n .  Often  she i s handicapped by l a c k o f education and thus has found employment i n d u l l , r o u t i n e jobs, which give her a minimum amount of s a t i s f a c t i o n and p r i d e i n her work, and which l i m i t her choice o f f r i e n d s and r e c r e a t i o n .  She tends to be u n r e a l i s t i c  and insecure i n her r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h people ( e s p e c i a l l y w i t h men), and appears t o be t o t a l l y unprepared t o meet the r e a l i t i e s of l i v i n g and adjust s a t i s f a c t o r i l y to.them.  Unable t o achieve  happiness and s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the conventional manner o f g i r l s of her age, she seems t o be impelled t o o b t a i n i t unconventionally. Almost i n e v i t a b l y , she i s oaught i n the t r a p of an i l l e g i t i m a t e pregnancy, and then l e f t t o fend f o r h e r s e l f . one a u t h o r i t y has expressed the s i t u a t i o n :  As  "She (the unmarried  mother) must (then) s u s t a i n not o n l y h e r problem, but the emotions o f her f a m i l y . . . t h e i r shame, t h e i r r e j e c t i o n , t h e i r d e s i r e t o punish o r , at best, t h e i r g r i e f and concern . . . as w e l l as the t r a d i t i o n a l moral a t t i t u d e o f t h e community and the  58.  l e g a l , economic, and s o c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s inherent i n h e r situation.  There are those who would have her keep her baby,  there are those who would have her give him up, but seldom are there any who are f r e e enough of t h e i r own c o n f l i c t t o help her come to a d e c i s i o n that represents her r e a l f e e l i n g s and her capacity to operate w i t h i n the p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f her world."  1  I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t — a l o n e , bewildered, o f t e n d i s i l l u s i o n e d and e m b i t t e r e d — t h a t the unmarried mother comes t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the s o c i a l agency.  The s o c i a l worker i s now  faced with the task of g a i n i n g her confidence and " s e t t i n g up a case-work procedure and process through which she can f i n d her own answer to her dilemga".  2  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o do so. The  g i r l i s under s t r e s s and s t r a i n both p h y s i c a l l y and emotionally. Conscious o f s o c i a l stigma, a t one moment she wants t o keep her c h i l d , a t another t o give i t up. U s u a l l y she i s desperately anxious t o conceal her p l i g h t . money.  Often too, she has l i t t l e o r no  The s o c i a l worker f i n d s the young mother somewhat f e a r -  f u l and s u s p i c i o u s of the agency (which she u s u a l l y t h i n k s of as "the Welfare"), anxious f o r help w i t h immediate plans f o r h e r s e l f and h e r c h i l d , but wary of anyone going beyond that point.  Should she come t o the agency i n the e a r l y months of her  pregnancy, the worker has a greater chance o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a r e a l i s t i c and c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h her and thus g e t t i n g beyond the mere presenting problem of t h e baby. I f , 1 J u l i a Ann Bishop: 1941, p. 10. 2 loc. c i t .  Adoption P r a c t i c e , C h i l d Welfare League,  59.  however, she comes at the b i r t h , or a f t e r , the worker has not the same opportunity t o form a meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the mother and thus can u s u a l l y deal only w i t h the immediate r e a l i t y problem, which i s the c h i l d .  I n a d d i t i o n t o these obvious  d i f f i c u l t i e s , there are few workers who do not have t o struggle w i t h t h e i r own f e e l i n g s i n the matter.  There i s perhaps no  other area i n s o c i a l work which can rouse greater f e e l i n g s of f e a r and i n s e c u r i t y w i t h i n the worker h e r s e l f , o r i n which she f e e l s a greater sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than i n the work w i t h the unmarried mother. I t i s very d i f f i c u l t t o define the i n t a n g i b l e q u a l i t y t h a t i s l o o s e l y l a b e l l e d as the "worker-client r e l a t i o n s h i p " . For years i t . has been known that some people have the a b i l i t y to i n s p i r e t r u s t and confidence more r e a d i l y than o t h e r s , and t o make people at ease I n t h e i r presence.  I t I s now b e l i e v e d that  t h i s a b i l i t y can be c u l t i v a t e d , and can become an I n t e g r a l part of the case worker's p r o f e s s i o n a l approach t o the c l i e n t , provided the case worker i s b a s i c a l l y a w e l l i n t e g r a t e d person who i s genuinely i n t e r e s t e d i n the welfare of the c l i e n t . Reynolds expresses i t thus:  Miss.  " I t i s not t h a t we ( s o c i a l workers)  do not g a i n s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r ourselves as a l l other people do, but that we become p r o f e s s i o n a l by s h i f t i n g . o u r s a t i s f a c t i o n s to a l e v e l d i f f e r e n t from that of c o n t r o l l i n g others, venting h o s t i l i t y o r l i k i n g upon them, g e t t i n g g r a t i t u d e , a f f e c t i o n or the t h r i l l o f a new experience which we can dramatize In a good story . . . .  We must . . .  be rugged i n our honesty w i t h our-  s e l v e s , and i n our a b i l i t y t o admit mistakes, p r e j u d i c e , i n t e r -  60. f e r i n g , a n x i e t i e s and claims f o r a t t e n t i o n t o ourselves".1 S o c i a l casework i s a l l t h e more important i n work w i t h the unmarried mother because i f the p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f i c u l t i e s of the c l i e n t are unresolved o r heightened by unmarried parenthood, they can tend t o produce a r e p e t i t i o n o f the experience t h a t l e d t o the f i r s t pregnancy.  The question t h e r e f o r e  a r i s e s , f o r r e c i d i v i s t s p r e v i o u s l y known to the s o c i a l agency: i s the "non-resolution" of the g i r l ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s due, primari l y , t o a l a c k of f a c i l i t i e s and casework s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the agency, o r i s i t a t t r i b u t a b l e t o inherent shortcomings w i t h i n the g i r l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y which are too deep-seated t o be helped by these s e r v i c e s ?  A t t h i s point i t i s proposed t o examine a  sample group o f cases ( r e c i d i v i s t s known t o t h e Children's A i d S o c i e t y during 1946), t o see what conclusions can be reached i n t h i s regard. Nature o f the Study. The  f i l e s of the Vancouver Children's A i d S o c i e t y  were chosen as representing t h e best a v a i l a b l e volume of recorded casework w i t h unmarried mothers.  I t was decided t o study  cases known t o the agency during 1946, i n the b e l i e f t h a t these would throw l i g h t on the current trends i n techniques. To o b t a i n t h e records d e s i r e d , i t was necessary t o t a b u l a t e a l l the cases o f i l l e g i t i m a c y known t o the Family Work Department of the Children's A i d S o c i e t y during the year 1946. This i n volved l i s t i n g a l l the cases o f i l l e g i t i m a c y i n t h e 1947 current 1 Bertha C. Reynolds: Learning and Teaching i n the P r a c t i c e of S o c i a l Work. F a r r a r and Rinehart, New York, Sept. 1942, p. 26.  61. index t h a t were not newly opened that year.  Then, to get the  complete l o a d , i t was necessary i n a d d i t i o n to l i s t cases closed d u r i n g 1946.as w e l l as those closed i n 1947 which had not been newly opened that year. some 700 cases.  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a t o t a l of  These cases were then screened t o o b t a i n the  r e c i d i v i s t s among the unmarried mothers l i s t e d . mothers i n these cases are g i r l s who  The unmarried  ( a ) , were not married,  widowed, d i v o r c e d , separated o r l i v i n g common-law at the time of the o r i g i n a l r e f e r r a l t o the agency; ( b ) , and who had been i l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnant more than once up to the time of the enquiry. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h i s broad b a s i s of s e l e c t i o n w i l l give a comprehensive p i c t u r e of r e c i d i v i s t s who have been known t o the agency f o r some years back, and w i l l thus highl i g h t any d i f f e r e n c e s i n casework emphasis w i t h i n the agency over t h a t space o f time.  The g i r l who i s mentally d e f e c t i v e i s  not excluded,on the ground t h a t she I s a p a r t of the normal caseload, and because i t i s reasonable t o ask how f a r she I s representative o f the t o t a l problem.  On t h i s b a s i s , the number  of r e c i d i v i s t s c o n s t i t u t e 66 cases out of the 700 unmarried mothers known t o the Agency during 1946. The cases are analyzed on the f o l l o w i n g b a s i s .  First,  an attempt i s made t o g a i n as complete a p i c t u r e of the g i r l as p o s s i b l e .  Her age, i n t e l l i g e n c e , t r a i n i n g , degree of s e l f -  1 This excludes 13 cases I n v o l v i n g eommon=>law r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and 2 cases which had been included i n the p r e l i m i n a r y number but which could not be located i n the Agency over a two month p e r i o d and hence n e c e s s a r i l y were omitted.  62. support, ethnic background, et c e t e r a , are a l l gleaned f o r t h i s purpose.  Second, the case i s s c r u t i n i z e d t o see what her  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t o her parents; t o her brothers and s i s t e r s ; t o her job; t o the f a t h e r s o f her c h i l d r e n and to her c h i l d r e n . From a l l these f a c t s , some measure o f each g i r l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y can be formed and her a v a i l a b i l i t y to casework treatment determined.  Then, by n o t i n g whether the mother was r e f e r r e d t o the  agency "early-on" o r l a t e I n her pregnancy; the emotional "tone" set i n her f i r s t contact w i t h the agency; her r e l a t i o n to the worker i n the casework s i t u a t i o n ; and the t o t a l l e n g t h of time the mother was known t o the agency, an  e v a l u a t i o n can be made  o f the q u a l i t y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p formed with the worker and the p o s s i b l e changes t h a t took place i n the g i r l ' s a t t i t u d e during caswwork treatment. The f i l e s are complete w i t h reports from the P r o v i n c i a l Guidance C l i n i c , o r the P s y c h i a t r i s t at the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l , and copies o f reports and summaries of case contacts from t h e C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n and the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department are recorded i n d e t a i l .  I n t h e main, how-  ever, the recording does not r e f l e c t the casework processes. Throughout, the concern of the worker i s evident i n the record, though i t u s u a l l y appears t o be weighted f o r the c h i l d more than f o r the mother. Preliminary S t a t i s t i c s . Of the 700 cases of unmarried mothers known to the Children's A i d i n 1946, 66, or s l i g h t l y under 10 per cent, are  63. recidivists.  Of these, 48 mothers have had two i l l e g i t i m a t e  pregnancies; 18 had more than two. I n 1942, when the Agency made a survey of the 377 cases o f unmarried mothers a c t i v e w i t h them that year, 40, o r s l i g h t l y over 10 per cent were r e c i d i v ists.  I t would appear then that the r a t i o of r e c i d i v i s t s t o  the t o t a l number o f unmarried mothers known t o the Agency, I s r e l a t i v e l y constant. In the cases s t u d i e d , the o l d e s t age a t the b i r t h of the f i r s t c h i l d i s 33 years; t h e youngest i s 14 years. Two unmarried mothers are over 30 years o f age; f i f t e e n are between the ages of 17 and 22; s i x between the years o f 14 and 16 and one i s o f unknown age. The most t y p i c a l age i s between 17 and 22 years. Of the 66 g i r l s comprised i n t h i s study, 32 have been seen by a p s y c h i a t r i s t e i t h e r a t the P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d  Guidance  C l i n i c o r a t the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l , and have a l s o had a psychometric t e s t .  The remainder of the g i r l s have been  c l a s s i f i e d by the worker concerned as "average" o r " d u l l " . Of the 32 g i v e n psychometric t e s t s , 19 are rated as "average" o r "above average" i n t e l l i g e n c e , 6 are "slow" t o " d u l l " , 7 are o f "borderline" or less i n t e l l i g e n c e .  Of the 34 who have no form-  a l t e s t , 2 are considered by the worker t o be o f " s u p e r i o r " i n t e l l i g e n c e ; 19 t o be "average"; 11 t o be " d u l l " and I n two instances no estimate o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i s given by the worker. In summary, over one h a l f o f these r e c i d i v i s t s are o f "average" o r "above average" i n t e l l i g e n c e and therefore open t o c o n s t r u c t i v e casework.  The remainder are below normal i n t e l l -  64. igenoe and are therefore s p e c i a l problems.  This d i v i s i o n i s  followed as the method of d i s c u s s i n g the problems and d i f f e r e n c e s they present.  the  65. Chapter  8.  Special D i f f i c u l t i e s . "The s o c i a l sciences, . . . are concerned too much w i t h man's i n t e l l i g e n c e , and hot enough w i t h man's heart!", (John A. I r v i n g : "The S o c i a l . P h i l o s o p h y of E. J . Urwick", The Values o f L i f e . U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press, 1948, p. 60.) I t i s obvious that the g i r l with l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e has "one s t r i k e against her", so t o speak, i n that the possi b i l i t y of her becoming an unmarried mother i s greater i n the f i r s t p l a c e , than t h a t o f the g i r l w i t h s u f f i c i e n t i n t e l l i g e n c e to take b e t t e r care o f h e r s e l f . the lower  Such a g i r l needs p r o t e c t i o n ;  her i n t e l l i g e n c e , the greater i s her need f o r  protection.  I t might t h e r e f o r e l o g i c a l l y be expected that the  g r e a t e r percentage of r e c i d i v i s m i n the unmarried mothers known t o the agency would be amongst those g i r l s whose i n t e l l igence i s l i m i t e d .  However, t h i s i s not t r u e i n the sample  group of cases s t u d i e s , more than h a l f of whom are of average o r above-average i n t e l l i g e n c e .  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , without  exception, each g i r l o f l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e r e v e a l s i n addi t i o n a background o f emotional d e p r i v a t i o n and f i n a n c i a l insecurity. I t would t h e r e f o r e seem from these f a c t s that i t i s not j u s t the matter o f the degree of i n t e l l i g e n c e that i s i n volved i n the problem o f the r e c i d i v i s t unmarried mother.  The  complications are c e r t a i n l y c l e a r i n the case o f A l i c e , who when t e s t e d at the c l i n i c was rated i n the " d u l l normal" group  66.  of general i n t e l l i g e n c e .  A l i c e was of English-Swiss descent.  Born on a p r a i r i e farm, she was the youngest o f seven c h i l d r e n . Her f a t h e r deserted the home when she was about s i x years o l d , l e a v i n g h e r mother t o b r i n g up her f a m i l y on t h e l i m i t e d income supplied by s o c i a l allowance.  To economize as much as p o s s i b l e ,  A l i c e ' s mother went t o l i v e w i t h r e l a t i v e s .  Consequently  Alice  was one o f t e n people crowded together i n t o the one inadequate home. Because the p o r t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l allowance being paid i n t o the home on S l i c e ' s behalf was a u t o m a t i c a l l y c a n c e l l e d when she reached s i x t e e n , A l i c e was e a r l y f o r c e d t o work to maintain h e r s e l f .  During the war years, A l i c e and her mother  came t o Vancouver along w i t h the many immigrants from the P r a i r i e s who moved there t o reap the b e n e f i t of the steady work and high wages o f the war i n d u s t r i e s .  A l i c e soon got a job i n  a war p l a n t as a spray p a i n t e r and helped t o support her mother. W i t h i n only a month o r so she became pregnant, f o l l o w i n g a very c a s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a f e l l o w employee, and gave b i r t h t o a c h i l d when she was about twenty years of age.  A l i c e d i d not  come t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the s o c i a l agency u n t i l she was r e f e r r e d t o i t f o l l o w i n g t h e b i r t h of h e r c h i l d i n h o s p i t a l . The s o c i a l worker continued t o keep i n contact w i t h A l i c e f o r some 6^ months, v i s i t i n g f r e q u e n t l y i n the.home.  However, as  i t was A l i c e ' s mother who looked a f t e r t h e c h i l d , the worker s l i p p e d i n t o the h a b i t o f d i s c u s s i n g matters w i t h h e r i n s t e a d of w i t h A l i c e .  Consequently the worker never d i d manage to  gain A l i c e ' s confidence, and" when A l i c e went back t o work, the worker terminated her contact w i t h her, assuming that she was  67. managing matters very competently.  The f a c t s refute i t . To  date, A l i c e has had three c h i l d r e n born out of wedlock. Another case i n p o i d t i s that o f Beulah, who when t e s t e d rated i n the "moron" group of general i n t e l l i g e n c e . Beulah was o f E n g l i s h r a c i a l o r i g i n and was born and brought up i n t h e c i t y o f Vancouver.  She was one o f f o u r c h i l d r e n a l l  •of whom but h e r s e l f were stated ~|to be " i n t e l l i g e n t and capable of oaring f o r themselves."  Beulah's parents were i n i l l h e a l t h  f o r a p e r i o d of years, and when Beulah was 14 years, h e r f a t h e r d i e d of cancer, as had s e v e r a l o f h i s r e l a t i v e s .  As the f i n a n -  c i a l resources o f the f a m i l y were exhausted a t t h i s p o i n t , Beulah*s mother had t o then apply f o r the Mother's Allowance. L a t e r she too developed cancer and d i e d .  Beulah*s r e l a t i o n s h i p s  w i t h h e r f a m i l y were poor from h e r e a r l i e s t years.  She was a  source o f i r r i t a t i o n to h e r mother, who had no patience w i t h her " l a z i n e s s " ; and she was a l s o taunted f o r h e r s t u p i d i t y by her brothers and s i s t e r s .  Beulah was e n e u r i t i c f o r a very  l a r g e p a r t o f h e r childhood. I n her e a r l y teens she showed pre-delinquent tendencies and consorted w i t h undesirable f r i e n d s . She stopped school soon a f t e r her f a t h e r died when she was about 16 years o f age and went t o work i n a laundry.  She r e -  mained here f o r about f i v e years and i t was here that she made contacts w i t h men which e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t e d i n her becoming pregnant.  At t h i s time she was 21 years o f age.  Beulah*s  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r was not meaningful.  He  refused t o admit p a t e r n i t y , saying she was promiscuous and "made passes a t him." P o s s i b l y her behaviour was aggravated  68.  by the death of. her mother which a l s o occurred about t h i s time. Beulah became known t o the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y worker about four months p r i o r t o the b i r t h o f h e r c h i l d and the worker records t h a t "Beulah r e a l l y had l i t t l e t o say f o r h e r s e l f and was quite s u l l e n " .  As can w e l l be imagined, t h i s worker,in h e r  t u r n , was unable t o form any c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e unmarried mother a t t h i s p o i n t .  The c h i l d proved t o be a  Mongolian and though the mother would have l i k e d f o s t e r home placement, t h i s could, not be arranged.  Beulah kept the c h i l d ,  but i t died a t an e a r l y age. I n a few short months a f t e r t h i s , she a g a i n became pregnant, and i n due course gave b i r t h t o another i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d . A l i c e i s an example o f a g i r l who l o s t her f a t h e r at a c r i t i c a l age i n her emotional development.  She was brought  up on a minimum subsistence l e v e l , and a t an e a r l y age had t o make the best use o f her l i m i t e d c a p a c i t i e s t o support h e r s e l f . She managed adequately u n t i l she moved from a P r a i r i e farm t o Vancouver.  T h i s change from a r u r a l t o an urban c e n t r e , t o -  gether w i t h exposure t o the f r e e and easy mingling o f the sexes i n a war p l a n t , appears t o have p r e c i p i t a t e d her i n t o an i l l e g i t i m a t e pregnancy.  With Beulah, the home atmosphere was  one o f c o n t i n u a l t e n s i o n , doubtless due t o the s u f f e r i n g and f e a r t h a t seems t o be engendered i n every cancer v i c t i m . Beulah appeared t o have been the t a r g e t f o r a great deal o f her mother's a n x i e t y , and we f i n d h e r responding by becoming e n e u r i t i c and seeking companionship on the s t r e e t s .  She, t o o ,  had t o become s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g a t an e a r l y age. Despite h e r  69. low i n t e l l i g e n c e , however, she managed t o keep out of d i f f i c u l t ies  u n t i l the death o f her mother.  I n t h i s instance, t h i s  appears t o be the event which peaked up B e u l a h s d i f f i c u l t i e s . 1  and t h r u s t her i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p which r e s u l t e d i n pregnancy. The foregoing, which are merely two examples o f " t y p i c a l " h i s t o r i e s i n t h i s group of " s p e c i a l problem" cases, would seem t o a f f i r m f o r these g i r l s at l e a s t , t h a t the " r e peater" unmarried mother i s fundamentally a " d i f f i c u l t " person and t h a t her l a c k o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i s but one facet of the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t p r e c i p i t a t e d her i n t o an i l l e g i t i m a t e pregnancy.  I t i s c l e a r to see that the s o c i a l worker i n these  instances i s faced w i t h a p e c u l i a r l y d i f f i c u l t task.  She has  to use a l l the warmth of her p e r s o n a l i t y and a l l the p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l of which she i s capable to e s t a b l i s h a c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the g i r l , but even when t h i s i s e s t a b l i s h e d , the p o s s i b i l i t y of g i v i n g the mother i n s i g h t i n t o her d i f f i c u l t i e s , w i t h the consequent " r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of her inner psychic f o r c e s " ,  1  i s small.  The case worker then must be on  guard l e s t she preu^dice her c l i e n t and unconsciously f e e l that casework service cannot be o f much value t o the unmarried mother of l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e .  On the contrary, the case worker  must r e a l i z e that i t i s doubly important i n working w i t h such . mothers f o r her t o i n s p i r e a f e e l i n g of l i k i n g and confidence 1 B e t t y Isserman: "The Casework R e l a t i o n s h i p i n Work w i t h Unmarried Mothers", The S o c i a l Worker. Ottawa, Oct. 1948, p. 1£.  70.  i n the c l i e n t .  The worker's r o l e i n such instances i s primar-  i l y to o f f e r the mother the warmth of emotional  support,  so  that the g i r l may be guided to the wisest d e c i s i o n f o r h e r s e l f and c h i l d .  F o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s not i n t e l l i g e n c e that governs  a person's emotional attachment to others, and the case worker therefore has j u s t as much opportunity to form a meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p , though i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y i t cannot be as cons t r u c t i v e as f o r a more normal c l i e n t . The case worker, must always keep i n mind that as yet no one has measured the e f f e c t that a continuing  emotional  disturbance may have on the i n t e l l i g e n c e ; i t might therefore be t h a t the s o - c a l l e d " d u l l " g i r l i s not f u n c t i o n i n g at her true i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l because of emotional b l o c k i n g .  Case  workers are becoming more and more aware of t h i s s o - c a l l e d "psuedo feeble-mindedness", where the o h i l d o r a d u l t takes refuge from a too d i s t u r b i n g environment by r e t r e a t i n t o apparent s t u p i d i t y .  One of the cases i n t h i s group exemplifies  such a s i t u a t i o n . C l a r a was a t w i n , one of four c h i l d r e n born to a French f a t h e r and a mother of Swedish r a c i a l o r i g i n . was a "small business" man who  The f a t h e r  e v i d e n t l y never provided  adequately f o r h i s f a m i l y , and f i n a l l y deserted them, l e a v i n g them i n straightened circumstances.  Clara's l i f e , must have  been deprived almost from b i r t h , and she could never have enjoyed f u l l emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n i n her babyhood, as she  was  one of three babies born t o her mother i n the space of two years.  At the age of f o u r , Clara's f a t h e r deserted, and  her  71. mother had t o work t o support the f a m i l y .  When C l a r a was  seven  her mother* s h e a l t h broke under the double s t r a i n of f i n a n c i a l and maternal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and C l a r a was placed i n a convent. S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , her mother d i e d .  Thus C l a r a had two  emotional shocks superimposed on a childhood t h a t had been somewhat deprived emotionally.  One  severe  already  can Imagine the  f a n t a s i e s of g u i l t and remorse that were c a l l e d up by these two d e s e r t i o n s .  The convent placed C l a r a , while s t i l l i n her  e a r l y 'teens, a t domestic s e r v i c e .  Here she was again a  "deprived child*', earning the magnificent per month.  sum of f i v e d o l l a r s  As soon as she became eighteen, C l a r a and her t w i n  s i s t e r h i t c h h i k e d t o Vancouver.  A few months a f t e r a r r i v a l ,  C l a r a got i n t o d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the p o l i c e f o r . " c a u s i n g a d i s turbance".  She was examined at the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c  where she was rated as "borderline but not feeble-minded". Following t h i s she was j a i l e d f o r 28 days and on being r e l e a s ed, got i n t o e x a c t l y the same k i n d of disturbance. she was  This time  committed to Essondale, where she was diagnosed as a  "psychopathic i n f e r i o r " .  C l a r a remained there three years and  was then discharged on probation t o her t w i n s i s t e r , who had become an unmarried mother.  already  As might be expected, C l a r a  h e r s e l f immediately became i l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnant, doubtless due to her r e l e a s e from the confinement of Essondale and unconscious sense of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h her twin.  an  Clara's  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the f a t h e r of her c h i l d was most c a s u a l , i n t e r c o u r s e o c c u r r i n g s h o r t l y a f t e r she met him.  C l a r a never  used any means of avoiding conception, and from the  beginning  73. wanted t o keep her c h i l d .  Her second pregnancy occurred  wwo  years l a t e r from an even more casual r e l a t i o n s h i p than the first.  Again no contraceptives were used and again C l a r a never  had any other thought than to keep her c h i l d .  This she d i d  and she and her s i s t e r remained together w i t h t h e i r brood of i l l e g i t i m a t e children.-  There-was apparently no complaint of  any k i n d regarding the care C l a r a gave t o her c h i l d r e n u n t i l they were 5% and 3^ years of age r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Then they were  picked up by the p o l i c e on the complaint that they had been l e f t alone w h i l e the mother was "out d r i n k i n g " .  The  children  were then apprehended by the Agency and taken i n t o care.  The  s o c i a l worker was able to e s t a b l i s h a working r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h C l a r a who  co-operated w e l l and who d i d everything she could to  get her c h i l d r e n back. The Agency worker waa sympathetic  and  b e l i e v e d t h a t she should have the c h i l d r e n returned but  thought  they should consult w i t h the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c f i r s t .  The  mother was prepared f o r t h i s proposed c o n s u l t a t i o n by the worker, and she was' w i l l i n g t o be re-examined.  She was  ob-  v i o u s l y anxious t o make a good impression, and t h i s time the r e s u l t of the t e s t placed her i n the "very s u p e r i o r " group of general i n t e l l i g e n c e !  I n other words, t h i s seems t o be a g i r l  so emotionally blocked t h a t on occasion she could simulate an extremely low i n t e l l i g e n c e .  However when given emotional sup-  port by the worker and a great enough i n c e n t i v e , she was able to reorganize h e r s e l f s u f f i c i e n t l y to give an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r ent p i c t u r e of her mental a b i l i t i e s .  While i t i s true that  C l a r a ' s o a s e e i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s problem i n perhaps i t s most  exaggerated form, i t i s reasonable t o assume t h a t i t e x i s t s i n v a r y i n g degrees i n other instances, and that the i n t e l l i g e n c e of many s o - c a l l e d " d u l l " unmarried mothers i s not f u n c t i o n i n g to i t s f u l l e s t c a p a c i t y because of the mother's emotional tensions. Granted a l l o f the preceding, the s o c i a l worker i s s t i l l faced w i t h great d i f f i c u l t i e s i n working w i t h the unmarried mother o f l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e .  T h i s i s the very r e a l  d i f f i c u l t y o f making an adequate p l a n f o r the f i n a l care o f the mother and h e r c h i l d .  Of the 24 cases i n the present group,  1  16 g i r l s were c l a s s i f i e d i n the " d u l l normal" o r " d u l l " r a t i n g eight and/were ranked as "morons".  Only one was an i m b e c i l e .  Of the  group of 16 mothers who were rated as " d u l l normal" o r " d u l l " , nine g i r l s kept t h e i r babies; f i v e had no p l a n and the c h i l d r e n we're made wards; two placed the baby p r i v a t e l y ; of the group o f eight mothers who ranked i n the "moron" group of i n t e l l i g e n c e , three g i r l s kept the c h i l d ; three had no p l a n and the c h i l d r e n were made wards; one g i r l aborted and one had a t h e r a p e u t i c abortion.  Thus i n the t o t a l group o f unmarried mothers o f  l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e , twelve g i r l s kept t h e i r babies; eight had no p l a n and t h e c h i l d r e n were made wards.  I n w e l l over h a l f  these cases, the s o c i a l worker was unable to work out an adequate p l a n f o r the c h i l d w i t h the mother.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t a t best  f o r an unmarried mother to. bring up h e r c h i l d i n s o c i e t y , but 1 There were two cases i n which there was no estimate given of the motherfe i n t e l l i g e n c e e i t h e r by the c l i n i c o r worker.  74. f o r the mother o f l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e , i t i s an Herculean task. I n order t h a t the c h i l d should have even a minimal opportunity of enjoying the l o v i n g care so e s s e n t i a l t o both i t s p h y s i c a l and emotional development, i t i s imperative that t h e mother h e r s e l f has the s e c u r i t y o f some one she t r u s t s f o r guidance and support.  Normally i t would be hoped t h a t t h i s would be  forthcoming from t h e g i r l ' s own f a m i l y .  However, t h i s r a r e l y  m a t e r i a l i z e s , p r i m a r i l y because the mother's own p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f i c u l t i e s are accentuated i n h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h her family.  Community resources are l i m i t e d , and thus the onus, of  the s o c i a l planning u s u a l l y remains with the s o c i a l worker.  The  agency normally attempts t o remain i n touch w i t h the mother; but, burdened as i t i s w i t h l a r g e case loads and changing s t a f f , i t i s u s u a l l y f o r c e d to terminate contact w i t h the mother once the n e c e s s i t y f o r immediate plans f o r the c h i l d i s p a s t . I n t h i s case t h e agency was able to maintain contact w i t h h a l f of the g i r l s who kept t h e i r babies u n t i l such time as i t appeared that t h e c h i l d was being adequately maintained.  With the  remainder the agency closed t h e i r cases when the mother got a job and took her baby w i t h her.  The danger inherent i n t h i s  l a t t e r type of s i t u a t i o n i s w e l l t y p i f i e d by the f o l l o w i n g case study. Dora was of Scotch r a c i a l o r i g i n . labourer and her mother a domestic.  Her f a t h e r was a  They had emigrated to  Canada and s e t t l e d i n a small P r a i r i e town where t h e f a t h e r became employed as a track-man f o r the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways.  Dora was the youngest o f seven c h i l d r e n -  She d i d  75.  not go very f a r i n school, and when she l e f t , earned her l i v i n g , as a domestic o r waitress.  Nothing i s mentioned i n the record  of her f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p hut she appears t o have been more attached t o her f a t h e r than t o her mother.  I t was s h o r t l y  a f t e r h i s death t h a t she became pregnant. Her contact w i t h the f a t h e r of her c h i l d appears t o have been very casual.  She met  him w h i l e he was s t a t i o n e d at an a i r - b a s e , but =she professed not to know h i s l a s t name, o r from where he came.  I n order t o  avoid having her mother f i n d out she was pregnant, Dora l e f t home.  She came out by h e r s e l f to Vancouver where she had a  married s i s t e r , who, however, was separated from her husband. Dora was r e f e r r e d by the outpatients c l i n i c at the h o s p i t a l t o the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n when she was about 8_- months pregnant. Because she was so f a r advanced i n her pregnancy, and because she d i d not wish U.P.A. a c t i o n , the worker there took a minimum amount of i n f o r m a t i o n before r e f e r r i n g her to the Children's A i d . The worker at the C.A.S. found Dora very t i m i d and on the verge of t e a r s .  She was ambivalent about the f u t u r e of  the baby, but- thought she would have to give i t up.  Arrange-  ments were made t o have Dora admitted to the M a t e r n i t y Home. There i t was soon learned that Dora was e p i l e p t i c . c h i l d was born i t appeared t o be subnormal.  When her  By t h i s time Dora  was asking adoption placement f o r her c h i l d and the worker had to e x p l a i n why t h i s was not p o s s i b l e .  Dora could not accept  t h i s and t r i e d t o arrange a p r i v a t e placement.  The worker  learned of t h i s and had again to p o i n t out why t h i s would not  76. work. uation.  The worker was  caught here i n a most unfortunate  sit-  Dora had not e s t a b l i s h e d residence i n B r i t i s h Columbia  f o r purposes of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . ed i f her c h i l d had been adoptable.  This would not have matterMoreover, the p a t e r n i t y of  the c h i l d was not e s t a b l i s h e d and i t appeared t o be subnormal. T h i s , together w i t h Dora's e p i l e p s y and i n s t a b i l i t y a l l meant t h a t the c h i l d could not be deemed adoptable.  I t would thus  have to be r e p a t r i a t e d i f there was any question of i t becoming  a p u b l i c charge by being taken i n t o care by the agency.  A l l these f a c t s made i t very d i f f i c u l t f o r the worker to be encouraging about plans f o r the c h i l d . was  Thus because the worker  c o n s t a n t l y f o r c e d by e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s i n t o the r o l e of  denying the mother's wishes and b l o c k i n g her plans, she  was  unable to form a c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with, the mother or to give her the emotional support and encouragement she appeared to need.  Dora f i n a l l y found work as a domestic and took the  baby w i t h her.  The  case was then closed i n the agency at t h i s  p o i n t , but had to be reopened a few months l a t e r when the baby t e m p o r a r i l y had t o be taken i n t o care.  Later the g i r l  had  another c h i l d , which o n l y came t o the agency's a t t e n t i o n f o l l o w i n g i t s death (of neglect) i n the h o s p i t a l . The agency attempted to contact the mother at t h i s time, both f o r her sake and that of her f i r s t c h i l d , but were unable t o t r a c e her  and  f i n a l l y had to close t h e i r case. Dora's s i t u a t i o n i s not uncommon. Many unmarried mothers come from outside the province seeking the anonymity of a l a r g e c i t y f o r t h e i r confinement.  I f the background i s good,  77. and the c h i l d healthy, i t i s e a s i l y placed f o r adoption.  How-  ever i f the mother's i n t e l l i g e n c e i s l i m i t e d , or i f t h e c h i l d i s handicapped by a p h y s i c a l deformity, i t u s u a l l y means that the c h i l d has t o be made a ward.  At t h i s point the question of  maintenance a r i s e s , and w i t h i t * the o l d "bogey" of residence laws.  At present everyone i s agreed i n p r i n c i p l e that the  proper c r i t e r i a should be "what i s best f o r the c h i l d ? " , not "who i s going to pay f o r the c h i l d ' s care?"  Unfortunately,  however, t h i n k i n g i s ahead o f s o c i a l a c t i o n on t h i s p o i n t , and, the question o f residence s t i l l plays a part i n determining the f i n a l p l a n f o r the c h i l d . E l i n o r ' s s i t u a t i o n , though s i m i l a r i n some respects to Dora's, had a happier ending. origin.  E l i n o r was o f German r a c i a l  Her parents were born i n the " o l d counhy".  Although  they were n a t u r a l i z e d Canadians, t h e i r a t t i t u d e and mode o f l i f e was d i s t i n c t l y " o l d world".  E l i n o r ' s f a t h e r was a farmer  and part-time fisherman who l i v e d i n a remote area up the northern coast o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  He and h i s wifle d i d not  get along, so the f a t h e r l i v e d by himself while t h e c h i l d r e n l i v e d w i t h the mother.  The l a t t e r was o f the Lutheran  faith,  a c l e a n , t h r i f t y , i n d u s t r i o u s worker, but harsh and unsympathetic with her children.  A l l the c h i l d r e n had t o be s e l f -  supporting a t an e a r l y age, and at the age o f 14, E l i n o r was "bonded out" t o some farmers i n the Eraser V a l l e y , j u s t as i n the days of the o l d apprentice system. ped f o r such a moves  E l i n o r wass i l l - e q u i p -  Her mother had never permitted d i s c u s s i o n  of sexual matters, b e l i e v i n g t h a t her c h i l d r e n could p i c k up  78. the " f a c t s o f l i f e " about the farm.  When she became pregnant,  s h o r t l y s f t e r she l e f t home, her mother refused to permit her t  to come home w i t h her c h i l d .  She never d i d t e l l E l i n o r ' s  f a t h e r about her c o n d i t i o n . When E l i n o r was f i r s t r e f e r r e d i n from the country to t h e agency, she had been seen by the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s o n worker (as was then the r o u t i n e ) , i n an attempt t o e s t a b l i s h paternity.  On coming to the agency, E l i n o r was f i r s t seen by  a temporary worker, and then two days l a t e r by another worker. A l l three workers attempted t o get i n f o r m a t i o n regarding the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r i n the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w and E l i n o r completely blocked t h e i r e f f o r t s and c o n s i s t e n t l y refused t o d i s c u s s anyt h i n g t h a t had any meaning f o r her.  She was admitted t o the  Maternity Home and remained t h e r e , because o f her youth and i n a b i l i t y t o r e t u r n home w i t h h e r c h i l d , u n t i l t h e baby was about f i v e month o l d .  E l i n o r and h e r baby were than discharged t o a  work home o u t s i d e the area supervised by the Children's A i d , where the owners were p r o f e s s i o n a l people, both employed outside the home, and where E l i n o r knew no one i n the community. The case was ten closed i n the agency.  I t was re-opened eight  months l a t e r when E l i n o r was discharged by h e r employers as being i n e f f i c i e n t and ineapable.  E l i n o r then had no money, no  plans and nowhere t o go. This time another worker had contact w i t h her, and the emphasis (and n a t u r a l l y so) was placed on the "proper" care o f h e r c h i l d .  The baby was taken i n t o non-ward  care and money given the mother who was a l s o helped t o get another job,.but again E l i n o r ' s own emotional needs were over-  79.  looked.  She again became pregnant. Another worker now camein  contact w i t h E l i n o r and f o r the f i r s t time managed t o give the g i r l the acceptance and warmth that she craved. This time t o o , E l i n o r ' s a t t i t u d e u a t the outset was very u n r e a l i s t i c .  She thought she would l i k e t o marry the  p u t a t i v e f a t h e r , but t h a t he was very "shy", and had not r e a l l y had an opportunity t o mention;.marriage t o her. her  The worker met  sympathetically, t a k i n g Care o f her immediate needs by  arranging f o r her placement in.the S a l v a t i o n Army Home, seeing that h e r t e e t h were taken care o f , and so f o r t h .  She supported  E l i n o r i n h e r d e c i s i o n t o give up her c h i l d , c a r e f u l l y i n t e r p r e t i n g the n e c e s s i t y o f making the c h i l d a ward, instead of p l a c i n g i t f o r adoption as E l i n o r o r i g i n a l l y requested. When the  plans f o r the baby were completed, the worker discussed  w i t h E l i n o r her p o s s i b l e placement i n a work home t h a t she knew.  She took E l i n o r f i r s t t o v i s i t the home and meet h e r  would-be employer; discussed with her her f e e l i n g s about the place and i n general moved as c a r e f u l l y a s i i f she had been p l a c i n g a c h i l d , which i n point o f f a c t she was.  As a r e s u l t  of t h i s warm, p r o t e c t i v e , motherly care, which probably met E l i n o r ' s dependency needs f o r the f i r s t time i n her l i f e , E l i n o r "opened up" t o the worker and discussed h e r f e e l i n g s w i t h her, even t e l l i n g  her about the f a t h e r o f her f i r s t c h i l d (a f a c t  she s a i d she never would t e l l h e r own mother).  E l i n o r formed  a good working r e l a t i o n s h i p with her employer who was h e r s e l f an a f f e c t i o n a t e , motherly person. L a t e r E l i n o r went w i t h h e r employers when they went away on a t r i p , but she continued t o  80. w r i t e to the worker r e g u l a r l y and sent money f o r the care of her f i r s t c h i l d .  From an u n r e a l i s t i c , withdrawn g i r l , E l i n o r  changed to a f a i r l y responsible person able to take some i n i t i a t i v e i n planning f o r h e r s e l f and her c h i l d . E l i n o r ' s case i s i n t e r e s t i n g from many aspects.  It  shows the deprived emotional and f i n a n c i a l background so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the unmarried mother known t o the agency:  it  also p o i n t s up the p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s of e a r l y p h y s i c a l maturat i o n and l o n e l i n e s s t h a t p r e c i p i t a t e d her Into an I l l e g i t i m a t e pregnancy.  F i n a l l y , i t p o i n t s the c o n t r a s t s , t o a remarkable  degree, between extremely unfortunate case handling and an e x c e p t i o n a l l y s k i l l e d and s e n s i t i v e approach. Not only does i t take time and s k i l l to p l a n f o r the a f t e r - c a r e of the mother who keeps her c h i l d , but i t takes endless patience and t a c t to make the best p o s s i b l e p l a n f o r the c h i l d f o r whom the mother asks the agency t o p l a n .  The  mother, i f she does hot wish to keep her c h i l d h e r s e l f , wishes to have i t "adopted out".  She seems to know t h a t adoption  s p e l l s the greatest s e c u r i t y f o r her c h i l d .  Consequently i t  comes as a blow when she I s t o l d , as she u s u a l l y - i s , t h a t her c h i l d i s not adoptable and t h a t to give the c h i l d proper guardianship, i t w i l l have t o be made a ward of the agency. This means c a r e f u l work w i t h the unmarried mother to ensure that she understands what i s at stake and t h a t the placement strengthens r a t h e r than loosens the t i e between the mother and the s o c i a l worker.  I n each of the instances so f a r described,  where the mother gave up her baby, i t was made a ward.  Such  81. c h i l d r e n are placed i n f o s t e r homes which may t u r n i n t o adoption homes i f , a t a l a t e r date, the c h i l d proves t o be adoptable on i t s own merits.  Time has proven t h a t many of  these c h i l d r e n develop s u c c e s s f u l l y i f they are placed i n f o s t e r homes e s p e c i a l l y chosen t o meet t h e i r needs.  T h i s again  c a l l s f o r s p e c i a l s k i l l s on the part o f the agency workers t o f i n d appropriate homes f o r these c h i l d r e n so t h a t they may -be assured the best ^possible chance t o reach a happy, healthy maturity. Time o f R e f e r r a l and Worker-Client R e l a t i o n s h i p . Despite a l l the aforementioned d i f f i c u l t i e s , . t h e worker must meantime " c a r r y on!' t o t h e best o f h e r a b i l i t y . She cannot p i c k and choose her c l i e n t s , but takes each g i r l as she comes.  The task i s made i n f i n i t e l y e a s i e r i f t h e worker i s  able t o make contact w i t h the mother e a r l y i n her pregnancy. The worker then i s f r e e t o work slowly and c a r e f u l l y towards b u i l d i n g the f e e l i n g o f mutual t r u s t and confidence so essent i a l t o therapy. I t i s t h e r e f o r e i n t e r e s t i n g t o look a t the 24 cases which comprise the group o f " s p e c i a l problems" i n the l i g h t of the time o f r e f e r r a l and the type of r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d between the worker and c l i e n t .  Exactly half of  these g i r l s were r e f e r r e d t o the Agency f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h o f their children.  Of the remainder, a l l but two g i r l s came t o  the Agency i n the l a s t few weeks o f pregnancy, and one of these was a ward.  Of the 12 g i r l s not known to the Agency u n t i l  a f t e r t h e b i r t h o f the c h i l d , 6 g i r l s kept the c h i l d ; 2 g i r l s  82. had no p l a n and the c h i l d was made a ward; 2 g i r l s placed the c h i l d p r i v a t e l y and 2 g i r l s aborted.  Of t h e 12 g i r l s who were  known t o t h e Agency p r i o r t o the b i r t h o f t h e c h i l d , 6 g i r l s kept t h e i r babies.  The other 6 had no p l a n , so that the c h i l d  was made a ward. *  I t i s obvious t h a t the g i r l who had not been r e f e r r e d to a s o c i a l agency before t h e b i r t h o f h e r c h i l d s u f f e r s a p h y s i c a l as w e l l as an emotional handicap. have the proper p r e n a t a l check-ups.  Often she does not  I t i s noted t h e r e f o r e , as  might be expected, t h a t the g i r l who aborted had not been r  known p r e v i o u s l y to the Agency.  S i m i l a r l y the g i r l who had no  contact w i t h a worker u n t i l a f t e r her c h i l d was born w i l l have been under the g r e a t e s t s t r e s s and s t r a i n t o evolve a p l a n f o r her c h i l d .  She i s the g i r l who i s l i a b l e t o make a " p r i v a t e "  placement.  This means t h a t the baby i s placed haphazardly,  regardless o f i t s background o r that o f t h e adopting parents. Then too, the adopting parents o f t e n lose touch w i t h the natu r a l mother, making i t d i f f i c u l t and sometimes impossible t o o b t a i n t h e consent and i n f o r m a t i o n necessary f o r the completion of the adoption.  Often the adopting parents run the r i s k o f  t a k i n g a baby who may not develop normally e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y or mentally. Freda i s a case i n p o i n t . Freda i s one o f the unmarried mothers i n t h i s group who had had no contact w i t h a s o c i a l agency u n t i l the adopting parents w i t h whom she had p r i v a t e l y placed her baby, submitted t h e i r l e g a l n o t i c e o f i n t e n t i o n t o adopt.  The s o c i a l worker then had to l o c a t e  83. Freda and o b t a i n from her the background i n f o r m a t i o n concerning h e r s e l f and her c h i l d which i s an i n t e g r a l part of the court report submitted p r i o r t o the completion of any adoption.  In  t h i s case the worker found Freda to be " f r i e n d l y but r a t h e r stubborn, e s p e c i a l l y about g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n regarding h e r s e l f and her f a m i l y " .  However, t h i s worker learned that Freda  was  a breed, being of p a r t Spanish and p a r t I n d i a n r a c i a l o r i g i n . Freda had had l i t t l e education, l e a v i n g school at Grade 6 when she was 17 years o f age.  F o l l o w i n g t h i s she came to Vancouver  where she worked as a domestic or chambermaid. ways managed to be s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g .  Freda had a l -  During the summer she would  p i c k b e r r i e s or work i n a cannery and, i n the w i n t e r , come back to Vancouver to work as a^domestic.  She had had no contact  w i t h f a m i l y s i n c e her mother d i e a and claimed to have no knowledge of her f a t h e r ' s whereabouts.  She had managed to save  enough money t o pay her doctor and h o s p i t a l b i l l s , but not enough to support her c h i l d , which she placed p r i v a t e l y when i t was 3 weeks o l d . The p a t e r n i t y o f the c h i l d was not e s t a b l i s h ed.  From the adoption study the worker could not recommend  completion o f the adoption at that time.  As a r e s u l t there was  the disappointment to the adopting parents; the p o s s i b l e i n s e c u r i t y f o r the c h i l d r e s u l t i n g from aheunsuitable placement and f i n a l l y the r e a c t i v a t i o n f o r the mother of a l l the p a i n f u l circumstances surrounding the b i r t h of her c h i l d .  Needless t o  say, the worker d i d not e s t a b l i s h a c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Freda.  A l l t h i s could have been avoided had the g i r l  been r e f e r r e d to the s o c i a l agency e a r l y on i n her pregnancy.  84. From the recording i t d i d not appear as i f the worker was a b l e t o form a meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h any of the remaining g i r l s i n t h i s group.  This may have been due to a  v a r i e t y o f reasons. The f i r s t and most obvious one was the l a t e n e s s of r e f e r r a l t o the s o c i a l worker.  Then too the  emphasis of the worker i n each instance was centered p r i m a r i l y on the planning f o r the c h i l d and did not i n a d d i t i o n focus on the  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the mother.  Where the mother kept her  o h i l d , the tendency was t o close the case as soon as she got a job,  probably because the worker r e a l i z e d that she had been un-  able t o form a c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the mother and t h e r e f o r e d i d not see any value i n prolonging the contact. Grace's case was :the exception r a t h e r than the r u l e . 1  In this  type of case the Agency kept contact w i t h the unmarried mother f o r a p e r i o d of 2^ years.  Grace f i r s t became known t o the  Agency when she came seeking temporary placement f o r her 2 year old  child.  Grace was of I c e l a n d i c r a c i a l o r i g i n .  She was  f i f t h of nine c h i l d r e n brought up on t h e i r parents' P r a i r i e d a i r y farm.  Grace's mother died when her o l d e s t c h i l d was  only 15 years of age and when Grace was 10 years of age.  Her  l i f e was never easy.as she had t o work hard and become more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t than her years warranted.  Grace remained at  home u n t i l her l a t e 'teens, when her f a t h e r movent t o a farm i n the  P r a s e r V a l l e y i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  and kept house f o r him.  Grace moved w i t h him  Soon, however, her f a t h e r remarried -  a widow w i t h seven c h i l d r e n .  Grace's new stepmother was un-  f r i e n d l y so, a t one f e l l swoop, Grace l o s t her p o s i t i o n as  85. c h a t e l a i n e o f her f a t h e r ' s home while she had t o compete f o r h i s a t t e n t i o n w i t h the new wife and her c h i l d r e n . T h i s seemed t o have made Grace most unhappy and l o n e l y and t o have been the s i t u a t i o n that p r e c i p i t a t e d her i n t o . a n i l l e g i t i m a t e pregnancy. Her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r was c a s u a l , and there never was any question of marriage.  Grace's f a t h e r and  stepmother kept her baby and she came i n t o Vancouver t o work. S h o r t l y a f t e r that she met the man who became the f a t h e r o f her second c h i l d *  Marriage was discussed between them, but Grace  never gave i t second thought.  She kept her baby i n a p r i v a t e  boarding home and maintained h e r s e l f and her c h i l d by working as a w a i t r e s s .  F i n a l l y her h e a l t h broke down and i t was at  t h i s point t h a t she came t o the Children's A i d asking help i n c a r i n g f o r her l i t t l e g i r l .  The worker described Grace as a  "drab, unhappy l o o k i n g g i r l " .  She mentioned her "weary, d i s -  couraged look", and noted t h a t "she d i d not look b r i g h t " . Grace's l i t t l e g i r l was taken i n t o non-ward care but Grace hers e l f d i d not get the emotional support she required.  The work- .  er reported, "Grace i s a d i f f i c u l t person t o t a l k t o as she i s a l l prepared to be a n t a g o n i s t i c " . Unfortunately t h i s worker was g e t t i n g a l l o f Grace's l a t e n t h o s t i l i t y projected upon her. The more the worker became concerned f o r the c h i l d , the more a n t a g o n i s t i c Grace became. for  I t was almost as I f she were v y i n g  a t t e n t i o n w i t h her own c h i l d .  Then t o o , w i t h the v a r i o u s  changes i n s t a f f , d i f f e r e n t workers had t o deal with Grace and thus a good working r e l a t i o n s h i p never r e a l l y was formed with her.  Gradually Grace stopped v i s i t i n g her l i t t l e g i r l .  She  86.  did  not keep the agency informed of her plans and i t began to  look as i f the c h i l d would have to be made a ward. c h i l d was apprehended.  F i n a l l y the  Grace at t h i s time was i l l i n h o s p i t a l  and i t f e l l to the l o t of a temporary worker t o d i s c u s s t h i s w i t h her.  The worker went i n w i t h a f r e s h view-point though  admittedly without the pressure of concern ibr plans f o r the child.  She saw Grace as an i n d i v i d u a l and not merely as the  mother of a c h i l d i n need of p r o t e c t i o n .  Then f o r t h e f i r s t  time Grace began to t a l k about h e r s e l f and her f a m i l y and her f e a r s regarding her sickness.  (Most of the background inform-  a t i o n t h a t i s on f i l e was obtained at t h i s time).  The worker  formed a warm, supportive r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Grace and c a r e f u l l y arranged t h a t s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e be paid t o her f o l l o w i n g her discharge from the h o s p i t a l .  Unfortunately t h i s worker' was  only on temporary s t a f f and l e f t the agency at t h i s time.  Thus  f o l l o w i n g the f i n a l i z a t i o n of the adoption plans f o r Grace's l i t t l e g i r l , the case was closed i n the agency. Grace was "on her own".  Once again  Again she was b e r e f t and again she  was l o n e l y , t h i s time f o r her c h i l d and the worker i n whom she had'placed her confidence.  Thus, though the Agency kept con-  t a c t w i t h the unmarried mother f o r *a p e r i o d of Z\ years f o l l o w ing  the i n i t i a l contact, the emphasis w a s . a l l on planning f o r  the  c h i l d and l i t t l e i f any c o n s t r u c t i v e work was accomplished  w i t h the mother. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that the remainder of t h i s group of unmarried mothers of l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e were r e f e r r e d to the  Agency a month or so p r i o r t o the b i r t h of the c h i l d .  Half  87. of these g i r l s kept t h e i r c h i l d r e n and the others^ had no plan and so the c h i l d r e n were made wards.  I t i s interesting at this  point t o examine these cases t o see i f a b e t t e r working r e l a t i o n ship was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h these g i r l s than with the ones d i s cussed p r e v i o u s l y .  Once again the worker i s faced w i t h i n -  numerable d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f the unmarried mothers and i n the main i t cannot be said t h a t any t r u l y cons t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was e s t a b l i s h e d . However i n three i n stances, a very p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was engendered, though not w i t h the worker who made the i n i t i a l contact with the unmarried mother.  I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t such a working b a s i s  was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h E l i n o r who was a p a r t i c u l a r l y reserved g i r l and who needed great warmth and understanding  before her  confidence was won. Beulah too e v e n t u a l l y formed a very r e a l a f f e c t i o n f o r the s o c i a l worker, but she seemed t o have t o vent her h o s t i l i t y on the f i r s t worker w i t h whom she came i n contact. She i s described by t h a t worker as s u l l e n and r e s e n t f u l o f any form o f advice.  However i n her l a t e r contacts w i t h the Agency,  Beulah w r i t e s t o her worker saying that she hopes they w i l l always be f r i e n d s and w r i t e back and f o r t h as she always looks on the worker as her own mother and hopes i t w i l l always be l i k e that.  Both the workers who f i n a l l y achieved a s a t i s f a c t -  ory working r e l a t i o n s h i p with E l i n o r and Beulah, were mature warm-hearted women, w i t h considerable experience and t r a i n i n g behind them.  However, the i n i t i a l contact w i t h the Agency  played i t s part i n paving the way f o r these r e l a t i o n s h i p s u l t i m a t e l y t o be formed.  88. The i i i r d and l a s t example i s that of a g i r l w i t h whom the s o c i a l workers t o i l e d f o r a long time before they f i n a l l y managed to achieve a c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , Hannah, as we s h a l l c a l l her, gave e a r l y i n d i c a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y d i s t u r bance.  Her f a m i l y h i s t o r y i s one long h i s t o r y of economic i n -  s e c u r i t y and i l l h e a l t h .  Hannah's f a t h e r was i l l and  crotchety.  "Ser mother struggled along f o r a number of years on " r e l i e f " c a r i n g f o r her husband and f a m i l y as best she could.  Finally  the burden became too great f o r her to bear, and she l e f t her husband and went to work supporting h e r s e l f as a housekeeper. Hannah was the o l d e s t and " d u l l e s t " o f four c h i l d r e n .  She  always compared unfavorably with her younger s i s t e r , who f u l l advantage of the f a c t , taunting her as being  was  took  "crazy".  Hannah seemed t o be the o u t l e t f o r a l l her mother's f r u s t r a t i o n with l i f e .  When Hannah was about seven years o l d , she commenc-  ed s t e a l i n g .  On examination at the c l i n i c , the p s y c h i a t r i s t  said she was developing an i n f e r i o r i t y complex under her home c o n d i t i o n s and recommended a change of environment i n a Children's A i d f o s t e r home.  This recommendation was not  ed out and Hannah continued t o l i v e with her mother.  carri-  When  Hannah was about 17 years of age, her mother had a nervous breakdown.  The r e s u l t a n t tension and worry appears to have  been the p r e c i p i t a t i n g f a c t o r that l e d s h o r t l y a f t e r to the f i r s t of Hannah's pregnancies.  Her mother had no sympathy f o r  Hannah's predicament and berated her as "sloppy", " c a r e l e s s " , and "brazen", and demanded that she be s t e r i l i z e d . was  As there  some question Hannah might have been promiscuous, her c h i l d  89. was made a ward, and she h e r s e l f returned soon a f t e r the b i r t h t o the home o f her mother.  Hannah soon got Into d i f f i c u l t i e s  with her mother who then asked f o r her committment t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l Mental H o s p i t a l .  Hannah, however, was not committab-  le.  She was not psychotic and had a t one time been given an  I.Q.  r a t i n g o f 92 and a t another the r a t i n g o f " d u l l " normal.  S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s , Hannah l e f t home and again became i l l e g i t imately pregnant and returned t o the Agency f o r a s s i s t a n c e . On admission t o the United Church Home, which was notable a t that time f o r the s t r i c t , p u n i t i v e , and m o r a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e of i t s matron, Hannah was most unhappy and was described as one of the most unpopular g i r l s i n the home. The worker was unable t o e s t a b l i s h any bond w i t h Hannah and commented on her emotional "flatness".  Hannah claimed she had had her second c h i l d because  the Agentfy took away her f i r s t , and announced that she was going t o keep t h i s baby.  Becoming i l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnant  again the next year, she kept that c h i l d a l s o , the Agency r e maining i n a supervisory capacity.  S h o r t l y a f t e r the b i r t h o f  yet a f o u r t h c h i l d , Hannah was arrested by the p o l i c e as she had l e f t h e r c h i l d r e n alone and uncared f o r .  L a t e r she was  allowed out on probation t o the Children's A i d S o c i e t y . shock seemed t o j a r Hannah t o r e a l i t y .  This  Her r e l a t i o n s h i p with  the worker strengthened and her behaviour p r o g r e s s i v e l y impicoved under the close s u p e r v i s i o n o f the Agency.  F i n a l l y Hannah  entered i n t o a stable common-law r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a man who undertook the f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Hannah and h e r c h i l d r e n . On l a s t contact w i t h the Agency the f a m i l y was managing w e l l .  90. The f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g Hannah's p e r s o n a l i t y i n the developmental years of her ohildhood are a l l s e l f - e v i d e n t here as are the progressive  stages leading to the climax of i l l e g i t -  imacy at p h y s i c a l maturity. preventive years.  Also i n d i c a t e d are the gaps i n the  work with the c h i l d when i t i s i n  i t s most formative  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g too to note here yet another instance  where the emotional t e n s i o n o f the mother apparently blunted her i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g .  F i n a l l y , i t i s i l l u m i n a t i n g to  observe that when the i n c e n t i v e was  s u f f i c i e n t l y great,  the  c l i e n t could form and make good use of a p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n ship w i t h the s o c i a l worker. These " s p e c i a l problem" cases c l e a r l y demonstrate a f a c t t h a t i s w e l l known to every s o c i a l worker, namely, that theeworker must take the unmarried mother.as she presents h e r s e l f to the agency.  There i s no question of services being  refused because the unmarried mother might be too  emotionally  disturbed to b e n e f i t from casework s e r v i c e s , or too l i m i t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y to form a t r u l y c o n s t r u c t i v e working r e l a t i o n ship.  Handicapped as the worker i s by the mother's " p e c u l i a r  p e r s o n a l i t y " and l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e , and by the l a c k of r e sources both w i t h i n the f a m i l y and the community, she v a l i a n t l y struggles t o achieve the best s o c i a l s o l u t i o n t o the problem. Her only chance to overcome these handicaps i s to have an e a r l y and continued contact with the unmarried mother.  Even then,  w i t h the heavy caseloads and frequent changes i n workers, i t i s most o f t e n impossible  f o r the worker to e s t a b l i s h a working  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the mother.  There are as yet no  facilities  91. e x i s t i n g i n the community, w i t h the exception of c u s t o d i a l care of the g r o s s l y d e f e c t i v e , to t r a i n and eventually the unmarried mother o f l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e .  rehabilitate  There'is l i t t l e  c o n s t r u c t i v e work being accomplished w i t h these mothers i n view of a l l these d i f f i c u l t i e s , and i t would seem u n t i l such time as the community awakens to i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s matter, that the worker* s r o l e i s n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d t o handling the emergent s i t u a t i o n .  92. Chapter  9.  Case D i f f e r e n c e s : Cases Referred A f t e r C h i l d b i r t h . "Casework treatment that u t i l i z e s both environmental and personal treatment, o f t e n i n combination, has i n i t the p o t e n t i a l s f o r e f f e c t i v e r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f the c l i e n t . Such t r e a t m e n t — b a s e d on p s y c h o l o g i c a l understanding of the c l i e n t ' s needs and d i f f i c u l t i e s , and on our awareness that we are capable of i n f l u e n c i n g (her) by our a t t i t u d e s , our a c t i v i t i e s and our arrangements ( p a r t l y i n an i n h i b i t i n g and p a r t l y i n a promoting way) — o f f e r s (her) the o p p o r t u n i t i e s of achieving a basic readjustment" (Grete L. B i b r i n g , M.D.: " P s y c h i a t r y and S o c i a l Work", Journal o f S o c i a l Casework. June 1947, p. 210); I t was t o be expected that the case worker would experience d i f f i c u l t y i n forming a c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the unmarried mother o f below average i n t e l l i g e n c e .  This  mother* s capacity f o r gaining i n s i g h t i n t o her emotional d i f f i c u l t i e s i s l i m i t e d , as i s her a b i l i t y t o plan o r r e organize her l i f e i n a more s o c i a l l y acceptable manner.  and s a t i s f y i n g  I t i s t h e r e f o r e understandable that such g i r l s  tend t o be r e c i d i v i s t s .  should  However, the s i t u a t i o n i s somewhat  dtifferent with the unmarried mother o f higher i n t e l l i g e n c e . The case worker, though s t i l l faced with a l l the d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n the p e c u l i a r p e r s o n a l i t y of the unmarried mother, here at l e a s t has a chance t o apply her knowledge o f human behaviour t o the conscious p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r p l a y o f her persona l i t y i n r e l a t i o n to t h a t o f her c l i e n t , and t o "work with her" and her problems.  1  1' Bertha C. Reynolds: Learning and Teaching i n the P r a c t i c e of S o c i a l Work. F a r r a r and Rinehart, Inc., New York, Sept.1942, p. 26.  93.  As one a u t h o r i t y has pointed out "the e f f e c t of (such) a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a person i n whom they (the c l i e n t s ) have conf i d e n c e , i s t o g i v e them the support that comes from sharing a burden, to r e l e a s e energies f o r m e r l y t i e d up i n f e a r and h o s t i l i t y , and t o f r e e them to see more than they were able to bear to see before of the meaning of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n " .  1  Hope-  f u l l y , a f t e r experiencing such a r e l a t i o n s h i p , the c l i e n t becomes a b e t t e r i n t e g r a t e d person, and i s enabled t o make a more adequate s o c i a l adjustment. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d a t t h i s p o i n t that of the 66 oases comprising t h i s study, 40 i n v o l v e d r e c i d i v i s t unmarried mothers who were of average i n t e l l i g e n c e o r above average i n t h i s regard.  I n these p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e s , despite casework  treatment from p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers, the unmarried mother did not achieve a "basic readjustment" and continued on i n her maladjusted and unconventional p a t t e r n of l i v i n g . P o s t u l a t i n g here again t h a t t i m i n g i s one o f the c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the formation of the c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n ship that i s the b a s i s of casework treatment, a t t e n t i o n i n these cases has been fooussed on the time when the mother was r e f e r r e d t o the Agency.  The 40 cases t h e r e f o r e have been  d i v i d e d i n t o two groups depending upon whether the mother was r e f e r r e d to the Agency before o r a f t e r the b i r t h of the c h i l d . These cases are then examined to see what casework r e l a t i o n ship was e s t a b l i s h e d , what subsequent plans were made f o r the 1  ibid,  p. 27.  94. mother and c h i l d , and what circumstances surrounded the b i r t h of the next c h i l d . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t h a l f o f these 40 eases were r e f e r r e d t o the Agency a f t e r the b i r t h o f t h e c h i l d ; w h i l e w e l l over h a l f o f the remainder were not r e f e r r e d u n t i l the l a s t month o r so o f pregnancy.  T h i s a t once evidences the  great l a g i n the matter of r e f e r r a l s and the consequent handicap t o casework treatment.  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h e r e f o r e t o  f i n d that out o f the t o t a l 40 cases, 20 g i r l s kept t h e i r babies despite a l l the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t face a mother w i t h an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d i n our present s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e .  I n three  instances the g i r l had no p l a n and the baby was not adoptable, so t h a t the c h i l d was made a ward; privately;  s i x g i r l s placed the c h i l d  nine placed the c h i l d f o r adoption w i t h the co-  operation o f the Agency and i n two cases the c h i l d was dead or aborted.  T h i s again i n d i c a t e s the d i f f i c u l t y the s o c i a l worker  encounters i n working w i t h the mother t o form an adequate p l a n f o r the c h i l d . The d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e second c h i l d shows quite a d i f f e r e n t emphasis.  Only nine g i r l s kept the second baby,  f i v e o f whom had already kept the f i r s t c h i l d ;  f i v e g i r l s had  no p l a n and the c h i l d , not being deemed adoptable, was made a ward;  f o u r g i r l s requested t h a t the c h i l d be taken i n non-  ward care ( t h i s turned i n t o ward care i n three i n s t a n c e s ) ; f i f t e e n g i r l s placed.the c h i l d p r i v a t e l y and seven placed the c h i l d f o r adoption w i t h t h e co-operation o f the agency.  It is  understandable t h a t fewer g i r l s would attempt t o keep the  95. second c h i l d as the f i n a n c i a l cost o f m a i n t a i n i n g two c h i l d r e n would be evident t o a l l but the most u n r e a l i s t i c g i r l .  However  the sharp increase i n the number o f p r i v a t e placements would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f g e t t i n g these g i r l s t o accept and t r u s t the s e r v i c e o f the Agency. Jane was one o f the r e c i d i v i s t unmarried mothers of average o r above average i n t e l l i g e n c e who was not r e f e r r e d t o the s o c i a l agency u n t i l a f t e r the c h i l d was already born and who decided t o keep h e r baby.  She f i r s t became known t o the  Agency i n 1939 when her c h i l d was born i n the General H o s p i t a l . Jane h e r s e l f was born i n one o f the P r a i r i e Provinces, the i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d o f h e r Jewish mother and I r i s h C a t h o l i c father.  Her. mother l a t e r married but t h i s marriage turned out  unhappily and she d r i f t e d i n t o p r o s t i t u t i o n .  Jane was appre-  hended when she was s i x years o l d and made a ward o f an agency i n another p r o v i n c e . S h o r t l y a f t e r Jane was taken i n t o care she developed pneumonia and then s c a r l e t fever.  When she r e -  covered from t h i s she was placed I n a f o s t e r home and remained there f o r t e n years.  I t i s not known why Jane l e f t t h i s home  but a f t e r that she j u s t went from one f o s t e r home t o another u h t i l she came o f age.  She had somehow "kept t r a c k " of h e r  mother's whereabouts through the years, and as soon as she was of age, Jane joined her mother i n Vancouver.  Shortly after  a r r i v i n g there she became i l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnant as t h e r e s u l t , of a very casual r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r .  She  was confined i n h o s p i t a l and a t that point r e f e r r e d t o t h e Agency.  F o l l o w i n g t h i s , Jane was admitted t o the maternity  96.  home -where she  settled  down c o n t e n t e d l y  " n o t h i n g t o worry about at adoption placement, necessary  present".  affirming that  she  had  A s J a n e was a s k i n g  the worker immediately attempted to get  b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m h e r a n d a s was  at  t h a t t i m e , a worker from the  to  i n t e r v i e w her f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about the p u t a t i v e  the  customary  C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n  called  father.  At  t h i s p o i n t t h e w o r k e r r e e o r d s t h a t w h i l e J a n e was i n t e r e s t e d discussing plans with her,  she was n o t  a t i o n about her r e l a t i v e s . the worker,  t i m e , had t o t e l l adoption. flected  anxious to give inform-  P a t e r n i t y was n o t  i n keeping w i t h the Jane t h a t h e r  accepted  procedures  l y a s k i n g a d o p t i o n and t h e  i f Jane kept  "It  was f e l t  the  that  is  and t h e  home p l a c e m e n t  m o t h e r was a l s o v e r y j u d g m e n t a l ;  seemed  difficult,  re-  at  " s h e was h e r m o t h e r " ,  some r e s p e c t f o r h e r " b e c a u s e o f  to  worker should  the present  not time  Jane's  when J a n e r e b e l l e d a t  even i f the m a t e r n a l  it  consistent-  due t o h e r p a s t b e h a v i o u r a n d l a c k o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " .  reminded her t h a t ,  for  child,  Jane kept  v e r y d e f i n i t e l y t h a t mother  have the p r i v i l e g e o f f o s t e r  visitor  and  worker had e q u a l l y c o n s i s t e n t l y  J a n e was u r g e d t o k e e p h e r b a b y ,  comments:  at  The o l d m o r a l i s t i c t h i n k i n g t h e n p r e v a l e n t  w o u l d be a " s t a b l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e o n h e r " .  refuse.  established,  c h i l d c o u l d n o t be p l a c e d  i n t h e w o r k e r s comment t h a t  in  this  the  grandmother  a n d she " s h o u l d  show  this.  J a n e p l a c e d h e r b a b y i n a p r i v a t e b o a r d i n g home a n d got h e r s e l f a job as a domestic at later  the Agency had t o take t h e  $12.00 p e r m o n t h .  baby i n t o non-ward  S i x months care.  G r a d u a l l y Jane d r i f t e d o u t o f t o u c h w i t h h e r c h i l d and  the  97.  Agency and a year-and-a-half a f t e r i t s birth, a l l contact was l o s t w i t h Jane and the c h i l d was made a ward.  A few months  a f t e r t h i s , Jane again became known t o the Agency when she was r e f e r r e d f o r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h her second i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d . T h i s time Jane was u s i n g an a l i a s .  She gave the worker a story  of her l i f e which was a complete fantasy, claiming i n part that she was an "adopted c h i l d " .  3iane l a t e r placed t h i s baby  p r i v a t e l y f o r adoption. Here i s seen an unmarried mother who h e r s e l f was an illegitimate child.  She was exposed t o some s o r d i d scenes i n  h e r e e a r l y childhood and suffered a c t u a l p h y s i c a l neglect'.  In  a d d i t i o n to t h i s she was suddenly separated from her mother at age 6 and then t e n years l a t e r suffered a s i m i l a r rude separa t i o n a t age 16 from the f o s t e r home I n which she had been s t a y i n g f o r the past ten years.  Jane had a s t r o n g l y ambivalent  t i e to her mother, w i t h the weight on the side of h o s t i l i t y and s h o r t l y a f t e r r e j o i n i n g her, she followed her mother's p a t t e r n by becoming i l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnant.  The care Jane got i n the  maternity home seemed to meet her dependency needs and she f e l t contented and secure, but without much sense of r e a l i t y since she d i d not f e e l the need to p l a n f o r her f u t u r e . Jane's mother was very judgmental, p r o j e c t i n g her very mixed f e e l i n g s regarding her own past conduct on t o her daughter.  The s o c i a l worker by r e f l e c t i n g the m o r a l i s t i c pat-  t e r n of t h i n k i n g customary a t that time, e f f e c t i v e l y a l i e n a t e d Jane by reminding her o f her "duty" to her mother. could not accept and t r u s t the worker.  Thus Jane  Then too Jane was  98. f o r c e d i n t o a more adequate maternal r o l e than she was capable of maintaining and her o l d h o s t i l i t i e s , i n s e c u r i t i e s and depeney. needs were never resolved.  I t would seem i n t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r instanoe that Jane's o r i g i n a l pregnancy aggravated the d i f f i c u l t i e s that r e s u l t e d i n her becoming i l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnant a second and t h i r d time. Kay was another o f the mothers who d i d not become known t o the Agenoy u n t i l a f t e r the b i r t h o f her c h i l d . She, l i k e Jane, kept her f i r s t baby, but the case handling here d i f f e r s markedly and e x e m p l i f i e s w e l l the new approach i n p r o f e s s i o n a l work.  I t covers a space o f two years.  i l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnant a t 16 years o f age.  Kay became  She was the only  daughter o f f o u r c h i l d r e n born to a working man and h i s w i f e who l i v e d i n a remote l i t t l e town on Vancouver I s l a n d .  Kay's  f a t h e r and mother could not get along together so they separated.  The three boys l i v e d w i t h the f a t h e r w h i l e Kay l i v e d and  worked w i t h her mother as a domestic.  When Kay f i r s t came t o  the a t t e n t i o n o f the Agency, she was i n the S a l v a t i o n Army M a t e r n i t y Home w i t h her c h i l d already three weeks o l d . The worker met her and observed t h a t she was young and unsophisticated.  Her attachment t o the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r , who was a  s a i l o r , a l l e g e d l y had been most c a s u a l ,  Kay d i d not know h i s  name, o r where he l i v e d , and claimed t h a t he had raped her at a party.  The worker had no chance to break through the g i r l ' s  reserve, as Kay was determined t o leave the Home and r e t u r n t o her mother w i t h her baby.  However, the worker d i d a l l that was  p o s s i b l e , g e t t i n g her t i c k e t s , t a k i n g her to the boat, and r e -  99. f e r r i n g her t o the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n f o r continued v i s i o n a t h e r home.  super-  Two years l a t e r , Kay came v o l u n t a r i l y t o  the Agency asking f i n a n c i a l assistance f o r h e r s e l f and c h i l d . As t h a t was not the f u n c t i o n o f t h e Agency she was r e f e r r e d to the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department f o r t h i s s e r v i c e .  They  promptly r e f e r r e d her back again t o the Children's A i d as they had discovered she was again pregnant.  Kay had been ashamed to  t e l l the Agency worker o f her second pregnancy and was i n dread l e s t her mother l e a r n of i t .  E v i d e n t l y Kay's mother had grown  t i r e d o f earning her l i v i n g as a domestic and had l e f t the s m a l l town where she p r e v i o u s l y l i v e d and gone t o Yancouver. There she was soon l i v i n g w i t h a man i n a eommon-law r e l a t i o n ship.  Kay had come t o Yancouver w i t h her mother and while she  maintained  contact w i t h her, she could not t o l e r a t e her mother's  r e l a t i o n s h i p with a man other than her f a t h e r .  Kay t h e r e f o r e  l i v e d s e p a r a t e l y and maintained h e r s e l f and h e r c h i l d as best she could.  Kay was vague about her second pregnancy, but e v i d -  e n t l y h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r had once more been most c a s u a l .  Kay d i d not know h i s name, " b e l i e v e d " i n t e r -  course had taken p l a c e , and " b e l i e v e d " contraceptives had been used.  She f e l t she would l i k e to keep her c h i l d but knew she  couldn't manage two c h i l d r e n and so was asking adoption placement. F o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s time, one Agency worker was able t o work w i t h Kay from the very f i r s t .  This worker was able to  overcome Kay's i n i t i a l aloofness and h o s t i l i t y , and help her t o pjjtan the care f o r her f i r s t c h i l d .  She a s s i s t e d h e r to make  100.  the necessary arrangements f o r the b i r t h of t h e second c h i l d and gave her a great deal o f emotional support a t that time. F o l l o w i n g the b i r t h of t h e c h i l d , she was able to i n t e r p r e t t o Kay, the need f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c i n order t o determine whether o r not the c h i l d would be considered adoptable.  F i n a l l y , when the c h i l d was not deemed  adoptable i n view of the l a c k o f p a t e r n i t y and the mother's apparent i n s t a b i l i t y , the worker c a r e f u l l y explained court procedure and i n t e r p r e t e d what wardship would mean f o r t h e c h i l d . Out o f a l l t h i s continuous supportive contact, a good c l i e n t worker r e l a t i o n s h i p was e s t a b l i s h e d and Kay f e l t secure enough to s t a r t t a l k i n g about her f e e l i n g s about having given up her c h i l d and her resentment towards her mother f o r the way she had t r e a t e d her f a t h e r . Here the worker was able to i n t e r p r e t some of the r e a l i t y s i t u a t i o n w i t h regard t o Kay's f a t h e r , who had had a severe mental breakdown, and t o show Kay t h a t her mother had not deserted him but had r e a l l y t r i e d her best t o help him. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n was a l s o given to Kay's mother of some h f h e r daughter's f e e l i n g s i n t h i s regard and as a r e s u l t the t i e between Kay and her mother strengthened.  Kay e v e n t u a l l y moved  out of the worker's d i s t r i c t , but the worker kept contact w i t h her, t h i n k i n g t h a t she needed continuing casework s e r v i c e s .  At  the c l o s e of the case, Kay was making a b e t t e r adjustment t o l i f e and had a more r e a l i s t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n of the t r u e s i t u a t i o n between her parents. From the i n i t i a l contact w i t h t h i s g i r l and her subsequent pregnancy, she c e r t a i n l y appeared to be deep i n fantasy  101.  l i f e and remote from r e a l i t y .  The progress f o r forming a mean-  i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the caseworker seemed poor.  Yet t h i s  was accomplished over a p e r i o d of continued supportive help during which Kay's immediate a n x i e t i e s were d e a l t w i t h .  When  she t r u s t e d t h e worker s u f f i c i e n t l y , Kay was able t o express the  f e e l i n g o f h o s t i l i t y she had towards her mother f o r t h e  mother's apparent d e s e r t i o n o f Kay's f a t h e r .  The worker  accepted t h e f a c t that people do have these f e e l i n g s , but p o i n t ed out the r e a l i t y s i t u a t i o n which Kay up t o then had ignored. F o l l o w i n g t h i s c a t h a r s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , Kay appeared t o mature and become able to make a much more adequate adjustment to  life.  Thus while Kay's o r i g i n a l pregnanoy d i d l i t t l e but  complicate her already mixed-up emotions, the casework treatment she received a t the b i r t h o f h e r second c h i l d enabled her t o gain some i n s i g h t and resolve some of h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s . Lucy provides an example o f a s i t u a t i o n where t h e pathology i s t o o great f o r therapy. The worker recognized t h i s and knew that a l l she could do was supportive casework. A c c o r d i n g l y , she gave t o the mother a l l the warmth and emotiona l support that she could, and saved what was p o s s i b l e from a bad s i t u a t i o n .  Lucy was o r i g i n a l l y r e f e r r e d from the govern-  ment c l i n i c as she was i l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnant and c o n s i d e r i n g an a b o r t i o n .  She formed an easy surface r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the  worker and showed considerable i n s i g h t i n t o t h e cause of her d i f f i c u l t i e s but was unable t o do anything about them.  Lucy's  f a t h e r had been k i l l e d when he was 30 years of age. T h i s l e f t Lucy's mother w i t h two small c h i l d r e n t o care f o r . The boy  102. was sent t o l i v e w i t h h i s f a t h e r * s people but Lucy stayed w i t h her mother.  Lucy's mother was i r r e s p o n s i b l e and immature, and  having been awarded s u f f i c i e n t compensation f o r the death of her husband t o take care o f her immediate needs, she moved from p l a c e t o plaoe as the s p i r i t w i l l e d .  Lucy a t one time stated  b i t t e r l y that "they had moved around so much i t wasn't funny". Lucy's home and school l i f e i n consequence were very broken. Lucy's mother l i v e d i n common-law r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r a period o f time and a t o t h e r times seemed t o have been promiscuous i n her relationships.  Lucy witnessed sex p r a c t i c e s constantly as she  shared a s l e e p i n g room with her mother. her f i r s t  Lucy h e r s e l f had had  sex experience i n her e a r l y 'teens. Her r e l a t i o n s  w i t h men had no emotional meaning to her and she t o l d the worker, "she d i d p r o s t i t u t e but d i d mot thke money . . . d r i n k and sex gave her an escape from her problems, but the next day she was depressed".  I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e , the unmarried  mother was too s i c k a person t o helped much by casework. F o r t u n a t e l y however, the worker was able t o get i n touch with Lucy's grandmother, who was the one strength i n the whole s o r r y situation. child.  I t was arranged that she would care f o r Lucy's  However i t was impossible to work out any constructive  plans f o r Lucy h e r s e l f .  She had been too badly damaged by her  experiences and too weakened p h y s i c a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y t o r e adjust h e r s e l f . ing.  She d r i f t e d back i n t o her o l d l i f e o f p r o s t i t u t  W i t h i n f o u r months Lucy was pregnant again but t h i s time  she ended her pregnancy by a b o r t i o n . l o s t contact w i t h Lucy.  A f t e r t h i s the Agency  103.  Margaret's experience i s worth n o t i n g a t t i i i s p o i n t . Margaret had i n t e r m i t t e n t contact w i t h the Agency over a p e r i o d of 18 years.  She f i r s t became known when she came i n t o the  o f f i c e asking help i n planning f o r h e r 10 months o l d i l l e g i t imate c h i l d .  Margaret was then 19 years of age. She was born  i n England but came out t o Canada as a small c h i l d .  There i s  not much on f i l e about h e r f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s but she s t a t e d she could not p o s s i b l y take her baby home because o f her stepfather's attitude.  Margaret had completed grade 10 a t 16 years  of age and had then taken a course which enabled h e r t o work i n a doctor's o f f i c e .  She t o l d a s t o r y o f having entered a  p r i v a t e maternity "home" where the woman who r a n i t forced her to make a p r i v a t e settlement w i t h the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r f o r $75.00.  This money was then appropriated by the owner o f the  "home*"for the baby's b o a r d .  1  Shortly thereafter the putative  f a t h e r married and since then Margaret had been maintaining the child.  Margaret asked t h e help o f t h e Agency i n p l a c i n g her  c h i l d i n a f o s t e r home.  However these were depression times,  and Margaret was the l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f an outside municip a l i t y who would not underwrite maintenance f o r the care of her c h i l d because o f t h e general shortage o f funds.  Consequently  the Agency was not able to do much planning f o r Margaret o r her child. closed.  Margaret placed t h e baby p r i v a t e l y and the case was Nothing f u r t h e r was known o f Margaret u n t i l 8 years  1 A f t e r being i n v e s t i g a t e d , the "home" was closed and i t was as a r e s u l t o f t h i s t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n was passed compelling a l l such p l a c e s t o be l i c e n s e d .  104. l a t e r when i t was reported t h a t she had deserted her i l l e g i t imate c h i l d i n h o s p i t a l .  Margaret took her c h i l d from h o s p i t a l  and then deserted i t again.  The baby was then made a ward of  the C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d as by t h i s time, Margaret had changed her mind about h e r r e l i g i o n and was p r o f e s s i n g t o be a Roman C a t h o l i c . Nothing f u r t h e r was known o f Margaret by e i t h e r Agency f o r a period of s i x years, when a neglect comp l a i n t was received regarding Margaret's two c h i l d r e n .  Margar-  et during t h i s p e r i o d had been l i v i n g i n a common-law r e l a t i o n ship which had produced two c h i l d r e n .  Following the putative  f a t h e r ' s death, Margaret placed the c h i l d r e n i n a p r i v a t e f o s t e r home and then disappeared.  The c h i l d r e n were apprehend-  ed, pending contact with t h e mother, but permitted to remain i n the home where the mother had placed them.  A year and a h a l f  l a t e r Margaret contacted the agency regarding her c h i l d r e n . She had married i n the meantime and had another c h i l d , and stated she was now able t o care f o r the c h i l d r e n she had p r e v i o u s l y deserted.  The home was r e f e r r e d t o the C h i l d Wel-  f a r e D i v i s i o n f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n and on t h e i r recommendation, the c h i l d r e n were returned on probation t o t h e i r mother.  A  year l a t e r , the wardship o f the c h i l d r e n was rescinded and the case closed. Margaret's case i s i n t e r e s t i n g from s e v e r a l angles. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e u s u a l complexities inherent, i n d e a l i n g with any s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g an unmarried mother, the workers were beset by a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f t e c h n i c a l i t i e s .  F i r s t the  m u n i c i p a l i t y i n which Margaret had e s t a b l i s h e d l e g a l residence,  105. and which was therefore responsible f o r the cost of any f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e she might r e q u i r e , would not underwrite t h e cost of t a k i n g her c h i l d i n t o non-ward care.  Thus the Agency  worker was blocked by t e c h n i c a l i t i e s and unable t o help the mother when she asked f o r s h e l t e r f o r h e r c h i l d .  Margaret's  change of r e l i g i o n , secondly, n e c e s s i t a t e d a r e f e r r a l t o the C a t h o l i c Children's Agency, though she l a t e r professed t o be no longer o f that f a i t h and came back again t o the o r i g i n a l Agency.  F i n a l l y , by changing h e r abode, she came under the  supervision  o f t h e C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n . A l l these f a c t o r s  made i t extremely d i f f i c u l t , f o r t h e workers concerned, t o help the unmarried mother resolve her d i f f i c u l t i e s and readjust her mode o f l i f e .  Indeed i t would appear that i t was the  mother's marriage that was the r e a l l y s t a b i l i z i n g f a c t o r . While she may have matured through t h i s m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , the p r o b a b i l i t y i s that had i t d i s s o l v e d , t h e mother would soon have reverted t o her o l d p a t t e r n o f behavior.  The workers  involved made the best they could o f a complex s i t u a t i o n and d i d an e x c e l l e n t piece o f co-operative work, e s p e c i a l l y i n the s u p e r v i s i o n of the l a t e r c h i l d r e n born t o the mother. Nora was one o f t h e two g i r l s who d i d not attempt t o keep her c h i l d .  She had i n s t e a d arranged a p r i v a t e placement  through her doctor.  However t h i s plan m i s c a r r i e d because when  the c h i l d was born i t was deformed by a large f a c i a l birthmark and a club f o o t .  I t was a t t h i s p o i n t that the mother became  known t o the Agency, as Nora, who had entered the h o s p i t a l as a p r i v a t e p a t i e n t , had been discharged before her c h i l d was ready  106. to leave the h o s p i t a l .  She had then gone "up the coast" where  work was plentifu.1 and wages high, t h i n k i n g that the doctor would make a l l the necessary plans f o r t h e c h i l d .  By t h i s time  the c h i l d was a month o l d and the h o s p i t a l was p r e s s i n g f o r i t s discharge.  A c c o r d i n g l y the c h i l d had to be apprehended and  taken i n t o care by the Agency. When Nora was l o c a t e d by the C h i l d Welfare  Division,  i t was discovered that she was despondent and unhappy and f e e l ing very g u i l t y about her c h i l d .  She d i d not want to keep the  baby, but wanted to assure h e r s e l f t h a t i t got good care.  It  was learned that Nora's mother was Czechoslovakian and her f a t h e r of I r i s h r a c i a l o r i g i n .  They were farmers l i v i n g i n the  Okanagan V a l l e y i n the i n t e r i o r o f the province.  Nora was the  o l d e s t of seven c h i l d r e n . She had l e f t school at 14 years of age to help at home.  She l a t e r t o l d the worker t h a t she had  never been happy at home, though she could not give any s p e c i f i c reasons f o r t h i s .  She l e f t home at 16 years of age and went  i n t o one of the nearby towns i n the i n t e r i o r where she worked as a c l e r k i n a. s t o r e .  However she could not get along w i t h  the other g i r l s , though again she d i d not know why, and was l o n e l y and unhappy.  Soon she l e f t f o r Vancouver where she  obtained work as a w a i t r e s s .  There she d r i f t e d i n t o a r e l a t i o n -  ship w i t h a s a i l o r she "picked up" i n one of the lower c l a s s cafes.  Nora claimed that he wanted t o marry her but she d i d  not want to " s e t t l e down", even though she f e l t she would never be happy u n t i l she had a home o f her own.  Nora's mother knew  of her pregnancy and had o f f e r e d t o take the baby but Nora d i d  107. not want her t o have I t . The d i s t r i c t worker formed a good working r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Nora, but Nora could not s e t t l e .  She  came back t o Vancouver and a t t h i s p o i n t Nora had her f i r s t personal contact with the Agency who had been c a r i n g f o r her c h i l d a l l t h i s time.  Nora p r o j e c t e d a l l h e r f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t  regarding her c h i l d on t o the Agency and was very h o s t i l e t o the Agency worker. well.  Unfortunately h e r c h i l d was not developing  I t could not be considered adoptable and i t was a l s o a  d i f f i c u l t c h i l d t o p l a c e I n a permanent f o s t e r home as I t p e r i o d i c a l l y developed unaccountably  high f e v e r .  Naturally the  Agency saw placement w i t h the r e l a t i v e s as the best p l a n f o r the c h i l d , e s p e c i a l l y as Nora's mother had expressed her w i l l ingness t o care f o r i t .  This planning offcourse only made Nora  a l l the more h o s t i l e t o the Agency worker.  F i n a l l y , when the  c h i l d was 1^ years o f age and a f t e r i t had had s e v e r a l attacks of high f e v e r , i t was examined a t t h e C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c where i t was diagnosed as an imbecile and admitted t o c u s t o d i a l care a t Essondale Mental H o s p i t a l . Three months l a t e r the h o s p i t a l reported t h a t Nora had given b i r t h t o another illegitimate child.  This time a new worker v i s i t e d Nora.  found t h a t Nora had degenerated.  She  She had become hard l o o k i n g ,  a p p l i e d make-up l a v i s h l y , and was t o a l l i n t e n t s and purposes, now a woman o f t h e s t r e e t s . Agency worker.  Nora was very h o s t i l e t o the  She repudiated a l l help from the Agency claim-  ing t h a t she was now of the Roman C a t h o l i c f a i t h and wished t o have nothing more t o do w i t h the Agency.  She was a c c o r d i n g l y  r e f e r r e d t o t h e Ather Agency who now have h e r c h i l d i n care.  108. T h i s ease e x e m p l i f i e s a p a r t i c u l a r l y unhappy s i t u a t i o n f o r both t h e unmarried mother and the worker.  Because the  doctor d i d not r e f e r the mother t o a s o c i a l agency, she went ahead w i t h plans f o r the p r i v a t e placement of h e r baby.  This  r e s u l t e d i n the mother i n c u r r i n g a l a r g e h o s p i t a l b i l l and then f i n a l l y being faced w i t h the bald f a c t t h a t h e r baby had had to be apprehended.  Because the mother had moved around so much  the agency had great d i f f i c u l t y i n determining her l e g a l residence and the worker spent much time and e f f o r t to establ i s h this.  Then too the c h i l d presented a worrisome problem  to the worker who was anxious to see t h a t i t got the best p o s s i b l e care.  Nora had great d i f f i c u l t y w i t h her i n t e r -  personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s and although she d i d confide i n the d i s t r i c t worker i n the up-coast d i s t r i c t , the r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d was too tenuous t o withstand the t r a n s f e r t o a worker i n another agency.  T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y so when the  agency concerned was c a r i n g f o r h e r s i c k c h i l d and was repres e n t a t i v e t o her o f a l l the shame and g u i l t she wished t o f o r g e t . .The opportunity o f doing c o n s t r u c t i v e work w i t h Nora was l o s t because of the l a c k o f e a r l y r e f e r r a l t o t h e agency. Paula was one of the mothers who placed her c h i l d privately.  She was r e f e r r e d t o the Agency when her baby was  about 2 months o l d . Paula was described by the worker as a husky, p l a c i d peasant g i r l of Russian r a c i a l o r i g i n .  She was  very r e t i c e n t , d i d not wish any help and stated t h a t she had a l l plans made.  The worker v i s i t e d again only to f i n d t h a t  Paula had disappeared and l e f t no forwarding address.  109. Consequently t h e Agency had no recourse but t o c l o s e i t s case. I t was reopened 1_- years l a t e r when the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r approached the agency regarding plans f o r Paula's second i l l e g i t i m a t e child.  E v i d e n t l y Paula had l e f t the c h i l d w i t h him a f t e r i t s  b i r t h and he had placed and replaced i t i n innumerable p r i v a t e boarding homes before seeking the a s s i s t a n c e Of the Agency. The c h i l d was made a ward and three years l a t e r was s t i l l showing signs of r e s i d u a l i n s e c u r i t y .  I t was very shy and slow  at t a l k i n g but i t was hoped t h a t e v e n t u a l l y i t would be able t o be adopted by i t s f o s t e r parents.  Meantime, the Agency has been  unable t o t r a c e t h e n a t u r a l mother f o r h e r consent t o the adoption.  The mother's f i r s t c h i l d which she placed p r i v a t e l y ,  l a t e r came t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the Agency when the adopting parents wished t o complete the adoption.  I t was then found  t h a t the c h i l d had been placed i n a most u n s u i t a b l e home and the agency had to supervise the c h i l d i n the home from a prot e c t i o n angle.  The dangers i n such a s i t u a t i o n are s e l f - e v i d e n t .  I f the c h i l d has t o be removed from the home i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t f o r i t t o adjust i n another.  I f i t remains, i t w i l l  never be i n too secure a s i t u a t i o n .  Meantime a l l trawe i s  gone o f the n a t u r a l mother. Ranhild placed her c h i l d f o r adoption i n a home approved by t h e agency.  She was r e f e r r e d by an agency i n  another province f o r plans f o r her 5 week o l d c h i l d . was o f D a n i s h - S c o t t i s h r a c i a l o r i g i n .  Ranhild  Her parents were hard  working respectable people who owned a home i n a good r e s i d e n t i a l district.  The standards i n the home were h i g h and Ranhild  110. had a s t r i c t up-bringing.  R a n h i l d graduated from high school  and then took a business course. . When her mother died a f t e r a l i n g e r i n g i l l n e s s o f cancer, Ranhild joined the a i r f o r c e .  She  was placed as a nurses' a i d and then posted t o Eastern Canada. The sudden change from the r e s t r i c t e d environment o f home appeared t o be the f a c t o r t h a t p r e c i p i t a t e d Ranhild i n t o an i l l e g i t i m a t e pregnancy.  The p u t a t i v e f a t h e r was a casual  acquaintance whom she met when on a week-end leave and whom she never saw again.  As R a n h i l d expressed the d e s i r e t o have her  c h i l d adopted and r e t u r n home t o Vancouver, arrangements were made f o r t h i s by the a i r f o r c e and the Eastern s o c i a l agency w i t h t h e co-operation o f the l o c a l agency.  The agency worker  described Ranhild as a buxom, round-faced g i r l w i t h a ready smile and a f r i e n d l y l i k e a b l e manner.  I t was f e l t that she  would make a "good" adjustment a f t e r she returned t o her home. Accordingly plans were completed w i t h i n 6 weeks f o r the adoption of the baby and Ranhild returned t o her home and the case was closed.  A year and a h a l f l a t e r , the agency received l e g a l  n o t i c e from Ranhild's aunt o f her i n t e n t i o n t o adopt Ranhild's second i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d .  When the worker c a l l e d t o o b t a i n  the necessary adoption i n f o r m a t i o n , i t was discovered t h a t no one had known Ranhild was pregnant.  She had worked as a t a x i  d r i v e r r i g h t up t o the l a s t , r e t u r n i n g home one n i g h t at mid-• n i g h t , and g i v i n g b i r t h t o her c h i l d a t home. T h i s time, when the worker v i s i t e d she was only able to make a very s u p e r f i c i a l contact w i t h R a n h i l d , who was very much on the defensive.  She  would give no information regarding the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r and she .  111. wished no assistance f o r h e r s e l f .  Accordingly, the worker  obtained as much background information f o r the adoption as she could and contact with Ranhild was then terminated. Here the Agency worker was handicapped by the lateness of r e f e r r a l and a l s o by the f a c t that too many s o c i a l workers had been i n contact w i t h the mother p r i o r to r e f e r r a l .  The  mother never grew to t r u s t or confide i n any one worker, as her contact, i n s t e a d of being a l l channelled through one person, d i f f u s e d over s e v e r l .  was  Then too, Ranhild appeared t o be a much  more adequate person than she r e a l l y was,  so contact w i t h her  was terminated w i t h the p l a c i n g of the baby f o r adoption i n s t e a d of being maintained to help Ranhild w i t h her readjustment to civilian  life. These cases c l e a r l y show the extremely  complicated  s i t u a t i o n s t h a t faced the s o c i a l worker who was attempting to help'these unmarried mothers.  I t i s evident t h a t i n such  i n s t a n c e s , the r e f e r r a l of the mother a f t e r the c h i l d i s already born merely increased the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t already confronted the s o c i a l worker.  I n the m a j o r i t y of these instances the  s o c i a l worker was unable t o e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p of mutual confidence and co-operation;  l i t t l e or no plans were able to  be made f o r the mother's r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and i n general i t could be s t a t e d that the circumstances  surrounding t t h e f i r s t  pregnancy a l l served to increase the unmarried mother's difficulties.  112. Chapter Case  10.  Differences.  Cases Referred Before  Childbirth.  " S o c i a l work f o r unmarried mothers, demands a l l that general s o c i a l work c a l l s f o r , p l u s s p e c i a l s k i l l s i n analyzing the needs of c h i l d r e n born out of wedlock and i n d e a l i n g with the mother whose a t t i t u d e may be complicated by g u i l t . " (Mary S. Labaree: "Unmarried Parenthood tinder the S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A c t , p. 9. I n the previous chapter, i t was observed t h a t the case worker was u n s u c c e s s f u l i n forming a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the unmarried mother who was r e f e r r e d t o h e r f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h o f her c h i l d .  T h i s i s as might have been expected i n view of the  general p e r s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n o f t h e unmarried mother, and subs t a n t i a t e s the b e l i e f that the time o f r e f e r r a l has a d i r e c t bearing on the formation of a c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the worker and c l i e n t .  The formation o f such a r e l a t i o n s h i p  has a twofold purpose.  F i r s t the case worker endeavours t o help  the unmarried mother reach a wise d e c i s i o n f o r h e r s e l f and h e r child.  Secondly she attempts t o make the experience as  c o n s t r u c t i v e as p o s s i b l e so t h a t i t may r e s u l t i n some emotiona l growth f o r the mother.  The optimum c o n d i t i o n f o r a c h i e v i n g  t h i s g o a l I s reached when the unmarried mother i s i n t e l l i g e n t , and when she i s r e f e r r e d t o the case worker a t em e a r l y stage i n her pregnancy. I t i s now prop'osed t o examine the case h i s t o r i e s o f those mothers o f average o r above average i n t e l l i g e n c e who were  113. r e f e r r e d t o the Agency p r i o r t o the b i r t h o f the c h i l d . w i l l be r e c a l l e d that there were 21 such mother.  It  Well over h a l f  of these, however, were not r e f e r r e d u n t i l t h e l a s t month o r so of pregnancy.  Ten o f these mothers kept t h e i r c h i l d r e n ; 3  made p r i v a t e placements., and 6 placed f o r adoption w i t h the co-operation o f the agency.  Of the remaining mothers, 1 had no  p l a n and the c h i l d was made a ward, w h i l e t h e other mother l o s t her c h i l d by a b o r t i o n . Sarah was 24 years of age when she came t o the Agency. She was t h e middle c h i l d of a f a m i l y o f f o u r . Her mother and f a t h e r were o f S c o t t i s h r a c i a l o r i g i n and were decent, hard working people.  Sarah*s mother was very a c t i v e i n her church  and was a member on t h e board of t h e church* s maternity home. Sarah was not fond of her mother, who was quite s t r i c t ^ but was very attached t o her f a t h e r . He was away from home a great deal as h i s job e n t a i l e d much t r a v e l l i n g , and was indulgent w i t h Sarah when he was a t home.  Sarah, although she t e s t e d i n  the superior feroup of general i n t e l l i g e n c e , had only had 2 years a t high school and had worked as a domestic and a ward maid i n a c h i l d r e n ' s h o s p i t a l p r i o r to j o i n i n g the a i r f o r c e . Sarah described h e r s e l f as always having been "crazy" about babies and wanting one of her own.  Before Sarah was t r a n s -  f e r r e d t o an eastern base, she had r e l a t i o n s w i t h an o l d e r married man who had daughters as o l d as h e r s e l f .  Here i t  seemed as i f Sarah were d e l i b e r a t e l y f l a u n t i n g her mother, both w i t h respect t o her "rescue" work among "unfortunate" g i r l s , and by having a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a man reminiscent of her own  114.  father. Sarah was r e f e r r e d t o the Agency when she was 7§ months pregnant.  At the time o f r e f e r r a l she was ambivalent  about her wishes f o r t h e c h i l d but quite anxious t o get f i n a n c i a l support from t h e p u t a t i v e f a t h e r .  She was a c c o r d i n g l y r e -  f e r r e d t o the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n as t h a t was the o f f i c e that took such a c t i o n .  On r e t u r n i n g t o the agency, she was  assigned t o a temporary worker.  T h i s worker had t o overcome the  handicap of t h e e a r l i e r procedures and Sarah was j u s t beginning to have confidence i n her, when the worker's time a t the Agency expired. the  U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s coincided w i t h Sarah's entering  h o s p i t a l f o r the b i r t h of h e r c h i l d , and was a t j u s t the  worst p s y c h o l o g i c a l time f o r a change of workers t o take place. Sarah was given great acceptance and warmth, but never much opportunity t o t a l k about h e r f a m i l y .  She made a t e n t a t i v e  attempt, once saying that she wished her mother could have taken her landlady's a t t i t u d e about her pregnancy.  To t h i s t h e  worker r e p l i e d that i t was unfortunate but t h a t her mother could not help f e e l i n g the way she d i d . Sarah h a s t i l y s a i d she r e a l i z e d that and d i d not blame her mother.  At t h i s point the  record s t a t e s " V i s i t o r encouraged the a t t i t u d e " . the  I n other words,  worker r e i n f o r c e d Sarah's f e e l i n g that i t was "bad" t o f e e l  as she d i d about her mother.  Sarah was of superior i n t e l l i g e n c e  and presumably could have been given some i n s i g h t i n t o h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s , but the worker's a t t i t u d e caused her t o repress a l l her f e e l i n g that needed t o be drained o f f before she could s t a r t t o f u n c t i o n i n a more adequate manner.  P o i n t s such as  115. t h i s heighten the r e a l i z a t i o n of the s k i l l and sense o f t i m i n g needed t o d e a l w i t h these g i r l s . A f t e r the b i r t h of her c h i l d , Sarah decided t o keep i t , and moved out of the c i t y , t a k i n g a housekeeping job t o maintain h e r s e l f and her c h i l d .  "When she returned to the c i t y  a year or so l a t e r , she again began to see the man who had been the f a t h e r of her f i r s t c h i l d . became pregnant.  A f t e r a time she once more  She h e r s e l f d i d not come to the agency f o r  help, but was r e f e r r e d f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h of her c h i l d i n hospital.  This time another worker saw Sarah, who again wished  to keep her c h i l d .  However, Sarah was r e a l i s t i c enough to  know i t was impossible f o r her to maintain the two c h i l d r e n so she asked f o r adoption placement.  The p u t a t i v e f a t h e r gave  background information f o r adoption purposes and the baby was placed f o r adoption.  F o l l o w i n g t h i s the case was  the agency had no f u r t h e r contact with the mother.  closed and I t would  seem here that w h i l e Sarah received assistance i n planning f o r her c h i l d , she h e r s e l f never experienced a s u f f i c i e n t l y close r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a worker to gain any i n s i g h t i n t o her  own  d i f f i c u l t i e s or to make a more s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment t o l i f e . T i l l i e was  r e f e r r e d to Agency when 5 months pregnant,  at the age o f s i x t e e n .  The youngest of a f a m i l y o f f o u r , she  was brought up by her f a t h e r , a weak, inadequate person who  had  struggled u n s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r years to maintain h i s f a m i l y . T i l l i e ' s mother had died when she was 14, a f t e r having been a h e l p l e s s i n v a l i d f o r 10 years p r i o r t o her death. i n one of the most s q u a l i d parts of the c i t y .  The home was  T i l l i e had  left  116. school i n grade 9. An o l d school report rated her as having an i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient of 110 but commented that she was pale and t i r e d as a r e s u l t of l a t e r h o u r s and poor hygiene.  After  her mother's death, T i l l i e l e f t school and stayed home t o keep house f o r her f a t h e r . .She "went around" w i t h a boy a year o r so o l d e r than h e r s e l f and i t was through him that she became pregnant. his  The youth wished t o marry her but the Judge refused  consent on the grounds that they were t o o young t o marry.  T i l l i e soon a f t e r t h i s q u a r r e l l e d with the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r . She became q u i t e u n c o n t r o l l a b l e , s t a y i n g out very l a t e a t n i g h t , but h e r f a t h e r p r o j e c t e d a l l the blame f o r t h i s on the " J u s t i c e " who would not l e t her marry.  F i n a l l y T i l l i e was picked up by  the p o l i c e and lodged i n the Detention Home.  The Agency arrang-  ed f o r her release and saw that she was placed i n the Maternity Home.  T i l l i e , needless t o say, d i d not l i k e the r u l e s and  r e g u l a t i o n s o f the home, and seemed t o have absorbed her father's a t t i t u d e to authority. she could get nowhere  The s o c i a l worker found t h a t  w i t h T i l l i e and the record s t a t e s :  "Mother i s s u p e r f i c i a l l y f r i e n d l y and accepting of v i s i t o r ' s i n t e r e s t , but one gets the f e e l i n g she i s bored w i t h any s o c i a l worker".  T i l l i e kept h e r baby and h e r f a t h e r encouraged her i n  t h i s p l a n and helped her t o care f o r the c h i l d .  The.social  worker "stood by", attempting t o do what she could, as there was not s u f f i c i e n t t a n g i b l e court evidence t o apprehend the c h i l d , though i t was obvious t o the worker that n e i t h e r T i l l i e nor her f a t h e r would be able t o p r o p e r l y care f o r a c h i l d .  L a t e r the  c h i l d was placed i n a p r i v a t e boarding home where i t died o f  117. pneumonia.  T i l l i e became pregnant a second time but d i d not  seek t h e a s s i s t a n c e of the agency and placed her baby p r i v a t e l y . This was one instance where the r e f e r r a l , though made before the b i r t h of the baby, was too l a t e f o r the s o c i a l worker t o accomplish anything c o n s t r u c t i v e w i t h the unmarried mother.  Tillie s 1  s i t u a t i o n should have been picked up during  her childhood years when i t was reported t h a t she was p a l e and n  t i r e d and s u f f e r i n g from l a t e hours and poor hygiene".  Un-  s a t i s f a c t o r y as i t seems, the s o c i a l worker here could do nothing  but "stand b$" i n a n e a r l y impossible s i t u a t i o n . U r s u l a represents another type of g i r l t o whom the  worker could only give l i m i t e d s e r v i c e . U r s u l a was 31 years of age when she came t o the a t t e n t i o n o f t h e Agency.  At that time  she came seeking help i n planning temporary care f o r her 2^ month o l d son*  She was again i l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnant but d i d  not divulge that f a c t t o the worker a t that time. of English-Scotch descent.  U r s u l a was  She was the o l d e s t of four c h i l d r e n .  She described her f a m i l y as a l l being "strong i n d i v i d u a l i s t s , independent and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t " .  Her f a t h e r was a graduate  engineer and h e r mother had been a school teacher.  Ursula  h e r s e l f was a smart,' s o p h i s t i c a t e d , well-mannered person.  She  had a d i r e c t frank approach, an e x c e l l e n t education, and was supporting h e r s e l f i n her own business.  Ursula had l e f t her  home i n the East s h o r t l y a f t e r the b i r t h o f her f i r s t c h i l d and had been independent of her f a m i l y since t h a t time,  she stated  she had "no admiration" f o r the f a t h e r of h e r coming c h i l d , and that she wanted i t placed f o r adoption.  She had a l l her plans  118. cut  and d r i e d and I n b u s i n e s s - l i k e f a s h i o n , U r s u l a used the  Agency f o r t h e service i t could give her but r e p e l l e d any attempt on t h e worker's part t o form a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . There was l i t t l e l e f t f o r the Agency t o do f o r U r s u l a and the case was closed on t h e completion o f the adoption. By c o n t r a s t , Velma presents a s i t u a t i o n that i s o n l y too  f a m i l i a r t o t h e s o c i a l worker. Velma was 19 years o f age  when she came t o the Agency seeking help f o r t h e c h i l d which ~ she  was expecting i n 6 weeks time.  Her parents were peasants  who came from the Ukraine t o s e t t l e i n the p r a i r i e land o f Canada and Velma was one o f eight c h i l d r e n .  The parents were  i l l i t e r a t e and d i d not a s s i m i l a t e the c u l t u r e o f the new country, being content t o farm the land and r a i s e t h e i r f a m i l y .  Velma  went as f a r as grade 9 i n the p r a i r i e school; then, when she was about 17 years of age, "struck out" f o r Vancouver, where she  obtained employment as a w a i t r e s s .  Soon she became i n -  volved w i t h a s a i l o r whom she thought was going t o marry her. However, t h i s d i d not work out, and although the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r admitted p a t e r n i t y , he would not marry Velma. When Velma came t o the Agency, the worker described h e r as a plump, n i c e l y mannered U k r a i n i a n g i r l who appeared frank and outspoken and  anxious f o r advice and help.  Velma decided t o keep h e r  baby and the emphasis o f the s o c i a l worker f e l l upon e s t a b l i s h ing  p a t e r n i t y and o b t a i n i n g maintenance f o r the c h i l d .  Velma  did  not adjust w e l l a f t e r the b i r t h o f her c h i l d , however, and  w i t h i n a few months appeared a t the Agency, again pregnant. This time Velma had a d i f f e r e n t worker who described Velma as  119. f e e l i n g depressed and alone. d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n her.  She stated that her f a m i l y were  Velma, despite the faot that she was  already $100 i n debt f o r the care of h e r f i r s t c h i l d , d e t e r mined a l s o t o keep her second c h i l d .  Unfortunately, due t o  crowded conditions a t the maternity home, the worker could not arrange f o r Velma t o go there f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h o f the c h i l d . Velma accordingly made arrangements t o stay w i t h another unmarried mother, of questionable repute.  Velma obtained  social  allowance and attempted t o struggle along, c a r i n g f o r h e r s e l f and her two c h i l d r e n . She soon d r i f t e d out. o f the c i t y and out of the knowledge o f the Agency.  The next t h a t i s known of,  Velma i s that she deserted h e r c h i l d r e n i n another c i t y and they had t o be apprehended and taken i n t o care.  At the l a s t  known contact, Velma had married a negro and had become and inmate of a " d i s o r d e r l y house". This case c l e a r l y demonstrated the need f o r continued c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e t o the unmarried mother who decided t o keep her baby.  I t i s imperative that some p l a n be worked out, such  as a p r i v a t e boarding home where the mother could stay w i t h her c h i l d and not be l e f t to the prey o f economic i n s e c u r i t y , bad housing and poor companionship. I f there i s to be any work done t o prevent such damage t o p e r s o n a l i t y as has been observed i n the cases under d i s c u s s i o n , much study should be given t o the formative years of a c h i l d ' s l i f e .  T h i s i s the time when p e r s o n a l i t y i s  malleable, and when warning s i g n a l s of i t s disturbance can be picked up, and h o p e f u l l y r e c t i f i e d before too great damage i s  120. done.  Wilma's case i s presented w i t h t h i s i n mind.  I t appears  t o o f f e r some prognostic value t o the c h i l d r e n ' s worker and t o p o i n t out "damage s i g n a l s " , which may or may not lead t o an i l l e g i t i m a t e pregnancy. Wilaa was the i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d of a self-confessed prostitute.  She was made a ward a t 15 months o f age and placed  i n a f o s t e r home.  This i s one o f t h e rare cases where t h e c h i l d  was able t o remain i n the one f o s t e r home continuously.  The  f o s t e r mother was an o l d e r woman with a grown-up son and daughter, and, from a l l appearances, she s p o i l e d and over protected Wilma.  At age 6 years, when taken to t h e Guidance  C l i n i c , Wilma was reported t o be " v a i n , domineering and s e l f willed".  I t was added she was " i n a good f o s t e r home, except  that the f o s t e r mother was i n c l i n e d t o s p o i l her".  When Wilma  went t o school, she got i n t o d i f f i c u l t i e s with t h e teacher and played t r u a n t , running away t o a place where t h e son o f the f o s t e r mother was working.  The f o s t e r mother sided w i t h Wilma  against the school, blaming the school a u t h o r i t i e s f o r not understanding  the c h i l d ; and there i s some i n d i c a t i o n that the  son, a man i n h i s l a t e t h i r t i e s o r e a r l y f o r t i e s , was g r e a t l y attached t o Wilma and that he a l s o Indulged and s p o i l e d her. I n t h e e a r l y 'teens, Wilma was a "behaviour problem" at school and there was some suggestion that she had been molested by an o l d e r man, though the f o s t e r mother refused t o believe t h i s .  However, Wilma became pregnant, and gave b i r t h  to her f i r s t c h i l d s h o r t l y a f t e r her s i x t e e n t h birthday.  While  Wilma was i n h o s p i t a l , t h e f o s t e r mother d i e d , and Wilma was  121.  very upset, reproaching h e r s e l f as the cause o f the death.  The  f o s t e r mother's son and daughter accepted Wilma back i n the home, but, a month l a t e r , t h e son married and brought h i s w i f e , a widow w i t h a c h i l d o f her own, i n t o the home.  This arrange-  ment, as might have been expected, d i d not work out successfully.  Wilma was a n t a g o n i s t i c t o the son's new w i f e and c h i l d ,  and the son took Wilma's p a r t , blaming h i s w i f e and s i s t e r f o r being unsympathetic to her. T h i s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g case from s e v e r a l angles.  One  wonders how much i n s e c u r i t y Wilma had absorbed during the f i f t e e n o r s i x t e e n months she was w i t h her own mother. f o s t e r mother provided a "good" home.  The  P h y s i c a l l y Wilma was w e l l  cared f o r but the succession o f workers who v i s i t e d were unable to p i c k up the undertones o f emotions i n the home.  I t would  seem t h a t Wilma's a t t i t u d e t o her teachers a t school, i n d i c a t e d that she had no s o l i d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e f o s t e r mother, but she had a p e t u l a n t , demanding, over indulged a t t i t u d e to her. To t h i s was added the over-attachment to the f o s t e r mother's son, who may, c o n s c i o u s l y o r unconsciously, have over-stimulated her s e x u a l l y . I n d i c a t i o n s of p o o r l y worked out f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s were evident e a r l y i n her h i s t o r y but came to a climax w i t h the onset o f adolescence. three i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d r e n .  To date, Wilma has had  The record i s long and complete,  f i l l e d w i t h d e t a i l s regarding h e a l t h , school adjustment, and other f a c t o r s .  Many workers have been i n and out of the p i c t u r e  but none has succeeded i n forming a r e l a t i o n s h i p with the g i r l . I t i s d o u b t f u l now i f one could ever be e s t a b l i s h e d , and i t  122.  would seem almost i n e v i t a b l e that Wilma would continue i n her mother's path.  The record i s f u l l o f warning s i g n a l s during  the g i r l ' s development and shows a t t i t u d e s which may be overlooked i n the young c h i l d , but which p r e c i p i t a t e her i n t o d i f f i c u l t i e s when she matures p h y s i c a l l y . No attempt has been made i n t h i s study to do more than i n d i c a t e the f i n a l p l a n made f o r the c h i l d , but i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o note the number of p r i v a t e arrangements that were made.  This undoubtedly would occur as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of  the f a c t t h a t many of the c h i l d r e n were judged to be  "not  adoptable" because of the f a c t t h a t the mother was a "repeater", and no p a t e r n i t y was  established.  I t would seem t h a t  "adoption" c a r r i e s w i t h i t a f e e l i n g of s e c u r i t y f o r the unmarried mother, and that any other p l a n f i l l s her w i t h unc e r t a i n t y and d r i v e s her i n t o p l a c i n g her baby " p r i v a t e l y " f o r adoption.  Such was the ease w i t h Winnifred.  Winnifred was a  "repeater" and because p a t e r n i t y could not be e s t a b l i s h e d , the worker had to i n t e r p r e t to the mother the need f o r  examination  at the C h i l d Guidance c l i n i c i n order t o a s s i s t i n making plans f o r the placement of her c h i l d . r e s i s t a n c e to t h i s p l a n . considered a b o r t i o n .  The worker immediately  got  Winnifred had at f i r s t s e r i o u s l y  She had l a t e r discarded t h i s idea and  decided to go ahead and have her baby and place i t f o r adoption. Now, to W i n n i f r e d , a l l she had gone through appeared t o be f o r nothing.  The worker would not place her baby f o r adoption!  The worker too was completely "stymied".  Here was a baby whose  mother showed i n s t a b i l i t y and f o r whom p a t e r n i t y was  not  1  1£3. established.  Thus beoause the worker was g e t t i n g "nowhere"  w i t h Winnifred she became more and more concerned t o get a " s o c i a l - ' h i s t o r y " as background information i n helping t o place the baby.  Winnifred countered by p l a c i n g h e r c h i l d p r i v a t e l y  and saying to the worker "The adopting mother was s a t i s f i e d w i t h the baby and wouldn't give i t up, no matter how many babies Winnifred had had!" I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r instance t h e l a c k o f understanding between Winnifred and t h e worker made i n t e r p r e t a t i o n regarding Agency p o l i c y impossible, and the worker's concern over the eventual f a t e of the c h i l d made her over-anxious t o o b t a i n a l l the information p o s s i b l e , thus antagonizing the c l i e n t .  There  are many examples o f such s i t u a t i o n s throughout the records, showing how the worker's emphasis on the establishment o f p a t e r n i t y before she had e s t a b l i s h e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the mother, a l i e n a t e d the mother and l e d her to a p r i v a t e placement, almost as i f i t were t o " s p i t e " the worker. Examples of More Resent Cases. I n going through the f i l e s t o c u l l out the r e c i d i v i s t s , a few unmarried mothers were noted who had f i r s t been known t o the Agency i n 1946, and had since t h a t time become repeaters.  I t was though that i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o look  at one o r two.of these cases, which were chosen a t random, i n order t o see i f i t might be p o s s i b l e t o p o i n t up c o n t r a s t s between the o l d e r cases and these most recent ones.  Of the  s i x mothers, f i v e were judged t o be o f average i n t e l l i g e n c e  124. (by c l i n i c t e s t i n g ) and one was d e f i n i t e l y subnormal.  One  was  a ward and had been known t o the Agency f o r some time but the others were r e f e r r e d i n the l a s t month o r so o f pregnancy. Mable had a n e h i l d i n January 1946, and another i n February of 1948.  She came from a broken home and had had a  most unhappy childhood. Mabel's step-mother married her f a t h e r when Mabel was only 2 years o l d , and Mabel claimed t h a t she had o n l y learned t h i s very r e c e n t l y .  T h i s may have been the  very f a c t o r that p r e c i p i t a t e d the i l l e g i t i m a t e pregnancy. When f i r s t known to the Agency, Mabel was helped t o get a l i g h t house-work job through the Employment Service.  As the time of  confinement drew near, she was admitted to the United Church Home. T h i s , according t o Agency procedure, meant a change of workers.  At that time the matron of the home was a most  demanding person, who h e r s e l f required very d e l i c a t e handling. I t was considered from the Agency standpoint t h a t work could be b e t t e r channeled through one worker who alone was responsibl e f o r the unmarried mothers i n the home.  Indeed, i n t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r instance, shanging workers at t h i s most c r i t i c a l time did.not apparently upset Mabel, who formed a c t u a l l y a b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the new worker.  I n other cases a,  change of workers at such a time has proved d i s a s t r o u s , as a subsequent example I l l u s t r a t e s .  I n the home, Mabel had no  plans f o r the f u t u r e — n o r d i d she want to make any.  She  was  content to have her needs taken care o f , and was sure that the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r would marry her.  When he was traced and i t was  discovered herwas a married man, Mabel reacted by repudiating  125. the baby v i o l e n t l y and wanted to have i t placed f o r adoption. However, when the c h i l d was born, her fantasy of having a home and husband was  so great that Mabel said she d i d not b e l i e v e  the army records which s a i d the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r was She was  sure he would r e t u r n t o marry her.  make her r e a l i s t i c , but t o no a v a i l .  married.  The worker t r i e d to  Mabel was determined to  keep the c h i l d , and so was a s s i s t e d to f i n d a p r i v a t e boarding home t o care f o r her and her c h i l d .  Once, again she was  perfect-  l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h the s o l u t i o n , claiming she was only " w a i t i n g " f o r the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r to come. Here was a g i r l whose dependency wishes were so great t h a t she almost seemed to have i d e n t i f i e d h e r s e l f w i t h her c h i l d , and t o have been l o o k i n g f o r . a l o v i n g " f a t h e r " person to take care of her.  Mabel r e l a t e d on a very surface l e v e l to  the t h i r d worker, but was s t i l l i n a "dream" world when the case was  closed on her return t o the home of a married s i s t e r .  The next time Mabel came t o the a t t e n t i o n of the Agency on r e f e r r a l from the h o s p i t a l , where she had already given b i r t h to her second e h i l d .  A new worker interviewed her and found  Mabel s e c l u s i v e and shy, and wrapped i n day dreams. wished was t o meet some man who children.  A l l she  would take care of her and  her  She had t o l d the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r of her pregnancy,  hoping he would marry her, but once more she had been " l e t down". Mabel knew she could not care f o r two c h i l d r e n , and wanted t h i s one made a ward, so that " i f she got married she could get i t back". who  Obviously t h i s was a very deprived and very s i c k g i r l ,  had r e t r e a t e d f a r from r e a l i t y i n t o a fantasy l i f e , where  126. she was loved and cherished.  I t i s doubtful i f anything short  of p s y c h i a t r i c care could have helped Mabel. Dorothea gave b i r t h t o her f i r s t c h i l d when she was 20 years o l d . She h e r s e l f came t o the Agency f o r assistance when she was about seven months pregnant.  I n speaking t o the  intake worker, Dorothea was most upset. Her eyes f i l l e d  with  t e a r s and she s a i d she f e l t ashamed o f being seen I n her condition.  L a t e r Dorothea was seen by her d i s t r i c t worker, who  was a very warm, motherly person.  To her Dorothea spoke o f h e r  home, which was i n a remote area i n t h e northern p a r t o f t h e province.  She t o l d o f her l o n e l y l i f e t h e r e , where she had  l i v e d w i t h her mother and stepfather.  Dorothea's mother had  come t o Canada from Bohemia and married a farmer; when he died two years l a t e r she had two c h i l d r e n .  She then kept house f o r  a man over t h i r t y years o l d e r than h e r s e l f and he married her. Dorothea was the c h i l d o f t h i s marriage, which was apparently a happy one.  When Dorothea's f a t h e r died he l e f t her mother  f i n a n c i a l l y w e l l taken care o f . She, soon, however, entered i n t o a common-law r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a man who squandered most of t h i s money.  She l a t e r married a man who drank h e a v i l y and  w i t h whom she was most unhappy.  F i n a l l y she broke down mental-  l y and had to be admitted t o Essondale Mental H o s p i t a l , the diagnosis there being given as p a r a n o i d a l schizophrenia. Dorothea had a good r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h her mother, had stayed w i t h her f a i t h f u l l y , and was upset when she had t o be committed. Dorothea had l i v e d a l o n e l y l i f e , w i t h a mother who was "queer" and had l i t t l e o r no companionship, as the nearest neighbor was  127. three m i l e s away. s i x years.  She had known the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r f o r about  He had wanted t o marry her about three years  p r e v i o u s l y , but she was too young.  He then went i n t o the army,  but Dorothea met him again by chance and began t o go out w i t h him.  When she became pregnant, Dorothea was a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n  "he would not l e t her down". As was then customary, Dorothea was seen by a worker a t the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n , as she wished him approached regarding p a t e r n i t y . When contacted, i t was discovered the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r was married w i t h c h i l d r e n o f h i s own. However, he admitted p a t e r n i t y , and agreed t o pay a c e r t a i n amount each month.  He d i d not keep h i s bargain, and  Dorothea p r o j e c t e d a l l her resentment on t o the C h i l d Welfare Division. Here i s a g i r l who l o s t her f a t h e r when a c h i l d , and who had l e d a very l o n e l y l i f e i n a remote area, i n the company f o r the most p a r t o f her mother, who was mentally unwell a great deal o f the time.  I t would t h e r e f o r e seem as i f Dorothea  were l i k e l y to be emotionally a very s i c k g i r l .  1  She was able,  however, t o form a good r e l a t i o n s h i p with a C h i l d r e n ' s A i d worker who t a l k e d w i t h her about the approaching  child birth,  took her out shopping i n her noon-hours, and was g e n e r a l l y a warm, comforting, motherly person.  Then Dorothea was moved t o a  1 " I n general, i t may be said that a c h i l d w i t h a s c h i z o i d parent, may be l i a b l e t o become a behaviour problem i n cases o f close mother-son o r mother-daughter r e l a t i o n s h i p . . . when the mother becomes mentally s i c k o r when she i s removed t o h o s p i t a l . " L a u r e t t a Bender: "Behaviour Problems i n the C h i l d r e n of Psychotic and C r i m i n a l Parents", Genetic Psychology Monograph. May 1937, V o l . 19, No. 2, p. 234.  128. work home outside of the worker's d i s t r i c t and the case was t r a n s f e r r e d t o another worker.  Dorothea would come i n t o the  Agency t o see her new worker and would ask f o r the o l d one, wanting t o show her her c h i l d .  Gradually things became more  d i f f i c u l t ; maintenance from the p u t a t i v e f a t h e r was not f o r t h coming, Dorothea l o s t her mother s u b s t i t u t e , and the record shows her as saying b i t t e r l y "no one wanted t o help h e r — s h e was blamed f o r everything and had to face her r e s p o n s i b i l i t y alone".  Towards the end o f 1947, the h o s p i t a l t o l d the Agency  that Dorothea was again i l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnant and asking f o r a t h e r a p e u t i c a b o r t i o n , and r e f u s i n g r e f e r r a l t o the Children's Aid.  When f i n a l l y Dorothea had to come t o them f o r help, she  was seen by s t i l l another worker.  At a l a t e r date Dorothea was  examined by a p s y c h i a t r i s t who found she had a "mixed anxiety s t a t e coupled w i t h depression".  She i s now i n r e c e i p t of  S o c i a l Allowance, u s i n g an a l i a s t o cover the f a c t that she i s unmarried.  She i s f u l l of f e e l i n g s of g u i l t and i n f e r i o r i t y ,  and showing marked i n d i c a t i o n s of persecutory trends. There i s no doubt that t h i s g i r l was s u f f e r i n g from deep-seated d i f f i c u l t i e s .  There i s a l s o no doubt that l o s i n g  her contact w i t h the worker who was a mother s u b s t i t u t e t o her added t o Dorothea's d i f f i c u l t i e s .  I t would seem imperative  that a very u a r e f u l e v a l u a t i o n of the p e r s o n a l i t y pattern of the unmarried mother and of the r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between her and her worker should be made whenever there i s any question of a t r a n s f e r t o another worker, and t h a t p o l i c y here should be f l e x i b l e and adjusted to the needs of the c l i e n t as f a r as  129. humanly p o s s i b l e . These cases again exemplify the t y p i c a l l y complex problems that face the s o c i a l worker who deals w i t h unmarried mothers.  I t i s notable t h a t i n those instances where t h e  mother was r e f e r r e d before the b i r t h of t h e c h i l d , many of t h e r e f e r r a l s were very c l o s e t o the time when the c h i l d would be born.  The r e f e r r a l was t h e r e f o r e too l a t e to a s s i s t the s o c i a l  worker m a t e r i a l l y i n achieving her goal with the unmarried mother.  I n these cases, as i n those r e f e r r e d a f t e r the b i r t h  of t h e c h i l d , i t i s evident t h a t the s o c i a l worker was unable to e s t a b l i s h a good working r e l a t i o n s h i p ; few plans were able to be made f o r the m o t h e r s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and i n general i t ' would appear again t h a t the circumstances surrounding the f i r s t pregnancy served t o i n c r e a s e , r a t h e r than diminish, the mother's difficulties.  tl  Part  Chapter  11.  IT.  E v a l u a t i o n and  Conclusion.  130. Chapter 11. E v a l u a t i o n and Conclusion. "Evaluation looks forward i n p r o g n o s i s — o r r e f l e c t i v e l y back on the success o r f a i l u r e of.treatment". (Bertha Gapen Reynolds: Learning and Teaching I n The P r a c t i c e of S o c i a l Work, p. 95T) I f there i s one t h i n g t h a t i s a common denominator i n a l l these cases of r e c i d i v i s t s , i t i s the f a c t that each and every one of t h e g i r l s have severe p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f i c u l t i e s . These d i f f i c u l t i e s appear to have a r i s e n from u n s a t i s f a c t o r y p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the e a r l y years o f l i f e .  Super-  imposed on these as c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s are economic insecuri t y , i l l h e a l t h , and poor environment.  Sometimes the f a c t o r  that p r e c i p i t a t e s the g i r l i n t o a n - i l l e g i t i m a t e pregnancy may be her emergence i n t o p h y s i c a l maturity, a casual a t t r a c t i o n , the l o s s o f a parent, o r sudden release from a harsh r e s t r i c t i v e environment.  Whatever the combination o f f a c t o r s , they a l l  "add up" t o a g i r l w i t h a disturbed p e r s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n . I f the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the unmarried mother i s disturbed to the point where she i s d e f i n i t e l y psychotic, the community then recognizees the problem and p s y c h i a t r i c help i s obtained f o r her.  However, u s u a l l y the mother's behaviour, while  socially  unsound, i s not such as would make the l a y person see the n e c e s s i t y of p s y c h i a t r i c help. These are complicated circumstances.  The p u b l i c ,  while i t has come a long way i n modifying i t s censorious a t t i t u d e t o i l l e g i t i m a c y , has not yet achieved f u l l understand-  131. i n g of i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s .  Consequently the resources i n the  community, both f i n a n c i a l and otherwise, f o r the treatment  and  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the unmarried mother are d e f i n i t e l y l i m i t e d . At. present the s o c i a l agency i s bearing the f u l l weight o f the problem.  I t cannot choose only those g i r l s whom i t t h i n k s can  be helped by casework treatment, but must take the g i r l s as they come, and work with them, and the community resources as they are. I n the cases discussed i n the l a t t e r part of t h i s study, i t was t o be expected t h a t the unmarried mother of lower than average i n t e l l i g e n c e would not be m a t e r i a l l y a s s i s t e d by casework treatment and so would eventually become a r e c i d i v i s t . However, i t seemed reasonable to t h i n k t h a t w i t h a mother of higher i n t e l l i g e n c e , a d i f f e r e n t s t o r y would be t o l d .  This  has not proven to be the case, and i n p r a c t i c e i t would appear that the degree of i n t e l l i g e n c e i s not the major p o i n t f a c i n g the s o c i a l worker who deals w i t h the unmarried mother.  The  a c t u a l d i f f i c u l t y i s much more i n t a n g i b l e , and because of the synopsized form of the recordings used, i t has been d i f f i c u l t t o assess.  I t seems, however, t o l i e b a s i c a l l y I n the weakness  of the a c t u a l contact of the unmarried mother w i t h the s o c i a l worker.  This weakness i n t u r n appears to be due to a number  of f a c t o r s . One of the most obvious f a c t o r s which weakens the worker's contact w i t h the unmarried mother i s the lateness of her r e f e r r a l t o the s o c i a l agency.  This can o n l y be corrected  by c a r e f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to the general p u b l i c of the needs of  132.  the unmarried mother and the s e r v i c e s the s o c i a l agency renders on h e r behalf.  The g i r l s themselves need b e t t e r information.  To date s o c i a l agencies have been n o t i c e a b l y chary o f p u b l i c i t y because of the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of t h e i r work.  However much can  be learned from the way the p u b l i c i s being educated i n other f i e l d s , and semi-professional a r t i c l e s released t o t h e press and the b e t t e r popular magazines would seem t o o f f e r an e x c e l l e n t channel f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n regarding the background and needs of the unmarried mother.  E d u c a t i o n a l r a d i o drama and  f i l m s under the auspices o f a mental h e a l t h program would reach a l l s e c t i o n s of the country, and would p o r t r a y the s i t u a t i o n vividly. Another f a c t o r which weakens t h e contact w i t h these g i r l s i s t h e " p e c u l i a r p e r s o n a l i t y " o f the unmarried mother herself.  Each case that has been discussed has pointed up the  great d i f f i c u l t y the worker has i n g e t t i n g the unmarried mother to accept and t r u s t her.  The whole a t t i t u d e of a g i r l i n  t r o u b l e i a h o s t i l e and wary, and i t takes consummate s k i l l on the part o f the s o c i a l worker t o break down t h i s d i s t r u s t . I t i s g r a d u a l l y being r e a l i z e d that i t i s wise f o r the worker t o "make haste s l o w l y " ; i n p a r t i c u l a r , that premature questioning regarding i n t i m a t e f a c t s i n the mother's l i f e only increase h e r h o s t i l i t y and d i s t r u s t .  At the time the cases discussed i n  t h i s study were a c t i v e , i t was the p r e v a i l i n g p o l i c y that the unmarried mother had t o be interviewed by a worker from the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n " t o e s t a b l i s h the f a c t s of p a t e r n i t y " . Thus, the Agency worker would no sooner make h e r contact with  133. the g i r l than i t wohld be necessary t o r e f e r the mother to another s o c i a l worker i n another agency.  The mother would then  have to d e t a i l the most intimate f a c t s i n her personal r e l a t i o n ships to a person who was an u t t e r stranger to her.  I t began  to be r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s p o l i c y was extremely poor, and i t has since been abandoned, so t h a t the s o c i a l worker now has one l e s s handicap, to overcome i n making her contact w i t h the unmarried mother. The emphasis on the need f o r the establishment  of  p a t e r n i t y of the c h i l d was a r e a l p o i n t of pressure with the s o c i a l worker because she knew t h a t , i f i t were not e s t a b l i s h e d , the chances f o r p l a c i n g the c h i l d permanently were considerably diminished, e s p e c i a l l y i f (as i n the present examples) the mother was a "repeater".  I t i s now being recognized that the  mother w i l l give t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n without pressure to o b t a i n i t i f her present needs are met and she f e e l s comfortable secure w i t h the*worker.  and  Accordingly the emphasis has swung  away from the immediate need to e s t a b l i s h p a t e r n i t y .  This has  had the r e s u l t a l s o of making the s o c i a l worker f e e l much more relaxed i n her i n i t i a l contact w i t h the unmarried mother. Another f a c t o r which weakened the worker's contact, w i t h the unmarried mother was the l a c k of a v a i l a b l e p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n and guidance.  I t has been t r u l y s a i d that "the  art of s o c i a l work i s learned by experience i l l u m i n e d by t h e o r y " ! I n the cases under d i s c u s s i o n , the f a c i l i t i e s of the C h i l d 1 Bertha Capen Reynolds: of S o c i a l Work, p. 95.  Leamning and Teaching i n the P r a c t i c e  134. Guidance C l i n i c were requested p r i m a r i l y as a means of assessi n g the i n t e l l i g e n c e of the unmarried mother, and, on that b a s i s , to then ask whether or not the c h i l d could be considered adoptable.  I n no case was an assessment made of the g i r l ' s  p e r s o n a l i t y needs w i t h a view t o her p o s s i b l e treatment and r e habilitation.  This i s understandable, "in view of the pressure  of work and the dearth of p s y c h i a t r i s t s during the war years, and w i l l be r e c t i f i e d as more p s y c h i a t r i c help becomes available for consultation. Community Resources. This leads to- the f i n a l l i n k i n the chain o f f a c t o r s which make up the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the worker and the unmarried mother.  This i s the very great defect i n community  o r g a n i z a t i o n at the employment l e v e l .  I t was Impossible f o r  the worker to channel the mother* s i n t e r e s t s i n t o work which was more remunerative and more rewarding i n i t s s a t i s f a c t i o n s , as these o p p o r t u n i t i e s were simply not a v a i l a b l e .  I n consequence,  the mother reverted to her u s u a l employment as a waitress o r d o m e s t i o — n e i t h e r w e l l p a i d nor s a t i s f y i n g i n character. U s u a l l y t o o , there was not s u f f i c i e n t follow-up work done w i t h the mother a f t e r the b i r t h of the c h i l d .  This of course  was  due to the l a r g e case loads and the shortages and changes i n professional staff.  I t i s now being recognized that the un-  married mother i s very v u l n e r a b l e i n the i n t e r v a l f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h of her c h i l d , and t h a t she needs a c t i v e support and guidance from the s o c i a l worker more than ever at t h i s time.  135. As more p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f becomes a v a i l a b l e , i t should prove p o s s i b l e to give t h i s type of continuing s e r v i c e . From the foregoing, i t i s evident that the s o c i a l agency i s c a r r y i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the treatment and event u a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the unmarried mother.  I t i s attempting  to r e c t i f y the immediate s i t u a t i o n of the unmarried mother and her c h i l d .  To cope w i t h the s i t u a t i o n adequately, however, i t  i s necessary t o come t o g r i p s with the problem of these g i r l s '  1  i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s before they t h r u s t themselves upon our a t t e n t i o n by t h e i r climax i n i l l e g i t i m a c y . course, a broadening and strengthening and c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e .  This means, of  of a l l e x i s t i n g f a m i l y  I t i s . only as the p u b l i c r e a l i z e s  the l a s t i n g e f f e c t s of poverty, bad housing, and  disorganized  home l i f e on the p e r s o n a l i t y of the c h i l d , that i t w i l l  be  p o s s i b l e to get at the roots of the p e r s o n a l i t y disorders that l a t e r flower i n t o unmarried motherhood.  A l l c h i l d r e n should be  w e l l fed, w e l l clothed, and w e l l housed.  Any measure that  increases the s o c i a l s e c u r i t y of the f a m i l y a u t o m a t i c a l l y helps to decrease the tensions that lead t o d i f f i c u l t i e s i n l a t e r l i f e . The p u b l i c therefore must be educated to r e a l i z e that i t i s e s s e n t i a l that the s o c i a l allowances paid to f a m i l i e s that are i n need are s u f f i c i e n t to provide a decent and h e a l t h f u l l e v e l of existence.  At present a great deal of emphasis i s f a l l i n g  on obtaining s o c i a l s e c u r i t y o f r the aged.  T h i s i s necessary,  admittedly, but other needs are not g e t t i n g t h e i r due share of attention.  There must be a r e c o g n i t i o n of the economic s t r e s s ,  136. and the emotional s t r a i n s t h a t go w i t h i t , i n the young f a m i l y that i s s t r u g g l i n g along on the subsistence l e v e l of the s o c i a l allowance o r the mother's pension. The r e c o g n i t i o n of the emotional and p h y s i c a l needs of the c h i l d must be so widespread t h a t education f o r f a m i l y l i v i n g w i l l permeate a l l groups, both l a y and p r o f e s s i o n a l , u n t i l i t i s an accepted f a c t i n the community.  This means a  general o r i e n t a t i o n i n our educational system t o a study of b a s i c human needs and how they e f f e c t human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Perhaps as good a way as any would be t o s t a r t w i t h the education of the expectant mother, which so f a r has stressed only the p h y s i c a l aspects of pregnancy and c h i l d care.  This  could go on to include r e c o g n i t i o n , i n the well-baby centres and i n the pre-school groups, of those c h i l d r e n who are not developing at a normal r a t e , e i t h e r mentally, emotionally, or physically.  The mentally or p h y s i c a l l y retarded c h i l d could  then be channeled i n t o work i n keeping w i t h i t s a b i l i t i e s , and l a t e r could receive s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n f i e l d s f o r which i t showed most a p t i t u d e .  Job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n should be made f o r  s p e c i a l cases, so t h a t jobs could be given which would enable them to work up t o the l i m i t of t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s and which would prove both i n t e r e s t i n g and s a t i s f y i n g .  The emotionally  handicapped c h i l d should have the s e r v i c e of a guidance t o i r o n out h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s before they become too  clinic  deep-seated.  Treatment and Personnel. On the treatment s i d e there i s need f o r h i g h l y s k i l l e d ,  137. sympathetic  case workers.  These workers should have a small  case load and should have p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n and v i s i o n a v a i l a b l e t o them.  super-  They should be able to g i v e a more  continuing service t o enable the mother t o make the t r a n s i t i o n t o a more s a t i s f y i n g and more s o c i a l l y acceptable mode of living.  Community resources should be explored w i t h a view t o  f i n d i n g f a m i l y homes where the mothers could l i v e f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h of the o h i l d .  Perhaps some of the o l d e r . f o s t e r  mothers could be used i n t h i s way.  Such a home environment  would protect the mother, and cushion her against the l o n e l i ness and i n s e c u r i t y she cannot help but experience during her p e r i o d of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  F i n a l l y , there should be v o c a t i o n a l  centres and funds a v a i l a b l e , regardless of residence laws, to t r a i n the mother i n the job f o r which she shows the most aptitude. I n c o n c l u s i o n , some questions are posed which would seem t o a f f o r d valuable d i s c u s s i o n p o i n t s w i t h i n the agency. F i r s t , considerable d i f f i c u l t y was encountered i n o b t a i n i n g a l i s t of r e c i d i v i s t s .  I f f u t u r e s t u d i e s are t o be made, the  question a r i s e s as t o whether i t would be valuable to have B a c h worker report these cases as she encounters them, so that  a c e n t r a l index could be kept f o r future reference.  I t was  a l s o noted that sometimes i t took the f i l i n g c l e r k s s e v e r a l days t o l o c a t e a f i l e and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a s t r i c t "recharge" system f o r the f i l e s a r i s e n .  Face sheet m a t e r i a l  was _ s u a l l y incomplete and i n many cases e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g . Sometimes d i c t a t i o n was incomplete.  These are a l l points that  138. r e f l e c t the l a r g e case loads and consequent pressure o f work on the i n d i v i d u a l workers. I n view of t h e importance attached t o the i n t a k e i n t e r v i e w w i t h the unmarried mother, t h i s appears t o be a point which m e r i t s study w i t h i n the Agency. intake i n t e r v i e w s handled?  How are the i n i t i a l  Do they ooncentrate on f a c t u a l i n -  formation o r on reassurance and quick contact with the d i s t r i c t worker?  Along t h i s l i n e too, might there not be c a r e f u l  s c r u t i n y o f any p o l i c y t h a t r o u t i n e l y t r a n s f e r r e d the mother t o another worker when she moved, e i t h e r to another d i s t r i c t w i t h i n t h e c i t y o r i n t o a maternity home?  I t would seem that when-  ever a t r a n s f e r seems to be necessary, a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s should be made of the r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the mother and the worker.  I n the past, due t o d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the  p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the s t a f f of one of the homes, Agency p o l i c y was l a i d down p r i m a r i l y f o r the convenience o f the home.  It is  apparent that i n many i n s t a n c e s , a t r a n s f e r between workers i s exceedingly damaging t o t h e mother a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r time; now t h a t a new matron i s a t the home, the Agency might work out a p o l i c y whereby i n d i v i d u a l workers could keep contact w i t h t h e i r "own" mothers. Then there i s the question o f temporary workers d e a l i n g w i t h unmarried mothers on a casework b a s i s .  I n the cases  discussed, there have been examples o f arguments f o r and against t h i s .  At the l e a s t , I t would seem t h a t the p e r i o d o f  the mother* s pregnancy should be c a r e f u l l y checked so t h a t the Worker's time a t the Agency w i l l not expire before plans f o r  139. the mother are f i n a l i z e d . What o f the use o f work homes?  Should they not be as  c a r e f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d , used and supervised as f o s t e r homes? Does the mother not need t o be prepared before going i n t o one as c a r e f u l l y as a c h i l d i s prepared before being moved t o a new  environment? Are t h e cases terminated too soon?  I t seems that  u s u a l l y contact i s terminated when plans f o r t h e c h i l d are completed.  I n other words, the d i s p o s i t i o n of the c h i l d deter-  mines the l e n g t h o f our contact w i t h i t s mother. proper emphasis?  I s t h i s the  I s i t not p o s s i b l e t h a t the mother I s i n even  greater need of casework s e r v i c e a f t e r she has disposed o f her child? When the c h i l d i s deemed not adoptable, i s the emphas i s here weighted too much on the negative aspects?  Can b e t t e r  ways o f i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e l a t i v i t y o f adoption be worked out by the workers f o r t h e i r own, and t h e i r c l i e n t ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n ? Do we need t o r e v i s e our "standards' of a d o p t a b i l i t y ? 1  F i n a l l y , how does a l l t h i s t i e i n w i t h the worker i n the p u b l i c agency?  I t would seem t h a t these cases have demon-  s t r a t e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of such g i r l s have deeply disturbed p e r s o n a l i t i e s and t h a t i t i s exceedingly d i f f i c u l t f o r the s o c i a l worker t o e s t a b l i s h a c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h them.  I t i s a l s o apparent t h a t most of these mothers are  a c t u a l l y i n need o f p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n .  Yet i t i s  obvious t h a t at present such c o n s u l t a t i o n i s the exception r a t h e r than the r u l e .  The key t o t h i s stalemate seems t o be  140. f o r the worker to be able t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between eases, and to' know which g i r l s are too d i s t u r b e d f o r the worker t o be of more than supportive help.  She can then concentrate her time  on those g i r l s who are not so s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d , and by patience and s k i l l , e s t a b l i s h a c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with time.  The motto f o r a l l such workers, both i n p u b l i c o r  p r i v a t e agencies, would seem t o be incorporated i n the advice given i n a report o f a Seminar h e l d by the S t . Louis Children's A i d S o c i e t y i n 1941: "Go slow . . . meet immediate needs . . • win her confidence . . . o f such minutiae i s the casework r e l a t i o n s h i p constructed."  A P P E N D I X .  Bibliography. I.  General References.  BOOKS Grace Abbott: The C h i l d and t h e S t a t e . U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicage, -Chicago, 1938. Helene Deutsch: The Psychology o f Women. Grune and S t r a t t o n , New York, V o l s . 1 and 2, 1945. A r t h u r E. Fink: The F i e l d o f S o c i a l Work. Henry H o l t and Co., New York, 1948. ~~ J.C. F l u g e l : The Psycho-Analytic Study o f t h e Family. Hogarth P r e s s , London, 1921. Thomas Morton French and Alexander Franz: P s y c h o - a n a l y t i c Therapy. Ronald P r e s s Co., New York, 1947. S. Freud: New Introductory Leotures. Hogarth Press and The I n s t i t u t e o f Psychoanalysis, London, T h i r d E d i t i o n , 1946. C. Luther F r y : Technique o f S o c i a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n . Harper and B r o t h e r s , New York and London, 1934. Gordon Hamilton: P r i n c i p l e s o f S o c i a l Case Recording. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1946. Howard W. Odum and K a t h a r i n e Jocher: An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S o c i a l Research. Henry H o l t & Co., New York. The Psycho-Analytic Study o f the C h i l d . I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s , New York, V o l . 1, 1945. Bertha C. Reynolds: Learning' and Teaching i n the P r a c t i c e of S o c i a l Work. F a r r a r & Rinehart Inc.., New York, 1945. Mary E. Richmond: New York, 1917.  S o c i a l Diagnosis. R u s s e l Sage Foundation,  PAMPHLETS, ARTICLES, REPORTS, ETC. Maurine Boie: "The Case Worker's Need f o r O r i e n t a t i o n t o the C u l t u r e of t h e C l i e n t " , The Family. Oct. 1937. Canadian Welfare Counoil Annual Report. The Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Ottawa, 1940 and 1946.  B. M. F i n l a y s o n : "Changed Concepts i n Case Work", The S o c i a l Worker, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers, Ottawa, J u l y , 1948, p. 15. Thomas M. French and Ralph Ormsby: Psycho-Analytic Orienta t i o n i n Case Work. F.W.A.A. Pamphlet, 1944. K. Homey: "Maternal C o n f l i c t s " , American J o u r n a l of Orthopsychiatry. V o l . 3, 1933. Rae A. Levine: "Case Work's Stake i n Research", The Family. June, 1946, p. 151. E l i z a b e t h S. McCormick, Dorothy M. M u l l e r and Phebe R i c h : "Management o f the Transference", J o u r n a l of S o c i a l CaseWork. Oct., 1946. Leroy Maeder: "Generic Aspects o f the Intake Interview", The Family. March, 1942, p. 14. Margaret Mead: "The American Family", Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work. 1947. Helen Ross and M.D. Johnson: "The Growing Science o f Case Work", J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Case Work. Nov., 1946, p. 273. I s a b e l Stamm: "Understanding the T o t a l P e r s o n a l i t y i n Treatment", The Family. Jan., 1946, p. 323. P e r c i v a l M. Symonds: "A Study o f P a r e n t a l Acceptance and R e j e c t i o n " , American J o u r n a l of Orthopsychiatry. 1938, p. 679. Florence S y t z : "The U n i t o f A t t e n t i o n i n the Case Work Process", The Family. June, 1946. "The Development of Method I n S o c i a l Case Work", The Family. March, 1948, p. 83. A l i c e L. V o i l a n d : "Guiding P r i n c i p l e s Defined", Developing I n s i g h t i n I n i t i a l Interviews. F. S. A. A. Pamphlet, 1947. II.  S p e c i f i c References.  BOOKS F r a n c i s L. Adkins: I l l e g i t i m a c y i n Cook County. C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agencies, Chicago, 1935. A l b e r t S. Guibord and Ida R. Parker: What Becomes o f the Unmarried Mother?, Research Bureau on S o c i a l Case Work, Boston, 1922.  Percy G. Kammerer: The Unmarried Mother. L i t t l e , Brown & Co., Boston, 1918. George B. Mangold: C h i l d r e n Born Out of Wedlock, U n i v e r s i t y of M i s s o u r i S t u d i e s , V o l . I l l , No. 3, June 19£1. Ruth Reed: The I l l e g i t i m a t e Family i n New York. The Welfare C o u n c i l of New York C i t y , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Amelia S c h u l t z : Indian Unmarried Mothers. Thesis submitted f o r the degree of M.S.W. a t U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, S e a t t l e , 1947. PAMPHLETS, ARTICLES, REPORTS, ETC. L a u r e t t a Bender and Ruth Nottingham: "A P s y c h o l o g i c a l Study of 40 Unmarried Mothers", Genetic Psychology Monograph, V o l . 19. No. 2. Provincetown, Mass., 1937. Max B r a i t h w a i t e : "Born out of Wedlock", Maclean's Magazine, Nov. 15, 1947, p. 16. V i o l a W. Bernard: "Psyohodynamics of Unmarried Motherhood i n E a r l y Adolescence", The Nervous C h i l d . Oct. 1944, p.26-45. J u l i a Ann Bishop: "Understanding and Helping Unmarried Mothers", Proceedings of Canadian Conference on S o c i a l Work, Oct. 1945. Erma C. Blethen: "Case Work S e r v i c e s t o a F l o r e n c e C r i t t e n ton Home", The Family. V. 23, Nov. 1942, pp.248-254; Dec. 1942, pp. 291-6. Babette Block: "The Unmarried Mother - I s She D i f f e r e n t ? " , The Family. V o l . 26, No. 5, p. 163. R.F. Brenner: "Case Work Service f o r Unmarried Mothers", The Family. Nov. 1941, pp. 211-219; Dec. 1941, pp. 269-276. R. F. Brenner: "What F a c i l i t i e s are E s s e n t i a l t o the Adequate Care of the Unmarried Mother?" Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, New York, 1939, pp. 435-445. Mary S. Bresley: "Parent-Child R e l a t i o n s h i p s i n Unmarried Parenthood", Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1939, pp. 435-445.  Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l P u b l i c a t i o n #46; Ottawa, published 1929, r e v i s e d 1945, " L e g i s l a t i o n of Canada and Her Provinces A f f e c t i n g the Status and P r o t e c t i o n of the C h i l d o f Unmarried Parents". The C h i l d : Vol.. 10, No. 3, Sept. 1945, " B r i t i s h Report on C h i l d r e n Born out o f Wedlock". C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y Annual Reports. Vancouver, B.C. C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau P u b l i c a t i o n #77; 144; 310: ment, Washington, D.C.  U.S.  Govern-  C h i l d Welfare League of America: New York, 1945, "Findings of a Survey Made by a Committee on Problems of the NonResident Unmarried Mother". Florence C l o t h i e r : " P s y c h o l o g i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s of Unmarried Parenthood", American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. J u l y 1943, p. 531. Mildred Corner: "Importance of the I n i t i a l Interview w i t h the Unmarried Mother", F. S. A. A. Pamphlet, 1947. K i n g s l e y Davis: " I l l e g i t i m a c y and the S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e " , American Journel of Sociology. Sept. 1939, p. 215-33. A. M. Donahue: " C h i l d r e n Born out o f Wedlock?,"Annals of American Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Science, Sept. 1930. Louise Drury: ''Milestones i n the Approach to I l l e g i t i m a c y " , The Family. 1925, pp. 40-42, 79-81, 95-99. Frank P. Hankins: " I l l e g i t i m a c y " , Encyclopaedia of the S o c i a l Sciences. McMillan Co., New York, 1932, V o l . 7, p. 579-582. Agnes K. Hanna: "Changing Care of C h i l d r e n Born Out of Wedlock", Annals of American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Sciences. No. 1940, pp. 159-167. S h i r l e y H a r r i s o n : "A Comparative Study of Behaviour Problems i n I l l e g i t i m a t e and Legitimate C h i l d r e n " , Studies o f Smith College School of S o c i a l Work. Dec. 1944, p. 120. C h a r l o t t e Henry: "Objectives i n Work With Unmarried Mothers", The Family. May, 1833. Jane S. Hosmer: "A Follow-up Study of Unmarried Mothers who kept t h e i r C h i l d r e n " , Smith College Studies of S o c i a l Work, 1941, pp. 263-301.  s  J . Kasanin and Siegleude Handschin: "Psychodynamic Factors i n I l l e g i t i m a c y " , American Journal o f Orthopsychiatry. Jan. 1941, p. 66-85. Mary S. Labaree: "Unmarried Parenthood Under the S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A c t " , Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work. 1939, pp. 446 - 457. Maud Morlock: "Wanted - A Square Deal f o r the Baby Born Out of Wedlock", The C h i l d . May, 1946. "Establishment o f P a t e r n i t y " , Proceedings o f N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work. 1940, p. 363. "Some Aspects o f I l l e g i t i m a c y " , Proceedings of Canadian Conference on S o c i a l Work, H a l i f a x , N.B., June 1946, p. 60. March, 1945.  "Babies on the Market", The Survey Midmonthly.  Esther E l l s b e r g Osterman: "Case-work Treatment o f an I l l e g i t i m a t e Adolescent G i r l " , The Family. J u l y 1945, p. 169. Norman Reider: "The Unmarried F a t h e r " , N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work. Apr. 16, 1947. __ Ruth Riaberg: " P r e d i c t i o n o f R e c i d i v i s m i n Unmarried Mothers" (Jewish Board o f Guardians, N.Y.), Smith College S t u d i e s o f S o c i a l Work. 1943. . Ruth Rome: "A Method o f P r e d i c t i n g t h e Probable D i s p o s i t i o n of t h e C h i l d r e n by Unmarried Mothers", Smith College S t u d i e s of S o c i a l Work. V o l . X, 1940. Frances H. Scherz: ""Taking Sides* i n the Unmarried Mother* s C o n f l i c t " , J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Case Workr Feb. 1947, p. 57. Mary F. Smith: "Changing Emphasis i n Case Work w i t h Unmarried Mothers", The Family. Jan. 1934. Welfare C o u n c i l o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Los Angeles, P u b l i c a t i o n #3, "19.46, "Unmarried Parenthood - A Study o f 1839 Unmarried Parenthood Cases i n 1944". Leontine R. Young: " P e r s o n a l i t y Patterns i n Unmarried Mothers The Family, D. 1945. "The Unmarried Mother's D e c i s i o n About Her Baby", Journal of S o c i a l Case Work. Jan. 1947, p. 27.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106889/manifest

Comment

Related Items