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Counselling problems of the junior high school girl Mulloy, Florence Stuart 1949

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COUNSELLING PROBLEMS OF THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL GIRL  m i  ^ ^  BY Florence Stuart Mulloy  A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY  The University of British Columbia October, 1949.  #S  & Abstract o f Thesis Counselling Problems of the Junior High School G i r l by Florence Stuart Mulloy The University of B r i t i s h Columbia , October , 1949 This study of counselling problems i s concerned with the nature and frequency of problems as they a f f e c t g i r l s at the j u n i o r high school l e v e l . An intensive study has been made o f the problems VYiih/iwhich the writer dealt during a period o f four months a t Point Grey Junior High School. A problem i s not an i s o l a t e d incident but i s part o f a sequence of events growing out of environmental conditions, and can only he understood i n the l i g h t of an appreciation of the t o t a l environment of home, school, and community. I t has, therefore, been considered advisable to give an explanation of the guidance services of the school and to include information about the g i r l s to be studied, the f a c i l i t i e s available f o r counselling, and the procedures commonly used. The study has grown out o f the experiences  o f the  writer as grade adviser and counsellor at Point Grey Junior High School. These began with the opening o f the school i n 1929,  when counselling services f o r the students were i n -  s t i t u t e d , and have continued to the present time. Thus, the writer has been p r i v i l e g e d to share i n the development o f the counselling program and to observe the behaviour of several generations  of g i r l s .  The information i s based l a r g e l y on records comp i l e d by the p r i n c i p a l and teachers at Point Grey j u n i o r High School. The p a r t i c u l a r information regarding s p e c i f i c (a)  pupils i s obtained from school reports and records, from i n d i v i d u a l cumulative  f i l e s , and from personal observation  and i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The problems discussed and the data on which the tables are bases were assembled during the period from January 7 to A p r i l 30,  1949.  In Chapter I counselling i s shown to be an i n t e g r a l part of the program of secondary schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The d e f i n i t i o n and l i m i t a t i o n s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n are then given. A d e s c r i p t i o n of the g i r l s studied, of the counselling program, and of the methods used i n dealing with problems i s included i n t h i s chapter. In Chapter II are presented facts on environment, t e s t r e s u l t s , and personal data which are e s s e n t i a l to the counsellor f o r analysing problems and diagnosing  cases.  While Chapters I and I I give general information which i s h e l p f u l i n understanding  the study, Chapter I I I  introduces the actual problems which the counsellor meets. I n . i t are discussed very b r i e f l y some of the studies which have already been made i n the f i e l d of student problems. F i n a l l y , a preliminary c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of counselling problems i s presented  i n order to f a c i l i t a t e the i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  In Chapter IV i s given a d e t a i l e d presentation of the facts found i n each of the nine problem areas indicated i n Chapter I I I . An analysis i s made of each type of problem, the conditions are tabulated, and wherever possible the frequency of each type and sub-type i s recorded. This i s followed by a statement of the main findings and a discussion of t h e i r possible implications. (D)  In Chapter V, the writer comments on the possible usefulness of the study. She f i r s t states what she considers to be s i g n i f i c a n t general findings. L a s t l y , she c l a s s i f i e s and l i s t s p a r t i c u l a r findings insofar as they may be of use to the various persons concerned i n counselling g i r l s .  (c)  The author wishes to express her gratitude to Mr. P.N. Whitley, Principal of Point Grey Junior High School, who made i t possible for her to use the f a c i l i t i e s of the school in preparing her notes. She gratefully acknowledges her indebtedness to Dr. W.G. Black, her adviser, who directed the work during the course of this study. She wishes to express her thanks to Dr. Joseph E. Morsh for the help given in the general field of psychology. She wishes also to thank Mr. V.A. Wiedrick and the other members of the Guidance Department at point Grey for their helpful suggestions and criticisms.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I  II  III  IV  Page The Hole of Counselling in the Junior High school The Scope of the Problem to be Investigated The Field of Study The Organization of Counselling at point Grey Junior High school Procedures Used in Counselling at Point Grey Information Used in Counselling the Individual The Need for Personal Data Personal Data Available for use at Point Grey Junior High School Counselling Problems Range and Variety of Counselling Problems Previous Research on Differentiation between Counselling problems Reasons for the Attempt to Differentiate between Counselling problems xypes of Counselling problems  1 1 5 10 20 25 25 25 33 33 40 46 48  Types and frequencies of uounselling problems at Point Grey Junior iiigh School 51 1. Minor Problems of Well-adjusted firls 52 2. Problems of I n i t i a l School Adjustment and orientation 54 3. problems of Health and physical development 57 4. Problems Relating to School Work 60 5. problems Relating to Withdrawal from School 66 6. Problems of School Discipline 67 7. problems of Home Conditions and Family Relationships 73 8. Serious personality problems 76 9. problems Relating to Attendance 79 Summary 84  Chapter V  Page  Significance of the Findings Recapitulation of Findings Significance of Findings for the Counsellor Further Implications for the Counsellor Significance of the Findings for the principal the Teacher the Parent Conclusion  86 86 89 91 94 95 96 97  TABLES Number I  Page  Age-rGrade Distribution of Girls at point Grey Junior High School Distribution of intelligence Quotients of Grade 7 Girls at point urey Junior High School  8  III  Distribution of Letter tirades among Students at point Grey Junior High School  9  IV  A Synopsis of the Problems presented to  II  the Counsellor During One Week V  Minor problems of Well-adjusted Girls  VI  Problems of I n i t i a l School Adjustment and Orientation Problems of Health and Physical Development Courses Offered at point Grey Junior High  VII VIII  School  7  36 53 56 59 62  IX  Problems Relating to school Work  X  Significant Facts Regarding Girls Withdrawing from Point Grey Junior High School 66 Disciplinary Problems of Girls at point Grey Junior High School 70 Extremely Serious problems Involving 17 72 Girls Problems of Home Conditions and Family Relationships 74 Types of Interviews with Specific Individual Students 77 Serious Personality problems 78  XI XII XIII XIV XV  64  Number XVI  Page  Routine Procedures Concerning Absentees at p o i n t Grey J u n i o r High School  XVII  F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Attendance  XVIII Problems R e s u l t i n g from I r r e g u l a r A t t e n dance  81 82  83  APPENDIX List of Forms Number  Page  1.  Enrolment Form  i  2.  Permanent Record (Department of Education)  ii  3.  Clinic Data  iii  4.  Report of Individual Intelligence Tests  iv  5.  Secondary Report Card  v  6.  Pupil's Permanent Record (Point Grey)  vi  7.  Confidential Report Forms  vii  8.  School Health Record  viii  9.  Pupil s Attendance Record  ix  10.  Pupil s Daily Schedule Card  x  11.  Interview Form  xi  12.  Detention Record  xii  13.  Circular Regarding Courses  xiii  14.  Choice of Course uard  xiv  15.  Administration Slip  xiv  16.  questionnaire (Counsellor's Information)  xv  17.  Questionnaire (Personal History Record)  xvi  18.  Form Letter A (Regarding school Work)  xvi  19.  Form Letter B (Regarding School Work)  xvii  1  1  Number  Page  20.  Absentees at Roll Call  xviii  21.  Report on Irregular Attendance  xix  22.  Class Daily Attendance Sheet  xx  23.  Form Letter c (Regarding Absences)  xxi  COUNSELLING PROBLEMS OF THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL GIRL Chapter I The Role of Counselling in the Junior High School  The Scope of the problem to be Investigated The Development of Counselling in Vancouver Schools The early decades of the Twentieth Century saw great changes in home l i f e , in labour, in industry, in population, and in living conditions.  These were parallelled by changes in  philosophy and methods of education, and, as a result, greater emphasis was placed on the child and her needs,  A system of  education designed solely to advance the mental powers of the child was considered inadequate.  The new conception was that  education was concerned with developing a l l the powers of the individual to the f u l l extent of her capacity.  This theory, to-  gether with the altered conditions of l i v i n g , placed added responsibility on the school and brought radical changes to the educational system.  Techniques for measuring ability were de-  vised, curricula and methods of teaching were revised, and more school's were provided.  Attendance at school was made compulsory,  a minimum age for leaving school was established, and as a result the number of students attending secondary school increased greatly.  Not only was the population of the secondary school i n -  creased, but i t was changed in character and socio-economic com-  2 position.  ;  The academically selected group gave way to a large  number of students whose intellectual level and economic background was not suited to an exclusively intellectual program. The broad developments which have been described above took place in British Columbia as in other parts of Canada and the United States.  These developments placed a definite respon-  s i b i l i t y upon the school authorities to provide adequate guidance for the pupils, who were confronted with the necessity of choosing schools and courses, and of planning for specialized training. As a result, the counselling of students, which is now an integral part of the program of a l l British Columbia schools, was introduced in Vancouver at Kitsilano and Templeton Junior High Schools i n 1927.  When point Grey Junior High School was moved  to i t s permanent quarters in 1929,  a counsellor for feoys and one  for girls was appointed, and i n addition one period a week was allotted for group guidance. With the opening of jvitsilano and Templeton Junior High Schools in 1927,  the «6-3-3  H  system was introduced - that i s , the  public school program w a 6 changed from eight years in elementary school, and three in high school to six years i n elementary school, three i n junior high school, and three in senior high school.  Thus a new type of school was created, designed to suit  the new theory of education and the care of the young adolescent. The added year of schooling and the establishment of the junior high school necessitated considerable expansion and enrichment  3 of the curriculum. At the Grade Seven level i t was extended to include a greater number of "constant subjects.  At the Grade  Eight level, a system of combining "constant" and "elective" subjects was introduced. course were offered.  In Grade Nine additional types of  To the traditional academic course were  added a commercial course,' a technical course, and a composite course - that i s , a course combining academic, commercial, and technical subjects.  Music, art, dramatics and physical education  were recognized as giving credit towards matriculation and graduation.  Two types of certificate were issued - the college  entrance certificate on completion of the academic course, and the high school graduation diploma on completion of any of the other courses. broadened.  The f i e l d of extra-curricular activities was  A study of occupations and a tentative choice of a  vocational field was considered to be part of the work of every pupil enrolled in junior and senior high school. The junior high school developed as a result of the new theory of education - that not only do individuals differ markedly from each other, but that the purpose of education is to develop each individual to the f u l l extent of her powers.  It was designed  to meet the needs of a definite age group and to bridge the gap between the elementary and senior high school. within the school was  The organization  therefore i n many respects unlike that of  either of the traditional schools.  The system of departmental  instruction and of curricular and extra-curricular activities was  4  adopted.  A home room teacher was assigned to each class, who in  addition to teaching a subject, assumed certain routine responsib i l i t i e s with regard to her r o l l class.  Under the departmental  system of teaching, each class meets from eight to ten subject teachers and specialists.  Consequently, in a school offering a  wide selection of courses and having the complex organization which was thus initiated,  guidance and counselling became im-  portant. The Present Status of Counselling in British Columbia Schools provision for counselling was made i n the course of study, and many schools at once undertook to provide both group guidance and individual counselling.  At present, the school law  requires that in a l l secondary schools one period a week be devoted to group guidance.  The content of the course is outlined  by the Department of Education, and credits v%re; awarded to students who make satisfactory progress.  In addition, the school  law requires that a specified number of teachers be designated to act as counsellors; and that the principal so arrange the timetable that adequate time is allowed in which to carry out a counselling program. The Purpose of This Study In view of the importance attached to counselling in general, and the lack of specific information regarding the needs of the students at the junior high school level and the means of meeting such needs, a study of counselling problems at this  5  level appears urgant.  To attempt a study of the entire f i e l d of  counselling, however, would be impractical, since the counsellor deals with problems ranging from the most t r i v i a l to the extremely serious, and is engaged in such a variety of activities during the day's work that some selection must be made.  The present study,  therefore, will be limited to an investigation of the nature and frequency of the problems which confront the g i r l s ' counsellor in a specific junior high school.  The data w i l l be taken from  the experiences of the writer as ijirls' Counsellor at Point Grey Junior High School,  ihe study w i l l be limited to a consideration  of the problems which were presented during the period from January 7 to April 30,  1949.  The Field of Study Point Grey Junior High ochool is situated in a r e s i dential area close to the suburban business section of iverrisdale. Pupils are drawn from the district lying between Sixteenth Avenue and the Fraser Hiver, from six elementary schools - kerrisdale, Lord Kitchener, Maple Grove, David Lloyd George, (Quilchena, and Prince of Wales.  Most of the students come from.homes i n the  residential area, however, a considerable number come from  the  industrial section along the Fraser River and from the business section at Kerrisdale.  Thus the school population is drawn  from varied socio-economic levels, and represents differing occupational backgrounds.  The socio-economic levels range from the  6 well-to-do middle class living in the residential districts to the poor working class scattered about the mills and factories. A l l degrees of opportunity are available to the students from the recreational and cultural advantages synonymous with the wealthy home to the restrictions and privations of the near-subsistence level of unemployed parents.  Differences in  occupational background are equally widespread.  The profes-  sional worker, the upper-level businessman, the "white-collar" worker, the skilled or semi-skilled tradesman and the unskilled and transitional worker are represented.  Thus the home environ-  ments of the students f a l l into many categories. The enrolment for the year 1948-49 was approximately 1275,  630 g i r l s and 640 boys being enrolled in September,  1948.  The students who are between the ages of twelve and sixteen are enrolled in Grades Seven, Eight, and Nine.  With half a  dozen exceptions, they belong to the white race and are predominantly Protestant in religion, although a considerable number of Roman Catholic and Jewish children attend the school. The girls of the school with which the present study is concerned are distributed by grades and ages as shown i n Table I.  7  TABLE I AGE-GRADE DISTRIBUTION OF GIRLS AT POINT GREY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL (GRADES AND AGES AS AT SEPTEMBER, 1948)  Age  Grade 7  Grade 8  Grade 9  Totals  10 11. 12 13 14 15 16 17  1 24 118 33 2 2 0 0  0 0 9 172 75 6 0 0  0 0 0 16 1£0 42 6 1  1 24 127 222 197 50 6 1  Totals  180  263  185  628  At Point Grey Junior High school, in Grade Seven, boys and girls are enrolled in separate classes, and although not arranged in homogeneous groups, the slower pupils are placed together.  Table II shows the distribution of intelligence quotients  of the g i r l s of Grade Seven, as measured by standard tests*and as recorded on the provincial progress cards. (Appendix, p. i i ) . The table is indicative of the intelligence of the g i r l s of a l l three grades, although several individual student-scores are slightly higher, one being 155, none go below 70.  * National and Otis Standard,Tests r-i  8 TABLE II DISTRIBUTION OF INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS OF GRADE 7 GIRLS AT POINT GREY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL (BASED ON THE RECORD OF THE VANCOUVER BUREAU OF MENTAL MEASUREMENTS AS AT JANUARY, 1949)  Intelligence Quotient 136 130-134 125-129 120-124 119 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109  Totals  Number of Girls 5 8 21 28 6 7 8 6 8 11 2 5 4 4 6  {  Intelligence Quotient 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 101 100 ' 95-99 90-94 85-89 80-84 75-79 70-74  129  dumber of Girls 11 4 2 3 5 5 4 1 3 5 8 .1 2 0 2  56  185  Pupil-standing as a result of examinations i n the subjects of the course are designated by the letters A, B, C+, C, C - , D, and E, and the same letters are used to Indicate the position of a student i n comparison to others i n the grade,  xable III  shows the distribution of letter grades for general standing, as they occurred i n Grade Seven, i n May, 1949.  The marks are recor-  ded according to the normal curve of distribution, while the score is computed by assigning numerical values to the letters under a  9 p l a n i n which the E n g l i s h and Mathematics marks are  weighted.  Under t h i s scheme A i s assigned a value of 7, and E a value of 1.  In order to show the e n t i r e d i s t r i b u t i o n the l e t t e r  grades  for  the boys as w e l l as the g i r l s are shown i n Table I ' l l .  TABLE I I I DISTRIBUTION OF LETTER GRADES AMONG GRADE 7 STUDENTS AT POINT GREY HIGH SCHOOL (TAKEN FROM THE RECORDS OF EXAMINATIONS, MAY, 1949)  Curve of Distribution  5* 20% 15% 20% 15% 20% 5%  Letter Grade  Score  A B C+ C C-  761-881 633-760 591-632 471-590 381-4/0 261-380 0-260  D E  Totals  Number of Boys  Total  38 30 33 24 30 13  7 31 20 30 25 39 6  16 69 50 63 49 69  177  158  335  Number of Girls y  iy  Since education i s e s s e n t i a l l y an i n d i v i d u a l process, the c o u n s e l l o r i s concerned w i t h i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , some of which are i n d i c a t e d i n the above t a b l e s .  Table I shows that the  ages of the g i r l s lange from ten years to seventeen, t r i b u t i o n i n t o grades  r e v e a l s that some p u p i l s are over age  others under age i n comparison to the group, difficulties  and the d i s and  i t i s probable that  concerned with age and grade w i l l a r i s e .  shows the wide range i n a b i l i t y , making i t evident t h a t  Table I I diffe-  10 rences i n mental c a p a c i t y must be considered i n forming c l a s s e s , p l a n n i n g courses, and a r r a n g i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  Table I I I , which  shows the range o f achievement o f the g i r l s of Grade  Seven^helps  to gauge the progress made by i n d i v i d u a l s and by groups, and helps to i n d i c a t e tfhere remedial measures should be taken. The  O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the C o u n s e l l i n g Program a t P o i n t Grey J u n i o r High School  The Role o f the Teacher C o u n s e l l i n g p u p i l s i s the concern o f the e n t i r e of f o r t y - e i g h t teachers a t P o i n t Grey J u n i o r iiigh School. begins i n the homeroom, where each of the t h i r t y - f i v e  staff It  teachers  e n r o l l i n g a c l a s s i s concerned with o r i e n t i n g the p u p i l , establ i s h i n g a "home base", and becoming acquainted w i t h the i n t e r e s t s , needs, and h a b i t s o f each p u p i l .  As the need a r i s e s , the home-  room teacher, who i s a l s o a s u b j e c t teacher, g i v e s a d v i c e , h e l p , and encouragement to the p u p i l s she e n r o l s .  The o t h e r s u b j e c t  teachers are a l s o important i n the c o u n s e l l i n g program, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n connection w i t h the s u b j e c t s they teach.  Homeroom and  s u b j e c t teachers who are i n d a i l y contact w i t h the same groups o f students soon note the g i r l who i s f a i l i n g to a d j u s t , o r who appears to need i n d i v i d u a l h e l p .  I f these teachers are unable to  d e a l w i t h the s i t u a t i o n , they r e f e r i t to the person b e s t q u a l i f i e d to do so.  11  The Role of the Grade Adviser Next in the organization are the grade advisers, of whom there are six, a man and a woman for each grade.  These ad-  visers meet the pupils once a week throughout the year.  The  timetable is so arranged that the g i r l s ' adviser meets the girls in her classroom at the same time the boys' adviser meets the boys in his classroom, and thus, i f a special program is arranged, the boys and g i r l s can meet together in the auditorium. Under the direction of the advisers the handbook which is published each year to assist students in their orientation is studied, and data are given on student elections, work and procedures, service clubs, extra-curricular activities, awards, and similar topics.  Instruc-  tion is given on the content of the various subjects and on combinations of subjects into courses. ethical, and personal matters.  Discussions are held on social,  Finally, the advisers instruct the  groups regarding educational and vocational choices, stressing the importance of choosing a course which w i l l lay the foundation for the later selection of a suitable vocational f i e l d .  In this part  of the work, a b i l i t i e s and interests are considered as important factors determining the selection of courses, and the students are shown how to evaluate their aptitudes and preferences. In addition to conducting group guidance, the a.dviser  1  interviews the pupils individually, in order to establish rapport and to provide opportunities to the individual to ask for help or advice.  Among topics discussed are the studert's school history,  12  her  current  and  abilities.  tional  report card, her P u p i l and  s t u d y h a b i t s , and  adviser  c o u r s e s a v a i l a b l e f o r the  together  her i n t e r e s t s  consider  n e x t g r a d e , and  what  tion i s required  f o r a proposed f u t u r e occupation.  time a c t i v i t i e s ,  s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n the  and  i n the  record ered,  o f the i s able  interview, to h e l p  R e p o r t s on t o the the  parents  s c h o o l work and  sent  her  is  definite  e n c o u r a g e d and The  individual  before the  helped  adviser  information  a  gath-  arise. issued  returned,  L e t t e r s ( A p p e n d i x , p.  not  xvii  c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n t o the  e m p h a s i z i n g the  need f o r more  -  results effort  I n e a c h c a s e the  i n every possible  devotes at l e a s t f i v e She on  The  s e c r e t a r y , but  records  a simple  c o u n s e l l o r and  and  keeps  study h a b i t s are  methods o f s t u d y .  counselling.  of r e c o r d i n g ,  adviser  hom^,  girl  i n s t r u c t i o n i n f o r m i n g good s t u d y h a b i t s ,  i t is filed.  school  parents  and  through each i n t e r v i e w goes to the  i n the  When t h e s e have b e e n  ability.  o r f o r more e f f i c i e n t  on  prepara-  the p u p i l whose work i s p o o r o r i s  t o the  o f these i n t e r v i e w s ,  is given  by means o f the  each q u a r t e r .  commensurate w i t h are  and  The  educa-  Leisure  s o l v e p u p i l p r o b l e m s when t h e y  adviser interviews  xviii)  school,  community^ r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n .  the  the  the  actual f i l i n g the  way. periods  a week t o  salient points  f o r m , ( A p p e n d i x , p.  principal  and  for their  of a l l data  x i ) which  information i s done  adviser i s responsible  a l s o f o r k e e p i n g the c u m u l a t i v e  learned  by  f o r the  files  in  work  order.  13  The Role of the Counsellor The modern junior high school offers many and varied courses and activities, but its size and organization prevent the close personal contact of teacher with pupil which was possible in the smaller and older type of school.  Today, a parti-  cular teacher may meet from 150 to 175 pupils daily.  She may  engage in a number of additional activities which involve s t i l l other pupils.  It is impossible for her to become intimately ac-  quainted with her pupils.  As Dean E.G. Williamson v » P» 13) 82  says, "(We) proceed towards the objectives of education by means of group instruction designed to develop s k i l l s and knowledge (abstract and academic) as tools to be used in later adjustment. Group instruction necessarily proceeds without personal reference to the i n d i vidual's unique needs and potentialities, and hence deals only with limited areas of adjustment." The counsellor is the central figure in the program of guidance in the modern school with its many departments and its teacher specialists. since the purpose of education is the all-round development of the individual, and since this can only be accomplished i f she is placed in a class suitable for her abilities and interests,  i t is obvious that her aptitudes and interests must  be studied, and the educational resources of the school canvassed on her behalf.  It is clear that many student problems cannot be  adequately dealt with through the medium of group instruction,  14  or by means of group guidance.  Someone must be made responsible  for dealing with the problems of the individual.  While the  homeroom teacher, the subject teacher, and the grade adviser share in the work, the counsellor as central figure in the guidance program is in charge of individual counselling, particularly in cases which involve other pupils or teachers, or which are of a serious nature. One of the dangers of school counselling is that the counsellor may become too detached from students and from actual classroom situations, and as a result may become not only too impersonal but also impractical,  Por this reason the coun-  sellor at Point Grey is a subject teacher, meeting students in normal situations and encountering difficulties common to a l l teachers.  In addition she is given opportunities to become :  acquainted with the student body, and to share in many of the activities which are so important in a large school. a l l g i r l s who have been absent.  She admits  In this way she not only becomes  acquainted with the pupils but also is made aware of irregularities connected with attendance.  She shares in supervising the  detention room, and becomes familiar with g i r l s who are penalized for breaches of school discipline.  She is a member of the ad-  visory council, the body responsible for framing school policies, and sits on major committees set up by the principal to perform special duties.  Once a week, she meets the .tihree grade advisers  to discuss student problems, to consider the girls who have been  15  interviewed during the week, and to plan new work.  She confers  daily with the principal and the vice-principal, exchanging information and receiving advice and help.  A l l these duties  and activities have a direct bearing on counselling, since they give a knowledge and understanding of administrative problems, of curriculum content, of curricular and extra-curricular activ i t i e s , and, indeed, of a l l the complex dofcngs of the school. In addition, they make possible friendly intercourse with the staff under ordinary.circumstances, and widen personal knowledge of the students in diverse situations. Then, as seems traditional in e junior high school,, the g i r l s  1  counsellor sponsors student government.  In this way  she has a part in student elections, assemblies, shows and concerts, parties, contests and drives, and a l l the other activities of the student body.  Such experiences widen her knowledge of  the pupils, and of their opinions, interests, and a b i l i t i e s . The knowledge and experience resulting from participation in the tasks just outlined are invaluable in considering the widely divergent problems which come to the attention of the counsellor, or are posed by students, teachers, parents, or others.  The question to be considered may be t r i v i a l , concerning  some small loss; or i t may be more serious, implicating the family, or i t may be extremely grave, concerning the health, welfare, or behaviour of the child,  i t may c a l l for the pre-  paration of a complete case history, tfr i t may be settled in a  16  moment.  It may require the help and cooperation of one of the  organizations devoted to the \velfare of children.  But, before  any action is taken the principal is made aware that a problem exists, and his advice is sought. The Role of the Principal The degree of success attained by the counselling department of a school depends upon the leadership and the support given by the principal.  In organizing the school activities he  is aware that the guidance activities are inseparably related to the total program.  In addition to planning courses and classes,  he sets up the objectives of the guidance program.  He must also  establish the means of achieving these objectives, and in order to do this he selects the counsellors and arranges their schedules. He organizes the physical features of the program, determining the system of pupil records to be used, arranging for adequate library resources, and making available suitable f a c i l i t i e s for the counsellors' use in interviewing pupils.  He supervises the counsel-  l i n g program, and acts as chairman of meetings of the department. In addition to discussing serious or puzzling cases with the counsellors, he studies the records of a l l interviews and reports before they are f i l e d .  He is frequently present when parents are  consulted, and is the final authority in disciplinary cases. Application for help from outside organizations and reports to such agencies are made over his signature.  He coordinates the  17 c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the school, and a c t s as l i a i s o n o f f i c e r between the school and the c i t y and p r o v i n c i a l school a u t h o r i t i e s , and a l s o between the school and the community. The  Role of the H e a l t h Department The  outside  o r g a n i z a t i o n to which the c o u n s e l l o r turns  f o r help most f r e q u e n t l y i s the M e t r o p o l i t a n Health  Service.  This o r g a n i z a t i o n provides the school doctor, who i s i n a t t e n dance one morning each week, and the school nurse who i s on duty d u r i n g morning s e s s i o n .  In a d d i t i o n to r e g u l a r d u t i e s , the nurse  v i s i t s the home when v i s i t s are deemeTd necessary, and arranges appointments a t the t u b e r c u l o s i s , d e n t a l , o r other c l i n i c when the need f o r s p e c i a l care a r i s e s . gether,  Nurse and doctor, working t o -  give each p u p i l a p h y s i c a l examination once a year, and  make s p e c i a l examinations upon the request  o f the c o u n s e l l o r .  A v a i l a b l e through the h e a l t h department are i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l cards, (Appendix, p. v i i i ) on which are recorded  p a r t i c u l a r s of  p h y s i c a l development, d e f e c t s , i l l n e s s e s , and other d e t a i l s o f like  nature. Connected with the M e t r o p o l i t a n Health S e r v i c e are  p e d i a t r i c i a n s , n u t r i t i o n i s t s , and p s y c h o l o g i s t s to whom the couns e l l o r may r e f e r cases.  When p s y c h i a t r i c help i s r e q u i r e d , the  s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s o f the D i v i s i o n of Mental Hygiene are p l a c e d a t the d i s p o s a l of the c o u n s e l l o r .  18  The Role of Other Agencies The Vancouver School Board maintains two services which may be considered as vital to the school organization.  If the  counsellor meets with a case of unsatisfactory attendance or of truancy, attendance officers investigate the case. service is the Bureau of Mental Measurements.  The second  This bureau con-  ducts intelligence and achievement tests for a l l the students enrolled in city schools, and its officials make special visits to the schools to test new pupils.  It also provides psychome-  tricians to administer individual tests when such are necessary. The parts of the guidance organization discussed above are either part of the Vancouver School System, or closely assoit ' ciated with/{ but services of other organizations may be utilized. The point Grey Parent-Teacher Association, the local churches, and local community clubs and centres occasionally provide financial help for needy pupils and their families, and arrange recreational f a c i l i t i e s such as summer camps or neighborhood centres.  The  Children's Aid Society and other welfare agencies give support and help to the school service, and finally the Juvenile uourt plays its part in caring for school children. The Role of Students The record of the individuals and organizations sharing in the work of guiding and counselling students at Point Grey Junior High school would be incomplete without some reference being made to the role played by the students themselves.  No one ques-  19  tions the fact that a g i r l regards the opinion of her fellows with great respect, and that much of her behaviour is motivated by the actions and standards of her age-group.  A l l schools  recognize the value of a good school spirit and rely on such a spirit to maintain standards of achievement and conduct.  How-  ever, important as this form of guidance i s , a more organized and direct form is utilized in most modern schools. At point Grey Junior High School, a well organized form of student government exists, and councils are set up annually according to correct parliamentary procedure.  Students  possessing qualities of leadership are elected to help plan and conduct the affairs of their class, grade, and school.  These  governing bodies s i f t and mould student opinion and by this method, as well as by the personal influence of the officers, exert a powerful effect on the student body.  In addition to council of-  ficers, pupils acting as monitors in service groups, such as Traffic, Library, Lost and Found, publications, Book Exchange, play a positive role in guiding other students.  They exert a  direct influence by the work which they do in their various offices, and an indirect influence by their own conduct in the school.  Practical contributions are made by the students to  the counselling program.  Officers and sponsors discuss students  who are not adjusting to student rule.  Frequently the counsellor  learns of needy pupils through class mates, or hears the troubles of the shy g i r l from a friend.  20  Procedures Used in counselling at point Grey Undesirable and unwholesome behaviour on the part of the student is a matter of concern to the entire teaching staff, who hold the view that the goal of education is to make i t possible for every pupil to achieve the most satisfying l i f e possible both during her school l i f e and afterwards.  It i s true  that some behaviour problems remain unnoticed, and that those problems which most engage the attention of teachers are concerned with infractions of school rules and routine and with failure to meet requirements of school work.  The homeroom  teacher, the subject teacher, the grade adviser, and the club sponsor are, however, sensitive to the more subtle behaviour problems, and are aware of their significance.  The principal  and vice-principal are also on the alert for evidences of student trouble, while the counsellor has many opportunities of observing the student behaviour.  The members of the Metropoli-  tan Health Unit connected with the school are also charged with helping the student to adjust, and they frequently identify the g i r l who needs counselling.  Parents, too, often worry about  the personality development of their child or about her school progress, and communicate with the school authorities about these problems. When behaviour indicative of poor adjustment is observed, i t Is brought to the attention of the counsellor.  Ji'or  example, i f a child is doing unsatisfactory work, i f she is  21  irresponsible or disobedient, or i f she is extremely shy or shows anti-social tendencies, the teacher notifies the counsellor, either formally or i n an informal chat.  When the pupil i s  referred for counselling the counsellor prepares an abbreviated case study if.the matter  appears to be serious.  To do this she  studies the cumulative record, consults the homeroom teacher, and questions one or more-subject teachers.  If the grade advi-  ser is not aware of the situation she is informed and her advise i s sought.  In many cases the nurse is drawn into the study, and  the medical card examined.  When sufficient information has been  gathered to give a background to the particular problem being considered, the counsellor has an interview with the g i r l , i n which she learns a l l she can about the student and about the problem.  If the problem proves to be serious, further steps are  taken to determine i t s real nature and its cause.  Teachers may  be asked to make detailed reports or to answer questions.  The  school doctor may be asked to examine the g i r l and to supply information with regard to significant aspects of the situation. The parents may be asked to confer with the principal and counsellor,  xhe g i r l herself may be interviewed several times, ik  conference may be arranged v/ith some or a l l of the subject teachers.  The principal and vice-principal and one or more grade  advisers may be present in order to help interpret the information and give, advice or make suggestions. Wfien a plan of action has been agreed upon, the steps  22  necessary t o put i t into action are begun.  Recommendations as  to procedures are made to the teachers who work with the pupil, and the matter i s discussed with her to ensure her cooperation. I f the proposed plan does not bring the desired response of i f the problem i s such that the help of a psychiatrist i s needed, the parents are asked to a s s i s t the nurse i n preparing a report. They are also asked to accompany the g i r l to the c l i n i c so that they may have the benefit of the psychiatrist's advice. In order to secure data f o r the report, t h e nurse v i s i t s t h e pupil's home, and i s thus able to make some estimate of home conditions. In the meantime the counsellor summarizes the information a v a i l able, and states the problem as i t affects the school. dix, p. i i i ) .  (Appen-  The g i r l i s advised of the steps being taken to  help her, and i s prepared as f a r as possible f o r her v i s i t to the Mental Hygiene C l i n i c . In some instances the school doctor may refer the pupil to a s p e c i a l i s t or to a medical c l i n i c f o r a physical examination, so that treatment or medication can be arranged.  In such  such causes, when special treatment i s required the counsellor gives the necessary instructions to the teacher, and also t e l l s the pupil how she can cooperate i n the arrangements made f o r her care and comfort.  I f the assistance of a church or service club  i s needed to provide f i n a n c i a l aid or to arrange f o r suitable recreation the counsellor gets i n touch with one of the leaders. When the help of a welfare agency i s sought, the nurse and coun-  23 sellor act together, giving and receiving information, and attending clinics and conferences. This short and general description of the methods used in dealing with student problems is somewhat inadequate. Modifications and variations are made in view of the p a r t i cular situation, the amount of cooperation the student gives, and the many other factors which may enter into the problem. Time is an element in most cases, since the immediate problem demands attention, although the collecting of relevant information and the analysis of the maladjustment may be a lengthy process.  In general the same process is used in dealing with  difficulties.  The cumulative record, the interview, the re-  sults of standardized tests, the reports of teacher, students, parents and nurse are a l l used and several of the techniques of counselling are applied.  When the counsellor has studied  the data, identified the real problem, and traced i t s development, she and the student plan a course of action appropriate to the needs of the case.  It then becomes necessary to advise  and help the teachers and others closely associated with the g i r l as to ways and means of carrying out the proposed program, and also to guide the g i r l herself as she tries to make an effective adjustment.  Helping the pupil so that she herself  w i l l make the necessary effective adjustments is * h i whole purpose of the counselling program. (31, p. 1-2)  say?  As Hamrin and Erickson  24 ^Guidance i s that part of the school program which i s most concerned with assisting the individual to become more e f f e c t i v e l y oriented to the present situation and to plan h i s future more carefully i n terms of his needs, a b i l i t i e s , opportunities, and s o c i a l responsibilities. * 8  25  Chapter II Information Used In counselling the individual The Need for Personal Data As has been shown, the guidance and counselling department is so organized within the school that help and advice are available to the pupil from many sources.  Before counselling can  be made effective, however, the counsellor must be informed about the characteristics and potentialities of the pupil, and also about the influences and resources of the home, the school, and the community in which the g i r l must make her adjustments.  If  the school is responsible for the entire development of the pupil, the counsellor must know a l l her needs - educational, vocational, recreational, social, physical, moral and emotional.  Such infor-  mation can be gathered from reports, records, tests, direct observation, pupil opinion, parental contacts, and many other sources. Gathering and compiling information about the g i r l and about her total environment is therefore an important part of the counsell o r s  work,  such work begins immediately a pupil enrols.  Personal Data Available for Use at point Grey Junior High School When a pupil enrols, a cumulative record is placed in the f i l e s in her name, and as information is received from time to time i t is recorded and f i l e d . enrolment form.  (Appendix, p. i ) .  The f i r s t record made is the This gives the name in f u l l ,  the age, the grade, the name of the last school attended as well  26  as the name, address, and occupation of the parent or guardian. When a g i r l registers at the f i r s t of the school year from a local school, her homeroom teacher supervises the f i l l i n g in of the enrolment form.  When she registers from a school outside  the point Grey area, the counsellor takes charge.  This gives  an opportunity not only to become acquainted with the student but also to learn many things about her.  At an i n i t i a l interview  i t is possible to appraise a g i r l ' s physical condition, her motorcoordination, her emotional attitude, her socio-economic background, and her social intelligence.  This information, although  casual, is helpful in placing the pupil i n a class suitable to her needs. If a pupil has attended a public school in the province, she comes provided with a cumulative progress card (Appendix^ii) which records her scholastic standing.  It states when and where  she f i r s t enrolled, and the names of the schools subsequently attended. late,  It records the number of times she has been absent or  in addition, i t gives the results of the psychological  tests she has taken.  In schools throughout the province the  Kational and the Otis standardized intelligence tests are usually given.  The pupil's progress card shows the date of such exami-  nation, the score, the mental age, and the intelligence quotient. In individual cases, the Bureaii of Mental Measurements of the Vancouver school Board uses the Revised Stanford-Binet Test. When this is used, a special report is issued which gives the  27 name of the person referring the pupil, the reason for the referral, the result, and occasionally, recommendations which were made to the teacher or parent.  The progress card also records the results  of standardized achievement tests.  The information obtained from  this card enables the counsellor to help the pupil to select a course closely related with the work she has already done, while the results  of standardized tests provide " . . . a stable, valid,  reliable, and standard yardstick for comparison of pupils and for prognosis of success in scholastic competition."  (Williamson, 82,  p. 3751. School records (Appendix, p. v) covering the three years spent at junior high school give a detailed account of the pupil's academic achievement in terms of examinations on subjects of the course of study,  xhese records, which are based on exami-  nations held quarterly, show the subjects tages and the letter grades obtained.  studied and the percen-  As groups ranging from 350  to 500 students are examined at the same time, the marks are arranged on the normal curve of distribution, and the letters A, B, C+, C, C - , D, and E are used to indicate the pupil's standing in each subject.  The same system is used to indicate the average  standing in the grade.  These marks, which are partly subjective,  give an appraisal of knowledge, ability, willingness to work, ambition, and conformity to discipline.  Accompanying each letter  grade is the subject teacher's estimate of the pupil's work habits, which are indicated by marking " S " for good habits, a  28  check mark ( V ) for average, and an "N" for unsatisfactory.  For  example, i f the report bears the record - English - C, v/  Mathematics - C, the pupil has made a low average mark in English, S but her teacher is satisfied that her work habits are average; and her mathematics teacher considers that, in order to obtain to grade C in that subject, her work habits must have been e f f i cient. A citizenship rating is recorded on the pupil's report card and on the cumulative record. times a year. pupils.  This rating is compiled four  Students and teachers submit names of outstanding  Points are awarded on the basis of this selection, and  additional points may be given for participation in school activ i t i e s , and for service to the school. tent or serious misdemeanours.  A tally is kept of persis-  When a l l these factors have been  considered, a scale is prepared, by means of whiibh the individual i s r a t e d as "superior", "satisfactory",  or"unsatisfactory".  While  this rating is subjective, i t does tend to select pupils who are considered outstanding, or those who are very unsatisfactory, and serves, therefore, as another measuring stick for the counsellor. £ system of confidential reports is used (Appendix, p. vii) when special information regarding a pupil is needed.  Selec-  ted teachers, who are i n a position to know the g i r l well, are asked ,to express .opinions on definitely stated points.  They fre-  2 9  quently contribute anecdotes, observations, or comments which help to give a clear idea of the g i r l ' s interests,  attitudes,  conduct and personality, and often supply information regarding her friends, her activities, and her school work.  When a number  of such reports are summarized, the counsellor has available iBuch invaluable information. On f i l e in the medical room are individual cards giving height, weight, vision, hearing, physical weaknesses, and a history of illnesses and diseases.  The history covers not only  the school l i f e af the child, but gives also any pertinent preschool health data.  Such information is of value in every case  considered, but is an especial safeguard to the g i r l who suffers from chronic asthma, glandular disorder, rheumatic heart, chorea, or epilepsy.  (Appendix, p. v i i i ) .  Attendance is a problem of child behaviour, and for that reason attendance cards recording tardiness or absence are marked daily.  (Appendix, p. ix).  The cards are designed to cover  a three-year period, and show at a glance the total number of times a student has been late or absent.  They also record tele-  phone calls made to the parent, or visits paid by the nurse or attendance officer.  In each case the data and the reason are  entered, eo that information as to the duration of serJLooa i l l nesses or accidents, or irregularities are noted. confidential transcripts of a l l interviews with the pupil, or of any interview which concerns her are f i l e d . (Appendix  30  p. xi).  Such a transcript shows the name, the date, and the  reason for the report or interview,  pertinent facts, and de-  tails of personal, school, or family history which are brought out during the interview are carefully recorded. taken is also noted.  Any action  Many of these reports give not only the  significant facts learned but also the comments made by the interviewer, and the questions asked and remarks made by the pupil. Each pupil f i l l s in several questionnaires which supply information on which to base an i n i t i a l or routine interview. One such form gives data regarding the family background. (Appendix, p. xiv).  On i t the pupil enters the names, nationality,  occupation, and address of her parents, the number and ages of her brothers and sisters, and information regarding other members of the household.  A questionnaire on school history reveals  the schools attended, the subjects studied, and the honours or distinctions won.  It states the pupil's favourite subject, and  the one she likes least.  It also gives her choice of course for  the next grade, her plan for further education, and her choice of vocation. tivities.  Another questionnaire deals with the student 's ac-  In one section the g i r l tells of out-of-school acti-  vities - the church, the Sunday school, the church clubs attended, and the offices held or the honours won.  She discusses games,  sports, and hobbies, and f i n a l l y , she gives information regarding extra-mural study; for example, attendance at a Chinese school,  31  at a skating class, or a dance academy. music, or voice culture are listed.  Lessons in art,  or  In a second section, she  discusses in-school activities such as the service club to which she belongs, the teams she plays on, the recreational club she has joined, and the offices she holds.  She mentions  council offices held, prizes or awards won, and also any part she has taken in a concert, assembly, or show. Another source of information is the time schedule, which shows how the g i r l spends an average day.  The form for  this differs for each grade, and from class to class, and is therefore not f i l e d .  The g i r l keeps i t in her notbook and  makes i t available to the counsellor at need.  Correspondence  concerning the pupil, records of special achievements, of detentions, of punishments, and samples of work are also f i l e d . The folder form of record has been in use at point Grey Junior High School for many years.  It is of value because i t  requires very l i t t l e clerical work, and yet contains everything of significance regarding the pupil which can be collected during her attendance at the school.  The blank folder formerly used has  been replaced by a form issued by the Department of education, (Form G-12).  This "Counsellor's Record bolder" is designed for  use in elementary, junior high, and senior high schools,  apace  is provided on the cover of the folder in which to record the interviews held, giving the name of the school, the grade or  32 class, the date, and the reason for the interview.  The space  inside is divided into six sections - home background, school record, personality, activities, work experience, and educational vocational plans.  It is proposed that separate items  be f i l e d i n the folder, and that a summary of important information be assembled on the cover. i t is true that the complex organization of the secondary school makes i t d i f f i c u l t for the teacher to know and understand the individual.  There is a tendency, too, as the  g i r l moves up through the grades for teacher-pupil relationships to become less intimate.  By means of the records mentioned,  however, a large amount of significant data is made available to teachers and counsellor.  «uth Strang (66, p. 16) i n writing  of the cumulative system says, "The separate items gathered from many sources may not individually have high r e l i a b i l i t y , but viewed and evaluated as a whole they make possible a valuable total impression."  33 Chapter i l l Counselling problems. The Range and Variety of Counselling problems The guidance program operates on two assumptions: f i r s t , that the pupil must be helped to make the most of her a b i l i t i e s , and secondly, that she must be trained to take her place as a productive member of society.  This involves the  •  study of the i n t e r e s t s , a b i l i t i e s , and desires of the i n d i v i dual i n order to help her formulate and carry forward plans which lead to attainable goals.  The various  non-counselling  a c t i v i t i e s of the guidance department complement the s p e c i f i c guidance work of the counsellor. . In other words, assembling data about pupils, and cataloguing information about courses, subjects, occupations, and opportunities f o r vocational training, are actually preparations f o r individual counselling. The aim of such counselling i s to help the pupil to adjust e f f e c t i v e l y to the environment i n which she l i v e s .  Making  adjustment affective requires that the g i r l solve problems, decide issues, or make choices.  In any case i t becomes necessary  to acquaint the g i r l not only with her personal a b i l i t i e s but also with her l i m i t a t i o n s , and to provide her with  information  which w i l l lead her to make wise choices and to form plans which she can realize.  I t means helping her to secure the maximum  benefit from lessons and a c t i v i t i e s .  I t necessitates the i n -  clusion of a l l g i r l s i n the scheme and not merely the problem cases, since the need to make wise decisions and to solve pro-  34  lems arises every day for a l l students.  If such problems are  met as they arise, effective adjustments w i l l result and serious maladjustments w i l l not develop. Every pupil, bright or dull, timid or forward, industrious or idle, requires help at one time or another. counsellor must be prepared to give.  This the  The necessity for provi-  ding such services for every student is stressed by most presentday educationalists.  For example, Erickson and Smith (20, p. 3)  state that: Every pupil i n school w i l l sometime need certain services i n the guidance program, preventive action on the part of the guidance worker is often more valuable than curative action. The tendency i n some schools to regard the guidance program as a medium for restoring delinquent pupils to the status of the good school and community citizenship is regrettable. The so-called "normal boy and g i r l deserve much more attention than they usually receive. Every pupil needs to learn his own assets and limitations and to make a variety of adjustments based upon a knowledge of himself. He needs information about subjects, curriculums, occupational opportunities and requirements, and college opportunities. No less frequently than the "problem" pupil he needs assistance to meet personal problems and to make important choices, iivery pupil is entitled to these counselling services. The counsellor does not place pupils i n separate categories as good or bad. j^very pupil in the school is entitled to the services of the guidance program in direct proportion to his needs. To be sure, some of these services are adjustive in character, but they have the same therapeutic value for pupils whose problems can be analysed into nothingness as for the one whose problem stems from an actual maladjustment." 11  In junior high school,-where the counsellor tries to serve a l l types of student, the problems are many and varied, oome are the troubles of childish, immature g i r l s , while others  35  are almost at adult l e v e l ,  some concern t r i v i a l worries or  juvenile pranks, while others involve serious home care or grave breaches of d i s c i p l i n e ,  aome can be resolved e a s i l y and  at once, while others require careful and lengthy study, and c a l l f o r "the assistance of teacher, parents, welfare workers, and s p e c i a l i s t s i n the f i e l d s of medicine or mental hygiene. whatever the problem, i t ultimately involves a personto-person relationship between counsellor and pupil.  Such a  relationship may be established i n a number of ways.  The student  may appeal f o r help, or the request may come from the homeroom teacher, the subject teacher, the doctor or nurse, the p r i n c i p a l or parent, the welfare agency, or some outside group.  To give  some idea of the range of problems, as well as to indicate some of the ways i n which the counsellor i s made aware of g i r l s who need help, a number of specific problems are l i s t e d i n Table IV.  These problems are l i s t e d i n the order i n which they oc-  curred i n one school week.  The table indicates both the source  of the r e f e r r a l and the nature of the problem.  36 TABLE IV A SYNOPSIS OF THE PROBLEMS PRESENTED TO THE COUNSELLOR IN ONE WEEK (January 31 - February 4, 1949, at point Grey Junior High School)  Person Making the Contact  Nature of the problem  January 31 12 girls  Admission after absence. nurse.  Eight referred to  Marilyn  Poor attendance discussed. Absent i n a l l 21 days. Reasons unsatisfactory.  Church worker re S.  To discuss a pupil who i s using the meeting of the " . C . G . I . T . " to deceive her father while she keeps "dates".  Joan  Ankle broken. First aid given, Mother notified. Arrangements made to have g i r l taken to her home.  Georgie  suddenly i l l . Mother notified. called for the g i r l .  Mrs. W.  Called at the counsellor's request. Student recently from Winnipeg. Not adjusting well.  Sue  To talk about a class party she plans to hold.  Patricia  To ask i f she "had to go home to lunch". Home trouble. Telephoned to Mother, who insisted child must go home.  Pat's Mother  Telephoned to say Pat evidently stealing, as she had money and small articles i n her possession to which she had no claim.  4 girls  Problems of school work and activities.  Father  37  Person Making the Contact  Nature of the problem  February 1 8 girls  Admissions after absence, to nurse.  Mrs. a.  Daughter Noreen had "an accident" in class. Ran home without permission, i n great distress. Boys noticed the accident. Enuresis. Urged Mrs. S. to take Noreen to Mental Hygiene Clinic. Given admission s l i p , and permission to leave class whenever she wished, woreen acted well.  Noreen  Th re e re f e rr e d  Class 18  Situation explained to class, who agreed to keep silent.  Homeroom teacher 3 girls  Matter explained. subject teachers.  Asked to advise Noreen's  Interviews with girls of class 28 re problems of next year* s courses.  Telephone calls by counsellor  Six calls made to parents whose daughters had been absent three or more days.  Jackie L.  poor school work, port.  Mrs. L. Jackie's Mother  Re interview with Jackie. Child terrified of tests and of counsellor. Mrs. L. was shown Jackie's cumulative progress card.  Four D's on January re-  February 2 55 g i r l s  Admissions after absence, influenza epidemic. Almost a l l referred to the nurse.  Mr. & Mrs. D. Joan's parents  To discuss Joan's prcspects of promotion. January report very discouraging. They asked how they could help. (I.Q. 84).  Myrna  To ask for home assignments for a friend who has broken her arm and w i l l be absent some weeks.  38  Person Making the Contact  Nature of the problem  Sue  To explain that she w i l l be absent several days, ftew baby, just home from hospital, Mother alone.  Homeroom teacher  To discuss too frequent absences of a poorly adjusted member of his class. Barbara.  Maureen  Onset of nervous spell, like petit mal. Aspirin and rest room, as prescribed by her doctor.  Telephone c a l l of Counsellor  Asked Mrs. T. to c a l l at the school to discuss her daughter.  Mrs. T. D's Mother  Called to discuss the reason for her daughter's dropping from a C grade to a C-. Work habits poor.  Forms sent out by Counsellor  Confidential report forms sent to sis teachers, asking for information oh pupil referred to.  Foster father  To discuss his charge, a ward of the Children's Aid Society.  Mrs. H.  To discuss a personality clash between her daughter Betty and her Science teacher.  Mrs. S.  Noreen's Mother called regarding the suggested v i s i t to the Mental Hygiene C l i n i c . Asked for information. Gave Noreen's history. Agreed to go. (Enuresis case mentioned above).  principal Mr. w.  Advised of Mrs. T's v i s i t , and shown cumulative report already on hand.  February 3 Substitute Nurse  Student nurse's aides called, given directions.  36 girls  Admissions after absence. Only the very pale referred to substitute nurse.  Nurse  39 person Making the Contact  Nature of the problem  Metropolitan Health Unit  In absence of nurse, telephoned to Supervisor to ask for appointment with director of Mental Health Committee for Mrs. S. and her daughter. (Enuresis case discussed above.)  Report prepared by Counsellor  Forms f i l l e d and report made for Mental Health Unit on Noreen, mentioned above.  Diana  Chinese student to discuss trip to California that would necessitate her missing Easter examinations.  Denise  Foot injured in gym. Mother notified. Arrangements made to have a teacher drive her home.  Grade Adviser, Grade Nine  Re four g i r l s in Class 3 who are causing trouble to a l l their teachers.  Class teacher  Re g i r l s just mentioned.  Forms sent out by Counsellor  Six teachers asked to report on attitude and work of the above g i r l s .  Principal, Mr. W. Clinic  Class 3 discussed, check-up.  Plans made for general  Conference at Metropolitan Health Unit with Dr. G. and other specialists, regarding a g i r l referred at her mother's request, pupil, Sandra, unmanageable at home, temper tantrums, etc.  February 4 Ex-student S.L.  Replied to a letter from the head-mistress of a private school i n Maine, who had asked for an appraisal of a former pupil now seeking admission to the school.  40  Person Making the Contact  Nature of the Problem  B.C. Telephone Company  Letter from personnel manager asking information regarding a former pupil now seeking employment. Form f i l l e d in.  Homeroom teacher  Asking help for a new pupil of high ability whose work and attitude are being affected by an unwise choice of friends.  Grade Adviser Grade Seven  To show the well-written composition, work of one of her ••difficult" pupils.  New Student  Noreen, enrolled from Crofton House.  Girl Officer Class 17  Officer of Class 17 put in charge of new g i r l .  4 girls  interviews with members of Class 28 regarding problems of school routine.  Miss M. Juvenile Court  Telephoned to ask for information re a ward of the court recently transferred to the school.  Jane  To show her January report, which showed some improvement.  Conference  Weekly conference with grade advisers.  previous Research on differentiation of Counselling Problems Studies made during the past half century have provided important information regarding the problems of youth. Much of the recent research is concerned with personnel work, and is of a general nature.  The purpose of guidance, the or-  ganization of guidance services, and "tools-'and techniques of  41  counselling have been discussed, and analyses a? counselling practises made.  At present, a large share of the research is  limited to statistical validation of tests, or to the study of particular phases of guidance or counselling.  Since the turn  of the century, however, a number 'of studies have been published, describing and differentiating between the various types of student problems, and in some instances indicating their frequencies. The earliest study of this kind made on this continent appears to have been conducted by Triplett (78) State Normal School, Kansas, Missouri.  at the  He states that "The  problem which pedagogical pathology presents, of tracing the faults of children to their sources and showing their psychological causes, has only lately been attempted." divided into three parts:  His study is  the faults and defects of children  as seen, f i r s t by teachers, second by children, and third by parents.  The chief offence as indicated i n each category was,  inattention, bullying, selfishness. At the beginning of the century, as now, the p a r t i cular needs and problems of children received much attention. Educational publications of that day furnish many interesting articles, among them one by u . Stanley Hall, (3®) entitled "Showing Off and Bashfulness as Phases of Selfconsciousness", foreshadows the research being done today i n personality problems.  After the survey made by Triplett i n 1903, however,  42 there do not seem to have been any serious attempts to study the whole problem of student difficulties until 1925, when two studies were published.  One of these, of great interest to the  Canadian reader,- was made by W.E. Blatz. (8)  Working under the  hesearch Division of the Canadian National Committee for Mental Health, Blatz carried on a two-year study i n a Toronto school and published the results i n 1927,  in an article entitled  "Behaviour of publior,School Children". One of the most exhaustive studies yet to be made was carried out in 1928 by E.ii. Wickman.  It grew out of^two experi-  mental investigations being carried on i n elementary schools in Minneapolis and Cleveland by the National Committee i n Mental Hygiene, and developed into a comparison of the attitudes of teachers and mental hygienists towards behaviour problems of school children.  This study is s t i l l used extensively.  A valuable contribution to the study of adolescent problems was made by Strang (70) in 1935.  As a method of  familiarizing teachers with some of the sources and features of maladjustments among students, she compiled what she termed "A Summary of Areas of Adolescent problems".  The l i s t includes  eleven areas, ranging from problems of health and physical development to problems of vocational guidance.  It includes  approximately 315 items, among which difficulties connected with scholarship and personality are-most numerous* Williamson (81) devotes the greater part of her book,  43 "How To Counsel Students", to a discussion of pupil problems. She takes the view that a l l problems are aspects of personalityadjustment, but for the sake of convenience she divides the study into five parts - "Personality problems, problems of Educational Orientation and Achievement, problems of Occupational Financial Problems, and Health problems".  In concluding the  study, she says there are serious gaps i n our knowledge of student problems, and suggests among other problems which need investigation - "Descriptions of types of students needing the assistance of a counsellor, " and also "An analysis of case histories to differentiate types of students' problems." Jones (36) has published two editions "principles of Guidance",one written before World War Two and the other since. In both ;he l i s t s types of problems confronting young people. ;  He believes that such l i s t s stimulate analysis of problems and provide the basis for a planned program of guidance.  Jones,  who prefers the word "conditions" to either "situations" or "problems", tabulates eight typical conditions, giving some hundred examples of pupil d i f f i c u l t i e s . Writing from the standpoint of the c l i n i c a l psychologists, , Louttit (45),  in 1936, published "Clinical Psychology  (A Handbook of Children's Behaviour problems*)".  This he re-  vised, and in 1947 published a second edition entitled "Clinical Psychology of children's Behaviour"; problems f a l l into three classes:  His theory is that a l l  problems associated with  44 behaviour a b i l i t i e s , behaviour deviations having no necessary connection with either abilities or physical conditions, and problems correlated with specific kinds of*organic disabilities. His three classes are broken down into fifty-three items.  He  illustrates his writing with seventy-nine tables, one of which shows the frequencies of problems seen i n c l i n i c s .  Another  shows the rating of the seriousness of the problems made by different groups - parents, teachers, educational psychologists, and mental hygienists. Mental hygienists have produced much literature on the subject.  Not only texts such as Rivlin's (60)  "Educating  for Adjustment" but whole series of books of case histories establish the mental hygienist point of view, while their articles appear regularly as reports from the National Committee and also in educational periodicals. Interesting studies of youth problems appear regularly in current periodicals; however, i t is possible to mention only a few of these.  Mooney (51 and 52), working with the Bureau of  Educational Research for Ohio State University, has produced a series of "problem Check Lists" which in turn have caused a number of discussions and comments by other educators.  Jennings  (35 ) investigated twenty types of common problems through a series of questionnaires answered by 225 high schools.  Peller  (54) writing in 1946 from the mental hygienist point of view, published a study, "Significant Symptoms in the Behaviour of  45 Young Children." During the year 1945-46, a survey (86) of particular interest to Canadian teachers was carried on throughout the elementary and secondary schools of Canada.  This survey, .  conducted by the National Committee for School Health Research, was designed to gather information on existing conditions in Canadian Schools regarding factors that affected the health of children.  The section "Mental Health Problems in the Secondary  School", was compiled on information offered by the principals of seventy-five percent of the secondary schools of the country. The survey consists of two parts, f i r s t , "The Most Frequent Mental Health problems", and second, "The Most Serious Mental Health problems".  Eight types of problem are listed i n the  f i r s t section and ten in the second,  i n both l i s t s , problems  of boy-girl relationships are placed f i r s t , problems which result from unsatisfactory home environment and those caused by the general assignment of pupils to academic courses come second and third. The topic, "student problems", is extremely important, and contemporary educators are rightfully concerned not only in studying i t but also i n preparing teachers and other workers to recognize and deal with actual problems.  At the moment an  interesting study is being carried on the campus by Dr. R.C. Woellner and his class of eighty-six teachers.  The members of  the class f i r s t submitted l i s t s of problems, dividing them into  46  two classes, f i r s t as they affected the counsellor, and secondly as they affected the pupil.  These were then tabulated under  four headings - pedagogical, social, vocational, and administrative.  The incidence as recorded by teacher opinion was calculated  and the results given to the class for discussion and study. The exercise which was intended to focus the attention of the class on the importance of investigating papil problems, i s another evidence of the widespread interest being shown in the character of youth problems. Reasons for Attempting to Differentiate Between Counselling Problems The l i s t of cases shown in Table IV indicates that situations and problems which affect the student are greatly varied.  While the fact has been observed by many writers, the  literature on modern personnel and counselling work is deficient i n information describing and differentiating between types of student problems, especially at the junior high school level,  i f the counsellor is to contribute service of value to  the individual and to the school, such information is essential. The counsellor thinks of education as the process for preparing the individual for participation i n the activities of l i f e , that i s , for satisfactory participation in present while preparing for probable future situations.  activities  She know that  under conditions of modern living the pupil finds herself confronted with circumstances which she cannot meet satisfactorily,  47  either because she lacks understanding and experience, or because she i s unable to make adjustments.  The counsellor realizes  that i f the process-of preparing f o r l i f e i s to be carried on, the g i r l must be helped and trained to meet events as they arise.  Experience i n dealing with students shows that there  are t y p i c a l conditions from which problems a r i s e , conditions which create situations demanding that the pupil make choices and adjustments. While children's problems are very much alike under s i m i l a r circumstances, any environment to which the c h i l d must make adjustments creates p a r t i c u l a r conditions and makes spec i f i c demands.  The school i s a particular environment and  many of the problems with which educators deal are inherent i n school situations.  School problems d i f f e r at each age l e v e l .  For example, when pupils reach junior high school, d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with extremely low mental a b i l i t y or with marked physical and mental aberrations have been cared f o r through the media of "special classes", school f o r the deaf and blind, sight saving classes, and i n s t i t u t i o n a l care.  The p a r t i c u l a r  problems which affect the junior high school student are those of the young adolescent growing from childhood to maturity i n the school environment,  iidueational adjustments are part of  the whole pattern; that i s , no single factor causes a behaviour problem, and children are required to adjust to a number of environments operating at the same time.  Nevertheless, i n  order to study the problems of the individual pupil some c l a s s i -  48 fication of types of difficutties seems necessary.  As a step  towards recognizing such d i f f i c u l t i e s , a classification of types or fields of .counselling problems has been made by the writer. Types of Counselling Problems Compiled as a result of some years of teaching and counselling young teen-age g i r l s at the Junior high school level, the proposed classification includes a number of problem areas or conditions.  The following are proposed as the chief types of  problem which the counsellor met during the period from January 7 to April 30, 1949,  and which w i l l therefore be considered i n  this thesis: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Minor problems of well-adjusted g i r l s . Problems at i n i t i a l school adjustment and orientation. problems of health and physical development. Problems Itelating to school work. Problems relating to withdrawal from school. Problems of school discipline. Problems of home conditions and family relationships. Serious personality problems.  9. Problems relating to attendance. Any classification is bound to be unsatisfactory, f i r s t because problems are inter-related and overlap, and seconder, because most problems are many-sided, involving the home, the school, the personality, and other factors.  The problems  themselves range i n severity from mild anti-eocial behaviour to serious acts of juvenile delinquency.  Any problem requires  that the student makes some choice or adjustment.  In order that  the adjustment be effective, the help of the counsellor is often desirable.  The classification which has been adopted, although  49 admittedly  inadequate and incomplete, i s a help to the  counsel-  l o r when she seeks to analyse the problem and to aid the pupil. As has been stated, problem areas overlap. eexample, the counsellor may  For  be concerned with a pupil whose  attendance i s unsatisfactory, and while investigating the matter she may  f i n d problems involving home d i f f i c u l t i e s .  student may may  Again, a  be doing unsatisfactory work, and an investigation  show that she i s handicapped by poor v i s i o n or hearing or  by some form of i l l health.  Then, too, a pupil who  has been  referred to the counsellor as a d i s c i p l i n a r y problem i s f r e quently found to be doing poor school work, and that i n turn may  be due to lack of scholastic a b i l i t y .  A gfcd scribbles on  the walls of the washroom with indelible l i p s t i c k .  She may  be  endeavouring to compensate f o r a thwarted desire f o r s&cial approval.  The reason she has not met with s o c i a l approval  may  be that she has not the a b i l i t y to meet the academic requirements of the school.  The problem that confronts the janitor,  however, i s the defacing of school property, and one of the counsellor's problems i s to prevent other pupils from reading the obscenities scrawled i n "New  Red".  refuses to conform to school rules may  Again the pupil who be suffering from some  physical i l l n e s s , but the teacher, i n addition to caring f o r the rebel, has to consider the welfare of t h i r t y - f i v e other pupils. Thus, while the j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  50 which has been given may be open to question, i t at least provides a starting point for investigating particular cases.  A  case begins when some incident of behaviour or specific evidence of emotional disturbance causes someone to appeal to the counsellor for help.  The particular type of behaviour which the  child has exhibited may be a sign of a slight disturbance, or on the other hand i t may be a symptom of a deep-seated maladjustment,  i t may be that the referrent has made a false or a mis-  leading complaint. must be considered,  A problem has been stated, however, and i t .before such a problem is  satisfactorily  resolved, i t may be necessary to make an exhaustive study, in any case, the counsellor must f i r s t deal with the present situation and attempt to bring some measure of relief to the parent or teacher concerned as well as to the pupil.  In diag-  nosing the many problems £hat beset pupils some starting points is essential, and the classification adopted has proven its usefulness at point Grey Junior High School. Whatever the nature of the problem, and whatever the classification used, the principle followed in dealing with the pupil can be stated i n the words of Warters (80, p.  12):  'Personnel work is built upon respect for the dignity and worth of the individual, upon belief i n his moral worth, upon concern for his happiness and welfare, and upon a desire to promote optimum development.... It' seeks f u l l understanding of i l l the students in order to provide services, experiences, and environment that w i l l stimulate young people to attain the highest possible levels of maturity, physical, intellectual, emotional, personal, and social."  51  Chapter IV Types and Frequencies of Counselling problems at point Grey Junior High School The problems which are to be discussed i n this chapter occurred during the period from January 7 to April 30,  1949.  This time was chosen because i t was sufficiently long to give a reliable sample of the year's work, and because i t included many typical school situations.  New pupils enrol at the f i r s t  of the year, work units are completed at the end of January and again at the end of A p r i l , quarterly examinations are held, and reports are issued to parents.  Following the distribution of  the January reports, grade advisers give information regarding courses available the following year, and students are required to submit the numbeis of the courses they wish to study in the next grade.  Curricular and extra-curricular activities are well  established, and students have had time and opportunity to follow their interests, tines.  to make friends, and to establish rou-  In addition, the teachers have had a chance to become  acquainted with their pupils, and in some cases to accustom themselves to the school i t s e l f .  They are, therefore, in a  position to give informed opinions when these are required. The scope of this study does not permit any discussion of the methods used to achieve the objectives of counselling or to relate the disposal of the individual cases dealt  52  with.  The study i s concerned primarily with the nature and  frequency of the problems which occurred within a definite and limited period of time.  Each case begins with a complaint made  by a pupil or by some one else.  I t i s recorded according to  the nature of the complaint made, under one of the nine categories mentioned above, and the investigation i s then commenced. The f i r s t atea to be discussed deals with the well-adjusted girl. 1. Minor problems of Well-Ad justed GirlsIt must be understood  that many students who r e -  ceive wise parental guidance solve their own problems, and i n the course of t h e i r school l i v e s seek very l i t t l e help from ' the counsellor.  While well-adjusted g i r l s i n general make  few demands upon the school authorities, they may discuss with $he counsellor real problems when they do arise.  I t i s usually  possible to give the required help or information i n a single interview, and to s a t i s f y the individual.  In speaking of this  class of problem, Jane Warters, (80) the Director of personnel at the Pennsylvania State Teachers' College says: "The counselling given here may be s l i g h t by no means can i t be considered unimportant ...High quality of service at this l e v e l can contribute much to decreasing the need for l a t e r counselling of a greater depth and towards the increasing the effectiveness of such counselling should i t l a t e r be needed and given. After a l l the helpful friendliness i s needed f u l l y as much as the information, and often i t i s as conspicuously sought as i s the information requested.**  53  Many instances of girls who make only one or two appeals to the counsellor during their three years could be cited, and a large number of requests could be listed,  A sampling of the problems  posed by these well-adjusted girls is given i n xable V. TABLE V MINOR PROBLEMS OF WELL-ADJUSTED GIRLS  Examples of Problems Advice on the wording of, a speech. An extended absence. A slight injustice. A pairt-time job. A prize or g i f t . An offer to perform at a show. An unpleasant note or experience. A plan to discontinue some "elective subject". A dislike of a teacher. A quarrel with a friend. ; A loan of books or money. Information on correspondence courses. While Table V cites only a few examples, ninety-seven incidents of similar nature occurred during the period studied. The examples listed indicate that there is a great variety of situations in which the student who is well qualified to make her Own decisions and adjustments and who does not often appeal for help, will on occasion ask for advice or approval.  They  show too that none of the problems are unusual or serious, and that the g i r l s who present them need only the most casual counselling,  perhaps the greatest value of such pupil-counsellor  54  contacts i s that they induce i n the student and i n her parents a respect f o r and a confidence i n the counselling services of the school.  This favourable attitude i s important, because i n  many communities parents have been reluctant to a s s i s t the school i n gathering data about the background of pupils, and i n some cases have accused the school authorities of meddling. In the school where mutual respect and confidence are f e l t by the parents, the pupils,and the counsellor many d i f f i c u l t adjustments can be made.  For example, should an emotional problem  arise du6 to a c o n f l i c t between the parent and c h i l d , the couns e l l o r may be successful i n changing the attitude of either the parent or the c h i l d .  Again, there i s frequently an unwillingness  on the part of the parent and c h i l d to accept the counsellor's diagnosis of a situation, when these run counter to pre-conceived ideas and self-diagnosis or to self-chosen goals. I f the counsellor has earned the respect of the c h i l d , her advice regarding the choice of an appropriate educational or vocational goal w i l l more l i k e l y be considered.  • - -.-  2. problems of I n i t i a l School Adjustment and Orientation I t cannot be too often stated that the purpose of counselling i s to a s s i s t the individual to make wise choices and adjustments i n connection with c r i t i c a l l i f e situations. One c r i t i c a l situation i s entering a new school.  At point cirey  Junior High School several hundred g i r l s enrol each September.  55 The majority of these are prompted from s i x subsidiary schools. Such pupils are placed i n the care of homeroom teachers, who assisted by the grade adviser, supervise the f i l l i n g i n of the required forms, the issuing of supplies, and the giving of information oif the various phases of school routine and a c t i vities.  Tafcough the channels of homeroom and group guidance  these children are oriented to the new school.  As a matter of  fact this orientation i s effected with the minimum of trouble, since the pupils concerned have firmly established friendships, as well as previous knowledge of the courses offered and of many aspects of l i f e at the new school.  U n t i l individual d i f -  ferences and needs become apparent orientation i s managed i n class groups. The pupil enrolling from an o u t - o f - d i s t r i c t school or from some more remote place faces a different situation. She must adjust to strange teachers and class-mates, and to a new school and l o c a l i t y , as well as to new subjects and unf a m i l i a r procedures.  This involves a number of interviews with  the student and at least one with her parent or guardian.  Ex-  amples of i n i t i a l school orientation problems are l i s t e d i n Table VI.  56  TABLE VI PROBLEMS OF INITIAL SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT AND  ORIENTATION  Nature of the Problem ^•feting from the g i r l an account of her school h i s t o r y , and of her i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s . Selecting a course and class commensurate with her ^ a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s . Aranging with various people f o r books, lock and locker, and supplies of various kinds. Finding a suitable student sponsor. Seeing that timetable, attendance card, and various forms are f i l l e d . Arranging with the school nurse f o r a medical examination. In some cases, arranging f o r extra work, f o r f i n a n c i a l help, or f o r extra t u i t i o n . Planning admission to some e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r club. Holding one or more a d d i t i o n a l interviews to ensure her s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment, and to complete the records regarding her i n t e r e s t s , a c t i v i t i e s , and educational and vocational plans. Opening a f i l e f o r accumulation of data.  A student e n r o l l i n g late i n the year  experiences  many hardships. I t i s not always possible to obtain the  course  she wishes to follow owing to lack of accommodation; i t i s d i f f i c u l t to cover the work the class has already studied ; and i t i s not easy to become an accepted member of a group, since friendships have already been made, clubs formed, teams chosen, and routines established. Nineteen g i r l s were admitted to the school during the period under consideration. Forty-six interviews were held i n order to place these g i r l s i n s u i t able classes and help them make the f i r s t steps i n adjusting  57  to the new school.  Seven girls were transferred from Vancouver  schools, three entered from Alberta, and one each from a p r i vate school, a rural school, and a school in Ontario.  The  group included others for whom the adjustments were more d i f f i cult.  Among these were a g i r l from Scotland, one from England  and two from Germany.  Another unusual case was that of a  Japanese student returning to the coast after an absence of seven years, and being the only Japanese to enrol in the school. The last to enrol was a g i r l , totally blind. 3. Problems of Health and Physical Development Physical factors may prevent optimum adjustment,  A  g i r l ' s poor health or defective physique may interfere with her participation i n normal curricular activities as well as prevent her from taking part in athletics, dramatics, and such pleasures.  Poor health may be the cause of indifferent or  f a i l i n g school work, and i t w i l l almost assuredly affect choice of vocation.  A noticeable physical defect such as a deformed  hand may produce a social sensitivity.  A physical handicap  such as poor vision or hearing, defective speech, a cardiac condition, or an endocrine disorder demands additional effort on the part of the individual merely to maintain satisfactory scholastic standing.  The junior high school g i r l is just  reaching puberty, and frequently suffers irregular or d i f f i c u l t menstrual periods.  The adolescent student is affected by such  troubles as excessive perspiration, acne, or the sudden develop-  58 ment of secondary sex characteristics which tend to cause d i s comfort and embarrassment, features of this problem.  i t i s impossible to discuss a l l the i\t i s clear that the g i r l who  suffers  a definite physical handicap requires special care, but i t i s also clear that every g i r l has health problems.  In addition,  the growing g i r l i s inclined to tax her strength, so that i n order to maintain her health she needs guidance i n order to understand her physical resources as well as information how  on  to conserve her physical energy. i t i s not the function of the counsellor to diagnose  handicaps and diseases, The members of  ihe school doctor and nurse do that.  the health department work c l o s e l y with the  counsellor, not only i n promoting good health but also i n e l i minating or a l l e v i a t i n g conditions which contribute to poor health.  JAt Point GJftey, however, where the nurse i s on duty  only during the morning session, the counsellor i s frequently required to care f o r pupils who  are i l l or injured.  this fact, the counsellor's f i r s t duty i s to recognize  Despite the  significance of physical disorders insofar as they a f f e c t the educational, emotional, and s o c i a l adjustments of the g i r l . The counsellor must be aware not only of the health problem i t s e l f but of the related personality problems involved. Table VII are l i s t e d a number of physical disorders.  In  It i n -  cludes only cases with which the counsellor was d i r e c t l y concerned during the period under discussion.  In instances where  59 the direct intervention of the counsellor was unnecessary, she was merely advised by the nurse of the donditions. TABLE VII PROBLEMS OF HEALTH AND PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT  Number of cases 12 5 35 4 9 6 1 3 6 3  &  2 1 2 1  Nature of Problems Physical defects - sight, hearing, curvature of the spine, etc. Skin eruptions - impetigo, scabies, eczema.. Serious illnesses or accidents - pneumonia, appendicitis, broken limbs.. Gland disorders - thyroid. Nervous disorders - nail biting, stuttering, hysteria.. Menstrual troubles. Enuresis. Epilepsy. Dental care. Overweight. Excessive thinness. Extremes in height. Slovenliness. Acne. Body odour.  As has been shown by the 92 cases recorded in Table VII, the kinds of problems i n this area is extremely varied. Of the total number 25 were serious, 15 were reported to the medical officer, and 4 were referred to the Division of Mental Hygiene.  Some of the more serious cases whieh created problems  in this field were: broken limbs, (6) curvature of the spine, (1) cardiac condition following rheumatic fever, (1)  total  blindness, (1) suggested epilepsy, (2) hysteria, (2)  tonsilec-~  60  tomies and appendectomies, (5) and nutritional problems of overweight g i r l s , (3).  In 29 cases the parents were consulted.  In serious cases, the counsellor telephones to the parents, and frequently asks them to come to the school to help plan for the child's welfare. to the home.  The nurse follows the case with visits  When a pupil is required to be absent for a long  time, home lessons are arranged by the counsellor.  In some  cases i t is necessary to arrange a lightened academic program, or to provide for coahhing.  Frequently a special time-table  has to be worked out to eliminate such subjects as physical education, sewing, or Library work, and an attempt is made to compensate the individual for the loss of privileges and pleasures.  Classroom adjustments and special privileges are arranged  for the physically handicapped, and provision is made for rest or medication for the g i r l suffering such disorders as epilepsy or diabetes.  Teachers are advised regarding the disability,  and assisted in adjusting the child  to the demands of school  work. 4  * Problems Relating to School Work Many, educational problems arise in the f i e l d of coun-  selling.  These include lack of scholastic a b i l i t y , special  disabilities, insufficient motivation for work, ineffective study habits, and many other problems.  Confronting many a g i r l  is the difficulty of choosing courses which satisfy her ability and interests, and also the difficulty of convincing her parents  61  that they must place her interests before their own.  To under-  stand these problems as they have arisen at point Grey Junior High School, i t w i l l be necessary to outline the program of studies offered by the school, and to discuss the procedures followed in selecting courses. The curriculum of the junior high school is so organized that no choice of studies is offered in Grade Seven; a l l students are required to take the same work. of "try-out'  1  Two groups  courses are offered i n Grade Eight; these are  designed to give the student a practical knowledge of the content of senior high school courses.  The non-academic group  carries no foreign language option and leads eventually to high school graduation.  The academic group offers a choice  of French or Latin and leads to university; entrance.  Impor-  tant selections are deferred until Grade Nine, where a choice must be made between four types of courses or schools - academic, commercial, technical, or general. Great stress is placed on educational guidance in Grades Seven and Eight.  The grade adviser conducts this part  of the counselling program, i n which subjects and courses are considered, and general occupational fields are surveyed. Studies are made of the requirements necessary for success in given courses and occupations.  Students are assisted to se—  cure information about their own abilities,interests, and limitations.  They are informed of the purposes and functions  62 of the four types of course offered i n (irade wine, and about the schools which offer such courses,  i i n a l l y , each student  has at lease one personal interview with her adviser, i n which her work and her educational and vocational aims are discussed. In April of each year, circulars (Appendix, p. x i i i ) outlining the studies offered for the following grade are examined by the guidance groups.  The adviser makes explanations, answers ques-  tions, and reviews the qualifications necessary to succeed i n the various types of work.  The student is then required to  take the circular to her parents, and with their approval make a formal and final selection of subjects.  (Appendix, p. xiv)  Table VIII shows the courses offered at point Grey Junior High School for the year 1949-1950. TABLE VIII COURSES OFFERED AT POINT GREY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL (1949-1950J7  Grade VIII 1. Art, Junior Business and Typing. 2. Music, Junior Business and Typing.  Grade IX 1. Art and practical Arts. 2. Junior Business and practical Arts. 3. Typing and practical Arts. 4. Junior Business and Typing.  Above courses lead to High School Graduation - to trades, clerical and commercial work, apprenticeship and home service. Courses below lead to University Entrance - to professions and pecialized occupational fields requiring University work. 8  63  Grade VIII  Grade IX 5 . Art, French and Latin. 6. Music, French and Latin, 7. Practical Arts, French and Latin. 8. Typing, French and Latin.  3. Art, Junior Business and French. 4. Art, Music and French. 5. Art, Typing and French. 6. Junior Business, Typing, French. 7. Music, Junior Business and - French. 8. Music, Typing and French. 9. Art, Typing and Latin. 10. Music, Typing and Latin. 11. Junior Business, Typing, and Latin.  9. Art and French. 10. Junior Business and French. 11. Music and French. 12. Practical Arts and French. 13. Typing and French.  14. 15. 16. 17. 18.  Art and Latin. Practical Arts and Latin. Typing and Latin. Beginners' French and p.A. Beginners' Latin; and P.A.  Although much valuable group counselling is conducted by the grade adviser in the f i e l d of educational guidance, i n dividual counselling is often needed. parents and  For example, when the  their children consider making a selection from the  choices offered in Table VIII, many of them are bewildered, and consult the principal or counsellor.  Student and parents alike  seek advice on problems arising from d i f f i c u l t subjects and unsatisfactory grades.  They ask for help in improving methods  of study, and for information regarding choice of high school or college.  The student with inadequate general ability who is  64  doing poor work receives special attention, and is given a larger share of the counsellor's time than other pupils, not only i n an effort to help her make the most of her a b i l i t y , but because lack of ability creates situations which may lead to trouble.  While i t is impossible to classify problems re-  lated to school work with any degree of thoroughness, because many factors enter into each case, some indication of their scope and nature is given in Table IX. TABLE IX PROBLEMS RELATING TO SCHOOL WORK  Number of uases  Nature of Problems  Problems Relating to Low Academic Ability  64  Generally unsatisfactory work. Difficulty with certain subjects: mathematics, etc. Special disabilities: reading, spelling, etc. Ineffective study habits. Dislike of school. Problems Relating to High Academic Ability  8 3 10  Unsatisfactory work. Subject d i f f i c u l t y : e.g. sewing, mathematics, typing. (Lack of motivation and interest. (Ineffective study habits. Problems Relating to Choice of Course  9 1 6 19 23  Course unsuited to student's interest and ability. Special course for blind student. Special temporary courses. Courses for pupils enrolling late. Special help in choosing course.  65  Number of Cases  Nature of problems  Miscellaneous Problems 2 2 7 7 6 17  Speaks no English. Has poor command of fundamentals. Has lost interest in school. Is repeating a grade. Wishes special tutoring. Is returning after an extended absence.  That parents, teachers and students realize their need for educational guidance is evidenced by the large number of problems referred to the counsellor in the short period studied.  None of the problems listed f i t exactly into the  category in which i t has been placed, since a b i l i t y , study habits, motivation, and other factors were inter-related.  The  classification, however, helped the counsellor to offer suggestions to the students and to their teachers and parents.  It is  the practice of the counsellor to interview, at least once after each set of examinations, the girls i n the low mark bracket, and to invite the parents to v i s i t the school. parents accept the invitation.  Many  They come to confirm a choice of  course, to secure information regarding the opportunity to enter and the probable cost of training for some occupation. Others who realize the scholastic shortcomings of the pupil seek help in making the most of the opportunities the school offers.  Some come to plead for promotion, to ask for study  66  techniques, or to plan for summer school,  such interviews per-  mit the counsellor to emphasize the needs of the students in the light of their interests and a b i l i t i e s , and thus, to make the educational program of the school more effective. 5. Problems of Withdrawal from School The problem of withdrawal from school is not serious at the junior high school level,  ihis is due to the fact that  the provisions of the School Act make attendance at school compulsory until the pupil is in her sixteenth year.  A student  wishing to leave school before she reaches the minimum age for compulsory attendance must secure permission from the board of school trustees.  Occasionally a number of g i r l s get permission  to leave i n order to enter apprenticeships.  Others leave be-  cause they are doing unsatisfactory work, because they dislike school,or because their help is needed at home.  Table X shows  significant facts regarding the pupils who withdrew during the Spring term. TABLE X SIGNIFICANT PACTS REGARDING PUPILS WITHDRAWING FROM POINT GREY JUNIOR HIixH SCHOOL _i  Pupil Violet  Grade 9  Age 15-4  * A.S. Academic Standing.  I.Q. 98  A . S . * Comments. D  Left school because of the serious illness of her father.  67  Pupil  Grade  Age  Comments  A.S.  Lorry  9  15-2  104  E  Was chronic absentee, has had three jobs since leaving school in March.  Vera  8  15-3  88  E  Serious behaviour problem, home conditions unsatisfactory and economic status low.  Sandra  8  16  106  D  Temper tantrums and continual trouble at home; has secured a good job.  June  9  18  73  E  Victim of a birth injury; spent four years at Point Grey; l e f t at our suggestion at Easter.  Pour of the girls who have left school do not appear to receive adequate protection or care from their parents.  The  f i f t h g i r l , June, is protected and cared for but faces a l i f e where continuous care must be provided.  These g i r l s require  guidance and help until they are able to support themselves. There is great need for some system of follow-up to aid such pupils.  How to provide i t might be a most promising problem  for further research. 6. Problems of school Discipline The average g i r l has some difficulty i n adjusting to school routine.  This is particularly true of the junior high  school pupil, "who is transferred from a small closely-knit elementary school near her home to a large complex institution  68  usually at some distance away.  Then, too, one of the functions  of the junior high school is to develop habits of self-reliance and independence in the young adolescent, and to make her i n creasingly responsible for her own welfare by providing situations which c a l l for initiative and judgment.  Travelling by  bus or tram, handling money to purchase lunches and equipment, and caring for personal property are some of her new experiences. Adjusting to a group of strange classmates,  to a number of new  subjects, and to a large number of subject teachers, taking part in student government, and cooperating with student leaders are also new experiences.  Additional subjects, longer lesson  periods, more home study, as well as participation in school games, in assemblies, contests, and social events, a l l add to the problems of adjustment.  One of the most important factors  present at this age is the abiost universally increased interest in boys. Erickson and Happ (19, p. 49) state that constructive guidance begins with orientation, and l i s t the following as a few of the many adjustments that the junior high school pupil must make: "Adjust herself to many teachers. Accustom herself to freedom i n passing from class to class. Learn to study. Learn how to conduct herself. Choose her subjects and extra-curricular activities wisely. Participate i n athletics and intramural activities wisely.  69  5!  Learn how to organize and use her time wisely. Develop initiative and responsibility. Learn about sources of information and help.*' A l l these adjustments affect the average g i r l , but  present especially great difficulty to one with low ability or with some personality weakness.  For the most part school dis-  cipline involves mild infractions of school rules and regulations, or of traditions and customs.  The counsellor is con-  cerned with absences from school, tardiness, loss and destruction of property, misbehaviour in class or i n school activities, cheating, stealing, insubordination, truancy, and other misdemeanours.  Some of these behaviour patterns are part of the  business of growing up; others are caused by the failure of the school and of the curriculum to suit the interests and abilities of the individual.  Unsatisfactory home or community conditions  may cause a pupil to develop undesirable personality traits and so become involved in disciplinary problems.  No matter what  the cause, the breach of discipline Is evidence of ma.ladjustment, and i f neglected may develop into serious delinquency. Table XI Indicates the behaviour problems which occurred at point Grey Junior High school during the period studied. The principal sources of information regarding unsatisfactory conduct were the reports of teachers and of student officers or monitors.  In some instances parents or guardians reported mis-  demeanours, and in one or two cases outside organizations made reports. received.  The problems are classified according to the complaint For example,  . a teacher may refer a g i r l to the  70 counsellor because she is guilty of misdemeanours in the classroom or a monitor may complain that a pupil is "Always claiming lost articles that aren't hers." TABLE XI DISCIPLINARY PROBLEMS OF GIRLS AT POINT GREY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL  Number of Cases  Nature of problems  Problems of classroom Discipline 35 16 6 5 4 2  (Being inattentive,whispering and giggling. ('Answering back." Refusing to work, neglecting assignments, wasting time, Failing to bring textbooks and equipment to classes. Writing notes. Cheating. Stealing. Problems of general School Discipline (Infractions of Routine Rules)  28 8 12 4 2 3 5 2  Coming late, (persistent offenders.) Being absent without good cause. Failing to present excuse of absence signed by par&nfc. Borrowing money too frequently. refusing to cooperate with monitors or officers. Misbehaving in halls, cafeteria, and auditorium. Circulating questionable notes or stories. (Quarrelling. problems of Discipline Occurring Away from school  6 6 5 7 4  Misbehaving on the street, i n the tram, and in local stores. Showing an excessive interest in boys. stealing. Slaying truant. Staying away from home.  71  ( G i r l s reported f o r the misdemeanours l i s t e d above were persistent offenders.) Since cevery pupil has some d i f f i c u l t y i n adjusting to school d i s c i p l i n e , only the g i r l who i s really conspicuous for unacceptable behaviour i s referred to the counsellor.  This  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of the pupil whose conduct interferes with class routine and work.  I t i s true, too, of the g i r l who i s  referred by the parents, f o r i t i s only when parents are desperately i n need of help that they reveal their troubles.  The  counsellor realizes that unless these minor behaviour problems are corrected serious consequences w i l l follow.  She i s , there-  fore, concerned with finding the reasons f o r the maladjustment. She must aid the student to improve her attitude and conduct, and she must e n l i s t the sympathy and support of these concerned - other students, teachers, and parents. must ask the help of welfare agencies.  In some cases she  Thus a single d i s c i p -  l i n a r y problem may necessitate many interviews with the pupil and repeated consultation with teachers and parents before a satisfactory solution i s reached.  In addition to the more ob-  sious types of d i s c i p l i n e discussed i n this section the couns e l l o r must also be concerned with the r e l a t i v e l y inconspicuous cases of shyness, day-dreaming and the l i k e , f o r these too may develop into serious personality disorders.at a l a t e r date i f not detected and corrected early.  Cases of this type are  discussed l a t e r under "General personality D i f f i c u l t i e s " .  72 Listed in the final section of Table XI were problems of an exceptionally grave nature.  The number of such  problems at point Grey Junior High School is relatively small. This may be due to the fact that the majority of the pupils of the school come from good home environments, or i t may be that privileged people are sometimes able to conceal delinquencies. At any rate some serious problems do exist.  Table XII shows  the nature of problems which concerned 13 g i r l s  rated as  serious cases: TABLE XII EXTREMELY SERIOUS PROBLEMS INVOLVING 17 STUDENTS  Number of Cases  Nature of the problems  13 10  Persistent misbehaviour in the classroom. Persistent difficulties with monitors and officers. Persistent failure to comply with routine. Persistent borrowing. Persistent failure to study. Marked over-interest in boys. Stealing. Truancy. Staying out a l l night.  13 5 15 8 5  4  5  Some of the cases listed above were brought to the counsellor's attention by the parent, one was referred by the attendance officer, two by the Juvenile court, while the remainder were noticed because of repeated exhibitions of undesirable conduct at school.  A l l the girls discussed have been  involved i n many minor and i n one or more major misdemeanours at school, and more trouble can be anticipated.  A number of  these g i r l s are already regarded with suspicion and disapproval by other students.  Since reasonable measures such as the school  i s empowered to take have f a i l e d , and parental control seems ineffectual from the standpoint of the g i r l s concerned and also of the school, the home, and the community, the problems are grave indeed. I t i s not the purpose of this study to discuss the conditions which are responsible for the serious maladjustments of these g i r l s ; nor i s i t possible to relate at this time the measures taken to readjust and rehabilitate them.  But the data  i n Table XV indicates the background of several of the g i r l s . The attitudes which are expressed i n their undesirable behaviour have persisted for a long time.  Only consistent training i n  favourable home and school environments can break down the bad habits.  The f a i l u r e of the school to help these g i r l s suggests  that a problem f o r research might well be the nature of the therapy f o r the student involved i n serious d i s c i p l i n e problems. 7. Problems of Home Conditions and Family Relationships Authorities agree that discordant home relationships handicap the normal emotional, mental, and social development of the c h i l d , and that her personality i s warped or retarded by the attitude of the adults of the family not only towards her but towards each other.  L o u t t i t (45,  p. 33)  says:  74  'Among a l l the f a c t o r s t h a t are p e r t i n e n t to the development of p e r s o n a l i t y and conduct, those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the home are of supreme importance. The c h i l d ' s r e l a t i o n s to h i s parents, to s i b l i n g s and to other persons i n the home; the parents' a t t i t u d e s towards each o t h e r and towards the c h i l d ; unfortunate ideas about c h i l d t r a i n i n g h e l d by parents; u n s a t i s f a c t o r y m a t e r i a l aspects of the home - a l l these and a host of others p l a y important p a r t s i n the c h i l d ' s development. i;  Problems of students o v e r l a p , and many of the  situati  d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s study have r e s u l t e d from c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t i n g i n the homes.  There a r e , however, other Instances of u n s o c i a l  and unacceptable behaviour f o r which a d u l t s are r e s p o n s i b l e . Such behaviour may  stem from i n s e c u r i t y , over-indulgence, over-  p r o t e c t i o n , f a i l u r e to accept the l i m i t a t i o n s of the p u p i l ' s a b i l i t y , too s t r i c t 9r too l a x d i s c i p l i n e , and many o t h e r causes.  As a r e s u l t the g i r l may  behave i n any number of un-  acceptable ways ranging from minor i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n s to s e r i o u s delinquencies.  The t a b l e which f o l l o w s shows only those p r o -  blems which were considered i n a p e r i o d of f o u r months.  TABLE X I I I PROBLEMS OF HOME CONDITIONS AND  Number of Cases  3  1 2 2  1 2  FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS  C o n d i t i o n U n d e r l y i n g the Problem  Orphan or one parent. Adopted c h i l d . Wards of the c h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . Ward of the J u v e n i l e Court. Boards with r e l a t i v e s . Works f o r board and l o d g i n g .  75  Number o f Cases  C o n d i t i o n u n d e r l y i n g the problem  5 4 2 2 6 2 2 4  B o t h p a r e n t s a r e employed. Parents separated o r divorced. Sfcep-parent. Parents foreign-born. Parents over-indulgent. Parents over-protective. parents over-ambitious. Parents lax.  In a profound  each  effect  o f the cases l i s t e d  t h e home c o n d i t i o n s h a d  on t h e p u p i l ' s b e h a v i o u r .  I n some i n s t a n c e s  t h e home r e l a t i o n s were d i s c o r d a n t , and s i n c e t h e g i r l s had n e i t h e r the experience n o r the a b i l i t y  to d e a l w i t h the s i t u a t i o n  t h e y became a g g r e s s i v e and d i s a g r e e a b l e . l a c k i n g i n s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , and a d o p t e d almost  every case t h e i r e f f o r t s  the examination ability,  O t h e r s were  negative attitudes.  mental  A number o f p a r e n t s , who had b e e n aware o r who became of their children,  c o u n s e l l o r , and o t h e r s were i n d u c e d t o do s o . t r o u b l e s have y i e l d e d  to  consulted the some  o f the  t o therapy o r are a t l e a s t becoming  less  Some p u p i l s were r e f e r r e d  t o w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s , some  t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t , and s e v e r a l  t o the D i v i s i o n o f Mental  Hygiene,. w h i l e i n t h r e e i n s t a n c e s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t Frequency  In  t o do s c h o o l work were weak, and  r e s u l t s d i d not correspond with t h e i r  aware o f t h e m a l a d j u s t m e n t s  marked.  completely  was changed.  of Interviews, T h i s s t u d y h a s shown t h a t w h i l e most g i r l s  consulted  76  the counsellor only occasionally, others were frequently in consultation.  To emphasize this aspect of the general study,  Table XIV has been compiled.  It deals with ten g i r l s who are  experiencing real d i f f i c u l t y in adjusting to their environments. A number of  these pupils were discussed in the sections dealing  with disciplinary problems, and again in the section devoted to home conditions and family relationships.  The names of pupils  mentioned as serious disciplinary problems are starred. (Inset p.77) 8. Serious Personality problems Certain young adolescents suffer from personality d i f f i c u l t i e s which make i t hard for them to adjust to conditions in a large modern school.  Such difficulties not only cause  them real suffering but also interrupt class routine and interfere with school work.  These pupils cause trouble in the  cafeteria and on the grounds, f i l l the medical and rest rooms, and crowd the principal's and counsellor's offices.  Some of  these difficulties arise from inexperience in dealing with new situations, and can be overcome in time, but others result from ingrained habits, and are hard to overcome.  The diagnosis and  the treatment of serious maladjustments are the work of a specialist.  If milder maladjustments are not to develop into  more serious disorders which will require prolonged treatment, they must be treated at school.  Thus, when a pupil exhibits  any mode of behaviour which differs markedly from the usual patterns, the teacher or parent may report i t to the counsellor.  TABLE XIV TYPES OF. INTERVIEWS WITH SPECIFIC INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS  Number of Interviews  I  •8  1  Eva  7  o  O «H CO Q  1  oo  o CO  u  §  Jl  rH •rt •rt •H S O CO  1  Mary* 8  2  Beth*' 8  1 2  Ann # S  4  Ruth,* 8  3  Nell* 8  2  Ada # 8  2  5 2  oo  a H© a uo t at H CO P4 ©  Comments  E-i  a a  o o e h Eh O  3  10  O  Parents do not co-operate; nurse has made several home visits; counsellor has telephoned. Psychiatric care; may be enrolled at small private school; runs away.  12  13  Ward of Children's Aid; has lived in several foster homes; needs constant supervision.  3  21  17  Delinquent; Juvenile Court interested; habitual absentee; repeat Grade 8.  1  30  27  Parents separated; under psychiatric care; advised to repeat Grade 8 at Boarding School.  2 1 2  19  18  Parents divorced; lived with grandparents, attended boarding schools; now living with father and stepmother.  2  6  6  3  4  4  6  6  - P P  19  2  6  f r-jo a©©  17  2  A  1  S rH 0 -P r H CO CO  14  10  1 6  Q  ft  r< - P  ©  8  Bev.* 7  Babs  5 o .9 m  9  •a  6  rH H 0, O «H  rH O  -P  1  -P  ©  3  2  6  10  2  3  29  30  Father labourer; often unemployed; home conditions bad; has left school; delinquent.  2  8  12  3  3  28  34  Youngest of large family; all married; has a step-father; mother strict; transferred to Winnipeg.  9  2  1G  8  2  22  23  Over-indulged; parents took a firm stand; passed June examinations.  9  1 1  6  1  25  28  Father out of city; over-indulged; home discipline improved.  6  78 The latter makes a study of the case, and takes appropriate action which in many cases consists of conferring with the parents and advising them to seek professional help.  The l i s t  of difficulties which follows in Table XV includes those in which emotional conditions are very marked.  The l i s t is not  long, and does not by any means represent a l l the personality problems to be found among the students of any school.  It con-  tains the cases studied during the period under consideration, and is indicative of the types of behaviour which cause grave concern to teachers and counsellor. TABLE XV SERIOUS PERSONALITY PROBLEMS  Number of Cases 4 3 2 6 4 2 2 2  Nature of Problems  Instability. Shyness and nervousness. Bad temper. Crude aggressiveness. Lack of self-control. Inability to make friends. Hysteria. excessive day-dreaming. Slyness, cheating, stealing.  The twenty-five problems listed in Table XV were a l l serious, and some were extremely grave.  A l l the resources  79 within the schoou, were utilized in dealing with them, the parents were asked to confer with the counsellor, and in every instance the nurse made one or more home v i s i t s .  Some parents  took the view that the.matter was not serious and would adjust itself.  In other cases, the counsellor, working with the  parents, the teachers, and the students, succeeded in making plans for breaking down the undesirable habits and building up more wholesome ones.  Four girls were referred to and treated  by their family doctors.  A number of parents were advised to  consult the Director of Mental Hygiene.  It was then learned  that three of the g i r l s had been previously under psychiatric care,  iive parents sought the help of specialists at the  Department of Mental Hygiene or at the Child Guidance C l i n i c . Problems such as those listed above, which'involve the emotional sides of the g i r l ' s l i f e , may lead to serious and permanent maladjustments.  The school can assist g i r l s  with mild emotional problems, but i n the majority of such cases the advice and help of the specialist is necessary, not only for the g i r l ' s sake but in order to impress the parents with the grave nature of the behaviour. 9. Problems Relating to Attendance One of the matters which occupies much of the counsellor's timei and attention is the attendance of pupils.  Regu-  larity of attendance has obviously a most important bearing on  80 the school work of the sAudent and also in her participation -in extra-curricular activities.  The well-being of the pupil  i s , of course, of primary importance, and therefore general health, prevention of disease, and care in case of illness must receive adequate attention from the Health Department. The next problem is to ensure the regular attendance of the pupil.  In order to do this certain routine procedures are  carried on.  The homeroom teacher records the daily attendance  of her pupils  at morning r o l l c a l l .  (Appendix, p. xxii)  She prepares time sheets  for use of the subject teachers during  the day, and a l i s t of absentees for the counsellor's use. (Appendix, p. xix).  irregularities such as temporary absences  during the day, tardiness, or afternoon absences are reported by the teacher in aharge of the room when the irregularity i s f i r s t noticed.  It is routine procedure for the g i r l returning  to school to present a note from her parent to the counsellor, and to be sent to the nurse for examination i f her condition or the length of her absence (three or more days) warrants this.  It is also routine for the counsellor to telephone or  write to the parents when a g i r l has been absent for three days.  (Appendix, p. x x i i i ) . Most of the students absent themselves because of  illness or for some other legitimate reason.  Some pupils,  however, are inclined to absent themselves without good cause. Two duties devolve upon the counsellor, the f i r s t being to  81  carry cut the routine procedures in such a way that pupils w i l l attend regularly, thus preventing habits of irregular attendance, while the second is to minimize the effects of absences and to prevent maladjustments.  In Table XVI are  shown routine procedures in cases of absences. TABLE XVI ROUTINE PROCEDURES CONCERNING ABSENTEES AT POINT GREY JUNIOR HI8H SCHOOL  Admitting pupils returning from absences. Examining the reason offered for the absence, and checking the signature. Referring to the nurse pupils who seem to require attention. Consulting parents of pupils who have been absent three days. Notifying the homeroom teachers of the reasons and probably duration of absences. Arranging that study assignments be sent to absentees who require them. Referring to the doctor through the nurse those pupils who habitually offer excuses of poor health. Discussing the effects of poor attendance with habitual absentees. Conferring with parents when their daughters' attendance is unsatisfactory. Referring persistent cases of unexplained absences to.the attendance officer.  The procedures indicated in the table, the close attention paid to absences during the day, and the nature of the junior high school program, which provides for both curricular and extra-curricular activities almost daily, are a l l of value in maintaining attendance.  The desire of most  parents to do well at school induces students to attend regu-  82  l a r l y , but occasionally causes them to be present when they are unfit for work.  On the other hand, however, there are  pupils who absent themselves without good cause, and parents who contribute to the poor attendance of their daughters.  A  l i s t of feetors which affect attendance and out of which may grow maladjustments is shown in Table XVII. TABLE XVII FACTORS WHICH AFFECT ATTENDANCE  Long illnesses or serious accidents. Dislike of a certain subject or teacher. Lack of interest in school. Low marks and failing grades. Aversion to work (assignments v.unprepared). Over-indulgence i n outside activities, especially at weekends (ski-ing, skating, dancing, etc.). Financial reasons (lack of suitable clothes or of books). Parental over-solicitude, parental indifference, parental neglect. Extreme timidity. Inability to make friends. Friendships with g i r l s who do not attend school. Habits of absenteeism following a long illness.  The consequences resulting from irregular attendance, whether this i s caused by illness or by malingering, are serious.  They range from difficulty with lessons to  problems of delinquency,  some of the problems caused by  irregular attendance are listed in Table XVIII.  83  TABLE XVIII PROBLEMS RESULTING FROM IRRESULAR ATTENDANCE  Inability to make up the lessons covered during absence. Necessity for medication, rest, and special privileges at school, which make the pupil conspicuous. Loss of intimacy with other pupils. Temporary or permanent exclusion from certain subjects and activities, necessitating a deviation from class routine. Anxiety on the part of the pupils over their health, and anxiety over missing activities, lessons, and promotions due to loss of time through illness. Over-dependence on parents who are frequently too solicitous. Resentment over restrictions placed on activities, as well as tendencies to compensate in undesirable ways. Tendency to offer illness as an excuse for evading work and responsibility. Tendency to make irregular attendance a habit, or to become truant. Delinquency. The truant frequently makes undesirable acquaintances and indulges in unsuitable amusements. These in turn may lead to stealing, running away, and sex affairs. Withdrawal from school resulting when the students become discouraged or are unfitted for school routine.  In dealing with problems that arise from irregular attendance the counsellor must exercise tact and patience, since both pupils and parents must cooperate i f the d i f f i c u l ties are to be overcome.  The cure usually demands a change  of attitude,on the part of the pupil, and constant vigilance and cooperation on the part of a l l concerned.  Remedial work  through private tuition, attendance at summer school, or through correspondence courses is frequently necessary i f the student is to get into step with her classmates.  Special time  84  tables and extra privileges are usually arranged for her. Parents and teachers are encouraged to continue their efforts, and the pupil is given as much help as possible.  In p a r t i -  cularly serious cases the girls may be transferred to other city schools where they can make a fresh start. Summary The counsellor's f i r s t concern in dealing with maladjusted students i s to establish the causes for the maladjustments.  It has been found helpful to think of such malad-  justments as falling into broad areas or categories.  Since  the problems to be studied concerned adolescent students, a classification has been adopted which emphasizes junior high school problems.  This classification has been outlined in  Chapter III and developed in the present chapter.  The pro-  blems encountered at Point Grey Junior High School during the f i r s t four months of 1949 have been listed under one or other of the nine areas indicated, and the incidence of the specif i c conditions has been recorded. Approximately 650 problems were dealt with by the counsellor in the period indicated.  As might be expected,  the categories into which most of these f e l l were "school work" and "school discipline".  Those i n which the most serious  conditions lay were "home conditions and family relationships", "personality adjustment", "school work" and "school discipline". Actually there were many instances where no clear-cut classi-  85 f i c a t i o n could be made, due to the complexity of the factors involved. While  the establishment of  the nature and frequency  of counselling problems may be of l i t t l e interest or value to the general public, there can be no doubt of i t s usefulness to the counsellor.  Such findings indicate the kinds of problems  students meet, and c a l l attention to the problems commonly a r i s i n g i n the p a r t i c u l a r school i n which the study i s made. They suggest some of the major causative factors.  They help  i n evaluating the relative seriousness of d i f f i c u l t i e s .  They  suggest measures of prevention f o r certain maladjustments. F i n a l l y , they show ways i n which counselling may be made more more effective.  A detailed study of the conclusions which  were reached as a result of the study and of the implications which may be made follows i n Chapter V.  86 Chapter V Significance of Findings Recapitulation of the Findings The purpose of this study was to investigate counselling problems of junior high school g i r l s .  the  The f i e l d  of study was limited to point Grey Junior High School, and the time limit set for the investigation was the period from January 7 to April 30, 1949.  In general the investigation  showed: 1. That the g i r l s experience a wide variety of problems which occur in every phase of l i f e £ 2. That while problems can be classified into areas or types, each problem is unique, and also complex. 3. That problems vary not only in kind but in degrees of seriousness,  ranging from very mild misdemeanours to grave  delinquencies. 4. That problems are not restricted to the under-privileged or dull pupils, but are experienced at one time or another by a l l pupils. 5. That the most serious problems are associated with aspects of personality development and with unsatisfactory home conditions, although extremely grave d i f f i c u l t i e s are also found involving school work and discipline. 6. That the most frequent problems are those connected work and school discipline, and that these d i f f i c u l t i e s seem  87  to affect the students of low a b i l i t y to a greater degree than students of average or high a b i l i t y . A more detailed analysis of the investigation reveals factors which are of significance to the counsellor i n diagnosing symptoms of maladjustment, to the p r i n c i p a l i n organizing the school program and i n arranging f o r counselling services, to the teacher i n helping the c h i l d to adjust, and to the parents who the g i r l ' s welfare.  must take the ultimate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for This analysis shows:  1. That while every g i r l experiences  d i f f i c u l t i e s and  needs advice, the well-adjusted g i r l tends to solve her  own  problems, and, that her appeals to the counsellor are usually f o r approval or encouragement rather than f o r help. 2. That i n i t i a l school adjustment or orientation i s an important factor i n the subsequent adjustment of a l l pupils, but that i t i s of paramount importance to the "out-of-town" student. 3. That problems of health and physical development concern an extremely large proportion of junior high school g i r l s . 4. That health deficiencies are s i g n i f i c a n t factors since they interfere with attendance, work, extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s , and with the normal relations of the i n d i v i d u a l with her  classmates. 5. That the emotional and social problems which f r e -  quently follow an i l l n e s s are equally as serious as the ness i t s e l f .  ill-  88 6. That more than half the i n i t i a l problems of students arise from d i f f i c u l t i e s connected with school work or school discipline. 7. That the majority of problems of school work are due to low academic a b i l i t y , but that lack of motivation i s also an important factor. 8. That many pupils are not capable of meeting the academic requirements of the present junior high school curriculum. 9.  That the problems of pupils of low a b i l i t y and of  "problem" g i r l s claim the major portion of the counsellor's time. 10. That "normal", g i f t e d , and superior students do not receive the attention they merit, and that as a result their interests are not explored or t h e i r a b i l i t i e s developed to the f u l l e s t extent. 11. That the majority of d i s c i p l i n a r y problems are not serious, and that many of them might be prevented by applying the rules of mental hygiene and the basic p r i n c i p l e s of sound d i s c i p l i n a r y procedure. 12. That many of the d i s c i p l i n a r y problems, minor and major, are due to c u r r i c u l a r insistence on a high content of generalizations and theory i n a l l subjects, even including the so-called p r a c t i c a l arts.  There are many duller children  who would be much happier i f they could take r e a l l y p r a c t i c a l  89  courses with a minimum of theoretical content. 13. That a relatively small number of g i r l s are involved i n serious disciplinary problems, and that such girls are usually "chronic" offenders. 14. That most of the serious and persistent problems i n volve girls whose home conditions are unfavourable. 15. That in most instances the students who persist in unacceptable behaviour have a history of maladjustments, and that these maladjustments result from a great variety of causes. 16. That problems extremely d i f f i c u l t to solve arise in the field of serious personality problems, and that in this f i e l d the noisy annoying g i r l soon receives attention, but the quiet shy child may be overlooked until her problem has become acute. 17. That pupils who wfcttodraw from juit&or high school when the minimal age requirements are satisfied, are in need of continued guidance and of follow-up care after they leave school. 18. That frequently the more serious and persistent problems are not solved, and that therefore further therapy beyond what the school can offer is essential. Significance of Findings for the Counsellor No single factor is ever responsible for causing  90 an individual to react to situations i n ways which are unacceptable to society, but at adolescence  the environmental  conditions which tend to precipitate pfeoblems become extremely complex.  Since the counsellor at the junior high school i s  concerned with adolescent g i r l s , a study of types of problem and of the consequences that arise from them i s of inestimable value.  Some of the values to the counsellor of such an  investigation as this are as follows: TYPES 1. I t indicates the types of problems pupils actually meet and the frequencies of such types. 2. I t f a m i l i a r i z e s the counsellor with the ways i n whilah maladjustments manifest themselves i n various types of situations. 3. I t shows the areas of school environment i n which problems most frequently arise, and suggests ways of modifying the p a r t i c u l a r environment. 4. I t gives the counsellor perspective i n evaluating the seriousness of various problems. 5. I t tends to make the counsellor c r i t i c a l of her methods of observation and of her techniques of analysis and diagnosis. 6. I t indicates the need f o r developing more adequate methods of studying the individual student. 7. I t gives an Insight into the c u r r i c u l a r and extrac u r r i c u l a r needs of the pupils.  91 8. I t increases the counsellor's understanding of the r e l a t i v e roles of a l l the school personnel p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the counselling program, and suggests ways of improving her relationships with each one. 9. I t shows how  inadequate i s the counsellor's knowledge  of home conditions and of other factors that influence the behaviour of the student, and indicates the importance of 1  establishing c o r d i a l and close relations with the  parents.  10. I t suggests needed changes i n the school organization and i n the  curriculum.  11. I t indicates ways i n which the guidance services might be modified i n order to be of greater service to the students and the school. 12. i t reveals inadequacies of our knowledge of dependable techniques for developing personality and f o r maintaining mental health. 13. I t emphasizes the need f o r more therapeutic  facili-  ties. • I t suggests a number/)f f i e l d s for further research. further Implications f o r the Counsellor. As has been already stated, this study of counsell i n g problems involved an investigation of a number of. related subjects.  The organization of the school curricular. and  extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s , teacher personnel, and methods of teaching, and of grading ware examined.  Home and community  92 environments at different socio-economic levels were studied, and the kinds of educational and occupational opportunities open to members of each group were noted.  While the study  i t s e l f was concerned with those pupils who presented problems, i t involved other students as well and i t also involved teachers, nurses, parents, and outside organizations. I t revealed strengths and weaknesses i n the program of the school and i n the counselling organization, and of Improvement.  i t indicated methods  I t showed the d e s i r a b i l i t y of close r e l a t i o n -  ships between a l l the members of the s t a f f , and between the school and the parents.  The results of the study seem to im-  ply that many and serious r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s devolve upon those people who are concerned with training and counselling students. The range of socio-economic, c u l t u r a l , and religious environments i n which the c h i l d develops i s wide.  In order  to understand the individual, the counsellor requires a broad knowledge of people and an understanding of how different classes l i v e .  She must have a knowledge of the assets and  limitations of the various d i s t r i c t s i n which the g i r l s l i v e . - She should be able to view problems objectively, and to relate them  to the g i r l ' s t o t a l  environment.  Since the success of her work depends upon her relationships with the teachers, she must know and understand them, and also the conditions under whicb: they work.  As her  93  chief concern i s the welfare of the pupils she must be able to establish rapport with them and to gain their confidence respect.  and  The counsellor, therefore, should have a good basic  education, a thorough professional training, a wide experience i n teaching, an extensive general experience, and a w e l l balanced and sympathetic personality. In p a r t i c u l a r she needs knowledge and understanding of the c h i l d , a thorough acquaintance with the techniques  of  counselling, as well as an appreciation of the problems g i r l s meet and of the means available for helping to solve these difficulties.  The study of types and frequencies of g i r l s '  problems affords her useful help i n diagnosing and treating cases, i n that i t frequently shows common causative factors, and indicates general methods of treatment, although the solut i o n of any p a r t i c u l a r problem i s always an i n d i v i d u a l matter. The actual preparation of such a l i s t of problems causes the counsellor to observe student behaiiour more accurately, and thus to predict with more assurance the problems which may arise for c e r t a i n groups of g i r l s .  I t c a l l s her attention to  the need for continuing the study of counselling and  teaching  methods, and f o r keeping up-to-date i n educational l i t e r a t u r e . The study also shows the need of securing accurate no  information  the counsellor but f o r the g i r l s themselves, i n order  to help them solve their own problems and make t h e i r choices and adjustments.  own  I t aids the counsellor i n making a  94  more adequate personal acquaintance with the members of the s t a f f , i t points to the d e s i r a b i l i t y of more frequent contacts with them, and indicates the need f o r a more satisfactory method by which the teacher can report their observations. Finaly, i t increases the counsellor's acquaintance with parents and suggests additional ways of securing t h e i r support. Significance of the Findings f o r the P r i n c i p a l The p r i n c i p a l i s charged with organizing and  super-  v i s i n g c u r r i c u l a r and extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s , organizing classes, assigning teachers, planning the counselling program, maintaining d i s c i p l i n e , and establishing good public relations, to mention only a few of his r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  The findings  of the study have a significant bearing on his duties, since they reveal certain common situations from which student problems arise, 1.  some of these findings are as follow:  That many pupils with low a b i l i t y who  are now forced  to take courses with too much academic content might benefit i f "special" or opportunity classes were established. 2 . That there i s need f o r remedial work with the pupils who  have special d i s a b i l i t i e s , who have not mastered the  fundamental subjects, or who  learn extremely  slowly.  3. That conditions of the school environment might be improved by organizing pupils of low a b i l i t y into small groups, l i m i t i n g the number of "elective" subjects, and reducing the  95  number of special subject teachers who meet these classes. 4. That additional ways of making close contacts with the parents should be considered. 5. That changes in curriculum and school organization which would allow for better provision for individual d i f ferences should be instituted. 6. That measures to establish a follow-up system for pupils withdrawing from junior high school should be undertaken. Significance of the Findings for the Teachers The study suggests ways by which the homeroom and class teacher can make greater contributions to the tory adjustment of the pupils in their care.  satisfac-  These include:  1. Creating and maintaining in the classroom an atmosphere which i s more conducive to the wholesome development of students. 2. Discovering more adequately the needs and capacities of the individual g i r l s . 3. Modifying teaching techniques and subject matter in order to meet the needs and abilities of the students. 4. Teaching more effectively. 5. Observing and recording more adequately the significant data about the pupils. 6. Identifying and referring to the counsellor the stu-  96 dents who need help before their problems have become acute. 7. Consulting with the counsellor more frequently in order to gain information about pupils and to report their needs or their progress. 8. Putting Into operation preventive or remedial work suggested by the counsellor or by the grade adviser. 9. Helping to establish closer relations with the parents of "problem" children. Significance of the Findings for the Parents Some of the findings of this study might have a value for parents in guiding their own children or i n taking part in various community projects for improving the environment of young people. mation available.  The difficulty is to make such infor-  The school makes an effort to establish  relations with parents through certain annual school events such as Mothers' and Daughters' Day, Education Week, special assemblies, and meetings held under the auspices of the parent-Teacher Association, as well as by letters and circulars distributed through the students.  But for the most part the  only real contact between parents and school outside of pupils' report cards are the verbal comments and stories of the pupils themselves.  These suggestions might be of value to parents:  1. That the study of the g i r l ' s aptitudes and abilities be made earlier in her school l i f e by the school staff, and that the results be made available to the parents, in order to help them determine the type of instruction she is to be  97 given p r i o r to coming to junior high school. 2. That no maladjustment i s unimportant, and that earlycare prevents the development of problems, or at least prevents them from becoming serious. 3.  ihat just as teachers should try to understand  the  parents' point of view and t h e i r problems, so should the parents try to understand  the teachers' problems.  4. That the parents should try to work i n closer cooperat i o n with teachers, and should investigate ways i n which closer relations might be established. Conclusion Counselling i n a l l i t s phases i s a complex group of functions, and only by following a counsellor's program for a long time would a l l the various details of i t s a c t i v i t i e s become known.  Moreover, each school develops i t s own program  and plans i t s aims and objectives to s u i t the needs of i t s own pupils.  In general, however, counselling i s the process  of assisting the individual to understand  her assets and her  limitations, of studying her needs and opportunities, and, f i n a l l y , of helping her to make suitable adjustments to the situations and requirements  she must meet.  Under a s a t i s -  factory system of counselling g i r l s are treated with consideration and respect.  They are given opportunities to widen  t h e i r c i r c l e of friends, develop their interests, broaden t h e i r experiences, and assume ever-increasing responsibilitfes.  98 so that when they reach maturity they are prepared to meet the requirements of l i f e .  The study just completed has shown  some of the kinds of problems g i r l s must overcome, and how frequently they occur.  I t may contribute i n some degree to  an increase i n the usefulness of the counselling program at Point Grey Junior High School and i n other junior high schools of similar type.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1.  Abramson, L.  "Counsellor s Ratings of Formative Influences on Vocational Choice, "Journal of Educational Psychology, 35: 559-568.  2.  A l t , Hershell.  "Juvenile Behaviour Problems", Jewish Board of Governors, Social Year Book, 9:261-271, 1947.  3.  A r l i t t , Ada H.  "Adolescent psychology, New York, American Book Company, 1933.  4.  Anfinson, R.D.  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Erickson, C . E .  "Guidance i n secondary Schools", New York, Appleton Century Company, 1939.  32.  Hewlett, i , . E . Jenkins, R.L.  "Fundamental patterns of Maladjustment", Springfield, Michigan Child guidance Institute-', 1946.  33.  Hillerstein, R.  "Fringe on the Bottom", Clearing House, 28:387-391, March, 1946.  34.  Hollingworth, Leta  "The Psychology of the Adolescent", New York, D. Appleton-Century Company, 1934.  35.  Jennings, Carol  "Discipline - i n Reports of 225 High Schools", Clearing House, 23:266-272, January, 1949.  36.  Jones, Arthur, J.  "Principles of Guidance", New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1934. "Principles of Guidance", 1945.  37. 38.  "Juvenile Delinquency"  39.  Katz, Barney  "What Teachers Should Know about Personality Disorders", 61:598-607, June, 1941.  40.  Koos, I. Kefauver, V.  "Guidance in secondary Schoolsn New York, The MacMillan Compahy, 1933.  41.  Laycock, S.R.  "Whales Counselling", The Bulletin, o f f i c i a l publication of the oaskatchewan Teachers, 12:5-9, oeptember, 1945.  Forty-seventh Year Book, Chicago, The University of Chicago press, 1948.  to  42(a)  Laycock, S.R.  "Mental Hygiene i n Education", understanding the c h i l d , 15: 95-98, Oct. 1946.  42(b)  43.  "The Forgotten Years", The Bulletin, o f f i c i a l publication of the Saskatchewan Teachers, 12;5-y, October, ±945.  .Lefever* D.W. Turrell, . M . Weitzel, H . I . A  "Principles and Techniques of Guidance", New York, Ronald Press Company, 1941.  44.  Lewis, Ralph, H.  "Guidance i n Secondary Schools", Toronto, the Ryersoh Press, 1940.  45.  Louttit, C M .  "Clinical Psychology", New York, Harper brothers, 1936. "Clinical psychology of Children's behaviour", 1947.  46. 47.  McKown, H.C.  "Home Room Guidance--, New York, isacGraw-Hill Book Company, 1934.  48.  Marzoff, S. Larsen, A.H.  "Statistical Check List of problem Check Listt Items, Educational Psychological Measurements, 5:285T294, 1945.  49.  Mateer, Florence  "The Unstable Child", New York, D. Afpleton-Centuiry Company, 1924.  50.  Miller, C.G.  "Indicted for Dullness," Educational Research, 62: 383-385, February, 1942.  51.  Mooney, D.L.  "Student problem Check L i s t , " Educational Research, 22: 42-48, February, 1943.  52.  "Exploratory Research on Student problems", Educational Research, 182:218-221, November, 1943.  I -iT'lf-  53.  Morgan, J.B.  "The psychology of the Unadjusted School Child", New York, The MacMillan Company, 1936.  54.  Peller, L . S .  "Significant Symptoms in the Behaviour of Young Children", Mental Hygiene, 30:285-295, 1946.  55.  Pflieger, E . F .  "Pupil Adjustment problems", Journal of Educational Research, 41:265-278, December, 1947..  56.  Pressey, JL. Cole  "Methods of Handling Test Scores", New York, World Book Company, 192 6.  57.  Reavis, W.S.  "Pupil Adjustment i n Junior and Senior High School", Boston, J J . C . Heath and Company, 1926.  58.  Reed, Anna  "Guidance and personnel Service i n Education", New York, Cornell Publishing uompany, 1944.  59.  "Report on Juvenile  60.  Delinquency" Rivlin, H.N.  61.  Schmidt, E . T .  61(a)  Sayles, Mary B.  Welfare Council of Greater Vancouver, May, 1945. "The Classroom Application of Mental Hygiene", New York, D. Appleton-Century Company, 1947. "Learning Difficulty a Symptom", Child Study, 22:104-107, January, 194 5. "The Problem Child In School", New York, Joint Committee of Methods on preventing Delinquency, 1926.  62.  Schnell, D.M.  "Characteristics of Adolescence", Minneapolis, Burgiss Publishing Company, 1946.  63.  Sherman, Mandel  "Mental Hygiene and Education", London, Longmans Green and Company, 1934.  64.  Smith C. Roos, M.  "A Guide to Guidance", New York, prentice Hall Incorp orated, 1941.  65.  Snyder, W.U.  "A Casebook of Non-directive Counselling", New York, Houghton-Mifflin Company, 1947.  66.  atrang, Ruth.  "Counselling Technics in College and Secondary School", New York, Harper and Brothers, 1937.  67.  "Educational Guidance; Its principles and Practice, New York, The MacMillan Company, 1948.  68.  "Personal Development in College and Secondary School", Harper and Brothers, 1934.  69.  ;i  i?upil personnel and Guidance", New York, The MacMillan Company, 1940.  "The Role of the Teacher" in personnel Work, New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, 1935.  70.  71.  "Survey of Group Work and Other Out of School Activities"  Vancouver Council of Social Services, Report, 1939.  72.  Symonds, Percival  "Mental Hygiene of the School Child", New York, The MacMillan Company, 1934.  /Ob  7 3.  Thorn, Douglas A.  "Normal Youth and Its Everyday Problems", New York, D. Appleton-Century Company, 1932.  74.  Touton, F.C. Struthers, A.B.  "The Junior High School" Boston, Ginn and Company, 1926.  75.  Traxler, A.B.  "How to Use Cumulative Records" , Chicago, Science Research Association, 1947. "Techniques of Guidance", New York, Harper and Brothers, 1945.  76.  "The Nature and Use of the Anecdotal Record", New York, Educational Records Bureau, 1941.  77.  78.  Triplett, Norman  "A Study of the Faults of Children", The Pedagogical Seminary, 10:200-238, 1903.  79.  Wallin, W.  "Personality Maladjustments and Mental Hygiene", New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1946.  80.  Warters, Jane  "High School personnel Work To-day", New York, McGrawH i l l Book company, 1946.  81.  Wickman, E.K.  "Children's Behaviour and Teachers' Attitudes", New York, The Commonwealth Fund, 1932.  82.  Williamson, E.G. Hahn, M.E.  "Introduction to High School Counselling", McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1940.  83.  Williamson, E.G.  "How to Counsel students", New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1940.  toy  84.  Zachry, Caroline B. Lightly, Margaret  "Emotion and Conduct in Education", New York, Appleton-oentury-Crofts Incorporated, 1940.  85.  "Some Data on Mental Health problems in Canadian Schools"  "Second Report of .the National Committee for Research" ,• British Columbia schools, 3:5-8, May, 1949.  1.  Enrolment Form  EKROIi-EKT FORM 7^ / ^ ^ f Grade  Date  1. Name i n f u l l (Surnamo f i r s t )  Class  yj>»—^£>£  y  SOO  Homo Room Ho,  <?*~^LaUje-**5 . Telephone)' _  Address  4, I f yon do not l i v e w i t h your parents a t the above address, please stato circumstancos.  5. Dete of B i r t h  ^.^^  6  » Present age  7. BOY or GIRI, (Endorlino) 8. School attendod l a s t yoar 9. Last year's c l a s s i f a t Point Grey Junior High School. 10. Havo you boon, vacclnatod? YES_ or HO 12. Paront or guardian. (Surname l a s t ) 13. R a t i o n a l i t y  o f Paront %i^~e^L^£--  (Underline)  j^T^a  . 9r).  yoars  months.  Cf p w ^ > S S ^ ^ S ^ L ^ Class Number 11, TJhon?  S  &  >^•  , , , , ~~*  /9V*/  A?. 9KJ&*Z. / t ^ r v ^  C^-^cyL<Sa^j  ?n~  . <f. **i~->~^c£  14. Occupation, Trade or L-rofession of Parent 15. Place of Employment of Parent C^Q7*u-&>\J d P.G.J.H.S.  2. Perm^Ttant Record (Department of. Education) RECORD Lp^ja^. '  NAME  PUPIL'S No.  DAY  f E N T E ROF E D BlfWH FROM DATE  SCHOOL  SEX  pa.  CUCt—cJ*.  MONTH  DATE  DATE  . S C H O O L ORIGIN (CHINESE. ITALIAN, E N T E R E ETC. D RACIAL )F R O M  y  /  rf.fi/.  e 48 43 A A A A c 43 <3  LJ  LANGUAGE  Q  READING - ORAL SILENT  £ r  0 c  SPELLING WRITING STUDIES  <? e  o r>r  y4  «_+  V—  SCIENCE ARITHMETIC  C u  a  PRACTICAL ARTS  I  -  MUSIC GRAPHIC ARTS  c  c  TESTS  NAM E OF TEST DATE SCORE M. • <?-,A/I. r. //•  S~  PHYSICAL EDUC.  SOCIAL  i i. t i>D AhT E .  W  INTELLIGENCE  w  GRADE  HEALTH  READING  /E*~C^jC  YEAR  f f  .tOry,  SUBJECTS  ELEMENTARY GRADES I TO 6 OR 8 * GIVEN ^ JJ  FAMILY  1. o.  A.  7 /a. a  r**  ACHIEVEMENT  TESTS  NAME OF TEST DATE SCORE NORM. _/> >, •},  v_  £  * -r— y)  it*!*.  Q.  fir.*  CI 12?  6  3  _  -  TIMES LATE  •3  TIMES ABSENT TEACHER'S INITIALS  —  —  | Letter Grade: Rating in Subject as follows:— \ 5% of pupils in grade C — awarded Next 15% of pupils in grade 120% " " " D " " 20% " » " 15% » * » E " Lowest 5% * * " 120% " " " (approximate percentages).  PERMANENT  —  •3  /o  j  S  «  *  S  5  +  •4 H O O  SECONDARY FAMILY  NAME ADDRESS  rr,^  ^  L  V  SCHOOL  ff^C^  RACIAL ORIGIN  -  PARENT OR GUARDIAN  tfjjO^j-  r  RECORD Jo/JLJ*-^  PLACE OF BIRTH  l>. J~~*~  OCCUPATION  £U +^.^«f C  PHONE/  ,  ^  ?  , „  SCHOOL, CITIZENSHIP, ETC.  NAME OF HIGH  OR JUNIOR  HIGH  NAME  OF  PRINCIPAL  DATE  OF  WITHDRAWAL  ouKi/o^ /  /?"* V  R E A S O N  g  g  2. ^'^ia.J-fe  L^^>, GRADE V l l  SUBJECTS  T. CR. ENGLISH SOCIAL STUDIES HEALTH PHYSICAL EDUC. MATHEMATICS GENERAL SCIENCE LATIN FRENCH HOME ECONOMICS INDUSTRIAL ARTS MUSIC ART TYPEWRITING SHORTHAND JUNIOR BUSINESS  c  19  - »  TO 19  FINAL R CR.  AJ " A- <3 / C 2, * <—.r G 3 ,4-  A '  3  4?  *j  PERMANENT  19  1ST TERM T. CR C P R  ENGLISH SOCIAL STUDIES HEALTH PHYSICAL EDUC. MATHEMATICS GENERAL SCIENCE PHYSICAL SCIENCE BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS AGRICULTURE LATIN FRENCH HOME ECONOMICS WOODWORK METAL WORK DRAWING ELECTRICITY FARM MECHANICS MUSIC ART TYPEWRITING SHORTHAND SECRETARIAL PRAC. CLERICAL PRAC. BOOKKEEPING BUS. ENGLISH GEN. BUS. LAW  TIMES LATE TIMES ABSENT TOT. YEARS CR. NAME  -v<-^.' . . v -,-,;^4, GRADE  C  19  1ST TERM p  FINAL R CR.  FINAL R CR.  R  f,'/_  *  0  c  c  —  r+-  A  c  19  1ST TERM p  /Ti" J A  £'*  ,v: it,-r /(•*  GRADE  A-  c  1  TO 19  .TO 1 9 —  /ZT  -3  rr  R  <i <_:  <-  TO 19  A 8 A  t.  CI  c  19  1ST TERM p R  TO 19  FINAL R CR.  C  19  1ST TERM P  R  H  TO 19  FINAL R CR.  TOT. CR.  /  f  t>'  rrf-  0  «  JUNIOR & SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS GRADE  ....... J l _ » .  GRADE  FINAL R CR.  a  o  RECORD  GRADE X  PUPILS NO.  > , „..,..„.,,  1ST TERM p R  TIMES LATE TIMES ABSENT TOT YEARS CR.  SUBJECTS  Permftnant Record (Department og Education)  GRADE c  19  1ST TERM p  R  TO 19  FINAL R CR.  GRADES 7, 8, 9 ABOVE G R A D E S l O . 11, 12 B E L O W GRADE  19  1ST TERM C P R  TO 19  FINAL R CR.  TOT. CR.  3 e PjLlrilggl Data  Name  L{  ULC  /  Address  * ,. ^  Schools attended  <£*4~L-4*rr  Present grade... *  Date of birth: *  Day Day Mi Mo  Grades repeated  Absences: Extent of ..Ccrl/r^A^—e*~ Reasons  Yr  Date offirstentering any school Qte^a^err^j  Q**-*^^*-  Bureau ofTIeasurenien Referred to: Metropolitan Health CI jK9.dh...x!e ^.Msf.f.. . r  *&\^?-*r-«-  a-^nr-4~..... &UL*p_  f  mCf  No. of grades accelerated  Q...CX m tj&...jLL.  ^....<&.r...&.j.£^ ior...il^M.>.%^^.M..'^^... ...,*»^^-. ~&?*m<a\*v<*~'..*.^^'-ct.t.t «i? J  Standing this term with comments about achievement in earlier grades... °  /  ' yr. yJ^LfTHrr^. &C~-&r*~*~>' '..••^..«^....,....llid^l__<aL-^Ca.  1...,  <2s\..»-rf.*„. Sfe£..r- .  a~^£& Special abilities Special disabilities «i^l-^it<>rrru- giVrvr Q^M.£..r£.Q..».ia...9lf3...M*.B..~ ...„& - c « n i i . Interests or hobbies ^La...t.^.f^....4**jrrXrt><&-'. .fa*^^!c^^^...ai»t^,i_ m * r*r-£***..* y  Date School  >  <^^o^V !L«^!...)3.y.../...?...fc...^!...  m  .Y...:.r+ry*t  leacher's Signature  1  (7?.a-.  i  V.S.B.—B.M.409 5M-1046J-42  Principal's Initials..  DATA FOR CLINIC.  (OVER)  III  \  3.  CllnjsRl  Data  Date and results of intelligence tests.../1/...X'.-. t3./^-^f 9—...2/.^.3*..:.. Standardized achievement tests A 31 .?...«...<£?... 6Lvd. & • jO^rtr^^^ .<&z\-m\..*s^.m... %ao Attitude toward authority..  Participation in activities of own age group J.C^1.IP..,.*.C> .^^^r^^d^  #.C«...^..^....0.~«>1.^^  y» .n«i>i^fi5..»i....?*^.  .JL*£.. c~JLs^&*s* Reaction to success and failure ...S«<,.«. fl...4?s>. ..-.jTkmesdLfa.  <9S-*T..  .<>»«•..«»,,••,  .^^^^tA-^.....^^.  .,^^..fc.oj....»»...(r^g. ~^Lr>*  a. Difliculties in behaviour £***»-»rt*?«-*rJ»r^^ < ^ ^ u ^ >  f  *  -^r-  KL.  (Z<\-^^<<<^~-^^^>-&& £>l^,«,,^^....<^1^,iiui..l>fid  a*r^z^-j**  (2&>~r^^~&.<»rrf^»r^'....gfc..f..i ». ?£2. ,  .^afia^  Problem from teacher's point of view.. Attitude of parents toward situation.  .^..•..."•^«.....«!. <C<*«0r**.:..  ;.WJM«..«.,,^3^MAB-6  Ill \  h.  Report of Individual Intelligence Tests SCHOOL<£m~*t-  PUPIL EXAMINED AGE  TR.  *&f>£  &  RECOMMENDATION  IV  GRADE /&• TEACHER ^ -*-»° t  PUPIL'S BIRTH DATE.  REFERENCE  STANFORD REVISION MO. MENTAL AGE OF BBET-SIMON  REMARKS (//or, e I/in*)  <&4cA*+4»'  TR.  ). BASAL  I.Q.  ^TK^GC  5. Secondary School Report Form VANCOUVER SCHOOL BOARD SECONDARY SCHOOLS REPORT FORM  C#k-^i2^__..„  Class No,  Enrolled i n G r  ..High School  COURSE FIRST SFCOND THIRD FINAL IS NUMBERREPORT REPORT REPORT GRADE CR EDT Work Habits  *Sae« o 1  "ZT a.  <2  A—  C2  A-  d  cz> M y *— 77." 3 ..a c*. Work Habits  Sftici<<3  a 7T  do  A—  z>  .<&....  ^_  M  ^  Work Habits  '% T  Work Habits  _  7T<i.  .....a.  Work Habits  Work Habits  fr  —  C i t i z e n s h i p — C o n d u c t , co-operation, dependability, manners, sportsmanship. Preserve this report. A t the end of the year it will be useful for reference as to credits when considering school graduation which requires 112 credits, earned at the approximate rate of 28 credits per year.  s  Attendance  Pays Absent Parents' Signatures:  l.  Work Habits  2.  Citizenship Home Study (Daily Average)  U  W o r k H a b i t s — N e a t n e s s of work; promptness in the preparation of work; care with personal and school equipment and property; tidiness of books, lockers, work-benches, desks, etc.  Times Tardy  C—  SYMBOLS  A c h i e v e m e n t — A = Outstanding; B = Very Good; C = Average; D = Dangerously Low; E = Probable Failure.  C-.  —, '  £)  A/  OF LETTERS AND  A c h i e v e m e n t — A c q u i r i n g skills, understanding and knowing essential facts or details of a subject, and the applying of principles therein contained.  Q<pi- ~Sa; & I c <s o- Z> Z) z> (a •JSI Work Habits  INTERPRETATION  W o r k H a b i t s a n d C i t i z e n s h i p — S = Superior; V= Satisfactory; N = Unsatisfactory.  Work Habits  Work Habits  '  t  Home Room Teacher.  Subject  194  Vancouver Secondary Schools Report to Parents ____ ._. 194  /¥•  Total Credits  V  Sept.  Nov.  Feb.  May  Oct.  Jan.  April  June  3  3  a  o <$- 6  Y- 7  Principal's Signature.  '  16M-2538N-47  REPORTS TO PARENTS P A R E N T S should commend successful pupils. Encouragement should be of a constructive nature. Every pupil has home-work, especially when his report is unsatisfactory. Parents should make a study of school reports so that they may assist the pupils in choosing the courses best suited to them. E D U C A T I O N P R O V I D E S an opportunity to acquire knowledge, habits, and skills, and to develop traits, attitudes, and ideals that will enable the pupil to live usefully and happily. Close co-operation between the home and the school will aid in achieving this aim. R E G U L A R A T T E N D A N C E is essential to satisfactory progress. The loss of a day causes difficulty in following the work of the next day. One of the first signs of delinquency is irregular school attendance. When a pupil returns to school after having been absent, he must present a note from his parents giving the reason for his absence. W I T H D R A W A L — I t is in the interest of both pupil and school that, in case of withdrawal, parents should either see the principal or communicate with him. NOTE:  This is not an official transcript of credit. TEACHERS' REMARKS  FIRST R E P O R T  SECOND  REPORT  T H I R D REPORT.  D I S P O S A L IN J U N E  6. Pupil's Permanent Record (Point Grey Junior High School)  PUPIL'S  PERMANENT  RECORD  POINT  GREY  ADDRESS  PLACE D A Y  /  D A T E  O F  HIGH  S C H O O L  PHONE  NAME  SEX  JUNIOR  ^  "  l *l  A C T I V I T I E S  S P E C I A L  A P T I T U D E  O F  DATE  <2^)/ .  E N T R Y  S C H O O L  E V I D E N C E  G  fit .Pi  .  .  BIRTH  RACIAL  C  i~  ,  ORIGIN  ( C H . N E S I .  &.  <'  r-  r—i'  S  <J  *}  G R . Vll  /  f~>  W I T H D R A W A L  Jon  •?  ILj  VY  G « .  *S  re C-frc TT  Latin French Home Economics Industrial Arts  " - ^ >  CL,  19  —  _  i/  T O  G R .  18  -nr  &  c  7  -JLL  7TT TTT V7~  a  '/f<£f<&r<?<£  *Z s~ 1 a s\ -  'JT 3-L  77L~.  Cat-  3L.  Junior Business  Times.Late Times Absent  -  REMARKS:  cLjfciB*^'» t-y C L . PQTb * ? 1 9  Physical Educ. Mathematics General Science  Rating A . B . C . D . E  -  Z»""  English Social Studies Health  Music Art Typewriting  ETC.)  f}  G R A D E VII  SUBJECTS  I T A L I A N  sy  G R . l " "  C I T I Z E N S H I P  OF  Y E A R  «T/» t O 1 /SC. <f C1u i> -- T~r-*ff'*<~ CHe***J M**;/-as- ') ,.o./t/r.T ya v. cf . /= 'i f /• & A. £E* ITC£*-C ran + h<3 A «/ /s\ A s\ i ia"-— c fp / c<?'-Or •  ^fy-FROM  A/  L E A D E R S H I P  O F BIRTH  M O N T H  3  r AT  33 TI  X3 Q-  7, Confidential Report Forms Form A.  Point Grey Junior High School Confidential Report to the Office  Pupil f^ft^f^rr,.  ?S^7..  Class  Date. /**7 3  . ^ r r ^ ^ . r f ^ . ^  Ability Effort • Results  T?^^.'fYCtw^r.tTT^Tf^TTT?,T'"/?f"T*'l ^TTTf.  Attitude A&pt. General Comments x3«~£«^>».  .-irFtt-.cFft'  (Comments favourable as well as ^ _ unfavourable) r  Teacher •  Form B.  Subject  Point Grey Junior High School Confidential Report to the Office  p u p i l . ^ t ? 7 ^ f r r r 7 . fffTrr....  class  ^ 4 • ••i•<• • • • • * Date i/c* 1>C • • •  olmy_  f  •i  C^£-4-*  -£*f>tr  Teacher  Subject  VII  ,  8, School Health Record H.-II2;—- M. GIRLS  METROPOLITAN H E A L T H COMMITTEE SCHOOL HEALTH RECORD  Name.. Qhc-k  £>..*. S U R N A M E  A,.L,  Name of Parent....  .<l..Q...JQc  G I V E N  Date of Birth.i  Place of Birth.'.  N A M E  ...Q...r..o..w....n  Racial Origin: M.j  Occupation of Parent  . . . W . . ' .  No. of Children in Family..  JL  HISTORY: GIVE DATES Chpx.|.fl-.T>..5U.  Diph  ~Z~Z~?.  Typh. Fev Tuberculosis T E S T S AND  Wh.  .rrrr.  Rubella.-i.^-jf.-t  zrrr.  Measles../..*?.^..^.  Mumps  Cough—TTTTt  Chorea.-Tr^rr.  Rheumatism....rrni  Tuberculosis in Family....rrrrr.  Other Diseases  Neg  Pos  Diph. Toxoid  Dick:  Neg  Pos  Sc. Fever T o x i n (Series)  C. Vacc. (Series)  Reinf. Dose  Typhoid Vaccine  _  Tuberculin Test  Neg  Y E A R  %.L* rf-h^  Smpx..—. :  Pneumonia....TT  -rrrr.  3  (Series)  Smpx. V a c c :  Tetanus Toxoid Pos  u>-  a. L  Q^c/Wg...  3 * - u>, 3 2 .^-..a  8Pot  o  h  Smpx. Re. Vacc  Result:  ',.  i  Reinf. Dose  Others:  Chest X-ray  3^1?^  k.^cheie^.  Reinf. Dose..—  Prim. Take  A D D R E S S  2. fj'+l fafi^tlLJU; 1.  _  S C H O O L  U r i M l *  Pleurisy"  !  I M M U N I Z A T I O N S : DATES COMPLETED  Schick:  Wh.  Sc. Fev  C*-  VIII  T E L E P H O N E  &l.d±.£.L<*...  ft s  i>  %  X  1  t  i X  >  X  I Fl >  PHY. EO.  PHY.STAT.  BEHAV.  AD DOM.  HEART  LUNGS  THY.  CERV.  TONS.  TONSILS  GUMS  TEETH  NOSE  SKIN  POSTURE  EARS  r~ 70  73  EYES  0 z  r~  -  AVER.WT. < 5  ^.  0-  WEIGHT  HEIGHT  AGE  3J  »  Sj  OQ  GRADE  s-  OS °v  * ft-  ,  -  *  V)  &  No  GLANDS  TJ IOI • B -< Z »  >  m  3  *  •v..  «*  Mo. Dv. YD.  Co  ^  •* DATE EXAMINER  3.  <D O O  P>  gl <D  H  o g* o ,  CO  CO  9. Pupil's Attendance Record Card No.  19-**- • 19-«fc TwT. F MT\V T F MTWT F MTWT F M|T|\V| T| l'| SEPTEMBER M> * • OCTOBER / NOVEMBER X DECEMBER X • JANUARY • >< / FEBRUARY =1 MARCH X • •N • APRIL • K * MAY 2 • * 1111 = / JUNE  •  19 «*- - 19-*9 T F MTwT F MTwT F MTwT F MTWT F SEPTEMBER Ml Tl W 0 • •• • • OCTOBER / . J« NOVEMBER • * • DECEMBER * * > JANUARY # r— >FEBRUARY / A MARCH • X. APRIL •A MAY • /; JUNE 198°./ • i9^r" SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER JANUARY " FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL MAY" JUNE  Pupil's Attendance Record  Gr 7  Name  F ^ i /  ^ I I  Address.  Christia^f Name  (Write with pencil)  Parent F-T-  1% Gr 8  Tel.  flileo  Date of Birth  Name and Class No of brothers or sisters in this school  Record of Telephone Calls re Attendance  3  / 7 £ . T « £ / . rc ,o res•  ._  IX  Class N o . J & £  Occ  k>/  A*cf *><?/» •  10. Pupil's Daily Schedule  Name amily Name  Pgbf  kc ta» -  Address. Phone..  A eJbky Given Na am me e Given N w i.'.i-.si  flnne.  Date of Birth..*  Teacher  s.s.  Room Subject  Q  T  < U  Ul _i 3 Q U  I U U)  W  T  >Q  tn j E D  0.  Teacher Subject  3oq  Teacher  as.  Subject  Zoo,  Teacher  Sc.  Room  F  P.  Math  Room  Last Year's Class XA/Jthfifi  Day 1  Sc.  RE.  Day 2  3i3 c  o rrv  Day 3  SS. c . ft'.  SS.  Art 3CTC)  Teacher  P.E  Sc.  S.-1005 V.S.B. 15M -2103K-44  JftSS  -  Lib.  3/3  Subject  A t school  6..Q.JL/.  3i3  Subject  Room  lb  Locker  P.  Pi. io a: - to^f  Bud.  Teacher  (VO.  Class  loa.  firfc  IB. H..  Occupation-.....Jpt0LU..S.<a«  End  Room  Subject  <  16  '311  Room  8  Parent's  PP.  Hiss  Pupil lunches at home Grade  Parent's Name. .  M  Roii T e a ^ r  P»\ 18  Day 4  a ox  Day  P-ft.  5  Day 3iH-  6  -3V3  Patricia  C l a s s 16  1 1 , Interview Form  INTERVIEW PUPIL  DATE  SUBJECT: ACTION: ZT.  CP. //'*.  ^M^U  XI  12. Detention Record  DETENTION RECORD  NAME . ^ z c T f r t V ' . . &fr?rfr&yr. CLASS  DATE J 2 ^ » M \  tardiness ATTENDANCE  no note irregularities  CORRIDORS MISCELLANEOUS R o l l Teacher: Record i n Class Register and return to the o f f i c e f o r f i l i n g . Person Assigning Detention Detention Supervisor  XII  13. C i r c u l a r  R e g a r d i n g Courses  POINT GREY JUNIOR H I G H S C H O O L VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA, (TWENTIETH YEAR)  XIII  CANADA  1949-50  13. C i r c u l a r Regarding Courses  E l e c t i v e subjects i n Grades V I I I a n d I X include M u s i c , A r t , F r e n c h , L a t i n , T y p i n g , a n d J u n i o r Business. P r a c t i c a l A r t s is also elective i n Grade I X .  POINT G R E Y JUNIOR  EDUCATIONAL  HIGH SCHOOL  GUIDANCE  T h e grouping of the elective subjects determines the course to be studied. F o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e convenience the table on page four classifies the most c o m m o n l y selected groupings, thus enabling the p u p i l to choose a course b y a number. Changes f r o m these courses depend upon the finally constructed schedule or time table a n d m a y be requested after school opens i n September.  1 9 4 9 - 5 0  B  O Y S a n d girls who enter Grade V I I i n the J u n i o r H i g h School are faced with an adjustment to new experiences, studies and the new school. Because i t is an adjustment year, they a l l study the same subjects. Their guidance a n d home room programme assists i n their adjustment.  In Grades V I I I and I X , a variety of courses offers the child a field of exploration i n which he m a y discover his aptitudes a n d proceed to further study and practice. T h e constants or c o m p u l sory subjects provide a common denominator of h u m a n experience and the elective subjects provide scope for the i n d i v i d u a l differences of this age group. W i t h such a curriculum and a balanced programme of p u p i l activities, the Junior H i g h School can be said to p r o v i d e for desirable habit formation, social adjustment, and a better,, understanding of, a n d use for, subject matter. A l l J u n i o r H i g h School pupils should k n o w that credits are awarded.for successful completion of prescribed courses beyond the Grade V I I I level. A t least one hundred twelve credits are required for H i g h School Graduation which admits students to U n i v e r s i t y provided that University requirements have been met. A t the J u n i o r H i g h School level, F r e n c h a n d , or L a t i n m a y be commenced i n anticipation of U n i v e r s i t y E n t r a n c e requirements. C o m p u l s o r y subjects i n all- grades include E n g l i s h , Social Studies, H e a l t h , Physical E d u c a t i o n , M a t h e m a t i c s , General Science, L i b r a r y , and Guidance. P r a c t i c a l A r t s is compulsory i n Grades V I I and V I I I , and A r t a n d M u s i c i n Grade V I I o n l y .  IMPORTANT  INFORMATION  U n i v e r s i t y E n t r a n c e requires at least fifteen credits i n one foreign language. M o s t professions require U n i v e r s i t y E n t r a n c e regardless of later requirements. M u s i c credits m a y be gained b y private study a n d applied u p o n school totals if i n accord w i t h D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n standards. C h o r a l W o r k and an Orchestra will be organized after school opens. P u p i l s desiring t w o languages will commence one language i n G r a d e V I I I and m a y add a second one i n Grade I X , b u t w i l l be unable to carry other electives owing to time required for the languages. P u p i l s for Prince of Wales H i g h School will complete Grade V I I I at P o i n t G r e y b u t m a y proceed to Prince of Wales for G r a d e I X , except i n cases where the desired course is not a v a i l able at Prince of Wales H i g h School. L o r d B y n g , Magee, K i t s i l a n o H i g h Schools will accept P o i n t G r e y pupils i n G r a d e X o n l y . Grade X pupils l i v i n g n o r t h of 33rd A v e . , between the West B o u l e v a r d a n d B a l a c l a v a Street will enrol for K i t s i l a n o . Those l i v i n g west of B a l a c l a v a Street and n o r t h of 41st A v e . will enrol for L o r d B y n g , while the remainder w i l l enrol for M a g e e .  XIII  TABLE OF COURSES Grade VIII  Grade V I I CONSTANTS, a n d - f 1. (No electives)  Grade I X CONSTANTS, a n d —  CONSTANTS, a n d — ; " 1. Art, Junior Business and Typing.. 2. Music, Junior Business and T y p i n g .  Above courses lead Courses below lead  -  to High School Graduation—to trades, Entrance—to professions to University  3. 4. 5'. 6. 7. 8.  9. A r t , T y p i n g and L a t i n 10. Music, T y p i n g and L a t i n 11. Junior Business, T y p i n g , and L a t i n '  ' •  •  A r t and Practical Arts Junior Business and Practical Arts T y p i n g and Practical Arts Junior Business and T y p i n g  work, apprenticeship clerical and commercial and sj>eciali2ed occupational fields requiring  A r t , Junior Business and French A r t , Music and French A r t , T y p i n g and French Junior Business, T y p i n g , French Music, Junior Business and French Music, T y p i n g and French  '.  1. 2. 3. 4.  •  Credits 33 33 33 33  and home service. University work.  -5. 6. 7. 8.  Art, French and Latin Music, French and Latin Practical Arts, French and Latin Typing, French and Latin  38 38 38 38  9. 10. 11. 12. 13.  A r t and French Junior Business and French Music and French . Practical Arts and French T y p i n g and French  33 33 33 33 33  14. A r t and L a t i n 15. Practical Arts and L a t i n 16. T y p i n g and Latin  33 33 33  17., Beginners' French and P . A . i 8 . Beginners' L a t i n and P . A .  33 33  '  14. Choice of Course Card  CHOICE  OF COURSE  /Ivrfity  &<?..Q*.s.<e  ..  (Christian Name)  yr  (Surna;.n*)  FOR GRADE  (Please use ink)  '..yrs.  Class./?'  . Phone..  (Address)  Age  IX  ..mos.  1st Choice, Course No..  T  2nd Choice, Course No Feb. Grade  Awards £>..'/Z&t  >../?'  April Grade  (Signatures of Parents)  15. Administration S l i p S-102S 100M-8913R-49  V.S.B.  ADMINISTRATION  •jr Pupil's Name  Class  -To O f f i c e  Period  VANCOUVER SCHOOL BOARD  SLIP  Tardy  *—  V Date Dntp Time of Issue  —Emergency  _To Room .To Library  Early Dismissal  T o Counsellor  -Lunch T i m e Permit  _To Locker N o .  -Excused at O f f i c e — M e d . R m .  _To Rest Room  -Excused from P h . E d .  -To M e d i c a l Dept.  .Excused for Service <—  -Note:  -Report A f t e r School  No  Yes  "TEACHER'S  XIV  NAME  16.  Questionnaire  ( Counsellor's Information  )  FOIKT GREY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL COUNSELLOR'S INPORMHTION MdJ-  D a t e  Class  ^  ,  Gr, 1  13 Gr, 8  , 'Gr. 9  Out o f School A c t i v i t i e s Do you attend Church?  /^d  Sunday School?  7/j/«£'-sp'i  (/n>"t^.^  ?o what club or s o c i e t i e s do you belong? (1) CT* £  (2) 7 ^ ^ -  2>AV  h+e>-s  7  4  C'CtT'.T'  (3)  (4)  -  ,  Y/hat executive o f f i c e , i f any, do you hold? What games do you play? (l)  3/ieerbx,//  (2) Space*-  (5) 34S>Ar<<rt  H  What lessons (such as music, skating) do you take outside of school? P/<ano • C— O1 g  H w much time per day do you p r a c t i s e ? 0  Mention any awards you have won,  Qrtj-d  c-  f) oO  V- ^ A l o 1  _* / c-  2> ip/_>/»?  n  In School A c t i v i t i e s To  what service group do you belong? "Gti  7_%g_?  r a o a n  M a n -  /o*- Gr, 8 t-osr^nei FaoW/*W/aftr  .9  On what class teams do you play?  vSo <= _•_=""  Gr. 7  lf.il*  Gr, B & c C f ^  /f *//  i / . B + H j  Gr. 9  IVhat school clubs have you joined? Gr.  1  ITXJocii*  C/u k  JV.  Gr. 8 >2>^o-. ;  Cfu  A _V. Gr. 9  ;  :  I f you have taken part i n any school show, assembly, or concert, state what you have done, ~~T~*t /_? 1 ~f Sh o <J fAs ' fid. Oi«;^er^' (1) - ^ ^ c c ^ (2) T>«n<z«Z* (3) itfame any o f f i c e i n c o u n c i l or club t h a t you have h e l d . What awards or prizes have you won a t Point Grey? Gr.  T  Gr.  8  P a * / c / / *  ,->•/• SW//  Trophy  XV  Gr.  9  17.  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f -Persona-' H l g i o f ^ R e c o - r ^ " ) POINT GREY JUHIOR HIGH SCHOOL PERSONAL HISTORY RECORD  3 ^  C l a s s  J3,  f  Gr. 7  Gr. 8  Gr. 9  Date  J&^£^-~eiS±<r*J ^\  Nans  Date o f B i r t h  Address  Telephone No.  x£Le-<?^sf^e_  FATHER'S Hame Occupation  _  7°r> s + O f f/'c  MOTHER'S Name (before marriage) Qr-£<an Occupation (before marriage) C*^ nc^s-j-  g  Occupation Now / i c o s ^  Country, of B i r t h  Country of B i r t h Step-parent, or Guardian (underline)  Brothers (give ages)s  _ 2  Schlools Attended (what grade?):  ( l ) Oto r  . T T Or ~i  y p > n  <£ en g  tK"  h /? - Or-.  I—  I< - L / A ^ c o v e ^ -  ^ o j h  ^  33 — (o  9  Vocational Plans:  Gr. 7Cs>* c g ^ - V /?wi,ygr. 8 T Hu<\i<3  Strong Subjects:  Gr. 7 (1)S. Siudies.r r.  >  (2) & n jlfsfi  E C.  Secy  &r.-9 Lr>rd Gr. 9  8 (1 ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ £ _ _ _ _ _ G r .  r  Gr. 7 ( l )  <j r a n d  y  Educational P l a n s : Gr. 7 r^h^i c A - O^S. Gr. 8 Fr. f±. Ere. ~Fyf>  iYeak Subjects:  —  Others:  A^}/^ o /  (-2) L Q r <J  <Jy.  F-i u c  S i s t e r s (give ages):  Mrs  /'.. «a >n / _,~f~  t^i' J? <? — S #1A?-  Occupation  (f~ d u /•"""")  ucher R e l a t i v e s (state r e l a t i o n s h i p ) :  ^  O/* n n c/  __  Number o f persons i n your household  Tfn  <S  .  (2)  g  n  Gr. 8 ( l ) / f •  (2)  h'S A .  .  (2) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  XVI  9  (l)__ (?)  Gr. 9 ( l ) (2)  13y n <=> • M•  -18.  Form L e t t e r A ( R e g a r d i n g S c h o o l Work ) POBTT GREY JTJMIOR HIGH SCHOOL  37th and East Boulevard Vancouver, B, C  #  /fffclo.  Dear  of class interviewed regarding 7^£^ '~£-~o~*4s}u/  has been  grade standing and has been advised t o spend at loast d a i l y i n hone work.  Regular home work assignments are not always given each day bu*b every c h i l d should review at home the work of the day.  There i s such homo wwk  each day f o r f i v e or s i x period subjects and sono home work on alternate days f o r three period subjects* DAILY SUBJECTS  '  THREE PERIOD SUBJECTS  English Mathematics S o c i a l Studies  General Science Commercial French Latin  REMARKSs  Parent's Signature  XVII  19.  Form L e t t e r B ( R e g a r d i n g S c h o o l Work ) POBIT GREY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 37th and East Boulevard Vancouver, B, C« Date  Dear This l e t t e r w i l l draw your a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t that  ^^-^^rr^t^-c_~^--  C±$y^0^h~  of c l a s s  ^  has again been interviewed regarding v^g-i-f grado standing. grades t h i s year have been  »  -Z? ,  |  » The  neoessity f o r concentrated systematic homo study, as w e l l as increased e f f o r t i n c l a s s , i s obvious. A marked improvement i s nooossary i n order t o insuro promotion t o a higher grado.  Parent's Signature  XVIII  SO. Absentees at R o l l  Call  120M-8916R-49.  A&§@nf@es at R©§l Gall SECONDARY SCHOOILS  Class No. —J-  Date / ^ ^  A  Day H. R.  Period  >  T o a r - W ^J-  B  '  r  ^- •  ^Z.&jZ^W*-'  r *' if  Subject Teacher . This form is to be^sent to the office after roll call. Please show tardies during roll call.  21• Report on I r r e g u l a r Attendance —--=r y gg  S-1027 7M-1568G-40  VANCOUVER SCHOOL BOARD  Report on Irregular Attendance  , who was present last period, is absent from Room at  .44  Class.. .».TT  Vr. X. ../.  period.  ——. '.. .Teacher. This form is to be sent to the office as soon as the pupil's absence is established. Please mark the pupil absent on the time sheet. ;  22, Class Daily Attendance Sheet  V.S.B.-  S-1020 95M-8908R-49  Class Doily Attendance Sheet High, Junior Hiofc. " a t o o n  Class.. PERIODS  Date./3.#.C.-....3,. NAME ^.r...<f...:  Doy—s4."  4  Roll Call  Teacher No. Enrolled  38-  3?~  No. Present  3r 3<¥-- 3 ? J£l 3^' via 3S-  ABSENTEES  a. CL  <5_  REMARKS  _f_?_!!!l__^  s.s\  „?.  j£.m..$.±..-..  CITIZENSHIP  1  XX  Vancc  ^  r  Sch001 rd  23.  Form L e t t e r C ( R e g a r d i n g Absences )  POINT GREY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL  is*?  /^>i>t> . C3^L&~C<J->^>  Dear  ^^£^  J  of olass  /&^0-**r>-s  at t h i s school has been absent f o r  <3  sohool days.  We would appreciate advioe from you by note, personal v i s i t or telephone c a l l as t o the oause o f t h i s absence and the probable d u r a t i o n o f same. Yours s i n c e r e l y .  Telephone ~Karr»  XXI  /<o  

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