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A critical evaluation of the Bell adjustment inventory : Student form Jones, Elvet Glyn 1949

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A CRITICAL EVALUATION  OF THE BELL ADJUSTMENT  INVENTORY:  STUDENT FORM  By  Elvet A Thesis Submitted  G l y n Jones in Partial  Fulfilment  of  The R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF ARTS In t h e Department of PSYCHOLOGY  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H O c t o b e r 1949  COLUMBIA  ABSTRACT OF  THESIS  A C R I T I C A L EVALUATION OF THE BELL ADJUSTMENT STUDENT FORM  INVENTORY:  by  B l v e t Glyn Jones  Abstract  of Thesis Submitted  fillment  ia P a r t i a l  o f t h e Requirements f o r the  Degree o f  MASTER  OF AR2S  In t h e Department of PSYCHOLOGY  PHE UNIVERSITY OP B R I T I S H  4  O c t o b e r 1949  COLUMBIA  Ful-  ABSTRACT OF  THESIS  A C R I T I C A L EVALUATION OF THE B E L L ADJUSTMENT INVENTORY?  During the course of t h i s to establish ity  evidence concerning the r e l i a b i l i t y  of t h e f o u r a d j u s t m e n t  Student tions  The  and  made  valid-  included within  Inventory,.  The f o u r  the  aubsec* Ad-  Emotional Adjustment* total  sample  used, in, t h i a , s t u d y c o n s i s t e d  g r a d e t w e l v e b o y e a n d 104  Kitsilano  was  Hone A d j u s t m e n t ; H e a l t h Adjustment,;. S o c i a l  justment ; and  103  subsections  Form o f t h e A d j u s t m e n t  are?  study, an attempt  grade twelve g i r l s from  of the  J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , Vancouver., B r i t i s h  Col-  umbia. Within the l i m i t a t i o n s f i n d i n g s may 1*  be  Certain  stated as  of t h e s t u d y , the  salient  follows:  of the subsections y i e l d e d  distributions  f o r the samples  u s e d t h a t d i v e r g e d G i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m norm*  ality  f r o m an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f s c o r e s a t t h e  resulting  a d j u s t e d end o f t h e 2,  Significant  scale. sex d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t h e s c o r e s  t h e boy8 a n d g i r l s w e r e o b t a i n e d i n t h e c a s e o f t h e al  s e c t i o n and t h e S o c i a l 3*  Statistical  s t u d y and t h e o r i g i n a l  of  Emotion-  section.  s i g n i f i c a n c e b e t w e e n mean s c o r e s  o b t a i n e d f o r t h e sample  boys  well-  of g r a d e t w e l v e boys standardization  used  sample  was  in this  of high  school  ( s e l e c t e d from a l l g r a d e s ) i n t h e c a s e of t h e H e a l t h  s e c t i o n and t h e S o c i a l  section.  Comparing  the  original  standardisation  sample o f g i r l s  sample, s i g n i f i c a n t group  d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d b e t w e e n  s c o r e s f o r t h e Home, H e a l t h , a n d S o c i a l  These r e s u l t s s u g g e s t required 4.  i ncertain  that  a revision  items f e l l  acceptance*  their  sections•  of norms i s p o s s i b l y  i t was n o t e d t h a t f o r each  below s t a t i s t i c a l  requirements  In t h e c a s e o f t h e Health s e c t i o n , f o r t h e  boys,, 1? o f t h e 3 5 i t e m s f e l l b e l o w r e q u i r e m e n t s , weak i n t e r v a l  twelve  cases*  Prom a n i t e m a n a l y s i s ,  section certain for  with the preeent grade  consistency.  The S o c i a l s e c t i o n  h a v e t h e f e w e s t number o f p o o r  items, f o u r  indicating  proved t o  i n t h e case o f  the boys and throe f o r t h e g i r l s * 5.  The obtained r e l i a b i l i t y  coefficients  f o r t h e Home  and  S o c i a l s e c t i o n s were f o u n d t o b e a b o v e t h e .80 l e v e l i n  all  cases, ranging from  ional fell ae  sections below  6.  the r e l i a b i l i t y coefficients  f o r t h e b o y s on t h e b a s i s  cases  of the H l c h a r d s o n ^  formula. Although  l a most e a s e s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s  c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e low, c e r t a i n sufficiently  On t h e b a s i s  the p o s s i b i l i t y  related  that  factors,  o f r a t i n g s a r r i v e d a t b y means o f a  p r o l o n g e d i n t e r v i e w , t h e v a l i d a t i n g o f t h e Home s e c t i o n was s u b s t a n t i a t e d . Home s e c t i o n  of Inter-  of the subsections c o r r e l a t e d  h i g h enough t o s u g g e s t  euch s u b s e c t i o n s were m e a s u r i n g 7.  i ncertain  .80, t h e H e a l t h s e c t i o n p r o d u c i n g a l o w o f .701  calculated  K\xder  .86 t o . 9 1 . F o r t h o H e a l t h a n d Emot-  The r e s u l t s  Adjustment  i n d i c a t e d that the  o f t h e I n v e n t o r y i s c a p a b l e of y i e l d i n g  results  significantly  s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b t a i n e d b y means o f a  lengthy  interview. 8.  The f i n d i n g s  of the study suggest  made on t h e S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t s e c t i o n lated  to active  significant  the S o c i a l s e c t i o n and s o c i a l means o f a p o p u l a r i t y v o t e . Social ing  are significantly r e -  social participation.  r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d  that tho seores  Ho  statistically  b e t w e e n s c o r e s mads on  "popular i t y ' a r r i v e d a t by 1  Suggestion  s e c t i o n might w e l l be used  i s made tfchat t h e  i n counselling f o r detect-  t h o s e who a r e s e r i o u s l y w i t h d r a w i n g  from  social  partic-  ipation. 9.  The v a l i d i t y o f t h e H e a l t h s e c t i o n  substantiated grade twelve 10. failed  failed  on t h e b a s i s o f h e a l t h r a t i n g s g i v e n t o 98 boys by t h e School  The v a l i d i t y  Nurse.  of the Emotional  Adjustment  section  t o b e s u b s t a n t i a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f c o m p o s i t e  i o n a l adjustment  a t i o n g i v e n b y each s t u d e n t  inform-  d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w .  To more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  ventory as a t o o l  evaluate  f o r use i n a guidance  t h e Adjustment I n and c o u n s e l l i n g pro-  gramme i n h i g h s c h o o l s , a s p e c i a l l y d e v i s e d S t u d e n t Poll  was c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h t h e v i e w of d e t e r m i n i n g  f o u r problem a r e a s  included wltMft  relationship t o other f i e l d s twelve  students.  emot-  r a t i n g s a r r i v e d a t b y means o f t h e r a t i n g s  o f t h e S c h o o l Nurse and t h e w r i t e r , t o g e t h e r w i t h  11.  t o be  According  the Inventory  considered  important  Problem  where t h e fell in by grade  t o the estimations of the stud-  ents,  o t h e r a r e a s o f p r o b l e m s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o bo more  portant than, included  or as  i n tne  e q u a l l y as i m p o r t a n t  Inventory*  im-  as t h e f o u r a r e a s  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The thanks  author wishes  to the various  Junior-Senior ly  gave-of The  and  William  members  of t h e S t a f f o f t h e K i t s i l a n o  High S c h o o l , Vancouver,  their  B.C., who so g e n e r o u s  time and a s s i s t a n c e .  author i s e s p e c i a l l y indebted to M i l t o n McCormach who so w i l l i n g l y  fessional assistance evaluating  t o e x p r e s s acknowledgments a n d  i n the obtaining  t h e Home A d j u s t m e n t  Gordon  offered their  pro-  of r a t i n g s used f o r  s e c t i o n o f the Adjustment  Inventory. Appreciation reviewed and checked For ful  their  i s e x p r e s s e d t o Robert the s t a t i s t i c a l  who  results.  guidance and p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v i c e ,  acknowledgments a r e e x t e n d e d  F.T.Tyler.  E. Jones  grate-  t o E.S.W.Belyea a n d  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I  II  III  IV  V  PAGE INTRODUCTION Factors leading to present study The s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m . . . .  1 1 6  THE BELL ADJUSTMENT INVENTORY General information C o n s t r u c t i o n a n d s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of t h e I n ventory Reliability coefficients Validation The s t a t e d c l a i m s f o r t h e A d j u s t m e n t Inventory  9 9  A SURVEY AND REVIEW OF THE RELATED L I T E R ATURE S t u d i e s on t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e I n v e n tory Validating studies Summary o f v a l i d a t i n g s t u d i e s . . . . Other s t u d i e s u s i n g t h e Adjustment Inventory METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF PERSONALITY MEASUREMENT The p r o b l e m d e f i n i t i o n The p r o b l e m o f e q u a l u n i t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s The e f f e c t of t e s t i t e m s The c o n c e p t of " t r a i t " Problems r e l a t e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES P r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n v a l i d a t i n g t h e Home A d justment s e c t i o n of t h e I n v e n t o r y The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s f o r e v a l u a t i n g home a d j u s t m e n t Method u s e d t o r a t e s t u d e n t on Home a d justment * Procedures used i n v a l i d a t i n g the s o c i a l adjustment s e c t i o n S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a c r i t e r i o n S o c i a l " p o p u l a r i t y " as a c r i t e r i o n P r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n v a l i d a t i n g the E m o t i o n a l section  10 12 12 18 20 20 22 26 27 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 39 41 42 46 52 52 54 55  TABLE OF CONTENTS  (con't)  CHAPTER V  VI  VII  VIII  PAGE Teachers' ratings * C o m p o s i t e r a t i n g on E m o t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t . . Procedures used i n v a l i d a t i n g the H e a l t h adjustment s e c t i o n . . . . . . Self-ratings  55 56 57 58  THE TREATMENT OF DATA AND EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE.. D i s t r i b u t i o n of scores Skewness and K u r t o s i s • Sex d i f f e r e n c e s . . . Comparison of s c o r e s of o r i g i n a l s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n samples w i t h s c o r e s of p r e s e n t s a m p l e s . Item A n a l y s i s Reliability coefficients Subtest i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s R e s u l t s of t h e v a l i d a t i o n o f t h e s u b s e c t i o n s . Home A d j u s t m e n t s e c t i o n . . . . . . . . S o c i a l Adjustment s e c t i o n . Health Adjustment s e c t i o n Emotional Adjustment s e c t i o n Self-ratings  67 70 74 77 79 79 83 37 89 92  THE STUDENT PROBLEM POLL Purpose of the P o l l C o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e P o l l . . . . . R e s u l t s of t h e P o l l  95 95 95 98  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  60 60 60 64  110  Appendix A Specimen copy of t h e B e l l Adjustment t o r y and Manual.  118 Inven-  Appendix  B S p e c i m e n c o p y of s e t o f I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n s I n t e r v i e w Form I n f o r m a t i o n Form.  119  Appendix  C Specimen form  120  Appendix  copy o f e m o t i o n a l adjustment  D.......... Specimen copy o f s e l f - r a t i n g  rating 121  form  TABLE OF CONTENTS  (Con't)  CHAPTER  PAGE  Appendix E .. Specimen c o p y of S t u d e n t P r o b l e m Appendix  Tables....  Bibliography  122 Poll 123 125  L I S T OF TABLES TABLE I II  III IV  V  VI  VII  VIII  IX  X  PAGE C o e f f i c i e n t s o f R e l i a b i l i t y f o r the A d j u s t ment I n v e n t o r y as R e p o r t e d by B e l l .  13  Data C o n c e r n i n g t h e O r i g i n a l V a l i d a t i n g G r o u p s of t h e B e l l A d j u s t m e n t I n v e n t o r y . . . .  16  C o e f f i c i e n t s of I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e A d j u s t m e n t I n v e n t o r y a s R e p o r t e d by B e l l . . .  17  C o e f f i c i e n t s of R e l i a b i l i t y f o r the A d j u s t ment I n v e n t o r y a s ' R e p o r t e d b y V a r i o u s Studies  21  Range of S c o r e s , Mean, S t a n d a r d E r r o r Of t h e Mean, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n , and M e a s u r e s o f Skewness a n d K u r t o s i s of S c o r e s Made on t h e I n v e n t o r y by 100 G r a d e X I I Boys and 104 Grade XII G i r l s  61  E x t e n t of K u r t o s i s and Skewness o f D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r 100 G r a d e X I I Boys and 104 Grade XII G i r l s  62  E x t e n t of Sex D i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n S c o r e s made on t h e A d j u s t m e n t I n v e n t o r y b y sample of 104 G r a d e X I I G i r l s and 100 G r a d e X I I Boys  65  E x t e n t of D i f f e r e n c e s Between Mean S c o r e s of O r i g i n a l S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n Sample o f 161 H i g h S c h o o l Boys and P r e s B n t Sample o f 100 G r a d e X I I Boys  68  E x t e n t o f D i f f e r e n c e s between Mean S c o r e s o f O r i g i n a l S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n Sample of 190 H i g h S c h o o l G i r l s and P r e s e n t Sample o f 104 G r a d e XII G i r l s  69  Number o f Item i n each of t h e S u b s e c t i o n s f o u n d t o be S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 L e v e l and .05 L e v e l o f C o n f i d e n c e and Number Found Below .05 L e v e l  73  X 11  L I S T OF TABLES  (Con't) PAGE  TABLE XI  XII XIII  XIV  XV  XVI  XVII  XVIII  XIX  XX  XXI  C o e f f i c i e n t s of C o r r e l a t i o n f o r t h e Sub s e c t i o n s of t h e I n v e n t o r y f o r Grade X I I Boys a n d G r a d e X I I G i r l s  75  Coefficients tion.  78  of S u b s e c t i o n  Intercorrela  C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e Home A d j u s t m e n t R a t i n g s of t h e I n v e n t o r y w i t h I n t e r v i e w R a t i n g s of Home A d j u s t m e n t f o r 100 G r a d e X I I B o y s .  80  Data C o n c e r n i n g the S o c i a l Adjustment V a l i d a t i n g Group S e l e c t e d on the B a s i s o f Social Participation  84  Data C o n c e r n i n g t h e S o c i a l Adjustment V a l i d a t i n g G r o u p s S e l e c t e d on t h e B a s i s o f a Popularity Vote  86  Data C o n c e r n i n g t h e H e a l t h A d j u s t m e n t V a l i d a t i n g Groups S e l e c t e d on the B a s i s of R a t i n g s by the S c h o o l Nurse  88  Data C o n c e r n i n g the E m o t i o n a l A d j u s t m e n t V a l i d a t i n g Groups S e l e c t e d on t h e B a s i s of Composite R a t i n g s  91  Data C o n c e r n i n g t h e C r i t e r i o n G r o u p s e c t e d on t h e B a s i s of S e l f - R a t i n g s  93  Sel-  P r o p o r t i o n p f Times 103 G r a d e X I I Boys Marked t h e P r o b l e m F i e l d a t t h e Top o v e r the Problem F i e l d a t t h e L e f t i n importance..  99  P r o p o r t i o n o f Times 63 G r a d e X I I G i r l s Marked t h e P r o b l e m F i e l d a t t h e Top e v e r the P r o b l e m F i e l d a t t h e L e f t i n i m p o r tance  100  S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Estimated Propprtipns p f 103 G r a d e X I I Bpys a s L i s t e d i n T a b l e XIX  103  L I S T OF TABLES  (con»t)  TABLE XXII  Appendix  PAGE S i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e E s t i m a t e d P r o p o r t i o n s of 62 G r a d e X I I G i r l s L i s t e d i n T a b l e XX.  104  T a b l e I : P h i C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r E a c h Item o f t h e A d j u s t m e n t I n v e n t o r y f o r 100 G r a d e X I I Boys and 100 Grade X I I G i r l s ."...  134  A  CRITICAL EVALUATION OP THE B E L L ADJUSTMENT INVENTORY: STUDENT FORM Chapter I INTRODUCTION  Factors  l e a d i n g to the present During  study  the past t h i r t y  years  considerable progress  has  b e e n made i n t h e f i e l d  of c o u n s e l l i n g .  has  been p a r t l y  of t h e  of  the  accumulating  help the the  individual  result  area.  in  dealing adequately  ation ing  exuberated  interest  strides  science; ferred  one  measurement.  did lead  would be  and  improved  partly  in this  fields  c o u l d not  widely  soon  estab-  applicable  problems...  subsequently  However,  t o the  methods o f  realiz-  facilitat-  of these being  the  y e a r s t h e r e a l s o have b e e n  other aspects  "psychology impetus t h a t  of c o u n s e l l i n g ,  of p s y c h o l o g i c a l  t h e movement w h i c h can be of p e r s o n a l i t y " , has  i n each  of the  i n d e p e n d e n t l y whether  the f i e l d  and  of  three  i t be  o f measurement, o r  re-  the  occutred i n t h e f i e l d  Even t h o u g h ^progress  areas progressed p a r t l y field  developed  interest alone  the past t h i r t y  i n two  t o as t h e  other being  out  counselling.  During great  has  counselling  with adjustment  o f a n e e d f o r new  individual  that and  a p o s i t i v e programme t h a t  the growing  e x i g e n c i e s growing  i n h i s p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , and  i n the c l i n i c a l  that  progress  need f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e a s s i s t a n c e t o  of t h e wide i n t e r e s t  Workers  discovered lish  the r e s u l t  This  the the  theoretical  area of the "psychology  would be s a f e t o s a y t h a t and in  of these areas s t i m u l a t e d  i n t u r n was s t i m u l a t e d b y t h e o t h e r s * t h e s e two l a t t e r  and  devices that  fields  At flicted, that  times  all-important, Guthrie  the e f f e c t  i n t h e view  i n a person's  that  of early t r a i n i n g  verification, personality  flicts  t o meet t h e de-  con-  e x p r e s s e d by Lewin (36) immediate environment i s d i v e r g e n t view of  and e x p e r i e n c e t h a t  should  Some t h e o r i e s p r e s e n t e d  have b e e n o p e n l y c r i t i o i z e d  tific  i n part  methods,  i t i s n o t t h e immediate s i t u a t i o n b u t  c o n s i d e r e d paramount.  that  theories,  and t h e c l i n i c i a n * .  and t h e s e e m i n g l y  (28) t h a t  forth  The advancement  some o f t h e expounded t h e o r i e s have  as i s seen  what o c c u r s  brought  have been o f f e r e d  mands o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r  be  each  of p e r s o n a l i t y " , i t  (14) f o r l a c k  such a s t h e view  concepts  of s c i e n -  of t h e p s y c h o a n a l y s t s  i s t h e outward m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e con-  between c e r t a i n  "internal  segments" p r e s e n t  the  individual*  Some s p e c u l a t i o n s , however, were  for  similarities  of concepts  as i s evidenced  within noted  i n t h e view  h e l d b y t h o s e p s y c h o l o g i s t s who c o n s i d e r e d t h a t  any i n -  fluence affecting  a system  through-  out, and t h e view  o f t h o s e p s y c h o l o g i s t s who s t r e s s e d t h e  of energy  affects.it  "dynamic" n a t u r e of p e r s o n a l i t y , b o t h views their basic  principles  interaction  of t o t a l  t h e concept  factors.  having  among  of i n t e g r a t i o n and  ~ -3At literature and  t h e p r e s e n t t i m e a s one r e a d s t h r o u g h t h e he o b s e r v e s t h a t  extreme a p p r o a c h e s  word  "extreme"  extreme g r o u p s points study  t h e r e a r e two f a i r l y  t o the study  i s used here  distinct  of p e r s o n a l i t y .  i n t h e sense t h a t  The  t h e s e two  c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e two o p p o s i t e  on t h e " c o n t i n u u m " of p e r s o n a l i t y .  of present-day approaches  One o f t h e s e extreme  to the  approaches  d e a l s w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s an " u n i q u e w h o l e " , a s i s exemplified (38), the  in writings  and K l o p f e r " g l o b a l " view  projective idenced  (33), and i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y of p e r s o n a l i t y  techniques.  endent,  traits.  tially idual of  restricted such the to  of d i s c r e t e ,  questionnaire, point  of view,  i s compared w i t h o t h e r s i n terms  These  i f not indepdevices,  a r e based  essen-  whereby t h e i n d i v arrived  a t b y means  methods. many c o n c e p t s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e v a r i o u s  s c h o o l s of thought  i s o l a t e d views special  i s ev-  that personal-  V a r i o u s s t a n d a r d i z e d measuring  upon t h e l a t t e r  statistical  t h e same a s  encompassed w i t h i n t h e  ( 5 5 ) , who h o l d  i n terms  s u c h as t h e p e r s o n a l i t y  Murray  s u c h men a s C a t t e l l ( 9 ) ,  ( 2 5 ) , and T h u r s t o n e  can be d e s c r i b e d  (l),  The o t h e r extreme a p p r o a c h  i n the writings-of  Guilford ity  o f men s u c h a s A l l p o r t  emphasize t h e f a c t  a r e determined  objectives that  a c c o m p l i s h , as mentioned  that  t o a g r e a t e x t e n t by  the p a r t i c u l a r by Rosenzweig  group  desires  (48, p.540).  Having t h i s f a c t  i n attention,  n e e d n o t be d i s t u r b e d times,  the eclectic  about t h e v a r i o u s  seemingly a n t a g o n i s t i c  solution  diverse  t o s e l e c t that  most a d e q u a t e l y  t o h i s needs o f t h e s p e c i f i c  circumstance. i n the various  areas o f s t u d y mentioned, t h e worker s t u d y i n g besides basic  which t o choose. arily into  divided,  theories,  T h e s e methods and d e v i c e s  three  questionnaire,  about h i m s e l f ; actually ual  in a real l i f e  overlapping,  the personal  gives  the "objective"  observing  certain  case  t h e use of a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s ,  methods whereby t h e s u b j e c t  directly  including  and r e c o r d i n g  from  can be a r b i t r -  groups: t h e " s u b j e c t i v e "  i n g among many, t h e i n t e r v i e w , the  personality  many methods and d e v i c e s  although not without  the following  approach  supply the best  Today a s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e p r o g r e s s  has,  and, a t  viewpoints, f o r i t i s to h i s  advantage t o have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y or t h o s e a p p r o a c h e s t h a t  psychologist  includhistory,  and o t h e r  information  t h e t e c h n i q u e of  behaviour  of the i n d i v i d -  s i t u a t i o n and t h e use o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l  measurement, t o name b u t two examples w i t h i n  this  the  " p r o j e c t i v e " which  includes  those techniques  the  individual reveals  c e r t a i n unique features  group; i n which  of h i s per-  s o n a l i t y b y p r o j e c t i n g h i s m e a n i n g s and f e e l i n g s  i n t o some  configuration. One t o the fore  of t h e r e l a t i v e l y  i n the f i e l d  new d i v i c e s t h a t  of p e r s o n a l i t y  h a s come  evaluation  i s the  -5questionnaire the  beginnings  traced  to the  subject tions  was  of the  of n i n e t y of  use  According  of t h e  workers  questions  I t was  not  were p u b l i s h e d  s c a l e , i n an  more a d e q u a t e l y .  attempt  With t h e  sonal  c o u l d be  Data S h e e t , w h i c h was  i n use  of many s i m i l a r  more w i d e l y  that is  This  several  of a  evaluate  when a  and  evaluated I t was  the  similar which  responses I  there  s p e e d y method i n terms  during  t o become t h e  list  coarse  of W o r l d War  this  of  the  crisis,  basis f o r  questionnaires,  t o many r e p o r t s  used q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  Inventory  (Appendix A ) .  i t i s considered  used  i n 1905  Perthe  some of  which  today.  According  justment  earliest  t h a t R.S.Woodworth d e v e l o p e d h i s w e l l - k n o w n  development are  to  use  a n e e d f o r some e f f i c i e n t  w h i c h e n l i s t e d men  1917,  the  the  ques-  (5, p . 1 7 ) , some of  coming  adequacy of t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t . in  which  Wiersma) p r e p a r e d  long before  weighting  be  of p r e d e t e r m i n e d  appeared  (Heymans and  m o d i f i c a t i o n s , s u c h as  by  can  h i s a f f e c t i v e . r e a c t i o n s . The  of such q u e s t i o n s  items.  created  (5.P.15)  e a r l y p s y c h i a t r i c interview during  contained  was  to B e l l  questionnaire  a s k e d t o answer a l i s t  list  medical  lists  inventory.  dealing with  published two  or  one  (51;53;55) among  of t o d a y Tyler  of t h e b e s t  e x t e n s i v e l y i n both c l i n i c a l  Inventory  i s being  used  i s the  the  Bell  Ad-  (61,p.356) s t a t e s i n the  and  field  and  counselling  i n some s c h o o l s  areas.  i n Vancouver  -5as p a r t of t h e c o u n s e l l i n g ever, evidence such  as t h e A d j u s t m e n t  present as  to support  time  their  i s r e f l e c t e d by  programme f o r t h e  t h e wide a p p l i c a t i o n  Inventory,  worth  is lacking  i s only i n the  Therefore, considering t h i s  this  counsellor,  at  the  investigative i n the  stage, lit-  s t u d i e s upon them i s i m p e r a t i v e . latter  p o i n t of the need f o r  f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , t o g e t h e r w i t h the growing and  How-  of d e v i c e s ,  and  t h e r e p e a t e d comment f o u n d  e r a t u r e t h a t more a n a l y t i c a l  clinician  school.  i t i s one  study to present f u r t h e r  demands o f  o f t h e main aims  evidence  concerning  the  of  the  ade-  quacy of such means o f measurement. The  Statement The  s t u d y c a n be tain  of the  Problem  problem  which w i l l  stated  as f o l l o w s :  selected  criteria,  t o what  ment I n v e n t o r y a r e l i a b l e , grade to  twelve  students*  those f a c t o r s  evaluate? yet  The  that  degree and  adjustments, the  Inventory stated,  enough t o p e r m i t  is A  instrument  t o have a d e f i n i t e certain  inadequate  one  f o r measuring  this  i s the B e l l  with  specific  cer-  Adjust-  u s e f u l measure  of  reference  i s constructed to delimits  the study  of the f i r s t  worth  essentials  of i t s o r i g i n a l  of example, m i g h t be  minute temperature  and  investig-  In e v a l u a t i n g t h e  understanding  t h e r m o m e t e r , i n way  of  a comprehensive  a t i o n w i t h i n c e r t a i n boundaries.. o f any m e a s u r i n g  the nucleus  on t h e f o u n d a t i o n of  valid  p r o b l e m , as  is flexible  be  design. quite  gradations,  and  i f i t were u s e d  then  any r e s u l t a n t  fault  beyond i t s c o n s t r u c t e d errors  ment  of instruments  I n v e n t o r y must b e p r e c e d e d  clared  Inventory, the stated  eral  r a t h e r than  specific  potentials  where t h e c a p a c i t i e s known, t h e n  t e r m s and t h e m i n i m a l remain  The  statement  be, i n p a r t ,  as A l l p o r t  (l,p.382)  ility is  in sorting,  of accumulated  limits l i k e the  and max-  In such  cases,  device are not  clearly  develops,  per-  i n t o a r e s e a r c h problem evidence  with  r e g a r d i n g t h e de-  limits.  study w i l l  analysis  vague.  as an i n v e s t i g a t i o n  the aim of s u p p l y i n g e m p i r i c a l o f t h e test's  and s e t s  c l a i m s a r e o f t e n g i v e n i n gen-  imperceptibly at times,  fining  Adjust-  b y a k n o w l e d g e of t h e de-  of a measuring  the study  itself.  as the B e l l  However, w i t h i n s t r u m e n t s  Bell  imal measuring  the d e v i c e  such  c l a i m s of t h e t e s t w h i c h d i r e c t s  to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  haps  o f measurement w o u l d be t h e  of i t s m i s a p p l i c a t i o n r a t h e r than  T h e r e f o r e , any s t u d y  capacities  of t h e problem a statistical  states:  implies that analysis.  "The v a l u e  of  However,  statistical  comparing, and determining data  this  the r e l i a b -  i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l e ; but so t o o  i t s power f o r m i s c h i e f when t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a i m a n d  significance sheer latter  o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n become  exuberance of d i g i t s " .  obscured  Therefore, considering this  p o i n t , i f any evidence f o r the worth  ineffectiveness  i n the  of t h e I n v e n t o r y p r e s e n t s  or f o r the  itself  outside  -8of  the s t a t i s t i c a l  findings  will  be  the s t a t i s t i c s are  not  analysis,  of the t e s t  incorporated accordingly.  resulting  from  self-interpretive.  any  importan&e when i n t e r p r e t i n g  that  a l l important  be  of c e r t a i n  factors,  criteria  e x p l a i n e d as c l e a r l y  and as  During the course  such the  adequacy pf t h e  complex,  of t h e s t u d y o t h e r  getting  beset ing  concerning the  i t w o u l d seem o n l y l o g i c a l commanding.  d e v i c e s , but  also  formation to a s s i s t  that a review  I t i s important only f o r the  attempt  for furnishing  i n making  sound  prob-  multiple of  to  be  purpose  a t r u e r p e r s p e c t i v e of the d i f f i c u l t i e s  t h o s e r e s e a r c h e r s who  Inven-  the  o f p e r s o n a l i t y measurement a r e  a c q u a i n t e d w i t h these problems not of  criteria,  objectives  Since i t i s obvious t h a t  s u c h p r o b l e m s w o u l d be  results  pcssible.  sought.  and  ut-  as t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e  tory  lems i n t h e f i e l d  nature  the s t a t i s t i c a l  of p r e s e n t i n g e v i d e n c e  be  addition,  s t u d y of t h i s  besides that will  In  these  T h e r e f o r e , i t i s of t h e  most  use  itself,  that  to c o n s t r u c t m e a s u r a background  of i n -  interpretations.  CHAPTER I I THE General  B E L L ADJUSTMENT  Information The  B e l l Adjustment  a p p r o a c h t o t h e measurement tory, 140  adapted  items  Social,  into  Rather  of p e r s o n a l i t y . consists  each s e c t i o n  than  The  of a t o t a l o f  containing  thirty-five  have a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s  o f one s e c -  For purposes of the t e s t ,  structions, blank,  printed  the students on t h e f r o n t  Within these  how t o mark t h e i r  throughout.  of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n the adminisare given sheet  directions  initial in-  of each  w h i c h a r e r e a d a l o u d t o them w h i l e  vocally.  they read sub-  the students  a b e t t e r understanding that this  latter  of h i m s e l f .  student's  and  leads to greater Interest  i n the r e s u l t s .  students  with  t h e i r understanding  (5,p.30)  f o r getting  co-operation since i t stimulates  b e l i e v e s that the Inventory  give the  Bell  p o i n t i s important  the  Bell  are told  i f t h e q u e s t i o n s a r e answered  " h o n e s t l y " and " t h o u g h t f u l l y " t h e r e s u l t s w i l l  believes  Inventory  a n s w e r s , t h a t t h e r e a r e no " r i g h t " o r  "wrong" a n s w e r s , a n d t h a t  student  of  a "set" within the subject taking the  t h e q u e s t i o n s a r e randomly d i s t r i b u t e d  tration  Inven-  t o g e t h e r , which has t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e  tending t o develop test,  Is a q u e s t i o n n a i r e  f o u r s e c t i o n s known a s Home, H e a l t h ,  and E m o t i o n a l ,  clustered  Inventory  t o group t e s t i n g ,  divided  questions. tion  INVENTORY: STUDENT FORM  curiosity In a d d i t i o n ,  s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e that the r e s u l t s  will  -lpbe  discussed with  them.  In s c o r i n g t h e approximately  t h r e e m i n u t e s by  stencils,  only those  are  a s c o r e , and  given  "one"  point.  responses each  Therefore,  t h e more i n d i c a t i v e For  Inventory,  which  the use  higher  the  and  high  s c h o o l men  women.  terms are classed,  women and  Also f o r interpretive Included  according  including: and  and  of  i n the  numerical  of  score  disturbances.  are  set  of norms  available for  f o r both  college  men  purposes, d e s c r i p t i v e  Manual whereby e a c h s t u d e n t  to h i s score,  into  one  is  of f i v e r a t i n g s ,  " e x c e l l e n t ; " "good;" " a v e r a g e ; " " u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ; "  "very u n s a t i s f a c t o r y " . Norms a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r t o t a l  is,  scoring  maladjustment  purposes a separate  ( s e e Manual o f D i r e c t i o n , A p p e n d i x A.) both  done i n  receive a score  i s i t of adjustment  interpretive  be  of s p e c i a l  indicative  of t h e s e  the  can  f o r the  sum  of t h e  s c o r e s made on scores  However, s i n c e t h e  total  ing  i n themselves,  i t would appear t h a t  for  them i s u n s o u n d , e s p e c i a l l y  b e e n p u b l i s h e d f o r w i d e use possibility  of t h e m i s u s e  C o n s t r u c t i o n and The ventory  initial  stage  o r no  mean-  i n c l u d i n g norms  s i n c e the  Inventory  has  which o b v i o u s l y i n c r e a s e s  of s u c h  i n the  when t h e  administered  that  four sections.  of l i t t l e  to  the  scores.  S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of the  began i n 1930  S c h e d u l e was  are  the  scores,  Inventory  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  In-  Thurstone P e r s o n a l i t y  the  e n t e r i n g freshman  class  at  Chico State College, C a l i f o r n i a .  the Thurstone the  course  of the  v a l u e of the utilize  P e r s o n a l i t y Schedule  s t u d e n t s who  were i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g  f o r c o u n s e l l i n g , and  information i n order to  i n the  Thurstone  item study. items.  To  these  T h e s e 411  Schedule  c o n s t r u c t a new  q u e s t i o n s were d i v i d e d  Social Sex;  to e l i m i n a t e those  suitable.  The  criteria  as f o l l o w s : i n t e r n a l biguity.  188  quesan  original  arbitrarily  H e a l t h ; Use  items  of  into  Time; Others;  p u r p o s e of t h e  used  i n the  item  as  15 p e r  differentiated  group.  which r e f e r s misunderstood  to the  The  third  refers  criterion  elimination  o f t e n , by  the  t h a t of p r a c t i c a l i t y ,  of  items  student.  f o r i t was  q u e s t i o n s , f o r example, a r o u s e d  am-  between  c e n t . w i t h i n each  a criterion,  and  consistency, only  i t e m be marked by a p p r o x i m a t e l y  maladjusted  e v a l u a t i o n were  consistency, " a p p l i c a b i l i t y "  the lower  item  q u e s t i o n s w h i c h were not  were r e t a i n e d c l e a r l y  "Applicability", an  The  With r e f e r e n c e t o i n t e r n a l  t h e u p p e r and  was  223  C o n t r o l ; S e l f - P e e l i n g ; A t t i t u d e Toward  P a t h o l o g i c a l Tendencies.  those  test  R e a c t i o n ; A t t i t u d e Towards L i f e ; A t t i t u d e Towards  s t u d y was  that  Home L i f e ;  The  to  t o commence  q u e s t i o n s were added  the f o l l o w i n g groups: Emotional  were u s e d  the  to attempt  t h a t w o u l d h a v e more v a l u e f o r c o u n s e l l i n g . tions  took  y e a r w i t h t h e v i e w of a s c e r t a i n i n g  Schedule  the  The  t o the 25 was  category. requirement  per cent  of  the  ambiguity  t h a t proved  to  be  Another c o n s i d e r a t i o n found,  that  embarrassment  and  certain so were  -12eliminated  i n order  to get f u l l e s t  co-operation  of the  students. At the  items,  the completion 140 i t e m s  home, h e a l t h , s o c i a l ,  Adjustment  Reliability The  Inventory.  reliability  coefficients  of the Inventory  are t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e l .  coefficients  and probable  a s r e p o r t e d by B e l l  i n c l u d i n g both  were o b t a i n e d b y c o r r e l a t i n g  and a p p l y i n g t h e Spearman-Brown  mula f o r c o r r e c t i o n . reliabilities  It will  range from  the Social  errors  The sample u s e d c o n s i s t e d o f  258 c o l l e g e f r e s h m e n a n d j u n i o r s ,  f o r both  emotional  Coefficients  f o r the subsections  even i t e m s  and  each  These f o u r c a t e g o r i e s were c o m b i n e d t o f o r m  the present  The  a n a l y s i s of  were r e t a i n e d , 35 d e a l i n g w i t h  of t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s ; adjustment.  of t h e s t a t i s t i c a l  sexes.  t h e odd a n d  prophecy  be seen t h a t t h e s e  .80 f o r t h e H e a l t h  for-  corrected  s e c t i o n t o .89  a n d t h e Home s e c t i o n s .  Validation Bell lish  validity  u s e d s e v e r a l methods  i n an a t t e m p t  f o r the v a r i o u s subsections  t o estab-  of t h e I n v e n t o r y .  As h a s a l r e a d y b e e n m e n t i o n e d , an i t e m a n a l y s i s was done with  t h e aim of e s t a b l i s h i n g  the s u b t e s t s .  Of c o u r s e ,  s i s t e n c y among t h e i t e m s validity  a high  consistency within  degree of i n t e r n a l  con-  does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e  f o r what t h e t e s t  very unlikely that a test  internal  claims will  t o measure, b u t i t  be h i g h l y v a l i d  is  i f there  -13-  TABLE I C o e f f i c i e n t s of R e l i a b i l i t y f o r the Adjustment I n v e n t o r y a s r e p o r t e d b y B e l l N r  258 h i g h  Adjustment  Emotional  school  section  students  r  A d j u s t m e n t . . . .93  PE  r  d.008 1.015 i.008 ±.012  -14is  low  "Internal Bell  consistency" with reference to the  (5,p.81) c i t e s  as  correlation  coefficients  personality  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and  sections.  The  and  test,  section  of t h e B e l l  Allport  test  students.  these  The  Emotional  study  that  such  ation  (16).  tests  as  coefficients  s i g n used  The  The  Social  .73*.051 w i t h  Social  using  the Thurstone.  section  and  96  Interesting  as  i s accomplished of these  In a d d i t i o n , these  will  by  this  other t e s t s  i t i s o n l y t o be  produce f a i r l y  b e c a u s e of t h e  essentially  high  part  e v a l u a t e d by means of v a l i d a t i n g  counsellors.  remains expected correl-  similar  de-  and  groups  Insel-  In e a c h c a s e , t h e g r o u p s c o n s i s t e d  e x t r e m e s , a w e l l - a d j u s t e d g r o u p and  justed group. ventory  of  in their construction.  v e n t o r y was  of two  of  students,  Each o f t h e f o u r s e c t i o n s , of t h e A d j u s t m e n t  e c t e d by  the  .811:.034 when u s i n g  * 9 0 ± . 0 1 8 w i t h a sample  section,  since the v a l i d i t y  questionable  Ascend-  (corrected for attenuation) are, i t  would appear t h a t l i t t l e the  other  P e r s o n a l i t y Schedule,  correlated  correlated  the  Emotional  were t h e A l l p o r t  students.  .93±".010 w i t h  correlations  and  (social) section.  Inventory  female  t h e B e r n r e u t e r B4-D  correlated  used  Social  u s i n g 46 m a l e s t u d e n t s and  a sample of 50  39  the  the Thurstone  t h e B e r n r e u t e r B4-D  of v a l i d i t y  o b t a i n e d between c e r t a i n  other t e s t s  ance-Submission  evidence  items.  a poorly  ad-  These g r o u p s were g i v e n t h e A d j u s t m e n t  the c r i t i c a l  ratio  computed t o d e t e r m i n e  Inthe  extent  o f a n y d i f f e r e n c e i n mean s c o r e s .  garding II.  these  It will  validating  The d a t a r e -  g r o u p s a r e t o be f o u n d  be o b s e r v e d  i n Table  t h a t f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e Home A d -  justment  s e c t i o n t h e two extreme g r o u p s ,  students  each, d i f f e r e d  significantly,  c o n s i s t i n g o f 51  on t h e b a s i s o f t h e  d i f f e r e n c e between mean s c o r e s , a t t h e .01 l e v e l fidence with  a CR o f 7.G2.  groups f o r t h e other at  t h e .01 l e v e l ,  Social, indicate clearly  three  sections differed  5.29; H e a l t h ,  on t h e e v i d e n c e  differentiating  given,  that these  by  a period  t h e g r o u p s c h o s e n were The  Bell  coefficients  are l i s t e d  6.59.  shows t h a t a l t h o u g h  there  is a possibility  I t should  CR»s  be a d d e d , i n '  of more t h a n  a y e a r , so  evidently well-defined.  III.  An e x a m i n a t i o n  the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s  that c e r t a i n  and Emotional  of t h i s a r e low  of the subsections a s t h e r o f .53  s e c t i o n s tend  t h a t v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s a r e not m e a s u r i n g clearly-defined  These  the Inventory i s  i n common a n d s u c h r e s u l t s  between H e a l t h  being:  o f i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n as r e p o r t e d  i n Table  table  have e l e m e n t s  sections  g r o u p s were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e r e p o r t s  of many c o u n s e l l o r s o v e r that  significantly  between t h e e x t r e m e s o f a d j u s t -  ment a s s e l e c t e d b y c o u n s e l l o r s . passing,  each o f t h e two  t h e CR f o r t h e v a r i o u s  8.40; E m o t i o n a l , that  Similarly  of con-  to indicate  s e p a r a t e and  factors.  Concerning  sex d i f f e r e n c e s , B e l l  s i g n i f i c a n c e between t h e mean s c o r e s  (5,p.l48)  of 161 h i g h  found  school  -16-  TABLE I I  Data C o n c e r n i n g t h e O r i g i n a l V a l i d a t i n g Groups of t h e B e l l Adjustment Inventory  Type o f Adjustment Home (51 i n each Group  Well-adjusted Group Wean Sigma  Sigma P o o r l y a d j u s t e d Mean Diff. Diff. Group Mean I Sigma  OR  4.65  3.18  10.27  4.67  5.62  .80  7.03  H e a l t h (42 i n each 5.40 Group  3.11  11.53  5.22  6.13  .93  6.59  S o c i a l (24 i n each 8.40 Group  4.59  16.80  5.89  8.40  1.52  5.53  Emotional (36 i n 8.28 each Group  4.88  16.28  7.08  7.50  1.42  5.32  o  -17-  TABLE I I I  C o e f f i c i e n t s of I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e A d j u s t ment I n v e n t o r y as r e p o r t e d b y B e l l  Inventory  H e a l t h and S o c i a l and  Subsections  Emotional.... Emotional....  r .43 .04 .38 .24 .53 .47  PE  r  .04 .05 .04 .04 .03 .04  -18b o y s a n d 190 h i g h section. 1.58; The  school g i r l s ,  on a l l e x c e p t  the Health  The CR's were a s f o l l o w s : Home, 3.67; H e a l t h ,  Social, Stated  2.03; E m o t i o n a l ,  Claims  The  8.51.  F o r The A d j u s t m e n t  Adjustment  Inventory  Inventory  was c o n s t r u c t e d  with the  v i e w o f g i v i n g c o u n s e l l o r s a means o f f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e personal  g u i d a n c e of s t u d e n t s .  make a n y e x t r a v a g a n t state  that  reliable  portant the  t h e aim of g i v i n g t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r  of adjustment.  reliabilities  concept  the subject  are s u f f i c i e n t l y  high  measurement o f a s p e c t s  i n f o u r imthat  enough t h a t t h e  studies.  the b a s i s of the Inventory of adjustment  valid  In a d d i t i o n , he c l a i m s  c a n be u s e d f o r r e s e a r c h At  b u t he does  p r i m a r i l y f o r personal  knowledge c o n c e r n i n g  areas  Inventory  the  with  (5,p.29) does n o t  f o r the Inventory  i t h a s been d e v e l o p e d  counselling and  claims  Bell  i s the view that  i s t h e soundest  principle  of p e r s o n a l i t y , f o r as B e l l  f o r the (5,p.l)  states: The c o n c e p t o f a d j u s t m e n t as a g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e f o r measurement i n c o u n s e l i n g i s o f f e r e d a s p r o v i d i n g a dynamic a n d m e a n i n g f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of the student's p e r s o n a l i t y . I n s t e a d o f t i c k e t i n g t h e student as " i n t r o v e r t e d " or " n e u r o t i c " , t h i s concept permits d e s c r i b i n g b e h a v i o r i n t e r m s of how s a t i s f a c t o r i l y o r u n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y he i s a d j u s t e d t o c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . Sell sidered dividual  f u r t h e r s t a t e s that adjustment  can be c o n -  i n t e r m s of some o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i n or i n terms o f the i n d i v i d u a l s  own  evaluation  -19of h i s b e h a v i o r * justment the  In i n t e r p r e t i n g  Inventory,  this  the scores  l a t t e r v i e w i s t o be u s e d , a n d  s c o r e s made by t h e s u b j e c t s h o u l d  individual's  of t h e A d -  be c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e  own " • • • e v a l u a t i o n o f h i s home, h e a l t h , a n d  other adjustments"  (5,p.29).  CHAPTER I I I A  SURVEY AND It  REVIEW OF  t o the B e l l Adjustment  types  of s t u d i e s .  and  those  reliability  ventory  One  Inventory  of these  that are concerned  main g r o u p  RELATED LITERATURE  would appear t h a t t h e p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e  lated  of  THE  of the  groups  with  assuming, with  of s t u d i e s  determining  Inventory  includes those  d i s p l a y s two  limitations,  included i n the  quately  experimental  Since this  paper  i s more c o n c e r n e d  t h e g r e a t e r p a r t of t h i s  with  section will  p o r t a n t a r t i c l e s t h a t have attempted evaluation Studies  R e l i a b i l i t y of t h e  A comparison  of the  Table  ported -Fee  of  test  ade-  aspect  deal with the  im-  t o make a  statistical Inventory*  Inventory  be made by  first  coefficients referring  s t u d i e s of t h e B e l l  i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e was  re-  to  (60) who  were  to determine  investigating  retesting  coefficients  after  the  Inventory  t h a t made i n 1936  tory f o r high school guidance. sought  the  IV.. Among t h e  and  In-  the former  reliability  p o r t e d by v a r i o u s s t u d i e s can  the  purposes*  of the s u b s e c t i o n s of the Adjustment  on t h e  other  that  I n v e n t o r y measures t h o s e f a c t o r s and  consists  the  s t u d i e s t h a t have u s e d  enough f o r p r a c t i c a l  main  the v a l i d i t y  i t s e l f , while  or without  re-  t h e use  In t h i s  of the  study  subtest r e l i a b i l i t i e s  a six-month  f o r the v a r i o u s  interim.  s u b t e s t s as  The  by  the  re-  Turney Invenauthors  on t h e b a s i s reliability  obtained  by  21-  TABLE IV  C o e f f i c i e n t s of R e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e Adjustment I n v e n t o r y as Reported by V a r i o u s Independent S t u d i e s  Name of Study  Number Method of of Students Correlat ion  Adjustment  S e c t i on  Home  Health  Social  split-half  .838  .831  .932  .875  Tyler  348(Male) s p l i t - h a l f 392(Fern.) s p l i t - h a l f  .796 .827  .717 .797  .850 .876  .789 .839  Turney and F e e  78  r e t e s t ( 6 moj .851  .741  .832  .823  43  Traxler  Emot i o n  -22T u r n e y a n d F e e u s i n g a sample o f 78 h i g h  school  students  were a s f o l l o w s : home .851; h e a l t h .741; s o c i a l  .832; a n d  e m o t i o n a l .788. W i t h i n t h e same y e a r study  coefficients Health  Tyler  .827; H e a l t h  formula,  f o r 392 m a l e h i g h  .717; S o c i a l  females  were  section  t o .932 f o r t h e S o c i a l  over  .80 r a n g i n g f r o m  reliable  most r e l i a b l e  by both  tion  reliable  was most  From t h e s e  and a l l h i s r e l i a b -  .831 f o r t h e H e a l t h  section.  A s oan be n o t e d  while  the Social  section  T r a x l e r and T y l e r w h i l e  results  evidence  t h e Home s e c -  i t would appear t h a t the Soc-  a n d Home s e c t i o n s f o l l o w i n g ; shows  was r a t e d  a c c o r d i n g t o T u r n e y and F e e .  s e c t i o n t e n d s t o b e t h e most r e l i a b l e ,  parison  Home  I I I a l l t h r e e s t u d i e s p l a c e d the H e a l t h S e c t i o n  as t h e l e a s t  ional  F o r 348  ( 5 6 ) made a s t u d y w i t h a  sample o f 43 h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s  in Table  .789.  .876 a n d E m o t i o n a l .839.  ilities  tion  s c h o o l s t u d e n t s : Home .796;  obtained t h e following c o e f f i c i e n t s : .797; S o c i a l  of being  while the Health  the least  c a n be made w i t h B e l l ' s  w i t h t h e Emot-  reliable.  own r e s u l t s  sec-  A com-  by r e f e r r i n g  to Table I. Validity  meth-  obtained the f o l l o w i n g  .850; a n d E m o t i o n a l  In 1941 A . E . T r a x l e r  ial  (61) made a  o f the v a r i o u s s u b t e s t s and u s i n g t h e s p l i t - h a l f  od a n d t h e Spearmen-Brown  small  (1936) T y l e r  Studies of t h e B e l l Traxler  Inventory  ( 5 6 ) a n d T u r n e y a n d F e e ( 6 0 ) made v a l -  -23idity the  evaluations  outside  neither the  within  criterion  case  their studies,  u s e d was  d i d the obtained  validity  and i n b o t h  teachers'  ratings*  coefficients  of any of t h e s e c t i o n s *  cases In  substantiate  However,  the lack of  v a l i d i t y m i g h t p o s s i b l y be t h e r e s u l t o f t h e c r i t e r i o n used. fact of  T u r n e y and F e e ( 6 0 , p*197) made r e f e r e n c e that  the teachers  sufficient  used  to the  i n t h e i r s t u d y showed a  t r a i n i n g i n the task  that  lack  was p r e s e n t e d t o  them. One the  study that  I n v e n t o r y was t h a t  dealt  s o l e l y w i t h t h e v a l i d i t y of  by Pederson  (45) who  380 f r e s h m e n women f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y this  study the v a l i d i t y  the  following  (2)  records  four  Instructor  who  On t h e b a s i s Pederson ment  criteria:  Social Advisor  a d j u s t m e n t , and  (4) r a t i n g s  files,  of the Physical on h e a l t h  into various  on  were c l a s s i f i e d  social  Education adjustment. mentioned  l e v e l s of  and then n o t e d any s i g n i f i c a n c e between t h e  Home A d j u s t m e n t  using  (3) r a t i n g s  f o r each s t u d e n t  o f one o r more o f t h e c r i t e r i a  d i v i d e d t h e group  In  (1) a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s ,  rated the subjects  e n c e s o f t h e mean s c o r e s . the  of Rochester.  i n d i c e s were c a l c u l a t e d by  f r o m t h e Dean's p e r s o n a l  of t h e g i r l s '  used a t o t a l of  In d e t e r m i n i n g  adjustdiffer-  the v a l i d i t y  s e c t i o n P e d e r s o n u s e d 57 s t u d e n t s  as h a v i n g home d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  the  Dean's f i l e s  and o t h e r  who  d i d n o t show s u c h  information,  difficulties.  according  a n d 323  of who to  others  The d i f f e r e n c e  ob-  -24tained the  between t h e means o f t h e two g r o u p s  standard  preted level  three  "poor"*  t h e S o c i a l Adjustment according  to ratings  Statistical  Advisor  "average"; and  Pederson  between t h e " a v e r a g e " a n d  stated  either the test  that  this  partially  indic-  o r t h e S o c i a l A d v i s o r was u n -  t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e m o d e r a t e l y a d j u s t e d a n d  t h o s e who were v e r y r e t i r i n g seem r e a s o n a b l e t o s t a t e  (45, p . 2 3 4 ) .  that  I t would  i t i s possible  that  or that  i t i s possible  the test are evaluating  adjustment.  that  d i f f e r e n t aspects  No m e n t i o n was made  i n the study  used by the S o c i a l A d v i s o r t o c l a s s i f y  also  both  t e s t a n d t h e A d v i s o r were u n a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h  t h e s e two g r o u p s , and  by t h e S o c i a l  and " a v e r a g e " , and t h e " e x c e l l e n t " a n d " p o o r " ,  "poor" groups.  the  the students  s i g n i f i c a n c e was f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e  s i g n i f i c a n c e was l a c k i n g  ated that  section  groups, namely: " e x c e l l e n t " ;  "excellent"  able  and t h i s was i n t e r -  of c o n f i d e n c e *  were d i v i d e d  but  of t h e d i f f e r e n c e ,  times  a s i n d i c a t i v e o f s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e one p e r c e n t  For  into  error  was 3.6  between  the Advisor of s o c i a l of t h e b a s i s  the students.  No s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a n y c a s e was n o t e d b y P e d e r s o n between g r o u p s o f t h r e e on  the basis  using  l e v e l s of adjustment  of a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s .  a criterion  I t would appear  such as a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s  unsound because of t h e v e r y n a t u r e senting  evidence which  Is almost  when  divided that  i s experimentally  o f t h e method o f p r e -  entirely  uncontrolled.  -25In  evaluating  the P h y s i c a l Education ing  t h e groups  into  ance was f o u n d and  the Health s e c t i o n t h e r a t i n g s of I n s t r u c t o r were u s e d ,  three levels*  In t h i s  o n l y between t h e two e x t r e m e s  the Emotional  s e c t i o n Pederson  n i f i c a n c e between a n y o f t h e g r o u p s basis  of r e p o r t s from  basis  of a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s *  t h e Home A d j u s t m e n t alysis  divided  t h e Dean's f i l e s ,  signific-  "excellent"  stands v a l i d  differentiating the Emotional  on t h e on t h e  study,  then,  sections are  since they are incapable of  between c e r t a i n  section  first  sig-  as f a r as h e r a n -  went, w h i l e t h e H e a l t h a n d S o c i a l invalid  f o u n d no  and then  From P e d e r s o n ' s  section  c l a s s e d as p a r t i a l l y  levels  of adjustment,  showed no v a l i d i t y  and  according to  results. In  nostic of  case  divid-  "poor"* For  her  again  1943 M a r s h  (38) p u b l i s h e d a r e p o r t  value of the B e l l a n d A  freshmen  women*  used,  as d i d Pederson,  I t was t h e p o l i c y a t t h e s c h o o l  phens C o l l e g e ) where t h i s  s t u d y was done t o r e f e r  e n t s a p p e a r i n g t o have p r o b l e m s t o a G u i d a n c e From t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e G u i d a n c e selected  tionally  S i n c e t h e numbers  small  (ranging from  (Ste-  stud-  were  and e m o t i o n a l  i n these groups five  groups  Committee*  Committee g r o u p s  f o r t h o s e h a v i n g home, s o c i a l ,  ficulties*  on t h e d i a g -  were  dif-  excep-  to twenty-five) the  value  of the r e s u l t s  i s somewhat d u b i o u s *  However, M a r s h  found  s i g n i f i c a n c e between t h e mean s c o r e s o f t h e home  -26maladjusted tical  g r o u p and t h e n o r m a l g r o u p .  significance  was o b t a i n e d .  of t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e the S o c i a l for  student  statis-  From t h e p o i n t o f v i e w  of t h e s u b t e s t s , Marsh f o u n d  and E m o t i o n a l  predicting  No o t h e r  that  s e c t i o n s were o f d o u b t f u l v a l u e  maladjustment  during the c o l l e g e  year. According in  t o a s t u d y made b y H.P.Smith  1947, " C o n f i d e n c e  tory  i n the s o c i a l  i s i n c r e a s e d as i t i s found  students  who p a r t i c i p a t e  who do n o t " . grades ents  In t h i s  study  activities  Smith used  activity  of t h e Inven-  to differentiate  in social  t e n , e l e v e n and t w e l v e .  i n t o 31 d i f f e r e n t  section  (50,p.16)  Smith  between  and t h o s e  1700 s t u d e n t s i n divided  g r o u p s and a  these  stud-  "non-activity"  g r o u p w h i c h was composed o f members who d i d n o t b e l o n g t o any  school group.  Bell  When c o m p a r i n g  I n v e n t o r y b y t h e members o f t h e s e v a r i o u s g r o u p s  the group of students Smith found  fidence,  who d i d n o t b e l o n g  t h a t i n 12 o f t h e 31 c a s e s  e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t  level  t h e s c o r e s made on t h e  t o any a c t i v i t y ,  t h e mean  a t t h e one p e r c e n t  5 more were s i g n i f i c a n t  the "non-activity"  Summary o f v a l i d i t y Reviewing  concerning  differof c o n -  per cent  g r o u p s had h i g h e r  group.  studies these  reported studies i n b r i e f , i t  would appear t h a t adequate lacking  level  at the f i v e  and i n a l l b u t 3 c a s e s t h e a c t i v i t y  mean s c o r e s t h a n  with  experimental  the v a l i d i t y  information i s  of the subsections of the  -27Bell  Adjustment  that  the  lishing  experimental evidence  enticity. small  Inventory.  design used  of v a l i d i t y  In some c a s e s  results  as f a r as  f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d by relationship  further Other  Smith's  i t i s the  evidence  the  (50)  Studies Using  estab-  Marsh  (38)  f o r the the i n -  participation  and  the social  highly  study to  supply  lines.  the B e l l Adjustment  B e l l Adjustment  ade-  study concerning  of t h i s  very  positive  Inventory appear  intention  along these  the  s t u d i e s went, and  f o u n d between s o c i a l  and  of  of d o u b t f u l a u t h -  used,  (45) and  their  s c o r e s made on  The  itself  experimental procedures  Home s e c t i o n ,  fruitful  f o r the purpose  seem  However, c o n s i d e r i n g t h e  r e p o r t e d by P e d e r s o n  adjustment  was  i t would  t h e samples u s e d were e i t h e r  or p o o r l y d e f i n e d .  quacy of t h e  In many c a s e s  Inventory  I n v e n t o r y has  been u s e d  by  many r e s e a r c h e r s f o r v a r i o u s e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s n o t directly ventory  concerned  with a s t a t i s t i c a l  C l a r k and  et a l . (63j), and  Smith  Griffiths  ( 1 1 ) , Drought  (22) a t t e m p t e d  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t  by  the  and  no  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  studies  In-  itself. S t u d i e s by  Young  e v a l u a t i o n of t h e  Inventory  (51).  The  scholastic shown as  results  achievement.  of these  summed up  t o show measured  Little  i s u s u a l l y the case  or  i n such  studies dealing with  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c h o o l p r o f i c i e n c y s c o r e s c a n be  as  (13),  i n the statement  and  from  Inventory  Drought  (13,  -28p.604) t h a t ,  "The  B e l l Adjustment  v a l u e f o r the purpose who  will  will  study  above p r e d i c t i o n  markedly below Other  purpose  of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  o b t a i n grades  fall  one  the  selected  the b a s i s of comparison g r o u p s on t h e  are d i r e c t l y  dependent  and  the  Inventory. upon t h e  who  had  Such degree  of  c o n c l u s i o n s of such only, u n t i l  a s u f f i c i e n t l y high itself.  who  One  siblings, by  this  exactitude to concerned.  There-  r e p o r t s b y n e c e s s i t y must  evidence  degree  another.  s t u d i e s as  fore,  tentative  those  scores obtained  I n v e n t o r y measures the f a c t o r s  be  students  I n v e n t o r y f o r the  which the the  little  t o compare t h e a d j u s t -  ment of o n l y - c h i l d r e n w i t h c h i l d r e n  t h e two  between  group with  ( 1 5 ) , f o r example, a t t e m p t e d  u s i n g as  is of  prediction."  s t u d i e s have u s e d  of c o m p a r i n g  Inventory  i s present  to  of v a l i d i t y f o r t h e  support Inventory  CHAPTER  IV  METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF • MEASUREMENT  PERSONALITY  E v i d e n c e of P r o b l e m s of Measurement The the by  field  evaluation  of p e r s o n a l i t y measurement, and  o f human b e h a v i o u r ,  a l a r g e number of complex and  problems*  The  lack  of  obtained  haviour  by means of t h e  flected  i n the  in  the v a r i o u s  use  them*  positive eloped  general  evidence  of t h e  these cent the  lack  devices felt  as  less  (34)  gives  per  e i g h t y - f i v e per  questionnaire,  were " s a t i s f a c t o r y "  enty  per  or  as  cent  This  about  "very  c l a s s e d them as  that  more  cent  felt  satisfactory"  "doubtful"  in  study  t h i r t e e n per while they  a sample o f 30  per  sur-  considered  were s l i g h t l y thirty  the  in various  considered  When u s i n g  results  they  cent  of  i n essence, a  specialists  t h a n two  dev-  the u s e f u l n e s s  was,  to  fairly  were " m o d e r a t e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y " ,  p s y c h o l o g i s t s the  cent  67  is re-  e n t h u s i a s m t h a t has  study  be-  have a t t e m p t e d  well-known p s y c h o l o g i s t s .  "doubtful" value.  towards the  of  "highly satisfactory",  that they  remaining  who  concerning  a sample of  of p s y c h o l o g y ,  were of ical  of the  opinion pf  in evaluating  r e a c t i o n o f many w o r k e r s  Kornhauser  Kornhauser's  showed t h a t w i t h fields  success  disappointed  among p s y c h o l o g i s t s  questionnaire* vey  seemingly unsurmountable  personality questionnaire  study by  of  h a v e been c h a r a c t e r i z e d  psychological fields  A recent  that  favorable that  while  value.  clin-  sev-  -30 E v e n more c o n c r e t e p r o o f o f t h e e x i s t e n c e l e m s o f measurement fested, i n the l a c k validity use  i n the f i e l d  of p e r s o n a l i t y  of e x p e r i m e n t a l e v i d e n c e  of the v a r i o u s  devices that  i s t h e aim  of t h i s  of b e h a v i o u r a d i f f i c u l t Problem  field  have been o f f e r e d f o r  utes.  only  i n Chapter  prob-  aspects  lack  o f agreement  difficulty  i s the f a c t ,  I, t h a t  as t o j u s t what t h e  The  q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of  t h e most commonly s t a t e d  noticed  agreement  t h e r e i s no  term  also  i n the realm  i n the  in definition  the present time  "personality"  i n the f i e l d  i s being used  can be m e a s u r e d and  a measurable  disagreement  of p s y c h o l o g i c a l  entity.  come b y r e s t r i c t i n g  b y t h o s e who  I t appears  t h o s e who  the  that  integration  of a l l the b e h a v i o u r  a c e r t a i n amount  reactions  individual that  that  i t i s not  be  he  and  over-  suggested  t o r e f e r , f o r example, t o t h e  the  that  term  believe  believe that  " p e r s o n a l i t y " , as  (2,p.399),  scientif-  of v i e w p o i n t s p r e s -  at l e a s t , ambiguity could  the term  have  consistent  i t s more  of p s y c h o l o g y  b o t h by  by A n d e r s o n  t h a t make t h e p e r s o n  w h i c h we  i s evidenced  science.  It i s possible  of t h e d i v e r g e n c e and,  i n the  "personality" constit-  i n i t s p o p u l a r u s a g e compared t o  i c meaning but  it  the  task.  o f p e r s o n a l i t y measurement  already  at  to support  of D e f i n i t i o n  Perhaps  ent  i s mani-  s e c t i o n to r e v i e w t h e s e  lems o f measurement t h a t make the  not  prob-  (16). It  The  of  unique  conditions  is.  Such a  view  -31would  imply that  measured s i n c e  "personality",  the s i n g l e case  as d e f i n e d ,  i s meaningless  statistical  sense.  However, A n d e r s o n  states  that  the various  within  a s i m i l a r f r a m e w o r k a n d each  some d e g r e e o f v a r i o u s traits urable.  even  another term  (2,p.401) f u r t h e r  in  implying  Although, t h i s suggested  certain  ambiguities  of true  o f measurement such d e v i c e s standards. ficult units  ectly  lies  within  be e q u a l a n d d i r e c t l y  as t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e The p r o b l e m  common  definition.  measurement  the fundamental  include  that  comparable.  the units Obviously  do n o t meet t h e s e  of e q u a l u n i t s h a s become a  i t i s not possible  dif-  to add  o r , of c o u r s e , t o compare them  one w i t h t h e o t h e r .  rigid  of p e r s o n a l i t y f o r u n l e s s t h e  c a n be assumed e q u a l t h e n directly  "Appeasement"  of p e r s o n a l i t y  measurement w h i c h  one i n t h e measurement  these u n i t s  degree  Units  means o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  principles  so-called  means o f o v e r c o m i n g  i n inadequate  One o f t h e m a i n p r o b l e m s by  devised  i n some  of measuring these  i t does s u g g e s t a p o s s i b l e inherent  or  of these  are present  traits,  of E q u a l  certain  t h e meaning o f t h e term  that  does n o t overcome t h e p r o b l e m s  The P r o b l e m  that  should be s e l e c t e d  o r common t r a i t s  a l l individuals.  develop  i n d i v i d u a l possesses  to r e f e r t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l as a composite generalized  strictly  i f t h e y a r e n o t d i r e c t l y meas-  Then a f t e r r e s t r i c t i n g  "personality",  n o t be  ina  components of p e r s o n a l i t y  common t r a i t s ,  are quantitative  could  S i n c e most p e r s o n a l i t y  dir-  tests  -32are  constructed  the  form  of a score,  limitations, as  to yield  rough  a statement  of the individual i n  then c o n s i d e r i n g  these scores,  at best,  their theoretical  can be c o n s i d e r e d  e s t i m a t e s , and t h e i r u t i l i t y  will  upon w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y make p o s s i b l e of t h e v a r i a b l e Problems  of I n d i v i d u a l Also  poses and  referent.  universal  sciences  in personality  is  taking  evaluated  stances, ific  rary  standards  This personality variable"  Here, then,  occur because  r e l a t i v e nature  are  of standards that  these a r b i t r a r y standards  urement t h a t  i s an  measurement, no  test l i k e the  At times, because  individual.  agreement  of behav-  a r b i t r a r y standards.  a personality  i n terms  a c e r t a i n group.  i s , f o r pur-  i s p r e s e n t , and e v a l u a t i o n s  i o u r become b a s e d upon v a r i o u s individual  there  standard f o r which there  However,  agreement  t o measure.  the p r i n c i p l e of universal  i n some c a s e s a u n i t  actual  description  Differences  i n the physical  of v e r i f i c a t i o n ,  b e dependent  a better  whioh t h e y a r e d e s i g n e d  only  questionnaire,  are arrived at f o r  of p a r t i c u l a r  circum-  do n o t a p p l y t o a s p e c -  enter those errors  the t e s t using  i s not designed  The  o f meas-  f i x e d and a r b i t -  t o make a l l o w a n c e s f o r t h e  of adjustment.  last  paragraph  suggests those  measurement t h a t  of the i n d i v i d u a l .  a r i s e from t h e Many e r r o r s  t h e r e s u l t of the f a c t that  a s k e d t o make judgments t h a t  d i f f i c u l t i e s of "uncontrolled  of measurement  the Individual  i s often  a r e beyond h i s d i s c r i m i n a t i v e  -33ability.  The  maladjusted  individual,  unaware o f t h e  true nature  f o r e unable to  answer a c c o r d i n g l y .  always the  problem  m i n i n g whether the he  is giving  The  importance  validity  and  fact  subject  in  the  that  be  c h i e f reasons  is  often  there-  there  measurement  of  a n s w e r s , w i t t i n g l y or  is  deter-  or  whether  otherwise.  f a c t o r s upon t h e r e s u l t i n g  of t h e  test  some r e s e a r c h e r s f o r the  is  Then a g a i n ,  i s answering h o n e s t l y  o f t h e s e two  reliability  example,  of h i s c o n d i t i o n , and  in questionnaire  "deceiving"  for  lack  of  results is  evidenced  (S3;47) consider the  success  of  them  to  question-  naires. The  Effect  of  Test  McQuitty  Items  (39) attempted  o f p e r s o n a l i t y measurement by sonality test. that  test  He  intelligence  of the  of  p.35) in  the  that  of  the  questions  ence t e s t  the  i n the  day One  items are  to object  evidence main f a c t o r ,  only  one  as  and  intellig-  items.  In  McQuitty  the  (39,  r e l a t i o n s h i p " while  items,  the  Consequently,  i n d i v i d u a l has,  per-  intelligence  n a t u r e of the  t e s t s the  to s e l f " .  questions,  of  r e s u l t s i n lower v a l i d i t y  "...an o b j e c t  "...object  problems  nature  of the  of present  case of p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t  one  the  the  p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s compared t o  intelligence  states  with  t e s t s a r e more v a l i d .  ence t e s t s i s i n h e r e n t case  that  the b a s i s  that McQuitty reports reliability  deal  comparing  c o n t r u c t i o n with  assumed on  to  i n the  relationship is i n answering  case  of  c o r r e c t answer w h i l e  intelligin  -34personality instead  tests  there  an a n s w e r t h a t  uational  factors  i s d e p e n d e n t upon a v a r i e t y o f s i t -  a f f e c t i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l , w h i c h may o r  may n o t r e m a i n c o n s t a n t addition,  when s c o r i n g  telligence however,  i n t h e case  element  is  "correct"  o f doubt  and  systematic  ing  and s c o r i n g  course, lead Concept  alysis  endent t r a i t s  test  answer,  i s always given  behaviour.  possibility  o f measurement t o o c c u r  of chance  i n t h e answer-  items t h a t  w i l l , of  and v a l i d i t y .  "trait" difficulty  i n personality  (39,p.44) p e r t a i n s  on p e r s o n a l i t y  within  t o the concept of  tests  fail  f a c t o r i a l an-  to reveal  studies  indep-  reveal  indep-  intelligence tests. (9;10) h o l d  can and s h o u l d be d e s c r i b e d  and i n d e p e n d e n t  measurement men-  e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t  Such men a s C a t t e l l  traits.  (1) o v e r t h e v i e w t h a t  have e x a c t l y  t h e same c o m b i n a t i o n  t h i s view by s t a t i n g  t o the view  agrees  no two p e r s o n s  of t r a i t s ,  (9,p.56):  that  i n terms o f d i s -  However, C a t t e l l  with A l l p o r t  limits  there  individual's  t o t h e same e x t e n t t h a t  endent f a c t o r s  crete  tests  i s a much g r e a t e r  a n d he g i v e s  studies  i s the correct  w h e t h e r t h e answer  of a c e r t a i n  of p e r s o n a l i t y  by M c Q u i t t y  personality  what  t o lower r e l i a b i l i t y of  In  the responses t o t h e items o f i n -  concerning  errors  Another  "traits",  one t e s t i n g t o a n o t h e r .  of p e r s o n a l i t y  in light  Consequently there  tioned  from  t e s t s we know e x a c t l y  the  The  i s no " r i g h t o r wrong a n s w e r " b u t  ever  b u t he d e -  " H e r e d i t y and  envir-  -35onment  are sufficiently  alike  ture t o give s u b s t a n t i a l l y mature a d u l t s " . he c a l l s traits"  t h e same f o r m  "common t r a i t s "  of behavior of  w h i c h c a n be m e a s u r e d , a n d  (cf.p.31) w h i c h c a n n o t be m e a s u r e d .  o r as a simple  of a t r a i t  cluster  t a i n e d b y means o f a f a c t o r i a l (9,p.580)  i n one c u l -  C a t t e l l makes a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n what  he d i s p u t e s t h e d e f i n i n g factor,  f o r most p e o p l e  merely  In a d d i t i o n ,  as a  of c o r r e l a t i n g analysis.  "unique  mathematical  elements ob-  Instead,  Cattell  states: The d e t e r m i n i n g o f t r a i t s must p r o c e e d b y t h e u n i v e r s a l method o f d i s c o v e r i n g c o v a r i a t i o n a n d i n e v i t a b l e s e q u e n c e among observed events. F a c t o r s which r e p r e s e n t s o u r c e s Of c o v a r i a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n h i g h c l u s t e r s correspond t o t r a i t s .  He a l s o alysis  p o i n t s o u t t h a t other, methods, s u c h o f v a r i a n c e , s h o u l d be used  y s i s which a l o n e determining is  along  The p u r p o s e  t o s e e k common v a r i a t i o n among v a r i a b l e s  degree t o which a t e s t  scores  f o r individuals  over  t r a d i t i o n a l methods u s e d test-retest split-half  i n the  of behaviour.  o f R e l i a b i l i t y and  In r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g of a t e s t ,  anal-  o f t h e v a r i o u s methods  Problems R e l a t e d t o t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t Validity .  the  with f a c t o r  c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t  of t r a i t s .  the r e l i a b i l i t y  as t h a t o f a n -  of evidence f o r  the problem here  i s t o show  produces c o n s i s t e n t l y a p e r i o d of time.  t o determine  similar  The t h r e e  reliability  are the  method, t h e a l t e r n a t e - f o r m s method, and t h e method.  Each  of t h e s e  t h r e e methods g i v e some  -36estimate tical  the  reliability,  but they  are not iden-  and each has i t s own u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s and e a c h  subject that  of the t e s t ' s  to certain  limitations.  I t i s important  a k n o w l e d g e b e h a d o f t h e s e methods when coefficients  of c o r r e l a t i o n .  Considering  t e s t method, whereby t h e s u b j e c t s t a k e again,  there  i s the d i f f i c u l t y  of  the f i r s t  of  the a c t i v i t i e s  terim.  testing  interpreting the t e s t - r e -  t h e same t e s t  of determining  over  the effect  upon t h e s e c o n d as w e l l a s t h e e f f e c t  of the various  Therefore,  therefore  t h i s method  subjects  during  the i n -  i s not s u f f i c i e n t  when  these  u n c o n t r o l l e d f a c t o r s a r e known t o o p e r a t i v e t o s u c h an e x tent the  that the results split-half  will  be d i f f i c u l t  method t h e t e s t  i s divided into  w h i c h a r e assumed t o b e two s t r i c t l y A criticism  which a r e c a p a b l e coefficients. that  items, tency the  then  t h e method y i e l d s  is  procedures  (24,p.275).  as i n t h e case  of the f i r s t  to believe  of c o n s i s -  under such c o n d i t i o n s t h e b e s t o f  the problem o f determining  affect  reason  a good i n d i c a t i o n  method assumes t h a t t h e two t e s t s here,  i s every  reliability  c o n t a i n a random sample of s i m i l a r  and i s c o n s i d e r e d  Obviously,  there are  quite different  I f , however, t h e r e  traditional  halves.  c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o h a l v e s and  of producing  t h e two h a l v e s  i s that  In  two s e c t i o n s  comparable  (24,p.276) o f t h i s method  many ways i n w h i c h a t e s t  to interpret.  testing  The a l t e r n a t e - f o r m s  a r e comparable  of the s p l i t - h a l f  i f there  forms. method,  i s any s i g n i f i c a n t  upon t h e s e c o n d , a s w e l l a s  establishing  evidence that  t h e two f o r m s  Concerning the e s t a b l i s h i n g t e s t , t h e main d i f f i c u l t y eria,  that  related  discussed example, ality  earlier  results.  t o t h e problem (see p.30).  the question  sequently,  i n the f i e l d  seem o n l y l o g i c a l  that  i n turn  crit-  to cor-  i s , of course, that  was  To e l u c i d a t e , and i n way o f the v a l i d i t y  of a " p e r s o n -  when a t t h e o n -  but a few phases  a n d i n a d d i t i o n h a v e weak  the exact d e f i n i t i o n tics  difficulty  of d e f i n i t i o n  of f i n d i n g  evidence f o r the r e l i a b i l i t y  of a  adequate  w i t h which  t e s t " becomes a m e a n i n g l e s s p r o b l e m  d e f i n e d whole,  would  of f i n d i n g  This  s e t we a r e a d m i t t e d l y m e a s u r i n g ly  of the v a l i d i t y  a r e i n themselves r e l i a b l e ,  r e l a t e with the t e s t directly  i s that  are equal.  of a poor-  supporting  of the c r i t e r i o n  used.  Con-  o f " p e r s o n a l i t y " measurement i t that  measurement b e p r e c e d e d b y  of q u a l i t a t i v e  behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s -  c a n be c o n v e r t e d t o q u a n t i t a t i v e  descrip-  tion. In t h e c h a p t e r we have d i s c u s s e d t h e p r o b l e m o f measurement  i n the l i g h t  assumptions  u n d e r l y i n g measurement, t h e f a c t o r  ual  d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e lack  terms, t h e a f f e c t eral  problems  of p o i n t s  of s a t i s f a c t o r y  of the nature of t e s t  a comprehensive  of i n d i v i d -  d e f i n i t i o n of  i t e m s , and t h e gen-  pertaining t o the gathering  idence concerning r e l i a b i l i t y has n o t b e e n  such a s , the t h e o r e t i c a l  of s u p p o r t i n g e v -  and v a l i d i t y .  Although  this  review, i t i s s u f f i c i e n t to  i n d i c a t e t h e import of t h e problems  that remain unsolved  -38in the f i e l d  of p e r s o n a l i t y  measurement*  CHAPTER V EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES This in  carrying  chapter w i l l  out t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n  d e s c r i b e t h e sample form  or s p e c i a l  Description The twelve  girls  followed  of t h e problem, and w i l l  o f s u b j e c t s employed, a n d e x p l a i n a n y  d e v i c e used  i n t h e study.  of subjects t o t a l number  students from  couver,  o u t l i n e the procedures  British  of s u b j e c t s u s e d  the K i t s i l a n o  Columbia.  a n d 103 b o y s ,  were 207 g r a d e  Senior High  School, Van-  T h i s g r o u p c o n s i s t e d o f 104  who r a n g e d  from  16 y e a r s t o 19 y e a r s  i n a g e , w i t h a mean age o f 17.7 y e a r s . The neighbours  s c h o o l from which t h e s t u d e n t s were upon a wide s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  it  i s assumed t h a t  of  grade  twelve  Administration The  the group used  students  area.  throughout  the c i t y .  of t h e Inventory  Bell  Adjustment  t h e Manual of I n s t r u c t i o n s  Inventory  was a d m i n i s t e r e d b y  103 b o y s .  the  I n v e n t o r y was a g a i n a d m i n i s t e r e d .  The  After  an i n t e r i m  of approximately  o f 100 b o y s a n d 82 g i r l s ,  reliability  contained within  ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) , t o 104  and  retest  Consequently,  is f a i r l y representative  the w r i t e r , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i r e c t i o n s  consisted  selected  The r e t e s t  used  girls  sixty  days  group  f o r obtaining test-  coefficients.  Interview One  of t h e procedures  used  in this  s t u d y was t h a t  -40of  i n t e r v i e w i n g 102 Prior  the by  grade twelve  to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the  conducting  of the  i n t e r v i e w , the students  and  any  viewer  have i t d i s c u s s e d *  and  told  and  them f o r t h e may  accomplished  i n t e r v i e w s and  the  students The  conditions First,  was  the purpose  of a r o u s i n g t h e i r  i n meeting the Inventory  with  t h e i r understanding  with  them.  of p r e p a r i n g interest*  co-operation  served to f u l f i l  It  obtained  several  o n l y 102  boys.  time f a c t o r  The  the boys.  which c o m p l i e d  referred  to).  w r i t e r used  discussed  p o s s i b l e to in prefer-  counsellors during the  course  with  Secondly,  Inventory.  be  inter-  the s u g g e s t i o n by  the  f o r t h e Home, S o c i a l ,  the Adjustment  boys  students  However, t h e g i r l s w e r e  Bell  i n t e r v i e w served as  means o f g a t h e r i n g d a t a f o r p u r p o s e s evidence  i t was  Bell  that better rapport could  the v a r i o u s g i r l s '  the term  given to the  t h a t the r e s u l t s w i l l be  i n the b e l i e f  e s t a b l i s h e d with  s u g g e s t i o n g i v e n by  s h o u l d be  (Because of the  ence t o g i r l s  just  inter-  t h a t were a d v a n t a g e o u s t o t h e s t u d y as a w h o l e .  (5,p.30) t h a t t h e  v i e w e d by  desired  excellent.  interview technique  i t helped  interview  to  T h i s p r e l i m i n a r y announce-  be s t a t e d , i n p a s s i n g , t h a t t h e  from  who  p r o b l e m t h a t t h e y m i g h t have t o t h e  ment t o t h e s t u d e n t s  of  were  that i n a d d i t i o n those  could take  ing  Inventory  t h e B o y s ' Head C o u n s e l l o r t h a t t h e y would be a s k e d  take p a r t i n a study  of  boys.  a  of o b t a i n i n g v a l i d a t -  and  Thirdly,  Emotional the  seotions  interview provid-  -41ed t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e a c t u a l the c o u n s e l l i n g So t h a t and  so t h a t  use of the I n v e n t o r y i n  situation. each  s t u d e n t w o u l d be made t o f e e l  good c o - o p e r a t i o n w o u l d  ensue, each  a t ease  subject  was g r e e t e d c o r d i a l l y and e x p l a i n e d t h e p u r p o s e -of t h e i n t e r view. the  I t was c l e a r l y b r o u g h t  t o the students a t t e n t i o n  i n t e r v i e w s were c o m p l e t e l y Interviewing  f o r t y t o n i n e t y min-  of approximately f i f t y  Procedures Used i n V a l i d a t i n g of t h e I n v e n t o r y Next  confidential.  time ranged from  u t e s , w i t h a median t i m e  that  minutes.  t h e Home A d j u s t m e n t  to actually v i s i t i n g  Section  t h e s t u d e n t s * homes, t h e  i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e was c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most e x a c t i n g means a v a i l a b l e whereby t h e home a d j u s t m e n t c o u l d be s t u d i e d .  In a d d i t i o n ,  the  and i n c o n v e n i e n c e  impracticality  home v i s i t s , appeared cerning which  i s of major  The  a means o f d i s -  in this  i n the f i n a l  environment  e v a l u a t i o n of t h e  area.  interview technique presented several  intrinsically  concerned  with the establishment  was d e c i d e d a t t h e o n s e t  concerned  because i t  own a t t i t u d e t o h i s home  importance  f a c t o r s of  o f making p e r s o n a l  t o have t h e a d v a n t a g e o f a f f o r d i n g  student's adjustment  It  t o t h e obvious  t h e i n t e r v i e w method was c h o s e n  the student*s  of the students  with  that  problems  of c o n t r o l s .  t h e p a r t of t h e i n t e r v i e w  t h e e v a l u a t i n g o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s home a d j u s t -  ment, w o u l d be a " c o n t r o l l e d  i n t e r v i e w " so t h a t  the separate  -42results that  would  have c o m p a r a t i v e m e a n i n g .  although controls are necessary, r i g i d i t y  formality will ticence  o f t e n produce  and p o o r  Consequently, with t h i s duct  not  negative affects  c o - o p e r a t i o n , as m e n t i o n e d  by r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e f i e l d  but  within  certain  limits  so t h a t  such as r e -  was made t o c o n -  of i n f o r m a l i t y  t h e main o b j e c t i v e s  would  suffer. controls  pertaining  summarized as f o l l o w s :  ( a ) each  same q u e s t i o n s ; (b) t h e w o r d i n g remained  i n d i v i d u a l was a s k e d t h e and sequence  o u t b y t h e same i n t e r v i e w e r ;  o f i n t e r v i e w s were h e l d  disturbances; rapport  t o t h e i n t e r v i e w may b e  of questions  t h e same f o r a l l s t u d e n t s ; ( c ) a l l t h e i n t e r v i e w s  were c a r r i e d  far  extreme  (6;19;29).  i n mind, a n attempt degree  and  consistently  of interviewing  the interviews with a c e r t a i n  The  set  I t s h a l l be n o t e d  i n a private  (e) t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g  was a t t e m p t e d  as p o s s i b l e ,  throughout;  (d) t h e c o m p l e t e office  free  from  and m a i n t a i n i n g o f good ( f ) t h e responses, as  were r e c o r d e d v e r b a t i m .  The C o n s t r u c t i o n o f I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n s f o r E v a l u a t i n g S t u d e n t Home A d j u s t m e n t ' The related  t o home a d j u s t m e n t  literature sidered After it  procedure used t o s e l e c t  suitable questions  commenced b y l i s t i n g  from the  (5; 7;17;31;37;40;41;54) t h o s e home f a c t o r s  important by l e a d i n g  these various  was o b s e r v e d t h a t  organization  into  psychologists  con-  and s o c i o l o g i s t s .  p o i n t s were g a t h e r e d from t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h e y c o u l d be d i v i d e d  the following  f o r purposes of  interrelated  areas:  -431.  "Confidence  tempting urity  i n Parents",  t o determine  these  student 2.  of s e c u r i t y  is a feeling  actually  adjustments  observed  o f " c l o s e n e s s " or " d i s t a n c e "  that the parents  i n matters  have made t o e a c h  such a s t h e i r mutual  seeking  circumstances which  interests,  and F a t h e r " ,  t o d i s c o v e r t h e amount  that produce  disagreements  cause unpleasantness  to the previous section  m o t h e r and s t u d e n t  of d i s c o r d  i n t h e home*  and Mother", which i s  but dealing with the  relationships*  "Sense o f Home's Worth", p e r t a i n s t o t h e s o c i a l a n d sufficiency  attitude  t o w a r d s , a n d e s t i m a t i o n o f , t h e home  "Social  social  o f t h e home a n d t h e s t u d e n t ' s  Participation  questions r e l a t i n g  of S t u d e n t  t o the nature  relationships,  participation ion  that  t h e types of  economic  6.  includes  d i s p u t e s , and t h e e x t e n t t o  " G e n e r a l Harmony Between S t u d e n t  identical  other  c o - o p e r a t i o n , and g e n e r a l c o m p a t a b i l i t y .  e x i s t s between t h e f a t h e r a n d t h e s t u d e n t ,  5.  t o which the  does c o n f i d e i n h i s p a r e n t s .  " G e n e r a l Harmony Between S t u d e n t  questions  4.  or i n s e c -  with h i s par-  r e l a t i o n s , and t o discern the extent  affection, 3.  the feelings  " F a t h e r a n d M o t h e r R e l a t i o n s h i p s " , d e a l s w i t h t h e mar-  ital as  includes questions a t -  t h a t t h e s u b j e c t has i n h i s r e l a t i o n s  e n t s , whether t h e r e in  which  assuming  general  itself*  with Parents",  contains  of t h e s t u d e n t - p a r e n t  that a c t i v e  and c o n g e n i a l  between members o f t h e f a m i l y i s an i n d i c a t -  of s a t i s f a c t o r y  home c o n d i t i o n s , w h i l e t h e l a c k o f s u c h  -44participation, indicative 7,  especially  when c i r c u m s t a n c e s  o f an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y home  "Harmony Between S t u d e n t  which  deals with both  e l y the 8,  A  Other  get a l o n g with  check.  also  Since the  cover a l l the p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s  the  was  he  any  considered pertinent  of h i s p a r t i c u l a r home After  Family",  relatand  adequat-  each  other.  included, mainly  interview questions  and  conditions,  do  this  i n c l u d e d so a s t o g i v e e a c h s u b j e c t  o p p o r t u n i t y of s t a t i n g  that  of t h e  i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g how  " m i s c e l l a n e o u s " s e c t i o n was  eighth section  Members of t h e  with h i s b r o t h e r s , s i s t e r s ,  o t h e r members t h e m s e l v e s  as a s u p p l e m e n t a r y not  seeks  i t ,is  environment,  the g e n e r a l atmosphere  i o n s between t h e s t u d e n t o t h e r members and  and  afford  additional  :circumstances  to the f u r t h e r  understanding  situation.  determining  the content f o r the q u e s t i o n s t o -  g e t h e r w i t h a p l a n f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , the next c o n s i d e r a t i o n was  that  of the a c t u a l  lem  h e r e was  would y i e l d reactions, way be  that  but  a sufficient as w e l l  levels  as f a c t s  about  of c o m p a r i s o n  o n l y one  of two  qualifying  of  t h e home, a n d  The  "yes" or  Some of t h e "no"  behaviour i n such  the  phrases  single  subject's replies  such as  "how  a  could  questions  which, of  e x t r e m e s t o any  prob-  responses  between t h e s t u d e n t s  these responses.  i n t h e m a j o r i t y of c a s e s  d i r e c t e d by  questions.  number of examples  answered by e i t h e r  would y i e l d  of the  t o word t h e q u e s t i o n s so t h a t t h e  estimated from  c o u l d be  stating  course, aspect, were  o f t e n i n a week? * 1  -45"could ion  you g i v e  an e x a m p l e ? " w h i c h , s h o u l d r e q u i r e d e l i m i t a t -  and e x p l a n a t i o n  ination  i n the task  were c h o s e n stances  a n d w h i c h w o u l d make f o r f i n e r of r a t i n g .  i n an attempt  reflective  In b r i e f ,  were worded s o t h a t  the  students  the questions  t o sample b e h a v i o u r a n d  of home c o n d i t i o n s  and  discrim-  circum-  a n d home a t t i t u d e s ,  q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between  c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d  on t h e b a s i s  of t h e r e s -  ponses. Before original  list,  the f i n a l  list  of q u e s t i o n s  which c o n s i s t e d  was p r e p a r e d , t h e  of e i g h t y - f o u r  questions  p r e p a r e d b y t h e a u t h o r , was s u b m i t t e d t o s e v e n p e r s o n s sisting school  of f i v e  p s y c h o l o g y major s t u d e n t s ,  and two  c o u n s e l l o r s , who r e v i e w e d t h e q u e s t i o n s  each a s e i t h e r " e x c e l l e n t " , "good", o r " f a i r " upon t h e i r  own o p i n i o n  of the s u i t a b i l i t y  con-  high-  a n d marked depending  of e a c h  question.  In a d d i t i o n , t h e y were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e i f a n y q u e s t i o n appeared p o o r l y tions  that  questions, eration. eight  worded o r ambiguous a n d to i n c l u d e a n y q u e s -  they considered eight  in all,  On t h e b a s i s  potentially useful.  were i n t u r n s u b m i t t e d f o r  of these r a t i n g s and  of the e i g h t y - f o u r  The new  original  questions  consid-  suggestions, were  omitted,  f o u r new ones a d d e d , a n d s i x r e v i s e d g i v i n g a t o t a l o f eighty  questions  justment eighty  which c o m p r i s e d t h e f i n a l  interview  questions  were p r e - t e s t e d  questions  before  being  s e t of home a d -  (see A p p e n d i x B ) . used  These  i n the interview  on f o u r g r a d e t w e l v e s t u d e n t s  proper  t o determine  -46if  any q u e s t i o n s were n o t s u i t a b l e  view  situation.  Although  during the actual  a l l o f t h e q u e s t i o n s were  ed some m i n o r r e v i s i o n s were made t o a s s u r e b o t h  interretain-  clarity  and c o n c i s e n e s s . Method U s e d t o Rate  Student  on Home  Adjustment  During t h e i n t e r v i e w the responses t o t h e q u e s t i o n s on home a d j u s t m e n t s p e c i a l l y prepared form  of the students  were r e c o r d e d on a  (see A p p e n d i x B ) .  Since the f i n a l  r a t i n g s t o b e g i v e n w e r e t o b e made a t a l a t e r of p r i m e  importance  that  date  i t was  t h e comments be r e c o r d e d v e r b a t i m  as f a r a s p o s s i b l e * For c l a r i t y view  the f a c t  that  home a d j u s t m e n t i s agreed tained  rated.  were d i v i d e d  into seven broad  In t h i s c a s e  of t h e seven  used ent.  t h e main f a c t o r t h a t i s  s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n s , and  In a d d i t i o n , a n o t h e r method t h a t c o u l d be to the individual  o b t a i n an o v e r a l l r a t i n g  of t h e s e w e i g h t e d  o f r a t i n g s a r e ob-  o b t a i n an o v e r a l l r a t i n g on  u s e d w o u l d be t o a s s i g n w e i g h t s then  It  i t would be p o s s i b l e t o r a t e t h e  then by u s i n g these r a t i n g s home a d j u s t m e n t *  areas.  i s g i v e n s e v e r a l p a r t r a t i n g s on  contained within  on e a c h  to re-  the interview questions p e r t a i n i n g t o  i f the individual  individual  and  i t i s important  (21;57) t h a t g r e a t e r v a l i d i t y  various factors being  of d i s c u s s i o n ,  values.  i n obtaining a f i n a l  on t h e b a s i s  items  o f t h e sum  A c t u a l l y , both procedures composite  rating  were  f o r each s t u d -  -47The  final  rating  g i v e n t o each student  p o s i t e r a t i n g made b y t h e w r i t e r w i t h two  members* o f t h e Department  College, both  was a com-  the c o - o p e r a t i o n of  of P s y c h o l o g y ,  Oregon  State  o f whom h a v e h a d c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e i n  methods o f r a t i n g . Although idating  102 boys were i n t e r v i e w e d , t h e f i n a l  g r o u p c o n s i s t e d of 100 s t u d e n t s ,  ents b e i n g adhering  e n t s was o m i t t e d b e c a u s e certain questions. he  presented  interview  1. writer,  The s e c o n d  One o f t h e s e  s t u d e n t was o m i t t e d  that  the formal  actual  rating  stud-  because  of t h e  i t d i d not appear  interview.  In t h i s  clinically  case, the  i m m e d i a t e p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m was d e a l t w i t h procedure  used  only.  i n obtaining the f i n a l  f o r each o f t h e 100 b o y s was a s f o l l o w s :  The two r a t e r s ,  just mentioned, together  commenced b y g i v i n g  t h e home a d j u s t m e n t  a weighted  questions  T h i s was done i n an a t t e m p t the  prevented  of h i s r e t i c e n c e i n answering  of s u c h a n a t u r e  The composite  controls.  that  a p e r s o n a l problem a t t h e b e g i n n i n g  sound t o c o n d u c t student's  two o f t h e s t u d -  omitted because of circumstances  to the experimental  val-  with the  v a l u e t o each o f  included i n the interview.  t o overcome, a t l e a s t  i n part,  fact  t h a t t h e questions a r e not of equal  import  dicators  o f u n s a t i s f a c t o r y home c o n d i t i o n s .  At f i r s t i t  was  decided  but  this  that a three-point weighting  proved  to be too f i n e  system be  a discrimination  as i n -  used,  f o r the  t. M i l t o n G o r d o n , D i r e o t o r o f t h e Oregon S t a t e C o l l e g e , Couns e l i n g Bureau, and I n s t r u c t o r i n P s y c h o l o g y . W i l l i a m F.McCormach, I n s t r u c t o r i n P s y c h o l o g y , Oregon S t a t e College.  -48raters,  and i t was d e c i d e d  Therefore,  that a two-point  e a c h q u e s t i o n was g i v e n a w e i g h t  o r two p o i n t s b y each r a t e r given  and t h e f i n a l  t o a q u e s t i o n was a r b i t r a r i l y  agreed  s y s t e m be u s e d * o f e i t h e r one  weighted  value  taicen t o be t h a t  value  upon b y two o f t h e j u d g e s .  2.  The n e x t  s t e p was t o d e v i s e  some q u a n t i t a t i v e meth-  od which c o u l d be u s e d f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g b e t w e e n t h e students' scale, given  responses.  from  any  case,  z e r o t o two, was u s e d .  t o a response  estimation  In t h i s  a convenient A weight  of "zero"  t o a q u e s t i o n was t o mean t h a t , i n t h e  of the r a t e r ,  t h e r e p l y gave no i n d i c a t i o n o f  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y home c o n d i t i o n .  A weight  o f one p o i n t  was t o be i n t e r p r e t e d as meaning t h a t t h e r e p l y that  a minor degree  was p r e s e n t . those  o f home i n a d e q u a c y  A weight  o f two p o i n t s was t o be u s e d f o r  t h a t showed a m a j o r o r s e v e r e  Therefore, both  t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e response  the value  given  t o be t h e p r o d u c t  for  each  of these  independently  it  were  gave a M i n u s S c o r e  t o each  By summing t h e t o t a l  f o r a n y one s u b j e c t , a n d d i v i d i n g  " T o t a l Minus S c o r e " .  some s t u d e n t s  It will  taken refer  Each o f t h e t h r e e  be n o t e d  a l l the s e c t i o n s d i d not apply,  question of t h e s e  by t h r e e ,  was p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n f o r him what we s h a l l  average  weighted,  two v a l u e s , w h i c h we s h a l l  f o r the question.  of the students.  Minus S c o r e s  inadequacy*  t o any one q u e s t i o n b y a r a t e r was  t o a s t h e "Minus S c o r e " raters,  indicated  or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  responses  and  three-point  c a l l , an that f o r  therefore,  -49it  was n e c e s s a r y , i n s u c h  correction  factor  c a s e s , t o m u l t i p l y by a simple  i n o r d e r t o have a s i m i l a r  denominator  throughout. 3.  After  each  individual  Minus S c o r e , t h e c o m p l e t e viewed  s t u d e n t was g i v e n a  Total  s e t o f i n t e r v i e w s were a g a i n r e -  b y t h e t h r e e r a t e r s u s i n g a n o t h e r method as t h e b a s i s  of r a t i n g .  This  f o l l o w i n g method o f r a t i n g  was done one  week l a t e r w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o a n y o f t h e r e s u l t s first  rating.  of the  The p r o c e d u r e h e r e , a s b e f o r e , was a r e v i e w  o f t h e r e s p o n s e s , b y t h e t h r e e j u d g e s who t o o k n o t e s a n d , using  the f i v e - p o i n t  descriptive  lent"  t o "Very P o o r "  referred  the i n d i v i d u a l  s c a l e r a n g i n g from  to earlier  s t u d e n t on each  "Excel-  (see p.10),  of t h e seven  rated  sections.  After  each r a t e r had i n d e p e n d e n t l y g i v e n h i s r a t i n g f o r t h e s e c tion,  t h e t h r e e judges by mutual  single rating the seven  f o r each s e c t i o n ,  o f home a d j u s t m e n t  rating  arrived  It  d e c i d e d upon a  and t h e n on t h e b a s i s o f  s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n a l r a t i n g s a g r e e d upon an  rating  will  agreement  f o rthe individual.  at by u s i n g the s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n a l  be r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e "Composite  Sectional  a time r a t h e r after  rate  the other.  on t h e f i r s t fidence  than  section  one i n d i v i d u a l  overall  ratings,  Eating".  s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t when m a k i n g t h e s e s e c t i o n a l  t h e t h r e e j u d g e s r a t e d a l l t h e s t u d e n t s on e a c h  one  This  overall  ratings,  section at  on a l l s e v e n  F o r example, a l l 100 b o y s were  sections rated  of t h e i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s ( i . e . "Con-  i n Parents") before rating  anyone on t h e n e x t s e c -  -50tion.  T h i s was  sible  "halo"  done w i t h t h e v i e w of p r e v e n t i n g  any  pos-  effect.  Therefore,  at t h i s  p o i n t , each student  c o u l d be  com-  -s.  pared  with  measure  the t o t a l group  on  the b a s i s  of a q u a n t i t a t i v e  ( i . e . h i s T o t a l M i n u s S c o r e ) and  ( i . e . h i s Composite S e c t i o n a l R a t i n g ) . ing both  o f t h e s e m e a s u r e s was  mainly  a qualitative The  should  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e felt  two  be  justify  Minus Score student  i t s use  i t was  could  on  methods.  alone.  general Scores but  i n a c t u a l i t y was  home a d j u s t m e n t . c o u l d be  alone  d i d not  a g r e a t e r element the Minus 5. the  directly  of t h e a d j u s t m e n t .  Rating  Considering  the  the  a good  of t h e  seem j u s t i f i a b l e  of s u b j e c t i v i t y  certain  than  of h i s  T o t a l Minus i n a rank of  Composite  since there  i n t h e method  order, the Sectionwas using  Scores.  Using  the  g r o u p o f 100  the h i g h e s t  T o t a l Minus Score b o y s were p l a c e d  T o t a l Minus S c o r e ,  f o r each  into  individual,  a rank order  down t o t h e  re-  final  indication  individual  use  that  interview questions  i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms The  was  Total  that a  t h a t would g i v e a  not  of  limitations  In a d d i t i o n , t h e  u s e d t o put  i t c o u l d n o t be  quality al  that  judges  In a d d i t i o n , i t  certain  s e c t i o n of t h e  c e i v e s e v e r a l h i g h Minus Scores rating  of a  the t h r e e  quite within p o s s i b i l i t y  one  us-  a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount  t h a t e a c h o f t h e methods had  would n o t  for  f o r purposes  s u p p l e m e n t a r y c h e c k , f o r i f t h e r a t i n g s by were c o n s i s t e n t t h e r e  reason  term  lowest.  from Then  -51as  t h e s t u d e n t s were a r r a n g e d  ided  into five  subgroups, v i z . "Very  "Unsatisfactory", itrary  in this  division  "Average",  order  done b y s i m p l y  number o f i n d i v i d u a l s who  were so r a t e d  their  Rating,  to t h e Composite S e c t i o n a l "Very U n s a t i s f a c t o r y " ,  therefore,  T o t a l Minus S c o r e s were p l a c e d  l a b e l l e d "Very U n s a t i s f a c t o r y " .  ual At  i n t h e same way  g r o u p on t h e b a s i s t h e group  the complete  was  reviewed  in total  rating  groups  a n d a l l t h o s e who  fell  within  T o t a l Minus S c o r e s  s e t of data  by t h e t h r e e  t h e p r o c e d u r e was  the t h r e e was  was  final  individ-  together.  from t h e group  r a t i n g was  into  any d i s c r e p a n c y  between t h e two  If  considered  r a t i n g on home a d j u s t m e n t .  However, ratings  a final  rating  by a g r e e m e n t .  Once each s t u d e n t of the interview  the degree  judges  judges reviewed such a case u n t i l  established  basis  on e a c h  with h i s Composite S e c t i o n a l R a t i n g .  the students  where t h e r e  were  t o compare t h e d e s c r i p t i o n  t h e s e two r a t i n g s a g r e e d , t h e n t h i s as  i n t o one g r o u p four  that the i n d i v i d u a l received  w h i c h he f e l l  with  rating.  Finally,  point  of  The o t h e r  of t h e i r  6.  this  the  according  the nine students  and  given  on t h e b a s i s  arb-  R a t i n g s n i n e boys were r a t e d as  highest  the  This  noting  F o r example,  the  were d i v i d e d  div-  Unsatisfactory",  "Good", " E x c e l l e n t " *  o f t h e g r o u p was  Composite S e c t i o n a l  t h e y were  was g i v e n  a final  r a t i n g on t h e  r e s u l t s , i t was p o s s i b l e  o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e  t o note  r a t i n g s and t h e  -52d e s c r i p t i v e ratings received by the students on the Home Aijustment section of the .Adjustment Inventory. Although the questions used i n the interview attempt to evaluate both the p o s i t i v e as w e l l as the negative aspect of home adjustment, the emphasis has been placed on the negative aspect. This was done i n an attempt t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e c l e a r l y at the c r i t i c a l or unsatisfactory end of the scale-, since from the counselling viewpoint i t i s more pertinent to discover those who have home d i f f i c u l t i e s than i t i s to discover those who have no seriously disturbing conditions i n the home. Procedures Used i n V a l i d a t i n g the S o c i a l Adjustment Section S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n as a c r i t e r i o n In order to establish further information con- • earning the S o c i a l section of the Inventory, an attempt was made to r e l a t e the scores made on the section with actual s o c i a l p a r t i c ipation.  Therefore, using 100 boys as a sample, i t was necess-  ary to determine to what s o c i a l groups each student belonged both at school and outside of school.  1  In order to accomplish t h i s , the  students were asked to complete a section of a form, referred to as the "Information Form" (see Appendix B) i n which the students l i s t e d the groups to which they belonged, and indicated what o f f i c e s they held and what duties they performed.  Then, during  the interview ( see p, 39 ) t h i s information was reviewed with the student, considering the following points: 1. Were-the groups included by the student good examples  of  social  functions?  Some o f t h e s o - c a l l e d  i n c l u d e d b y t h e s t u d e n t s were not r e a l l y tion  groups,  such a s c l a s s e s g i v i n g  social  groups  social-participa-  special  instruction in  school subjects. 2. group? he  A t times  had never 3.  The  participation  1.  into  to any h e t e r o s e x u a l  group?  students, be-  indicates a greater  a n d shows g r e a t e r s o c i a l  degree  adjustment  o n l y t o g r o u p s o f t h e same s e x .  the obtained  i n f o r m a t i o n t h e 100 s t u d e n t s  the f o l l o w i n g three  The f i r s t  i n the  part.  was made t h a t , f o r g r a d e t w e l v e  does b e l o n g i n g  divided  belong  t o heterosexual groups  Using  take part  i n c l u d e d an o r g a n i z a t i o n i n w h i c h  any a c t i v e  Did the student  social  than  d i d t h e student  a student  taken  assumption  longing of  To what e x t e n t  group  groups:  (Group SP I ) c o n s i s t e d of t h o s e  e n t s who d i d n o t a c t i v e l y b e l o n g  were  stud-  t o any s o c i a l - p a r t i c i p a t i o n  gro up• 2.  The s e c o n d  group  (Group SP I I ) c o n s i s t e d o f t h o s e  who a c t i v e l y b e l o n g e d  t o one o r two g r o u p s ,  s t u d e n t s who b e l o n g e d  t o more t h a n two b u t d i d n o t b e l o n g  to  any h e t e r o s e x u a l 3.  belonged ing  The t h i r d  group.  group  (Group SP I I I ) . i n c l u d e d t h o s e  t o t h r e e o r more  at least  as w e l l as those  social-participation  one h e t e r o s e x u a l  A f t e r the students  groups  who includ-  group.  were p l a c e d i n t o  g r o u p s i t was p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e  one o f t h e t h r e e  i f t h e r e was a n y e v i d -  -54-  ence of r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  s c o r e s made on t h e Social  one  that be  way  social  criterion  In t h i s  t h e t h r e e boys The 1. was  At  asked  case  actual  friends, The  ative that  as  liked  The  no  person  the b e s t *  student  "the t h r e e  c o n s i d e r as  would l i k e  t o be  your  friends"*  i t was  not  o r two  would, do,  imper-  whom t h e y p a r t i c u l a r l y to write their  own  liked. names  sheet.  s t u d e n t s were a f f o r d e d c o m p l e t e  When f i n i s h e d , t h a t was  they dropped  p r o v i d e d f o r the at the  end  of the  their  these r e s u l t s ,  the  100  tinct  The f i r s t  I ) c o n s i s t e d of t h o s e s t u d e n t s who  answers  into  i n t e r v i e w s i t was  boys were d i v i d e d group based  privacy while a  purpose.  t o o b t a i n a p o p u l a r i t y vote f o r each  groups.  to vote f o r  i n t e r v i e w each  down t h r e e names, one  would  follows:  c l a s s e s whom you  s t u d e n t s were t o l d , n o t  Therefore,  ST  u s e d was  o r b o y s w i t h whom you  t h e y put  The  c l o s e d box  they  is  decided  popularity"  s t u d e n t s were a l s o t o l d , t h a t  on t h e answer  sible,  twelve t h a t  twelve  or none i f t h e r e was  writing.  "social  i t was  s t u d e n t s were asked  procedure  Adjustment  i n group a c t i v i t i e s  i f he w o u l d w r i t e down t h e names o f  best  4.  the  of  the t e r m i n a t i o n of the  i n your grade  3.  that  i n grade  boys  2.  participation  groups  Inventory*  of S o c i a l  of e v a l u a t i n g s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t  another  used.  of the  " P o p u l a r i t y " as a C r i t e r i o n  Since but  social section  in social  student.  into  three  upon t h e v o t i n g d i d not  posUsing  dis(Group  r e c e i v e any  -55votes  o r who r e c e i v e d one v o t e .  SV I I ) c o n s i s t e d of t h o s e The  third  ceived  group  five  mine and  (Group  two t o f o u r v o t e s .  and o v e r .  these  t h r e e groups  i t was p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r -  i f t h e r e was a n y r e l a t i o n s h i p  between s o c i a l p o p u l a r i t y  t h e s c o r e s made on t h e I n v e n t o r y .  Procedures  Used  Teach  tion  in Validating  the Emotional  Section  Ratings  The  procedures  used  to evaluate t h e Emotional  i n c l u d e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i n g of an " e m o t i o n a l  rating  scale  (see Appendix  teacher's r a t i n g s structed ing  who r e c e i v e d f r o m  group  (Group SV I I I ) c o n s i s t e d o f t h o s e who r e -  votes  Using  The s e c o n d  emotional  of behaviour  rating  The r a t i n g  were a i d e d  of t h e s t u d e n t s  from  Dividing this  On t h e  of t e n signs  rated.  one t o s e v e n Symonds  behaviour  The  charac-  s c a l e , which t h e t e a c h e r s into  seven  rated.  {52) f o u n d  t h a t optimum  for  r a t i n g s c a l e s i s obtained with  a seven-point  (23)  stud-  reliability  E a c h s t u d e n t was r a t e d b y t h r e e t e a c h e r s s i n c e i t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed  were  parts, a score  c o u l d be o b t a i n e d f o r each  ent  ently,  in defin-  b y t h e t e a c h e r s were made on a g r a p h i c  t o c o n s i d e r as a continuum,  ranging  con-  problems which t h e t e a c h e r s  p r i n t e d below these t e n emotional  teristics.  s c a l e was  a r e t o be found a l i s t behaviour  adjustment"  i n obtaining  t h a t t h e y were r a t i n g .  t o c h e c k f o r each  actual ratings  asked  form  t o emotional  were a s k e d  scale  o f 90 b o y s .  i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e r a t e r s  the type  related  C) w h i c h was u s e d  sec-  scale. independ-  t h a t , with  certain  factors  controlled, validity  increase ratings rating  of r a t i n g s  i n t h e number o f r a t e r s  used.  g i v e n , i t would be p o s s i b l e  to obtain a  Concerning addition  1.  the Emotional  98 s t u d e n t s  During  was a s k e d  Adjustment  section,  the w r i t e r , i n  on e m o t i o n a l  one s e c t i o n  problems,  information  adjustment:  of the i n t e r v i e w the student  i f he h a d any p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s a n d  emotional  single  o b t a i n e d c o u l d be  t o the above, g a t h e r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g  concerning  the three  of t h e I n v e n t o r y .  Composite R a t i n g s of E m o t i o n a l  of  Averaging  f o r each s t u d e n t , a n d t h e r e s u l t s  oompared w i t h t h o s e  any  i n c r e a s e w i t h an  specifically  w h i c h were d e f i n e d t o him by way  examples. 2.  Each s t u d e n t  otional  was r a t e d b y t h e w r i t e r  s t a b i l i t y a s d i s p l a y e d by h i s b e h a v i o u r  interview.  The e m o t i o n a l  (see p.55),  was u s e d  3. into  rating  for this  form,  The S c h o o l N u r s e was a s k e d  three l e v e l s  of emotional  "nervous  described  em-  during the earlier  purpose. t o group the students  adjustment  t h e h e a l t h r e c o r d s w h i c h made p r o v i s i o n  nurse  on g e n e r a l  on t h e b a s i s o f  f o r recording  symptoms" t h a t were d e t e c t e d by t h e p h y s i c i a n o r  during the p h y s i o a l examinations.  placed the students "marked e m o t i o n a l  into t h r e e groups:  instability"  The S c h o o l ( a ) t h o s e who  showed  according to the records;  (b) t h o s e who  showed s i g n s o f m i n o r e m o t i o n a l  (c) those  showed no e m o t i o n a l  who  Nurse  troubles;  difficulties.  -57TTsing t h e by t h e  Information  S c h o o l N u r s e , and  s t u d e n t s were d i v i d e d (Group E  I ) was  at  two  least  but  one  third who sets one  by t h e w r i t e r ' s own  into  composed  of those  who  The  second  first  group  the  group  on t h e a g r e e m e n t  (Group E I I I ) was  showed no  (Group E I I ) were  those  difficulties  of i n f o r m a t i o n .  i t was  any  The  number of b o y s u s e d section  of the  Inventory  98.  S c h o o l Nurse to use  sufficiently  for classifying be  noted  Similarly,  i t will  validation  of the H e a l t h s e c t i o n  Procedures  Used  the  into the  Inventory  scores  and  Health Adjustment of t h e  groups  attempt  made  however  to the school  their  complete f o r t h e t h e s e two  also  students. f o r the  c o n s i s t e d of  the H e a l t h Adjustment s e c t i o n was  Inventory  was  throughout,  t h a t t h e sample used  in Validating  results  An  students  s t u d e n t s were r e l a t i v e l y new  h e a l t h r e c o r d s were n o t  the  section  i n the v a l i d a t i n g  totalled  t o keep t h e same sample o f 100  The  of  ratings.  for the Emotional  s i n c e two  any  p o s s i b l e t o compare  agreement b e t w e e n t h e  the c r i t e r i o n  students  d i s t u r b a n c e s on  Emotional  on The  Once t h e s t u d e n t s were d i v i d e d  of t h e t h r e e g r o u p s ,  note  composed o f t h o s e  signs of emotional  of  emotional  of the s e t s of i n f o r m a t i o n mentioned above.  group  paring  who  The  were shown t o have e m o t i o n a l  g r o u p s c o r e s made on t h e and  three groups.  student,  ratings,  of t h e a b o v e r e p o r t s showed m a j o r  difficulties. students  as s u p p l i e d b y "the  98. Section  e v a l u a t e d by  com-  w i t h r a t i n g s , made by  -58th 9 School  Nurse,  of t h e h e a l t h  It  should  be e x p l a i n e d  couver each s t u d e n t by  a qualified  addition,  i s given  physician  that  i n the school  a yearly physical  returning  i n Van-  examination  and t h e r e s u l t s a r e r e c o r d e d *  at the K i t s i l a n o High School  away b e c a u s e o f i l l n e s s fore  of t h e s t u d e n t s .  must r e p o r t  each student  t o the School  t o c l a s s e s , and a r e c o r d  i s kept  In  who i s  Nurse be-  of these  visits* The  School  N u r s e d i v i d e d 98 male s t u d e n t s  three  g r o u p s on t h e b a s i s  first  group  ing  whose p r e s e n t  records  health  c r i b e d from  "fair"  i s classified  students records  was e x c e l l e n t *  ratings  given  present  health  groups  as poor.  of t h e i r  on t h e b a s i s  I t should  accord-  des-  health of those  of t h e h e a l t h  b e made c l e a r t h a t t h e  N u r s e was o f t h e s t u d e n t s '  i n terms o f t h e i r  the students  who  who were  (Group H I I I ) c o n s i s t e d  by the School status  The  The s e c o n d  of those students  whose p h y s i c a l h e a l t h  After  of students  t o "good" on t h e b a s i s  The t h i r d g r o u p  records.  had a h i s t o r y o f i l l n e s s e s and  (Group H I I ) c o n s i s t e d  records.  health  (Group H I ) was composed  to the health  group  of t h e i r  into  past  health  history*  were d i v i d e d i n t o t h e v a r i o u s  i t was p o s s i b l e t o compare t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e I n v e n -  tory with  t h e r a t i n g s made b y t h e S c h o o l  Nurse.  Self-Ratings In a d d i t i o n t o t h e v a r i o u s validating  procedures used to obtain  evidence f o r the separate  s e c t i o n s , 100 g r a d e  -59twelve and  girls  were a d m i n i s t e r e d  a s k e d t o make r a t i n g  emotional, scales  a s e t of s e l f - r a t i n g  of themselves  and h e a l t h a d j u s t m e n t .  constructed f o r this  on home,  scales  social,  A copy of t h e s e l f - r a t i n g  purpose can be seen  i n Appendix  D. This part ence c o n c e r n i n g  of t h e study  was i n c l u d e d t o o b t a i n  t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t made b y B e l l  evid(5,p.29)  The s c o r e on t h e m e a s u r e s o f a d j u s t m e n t r e p r e s e n t s t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s own f e e l i n g s w i t h regard to the questions. I t i s h i s own e v a l u a t i o n o f h i s home, h e a l t h , a n d o t h e r a d j u s t m e n t .... • The s c o r e on t h e A d j u s t m e n t I n v e n t o r y r e p r e s e n t s h i s own e v a l u a t i o n o f his conduct. It planation was  in  given  defined  part way  will  be n o t i c e d t h a t  on t h e s e l f - r a t i n g  of e x a m p l e s .  By of t h r e e cerned  form,  social  i n terms o f a c t i v e l y b e l o n g i n g  i n s o c i a l groups.  general  i n t h e " d e s c r i p t i o n " o r ex-  Health  Emotional  adjustment  t o and t a k i n g  a d j u s t m e n t was d e f i n e d b y  and home a d j u s t m e n t  were  defined  terms s i n c e t h e i r meanings appear s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . having  distinct  the students  place themselves  g r o u p s f o r each  i n t o one  of t h e f o u r a r e a s  i t was p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e  con-  i f t h e r e was a n y c o r -  r e s p o n d e n c e between t h e s c o r e s made on t h e I n v e n t o r y a n d their  own g e n e r a l  evaluation of t h e i r  behaviour.  CHAPTER THE  Distribution The dard is  error  TREATMENT OP  of  o f t h e mean, and  To  measures  subsections  104  Skewness a n d It  EXPERIMENTAL  r a n g e of s c o r e s , mean, s t a n d a r d  boys and  to which  DATA AND EVIDENCE  Scores  f o r the v a r i o u s  f o r 100  VI  girls  deviation, stan-  of skewness and  of t h e A d j u s t m e n t  can be  seen  i n Table  obtained  distributions  vary  from  d e t e r m i n e t h i s , m e a s u r e s of skewness a n d  of t h e b o y s a n d  of t h e  subsections.  Table VI  Inventory  to which the v a r i o u s interpreting a t the  (Sk/o"s ) c  if for  distributions  the r e s u l t s ,  .01  equals  and  the t - r a t i o equals the t - r a t i o  nificance It except  be  the  .01  observed  skewed a t e i t h e r  the  .01  skewness was  s c o r e s a t t h e low  end  each  extent normality.  skewness i s c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i f our  obtained  For k u r t o s i s ,  these  .05  t-ratio level  same v a l u e s  or  .05  level  of  sig-  confidence.  that f o r the boys, a l l d i s t r i b u t i o n s  t h a t f o r the S o c i a l  eases the  shows t h e  on  (Ku^/Ku) a r e r e q u i r e d f o r s t a t i s t i c a l  at e i t h e r  will  were  girls  i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the  1.96.  degree  normality.  deviated from  l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e 2.58,  the  kurtosis  distributions  icant  V,  Kurtosis  obtained f o r the  In  Inventory  i s of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance t o note  the  kurtos-  or  section .05  positive,  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . indicating  (i.e."better  a piling  a d j u s t m e n t " end)  In a l l up of  of the  -61-  TABLE V  Range o f S c o r e s , Mean, S t a n d a r d E r r o r o f t h e Mean. S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n , and M e a s u r e s o f Skewness and K u r t o s i s of S c o r e s made on t h e A d j u s t ment I n v e n t o r y f o r 100 G r a d e X I I B o y s and 100 G r a d e X I I G i r l s  SECTION HOME  HEALTH  SOCIAL  Sample  Range  Mean  M  SD  Sk  Sk  Ku  Ku  d  Boys  0-25  6.04  .599  5.99 3.47  .94 .398  .135  Girls  0-20  6.35  .488  4.98 2.60  .78 .298  .03 5  Boys  0-16  5.58  .354 3.54 1.12  .46  .454  .191  Girls  0-17  6.36  .388  .64 .200  .063  Boys  0-30  11.56  .7 53 7.53 1.81 1.02  Girls  0-30  13.78  .694  7.08  .87  Boys  0-25  7.42  .546  0-26  11.95  .565  EMOTIONGirls AL  3.96 1,59  .295  .032  .73  .292  .029  5.56 1.59  .69  .465  .202  5.76 1.04  .87 .313  .050  -62-  TABLE  VI  E x t e n t o f K u r t o s i s a n d Skewness of D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S c o r e s f o r 100 G r a d e X I I Boys and 104 G r a d e X I I G i r l s on E a c h o f t h e S u b s e c t i o n s of t h e Adjustment I n v e n t o r y  Sk/6"Sk ( t )  Ku /Ku(t)  Adjustment Section  Boys  Girls  Boys  Girls  Emotional*.  3.69 2.43 1.77 3.49  3.33 2.48 1.19 1.19  4.82 6.82 1.14 7.21  1.29 2.33 1.07 1.85  d  -63scale.  I n t e r m s of k u r t o s i s ,  boys,  except  that  antly  a n d were p l a t y k u r t i c ,  a l l distributions  f o r the Social  section  indicating  f o r the  deviated  signific-  '•flatness'* o f t h e  distributions• For on  the g i r l s ,  the distributions  t h e Home and H e a l t h s e c t i o n s  in the positive i n terms and  Emotional  istical  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  d i r e c t i o n , and a l s o  of k u r t o s i s .  of t h e s c o r e s  deviated  distributions  referring  marked d e v i a t i o n  arewithin  for  was p r e s e n t  normal l i m i t s  the boys.  produced  that  The E m o t i o n a l  f o rthe g i r l s  The S o c i a l  distributions were w i t h i n  Among  section  deviated  i n the case normal  the possible  used  i s a select  group;  the " t r a i t "  u t e d and ( d ) t h a t errors the  section  significantly which  r e a s o n s why t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s  (b) t h a t  b e i n g measured  (a) that  the test being levels  i s not normally  used  distrib-  systematic  of t h e I n v e n t o r y ,  instructions.  t h e sam-  of adjustment;  t h e r e h a s b e e n some u n d e t e c t e d  of f a u l t y  although  limits.  during the administration  giving  scores f o r  o f b o t h t h e boys and t h e  i s n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between v a r i o u s (c) t h a t  of t h e  was t h e o n l y s e c t i o n  diverge from n o r m a l i t y a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g : ple  stat-  that  i n the distributions  t h e boys and t h e g i r l s .  girls  normal  t o T a b l e V I i t w i l l be seen  Home A d j u s t m e n t s c o r e s a n d H e a l t h A d j u s t m e n t  within  the Social  limits. By  both  skewed  significantly  However, f o r t h e g i r l s  section  made  such a s  Taking  a l l the f a c t s  state that explanations this  testing  of e v i d e n c e  of p e r s o n a l i t y are normally  Explanations  group t h e i r  ective factors, dividuals testing  i fthis fact  viations  school.  from  Doubt a  Certain s e l  Thus, t h e s t u d e n t s  "b" w o u l d h o l d t h a t t h e r e  items w i t h i n t h e t e s t *  expected  i s n o t enough  It i s possible that  a t work t o a f f e c t  The d e g r e e t o w h i c h e a c h  of these  in this  adjustment*  d i s t r i b u t i o n s from  considerable further Sex  may w e l l d i f f e r  were t r u e , w o u l d b e  explanations a r e mutually  tributions*  explicitly.  seem p l a u s i b l e .  who have l e f t  i n school*  Explanation differentiating  case  such a s good home c o n d i t i o n s , may c a u s e i n -  t o show b e t t e r home  both  n  i n grade twelve  t o remain  group,  in this  i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e  "a" and b " both  own age l e v e l  toas-  distributed*  t h a t explanation "d" holds  a n d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s were f o l l o w e d  students  possible,  i t would seem n e c e s s a r y  e x t r e m e c a r e was t a k e n  lessly,  hold f o r  h a r d t o d e m o n s t r a t e and i n t h e a b s e n c e  T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e  test  don't  Explanation "c", while  t o the negative  sume t h a t a s p e c t s  since  " c " and "d" p r o b a b l y  situation*  would be e x t r e m e l y  i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , we m i g h t  the d i s -  i s a f f e c t i n g t h e den o r m a l i t y would r e q u i r e  research.  Differences The  extent  of sex d i f f e r e n c e s found  s c o r e s made b y t h e b o y s w i t h j . S o t o be f o u n d  i n Table V I I .  between t h e  t h e s c o r e s made b y t h e g i r l s By c a l c u l a t i n g  t h e mean d i f -  TABLE V I I  E x t e n t o f Sex D i f f e r e n c e s W i t h i n s c o r e s Made.-on.the A d j u s t m e n t I n v e n t o r y Between Sample o f 104 G r a d e X I I G i r l s a n d Sample of 100 G r a d e X I I Boys  Girls Sigma &M  ADJUSTMENT SECTION  Boys Mean Sigma  HOME  6.04  5.99  .599 6.35  4.98  .488  .31  .76  HEALTH  5.58  3.54  .354 6.36  3.96  .388  .78  .51 1.53  SOCIAL  11.56  7.53  .753 13.78  7.08  .694 2.23  1.01 2.20  7.42  5.56  .546 11.95  5.76  .565 4.53  .77 5.88  EMOTIONAL  OM  Mean  Mean D i f f , tfbiff.  CR .04  -6 6f e r e n c e and the  the  critical  standard  r a t i o we  t i o n s w h e t h e r any scores  can  ance a t  .01  significance at  level the  Table T i l i t w i l l were f o u n d f o r t h e fidence  and  of  f o r the  2.58  for  level.  Emotional  confidence.  No  s i g n i f i c a n t sex  on  of  the  the  basis  or H e a l t h  described  subsections  as  the  the  test  in these areas  i f true,  arate  norms f o r t h e  sex  in  differences  the  .01  of  con-  level  of  indicated,  Home  section  that  sections. sections  scores  on  compared w i t h t h e the  girls  Actually,  i n the  grade twelve  c o n c e r n i n g sex  differences  at  the  differences. .01  boys.  level  of  He  of  of  This sep-  Social  s e p a r a t e norms a r e  Manual f o r t h e  two  degree  establishing  f o r both the  ad-  girls  these  indicating a greater  would n e c e s s i t a t e b o y s and  the  the  "emotional  given  and for  Inventory.  These r e s u l t s a g r e e c l o s e l y w i t h B e l l ' s findings  data found  level  was  for  i s measuring adequately  indicate  Inventory  fact,  four  at  it is  1.96  .05  " s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t " and  results  of  maladjustment  all  of  the  difference  a g r o u p make s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r  Emotional  means  section.  justment", the as  a CR  r e s u l t s , f o r e i t h e r the  Assuming t h a t factors  at the  section  subsec-  signific-  s i g n i f i c a n t sex  section  obtain  of t h e  statistical  Consulting  seen t h a t  Social  to  In t h i s c a s e ,  of c o n f i d e n c e a n d  .05  be  difference  e x i s t i n g between t h e  significant.  t o have a CR  the  of t h e  d e t e r m i n e f o r each  difference  is statistically  necessary  error  (5,p.148)  found s i g n i f i c a n t  c o n f i d e n c e f o r the  Em-  otional ial  a n d Home s e c t i o n ,  section,  and a t t h e .05 l e v e l  and f o u n d  no s e x d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t h e s c o r e s  section.  Therefore, the only discrepancy be-  of t h e H e a l t h  tween t h e two s t u d i e s w i t h in  t h e case  f o r t h e Soc-  o f t h e Home  r e f e r e n c e to sex d i f f e r e n c e s i s  section.  C o m p a r i s o n o f S c o r e s o f O r i g i n a l S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n Samples S c o r e s o f Samples U s e d i n P r e s e n t S t u d y It ization  s h o u l d be n o t e d  sample c o n s i s t e d o f 161 h i g h  students from female  t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l male  grade nine t o grade twelve.  a l l four high  school  Comparing t h e r e s u l t s original  icant  group with  i twill  be s e e n f r o m  differences  m a l e samples  statistical level  The o r i g i n a l  exist*  boys used  Table V I I I that c e r t a i n  I t w i l l be observed a t t h e .01 l e v e l  f o r t h e H e a l t h and S o c i a l  significance  sel-  of. t h e s c o r e s made b y t h e  at either  o f c o n f i d e n c e was p r e s e n t  Emotional  signif-  t h a t t h e mean between t h e  sections.  t h e .01 l e v e l  i n the case  i n this  No  o r .05  o f t h e Home a n d  sections.  For t h e g i r l s , sample  including  grades*  t h e 100 g r a d e t w e l v e  d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t two  standard-  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n g r o u p was composed o f 190 g i r l s  e c t e d from  study,  school boys  with  of 190 s t u d e n t s  a comparison  and t h e s a m p l e  girls  used  i n the present  Table  IX.  Statistical  t h e s e two f e m a l e  of t h e o r i g i n a l  study  of 104 g r a d e  female twelve  c a n be made b y r e f e r r i n g t o  significance  was o b t a i n e d between  samples a t t h e .01 l e v e l  of c o n f i d e n c e on  t h e b a s i s o f s c o r e s made on t h e Home a n d H e a l t h s e c t i o n s  -68-  TABLE V I I I E x t e n t o f D i f f e r e n c e s Between Mean Spores' o f O r i g i n a l S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n Sample of 161 H i g h S c h o o l Boys a n d P r e s e n t Sample o f 100 G r a d e X I I Boys  Type of Adjustment  Standardization Group MeanJSigma | 0 M  Home  6.86  5.98  .39  6.04 5.99 .599  .82  .70  1.17  Health  7.28  4.16  .33  5.58 3.54 .388 1.64  .50  3.28  Social  14.14  6.46  .51  .694 2.58  .81  3.19  8.20  5.18  .41  .78  .69  1.13  Emoti o n a l  Present  Group  MeanjSigma  11.56  7.53  Mean Diff dbiff.  CR  0M  7.42 5.56 .565.  -69-  TABLE IX  E x t e n t o f D i f f e r e n c e s Between Mean S c o r e s o f O r i g i n a l S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n Sample of 190 H i g h S c h o o l G i r l s and P r e s e n t Sample of IPS G r a d e X I I Girls  Type S t a n d a r d i z a t ion P r e s e n t Group of Group A d j u s t m e n t Mean Sigma °M Mean Sigma CM  Mean D i f f . ODiff.  Home  9.10 6.44  .47  6.35 4.98  .488  2.75  .67  4.10  Health  7.98 4.84  .35  6.36 3.96  .388  1.62  .51  3.16  Social  L5.64 7.40  Emoti o n a l 13.48  6.48  CR  .54 13.78  7.08  .694  1.86  .87  2.13  .47 11.95  5.76  .565  1.53  .79  1.93  -70and  significance  Social  section.  a t t h e .05 l e v e l Only  i n t h e c a s e of t h e E m o t i o n a l  was t h e r e no i n d i c a t i o n e r of t h e a o c e p t e d It ults  significant  difference at  samples  used  i n comparing  i n t h e two s t u d i e s  differences are highly possible used.  s t u d y by B e l l  only  that  in light  S i n c e t h e samples  used  of the i n the  were composed of s t u d e n t s f r o m a l l  of grade t w e l v e s t u d e n t s , i t i s p o s s i b l e  two s a m p l e s  are not e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  "population"•  I t would  seem o b v i o u s t h a t  ences  Therefore,  suggest  Consequently, the f i n d i n g s that  at least  the H e a l t h and S o c i a l  a revision sections  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h would  twelve  differ-  f o r the various  of t h i s  study  grade  would  o f t h e norms be made f o r  f o r g r a d e t w e l v e boys and  t h e Home, H e a l t h , a n d S o c i a l  girls.  of g r a d e  used  i t i s highly possible the  norms g i v e n b y B e l l a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t levels.  that the  t h e samples  since there are considerable  i n d i c a t e d by the r e s u l t s ,  com-  o f t h e same  i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a r e more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e students.  eith-  the res-  s c h o o l grades w h i l e t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y had groups  posed  for  section  levels.  n a t u r e o f t h e samples  high  of a s i g n i f i c a n t  s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t  of t h e v a r i o u s  original  of c o n f i d e n c e f o r t h e  s e c t i o n s f o r grade  twelve  be n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e i f  s e p a r a t e norms a r e r e q u i r e d a t e a c h  of t h e o t h e r g r a d e  lev-  els. Item A n a l y s i s • In o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h  the v a r -  -71ioua  items  i n the Inventory  i o u s l e v e l i of adjustment To divided of  accomplish  into  differentiate  an i t e m  this  obtained  a n a l y s i s was  item a n a l y s i s ,  upper and lower  the scores  cent  the students  on t h e v a r i o u s s u b s e c t i o n s I t has been  (32) t h a t maximum v a l i d i t y  subgroups used  conducted* were  c r i t e r i o n g r o u p s on t h e b a s i s  t h e m a l e and f e m a l e samples u s e d . by K e l l e y  between t h e v a r -  f o r both  determined  i s obtained  when t h e  i n c l u d e t h e t o p and b o t t o m t w e n t y - s e v e n p e r  of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n *  This  division  was u s e d  i n this  study. After  t h e upper and lower  c r i t e r i o n g r o u p s were  e c t e d f o r each s e c t i o n , and the p r o p o r t i o n p a s s i n g ing  each  phi  coefficient  pared  item determined, f o r each  item  q u e s t i o n by u s i n g a s p e c i a l l y  pre-  level.  in proportion ac h i  significant  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  and one o f 6.635 i s s i g n i f i c a n t  A phi coefficient  necess-  u s e was made o f c h i s q u a r e  groups a r e e q u a l  o f 3.841 i s c o n s i d e r e d  confidence  of the p h i c o e f f i c i e n t  acceptance  when t h e two c r i t e r i o n  be  i t was p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n t h e  determine the s i z e  ary to e s t a b l i s h  of  and f a i l -  c h a r t c o n s t r u c t e d by G u i l f o r d ( 2 4 ) . To  square  sel-  significant  a t t h e .01  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  would  equal t o /5.841  and  a phi coefficient  equal to  significant  a t t h e .01 l e v e l w o u l d be  -72Therefore,  f o r our purposes  coefficient the  i t i s necessary  t o have a p h i  e q u a l t o .26 t o be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t a t  .05 l e v e l  o f c o n f i d e n c e , and .35 a t t h e .01 l e v e } o f  confidence. The and g i r l s ,  phi coefficients, f o r each  The at  number f o u n d X.  item a r e l i s t e d  a c t u a l number  t h e .01 l e v e l  It will  g i v e n s e p a r a t e l y f o r t h e boys  of i t e m s  a n d t h e .05 l e v e l  i n Appendix found  that  t o be s i g n i f i c a n t  of c o n f i d e n c e a n d t h e  t o be b e l o w t h e .05 l e v e l be r e c a l l e d  Table I .  c a n be seen  t h e r e a r e 35 i t e m s  i n Table  i n each  subsection. Analyzing number at  T a b l e X we f i n d  of items f a i l i n g  t h e .05 l e v e l  t o reach  that,  f o r t h e boys, t h e  statistical  significance  of confidence f o r the separate s e c t i o n s  was as f o l l o w s : Home, 7 i t e m s ; H e a l t h , 17 i t e m s ; items; of  and E m o t i o n a l , 8 i t e m s .  items  f o r each  For the g i r l s ,  section f a i l i n g  to reach  t h e items  of the Health  the s t a t i s t i c a l supports entiating The of  t h e number  4 i t e m s ; and  5 items.  From t h e s e r e s u l t s of  4  t h e .05 l e v e l  were: Home, 5 i t e m s ; H e a l t h , 8 i t e m s ; S o c i a l , Emotional,  Social,  we f i n d  that  section  f o r t h e boys  requirement  the conclusion that between l e v e l s  Health section  also  approximately  f o r acceptance this  section  which  proved  poorly differentiating  items  do n o t meet , strongly  i s poorly  of h e a l t h adjustment  differ-  of t h e boys.  t o have t h e l a r g e s t i n t h e case  half  number  of t h e g i r l s .  73  TABLE X Number o f Items i n E a c h o f t h e S u b t e s t s Found t o be S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 L e v e l and .05 L e v e l o f C o n f i d e n c e and Number Found Below .05 L e v e l f o r 100 Boys and 104 G i r l s  Level HOME  of  Confidence  uoya  |iiirJLs  .01  24  23  .05  4  7  7  5  Below.05  Adjustment Section SOCIAL HEALTH uoys u - i r x s iJoy,siu-ir±s  Boys ju-irJ-s  10 8 17  EMOTIONAL  18  30  28  24  26  9  1  4  3  3  8  4  3  8  6  -74Th e number i n t h e H e a l t h .05  level  was  9  the largest  items,  30  t i o n had the  girls,  and  26  and  the boys the  28  indicating  failing  items  section  level)  The  Home s e c -  f o r t h e b o y s and  section  had  23  24 f o r t h e  same i t e m s  below the acceptance f o r both  the p o s s i b i l i t y ,  differences  the  for  boys  girls.  items  always the  (.01  f o r the g i r l s .  while the Emotional  f o r the  Social  number of h i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e  highly acceptable  The not  the g i r l s  f o r t h e b o y s and 24  to reach  items.  For both had  section that f a i l e d  exist  t h e boys and  as noted  w i t h i n the  levels the  were  girls,  previously, that  sex  subsections.  Reliabilities The  obtained r e l i a b i l i t y  the f o u r subtests f o r both be  found  i n Table XI.  t h e boys and  It w i l l  i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d by u l a e , which means of t h e efficient  Kuder  be  using  split-half  method  coefficient  f o r each  the g i r l s  observed different  that  are  these  method, and  where r n (j* p q  • a a  s a  coeffform-  co-  (c) t h e  using the f o l l o w i n g Richardson-  formula:  * - -A-  to  coefficient  (b) t h e product-moment  test-retest  of  methods a n d  i n c l u d e d : (a) t h e product-moment  by means o f t h e  correlation  coefficients  x  (f  2  -  r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e whole t e s t number o f i t e m s i n t h e t e s t s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s p r o p o r t i o n of t h e g r o u p " p a s s i n g " an i t e m p r o p o r t i o n f a i l i n g to pass the item  by  TABLE X I  C o e f f i c i e n t s of C o r r e l a t i o n (with P E ) f o r t h e Subsections of t h e A d j u s t m e n t I n v e n t o r y f o r Grade X I I Boys a n d Grade X I I G i r l s r  Correlation Adjustment Section  S P L I T - HALF Boys N - 100  RETEST Girls N = 104  Method  Used  (60 d a y s )  RICHARDS ON-KUDER  Boys N-100  Girls N=82  Boys N»100  Girls N= 104  HOME  912 ±.011  .887 ± 6 1 4  .8701:016  .884+.016  .897 1.011  .860+.016  HEALTH  7811.030  .773 1.026  .843 ±.019  . 801 i . 02 6.  .7011.034  ,72lf.032  SOCIAL  899+.011  .851 +.018  .881 +.014  .881+.016  .877 ±. 017  .802 +.024  EMOTIONAL  843i.019  .785 i.025  .775±.026  .825ir.033  .823±.021  .8471.017  -76Many r e s e a r c h e r s have c r i t i c i s e d split-half  method b e c a u s e  ways o f d i v i d i n g overcome t h i s derived  into  difficulty  to.  This  the  items  I n an a t t e m p t t o (24,p.276) have  reliability.  i s t h e one j u s t  Their referred  emphasizes t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s  of t h e t e s t  coefficients  t h e r e a r e many-  R i c h a r d s o n and Kuder  and a c c u r a t e f o r m u l a  formula  that  two p a r t s .  o t h e r methods f o r c a l c u l a t i n g  most u s e f u l  ly  a test  of t h e f a c t  t h e use of t h e  yielded  r a t h e r than t o t a l t e s t by t h i s  among  scores.  The  Richardson-Kuder formula  slight-  u n d e r e s t i m a t e t h o s e p r o d u c e d b y t h e product-moment  and  when u s i n g  reliabilities  this  f o r m u l a we c a n b e a s s u r e d t h a t  are at least  as h i g h a s t h o s e  method  the  actual  o b t a i n e d (24,  p.278). I f we f o l l o w t h e r a t h e r common and a r b i t r a r y tice  of a g r e e i n g  that  ients  of at l e a s t  might  state  that  tests  s h o u l d have r e l i a b i l i t y  .90 f o r i n d i v i d u a l no s u b t e s t  o f t h e Adjustment  with the possible exception for  individual  the  reliability  b o y s was  diagnosis.  I t w i l l be seen  coefficient  highest  coefficient  the  Richardson-Kuder formula  while the retest coefficients  although they  obtained.  For t h i s  yielded  method c o e f f i c i e n t  i s suitable  i n Table I I that  were o b t a i n e d f o r  f o r the  method, w h i c h same  .870.  the Social  do n o t meet t h e a r b i t r a r y  was  section  a coefficient was  we  Inventory,  f o r t h e Home s e c t i o n  .912 as d e r i v e d b y t h e s p l i t - h a l f  coeffic-  then  of t h e Home s e c t i o n ,  the  high  diagnosis,  prac-  o f .897  Similarly section  requirement  and  o f .90  -77for  individual  p r e d i c t i o n , as was t r u e a l s o i n t h e c a s e o f  t h e Home s e c t i o n , i t i s s a f e t o s t a t e t h a t ficients widely ment  compare f a v o u r a b l y  accepted  (16)•  with  those  t e s t s i n the f i e l d  Following  •80  f o r group  two  sections f a l l  these  obtained  high  coef-  by t h e more  of p e r s o n a l i t y measure-  the accepted  demand t h a t  a test  d i a g n o s i s , we m i g h t w e l l s t a t e t h a t well within the accepted  reach  these  limits  f o r group  two s e c t i o n s H e a l t h  a n d Emot-  predictive use. Considering ional,  i t will  reliabilities  the other  be n o t i c e d t h a t , f o r these  sections  E m o t i o n a l s e c t i o n does t e n d efficients in  f o r the Health  c e r t a i n cases.  obtained  ing  fall  t o reach  below  .80.  While t h e  t h e .80 l e v e l ,  section f a l l  It will  f o r the Health  mula were  i n some i n s t a n c e s , t h e  considerably  s e c t i o n by the Richardson-Kuder  of i n t e r n a l  i t e m s a s was s i m i l a r l y  below  be n o t i c e d t h a t t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s  .701 f o r t h e b o y s and .721 f o r t h e g i r l s ,  possible lack  the co-  consistency  n o t i c e d from  for-  indicat-  among t h e t e s t  t h e item  analysis  study.  Subtest I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n The  obtained  coefficients  the v a r i o u s  subtests  can be seen  instances  the coefficients  m i g h t assume t h a t measured. high.  different  The c o r r e l a t i o n  .047,  i n Table XII*  are sufficiently aspects  coefficient  and . 6 1 ± . 0 4 2  In c e r t a i n  l o w t h a t we  of behaviour a r e being  However, some o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s  of r ) f o r t h e E m o t i o n a l .54±  of i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r  (with  were  fairly  the probable  error  and Home s e c t i o n f o r t h e b o y s , was for the g i r l s .  Also  the coeffic-  -78-  TABLE X I I C o e f f i c i e n t s of S u b s e c t i o n I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s F o r t h e A d j u s t m e n t I n v e n t o r y f o r 100 G r a d e X I I Boys and 104 G r a d e X I I Girls  S u b s e c t i o n of Inv ent or y  Boys r  .543 E m o t i o n a l - H e a l t h . . .541 E m o t i o n a l - S o c i a l . . .453 .316 .272 .014 Emotional'-  Home..'.  PE r 1.047 ±.046 ±.052 ±.060 ±.061 ±.065  Girls r  "PE  r  .619 ±-.041 .394 ± . 0 5 6 .232 ± . 0 5 6 .481 ± . 0 5 1 .126 ±.065 .329 ±.053  lent for  f o r t h e E m o t i o n a l and H e a l t h t h e boys, and . 3 9 ±  ients  are high  certain  cases  s e c t i o n was .541: #046,  .056 f o r t h e g i r l s .  enough t o s u g g e s t  These  the p o s s i b i l i t y  s i m i l a r a n d r e l a t e d components  coefficthat i n  exist  within  some o f t h e s u b s e c t i o n s  which would e x p l a i n t h e r a t h e r  coefficients  However, t o o b t a i n a d e q u a t e  obtained.  mation concerning through  this,  a detailed factorial  t h e medium o f t h e t e s t  Home A d j u s t m e n t As tion  mentioned  ings assigned  necessary.  of t h e A d j u s t -  Section i n C h a p t e r V t h e Home A d j u s t m e n t  of t h e I n v e n t o r y  view technique.  infor-  analysis  items would appear  R e s u l t s o f t h e V a l i d a t i o n of t h e S u b s e c t i o n s ment Inventory  high  Table  sec-  was v a l i d a t e d b y means of t h e i n t e r XIII gives  a comparison  by t h e i n t e r v i e w with  those given  of the r a t on t h e b a s i s  of t h e i n t e r v i e w . Using any  t h e s e r e s u l t s i t was p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e i f  significant  r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e two s e t s  of r a t i n g s b y means o f t h e c h i s q u a r e The ering can  be c l a s s i f i e d  t o be t e s t e d  are  i s a useful device  for  i f any r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between v a r i a b l e s  For  ings  c h i square t e s t  test.  i n t o two or more  discovwhich  categories.  t h e problem under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s the n u l l  hypothesis,  of home a d j u s t m e n t g i v e n essentially unrelated  namely, t h a t  by t h e i n t e r v i e w  or i n d e p e n d e n t  the r a t -  procedure  t o those given by  -80-  TABLE X I I I C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e Home A d j u s t m e n t R a t i n g s of t h e I n v e n t o r y w i t h I n t e r v i e w R a t i n g of Home A d j u s t m e n t f o r 100 G r a c e X I I Boys  INTERVIEW RATINGS Very Unsatisfactory Very Unsat i s f actory  Unsatisfactory  A v e r a g e Good  Excellent  7  2  0  0  0  Unsatisfactory  2  4  2  1  0  Average  2  3  12  7  2  Good  0  1  8  23  3  Excellent  0  0  3  9  9  -81the  Inventory. The  calculated  t o b e 121, w h i c h that  the n u l l  of a d e f i n i t e methods  i s very highly  hypothesis  of r a t i n g  an  c h i square  indication  lated tain  f o rthis  problem  significant,  was  found  indicating  c a n be r e j e c t e d a n d t h e c o n c l u s i o n  relationship  between t h e r e s u l t s  of t h e two  be e s t a b l i s h e d .  Furthermore, from  c h i square  i t i s possible  the contingency  of t h e d e g r e e  to calculate  coefficient  directly  (C) w h i c h  gives  t o w h i c h two v a r i a b l e s a r e r e -  a n d p r o v i d e s a measure o f c o r r e l a t i o n  that  under  cer-  c o n d i t i o n s i s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e product-moment r . In t h i s  calculated  problem, C (with i t s s t a n d a r d  t o be .721;..10.  coefficient  It i s possible  t o make i t a p p r o x i m a t e l y  moment r ( 2 0 , p . 3 6 2 ) .  Applying  "corrected  .82.  C" becomes  a significant  and f a i r l y  between t h e r a t i n g s  significantly longed  similar  interview.  approximately  the c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r our  degree  indicates  of r e l a t i o n s h i p  indicate that  of the Inventory  i s capable  t o those  exists  methods.  t h e Home A d j u s t m e n t of y i e l d i n g  results  of t h e I n v e n t o r y  s i x minutes t o complete s o l e l y with  takes  while the interviews  the e v a l u a t i o n of t h e  s t u d e n t s ' home a d j u s t m e n t ,  ranged  f i v e minutes  Therefore the r e s u l t s  i n duration.  that  o b t a i n e d b y means of a p r o -  The Home s e c t i o n  as t h e y were c o n c e r n e d  this  equal t o the product-  o b t a i n e d b y t h e two s e p a r a t e  These f i n d i n g s section  to correct  This c o e f f i c i e n t  high  e r r o r ) was  from  twenty-five to f o r t y a r e en-  -82haneed  i n the  element  a high  favor  of t h e  i s taken  into  Referring  to  Home s e c t i o n when t h i s  consideration. Table XIII  it will  from the  two  counselling  seta  and  of r a t i n g s .  clinical  of v a r i a t i o n t h a t  occured at  the  age  be  that  end.  It w i l l  a v e r a g e by average  the  noticed  interview  method who  b e l o w a v e r a g e by  the  I n v e n t o r y who the  21  i n the  average, tory.  15  were r a t e d  it will  ratings  indicated greater  greater  number  leniency.  inherent  that  that That  by  the  below either  an  rated average  the  the  below Inven-  Inventory  i s , there  " e x o e l l e n t " and  Inventory ratings  the  i n the  well-defined. more e x a c t i n g  the f a c t o r being increases  aver-  However., o f  detected  noticed  r e a s o n s why  measured i s f a i r l y  ity  were g i v e n  c r i t i c a l group of  relatively  r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between t h e  measurement, t o be  amount  was  fewer  a rated  i n comparison  ratings.  of t h e  m i g h t p o s s i b l y be  i s the  3 b o y s were  interview.  of b o y s r a t e d a s  interview One  if  be  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y " by t h e  w i t h the  Also  of t h e s e were s i m i l a r l y  In g e n e r a l ,  important,  were c l a s s e d as  Inventory.  who  variation  6 b o y s were r a t e d  the  subjects  Most  although  " c r i t i c a l " or b e l o w  o r a b o v e a v e r a g e r a t i n g by  of  seen t h a t  viewpoint,  or a b o v e by  "very  be  d e g r e e of r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s , c o n s i d e r a b l e  o c c u r e d between t h e  as  time  two  fact  sets that  of the  subject  degree  ratings factor  I f so, t h i s would and  consistent.  measured i s w e l l - d e f i n e d , the  high  will  be  able  the  In  being  enable addition,  probabil-  to give  accurate  -83answers s i n c e basis  in  there would  e x i s t some d e f i n i t e o b j e c t i v e  f o r reference.  this  Talcing  into consideration  study,  i t appears that  a l l the evidence  t h e u s e o f t h e Home  ment s e c t i o n f o r c o u n s e l l i n g p u r p o s e s gestion  i s made t h a t  norms be c o n s i d e r e d , items found the  item  the matter as w e l l  will  as t h e improvement  of c e r t a i n  on t h e b a s i s o f  Section i n order  e v i d e n c e f o r the S o c i a l Adjustment  the basis  into three  of s o c i a l  of a " p o p u l a r i t y The  of s o c i a l will  of p o s s i b l e r e v i s i o n of  be r e c a l l e d t h a t  b o y s were d i v i d e d  basis  clearly  section  defined  valid-  t h e 100  groups,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s e c o n d l y  first  on t h e  vote".  p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e t o be seen  selected  i n terms  i n Table XIV. I t  Group SP I , w h i c h we c a n d e s c r i b e a s  the  "retiring"  the  "average" group, c o n s i s t e d  the  "aggressive" The  t o obtain  r e s u l t s of the c r i t e r i o n groups  be n o t i c e d t h a t  g r o u p , was composed o f 25 b o y s ; Group SP I I / of 48 b o y s ;  group contained  extent  and G r o u p SP I I I ,  27 b o y s .  of t h e d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n g between t h e  mean s c o r e s  of t h e t h r e e  g r o u p s a r e shown i n T a b l e X I V ,  and  be s e e n t h a t  without  i twill  significant indicate  Sug-  analysis.  It  on  Adjust-  i s substantiated.  t o be l i m i t e d i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  S o c i a l Adjustment  ating  obtained  a t t h e .01 l e v e l  that a consistent  between t h e s c o r e s  e x o e p t i o n t h e CR's a r e  of confidence.  significant  These r e s u l t s  relationship exists  made on t h e S o c i a l s e c t i o n  of t h e A d j u s t -  84-  TABLE XIV Data c o n c e r n i n g t h e S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t V a l i d a t i n g G r o u p s s e l e c t e d on the B a s i s of S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n  N  Validating  Group  K  s  100 Grade' X I I B o y s  Mean Sigma tfMean Mean (M -M  ( r e t i r i n g ) 27  18.51  ( a v e r a g e ) 48  11.48  .78 5.39  (M  S P I I I ( a g g r e s s - 25 ive)  6.06  .73 3.60  (M  SPI SPII  1.22  6.34  Diff.  I  :  I;[  -M  N  f.  CR  )12.45  1.42  8.76  )  1.44  4.88  1.06,  5.11  I I I  -M  (TD.Lf  II:[  7.03  )5.42  -85ment  Inventory  with  ports the findings The ided  on  fellow  Group ST  ed f r o m  two  Group ST  that  i s t o be  (see  i n Table  groups  vote  or one  vote  composed  boys.  From t h e  results  of  I I and We  obtained  v e n t o r y by  100  relationship  of those  votes  might  conclude  on t h e  Social  grade twelve the  of the  individual's this  i t was  found  show a n y  and  relationship  to get along with  importance  s o c i a l adjustment Inventory  i n any  total  for  and the  others.  appraisal  significant in this  Social to  the  Consequently,  of an  i t i s imperative that those  be w e l l aware o f the  In-  congeniality.  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e s c o r e s on the  ability  I  that  " p o p u l a r i t y " which,  little  CR's  of t h e A d j u s t m e n t  of f r i e n d l i n e s s  Inventory bear  The  f o r Group ST  b o y s do n o t  students'  con-  I I I ; 1.00  these r e s u l t s  section  and  " s o c i a l - s t i m u l u s " v i e w of s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t  considerable  of t h e  from  receiv-  or more,  Group ST  1.15  stud-  who  of 41 b o y s ;  obtained,  I and  I I I ; and  i s d e f i n e d i n terms  section  ual's  Group ST  with  is possible,  since  f o r Group ST  their  students  c o n t a i n e d 29  I I , the group c o n s i s t i n g  to f o u r v o t e s , was  Group S T I I .  study,  div-  XT.  none o f t h e s e g r o u p s ...diff e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  scores  sup-  p.25).  to the group  I I I , the group r e c e i v i n g f i v e  30  Group ST  use  found  I, w h i c h r e f e r s  o b t a i n e d w e r e : .29  It  Smith  which  o b t a i n e d f o r the v a l i d a t i n g  r e c e i v e d e i t h e r no  tained  participation  t h e b a s i s of t h e number o f v o t e s r e c e i v e d f r o m students  ents;  social  r e p o r t e d by  results  Group ST who  actual  i s of individ-  who  make  section's limits.  How-  -86-  TABLE XV Data C o n c e r n i n g t h e S o c i a l Adjustment V a l i d a t i n g G r o u p s S e l e c t e d on t h e B a s i s o f a P o p u l a r i t y Vote  N = 100 G r a c e X I I Boys  N  Mean  SVI(0-1 Votes)  29  11.61  SVIl(2-4 Votes )  41  SVIlKover 5 Votes)  30  Validating Group  Sigma 6"M  7.82  Mean  tfbiff.  Diff.  1 .47 ( M J - M J J J )  CR  .54  1.85  .29  9.97 7.44  1.17  (M-r-Mjj) 2.18  1.88  1.15  6.09  1.13  (M  1.63  1.00  12.15  I I  -M  I I I )  1.64  ever,  we c a n s a y , on t h e b a s i s  of o u r o b t a i n e d  t h a t f r o m t h e c o u n s e l l i n g and c l i n i c a l  evidence,  viewpoint  the Social  Adjustment s e c t i o n s appear t o be u s e f u l f o r d e t e c t i n g who a r e w i t h d r a w i n g f r o m s o c i a l be u t i l i z e d these  forfacilitating  students  Health  into  Adjustment  In a r r i v i n g the H e a l t h  social  s o c i a l adjustment by d i r e c t i n g  Section  at the criterion  s e c t i o n , 98 boys were Nurse  school health records*  Group H I w h i c h in general  groups f o r e v a l u a t i n g  divided into  The t h r e e g r o u p s  levels  included:  c o n s i s t e d o f 11 b o y s who were r a t e d a s p o o r  r a t e d a s a v e r a g e i n h e a l t h ; and Group  f o r these various  i n Table  XVI.  39 b o y s  who were  H I I I was composed o f  who were d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g  The r e s u l t s t o be found  three  on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s t u d -  h e a l t h ; Group H I I c o n t a i n e d  48 s t u d e n t s  and t h e r e f o r e c a n  activities*  of a d j u s t m e n t by t h e S c h o o l ents*  contacts  i n excellent health*  criterion  The c r i t i c a l  ratio  groups are  f o r Groups  H I a n d H I I I , t h e two e x t r e m e s a s r a t e d b y t h e S c h o o l was computed the  .05 l e v e l  t o b e .83, w h i c h of c o n f i d e n c e .  is clearly  of w h i c h :.is s i g n i f i c a n t These r e s u l t s  s h i p between  Assuming  f o r Group  statistically. i s weak  relation-  o f 98 b o y s made on t h e H e a l t h  t i o n and the health r a t i n g s given Nurse.  ratio  H I I and H I I I , 1.20  i n d i c a t e that there  the scores  Nurse,  not s i g n i f i c a n t a t  The c r i t i c a l  H I and H I I was .24, a n d f o r Group neither  those  to these  sec-  boys by t h e S c h o o l  t h a t the r a t i n g s of t h e School  N u r s e , on  -88  TABLE X V I  Data Concerning the H e a l t h Adjustment V a l i d a t i n g G r o u p s S e l e c t e d on t h e B a s i s o f R a t i n g s b y the S c h o o l Nurse  N =  VALIDATING GROUP  98 G r a d e X I I Boys  ft Mean Mean  N  Mean Sigma  11  6.18 4.20  1.32  HII(Average)  39  5.84 2.51  HIII(Excellent)  48  5.02 3.11  HI  (poor)  Diff.  (fDif f .  CR  (Mj-MjnJl.16  1 .39  .83  .40  (Mj-Mjj)  1.39  .24  .45  (M  I I  -M  I I I  .34 ).82  .60 1.20  -89t h e b a s i s of what a p p e a r t o be records, are v a l i d highly  suggestive  utility  taining  o f weak i n t e r n a l  s e c t i o n i s of l i t t l e  Emotional  ence c o n c e r n i n g be  V  the  on  gathering  included  was  the  results  in this  obvious  low  value  f o r use  used  i n the  obtained  of t h e  by  The  dividing  of e m o t i o n a l  96  of t h e  into  results.  Sheppard's  • 066  •^•034 ir,068 none of w h i c h Consequently,  boys  e r r o r s were  averaging  seem d e f e n s i b l e .  iiSa  of  been  purposes because  obtained  (calculated using  It  three  t e a c h e r s ' r a t i n g s have not  probable  evid-  adjustment*  with  d i d not  counsel-  s e c o n d method  together  judges  and  appear  in gathering  between t h e r a t i n g s g i v e n b y t h e t h r e e  icant.  f i n d i n g s per-  i t would  formula)  and  the  s e c t i o n were d i s c u s s e d .  report f o r validating  their  of  reliabilities  consistency,  adjustment".  unreliability  intercorrelations  other  90 b o y s were e a c h r a t e d b y  three c l e a r l y d e f i n e d groups The  little  Section  Emotional  "emotional  evidence  health, i t is  health standing  the  the procedures  remembered t h a t  teachers  accurate  students.  Ajustment  In C h a p t e r  will  relative  i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the  of g r a d e t w e l v e The  the  students'  and  s e c t i o n serves  section, including  indication  that t h i s ling  Taking  to the  of t h e  that the H e a l t h  for indicating  students.  the  estimates  f a i r l y detailed  of  The  correction teachers  .175 ± . 0 6 4 ,  statistically  .137i signif-  the r a t i n g s of the  three  In a d d i t i o n , t h e  results  were d i s c a r d e d a l s o i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t  that  the  teachers  -90expressed in  considerable  many c a s e s f e l t  acy  because  ents. iable  The  t h e r a t i n g s were of d o u b t f u l  since  these r e s u l t s a r e h i g h l y  themselves nothing  accur-  of any value  could  unrelbe  obtain-  them f o r v a l i d a t i n g p u r p o s e s . r e s u l t s of t h e v a l i d a t i n g g r o u p s  of a composite  information  i n making t h e r a t i n g s a n d  l i m i t e d k n o w l e d g e of some of t h e s t u d -  Consequently,  ed b y u s i n g  basis  that  of t h e i r  within  difficulty  given  selected  on t h e  e m o t i o n a l r a t i n g a r r i v e d a t by u s i n g  by t h e student  during  the i n t e r v i e w , t o -  g e t h e r w i t h t h e r a t i n g s made by t h e S c h o o l N u r s e a n d t h e writer, ed  c a n be s e e n  i n Table XVII.  into the following three  The 98 boys were  divid-  g r o u p s : Group E I c o n s i s t i n g  o f 17 b o y s who were c l a s s e d a s h a v i n g  difficult  emotional  p r o b l e m s : Group E I I c o n s i s t i n g of 39 boys whom we may the  a v e r a g e g r o u p ; and G r o u p E I I I composed  gave e v i d e n c e ratio the  of e x c e l l e n t  o f 42 boys who  emotional adjustment.  The c r i t -  o f 1.90 f o r G r o u p E I and Group E I I I i n d i c a t e s  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means i s n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y  icant  since  fidence.  i tfell  slightly  short  S i m i l a r l y , the c r i t i c a l  o f t h e .05 l e v e l ratio  call  that signif-  of c o n -  o f 1.12 f o r Group  E  I a n d Group E I I a n d t h a t  of 1.06 f o r Group E I I and Group  E  I I Iare not s i g n i f i c a n t .  We m i g h t c o n c l u d e t h a t  made on t h e I n v e n t o r y  are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to the  composite r a t i n g s given here that  prevents  Emotional s e c t i o n  the scores  t o t h e 98 b o y s .  The p r o b l e m  any d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s i s the lack  of s u f f i c i e n t  arising  regarding the evidence to sup-  91-  TABLE X V I I .  Data  Concerning the Emotional Adjustment V a l i d a t i n g G r o u p s S e l e c t e d on t h e B a s i s of Composite R a t i n g s N z 9 8 G r a d e X I I Boys  Validating Group  N  Mean Sigma  G"Mean  Mean  Diff.  iff.  CR  17  9.64  6.17  1.54  (Mj-MjJJ)3.82  1.75  1.90  II(Average)  39  7.58  5.20  .84  (Mj-Mjj) 2 . 0 6  1.74  1.12  E I I I (Excellent)  42  6.32  5.43  .83  (MJJ-MJJJ)1.26  E I E  (poor)  1.18  1.06  -92-  port  the v a l i d i t y  of t h e c r i t e r i o n  used f o r comparative  purposes. However, t h e l a c k of p o s i t i v e e v i d e n c e this  S e c t i o n makes i t s wide u s e o f d o u b t f u l v a l u e .  chief it  i n favour of  limitation  is difficult  quently,  of the Emotional t o determine  just  section i s the f a c t what  the scores and r a t i n g s g i v e n  ambiguous unlikely  i t measures.  section will  that Conse-  b y t h e I n v e n t o r y are-  i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a t the p r e s e n t that this  The  time  and i t  s e r v e any m e a n i n g f u l  p o s e f o r wide u s e i n c o u n s e l l i n g g r a d e t w e l v e  is  pur-  students*  Self-Ratings Table XVIII idating of  groups  contains  Analyzing  girls.  t h e r e s u l t s we s e e t h a t f o r t h e Home A d -  s e c t i o n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e mean  were a l l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the  a t t h e .01 l e v e l *  differed  criterion  a t t h e .05 l e v e l of  a t t h e .01 l e v e l .  sections, i twill  statistical  For the S o c i a l t h e  t h e other groups f o r t h e S o c i a l s e c t i o n  significantly  Health  scores  t h e means of t h e " A g r e s s i v e G r o u p " a n d  " R e t i r i n g G r o u p " was s i g n i f i c a n t  confidence, while  and  p e r t a i n i n g to the v a l -  s e l e c t e d on. t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e l f - r a t i n g s  100 g r a d e t w e l v e  justment  the data  significance  be noted  i n t h e mean  For the  that there  Emotional  was no  o f any o f t h e compared  groups.  These r e s u l t s  indicate that there  agreement between t h e s t u d e n t s '  i s considerable  own g e n e r a l  e v a l u a t i o n of  -93-  TABLE X V I I I D a t a C o n c e r n i n g t h e C r i t e r i o n Groups on t h e B a s i s of S e l f - R a t i n g s N = 100 G r a d e  Type of Adjustment  Criterion  Group  Selected"  XII G i r l s  N  Mean  Sigma  (jMean  HOME  Above A v e r a g e Average B e l o w Averag  37 4.02 43 7.52 20 10.83  3. 48 4. 51 4. 01  .58 .69 .92  HEALTH  A b o v e Averag5e Average B e l o w A v e r a g5©  34 41 25  6.06 7.24 7.61  3. 11 3. 41 3. 38  .54 .53 .68  SOCIAL  Agressive Average Retiring  24 8.13 51 12.15 25 15.01  4. 46 3. 97 5. 78  .93 .56 1.18  EMOTIONAL  Above A v e r a g e Average Below Average  19 10.61 48 11.79 33 13.89  5. 75 4. 91 5. 96  1.33 .71 1.05  -94their the it  f s o c i a l a n d Home a d j u s t m e n t  Social  the  students  not  significantly  the results  of t h e i r  and E m o t i o n a l  related  section  present  for  t h e v i e w that the Emotional  knowledge  do s u p p l y a d d i t i o n a l section  these r e concern-  p o s s i b l e support  i s lacking section  i n clear  i s not  d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between t h e extreme groups a t t h e  It  level.  s h o u l d be n o t e d  i n this  study  results  evidence  that the various v a l i d a t i n g  were, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n  used f o r t h e s e l f - r a t i n g s ,  ents  adjustment i s  Although  little  and t h e view t h a t the H e a l t h  grade twelve  the  t h a t t h e e v a l u a t i o n by  of t h e I n v e n t o r y .  the Inventory  definition  they  However,  t o t h e s c o r e s made on t h e H e a l t h  ing  used  s c o r e s made on  own h e a l t h a n d e m o t i o n a l  of the s e l f - r a t i n g s  clearly  their  a n d Home s e c t i o n s o f t h e I n v e n t o r y .  would appear from  sults  with  grade twelve  groups  of t h e 100 g i r l s  boys.  Therefore,  should be i n t e r p r e t e d , as f a r as the v a l i d a t i o n  i s concerned,  o n l y f o r t h e g r o u p which t h e s e  stud-  represent. A  summary o f t h e v a r i o u s f i n d i n g s  w i l l f o l l o w i n Chapter  VIII.  of t h i s  study  CHAPTER V I I THE Purpose  of tne With  STUDENT PROBLEM POLL  Poll  the view  of more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  estimating the  worth of t h e B e l l Adjustment  I n v e n t o r y , e s p e c i a l l y as  for  counselling  aiding  schools,  i n a guidance  the author f e l t  and that  tory f a l l portant  areas  of a d j u s t m e n t .  important t o grade  major problem  areas.  the v a r i o u s problem constructed Construction The Poll  fields  (see Appendix of the first was  twelve s t u d e n t s . female  of each  to other  im-  i t was  Problem  con-  t h e n have of  the  these  these r e l a t i o n s Poll"  among was  E).  s t e p i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n a s e t o f two  of the  of f o u r s e p a r a t e g r o u p s  i n t h e combined f o u r was  s u g g e s t what p r o b l e m s a r e  Student  forty-minute classroom  -There were a p p r o x i m a t e l y  students  e n t s as a g r o u p .  "Student  Inven-  Poll  p o s e of t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s to  the  dis-  of problems a r e  t w e l v e s t u d e n t s and importance  to  i n the  In o r d e r t o do t h i s  In o r d e r t o f i n d  c u s s i o n p e r i o d s w i t h each  fifty  included  what o t h e r a r e a s  students d e c i d e the r e l a t i v e  Problem  pertinent  i n the s t u d e n t s ' o p i n i o n i n r e l a t i o n  necessary to determine sidered  areas  tool  programme i n t h e  I t would be  c o v e r where t h e f o u r a d j u s t m e n t  a  grade  e i g h t y male groups.  to get the students important t o grade  S i n c e most o f t h e  of  dis-  The  and pur-  themselves  twelve  e a r l y responses  stud-  pertain-  -96ed t o s p e c i f i c students that  problems, they  i t was  combine the  more g e n e r a l i z e d h e a d i n g s . inate those importance ily  that  sidered At  the  eral  necessary specific  t o t h e g r o u p as a w h o l e ,  only those important  fields  by  at l e a s t  c o n c l u s i o n of t h e  problem areas  i n order to  decided  little  arbitrar-  r e t a i n e d t h a t were  forty  the  elim-  but which had  i t was  would be  to  problems under  In a d d i t i o n ,  f i e l d s w h i c h were s u g g e s t e d  to suggest  percent  of t h e  con-  students.  d i s c u s s i o n s the f o l l o w i n g n i n e  were o b t a i n e d :  Home, H e a l t h ,  gen-  Social,  ft Emotional, and  Friendship, Financial,  School,  Occupation  Sex* Utilizing  Problem P o l l  was  these n i n e problem f i e l d s c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g as  t h e method, o f p a i r e d c o m p a r i s o n . since, it  Future  as n o t e d  by G u i l f o r d  has b e e n f o u n d  ation  Student  its statistical  T h i s method was  (23, p.240) and  Greene  more p r e c i s e t h a n a n y  t o problems The  main t a s k  i s to present  have t h e  such  as t h e  one  presented  basis  chosen (21,  p.694),  other m o d i f i c -  of t h e p s y c h o t e p h y s i c a l methods w h i c h w o u l d be  plicable  isons  t o be  the  ap-  here.  i n u s i n g t h e method o f p a i r e d compar-  each  item w i t h  every  other  item  s u b j e c t s make a c h o i c e between e a c h p a i r .  and In  this  p r o b l e m t h e r e were t h i r t y - s i x s u c h c o m p a r i s o n s . It should ft In t h e S t u d e n t P r o b l e m P o l l , t h e E m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m f i e l d i s r e f e r r e d t o a s " N e r v o u s n e s s and E m o t i o n a l " s i n c e t h e s t u d e n t s d u r i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n s f e l t t h a t t h i s term had more meaning t o t h e m . However, w i t h i n t h e t e x t , t h e t e r m " e m o t i o n a l " w i l l b e u s e d f o r t h e s a k e of s i m p l i c i t y . The o t h e r t e r m s a r e u s e d as t h e y were s u g g e s t e d by t h e students.  be  noted that  Problem P o l l difficult  i n the the  directions given  s t u d e n t s were t o l d  method o f p a i r e d  the  statistical  treatment  extent  of  i t i s the  sought.  assumed t h a t all  of the  i n the  the  was  actual  would l e a d  of the  the  students  to  stud-  to  to  dis-  the that i t is  equally  serious  be  in  distor-  noted that  names t o t h e  i f there  the  whole.  t o overcome any  occur  be  was  the  Problem  d i s t o r t i o n of  any  desire  factor  oper-  to conceal  their  opinions. Within  not  done s i m p l y  r e s u l t s t h a t might  ative that  sign their  pair  l a r g e group  c o n s e q u e n t l y l e a d t o no  to  a  the  a whole  operative  directions i t will  no  to l e a d  group as  a sufficiently  of  Forcing  is justifiable  chance f a c t o r s would be  s t u d e n t s were t o l d n o t This  but  was  facilitating  is likely  r e s u l t s f o r t h e g r o u p as a  Also  Poll.  way  that  for  results.  r e s u l t of t h e  In u s i n g  d i r e c t i o n s , and  tion  in this  i n d i v i d u a l opinion,  that  i s being  of t h e  This  limitation  essential precaution  e n t s t o make a c h o i c e tortion  the  Student  i f i t became  pair.  comparisons which r e q u i r e s  u n d e c i d e d , an  the  to guess  f o r them t o d e c i d e between any  necessary c o n d i t i o n r e s u l t i n g from  left  within  the  d i r e c t i o n s of t h e  nine problem f i e l d s  considered  the a c t u a l form  v i e w e d them d u r i n g would be  were e x p l a i n e d .  necessary to since the  sufficiently  Problem  i t was  explain  Poll At  a l l of the  assumed t h a t  discussion periods  only  first  it  fields  after" having the  acquainted with t h e i r  four was  on re-  students  descriptions.  -98However, d u r i n g an  the  a c t u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the P o l l ,  added p r e c a u t i o n ,  a l l the f i e l d s  d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n them n o t e d ambiguity. distinct  For  i n order  social  problems  red to r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  ambiguity  i n t h a t the  in general.  t h a t might  sexual problems with  exist  h e a l t h problems,  students  out  of a l a c k of k n o w l e d g e c o n c e r n i n g  t h a t the  with  former  worries  illness  o f t h e most d i f f i c u l t  the  In t h i s  social  case,  the  out  things that  one  p r o b l e m s and  be-  considdistinc-  social  prob-  emphasized t o the s t u d e n t s  insufficient  would  to  develop-  s y s t e m w o u l d be  p r o b l e m s were r e s t r i c t e d t o  of h a v i n g  of  arising  problems r e f e r r e d to r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h  whereas f i n a n c i a l arising  i t was  over-  resulting  ered a h e a l t h problem.  t h a t between f i n a n c i a l  latter  t h e i r sexual  sexual  One  the  t h e i r sexual  or  refer-  explained  problems  concerning  actual sickness  and  from the f u n c t i o n i n g of the  lems.  any  comparison  i t was  former r e f e r r e d to  any  whereas a n y  t i o n s was  the  In order t o  i n the  the  haviour,  overcome  one's c l o s e f r i e n d s ,  to r e l a t i o n s h i p s with people  ment t o g e t h e r  to  and  example, t h e f r i e n d s h i p p r o b l e m s were made  from the  come any  were e x p l a i n e d  as  that  people  difficulties  f u n d s t o have,  or t o  do,  wish.  Results The grade twelve of the P o l l XX  Student Problem P o l l b o y s , and are  f o r the g i r l s  62  was  administered  grade twelve  shown i n . T a b l e X I X  girls.  to  The  f o r t h e b o y s and  i n which the v a r i o u s  103  results Table  proportions are  given  TABLE X I X Proportion  o f Times 105 G r a d e X I I Boys Marked t h e P r o b l e m F i e l d over t h e Problem F i e l d a t t h e L e f t i n Importance  Pro b1em Field  FinanSchool cial  Future Occup- E m o t i o n . Soc i a l t ion  Financial  .500  .417  .544  .311  School  .583  .500  .525  Future Occupation  .456  .475  Emotional  .689  Social  a t t h e Top  Home  Health  Sex  .301  .272  .224  .156  .194  .496  .331  .321  .166  .204  .204  .500  .379  .301  .393  .272  .283  .283  .504  .621  .500  .417  .417  .'360  .340  .166  .699  .669  .699  .583  .500  .475  .369  .417  .204  Home  .728  .679  .607  .583  .52 5  .500  .428  .408  .379  Health  .776  .834  .728  .640  .631  .572  .500  .428  .574  Sex  .844  .796  .717  .660  .583  .592  .572  .500  .560  F r i e n d s h i p .806  .796  .717  .834  .796  .621  .525  .440  .500  6.081  5.670  5.658  4.986  4.375  .675  .630  .627  .5.54  .486  2  3  4  Mp Rank  ^  1  5  4.163 3.416 .462 6  .379 7  Friendship  3.176 2.965 .352 8  .329 9  Proportion  Problem Field Future ation  TABLE XX o f Times 62 Grade X I I G i r l s Marked t h e P r o b l e m F i e l d t h e P r o b l e m F i e l d on t h e L e f t i n I m p o r t a n c e  Future Occupat ion  School  Emotion,  Finan- Social cial  a t t h e Top o v e r  Home  Health  Friendship  Sex  Occup.500  .456  .368  .352  .235  .323  .235  .206  .176  School  .544  .500  .442  .500  .352  .441  .309  .250  .147  Emot i o n  .632  .558  .500  .485  .309  .323  .379  .250  .147  Financial  .648  .500  .515  .500  .352  .426  .323  .265  .147  Social  .765  .648  .691  .648  .500  .426  .456  .309  .368  Home  .677  .559  .677  .574  .574  .500  .471  .442  .383  Health  .765  .691  .603  .677  .544  .529  .500  .442  .338  Friendship  .794  .750  .750  .735  .691  .558  .558  .500  .397  Sex  .824  .853  .853  .853  .632  .617  .662  .603  .500  6.149  5.515  5.399  5.324  4.189  4.143  3.911  3.267  2.603  .683  .613  .599  .591  .465  .460  .434  .363  .289  Mp Rank  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  -101regarding sults  the calculated  f o r t h e boys a n d g i r l s  a significant the  choices  were h a n d l e d  of t h e problem f i e l d s  the b a s i s  of t h e average  Financial,  School,  Home, H e a l t h , Future  of  as i n d i c a t e d b y t h e  o f i m p o r t a n c e c a l c u l a t e d on  o f t h e mean p r o p o r t i o n s , was:  Future  Occupation,  Sex a n d F r i e n d s h i p .  Occupation,  School,  t h e boys nor t h e g i r l s ,  t h e f o u r problem areas  ented here,  For the g i r l s  Itwill  be noted  in  It  d i f f e r e n c e s , as a r e p r e s statistically  the t-test  d i f f e r e n c e s depart In t h i s  p o t h e s i s we assume t h a t t h e r e problem a r e a s ,  on t h e  case,  i n order t o det-  significantly  from  testing the n u l l hy-  i s no d i f f e r e n c e between t h e  i n importance,  according t o t h e stud  opinions. The  hy  Inven-  importance.  t o determine  i s possible t o apply  some g i v e n h y p o t h e s i s .  ents*  that  alone.  ermine whether t h e s e  various  Socia  a s a g r o u p , p l a c e d any one  estimated  i t i s necessary  of c h a n c e  the order  Financial,  w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d have o c c u r e d basis  Social,  i n c l u d e d i n t h e Adjustment  t o r y a t t h e t o p of t h e l i s t In d e a l i n g w i t h  Emotional,  Emotional,  Home, H e a l t h , F r i e n d s h i p a n d S e x . neither  i n the order of  o f t h e two g r o u p s . F o r t h e boys t h e o r d e r  was:  The r e -  separately since  s e x d i f f e r e n c e was d i s c o v e r e d  importance  choices  of the students*  standard  e r r o r o f a p r o p o r t i o n c a n be computed  means o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  formula:  -102where  (fp p q N  s m s a  If of  the standard e r r o r of the proportion t h e p r o p o r t i o n i n one c a t e g o r y 1-p, o r t h e p r o p o r t i o n i n t h e s e c o n d t h e number o f c a s e s .  the n u l l  hypothesis  were t r u e , t h e s t a n d a r d  t h e p r o p o r t i o n when N - 103( i . e . t h e number  w o u l d be  and  . /(.5)(.5) V 103  the standard  e r r o r o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n when N a 62 ( t h e  can  d i s c o v e r i f a n y of t h e a c t u a l p r o p o r t i o n s  fer  significantly  have a t - r a t i o .01 l e v e l  Using  obtained  problem, f o r t h e boys of 2.58 t o b e a s s u r e d  of c o n f i d e n c e  and a t - r a t i o  of c o n f i d e n c e .  i t was n e c e s s a r y  For the g i r l s ,  o f 2.66 was r e q u i r e d a t t h e .01 l e v e l a n d 2.00 a t  t h e v a r i o u s p r o p o r t i o n s f o r each of t h e t h i r t y - s i x  T a b l e XXI p r e s e n t s  problem f i e l d s  a list  f o r the boys, and Table  of the t-values  XXII gives  pairs  simi-  data f o r the g i r l s . These r e s u l t s  show t h a t , f o r t h e b o y s , t h e  p r o p o r t i o n s f o r the F i n a n c i a l with  each  ment  Inventory  that  to  a  for  all  dif-  o f 1.96 f o r s i g n i f i c -  .05 l e v e l .  lar  we  of s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e  the  of  these  from t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l p r o p o r t i o n .  a n c e a t t h e .01 l e v e l t-ratio  of b o y s )  .049 f o r t h e b o y s , a n d .063 f o r t h e g i r l s ,  In t h i s  error  o f .049  number of g i r l s t a k i n g t h e P o l l ) w o u l d be .063. two v a l u e s ,  category  problem f i e l d  of t h e f o u r p r o b l e m f i e l d s  significant  t h e male s t u d e n t s ,  i n comparison  i n c l u d e d i n the A d j u s t -  ( i . e . H e a l t h , Home, S o c i a l , a t t h e .01 l e v e l  estimated  Emotional)  of c o n f i d e n c e ,  were  indicating  as a g r o u p , c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e F i n -  Significance  Problem Field  Financial  Financial  .00  TABLE XXI ( t - r a t i o s ) of the Estimated Proportions L i s t e d i n Table XIX  School  F u t u r e Occupation  Emotional S o c i a l  of 105 G r a d e X I I Boys  Home  Health  Sex  1.69  .00  .89  .51  .00  Emot i o n a l  3 .85  .08  2.46  .00  Social  4.06  3.44  4.06  1.69  .00  Home  4.65  3.65  2.38  1.69  .51  .00  Health  5.63  6.81  4.65  2.85  2.67  1.46  .00  Sex  7.02  6.04  4.42  3.28  1.69  1.87  1.42  .00  Friendship  6.24  6.04  4.42  6.81  6.04  3.46  .51  1.22  School F u t u r e Occupation  Friendship  .00  TABLE X X I I Significance  Problem Field  ( t - r a t i o s ) of the Estimated Proportions L i s t e d i n T a b l e XX  F u t u r e Occupation  School  Emotional  Financial  Soc i a l  o f 62 Grade X I I G i r l s  Home  Health  Friendship  F u t u r e Occupation  .00  School  .69  .00  Emotional  2.09  .09  .00  Financial  2.34  .00  .02  .00  Social  4.36  2.34  3.03  2.34  .00  Home  2.80  .09  2.80  1.17  1.17  .00  Health  4.36  3.03  1.63  2.80  .07  .03  .00  Friendship  4.66  3.96  3.96  3.73  3.03  .09  .09  .00  Sex  5.14  5.60  5.60  5.60  2.09  1.85  2.57  1.63  Sex  .00  -105ancial any  problem  field  o f t h e problem  p r e s e n t e d more p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s  areas  i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e I n v e n t o r y . The  e s t i m a t e d p r o p o r t i o n s f o r the School problem with the S o c i a l ,  field  compared  Home, a n d H e a l t h f i e l d s were a l l  signific-  a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l no and  statistical  icant and  a t t h e .01 l e v e l  For the Future  and a t t h e .05 l e v e l  and t h e Future  the f o u r areas  Occupation  field  field  field.  significance  was o b t a i n e d ) Inventory  was c o n s i d e r e d more  In a d d i t i o n ,  field.  to differ  s i g n i f i c a n t l y from  A l l t h e problem  areas  at either  the exception fields  field  was t h e  field  ate  observed that  that  the t-ratios  of c o n f i d e n c e  compared  f o r t h e boys. It will  included i n Table XXII  the Future Occupation,  with  significant t r  Similar results are noticed f o r the g i r l s . be  than  t h e Sex p r o b l e m  produced  t h e .01 o r .05 l e v e l  with t h e F r i e n d s h i p problem  while  included i n the Inventory  e x c e p t i o n of t h e H e a l t h f i e l d  ratios  than  important  of the f o u r  included w i t h i n the Inventory, t h e Emotional only f i e l d  to the  were c o n s i d e r e d more  covered by t h e Inventory w i t h  the Emotional  signif-  both t h e F i n a n c i a l  covered by t h e Adjustment  the School problem  the  Occupation  in relation  Consequently,  (i.e.statistical  of t h e areas  field  o f c o n f i d e n c e compared w i t h t h e S o c i a l  a n d Home f i e l d s .  important  of  field.  indicated  problem  t h e e s t i m a t e d p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e b o y s were  Emotional  any  problem  Health f i e l d s ,  field  of c o n f i d e n c e b u t the t - r a t i o  s i g n i f i c a n c e between t h e S c h o o l  the Emotional  field,  than  School, and F i n a n c i a l  indicprob-  -106lem tant ed  fields  were c o n s i d e r e d  e i t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  than,  o r as i m p o r t a n t  as, t h e f o u r problem areas  i n the Inventory.  statistically, field, in  The F r i e n d s h i p f i e l d  as i m p o r t a n t  a n d t h e Sex f i e l d  the estimations  fails  and Health  a s t h e Home  field  of t h e g i r l s .  These r e s u l t s ventory  includ-  was c o n s i d e r e d ,  a s t h e Home f i e l d  was a s i m p o r t a n t  impor-  would  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e Adjustment I n -  to cover areas  of p e r s o n a l  the e s t i m a t i o n of grade twelve  students  some t o them t h a n .the a c t u a l a r e a s  p r o b l e m s t h a t ina r e more t r o u b l e -  i n c l u d e d i n t h e Inventory.  In o r d e r t o h a v e some c h e c k on t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f the r e s u l t s as e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e Problem P o l l , ware a s k e d , a f t e r to The  rank  an i n t e r i m o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y  the nine problem f i e l d s  rank  in their  t h e mean rank f o r e a c h The  results  of t h i s  simple  on t h e b a s i s o f  order  the exception  a n d Sex p r o b l e m f i e l d  versed  i n t h e case For  exception changed  field  was s e v e n t h  were i n t e r c h a n g e d .  whereas t h e i r  of t h e p a i r e d comparison  the g i r l s  t h e order remained  that the Emotional  in positions.  ranked  On  sixth  o r d e r was r e -  method.  i d e n t i c a l with the  and F i n a n c i a l  Neither  as d i d t h e  that t h e Health  t h e b a s i s o f t h e r a n k i n g method t h e Sex f i e l d the Health  importance.  r a n k i n g method, f o r t h e  i n the i d e n t i c a l  p a i r e d c o m p a r i s o n method, w i t h  and  of  days,  field.  boys, p l a c e d t h e f i e l d s  problem f i e l d  sixty-one  order  o r d e r f o r t h e g r o u p was d e t e r m i n e d  the students  of the p a i r s  fields  were  of problem  inter-  -107fields  t h a t were c h a n g e d  i n o r d e r - s e q u e n c e f o r t h e boys  the g i r l s  were c o n s i d e r e d  .01  o r .05  level  results iation  level  of t h e p a i r e d in position  factors  significantly  different  a t the  of c o n f i d e n c e on t h e b a s i s  of t h e  c o m p a r i s o n method so t h a t  their  c o u l d be e x p e c t e d on t h e b a s i s  of  results  show t h a t a f t e r a p e r i o d  o r d e r of t h e p r o b l e m  remained  On  practically  identical,  methods u s e d , f o r t h i s g r o u p It  i n no  of t h e p r o b l e m s e c t i o n s dition,  no  claim  in the P o l l However,  the b a s i s  way  detract from  included  i s made t h a t  are u n r e l a t e d  i n the  two  of t h e r e a d e r  the a c t u a l  Inventory.  the problem f i e l d s  or unique w i t h i n  i n d e a l i n g w i t h problems  knowledge of t h e r e l a t i v e  of t h e P o l l  worth In  ad-  included  themselves.  of s t u d e n t s f r o m the  viewpoint i t i s imperative that  the r e s u l t s  fields  of g r a d e t w e l v e s t u d e n t s .  coun-  the c o u n s e l o r have  importance of  areas as they s t a n d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p dition,  of the  s h o u l d be b r o u g h t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n  these results  a good  chance  of a p p r o x -  i m a t e l y two months t h e r e l a t i v e  selling  var-  alone. These  that  or  adjustment  t o one a n o t h e r .  do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  In a d establish  i n any a b s o l u t e way  the o r d e r of t h e s e adjustment f i e l d s  they a c t u a l l y  i n importance.  exist  ents themselves c o n s t i t u t e but  The  opinion  one b a s i s f o r t h e  of t h e  as  stud-  establish-  ment o f an o r d e r of i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e v a r i o u s a r e a s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , f o r the c o u n s e l l i n g  situation  i t would  logical  set f o r t h  by t h e s t u d e n t s be  that  the problems as  appear  only  -1 OSdealt  with at l e a s t ss  the basis the  t h o r o u g h l y as t h o s e determined  o f some o t h e r  P o l l should  be  criterion.  A l s o , the  i n t e r p r e t e d o n l y f o r gnade t w e l v e  ents s i n c e I t i s h i g h l y probable that of the  problem areas  i s a f f e c t e d by  the  prevailing  e s t a b l i s h e d order cultural patterns  would n e c e s s i t a t e order  from time to  Several the  field that  by  the  and  low  rank given the  The  However^ t h e  t h i s view, but with t h i s  of c a u t i o n  the Adjustment problems of at  the  conditions,  which  established  t o the  Inventory  use  Sex  con-  problem  It i s highly often  possible produce  social  error within  suggests that the  Problem P o l l i n the  reviewed  expressed doubts  possible limitation  individuals.  to contain  is  inhib-  the  re-  no e v i d e n c e t o o f f e r t o  to evaluate  in  results  be  consideration.  c e r t a i n l y warrant  o f any  the  s i n g l e t e s t such  ia full  the  other  as  adjustment  In a d d i t i o n , i t would a p p e a r  l e a s t f o r grade twelve students,  ered  problem f i e l d s  a c c u m u l a t e d a f f e c t of  w r i t e r has  r e s u l t s of the  expressing  level. af-  boys.  i t i o n s a c t u a l l y produced a systematic  interpreted  importune  as  refers to matters that  embarrassment, t h a t t h e  substantiate  stud-  considered  independently  Problem P o l l  g i r l s and  since this f i e l d  sults.  be  grade  of  time.  relatively  both the  and  societal  c o m p e t e n t p e r s o n s who  the  relative  a p e r i o d i c r e v i s i o n of the  e a r l y r e s u l t s of the  cerning  of  the  age  Another important f a c t o r which should fecting  results  on  areas are  more p r o b l e m s t h a n t h o s e a r e a s w h i c h  that,  considthe  -109Inventory  samples.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , any a t t e m p t ventory „ would  f o r making a t o t a l a p p r a i s a l  be a m i s a p p l i c a t i o n  s e l f gave warning about reference dividual to  to the f a c t  i n more t h a n  phases the  that  Bell  (5,p.108) h i m -  i n o r d e r t o do c o n s t r u c t i v e i n of c o u n s e l l i n g  those f i e l d s  i t i s necessary  included within  v a l i d and r e l i a b l e  of adjustment  p r o b l e m has b e e n  ution  of t h e t e s t .  adjustment  and v a l i d measures of s t u d e n t a d j u s t m e n t  just  to f i n d  of personal  s u c h o v e r - a p p l i c a t i o n when he made  work i n t h e f i e l d  have r e l i a b l e  Indeed,  to use the Adjustment I n -  measures o f t h e v a r i o u s  i s the e s s e n t i a l isolated,  i s undertermined.  even  the Inventory.  problem.  though  At  least  as y e t t h e s o l -  CHAPTER V I I I Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s During  t h e course  made t o e s t a b l i s h validity  study 1.  evidence  of the s u b s e c t i o n s  In c o n c l u d i n g , the  of t h i s  of s c o r e s  Inventory.  these  normality  and were  Adjustment skewed  s e c t i o n s of t h e I n v e n t o r y  i n the positive  of confidence.  three sections deviated  direction at  In terms of  significantly  from  platykurtic.  The d i v e r g e n c e  indicated a piling  boys used, t h e  f o r t h e Home A d j u s t m e n t , H e a l t h A d -  e i t h e r t h e .01 o r .05 l e v e l kurtosis,  f i n d i n g s were a s f o l l o w s :  o f 100 g r a d e t w e l v e  and E m o t i o n a l  were a l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y  2.  h a s been  t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and  of t h e B e l l Adjustment  the salient  F o r t h e sample  justment,  concerning  an a t t e m p t  we may s t a t e t h a t w i t h i n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f  itself,  distribution  study  from normality  up o f s c o r e s  of these  sections  a t t h e w e l l - a d j u s t e d end  of t h e s c a l e . 3.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  i a l Adjustment limits 4. the  o f s c o r e s f o r t h e boys  s e c t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y  normal  i n t e r m s o f skewness a n d k u r t o s i s . For the g i r l s ,  the d i s t r i b u t i o n s  Home A d j u s t m e n t a n d H e a l t h A d j u s t m e n t  significantly 5.  within  on t h e S o c -  i n t e r m s of b o t h  For the g i r l s ,  Emotional  of scores sections  made oh deviated  skewness and k u r t o s i s ,  t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r t h e S o c i a l and  s e c t i o n s were w i t h i n n o r m a l  statistical  limits.  -1116.  The s i g n i f i c a n t  distributions  indicate  I n v e n t o r y might various  levels  7. 100  Emotional Social  or  8. gest  sex d i f f e r e n c e s  section  a t t h e .01 l e v e l  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  between t h e  were f o u n d between t h e twelve g i r l s  f o r the  of c o n f i d e n c e and f o r t h e  of c o n f i d e n c e .  of t h e n o t e d  the establishment  sections  9.  clearly  No  statis-  f o r t h e Home  sections.  twelve boys and g i r l s Social  t h e Adjustment  s e x d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d  The p r e s e n c e  that  of the  of adjustment.  significant  Health  in certain  the p o s s i b i l i t y that  t w e l v e b o y s a n d 104 g r a d e  section  tically  found  n o t be d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  Significant  grade  deviations  sex d i f f e r e n c e s would  sug-  of s e p a r a t e norms f o r g r a d e  i s warranted  f o r the Emotional and  of t h e I n v e n t o r y .  Concerning  sex d i f f e r e n c e s  the only discrepancy  between t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a n d t h e o r i g i n a l i n t h e case  o f t h e Home s e c t i o n  study noted  significant  study by B e l l i s  f o r which the o r i g i n a l  d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e .01 l e v e l  of con-  fidence. 10.  Comparing  t h e s c o r e s made b y t h e 100 g r a d e  b o y s w i t h t h e s c o r e s made by t h e o r i g i n a l sample noted Social the  standardization  of 161 h i g h s c h o o l b o y s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l sections.  i n the case  It is highly  of both  possible,  f o r grade  difference  twelve  was  t h e H e a l t h and  therefore,  p r e s e n t norms f o r t h e H e a l t h and S o c i a l  Inventory a r e not adequate  twelve  sections  that of t h e  boys a s r e p r e s -  -112e n t e d by t h e sample u s e d 11. ization 104  Comparing sample  grade  within this  study.  t h e s c o r e s made by t h e o r i g i n a l  of 190 h i g h  dif-  f e r e n c e was o b t a i n e d f o r t h e Home, H e a l t h , a n d S o c i a l  sec-  are  suggesting that  inadequate  sample u s e d 12.  in this  new  and 8 i t e m s  7 items  sections,  requirements  for  section acceptance.  of low " i n t e r n a l  and suggests t h a t  con-  t h e items  d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between v a r i o u s l e v e l s of  adjustment.  These r e s u l t s a l s o  suggest  that  improve-  be made b y s u b s t i t u t i n g  items f o r those found t o be below the acceptance  falling  on t h e  4 i t e m s on  on t h e E m o t i o n a l  of the Health s e c t i o n ,  Similar results  item a n a l y s i s .  of  f o r t h e boys,  of t h e v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s might  13.  for  sections  a s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e  indicate the p o s s i b i l i t y  not c l e a r l y  ment  girls  on t h e H e a l t h  t o meet t h e s t a t i s t i c a l  sistency"  study  study.  17 i t e m s  section,  These r e s u l t s  health  twelve  From a n i t e m a n a l y s i s ,  the S o c i a l  are  i nthis  t h e p r e s e n t norms o f t h e s e  f o r grade  Home s e c t i o n s ,  failed  used  w i t h t h e sample of significant  tions,  twelve g i r l s  school g i r l s  standard-  were f o u n d  In a d d i t i o n ,  below t h e acceptance  both the g i r l s the p o s s i b i l i t y  i t was n o t e d level  and t h e b o y s , that  f o r the g i r l s that  from t h e the items  were n o t a l w a y s  giving  sex d i f f e r e n c e  further exist  level."  t h e same  indication  within  certain  subsections. 14. no  Concerning  the obtained r e l i a b i l i t y  subsection, with the possible  coefficients,  e x c e p t i o n of t h e Home s e c -  -113tion, high  g a v e i n d i c a t i o n of u s e  individual diagnosis.  c o e f f i c i e n t s obtained f o r the  ranging from established  .860  to  f o r the  of p e r s o n a l i t y are  for  .913  Home and  Social  compare f a v o u r a b l y  with  more w i d e l y - a c c e p t e d t e s t s  measurement, and  indicate  a d e q u a t e f o r g r o u p p r e d i c t i v e use  that  The  sections those  i n the these  i n terms of  field sections  reliabil-  ity. 15. ional The  The  obtained  sections  fell  section  dropped to a t e d by  .701  the  level  the  basis  of  boys.  the  reliabilities  H e a l t h and  in certain  This  low  internal consistency  within  o b t a i n e d f o r the  but  The  results  possibility  related tion  that  factors,  of  the  subtest  the  Health  much as  tions  f o r the  produced  b o y s and 17.  .39  girls,  the  w h i l e the  Using the  section  interview  of  make i t s doubtful.  may  well  be  E m o t i o n a l and  Emotional  indicate  measuring Home s e c -  .54  f o r the  and  Health  .54  for  boys sec-  the  girls.  home a d j u s t m e n t , t h e  justment  These  section  a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of  f o r the  possibil-  items.  p r o d u c e d a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .61  calcul-  intercorrelations  c e r t a i n sections  i n as  formula  the  even f o r g r o u p p r e d i c t i v e p u r p o s e s , a p p e a r  16.  the  reliability  indicates  Emot-  cases.  Richardson-Kuder  Richardson-Kuder formula  low  the  .80  f o r the  tended to reach t h i s l e v e l  f o r the  of  use,  low  on  ity  on  below the  Emotional s e c t i o n  Health  and  reliabilities  the  t e c h n i q u e f o r r a t i n g 100  findings Inventory  indicate  that  i s capable  of  the  boys  Home  yielding  Adre-  -114sults  significantly  a prolonged  interview.  at by o b t a i n i n g basis  "corrected"  These  a composite  of r a t i n g s  given  interview  ratings  were  r a t i n g f o r each s t u d e n t  by t h r e e  independent  arrived on t h e  raters.  A  of r a t i n g s .  A comparison  of the r a t i n g s g i v e n  compared w i t h t h e i n t e r v i e w  ratings  was a t e n d e n c y f o r t h e I n v e n t o r y However,  o b t a i n e d b y means o f  c o n t i n g e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t of .82 was o b t a i n e d b e -  tween t h e two s e t s 18.  s i m i l a r to those  o f t h e 21 s u b j e c t s  of t h e i n t e r v i e w  by t h e Inventory  i n d i c a t e d that  there  t o r a t e more l e n i e n t l y .  r a t e d below average  15 o f t h e s e were s i m i l a r l y  on t h e b a s i s  rated  by t h e  Invent o r y . 19. ment  The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d p e r t a i n i n g  section  purposes  i n d i c a t e that  i s substantiated,  ing t h e possible certain 20.  i t susefullness but suggestion  of t h e t e s t  i s made c o n c e r n -  The t e s t r e s u l t s o f t h e S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t v a l i d a t i n g of a t o t a l  which were s e l e c t e d  the  i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v e l y belonged yielded  o f 100 g r a d e t w e l v e  on t h e b a s i s  statistical  indicate that  between s c o r e s actual  there  boys  of t h e degree t o which  to social-participation  s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e .01 l e v e l o f  c o n f i d e n c e between each o f t h e t h r e e  and  f o r counselling  items f o u n d t o be low v a l i d i t y .  and  strongly  Adjust-  r e v i s i o n of norms a n d t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f  groups which c o n s i s t e d  groups,  t o t h e Home  groups.  i s considerable  made on t h e S o c i a l s e c t i o n  social participation.  The r e s u l t s relationship  of t h e I n v e n t o r y  -11521.  When t h e s e  same 100 g r a d e t w e l v e  b o y s were  divided  i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s on t h e b a s i s of " p o p u l a r i t y " v o t e , t h e results  failed  to reveal statistical  the v a r i o u s groups. on  the S o c i a l  related is  22.  section  clinical ting  by d i r e c t i n g  from  social  i n the  c o n t a c t s and, con-  the s o c i a l adjustment  them i n t o s o c i a l  o f such  groups.  c o n s i s t e d of 98 b o y s d i v i d e d  of h e a l t h a d j u s t m e n t  mean s c o r e s made on t h e I n v e n t o r y Consequently  t h e r e was l i t t l e  made b y t h e s t u d e n t s  into three  by the S c h o o l N u r s e .  a t e d t.hat t h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l  Adjust-  levels  The r e s u l t s  indic-  s i g n i f i c a n c e between t h e f o r any o f t h e g r o u p s .  a g r e e m e n t between t h e s c o r e s  on t h e H e a l t h  section  the h e a l t h r a t i n g s g i v e n by t h e School  ies,  role  The c r i t e r i o n g r o u p s f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e H e a l t h  ment s e c t i o n  taining  aware  i n the study t h e S o c i a l  t o serve a p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l  aidinfacilitating  individuals  24.  If this  and c o u n s e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n s f o r t h e p u r p o s e of d e t e c -  sequently,  and  others.  s h o u l d be made f u l l y  presented  those, who a r e r e t i r i n g  23.  that the scores  of the s e c t i o n .  From t h e e v i d e n c e  s e c t i o n .appears  between  are.significantly  t o get along with  using t h e Inventory  delimitation  suggests  of the I n v e n t o r y  to the a b i l i t y  so, those  of t h i s  This f i n d i n g  significance  of the Inventory Nurse.,  Considering the v a r i o u s f i n d i n g s  of . t h i s s t u d y  t o the Health  the low r e l i a b i l i t -  section,  including  t h e l a r g e number of p o o r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  gether w i t h t h e l a c k of v a l i d a t i n g  evidence  per-  items, t o -  supported  by the  -116negative results tha't t h i s  s e c t i o n has v e r y l i m i t e d  grade t w e l v e 25.  r e p o r t e d by other s t u d i e s , i t would  adjustment  results  selected rating,  section.  f o r the Emotional  t o support  the r e l i a b i l i t y  criterion  used  section  because  of t h e l a c k of meaning  ly  appears  negative r e s u l t s  emotional  the v a l i d i t y  and v a l i d i t y  of t h i s  of t h e theuse  l i m i t e d f o r c o u n s e l l i n g purposes  f o rthis  o f i t s "measurements".  Sim-  s e c t i o n have b e e n c o n s i s t e n t -  r e p o r t e d by other s t u d i e s . 26.  girls  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e l f - r a t i n g s i t was n o t e d  self-evaluations  ment and s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t Inventory. students  27.  their  The h e a l t h a n d e m o t i o n a l  scores  According  order  on t h e H e a l t h  of importance  of nine  b o y s was: F i n a n c i a l ,  ional,  Social,  Home, H e a l t h ,  F o r 62 g r a d e t w e l v e  as: Future  Occupation,  twelve  agreement behome a d j u s t -  s c o r e s made on t h e self-ratings  of t h e  agreement w i t h  their  and Emotional s e c t i o n s .  to the r e s u l t s  twelve  28.  with  of t h e i r  d i d n o t show a n y s i g n i f i c a n t  Inventory  o f 100 g r a d e  t h a t t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t  tween t h e s t u d e n t s '  the  validat-  was i n t u r n u n d e r t e r m i n e d ,  of t h i s  ilar  section  on t h e b a s i s o f a c o m p o s i t e  failed  Although  validating  use i n c o u n s e l l i n g of  students.  The t e s t  ing groups,  appear  of t h e S t u d e n t problem f i e l d s  School,  Future  Problem  Poll,  f o r 103 g r a d e  Occupation,  Emot-  Sex a n d F r i e n d s h i p . girls  School,  Home, H e a l t h , F r i e n d s h i p , S e x .  t h e o r d e r was  Emotional,  estimated  Financial,  Social,  -11729. ure  F o r t h e boys b o t h  Occupation  statistical included field  field  the F i n a n c i a l  significance  was  obtained)  than  Inventory.  the Emotional  any o f t h e a r e a s  The S c h o o l  was c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more included  and the F u t -  were c o n s i d e r e d more i m p o r t a n t ( i . e .  i n t h e Adjustment  the areas  field  problem  important  than a l l  i n the Inventory with the e x c e p t i o n of  field.  Similar results  were n o t e d  t h e Sex p r o b l e m  field  f o r the  girls. 30..  F o r the boys,  statistically Inventory 31. that  as i m p o r t a n t  The r e s u l t s  problems that  more t r o u b l e s o m e the Adjustment any  attempt  considered  as a l l the a r e a s c o v e r e d by t h e  w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e E m o t i o n a l  the Adjustment  sonal  was  of t h e S t u d e n t Inventory f a i l s  field.  Problem P o l l  indicated  to cover areas  of p e r -  i n the e s t i m a t i o n s of t h e s t u d e n t s a r e  t o them t h a n  Inventory.  the actual areas  Consequently  i t would a p p e a r  t o u s e t h e I n v e n t o r y f o r making  al  of p e r s o n a l adjustment  of  the Inventory.  c o v e r e d by  a total  that  apprais-  p r o b l e m s w o u l d be a m i s a p p l i c a t i o n  -118-  APPENDIX A  Specimen  copy of t h e  Adjustment and  Bell  Inventory  Manual  THE A D J U S T M E N T  STUDENT FORM  INVENTORY  (For students of high school and college age)  By HUGH M. BELL Published by STANFORD  UNIVERSITY PRESS  Stanford University, California  NAME  AGE  NAME OF SCHOOL  SEX  SCHOOL CLASS  DATE  DIRECTIONS Are you interested in knowing more about your own personality? If you will answer honestly and thoughtfully all of the questions on the pages that follow, it will be possible for you to obtain a better understanding of yourself. There are no right or wrong answers. Indicate your answer to each question by drawing a circle around the "Yes," the "No," or the " ?" Use the question mark only when you are certain that you cannot answer "Yes" or "No." There is no time limit, but work rapidly. If you have not been living with your parents, answer certain of the questions with regard to the people with whom you have been living.  NO.  SCORE  DESCRIPTION  REMARKS  a b  c d Copyright 1934 by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University All rights reserved  2 Id  Yes  No  2b  Yes  No  ?  Do you take cold rather easily from other people?  3C  Yes  No  ?  Do you enjoy social gatherings just to be with people ?  4d  Yes  No  ?  Does it frighten you when you have to see a doctor about some illness?  5C  Yes  No  ?  At a reception or tea do you seek to meet the important person present?  Ob  Yes  No  ?  Are your eyes very sensitive to light?  7a  Yes  No  ?  Did you ever have a strong desire to run away from home? Do you take responsibility for introducing people at a party?  Do you day-dream frequently?  8c  Yes  No  ?  9a  Yes  No  ?  Do you sometimes feel that your parents are disappointed in you ?  lOd  Yes  No  ?  Do you frequently have spells of the "blues"?  lib  Yes  No  ?  Are you subject to hay fever or asthma? Do you often have much difficulty in thinking of an appropriate remark to make in group conversation ?  12c  Yes  No  ?  13a  Yes  No  ?  Have you been embarrassed because of the type of work your father does in order to support the family ? Have you ever had scarlet fever or diphtheria?  14b  Yes  No  ?  15c  Yes  No  ?  Did you ever take the lead to enliven a dull party ?  IGa  Yes  No  ?  Does your mother tend to dominate your home? Have you ever felt that someone was hypnotizing you and making you act against your will?  17d  Yes  No  ?  18a  Yes  No  ?  Has either of your parents frequently criticized you unjustly?  19c  Yes  No  ?  Do you feel embarrassed when you have to enter a public assembly after everyone else has been seated ?  20d  Yes  No  ?  Do you often feel lonesome, even when you are with people? Do you feel there has been a lack of real affection and love in your home ?  Zla  Yes  No  ?  22c  Yes  No  ?  In school is it difficult for you to give an oral report before the class?  23b  Yes  No  ?  Do you have many headaches ? Have your relationships with your father usually been pleasant ?  24a  Yes  No  ?  25b  Yes  No  ?  Do you sometimes have difficulty getting to sleep even when there are no noises to disturb you? When riding on a train or a bus do you sometimes engage fellow-travelers in conversation? Do you frequently feel very tired toward the end of the day ?  26c  Yes  No  ?  27b  Yes  No  ?  Does the thought of an earthquake or a fire frighten you ?  28d  Yes  No  •?  29b  Yes  No  ?"  Have you lost weight recently ? Has either of your parents insisted on your obeying him or her regardless of whether or not the request was reasonable?  30a  Yes  No  ?  31c  Yes  No  ?  Do you find it easy to ask others for help ?  32a  Yes  No  ?  Has illness or death among your immediate family tended to make home life unhappy for you ? Have you ever been seriously injured in any kind of an accident? Has lack of money tended to make home unhappy for you?  33b  Yes  No  ?  34a  Yes  No  ?  Are you easily moved to tears ?  35d  Yes  No  ?  36C  Yes  No  ?  Are you troubled with shyness?  37a  Yes  No  ?  Has either of your parents frequently found fault with your conduct?  38b  Yes  No  ?  Have you ever had a surgical operation?  Yes  No  ?  Would you feel very self-conscious if you had to volunteer an idea to start a discussion among a group of people ? "  Yes  No  ?  Do you dread the sight of a snake?  Yes  No  ?  Have your parents frequently objected to the kind of companions that you go around with?  Yes  No  ?  Do things often go wrong for you from no fault of your own? Do you have many colds?  39c  40d 4la 4 2d  .  43b  Yes  No  ?  44c  Yes  No  ?  Have you had experience in making plans for and directing the actions of other people?  45d  Yes  . No  ?  Are you frightened by lightning?  46a  Yes  No  ?  Is either of your parents very easily irritated?  No  ?  Are you subject to attacks of influenza?  47b  Yes  3 Yes  No  ?  Have you frequently been depressed because of low marks in school?  Yes  No  ?  Do you have difficulty in starting conversation with a person to whom you have just been introduced?  Yes  No  ?  Have you had considerable illness during the last ten years?  Yes  No  ?'  Have you frequently disagreed with either of your parents about the way in which the work about the home should be done?  Yes  No  ?  Do you sometimes envy the happiness that others seem to enjoy?  Yes  No  ?  Have you frequently known the answer to a question in class but failed when called upon because you were afraid to speak out before the class ?  Yes  No  ?  Do you frequently suffer discomfort from gas in the stomach or intestines? Have there been frequent family quarrels among your near relatives?  Yes  No  ?  Yes  No  ?  Do you find it easy to make friendly contacts with members of the opposite sex?  Yes  No  ?  Do you get discouraged easily ?  Yes  No  ?  Do you frequently have spells of dizziness?  Yes  No  ?  Have you frequently quarreled with your brothers or sisters?  Yes  No  ?  Are you often sorry for the things you do?  Yes  No  ?  Yes  No  ?  If you were a guest at an important dinner would you do without something rather than ask to have it passed to you? Do you think your parents fail to recognize that you are a mature person and hence treat you as if you were still a child?  Yes  No  7  Yes  No  ?  Have you ever been afraid that you might jump off when you were on a high place?  Yes  No  ?  Have you had a number of experiences in appearing before public gatherings?  Are you subject to eye strain?"  Yes  No  ?  Do you often feel fatigued when you get up in the morning?  Yes  No  ?  Do you feel that your parents have been unduly strict with you?  No  ?  Do you get angry easily ?  Yes  No  ?  Has it been necessary for you to have frequent medical attention?  Yes  No  ?  Do you find it very difficult to speak in public ? Do you often feel just miserable?  Yes  Yes  No  ?  Yes  No  ?  Has either of your parents certain personal habits which irritate you ?  Yes  No  ?  Are you troubled with feelings of inferiority?  Yes  No  ?  Do you feel tired most of the time? Do you consider yourself rather a nervous person?  Yes  No  ?  Yes  No  ?  Do you enjoy social dancing a great deal?  Yes  No  ?  Do you often feel self-conscious because of your personal appearance?  Yes  No  "?  Do you love your mother more than your father? Are you subject to attacks of indigestion? When you want something from a person with whom you are not very well acquainted, would you rather write a note or letter to the individual than go and ask him or her personally? Do you blush easily?  Yes  'No  ?  Yes  No  ?  Yes  No  ?  Yes  No  ?  Have you frequently had to keep quie t or leave the house in order to have peace at home ?  Yes  No  ?  Do you feel very self-conscious in the presence of people whom you greatly admire, but with whom you are not well acquainted?  Yes  No  ?  Are you subject to tonsillitis or laryngitis?  Yes  No  ?  Are you ever bothered by the feeling that things are not real?  Yes  No  ?  Have the actions of either of your parents aroused a feeling of great fear in you at times? Do you frequently experience nausea or vomiting or diarrhea?  Yes  No  ?  Yes  No  ?  Are you sometimes the leader at a social affair?  Yes  No  ?  Are your feelings easily hurt?  Yes  No  ?  Are you troubled much with constipation?  Yes  No  ?  Do you ever cross the street to avoid meeting somebody?  Yes  No  3  Do you occasionally have conflicting moods of love and hate for members of your family?  4 03c  Yes  No  04b  Yes  No  ?  If you come late to a meeting would you rather stand or leave than take a front seat? Were you ill much of the time during childhood?  No  ?  Do you worry over possible misfortunes?  No  ?  Do you make friends readily?  Yes  No  ?  Have your relationships with your mother usually been pleasant?  98d  Yes  No  j>  Are you bothered by the feeling that people are reading your thoughts?  00b  Yes  No  ?  Do you frequently have difficulty in breathing through your nose? Are you often the center of favorable attention at a party? Does either of your parents become angry easily?  95d  Yes  OGC  Yes  OTa  100c  Yes  No  ?  101a  Yes  No  ?  Do you sometimes have shooting pains in the head?  102b  Yes  No  ?  103a  Yes  No  ?  Was your home always supplied with the common necessities of life?  104C  Yes  No  ?  Do you find that you tend to have a few very close friends rather than many casual acquaintances?  105a  Yes  No  5  Was your father what you would consider your ideal of manhood?  Yes Yes  No No  ?  Are you troubled with the idea that people are watching you on the street? Are you considerably underweight?  Yes  No  ?  Has either of your parents made you unhappy by criticizing your personal appearance? Does criticism disturb you greatly ? Do you feel embarrassed if you have to ask permission to leave a group of people?  lood 107b 108a  ?  luod  Yes  No  ?  IOC  Yes  No  ?  Do you frequently come to your meals without really being hungry? Are your parents permanently separated?  1  111b  Yes  No  ?  112a  Yes  No  ?  113d  Yes  No  ?  Are you often in a state of excitement ?  114c  Yes  No  ?  Do you keep in the background on social occasions?  115b  Yes  No  ?  Do you wear eyeglasses ?  lied  Yes  No  ?  Does some particular useless thought keep coming into your mind to bother you?  No  ?  Did your parents frequently punish you when you were between 10 and 15 years of age? Does it upset you considerably to have a teacher call on you unexpectedly? Do you find it necessary to watch your health carefully?  117a  Yes  118c  Yes  No  ?  119b  Yes  No  ?  Do you get upset easily?  120d  Yes  No  ?  121a  Yes  No  ?  Have you disagreed with your parents about your life work?  122c  Yes Yes  No No  ? ?  Do you find it difficult to start a conversation with a stranger? Do you worry too long over humiliating experiences?  Yes  No  ?  Have you frequently been absent from school because of illness? Have you ever been extremely afraid of something that you knew could do you no harm?  123d 124b  Yes  No  ?  126a  Yes  No  ?  Is either of your parents very nervous ?  127c  125d  Yes  No  ?  Do you like to participate in festival gatherings and lively parties?  128d  Yes  No  ?  Do you have ups and downs in mood without apparent cause?  120b  Yes  No  ?  Do you have teeth that you know need dental attention? Do you feel self-conscious when you recite in class ? Has either of your parents dominated you too much?  130c  Yes  No  ?  131a  Yes  No  ?  2d  Yes  No  '?  133b  Yes  No  ?  Have you often felt that either of your parents did not understand you?  13  Do ideas often run through your head so that you cannot sleep? Have you had any trouble with your heart or your kidneys or your lungs?  134a  Yes  No  ?  135c  Yes  No  ?.  Do you hesitate to volunteer in a class recitation ?  136d  Yes  No  ?  Does it frighten you to be alone in the dark?  137b  Yes  No  ?  Have you ever had a skin disease or skin eruption, such as athlete's foot, carbuncles, or boils?  138a  Yes  No  ?  Have you felt that your friends have had a happier home life than you?  139b  Yes  No  ?  Do you have difficulty in getting rid of a cold?  No  ?  Do you hesitate to enter a room by yourself when a group of people are sitting around the room talking together ?  140c  Yes  4  M A N U A L FOR  THE A D J U S T M E N T  INVENTORY  STUDENT FORM* (For students of high school and college age) By  HUCH  M . BELL  Published by S T A N F O R D U N I V E R S I T Y PRESS, Stanford University, California  The Adjustment Inventory provides tour separate measures of personal and social adjustment: a. Home Adjustment. Individuals scoring high tend to be unsatisfactorily adjusted to their home surroundings. Low scores indicate satisfactory home adjustment. b. Health Adjustment. High scores indicate unsatisfactory health adjustment; low scores, satisfactory adjustme.it. c. Social Adjustment. Individuals scoring high tend to be submissive and retiring in their social contacts. Individuals with low scores arc aggressive in social contacts. d. Emotional Adjustment. Individuals with high scores tend to bo unstable emotionally. Persons with low scores tend to be emotionally stable. USE OF T H E INVENTORY The Inventory has been successful when used with persons of high-school and college ages. It is suitable for use with both sexes. The high reliabilities ot the measures make possible comparisons of one individual with another. The measurement of four types of adjustment permits location of specific adjustment difficulties. The use of the small letters a, b, c, and d, corresponding to the four measures of adjustment, enables the counselor; to discover quickly the particular questions relating to each measure. The total score may be used to indicate the general adjustment status. INSTRUCTIONS FOR GIVING 1. The Inventory is self-administering. To insure careful reading of the instructions, the examiner should read the instructions appearing on the first page of the blank aloud while-the individuals being tested are reading them silently. 2. There is no time limit. Ordinarily not more than twenty-five minutes are required for all students to complete the Inventory. 3. Each individual being tested should interpret the questions for himself. However, questions about the meaning of words may be answered by the examiner. 4. The examiner should make every effort to secure complete co-operation of all persons filling in the blanks. He should indicate the value oi the results to the students, assuring them the scores will be treated with strictest confidence. 5. If questions concerning the purpose and use of the test arise, they should be answered frankly and honestly. 6. Unless students ask why the letters a, b, c, and d are placed before the questions, nothing need be said about them. If a question is raised, the examiner should state that they correspond to the letters on the first page of the inventory and are usecTTn analyzing the test results. INSTRUCTIONS FOR SCORING The Inventory can be accurately scored in three minutes. Thus, to obtain the score on Home Adjustment, take the scoring stencil entitled ''Home" and lay the * T h e A d j u s t m e n t I n v e n t o r y is p u b l i s h e d i n two  college students, and the Adult Form.  f o r m s — t h e Student Form  for high s c h 6 o l a n d  column for page two on page two of the Inventory so that the "2" at the top and that at the bottom of the stencil are superimposed upon the corresponding figures of the test. Then count the number of instances where the vertical marks on the scoring stencil fall immediately over a circle on the test, writing this total at the bottom of page two or keeping it in memory. Then similarly apply the column of the stencil for page three to the third page of the Inventory and the column for page four to the fourth page. Write opposite "a" in the column entitled "Score" on the first page of the blank the total of the three pages thus derived. Obtain the scores for Health, Social and Emotional Adjustment in the same manner. Do not score the question marks. •  NORMS The interpretation of individual scores is made more meaningful by. the use of certain descriptive designations. However, the difference between two descriptive terms should not be overemphasized, since a difference of only one point frequently determines whether a score falls under one heading or another. If the counselor reports scores to persons who have taken the test, he should use caution in giving out results to those who have evidenced unsatisfactory adjustments. For unless something is done to help the student overcome his maladjustment, he will benefit little or none merely from being told of it. The results of the Health Adjustment section should be considered not as taking the place of a medical examination but rather as a possible preliminary to such an examination. Unsatisfactory scores on this section of the Inventory may indicate the need for a physical examination by a physician. In Table I tentative norms are given for high-school and college students of both sexes. The high-school scores were obtained from' freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors at Chico and at Redwood City, both in California. The college scores include freshmen and seniors from the State College at Chico,Xalifornia, juniors from.the State College at San Jose, California, and freshmen and sophomores from Menlo.Junior College at Menlo Park, California. T A B L E  I . — N O R M S HIGH  SCHOOL SCORE  C O L L E G E  RANGE  S T U D E N T S  ,. C O L L E G E S C O R E  RANGE  . Women (190)  DESCRIPTION  Men (171)  Women (243)  0-1  0-2 3-5 •' 6-13 14-20 Above 20  Excellent Good Average Unsatisfactory Very unsatisfactory  0-1  0-1  5-9 10-16, Above 16  Above 1 5  0-1 2-4 5-11 12-16 Above 16  Excellent Good Average Unsatisfactory Very unsatisfactory  0-1 2-4 5-11 12-16 Above 16  0-4 5-9 10-20 21-26 Above 26  0-4 5-10 11-21 22-30 Above 30  Very aggressive Aggressive Average Retiring Very retiring  0-3 4-7 8-17 18-25 Above 25  0-2 3-5 6-11 12-18 Above 18  0-3 4-8 9-18 -19-24 Above 2 4  Excellent Good Average Unsatisfactory Very unsatisfactory  0-2 3-5 6-13 14-19 Above 19  0-12 13-24 25-44 45-60 Above 60  0-15 16-31 32-57 58-74 Aboye 7 4  Excellent Good Average Unsatisfactory Very unsatisfactory  0-9 10-22 23-41 42-60 Above 60  5-9 10-16 Above 1 6 0-1  2-4 5-9 10-15  Total Score . .  A N D  Men (161) 2-4  Health  F O R H I G H - S C H O O L  2-4  2-4 5-9 10-15  Above 1 5 0-1  2-4 5-9  10-15  Above 1 5 0-3 4-8 9-19  20-28 Above 2 8 0-3 4-7 8-15  16-21 Above 2 1 0-12 1J-24 25-47 48-65  Above 65  RELIABILITY  The coefficients of reliability for each of the four sections of the Inventory and for its total score are reported in Table II. These were determined by correlating the odd-even items and applying the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. The subjects were college freshmen and juniors. .• « TABLE  II.—COEFFICIENTS  a. Home Adjustment b. Health Adjustment .'  Total  89 80  Score  OF RELIABILITY  ( N =. 258)  c. Social Adjustment d. Emotional Adjustment 93  ......  . . 89 .85  VALIDITY  The Inventory has been validated in the following ways: First, the items for each of the sections in the Inventory were selected in terms of the degree to which they differentiated between the upper and lower fifteen per cent of the individuals in a distribution of scores. Only those items which clearly differentiated between these extreme groups are included in the present form of the Inventory. Second, the results of the various sections of the Inventory were checked during interviews with four hundred college students over a period of two years. - Third, the Social Adjustment section, the Emotional Adjustment section, and the total score of the Inventory were validated by correlating the Social Adjustment section with the Allport Ascendance-Submission test and the Bernreuter Personality Inventory, B4-D, and by correlating the Emotional Adjustment section and the total similarly with the Thurstone Personality Schedule. These coefficients are reported in Table III. TABLE  III.—COEFFICIENTS O F V A L I D I T Y  Allport and Social Adjustment (Men) Allport and Social Adjustment (Women) Thurstone Schedule and Emotional Thurstone Schedule and Total Score Bernreuter B4-D and Social  .'  N 46 50 96 96 .39  ".  . Uncorr. .58 .67 .83 .89 .79  Corr. .72 .81 .93 .94 .90  Fourth, the Inventory has also been validated through the selection of "Very well" and "Very poorly" adjusted groups of students by counselors and school administrators in California and New Jersey and a determination of the degree to which the Inventory differentiates among them. The groups used to validate the Home Adjustment section were selected by the counselors in the high schools at Chico, California, and Hasbrouck Heights, New Jersey. The groups used to validate the Health Adjustment section were selected in the high schools at Chico and Redwood City, California, and at Hasbrouck • Heights, New Jersey. Students who had been absent from school three or more times during the school year on account of illness were included in the "Poorly adjusted" group. Students who had not been absent during the school year because of illness were included in the "Well adjusted" group. The Social Adjustment section was validated by groups selected in the junior college at Sacramento, California. - Students who had been leaders in school ac^ tivities during their freshman and sophomore years were included in the "Well adjusted" group, and students who had participated in few or no school activities during these years were included in the "Poorly adjusted" group. The Emotional Adjustment validating groups were selected by the counselors in the junior college at Pasadena, California. In Table I V (page 4) are summarized the means, the differences between the means, and the standard errors of the mean differences of all the groups used for validation purposes.  T A B L E IV.—VALIDATING GROUPS S E L E C T E D BY COUNSELORS Mean: "Well Adjusted" Group  Home Adjustment (51 students in each group) Health Adjustment (42 students in each group) Social Adjustment (24 students in each group) Emotional Adjustment (36 students in each group)  Mean: "Poorly Adjusted" Group  Diff. Sigma of Diff.  4.65  10.27  5.62  .80  5.40  11.53  6.13  .93  8.40  16.80  8.40  1.52  8.28  15.78  7.50  1.41  '  PROBABLE ERRORS OF MEASUREMENT In Table V are listed the probable errors of measurement of the four types of adjustment measured and for the total score of the Inventory for high-school and college students of both sexes. T A B L E V.—PROBABLE ERRORS OF M E A S U R E M E N T HIGH  Home Health Social Emotional Total Score  Men 1.11 1.26 1.44 1.36 2.50  SCHOOL  Women 1.43 1.47 1.65 1.70 3.11  COLLEGE  Men 1.08 1.30 1.48 1.44 2.43  Women 1.24 1.40 ' 1.74 1.69 3.18  INTERCORRELATIONS In Table V I are reported the coefficients of intercorrelation of the four sections of the Inventory. T A B L E V I . — C O E F F I C I E N T S O F I N T E R C O R R E L A T I O N (N = Home and Home and Home and  Health... Social.... Emotional  .43 .04 .38  Health and S o c i a l . . . . Health and Emotional Social and Emotional.  197) .24  .53  .47  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author is greatly indebted to the following persons who have co-operated in validating the Inventory: Dr. J. C. De Voss and Professor Harrison Heath of the State College at San Jose, California; Miss Isa D. Reed of the State College at Chico, California; Miss Margaret E . Bennett, Director of Guidance of the Pasadena City Schools, and Miss Ida E . Hawes, Dean of Guidance of the Pasadena Junior College, California; Miss Virginia Lee Block of the Hasbrouck Heights High School, New Jersey; Principal Frank Cummings and Mr. Carl Schreiter of the Chico High School, California; Principal A . C. Argo'and Miss Petra B. Cooper of the Sequoia High School, Redwood City, California; Dean Harry Tyler of the Sacramento Junior College, California; and Dean Charles T. Vandervort and Dr. Herbert Popenoe of the Menlo Junior College, California. The author wishes also to acknowledge his obligation to Dr. Lewis M . Terman, Dr. Edward K . Strong, Jr., and Dr. C. Gilbert Wrenn for helpful criticisms during the construction of the Inventory. REPORT TO AUTHOR In order that more extensive norms may be compiled the author will appreciate receiving scores obtained from the use of the Inventory. Communications should be addressed in care of the Chico State College, Chico, California. PRICE SCALE Sample sets, 15 cents. Package lots: 25 copies, $1.75; 50 copies, $3.00; 100 copies, $5.50; 500 copies, $25.00; 1,000 copies, $40.00. Printed in the United States of America  -119-  APPENDIX B  (a) S p e c i m e n Copy of s e t of Quest i o n s • (b) I n t e r v i e w  Form  (c) I n f o r m a t i o n  Form  Interview  Interview Questions f o r Evaluating Home Adjustment 1.  2.  Confidence i n parents 1. I f you had an important matter on your hands that you could not solve yourself, what v/ould you do? 2. What important matters have you ever talked over with your parents? 3. Have you ever talked over (a) your future occupation with your parents to any great extent? (b) sex matters? 4. (a) Do you prefer to keep your problems to yourself? (b) Why? 5. (a) Have you ever had a problem that you f e l t you should have talked over with your -parents but didn't? (b) Why? 6. (a) Do you prefer to go to someone else i n preference to your parents with most of your problems? (b) Why? 7. (a) Do you f e e l that you are not close to either of your parents? (b) Mother or Father? 8* (a) Is either of your parents too curious about your personal affairs? (b) In what way? 9. (a) In the past year or so has the behaviour of either of your parents embarrassed you before your friends? (b) How often does t h i s occur? 10. (a) Do you f e e l that your parents are old fashioned i n t h e i r ideas? (b) In what ways? 11. Do your parents give you the impression that they have l i t t l e confidence i n you? How? Father and Mother relationships 1. Do your mother and father enjoy the same type of movie and the same kind of radio program between themselves? 2. Do they have similar tastes i n most things? How do they d i f f e r ? 3. Do they, agree on household matters? 4. How often do your mother and father go out s o c i a l l y i n a month together? 5. When they come home from going somewhere together, do they usually appear to have enjoyed themselves? If not, why not? 6. Do you f e e l that one of your parents doesn't consider the feelings of the other enough? In what ways? 7. How often do your parents quarrel i n a week or i n a month? 8. How long does i t usually take your parents to get over an argument? Have you ever noticed that i t has taken several days for them to get 'over an argument? How often? 9. Does either of your parents have habits that annoy the other? 10. Are your mother and father close to each other or do they have l i t t l e to do with each other? 11. Are things made unpleasant around your home because of constant disagreement between your parents? 12. When you have a disagreement with one o f your parents what does the other parent do? 13. Do you f e e l that your parents could get along better than they do, or do they get along as w e l l as you would l i k e ?  Interview Questions for Evaluating Home Mjustment (cont'd, Page2) 3.  General harraonv between student and father 1. (a) When was the l a s t time that you had an argument with your father? (b) what was i t about? 2. How often do you argue with your father i n a month? 3. (a) Does i t sometimes take you and your father more than a day to get over a disagreement? (b) How long does i t usually take? 4. Do you have to stay c l e a r of your father i n order to prevent arguments? 5. Do you have disagreements with your father over: (a) your work around home? (b) how long you can stay out at night? (c) Where you can go at night? (d) your choice of friends? (e) matters regarding money? (f) matters concerning school work? (g) your future choice of occupation? (h) any other matters? 6. Do your disagreements with your father make things continually unpleasant around home for you? 7. Do you avoid disagreoing with your father because of what might happen? Why? 8. When he gets very angry with you does he resort to physical punishment? (b) i f not what does,he do? 9. Does your father get angry over l i t t l e unimportant things? What, f o r instance? 10. Do you f e e l that you could get along better with your dad, or do you f e e l that you get along very well?  4.  General harmony between student and mother A repeat of section 3, with word "mother" replacing word "father". Sense of home's worth 1. How often do your own friends come up to the house to see you? 2. Do your parents ever object because you bring i n friends? Why2 3. Do you usually go to your f r i e n d s ' houses rather than i n v i t e them- to yours? 4. Do your folks own the house? 5. Do you have your own room or do you share a rooia? With whom? 6. Do you f e e l your home i s over-crowded? 7. Does your home lack anything that you think i t should have? What for example? 8. (a) Where do you l i v e i n the c i t y ? (b) Do you l i k e the l o c a l i t y ? 9. Do you have good conditions f o r studying? 10. (a) How many rooms are there i n your home? (b) How many people l i v e i n your home? 11. Are there many repairs needed on the house at present? Can you give an example? 12. Are you troubled by the lack of money of your f o l k s ? How does i t effect you? 13. Do most of your friends have homes that are better than your own i n appearance. 14. Do you have to get away from home before you can enjoy y o u r s e l f ?  5.  Interview Questions f o r Evaluating Home Mjustment (con't, Page 3 ) S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of student with parents 1. (a) When was the l a s t time that you went out with your father s o c i a l l y ? (b) Where did you go? 2. ( a) When was the l a s t time you went out with your mother soci a l l y ? (b) ¥ftiere did you go? 3. How often do you go out with your father i n a month or year? (b) How often with your mother i n a month or year? 4. Does the conversation at the supper table usually i n t e r e s t you? Do you j o i n i n the conversation? 5. When was the l a s t t i n e that you and your parents joined each other i n a game or some other amusement at home? 6* How often do you spend evenings together at home for entertainment i n a month? 7 a Do you usually enjoy y o u r s e l f when you are with your parents at home or when you go out with them? 8. (a) Have you ever gone on t r i p s with your parents? (b) Where? 9. (a) Do you and your father make things or do things around the house together? (b) Is he d i f f i c u l t t o work with? 10, Do you help your mother around! the house? (b) Is she hard to work w ith? 11» Do both your parents show considerable interest i n your work and play? ( As a check question- Is there any reason why you and your parents are unable to go out together or spend evenings together at home?) r  Harmony between student and other members of the family* 1« I f you and your brother ( s i s t e r , etc.) want something a.t home but only one can have i t , who i s usually given the preference? 2. Do you f e e l that your parents tend to favor someone else i n the family over you? Who? 3. How often do you quarrel with your brother (etc.) i n a week? 4a Does your brother (etc.) take advantage of you? 5. How often do you and your brother (etc.) go out together? 6* How often do you and your brother (etc.) j o i n i n games? 7. Do you have to t r y to stay away from your brother (etc.) so as tp prevent quarreling? 8 . Do you find i t d i f f i c u l t to get along with any other member of the house besides your parents, brothers and s i s t e r s ? Explain? 9a Are there.any other members i n the home who can not get along with each other? .Explain? Miscellaneous la Are there any conditions about your home that I have not mentioned that make things unpleasant? 2a When you have your own home what are some of the things that you w i l l change, i f any?  Interview  1. Con. i n p a r . 1. 2. "3. 4. a)  2. F-M  b a  days a mo.  4o  6.  7. "_§_.  d a y s a week  days a  " 9.  l  bj  >  mo.  "  •  11. 13.  b)  0 1 2 3 3. Gen H a r w i t h F . 1. a)  0  1  2  5  4  4. Gen H a r w i t h 1. a)  b) a)  M.  i l )  2. a)  Jal  3. a ) 4. 5. a  b)  b)  3. a) T  TT  b c)  :  b)  —  'b. a b c)  f)  g)  a)  n)  If g)  d)  6.  H)  6, 7_,_  "TV  8. a)  9.  .  "3i"  y. i-U. a) i i .  2.  Relat.  1. 2_.  b)5, a) b) 6. a)  7.  HO.  Form  '8.~aT  JLL  ror  10,  0  1 2  5. Sense o f Hm's  _1.  0  Worth _1  3  1 2  4  6. Soc p a r t o f s a n d  1.  2.  .-^  b) a) b) a) bi a) b)  2.  57  3,  ~W7 7. 8. a)  4.  9~r  5i  •iimT TTT  b.  7. 8 aj  12.  13«  0  14.  p.  •%)  a  eacn  mo. .  •  mo.  b.)  9, a) b)  0  1 2  3  10. a)  4  7. R e l o f S w i t h o t h e r a. i  3.  4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  _ .  mem.  1T7  . u i  a month  0 8  0  •  b)  1 2  3  4  d  1 " 2 • 3 "4  Misc.  _  Information Form  ............. A g e . . . . . . . . . o  1.  (li'JS)  2,  Underline a l l of the following who l i v e i n the same house as you: father; mother; brother(s); s i s t e r ( s ; ; step-parent; grandparent(s); and others.  3.  Whr.t i s your father's occupation?^  4.  How many brothers do you have? Kow many s i s t e r s do you have?_  5,  L i s t below a l l the clubs and school organizations that you belong to.. This w i l l include clubs and organizations that are or were active for only part of the year, such as school plays or teams, and any group which has not yet commenced but which you are certain to j o i n . Club or organization  Your duties  oex  Mother's  Their ages?, Their ages?  Office held by you  6.  L i s t any clubs or organizations i n the school to which you would l i k e to belong, but are unable, and explain why you are unable to j o i n .  7.  What clubs (etc.), i f any, do you belong to outside of school and what are your duties?  S.  During the school term, what work do you do outside of school work? If possible, indicate when this work is done and time spent on i t .  APPENDIX C  S p e c i m e n Copy o f E m o t i o n a l A d j u s t m e n t R a t i n g Eorm  EMOTIONAL ADJUSTMENT RATING FORM Name o f  student  Below i s a l i s t o f t e n " e m o t i o n a l b e h a v i o r ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s each i n the form o f a q u e s t i o n , i t would, be a p p r e c i a t e d i f you w o u l d p l a c e a checkmark ( J ) i n t h a t c o l u m n on t h e r i g h t w h i c h you f e e l b e s t d e s c r i b e s the b e h a v i o r o f the above student i n each o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d on,the l e f t . I f t h e b e h a v i o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c on t h e l e f t d o e s n o t a p p l y ' t o t h e above s t u d e n t , o r i f i t has n o t b e e n o b s e r v e d by you, ' i t s h o u l d be l e f t unmarked. 1  • Emotional Does t h e  behavior  student  stutter  characteristic or  Consistently  Observed, but not often  Often  stammer?  -  I s S ( s t u d e n t ) e a s i l y d i s t u r b e d by criticism? Does S have i n v o l u n t a r y movements o f m u s c l e s , i . e . t i c s , f a c i a l grimaces, etc.? Does S b l u s h on t h e s l i g h t e s t p r o v o c a t i o n ? I s S n e r v o u s when s p e a l c i n g . o r a n s w e r i n g before the c l a s s ? Does S o s c i l l a t e between e x t r e m e s i n mood, i . e . i s he e i t h e r e l a t e d o r d e p r e s s e d ? Does S become e x c i t e d o r i r r i t a b l e 'easily? Does S d i s p l a y o v e r a g g r e s s i v e o s t e n t a t i o u s behavior? Does S d i s p l a y e x t r e m e w i t h d r a w n b e h a v i o r ?  ! i  Does S show s i g n s o f r e s t l e s s n e s s o r nervousness?  j i  i—..  ,  —  . .J  B e l o w i s a g r a p h i c r a t i n g s c a l e o f '''emotional adjustment' '. C o n s i d e r t h e s c a l e ' as a c o n t i n u u m m e a s u r i n g e m o t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t from e x t r e m e m a l a d j u s t m e n t t o e x c e p t i o n a l l y good a d j u s t m e n t . Please place a v e r t i c a l mark ( j ) a t t h e p o i n t on t h e s c a l e w h i c h y o u f e e l b e s t d e s c r i b e s the emotional adjustment of the student. The f i v e d e s c r i p t i v e t e r m s shown b e l o w s h o u l d be u s e d o n l y a s g u i d e s t o t h e r a t e r . If, for example, a c e r t a i n s t u d e n t i n y o u r o p i n i o n i s " b e l o w a v e r a g e " , y o u w i l l be a b l e t o i n d i c a t e , t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h he i s b e l o w a v e r a g e by p l a c i n g t h e v e r t i c a l mark a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e on t h e s c a l e . 1  Unsatisfactory  Below Average  Average  Above Average  Consist- • ently well adjusted  -121-  APPENDIX D S p e c i m e n Copy of S e l f - R a t i n g  Form  STUDENT  SELF-RATING  FORM NAME  To  the student:  You a r e g o i n g t o be a s k e d t o r a t e y o u r s e l f on f o u r d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r s . Aa a s u g g e s t i o n j t r y t o r a t e ' y o u r s e l f on each o f t h e f o u r m a t t e r s s e p arately. Some p e o p l e a l l o w t h e r a t i n g t h a t t h e y p u t down f o r one t o a f f e c t t h e way t h a t t h e y r a t e t h e m s e l v e s on t h e f o l l o w i n g o n e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e r a t i n g s , o f c o u r s e , w i l l be s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t l a l . B e f o r e you r a t e y o u r s e l f on each m a t t e r , p l e a s e r e a d o v e r t h e " d e s c r i p t i o n " f i r s t , f o r this i s very important. Rating I Description: C o n s i d e r your " s o c i a l l i f e " . You a r e a s k e d t o check one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : "engrossivy", " a v e r a g e " , o r " r e t i r i n g " . By an "aggrossiva" p e r s o n we mean one who a c t i v e l y b e l o n g s t o many s o c i a l g r o u p s , b o t h a t s c h o o l and o u t s i d e o f s c h o o l ; a p e r s o n who e n j o y s s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s , and who l i k e s t o , and does, t a k e a l e a d i n g p a r t i n them. By a " r e t i r i n g " p e r s o n we mean one who b e l o n g s t o v e r y few s o c i a l g r o u p s i f any, and who does n o t d e s i r e t o t a k e p a r t i n many social activities. An " a v e r a g e " p e r s o n w o u l d be one who does n o t f a l l in e i t h e r of these other groups. Now c o n s i d e r your own s i t u a t i o n and check ( ) one of t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s below t h a t b e s t f i t s y o u . A^groasivo  ( ,)  Retiring  ( )  Average  ( )  Rating I I Description: C o n s i d e r your g e n e r a l h e a l t h . Be c a r e f u l n o t t o r a t e y o u r s e l f on j u s t how you f e e l a t t h e moment b u t r a t h e r on t h e u s u a l s t a t e o f y o u r h e a l t h as compared w i t h most p e o p l e . Check one o f t h e terms b e l o w . Average  ( )  Below A v e r a g e  .{ )  Above A v e r a g e  ( )  Rating I I I Description: C o n s i d e r your home s i t u a t i o n , w h i c h i n c l u d o s e v e r y t h i n g about i t s u c h as how e v e r y o n e g e t s a l o n g a n d what you t h i n k o f t h e home i t s e l f . Now i n d i c a t e w h i c h of t h e t e r m s b e l o w b e s t d e s c r i b e s y o u r home l i f e . Average  ( )  Below A v e r a g e  ( )  Above A v e r a g e ( )  R a t i n g IV Description: C o n s i d e r your e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y . A p e r s o n who o f t e n d i s p l a y s b e h a v i o u r such as b e c o m i n g e x c i t e d o r w o r r i e d e a s i l y , g e t t i n g i n t e n s e l y a n g r y , b e i n g v e r y s e n s i t i v e t o c r i t i c i s m , o r who becomes e x t r e m e l y d e p r e s s e d e a s i l y w o u l d be c l a s s e d as "below a v e r a g e " . A p e r s o n who n e v e r e x p e r i e n c e s such b e h a v i o u r and who i n s t e a d i s u s u a l l y v e r y c a l m even u n d e r s t r e s s would be c l a s s e d as "above a v e r a g e " Those who do n o t f a l l i n e i t h e r of t h e two g r o u p s d e s c r i b e d would be " a v e r a g e " . In your e s t i m a t i o n , c h e c k t h e t e r m t h a t b e s t f i t s y o u . Above A v e r a g e  ( )  Below A v e r a g e  ( )  Average  ( )  -122-  A.PPENDIX E  S p e c i m e n Copy of t h e S t u d e n t Problem  o  Poll  THE STUDENT PROBLEM POLL The purpose of t h i s p o l l i s to f i n d out just what problems students consider to be the most important and troublesome to them. Since we are interested, here, with the opinions of the students as a group, there w i l l be no need to sign your name on t h i s sheet. However, we do want to have your personal opinions. The f i e l d s , or areas, within which the most common problems of students are located, and which w i l l be considered here, include: health problems, home problems, school problems, sex problems, f i n a n c i a l problems, future occupation problems, nervousness andemotional problems, friendship problems, and s o c i a l problems. Most of these f i e l d s are self-explanatory, but, to make sure that you understand what i s meant, some of them vri.ll be explained more f u l l y . I t i s important f o r you to r e a l i z e that the following descriptions of the problem f i e l d s are i n no way complete, but are intended to give you a better idea of what type of problem to look f o r i n the various problem f i e l d s . The "Friendship Problems" f i e l d , f o r example, refers s p e c i f i c a l l y to problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g from your associations with your close friends. Perhaps you have many disagreements with your friends. ' Then again, you might f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to have the friends you want, or to keep the close friends you do have. This f i e l d includes your r e l a t i o n s with both boy friends and g i r l friends. The "Social Problems" f i e l d refers to problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s that might arise out of your associations with people i n general. I f you f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to get along with most people you would have problems i n t h i s f i e l d . This f i e l d also includes problems that you might have regarding s o c i a l functions, such as p a r t i e s and gatherings. Perhaps you are unable to j o i n into s o c i a l a f f a i r s l i k e you would wish. The "Nervousness & Emotional" f i e l d refers to personal d i f f i c u l t i e s , • such as: having tense feelings without any r e a l cause, becoming over-excited frequently, having many fears, having nervous habits such as f i n g e r n a i l b i t i n g or restlessness, and becoming embarrassed e a s i l y . The "Sex Problems" f i e l d r e f e r s to problems that you might have, f o r example, because of a lack of knowledge regarding sex. Perhaps you have d i f f i c u l t i e s and worries over c e r t a i n phases of your sexual development. Then again, you might have d i f f i c u l t i e s concerning b o d i l y changes. This f i e l d refers also to any personal problems related to sexual behavior. The remaining problem f i e l d s are: home problems, health problems, future occupation problems, school problems, and f i n a n c i a l problems. What these r e f e r to i s f a i r l y evident, but i f you do not understand any one of them ask about i t immediately. (Please turn to next sheet)  page 2  The Student Problem P o l l  What you are to do now i s to read through a l l the pairs of problem f i e l d s l i s t e d ' below, and underline the one i n each pair which you think has contained the most difficult.problems for you i n the past year. I f you f i n d a pair that i s hard to decide upon, then guess. Do not omit any p a i r . The l e t t e r "P" i s used as an abbreviation f o r "Problems". Work- f a i r l y r a p i d l y .  (1) Health P. - Home P.  (19) School P. - F i n a n c i a l P.  (2) F i n a n c i a l P. - Friendship P.  (20) S o c i a l P. - Home-P.  (3) School P. - Sex'P.  (21) Friendship P. - Sex P.  (ii) Nervous "c Emotional P." - S o c i a l P.  (22) Future Occupation P. - Home P.  (5) Home P. - School P.  (23) School-P. - Nerv. & Emot. P.  (6) Sex P. - Financial*P.  (2ii) Sex P. - Future Occupation P.  (7) Health P. - School P.  ( 2 5 ) Health- P. - Friendship P.  (8) Friendship P. - Nervous & Emot. "P.  (26) F i n a n c i a l P. - Social P.  (9)  S o c i a l P. - Future Occupation P;  (27) Home P. - Sex P.  (10) Home P. - Financial' P.  (28) Friendship P - Future Occup.- P.  (11) Nervous & Emot.' P. - Health P.  (29) F i n a n c i a l P. - Health P.  (12) F i n a n c i a l P. - Future Occupation P. (30) School P. - S o c i a l P. (13) Friendship P. - Home P. (Hi)  Future Occupation P. - School P.  (3D  Health P - Future Occupation P.  (32) Sex P. - S o c i a l P.  (15) Health P. - S o c i a l P.  (33) School P. - Friendship' P.  (16) Sex P, -r Health P.  (3U) Nervous e"c Emot. P. - Sex P.  (17) Nervous & Smot. P. - Home P.  ;(35) Friendship P. T Social P,  (18)  (36) F i n a n c i a l P. - Nervous & Emot P  Future Occup P. - Nervous & Emot P.  Of the following, underline the, one problem f i e l d which you think has caused you the most d i f f i c u l t y i n the past year: ( l ) Home P.; (2) Health P.; (3) S o c i a l P.j (k) Nervousness•and Emotional; (5) School P.; (6) Sex P.; (7) F i n a n c i a l P.; (8) Friendship P.;' and (9) Future Occupation P. UNDERLINE ONLY ONE ' I f you f e e l that you have important problems not covered by the above nine f i e l d s , indicate these problems below or on the reverse side.  -123-  APPENDIX TABLES  -124APPENDIX TABLE I Phi  C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r E a c h Item o f t h e A d j u s t m e n t I n v e n t o r y f o r 100 G r a d e X I I Boys and 104 G r a d e X I I Girls  Item No. Boys 7 9 1316 18 21 24 30 32 34 37 41 46 51 55 59 62 67 72 78 82 86 92 97 101 103 105 108 112 117 121 186 131 134 138  .52 .60 .21 .50 .72 .33 .30 .59 .21 .43 .71 .23 .75 .62 .51 • 52 • 44 .25 .71 .47 .60 .24 .69 .10 .82 .34 .53 .34 .22 .37 .43 .53 .40 .64 .72  Girls .63 .59 .22 .33 .51 .41 .12 .49 .37 .42 .52 .42 .67 .62 .51 .34 .54 .44 .62 .23 .71 .31 .71 .28 .72 .18 .18 .46 .30 .45 .60 .35 .51 .81 .51  Emotional  Social  Health  Home  Item Item 0 <P No. Boys j G i r l s No. Boys G i r l s 2 6 11 14 23 25 27 29 33 38 43 47 50 54 58 63 66 69 74 79 84 87 90 94 99 102 L07 111 115 119 124 129 133 137 139  .22 .48 .21 .34 .«3 .68 .54 .24 .22 .17 .36 .11 .24 .23 .20 .48 .68 .31 • 48 .11 .13 .10 .24 .33 .31 .25 .33 .51 .22 .22 .33 .32 .41 .32 .38  .49 .50 .32 .12 .49 .58 .64 .34 .00 .21 .56 .30 .51 .31 .42 .44 .40 .52 .45 .30 .32 .24 .21 .36 .30 .64 .20 .38 .06 .41 .61 .33 .30 .21 .81  3 5 8 12 15 19 22 26 31 36 39 44 49 53 56 61 65 70 76 80 83 88 91 93 96 100 104 110 114 118 122 127 130 135 140  .24 .60 .67 .61 .85 .59 .74 .23 .54 .71 .52 .65 .65 .50 .86 .49 .54 .71 .60 .21 .39 .62 • 45 .34 .51 .62 .48 .60 .61 .24 .56 .56 .75 .64 .68  .25 .21 .30 .41 .66 .79 .34 .4-9/ .66 .83 .59 .71 .42 .67 .40 .59 .68 .41 .37 .43 .58 .15 .46 .51 .65 .33 .39 .61 .46 .78 .30 .79 .73 .68  Item No. Boys 1 4 10 17 20 28 35 40 42 45 48 52 57 60 64 68 71 73 75 77 81 85 89 95 98 106 109 113 116 120 123 125 128 132 136  .58 .2-1 .65 .25 .72 .31 .33 .23 .51 .10 .21 .44 .51 .58 .24 .59 .51 .50 .41 .52 .42 .45 .69 .45 .11 .43 .48 .42 .41 .40 .60 .43 .31 .62 .21  <P  Girls .47 .4-6 .68 .31 .73 .22 .58 .24 .60 .21 .08 .50 .47 .58 .47 .48 .68 .61 .34 .50 .21 .47 .66 .45 .22 .31 .76 .54 .52 .60 .53 .39 .61 .57 .41  -125-  BIBLIOGRAPHY  -126BIBLIOGRAPHY  1.  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H.M., T h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f p e r s o n a l counseli n g , w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to t h e A d j u s t m e n t Inventory. Stanford University, Stanford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1939. dyke and Moore, B r u c e . , How to York; H a r p e r and B r o s . , 1934.  Description New Y o r k :  i n the 1934.  family.  and measurement W o r l d Book Co.,  New  10.  C a t t e l l , R.B., sonality.  of p e r 1946.  11.  C l a r k , W i l l i a m and S m i t h , Leo, " F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e on t h e v a l i d i t y of p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s " . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1942, 33, 81-91.  12.  C u b e r , J . F . , and G e r b e r i c h , J.B., "A n o t e on t h e c o n s i s t e n c y of q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses". A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 1946, 11, 11-19.  13.  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