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UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Counselling problems of the junior high school girl Mulloy, Florence Stuart 1949

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m i #S COUNSELLING PROBLEMS ^ ^ OF THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL GIRL BY Florence Stuart Mulloy A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY The University of British October, 1949. Columbia & Abstract of Thesis Counselling Problems of the Junior High School G i r l by Florence Stuart Mulloy The University of B r i t i s h Columbia , October , 1949 This study of counselling problems i s concerned with the nature and frequency of problems as they affect g i r l s at the junior high school level. An intensive study has been made of the problems VYiih/iwhich the writer dealt during a period of four months at Point Grey Junior High School. A problem i s not an isolated incident but i s part of a sequence of events growing out of environmental conditions, and can only he understood in the light of an appreciation of the total environment of home, school, and community. It has, therefore, been considered advisable to give an explanation of the guidance services of the school and to include inform-ation about the g i r l s to be studied, the f a c i l i t i e s available for counselling, and the procedures commonly used. The study has grown out of the experiences of the writer as grade adviser and counsellor at Point Grey Junior High School. These began with the opening of the school in 1929, when counselling services for the students were in-stituted, and have continued to the present time. Thus, the writer has been privileged to share in the development of the counselling program and to observe the behaviour of several generations of g i r l s . The information i s based largely on records com-piled by the principal and teachers at Point Grey junior High School. The particular information regarding specific (a) pupils i s obtained from school reports and records, from individual cumulative f i l e s , and from personal observation and investigation. The problems discussed and the data on which the tables are bases were assembled during the period from January 7 to A p r i l 30, 1949. In Chapter I counselling i s shown to be an integral part of the program of secondary schools in B r i t i s h Columbia. The definition and limitations of the investigation are then given. A description of the g i r l s studied, of the counselling program, and of the methods used in dealing with problems i s included i n this chapter. In Chapter II are presented facts on environment, test results, and personal data which are essential to the counsellor for analysing problems and diagnosing cases. While Chapters I and II give general information which i s helpful in understanding the study, Chapter III introduces the actual problems which the counsellor meets. are discussed very b r i e f l y some of the studies which have already been made in the f i e l d of student problems. Finally, a preliminary classification of counselling problems is presented in order to f a c i l i t a t e the investigation. In Chapter IV i s given a detailed presentation of the facts found i n each of the nine problem areas indicated in Chapter III. An analysis i s made of each type of problem, the conditions are tabulated, and wherever possible the frequency of each type and sub-type i s recorded. This i s followed by a statement of the main findings and a discussion of their possible implications. (D) In Chapter V, the writer comments on the possible use-fulness of the study. She f i r s t states what she considers to be significant general findings. Lastly, she classifies and l i s t s particular findings insofar as they may be of use to the various persons concerned in counselling g i r l s . (c) The author wishes to express her gratitude to Mr. P.N. Whitley, Principal of Point Grey Junior High School, who made i t possible for her to use the facili t ies of the school in preparing her notes. She gratefully acknowledges her indebtedness to Dr. W.G. Black, her adviser, who directed the work during the course of this study. She wishes to ex-press her thanks to Dr. Joseph E. Morsh for the help given in the general field of psychology. She wishes also to thank Mr. V.A. Wiedrick and the other members of the Guidance Department at point Grey for their helpful suggestions and criticisms. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I The Hole of Counselling in the Junior High school 1 The Scope of the Problem to be Inves-tigated 1 The Field of Study 5 The Organization of Counselling at point Grey Junior High school 10 Procedures Used in Counselling at Point Grey 20 II Information Used in Counselling the Indi-vidual 25 The Need for Personal Data 25 Personal Data Available for use at Point Grey Junior High School 25 III Counselling Problems 33 Range and Variety of Counselling Pro-blems 33 Previous Research on Differentiation between Counselling problems 40 Reasons for the Attempt to Differen-tiate between Counselling problems 46 xypes of Counselling problems 48 IV Types and frequencies of uounselling pro-blems at Point Grey Junior iiigh School 51 1. Minor Problems of Well-adjusted f i r l s 52 2. Problems of Initial School Adjust-ment and orientation 54 3. problems of Health and physical development 57 4. Problems Relating to School Work 60 5. problems Relating to Withdrawal from School 66 6. Problems of School Discipline 67 7. problems of Home Conditions and Family Relationships 73 8. Serious personality problems 76 9. problems Relating to Attendance 79 Summary 84 Chapter Page V Significance of the Findings 86 Recapitulation of Findings 86 Significance of Findings for the Counsellor 89 Further Implications for the Counsellor 91 Significance of the Findings for the principal 94 the Teacher 95 the Parent 96 Conclusion 97 TABLES Number Page I Age-rGrade Distribution of Girls at point Grey Junior High School 7 II Distribution of intelligence Quotients of Grade 7 Girls at point urey Junior High School 8 III Distribution of Letter tirades among Stu-dents at point Grey Junior High School 9 IV A Synopsis of the Problems presented to the Counsellor During One Week 36 V Minor problems of Well-adjusted Girls 53 VI Problems of Initial School Adjustment and Orientation 56 VII Problems of Health and Physical Develop-ment 59 VIII Courses Offered at point Grey Junior High School 62 IX Problems Relating to school Work 64 X Significant Facts Regarding Girls With-drawing from Point Grey Junior High School 66 XI Disciplinary Problems of Girls at point Grey Junior High School 70 XII Extremely Serious problems Involving 17 72 Girls XIII Problems of Home Conditions and Family Rela-tionships 74 XIV Types of Interviews with Specific Individual Students 77 XV Serious Personality problems 78 Number Page XVI Routine Procedures Concerning Absentees at point Grey Junior High School 81 XVII Factors Affecting Attendance 82 XVIII Problems Resulting from Irregular Atten-dance 83 APPENDIX List of Forms Number Page 1. Enrolment Form i 2. Permanent Record (Department of Education) i i 3. Clinic Data i i i 4. Report of Individual Intelligence Tests iv 5. Secondary Report Card v 6. Pupil's Permanent Record (Point Grey) vi 7. Confidential Report Forms v i i 8. School Health Record v i i i 9. Pupil 1s Attendance Record ix 10. Pupil 1s Daily Schedule Card x 11. Interview Form xi 12. Detention Record x i i 13. Circular Regarding Courses x i i i 14. Choice of Course uard xiv 15. Administration Slip xiv 16. questionnaire (Counsellor's Information) xv 17. Questionnaire (Personal History Record) xvi 18. Form Letter A (Regarding school Work) xvi 19. Form Letter B (Regarding School Work) xvii Number Page 20. Absentees at Roll Call x v i i i 21. Report on Irregular Attendance xix 22. Class Daily Attendance Sheet xx 23. Form Letter c (Regarding Absences) xxi COUNSELLING PROBLEMS OF THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL GIRL Chapter I The Role of Counselling in the Junior High School The Scope of the problem to be Investigated The Development of Counselling in Vancouver Schools The early decades of the Twentieth Century saw great changes in home l i f e , in labour, in industry, in population, and in living conditions. These were parallelled by changes in philosophy and methods of education, and, as a result, greater emphasis was placed on the child and her needs, A system of education designed solely to advance the mental powers of the child was considered inadequate. The new conception was that education was concerned with developing a l l the powers of the individual to the f u l l extent of her capacity. This theory, to-gether with the altered conditions of living, placed added res-ponsibility on the school and brought radical changes to the educational system. Techniques for measuring ability were de-vised, curricula and methods of teaching were revised, and more school's were provided. Attendance at school was made compulsory, a minimum age for leaving school was established, and as a result the number of students attending secondary school increased greatly. Not only was the population of the secondary school i n -creased, but i t was changed in character and socio-economic com-2 ; position. The academically selected group gave way to a large number of students whose intellectual level and economic back-ground was not suited to an exclusively intellectual program. The broad developments which have been described above took place in British Columbia as in other parts of Canada and the United States. These developments placed a definite respon-sibi l i ty upon the school authorities to provide adequate guidance for the pupils, who were confronted with the necessity of choosing schools and courses, and of planning for specialized training. As a result, the counselling of students, which is now an inte-gral part of the program of a l l British Columbia schools, was introduced in Vancouver at Kitsilano and Templeton Junior High Schools in 1927. When point Grey Junior High School was moved to its permanent quarters in 1929, a counsellor for feoys and one for girls was appointed, and in addition one period a week was allotted for group guidance. With the opening of jvitsilano and Templeton Junior High Schools in 1927, the «6-3-3 H system was introduced - that i s , the public school program w a 6 changed from eight years in elementary school, and three in high school to six years in elementary school, three in junior high school, and three in senior high school. Thus a new type of school was created, designed to suit the new theory of education and the care of the young adolescent. The added year of schooling and the establishment of the junior high school necessitated considerable expansion and enrichment 3 of the curriculum. At the Grade Seven level i t was extended to include a greater number of "constant subjects. At the Grade Eight level, a system of combining "constant" and "elective" subjects was introduced. In Grade Nine additional types of course were offered. To the traditional academic course were added a commercial course,' a technical course, and a composite course - that i s , a course combining academic, commercial, and technical subjects. Music, art, dramatics and physical education were recognized as giving credit towards matriculation and gra-duation. Two types of certificate were issued - the college entrance certificate on completion of the academic course, and the high school graduation diploma on completion of any of the other courses. The field of extra-curricular activities was broadened. A study of occupations and a tentative choice of a vocational field was considered to be part of the work of every pupil enrolled in junior and senior high school. The junior high school developed as a result of the new theory of education - that not only do individuals differ markedly from each other, but that the purpose of education is to develop each individual to the f u l l extent of her powers. It was designed to meet the needs of a definite age group and to bridge the gap between the elementary and senior high school. The organization within the school was therefore in many respects unlike that of either of the traditional schools. The system of departmental instruction and of curricular and extra-curricular activities was 4 adopted. A home room teacher was assigned to each class, who in addition to teaching a subject, assumed certain routine responsi-bil i t ies with regard to her rol l class. Under the departmental system of teaching, each class meets from eight to ten subject teachers and specialists. Consequently, in a school offering a wide selection of courses and having the complex organization which was thus initiated, guidance and counselling became im-portant. The Present Status of Counselling in British Columbia Schools provision for counselling was made in the course of study, and many schools at once undertook to provide both group guidance and individual counselling. At present, the school law requires that in a l l secondary schools one period a week be de-voted to group guidance. The content of the course is outlined by the Department of Education, and credits v%re; awarded to students who make satisfactory progress. In addition, the school law requires that a specified number of teachers be designated to act as counsellors; and that the principal so arrange the time-table that adequate time is allowed in which to carry out a counselling program. The Purpose of This Study In view of the importance attached to counselling in general, and the lack of specific information regarding the needs of the students at the junior high school level and the means of meeting such needs, a study of counselling problems at this 5 level appears urgant. To attempt a study of the entire field of counselling, however, would be impractical, since the counsellor deals with problems ranging from the most t r ivial to the extremely serious, and is engaged in such a variety of activities during the day's work that some selection must be made. The present study, therefore, will be limited to an investigation of the nature and frequency of the problems which confront the gir ls ' counsellor in a specific junior high school. The data wil l be taken from the experiences of the writer as ijirls' Counsellor at Point Grey Junior High School, ihe study wil l be limited to a consideration of the problems which were presented during the period from January 7 to April 30, 1949. The Field of Study Point Grey Junior High ochool is situated in a resi-dential area close to the suburban business section of iverrisdale. Pupils are drawn from the district lying between Sixteenth Avenue and the Fraser Hiver, from six elementary schools - kerrisdale, Lord Kitchener, Maple Grove, David Lloyd George, (Quilchena, and Prince of Wales. Most of the students come in the residential area, however, a considerable number come from the industrial section along the Fraser River and from the business section at Kerrisdale. Thus the school population is drawn from varied socio-economic levels, and represents differing occu-pational backgrounds. The socio-economic levels range from the 6 well-to-do middle class living in the residential districts to the poor working class scattered about the mills and factories. A l l degrees of opportunity are available to the students -from the recreational and cultural advantages synonymous with the wealthy home to the restrictions and privations of the near-subsistence level of unemployed parents. Differences in occupational background are equally widespread. The profes-sional worker, the upper-level businessman, the "white-collar" worker, the skilled or semi-skilled tradesman and the unskilled and transitional worker are represented. Thus the home environ-ments of the students f a l l into many categories. The enrolment for the year 1948-49 was approximately 1275, 630 girls and 640 boys being enrolled in September, 1948. The students who are between the ages of twelve and sixteen are enrolled in Grades Seven, Eight, and Nine. With half a dozen exceptions, they belong to the white race and are pre-dominantly Protestant in religion, although a considerable number of Roman Catholic and Jewish children attend the school. The girls of the school with which the present study is con-cerned are distributed by grades and ages as shown in Table I. 7 TABLE I AGE-GRADE DISTRIBUTION OF GIRLS AT POINT GREY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL (GRADES AND AGES AS AT SEPTEMBER, 1948) Age Grade 7 Grade 8 Grade 9 Totals 10 1 0 0 1 11. 24 0 0 24 12 118 9 0 127 13 33 172 16 222 14 2 75 1£0 197 15 2 6 42 50 16 0 0 6 6 17 0 0 1 1 Totals 180 263 185 628 At Point Grey Junior High school, in Grade Seven, boys and girls are enrolled in separate classes, and although not ar-ranged in homogeneous groups, the slower pupils are placed toge-ther. Table II shows the distribution of intelligence quotients of the girls of Grade Seven, as measured by standard tests*and as recorded on the provincial progress cards. (Appendix, p. i i ) . The table is indicative of the intelligence of the girls of a l l three grades, although several individual student-scores are slightly higher, one being 155, none go below 70. * National and Otis Standard,Tests r-i 8 TABLE II DISTRIBUTION OF INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS OF GRADE 7 GIRLS AT POINT GREY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL (BASED ON THE RECORD OF THE VANCOUVER BUREAU OF MENTAL MEASUREMENTS AS AT JANUARY, 1949) Intelligence Number of Intelligence dumber of Quotient Girls Quotient Girls 136 5 108 11 130-134 8 107 4 125-129 21 106 2 120-124 28 105 3 119 6 104 5 118 7 103 5 117 8 102 4 116 6 101 1 115 8 100 ' 3 114 11 95-99 5 113 2 90-94 8 112 5 85-89 .1 111 4 80-84 2 110 4{ 75-79 0 109 6 70-74 2 Totals 129 56 185 Pupil-standing as a result of examinations in the sub-jects of the course are designated by the letters A, B, C+, C, C- , D, and E, and the same letters are used to Indicate the position of a student in comparison to others in the grade, xable III shows the distribution of letter grades for general standing, as they occurred in Grade Seven, in May, 1949. The marks are recor-ded according to the normal curve of distribution, while the score is computed by assigning numerical values to the letters under a 9 plan i n which the English and Mathematics marks are weighted. Under this scheme A i s assigned a value of 7, and E a value of 1. In order to show the entire d i s t r i b u t i o n the l e t t e r grades f o r the boys as well as the g i r l s are shown i n Table I ' l l . TABLE III DISTRIBUTION OF LETTER GRADES AMONG GRADE 7 STUDENTS AT POINT GREY HIGH SCHOOL (TAKEN FROM THE RECORDS OF EXAMINATIONS, MAY, 1949) Curve of Letter Score Number of Number of Total D i s t r i b u t i o n Grade G i r l s Boys 5* A 761-881 y 7 16 20% B 633-760 38 31 69 15% C + 591-632 30 20 50 20% C 471-590 33 30 63 15% C- 381-4/0 24 25 49 20% D 261-380 30 39 69 5% E 0-260 13 6 i y Totals 177 158 335 Since education i s es s e n t i a l l y an individual process, the counsellor i s concerned with individual differences, some of which are indicated i n the above tables. Table I shows that the ages of the g i r l s lange from ten years to seventeen, and the d i s -t r i b u t i o n into grades reveals that some pupils are over age and others under age i n comparison to the group, i t i s probable that d i f f i c u l t i e s concerned with age and grade w i l l a r i s e . Table II shows the wide range i n a b i l i t y , making i t evident that d i f f e -10 rences i n mental capacity must be considered i n forming classes, planning courses, and arranging a c t i v i t i e s . Table III, which shows the range of achievement of the g i r l s of Grade Seven^helps to gauge the progress made by individuals and by groups, and helps to indicate tfhere remedial measures should be taken. The Organization of the Counselling Program at Point Grey Junior High School The Role of the Teacher Counselling pupils i s the concern of the entire staff of forty-eight teachers at Point Grey Junior iiigh School. I t begins i n the homeroom, where each of the t h i r t y - f i v e teachers e n r o l l i n g a class i s concerned with orienting the p u p i l , estab-l i s h i n g a "home base", and becoming acquainted with the intere s t s , needs, and habits of each pupi l . As the need arises, the home-room teacher, who i s also a subject teacher, gives advice, help, and encouragement to the pupils she enrols. The other subject teachers are also important i n the counselling program, particu-l a r l y i n connection with the subjects they teach. Homeroom and subject teachers who are i n da i l y contact with the same groups of students soon note the g i r l who i s f a i l i n g to adjust, or who ap-pears to need ind i v i d u a l help. I f these teachers are unable to deal with the si t u a t i o n , they refer i t to the person best q u a l i f i e d to do so. 11 The Role of the Grade Adviser Next in the organization are the grade advisers, of whom there are six, a man and a woman for each grade. These ad-visers meet the pupils once a week throughout the year. The timetable is so arranged that the girls ' adviser meets the girls in her classroom at the same time the boys' adviser meets the boys in his classroom, and thus, i f a special program is arranged, the boys and girls can meet together in the auditorium. Under the direction of the advisers the handbook which is published each year to assist students in their orientation is studied, and data are given on student elections, work and procedures, service clubs, extra-curricular activities, awards, and similar topics. Instruc-tion is given on the content of the various subjects and on combi-nations of subjects into courses. Discussions are held on social, ethical, and personal matters. Finally, the advisers instruct the groups regarding educational and vocational choices, stressing the importance of choosing a course which will lay the foundation for the later selection of a suitable vocational f ield . In this part of the work, abilities and interests are considered as important factors determining the selection of courses, and the students are shown how to evaluate their aptitudes and preferences. In addition to conducting group guidance, the a.dviser 1 interviews the pupils individually, in order to establish rapport and to provide opportunities to the individual to ask for help or advice. Among topics discussed are the studert's school history, 12 her c u r r e n t r e p o r t c a r d , her study h a b i t s , and her i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s . P u p i l and a d v i s e r together c o n s i d e r the educa-t i o n a l courses a v a i l a b l e f o r the next grade, and what prepara-t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r a proposed f u t u r e occupation. L e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s , s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n the s c h o o l , i n the hom^, and i n the community^ r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n . The a d v i s e r keeps a record of the i n t e r v i e w , and by means of the i n f o r m a t i o n gath-ered, i s able to help solve p u p i l problems when they a r i s e . Reports on school work and on study h a b i t s are i s s u e d to the parents each quarter. When these have been returned, the a d v i s e r i n t e r v i e w s the p u p i l whose work i s poor or i s not commensurate with her a b i l i t y . L e t t e r s (Appendix, p. x v i i -x v i i i ) are sent to the parents c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n to the r e s u l t s o f these i n t e r v i e w s , and emphasizing the need f o r more e f f o r t o r f o r more e f f i c i e n t methods of study. I n each case the g i r l i s g i v e n d e f i n i t e i n s t r u c t i o n i n forming good study h a b i t s , and i s encouraged and helped i n every p o s s i b l e way. The a d v i s e r devotes at l e a s t f i v e p e r i o d s a week to i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g . She records the s a l i e n t p o i n t s learned through each i n t e r v i e w on a simple form, (Appendix, p. x i ) which goes to the c o u n s e l l o r and the p r i n c i p a l f o r t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n before i t i s f i l e d . The a c t u a l f i l i n g of a l l data i s done by the school s e c r e t a r y , but the a d v i s e r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the work of r e c o r d i n g , and a l s o f o r keeping the cumulative f i l e s i n order. 13 The Role of the Counsellor The modern junior high school offers many and varied courses and activities, but its size and organization prevent the close personal contact of teacher with pupil which was pos-sible in the smaller and older type of school. Today, a parti-cular teacher may meet from 150 to 175 pupils daily. She may engage in a number of additional activities which involve s t i l l other pupils. It is impossible for her to become intimately ac-quainted with her pupils. As Dean E.G. Williamson v 8 2 » P» 13) says, "(We) proceed towards the objectives of education by means of group instruction designed to develop skills and knowledge (abstract and academic) as tools to be used in later adjustment. Group instruction neces-sarily proceeds without personal reference to the indi-vidual's unique needs and potentialities, and hence deals only with limited areas of adjustment." The counsellor is the central figure in the program of guidance in the modern school with its many departments and its teacher specialists. since the purpose of education is the all-round deve-lopment of the individual, and since this can only be accom-plished i f she is placed in a class suitable for her abilities and interests, i t is obvious that her aptitudes and interests must be studied, and the educational resources of the school canvassed on her behalf. It is clear that many student problems cannot be adequately dealt with through the medium of group instruction, 14 or by means of group guidance. Someone must be made responsible for dealing with the problems of the individual. While the homeroom teacher, the subject teacher, and the grade adviser share in the work, the counsellor as central figure in the gui-dance program is in charge of individual counselling, parti-cularly in cases which involve other pupils or teachers, or which are of a serious nature. One of the dangers of school counselling is that the counsellor may become too detached from students and from actual classroom situations, and as a result may become not only too impersonal but also impractical, Por this reason the coun-sellor at Point Grey is a subject teacher, meeting students in normal situations and encountering difficulties common to a l l teachers. In addition she is given opportunities :to become acquainted with the student body, and to share in many of the activities which are so important in a large school. She admits a l l girls who have been absent. In this way she not only becomes acquainted with the pupils but also is made aware of irregulari-ties connected with attendance. She shares in supervising the detention room, and becomes familiar with girls who are penalized for breaches of school discipline. She is a member of the ad-visory council, the body responsible for framing school policies, and sits on major committees set up by the principal to perform special duties. Once a week, she meets the .tihree grade advisers to discuss student problems, to consider the girls who have been 15 interviewed during the week, and to plan new work. She confers daily with the principal and the vice-principal, exchanging information and receiving advice and help. Al l these duties and activities have a direct bearing on counselling, since they give a knowledge and understanding of administrative problems, of curriculum content, of curricular and extra-curricular acti-vities, and, indeed, of a l l the complex dofcngs of the school. In addition, they make possible friendly intercourse with the staff under ordinary.circumstances, and widen personal know-ledge of the students in diverse situations. Then, as seems traditional in e junior high school,, the gir ls 1 counsellor sponsors student government. In this way she has a part in student elections, assemblies, shows and con-certs, parties, contests and drives, and a l l the other activities of the student body. Such experiences widen her knowledge of the pupils, and of their opinions, interests, and abilit ies. The knowledge and experience resulting from participa-tion in the tasks just outlined are invaluable in considering the widely divergent problems which come to the attention of the counsellor, or are posed by students, teachers, parents, or others. The question to be considered may be t r i v i a l , concerning some small loss; or i t may be more serious, implicating the family, or it may be extremely grave, concerning the health, welfare, or behaviour of the child, i t may call for the pre-paration of a complete case history, tfr i t may be settled in a 16 moment. It may require the help and cooperation of one of the organizations devoted to the \velfare of children. But, before any action is taken the principal is made aware that a problem exists, and his advice is sought. The Role of the Principal The degree of success attained by the counselling de-partment of a school depends upon the leadership and the support given by the principal. In organizing the school activities he is aware that the guidance activities are inseparably related to the total program. In addition to planning courses and classes, he sets up the objectives of the guidance program. He must also establish the means of achieving these objectives, and in order to do this he selects the counsellors and arranges their schedules. He organizes the physical features of the program, determining the system of pupil records to be used, arranging for adequate library resources, and making available suitable facili t ies for the coun-sellors' use in interviewing pupils. He supervises the counsel-l i n g program, and acts as chairman of meetings of the department. In addition to discussing serious or puzzling cases with the coun-sellors, he studies the records of a l l interviews and reports before they are f i led . He is frequently present when parents are consulted, and is the final authority in disciplinary cases. Application for help from outside organizations and reports to such agencies are made over his signature. He coordinates the 17 counselling services within the school, and acts as l i a i s o n o f f i c e r between the school and the c i t y and prov i n c i a l school aut h o r i t i e s , and also between the school and the community. The Role of the Health Department The outside organization to which the counsellor turns for help most frequently i s the Metropolitan Health Service. This organization provides the school doctor, who i s i n atten-dance one morning each week, and the school nurse who i s on duty during morning session. In addition to regular duties, the nurse v i s i t s the home when v i s i t s are deemeTd necessary, and arranges appointments at the tuberculosis, dental, or other c l i n i c when the need for special care arises. Nurse and doctor, working to-gether, give each pupil a physical examination once a year, and make special examinations upon the request of the counsellor. Available through the health department are individual pupil cards, (Appendix, p. v i i i ) on which are recorded p a r t i c u l a r s of physical development, defects, i l l n e s s e s , and other d e t a i l s of l i k e nature. Connected with the Metropolitan Health Service are pediatricians, n u t r i t i o n i s t s , and psychologists to whom the coun-s e l l o r may refer cases. When psychiatric help i s required, the services and f a c i l i t i e s of the Division of Mental Hygiene are placed at the disposal of the counsellor. 1 8 The Role of Other Agencies The Vancouver School Board maintains two services which may be considered as vital to the school organization. If the counsellor meets with a case of unsatisfactory attendance or of truancy, attendance officers investigate the case. The second service is the Bureau of Mental Measurements. This bureau con-ducts intelligence and achievement tests for a l l the students enrolled in city schools, and its officials make special visits to the schools to test new pupils. It also provides psychome-tricians to administer individual tests when such are necessary. The parts of the guidance organization discussed above are either part of the Vancouver School System, or closely asso-i t ' ciated with/{ but services of other organizations may be utilized. The point Grey Parent-Teacher Association, the local churches, and local community clubs and centres occasionally provide financial help for needy pupils and their families, and arrange recreational facilit ies such as summer camps or neighborhood centres. The Children's Aid Society and other welfare agencies give support and help to the school service, and finally the Juvenile uourt plays its part in caring for school children. The Role of Students The record of the individuals and organizations sharing in the work of guiding and counselling students at Point Grey Junior High school would be incomplete without some reference being made to the role played by the students themselves. No one ques-19 tions the fact that a g i r l regards the opinion of her fellows with great respect, and that much of her behaviour is motivated by the actions and standards of her age-group. A l l schools recognize the value of a good school spirit and rely on such a spirit to maintain standards of achievement and conduct. How-ever, important as this form of guidance i s , a more organized and direct form is utilized in most modern schools. At point Grey Junior High School, a well organized form of student government exists, and councils are set up annually according to correct parliamentary procedure. Students possessing qualities of leadership are elected to help plan and conduct the affairs of their class, grade, and school. These governing bodies s if t and mould student opinion and by this method, as well as by the personal influence of the officers, exert a powerful effect on the student body. In addition to council of-ficers, pupils acting as monitors in service groups, such as Traffic, Library, Lost and Found, publications, Book Exchange, play a positive role in guiding other students. They exert a direct influence by the work which they do in their various of-fices, and an indirect influence by their own conduct in the school. Practical contributions are made by the students to the counselling program. Officers and sponsors discuss students who are not adjusting to student rule. Frequently the counsellor learns of needy pupils through class mates, or hears the troubles of the shy gi r l from a friend. 20 Procedures Used in counselling at point Grey Undesirable and unwholesome behaviour on the part of the student is a matter of concern to the entire teaching staff, who hold the view that the goal of education is to make i t pos-sible for every pupil to achieve the most satisfying l i fe pos-sible both during her school l i fe and afterwards. It is true that some behaviour problems remain unnoticed, and that those problems which most engage the attention of teachers are con-cerned with infractions of school rules and routine and with failure to meet requirements of school work. The homeroom teacher, the subject teacher, the grade adviser, and the club sponsor are, however, sensitive to the more subtle behaviour problems, and are aware of their significance. The principal and vice-principal are also on the alert for evidences of stu-dent trouble, while the counsellor has many opportunities of observing the student behaviour. The members of the Metropoli-tan Health Unit connected with the school are also charged with helping the student to adjust, and they frequently identify the g i r l who needs counselling. Parents, too, often worry about the personality development of their child or about her school progress, and communicate with the school authorities about these problems. When behaviour indicative of poor adjustment is ob-served, i t Is brought to the attention of the counsellor. Ji'or example, i f a child is doing unsatisfactory work, i f she is 21 irresponsible or disobedient, or i f she is extremely shy or shows anti-social tendencies, the teacher notifies the counsel-lor, either formally or in an informal chat. When the pupil i s referred for counselling the counsellor prepares an abbreviated case study if.the matter appears to be serious. To do this she studies the cumulative record, consults the homeroom teacher, and questions one or more-subject teachers. If the grade advi-ser is not aware of the situation she is informed and her advise is sought. In many cases the nurse is drawn into the study, and the medical card examined. When sufficient information has been gathered to give a background to the particular problem being considered, the counsellor has an interview with the g i r l , in which she learns a l l she can about the student and about the problem. If the problem proves to be serious, further steps are taken to determine its real nature and its cause. Teachers may be asked to make detailed reports or to answer questions. The school doctor may be asked to examine the g i r l and to supply information with regard to significant aspects of the situation. The parents may be asked to confer with the principal and coun-sellor, xhe g i r l herself may be interviewed several times, ik conference may be arranged v/ith some or a l l of the subject teachers. The principal and vice-principal and one or more grade advisers may be present in order to help interpret the infor-mation and give, advice or make suggestions. Wfien a plan of action has been agreed upon, the steps 22 necessary t o put i t into action are begun. Recommendations as to procedures are made to the teachers who work with the pupil, and the matter i s discussed with her to ensure her cooperation. If the proposed plan does not bring the desired response of i f the problem i s such that the help of a psychiatrist is needed, the parents are asked to assist the nurse in preparing a report. They are also asked to accompany the g i r l to the c l i n i c so that they may have the benefit of the psychiatrist's advice. In order to secure data for the report, the nurse v i s i t s the pupil's home, and i s thus able to make some estimate of home conditions. In the meantime the counsellor summarizes the information avail-able, and states the problem as i t affects the school. (Appen-dix, p. i i i ) . The g i r l i s advised of the steps being taken to help her, and i s prepared as far as possible for her v i s i t to the Mental Hygiene Clinic. In some instances the school doctor may refer the pupil to a specialist or to a medical clinic for a physical examina-tion, so that treatment or medication can be arranged. In such such causes, when special treatment is required the counsellor gives the necessary instructions to the teacher, and also t e l l s the pupil how she can cooperate i n the arrangements made for her care and comfort. If the assistance of a church or service club is needed to provide financial aid or to arrange for suitable recreation the counsellor gets in touch with one of the leaders. When the help of a welfare agency i s sought, the nurse and coun-23 sellor act together, giving and receiving information, and attending clinics and conferences. This short and general description of the methods used in dealing with student problems is somewhat inadequate. Modifications and variations are made in view of the parti-cular situation, the amount of cooperation the student gives, and the many other factors which may enter into the problem. Time is an element in most cases, since the immediate problem demands attention, although the collecting of relevant infor-mation and the analysis of the maladjustment may be a lengthy process. In general the same process is used in dealing with difficulties. The cumulative record, the interview, the re-sults of standardized tests, the reports of teacher, students, parents and nurse are a l l used and several of the techniques of counselling are applied. When the counsellor has studied the data, identified the real problem, and traced its develop-ment, she and the student plan a course of action appropriate to the needs of the case. It then becomes necessary to advise and help the teachers and others closely associated with the g i r l as to ways and means of carrying out the proposed program, and also to guide the g i r l herself as she tries to make an effective adjustment. Helping the pupil so that she herself wil l make the necessary effective adjustments is *hi whole purpose of the counselling program. As Hamrin and Erickson (31, p. 1-2) say? 24 ^Guidance i s that part of the school program which is most concerned with assisting the individual to become more effectively oriented to the present situation and to plan his future more carefully i n terms of his needs, a b i l i t i e s , opportunities, and social responsibilities. 8* 25 Chapter II Information Used In counselling the individual The Need for Personal Data As has been shown, the guidance and counselling depart-ment is so organized within the school that help and advice are available to the pupil from many sources. Before counselling can be made effective, however, the counsellor must be informed about the characteristics and potentialities of the pupil, and also about the influences and resources of the home, the school, and the community in which the g i r l must make her adjustments. If the school is responsible for the entire development of the pupil, the counsellor must know a l l her needs - educational, vocational, recreational, social, physical, moral and emotional. Such infor-mation can be gathered from reports, records, tests, direct obser-vation, pupil opinion, parental contacts, and many other sources. Gathering and compiling information about the g i r l and about her total environment is therefore an important part of the counsel-l o r s work, such work begins immediately a pupil enrols. Personal Data Available for Use at point Grey Junior High School When a pupil enrols, a cumulative record is placed in the files in her name, and as information is received from time to time i t is recorded and f i led. The f i rs t record made is the enrolment form. (Appendix, p. i ) . This gives the name in f u l l , the age, the grade, the name of the last school attended as well 26 as the name, address, and occupation of the parent or guardian. When a g i r l registers at the f irst of the school year from a local school, her homeroom teacher supervises the f i l l i n g in of the enrolment form. When she registers from a school outside the point Grey area, the counsellor takes charge. This gives an opportunity not only to become acquainted with the student but also to learn many things about her. At an ini t ia l interview i t is possible to appraise a g i r l ' s physical condition, her motor-coordination, her emotional attitude, her socio-economic back-ground, and her social intelligence. This information, although casual, is helpful in placing the pupil in a class suitable to her needs. If a pupil has attended a public school in the province, she comes provided with a cumulative progress card (Appendix^ii) which records her scholastic standing. It states when and where she f irst enrolled, and the names of the schools subsequently attended. It records the number of times she has been absent or late, in addition, i t gives the results of the psychological tests she has taken. In schools throughout the province the Kational and the Otis standardized intelligence tests are usually given. The pupil's progress card shows the date of such exami-nation, the score, the mental age, and the intelligence quotient. In individual cases, the Bureaii of Mental Measurements of the Vancouver school Board uses the Revised Stanford-Binet Test. When this is used, a special report is issued which gives the 27 name of the person referring the pupil, the reason for the referral, the result, and occasionally, recommendations which were made to the teacher or parent. The progress card also records the results of standardized achievement tests. The information obtained from this card enables the counsellor to help the pupil to select a course closely related with the work she has already done, while the results of standardized tests provide " . . . a stable, valid, reliable, and standard yardstick for comparison of pupils and for prognosis of success in scholastic competition." (Williamson, 82, p. 3751. School records (Appendix, p. v) covering the three years spent at junior high school give a detailed account of the pupil's academic achievement in terms of examinations on subjects of the course of study, xhese records, which are based on exami-nations held quarterly, show the subjects studied and the percen-tages and the letter grades obtained. As groups ranging from 350 to 500 students are examined at the same time, the marks are ar-ranged on the normal curve of distribution, and the letters A, B, C+, C, C- , D, and E are used to indicate the pupil's standing in each subject. The same system is used to indicate the average standing in the grade. These marks, which are partly subjective, give an appraisal of knowledge, ability, willingness to work, ambition, and conformity to discipline. Accompanying each letter grade is the subject teacher's estimate of the pupil's work habits, which are indicated by marking " S " for good habits, a 28 check mark (V) for average, and an "N" for unsatisfactory. For example, i f the report bears the record - English - C, v/ Mathematics - C, the pupil has made a low average mark in English, S but her teacher is satisfied that her work habits are average; and her mathematics teacher considers that, in order to obtain to grade C in that subject, her work habits must have been e f f i -cient. A citizenship rating is recorded on the pupil's report card and on the cumulative record. This rating is compiled four times a year. Students and teachers submit names of outstanding pupils. Points are awarded on the basis of this selection, and additional points may be given for participation in school acti-vities, and for service to the school. A tally is kept of persis-tent or serious misdemeanours. When a l l these factors have been considered, a scale is prepared, by means of whiibh the individual israted as "superior", "satisfactory", or"unsatisfactory". While this rating is subjective, i t does tend to select pupils who are considered outstanding, or those who are very unsatisfactory, and serves, therefore, as another measuring stick for the counsellor. £ system of confidential reports is used (Appendix, p. vii) when special information regarding a pupil is needed. Selec-ted teachers, who are in a position to know the g i r l well, are asked ,to express .opinions on definitely stated points. They fre-2 9 quently contribute anecdotes, observations, or comments which help to give a clear idea of the gir l ' s interests, attitudes, conduct and personality, and often supply information regarding her friends, her activities, and her school work. When a number of such reports are summarized, the counsellor has available iBuch invaluable information. On f i le in the medical room are individual cards giving height, weight, vision, hearing, physical weaknesses, and a history of illnesses and diseases. The history covers not only the school l i fe af the child, but gives also any pertinent pre-school health data. Such information is of value in every case considered, but is an especial safeguard to the g i r l who suffers from chronic asthma, glandular disorder, rheumatic heart, chorea, or epilepsy. (Appendix, p. v i i i ) . Attendance is a problem of child behaviour, and for that reason attendance cards recording tardiness or absence are marked daily. (Appendix, p. ix). The cards are designed to cover a three-year period, and show at a glance the total number of times a student has been late or absent. They also record tele-phone calls made to the parent, or visits paid by the nurse or attendance officer. In each case the data and the reason are entered, eo that information as to the duration of serJLooa i l l -nesses or accidents, or irregularities are noted. confidential transcripts of a l l interviews with the pupil, or of any interview which concerns her are f i led . (Appendix 30 p. xi) . Such a transcript shows the name, the date, and the reason for the report or interview, pertinent facts, and de-tails of personal, school, or family history which are brought out during the interview are carefully recorded. Any action taken is also noted. Many of these reports give not only the significant facts learned but also the comments made by the interviewer, and the questions asked and remarks made by the pupil. Each pupil f i l l s in several questionnaires which supply information on which to base an ini t ia l or routine interview. One such form gives data regarding the family background. (Appen-dix, p. xiv). On i t the pupil enters the names, nationality, occupation, and address of her parents, the number and ages of her brothers and sisters, and information regarding other mem-bers of the household. A questionnaire on school history reveals the schools attended, the subjects studied, and the honours or distinctions won. It states the pupil's favourite subject, and the one she likes least. It also gives her choice of course for the next grade, her plan for further education, and her choice of vocation. Another questionnaire deals with the student 's ac-t ivit ies . In one section the g i r l tells of out-of-school acti-vities - the church, the Sunday school, the church clubs attended, and the offices held or the honours won. She discusses games, sports, and hobbies, and finally, she gives information regarding extra-mural study; for example, attendance at a Chinese school, 31 at a skating class, or a dance academy. Lessons in art, or music, or voice culture are listed. In a second section, she discusses in-school activities such as the service club to which she belongs, the teams she plays on, the recreational club she has joined, and the offices she holds. She mentions council offices held, prizes or awards won, and also any part she has taken in a concert, assembly, or show. Another source of information is the time schedule, which shows how the g i r l spends an average day. The form for this differs for each grade, and from class to class, and is therefore not f i led . The g i r l keeps it in her notbook and makes i t available to the counsellor at need. Correspondence concerning the pupil, records of special achievements, of deten-tions, of punishments, and samples of work are also f i led . The folder form of record has been in use at point Grey Junior High School for many years. It is of value because i t requires very l i t t l e clerical work, and yet contains everything of significance regarding the pupil which can be collected during her attendance at the school. The blank folder formerly used has been replaced by a form issued by the Department of education, (Form G-12). This "Counsellor's Record bolder" is designed for use in elementary, junior high, and senior high schools, apace is provided on the cover of the folder in which to record the interviews held, giving the name of the school, the grade or 32 class, the date, and the reason for the interview. The space inside is divided into six sections - home background, school record, personality, activities, work experience, and educa-tional vocational plans. It is proposed that separate items be filed in the folder, and that a summary of important infor-mation be assembled on the cover. i t is true that the complex organization of the secon-dary school makes i t difficult for the teacher to know and understand the individual. There is a tendency, too, as the g i r l moves up through the grades for teacher-pupil relationships to become less intimate. By means of the records mentioned, however, a large amount of significant data is made available to teachers and counsellor. «uth Strang (66, p. 16) in writing of the cumulative system says, "The separate items gathered from many sources may not individually have high reliabili ty , but viewed and evaluated as a whole they make possible a valuable total impression." 33 Chapter i l l Counselling problems. The Range and Variety of Counselling problems The guidance program operates on two assumptions: f i r s t , that the pupil must be helped to make the most of her ab i l i t i e s , and secondly, that she must be trained to take her place as a productive member of society. This involves the • study of the interests, a b i l i t i e s , and desires of the in d i v i -dual i n order to help her formulate and carry forward plans which lead to attainable goals. The various non-counselling activities of the guidance department complement the specific guidance work of the counsellor. . In other words, assembling data about pupils, and cataloguing information about courses, subjects, occupations, and opportunities for vocational training, are actually preparations for individual counselling. The aim of such counselling i s to help the pupil to adjust effectively to the environment i n which she lives. Making adjustment affective requires that the g i r l solve problems, de-cide issues, or make choices. In any case i t becomes necessary to acquaint the g i r l not only with her personal a b i l i t i e s but also with her limitations, and to provide her with information which w i l l lead her to make wise choices and to form plans which she can realize. It means helping her to secure the maximum benefit from lessons and activities. It necessitates the in -clusion of a l l g i r l s i n the scheme and not merely the problem cases, since the need to make wise decisions and to solve pro-3 4 lems arises every day for a l l students. If such problems are met as they arise, effective adjustments wil l result and serious maladjustments wil l not develop. Every pupil, bright or dull , timid or forward, indus-trious or idle, requires help at one time or another. This the counsellor must be prepared to give. The necessity for provi-ding such services for every student is stressed by most present-day educationalists. For example, Erickson and Smith (20, p. 3) state that: Every pupil in school wil l sometime need certain services in the guidance program, preventive ac-tion on the part of the guidance worker is often more valuable than curative action. The tendency in some schools to regard the guidance program as a medium for restoring delinquent pupils to the status of the good school and community citizen-ship is regrettable. The so-called "normal11 boy and g i r l deserve much more attention than they usually receive. Every pupil needs to learn his own assets and limitations and to make a variety of adjustments based upon a knowledge of himself. He needs information about subjects, curriculums, occupational opportunities and requirements, and college opportunities. No less frequently than the "problem" pupil he needs assistance to meet personal problems and to make important choices, iivery pupil is entitled to these counselling ser-vices. The counsellor does not place pupils in separate categories as good or bad. j^ very pupil in the school is entitled to the services of the guidance program in direct proportion to his needs. To be sure, some of these services are adjustive in character, but they have the same therapeutic value for pupils whose problems can be analysed into nothingness as for the one whose problem stems from an actual maladjustment." In junior high school,-where the counsellor tries to serve a l l types of student, the problems are many and varied, oome are the troubles of childish, immature gir ls , while others 35 are almost at adult level, some concern t r i v i a l worries or juvenile pranks, while others involve serious home care or grave breaches of discipline, aome can be resolved easily and at once, while others require careful and lengthy study, and c a l l for "the assistance of teacher, parents, welfare workers, and specialists in the fields of medicine or mental hygiene. whatever the problem, i t ultimately involves a person-to-person relationship between counsellor and pupil. Such a relationship may be established i n a number of ways. The student may appeal for help, or the request may come from the homeroom teacher, the subject teacher, the doctor or nurse, the principal or parent, the welfare agency, or some outside group. To give some idea of the range of problems, as well as to indicate some of the ways i n which the counsellor is made aware of g i r l s who need help, a number of specific problems are listed i n Table IV. These problems are listed i n the order i n which they oc-curred in one school week. The table indicates both the source of the referral and the nature of the problem. 36 TABLE IV A SYNOPSIS OF THE PROBLEMS PRESENTED TO THE COUNSELLOR IN ONE WEEK (January 31 - February 4, 1949, at point Grey Junior High School) Person Making the Contact Nature of the problem January 31 12 girls Admission after absence. Eight referred to nurse. Marilyn Church worker re S. Joan Poor attendance discussed. Absent in a l l 21 days. Reasons unsatisfactory. To discuss a pupil who i s using the meeting of the " . C . G . I . T . " to deceive her father while she keeps "dates". Ankle broken. First aid given, Mother noti-fied. Arrangements made to have g i r l taken to her home. Georgie Mrs. W. Sue Patricia Pat's Mother suddenly i l l . Mother notified. Father called for the g i r l . Called at the counsellor's request. Stu-dent recently from Winnipeg. Not adjusting well. To talk about a class party she plans to hold. To ask i f she "had to go home to lunch". Home trouble. Telephoned to Mother, who insisted child must go home. Telephoned to say Pat evidently stealing, as she had money and small articles in her possession to which she had no claim. 4 girls Problems of school work and activities. 37 Person Making Nature of the problem the Contact February 1 8 girls Mrs. a. Noreen Class 18 Homeroom teacher 3 girls Admissions after absence, to nurse. Th re e re f e rr e d Daughter Noreen had "an accident" in class. Ran home without permission, in great distress. Boys noticed the acci-dent. Enuresis. Urged Mrs. S. to take Noreen to Mental Hygiene Clinic. Given admission slip, and permission to leave class whenever she wished, woreen acted well. Situation explained to class, who agreed to keep silent. Matter explained. Asked to advise Noreen's subject teachers. Interviews with girls of class 28 re pro-blems of next year* s courses. Telephone calls by counsellor Jackie L. Mrs. L. Jackie's Mother February 2 55 girls Mr. & Mrs. D. Joan's parents Myrna Six calls made to parents whose daughters had been absent three or more days. poor school work, port. Four D's on January re-Re interview with Jackie. Child terrified of tests and of counsellor. Mrs. L. was shown Jackie's cumulative progress card. Admissions after absence, influenza epi-demic. Almost a l l referred to the nurse. To discuss Joan's prcspects of promotion. January report very discouraging. They asked how they could help. (I.Q. 84). To ask for home assignments for a friend who has broken her arm and will be absent some weeks. 38 Person Making Nature of the problem the Contact Sue To explain that she wil l be absent several days, ftew baby, just home from hospital, Mother alone. Homeroom teacher To discuss too frequent absences of a poorly adjusted member of his class. Barbara. Maureen Onset of nervous spell, like petit mal. Aspirin and rest room, as prescribed by her doctor. Telephone call of Counsellor Mrs. T. D's Mother Forms sent out by Counsellor Foster father Mrs. H. Mrs. S. principal Mr. w. February 3 Substitute Nurse Asked Mrs. T. to call at the school to discuss her daughter. Called to discuss the reason for her daughter's dropping from a C grade to a C-. Work habits poor. Confidential report forms sent to sis teachers, asking for information oh pupil referred to. To discuss his charge, a ward of the Children's Aid Society. To discuss a personality clash between her daughter Betty and her Science teacher. Noreen's Mother called regarding the sug-gested visit to the Mental Hygiene Clinic . Asked for information. Gave Noreen's history. Agreed to go. (Enuresis case mentioned above). Advised of Mrs. T's v is i t , and shown cumulative report already on hand. Student nurse's aides called, given directions. Nurse 36 girls Admissions after absence. Only the very pale referred to substitute nurse. 3 9 person Making the Contact Nature of the problem Metropolitan Health Unit Report prepared by Counsellor Diana Denise In absence of nurse, telephoned to Super-visor to ask for appointment with director of Mental Health Committee for Mrs. S. and her daughter. (Enuresis case dis-cussed above.) Forms f i l l e d and report made for Mental Health Unit on Noreen, mentioned above. Chinese student to discuss trip to California that would necessitate her missing Easter examinations. Foot injured in gym. Mother notified. Arrangements made to have a teacher drive her home. Grade Adviser, Grade Nine Re four girls in Class 3 who are causing trouble to a l l their teachers. Class teacher Forms sent out by Counsellor Principal, Mr. W. Clinic February 4 Ex-student S.L. Re girls just mentioned. Six teachers asked to report on attitude and work of the above girls . Class 3 discussed, check-up. Plans made for general Conference at Metropolitan Health Unit with Dr. G. and other specialists, re-garding a g i r l referred at her mother's request, pupil, Sandra, unmanageable at home, temper tantrums, etc. Replied to a letter from the head-mis-tress of a private school in Maine, who had asked for an appraisal of a former pupil now seeking admission to the school. 40 Person Making the Contact Nature of the Problem B.C. Telephone Company Letter from personnel manager asking information regarding a former pupil now seeking employment. Form f i l l e d in. Homeroom teacher Asking help for a new pupil of high ability whose work and attitude are being affected by an unwise choice of friends. Grade Adviser Grade Seven New Student Girl Officer Class 17 4 girls Miss M. Juvenile Court To show the well-written composition, work of one of her ••difficult" pupils. Noreen, enrolled from Crofton House. Officer of Class 17 put in charge of new g i r l . interviews with members of Class 28 regarding problems of school routine. Telephoned to ask for information re a ward of the court recently transferred to the school. Jane To show her January report, which showed some improvement. Conference Weekly conference with grade advisers. previous Research on differentiation of Counselling Problems Studies made during the past half century have pro-vided important information regarding the problems of youth. Much of the recent research is concerned with personnel work, and is of a general nature. The purpose of guidance, the or-ganization of guidance services, and "tools-'and techniques of 41 counselling have been discussed, and analyses a? counselling practises made. At present, a large share of the research is limited to statistical validation of tests, or to the study of particular phases of guidance or counselling. Since the turn of the century, however, a number 'of studies have been pub-lished, describing and differentiating between the various types of student problems, and in some instances indicating their frequencies. The earliest study of this kind made on this conti-nent appears to have been conducted by Triplett (78) at the State Normal School, Kansas, Missouri. He states that "The problem which pedagogical pathology presents, of tracing the faults of children to their sources and showing their psycho-logical causes, has only lately been attempted." His study is divided into three parts: the faults and defects of children as seen, f i rs t by teachers, second by children, and third by parents. The chief offence as indicated in each category was, inattention, bullying, selfishness. At the beginning of the century, as now, the parti-cular needs and problems of children received much attention. Educational publications of that day furnish many interesting articles, among them one by u . Stanley Hall , (3®) entitled "Showing Off and Bashfulness as Phases of Selfconsciousness", foreshadows the research being done today in personality pro-blems. After the survey made by Triplett in 1903, however, 42 there do not seem to have been any serious attempts to study the whole problem of student difficulties until 1925, when two studies were published. One of these, of great interest to the Canadian reader,- was made by W.E. Blatz. (8) Working under the hesearch Division of the Canadian National Committee for Mental Health, Blatz carried on a two-year study in a Toronto school and published the results in 1927, in an article entitled "Behaviour of publior,School Children". One of the most exhaustive studies yet to be made was carried out in 1928 by E.ii. Wickman. It grew out of^two experi-mental investigations being carried on in elementary schools in Minneapolis and Cleveland by the National Committee in Mental Hygiene, and developed into a comparison of the attitudes of teachers and mental hygienists towards behaviour problems of school children. This study is s t i l l used extensively. A valuable contribution to the study of adolescent problems was made by Strang (70) in 1935. As a method of familiarizing teachers with some of the sources and features of maladjustments among students, she compiled what she termed "A Summary of Areas of Adolescent problems". The l i s t includes eleven areas, ranging from problems of health and physical development to problems of vocational guidance. It includes approximately 315 items, among which difficulties connected with scholarship and personality are-most numerous* Williamson (81) devotes the greater part of her book, 43 "How To Counsel Students", to a discussion of pupil problems. She takes the view that a l l problems are aspects of personality-adjustment, but for the sake of convenience she divides the study into five parts - "Personality problems, problems of Educational Orientation and Achievement, problems of Occupational Financial Problems, and Health problems". In concluding the study, she says there are serious gaps in our knowledge of student problems, and suggests among other problems which need investigation - "Descriptions of types of students needing the assistance of a counsellor, " and also "An analysis of case histories to differentiate types of students' problems." Jones (36) has published two editions "principles of Guidance",one written before World War Two and the other since. In both ;;he l is ts types of problems confronting young people. He believes that such l ists stimulate analysis of problems and provide the basis for a planned program of guidance. Jones, who prefers the word "conditions" to either "situations" or "problems", tabulates eight typical conditions, giving some hundred examples of pupil difficulties. Writing from the standpoint of the clinical psycho-logists, , Louttit (45), in 1936, published "Clinical Psychology (A Handbook of Children's Behaviour problems*)". This he re-vised, and in 1947 published a second edition entitled "Clinical Psychology of children's Behaviour"; His theory is that a l l problems f a l l into three classes: problems associated with 44 behaviour abilit ies , behaviour deviations having no necessary connection with either abilities or physical conditions, and problems correlated with specific kinds of*organic disabilities. His three classes are broken down into fifty-three items. He illustrates his writing with seventy-nine tables, one of which shows the frequencies of problems seen in clinics. Another shows the rating of the seriousness of the problems made by different groups - parents, teachers, educational psychologists, and mental hygienists. Mental hygienists have produced much literature on the subject. Not only texts such as Rivlin's (60) "Educating for Adjustment" but whole series of books of case histories establish the mental hygienist point of view, while their ar-ticles appear regularly as reports from the National Committee and also in educational periodicals. Interesting studies of youth problems appear regularly in current periodicals; however, i t is possible to mention only a few of these. Mooney (51 and 52), working with the Bureau of Educational Research for Ohio State University, has produced a series of "problem Check Lists" which in turn have caused a number of discussions and comments by other educators. Jennings (35 ) investigated twenty types of common problems through a series of questionnaires answered by 225 high schools. Peller (54) writing in 1946 from the mental hygienist point of view, published a study, "Significant Symptoms in the Behaviour of 45 Young Children." During the year 1945-46, a survey (86) of particular interest to Canadian teachers was carried on throughout the elementary and secondary schools of Canada. This survey, . conducted by the National Committee for School Health Research, was designed to gather information on existing conditions in Canadian Schools regarding factors that affected the health of children. The section "Mental Health Problems in the Secondary School", was compiled on information offered by the principals of seventy-five percent of the secondary schools of the country. The survey consists of two parts, f i rs t , "The Most Frequent Mental Health problems", and second, "The Most Serious Mental Health problems". Eight types of problem are listed in the f i rs t section and ten in the second, in both l i s ts , problems of boy-girl relationships are placed f i r s t , problems which re-sult from unsatisfactory home environment and those caused by the general assignment of pupils to academic courses come second and third. The topic, "student problems", is extremely important, and contemporary educators are rightfully concerned not only in studying i t but also in preparing teachers and other workers to recognize and deal with actual problems. At the moment an interesting study is being carried on the campus by Dr. R.C. Woellner and his class of eighty-six teachers. The members of the class f i rs t submitted l ists of problems, dividing them into 46 two classes, f i rs t as they affected the counsellor, and secondly as they affected the pupil. These were then tabulated under four headings - pedagogical, social, vocational, and administra-tive. The incidence as recorded by teacher opinion was calculated and the results given to the class for discussion and study. The exercise which was intended to focus the attention of the class on the importance of investigating papil problems, is another evidence of the widespread interest being shown in the character of youth problems. Reasons for Attempting to Differentiate Between Counselling  Problems The l i s t of cases shown in Table IV indicates that situations and problems which affect the student are greatly varied. While the fact has been observed by many writers, the literature on modern personnel and counselling work is defi-cient in information describing and differentiating between types of student problems, especially at the junior high school level, i f the counsellor is to contribute service of value to the individual and to the school, such information is essential. The counsellor thinks of education as the process for preparing the individual for participation in the activities of l i f e , that i s , for satisfactory participation in present activities while preparing for probable future situations. She know that under conditions of modern living the pupil finds herself con-fronted with circumstances which she cannot meet satisfactorily, 47 either because she lacks understanding and experience, or be-cause she is unable to make adjustments. The counsellor realizes that i f the process-of preparing for l i f e is to be carried on, the g i r l must be helped and trained to meet events as they arise. Experience i n dealing with students shows that there are typical conditions from which problems arise, conditions which create situations demanding that the pupil make choices and adjustments. While children's problems are very much alike under similar circumstances, any environment to which the child must make adjustments creates particular conditions and makes spe-c i f i c demands. The school i s a particular environment and many of the problems with which educators deal are inherent in school situations. School problems differ at each age level. For example, when pupils reach junior high school, d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with extremely low mental ability or with marked physical and mental aberrations have been cared for through the media of "special classes", school for the deaf and blind, sight saving classes, and institutional care. The particular problems which affect the junior high school student are those of the young adolescent growing from childhood to maturity in the school environment, iidueational adjustments are part of the whole pattern; that i s , no single factor causes a behaviour problem, and children are required to adjust to a number of environments operating at the same time. Nevertheless, in order to study the problems of the individual pupil some clas s i -48 fication of types of difficutties seems necessary. As a step towards recognizing such difficulties, a classification of types or fields of .counselling problems has been made by the writer. Types of Counselling Problems Compiled as a result of some years of teaching and counselling young teen-age girls at the Junior high school level, the proposed classification includes a number of problem areas or conditions. The following are proposed as the chief types of problem which the counsellor met during the period from January 7 to April 30, 1949, and which wil l therefore be considered in this thesis: 1. Minor problems of well-adjusted gir ls . 2. Problems at i n i t i a l school adjustment and orientation. 3. problems of health and physical development. 4. Problems Itelating to school work. 5. Problems relating to withdrawal from school. 6. Problems of school discipline. 7. Problems of home conditions and family relationships. 8. Serious personality problems. 9. Problems relating to attendance. Any classification is bound to be unsatisfactory, f i rs t because problems are inter-related and overlap, and se-conder, because most problems are many-sided, involving the home, the school, the personality, and other factors. The problems themselves range in severity from mild anti-eocial behaviour to serious acts of juvenile delinquency. Any problem requires that the student makes some choice or adjustment. In order that the adjustment be effective, the help of the counsellor is often desirable. The classification which has been adopted, although 49 admittedly inadequate and incomplete, is a help to the counsel-lor when she seeks to analyse the problem and to aid the pupil. As has been stated, problem areas overlap. For eexample, the counsellor may be concerned with a pupil whose attendance i s unsatisfactory, and while investigating the matter she may find problems involving home d i f f i c u l t i e s . Again, a student may be doing unsatisfactory work, and an investigation may show that she i s handicapped by poor vision or hearing or by some form of i l l health. Then, too, a pupil who has been referred to the counsellor as a disciplinary problem is fre-quently found to be doing poor school work, and that in turn may be due to lack of scholastic ability. A gfcd scribbles on the walls of the washroom with indelible lipstick. She may be endeavouring to compensate for a thwarted desire for s&cial approval. The reason she has not met with social approval may be that she has not the ability to meet the academic require-ments of the school. The problem that confronts the janitor, however, i s the defacing of school property, and one of the counsellor's problems is to prevent other pupils from reading the obscenities scrawled i n "New Red". Again the pupil who refuses to conform to school rules may be suffering from some physical illness, but the teacher, i n addition to caring for the rebel, has to consider the welfare of thirty-five other pupils. Thus, while the justification for the classification 50 which has been given may be open to question, i t at least pro-vides a starting point for investigating particular cases. A case begins when some incident of behaviour or specific evidence of emotional disturbance causes someone to appeal to the coun-sellor for help. The particular type of behaviour which the child has exhibited may be a sign of a slight disturbance, or on the other hand i t may be a symptom of a deep-seated maladjust-ment, i t may be that the referrent has made a false or a mis-leading complaint. A problem has been stated, however, and i t must be considered, .before such a problem is satisfactorily resolved, i t may be necessary to make an exhaustive study, in any case, the counsellor must f i rs t deal with the present situation and attempt to bring some measure of relief to the parent or teacher concerned as well as to the pupil. In diag-nosing the many problems £hat beset pupils some starting points is essential, and the classification adopted has proven its usefulness at point Grey Junior High School. Whatever the nature of the problem, and whatever the classification used, the principle followed in dealing with the pupil can be stated in the words of Warters (80, p. 12): 'Personnel work is built upon respect for the dignity and worth of the individual, upon belief in his moral worth, upon concern for his happiness and welfare, and upon a desire to promote optimum development.... It' seeks f u l l understanding of i l l the students in order to provide services, experiences, and environment that will stimulate young people to attain the highest possible levels of maturity, physical, intellectual, emotional, personal, and social." 51 Chapter IV Types and Frequencies of Counselling problems at point  Grey Junior High School The problems which are to be discussed in this chapter occurred during the period from January 7 to April 30, 1949. This time was chosen because i t was sufficiently long to give a reliable sample of the year's work, and because i t included many typical school situations. New pupils enrol at the f i rs t of the year, work units are completed at the end of January and again at the end of Apri l , quarterly examinations are held, and reports are issued to parents. Following the distribution of the January reports, grade advisers give information regarding courses available the following year, and students are required to submit the numbeis of the courses they wish to study in the next grade. Curricular and extra-curricular activities are well established, and students have had time and opportunity to follow their interests, to make friends, and to establish rou-tines. In addition, the teachers have had a chance to become acquainted with their pupils, and in some cases to accustom themselves to the school i tself . They are, therefore, in a position to give informed opinions when these are required. The scope of this study does not permit any discus-sion of the methods used to achieve the objectives of counsel-ling or to relate the disposal of the individual cases dealt 52 with. The study i s concerned primarily with the nature and frequency of the problems which occurred within a definite and limited period of time. Each case begins with a complaint made by a pupil or by some one else. It i s recorded according to the nature of the complaint made, under one of the nine cate-gories mentioned above, and the investigation i s then commenced. The f i r s t atea to be discussed deals with the well-adjusted g i r l . 1. Minor problems of Well-Ad justed Girls-It must be understood that many students who re-ceive wise parental guidance solve their own problems, and i n the course of their school lives seek very l i t t l e help from ' the counsellor. While well-adjusted g i r l s in general make few demands upon the school authorities, they may discuss with $he counsellor real problems when they do arise. It is usually possible to give the required help or information i n a single interview, and to satisfy the individual. In speaking of this class of problem, Jane Warters, (80) the Director of personnel at the Pennsylvania State Teachers' College says: "The counselling given here may be slight by no means can i t be considered unimportant ...High quality of service at this level can contribute much to decreasing the need for later counselling of a greater depth and towards the increasing the effectiveness of such counselling should i t later be needed and given. After a l l the helpful friendliness i s needed f u l l y as much as the information, and often i t i s as conspi-cuously sought as i s the information requested.** 5 3 Many instances of girls who make only one or two appeals to the counsellor during their three years could be cited, and a large number of requests could be listed, A sampling of the problems posed by these well-adjusted girls is given in xable V. TABLE V MINOR PROBLEMS OF WELL-ADJUSTED GIRLS Examples of Problems Advice on the wording of, a speech. An extended absence. A slight injustice. A pairt-time job. A prize or gift . An offer to perform at a show. An unpleasant note or experience. A plan to discontinue some "elective subject". A dislike of a teacher. A quarrel with a friend. ; A loan of books or money. Information on correspondence courses. While Table V cites only a few examples, ninety-seven incidents of similar nature occurred during the period studied. The examples listed indicate that there is a great variety of situations in which the student who is well qualified to make her Own decisions and adjustments and who does not often appeal for help, will on occasion ask for advice or approval. They show too that none of the problems are unusual or serious, and that the girls who present them need only the most casual coun-selling, perhaps the greatest value of such pupil-counsellor 54 contacts is that they induce in the student and i n her parents a respect for and a confidence i n the counselling services of the school. This favourable attitude i s important, because i n many communities parents have been reluctant to assist the school in gathering data about the background of pupils, and i n some cases have accused the school authorities of meddling. In the school where mutual respect and confidence are f e l t by the parents, the pupils,and the counsellor many d i f f i c u l t adjust-ments can be made. For example, should an emotional problem arise du6 to a conflict between the parent and child, the coun-sellor may be successful in changing the attitude of either the parent or the child. Again, there i s frequently an unwillingness on the part of the parent and child to accept the counsellor's diagnosis of a situation, when these run counter to pre-con-ceived ideas and self-diagnosis or to self-chosen goals. If the counsellor has earned the respect of the child, her advice regarding the choice of an appropriate educational or vocational goal w i l l more likely be considered. • - -.-2. problems of I n i t i a l School Adjustment and Orientation It cannot be too often stated that the purpose of counselling i s to assist the individual to make wise choices and adjustments i n connection with c r i t i c a l l i f e situations. One c r i t i c a l situation i s entering a new school. At point cirey Junior High School several hundred g i r l s enrol each September. 55 The majority of these are prompted from six subsidiary schools. Such pupils are placed in the care of homeroom teachers, who assisted by the grade adviser, supervise the f i l l i n g i n of the required forms, the issuing of supplies, and the giving of information oif the various phases of school routine and ac t i -vities. Tafcough the channels of homeroom and group guidance these children are oriented to the new school. As a matter of fact this orientation i s effected with the minimum of trouble, since the pupils concerned have firmly established friendships, as well as previous knowledge of the courses offered and of many aspects of l i f e at the new school. Until individual dif-ferences and needs become apparent orientation i s managed in class groups. The pupil enrolling from an out-of-district school or from some more remote place faces a different situation. She must adjust to strange teachers and class-mates, and to a new school and locality, as well as to new subjects and un-familiar procedures. This involves a number of interviews with the student and at least one with her parent or guardian. Ex-amples of i n i t i a l school orientation problems are listed i n Table VI. 5 6 TABLE VI PROBLEMS OF INITIAL SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT AND ORIENTATION Nature of the Problem ^•feting from the g i r l an account of her school history, and of her interests and a b i l i t i e s . Selecting a course and class commensurate with her ^ a b i l i t i e s and interests. Aranging with various people for books, lock and locker, and supplies of various kinds. Finding a suitable student sponsor. Seeing that timetable, attendance card, and various forms are f i l l e d . Arranging with the school nurse for a medical exam-ination. In some cases, arranging for extra work, for financial help, or for extra tuition. Planning admission to some extra-curricular club. Holding one or more additional interviews to ensure her satisfactory adjustment, and to complete the re-cords regarding her interests, a c t i v i t i e s , and educational and vocational plans. Opening a f i l e for accumulation of data. A student enrolling late in the year experiences many hardships. It i s not always possible to obtain the course she wishes to follow owing to lack of accommodation; i t is d i f f i c u l t to cover the work the class has already studied ; and i t is not easy to become an accepted member of a group, since friendships have already been made, clubs formed, teams chosen, and routines established. Nineteen g i r l s were admitted to the school during the period under consideration. Forty-six interviews were held in order to place these g i r l s in suit-able classes and help them make the f i r s t steps in adjusting 57 to the new school. Seven girls were transferred from Vancouver schools, three entered from Alberta, and one each from a p r i -vate school, a rural school, and a school in Ontario. The group included others for whom the adjustments were more d i f f i -cult. Among these were a g i r l from Scotland, one from England and two from Germany. Another unusual case was that of a Japanese student returning to the coast after an absence of seven years, and being the only Japanese to enrol in the school. The last to enrol was a g i r l , totally blind. 3. Problems of Health and Physical Development Physical factors may prevent optimum adjustment, A g i r l ' s poor health or defective physique may interfere with her participation in normal curricular activities as well as prevent her from taking part in athletics, dramatics, and such pleasures. Poor health may be the cause of indifferent or failing school work, and i t will almost assuredly affect choice of vocation. A noticeable physical defect such as a deformed hand may produce a social sensitivity. A physical handicap such as poor vision or hearing, defective speech, a cardiac condition, or an endocrine disorder demands additional effort on the part of the individual merely to maintain satisfactory scholastic standing. The junior high school g i r l is just reaching puberty, and frequently suffers irregular or difficult menstrual periods. The adolescent student is affected by such troubles as excessive perspiration, acne, or the sudden develop-58 ment of secondary sex characteristics which tend to cause dis-comfort and embarrassment, i t i s impossible to discuss a l l the features of this problem. i\t i s clear that the g i r l who suffers a definite physical handicap requires special care, but i t i s also clear that every g i r l has health problems. In addition, the growing g i r l i s inclined to tax her strength, so that i n order to maintain her health she needs guidance i n order to understand her physical resources as well as information on how to conserve her physical energy. i t i s not the function of the counsellor to diagnose handicaps and diseases, ihe school doctor and nurse do that. The members of the health department work closely with the counsellor, not only in promoting good health but also i n e l i -minating or alleviating conditions which contribute to poor health. JAt Point GJftey, however, where the nurse i s on duty only during the morning session, the counsellor i s frequently required to care for pupils who are i l l or injured. Despite this fact, the counsellor's f i r s t duty i s to recognize the significance of physical disorders insofar as they affect the educational, emotional, and social adjustments of the g i r l . The counsellor must be aware not only of the health problem i t s e l f but of the related personality problems involved. In Table VII are listed a number of physical disorders. It i n -cludes only cases with which the counsellor was directly con-cerned during the period under discussion. In instances where 59 the direct intervention of the counsellor was unnecessary, she was merely advised by the nurse of the donditions. TABLE VII PROBLEMS OF HEALTH AND PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Number of cases Nature of Problems 12 Physical defects - sight, hearing, curva-ture of the spine, etc. 5 Skin eruptions - impetigo, scabies, eczema.. 35 Serious illnesses or accidents - pneumonia, appendicitis, broken limbs.. 4 Gland disorders - thyroid. 9 Nervous disorders - nail biting, stuttering, hysteria.. 6 Menstrual troubles. 1 Enuresis. 3 Epilepsy. 6 Dental care. 3 Overweight. & Excessive thinness. 2 Extremes in height. 1 Slovenliness. 2 Acne. 1 Body odour. As has been shown by the 92 cases recorded in Table VII, the kinds of problems in this area is extremely varied. Of the total number 25 were serious, 15 were reported to the medical officer, and 4 were referred to the Division of Mental Hygiene. Some of the more serious cases whieh created problems in this field were: broken limbs, (6) curvature of the spine, (1) cardiac condition following rheumatic fever, (1) total blindness, (1) suggested epilepsy, (2) hysteria, (2) tonsilec-~ 60 tomies and appendectomies, (5) and nutritional problems of overweight gir ls , (3). In 29 cases the parents were consulted. In serious cases, the counsellor telephones to the parents, and frequently asks them to come to the school to help plan for the child's welfare. The nurse follows the case with visits to the home. When a pupil is required to be absent for a long time, home lessons are arranged by the counsellor. In some cases i t is necessary to arrange a lightened academic program, or to provide for coahhing. Frequently a special time-table has to be worked out to eliminate such subjects as physical education, sewing, or Library work, and an attempt is made to compensate the individual for the loss of privileges and plea-sures. Classroom adjustments and special privileges are arranged for the physically handicapped, and provision is made for rest or medication for the g i r l suffering such disorders as epilepsy or diabetes. Teachers are advised regarding the disability, and assisted in adjusting the child to the demands of school work. 4 * Problems Relating to School Work Many, educational problems arise in the field of coun-selling. These include lack of scholastic ability, special disabilities, insufficient motivation for work, ineffective study habits, and many other problems. Confronting many a g i r l is the difficulty of choosing courses which satisfy her ability and interests, and also the difficulty of convincing her parents 61 that they must place her interests before their own. To under-stand these problems as they have arisen at point Grey Junior High School, i t wil l be necessary to outline the program of studies offered by the school, and to discuss the procedures followed in selecting courses. The curriculum of the junior high school is so or-ganized that no choice of studies is offered in Grade Seven; a l l students are required to take the same work. Two groups of "try-out'1 courses are offered in Grade Eight; these are designed to give the student a practical knowledge of the con-tent of senior high school courses. The non-academic group carries no foreign language option and leads eventually to high school graduation. The academic group offers a choice of French or Latin and leads to university; entrance. Impor-tant selections are deferred until Grade Nine, where a choice must be made between four types of courses or schools - aca-demic, commercial, technical, or general. Great stress is placed on educational guidance in Grades Seven and Eight. The grade adviser conducts this part of the counselling program, in which subjects and courses are considered, and general occupational fields are surveyed. Studies are made of the requirements necessary for success in given courses and occupations. Students are assisted to se— cure information about their own abilities,interests, and limitations. They are informed of the purposes and functions 62 of the four types of course offered in (irade wine, and about the schools which offer such courses, i inal ly , each student has at lease one personal interview with her adviser, in which her work and her educational and vocational aims are discussed. In April of each year, circulars (Appendix, p. x i i i ) outlining the studies offered for the following grade are examined by the guidance groups. The adviser makes explanations, answers ques-tions, and reviews the qualifications necessary to succeed in the various types of work. The student is then required to take the circular to her parents, and with their approval make a formal and final selection of subjects. (Appendix, p. xiv) Table VIII shows the courses offered at point Grey Junior High School for the year 1949-1950. TABLE VIII COURSES OFFERED AT POINT GREY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL (1949-1950J7 Grade VIII Grade IX 1. Art, Junior Business and 1. Art and practical Arts. Typing. 2. Music, Junior Business and 2. Junior Business and practical Typing. Arts. 3. Typing and practical Arts. 4. Junior Business and Typing. Above courses lead to High School Graduation - to trades, clerical and commercial work, apprenticeship and home service. Courses below lead to University Entrance - to professions and  8pecialized occupational fields requiring University work. 63 Grade VIII Grade IX 5 . Art, French and Latin. 6. Music, French and Latin, 7. Practical Arts, French and Latin. 8. Typing, French and Latin. 9. Art and French. 10. Junior Business and French. 11. Music and French. 12. Practical Arts and French. 13. Typing and French. 3. Art, Junior Business and French. 4. Art, Music and French. 5. Art, Typing and French. 6. Junior Business, Typing, French. 7. Music, Junior Business and - French. 8. Music, Typing and French. 9. Art, Typing and Latin. 10. Music, Typing and Latin. 11. Junior Business, Typing, and Latin. 14. Art and Latin. 15. Practical Arts and Latin. 16. Typing and Latin. 17. Beginners' French and p.A. 18. Beginners' Latin; and P.A. Although much valuable group counselling is conducted by the grade adviser in the field of educational guidance, i n -dividual counselling is often needed. For example, when the parents and their children consider making a selection from the choices offered in Table VIII, many of them are bewildered, and consult the principal or counsellor. Student and parents alike seek advice on problems arising from difficult subjects and unsatisfactory grades. They ask for help in improving methods of study, and for information regarding choice of high school or college. The student with inadequate general ability who is 64 doing poor work receives special attention, and is given a larger share of the counsellor's time than other pupils, not only in an effort to help her make the most of her ability, but because lack of ability creates situations which may lead to trouble. While i t is impossible to classify problems re-lated to school work with any degree of thoroughness, because many factors enter into each case, some indication of their scope and nature is given in Table IX. TABLE IX PROBLEMS RELATING TO SCHOOL WORK Number of Nature of Problems uases Problems Relating to Low Academic Ability 64 Generally unsatisfactory work. Difficulty with certain subjects: mathematics, etc. Special disabilities: reading, spelling, etc. Ineffective study habits. Dislike of school. Problems Relating to High Academic Ability 8 3 Unsatisfactory work. Subject difficulty: e.g. sewing, mathematics, typing. (Lack of motivation and interest. (Ineffective study habits. 10 Problems Relating to Choice of Course 9 1 6 19 23 Course unsuited to student's interest and ability. Special course for blind student. Special temporary courses. Courses for pupils enrolling late. Special help in choosing course. 65 Number of Nature of problems Cases Miscellaneous Problems 2 Speaks no English. 2 Has poor command of fundamentals. 7 Has lost interest in school. 7 Is repeating a grade. 6 Wishes special tutoring. 17 Is returning after an extended absence. That parents, teachers and students realize their need for educational guidance is evidenced by the large number of problems referred to the counsellor in the short period studied. None of the problems listed f i t exactly into the category in which i t has been placed, since ability, study habits, motivation, and other factors were inter-related. The classification, however, helped the counsellor to offer sugges-tions to the students and to their teachers and parents. It is the practice of the counsellor to interview, at least once after each set of examinations, the girls in the low mark brac-ket, and to invite the parents to visit the school. Many parents accept the invitation. They come to confirm a choice of course, to secure information regarding the opportunity to enter and the probable cost of training for some occupation. Others who realize the scholastic shortcomings of the pupil seek help in making the most of the opportunities the school offers. Some come to plead for promotion, to ask for study 66 techniques, or to plan for summer school, such interviews per-mit the counsellor to emphasize the needs of the students in the light of their interests and abilities, and thus, to make the educational program of the school more effective. 5. Problems of Withdrawal from School The problem of withdrawal from school is not serious at the junior high school level, ihis is due to the fact that the provisions of the School Act make attendance at school com-pulsory until the pupil is in her sixteenth year. A student wishing to leave school before she reaches the minimum age for compulsory attendance must secure permission from the board of school trustees. Occasionally a number of girls get permission to leave in order to enter apprenticeships. Others leave be-cause they are doing unsatisfactory work, because they dislike school,or because their help is needed at home. Table X shows significant facts regarding the pupils who withdrew during the Spring term. TABLE X SIGNIFICANT PACTS REGARDING PUPILS WITHDRAWING FROM POINT GREY JUNIOR HIixH SCHOOL _i Pupil Grade Age I.Q. A.S.* Comments. Violet 9 15-4 98 * A.S. Academic Standing. D Left school because of the serious illness of her father. 67 Pupil Grade Age A.S. Comments Lorry 9 15-2 104 E Was chronic absentee, has had three jobs since leaving school in March. Vera 8 15-3 88 E Serious behaviour pro-blem, home conditions unsatisfactory and eco-nomic status low. Sandra 8 16 106 D Temper tantrums and con-tinual trouble at home; has secured a good job. June 9 18 73 E Victim of a birth injury; spent four years at Point Grey; left at our suggestion at Easter. Pour of the girls who have left school do not appear to receive adequate protection or care from their parents. The f i f th g i r l , June, is protected and cared for but faces a l i fe where continuous care must be provided. These girls require guidance and help until they are able to support themselves. There is great need for some system of follow-up to aid such pupils. How to provide i t might be a most promising problem for further research. 6. Problems of school Discipline The average g i r l has some difficulty in adjusting to school routine. This is particularly true of the junior high school pupil, "who is transferred from a small closely-knit elementary school near her home to a large complex institution 68 usually at some distance away. Then, too, one of the functions of the junior high school is to develop habits of self-reliance and independence in the young adolescent, and to make her i n -creasingly responsible for her own welfare by providing situa-tions which call for initiative and judgment. Travelling by bus or tram, handling money to purchase lunches and equipment, and caring for personal property are some of her new experiences. Adjusting to a group of strange classmates, to a number of new subjects, and to a large number of subject teachers, taking part in student government, and cooperating with student leaders are also new experiences. Additional subjects, longer lesson periods, more home study, as well as participation in school games, in assemblies, contests, and social events, a l l add to the problems of adjustment. One of the most important factors present at this age is the abiost universally increased interest in boys. Erickson and Happ (19, p. 49) state that constructive guidance begins with orientation, and l i s t the following as a few of the many adjustments that the junior high school pupil must make: "Adjust herself to many teachers. Accustom herself to freedom in passing from class to class. Learn to study. Learn how to conduct herself. Choose her subjects and extra-curricular activities wisely. Participate in athletics and intramural activities wisely. 69 5!Learn how to organize and use her time wisely. Develop initiative and responsibility. Learn about sources of information and help.*' A l l these adjustments affect the average g i r l , but present especially great difficulty to one with low ability or with some personality weakness. For the most part school dis-cipline involves mild infractions of school rules and regu-lations, or of traditions and customs. The counsellor is con-cerned with absences from school, tardiness, loss and destruc-tion of property, misbehaviour in class or in school activities, cheating, stealing, insubordination, truancy, and other mis-demeanours. Some of these behaviour patterns are part of the business of growing up; others are caused by the failure of the school and of the curriculum to suit the interests and abilities of the individual. Unsatisfactory home or community conditions may cause a pupil to develop undesirable personality traits and so become involved in disciplinary problems. No matter what the cause, the breach of discipline Is evidence of ma.ladjustment, and i f neglected may develop into serious delinquency. Table XI Indicates the behaviour problems which oc-curred at point Grey Junior High school during the period studied. The principal sources of information regarding unsatisfactory con-duct were the reports of teachers and of student officers or monitors. In some instances parents or guardians reported mis-demeanours, and in one or two cases outside organizations made reports. The problems are classified according to the complaint received. For example, . a teacher may refer a g i r l to the 70 counsellor because she is guilty of misdemeanours in the class-room or a monitor may complain that a pupil is "Always claiming lost articles that aren't hers." TABLE XI DISCIPLINARY PROBLEMS OF GIRLS AT POINT GREY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL Number of Nature of problems Cases Problems of classroom Discipline 35 (Being inattentive,whispering and giggling. ('Answering back." 16 Refusing to work, neglecting assignments, wasting time, 6 Failing to bring textbooks and equipment to classes. 5 Writing notes. 4 Cheating. 2 Stealing. Problems of general School Discipline (Infractions of Routine Rules) 28 Coming late, (persistent offenders.) 8 Being absent without good cause. 12 Failing to present excuse of absence signed by par&nfc. 4 Borrowing money too frequently. 2 refusing to cooperate with monitors or officers. 3 Misbehaving in halls, cafeteria, and auditorium. 5 Circulating questionable notes or stories. 2 (Quarrelling. problems of Discipline Occurring Away from school 6 Misbehaving on the street, in the tram, and in local stores. 6 Showing an excessive interest in boys. 5 stealing. 7 Slaying truant. 4 Staying away from home. 71 (Girls reported for the misdemeanours listed above were persistent offenders.) Since cevery pupil has some dif f i c u l t y in adjusting to school discipline, only the g i r l who i s really conspicuous for unacceptable behaviour is referred to the counsellor. This i s particularly true of the pupil whose conduct interferes with class routine and work. It i s true, too, of the g i r l who i s referred by the parents, for i t is only when parents are des-perately in need of help that they reveal their troubles. The counsellor realizes that unless these minor behaviour problems are corrected serious consequences will follow. She i s , there-fore, concerned with finding the reasons for the maladjustment. She must aid the student to improve her attitude and conduct, and she must enlist the sympathy and support of these concerned - other students, teachers, and parents. In some cases she must ask the help of welfare agencies. Thus a single discip-linary problem may necessitate many interviews with the pupil and repeated consultation with teachers and parents before a satisfactory solution i s reached. In addition to the more ob-sious types of discipline discussed in this section the coun-sellor must also be concerned with the relatively inconspicuous cases of shyness, day-dreaming and the like, for these too may develop into serious personality a later date i f not detected and corrected early. Cases of this type are discussed later under "General personality Di f f i c u l t i e s " . 72 Listed in the final section of Table XI were pro-blems of an exceptionally grave nature. The number of such problems at point Grey Junior High School is relatively small. This may be due to the fact that the majority of the pupils of the school come from good home environments, or i t may be that privileged people are sometimes able to conceal delinquencies. At any rate some serious problems do exist. Table XII shows the nature of problems which concerned 13 girls rated as serious cases: TABLE XII EXTREMELY SERIOUS PROBLEMS INVOLVING 17 STUDENTS Number of Nature of the problems Cases 13 Persistent misbehaviour in the classroom. 10 Persistent difficulties with monitors and officers. 13 Persistent failure to comply with routine. 5 Persistent borrowing. 15 Persistent failure to study. 8 Marked over-interest in boys. 5 Stealing. 4 Truancy. 5 Staying out a l l night. Some of the cases listed above were brought to the counsellor's attention by the parent, one was referred by the attendance officer, two by the Juvenile court, while the re-mainder were noticed because of repeated exhibitions of unde-sirable conduct at school. A l l the girls discussed have been involved in many minor and in one or more major misdemeanours at school, and more trouble can be anticipated. A number of these g i r l s are already regarded with suspicion and disapproval by other students. Since reasonable measures such as the school i s empowered to take have failed, and parental control seems ineffectual from the standpoint of the g i r l s concerned and also of the school, the home, and the community, the problems are grave indeed. It is not the purpose of this study to discuss the conditions which are responsible for the serious maladjustments of these g i r l s ; nor is i t possible to relate at this time the measures taken to readjust and rehabilitate them. But the data in Table XV indicates the background of several of the g i r l s . The attitudes which are expressed in their undesirable behaviour have persisted for a long time. Only consistent training in favourable home and school environments can break down the bad habits. The failure of the school to help these g i r l s suggests that a problem for research might well be the nature of the therapy for the student involved in serious discipline problems. 7. Problems of Home Conditions and Family Relationships Authorities agree that discordant home relationships handicap the normal emotional, mental, and social development of the child, and that her personality i s warped or retarded by the attitude of the adults of the family not only towards her but towards each other. Louttit (45, p. 33) says: 7 4 'Among a l l the factors that are pertinent to the development of personality and conduct, those associated with the home are of supreme impor-tance. The child's relations to his parents, to s i b l i n g s and to other persons i n the home; the parents' attitudes towards each other and towards the c h i l d ; unfortunate ideas about c h i l d t r a i n i n g held by parents; unsatisfactory material aspects of the home - a l l these and a host of others play important parts i n the child's develop-Problems of students overlap, and many of the s i t u a t i discussed i n this study have resulted from conditions existing i n the homes. There are, however, other Instances of unsocial and unacceptable behaviour for which adults are responsible. Such behaviour may stem from insecurity, over-indulgence, over-protection, f a i l u r e to accept the limitations of the pupil's a b i l i t y , too s t r i c t 9r too lax d i s c i p l i n e , and many other causes. As a result the g i r l may behave i n any number of un-acceptable ways ranging from minor insubordinations to serious delinquencies. The table which follows shows only those pro-blems which were considered i n a period of four months. ment.i; TABLE XIII PROBLEMS OF HOME CONDITIONS AND FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Number of Cases Condition Underlying the Problem 3 1 2 2 1 2 Orphan or one parent. Adopted c h i l d . Wards of the children's Aid Society. Ward of the Juvenile Court. Boards with rel a t i v e s . Works for board and lodging. 75 Number o f C o n d i t i o n u n d e r l y i n g the problem Cases 5 Both parents are employed. 4 Parents separated o r divorced. 2 Sfcep-parent. 2 Parents f o r e i g n - b o r n . 6 Parents over-indulgent. 2 Parents o v e r - p r o t e c t i v e . 2 parents over-ambitious. 4 Parents l a x . In each of the cases l i s t e d the home c o n d i t i o n s had a profound e f f e c t on the p u p i l ' s behaviour. I n some i n s t a n c e s the home r e l a t i o n s were d i s c o r d a n t , and since the g i r l s had n e i t h e r the experience nor the a b i l i t y to deal w i t h the s i t u a t i o n they became aggressive and disagreeable. Others were completely l a c k i n g i n s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , and adopted negative a t t i t u d e s . In almost every case t h e i r e f f o r t s to do school work were weak, and the examination r e s u l t s d i d not correspond with t h e i r mental a b i l i t y , A number of paren t s , who had been aware or who became aware of the maladjustments of t h e i r c h i l d r e n , c o n s u l t e d the c o u n s e l l o r , and others were induced to do so. some of the t r o u b l e s have y i e l d e d to therapy or are a t l e a s t becoming l e s s marked. Some p u p i l s were r e f e r r e d to welfar e agencies, some to the J u v e n i l e Court, and s e v e r a l to the D i v i s i o n o f Mental Hygiene,. while i n three i n s t a n c e s the environment was changed. Frequency of Interviews, This study has shown t h a t while most g i r l s c o n s u l t e d 76 the counsellor only occasionally, others were frequently in consultation. To emphasize this aspect of the general study, Table XIV has been compiled. It deals with ten girls who are experiencing real difficulty in adjusting to their environments. A number of these pupils were discussed in the sections dealing with disciplinary problems, and again in the section devoted to home conditions and family relationships. The names of pupils mentioned as serious disciplinary problems are starred. (Inset p .77) 8. Serious Personality problems Certain young adolescents suffer from personality difficulties which make i t hard for them to adjust to conditions in a large modern school. Such difficulties not only cause them real suffering but also interrupt class routine and inter-fere with school work. These pupils cause trouble in the cafeteria and on the grounds, f i l l the medical and rest rooms, and crowd the principal's and counsellor's offices. Some of these difficulties arise from inexperience in dealing with new situations, and can be overcome in time, but others result from ingrained habits, and are hard to overcome. The diagnosis and the treatment of serious maladjustments are the work of a specialist. If milder maladjustments are not to develop into more serious disorders which will require prolonged treatment, they must be treated at school. Thus, when a pupil exhibits any mode of behaviour which differs markedly from the usual patterns, the teacher or parent may report i t to the counsellor. TABLE XIV TYPES OF. INTERVIEWS WITH SPECIFIC INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS Number of Interviews •8 1 6 -P •a rH O 9 o I rH H 0, O «H 5 o .9 m O «H CO Q 1 o o 3 o CO u © Jl § rH •rt •H O CO Q © -P S rH 1 0 -P CO •rt rH CO S - P P o o ft f r< -P o a © r-j © a H u o © at at H CO P4 © a a E-i o o e h E h O 3 O Comments Eva 7 1 8 Bev.* 7 1 2 10 Mary* 8 2 1 6 2 Beth*' 8 1 2 6 6 Ann # S 4 5 4 4 Nell* 8 2 6 6 10 Ada # 8 2 8 12 9 2 1G 8 Babs 9 1 1 6 2 2 2 3 3 6 6 1 Ruth,* 8 3 2 A 6 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 2 1 14 10 Parents do not co-operate; nurse has made several home visits; counsellor has telephoned. 17 19 Psychiatric care; may be enrolled at small private school; runs away. 12 13 Ward of Children's Aid; has lived in several foster homes; needs constant supervision. 21 17 Delinquent; Juvenile Court interested; habitual absentee; repeat Grade 8. 30 27 Parents separated; under psychiatric care; advised to repeat Grade 8 at Boarding School. 19 18 Parents divorced; lived with grandparents, attended boarding schools; now living with father and stepmother. 29 30 Father labourer; often unemployed; home conditions bad; has left school; delinquent. 28 34 Youngest of large family; all married; has a step-father; mother strict; transferred to Winnipeg. 22 23 Over-indulged; parents took a firm stand; passed June examinations. 25 28 Father out of city; over-indulged; home discipline improved. 78 The latter makes a study of the case, and takes appropriate action which in many cases consists of conferring with the parents and advising them to seek professional help. The l i s t of difficulties which follows in Table XV includes those in which emotional conditions are very marked. The l i s t is not long, and does not by any means represent a l l the personality problems to be found among the students of any school. It con-tains the cases studied during the period under consideration, and is indicative of the types of behaviour which cause grave concern to teachers and counsellor. TABLE XV SERIOUS PERSONALITY PROBLEMS Number of Nature of Problems Cases 4 Instability. 3 Shyness and nervousness. 2 Bad temper. Crude aggressiveness. 6 Lack of self-control. 4 Inability to make friends. 2 Hysteria. 2 excessive day-dreaming. 2 Slyness, cheating, stealing. The twenty-five problems listed in Table XV were a l l serious, and some were extremely grave. A l l the resources 79 within the schoou, were utilized in dealing with them, the parents were asked to confer with the counsellor, and in every instance the nurse made one or more home visits . Some parents took the view that the.matter was not serious and would adjust i tself . In other cases, the counsellor, working with the parents, the teachers, and the students, succeeded in making plans for breaking down the undesirable habits and building up more wholesome ones. Four girls were referred to and treated by their family doctors. A number of parents were advised to consult the Director of Mental Hygiene. It was then learned that three of the girls had been previously under psychiatric care, iive parents sought the help of specialists at the Department of Mental Hygiene or at the Child Guidance Clinic . Problems such as those listed above, which'involve the emotional sides of the gi r l ' s l i f e , may lead to serious and permanent maladjustments. The school can assist girls with mild emotional problems, but in the majority of such cases the advice and help of the specialist is necessary, not only for the g i r l ' s sake but in order to impress the parents with the grave nature of the behaviour. 9. Problems Relating to Attendance One of the matters which occupies much of the coun-sellor's timei and attention is the attendance of pupils. Regu-larity of attendance has obviously a most important bearing on 8 0 the school work of the sAudent and also in her participation -in extra-curricular activities. The well-being of the pupil i s , of course, of primary importance, and therefore general health, prevention of disease, and care in case of illness must receive adequate attention from the Health Department. The next problem is to ensure the regular attendance of the pupil. In order to do this certain routine procedures are carried on. The homeroom teacher records the daily attendance of her pupils at morning roll call . She prepares time sheets (Appendix, p. xxii) for use of the subject teachers during the day, and a l i s t of absentees for the counsellor's use. (Appendix, p. xix). irregularities such as temporary absences during the day, tardiness, or afternoon absences are reported by the teacher in aharge of the room when the irregularity is f irst noticed. It is routine procedure for the g i r l returning to school to present a note from her parent to the counsellor, and to be sent to the nurse for examination i f her condition or the length of her absence (three or more days) warrants this. It is also routine for the counsellor to telephone or write to the parents when a g i r l has been absent for three days. (Appendix, p. xxii i ) . Most of the students absent themselves because of illness or for some other legitimate reason. Some pupils, however, are inclined to absent themselves without good cause. Two duties devolve upon the counsellor, the f i rs t being to 81 carry cut the routine procedures in such a way that pupils will attend regularly, thus preventing habits of irregular attendance, while the second is to minimize the effects of absences and to prevent maladjustments. In Table XVI are shown routine procedures in cases of absences. TABLE XVI ROUTINE PROCEDURES CONCERNING ABSENTEES AT POINT  GREY JUNIOR HI8H SCHOOL Admitting pupils returning from absences. Examining the reason offered for the absence, and checking the signature. Referring to the nurse pupils who seem to require attention. Consulting parents of pupils who have been absent three days. Notifying the homeroom teachers of the reasons and probably duration of absences. Arranging that study assignments be sent to absentees who require them. Referring to the doctor through the nurse those pupils who habitually offer excuses of poor health. Discussing the effects of poor attendance with habitual ab-sentees. Conferring with parents when their daughters' attendance is unsatisfactory. Referring persistent cases of unexplained absences to.the attendance officer. The procedures indicated in the table, the close attention paid to absences during the day, and the nature of the junior high school program, which provides for both curri-cular and extra-curricular activities almost daily, are a l l of value in maintaining attendance. The desire of most parents to do well at school induces students to attend regu-82 larly, but occasionally causes them to be present when they are unfit for work. On the other hand, however, there are pupils who absent themselves without good cause, and parents who contribute to the poor attendance of their daughters. A l i s t of feetors which affect attendance and out of which may grow maladjustments is shown in Table XVII. TABLE XVII FACTORS WHICH AFFECT ATTENDANCE Long illnesses or serious accidents. Dislike of a certain subject or teacher. Lack of interest in school. Low marks and failing grades. Aversion to work (assignments v.unprepared). Over-indulgence in outside activities, especially at weekends (ski-ing, skating, dancing, etc.). Financial reasons (lack of suitable clothes or of books). Parental over-solicitude, parental indifference, parental neglect. Extreme timidity. Inability to make friends. Friendships with girls who do not attend school. Habits of absenteeism following a long illness. The consequences resulting from irregular atten-dance, whether this is caused by illness or by malingering, are serious. They range from difficulty with lessons to problems of delinquency, some of the problems caused by irregular attendance are listed in Table XVIII. 83 TABLE XVIII PROBLEMS RESULTING FROM IRRE-SULAR ATTENDANCE Inability to make up the lessons covered during absence. Necessity for medication, rest, and special privileges at school, which make the pupil conspicuous. Loss of intimacy with other pupils. Temporary or permanent exclusion from certain subjects and activities, necessitating a deviation from class routine. Anxiety on the part of the pupils over their health, and anxiety over missing activities, lessons, and promotions due to loss of time through illness. Over-dependence on parents who are frequently too solicitous. Resentment over restrictions placed on activities, as well as tendencies to compensate in undesirable ways. Tendency to offer illness as an excuse for evading work and responsibility. Tendency to make irregular attendance a habit, or to become truant. Delinquency. The truant frequently makes undesirable acquain-tances and indulges in unsuitable amusements. These in turn may lead to stealing, running away, and sex affairs. Withdrawal from school resulting when the students become dis-couraged or are unfitted for school routine. In dealing with problems that arise from irregular attendance the counsellor must exercise tact and patience, since both pupils and parents must cooperate i f the d i f f i c u l -ties are to be overcome. The cure usually demands a change of attitude,on the part of the pupil, and constant vigilance and cooperation on the part of a l l concerned. Remedial work through private tuition, attendance at summer school, or through correspondence courses is frequently necessary i f the student is to get into step with her classmates. Special time 84 tables and extra privileges are usually arranged for her. Parents and teachers are encouraged to continue their efforts, and the pupil is given as much help as possible. In parti-cularly serious cases the girls may be transferred to other city schools where they can make a fresh start. Summary The counsellor's f i rs t concern in dealing with maladjusted students is to establish the causes for the malad-justments. It has been found helpful to think of such malad-justments as falling into broad areas or categories. Since the problems to be studied concerned adolescent students, a classification has been adopted which emphasizes junior high school problems. This classification has been outlined in Chapter III and developed in the present chapter. The pro-blems encountered at Point Grey Junior High School during the first four months of 1949 have been listed under one or other of the nine areas indicated, and the incidence of the speci-f ic conditions has been recorded. Approximately 650 problems were dealt with by the counsellor in the period indicated. As might be expected, the categories into which most of these f e l l were "school work" and "school discipline". Those in which the most serious conditions lay were "home conditions and family relationships", "personality adjustment", "school work" and "school discipline". Actually there were many instances where no clear-cut classi-85 fication could be made, due to the complexity of the factors involved. While the establishment of the nature and frequency of counselling problems may be of l i t t l e interest or value to the general public, there can be no doubt of i t s usefulness to the counsellor. Such findings indicate the kinds of problems students meet, and c a l l attention to the problems commonly arising i n the particular school in which the study i s made. They suggest some of the major causative factors. They help in evaluating the relative seriousness of d i f f i c u l t i e s . They suggest measures of prevention for certain maladjustments. Finally, they show ways in which counselling may be made more more effective. A detailed study of the conclusions which were reached as a result of the study and of the implications which may be made follows in Chapter V. 86 Chapter V Significance of Findings Recapitulation of the Findings The purpose of this study was to investigate the counselling problems of junior high school gir ls . The field of study was limited to point Grey Junior High School, and the time limit set for the investigation was the period from January 7 to April 30, 1949. In general the investigation showed: 1. That the girls experience a wide variety of problems which occur in every phase of l i fe£ 2. That while problems can be classified into areas or types, each problem is unique, and also complex. 3. That problems vary not only in kind but in degrees of seriousness, ranging from very mild misdemeanours to grave delinquencies. 4. That problems are not restricted to the under-privi-leged or dull pupils, but are experienced at one time or an-other by a l l pupils. 5. That the most serious problems are associated with aspects of personality development and with unsatisfactory home conditions, although extremely grave difficulties are also found involving school work and discipline. 6. That the most frequent problems are those connected work and school discipline, and that these difficulties seem 87 to affect the students of low ability to a greater degree than students of average or high ability. A more detailed analysis of the investigation re-veals factors which are of significance to the counsellor i n diagnosing symptoms of maladjustment, to the principal in organizing the school program and in arranging for counselling services, to the teacher in helping the child to adjust, and to the parents who must take the ultimate responsibility for the g i r l ' s welfare. This analysis shows: 1. That while every g i r l experiences d i f f i c u l t i e s and needs advice, the well-adjusted g i r l tends to solve her own problems, and, that her appeals to the counsellor are usually for approval or encouragement rather than for help. 2. That i n i t i a l school adjustment or orientation i s an important factor in the subsequent adjustment of a l l pupils, but that i t i s of paramount importance to the "out-of-town" student. 3. That problems of health and physical development con-cern an extremely large proportion of junior high school g i r l s . 4. That health deficiencies are significant factors since they interfere with attendance, work, extra-curricular ac t i -v i t i e s , and with the normal relations of the individual with her classmates. 5. That the emotional and social problems which fre-quently follow an illness are equally as serious as the i l l -ness i t s e l f . 88 6. That more than half the i n i t i a l problems of students arise from d i f f i c u l t i e s connected with school work or school discipline. 7. That the majority of problems of school work are due to low academic a b i l i t y , but that lack of motivation i s also an important factor. 8. That many pupils are not capable of meeting the aca-demic requirements of the present junior high school curricu-lum. 9 . That the problems of pupils of low ability and of "problem" g i r l s claim the major portion of the counsellor's time. 10. That "normal", gifted, and superior students do not receive the attention they merit, and that as a result their interests are not explored or their a b i l i t i e s developed to the fullest extent. 11. That the majority of disciplinary problems are not serious, and that many of them might be prevented by applying the rules of mental hygiene and the basic principles of sound disciplinary procedure. 12. That many of the disciplinary problems, minor and major, are due to curricular insistence on a high content of generalizations and theory in a l l subjects, even including the so-called practical arts. There are many duller children who would be much happier i f they could take really practical 89 courses with a minimum of theoretical content. 13. That a relatively small number of girls are involved in serious disciplinary problems, and that such girls are usually "chronic" offenders. 14. That most of the serious and persistent problems i n -volve girls whose home conditions are unfavourable. 15. That in most instances the students who persist in unacceptable behaviour have a history of maladjustments, and that these maladjustments result from a great variety of causes. 16. That problems extremely difficult to solve arise in the field of serious personality problems, and that in this field the noisy annoying g i r l soon receives attention, but the quiet shy child may be overlooked until her problem has become acute. 17. That pupils who wfcttodraw from juit&or high school when the minimal age requirements are satisfied, are in need of continued guidance and of follow-up care after they leave school. 18. That frequently the more serious and persistent pro-blems are not solved, and that therefore further therapy be-yond what the school can offer is essential. Significance of Findings for the Counsellor No single factor is ever responsible for causing 90 an individual to react to situations in ways which are un-acceptable to society, but at adolescence the environmental conditions which tend to precipitate pfeoblems become extremely complex. Since the counsellor at the junior high school i s concerned with adolescent g i r l s , a study of types of problem and of the consequences that arise from them is of inestim-able value. Some of the values to the counsellor of such an investigation as this are as follows: TYPES 1. It indicates the types of problems pupils actually meet and the frequencies of such types. 2. It familiarizes the counsellor with the ways i n whilah maladjustments manifest themselves in various types of situa-tions. 3. It shows the areas of school environment in which problems most frequently arise, and suggests ways of modifying the particular environment. 4. It gives the counsellor perspective in evaluating the seriousness of various problems. 5. It tends to make the counsellor c r i t i c a l of her methods of observation and of her techniques of analysis and diagnosis. 6. It indicates the need for developing more adequate methods of studying the individual student. 7. It gives an Insight into the curricular and extra-curricular needs of the pupils. 91 8. It increases the counsellor's understanding of the relative roles of a l l the school personnel participating in the counselling program, and suggests ways of improving her relationships with each one. 9. It shows how inadequate i s the counsellor's knowledge of home conditions and of other factors that influence the behaviour1 of the student, and indicates the importance of establishing cordial and close relations with the parents. 10. It suggests needed changes in the school organization and in the curriculum. 11. It indicates ways in which the guidance services might be modified in order to be of greater service to the students and the school. 12. i t reveals inadequacies of our knowledge of depen-dable techniques for developing personality and for maintain-ing mental health. 13. It emphasizes the need for more therapeutic f a c i l i -ties. • It suggests a number/)f fields for further research. further Implications for the Counsellor. As has been already stated, this study of counsel-ling problems involved an investigation of a number of. related subjects. The organization of the school curricular. and extra-curricular activities, teacher personnel, and methods of teaching, and of grading ware examined. Home and community 92 environments at different socio-economic levels were studied, and the kinds of educational and occupational opportunities open to members of each group were noted. While the study i t s e l f was concerned with those pupils who presented problems, i t involved other students as well and i t also involved teachers, nurses, parents, and outside organizations. It revealed strengths and weaknesses in the program of the school and in the counselling organization, and i t indicated methods of Improvement. It showed the desirability of close relation-ships between a l l the members of the staff, and between the school and the parents. The results of the study seem to im-ply that many and serious responsibilities devolve upon those people who are concerned with training and counselling stu-dents. The range of socio-economic, cultural, and religious environments in which the child develops is wide. In order to understand the individual, the counsellor requires a broad knowledge of people and an understanding of how different classes live. She must have a knowledge of the assets and limitations of the various districts i n which the g i r l s live. - She should be able to view problems objectively, and to relate them to the g i r l ' s total environment. Since the success of her work depends upon her relationships with the teachers, she must know and understand them, and also the conditions under whicb: they work. As her 9 3 chief concern i s the welfare of the pupils she must be able to establish rapport with them and to gain their confidence and respect. The counsellor, therefore, should have a good basic education, a thorough professional training, a wide experience in teaching, an extensive general experience, and a well-balanced and sympathetic personality. In particular she needs knowledge and understanding of the child, a thorough acquaintance with the techniques of counselling, as well as an appreciation of the problems g i r l s meet and of the means available for helping to solve these d i f f i c u l t i e s . The study of types and frequencies of g i r l s ' problems affords her useful help in diagnosing and treating cases, in that i t frequently shows common causative factors, and indicates general methods of treatment, although the solu-tion of any particular problem is always an individual matter. The actual preparation of such a l i s t of problems causes the counsellor to observe student behaiiour more accurately, and thus to predict with more assurance the problems which may arise for certain groups of g i r l s . It calls her attention to the need for continuing the study of counselling and teaching methods, and for keeping up-to-date in educational literature. The study also shows the need of securing accurate information no the counsellor but for the g i r l s themselves, in order to help them solve their own problems and make their own choices and adjustments. It aids the counsellor in making a 94 more adequate personal acquaintance with the members of the staff, i t points to the desirability of more frequent con-tacts with them, and indicates the need for a more satisfactory method by which the teacher can report their observations. Finaly, i t increases the counsellor's acquaintance with parents and suggests additional ways of securing their support. Significance of the Findings for the Principal The principal is charged with organizing and super-vising curricular and extra-curricular activities, organizing classes, assigning teachers, planning the counselling program, maintaining discipline, and establishing good public relations, to mention only a few of his responsibilities. The findings of the study have a significant bearing on his duties, since they reveal certain common situations from which student pro-blems arise, some of these findings are as follow: 1 . That many pupils with low ability who are now forced to take courses with too much academic content might benefit i f "special" or opportunity classes were established. 2 . That there i s need for remedial work with the pupils who have special d i s a b i l i t i e s , who have not mastered the fundamental subjects, or who learn extremely slowly. 3. That conditions of the school environment might be improved by organizing pupils of low a b i l i t y into small groups, limiting the number of "elective" subjects, and reducing the 95 number of special subject teachers who meet these classes. 4. That additional ways of making close contacts with the parents should be considered. 5. That changes in curriculum and school organization which would allow for better provision for individual dif-ferences should be instituted. 6. That measures to establish a follow-up system for pupils withdrawing from junior high school should be under-taken. Significance of the Findings for the Teachers The study suggests ways by which the homeroom and class teacher can make greater contributions to the satisfac-tory adjustment of the pupils in their care. These include: 1. Creating and maintaining in the classroom an atmos-phere which is more conducive to the wholesome development of students. 2. Discovering more adequately the needs and capacities of the individual gir ls . 3. Modifying teaching techniques and subject matter in order to meet the needs and abilities of the students. 4. Teaching more effectively. 5. Observing and recording more adequately the signi-ficant data about the pupils. 6. Identifying and referring to the counsellor the stu-96 dents who need help before their problems have become acute. 7. Consulting with the counsellor more frequently in order to gain information about pupils and to report their needs or their progress. 8. Putting Into operation preventive or remedial work suggested by the counsellor or by the grade adviser. 9. Helping to establish closer relations with the parents of "problem" children. Significance of the Findings for the Parents Some of the findings of this study might have a value for parents in guiding their own children or in taking part in various community projects for improving the environ-ment of young people. The difficulty is to make such infor-mation available. The school makes an effort to establish relations with parents through certain annual school events such as Mothers' and Daughters' Day, Education Week, special assemblies, and meetings held under the auspices of the parent-Teacher Association, as well as by letters and circulars distributed through the students. But for the most part the only real contact between parents and school outside of pupils' report cards are the verbal comments and stories of the pupils themselves. These suggestions might be of value to parents: 1. That the study of the g i r l ' s aptitudes and abilities be made earlier in her school l i fe by the school staff, and that the results be made available to the parents, in order to help them determine the type of instruction she is to be 97 given prior to coming to junior high school. 2. That no maladjustment i s unimportant, and that early-care prevents the development of problems, or at least pre-vents them from becoming serious. 3. ihat just as teachers should try to understand the parents' point of view and their problems, so should the parents try to understand the teachers' problems. 4. That the parents should try to work in closer coopera-tion with teachers, and should investigate ways i n which closer relations might be established. Conclusion Counselling in a l l i t s phases i s a complex group of functions, and only by following a counsellor's program for a long time would a l l the various details of i t s activities become known. Moreover, each school develops i t s own program and plans i t s aims and objectives to suit the needs of i t s own pupils. In general, however, counselling i s the process of assisting the individual to understand her assets and her limitations, of studying her needs and opportunities, and, f i n a l l y , of helping her to make suitable adjustments to the situations and requirements she must meet. Under a satis-factory system of counselling g i r l s are treated with consi-deration and respect. They are given opportunities to widen their circle of friends, develop their interests, broaden their experiences, and assume ever-increasing responsibilitfes. 98 so that when they reach maturity they are prepared to meet the requirements of l i f e . The study just completed has shown some of the kinds of problems g i r l s must overcome, and how frequently they occur. It may contribute in some degree to an increase in the usefulness of the counselling program at Point Grey Junior High School and in other junior high schools of similar type. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Abramson, L. 2. Alt , Hershell. 3. Arl i t t , Ada H. 4. Anfinson, R.D. 5. Averil l , L.A. 6. Barker, R.C. 7. "Behaviour Problems of school Children" 8. Blatz, W.E. 9. - Borland, Ruth "Counsellor1s Ratings of Formative Influences on Vocational Choice, "Journal of Educational Psychology, 35: 559-568. "Juvenile Behaviour Problems", Jewish Board of Governors, Social Year Book, 9:261-271, 1947. "Adolescent psychology, New York, American Book Company, 1933. "School progress and pupil Adjustment" Mental Hygiene, 41:41-43. March, 1941. "Case Studies in the School", Elementary School Journal, 25:507-501. June, 1941.. "Success and Failures in the Class Room", progressive Education, 19:221-224, Apri l , 1944. The National Committee for Mental Hygiene, New York. "Behaviour of public School Children", Pedogogical Semi-nary and Journal of Genetic psychology, 34:552-588, 1927. "High School Pupils With I.Q.'s Less than 75", understanding the Child, 16:11-15, January, 1947. /iro 10. Britten, D.A. 11. Burrows, A.H. 12. Capwell, D.F. "Classroom Guidance of Pupils Exhibiting Behavior Problems", Elementary-School Journal, 45:286-292, January, 1945. "The problem of Juvenile Delinquency", Journal of Educational Sociology, 19:382-390, 1946. "Personality of Adolescent Girls" , Journal of Applied Psychology, 29:212-228, 1945. 13. Chambers, W.M. 14. Cole, Luella 15. Crow, A. "What Causes Failures", School Executive, 65:56-58, January, 1945. "Psychology of Adolescence", New York, Rhinehart and Company, 1946. "Adjustment problems of High School Girls", Secondary Education, 7:77-81, April , 1938. 16. ©avis, F.G. 17. Edgerton, H. 18. Engle, T.L. "Capacity and Avhievement", Occupations, 23:46-49, April , 1945. "An Analysis of Adolescent Adjustment problems", Mental Hygiene, 25:363-368. July, 1941. "Over-age High School Pupils", Clearing House, 19:251-257, November, 1945. 19. jirickson, u.E. Happ, M.C. 20. Erickson, G;E. Smith, G.E. "Guidance practices at Work", New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1947. "Administration of Guidance Services", New York, McGraw-H i l l Company, 1947. 21. Fensch, u .A. 22. Flanagan, J .E. 23. Garrett, Annette 24. Germane, C.E. 25. Graham, Ava W. 26. "Guidance Handbook for Elementary Schools" 27. "Guidance Handbook for Secondary schools" 28. PGuide to Counselling" 29. Gundry, C.H. 30.. Hall, G. Stanley "Failed Without Good Cause", Clearing House, 18:326-328 February, 1944. "Research Techniques", Educational Research, 28:139-142, April , 1947. "Counselling Methods for Personnel Workers", New York, Family Welfare Asso-ciation of America, 1945. "Personnel Work in High School", New York, Silver Burdette Company, 1941. ^Personnel and social Ad-justment of High School Students", The School Re-view. 73:468-473, 1947. "Division of Research and Guidance of Los Angifeles County Schools, California Test Bureau, 1948. As above. "A Manual for San Fran-cisco Teachers and Coun-sellors", Committee of San Francisco TSachers and Counsellors. Report of the Work of the Mental Health Committee, Vancouver, 1947-48. "Showing Off and Bashful-ness; phases of Self-Consciousness, The Pedi-gogical Seminary, 10j 207-213, 1903. 31. Hamrin, S.S. Erickson, C .E. 32. Hewlett, i , .E. Jenkins, R.L. 33. Hillerstein, R. 34. Hollingworth, Leta 35. Jennings, Carol 36. Jones, Arthur, J. 37. 38. "Juvenile Delinquency" 39. Katz, Barney 40. Koos, I. Kefauver, V. 41. Laycock, S.R. "Guidance in secondary Schools", New York, Apple-ton Century Company, 1939. "Fundamental patterns of Maladjustment", Springfield, Michigan Child guidance Institute-', 1946. "Fringe on the Bottom", Clearing House, 28:387-391, March, 1946. "The Psychology of the Adolescent", New York, D. Appleton-Century Company, 1934. "Discipline - in Reports of 225 High Schools", Clearing House, 23:266-272, January, 1949. "Principles of Guidance", New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1934. "Principles of Guidance", 1945. Forty-seventh Year Book, Chicago, The University of Chicago press, 1948. "What Teachers Should Know about Personality Disorders", 61:598-607, June, 1941. "Guidance in secondary Schoolsn New York, The MacMillan Com-pahy, 1933. "Whales Counselling", The Bulletin, off ic ial publica-tion of the oaskatchewan Teachers, 12:5-9, oeptember, 1945. to 42(a) Laycock, S .R. 42(b) 4 3 . .Lefever* D.W. Turrell, A . M . Weitzel, H . I . 44. Lewis, Ralph, H. 45. Louttit, C M . 46. 47. McKown, H.C. 48. Marzoff, S. Larsen, A.H. 49. Mateer, Florence 50. Miller, C.G. 51. Mooney, D.L. 52. "The Forgotten Years", The Bulletin, official publication of the Saskatchewan Teachers, 12;5-y, October, ±945. "Mental Hygiene in Education", understanding the child, 15: 95-98, Oct. 1946. "Principles and Techniques of Guidance", New York, Ronald Press Company, 1941. "Guidance in Secondary Schools", Toronto, the Ryersoh Press, 1940. "Clinical Psychology", New York, Harper brothers, 1936. "Clinical psychology of Children's behaviour", 1947. "Home Room Guidance--, New York, isacGraw-Hill Book Company, 1934. "Statistical Check List of problem Check Listt Items, Educational Psychological Measurements, 5:285T294, 1945. "The Unstable Child", New York, D. Afpleton-Centuiry Company, 1924. "Indicted for Dullness," Educational Research, 62: 383-385, February, 1942. "Student problem Check Lis t , " Educational Research, 22: 42-48, February, 1943. "Exploratory Research on Student problems", Educa-tional Research, 182:218-221, November, 1943. I -iT'lf-53. Morgan, J.B. 54. Peller, L.S. 55. Pflieger, E.F. 56. Pressey, JL. Cole 57. Reavis, W.S. 58. Reed, Anna 59. "Report on Juvenile Delinquency" 60. Rivlin, H.N. 61. Schmidt, E.T. 61(a) Sayles, Mary B. "The psychology of the Unadjusted School Child", New York, The MacMillan Company, 1936. "Significant Symptoms in the Behaviour of Young Children", Mental Hygiene, 30:285-295, 1946. "Pupil Adjustment problems", Journal of Educational Re-search, 41:265-278, Decem-ber, 1947.. "Methods of Handling Test Scores", New York, World Book Company, 192 6. "Pupil Adjustment in Junior and Senior High School", Boston, J J . C . Heath and Company, 1926. "Guidance and personnel Service in Education", New York, Cornell Publishing uompany, 1944. Welfare Council of Greater Vancouver, May, 1945. "The Classroom Application of Mental Hygiene", New York, D. Appleton-Century Company, 1947. "Learning Difficulty a Symptom", Child Study, 22:104-107, January, 194 5. "The Problem Child In School", New York, Joint Committee of Methods on preventing Delinquency, 1926. 62. Schnell, D.M. 63. Sherman, Mandel 64. Smith C. Roos, M. 65. Snyder, W.U. 66. atrang, Ruth. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. "Survey of Group Work and Other Out of School Activities" "Characteristics of Adoles-cence", Minneapolis, Burgiss Publishing Company, 1946. "Mental Hygiene and Education", London, Longmans Green and Company, 1934. "A Guide to Guidance", New York, prentice Hall Incorp o-rated, 1941. "A Casebook of Non-directive Counselling", New York, Houghton-Mifflin Company, 1947. "Counselling Technics in College and Secondary School", New York, Harper and Brothers, 1937. "Educational Guidance; Its principles and Practice, New York, The MacMillan Com-pany, 1948. "Personal Development in College and Secondary School", Harper and Brothers, 1934. ;ii?upil personnel and Guidance", New York, The MacMillan Com-pany, 1940. "The Role of the Teacher" in personnel Work, New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, 1935. Vancouver Council of Social Services, Report, 1939. 72. Symonds, Percival "Mental Hygiene of the School Child", New York, The Mac-Millan Company, 1934. /Ob 7 3. Thorn, Douglas A. 74. Touton, F.C. Struthers, A.B. 75. Traxler, A.B. 76. "Normal Youth and Its Every-day Problems", New York, D. Appleton-Century Company, 1932. "The Junior High School" Boston, Ginn and Company, 1926. "How to Use Cumulative Re-cords" , Chicago, Science Research Association, 1947. "Techniques of Guidance", New York, Harper and Brothers, 1945. 77. 78. Triplett, Norman 79. Wallin, W. 80. Warters, Jane 81. Wickman, E.K. 82. Williamson, E.G. Hahn, M.E. 83. Williamson, E.G. "The Nature and Use of the Anecdotal Record", New York, Educational Records Bureau, 1941. "A Study of the Faults of Children", The Pedagogical Seminary, 10:200-238, 1903. "Personality Maladjustments and Mental Hygiene", New York, McGraw-Hill Book Com-pany, 1946. "High School personnel Work To-day", New York, McGraw-H i l l Book company, 1946. "Children's Behaviour and Teachers' Attitudes", New York, The Commonwealth Fund, 1932. "Introduction to High School Counselling", McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1940. "How to Counsel students", New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1940. 84. Zachry, Caroline B. Lightly, Margaret 85. "Some Data on Mental Health problems in Canadian Schools" toy "Emotion and Conduct in Education", New York, Appleton-oentury-Crofts Incorporated, 1940. "Second Report of .the National Committee for Research" ,• British Colum-bia schools, 3:5-8, May, 1949. 1. Enrolment Form EKROIi-EKT FORM Date 7^ / ^ ^ f Grade Class y Homo Room Ho, SOO 1. Name i n f u l l (Surnamo f i r s t ) y j > » — ^ £ > £ <?*~^LaUje-**-Address 5 . Telephone)' _ 4, If yon do not l i v e with your parents at the above address, please stato circumstancos. 5. Dete of B i r t h ^.^^ 6» Present age yoars months. 7. BOY or GIRI, (Endorlino) 8. School attendod l a s t yoar Cf p w ^ > S S ^ ^ S ^ L ^ S & >^• 9. Last year's class i f at Point Grey Junior High School. Class Number , , , , ~~* 10. Havo you boon, vacclnatod? YES_ or HO (Underline) 11, TJhon? / 9 V * / 12. Paront or guardian. (Surname l a s t ) j^T^a . 9r). A?. 9KJ&*Z. / t ^ r v ^ 13. Rationality of Paront %i^~e^L^£-- C^-^cyL<Sa^j ?n~ . <f. **i~->~^c£ 14. Occupation, Trade or L-rofession of Parent 15. Place of Employment of Parent C^Q7*u-&>\J d P.G.J.H.S. 2. Perm^ Ttant Record (Department of. Education) P E R M A N E N T R E C O R D E L E M E N T A R Y G R A D E S I T O 6 O R 8 FAMILY * GIVEN ^ JJ PUPIL'S No. NAME Lp^ja^. ' CUCt—cJ*. /E*~C^jC f DAY MONTH YEAR . i SEX DATE OF BlfWH RACIAL ORIGIN (CHINESE. ITALIAN, ETC.) W i. t i> h . S C H O O L E N T E R E D F R O M D A T E S C H O O L E N T E R E D F R O M D A T E | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). pa. .tOry, f f | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). S U B J E C T S DATE w I N T E L L I G E N C E T E S T S | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). G R A D E / y S~ NAM E OF TEST DATE SCORE M. A . 1. o. | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). H E A L T H A/I. r. • <?-,- //• 7 /a. a | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). P H Y S I C A L E D U C . | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). L A N G U A G E LJ e r * * | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). R E A D I N G - O R A L Q <? 48 43 | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). R E A D I N G S I L E N T £ r o A A A C H I E V E M E N T T E S T S | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). S P E L L I N G 0 r>r y 4 A A NAME OF TEST DATE SCORE NORM. Q. | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). W R I T I N G c e «_+ c it*!*. fir.* | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). S O C I A L S T U D I E S <3 43 _/> >, •}, £ * -r— y ) | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). S C I E N C E V— C c v_ | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). A R I T H M E T I C u - I I | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). M U S I C 6 C 12? | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). G R A P H I C A R T S a c 3 | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). P R A C T I C A L A R T S | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages). _ •3 S * S 5 « + •4 H O O T I M E S L A T E - — — — T I M E S A B S E N T •3 j /o T E A C H E R ' S I N I T I A L S S E C O N D A R Y S C H O O L R E C O R D r NAME FAMILY r r , ^ L V ff^C^ RACIAL ORIGIN Jo/JLJ*-^ ADDRESS ^ - PLACE OF BIRTH PHONE/ PARENT OR GUARDIAN tfjjO^j- l>. J~~*~ OCCUPATION £UC+^.^«f , ^ ? , „ g g SCHOOL, CITIZENSHIP, ETC. N A M E O F H I G H O R J U N I O R H I G H N A M E O F P R I N C I P A L D A T E O F W I T H D R A W A L R E A S O N ouKi/o^ / ? " * V / 2 . Permftnant Record (Department og Education) ^ ' ^ i a . J - f e L^^>, > , „..,..„.,, -v<-^.' . . v -,-,;^4, . . . . . . . J l _ » . H _ S U B J E C T S GRADE Vl l 19 TO 19 GRADE 19 .TO 1 9 — GRADE 19 TO 19 GRADE 19 TO 19 1ST TERM FINAL 1ST TERM FINAL 1ST TERM FINAL 1ST TERM FINAL T. CR. c p R R CR. C p R R CR. c p R R CR. C P R R CR. TOT. CR. ENGLISH A- /ZT A- A SOCIAL STUDIES J " A- <3 - 8 HEALTH - » / f- 0 /Ti" <i A / PHYSICAL EDUC. 2, C * c c — J <_: t. f MATHEMATICS ,'/_ c A CI GENERAL SCIENCE * <—.r G <-LATIN £'* FRENCH 3 ,4- ,v: rr a HOME ECONOMICS A ' it- r + - t > ' INDUSTRIAL ARTS MUSIC 3 ,-r A -3 rrf-ART 4? /(•* TYPEWRITING SHORTHAND JUNIOR BUSINESS TIMES LATE *j 1 o 0 « TIMES ABSENT TOT YEARS CR. P E R M A N E N T R E C O R D JUNIOR & SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS G R A D E S 7 , 8 , 9 A B O V E G R A D E S l O . 11, 12 B E L O W S U B J E C T S GRADE X 19 TO 19 GRADE 19 TO 19 GRADE 19 TO 19 GRADE 19 TO 19 1ST TERM FINAL 1ST TERM FINAL 1ST TERM FINAL 1ST TERM FINAL T. CR C P R R CR. c p R R CR. c p R R CR. C P R R CR. TOT. CR. ENGLISH SOCIAL STUDIES HEALTH PHYSICAL EDUC. MATHEMATICS GENERAL SCIENCE PHYSICAL SCIENCE BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS AGRICULTURE LATIN FRENCH HOME ECONOMICS WOODWORK METAL WORK DRAWING ELECTRICITY FARM MECHANICS MUSIC ART TYPEWRITING SHORTHAND SECRETARIAL PRAC. CLERICAL PRAC. BOOKKEEPING BUS. ENGLISH GEN. BUS. LAW TIMES LATE TIMES ABSENT TOT. YEARS CR. PUPILS NO. NAME 3 e PjLlrilggl Data Bureau ofTIeasurenien Date of birth: * Referred to: Metropolitan Health CI Day Mo Yr Name L{ ULC / Day Mi Address * ,. ^  Date of first entering any school jK9.dh...x!e ^.Msf.f..r. Schools attended <£*4~L-4*rr Qte^a^err^j Q**-*^^*- *&\^?-*r-«-f a-^nr-4~..... &UL*p_ Present grade... * Grades repeated mCf No. of grades accelerated Absences: Extent of ..Ccrl/r^ A^ —e*~ Q...CX m tj&...jLL. Reasons^M.>.%^^.M..'^^...J...,*»^^-. ~&?*m<a\*v<*~'..*.^^'-ct.t.t «i? Standing this term with comments about achievement in earlier grades... /° ' yr. yJ^LfTHrr^. &C~-&r*~*~>' '..•• .^.« .^...,....llid l^__<aL-^ Ca. 1..., <2s\..»-rf.*„. Sfe£..r- . ^....<&.r...&.j.£^ Special abilities a~^£& Special disabilities «i^l-^it<>rrru- g iVrvr y Q^M.£..r£.Q..».ia...9lf3...M*.B..~>...„& - c « n i i i m .Y...:.r+ry*t . Interests or hobbies ^La...t.^.f^....4**jrrXrt><&-'. .fa*^ !^c^ ^^»t^ ,i_ m * r*r-£***..* Date <^ o^^!V1L«^!...)3.y.../...?...fc...^!... School (7?.a-. leacher's Signature V.S.B.—B.M.409 5M-1046J-42 DATA FOR CLINIC. Principal's Initials.. ( O V E R ) III \ 3. CllnjsRl Data Date and results of intelligence tests.../1/...X'.-. t3./^-^f 9—.. 2/.^ .3*..:.. Standardized achievement tests A 31 .?...«...<£?... 6Lvd. & • #.C«...^..^....0.~«>1.^^ jO^rtr^^^ .<&z\-m\..*s^.m... %ao Attitude toward authority.. Participation in activities of own age group .JC^.1IP..,.*.C> ..^ ^^ r^ d^^  y» .n«i>i^ fi5..»i....?*^ . .JL*£.. c~JLs^&*s* Reaction to success and failure ...S«<,.«. fl...4?s>. ..-.jTkmesdLfa. <9S-*T.. .^^^^tA-^.....^^. a . .<>»«•..«»,,••, .,^ .^.fc.oj....»»...(r^g. ~^Lr>* * (Z<\-^^<<<^~-^^^>-&& (2&>~r^^~&-Difliculties in behaviour £***»-»rt*?«-*rJ»r^ ^ £>l^,«,,^^....<^1^,iiui..l>fid .<»rrf^»r^-,'....gfc..f..i ». ?£2. < ^ ^ u ^ > f -^r- KL. a*r^z^-j** . ^ a f i a ^ Problem from teacher's point of view.. Attitude of parents toward situation. .^ ..•..."•^ «.....«!. <C<*«0r**.:.. ;.WJM«..«.,,^3^MAB-6 I l l \ h. Report of Individual Intelligence Tests PUPIL SCHOOL <£m~*t- <&4cA*+4»' GRADE /&• TEACHER ^t-*-»° ^TK^GC EXAMINED REFERENCE PUPIL'S BIRTH DATE. STANFORD REVISION AGE TR. MO. MENTAL AGE OF BBET-SIMON TR. ). BASAL I.Q. REMARKS (//or, e I/in*) *&f>£ & RECOMMENDATION IV 5. Secondary School Report Form Enrolled in Gr VANCOUVER SCHOOL BOARD C#k -^i2^__..„ Home Room Teacher. SECONDARY SCHOOLS REPORT FORM /¥• ____ t._. Class No, 194 Vancouver Secondary Schools Report to Parents 194 . .High School Subject COURSE NUMBER FIRST REPORT SFCOND REPORT THIRD REPORT FINAL GRADE CR EDITS "ZT a. < 2 C 2 d do Work Habits A— A-*Sae« o 1 Sftici<<3 a 7T z> c -Work Habits M y * — 77." 3 ..a c*. Work Habits A— .<&.... z> ' % T Work Habits Q<pi- ~Sa; & I c <s •JSI o- Z> Z) z> (a Work Habits _^ M  ^ £) A/ U Work Habits 7T<i. _ f r s Work Habits .....a. C-. Work Habits — , C— ' ' Work Habits — Work Habits Citizenship Total Credits Home Study (Daily Average) I N T E R P R E T A T I O N O F L E T T E R S AND SYMBOLS Achievement—A = Outstanding; B = Very Good; C = Average; D = Danger-ously Low; E = Probable Failure. Work Habits and C i t i z e n s h i p — S = Superior; V= Satisfactory; N = Unsatisfactory. Achievement—Acquiring skills, understanding and knowing essential facts or details of a subject, and the applying of principles therein contained. Work Habits—Neatness of work; promptness in the preparation of work; care with personal and school equipment and property; tidiness of books, lockers, work-benches, desks, etc. Citizenship—Conduct, co-operation, dependability, manners, sportsmanship. Preserve this report. At the end of the year it will be useful for reference as to credits when considering school graduation which requires 112 credits, earned at the approximate rate of 28 credits per year. Attendance Sept. Nov. Feb. May Oct. Jan. April June Times Tardy a o 3 3 Pays Absent <$- 6 Y- 7 Parents' Signatures: l . 2. Principal's Signature. V ' 16M-2538N-47 REPORTS TO PARENTS PARENTS should commend successful pupils. Encouragement should be of a constructive nature. Every pupil has home-work, especially when his report is unsatisfactory. Parents should make a study of school reports so that they may assist the pupils in choosing the courses best suited to them. EDUCATION PROVIDES an opportunity to acquire knowledge, habits, and skills, and to develop traits, attitudes, and ideals that will enable the pupil to live usefully and happily. Close co-operation between the home and the school will aid in achieving this aim. REGULAR ATTENDANCE is essential to satisfactory progress. The loss of a day causes difficulty in following the work of the next day. One of the first signs of delinquency is irregular school attendance. When a pupil returns to school after having been absent, he must present a note from his parents giving the reason for his absence. WITHDRAWAL—It is in the interest of both pupil and school that, in case of withdrawal, parents should either see the principal or communicate with him. NOTE: This is not an official transcript of credit. TEACHERS' REMARKS FIRST REPORT SECOND REPORT THIRD REPORT. DISPOSAL IN JUNE 6. Pupil's Permanent Record (Point Grey Junior High School) P U P I L ' S P E R M A N E N T R E C O R D N A M E P O I N T G R E Y J U N I O R H I G H S C H O O L P H O N E A D D R E S S P L A C E O F B I R T H , S E X / ^ " l *l G D A T E O F D A Y M O N T H Y E A R BIRTH . . R A C I A L ORIGIN ( C H . N E S I . I T A L I A N E T C . ) - - — _ D A T E O F E N T R Y <2^)/ . ^fy-FROM r- r—i' S <J *} / f~> W I T H D R A W A L Jon •? ILj V Y T O i/ «T/» t O 1 - /SC. S C H O O L A C T I V I T I E S fit C i~ sy <f C1u i> -- T~r-*ff'*<~ CHe***J M**;/-as- ') ,.o./t/r.T ya v. S P E C I A L A P T I T U D E . P i A/ &. <' f} cf . /= 'i f /• & A. E V I D E N C E O F L E A D E R S H I P £E* C£*-C ran + h<3 A «/ /s\ A s\ i ia"-— c fp / c<?'-Or • IT C I T I Z E N S H I P G R . Vll Z»"" G R . l " " *S G « . " - ^ > G R . S U B J E C T S English Social Studies Health Physical Educ. Mathematics General Science Latin French Home Economics Industrial Arts Music Art Typewriting Junior Business Rating A . B . C . D . E Times.Late Times Absent G R A D E V I I cLjfciB*^'» t-y 3-L C-f-C L . PQTb * ? 1 9 re rc TT 'JT 3L. & c 3 r AT -nr -JLL 7TT TTT V7~ Cat-a CL, 19 18 33 R E M A R K S : 777L~. '/f<£f<&r<?<£ *Z s~ 1 a s\ - X3 Q-T I 7, Confidential Report Forms Form A. Point Grey Junior High School Confidential Report to the Office Pupil f^ft^f^rr,. ? S ^ 7 . . Class Date.3/**7 Abi l i t y . ^ r r ^ ^ . r f ^ . ^ Effort • T?^^.'fYCtw^r.tTT^Tf^TTT?,T'"/?f"T*'l Results ^TTTf. Attitude A&pt. .-irFtt-.cFft' General Comments (Comments favourable as well as x3«~£«^>». ^ r_ unfavourable) Teacher • Subject Form B. Point Grey Junior High School Confidential Report to the Office pupil . ^ t ? 7 ^ f r r r 7 . fffTrr.... class -£*f>tr ^ 4 Date • • • • • • i • • • • * i/c* 1>C •  • i < olmy_f C^£-4-* Teacher Subject , VII 8, School Health Record H.-II2;—- M. GIRLS METROPOLITAN HEALTH COMMITTEE SCHOOL HEALTH RECORD Name.. Qhc-k £>..*. .<l..Q...JQc Date of Birth.i Place of Birth.'. S U R N A M E G I V E N N A M E Name of Parent.... A,.L, ...Q...r..o..w....n Racial Origin: M.j ...W..'. Occupation of Parent No. of Children in Family.. JL HISTORY: GIVE DATES Chpx.|.fl-.T>..5U. Diph Measles../..*?.^ ..^ . Mumps zrrr. Rubella.-i.^-jf.-t Sc. Fev ! Smpx..—. Typh. Fev ~Z~Z~?. Wh. Cough—TTTTt Chorea.-Tr^rr. Rheumatism....rrni Pleurisy" : Pneumonia....TT Tuberculosis .rrrr. Tuberculosis in Family....rrrrr. Other Diseases -rrrr. T E S T S AND IMMUNIZATIONS: DATES COMPLETED Schick: Neg Pos Diph. Toxoid (Series) Reinf. Dose..— Dick: Neg Pos Sc. Fever Toxin (Series) Reinf. Dose Wh. C. Vacc. (Series) Reinf. Dose _ Smpx. Vacc: Prim. Take Smpx. Re. Vacc Typhoid Vaccine _ Tetanus Toxoid Others: Tuberculin Test Neg Pos Chest X-ray Result: Y E A R S C H O O L A D D R E S S T E L E P H O N E U r i k . ^ c h e i e ^ . 3^1?^ u > - a. L Q ^ c / W g . . . &l.d±.£.L<*... M l * 3 ',. 2. fj'+l fafi^tlLJU; 1. %.L* 8-rf-h^ Pot o h C*-i 3 * - u>, 3 2 .^-..a VIII 3 m > •* ^ «* DATE Mo. Dv. YD. Co No GRADE •v.. & OQ AGE V) Sj HEIGHT OS °v WEIGHT 0-AVER.WT. * s-3J < 5 0 z -r~ < 5 0 z * EYES -» ^. 73 I Fl > 70 r~ I Fl > 70 EARS POSTURE SKIN NOSE ft TEETH GUMS ,s i X TONSILS X > TONS. GLANDS X CERV. * ft-t THY. LUNGS HEART AD DOM. BEHAV. i> % 1 PHY.STAT. PHY. EO. E XAMINER CO CO o g* o , H gl <D P> <D O O 3. TJ IOI • B -< Z » 9. Pupil's Attendance Record 19-**- • 19-«fc M T w T. F M T \V T F M T W T F M T W T F M|T|\V| T| l'| SEPTEMBER > * • OCTOBER / NOVEMBER DECEMBER • X JANUARY X • • FEBRUARY >< / MARCH X • • N • =1 APRIL • MAY 2 • K * * JUNE / 1 1 1 1 = 19 «*- - 19-*9 Ml Tl W T F M T w T F M T w T F M T w T F M T W T F SEPTEMBER OCTOBER • • • • / . J« • 0 NOVEMBER • DECEMBER • * JANUARY * > * FEBRUARY # >- r— MARCH / • A APRIL X. MAY • •A JUNE / ; Pupil's Attendance Record Name ^ I I F ^ i / Address. Christia^f Name Tel. Card No. Class N o . J & £ Gr 7 1% Gr 8 (Write with pencil) Parent F-T- flileo Date of Birth 198°./ • i9^r" SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER JANUARY " FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL MAY" JUNE Name and Class No of brothers or sisters in this school Record of Telephone Calls re Attendance 3 /7£.T«£/. rc ,o res• A*cf *><?/» • . _ O c c k>/ IX 10. Pupil's Daily Schedule Q < U Ul _i 3 Q U I U U) >-< Q tn j E D 0. amily Name Name Address. Phone.. Date of Birth..* Parent's Name. . A Pgbf kc ta» flnne. eJbky Roii T e a ^ r Hiss IB. H.. - Given Name w Given Name i.' Pupil lunches at home (VO. Locker 6..Q.JL/. At school JftSS Grade 8 Class lb Last Year's Class Parent's Occupation-.....Jpt0LU..S.<a« XA/Jthfifi M Teacher Room Subject s.s. P P . 1 6 '311 E n d P . l o a . -Day 1 T Teacher Room Subject firfc 3 o q R E . 3 i 3 S c . Day 2 W Teacher Room Subject a s . Zoo, 3 i 3 P . Pi. io a: - to^f c o rrv Day 3 T Teacher Room Subject S c . B u d . L i b . c . ft'. S S . a o x Day 4 F Teacher Room Subject M a t h 3 / 3 S S . A r t 3CTC) P»\ 18 P - f t . Day 5 Teacher Room Subject P . E S c . 3 i H - - 3 V 3 Day 6 V.S.B. S.-1005 15M-2103K-44 P a t r i c i a C l a s s 16 1 1 , Interview Form PUPIL SUBJECT: INTERVIEW DATE ACTION: ZT. CP. //'*. ^M^U X I 12. Detention Record DETENTION RECORD NAME .^zcTfrtV'.. &fr?rfr&yr. CLASS DATE J 2 ^ » M \ ATTENDANCE tardiness no note irregularities CORRIDORS MISCELLANEOUS Roll Teacher: Record in Class Register and return to the office for f i l i n g . Person Assigning Detention Detention Supervisor X I I 13. C i r c u l a r Regarding Courses P O I N T G R E Y J U N I O R H I G H S C H O O L V A N C O U V E R , B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A , C A N A D A ( T W E N T I E T H Y E A R ) 1949-50 XIII P O I N T G R E Y J U N I O R H I G H S C H O O L E D U C A T I O N A L G U I D A N C E 1 9 4 9 - 5 0 BO Y S and girls who enter Grade V I I in the Junior H i g h School are faced with an adjustment to new experiences, studies and the new school. Because i t is an adjustment year, they a l l study the same subjects. Their guidance and home room programme assists in their adjustment. In Grades V I I I and I X , a variety of courses offers the child a field of exploration in which he may discover his aptitudes and proceed to further study and practice. The constants or compul-sory subjects provide a common denominator of human experience and the elective subjects provide scope for the indiv idual differ-ences of this age group. W i t h such a curriculum and a balanced programme of pupi l activities, the Junior H i g h School can be said to provide for desir-able habit formation, social adjustment, and a better,, understand-ing of, and use for, subject matter. A l l Junior H i g h School pupils should know that credits are awarded.for successful completion of prescribed courses beyond the Grade V I I I level. A t least one hundred twelve credits are required for H i g h School Graduation which admits students to Univers i ty provided that University requirements have been met. A t the Junior H i g h School level, French and, or L a t i n may be commenced in anticipation of Universi ty Entrance requirements. Compulsory subjects in all- grades include Engl ish , Social Studies, Hea l th , Physical Educat ion, Mathematics , General Science, L i b r a r y , and Guidance. Pract ica l A r t s is compulsory i n Grades V I I and V I I I , and A r t and M u s i c in Grade V I I only. 13. Circular Regarding Courses Elect ive subjects in Grades V I I I and I X include M u s i c , A r t , French, L a t i n , T y p i n g , and Junior Business. Pract ical A r t s is also elective in Grade I X . The grouping of the elective subjects determines the course to be studied. F o r administrat ive convenience the table on page four classifies the most commonly selected groupings, thus enabling the p u p i l to choose a course by a number. Changes from these courses depend upon the finally constructed schedule or t ime table and may be requested after school opens in September. I M P O R T A N T I N F O R M A T I O N Univers i ty Entrance requires at least fifteen credits in one foreign language. M o s t professions require Univers i ty Entrance regardless of later requirements. M u s i c credits may be gained by private study and applied upon school totals if in accord wi th Department of E d u c a t i o n standards. Choral W o r k and an Orchestra wi l l be organized after school opens. Pupi l s desiring two languages wi l l commence one language in Grade V I I I and may add a second one in Grade I X , but w i l l be unable to carry other electives owing to time required for the languages. Pupi ls for Prince of Wales H i g h School wi l l complete Grade V I I I at Point Grey but may proceed to Prince of Wales for Grade I X , except in cases where the desired course is not avai l -able at Prince of Wales H i g h School. L o r d B y n g , Magee, K i t s i l a n o H i g h Schools wi l l accept Point G r e y pupils in Grade X only . Grade X pupils l iv ing north of 33rd A v e . , between the West Boulevard and Balac lava Street wi l l enrol for K i t s i l a n o . Those l i v i n g west of Balac lava Street and north of 41st A v e . wi l l enrol for L o r d B y n g , while the remainder w i l l enrol for Magee. XIII T A B L E O F C O U R S E S G r a d e V I I G r a d e V I I I G r a d e I X CONSTANTS, and-f CONSTANTS, and— ; CONSTANTS, and— Credits 1. (No electives) " 1. Art, Junior Business and Typing.. 1. Art and Practical Arts 33 2. Music, Junior Business and Typing. 2. Junior Business and Practical Arts 33 3. Typing and Practical Arts 33 4. Junior Business and Typing 33 Above courses lead to High School Graduation—to trades, clerical and commercial work, apprenticeship and home service. Courses below lead to University Entrance—to professions and sj>eciali2ed occupational fields requiring University work. -5. Art, French and Latin 38 6. Music, French and Latin 38 7. Practical Arts, French and Latin 38 8. Typing, French and Latin 38 3. Art , Junior Business and French 9. Art and French 33 4. Art, Music and French 10. Junior Business and French 33 5'. Art, Typing and French 11. Music and French . 33 - 6. Junior Business, Typing, French 12. Practical Arts and French 33 7. Music, Junior Business and French 13. Typing and French 33 ' 8. Music, Typing and French 9. Art, Typing and Latin 14. Art and Latin 33 10. Music, Typing and Latin 15. Practical Arts and Latin 33 11. Junior Business, Typing, and Latin 16. Typing and Latin 33 '. ' ' • • • 17., Beginners' French and P .A. 33 i8 . Beginners' Latin and P.A. 33 14. Choice of Course Card C H O I C E O F C O U R S E F O R G R A D E IX (Please use ink) /Ivrfity &<?..Q*.s.<e .n*) yr (Surna; .. Class./?' (Christian Name) . Phone.. Age (Address) '..yrs. ..mos. 1st Choice, Course No.. T 2nd Choice, Course No Feb. Grade Awards £>..'/Z&t >../?' April Grade (Signatures of Parents) 15. Administration Slip V.S.B. S-102S 100M-8913R-49 •jr Pupil's Name -To Off ice VANCOUVER SCHOOL BOARD _To Room .To Library To Counsellor _To Locker N o . _To Rest Room -To M e d i c a l Dept. -Note: N o Yes Class A D M I N I S T R A T I O N SLIP Period V Dntp Tardy * — — E m e r g e n c y Early Dismissal Date Time of Issue -Lunch T i m e Permit -Excused at Off ice—Med. R m . -Excused from Ph. Ed. .Excused for Service <— -Report A f t e r School "TEACHER'S N A M E XIV 16. Questionnaire ( Counsellor's Information ) FOIKT GREY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL COUNSELLOR'S INPORMHTION D a t e MdJ- Class ^ , 13 ,  Gr, 1 Gr, 8 'Gr. 9 Out of School A c t i v i t i e s Do you attend Church? /^d Sunday School? 7/j/«£'-sp'i (/n>"t^.^[. ?o what club or societies do you belong? (1) CT* £ 2>AV7 h+e>-s (3) C'CtT'.T'  (2) 7 ^ ^ - 4 - (4) , Y/hat executive o f f i c e , i f any, do you hold? What games do you play? (l) 3/ieerbx,// (2) Space*- (5) 34S>Ar<<rt H What lessons (such as music, skating) do you take outside of school? P/<ano • C—  H0w much time per day do you practise? O 1 g f) oO  Mention any awards you have won, Qrtj-d c- V1- ^ A l o _* / c- 2> ip/_>/»? n In School A c t i v i t i e s To what service group do you belong? "Gti 7_%g_? r a o a n M a n - /o*- Gr, 8 t-osr^nei FaoW/*W/aftr . 9 On what class teams do you play? vSo <= _•_="" Gr. 7* /f *// Gr, B & c C f ^ i / . B + H j Gr. 9 IVhat school clubs have you joined? Gr. 1 ITXJocii* C/u k JV. Gr. 8 >2>^ o-. ; Cfu A _V. Gr. 9 ; : I f you have taken part i n any school show, assembly, or concert, state what you have done, ~~T~*t /_? 1 ~f Sh o <J fAs ' fid. Oi«;^er^' (1) - ^ ^ c c ^ (2) T>«n<z«Z* (3) itfame any of f i c e i n council or club that you have held. What awards or prizes have you won at Point Grey? ,->•/• Gr. T Gr. 8 P a * / c / / * SW// Gr. 9 Trophy XV 17. Questionnaire f -Persona-' Hlgiof^ Reco-r^") POINT GREY JUHIOR HIGH SCHOOL PERSONAL HISTORY RECORD C l a s s 3 ^ f J3, Gr. 7 Gr. 8 Gr. 9 Date Nans J&^£^-~eiS±<r*J ^\ Date of B i r t h _  Address Telephone No. FATHER'S Hame x£Le-<?^sf^e_ MOTHER'S Name (before marriage) Qr-£<an <S Tfn ^ Occupation 7°r> s + O f f/'c g Occupation (before marriage) C*^ nc^s-j- /'.. «a >n / _,~f~ Country, of Bi r t h Occupation Now / i c o s ^ t^i' J? <? — S #1A?- <Jy.  Country of B i r t h O/* n n c/  Step-parent, or Guardian (underline) __ Occupation —  Number of persons i n your household (f~ d u /•"""") F-i u c Brothers (give ages)s _ 2 Sisters (give ages): Others: ucher Relatives (state r e l a t i o n s h i p ) : Mrs . T T Or <£ en g y <j r a n d ^ o j h ^ Schlools Attended (what grade?): ( l ) Oto r ~i A^}/^ o / h /? - Or-. I— 3- (-2) L Q r <J tK" I< - L / A ^ c o v e ^ - 3 — (o y p > n 9 Educational Plans: Gr. 7 r^h^i c A - O^S. Gr. 8 Fr. f±. Ere. ~Fyf> &r.-9 Lr>rd 13y n <=> • M• Vocational Plans: Gr. 7Cs>* c g ^ - V /?wi,ygr. 8 T>Hu<\i<3 Secy Gr. 9 Strong Subjects: Gr. 7 (1)S. Siudies.rrr. 8 (1 )_______£_____Gr. 9 ( l ) _ _ (2) & n jlfsfi . (2) g n h'S A . (?) iYeak Subjects: Gr. 7 ( l ) E C . Gr. 8 ( l ) /f • . Gr. 9 ( l ) (2) (2) ___________ (2) XVI -18. Form L e t t e r A (Regarding School Work ) POBTT GREY JTJMIOR HIGH SCHOOL 37th and East Boulevard Vancouver, B, C # Dear / f f f c l o . of class has been interviewed regarding 7^£^ grade standing and has been advised to spend at loast '~£-~o~*4s}u/ daily i n hone work. Regular home work assignments are not always given each day bu*b every child should review at home the work of the day. There is such homo wwk each day for five or six period subjects and sono home work on alternate days for three period subjects* DAILY SUBJECTS ' THREE PERIOD SUBJECTS English Mathematics Social Studies General Science Commercial French Latin REMARKSs Parent's Signature X V I I 19. Form L e t t e r B ( Regarding School Work ) POBIT GREY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 37th and East Boulevard Vancouver, B, C« Date Dear This l e t t e r w i l l draw your attention to the fa c t that ^^-^^rr^t^-c_~^-- C±$y^0^h~ of class ^ has again been interviewed regarding v^g-i-f grado standing. grades t h i s year have been » -Z? , | » The neoessity for concentrated systematic homo study, as w e l l as increased e f f o r t i n c l a s s , i s obvious. A marked improvement i s nooossary i n order to insuro promotion to a higher grado. Parent's Signature XVIII SO. Absentees at Roll Call 120M-8916R-49. A&§@nf@es at R©§l Gall SECONDARY SCHOOILS Class No. —J- Date / ^ ^ r ' Day A Period -^ • H. R. Toar-W ^J- > ^Z.&jZ^W*-' Brif*' Subject Teacher . This form is to be^ sent to the office after roll call. Please show tardies during roll call. 21• Report on Irregular Attendance —--=r y g g S-1027 7M-1568G-40 VANCOUVER SCHOOL BOARD Report on Irregular Attendance , Class.. .» .TT who was present last period, is absent from Room Vr. X. ../. at .44 period. ——.; '.. .Teacher. This form is to be sent to the office as soon as the pupil's absence is established. Please mark the pupil absent on the time sheet. 22, Class Daily Attendance Sheet V.S.B.- S-1020 95M-8908R-49 Class Doily Attendance Sheet V a n c c ^ r r d S c h 0 0 1 High, Junior Hiofc. "a toon Class.. Doy—s4." Date./3.#.C.-....3,. NAME ^.r...<f...: PERIODS Teacher No. Enrolled Roll Call 3?~ 38- 3S-4 3r 3<¥-- 3 ? No. Present J£l 3^' via ABSENTEES a. CL <5_ REMARKS _f_ ? _ ! ! ! l _ _ ^ s.s\ „?. j£.m..$.±..-.. CITIZENSHIP 1 XX 23. Form L e t t e r C ( Regarding Absences ) POINT GREY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL is*? Dear /^>i>t> . C3^L&~C<J->^> J ^ ^ £ ^ /&^0-**r>-s of olass /<o at t h i s school has been absent for <3 sohool days. We would appreciate advioe from you by note, personal v i s i t or telephone c a l l as to the oause of thi s absence and the probable duration of same. Yours sincerely. Telephone ~-Karr» XXI 


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