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Comprehension of recorded material and material directly presented Kitley, Philip Joseph 1949

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COMPREHENSION OF RECORDED MATERIAL AND MATERIAL DIRECTLY PRESENTED by P h i l i p Joseph K i t l e y  A thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l fulfilment o f the requirements f o r the degree of  MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of EDOCATION  The University o f B r i t i s h Columbia October, 1949  Abstract of a Master's Thesis submitted by Philip J . Kitley October, 1949  Comprehension of Recorded M a t e r i a l and M a t e r i a l D i r e c t l y Presented  Research i n radio education has been confined l a r g e l y to surveys so f a r , and very l i t t l e has been done to investigate l i s t e n i n g , the general f i e l d of t h i s study. The purpose of the experiment was to discover the difference i f any between the  comprehension and retention of material presented to grade V and VI pupils  d i r e c t l y and by means of t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , as measured by both immediate and delayed r e c a l l tests. The p r i n c i p a l questions to be decided were whether the absence of " v i s u a l cues" would make any difference i n favour of the d i r e c t presentation, or whether the absence of d i s t r a c t i o n s would favour the recorded presentation. i n a l l , eight classes were used from four Vancouver schools, four from each of the two grades.  Children were selected as a representative sampling of the  Vancouver school population, and were found to have a mean I.Q. only s l i g h t l y above that f o r the whole school population of the c i t y . into account, 192  When absences had been taken  cases were l e f t from which complete r e s u l t s were obtained.  Eighteen paragraphs were used for- the test, four of these "dummies" f o r t r i a l purposes and the remainder i n two p a r a l l e l forms of the Dominion s i l e n t reading t e s t s . This was simple f a c t u a l material prepared f o r the use of grades V and VI. Tests were administered at the rate of two a day f o r f i v e days, and f i v e days l a t e r a delayed test on one set of seven paragraphs was given.  The groups were then rotated  and the same procedure followed f o r the other set of paragraphs. form of four simple multiple choice questions f o r each paragraph.  Tests were i n the Rotation of  time, class, material and type o f presentation was made possible i n the pattern of the experiment. out.  One reading voice and one t e s t administrator were used through-  I n t h i s way such factors as novelty, fatigue and p r a c t i c e were cancelled out.  Each of the four schools and a l l the classes were v i s i t e d once each day, two schools i n the morning and two i n the afternoon, at regular times. For the recorded part of the t e s t , paragraphs were transcribed and portable playback equipment was taken from school to school.  The experiment was arranged  i n such a way that at each school on each day one class was r e c e i v i n g l i v e m  one c l a s s recorded material.  and  0  F o r the recorded part of the t e s t , d i r e c t i o n s were  also transcribed, so that i n t h i s section even the t e s t d i r e c t i o n s were given by means o f recordings. The plan was c a r r i e d out s u b s t a n t i a l l y as arranged, and with only one or two minor delays o f not more than an hour or two. Results may be summarized as follows: a.  A general trend i n favour o f " l i v e " presentation was d e f i n i t e l y noticed.  b.  Scores f o r the t o t a l group were s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n favour of the l i v e " a  presentation, but scores f o r the grade VI group were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t e i t h e r way. c.  Boys' scores were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t but g i r l s ' scores were. Boys' scores were noticeably higher than g i r l s  d.  1  scores.  Opper and lower q u a r t i l e s o f the I.Q. d i s t r i b u t i o n were examined, but there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n either group.  Since t h i s experiment was organized i n such a way as t o make the " l i v e " and 0  recorded presentations as s i m i l a r as possible, i t follows that i n t h i s case the record was merely d u p l i c a t i n g the teachers.  Such i s not the case with radio,  other f a c t o r s operating to j u s t i f y the use of school broadcasts.  i Comprehension of Recorded M a t e r i a l and M a t e r i a l D i r e c t l y Presented  TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . Chapter I  Page  The Problem i n General.  1  1.  The Educational aspect of radio.  1  (a) How  1  t h i s experiment f i t s i n t o the p i c t u r e .  (b) Radio and " l i s t e n i n g .  1  L i s t e n i n g as an educational problem.  2  (a) I t s complexity,.  2  (b) The paucity of information about i t .  3  (c) The need, therefore, f o r further i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  A  The Problem, stated.  A  0  2.  3. Chapter I I  A B r i e f Outline of General Radio Research.  5  1.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between radio and recordings. .  5  2.  General radio research.  5  (a) The three major research projects.  5  (b) Audio versus v i s u a l presentation.  5  (c) C r i t i c i s m s .  6  (d) A sample of other miscellaneous studies. Experiments more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to t h i s one.  7 8  (a) The work of C a n t r i l and A l l p o r t .  8  3.  A.  (i)  "Radio and rostrum".  9  (ii)  Work with u n i v e r s i t y classes.  9  (iii)  Limitations of the work.  10  (b) P h i l l i p s ' experiment.  10  The general p i c t u r e at present.  11  (a) Disregard of school age c h i l d r e n .  11  (b) Slackening of research.  11  Chapter I I I The Experiment. 1. Introductory observations.  12  (b) Restatement o f purpose.  12  2. M a t e r i a l of the experiment.  12  (a) The classes and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  12  (b) The paragraph material and reasons f o r i t s selection.  13 13  (a) The calendar pattern.  13  (b) Time o f v i s i t s .  14  (c) Sequence pattern.  14  (d) Directions.  15  (e) The recordings.  16  (i)  Cutting.  16  (ii)  Speed.  17  (iii)  Playback equipment.  17  (f) The plan i n operation.  Chapter V  12  (a) Care i n controls.  3. The progress o f the experiment.  Chapter IV  ii Page 12  18  Results and Interpretations.  19  1. Obtained r e s u l t s .  19  2. Interpretations.  20  3. Questions r a i s e d and suggested hypotheses.  21  4. General observations and c r i t i c i s m s .  21  (a) The nature of the material.  21  (b) Differences between the studio and classroom situation.  22  Summary and Conclusions.  23  1. Summary.  23  (a) Previous research.  23  iii (b) The experiment.  Page 23  2. Conclusions.  24  3. F i n a l remarks.  25  (a) What about radio education?  25  (b) A further word on the complexity o f l i s t e n i n g .  26  (c) Indicated areas of further research.  26  Appendix A. Information prepared f o r teachers.  27  Appendix B. S t a t i s t i c a l data.  29  Appendix C. I.Q. medians and standard deviations.  31  Appendix D. S t a t i s t i c a l operations.  31  Appendix E. Test material.  32  Appendix F. Bibliography.  42  v  Tables found i n the text Table I .  General pattern of the experiment.  14  Table I I .  Means, standard deviations and c r i t i c a l r a t i o s f o r immediate r e c a l l t e s t s .  19  Means, standard deviations and c r i t i c a l r a t i o s f o r delayed r e c a l l t e s t s .  19  Comparison of l i s t e n i n g scores and reading norms.  21  Table I I I . Table IV.  COMPREHENSION OF RECORDED MATERIAL AND MATERIAL DIRECTLY PRESENTED  CHAPTER I The Problem i n General I t has taken us l e s s than a generation to forget t h a t radio made i t s triumphant debut as an instrument of education rather than  entertainment.  Yet while research i n commercial radio goes on apace, some of the fundamental educational questions r a i s e d by radio remain unanswered, or at most only p a r t i a l l y s e t t l e d . The purpose of the experiment outlined i n the following pages i s to examine one of the most basic of these questions, and one to which the answer i s s t i l l f a r from complete.  How  does the l i s t e n e r react to the  mechanical reproduction of the human voice? does when he can see the speaker? Are they any better remembered? all?  Does he l i s t e n as w e l l as he  Do the words make as great an impact?  Or i s there any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at  Much has been vigorously contended either way,  and p l a u s i b l e  arguments have been advanced from both sides, but i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l cases they have been based on the usual type of casual observation. I t must be remembered f i r s t of a l l , that radio has helped restore l i s t e n i n g to the important place i t h e l d i n human communications before the' p r i n t i n g press became common. As a speaker remarked i n addressing a Chicago convention of teachers of speech,^ "I hope i t i s only a pardonable exaggeration, to say that radio has rediscovered the ear as a receptor of sensory  impressions".  1 Ewbank, H. L., "Trends i n Research i n Radio Speech", Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol.26, p.282, June, 1940*  2 A c o r o l l a r y t o t h i s was picked up at random from an u n i d e n t i f i e d radio program recently, "Any f o o l can t a l k , but i t takes a wise man t o listen".  L i s t e n i n g i s a complex s k i l l and i t s implications go f a r *  Without doubt there are features about radio l i s t e n i n g that vary d i s t i n c t -  2 l y from n o r m a l n  n  listening.  One investigator has concluded that "the  radio has a somewhat d u l l i n g e f f e c t on the higher mental processes". The now famous "Men from Mars" broadcast produced by Orson Welles perhaps bears t h i s out.-' Questions such as these concern what happens to the material of l i s t e n i n g i n the higher brain centres.  And from such as these down to the  r e l a t i v e l y simple question o f physical a c u i t y there ranges a whole hierarchy of problems, which includes attitudes, ordinary language d i f f i c u l t i e s , vocabulary, fatigue, and so on. I n many ways, radio has served merely t o underline the importance o f listening.  Almost twenty years ago Paul T. Rankin c a r r i e d on a series o f  i n t e r e s t i n g experiments i n which he showed that though we l i s t e n three times as much as we read, 'we study l i s t e n i n g l e s s than one s i x t h the time we study reading.^ He.showed further that l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y v a r i e s widely 2  McGregor, D., "The Psychology of Radio", Harvard Alumni B u l l e t i n .  vol.37, p.250, November 23, 1934. 3 Press,  C a n t r i l , H., Invasion from Mars. Princeton, Princeton u n i v e r s i t y 1940.  4 Rankin, P. T., " L i s t e n i n g A b i l i t y , I t s Importance, Measurement and Development , Chicago School, jnnynni vol.12, pp.177-179, 417-420, January, June, 1930. Quoted by Adams, H. M. i n "Listening", Quarterly J o u r n a l of Speech, vol.24, p.209, A p r i l , 1938. 11  T  3 and stands i n need of s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i f i t i s to develop i n more than haphazard fashion.  I n s p i t e of t h i s , l i t t l e r e a l attack has been made on  the problem since. But the problems have not lessened. Indeed, the impact o f radio has further inoreased them.  As one more i n t r u s i o n i n t o the few remaining quiet  places of l i f e i t has thrown a number of l i s t e n i n g problems into.prominence, and i f i t has not a c t u a l l y created any i t has c e r t a i n l y aggravated  5 them. To give one example mentioned i n a radio publication,  "An  American  Medical Association Journal reported recently that i n 95% of the cases o f hearing d i f f i c u l t y among c h i l d r e n referred t o doctors today the hearing d i f f i c u l t y was not due t o any organic defect but t o the c h i l d r e n s 1  h a b i t u a l l y shutting out sounds they do not wish to hear". These i n d i c a t e something o f the importance which should be given t o the study of l i s t e n i n g by modem educators.  As one group o f competent  radio investigators has s a i d , ^ "The mere presence of a loudspeaker i n a classroom i s not going t o r e s u l t i n miraculous educational changes i n boys and g i r l s " . Or to state i t more f u l l y , " L i s t e n i n g s k i l l does not come n a t u r a l l y , nor i s i t n e c e s s a r i l y developed by constant radio attendance at school or a t home. I t can be acquired with the proper guidance of a wise teacher who knows how to diagnose the d i f f i c u l t i e s and careless l i s t e n i n g habits o f pupils who have been used to thinking of radio only as an instrument of entertainment. L i s t e n i n g s k i l l i s as important as reading, writing and speaking s k i l l s * . 1  5 Solheim, A. K., "The School and Good Radio L i s t e n i n g Habits^ Journal of the Association f o r Education by Radio, v o l . 5 , p . 6 7 , January, 1946. 6 Woelfel, N., and T y l e r , I . K., Radio and the School. Tonkers-onHudson, World Book Publishing Co., 1945, p.28. 7 W i l l e y , R. de V., and Toung, H. A., Radio i n Elementary Education. Boston, D. G. Heath and Co., 1948, p.46.  However, before these problems can be adequately attacked, more must be known about the way c h i l d r e n l i s t e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n regard t o recent developments i n the use of radio and recordings i n school.  Does the  presence of a loudspeaker c a l l up habits of i n a t t e n t i o n learned at home, or i s i t a greater incentive to listening?  I s the absence of the person  speaking a drawback through the i n e v i t a b l e l o s s i n " p e r s o n a l i t y or does 8  i t remove such things as d i s t r a c t i n g mannerisms and therefore allow a greater concentration on the words themselves?  Or a f t e r a l l , under  reasonable conditions, i s there any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two types of listening?  I t i s i n an attempt to help answer the question  that t h i s experiment was conducted. The Problem I t was aimed therefore at discovering what d i f f e r e n c e i f any l i e s i n the comprehension and retention of simple f a c t u a l material by intermediate grade students, when t h i s i s presented face-to-face and when i t i s presented through the medium of the loudspeaker.  Are the s o - c a l l e d  " v i s u a l cues" necessary f o r a f u l l understanding of the material? Does the l o s s i n the speaker's personality, when h i s voice i s reproduced mechanically, cause a l o s s i n understanding?  Does the loudspeaker,  by  s i n g l i n g out the aural s t i m u l i , allow more perfect concentration, without the d i s t r a c t i o n s that v i s u a l s t i m u l i might introduce?  W i l l the impact of  one means of presentation, as compared with the other, r e s u l t i n any appreciable d i f f e r e n c e i n retention of the material, a f t e r a lapse of several days?  And f i n a l l y , might we expect any r e a l d i f f e r e n c e i n  r e s u l t s between grade V and grade VI, between boys and g i r l s , or between high and low I.Q.'s?  5 CHAPTER I I A B r i e f Outline of General Radio Research Although the actual experiment described here was conducted by means of t r a n s c r i p t i o n s rather than radio, since i t s purpose r e l a t e s c l o s e l y to the l a t t e r a b r i e f mention of researches i n t o the problems of radio be appropriate  may  here.  The bulk of radio i n v e s t i g a t i o n has centred about three u n i v e r s i t i e s , Columbia (continuing an i n v e s t i g a t i o n which began at Princeton between 1937  and 1940), Ohio, and Wisconsin.  The f i r s t , under the d i r e c t i o n of  Dr. P. N. L a s a r s f e l d , was reported i n three volumes.  I n scope the  project covered the more l a s t i n g s o c i a l and psychological e f f e c t s o f radio l i s t e n i n g on general ideas, habits and a t t i t u d e s . e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of radio programs i n schools was i n t e r e s t i n g evaluating techniques were worked out.  At Ohio, the most studied and some  The whole i s reported  9 i n some f i f t y b u l l e t i n s .  Wisconsin made an elaborate  statistical  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the effectiveness of educational radio programs.^ There has also been a considerable  amount of work done i n comparing  the effectiveness of audio and v i s u a l methods of presentation. example, Cohen, at New 8  For  York, using several hundred c h i l d r e n and a r e c a l l  L a s a r s f e l d , P. F., Radio and the Printed Page. New Sloan and Pearce, 1940.  York, D u e l l ,  Lasarsfeld, P. F,, and Stanton, F., Radio Research. 1941. D u e l l , Sloan and Pearce, 1941.  New  L a s a r s f e l d , p. F., and Stanton,' F., Radio Research. 1942-194?« York, D u e l l , Sloan and Pearce, 1944.  Yoi3% New  9 Evaluation of School Broadcasts. Columbus, University of Ohio press, 1942. 10 Reported i n Barr, A. S., Ewbank, H. L., McCormick, T . C , editorial committee, Radio i n the Classroom. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1942.  6 i n t e r v a l of three weeks, compared s i l e n t reading and the radio, with inconclusive r e s u l t s .  Goldstein at. Columbia,  comparing eye and ear found  that i n some cases at l e a s t , aural comprehension was better.  However, he  himself recognized the h i g h l y a r t i f i c i a l nature of h i s experiments, and l a t e r commentators have been i n c l i n e d t o discount h i s findings somewhat for that r e a s o n . ^ Most of these studies have been c r i t i c i z e d f o r one reason or another. The Columbia project a c t u a l l y makes no mention of l i s t e n i n g as such.  The  Ohio study by i t s very nature was almost e n t i r e l y the survey type, and at Wisconsin investigators f e l l i n t o the error of t r y i n g to compare the effectiveness of a mechanical device with the effectiveness of the teacher.  The report i t s e l f comments s u f f i c i e n t l y :  "In general the experimental studies c a r r i e d on as a part of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n yielded decidedly mixed r e s u l t s . The comparisons consistently favored the radio group only i n the f i e l d of music, and even here several of the differences were not large enough to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant".-'2  An a r r e s t i n g statement was made i n 1940, i n an a r t i c l e c a l l e d  "The  Status of Research i n Education by Radio": "Research i n radio education....is immature because the methods of gathering and t r e a t i n g data are s t i l l i n a period of experiment. Persons interested i n radio research have had l i t t l e time to develop adequate techniques f o r determining the e f f e c t s of programs upon various audiences..-.. Major sources of data now available deal with the  11 Both referred to by Reid, S., and Day, D., i n "Bibliography of Radio and Records", The Keyiew of Educational Research, vol.12, p.305, June, 1942. The authors of the a r t i c l e comment on the general mediocrity and i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of most researches to that date. 12 Barr, A. S., Ewbank, H. L., McCormick, T. C ,  op. c i t . , p.194.  7  13  r e l a t i v e l y superficial...problem o f audience preferences. Ref erence may be made to one o r two other studies.  Working with  l i s t s of words presented a u r a l l y , Calhoon^^found that c h i l d r e n showed a high degree o f l i s t e n i n g errors, even under; the most favorable circumstances.  The radio presentation ran second to the face-to-face 15  presentation i n an experiment by Wilke  and t h i s , together with such work  16 as G a s k i l l ' s  seemed to i n d i c a t e a difference between material that  presented f a c t s and material that attempted to argue o r persuade. experiment measured "pleasantness*  Another  of voices heard by radio, and  concluded that some pleasantness was l o s t through mechanical reproduction. I n general, Ewbank, speaking i n 1940, was forced t o conclude that 17 research i n the purely speech aspect of radio was lacking.  He outlined  needs f o r study of (a) l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y , (b) radio e f f e c t s on E n g l i s h usage, (c) radio speech, (d) the i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y of the spoken word, (e) types o f radio s c r i p t s , (f) manner of radio presentations, (g) length, amount of material and other miscellaneous t o p i c s . Before going on to consider experiments more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the one being reported here, i t would be well i n r e c a p i t u l a t i o n t o point out 13 Wrightstone, W. J . , i n Education on the A i r . Columbus, u n i v e r s i t y of Ohio Press, 1940, vol.11, p.319. . 14 "Auditory Impressionability", Education on the A i r , op. c i t . ,  v o l . 4 , p.320.  15 Quoted i n C a n t r i l , H.» and A l l p o r t , G. W., The Psychology o f Radio. New York, Harper, 1935, p.141. (W. H. Wilke, "An Experimental Comparison of Speech, the Radio, and the P r i n t e d Page as Propaganda Devices".) 16-Gaskill, H. V., "Research Studies Made at Iowa State College",  Education on the A i r , op. c i t . , v o l . 4 , p.322.  17 op. c i t .  8 t h a t a great deal of r a d i o research has so f a r been e i t h e r p o i n t l e s s or ineffectual.  I t has leaned s t r o n g l y t o the survey or questionnaire type  of study, and probably j u s t i f i e s the c r i t i c i s m Stenius has made: The time has come when we may accept [as a p r i n c i p l e the fact thatjany teaching a i d i s more e f f e c t i v e when a c h i l d i s p r o p e r l y introduced to i t , and when the teacher does not conclude the " l e s s o n " with t u r n i n g o f f the p r o j e c t o r or r a d i o . Study on a p o i n t o f t h i s nature amounts t o an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of whether an i n s t r u c t i o n a l a i d i s more or l e s s valuable when p r o p e r l y used. Perhaps more p r o f i t w i l l accrue i f we accept the f i n d i n g s on such p o i n t s as conclusive and give our time and e f f o r t t o studying other problems o f greater import. Several other more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d studies should now be mentioned. Lumlejr^found l e s s l o s s i n delayed r e c a l l from radio m a t e r i a l than from d i r e c t l y presented m a t e r i a l , but also noted considerable v a r i a t i o n with  20 -types of m a t e r i a l .  Heron and Z e i b a r t h  took 98 c o l l e g e students i n two  groups and had them l i s t e n t o l e c t u r e s by radio and by the usual c l a s s room method, r e v e r s i n g the groups i n mid-term.  Examination r e s u l t s  d i s c l o s e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , but s u b j e c t i v e l y most o f the group seemed to p r e f e r the t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e o f l e c t u r e . By f a r the most comprehensive study o f t h i s sort was conducted under  21 the supervision o f C a n t r i l and A l l p o r t .  One o f t h e i r most i n t e r e s t i n g  reports i s o f a " n a t u r a l " experiment where an observer was able t o watch almost simultaneously the r e a c t i o n of two Boston audiences to a popular 18 "Auditory and V i s u a l Education", Review o f Educational Research. v o l . 1 5 , p.252, June, 1945. 19 "Research i n Radio Education at Ohio S t a t e u n i v e r s i t y " , Education on the A i r , op. d t . , v o l . A , p.36l. 20 "A P r e l i m i n a r y Experimental Comparison of Radio and Classroom L e c t u r e s " , Speech Monographs. 1946, vol.13, p . 54.  21 op. c i t .  evangelist.  One group heard him d i r e c t l y , the other, an overflow, through  a public address system i n an adjoining room.  Apparently a good job had  been made of d i v i d i n g the sheep from the goats f o r the overflow audience was notably l e s s enthusiastic when i t came to singing, o f f e r i n g , and penitence.  I t i s pointed out, however, that the speaker had not prepared  himself t o address an unseen audience.  With experience of the psychology  of radio humour gained over the past few years, we should not wonder that the  evangelist's jokes, f o r example, went a l i t t l e sour over the loud-  speaker. T h i s incident provides f o r the authors an introduction t o the question of whether v i s u a l cues are necessary f o r f u l l appreciation of the  speaker.  One of t h e i r elaborate experiments tested the audience  estimate of an unseen speaker's physical, mental and personality characteristics.  A s u r p r i s i n g l y high degree of correspondence was  obtained. Work was also done on speed of presentation, and i t was discovered that the optimum varied with the l i s t e n e r and the type of material.  One  of the most elaborate experiments used 3° college students i n three series of  s i x to eight one-hour sessions, subjecting them to a l l types of material  from simple f a c t s to mathematical problems, and r o t a t i n g from l e c t u r e room to radio-type presentations.  Another compared r e s u l t s i n a s o c i a l  psychology c l a s s over eight lectures presented both i n the classroom and v i a the radio.  Conclusions from both of these experiments show that the  radio was s l i g h t l y better f o r f a c t u a l material, and that the radio was " l e s s amusing".  The general conclusions i n the question of "Speaker 22  Versus Loud Speaker" 2 2  were that radio i s more of a "closed whole", l e s s  G a n t r i l > - H . > a n d A l l p o r t j Gi Wij op* e i t . ,  p p * 1 3 9 - 1 5 8 i  10 personal, l e s s s o c i a l and not so conducive to higher thought process as i s face-to-face l i s t e n i n g . In s p i t e of the f a c t that t h i s was one of the most s a t i s f y i n g  :  investigations of the subject, the intervening f i f t e e n years have shown more than one defect i n the approach.  Since classroom l i s t e n i n g i s  c e r t a i n l y a " s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n " , the investigators could not have been seriously considering t h i s type.  Further, even i n 1935  one might have  suspected the statement that "the radio i s i l l - a d a p t e d f o r producing 23 unpremeditated crowd behaviour". One other study must be reported, since i t comes probably c l o s e s t to the one under consideration.  At Wisconsin, R. M. P h i l l i p s ^ u s e d four sets  of ten-minute speeches, two formal and two informal, giving completion t e s t s and weighting scores f o r p r a c t i c e e f f e c t .  I t was found that f o r the  informal passages, the radio group averaged s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher, s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower f o r the formal type.  Although not a c t u a l l y stated  i n the a r t i c l e mentioned, a group of adult subjects i s d e f i n i t e l y implied. Comments indicated that most of the group favoured the platform type,  but  those favouring the radio gave as t h e i r reason that i t was l e s s distracting. I n another a r t i c l e Ewbank r e f e r s to the differences introduced 23 C a n t r i l , H.,  and A l l p o r t , G. W.,  by  op. c i t . , p.140.  24 Quoted by Ewbank, H. L., "Studies i n the Techniques of Radio Speech", Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol.18, p.5&0, November, 1932. The study i s an unpublished thesis-on "The R e l a t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n a l Values of Radio and platform Speaking . 11  11 varied types of material, quoting from a B r i t i s h documentary f i l m report, ? 2  Fact demands non-projection of the speaker; f a c t plus idea demands projection; f a c t plus idea plus persuasion demands creative presentation—presentation that evokes imaginative or emotional response. Ewbank s inference i s that the l a s t type of material i s the most suitable 1  f o r loudspeaker presentation, probably since i t c a l l s f o r the sort of a r t i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that the experienced radio speaker knows how  to  give. A l l the studies mentioned have dealt with adult groups, and the nearest any of them have come to the classroom i s the college rostrum. However, they have made an important beginning on the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of l i s t e n i n g differences which may of speaking.  occur between d i r e c t and recorded methods  I n the problem to be described, some of these same  questions w i l l be applied to intermediate grade classroom I n addition, the foregoing should i n d i c a t e how  listening.  complex and ramified  i s the matter of radio research and how l i t t l e has a c t u a l l y been done outside of the commercial type of survey.  I t would seem that while the  "survey ' type i s increasing, the spate of radio research which appeared 1  i n the l a t e ' t h i r t i e s and early ' f o r t i e s i s now anything.  a c t u a l l y slackening i f  One of the most recent writers on the subject must s t i l l say,  "There i s urgent need f o r more information about that important  yet  r e l a t i v e l y unknown member of the language a r t s — l i s t e n i n g " ,  25 Ewbank, H. L., "Trends i n Research i n Radio Speech", Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol.26, p.286, June, 1940. 26 Brown, J . I . , "A Comparison of L i s t e n i n g and Reading A b i l i t y , College English, vol.10, p.105, November, 1948.  12 CHAPTER I I I The Experiment In  order to gee what the minimum classroom e f f e c t would be with the  simplest o f material, t h i s experiment was r i g i d l y controlled and the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was l i m i t e d to immediate understanding and memory. The experiment was designed to provide a comparison between material presented d i r e c t l y and by recording, using immediate and delayed r e c a l l tests.  A r o t a t i o n pattern was contrived which eliminated the e f f e c t s o f  novelty, fatigue and p r a c t i c e .  Further, s u f f i c i e n t t e s t s were spread  over a long enough period to o f f s e t the effect o f novelty and equalize fatigue and p r a c t i c e factors f o r both modes o f presentation. For  the experiment a grade V and VI c l a s s were chosen from each o f  four representative Vancouver schools, Lord Kitchener, General Gordon, Lord Nelson and Hastings.  The f i r s t i s i n one of the better c l a s s  d i s t r i c t s , the l a s t i n one o f the poorer d i s t r i c t s , and the middle two represent upper and lower middle class d i s t r i c t s .  From figures on f i l e  by the Vancouver School Board, the median I.Q.'s o f the schools were respectively  112.7, 111.3, 108.9, and 107.2, thus averaging s l i g h t l y  better than the Vancouver median o f about 107.  I n general, the grade VI  group was given the O t i s i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t during the past school year and the grade V group the National i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t within the past two years.  I n some cases t e s t s were s p e c i a l l y administered so that figures  for the groups used should be complete. The I.Q. range of the pupils whose t e s t r e s u l t s were f i n a l l y used was from 79 to 13.69.  150, with a mean of 111.41 and a standard deviation o f  The grade V group had a mean I.Q. o f 109.82, the grade VI  group a mean of 112.88. A t o t a l o f 297 pupils i n the eight classes took  13 the  t e s t s , but the scores of only 192,  those with perfect attendance, were  included i n the r e s u l t s . M a t e r i a l f o r the experiment was found i n the Dominion Achievement ?7 Tests i n S i l e n t Reading f o r Grades V and VI, Type I I , Forms A and B. E i t h e r form has seven f a c t u a l paragraphs, each o f about 150 t o 200 words, and each with four multiple choice questions designed t o t e s t grasp o f general s i g n i f i c a n c e and d e t a i l , and a b i l i t y to make inferences. Experiment has shown these forms to be equivalent i n d i f f i c u l t y , so that they provide an opportunity f o r r o t a t i o n .  I n addition paragraphs may be  neatly handled and the t e s t s are appropriate and simple t o administer. In  addition t o t h i s , four paragraphs were chosen from appropriate  supplementary readers not being used by the schools, to provide two dummy "warm-up paragraphs f o r each form used. n  Classes d i d not know that  record was not being kept o f these. P r i o r to the experiment, several types of material were t r i e d out with a c l a s s at Dawson School, and when the f i n a l choice had been made, a rehearsal t e s t was given t o a grade V class at -Queen Elizabeth School. I t was planned to present the nine paragraphs o f each series (seven s i g n i f i p a n t plus two i n i t i a l dummyn paragraphs) at the rate o f two a day a  f o r f i v e days. given.  On the l a s t day (Friday), only one paragraph would be  I n each case the t e s t was given immediately the paragraph had beea  presented. days l a t e r .  The same t e s t s were then presented i n a battery o f seven, f i v e The f i r s t set was given from May 16 t o 20 i n c l u s i v e , with the  delayed r e c a l l t e s t the following Wednesday, May 25.  The second set was  given from May 30 to J une 3 i n c l u s i v e , with the delayed r e c a l l the  :  following Wednesday, June 8. I n each case there intervened a school 27 See Appendix E  holiday i n addition t o the week end between the immediate and delayed r e c a l l teste (May 24 and June  6).  Arrangements were made t o v i s i t each school a t set times, two i n the morning, two i n the afternoon.  I t was not always possible t o keep time  and place of i n d i v i d u a l classes consistent though i n most cases t h i s was done.  I n e f f e c t , a reasonable v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s existed.  F o r example,  i n two schools one room upstairs and one downstairs were used consistently, i n the t h i r d school a v a r i e t y o f rooms was required and I n the other a single room was used f o r a l l classes throughout.  I n two schools the  grade V class was consistently v i s i t e d f i r s t , and i n one school the grade VI c l a s s was f i r s t .  I n the fourth school, room changes made an  a l t e r n a t i v e plan o f v i s i t i n g necessary. The general pattern o f the experiment may be gathered from the accompanying table, where V n  and "VI" indicate the grades, "-a" and W n  rt  TABLE I General pattern o f the experiment  Day  School  10 Lord V Kitchener VI  aLj_  §L  aRi  aRi aRj_ aRj_ aR  General Gordon  V VI  m  bLi  Lord Nelson  V VI  aLi aRi  ^ i ^ i L aRi aR aR*  Hastings.  v  ijRi bLi  bRi I R i bRi bR^ L i b L i »i  :  VI  eiL  aL  ±  i  aL  i  ±  ±  bR  ± b  L  i  15  16  aL  d  bR  aR  d  bL  bR b l ^ bR b ^ aL i i ^1 ^ i ^ d eRi ±  bR  i  ±  A  ±  tt  a  8  1  d  aR  ±  b  L aR  A  bI  ±  bL  d  lR  d  ±  R  24  18  W.  TtiR± bRi  ±  i  19  17  hR  d  b L i b L i bL±  b L i 1&  aL  ^ aL. aL  ±  aL. aL.  ±  *R±  d  BS.\  t % T*. bR. bR. bR,: b L i H»J bL* bL^ bL :  aLi ^ i  d  a  L  i ^  i ^ i ^ i ± ^± ^ d s R  15 the  two t e s t series "L" and "R", the " L i v e " and recorded modes o f  presentation respectively, and «i« and "d* the immediate  comprehension  t e s t and the delayed r e c a l l t e s t s . Set  d i r e c t i o n s f o r the t e s t were given, and none but a few e s s e n t i a l  questions were answered u n t i l a f t e r the f i n a l t e s t at the end o f the experiment.  The d i r e c t i o n s were recorded f o r the recorded part o f the  experiment so that as f a r as possible the " l i v e " element was eliminated from i t .  F o r the f i r s t three days these i n s t r u c t i o n s were given a t the  start: Today we are going to have some exercises t o see how w e l l we l i s t e n . You w i l l hear a paragraph read t o you, and then you w i l l answer some questions about i t . L i s t e n c a r e f u l l y and see how much you can remember. and then a t the conclusion of the f i r s t paragraph: Now you w i l l be given some t e s t papers t o answer. Read your papers c a r e f u l l y , and do the best you can. Be sure t o put your f u l l name, age, and grade on the paper f i r s t . A f t e r papers had been d i s t r i b u t e d t h i s d i r e c t i o n was given: Now look at each o f t h e four questions, and i n each one draw a l i n e under the best answer. I f you make a mistake, cross out your l i n e with a wiggly l i n e and then underline the answer you think i s correct. Take what time you need f o r your answers, and begin now. On subsequent days the i n s t r u c t i o n s were abridged thus: Today we s h a l l l i s t e n to a paragraph as we have done before. As soon as the paragraph i s f i n i s h e d , you w i l l be given your t e s t papers. S t a r t work on them as soon as you get them. Remember to l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y . The preliminary try-outs showed the need t o r e v i s e some of the instructions and those given here are i n the f i n a l form used. In order to present the delayed r e c a l l t e s t s , the f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t words of each paragraph were repeated. T h i s was necessary since the  paragraphs were not t i t l e d .  I t was noted also that topic sentences were  straightforward i n each case and that none of the questions hinged on t h i s introductory material.  As an example, i n the case of the f i r s t  paragraph of series A i t was necessary t o read these words, "Have you ever t r i e d soap carving? the  11  The i n i t i a l words of the f i r s t paragraph were.read,  c l a s s was then given s u f f i c i e n t time t o complete the questions, and  then the opening words of the next paragraph were read, and so on. I n the  recorded part o f the experiment i t was possible to cue up the d i s c  while the c l a s s was working at the t e s t so that the same opening words could be given i n recorded form. The recorded paragraphs were cut on two l6-inch t r a n s c r i p t i o n d i s c s and played on portable RCA playback equipment. the  At f i r s t i t was hoped that  equipment could be kept concealed but t r i a l t e s t s showed t h i s t o be  impractical.  Not only d i d the operator therefore l o s e some control of the  group,, but further the c u r i o s i t i e s of the group were stimulated much more by a procedure they could not watch.  With schools equipped with a p u b l i c  address system t h i s problem could have been solved more neatly. the  However,  novelty of the equipment q u i c k l y wore o f f , as shown by the f a c t that-  there were a c t u a l l y few questions about the equipment at the end of the experiment when opportunity was given f o r discussion.  The preliminary  t e s t s showed the need to control volume c a r e f u l l y , and t h i s was kept at a uniform l e v e l throughout the remainder of the experiment.  Differing  classroom acoustics were noted and an attempt was made t o counteract them. Differences i n q u a l i t y were noticeable between the outside^the i n s i d e cuts, but these were d i s t r i b u t e d i n such a way as t o rotate out any v a r i a b l e comprehension f a c t o r they might have introduced. However, i n a l l  17 cases there were i n d i c a t i o n s that the loudspeaker c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y favoured p u p i l s i n one p a r t of the room over those i n another part.. Before the experiment got under way a l l classes were questioned  carefully  on a b i l i t y to hear, so that any such s e l e c t i v e f a c t o r was reduced t o a minimum. Speed of presentation was c a r e f u l l y maintained  at 135-145 words per  minute, a speed some 20 per cent slower than the average f o r adult listening.  I t was found to be much more d i f f i c u l t , however, to control  speed of presentation i n the classroom, than i t was i n the studio. anything the d i r e c t presentation may have been s l i g h t l y f a s t e r . investigators have noted the same p o i n t :  2 8  If  Other  "From the l e c t u r e r ' s point of  view i t should be added that i n spite of a l l attempts to keep the two types of l e c t u r e s equivalent, the d e l i v e r y of the radio l e c t u r e was i n e v i t a b l y slower, more precise and more emphatic . 0  f a i r l y obvious.  The reason seems  I n the studio one works with a stop watch and i s able  to repeat the passage as often as i s necessary to adjust speeds.  I n the  classroom an occasional glance at a wrist watch i s the only check one  can  use. The s e t t i n g up of the equipment varied considerably from school to school.  I n only one school were e l e c t r i c a l outlets handily placed.  In  another the outlet was p r a c t i c a b l e though a long extension was needed. I n one school a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s existed, most of them c a l l i n g f o r long extensions.  I n one school i t was necessary f o r the equipment to be  v i s i b l e t o the c l a s s which was being given the material " l i v e " .  I n two  cases poor i n s t a l l a t i o n was the cause of blown fuses, but fortunately t h i s d i d not i n t e r r u p t the experiment. 28 C a n t r i l and A l l p o r t , op. c i t . , p.156.  18 Excellent cooperation was given throughout,  and t h i s together with a  warning sign on the door meant that there were very few disturbances and v i r t u a l l y no interruptions.  The whole experiment proceeded exactly on  schedule, except i n the case of one class where the t e s t had to be delayed f o r two hours on account of a c h o i r whioh i r o n i c a l l y enough was at CBR,  performing  the station from which B. C. School Broadcasts o r i g i n a t e .  Inevitable d i s t r a c t i o n s occurred from time to time, but the e f f e c t s would seem to be equalized f o r the two modes of presentation. The usual differences i n a t t i t u d e s of teachers and classes were observable.  Very  l i t t l e discussion was c a r r i e d on with the teachers, but f o r t h e i r  2B information a b r i e f o u t l i n e of t h i s experiment was  prepared.  A l l material was administered by one person, and h i s voice alone used f o r both the recorded and " l i v e  1 1  presentation. I t was  was  found  advisable, however, to have the classroom teachers a l s o present f o r purposes of c o n t r o l , though they took no part i n the a c t u a l experiment.  29  See Appendix A  19 CHAPTER IV Results and Interpretations F i n a l scores were obtained by taking t o t a l s o f the scores made on the seven passages used.  Scores were analyzed f o r grade V, grade VI and  the whole group both with regard to the immediate and the delayed r e c a l l test.  A further comparison was obtained by f i n d i n g r e s u l t s f o r boys and  g i r l s and f o r the f i r s t and fourth q u a r t i l e s of the I.Q. d i s t r i b u t i o n (upper and lower 47 cases). TABLE I I Means, standard deviations and c r i t i c a l r a t i o s f o r immediate r e c a l l t e s t s Grade VI  Grade V Number  94  ...  "Live" Mean S.D. Recorded Mean S.D.  Boys  Girls  192  88  104  ... 98  IQ-Qi  IQ-Q4!  47  47 • • -  19.22 4.73  .21.01 20.14 20.30 20.00 16.65 22.98 3.86 4.40 4.47 4.59 2.17 4.34  17.33  21.13  4.21  Mean difference S.E. Mean difference •  Total  4.18 ......  1.89 .38  >  1  2  .  ' .."34  4.97 *  *35*.  19.27  19.61  4.60 ; 4.49 .87 .26 3.35*  .69 .38 1.82  18.98  4.68 1.02 .36 2.83*  16.10 22.52 4.20 2.92 .55 .44 1.25  .46 .47  .98  TABLE I I I Means, standard deviations and c r i t i c a l r a t i o s f o r delayed r e c a l l t e s t s Grade V.'Grade VI -Total  Number "Live" Mean S.D. Recorded Mean S.D.  94  98  17.82 4.91  20.03  15.93  19.91  4.13  * al ?fee ^ level ) 8  i  I X  t  i e  4.41 .12 • .38 .32.  4.85* ^  l  e  v  e  l  192  4.17  1.89.39  I/Iean difference E.E. Mean difference jS-.Ri  i  (  N o n e  Boys  18.95  4.68  Girls  88 19.18  4.78  I<SHQi- Z © " ^  104  18.75  4.43  47-  47 .  15.29 4.43  22*31 1.97  14.48 17.93 18.20 17.71 4.72 4.73 4.67 3.45 •1.02 .98 .81 1.04 .27 .38 .40 .51 3.78* 2.58* 2.60* 1.5?  of-the other r a t i o s are  21.70  3:53 .61 ;.45 1.36  Results are shown i n the above t a b l e s which give means, standard 30 deviations and c r i t i c a l r a t i o s . I t w i l l be seen that though not a l l the r e s u l t s are  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t , the t o t a l s are, and i n a l l except one c a s e — t h a t of  the  immediate comprehension t e s t f o r grade V I — t h e " l i v e " presentation favoured over the recorded presentation. e a s i l y be the r e s u l t of chance f a c t o r s .  The  one  was  exception could quite  With grade V there i s  considerably l e s s chance than one i n one hundred that the obtained difference  i s not t r u e and the same holds f o r the t o t a l s .  differences  While  were not p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r boys, the g i r l s showed  the same trend as the t o t a l . quartiles of the I.Q.  None of the r e s u l t s i n the upper and  d i s t r i b u t i o n yielded s i g n i f i c a n t  lower  differences.  This i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y surprising i n the case of the top q u a r t i l e ,  but  i t might have been expected that d u l l e r pupils would have shown wider differences.  There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences  as between the immedi^  ate and delayed t e s t s . The most i n t e r e s t i n g of the r e s u l t s come from the grade VI  group  where c r i t i c a l r a t i o s were a c t u a l l y smaller than those obtained by top q u a r t i l e of the I.Q. Although the  distribution.  general r e s u l t s form a reasonably coherent whole,  there are one or two why  the  questions which a r i s e , the most important being,  did the grade V classes show such a marked difference  between the  two methods, and the grade VI classes no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  at a l l .  30 Obtained scores and further d e t a i l s of the s t a t i s t i c a l treatment are found i n Appendices B, C and D.  21 Several reasons may be advanced.  I n the f i r s t place the median  I.Q. of the grade VI group was three points higher than that of the grade V group and the p u p i l s were also a year more mature and a year more accustomed to t e s t i n g procedures.  The grade VI groups as a whole were  also noticeably l e s s affected by externals, while the grade V classes were i n c l i n e d t o be more v o l a t i l e .  I t may well be, also, that the  material was more f a m i l i a r t o the grade VI group and therefore more completely remembered.  I n addition i t was probably not s u f f i c i e n t l y  d i f f i c u l t t o provide as c r i t i c a l a t e s t as f o r the grade V s . A further reason may be found i n the nature of the material i t s e l f . I t w i l l be remembered that the two forms were p a r a l l e l from the point of view of s i l e n t reading.  There were some indications that t h i s was not  always t r u e f o r aural presentation.  Some of the questions showed that  v i s u a l and aural vocabularies were not always i d e n t i c a l .  There were  also apparent i n t e r e s t differences, and i t has already been observed that i t i s i n the intangibles such as i n t e r e s t , that radio presentation, d i f f e r s most from d i r e c t presentation. Although i t has no bearing on the object of the present experiment, i t i s perhaps o f value t o note that r e s u l t s support the f i n d i n g s o f previous experiments comparing l i s t e n i n g and reading.  F o r reading,  grade norms f o r large Ontario schools are notably below the r e s u l t s obtained here f o r l i s t e n i n g , as shown i n the following table: TABLE IV A comparison o f l i s t e n i n g scores and reading norms Grade V (5.8) Ontario reading norm Mean, recorded (immediate r e c a l l ) Grade, corresponding reading norm  H. 17.33 6.7  Grade VI (6.9) 18. 21.13 8.3  22 Possible s l i g h t differences i n reading rates have already been mentioned.  I n other ways also the narrator found i t d i f f i c u l t to keep  the studio and classroom  situations equal.  Class reaction i s bound to  have an e f f e c t on anyone with teaching experience, although of course the good radio speaker t r i e s to v i s u a l i z e h i s audience, and i n t h i s case p a r t i c u l a r l y the speaker kept the classroom impersonal.  s i t u a t i o n almost p a i n f u l l y  I n some cases audience d i s t r a c t i o n s were responsible f o r  s l i g h t hesitations on the part of the reader, whereas the studio reading was of course quite straightforward.  However, since such points as these  are inherent i n the features to be measured, they w i l l not a f f e c t the v a l i d i t y of the r e s u l t s .  They are r a i s e d merely as a matter of i n t e r e s t .  P r a c t i c e e f f e c t s were c o n t r o l l e d c a r e f u l l y , but the speaker himself was bound to gain somewhat i n fluency as the experiment proceeded.  By  the time a paragraph had been read f o r the l a s t time i t had almost been committed to memory. Fatigue on the speaker*s part a l s o needed c a r e f u l attention.  Something akin to p r a c t i c e e f f e c t began to operate as the  majority of the pupils soon came to r e a l i z e that the recorded and " l i v e " voices belonged to the same person.  At the conclusion of the  experiment, a show of hands proved overwhelmingly that t h i s was I t i s a question just how  the  so.  f a r t h i s knowledge influenced the r e s u l t s ,  since the speaker was present on a l l occasions.  I t would be w e l l to  repeat the experiment using some method of keeping the c l a s s from seeing the speaker at a l l , f o r the recorded part.  Even there, however, i f  there were any suspicion that the owner of the recorded voice was known, v i s u a l cues could be supplied imaginatively.  CHAPTER V Summary and  Conclusions  The aim of the preceding pages has been to o u t l i n e the f i e l d of research i n school radio l i s t e n i n g , and to deal i n some d e t a i l with  one  aspect of modern school l i s t e n i n g . The increasing use of radio and recordings i n today's schools has shown the need f o r more thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the  techniques,  problems, advantages and disadvantages of l i s t e n i n g to the mechanical reproduction of the human voice. Research on t h i s t o p i c may be broadly divided i n t o the commercial and the educational f i e l d s .  The former i s concerned with "'consumer  research" and seems i r r e v o c a b l y t i e d to p o l l s and survey devices. the educational f i e l d , research has followed three main trends: best u t i l i z a t i o n of radio and other materials i n the  In the  classroom,  evaluation of the effectiveness of such devices, and the more fundamental and psychological problems of l i s t e n i n g . While the two former have been productive of a great deal of sound information, they have frequently been bedevilled by the p e c u l i a r l y uncontrollable features inherent i n classrooms and i n radio programmes. There has a c t u a l l y been very l i t t l e done i n the l a s t , the general f i e l d of t h i s present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I n order t o discover whether there was any measurable d i f f e r e n c e between immediate comprehension and memory of simple material, when presented mechanically and d i r e c t l y , eight grade V and VI classes of average i n t e l l i g e n c e and s o c i a l background were given fourteen passages from the Dominion Achievement Tests i n S i l e n t Reading.  Groups and  2A  materials were rotated i n such a way as to eliminate p r a c t i c e , fatigue and other e f f e c t s , and one voice was used throughout t h i s f a c t o r constant. a l l the t e s t s .  i n order to keep  I t was also possible to have one person administer  Four multiple choice questions were given  immediately  a f t e r the presentation o f each paragraph, and further, a delayed t e s t was given f o r each series f i v e days a f t e r the l a s t paragraph was presented. Conclusions Findings of the experiment may be summarized as follows: (1)  F o r the t o t a l group, the d i r e c t presentation y i e l d e d  s i g n i f i c a n t l y better r e s u l t s than f o r the recorded:presentation. (2)  The grade V group showed the most marked d i f f e r e n c e i n favour  of d i r e c t presentation. (3)  The grade VI mean f o r the recorded presentation, immediate  r e c a l l , was s l i g h t l y higher than f o r the d i r e c t presentation, but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y so. (4)  While the g i r l s ' r e s u l t s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t s u p e r i o r i t y f o r  the d i r e c t method, the boys' r e s u l t s , while greater f o r the d i r e c t . method, were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y so. (5)  Neither the f i r s t nor fourth I.Q. q u a r t i l e s showed any  s i g n i f i c a n t differences, though the same general trends were to be observed. (6)  The same general differences were noticed f o r the delayed  r e c a l l t e s t s , except that i n t h i s case the difference was s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n favour of the d i r e c t presentation f o r boys.  I n almost a l l cases the  gap between d i r e c t and recorded presentation widened f o r the delayed tests.  I n other words materials d i r e c t l y presented seemed to be s l i g h t l y  better remembered. (7) No pattern of difference was to be noticed i n c r i t i c a l r a t i o s f o r the delayed t e s t s as compared with the i n i t i a l t e s t s .  25 Are we to assume from the foregoing that the radio and recordings have no place i n the school?  Assuredly not, as long as these can supply  needs the teacher cannot, and so supplement regular classroom work. What we may well conclude i s what has already been stated, many times: that there i s no substitute f o r classroom teaching.  I n the case of  simple material at l e a s t , face-to-face presentation seems preferable where possible. One t h i n g i s certain, that l i s t e n i n g i s a f a r more complex process than i t s u p e r f i c i a l l y appears to be.  Nichols has pointed o u t ^ t h a t  l i s t e n i n g may be r e l a t e d to hearing as comprehending i s to apprehending. He goes on to say that a d e f i n i t i o n of l i s t e n i n g might thus approach the d e f i n i t i o n of t h i n k i n g i t s e l f . truth than the c h i l d , who "How  However that would come no c l o s e r to the  when t o l d to think before she spoke remarked,  can I know what I think t i l l I hear what I say?"  Nearly ten years  ago Max J . Herzberg showed the need f o r t r a i n i n g i n listening,^^"We s h a l l one of these days have books on ' l i s t e n i n g ' as w e l l as 'reading' skills '. 1  The day has not yet arrived, but the need i s no l e s s  urgent.  Previous experiment would seem to show that other types of paragraph material could y i e l d d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s .  Townsend^^mentions as one of a  31 "Listening, Questions and Problems", Quarterly Journal of Speech. vol.33, p.83, February, 1947. 32 Herzberg, M. J . , Foreword to Education, vol.60, p . 6 l l , June, 33 "Psychological Aspects of Radio Speech", Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol.2.6, p.579, December, 1940.  1940.  .26 set of differences between "radio and rostrum" speech, the f a c t that radio encourages imaginary completion i n the mind "of the l i s t e n e r .  Some  of h i s other observed differences point equally p l a i n l y to various types of material that might prove suitable f o r radio delivery:  radio places  a premium on voice, radio skeletonizes the speaker's personality, i t frees the l i s t e n e r from conventional  politenesses.  I t would be valuable to have f u r t h e r reports on the reactions of elementary school c h i l d r e n to the mechanical reproduction  of the voice,  p a r t i c u l a r l y since the elementary grades are known to be the best radio "customers".  Size of c l a s s and classroom conditions, p o s i t i o n of the  loudspeaker, length of the presentation, w i l l a l l bear i n v e s t i g a t i o n , as well as the various types of material to be used.  27 APPENDIX A Information Prepared f o r the Benefit of Interested T eachers The following has been drawn up f o r the i n t e r e s t o f teachers who are so kindly co-operating i n the l i s t e n i n g experiment. Purpose of the experiment:  To see i f there i s any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  i n the comprehension of material heard by mechanical reproduction and heard " l i v e " . General o u t l i n e o f procedure:  Eight grade V and VI classes have been  chosen and are each being given 18 paragraphs, nine recorded and nine "live".  F i v e days a f t e r the conclusion o f each "run" the classes w i l l  be given a delayed r e c a l l t e s t on a l l the material. T e s t s are being rotated i n various ways t o t r y to eliminate v a r i a b l e f a c t o r s . F o r example, four classes receive the " l i v e " material f i r s t , four classes the recorded material f i r s t .  The f i r s t "run" i s being given t h i s week (May 16-20) and the f i r s t delayed r e c a l l t e s t w i l l be given May 25. The second "run" w i l l be given May 30-June 3 and the second delay r e c a l l test June 8. Evaluation: tested. however.  As f a r as possible a good cross section o f the c i t y i s being  There w i l l be no attempt made to compare one school with  another,  A l l p u p i l s tested w i l l be compared as t o comprehension with  the two media, and some attempt may be made t o compare boys with g i r l s or high with low I.Q.'s.  I t i s not the purpose o f the experiment t o  compare reading with l i s t e n i n g comprehension, though t h i s may be possible through reference to grade norms i n reading, which are a v a i l a b l e  28 f o r the material being used. This material has been drawn up f o r teachers' use only.  Classes  have been t o l d that t h e i r questions w i l l , so f a r as possible, be answered a f t e r the experiment has concluded.  I t w i l l be appreciated i f you do  not attempt to discuss or r e f e r t o the experiment u n t i l a f t e r June 8. I n p a r t i c u l a r you are asked not to announce the two delayed r e c a l l t e s t s May 25 and June 8.  29 APPENDIX B S t a t i s t i c a l Data Obtained Scores—Grade V classes  Lord Kitchener L IQ  I  R D  General Gordon '  I  D  L IQ  I  93 18 13 14 11 ml06 21 17 21 16 fl35 21 20 24 20 m  mlOl  9  ml23.23 fll8 2A ml07 24 m 90 21 f 98 19 ml06 27  £150 27 ml22 24 £112 20 8 12 11 ml09 15 26 22 18 mll8 22 23 21 19 fl43 20 24 21 20 f!09 23 17 16 13 ml43 24 18 20 18 fl38 25 25 21 18 fll4 15 26 22 24 £115 21  f l 2 5 26 f l 2 8 17 18 19 16 f l l O 17 6 15 15  £117 19  £103 13 ml33 26 26 22 23 £104 16 ml02 20 m 89 19 15 19 18 ml07 21 20 21 18 £117 14 £120 24 £122 22  NelsonHastings  D  24 24 19 13  I. D 26 28  21 17  17 18 17 15 22 16 16 23 15 16 16 18 17 21 17 18 22 20 20  16 9 10 21 20 17 15 13 14 15 15 12 16 16 14 20 16 17 16 10 12 23 21 22 19 18 19 19 21 18  ml03 19 21 13 19  -IQ. I- •D I- -D  90 13 12 fll7 23 22 f l 0 8 15 H fl24 24 25 flOO 10 11 £112 18 18 m 99 21 21 £122 25 24 m 98 19 19 mllO 24 24 m  m 88 mill £115 fill  20 20' 22 22  13 9 20 22  17 14 19 19 20 15 22 20 14 15 26 20 17 19 14 16 25 24 19 19 23 25 20 19 24 22 19 13  ml05 16 ml08 21 fl20 25 fl25 18 f 86 18 m 91 18 m 93 17 fl04 19 ml04 23 fll3 14  -L • • • R ;•  • R- •  L  £128 22 m!12 16 15 11 11 fl29 23 17 21 20 ml04 26 24 20 21 f l 2 6 25 24 21 19 ml04 18 16 17 12  L - "live* R - recorded m - male  Lord  14 15 20 21 24 22 23 21 18 13 15 14 19 20 19 14 26 12 14 13  13 19 24 17 13  9 12 13 13 12  ...IQ.. I  -D- I  92 18 fll8 19 m 97 21 ml39 24 £109 16 fl03 18 fl02 20 m 79 12 f 92 22  12:' 13 12 8; 19 23 15: 23 26 23 16 21 20: 12 14 15: 16 16 15: 13 16 9 22 9 11  m  •D • •  14 17  m i l l 17 17 17 19 f i l l 17 10 15 11 m 97 23 19 18 21 m 92 16 12 15 11 £110 13 15 11 14 m 95 10 14 10 9 m 81 10 8 10 10 ml25 19 17 23 18 f i l l 12 10 13 15 m 91 9 11 14 11 m 95 14 6 15 12 mll3 20 18 16 18 fll2 17 15 19 9  £ 97 4 6 6 10  m i l l 13 18 13 18 f l 0 8 28 17 12 10 flOO 25 17 19 17 ml20 22 22 23 21 fll3 24 22 20 13 f 98 18 13 15 14  f - female I - i n i t i a l t e s t scores D - delayed t e s t scores  30 Obtained Scores—Grade VI classes  Lord K i lichener T.  IQ fll3 fl05 93 m!31 ml03 f 90 fill ml03 fl20 fl35 ml23 fl20 fll3 fill fl25 mlOO ml37 mill ml22 fl28 ml37 m 83 f 95 mll8 n 95 fl22 nl33 f  General Gordon  T?  T."'  I  D  I  D  23 19 16 26 18 10 19 19 21 25 24 22 15 19 23 25 23 27 21 22 23 11 18 26 10 21 .22  21 17 H 26 19 10 15 16 19 25 26 20 10 17 21 23 20 26 20 20 25 9 18 26 10 20 23  22 16 20 28 22 17 14  24 14 1623^ 2312* 16 212228" 2620 21242023 2624 2322 2412 19 24 1418 24 -  22  23 28 25 17 25 24 24 21 28 24 26 22 26 10 21 24 17 16 26  IQ fl08 fl09 fllO fl24 fl22 ml27 ml39 fll5 mll6 fl09 ml03 fl23 mll6 fl33 mill ml38 fll9 fl29 fl20 fl20 fl23 fl25  L - "live" R - recorded m - male  I  T.  to'  D  27 26 24 21 15 11 23 2 4 18 21 25 26 25 25 25 2 4 26 22 24 22 20 22 22 24 21 22 25 22 24 24 27 28 18 16 21 23 .27 23 20 14 21 18 20 24  D  IQ  2 4 18 22 2 2 23 20 > 20 2 4 20 2 1 . 28 25 25 2 4 23 21 18 16 24 22 21 2 1 . 22 20 24 23 « 27 26 „ 22 18 2 4 26 • 17 14 26 25 25 20 22 2120 17 2 4 24-  ml20 f 88 ml04 f 86 m 91 fl05 ml08 m 97 fll6 ml02 mll8 fll6 ml03 fll6 fl04 m 89 m 82 mlOO ml21 fll5 fll8 fl21 fll5 fl32 mll9 fll7 fl09 fll9 fl24 m 94  I  Haslbini  Lord Nelson I  . T...  R D  19 23 20 20 20 17 13 16 19 20 20 17 21 22 20 17 20 16 22 20 23 21 18 1 4 27 2 4 2 4 25 19 19 21 21 18 13 19 17 25 2 4 20 21 21 2 3 25. 23 18 19 24 23 22 21 19 20 22 2 3 21 17 24 24 16 16  I  D  • IQ- I- D  25 18 24 12 21 22 24 19 23 19 19 23 25 21 17 22 14 20 27 18 22 27 16 21 23 15 23 16 26 18  2619 2611 19 222413 2917 16 2122 19 17 1810 18* 2418 23^ 2412 18 26: 13 23^ 17 27 18 -  m 92 fl08 fl04 mll3 fl06 mill fl31 f 83 ml23 fl05 mll4 fl25 fll3 fl27 m 97 mll9 fl07 m 97 m!09  f - female I - i n i t i a l t e s t scores D - delayed t e s t scores  17 16 19 20 19 19 24 23 21 18 .22 21 25 25 10 12 23 20 14 17 21 20 17 16 24 2 4 2 4 23 20 17 23 21 2 4 22 19 16 23 23  I  D  16 16 18 14 21 22 21 16 21 18 20 17 25 26 3 6 20 .22 17 13 24 2 4 14 14 22 18 21 18 22 19 20 19 25 24 19 19 26 26 - .  APPENDIX G Medians and Standard'Deviations f o r I.Q* Distributsaas  Means  S.D.  Grade V  109.82  13.84  Grade VI  112*88  13*38  Total  111.41  13.69  Boys  107.75  H>54  Girls  114.32  11.88  APPENDIX D Computation o f C r i t i c a l Ratios  The mean of the score differences was f i r s t obtained ^^-5 ^ and the standard deviation o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the differences ^ 5 ^ From t h i s the standard error o f the mean difference was obtained -  T h i s was used to obtain the c r i t i c a l r a t i o , using the formula  Since the number o f cases was f a i r l y high i n a l l groups except the upper and lower q u a r t i l e s o f the I.Q. d i s t r i b u t i o n , N - l degrees o f freedom was not appreciably d i f f e r e n t from N degrees o f freedom.  I n the case o f the  I.Q. d i s t r i b u t i o n , c r i t i c a l r a t i o s were f a r too small to be s i g n i f i c a n t .  32 APPENDIX E M a t e r i a l Osed f o r the Tests (The Dominion Achievement Tests i n S i l e n t Reading, Grades 5 and 6, Type I I , Diagnostic Test i n Paragraph Reading) Form A Paragraph 1: Have you ever t r i e d soap carving? Or do you, l i k e so many other people, believe that soap i s useful only i n the kitchen and laundry? Some years ago a large soap manufacturing company held a carving competition, and since then many people of a l l ages have become keenly interested i n the a r t , and remarkable carvings have been made. I n beginning, do not attempt anything too d i f f i c u l t . You w i l l need a fresh cake of white soap, a small kitchen paring k n i f e , t r a c i n g patterns, a .soft lead p e n c i l , and t h i n t r a c i n g paper. Trace the pattern on the soap, then hold the cake and k n i f e just l i k e an apple you are peeling, and carve towards you. Keep your k n i f e clean and scrape the carving t o make i t smooth. The f i n i s h e d a r t i c l e may be painted with water c o l o u r s — d o not scrub with the paints o r soapsuds w i l l be the r e s u l t . Put the colour on smoothly and do not hurry. You w i l l be surprised how easy soap carving i s , and how many a t t r a c t i v e objects you can make. ;  1.  The best name f o r t h i s story i s How Soap i s Painted How Soap i s Osed How Soap i s prepared  2.  The f i r s t thing t o do i s trace the pattern mix-the paints  3.  A.  A C h i l d ' s Hobby An I n t e r e s t i n g Hobby  clean the k n i f e carve towards you scrape the carving  The f i r s t carving you attempt should not be too l a r g e too d i f f i c u l t too easy too simple  too fancy  A l l the t o o l s used i n soap carving are made of metal easy to get  expensive to buy valuable  strong -  Paragraph 2* "Doodle-bug" i s the funny name someone gave t o o i l - f i n d i n g instruments. There are now many kinds of these instruments which are quite d i f f i c u l t t o make, but the f i r s t one was very simple. I t was copied from an instrument f i r s t used long ago t o t r y to f i n d the places where water or minerals were hidden underground} and i t was c a l l e d : a "divining-rod", because with i t a person was supposed to be able to divine or t e l l where o i l was hidden. T h i s rod was made of a forked  33 branch cut from a peach o r willow tree, much l i k e a wish-bone i n shape. F i r s t the point of the rod was dipped i n t o o i l , then the two prongs were held one i n each hand, l e t t i n g the o i l y point s t i c k upwards. The point would appear to twist and jerk, and i n some places point down t o the earth. These were chosen as the l i k e l y spots to d r i l l f o r o i l . Sometimes the d r i l l i n g was successful and o i l was found, but i f t h i s happened i t was quite by accident. Even modern o i l - f i n d i n g instruments do not have such powers of choosing one spot rather than another spot nearby. 1.  The best name f o r t h i s story i s History of O i l The Values o f O i l Searching f o r O i l Machinery Needs O i l D r i l l i n g an O i l Well  2.  A divining-rod looks l i k e an o i l - c a n a garden fork  3.  a f i s h i n g rod a wish-bone  a piece of wire  People decided t o d r i l l where the divining-rod twisted i t s point down t o earth bent i n the middle turned i t s point straight up twisted i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s touched the o i l  4. The divining-rod was r e a l l y valuable  d i f f i c u l t t o make  useless  powerful  necessary  Paragraph 3: Sometimes at night you may see what looks l i k e a bright star shooting across the sky and then disappearing. I t often leaves a t a i l almost l i k e a comet's t a i l behind i t , which fades out i n a few seconds. The r e a l name o f these "shooting stars" i s "meteors". They are not stars at a l l , they are j u s t b i t s of rock o r i r o n which have been f l o a t i n g through space and which have suddenly been caught by the p u l l o f our earth's gravitation. When they h i t our a i r and go rushing through i t they are moving so f a s t that the a i r rubs them i n t o a flame, and they usually burn up before they reach the ground. Once i n a while they may be so b i g that they do not completely burn up but crash t o earth and plunge deep down into the ground. When they do t h i s they are c a l l e d "meteorites". By the time they get t o the ground they may not be much bigger than a nut, though sometimes they are large, even as large as a small house. You can see many meteorites i n museums. 1.  The best name f o r t h i s story i s F l o a t i n g Through Space Why Stars F a l l to Earth Meteors and Meteorites The Sky a t Night . Famous Comets  34 2.  Meteors burst into flame because they are f l o a t i n g through space they f a l l to earth they rush through the a i r  3.  Meteorites are d i f f e r e n t from meteors because they have t a i l s l i k e comets they burn up they are made of i r o n  4.  they are l i k e comets they are made of rock  they are i n museums they f a l l t o earth  The meteors come towards the earth because the earth a t t r a c t s them because they are t r a v e l l i n g so f a s t because they are burning because of the earth* s p o s i t i o n because of the earth* s movement through space  Paragraph  4:  Coal became the chief manufacturing f u e l about 1800; but before the close of the nineteenth century i t s place i n many i n d u s t r i e s was challenged by mineral o i l or petroleum. Before 1850, mineral o i l had been known i n small quantities and was used c h i e f l y as a liniment, a rubbing o i l for sprains, known as "Seneca O i l " . But with the discovery of the f i r s t o i l well i n Western Pennsylvania i n 1859, the use of o i l f o r l i g h t , heat, and power began. "To s t r i k e o i l " soon became another word f o r s u c c e s s — j u s t as a "Ship come home" meant success i n the days of the early traders. With the discovery of other o i l f i e l d s there followed an increase in.the number of ways i n which o i l could be used, and as a r e s u l t i t has now become a very important product i n our d a i l y l i v e s . As supplies i n the o l d e r f i e l d s are used up, the great i n d u s t r i a l nations have been thinking more and more about the future supply of t h i s greatly needed product. They expect that more w i l l be found i n the r i c h but r e l a t i v e l y undeveloped d i s t r i c t s of Mexico, Roumania, and Mesopotamia. 1.  The best t i t l e f o r t h i s story i s The Discovery of petroleum The Loss t o Our Coal Mines The O i l Market The Pennsylvania O i l Wells The Growth i n Importance of O i l  2.  The f i r s t o i l well was discovered i n Texas  3.  Roumania  Mexico  Pennsylvania  T h i s story says that the great i n d u s t r i a l nations are most interested in the o i l d i s t r i c t s of Texas the future supply of o i l new uses f o r o i l  4.  Alberta  the decline i n our coal production making liniment from o i l  According to t h i s story i t i s l i k e l y that there i s a greater quantity of o i l i n England  Mesopotamia  Belgium  Norway  Pennsylvania  35 Paragraph 5: Canada as a vacation land has scope and v a r i e t y not met with e l s e where i n the New World. I t s greatest charm l i e s i n the differences from the ordinary run of a t t r a c t i o n s . Canada has not as many of the h i s t o r i c s t o r i e s that have made Europe and A s i a the storehouses of c i v i l i z a t i o n ' s records from ages before America was discovered, but the four hundred years that have passed since Jacques C a r t i e r f i r s t landed on i t s shores have been f i l l e d with s t i r r i n g events. These are r e c a l l e d by the habitant l i f e of Quebec, and by the o l d f o r t i f i c a t i o n s , monuments, and h i s t o r i c buildings that are scattered from coast to coast. The tremendous expanse of the country, i t s v a r i e t y of physical features, i t s comparatively t h i n l y scattered population, the ease and speed with which almost a l l parts can be reached, make the Dominion one of the world's greatest and l e a s t crowded playground areas. T o u r i s t s can enter at numbers of points along i t s boundaries by highway, r a i l , a i r , or water. Even the most distant hunting and f i s h i n g areas can be reached with the help of a guide i n a way that does not involve too great hardship. 1.  The best t i t l e f o r t h i s story i s The T o u r i s t Trade i n Canada Canada's Hunting Grounds The History of Canada  2.  T h i s story t e l l s us that Canada has many high mountains a vast amount of t e r r i t o r y very few a t t r a c t i o n s  3.  Canada's T o u r i s t A t t r a c t i o n s The F i s h i n g Areas of Canada  a large number of people many f o r e s t f i r e s  Canada delights the t r a v e l l e r most because i t has an ancient h i s t o r y i t s a t t r a c t i o n s d i f f e r from the ordinary i t i s a storehouse of c i v i l i z a t i o n i t has a large number of guides i t has many monuments  A.  Tourists can enter Canada at only one point only by becoming c i t i z e n s  by t r a v e l l i n g f i r s t to 'Quebec only to v i s i t r e l a t i v e s at many points  Paragraph 6: We a l l know t h a t the natives of America are not r e a l l y Indians. We know that that name was applied to them by Columbus by mistake when he reached these shores and supposed he had found I n d i a by s a i l i n g west. Then who are they? S c i e n t i s t s generally give us the best answer possible with tiie evidence they now have, that the ancestors of these American Indians were Mongoloid. T h i s does not mean that these Indians are Chinese nor that they came from C h i n a — f o r the excellent reason that at the supposed period of t h e i r a r r i v a l i n America, China and the Chinese were not yet i n existence. Old as they are, the Chinese, by comparison, are recent. I t i s more nearly true to say that these early  36 Indians probably have ancestors i n the f a r d i s t a n t past i n common with other A s i a t i c peoples of today. But we do not know what part of A s i a was the o r i g i n a l home of a l l these peoples. I t was a l l so very long ago and the various races of mankind—which probably a l l developed from the same ancestors—have become so d i f f e r e n t from one another that no one knows what r a c i a l mixtures may have ocurred during the long ages. 1.  The best name f o r t h i s story i s The Ancestry of the Indians The Coming of Columbus The People of A s i a  2.  T h i s story says that the e a r l y Indians probably came from India  3.  China  Asia  America  Egypt  S c i e n t i s t s say that the r a c i a l o r i g i n of the Indians i s American  4.  The A r r i v a l of the Indians The Chinese and the Indians  Mongoloid  Chinese  Anglo-Saxon  Japanese  T h i s story t e l l s us that the various races of mankind passed through periods during which they have become more a l i k e mixed and a l i k e unlike and unmixed mixed and l e s s a l i k e just l i k e t h e i r common ancestors  Paragraph 7: The t o u r i s t who has made the S t . Lawrence River t r i p w i l l not soon forget the t h r i l l aroused by the s i ^ i t of Quebec C i t y from the River. T h i s c i t y i s the c a p i t a l of the Province and i n i t we can f i n d evidence of a l l the daring deeds surrounding the struggle f o r the possession of B r i t i s h North America i n the eighteenth century. Lanes paved with cobblestones, winding stairway streets, o l d houses, and f o r t i f i c a t i o n s combine with the modern i n Quebec. A short distance below the c i t y are the famous F a l l s of the Montmorency River, and a few miles above the c i t y i s one of the amazing engineering triumphs of man—the Quebec Bridge. I t s c e n t r a l ironwork span curves one hundred and seventy feet above the water. Both t r a i n s and automobiles can cross the bridge. The waters narrow considerably a f t e r Quebec C i t y i s passed but the r i v e r i s s t i l l one of noble proportions. Cathedral spires and church towers bear witness to the importance of r e l i g i o n i n the d a i l y l i v e s of the inhabitants. 1.  2.  The best t i t l e f o r t h i s story i s A C i t y i n Quebec A Canadian C i t y The Cathedrals of Quebec C i t y This story says that Quebec C i t y contains many f a c t o r i e s combines the o l d and the new i s an engineering triumph  The C a p i t a l of Quebec A View of Quebec C i t y  has large proportions has wide s t r e e t s  37 This story t e l l s us that the people of Quebec C i t y spend most of t h e i r time i n churches are r e l i g i o u s l i k e t o make spires  never go to church are a l i v e l y people  T h i s story t e l l s us that the Quebec Bridge was very d i f f i c u l t to b u i l d was made by the f i r s t s e t t l e r s i s b u i l t over the c i t y  i s the largest i n the world was made by Montmorency  Form B Paragraph 1; The parents of Florence Nightingale were disappointed when she refused to l i v e the i d l e l i f e of a young lady of fashion. She had a keen mind and unbounded energy and was determined to devote her time to studying nursing. I t was a long, hard way, but she worked hard and so became the most famous nurse i n the world. During the Crimean War she was c e r t a i n , a f t e r hearing the t a l e s of the suffering of the wounded B r i t i s h s o l d i e r s , that she was needed among those sufferers. She l e f t England f o r the Crimea with thirty-seven assistants and a shipload of supplies. She found confusion, suffering, and unsanitary conditions i n the hospitals, but with courage and a b i l i t y she succeeded i n bringing order, out of the disorder. A f t e r the war she returned to England, where she founded schools f o r the t r a i n i n g of nurses, and wrote many books on h o s p i t a l organization. Probably no other woman i n the h i s t o r y of the world has done so much to r e l i e v e s u f f e r i n g and d i s t r e s s . 1.  The best name f o r tiiis story i s Schools f o r Dlurses A Young Lady of Fashion Army Hospitals  2.  Nursing i n Wartime How a Nurse Became Famous  M i l i t a r y hospitals at the beginning of the Crimean War were c a r e f u l l y organized well kept unsanitary unknown  3.  Florence Nightingale founded many t r a i n i n g schools f o r nurses while i n the Crimea a l l over the world  4.  peaceful  during the war a f t e r the war  f o r the army  Florence Nightingale was capable  lonely  wounded  i d l e •'  fashionable  Paragraph 2: Every parachute has f i v e parts—canopy, shroud l i n e s , p i l o t chute, harness, and pack. Each part must work properly i f the parachute i s to be e f f i c i e n t . The canopy, or main chute, which i s l i k e an umbrella, i s made of s p e c i a l l y chosen untreated s i l k . I t must be strong and l i g h t  38 and must not p u l l apart. The shroud l i n e s are made of braided s i l k . There are twelve of these l i n e s , each s i x t y feet long. The p i l o t chute, also, i s made of s i l k and i s attached t o the main chute a t the point where the l i n e s cross the vent hole. The object of the p i l o t chute i s t o help release the main chute. The harness, which i s made of l i n e n webbing, supports the jumper's body and i s adjusted to f i t the wearer. Last of a l l i s the canvas pack into which a l l parts except the harness f i t . The pack i s attached t o the harness: i t protects the chute while i t i s being worn, and releases i t as soon as the r i p cord i s p u l l e d . Each o f these parts must be made and packed with great care f o r they form a chain upon which the l i f e o f an airman depends. 1.  2.  The best name f o r t h i s story i s Jumping From a plane How a Parachute i s Made How t o Qse a Parachute The harness i s made o f silk  3.  4.  The Parts o f a Parachute The L i f e o f an Airman  canvas  leather  linen  rope  The canopy must be strong and heavy strong and l i g h t made of f i n e l i n e n made of braided s i l k smaller than the p i l o t chute Every part of a parachute must be made of s i l k of l i n e n webbing  s i x t y feet long p e r f e c t l y made adjusted t o f i t the wearer  Paragraph 3: L i t t l e i s d e f i n i t e l y known about Saint George, the patron saint of England. H i s l i f e i s surrounded by legends or s t o r i e s s i m i l a r t o the one about h i s v i c t o r i o u s b a t t l e with the five-headed f i e r y dragon. A c t u a l l y he was a s o l d i e r who rose to high rank; but owing t o h i s b e l i e f i n C h r i s t i a n i t y he was c r u e l l y tortured and put t o death, as a martyr, on A p r i l 23, A.D. 303. He was held i n great esteem by the Crusaders and the red cross of S t . George on a white background was worn as a badge by English s o l d i e r s . 'I'his cross forms a part o f the Union Jack. S t . George i s also the patron saint o f Russia and Portugal; and i n many other countries, though not regarded as a patron saint, he i s held i n high honour as a protecting guardian. 1.  The best name f o r t h i s story i s A C h r i s t i a n Martyr The Red Cross The Crusaders St. George and the Dragon . Parts of the Union Jack  2,  S t . George's b a t t l e with the dragon i s c a l l e d a fairy-tale  belief  fact  theory  legend  39 3*  S t . George was put t o death because he was a Portuguese a Crusader  4.  a Russian a Christian  an Englishman  I n most countries St. George i s loved  tortured  disliked  . hated  protected  Paragraph A: Science t e l l s us that the native Americans came from northern A s i a and that they may have a r r i v e d here from ten to twelve thousand years ago. But they were not the f i r s t inhabitants of t h i s continent. From s c i e n t i f i c evidence we know that man-made implements or t o o l s , made o f stone, W9re l e f t beside ancient campfires f i f t e e n t o eighteen thousand years ago; some say even twenty thousand. Man-made implements have also been found deep i n the earth, together with the skeletons of a. prehistoric kind of bison. I t i s known from such remains that these e a r l i e r peoples l i v e d by both hunting and seed-gathering. TWe cannot know what became of them—whether they had a l l vanished before the ancestors of the modern Indians arrived, or whether some were s t i l l wandering about and were absorbed by the newcomers. One guess i s nearly as good as another, f o r we can never be sure of what r e a l l y took place. 1.  The best t i t l e f o r t h i s story i s The F i r s t Inhabitants of America The A r r i v a l of the Indians The H i s t o r y of E a r l y Implements The P r e h i s t o r i c Kind of Bison How to Gather S c i e n t i f i c Facts about Indians.  2.  I n t h i s story s c i e n t i f i c evidence shows that Indians came 5000 years ago The Indians t r a v e l l e d a l l the time Indians were the f i r s t s e t t l e r s i n America The Indians were absorbed by the f i r s t s e t t l e r s There were other people here before the Indians came  3.  The studies of s c i e n t i s t s t e l l us that the early peoples l i v e d by the food l e f t by the previous s e t t l e r s herding c a t t l e hunting and seed-gathering manufacturing implements farming with metal implements  A.  To say that the newcomers absorbed the f i r s t  settlers  i s not true i s true i s a poor guess  i s uncertain  i s certain  Paragraph 5: In 1807 Robert F u l t o n successfully showed that steam power could be used t o drive boats; but could steam be used t o drive coaches on land? Horse tramways had been used i n England f o r many years to c a r r y coal from a mine to a canal, and soon a f t e r 1800 a Cornishman used a stationary steam engine to furnish the power f o r a short tramway. But the problem  was to get a t r a v e l l i n g engine. I n 181A George Stephenson succeeded i n b u i l d i n g a "locomotive" able to haul coal carts on tramways, and i n 1825 a passenger l i n e (twelve miles long) was opened i n England. I n 1833 a steam railway c a r r i e d passengers from London to L i v e r p o o l i n ten hours (a four-hour r i d e now), while the stage coach took s i x t y hours. Four years l a t e r a Canadian company imported a locomotive from England to draw two t i n y cars from La P r a i r i e , just outside Montreal, to St. Johns at the head of Lake Champlain. The railway age had begun. 1.  The best t i t l e f o r t h i s story i s The B i r t h of the Railway The Decline of the Horse and Carriage The L i f e of George Stephenson How to Make Railways The Beginning of the Canadian Railway System  2. 3.  The f i r s t locomotive came to Canada i n 1807 1837 1825 1833  A stage coach r i d e from London to L i v e r p o o l used t o take a f u l l day one week  4.  I8I4  one h a l f day two and a h a l f days  four hours  The stationary steam engine was invented before the stage coach the horse tramway the locomotive the push cart the horse and carriage  Paragraph 6; The fungi, plants of the fungus family, have no green colouring matter to help them absorb food, so they l i v e on other plants or animals, either dead or a l i v e . These fungi grow everywhere—in the s o i l , above the s o i l , and i n the water. They are flowerless plants, some growing t a l l l i k e the toadstools and others so small that one can scarcely see them except under the powerful glass of a microscope. Some fungi, l i k e the mushrooms, can be eaten; others are used i n medicines, and a l l are useful i n that they turn plant-matter back into s o i l . But many, l i k e the mildews, rusts, and molds, are destructive, f o r they harm plants, and c o l l e c t on foods, clothing, and f u r n i t u r e . There are some that even cause diseases i n men and animals. 1.  The best name f o r t h i s story i s Plant Diseases V a r i e t i e s of Fungi Ose of a Microscope  2.  Fungi always grow only on plants very t a l l  3.  The Making of S o i l An Enemy of Mankind  A l l fungi can be eaten are destructive  only i n the s o i l without water l i v e on other things are poisonous  without flowers  have green colouring  41 4.  Mildew i s a toadstool  germ  sickness  fungus  medicine  Paragraph 7t Large areas of Western Canada's wheat lands are much c l o s e r to Hudson Bay than to Vancouver or to eastern Canadian ports. The Hudson Bay route i s t h e i r most d i r e c t sea-route to Europe. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n the case of Saskatchewan. From Saskatoon to Liverpool, by way of C h u r c h i l l , i s , f o r instance, eleven hundred miles shorter than by way of Montreal. Moreover, a car of wheat going westward from there has to cross several mountain b a r r i e r s . I f going eastward, to the A t l a n t i c coast, the contents of the car are transferred twice before the grain f i n a l l y goes aboard an ocean f r e i g h t e r : the wheat i s transferred to a boat when the car reaches the lakehead at Port Arthur or F o r t William and i s t r a n s f e r r e d again on the upper St. Lawrence River. But the way to Hudson Bay i s l e v e l and d i r e c t . No wonder, then, that when these western lands were s e t t l e d the wheat growers turned t h e i r eyes to Hudson Bayl S i x t y years ago they were t a l k i n g of a railway to Hudson Bay and a seaport on i t s coast. The one t h i n g against i t i s that i c e closes the route f o r ten months of the year. In time, though, the farmers hope that ships may be able to use i t f o r at l e a s t three months. 1.  The best t i t l e f o r this story i s The Importance of Canada s Wheat Lands Barriers to T r a v e l i n Canada The Hudson Bay Railway How Wheat i s Sent to England The Western Farmer and the Hudson Bay Route 1  2.  The Saskatchewan farmer prefers the Hudson Bay route because i t provides a l e s s d i r e c t route to Europe i t i s open most of the time i t i s a shorter route i t i s a longer route more wheat can be transported through i t  3.  Wheat growers i n the west do not l i k e the regular eastern route because there i s danger of l o s i n g some wheat the wheat freezes on the boats they get l e s s money f o r t h e i r wheat the wheat i s transferred too often the wheat i s taken over mountains  4.  T h i s story t e l l s us that the most d i r e c t sea-route from the P r a i r i e Provinces to Europe i s through the upper St. Lawrence through P o r t Arthur over the western mountains  through Hudson Bay by way of Montreal  42 APPENDIX f Bibliography 1.  Pamphleta  B e v i l l e , H. M. and Cuthbert, D., C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Educational Radio Research. Washington, Federal Education Radio Committee, 1941. T y l e r , I . K e i t h , D i r e c t o r , Evaluation of School Broadcasts. Columbus, u n i v e r s i t y of Ohio press, 1942. (Approximately f i f t y mimeographed pamphlets.) 2. P e r i o d i c a l s Adams, H. M., " L i s t e n i n g " , The Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol.24, p.209, A p r i l , 1938. Brown, J . I . , "A Comparison of L i s t e n i n g and Reading A b i l i t y " , College English, vol.10, p.105, November, 1948. Ewbank, H. L., "Studies i n the Techniques of Radio Speech", The Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol.18, p.560, November, 1932. Ewbank, H. L., "Trends i n Research i n Radio Speech", The Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol.26, p.282, June, 1940. Fay, P. J , and Middle-ton, W. C , "Rating a Speaker's Natural Voice When Heard over a P u b l i c Address System", The Quarterly Journal of Speech. vol.27, p.120, February, 1941. Goldstein, H., "Reading and L i s t e n i n g Comprehension at Various C o n t r o l l e d Rates", Teachers' College Record, vol.42, p.643, A p r i l , 1941. Heron, W. T. and Zeibarth, E. W., "A Preliminary Experimental Comparison of Radio and Classroom Lectures", Speech Monographs, vol.13, p.54* 1946. Herzberg, M. J . , foreword to s p e c i a l radio issue of Education, p.611, June, 1940.  vol.60,  Journal of Applied Psychology, vol.29, February, 1939. ( S p e c i a l radio issue containing d e t a i l s of the Princeton project.) Lumley, F. H., "Rates of Speech i n Radio Speaking", The Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol.19, p.393, June, 1933. Nichols, R. G.» " L i s t e n i n g , Questions and Problems", The Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol.33, p.83, February, 1947.  43 Rankin, P. T., "Listening A b i l i t y , I t s Importance, Measurement and Development", Chicago School Journal, vol.12, pp.177-179, 417-420, January, June, 1930. Reid, S. and Day, D., "Bibliography of Radio and Records", Review of Educational Research, vol.12, p.305, June, 1942. Solheim, A. K., "The School and Good Radio L i s t e n i n g Habits", Journal of the AER. vol.5, p.67, January, 1946. Stenius, H. C., "Auditory and V i s u a l Education", Review of Educational Research, vol.15, p.243, June, 1945. Townsend, H. W., "Psychological Aspects of Radio Speech", The Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol.26, p.579, December, 1940. 3.  Books  Barr, A. S., Ewbank, H« L., Mccormick, T. C , e d i t o r i a l committee, Radio i n the Classroom, report of the Wisconsin Research P r o j e c t . C a n t r i l H. and A l l p o r t , G. W., The Psychology of Radio. New York, Harper, 1935. C a n t r i l , H., Invasion from Mars. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1940. L a s a r s f e l d , P. F., Radio and, the P r i n t e d Page. New York, D u e l l , Sloan and Pearce, 1940. L a s a r s f e l d , P. N., ed., and Stanton, F. N., Radio Research. 1941. New York, D u e l l , Sloan, Pearce, 1941. Lasarsfeld, P. N., ed., and Stanton, F. N., Radio Research. 1942-43. New York, Duell, Sloan, Pearce, 1944. Lumley, F. H., Measurement i n Radio. Columbus, u n i v e r s i t y of Ohio, 1934. MacLatchy, J . H. ,ed.,. Education on the A i r . Columbus, University o f Ohio Press, Yearbooks, 1929-1947. Palmer, R., School Broadcasting i n B r i t a i n . London, B r i t i s h Broadcasting Corporation, 1947. Willey, R. d e v . and Young, :1H. "A.. Radio i n Elementary Education. Boston, Heath, 1948. Woelfel, N. and T y l e r , I . K., Radio and the School. New York, World Book Co., 1945.  

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