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Old age pensions in British Columbia, a review of trends in eligibility Mathewson, Eleanor Weld 1949

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OLD AGE PENSIONS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA A Review of Trends i n E l i g i b i l i t y  by ELEANOR WELD MATHEWSON  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OP SOCIAL WORK i n the Department of Social Work  October, 194-9 THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA  ABSTRACT Financial provision for the years of retirement c a l l s for consideration and preparation by every thinking c i t i z e n .  Know-  ledge gained from past experience may prove of benefit to planners for the future.  Keeping t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n mind, t h i s thesis.,  has been prepared as a review of the establishment and evolution of the present system of o l d age pensions i n Canada, with details concerning the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Information embodied i n the thesis was obtained.from numerous documents;  other than those mentioned i n the Bibliography, the •  Canada Gazette and the B r i t i s h Columbia Gazette should be noted as sources for l e g i s l a t i o n .  Sample cases were obtained from an-  analysis of the applications for old age pension i n B r i t i s h Columbia which were refused during the year 1947. Review of popular opinions expressed over the years, and discussion of e l i g i b i l i t y requirements i n 1947 reveals the i n adequacy of the present scheme, thus pointing to the necessity of expanding the scope for f i n a n c i a l security i n old age.  A l l pro-  posals to secure greater coverage e n t a i l the establishment of a contributory pension p l a n . In the l i g h t of ever-changing l e g i s l a t i o n , and i n the absence of any chronological compilation of the provisions made by the B r i t i s h Columbia government for old age pensions, i t was f e l t that an account of the growth of the present system would be of reference value.  / •  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The w r i t e r wishes t o express s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n and g r a t i t u d e t o Mr. J . H. C r e i g h t o n , Chairman, Miss Amy B. Edwards, D i r e c t o r of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , and Mr. J . M. Putnam, Chief C l e r k , of the Old Age Pension Board of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r t h e i r cooperation and understanding i n making a v a i l a b l e p e r s o n a l knowledge and o f f i c i a l documents; t o Mr. J . W. MacParlane, D i r e c t o r of Old Age Pensions i n the Department of N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and Welfare, who k i n d l y s u p p l i e d information regarding/ the meetings of the I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Boards; and t o Dr. Leonard Marsh of the Department of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r h i s advice, guidance and encouragement i n the c o l l e c t i o n and assembling of m a t e r i a l .  IK  OLD  Acknowledgments  AGE  -  IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  .....  Part 1 Chapter I  PENSIONS  -  page  1  EVOLUTION OP THE SYSTEM  ESTABLISHING THE NEED  E a r l y days In B r i t i s h Columbia. F i r s t mention of government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . S e l e c t Committees, I n s t i g a t i o n by labour o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 1924 Committee t o study question of pensions. B.N.A. Act and Dominion-provincial r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 1925 recommendations. 1926 B i l l . E l e c t i o n . Old Age Pension Act passed i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada. page 2 Chapter I I  -  LEGISLATIVE DEVELOPMENTS. 1927^1947  Dominion-provincial agreement and B r i t i s h Columbia a c t i o n . I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Board meetings, 1928 and 1930. Increased Domi n i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Board, 1937. The RowellS l r o i s Commission. Wartime amendments. Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare. Dominion-provincial proposals. Recent e l i g i b i l i t y developments page 19 Chapter I I I -  ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGES. 1927-1947  E a r l y p o l i c y under the Workmen's Compensation Board. The Old Age Pension Board, 1943. T h e ' F i e l d Service S t a f f of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch. The S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n . Dominionprovincial policy. page 37  Part 2 Chapter IV  -  - . ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS  THE NATURE OF ELIGIBILITY  Population t r e n d . A p p l i c a t i o n s considered subject t o Dominion a u d i t . A p p l i c a t i o n s r e f u s e d 1944 to 1947. E l i g i b i l i t y requirements. page 49  7Y  Chapter V  - PROOF OF AGE  Age as a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . Regulations of 1927, 1932, 1937, and 1947. A p p l i c a t i o n s refused: (a) no a v a i l a b l e proof, (b) i n s u f f i c i e n t evidence, and (c) c o n f l i c t i n g evidence. A p p l i c a t i o n s proven acceptable at a l a t e r date. . . page 58 Chapter VI - RESIDENCE AND NATIONALITY Residence and n a t i o n a l i t y . Regulations of 1927, 1930, 1937, 1939, 1944, and 1947 f o r residence. Examples of a p p l i cations r e f u s e d . 1947 amendments. D e c l a r a t i o n of residence. P r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l i t y , 1927-1947. New A c t , 1947. Vancouver's Chinese a p p l i c a n t s . . . page 70 Chapter V I I  - ALLOWABLE INCOME  Income according t o r e g u l a t i o n s . Cash--contributions from c h i l d r e n , War Veterans' Allowance. The bank statement. Board and l o d g i n g . P r o p e r t y - - r e a l and p e r s o n a l . Transfer of property. Claims on pensioners' e s t a t e s . . . . page 80  Part 3 Chapter V I I I  -  -  OUTLOOK  TRENDS TOWARD GREATER COVERAGE  Review of e l i g i b i l i t y requirements. I n t e n t i o n of 1931* Experience I n the United States and other c o u n t r i e s . Dominionp r o v i n c i a l recommendations, 1939. Government and p r i v a t e publ i c a t i o n s dealing w i t h s e c u r i t y i n o l d age—Marsh, Cassidy, Whitton. Dominion Proposals, 1945, Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l . Importance of the problem. A proposal. page 95  Bibliography Appendices  page 115 pages 117-26  TABLES AND CHARTS IN THE TEXT (a) Tables Table 1. Applicants for Old Age Pension i n e l i g i b l e according to Age Regulations, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1947, page 62 (b) Charts Figure 1. Population over seventy years of age, and Old Age Pension recipients, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1927-1947, • . page 49 Figure 2. Percentages of applications refused, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1944-1947,  and reasons, page  53  Figure 3« Applications for Old Age Pension refused, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1947, page 54  7^  CHAPTER I ESTABLISHING THE NEED  E a r l y days I n B r i t i s h Columbia. F i r s t mention of government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . S e l e c t Committees. I n s t i g a t i o n by labour o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 1924 Committee t o study question of pensions. B.N.A. Act and Dominion-provineial r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 1925 recommendations. 1926 B i l l . E l e c t i o n . Old Age Pension Act passed i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada.  In 1871 B r i t i s h Columbia became a p a r t of the,Dominion of Canada; there were 36,247 i n h a b i t a n t s , mostly prospectors and t r a p p e r s , i n 353*855 square miles of mountain and forest.^-  In  the summer months they were s c a t t e r e d throughout the i n t e r i o r , and i n the winter were concentrated, w i t h the f i r s t few hardy s e t t l e r s , i n the southwestern mainland and i n the settlements about V i c t o r i a .  By 1887 the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, which  was t o b r i n g many more s e t t l e r s , was forged through the mountains to l i n k B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h the l i f e and produce of the r e s t of Canada.  I t was p a r a d o x i c a l t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia, as a new  p r o v i n c e , should have a comparatively o l d p o p u l a t i o n .  I t was  as t r u e i n the e a r l y days as nowadays; continued immigration had caused a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of older people I n the p o p u l a t i o n ; i n 1891 r e s i d e n t s over seventy years of. age  comprised  1.38 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n . Existence f o r most of the e a r l y r e s i d e n t s was dependent on the primary i n d u s t r i e s of f i s h i n g , a g r i c u l t u r e , mining or lumbering.  Thus the number of men grown o l d In t h e i r gamble  w i t h l i f e had Increased beyond the scope of . 1 Vancouver I s l a n d had become a B r i t i s h Colony i n 1849.  - 3p r i v a t e philanthropy and benevolent s o c i e t i e s , so t h a t , as e a r l y as 1893, a r e a l need was recognized i n the  establishment  of the P r o v i n c i a l Home f o r the Aged and I n f i r m at Kamloops. By 1900 V i c t o r i a had a "Municipal. Old Men s Home f o r those f  over s i x t y who had l i v e d a c e r t a i n number of years i n the c i t y , and a home f o r o l d women was p a r t i a l l y supported by the municipality.  The F r i e n d l y Help S o c i e t y a l s o cared f o r the aged poor."'  On the mainland there was no p r o v i s i o n f o r the aged poor other than the P r o v i n c i a l Home, f o r men o n l y , and a temporary p r o v i s i o n arranged i n l o c a l h o s p i t a l s l i k e the Royal .Columbian at New Westminster, S t . Luke's Home, or the S i s t e r s H o s p i t a l of 1  S t . P a u l i n Vancouver.  H o s p i t a l care n e c e s s i t a t e d a s e r i o u s  p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n before an aged person could be s h e l t e r e d . As many e l d e r l y people were not I n such c r i t i c a l  circumstances,  but were unable t o continue t o support themselves i n t h e i r regul a r employment, they r e q u i r e d a c e r t a i n amount o f a i d .  This was  s u p p l i e d through the " D e s t i t u t e , Poor and S i c k Fund," dispensed, since 1886, by the Deputy P r o v i n c i a l Secretary. . 1910-11 |14,000.00 was voted f o r t h i s purpose.  During the year "The p r a c t i c e  was f o r a Government Agent, a Member, a p h y s i c i a n , the p o l i c e , or almost anyone t o w r i t e and request a grant f o r some needy person.  D e t a i l s were scanty.  on each case.  The M i n i s t e r himself used t o pass  Amounts would u s u a l l y run about $10.00 a month ...  C i r c u l a r s were i s s u e d t o o b t a i n some follow-up r e p o r t .  These  were u s u a l l y returned by the P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e , noted 'No 2 S. D. C l a r k , The S o c i a l Development of Canada. Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press, 1942, p. 405.  change I n circumstances• "3 1  The C i t y of Vancouver b u i l t an "Old Peoples 1913*  1  Home" i n  F o r many years i t was operated as a Home Farm, thus  serving a purpose d i s t i n c t from the h o s p i t a l which would always be r e q u i r e d f o r a c e r t a i n p r o p o r t i o n of the o l d e r members o f society. GROWING RECOGNITION OF NEED FOR PROVISION FOR OLD AGE During the economic development of Canada, the workingman was subject t o many minor periods of depression and prosperity.  I n B r i t i s h Columbia h i s precarious p o s i t i o n was i n t e n -  s i f i e d as employment was subject t o d r a s t i c seasonal f l u c t u a tions.  I n d u s t r i a l retirement p l a n s , such as t h a t inaugurated  f o r Canadian P a c i f i c Railway employees i n 1903, gave a degree of s t a b i l i t y t o the post-retirement years of some permanent employees, but these provided f o r only an extremely s m a l l percentage o f the working population of Canada. Through the heavy i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of the East and the great t i d e of immigration from B r i t a i n and Europe, B r i t i s h Columbia's p o p u l a t i o n swelled t o 392,480 I n 1911, o f which no l e s s than 72*4 percentage were of B r i t i s h e x t r a c t i o n . 4 Thus i t was n a t u r a l that s o c i a l and economic p h i l o s o p h i e s which were the outgrowth of B r i t a i n ' s labour and r a d i c a l groups, should act as a spark t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n . Doubtless I n t e r e s t i n events l e a d i n g t o the establishment of a system o f non-contributory o l d age 3 P. Walker. "From these e a r l y beginnings." The BulletinT" Department of the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , v o l . 3, No. 16, September, 1946, p. 4.  - 5 pensions i n B r i t a i n i n 1908, gave r i s e t o the r e s o l u t i o n o f the N a t i o n a l Trades and Labour Congress from t h e i r f i f t h  annual  convention t o the Dominion Government t h a t a p e n s i o n f u n d f o r M  aged and d i s a b l e d workmen be e s t a b l i s h e d . 5 n  E a s t e r n Canada had met the problem o f p r o v i d i n g care f o r the needy f o r many years through churches, p r i v a t e l y  sponsored  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , which were by t r a d i t i o n f i t t e d t o t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  There was not t h e  need f o r as s t r o n g an appeal t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l heads as was r e q u i r e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, where heavy burdens s e t t l e d on munic i p a l i t i e s b e f o r e p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s had time t o b e g i n t o meet the problem.  Thus the young B r i t i s h Columbia Government was  f o r c e d , by circumstances, t o assume g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and i n so doing, i t t u r n e d n a t u r a l l y t o t h e Dominion f o r h e l p . F i r s t mention  o f Dominion r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was made i n t h e  House o f Commons i n 1907.  The R t . Hon. S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r was  one o f seven members speaking t o the r e s o l u t i o n t h a t "the s u b j e c t of improving the c o n d i t i o n o f t h e aged, d e s e r v i n g poor, i s worthy o f , and s h o u l d r e c e i v e the e a r l y and c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n of t h e Government and o f Parliament"6  The motion was n o t p r e s s e d  was t o a vote f o r t h e same r e a s o n a s / g i v e n t o t h e Trades and Labour Congress  t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f m i n i s t e r s d i d not b e l i e v e t h a t  Canada r e q u i r e d a system o f o l d age o r d i s a b i l i t y pensions a t t h i s time. 4 E s t i m a t e d from f i g u r e s taken from Canada Year Book. p . 65. 5 Canada, Labour G a z e t t e . May, 19.08, p . .1349.  . 1914.  - 6 Just a year l a t e r a motion v/as passed that a "Select Committee be appointed to inquire i n t o , and to consider a scheme or schemes, by State aid or otherwise, for making provision for the aged and deserving p o o r . . . . " ?  A committee, under the chair-  manship of Hon. R. Lernieux, did submit a verbal report to .the House.  I t i s significant that a few days after t h i s hearing the  Governor General assented to the Old Age Annuities A c t , 1908. 2h£s'-Act v/as primarily passed with a view to encouraging t h r i f t . Payments could be made toward an annual income ranging from $ 5 0 to "$600, which would be available at the age of f i f t y - f i v e ,  or  l a t e r , whenever the annuitant estimated his earning-power would cease.  Employers could contribute on behalf of an employee, but,  i n the event of the l a t t e r ceasing employment, no contribution could be transferred, except to the credit of that p a r t i c u l a r employee.  Payments could be made any time from the age of five  on, and there were no penalities for lapses i n payments.  The *  amount paid i n could only be withdrawn i n the form of the annuity, or, i f the annuitant should die before reaching the age of f i f t y f i v e , with three per cent compound interest to the beneficiary. Although not an old age pension by name, this annuity would constitute a limited substitute to those who took advantage of the scheme.  Thus a type of contributory pension was made available  to Canadian c i t i z e n s . There were no further developments u n t i l January 1912, when another Select Committee was appointed "to make Inquiry into an old age Pension system for Canada...."^ Having studied 6 Canada, An Old Age Pension System for Canada, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1924-, p . 48. 7 I b i d . , p . 48. 8 Loc. c i t .  - 7 details of the number of aged poor In Canada, and the employee pension schemes adopted by Canadian corporations, the Committee's recommendation i n March was that further information i n respect to the operation of old age pension systems i n other countries be obtained.  Non-contributory schemes of New Zealand, A u s t r a l i a ,  B r i t a i n , Denmark, Uraguay and three of the United States were studied, as well as compulsory old.age insurance schemes of Prance, Germany, I t a l y , Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Roumania, Serbia, Sweden and Iceland.  The result  was presented i n a motion on March 4, 1914, "that an old age pension system for Canada should be inaugurated."9 considerable debate.  This aroused  Government policy was f i n a l l y expressed by  the Minister of Finance, as opposed to pensions at this time, for "having regard to a l l the considerations,... and the obligations that w i l l devolve upon Canada to furnish money; for the development of the country..." i n i t s view, "the l e g i s l a t i o n contemplated by this resolution (was) premature, and i n advance of necess i t y and public o p i n i o n . " ^ Whether this was true or not, government spokesmen made no further references to provisions for the aged u n t i l 1921.  Prior  to that, the problems of world war, and at i t s close, c i v i l reesi  tablishment, had been the matters, of paramount importance i n Parliament.' 9 Canada, Department of Labour, Old Age Pensions i n Canada, • Ottawa, King's Printer, 1929, p . 8. 10 Loc. c i t .  - 8 GOVERNMENT RESPONSIBILITY During the war, however, the t i d e had turned and uncovered g mutual r e c o g n i t i o n of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of government and  of  c i t i z e n ; the government acknowledged i t s part i n attempting t o maintain some e q u i l i b r i u m i n s o c i e t y by i n v e s t i g a t i n g , through the Department of Labour, p o s s i b l e systems of unemployment i n surance and o l d age pensions.  The volume of information accumu-  l a t e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was submitted, i n 1921, to the exec u t i v e s of the Trades and Labour Congress and.the Canadian Manuf a c t u r e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the suggestion that they peruse i t c a r e f u l l y preparatory  to mutual d i s c u s s i o n .  I n s t i g a t e d by various labour r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e went on record on December 1, 1921,  "as  endorsing the p r i n c i p l e of o l d age pensions, and r e s p e c t f u l l y d i r e c t i n g the a t t e n t i o n of the F e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o the d e s i r a b i l i t y of l e g i s l a t i o n being e n a c t e d . "  11  So i n 1922  the Dominion  Government again agreed t o consider the a d v i s a b i l i t y of devising ways and means f o r the establishment of a system of o l d age pensions i n Canada.  The governments of Nova S c o t i a and  Ontario  were a l s o making enquiries i n t o o l d age pensions. The problem of p r o v i d i n g support a t the end of the product i v e years of l i f e was a l i v e issue of those days, as was  further  e x e m p l i f i e d i n a r e s o l u t i o n from the Trades and Labour Congress of Canada i n September 1923, which pointed out that Canada " r e mained amongst the few i n d u s t r i a l countries that had not made p r o v i s i o n f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of i t s aged w o r k e r s . " ^  yet They  recommended a scheme t o be administered by the Dominion Government, whereby a l l c i t i z e n s without assured incomes of a reasonable amount would r e c e i v e a pension on reaching a s t i p u l a t e d age, s i x t y - f i v e being suggested. I n the House of Commons d i s c u s s i o n of o l d age pensions a t the time focused on the question of j u r i s d i c t i o n between Dominion and p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s .  On a motion of the Prime M i n i s t e r ,  W. L. MacKenzie K i n g , a committee of nine was appointed I n A p r i l , 1924, t o enquire again i n t o a system f o r Canada.  The  committee h e l d eight meetings during which they s t u d i e d the systems which were i n operation i n England, A u s t r a l i a , New Zealand and other c o u n t r i e s ;  examined witnesses such as represen-  t a t i v e s from the Trades and Labour Congress of Canada, the Conf e d e r a t i o n of C a t h o l i c Workmen of Canada, Railway T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Brotherhoods, the S o l d i e r Settlement Board, and the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department of the c i t y of Ottawa.  Their suggestions were con-  s i d e r e d i n the l i g h t of responses t o a questionnaire sent t o one hundred and t h l * t y - f i v e mayors of c i t i e s and towns.  Replies  from P e r n i o , Nanaimo, New Westminster, and Vancouver were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of B r i t i s h Columbia.  They reported about one hundred  c i t i z e n s r e c e i v i n g a i d from t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or through i n s t i t u t i o n a l care, a t an average cost of $36.00 a month each.  With the exception of P e r n i e , where o p i n i o n was  d i v i d e d , a l l favoured the establishment of a pension scheme. 11 Canada. Labour Gazette (hereafter r e f e r r e d t o as LG). January, 1922, pTlT! 12 HJ, October, 1923, p. 1092.  10 From Information obtained from these v a r i o u s sources, the 1924 Committee recommended: "That an o l d age pension system be e s t a b l i s h e d a t the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e date f o r deserving i n d i g e n t persons of seventy years of age and upwards. "That a p p l i c a n t s f o r pensions must be B r i t i s h subjects of a t l e a s t twenty years' residence i n Canada, or natur a l i z e d subjects of a t l e a s t f i f t e e n years' n a t u r a l i z a t i o n and twenty-five y e a r s r e s i d e n c e . 1  "That the maximum r a t e of pension of twenty d o l l a r s per month, which would be lessened by p r i v a t e income o r p a r t i a l a b i l i t y t o earn, and "That one-half the amount of pension payable be borne by the F e d e r a l Government, the other h a l f by the Prov i n c i a l Government of such provinces as express by l e g i s l a t i o n t h e i r d e s i r e t o adopt the system, the cost of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o be borne by the P r o v i n c i a l Governments." * 1  Having considered the above recommendations, the B r i t i s h Columb i a L e g i s l a t u r e unanimously c a r r i e d the f o l l o w i n g r e s o l u t i o n i n December o f the same year: ^Whereas i t i s the announced p o l i c y 6f> the F e d e r a l L i b e r a l P a r t y i n Canada t h a t an adequate system of i n surance against dependence i n o l d age should be provided i n so f a r as i s p r a c t i c a l and having regard f o r Canada's financial position; "And whereas i t i s accepted as between the Dominion Government and the P r o v i n c i a l Governments t h a t the Domi n i o n has j u r i s d i c t i o n i n respect of questions having t o do w i t h h e a l t h Insurance, unemployment, and o l d age pensions, and the provinces i n respect of such other s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n as may be i n the p u b l i c interest;-* "And whereas the Government of the province of B r i t i s h Columbia passed a 'Mothers' Pensions Act* i n the year 1920, and has s i n c e been a d m i n i s t e r i n g i t a t a c o s t o f approximately $500,000 per annum; "And whereas State r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the matter of the proper maintenance of aged c i t i z e n s has been recognized i n Great B r i t a i n , A u s t r a l i a , New Zealand, and a number of the nations of the continent of Europe; 15 Canada. Old Age Pensions. 1924. p. 4.  * SEhis i s an interesting point of view for 1924 i n the l i g h t of recent d i f f i c u l t i e s i n establishing unemployment and health insurance.  - 11 "Therefore, be i t r e s o l v e d , t h a t t h i s House puts i t s e l f on r e c o r d as approving the p r i n c i p l e of o l d age pensions and as being favourable t o the enactment of l e g i s l a t i o n by the Dominion Government b r i n g i n g the same i n t o e f f e c t i n Canada at an e a r l y date."14 As any Dominion a c t i o n would be contingent upon co-operative a c t i o n on the p a r t of the provinces, Parliament re-appointed the i d e n t i c a l committee t o examine and "report on the correspondence which had occurred since the l a s t s e s s i o n between the s e v e r a l p r o v i n c i a l governments."15 On t h i s vexed question of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a l l l e g i s l a t u r e s r e f e r r e d to the B r i t i s h North America A c t .  However, w e l f a r e  o b l i g a t i o n s had not been imposed d e f i n i t e l y on e i t h e r the provinces or the Dominion.  S e c t i o n 91 gives the Dominion power  f o r the "peace, order and good government of Canada" i n r e l a t i o n t o matters not e x c l u s i v e l y assigned t o p r o v i n c e s , and t h i s phrase was sometimes i n t e r p r e t e d as "peace, welfare and good government." But i n the main s o c i a l welfare f u n c t i o n s were assumed t o be prov i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a k i n t o j u r i s d i c t i o n over "asylums, c h a r i t i e s and eleemosynary i n s t i t u t i o n s i n and f o r the province," "property and c i v i l r i g h t s i n the province," "municipal i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the province," and " g e n e r a l l y a l l matters of a merely l o c a l or p r i v a t e nature i n the province."  On the other hand,  " i t has been assumed t h a t the Dominion's e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n over Indians, m i l i t i a and defence, and over c e r t Ian phases of p u b l i c h e a l t h and i t s concurrent j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h the provinces over immigration. Implied a l i m i t e d j u r i s d i c t i o n over s o c i a l 14 Canada,Old Age Pensions. 1929. P. 14. 15 I b i d . , p. 9.  - 12 we Ifare."16 E a r l y I n 1925 the M i n i s t e r of Labour f o r B r i t i s h Columbia r e p l i e d t o the Committee saying " t h i s matter has been c a r e f u l l y considered by the Government and a l s o by the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e at i t s l a s t s e s s i o n , and the consensus of opinion i s that the matter of o l d age pensions i s one e n t i r e l y i n the sphere of the F e d e r a l Parliament  and t h i s Government does not  concur i n the suggestion made by the committee that a p o r t i o n of the cost of such pensions be borne by the P r o v i n c i a l Crown."  17  Government leaders i n Saskatchewan concurred i n saying t h a t the measure was e n t i r e l y i n the F e d e r a l sphere. question was  Meanwhile the  s t i l l before the l e g i s l a t u r e s of A l b e r t a , Manitoba,  Ontario and Nova S c o t i a , and Quebec had i n d i c a t e d her  inability  to consider a pension scheme. Mr. A. H. Stevens, one of the members from Vancouver, voiced the sentiments of the B r i t i s h Columbia: l e g i s l a t u r e , that considering the negative r e p l i e s from p r o v i n c i a l sources,  the  Dominion government take f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the measure, b r i n g i n g i n l e g i s l a t i o n t o t h a t e f f e c t a t that s e s s i o n .  However,  the M i n i s t e r of Labour explained that i n the l i g h t of expressed opinions a new  committee would be necessary t o study the problem  further. Correspondence continued t o pass between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l representatives.  The Hon. Mr. John O l i v e r , at that  time Premier of B r i t i s h Columbia, wrote as f o l l o w s : 17 Canada. Old Age Pensions. 1929. P. 10.  "Your r  13  -  explanation of how the proposed scheme was expected t o work c e r t a i n l y tends towards a b e t t e r understanding.  Should the  Parliament of Canada pass l e g i s l a t i o n along the l i n e s suggested i n your p r i n t e d r e p o r t of l a s t year, I presume the question would then a r i s e as t o whether or not the provinces would cooper a t e . 1 8 n  THE BRITISH NORTH AMERICA ACT I n view of the c o n t r o v e r s i a l nature of the problem, the new committee sought an a u t h o r i t a t i v e o p i n i o n from the Department of J u s t i c e .  Replying t o the question of the a u t h o r i t y of  Parliament t o l e g i s l a t e on o l d age pensions, the Deputy M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e was of t h e o p i n i o n that " t h i s subject does not f a l l s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h i n any of the enumerated subjects g i v e n t o the Dominion under Sect i o n 91 of the B r i t i s h North America A c t , but does f a l l w i t h i n the subject 'Property and C i v i l Rights i n the Province' committed t o the provinces under S e c t i o n 92. I am of the o p i n i o n , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the subject matter of pensions has been e n t r u s t e d t o the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s r a t h e r than t o Parliament. I do not mean t o suggest that Parliament has not the power to l e g i s l a t e upon the subject so as t o a s s i s t the provinces or t o e s t a b l i s h an independent v o l u n t a r y scheme, provided that i n e i t h e r case the l e g i s l a t i o n does not entranch upon the subject matter of property and c i v i l r i g h t s i n the p r o v i n c e , as f o r example, by o b l i g a t i n g any province or person t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the scheme. The enactment of such l e g i s l a t i o n would, however, i n v o l v e the assumption by t h e Dominion of o b l i g a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g heavy expenditures w i t h regard t o a matter which does not f a l l s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h i n the Dominion f i e l d of l e g i s l a t i o n . " 1 9 I n June, 1925, the committee presented the f o l l o w i n g conclusions: "That i f the Dominion Government were t o proceed now w i t h a scheme of o l d age pensions, i t would have t o be prepared t o bear the e n t i r e expense; 18 Canada. Old Age Pensions. 1929. p. 10. 19 I b i d . , p. 11  - 14 "That I n view of the present f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n s and heavy t a x a t i o n of Canada, your committee would not f e e l warranted at the present moment i n recommending such a large a d d i t i o n a l expenditure annually; "That t h i s measure of s o c i a l reform, i n the o p i n i o n of your committee, i s very important,"20 and r e f e r r i n g t o the opinion of the Department of J u s t i c e , "That the matter i s one coming under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the province, although open t o a s s i s t a n c e from the F e d e r a l Government."21 Therefore the committee recommended that the Government "arrange w i t h the premiers of d i f f e r e n t provinces f o r a conference  t o be  h e l d . . . at which an o l d age pension system should be given the f u l l e s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n , w i t h a view to securing co-operative action."22  When Mr. Raymond, Chairman of the committee, brought  t h i s report t o the House an amendment t o the e f f e c t that " t h i s r e p o r t be r e f e r r e d back t o the committee w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s t o consider and r e p o r t back on a p u r e l y F e d e r a l scheme" was but was defeated, 139 t o 17  discussed,  votes. 3 2  The Premiers of the provinces, who had been f u r n i s h e d w i t h copies of the Raymond Committee's r e p o r t , then met w i t h two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the F e d e r a l committee and considered the poss i b i l i t i e s of t h e i r co-operation i n an o l d age pension scheme. The B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e was unanimous i n support  of  the r e s o l u t i o n of December 1925s "Whereas at i t s 1924 s e s s i o n t h i s l e g i s l a t u r e unanimously went on r e c o r d as approving the p r i n c i p l e of o l d age pensions, and as being i n favour of the Dominion Government enacting l e g i s l a t i o n which w i l l b r i n g the same i n t o e f f e c t at an e a r l y date; 20 t o 23 i n c l u s i v e l y . Canada, Old Age Pensions, 1929. p. 11.  - 15  -  "And whereas the Dominion Government has expressed i t s w i l l i n g n e s s t o co-operate w i t h the provinces i n e s t a b l i s h i n g an o l d age pension scheme; "Therefore, be i t r e s o l v e d , t h a t t h i s House r e a f f i r m s i t s d e c i s i o n of l a s t year; that the necessary steps be taken t o formulate some p l a n , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the Dominion Government, t o provide o l d age pensions; and t h a t the other provinces of the Dominion be r e quested to take s i m i l a r a c t i o n * . . I n d i c a t i v e of r i s i n g p u b l i c support, an Old Age  Pension  A s s o c i a t i o n , centered i n Toronto, was formed t o s t i m u l a t e p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n favour of the system as o u t l i n e d .  Although  the o f f i c e r s were c l o s e l y I d e n t i f i e d w i t h the trade union movement; i t was hoped that other o r g a n i z a t i o n s would support the A s s o c i a t i o n as a non-sectarian, n o n - p o l i t i c a l body.  Active  members were e n r o l l e d from Canadian c i t i z e n s f i f t y or more years of age; a membership fee of $1.00  was put Into a fund  which was used f o r p u b l i c meetings and furtherance of the work throughout the country. Labour organizations i n the western provinces i n p a r t i c u l a r took a c t i v e steps t o secure p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l co-operation In e f f e c t i n g the committee's recommendations.  But the r a i l w a y  brotherhoods, who had already shown t h e i r d i s s e n t , r e a f f i r m e d the o p i n i o n put before the 1924  Committee i n t h a t they "would  be u n w i l l i n g to exchange t h e i r present system f o r a g e n e r a l one created by  Parliament."25  24 Canada. Old Age Pensions. 1929..p. 25 LG, June, 1924, p. 477.  13.  - 16 LEGISLATION PROPOSED F i n a l l y , I n January, 1926, a B i l l was presented t o the House of Commons c o n t a i n i n g p r o v i s i o n s f o r an agreement w i t h any province f o r q u a r t e r l y payments t o the province o f h a l f the net sum p a i d out by the province f o r pensions t o persons as s p e c i f i e d under t h i s A c t and i n the R e g u l a t i o n s .  Adminis-  t r a t i o n f o r any pension scheme by a province had t o be approved by the Dominion government, and no change could be made without i t s consent. As drawn up by the Government, the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s turned out t o be f a i r l y extensive. Pensions were made a v a i l a b l e a t seventy, not s i x t y - f i v e as had been argued, t o B r i t i s h subjects who had had twenty years' residence i n Canada immediately preceding the date of applying f o r pension.  I n a d d i t i o n , f i v e years'  residence was r e q u i r e d i n one province before an a p p l i c a t i o n could be made t o that province f o r a pension.  No I n d i a n could,  of course, apply f o r a pension under a Dominion-provincial administration.  Only a p p l i c a n t s who c o u l d prove that t h e i r t o t a l  income, i n c l u d i n g the pension, would not exceed $365 a year would be considered.  The maximum pension payable was set a t $240  y e a r l y , subject t o r e d u c t i o n by the amount of a pensioner's I n come i n excess of $125 a year. I n a d d i t i o n , p r o v i s i o n was made f o r the c r e d i t t o the pension a u t h o r i t y o f the annual value of a pensioner's r e s i d e n c e , the recovery of pension payments from a deceased pensioner's e s t a t e ,  - 17 and f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the - expenditure.:^, among the provinces p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y t o a pensioner's residence i n more than one province (providing that the provinces concerned came under the scheme) •  Payment would cease when a pensioner moved outside  Canada, but h i s r i g h t s would be r e v i v e d upon h i s resuming dence I n t h i s country.  resi-  P r o v i s i o n s were also made f o r an annual  report by the M i n i s t e r of Finance t o Parliament. The B i l l passed the House on May 28, 1926. On being passed to the Senate, however, i t was r e j e c t e d on a vote of 45 t o 21. Among the arguments put forward were disagreement w i t h a nonc o n t r i b u t o r y scheme;  that s t a t e pensions were an i n v a s i o n i n t o  the sphere of f a m i l y and c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ;  t h a t o l d age  pensions were a p r o v i n c i a l r a t h e r than F e d e r a l matter;  t h a t the  eastern provinces would bear an "undue burden" owing t o t h e i r l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of aged r e s i d e n t s ;  and s t r e s s on t h e n e c e s s i t y  f o r a d e f i n i t e understanding w i t h a l l provinces before the Dominion took on commitment. Pensions d i d not come t o Canada without having f i r s t t o go to the country. these events.  A g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n took place s h o r t l y a f t e r Old age pension p o l i c y was one of t h e primary  concerns of every candidate and voter throughout the camp at gn of the summer of 1926. There was no doubt that some type of pension scheme was needed.  Despite the comparatively l a r g e amount  of l i f e Insurance ( i n average terms) per head of the p o p u l a t i o n , the existence of s e v e r a l I n d u s t r i a l and commercial pension schemes, and many e f f o r t s of people t o b u i l d up s m a l l s a v i n g s ,  - 18 I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i t s r e s u l t i n g I n s t a b i l i t y of employment made i t i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t f o r older workers t o provide f o r the years of retirement. THE OLD AGE PENSION ACT During the 1926-27 s e s s i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e , a B i l l s i m i l a r t o that r e j e c t e d by the Senate was debat e d a t great l e n g t h . old  I t was urged that "any B i l l dealing w i t h  age pensions should be on a sound economic b a s i s , operating  w i t h p e r f e c t j u s t i c e between the provinces, while minimizing any encouragement t o waste, t h r i f t l e s s n e s s or dishonesty on the part of p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i c i a r i e s . " 2 6 i  n  a d d i t i o n i t was recommen-  ded that p r o v i s i o n be made f o r payment of an o l d age pension i n c e r t a i n cases below the age of seventy, such as t o prematurelyaged s e r v i c e men, and f o r a l a r g e r sum than designated B i l l i n cases of c e r t a i n need.  i n the  However, when debate was f i n a l l y  adjourned, a B i l l s i m i l a r to that of 1926 was put t o the B r i t i s h • Columbia House where i t was passed i n February, 1927,  and r e -  ceived Royal Assent on March 7, 1927. Thus the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e was a c t u a l l y the f i r s t governmental body i n Canada t o b r i n g an o l d age pension scheme i n t o f o r c e . p l e t e d i n Parliament  The Dominion's h a l f of the bargain was comon March 4, approved by the Senate on March  24 ( v o t i n g 62 t o 14), and given Royal Assent on March 31, 1927.  . 2b I f i , A p r i l , 1927, p. 383.  CHAPTER I I DEVELOPMENTS. 1927-1947 Dominion-provincial agreement and B r i t i s h Columbia a c t i o n . I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Board meetings, 1928 and 1930; R e s o l u t i o n s and amendments. Increased Dominion r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Interprov i n c i a l Board, 1937. The R o w e l l - S i r o i s Commission. Wartime amendments. The Department of N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and Welfare. Dominion-provincial proposals. Recent e l i g i b i l i t y developments.  The Dominion M i n i s t e r of Labour v i s i t e d B r i t i s h  Columbia  i n August, 1927, t o c l a r i f y some, of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e aspects of the payment of o l d age pensions.  Agreements reached were  subsequently embodied i n two Orders i n C o u n c i l .  The f i r s t out-  l i n e d the p o l i c y by which the Dominion and the Province would share e q u a l l y the net sum of pensions p a i d ;  the second a u t h o r i -  zed the Workmen's Compensation Board to act as the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agency i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  This Board was a l r e a d y w e l l - e s t a b -  l i s h e d as i t had been operating since 1916, and since 1920 had a l s o been a d m i n i s t e r i n g Mothers  1  Allowances.  The primary regu-  l a t i o n s were l a i d down by the Dominion Government. No time was l o s t I n e f f e c t i n g t h i s l o n g - a n t i c i p a t e d p u b l i c service.  The f i r s t o l d age pensions i n Canada were p a i d i n  B r i t i s h Columbia i n September, 1927.  By February, 1928, the  Attorney-General was able to announce to the B r i t i s h  Columbia  L e g i s l a t u r e that of 3,208 a p p l i c a t i o n s r e c e i v e d , 2,254 h a d b e e n granted, and of these 1,435 r e c e i v e d the maximum pension of $240 a year.  I n other words, approximately t h i r t y per cent of the  a p p l i c a t i o n s had been r e f u s e d , while only s i x t y - t h r e e per cent  20 of those granted pension r e c e i v e d the monthly maximum of $20. A f t e r considerable debate a motion which proved to be of subsequent i n t e r e s t was made by one of the members.  This motion  r e f e r r e d t o the 1927 enactment which c o n d i t i o n e d the payment of * pensions upon: "the r i g h t of the pension a u t h o r i t y t o make the i n t e r e s t of any pensioner i n h i s or her dwelling-house subject t o be r e a l i z e d upon f o r the re-payment of the amount of a l l payments made- t o such pensioner, together w i t h I n t e r e s t on such payments at the r a t e of f i v e per cent per annum, compounded annually; and "the r i g h t of the s a i d pension a u t h o r i t y t o recover out of the estate of any deceased pensioner, as a debt due by the s a i d pensioner to the pension a u t h o r i t y , the sum of the payments made to such pensioner, together w i t h i n t e r e s t on such payments at the r a t e of f i v e per cent per annum, compounded a n n u a l l y . " ! The Assembly recognized the r e s u l t a n t p a u p e r i z a t i o n of a l l succ e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t s , as w e l l as t h e i r dependents, and a l s o p o i n t e d out that the Act made no p r o v i s i o n f o r the prematurely aged.  It  was t h e r e f o r e r e s o l v e d : "That t h i s L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, endeavouring to represent the j u s t cause of the aged persons of t h i s province and of t h e i r dependents, humbly p e t i t i o n the Canadian Government t o a l t e r the s a i d Act so as to provide: (a) t h a t the dwelling-house of any pensioner s h a l l not be subjected to the re-payment of any amounts p a i d t o such pensioner by s a i d pension a u t h o r i t y ; (b) r e d u c t i o n of the pension age from seventy to s i x t y . f i v e years; (c) that an a p p l i c a n t f o r a pension s h a l l be e n t i t l e d t o same r e g a r d l e s s of such a p p l i c a n t ' s income up t o an amount of at l e a s t $365 per annum; and (d) exemption of the estate of a pensioner from re-payments to the pension a u t h o r i t y of amounts p a i d by way of pension i n a l l such cases where such pensioner leaves him s u r v i v i n g M M any dependent."2 1 Canada. Old Age Pensions, 1929. p. l b . 2 I b i d . , p. 16.  21 On the query o f the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l as t o whether such a r e s o l u t i o n c o u l d be moved by a p r i v a t e member, the Speaker r u l e d the  r e s o l u t i o n out o f order, on t h e ground t h a t i t " i n v o l v e d  the  expenditure o f p u b l i c money and c o u l d o n l y be s u b m i t t e d by  a member o f the Crown."3  The Speaker's r u l i n g however was sus-  t a i n e d o n l y by a margin of 24 t o 18 v o t e s . Thus were sown the f i r s t severely l i m i t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s .  seeds of d i s s e n t i o n over the This f i r s t  i n B r i t i s h Columbia exposed b a s i c i l l s , not  y e t been removed.  I n 1928  i l l - f a t e d resolution  some o f which have  even  the need f o r lowering the age  l i m i t was s t r o n g l y u r g e d a t the c o n v e n t i o n o f the Railway Employee 's D i v i s i o n o f the Trades and Labour Congress t o conform w i t h t h e i r r a i l w a y r e t i r e m e n t age o f s i x t y - f i v e . OTHER PROVINCES Other p r o v i n c i a l governments example s e t by B r i t i s h Columbia. the  Dominion's  scheme, i n May 1928,  an.Old Age Pensions Commissioner.  were g r a d u a l l y f o l l 6 w i n g the Saskatchewan was brought i n t o w i t h an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n under By September  pensions were  b e i n g p a i d i n Manitoba through the Workmen's Compensation  Board.  E x p e r i e n c e under the o r i g i n a l r e g u l a t i o n s r e v e a l e d a need for  d i s c u s s i o n amongst a d m i n i s t e r i n g b o d i e s .  An I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l  Board, a p p o i n t e d by the Governor i n C o u n c i l , c o n s i s t i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the three p r o v i n c e s and the F e d e r a l of  Labour, met I n Ottawa I n October, 1928, 3 Kr, A p r i l , 1928, p . 370.  Department  " t o I n t e r p r e t and  - 22 recommend a l t e r a t i o n s i n the R e g u l a t i o n s . n 4  Amendments concer-  ning absence from Canada, the c a l c u l a t i o n of income, and a c i t y of pensioners were among those recommended and  incap-  incorporated  i n the f i r s t r e v i s i o n . 5 Old age pension l e g i s l a t i o n was passed f o r the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s i n January, 1929.  They were l o o k i n g toward the  when A l b e r t a would be Included i n the scheme.  day  Pensions could be  p a i d i n the T e r r i t o r i e s as soon as agreements had been made w i t h the two a d j o i n i n g provinces.  I n August, 1929, A l b e r t a came i n t o  the scheme w i t h a program a l s o administered under a Workmen's Compensation Board.  Henceforth pensions c o u l d be p a i d i n the  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s .  I n Ontario m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were authorized  to appoint l o c a l boards, r e s p o n s i b l e to a P r o v i n c i a l Board, which began to administer pensions i n November, 1929. Another I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Board meeting was h e l d i n Ottawa i n January, 1930, w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the four western provinces and Ontario.  One r e s o l u t i o n to be considered came  from the Canadian P a t r i o t i c Fund, requesting t h a t supplementat i o n from t h e i r Fund should be p o s s i b l e without j e o p a r d i z i n g the o l d age pension.  The Board advised the P a t r i o t i c Fund to seek  arrangements w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l pension a u t h o r i t i e s concerned. No d e c i s i o n was reached i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The Canadian Manu-  f a c t u r e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n requested that supplementation of an  em-  ployee's pension t o an amount he would otherwise have r e c e i v e d from h i s i n d u s t r i a l pension should be allowed. 4 Order i n C o u n c i l 42/1232, s. 32. 5 Order i n C o u n c i l 119/2298. .  The A s s o c i a t i o n  - 23 claimed t h a t I t was " d i s c r i m i n a t i n g against employers who have i n d u s t r i a l pension schemes, and those who have n o t — b o t h of whom c o n t r i b u t e e q u a l l y t o t a x a t i o r i ^ - t o reduce an o l d age pens i o n by the amount of income r e c e i v e d from an i n d u s t r i a l pension....  They claimed such a move would discourage the i n -  d u s t r i a l pension movement. However, the A s s o c i a t i o n was informed that procedure such as they suggested would be I n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the A c t .  The Board merely recommended s l i g h t changes i n the  wording of the income and residence requirements.? Dawn of another year found many more r e s o l u t i o n s before r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Dominion L e g i s l a t u r e f o r broadening the pension program.  The Trades and Labour Congress v o i c e d most of  the current demands i n t h e i r renewed recommendation that the pension scheme be an e n t i r e l y f e d e r a l matter, "so as t o ensure e q u a l i t y of treatment to a l l Canadian c i t i z e n s i r r e s p e c t i v e of the province i n which they r e s i d e d . "^  Quebec and the Maritlmes  had n o t , f o r v a r i o u s reasons, entered the scheme, so that these Canadians had no opportunity of a p p l y i n g f o r government b e n e f i t s . The i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y which young.as w e l l as older workers were experiencing i n f i n d i n g employment made a lower age l i m i t appear as a l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n to p a r t of the t r o u b l e .  The  N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Women requested r e d u c t i o n i n the age l i m i t f o r women, by reason of t h e i r p h y s i c a l I n a b i l i t y t o earn a l i v i n g wage a f t e r s i x t y - f i v e . to the b 7 8  They a l s o endorsed an amendment  N a t i o n a l i t y A c t , so that "a B r i t i s h woman marrying a LO, June. 1 9 3 0 , P. b74« Order i n C o u n c i l 311/991. LG, February, 1931, P» 181.  ;  -  24  -  f o r e i g n e r would r e t a i n her n a t i o n a l i t y , " and f u r t h e r that "a married woman be permitted to take out n a t i o n a l i t y papers, as a femme s e u l e , " ^ i f she so d e s i r e d . No a c t i o n was taken as a r e s u l t of t h i s l e g i t i m a t e request. Prince Edward I s l a n d , Nova S c o t i a , New Brunswick and Quebec were slow i n entering the scheme, but by 1936 the system was Domini on- wi de.  The Marl times had been unable to pay  pensions  e a r l i e r because of the h i g h expense i n v o l v e d i n the h i g h prop o r t i o n of e l i g i b l e persons, i n comparison w i t h other commitments. Representatives of the province of Quebec had been i n the same quandary on the score of expense and because of t h e i r preference f o r a c o n t r i b u t o r y system;  they completed the round-up of pro-  vinces i n 1 9 3 6 . INCREASED DOMINION RESPONSIBILITY Depression had a b l i g h t i n g e f f e c t on provinces as w e l l as I n d i v i d u a l s , but as i n unemployment expenditures, i t brought being assumed about a l a r g e r share of the burden/by the Dominion. I n the:, ex, p e c t a t i o n of gaining help w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g cost of o l d age pensions, B r i t i s h Columbia amended i t s o r i g i n a l Act to a l l o w f o r a c o n t r i b u t i o n of more than f i f t y per cent by the  Dominion.10  I n August, 1 9 3 1 . "tli© Dominion d i d assume s e v e n t y - f i v e per cent of the net t o t a l p a i d out In pensions by each province, under the l o g i c a l p r o v i s o t h a t such expenditures be subject t o Dominion audit. 11  I n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s amendment, the Prime M i n i s t e r , Mr.  R. B. Bennett, assured the House that t h i s was merely a temporary 9 LG, March, 1 9 3 1 , P - 3 1 2 .  - 25 measure.  Pending the t a k i n g of the decennial census of 1931,  i t was intended to o b t a i n information which would enable the necessary a c t u a r i a l computations f o r "the whole problem t o be considered from the angle of a c o n t r i b u t o r y s y s t e m . " ^  The  The Canadian Manufacturers' A s s o c i a t i o n , maintaining t h e i r e a r l i e r stand, were a l l behind t h i s proposal f o r a c o n t r i b u t o r y " a l l - i n " type of system, under which "no d i s t i n c t i o n i s drawn between the poor and non-poor, but both are pensioned provided they c o n t r i b u t e . 3 nl  The I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s Committee of t h i s  A s s o c i a t i o n , having s t u d i e d the experiences of other c o u n t r i e s , and looking beyond the f i n a n c i a l aspects alone, were convinced "that the p r i n c i p l e of ' s e l e c t i n g the poor' has been proven t o be unsound i n that i t encouraged t h r l f t l e s s n e s s and f r a u d , and sapped the s p i r i t of s e l f - r e l i a n c e and independence which i s so e s s e n t i a l to the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l w e l l - b e i n g of any community. 4 n l  They maintained that t h i s f a c t had already been reco-  gnized by the m a j o r i t y of countries operating pension schemes. B r i t i s h Columbia was the scene of two l a r g e conventions i n the f a l l of 1931*  Both had f u r t h e r suggestions toward improving  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the pension system.  The Trades and Labour  Congress, meeting i n Vancouver, c a l l e d on the Dominion t o assume t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r pensions, payable at s i x t y - f i v e years of age, to any c i t i z e n w i t h f i f t e e n years' of residence i n Canada. The Union of Mayors of Canadian M u n i c i p a l i t i e s met I n 10 Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1931, c. 47. 11 Statutes of Canada, 1931, c. 42. 12 LG, June, 1931, p. 671 13 and 14 Loc. c i t .  -  26 -  Vernon where the c o n s t r u c t i v e opinion was broached that the Government of Canada should be "memoralized t o e s t a b l i s h r e c i p r o c i t y or n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the residence q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of o l d people so as t o e n t i t l e them t o the b e n e f i t s of the A c t upon f u r n i s h i n g evidence of having r e s i d e d during the twenty years, p r i o r t o a p p l i c a t i o n f o r pension, j o i n t l y i n Canada or any other p a r t of the B r i t i s h E m p i r e . 5 nl  The suggestion was, i n other  words, that r e c r i p r o c a l o b l i g a t i o n s among the commonwealths of the Empire could be arranged on much the same b a s i s as among the provinces. Despite constant pressure i n the form of r e s o l u t i o n s such as these from organized groups, no changes were e f f e c t e d during the next s i x years.  Unemployment and farm r e l i e f problems i n  the years of depression demanded the major share of a t t e n t i o n by administrators and l e g i s l a t o r s . During 1935 the Dominion a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was t r a n s f e r r e d from the Department of Labour t o the Department of Finance.  As  the Dominion's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l a y I n a u d i t and s u p e r v i s i o n , the change was advocated as avoiding d u p l i c a t i o n of Departmental act i v i t i e s , and as securing necessary c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of r e s p o n s i bility.  This move may a l s o have been a t t r i b u t a b l e t o a growing  r e a l i z a t i o n that o l d age pensions were of importance t o a l l c l a s s e s i n Canada, not only to the organized wage earners who had been so instrumental i n e f f e c t i n g t h e i r beginning.  However,  this step emphasized the f i n a n c i a l rather than welfare  significanc  nf  pqnfllon nrlFlnl  aeration.  - 27  -  INADEQUACIES REVIEWED PRIOR TO THE  WAR  Implementation of the S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A c t , i n c o r p o r a t i n g o l d age and widows' pensions/ i n the United States s i n c e 1935 had created a new awareness of p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n s o c i a l l e g i s lation.  Perhaps i t was the general r e c u p e r a t i o n i n economic  c o n d i t i o n s , or a change In government that p r e c i p a t e d the appointment of a new I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l  Board.  The most important  meeting s i n c e the i n c e p t i o n of the scheme was h e l d I n Ottawa I n 1937, w i t h twenty members a t t e n d i n g , two from each of the provinces and the D o m i n i o n . ^  At t h i s f i r s t r e a l l y c r i t i c a l review,  the focus was on the f i n a n c i a l nature of the scheme.  There was  unanimous approval by the conference I n recommending t h a t regul a t i o n s be amended "to assure t h a t no person j u s t l y e n t i t l e d t o o l d age pension should be deprived of any of h i s r i g h t s ; t o secure g r e a t e r u n i f o r m i t y and e f f i c i e n c y i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s ; and to e l i m i n a t e abuses and u n j u s t i f i a b l e  costs."17  These proposals would appear to have been actuated by a r e a l concern f o r the needy aged.  However, the r e v i s e d r e g u l a t i o n s  of December, 1937, merely i n c o r p o r a t e d an annual  investigation  to ensure e l i g i b i l i t y , and a s l i g h t change i n residence r e q u i r e ments.^  Great weight was attached by the Conference to the r e -  s p o n s i b i l i t y of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e bodies f o r impressing upon the c h i l d r e n of aged parents t h e i r duty t o support t h e i r parents i f they were i n need, and a l s o f o r applying the proper degree of care i n c o n t r o l l i n g property from pensioners' e s t a t e s . 16 The Hon. Geo. S. Pearson, M i n i s t e r of Labour, and Mr. E. S. Winn, Chairman of the Workmen's Compensation Board, represented B r i t i s h Columbia at t h i s meeting.  - 28 A year later B r i t i s h Columbia's Legislature took another step forward, i n the recommendation to the Dominion government that provision be made to cover the medical needs of pensioners. The Canadian Welfare Council, i n a report made to the Dominion Government this year, argued that medical attendance should be included along with food, shelter and clothing, as the necessaries of l i f e , the maintenance of which was a government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ^ They also commended the opportunity which a Dominion-wide c o n t r i butory insurance and- savings plan would provide as being the privilege and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of every c i t i z e n i n a democracy.  In.  addition, Premier P a t t u l l o , reporting on behalf of B r i t i s h Columbis to the Dominion-provincial Conference i n 1938, s t i l l maintained that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for old age pensions lay with the Dominion, and i n general recommended much greater cooperation between Dominion and the provinces i n execution of a l l health and welfare services. Further resolutions from the Canadian Congress of Labour,, the Trades and Labour Congress, the Canadian Federation of Labour, and the Confederation of Catholic Workers were referred to i n a p e t i t i o n introduced i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Legislature i n December, 1938, urging that the age of e l i g i b i l i t y for pensioners be reduced to s i x t y - f i v e at l e a s t .  The House debated at length on  the advantages derived from r e t i r i n g a larger portion of the older workers, thereby creating more opportunities for the younger generation, i n comparison with the 17 LG, November, 1937, p . 117518 Order i n Council 1/3050. 19 Canadian Welfare Council, Welfare Services for the Canadian People, Ottawa, Council House, 1938.  - 29 disadvantages which would a r i s e from f u r t h e r confusing the u l t i m a t e g o a l of a c o n t r i b u t o r y scheme.  The compromise as-  surance g i v e n by the government spokesmen s t r e s s e d the  diffi-  c u l t i e s encountered i n f u l f i l l i n g the numerous requirements f o r e l i g i b i l i t y under the present r e g u l a t i o n s , and recommended the m o d i f i c a t i o n of these regulations> preparatory t o the i n i t i a t i o n of a n a t i o n a l scheme of compulsory insurance. G e n e r a l l y western i n d u s t r i a l i z e d countries had recognized the hardships a r i s i n g from the low or i n t e r m i t t e n t income of many c i t i z e n s , and the r e s u l t a n t d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e i r  attempts  to provide f o r o l d age, by the i n s t i t u t i o n of twenty-six n a t i o n a l systems of compulsory c o n t r i b u t o r y pensions.  Only nine c o u n t r i e s  depended s o l e l y on non-contributory schemes. Prom a study of • these schemes, Dr. A. E. Grauer, i n a monograph prepared f o r the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial R e l a t i o n s , concluded that:"Non-contributory pensions have a l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n because the age l i m i t must be f i x e d q u i t e h i g h i f the burden on the n a t i o n a l t r e a s u r y i s t o be kept w i t h i n reasonable l i m i t s , and "the need of the aged d e f i n i t e l y extends below that l i m i t and w i l l continue t o do so because of modern i n d u s t r i a l trends."20 When the p o s s i b i l i t y of reducing the age l i m i t was d i s c u s s e d again during the 1939 s e s s i o n i n the House of Commons, the s t a t e ments made by the M i n i s t e r of Finance acknowledged the i n c r e a s i n g older p o p u l a t i o n of Canada, and the increased cost of pensions 20 A. E. Grauer, P u b l i c Assistance and S o c i a l Insurance, A Study Prepared f o r the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial R e l a t i o n s , Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1939, p. 70.  - 30 which was e n t a i l e d , but no mention was made a t t h i s time o f the obviously more p r a c t i c a l p l a n of c o n t r i b u t o r y pensions. Only j u s t p r e v i o u s l y , however, the recommendations had been made by the R o w e l l - S i r o i s Commission: (1) t h a t , by amending the B r i t i s h North America A c t , the Dominion or the provinces be given e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n over o l d age pensions, and (2) that "the Dominion be given j u r i s d i c t i o n t o i n s t i t u t e a compulsory system of o l d age annultles"21 t o be adm i n i s t e r e d as p a r t of a new F i n a n c i a l P l a n . At the same time the Commission r a i s e d "no o b j e c t i o n t o the continuance of p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of non-contributory pensions, even i f a c o n t r i b u t o r y system were e s t a b l i s h e d by the Dominion."22  Again, the coast was c l e a r , but no a c t i o n was  taken. TOWARD POST-WAR YEARS From 1939 on war d i v e r t e d t h e major e f f o r t s of the l e g i s l a t o r s toward matters of more v i t a l urgency t o the n a t i o n than the o l d age pension system.  Resultant c o n d i t i o n s , such as the  higher cost of l i v i n g , the wide prevalence of assigned pay, and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r part-time employment, a l l n e c e s s i t a t e d minor changes i n pension r e g u l a t i o n s .  The B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e  responded t o p u b l i c demand by urging the Dominion t o take steps t o set up a comprehensive p l a n of s o c i a l insurance, but i n the meantime t o r e p e a l the r e g u l a t i o n s under the e x i s t i n g A c t by  which c o n t r i b u t i o n s from pensioners' c h i l d r e n were considered 21 Canada, Becommendations, Royal Commission on DominionP r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , Book I I , Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1939, p.41• 22 L O G . c i t .  - 31  -  I n determining the pensioners' income.  However such e f f o r t s  were f r u i t l e s s . Labour o r g a n i z a t i o n s , even during the war years, continued to press f o r a higher standard of r a t e s . E a r l y i n 1943,  repre-  s e n t a t i v e s from seven of the l e a d i n g groups i n B r i t i s h Columbia c o l l a b o r a t e d i n presenting a b r i e f to the P r o v i n c i a l Government "to reduce the pensionable age to s i x t y , to increase pensions t o $30 a month, plus c o s t - o f - l i v i n g bonus, and to pay  pensions  regardless of the f i n a n c i a l standing of the r e c i p i e n t s or t h e i r relatives."23  i n 1944 the L e g i s l a t u r e p e t i t i o n e d the Dominion  t o amend the Act to r a i s e the maximum pension t o $365 a year, and the allowable Income t o $500 a year, and t o reduce the age t o s i x t y - f i v e f o r male a p p l i c a n t s , and s i x t y f o r females. Exemption of assigned pay i n c o n s i d e r i n g an a p p l i c a n t ' s Income; payment of a c o s t - o f - l i v i n g bonus; an i n c r e a s e d a l l o w a b l e income of $425 a year; and f u r t h e r r e l a x a t i o n of residence r e quirements, were amongst amendments e v e n t u a l l y e f f e c t e d p r i o r t o 1945•  R e c i p r o c a l agreements regarding payment of c o s t - o f - l i v i n g  bonuses were drawn up by B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a i n 1943 (the bonus having been f i r s t p a i d i n 1942), and w i t h Saskatchewan, by a s i m i l i a r arrangement, i n 1945. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of pensions was t r a n s f e r r e d from the Department of Labour t o the Department of the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n March, 1943*  A se-  parate Old Age Pension Board was c r e a t e d f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e 23 LG, February, 1943, P» 264.  -  purposes.24  32  -  This change was not only n e c e s s i t a t e d by the i n -  creased volume o f work, but a l s o by the growing r e a l i z a t i o n of the  importance of h e l p i n g the older c i t i z e n s of t h e province  meet t h e i r s o c i a l and economic needs.  The new philosophy was  unquestionably i n d i c a t i v e of t h e t r e n d of every c i t i z e n ' s concern for  security.  War and depression had demonstrated, only too c l e a r -  l y , the r i s k s t o which an i n d i v i d u a l might be exposed through n a t i o n a l or l o c a l economic and s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Public  demand was whetted by the popular p u b l i c a t i o n of Beveridge's S o c i a l Insurance and A l l i e d S e r v i c e s , a r e p o r t r e c e i v i n g almost as wide a c c l a i m from Canadians as from the B r i t i s h f o r whom i t was w r i t t e n .  A comparable review of the Canadian s i t u a t i o n was  sponsored by the Government's A d v i s o r y Committee on R e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the Report on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y f o r Canada, by Dr. Leonard Marsh.  Among other measures, t h i s Report s t r o n g l y advocated con-  t r i b u t o r y pensions, t o be a v a i l a b l e g e n e r a l l y a t s i x t y - f i v e , and s i x t y i n some cases.  B r i t i s h Columbia was h i g h l i g h t e d i n a com-  prehensive work w r i t t e n by the former Superintendent of W l f a r e , Q  Dr. H. M. Cassidy, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n I n Canada. That B r i t i s h Columbia was taking an a c t i v e p a r t i n f o s t e r i n g t h i s trend toward progressive s o c i a l planning was obvious i n the expressed determination of i t s d e l e g a t i o n t o the Dominion-Provinc i a l Conference of 1945, "to p r o t e c t B r i t i s h Columbia's h i g h educ a t i o n and s o c i a l s e r v i c e standards, f o r ... i f any change of standards i s t o be made, i t i s that the standards of other prov l n c e s w i l l have t o be r a i s e d t o those of B r i t i s h Columbia."25 24 Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1943, c. 48.  - 33 Thus the government aimed a t p r o v i d i n g the strong l e a d e r s h i p necessary t o support p u b l i c demand f o r adequate s e r v i c e s , i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e needs and r i g h t s of the people. The Dominion Government s i g n a l i z e d a new stage i n s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n i n 1 9 4 5 , i n c r e a t i n g the Department of N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and Welfare.  The f u n c t i o n s of t h i s Department r e l a t i n g  t o welfare included "the promotion of s o c i a l s e c u r i t y and s o c i a l welfare of the people of Canada.;, the p r e p a r a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of information on s o c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t i n g the h e a l t h and l i v e s of the people, and co-operation w i t h prov i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h a view t o c o - o r d i n a t i o n of e f f o r t s i n p r o v i d i n g f o r the s o c i a l s e c u r i t y and welfare of the people of Canada."26  old  age pensions were t r a n s f e r r e d from the Department  of Finance t o t h i s new and more l o g i c a l Department i n September, 1945.  I t was not u n t i l October, 1 9 4 6 , that B r i t i s h Columbia, desp i t e i t s progressive welfare p r a c t i c e s , could boast a department with similar distinctive responsibilities.  The B r i t i s h Columbia  Department of Health and Welfare was d i v i d e d Into branches under two Deputy M i n i s t e r s ; o l d age pension a d m i n i s t r a t i o n became one of f i v e d i v i s i o n s i n the S o c i a l Welfare Branch. GREEN BOOK PROPOSALS The promise of t h i s new Department however s t i l l remained to be f u l l y r e a l i z e d I n the extension of other s o c i a l s e c u r i t y 2 5 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, B u l l e t i n of the S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Branch, J u l y , 1 9 4 5 , v o l . 2 , p. 2 4 .  - 34 measures. Family Allowances were added t o unemployment i n s u rance t o give Canada another branch of modern s o c i a l insurance coverage.  A h e a l t h insurance program was a l s o proposed. The  Dominion-Provincial Conference on Reconstruction proposed a N a t i o n a l Old Age Pension of $30 per month, financed and adminis t e r e d by the f e d e r a l government, t o be p a i d , regardless of means, t o every man and woman over seventy, who had had twenty years of residence i n Canada since a t t a i n i n g the age of eighteen. The present system, operative under Dominion-provincial agreements, could be extended as a s s i s t a n c e to'persons  of s i x t y - f i v e  to s i x t y - n i n e , " i n cases of need and i n accordance w i t h l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l circumstances."27  The p r o v i n c i a l govern-  ments would administer the o l d age a s s i s t a n c e , while the f e d e r a l government would c o n t r i b u t e f i f t y per cent of the $30 monthly cost. Before any changes could be e f f e c t e d I t was necessary t o c a l l another meeting o f the I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Board.  Reconstitu-  t i o n of the Board was necessary.as i t was almost ten years since t h e i r l a s t meeting.  With only one exception, each province was  represented by the M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o l d age pensions, and the deputy or a d m i n i s t r a t o r , a t the meeting h e l d I n Ottawa i n November, 1946.28  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s and d i f f i c u l t i e s  were considered; r e g u l a t i o n s were r e v i s e d , and made p u b l i c i n May,  1947.29 No notable changes were incorporated. 2b Canada. Canada Year Book. 1947. P . 212. 27 Canada,, Dominion-Provincial Proposals, Dominion-Provincial Conference on Reconstruction, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1945, P» 38. 28 The Hon. G. S. Pearson, Department of H e a l t h and Welfare, and Mr. J . H. Creighton, Chairman, Old Age Pension Board, represented B r i t i s h Columbia.  - 35  -  These new r e g u l a t i o n s had only been i n f o r c e these  few  months when i n September the Act was amended, e f f e c t i v e r e t r o a c t i v e l y to May 1, 1947.5°  A s l i g h t easing of e l i g i b i l i t y r e -  quirements was e f f e c t e d by the new A c t . no longer r e q u i s i t e .  British nationality  was  Allowable income was increased to $600 f o r  a s i n g l e a p p l i c a n t , and $1,080 f o r a married a p p l i c a n t . Residence requirements  could be s a t i s f i e d as before, or by any p e r i o d equal  t o twice the aggregate absences from Canada, during the twenty years immediately preceding a p p l i c a t i o n .  Any amendments to the  Act n e c e s s i t a t e d r e v i s i o n of r e g u l a t i o n s ; f o r t h i s purpose the I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Board met  again i n Ottawa i n January, 1948.  Its  recommendations were incorporated i n Regulations p u b l i s h e d i n June, 1948. S o c i a l and economic problems of the post-war p e r i o d were enhanced by the u n i t y and s p i r i t of c o n v i c t i o n which had t e r i z e d the men and women of Canada at war.  charac-  Their objective r e -  mained f o r "high and s t a b l e employment and Income, and a greater sense of p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n d i v i d u a l economic s e c u r i t y and w e l f a r e . . . and f o r p r o v i s i o n , on the b a s i s of small r e g u l a r payments against l a r g e and u n c e r t a i n I n / d i v i d u a l r i s k s , f o r such hazards and d i s a b i l i t i e s as unemployment, s i c k n e s s , and o l d age."31 Throughoutthese twenty years, o l d age pensioners have cont i n u e d to f u n c t i o n , t o the best of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y , 29 See Appendix "A." 30 See Appendix VB." 31 Canada, Dominion-Provincial Proposals. 1945, P« 7«  and  -  36  -  according to t h e i r past experiences, as Canadian c i t i z e n s . There were 19,297 pensioners (37.8 percent of the p o p u l a t i o n over seventy) I n B r i t i s h Columbia i n September, 1947;  as t h e i r  numbers have increased, so has t h e i r stature i n the communities In which they l i v e d .  They are not to be overlooked i n any ac-  count of the development of the o l d age pension system. i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o speak?  Who are  Arid they do s p e a k — t h r o u g h The  Pens l o n e r — t h e o f f i c i a l organ of the Old Age Pensioners' Organization.  The present membership of 11,000 Is r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  29 branches i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 2 5 i n Saskatchewan, 9 i n A l b e r t a , and 3 i n Manitoba and Northern Ontario.  The Organization was  founded i n 1932 by an aged gentleman who "himself was a v i c t i m of the harsh conditions governing the g r a n t i n g of pensions t o aged c i t i z e n s . " 3 2  The Pensioner, a n a t i o n a l monthly, devoted t o  the I n t e r e s t s of Canadian pensioners, has been p u b l i s h e d i n New Westminister, B.C., since October, 1941.33 Through groups, organized f o r r e c r e a t i o n and companionship, i n t h e i r homes, and i n the budding community centres of B r i t i s h Columbia m u n i c i p a l i t i e s such as Vancouver and Prince Rupert, o l d age pensioners are beginning t o r e c e i v e due r e c o g n i t i o n as the s e n i o r c i t i z e n s of our n a t i o n .  The m a j o r i t y no longer r e g a r d  the pension as c h a r i t y , but as a r i g h t .  "  3 2 See Appendix "C." ' 33*C. R. Bennetton,-editor of The Pensioner, i n a l e t t e r t o the w r i t e r , A p r i l 5, 1948. w  CHAPTER I I I ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGES. 1927-1947 E a r l y p o l i c y under the Workmen's Compensation Board. The Old Age Pension Board, 1943. F i e l d S e r v i c e . s t a f f of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch.. The S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n . Dominion-provincial p o l i c y .  As soon as B r i t i s h Columbia's A c t of March 7, 1927, could be e f f e c t e d a f t e r the passage of the Dominion A c t of March 3 1 , 1927,  d e f i n i t e steps were taken t o arrange a d m i n i s t r a t i v e de-  t a i l s f o r the payment of o l d age pensions i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The Workmen's Compensation Board, as p r e v i o u s l y i n t i m a t e d , had "gained the p u b l i c ' s confidence  as a competent agency,"^  through the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l accident b e n e f i t s since 1916, and mothers' allowances since 1920. Therefore,  I t seemed  reasonable t o add o l d age pensions t o I t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s . The execution of o l d age pension a f f a i r s was delegated t o a s p e c i a l d i v i s i o n composed of a Secretary, Mr. R. W. Lane, an A s s i s t a n t Secretary, Miss E. Sutherland, an I n v e s t i g a t o r , Mrs. P. E. W. R e i d , and a c l e r i c a l s t a f f of s i x . Mr. Lane, who was the s o l i c i t o r f o r the Workmen's Compensation Board, was assigned temporarily t o t h i s other p o s i t i o n t o organize the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e details. A p p l i c a t i o n s came a u t o m a t i c a l l y from e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s who had f o l l o w e d the development of the scheme through the newspapers 1 H. M. Cassidy, P u b l i c Health and Welfare Reorganization. Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1945, p. 4b• •  - 38 and the preceding e l e c t i o n canpaign.  I n s t r u c t i o n s were issued  to prospective a p p l i c a n t s concerning the documents which were necessary t o e s t a b l i s h proof of age, residence, and n a t i o n a l i t y , before an a p p l i c a t i o n could be considered. The Labour Gazette of December, 1927, c a r r i e s a photograph of the f i r s t o l d age pension p a i d i n Canada.  I t went t o Mr. W.  H. Derby, a pioneer since 1896 on Vancouver I s l a n d .  This  occa-  s i o n , i n the o f f i c e of the Government Agent a t A l b e r n i , was a l s o marked by the presence of the M.P. f o r Comox-Alberni, and the M.L.A. f o r A l b e r n i , who both took p a r t i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i v e debates p e r t a i n i n g t o o l d age pensions.  Mr. Derby, pen-  sioner number 1 i n Canada, d i e d i n 1938, a t the r i p e o l d age of eighty-five. To many of the e a r l y a p p l i c a n t s — p i o n e e r prospectors, l o g gers and fishermen,  as they o f t e n w e r e — t h e t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s of  o f f i c e r o u t i n e and l e g a l documents were completely f o r e i g n . Thus, the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f soon developed the p r a c t i c e of. w r i t i n g away f o r them, e.g., t o secure baptismal such  information  from a p a r i s h church, or a statement of age/as might have been given during y o u t h f u l employment w i t h the B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y of Shipping, and so on. The i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s duty l a y i n checking documents r e c e i v e d , t o make sure a l l information r e q u i r e d t o prove e l i g i b i l i t y was contained i n each a p p l i c a n t ' s f i l e . WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION BOARD I n theory a p p l i c a t i o n s were approved by the Board of t h r e e ,  - 39 Messrs E. S. H. Winn, Chairman, H. B. Gilmour, and Parker W i l l i a m s , together w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r of Labour. However, the Board d i d not meet a t any s t a t e d i n t e r v a l s , but only as an accumulation of debatable cases r e q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a tion.  Where i t was obvious that r o u t i n e requirements were s a t -  i s f i e d the Secretary approved the a p p l i c a t i o n .  By March 31,  1928, from more than 3,200 a p p l i c a t i o n , 2,712 pensions, averagi n g $17.43 a month, had been granted. The next year Miss Sutherland became S e c r e t a r y , and Mr. H. L. Greenwood, a newcomer t o B r i t i s h Columbia, was appointed as A s s i s t a n t .  I n 1930 Mr. Greenwood, i n t u r n , became S e c r e t a r y ;  he h e l d t h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l the close of the Workmen's Compensat i o n regime i n 1943* 1929.  A Chief C l e r k was added to the s t a f f i n  The number of pensions being handled had so Increased by  1937 that the p o s i t i o n of A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y had t o be r e opened; i t was f i l l e d by Mr. E. W. Berry who has remained t o t h i s date w i t h the Board. I t was not u n t i l 1931 that the volume of work made i t necessary f o r a f i e l d I n v e s t i g a t o r t o go out from Vancouver t o some of the l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  Then the p r a c t i c e f o l l o w e d was t o  e s t a b l i s h a temporary headquarters; from here a g r e a t e r number of a p p l i c a t i o n s c o u l d be handled more e f f e c t i v e l y than by prolonged l e t t e r w r i t i n g .  During these years the P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e  rendered Invaluable a i d by c o n t a c t i n g a p p l i c a n t s i n the most r e mote corners of the P r o v i n c e . The constables soon became adept at f i l l i n g out the r e q u i r e d forms which were submitted, through  - 40 t h e i r Inspector, t o the Board.  I n v e s t i g a t o r s i n the f i e l d  could not have functioned without the s p l e n d i d cooperation of the p o l i c e constables who provided t h e i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and, what was even more v a l u a b l e , a personal I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the community and the pensioners.  Pour i n v e s t i g a t o r s and t e n  c l e r i c a l workers were r e q u i r e d , by 1937, t o handle an average of 145 a p p l i c a t i o n s a month.  By 1943, s i x i n v e s t i g a t o r s and  twenty-one c l e r i c a l workers attended t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e det a i l s f o r more than fourteen thousand pensioners i n B r i t i s h Columbia. [DEVELOPING  SOCIAL  AWARENESS  During the e a r l y years of the second Great War, o l d age pensions i n B r i t i s h Columbia came under the p u b l i c * s s c r u t i n y as a r e s u l t of the r i s i n g concern expressed f o r the welfare and s e c u r i t y of a l l people.  P r i v a t e s o c i a l agencies, r e c o v e r i n g from  the onslaught of the depression years, i n i t i a t e d a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s geared t o some of the problems p e c u l i a r to war c o n d i t i o n s , and i n so doing uncovered some outstanding gaps i n many community services.  The p u b l i c departments, covering mothers  1  allowances;  the dependent, poor and s i c k ; c h i l d w e l f a r e ; medical and h o s p i t a l s e r v i c e s ; t u b e r c u l o s i s and venereal diseases, and mental hygiene, had been moulded Into an e f f i c i e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n under the D i r e c t o r of Welfare.  Q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers, drawn from  various p a r t s of Canada, helped t o set up many of these s e r v i c e s . Aware of the growing need f o r s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g and experience i n the f i e l d of p u b l i c welfare and human r e l a t i o n s ,  the University o f B r i t i s h Columbia has i n the l a s t twenty years contributed a growing quota o f professional s o c i a l workers to the p r o v i n c i a l welfare services.  Through t h e i r  t r a i n i n g and experience these members of the profession, along with the thinking p u b l i c , have become more keenly aware o f the defects o f a l e g a l i s t i c approach towards o l d age pension e l i g i b i l i t y - a p r o b a b i l i t y which was i n creased when pemsions were administered as an a u x i l i a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of Workmen's Compensation Boards. These Boards, though e f f i c i e n t , were geared to a r i g i d interpretation of regulations, and were forced to be primarily concerned with a different kind of claim.  Their  tendency i s "to assess e l i g i b i l i t y on r e l a t i v e l y hard and fast l i n e s , and then to apply the e l i g i b i l i t y strictly".  schedule  As was pointed out i n the S o c i a l Security Report,  "scaled to d i f f e r e n t earning l e v e l s and to a v a r i e t y of accident cases, t h i s i s l e s s apt to produce harsh r e s u l t s . Scaled to what i s supposed to be a minimum and to a need which i s r e l a t i v e l y equal f o r a l l cases, i t can only produce inequities".  The Report adds that "unfortunately, federal  s u p e r v i s i o n r e i n f o r c e s these tendencies, through the f a c t that the o l d age pension a u t h o r i t y on the f e d e r a l l e v e l i s l o c a t e d i n the Department of Finance.  The s u p e r v i s i o n of p r o v i n c i a l ad-  m i n i s t r a t i o n s c o n s i s t s almost e x c l u s i v e l y of audit and  financial  c o n t r o l , the r e s u l t being a r e s t r i c t i v e i n f l u e n c e on p r o v i n c i a l administrations which i s e a s i l y r e f l e c t e d i n a r e p r e s s i v e a t t i tude towards the a p p l i c a n t . " ^ I n t a n g i b l e r e c o g n i t i o n of an enlightened approach to the (B.C.) problem of o l d age pensions, the Act/was amended, i n 1943,  to  set up a s p e c i f i c Old Age Pension Board, to f u n c t i o n as p a r t of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch, under the Department of the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary.3 THE  OLD AGE  PENSION BOARD  The new Board, a c t i v e from A p r i l 1, three members, one a c t i n g as Chairman.  1943,  c o n s i s t e d of  The duties assigned  to  i t , i e . , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the A c t , c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a p p l i c a t i o n s , and payment of pensions, were not d i s s i m i l a r t o those of the o r i g i n a l Board of 1927. c i a l s u p e r v i s i o n , the aim was  But r a t h e r than s t r e s s i n g f i n a n "to give as much assistance as  p o s s i b l e , where needed, to a p p l i c a n t s i n making out t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s . " and a f t e r pensions had been granted, "to extend t o those who needed f u r t h e r help as much i n the way of  follow-up,  case-work s e r v i c e , as i s f e a s i b l e . " 4 2 L. G. Marsh. Report on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y f o r Canada. Prepared f o r the Advisory Committee on Reconstruction, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1943, P» 71. 3 Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1943, c. 31.  - 43 -  Mr. J . H, Greighton, with more than seven years'  experience  as Superintendent of Welfare, i n which office he was responsible, among ether things, for the administration of the Mothers' Allowance Act, was appointed Chairman and chief executive officer i n charge of administration.  Mr. H. L . Greenwood and Mr. C. W. Lundy.  successor to Mr. Creighton as Superintendent of Welfare, were the other two members.  In November, 1943, after fifteen years' ser-  vice, Mr. Greenwood resigned from the Board, and Mr. J . A . Ward B e l l , who had been active i n various administrative capacities i n the Province, was appointed.  Board meetings were held approxi-  mately twice a month, to consider applications for pension for which a l l requirements had, as far as possible, been met. Mrs. Reid, who had been the pioneer investigator, now con-' tinuing as intake social worker at the Head Office, was i n a splendid position to give the new. administration the benefit of her years of valuable experience.  Three members of the former  team of s i x investigators remained with the staff, but they were transferred to the City of Vancouver Social Service Department. To this Department was delegated r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for f i e l d work i n connection with a l l pensioners l i v i n g i n Vancouver. Applications from elsewhere i n the Province were channelled through s i x t y workers of the existing network of the Provincial F i e l d Service staff, throughout the five geographic regions of the Social Welfare Branch. U t i l i z a t i o n of these experienced 4 B r i t i s h Columbia, The Administration of the Old Age Pensions A c t , 1943-1944, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1945, p. 1 1 .  - 44 workers meant b e t t e r s e r v i c e t o a l l concerned.  The a p p l i c a n t  could e n l i s t the s e r v i c e of a worker i n h i s own d i s t r i c t a t any time of the year, e i t h e r by going t o the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e , or by requesting a home v i s i t .  Each worker, p a r t i c u l a r l y understanding  of the community and i t s resources, would be e q u a l l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e throughout the Province and i n the urban centres. was  Thus, too, the Old Age Pension D i v i s i o n  strengthened by making a more comprehensive s e r v i c e a v a i l a b l e  t o a l a r g e r number of a p p l i c a n t s .  This scope was f u r t h e r en-  l a r g e d i n 1945 when passage of the S o c i a l Assistance Act gave the Old Age Pension D i v i s i o n access t o the s e r v i c e s of workers i n the M u n i c i p a l S o c i a l Service Departments, "as long as stan* dards of assistance and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n equivalent t o those r e q u i r e d i n the P r o v i n c i a l s e r v i c e " were maintained.5 SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION I n t e g r a l t o the new Board's philosophy  i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of o l d age pensions, had been the c r e a t i o n of the S o c i a l Service Division.  This D i v i s i o n bore the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c o o r d i n a t i n g  the services of the growing force of f i e l d workers w i t h the r e sources of the Pension Board.  Miss Amy B. Edwards, as Supervi-  sor, was charged with the " s u p e r v i s i o n of case-Work services throughout the various d i s t r i c t s , and c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the s o c i a l s e r v i c e departments of the l a r g e r centres of Vancouver and V i c t o r i a . " ^ Miss Edwards had f i r s t - h a n d knowledge of the 5 E. W. G r i f f i t h , "Our New Department o f Health and Welfare," B r i t i s h Columbia's Welfare, Department of Health and Welfare, v o l . 3, No. 17, (November, 1946), p. 4. 6 B r i t i s h Columbia, The Administra1I on, 1943-1944 . p . l l . .  - 45  -  p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l services as a r e s u l t of seven y e a r s  1  experience  as Supervisor of the Welfare F i e l d S e r v i c e . The r a t h e r sketchy F i e l d Service Report that had accompanied a p p l i c a t i o n s i n the past years was  now  enlarged to f a c i l i t a t e  the f u n c t i o n of the S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n , which was  primarily  concerned w i t h the h e a l t h , l i v i n g accommodation, r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s and community i n t e r e s t s of the pensioners.  An a d d i t i o n a l ,  and more d e t a i l e d , s o c i a l h i s t o r y o u t l i n e was suggested f o r workers submitting an a p p l i c a n t ' s r e p o r t .  Thus the a p p l i c a n t  could  be seen as a\-human'being, r a t h e r than a number attached to the mass of data found covering f a c t s of residence, f a m i l y , and i n come on the a p p l i c a t i o n form.?  A p p l i c a t i o n s , were not  considered  complete f o r the Board's d e c i s i o n unless accompanied by a F i e l d Service R e p o r t . a p p l i c a t i o n was  8  The booklet of i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r completing an r e v i s e d f o r the a p p l i c a n t ' s  convenience.9  As w e l l as being concerned w i t h the pensioner's s o c i a l adjustment, one of the major e f f o r t s of the S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n was  toward i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , to " c l e a r away a long-standing misap-  prehension i n r e l a t i o n to o l d age p e n s i o n s . " ^ In t h i s d i r e c t i o n the S o c i a l Service D i v i s i o n c a r r i e d the i n t e r e s t s of pensioners i n t o community a c t i v i t i e s through a c t i v e membership i n the l o c a l Community Chest and Council  (Vancouver), a Committee on the Care  of the Aged, and a province-wide S o c i a l Service Exchange.  The  D i v i s i o n has also attempted to f a c i l i t a t e the use of s e r v i c e s 7 See Appendix "D." '. '. ~" 8 See Appendix I'E.'.' 9 See Appendix "F." 10 B r i t i s h Columbia, The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 1946-1947. p. 63.  - 46 a v a i l a b l e to pensioners, f o r example, by p u b l i s h i n g a c o l l e c t i o n of common questions and answers which have to do w i t h o l d age pension a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the Handbook^  11  or s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s  as provided on the M e d i c a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n C a r d .  12  ;.  Beginning In.the Head O f f i c e , Miss Edwards has, by i n t r o ductory conferences, and continuous I n t e r e s t i n a l l d e t a i l s of work, encouraged the members of the c l e r i c a l s t a f f to see beyond the mechanics of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n to the p e r s o n a l i t i e s behind the i d e n t i f y i n g numbers.  This i s of p a r t i c u l a r  importance  to the stenographers who are i n a c t u a l contact w i t h the a p p l i c a n t s and t h e i r workers through l e t t e r s and memoranda. A r e q u i s i t e of the p r o v i n c i a l I n - s e r v i c e T r a i n i n g Program Is a comprehension of the many elements w i t h i n the Old Age Pension Head O f f i c e administration.  Workers are given t h i s opportunity during s e v e r a l  days spent i n observation and d i s c u s s i o n of the v a r i o u s administ r a t i v e s e c t i o n s , under Miss Edwards' guidance. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND WELFARE Much of the confusion a r i s i n g from the diverse r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary's Department, of which o l d age pensions comprised one d i v i s i o n , was d i s s o l v e d i n by the c r e a t i o n of the Department of H e a l t h and Welfare.  1946 Under  a Deputy M i n i s t e r of Welfare, o l d age pensions have now become one of f i v e d i v i s i o n s , along w i t h f a m i l y s e r v i c e s , c h i l d w e l f a r e , medical s e r v i c e s , and boys' and g i r l s ' I n d u s t r i a l schools. 11 See Appendix 12 See Appendix  "G." "H."  - 47 This developing s o c i a l approach has marked a great step forward and i s commendable, but i t i s questionable whether the b a s i c . s t r u c t u r e of p r o v i s i o n f o r the i n e v i t a b l e p e r i o d of o l d age has kept abreast.  I n order t o form any enlightened o p i n i o n  i t i s necessary to understand the scope of the present o l d age pension system, and a l s o the working of the system as i t a f f e c t s individuals. However, i n any study of i n d i v i d u a l cases which must be considered on the b a s i s of means, i t i s necessary t o be conscious of p o s s i b l e wider i m p l i c a t i o n s , i e . , c o n s i d e r a t i o n of one a p p l i c a t i o n might r e s u l t i n a c o n c l u s i o n which might not merit the approval of the Dominion a u d i t o r .  I f the p r o v i n c i a l pension  a u t h o r i t y were to p e r s i s t i n i t s c o n c l u s i o n the Dominion might refuse t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the payment of that pension.  Therefore,  "hope f o r harmonious and e f f i c i e n t cooperation depends l a r g e l y on the discovery o f c l e a r - c u t , o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a f o r measuring the a c t i v i t y — c r i t e r i a which command;, agreement by t h e i r c l a r i t y . " I t i s p o s s i b l e t o pursue r e g u l a t o r y d e t a i l too f a r i n the quest f o r completeness which i s u n a t t a i n a b l e .  As Mr. Corry con-  tinues i n the study j u s t quoted: "Such c r i t e r i a are almost impossible t o f i n d . The courts have been t r y i n g f o r years t o hammer out a d e f i n i t i o n of 'residence. They have not succeeded. The best t h a t can be done i s t o define i t r e l a t i v e l y t o a p a r t i c u l a r purpose (as has been done f o r o l d age pensions), and even then, no amount of imagination can conjure up a l l the p o s s i b i l i t i e s . She accountants, economists and lawyers a l l disagree as t o the meaning of 'income. Some of the u n c e r t a i n t y can be c l e a r e d up by expanding the d e f i n i t i o n i n great d e t a i l . Unfortunately, when d e t a i l e d information goes beyond a c e r t a i n p o i n t , i t causes more confusion than i t c l a r i f i e s . 1  1  - 48 I n defining the standard so as t o exclude cases X and Y, case Z may be overlooked and a c c i d e n t a l l y excluded. But case Z may be the one which o b v i o u s l y ought to be i n c l u d ed, and disagreement w i l l then a r i s e over I t . Such a disagreement i s l i k e l y to be sharper because e x c l u s i o n s a r i s i n g from o v e r - d e f i n i t i o n are f r e q u e n t l y r i d i c u l o u s . The p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l reasonably f e e l s that e x c l u s i o n of t h i s type of case i s an i n j u s t i c e ; yet the Dominion o f f i c i a l i s o b l i g e d t o uphold the r e g u l a t i o n s as a matter of p r i n c i p l e . " 1 4 As i s a l r e a d y recognized, and cannot be f o r g o t t e n , o l d age pensions on the present means-test b a s i s are governed by regulations!  15 J . A. Corry, D i f f i c u l t i e s of D i v i d e d J u r i s d i c t i o n . A Study prepared f o r the Royal Commission on Domini on- P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , Ottawa,,King s P r i n t e r , 1939, p. 30. 14 Loc. c i t . 1  CHAPTER IV THE NATURE OP ELIGIBILITY Population trend. Applications considered subject to Dominion audit. Applications refused between 1944 and 1947, and during 1947. E l i g i b i l i t y requirements. Prom 1928 to 1947 the percentage of population over seventy years of age i n B r i t i s h Columbia had Increased from 0.47 to 1,80 respectively.  During the same period persons  receiving old age pension increased from 22.6 to 35.3 per cent.  Graphic presentation of the proportions of o l d age  pensioners to the population over seventy In B r i t i s h Columbia shows this increase very c l e a r l y over the twenty year period: Population i n B r i t i s h Columbia over Seventy Years of Age and Old Age Pension Recipients, 1927-1947  •/tut ffjj  Mr  /rj/  ms  itss-  itS7  tfir  tf*'  fliimaen f~/*V**£ Of /91/. I1JI. /9*/ Cf/Y£US -  /?tcr,*T  <**3 rTrs of  Prxiertj  of  /r*7  in  OLO flC£  1 Canada, Eighth Census of Canada, 1941, Ages of the Popul a t i o n , Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1946, p . 48. 2 Figure i s based on estimate made from Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare for the year ended March 31, 1947, p . 72.  -  50  The gradual Increase i n the number of pensioners i s brought about by the p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y Increased number of older people i n the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . comprised 3.00  In 1933, persons over seventy  per cent of the t o t a l population;  i n 1943  they  comprised 4*85 per cent of the t o t a l (these years are chosen as I n d i c a t i v e as percentages are based on the most r e c e n t l y publ i s h e d census f i g u r e s ) . The more marked f l u c t u a t i o n s are the r e s u l t of changing s o c i a l and economic conditions i n the  country,  such as the war and the depression, and of amendments i n the r e g u l a t i o n s a f f e c t i n g the e l i g i b i l i t y of pensioners.  The average  monthly pension p a i d to 19,297 B r i t i s h Columbia r e s i d e n t s i n September, 1947, was $24.16". E l i g i b i l i t y f o r pension i s determined by the c o n d i t i o n s contained i n the Dominion Act and the Regulations  which  " i n d i c a t e the k i n d of evidence which may be accepted as s a t i s f a c t o r y proof of e l i g i b i l i t y . The pension a u t h o r i t y , e s t a b l i s h e d by the province, and responsible to the prov i n c e , decides upon the a p p l i c a t i o n of persons f o r pension. I t a p p l i e s the r e g u l a t i o n s to p a r t i c u l a r cases and makes ' the s u b s t a n t i a l d e c i s i o n s . A f t e r awarding pensions to X and Y and others, the province mades monthly payments to them. T r a v e l l i n g auditors from the Dominion Department of Finance make a q u a r t e r l y audit of a l l payments ( t o j u s t i f y t h e i r 75 per cent share of the c o s t ) . I n a d d i t i o n to checking a l l expenditures, these auditors check the evidence on f i l e r e s p e c t i n g each award i n order t o be s a t i s f i e d t h a t i t i s adequate t o support the award w i t h i n the meaning of the Dominion Act and Regulations. It is at once obvious that d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l a r i s e between the Dominion and p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s as t o the meaning of the r e g u l a t i o n s . For example, i f the only evidence oh the r e c o r d as to the age i s the statement of the applicant that he i s 70 years of age, the auditors w i l l d i s a l l o w on the ground that the evidence does not support the award. "This review of the r e c o r d i s p u r e l y formal. They do not go behind the r e c o r d to i n q u i r e i n t o the t r u t h of documents which are s a t i s f a c t o r y on t h e i r f a c e . Such an  - 51 i n q u i r y may be made i n p a r t i c u l a r cases but i t i s obvious that t o do so i n every case would be t o d u p l i c a t e and sometimes t o be beyond the d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n already made by the p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s . Two things are c l e a r . F i r s t , the Dominion o f f i c i a l s cannot be sure of t h e i r own knowledge t h a t the s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t s are r e a l l y ent i t l e d t o pension. Second, they cannot check the c o r r e c t ness of the d e c i s i o n s i n which a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r pension have been r e f u s e d . The Dominion j u r i s d i c t i o n i s l i m i t e d to an a u d i t of payments."3 The Dominion, and therefore the p u b l i c , must r e l y on the i n t e g r i t y and i n d u s t r y of the p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s i n d e a l i n g w i t h , and a c t i n g upon, evidence which, i n t u r n , determines the payment or r e f u s a l of a pension. APPLICATIONS REFUSED How many people who a c t u a l l y apply f o r an o l d age pension do not, f o r one reason or another, q u a l i f y ?  This q u e s t i o n can  be answered by an examination of a p p l i c a t i o n s r e f u s e d a t the Old Age Pension D i v i s i o n .  F a c t s and f i g u r e s on how many more  e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s need some type of a d d i t i o n a l support are open to study.  Doubtless there are many, who, knowing the r e q u i r e -  ments, do not apply as they know they could hot q u a l i f y f o r pension;  there are others who, despite a growing acceptance of  pensions, place a higher value on t h e i r independence; there are others such as grandparents, i n homes where t h e i r c h i l d r e n cannot bear t o t h i n k of t h e i r r e s o r t i n g t o any type of p u b l i c a i d , and thereby s t r i v e t o maintain three generations a t once, perhaps t o the economic and s o c i a l detriment of them a l l .  Alter-  n a t e l y , there are others r e c e i v i n g pension whose f a m i l i e s c o u l d 5 Corry. D i v i d e d J u r i s d i c t i o n , p. 28.  - 52 w e l l a f f o r d to support them. However, I t i s p o s s i b l e , by a study of the a p p l i c a t i o n s submitted to the Old Age Pension Board, and subsequently r e f u s e d , to g a i n a comprehensive  p i c t u r e of the mechanisms of the system.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the comparison between r e f u s a l s t o t a l l i n g 269, or 5*3 P©r cent of the a p p l i c a t i o n s r e c e i v e d i n 1947, and an average r a t e of r e f u s a l of 10.7 per cent of the app l i c a t i o n s r e c e i v e d during the years 1944 t o 1947-4  The reasons  the a p p l i c a t i o n s were r e f u s e d over t h i s same p e r i o d of years can be seen g r a p h i c a l l y I n the f o l l o w i n g c h a r t :  4 The f i r s t f i g u r e r e l a t e s t o the calendar year 1947, the others being f i s c a l years (ending March 3 D *  - 53 -  Figure 2 Percentages of Applications refused, and reasons, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 4 4 - 1 9 4 7  ?r • fr • 17 •  1* •  31 Yt  9 •  a* »7  t-  r-  S--S9  i iz  7' tf  23••ft  2.1 S/  9 /¥  ?7S  trot 3o-3l  30 £3  2/ ?y  ¥• Zojl  32S-77  So-TO  Z7f¥  itt/  19**  tr+7  D  fissers  3 &£  /YRriortfn.tr  7  CfitLOK£Ii fl<sc£icfinceus S/roit&e JUPfofir  c L  Figures on the face of each segment are the percentages of the t o t a l refusals during the year. Diagram i s based on figures taken from the Annual Reports of the Administration of the Old Age Pension Act for the years ending March 3 1 , 1944 to 1947.  - 54 Since the Act was amended i n September, 1947, to be effective May 1, 1947, i t i s further enlightening to examine this effect upon applications over the calendar year.  The applica-  tions received and refused, month by month, during 1947, are interpreted as follows: Figure  3  Applications for Old Age Pensions Refused B r i t i s h Columbia, 1947  J •u u  •  f s 7 «  -  J -  *~ 1 X -  Jan.  fei.  ffp*.  Pfel  Jvtt.  Jut.  Ita*.  S£F.  OCT.  He*  flsstrs f/oe  Figures are derived from a study of records i n the Old Age Pension Board.  - 55  -  These graphs represent people. . To have a r e a l understanding of these f i g u r e s i t i s necessary to examine thoroughly t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the development of e l i g i b i l i t y  requirements,  and the e f f e c t s of these requirements on i n d i v i d u a l s .  These  w i l l be discussed i n succeeding chapters, according to the r e g u l a t i o n s , determining q u a l i f i c a t i o n by age, r e s i d e n c e , n a t i o n a l i t y and income. Broadly speaking, to be e l i g i b l e f o r an o l d age pension at the beginning of 1947, an a p p l i c a n t was r e q u i r e d t o prove that he was seventy years o l d ; that he had l i v e d i n Canada f o r the l a s t twenty years; that he was a B r i t i s h s u b j e c t ; and t h a t his  t o t a l assets were l e s s than $425 a year. The number of pensions p a i d i n any non-contributory scheme  i s dependent on the q u a l i f y i n g r e g u l a t i o n s , which are n e c e s s a r i l y geared to l i m i t the expenditure i n v o l v e d to the income a v a i l able.  Therefore, these f a c t o r s need to be considered e q u a l l y  along w i t h a decent retirement agd i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a pension scheme.  .  I t would appear l i k e l y that the Canadian government  chose seventy as the q u a l i f y i n g age because of the heavy l i a b i l i t y i n v o l v e d i n the payment of pensions.  No country sets a  l a t e r q u a l i f y i n g age, while the m a j o r i t y pay pensions at s i x t y f i v e , and some even at s i x t y . Determination of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y according t o proven r e s i dence and n a t i o n a l i t y I s a p r a c t i c e derived from the o l d Poor Law b e l i e f t h a t every person belongs t o a l o c a l i t y , and no l o c a l i t y should be o b l i g e d t o provide f o r one who  does not belong  - 56 -  there.  As. the payment of old age pensions i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  of the people of Canada, we revert to the old custom of requiring proof of that " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " before a pension i s paid to any applicant. An old age pension applicant's income i s estimated according to assets, such as private pension; money i n the bank, or In s e c u r i t i e s ; r e a l property; board and lodging; etcetera.  In  addition to the age l i m i t the maximum allowable Income i s the other major determinant to the number of recipients of a pension scheme.  "Every non-contributory pension lav; requires applicants  to prove that their resources are i n s u f f i c i e n t for their minimum subsistence.  No c l e a r l y defined principles seem to have been  followed i n setting the minimum- subsistence l e v e l implied by income or property l i m i t s .  The International Labour Conference  recommended simply that income l i m i t s be fixed with due regard to the minimum cost of l i v i n g . . . . " 5  5 M. Grant, Social Security. Washington, Social Science Research Council, 1939, p . 36.  CHAPTER V PROOF  OF  AGE.  Age as a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . Regulations of 1927, 1932, 1937 and 1947. A p p l i c a t i o n s r e f u s e d : (a) no a v a i l a b l e p r o o f , (b) i n s u f f i c i e n t evidence, and (c) c o n f l i c t i n g evidence. A p p l i c a t i o n s proven acceptable a t a l a t e r date.  "The age a t which pensions should become payable cannot be c a l c u l a t e d by an o b j e c t i v e method.  As a guiding p r i n c i p l e , the  1932 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour Conference recommended, on the b a s i s of opinions submitted by the various governments, that the pensionable age be s e t a t not more than s i x t y - f i v e y e a r s .  Opinion  on t h i s p o i n t tends t o change w i t h the economic c y c l e .  During  periods of unemployment p u b l i c sentiment leans toward lowering the e l i g i b l e age so t h a t more needy o l d people can q u a l i f y f o r pensions, thereby removing them from the labour market and r e l i e v i n g unemployment among younger workers.  The i n c r e a s i n g d i f -  f i c u l t y of older unemployed workers i n f i n d i n g employment i s a l so d f a c t o r i n many c o u n t r i e s . "  1  Age i s a r e l a t i v e matter t o o .  Some people are o l d — w o r n out, p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y — a t s i x t y , while others who have reached s e v e n t y - f i v e are as spry and a l e r t as they were a t f i f t y - f i v e .  This i s j u s t one more  reason why a c e r t a i n f l e x i b i l i t y should be p o s s i b l e i n determining age l i m i t s . Although the age at which pensions have been p a i d I n Canada has not been changed i n twenty years, the accepted methods of 1- Gfrant, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , p. 30^  - 59  -  determining age have been s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d . Regulations of 1927 s p e c i f i e d to the pension a u t h o r i t y what documents could p  be taken as s a t i s f a c t o r y proof of age.  A birth certificate,  a baptismal c e r t i f i c a t e , an entry i n a f a m i l y B i b l e or other g e n e a l o g i c a l r e c o r d , or a census r e t u r n taken more than t h i r t y years before the date of applying f o r pension, were acceptable, i n t h i s order of importance.  The o r i g i n a l Act allowed f o r "the  R e g i s t r a r of V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s or other l i k e o f f i c e r of a province"3 t o p r o v i d e , without charge, a c e r t i f i c a t e of the date of the b i r t h of a pensioner; or f o r the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s to supply any i n f o r m a t i o n on the subject of the age of a pensioner which might be contained i n census r e t u r n s . The Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s c o u l d only be approached f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a f t e r the above-mentioned sources had proven f r u i t l e s s , and by the w r i t t e n consent of the a p p l i c a n t , along w i t h s p e c i f i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the l o c a l i t y at the r e q u i r e d date, and an understanding w i t h the pension a u t h o r i t y on the c o n f i d e n t i a l nature of the i n f o r m a t i o n thus s u p p l i e d . When no evidence could be obtained, a s t a t u t o r y d e c l a r a t i o n would be acceptable from any person who had knowledge of the f a c t of an a p p l i c a n t ' s age.  According t o the r e g u l a t i o n s ,  the pension a u t h o r i t y was not bound to accept the evidence thus l a i d down, but could accept other evidence "not t h e r e i n mentioned."  However, i n the 1952 r e - d r a f t t h i s clause was  omitted.4  Perhaps the f a c t t h a t the Dominion was, by then, c a r r y i n g 75 per cent of the f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the payment of pensions 2 Order i n C o u n c i l 1806. 3 Statutes of Canada, 1927, c 35, s. 18. 4 Order i n C o u n c i l 217.  - 60 -  made the Department of Labour f e a r t h a t too many of the p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s would "accept other evidence" t o secure a pension f o r which they only bortei 25 p e r cent of the f i n a n c i a l responsibility. Despite a barrage of r e s o l u t i o n s from a l l types of p r i v a t e organizations t o lower the age requirements, no change was e f f e c ted.  Pleas f o r e a r l i e r payment of pensions were made i n order  to f i l l the gap between the normal worker's span of p r o d u c t i v i t y and the I n d u s t r i a l retirement age; t o r e l i e v e the labour market during depression years; t o recognize premature ageing, e s p e c i a l l y amongst war veterans; or t o consider the e a r l i e r dependency of s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g women. Stringency i n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n was r e - a f f i r m e d i n the 1937 r e g u l a t i o n s i n t h a t "the pension a u t h o r i t y . . . s h a l l not be bound to accept any of the c e r t i f i c a t e s , records or other documents mentioned...as s a t i s f a c t o r y proof of the age of any a p p l i c a n t , and may r e q u i r e other a d d i t i o n a l evidence."5 SOURCES OF EVIDENCE Completely r e v i s e d r e g u l a t i o n s were i s s u e d I n May, 1947* i t was provided t h a t I n the s e c t i o n concerning proof of age/an a p p l i c a n t could submit a b i r t h or baptismal c e r t i f i c a t e , or i f n e i t h e r were o b t a i n a b l e , any "other documentary evidence that he might have, or have been able to. o b t a i n , from which h i s age might be determined."^ i f 5 Order i n C o u n c i l 1/3050, s. 7, Co). 6 Order i n C o u n c i l 1732, s. 6.  - 61 s a t i s f i e d that the a p p l i c a n t was unable t o f u r n i s h s a t i s f a c t o r y evidence as t o h i s age, as provided above, "the pension a u t h o r i t y s h a l l endeavour t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n from other s o u r c e s . "  7  School, immigration, n a t u r a l i z a t i o n or census r e c o r d s ; an age given a t the time of marriage, h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , employment, lodge or union membership, or m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , a f f o r d e d p o s s i b l e sources of evidence. The same p r o v i s o remained i n the 1947 r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t , f o r the a p p l i c a n t who " a l l e g e s he was born i n Canada," a request may be put t o the R e g i s t r a r of V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s i n the province concerned, p r i o r t o a search of the Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s r e c o r d s , under the same c o n d i t i o n s as mentioned above. But the Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s * quinquennial census records f o r the years 1916, 1921 and 1926 are only a v a i l a b l e t o persons born outside of Canada.  Why, when the i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h e r e , i s i t  not made a v a i l a b l e , i f necessary, t o a Canadian c i t i z e n as w e l l as to a recent immigrant? I f an a p p l i c a t i o n form i s submitted, duly completed and signed, but l a c k i n g the necessary evidence of age, the pension a u t h o r i t y immediately r e f e r s the applicant t o the nearest o f f i c e of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch, and simultaneously n o t i f i e s t h a t Branch that t h i s a p p l i c a n t r e q u i r e s a i d i n completing h i s a p p l i cation.  A "Proof of Age" form has been prepared f o r the conve-  nience of a p p l i c a n t s who cannot produce a b i r t h or b a p t i s m a l c e r t i f i c a t e , f o r t h e i r use i n e x p l o r i n g other sources.8 7 Order i n C o u n c i l 1732, s. b. 8 See Appendix "S."  When  - 62 the best a v a i l a b l e evidence has been gathered, the a p p l i c a t i o n i s submitted f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the Pension Board. APPLICATIONS REFUSED IN 1947 A p p l i c a t i o n s t o t a l l i n g f i f t y - n i n e , or about o n e - f i f t h of those r e f u s e d during 1947, were judged i n e l i g i b l e under the age requirements of the A c t .  They f a l l i n t o four c a t e g o r i e s , l i s t e d  i n order of s e v e r i t y : (a) no a v a i l a b l e p r o o f , (b) i n s u f f i c i e n t evidence, (c) c o n f l i c t i n g evidence, and (d) evidence e s t a b l i s h i n g e l i g i b i l i t y a t a l a t e r date. These r e f u s a l s may be f u r t h e r considered i n the, f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : . A p p l i c a n t s f o r Old Age Pension I n e l i g i b l e according t o Age R e g u l a t i o n s . 1947 Table 1 Men Women On S.A. T o t a l Reasons 9  A d d i t i o n a l evidence r e q u i r e d : (a) no a v a i l a b l e proof (b) i n s u f f i c i e n t evidence (c) c o n f l i c t i n g evidence  2 7 0  1 2 1  1 2 0  3 9 1  E l i g i b l e at a l a t e r date: (a) during 1947 a d d i t i o n a l evidence found (b) during 1948 (c) during 1949 or 1950  5 3 9 12  2 2 7 4  2 0 5 10  7 5 16 16  1  1  0  2  21  38  21  59  A p p l i c a t i o n s withdrawn, or applicant died Total A p p l i c a t i o n s  1 0  9 S o c i a l Allowance. 10 F i g u r e s d e r i v e d from count of cases i n Old Age Pension Board o f f i c e , Vancouver, B.C.  - 63 Because twenty-one of the f i f t y - n i n e a p p l i c a n t s r e f u s e d pension are r e c e i v i n g S o c i a l Allowance, i t i s obvious that everything p o s s i b l e has been, or i s being, done t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r e l i g i b i l i t y f o r the pension.  The a d m i n i s t r a t o r would be  concerned w i t h r e l i e v i n g the m u n i c i p a l i t y of 20 per cent of the f i n a n c i a l burden born i n the payment of S o c i a l Allowance, and lowering the p r o v i n c i a l burden t o 75 per cent, payable under the Dominion-provincial scheme of o l d age pensions.  Furthermore,  as the monthly payment per person under the pension scheme i s more generous than that under S o c i a l Allowance, the s o c i a l worker and the a p p l i c a n t would do a l l i n t h e i r power t o e s t a b l i s h eligibility. NO AVAILABLE PROOF The three a p p l i c a n t s who were unable t o produce any evidence of age were born i n c e n t r a l European c o u n t r i e s . could be t r a c e d .  No b i r t h records  Immigration a u t h o r i t i e s were unable t o v e r i f y  i d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , and so on. Mr. A., born i n Hungary i n I863, t r a v e l l e d by ship t o New York, and overland t o Canada, about 1888. the  He could not remember  date he landed i n New York, nor the name of the s h i p .  A  check w i t h Immigration a u t h o r i t i e s r e v e a l e d that there were no records kept of persons c r o s s i n g the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Border a t that time.  Mr. A. was a t r a n s i e n t worker i n Canada u n t i l going  to A l a s k a I n 1928.  How, h i s memory gone, he I s a p a t i e n t i n the  P r o v i n c i a l Infirmary i n Vancouver.  He cannot even supply the  - 64 name of an e a r l y employer who might have recorded h i s age some twenty or t h i r t y years ago. Mrs. B. was born i n Russia i n 1869. chewan i n 1917 w i t h her f a m i l y .  She s e t t l e d i n Saskat-  Her s i x c h i l d r e n have a l l made  t h e i r homes i n Canada, and have produced f i f t e e n more Canadian citizens.  Mrs. B. l i v e s w i t h a married daughter, her ex-service  son-in-law and t h e i r three c h i l d r e n , i n a s m a l l house i n an i n t e r i o r town.  Mrs. B. cannot w r i t e E n g l i s h , so her daughter has  been corresponding spasmodically w i t h the Old Age Pension D i v i s i o n since 1942. A t that time Mrs. B. was r e f u s e d pension as she had r e c e n t l y come t o B r i t i s h Columbia from Saskatchewan, and had not had the r e q u i r e d 700 days p r o v i n c i a l residence.  I n 1944,  having waited f i v e months f o r a r e p l y , despite p e r i o d i c reminders, t o a l e t t e r requesting answers t o f i f t e e n questions  dealing  w i t h Mrs. B.'s a p p l i c a t i o n , the Pension Board automatically c l o s e d t h i s case.  However, the r e q u i r e d answers were e v e n t u a l l y sub-  m i t t e d , but by 1945 the Board was convinced that there was not s u f f i c i e n t evidence a v a i l a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h age, and Mrs. B.'s a p p l i c a t i o n was again refused.  I n 1947 the daughter wrote a g a i n ,  t o enquire i f the removal of the n a t i o n a l i t y clause would permit r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of her mother's a p p l i c a t i o n . The Board d i d r e consider, but was f o r c e d t o r e i t e r a t e the r e f u s a l as no proof of age was a v a i l a b l e . S o c i a l Allowance had been i s s u e d t o Mrs. B. since January, 1943*  The daughter could not a f f o r d t o care  f o r her mother, t o the detriment of her own f a m i l y , as her mother r e q u i r e d a great deal of medical c a r e .  The daughter pleaded f o r  - 65 a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Board t o v i s i t her bedridden mother, "to see f o r h i m s e l f , that she i s obviously a very o l d l a d y l " This n a t u r a l a l t e r n a t i v e c o u l d have been r e s o r t e d t o as of May, 1947, new r e g u l a t i o n s re-allowed the opportunity f o r using common-sense d i s c r e t i o n i n e s t a b l i s h i n g age.  " I f , after  thorough search and enquiry, the pension a u t h o r i t y i s unable t o o b t a i n from the a p p l i c a n t , or elsewhere, s u f f i c i e n t evidence as to h i s age i n accordance with...(the above-mentioned p r o o f s ) , i t may take i n t o account such evidence as i t may be able to obt a i n f o r '. the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g the age of the a p p l i c a n t . " Why then c o u l d not medical opinion be sought t o e s t a b l i s h Mrs. B.'s  age?  INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE S i x of the nine a p p l i c a n t s who could not supply s u f f i c i e n t evidence of t h e i r age were born i n Canada.  They came from the  new as w e l l as the o l d settlements, one from New Brunswick, one from Quebec, three from Ontario, and one from B r i t i s h Columbia. Mr. C. was born i n Quebec Province i n I860.  Quebec's  churches, l a r g e or s m a l l , can u s u a l l y provide e x c e l l e n t r e c o r d s , but Mr. C.'s o l d p a r i s h church had been destroyed by f i r e .  He  had l e f t home a t an e a r l y age, going t o the States where he belonged t o the Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen, who had v e r i f i e d h i s employment I n 1892, but had made no r e c o r d of h i s age at that time.  Mr. C. had married t w i c e , and adopted two c h i l d r e n  during h i s years spent i n the United S t a t e s , but h i s age c o u l d  - 66 not be e s t a b l i s h e d through any records i n connection w i t h these ceremonies.  I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o a p e r i o d spent I n a Maine Hospi-  t a l sometime between 1907 and 1911 proved f r u i t l e s s .  Perhaps  he had changed h i s name, f o r emigration and immigration a u t h o r i t i e s were unable t o i d e n t i f y him.  Mr. C ' s  memory was gone, and  he could not supply the s o c i a l worker w i t h any more d e f i n i t e I n formation.  He had l i v e d f o r more than twenty years i n and about  a northern B.C. community, and was well-known by many i n h a b i t a n t s . Mr. G. waited on table and was general handy-man about the cookhouse of a lumber camp, I n r e t u r n f o r h i s board and l o d g i n g .  He  had a l i t t l e room of h i s own, o f f the cook-house, and was determined to look a f t e r h i m s e l f , r a t h e r than accept S o c i a l Allowance, u n t i l i t was Impossible f o r him to l i v e otherwise. The  local  doctor had w r i t t e n to the Pension Board, s t a t i n g he had examined Mr. C. and b e l i e v e d him t o be "at l e a s t 75 and probably more." A c t u a l l y Mr. C. was b e t t e r o f f than many, amongst the people and surroundings f a m i l i a r t o him; but to labour f o r d a i l y bread at the age of e i g h t y - s i x should be a matter of i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e , not n e c e s s i t y .  This f i l e was sent to the D i r e c t o r of Old Age  Pensions i n Ottawa f o r f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , but the v e r d i c t of " i n s u f f i c i e n t evidence" was re-confirmed. There i s another o l d man i n the P r o v i n c i a l I n f i r m a r y who s t a t e d he was born i n B r i t i s h Columbia, but had no papers to support h i s statement.  A l e t t e r from the Department of N a t i o n a l  Defence r e f e r r e d t o an a t t e s t e d r e c o r d made i n 1917, i n s e r v i c e w i t h the Canadian F o r e s t r y Corps, i n which h i s year of b i r t h was  0  - 67 given as 1880.  A 1930 Marriage Record d i s c l o s e d a b i r t h - y e a r  of 1886, and a 1944 employment r e c o r d gave a b i r t h - y e a r of 1874. None of these sources would be considered adequate evidence i n themselves, but i f one had supported the other, evidence would be regarded as e s t a b l i s h e d according to that date.  The Pension  Board d i d not accept any of these as s a t i s f a c t o r y proof of age, and t h e r e f o r e had "no a l t e r n a t i v e but to p l a c e t h i s a p p l i c a n t ' s name on the i n e l i g i b l e l i s t . "  Every a p p l i c a n t who i s r e f u s e d  on account of inadequate evidence i s Informed t h a t , i f he were t o e s t a b l i s h f u r t h e r evidence, i t would be i n order f o r him to re-apply. CONFLICTING EVIDENCE Only one a p p l i c a t i o n was turned down during 1947 because , documents submitted c o u l d not e s t a b l i s h any one date of b i r t h . This happened to a Russian woman who c o u l d only r e s o r t to Imm i g r a t i o n and Census r e c o r d s . I t was Impossible to determine a b i r t h date from the v a r i o u s ages she had g i v e n at the times these records were made. However, i t I s I n t e r e s t i n g t o know of another a p p l i c a n t who presented a delayed (1943) b i r t h r e g i s t r a t i o n of December 10, 1877, i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d .  Delayed r e g i s t r a t i o n s have only  been accepted as the provinces have brought t h e i r standards of acceptable evidence up to par w i t h those r e q u i r e d by the Old Age Pension Board.  The P.E.I, candidate a l s o submitted an 1881 cen-  sus r e c o r d , g i v i n g h i s age as two, and an 1891 census r e c o r d g i v i n g h i s age as eleven, and a 193>3 Marriage C e r t i f i c a t e g i v i n g 11 Order i n C o u n c i l 1732, s. 6, ( 4 ) .  - 68 h i s age as t h i r t y - t w o .  These four documents undoubtedly r e p r e -  sented c o n f l i c t i n g b i r t h dates, but the Board considered the e a r l i e s t r e c o r d , the 1881 census, as e s t a b l i s h i n g 1878 as the year of b i r t h , thus acknowledging t h i s a p p l i c a n t as e l i g i b l e f o r pension i n December, 1948. No matter what age might be chosen t o pay pensions, d i f f i c u l t i e s would be met c o n t i n u a l l y unless o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s , such as a b i r t h or baptismal c e r t i f i c a t e , or a very e a r l y census r e cord were a v a i l a b l e .  I t i s n a t u r a l t o f i n d d i s c r e p a n c i e s when  age i s g i v e n under v a r y i n g circumstances throughout l i f e .  A  middle-aged woman might represent h e r s e l f as younger than she a c t u a l l y i s when s i g n i n g a marriage r e g i s t e r ; a man might assume a f a l s e age i n order t o o b t a i n a p a r t i c u l a r j o b , t o enter a count r y under immigration requirements, or t o e n l i s t f o r war s e r v i c e . As v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s , c i t i z e n s h i p , census, and immigration records are  kept w i t h more and more e f f i c i e n c y , d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e s t a b l i s h -  ing dates of b i r t h w i l l be g r a d u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d . Of the f o r t y - f i v e a p p l i c a n t s who were s t i l l i n e l i g i b l e a t the end of 1947, s i x t e e n were born i n Canada, twenty-nine abroad. Of these, t e n of Canadian b i r t h and twenty-two of f o r e i g n b i r t h had e s t a b l i s h e d e l i g i b i l i t y f o r a f u t u r e date.  A p p l i c a n t s who  r e q u i r e d a d d i t i o n a l evidence were s i x Canadians, and f o u r immigrants.  The three who had been unable t o supply any evidence  were of f o r e i g n b i r t h . Although p r a c t i c e over the preceding twenty years.of pension  - 69 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has confined e s t a b l i s h i n g an a p p l i c a n t ' s age to documentary evidence, the r e g u l a t i o n s of May,  1947, provide the  opportunity to consider such evidence as may be o b t a i n a b l e .  An  e n t e r p r i s i n g and d i s c e r n i n g Board should be able to see beyond l e g a l documents and o l d records toward c o n s i d e r a t i o n of cases, such as mentioned above, i n the l i g h t of the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n h i s t o t a l experience. A f i t t i n g c o r o l l a r y to t h i s chapter would be an acknowledgment of the work done by workers of the M u n i c i p a l and P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Branches, and the s t a f f of the Pension Board, i n searching out evidence of age. conceivable c l u e .  They m e t i c u l o u s l y f o l l o w up  every  I f the c r i t i c i s m I s sometimes made t h a t too  much Information i s r e q u i r e d by the pension a u t h o r i t i e s , t h i s t e n a c i t y becomes an asset t o the a p p l i c a n t f o r whom i t i s necessary t o w r i t e innumerable l e t t e r s requesting confirmation of f a c t s that may be acceptable i n e s t a b l i s h i n g proof of age.  RESIDENCE AND NATIONALITY CHAPTER VI  Residence and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Regulations, of 1927, 1930, 1937, 1939, 1944 and 1947 concerning residence. Examples of a p p l i c a t i o n s r e f u s e d . 1947 amendments. D e c l a r a t i o n of R e s i dence. P r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l i t y , 19271947. New Act of 1947. Vancouver's scheme f o r Chinese applicants.  "A minimum p e r i o d of residence w i t h i n a country i s r e q u i r e d by o l d age pension laws, on the ground t h a t one must have 'cont r i b u t e d ' t o non-contributory pensions by work done, income spent, and general taxes p a i d toward the maintenance of the community i n order to r e c e i v e the care provided by i t .  This  requirement has been considered necessary to prevent the wholesale immigration of persons already aged i n t o c o u n t r i e s . "  1  By the Act of 1927, an a p p l i c a n t must have l i v e d f o r twenty years i n Canada, and f o r f i v e years I n a province before Dominion and p r o v i n c i a l governments would accept t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e s ponsibilities.  Since the i n c e p t i o n of the Old Age Pension pro-  gram, i t i s only i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of how these periods of twenty and f i v e years that any change has been e f f e d t e d .  By  the o r i g i n a l r e g u l a t i o n s , an a p p l i c a n t who had l i v e d 4,384 days, approximately twelve y e a r s , without an absence of more than  731  consecutive days, w i t h i n the twenty years immediately p r i o r to the date of a p p l i c a t i o n , and had a l s o l i v e d some time i n Canada a f u l l twenty years ago, would be considered e l i g i b l e as f a r as residence i s concerned. F i v e years' p r o v i n c i a l residence was i n t e r p r e t e d as 1 Marsh, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , p. 7TT  1,095  -  71  -  days ( a c t u a l l y three years) w i t h i n the f i v e years  immediately  p r i o r t o the date of a p p l i c a t i o n , plus some time b e f o r e five-year period.  this  Time spent i n Great War s e r v i c e , or employ-  ment, on ships or t r a i n s operating from Canadian head o f f i c e s , was i n c l u d e d as residence i n Canada. C a l c u l a t i o n s i n each case were accepted " i n the absence o f any evidence t o rebut such presumption."^  A very  convenient  loophole was c l o s e d when t h i s phrase was omitted from the regul a t i o n s published i n  1930.3  Further d i s c u s s i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s a t the I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Conference of 1 9 3 0 , l e d t o the d e c i s i o n t h a t any absence of l e s s than a month need not be considered as i n terrupting previously established residence.  P r o v i n c i a l residence  clauses were s l i g h t l y amended t o a l l o w f o r an a p p l i c a n t ' s moving t o another part of Canada a f t e r having e s t a b l i s h e d e l i g i b i l i t y i n one province. According t o the argument that by l i v i n g i n a country a c e r t a i n length of time a c i t i z e n may expect a c e r t a i n amount of s e c u r i t y i n r e t u r n , i t would "not seem t o make a great deal of d i f f e r e n c e whether the a p p l i c a n t has l i v e d the l a s t twenty years of h i s l i f e i n Canada continuously, or e.g.', f o r two separate ten-year p e r i o d s , as long as he spends the r e q u i r e d amount o f time during h i s c o n s t r u c t i v e working span.... 2 Order i n C o u n c i l 4 2 / 1 2 3 2 , s. 1 0 . 3 Order i n C o u n c i l 3 1 1 / 9 9 1 , s. 2 .  S i m i l a r l y the  - 72 p r o v i s i o n regarding p r o v i n c i a l residence i s a r e s t r i c t i o n a t the expense of the i n d i v i d u a l a p p l i c a n t , regardless of h i s m e r i t , f o r the sake of a p a r t i c u l a r governmental a u t h o r i t y . I t i s a s sumed t o prevent the movement of aged people to c e r t a i n p a r t s of the country, thus avoiding the c r e a t i o n of a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e burden i n p a r t i c u l a r areas.  I t may be doubted whether t h i s en-  deavour t o r e s t r i c t the m o b i l i t y of the aged I s i n any degree e f f e c t i v e ; and even I f i t i s e f f e c t i v e , i t i s t o be doubted whether I t i s s o c i a l l y sound."4  When, by 1 9 3 7 , a l l the provinces were paying pensions, the importance of l a b e l l i n g the p a r t i c u l a r province's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y decreased somewhat. Regulations had been eased t o allow 7 0 0 days w i t h i n f i v e years t o s u f f i c e t o q u a l i f y p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; and  5,844  days ( s i x t e e n years) during twenty y e a r s , of  which 7 0 0 days must have elapsed w i t h i n two of the years "immed i a t e l y preceding the date of the proposed commendement of p e n s i o n , " 5 plus some time p r i o r t o the s a i d twenty y e a r s , f o r qualification.  Under t h i s new d r a f t an a p p l i c a n t could have  been out of Canada f o r more than 7 3 1 consecutive days during the twenty-year p e r i o d without being d i s q u a l i f i e d . At t h i s time the wife of a man so employed outside the country that h i s Canadian residence was not i n t e r r u p t e d , could a l s o be presumed t o have lodged i n "that province of Canada i n which she was r e s i d e n t immediately-before l e a v i n g Canada."^ 4 Marsh. S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , pp. 7 1 - 7 2 . 5 Order i n C o u n c i l 1 / 3 0 5 0 , s. 1 0 . 6 I b i d . , s. 1 4 .  -73  -  In 1939 the r e g u l a t i o n concerning the twenty y e a r s  1  residence was f u r t h e r amended so that an a p p l i c a n t must have spent 7 0 0 days w i t h i n the l a s t three years, r a t h e r than two years, immediately preceding the date of granting pension.7 Because there were cases where an a p p l i c a n t "might have been born i n Canada and l i v e d i n t h i s country f o r f i f t y or s i x t y years,"  8  but s t i l l be i n e l i g i b l e , the r e g u l a t i o n s were again a-  mended i n May, 1944, so t h a t 3,844 days spent I n Canada s i n c e a t t a i n i n g the age of f i f t y could c o n s t i t u t e the r e q u i r e d twenty years. A p p l i c a t i o n c o u l d a l s o be made i n any province where the a p p l i c a n t had l i v e d f o r 7 0 0 days during the past f i v e y e a r s , r e gardless of the province i n which he may subsequently be r e s i d ing,  e i t h e r permanently or temporarily.9 R e f e r r a l t o f i g u r e on page 53 shows the gradual decrease  i n the number of a p p l i c a n t s who were unable t o s a t i s f y residence requirements  a f t e r 1944.  Undoubtedly the widening of opportunity  to prove residence was the cause of t h i s d e c l i n e . APPLICATIONS REFUSED IN 1947 I n a b i l i t y t o meet residence requirements  barred only t h i r -  teen a p p l i c a n t s (4*8 per cent of the r e f u s a l s ) from o l d age pension during 1947.  Twelve of these r e c e i v e d the Board's d e c i -  s i o n p r i o r to September when the A c t was.amended again. These 7 Order i n C o u n c i l 2 0 2 9 . ' 8 B r i t i s h Columbia, Administra11on. 1944-1945. p. 4 0 . 9 Order i n C o u n c i l 337o"T  - 74 r e j e c t e d a p p l i c a n t s were e q u a l l y d i v i d e d as t o Canadian and f o r e i g n b i r t h ; they simply had not been i n the country  long  enough, except one Canadian who presented a d i f f e r e n t type of problem. "Old Harry" had been an Inveterate hobo, t r a v e l l i n g about the country i n box c a r s , "shacking up" on the o u t s k i r t s of towns, t a k i n g odd jobs when and where he found them.  He could not even  remember where he was twenty years ago, f a r l e s s prove i t . H i s f r i e n d s had always disappeared  i n the s h u f f l e of humanity; he  knew no " r e l i a b l e and d i s i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n "  1 0  t o whom he might  have turned f o r a S t a t u t o r y D e c l a r a t i o n of the f a c t s of h i s residence.  Having been admitted t o the P r o v i n c i a l I n f i r m a r y f o r  one short p e r i o d , he wandered o f f t o h i s o l d cranny by the f i s h wharf.  When he was e v e n t u a l l y found there, he was q u i t e thank-  f u l t o r e t u r n t o the care and a t t e n t i o n r e c e i v e d at the I n f i r m a r y . Here he l i v e s , e n t i r e l y a t p r o v i n c i a l expense, despite hopes, and i n t e r e s t , on the part of the Infirmary's s t a f f t o hear him t e l l the same s t o r y t w i c e , f o r a clue toward a s c e r t a i n i n g f a c t s of residence. Another Canadian, Mr. D., had been employed from December, 1920, t o November, 1931, i n the United S t a t e s .  He was advised  i n June that I t would be i n order f o r him to re-apply i n November. Because Mr. D. had spent eleven of h i s productive years i n the United S t a t e s , was he that much l e s s a Canadian; c i t i z e n ?  Should  he have been f o r c e d t o seek f u r t h e r employment,;or apply f o r S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e , even a f t e r he had reached the reached the, 10 Order i n C o u n c i l 1732, s. 10.  - 75 p r o v e r b i a l f o u r score and ten?  This must have been the type  of case that p r e c i p i t a t e d the l a t e s t amendment i n the residence regulations. According t o the amended Act of September, 1947, an aggregate p e r i o d of residence i n Canada equal to twice the  aggregate  periods of absences from Canada, during the twenty years preceding a p p l i c a t i o n would be considered s u f f i c i e n t to q u a l i f y . Mr. D. and one other a p p l i c a n t , who had been r e f u s e d pension on account of comparatively recent p e r i o d of employment i n the Yukon, were a u t o m a t i c a l l y granted pensions under the new A c t . Three other a p p l i c a n t s , r e j e c t e d e a r l i e r i n 1947, completed the sixteen-year p e r i o d by the normal course of time, and became e l i g i b l e l a t e r i n 1947. Proof of residence during the q u a l i f y i n g periods must be s u p p l i e d to the pension a u t h o r i t y on a " D e c l a r a t i o n of Residence" form.11  A p p l i c a n t s u s u a l l y have o l d f r i e n d s who are able to  confirm that they have l i v e d i n the same province at the same time as the a p p l i c a n t . COST-OP-LIVING BONUS F a i l u r e t o s a t i s f y p r o v i n c i a l residence r e g u l a t i o n s was not the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n any of the a p p l i c a t i o n s r e f u s e d during 1947.  However, t h i s r e g u l a t i o n i s once more of great  f i n a n c i a l importance, f o r i t determines which province w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r payment of the c o s t - o f - l i v i n g bonus. 11 See Appendix "K."  This  - 76 monthly bonus may vary from $10 i n B r i t i s h Columbia, t o $1.25 on a pension l e s s than $21.25 i n Maa I t o b a , or may not be p a i d at a l l .  N a t u r a l l y , t h i s i s a matter of extreme importance t o  the a p p l i c a n t . Again, why should an o l d age pensioner be d i s criminated against because of the province i n which he i s living?  Everyone w i l l doubtless agree that the c o s t - o f - l i v i n g  across Canada has r i s e n , regardless of p r o v i n c i a l boundaries. BRITISH NATIONALITY U n t i l the Act was amended i n 1947, an o l d age pension could only t o p a i d t o a person who was, by b i r t h , marriage, or choice, a B r i t i s h subject.  This p r o v i s i o n may w e l l be questioned.  "There are p l e n t i f u l i l l u s t r a t i o n s from depression years, of persons of a l i e n c i t i z e n s h i p being maintained on r e l i e f r o l l s u n t i l they reached seventy years of age, When i t became the business of the l o c a l r e l i e f a u t h o r i t y t o help the a p p l i c a n t take out h i s c i t i z e n s h i p papers; not f o r the purpose of showing h i s p r i d e i n Canadian residence, but f o r the purpose of commerc i a l i z i n g h i s c i t i z e n s h i p t o the extent of r a i s i n g h i s p i t t a n c e from the r e l i e f r a t e s t o the o l d age pension. a low value on Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p .  This s u r e l y places  The c i t i z e n s h i p p r o v i s i o n ,  moreover, l o s e s a l l p o i n t i f i t does not r e s t r i c t e f f e c t i v e l y . I t becomes merely an annoyance, and on these grounds should be removed from the A c t . "  1 2  it ±  a n  o  t necessary t o add anything  t o t h i s c o n c l u s i v e statement made by Dr. Marsh i n h i s Report on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y i n 1945. 12 Marsh, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , p. 72.  - 77  -  When the n a t i o n a l i t y clause was e v e n t u a l l y waived i n • September, 1947, the t h i r t e e n a p p l i c a n t s who had been r e f u s e d pension on t h i s ground should, other circumstances having r e mained unchanged, have been granted pensions a u t o m a t i c a l l y . A l though the t e x t of the new Act was not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l September, i t was enforceable from May 1, 1947.  I t would seem l o g i c a l , i n  the case of a p p l i c a n t s who had been r e f u s e d pension between Mayl'.l and September 9, t h a t t h e i r pensions should have been p a i d r e t r o a c t i v e l y to May.  Such was not the case.  These a p p l i c a n t s r e -  a p p l i e d i n September, October and November, as they learned of the change, and t h e i r pensions were granted as from the dates of their re-application.  Perhaps i f the p u b l i c had been more a l e r t ,  an issue might have been made of these p a r t i c u l a r cases. A l l but one of these a p p l i c a n t s had been born i n European c o u n t r i e s , or the United S t a t e s . Mrs. E., born i n Ontario, had l o s t her B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l i t y when she married a Swede.  According to the  e a r l i e s t r e g u l a t i o n s , any widow, having been B r i t i s h p r i o r to her marriage, meeting other requirements, was considered e l i g i b l e f o r pension.  However, as Mr. E. was s t i l l a l i v e , Mrs. E. c o u l d  not r e c e i v e a pension. A d i s c u s s i o n of the e f f e c t of waiving the B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l i t y requirement w i t h i n the o l d age pension program i n B r i t i s h Columbia would be Incomplete without some mention of I t s e f f e c t on the older Chinese c i t i z e n s .  Many Chinese men had been the  source of the "cheap labour" t h a t had been r e q u i r e d in. the e a r l y development of the Province. Now o l d and u s e l e s s , they had  - 78 congregated i n the l a r g e r c e n t r e s , f o r the b e n e f i t s and economies of communal l i v i n g . When the e l i g i b i l i t y r e g u l a t i o n was changed, Vancouver's Chinese community a f f o r d e d an e x c e l l e n t example of cooperation. In order t o complete 180 a p p l i c a t i o n s , two s p e c i a l evening meetings were arranged.  With members of the Chinese War Veterans'  A s s o c i a t i o n a c t i n g as i n t e r p r e t e r s , s o c i a l workers from the C i t y S o c i a l Sergice Department completed these a p p l i c a t i o n s In r e c o r d time.  Immigration records were the only evidence of age a v a i l -  able to these a p p l i c a n t s .  A d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s scheme p o i n t e d  out that "apart from the monetary b e n e f i t to these aged Chinese, we have been assured on good a u t h o r i t y t h a t i t has done more than t h a t ; they f e e l they are a p a r t of Canada...." F u r t h e r , " i t has b r i d g e d the gap of misunderstanding between them and the younger generation who have demonstrated t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s not only to serve t h e i r country i n War, but t h e i r community i n Peace. 3 h1  That n a t i o n a l i t y was a bar founded on t e c h n i c a l i t y r a t h e r than need can be appreciated from the f a c t that s i x of the t h i r teen a p p l i c a n t s r e j e c t e d during 1947 were r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l allowance u n t i l o l d age pension was granted.  A c t u a l l y never more  than s i x per cent of the r e f u s a l s a p p l i e d to a p p l i c a n t s who d i d not possess B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l i t y . formal a p p l i c a t i o n s .  These people a l l completed  I t Is a matter f o r c o n j e c t u r e , as to how  many more never went so f a r as to f i l l out a form, s i n c e , aware 13 R. F. Astbury. "0-4." B r i t i s h Columbia's Welfare. Department of H e a l t h and Welfare, November, 1947, p. 14.  -  79  -  of the n a t i o n a l i t y c l a u s e , they knew t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n could not be accepted. F u r t h e r , i t can w e l l be understood t h a t B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l i t y i s not l o g i c a l as a requirement a d d i t i o n a l t o Canadian residence regulations.  I f an i n d i v i d u a l has l i v e d f o r more than twenty  years i n t h i s country, and s t i l l has not been moved t o acknowledge c i t i z e n s h i p , r e t a i n i n g t h a t c i t i z e n s h i p as a r e q u i s i t e t o q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r o l d age pension would seem t o imply a p u r e l y low monetary v a l u e , r a t h e r than i d e a l s of l o y a l t y and cooperation toward Canadian n a t i o n a l i t y .  CHAPTER V I I ALLOWABLE INCOME  Income according t o r e g u l a t i o n s of 1927, 1930, 1937 and 1947. C a s h — c o n t r i b u t i o n s from c h i l d r e n , assigned pay, War Veterans Allowance, cash and s e c u r i t i e s . K i n d — b o a r d and lodging, property, personal and r e a l . Transfer of property. Claims on pensioners' e s t a t e s . 1  Old age pensions i n Canada are p a i d on a "means t e s t " basis.  This r e p u t a t i o n i s a d i r e c t outgrowth of the s t r i n g e n t  r e g u l a t i o n s which have determined the c a l c u l a t i o n of an a p p l i cant's income.  Requirements governing age, residence and  n a t i o n a l i t y are more r e a d i l y accepted by prospective a p p l i c a n t s than those l i m i t i n g payment t o c e r t a i n low income groups. I n 1927 the t o t a l maximumincome allowed a r e c i p i e n t of o l d age pension i n Canada was $365 a year.  The maximum pension p a i d  was $240 a year; thus a pensioner could r e c e i v e $125 a year from other sources.  There was no change u n t i l 1943 when the maximum  pension payable was r a i s e d t o $300, a l l o w i n g the balance of $65 a year r e c e i v a b l e as p r i v a t e income.  1  This amendment had not  meant any o v e r - a l l improvement i n b e n e f i t s allowed, except t o the completely d e s t i t u t e pensioner, but r a t h e r a r e d u c t i o n i n many of the pensions p a i d because of some other income amounting to more than $65 a year.  As experience r e v e a l e d the f a l l a c y of  t h i s amendment the t o t a l allowable income was increased i n May, 1944, t o $425, r e v e r t i n g the allowance from p r i v a t e sources t o $125 a y e a r . , 1 Order i n C o u n c i l 6367, s. 1. 2 Order i n C o u n c i l 3377, s. 1 and s. 8. 2  - 81 P r a c t i c e i n Canada has f o l l o w e d the g e n e r a l t r e n d whereby "means t e s t s were f o r m e r l y very severe and v i r t u a l l y r e q u i r e d an a p p l i c a n t to prove h i m s e l f completely d e s t i t u t e and w i t h out r e l a t i v e s t o support him.... The ajnounts of income and property an a p p l i c a n t i s p e r m i t t e d t o have and s t i l l q u a l i f y •for an old-age pension have been increased i n s e v e r a l count r i e s i n periods of r i s i n g p r i c e s and l i v i n g c o s t s . S i m i l a r l y during periods of depression and low t a x r e c e i p t s , these l i m i t s have been lowered t o decrease or at l e a s t t o prevent r a p i d Increases i n the number of pensioners. I n general the t r e n d has been t o l i b e r a l i z e c o n s i d e r a b l y the maximum income allowed. The r e s u l t s of t h i s p o l i c y are seen i n the. i n c r e a s i n g numbers of persons q u a l i f y i n g f o r pensions, and i n the s t e a d i l y r i s i n g costs of pension payments."3 As the age requirement has not been changed, i t i s obvious t h a t the t r e n d toward higher allowable Income has accounted f o r the i n c r e a s i n g number of persons becoming e l i g i b l e f o r pension. The new Act of 1947 provided f o r an a l l o w a b l e income of $600 a year t o a s i n g l e person, and $1,080 t o a married a p p l i c a n t . As the maximum pension payable i n B r i t i s h Columbia a t t h i s time was $30 a month, p l u s $10 c o s t - o f - l i v i n g bonus, only $120 was a l lowed from p r i v a t e sources before the s i n g l e person's pension was reduced a c c o r d i n g l y . When an a p p l i c a n t was one of a married couple, h i s income was taken as h a l f of the sum of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e incomes, " c a l c u l a t e d as i n the Act and these Regulations provided, r e c e i v a b l e by each of them separately."4 This p r o v i s i o n was made i n the e a r l i e s t r e g u l a t i o n s and has been maintained ever s i n c e . These monetary amounts are c l e a r enough.  Many arguments  may be founded on the adequacy of the amounts, but they would 5 Grant, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , p. 56. 4 Order i n C o u n c i l 1752, s. 19, (1).  82 e n t a i l a separate study.  The l i m i t s are determined by the  Dominion and p r o v i n c i a l estimates of expenditure f o r the purpose of o l d age pensions, which i n - t u r n are determined by popul a r demand, p o l i t i c a l expediency, and c a l c u l a t i o n s on the assets and l i a b i l i t i e s i n v o l v e d . However, i t i s i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of what i s considered income that changes have been e f f e c t e d .  O r i g i n a l l y , income was  determined as c o n s i s t i n g of the f u l l value of annuity .received from an a p p l i c a n t ' s n e g o t i a b l e a s s e t s , or f i v e per cent of the assessed v a l u e , e x c l u s i v e of encumbrances, of r e a l property; and f i v e per cent of the cash value of personal property.  This meant  that i f , f o r example, an a p p l i c a n t had been f o r t u n a t e enough t o make some p r o v i s i o n f o r t h i s time of dependency by p r o v i d i n g hims e l f w i t h a Government Annuity of # 1 0 a month, and land and a house assessed at $600, and personal property, such as f u r n i t u r e for  a three-roomed cottage, valued a t  $300,  and c l o t h i n g valued  at $ 1 0 0 , h i s annual income would be estimated as $ 5 0 plus $ 1 2 0 from the Annuity.  A c t u a l l y he would only have had the $ 1 0 a  month f o r a l l l i v i n g expenses, as w e l l as taxes and upkeep. I f he s o l d a l l h i s property, except c l o t h i n g , h i s l i v i n g expenses would be, at the l e a s t , doubled; then, when h i s c a p i t a l had dwindled t o $ 1 2 5 he could expect t o r e c e i v e the maximum pension of  $ 2 0 a month, making a t o t a l of $ 3 0 a month f o r a l l costs of board,, lodging and i n c i d e n t a l s , such as medical expenses, keeping h i s $125  f o r f u n e r a l expenses.  Such was the grim outlook f o r an ap-  p l i c a n t f o r o l d age pension who would a c t u a l l y be considered t o  - 83 be b e t t e r s i t u a t e d than many. To determine income according to the 1930  regulations,  account was to be taken of the f o l l o w i n g : "(a) annuity c a l c u l a t e d according t o i t s v a l u e ; (b) r e a l property at the r a t e of f i v e per cent of the assessed value thereof, e x c l u s i v e of encumbrances; (c) the amount of the annuity purchasable by the personal property of the pensioner a f t e r making due allowance f o r reasonable household f u r n i t u r e ; (d) s a l a r y , wages, or other means of l i v e l i h o o d , whether . i n money or i n k i n d , which the pensioner may reasonably be expected to r e c e i v e " as the most u s u a l methods, but the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n may use  "such  other methods as may be deemed equitable."5 There were no changes i n t h i s method of determining income until  1947,  except t h a t the  1937  r e g u l a t i o n s set  $250 as  maximum  allowed i n value of cash, s e c u r i t i e s or personal property before c a l c u l a t i o n s could be based according t o the Canadian Government Annuity r a t e .  Other p r o v i s i o n s governing transfer, of property  and claims against pensioners' estates w i l l be discussed l a t e r . In order to make the p r e s e n t a t i o n of these d i f f e r e n t categories of income more meaningful, they w i l l be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by cash or k i n d . "Cash"is s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . "Kind"\.may. i n c l u d e board, l o d g i n g , and property, both r e a l and p e r s o n a l . INCOME IN CASH Other pension, allowance, or earnings were n a t u r a l l y 5 Order i n C o u n c i l 311/991, s.  6.  - 84 considered as income.  Any i n f o r m a t i o n given had to be confirmed,  i n w r i t i n g , from the source, e.g., an employer would be asked t o supply a statement of the amounts p a i d during the twelve months p r i o r to a p p l i c a t i o n , insurance companies or business concerns would be asked t o v e r i f y p r i v a t e pensions, e t c e t e r a . I f an app l i c a n t had been employed w i t h i n the year p r i o r t o a p p l y i n g , he must a l s o submit a statement covering any a n t i c i p a t e d earnings. Such earnings would also be considered i n computing income. I t would appear completely l o g i c a l to count earnings of an a p p l i c a n t who, meeting a l l other requirements f o r o l d age pension, chose to continue working, but the l o g i c i s questionable when the earnings of the spouse are the d i s q u a l i f y i n g f a c t o r . cants' or spouses' earnings accounted f o r 23.5 r e f u s a l s on account of income during 1947.  Appli-  P©r cent of the  Of these 17 out of 21  were a t t r i b u t e d t o earnings by the a p p l i c a n t ' s spouse. Such was the case of Mr. P.  He was 72, Mrs. P. was  They had f i v e sons, r a n g i n g from 19 to 9 years of age.  46. During  the past few years Mr. P. had not been w e l l enough to work s t e a d i l y , and Mrs. F. had had to take a job to support the f a m i l y . Although Mr. F. managed to tend the l i t t l e vegetable garden surrounding t h e i r five-roomed house, he was keenly conscious of the n o t i o n that h i s wife was t r y i n g to "get r i d of him,"because he .was 'eventunabl^ t o c o n t r i b u t e to h i s own support. s t r a i n e d between the couple.  R e l a t i o n s were  The e l d e s t son, a merchant seaman,  had c o n t r i b u t e d about $200 t o the household during the l a s t year. When, In the process of completing the a p p l i c a t i o n , the s o c i a l  - 85 worker approached Mrs. P., the l a t t e r was quick to p o i n t out that i t was impossible f o r any couple w i t h four growing boys to meet e x i s t i n g l i v i n g costs on $1,080 a year ($90 a month), even excluding f a m i l y allowances I  Therefore, as long as Mrs. P.  earned as much as $595 a year Mr. P. c o u l d not r e c e i v e the maximum pension.  The f a c t remained that both Mr. and Mrs. P. were  unhappy over t h i s inadequacy.  The s o c i a l l y - m i n d e d Board would  be amongst the f i r s t t o condemn any f a c t o r leading t o d i s r u p t i o n i n an e s t a b l i s h e d home, but, i n a case such as Mr. F.'s they could make no exception t o the r e g u l a t i o n s . Admittedly Mr. P. would be considered b e t t e r o f f than many old  men; he had a wife and c h i l d r e n who would, by nature, be ex-  pected t o care f o r him i f necessary.  Although he had been s e l f -  supporting by manual labour a l l h i s l i f e , he had made no p r o v i s i o n for  h i s o l d age i n h i s e a r l y working days, and during h i s l a t e r  working days had had t o put a l l h i s earnings i n t o the every-day l i v i n g expenses of h i s f a m i l y .  But because Mr. F. had acquired  the r e c r i p r o c a l b e n e f i t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a f a m i l y l a t e r i n l i f e than u s u a l , should he be denied the p r i v i l e g e of some s o r t of f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y when he was no.longer able t o support himself by h i s own e f f o r t s ? CONTRIBUTIONS FROM CHILDREN C o n t r i b u t i o n s from c h i l d r e n were not s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned as a source of income u n t i l 1937.^  O f f i c i a l s at the I n t e r p r o v i n -  c l a l Conference that year had unanimously agreed that "the b Order i n C o u n c i l 1/3050, s. 17, la) ( i v ) .  - 86 p r o v i n c i a l governments should be requested t o co-operate i n an e f f o r t t o check the growing tendency on the part of younger persons w e l l able t o support their, parents t o s h i f t t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s onto the S t a t e . "  7  Therefore the pension a u t h o r i t y r e -  q u i r e d a statement from each c h i l d , confirming the c o n t r i b u t i o n , i f any, that he would make toward h i s parent's support. Wherever there were c h i l d r e n an a p p l i c a t i o n could not be submitted f o r the Board's c o n s i d e r a t i o n u n t i l such statements had been obtained by the a p p l i c a n t , o r , w i t h the l a t t e r ' s approval, by the pension authority.  I n 1940 the Parents' Maintenance Act was amended so .  that "the Workmen's Compensation Board, or any person authorized by i t , " might l a y a complaint on behalf of an a p p l i c a n t against 8  a c h i l d who might reasonably be expected t o contribute but had f a i l e d to do so.  The Board i n B r i t i s h Columbia never took advan-  tage of t h i s extremity. At f i r s t the p o l i c y i n B r i t i s h Columbia was to make " f a i r l y s u b s t a n t i a l demands on the c h i l d r e n of a p p l i c a n t s . " 9  Later a de-  f i n i t e scale was adopted whereby: "(1) a s i n g l e c h i l d was exempt $1,100 a year, p l u s amount p a i d i n income t a x , before being expected t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the parent's support, (2) a married daughter was e n t i r e l y exempt, except where she had an income independent of her husband's, and (3) a married son l i v i n g w i t h h i s wife was exempt $1,800, plus amount p a i d i n income t a x , plus $300 f o r each dependent child."10 In 1944 these exemptions were increased t o $1,200 and $2,100 f o r s i n g l e and married sons r e s p e c t i v e l y . 7 I£, November, 1937, p. 1175. 8 Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1940, s. 38. 9 B r i t i s h Columbia, A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 1945-1944. p. 13.  - 87 Prom 1944 "bo 1947 approximately 14 per cent of a p p l i c a t i o n s refused were, i n view of r e a l or estimated c o n t r i b u t i o n s from children.  Only one a p p l i c a t i o n was r e f u s e d during 1947 when the  Board considered eight sons and one daughter, a l l w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d i n l i f e , as able t o support t h e i r mother.  However, as from  May, 1947, when " c o n t r i b u t i o n s other than f o r ordinary maintenance to pensioners who r e q u i r e s p e c i a l c a r e "  1 1  were no longer t o  be considered i n c a l c u l a t i n g income, t h i s a p p l i c a n t was granted f u l l pension. ADDITIONAL ASSETS During the war many parents were assigned pay, t o be h e l d in trust f o r their children.  An amendment of March, 1942, allowed  t h a t such pay assigned by a member of Canada's a c t i v e n a v a l , m i l i t a r y or a i r f o r c e s be excluded i n c a l c u l a t i n g income, unless an  12 a p p l i c a n t was simultaneously r e c e i v i n g dependent's allowance. The f o l l o w i n g month the c o s t - o f - l i v i n g bonus p a i d by B r i t i s h Columbia government was deemed e x c l u s i v e of the maximum income (#300) allowed at that t i m e . . 1 5  Mothers Allowances; Family Allowances; d i r e c t r e l i e f p a i d by a m u n i c i p a l i t y or province, or both; and c a s u a l g i f t s of s m a l l value were excluded along w i t h the above-mentioned exceptions I n the c a l c u l a t i o n of income by r e g u l a t i o n s p u b l i s h e d i n May, 1 9 4 7 . ^ 10 11 12 13 14  B r i t i s h Columbia, A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 1945-1944. P. 15. Order i n C o u n c i l 1732, s. l b I g J . Order i n C o u n c i l 14/2057. Order i n C o u n c i l 9/3183. Order i n C o u n c i l 1732, s. 16.  - 88 U n t i l payment of the War Veterans' Allowance was brought up t o a par w i t h the Old Age Pension many a p p l i c a n t s r e c e i v e d p a r t i a l support from t h i s source, but had t o appeal t o t h e l a t t e r scheme f o r a d d i t i o n a l income i n order t o meet l i v i n g  expenses.  F i v e a p p l i c a t i o n s were withdrawn, at the a p p l i c a n t s ' r e q u e s t , during 1947, when the Allowance was i n c r e a s e d . ^ A f t e r May, 1947, r e c e i p t of any allowance under the War Veterans' Allowance A c t became a bar t o e l i g i b i l i t y . down f o r t h i s reason.  Only two a p p l i c a t i o n s were turned  I t i s e n l i g h t e n i n g to know that when these  two a p p l i c a n t s were r e f u s e d , both were r e c e i v i n g reduced Allowances as they had f a i l e d t o r e p o r t changes i n t h e i r economic status through employment i n recent years. Money or s e c u r i t i e s h e l d i n any chartered bank account, s a f e t y deposit box, post o f f i c e savings account, or other i n s t i t u t i o n are a l s o regarded as Income.  The a p p l i c a n t i s , and always  has been, r e q u i r e d t o make t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o the pens i o n a u t h o r i t y , by producing the o r i g i n a l s e c u r i t i e s , or a u t h o r i z i n g a bank or i n s t i t u t i o n t o make a statement of the a p p l i c a n t ' s holdings t o the pension a u t h o r i t y .  A s p e c i a l form has been  drawn up f o r the purpose of t h i s a u t h o r i z a t i o n .  Income i s c a l -  c u l a t e d by the amount of Canadian Government Annuity purchasable w i t h the a p p l i c a n t ' s cash and s e c u r i t i e s , taken a t current market v a l u e , i n excess of a sum not exceeding $250. Not a l l r e f u s a l s were e n t i r e l y d i s a p p o i n t i n g .  Mr. G. had  s e c u r i t i e s woyth more than $5,000. I t was p o i n t e d out t o him 15 Statutes of Canada, 1946, c. 75. 1  - 89 that he could i n v e s t t h a t amount i n an immediate Canadian Government Annuity which could b r i n g him an annual income of about $612, I.e. more than he wOuld get from a pension.  He  would s t i l l have the opportunity of l e a v i n g , by w i l l , any unused c a p i t a l to h i s son and two g r a n d c h i l d r e n . When f i r s t  informed  that he was i n e l i g i b l e f o r pension Mr. G. was most r e s e n t f u l , but a f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g the above suggestion he saw i t merited f u r t h e r enquiry. INCOME IN KIND In B r i t i s h Columbia f r e e board and/or lodging i s considered as income i n k i n d ; f r e e board i s estimated at $120, and f r e e lodging at $60 a year.  I t Is q u i t e true that an a p p l i c a n t who  does not have t o meet these g e n e r a l expenses i s much b e t t e r o f f than one who  does, and t h e r e f o r e i t i s not improper to make an  allowance f o r such advantages.  No d e f i n i t e mention of such pro-  v i s i o n , however, i s placed i n the Act or R e g u l a t i o n s . As p r e v i o u s l y I n d i c a t e d , income has a l s o been estimated on r e a l and personal property.  U n t i l 1947 income was c a l c u l a t e d as  the amount of Annuity purchasable by the value r e c e i v a b l e from an a p p l i c a n t ' s personal property, a f t e r due allowance (not exceeding  $250 i n value) had been made f o r reasonable c l o t h i n g and  household f u r n i t u r e .  By the r e g u l a t i o n s amended i n 1947  the  p o s s i b l e Annuity which could be p a i d from value of personal prop e r t y must be c a l c u l a t e d as procurable at t h e age of seventy, regardless of the a p p l i c a n t ' s age.  Only personal property ex-  ceeding $250 i n value was s t i l l to be considered.  I f an  - 90 a p p l i c a n t should f a i l t o purchase an immediate Canadian Government Annuity w i t h the income c a l c u l a t e d , according t o r e g u l a t i o n s , from h i s personal property, or from cash or s e c u r i t i e s , the amount payable under any such annuity " s h a l l be considered as annual income during the l i f e of the pensioner." ** 1  This p r o v i s o  was a l s o maintained i n the r e g u l a t i o n s p u b l i s h e d i n 1947. C a l c u l a t i o n s on r e a l property have continued to be based on f i v e per cent of the assessed v a l u e , e x c l u s i v e of encumbrances. A f t e r 1932 the market value was t o be considered i f i t should prove the more equitable standard. ? 1  By r e g u l a t i o n s p u b l i s h e d  i n 1937, net income from r e a l property was to be considered i f i t should i n t u r n exceed f i v e per cent of the assessed value or the market v a l u e , e x c l u s i v e of encumbrances, of course. The l a t e s t r e g u l a t i o n s provided t h a t , i n the case of prop e r t y used e x c l u s i v e l y as the a p p l i c a n t ' s residence, income be estimated as an amount t h a t , i n the pension a u t h o r i t y ' s o p i n i o n , was a f a i r equivalent t o the amount that the pensioner might r e a sonably have expected to pay f o r r e n t , deducting costs of maintenance, other than the payment of p r i n c i p a l on a mortgage or agreement of s a l e .  I f the property was not used e x c l u s i v e l y as  the a p p l i c a n t ' s residence, Income was t o be c a l c u l a t e d as the net revenue that I s , or might reasonably be, d e r i v e d from such property, a l l o w i n g f o r deductions mentioned i n the preceding sentence.  Of the a p p l i c a n t s r e f u s e d pension during 1947,  as  I n e l i g i b l e by Income I n excess of the maximum allowed, only 16 Order i n C o u n c i l I / 3 0 5 O , s. 17 ( b ) . 17 Order i n C o u n c i l 217, s. 18 ( b ) .  - 91 6i74 per cent were found t o have had estimates based on the value of t h e i r r e a l property. Three men requested that t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s be withdrawn as they had s o l d t h e i r property and intended t o l i v e , as long as p o s s i b l e , o f f the proceeds.  I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o know  whether they had discovered the e f f e c t t h e i r property h o l d i n g s had on t h e i r pension, or whether they had merely decided t o have a "last f l i n g . "  Such a c t i o n , of course, i s e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the  l e t t e r of the law. But, when the money i s a l l spent, i t would be comparatively simple t o get t h e pension. countenance such a p o s s i b i l i t y ?  How sound i s i t t o  Although i t would be against  democratic p r i n c i p l e s to attempt t o l e g i s l a t e how a c i t i z e n should spend h i s money, t h i s might w e l l be regarded as l e g i s l a t i o n encouraging unwarranted expenditure. TRANSFER OF PROPERTY At the i n c e p t i o n of the pension system any t r a n s f e r of property e f f e c t e d during the f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d p r i o r t o a p p l i c a t i o n was a u t o m a t i c a l l y considered "to have been made f o r the purpose of q u a l i f y i n g f o r a pension."  Income was c a l c u l a t e d as  though such a t r a n s f e r had never taken p l a c e .  By 1937 an a p p l i -  cant was given the opportunity t o present any evidence a v a i l a b l e so t h a t the pension a u t h o r i t y could decide whether or not the t r a n s f e r had been made i n order t o q u a l i f y .  I f the pension  a u t h o r i t y b e l i e v e d a t r a n s f e r had been e f f e c t e d so a s to q u a l i f y , they c o u l d refuse f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n u n t i l that p r o p e r t y , or another piece of s i m i l a r v a l u e , had been r e - t r a n s f e r r e d t o the  - 92 a p p l i c a n t , or they c o u l d consider the annuity d e r i v a b l e from such property as the a p p l i c a n t ' s r i g h t f u l income, and thereby perhaps pay a reduced pension.  Another a l t e r n a t i v e was t o defer  payment of a pension u n t i l the a p p l i c a n t ' s e q u i t y had been exhausted by and  $730  $365  a year f o r a s i n g l e person, or one l i v i n g alone,  f o r a married a p p l i c a n t .  By 1943 "the f a l l a c i o u s p r a c t i c e of p e n a l i z i n g o l d people who had succeeded i n a t t a i n i n g some s e c u r i t y f o r t h e i r days of dependency was recognized by the B r i t i s h Columbia pension authori t y when property which y i e l d e d an estimated income of l e s s than $365  was no longer considered t o have been t r a n s f e r r e d f o r the  purpose of q u a l i f y i n g f o r pension.  This exception was increased  t o equal the maximum allowable income, $425, i n 1944. S i m i l a r l y the rate a t which the pension a u t h o r i t y c a l c u l a t e d the r e d u c t i o n i n an a p p l i c a n t ' s e q u i t y i n property was increased t o $425 a year. Only t r a n s f e r s exceeding  $500  i n value were considered a f t e r  the 1947 r e g u l a t i o n s were published.  There were no other changes  other than a l l o w i n g these c a l c u l a t i o n s t o be based on the r a t e of $600, r a t h e r than $425, a year.  I n t o t a l , four a p p l i c a t i o n s  were refused i n 1947 because of recent property t r a n s a c t i o n s . These four a p p l i c a n t s were l i v i n g w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o whom t h e i r property had been t r a n s f e r r e d . ted a t y p i c a l case.  Mrs. H., a widow, represen-  She had t r a n s f e r r e d her property, assessed  value $6,580, market value $10,000, t o her son f o r a considerat i o n of $1. This was the f a m i l y homestead. Her son had continued t o farm the l a n d since her husband's death t e n years ago. Mrs.  - 93 -  H. had no"money to pay taxes, and she considered i t right that the property be i n her son's name.  She had continued to make  her home with her son, h.i3 wife and their c h i l d r e n .  Her a p p l i -  cation w a 3 refused on the basis of the possible income estimated from the value of the property she had recently transferred.  It  was suggested to Mrs. H. that she have the property re-conveyed to her before further consideration be given her application.  If  Mrs. H. had done so, and then re-applied she would not have been e l i g i b l e for pension as her t o t a l estimated income (five per cent of $10,000 would equal $500, plus $180 for board and lodging) would exceed $6001 It is obvious that Mrs. K. could not meet her personal l i v ing expenses from the land i t s e l f .  She could have- charged-her  son rent for the land and the house, and so derive money for maintenance and  taxes; however, the son, i n turn, could then charge  his mother for room and board.  Such actions would be against a l l  natural family p r i n c i p l e s . . I f Mr. and Mrs. H. had prepared for such a predicament,' by saving small amounts gleaned from the prof i t s of each season, gradually but consistently, over the years, Mrs. H. would not have found herself i n old age dependent on' land alone. APPLICATIONS WITHDRAWN Applications' withdrawn by applicants' request, 68 i n number, were counted under "Miscellaneous" i n the figure i n Chapter IV. Withdrawals  were, for  various reasons, such as: work obtained, 19;  refusal to supply information, 6; spouse received increased War Veterans' Allowance, 5; no reason given, 15; etcetera.  -  94 -  Mrs. J . i s another case.  She withdrew her a p p l i c a t i o n and  attempted t o l i v e on a superannuation of $ 2 7 a month, l e f t a f t e r her husband's death i n 1 9 4 5 . She had s i n c e used a l l her savings f o r e x t r a l i v i n g expenses before she a p p l i e d f o r the pension, but on hearing t h a t "the pension people would step i n and take her property" she asked that her a p p l i c a t i o n be withdrawn.  I n time  Mrs. J . was assured that unless she w i l l e d an estate of more than $ 2 , 0 0 0 i t was not the p r a c t i c e of the Board t o make any claim.  However, i f no w i l l was made, the Board would make a  c l a i m as circumstances  justified.  By the o r i g i n a l A c t the pension a u t h o r i t y could have claimed against any e s t a t e , as a debt due by the pensioner, the sum of a l l pensions p a i d , p l u s f i v e per cent i n t e r e s t , compounded annually..  Exceptions were considered i n the case of an estate passing  to another pensioner, or t o any person who had c o n t r i b u t e d regul a r l y t o the deceased pensioner's support during the three years preceding h i s death.  However, o l d age pension p o l i c y has deve-  loped toward greater l e n i e n c y i n claims on pensioner's e s t a t e s . In t h i s study we can only be concerned w i t h the incidence of cases, comparatively few, such as Mrs. J . ' s , when the course of the a p p l i c a t i o n has been a f f e c t e d by ignorance, or misunderstanding, of the e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s .  CHAPTER V I I I TRENDS TOWARD GREATER COVERAGE  D i s c u s s i o n and review of e l i g i b i l i t y requirements; I n t e n t i o n of 1931. Experience i n the U n i t e d States and other c o u n t r i e s . Dominion-provincial recommendations, 1939. Government and p r i v a t e p u b l i c a t i o n s dealing w i t h s e c u r i t y i n o l d ageMarsh, Cassidy, Whitton. Dominion Proposals, 1945• Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l . Importance of the problem. A p r o p o s a l .  There can be no doubt that t h i s review of r e g u l a t i o n s governing e l i g i b i l i t y f o r o l d age pension r e v e a l s a gradual lessening i n the stringency which has r e s u l t e d i n a p r o p o r t i o n ate widening of the scope of the system.  R e f e r r a l to F i g u r e 1  w i l l confirm the f a c t t h a t the increase i n the number of pensioners over the years 1927-1947 i s much greater than the increase i n the aged p o p u l a t i o n .  Yet popular demand p e r s i s t s f o r greater  coverage, namely a higher pension at a lower Is there not some wisdom i n t h i s demand?  age. The Canadian  Government i t s e l f w i t h the "Greenbook" proposals has recognized that "the age l i m i t of seventy, although convenient as a d i v i ding l i n e w i t h respect to the payment of any k i n d of u n i v e r s a l o l d age pension, i s nevertheless too high i n a number of cases of a c t u a l need."  1  Of nine countries i n the world dependent s o l e l y  on non-contributory systems f o r payment of o l d age pensions, i n 1939, only Canada and the I r i s h Free State p a i d at seventy r a t h e r than s i x t y - f i v e .  Reviewing the p i c t u r e of " f o r t y or more systems  of o l d age a s s i s t a n c e — c o n t r i b u t o r y and non-contributory" which were e f f e c t i v e i n 1945» Dr. Marsh i n the S o c i a l S e c u r i t y Report 1 Canada, Dominion Proposals, 1945» P« 57»  - 96 concluded that the evidence " c l e a r l y shows t h a t the g e n e r a l l y accepted view as t o the proper age when c o n s i d e r a t i o n should be given t o retirement from work and p r o v i s i o n of s e c u r i t y i s s i x t y - f i v e f o r men and s i x t y f o r women."^ I t i s of course necessary t o ask whether i t i s wise t o pension o f f men and women merely because of age, when they are s t i l l vigorous and desirous of work.  I n a study c a r r i e d out a t  Harvard U n i v e r s i t y i t was found " i n a large group df subjects ranging from s i x t o seventy-five years t h a t s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between i n d i v i d u a l s i n the same age groups, while l e s s extreme d i f f e r e n c e s than would be expected were observed between the younger and older s u b j e c t s . . . .  F u n c t i o n a l age, or the  a b i l i t y t o perform e f f i c i e n t l y the task i n v o l v e d , should be the Important f a c t o r i n employing an older man, not h i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l age."3  i t i s r a t h e r s t a r t l i n g t o know that the a r t i c l e from  which t h i s passage i s quoted i s concerned w i t h the "older worker," the man "over f o r t y - f i v e I"  I n d i s c r i m i n a t e and a r b i t r a r y s h e l v i n g  of men and women merely f o r age i n f l i c t s a great l o s s upon s o c i e t y and the i n d i v i d u a l .  Moreover, " i t i s u t t e r nonsense to say that  men and women over f o r t y have undergone so marked a d e c l i n e i n e s s e n t i a l mental a b i l i t i e s that as a group they are no longer employable i n most t r a d e s . merely i n e f f i c i e n c y . young f o o l i s a f o o l .  In a thirty-year-old, inefficiency i s  In a sixty-year-old, i t i s s e n i l i t y .  A  But when he has l i v e d a long time, he i s  no longer a f o o l . He i s old."4 2 Marsh, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , p. 73. 3 HJ, September, 1947, p. 1253.  '  - 97 This f a c t o r was a l s o acknowledged i n the Marsh Report where I t was p o i n t e d out that "with d e c l i n i n g b i r t h r a t e s and i n c r e a s i n g l y aged p o p u l a t i o n s , we should use a l l the working f o r c e s we can muster to c a r r y the burden of maintaining the economy of the country on a h i g h l e v e l .  S e c u r i t y maintenance i s e s s e n t i a l only  f o r those who have genuinely exhausted, through age or other r e a sons, t h e i r employment p o s s i b i l i t i e s . To t h e extent that workers are r e t i r e d at s i x t y or s i x t y - f i v e when they s t i l l have u s e f u l working years ahead of them, the country i s being w a s t e f u l of i t s resources.  Lacking any compensation i n increased t e c h n i c a l pro-  d u c t i v i t y , t h i s might have t o be r e f l e c t e d i n lower b e n e f i t s f o r those genuinely r e t i r e d , along w i t h heavier burdens f o r the younger working generation."5  I t i s w e l l known that the Beveridge  Report placed a great deal of emphasis on proposals t o overcome j u s t such a s i t u a t i o n .  Thus wisdom would appear t o l i e i n e s t a -  b l i s h i n g a lower age l i m i t to meet normal demands, but a l l o w i n g f o r postponement, i f d e s i r e d , w i t h bonus b e n e f i t s a v a i l a b l e on a s l i d i n g s c a l e , dependent on the p e r i o d of postponement.  I n addi-  t i o n there should be p r o v i s i o n f o r b e n e f i t s t o be p a i d t o those who, f o r one reason or another, have become permanently unemployable before reaching the accepted age  limit.  Regulations governing e l i g i b i l i t y by residence are, s i n c e 1947, q u i t e l o g i c a l i n t h e i r requirements, f o r i t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted that some b a s i c p e r i o d of residence i s r e q u i r e d before a person should b e n e f i t from any country's s o c i a l programs. This 4 G. Lawton, ed., "Ageing Mental A b i l i t i e s and t h e i r Preserv a t i o n , " Mew Goals f o r Old Age. New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1943, p. 29.  - 98 is  consistent  w i t h other  d e l e t e d as a r e q u i r e m e n t expected to contribute to  facts.  N a t i o n a l i t y has r i g h t l y been  to e l i g i b i l i t y . a parent's  C h i l d r e n a r e no  longer  support.  PHILOSOPHY OP THRIFT In a general discussion of non-contributory pension Margaret Grant o f the S o c i a l S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l that  " m e a s u r i n g t h e p r i v a t e means  i s f a r from s i m p l e inasmuch as  systems  observed  o f an o l d - a g e p e n s i o n a p p l i c a n t  'means'  usually include a l l r e a l  a n d p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y owned a n d a n y r e g u l a r i n c o m e r e c e i v e d . . . . N o t o n l y h a v e t h e amounts  o f income and p r o p e r t y a l l o w e d an  c a n t w i t h o u t d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n been i n c r e a s e d , but most l a w s now p r o v i d e t h a t c e r t a i n amounts  appli-  pension  o r k i n d s o f income and p r o -  p e r t y a l l o w e d a n a p p l i c a n t ar.e t o be e n t i r e l y d i s r e g a r d e d i n r e c k o n i n g t h a t a p p l i c a n t ' s means. d u c e d l a r g e l y t o meet  the  These exemptions have been  c r i t i c i s m that non-contributory pen-  sions penalize i n d i v i d u a l t h r i f t . virtual  The e a r l y means  test requiring  d e s t i t u t i o n often appeared to discourage the poor  attempting  to save.  intro-  A s l o n g a s means t e s t s I n s i s t  s i b l e i n c o m e be c o u n t e d s c r u p u l o u s l y i n f i x i n g  from  that a l l pos-  the pension  t h e p e r s o n who i n t h e p a s t h a d b e e n a b l e t o a c c u m u l a t e  amount,  small  sav-  i n g s was i n n o s e n s e b e t t e r o f f t h a n t h e p e r s o n who h a d s a v e d nothing....  S m a l l s a v i n g s w h i c h a l o n e may seem u s e l e s s  become  w o r t h w h i l e when t h e y c a n be a d d e d t o i n s t e a d o f s u b s t r a c t e d a pension."** 5 M a r s h , S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , p . T5~. 6 Grant, S o c i a l Security, pp. 32-34.  from  - 99 This argument, which may s t i l l be upheld to-day, was  aptly  represented as long ago as 1871, when, i n a d i s c u s s i o n of pract i c e s p r e v a i l i n g under the E n g l i s h Poor Law system, two  indivi-  duals, Robinson and Smith, f e l l o w workmen, were described: "They earn the same wages, they have the same number of people dependent on them, and they consequently have the same opportunity f o r saving. Robinson I s extremely prudent, and does everything i n h i s power to s e t aside some p r o v i s i o n f o r h i s o l d age. By dint of constant t h r i f t he i s able, when he i s too o l d to work, to secure f o r h i m s e l f an annuity of 5s. a week. Smith never makes the s l i g h t e s t e f f o r t t o save, but spends every s h i l l i n g he can spare at the public-house. When the time comes that he i s too o l d for work he f i n d s himself p e n n i l e s s , and at once a p p l i e s to the p a r i s h f o r maintenance. The p a r o c h i a l authorities., perhaps t h i n k i n g i t more economical, or p o s s i b l y from a f e e l i n g of mistaken kindness, do not r e q u i r e the man to enter the workhouse, but make him an allowance I n money and bread, amounting to 5s. a week. Robinson, hearing of t h i s , n a t u r a l l y t h i n k s i t extremely hard t h a t he should not o b t a i n some assistance from the r a t e s . He i s able t o urge t h i s c l a i m upon the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s : My f e l l o w workman, Smith, and I have had the same chances I n l i f e ; you give him 5s. a week; i f you w i l l only grant me l e s s than h a l f t h i s sum, say 2s. a week, my l i f e w i l l be made much more comfortable. I s h a l l be able t o have b e t t e r food, and i n the winter to use more f u e l , and wear warmer c l o t h e s . The a u t h o r i t i e s r e p l y : You, Robinson, are the possessor of an annuity of 5s. a week; t h i s i s j u s t s u f f i c i e n t to maintain you; and i t i s our duty to r e n d e r . a s s i s tance only to those who have not s u f f i c i e n t t o l i v e upon. Robinson may r e p l y : You g i v e me nothing because I have made an e f f o r t to do something f o r myself; you give my fellow-workman an amount equal to that which. I have been able to save, because he has spent every spare s h i l l i n g at the public-house. I t i s impossible to gainsay the t r u t h of t h i s c o n c l u s i o n ; the example j u s t quoted r e p r e sents no imaginary case; thousands l i k e i t are o c c u r r i n g , and must occur every day, under, our present Poor Law system, f o r by i t the improvident are rewarded, the t h r i f t y are sent away empty."' S o c i a l s e c u r i t y plans i n B r i t a i n have a b o l i s h e d a l l t h i s at l a s t , a f t e r two generations of s t r e s s and education.  I t i s to our  shame t h a t our Old Age Pension system r e t a i n s s t i l l t h i s 7 H. Pawcett, Pauperism: I t s Causes and Remedies, London, MacMlllan Company, 1871, pp. 33-34. :  - 100 p e n a l i z a t i o n of t h r i f t . What happened t o the "temporary measure" of 1931 when the Dominion assumed 75 per cent of the f i n a n c i a l burden f o r pensions paid?  At that time i t was s t a t e d that a n a t i o n a l c o n t r i b u t o r y  scheme, a v a i l a b l e t o every Canadian worker, was only w i t h h e l d from c o n s i d e r a t i o n pending computations based on the 1931 census f i gures.  R t . Hon. W. L. MacKenzie King p o i n t e d out that i n view  of t h i s considerable Increase i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and of the u l timate i n t e n t i o n t o assume 100 per cent of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the  time was opportune t o amend the B r i t i s h North America A c t ,  "to give the F e d e r a l Government.the  r i g h t without delay t o admi-  n i s t e r the e n t i r e o l d age pension l a w . "  8  Prime M i n i s t e r Bennett  d i d not see t h a t the Act needed t o be amended t o assume 75 per cent of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and meanwhile assured the House "that the  whole problem was being considered from the angle of a con-  t r i b u t o r y system, p r e d i c a t e d upon an a c t u a r i a l v a l u a t i o n of the l i a b i l i t i e s involved."9 Today the most a c t i v e proponents of better s o c i a l s e c u r i t y are advocating a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d amendment of the  B r i t i s h North America A c t , t o permit n a t i o n a l c o n t r i b u t o r y  old  age pensions, and such an amendment might w e l l be o f f e r e d  as e l e c t i o n p o l i c y . Nevertheless, Dominion government p o l i c y has not extended beyond the "temporary measure" of 1931 • The only developments i n d i c a t e d f o r the o l d age pension system i n the Speech from the Throne t o the House of Commons i n 1947 was the i n t e n t i o n t o 8 LG, J u l y , 1931, p. 861. 9 Loc. c i t .  -  101  -  modify the A c t and c e r t a i n of the e l i g i b i l i t y such as a l r e a d y n o t e d . c u l t to understand,  T h i s comparative  requirements,  stagnation i s d i f f i -  e s p e c i a l l y i n view of the experience  other c o u n t r i e s and the recommendations of many c i t i z e n s a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Canada who  of and  are i n a p o s i t i o n t o e v a l u a t e the.  I n 1 9 3 9 , t w e n t y - s i x c o u n t r i e s had  compul-  s o r y c o n t r i b u t o r y o l d age p e n s i o n systems, s i x more had  compul-  national situation.  s o r y c o n t r i b u t o r y schemes of l i m i t e d coverage,  and i n every  case,  except the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the s t a t e c o n t r i b u t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o the fund.  Only n i n e c o u n t r i e s depended s o l e l y on n o n - c o n t r i b u t o r y  schemes. EXPERIENCE IN OTHER COUNTRIES The American scheme p r o v i d e d f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s based on a percentage  of wages.  B r i t i s h and other schemes were based on  f l a t r a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s by employee, employer, and the i r r e s p e c t i v e of wages r e c e i v e d . was  state,  However, the American system  a d m i n i s t e r e d n a t i o n a l l y because: ( 1 ) i t would have been d i f -  f i c u l t t o b r i n g a l l the s t a t e s under the scheme s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , and  ( 2 ) accounting d i f f i c u l t i e s would have been too numerous i n  the cases o f I n d i v i d u a l s who of g r a n t s - i n - a i d was  had l i v e d i n many s t a t e s .  a d m i n i s t e r e d t o the s t a t e s t o cover  l a r g e number of needy aged who time workers, unable t h e i r needs a f t e r  A program the  had been unemployable o r , as p a r t -  t o accumulate a r e s e r v e s u f f i c i e n t t o meet  sixty-five.  I n the review made at the time of the  Dominion-Provincial  - 102 R e l a t i o n s conference, two conclusions stood out c l e a r l y from the experience of the various n a t i o n s : "that non-contributory pensions have a l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n , because the age l i m i t must be f i x e d q u i t e h i g h i f the burden on the n a t i o n a l t r e a s u r y i s to be kept w i t h i n r e a sonable l i m i t s ; and "that the need of the aged d e f i n i t e l y extends below that l i m i t and w i l l continue t o do so because of modern indust r i a l trends. The experience of Canada confirms both these c o n c l u s i o n s .  Re-  garding the f i r s t , no country has a higher age l e v e l . . . a n d the cost of o l d age pensions f o r t h i s country i s r a p i d l y becoming a serious o n e . "  10  I n a d d i t i o n , there i s no question that the  problem of o l d age I s "nation-wide  i n scope; there i s nothing t o  g a i n and a l o t t o l o s e by having nine d u p l i c a t i n g systems w i t h the n e c e s s i t y of complicated r u l e s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g r e s i d e n c e , and f o r t r a n s f e r r i n g from one system t o a n o t h e r . "  11  These were some of the considerations before t h i s i n 1939.  conference  They a l s o recognized that a d m i n i s t r a t i o n under the  j o i n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Dominion and the provinces has been f a r from s a t i s f a c t o r y . 1939 CONFERENCE RECOMMENDATIONS The Conference wished to recommend a compulsory system of o l d age a n n u i t i e s (as a f i n a n c i a l p r e l i m i n a r y before i n t r o d u c i n g compulsory o l d age i n s u r a n c e ) .  They r e a l i z e d that the e s t a b l i s h -  ment of such a system could not be l e f t t o the provinces as "only the Dominion could I n s t i t u t e a system which would be a d m l n i s t r a 10 Grauer, P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e and S o c i a l Insurance, p. 7 0 . 11 I b i d . , p. 7 2 .  - 103  -  t i v e l y simple, which would not i n t e r f e r e w i t h the f r e e movement of labour, which could impose burdens on i n d u s t r y e q u a l l y i r r e s p e c t i v e of p r o v i n c i a l boundaries (and l i k e w i s e on l a b o u r ) , and which could be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the tax system as a whole, so as to prevent imposing u n f a i r t a x a t i o n on e i t h e r i n d u s t r y or labour."  1 2  Therefore, the recommendation was  that the Dominion  be given j u r i s d i c t i o n to i n s t i t u t e a compulsory o l d age system.  annuity  The p o s s i b i l i t y of g r a f t i n g t h i s compulsory system  on^o  the e x i s t i n g Dominion Government Annuity scheme was a l s o broached. The Conference had no o b j e c t i o n t o provinces a d m i n i s t e r i n g own non-contributory  their  pensions.  The bone of contention i s that amendment to the B r i t i s h North America Act i s r e q u i r e d to give the Dominion u n q u a l i f i e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n o l d age pension l e g i s l a t i o n . bered t h a t t h i s Act was  I t must be remem-  "framed i n an era when s o c i a l welfare  was a r e l a t i v e l y minor f u n c t i o n of government.  In 1867  over  eighty per cent of the population was r u r a l , l i v i n g i n farmv i l l a g e communities.  In such a s o c i e t y mass unemployment and  mass d e s t i t u t i o n were unknown; welfare problems c o n s i s t e d i n c a r i n g f o r weak or unfortunate dependent groups.  i n d i v i d u a l s r a t h e r than f o r l a r g e  The care of the i n d i v i d u a l was a f u n c t i o n of  the f a m i l y , which, because of i t s economic s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , was o r d i n a r i l y competent to carry the l o a d , as w e l l as to meet the economic v i c i s s i t u d e s of the f a m i l y group as a whole.  When the  immediate f a m i l y group f a i l e d , r e l a t i v e s , neighbours, p r i v a t e 12 Canada, Recommendations, 1939.  P»  41.  -  104  -  c h a r i t y , or r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , could be r e l i e d on f o r assistance.  The welfare a c t i v i t i e s of the s t a t e were l i m i t e d t o 1  occasional a s s i s t a n c e i n the form of poor r e l i e f by m u n i c i p a l or l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , and to r e g u l a t i o n of p r i v a t e c h a r i t a b l e organizations• 3 h1  N a t u r a l l y over a p e r i o d of seventy years times had changed so t h a t "the p r o p o r t i o n of o l d people i n the n a t i o n had increased because of a f a l l i n g b i r t h r a t e , the slowing down of  Immigration,  the continuous emigration of able-bodied workers t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and increased l i f e expectancy. of the f a m i l y group was d e c l i n i n g . i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e of the War  Meantime, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y  Combined w i t h t h i s was  (1914-18).  the  The death and permanent  i n j u r y during the War of so many able-bodied workers tended i n the years f o l l o w i n g t o leave to the s t a t e an i n c r e a s i n g number of needy aged who would otherwise have been supported by t h e i r sons. 4 !ll  U r b a n i z a t i o n and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n labour were accom-  panied by a host of s o c i a l problems, inconceivable i n 1867. not change the B.N.A. Act so that the country's  Why  legislation  might meet the needs of the times? In 1940 the B.N.A. Act had been amended to e s t a b l i s h a n a t i o n a l system of unemployment insurance, but no a c t i o n was  taken  toward extending j u r i s d i c t i o n to cover dependency i n o l d age. S o c i a l welfare programs were over-shadowed by the a l l - i m p o r t a n t war e f f o r t from 1939 t o 1945*  However, opinions and p l a n s , which  13 Canada, Recommendations, 1939. P. 14 I b i d . , p. 17.  16.  - 105  -  had been fermenting i n minds, a c u t e l y conscious and concerned f o r Canada's s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , were published. MARSH REPORT,  1943  I n the Report on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y f o r Canada, sometimes c a l l e d the "Canadian Beveridge P l a n , " prepared f o r the Dominion Government's Advisory Committee on R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , Dr. Leonard Marsh included o l d age as one of the " u n i v e r s a l r i s k s " to be met by s o c i a l insurance.  Dr. Marsh b e l i e v e d that e f f e c t i v e  s o c i a l planning r e q u i r e d : (1)  "awareness of associated and comparable contingencies, e.g., s i m i l a r i t i e s and t r a n s i t i o n s between d i s a b i l i t y and o l d age...,  (2) r e c o g n i t i o n of the e s s e n t i a l u n i t i e s of s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , to f i t together a l l the branches of s o c i a l insurance and s o c i a l p r o v i s i o n in. such a way that they support each other, and work together as a coherent a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " and (3)  r e a l i z a t i o n that s o c i a l s e c u r i t y systems are p r i m a r i l y designed to l a y the foundation of a s o c i a l minimum."15  A f t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of present b e n e f i t s , the current t r e n d , and the above-mentioned standards, Dr. Marsh recommended a n a t i o n a l system of o l d age insurance, a v a i l a b l e t o a l l g a i n f u l l y persons, payable at a standard r a t e ($30  occupied  a month, s i n g l e ; $45  month, married), at ages s i x t y - f i v e f o r men,  a  and s i x t y f o r  women. There i s no doubt that higher r a t e s would be recommended today, I n the l i g h t of the great r i s e of p r i c e s s i n c e the  war.  The Dominion would a dminister the insurance, as w e l l as c o n t r i bute j o i n t l y w i t h the insured persons.  The e x i s t i n g system of  non-contributory o l d age pensions would a l s o be l i b e r a l i z e d and 15 Marsh, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , pp. 17-18.  106 continued, to supplement the insurance scheme.  This insurance  could act as a nucleus to which p r i v a t e and i n d u s t r i a l pensions might be added.  Suggestions f o r coverage, during the t r a n s i t i o n i  from the non-contributory t o the insurance scheme, were made by adjustment according t o : (a) age, by l i m i t i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y of the insurance to persons who can c o n t r i b u t e f o r at l e a s t a g i v e n p e r i o d , eg., ten years; (b) q u a l i f i e d b e n e f i t , by p r o v i d i n g subsidies w i t h which t o cover a l l persons immediately, and then p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y according to c o n t r i b u t i o n ; or (c) q u a l i f i e d c o n t r i b u t i o n , as p r a c t i c e d i n New Zealand, w i t h exemption from c o n t r i b u t i n g r a t h e r than payment based on means t e s t i n g . DR. CASSIDY'S PLAN Dr. Cassidy who was D i r e c t o r of B r i t i s h Columbia's S o c i a l Welfare Branch from 1934 to 1939 p u b l i s h e d , i n h i s P u b l i c H e a l t h and Welfare Reorganization, h i s b e l i e f t h a t there c o u l d be  "no  sharp and c l e a r d e l i m i t a t i o n of j u r i s d i c t i o n over the subject matter of s o c i a l s e c u r i t y . . . b u t , the Dominion government must be concerned w i t h the whole programme, and so must t h e provinces and the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . . . .  The key to success would be agreement  that there must be p a r t n e r s h i p between the three l e v e l s of government i n operating the system...." *' 1  Therefore, Dr. Cassidy r e -  commended a n a t i o n a l l y administered "comprehensive system of s o c i a l insurance.  This would cover the great bulk of the popu-  l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g farmers and other self-employed persons  and  would o f f e r them p a r t i a l p r o t e c t i o n , through cash b e n e f i t s , 16 Cassidy. Health and Welfare Reorganization, p. 456.  :  -  107  against losses of earnings i n c i d e n t a l t o unemployment, s i c k n e s s , d i s a b i l i t y from i n d u s t r i a l accident or other cause, maternity, superannuation, and death of the breadwinner.  I t would be f i n a n -  ced by c o n t r i b u t i o n s from insured persons, the f e d e r a l government, and employers.""^ Dr. Cassidy f i r m l y b e l i e v e d that  "partner-  ship regarding s o c i a l s e c u r i t y could r e a l l y be achieved i n Canada." Dominion leadership in:;setting standards, s u p e r v i s i o n , and f i n a n c i a l a i d would enable the provinces  and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  to work together t o "place Canada i n the l i s t of those nations that make generous p r o v i s i o n f o r human welfare." ® 1  DR. WHITTON Dr. C h a r l o t t e Whitton, f i r s t D i r e c t o r of the Canadian Welf a r e C o u n c i l , as a c i t i z e n f a m i l i a r with the broad p r a c t i c a l aspects of Canadian welfare s e r v i c e s , was commissioned by the 'Progressive-Conservative  P a r t y t o analyze current proposals and  plans a p p l i c a b l e or comparable t o the Canadian scene.  Care of  the aged, i n f i r m , and c h r o n i c a l l y i l l persons was, I n her view, a " s o c i a l u t i l i t y " w h i c h — t o g e t h e r with other s e r v i c e s such a s p r o v i s i o n f o r c h i l d . c a r e , education,  and p r o t e c t i o n ; h e a l t h ser-  v i c e s f o r a l l ; and low-cost h o u s i n g — w o u l d be expanded t o allow a higher and more s t a b l e standard of l i v i n g f o r every c i t i z e n . These s e r v i c e s were considered  dependent on the chances f o r a  good l i v i n g ( i n v o l v i n g the home, work o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and n a t i o n a l and community s e r v i c e s ) , r a t h e r than on a mathematical computat i o n of a s o c i a l minimum f o r a worker and h i s f a m i l y . Dr. 17 Cassidy, Health and Welfare Reorganization, p. 2 0 . I b i d . , P- 457. 1 8  - 108 Whitton, however, advocated a v a r i a t i o n i n the standard type of c o n t r i b u t o r y insurance f o r the payment of b e n e f i t s under contract t o cover p r e d i c t a b l e c o n t i n g e n c i e s , and the exigencies of l i f e .  This scheme which would be s i m i l a r to a "compulsory  savings or reserves p l a n " would be administered by a Dominion Insurance Board.  She a l s o s t r e s s e d the need for. other u t i l i t i e s ,  and f o r the r e t e n t i o n of some s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s , "to provide f o r those gaps which occur i n any s y s t e m . " ^  j  n  order  of importance i n development Dr. Whitton p l a c e d the s o c i a l u t i l i t i e s f i r s t , improved s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e second, and s o c i a l i n surance l a s t . DOMINION PROPOSALS, 1945 Dominion and p r o v i n c i a l governments  1  aims f o r the post-war  years were p u b l i s h e d i n the Proposals of the Government of Canada i n 1945.  Current demand was f o r "high and s t a b l e employment and  income, and a greater sense of p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n d i v i dual economic s e c u r i t y and w e l f a r e . "  The c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the  Conference was toward h e a l t h Insurance, unemployment a s s i s t a n c e and n a t i o n a l o l d age pensions, designed t o f i l l three main gaps i n the Dominion-provincial scheme, and which, combined w i t h other h e a l t h and welfare measures already administered by f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments, would "give Canadians a system of s o c i a l welfare which would meet the main needs of our whole population."  2 1  To meet the problem of o l d age i n Canada, i t was  pro-  posed to i n s t i t u t e a system of N a t i o n a l Old Age Pensions. $50 a 19 N a t i o n a l Resources Planning Board, A f t e r the War—Toward S e c u r i t y , c i t e d i n Whitton, The Dawn of Ampler L i f e . Toronto, ^Tne^Ma-SMillan Company__Ltd.., 1945, P» .58. '  - 109 month, financed and administered by the f e d e r a l government, p a i d t o every Canadian over seventy years of age. The proposal i n c l u d e d Dominion-provincial Old Age A s s i s t a n c e , administered under Dominion-provincial agreements s i m i l a r t o those e x i s t i n g under t h e present system (except the Dominion would only c o n t r i bute 50 per cent of the cost up t o $30 a month), and payable according t o need t o persons from s i x t y - f i v e t o s i x t y - n i n e years of age. Regulations governing payments under t h e l a t t e r system would be s i m i l a r t o those p r e s e n t l y i n f o r c e . CANADIAN WELFARE COUNCIL RECOMMENDATIONS The Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l commended " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Dominion's proposals toward a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y of r e c o n s t r u c tion,"  2 2  but d i d not agree t h a t "the proposed p l a n would g i v e t o  Canada a f u l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y programme of o l d age s e c u r i t y .  The  u  C o u n c i l had long advocated the adoption of a n a t i o n a l system of Old Age Insurance, supplemented by p r o v i n c i a l l y administered schemes of Old-Age A s s i s t a n c e , as the e s s e n t i a l elements of a f u l l p l a n of economic s e c u r i t y f o r t h e a g e d . "  25  Contributions  from employed persons, g a i n f u l l y occupied persons, and the government would " y i e l d b e n e f i t s ( e i t h e r graded or f l a t r a t e ) as a matter of r i g h t t o those who r e t i r e from a c t i v e work, men at s i x t y - f i v e and women a t s i x t y , or even lower." 4 M  The Dominion  and the provinces could finance Assistance f o r aged men and 20 Canada, Dominion Proposals, p. jl 21 I b i d . , p. 27. 22Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Dominion-Provincial R e l a t i o n s and S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , Ottawa, C o u n c i l House, 1946, p. 2. 23 I b i d . , p. 5. 24 I b i d . , p. 6.  110 women not covered by Insurance.  Assistance would remain under  p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The Canadian Welfare. C o u n c i l expect e d that the Old Age Insurance and Assistance schemes would be p a r t . o f a "comprehensive n a t i o n a l system of s o c i a l s e c u r i t y forCanada i n v o l v i n g a three-way p a r t n e r s h i p between the Dominion, the provinces, and the l o c a l governments, i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the work of p r i v a t e agencies...but  the a c t u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a  great range of the s o c i a l services...would be i n the hands of the provinces and the l o c a l governments.  The d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of ad-  m i n i s t r a t i o n would give to the Canadian people the greatest poss i b l e guarantee of reasonable f l e x i b i l i t y i n the various programmes and of adaptation t o the l o c a l and r e g i o n a l needs." 5 2  THE PRESENT TREND "In 1941 one person out of every twenty-five i n Canada was seventy or more; i n 1971 (on the b a s i s of present estimates, and i g n o r i n g the unknown f a c t o r s ) one person i n every fourteen or f i f t e e n w i l l be seventy or more.  These f a c t s themselves i n d i c a t e  the importance of t h e problem of p r o v i d i n g adequately f o r our older c i t i z e n s i n any s o c i a l s e c u r i t y p l a n t h a t we may f o r our c o u n t r y . " ^ 2  devise  Contributory t o t h i s rather alarming t r e n d  i s the comparatively low b i r t h rate and increased l i f e expectancy. "At the time of Cicero the l i f e expectancy of a Roman c h i l d at b i r t h was twenty-three  years.  By 1850 the l i f e expectancy of  the people of the New England states had r i s e n to f o r t y years. To-day i n Canada, and among the Anglo-Saxon people of North 25 Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Dominion-Provincial R e l a t i o n s . 26 Canada, Dominion Proposals, p. 56. p. 21.  - Ill America, l i f e expectancy has r i s e n to s i x t y - t h r e e p l u s . . . . " ^ 2  I t i s a c t u a l l y 6 3 . 0 years f o r males, and 6 6 . 3 years f o r f e m a l e s .  28  "In Canada, to-day, (1947) 4 0 per cent of those over seventy are now on pension and there are 210,000 o l d age pensioners i n the country as a whole.  In B r i t i s h Columbia we have  cent of our people over seventy on pension.  3 5 * 3 7  per  I n some provinces  t h i s f i g u r e i s as h i g h as 60 per cent on pension.  The y e a r l y  cost of these pensions i s about s i x t y m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , and I t i s r a p i d l y going up.  No doubt many of you have heard the slogan  that the Old Age groups are u s i n g n o w — ' F i f t y at s i x t y ' — m e a n i n g a pension of $50 a month at s i x t y years of age.  I f we were t o  give that i t would cost us today $786,500,000 a year.  I f the  present t r e n d keeps up, i f the p o p u l a t i o n continues to grow o l d e r , and i f we continue to give more and more a s s i s t a n c e , i t i s conceivable the day w i l l come when 40 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n w i l l be working to support 60 per c e n t . " ^ 2  With the f i n a n c i a l burden of our non-contributory o l d age pensions growing heavier and heavier each year, s u r e l y the wisdom of the governmental proposal to pay a pension, regardless of need, to every c i t i z e n over seventy, and a s s i s t a n c e ( f i n a n c e d e q u a l l y between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments) according to need, to c i t i z e n s over s i x t y - f i v e , i s questionable. A l l the recommendations as o u t l i n e d h e r e i n have been f o r some type of 27 J . H. Creighton, Chairman. Panel D i s c u s s i o n , "New Developments i n the Care of the Aged," Vancouver, December 1, 1947. 28 Canada, Canada Year Book. 1947, p. 160. 29 Creighton, Vancouver, December 1, 1947.  - 112 insurance t o which the government, workers, and i n one case the employer, would c o n t r i b u t e . Maintenance of a scheme of a s s i s tance s i m i l a r t o our present system was a l s o recommended by a l l w r i t e r s , but only as a supplementary s e r v i c e a v a i l a b l e to those who d i d not come under the insurance scheme. The present governmental p o l i c y allows f o r the absorption of more and more "unearned income" i n t o general taxes.  A large  p o r t i o n of t h i s unearned income might w e l l i n c l u d e savings f o r the r a i n y day, or f o r r e t i r e m e n t .  Industry i s paying higher and  higher wages. As the economic s t r u c t u r e changes toward a more equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth, the s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g "middlei  c l a s s " c i t i z e n s become more and more numerous, y e t c o s t - o f - l i v i n g i s so high that many workers can not p o s s i b l y see beyond day-today expenses toward the years of r e t i r e m e n t . "The democracies have r e a l i z e d that i f they are to s u r v i v e ^ •freedom from want' has to b e made r e a l f o r the o r d i n a r y man. In t h e i r s o c i a l s e c u r i t y plans they propose t o achieve i t by two r e - d i s t r i b u t i o n s of income, one h o r i z o n t a l , the other l o n g i t u d i nal.  The h o r i z o n t a l movement i s one between income l e v e l s i n  the community so that ' a l l w i l l have bread before any has cake' or at l e a s t , a l l w i l l have bread.  The l o n g i t u d i n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n  w i l l take place during the l i f e t i m e of the wage earner.  By the  method of compulsory savings (aided by the s t a t e ) he w i l l become a p a r t i c i p a n t i n a s t a t e reserve fund against the contingencies of l i f e which w i l l s u r e l y , or probably, overtake him. The two devices provide a workable machinery f o r the achievement of the end."30  - 113 -  Considering the inadequacies of the present system of old age pensions, and the l i a b i l i t i e s of the future, i t would appear that soma type of contributory pensions w i l l be necessary for adequate provision for the aged i n our society.  30 S. K. Jaffery, "Social Security: The Beveridge and Marsh Reports," Canadian Journal of Economic and P o l i t i c a l Science, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, November, 1943, v o l . IX, No. 4, pp. 590-591.  1  - 115 BIBLIOGRAPHY An Old Age Pension System f o r Canada, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1924. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of H e a l t h and Welfare, The Administ r a t i o n of the Old Age Pension Act f o r the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1944-45.-1945-46. 1946-47. V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r . B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, The Adm i n i s t r a t i o n of the Old Age Pension Act f o r the Province " of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1945-44. V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r . B r i t i s h Columbia I n the Canadian Confederation, A Submission presented t o the Royal Commission on Domini on- P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s by the Government of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1958. Canada Year Book. Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1927 t o 1947. Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Dominion-Provincial R e l a t i o n s and S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , Ottawa, C o u n c i l House, 1946. Cassidy, H. M., P u b l i c H e a l t h and Welfare R e o r g a n i z a t i o n , Toronto, Ryerson, 1946. Cassidy, H. M., S o c i a l S e c u r i t y and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n In Canada, Toronto, Ryerson, 1945C l a r k , S. D., The S o c i a l Development of Canada, Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1942. Corry, J . A., D i f f i c u l t i e s of D i v i d e d J u r i s d i c t i o n . A Study Prepared f o r the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial R e l a t i o n s , Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1959. Department of Labour, Old Age Pensions I n Canada, Ottawa, . King's P r i n t e r , 1929. Grauer, A. E., P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e and S o c i a l Insurance, A Study Prepared f o r the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial R e l a t i o n s , Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1959G r i f f i t h , E. W., "Our new Department of H e a l t h and Welfare," B r i t i s h Columbia's Welfare, Department of H e a l t h and Welfare, v o l . 5, No. 17, (November, 1946), pp 4-6. Labour Gazette. Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1900 to 1947.  - 116  -  Marsh, L. C , Report on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y f o r Canada, Prepared f o r the Advisory Committee on Reconstruction, S p e c i a l Committee on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1943 •  Nelson, L. M., Vancouver's E a r l y Days and the Development of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e s , Vancouver, 1934 ( t y p e s c r i p t ) . Proposals of the Government of Canada, Dominion-Provincial Conference on Reconstruction, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1945.  Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial R e l a t i o n s , Books I and I I , Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1939. "~~ Walker, P., "Prom these e a r l y beginnings," The B u l l e t i n , The Department of H e a l t h and Welfare, v o l . 3, No. 16, (September, 1946), pp  4-5-  Whitton, G., The Dawn of Ampler L i f e , Toronto, MacMillan, 1943.  i  Appendix "A"  - 117 -  EXTRA  No. S-193  THE  CANADA  Vol. LXXXI  GAZETTE  PART II  STATUTORY ORDERS A N D REGULATIONS OTTAWA, THURSDAY, MAY 15, 1947  SOR/47-452 The Old Age Pensions Regulations P.C. 1732 AT T H E GOVERNMENT HOUSE AT OTTAWA T H U R S D A Y , the  1st  day  of May,.  1947.  PRESENT:  HIS EXCELLENCY T H E GOVERNOR GENERAL IN COUNCIL His Excellency the Governor General in Council, on the'recommendation of the Minister of National Health and Welfare and with'the approval of The Treasury Board given on the 25th April, 1947, and pursuant to the provisions of the Old Age Pensions Act, Chapter 156, Revised Statutes of Canada, 1927, is pleased to make the annexed "The Old Age Pensions Regulations" and they are hereby made and established in substitution for regulations under the said Act established by Order in Council of the 9th December, 1937 (P.C. 1/3050). A. D. P. HE EXE Y, Clerk of the Privy Council.  93110—1  2 REGULATIONS Part I OLD AGE PENSIONS Short Title  1. These Regulations may be cited as The Old Age Pensions Regulations. Interpretation  2. (1) In these Regulations, unless the context otherwise requires, (a) "Act" means the Old Age Pensions Act; (b) "application" means application for a pension in the form prescribed by the pension authority and as required by these Regulations ; (c) "applicant" means a person who is resident in Canada and who make's application for a pension, and who, in the case of an applicant for an old age pension, alleges that he has reached the age of sixty-nine years and six months, of, in the case of an applicant for a pension in respect of blindness, alleges that he has reached the age of thirty-nine years and six months and that he is blind; (d) "lodge" means to be present in person; (e) "Minister" means the Minister charged with the administration of the Act: ! (/) "self-contained domestic establishment" means a dwelling house, ' . apartment, or other place of residence in which the applicant or his dependant ordinarily sleeps and has his meals and which, con-tains at least one bedroom; i (g) "widower"' or "widow" includes a divorced person and a married I . person, who, in 'the opinion of the pension authority, is living separate and apart from his or her spouse. (2) The expressions "widower" or "widow", for the purpose of the Act, shall have the same meaning as in these Regulations. 1  Provision as to Notices  3. (1) Any notice or other document required or authorized to be sent or delivered for the purpose of these Regulations shall be in writing. (2) Any notice or other document required or authorized to be sent or delivered to any person by the pension authority for the purpose of these Regulations shall be deemed to be duly sent or delivered at the time at which the notice or document is posted to that person at his ordinary address. Application  4. (1) Application shall be made by delivering or mailing to the pension authority or person authorized by the pension authority to receive applications, an application completed by the applicant or, where the pension authority is satisfied that the applicant is unable to complete the application on account of physical infirmity or- mental illness or for any other valid reason, completed by some responsible person on behalf of the applicant.  — 3 — (2) Without restricting the right of the pension authority to prescribe the form or contents of an application, an application shall state: (a) the full name of the applicant including, in the case of a married woman; her full maiden name, and, in the case of an applicant who has changed his name, the name before such change was made; (6) the present address of the applicant, place and date of birth (including the place and date of birth, of the spouse) and place or places of residence during the twenty years preceding the date of ' application; (c) particulars as to the sex and marital status of the applicant including, in the case of an applicant who is married, whether such applicant is living with his or her spouse; (d) occupation, income and means of subsistence of the applicant and spouse ; (e) nationality (including nationality of spouse) and, if naturalized the date of naturalization; and (/) particulars of any real or personal property owned by the applicant or spouse at the date of application, and particulars of any personal property exceeding the total, value of five hundred dollars and of any real property which the applicant or spouse transferred to any person or persons within the five years preceding the date of application. (3) The application shall be supported by a statutory declaration of the applicant or person making application on behalf of the applicant to the effect that all the statements in the application are true to the best of his knowledge and belief and that no information required to be given has been concealed or omitted. (4) Every pension authority shall supply, without charge, a form of application to any person who desires to make an application and, if so requested, shall give all information and assistance in completing the application; such form of application shall include a quotation of subsections five and six of this section. (5) No person shall knowingly obtain or receive a pension that he is not under the Act and these Regulations authorized to obtain or receive and no person shall knowingly aid or abet another person to obtain or receive a pension that such other person is not under the Act and these Regulations authorized to obtain or receive. (6) Every person who violates subsection five of this section is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding fifty dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months or to both such fine and imprisonment. Investigation of Claims 5. (1) The pension authority shall, in respect of each application, cause an investigation to be. made into the facts and circumstances as therein set out and such other matters as may be necessary to determine the eligibility of the applicant for a pension and, if the applicant is so eligible and such investigation was made not sooner than three months before the date of the proposed commencement of the pension, shall determine the rate of pension payable and shall thereupon approve the application accordingly. .  93110—ii  (2) Where an application has been so approved - and a pension is being paid, the pension authority shall, each .year during the lifetime of the pensioner, cause an investigation to be made into the circumstances of the pensioner and the use to which the pension is being put to determine whether such pensioner continues to be eligible for pension and the amount thereof. (3), Before altering the rate of pension being paid to the pensioner or before suspending or reinstating a pension which has been suspended, the pension authority shall cause an investigation to be made into the circumstances of the pensioner; provided that in any individual case the pension authority may, in. lieu of such investigation, make such inquiry and obtain such information as it deems adequate. (4) The reports of any investigation shall be filed with the application and shall be available at any time for inspection by officials of the Government of Canada. (5) An investigation required by this section shall be made by an investigator in the employ of the pension authority or the provincial government or by any other agency recommended by the pension authority and approved by the Minister, and such investigator or a representative of such agency shall, in the course of such investigation, personally interview the applicant or pensioner as the case may be. (6) All applications and accompanying documents received by any person other than the pension authority shall be forwarded to the pension authority and no person other than the pension authority shall have the power to approve or reject any application or to alter the rate of pension. Age  6. (1) For the purpose of enabling the pension authority to consider the eligibility of an applicant as regards age, the applicant shall forward to the pension authority a certificate of birth or of baptism, or, if neither certificate is obtainable, shall forward any other documentary evidence that he may have or be able to obtain from which his age may be determined. . • j • (2) If the pension authority is satisfied that the applicant-is unable to furnish satisfactory evidence as to his age as provided in subsection one of this section, the pension authority shall endeavour to obtain information from other sources and, in the case of an applicant who alleges he was born in Canada, the pension authority shall, if records for the period in question are available in the province where he. alleges he was born, first request the registrar of vital statistics in that province to make a search for information as tc, his age. (3) If the pension authority is unable to obtain. information as provided in subsections one and two of this section it shall request the Dominion Bureau of Statistics to make a search of the census records for information as to the age of the applicant, subject to the following: (a) a request for census information by a pension authority shall be made with the consent in writing of the person regarding whom .,; the information is required; (6) the specific locality (city, town, village, township or rural ... ' / municipality) in which the applicant resided at the date of the census aforesaid shall be stated in the request; and  —  5 —  (c) any information supplied by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics shall be confidential and shall not be used for any other purpose than that of the administration of the Act. (4) If, after thorough search and enquiry, the pension authority is unable to obtain from the applicant, or.elsewhere, sufficient evidence as to his age in accordance with subsections one, two and three of this section, it may take into account such evidence as it may be able to obtain for the purpose of establishing the age of the applicant. . (5) Notwithstanding anything in this section the pension authority shall not be.bound to accept any document or evidence as final and conclusive of the facts therein given or contained and any document or evidence submitted to or obtained by the pension authority as proof of age shall be rebuttable at any time. Marital  Status  7. For the purpose of enabling the pension authority to consider the eligibility of an applicant as regards marital status, the pension authority may accept a certificate of marriage or, if no such certificate is procurable, such other evidence as it deems- satisfactory as proof of the marriage. Nationality 8. (1) For the purpose of enabling the pension authority to consider the eligibility of an applicant as regards nationality, the pension authority may take into account any of the following documents; (a) certificate of birth; (b) certificate of baptism; and (c) certificate of naturalization. (2) When better evidence cannot be obtained, a certificate of service in any of His Majesty's forces or a statutory declaration or evidence under oath by any reliable and disinterested person, other than the applicant, who has knowledge of the fact may be used as corroborative evidence of the nationality of the applicant. (3) The pension authority shall not be bound to accept any. of the certificates or other documents mentioned in this section as satisfactory proof of the nationality of any applicant and may accept other evidence which it considers to be satisfactory as proof of nationality. 9. Every pension authority shall be entitled to obtain, without charge, from the Department of the Secretary of State or any other Department of the Government of Canada any information available in such Department as to the nationality of any applicant or pensioner. Residence 10. For the purpose of enabling the pension authority to consider the eligibility of an applicant as regards residence in Canada or in a province, the pension authority may. take into account, together with any other evidence that it may be able to obtain, a statutory declaration made by any reliable and disinterested person, other than the applicant, covering such facts as to which such person has personal knowledge.  — 6— 11. An applicant shall be deemed to have been resident in Canada for the twenty years immediately preceding the date of the proposed commencement of pension only (a) if he has actually lodged within Canada for five thousand eight hundred and forty-four days within the said twenty years or since attaining the age of fifty years, in the case of an applicant for an old age pension, or since attaining the age of twenty years in the case of an applicant for a pension in respect of blindness; and (b) if he has actually lodged within Canada on at least seven hundred days within the last three years immediately preceding the date of the proposed commencement of pension; and (c) if he has resided within Canada some time at least twenty years prior to making application. 12. An applicant shall be deemed to have hadfive*years residence in a province if he has lodged in such province for at least seven hundred days within the five years immediately preceding the date of the proposed commencement of the pension and he shall be presumed to be residing in such province at the time application is made, notwithstanding that he is then in fact residing either permanently or temporarily in another province. 13. An applicant, who has been absent from Canada within the limits permitted by section eleven of these Regulations, shall be presumed, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, to have continued to reside during such absence in the province in which he resided immediately prior to leaving Canada. 14. For the purpose of sections eleven, twelve and thirteen of these Regulations where the applicant has been temporarily absent from Canada in any one calendar year, thirty days of such temporary absence shall be counted as residence in Canada if such applicant has lodged in Canada for at least six months of such year. 15. (1) If an applicant, while a resident of Canada, has temporarily absented himself therefrom for the purpose of engaging in (a) employment on a ship registered at or sailing regularly from any Canadian port; (b) employment on any other ship or on a fishing boat; (c) employment on trains running out of Canada operated by any railway company having its head office in Canada; (d!) seasonal employment, such as lumbering or harvesting, for not more than six months in any one year; (e) employment by or as a representative of a Canadian firm or corporation, or while he was himself a member of such a firm; (/) employment by the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration or United Nations Organization, or one of its specialized agencies; or (g) missionary work with any religious group or organization in Canada which supports missionaries, abroad and, at the termination of such employment, he returned to Canada, he shall be presumed to have continued to reside in Canada during such absence if, during the period thereof, he had in Canada a permanent place  — 7— of abode to- which, whenever he was absent therefrom, he had the intention of returning, or he maintained in Canada, a self-contained domestic establishment. (2) If an applicant, while a resident of Canada, has temporarily absented himself therefrom (a) while he was employed and paid by the Government of Canada, or by the government of any province; or (6) during the first or second world war while he was a member of the forces of any country allied with Canada or was engaged in work in connection with the prosecution of any such war for Canada or its allies, and at the termination of his duties abroad be returned to Canada he shall be presumed to have continued to reside in Canada during such absence. (3) In any case provided for by subsections one and two of this section, the applicant shall, during his absence, be deemed to have lodged in that province of Canada in which he was resident immediately prior to leaving Canada. (4) An applicant who is a married woman or a widow and who was absent from Canada with her husband while he was absent from Canada in any of the circumstances provided for by subsection one or two of this section, shall, during the period of such absence with him, be presumed to have continued to lodge in that province of Canada in which she was resident prior to leaving Canada. Income  16. In determining the income of any pensioner for the purpose of the Act, the pension authority shall take into account the amount or value of all income and contributions, whether in cash or in kind, received by the pensioner, other than (a) mothers' allowances paid pursuant to provincial legislation; (b) family allowances paid pursuant to the Family Allowances Act, 1944; (c) cost of living allowances or supplemental allowances paid by any province to persons in receipt of pensions under the Act; (d) - pay allotted or assigned by a member of the naval, military or air forces of Canada, serving on active service, where no dependants' allowance has been awarded in respect of the pensioner or the spouse of such pensioner; (e) direct-relief in an amount approved-by the pension authority if paid out of moneys provided only by the muncipality or the province in which the pensioner resides, or by both; (/) casual gifts of small value; (g) contributions other than for ordinary maintenance to pensioners who require special care; and (h) any amount received by a pensioner in receipt of a pension in respect of blindness under the Act for the purpose of obtaining the services of a guide. 17. For the purpose of reckoning the value of the income received by a pensioner from any equity in real or personal property, other than that  — 8 — specified in section sixteen of these Regulations, owned by such pensioner at the time of making application or acquired subsequent/thereto %  (a) the pension authority shall, in the case of real property, (i) that is used exclusively as a residence or shelter by the pensioner, consider as income an amount that, in the opinion of the pension authority, is fairly equivalent to the amount that the pensioner might reasonably be expected to pay for rent, but in fixing such amount the pension authority may, in its discretion, deduct all or any part of the cost of maintaining such property other than any payment of principal on any mortgage or agreement for sale thereon; (ii) that is not used exclusively as a residence or shelter by the pensioner, consider as income the net revenue that, in the opinion of the pension authority, such property should or might reasonably be expected to yield, and, if such property is revenue bearing, the pension authority may accept as the value of the income thereon the net revenue therefrom, after deducting reasonable and necessary expenses of maintaining such property, other than any payment of principal on any mortgage or agreement for sale thereon, if satisfied that such net revenue is fair and reasonable;  /  (6) the pension authority shall, in the case of personal property, • (i) where the pensioner is not living with a spouse, consider as income the amount of an Immediate Canadian Government Annuity, Ordinary Life Plan, payable quarterly, purchasable with the proceeds of such personal property and calculated as of the age of seventy years in the case of an old age pensioner (or, in the case of a blind pensioner, as of the age of forty years) and, where personal property is subsequently acquired, recalculated in such manner and as of such age; (ii) where the pensioner is living with a spouse, consider as income in respect of each spouse, the amount of annuity . purchasable with the proceeds of the personal property of each spouse respectively and calculated as of the age of seventy years in the case of an old age pensioner (or in the case of a blind pensioner, as of the age of forty years) and, if the spouse is neither in receipt of nor applying for a pension under the Act, then, as of the actual age of such spouse or seventy years, whichever is the lower; and where personal property is subsequently acquired, recalculated in such manner and as of such age; (iii) the expression "personal property" as used in this section, shall, in the case of a pensioner . not living with a spouse, mean personal property which exceeds two hundred and fifty dollars in value; and, in the case of a pensioner who is living with a spouse, means one-half the total value of the personal property jointly and severally owned by them, which exceeds two hundred and fifty dollars in value. " 18. (1) Subject as in this section provided, where the pensioner could purchase an annuity with the proceeds of personal property but fails to do so, the amount of annuity. calculated as provided in paragraph {b) of section seventeen of these Regulations shall be considered as annual income during the life of the pensioner.  v  — 9 — (2) Where, the pension authority has obtained satisfactory evidence that the value of the personal property of the pensioner has been reduced by payment of medical, nursing or hospital accounts for the pensioner or his spouse or funeral expenses of the spouse, the pension authority may, in its discretion, reduce the value of such'personal property at that time by the amount of such accounts and recalculate the annual income as provided by paragraph ( 6 ) of section seventeen of these Regulations. (3) Where the pensioner, while not in receipt of pension, utilizes personal property for living expenses for himself and his spouse, if any, the pension authority may, in its discretion, reduce the value of such personal property annually by an amount not in excess of the maximum income that such pensioner would otherwise be entitled to receive under the Act and, at the time pension is reinstated, recalculate the annual income as provided by paragraph ( 6 ) of section seventeen of these Regulations. (4) Where the pensioner re-converts into real property for use exclusively as a residence or shelter by himself, personal property derived from • the sale of real property held at the time his pension was granted, the pension authority may, in lieu of calculating as income of such pensioner the annuity value of the personal property so re-converted as provided in these Regulations, consider as income an amount that, in the opinion of the pension authority, is fairly equivalent to the amount that the pensioner might reasonably be expected to pay for rent therefor less any deductions therefrom that the pension authority considers should be made for all or any part of the cost of maintaining such property other than any payment of principal on any mortgage or agreement for sale thereon. 19. (1) Except as provided in subsections two and three of this section, where an applicant is one of two spouses living together, his or her income shall be taken to be equal to one-half of the aggregate of the incomes calculated as in the Act and these Regulations provided (excluding any pension payable to the spouse under the Act) received by each of them separately. (2) Where an applicant for an old age pension is.married to and living with a spouse not in receipt of pension under the Act, the income of the applicant shall be taken to be equal to the amount by which the aggregate of their joint incomes calculated as in the Act and these Regulations provided, exceeds the sum of four hundred and twenty-five dollars. (3) Where an applicant for a pension in respect of blindness is married to and living with a spouse not in receipt of a pension in respect of blindness under the Act, the income of the applicant shall' be taken to be equal to the amount by which the aggregate of their joint incomes calculated as in the Act and these Regulations provided (including any old age pension payable to the spouse) exceeds the sum of two hundred and twenty-five dollars. Transfer of Property 20. (1) When the applicant has made any assignment or transfer of property exceeding in value five hundred dollars within the five years preceding the date of application, the pension authority shall require the applicant to furnish all available information with respect to such assignment or transfer of' property and from the evidence furnished shall determine whether or not such assignment or transfer was an' assignment or transfer for the purpose of qualifying for a pension.  (2) Any transfer within the provisions of subsection one of this section shall be presumed to have been made for the purpose of qualifying for a pension in the absence of evidence to rebut the presumption. (3) When, from the evidence furnished, the pension authority is satisfied that such transfer or assignment was made for the purpose of qualifying for a pension, the pension., authority shall (a) refuse to consider the granting of a pension until such time as the person to whom the property has been transferred or assigned by the applicant retransfers or reassigns the property to the applicant or property of equivalent value; (6) defer the payment of pension until such time as the pensioner's equity in such property has been exhausted at the rate of the maximum income permitted by the Act, calculated from the date of such transfer or assignment, or, until the property has been retransferred or reassigned as provided in paragraph (a) of this subsection; or (c) calculate the amount of an Immediate Canadian Government Annuity, Ordinary Life Plan, payable quarterly, purchasable with the proceeds of the property so assigned or transferred and, for the purpose of calculating the rate of pension, shall include the amount of any such annuity in the income of the pensioner. When Pension Shall Commence 21. (1) Every pension shall commence on the first day of the month following the month in which the application is approved; provided that where such approval is given after the last day of the month in which the application was received by the pension authority and delay in approval has resulted from circumstances beyond the control of the applicant, the pension authority may, in its discretion, declare that such approval shall be effective as of an earlier date which shall, in no case, be prior to the first day of the month following the month in which the application was received by the pension authority, or the first day of the month following the month in which the applicant, in the case of an application for old age pension, attains the age of seventy years (or, in the ease of an application for pension in respect of blindness, attains the age of forty years) whichever is the later. (2) Where a pension is suspended at the request of the pensioner, the pension shall not be reinstated prior to the date on which the pensioner requests reinstatement. _ (3) No pension shall be paid for any period of more than one month during which the pensioner is receiving direct relief out of moneys provided in whole or in part by Canada. Manner Payable 22. Pensions shall be payable monthly in arrears and shall be paid by cheque in the form approved by the pension authority. Incapacity of Pensioner . 23. (1) In the event of the incapacity of any pensioner through infirmity, illness or any other cause, or, if the pension authority considers that the pensioner is using or is likely to use his pension otherwise than for  —  11 —  his own benefit, the pension authority may pay the whole or any part of the pension of such pensioner to a trustee or trustees appointed by such pension authority to be expended for the benefit of the pensioner. . (2) Any such trustee or trustees appointed by such pension authority may resign or be removed by the pension authority and the pension authority may appoint another trustee or trustees in the place of the trustee or trustees resigned or removed. (3) Any trustee so appointed shall, when required by the pension authority, make returns showing the amount of the pension received, the amount that has been expended for the benefit of the pensioner and the balance remaining in the hands of the trustee. (4) 'Where a pensioner is being maintained in any institution appointedas trustee for the pensioner, the pension authority shall pay to such institution the whole or such proportion of the pension as is considered by the pension authority to be a reasonable sum for the maintenance of the pensioner and may require the institution to make available .to the pensioner therefrom a sum which it considers a reasonable amount for his personal use. Suspension of Pension  24. (1) The payment of a pension shall be suspended (a) during the absence of a pensioner from Canada; provided that the pension authority may continue the payment of pension for any period-of absence not exceeding ninety days in any.one year where, in the opinion of the pension authority, the circumstances . warrant' such payment; • (b) during any imprisonment exceeding thirty days of a pensioner . convicted of an offence: . (c) during the confinement of a pensioner as a public charge in any . public mental institution; {d) during the period that a pensioner fails to comply with the. provisions of the Act and these Regulations, or fails to furnish to the pension authority any information that he is required to furnish. (2) A pension authority shall recover from a pensioner any sum improperly paid by way of pension whether such sum was paid as the result of non-disclosure of facts, misrepresentations or any other cause, and, if the pension authority is unable to recover the whole of such sum, the pension authority shall suspend the payment of the pension of such pensioner until the aggregate amount of the suspended payments equals the sum improperly paid less any amount that has been recovered prior to such suspension; where the pensioner has not been guilty of fraud or misrepresentation the pension authority, in its discretion, may reduce the pension by an amount of not less than five dollars each month, so that, in a period not exceeding thirty-six months, the pension authority -will recover the amount of such overpayment, but in the event of the death of the pensioner prior to such recovery, the pension authority shall file a claim against the estate of the pensioner, if any, for any balance at that time remaining unpaid. (3) If, after the granting of a pension, a pensioner makes any assignment or transfer of real or personal property without the approval of the pension authority, the payment of his pension may be suspended until the value of the equity of the pensioner in the real or personal property 'assigned or transferred has been exhausted at the rate of the maximum income permitted by the Act.  — 12 — Increase or Reduction of Pension 25. Every pensioner shall forthwith report to the pension authority any change in his financial condition or in the financial condition of his spouse. 26. Any pensioner who desires to apply for an increase of pension to which he may be entitled under the Act, shall notify the pension authority and shall furnish all necessary information. Management of Pensioner's Property 27. Any pension authority may, if so authorized by law of the province, and with the consent of the pensioner, assume the management of any property belonging to the pensioner. 28. The amount recovered by a pension authority from a pensioner or from the estate of a deceased, pensioner in respect of any pension shall be distributed among the province granting the pension, the Dominion and any other province which has reimbursed the province granting the pension, in accordance with the amount of any such pension borne by each of them. Accounting 29. Any sums due by Canada to any province in settlement of Canada's share of the net amount expended by any province in the payment of pensions shall be ascertained as of the last day of March, June, September and December, shall be audited by the provincial auditor and shall be paid on the certificate of the provincial auditor as soon thereafter as possible, subject to final audit by the Dominion authorities. 30. In calculating the amount due by Canada to any province no account shall be taken of any sums that, under the provisions of the Act, such province is liable to reimburse another province or to be reimbursed by another province in respect of a pension granted therein or in such other province, nor shall any 'account be taken of the cost of administering or paying pensions. 31. In calculating the amount in respect of which any province is entitled to be reimbursed by another province under the provisions of section ten of the Act, regard shall be had only to the net amount of the pension paid by the province to be reimbursed after deducting therefrom the amount payable by Canada on account of such pension. 32. Balances due by one province to another province under the provisions of the Act shall be settled quarterly as of the same date as the sums due by Canada are payable from time to time. •33. The Minister charged with the administration of the Act may; at any time, require • the province to furnish information, detailed or otherwise, in- connection with statements of account rendered by the province, and shall have authority to order an examination, inspection and audit of all expenditures under' the Act in any province, and the accounts with respect thereto, and the province shall permit the inspection in such examination of all papers and documents relating to pensions payments. . Interprovincial Board "34. The Governor in Council may appoint an interprovincial Board to interpret and recommend alterations in the' Regulations.  — 13 — Part II -Pensions for Blind Persons 35. An applicant shall he deemed "so blind as to be unable to perform any work for which eyesight is essential" only when the visual acuity of such applicant, after correction through the use of proper refractive lens, is not more than 6/60 Snellen or the field of vision in each eye' is reduced to less than ten degrees. 36. The pension authority forthwith after the investigation required by subsection one of section five of these Regulations is made and before approving the application, if it is satisfied that the applicant fulfils the conditions set out in paragraphs {b), (c), (d) and) (e) of subsection one of section eight A of the Act, shall forward to the Minister the full name and address of the applicant and shall 'certify that the applicant has fulfilled such conditions. 37. (1) Upon receipt of the information as provided in section thirtysix of these Regulations, the Minister, except as provided in section thirtyeight of these Regulations, shall instruct the pension authority to have the applicant medically examined. (2) The pension authority shall thereupon arrange with an oculist, who has been approved by the Minister, for the examination of the applicant and shall notify the applicant accordingly. The Minister shall pay the cost of such examination, but shall, not bear the cost of transportation and living expenses incidental to such examination. (3) . The oculist shall conduct an examination'in accordance with these Regulations and any instructions given by the Minister to whom he shall forward a report thereof on forms' provided for that purpose. (4) The Minister shall, upon receipt of such report, issue a certificate and shall forward the same to the pension authority; the certificate shall state inter'alia (a) whether or not the applicant is blind within the meaning of the Old Age Pensions Act and Regulations; (b) whether or not the applicant is likely to continue to be blind within, the meaning of the Old Age Pensions Act and Regulations; and (c) the times at or before which additional medical examinations, if any, should be made to ascertain that the applicant continues, to be blind within the meaning of the Old Age Pensions Act and Regulations.' (5) The pension.authority, upon receipt of a certificate which certifies that the applicant is blind within the meaning of the Act and Regulations, may thereupon determine the rate of pension payable and approve the application in accordance with subsection one of section five of these Regulations; provided that if the pension authority is not satisfied that the applicant is blind within the meaning of the Act and Regulations, it may, notwithstanding the certificate, refuse to approve such application but shall, in such event, advise the Minister giving the reasons therefor. 38. Where the Minister has received satisfactory information that the applicant is blind within the meaning of the Act and Regulations he may dispense with the examination required by section thirty-seven of  —  14 —  these Regulations and forthwith issue the. certificate as provided by subsection four thereof. 39. No pension shall be granted or paid until the Minister has certified that the applicant is blind within the meaning of the Act and Regulations. 40. No pension which has been suspended for a period in excess of six months shall be reinstated without first obtaining a certificate under section thirty-seven or thirty-eight of these Regulations. 41. The Minister may, at any time, require an applicant or pensioner to report for medical examination -and to furnish such information as he or the pension authority may from time to time require. 42. No pensioner shall solicit alms and an applicant or pensioner ' who is found to have solicited alms may, in addition to any other action authorized by these Regulations, be required to furnish an undertaking to desist from soliciting alms in the future. 43. For the purpose of determining the age of a child of a pensioner, regard may be had to the documents or other evidence mentioned or referred to in section six of these Regulations. • 44. For the purpose of determining whether a child of a pensioner is prevented from earning a livelihood by reason of physical or mental incapacity, the pension authority shall be guided by a certificate of a duly qualified medical practitioner. 45. (1) Any person receiving an old age pension under the Act may apply for a pension in respect of blindness in lieu of such old age pension. A pension in respect of blindness may be granted to such person upon compliance with the provisions of the Act and Regulations and thereupon the pension'authority shall transfer the pension from the old age pension pay-list to the blind persons' pension pay-list and advise the. Minister thereof in its monthly report. (2) Any person receiving a pension in respect of blindness may, if otherwise eligible, request an old age pension in lieu thereof and the pension authority may thereupon transfer the pension from the blind persons' pension pay-list to the old age pension pay-list and advise the Minister thereof in its monthly report. 46. Records and accounts in connection with pensions for blind persons under the Act shall be segregated by the pension authority; advice of payments to such persons, as well as all changes in the rate of pension, shall be made monthly to the Minister on a separate statement certified to by the chief officer of the pension authority and the provincial auditor. Printed and  pub'ished by  EDMOND CLOUTIER, C . M . G . ,  B . A . , L.Ph.,  Printer to thj King's Most Excellent Majesty, 1947—OTTAWA:  - 118 -  OFFICE CONSOLIDATION, 1947 Not to be regarded as an official compilation of the law  O L D  A G E P E N S I O N S  A C T  Chapter 156, Revised Statutes of Canada, 1927  As amended by—  21-22 George V, Chapter 42 (1931) 1 George VI, Chapter 13 (1937) 11 George VI, Chapter 67 (1947)  OTTAWA E D M O N D C L O U T I E R , C . M . G . , B.A., L.Ph., KING'S P R I N T E R A N D C O N T R O L L E R O F S T A T I O N E R Y 1947  NOTE.—The following office consolidation of the Old Age Pensions Act includes the 1947 amendments. These amendments constitute Chapter 67 of the Statutes of that year and Section 9 of said Chapter provides: "9. (1) This Act shall not take effect until a proclamation is issued and as and from the date of such proclamation shall be deemed to have come into force on the first day of May, 1947. (2) Notwithstanding anything in this Act, the Government of Canada will continue to contribute under this Act in. respect of pensions paid to persons who, immediately prior to the coming into force of this Act, were in receipt of pension under the Old Age Pensions Act and the regulations thereunder for so long as siich persons would, but for the coming into force of this Act, have been eligible to receive pension under the Old Age Pensions Act and the regulations thereunder in force immediately prior to the coming into force of this Act." By proclamation dated the ninth day of September, 1947, the amendments to the Act constituting Chapter 67 of the Statutes of 1947 came into force as from the first day of May, 1947.  CHAPTER 156 An Act respecting Old Age Pensions SHORT TITLE 1. This Act may be cited as the Old Age Pensions Act.  short title.  INTERPRETATION : 2. In this Act the expression  Definitions.  ..(a) '"pension authority" means the officer or body charged by '' ° law with the consideration of applications for pension or with 'the payment of pensions; (6) "pension" means a pension payable in' accordance with this "Pension." • Act and the regulations hereunder; 1937, c. 13, s. 1. . (c) "pensioner" includes an applicant for a pension; "Pensioner." (d) "province" includes the Yukon Territory, in respect to "Province.i' which "Gold Commissioner" shall be read for "LieutenantGovernor in Council"; (e) "statute" includes ordinance or order having the force of "Statute." law; (/) "child" means a son or step-son who has not attained the "Child." age of sixteen years and a daughter or step-daughter who has not attained the age of seventeen years, and a son, step-son, daughter or step-daughter,who, having attained.one or other of the said ages but not having attained the age of twenty-one years, is prevented from earning a livelihood by reason of physical or mental incapacity; 1937, c. 13, s. 2. (g)' "Minister" means the Minister of National Health and "Minister." Welfare; 1947, c. 67, s. ,1. '„ ., (h) "regulation".means a regulation made under this Act; 1947, " e t -' c. 67, s. 1. {i) "unmarried person" includes a widow, a widower, a divorced "unmarried person and a ' married person who in the opinion of the -" pension authority is living separate and apart from his spouse. 1947, c. 67; s. 1. • Pensi  u  n  onty  re  ula  lon  peTSOn  \  AGREEMENTS WITH PROVINCES  3. (1) (a) The Minister, with the approval of the Governor in Agreement Council, may make an agreement with-any province for the quarterly ^ojuarte™ payment to such province of the total of the amounts the Govern- payments, ment of. Canada is under sections eight and eight A of this Act authorized to contribute in respect of pensions paid during the preceding quarter by the province, pursuant -to any provincial statute, to the persons and under the conditions specified in this Act and the regulations;, 1947, c. 67, s.'2.••' 97780—2  4 Terms  (6) Subject to sections eight and eight A of this Act, in every agreement made pursuant to this subsection the province shall specify the maximum pension to be paid by the province and shall provide for the reduction of such maximum pension by the amount of any income received by a pensioner in excess of an amount of income to be specified in such agreement. 1947, c. 67, s. 2.  of  agreement.  (2) The acceptance by any province of the moneys granted by Parliament for the payment of old age pensions shall be subject to the conditions that the Governor in Council shall have authority to order an examination, inspection ; and audit of all expenditures of such moneys in the province and the accounts with respect thereto, and that the province shall permit the inspection in such examination of all papers and documents'relating to such payments. 1931, c. 42, s. 1. ..  Examination and  audit  of  accounts.  When action comes  (3) This section shall come into force on the thirty-first day of July, 1931. 1931, c. 42, s. 1.  into  foice. T f i m  of  4. Every agreement made pursuant'to this Act shall continue in force so long as the provincial statute remains in operation or until after the expiration of ten years from the date upon which notice of an intention'to determine the agreement is given- by the Governor •General to the Lieutenant-Governor of the province with which the same was made. . ..  Agreements.  Approval  5. Before'any .agreement made pursuant to this Act comes into operation the Governor in Council shall approve the scheme'for the •administration of pensions proposed to be adopted by the province, and no change .in such.scheme shall be"madeby the'province without the consent Of the Governor in Council.  of'adminis 1 ration scheme necessary.  Application-of  Act  in  N.W.T.  Payments  to  •6. ."As soon as agreements under this Act have been made with •two of the provinces adjoining-the 'Northwest Territories, the Com'missioiier of 'the -said 'territories may submit to 'the 'Governor in Council for approval a scheme for the administration and payment of-pensions-therein, and upon the approval of such scheme, the same shall stand, in all respects other than its duration, in the same position as-an agreement with. a.province. '  provinces on • certificate  of  Minister.  Amount  of  Dominion contribution and  persons  pensionable.  7. All sums of money payable to any province in pursuance of any agreement'madeunder this Act, shall be paid from time'to time by the Minister of Finance on the certificate of the Minister out of unappropriated moneys in the Consolidated Revenue Fund, and all such payments shall be subject to and made under the conditions specified in this Act and the regulations. 1947, c. 67, s. 3. 8. (1) Pursuant to an agreement made with a province under section three of this Act,'the Government of Canada will contribute in respect of each person in receipt of pension from such province an amount not to exceed -seventy-five per centum of thirty .'dollars monthly or of'the amount paid by such province monthly, whichever is'the lesser, for pension to each- such person, if such person ;  (a) at the date of the,proposed commencement .of,-pension .-• ,(i) .has attained the agepf seventy -years, -and • . (ii) hasresidediin'Canada forthe twenty years immediately preceding the said date or if he has not so resided, has (  ;  5> been present in Canada prior to such twenty years for an aggregate period equal to twice the aggregate period of absences from Canada during such twenty years, and (iii) is not an Indian-as defined by the Indian Act; and R.S.,C.98. (6)-is. not-in receipt of a pension pursuant to section eight, A of this Act or an allowance under The War Veterans' Allowance w", c. 75. Act, 1946; and • : (VI •  is I  S  Allowable income.  •  (i) ' an unmarried person and his income inclusive of pension is not more than six hundred dollars a year, or (ii) married to. and living with a sighted spouse, and the total income of such person and his spouse inclusive of pension is not more than one. thousand and eighty dollars a year; .or (iii) married to and living with a blind spouse and the total income of such person and his spouse inclusive of pension, is not more than twelve hundred dollars a year. 1947', c, 67; s. 4. 2. The receipt-of a-pension shall'not-by itself constitute a dis- *™°'b° qualification from voting at any provincial or municipal election. disqualified p  rs  from voting.  8A.. Pursuant' to an agreement made with a province under pensions section, three of' this Act, *the Government of Canada will contribute to wind in-respect of:each person in receipt of pension-from such province an' amount not"; to exceed seventy-five' per' centum o f thirty dollarsmonthlyor: of-the amount paid by such-province monthly-," whichever is-the lesser; for'pension to each such person, if'such'person 1  ;••  :  persoriJ  (a) at the date of the proposed commencement.of, pension. (i)l is- blind, and(ii) has attained the ,age of-twenty-one years,-and • (iii) 1 has-resided in-.Canada for the.twenty years immediately preceding-thesaid date or-ithe has-notso resided, has been present in Canada prion to such-twenty years for- an aggregate period equal-, to twice the. aggregate period of absences-, from I.Canada, during suchi twenty years, and ' (iv) is not an Indian as denned by the Indian Act; and ;  :  R.s.,c. 98.  (b) is not; in.receipt of a pension.pursuant, to section eight, of: • this Act, or a-pension in respect of i blindness-under the Pension. Act, or an. allowance under The War Veterans' Allow.;, : ance Act. 1946; and .  '- -  1946 c 75  Allowable • ' (c) is income. "' ' (i) an unmarried' person, without a dependent child or children, and his income inclusive of pension- is not more than seven hundred and twenty dollars a year, or (ii) an unmarried person with a dependent child or children, and.-his income inclusive-of pension: is> not more than nine hundred-and 1 twenty dollars a year-, on • (iii) married to and'living with a sighted spouse and-the -:' total'income-of such person'and his spouse inclusive of pension is not'more than twelve; hundred dollars a'year:  1  :  6 (iv) married to and living with a blind spouse, and the total income of such person and his spouse inclusive of pension is not more than thirteen hundred and twentydollars a year. 1947, c. 67, s. 5. Pensioner or spouse making assignment or transfer of property for purpose of qualifying.  9. (1) The contributions to be made by the Government of Canada pursuant to section eight or eight A of this Act in respect of a pensioner shall be subject to the condition that when it appears to the pension authority that any pensioner or his spouse has made an assignment or transfer of property for the purpose of qualifying the pensioner for pension or for a larger pension than he is otherwise entitled to, the pension authority shall (a) defer the payment of pension until such property is reassigned or transferred to the pensioner or spouse, as the case may be, or until such time as the value of the interest that the pensioner or the spouse had in such property is exhausted at a rate calculated in manner provided by regulation; or . (b) take into account in determining the amount of pension, if any, that such pensioner should receive, the income derivable from such property as if the assignment or-transfer had not been made.  Recovery of payments by province.  (2) An agreement made pursuant to section three of this Act shall include an undertaking by the province that the pension authority will be authorized to recover out of the estate of any deceased pensioner, as a debt due by the pensioner, the sum of the pension payments made to such pensioner from time to time and such agreement shall specify the circumstances under which recovery of such debt shall, be made but shall provide that no claim shall be made for the recovery of any such debt directly or indirectly out of any part of the pensioner's estate which passes by will or on an intestacy to any other pensioner or to any person who has, since the grant of such pension or for the last three years during which such pension has continued to be paid, regularly contributed to the support of the pensioner by the payment of money or otherwise to an extent which, having regard to the means of the person so having contributed, is considered by the pension authority to be reasonable.  Dominion Government deductions where province recovers payments.  (3) Notwithstanding anything in this Act, where a province recovers any pension payments from a pensioner or his estate, the Government of Canada may deduct from the amounts it is otherwise required to contribute under sections eight and eight A of.this Act an amount that is in the same ratio to the amount so recovered as the total amounts contributed by the Government of Canada in respect of pension payments made by the province to that pensioner is to the total of such pension payments, and an agreement made pursuant to section three of this Act shall include an undertaking by the province that it will furnish to the Government of Canada quarterly reports of all amounts so recovered. 1947, c. 67, s. 5.  Payable monthly in arrears and during lifetime.  1 0 . The pensions in respect of which the Government of Canada may contribute under this Act shall be payable monthly in arrears and during the lifetime of the pensioner, except that where a pensioner dies after the day on which his application is approved and it is shown to the satisfaction of the pension authority that any person has supplied goods or performed services for or on behalf of such pensioner  7 for which no payment has been made and for which payment can not otherwise be made, and the pension authority calculates the amount of pension fromi the time it would otherwise cease to be payable to the day of death, and pays the amount of pension so calculated to such person, the Government of Canada will contribute under this Act in respect thereof. 1947, c. 67, s. 6. 11. Application for pension shall be made to the pension ^ j ^ * j . ° authority of the province in which the pensioner is resident and an ° province^ agreement made with a province under section three'of this Act shall w P provide that the pension authority of such province will deal with ' such application in manner prescribed by regulation and, if satisfied that the pensioner is eligible therefor, may grant pension to such pensioner. 1947, c. 67, s. 6. t  n  0  h e r e  s  en  o n e rr e s i d e s  12. An agreement made with a province pursuant to section Transfer of three of this Act shall provide that such province will pay the pension ^ X n ™ " ' of any pensioner who transfers his permanent residence to that province. 1947, c. 67, s. 6.. 13. In an agreement made with a province pursuant to section ^ ^ " three of this Act the province shall agree that where a pensioner, province of during the last one thousand and ninety-five days that he was present residence, in Canada prior to reaching pensionable age or prior to making application for pension, whichever is the later, was present in such province for a greater number of days than in any other province, such province will reimburse any other province that is paying the pension, to the extent of twenty-five per centum of thirty dollars monthly or of the amount of pension granted, whichever is the lesser. 1947, c. 67, s. 6. u r s e  14. Where the pensioner, after the grant of a pension, transfers And in his permanent residence to another province with which no agreement under this Act is in force, the pension, shall continue to be paid by the province in which the pension was granted. o t h e rc a s o s  15. Where a pensioner, after the grant of a pension, transfers Effect of reside his residence to some place out of Canada, his pension shall cease, but f ! ' his right thereto shall revive upon his again becoming resident in Canada. Canada. en!  loner  s  • 16. No pension shall be subject to alienation or transfer by the ^beaiienpensioner, or to seizure in satisfaction of any claim against him. ated or • charged.  17. The Minister shall, as soon as possible after the termination Annual report of each fiscal year, submit a report to Parliament covering the operation for that year of the agreements made pursuant to section three of this Act and of the moneys of Canada paid to the province under each of the said agreements. 1947, c. 67, s. 7. t0  a r i a m e n  EVIDENCE  18. Any pension authority shall have the right for the purpose Obtaining ef ascertaining the age of any pensioner to obtain without charge, tTageTf • (a) from the registrar of vital statistics or other like officer of pensioner, any province with which an agreement under this Act is in force a certificate of the date of the birth of such pensioner, or  33  8s  (6) subject to such conditions as may be specified in the regulations .made under this Act, from the Dominion Bureau ofStatistics, any information on the subject of the age of such pensioner which may be contained in the returns of any census taken more than thirty years before the date of the application for such information. REGULATIONSRegulations.  19i (1) - The "Governor in Council may make regulations, not inconsistent with this Act; for carrying out the purposes and provisions of this Act; and without limiting the generality of the foregoing may make regulations providing for, 1947, c. 67, s. 8'. .- •  :  (a) the time preceding the attainment of pensionable age at which applications for pension may be made; the time at which; after application therefor-, the payment of pension shall commence; (c) the definition of residence and of the intervals of absence from Canada, or. a province by which residence therein shall not .be deemed.to have been interrupted;  • (d) the. evidence- to be' requiredt or accepted by a pension authority inisupport of an.application for pension; 1  (e) the manner'in- which the income of a pensioner is to be determined, for- the purpose of this Act' and in particular . ' the mode o f reckoning the income of either one or twospouses who live together; (/) the evidence from which the making of. transfers of property for the purpose of qualifying for pension is to beinferred; (g) : the circumstances in which pensions may be-paid for the benefit of' persons', supported or- under treatment in public institutions; '• • (h) the mode in. which pensions are to be payable; (i) . the time ^within: which ;a: pension, voucher may be cashed; ' ' (j); the' persons by whom pension vouchers may be presented, for payment; (k) the circumstances justifying or. requiring the suspension of . the payment of a-pension and the recommencement of-its payment; (I) the reports to be made by pensioners and others of events affecting the right to or the amount of a pension; . .. (m). the administration. of a pensioner's property by a' pension authority; 1  (n) the recovery with or without interest of pension payments made by reason of the non-disclosure of facts or by reason of innocent or of false representations; (o)•the time within-which and the circumstances under which applications-or« proposals-may- be entertained for the increase • or reduction of;a;pension which has been granted; • (p)-the-method of accounting and-of the settlement of balances due by Canada to any province or- by one- province to another; 1  :  *  9 (g) the penalties to be imposed for breaches of the regulations, such penalties not to exceed a fine of fifty dollars or imprisonment for three months, or both fine and imprisonment; (r) the constitution and powers of an interprovincial board to interpret and recommend alterations in the regulations; (s) the interpretation of the expression "is so blind as to be unable to perform anv work for which eyesight is essential"; 1937, c. 13, s. 4; (£) the medical examination and other evidence necessary to establish that a person is so blind as to be unable to perform any work for which eyesight is essential; 1937, c. 13, s. 4; (w) the definition for the purposes of this Act of the words "married," "unmarried," "widower," "widow." 1937, c. 13, s. 4. (2) No regulation by reference to which any agreement with a Alteration province has been made shall be altered except with the consent of regulations, such province or in accordance with the provisions of the regulations to which it has agreed.  20. All regulations made under this Act shall, from the date R a t i o n s of their publication in the Canada Gazette, have the same force and come into effect as if they had been included herein. effect  2. Such regulations shall be presented to Parliament forthwith after their publication if Parliament is then sitting or, if not, within fifteen days from the commencement of the session beginning next after such publication.  Appendix "C" - 119 -  Vol. 7 — No. 11  THE „  NEW WESTMINSTER, B.C.  VANISHING  The air of uncertainty which has and still is hovering over the longawaited and much debated increase in the Old Age Pension is still greatly perplexing the minds of the Senior Citizens. Many anxious enquiries are made, and the question "Do you think we shall ever get it?" is a common one wherever the Pensioners meet, and a line of that famous old song, "It May Be for Years or It May Be Forever" appears at the moment to be the best answer.  The fabulous increase of $5.00 re-, cently passed by the Federal Government in the passage of Bill -339 provides a most unique conundrum. The Government has performed an outstanding conjuring trick. It has given the Pensioners something which they will never see, and has taken away from them something which they never possessed. To give the answer to this conundrum, this explanation is given. The huge increase was passed by the Government at the end of June, as a measure to enable the Pensioners 'to meet the increased cost of living (a most necessary measure to alleviate the sufferings of the old people due to the inadequate pension then in force. Now at the time of writing and before the pensioners have received their cheques for this mythical wealth what has happened, is this. The Government has lifted the ceiling off practically all the necessities of life, with the result that nearly everything the Old Age Pensioner  TRICK  eats, drinks, uses or wears has skyrocketed in price out of his reach. The increase in the Old Age Pension amounts to 16V2 cents per day, and it would require a financial- wizard to juggle that large sum to cope with the inflated prices of daily necessities of life. Butter has increased 80 per cent; bread 90 per cent; meat 90 per cent; rent 100 per cent; clothing 200 to 500 per cent. The empty gesture our Government has made to the pensioners has shown them to be past masters in the art of magic. The magician on the vaudeville stage does at least show the article or body to the audience ^before he causes it to disappear from view, whereas the Government has demonstrated super magical powers and has caused the $5.00 increase in pensions to disappear in inflated prices even before we see it. However, there was one feature in the debate on Bill 339 from which the Pensioners might possibly derive a crumb of comfort and expectation for some further consideration. The Hon. Minister of National Health and Welfare in. answer to criticism from the opposition stated that the $5.00 was only an interim measure. It is to be hoped that the Hon. Minister does not misspell the word when writing his final report and make it appear as the "interminable" measure. There is no desire or intention in this article to misjudge the Federal Government, and it is quite possible they may be reserving a pleasant surprise for the Old Age Pensioners, par-  NOVEMBER, 1947 ticularly as the opinion was freely expressed in the House that the increase was hopelessly inadequate. It may be that in the distant future an election may come to pass, and another crumb from the rich man's table could be used as a good selling feature in securing public opinion. If there is more than one mouse eating the food in the pantry, the wise housewife does not use up all the cheese to bait the mouse trap for the first time; she saves a little bit to catch the remaining mice. So take courage, Old Age Pensioners, and keep alive in your memory those members of the House who fought so hard for your cause during the passage of Bill 339. Now a word of advice and encouragement to all pensioners and potential pensioners. Keep up the fight for a recognition of your rights. Your cause is just, and victory is in sight. The whole world is rapidly becoming pension conscious; even in many of the so-called unenlightened countries pension schemes are coming into operation, some of which are much in advance of our own system. Due to the work of the Old Age Pensioners'Organization the general public is being informed as to the real status of the pensioner, and public opinion is being built solidly behind it. The pensioners arei urged to select the very best material available for their officers and executives, and haying done so, should support them in every way possible by advertising * and extending the work of the organization. Every pensioner should be a missinary for the cause; don't leave it all for the officers. Each member has a job to do.  Page Two  -  Sir:  THE PENSIONER  BRITISH C O L U M B I A DIVISION N E W S  We wish to appeal to you on behalf of the aged people of Canada to have the necessities of life kept within their reach. The rise in prices of food, fuel, clothing, shelter and other basic necessities, resulting from the withdrawal of the Price Controls, are now beyond their means. This condition is making existence very difficult for the low-income citizens, especially the Old Age Pensioners and other non-income groups. The rise in- prices has even preceded . the $5.00 a month increase in the Old Age Pension, which, although was to be effective as on May 1st has not yet reached them, and it is reported that in some Provinces it never will. We ask that the Old Age Pensioners in every Province get immediately the benefit of the $5.00 increase, before it is too late," they haven't long to live. We also beg that the Price Control on the necessities of life be resumed. Yours respectfully, The Old Age Pensioners Organization, ' J. W. Hope Executive Secretary. To . The Right Honourable W. L. Mackenzie-King, Prime Minister of Canada.  LADYSMTTH Organization of a new branch in Chemanius, reports on the recent banquet, and aims of the Old Age. Pensioners' Organization were the main topics of discussion at their last meeting held Thursday, October2, in the I.W.A. rooms. At the opening of the meeting the members stood in silence for two minutes in respect for two lately deceased members—Dan Radovich and August Doumont. Member R. Simpson reported on efforts to organize a branch in Chemainus with the result that 10 members have been enrolled and another meeting will be held in th near future to elect officers. Discussion on the recommendation made by Provincial Vice-president C. R. Bennetton that progress of the or-, ganization would be helped if all persons interested were enrolled. This would make it possible to let the gov-  THE PENSIONER Official Organ of the O.A.P.O. and Canadian Pensioners' Congress. Registered Office NEW WESTMINSTER, B.C. Authorized as second-class mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. • SUBSCRIPTION RATES $1.00 Yearly CORRESPONDENCE: A l l correspondence -should be addressed to C. R. Bennetton, Box 1273, White Rock, B.C. ADVERTISING RATES Personal or want ads. 2c per word, 35c the minimum commercial' advertisement rates on application. THE MANAGEMENT assumes no responsibility for opinions expressed by contributors. Non-Political Non-Sectarian  ernment see that the citizens in Canada are heard in their demand that the objectives of the O.A.P. that any person 60 years of age can get $50 per month with no means test, put in force.' . Many bouquets and compliments were given in connection with the recent annual banquet. Mr. Walter Joyce, secretary-treasurer, was thanked for his very good efforts in making the affair such a success and the' ladies were also thanked for their invaluable work. Through the chair the committee of .Pythian Sisters headed by Mrs. Walter Joyce . was extended a very hearty vote of thanks and the deep appreciation of the organization for their catering efforts. And to all others who assisted by donations and loans, the organization expresses its thanks.  Charles F. Newman Men's Wear White Bock, B.C.  Opposite the Pier . Phone 609  The  Westminster Pharmacy  House of Quality Drugs PRESCRIPTIONS 731 Columbia St. New Westminster, B.C.  -  NEW WESTMINSTER There was a splendid attendance at the regular meeting of No. 2 Branch held on Oct 10th in the Eaglas Hall. The president Mr. E. Navey called the mee'ting to order at 1:30 p.m. and proceedings opened with the singing of O'Canada. A period of silence was observed in respect of two members who passed away since the last meeting; Mr. R. Ruffett of 1st Street and Mr. G. Fox, 415 10th St. These members will be greatly missed. The minutes of the last regular and executive meetings were read- and adopted, and the financial report was accepted. Acting on the suggestion of a lady member a committee was appointed to meet at the City Market Oct. 17th to collect donations of vegetables for the Old Age Pensioners. The following gentlemen were appointed; Messres.. Navey, O'Connor, Peacock, Innis, Hawthorn, Harris Bayne and Moorhouse. The secretary read letters from the International Shut In Association, and the H. I. Chapter of the Beta Sigma Phi asking for names and addresses of shut ins, so that the Society members could visit them. The birthday card committee reported having sent cards to 31 members during the month, and the audience sang "Happy Birthday" for these members. The secretary reported the membership had exceeded the 500 mark, with more new members coming in each month. The entertainment committee presented a splendid programme as follows; Piano solo and song by Miss Temple, a member of the Society of the Blind, song in French by Mrs. Gerin, Mrs. Bell violin solo, Mr. Rowlett selections on his concertina, and character songs by Mrs. Rooke, Mrs. Foster, Mr. Worrall, Mr. O'Connor, and Mrs. Pipplet. Mrs. Dey presided at the piano. It was proposed to have a birthday box and each one having a birthday deposit a cent for each year of their age on their anniversary. The president's appeal for cups and saucers for afternoon refreshments brought a great response. About 100 cups and saucers were donated by the members. During the afternoon ice cream was served and thanks are extended to the Drake Dairies for their generous donation toward the refreshments. J. W. Moorhouse, Sec.  THE PENSIONER  Page Three  in playing whist. The winners were, foundation to the ' present time; lifts FLEETWOOD Our regular monthly meeting was 1st prizes Mrs. G. Wilcox and Mrs. A. growth and expansion in British Coheld on Oct. 1st with president in the Osborn; consolation going to Mrs.lumbia, Saskatchewan and Alberta, chair. Meeting opened with the sing^ Booth and Mr. W. Creek. Next meet- and .the efforts to extend the cause ing of O'Canada, Mrs. Bergan at the ing same place same time November into Eastern Canada. He also spoke of some* of the benefits obtained by the piano. Minutes of the last meeting 3rd. M. E. Lovell, Sec. organization on behalf of our Senior were read and approved. Mrs. FranCitizens. He urged all to keep fightcis reported a balance of thirty cents ing for our objective of $50 per month left in the box. Mrs. Sullivan report- LANGLEY PRAIRIE ed on the Whist drive. Moved by Mrs. Branch No; 10 held their regular at 60 without the Means Test. Sullivan and seconded by Mr. Buntain meeting Oct. 2nd in the ^Parish room General Pearkes, M.P., stated that that a letter be sent to Mr. Alex Hope of the Anglican iChurich. President he was in favor of better conditions M.L.A. asking him to endeavour to Tabb opened with singing the Pen- for the Old Age Pensioner, but not have a kitchen placed on the Canadian sioners recruiting song followed by the for the complete removal of the side of the Peace Arch Park, similar Lord's Prayer. There' were 35 pre- Means Test. Rev. Armitage gavev a to the one on the American side. After sent, including four new members. A very encouraging talk and upheld the the singing of the recruiting song, the bill was received by one of our mem- rights and aims of the Aged Citizens. meeting was turned over to the enter- bers' who is on O.A.P. This matter Mr. Sam Guthrie, M.L.A., then gave tainment committee. Mr. Elliott sang was forwarded to our Executive Sec- an address in which he proved himaccompanied by Mrs. Sullivan. Mrs. retary, Mr. J. W. Hope to see what self to be a real champion of our Allwood and Mr. Buntain sang sev- could be,done about it. Mrs. Buckley, cause, comparing the meagre pittance eral songs. Refreshments were served Mrs. Jones and Mr. Tabb were elected doled out to Senior Citizens to the under the convenorship. of Mrs. Fran- on the entertainment committee for fabulous pensions granted to high cis, and so ended another successful proposed concert in the near future. ranking Army and tyaval Officers, meeting. Mr. West, Mrs. Reid and Mrs. Buck- judges and other Civil Service officW. E. Keyes, Sec. ley gave a brief report of what they ials. Mr. Guthrie said "Take some of saw of some other parts of Canada the millions of dollars a day profit on whilst holidaying, but stated that they liquor sales and use it to increase Old PORT KELLS found no place that looked better than Age. Pensions." Branch No. 23 held their annaul Langley. Mr. Peever also spoke of the The musical numbers interspersed meeting in the Community Hall on kind reception extended to him while between the speeches were thoroughly Wednesday, Oct. 8th with the Presi- visiting in the U.S.A. A little com- enjoyed. Every item was rendered in dent Mrs. C. McNallie in the chair. munity singing and refreshments end- really professional' style, and they Final arrangements were made for ed one more good meeting. were decidedly the highlights of the the Thanksgiving Tea, Sale and Whist A. T. Binsted, Sec. evening. The following, artists took Drivetobe held Oct. 15th. After the •part in this splendid programme: Voold business had been dealt with eleccal solos, Mi^s. Heyes; duet, Mrs. tion of officers for 1948 were held, the LADYSMITH Guthrie and Mr. Muir; violin solos, following members being elected. The members and friends of Branch Mrs. Herald Kelly; vocal solos, Mr. President Mrs. C. McNallie; Vice-Pres- No. 9 who did not avail themselves of James Mason; vocal duet, Mrs. Heyes ident Rev. J. Rawlings; 2nd Vice- the invitation to attend the Annual and Mr. James Mason. The pianist for President J. L. Cameron; Secretary- Banquet of the branch on September the evening was Mrs. David Mason. Treasurer Mrs. C. Stafford. 19th certainly misused a great ti*eat A most enjoyable evening was A short Whist Drive was held, the both from a gastronomical as well as brought to an end with the singing of winners being ladies Mrs. J. Raw- an educational viewpoint. the National Anthem. lings; gents F. Marsh. Refreshments The ladies of the branch had ^preWalter Joyce, Sec. were served by the ladies. pared a most sumptuous repast, to Mrs. C. Stafford, Sec. which about 75 guests did ample justice. Following the banquet the meeting adjourned to the large hall loaned B.C. FRIENDLY ADD SOCIETY PORT COQUITLAM for the occasion by the Order of The monthly meeting was held in Pender Auditorium Oct. 11th,' Mrs. Branch No. 21- held their regular Eagles. The president, Mr. Joseph Mason, Mortimer presiding. We had a large monthly meeting on Oct. 6th. Twelve memebrs present. Owing to the ill- outlined the work of the branch, and and happy audience. The grim reaper ness of the president, Mr. Mattson, the complimented the workers. The presi- was busy among our. members, four vice-president took the chair.' The dent then introduced the speakers for members passing on since our last Meeting opened with a prayer. The the evening including His Worship meeting. Business was ^speeded {up secretary read the minutes which were Mayor Jamieson, Mr. C. R. Bennetton and during the winter months we pian adopted as read. Two members were ,of White Rock, B.C.,. Provincial First to have a speaker. Ex-Alderman Greywelcomed back after several months Vice-president; General Pearkes, V-C, ell was our choice today. Mr. Greyell absence. The secretary reported that M.P., Rev. Armitage and Mr. Sam said he had dreams of how living conditions should be improved; also what the cushion was finished and was on Guthrie, M.L.A. Mayor Jamieson gave a splendid could be done to beautify our city, and display. Tickets are to be sold by the members for the drawing of same. talk and stated that his sympathy and what should be done .to bring more Sympathy was expressed by the mem- assistance was ready at all times in happiness to our aged pioneers who bers for »Mr. Mattson, and hope for a aid of the Old Age Pensioners. Mr. did such a wonderful job of building speedy .recovery. The meeting then Bennetton, the guest speaker, outlined our Dominion. Mr. Greyell was heartadjourned, and a social time was had' the work of the organization from its ily applauded and invited to come ;  Page Four again. Our pianist, Mrs. Martin provided a fine musical programme with Mr. G. Ford, Banjo, J. McDowell, accordian, and C. McLeod, violin (all blind men) rendered selections that tickled the toes of our audience. Miss M. Lawrie gave two readings which were appreciated. Birthday greetings were sung for members. Resolutions —resolved that we ask the Provincial Government to take up Headth Insurance at next session of the Legislature. The meeting .closed with the singing of the National Anthem. Margaret Webster, Sec.  THE PENSIONER get the habit of saying 'Let George do it' for George will get tired of doing it. Unfortunately this happens too often, when, as I have said, dry rot sets in and the institution or association slowly dies a natural death." Purposes such as we have can be encouraged by worthwhile entertainments and social gatherings but let us not loose sight of them by too much concentration on a cup of tea.  several more Chemainus residents will join shortly. It is intended to hold another meeting in the near future, i VICTORIA AGED PENSIONERS' ASSOCIATION The monthly meeting of the association was held in the Lower Hall of the First Baptist Church with a good attendance. Mrs. Arnold, president, occupied the chair and the meeting opened with the singing of the Doxology and recitation of the Lord's Prayer. The 'minutes of the last regular meeting were read, and the treasurer's report given and accepted unanimously. The illuminated address presented to Mrs. Ross Palmer was on view and received much admiration. The president made an appeal for clothing for the less fortunate members of the branch and received quite a number of promises of different articles. Owing to the resignation of the secretary, Miss Alice Street was appointed secretary pro-tem until the end of the year. The meeting closed with the National Anthem, after which refreshment were served and a happy afternoon brought to an end. Miss Alice L . Street.  At the conclusion of his report the meeting moved a sincere vote of thanks to Mr. Partridge for his fine work throughout the past year. This group is indeed indebted to him for all that he has done. In answer to a resolution sent into VICTORIA BRANCH No.5 the Executive Council of B.C. last October 10/47 month, Mr. Hope replied to Branch REPORT TO THE 'TENSIONER" No. 5 stating that the delay in paying the. increased pension was due mainly The Old Age Pensioners' Organto the fact that the Act had not as yet ization, Branch No. 5, held its last general meeting October 1st at 2 p.m. been proclaimed by' the Governor General and also that one of the Proin the Knights of Pythias Hall, Cormorant Street, Victoria. Again we vinces had not agreed to the increase. can report a large number of members It was noted by members that as a result of this delay at Ottawa a great in attendance. News as to the health of our Pres- deal of criticism has appeared through ident, Mr. Dyson, was encouraging and correspondence and in the newspapers. all were eager to express best wishes The Old Age Pensioners, at least, can to him. Mr. Dyson, it was noted, will say they have the majority sympathy of the press and public. be in the Chair at the next meeting, At this meeting Branch No. 5 enNov. 5th, to conduct the election of WHAT WINS new officers and to introduce our joyed immensely and found educational value in films shown by the It's not the wealth you win Jhat guest, Mr. Bennetton. counts The Annual Report for this Branch • National Film Board for British So much as how you spend it; was ably presented by Mr. Partridge, Columbia. Jasper Park in Alberta and It's not the space your years anTreasurer, and we feel contains a mes- Bird Life in North America were the main features. A hearty vote of thanks nounce sage to all concerned. The first half So much as how you end it. of 1947 there appeared to be an was extended to the Film Board for "underground movement at the gen- their generous services in our behalf. The gift of life conceals a prize If you will but pursue it; eral meetings to smash the organizaMiss W. Ronson, It often flits before your eyes tion". However the outcome was a Secretary. If you but only knew it. stronger organization with a deeper feeling of friendship and harmony, •It's not the tinsel show you make and furthermore membership has been That marks the life you're living; "Where Most Men Shop" built up to a greaer extent than ever But a mighty purpose, for whose sake before. You are your efforts giving. As a tribute to Pres. Mr. Dyson, It matters not how long you live, Mr. Partridge stated that "he (Mr. But how you battle through it; Dyson) has given seven years of conAnd if your best you try to give tinuous work in the endeavour to obAnd really strive to do it. tain something more than a dole for Men's Wear Senior Citizens." S. BOWELL & SONS Mr. Partridge then remarked on Phone N . W . Cloverdale Branch Abbotsford Ladner the ultimate aims and objects of 2656 Phone 193 O.A.P.O.'s, briefly, "to obtain suffiNew Westminster cient pensions of $50.00 at 60 years and DISTINCTIVE FUNERAL SERVICE to abolish the Means Test." These can 666 Sixth Sreet New Westminster B.C. only be accomplished through conCHEMAINUS centration, attending every meeting, MOTT ELECTRIC offering suggestions and increasing At a meeting on Monday evening, ELECTRICAL CONTRACTORS the membership in every way possible. sponsored by the Ladysmith Branch of • the Old Age Pensioners Association, Personal contact is all important in • NEW WESTMINSTER held in the Parish Hall, a Chemainus securing new members as has been Branch was formed. Nine members and VANCOUVER proven in the last few months when were signed up and it is expected that 60 have newly enrolled. "Now don't  THE PENSIONER WHITE ROCK  members received birthday cards during September. The sixtieth regular meeting of the Mrs. Rees Morgan reported on the White Rock Branch No. 11, O.A.P.O., result of her interview with Mr. Grawas held at the Palladium on Tues- ham regarding the use of the Palladday October 7th. In spite of the ium for the Annual Dinner on Deweather there was a good attendance.. cember 16th. Mr. Graham has offered The president Mr. F. Green occu- the use of ithe building, kitchen, pied the chair and opened the meet- dishes and cutlery free of charge. ing at 2.10 p.m. with the singing of The president Mr. Green informed "O Canada." the members that the price of admisThe minutes of the last meeting sion to the dinner was to show their were read and approved, also the min- membership card at the door. utes of the: executive meeting held on At the conclusion of the business September 16th. A vote of condolence of the meeting an enjoyable program to the relatives of Mr. Millard and followed; community singing; solos by Mrs. Clara Hoad was carried, these Mr. Williams and Mrs. Whitaker; members having passed on since our piano solo Mr. McKean; a reading by last meeting. Mr. Whitaker,' and recitations by Mr. A very cordial, welcome was ex- • Griffin. Mr. Coles gave a very interesting tended to Mrs. Turner and Mrs. Wright who were present after their and informative address on hearing absence through illness. Mr. Turner aids which was much appreciated. The proceedings came to an end at on behalf of Mrs. Turner and Mrs. Wright on her own behalf expressed 3:50 p.m. with the singing of the Natheir deep appreciation of the many tional Anthem. E. A. Griffin, Sec. pro-tem. manifestations of sympathy received during their sickness. Accounts payable were passed and approved for CENTRAL PARK AND ROYAL OAK payment. A vote of thanks to Mr. The two branches held a combined Aries of Vancouver for his gift of a meeting at Royal Oak, putting on a collection box was expressed. Mrs. whist drive and sale of work and doL'eslie reported that no less than 17 nated articles. Mr. J. J. Whiting and  SPECIAL  Page Five Mr. Swan -proved themselves to be very competent auctioneers. There was active bidding for the many useful articles offered and the sum of $74.35 was realized which will be donated to the O.A.P.O. housing project. The winners in the whist drive were Mrs. Newman, whose prize was a lovely pair of pillow slips; and Mr. Aldred won the vegetable marrow. Several other prizes were- awarded during the evening. Entertainment was provided by Mr. Joe Rowlett, giving some fine selections on his concertina and humorous songs. Royal Oak members are asked to take notice that their branch will hold their regular meetings on the 1st Tuesday each mont hinstead of the 2nd Thursday as was previously. The next meeting will be on November 4th. S. Crispin, Sec. $50 PENSION A T 50 SOUGHT FOR AGED CHILLIWACK, B. C. — "Resolution asking a $50 pension at 50 years for the aged was passed at a convention of South Fraser District Board of the Women's Institute here last week. The group . also endorsed proposal to change the name from "Olid-Age Pensioner" to "Senior Citizen."  REQUEST  TO ALL SECRETARIES OF BRANCHES IN ALL DIVISIONS WILL YOU KINDLY FORWARD TO THE EDITOR, BOX 1273, WHITE ROCK, B. C, THE NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF YOUR OFFICERS FOR THE ENSUING YEAR, TOGETHER WlTH THE PLACE, DAY, AND TIME OF YOUR MONTHLY MEETINGS, SO THAT A COMPLETE DIRECTORY MAY BE PRINTED. Thank You, EDITOR.  A Suggestion for Xmas,  1947  S e n d t o Y o u r Friends both N e a r and Far  A Years Subscription to your Pensioner Magazin A M o s t Economical a n d V a l u a b l e CHRISTMAS  GIFT  IT WILL EXPRESS CHRISTMAS GREETINGS, AND HELP THE CAUSE, WHICH IS FIGHTING TO OBTAIN A LITTLE SUNSHINE IN THE LIVES OF OUR SENIOR CITIZENS.  Subscription — One Dollar per Year  Page Seven  THE PENSIONER SULLIVAN The weatherman smiled on the afternoon of the 'O.A.P.O. meeting and a good number attended. Th epresident, Mr. McArthur, opened the meeting and the secretary, Mr. Russell, read the minutes of the last regular meeting which were adopted as read. The financial statement was also received. Kind greetings were sent to Mr. John Anderson, who has taken up residence in a home for the aged. Greetings were also sent to Mrs. Ingram and Mrs. Graham, who are at present unable to attend the meetings owing to sickness, and the hope was expressed that they will soon be present again; their interest and help in the work has been a valuable asset to the branch. After the business was finished a game of checkers was greatly enjoyed, and. the members were entertained by piano and violin selections. After the serving of a dainty lunch the meeting closed with the members all expressing the hope that the $5.00 increase would soon be coming along.  Beamish for undertaking to supply the and we well enough to give us more. requisite mimeographed circular letTea, sandwiches and cakes, with ters. Thanks also to Principal Davey banter and good humor closed the afof Edmonds Street School for 24 pos- ternoon. ters made by the students of his P. H. Dickson, Sec. pro-tem. school. Housing; Project Garden Notes The president reported that he had FROM AN A.O.P. acquired a good signboard and that Dig all vacant land and leave as Mr. Bolton and Councillor Beamish had arranged for work on and the rough as possible for weather' elements erection of the board on the Suter to improve. Give the garden a general clean up Estate property.' for the winter months. Make stakes The expense bills were submitted for spring and summer use, also coland ordered paid. The president drew attention to the lect pea sticks and store away to avoid new storage cupboard; there will be rot. A row of broad beans, also early lots of room for our kitchen utensils, peas may be sown now in rich well^ books, etc., and a hearty vote of thanks drained land; taking natural precauwas expressed to donor of the mater- tions against birds and various pests. ial, Mr. Ball, and to Mr. McCiay for A dusting of soot may be used at any time for this purpose which will also putting the cupboard together. be good stimulant and give good foliSickness Committees age results. Clean dead and unsightly The reports of sickness committes leaves from Brussel sprouts. were adopted with thanks for their HELPMATE. efforts, and sympathy expressed to our Vancouver. ailing members. The treasurer's report was adopted as very satisfactory. He now has a J. Wilson, Reporter. FOR FINE FOOD EAT AT supply of tickets for the concert and auction of Qct. 29th, to be sold at 25 The RIVIERA CAFE cents each. Upon this we must largely EDMONDS depend for having a good time at In the New Market Building There were 46 members present, Christmas. under the chairmanship of President NEW WESTMINSTER, B. C. Treasurer Simmance has been given Chantry. The minutes of the monthly some tins of tobacco through agency meeting of September 1st and the ex- of Mrs. Markham and he was request ecutive meeting, of September 26th ed to thank the donors by letter. COLUMBIA were read and adopted. - The business finished, President There were four new members ad- Chantry entertained with some humFUNERAL SERVICE ded to the roll, Mr. Ball, Mrs. A. E. orous readings on topics of the day re New Westminster—Phone Ray, Mr. L. G. Foisia and Mrs. Straw- O.A.P. and on Woman's Rights. In son We also welcomed Mr. and Mrs. doing so he revealed talents never beLangley Prairie — Phone Banks on their first attendance, and fore disclosed to us. Let him live long friends Mr. and Mrs. Brawn from No. 2 branch. Thanks were expressed to member Kemshaw for his donation of good workmanship on the new signboard announcing monthly meetings. We were sorry the donor was unable to be present on account of his wife's indisposition. There was discussion about the adE S T A B L I S H E D I860 visability of conducting ' business • meetings in the evening, and it was agreed that a committee be formed SERVING NEW WESTMINSTER to arrange the change over. The Loud Speaker AND THE FRASER VALLEY After hearing Mr. Simmance's report of his inquiries and information FOR EIGHTY-SEVEN YEARS gathered it was agreed that he with Mrs. Beamish and Mr. Dickson carry • this business through with authority to spend $100 if found desirable after I. G. MacFARLANE trial. The Auction and Concert, Oct. 29th Publisher On information from the president, thanks were expressed to Councillor  THE  prtttef) Columbian  Page Eight  THE PENSIONER  Saskatchewan The Canadian Pensioners' Congress President's Report to the Annual Convention, Prince Albert, Sask. October 8th and 9th In reporting for the Canadian Pensioners' Congress, I can state fairly satisfactory progress. At last year's convention held at Moose Jaw, the Congress had no constitution and no finances. Just a name and four members: Messrs. Cole, Hope, Davenport and myself. Now we have most of the ground work done but cannot expect full affiliation until we have a constitution approved and a financial system set up, which I hope will be completed at this convention. The B. C. convention which is always held ahead of ours, have done their share. They have put the Congress on a permanent foundation. They have agreed to a twenty per cent per capita per annum commencing with 1947 to. the Federal set up. They have approved a constitution which I. expect will be put to this convention. In regards to the east, they did not know anything about a set up of the Old' Age • Pensioners in the west and were not in uniformity with our objectives here. So we thought it best to contact them and give them a full outline of our work, Branch, Provincial and Federal, both Ontario and Manitoba. At Port Arthur there are quite a few railroad men who were used to the set up of the trade unions and therefore realized the necessity of a Federal organization. In discussing the finances of/ the Congress they suggested twenty-five cents per capita tax but agreed that it was better to be uniform. They just had a membership of a hundred but sent a cheque to Mr. Hope for $25. Both Port Arthur and Manitoba had set their pension.age at sixty-five but after telling them of the support we were getting and the uniformity of the west they passed a motion lowering the age to sixty so that now every Old Age Pension organization in Canada, with the exception of the branch at Edmonton, is uniform in their demands for $50 a month at the age of sixty. We have not pushed the appointing of representatives on the Congress from other organizations as we had no constitution or definite system of financing. All we had was the general principle.  Division  I went to see Mr. Fisher, President of the Edmonton Branch, at no cost to the organization, and I do not think there is a chance of offiliation with their group. Their objective is the same as a few.years back forty dollars per month at the age of 65. I can give you a view point of the differences in the set ups. In regards to the south of Alberta, the group which is supervised by Miss Baker, of Calgary, at Mr. Hope's suggestion I wrote to the secretary of Lethbridge branch suggesting that their branch (take 'the initiative in sponsoring the • organizing of the Provincial set up but did not receive any reply. I think I- know Miss Baker's ideas in regard to calling a western conference, her idea is the finances of the branch comes from the older folks who have none too much to spare, and that we cannot do anything more as replies that she has received from resolutions sent to Ottawa have been very favorable, that it does riot warrant any further expense, which would have to be paid out of the pocket of the pensioner. We also have some with the same view point in Saskatchewan, who think that the' money received here should be spent for the people here. This is a narrow viewpoint. They do not seem to real-, ize that this money is being spent for their benefit. /  That the members of parliament do not always go by their personal feelings but public opinion, which is what gets them their votes. The bigger organizations we have, the more this matter is brought before the public. The more weight it has with the ones who are in power. We must be consitent with a system of progress. If we do not, why was this system started? Why not let each individual do his own propaganda work instead of forming branches? I do not want you to think that I feel it necessary to make an appeal to you. You have always supported any progress in the Pension movement, and I would like to thank the Saskatchewan Board of Directors for taking the initiative in backing us up when we needed financial support this year. The era that we live in is growing more and more toward the improvement of social services and the expansion of co-operation. Both Provincial, Federal and even to the United Nations, practically all coun-  News tries are taking up the Old Age Pension Movement. We do not expect to stop Federally, but hope to work in a small way internationally. There is now a reciprocal arrangement between . Great Britain and Australia and it has been stated there can be a similar arrangement with Canada when the Means Test is abolished. This is a big undertaking but can only be as big as the support and planning that is given to it. In fact I think it can be one of the biggest organizations if a satisfactory plan of progress can be established and has the support of. all the Old Age Pensioners' Organizations. Mr. Hope is here with us, and I have intentionally not reported of the secretarial work in sending out briefs and correspondence, and I can assure you that Mr. Hope has certainly done more than his share of the Congress work. NATHAN W. MEDD, President. Report of J. W. Hope, Congress Secretary, and Secretary of the B. C. Division of the Canadian Pensioners' Congress. In reporting on the progress of the Congress during the year I would like first to give a very brief report on the Movement in my own Province, British Columbia. I will make no historical references but speak of the situation today. This year 1947 we issued 3760 membership cards to the 26 branches in B. C. Four Branches are on Vancouver Island and 22 on the Mainland. Now nearly all these Branches have been established without much propaganda or campaigning, the people have realized the need for an organization of Old' Age Pensioners and have joined. This is shown by the applications of 136 members at large whom we have never seen. Some of the Branches on the Island are quite a distance away from the Vancouver headquarters. Fernie is 713 miles away. I visited Fernie last year on my way to your 1946 convention. Dawson Creek is 1331 miles away, I have had several requests to visit that branch, but haven't yet made it.  The dues of the Branches are $1.00 per year. The Branches have paid the B. C. Executive 20 cents per year per capita to run the Organization. The 1947 B. C. Convention raised the per capita to 40 cents, of which . 20 cents is to go to the Congress. The Branches in B. C. endorse the Con-  THE PENSIONER gress and refer to it in its new 1947 Constitution. I am quite satisfied that the Association with the Congress of other Pensioners Organizations in Canada has increased the influence of our Movement. This is very marked in the Debates in the House of Commons during the last session. Our contacts with the Labour Congress and other trade unions are better understood and accepted. The Lumber workers' Unions on Vancouver Island helped to set up one of our Branches and supported another to the extent of 500 members among their own membership and friends. They invited me to address two of their Conventions on the Island. I feel that they would be able to do much more in support of our organizational work if we were better prepared to utilize their aid. We are a little-too slow for the present rate of organization. Too parochially minded. I was speaking to a Pensioners Organization in Alberta on the question of forming the Congress, the need for a Canadian wide organization or a federation of organizations to obtain our objective, $50.00 a month at sixty. One member objected to any amalgamation as a waste of effort. He stated that they had the promise of the Alberta Government that the new Bill of Rights would give them $50.00 a month so why take up our time and money in agitating for what was already in sight. We need to have the facts. We need the Congress to bring out the true conditions in the various provinces. Here is A l berta promising a Bill of Rights that will give the Old Age Pensioners $50 a month yet does not even pay its 25 per cent proportion of the present Old Age Pension, but only pays 15 per cent and calls upon the Municipalities to pay the other 10 per cent. Councils passing on pension applications and reported in local papers in Alberta. The function of our Congress as outlined in the recommended constitution would keep us all well informed of the administration of the Old Age Pensions and Social Services and other questions of vital interest to. the citizens of Canada. I must admit that we have a few old fogies in B. C. who are parochially minded and think it good enough to be known by the village parson and the Ladies' Aid of some charity committee, and getting by in such fashion —they see no benefits in any efforts beyond their own neighborhood. They live just in their own backyard. These people are difficult even when they  get into a Branch. They insist on setting up some kind of a church social committee.. Church social committees do wonderful work as such and we can follow them in social work, but the needs of the present day pensioner .require something of organization to obtain and retain the dignity and self-respect of a Canadian citizen retired. The results of organization has been demonstrated to us by the 100 per cent increase in Old Age Pension. To be, in an organization today is to be a somebody. A member with rights and representation to all authorities, Civic, Provincial and Dominion. And with the contacts we have and will further develop with the organizations with our objects in other countries. A member of the Canadian Pensioners' Congress is a person of dignity and responsibility far beyond his own backyard.  Page Nine  Extracts From Prince Albert Herald  A resolution asking the provincial government to grant an immediate increase of $10 per month in the basic old age pension ,to bring the payment to $40 a month was almost unanimously passed by the Saskatchewan Old Age Pensioners' Association at the fourth annual convention in Arcade Hall here yesterday. Another resolution, calling on the Dominion Government to pay a cost of living bonus of 17% per cent to equal that paid Dominion civil servants was withdrawn in view of the previous resolution. Mrs. Annie Douglas, Saskatoon, mother of Premier T. C. Douglas, was re-elected president for the year 1948. S. A. Lovell, Saskatoon, and Mrs. C. T. Reid,. Saskatoon, were re-felected treasurer and secretary respectively. In organization there is found, dig- E. W. Sager, Prince Albert, and D. nity, self-respect, a confidence in our- Marsden,. Regina, were elected viceselves and in one another. presidents. Where would democracy be without Delegates elected to the Conadian the great Federations of Labor? It Pensioners' Congress were Mrs. J. C. would not yet have been born. The Swanson, Prince Albert; G. E. DavOrganization of the common people enport, Regina, and J. S. Clearwater, that is Democracy. Our Congress is Nipawin. based on the principles of Democracy. Speaking, against the resolution askThe great Federations of organiza- ing the province for a $10 pension increase, one delegate emphasized that tions today. The American Federation of Labor. Mrs. Douglas had already pointed out The Committee of Industrial Organ- in tihe president's address why the provincial government had to withization. draw the $5 bonus that had been paid The Trades and Labor Congress of until the time the Dominion increased Canada'. the basic pension to $30 a month. The Canadian Congress of Labor. Mrs. Douglas said the Premier had All these with millions of members given assurance in a press statement in their affiliated organizations. Wednesday that the entire matter of These Congresses are the mainspring pensions would be taken up at the of the Labor Movement. next session of the legislature and old We have consulted the Constitutions age pensions may be increased if the of these Labor Congresses in compil- Dominion Government fails to impleing the Constitution of the Canadian ment its economic and social security Pensioners' Congress. proposals. Our Congress is not a new and sepOriginally the resolution urged that arate organization but a Federation the government be asked to restore of existing organizations suitable to the $5 bonus, but after considerable the needs of the Old Age Pensioners discussion during which it was pointof Canada in dealing the Civic author- ed out that "even $35 per month was ities, the Provincial Legislatures and insufficient as a pension," the resoluthe Dominion Parliament and Cabinet, tion was amended to ask for the $10 and in co-operating • with the brother, increase to bring basic old age penand sister pensioners in the United sions in Saskatchewan to $40 per States and across, the seas. month immediately. Columbia  Phone  Columbia Theatre  A Famous Players' Theatre "Always a Good Show" E. L . Zetterman, Mgr. 25c till 1 p.m.  Editor's Note It was intended to publish a full detailed statement of the Saskatchewan Provincial Convention in this issue, but owing to the non arrival of the Provincial Secretary's report at press time, a full publication is deferred to the next issue.  Page Ten  THE PENSIONER  OLD AGE PENSIONERS' ORGANIZATION, SASKATCHEWAN Statement of Cash Receipts and Payments, Year Ended Sept. 30, 1947 Receipts— Bank Balance Oct. 11 1946 less outstanding cheque's $ 794.48 Branches per capita 1,046.40 $1,840.88 Payments— Convention Expense $ Organization Expense Directors' Meeting Secretary's Postage i& Excise Express, Telegrams, Parcels Stationery, Printing Advg Membership Books and Cards Hall Rent Audit Fees ., Secretary's Honorarium Donation Federal Branch Delegation Regina Legislation Expense General Office Expense Cash in Bank Sept. 30, 1947, less outstanding cheques ....  315.86 260.30 125.68 53.00 37.86 99.31 37.45 12.00 25.00 40.00 150.00 .51.00 20.00 9.39 604.03  $1,840.88 Audited and found correct: Walter J. Weston, C.A. Saskatoon, Sask., Oct. 6, 19.47. THE OLD AGE PENSIONERS' ORGANIZATION OF SASKATCHEWAN Incorporated 1944 The Old Age Pensioners' Organization of Saskatchewan Incorporated is working to secure a better standard of living for the pensioner. It also advocates a system which will provide social security. The police of the organization is democratic. It is non-partisan and non-sectarian. The organization regrets that the pension is considered ..a dole, and maintains that it is .a due an djust reward for services rendered 'during a lifetime of work as good citizens. The present pension is inadequate and the Government of Canada admits that fact. The pensioners' object is to draw attention to the inadequicy by organizing and as a body presenting their views to the Provincial Government and through it to the Federal Government. It is argued that the Government cannot afford to increase the pension. The Pensioners argue that it cannot afford not to, because of the present labor anid economic difficulties, i It can be seen that the larger the pen-  sion the more money in circulation, the "more .goods consumed the more business being done by everybody. In short, it means a help towards prosperity. From a humanitarian standpoint the pension shoulld provide a decent living for Canadian citizens in their declining years. Fellow citizens: this is your movement, working for your benefit. The more members and branches we have the greater will be our power and influence, and the sooner will our objective be attained. Union is strength. Join the organization and help a worthy cause. For information regarding membership or organizing a branch in your locality, please write our Provincial Secretary, who will forward you all information in that regard. The membership fee is one dollar per annum. No one is too young or too old to become a member. Provincial Executive. MOOSE J A W Branch No. 5 is very much alive, and the interest shown in the work of 'the organization is very gratifying with membership steadily increasing. During the summer the activities of the various committees included 167 visits to sick members in their homes or at hospitals distributing gifts of. fruit, candy and other comforts. At the Exhibition the branch had a stall at which they distributed literature and advertising matter; 1500 circulars were handed out and forty-eight new members were enrolled. "~ A tag day was held in the city on August 16th and the large sum of $534.16 was collected. The Senior Citizens did a great work in this. Mrs. Manderfield aged 70 years collected $46.00; Mrs. Parsneau $41.34; Mrs. Wickings topping the list with $56.77. The oldest lady tagger was Mrs. Mc. Guire, aged 83 years, who collected $14.52. The auxiliary of the C. C. L . postponed the O.A.P.O tag day at their picnic, but promised to raise $200.00 as a donation to the O.A.P. cause. The thanks of the organization is extended to the officers of the Y.M.C.A. for their great hellp in loaning the use of the rooms in their building for the taggers on Tag Day. The sick visiting committee made a visit to the St. Anthony's Home where about 125 aged people are residing, and reported conditions very cheerful and comfortable. The branch celebrated two golden weddings of members during the year, and it is rumoured that other weddings are in the offing.  Moose Jaw branch should be congratulated on their able and energetic president Mr. Art. Porter, and he should congratulate himself in having such a good staff of able officers and committees to work with him. INDIAN HEAD Considerable local interest was shown at the meeting on Sept 24th when a branch of the Saskatchewan Division of the O.A.P.O. was established in Indian Head. The usual officers were elected, and the branch got away to a good start. Judging from the energy and interest shown by the audience present there is every prospect of a good strong branch here. WOLSLEY The new branch here was organized on Sept 23rd with 15 paid up members. Keen interest was shown in the work of the organization. The organizing officer pointed out • the great need of organized. effort in order to bring an adequate system of Social Security for all the Senior Citizens of Canada. It is just now the busy harvest season in the -Wolsley district, but with the greater leisure time in the fall, there is every indication that the number of active members will be greatly increased. Keep up the good work. The Senior Citizens cause is an international cause. NEPAWIN  Nipiwin ©.ranch No. 14 O.A.P.O. held their annual meeting Thursday afternoon October 2nd with a record attendance. The reports from the President, Secretary-treasurer, the different committees and the financial statement showed the branch making good progress and looking forward, to another active year. The following officers were. elected: President, J. S. Clearwater; First Vice-President, Mrs. Agnes Remple; Secon'd Vice-President, Mr.. Hirman ' Finder; SecretaryJtreasurer, Mrs. Grace Johnston. Mrs. J. S. Shepton was appointed chairman of the entertainment • committee. .Grace M. Johnston, Secretary-treas.  SANGUINE JEWELERS L T D . "The Treasure Store o f • Fine Gifts"  Columbia St. New Westminster, B. C.  THE PENSIONER  A Visitor's Impression It was a long dreary drive in not too warm an atmosphere, through various kinds of country, rolling and otherwise. A well kept farm here and there, but mostly the sombreness of winter coming, was apparent in various ways. Some farmers were busy putting. up snow fences, others taking in the last of a very meagre crop. Soon the darkness blotted out the traveller's view of the surrounding countryside, and one began to feel the drowsiness and weariness of the journey. Suddenly a turn in the road brought to view the prettiest sight soon for some tirrie. Two rows of myriads of lights gave the traveller" the warmth and cheer so welcome after nine hours of steady motion. Prince Albert! Yes! As one slowly moved down the hill and across the bridge into the maze of lights, one really felt the home-like atmosphere, which was doubly experienced when, upon alighting from the bus the first person encountered had the badge A.O.P. Then one did feel at home, and happy that someone was thoughtful enough to meet the traveller and direct his weary feet to an abode of comfort. The home of the traveller for the next few days left nothing to be desired in service and relaxation. The culinary experts might have been imported from the "Ritz" itself, for the meals were excellent. Good fellowship and cordiality reigned supreme in this Royal City as shown when its youthful mayor provided vehicles to transport many visitors -to the convention on a tour of this friendly city. The traveller wishes here and now to say "Thanks for a splendid reception." . TRAVELLER. White Rock, B. C. PATRICK H. ASHBY M.P. I should just like to point out' one or two things, Mr. Speaker, So much has already been said, and I do not want to repeat too much, but here is a typical case, a little old lady who writes as follows: I am a widow, sixty years of age. What is there in life for us? Many people think there is a widows' pension; they are confused with the mothers' allowance which does not help a widow of this age. We are old, tired, and afraid of the future . . . All the discussion on lowering the age limit for the old age pension is  good but in the meantime many widows are desperate and afraid. Then we talk about freedom from fear! What a sham! Here are poor souls who live in fear. They know not where the next meal is coming from. We have an abundance of experts. If they do not know how to do the jobs,' it is time we discharged them from office. We know what our old folks want. If we put it up to a vote throughout Canada I am sure they would soon let us know. In the meantime, instead of calling this an old age pension or an allowance, why not. say that this shall be a refund of taxes which have been collected from these old people during their lives and the refund shall be at $60, $75 or $100 a month as they see fit, not as we see fit?  CCF Passes Resolution On Widows' Pensions  Page Eleven Be it resolved that an endeavor be made to have'' .legislation enacted to provide old age pensions of $50 per month to be paid to all citizens who have attained the age of 60 years. HANDICAPPED CIVDLIANS That we urge that the projected . Handicapped Civilians' Association be supported by the social welfare department of _the Saskatchewan government. OLD AGE PENSIONS That this convention go on record as supporting the demands of the Old Age Pensioners' Association for an old age pension of $50 per month at 60 years of age; and we strongly condemn the action of. those M.P.'s who in the guise of supporters of this long overdue act of justice to our aged citizens, continue year after year to talk the motion out, thus preventing it ever coming to a vote.  INFORMATION PLEASE  Whereas we have • no pension in Sasckatchewan for "non-employable women below old age pension age; And whereais municipal belief is the only visible form of support for 'these women, and is entirely inadequate; . Be it resolved we ask the government to put legislation on the statute books as soon as possible to provide for an adequate pension for nonemployable women and wives of old age pensioners over 60 years of age.  October 9th, 1947 Dear Sir: *• As a new subscriber to the Pensioner I would like a little information re O.A.P. Can an Englishman who has lived in Canada over 30 years claim a pension in B.C. after working there from June 1942 till Easter 1946. Any information will be greatly appreciated. Yours respectfully, James Boyson, Belbutte, Sask.  OLD AGE PENSIONS Resolve that wherever the government finds it necessary to discontinue old' age pensions or mothers' allowance payments the recipient should be given reasonable notice. That this meeting endorse the efforts of the C C F . to have the old age pensions increased. Whereas we have been pressing for an increase in old age pensions, the lowering of the age limit to 65 years, and the removal of. the means test; And whereas a largely signed petition was presented to the dominion parliament by M. J. Coldwell,. M.P., And whereas the federal government has recently increased the pensions by only $5 per month, and has not lowered the age limit nor removed the means test; Therefore be it resolved that we view this action with regret and register a deep disappointment that action was not taken along the lines suggested in the petition.  ANSWER Dear Mr. Boyson: If you are 70 years of age and have resided in B.C. for three years immediately preceding your application for Old Age Pension, then you may apply to the B.C. Pension Board, otherwise your application would have to be made through the Pension Board of the Province in which you reside at the time of application. Editor. AGE IS A STATE OF MIND If you no longer look ahead If ambition's .fires are dead, And hopes are cold Then you are old. But if in life you do your best And greet each day wtih hope and zest, And love you hold— No matter how the years go by, No matter how the birthdays fly, —You are not old!  Page Twelve  ALBERTA CALGARY  THE PENSIONER  DIVISION NEWS  that their memberships were necessary in order that the organization be The regular monthly meeting of the enabled to continue to work for their, A.O.A.P.S. was held in the Victoria benefit, and she also urged them to School Auditorium on October 8th at ' take out subscriptions or renew their 8 p . m . Mr. Tom Glen occupied the subscriptions to our paper "The Penchair- and the guest speaker was Aldsioner," stating that the Editor is enerman P N. R. Morrison. deavouring to make it as informative Two* minutes silence was observed and interesting as possible and that in respect for one of our members, all should subscribe to this wonderful Mr. Adam Griggs who recently passed asset to our cause. It was announced to his rest. that tickets for another draw would The chairman stated that he was be given out at a future meeting. In conclusion Miss Baker stated that honoured by being invited to preside, we were all one big family and asked and heartily W e l c o m e d Alderman each member to -shake hanjds with Morrison. He congratulated the pensioners in Vancouver for their efforts those within reach demonstrating the to bring their cause before the public. friendly and congenial spirit which He stated that all were engaged in the has been such a great factor in makfight for better conditions for our Sen- ing our meetings such a success. Evior Citizens and said there is nothing eryone responded heartily. more true than the saying, "It is the Alderman Morrison was then intropoor that help the poor." Announce- duced and expressed his pleasure to ment was made that a party similar be at the meeting, and how glad he to the one given in January would be was to see Miss Baker back at her arranged for the end of the year un- post after her long illness. The der the sponsorship of the Machin- speaker assured the audience that he ists from the C.P.R. Ogden Shops. The was not really so wild as the papers . party ..would be bigger and better often described him, but that in order than before. Mr. Glen then thanked to get results one had to put up a Alderman Morrison for the splendid stern fight. His principles he said fight he had made in the matter of were never to be a turncoat, and he having Street Car Passes continued. always tried to carry out the Golden The secretary gave her usual encour- Rule: "Do unto others as you would aging talk, expressing the pleasure of have done unto you." everyone at the news that our presiThe speaker said there were many dent, Mr. Fred Anderson, M.L.A., was obstacles to overcome, one of which progressing favorably .and expressed was the Street Car passes which had the hope that he would soon be back been granted for three months and at the meetings. He is sadly missed then cancelled. He said the cost of as he has done a great work for the printing tickets was about $17.00 and branch. The secretary then appealed out of 1400 pensioners only about 350 for more lady helpers to assist in the had asked, for this benefit, proving work of sick visiting and paid tribute there was no attempt to impose on the to Mr. W. Maitland for the valuable city, yet the Council had decided after assistance he had given in visiting at three months' trial to discontinue it. the homes and in the hospitals. Mrs. The policy of asking for a plebiscite Emma Robinson and Mrs. Helen Dixon or leaving it to be brought before the volunteered their services. A motion new council was being discussed. A by Mr. Miller was carried unanimous- hearty vote of thanks was accorded ly thanking the "Calgary Herald" and the speaker. Entertainment was prothe "Morning Albertan" for their vided by Mrs. W. H. Phillips, wife of kindness and courtesy in publishing the secretary for the Blind Men's Ornotices of the meeting during the past ganization, and community singing six years. There was a good show o f was enjoyed. Mrs. Phillips rendered hands when the secretary asked how some splendid selections on the piano. many had availed themselves of the The secretary emphasized the fact Free Medical Services, and also how that the meetings were not exclusive many were happy that they had re- to pensioners, but that the younger ceived the increase in pension. Thei folks were invited to attend and assist secretary laughingly suggested the in- in the work, each member being asked crease would be a good first instalto bring a friend of any age. ment on a new fur coast. Any information as to pensions can The secretary reminded members be had by contacting Miss E. Baker,  72 Calgary Apts., and application papers will be gladly filled in by appointment. Write or phone M 3147. Ethel Baker, Sec. LETHBRIDGE A well' atended meeting of the O.A.P.O. was held on Oct 2nd. President Emery was in charge and in his usual good form! Our secretary Mrs. H. L. Cunningham, back from her holidays, was kept very busy with correspondence etc. The bazaar will be held on November 27th at the Gas Company Auditorium, and although •many members are helping in the preparations for this event, we could do with a little more help. Rev. N. W. Whitmore gave a short talk on the value of Canadian Citizenship, pointing out that while our way of life may not perfect, we can be very grateful for the many blessings we enjoy as Canadians, and as a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations. The Salvation Army Male quartette rendered several numbers which were well received. The community singing which followed was thoroughly enjoyed, and everybody felt better for taking part ih it. Several new members joned up and more subscriptions to the Pensioner were received. A meeting will be held on the North side shortly. A hearty vote of congratulations was tendered to Mr. & Mrs. Rogers who celebrated their fifteeth wedding anniversary this month. The meeting endorsed the President's appreciation of the excellent care and attention given to the elderly people in Gait Hospital. A tasty lunch and a social chat completed a happy evening. Guy T. Power, Sec.  Edmonton Safety Council Dear Mr. Bennetton: A few days ago on one of our busiest streets I found a chap trying to buck traffic by crossing the street in the middle of the block, he had just left the curb but even then he nearly mixed with a motorist who fortunately was driving very slowly and carefully. I got him back on the sidewalk and told him how foolish it was not to be more careful, and that he should only cross streets at intersections. He said I had a right to cross anywhere- because I am an old age pensioner. I found he had only that morning received his first pension cheque, he had the idea that a pensioner had special rights in crossing  THE PENSIONER streets, and ithat all Vafjic, had to look out for him; how he expected drivers to know he was a pensioner had apparently not entered his head. I fourid '.the ichap Was only just seventy and told him I was seventyfour, though not a pensioner; that I recognized I had to be more careful than when I was younger. Perhaps my talk did some good; I hope so. However, when I got back to the office I wrote an open letter to all pensioners. I showed it to the Minister in charge of pensions in this province and he has agreed to send it to all pensioners in the province. I am enclosing a copy and thought you might like to use it in your paper. Edmonton Safety Council. H. Stutchbury, Executive Secretary. Dear Pensioner: I'm past seventy, and see and. hear well, but the hinges of my legs seem to be a little-rusty so I'm more cautious than I used to be in the home and on the street. When I cross the street I wait for the green light, I don't cross in the middle of the block. I look four ways when I cross on streets where there are no light signals. I find most motorists are just as anxious as I am to prevent bumping into me and hurting me. Too many of we older people are getting mixed up_ in, accidents which we might have avoided. We have, to be a lot more careful" than we were when we' were younger. Won't you please watch your step wherever you are, cross the streets only on crossing, if you don't see or hear so well, or are not so spry, just ask someone to see you safely across. They will be glad to do it. PLEASE BE CAREFUL. A TRAGIC MOMENT., On our journey to White Rock, returning from the Saskatchewan Provincial Convention we stopped off at Calgary on Sunday, October 12th, arriving at 9 a.m. There we had the pleasure of meeting Miss E. Baker, the charming secretary of .the Calgary brancli of the Alberta Old Age Pensioners' Society, a pre-arranged meeting. We adjourned to the lunch room for coffee, and were soon busy discussing O.A.P. business, and on our part .endeavouring to prove to MissBaker the advantages of affiliation with the Dominion Congress of Old Age Pensioners' Organization. During our earnest discussion, time filed quickly, and we were aroused by the  warning bell advising us of the fact that our train was due to leave, and snatching up hats and coats we made our way out of the lunch room, forgetting to pay for our repast. Imagine our embarrassment when a pretty waitress came running up to us demanding payment for our meal. "Were our faces red." Safely on board the train for home we shuddered tothink of the news item that might have appeared next day in the Calgary Herald. "Editor of the Pensioner arrested for obtaining goods without payment."  Speakers Urge Pension Grants for Indians  Page Thirteen Chief David Crowchild, chief of the Sarcee band, director of the Alberta Indian Association, made a sincere piea for assistance for elderly Indians on the reservations and stated that, although many white people sympathize with them, few were actually aware of the problems which beset the Indians. The first member of parliament to introduce a motion that Indians have old age pensions, D. S. Harkness, G.M., M.P. for Calgary East, discussed the merits of a contributary basis for pensions. He said that as long as pensions were on such a basis they would merely be a political football with "old persons getting most of the kicks." Stressing the impossibility of the average man saving sufficient money for his old age and the fact that the public dislikes paying taxes, Mr. Harkness said a contributary basis was most plausible.  Tribes are termed Canada's own Displaced Persons' —Calgary "Herald", September 22, '47 "Indians are people. A great many white people who should know better seem to have forgotten that fact," LETHBRDDGE John Laurie, secretary of.the Alberta , The September meeting of the LethIndian Association, told a - public gathering in the Memorial Hall Sun- bridge branch was held in the Y. M. day during a discussion regarding old C. A. and was well attended. A large proportion of business was thoroughly age pensions for Indians. discussed. The meeting confirmed the "When they surrendered the appointing of Mrs. Murdock and Mr. prairies to us they believed the J. E. Miers to the board of directors, treaties would be regarded as sacred also Mr. A. P. Perry to the position and that they would be intelligently of 2nd Vice-president. adjusted to meet the changing needs It was decided to hold a bazaar on of the times," he continued. November 6th. A committee of ladies Mr. Laurie stressed the fact that headed by Mrs. R. R. Robinson is busy Indians should be eligible for old age working out details of this important pensions. He said that about 3,000 event. A letter of thanks was read Indians-had served in Canada's armed from Mrs. McGilvray, and we hope forces during the Second Great War she will be back with us at an early and many had served with distinction. date. The president, Mr. J. Emery, Although they were expected to come spoke about increasing the memberto the defence of their country when ship, suggesting that every member they were needed they were never bring a new member. Mr. J. N. Murconsulted regarding legislation which dock outlined his" proposition on the concerned them. sale of Christmas trees and asked "They do pay many taxes such as that this organization ac as sponsors. excise and sale, more than enough to, Details were thoroughly discussed and cover pensions for them. it was decided to act as sponsors for "So far as the money and food this sale. A tasty lunch and social rations received by them from the chat brought a pleasant evening to a government are concerned, they re- close. ceive' only $5 .each year and their raG. T, Pbwer, Sec. tions are merely enough to keep body and soul within speaking relation of An -official conducting a governone another." ment quiz called on Mrs. Jones and "I am sick and tired of hearing asked her what she did with herself about Europe's displaced persons be- all day: ing brought to Canada. I am sorry "I keep the house clean, cook all for them and deeply sympathize with the meals, wash .the dishes, do all the their plight but after all we have dis- laundry, mend the clothes and queue placed persons right on our own door- for food," she replied. step." . The official thanked her and made Mr. Laurie deplored the fact that an entry in his notebook. It read: race prejudice was so strong in Cana"Mrs. Jones — housewife — no ocda. cupation."  Page Fourteen  Manitoba District News WINNIPEG The first executive meeting of the Fall and Winter season was held on September 3rd at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Hirtel, and many business items were discussed. The secretary was instructed to invite Mrs. Brett to our next executive meeting. After disposing of the business matters the meeting took the form of a picnic with a corn roast and refreshments. A vote of thanks was extended to Mr. and Mrs. Hirtel for their' kindness and hospitality. ' The first regular meeting was held on September 10th in the Trinity Hall. The president occupied the chair and welcomed the members and friends. Two minutes silence was observed for the victims of the terrible tragedy in the Dugald district. Mr. Gray, the guest speaker, compared the large increases granted to MP.'s, civic officials, etc., with the $5.00 insult to Old Age Pensioners. He suggested that all members write to the members of the Legislature, and demand a reply. Mr. Gray said "Don't, beg, demand. You are not beggars, but pioneer men and women." He referred to the sufferings of the aged citizens, and said "Expose those who made you suffer. Take it to the public; take it to the people and tell them you do not want sympathy but action to provide comfort and a decent standard of living." There are 14,000 pensioners in Manitoba trying to exist on $30.00 a month. He urged the members to keep up the fight for $50. per month without the abominable Means Test. Mr. Gray was heartily applauded for his speech. Mr. Field, a visitor from Branch 26, British Columbia, gave an address and urged that we endeavor to increase our membership, and get the organization extended in all parts of Manitoba. He described the methods of the B. C. branejhes, their numbers, slogan and constitution, and the benefits to the Aged Citizens through the work of the organization. Mr. Fields stated he had made arrangements to hold a meeting in Weston in the Masonic Hall for the purpose of organizing a new branch there, and a hearty vote of thanks was accorded Mr. Fields. A meeting was held in the Masonic Hall in Weston on September. 11th, Mr. Wyatt acting as chairman. He explained the object of the meeting and asked Mr. Fields to address them. The speaker gave a most interesting talk on the objectives of the organization, and both he and Mr. Coverdale an-  THE PENSIONER swered the many questions put to them. The opinion was expressed that an increased distribution of the 'Pensioner' magazine would be a great help in educating the, people as to the work of the Old Age Pensioners' Organization in bringing about better conditions for our aged citizens. Those present promised to consider the matter carefully, and it is hoped that a new branch will be formed in Weston in the very near future. Mr. Fields received a hearty vote of thanks for devoting his time while on holiday to bringing the message and information, and for his sincere interest in our cause. Elizabeth M. Temple, Sec. Ed.' Note.—Keep up the good work, Manitoba, and spread the gospel of our cause far and wide. WINND7EG On October 1st a most enthusiastic executive meeting was held in the Y.M.C.A. with president in the chair. Mrs. Brett of the Pensioner Labour Congress was guest speaker, and gave a most interesting address with - valuable information. Three delegates were appointed from our executive to meet the executive of the Congress on October 9th., The general meeting with the president in the chair was held in Trinity Hall on October 8th. The meeting was well attended as our friend Mr. Stanley Knowles was expected. He came, and gave us all the details possible of the doings of the last Session of Parliament. He expressed his disappointment over several things, and felt grieved that the Pension had not been raised to $50, but he said "We intend to fight on until our goal is reached and hoped.it would be at the next session.'" Mrs. Levitt, Secretary, moved that hearty vote of thanks should be extended to Mr. Knowles for all he has done., and is still doing for the pensioners' cause. The motion was greeted with considerable applause. Mrs. Brett again spoke at the president's request. Referring to the high cost of living etc., she felt that no one can exist decently on $30 per month. She said "It is not living. Railway men are seeking an increase up to $80 per month". She was pleased with Mr. Knowles' views and remarkled that he had confirmed her own words of a week ago at the executive meeting as to where the money goes to. "The people must get together," Mrs. Brett said, "and demand this National emergency. Pick  up any magazine, and you will find that public opinion stands firmly behind the Pensioners." She referred to a forth coming broadcast, and stated that we must have co-operation from the organized public. Delegates from both pension socjoin together to interview the local may join together to interview the Street Railway officials about free transportation. Mr. Vandergrast expressed the appreciation of us all for Mrs. Bretts' efforts in these matters, and her wonderful address. Applause. Elizabeth M. Temple, Sec.  Letters to Editor Dear Editor:—This is the month when our branches elect their officers to carry on the work of our organization for another- year. I wish to offer a few suggestions in an attempt to assist our branches in this very important task. Select from your members the best and most efficient officers, and give them every help and support that is -possible. There are plenty of able men and women in our branches who have had experience In church work, service clubs,. friendly societies, etc., who onl yrequire the will to help with the work; it is a wonderful opportunity for them to contribute their share. Everything depends on the amount of energy and interest we put into the fight we have undertaken, and if everyone does his or her part, victory is sure. J. J. Whiting. Vancouver. October 18th, 1947 Editor Pensioner" Greetings: I am an Old Age Pensioner and would like to have a copy of the Pensioner. Also some information about your organization. Martin Andrews, 857 Richmond St., London, Ont. Dear Sir:—Please find one dollar to , cover my subscription for the Pension. It gives me much pleasure reading of the steady progress being made right through the entire country or the world at large. Thanking you for service rendered. WILLIAM GREEN, Box 285, Coleman, Alta.  Page Fifteen  THE PENSIONER  British Old Age Pensioner News By THE EDITOR So long ago as March, 1946, eighteen months ago, a deputation visited the Assistance Board, meeting Lord Soulbury, Chairman; Messrs. Astbury and Hallsworth, members of the Board; Mr. Stuart King, Secretary and Mr. H. Fieldhouse, Assistant Secretary. This meeting was held with the main object of pointing out to the Board that it was a sheer impossibility for a supplementary pensioner to subsist on the main and supplementary pension, because the scale rate .of the Board was at the pitifully, low rate of £ 1 per week plus rent allowance for single pensioners, and 35/- per week plus rent allowance for married couples. The Deputation was asked to produce evidence of distress amongst these poor people, and overwhelming evidence was sent to the Board on April 24th, from supplementary pensioners from every part of Britain. It was proved beyond any shadow of doubt that even at that time, when a supplementary pensioner had bought the barest of necessities, not -enough by any means to keep body and soul together, they had only sixpence left. In actual fact, we Had, so far back as February, 1945, given proof which has never been refuted, that even on a "fodder" basis, it took at that time £l-14-7d. to maintain a single pensioner for one week, and £2-13-ld. for a married couple. It is a well-known fact that since that time, prices have risen enormously, and still the Assistance Board Scale Rate remains at the scandalous rate of £ 1 plus rent allowance for single pensioners, and 35/- per week plus rent for married couples. Remember that a million and a half of our brothers and sisters are condemned by a soulless bureaucracy to a life of torment and anguish. With a great fluttering of banners, the Government announced that, in their new Bill, every old person would be lifted right out of Lhe. povert yarea; henceforth, people could grow old with confidence in the fact that they would not want. The real facts are, however, very different, for, contrary to every expectation, the supplementary pensioners, the most needy class in the country, were left out in the cold. We shudder to think how they are faring to-day, when prices are far  higher than they were when we made our computations in 1945, for the cost of living is at least 30% higher than at that time. How will they face another winter, short of food, because the only possible way they can economise is on their food; rent, coal, light, etc., must be paid—and if after meeting 'these vital expenses, they have practically, nothing left, then' the only thing to do is to cut down their food. In a letter from the Assistance Board date 26th June, 1946,°they say: "—out of their .basic pension and supplementary pension, pensioners are able to provide themselves with, adequate food and fuel, and to have something left over for other purposes." Do M.P.'s Know the Truth We wonder if they can still maintain this callous attitude; we wouder if they ever consult their thousands of Assistance Board Officers throughout • the country, who know the real truth—that supplementary pensioners are slowly starving to death? If they do not, here it is; if they do, then each and every one of them should search his soul and ask himself if he is doing his duty. The Government policy (so we are.told), is that nobody shall fall below subsistence level. Supplementary pensioners are far below this level, and we call upon the Government to implement their promises. The Assistance Board must raise the scale rate to 26/- plus a rent allowance for single pensioners and 42/- plus rent allowance for married pensioners —now.  "I have come to join my husband," said Mrs. Smith, arriving at the Golden Gates. "Delighted to meet you, ma'am," replied the Keeper. "What was your husband's name?" "Joseph Smiths" "I'm afraid that will not be sufficient for us to identify him. You see, we have quite a lot of Joseph Smiths up here. Are there any other means by which I can identify him?" "Well, before he died he told me that if I ever kissed another man he would turn in his grave." "Oh! I know the chap. Up here we call him Whirling Joe!" "Can I borrow your carpet beater?" "Sorry, no—he's busy in garden."  theh  A Social Tragedy A "VAGRANT" DD3S According to police reports, 69-year-old John McKinley was ' picked up on a downtown street, . charged with vagrancy and immeJdiajtely sent to (the General Hospital. He died last Saturday. The nature of his ailment is described as "suffering from starvation." The charge of vagrancy came too' late to save his life. . The frail body lies in the hospital morgue waiting to be claimed. To date there are no claimants.  The foregoing news item appearedin a Vancouver newspaper a few days ago. Terse and concise as it is in its tabloid form, yet the item is pregnant with importanlcie, and is an indication of the condition of hundreds, nay,, thousands, of our Senior- Citizens under the present system of Social Security. This unfortunate 69 year old John McKinley, after dragging out his miserable existence in a state of starvation and neglect in an attempt to survive until he reached the requireid age of 70 years when he would have been entitled to apply for the old age pension, fell and died in his struggle. Due to the fact that this poor old man was so inconsiderate as to fall and die on the public street his case became news, "A Vagrant Dies." What of the thousands of Aged Citizens who are suffering the same starvation conditions, and who instead of shocking the public by dying on the street, linger and die of privation and malnutrition. concealed by the four walls of some miserable back room, damp basement room, or flimsy comfortless shack. Nothing is ever heard of them, because they suffer and die in a perfectly respectable manner, and do not offend the feelings of the public. • ' Realizing the dire need of protection for these unfortunate people, under the age of 70 years, the Old Age Pensioners' Organization is spurred on to fight for better conditions of our Aged Citizens who through no fault of their own have fallen to the status of "Vagrants". We need your help' in our cause. Editor.  Page Sixteen  Australian Security Plan Australia provides a substantial social insurance programme for the majority of its people, but it is still a good deal less advanced than neighboring New Zealand. Australians have had an old age pension setup since 1908. The present modified program was adopted in August, 1943. Until 1939 pensions and other social security benefits were partially paid for by flat taxes on employers and employees. Under the old ' system, only about half the Australian labor force was covered by sickness and unemployment benefits. Self-employed persons and those who. made more than a stipulated, salary had the option of a "voluntary" contribution program or no program at all. Today, almost all of the labor force is covered by social insurance and almost all citizens are eligible for pensions. Men retire at 65, women at 60. The average annual payment to both is about $285, with the maximum allowable income being about $412. Of the 275,456 Australian old age pensioners in 1943, a large percentage were widows. A widow with one child under 16 is allowed an annual maximum of about $332, and a childless widow of 50 gets about $285. A $100 annual pension is allocated to widows living in state benevolent institutions. The old age pension program is financed, for the most part, out of general taxation. Unlike the old system, neither employers nor employees are taxed. Progress since 1938 in the old age pension, field has been duplicated in the sphere of health benefits and unemployment compensation. In keeping with an act passed by the federal parliament in 1914, a national welfare trust fund, financed out of general taxation, provides the benefits. The new system, which went into effect in 1945, is administered by a Director - General of Social Services with deputies in each of the six states making up the Australian Commonwealth. Both unemployment and sickness benefits are payable to all persons between the ages of 14 and 65 (60 for women) who have not qualified for pensions and who have lived in Australia for at least one year prior to filing a claim. Unfortunately, the Australian government has not seen fit to abandon the means test, which is applied when sickness benefits are claimed. The applicant must prove his dis-  THE PENSIONER ability and, in many cases, must submit to a stdte authorized physical examination. Applicant for unemployment benefits must be willing and able to work. Persons on strike, or discharged because of misconduct, are not eligible. Sickness payments cannot exceed the applicant's average salary and any additional disability compensation from sources other than the state is deducted from the payments. Unemployment compensation is available after a six day waiting period. The applicant may be required to submit to physical examination as well as to take up vocational training should the state consider such a step necessary as a prerequisite to re-employment. Sick benefits, in addition to cashpayments geared to the cost of living, include hospitalization and medical care if required. Neither sick (cash) benefits nor unemployment compensation are of limited duration. They are paid as long as the applicant fulfills the required conditions. Under the 1944 act, a special, program for non-pensioners, not eligible for ordinary benefits, has been provided. Such persons may apply to the Director-General of Social Services for aid, but in no case may they receive a greater cash payment than that allowed an ordinary claimant for sickness or unemployment . benefits. The means test may be used to determine the individual's eligibility under this phase of the program. Newer aspects of the Australian social insurance setup include programs for care of war veterans and their .dependents . and survivors, and a special allocation for victims of tuberculosis. Under a new maternity act, a bonus is paid for every child after one born to any family unit. An endowment scheme provides about $1 a week for every child after the first in each family as long as that child is under 16. In the jungle a big game hunter came upon cannibals about to sit .down to their favorite repast. The hunter got into conversation with the chief, who told him that he had been educated at an American college. "Do you mean to say," asked the hunter, amazed, "that you went to college and still eat your fellow men?". "Yes," came the reply, "but of course, I use a knife and fork now."  A group of men were in the club just before dinner. The talk, for no good reason, turned to married life. "Well," said one fellow, "the real comfort in life arrives when you've settled down with one woman you love. You can argue all' you want, but it's my opinion that, once they've settled down, most men remain faithful." Most of the men present agreed with him, but an older man in the group shook his head. "I don't agree at all," he asserted. -"And if you fellows are honest, you'll know I'm right. I'll bet any man a new hat that there isn't one of you who hasn't strayed from the straight and narrow since he's been married." " "I'll take that bet," cried one, swiftly. "How long have you been married?" asked the cynic. "Since last Saturday," was the reply. The crowd roared, of course — and one of the listeners was so amused that he could hardly wait to get home to tell his wife about it. At the end of the story he laughed and laughed. But his laughter died as he noticed a strange expression on his wife's face. "What's the matter?" he asked. "Don't you think the story's funny?" "Very funny," she replied, quietly. "But where is YOUR new hat?" "You're looking downcast, old man. What's on your mind?" "A piece of my wife's."  THE PENSIONER The voice of your Organization Leading the fight for adequate* social security of Senior Citizens  To keep the wheels turning, more support is needed and needed now, will you do your share.  SUBSCRD7TION BLANK Cut out and mail to C. R. Bennetton Box 1273, White Rock, B. C. Please find enclosed $1.00 for my subscription to the Pensioner.  Appendix "D" - 120 -  F o r m O . A . 1—15M-1047-6643 (2)  Government of the Province of British Columbia " OLD A G E PENSIONS A C T "  APPLICATION  No..  FOR PENSION  (To be completed in duplicate.)  T  HIS A P P L I C A T I O N requires a complete reply to each question. If the answer is " none " write " none " as your answer. L E A V E N O B L A N K S . Give full particulars of all property owned by you or your spouse. Complete the declaration at end of form and have your residence for the past twenty years verified by separate declarations of some reliable, disinterested, unrelated person. ( N O T E . — I f there is more than one spelling of your name, please show each below on this application.) 1. Name  (Christian name.)  (Surname,)  2. Address of present place of residence..  (Former occupation.)  (Street and number.)  (Sex.)  (City or town.)  3. Mailing address 4. If you have changed your name other than by marriage, by what name were you previously known?  5. How long resident in British Columbia?  years.  In Canada?..  .years.  6. State below place or places of residence and duration at each address for T W E N T Y Y E A R S I M M E D I A T E L Y P R E C E D I N G D A T E O F THIS A P P L I C A T I O N : — DATE. From From From From. From From From.. From  , 19.  , to..  , 19  , to..  , 19  , to..  ., 19  , to  , 19  , to.  , 19  , to.  .., 19  , to..  , 19  , to.  (Date.;  (Date.)  (Date.)  (Date.)  (Date.)  (Date.)  (Date.)  (Date.)  ADDRESSES IN FULL.  (Date.)  (Date.)  (Date.)  (Date.)  (Date.)  (Date.)  (Date.)  (Date.)  .., 19  , continuously at  .., 19  , continuously at  ., 19  , continuously at  , 19  , continuously at  ._, 19  , continuously at  _, 19  , continuously at  ._, 19  , continuously at  19  , continuously at  (Street address.)  (City.)  (Province.)  (Street address.)  (City.)  (Province.)  (Street address.)  (City.)  (Province.)  (Street address.)  (City.)  (Province.)  (Street address.)  (City.)  (Province.)  (Street address.)  (City.)  (Province.)  (Street address.)  (City.)  (Province.)  (Street address.)  (City.)  (Province.)  7. Have you previously made application for Old Age Pension or other pension?.. Are you a blind person ?  Is spouse blind ?  8. Date of birth... Racial origin?  18  Place of birth..„  1  9. A r e you a British subject? 10. Have you ever married?  By birth?  By naturalization?  B y marriage?  If so, give place and date of each marriage, and full maiden name of  bride and full name of groom in each case, even if since dead  ...  11. Are you now married, single, widow, widower, divorced, or separated? 12. If married, is your spouse living with you? If living apart are you so doing pursuant to decree, order, or deed of separation? 13. Date of birth of spouse  If spouse is deceased, give place and date of death.  14. Has your spouse ever been in receipt of Old Age Pension? 15. Has your spouse E V E R applied for Old Age Pension? If not, give reason 16. Occupation of spouse  _  ...  17. CHILDREN.  CHILDREN—Continued.  Give following particulars regarding all living sons, stepsons, daughters, and stepdaughters:— 2. Relationship.  1. P R E S E N T N A M E .  3. Age.  4. Is he or she living in the same house as you ?  5. No. of Dependent Children under 16.  7. Married, Single, "Widow, Widower, Separated, or Divorced.  6. Full Address.  8.  Occupation.  9. Name of Employer of each Son or Daughter.  10. Employer's Address.  *  NOTE.—Are any of your children under 21 years of age, invalid?  If yes, write " invalid " in column number 8.  18. I N C O M E . The income of myself and of my spouse during the twelve months preceding this date was as follows:— Received by myself during past Year.  PARTICULARS.  Received by my Spouse during past Year.  28. R E A L E S T A T E . The following real property or purchaser's or vendor's equities therein or life or other interest is O W N E D B Y M E OR B Y M Y S P O U S E : — Legal Description—Lot, Block, ete.  In whose Name ? Husband's, Wife's, or jointly ?  Is same now used as your Home?  Salary, wages, commissions, other personal earnings, or profits from business____ _ „_ __. .  Assessed Value.  Encumbrances.  Net Equity.  $  $  $  $  $  $  Name and Address of Mortgagee.  ;  Contributions to support by members of family, relatives, and friends, or fraternal or other organizations . Free board and lodgings Money from rent or sale of property, sale of live stock, milk, or produce (gross) War veterans' allowance or military or disability pension. Workmen's Compensation, Old Age Pension, Blind Pension, Superannuation, Insurance, or other pension or allowance TOTAL  Annuity from Government or estate or other sources-  NOTE.—Latest assessment notice and copies of mortgages should be forwarded with the application. Confirm balances now owing on mortgages by letters from mortgagees.  Dividends from shares, bonds, or debentures Interest from money on loan, i n bank, or other institutions.  29. P E R S O N A L P R O P E R T Y owned by me or by my spouse (in banks or any other institutions):—  Other means of sustenance or income, not shown above  Name of Bank.  Amount in my Name.  Branch.  Give sources from which the foregoing income was received In post-office savings bank_  Amount in Name of Spouse.  Amount in Joint Names.  ?  ?  $  $  $  $  In chartered banks 19. A r e you working now?.  In safety deposit box  If so, for what rate of pay?  •20. Is your spouse working now?.  _  In other institutions  If so, for what rate of pay?  TOTAL  21. State names and addresses of employers i n each case. 22. Do you carry life insurance or lodge benefits?  If so, what amount and with what  companies or fraternities?  30. O T H E R P E R S O N A L P R O P E R T Y owned by me or by my spouse:—  State present cash surrender value  23. Does your spouse carry life insurance or lodge benefits ?i companies or fraternities?  DESCRIPTION.  If so, what amount and with what  Owned by me.  Cash on hand.  State present cash surrender value Money lent to, or i n hands of, any person (give name and address).  24. To whom is this insurance-money payable?. 25. Do you (or does your spouse) anticipate receiving income or property at any time during the next twelve months ?  Give particulars  :  -  _.._____  ._  ______  _  26. A r e you (or spouse) i n receipt of pension, assigned pay, or dependent's allowance, as a result of the military services of a son or other relative?  .  If so, give his name, regimental number, rank, and unit  . .  _ . . . .  27. If you (or spouse) had military service, give regimental number, rank, and unit  .  _:  Live stock (sheep, cattle, horses, poultry, etc.). (Particulars) Shares, debentures, bonds, or other securities. (Particulars). Interest i n business, stock i n trade, or venture of any kind. (Particulars). Furniture or any other property not already specified. (Particulars) . 1 TOTAL  Owned by Spouse.  31. R E A L P R O P E R T Y T R A N S F E R R E D OR D I S P O S E D O F I N A N Y  WAY:—  The following property, or equity therein, has been T R A N S F E R R E D , G I V E N AWAY, SOLD, Q U I T C L A I M E D , LOST. T H R O U G H F O R E C L O S U R E OR F O R T A X E S during the past five y e a r s : — (a) R E A L P R O P E R T Y D I S P O S E D O F by me or my spouse during the past five y e a r s : — Legal Description.  Name and Address of Person to whom transferred.  Transferred by.  Date of Transfer.  Terms.  Amount still Due.  (6) P E R S O N A L P R O P E R T Y W H I C H E X C E E D S T H E T O T A L V A L U E O F $500 D I S P O S E D O F by me or my spouse during the past five y e a r s : — Description.  Name and Address of Person to whom transferred.  Transferred by.  Date of Transfer.  Amount still Due.  Terms.  Furniture, shares, bonds, cash, money on deposit, on loan, or receivable, or other personal property, or interest in business : NOTE.—Forward with application written proof of exact amounts still due from real and personal property disposed of. 32. With whom are you living?  ' _  33. Are you or your spouse paying rent?  _•_ If so, state amount per month and to whom paid  34. Have you or your spouse been receiving free board or lodgings or both?  If so, from whom?  35. From what sources have you and your spouse met living expenses during the past year?.  WARNING " A n y person who, for the purpose of obtaining or continuing a pension for himself or any other person at a higher rate than that appropriate to the case, knowingly obtains payment of, or continues to receive a pension which he is disqualified from receiving, or which for any reason is not payable to him, is liable to a fine not to exceed $50 or to imprisonment not to exceed three months or to both such fine and imprisonment." I agree, in the event of this application being granted, to notify I M M E D I A T E L Y the pension authority of any change that may occur in the financial condition of myself and spouse, or change of status in respect of marriage or place of residence of myself and spouse. , B.C., this  Dated at  , 19  day of  (Signature of applicant.)  DECLARATION OF APPLICANT CANADA:.  ]  PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. I  To  WIT:  I,\  J  .  1  1_  .  , solemnly declare as follows:—  1. That I am the applicant named in the foregoing application for an allowance under the " Old Age Pensions Act." 2. That I am not an Indian as defined by the " Indian Act." 3. That I have read or have had read to. me the contents of this application. 4. That the statements and allegations contained herein are true to the best of my knowledge and belief, and no information required to be given has been concealed or omitted. And I make this solemn declaration conscientiously believing it' to be true, and knowing that it is of the same force and effect as if made under oath and by virtue of the " Canada Evidence Act." Declared before me at this  day Of  , 19  (Signature of Stipendiary Magistrate, Justice of the Peace, Notary Public, or Commissioner for taking Affidavits.)  (Signature of applicant.)  Appendix "E" - 121 -  O.A. 39—40M-547-3645 (2)  Age f rnatctta Art BRITISH  FUe No.._...  COLUMBIA  FIELD SERVICE  REPORT  Name of pensioner Address  Date of visit.  .  '.  '.. Visited by  Organized or unorganized territory (O.T. or U.T.) ?  District office..  LIVING ARRANGEMENTS. 1. With whom does pensioner reside? 2. Mention other members of the household, stating relationship, if any, to pensioner.  Check V appropriate items: In own house.  •  In rented house.  •  In rented suite.  •  With member of family. Boarding. In housekeeping room.  • • •  4. Does the pensioner (and) (or) spouse receive free board? If so, from whom?  In boarding home. In institution. In single room (eating out).  • • •  Free lodging?  5. If the pensioner pays rent give the amount. 6. Give the name and address of the pensioner's closest relative or friend.  7. Give the name of an intimate friend in the community.  8. Supplementary remarks relating to LIVING ARRANGEMENTS.  INCOME. 9. Has the pensioner or spouse had any income from the following during the past twelve months? Answer "Yes" or " No." (a.) Assigned Pay ..—. (/.) Other pension, allowance or benefit (&.) Dependents' Allowance ... (g.) Sale of produce ..........i.... \ (c.) Annuities (h.) Earnings . (d.) Contributions from children (i.) Gifts or legacies (e.) Superannuation (/.) Other sources If answer is "Yes" give full particulars of gross amount received and expenses incurred, if any; also SOURCE from which it was received. In the case of (h) confirmation should be submitted from employer with dates of employment and gross earnings, also information as to what further employment may be anticipated.  10. Has pensioner, spouse, or any member of family had military service? If so, give name, regimental number, rank and unit.  PROPERTY. 11. Give general location, legal description (lot, block, etc.) and full assessed value of pensioner's and spouse's real estate, and particulars of any mortgage or tax arrears. State whether owned by pensioner or spouse. State whether information was. confirmed. If there is more than one property indicate on which one the pensioner is living.  12. State which, if any, of the properties is rented out to others and give amount of rent. (Include also under 9 above.)  13. Give particulars of pensioner's and spouse's personal property, including bank balances, bonds, investments, loans, securities, insurance, cash on hand, etc. Indicate whether owned by pensioner or spouse. State whether information was confirmed.  14. Give particulars of sale or disposal of any assets of pensioner or spouse during the past five years in the case of first investigation reports and during the period since the last visit in the case of follow-up reports.  A B S E N C E FROM CANADA. 15. In the case of a yearly follow-up report state whether the pensioner has been absent from Canada since previous report was made If the answer is " Yes " give dates. / (" Yes " or " No.")  BLIND PENSION. 16. If the applicant is applying for a Blind Pension state whether the spouse is blind.  17. PENSIONER'S CHILDREN AND STEP-CHILDREN. GIVE: NAME OF EACH.  *Age.  ADDRESS.  OCCUPATION.  Earnings in past 12 Months.  Married, No. of Single, Dependent Widow, or Children. Widower.  * In particular for minors; approximations sufficient for others.  18. Has the information on the above 17 points been checked with that on the application form (in the case of a first investigation report) or with the summary sheet (in the case of a follow-up yearly report) and any change been particularly noted? 19. SOCIAL FACTORS. A separate report covering relevant social facts, as suggested by the outline provided, is to be attached in all cases. Care should be taken to make this as complete as possible in the first investigation report and to note further developments, changes, and outstanding facts in all subsequent ones. »  20. Other explanatory observations and recommendations.  (If worker did not see pensioner, personally please explain why it was not possible to do so and give other source of information.)  O.A. 7  INSTRUCTIONS for Completion of OLD-AGE PENSION  APPLICATION  FORM Province of British Columbia  VICTORIA, B.C. : Printed by D O N MCDIARMID, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 1947.  NOTE. (a) Keep this booklet until you have been notified that your application has been completed. (b) The questions in this booklet are numbered to correspond with the numbering on the application form. (c) READ EACH QUESTION CAREFULLY. (d) S E E that A L L blanks are filled in with a proper answer or with " N.A." " not applicable." Do not use dashes, , ditto marks, " " ", or other indefinite designations. (e) When A L L questions have been answered, complete the declaration •at the end of the form and deposit it with your local office of the SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH or with your MUNICIPAL WELFARE OFFICE. SPECIAL NOTE. — If you will pay particular attention to these instructions it will assist the Board so that no unnecessary delay should be caused in considering your application.  IMPORTANT — Forms MUST be completed in  DUPLICATE  INSTRUCTIONS REGARDING COMPLETION N A M E AND ADDRESS. QUESTION No. 1. . Self-explanatory. (If there is more than one spelling of the name please show the alternative spelling(s) on the line below.) QUESTIONS Nos. 2 to 5 are self-explanatory. RESIDENCE. QUESTION No. 6. (a) In answering, give dates if possible as: days, months, years; and street addresses carefully filled in covering the F U L L TWENTYY E A R PERIOD immediately preceding the date of application. EXAMPLE:— From June 1, 1922, to July 22, 1924. Address: 407 Bates Street, Regina, Sask. July 23, 1924, to Nov. 19, 1930. Address: 1401 Will St., Victoria, B.C. Nov. 20, 1930, to May 20, 1935. Address: Sardis, B.C. May 21, 1935, to present date. Address: 1011 W. 10th Ave., Vancouver, B.C. (b) A Statutory declaration from some reliable person other than a relative is required to prove the applicant's continuous residence in Canada for the past 20 years, as well as the exact period of , residence in each Province. A DECLARATION FORM IS ENCLOSED for this purpose. Please see that all blanks are filled in. In the case of residence outside of British Columbia, separate declarations in duplicate are required for each Province, preferably completed by persons still residing in the Province in which applicant has lived, as this is the only type of Affidavit some Provinces will accept. If Canadian residence is only 20 years, give details of arrival in Canada by completing in duplicate the immigration form enclosed. QUESTION No. 7. This is self-explanatory. 3  AGE. QUESTION No. 8. Age may be proven by the following documents:— (1) Birth or baptismal certificate, if obtainable. (See page attached at back with information as to where to write for these.) (2) On proof being shown that neither of these is obtainable, then consideration may be given to evidence of age as shown by school, marriage, or lodge records, old insurance policies, army discharge papers, age given at time of filing on a homestead or pre-emption, age given at time of naturalization, age given when obtaining employment, age given when entering a hospital, age given the Immigration Department on arrival into Canada, American census records, and any other source which reasonably may be accepted. In general when necessary it will save time in completing the application if you will write for all of these latter proofs of age as soon as you commence to fill out your application form. (3) If none of the above mentioned is available or satisfactory, then proof of age may be obtained from the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. (Special forms are provided to check the returns of any census taken more than thirty years ago— last census, 1911.) QUESTION No. 9. This is self-explanatory. MARRIAGE. QUESTION No. 10. If more than one marriage be sure to give :— (1) Place and date of each marriage, marked 1st and 2nd. (2) Full maiden name of wife. (Important.) (3) Full name of husband, even if since dead. QUESTIONS Nos. 11 to 16. Self-explanatory. CHILDREN. QUESTION No. 17. If the answer is " none" write " none" in the space concerned. LEAVE NO BLANKS. INCOME. QUESTION No. 18. Fill in ALL spaces. 4  L E A V E N O B L A N K S . .(Ditto marks, dashes, etc., are not acceptable.) If the answer is " none " write " none " i n the space concerned. Q U E S T I O N S Nos. 19, 20, and 21. . Self-explanatory. However, i f applicant or spouse has been working, please state his Unemployment Insurance number, i f any.  INSURANCE. Q U E S T I O N S Nos. 22, 23, and 24. Self-explanatory. If you have an insurance policy please send a letter from the Insurance Company stating : — A m o u n t of the policy. Present cash surrender value. Name of the beneficiary. Q U E S T I O N S Nos. 25, 26, and 27. Self-explanatory.  REAL ESTATE. Q U E S T I O N N o . 28. F i l l in all s p a c e s — L E A V E N O B L A N K S . If the answer is " none " state " none." When real property or interest therein is owned by applicant or spouse or both, the legal description (lot, block, city, etc.) should be given and latest assessment notice showing the full assessed value should be sent i n WITH T H E APPLICATION. If there is a mortgage against the property or agreement to buy the property, a letter from the mortgagee or vendor is required, showing the legal description of such property and amount of principal and interest of the agreement owing by applicant or spouse at date of application for pension, also the rate of interest and terms of repayment of the mortgage.  PERSONAL PROPERTY. Q U E S T I O N N o . 29. F i l l i n A L L spaces—leave no blanks. If answer is " none " state " none." B A N K A C C O U N T , E T C . — I f applicant or spouse has money on deposit i n a bank or other account, a letter from the bank or other institution should be forwarded showing the amount of the balance at the time of application, i n whose name the account is, and account number. In the case of husband and wife be sure to show what is i n your own name and what i n that of your spouse's name and what is owned by bothof you jointly. 5  OTHER PERSONAL PROPERTY. Q U E S T I O N N o . 30.  F i l l i n A L L S P A C E S — l e a v e NO BLANKS. I f answer is " none " state " none." B O N D S , E T C . — F u l l particulars should be forwarded of a l l bonds, debentures, shares, or stocks, including the kind of securities and face value—in case of bonds; denomination, serial number, date of m a t u r i t y and rate of interest—for Government bonds; number, and denomination of each, only. S H A R E S . — I n the case of shares please state the number held and the k i n d of shares. Production of such securities may be required.  In case of husband and wife be sure to fill in both columns. PROPERTY TRANSFERRED OR DISPOSED OF. Q U E S T I O N N o . 31. Self-explanatory. However, if, d u r i n g the five years preceding the application for pension there has been any sale of property, we require a letter from the person to whom it was sold or from the agent who handled the transaction g i v i n g (1) the legal description of the property, (2) the date of sale, and-(3) the sale price and the terms. I f there has been any transfer of property d u r i n g the five-year period, we should have a statement from the person to whom the property was transferred g i v i n g (1) the legal description of the property, (2) the date of the transfer, (3) the reason or reasons for the transfer, and (4) the considerations shown i n the transfer and the assessment notice. Q U E S T I O N S Nos. 32 and 33. Self-explanatory. Q U E S T I O N N o . 34. If you are not receiving:— Free board and lodging. Do not pay rent. Do not own any property. Please state what arrangement you have made w i t h regard to your lodging. Q U E S T I O N N o . 35.- • Self-explanatory.  AGREEMENT. Be sure to read agreement at end of form and affix your signature. 6  DECLARATION OF APPLICANT. Self-explanatory. All Field Service Workers of the Provincial Government, and frequently the Social Workers of the Municipal Welfare Departments, are Commissioners for taking Affidavits, and can complete Declarations for you free of charge, if in your vicinity. BLIND PERSONS. IN ADDITION to the foregoing an application from a BLIND person shall, in order to comply with the Dominion " Old Age Pensions Act" and Regulations, be accompanied by:— (1) Marriage certificate, if applicant is married; OR (2) Birth certificate of any son or stepson under sixteen, or a daughter or stepdaughter under seventeen years of age living with a blind applicant, if such applicant is a widow or widower; AND (3) Birth certificate and medical certificate of any invalid son, stepson, daughter, or stepdaughter under twenty-one years of age living with a blind applicant if such applicant is a widow or widower. A medical certificate should be submitted from the medical doctor who attended or is attending the invalid child, and should state the nature and extent of the disability of such child and the possible duration of the condition. Each applicant for a pension in respect of blindness, if otherwise qualified, will be notified regarding the arrangements and place of any necessary medical examination to be conducted by the Department of National Health as to the applicant's sight. Complete compliance with the above requirements will save unnecessary correspondence and delay. THE OLD-AGE PENSION BOARD. BIRTH CERTIFICATES.  Place of Birth.  Where to write.  1. Canada  In connection with Canadian birth certificates, the Old-age Pension Board is able to obtain these free of charge..  2. England.  Registrar, General Registry Office, Somerset House, London, W.C. 2, England.  Fee—5 shillings and 1 penny. 7  3. Scotland  Registrar, N e w Registry Office, E d i n b u r g h , Scotland. F e e — 3 shillings and 1 penny.  4. Ireland  (a) Northern Ireland— General Register Office, Fermanagh House, Ormeau Avenue, Belfast, Ireland. F e e — 5 shillings and 1 penny. (b) E i r e Assistant Registrar-General, General Register Office, Custom House, Dublin, Eire. F e e — 5 shillings and 1 penny.  5. A u s t r a l i a  .  (a) If born in N o r t h — Registrar-General, Registrar-General's Office, Treasury. Buildings, Brisbane, A u s t r a l i a . F e e — 7 shillings and 6 pence. [b) If born in South— B u r e a u of Census, Canberra, A u s t r a l i a . F e e — 7 shillings and 6 pence.  6. U n i t e d States  Clerk of the County Court i n County i n which the b i r t h took place.  7. European Countries _Apply to the proper local consular office or directly to the Registrar of B i r t h s of the parish i n which you were born,  X0M-1247-7531  8  Appendix "G" - 123 -  HANDBOOK for  OLD-AGE  PENSIONERS  VICTORIA, B.C.: Printed by D O N M C D I A B M I D , Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 1947.  Appendix "G" - 123 -  Pension No Name  .  Address  ,  District office  . ...  It is hoped the brief outline contained in this booklet will be helpful, but there will be many points on which you will require more complete information. On these please consult your worker or the Old-age Pension Board office. There are bound to be changes from time to time.  Old-age i l l  Pension Dunsmuir  Vancouver, December,  Board, Street, B.C., 1947.  Appendix "G"  Information for Pensioners covering Questions we are frequently asked. 1. W h a t are the most important requirements for obtaining pension? (a) To be 70 years of age. {b) To have lived i n Canada continuously d u r i n g the twenty years immediately preceding the date of application; or, f a i l i n g that, to have lived i n Canada at some time at least twenty years previous to the - date of m a k i n g application, and to have had.at least sixteen years' residence i n Canada since,attaining the age of fifty years; ,or to have lived i n Canada p r i o r to twenty years ago for a period equal to twice the total of all absences from Canada d u r i n g the twenty-year period mentioned above. . 3  Appendix "G - 123 -  (c) To have an income of less than $600 a year for one person or $1,080 a year for a m a r r i e d person. 2. After application when does a pension begin? W h e n the B o a r d is satisfied that the above requirements have been met the pension w i l l begin as from the first day of the following month and the pensioner w i l l receive his cheque, at the end of that month. F o r example, i f the B o a r d has proof of the required facts on J a n u a r y 19th the pension w i l l be paid as from F e b r u a r y 1st and the pensioner w i l l receive his first cheque at the end of F e b r u a r y .  month. The P r o v i n c i a l Governments of B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a add a cost-of-living bonus of $10 a month and $5 a month respectively, hence a B r i t i s h Columbia pensioner may receive $40 a month in a l l and an A l b e r t a pensioner $35. ; It is hoped that arrangements may yet be made w i t h other provinces that pay bonuses whereby pensioners from such provinces now l i v i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia may receive such bonuses, but A l b e r t a is the only province w i t h which such an arrangement is i n effect at present. To  be eligible for  the  British  Columbia bonus a pensioner 3. How much pension may ceive?  one re-  The full pension authorized by the Federal Government is $30 a  must  have been a resident of this Province for at least three f u l l years immediately p r i o r to the g r a n t i n g of the pension.  H  Appendix "G" - 123 -  4. Why do some pensioners' receive less than the full amount? (a) Because of coming from another Province from which they do not receive a cost-of-living bonus. (b) Because of other income. (See question 6.)  6. What goes to make up income?  i j \  (b) F r e e board and lodging, • which is considered equal to an income of $180 a year. (c) Regular contributions from children, other relatives, friends, etc.  INCOME. 5. How much income may a pensioner have and still receive full pension? • _ $240 a year from any source for a single person, widower, widow, etc.; $360 a year for a married couple where both are applying for pension and $720 a year where only one of them is applying.  ; i j | 1  It should be noted that in the case of married couples the income and assets are always considered jointly.  (a) Free lodging, which is considered equal to $5 a month or $60 a year.  '  (d) C a l c u l a t e d income f r o m property. {See question 10.) (e) sale.  Payments on agreements of (See question 14.)  (/) 19.)  Earnings..  (See question  - (g) Annuities. 26.)  (See question  (h)  Unemployment insurance.  (i) Other sources.  miscellaneous  re-  Appendix "G" - 123 -  •.  mate on the assessed or market value (whichever is the more equitable), or on a fair rental value, or on the net income if income is actually being received from the property.  PROPERTY.  7. May a pensioner own property? Yes.  v  '  8. Does the Old-age Pension Board ever take over the property of persons who come on pension? No.  9. Will the Old-age Pension Board ' administer the property of a pensioner? No.  •  ' •  1  .  .  '  10. How does owning real property affect the pension? The Pension Board estimates what a fair yearly income from , the property would be and takes that income into consideration when calculating the pension. In doing this the Board may base- its esti-  i  j )  11. Will the rent of a room be considered as income?  j j  No, not usually in pensioner's own home in which he is residing, but if pensioner is residing in> a rented house and sub-letting more than one room inquiries should be made.  ;  ] , | -  j j i  12. May a pensioner sell his property without asking the Board's permission? Yes.  T 13. Should the Board be notified when the sale is made? Yes, immediately.  Appendix "G" - 123 -  14. H o w would pension?  the  sale  affect  the  That would depend upon the amount of money received, the way in which payments are to be made, and whether the pensioner already has any income besides his pension. Before completing a sale the pensioner should inquire from his. worker Or from the Old-age Pension Board just how his pension will be affected by the proposed terms of sale.  may be refused or the granting of the pension may be deferred or the pension may be granted at a •reduced rate depending on the - circumstances. \(b)  After receiving the pension. If a pensioner transfers property  without the approval of the Board, his pension may or may not be suspended (depending on the circumstances) until the value of his equity in the property has been exhausted at the rate of $600 a year (if single)  15. M a y a pensioner transfer property (to a son, daughter, spouse, friend, etc.)? ,  *or $1,080 a year (if'married). The whole question of = • transfer of property is so involved that full  (a) Before making application.  details cannot be given here. It  If a pensioner makes a transfer of property exceeding $500 in value within the five years preceding the • date of application, his application  is suggested, therefore, that when .in any. doubt the pensioner should consult the local social worker or communicate with the Boards  1  Appendix "G - 123 -  16. At the death of the pensioner will the Board take the property and other assets?  The Board is not interested i n small personal possessions.  18. Should a pensioner make a will?  No.  c  Yes.  17. Does the Board make any claim against the estate? Where an old age pensioner leaves an estate of less than $2,000 which he has willed, no claim is made. Where an old age pensioner leaves an estate of over $2,000, a claim may or may not be made depending on the circumstances. If a will is' left $2,000 of the estate would be exempted in any event. Where ah old age pensioner leaves an estate of less than $2,000 but has left no will, the Board may make a claim if circumstances in the opinion of the Board justify this. 12  f  J  EARNINGS. 19. What amount may the pensioner earn without affecting the pension? If single, widow, or widower the pensioner may only have a further $240 a year income besides the pension. If married, inquiry should be made." (See also question 5.)  | | "  20. If a pensioner takes a job or receives other additional income does he need to let the Old-age Pension Board know? Yes, he should immediately tell, the Board. 13  H  Appendix  "G"  - 123 -  23. W i l l he have to account for the spending of the wages he earned?  21. I f a single pensioner takes a job earning approximately $50 or mpre , a month w i l l he be cut off pension ?  I» '  No. Not if he notified the Board when employment* started.  Yes, until the job is finished. i  -  22. I f a pensioner is t e m p o r a r i l y cut  •  off (suspended) w i l l there be diffi-  j,  culty i n getting back on pension when his employment stops? No.  ^  Old-age Pension Board, when the stated as soon as he informs the He should bring with him  a letter from his employer to that effect and be prepared to submit any other, information that may be _ required to bring his case up to date.  AND  ' -BONDS. - "N 24. M a y a pensioner have a bank account, stocks, bonds, etc.?  25. W h a t amount?  work commenced, he will be rein-  • ceased.  B A N K ACCOUNT, STOCKS  .  Yes.  If the pensioner notified the  Board' that his employment has  .  [ ! f I I  ^  No specified, amount, but anything over $250 for a single pensioner and $500 for a married couple is calculated under the Canadian' Government' Annuities Plan, This is why pensioners are required. to give information about bank ac- counts. (See'question 26.) 1  v  Appendix G" tt  - 123 -  ANNUITIES. 26. What happens when a pensioner has more than $250 or a married couple more than $500?  28. How "long will this annuity c'on-tinue to be treated as income? 1  The Board finds out what income he or they would have if the excess amount were put into a Canadian Government annuity. The amount of the annuity will be considered as income. 27. What happens if a pensioner does not wish to buy an annuity and uses the money for some other purpose? ' In that case the Board will still have to consider that the pensioner ' could have had an income in the form of the annuity above, and the amount of this calculated annuity will be considered as income—and if large enough may affect the pension.  Generally, during the life of the pensioner. There are circumstances, however, in which an annuity may be reduced or cancelled because ; of certain expenditures from the funds on which it was calculated. INCREASES.  29. May a pension of- less than $30 ever be increased? •  '  Yes.  •.  '  .•  30. Under- what circumstances? (a) If the pensioner ceases to . have free board and lodging. {b) If regular contributions which had affected .the .pension cease. '• v  Appendix "G" - 123 -  (c) If the value of property has affected the rate of pension and is , now reduced. (d)  every move, either personally or in writing. Friends may not do this for the pensioner.  If earnings cease.  33. Why is it so important to give the Board a change of address?  (The above are only some of the circumstances.)  Because you may not receive your cheque if you fail to do so. A postmaster is not allowed to forward a pension cheque.  31. How does one apply for an in, crease? A form is provided for this purpose and may be obtained from your worker or from the Old-age Pension Board.  CHANGES IN CIRCUMSTANCES.  CHANGE OF ADDRESS. 32. Is it necessary for the Old-age Pension Board to be notified when a pensioner moves? Yes, always. To be in good standing the pensioner must inform the Board of IS '  !  34. Is it necessary for a pensioner to tell the Board about any other changes? Yes. Every change in the pensioner's circumstances (short-time employment, sale of property, legacy, etc.) should be reported immediately to the Board. 19  Appendix G " n  - 123 -  '  VISITS.  absence over ninety days. (A Border Crossing form will be supplied by the worker or the Board to any pensioner going to the United States. If this form is stamped at both the American and Canadian immigration offices, it will save a great deal of trouble.)  35. Will the pension be stopped if the pensioner visits:— , (a) In another province? No, - provided the Old-age Pension Board is notified when the ..pensioner Meaves. ' ••, ib) In the United States? Yes. No pension cheques are sent to the United States.  36. May a pension be suspended for any other reason? Yes. Because of failure to report changes i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s which have resulted in the pensioner receiving a greater pension than jthat to which he was entitled or for refusal to give the Board any information required.  If the Board or the worker is notified by the'pensioner before he leaves, he may spend ninety days " across the line" and his cheques will be held at head office and given to him on his return. A pensioner is only permitted •ninety, days' absence from -Canada (in the United States, England,, •> etc.) in one. year for which pension will be paid on his return. Pension will not be paid for any 20 '  •  37.  M E D I C A L SERVICES. For information with regard to medical services, a pensioner living in a municipality should consult the 21  I  Appendix "G - 123  -  officials at the municipal hall, with ° the exception of Vancouver and Victoria, where inquiry should be made at-the City Social Service j Departments. A pensioner living in unorganizedterritory will have a medical identification card,; which indicates that when medical treatment is heces-- i sary he may; without charge, con-. ' suit the "doctor in the community in which he lives. . • Any special medical treatment , must be arranged through the local doctor, who will get in 'touch with the nearest district' office of the Social Welfare Branch of the Pro- > vincial Government. A pensioner who happens to live in a district in which there is no . ' doctor should inquire from his worker or from the nearest district office. 22 ' I  38.  HOSPITALIZATION. Provision has been made for hospitalization of pensioners. A pensioner may be admitted to hospital only on the recommendation of a doctor. At the time of admission a pensioner or his friends should inform the hospital that he -is in receipt of old age pension. This is important.  Please note that hospital care is provided on the public-ward basis. If friends or relatives wish the patient to have other accommodation or special services, they must make arrangements with the hospital authorities respecting, these. Hospitals in general do not charge ' pensioners for short periods, but if a pensioner remains more than two • or three ,weeks the- hospital.. may expect him to make some contribution ' toward maintenance. 23  I  H  Appendix "G" - 123 -  The Old-age Pension Board does not pay hospital bills as it has no funds for such a purpose but other arrangements have been made to compensate hospitals.  *  VICTORIA, B . C . : Printed by D O N M C D I A B M I D , Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 1647.  \  10M-1247-7628 24  o  I  Appendix "H" - 124 -  FOR  USE I N YOUR O W N C O M M U N I T Y  ONLY  MEDICAL IDENTIFICATION CARD  D E P A R T M E N T OP H E A L T H A N D W E L F A R E SOCIAL W E L F A R E  28M-1147-7034 (5)  BRANCH  Appendix "H" - 124 -  READ  CAREFULLY  No.  1. If you require medical attention and wish to obtain it free of charge, visit the local doctor of your choice, who must sign this card on presentation to him. If hospitalization is necessary, your doctor will arrange for public-ward accommodation at no cost to yourself. This card must be presented to the hospital authorities on admission. 2. Necessary treatment at any other place must be arranged by your local doctor through the social worker or municipal welfare administrator. 3. Medicines that are allowable may be obtained only on your doctor's prescription. This card must be presented to your druggist. 4. To be valid in the case of an Old-age or Blind Pensioner, this card must be signed in ink by yourself in the space provided. 5. In the case of Mothers' Allowance or Social Allowance recipients, the card must be signed in ink by the head of the family in the space provided. Medical services are also available to their dependents whose names appear on the reverse of this card. 6. If the spouse of an Old-age or Blind Pensioner requires medical services, please contact your municipality or local office of the Provincial Social ^ Welfare Branch. 7. If you are residing in a municipality, this card must bear the signature of the appropriate municipal official. 8. If you are in doubt on any point, please consult your social worker or municipal official.  (Signature of Recipient.)  MEDICAL SERVICES ARE RESTRICTED TO THE PERSONS WHOSE NAMES APPEAR ON THIS CARD  (For Municipality.)  OLD-AGE PENSION MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE  (Signature of Family Doctor.)  BLIND PENSION SOCIAL ALLOWANCE  Appendix " J " - 125  ADDRESS  ALL COMMUNICATIONS  O L D - A G E 411  P E N S I O N  DUNSMUIR  -  O.A. 55—3M-647-5821  TO:  B O A R D  STREET  VANCOUVER.  B.C.  THE GOVERNMENT OP THE PROVINCE OP BRITISH COLUMBIA  ©lb-age pension ^oartt VANCOUVER,  Re  B.C.  PROOF OF  AGE  Name.— File No. 1. The regulations made pursuant to the " Old Age Pensions Act " require the pension authority to have on file one of the following documents, proving to its satisfaction that an applicant for old-age pension is 70 years of age or over, B E F O R E ANY OTHER PROOF OF AGE CAN BE ACCEPTED.  /  :  (a) A birth certificate. If the applicant's birth was not registered, official confirmation from the Registrar that the birth certificate is not obtainable must be forwarded to this office. N O T E . — A delayed registration of birth is not acceptable. (b) •  A baptismal certificate indicating that the applicant is 70 years of age or over (if baptized as an infant) or confirmation from the church that no record can be located. If the applicant was not baptized or is not sure if he was baptized or has no idea as to where to write, he should place a check in the space provided in the margin.  ' 2. If the pension authority obtains satisfactory evidence that the certificates or records mentioned in section 1 are not obtainable, or that such certificates or records are unsatisfactory, then proof of age may be obtained from one or more of the following sources. If you can give us information regarding any of these sources, please do so, furnishing as full particulars as possible. If there is no record, to the best of your knowledge, please put a check in the space which has been provided beside each source from which no record can be obtained. E A C H POINT MUST BE REPLIED TO EITHER BY A CHECK INDICATING THE REQUIRED INFORMATION IS NOT A V A I L A B L E OR BY GIVING US PARTICULARS FROM WHICH WE MAY OBTAIN THE INFORMATION. •  (a)  •  (6) Marriage certificate (if this shows age of applicant at time of marriage or if it indicates that  School records.  applicant is 70 years of age or over). •  (c) Old insurance policies.  •  (d)  •  (e) Age given at time of filing on a homestead or pre-emption.  •  (/) Lodge records.  •  (g)  Age given at time of naturalization (only recorded if naturalized since 1915).  •  (h)  Age given when obtaining employment.  •  (i) Age given when entering a hospital.  •  (j)  Army discharge papers.  •  Age given the Immigration Department on arrival in Canada. (A special form is enclosed for completion in the case of an applicant arriving from overseas.) In the event that you entered Canada from the United States we must know the date and place you crossed the border, mode of transportation, and by whom you were accompanied. (k) American census.  •  (I)  Any other source through which a record of age can be obtained.  3. If none of the above-mentioned is available or satisfactory, then proof of age may be obtained from the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. (Special forms are provided by the pension authority to check the returns of any census taken more than thirty years ago—last census, 1921.) P L E A S E RETURN THIS FORM TO OUR OFFICE AS IT IS NECESSARY TO IN ORDER TO COMPLETE THE APPLICATION.  H A V E IT ON  FILE  Appendix "K" - 126 -  O.A. 32—25M-747-6027 (4)  This form to be completed by an unrelated disinterested person who has been in personal contact with the applicant during the period stated.  DECLARATION  O FRESIDENCE In the Matter of the " Old Age Pensions Act "  CANADA.  and  PROVINCE OF  In the Matter of the Application o f —  To W I T :  I,  , of -  J_  (Town or city.)  (Street address.)  , in the Province of  do solemnly declare:— 1. That I am a the last  -  by occupation and have been a resident of Canada for years.  2. That I resided in the Province of____  from 19  and in the Province of  to 19  since 19  3. That I have been well acquainted with (Name of applicant.)  the above named, during the whole of the period hereinafter mentioned. 4. That the said above-named applicant has, to my personal knowledge, resided in Canada continuously for the following periods:— from  .  , 19  , to  , 19  , continuously in the Province of  ;  from  , 19  , to...  , 19  , continuously in the Province of  ;  from  , 19  , to date hereof continuously in the Province of  5. That I am not a relative of the above named.  And I make this solemn declaration conscientiously believing it to be true, and knowing that it is of the same force and effect as if made under oath and by virtue of the " Canada Evidence Act."  Declared before me at in the Province of this  day of  A Notary Public in and for the Province of... A Commissioner for taking Affidavits within.  (Signature of declarant.)  , A.D. 19.  

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