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Case work referrals in camping : a study of co-operative services and essential procedures in referring… Carlisle, Sheila Jane 1950

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CASE WORK REFERRALS IH CAMPING A Study of Cooperative Services and Essential Procedures i n Referring Children from Case Work Agencies to Summer Camps, Vancouver, B.C. 1947 and 1948. by SHEILA JAM CARLISLE Thesis Submitted i n Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the Department of Social Work 1950 The University of Bri t i s h Columbia ABSTRACT. CASE WORK REFERRALS IN CAMPING. This study involves an analysis of the principles and techniques which are necessary to the process whereby the child is placed in an organized camp, through the guidance of the case worker and the camp director working together. If the camp experience is to be of realistic and lasting benefit to the child, in the manner anticipated by the oase worker, the referral process must begin with adequate knowledge and understanding on the part of the case worker and the camp director, and be followed by careful planning and continuous cooperation between the workers, prior to, during, and after the placement period. The purpose of the study is not to prove that referrals are valid. The focus of analysis is placed upon the principles and procedures, the extent to which these apply in the local setting, and methods whereby cooperative services could be improved. Although the word "child" is used throughout, the same principles apply for adult campers; but some modification of procedures is necessary. At the beginning of the thesis, i t is emphasized that the con-tributions which organized camping may make towards the welfare of the individual and the general social good, depend upon the application of modern oamping philosophy in oamp, and the use oase workers make of camping services, techniques, and knowledge to help meet the needs of clients. The experimental work of the Camp Referral Project of the Community Chest and Council is discussed, beoause i t initiated in Vancouver a new period in the development of more systematic and useful practices. However, its influence has been limited by several factors; hence, the study continues. The principles and methods required in the referral process, are clearly defined, and illustrated by several cases., which were selected from local oase work agencies. Information was secured from interviews with executive directors and workers in seven case work agencies, and with directors of eleven camps. Current practices were analysed by means of the study of one hundred and seventy-three cases; this involved reading the agency case records and, when possible, discussing the child and his camp placement with the case worker and the oamp direotor. The case study revealed many gaps and problems in the application of essential philosophy and effective methods; agency and camp policies, and procedures used are inadequate, and haphazard, ineffectual camp placements are frequent. Most case workers and oamp directors are aware of the needs in camping,and in referral practices, and they are ready to consider methods which may ultimately lead to progress. Recommendations are therefore made for the development of services and procedures which may facilitate co-operative services in oamping. No one method will solve a l l the existing problems. Case workers and camp directors have definite and necessary responsibilities; duties which continue even i f a "central camp referral bureau" is established to meet the needs for uniformity of methods, centralization and coordination of referrals, and broader educational services in camping. The importance of clearly defined and limited roles for a bureau, and the need for a specially skilled social worker to carry out extensive duties, are stressed. Suggestions for further studies in areas which are directly and indirectly related to camp referrals conclude the thesis. If this study results in greater understanding of the referral process by personnel who provide camping services, perhaps improvements will be made in referral practices; more children will gain greater benefits from better camping opportunities. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. For valuable assistance i n obtaining information and oase material which made this study possible, the author wishes to acknowledge indebtedness to the executive directors and workers i n many Vancouver social agencies, particularly the oase work agencies - Catholic Children's Aid Society, Child Guidance Clinic, Children 18 Aid Society, City Social Service Department, Family Welfare Bureau, Jewish Family Welfare Bureau, and Juvenile Court; also, the summer camps - Camp Alexandra (Alexandra Community Activities), Camp Artaban (Church of England), Camp Elphinstone (Y.M. C.A.), Camp Fircom (First United Church), Camp Howdy (Y.M.C.A.), Keats Island Camp (Baptist Church Convention), Ocean Park and Cultus Lake Camps (United Church Christian Education Committee), Potlatoh Camp (Boys' Club Association), Camp Sanwes (St. Andrew's Wesley United Church), and Star of the Sea (Catholic Charities). The Secretary of the Group Work Division of the Vancouver Community Chest and Council, provided additional information which was used throughout the study. In addition, several contributions were willingly offered by workers in agencies and associations i n Chicago, New York, and St, Louis, to which reference i s made i n the Bibliography. The helpful advioe and encouragement of the members of the Department of Social Work of the University of British Columbia, are also gratefully acknowledged. TABLE OF CONTENTS. Chapter 1. The Importance of Camp Referrals Camping as a social welfare f a c i l i t y . The fooal point of the present study. Modern camping philosophy and i t s application i n Vancouver. Chapter 2. Agency Cooperation i n Camping Essential c r i t e r i a for cooperation between oase workers and oamp directors; needs and limitations i n services, procedures required i n the referral process. The Community Chest and Council Camp Referral Project, 1947-1948; social agencies outline the needs, organization and function of the Project, contributions to current p ractioes. Chapter 3. The Treatment Plan Application of principles i n planning oamp placements; illustrated by oases. Principles, methods, and problems i n procedures; the child's readiness for oamp, placement plan, choosing the oamp. Chapter 4. Pre-Camp Cooperation Establishment of a cooperative working relationship between the ease worker and the camp director, and methods for relaying information to camp personnel; illustrated by cases. Application of philosophy and use of cooperative techniques; pre-camp written information and conferences, barriers to cooperation. Chapter 5. Helping the Child i n Camp The importance of adequate preparation of the child, his parents, and the camp leaders; shown by case material. The case worker's responsibilities; helping the child look forward to camp, enlisting the assistance of the parents, clarifying financial arrangements, and contacting the child, his parents, and camp leaders during the camp period. The camp director's role; discussing the child with camp personnel, and providing conditions in camp to f a c i l i t a t e treatment. Chapter 6. Building on the Camp Experience Relating benefits of camping to the child's continuing l i f e experiences; illustrated by cases. Methods to f a c i l i t a t e analysis of the camp placement and follow-up; camp reports, post-oamp conferences, statements by the child and his parents. Treatment based upon the camp experience; the camp director's contribution and the case worker's responsibility i n post-camp guidance of the ohild. 2 Chapter 7. Current Practices on Camp Referrals Camp referral policies i n case work agencies and summer camps. Study of cases i l l u s t r a t e limitations} inadequate knowledge, ineffectual choice of camp, haphazard placement planning, lack of complete pre-camp cooperation, inadequate preparation of the child and his parents, limited use of methods to help the child i n camp, poorly directed follow-up. Chapter 8. From This Day Forward Readiness for progress. Suggested methods to assure progress; camp referral policies, "agency camp worker", *central oamp referral bureau". Studies to lead the way. Appendices: A. Questionnaires used in the study B. Schedules used in the study C Sample referral forms, and information outlines D Bibliography. Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. TABLES IN THE TEXT. Number of children sent to camps by ease work agencies in Vancouver, 1947 and 1948. Camps to whioh children were sent by case work agencies in Vancouver, 1947 and 1948. Number of children sent to oamp by social agencies. (Vancouver Camp Referral Projeot, 1947 and 1948.) Summer oamps to whioh children were sent. (Vanoouver Camp Referral Projeot, 1947 and 1948), Page 4 5 36 36 CASE WORK REFERRALS IN CAMPING A Study of Cooperative Services and Essential Procedures in Referring Children from Case Work Agencies to Summer Camps, Vancouver, B.C. 1947 and 1948. 1 CHAPTER ONE THE IMPORTANCE OF CAMP REFERRALS Since the earliest stage of organized camping, over thirty years ago, there has been a gradual development on every front. As the move-ment has grown, the basic philosophy of camping has changed, placing new emphasis upon oamp objectives, leadership, program, camper participation, physical structure - in a word, upon the total administration of camp.-Modern camping, as a result, is firmly established within the educational and social welfare structure of the North American continent. Not every camp, however, has made the complete transition because the evolutionary process is continuing. Camps differ; therefore, their relative value differs. But camping authorities agree that the rightful plaoe for 1 organized camping is as an integrated part of a l l social welfare facilities. During the last decade a number of events have brought to the fore the importance of assessing the referral process by whioh the services of summer camps as a community social welfare resource are utilized. There has been an increase in the number of camps and in the use of camps by other social agenoies. There has been a gradual development of the camping philosophy whioh firmly places the methods of social group work within the processes of organized camping. There has been a great increase in the professional study of group work, and of case work - group work cooperation. There has been a realization on the part of social workers that social agenoies cannot function unto themselves alone, but . are dynamically related to the whole community; that referrals to an 1 Dimook, Hedley S., ed., Administration of the Modern Camp, New York, Association Press, 1940, pp. J S U - S J D . Also a lumen thai, Louis H., "Group Work in Camping, Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow", in Hendry C.E., A Decade of Group Work, New York, Association Press, 1948, pp. 9-15. 2 agency are a v i t a l part of interrelationships between workers, agencies, clients, and community. Therefore, i f the services of oase work agencies and summer camps, both of whioh are social agencies, are to be offered to clients who w i l l benefit from them, cooperative working relationships must be devised by oase workers and camp leaders. The procedure by which these services are provided is called the "referral process", or a "referral". Special techniques and methods are carefully worked out to f a c i l i t a t e this prooess, which may take one or two directions. F i r s t , a client who, to the best knowledge of the oase worker, would benefit from a group experience at camp - livi n g and playing with others - i s given every opportunity to do so. The oase worker makes a l l the necessary arrangements and preparations for sending the client to a suitable camp, plans and works with the camp director, and uses the results of the client's oamp experience i n his future contacts with, and plans for, the client. This process involves many parts and requires specific techniques. Second, a member of a oamp group whose behaviour and emotional or physical needs indioate that intensive oase work services are required, is encouraged to participate i n such treatment. As i n the f i r s t type of referral, special methods for providing beneficial services i n the interest of the individual camper are used by the oamp leader and the case worker. Camp leaders rarely make direot referrals to oase work agenoies. But case workers frequently arrange for a oamp experience for their clients; either by sending the families or children to camp, or making i t possible for families to take advantage of opportunities to go to camp. Then the process involves direct oooperation between the oase worker and the oamp director concerned, so that the oamper* s needs may be best met. Gertrude Wilson refers to this "cooperative service" as: a relation with members or olients i n which both the ease worker and the group worker have a part, both seeing the individual over the same period and deliberately working together. 1 . T~~lTil8on, Gertrude, Group Work and Case work, Their KeJ.ationsnip"ana" Practice, Hew York, Family Welfare Association or America, ly ^ J L , p.99 {footnote) 6 In the camp situation the relationship is slightly altered. The camp leader works with the individual as a member of a cabin group for a period of from ten days to two months, during which time the case worker possibly has no direct contact with the camper although his relationship is not destroyed. But the statement holds true, beoause the conscious and deliberate cooperation of the workers prevails prior to the placement, often during the camp period, and immediately after the client has returned from camp. -The Focal Point of the Present Study. It is this f i r s t type of joint planning and cooperative action whioh is the fooal point in the present study. A l l references are direoted to referrals of children from case work agencies to summer camps. There is value in this referral process in whioh the central concern is what happens to the individual who is sent to camp, and what benefits are derived for his welfare. The study, therefore, involves an analysis of the techniques which are necessary to the process whereby clients are provided with a oamp experience through the guidance of oase workers and oamp direotors working together. No real effort is made to prove that referrals are valid, although certain conclusions surrounding such a hypothesis may indirectly result. But the focus of analysis is placed on principles of referral procedure and on the extent to which these principles apply in the looal setting. This level of analysis is sustained by the presentation of case material secured from oase work agencies and summer camps, to illustrate the application of philosophy and methods which provide for cooperative services. In order to make the study more effective, analysis of procedure is limited to an examination of referrals of children of six to sixteen years of age, from speoifio oase work agencies to camps in the Vancouver, British Columbia, area during the summers of 1947 and 1948.1 Although no reference is made to referrals of mothers and young children who attend I See footnote, p. 47 4 oamp together, to older teen-agers, or to adults, the philosophy and techniques discussed may be applied i n such cases, with some modification. The seven case work agenoies referred to i n the succeeding chapters include those which were active i n sending boys and g i r l s to oamp during 1947 and 1948, and from whioh information i s available. "When the executive directors of these agencies were f i r s t contacted, many did not 2 have accurate statistics to enable them to answer the questionnaire. But i n the course of the study, i t was possible to derive a f a i r l y accurate estimate of the number of children referred to camps i n the two years. TABLE 1. Mumber of Children Sent to Camps by Case Work Agenoies in Vancouver, 1947 and 1948"! Number of CASE WORK AGENCY Children Sent To Can© 1947 1948 Total. Children's Aid Society 55 60 115 Family Welfare Bureau 38 46 84 City Social Service Department 9 21 30 Catholic Children's Aid Society 12 3 15 Juvenile Court 7 8 15 Child Guidance Clinic 2 4 6 Jewish Family Welfare Bureau 0 5 5 Total 123 147 270 Source: Computed from questionnaires sent to each case work agency, and from reports and oase material made available by the agencies. 1 The public health nurses of the Metropolitan Health Committee of Vanoouver, refer a large number of school age boys and g i r l s to summer camps each year. But their contact with the children varies consider-ably from that of oase workers, because their functions d i f f e r . In many instances, the parents of children who seemingly would have no other opportunity to go to camp, are told about the camps whioh are available, and some of the benefits to be derived from a oamp experi-ence are discussed. Frequently, financial assistance i s arranged through the Camp Referral Project of the Community Chest and Council (see Chapter Two). In the majority of cases, the remaining arrange-ments for the child to attend oamp, are l e f t to the parents. As a result, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine how many children actually arrive at camp, and under what circumstances. For these reasons, therefore, the nurses would not be able to carry through a l l the methods of pro-cedure which are advocated i n this study. In addition, the informa-tion which was available from the Health Units was not sufficient to be included i n the study. Reference, therefore, is made to case work referrals only. But some of the philosophy and methods discussed could apply to camp referrals made by public health nurses. In a few instances, moreover, a nurse may complete the procedure i n a satis-factory manner, i n view of her role and the situation involved. 2 See Questionnaire No. 1, Appendix A. 5 The summer camps to which reference i s made i n the following discussions include those which received a number of referrals of children during 1947 and 1948, and those which have made attempts to oarry through cooperative services. A few camp directors could not supply statistics or information relevant to the study; therefore, those camps are not included. Although eleven camps are discussed i n the study, only nine directors were able to present statistics on the questionnaire. 1 No figures were available from Ocean Park Camp and Cultus Lake Camp, both of which are sponsored by the United Church Christian Education Committee. But i t i s apparent that a few referrals are made each year, and a good deal of important information about these camps was secured. These two oamps are therefore discussed i n the study. TABLE 2. Camps to Which Children Were Sent By Case Work Agencies i n Vancouver', 1947 and 1948. Number of . SUMMER CAMP Children Sent To Camp 1947 1948 Total Alexandra (Alexandra Community Activities) 22 24 46 Howdy (Vancouver Y.M. C.A.) 10 32 42 Artaban (Church of England) 12 23 35 Pircom (First United Church) 12 21 33 Elphinstone (Vanoouver Y.M.C.A.) 18 11 29 Potlatoh (Vancouver Boys' Club Association) 13 11 24 Star of the Sea (Catholic Charities) 15 5 20 Keats (Baptist Church Convention) 10 5 15 Sanwes (St. Andrew's Wesley United Churoh) 4 8 12 Unidentified 7 7 14 Total 123 147 270 Source: Statistics were entered on the questionnaire which was sent to each oamp direotor. v 1 See Questionnaire No. 2, Appendix A. 6 In addition to the fact that many ohildren are included in the oamp referral picture, there are several reasons why this study of agency oooperation is important. Case workers and camp directors are becoming concerned about the prooedure involved in these cooperative services, because more and more children are being sent to camps by oase workers for reasons other than "a holiday in the c o u n t r y C a s e workers are becoming aware of the value of the "camp experience"; i.e., of guided group living in the out-of-doors, which has more potential benefits for the clients than was formerly realized. But they are also concerned about the inadequacies of the present systems; both in the procedure used for providing a camp period for their olients, and in the camps in the looal area. Camp direotors, in turn, are questioning the amount of oooperation received from oase workers who send children to camp, and the reality of the situation; i.e., whether the oamp experience can really be a part of the total treat-ment plan for clients of oase work agencies, especially for disturbed ohildren. In succeeding chapters an attempt is made to clarify these concerns, to examine the methods whioh are being used, and to offer some guidance in reference to techniques which may be applied to referrals as part of agency cooperation. Perhaps the results of this study will be such that case workers and camp direotors will gain more understanding of the principles involved, and perhaps they will attempt to provide more adequate means for cooperative aotion. Then improvements may be. made in specific areas so that the oamp experience will be of more positive and lasting value to the client who becomes a camper. Modern Camping Philosophy. Organized summer camping, i t has been said, is an integrated part of a l l sooial welfare faci l i t i e s . Prior to discussing specific aspects of camping, therefore, i t is important to clarify the general role of oamping, and the philosophy which determines the relative merits of oamps 7 as community resources. Many groups and agenoies in Canada and the United States conduct summer camps. Such groups include several Y.M.C.A's., Y.W.C.A's., Boy Scouts, and Neighbourhood Houses, as well as private individuals and organizations, churches, schools, business and industrial firms, trade unions, fraternal societies,.and service clubs. These camps, however, vary widely in their objectives, in the age and sex of constituents, in leadership, program and facilities, and in the length of the camp periods. They may be especially designed for pre-school youngsters, school-age boys or girls, teen-agers, young adults, or families. They may provide vacations for well-adjusted people, therapeutic treatment for children with emotional problems, or speoial holidays for physioally handicapped children. But those camps which have as their main objective the growth and development of the individual camper through the process of group living, may be termed "organized camps" according to modern philosophy.1 The characteristic elements of the organized camp, as understood today, are several in number. They include "participating campers", "out-of-doors", "group living", "a oamp community", "recreation", "education", "specialized leadership", and other conditions whioh satisfy individual needs and interests, as well as stimulating wholesome personal, social, and spiritual growth. "Program" is designed to encompass a l l these elements. Consequently, certain kinds of program camps such as~ the conference, the institute, the convalescent home, and the athletic camp, each of which may be conducted in an outdoor setting, are excluded i f they lack the other essential elements. Modern organized camping, in short, includes the camp in which the focus is upon people living together in small groups, out-of-doors,with the guidance of trained leaders who 1 "Camping" to many people means merely "camping out" - living in a tent and "roughing i t " in the woods or on the edge of a waterway. This was the origin of many oamping projeots. Today, camping has a more extensive meaning, although the element of outdoor living - "close to nature" and away from the city - continues to have great importance. 8 understand human behaviour and the values of relationships within small groups. Emphasis is thus placed upon the enjoyment of simple living where campers have ample opportunity to take considerable responsibility for the basic problems of their day-to-day l i f e . Camping is guided group living aimed at the highest possible development of human personality.'1' In order to meet the demands of such a philosophy, oamp directors oall upon a number of resources for assistance. Education, mental hygiene, and social group work are some of the areas in which these resources are sought. In reaohing its present stage, the oamping movement has demonstrated three phases of development; briefly, the recreational, the educational, 2 and the social; some elements of each phase carrying over to the next. In the beginning, oamping was primarily recreational in purpose and oontent, and was looked upon as a recreational compensation for the effects of industrialization and urbanization on American culture. The program was highly organized and apt to be regimental. Camper participation was stimulated by elaborate systems of competition, awards, points, and prizes. With the development of the social sciences, however, camping became deliberately educational in purpose, program, and leadership. The aim became more specifically that of the development of "health", "personality", ~T"™More and more camp leaders are accepting the fact that where good group work practices exist in camps, the camper stands a better chance of getting the maximum of benefits from his experience". Beckhard,Alethea Hanson, "Camps Too Are Challenged", in The Group, New York, the American Association for the Study of Group Work, Vol. 8, No. 4. June 1946, p.8. "Good group work practices" may be defined as the "enabling method";i.e., the means by which the group worker helps the members of the group learn new ideas, develop new skills, change attitudes, and deepen their person-alities through participation in a social process wherein they make decisions and take the sooial action necessary to accomplish the goals of the group". Sooial group work, therefore, is seen as "a process and a method through whioh group l i f e is affected by a worker who consciously directs the interacting process toward the accomplishment of goals, (individual and social), which in our country are conceived in a demo-cratic frame of reference". Wilson, Gertrude, and Ryland, Gladys, Social Group Work Practices, Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1949,p.61. 2 Dimook, Hedley S., ed.. Administration of the Modern Camp, New York, Association Press, 19157 p. 22. 9 and "character" through a program of arts, crafts, music, drama, and so on. Since the 1930's, other elements have been added to enrich the objectives and operation of camps, particularly in the United States. There is a systematic and collective effort to formalize and apply standards to the operation of camps; including administration, personnel, program, facilities, health, and safety. 1 There is an impetus towards community planning for oamping. A greater emphasis is placed upon practical democracy; program is directly related to cooperative ways of living, as well as to working with campers as individuals so that their speoifie needs, interests, and development are considered. Leaders are specially selected and trained to make these conditions a reality. As a result of these developments, the modern organized oamp reproduces many of the elements of a normal democratic community, although in a simplified form. The oamp exists primarily for the well-being, happiness, and development of its members. For a limited time, the member lives in the oamp community where his relationships with other people, his varied experiences, and the varied activities contribute towards his personality growth. Such growth is enoouraged in the decentralized form of modern camping, where the basic unit is the small group of about eight oampers which offers possibilities for "socialization" of the members. This provides the fullest scope for individual differ-ences and the "give-and-take" experiences through which eaoh member's independence and self-direction are encouraged. Modern organized oamping had as its beginnings a type of "welfare work" with autocratic leaders and reliance on command, obedience, and mass treatment. But i t has evolved to the point of providing oamp communities with conditions which facilitate recognition of the worth of the individual, democratic participation, and intimate and constructive groupings. With this advancement to a more socially significant *I Such efforts are observed in publications; for example, American Camping Association, The Marks of Good Camping, New York, Association Press, 1941, and Beckhard, op eit. orientation, the camping movement has attained a wider recognition and application. Workers in the professions of teaching, medicine, and social work have accepted camping as an important potential foroe in the develop-ment of happier, healthier, socially better adjusted and more useful citizens for a democratic society. Nevertheless, in many camps the objectives of modern camping philosophy are only potential. Several camps, moreover, present conditions which prevent complete application of this philosophy. There are definite limitations in terms of the inadequacies in administration, leadership, program, camper constituency, damper participation, camper groupings, the relative shortness of the typical camping period, and the frequent dis-connection between oamp life and the normal community l i f e of the individuals. Many camps have grown without any direotion or defined functions; as a result, they have become conglomerations of confusing responsibilities for the oamp directors. The oamp of this type, moreover, is apt to be completely built around one individual, the camp director. He buys the food, arranges the transportation, is the swimming instructor, the games director, and the minister on Sundays. An autocratic oamp of this kind is far behind the modern trend. Organized oamp administrators are gradually recognizing this fact - that satisfactory results cannot be achieved unless oamp objectives are clearly defined, and appropriate duties are delegated to well-trained and responsible members of staff. As oamp administration is improved, modern camping philosophy will gradually be more specifically applied. Potential results will then be attainable. At present, a few camps remain in the first phase of develop-ment, many camps have progressed no further than the second phase, and only a limited number of camps have reached the phase of social orientation and responsibility. 11 Camping Philosophy as Applied in Vancouver, Without evaluating the standards of camping in Vancouver in terms of each element of each camp, i t is s t i l l possible to make some general statements about the degree to whioh modern camping philosophy is applied.1 This may be done in the light of idle accepted aim of camping and the characteristic elements of the organized oamp as envisaged today. The "oamp purpose" in i t i a l l y determines the philosophy which will permeate the operation of the camp. Frequently, however, oamp administra-tors do not present clear and concise basic aims; as a result, effective, organized camping very rarely exists. Camps Alexandra, Elphinstone, and Howdy, however, offer a good deal of evidence that the desired philosophy is interwoven into many aspects of camp administration. This is clearly observed in the objectives of each of these camps, as well as in their operation. Perhaps the most carefully worded and highly significant purpose is that whioh was recently prepared by the committee in charge of Camp Howdy. The Vancouver Y.M.C.A. recognizes that camping presents an effeotive means of achieving its threefold purpose; development in spirit, mind, and body, citizenship train-ing, and Christian character education, and to this end operates Camp Howdy on the North Arm of Burrard Inlet. Further, camping is an experience in outdoor living It is particularly significant because i t is a group experience in whioh young persons live, work, and play together, stimulating eaoh other to love and appreciate God in nature manifested in the great outdoors. As campers they share equally in common tasks; make use of wilderness materials, provide for fun, welfare, and comfort; grow in service to others; draw heavily upon their initiative in meeting emergencies in a l l kinds of weather. They learn to understand and practise democratic living. 2 1 These statements are based on the material from Schedule 3, (Appendix B), answered by administrators of eleven camps. 2 Camp Howdy Committee, Camp Howdy Policy, Vancouver Y.M.C.A. Vancouver, B.C., 1949, p . l . (mimeographed). Adherence to modern oamping philosophy varies in the operation of each of the three camps abovementioned, but attempts are made to provide f u l l application. Each oamp committee is a year-round governing and policy-making body, which delegates speoific responsibilities and authority to the oamp director. The director works with the oommittee throughout the year, evaluating past work and planning for improvements. The director is responsible for securing a well-qualified staff which is required for the complete camp community; namely, a program direotor, the program specialists, the group counsellors, a resident nurse, a resident cook, the kitchen assistants,and a oaretaker. The necessity for well-trained and mature counsellors is recognized by each direotor; therefore he is effeotive in overseeing pre-camp training and preparation of group leaders. Difficulties have arisen, however, in the area of leadership, because many leaders lack desired qualifications. But efforts are continually being made to rectify this situation. In addition, modem philosophy is being more generally applied in these three camps, beoause the directors are becoming sensitive to the implications of group work practice in the camp setting; thus they attempt to apply group work techniques and to facilitate the group work process. Administration is democratically operated, with regular staff meetings in which plans are made in the interests of the oampers and the camp. The primary concern is the individual oamper, who is a member of a functioning, intimate group of eight to ten campers. The permanent cabin or tent counsellor helps the members plan and partici-pate in the group's activities and interest groups, according to each camper's interests and needs. Rules are also the result of group decision. In addition, standards of health and safety are maintained in the interests of the campers and staff. In certain aspects such as leadership, and some physical facilities, a l l the objectives of camping philosophy have not been realizable in each camp. But efforts are being made to place the goal within reach. Camps Howdy and Elphinstone, therefore, represent the only boys' camps in Vancouver whioh have progressed to the third phase of development in oamping. Camp Alexandra, in turn, is the only girls' camp which has attained the more significant resemblance to modern camping. In other Vancouver camps, the elements of modern camping exist in part only. The purpose of Potlatoh Camp, for example, does not suggest adherence to modern camping philosophy and indicates a reluctance to advance to the third phase of development from the educational and recreational emphasis. The phrases, "building better bodies and character", "providing educational and recreational training", and "training towards better citizenship", imply that the growth of the individual camper is of central concern. But without the essentials of oamping found in qualified leadership, democratic participation, under-standing of individual behaviour, and adequate health and safety measures, the oamp objective cannot be realized. Three of the seven church camps, which have strong religious emphasis, illustrate the faot that camping philosophy may well be applied in a religious setting; that Christianity and organized camping have the same goal within their common concept of the worth of the individual. But fulfilment of this philosophy is limited by the lack of complete application of democratic principles to the total administration of each oamp. In addition, there is incomplete provision of conditions to enable the satisfaction of individual needs and interests, and to stimulate wholesome personal and social growth. In the ohuroh camps of Ocean Park, Cultus Lake, and Artaban, for example, some aspects of oamping philosophy are applied in the religious setting. But the lack of trained and mature leadership, of specially designed groupings, and of camper planning and participation in small group activities, prevent the realization of the aims of organized camping. This is also true of Camp Pircom, whioh is a church oamp, but one in which the "purpose" stresses the oamping period as being more "welfare" and recreational than religious in nature. The purposes of the remaining three churoh camps, however, suggest extension of the Sunday Sohool of each church; but in the out-of-doors, and with recreational activities included. Every one of the churoh camps in Vancouver, therefore, includes elements in its purpose and operation, whioh suggest that development remains in the second, i f not in the first, stage of growth. Four of these camps, however, could reach the ideal, i f a l l phases of operation were improved to meet the stated purpose of eaoh camp, and to provide opportunities for the growth and development of the individual child through the oamping experience. In general, the application of modern oamping aims and methods is inadequate in Vancouver. Of the eleven camps studied, only three show evidence of desired development. The most outstanding deficiences, which are oommon to most of the camps, are found in the area of leadership. These, moreover, result directly from lack of understanding and knowledge of camping philosophy and methodology on the part of many administrators. Five camps, for example, do not provide counsellors for cabin groups, although program specialists, such as swimming instructors and craft teachers, are secured. This is not sufficient, because one of the established principles of oamping is that each group of eight campers should have a permanent leader, whereas four or five program specialists may be sufficient for the total camp. These counsellors, to be effective must be well trained, as well as carefully selected. In only three camps however, is training at all adequate. Although the leaders in other oamp may be trained in camp orafts, Christian teaohings, or sports and games, no real effort is made to give the counsellors an understanding of the group work process, the knowledge and s k i l l required to work with children and groups, nor the realization of the significance of individual differ-ences in personality, behaviour, interests, and emotional and physioal needs. This, in itself, is an important deterrent to the positive effect that oamp can have upon the lives of children, especially children sent to oamp by case work agencies. For this reason, the lack of trained and mature leaders in the majority of camps in Vancouver cannot be over-emphasized in the study of camp referrals. The recognition of the importance of this type of leadership and the stress upon encouraging individual growth are fundamental in other areas of oamp operation. That the majority of camp directors do not realize this, is seen in the amount and type of camper participation made possible, as well as the kind of groupings of ohildren arranged at oamp. Only four camps attempt to provide a group experience governed by modern camping philosophy, whereby the Individual camper becomes a member of a functioning, intimate, small group. These small groups of eight campers which are formed on the basis of friendships, plan and participate in activities of their own ohoioe, with the guidance of a permanent counsellor for eaoh oabin or tent group. Naturally this group process requires good leadership. When leadership is poor, the effectiveness of groupings is jeopardized. In the other oamps, moreover, where emphasis is placed upon staff planning a detailed program rather than camper groups planning daily aotivities, the camper's holiday is much less constructive. Program which is imposed by adults, stifles almost a l l opportunity for self-expression, self-determination, and shared responsibility among the campers. Most of the aotivities included in such imposed programs are those whioh should be fostered in a oamp setting, and those whioh are interesting, enjoyable, and stimulating for some children. But they are not so born and nourished that they meet the individual's best interests and lead to beneficial growth in the camper. In addition, elaborate systems of points, awards, prizes, and competition are s t i l l fostered in the majority of camps.1 The use of such methods to ensure camper participation in 1 There is a difference in this type of competitive gain from the receiv-ing of a swimming medallion or lif e saving certificate. The latter represents recognition of a personal achievement, and the competition of camper against camper is eliminated as the focal point of emphasis. pre-arranged programs considered to be "good for" the children, has no place in the modern camp setting. It adds nothing to the achievement of the goals of camping. In only twenty-five per cent of the Vancouver camps are conditions approaching those which represent modern organized oamping. The majority of the remaining camps, moreover, have not applied camping philosophy to a significant degree. This defect in local camping must be considered in reference to various aspects of inter-agency cooperation in camping. CHAPTER TWO AGENCY COOPERATION IN CAMPING. The contribution whioh modern organized camping has to make towards the welfare of the individual and the general social good, is recognized. If oase workers, therefore, are to utilize camping services, techniques, and knowledge to help meet the needs of clients, there must be some inter-dependency between these areas of social welfare. Both case workers and oamp directors, moreover, have a definite responsibility to establish cooperative working relationships so that the best interests of the individual may be fostered. But cooperative services between the two specialized groups of workers will only result when each understands the other's functions and limitations. Such an understanding and mutual respect is gained through education, experience, and acceptance. Joint planning for the benefit of the individual will only become effective when a l l workers recognize this fundamental fact. 1 1 Six essential criteria for cooperation between oase workers and group workers were ably stated by two social workers at a National Conference of Social Work in 1939. These statements apply as vividly today to cooperative efforts between case workers and camp directors. (1) A recognition of the common objectives and the/working towards a common end. (2) A recognition of the common ground; serving the same communities and often the same people. (3) An acceptance of a basic philosophy common to the profession of social work and shared by workers in a l l fields. (4) A focusing of attention and effort upon the individual and not upon a service to the other agenoy or the workers in i t . (5) A feeling of respect for and a confidence in the effectiveness of the contribution of one's own field. (6) An appreciation of and a respect for the contributions of tiie other's work which result in a wish to learn more about i t . Hester, Mary, and Thomas, Dorothy G., "Case Work and Group Work Cooperation" in Proceedings of the National Conferenoe of Social  Work, New York, Columbia University Press, 1939, pp. 339-341. Perhaps the greatest barrier to satisfactory oooperation between case workers and camp directors i s laok of knowledge and understanding, by each group of workers, of the concepts and practices of the other. There are certain similarities which are not always recognized. These elements are found i n the basic philosophy, objectives and goals which are common to both areas of social welfare* The individual, for example, i s recognized as possessing his own rights, limitations, and a b i l i t i e s , whioh differ from those of other people. He i s given assistance aimed at personality growth and development of his capabilities to the f u l l e s t , so that his needs and interests can be met i n socially desirable ways. But as the individualized approach was developed i n the third phase of oamping, the oamp leader did not assume the functions of the case worker. The distinction between their functions i s found i n the qualitative difference i n their relation-ship with individuals. 1 While the case worker works with the client in an individual face-to-faoe setting, the oamp leader, as the group worker, is primarily responsible for the group-as-a-whole, and he works with individuals as members of the group. The group worker, therefore, must understand individual behaviour, and be able to work with members of the group within the group work process i n which program aotivities and the interplay of personalities are essential elements. He thus works with individual members, as well as with the group-as-a-whole; but his work with the individual cannot be of the same type and intensity as that of the oase worker. The group worker, to preserve his positive function within the group setting, and to be f a i r to the other group members, must c a l l upon a oase worker to provide special treatment i f i t i s required. Camping, therefore, as described i n this study, does not provide a treatment program for severely disturbed children; i.e., group therapy. Group therapy requires a psychiatric orientation and s k i l l s and knowledge "I This relationship or oase wo rice r to client, ana group wo rice r -co memoer of the group i s f u l l y discussed in the writing of Gertrude Wilson; Group Work and Case Work Their Relationship and Praotioe, New York, Family Welfare Assooiation of America, 1941, and "Interplay of the Insights of Case Work and Group Work" i n Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work, New York, Columbia University Press, 19»7, • pp. 150-162. 19 specifically related to psyohiatric treatment of individuals with exaggerated personality disturbances. For this reason, children requiring such treatment cannot be helped in regular camps, particularly in Vancouver, The case worker who refers children to camp must fully understand these facts. He must understand the aims of oamping i f he is to plan intelligently for the placement of clients in camps. The camp group worker, in turn, must understand oase work so he can work with individuals, within his function. But he must also have enough diagnostic ability to know when to call upon a case worker for a group member who requires intensive treatment. The misunderstanding so many workers hold of the other methods and processes, is basic to a l l the blocks to cooperation between agencies in camping. In agenoies in which personnel is trained in social work, this factor is losing its prominence; but there remains quite a barrier obstructing oooperation based upon mutual respeot and understanding. In addition, many prejudices have been established as the result of so-called "differences" in concepts and vocabulary. But these differences have been overemphasized, because many concepts and much vocabulary are fundamental to a l l areas of social welfare. A more difficult deterrent to oooperation is the preponderance of untrained workers, particularly in oamping. Case workers are less likely to have confidence in the oamp leaders when doubting their competence. But i t must be recognized that training does not mean social work education only; workers who are trained in physical education, psychology, and education have contributions to make to camping. The basic concern is whether the staff is able to carry out the objectives of modern organized oamping. To a degree, cooperation has been held back by the fact that camping is a relatively new field in social welfare; only recently has there evolved a common understanding of the basic principles of philosophy and praotice. But this barrier to oooperation, as with the others, is o 20 slowly being removed as the general level of praotioe is being elevated to the established standards. Carefully planned methods of oooperation are gradually replacing a type of hit-and-miss use of complimentary services of other agencies. Incidental application of workable methods is giving way to purposeful planning and joint action in a l l areas of oase work - group work cooperation, including the field of camping. Many important techniques are involved in this cooperative referral process. Some of these inolude; choosing the oamp, preparation of information about the child for the camp director, conferences between the oase worker and the camp director, preparation of the client and his family for the camp period, proper interpretation to the oamp counsellors, reports on the behaviour and participation of the client at camp, and application of results of the camp experience in future treatment plans for the individual. These and other methods of procedure will be examined in the following ohapters, and discussed in relation to the current situation in Vancouver. Not only is i t evident that methods of procedure must be evolved i f the referral process is to have any value, but the factors which prevent the realization of success must also be examined. Lack of under-standing and knowledge may be the fault of the case worker or the oamp leader, or both. Any part of the policy of the case work agency or the oamp may have a detrimental effect upon cooperative service. Camp leader-ship may be inadequate; group work methods may not be used in camp; camp leaders may be preoccupied with program and cabin competitions, and not able to devote time to understanding individuals in the groups; case workers may have too large case loads and too l i t t l e time to spend on referrals; a plan for the use of camp may be incidental rather than purposeful; either worker may consider methods of procedure unnecessary. Many conditions, therefore, present grave problems in the consideration of the procedure whereby clients are sent to camp by case workers. During 1947 and 1948, some notable advances were made in Vancouver towards extending agency cooperation in oamping, raising the standards of referral procedure, and lessening the problems involved in current practioes. These resulted from the experimental work of the Camp Referral Project of the Community Chest and Counoil. To review this work, there-fore, is a very relevant part of the present study. Primarily, the Project was established as a means of finding space in summer camps for a limited number of boys, and of financing camp periods for these youngsters. But in practice the scheme involved a good deal more than looating camps and paying fees, and the implications are important. The Community Chest and Council Camp Referral Project, 1947 - 1948. Over a period of ten years (1957 to 1946) the Alexandra Fresh Air Camp Committee provided an annual summer camping period of two weeks for over one hundred boys at the Crescent Beach site of Camp Alexandra. These boys' camps were directed by a probation officer, on loan from the Vancouver Juvenile Court, who secured ten or twelve volunteer cabin leaders each year. The regular staff conducted the other camp admini-strative work during these periods. Each year, the campers inoluded boys between the ages of ten and fourteen years, who were sent to oamp by social workers and public health nurses. During the winter of 1946-1947, the Alexandra Fresh Air Camp Committee decided that i t would be necessary to discontinue the boys' camps in view of the pressure of increased demands for family camp services for mothers and children, for whioh the oamp existed. In addition, i t was considered that the close proximity to large homes and somewhat urbanized facilities made the camp site unsuitable for boys' oamping. Because Camp Alexandra was a member agency of the Community Chest and Council, the Alexandra Committee, on December 4, 1946, wrote to the Group Work Division of the Council requesting that alternative plans be made for the boys. This responsi-b i l i t y was accepted by a sub committee of the Division, the "Day Camp Committee", whioh was the only study group related to oamping. At a . meeting on February 6, 1947, this committee became the Camping Committee,1 which outlined its functions as "to consider specific problems facing organizations sponsoring camps", "to help to initiate new oamps or to expand camps in order that they may more adequately meet needs", and "to act as a social planning body generally in the field of camping". The Camping Committee agreed to work in close cooperation with the British Columbia Camping Association, whioh is concerned with a l l aspects of camping and especially with the development of modern oamping philosophy and standards in British Columbia. For the summer seasons of 1947 and 1948, the two groups cooperatively produced the "Camping Directory" which lists a l l the organized summer camps in British Columbia, and briefly outlines the organization of each in terms of sponsorship, director, sex and age of campers, oamp dates, and fees. To ensure continued oooperation of the two groups, the Camping Committee gained representation on the British Columbia Camping Association executive. Sooial Agenoies Outline the Meeds. Prior to the establishment of the speoial Camping Committee, the Secretary of the Group Work Division attempted to secure information from a l l the social agencies whioh sent ohildren to summer camps during 1946, in order to determine the thinking regarding the praotice. On December 23, 1946, therefore, she wrote to the oase work agenoies and the Metropolitan Health Committee of Greater Vancouver requesting; fi r s t , statistics of the number, ages, and sex of children referred to camps, and fees paid in 1 The Camping Committee was officially named "The Special Committee re Boys' Camps" in 1947, and the "Camping Committee" in 1948. Membership in the committee consisted of representatives of the camps which were member agenoies of the Community Chest and Council, representatives of the Metropolitan Health Committee and the social agencies in Vancouver, and the Secretary of the Group Work division of the Community Chest and Council. For convenience this group is henceforth referred to as the "Camping Committee". 1946, and second, comments "regarding the camping needs of these children, how these needs could be met, and criticisms of the present camping program in Vancouver". Statements in response to the Secretary*s request were received from the Children's Aid Society, the City Social Service Department, the Family Welfare Bureau, and the Metropolitan Health Committee. Three of these agencies considered that oamping facilities for girls and boys of nine to twelve years of age, teen age boys, and older people were inadequate, overcrowded, or too expensive. One agency recommended the establishment of facilities for two groups of campers which would be accommodated at the same time, so that the older children in families could be adequately "oared for" while the mothers and younger children were at oamp. A great need was also emphasized by two agencies for improved leadership and supervision in summer camps, as well as longer camping periods of over two weeks1 duration. Only one agency referred to program content and stressed the need for more handcraft in camps. In addition to the expression of need for improved leadership, moreover, i t was recommended by the health authorities that a public health nurse, or i f such were not available, a registered nurse, should be on the resident staff of each camp, that camp personnel should have more know-ledge of nutrition and health promotion and education, and that individual oamper medical certificates were a necessity. In order that the workers would gain knowledge valuable to children's development, i t was suggested by two agencies that reports on the individual campers were required from the oamp directors. One agency, however, enlarged this statement of the need for agency oooperation by stressing that a "beneficial oamp program" could only be put into effect i f there were "close contact between the oamp leader and the social agenoy", both before and after the camp period, "so that the oamp oould be acquainted with the child's needs", and "the child's progress could be ascertained". 24 These comments indicate awareness of the camping situation by-workers in the Vancouver social agencies. They were made in the light of the workers' own experience in attempting to find suitable camps for their clients, and indicate some of the problems entailed. In its Camp Referral Project, the Camping Committee was later able to point out whioh camps could provide the type of experience required when the workers did not know the availability of such camps. The committee also was able to find less expensive, but suitable oamps, than those to whioh children had previously been sent. ' Several of the recommendations for increased facilities, improved and better trained leadership, and additional personnel and program emphasis were directly related to individual camp administration. The Camping Committee did not consider at this time, therefore, that i t could take action in this area, although the inadequacies and the need for improvement were recognized. In spite of the original statement of function, "to act as a social planning body generally in the field of oamping1* and "to help initiate and expand camps in order that they may more adequately meet needs", the Camping Committee has not aoted in this capacity. The inadequacies in oamps, moreover, as recognized in 1946 and prior to that, remain prevalent in 1949, and no central group has taken the neoessary action. The social agencies' suggestions regarding the need for coopera-tion between agencies and camps in order to facilitate the referral process, however, were seriously considered by the Camping Committee when preparing the details of the Project. It is in this area of referral procedure that the Camping Committee has made valuable contributions towards raising standards. The Work of the Camp Referral Projeot, 1947. To provide oamping facilities for boys formerly served by Alexandra Fresh Air Camp, the Camping Committee decided to explore "the possibility of assimilating these boys in the regular standardized camps, maintained by reputable agencies and churches in the community". If this were not possible, i t proposed to establish new camps for these boys. The committee was aware that the majority of boys' camps had set camper fees muoh higher than the two dollar to four dollar rate formerly arranged for Camp Alexandra. Since many of the boys' families would be unable to pay a large fee, the Camping Committee decided to attempt to contribute to the payments for these youngsters, with the parents paying a minimum of three dollars and f i f t y cents. In order to receive the financial backing for this Project, therefore, the committee secured a five hundred dollar donation from the Optimist Club of Vancouver. With financial assistance guaranteed, the Camping Committee oontaoted eaoh Vancouver organization which conducts a boys' oamp, requesting that space be reserved for ten or twelve boys from the Project for a camp period in the summer of 1947. As the result, ten boys' camps beoame active in the Project during its f i r s t year. These included the Y.M.C.A. Camps Elphinstone and Howdy, the Vancouver Boys* Club Association Camp Potlatch, the Anglican Church Camp Artaban, the First United Church Camp Firoom, the Baptist Church Keats Island Camp, the Jewish Camp Hatikvah, the Presbyterian Camp at White Hook, the St.Andrew's Wesley Church Camp Sanwes, and the Catholic Star of the Sea Camp. In addition, two girls were sent to the Girl Guide Camp through the guidance of the Project. Several of these camps offered to aooept boys at reduced rates although the committee had not made the suggestion. At the request of the Camping Committee, the referral centre was established in the Camp Alexandra office, and the director of this oamp arranged the placement of boys in designated camps. Special forms used in the procedure included the application form to be completed by the parent and the worker, the health certificate, and the referral form to be used by the offioe and sent to the camps involved. The sooial agenoies were notified of the Project, the procedure explained, and the camps listed. Under this system, as set up by the Camping Committee, the worker seoured the required information about the boy, parents* comments, and a statement of the fee to be paid and camp preferred. He also inoluded a remark about the "boy's need for a camp experience", completed the three forms, and sent a l l the information to the referral centre. The Director of the Project placements then made arrangements with the camp preferred, i f possible, or with an alternative oamp which could best meet the boy's needs, religious preference, or residence requirements. When a camp had finally been ohosen, the Director notified the worker who was then able to make further arrangements with the boy, his family, and the camp. The camp directors, in turn, were asked to complete the referral form at the end of the camp period, commenting on the boy's behaviour at oamp, and to teturn the form to the agency whioh had made the i n i t i a l application. As the result of the Project, during the summer of 1947, one hundred and eighteen applications were sent to the Director by eleven social agencies, and eighty-four boys were placed in camps. Although reasons were not stated in records, i t may be assumed that the thirty-four boys who did not attend oamp after the f i r s t application had been made, included those boys whose families voluntarily withdrew the application, boys who became i l l or refused to attend the designated camp, and boys who were not aocepted beoause of health reasons. During this f i r s t year, several problems were encountered which showed the need for improvement in the scheme i f i t were to be continued. The Director, for example, often did not receive confirmation that the boys or their families intended to complete camp arrangements, or that the lads actually arrived at the seleoted camp. For these reasons, reserved space in certain camps was not used. Camp reports, in addition, frequently were not completed by camp directors, and several workers did not obtain information about the boys' adjustment in camp. A small number of camp directors, however, did attempt to write something about the boys, and sent 27 these statements to the agencies concerned. Some of these reports were-quite detailed and of use to the workers. But many of the statements were short, of two or three lines, and a few contained a mass of meaning-less or misunderstood words in a form of jargon which conveys very l i t t l e of value to the worker. An example of •this type of report is the state-ment on B i l l : Very quiet boy, not outstanding in any athletics. Needs a firm hand to get him to participate. Very clean in habits and fitted in and enjoyed himself. Will make a good camper next year. It is difficult to determine what a "firm hand" means, how B i l l "fitted in and enjoyed himself", under what circumstances he did so, what he actually did find of interest, and what is meant by a "good camper". Many more questions of great importance remain unanswered in this abbreviated comment. A number of the longer reports also contained questionable statements. The director*s record of Jack's experience at oamp is an example: (a) Adjustment to camp experience: This boy needed no adjustment. He was, and is, a natural camper. In fact, whatever environment in which he is placed, he will without doubt oome through when the chips are down. (b) Contribution to camp l i f e : His contribution to camp l i f e included a l l those such as friendliness, ability to adjust, skills, good humour etc. Foremost is the quality of a good leader. (I chose him without doubt as the number one a l l around camper for boys under twelve years.) (c) No difficulties in adjusting to camp l i f e . (d) Suggestions re follow-up work in city; I suggest that you do not depend too much on his being taken care of by his foster brother, as this is entirely unnecessary, and may result in his eventually leaving home. The worker who knew the circumstances surrounding this lad's placement in camp, might have found some useful meaning in these statements. In terms of the explicit appraisal of personality traits and development, however, the report leaves much to be desired. The real value of these camp reports is the fact that, for the fi r s t 28 time, many workers reeeived something in writing from a number of oamp directors regarding the boys' holidays. The significance of camp reports will be further discussed in later chapters when f u l l oase histories are analysed. At present, i t is sufficient to say that the Project initiated a general method of procedure which had previously only been used by one or two camp administrators. The Project also resulted in several camp directors reoeiving, for the f i r s t time, information about the boys, and the workers' reasons for arranging camp placements. Although many of the remarks were general rather than detailed in content, at least something was known about each lad before he became a camper. The value in this was threefold; f i r s t , suoh knowledge helped the Direotor of the Project find suitable camps for the boys; second, i t enabled the camp directors to deoide i f they could accept the lads as campers; and third, i t made i t possible for the camp staff to work more constructively with the campers. Several oamp staffs, however, were not able to apply some of this knowledge because the leaders were untrained and had l i t t l e , i f any, understanding of human behaviour. One oamp director, in fact, left a l l referral forms in the city office because he feared that the confidential nature of many statements made i t undesirable to have them at camp; also he did not discuss the boys' problems or needs with staff members. The result was that the needs of several boys were in no way met, and the anticipated benefits to be derived from camp were not realized. More than anything else, this situation probably indicated that the staff members, including the camp director, were not qualified to work with boys who required any degree of individual attention. A few directors, on the other hand, who had some knowledge of modern camping and understanding of individual behaviour, could have constructively used more detailed information than was presented. It became clear, therefore, that the methods of procedure must be designed to f i t the individual situation, because a l l camps are not at the same level of development. Continuation of the Project, 1948. Late i n February of the next year, the Camping Committee met and agreed that the Camp Referral Project of 1947 had been successful i n so far as i t had gone, had served the agencies and the boys as anticipated, indicated "a need for controlled referrals between case work agenoies and camp", and therefore the scheme should be continued. The outstanding features of the 1948 Project, as the result, include the sending of seventeen g i r l s as well as ninety-four boys to camps, the administration of the Project by the Group Work Division office of the Community Chest and Council, and the formulating and printing of suggested methods of procedure. When the Optimist Club decided to conduct i t s own camp at Bidwell Bay rather than to continue i t s support of the Camp Referral Project, the Rotary Club took over the sponsorship and provided one thousand dollars to meet the costs of the scheme. In addition, the Vancouver Public Library staff, the E l i Nurva Club, and an anonymous contributor, added fifty-two dollars and sixty -cents to the fund. These donations made i t possible for the Camping Committee to expand i t s services, and to provide the means for sending an increased number of children to summer camps without requesting a reduction of camp fees. But several camps voluntarily reduced their fees, and the Presbyterian Church Camp took boys without charge. The oommittee, moreover^ increased the minimum which the parents were requested to pay, from three dollars and f i f t y cents to five dollars, i n order to meet certain inoreased oamp fees which were scaled to the rising cost of l i v i n g . But i f the parents could not make such a contribution, a token payment of a smaller sum was advised. The social agencies were also requested to contribute towards the expenses i f they were able to do so, and particularly to assume the responsibility for seeing that the child sent to camp had the necessary clothes and equipment, sinoe the lack of adequate supplies i s detrimental to the child's enjoyment of oamp. In many instances, the agencies carried out this suggestion. In view of the experience of the preceding year, the Camping Committee made efforts to clarify the working relationship between camp directors and social agenoy workers, and to provide means for easy and efficient cooperation. A great improvement over previous methods was the "information Sheet",'''which was prepared by the Secretary of the Group Work Division, approved by the committee, and distributed to a l l the social agenoies and camps taking part in the Project. This brochure provided information, suggestions, and instructions whioh were important for carry-ing out the improved methods of procedure. The eight pages were in five colours and cut so that the booklet offered a well indexed information f i l e . The material presented includes; (1) a statement of the purpose of the work sheets, (2) a l i s t of the agencies and oamps which participated in the 1947 Project, (3) a l i s t of the available oamps for 1948 with their location, the names of direotors, the number of boys to be accepted, and the amount of money to be provided by the Project fund for sending boys to each camp, (4) a paragraph about fees, transportation, and camp clothes and equipment, (5) suggestions for the use to be made, by camp staff, of the personal information about the ohildren, (6) suggestions for the use to be made of the Social Service Index, (7) a statement about the parents' share of the fees, ( 8 ) a general description of the "type of boy" to be sent to camp, (9) a recommendation for conferences between the worker and the camp director i f the boy presented a "special problem", (10) suggestions about the writing of camp records, (11) an explanation of the information to be written on the application form, and (12) a l i s t of eleven requirements connected with the "referral plan" or the Project. A good deal of this information proved of use to the workers and the camp directors who participated in the plan. 1 Camping Committee, Information Sheet, Vancouver Rotary Club Camp_ Referral Project, 1948, Community Chest~and Council, Vancouver, B.C. (mimeographed) 31 In referring to the medical certificate required by the Project, the Camp Committee stated that the Metropolitan Health nurses would make the necessary examinations prior to camp. But i f the particular camp involved required a doctor's examination, the Committee suggested that the workers plan with the parents to have this done. This arrangement presents an example of a contribution made by the Camping Committee towards improving agency oooperation. The Camping Committee made another contribution to the improvement of procedure by adopting four criteria to be considered when boys were being assigned to "suitable" camps by the Secretary of the Projeot, in consultation with the worker and the oamp direotor concerned. These criteria, in order of consideration, included; f i r s t , the child's individual needs and desires, second, the ohild's religion, third, the camp whose Association serves the area in which the child lives, and fourth, the oamp available and the space therein. When a camp was chosen for the lad, the worker was to assume the responsibility for conferring with the oamp officials about the details of the arrangement, for seeing •chat the boy arrived at oamp, and for notifying the referral office of his arrival. In many instances, this clarification of procedure resulted in a closer liaison between the worker and the camp, and helped to prevent the reoocurrence of problems confronted in 1947. In addition, as the result of this process, four camps which had not been active in the previous year were, included in 1948. These were Alexandra Girls' Camp, Children's Jubilee Camp, Ocean Park United Church Camp, and Salvation Army Sunrise Camp. Although i t had once been suggested, the Camping Committee did not prepare a written evaluation of the camps cooperating in tbaProject. The Secretary of the Group Work Division, however, visited several camps during the summer sessions, and prepared analytical reports concerning the stand-ards of facilities, leadership, program, health, sanitation, and so forth. But these reports were not made public because some oamps were very much oriticized as being far below established standards, and such publicity would have caused a good deal of harm and l i t t l e improvement. The Secretary decided, therefore, to use this knowledge when assigning boys to camp, and to interpret the facts to workers when the need arose. It was recognized that only two or three camps participating in the Project offered opportunities for individualization and treatment of children with behaviour difficulties. The Camping Committee recommended in the Information Sheet, therefore, that boys (and girls) most suitable for placement were "in the main, normal boys needing a normal holiday and able to stand the strain of group living". 1 This statement is questionable because the meaning of "normal" is not clear, individual needs exist and differ within the latter grouping, and the holiday offered by each camp varies considerably in type and value. But i t may be assumed that the definition means that a fairly serious behaviour difficulty would make a boy an undesirable candidate for oamp placement. In part, therefore, the statement has merit, since i t suggests that oareful consideration be given o to a child's potentialities for oamping. Another contribution whioh the Project made to referral procedure in Vancouver was extended in the 1948 scheme. The Camping Committee recognized the necessity for more adequate information being given to oamp directors by workers, as well as reports being written by oamp staffs about each child. A l l workers, therefore, were requested to clear through the Social Service Exchange every family of the children for whom applications for camp placement were made, and to record this on the referral formj By means of such clearance, more complete information about the child and his family might be secured from workers who had known the family during 1 Camping Committee, ibid p. 6. 2 The child's readiness for a camp experience and the benefits to be derived for different children in different camps are discussed in the following chapters, particularly Chapter III. 33 the past years. In addition, workers were specifically asked to write a summary report about eaoh child and to send the completed form to the central referral offioe. For this purpose a new type of application form was prepared.1 The instructions to oamp staff regarding the use to be made of this information, initiated an attempt to point out the individual-ized attention the children require in oamp. In the Information Sheet, the Camping Committee outlined some basic practices which must be adopted i f oamp standards are to be raised so that all camps will provide oppor-tunities for each child's development. But i t is doubtful i f writing such facts in this form would produce a change for the better in those camps where personnel do not make efforts to understand the individual child, and to apply knowledge of his needs and interests to guiding his partici-pation as a camper. The camp directors who are attempting to make more adequate use of information about individual children, however, would receive help from the comments. A few of the camp directors would be aware of the implications of the statements such as "the amount of personal information given to counsellors will be a matter of good judgment", "the oamp staff should be encouraged to discuss any problems of these referred campers with the director, when they occur, and thus help him get a day-by-day picture of the boys' growth in camp", and the comment that a l l informa-tion "is confidential material and should be filed as such". The fact that merely writing these requirements in the work sheets is not proof to workers that desired action will necessarily follow, is 1 The three forms used in 1947 were reduced in size to one concise and complete application form, including the same information as previously required, but rearranged and carefully printed in place of being mimeo-graphed. The workers and camp directors had complained that the previous forms were cumbersome and difficult to f i l e . The Camping Committee also strongly rejected any suggestions for itemizing the information required because this would make the forms resemble a lengthy questionnaire. 2 Camping Committee, op cit. p. 3. 34 illustrated by the manner in which workers prepared personal information about the children. Many workers refused to write anything of an especially confidential nature on the application form when they were not certain that the information would be treated in a professional manner. Nevertheless, the fact that these statements were written for a l l camp directors to read, represents a recognition by the Camping Committee that these requirements are necessary. In addition, the statements might possibly have had some effect upon accomplishments in oamp. The above analysis also applies to the situation concerning camp reports; i.e., when the camp leaders write individual reports on the participation and adjustment, in camp, of the referred children. The Camping Committee recognized the need for increased quality and quantity of such reports, and included some helpful suggestions in the work sheets. For example, i t was stressed that "the whole value of this Project centres around these reports", "reports on the camper's progress might include statements about how far the boy's needs have been met and i f not met, why?", and "reports are to be returned to the workers as soon as possible after the child leaves oamp". But suoh emphasis did not result in an outstanding change in 1948 reports over those of the previous year. A few more reports were received by the agencies, and some statements indicate a slight improvement in understanding and the amount of time given to the writing. The oamp leaders seem to have better knowledge of the reason for sending ohildren to oamp and some understanding of the needs of the individual child. But with the exception of those written by leaders in the camps which were able to give a type of individualized service, within the group setting, the majority of the reports were of l i t t l e real value, and indicated a need for more understanding on the part of the oamp staffs. For example, a report such as, "he didn't seem to learn to play well with other boys, he's too boisterous; but found he was perfectly happy a l l day i f allowed to go fishing", does not indioate too 35 much about the boy, except possibly to substantiate the worker's original statement. If a conference had been held later to enable the worker and the oamp direotor to discuss this youngster, a more complete picture could have been gained. In many suoh oases, i t was unfortunate that the suggestion offered in the Camping Committee work sheet was not aooepted. The statement is quite olear and carefully presented. The oamp direotor should ask for a conference with the worker regarding any problem arising at camp which might be of value to the worker in year round association with the boy. i f the oamp director does not call the worker, and the referring agency requires information about the boy's oamp experience, the worker should take the initiative for arranging this conference.1 In so far as information is available, no camp direotor called suoh a conference, some discussions were held at the request of workers; but the practice was not common. Soope of the Two Projeots. The success of the Camp Referral Project cannot be judged merely by the number of children sent to summer camps through the assistance of the Camping Committee. It must be evaluated in terms of service given. The lists of the social agenoies and oamps participating, and the number of children sent to camp, serve to indicate the scope of the Project, and the type of organizations whioh have assisted in carrying through the plan. 1 Camping Committee, ibid p.8. 36 TABLE 3. Number of Children Sent to Camp By Social Agenoies. IVancouver Camp Keferral Project, 1947 and 1548)7 AGENCY. Number of Children Sent To Camp. 1947 1948 Total Metropolitan Health Units > 33 40 73 Children's Aid Society 16 16 32 Family Welfare Bureau 8 22 30 City Social Service Department 8 16 24 Juvenile Court 4 8 12 Catholic Children's Aid Society 4 0 4 Alexandra Neighbourhood House 0 4 4 Citizens' Rehabilitation 2 - 2 Girl Guide Association 2 0 2 Sooial Welfare Branch 1 1 2 Y.M.C.A. 0 2 2 Burnaby Sooial Service 0 2 2 Child Guidance Clinic 1 0 1 Camp Alexandra 1 0 1 Unidentified 3 0 3 Total 83 111 194 TABLE 4. Summer Camps To Which Children Were Sent. — — — — (Vancouver Camp Referral Projeot, 1947 and 1948). SUMMER CAMP. Number of Children Sent To Camp. 1947 1948 Total Firoom (First United Churoh) 17 S3 50 Potlatch (Vancouver Boys' Club Association) 25 16 41 Howdy (Y.M.C.A.) 6 27 33 Elphinstone (Y.M.C.A.) 10 8 18 Artaban (Churoh of England) 5 13 18 Keats (Baptist Churoh Convention) 7 4 11 Star of the Sea (Catholic Charities) Sanwes (St. Andrew's Wesley United Church) Children's Jubilee Camp (Trade Unions) 5 2 7 5 0 5 0 3 3 Girl Guide Association 2 0 2 Sunrise (Salvation Army) 0 2 2 Alexandra (Alexandra Community Activities) 0 2 2 Presbyterian Church Camp 1 0 1 Ocean Park (Christian Education Committee) 0 1 1 Total 83 111 194 Source) (Tables 3 and 4) Information oompiled from: (l) Report of the  Boys' Camp Referral Project, Community Chest and Council, Vanoouver, j.»4Y, (mimeographed)J—(<Q Camping Committee, Report of theHSfrmmunity Chest and  Council, 1948, Camp Referral Project, Sponsored by the Kotary Club"oT Vancouver, Community Chest and Council, 1948, ^mimeographed/. 37 Following the completion of the 1948 Camp Referral Project, several agencies wrote letters of commendation to the Camping Committee, and expressed the hope that the Project would be continued in 1949. For this reason, and others, the oommittee is satisfied that the Project was a success and should be extended. The scheme succeeded in meeting the immediate need of providing camping periods for the boys who were no longer served by Camp Alexandra, as well as extending to include girls and younger boys. More than that, the system for sending children to selected camps added to the experience and knowledge of case workers, public health nurses, and camp directors in making the procedure more effeotive and beneficial to the individual child. There is s t i l l room for improvement. But the Project has accomplished a good deal in evolving a better working relation-ship between sooial agency workers and camp leaders. By continuing to develop aooording to recognized requirements, the Project will be able to play an outstanding role in encouraging good methods and follow-up work in the interests of the ohildren and the community. Means by which current praotioes may be improved, and the effectiveness of sending ohildren to summer camps may be greatly enhanced, are discussed in the following chapters, The recommendations arising from this analysis, moreover, have considerable relevance to a central referral bureau, the , beginnings of whioh are seen in the Camp Referral Project. 38 CHAPTER THREE  THE TREATMENT PLAN. The first step in making a period of oamping beneficial to a ohild, is to plan his placement in a oamp suited to his personal needs. The case worker is neglecting his responsibility to the welfare of his client i f he blindly assumes that any camp experience is good for any ohild; that since oamping is beneficial for children, the main concern is to find a oamp which has room for the child of suoh and such an age, and from there on the situation looks after itself. Unfortunately, this kind of hit-and-miss placement could easily have a detrimental effect, both upon the ohild and upon the camp. Several of the cases studied, in which children were sent to Vancouver camps by case workers, present excellent examples of application of the principles involved in the preparation and working through of a treatment plan. Four cases have been chosen to illustrate the principle that i f camp placement is to be of particular value, the oase worker making the arrangements must conscientiously evaluate the total situation for the individual child, and make the placement part of a well thought-out treatment plan for him. In the f i r s t two oases oited, methods of treatment were carefully planned with satisfactory results. Illustrative Cases. The first summarizes the history of Alan - a difficult case, because: Late in March of 1947, the mother, deserted by the father when the two children were young, laid a charge of incorrigibility against the elder boy Alan, (ten and a half years of age), and his eight-year-old brother. Upon becoming wards of a Child Protection Society, the boys were placed in separate homes. Alan almost immediately became a problem in the home, where he exhibited frequent temper tantrums, was disobedient, and refused to go into school; instead he stood outside the classroom and taunted the other children. • In May, he was examined at the Child Guidance 39 C l i n i c The Clinic findings revealed that his intelligence is in the superior group, but his prog-nosis is poor, and he needs a superior environment and psychiatric treatment; therefore he should have an exceptionally good home placement with understand-ing foster parents; otherwise he will require Boys' Industrial Sohool training. The examination corrob-orated the worker's opinion that -the mother completely rejects the boys. Group activities at the Y.M.C.A.. were recommended for Alan. Clearly, Alan is a very disturbed youngster, aggressively reacting to rejection by his parents, and requiring careful guidance. Because the foster parents were asking that Alan be moved and the Clinic had recommended group activities, the case worker "decided that a period at the Y.M.C.A. Camp Howdy would prove beneficial to him". The plan was, therefore, to send Alan to a camp which offered individual attention for the boy, and where Alan's behaviour and adjustment to adults and other boys could be observed, so that the lad could be more effectively placed in a new foster home upon his return from camp. The choice of camp is commendable because the plan for placement was carefully constructed in the light of knowledge and understanding of the camp and the boy, and the camp chosen is one in whioh the welfare and growth of the camper is of central concern. In 1945 and 1946, while with his mother, Alan had attended Camp Fircom and enjoyed the holiday. He was thus aware of something of what was involved in camping. But the extent of his adjustment is unknown because Alan was not then under agency care. In view of his behaviour since becoming a ward and the report of the Clinio, however, i t would not have been wise to send Alan to the same camp, although such repeats are valuable for various reasons. In this particular case, i t was of more potential value to choose the camp in whioh camping philosophy is applied in the interest of eaoh camper, rather than to use a camp in which the individual is less likely to be understood and knowledge of the boy is not applied to the necessary degree. The case worker discussed the plan with the camp director, and i t was agreed that the lad would be accepted as a camper for a two weeks' 40 period. The director thus had sufficient knowledge of Alan for him to decide that the oamp could meet the requirements. In addition, the worker discussed the camp with both the foster mother and Alan, so that they would be adequately prepared to make the decision about the boy's holiday. Because the foster mother wished the boy to be replaced and Alan liked the idea of camping, the decision was quickly reached. The worker then made a l l the arrangements for camp because the foster mother was relinquishing care of the boy to the agenoy. During the camp period, Alan was in a tent group with the oase worker as counsellor.The lad's aggressive behaviour and temper tantrums were such that the worker reported him as "a deeply disturbed youngster". According to the oamp director, however, Alan did show some improvement in his general attitude and developed some sense of responsibility for his tent group. On the boat trip home he was apprehensive about where he was going and asked i f he could go back to his mother, but did not openly object when told he would be going to a new home. The foster home placement after the camp period, however, was unfortunate, beoause Alan again experienced rejection by a foster mother who laoked the kindness and understanding required: Within three days Alan's temper tantrums became so frequent and disturbing that the foster mother firmly stated that he must be moved. There was trouble on the street outside the home when the mother and the sister were unable to control Alan; he hit both women, the police were called, and the officer roughly dragged Alan into the car and took him to the police station. The lad was sent to the Detention Home where his behaviour was quite acceptable with no recurrence of temper tantrums. He was therefore placed in the Child Protection Society Receiving Home, where the case worker saw him every day; his behaviour was good for one month. He took a paper route and paid for a bicycle and piano lessons. But when two new boys of the same age were placed in the Home, Alan began to fight with them, had temper tantrums, lost his paper route, destroyed his bicycle, and wrecked his room. He therefore regressed to former anti-social behaviour, became interested in sex, was suspected of stealing money, was often absent from school, 1—The effect of the case worker assuming the role of group worker is disoussed in Chapter V. 41 developed fantasies, had bad dreams at night, was very negativistie, rejected authority, and feared corporal punishment. At the end of October, he was sent to the Boys' Industrial School for an indefinite period of time. The f i r s t period in the Receiving Home indioated that Alan could make a satisfactory adjustment when given consistent and understanding treatment. This, however, was disturbed when the competition of the two new boys beoame too great for Alan to faoe. It is noteworthy that when Alan's behaviour resulted in his being sent to the Boys' Industrial School, the conference determining the disposition of the oase, included the director of Camp Howdy, as well as two oase workers who had worked with the boy. In his reoord, the oase worker reports that "this is the fir s t time that a Y.M.C.A. worker has appeared at a Juvenile Court conference with one of our cases; i t is a long step forward in our associations." The conference thus represents a constructive attempt to continue a joint process of cooperative effort between case workers and group workers, and illustrates recognition of the fact that camping may contribute to the development of an individual. When- the Clinic consultation was held to plan for Alan after his release from the School, the potential value of a repeat experience at Camp Howdy was recognized: In July of 1948, a Child Guidance Clinic consult-ation was again held to help determine a plan for Alan upon his release from the Industrial Sohool, where he had made considerable progress during the nine month period. The Clinic conference recom-mended that Alan be released to the agency's oare, placed in a foster home in whioh he would be the only child or the eldest boy, and be given an opportunity to spend a second holiday at Camp Howdy. During the previous camp period, Alan had not shown a great change in bis behaviour, because his behaviour pattern was well established, the dis-turbance was of a very serious nature requiring intensive treatment, and the holiday was relatively short. But Alan had enjoyed camp and gained some feeling of loyalty to his tent group. The return to the same 42 environment as an accepted individual, therefore, would give Alan a feeling of seourity and status which he so evidently required. In addition, the knowledge of Alan which the oamp direotor had secured during the previous summer and at the Juvemile Court conference, could be constructively applied in the camp setting. Alan would, therefore, have a greater opportunity to develop more socially acceptable behaviour in an environment with which he was familiar and in which his needs would be effectively met. The plan for Alan included an additional value in that the camp placement was to follow the lad's release from the Industrial School, where his adjustment to boys and adults had been exceptionally good. For this reason, camp represented a test situation in a controlled environment in which the lad would have sufficient time, during the nineteen days of camp, to demonstrate whether or not his recently developed sooial way of l i f e had been integrated into his total behaviour. Such proof that a satisfactory adjustment was permanent, i f the environment were positive and satisfied Alan's needs, would enable the worker to plan a more effective placement in a new foster home. In accordance with the plan, these potential benefits resulted from Alan's second holiday at Camp Howdy. During the nineteen days, Alan continued to make a good adjustment and he was a happy camper. Upon his return from oamp, he was placed in a new home where he exhibited no behaviour of an alarming nature. The camp experience, therefore, contri-buted to the development of Alan as had been anticipated. The plaoement in both years had been well planned, and agency cooperation was continuous and positive. The second case, that of Ben - a lad of eleven years of age, with two brothers, (one, two years younger and the other two years older) -illustrates the product of family discordj Ben's mother and father are constantly quarrelling, immature and inadequate parents, unable to handle the boys, and are especially indifferent to Ben's anti-social behaviour. The brothers present no 43 particular problems, but Ben runs away from home, often overnight, frequently plays truant from school, and uses poor health as an excuse to avoid d i f f i -culties. Ben does not get along with other boys, forms only superficial relationships with adults, lacks confidence in al l adults, and quarrels with the older brother who appears as a rival to Ben. During 1948, the oase worker made arrangements for Ben to have a Child Guidance Clinic examination, but he ran away from the Clinic. The plan for sending Ben to camp was carefully devised in the light of Ben's behaviour and other symptoms of emotional disturbance as related to the family situation. The history continues: In June of 1948, the case worker suggested oamp to Ben, but he was not interested because he did not want to be with other boys. His idea of camping was to go off on his own and fish. The worker then interested the two brothers in camp and asked them to talk to Ben about how much fun camp would be. As the result, Ben soon beoame enthusiastic. When the various boys' camps were discussed, the three lads decided that they preferred Camp Potlatch; but the worker found that there were no vacancies. The boys then agreed that Camp Fircom would be their second choice. The worker completed the application forms, beoause the parents did not wish to take the time to do so although they thought camp would be good for the youngsters and the parents could also have a holiday for the ten day period. The oase worker's reasons for suggesting camp thus resulted from careful analysis of the circumstances. Because Ben had not had any previous group experience and had difficulty playing with other boys, camp was suggested as a means of helping Ben constructively to relate to boys away from the indifference and rejection of his parents. It also offered a situation in whioh Ben could be helped to adjust to adults; to form a relationship with adults with confidence that he was accepted as a person. In addition, the worker planned to discuss the family situation with the parents while Ben was absent at camp, in an effort to assist them to understand the boy's behaviour and to take more responsibility in helping him. The means by whioh Ben became interested in going to camp is note-worthy. Although the plan for camp at f i r s t only included Ben, a good 44 deal of benefit was derived from the inclusion of the two brothers, who were also rejected, to a certain degree, by their parents. Moreover!,, the faot that the boys participated in choosing the camp is important. Perhaps a period at Camp Potlatch would have produced similar results, although Ben might have been able to go off more on his own i f the leadership had been inadequate, and he might have gained l i t t l e in social adjustment. In addition, swimming and fishing were Ben's chief interests, and these activities are very popular at Camp Firoom. The fact that the case worker had a good cooperative relationship with the camp direotor, made i t possible for her to interpret the plan for Ben, and to make suggestions for treatment of the boys in camp: In order to give the camp director a picture of the situation, the worker called a conference, and gave the director a fairly detailed description of Ben's behaviour and the reason for sending a l l three boys to oamp. She emphasized the facts that Ben received very l i t t l e backing from home, the camp leaders should give Ben a good deal of attention in a con-structive manner, mixing with other boys at camp ' would be of benefit to Ben, and because the older brother was a rival, the boys should he separated at camp. As the result of this discussion, Ben's experience at camp contained many elements which were of benefit to him: During the ten day camp, the boys were placed in separate cabin groups. Because Ben was a good swimmer he was given swim patrol duty. A positive relationship was formed between Ben and the sports director who was also the swimming coach and a kind, fatherly, understanding man who gave Ben special attention. Ben's adjustment at camp was good, his behaviour presented no difficulties, and he stated that he enjoyed camp. The cabin placement of the boys eliminated competition between Ben and his older brother. The special swim duty for Ben, moreover, was a constructive experience in in/hi oh he was given support and status in an area in which he could excel. He also formed a positive relationship with an understanding father substitute, the sports direotor, who based his interest in Ben upon the boy's abilities and needs. Ben's behaviour, in addition, indicated that he could get along with other lads when he felt secure and accepted. The camp experience, therefore, had two of the three results which were anticipated, and the worker gained more insight into Ben's personality. She had, for example, loaned the lad her camera, and in a l l his camp piotures Ben was in the centre of the group. As the third part of her plan, the worker tried to assist the parents; but while the boys were at oamp this met with no success. Upon the boy's return, however, Ben's adjustment at camp was interpreted to the parents, especially in reference to his school behaviour and truancy. The worker thought that this may have had some effeot upon the parents' attitude towards the boy. Beyond muoh doubt, these beneficial results of Ben's camp holiday may be attri-buted to the careful planning which preceded the placement. Inadequacies in Planning. The value of applying adequate methods in this phase of referral procedure is illustrated in the oases of Ben and Alan. But the other two illustrative cases show where benefits are limited by inadequacies in placement planning. Cora, the fi r s t of these, has particular needs to be met; but her mother blocked progress* Cora is a fourteen year old g i r l , whose mother is overprotective and wants her teen aged daughter to remain a small child. Her father deserted the family a number of years ago, and the mother works during the day. Cora is only in Grade VI at school as the result of prolonged illness when young. She is beginning to feel unhappy because her mother will not allow her to go out with other girls in the evening. The mother frequently tells Cora about the horrible things thatwill happen to the g i r l i f she meets men at night. She expresses worry about Cora's friendship with a twelve year old girl who is "bad company"; her opinion is supposedly based on the fact that this youngster's mother is separated from her husband and "neglects" the children in the family. Apparently Cora's development is being held back by an over-anxious, over-protective mother. The mother's statements possibly imply deep rejection of her daughter, to the degree that she must keep Cora very dependent upon her to prove that she is a good, loving mother, and she 46 must protect Cora from harm about which mother would feel guilty. In short, the core of the problem seems to be within the mother. Early in June of 1947, the mother called the agency requesting information about summer oamp. The Star of the Sea oamp was described, and the mother decided she would enrol her daughter. She came into the oase worker's office within a few days and discussed the family situation and the problems concerning Cora* When the worker suggested that Cora might be interested in the summer activities at a Neighbourhood House, the mother agreed. As the result, on the first of July she enrolled Cora in the Day Camp at the House. The group worker supervising the program was concerned about Cora and her mother and telephoned the oase worker. She received a l l the information about the family, and explained that this knowledge would help her in working with Cora. The case worker had established a relationship with the mother who readily told her story, expressed the need as she saw i t , and accepted the sugges-tion about group activities at the Neighbourhood House. But beyond providing information about the summer program, the case worker did not make the i n i t i a l oase work - group work cooperative efforts. Although the group worker later asked for information whioh she required, and i t was readily given to her, the group experience for Cora was not carefully planned by the case worker in oooperation with the ohild, the mother, and the group worker. Moveover, the potential value of the experience was not examined; as the result: After two weeks, the mother withdrew Cora from the Day Camp and sent her to the summer camp. The group worker immediately telephoned the oase worker and explained that Cora had begun to show good pro-gress in adjusting to the group situation, had made several friends, and i t seemed unfortunate that her attendance was terminated. The mother was probably a "domineering" person driven by her anxieties, and determined that Cora attend the summer camp; but the case worker could have attempted to make both experiences of more benefit to the youngster. Since the group worker had shown such an interest in the girl from the beginning, the ease worker should have endeavoured to discover how Cora 47 was progressing in daily activities in the Day Camp, and discussed this with the group leader in terms of the child's needs and future experiences. In consultation with the group worker, the case worker would also have discovered that the Day Camp program only continued through July, and then a camp period for Cora could possibly have been arranged for August. This would have given Cora sufficient time to attempt to make a good adjustment in the Day Camp, and then her development could have been encouraged in the second group setting. In addition, the case worker had established a positive i n i t i a l relationship with the mother, and i f she had continued to work with the family, she probably could have interpreted Cora's progress to the mother, and helped Cora and her mother plan a camp holiday. If the situation had been well analysed, moreover, i t might have been decided that camp was not advisablej i.e., that continuation in Day Camp activ-ities would have provided greater opportunity for growth. Because the case worker ignored a l l these possibilities, as well as those related to contact with the oamp director, she did l i t t l e to help the family meet the problems and make satisfactory plans. The value of Cora's summer aotivities was further curtailed by the worker's inactivity after the oamp placement: The mother stated that Cora had "benefitted from both" group experiences, but Cora's reaotions were unknown. In addition, the case worker did not attempt to evaluate the placement nor to relate the results to future planning. Cora was not encouraged to develop friendships made at camp, because her mother stated that these friends "live too far away". Ho effort was made to interest Cora in autumn activ-ities at the Neighbourhood House, although she had begun to make friends during Day Camp. The case worker was thus unable to assist the family during the summer and the following weeks; hence, the mother continued to over-protect Cora and to block her growth. In short, the potential value of a period at camp for Cora was lost, because the case worker did not formulate a careful plan anddid not apply the necessary methods of agency cooperation and follow up. 48 The history of Doug suggests that this fourteen year old lad is reacting to quite serious emotional disturbances, which demand careful examination i f camp placement is to be recommended! Doug is a boy of slow normal intelligence, who has been in one foster home for nine years. He is treated as one of the family by a very protec-tive foster mother; but the foster parents do not wish to adopt Doug. The report of the Child Guidance Clinic describes him as submissive, with-drawing, insecure, and polite, lacking spontaneity, initiative, and ambition, and afraid of being moved. Doug is in the special class at school. His chief food dislike is milk. When the case worker suggested a camp holiday, however, she did not care-fully analyse Doug's personality needs, nor investigate the oamp to deter-mine i f i t were prepared to meet these needs: In July of 1947, the case worker discussed the suggestion of oamp for Doug with the foster mother, who thought i t would be Dthe best thing for him". The worker chose Potlatch Camp because the Kivan Boys' Club is in the district in whioh Doug lives, and he might join the club upon his return from camp.1 The foster mother agreed that the camp was suitable, and stated that Doug would go i f the worker would make a l l the necessary arrangements. The worker did so, without disoussing oamp with the lad. Perhaps participation in a club or interest group is part of the treatment Doug requires. The case worker apparently considered this when she made an attempt to plan a group experience for him which would have a continuing value in later club associations in Kivan. But the worker neglected to look further than a camp which happened to have year-round club a f f i l i a -tions in the district in which Doug lives. In addition, the lad requires careful interpretation of what is to be expected in a group setting. However, no attempt was made to prepare Doug for the camp placement whioh, in view of his insecurity and fear of being moved from his home, may have 1 The Vancouver Boys' Club Association which sponsors PaEIatch Camp conducts four boys' recreational centres in Vancouver, one of which is Kivan. Each boys' olub superintendent takes a group of his club members to camp for a ten day summer period. Nevertheless, boys who do not belong to the club may also be included as campers. appeared to him as evidence that the foster mother wanted to get rid of him; in other words, further proof of rejection. The boy, apparently quite submissively, accepted the plans whioh were made for him. It seems evident, from the history, that Doug requires a warm firendly environment which provides good support and a feeling of "belonging"; he requires careful, understanding, individual guidance; without them, he is not likely to be able to build up attachments with boys and adults, within the limits of his capacity. Therefore, to be able to function on a friendly social level and to make a contribution to his cabin group, Doug needs the protection of a well-qualified group leader, who understands the lad's limitation - a low intelligence rating -and is able to help him function within his ability. But the camp whioh was chosen by the adults does not meet these environmental and leadership requirements; individual guidance is negligible, l i f e is rough and requires hearty outgoing personalities and constitutions, and activities are such that the campers must be able to take the rough outdoor l i f e and the knocks involved. Suoh a camp is suitable for a happy, friendly, sturdy youngster, but i t is not recommended for a boy who is insecure, sensitive, and somewhat withdrawing. It is quite understandable, there-fore, that Doug was unhappy at camp; to the degree that everyone and everything appeared to be against him: At the end of the ten day period at camp, Doug said he did not like camp; i t was too long and the work too hard. In the summer of 1948, he refused to go to camp and was not urged. Therefore, the experience had only negative effects upon Doug's develop-ment. Without doubt, the boy is likely to be quite firm in his feeling that a l l camps are undesirable. In fact, to prepare him for any group experience, regardless of leadership, would be a difficult task. It seems that Doug requires intensive treatment i f he is to adjust to group lif e within his limitations. Careful interpretation would also have to be given to the foster mother, i f this treatment is to result in the 5 0 development of Doug as a happier lad. The experience of Doug at a summer oamp thus shows the negative degree of value a camp period may have for a youngster when the case worker takes i t for granted that a child is ready for "anyw camp experience, and ignores the individual needs of the ohild and the ability of the chosen camp to meet these needs. The Child's Readiness for Cany. The preceding discussion of case material brings to light several principles which are embodied in this f i r s t stage of procedure, whereby the child is sent to oamp for specific reasons. Some children need a period at camp with more objective treatment and experiences than are otherwise available. Camping may meet many requirements. But before camp can be effectively used as a part of treatment for an individual child, the problems involved in the situation surrounding the child, as well as a l l aspects of his personality, development, and behaviour, must be carefully analysed. Such a clear evaluation will enable the case worker to determine whether or not the child is ready for a group experience in an outdoor setting. There are no specific measuring rods by which a child's readiness for camp can be judged. However, certain factors are significant. A child may indicate a desire to seek the friendship of other children and adults, but he may require assistance in order to satisfy his desires in ways whioh are acceptable to our society; i.e., to further his growth as a social being. As far as the worker is able to judge, therefore,the child may require an actual situation in whioh to test his apparent readiness to adjust to a more social way of l i f e . Placement in a oamp which provides individual attention and guidance may offer such a test situation in its controlled environment. If the child, however, is placed in a camp in which his attempts at adjustment are misinterpreted by leaders who lack understanding, he may be pushed back into a state of fear 51 and aggression. Suoh a retardation of growth or a regression of behaviour to an infancy stage, may be prevented by careful placement. It is possible for the case worker to determine i f a child is so emotionally disturbed and unhappy that he requires more intensive individual treatment - sooial case work or psychiatric services - before he will be able to benefit from a group experience of any type. He may not be emotionally capable of making an adequate adjustment to camp l i f e . Another child may be intellectually incapable of taking part in a camp program. The case worker should have sufficient knowledge of the child and the camps to make such evaluations. Many camps, for example, are not equipped with facilities or staff to help children who present excessive deviations from accepted patterns of behaviour, or serious mental or physical retardations or abnormalities. But in evaluating the child's readiness for camp, the case worker must be aware that there are gradations within the area of competence of camps to handle some disturbed or subnormal children. The behaviour of these youngsters, however, must not be such that i t jeopardizes the development of other campers, hampers the enjoyment of camp for other children, or hazards the entire camp program. These factors must be carefully considered by the worker when analysing the case of the ohild, and also when choosing a suitable camp. In most instances, the case worker is able to plan for the child in the light of the youngster's past experience in group activities; in the family, in school associations, in play activities, and in organized clubs and groups. In his family group, the child may have learned the meaning of "belonging" - through feelings of acceptance and satisfaction; he may have learned the elementary s k i l l of group participation - "doing for" other members of the family as well as "getting from" them. In a play group or other association with children, the ohild may have demon-strated his readiness to make friends, to share equipment and the leader, and to work cooperatively with others; i.e., to make a satisfactory 52 adjustment to the group situation. On the other hand, he may have indicated certain unmet needs, such as a need for affection, status, self-confidence, or others, which might be satisfied in a carefully ohosen camp. In other words, to determine the ohild's "readiness" for a oamp experience, the worker must attempt to answer the question: at what point is the youngster in his sooial development? Securing information in answer to this question means a good deal to both the placement of the child in camp and the preparation he requires for the future group experience. Repeats at Camp. A great many camps provide only short periods of two weeks or ten days for each participant. In some cases, the child may remain in such a "short term" camp longer or return again during the season. But these situations do not offer the same advantages as a "long term" camp of one or two months, where the groups and leadership remain the same. In many cases, therefore, the child who experiences a ten day camp period for the fir s t time, may not derive the extensive benefits consistent with camping philosophy, in spite of the fact that leadership and program may be of the desired quality. The positive and negative factors, however, vary with the individual situation and child. One child may require a longer period in order to become so adjusted to the new surroundings and people that he is able to benefit fully from the experience. Another child may adjust quiokly and make noticeable strides in his development. But a third child may not be able to take the longer period away from home, and the ten days may offer a l l that is possible under the circumstances. Extended camping periods, therefore, may not always provide added assurance that each camper will gain a good deal from the holiday. Additional value is more assured, in some cases, when the ohild returns to the same camp he attended during the previous summer. If the camp experience of the fi r s t year was at a l l positive, the child will gain by enrolling a second time, because he develops feelings of security, 53 loyalty, and status; essential prerequisites for growth through a camp placement. Since he knows the oamp, the surroundings, the staff, and the program features, the old camper quickly feels "at home" and his growth is accelerated. Likewise, the camp staff is more likely to know the child quite well and to recognize his needs and interests; the leaders are able to work from the gains, as well as the mistakes, in their guidance of the camper during the previous summer. Such considerations are frequently overlooked by oase workers in planning for the ohild. In some camps, however, a child* s return may not produce the desired results; i t may be unwarranted. The camp may not provide the necessary individual treatment, or the f i r s t holiday might not have been a happy period for the youngster. The potential value of repeating a oamp placement must be recognized and the individual merits evaluated by the case worker. This provides a basis for the worker*s analysis of the child's ability and readiness to adjust to oamp l i f e , to relate to children and adults, and to enjoy participation in camp aotivities. In terms of the ohild and the camp, planning must involve careful consideration of these facts. Planning for Placement. Because the camp placement should be preceded by a carefully construed plan, the oase worker not only requires adequate knowledge of the child, his needs, his past experience, and his readiness for group participation and the camp holiday, but he must also have first-hand knowledge of available camps. Only then is the worker able to determine the proposed role the camp should play in the guidance or treatment of the ohild. It is through such knowledge that the worker has a basis for his expectation of what should be gained from the child's attendance at camp. Many workers recognize that emotional, intellectual, and spiritual growth can result from a oamp experience and become a part of the camper's 54 life.- 1 It is clear that when there is opportunity for having fun in natural, beautiful surroundings, for gaining satisfaction in creating things, and for developing new hobbies and interests, the child is helped to grow towards becoming a happy, contributing citizen. The camper gains a feeling of "belonging", and becomes more conscious of his social relation-ships. Through the opportunity to live, work, and play with other children and adults, the oamper makes new friends, he learns how to con-tribute to group plans which result in satisfying and enjoyable activities, and by recognizing differences and likenesses between himself and others he develops respect for others. In short, the camper gains a greater understanding of the responsibilities that go with the privileges of living" in a democracy. The philosophy, policy, leadership, program, structure, and size of the camp, naturally control the degree of flexibility and opportunity for individual consideration. But there is a certain advantage in sending a child to a large institutional type of camp; a camp in which the philosophy has not yet reached that of modern organized camping, in whioh no attempt is made to adjust program to meet individual needs, and in which there is a good deal of regimentation and "discipline". The well adjusted child, who gets along without speoial individual attention, may benefit from two weeks in the country, i f the conditions provide a friend-ly atmosphere, fresh air, good food, safety, physical comfort, and good health care. This value, however, is not equivalent to that derived from a period in a camp which is operated according to modern camping philosophy; the experience does not become vitally integrated into the child's l i f e . 1 This is true in a camp whioh provides guided group living in the out-ofw doors, focuses attention on the individual, provides trained counsellors who work within the group work setting, encourages less-organized programs and freedom of choice of interests and activities, and makes possible oamper participation in the planning and control of many phases of camp l i f e . The camp in whioh modern camping philosophy is so applied, has been discussed in Chapter I. 55 The case worker must reoognize these fundamental facts, and plan accordingly. In the cases under study, the plans for camp placement illustrate a large number of ways in which summer camps are used by case workers for the welfare and development of children. The f i r s t group of opportunities which oamp may offer, are related to general needs of many children: (1) A holiday in the out-of-doors in a controlled , environment, with supervision. (2) A group experience otherwise unobtainable. (3) An opportunity for the child to learn skills and to develop interests which are satisfactory and can be carried over into his city l i f e . (4) An opportunity for the child to excel and to gain recognition and acceptance from other youngsters and adults. (5) An opportunity for the ohild to leiarn to take responsibilities according to his capabilities. (6) An opportunity for the child to learn to live, work, and play with other children and adults, to have a satisfying experience with them, and to make friends. (7) A constructive opportunity for the child to follow through on his own plan to go to camp, and to develop feelings of independence, achievement and security. Without doubt, a case worker may provide a period at oamp for more clearly defined reasons than "to offer a holiday in the country". Although the reasons whioh are most frequently stated by workers are included in the above l i s t , several more specific benefits for individual children may be derived from the holiday. Camp placement, for example, may be planned essentially for health or physical reasons: ( 8 ) A positive and normal camp experience for a physically handicapped child. (9) A protected recreational experience for a child recovering from an illness. For children requiring assistance in this particular area of need, other benefits, suoh as the first seven listed, may be incidental to the worker's plan. But when planning involves the essential elements previously discussed, some of these additional benefits will be realized. This also 56 applies to an environmental plan; i.e., when the proposal to send the child to camp represents a means of changing his environment so that he will gain from the temporary placement. Environmental planning may offer: (10) A temporary release from a socially poor area such as a crowded slum environment which provides no recreational facilities and no opportunity for constructive group associations. (11) An opportunity to play and to live as a child among other children for a youngster who has been compelled to assume excessive adult responsibilities at home. (12) A temporary release from home tensions - marital discord, sibling rivalry, unemployment problems, etc. (13) A temporary release from a situation of parental neglect - poor parental understanding, emotional neglect, rejection, overprotection or regimentation. (14) A temporary placement for a ohild who will be placed in a new foster home upon his return from camp. (15) A release from an unsatisfactory foster placement. (16) A means of rehabilitation for a ohild who has been in a protected environment away from normal social l i f e , (e.g., Boys' Industrial Sohoolj. (17) A temporary release for parents who desire a holiday without the children, or who require a period free of present parental responsibilities so as to plan objectively for the care of the children. Additional benefits may be cited in the placement plan for the child who is able to enjoy camp for other specific reasons: (18) A repeat experience in a camp where the child may feel at home, secure, and happy. (19) A continuation of a city club experience in a new setting; but with the same friends and leader. (20) A suitable camp experience for a child whose mother insists that the youngster goes to a camp. Camp placement* moreover, may have a particular value for the ohild in terms of future contact with him. The worker, for example, may wish to know more about the child's ability to live, work, and play with other children and adults. Thus the role of camp may be proposed as: (21) An opportunity for the oase worker to gain knowledge and understanding from the leader's careful observation of the child's behaviour and adjustment to children and adults. 5 7 (22) An opportunity for the case worker to gain knowledge and understanding from the leader's observation of the way others react to the ohild. If the "leader" is a trained counsellor, who is able to provide information of the required nature, the case worker will gain additional knowledge and broader understanding about the client than he has secured prior to camp.1 In camps where there is a group work emphasis, and leadership is sensitive to individual differences and the needs of the members, the period at camp can provide more special treatment for certain children; i.e., children who are emotionally disturbed and exhibit behaviour difficulties for which treatment is within the scope of the function of oamping. But there is a definite limitation to this treatment function of camps. Camps may also be used for diagnostic purposes; namely, to measure the need for psychiatric treatment, or to provide the means for making recommendations regarding further services which are required in work with the client. Therefore, two more roles may be added to those which a camp may play for a particular child: (23) An opportunity for social adjustment of a child who has developed anti-social behaviour, or for the satis-faction of certain emotional needs of a disturbed ohild. (24) A controlled situation in whioh the leader is able to determine the child's need for intensive individual treatment, and to recommend further services or treatment. 1 In a modern organized camp, the child lives almost entirely within a small group of campers, and the counsellor is with this group the greater part of the time. The counsellor, therefore, has ample oppor-tunity to know the child, to work with him, and to observe him in many aotivities of daily l i f e . The counsellor's contact with the individual in ten days of camping is equivalent, in time, to three years of one hour weekly interviews of the case worker with the client. However, the quality of the contact must not be misinterpreted. In fact, the counsellor's relationship with the camper differs from the case worker's relationship with the client. Nevertheless, the information which the counsellor may gain through his association with the child at camp, is important to the case worker, who is providing individual treatment, since the group worker is skilled in understanding individual behaviour, as well as sooial relationships. When the camp leader is so trained, and the case worker has applied adequate methods of cooperation, the oamp will play the role which is anticipated by the oase worker. 58 If the plans for camp placements include observation or special treatment, there is need for more study and understanding on the part of both oase workers and camp leaders. Since a l l camps, moreover, are not at the same level of development in philosophy and practice, the problem is even more serious. Only as camps reach the desired standards in every respect will the potential values of use by case work agencies be realizable. Choosing the Gamp. The treatment plan for the placement of the child in camp also involves the oase worker's careful selection of a camp which is best qualified to f u l f i l the desired role. The worker must, therefore, know what types of camps are available in the community, and understand their struoture, philosophy, function, leadership, intake policies, and methods and processes of work. If he knows, for example, that the camp is not able to provide more than a holiday in the oountry, the worker should only send the child who will be happy in such a situation, and for whom he has not formulated a more extensive plan. If the worker is to make the "best choice" of available camps so that anticipated benefits for the child will result, he must understand the "differences" between camps; i.e., varying application of oamping philosophy regarding oamp purpose, leadership, and organization. The camp director, and especially the counsellors, may not be of sufficient calibre to apply camping philosophy; focusing attention on the individual participant in a constructive manner. Leaders may be so preoccupied with program, cabin and camper competition, teaching responsibilities, number of children participating, or weight gained, that they have not sufficient time, as well as understanding, to work with individuals as members of groups. The oamp may be so organized that the focus is on a recreational program, l i t t l e consideration is given to camper groupings, and the relationships between campers and between campers and group leaders are casual and relatively meaningless. As a result, the needs of each child 59 are likely to be unrecognized, to a great degree, and emotional development is blocked considerably. In a camp whioh is, by contrast, "member centred" with small group participation, the needs of the individual are more likely to be adequately met. Many problems are involved in the selection of a camp. For example, when a oamp has been chosen as the best equipped to meet the needs of the child, frequently the worker cannot find a vacancy in the camp enrolment, especially at the desired time. He may have to choose another camp. In many oases, however, the second camp is poorly seleoted for any one of numerous reasons. Usually, i f the worker had possessed more knowledge about the camps, had selected the alternative placement as carefully as the f i r s t camp, and had made inquiries and encouraged cooperation earlier, the final choice would have been more beneficial to the child. Likewise, in numerous situations in which the selection of camp involves particular problems, greater knowledge and understanding would help to eliminate barriers to satisfactory placements. Knowledge of the camps also enables the case worker to determine i f cooperation between the oamp director and himself will be possible. This in turn is an important basis of selection. However, because some agency administrators do not recognize the cooperative elements which determine the potential values of camping and camp placements, they frequently do not allot sufficient time nor adequate guidance for the acquisition of information and the development of understanding by workers. In addition, certain camp directors are guilty of not interpreting the aims and methods of their work so that case workers gain the necessary information. Parents may be encouraged to make their own application for the child's enrolment in camp. This is often an essential part of the treatment plan for the parents; based upon case work techniques and principles. The parents may be helped to gain independence, ability to 60 help themselves and, to function as a family unit, acceptance of parental responsibilities, and so on.. Moreover, this procedure frequently prevents the development of hostility and resistance towards the agency and the camp, which might result i f the placement were pushed by the case worker. But the value of encouraging parental responsibility could be maintained i f , at the same time, the case worker applied the principles of procedure essential to sending a child to camp. By means of her relation-ship with the family, the worker could guide the placement in the interests of the child without jeopardizing the treatment value for the parents. Frequently, proper and careful interpretation and planning with the family would result in much improved placements. Several cases exemplify this; for example, in one case in which the mother was preparing to send her son to camp, the case worker was able to interpret to the parents the fact that the camp experience would harm his development because he was too disturbed to participate in the outdoor group experience. In another case, the mother had placed an application in a oamp which the worker knew could not meet the child's needs. Through careful interpretation and planning, the girl was finally sent to a camp which was better equipped to be of value to the youngster. The worker had in no way produced a situation in whioh the parents could project blame on the agency i f the child showed problems in adjustment or was unhappy. In short, the worker and the mother together worked out a plan which resulted in a satisfactory experience for the family. In choosing the camp, the case worker has an opportunity to work closely with the child as well as with the parents; in fact, there is a great deal of value in the child taking an active part in the planning. He may quite satisfactorily seleot a camp with the help of the worker's interpretation and guidance. In no plan, moreover, is i t the case worker's sole responsibility to work out all the details; established principles of procedure are applicable in every situation, and cooperation 61 with the child, his parents, and the camp director is necessitated. The degree of participation by the parents and the child may vary, but accept-ance of their right and need to participate must be recognized. It is clear that i f camp placement is to be of realistic and lasting value, i t must be preceded by careful planning. This involves considerable knowledge, and close cooperation with the child, his family, and the camp:, a joint process whioh is essential i f the child is to benefit from the placement. In addition, i f the worker does not believe that the camp experience has potential values, then his reason for sending the child to camp is basically unsound. Under no circumstances is he justified in sending a client to camp because he desires a slight reprieve from the handling of a situation with which he cannot cope. Nor is i t legitimate for a camp director to claim that his camp can produce miraculous and positive changes in the anti-social behaviour of a camper i f he and his leaders have not the training, experience, and other qualifications required to make these results possible. In both areas of service, therefore, there are many circumstances, types of workers, and characteristics of work whioh colour the effect of a camp experience upon the child who is a client of a case work agency. A plan for the use of camps may be incidental rather than purposeful. It may not involve careful thought, analysis of the client's needs, knowledge of camps, understanding of the camping philosophy, selective choosing of the oamp best qualified to meet the demands of the situation, and close cooperation between a l l persons involved. As a result, the camp experience may be rather isolated in the l i f e of the child - an experience in a vacuum, or an experience which the camper does not enjoy, or from which he cannot benefit. It may, in fact, actually harm the youngster's development in one or several ways. The f i r s t step in the referral process, therefore, is of great importance. 62 CHAPTER FOUR. PRE-CAMP COOPERATION. The period before the child actually arrives at the chosen oamp is of vital concern to the success of the camp placement. Well directed cooperation between the case worker and the camp director during this pre-camp period is essential i f every possible effort is to be made to provide the most beneficial camp experience for the client. A positive working relationship must therefore be established during the first stages of planning. As discussed in Chapter Two, this primarily involves the preparation of each worker and camp direotor to carry out his own function and to understand the function of the other. Only under these circum-stances will a realistic and mutual assurance of confidence and respect be established. It is clear that the first cooperative action occurs when the case worker attempts to enrol the child in a camp which is equipped to foster the plan of treatment for the youngster. At this time, the worker contaots the direotor of the desired camp, and examines the in i t i a l prob-lems of placement. The completion of a camp application form begins, rather than ends, oooperation between the oase worker and the camp director. Consequently, i f oamp placement represents a deliberate part of planning for the ohild*s welfare, in relation to his needs and interests, careful attempts will be made to give the director sufficient information about the child to facilitate treatment. In short, adequate services are more likely to be provided when the oamp leaders are given an opportunity to know the child before he reaches camp. The application of methods for relaying important information to camp personnel, therefore, is examined in the following case studies. 63 Illustrative Oases. The summarized history of Ed describes the circumstances which contributed towards his unhappiness, and shows the need for careful placement of this thirteen year old lad: Ed is the youngest of three children; his brother is seventeen and his sister is fifteen years of age, The father deserted the family in i944, and Ed was sent by his mother to a private boys' boarding school. But the school offered very poor supervision and an unhealthy experience for Ed, who was overstimulated sexually while at school. In March 1946, he was placed under agency non-ward care when his mother was unable to find housing accommodation such that Ed could be with her in the interior town where she works. Because the mother planned to take him there within one year, a good relationship was maintained between Ed and his mother. The placement of Ed in a foster home where there were no other children seemed satisfactory for a short time. But after three months, the foster parents stated that Ed should be replaced because he was avoiding other children, was unwilling to share his playthings, needed other children in the home, and failed to pass his grade in school. At this time Ed was small for his age, thin and delicate in appearance, quite friendly but rather "spoiled", inclined to be a "smart alec", and he was exhibiting hypochondriacal fears and general disturbance. It was decided that prior to placing Ed in a new foster home, he should be given a camp holiday. The plan for sending Ed to camp was well devised. Moreover, i t involved a two-fold purpose; fir s t , to provide a beneficial holiday for the lad, in an environment where he could have fun, make friends, and learn to live with other youngsters, and second, to give the case worker an opportunity to find a more suitable foster home for Ed. Because the boy was unhappy and emotionally disturbed, i t was necessary that the camp be chosen carefully, and that Ed be given an opportunity to participate in the selection. This was achieved. The camp ohosen was one in which the boy would receive individual attention and guidance. Ed was enthusiastic about going to Camp Elphinstone; a camp which the worker could describe in detail because he had adequate knowledge. These elements of good planning are demonstrated in the record: 64 The worker discussed camp with Ed, who decided that Camp Elphinstone would be fun. Camp arrangements were made by the worker. He contacted the camp direotor by telephone, secured a placement, and then completed the application form. The camp sent the foster parents the l i s t of instructions and the worker took Ed for his medical examination. In addition, the oase worker encouraged agency cooperation by discussing the plan with the camp director. The worker prepared a fairly detailed, written account of Ed's behaviour, problems, and interests. This letter included several important statements, as follows: Ed has slow normal intelligence, his older brother and sister have average intelligence, and Ed is jealous of his brother's achievements. The father deserted the family in 1944. Ed is selfish, de-mands muoh attention, and shows signs of delinquency. His relationships in a poorly supervised boarding school were not healthy. But Ed does have musical talent and enjoys playing the piano and singing. We feel that the experience at camp will be very-beneficial in that Ed will mix with boys and have to give and take. The camp li f e will be a new-experience in itself, and should promote some appreciation of the other fellow. Ed will become one of many boys and the spotlight will not always be on him and his antics. This summarized information about the lad, and the value of oamp as fore-seen by the worker, offered the camp director a good opportunity to plan for Ed's period at camp. As a result: At the end of the oamping season, the director wrote to the oase, worker stating that the three weeks' camping experience had done much for Ed by helping him adjust to the group setting; his selfishness had lessened considerably and his participation in group activities had increased. Ed told the worker that he had enjoyed camp. Within several months, Ed's fairly good adjustment in the new foster home was disturbed, and his unhappiness increased: After oamp, Ed spent one week with his mother, At the end of July, he was placed on a farm foster home with three other boys; one year, and two years younger, and five years older than Ed. The worker arranged for Ed to continue piano lessons and to sing in a boys' choir. He enjoyed these activities and continued to make a good adjust-ment for a few months. At the end of this period, 65 however, behaviour problems reappeared and the lad became untidy, showed laok of attention to personal cleanliness and care, refused to practice the piano, often did not return directly from his lessons, but stayed out until midnight, developed a "know-it-all" attitude, and fought with the other boys. His school work remained average. As an attempt to assist the lad, a second camp placement was considered: In April, 1947, Ed was examined at the Child Guidance Clinic, and i t was recommended that he again go to camp, and then be placed in a new foster home, since the foster parents in the second placement were demonstrating rejection of the boy. The new worker, who had been assigned the case a few months previously, visited the foster home and discussed camp with the foster parents and Ed. The boy stated that he would like to return to Camp Elphinstone. The worker secured a placement in the camp and helped Ed and the foster parents complete the application form. The second case worker who had not known Ed in 1946, was certainly aware of the boy's needs, and recognized the value of a repeat experience at Camp Elphinstone. This is very significant in view of the fact that several cases show that a new worker may make summer holiday plans for a client while ignoring the child's past experience at camp, or considering i t unimportant. The case worker's respect for, and confidence in, the camp director is clearly demonstrated in the letter which he sent to the director two weeks before the camp period. He explained the boy's background and the mother's interest in the lad, and described the plan for the youngster. In addition to stating that "the mother is divorcing the father, is co-operative and anxious about Ed's welfare, and is very understanding", the worker wrote the following: As the result of his camp experience last year, Ed showed great improvement for the f i r s t few months after camp. Recently, however, he has become careless in his personal appearance and in his dress. But his selfishness has cleared up considerably. He mixes more readily with boys his own age and is more considerate of their feelings. Ed s t i l l has serious emotional difficulties and has had several setbacks. His mother is unable to have him home in the autumn, 66 as was hoped. The foster mother says she can not put up with him, so Ed will he moved to a new foster home after camp. Although the worker did not call a conference in order to discuss Ed with the camp director, he telephoned him and clarified some of these statements about the boy. The camp director reported that he received a clear picture of Ed's behaviour, difficulties, and needs, and was able to use this informa-tion to help the lad in camp. The guidance of Ed at camp will he discussed, therefore, in Chapter Five, to illustrate the way in which the camp experi-ence was made a constructive part of the boy's development, as the result of pre-camp knowledge about Ed, and careful interpretation to the camp staff. The case of Ed illustrates the adoption of methods of pre-camp cooperation whioh provides opportunity for the camp director to participate in the planning for the child's camp placement, and to know the child to a sufficient degree before the holiday commences, in order to be prepared to help him as a camper. The next case study illustrates the lack of value of a camp experi-ence for a disturbed g i r l , Fern, when the case worker neglects to discuss the child and the plan of treatment with the camp director prior to the camp period. Fern is one of seven children in a family which for many years lacked economic and emotional security: From 1936 to 1946, the family was known to a Family Service Agency. However, the family breakdown continued; in 1940, when Fern was eight years of age, the children were apprehended and placed as wards of a Children's Protection Agency. The parents had been constantly quarrelling, the mother was i l l , and the children were wandering the streets late at night. The mother was described as dull normal in intelligence and a heavy drinker who was often destitute. When the children were placed, the mother attempted to maintain a strong emotional tie with them; .she interfered and disturbed the children and the foster homes, and the parents made several attempts to claim the children. In 1947, the mother obtained a divorce, but continued her drinking and became "brokendown and childish". The history indicates that Fern became seriously disturbed after the hospitalization of her foster father and her subsequent home placements: Fern remained in one foster home for seven years where she made a good adjustment. She was friendly, well thought of at school, made average marks, appeared intelligent in many ways, joined the C.G.i.T., attended C.G.I.T. camp at Ocean Park in 1945, 1946, and 1947, taught Sunday School, and was interested in dramatics and music. But in August, 1947, the foster father became mentally i l l , was hospitalized, and Fern had to be moved. During the next year, Fern was placed in three foster homes and developed behaviour problems. She became vaguely indifferent about her own appearance and behaviour, interpreted a l l the foster mother's remarks as nagging, played truant from school, lied about her activities, assumed a superficial brightness when lying, showed spells of moodiness, and had a strong desire to be independent. There is sufficient information to suggest that this sixteen year old's emotional upset might warrant psychiatric guidance. The oase worker was aware of this but made no attempt to assist the foster mother in her plan for the g i r l when Fern wished to go to camp, nor to prepare the oamp for her placement: In June, 1948, Fern asked her foster mother to complete an application form for her to attend C.G.I.T. camp at Ocean Park. The foster mother did so and the camp director arranged for Fern to go to the "leaders'" camp" where she would be among girls her own age. The foster mother told the case worker about these arrangements, and the worker thought the camp experience would give Fern status among leaders and security in a setting in which she could feel at home. Camp arrangements were completed by the foster mother and Fern. The results of this holiday arrangement indicate the degree to which lack of guidance by the oase worker adversely affected Fern's camp experience: Her behaviour during the fir s t three days at camp alarmed the leaders and the camp director. Fern wore a very extreme bathing suit which attracted the attention of a l l the campers and gave Fern the idea that the girls were laughing at her. At night when the girls were in bed and no leader was present, Fern told grandiose stories about her home and family, describing the home as a magnificent mansion and herself as a neglected "poor-little-rich-girl". She accompanied her fantasies with displays of dramatics and tears, and for three nights built up a state of hysterics among the girls. The girls believed her stories, joined 68 their tears with hers, and demonstrated deep sympathy. On the second and third nights, the camp director went into the cabin when the hy-sterics were at their height and after some time succeeded in calming the oampers. On the fourth day Fern's crying spells appeared in the afternoon at the quiet period. Although Fern had been to the Ocean Park Camp for three years and i t offered a temporary security, she did not attend with C.G.I.T. friends in 1948. Moreover, her inner conflicts had become too great for her to display acceptable social behaviour in any group situation. She was experiencing considerable conflict over her feelings towards her mother, who had become a "broken-down childish woman" attempting to maintain a strangling emotional hold on her children. Perhaps Fern recognized the elements of parental rejection, and during the year had experienced more insecurity and rejection in the repeated placements. She possibly felt inferior to other girls because of her family background, and she sought recognition and prestige by drawing attention to herself. At the same time, she experienced ideas of reference, and possibly persecution, in that she interpreted her foster mother's remarks as nagging, and the girls' staring at her bizarre dress as ridicule. As a teen-ager she was also experiencing a conflict between her wishes to be both independent and dependent. The fact that Fern was given an opportunity to go to the camp she had chosen, might have had value in relation to her desire to take independent action; but her other emotional difficulties blocked her development. Fern was not able to give and take, and her seemingly neurotic behaviour indicated that she was not able to participate in group activities, especially in a situation in which highly qualified leadership was not available. It would seem, therefore, that the oase worker who had this informa-tion about Fern, ignored the obvious problems and misjudged the effect a camp experience would have upon the g i r l . Fern required security and a feeling of "belonging" which might be associated with the repeat experience 69 at the camp. But the "leaders' camp", in which the girls were accepted as well-adjusted, happy young people who could handle freedom and independ-ence, was not the place for Fern. The case worker, therefore, should have discussed Fern's problems and emotional insecurity with the camp director before the girl was sent to camp, particularly to the leaders' session. It was not until the fourth day of Fern's disturbed behaviour at camp, however, that the case worker understood that difficulties had been caused by her lack of pre-camp cooperation. The camp director's request for information initiated the case worker's subsequent action: By this time - the fourth day - the camp director was greatly concerned about Fern's upset behaviour. She knew Fern was a ward of the agency, and tele-phoned the case worker in order to describe the girl* s behaviour and to secure information. The case worker described Fern as an emotionally upset gi r l and promised to send the camp director a report. On the sixth day of the ten day camp, the camp director received a complete summary of Fern's background and behaviour difficulties. When the camp director telephoned the case worker and expressed her conoern about Fern's behaviour, the case worker quickly responded and sent a f u l l statement about the g i r l . The letter described the family situation, the emotional and physical neglect of the children, and Fern's behaviour prior to and after replacements in three foster homes. The case worker also asked the camp director for a camp report on Fern, and suggested she again contact the oase worker i f desired. This letter, however, arrived on the sixth day of the ten day camp period, and therefore, had very l i t t l e value. The information helped the director in dealing with Fern's behaviour in a superficial manner only. The camp director was able to direct her dis-cussion with Fern according to her newly acquired understanding of the gi r l , but her main efforts involved providing special evening activities for the girls in Fern's cabin, and spending more time with the group so that Fern would have less opportunity to t e l l her stories and upset the campers. It was not possible to offer more than this buffer type of treatment because Fern's problems were too deep-seated for a four day treatment in a setting 70 designed for well-adjusted girls. The oamp placement had no real treatment value for Fern. Its only-value was in vividly illustrating Fern's difficulties and demonstrating that such a placement could not provide a solution for her problems, nor assist the girl in any degree. In short, the lack of joint planning based upon cooperation between the case worker and the camp direotor resulted in an upsetting experience for Fern and her cabin mates, and disturbance of the camp.^  In contrast to the case of Fern, in the next history the case worker suggested the holiday and selected the camp. However, lack of pre-camp cooperation again resulted in poor placement} the children did not benefit as the case worker had anticipated, because she ignored con-structive methods of joint planning. According to the case record, Gary, eleven years of age, G,race, nine years, and Gertrude, eight years, are the second, third, and fourth children of six in a low standard family whose home became broken as the result of marital difficulties: Since 1937, the family has been known intermittently to a Family Agency, in response to neighbours' com-plaints about the parents' neglect of the children. During these periods, the children were neglected physically so that they were dirty, poorly clothed, on the streets late at night, showed evidence of no toilet training, and demonstrated low moral standards. In 1947, the father obtained a divoroe and soon after remarried. Custody of Gary and Grace was given to the father, and custody of the oldest child, and three younger children, including Gertrude, was awarded the mother. After the divoroe, the mother secured a job and again the neighbours complained about the behaviour of these four children. The case worker kept in close contact with both parents and a l l the children during 1947 and 1948. By 1948, the mother had remarried. The children are now in separate homes; Gary is with his paternal 1 It is noteworthy that when the writer was discussing camp referrals with this particular oamp director, the latter stressed a great need for im-proved pre-camp cooperation and illustrated her point by referring to this case. Previously, the writer had not read the case record in the agency, and came upon i t by accident when later reading a number of cases of children sent to summer camps by the case workers in the Children's Protection Agency. 71 grandmother; Grace is with the father and his new wife; Gertrude, a younger brother, and a younger sister, are with the mother and her new husband; the oldest boy is in a foster home. In their respective homes, the children are demonstrating rather serious behaviour difficulties. They have been subjected to a broken home, inconsistent training, and emotional rejeotion. The insecurity resulting from the lack of parental affection, unhappy marital relationships, separation from other members of the family, and none too satisfactory present home conditions, presents a common problem for the three young-sters. In addition, the behaviour and attitude of the parents are not contributing to each child's well-being; for example: Gertrude is lying and feigning illness. The mother is unable to assist her daughter through affection and consistency; she is immature, flighty, irrespons-ible, lacks the ability to be consistent and firm with the children, but she maintains a close tie with a l l of them. (Her new husband is not desoribed). Grace also illustrates emotional disturbances; she lies, steals, is hostile towards everyone, and fre-quently becomes violent and aggressive. She uses the stolen objects to buy the affection and com-panionship of other youngsters. Neither her father nor his wife shows Grace any affection. The natural father is described as a frank, outgoing man, but nervous, unstable, and guilty, possessing a violent temper and lacking in self-control, and irresponsible about money. He is inconsistent in his handling of Grace and frequently tells the mother he \vould like to exchange Gary and Grace for the younger children; but the mother refuses. He, apparently, is not capable of caring for anyone. His new wife finds i t necessary to work because the father constantly places the family in debt although he has a good job and a large monthly income. She has a fair under-standing of the father whom she has to mother but whose violence she fears. She tries to accept the children, but she actually displays a deep rejection of the youngsters. She is unable to control Grace who presents serious behaviour problems. Gary, in turn, displays acute behaviour difficulties; he lies, steals, and is eneuritic, dull, docile, and submissive; but he is physically well and healthy. His grandmother objects to having him because he is a burden to her. Each child, therefore, is unhappy and disturbed. Moreover, there is no evidence of the youngsters being able to relate satisfactorily to adults or other children. In spite of these problems, camp placement was arranged without interpretation to the children, or to the camp director: In July, 1948, the father suggested to the case worker that Grace be sent to a camp for the entire summer, but he was unwilling to consider the private girls* camp, Moorecroft, at $125.00 per month. The case worker suggested Camp Fircom for both Grace and Gary, and the father completed the oamp arrangements for the children. At this time, the case worker also suggested to the mother that Gertrude attend Camp Fircom with her sister and brother. The mother was enthus-. iastic, and later stated that Gertrude was looking forward to camp although she seemed to hate every-one. Her mother arranged the details for the oamp period. Because the three other children were placed else-where for the summer, they were not included in the camp planning. Perhaps the worker anticipated that camp placement would have a twofold benefit; to give the children an opportunity to live and play together and with other youngsters, and to provide a temporary release from poor home situations in which emotional.neglect and rejection were evident. The camp, therefore, was selected on the basis of ability to enrol a l l the ohildren at one time. Although; the case worker had a fairly clear reason for suggesting the camp, apparently she ignored the value of cooperative services. She made no attempts to contact the camp director; to discuss the plan, to examine the possibility of the camp, experience satisfying the children's needs, or to prepare the camp leaders for the children's placement. As a result, the youngsters arrived at camp without the leaders having any knowledge of their difficulties, nor the plan of treatment. Each child was placed in a cabin group according to his age and no particular attention was given to his needs. Consequently, the leaders had a difficult time with the children, whom they did not understand, and the children, in turn, had an unhappy camp experience. No report was sent to the case worker at the close of the camp period describing the children's behaviour or their adjustment to camp. But for the first few weeks following their holiday, the children continually complained about the activities, the campers, and the food at camp. These results indicate that although camp might haw offered a temporary release from the unpleasant homes, the camp experience provided no real benefit to the children. Their relationship to adults and children continued to be poor, and no growth of personality or improved behaviour resulted. Camp, therefore, offered l i t t l e more than a holiday in the out-of-doors, where the youngsters could be together. But the holiday was not a happy one and i t is doubtful i f the children will have any desire to return to an organized camp. The camp experience might have provided more beneficial treatment i f the camp director had known something about the children's inseoure background, behaviour difficulties, emotional problems, abilities,interests and needs. In addition to giving the parents an opportunity to take the responsibility for planning a summer holiday for them, apparently the case worker considered that the parents' action in making a l l the camp arrange-ments would prove to the children that they were loved because their parents were giving them a happy holiday. But the result was not satis-factory. It might have been satisfactory i f the worker had discussed the children with the camp director, although i t is difficult to anticipate the degree to which a camp placement might benefit such unhappy youngsters. Perhaps they were not ready for camp. In this case, however, possibly a happier experience would have resulted i f the worker had cooperated with the camp director. The preceding discussion of case material illustrates the degree to which techniques of pre-camp cooperation may be used, with varying results. The philosophy and methods involved must be examined more fully. Pre-Camp Written Information and Conferences. In a few instances, the case worker's completion of a camp referral 74 form may be adequate. In addition to identification data, the form usually includes a l i s t of items suoh as family make-jup, financial circumstances, home conditions, reasons for sending the child to camp, outstanding behaviour problems, health rating, fee to be paid, and so on. But the spaoe is often too limited for the inclusion of very pertinent data in any detail. If the case worker wishes to convey a good deal of important information to the camp direotor, he frequently finds i t difficult to do so by the use of the form alone. The referral form, therefore, presents many obstacles, and the relative value of the limited information which i t permits, is questionable. In fact, the form will be helpful only to the extent to which i t is used by the camp director. But in very few cases is a referral form sufficient i f not accompanied by dis-> cussion or additional written material such as a summarized oase history. 1 It is obvious that the child's adjustment to camp will be more rapid i f the oamp director has fairly detailed information about the child prior to his placement, and i f the director uses this material for the guidance of the youngster in the camp setting. Camp leaders find that i f no history is presented, i t takes the entire holiday period of ten days or two weeks for them to disoover the needs of the child. But this informa-tion, and a great deal more, often could have been secured from the case worker who has known the child and his family for a long time. In addition, when no pre-camp information is given, the report from the director, after the camp period is completed, frequently includes only facts and opinions which substantiate the worker's previous knowledge of his client. The camp placement, therefore, may benefit the child in a limited way only, rather than'result in definite adjustment and growth. It may, moreover, harm him; for example, his behaviour may be misinter-preted as the result of the leader's ignorance as to the reasons for the camper's deviations from normal behaviour; hence, necessary assistance may not be given to the camper. 1 See Form II and Outline ITi in Appendix u. 75 In addition to the primary identification data about the child, the cage history should include a clear and concise summary of a l l the pertinent information the case worker has accumulated concerning the youngster and his family. It should include facts about his emotional development, family relationships, adjustment to children and adults, group experiences, physical and mental health, capabilities, interests, needs, limitations, and any outstanding habits, problems, or circumstances which will influence his adjustment in camp. -A certain amount of detailed background material may not be required. But the case worker must decide how much information will be useful to the camp director. In every oase, however, the summary should include a statement of the treatment plan for the child and what the worker expects from the camp experience. It is also important to describe the relationship with the child which the worker has at the time and expects to have in the future. If the camp director is at a l l prepared to assist the youngster at oamp, such information will greatly augment his efforts. The amount of information which the oase worker includes in the pre-camp history may be influenced by the circumstances surrounding the child's placement in camp. It may be influenced by the knowledge possessed by the worker, his estimation of the qualifications of the director, the amount of respect he assumes will be given the confidential nature of the material, as well as the value he places upon such transfer-ence of knowledge. However, when the worker and the director are both well prepared to work in their respective fields, the worker's preparation of written material in considerable detail is of great importance to the provision of a useful and enjoyable oamp experience for the child. Frequently, the case worker prefers to discuss the history with the camp director in person, rather than to write the summary. He may do this by means of interviews or telephone calls. But whether or not the information is written, pre-camp conferences between the case worker and 7 6 the camp director are of unlimited value. The majority of cases demand more than the completion of referral forms and written summaries. This is particularly true when the child's needs are largely emotional, and when relationships are of utmost import-ance. Pre-camp conferences may offer the means by which the feeling of confidence and respect between the worker and the director is established. Often the lack of sufficient time limits the number of conferences. Perhaps telephone calls may be substituted in a fairly adequate manner. But the importance of face-to-face discussions is very apparent i f camp placement is to be of the greatest potential worth to the child. Once a relationship of confidence has been established, there is value in fre-quent discussions between the worker and the director when they both have contact with the client in preparing him for the camp experience. Such conferences may be the means by which the camp leader gains a greater realization of the physical, emotional, and intellectual needs of the child. Together, the case worker and the camp direotor, may be able to improve the plan for the treatment of the individual in view of their combined knowledge and the services each is able to offer the client. Even after the application has been made, they might decide that the child would not benefit from a camping period at the designated time, that he should be placed elsewhere because circumstances have changed, or that the plan should be re-examined because new facts have been unearthed that have altered the situation since the time of the i n i t i a l contact. In many respects, therefore, the conferences prove invaluable. Barriers to Cooperation. Several problems appear in this pre-camp cooperative period. Perhaps the greatest barrier to the sharing of information about the child, is the lack of adequate knowledge and understanding on the part of both case workers and camp directors. Many case workers, although recognizing the potential value of camping, do not have sufficient 7 7 knowledge about the methods of work in camps to enable them to recognise the importance of providing information; i.e., how beneficial i t is to the camp director in assisting the camper. The treatment plan may be well worked out, but the sharing of knowledge is frequently inadequate. Often this is based upon the worker's very limited knowledge of the camp and the qualifications of leadership. Several workers stress the confidentiality of a l l information to such a degree that they refuse to give any data to the oamp director because he is not trained in social work, and there is a fear that the material will be misused. In some cases this is true. Therefore discretion must be used; a l l confidential information should not be written in every case. However, the situation could be greatly improved with resulting benefits to the child and the camp, i f the workers possessed more complete knowledge and understanding of the camp, the director, the personnel, the methods of work, and the use to be made of confidential information. It is necessary, furthermore, for the oamp director to develop methods which will ensure respect for the confidential nature of the information which the worker provides. He must be able to assure the case worker that proper interpretation of a l l confidential data will be given to the counsellors and other staff members. More confidence, trust, and improved cooperative services will result as mutual understanding develops. Cooperation during this period may also be curtailed by lack of time. Some workers find that conferences are impossible because their case loads are so large that camp placements must be made in the quickest possible manner. But such haste often has unhappy results, or question-able value. There are certain short cuts which may be made, but omitting establishment of a good working relationship between the worker and the director should not be one. Too many hasty trial-and-error placements result. Many camps are certainly not free from criticism in respect to 78 pre-camp cooperation. Often the camp director is not available or does not provide time for consultations with the case worker. This may be due to the director's ignorance about the importance of such contacts, or he might be far too busy making the numerous preparations for camp. In addition, the camp director's inadequate knowledge and understanding of case work aims and methods, as well as lack of acceptance of modern camping philosophy, present barriers which must be recognized. One director, for example, definitely states that case workers "inhumanly make cases out of problem children who should be treated as normal human beings", and as a result, he ignores all written information from workers. In such camps, which are "program centred" and where individual emphasis is ignored, group leadership is negligible. These camps should be used with discretion. Nevertheless, i t is not sufficient for case workers to abandon a l l cooperative efforts, exclaiming, "no camp staffs are trained; no one can use information about this child". This is not true. The majority of camp directors realize that their leaders are not of the highest quality, and they are gradually providing improved methods of training for better selected personnel. In many ways, case workers are able to offer help to oamp directors who are attempting to provide improved guidance for the individual child. This is illustrated by the case of Ben in Chapter Three. The camp staff had not received training with a social work emphasis, but by means of the case worker's relationship with the camp director, the caseworker was able to suggest methods of treatment which would more adequately meet the needs of the disturbed child. By presenting important facts about the boy and demonstrating confidence in the camp personnel, the case worker helped the leaders understand the child so that his camp ex-perience had positive results. The cooperative process thus results in many unforeseen benefits. Perhaps the lack of record-keeping by the majority of camps presents 79 a great source of difficulty in this matter. Because many camp directors do not compile, and keep on a permanent f i l e , records about every camper, there arises a doubt as to their real interest in each child. Inadequate stenographic services and lack of time present legitimate reasons for not preparing these records. Nevertheless, this situation may be interpreted by the case worker as inefficiency and lack of interest; hence, i t en-dangers the confidence of workers in the validity of cooperative efforts. Written summaries may not be presented because workers fear that the material may be lost, ignored, or misused. Conferences may not "be held because interest seems negligible. Directors may not send camp reports back to the oase workers because no information was given to them. This ignorance of the true situation, and lack of confidence and trust of one worker in the other, acts as a circular response; to each according to that which has been received. Throughout this study i t has become increasingly apparent that i f the period at camp is to be beneficial to the referred child, trial-and-error and hasty placement must give way to a slow, carefully planned, and continuous process of cooperation. The basic factor in this process, moreover, is knowledge by the oase worker and the camp director of eaoh other's functions so that a relationship of mutual respect, confidence, and understanding will be established. As discussed in Chapter Three, the case worker will confidently recommend a child for camp i f he knows what types of camps are available in the community, and understands their nature, leadership, and methods. Such realistic and intimate knowledge of the camp is of primary concern to the worker i f he is to determine whether a period at camp will be of any value to the client in relation to his needs, and whether the child is able or ready to take such an experi-ence. The camp director, similarly, will have more confidence in the case worker's judgment and estimation of the benefit which the child might receive from the holiday, i f he understands the case worker's role and how 80 he proposes to work with the child. In short, cooperation based upon understanding and sincere interest in the efforts of the other worker, will result in more adequate complimentary services from both agencies; services required for the happiness of the referred child. The camp director may receive pre-camp information about the child by several means. These include: first, the referral form by which the worker presents itemized and specific information, in addition to identifi-cation data; seoond, a written case history, which is often a summary of the worker's information about the child, plus a statement about the treat-ment plan; and third, face-to-face or telephone conferences between the case worker and the camp director. The adequate use of such methods depends upon many factors; namely, knowledge, understanding, quality of services provided by the case worker and the camp director, time available, and the realization by both workers that such cooperative procedure is worth while. Problems also exist in terms of the extent to which this shared knowledge is used in the camper's welfare. However, i t is clear that camp leaders, i f at a l l qualified and interested in the child, will be able to give more adequate services to the individual when they have pre-camp knowledge about the child and his needs. Techniques which may be applied to help the child in camp are further examined in the following chapters. 81 CHAPTER FIVE HELPING THE CHILD IN CAMP. The ohild may be placed in a summer camp for one or several widely varying reasons. The central purpose is to give the child an opportunity to live for a definite period of time in a well-supervised group situation among pleasant out-of-door surroundings, where he is able to have fun, develop new interests and skills, and receive guidance towards personality growth. Moreover, i f the camp experience is to be meaningful to the child, i t must be effectively related to the lif e of the youngster, outside the camp as well as within i t . It is essential, therefore, that the child, his parents, and the oamp leaders be adequately prepared, and that the camp period be so planned that the anticipated benefit for the child will be realizable. Furthermore, a l l efforts must be focused on the child rather than on the worker or the services of the agency. Placement must not be determined by the fact that the "nice" worker "wants" the child to go to camp, that the agency provides camp for every child, or that his parents insist that camp represents an answer to a l l problems., It is a cooperative effort by which every person concerned works towards the fulfilment of a plan of treatment for the client. Not only must the child, his parents, and the camp director help work out and accept the plan for camp placement, but prior to camp, and during the period, the camp director must also make every effort to provide the prescribed treatment. Many methods are used to carry out the treatment plans for ohildren sent to summer camps. Although the techniques differ in effectiveness, certain facts are obvious. These are brought to the fore in the following discussion of cases, which illustrate how much, and how l i t t l e , a child may be helped at camp, in relation to his problem and the guidance provided by the case worker and the camp director before and during the holiday period. 82 Illustrative Cases. The case of Ed is presented in the preceding chapter to show the relationship of adequate pre-camp cooperation between the case worker, and the camp director to satisfactory accomplishment of the plan of treatment for the boy. The written oase summaries and the conferences were necess-itated in order to give the camp director an opportunity to know the lad and to understand his problems and the reason for placement, before he reached camp. It is now important to examine more closely the methods used in preparing Ed for his holiday, and in helping him while at camp. Agency cooperation is an essential part of this process. During the in i t i a l stages of planning, the case worker demonstrated confidence in the ability of the oamp to meet the needs of this thirteen-year-old lad who was exhibiting non-adjustive behaviour and serious emotional difficulties. According to the history: In June, 1946, Ed's first foster parents complained about his "smart alec" behaviour and inability to play with other children, and requested that he be moved. In order to replace Ed more effectively, the worker desired to know more about his ability to relate to people. Because camp would provide a means of evaluating Ed's adjustment, and might also facilitate the lad's growth, the worker suggest-ed a camp placement for Ed. The worker had know-ledge of several boys' camps which were available and, therefore, was able to discuss these camps with Ed and the foster parents. When Ed showed interest in Camp Elphinstone, the worker desoribed the details of camp l i f e , and Ed decided that he would have fun at Elphinstone. The worker also preferred this camp, because the boys receive individual attention and guidance in adjustment to the group situation, and the period is longer than in other oamps. This was Ed'3 fi r s t experience at camp; therefore, i t was necessary for the case worker to describe camp li f e in detail, and to assure the boy that to go to camp is fun and not evidence of further rejection from adults. The worker"was able to do this because he had adequate knowledge about boys' camping, particularly about Camp Elphinstone; the camp which 83 interested Ed. The worker had confidence in the camp and a good relation-ship with the lad, which enabled him to demonstrate to the boy his accept-ance of Elphinstone and the leaders. Ed expressed enthusiasm, and thus had a firm basis upon which to start his holiday. He was carefully pre-pared for camp by the worker who accepted the responsibility for carrying through the arrangements, because the foster parents were relinquishing their care of Ed. In addition, a good working relationship was estab-lished between the oase worker and the camp director. The record continues: The worker then discussed Ed with the camp director, reserved a three weeks* period for the boy, and secured the application forms. He helped the foster parents and Ed complete the forms, and took the lad to have his medical examination. The foster parents helped Ed pack his oamp clothes and the worker checked with them to make sure Ed had a l l the necessary equipment. The camp fees were paid by the agency from the boy's family allowance cheque and the allotment for foster home care. The worker took Ed to the boat and saw him safely off to camp. The worker, therefore, made every effort to plan with the boy, the foster parents, and the camp director during the pre-oamp period in order to provide for a beneficial camp experience. The manner in which the camp staff discussed Ed and planned to provide status for him according to his abilities, is a good illustration of applied camp philosophy and respect for the individual: Prior to the oamp period, the director received a written summary in which the worker stated that i t would be Ed's first camp experience, he did not relate well to other boys, was selfish, demanded much attention, showed signs of delinquency, and his chief interest was playing the piano and singing. These facts were discussed by the oamp director with the program director and the section director before Ed arrived at camp. It was de-cided that Ed should be helped to relate to an adult leader who could give him support, and that Ed should be given an opportunity to gain recog-nition and acceptance from the boys in the group by means of his musical talent. The leader would begin at the point in which Ed had ability, and then help him develop in other areas. 84 Therefore, camp offered a constructive group experience in which Ed would be helped to live with adults and boys and to feel secure and happy among the campers. This was made possible by the emphasis upon the individual as a member of a group at camp, and the planning for the lad according to his interests and needs: When Ed arrived at oamp he had not made f-riends with other campers, and, therefore, could hot be placed in a group among friends, which is al basis for grouping at Elphinstone. The director placed Ed with seven boys of his age who were very willing to have the new lad in their group. Two of the boys were old campers and a l l the lads were happy and well-adjusted. The leader of this group was a teacher and a university graduate who had received camp leadership training in which under-standing of individuals is stressed. (The informa-tion about Ed and plans for his development at camp were interpreted to the leader who was able to give Ed the support he needed. It was valuable to give Ed the support of an understanding adult leader, encouragement in his dominant interests, and help in developing a happy relationship with the boys in the group. The result of camp was ob-viously related to the preparation made for his placement and the under-standing and purposeful guidance of the lad while in camp: During the camp period, Ed at fi r s t lacked con-fidence about his piano playing but gradually he began to take quite an.aetive part in the musical activities, singing and dramatics. His enthus-iasm for outtrips and swimming was not great, but he slowly became interested as his group planned these activities. At f i r s t he displayed con-siderable selfishness. By the end of the three week period, however, he had learned to be more cooperative and to take pride in his group. As a result he did adjust to the group, got along with his cabin mates, and really enjoyed camp. A certain amount of personality growth was evident at the completion of the camp period and during the next few months. This is shown in the record: Upon his return from camp, when placed on a farm foster home with three other boys, Ed adjusted well and his behaviour was most acceptable for the fi r s t few months. But gradually he developed behaviour problems and his emotional disturbances again became evident. By April, 1947, the foster 85 parents seemed to be rejeoting the lad. The Child Guidance Clinic examination resulted in the recom-mendation that Ed again attend camp and be replaced upon his return to the city. Planning for the lad continued in the light of this suggestion. Moreover, the preparation of Ed for the 1947 camp placement was well handled by the new case worker who recognized the value of a repeat experience at Camp Elphinstone: The worker discussed the plan with Ed and the foster parents. Ed stated that he would like to return to Camp Elphinstone, and the case worker discussed camp in some detail with the boy. The second worker also possessed adequate knowledge about camping and the particular assets of Camp Elphinstone. Perparation of Ed was such that camp again represented an opportunity for him to have an enjoyable experi-ence rather than further rejection. The case worker's positive relation-ship with the lad was important in making this clear to him.. In addition, the worker initiated cooperation with the camp director and prepared him for the boy's return: The worker telephoned the camp director, explained Ed's behaviour since the last camp period, and secured a placement. He helped Ed oomplete the form and gather his camp clothes and equipment, and took him for his medical examination. He also prepared a detailed summary of Ed's behaviour, the effect of the 1946 camp experience, and the post-camp plans. For the second time, sharing of information with the camp director made i t possible for the camp leaders to understand the boy and to make the oamp experience a constructive part of his development: In his discussion with the new program director and the new section director before the camp period, the camp director described Ed's back-ground, his past behaviour, and previous experience at camp. It was decided that Ed again required a leader to whom he could relate happily, and help in mixing with boys, even to a greater degree than formerly. Ed was placed in a cabin with an old camper whom he knew and liked. The former leader was not at camp, but the new leader was a well-trained older man who had the necessary skills in group work, and 86 was particularly adept at understanding boys and helping them develop according to their abilities and limitations. He took particular interest in Ed and assisted him in developing new interests. The planning at camp is commendable because stress was laid on the necessity for good leadership. This is an important factor in working with a disturbed youngster at camp. Furthermore, in his second period at oamp, Ed was able to feel at home in the familiar surroundings; but he required the support of an understanding adult, and assistance in becoming an active member of the group. He was helped in this by both the cabin leader and the case worker: Two days after his arrival at camp, Ed received a very friendly letter from the oase worker. The worker hoped Ed was having a good time at camp, and he reminded him to write to his mother to whom he had not written for three months. Thirteen days later, the worker visited Ed at camp. Ed greeted the worker very warmly, and the boy looked happy and his face shone as he described camp l i f e . He proudly explained that i t was his job to keep the grounds clean around the adminis-tration building and so was able to eat at the staff table. The worker had shown consistent interest throughout the winter months, and he continued his support of the boy while he was at oamp. The worker, in fact, acted as a substitute parent for Ed who did not receive a visit from his parents as other campers did while at camp. The v i s i t of the worker, therefore, was warmly received by the boy. The visit had a second important value; i t offered an opportunity for the worker and camp leaders to discuss Ed's progress at camp and to plan an extended holiday: The camp director explained that the camp experience was proving to be good for Ed; he was adjusting better than last year, he was a good camper, his improved behaviour over the last year was evident, and he was participating well in a l l activities. The section director agreed with the latter state-ment, but added that Ed preferred the company of older persons rather than those of his own age; in the presence of the latter he seemed to feel inferior, made valiant attempts to gain recognition 87 by playing the piano, taking part in dramatics or assuming any role that led to prestige in the eyes of the group; at times he seemed somewhat selfish, but he was always cheerful and responded well to the responsibilities given to him. While discussing camp, the worker arranged with the director that Ed remain for twenty-six days. Ed was very happy to know that he was staying longer than expected. It was fortunate that a longer period at camp could be arranged,because a new foster home was not available and further unhappiness and temporary placements were avoided. In addition, since Ed enjoyed the camp and was getting along so well, the longer period enabled his development to continue and to be intense enough to have a permanent effect upon the lad. After the camp period was completed: The worker met Ed at the boat, took him out to dinner, and established him in his new foster home. Ed reported that the holiday had been fun, and he had become a "pioneer", which is the first step in joining the Y.M.C.A. Joining the autumn program at the Y.M.C.A* was prevented, however, when Ed returned to his mother in September. Nevertheless, the lad derived considerable benefit from his camp placements. The next case is presented in Chapter Three to illustrate the careful determination of a plan of treatment for an upset boy, Alan. The plan was based upon the immediate needs of the situation and an evaluation of the boy's behaviour difficulties and his readiness for a camp experience. According to the history: The mother stated that Alan and his younger brother were incorrigible, when she placed them in agency care. Ten-and-a-half year old Alan demonstrated aggressive, anti-social behaviour soon after his f i r s t foster home placement early in 1949. When the foster parents requested that Alan be moved and the Child Guidance Clinic recommended group activities for the boy, the case worker suggested a period at Camp Howdy prior to replacement. The camp was carefully chosen and the treatment plan was worked out in cooperation with Alan, the foster parents, and the camp director. The way in which the camp became a constructive influence upon Alan's development may be seen in both the preparation of the youngster for oamp and the guidance he received at camp. The case worker was an active member of the Camp Howdy committee and, therefore, had intimate knowledge about the camp. He knew that the leadership and program were suoh that Alan would be given the individual attention, which he required to alleviate the emotional disturbance caused by years of rejection by his own parents, followed by rejection by his foster parents. In addition, the camper's behaviour and adjustment could be observed so that he could be more effectively placed upon his return from camp. Therefore, the case worker discussed the details of Alan's background and behaviour difficulties with the oamp director: The plan of treatment was agreed upon, and a two weeks' camp period reserved for Alan. The worker discussed the plan with the foster parents who thought i t advisable, and then he described camp activities, leaders, and so on, to Alan. The lad had been to Camp Firoom for two summers previously, liked camping, and after considering the suggestion, decided that Camp Howdy would be fun. The worker completed a l l the camp arrangements, including securing the necessary clothes and equipment, because the foster parents were relinquishing care of the boy. When the worker took Alan for his medical check-up, and to buy clothes, the boy was in good spirits and quite cooperative. Because the oase worker knew Camp Howdy well, he was able to give both the foster parents and Alan a complete picture of camp l i f e . Alan's enthusiasm was established prior to theholiday, and so he had a good beginning. In addition, the oamp leaders were well prepared, and they participated in the planning for the lad's experience at camp: The camp staff members who would have contact with Alan, had been given a good deal of information about the boy prior to his arrival. On the first day of camp, these leaders, the worker, and the director further discussed Alan and agreed that he required the companionship and affection of adults to help him relate to men, and status and security in the tent group to help him play with other boys. The group work philosophy whereby the campers ohoose tent mates and the tent groups plan their own program, gave Alan an opportunity to make i n i t i a l steps in getting along with boys. The summary continues: The case worker went to Camp Howdy as a tent counsellor for these fourteen days. On the boat trip up the Sound, Alan made friends with three lads and they decided to choose the same tent. Since choosing one's tent mates is a basis- of grouping at Howdy, these four boys formed the nucleus of the tent group whioh the case worker was given. There were seven lads in the group, a l l of whom the worker described as quite badly disturbed boys of a similar type. In this situation, the case worker attempted to assume a group work role at camp and, at the same time, to maintain a case work, intensive, face-to-face relationship with each lad. To a limited degree he was able to carry the duel role, because he had some understanding of the group work approach, and he had several camp skills. But his extreme concern about the problems of each boy, and his strong desire to work with each boy individually, made i t difficult for him to see the group-as-a-whole, to recognize the group needs, and to appreciate the importance of inter-action between the members of the group. The relationship of members to members, therefore, was not fostered so that group-growth as well as member-growth would result. On the contrary, the boys continued to live, work, and play as individuals and not at a l l as individual members of the group. Perhaps each boy tried to establish a close and affectionate bond with the leader; hence, jealousies were created and tensions increased. These conditions might lead to the destruction of the whole group. This was demonstrated on the final night when the seven boys in the tent group were not able to participate in the camp fire ceremony as an integrated group; as individuals they disrupted the program to such a degree that they were al l instructed to return to their tent. Their intense reaction showed their disappointment and recognition of their loss. Because they had not developed a group solidarity and we-feeling, they lost the oppor-tunity to gain status and achievement as a group, and social development was stunted. 90 It is important for the tent counsellor to have extensive knowledge about each lad in order to help him through the group process; but i f the case worker is to lead a camp group, he must have sufficient training in group work skills to enable him to work with the campers as a group worker, rather than as a case worker.1 Only then will the experience have the potential results. Alan's behaviour at camp suggests that the presence of the case worker, who attempted to maintain a case work relationship with the boy, lessened the opportunity for Alan's growth as the result of the camp experience. This seems evident in the history: The oamp is of the fairly rough outdoor type and the program is planned by the boys. Alan was given ample opportunity to take part in the tent group plans. For the first day, he was fairly cooperative and interested in the new surroundings and activities. But on the second day he refused to join the boys at the noon meal, had a temper tantrum, and, in sight of the boys at dinner, walked off along the beach. The director followed him, and for about three-quarters of an hour Alan made no response to the director's conversation. Finally, however, he began to talk about the camp, and a good relationship seemed to be established. On the third day, a l l the campers went on a boat trip, but Alan dawdled in the tent and arrived at the beach too late to go. He was very disappointed and cried, but had to spend the day in camp with the director. During this period, he worked with the direotor around oamp, was very cooperative, and seemed happy. The director thought that this gave Alan an opportunity to gain attention and affection from an interested adult, which he needed. But the worker noted that Alan continued to show signs of deep disturbance; made many bids for attention, and demonstrated a real defiance for any form of authority. On the sixth day, when the tent group was rowing to an island, Alan repeatedly refused to obey an order 1 "The essential quality of the relationship between the client, member, and workers, makes i t inadvisable for one worker, no matter how well-equipped, to function as case worker and group worker to the same clientele. This differentiation is foundbasically in the function and relationship, rather than in the essential background and knowledge required." "The case worker doing group work is a 'crutch' - a stop-gap - until we get adequately trained group workers (in camps)" Wilson, Gertrude, Group Work and Case Work, Their Relationship and Practice, New York, Family Welfare Association of America, 1941, p.66. 91 to move over i n the boat, and i n response to a slap from worker he threw some clothes overboard. Worker made no further reprimands, but rescued the articles and the tri p continued. Within half-an-hour Alan recovered, participated happily in the fun on the island, and no further orders were necessitated. During the last few days of camp, he took part more readily in activities with the boys, began to show a concern for his tent group, and learned to swim. On the return t r i p to the city, Alan was apprehensive about his next placement, but the worker told him that he was going to a new foster home, and he did not object. However, some benefits were derived from the experience; for example, the informality of the camp allowed a period in which the camp director worked with the lad and gave him the support he required to find that adults are not always rejecting and cruel. In addition, Alan gained some confidence in himself when he learned to swim. But a great deal of permanent growth for Alan did not result during the f i r s t period at camp. The worker, however, gained additional understanding of the boy's d i f f i c u l t i e s . He learned that i f Alan received constant careful guidance and opportunities to adjust at a rate of speed determined by the severity of his disturbance, he could make constructive progress towards a more social way of l i f e . The worker was able to use this knowledge i n later contacts with the lad. During the months following camp, Alan's behaviour and subsequent placements led to the recommendation that he should return to camp for a second period: The foster home placement directly after camp was unfortunate, because Alan again experienced rejection by the foster mother, had frequent temper tantrums, and f i n a l l y was sent to the Detention Home. His behaviour improved, and he was placed i n the Agency Receiving Home where the case worker visited him daily, and his behaviour was good for one month. But he was upset by the presence of two boys, and regressed to his former anti-social behaviour. At the end of October, Alan was sent to the Boys' Industrial School where he gradually made a good adjustment. At the Child Guidance Clinic conference in Apri l , 1948, re the disposition of the case, the camp director was included, and i t was recommended that Alan be released and immediately sent to Camp Howdy, prior to a new foster home placement. 92 Because Alan had enjoyed his holiday at Camp Howdy in 1947, i t was important that he enter the same environment as an accepted individual, with status as an old camper and security in the familiar surroundings. The camp director received a fairly complete social history, including the treatment plan, and the worker also discussed Alan with the director. Since the case worker had maintained a good relationship with the boy during the year, he was able to talk to the lad and to help him understand the plan. Again, the worker made a l l the necessary arrange-ments. However, he did not go to camp as a counsellor. Preparation for camp, therefore, was well handled in many respects. As a result: Prior to camp, the staff discussed Alan and his need for guidance in continuing his social adjust-ment, so that the leader had sufficient knowledge to enable him to help Aian at camp. Alan knew some of the old campers, and therefore, was able to choose a number of tent mates. The tent counsellor was a university graduate who had received two years of leadership training at the Y.M.C.A., had extensive ability in group work methods, and a good understanding of individual behaviour. When the worker visited Alan on the tenth day of the holiday, he learned that the boy was making good progress in social development: The worker was welcomed by the lad who talked about the fun and activities, and especially showed enthusiasm about an outtrip his group had taken. The tent leader and the director were pleased about Alan's adjustment, and stated that no difficult situations had arisen. Alan was obviously happy at camp, got along with the boys, and took part in most of the program with far more enthusiasm than during the previous summer. He shared his tent mates' interest in camp l i f e , participated in group planning, and enjoyed the campfire programs which he had ridiculed in 1947. During the nineteen day period, Alan successfully made the transition from the controlled environment of the school to the semi-controlled camp situation in which he was given freedom to participate according to his own desires and to develop self-control. He gradually gained confidence in himself, and participated more easily in campfire programs and outtrips than he had the previous year. Alan was given the 93 attention and consistent affection he required, as well as opportunities to learn new skills. He showed evidence that his recent social adjust-ment had been integrated into his total behaviour. Alan's growth was a gradual process and not only the result of camp; but the excellent planning and application of knowledge and understanding to helping Alan in oamp proved beneficial. In contrast to the cases of Ed and Alan, the case of Helen presents an example of a teen-ager being sent to camp without the leaders being aware of her problems; hence, they made no effort to help the youngster. Helen, at thirteen years of age, is retarded in school and displays some emotional problems: Helen and her brother, one year her senior, were adopted in 1938. At the time Helen was puny and ° i l l , but she gradually improved under the care of her adoptive parents. During her school years, Helen changed school several times, was slow in her work, and repeated Grade VI. Her mother was concerned about Helen's poor progress in school and requested assistance from the case work agency. In February, 1948, Helen was described as pleasant,, polite, overly affectionate, even tempered, sensitive, withdrawing, and not too active nor eratic. She keeps her feelings to herself, and when thwarted she does not pout or make a soene but becomes very quiet. She is a member of a Youth Organization and her main interest is roller skating. At this time Helen was examined at the Child Guidance Clinic, and found to be in the borderline group of general intelligence. Her slowness in school was attributed to limited ability rather than emotional factors, but she displayed a tendency towards neurotic behaviour. Although the worker was aware of Helen's problems in social adjustment, she apparently did not take this into consideration when a camp placement was arranged: In the summer of 1948, the case worker suggested a period at Camp Alexandra for Helen. The worker secured a placement at the camp, sent the application to the mother to complete, with an explanation that the camp leader would contact her regarding prepara-tions and instructions for camp. The worker did not discuss camp with Helen. Apparently, i t had been discussed with the mother who agreed to pay the 94 necessary fee. The worker wrote the camp director explaining that'Helen is a very nice g i r l , quiet, friendly, and certainly appreciative of her first opportunity to go to camp. In the i n i t i a l stages of planning, Helen was not consulted by the case worker, nor was the camp explained to her. The mother carried this responsibility, but there is no indication of how this was accomplished. Obviously, either the worker was not concerned about the "tendency towards neurotic behaviour" and the effect of limited intelligence upon a teen-aged g i r l , or the worker had no confidence in the ability of the camp leader to use this information for Helen's welfare. In her letter to the camp director, the worker gave no indication that a problem existed; on the contrary, she described the girl as quite well-adjusted. The camp leaders, therefore, were in no way prepared to help Helen to function on a friendly social level and to contribute to her cabin group within her ability. Consequently: Helen was placed in a cabin with girls her own age, since she made no choice of friends, and did not make friends with other campers on the train ride to camp. Because she was quiet and polite, and followed the program planned by her cabin mates, she was described by her leader as being "no trouble". The worker stated that Helen enjoyed camp. The camp report suggests that Helen drew no particular attention to herself. Perhaps she was fairly happy at camp. Frequently, however, the quiet subdued child who is "no trouble", has many unmet needs which are not recognized. It seems, therefore, that an opportunity to help Helen was neglected, in view of the case history, because the worker did not share her knowledge with the camp director. Leadership at camp was such that Helen might have been helped to be less withdrawing, to have more confid-ence in herself, and to contribute to camp l i f e . In this.way, she might have been given an opportunity to develop within her capacity in a situa-tion in whioh individual growth is encouraged, i f the leaders had under-stood the camper's needs and abilities. 95 In the study of children sent to summer camps by case workers, several cases have been found where the youngsters, the families, and the camp leaders were not adequately prepared for the placement. In some instances this lack of preparation did not seem to harm the child's enjoy-ment of camp. But in many cases, i t is obvious that i f the child had been more aware of what to expect of camp, and i f the camp leaders had received pre-camp knowledge about the child, the experience would have been more beneficial for the child. In the case presented in Chapter Four, con-cerning Grace, Gertrude, and Gary, for example, the camp leaders had no knowledge of the children's disturbances, and the children were not pre-pared for camp to any great degree by the case worker. As the result, no special consideration was given at camp to the youngster's needs, and the holiday did not even provide a happy period. In fact, the children were so unhappy at camp that nothing was gained from the placement except perhaps that these youngsters were together for ten days. This was not necessarily the camp director's fault, because in the. case of Ben (in Chapter Three) when the same director knew the history and needs of the boy he was able to give him some guidance in adjusting to adults and gaining confidence in himself. It is not possible to set forth definite steps which must always be taken by the case worker and the camp director in order to guarantee that the camp placement will have the prescribed treatment value. Many factors influence each situation. But the above cases demonstrate that certain basic principles must be applied. These are discussed in the following sections. The Case Worker's Responsibilities in Preparing the Child for Camp. The amount of preparation for camp which the worker gives the child, depends upon time available, knowledge and understanding about the young-ster and the camp, circumstances under which placement is recommended, and the relationship between the worker and his client. If the case worker is 96 to prepare the child for the holiday, he must first have intimate know-ledge about the selected camp. Then he must demonstrate to the child and his parents that he accepts camp, has confidence in its ability to provide an enjoyable and beneficial experience, and knows, respects, and likes the camp direotor. Only then will the worker be able to help the child gain confidence in the camp and the camp leaders. Because relation-ships are extremely important to the child's growth, the worker must give sufficient time and effort to building these positive feelings, (a) Helping the Child look forward to Camp. The case worker's function is not completed when the in i t i a l plans for placement have been made. Although the child formerly decided to go to camp and has taken part in the selection of the camp, he may be uncer-tain about what to expect, afraid of what will happen to him, and not sure that he wants to leave home for several days. During the period of pre-paration, the worker must examine such fears and uncertainties, and help the child understand why his holiday will be pleasant, so that he will look forward to becoming a camper. If the child is pushed into the new situation, or bribed or threatened into going to camp, the placement may represent lack of affection and proof of rejection by the parents or the worker; hence, i t may result in an unhappy experience for the youngster. By means of constructive, preliminary preparation, the worker is able to contribute a great deal towards the child's enjoyment of camp. But to do so, he must have sincere interest in the child, confidence in placement, and realistic information about the camp. The child's doubts and fears about the forthcoming adventure may be alleviated simply by the worker describing the camp set-up, campers, and activities. The worker may know, for example, that the youngster wants to learn to swim, or to go on outtrips; therefore, he may describe these camp activities and enliven the child's enthusiasm. However, i f he does not foresee any enjoyment in the described activities, the child may be 9 7 introduced to one or two of these before he goes to camp. There are, in fact, several ways in which the worker may help the child look forward to camp and gain confidence in his future enjoyment of the new l i f e . Not only must the child's fears be eliminated before the placement, but also he must not be severely disappointed because the holiday does not provide the fun the worker described. The worker, therefore, must base his statements upon realistic knowledge of what camp may offer, and recognize that many circumstances may colour the child's happiness at camp. Careful and honest interpretation prior to placement will lessen the possibility of serious disappointment which would jeopardize the treatment value of camp. (b) Enlisting the Assistance of the Parents. The role of the parents in relation to camp placement, is of great importance. It is almost impossible to offer guidance to the child through the group experience, i f the parents do not take part in the planning and preparation for the holiday. The manner in which the worker assists parents varies under different circumstances. The adolescent child, for example, presents problems and needs which differ from those of the younger child. It is necessary, therefore, for the case worker to examine the needs of the child, the needs of the parents, the relationships of the ohild to his parents, and the parents' attitudes towards the young-ster and towards the proposed placement. According to his analysis, he works with the parents, as well as the child, during the preparatory period. It may not be necessary for the case worker to work with both parents i f this seems to be a healthy family group in which there is agreement about the child's camp placement. There are many ways in which the case worker is able to help the parents understand camp so that they, in turn, are prepared to answer the child's questions, to allay his fears, and to present a clear picture of what he may expect at camp. The parents will also know what is expected of them. The -worker, therefore, should 9 8 be able to answer the following questions before the child enters oamp: (1) What Organization runs the camp? Who are the people in charge? Who are the counsellors, and how many-are there in relation to the number of children? Will there be adults at oamp whom the child has known in the city? (2) What clothes, equipment, and spending money does the child need? What regulations are there re medical examinations, parcels, letters, and visits? (3) What other children will be at camp? Will the child live with his friends? Will he have a chance to make new friends? ( 4 ) How do the children get to camp? How do they live at camp? With whom do they live? Does a counsellor stay in the same cabin or in one nearby? What rules must the children observe? ( 5 ) What do the children do? Can a child choose his own activities each day? Does his group make its own plans with a counsellor's help? What things are the children required to do? (6) What does the camp want to know about the child? How will this information be used and protected? What provision is there for the prevention and treatment of sickness and accidents? In addition, i f the parents are aware of a l l the factors involved, there is less likelihood that they will project blame upon the worker, the agency, or the camp, i f the child is not able to adjust and to be happy in the new setting. In helping the parents understand their role, i t may be necessary for the worker to explain the importance of the child knowing that his parents want him to have a happy time at camp; although they will miss him, they want him to attend. The child who is happy at home, and has good support from his parents, is able to enjoy camp, because he is secure in his knowledge that he is loved and wanted. But the child who has been forced or bribed to go to camp may be anxious and unhappy and not able to 1 Several of these questions are similarly listed in the pamphlet which the Social Work Consultant of a Chicago Camping Project sends to parents of prospective campers. Robertson, Margaret M., To Parents of Campers, Chicago, Social Work Project on Camping1, June 1 9 4 7 , ppT4" and 5 . 99 relax, feel secure, and enjoy the holiday. To him camp placement means punishment or parental rejection, and the holiday cannot offer him happiness, nor help in developing as a secure, important, and contented member of the family. The worker, therefore, may assist the family as a unit. Occasionally, i t is possible for the parents to discuss camp with the camp director. If such an interview is held, a number of the parents1 questions may be answered. In some instances, the child may meet the director prior to the camp period and establish a relationship with him. But in the majority of cases, neither the parents nor the child have opportunities for such pre-camp contacts; hence, i t is necessary for the worker to assume many responsibilities. Most camp directors, however, write to the parents welcoming the child and listing regulations, clothes, and equipment which are required at camp. The worker is able to assist the parents in understanding the need for these requirements, and in assembling the neoessary equipment. Rarely is a camp director in a position to make certain that every requirement is adhered to and every suggestion accepted by the parents and the child. Unless guidance is offered to some parents by the case worker, the child may arrive at camp inadequately clothed and without the neoessary equipment to enable him to participate as a regular camper. His enjoyment of camp may be greatly curtailed, because he stands out among the ohildren as an inexperienced and unprepared camper. This is difficult for any ohild to face. However, i t may be prevented by the case worker's assist-ance prior to camp. The worker, for example, may help the child, or his parents, construct the youngster's bed-roll, pack his camp clothes, or label his possessions as oampers are expected to do. With such assist-ance, the child will gain assurance and prestige as one who knows the correct procedure. There are many additional ways in which the child may be helped to gain confidence as a potential oamper, and to adjust 100 more quickly to the new environment at camp. During this preparatory period the case worker is also able to help the parents understand the importance of their continued support of the youngster while he is at oamp. Parents should be encouraged to write letters which demonstrate their interest in the child's camp li f e and their constant affection for him. The worker should explain why the child may not write home frequently although he is contented at camp, why he may sound homesick in his first letter, or how the parents' letters may assist him to be happy. The case worker should explain the regulations about parcels, gifts, and visits to the camp. By such means, the worker helps the parents adjust to the child's first period away from home, and assists them in making his experience a happy one. The situation, however, may be such that the parents are unable to give the child this support. In many cases, the youngster has no parent who is interested in his welfare. Then the worker must give the child . the assurance, feeling of trust, and affection he requires. In fact, the case work process may make i t necessary for the worker to assume parental responsibilities. As the parent substitute, the worker must continue this role prior to camp and during the holiday; for example, he has responsibilities regarding letters and visits to the child. The case of Ed demonstrates the importance of the worker's interest and action in this respeot. When the case worker initiates the process whereby the child is sent to oamp, the worker has the ultimate responsibility to see that the prospective camper is prepared physically, as well as emotionally, for the holiday. Although the parents may be capable of carrying through their responsibilities, the case worker must offer assistance and guidance where necessary. If the worker assumes the parental role, his duties are even more clear cut. 101 (c) Clarifying Financial Arrangements. Prior to the camp period, i t is important that the case worker clarifies a l l issues regarding the camp fee. Financial arrangements vary; i.e., certain camps provide scholarships for some campers, other camps scale fees according to the parents' ability to pay, and several agencies or service clubs partly or wholly finance special camp placements. However,regardless of the manner of payment or the amount to be paid, the parents must clearly understand their financial obligations. By clarifying financial arrangements, the case worker will avoid some of the situations which arise over fees and endanger the effectiveness Of the camp placement. Such a situation may arise when the case worker tells the parents that the camp fee is a certain amount, and when the camp director is consulted i t may be found that the fee is higher. This may cause hostility towards the camp director or the case worker, and prevent the establishment of relationships of confidence and respect. The worker, therefore, must understand the financial arrangements, cooperate with the camp director in working out suitable arrangements for individual cases, and assist the parents to understand and to accept their responsibilities. The Camp Director's Role in Planning for the Child in Camp. Before the child arrives at camp, the director must make plans for his placement so that the camp period will provide conditions which will facilitate the prescribed treatment. But the director, alone, cannot meet these needs. Helping the child in camp, involves cooperative planning and guidance by a l l staff members who will have contact with the camper. However, i t is the director who makes such cooperative effort possible. (a) Discussing the Child with members of the Camp Staff. When the pre-camp referral procedure has been adequately completed, the director has a good deal of information about the child, and he and the case worker have discussed methods which could be employed to assist 102 the child during the camp period. But i t is not enough for the director to have received the information and to have cooperated in the formulation of a plan for the youngster's placement. Other staff members must be prepared to understand the child and to assist him in every possible manner. Therefore, the director's responsibility includes: (1) To discuss the placement plan with the camp personnel who will be associated with the child. (2) To interpret the pertinent data about the child to the counsellors who will be working closely with him. (3) To help the staff members understand the use to be made of the information for the child's welfare. (4) To plan with the camp leaders for the child's holiday so that i t will be a happy and beneficial experience. This procedure is necessary i f the oainp leaders, especially the child's counsellor- are to know the child, to understand his problems, to help meet his needs and interests, and to guide his development. When this interpretive method is not followed and the camp leaders are not adequately prepared to help the child, i t is doubtful i f pre-camp knowledge and cooperative planning will be of much value. The director may be the only staff member who understands the child and the circum-stances surrounding his placement. The leader who is not helped to share and use this knowledge, will not be able to assist the child. The inform- • ation, in fact, might be misused and have a harmful effect upon the camper's happiness. A leader, for example, who hears a oase history, without proper interpretation, may be shocked by certain anti-social behaviour described, and be predisposed to dislike the child. Likewise, a leader who has no understanding of the emotional components of the camper's personality, may punish him for undesirable behaviour. Neither leader will help the ohild i f he does not understand that the various forms of behaviour may be symptoms of emotional disturbances which might be alleviated by affection, support in areas in which the camper is able to excel, and other means which are determined by the situation. The cases 103 of Ed and Alan illustrate the importance of the director planning with the counsellors and helping them work with the boys. (b) Providing Conditions in Camp to Facilitate Treatment. In addition to interpretation of pre-camp knowledge, and staff planning under the guidance of the director, many factors influence the treatment value of the oamp placement. These are concerned mainly with the camp purpose, organization, and staff selection and training. A l l camps are not in a position to give the child more than a holiday in the out-of-doors. But i f the needs of the camper are to be met and develop-ment result, i t is necessary to preserve an atmosphere which enables each child to participate according to his abilities and needs; to gain security in the group situation, and to reoeive stimulation towards growth. The type of camper grouping has an important influence upon the kind of setting and atmosphere created. In the small self-determinate cabin grouping of eight campers, with a permanent adult counsellor, the child has more opportunity to participate freely in program planning and activities, to receive guidance as an individual member of the group, and to learn to live, work,, and play with fellow campers and adults in a socially acceptable way. Otherwise, he may be lost in a large crowd and gain l i t t l e from the holiday. The child may be placed in the small, cabin or tent group according to his choice of friends, i f this is possible, since friend-ship is the basis of stable group relationships. In some cases, however, i t is necessary to guide the child's placement in view of his particular problems, his lack of friends, or his need for a certain type of leader. During the planning period, therefore, the-director and counsellors discuss the guidance which the individual child requires, and plan his group place-ment according to his needs and the circumstances involved. Such planning must be flexible and allow for changes which might be necessitated when the youngster arrives at camp, or during his first few days among the campers. However, when the camp organization and pre-camp planning do not allow for 104 this type of group placement, the needs of the child are less likely to be met. The relative competence of the leaders has a great deal of influence upon the amount and kind of help the child will receive at camp. The use which is made of pre-camp knowledge is dependent upon the qualifications of the staff. Moreover, certain skills and knowledge are required i f the cabin counsellor is to work within the group setting and to relate his knowledge and understanding of the child to his guidance of the cabin group, so that the group and the child will benefit from the activities. As the competence of the staff inoreases, therefore, the potential value of camp placement for the ohild also increases. The type and emphasis of camp program also have an important effect upon planning for the child and upon helping him at camp. In contrast to the "program-centred" camp which is run according to preconceived and adult-imposed activity schedules, the camp which emphasizes the small cabin group as the basis of program, offers many opportunities for individual development; opportunities for the child to choose activities, to take part in the planning of program, and to satisfy his needs in the group setting. In short, the child's participation in program which is "member-centred" and guided by a skilled leader, enables greater individual growth. In the oases of Ed and Alan, for example, the program organization gave both boys ample opportunity to develop within their capacities. Parents' visits to camp present upsetting problems. Poorly timed and unexpected visits may upset the child who is adjusting well at camp. A visi t within the fir s t few days at camp when the child is slowly growing accustomed to new people and new ways, may make the child homesick and unhappy. It is important, therefore, to know the visiting regulations and to adhere to them. Even when visiting is encouraged on specific days, problems oocur; for example, children become unhappy when parents leave, i l l because "extra treats" have been far too abundant, or emotionally 105 upset because they did not receive a visitor. The camp leaders, therefore, must help the campers work through these difficult periods. The case worker also may play a constructive role in this regard. According to the circumstances, he may encourage the parents to visit , he may discuss with them why visits are undesirable, or he may go to camp in place of the parent. The worker's vi s i t to camp several days after the child is placed, may have one or two values; fi r s t , the child may benefit from the worker's interest and added support, and second, the worker and the camp staff may discuss the child's adjustment and problems and irork out further treatment plans. Such a contact offers opportunity for mutual exchange of thinking and understanding among a l l the adults who have had contact with the child, and for clarification of the contributions which camp may offer towards the youngster's develppment. This value was apparent in the case of Ed. However, to accomplish these ends, the worker must be aware of the leaders' responsibilities and encourage discussion without taking up too much of their time. Camp visits, nevertheless, present only one of the problems which the camp director confronts, and which hamper the amount and effectiveness of attempts to help the child in camp. To sum up, i f the case worker plans to place a child in camp for a definite purpose, the responsibility for insuring fulfilment of this aim lies with many persons; namely, the case worker, the parents, the director, and other camp personnel. Fulfilment, in turn, is dependent upon many factors. In specific respects, the child, his parents, and the camp leaders must be prepared for the child's placement in camp. The camp period must be so planned and regulated that the youngster will receive the assistance he requires, in so far as the camp is equipped to accom-plish this. Adequate preparation, in its several phases, therefore, represents one more step towards a successful and beneficial camp 106 experience for the child. The help which the child receives during his holiday, in terms of his growth and happiness, depends upon this step, as well as upon the methods of work which are employed by the personnel in camp. 1 0 7 CHAPTER SIX. BUILDING ON THE CAMP EXPERIENCE. It is essential that the child's experience at camp is related to his total development; not merely an isolated incident. Although the oase worker cannot guarantee that the relationship will be completely effective, in terms of the child's permanent growth, several methods may be employed to make the results of the camp experience as beneficial as possible. The camp placement may have one or several important results for the child; for example, development of his social participation, improvement in his relationship to children or to adults, stimulation of his interests, satisfaction of his particular needs, or discovery of his needs to be met or problems to be solved. These results, however, must not be ignored, or the positive effects left to chance. In order to know what benefits were derived from the camp placement, and to relate these to the child's continuing life experiences, the case worker must receive a good deal of information from the camp leaders, as well as evaluating the results by other means. This is required for a l l placements; even when the case worker and the camp director have co-operated throughout the entire process so that the holiday is part of well-planned treatment and the child has received careful guidance while at camp. If the worker's efforts to help the child by means of camp placement, terminate when camp closes, the value of the experience may be very temporary, and gradually decrease in effectiveness until camp is only a happy past incident with no permanent meaning. In some instances, the experience has no value whatsoever because the effect upon the child is unknown or ignored, and the worker's subsequent contact with the child continues as i f the youngster had never been to oamp. The principles of procedure which are involved in the process 108 through whioh the camp experience is related to the child's continuing life experiences, are demonstrated in several cases. Illustrative Cases. The case of Ian illustrates the means by which the worker gained detailed information about the lad's adjustment and behaviour at oamp, and attempted to build upon the benefits derived from the camp experience. Ian is an emotionally disturbed, physically handicapped lad, sixteen years of age. His behaviour difficulties indicate many fears and severe in-security, as shown in the record: Ian was made a ward of a Children's Protection Agency soon after his birth, and for nine years was placed in several foster homes where his behaviour gradually became very difficult. Since 1940, he has remained in one foster home where he has been pampered to a considerable degree, and has "taken advantage of" his deaf-ness in one ear. During the 1946-47 school term, in grade eight, Ian had twenty-eight de-tentions, was a nuisance in class, frequently arrived late at school, made poor grades, and could not concentrate in class or at home. In the spring he joined a Y.M.C.A. swimming class, but annoyed the leader and the boys. He got along with boys in the neighbourhood, however, and several nights a week the lads met at his home to build aeroplanes etc. Ian was fond of Sunday School where he seemed to f i t in fairly well. When Ian was examined at the Child Guidance Clinic in May, 1947, he tested in the average group of general intelligence, and his behaviour difficulties were attributed to the constitutional hearing weakness. It was recommended that the boy be placed in a summer camp in order to have a tem-porary release from the overprotective foster home. In view of this history, the plan for camp placement was well prepared. Moreover, i t was shared with the foster parents and the camp director: When the worker suggested camp to the foster mother, she did not think Ian would be interested, because he had not bothered to place his applica-tion for Camp Elphinstone in 1946 when he had the opportunity. But after two weeks, Ian decided he would like to attend Camp Elphinstone, and the worker discussed oamp with him. The worker had a conference with the camp director, discussed the 109 treatment plan, and secured the director's f u l l cooperation, including compliance with Ian's wish to be called by his foster name while at camp. The family discussed the placement and completed the application forms which the worker secured. The worker arranged for Ian's medical examination, helped him prepare his clothes and equipment, and took him to the camp boat. Ian was very excited about the coming holiday. The worker, therefore, took advantage of the preparatory period before camp, and carried through his responsibilities for the welfare of the boy. The camp director received a fairly complete written case summary a few days before Ian entered camp: The worker explained Ian's poor motor coordination which had improved to the point where the lad was able to balance on a narrow diving board. He noted Ian's complete deafness in his left ear and impaired hearing in his right ear, and his habit of not going to bed until after 11:00 p.m. He also described Ian's food fads, to which his foster mother catered, his stubborn and irresponsible behaviour at home and at school, his ability in swimming, and his ineptitude in other sports. The worker expressed.the hope that camp would help Ian mix with others and learn how to live happily with other lads and adults. The camp director had a fairly adequate understanding of the boy before camp, and therefore was able to discuss Ian's needs and interests with the camp leaders. The lad was placed in a cabin group with a friend whom he had met at the Y.M.C.A. and with boys of his own age with whom he could apparently get along. The camp staff was thus able to plan for;Ian according to pre-camp discussion, and the cabin counsellor was prepared to apply his knowledge of the lad to his guidance of the camper. The work with Ian during the camp period was consistent with his needs and the treatment plan. The leader helped Ian to relate to boys and to adults, and to gain status as a swimming instructor. The knowledge of the lad's ability in the latter activity, therefore, was applied in a constructive manner so that he gained attention and prestige by means other than his former anti-social behaviour. The worker learned about Ian's progress when he visited the boy eight days after camp began: 1 1 0 Ian was happy to see the worker, showed him the site , and talked about his swimming and the Voyageur Cruise for which he was training. The section director told the worker that Ian seemed to he adjusting well, was getting along with the boyB, and was sleeping well. Ian 18 cabin counsellor explained that the lad was making a good response to camp li f e ; but his deafness was a handicap, although i t did not greatly impair his mixing with his cabin mates. On two occasions, Ian had helped to teach swimming and diving to the boys who were trying to qualify for the tests. During this v i s i t , both camp leaders told the worker that Ian wished to return home a week earlier than planned, because most of the boys were leaving then; i.e., at the end of the three weeks' period. The director, leaders, and worker discussed this and agreed that Ian's wish should be granted. The worker later visited the foster mother, explained Ian's progress, and made arrangements for his earlier return. The worker's v i s i t provided important results; namely, Ian reacted happily to the worker's interest, the worker gained knowledge about Ian's f i r s t steps in adjustment, and a future plan was worked out with the leaders which demonstrated the adults' respect for the boy's desires. Not only did the oase worker learn about Ian's f i r s t period at camp when he visited, but after the oamp closed he also received a complete written report from the section director. The report was necessary beoause during the remaining thirteen days of the holiday, the leader had more time to know the lad and to carefully analyse his camp experience. This report, moreover, demonstrated the leader's insight into the lad's behaviour, and gave the worker oonerete material upon which to base his future oontacts with the lad. The following statements were compiled by the section director: Ian had difficulty assimilating into the group. He was conscious of his inability to join the other boys on every occasion* and further hampered himself by using his deafness as an escape mechanism. This hindered his general response in conversations and aotivities, and gave the impression of mental retard-ation. -He possessed insatiable curiosity about a l l things, and continued to talk about certain subjects and to ask questions for hours after the f i r s t dis-cussion. He slept extremely well. There was some difficulty re oamp schedule for meals etc., and he maintained a reluctance to eat unfamiliar and disliked •foods. I l l Ian showed a helpless attitude while on the Voyageur Cruise, and required special attention so that he did not lack personal equipment, comfort and safety. This attitude, along with his habit of continually asking questions, seemed to indicate that Ian had received too much support, and therefore relied entirely upon others for his own welfare. He.was therefore a fish out of water. He tried admit-ably and persistently throughout the cruise to meet al l requirements. We coddled him as l i t t l e as possible, and, unless for safety reasons, gave him l i t t l e aid. He therefore climbed Anvil Mountain with very l i t t l e assistance, and this represented a one hundred per cent improvement in his personal independence. Ian's interests were definitely along mechanical lines, especially electricity and photography. he was not interested in boys' oamp l i f e . He was deeply aware of his own inabilities and the attitude of other lads towards him. Because he posed a persecution complex, when associated with groups, he built up increased resentment. It seems that the constant strain of attempting to meet the physical and mental requirements of fellow campers was too much for him, and, therefore, i t was suggested that he be given an opportunity to return home one week earlier than originally planned. Ian needs social status, recognition, and dependence of others upon him. He was accepted as one of the group when he swam well, dived better than anyone, and helped other boys improve these skills; But generally he appeared to be withdrawing and dreamed a lot; for example, when the other boys were ga l l i -vanting about, Ian sat in the skipper's place in a big canoe and played the role of skipper of a fully-manned war canoe. It was a complete surprise when Ian, upon leaving oamp, stated that he would be certain to be back next year. Perhaps we did not f a i l so much as we had thought. A few remarks in this report oould have been clarified, and some statements are questionable; but the greater part of the information presents a fairly complete picture of Ian's adjustment in camp and his particular needs. The leader obviously put a good deal of thought into his writing and earnestly tried to understand the boy; his behaviour and his personality. Apparently the leader attempted to answer questions which were indicated in the worker's pre-camp summary, and his illustrations are well used. The worker secured additional knowledge about the immediate effect of 112 camp upon Ian, by discussing the holiday with both the boy and his foster mother: Following Ian«s return from camp, the worker visited the foster mother. She stated that Ian had enjoyed camp and she was surprised that he had accomplished so much; olimbing two mountains, walking along a narrow ledge, and sleeping out in the rain. Ian later told the worker that he had fun at oamp, especially on the Voyageur Cruise, and hoped to return next year. With the camp report, this information was used in the worker's attempt to build upon the experience; that is, in subsequent guidance of the boy to help him make an improved general adjustment: Ian was encouraged to resume his membership at the Y.M.C.A. and to enter more activity groups. The worker discussed Ian's camp experience and needs with the oamp director who was on the staff of this group work agency. As the result, the direotor continued his interest in Ian, tried to help the boy in his relationship to other lads, and quite frequently discussed Ian with the worker. The case of Ian, therefore, presents an i l l u s -tration of the manner in which case work - group work cooperation con-tinued after the camp period. The progress made at camp was not ignored, and constructive work continued throughout the following months. Unfortunately, Ian's behaviour during the next year does not present a success story. His school work gradually became poorer, he developed an exaggerated interest in sex, and he did not make any progress when transferred to the Technical School, in spite of his interest in mechanical work. Perhaps Ian should have been enrolled in the provincial deaf school several years previous to this. However, when Ian was examined at the Child Guidance Clinic in May 1948, his behaviour was diagnosed as being close to psychotio, and psychiatrio treatment was recommended. At this time, Ian did not wish to return to oamp; but i t is doubtful i f a repeat experience at camp would have been beneficial, because Ian was seriously disturbed, and oamp could not provide the kind of therapy he seemed to require. The importance of this oase, however, 113 is that cooperative efforts by the oase worker and the oamp direotor continued throughout the entire oamp placement period, and workable methods were used in an attempt to further the boy's development as the result of his holiday at Camp Elphinstone. The permanent effect of continued and oareful oooperation over a long period of time, is more vividly illustrated in the history of Alan. The case of this ten-and-a-half year old ward, who is demonstrating aggressive anti-social behaviour in response to years of rejection, is presented in Chapters Three and Five. In the following summary, therefore, emphasis is placed upon the methods used to integrate camp benefits into Alan's continuing l i f e experiences: In May, 1947, when the foster parents requested that Alan be moved from their home, and the Child Guidance Clinic recommended group activities, the case worker suggested a period at camp for him. Camp Howdy, known to the oase worker, was ohosen as the Camp whioh might help Alan adjust more happily to people, and prepare him for a more satisfactory foster home placement. The treat-ment plan for camp placement was determined by the worker and the oamp direotor, and the latter re-ceived detailed information about the boy. The foster parents and Alan were well prepared for the placement. Everyone oonoerned, therefore, was in a position to make the experience as beneficial as possible for the lad. In oamp Alan's difficult behaviour continued, but he showed some improvement in his general attitude. Because the oase worker was the leader of Alan's tent group, he gained added insight into the boy's difficulties, and witnessed his need for constant oareful guidance. After the camp period was completed, i t was not neoessary for the worker and the oamp direotor to discuss Alan's adjustment to oamp because this had been adequately handled in staff conferences on the site. But the worker wrote a complete camp report for future reference, and he was able to apply the knowledge obtained at,oamp, to help Alan in subsequent contacts: Alan's behaviour was not greatly changed after his return from camp. As the result of disturbances in the new foster home and the Receiving Home, at the end of October, Alan was sent to the Boys' 114 Industrial Sohool. During the five months there Alan made a successful adjustment. In the Reoeiving Home, the worker attempted to work with the boy according to the understanding he had gained at oamp. To a certain degree he was successful, until other oircumstanoes disturbed Alan's behaviour. It was after the conference, held to determine the disposition of the oase, that the knowledge of Alan's past experiences at oamp was more successfully applied. The camp direotor was included in this meeting, where i t was recommended that Alan be released from the School, plaoed in agency care, and again sent to oamp, prior to foster home placement, so that the stability of his newly acquired sooial behaviour could be tested in a more natural sooial environment. As the result, a second holiday at Camp Howdy was arranged. The camp director again received detailed informa-tion about Alan, and the worker discussed the place-ment plan with the director. The camp staff was able to apply this knowledge in working with Alan in the group situation. The worker did not go to oamp as a leader, but when he visited Alan at camp, he discussed the boy's participation and behaviour with the director and the tent counsellor. It was agreed that Alan was happy at camp and was taking part in activities to a far greater degree than during the previous summer. By means of his vi s i t to oamp and the director's report, the worker received a great deal of information about the benefits Alan derived from camp l i f e J When the holiday was completed, the direotor sent the worker a written report about Alan's behaviour during the nineteen day oamp period. He stated that Alan seemed quite a different boy in compari-son with his f i r s t summer at Howdy; he presented no problems, formed good relationships with his leader and tent mates, gradually gained confidence in himself, and took part in campfire programs and outtrips "as a regular camper". Alan's swimming continued to improve, and he showed new interest in oamp crafts. It was evident that Alan had benefitted from both the Industrial School placement and the camp experience. At Camp Howdy, where he gained prestige and felt at home, his socially acceptable behaviour continued. 115 Alan's satisfactory adjustment was evident in the new home place-ment: Direotly after camp, Alan was placed in a foster home where the parents were fond of him and en-couraged him to bring friends home to play. He displayed no behaviour problems of the former alarming nature, did not have vicious temper tantrums, and was not destructive, although he used blasphemy quite frequently. Moreover, the camp experience offered an introduction to group activities in the city. The effect of camp upon Alan's development was therefore strengthened.by the provision of carefully guided winter activities: In October, when Alan complained of having nothing to do, the worker suggested he might join the Y.M.C.A. Alan was interested because the camp director, whom he knew and liked, was direotor of boys' program at the Y., and swimming was possible during the winter. The plan was discussed with the director who then made special efforts to give Alan a feeling of acceptance as a member of the club. The direotor continued his interest in the lad throughout the winter, and fre-quently disoussed Alan's participation in sports and swimming, with the worker. Because the camp direotor and several other oamp leaders were available at the Y.M.C.A., they were in a position to foster the friendship and con-structive relationships Alan had established at Camp Howdy. In addition, continuous cooperation, discussions, and co-planning by the worker and the camp direotor, had beneficial results in relation to Alan's total development: Late in the Autumn of 1948, the worker and the direotor decided to admit Alan into the Junior Leaders' Corps, as an experiment to determine to what degree the boy could carry responsibilities. Alan, therefore, took part in an extra weekly supper meeting which inoluded a training period when he assisted in gymnastic classes. The boy attended regularly and was accepted by the other lads who had quite different backgrounds. During these weeks, the boys also went on over-night hikes and climbed the mountain. The director stated that Alan made a fair improve-ment in his general attitude, and, although his behaviour was not always satisfactory, i t had greatly improved since the summer of 1947. When the new ease worker took over the ease in the Spring of 1949, he 116 continued the cooperative action for Alan's welfare, because the f i r s t worker had compiled a complete record describing past treatment and recommending subsequent action. It i s apparent, therefore, that the oase of Alan illustrates the application of most of the effective procedures which may be successfully used to further the child's development when he is sent to an organized oamp by a oase worker. In a few instanoes, oamp placement may prove beneficial in a manner anticipated by the oase worker, in spite of the fact that post-camp inter-change of understanding and knowledge between the worker and oamp personnel does not occur. But success depends upon the nature of the child's problems, the worker's understanding of his needs, and the ability of the camp to provide a suitable experience. The element of chance, moreover, is more prominent in this procedure; i.e., when the worker does a l l the planning, and decides the value of the placement on the basis of the child's reaction and subsequent behaviour, rather than by the additional means of contact with the camp director or cabin counsellor. The case of Jane presents an example of a beneficial camp experience where no oooperation took plaoe. When the holiday was.suggested, Jane, ten years of age, and her sister, one year younger, had not developed behaviour problems; but they were extremely tired, unhappy, and without friends, as the result of assuming a great many adult responsibilities in the house. According to the history* In 1947, the mother died, leaving the father and his two daughters to look after the two-year-old brother. Because the father worked night shift, the girls stayed home from school on alternate days to look after the baby, and remained alone with him every evening until midnight. The father became greatly depressed regarding his responsibility, wished to place the girls, and advertised the baby for adoption. When the Family Agency worker contacted the father, he was uncooperative and casual in his attitude, and was neglecting the training and super-vision of the children. Continual housekeeping duties, and caring for the baby made both girls very tired. Jane, as the elder, assumed most of the responsibility; hence, she was exhausted, very anxious about the baby's care, she did not play wiih 117 other youngsters, and she was missing a great deal of school. Therefore, the worker suggested oamp placement for both girls as an opportunity for them to play as children and to make friends. The plan was sound, and i t was made workable by the arrival of a housekeeper: In order to help the family remain together, the worker secured a housekeeper by the summer of 1948. It was then possible, in June, to suggest oamp for both girls, so that they could be relieved of the home responsibilities and have a holiday with other children. When the worker described Camp Firoom, the younger sister was not interested; but Jane was very enthusiastic, although the father was,, at fir s t , reluctant to have' her go. Only one camp was discussed. However, because Jane had had no previous group or oamp oontaots and l i t t l e opportunity to plan recreational activities for herself, she might not have been able to choose a oamp without the worker stating a preference. The worker, furthermore, chose Camp Fircom because i t was the only available camp whioh his clients had 'enjoyed and about which he had considerable information. Although the worker suggested only one oamp, he described i t fairly accurately; hence, Jane became enthusiastic and she made the final decision to attend. Jane and her family were well prepared for the child's holiday. The worker helped the father complete the application form, and took Jane for her medical examination. At this time, Jane met other prospective campers and a few staff members; but the contact was brief and in no way similar to an interview. The worker did not oontaot the camp director after the identification data .had been sent to the oamp office; thus the direotor had no pre-camp information about Jane nor about the treatment plan. In turn, the oase worker learned nothing about the treatment the girl received at oamp, and l i t t l e about her adjustment and behaviour, because no record was prepared by the oamp leaders, and no post-camp conference was held. Jane's comments presented the only souroe of information: 118 Upon her return from oamp, Jane stated that she had enjoyed the holiday and she talked a good deal about the activities, -which were al l new to her. She also showed the worker several snapshots of her camp friends. The worker, thereupon, stated that Jane gained personal satisfaction from the experience, because she made friends and the holiday represented "the beginning of a new outlet for her" In the autumn, the oase worker built upon the camp experience: The worker encouraged Jane to join a local group of "Brownies". She became a regular member, enjoyed the program, and made several friends. Jane was no longer the mother person in the home, and she became a happier child. Camp placement, consequently, had a very important effect upon the child 1s social development. Perhaps she might have gained more i f the oase worker had planned with the oamp director prior to placement, and i f the leaders had presented a report about Jane's behaviour at oamp. In so far as he went, however, the worker helped the youngster by means of the prescribed holiday. In addition, he carried out a constructive plan by assisting Jane to move on to winter group activities after she showed her desire to play with other girls. Because Jane was not seriously disturbed, but only tired and anxious as the result of family circumstances, as soon as the family situation was improved, Jane was able to have fun and to behave as a well adjusted child. In this case, therefore, the emotional development of Jane and the temporary nature of her problem, were deter-mining factors in the success of the camp placement. Moreover, the worker was able to relate the benefits derived from oamp to Jane's continuing l i f e experiences, because he understood the child's needs and recognized the importance of further group activities. The oase of Ken differs from that of Jane, because the benefits resulting from the holiday were ignored, in spite of the fact that co-operation between the fi r s t oase worker and the oamp director continued throughout the oamp period, and a written oamp report was prepared. The I 119 negligence of the second case worker is extremely unfortunate, because the problems of this sixteen-year-old ward are very serious. This is clear in the summary: Ken has a history of behaviour difficulties over a long period of years in many foster homes where he met repeated rejection. At the Child Guidance Clinic examination in 1945, he tested in the general group of superior intelligence, his memory was excellent, but his application was poor. There was some evidence of eneuresis, and he cried easily. He was untruthful, destructive, lazy and dreamy in sohool, and unable to play well with children because he cheated. He ohummed with the worst boys in the neighbourhood, refused to obey adults, shirked work, had no respect for other's property, and punishment had no effect upon him. Ken always wanted to be in the limelight, mumbled and sulked when ignored, seemed to have a chip on his shoulder, and developed mannerisms suoh as snapping his fingers. By the spring of 1948, Ken's behaviour had grown worse. He was coasting along in a cooking olass at Technical School; he showed no ambition, refused to try, and disturbed the classes. His only interest in the sohool was that there was no homework. Ken seemed determined to show no emotion in response to punishment of any kind, refused to help at home, refused to save money, was careless about personal hygiene and appearance, and was never punctual. He had become withdrawing, oversensitive, negativ-istio, and unable to show affection or to relate to strangers. The boy seemed friendly and cooperative with the worker, but assumed an air of resignation. During the winter, he attended Saturday night Teen Town dances with a foster brother and sister, and went up the mountain, but he had no particular friends, and looked on rather than actively taking part in the activities. To work with a teen-age boy who is demonstrating these symptoms of emotional disturbances, requires a good deal of s k i l l . The case worker attempted to help Ken by means of employment at a boys' oamp, where his progress could be evaluated. The methods whioh the worker applied are shown in the record: An opportunity arose for Ken to go to Camp Elphinstone as assistant to the cook. Ken was interested when the worker suggested the employ-ment. The worker discussed the plan with the oamp direotor and gave him a complete report about Ken. After three weeks on the oamp staff, the boy 120 was not working well. The case worker and oamp director, therefore, decided to enrol Ken as a camper with other boys of his age. The plan, therefore, was discussed with Ken, and the camp director received the necessary information. Moreover, oooperation continued when alternative arrangements were required. Ken apparently gained a good deal from the placement when he became a oamper, was given attention by an interested and apcepting leader, and did not experience rejection to which he was accustomed: Ken joined a cabin group under a well-trained leader and readily took part in a l l the activities. He particularly enjoyed the hikes and rough out-door l i f e , and gained status by his piano playing and singing. At the end of the season, the direotor sent the worker a complete report out-lining Ken's poor behaviour while in the kitchen, and his satisfactory adjustment as a camper. It seems that this might have represented the fi r s t step in Ken's develop-ment towards self-confidence and more socially acceptable behaviour. The prognosis for this boy's potential social development may possibly be limited, in view of his disturbances, the Clinic findings of 1945, and Ken's inability to carry responsibilities. However, i t would have been helpful for the worker and the direotor to have discussed the placement and analysed the reasons for Ken's satisfactory adjustment as a oamper. However, no attempt was made to hold such a conference: The fi r s t worker left the agency early in September. The succeeding oase worker did not call a conference, and there was no further contact between the two agencies. As the result, nothing was done in the way of building upon the boy's oamp experience. Not only did the oase worker seem to ignore the possibility that he would gain more understanding of Ken by conferring with the oamp director, but he also did not encourage the boy to continue group aotivities. The friendships Ken had established at camp, for example, might have been fostered in the Y.M.C.A. winter program, because some of the camp leaders 121 were working with Y. senior clubs. However, the case worker's subsequent contacts wildi Ken were not related to the camp experience. On the contrary, Ken received no guidance of the type suggested, but was allowed to drift along as he had in previous months. As a result, he left sohool in the autumn and tried several -types of employment where he did not have to assume any responsibility. The oamp direotor states that something more constructive oould have been done to help this boy of superior intellectual ability, and he regrets the lack of more effective follow-up. In the discussion of the above cases, attention has been drawn to the methods which may be used by the camp director and the case worker, to build upon a camp experience. Several recommendations may now be made, in terms of the procedure which has proved useful when the worker continues his contact with the child. The Case Worker's Knowledge of the Child's Camp Experience. During the camp period, the leaders have many opportunities to know the child: to observe his adjustment to children and to adults: to watoh him in play, at meals, and in learning situations: to help him satisfy interests and develop new skills: and to deal with his particular behaviour problems. If the leaders have sufficient knowledge about the child and some understanding of children's behaviour, their observations and experiences with the camper are of great interest to the worker who has sent him to camp. In most cases, moreover, the worker has known and observed the child in quite different circumstances. In addition, his relationship to the client is different from the cabin counsellor's relationship to the oamper. The worker, therefore, may frequently gain from the camp leader further understanding of the ohild. This is particularly true when the leaders have carried out the plan of treatment suggested by the case worker and the oamp direotor, and have plaoed special emphasis upon aspects of the child's development about which the worker desired more knowledge. It is important, therefore, that the oamp 122 leaders have some means of relaying their information to the case worker. (a) Information Gained From the Visit to Camp. Occasionally, the worker visits the camp several days after the child has arrived. During this visit, he usually has an opportunity to talk to the ohild and to observe his behaviour. He may also discuss with the cabin counsellor and the camp director, the child's preliminary attempt to make himself at home in the oabin group and to f i t into the general oamp routine. If this v i s i t is well-timed, does not upset the child, nor interfere with oamp program, i t may offer an excellent means for the worker to gain first-hand information about the child's readiness and ability to work and play in the new environment. The visit , however, should not terminate the worker's quest for information from the leaders, because a great deal may happen during the remaining days of oamp, and the leaders require more time to evaluate the effect of camp upon the child. (b) The Value of the Camp Report. If the camp leaders have sufficient time, after the child has returned to the city, they are able to write a report stating their oareful observations of the camper over the entire period he was at camp. Such a f u l l acoount of the child's adjustments and experiences is exceedingly helpful to the worker, who thereby gains a broader understanding of the child in his group relationships away from his customary family environment. The worker should be able to utilize these careful observations in his subsequent contacts with the child. Camp reports vary in subject matter and in the manner of presenta-tion of important material. Some reports are written only by the child's cabin counsellor, others by the oamp director, and a few include separate statements by a l l staff members. In most oamp situations, the cabin counr. sellor has lived and worked with the child more olose]y than any other camp leader; but the director, nurse, program specialists, and others may have had limited contacts with the oamper. The report will be more complete 123 and meaningful, therefore, i f the oabin counsellor writes i t and, at the same time, inoludes comments and recommendations made by other staff members. Furthermore, i t is important that the worker knows who wrote the report and his relationship with the child. It is difficult to l i s t the exaot material which must be inoluded in every report, beoause circumstances and problems differ. Generally speaking, however, the report should include comments on several items: general description of the camper and his cabin group; the child's health, personal hygiene, habits, reaction to camp routine and responsibilities, interests and abilities, relationships with other campers and camp staff; special observations about the ohild; visits by relatives and friends; estimated value of the camp experience; and finally, recommendations for follow-up.* A great deal of information may not be inoluded under each heading, because the report might become longer than necessary; but com-ments about each aspect of the camper's experience are desirable. Regardless of whether or not each item is discussed in detail in the report, emphasis must be placed upon the development of the child while he is at camp. The child's strengths, as well as his problems, must be stressed so that the picture will be complete. It is important, also, that the writer is objective, uses simple language, and olarifies his remarks by including examples of the child's behaviour or statements. Moreover, when the worker has discussed the treatment plan with the oamp director, prior to camp, the writer of the oamp report should especially stress the ways in which the experienoe has:, or has not, provided the anticipated benefit for the ohild. The worker will then have oonorete evidence upon which to evaluate the effectiveness of the placement, and to plan future treatment. Although a few camp directors have made the writing of the camp 1 The information required under eaoh heading, is presented in Outline IV, Appendix C. 124 report a part of normal procedure, too many do not consider i t important. Unfortunately, many camp leaders do not have sufficient training nor time to present a meaningful report, and the statement is often too brief or contains a mixture of valueless jargon which is not explained. In every case, however, the fact that the child has lived at oamp for a number of days, means that the leaders have observed the camper in many situations; hence, quite probably, some of their observations will be of value to the worker. If the worker does not receive a report from the camp, i t is usually worthwhile for him to request one. Frequently, the camp director responds quickly and compiles a useful report. This is particularly true when the case worker has cooperated with the camp director throughout the entire placement period. If the direotor does not have time to write a report, however, he may be willing to discuss the camper with the worker, either by telephone, or in a direct interview. In this way, the worker secures the information and may, in addition, encourage an improved working relationship between the director and case workers. (c) Post-Camp Conferences as Essential Souroes of Information. Case workers and camp directors are gradually recognizing the importance of a post-camp conference concerning the ohild, regardless of whether or not a report has been sent to the worker. The conference offers an opportunity for further discussion about the ohild and the benefits derived from his holiday, and for both workers to evaluate the effectiveness of the camp placement. The oamp direotor is able to disouss the ohild's behaviour in a more detailed manner than a written report usually allows, in view of limitations imposed by the pressure of time at the olose of the oamp period. Frequently, moreover, a telephone discussion or an interview with the camp director presents the only means whereby the worker learns what has actually happened to the child at camp, and understands the factors whioh have influenced his oamp l i f e . 125 Unfortunately, few post-camp conferences of either type are held. The reasons are numberous. After the camp period has been completed, for example, some workers think further contact with the oamp director is unnecessary, impossible, or of no particular value and unworthy of the time required. Sometimes these assumptions are warranted. But in far more cases, a great deal could be accomplished for the ohild's benefit, i f cooperation continued after the child returned to the oity. Barriers to post-camp cooperation, in short, are similar to those involved in pre-camp cooperation. The stage has been reached, certainly, where a l l personnel must recognize the interrelatedness of their work, i f the child who is sent to camp is to benefit to the fullest. (d) The Importance of the Statements Made by the Child and his Parents* The emphasis upon the importance of a oamp report and a post-camp conference, does not mean that the statements made by the ohild and his parents are to be ignored. On the contrary, the reactions of the oamper and his family are an important indication of the happiness and satis-faction derived from oamp. The worker, therefore, should discuss the holiday with the child, seoure his opinions, and understand his feelings, in order to gain further evidence upon which to draw meaningful conclusions. The worker should also talk to the parents about the child's holiday. In some cases, furthermore, the interpretation whioh the worker gives to the child and his parents about the happenings at oamp, is intimately related to the effeot of the oamp experience upon the ohild. Hence, for many reasons, as determined by the conditions of each oase, the worker must not neglect the reactions of the child and his family. Frequently, these facts have an important bearing upon the manner in whioh the worker will be able to relate the benefits of camp to the ohild's total development. 126 Treatment Based Upon the Camp Experience. Hot only does the post-oamp conference with the oamp director represent a valuable method whereby the case worker may gain further knowledge about the child, but i t also offers an opportunity for the worker and the director to plan towards future treatment for the ohild. Each person has a good deal to contribute to the planning, according to his knowledge and skills. When respect for the other's work is mutual, the constructive results of their combined efforts to help the child are obvious. In many instances, for example, the director may suggest continued group experience which will contribute to the child's growth and happiness. This is exemplified in the cases of Ian and Alan; the camp directors understood the importance of guided group activities for the boys, and during the winter months they cooperated with the case workers to help the youngsters. The director's understanding of Alan's needs is especially outstanding, because he and the worker together gave the boy an excellent opportunity to develop more satisfactorily. Frequently, the worker could guide the ohild in similar ways suoh as encouraging extension of relationships and friendships made at camp, basing treatment upon the director's analysis of the benefits the ohild gained at oamp, or developing the director's recommendations. In many ways, the effects of the camp holiday may be related to the child's continuing l i f e experiences; at home, at school, in a club, and so on. By analysing the results of the oamp placement, without doubt, the worker is able to direot his future contacts with the child along lines which are indicated. Individual treatment emphasizing physical or emotional needs may be suggested. It may be apparent that the child will gain from opportunities to oontinue friendships, or further develop interests which have been initiated at camp. The need for a special type of foster home plaoement may be indicated. The possibilities of the worker building upon the oamp experience, therefore, are numerous and must 127 not be overlooked. It is clear that the follow-up period, after the child returns from camp, must be carefully directed by the oase worker. The holiday in the outdoor setting may have an outstanding effect upon the child's happiness; an effect of a permanent as well as a temporary nature. Discussion and planning with the oamp director, for example, must oontinue for as long as i t is beneficial to the child's happiness. It is therefore the responsibility of the oase worker to do everything possible to relate the benefits of the camp experience to the total l i f e of the ohild. 128 CHAPTER SEVEN. CURRENT PRACTICES OH CAMP REFERRALS, Neither the ease work agenoies nor the oamps in Vancouver have definite written policies outlining procedures to be used when ohildren are sent to summer oamps by ease workers. The statements of workers and the material found in the oases studied, indicate that "polioy", i f i t may be so termed, is influenced more by the praotiee of individual oase workers, than praotioe is influenced by agency polioy. Most oamp direotors, in turn, work in this field according to their own interest, knowledge, and understanding of the importance of oooperation and certain methods of procedure. Agency and camp statements of services thus make no direot referenoes to methods or philosophy whioh should be applied to oamp referrals. The lack of oareful planning and direotion by most administrative authorities, in this area of service, indicates that to a considerable degree the trial-and-error stage of camp placements has not been passed. As a result, varying types of hit-or-misa servioes are provided. A few workers in one agency, for example, use methods whioh provide satisfactory results, in some oases, whereas other workers in the same agency negleot to apply any useful method workers who provide excellent cooperative servioes in one or two oases, f a i l completely when handling other oases. Camp direotors, likewise, are inconsistent in their adherence to useful methods. . The analyses of oases in preceding chapters, point out these inconsistences, as well as demonstrating the adverse effeot of inadequate provision of cooperative methods by the oase worker, upon the response made by the oamp direotor. The interrelatedness of eaoh agency's success or failure in providing cooperative servioes, therefore, oannot be ignored. The great varianoe in the degree to whioh 129 these services are provided* results in haphazard camp placements in a far greater number of Instances than realized by the majority of workers.1 These facts, add strength to the statement that where agenoy policy is weak, services are weak. The situation, however, is not so hopeless as the above discussion might imply. A oertain amount of progress is now being made, although policy remains unwritten and the standard of work varies. Over the past few years, for example, workers have begun to disouss the problems involved. Perhaps they have tended to be on the defensive; blaming the camps for a good deal of the difficulty, and referring to too heavy oase loads, laok of time, and so on. This reason-ing is not completely without fact. However, as workers view the total situation honestly and objectively, they discover that more satisfactory methods of work oould be adopted. As a result, some executive directors of case work agenoies are attempting to improve procedure. Progress is slow, but at least a few of the administrators are devoting f u l l staff meetings to the discussion of camp referrals. A l l exeoutive directors and camp directors, moreover, have made suggestions which they firmly believe will lap rove general procedure.** In short, the haphazard application of principles of referral prooedure is gradually giving way to concentrated efforts to improve the services whioh are being offered. 1 The greater part of the information upon whioh this analysis is based, was gathered by means of Sohedules I and II, Appendix B. The questions were discussed with exeoutive directors and workers in seven Vanoouver oase work agencies, and with directors of eleven camps. A study of one hundred and seventy-three eases of children sent to camps by oase workers in 1947 and 1948, provided additional information which, in turn, substantiated some of the statements made during the discussions, fhe study of oases also resulted in the discovery of facts whioh oould not be obtained through interviews. This was particularly essential when the philosophy and methods applied by workers in one agenoy varied, or when the oamp leaders, who handled the referrals to one oamp, changed during the summer, or over the years, eaoh person using different methods. 2 See Chapter Sight, "Readiness for Progress". 130 Repent developments have been especially influenced by the work of the Community Chest and Counoil Camp Referral Project (discussed in Chapter Two), particularly by means of its emphasis upon extending agency oooperation; i.e., evolving a better working relationship between sooial agency workers and oamp leaders. Methods have been devised to assist oase workers and oamp directors-in their cooperative attempts to provide more satisfactory oamp experiences for ohildren. In several ways, however, the Project's influence has been limited. First, since i t is primarily concerned with providing financial assistance to ohildren who require help in paying oamp fees, its scope is restricted. Second, the number of cases direotly involved is relatively small in relation to the total number of oases of ohildren sent to oamp by oase workers, although the former number is increasing as financial support increases.* Third, i t has been neoessary, unfortunately, to prescribe standards of procedure below those whioh are ultimately desired, in order to begin at the point of ourrent praotioe, because l i t t l e will be achieved i f the standards are too high and beyond reach. Finally, its influence i s limited beeause agency and oamp workers have the final authority regarding methods used and servioes rendered, onoe the financial arrangements have been made. Nevertheless, many of the suggestions outlined in the Project "Work Sheet" are being aooepted, in part at least. In some instances, more desirable methods of procedure, based upon more adequate understanding, are resulting. The most important result is that the majority of oase workers and camp direotors are becoming aware of the value of cooperative servioes, and are attempting to use more productive methods. 1 In 1947, forty-one, or thirty-one per cent of the children who were sent to oamps by base workers, received financial assistance from the Project; in 1948,sixty-two, or forty-five per cent received suoh help. (See Tables 1 and 3, in Chapters One and Two) The influence of the Project has been strengthened to this extent. But i t remains limited, beeause the methods of prooedure advocated have not been universally aooepted. 131 In no ease work agency, however, has polioy been so clearly devised that a l l its workers are applying the desired philosophy and methods discussed in preceding chapters. Procedure varies, methods vary; hence, tiie effectiveness of oamp referrals varies. Likewise, few oamp directors consistently attempt to f u l f i l their part in the cooperative process. limitations in Current Practices. Because definite agenoy and camp policies covering oamp referral procedure are almost non-existent, i t is neoessary to study ways in whioh methods of procedure are put into practice, i f an aoourate analysis of the Vancouver situation is to be offered. In the following discussion, there-fore, an evaluation is made of the methods whioh agenoy and oamp workers employ, and the degree to whioh these methods are applied. Although exaot statistics are not available, i t is estimated that two hundred and seventy ohildren were sent to oamp by Vancouver oase workers, in 1947 and 1948.1 In order to derive sufficient information for idle analysis, one hundred and seventy-three cases, or sixty-four per g cent of the total number, were studied in detail. Of the ninety-seven oases not in the study, forty-four are included in the one hundred and three oases whioh were handled through the Community Chest and Council Projeot; thus, procedure applied in these placements is similar to that 1 See Table 1 in Chapter One. 2 The study of oases involved reading the agency case record and disouss-ing -che ohild and his oamp placement with the oase worker and the oamp ' direotor, whenever possible. However, the records proved the most productive, beeause in only twenty-four oases (fourteen per oent of -che number studied) was i t possible to discuss the ohild with both the worker and the direotor, while in an additional sixty-one eases (thirty-five per oent) -che worker clarified some of the facts. To sum up, in fifty-one per cent of the oases, the written records in the oase work agencies offered the only source of information. Because the records were fairly complete, however, sufficient material was available to permit adequate analysis. 132 of the fifty-nine Projeot oases whioh were studied. The remaining f i f t y -three eases not studied include a number for which records oould not be located in the agenoies. many of whioh records merely contained suoh state-ments as "patient returned from ten days at camp", with no further comment, and other oases whose records were only scanned, because they illustrated limited application of procedure, or were repetitions of methods used in several other placements by the earns agency. For the purpose of the analysis whioh determines the degree of application of desired philosophy and methods, the study inoluded a large proportion of the oases whioh illustrate the greater amount of effective cooperative services. In every agenoy, moreover, at least sixty par cent of the total number of records of children referred to oamp, ware studied. For these reasons, the one hundred and seventy-three oases whioh are the basis of the following analysis, represent a valid sample of eaoh agency's work and of current practices. (a) Inadequate Knowledge. Of the one hundred and seventy-three oases studied, only seven illustrate complete cooperative services. Although several other oases demonstrate effective application of some methods which contribute towards satisfactory oamp placements,the provision of adequate cooperation is very limited. If the oase workers are to utilise oamping services so that the best interests of the client may be fostered, a cooperative working relationship must be established between the worker and the camp direotor. The basis of this relationship i s the development of mutual respeot and understanding, which is determined by the knowledge possessed by the worker and the direotor of each other's function, philosophy and methods of work, and limitations of services. In view of the very limited application of cooperative media in Vancouver, therefore, i t is apparent that many case workers do not possess suoh knowledge. This lack represents a great barrier to the development of cooperative services. Indeed, fault lies 133 with both the oase work agenoies and the oamps. The degree to whioh the lack of knowledge is fairly universal, is illustrated by the comments which case workers and camp directors make when discussing oamp referrals, and by the methods whioh they employ. Several oase workers, for example, refuse to recognize, or just ignore, the importance of cooperative media, because they oonsider a l l oamp direotors "untrained", and therefore unable to utilize the fruits of joint planning and sharing of knowledge about the ohild. Suoh generalizations are based upon laok of aoeurate knowledge about the oamps whioh are avail-able in the community; i.e., their type, philosophy, structure, leadership, processes of work, and so on. In truth, as indioated in Chapter One, many local oamps have not developed according to modern oamping philosophy, and many conditions are detrimental to the happiness and growth of campers. If some of the camps are to be used, however, more intimate knowledge about these oamps, as well as about oamping philosophy, must be possessed by the workers. Camp direotors, in turn, have limited understanding of the function of oase work, and many do not recognize the value of cooperation. These conditions and other barriers to oooperation whioh have been dis-cussed in previous chapters, are evidenced in the Vancouver situation. The means by which case workers attempt to secure information about available oamps are inadequate. Less than fifteen workers have visited two or three oamps. Many workers consult the "Camp Directory", and various oamp pamphlets; but these sources offer very l i t t l e information about the application of oamping philosophy, quality of leadership, and other knowledge which is essential. Only one oase work agency has invited a oamp direotor to a staff meeting to discuss his oamp. The secretary of the Community Chest and Council Camp Referral Project provides some of the more important information about the better known oamps when workers request this. But her work is not fooussed upon analysing oamps, and a l l workers do not consult her; hence, this source of information has had 134 relatively l i t t l e influence upon solving the total problem. Furthermore, no oamp administrator has oarried put an adequate program of interpretation. For these reasons, very few workers have realistic and intimate knowledge about the camps which they use for placement purposes. As a result, a l l aspects of referral procedure are adversely affected to the degree that many hit-and-miss placements result. Some oase work agency administrators are attempting to rectify this situation in whioh lack of real knowledge results in either not using oamps, or using them with varying and unsatisfactory results. In these agencies, workers are encouraged to vi s i t camps and to discuss camp with the directors, an agenoy representative participates in the committee work of the Community Chest and Council Referral Project, and the merits and limitations of oamps are discussed in staff meetings. However, far more extensive means of acquiring knowledge are required. The influence of this lack of knowledge is exemplified by the way in which workers plan oamp placements. Suoh knowledge Is essential i f the worker is te determine whether or not a period at camp will be beneficial to the client in relation to his needs, interests, and desires, and whether or not the child is able and ready to take suoh an experience. Host oase workers realise that existing oamps do not have the facilities or staff to provide individual psychiatric guidance for children who present serious emotional problems, excessive deviations from the accepted patterns of behaviour, or serious mental or physical reladations or abnormalities* Nevertheless, some of these children do arrive at camp, and unhappy experiences result for a l l concerned. Frequently, these results arise from the fact that workers do not understand the factors involved; suoh as oamp policy, philosophy, leadership, groupings, program, and so on, nor the variance in the ability of different oamps to offer prescribed treatment. In addition, the majority of oamp directors, with the possible exoeption of four or five, accept a l l children whom workers wish to send to 135 oamp, as long as there Is room in the camper enrolment. The directors of Camps Elphinstone, Howdy, and Alexandra in particular, however, attempt to secure pre-camp information about the child, and to exclude certain children, because they reoognize the inability of their leaders to help these youngsters. Two other directors attempt to make exclusions for health or behaviour reasons, but with limited success. Because workers expect oamp placements to be beneficial, i t is their responsibility to know the oamps, so that they may more successfully judge the advisability of placing applicants, (b) Ineffectual Choice of Camp. Hot only is knowledge of oamps neoessary i f the oamp worker is to determine more dearly the extent to which camps can be used, but i t is also necessary i f the worker is to ohoose a camp whioh offers the child the kind of setting required to further his development. Because most Vancouver workers lack this knowledge, camps are frequently chosen too haphazardly. In each of two agencies, for example, the workers use only one camp for a l l placement purposes, because i t is the only oamp the agenoy workers know and have ever used. Unfortunately, both camps represent poor adherence to camping philosophy; i.e., leadership is inadequate, oamper participation in program planning is negligible, and camper groupings are not derterained in the best interests of campers. Some of the children have enjoyable holidays, because they require very l i t t l e individual guidance. Since each camp is used for a l l placements by eaoh group of workers, however, the children who require individual assistance for development are not helped, and gain l i t t l e from the oamp experience. In several other instances, workers continue to use one oamp because i t has proved satisfactory and the ohoioe seems reliable. But other oamps might be ohosen for particular reasons, i f the workers knew about them. Frequently, however,the camp is chosen in the light of enthusiastic comments whioh have been made by former campers or by oamp direotors. 136 It is diffioult to determine the number of oases in whioh the ohoioe of oamp was well made. Nevertheless, the oase study reveals that in less than twenty-five per oent of the oases, the ohoioe of oamp was based upon realistic knowledge about the oamp. Of this proportion, one half includes those oases in whioh the worker discussed the ohild and the reasons for placement, with the oamp direotor. In short, far too many ohoioes are based upon incomplete and unreliable evidence. Beeause a l l Vancouver oamps, except Camp Elphinstone, provide only short oamp periods of ten days or two weeks, i t is important that ohildren be given opportunities to return to the same oamp eaoh year, i f the oamp offers the kind of experience.through whioh the ohild may derive benefit. In twenty-three per oent of the oases studied, the worker recognized the relative value of a repeated camp experience. Of this proportion, at least twenty-three oases demonstrate that the ohild made considerable gains by returning to the oamp he enjoyed the previous year. Five oases show that the worker evaluated the f i r s t oamp experience and carefully chose an alternative oamp the second year, because the former oamp could not provide faoilities to meet the child's changing needs. In two cases, i t is elear that the worker analysed the situation thoroughly, because he prescribed special psyohiatric guidance for the child, in plaoe of a repeated oamp placement whioh would have been harmful to everyone concerned. The remaining five repeats, inolude three whioh had limited value, in view of the inability of the oamp to provide more than a holiday in the country, and two whioh were definitely harmful to the ohild. The ninety-five children who went to oamp in 1947, but did not return to any oamp in 1948, may inolude several who could have benefitted from a repeat; but i t is difficult to estimate the possible number. The oase study suggests, however, that many opportunities were lost for a variety of reasons. Some of these include the facts -chat no one com-mented about the f i r s t oamp experience, that the benefits derived from the 137 placement were not analysed.* that no attempt was made to relate the oamp experience to subsequent contacts with the child* and that the ease worker changed during the months following oamp and the new worker either ignored or did not recognize the value of the oamp placement. It is apparent, therefore, that many workers do not possess sufficient knowledge to enable them to utilize oamp services in the most advantageous manner, (o) Haphazard Placement Planning. A large number of oases illustrate that idle plan for the use of the camp is incidental rather than purposeful. Perhaps a plan exists in the mind of the oase worker who suggests the oamp placement; but there i t remains. Ho attempt is made to work out a cooperative plan of treatment in consultation with the oamp director, and the ohild and his parents. The worker may send a child to oamp for one or more fairly definite reasons, as those suggested in Chapter Three. But whether or not the treatment plan is carefully worked out in the light of the child's needs and interests and the ability of the camp to provide prescribed guidance, cannot usually be determined from the record material, i f oooperation with the oamp direotor is not involved. However, the fact that very few eases illustrate consistent application of cooperative procedure, points out the casual nature of the greater number of placements. This does not neoessarily mean that a l l such oamp placements are not benefioial to the referred ohild, because the case worker and the oamp direotor individually may be excellent workers, have good insight and ability to reoognize the needs of the ohild, and may help the ohild. nevertheless, the element of hit-and-miss is prominent. This is further revealed in the study of pre-camp oooperation. The worker discussed the placement plan with the oamp direotor in only twenty-seven oases, or for sixteen per oent of the total number of ohildren sent to camp during the two years. For these few placements, therefore, the plan was well worked out in oooperation with the camp leader. In an 138 additional twenty-five oases, the worker clearly stated his plan when he wrote a ease summary for the oamp direotor. For these ohildren, therefore, the oamp leader shared the information, but did not take part in planning for the child's holiday. As the result, in only thirty per oent of the oases was the reason for arranging oamp placement clearly defined and understood by the oamp direotor. In short, for over two-thirds of the total number, the placements were arranged on a casual basis, although the youngsters may have been referred to oamp for specific reasons, (d) Lack of_Complete Pre-Camp Cooperation. Because -she oase worker offers oamp servioes to clients so that they will benefit from them, he should use every possible means to assist the oamp leaders in providing adequate servioes. The worker may best accom-plish this by giving the oamp direotor sufficient information about the ohild so that he will know the youngster and understand his problems and needs, prior to his arrival at oamp. But in only fifty-four of the oases studied, or thirty-one per oent, did the oamp direotor receive some pre-camp information about the ohild. The majority of the ohildren, therefore, began their holiday as unknowns. Unfortunately, many of them remained unknowns for reasons assooiated with the negligence of the oase worker, as well as incompetence of oamp personnel. The few workers who provided fairly adequate information used several methods. In twenty-one oases, fairly detailed case summaries were sent to directors, two additional letters were very inadequate, and thirteen projeot forms contained some information about the ohild and his needs. Generally, however, -che summaries did not provide as much information as is recommended in Chapter Four.1 In eight eases, when no written material was sent to the camp director, the ciroumstanoes surrounding the placement were carefully discussed in a pre-oamp oonferenoe with the direotor, and in ten oases the information was fairly well clarified during telephone contacts with the direotor. However, more complete methods were applied in only nine cases; 1 " See "pre-Camp Written- Information and Ccnrerenoes1',' inHihapter FourT ~~ 139 i.e., three pases involved direct conferences as well as detailed written material, and six cases involved telephone conversations in addition to summaries. In short, only five per cent of the one hundred and seventy-three oases studied, illustrate that oase workers completely applied methods which enoourage cooperative services at this important pre-camp stage of the referral process. But in an additional forty-five oases, or twenty-six per cent, the workers applied fairly adequate methods, because the directors received enough information for them to know something about each child before he arrived at oamp. Nevertheless, in too many oases the workers did not make careful attempts to give the oamp directors sufficient information to facilitate treatment. Several exeoutive direotors state that this, situation arises from the fact that confidential information about clients cannot be given out indiscriminately. This is perfectly true. But at least the reason why the ohild is being sent to camp, the plan of treatment, and something about the problems whioh are involved, should be discussed with the oamp direotor. If the worker has sufficient confidence in the direotor and the oamp to place the child in that setting for several days, i t seems that the trust oould be extended to the point of providing more information. However, i f the worker is not confident that the director will use the information in desirable ways, he has no right to gamble about the child's welfare by sending him to the oamp where methods of work and qualifications of personnel are questioned. At least nine of the eleven Vancouver oamp directors, however, have as much respect for the confidential nature of material as have the oase workers; these directors place a l l written data in a confidential f i l e to which only they have aooess. The other two direotors permit only certain camp leaders, suoh as the program direotor or the nurse, to read the material. Because the situation varies, so far as written information is concerned, when the worker is doubtful about the use *c> be made of the 140 material, he should discuss this with the oamp direotor, and then limit the details in whatever manner he considers necessary. In far more than thirty-one per cent of the oases studied, therefore, the workers could have given the directors information which would be used i n the interests of the children. The worker should always make some kind of contact with the oamp direotor, whether by telephone or by direct interview. Therefore, the faot that in only twenty-seven cases, or sixteen per oent of the total number, did the workers oontaot directors, indioates that pre-camp contacts are not adequate. Many workers' statements show that the importance of suoh oooperation is not reoogniaed. Camp direotors, in turn, do not eeoape criticism. Many circumstances, in faot, oolour the effectiveness of pre-camp oontaots. Although these conditions, including the shortage of time and the difficulty of contacting some direotors, are often valid reasons for omitting a conference, in far too many instances the worker neglects to attempt to oontaot the direotor. In the oases where f u l l pre-camp cooperation i 8 ettoouraged by the workers and carried through by the direotors, the resulting benefits to the children present proof that effort and time expended are worthwhile. ( e) Inadequate Preparation of the Child and His Parents. Methods applied in preparing the ohild and his parents for the child's placement, have direct bearing upon the manner in whioh the ohild may be helped at oamp. It is difficult to determine to what degree the children have opportunities to take part in planning for their holidays, because the oase reports infrequently make this point clear. In several oases, i t is apparent that both the ohild and his parents discussed the suggestion of oamp placement, and the worker assisted in the preparations. But the application of adequate methods during this preparatory period is rarely complete. In seventy-five oases, the worker explained to the ohild some of 141 the features of the oho sen oamp. In one hundred and five oases the worker carefully explained as muoh as possible about oamp to the parents, including foster parents. Perhaps the number would be greater i f the reoords were more detailed, or i f more workers discussed their methods. In most agenoies, however, i t is consistent oase work praotiee for the worker to explain oamp to -che ohild and his parents before applioation for placement is placed with the direotor, so that the decision is that of the client and not the agenoy worker. But again, how muoh the worker knows about oamping and the local oamps, and how muoh accurate information he is able to give clients, is questionable. It is doubtful i f many workers could answer the majority of questions listed in Chapter Five. 1 In several eases, misinformation was oonveyed and, as the result, the ohild was disappointed, and his parents blamed the agenoy for the unhappy placement. This, in turn, hampered the effectiveness of the oamp experience, and jeopardized the worker's subsequent oontaots with the client Generally, most workers attempt to help the child and his parents prepare for the youngster's holiday. In several oases where i t was desired, or neoessary, the worker assisted the ohild in a more detailed manner; for example, the nsorker arranged for the pre-camp medical examinations, took -che ohild to have his medical, helped secure equipment, assisted him to prepare his clothes, and escorted him to the oamp boat, train, or bus. In so far as i t can be determined, in forty-five of the one hundred and seventy-three eases, the worker assisted the child in one or several of these ways; but forty of these instances refer only to the medical examination and transportation to the point of departure for oamp. In several other situations, the worker could have offered more guidance and direct assist-ance by methods whioh are discussed in Chapter Five. Apparently, Vancouver oamp direotors play a very limited role during this preparatory period. Most of them send the parents statements of oamp 1 See "Preparing the Ohild for Camp", in Chapter Five. 148 regulations and lists of necessary equipment and olothingj but none of them consistently interview eaoh ohild, or at least, one parent, prior to camp. Occasionally, parents and children are interviewed. A few directors meet tiie children and parents at the time of the medical, but for brief moments only. Frequently, for this reason, parents are encouraged to vi s i t the camps on specific days. But the parent's v i s i t is not equivalent in purpose or -value, to a pre-camp interview. The question of camp fees is a controversial issue at present. Host camp administrators require that fees be paid in f u l l , and the Vancouver Community Chest and Council Camp Referral Project has met thi8 situation by obtaining funds to assist parents who have difficulty paying the complete amount. A few oamps have a policy by whioh feens are scaled according to ability to pay, and one oamp aooepts referred children without charge. Several workers state that free camp periods should be available, especially for children whose parents receive Social Assistance, or Mothers' Allowance. It is gradually becoming an accepted principle, however, that i f parents pay a nominal fee, even when income is marginal or lower, the effeot upon the family is far more beneficial; i.e., the feeling of hopelessness resulting from complete dependency, is lessened. The project Committee, for example, requests that parents pay a minimum amount of five dollars, and in some oases less; but the Project has pro-vided aa much as twenty-seven dollars for one boy to attend camp for three weeks. Several agenoies have other means of providing money for fees, but there is no record of complete agency payment. The circumstances surrounding oamp fees vary considerably and many workers do not fully understand the principles nor the faotors involved. As the result, oooperation with direotors, as well as interpretation to parents, suffers, (f) Limited Use of Methods to Help the Child in Camp. The means by which oamp personnel provide conditions to facilitate treatment for the ohild in oamp, are influenced by the degree of 143 application of oamping philosophy. This varies greatly in Vancouver oamps.1 The study of oase material, moreover, reveals very l i t t l e in this regard, except to the extent to which the oamp reports and records of workers' visits and post-oamp conferences, indicate certain attempts to help the ohild at oamp. In general, many limitations exist in the oamps j hut a few specifio oases indicate excellent procedure, and the oamp period is so planned and organized that -the ohild receives the assistance he requires. Few workers, in Vancouver, attempt to augment their efforts to assist the ohild at oamp by visiting the youngster and discussing his progress with the direotor, several days after the holiday has commenced. During the two years covered by the study, only eight visits were made, although four workers acted as leaders in one oamp. One oase worker stated that a v i s i t to oamp by a worker is not considered advisable because there are no legitimate reasons for the oontaot, and the worker's presence would harm relationships at oamp. However, in some oases in that worker's agenoy, the ohild would have gained a great deal from a demonstration of constant Interest by the worker; -che parents oould not vi s i t , and the child was very unhappy and disturbed when other oampers1 parents appeared on visitors' day. Clearly, the importance of this type of oontaot during the oamp period is determined by the ease and other oircumstanoes; there-fore, in many instances, visits are not desired. When the ohild will benefit from the worker's appearance at camp, however, the possiblitiy of this action should be investigated. In more than eight cases, the ohild would have gained a good deal from the interest, support, encouragement, 1 See "Camping Philosophy as Applied in Vancouver, B.C." in Chapter One. 2 Perhaps the most prominent barrier in the Vancouver situation is the lack of qualified oamp leadership. However, many other indications of lags in the application of oamping philosophy are apparent. 3 The inadequacies involved in the situation in whioh the oase worker beoomes the oamp counsellor, are discussed in Chapter Five. 144 and confidence the worker oould have demonstrated by a visit. The worker often learns a good deal by observing the ohild in his new environment, and by discussing the child's behaviour, adjustment, and problems, with the director. The direotor may also reoeive more know-ledge and understanding about ways in which he will be able to handle certain problems which have arisen at camp, and to help the ohild s t i l l further. Whether or not the worker will be welcome at oamp, might be discussed with the direotor during the preparatory period. It is not forgotten that trips to oamp involve considerable time and expense; but the value of these oontaots has not been fully analysed by the workers. In many instances, a v i s i t is impossible or inadvisable; but the worker could add to the child's enjoyment, or help him in other ways, by writing him a letter or a postcard. This is especially true when the child receives no letters from his parents while other campers do, and he feels inferior, friendless, or lonely. A note from the worker may brighten the child's outlook, by giving him the feeling that someone back at home likes him enough to take time to write, or by giving him reassur-ance and prestige whioh he desperately needs. There are many positive effeots whioh may result. It seems unfortunate, therefore, that only three workers considered i t worthwhile to write a friendly letter to ohildren on holiday. Perhaps a few more workers attempted to make the ohild happier by this simple method, but only three reoords make this clear. Many factors influence the relative merit of the worker writing to the child on holiday. However, the importance of this type of contact is not yet appreciated by the majority of Vanoouver oase workers, (g) Poorly Directed Follow-up. The methods by whioh the case worker and the camp direotor may build on the camp experience, are poorly applied in Vancouver. In only forty-three of the one hundred and seventy-three oases, did a oamp leader send the oase worker written information about the ohild's adjustment and 145 experience in camp. Of this number, twenty-nine oamp reports were presented on the Projeot forms; hut only eighteen of these forms contained information of interest and value to the worker, while nine of the eighteen reports were augmented by detailed letters. In fourteen additional oases, the oamp director wrote a fairly complete letter to the worker. In short, in only thirty-two oases, or eighteen per oent of the total number, the worker reoeived information upon which to base his analysis of the child's holiday. Very few oamp reports included comments on a l l , or the majority, of the eleven points whioh are considered important.1 While a few reports were fairly complete, a great number were very inadequate. In addition, the interval of time from the date the ohild left oamp to the date the worker received a camp report, varied from five days to three months. This indicates that many problems are involved in the procedure. Beoause several reports were not written for many weeks, and others were written only when -che worker requested information during September, October, or December, the value of the report was limited in terms of helping the worker plan subsequent contaots with the ohild on the basis of his camp experience. In faot, a great number of barriers exist which prevent adequate application of this follow-up prooedure. Post-oamp oonferenoes and telephone conversations between the oase worker and the camp direotor for the purpose of sharing information and analysing the placement, were even less frequent than camp reports. Only seven post-oamp oonferenoes were oalled by workers, and eleven telephone discussions were held; but two of the latter were in addition to a conference. Of the sixteen oases in which the results of the oamp experience were discussed by the oamp director and the ease worker, a written report had been prepared for fifteen oases. The discussions, therefore, were mainly held for the purpose of elarifying the oamp report, 1 See "The Worker's Knowledge of the Camp Experience*', in Chapter Six. 146 and planning subsequent treatment, and not as substitutes for written information. Muoh information oould have been obtained from oamp leaders, in many oases, through the medium of a post-camp conference, when positive as well as negative aspects of the holiday are discussed. In a few oases, although the holiday was not successful, perhaps the worker might have gained some insight into the problems involved, and the child's needs. Of course, many factors influence the possibility of calling a conference, as well as the value of suoh discussion. These conditions suoh as ignoranoe of the importance of conferences, lack of time, inability to oentact the oamp direotor, and lack of adequate training and understanding, on the part of the oase worker or the camp leader, are prominent barriers to cooperation in Vancouver. To sum up, forty-three oases illustrate the use of oamp reports. Of this number, about twelve were fairly complete, eleven were quite inadequate, and at least twenty, were relatively incomplete, fifteen also inoluded post-oamp conferences. In plaoe of camp reports, four visits were made to oamps by workers and one post-oamp conference was held. It is obvious, therefore, that neither oase workers nor oamp direotors use these follow-up prooedures to any great degree. Of the one hundred and seventy-three oases studied, less than fifteen, or nine per cent, demon-strate adequate use of methods by whioh the oase worker and the oamp director may cooperatively contribute knowledge and understanding towards integrating the benefits of the oamp experience into the child's l i f e experiences. It is difficult to state in how many oases workers actually tried to relate the camp experience of the ohild to subsequent experiences. In not more than f i f t y par cent of the oases, however, did the worker gain any knowledge about the effects of the holiday upon the ohild, even when the parents' and the child's comments represent a means of forming this judgment. 147 In fact, there are several oases whioh demonstrate the negative effects upon a former happy oamper when post-oamp guidance is not based upon the benefits derived from the oamp experience. Perhaps i t was as the result of lack of information about eaoh child 1s camp experience, that only seventeen children were encouraged to join city groups following the oamp period. Of this number, five ohildren became members of the Y.M.C.A. where oooperation between the worker and the director oontinued, nine ohildren refused or their parents blocked the workers' attempts to enoourage continuation of group experiences, and three ohildren joined other clubs whose leaders the workers did not contact. However, a fairly large number of children were plaoed in new foster homes after camp, and possibly the effects of the holidays influenced these placements. Generally speaking, workers do not place sufficient emphasis upon attempts to build upon the oamp experience. Perhaps good results could not always accrue; but at least more reliable knowledge could be seoured, and the workers could more effectively relate the holiday to the child's former and subsequent aotivities. This is true even when oamp offers the child merely a happy, healthy holiday in the out-of-doors. In truth, regardless of the particular reason why the ohild was sent to oamp, the value of the placement should be carefully judged on the basis of aoourate knowledge, and the analysis of the oamp experience should lead to more effective post-oamp treatment for the ohild. The case study of ohildren who were referred to oamps by Vancouver oase workers in 1947 and 1948, reveals many gaps in the application of desirable philosophy and effective methods of procedure. Both in terms of agenoy and oamp polioies, and methods in use, i t is clear that current camp referral procedures are inadequate. They raise, as a final question, the need to explore ways in whioh procedure could be improved. 148 CHAPTER EIGHT. FROM THIS DAY FORWARD. The preceding analysis of ease material shows that oamp referral procedures must be improved, i f more adequate oamping services are to be offered to clients. The stage has been reached today where many oase workers and camp direotors are aware of the inadequacies whioh are prevalent in the current situation. Some attempts are being made to clarify the issues and to promote application of progressive methods, particularly through the Camp Referral Project. Encouraging though this is, means by whioh progress may be assured have not been thoroughly explored. The f i r s t step in the direction of progress is the examination of the readiness of personnel in agenoies and oamps to advanoe from the point of awareness to the area of cooperative action. Readiness for Progress. During the discussions of the schedules (see Appendix B), several oase workers and camp directors made comments about ourrent referral practices, and added suggestions about ways to improve the procedure in use. These statements suggest the degree to whioh personnel wish to improve the situation. In addition, i t is possible that the discussions of cooperative services stimulated thinking among workers and direotors, and augmented their understanding of the subject. Perhaps many workers did not suspect that as many as ninety-six per cent of the cases studied would illustrate lack of complete cooperative services; but the majority of personnel members agreed that cooperative practices are inadequate. A l l the oase workers stated that certain methods of procedure should be improved. Four oamp directors were not so definite about the needs. One director, in fact, stated quite sincerely that he is not ooncerned about referrals, and that too much emphasis is 149 placed upon them. It is noteworthy that in those four oamps modern oamping philosophy is not applied; hence, their use for referral purposes is questioned. Nevertheless, many of the needs whioh were illustrated by the study of one hundred and seventy-three cases,1 are recognized by the case workers and by the oamp direotors who are concerned about the application of oamping philosophy. Every case worker criticized oamp leadership, and questioned other aspects of local oamping whioh are detrimental to the relative value of the oamp experienoe. Likewise, a l l the oamp directors stated that leader-ship is inadequate and at least five direotors disoussed other defects. A few workers stated that oamping philosophy must be more adequately developed in local oamps i f oooperation from case workers is to be expeoted. In addition, several workers suggested the establishment of "better" and "less expensive" camps for specifie groups suoh as teen-age boys and girls, younger girls, families, and children who exhibit more serious problems and deviations from accepted behaviour. Several camp direotors agreed with both these points, especially direotors who are attempting to improve the application of oamping philosophy, and who exclude certain ohildren because their camps have neither leaders nor facilities to meet specific needs. The fact that lack of sufficient knowledge about oamping philosophy and about local oamps presents outstanding barriers to the provision and development of satisfactory referral praotiees, was recognized, to varying degrees, by a l l oase workers. Not only did workers criticize oamps, but they also pointed out that workers' misoonoeptions about oamping are evidenced by their use of oamps - in terms of the value of the oamp experi-enoe and the merits of certain oamps. They therefore stressed that interpretation of oamping and of local oamps must preoede attempts to improve speoifio referral procedures. That case workers do not know 1 See Chapter Sevan. 150 enough about camping, and camp aims, policies, and problems, was also emphasized by several camp direotors, three of whom stated that workers expect oamp to be a "cure-all". A few directors, in addition, commented that camp personnel do not know enough about case work. In short, i t was recognized that a great deal of interpretation is required for both oase workers and oamp leaders. the majority of comments by ease workers about referral procedures were related to lack of "confidence" in the camps; they questioned staff qualifications and methods of work, and the application of aooepted philo-sophy regarding the guidance of children. Only one worker maintained f u l l confidence in one oamp which he consistently used. Moreover, lack of confidence was frequently based upon an admitted lack of knowledge by oase workers. Several oamp directors also suggested that lack of confid-ence in camps by case workers, and in oase work by camp personnel, was responsible for some of the difficulties involved in ourrent cooperative praotioes. The directors' comments about referral procedures had a direct relationship to the progressive nature of each camp; i.e., the directors who are attempting to apply oamping philosophy more adequately, were less critical of oase workers' methods, and more prone to state that adherence to specific methods of oooperation are required. These oamp directors, therefore, were more definitely interested in methods whioh would improve the working relationships between oase workers and oamp personnel, and which would provide more effective cooperative services. But the oamp directors were more concerned about the amount of time that would be required, than were the oase workers. Four directors also believed that they should discuss referral procedures with oase workers, and case workers should vi s i t camps in order to gain first-hand knowledge of the factors involved. In addition to suggesting that workers require more intimate know-ledge of camping and of local camps, the ease workers stated that the 151 Camp Referral Project has Instigated many improvements and should be continued. Several workers recommended the extension of the Project; while the others expressed no objection to extension, but considered that the acquisition of knowledge by workers is of primary importance. Conse-quently, most workers agreed that case work - group work study groups should be developed; but one worker decided that there is no time for such action, and two workers made no comment. Some camp directors, in turn, expressed definite interest in extending the Project, and in developing study groups. The five direotors who considered these methods impractical or who declined to oomment, direct camps in which oamping philosophy is least applied. It is apparent, therefore, that these camp directors are not likely to participate readily in schemes to improve cooperative services. The results of the discussions with oase workers and with the most progressive oamp directors, indicate that personnel are not only concerned about inadequacies in current referral praotices, but they are also ready to consider methods which may ultimately lead to improvements in the local situation. The interest and positive attitudes demonstrated, suggest that the question of progress should be pursued. Which Way for Progress? Problems confronting personnel working in the area of cooperative servioes in camping, have been clearly defined; hence, the way is open for constructive action. In examining methods whioh may help to develop a referral process beyond current trial-and-error practices, i t is important to realize that the barriers to oooperation and the problems entailed, have been fairly common in a number of large cities in Canada and the United States; but agenoies and camping groups in several centres have overcome the obstacles and have sucoessfully developed systems to improve oamp referrals. 1 Although a good deal may be gained from a study of the l Written information is not yet avallaDie from many centres, particularly in Canada, because efforts to handle the problems remain in experimental stages. However, agenoies and associations in Chicago, New York, and St Louis, have developed successful schemes and have prepared useful material. Information from these sources, therefore, is used throughout the study. For detailed references, see Bibliography, Appendix D. 152 experiences of these centres, in the main, recommendations must be made in response to studies of the Vancouver situation; eaoh community must examine its own needs rather than the needs of others. Methods whioh may facilitate inter-agency oooperation in oamping, therefore, are discussed in the light of ourrent practices, and references are made to developments elsewhere only when conditions are comparable, (a) Camp Referral Polieies. Cooperative inter-agency services demand more than methods of procedure suoh as referral forms and oamp reports. Servioes of any type, in faot, must be refleoted in the whole organization; likewise therefore, in agency polioy. Where administrative structure is well-devised, eaoh staff member works in accordance with this polioy, which prescribes servioes to be offered and methods by whioh work will be accomplished. Cooperative servioes, therefore, demand an accepted basic and workable philosophy, specific agenoy polioy governing services and praotioes, and organizational means whereby agenoy personnel are able to work within this philosophy and polioy. In short, cooperative sertoes in oamping primarily involve eaoh agency's policy regarding oamp referrals. However, neither oase work agencies nor oamps in Vancouver have definite written policies outlining referral procedures. Moreover, procedures applied by workers vary to such a degree that i t is doubtful i f agenoy administrators have placed sufficient emphasis upon the basic philosophy; not to mention the lack of attention to details of methodology. Consequently, careful planning is lacking. To begin close to the core of the problems, eaoh ease work agenoy must prepare a definite polioy, understood and aooepted by the workers. Following an analysis of work and an examination of methods for improving services, the agenoy oamp polioy should be developed and presented in a printed manual, which would serve as a frame of reference for workers.1 1 Manuals of agenoy policies concerning oamp referral procedures have been prepared by several agencies, inoluding the United Charities of Chicago, and the Brooklyn Bureau of Sooial Service and Children's Aid Society. 153 Primarily, the manual should define the responsibilities of the workers, and outline procedures for referring ohildren to oamp. It must be so prepared that i t reflects the basic philosophy; but i t must be frequently revised beeause changes occur within the agenoy and the camping situation. The manual oould also help agency staff members to become familiar with the oamps which are ohosen for use, by clearly outlining speoific informa-tion about the oamps; i.e., aims, number and qualifications of staff, personnel training and supervision, program schedule and emphasis, location, physical facilities, eligibility and methods of selecting pampers, regula-tions, and other faots which are discussed in Chapter Five. If the manual is well devised, therefore, workers will know what is offered at camp, the type of individual problems which may be handled, the case worker's responsibilities, and the reasons for using certain methods. Preparation of a polioy manual in suoh detail may be beyond the scope of the ease work agenoy, particularly in Vancouver where many oamps are used. If only two or three oamps were ohoaen, perhaps the material could be presented by this means. However, i t seems unlikely that an agenoy polioy governing oamp referrals could be adequately developed i f information about each oamp were not secured. Presentation of a oamp polioy manual by each oamp whioh is used for referral purposes,would help meet this need. In addition, i t would overcome some of the outstanding problems entailed in current praotices. First, i f i t included a l l important information about the oamp (as listed in Chapter Five), oase workers would have intimate knowledge about eaoh aspect of the camp. Second, i f the oamp manual inoluded comments about the relationship between the oamp and the sooial agenoies from which oampers are referred, the oase workers would know what oooperation to expect from the oamp director, the criteria for the seleotion of oampers, and the procedures required for preparing ohildren for the holiday and for getting them to camp. 1 A very complete camp manual accomplishing these aims, has been prepared by Dr.L.B. Sharpe of Life Camps Inc., Hew York. It is used satisfactorily by -che oase workers who send ohildren to this camp. 154 la the oamp's publication, special reference should be made to the "selection" of prospective campers and the "quota" arrangements; i.e., the basis upon whioh applicants are accepted, and the number of children accepted from eaoh agency. As the situation exists in Vancouver, when a camp is considered fairly good, in its ability to meet the needs of children through adequate oamping experiences, i t frequently becomes over-weighted with children from disturbed family situations, or overloaded in terms of the number of campers accommodated. This results in many children not being happy at oamp and disturbing the adjustment and growth of other campers, because camp leaders have not the time nor the training to provide satisfactory individual guidance for these children. When oase workers know the criteria for selection, and the qualifications of staff, they are better able to "soreen" potential applicants; to evaluate their needs according to oamp facilities, to place children in various oamps whioh provide the oonditions necessary to carry through the treatment plan, and to use oamps satisfactorily without overloading. Adequate seleotion policies and careful consideration of agency quotas, therefore, would help to solve many problems. For many reasons, a well devised policy by each oamp would greatly facilitate cooperative services. The information provided in the manuals would serve as a realistic basis upon whioh each agenoy oould work out its camp policy; a policy to f i t the requirements of the various oamps and to foster principles of practice essential to the provision of joint servioes in camping.'1' The outstanding problem, in this respect, is the faot that oamps greatly differ in Vancouver; hence, ten or more special lists of instructions might have to be prepared by each agency, i f oase workers continued to use every oamp. However, i f oamp directors olarified a l l the questions regarding their oamps, the problem should not be too great. 1 In addition to "the duties" of the ease worker listed in the camp policy manual of the Brooklyn Agenoy, reference is made to the "special instructions" for referrals to l i f e Camp. 1 5 5 The question remains, nevertheless: how oould a l l this information be centralized in eaoh agenoy, particularly in those agencies which employ a great many ease workers? (b) Agenoy Oamp Worker. Case workers in Vancouver agenoies oould gain inereased knowledge about oamping philosophy and its application in looal camps, by methods resulting from the designation of one worker in eaoh case work agenoy as the "agenoy oamp worker".1 In addition, oamp referrals in eaoh agenoy would be centralized to a great extent, and procedures standardised aocording to aooepted philosophy. With or without suoh a worker, the agenoy should have a definite policy governing oamp referrals; but with a camp worker, agenoy polioy should also include his responsibilities, whioh are specialized and differ from those of the other workers. The duties of the agency oamp worker vary. He may be the consultant for agenoy workers who want more information about the oamps, fee arrange-ments, quotas, and so on; or he may oontrol the selection of applicants, 2 and assume quite extensive responsibilities for referral procedures. More complete responsibilities of an agenoy oamp worker may be listed as follows: (1) To develop the agency camp program} to evaluate oamps, to determine which oamps may be used for specifio reasons, and to reaoh some agreement with oamp directors early in the year about the number of applicants to be placed in eaoh oamp. 1 The Brooklyn Bureau of Social Servioe and Children's Aid Society is one agency whioh has adopted this system. According to its oamp polioy "the agenoy oamp worker serves as a liaison between quota oamps and ease workers". In 1948, fourteen "quota" oamps allotted spaoe in camper enrolment for referrals. 2 The polioy of the Camp Committee of the united Charities of Chioago, gives the agenoy oamp worker very extensive responsibilities. A l l oamp intake, for example, is controlled by agency policy, and is through the agenoy oamp worker (in the Family Servioe Bureau), with final decision vested in him. In Vanoouver, while the final decision about eligibility is theoretically made by the oamp directors, a great deal of responsi-bility lies with the oase workers who select clients for oamp placement, because the majority of oamp directors accept an applicant solely on the basis of accommodation at oamp and physioal fitness. Although workers in Vanoouver agencies should take more responsibility for screening and ?lacing applicants, i t i s doubtful i f they could assume final authority or selection; this is the right of the oamp direotors. 156 (2) To promote oooperation between the agenoy and the oamp8 throughout the year. ( 3 ) To prepare and to distribute pamphlets and bulletins about oamps; pamphlets for prospective campers and for parents, special camp referral policy manuals, etc. (4) To secure from oamps,informative literature, application forms, clothing l i s t s , eto. (5) To act as consultant to workers who want to discuss possible referrals. (6) To arrange medical examinations and to make financial arrangements for oamp applicants. (7) To send factual information suoh as identification data and social histories prepared by workers, to camp direotors, and lists of applicants to camp registrars. (8) To supervise clerical volunteers and escorts for departure and return of campers. (9) To receive oamp reports from oamps, and to forward these to oase workers. (10) To prepare financial and statistical forms, and to compile agency camp reports. In a few Vancouver agenoies, one worker does assume some of these respons-ib i l i t i e s , particularly concerning financial arrangements, agenoy camp reports and statistics; but the policy is infrequently clear, and many functions are not assigned. The agency camp worker's responsibilities include evaluating referral camps according to modern camping philosophy and establishing methods by which oase workers gain further information about the oamps. If a oase worker is uncertain about the ability of the camp to meet his client's needs, he may discuss this with the agency oamp worker. In some centres, the agenoy camp worker interviews eaoh client and his parents, i f the applicant is a minor. The interview is quite intensive, because the oamp worker has the final authority to deoide i f the ohild is eligible for placement. The question arises, however, about the effect upon the client when a second worker in one agenoy enters the picture; hence, i t is suggested that the oase worker should interpret camp to his client and his 1 5 7 parents, and build upon his relationship with the olient throughout the referral process. In this way, the case work relationship is not endangered. The agenoy oamp worker also completes his responsibilities which may be a few or several of those listed. The designation of one worker to carry out the functions of an agenoy oamp worker might be effeotive in several Vancouver agenoies, where a large number of ease workers send ohildren to many oamps. Centralization of camp information and standardization of procedures, in eaoh agency, therefore, present one means of eliminating some barriers to oooperation. However, the problems are many; three questions are very important. First, could each agency spare one worker for this job, when the demands for day-to-day ease work servioes are so great? Second, does every agency have one worker who is qualified to carry out these responsibilities? Third, eould eaoh agenoy financially afford to secure one worker for this job? The most obvious answers to these questions indicate that some further soheme should be examined; a soheme which would achieve the goals set for the agenoy oamp worker, but would avoid the serious problems entailed. (c) Central Camp Referral Bureau. As oamp referrals have beoome more frequent in Vancouver, workers have gradually become more aware of the help that workers in specialized areas may give one another. In addition, they have brought to the fore many questions whioh are fundamental to joint services; practices required to provide the greatest possible benefit to the ohild who needs both ease work and camping servioes. Many inherent problems would not exist i f the level of professional praotioe in eaoh field were raised. One means whereby praotices could be improved is to adopt methods to bring case workers and oamp direotors closer together. The reasons seem clear: f i r s t , through joint discussion of problems entailed and oooperative efforts to find solutions, more adequate inter-agency servioes will result; 158 and seoond, through evaluation of cooperative servioes whioh necessitates examination of eaoh service, improvements in both fields will result. This was evident in the discussions involved in the present study; for example, case workers and camp direotors recognized the inadequacies in their own work, as well as criticising eaoh other's efforts. It has also been indicated in response to the Community Chest and Council Camp Referral Project. Therefore, methods must be devised to extend opportunities for oase workers and camp direotors to come together. For two years, the Camp Referral Project has provided some oppor-tunities for workers in both fields to cooperate more fully. However, camps recruit ohildren from agencies on an independent basis, as well as through the Project; hence, the work of a l l oase workers and camp direotors is not affected by the Projeot. There is no definite centralized method for establishing adequate referral procedures. As a result, procedures vary within each field and within each agenoy. In addition, there is no way to clear referrals, and duplication exists; for example, one child may be sent to more than one oamp during the summer, while another child may not receive guidance through camping although his oase worker considers i t worthwhile. At the same time, space may remain unused in a camp beeause workers do not know that a cancellation has provided accommodation, that this oamp would accept a referral, or that i t could offer a satisfactory camp experience. To a limited extent only, the Projeot has provided a degree of centralization. Centralization and coordination of referrals may be accomplished by the establishment of a "Central Camp Referral Bureau"; a bureau through whioh a l l oases of children sent to oamp by oase workers would be directed. It must be emphasized, however, that a oentral bureau would not solve a l l the current problems nor eliminate a l l the inadequacies in the application of philosophy and procedures whioh are illustrated in preceding chapters. Other methods suggested in the study, must be examined by case workers and 159 oamp direotors. For this reason, the work of a bureau must be clearly defined; its job must be restricted to specific areas, without jurisdiction over services which rightly belong to agenoies and oamps. Case workers and oamp direotors have lefinite and essential responsibilities; duties that continue whether or not a bureau is established. In the following discussion, the role of the Central Camp Referral Bureau and the work of the administrative committee and executive direotor, are defined as-olearly as possible. Before these responsibilities are finalized, however, further study must be made of al l the problems entailed, and agreement reached regarding where to start and how to proceed. In the light of these considerations, the fi r s t role of the Bureau is suggested as: (1) To promote separate study groups made up of oase workers and camp directors. Prior to the standardization of referral procedures, i t is necessary for the Bureau to work with case workers and camp directors who are interested in improving the process whereby ohildren are plaoed in summer oamps for speoifio reasons. Only during the last few years have workers in both fields recognized that sending a child to oamp involves more than securing an application form; that the process requires specific methods and skills. Perhaps the "newness" of camping as a profession and of camp services as an accepted social welfare resource, in addition to lack of understanding of camping philosophy, has contributed to the reluctance of workers to examine servioes. In spite of the fact that progress has been made and personnel fairly readily admit that inadequacies exist, several oase workers and oamp direotors question many procedures suoh as sending ease summaries to camps and preparing detailed camp reports. Without doubt, many mis-understandings oould be olarified and the way prepared for remedial action,, i f groups of case workers and camp directors were encouraged to study the problems and to discuss the subject thoroughly. In order to accomplish 16b this, the Bureau should f i r s t work with separate study groups? one. group made up of oase workers from interested agenoies, and the second made up of directors from selected oamps. This entails oooperation with existing oamping organizations such as the B.C. Camping Association, with speoial servioe divisions of the Community Chest and Council, and with other associations and oommittees whioh function for related purposes. Members of the oase worker discussion group must represent agencies with whioh work could be accomplished.1 The Bureau, therefore, should select these agencies on the basis of interest; interest expressed concerning knowledge and understanding about oamping philosophy, differ-ences in local camps, services that camps may provide in relation to the needs of particular children, and joint servioes that such agenoies and camp8 may offer clients. Because the number of workers attempting to provide these servioes is large, study groups could not include a l l staff members from each agency; but representatives should be assembled and material taken back to the agenoies for further consideration. The topics for study and discussion should include information about oamp aims, polioies, and problems, procedures associated with meeting or failing to meet needs, and how to use available oamps to the best advantage. It is almost impossible for eaoh camp to provide sufficient information in a manual, or to hold an "agency day" for the purpose of discussing common problems, services, leadership, programming, and other issues, with the oamp staff and case workers from every agenoy. Although most workers have some understanding of the potentialities of camping, they are less familiar with specifio problems of individual camps. Therefore, the Bureau could accomplish a good deal by gathering the oamp information and interpreting i t to workers. In addition, the problems in referral procedures are fairly common to almost a l l workers; hence, worker 1 Throughout this presentation, reference is made to case work agencies but the Bureau should also include group work agenoies, publio health units, and other sooial agenoies and institutions whioh are active in the referral situation. 161 disoussion groups would offer opportunities for the study of common problems, for interpretation of related information and for the provision of methods based upon, oase work knowledge and skills and their relation to inter-agency services in oamping. Because the referral prooess involves oamp direotors as well as oase workers, oamp personnel require opportunities to participate in study and discussion groups. A small number of oamp direotors should be selected on the basis of expressed interest and representation of different types of oamps in the community. Perhaps a greater number of direotors will wish to take part for particular reasons. Regardless of the number, as long as directors are interested in improving cooperative procedures, -che Bureau could assist them in several ways: f i r s t , by helping directors to evaluate their own work and to develop more effective methods of serving children; second, providing consultative services regarding individual campers and interpretation about the work and responsibilities of case workers; and third, by facilitating understanding of the use to be made of case work agencies and other community servioes. In short, more intensive study and discussion by oamp direotors, with the assistance of the Bureau, would result in greater knowledge and understanding - the essential elements for more adequate cooperative servioes. Increased knowledge provides a sound basis upon which discussion may occur, recom-mendations may be made, and standards of service may be raised. Work with separate study groups provides preliminary clarification of issues associated with services in each field. Following this, the Bureau should call together representatives of -the referring agenoies and the referral camps for specifio purposes, as follows: (2) To stimulate joint disoussion oh the basis of skills and knowledge essential in eaoh field. (3) To facilitate the interchange of knowledge and experience. (4) To foster better working relationships with other professions, through knowledge of the services and skills of other agenoies and workers. 162 (5) To raise standards of competence; ultimately to foster improvements in eaoh worker's role in the referral process. By means of joint study groups, i t will he possible for personnel to study the basic problems involved in cooperative practices, to discuss these as they relate to eaoh other's work, and to clear the way for the adoption of necessary procedures. In order to facilitate this, the Bureau must consider a further responsibility: (6) To review referral procedures and to make recommendations in the light of needs and f a c i l i t i e s . 1 The f i r s t step in this direction is for the Bureau to study ourrent praotioes in terms of the application of basio philosophy. These findings should be discussed by the representative group and recommendations made to improve procedures. When ease workers and oamp direotors participate in suoh disoussion, where they are able to share knowledge and to express their opinions, they are better prepared to offer suggestions about servioes, to aocept recommendations concerning their responsibilities, and to adhere to decisions regarding procedures which are required. The Bureau should assume speoific responsibilities regarding referral procedures. However, i t oannot have jurisdiction over some aspeots of oamping which affect cooperative services. The responsibility for applying modern oamping philosophy, for deciding how oampers will be selected, and for establishing quotas, remains with the oamp direotors. But the Bureau can have considerable effect upon the adoption and mainten-ance of good methods, by instigating and stimulating study groups; by assembling personnel in both fields to discuss jointly the problems involved, and by offering interpretation and assistance when required. The Bureau oan carry out this "enabling" function, for example, with regard 1 An exhaustive study of this type was made by a special committee in the Group Work and Recreational Division of the Sooial Planning Counoil of St.Louis and St. Louis County, in 1948, with the view of establishing a Central Referral Bureau. As the result, the Bureau has been function-ing sinoe the summer of 1948. 163 to the setting of criteria for the selection of oampers. This may he satisfactorily accomplished i f workers and direotors cooperatively attempt to meet the needs of ohildren and of the agenoies, in accordance with the ability of oamps to provide adequate servioes. This method may overcome some of the negative features suoh as acceptance of applicants solely on the basis of accommodation or physical fitness, last-minute juggling of applicants and overcrowding of camps, confusion resulting from inadequate clearance of cancellations, unsatisfactory fee arrangements and other ourrent problems. If the application of oamping philosophy in many Vancouver oamps is not improved, however, i t may be necessary for the Bureau to accept another responsibility at a very early stage: (7) To seleot oamps for referral purposes. The criteria by whioh this selection is made, therefore, must he carefully devised. Nevertheless, i f this is not done, many oase workers will not be willing to adopt more adequate cooperative procedures. Their lack of confidence in the camps would have a realistic basis. After the Bureau has carried out the preceding responsibilities, i t will be able to f u l f i l its role regarding uniformity of referral methods. In order to offer greater assurance that camp placements will be beneficial to the ohildren, i t is necessary for the Bureau to establish a system to centralize referrals and to facilitate satisfactory practices. A very important role, therefore,is as follows: (8) To work out desirable referral procedures and to standardize methods by providing forms, work-sheets and other information. This must be preceded by detailed study of ourrent practices in relation to the application of essential philosophy and the needs. Moreover, i t will be neoessary for the Bureau to review the situation frequently and, in cooperation with workers and directors, to revise preoedures, because changes ocour in both fields. Standardization, therefore, must not be static. Furthermore, considerable time will be required in helping 164 personnel to make proper use of the information, to understand why forms' and speoifio methods are required, and to use these procedures more effectively. 1 The Community Chest and Council Camp Referral Projeot has accom-plished a good deal in meeting the realistic problems associated with defraying camping expenses, in part at least, for those families who do not have the resources to pay the fees. Because agency and oamp workers agree that this system should continue, the Bureau must examine a further responsibility: (9) To arrange financial assistance for families who require help in paying camp fees. The problems which are discussed in Chapter Two, in reference to this primary function of the Projeot, must be considered by the Bureau. It will also be necessary to secure financial support; from a service club, from the Community Chest, or from some other source. In view of several additional problems in the current situation, the centralized Bureau may accomplish other desirable functions. Some of these are associated with the "clearance" facility of a bureau; as follows: (10) To prevent overloading of camps. (11) To prevent the loss of placements through cancellations or laok of information about placement possibilities. (12) To prevent duplication and overlapping of referral prooedures, clerical processes, and physical examinations. (13) To control duplioation of placements when camps and agencies are not aware of these ciroumstanoes. These roles are possible when all referrals are registered through the Bureau, and when oooperation with agenoies and oamps is on a realistio and 1 A beginning has been initiated by the Community Chest and Council Camp Referral Project. The work should be extended. For this reason, forms of the type whioh seem advisable are presented in Appendis D. By means of further study and discussion with case workers and oamp direotors, these forms may be altered. However, the material suggested is of basic importance and should have uti l i t y value. 165 cordial basis. However, they are limited by the prevalence of last-minute placement arrangements; i.e., when workers do not begin planning for clients until the camping season has begun. The Bureau, therefore, must be established early in the year, and i t must encourage and facilitate early planning for placement purposes. In certain cases, arrangements oannot be made until the summer; but far too many Vanoouver camp place-ments are not attempted until June or July, with the result that procedures are inadequate and many unnecessary difficulties arise. Reference has been made to several "educational" responsibilities of the Bureau. These roles include: (14) To provide means whereby case workers and camp directors will continually learn more about oamping, cooperative services, and the servioes of other agencies. (15) To assist oase workers and camp staffs to interpret camping to other professions and the general community; to further their understanding of oamping benefits. (16) To provide information in answer to inquiries about oamping from individuals and groups in the community. It seems to be the responsibility of the Bureau, therefore, to prepare manuals and pamphlets containing information about oamping facilities, to interpret oamping services, to initiate and to assist study groups, to develop consultative services, and to provide library servioes. A great deal of this may be accomplished in cooperation with community groups and specialists. It may not be the Bureau's job to meet the need for a broader educational campaign about oamping; but the Bureau cannot avoid considering this while defining its functions. Focusing attention upon the benefits and needs of oamping may result in recommendations for the establishment of more oamps, or special camps for particular groups or for referral purposes. Whether the Bureau should, or could, be active in this respect involves many questions. Perhaps this work is the responsibility of the B.C. Camping Association, the agencies concerned, the Community Chest and Council, servioe olubs, or 166 a combination of several groups. Before answers could be provided, a good deal of study is required. However, the Bureau has certain responsibilities which are not directly related to referral procedures. In addition to these already listed, they include: (17) To establish cooperative working relationships with associations and community groups which are interested in oamping; for example, the B.C. Camping Association, and several clubs such as Kiwanis, Rotary, and others. The Bureau, therefore, must olarify its role and interpret its functions to these organizations. This is essential i f such groups are to be of assistance in making oamping opportunities available to more ohildren, and in providing better oamping. The extensive responsibilities of a potential bureau concerning camp referrals, demand careful examination of the administrative set-up whioh is required. Without examining details of financing and other potent questions, which of course must be studied long before a bureau can function, some preliminary recommendations may be made in the light of -che present analysis. The organization of the Camp Referral Projeot suggests that the Projeot might be extended as a central bureau of the type described; other-wise, an entirely new beginning may be made. It is recommended that a Central Camp Referral Bureau be established under the supervision of the Group Work Division of the Community Chest and Council. The executive committee of this Division should designate a sub-committee made up of representative community groups, particularly those connected with camping services, to work out the functional details of.the Bureau. Perhaps the Chest would provide the necessary budget, or a service olub might sponsor the scheme for an experimental period. The Bureau, however, would require staff, and offioe facilities and equipment to facilitate the work. Of great importance is the employment of a professional worker, on a full-time basis, to carry out the extensive duties as the Executive Director of the Bureau. This sooial worker must be specially trained and experienced; 167 he must have a great deal of understanding and knowledge about oase work, group work, camping, and ccmminni-fcy organization. In short, the job description demands a specially skilled worker. Otherwise, the work of the Bureau oould not be accomplished. Furthermore, i t is suggested that the work entailed and the costs involved would be less i f one qualified person were secured for the position, in plaoe of seven or more agenoy camp workers. The Bureau liaison worker would carry out many of the duties designated to an agenoy oamp worker, although a large agency such as a Children's Protection Society may s t i l l require a central worker within its building. Case workers and camp directors have an immediate responsibility; to study methods whioh may improve oamp referrals. Progress may be assured, in part, by several means; fi r s t , by the preparation of camp referral policies and polioy manuals, in case work agencies and organized camps; second, by the designation of an agenoy camp worker, in eaoh ease work agenoy; or finally, by the establishment of a Central Camp Referral Bureau, within the Community Chest and Council. No single system or method, however, will meet a l l the needs, solve a l l the problems, or eliminate a l l the inadequacies. For several reasons, therefore, i t is essential that a l l these suggestions be thoroughly explored. Some methods may be adopted very quickly by case workers and camp direotors, a few systems may be established within a short period, whereas other schemes may require many months of study and preliminary work. A Central Camp Referral Bureau, for example, may not carry its f u l l responsibility for the f i r s t year; perhaps only a few of the roles may be aooepted in the beginning, but gradually they could be augmented as workers in agenoies and oamps more ably oarry their responsibilities. Whether or not a Bureau is established, oase workers and oamp directors could do much to improve cooperative servioes in camping. 168 Studies to Lead the Way* Many references have been made to the need for further studies in areas whioh are directly and indirectly related to oamp referrals. These include investigation of a l l aspects of oamping and cooperative services; inadequacies regarding camping philosophy, leadership and program, and problems concerning the use of oamping and oase work services., to help meet the needs of children. The organisation of progressive schemes involves a great deal of exploratory work. Many questions must be answered; for example, which camps should be used for referral purposes, what criteria should be applied for seleoting camps, and should new and specifio oamps be established? Problems within camps, and laok of community planning, are indicated. The outstanding question remains; what organization should initiate these studies, and who is responsible for conducting them and evaluating the results? Without doubt, some central group, as well as ease work agencies and summer oamps, must aooept these responsibilities. It is imperative that oamp referral procedures, as demonstrated in Vancouver, be improved, i f more adequate servioes are to be offered to the ohild whose placement in a local camp is initiated by the case worker. This need has been emphasized in the study. It cannot be denied. Clearly, the experimental, trial-and-error stage of development has not been passed. Rather than being a slow, carefully planned process, placement is frequently casual, hasty, and haphazard; hence, the child is enrolled in almost any camp whioh is available, the case worker and the oamp director do not get together on a cooperative basis, and benefits to the camper are jeopardized. In other oases, procedures are more adequately applied, in part or in whole, by the case worker or the oamp director; but rarely are cooperative servioes complete. For reasons which have been thoroughly discussed in the study, camp referral procedures are inadequate. However, progress is not completely blocked; the way is clear for remedial action - the way is forward. Appendix A.  Questionnaire No. 1. REFERRALS OF CHILDREN FROM SOCIAL AGENCIES TO SUMMER CAMPS AGENCY:_ WORKER: REFERRALS AND FREQUENCY OF REFERRALS (see below "A"): 1, Approximate Number of Referrals Prior to 1947: (a) Under 10 per year:_i Years: (b) Under 20 per year: Years:* (o) Over 20 per year: Years:" 2-. Number of Referrals Made: (a) 1947 (boys) (girls) (b) 1948 (boys) (girls)] 3.. Number of Referrals Accepted: (a) 1947 (boys) (girls) (b) 1948 (boys) ' (girls)[ 4. Number of Children Returning to Camp Two or More Times: REASONS FOR REFERRALS (see below "B"): REASONS FOR LIMITED USE OF DAMPS: 1. Holiday for Child: 1». Lack of Good Camps: 2. Out-of-Doors Experience: 3. Sooial Adjustment: 4. Escape From Poor Family. Situation: 5. Other: 2. Lack of Qualified Camp Leadership: 3,. Workers Did Not Know About Camps: 4. Workers Were- Not Interested In Camps: 5. Lack of Interest by Clients:' 6. Other: A.. "Referrals" This is. intended-to apply to: (a") Boys and girls between the ages of 6 and 16 years. (b) Who were, or whose parents were, clients of your agenoy. (c) Who were sent to a summer camp in the Vancouver area (whether through the guidance of your agency or directly by your agency). B. If more than one reason applies, please check by numbers in the order of frequency of ocourrenoe. Mark by "0" only iteia(s) never occurring among reasons for referrals. Specify or explain any additional reasons. Appendix A. Questionnaire Ho. 2. REFERRALS OF CHILDREN FROM SOCIAL AGENCIES TO SUMMER CAMPS. 1 (LOCATION O F . C A M P i . CAMP: .SPONSORS; DIRECTOR) > NUMBER AND FREQUENCY OF REFERRALS (see below "A"): •1. Approximate Number of Referrals Prior to 1947: (a) Under 10 per year: __________ (b) Under 20 per year: -(c) Over 20 per year: Years: Yearst Years: 2. Number of Referrals Made: a) 1947 (boys) b) 1948 (boys)" 3„ Number of Referrals Aooepted: (a) 1947 (boys) (b) 1948 (boys)"— ~" 4. Number of Children Returning to Camp Two or. More Times: (girls) (girls)] £girls)_ ^girls)" 1947 19484 Mo. Mo. i i AGENCIES REFERRING CHILDREN Burnaby Social Servioe Children's Aid Society Catholic Children's Aid Society Citizen's Rehabilitation Council City Social Service Family Court Family Welfare Bureau Metropolitan Health Committee Other: REASONS FOR NOT ACCEPTING CERTAIN REFERRALS (see below "B") 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Laok of Room in Camp; Lack of Qualified Leaders: Child's Behaviour Not Suitable for Camp: Child's Physical Health Not Suitable for Camp: Other: A, "Referrals" This is intended to apply to: (a) Boys and girls between the ages of 6 and 16 years. (b) Who were sent to oamp through the guidance of a.case work agency or a health agency, (Whether by case worker, or by public health nurse), B, If more than one reason applies, please check by numbers in the order of frequency of occurrence. Mark by "01' any item(s) never occurring ctnong reasons for not acoepting oertain referrals. Specify or explain any additional reasons. Appendix B. ioH^dulo Ho. 1. REFERRALS 01 CHILDREN ( 6 - 1 6 years) FROM SOCIAL AGENCIES TO S U M M E R C A M P S . Agency_ _ . . GENERAL ESSE REAL PROCEDURE 1.Agency Referral P o l i c y i l)Written y2)Unwr i t ten, agreed upon 3)Left to i n d i v i d u a l worker, ,4JPlanned i n s t a f f meetings" throughout year p r i o r to camp only (5)0ther ;  2.Policy re Other Agenciess ( 1 ) Discussed with camp r e f e r r a l committee(Community Chest) (2) Discussed with i n d i v i d u a l camp directors , (3) 0 the r , _ 3»Agency"iWorkeriT l)Judge camps by camp pamphlets,, |2JDiscuss camps with,directors 3 ) V i s i t camps L4j0ther contacts "" INITIAL REFERRALS 1 . 1 d e n t i f y i n g Information(name,age, etc ( 1 ) Given to director by worker, frequently occasionally (2) 0 the r I I , 2 .lritten~Case Summary "by Worker. (l)Given to director, frequently occasionally. (2)Prepared upon request of director only. (5) 0ne worker makes a l l the camp r e f e r r a l s i yes no (6) 0ther (3) For q u a l i f i e d directors only (4) 0 the r , 3.ReferraT~Form used~~by Agency's 'l)As prepared by agency 2)As prepared by camps m 3jUsed frequently, ..occasion'y 4)0ther . 4.Case Worker-Camp Director pre Camp Conferences (l)Takes place frequently. occasionally. |2)Upon request of director only. '.3)VJith q u a l i f i e d d irector only_[ , 4) 0 the r____ . PREPARING REFERRED CHILD FOR CAMPs 1 .Explaining Camp to ChiIds (1) Explained by worker, frequently occasionally. (2) Explained by direct o r , frequently occasionally (3) Other, Z " 2.Explaining Camp to Parents? (l)Explained by worker, frequently Occasionally, (2^Explained by direct o r , frequently occasionally (3)0ther „ 3.Detailed Preparationss (clothes, transportation, equipment etc.) (1) Worker a s s i s t s parents, frequently occasionally (2) 0ther _~ CAMP FEES.' 1.Agency pays Camp Feess 1 ) Par t, f re qu en t l y o c cas i o n a l l y . 2 ] F u l l , frequently occasionally^, v 3J0ther, ;  i.Parents Pay Camp Feess ' ' 1 ) Part, f requen t l y occasi o n a l l y _ ^ 2 ) Ful 1 , f requen t l y o ccas i onally_. 3J0ther 3 , S p e c i a l Fund Provided bys (l)Agency, frequently ..occasionally. 2) Camp,frequently occasionally, 3) 0ther ;,No Camp Fees Paids ( l ) frequently „_(2) occasionally. i.Other (Page 2)i Schedule l-io. 1.. CONTACTS "WHILE CHILD IN CAMP. 1-.Worker v i s i t s Camp? (ljf r e q u e n t l y . [2/Occasionally ; 3)Upon request of d i r e c t o r ^4)0ther • 2.\iorker contacts directors Infrequently , 2 JOccasionally 3) Upon request of dir e c t o r 4) 0ther FOLLOW-UP PROCEDURE. 1. Director's written Report re Referred Child received "by Agency; 1 )Prequen t l y Oc'cas i onally 2)Upon request of agency only__ (3)Other ; 2. Director's Reports are useful. 1 )frequen t l y Oc.cas i o n a l l y y _ 2)0nly i f "by q u a l i f i e d d i r e c t o r " ( s o c i a l worker or equivalent) (3)other iii VALUATION Of REFERRAL PROCEDURE 1.Agency Experience Discussed? T l ) l n f a l l s t a f f meetings (2) l i t h other s o c i a l agencies frequently occasionally (3) *$ith camp directors ; (4) 0ther 3. Case Worker-Camp Director post camp Conferences l)Held frequently occasionally 2 JUpon request of agency only 3)0ther 4, Post~Camp Group Experience f o r Child? (l)Provided thru' worker's guidance, frequently occasionally (2" 3 4' (If recommended by camp_ )If group i s available__. (Other SUGGESTIONS TO IMPROVE CAMP REPERRAL PROCEDURE (re s u l t of agency experience) 1. Better trained leaders i n summer camps __;  2. More mature leaders i n summer camps_ 3. Improved -'programs i n summer camps more a c t i v i t i e s more variety special s k i l l s 4. Emphasis upon i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n i n camp a c t i v i t i e s ; 5 . Lowering of camp fees f o r referred children 6. ' Lengthening of camp periods f o r children . 7. Better f a c i l i t i e s i n camps, e.g. sleeping, eating, indoor and outdoor play areas and equipment, handcraft materials. 8. Higher standards of health and safety i n camps_ 9. More camps f o r referred children •  10. More ca.mps f o r family groups s including mothers and children 11. Improved camp written i n d i v i d u a l records 12. More and improved pre camp cooperation between agencies and camps re r e f e r r a l procedure and referred children 13. More and improved post camp cooperation (a,s abovej ;  14. Extension of Community Chest and Council Referral Project 15. Yea,r-round case work-group work study groups ( a l l agenciesT_ 16. Other Appendix B Schedule Ho. 2. .tu^RRALS OF CHILDltE_T (5-16 years) FROM SOCIAL AGENCIES TO S U M M E R CAMPS. Camp _ _ „ , ;  2. Gx_I_.RAL REFERRAL PROCEDURE, Referral Policy:; Written , Unwri tten,agre ed upon Individual case approach^ Planned "by director only_ Planned "by camp committee. Other IITI 1'IAL ' REFERRALS. . . Individual Information Forms l ) Regular application form used. ' 2 ) Special r e f e r r a l form used 3) Other __. . . 2 Li s cussion of Policys (r) By camp s t a f f p r i o r to camp i during camp i •2) Ity camp committee, . j 3 | With other camp directors .j ,4) With r e f e r r i n g agencies i 5j Ytfith Camp Referral Committee,;\i (0 ommuni ty Ches t) , Other ,Identifying informations(name,age,e ( l ) Given to camp "by agency f r e qu en t l y p c c as i onally Given in part only, frequently,; occasionally tc.) (2) (3) Other ( 6) Information ab"ouT~Camps" (l ) Pamphlets sent to agencies Special camp r e f e r r a l data prepared for agencies Director discusses camp with refe r r i n g agencies rr-r,^  Other (2) (3) (4) 4. Acceptance of Agency Referrals, \l\ A l l r e f e r r a l s are accepted. '2) Certain r e f e r r a l s rejected" 3) Other >.Written~Case Summary by Agencys ( l ) Received by director, frequently ^occasionally^,. Requested by camp, .f r e qu en t l y 0 c c as i onally __ Required by oamp,,, , Of "value i n work with child] Other _____ (2) 3 ' 4 ' Camp Director-Case Worker pre Camp Conferences(referred c h i l d discussed) 11) Held,frequently occasionally '2) Upon request of dir e c t o r only 3J Required by director • ,/"•,"•„, ' 4) 0ther ______ .. • , .; •. y'-y,,, 1,Interviews by D i r e c t o r l fre camp) ' l ) Parent alone,freq,_. occas. Child alone,freq. occas.. Parent and Child together, frequently occasionally. Other ~~~ ______ REFERRED CHILD II CAMP, 1. Child placed i n Cabin Groups 3 (of 4-10 campers) With own age group 1. [2 3, 'A, With other r e f e r r a l s With own chosen friends. Other 2. Referral information re Child? ( l ) ' On director's c o n f i d e n t i a l f i l e \2) Read by director only s t a f f ,3) Discussed by director with 5 child's cabin leader only 4) Discussed with a l l s t a f f .Discussion l)By dire 2 ) i ! r i o r t 3 By a l l 4)0ther .Preparation (1) % dire by nurs (2) 0ther_.. .Letters to (l)Written frequen of Referred C h i l d . ctor and cabin leader 0 camp during camp in s t a f f meeting of Camp Record of Childs ctor by leader e "freq. occas., Child's Parents? by director by leader. t l y __ occasionally Schedule No. 2. POLLOW UP PROCEDURE. 1. Child's Camp Record sent to Agency, 3.Camp Director-Case Worker post [l)frequently (2)0ccasionally Camp Conference re C h i l d . (3)Upon request of agency only fl| H e l d frequently occasionally .4;0ther ' [2 )Upon request of agency only n jDesired Toy d i r e c t o r ^ • . .• . )Other .  2. Record includes Recommendations, ( l ) f requently (2)Occasionally_; 4.Discussion of Referral Procedure of (3JUpon request of agency only Completed period (re camp experience .4'}other ( l ) l i t h agencies, frequently ~"~ ~ occasionally __, desired, "by d i r . [2)In f a l l camp~meetings(com'ee) : •  t3JWith other camp directors [ '4)0ther ... . • y\^;/ • : y " : SUGGESTIONS fOR IMPROVING CAMP RSfERRAL PROCEDURE • (as re s u l t of camp experience) 1. Improved cooperation between camp and r e f e r r i n g agencies. 2. More knowledge of camp philosophy, aims, program, f a c i l i t i e s , personnel, for agency workers ; . ____ . L 3. More confidence by"~workers "in the a b i l i t y of camp to help children with behaviour and s o c i a l adjustment problems. but not to provide psychotherapy for advanced cases of maladjustment. • Discussion of r e f e r r a l procedure with a l l workers of r e f e r r i n g agencies. 5. Complete written case summaries from re f e r r i n g agencies. 6. A camp director-case worker pre camp conference re referred c h i l d f o r a l l r e ferrals 9 for some r e f e r r a l s ?• "workers taking r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r seeing that referred c h i l d has adequate ! clothing and equipment for cn,mp period. Worker discussing with parents reason f o r suggesting c h i l d go to camp, r i o r to director interviewing parent and c h i l d re arrangements f o r camp .i . e . not merely giving d i r e c t o r noxie of c h i l d and leaving contact to director) 9, Leaders i n camp, better trained snore mature persons 10.Improved camp records f o r referred children. to be prepared by director ,by chil d r e n f s counsellors ,by a l l s t a f f . 11.A camp director-case worker~post camp conference re referred c h i l d f o r a l l r e f e r r a l s . • ,. f o r some r e f e r r a l s 12.Discussion and planning of good r e f e r r a l procedure with a l l camps which accept r e f e r r a l s acting together. 13. Extension of Community Chest Camp Referral Project, 14. Year round case-work group work study groups with a l l camp and agency workers p a r t i cipating„ • _ _ __„ , ; 15. A trained s o c i a l worker (case worker or group worker) on camp s t a f f to supervise r e f e r r a l s . 16.Other Appendix B. fccliodulo Mo, 3 . CAMP ORGANIZATION. (While Children at Camp 6-16 years of age) Camp . CAMP PURPOSE (aims and objectives) 1. Governing Group. 2. Cam 1 3 4 6 7 8 The Association Board_ (A camp committee j l h i c h i s policy-making, jWhich i s advisory only iQther CAMP" AJMliTIS TRATI01. Camp Personnel, (while c h i l d at calap) employ e cUj vq lun t e er v.; 4, Director. The year round administrator, Summer director only. " Secured f o r each camp period.^/ Enpl oyed (5) Volun te e r , Acts as Program Director only_ Acts as Business Manager only" 5. Acts as d i r e c t o r of a l l aspects of camp administration (9)0 the r Len; 1 3 ;th of Period C h i l d I One week__ i Ten days"" -One month i n Camps 6, .4)Varies from. 5)0ther to 1 )Direc tor : .2)Program d i r e c t o r 3) Business manager *-4) Group counsellors 5) Program specialists,,.; 6) Resident nurse J 7 )Di e t i t i on __ I . 8) Re s i dent cook _ .;, .9/Kitchen helpers ~ 10) Resident caretaker 11) Other Source of -financial Support, 1 .2 3 4 '5 (Campers' fees. i Community Chest "and Council •.Fraternal "body ;  ifoundation . , Other _____ er's fees, Set amount f o r a l l campers S l i d i n g scale (max. & min,$ 1 ) ther ;  CAMPERS 1. Children ? (1) Age range of boys to (2) Age range of g i r l s to (3JSeparate boys and g i r l s camps (4)0ther 2. family Camp, (1) Mothers attend camp with boys and g i r l s of ages_. to , (2) Other •__ 3. Medical Inspection of Campers, (l)Pre Gamp ( 2 ) F i r s t day (3) Dai l y _Z (4) 0 ther ~ 4. Safety f o r Campers, (l)Regular water supply tests (2 )Public l i a b i l i t y insurance__ (3):0ther_____ ; , *"...,. PHYSICAL FACILITIES, 1. Camper's Sleeping Quarters, (l)Cahins (2) Tents (3) 4-10 campers per group. (4) Coun3ellor uses same quarters (5) 0 ther . 2. Permanen t~BuiTdings. i l)Kitchen (2)Dinlng Room 3 J Re creation hall-. t ,. , 4 J Craft room__, 5 ) F i r s t Aid hut 6) 0 the r _ _ J _ _ . „ _ _ _ - _ ™ 3, Swimming Area, (1) Open ocean water (2) Pro tec ted [5j0 ther 4, Play Area s (l)Cleared playground (S) Other (fast ®J Schedule'No• 3, CAMP ACTIVITIES, GROUPINGS III CAMP. Daily Program, (children's camp) 1. (1) Set periods f o r each a c t i v i t y , . (2) Set periods f o r meals ssleeping, medical inspection,only j l i , (3) Daily schedule subject to change re interests of campers (4) Other _____ ~ Cabin Group (or tent) l i v i n g q't'rs ('l)Child i s member of permanent sleeping cabin group. (2)Child may change group under certain circumstances (3) -Tumber of children i n each group i s ; varies from__ to__ (4) Other. , , A c t i v i t i e s , (l)Swimming classes (children 1 s camp]"" 2, Cabin""leader or counsellor, free (l)Each' group has a permanent leader 2)Leader sleeps i n same cabin.---c, 30Leader guides group a'ctlvltieg- ^ 4}othe r ^-- - , < •'.•'• y••'.••>x---,.'1, :'--:fe..^-:J v^-.'-2) Boating,under supervision ~ inst r u c t i o n . free periods 3) Hikes, short" long o v e r n i g h t _ 4) 0utdoor land games,sports ""' 5) Indoor recreation 6) Handc raf t ins tru c t i on_ :7-vCampf i r e songs. ceremony__, j8)Singsongs _teach camp k9)Afternoon rest period 110 J Devotional period? daily. Sunday __;'; 111)Camper reunions,annually frequently ____o cc as i onally (I2)0ther . 3," A c t i v i t i e s , 1) Each cabin group has own activ-i t i e s , f r e quent ly, o c c a s. _____ 2) A l l campers take part i n a c t i v i t i e s together „ ir:'hZ '•;•[ 3) Cabin group plans a c t i v i t i e s " ^ ; '--;;. frequently occasionally,;,^ 4) C h i l d may take part i n d i f f e r e n t activ's .under d i f f e r e n t leadefs_; 5) Program includes sma.ll group and mass a c t i v i t i e s • 6) Other , __ PROGRAM PLANNING Staff Planning, 'l)Plan detailed d a i l y program p r i o r to camp 2) Plan tentative program p r i o r to camp (suggest a c t i v i t i e s etc) 3) Plan detailed program during camp 4) 0ther , Camper Participations 2. [l j P l a n a c t i v i t i e s of own group during camp [2)Plan group program with guidance of group leader and within the ,; framework of general schedule_ , |3)Help plan s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s ""-f o r t o t a l camp p a r t i c i p a t i o n ^ , [4)Elected camp council helps s t a f f plan program , ,5)Each camper chooses a c t i v i t y x,: to j o i n from a number of 3« a c t i v i t i e s . ; : [6')Leader available to work with ;, campers not i n s p e c i a l l y chosen a c t i v i t i e s ( f l o a t e r ) X 7) A l l campers must j o i n i n the pre arranged program 8) 0 the r "". :; CAMP RECORDS. Printed Forms (on i n d i v i d u a l campers) 'l) I n d i v i d u a l camper application (Parent's Confidential data sheet,, )Medical h i s t o r y jMedical treatment i n camp JReferral information _____v: iIndividual camper p a r t i c i p a t i o n ^ : (Other- -:• ."- • ,2 3 4! 5 6 7' Individual camper records, ( 1 Counsellor's comments re camper's p a r t i c i p a t i o n and adjustment, (2) Director's comments re camper's p a r t i c i p a t i o n and adjustment,, (3) Other s t a f f comments re camper (4) Records only prepared for-re-ferred children some only (5) 0 the r ' A c t i v i t y records, (l)Prepared by leaders f o r air a c t i v i t i e s . ; , leaders ^ P r e p a r e d i n 3JPrepared i n 4)0 ther sunma,ry summary "by by director APPENDIX C I Outline of Camp Information Heeded by the Case Worker.1 1 General Information. Name of oamp, camp address, phone. Agenoy operating oamp, address, phone. Camp direotor. Camp.dates, sex, and ages accepted, fees. 2 Camp Site and Facilities. Living quarters for campers and staff. Other buildings and special equipment such as tennis courts, etc. Size of grounds, terrain, lake or other body of water. 3 Camp Objectives. 4 Camp Staff. Ratio of staff to campers (overall and by cabin groups) Basis for selection (age, education, special interests) Specialized Staff (nurse, program specialists) . 5 Program • Available activities, activities emphasized. Provision for religious services. Activities required (if any) Method of program development (Can child choose his activities? Does his group make their own plans with a counsellor1s help? What is he required to do? 6 Method of grouping children. Does camp place children according to age, sex, interests, friends, handicaps etc? Does ohild choose his living group? 7 Who may come . Does camp serve a particular area, membership, agenoy, referrals, type of handicap, financially needy, etc? Is camp inter-racial? inter-cultural? Other factors. 8 Information desired by Camp (enclose blanks to be used). To whom applications should be directed. Admission procedure. 9 Provisions for medical care. Medical exam: by whom, when, dates and instructions. Emergency care at oamp. Insurance• 10 Information for Parents. Transportation• Fees (including special arrangements possible). Clothes needed. Spending money, laundry, food and other gifts • Visitors. 1 Recommended by the Social Work Consultant Project on Camping, Elizabeth McCormick Memorial Fund, Chicago, March, 1949. II (a) CAMP EEFEREAL FORM. Camp Name of Camper Addre s s Sex Age School Father Mother Foster Parent or Guardian Child lives with (To be completed by the case worker) Referring Agency Phone Case Number Phone Religion Birth date Grade Completed Occupation Age  Occupation ~ Age Occupation Brothers Ages Does oamper have oontaot with a group work agenoy? What agenoy " Date Referred Race "Nationality Other Phone "Business "Phone Business_ Phone Sisters Ages In what individual and group activities has he participated this last year? Camps previously attended, dates Previous absenoe from home (specify) Reasons for referral Pertinent comments regarding camper's interests and skills, family back-ground, personality, and behaviour. (Use reverse side i f necessary). In emergency notify Name Address Phone" Financial arrangements Dates preferred Referred by Agenoy Worker  1 Prepared by the Chioago Camping Association, March, ly^y, Arrangement of information could be varied, as deemed necessary. , . • . 1 (b) ipORMAIION ABOUT THE CHILD'S HANDICAP. (To be appendedT-fco Camp~Referral Form, i f necessary) Name of Camper Check type of handicap camper has: Cardiac _Hard of Hearing Controlled Diabetic Bnuretic Orthopedic Visually Handicapped Controlled Epileptic Nephritic_ Asthmatic Behaviour Problems Other (specify) Write a paragraph indicating: a. Description of handicap b. How i t limits child (physically and psychologically) in his ability to care for himself and participate in normal activities of his group. c. Special attention or assistance required: Feeding . 1 Toilet habits Special Diet Dressings Appliances etc. Physiotherapy d. Has the camper had play experience with non-handicapped children? Prepared by the Chicago Camping Association, March 1949. III. Outline For Sooial History From Case Worker. 1. Description of Camper. Unusual height or weight; visible handicaps such as deformities, scars, crossed eyes, twitching; general appearance of neatness, shabbi-ness; unusual behaviour trends such as chronic giggling, shifting of the eyes, restlessness, explosiveness, sleep-walking or talking, enuresis, etc. Any indication of delinquent trends such as stealing, sexual precocity, etc. In what areas would you anticipate problems (group, adult relationships, kinds of activity, etc.) and have you suggestions for handling? For grouping? 2. Group Adjustment. Immediate Itieighbourhood, club membership, school, previous camp. What are his after-school recreational interests and affiliations? Does he have any close friends and what seems to be outstanding in these relationships (age, follower or leader, etc?) Are his group affiliations, i f any, voluntary or under pressure of family, sohool, church? Briefly, what is his sohool adjustment and are there any unusual problems? Are there indications of conflict in racial, cultural, nationality ties? 3. Health. "~ATe defects, i f any, being corrected before child is sent to oamp? Indicate any evidences of food fads, hypochondriacal tendencies. Are there any other health problems of camper or family of whioh camp staff needs to be aware? 4. Family Situation and Relationships. ""Problems and "relationship s which may effect the child in oamp; strong sibling rivalry, over-attachment to parent, absence of parent from home. Are there unusual happenings at home at time of camp placement -birth of sibling etc.? If sibling is being sent to camp, should they be separated? What is your relationship with camper? 5. Attitudes of Parents. Th~eir comments and fears about the oamp placement. Their need to hear from the ohild regularly, attitude towards his camp possessions, areas of resistance of parents, parental wishes. Camper's Attitude toward Camp. Fearfu 1, enbhusTas"t 1 o," as a kind of "punishment", any verbalized concerns regarding activities, swimming, overnight hiking, etc.; response to inter-racial set-up; requests to bunk with particular friends. Special anxieties and insistences. 7* Reason for Referral to Camp. What are the chief reasons for sending the camper to oamp? What benefits do you expect the oamper to derive from camp? 8. Reports from Counsellors. If tEere are particular areas of camp living about which you want observations or emphasis in reports, please include here. 1 Suggested by the Special Services Division, Community Service Society of New York, Maroh, 1949. 17. Outline of Individual Report on Camper. "(To be used by the cabin "counsellor at oamp.) Name of Child_ Age Name of Camp Name of Writer The following outline is to be used as a guide in writing a brief description of the camper as you know him. Use main headings and cover only those aspeots which are important in each case. (1) General description of camperj his adjustment and behaviour at camp. (2) General description of child's oabin group; ages, make-up, method by which camper is placed, and group spirit; program planning and participation. (3) Camper's health, personal hygiene and habits; weight gain or loss, attitudes towards personal health, medication, sleep, diet, accidents, and sex, care of possessions, toilet and dressing habits, mannerisms such as tics and speech, and exhibitions of nervourness, fear, fantasies, and other habits. (4) Camper's reaction to oamp routine and responsibilities; attitudes towards camp equipment, property, and other camper's belongings, reaction to camp routine and regulations, and attitude and participation in cabin and other camp duties. (5) Camper's interests and abilities; interests and hobbies upon arrival at oamp, response to new opportunities at camp, special skills, ineptitudes, stability of interests, and areas in which camper shows interest and needs encouragement. (6) Camper's relationships with other campers; role in cabin group, areas in which a follower or a leader, acceptance and non-acceptance by members of group- plus reasons, special attachments and friendships, and ability to get along with himself. (7) Camper's relationships with camp staff, including his cabin counsellor and others; special likes, dislikes, and attachments, persist-ence and fluctuation of attachments, response to methods of handling, and demands made upon staff members. (8) Special observations re camper; problems presented, oamper's comments and attitudes towards home, parents, siblings, friends, worker, agency, school and self. (9) Visits to camper by relatives and friends; description and effect upon camper. (10) Estimated value of camp experience; re treatment plan, changes in attitude, behaviour etc. (11) Recommendations for follow-up; interests to encourage, problems to be solved, needs to be met, and suggestions for future group experience in the city and at the camp. Address "Rhone Dates' attended Position Date 1 Several of the headings in the Outline were suggested in Toward Better Camping, Social Work Consultant Project on Camping, Chicago, January ly^y. (mimeographed) p.10. Appendix D. BIBLIOGRAPHY. (a) general References. American Association of Group Workers, Group Work - Case Work  Cooperation, Symposium, New York, Association Press, 1946. Bernstein, Saul, "Contributions of Group Work to Individual Adjustment", in Family, Vol. 17, June, 1936. Coyle, Grace L., "The Group Leader and the Individual Member", i n S fQ"P Work with American Youth, Harper and Brothers, 1948, ch.TOT pp. 217-247. Gold, Bertram H., "Some Guiding Principles in the Work with Individuals Outside the Group", in American Association of Group Workers, Toward Professional Standards, New York, Association Press, 1947, pp.88-96. Hester, Mary, and Thomas, Dorothy G., "Case Work and Group Work Cooperation", in Proceedings of the National Conferenoe of  Sooial Work, New York, Columbia_"Dnive7sTty~Press,~T939, pp. 334-341. Linderman, Wanda, "An experiment in Case Work - Group Work Cooperation", in The Group, New York, American Association for the Study of Group Work, Vol. 8, November, 1945, pp.13-15. Wilson, Gertrude, Group Work and Case Work, Their Relationship and Practice, New York, Family Weirare Association or America, 1941 Wilson, Gertrude, "Interplay of the Insights of Case Work and Group Work", in Proceedings of the National Conferenoe of  Social Work, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1937, pp.150-162. Wilson, Gertrude, and Ryland, Gladys, Social Group Work Praotioe, Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 19151 (b) Specific References. American Camping Association, Camp Standards Adopted by ACA, reprinted from Camping Magazine, Chicago, American Camping Association, May, 1948. American Camping Association, The Marks of Good Camping, Association Press, 1941. Beokhard, Alethea Hanson, "Camps Too are Challenged", in The Group, New York, American Association for the Study of Group Work, Vol. 8, No. 4, June, 1946, pp. 8-10. Blumenthal, Louis H., Group Work in Camping, New York, Association Press, 1937. Blumenthal, Louis H., "Group Work in Camping, yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow", in Hendry C.E., A Deoade of Group Work, New York, Association Press, 1948, pp. 9-lb. 2 Carr, Lowell J., Valentine, Mildred M, and Levy, Marshal H., Interpreting the Gamp, the Gommunity, and Social Work, Hew York, A~ssoeiation Press, 1939. ' Delbauve, Helen, The Role of Camp in a Treatment Program, Thesis, School of Applied" Science, University of Pittsburg, June, 1941. Dimock, Hedley S., ed. Administration of the Modern Camp, New York, Association Press, 1941H Dimock, Hedley S., ed. "Setting Standards in the Summer Campw, "Putting Standards into the Summer Camps", "Appraising the Summer Camp", "Some Frontiers in Camping", "Camping in a Democracy", "Camping and the Community", Reports of Camp Seminars, Character Education in the Summer Camp, New York, Association Press, 1935-1942. Howard, Wilbur K., "Putting First Things First in Camping", in Canadian Camping, Toronto, Canadian Camping Association, Vol. I, No. 1. February, 1949, pp. 8-10. Jack, Barbara, "Integrating a Camp Program with Family Case Work", in Cooperative Case Work, New York, Family Welfare Association of America, 1939, pp. 56-60. Malumd, Helen, "Cooperation With One Camp", in Cooperative Case Work, New York, Family Welfare Association of America, 1939, pp.60-61. Osburn, Hazil, "Record Material - Direct Help or Referral", in Amerioan Association of Group Workers, Toward Professional Standards, New York, Association Press, 1947, pp. W=Wf.~ Sharp, L.B., Camping and Outdoor Education, -reprinted from The Bulletin"71fashing"t;bn, TTatibhaTlLssbciation of Secondard-SchbbT Principals, April, 1947, pp. 32-38. Sigal, Ester L., A Referral and Follow-up Experience at Bay House Camp, Thesis, School of~Applied Science,"University of PIWs"5urg, June, 1941. Solender, Sanford, "Group Work and Camping", in Camping Magazine, Chicago, American Camping Association, Vol. 17", No"; 3, Mareti~T945, pp. 9-11. Stein, Herman D., "Case Work and Camping", in The Family, Vol. 26, April, 1945, pp. 61-66. Sylvester, Lorna and Taggart, "Our Relationship to the Community, as seen Through Referrals", in Cooperative Case_Work, New York, Family Welfare Association of America, l93"9^ '"pp ."I^ B". (c) Other Sources of Information. Mimeographed material was received from the following agencies and associations. Brooklyn Bureau of Social Service and Children's Aid Society, 285 Schermerhorn Street, Brooklyn 17, New York: 1. Agenoy Camp Policy, March 1947. 3 Chicago Camping Association, 123 West Madison Street, Chicago 2, Illinois. 1.Samples of Camp Application and Referral Forms, March, 1949. Group Work and Recreational Division, Social Planning Council of St."Louis and St. Louis County, 505 North 7th Street, St.Louis l.Mo. 1. Study of Practices used in Referring Children to Summer IJamjos ,^b%bVer7nL9 _8*. 2 Recommendations of the Special Committee on the Camja ^£eTT^^r909^rea' December 1948." * "~ Life Camps, Inc., 369 Lexington Ave., New York 17, New York., 1. Bulletin of Information, (camp polioy manual), 1948 Social Work Consultant Project on Camping, Elizabeth MoCormiok Memorial Fund, 848 North Dearborn Street, Chicago 10, III. 1. Robinson, Margaret, To Parents of Campers, June, 1947 2. Toward Better Camping, January; 194?". 3. Samples of Application and Referral Forms, 1949. Special Services Division, Community Sercioe Society of New York, 105 East 22nd Street, New York 10, New York. 1. Ward Manor Girls' Camp and E.S.S. Boys' Camp, "(Agency oamp polioy manual), 1948. 2, Outline for Reports to Camp, March, 1949, United Charities of Chicago, 123 West Madison Street, Chicago, 2, 111. Family Service Bureau Camp Committee, 1. Summer Outing geport for 1948 2. Summer Outing Polioy, (agenoy information re Camp Algonquin and the use of other oamps), May, 1948. Application for Camp, 1949. Vancouver Community Chest and Council Camp Referral Project: 1. Summary Report, Optimist Club Summer Camp Project, 1947. 2. HepbrETof the Boys' Camp Referral Project, 19471 3. TnFormation Sheet, Vancouver Rotary Club Camp Referral Frojeot J9~4lH 4. Report 6T~he Camp Referral Project, Sponsored by the  Rotary Club of Vancouver, 1948." Vancouver Religious Education Board: 1. Ontario Boys' Work Board, Camp Bulletin, 1948. Vancouver Y.M.C.A.: 1. Camp Howdy Committee, Camp Howdy Policy, 1949. Z. Camp Elphinstone ReporTT, 1?¥6'." '*•""* * 

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